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Encyclopaedia Judaica V 22 Thematic Outline Index

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA

JUDAICA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA

JUDAICA S E C O N D

E D I T I O N

VOLUME 22 Thematic Outline and Index F red Skolnik, Editor in Chief M ichael Berenbaum, Executive Editor

IN ASSOCIATION WITH KETER PUBLISHING HOUSE LtD., JERUSALEM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Thomson Gale Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1

©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Thomson Gale is a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson, Star Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Thomson Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or

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Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgments constitute an extension of the copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Thomson Gale does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Thomson Gale accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief ; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. -- 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) -ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865949X (vol. 21: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1. Jews -- Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945DS102.8.E496 2007 909’.04924 -- dc22 2006020426

ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 978-0-02-865929-9 978-0-02-865930-5 978-0-02-865931-2 978-0-02-865932-9

(set) (vol. (vol. (vol. (vol.

1) 2) 3) 4)

978-0-02-865933-6 978-0-02-865934-3 978-0-02-865935-0 978-0-02-865936-7 978-0-02-865937-4

(vol. (vol. (vol. (vol. (vol.

5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

978-0-02-865938-1 978-0-02-865939-8 978-0-02-865940-4 978-0-02-865941-1 978-0-02-865942-8

(vol. (vol. (vol. (vol. (vol.

10) 11) 12) 13) 14)

978-0-02-865943-5 978-0-02-865944-2 978-0-02-865945-9 978-0-02-865946-6 978-0-02-865947-3

This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Thomson Gale representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

(vol. (vol. (vol. (vol. (vol.

15) 16) 17) 18) 19)

978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction to the Thematic Outline 5 Thematic Outline 7 • Introduction to the Index 277 Abbreviations of the Index 281 Index 283

INTRODUCTION TO THE THEMATIC OUTLINE

The outline presented here is intended to provide a general view of the conceptual scheme of the Encyclopaedia. It is divided into five parts: I. History; II. Religion; III. Jewish Languages & Literature; IV. Jews in World Culture; V. Women. To show the conceptual components of the Encyclopaedia’s coverage, each of these general parts is subdivided into a variety of sections and sub-sections. The categories used in this outline are intended to be heuristic and thereby serviceable in guiding users through the Encyclopaedia. Because the rubrics used as section headings are not necessarily mutually exclusive, certain entries in the Encyclopaedia are listed in more than one section.

I. HISTORY

II. RELIGION

A. ANCIENT PERIOD . BIBLE

A. JEWISH

p. 

. TALMUD

. JEWISH LAW p. 

. JEWISH RITUAL & OBSERVANCE

. SECOND TEMPLE AND LATE ROMAN PERIODS

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD . GENERAL HISTORY p.  a. Antisemitism p.  b. Demography p.  c. Economic History p.  d. Zionism p.  . REGIONAL HISTORY a. Israel, Land and State of p.  b. Byzantium p.  c. Muslim Lands (incl. Islam) p.  d. Asia and Africa p.  e. Western Europe p.  1. England & British Commonwealth p.  2. France, Luxembourg & Belgium p.  3. Germany & Austria p.  4. Italy p.  5. Netherlands p.  6. Scandinavia p.  7. Spain & Portugal p.  8. Switzerland p.  f. Eastern Europe p.  1. Bulgaria, Albania & Armenia p.  2. Czechoslovakia p.  3. Greece p.  4. Hungary p.  5. Poland p.  6. Romania p.  7. Russia & Former Soviet Union p.  8. Yugoslavia p.  g. United States p.  h. Canada p.  i. Latin America p.  . HOLOCAUST HISTORY

p. 

p. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

p. 

p. 

. JEWISH THOUGHT & PHILOSOPHY . RABBINICS

p. 

. KABBALAH & JEWISH MYSTICISM . HASIDISM

p. 

p. 

p. 

B. OTHER . CHRISTIANITY

p. 

. ISLAM see MUSLIM LANDS . KARAITES

p. 

. MARRANOS

p. 

. SAMARITANS

p. 

III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE A. JEWISH LANGUAGES p.  B. JEWISH LITERATURE p.  C. HEBREW LITERATURE p.  D. YIDDISH LITERATURE p. 

IV. JEWS IN WORLD CULTURE A. ART p.  . ARCHITECTURE . CARTOONING . PAINTING

p.  p. 

p. 

5

thematic outline

. PHOTOGRAPHY . SCULPTURE . OTHER

. SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE

p. 

. SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE

p. 

. YUGOSLAV LITERATURE

p. 

. BULGARIAN LITERATURE

p. 

. CZECHOSLOVAK LITERATURE . DUTCH LITERATURE

p. 

p. 

p. 

D. SCIENCE p.  . BIOLOGY

p. 

. CHEMISTRY

p. 

. ENGLISH LITERATURE

p. 

. ENGINEERING (incl. inventors)

. FRENCH LITERATURE

p. 

. GEOLOGY

. GERMAN LITERATURE . GREEK LITERATURE

p. 

p. 

. HUNGARIAN LITERATURE . ITALIAN LITERATURE . POLISH LITERATURE

p. 

p. 

. MEDICINE & PHYSIOLOGY

p. 

. PHYSICS & MATHEMATICS p. 

p. 

(incl. astronomy & meteorology) . OTHER

p. 

p. 

p. 

. ROMANIAN LITERATURE . RUSSIAN LITERATURE

p. 

C. MUSIC & DANCE p. 

B. LITERATURE

6

p. 

p. 

V. WOMEN

p. 

p. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

THEMATIC OUTLINE

I. HISTORY

AARONIDES ABADDON ACROSTICS AGRICULTURAL LAND-MANAGEMENT METHODS AND IMPLEMENTS IN ANCIENT EREZ ISRAEL AGRICULTURE AKEDAH ALLEGORY ALTAR AM HA-AREZ ANCIENT OF DAYS ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY ANOINTING ARCHAEOLOGISTS ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS ARCHIVES ARIEL ARK OF MOSES ARK OF NOAH ARK OF THE COVENANT AZAZEL BAAL WORSHIP BAHUR BALANCE BANNER BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY BDELLIUM BELIAL BIBLE CODES BITUMEN BREAD BURNING BUSH CANAAN, CURSE OF CENSUS CHEESE CHERUB CHIEFTAIN CITY CITY OF REFUGE CONCUBINE CONGREGATION COOKING AND BAKING

COPPER SERPENT, THE CORVÉE COSMETICS COVENANT CRAFTS CROWNS, DECORATIVE HEADDRESSES AND WREATHS CULT CULT PLACES, ISRAELITE CUPBEARER DAY OF THE LORD DEATH, KISS OF DECALOGUE DEEP, THE DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY DIVINATION DOLMENS DOOR AND DOORPOST DREAMS DRUNKENNESS EARTH EARTHQUAKE ECSTASY ELDER EMBALMING EPHOD ETHICS EUNUCH EUPHEMISM AND DYSPHEMISM EXILE, ASSYRIAN EXILE, BABYLONIAN FAMINE AND DROUGHT FIRE FISH AND FISHING FLAG FLESH FLOOD, THE FODDER FOOD GENEALOGY GEZER CALENDAR GOD, NAMES OF GOG AND MAGOG GOLDEN CALF GROVES, SACRED HAPAX LEGOMENA HAZAK HEBREW BOOK TITLES HIGH PRIEST HISTORIOGRAPHY HOLINESS CODE HOST OF HEAVEN HUNTING

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

7

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 1. BIBLE Main Surveys

ARCHAEOLOGY BIBLE HISTORY General Entries

thematic outline

I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 1. Bible General Entries (continued)

IDOLATRY IMPALEMENT INCENSE AND PERFUMES IR HA-NIDDAHAT ISRAEL ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF JACHIN AND BOAZ JACOB, BLESSING OF JEALOUSY JESHURUN KEDUSHAH KING, KINGSHIP KIPPER LABOR LACHISH OSTRACA LANDMARKS LEPROSY LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS LEVITICAL CITIES LOTS LOVE MAGIC MANNA MATRIARCHS MENE, MENE, TEKEL, U-FARSIN MENORAH MESHA STELE MILK MILLSTONE MISHMAROT AND MAAMADOT MOLOCH, CULT OF MOON MOSES, BLESSING OF MYTH, MYTHOLOGY NAMES NASI NATIONS, THE SEVENTY NEHUSHTAN NETHERWORLD NOACHIDE LAWS NOMADISM NUMBERS, TYPICAL AND IMPORTANT OILS ORDEAL ORDEAL OF JEALOUSY OSSUARIES and SARCOPHAGI OSTRACA PARABLE PARADISE PHOENIX PILLAR PILLAR OF CLOUD AND PILLAR OF FIRE PLAGUES OF EGYPT POETRY

8

POISON POOR, PROVISION FOR THE POTTERY POVERTY PRECIOUS STONES AND JEWELRY PRIESTLY VESTMENTS PRIESTS AND PRIESTHOOD PROPHETS AND PROPHECY PROSTITUTION PROVERB PURITY AND IMPURITY, RITUAL RAIN RED HEIFER RIGHT AND LEFT ROD OF AARON ROD OF MOSES SALT SCEPTER SCRIBE SEA, SONG OF THE SEMITES SEPTUAGINT SERVANT OF THE LORD SHEKEL SHEWBREAD SHIPS AND SAILING SIGNS AND SYMBOLS SILOAM (OR SHILOAH) INSCRIPTION SIN SOAP STRANGERS AND GENTILES SUN SUNDIAL TABERNACLE TABLETS OF THE LAW TANAKH TARGUM TARTAN TEKHELET TEMPLE THRONE THUNDER AND LIGHTNING TIKKUN SOFERIM TITHE TOMBS AND TOMBSTONES TREASURE, TREASURY TRIBES, THE TWELVE UGARITIC URIM and THUMMIM VULGATE WAR AND WARFARE WATCHERS WEIGHTS AND MEASURES WELLS WIDOW WISDOM; WISDOM LITERATURE WOOD WORSHIP WRITING

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

thematic outline

YAVNEH-YAM, LEGAL DOCUMENT FROM YEAR YOKE ZADDIK Biblical Literature

Books of the Bible AMOS CHRONICLES, BOOK OF DANIEL, BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY ECCLESIASTES EXODUS, BOOK OF EZEKIEL EZRA AND NEHEMIAH, BOOK OF GENESIS, BOOK OF HABAKKUK HAGGAI HOSEA, BOOK OF ISAIAH JEREMIAH JOB, BOOK OF JOEL JONAH, BOOK OF JOSHUA, BOOK OF JUDGES, BOOK OF KINGS, BOOK OF LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF LEVITICUS, BOOK OF MALACHI, BOOK OF MICAH MINOR PROPHETS NAHUM NUMBERS, BOOK OF OBADIAH, BOOK OF PENTATEUCH PENTATEUCH, SAMARITAN PROVERBS, BOOK OF PSALMS, BOOK OF RUTH, BOOK OF SAMUEL, BOOK OF SCROLL OF ESTHER SONG OF SONGS ZECHARIAH ZEPHANIAH Other Literature BOOK OF JASHAR BOOK OF LIFE BOOK OF THE COVENANT BOOK OF THE WARS OF THE LORD BOOKS OF THE CHRONICLES OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL HUMMASH SHAPIRA FRAGMENTS Biblical Figures

AARON ABDON ABEL ABIATHAR

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ABIEZER ABIGAIL ABIHU ABIJAH ABIMELECH ABIMELECH ABINADAB ABISHAG THE SHUNAMMITE ABISHAI ABNER ABRAHAM ABSALOM ACHAN ACHBOR ACHISH ACHSAH ADAH ADAM ADONI-BEZEK ADONIJAH ADONIRAM ADONI-ZEDEK ADRAMMELECH ADRIEL AGAG AGUR SON OF JAKEH AHAB AHAB AHASUERUS AHASUERUS-XERXES AHAZ AHAZIAH AHIJAH AHIJAH THE SHILONITE AHIKAM AHIMAAZ AHIMAN, SHESHAI, TALMAI AHIMELECH AHITHOPHEL THE GILONITE AHITUB AKHENATON AMASA AMAZIAH AMENOPHIS III AMNON AMON AMOS AMRAM AMRAPHEL ANAK, ANAKIM ANAMMELECH ANATH ANER, ESHKOL, AND MAMRE ARAUNAH ARIOCH ASA ASAHEL ASAPH ASENAPPER

9

thematic outline

I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 1. Bible Biblical Figures (continued)

ASENATH ASHER ASHERAH ASHIMA ASHTORETH ATHALIAH BAAL-BERITH BAALIS BAASHA BALAAM BALAK BARAK BARUCH BARZILLAI BATH-SHEBA BELSHAZZAR BELTESHAZZAR BENAIAH BEN-HADAD BENJAMIN BETHUEL BEZALEL BILHAH BITHIAH BIZTHA BOAZ CAIN CALEB, CALEBITES CAMBYSES CANAAN CHEDORLAOMER CHEMOSH COZBI CUSH CUSHAN-RISHATHAIM CYRUS DAGON DAN DANIEL DARIUS I DARIUS THE MEDE DATHAN AND ABIRAM DAVID DAVID, DYNASTY OF DEBORAH DELILAH DINAH DOEG EBER EGLON EHUD ELAH ELASAH ELDAD AND MEDAD ELEAZAR

10

ELHANAN ELI ELIASHIB ELIEZER ELIHU ELIJAH ELIMELECH ELIPHAZ ELISHA ELISHAH ELISHEBA ELKANAH ELNATHAN BEN ACHBOR EN-DOR, WITCH OF ENOCH ENOSH EPHRAIM EPHRON ER ESARHADDON ESAU ESTHER ETHAN ETHBAAL EVE EVIL MERODACH EZRA GAAL GAD GAD GAD GEDALIAH GEHAZI GEMARIAH GERSHOM GERSHON, GERSHONITES GESHEM, GASHMU GIDEON GOIIM GOLIATH GOMER HABAKKUK HADAD HAGAR HAGGAI HAM HAMAN HAMMURAPI HAMOR HANANIAH SON OF AZZUR HANNAH HAVILAH HAZAEL HEBER HEMAN HEZEKIAH HEZIR HIEL HILKIAH HIRAM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

thematic outline

HOPHNI AND PHINEHAS HOPHRA HOSHEA HULDAH HUR HUSHAI THE ARCHITE ICHABOD IMMANUEL ISAAC ISAIAH ISH-BOSHETH ISHMAEL ISHMAEL ISSACHAR ITHAMAR ITTAI JAAZANIAH JABAL JABIN JACOB JAEL JAIR JANNES AND JAMBRES JAPHETH JAVAN JEDAIAH JEDUTHUN JEHOAHAZ JEHOAHAZ JEHOASH JEHOIACHIN JEHOIADA JEHOIAKIM JEHOIARIB JEHORAM JEHORAM JEHOSHAPHAT JEHU JEHU JEPHTHAH JEREMIAH JEROBOAM JEROBOAM II JESHUA JESSE JETHRO JEZEBEL JOAB JOASH JOCHEBED JOHANAN JOKTAN JONATHAN JONATHAN JOSEPH JOSHUA JOSIAH JOTHAM JOTHAM JUBAL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

JUDAH KETURAH KISH KOHATH AND KOHATHITES KORAH LABAN LAMECH LEAH LEMUEL LEVI LOT MAACAH MACHIR MAHER SHALAL HASH BAZ MAHLON AND CHILION MANASSEH MANASSEH MARDUK MELCHIZEDEK MENAHEM MEPHIBOSHETH MERAB MERNEPTAH MERODACH MERODACH-BALADAN MESHA METHUSELAH MICA MICAH MICAIAH MICAIAH MICHAEL AND GABRIEL MICHAL MIRIAM MITHREDATH MORDECAI MOSES NAAMAH NAAMAN NABAL NABONIDUS NABOTH NADAB NAHASH NAHOR NAHSHON NAHUM NAOMI NAPHTALI NATHAN NAZIRITE NEBUCHADNEZZAR NEBUZARADAN NECO NEHEMIAH NEPHILIM NERGAL-SHAREZER NIMROD NOAH OBED

11

thematic outline

I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 1. Bible Biblical Figures (continued)

OBED-EDOM OG OHOLIAB OMRI ONAN ONKELOS AND AQUILA OREB AND ZEEB ORPAH OTHNIEL PALTI PASHHUR PATRIARCHS, THE PEKAH PEKAHIAH PENINNAH PEREZ PHARAOH PHINEHAS POTIPHAR POTI-PHERA PUT PUTIEL QUEEN OF SHEBA RAB-SARIS AND RAB-MAG RAB-SHAKEH RACHEL RAHAB RAMSES RAPHAEL REBEKAH RECHAB AND BAANAH REGEM-MELECH REHOBOAM REHUM REPHAIM RESHEPH REUBEN REZIN RIMMON RIZPAH SAMSON SAMUEL SANDALFON SARAH SARGON II SAUL SENNACHERIB SERAIAH SERAPH SETH SETI I SHADRACH, MESHACH, ABED-NEGO SHALLUM SHALMANESER III SHALMANESER V

12

SHAMGAR SHAMMAH SHAPHAN SHAREZER SHEALTIEL SHEBA BEN BICHRI SHEBNAH SHEM SHEMAIAH SHESHBAZZAR SHIMEI SHIPHRAH AND PUAH SHISHAK SHULAMMITE SIHON SIKKUTH AND CHIUN SIMEON SISERA SO SOLOMON SOLOMON, SERVANTS OF SUCCOTH-BENOTH TABEEL, THE SON OF TAMAR TAMMUZ TEMA TEMAN TERAH TERAPHIM TIBNI TIGLATH-PILESER III TIRHAKAH TUBAL-CAIN URIAH URIEL UZZAH UZZIAH VASHTI ZADOK ZEBAH AND ZALMUNNA ZEBULUN ZECHARIAH ZECHARIAH ZECHARIAH ZECHARIAH ZEDEKIAH ZEDEKIAH ZELOPHEHAD ZEPHANIAH ZERAH ZERAH THE CUSHITE ZERUBBABEL ZIBA ZILPAH ZIMRI ZIMRI ZIPPORAH Places and Peoples

ABEL SHITTIM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

thematic outline

ABEL, AVEL ABEL-BETH-MAACAH ABEL-MAUL ABEL-MEHOLAH ACHOR, VALLEY OF ACHSHAPH ACHZIB ACRE ADAM ADORAIM ADULLAM AHLAB AI AKKAD ALALAKH ALMON ALMON-DIBLATHAIM AMALEKITES AMMON, AMMONITES AMORITES ANAB ANAHARATH ANATHOTH ARAM, ARAMEANS ARAM-DAMASCUS ARARAT ARGOB ARNON AROER ASHDOD ASHKELON ASHKENAZ ASHTAROTH, ASHTEROTH-KARNAIM, KARNAIM ATAROTH AVVIM AZEKAH AZNOTH-TABOR AZOR BAALAH BAAL-GAD BAAL-HAZOR BAAL-MEON BAAL-PERAZIM BAAL-ZEPHON BABEL, TOWER OF BABYLON BABYLONIA BAHURIM BASHAN BEER BEEROTH BEERSHEBA BENE-BERAK BESOR, BROOK OF BET AGLAYIM BET(H)-ANATH BET(H)-CHEREM BET(H)-DAGON BET(H)-EDEN BET(H)-EL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BET(H)-HARAM BET HARODON BET(H)-HORON BETHLEHEM BET(H) LEHEM (Ha-Gelilit) BET(H)-NIMRAH BET(H)-REHOB BET(H)-SHEAN BET(H)-SHEMESH BET(H)-SHITTAH BET YERAH BET(H)-ZUR BEZEK CABUL CALNEH CANAAN, LAND OF CAPHTOR CARMEL CARMEL, MOUNT CHALDEA, CHALDEANS CHEBAR CHERITH CHINNERETH COZEBA CUSH CUTH, CUTHAH DAMASCUS DAN DEBIR DOBRATH DOR DOTHAN EBEN-EZER EBLA EDOM EDREI EGLON EGYPT EGYPT, BROOK OF EKRON ELAM EL-AMARNA ELATH ELEALEH ELTEKEH EMAR EN-DOR EN-GANNIM EN-HAROD EN-RIMMON EN-ROGEL EPHRATH EPHRON ERECH ESHTAOL ESHTEMOA ETAM EUPHRATES EZION-GEBER GALILEE

13

thematic outline

I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 1. Bible Places and Peoples (continued)

GARDEN OF EDEN GATH GATH-HEPHER GATH-RIMMON GAZA GEBA GEDERAH, GEDEROTH GEDOR GEHINNOM GERAR GERIZIM, MOUNT GEZER GIBBETHON GIBEAH, GEBA GIBEON GIBEONITES AND NETHINIM GILBOA GILEAD GILGAL GINNOSAR, PLAIN OF GIRGASHITES GITTAIM GOLAN GOSHEN GOZAN HABIRU HABOR HADID HADRACH HALHUL HAM HAMMATH HANNATHON HAPHARAIM HARAN HAROSHETH-GOIIM HAURAN HAVILAH HAVVOTH-JAIR HAZER, HAZERIM HAZEROTH HAZOR HEBRON HELIOPOLIS HEPHER HERMON, MOUNT HESHBON HITTITES HIVITES, THE HOLON HOR HORMAH HORONAIM HOUSE OF THE FOREST OF LEBANON HUKOK

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HULEH HURRIANS HYKSOS IBLEAM IJON IR-NAHASH IRON ISHMAELITES JABBOK JABESH-GILEAD JABNEEL JABNEH JAFFA JAHAZ, JAHAZA JANOAH, JANAH JAPHIA JARMUTH JATTIR, JETHIRA JAZER JEBUS, JEBUSITE JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF JERICHO JERUSALEM JEZREEL JEZREEL, VALLEY OF JOKNEAM JORDAN JOTAPATA JOTBATH, JOTHBATAH KADESH KANAH KARKAR KARNAIM KEDAR KEDEMITES KEDEMOTH KEILAH KENATH KENITE KERAK or CHARAX KIDRON KINNERET, LAKE KIR HARESETH KIRIATH-JEARIM KISHON KITTIM LACHISH LEBANON LEBO-HAMATH LIBNAH LO-DEBAR LUZ LYDDA LYDIA, LYDIANS MAALEH AKRABBIM MACHPELAH, CAVE OF MADABA, MEDEBA MADON MAHANAIM MAKKEDAH

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MAMRE MA’ON MARESHAH MARI MEDES AND MEDIA MEGIDDO MEMPHIS MERON MEROZ MESHECH MESOPOTAMIA MEUNITES MICHMASH MIDIAN, MIDIANITES MIGDOL MINNITH MISREPHOTH-MAIM MIZPEH; MIZPAH MOAB MOLADAH MORESHETH-GATH MORIAH MOUNT OF OLIVES MOZA, (HA-) MOZAH NAHALAL NAVEH NEBAIOTH NEBO NEGEV NETOPHAH NILE NINEVEH NOB NUZI ONO OPHEL OPHIR OPHRAH PADDAN-ARAM PARAH, PERATH PARAN PARVAIM PATHROS PEKOD PELLA PENUEL PERGAMUM PERIZZITES PHILISTINES PHOENICIA, PHOENICIANS PI-HAHIROTH PISGAH PITHOM PUNON QUE RABBAH RABBATH-AMMON RAFA RAMAH RAMAT RAHEL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

RAMOTH RAMOTH-GILEAD RAMSES RECHABITES RED SEA REHOB REHOBOTH REHOV, TEL REPHAIM REPHIDIM RESEN RIBLAH RIMMON-PEREZ RODANIM RUMAH or ARUMAH SABEA SALCHAH SAMARIA SEIR, MOUNT SENAAH SEPHARAD SEPHARVAIM SHAALBIM SHA’AR HA-GOLAN SHARUHEN SHECHEM SHEPHELAH SHIHIN SHIHOR, SHIHOR-LIBNATH SHILOAH, SILOAM SHILOH SHIMRON SHINAR SHUNEM SHUSHAN SIDON SIN, WILDERNESS OF SINAI SINAI, MOUNT SOCOH or SOCO SODOM AND GOMORRAH SOREK, VALLEY OF SUCCOTH SUMER, SUMERIANS TAANACH TABOR, MOUNT TADMOR TAMAR TAPPUAH TARSHISH TEKOA TEMA THEBES THEBEZ TIGRIS TIMNA TIMNAH TIMNATH-HERES TIRZAH TOB

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 1. Bible Places and Peoples (continued)

TRANSJORDAN TYRE UGARIT UR UZ UZAL WADI AL-NATTUF WILDERNESS ZAMZUMMIM ZANOAH ZAPHON ZAREPHATH ZARETHAN ZEMARAIM ZERED ZEREDAH ZIKLAG ZION ZIPH ZOAN ZORAH Flora and Fauna

ALGUM ALMOND ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE AND TALMUD APPLE BALSAM BARLEY BAY TREE BEAR BEE BEHEMOTH CALAMUS, SWEET CAMEL CAPER CAROB CASTOR-OIL PLANT CAT CATTLE CEDAR CENTIPEDE CHAMELEON CHICKEN CINNAMON CORAL CORIANDER COTTON CRANE CRIMSON WORM CROCODILE CUCUMBER CYPRESS DEER DOG

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DOVE DYE PLANTS EAGLE EBONY ELEPHANT FENNEL FIG FLAX FLEA FLOWERS FLY FOX FRANKINCENSE FROG GALBANUM GARLIC GAZELLE GECKO GNAT GOAT GOOSE GRASSHOPPER GULL HARE HAWK HEMLOCK HENNA HONEY HOOPOE HORNET HORSE HYRAX HYSSOP IBEX IVORY JACKAL JUNIPER KITE LAUDANUM LEECH LEEK LENTIL LEOPARD LEVIATHAN LION LIZARD LOCUST MANDRAKE MELON MILLET MOLE MOTH MOUSE MULBERRY MUSHROOMS MYRRH MYRTLE NIGHTINGALE NUT OAK

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OLEANDER OLIVE ONAGER ONION ORACH OSTRICH OWL PALM PAPYRUS PARTRIDGE PIG PINE PISTACHIO PLANE TREE PLANTS PLUM POMEGRANATE POPLAR QUAIL RAT RAVEN REED ROCKET ROSE SAFFRON SCORPION SHEEP SILK SKINK SNAKE SORGHUM SPARROW SPICES SPIDER SPIKENARD STORAX STORK SWIFT SYCAMORE TAHASH TAMARISK TEREBINTH THISTLES AND THORNS TORTOISE TRAGACANTH TURTLE DOVE VEGETABLES VINE VULTURES WEEDS WHEAT WILD BULL WILLOW WOLF WORM WORMWOOD Biblical Scholars

AHARONI, YOHANAN AINSWORTH, HENRY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ALBRIGHT, WILLIAM FOXWELL ALT, ALBRECHT ANDREWES, LANCELOT ASTRUC, JEAN BADE, WILLIAM FREDERIC BAETHGEN, FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLPH BAUDISSIN, WOLF WILHELM, GRAF VON BAUER, HANS BAUMGARTEL, ELISE J. BAUMGARTNER, WALTER BECK(IUS), MATTHIAS FRIEDRICH BEEK, MARTINUS ADRIANUS BEN-ASHER, AARON BEN MOSES BEN-ASHER, MOSES BEN-NAPHTALI, MOSES BEN DAVID BENTZEN, AAGE BENZINGER, IMMANUEL BERGSTRAESSER, GOTTHELF BERTHOLET, ALFRED BLEEK, FRIEDRICH BONFRERE, JAQUES BUDDE, KARL FERDINAND REINHARD BUHL, FRANZ PEDER WILLIAM MEYER BUTTENWIESER, MOSES CASSUTO, UMBERTO CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLY COCCEIUS, JOHANNES COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM COOK, STANLEY ARTHUR COOKE, GEORGE ALBERT CORNILL, CARL HEINRICH CROWFOOT, JOHN WINTER DAVIDSON, SAMUEL DEL MEDICO, HENRI E. DELITZSCH, FRIEDRICH DEUTSCH, EMANUEL OSKAR DIEZ MACHO, ALEJANDRO DILLMANN, AUGUST DOTHAN, TRUDE DRIVER, SAMUEL ROLLES DUBNO, SOLOMON BEN JOEL DUHM, BERNHARD DUPONT-SOMMER, ANDRE EERDMANS, BERNARDUS DIRKS EHRLICH, ARNOLD BOGUMIL EICHHORN, JOHANN GOTTFRIED EISSFELDT, OTTO ERMAN, JOHANN PETER ADOLF EWALD, HEINRICH GEORG AUGUST FEIGIN, SAMUEL ISAAC FINKELSTEIN, JACOB JOEL FISHBANE, MICHAEL FRANKFORT, HENRI FRYMER-KENSKY, TIKVA GALLING, KURT GARSTANG, JOHN GEDDES, ALEXANDER GELB, IGNACE JAY GESENIUS, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM GEVIRTZ, STANLEY

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 1. Bible Biblical Scholars (continued)

GINSBERG, HAROLD LOUIS GINSBURG, CHRISTIAN DAVID GORDIS, ROBERT GORDON, CYRUS HERZL GRAF, KARL HEINRICH GREENBERG, MOSHE GREENFIELD, JONAS CARL GRESSMANN, HUGO GRUENBERG, SAMUEL GUNKEL, HERMANN GUTHE, HERMANN HALLO, WILLIAM HARAN, MENAHEM HELD, MOSHE HENGSTENBERG, ERNST WILHELM HITZIG, FERDINAND HOELSCHER, GUSTAV HOSCHANDER, JACOB HOTTINGER, JOHANN HEINRICH HRABANUS MAURUS HUPFELD, HERMANN CHRISTIAN KARL ILGEN, KARL DAVID JACOB BEN HAYYIM BEN ISAAC IBN ADONIJAH JACOB, BENNO JAMPEL, SIGMUND JEREMIAS, ALFRED JIRKU, ANTON KALISCH, MARKUS MORITZ KAUFMANN, YEHEZKEL KAUTZSCH, EMIL FRIEDRICH KEIL, KARL FRIEDRICH KENYON, KATHLEEN MARY KIRKPATRICK, ALEXANDER FRANCIS KITTEL, RUDOLF KUENEN, ABRAHAM KUGEL, JAMES LA PEYRERE, ISAAC LANDSBERGER, BENNO LEIBOWITZ, NEHAMA LEUSDEN, JOHANN LEVENSON, JON LEVINE, BARUCH LEWY, JULIUS LIGHTFOOT, JOHN LODS, ADOLPHE LOEWE, JOEL (BRILL) LOEWISOHN, SOLOMON LOISY, ALFRED FIRMIN LOWTH, ROBERT MACALISTER, ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART MAHLER, EDUARD MALAMAT, ABRAHAM MARGOLIS, MAX LEOPOLD

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MARTI, KARL MAZAR, BENJAMIN MEINHOLD, JOHANNES FRIEDRICH MEYER, EDUARD MICHAELIS, JOHANN DAVID MILGROM, JACOB MOWINCKEL, SIGMUND OLAF PLYTT NATHAN, MORDECAI NICHOLAS DE LYRE NOTH, MARTIN NOWACK, WILHELM GUSTAV HERMANN ORLINSKY, HARRY MEYER PARROT, ANDRE PEDERSEN, JOHANNES PELLICANUS (Rubeaquensis), CONRAD PETRIE, SIR WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS PFEIFFER, ROBERT HENRY POPPER, WILLIAM RAD, GERHARD VON REUSS, EDUARD ROSENMUELLER, ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL ROWLEY, HAROLD HENRY RYSSEL, VICTOR SANDMEL, SAMUEL SARNA, NAHUM SCHAEFFER, CLAUDE F. A. SEELIGMANN, ISAC LEO SEGAL, MOSES HIRSCH (ZEVI) SELLIN, ERNST SHAPIRO, DAVID S. SMEND, RUDOLPH SMITH, SIR GEORGE ADAM SMITH, JOHN MERLIN POWIS SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON SPEISER, EPHRAIM AVIGDOR STEUERNAGEL, CARL TADMOR, HAYIM TALMON, SHEMARYAHU TAVUS, JACOB BEN JOSEPH THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA TIGAY, JEFFREY TORREY, CHARLES CUTLER TUR-SINAI (Torczyner), NAPHTALI HERZ (Harry) TYNDALE, WILLIAM VATKE, WILHELM VAUX, ROLAND DE VOLZ, PAUL VRIEZEN, THEODORUS CHRISTIAAN WALTON, BRYAN WEILL, RAYMOND WEINGREEN, JACOB WEISS, MEIR WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS WETTE, DE, WILHELM MARTIN LEBERECHT WIENER, HAROLD MARCUS WINCKLER, HUGO WOOLLEY, SIR CHARLES LEONARD YEIVIN, SHEMUEL ZIMMERLI, WALTHER

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2. TALMUD Main Surveys

MISHNAH TALMUD, BABYLONIAN TALMUD, JERUSALEM General Entries

ACADEMIES IN BABYLONIA AND EREZ ISRAEL AGGADAH AHERIM ALEF ALLEGORY ALLUF ALPHABET, HEBREW, IN MIDRASH, TALMUD, AND KABBALAH AM HA-AREZ AMORA AMORAIM ANDROGYNOS ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY ANOINTING ARK OF THE COVENANT BAHUR BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY BAT KOL BEI AVIDAN BEI-RAV BET HILLEL AND BET SHAMMAI BREAD CAPTIVES, RANSOMING OF CHEESE CHURCH FATHERS COSMETICS CROWNS, DECORATIVE HEADDRESSES AND WREATHS DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY DESKARTA DIVINATION DREAMS DRUNKENNESS EARTH EGGS ELDER EUPHEMISM AND DYSPHEMISM EVEN SHETIYYAH FIRE FISH AND FISHING FLESH FLOOD, THE GEMARA GENEALOGY GOD, NAMES OF GREEK AND LATIN LANGUAGES, RABBINICAL KNOWLEDGE OF HAVER, HAVERIM HAVER IR HEBREW BOOK TITLES HERMENEUTICS IDOLATRY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INCENSE AND PERFUMES JEALOUSY KABBALAH KALLAH, MONTHS OF KEZAZAH LABOR LEKET, SHIKHHAH, AND PEAH LEPROSY LUZ OF THE SPINE MAGIC MAHOZA MAR MATA MEHASYA MISHMAROT AND MA’AMADOT MNEMONICS MOON NAMES NARESH NEHUTEI OILS PARABLE PESHAT PILPUL PITTUM HA-KETORET POVERTY PRECIOUS STONES AND JEWELRY PROFANITY PROSBUL PROSTITUTION PROVERBS, TALMUDIC PUMBEDITA RAIN RESH KALLAH RIGHT AND LEFT SALT SEA, SONG OF THE SHAS SHEKANZIB SOAP SUN SURA SYNAGOGUE TALMID HAKHAM TALMUD TALMUD, BURNING OF TALMUD, MUSICAL RENDITION TALMUD AND MIDDLE PERSIAN CULTURE TANNA, TANNAIM TEN MARTYRS, THE THUNDER AND LIGHTNING TIGRIS TITLES USHA, SYNOD OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES WINE WRITING ZAKEN MAMRE ZUGOT

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 2. Talmud (continued) Talmudic Literature

Orders and Tractates ARAKHIN AVODAH ZARAH AVOT BAVA BATRA BAVA KAMMA BAVA MEZIA BEKHOROT BERAKHOT BEZAH BIKKURIM DEMAI DEREKH EREZ EDUYYOT ERUVIN GITTIN HAGIGAH HALLAH HORAYOT HULLIN KALLAH KELIM KERITOT KETUBBOT KIDDUSHIN KILAYIM KINNIM KODASHIM MA’ASEROT MA’ASER SHENI MAKHSHIRIN MAKKOT MASSEKHET MEGILLAH ME’ILAH MENAHOT MIDDOT MIKVAOT MINOR TRACTATES MOED MOED KATAN NASHIM NAZIR NEDARIM NEGAIM NEZIKIN NIDDAH OHOLOT ORLAH PARAH PEAH PESAHIM ROSH HA-SHANAH SANHEDRIN

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SEMAHOT SHABBAT SHEKALIM SHEVI’IT SHEVU’OT SOFERIM SOTAH SUKKAH TA’ANIT TAMID TEMURAH TERUMOT TEVUL YOM TOHOROT TOHOROT UKZIN YADAYIM YEVAMOT YOMA ZAVIM ZERA’IM ZEVAHIM Other Literature AGGADAT BERESHIT AVOT DE-RABBI NATHAN AVOT NEZIKIN BARAITA, BERAITOT BARAITA DE-MELEKHET HA-MISHKAN BARAITA DE-NIDDAH BARAITA OF 32 RULES BOOK OF LIFE DEUTERONOMY RABBAH ESTHER RABBAH EXODUS RABBAH GENESIS RABBAH LAMENTATIONS RABBAH LEVITICUS RABBAH MEGILLAT SETARIM MEGILLAT TA’ANIT MEGILLAT YUHASIN MEKHILTA DEUTERONOMY MEKHILTA OF R. ISHMAEL MEKHILTA OF R. SIMEON BEN YOHAI MIDRESHEI AGGADAH MIDRESHEI HALAKHAH PESIKTA DE-RAV KAHANA POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE RUTH RABBAH SEDER OLAM SIFRA SIFREI DEUTERONOMY SIFREI HA-MINIM SIFREI NUMBERS SIFREI ZUTA DEUTERONOMY SIFREI ZUTA NUMBERS SONG OF SONGS RABBAH TANHUMA YELEMMEDENU TOSEFTA

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Amoraim and Tannaim

ABBA ABBA BAR AHA ABBA BAR AVINA ABBA BAR KAHANA ABBA BAR MARTA ABBA BAR MEMEL ABBA BAR ZAVDA ABBA BAR ZEMINA ABBA BEN ABBA HA-KOHEN ABBA BENJAMIN ABBA GURYON OF SIDON ABBA HILKIAH ABBAHU ABBA KOHEN BARDELA ABBA OF AKKO ABBA OSHAYA (Hoshaya) OF TIRIAH ABBA SAUL ABBA SAUL BEN BATNIT ABBAYE ABBAYE KASHISHA ABBA YOSE BEN DOSTAI ABBA YOSE BEN HANIN (Johanan) ADDA BAR AHAVAH AHA AHA BAR HANINA AHA BAR RAV AHA BEN JACOB AHAI AHAI BEN JOSIAH AIBU AKAVYAH BEN MAHALALEL AKIVA ALEXANDRI AMEIMAR AMMI BAR NATHAN AMRAM AMRAM HASIDA (“The Pious”) ANAN ASHI ASSI ASSI, RAV AVDAN AVDIMI BAR HAMA AVDIMI OF HAIFA AVIA AVIMI AVIMI BEN ABBAHU AVIN AVINA AVIRA AVTALYON AZARIAH AZARIAH BAR HEDYA BAR KAPPARA BEBAI BEBAI BAR ABBAYE BENAAH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BEN AZZAI, SIMEON BEN BAG BAG BEN HE HE BENJAMIN BEN JAPHET BEN KALBA SAVUA BEN PETURA (Ben Peturi, Ben Peturin) BEN STADA BEN ZOMA, SIMEON BERECHIAH DANIEL HAYYATA DIMI DIMI OF NEHARDEA DOSA BEN HARKINAS DOSTAI BEN JUDAH DOSTAI BEN YANNAI ELEAZAR BEN ARAKH ELEAZAR BEN AZARIAH ELEAZAR BEN DAMMA ELEAZAR BEN HANANIAH BEN HEZEKIAH ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH OF BARTOTA ELEAZAR BEN MATYA ELEAZAR BEN PARTA ELEAZAR BEN PEDAT ELEAZAR BEN SHAMMUA ELEAZAR BEN SIMEON ELEAZAR BEN YOSE I ELEAZAR BEN YOSE II ELEAZAR BEN ZADOK ELEAZAR HA-KAPPAR ELEAZAR HISMA ELEAZAR OF MODI’IN ELIEZER BEN HYRCANUS ELIEZER BEN JACOB ELIEZER BEN YOSE HA-GELILI ELISHA BEN AVUYAH GAMALIEL (HA-ZAKEN), RABBAN GEBIHA OF BE-KATIL GIDDAL HAGGAI HAGGAI OF SEPPHORIS HALAFTA HALAFTA BEN SAUL HAMA (of Nehardea) HAMA BAR BISA HAMA BAR HANINA HAMNUNA HANA BAR HANILAI HANA BEN BIZNA HANAN THE EGYPTIAN HANANIAH (Hanina) HANANIAH (Hanina) BEN HAKHINAI HANANIAH (Hanina) BEN TERADYON HANANIAH (Hanina) OF SEPPHORIS HANINA (Hananiah) HANINA BAR HAMA HANINA (Hinena) BAR-PAPA (Pappi) HANINA BEN ABBAHU HANINA BEN ANTIGONUS HANINA BEN DOSA

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 2. Talmud Amoraim and Tannaim (continued)

HANINA BEN GAMALIEL HANINA SEGAN HA-KOHANIM HELBO HEZEKIAH HIDKA HILLEL HILLEL HILLEL (II) HISDA HIYYA HIYYA BAR ABBA HIYYA BAR AVIN HOSHAIAH, RAV HUNA HUNA BEN AVIN HA-KOHEN HUNA BEN JOSHUA HUNA BEN NATHAN HUNA OF SEPPHORIS HUNYA OF BETH-HORON HUZPIT HA-METURGEMAN IDI IDI BAR AVIN ILAI ILAI ILFA ISAAC ISAAC BAR JOSEPH ISAAC BAR RAV JUDAH ISAAC BEN AVDIMI ISAAC BEN ELEAZAR ISAAC NAPPAHA ISHMAEL BEN ELISHA ISHMAEL BEN JOHANAN BEN BEROKA ISHMAEL BEN YOSE BEN HALAFTA JACOB JACOB BEN AHA JACOB BEN IDI JACOB BEN KORSHAI (Kodshai) JEREMIAH BEN ABBA JOHANAN BEN BEROKA JOHANAN BEN GUDGADA JOHANAN BEN HA-HORANIT JOHANAN BEN NAPPAHA JOHANAN BEN NURI JOHANAN BEN TORTA JOHANAN BEN ZAKKAI JOHANAN HA-SANDELAR JONAH JONATHAN JONATHAN BEN AMRAM JONATHAN BEN ELEAZAR JOSEPH BEN HIYYA JOSHUA JOSHUA BEN HANANIAH JOSHUA BEN HYRCANUS

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JOSHUA BEN KORHA JOSHUA BEN LEVI JOSHUA BEN PERAHYAH JOSHUA HA-GARSI JOSIAH JOSIAH JUDAH JUDAH III JUDAH IV JUDAH BAR EZEKIEL JUDAH BAR ILAI JUDAH BAR SHALOM (ha-Levi) JUDAH BAR SIMEON JUDAH BEN BATHYRA I JUDAH BEN BAVA JUDAH BEN DOSOTHEOS JUDAH BEN GERIM JUDAH BEN HIYYA JUDAH BEN NAHAMANI (Nahman) JUDAH BEN PEDAYA (Padah) JUDAH BEN SHAMMUA JUDAH BEN TABBAI JUDAH BEN TEMA JUDAH HA-NASI KAHANA LEVI LEVI BEN SISI MANI MAR BAR RAV ASHI MAR BAR RAVINA MARI BEN ISSUR MATTIAH BEN HERESH MATTNAH MEIR MEREMAR NAHMAN BAR RAV HUNA NAHMAN BEN ISAAC NAHMAN BEN JACOB NAHUM OF GIMZO NAHUM THE MEDE NAKDIMON BEN GURYON NATHAN HA-BAVLI NEHEMIAH NEHORAI NEHUNYA BEN HA-KANAH NITTAI OF ARBELA OSHAIAH RABBAH PAPA PAPI PAPPUS BEN JUDAH PHINEHAS BEN HAMA HA-KOHEN PHINEHAS BEN JAIR RABBA BEN MATNAH RABBAH BAR BAR HANA RABBAH BAR HANA RABBAH BAR HUNA RABBAH BAR NAHAMANI RABBAH BEN AVUHA RABBAH BEN SHILAH RABBAH TOSFAAH

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RAV RAVA RAVINA REHUMEI REUBEN BEN STROBILUS SAFRA SAMUEL SAMUEL BEN NAHMAN SAMUEL BEN SHILAT SAMUEL HA-KATAN SHAMMAI (Ha-Zaken) SHELA SHEMAIAH SHESHET SHILA OF KEFAR TAMARTA SIMEON BAR YOHAI SIMEON BEN ABBA SIMEON BEN ELEAZAR SIMEON BEN GAMALIEL I SIMEON BEN GAMALIEL II (of Jabneh) SIMEON BEN HALAFTA SIMEON BEN JEHOZADAK SIMEON BEN JUDAH HA-NASI SIMEON BEN LAKISH SIMEON BEN MENASYA SIMEON BEN NANAS SIMEON BEN NETHANEL SIMEON BEN PAZZI SIMEON BEN SHETAH SIMEON HA-PAKULI SIMEON HA-TIMNI SIMEON OF MIZPAH SIMLAI SYMMACHUS BEN JOSEPH TANHUM BEN HANILAI TANHUM BEN HIYYA TANHUMA BAR ABBA TARFON UKBA, MAR ULLA I YANNAI YESHEVAV THE SCRIBE YOSE YOSE BAR HANINA YOSE BEN AKAVYAH YOSE BEN AVIN YOSE BEN DORMASKOS YOSE BEN HALAFTA YOSE BEN JOEZER OF ZEREDAH YOSE BEN JOHANAN HA-TANNA OF JERUSALEM YOSE BEN JUDAH YOSE BEN KIPPAR YOSE BEN KISMA YOSE BEN MESHULLAM YOSE BEN ZIMRA YOSE HA-GELILI YOSE HA-KOHEN YUDAN ZADOK ZECHARIAH BEN AVKILUS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ZE’EIRA ZE’IRI (ben Hinna) Biblical Figures and Subjects

AARON ABIATHAR ABIGAIL ABIMELECH ABISHAG THE SHUNAMMITE ABISHAI ABNER ABRAHAM ABSALOM ACHAN ADAM ADONIJAH AGAG AHAB AHIMELECH AHITHOPHEL THE GILONITE ALTAR AMALEKITES AMASA AMAZIAH AMMON, AMMONITES AMNON AMON AMORITES AMRAM ASA ASAHEL ASAPH ASHER BABEL, TOWER OF BALAAM BARUCH BATH-SHEBA BELSHAZZAR BENJAMIN BETHUEL BEZALEL BILHAH BOAZ CAIN CALEB, CALEBITES CHERUB COPPER SERPENT, THE DAN DANIEL DATHAN AND ABIRAM DAVID DEBORAH DELILAH DINAH DOEG EDOM ELDAD AND MEDAD ELI ELIEZER ELIHU

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 2. Talmud Biblical Figures and Subjects (continued)

ELIJAH ELIPHAZ ELISHA ELKANAH EN-DOR, WITCH OF ENOCH ENOSH EPHRAIM ESAU ESTHER EVE EZEKIEL EZRA GAD GARDEN OF EDEN GEHAZI GIBEONITES AND NETHINIM GIDEON GOLDEN CALF GOLIATH HAGAR HAM HAMAN HANANIAH SON OF AZZUR HANNAH HEZEKIAH HOSEA, BOOK OF HULDAH HUR HUSHAI THE ARCHITE ISAAC ISAIAH ISHMAEL ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF ISSACHAR ITHAMAR JABNEH JACOB JACOB, BLESSING OF JAEL JAIR JAPHETH JEHOIACHIN JEHOIADA JEHOIAKIM JEHORAM JEPHTHAH JEREMIAH JEROBOAM JERUSALEM JESSE JESUS JETHRO JEZEBEL JOAB

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JOB, BOOK OF JOCHEBED JONAH, BOOK OF JONATHAN JOSEPH JOSHUA JOSIAH JOTHAM JUDAH KETURAH KOHATH AND KOHATHITES KORAH LABAN LAMECH LEAH LEVI LOT MALACHI, BOOK OF MANASSEH MANASSEH MANNA MEPHIBOSHETH MERODACH-BALADAN MICAH MICHAEL AND GABRIEL MICHAL MIDIAN, MIDIANITES MIRIAM MORDECAI MOSES NAAMAN NABAL NABOTH NADAB NAHSHON NAOMI NATIONS, THE SEVENTY NAZIRITE NEBUCHADNEZZAR NEBUZARADAN NEHEMIAH NEPHILIM NETHERWORLD NIMROD NINEVEH NOAH OG ORPAH OTHNIEL PATRIARCHS, THE PENINNAH PEREZ PHARAOH PHILISTINES PLAGUES OF EGYPT POTIPHAR PROPHETS AND PROPHECY PSALMS, BOOK OF QUEEN OF SHEBA RACHEL

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RAHAB REBEKAH RED HEIFER RED SEA REHOBOAM REUBEN ROD OF AARON ROD OF MOSES RUTH, BOOK OF SAMSON SAMUEL SANDALFON SARAH SAUL SENNACHERIB SETH SHEBA BEN BICHRI SHEM SHIMEI SHISHAK SIMEON SINAI, MOUNT SODOM AND GOMORRAH SOLOMON TABERNACLE TABLETS OF THE LAW TAMAR TERAH TRIBES, THE TWELVE TUBAL-CAIN URIAH URIM and THUMMIM VASHTI WELLS WILDERNESS ZECHARIAH ZECHARIAH ZEDEKIAH ZELOPHEHAD ZERAH THE CUSHITE ZERUBBABEL ZIMRI ZIPPORAH Other Figures

ABBA GULISH ABBA KOLON ABBA UMANA ADMON BEN GADDAI AGRAT BAT MAHALATH AHASUERUS ALEXANDER THE GREAT ANTONINUS PIUS APOSTOMOS AVIN THE CARPENTER BAITOS BEN ZONIN BAVA BEN BUTA BEN TEMALYON BERURYAH CYRUS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

DAMA, SON OF NETINA EGLON ELISHA BAAL KENAFAYIM HABBAR, HABBAREI HADRIAN, PUBLIUS AELIUS HOMA HONI HA-ME’AGGEL HOVAH IMMA SHALOM ISSUR GIYYORA JUDITH KAMZA AND BAR KAMZA MAHLON AND CHILION MARTHA MERCURY MICAIAH (Micah) NATHAN DE-ZUZITA RESH GALUTA PAPPUS AND JULIANUS PHINEHAS RACHEL RAPHAEL TABI TITUS, FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS YALTA Flora and Fauna

ALGUM ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE AND TALMUD ANT APE APPLE ASS BALSAM BAT BAY TREE BEAR BEE BEET BEHEMOTH BOX BROOM CABBAGE CALAMUS, SWEET CAMEL CAPER CAROB CASTOR-OIL PLANT CAT CEDAR CHICKEN CINNAMON CORIANDER COTTON CUMIN DEER DOG DOVE EAGLE ELEPHANT FENNEL

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 2. Talmud Flora and Fauna (continued)

FIG FLAX FLEA FRANKINCENSE GALBANUM GARLIC GAZELLE GOURD GRASSHOPPER HEMP HENNA HERBS, MEDICINAL HOOPOE HORNET HORSE HYSSOP IVY JACKAL JUJUBE KITE KOI LEECH LEEK LEGUMES LENTIL LEOPARD LETTUCE LEVIATHAN LIZARD LOCUST LOUSE MALLOW MASTIC MELON MILLET MOUSE MULBERRY MULE MUSHROOMS MUSTARD MYRRH MYRTLE NUT OLEANDER OLIVE ONAGER ONION ORACH OSTRICH PALM PAPYRUS PARTRIDGE PEACH PEACOCK PEAR

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PELICAN PEPPER PHEASANT PIG PINE PISTACHIO PLANTS PLUM POMEGRANATE POPLAR QUAIL QUINCE RADISH RAT RAVEN REED RICE ROCKET ROSE SAFFRON SHEEP SILK SNAKE SORGHUM SPARROW SPICES SQUILL SUMAC SYCAMORE TEREBINTH TORTOISE TURTLE DOVE VEGETABLES VINE VULTURES WHEAT WILD BULL WILLOW WOLF WORM 3. SECOND TEMPLE AND LATE ROMAN PERIODS Main Surveys

HISTORY General Entries

ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION ABSALOM, MONUMENT OF AGORANOMOS AGRICULTURAL LAND-MANAGEMENT METHODS AND IMPLEMENTS IN ANCIENT EREZ ISRAEL AGRICULTURE ALABARCH ANGARIA ANGLO-ISRAEL ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY ANTICHRESIS APOCALYPSE APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA ARCHAEOLOGISTS ARCHAEOLOGY

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ARCHISYNAGOGOS ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS ARCHON ARNONA ASS WORSHIP AURUM CORONARIUM BOETHUSIANS BOULE CART AND CHARIOT CIRCUSES AND THEATERS CISTERN COINS AND CURRENCY CRAFTS CRUCIFIXION CYNICS AND CYNICISM DAVID, DYNASTY OF DEAD SEA SECT DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY DIASPORA DIONYSUS, CULT OF EMPEROR WORSHIP EPICUREANISM ESSENES ETHNARCH FISCUS JUDAICUS GERUSIA GLADIATOR GREEK AND LATIN LANGUAGES, RABBINICAL KNOWLEDGE OF GREEK LITERATURE, ANCIENT GYMNASIUM HASMONEAN BET DIN HASMONEANS HASSIDEANS HELLENISM HELLENISTIC JEWISH LITERATURE HERODIANS HEVER HA-YEHUDIM HIGH PRIEST HISTORIOGRAPHY HOLY CONGREGATION IN JERUSALEM JEW JUDEAN DESERT CAVES LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS LOGOS LOTS MACCABEE MAGIC MAIUMAS MENORAH MIKVEH MIN MONEY CHANGERS MOSES NAG HAMMADI CODICES NASH PAPYRUS NASI NICANORS GATE OIL OF LIFE ONYCHA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

OSSUARIES and SARCOPHAGI PALESTINE PAPYRI PESHER PHARISEES PILGRIMAGE PILLAR POTTERY PRIESTS AND PRIESTHOOD PROCURATOR QUMRAN SADDUCEES SAMARITANS SANHEDRIN SECTS, MINOR SEEKERS AFTER SMOOTH THINGS SELEUCID ERA SEREKH SHEKEL SHIPS AND SAILING SICARII SOFERIM SONS OF LIGHT SYNAGOGUE SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT TAX GATHERERS TEACHER OF RIGHTEOUSNESS TEMPLE TEMPLE MOUNT THERAPEUTAE TITHE TITUS, ARCH OF TOMBS AND TOMBSTONES TOPARCHY USHA, SYNOD OF WAR AND WARFARE WORSHIP XENOPHON OF LAMPSACUS YAHAD ZADOKITES ZEALOTS AND SICARII ZENO, PAPYRI OF Literature

ABRAHAM, APOCALYPSE OF ABRAHAM, OTHER BOOKS OF ABRAHAM, TESTAMENT OF ACRO, PSEUDOADAM, OTHER BOOKS OF ADAM AND EVE, BOOK OF THE LIFE OF AELIAN (Claudius, Aelianus) AHIKAR, BOOK OF ALEXANDRIAN MARTYRS, ACTS OF ARISTEAS, LETTER OF BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF BARUCH, BOOK OF BARUCH, GREEK APOCALYPSE OF BARUCH, REST OF THE WORDS OF BEL AND THE DRAGON BEN SIRA, WISDOM OF

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 3. Second Temple and Late Roman Periods Literature (continued) COPPER SCROLL DAMASCUS, BOOK OF COVENANT OF DANIEL, BOOKS OF DEAD SEA SCROLLS DISCIPLINE, MANUAL OF ENOCH ENOCH, ETHIOPIC BOOK OF ENOCH, SLAVONIC BOOK OF ESTHER, ADDITIONS TO THE BOOK OF EZEKIEL, APOCRYPHAL BOOKS OF EZRA, APOCALYPSE OF EZRA, GREEK BOOK OF HABAKKUK, PROPHECY OF HISTORIA AUGUSTA ISAAC, TESTAMENT OF JACOB, TESTAMENT OF JEREMIAH, EPISTLE OF JOB, TESTAMENT OF JOSEPH AND ASENATH JOSIPPON JUBILEES, BOOK OF JUDITH, BOOK OF LAMECH, BOOK OF LEVI, TESTAMENT OF MACCABEES, FIRST BOOK OF MACCABEES, SECOND BOOK OF MACCABEES, THIRD BOOK OF MACCABEES, FOURTH BOOK OF MANASSEH, PRAYER OF MOSES, ASSUMPTION OF MURABBAAT SCROLLS NAPHTALI, TESTAMENT OF NOAH, BOOKS OF PATRIARCHS, TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PHILO PROPHETS, LIVES OF THE PSALMS, APOCRYPHAL ROMAN LITERATURE SCROLL OF ANTIOCHUS SEVENTY SHEPHERDS, VISION OF SIBYL AND SIBYLLINE ORACLES SOLOMON, PSALMS OF SOLOMON, TESTAMENT OF SOLOMON, WISDOM OF SONG OF THE THREE CHILDREN AND THE PRAYER OF AZARIAH SUSANNA AND THE ELDERS TEMPLE SCROLL THANKSGIVING PSALMS TOBIT, BOOK OF WAR SCROLL Places and Peoples

ABILENE ACRA

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ACRABA ACRE ADASA ADIABENE ADORAIM (Adora) AELIA CAPITOLINA AGRIPPINA AIJALON AKHBAREI ALAMAH ALEXANDRIA AMANA AMMATHA ANTHEDON ANTIOCH ANTIPATRIS ANTONIA APAMEA APHEK APOLLONIA ARABA ARAD ARADUS ARBATTA ARCHELAIS ARETHUSA ARPAD ASARAMEL ASHKELON ASSUR ATHRIBIS AVEDAT AZMON BABYLONIA BANIAS BASHAN BATHYRA BE-HOZAI BENE-BERAK BERENIKE BET(H)-ANATH BET(H)-CHEREM BET GUVRIN BETHANY BETHAR BET(H)-HARAM (Haran) BETHBASI BETHLEHEM BETHLEPTEPHA BET(H)-HORON BETHPHAGE BETHSAIDA BETHULIA BET(H)-MAON BET NETOFAH BET(H)-SHEAN BET SHEARIM BET YERAH BET ZEKHARYAH BET(H)-ZUR

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BIRIYYAH BITHYNIA BORSIPPA BOSPHORUS, KINGDOM OF BOZRAH BUTNAH CABUL CAESAREA CAESAREA IN CAPPADOCIA CAPERNAUM CAPITOLIAS CAPPADOCIA CARCHEMISH CARIA CARMEL, MOUNT CARTHAGE CHALCIS CHORAZIN CILICIA COELE-SYRIA COMMAGENE CTESIPHON CYRENE DAMASCUS DECAPOLIS DELOS DIBON DIUM DOBRATH DOK DOR DURA-EUROPOS EDESSA EDOM EGYPT EIN FASHKHAH EIN KEREM ELASA ELEPHANTINE ELUSA EMESA EMMAUS EN-GEDI EPHESUS EVEN HA-TOIM GADARA (Gadar, Gader) GALATIA GALILEE GAMALA GAZA GEBA GERASA GERIZIM, MOUNT GEZER GINNOSAR, PLAIN OF GISCALA GOFNAH HAGRONIA HALHUL HAMMAT-GADER (Geder)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

HAMMATH HAPHARAIM HAR HA-MELEKH HEBRON HERODIUM (Herodion) HESHBON HIERAPOLIS HORONAIM HULEH HUZAL HYRCANIA JABNEH JAFFA JAPHIA JAZER JERICHO JERUSALEM JEZREEL, VALLEY OF JORDAN JOTAPATA JUDEA KABRITHA KEFAR AKKO KEFAR GAMALA KEFAR HANANYAH KEFAR HATTIN KEFAR NEBURAYA KEFAR OTNAY KEFAR SHIHLAYIM KEILAH KENATH KERAK or CHARAX KIDRON KINNERET, LAKE KITTIM LAODICEA LEGIO LEONTOPOLIS LYDDA (Lod) LYDIA, LYDIANS MACEDONIA MACHAERUS MACHPELAH, CAVE OF MADABA, MEDEBA MAGDALA MAMPSIS MA’ON MARESHAH MASADA MERON MESENE MICHMASH (Michmas) MILETUS MODI’IN (Modi’im) MOUNT OF OLIVES MOZA, (HA-) MOZAH NAARAH (Naaran) NABATEANS NABLUS NAIN

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 3. Second Temple and Late Roman Periods Places and Peoples (continued) NARBATA NAVEH NEGEV NEHAR PEKOD NEHARDEA NISIBIS NIZZANAH ONIAS, TEMPLE OF ONO OSROENE PAMPHYLIA PARAH, PERATH PEKI’IN PELLA PERSIA PETRA PHAROS PHASAELIS PHOTIS PHRYGIA RABBATH-AMMON RAFA RAMAT HA-GOLAN RAMAT RAHEL RECHABITES REHOBOTH SABEA SAFED SAMARIA SARDIS SARTABA SELEUCIA SENNABRIS SEPPHORIS SHALEM SHECHEM SHEPHELAH SHILOAH, SILOAM SHILOH SHION SHIVTAH SHUNEM SHUSHAN SICHAR SIDON SIKHNIN SINAI SPARTA SUSITA SYRIA TABGHA TABOR, MOUNT TADMOR TAMAR TEKOA

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TIBERIAS TIMNATH-HERES TIRAT ZEVI TRACHONITIS TRANSJORDAN TUNIS, TUNISIA TYRE TYRE, LADDER OF TYRE OF THE TOBIADS USHA WADI DALIYA WESTERN WALL ZAPHON ZAREPHATH ZEREDAH ZION ZIPH ZOFIM Biographies

ABBA SIKRA ABSALOM AGATHARCHIDES OF CNIDUS AGRIPPA I AGRIPPA II AGRIPPA, CAIUS JULIUS AGRIPPA, MARCUS VIPSANIUS ALARIC II ALBINUS, LUCCEIUS ALCIMUS ALEXANDER ALEXANDER BALAS ALEXANDER THE FALSE ALEXANDER THE GREAT ALEXANDER LYSIMACHUS ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR ALEXANDER SON OF ARISTOBULUS II ALEXANDER THE ZEALOT ALEXANDRA ALEXANDRA ALEXAS ALITURUS (Alityros) AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS ANAN, SON OF ANAN ANAN BEN SETH ANANIAS AND HELKIAS ANANIAS BEN NEDEBEUS ANANIAS OF ADIABENE ANANIAS SON OF ZADOK ANDRONICUS SON OF MESHULLAM ANILAEUS AND ASINAEUS ANTIGONUS ANTIGONUS II ANTIGONUS OF CARYSTUS ANTIGONUS OF SOKHO ANTIOCHUS ANTIPAS, HEROD ANTIPATER II ANTIPATER

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ANTONINUS PIUS ANTONIUS DIOGENES ANTONIUS JULIANUS APION APOLLONIUS APOLLONIUS MOLON APPIAN OF ALEXANDRIA APULEIUS, LUCIUS ARCHELAUS ARDAVAN AREIOS I ARES ARETAS ARISTEAS ARISTOBULUS I ARISTOBULUS II ARISTOBULUS III ARISTOBULUS ARISTOBULUS ARISTOBULUS OF PANEAS ARISTON OF PELLA ARMILUS ARRIAN ARTAPANUS ARTAXERXES ARTEMION ASINIUS POLLIO, GAIUS ASMODEUS ATHRONGES AUGUSTUS AVTINAS AZIZ BACCHIDES BAGOHI BANUS BAR GIORA, SIMEON BAR KOKHBA BASSUS, LUCILIUS BATHYRA, SONS OF BEN LAANAH BEN SIRA, SIMEON BEN JESUS BEN ZIZIT HA-KASSAT BERENICE BEROSUS BET GARMU BET ZERIFA CAECILIUS OF CALACTE CAESAR, SEXTUS JULIUS CAIAPHAS, JOSEPH CALIGULA, CAIUS CAESAR AUGUSTUS CALLISTHENES CAPITO, MARCUS HERENNIUS CARACALLA, MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS CASSIUS LONGINUS CELSUS CELSUS, AULUS CORNELIUS CENSORINUS CESTIUS GALLUS CHAEREMON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

CHARAX OF PERGAMUM CHARES CHOERILOS OF SAMOS CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS CLAUDIAN (Claudius Claudianus) CLAUDIUS CLAUDIUS IOLAUS (Julius) CLEARCHUS OF SOLI CLEODEMUS MALCHUS CLEOMEDES CLEOPATRA CLEOPATRA OF JERUSALEM CONON I CONON II COPONIUS COSTOBAR CRASSUS, MARCUS LICINIUS CRINAGORAS OF CARYSTUS CUMANUS VENTIDIUS CYPROS CYPROS DAMASCIUS DAMOCRITUS DEMETRIUS DEMETRIUS DEMETRIUS I soter DEMETRIUS II DEMETRIUS III DIO CASSIUS DIO CHRYSOSTOM DIOCLETIAN, CAIUS VALERIANUS DIODORUS OF SICILY DIODOTUS-TRYPHON DIOGENES LAERTIUS DIOS DIOSCORIDES PEDANIUS DOMITIAN DORIS DOROTHEUS DRUSILLA ELEAZAR ELEAZAR BEN ANANIAS ELEAZAR BEN DINAI ELEAZAR BEN HARSOM ELEAZAR BEN JAIR ELEAZAR BEN MATTATHIAS ELEAZAR BEN SIMEON ELIONAEUS, SON OF CANTHERAS EMPEDOCLES EPICTETUS ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE EUHEMERUS EUPOLEMUS EUTROPIUS EZEKIEL THE POET FADUS, CUSPIUS FELIX, ANTONIUS FESTUS, PORCIUS FLACCUS, AVILLIUS AULUS FLACCUS, VALERIUS

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I. HISTORY A. ANCIENT PERIOD 3. Second Temple and Late Roman Periods Biographies (continued) FLAVIUS, CLEMENS FRONTO, MARCUS CORNELIUS FULVIA GABINIUS, AULUS GALEN (Galenus), CLAUDIUS GEBINI GESSIUS FLORUS GLAPHYRA GORGIAS HADRIAN, PUBLIUS AELIUS HANAMEL (Hananel) HANNAH AND HER SEVEN SONS HAURAN HECATAEUS OF ABDERA HELENA HELIODORUS HELLADIUS OF ANTINOUPOLIS HERACLES HERACLITUS HERMIPPUS OF SMYRNA HERMOGENES HEROD HEROD I HEROD II HERODIAS HERODOTUS HEROD PHILIP I HEZEKIAH HEZEKIAH, THE HIGH PRIEST HOLOFERNES HOMER HONORIUS FLAVIUS HORACE, QUINTUS HORATIUS FLACCUS HYPSICRATES OF AMISUS HYRCANUS II HYRCANUS, JOHN (Johanan) ISHMAEL BEN PHIABI (PHABI) II IZATES II JACOB BEN SOSAS (Susa) JADDUA (Jaddus) JANNES AND JAMBRES JANUARIUS JASON JASON OF CYRENE JOEZER, SON OF BOETHUS JOHANAN BEN JEHOIADA JOHANAN THE HASMONEAN JOHN THE ESSENE JOHN OF GISCALA JONATHAN BEN ANAN JONATHAN BEN UZZIEL JONATHAN THE HASMONEAN JONATHAN SON OF ABSALOM JOSEPH JOSEPH AND AZARIAH BEN ZECHARIAH

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JOSEPH BEN ELEM JOSEPH OF GAMALA JOSEPHUS FLAVIUS JOSHUA, SON OF SAPPHAS JOSHUA, SON OF SETH JOSHUA BEN DAMNAI JOSHUA BEN GAMLA JOSHUA BEN PHABI JUDAH, SON OF ZIPPORAI JUDAH THE GALILEAN JUDAH MACCABEE JULIAN THE APOSTATE JULIUS ARCHELAUS JULIUS CAESAR JULIUS FLORUS JULIUS SEVERUS JUSTIN JUSTUS OF TIBERIAS JUVENAL KETIA BAR SHALOM KIMHIT LAETUS LAMECH LAMPON AND ISIDOROS LIES, MAN OF LIES, PROPHET OF LION OF WRATH LIVY LUCAN (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus) LUCIAN OF SAMOSATA LUCUAS LYSANIAS LYSIAS LYSIMACHUS OF ALEXANDRIA MACROBIUS, AMBROSIUS MANETHO MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS MARIAMNE MARKAH MARSUS, C. VIBIUS MARTIAL MASTEMA MATTATHIAS MATTATHIAS BEN SIMEON MATTHIAS BEN THEOPHILUS MAXIMUS, MAGNUS CLEMENS MEGASTHENES MELEAGER OF GADARA MENAHEM THE ESSENE MENAHEM SON OF JUDAH MENANDER OF EPHESUS MENANDER OF LAODICEA MENELAUS MNASEAS OF PATARA MONOBAZ MUCIANUS, CAIUS LICINIUS MURASHUS SONS NERO NERVA NICANOR

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NICARCHUS NICHOLAS OF DAMASCUS NIGER OF PEREA NUMENIUS NUMENIUS OF APAMEA OBEDAS ODENATHUS AND ZENOBIA OENOMAUS OF GADARA ONIAS OVID PAUSANIAS PERSIUS PETRONIUS, PUBLIUS PETRONIUS ARBITER, GAIUS PHASAEL PHERORAS PHILIP OF BATHYRA PHILO (The Elder) PHILO OF BYBLOS PHILODEMUS PHILOSTRATUS PHINEHAS PHINEHAS BEN SAMUEL PLINY THE ELDER PLUTARCH POLEMON II POLEMON OF ILIUM POLYBIUS OF MEGALOPOLIS POMI(S), DE POMPEIUS TROGUS POMPEY (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) POMPONIUS MELA PONTIUS PILATE POPPAEA, SABINA PORPHYRY POSIDONIUS PSEUDO-LONGINUS PSEUDO-PHOCYLIDES PSEUDO-SCYLAX PTOLEMY PTOLEMY PTOLEMY PTOLEMY THE BIOGRAPHER PTOLEMY THE GEOGRAPHER PTOLEMY MACRON PTOLEMY OF CHENNOS PTOLEMY OF MENDE PYTHAGORAS QUADRATUS, UMMIDIUS CAIUS QUIETUS, LUSIUS QUINTILIAN (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus) QUINTILIUS VARUS QUIRINIUS, P. SULPICIUS ROMAN EMPERORS RUFUS OF SAMARIA RUTILIUS NAMATIANUS SABINUS SALOME SALOME ALEXANDRA SANBALLAT

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

SELEUCUS IV PHILOPATOR SENECA THE ELDER SENECA THE YOUNGER SEVERUS, ALEXANDER SEVERUS, SEPTIMIUS SEXTUS EMPIRICUS SHAPUR SILAS SILIUS ITALICUS, TIBERIUS CATIUS ASCONIUS SILVA, FLAVIUS SIMEON BEN BOETHUS SIMEON THE HASMONEAN SIMEON THE JUST SIMEON SON OF ONIAS I SOLINUS, CAIUS JULIUS SOSIUS, GAIUS STATIUS, PUBLIUS PAPINIUS STRABO SUETONIUS TACITUS TATTENAI TETRARCH TEUCER OF CYZICUS THALLUS THEMISTIUS THEODOSIUS THEODOSIUS I THEODOSIUS II THEODOSIUS OF ROME THEODOTUS THEOPHILUS THEOPHILUS THEOPHRASTUS OF ERESOS THEUDAS THRASYLLUS OF MENDES TIBERIUS JULIUS ALEXANDER TIBULLUS, ALBIUS TIMAGENES OF ALEXANDRIA TIMOCHARES TINNEIUS RUFUS TITANS TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS TOBIADS TRAJAN, MARCUS ULPIUS ULPIAN VALERIUS GRATUS VALERIUS MAXIMUS VARRO, MARCUS TERENTIUS VENTIDIUS, PUBLIUS (Bassus) VESPASIAN, TITUS FLAVIUS VIRGIL VITRUVIUS, POLLO WICKED PRIEST YANNAI, ALEXANDER ZADOK ZADOK THE PHARISEE ZAMARIS ZENODORUS ZOPYRION

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I. HISTORY (continued)

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 1. GENERAL HISTORY Main Entries

ANTISEMITISM COMMUNITY ECONOMIC HISTORY EDUCATION, JEWISH HISTORY WOMAN General Entries

ADVERTISING AGE AND THE AGED AGRICULTURE AGUDAT ISRAEL ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE AMENITIES, COMMUNAL ANTHROPOLOGY ANUSIM APOSTASY ARCHAEOLOGISTS ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS ARCHIVES ASSIMILATION AUTOGRAPHS AUTONOMISM AUTONOMY AUTONOMY, JUDICIAL AVELEI ZION BADGE, JEWISH BADHAN BANKING AND BANKERS BARBARIANS BARON DE HIRSCH FUND BATLANIM BEGGING AND BEGGARS BERLIN, CONGRESS OF BETH JACOB SCHOOLS BLACK DEATH BLINDNESS BOOKS BOOK TRADE BROKERS BUND CANDLE TAX CAPTIVES, RANSOMING OF CARDS AND CARDPLAYING CENSORSHIP CHARITY CHESS CHOLENT CHRONOLOGY CLASSICAL SCHOLARSHIP, JEWS IN COINS AND CURRENCY COMMUNISM COMMUNITY TOKENS

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CONFERENCES CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS COOKBOOKS COOPERATIVES COURT JEWS CRAFTS CRIME CRIMINOLOGY CRYPTO-JEWS DEMOGRAPHY DIAMOND TRADE AND INDUSTRY DISPUTATIONS AND POLEMICS DIVORCE DRESS DRUNKENNESS DYEING EDUCATION ELDER EMANCIPATION EPISCOPUS JUDAEORIUM EPITAPHS EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY, THE EXILARCH EXPULSIONS FAMILY FEDERATIONS OF COMMUNITIES, TERRITORIAL FINANCES, AUTONOMOUS JEWISH FLAG FOOD FORGERIES FOUNDATIONS FRANK, JACOB, AND THE FRANKISTS FRATERNAL SOCIETIES FREEMASONS FUR TRADE AND INDUSTRY GABBAI GALUT GAMES GENEALOGY GENIZAH GEOGRAPHY GHETTO GUILDS HAPSBURG MONARCHY HAREDIM HASKALAH HE-HALUTZ HEP! HEP! HERALDRY HEVRA (Havura) KADDISHA HEVRAH, HAVURAH HISTORIANS HISTORIOGRAPHY HOSPITALS HUMOR INFORMERS INQUISITION

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INSURANCE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF JEWISH COMMUNAL SERVICE JEWISH AGENCY JEWISH-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS JEWISH IDENTITY JEWISH QUARTER JEWISH TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY JOURNALISM JUDAISM JUDAIZERS LABOR LANDSMANNSCHAFTEN LAWYERS LEAGUE OF NATIONS LEATHER INDUSTRY AND TRADE LIBERALISM LIBRARIES LIVESTOCK, TRADE IN MACCABI WORLD UNION MAGEN DAVID MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW MAP MAKERS MEDINAH MEMORBUCH MENTAL ILLNESS MESSIANIC MOVEMENTS METALS AND MINING MIGRATIONS MILITARY SERVICE MINORITY RIGHTS MINTMASTERS AND MONEYERS MIXED MARRIAGE, INTERMARRIAGE MOTION PICTURES MUSEUMS NAMES NASI NEO-FASCISM NEO-NAZISM NEW LEFT NEWSPAPERS, HEBREW NUMERUS CLAUSUS NUMISMATICS OATH MORE JUDAICO OLYMPIC GAMES ORPHAN, ORPHANAGE ORT OZE (OSE) PARNAS PETROLEUM AND OIL PRODUCTS PHILANTHROPY PHILOSOPHY PINKAS PLETTEN POLITICS POPULATION PRESS PRINTING, HEBREW PROSTITUTION

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

PSYCHOLOGY PUBLIC RELATIONS PUBLISHING RADANIYA SALONS SAMBATYON SAN REMO CONFERENCE SCOUTING SEAL, SEALS SELF-DEFENSE SELF-HATRED, JEWISH SEPHARDIM SERVI CAMERAE REGIS SETTLEMENT HOUSES SHABBETAI ZEVI SHADKHAN SHELUHEI EREZ ISRAEL SHIPS AND SAILING SHTADLAN SHTETL SICK CARE, COMMUNAL SLAVE TRADE SOCIALISM SOCIALISM, JEWISH SOCIETIES, LEARNED SOCIOLOGY SPORTS STAMPS STUDENTS’ MOVEMENTS, JEWISH SUMPTUARY LAWS SYNAGOGUE TALMUD, BURNING OF TANZHAUS TAXATION TELEVISION AND RADIO TEN LOST TRIBES THEATER TITLES TITLES OF NOBILITY TRAVELERS AND EXPLORERS UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITIES VIENNA, CONGRESS OF VITAL STATISTICS WANDERING JEW WORLD CONFERENCE OF JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS WORLD JEWISH ASSOCIATIONS WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS WORLD SEPHARDI FEDERATION WRITING YIHUS a. Antisemitism Main Surveys

ANTISEMITISM General Entries

BLOOD LIBEL BOYCOTT, ANTI-JEWISH

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 1. General History a. Antisemitism General Entries (continued) DISCRIMINATION ELDERS OF ZION, PROTOCOLS OF THE LEARNED HOST, DESECRATION OF NARA NEO-NAZISM NUMERUS CLAUSUS OZON RACE, THEORY OF ROZWOJ STUERMER, DER

SKARGA, PIOTR STOECKER, ADOLF SZALASI, FERENC VALLAT, XAVIER VOGELSANG, KARL VON b. Demography Main Surveys

DEMOGRAPHY MIGRATIONS MIXED MARRIAGE, INTERMARRIAGE POPULATION STATISTICS VITAL STATISTICS c. Economic History Main Surveys

Biographies

ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA CARBEN, VICTOR VON CHIARINI, LUIGI CHRISTIANI, PABLO CODREANU, CORNELIU ZELEA COSTA DE MATTOS, VICENTE DA CUZA, ALEXANDER C. DARQUIER DE PELLEPOIX, LOUIS DAUDET, LEON DECKERT, JOSEPH DLUGOSZ, JAN DRUMONT, EDOUARD-ADOLPHE EISENMENGER, JOHANN ANDREAS ENDLICH, QUIRIN ENDRE, LASZLO ESTE, JOÃO BAPTISTA DE FARINACCI, ROBERTO FETTMILCH, VINCENT FOLIGNO, HANANEL (DA) FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH FRITSCH, THEODOR GHILLANY, FRIEDRICH WILHELM GOUGENOT DES MOUSSEAUX, HENRI GRAES, ORTWIN VAN DE GRATTENAUER, KARL WILHELM FRIEDRICH HUNDT-RADOWSKY, HARTWIG VON IGNATYEV, COUNT NIKOLAI PAVLOVICH ISTOCZY, GYOZO JELENSKI, JAN LAGARDE, PAUL ANTON DE LUEGER, KARL LUTOSTANSKI, HYPPOLITE MARR, WILHELM MAURRAS, CHARLES MICZYNSKI, SEBASTIAN MOJECKI, PRZECLAW ONODY, GEZA PREZIOSI, GIOVANNI PROUDHON, PIERRE JOSEPH ROHLING, AUGUST SCHOENERER, GEORG VON SESSA, KARL BORROMAEUS ALEXANDER

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ECONOMIC HISTORY General Entries

ADVERTISING BANKING AND BANKERS BEGGING AND BEGGARS BOOK TRADE BROKERS CANDLE TAX CHEMICAL CRAFTS AND INDUSTRIES CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS COOPERATIVES COURT JEWS CRAFTS DEPARTMENT STORES DIAMOND TRADE AND INDUSTRY DYEING FINANCES, AUTONOMOUS JEWISH FOUNDATIONS FUR TRADE AND INDUSTRY GLASS GUILDS INSURANCE LABOR LEATHER INDUSTRY AND TRADE LIVESTOCK, TRADE IN MARKET DAYS AND FAIRS METALS AND MINING MONEYLENDING PEDDLING PETROLEUM AND OIL PRODUCTS PUBLIC RELATIONS PUBLISHING RAILROADS SALT TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECONDHAND GOODS AND OLD CLOTHES, TRADE IN SPICE TRADE STOCK EXCHANGES SUGAR INDUSTRY AND TRADE TAILORING TAXATION

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TEXTILES TOBACCO TRADE AND INDUSTRIES TRADE AND COMMERCE WINE AND LIQUOR TRADE

ZIONISM

WIZO YOUTH ALIYAH Z.S. (Zionist Socialists) ZEIREI ZION ZIONIST COMMISSION ZIONIST CONGRESSES ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA (Z.O.A.) ZIONIST SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY (S.S.)

General Entries

Biographies

BALFOUR DECLARATION BASLE PROGRAM BENEI MOSHE BERIHAH BETAR BILTMORE PROGRAM BILU BLAU-WEISS BNEI AKIVA DEMOCRATIC FRACTION, EMUNAH FARBAND GENERAL ZIONISTS GORDONIA HA-NOAR HA-IVRI-AKIBA HAOLAM HA-POEL HA-MIZRACHI HA-SHAHAR HA-SHOMER HA-ZAIR HA-TIKVAH HE-HALUTZ HE-HAVER HELSINGFORS PROGRAM HIBBAT ZION IHUD HABONIM JEWISH AGENCY JEWISH COLONIAL TRUST JEWISH COLONIZATION ASSOCIATION JEWISH NATIONAL FUND JEWISH STATE PARTY JUEDISCHER VERLAG KATTOWITZ CONFERENCE KEREN HAYESOD KHARKOV CONFERENCE LANGUAGE WAR (SPRACHENKAMPF) MAURITIUS MINSK CONFERENCE MIZRACHI ODESSA COMMITTEE PETROGRAD CONFERENCE POALEI ZION REVISIONISTS, ZIONIST SAN REMO CONFERENCE SELBSTEMANZIPATION SYKES-PICOT TREATY TERRITORIALISM TORAH VA-AVODAH UGANDA SCHEME VATICAN WELT, DIE

ABELES, OTTO AHAD HA-AM ALKALAI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON HAI ALLOUCHE, FELIX NISSIM SAIDOU BARUCH, JOSEPH MARCOU BATO, LUDWIG YOMTOV BEIN, ALEXANDER BEN-YEHUDA, ELIEZER BERLIAND, SHLOMO MEIR BERNSTEIN-KOGAN (Cohen), JACOB BIERER, RUBIN BIRNBAUM, NATHAN BLUMEL, ANDRE BLUMENFELD, KURT YEHUDAH BODENHEIMER, MAX ISIDOR BOEHM, ADOLF BOROCHOV, BER (Dov) BRANDT, BORIS (Baruch) BRODETSKY, SELIG BRUCK, GRIGORI BUCHMIL, JOSHUA HESHEL BUXBAUM, NATHAN CARPI, LEONE CHASANOWICH, JOSEPH CHASANOWICH, LEON COHEN, ISAAC KADMI COHEN, ISRAEL COWEN, JOSEPH DE LIEME, NEHEMIA DEEDES, SIR WYNDHAM DON-YAHIA, YEHUDAH LEIB DUGDALE, BLANCHE ELIZABETH CAMPBELL EDELSTEIN, JACOB EDER, MONTAGUE DAVID EHRLICH, JACOB EISLER, EDMUND MENAHEM ELIASBERG, MORDECAI FARBSTEIN, DAVID ZEVI FASTLICHT, ADOLFO FEIWEL, BERTHOLD FINKELSTEIN, CHAIM FINKELSTEIN, NOAH FISCHER, JEAN FITCH, LOUIS FRIEDEMANN, ADOLF FRIEDMANN, DESIDER FRISCH, DANIEL GASTER, MOSES GELBER, NATHAN MICHAEL GELLMAN, LEON

d. Zionism Main Surveys

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 1. General History d. Zionism Biographies (continued) GESANG, NATHAN-NACHMAN GOLDBERG, BORIS GOLD BERG, ISAAC LEIB GOLDBLOOM, JACOB KOPPEL GOLDHAMMER-SAHAWI, LEO GOLDMAN, PAUL L. GOLDMANN, NAHUM GOLDSTEIN, ALEXANDER GOLDSTEIN, ANGELO GOODMAN, PAUL GORDON, AHARON DAVID GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV GOTTLIEB, YEHOSHUA GREENBERG, HAYYIM GREENBERG, LEOPOLD JACOB GROSS, NATHAN GROSSMAN, MEIR GRUENBAUM, YIZHAK GRUNBERG, ABRAHAM HALPRIN, ROSE LURIA HANTKE, ARTHUR (Menahem) HARKAVI, YIZHAK HARTGLAS, MAXIMILIAN MEIR APOLINARY HECHLER, WILLIAM HENRY HELLMAN, JACOB HERBST, KARL HERLITZ, GEORG HERMANN, LEO HERRMANN, HUGO HERZL, THEODOR HESS, MOSES HICKL, MAX HODESS, JACOB HOFFMANN, JACOB HORODISCHTSCH, LEON IDELSON, ABRAHAM ISH-KISHOR, EPHRAIM JABOTINSKY, VLADIMIR (Ze’ev) JACOBSON, VICTOR JAFFE, BEZALEL JAFFE, LEIB JARBLUM, MARC JASINOWSKI, ISRAEL ISIDORE KAHN, FRANZ KALEF, YEHOSHUA KALISCHER, ZEVI HIRSCH KATZENELSON, NISSAN KATZNELSON, BERL (Beeri) KESSLER, LEOPOLD KIRSHBLUM, MORDECAI KISCH, FREDERICK HERMANN KITRON (KOSTRINSKY), MOSHE KLARMAN, YOSEF KLEE, ALFRED

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KLUMEL, MEIR KOKESCH, OZER KOMOLY, OTTO KORKIS, ABRAHAM ADOLF LANDAU, SAUL RAPHAEL LANDAU, SHEMUEL HAYYIM LANDAUER, GEORG LEVIN, SHMARYA LEWINSKY, ELHANAN LEIB LEWITE, LEON LICHT, ALEXANDER LICHTHEIM, RICHARD LINDHEIM, IRMA LEVY LIPSKY, LOUIS LOEWE, HEINRICH (Eliakim) MACCOBY, HAYYIM ZUNDEL MANDELSTAMM, MAX EMMANUEL MARMOREK, ALEXANDER MOTZKIN, LEO (Aryeh Leib) NATONEK, JOSEPH NEUMANN, EMANUEL NEWLINSKI, PHILIPP MICHAEL NISSENBAUM, ISAAC NORDAU, MAX NUROCK, MORDECHAI PASMANIK, DANIEL PINSKER, LEON (Judah Leib) REICH, LEON REVUSKY, ABRAHAM RINGEL, MICHAEL ROMANO, MARCO RONAI, JANOS ROTENSTREICH, FISCHEL RUFEISEN, JOSEPH RUPPIN, ARTHUR SACHER, HARRY SALZ, ABRAHAM ADOLPH SCHACH, FABIUS SCHACHTEL, HUGO-HILLEL SCHALIT, ISIDOR SCHAPIRA, HERMANN (Zevi-Hirsch) SCHECHTMAN, JOSEPH B. SCHENK, FAYE L. SCHLESINGER, AKIVA JOSEPH SCHLOESSINGER, MAX SCHOENFELD, JOSEPH SCHOOLMAN, BERTHA S. SCHWARZBART, ISAAC IGNACY SHRAGAI, SHLOMO ZALMAN SHREIER, FEIWEL SILVER, ABBA HILLEL SIMON, JULIUS SIMON, SIR LEON SOKOLOW, NAHUM SOMMERSTEIN, EMIL STAND, ADOLF STEINER, HANNAH STRICKER, ROBERT SYKES, SIR MARK SYRKIN, NACHMAN

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TAUBES, LOEBEL THON, OSIAS (Jehoshua) TIOMKIN, VLADIMIR (Ze’ev) TORCZYNER, JACQUES TRIETSCH, DAVIS TSCHLENOW, JEHIEL (Yefim Vladimirovich) USSISHKIN, ABRAHAM MENAHEM MENDEL VAN VRIESLAND, SIEGFRIED ADOLF (Zadok) WARBURG, OTTO WEISGAL, MEYER WOLF WEIZMANN, CHAIM WELTSCH, ROBERT WERNER, SIEGMUND WILENSKY, YEHUDAH LEIB NISAN WOLFFSOHN, DAVID WORLD LABOR ZIONIST MOVEMENT WORTSMAN, YECHESKIEL CHARLES YOFFE, ALTER ZIPPER, GERSHON ZISSU, ABRAHAM LEIB ZLATOPOLSKY, HILLEL ZLOCISTI, THEODOR ZUCKERMAN, BARUCH

2. REGIONAL HISTORY a. Israel, Land and State of Main Surveys

ISRAEL, LAND OF ISRAEL, LAND OF – CLIMATE ISRAEL, LAND OF – FLORA AND FAUNA ISRAEL, LAND OF – GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY ISRAEL, LAND OF – GEOLOGY ISRAEL, LAND OF – HISTORY ISRAEL, LAND OF – PHYSIOGRAPHY ISRAEL, STATE OF – ALIYAH, ABSORPTION AND SETTLEMENT ISRAEL, STATE OF – ARAB POPULATION ISRAEL, STATE OF – CULTURAL LIFE ISRAEL, STATE OF – DEFENSE FORCES ISRAEL, STATE OF – ECONOMIC AFFAIRS ISRAEL, STATE OF – EDUCATION ISRAEL, STATE OF – GOVERNANCE ISRAEL, STATE OF – HEALTH ISRAEL, STATE OF – HISTORICAL SURVEY ISRAEL, STATE OF – HUMAN GEOGRAPHY ISRAEL, STATE OF – LABOR ISRAEL, STATE OF – LEGAL AND JUDICIAL SYSTEM ISRAEL, STATE OF – POLITICAL LIFE AND PARTIES ISRAEL, STATE OF – POPULATION ISRAEL, STATE OF – RELIGIOUS LIFE AND COMMUNITIES ISRAEL, STATE OF – WELFARE AND SOCIAL SECURITY General Entries

AGRICULTURE AISH HATORAH ALIYAH

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ARCHAEOLOGISTS ARCHAEOLOGY ARCHIPHERECITES ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS ARMISTICE AGREEMENTS, ISRAEL-ARAB ART BI-NATIONALISM COINS AND CURRENCY COMMUNITY TOKENS COOPERATIVES CRIME CRUSADES DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, ISRAEL DEW EARTHQUAKE ENTEBBE RAID EREZ ISRAEL FLAG GULF WAR HALUKKAH HAMAS HA-TIKVAH HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR PALESTINE HIZBOLLAH HOLY PLACES HOREV COMMISSION ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION INDEPENDENCE DAY, ISRAEL INTIFADA ISRAEL PRIZE ITINERARIES OF EREZ ISRAEL ITINERARIUM ANTONINI ITINERARIUM HIEROSOLYMITANUM or ITINERARIUM BURDIGALENSE KAHAN COMMISSION KIBBUTZ FESTIVALS KNESSET LAVON AFFAIR LEBANON WAR MABARAH MACCABIAH MANDATE FOR PALESTINE MAPS OF EREZ ISRAEL MOSHAV MOSHAV SHITTUFI NATIONAL PARKS IN ISRAEL NATURE RESERVES IN ISRAEL NEW LEFT OLEI HA-GARDOM PALESTINE PALESTINE, INQUIRY COMMISSIONS PALESTINE, PARTITION AND PARTITION PLANS PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY PATRIA PILGRIMAGE PRESIDENT OF ISRAEL PROJECT RENEWAL RISHON LE-ZION SAINT JAMES CONFERENCE

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of General Entries (continued) SALT SHEKEL SHELUHEI EREZ ISRAEL SINAI CAMPAIGN SIX-DAY WAR STOCKADE AND WATCHTOWER SYKES-PICOT TREATY TEMPLERS TRAVELERS AND TRAVELS TO EREZ ISRAEL UNSCOP VANUNU AFFAIR WAR OF INDEPENDENCE WHITE PAPERS YOM HA-ZIKKARON YOM KIPPUR WAR Flora and Fauna

ACACIA ALGUM ALMOND ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE AND TALMUD ANT ANTELOPE APPLE ASS BALSAM BARLEY BAT BEANS BEAR BEE BEET BITTERN (Heron) BOX BROOM BUFFALO BUZZARD CABBAGE CALAMUS, SWEET CAMEL CAPER CAROB CASTOR-OIL PLANT CAT CATTLE CEDAR CENTIPEDE CHAMELEON CINNAMON CITRUS CORAL CORIANDER COTTON CRANE

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CRIMSON WORM CROCODILE CUCUMBER CUMIN CYPRESS DEER DOG DOVE DYE PLANTS EAGLE EBONY ELEPHANT FENNEL FIG FLAX FLEA FLOWERS FLY FOX FRANKINCENSE FROG GALBANUM GARLIC GAZELLE GECKO GNAT GOAT GOOSE GOURD GULL HARE HAWK HEMLOCK HEMP HERBS, MEDICINAL HONEY HOOPOE HORNET HORSE HYENA HYRAX HYSSOP IBEX IVORY IVY JACKAL JUJUBE JUNIPER KITE LAUDANUM LEECH LEEK LEGUMES LENTIL LEOPARD LETTUCE LEVIATHAN LION LIZARD LOCUST

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LOUSE MALLOW MANDRAKE MASTIC MELON MILKWEED MILLET MOLE MONITOR MOTH MOUSE MULBERRY MULE MUSHROOMS MUSTARD MYRRH MYRTLE NIGHTINGALE NUT OAK OLEANDER OLIVE ONAGER ONION ORACH OSTRICH OWL PALM PAPYRUS PARTRIDGE PEACH PEACOCK PEAR PELICAN PEPPER PHEASANT PIG PINE PISTACHIO PLANE TREE PLANTS PLUM POMEGRANATE POPLAR QUAIL QUINCE RADISH RAT RAVEN REED RICE ROCKET ROSE SAFFRON SCORPION SHEEP SILK SKINK SNAKE SORGHUM

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SPARROW SPICES SPIDER SPIKENARD SQUILL STORAX STORK SUMAC SWIFT SYCAMORE TAHASH TAMARISK TARES TEREBINTH THISTLES AND THORNS TORTOISE TRAGACANTH TURTLE DOVE VEGETABLES VINE VULTURES WEEDS WHEAT WILD BULL WILLOW WOLF WORM WORMWOOD Places

ABU AWEIGILA ABU GHOSH ADULLAM REGION AIJALON ARABAH ARBEL AVELIM or OVELIM BANIAS BASHAN BET NETOFAH BETHAR CARMEL, MOUNT DEAD SEA EN-DOR GERIZIM, MOUNT GESHER BENOT YAAKOV GILBOA GINNOSAR, PLAIN OF HAMMAT-GADER (Geder) HAMMATH (Tiberias) HECHAL SHLOMO HEFER PLAIN HERMON, MOUNT HULEH VALLEY JABBOK JEZREEL, VALLEY OF JORDAN JOTABAH KINNAROT, VALLEY OF KINNERET, LAKE

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Places (continued) KISHON LATRUN MAALEH AKRABBIM MACHPELAH, CAVE OF MEIR BAAL HA-NES, TOMB OF MIKVEH ISRAEL MOUNT OF OLIVES NEGEV ONO RAIN RAMAT HA-GOLAN RED SEA SHEPHELAH SINAI SODOM AND GOMORRAH SOREK, VALLEY OF TABOR, MOUNT TIMNA WESTERN WALL YARKON YARMUK ZION Communities

ABU GHOSH ACRE ADAMIT AFIKIM AFULAH ALFEI MENASHE ALLONEI ABBA ALLONEI YIZHAK ALLONIM ALMAGOR ALMAH ALUMMOT AMAZYAH AMIR AMIRIM AMMIAD AMMINADAV ANATHOTH APHEK APOLLONIA ARA ARABA ARAD ARARA ARIEL ARRABA ARTAS ASHDOD ASHDOT YAAKOV ASHKELON

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ATAROT ATHLIT AVIGDOR AVIHAYIL AYANOT AYYELET HA-SHAHAR AZOR BALFOURIYYAH BAQA AL-GHARBIYYA; BAQA AL-SHARQIYYA BARKAI BAT HEFER BAT SHELOMO BAT YAM BEERI BEER ORAH BEEROT YIZHAK BEERSHEBA BEER TOVIYYAH BEER YAAKOV BEIT JANN BEIT JIMAL BEN SHEMEN BENE-BERAK BENEI AISH BENEI DAROM BENEI DEROR BENEI ZION BEROR HAYIL BET ALFA BET(H)-ARABAH BET(H)-DAGON BET(H)-EL BET ESHEL BET GUVRIN BET HA-EMEK BET HALEVI BET HANAN BETHANY BET HERUT BET HILLEL BETHLEHEM BET (Bayt) IKSA BET KESHET BET(H) LEHEM (Ha-Gelilit) BET MEIR BET NEHEMYAH BET OREN BET OVED BET(H)-SHEAN BET SHEARIM BET(H)-SHEMESH BET(H)-SHITTAH BET YANNAI BET YEHOSHUA BET YERAH BET YIZHAK BET YOSEF BET ZAYIT BET ZERA BINYAMINAH

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BIRANIT BIRIYYAH BITAN AHARON BIZZARON BOZRAH CAESAREA DABBURIYYA DAFNAH DALIYAT AL-KARMIL DALIYYAH DALTON DAN DEGANYAH DEIR AL-BALAH DIMONAH DOBRATH DOR DOROT EFRAT EILAT EILON EILOT EIN FASHKHAH EIN GEV EIN HA-EMEK EIN HA-HORESH EIN HA-MIFRAZ EIN HA-NAZIV EIN HA-SHELOSHAH EIN HA-SHOFET EIN HOD EIN IRON EIN KEREM EIN SHEMER EIN VERED EIN YAHAV EIN ZEITIM EIN ZURIM ELAD ELATH ELYASHIV EMMAUS EN-GEDI EN-HAROD ESHTAOL ESHTEMOA EVEN YEHUDAH EVEN YIZHAK EVRON EYAL FASSUTA FURAYDIS, ALGA’ATON GALILEE GALON GAN HAYYIM GANNEI TIKVAH GANNEI YEHUDAH GAN SHELOMO GAN SHEMUEL

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GAN SHOMRON GAN YAVNEH GAT GAZIT GEDERAH GELIL YAM GESHER GESHER HA-ZIV GEULEI TEIMAN GEULIM GEVA GEVARAM GEVAT GEVIM GEVULOT GEZER GIBBETHON GINNEGAR GINNOSAR GISCALA GIVAT ADA GIVATAYIM GIVAT BRENNER GIVAT HA-SHELOSHAH GIVAT HAYYIM GIVAT HEN GIVAT SHMUEL GIVAT ZE’EV GOFNAH GUSH ETZYON GUSH KATIF HA-BONIM HADERAH HADID HAFEZ HAYYIM HA-GOSHERIM HAIFA HALHUL HAMADYAH HA-MAPIL HANITAH HA-OGEN HA-ON HAREL HA-SOLELIM HAZER, HAZERIM HAZEVAH HAZOR (ha-Gelilit) HAZOR ASHDOD HA-ZORE’A HA-ZORE’IM HEBRON HEFZI BAH HELEZ HEREV LE-ET HERUT HERZLIYYAH HIBBAT ZION HOD HA-SHARON HOGLAH

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Communities (continued) HOLON HUKOK HULATAH HULDAH HULEH HURFAYSH ILANIYYAH JABNEEL JAFFA JENIN JERICHO JERUSALEM JERUSALEM, LEGAL ASPECTS JOKNEAM JOTAPATA KABRI KADIMAH KAFR KAMA KAFR QASIM KARMIEL KARMIYYAH KARNEI SHOMRON KAZIR HARISH KAZRIN KEFAR AZAR KEFAR BARAM KEFAR BARUKH KEFAR BIALIK KEFAR BILU KEFAR BLUM KEFAR DAROM KEFAR EZYON KEFAR GAMALA KEFAR GIDEON KEFAR GILADI KEFAR GLICKSON KEFAR HABAD KEFAR HA-HORESH KEFAR HA-MACCABI KEFAR HANANYAH KEFAR HA-NASI KEFAR HA-RO’EH KEFAR HASIDIM KEFAR HATTIN KEFAR HAYYIM KEFAR HESS KEFAR HITTIM KEFAR JAWITZ KEFAR KANNA KEFAR KISCH KEFAR MALAL KEFAR MANDI KEFAR MASARYK KEFAR MENAHEM

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KEFAR MONASH KEFAR MORDEKHAI KEFAR NETTER KEFAR PINES KEFAR ROSH HA-NIKRAH KEFAR RUPPIN KEFAR SAVA KEFAR SHEMARYAHU KEFAR SYRKIN KEFAR SZOLD KEFAR TAVOR KEFAR TRUMAN KEFAR URIYYAH KEFAR VITKIN KEFAR VRADIM KEFAR WARBURG KEFAR YASIF KEFAR YEHEZKEL KEFAR YEHOSHUA KEFAR YONAH KHAN YUNIS KINNERET KINNERET KIR HARESETH KIRYAT ANAVIM KIRYAT ATA KIRYAT BIALIK KIRYAT EKRON KIRYAT GAT KIRYAT-HAROSHET KIRYAT MALAKHI KIRYAT MOTZKIN KIRYAT ONO KIRYAT SHEMONAH KIRYAT TIVON KIRYAT YAM KISSUFIM KOKHAV YAIR LACHISH REGION LAHAVOT HA-BASHAN LAVI LEHAVIM LOHAMEI HA-GETTAOT LYDDA MA’AGAN MIKHAEL MA’ALE ADUMIM MA’ALEH HA-HAMISHAH MA’ALOT TARSHIHA MA’ANIT MA’AS MA’BAROT MAGHAR, ALMAHANAYIM MAJDAL AL-SHAMS MAJD AL-KURUM MAKKABIM-RE’UT MANARAH MA’OZ HAYYIM MASSADAH MASSUOT YIZHAK

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MA’YAN BARUKH MA’YAN ZEVI MAZKERET BATYAH MAZLI’AH MEI AMMI ME’IR SHEFEYAH MEITAR MENAHEMIYYA MERHAVYAH MERON MESILLAT ZION MESILLOT METULLAH MEVASSERET ZION MIGDAL MIGDAL HA-EMEK MI’ILYA MIKHMORET MISGAV AM MISHMAR HA-EMEK MISHMAR HA-NEGEV MISHMAR HA-SHARON MISHMAR HA-YARDEN MISHMAROT MIZPAH MIZPEH RAMON MIZRA MODI’IN MOLEDET MOZA, (HA-) MOZAH NA’AN NABLUS NAHALAL NAHALAT YEHUDAH NAHAL OZ NAHARIYYAH NAVEH NAZARETH NEGBAH NEHALIM NEHORAH NE’OT MORDEKHAI NESHER NES ZIYYONAH NETA’IM NETANYAH NETIV HA-LAMED-HE NETIVOT NEVATIM NEVEH EITAN NEVEH YAM NEZER SERENI NIR AM NIR DAVID NIR EZYON NIRIM NIZZANAH NIZZANIM OFAKIM OMER

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OR AKIVA ORANIT OR HA-NER OROT OR YEHUDAH PARDES HANNAH-KARKUR PARDESIYYAH PEKI’IN PETAH TIKVAH PORIYYAH QUNAYTIRA, ALRA’ANANNAH RAFA RAMA, ALRAMALLAH RAMAT DAVID RAMAT GAN RAMAT HA-KOVESH RAMAT HA-SHARON RAMAT HA-SHOFET RAMAT RAHEL RAMAT RAZIEL RAMAT YISHAI RAMAT YOHANAN RAMAT ZEVI RAMLEH RAMOT HA-SHAVIM RAMOT MENASHEH RAMOT NAFTALI REGAVIM REGBAH REHOVOT REKHASIM REVADIM REVIVIM RIHANIYYA, ALRISHON LE-ZION RISHPON ROSH HA-AYIN ROSH PINNAH RUHAMAH SA’AD SAFED SALCHAH SARID SASA SAVYON SEDEH BOKER SEDEH ELIYAHU SEDEH NAHUM SEDEH NEHEMYAH SEDEH WARBURG SEDEH YAAKOV SEDEROT SEDOT YAM SHAALBIM SHA’AREI TIKVAH SHAAR HA-AMAKIM SHA’AR HA-GOLAN SHADMOT DEVORAH

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Communities (continued) SHAMIR SHARONAH SHAVEI ZION SHE’AR YASHUV SHEFARAM SHEFAYIM SHELOMI SHELUHOT SHIVTAH SHOHAM SHOMRAT SHORESH SHOVAL SHUNEM SIKHNIN SUSITA TAANACH TAL SHAHAR TAYYIBA, ALTEKOA TEKUMAH TEL ADASHIM TEL AVIV-JAFFA TEL HAI TEL KAZIR TEL MOND TEL YIZHAK TEL YOSEF THEBEZ TIBERIAS TIRA, ALTIRAT HA-CARMEL TIRAT ZEVI TIVON TUL KARM UDIM URIM USHA USIFIYYA YAD HANNAH YAD MORDEKHAI YAGUR YAKUM YAMMIT REGION YARDENAH YARKONAH YAVNEH YAVNEH YEDIDYAH YEHI’AM YEHUD YEROHAM YESODOT YESUD HA-MA’ALAH

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YIZREEL YOTVATAH ZAREPHATH ZIKHRON YAAKOV ZOFIT ZORAH ZORAN ZUR MOSHE ZUR YIGAL Organizations

AHDUT HA-AVODAH AHDUT HA-AVODAH-POALEI ZION AMIDAR A.S.A. BAR-ILAN UNIVERSITY BENEI BINYAMIN BEN-GURION UNIVERSITY OF THE NEGEV BEN-ZVI INSTITUTE BERIT HA-BIRYONIM BERIT SHALOM BETH HATEFUTSOTH BEZALEL BILU BNEI AKIVA CAMERI CANAANITES DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT FOR CHANGE EGGED EL AL ELITZUR EL-YAM EMUNAH EZ HAYYIM FARMERS FEDERATION OF ISRAEL FRIENDSHIP LEAGUES WITH ISRAEL GADNA GAHAL GEDUD HA-AVODAH GHETTO FIGHTER’S HOUSE GUSH EMUNIM HABIMAH HAGANAH HAIFA, UNIVERSITY OF HAIFA MUNICIPAL THEATER HA-KIBBUTZ HA-ARZI HA-SHOMER HA-ZAIR HA-KIBBUTZ HA-DATI HA-KIBBUTZ HA-MEUHAD HAMASHBIR HAMERKAZI HA-NO’AR HA-OVED VE-HA-LOMED HA-OVED HA-ZIYYONI HAPOEL HA-POEL HA-MIZRACHI HA-POEL HA-ZAIR HA-SHOMER HA-TENU’AH LE-MA’AN EREZ ISRAEL HASHELEMAH HEBREW UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM HERUT MOVEMENT HEVRAT HA-OVEDIM

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HIEROSOLYMITANISCHE STIFTUNG HISTADRUT HISTADRUT HA-OVEDIM HA-LE’UMMIT HITAHDUT IHUD HA-KEVUZOT VE-HA-KIBBUTZIM INDEPENDENT LIBERAL PARTY IRGUN ZEVAI LEUMMI ISRAEL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES ISRAEL CHAMBER ORCHESTRA ISRAEL EXPLORATION SOCIETY ISRAEL LABOR PARTY ISRAEL MUSEUM ISRAEL PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA JERUSALEM INSTITUTE FOR ISRAEL STUDIES JERUSALEM PUBLISHING HOUSE, THE JEWISH AGENCY JEWISH BRIGADE GROUP JEWISH LEGION KACH KADOORIE KETER PUBLISHING HOUSE KIBBUTZ MOVEMENT LEO BAECK INSTITUTE LIBRARY, JEWISH NATIONAL AND UNIVERSITY LIKUD LOHAMEI HERUT ISRAEL (Lehi) MACCABI MAGEN DAVID ADOM MAHAL MALBEN MAPAI MAPAM MEKOROT WATER COMPANY MERETZ MO’EZET HA-PO’ALOT NAHAL NATIONAL RELIGIOUS PARTY NETUREI KARTA NILI OHEL PALESTINE ECONOMIC CORPORATION PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND PALESTINE OFFICE PALMAH PEACE MOVEMENTS, RELIGIOUS PEACE NOW PEEL COMMISSION PICA PO’ALEI AGUDAT ISRAEL RAFI ROCKEFELLER MUSEUM SCHECHTER INSTITUTE OF JEWISH STUDIES, THE SCHOCKEN INSTITUTE SHAS SHINUI SOLEL BONEH TAHAL TARBUT TEACHERS ASSOCIATION IN ISRAEL TECHNION, ISRAEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY TNUVA TSOMET ULPAN VA’AD HA-PEKIDIM VE-HA-AMARKALIM VA’AD LE’UMMI VA’AD PEKIDEI EREZ ISRAEL BE-KUSHTA WEIZMANN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE WRITERS ASSOCIATION IN ISRAEL YAD VASHEM ZIM Publications

AHDUT HA-AVODAH AL HA-MISHMAR BUSTENAI DAVAR DO’AR HA-YOM DVIR GILYONOT GLOBES GOLDENE KEYT, DI HAARETZ HA-BOKER HA-LEVANON HA-MODI’A HA-PO’EL HA-ZA’IR HAVAZZELET HA-ZOFEH JERUSALEM POST JERUSALEM REPORT MAARIV TARBIZ UJ KELET YATED NEEMAN YEDIOTH AHARONOTH Biographies

Academic Life ADAR, ZVI AHARONI, YOHANAN ALCALAY, REUVEN ALLON, GEDALYA AMIR, MENACHEM AMIRAN, DAVID amitsur, samson abraham ANKORI, ZEVI ARIELI, YEHOSHUA ARNON, ABRAHAM ARUSI, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES HA-LEVI ASHTOR, ELIYAHU AUERBACH, ELIAS AUMMANN, ROBERT J. AVIGAD, NAHMAN AVINERI, SHLOMO AVINERI, YITZHAK AVIRAM, JOSEPH AVITZUR, SHMUEL AVI-YONAH, MICHAEL AVRUNIN, ABRAHAM

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Biographies

Academic Life (continued) AYALON, DAVID BACHI, ROBERTO BAER, GABRIEL BAER, YITZHAK BANETH BAR-DAROMA, HAYYIM ZE’EV BAR-HILLEL, YEHOSHUA BAR-YOSEF, OFER BAUER, YEHUDA BEIN, ALEXANDER BEINART, HAIM BEIT-HALLAHMI, BENJAMIN BEN-ARIEH, YEHOSHUA BENAYAHU, MEIR BEN-DAVID, JOSEPH BEN-DOR, IMMANUEL BEN HAYYIM, ZE’EV BEN-SASSON, HAIM HILLEL BEN-SHAKHAR, GERSHON BENTWICH BENVENISTI, DAVID BEN-YEHUDA, ELIEZER BEN-YEHUDAH, BARUKH BERGER-BARZILAI, JOSEPH BERGMAN, SAMUEL HUGO BERGMANN, JUDAH BIALOBLOCKI, SAMUEL SHERAGA BILLIG, LEVI BIRAN, AVRAHAM BLAU, JOSHUA BLEJER, MARIO ISRAEL BONDY, RUTH BONFIL, ROBERT BONNE, ALFRED ABRAHAM BRASLAVI (Braslavski), JOSEPH BRAVERMAN, AVISHAY BRAWER, ABRAHAM JACOB BRAWER, MOSHE BRINKER, MENACHEM CHOURAQUI, ANDRE CHURGIN, PINKHOS CONFINO, MICHAEL CORCOS, DAVID DALESKI, HILLEL DAN, JOSEPH DAVID D’BETH HILLEL DE VRIES, BENJAMIN DIAMANT, PAUL JOSEPH DINUR, BENZION DORON, ABRAHAM DOTAN, ARON DOTHAN, MOSHE DOTHAN, TRUDE

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DRAPKIN, ABRAHAM DRAPKIN, ISRAEL DVORZETSKY, MARK MEIR EISENSTADT, SAMUEL NOAH ELON, AMOS ELON, MENACHEM EPSTEIN, CLAIRE EPSTEIN, JACOB NAHUM ESTORI (ISAAC BEN MOSES) HA-PARHI ETTINGER, SHMUEL ETZIONI, AMITAI WERNER EVEN SHEMUEL, JUDAH EVEN-SHOSHAN, AVRAHAM FAITLOVITCH, JACQUES FEINBERG, NATHAN FEUERSTEIN, REUVEN FINKELSTEIN, ISRAEL FISH, HAREL (HAROLD) FRANKEL, YA’AKOV FRANKENSTEIN, CARL FREIMANN, ABRAHAM HAYYIM (Alfred) FRIEDLAENDER, SAUL FRIEDMAN, SHAMMA FRIEDMANN, DANIEL FUKS, ALEXANDER FUNKENSTEIN, AMOS GAON, MOSES DAVID GARTNER, LLOYD P. GAVISON, RUTH GOITEIN, SHLOMO DOV (Fritz) GOLDMAN, ELIEZER GOLDSCHMIDT, ERNST DANIEL GOPHNA, RAM GOSHEN-GOTTSTEIN, MOSHE GOTTLIEB, EPHRAIM GRAJEWSKY, PINCHAS GRANOTT, ABRAHAM (Granovsky) GROSSMAN, AVRAHAM GULAK, ASHER GUTMAN, ISRAEL GUTMANN, JOSHUA HABERMANN, ABRAHAM MEIR HADDAD, EZRA HAKHAM, SIMON HALPERN, ISRAEL HARAN, MENAHEM HAREL, MENASHEH HEINEMANN, YIZHAK HELD, MOSHE HELFMAN, ELHANAN HERLITZ, GEORG HEYD, URIEL HIRSCHBERG, HAIM ZEW HOROWITZ, ISRAEL ZEEV IDEL, MOSHE KADDARI, MENAHEM ZEVI KAHANA, ABRAHAM KAHANE, ISAAK (Yizhak Ze’ev) KAHNEMAN, DANIEL KATZ, ELIHU

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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KATZ, ISRAEL KATZ, JACOB KAUFMANN, YEHEZKEL KAZNELSON, SIEGMUND KEMPINSKY, AHARON KIEL, YEHUDA KISTER, MEIR J. KLAR, BENJAMIN MENAHEM KLAUSNER, ISRAEL KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAH KLEIN, SAMUEL KLEINMANN, MOSHE KOOK, SAUL HONE BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN KORIAT, ASHER KRAUS, PAUL ELIEZER KUTSCHER, EDWARD YECHEZKEL LANDAU, JACOB M. LAPIDOT, RUTH LEIBOWITZ, NEHAMA LEIBOWITZ, YESHAYAHU LEWY, YOHANAN LIEBERMAN, SAUL LIEBMAN, CHARLES (YESHAYAHU) LIPSCHUETZ, ELIEZER MEIR LISSAK, MOSHE LOEWINGER, DAVID SAMUEL LUNCZ, ABRAHAM MOSES MAHLER, RAPHAEL MAISELS, MOSES HAYYIM (Misha) MALAMAT, ABRAHAM MANHEIM, BILHAH MANI, EZRA MARGALIOT, MORDECAI MAYER, LEO ARY MAZAR, AMIHAI MAZAR, BENJAMIN MELAMED, EZRA ZION MOREH, SHMUEL MUNTNER, ALEXANDER SUESSMAN NAVON, DAVID NEUMANN, ERICH NOY, DOV OLSVANGER, IMMANUEL ORMIAN, HAYYIM PATINKIN, DON PERI, HIRAM (Heinz) PIAMENTA, MOSHE PINES, NOAH PINES, SHLOMO (Solomon) PLESSNER, MARTIN (Meir) POSNER, AKIVA BARUKH (Arthur) POZNANSKI, EDWARD PRAWER, JOSHUA PRESS, YESHAYAHU PROBST, MENAHEM MENDEL RABAN, AVNER RABIN RAND, YAAKOV RAVITZKY, AVIEZER RIEGER, ELIEZER

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

RIVLIN, ELIEZER RIVLIN, JOSEPH JOEL ROSÉN, HAIIM B. ROTENSTREICH, NATHAN ROTH, LEON SAFRAI, SHMUEL SALOMON, GAVRIEL SARFATTI, GAD SCHAECHTER, JOSEPH SCHALIT, ABRAHAM CHAIM SCHAPIRO, ISRAEL SCHIRMANN, JEFIM (Hayyim) SCHMELZ, USIEL OSCAR SCHOLEM, GERSHOM GERHARD SCHWABE, MOSHE (Max) SCHWADRON (SHARON), ABRAHAM SCHWARZ, YEHOSEPH SEGAL, MOSES HIRSCH (ZEVI) SERMONETA, JOSEPH BARUCH SHACHAR, ARIE SHAHAR, SHULAMIT SHILOH, YIGAL SHMUELI, EPHRAIM SHOHAM, SHLOMO-GIORA SHOHETMAN, BARUCH SHUVAL, JUDITH SILBERNER, EDMUND SIMON, AKIBA ERNST SIMONSOHN, SHLOMO SOMEKH, SASSON SPERBER, DANIEL SPIEGEL, NATHAN STEKELIS, MOSHE STERN, EPHRAIM STERN, MENAHEM SUKENIK, ELIEZER LIPA TADMOR, HAYIM TALMON, JACOB LEIB TALMON, SHEMARYAHU TARTAKOWER, ARIEH TA-SHMA, ISRAEL MOSES TCHERIKOVER, VICTOR (Avigdor) TELLER, ISRAEL TISHBY, ISAIAH TUR-SINAI (Torczyner), NAPHTALI HERZ (Harry) URBACH, EPHRAIM ELIMELECH URMAN, DAN USSISHKIN, DAVID VILNAY, ZEV WALLENSTEIN, MEIR WARBURG, GAVRIEL REUBEN WEIL, GOTTHOLD WEISS, ABRAHAM WEISS, MEIR WERBLOWSKY, RAPHAEL JUDA ZWI WERTHEIMER, SOLOMON AARON WIGODER, GEOFFREY WINNINGER, SOLOMON WIRSZUBSKI, CHAIM WISE, GEORGE SCHNEIWEIS

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Biographies

Academic Life (continued) WISTRICH, ROBERT WIZEN, MOSHE AHARON WORMANN, CURT YAARI, ABRAHAM YAARI, MENAHEM YADIN, YIGAEL YAHUDA, ABRAHAM SHALOM YARON, REUVEN YAVETS, ZVI YEFET, SARAH YEIVIN, ISRAEL YOVEL, YIRMIYAHU ZAND, MICHAEL ZULAY, MENAHEM Art ABSALON AGAM, YAACOV AMISHAI-MAISELS, ZIVA APPELBAUM, MOSHE ARDON, MORDECAI ARIKHA, AVIGDOR AROCH, ARIE ASCHHEIM, ISIDOR ATAR, HAIM AVNI, AHARON BACON, YEHUDA BAERWALD, ALEX BAR-AM, MICHA BARASCH, MOSHE BEERI, TUVIA BEN-ZVI, ZEEV BERGNER, YOSSL (Yosef L.) BERNSTEIN, MOSHE BEZEM, NAPHTALI BLUM, LUDWIG BOGEN, ALEXANDER BROWN, AIKA CASTEL, MOSHE ELAZAR COHEN, ELISHEVA COHEN GAN, PINHAS DANZIGER, ITZHAK DAVID, JEAN ELHANANI, ABA ELHANANI, ARYEH ENGELSBERG, LEON FEIGIN, DOV FIMA FRENKEL (FRENEL), ITZHAK GAD, DEVORAH GAMZU, HAYYIM GARBUZ, YAIR GARDOSH, KARIEL (Charles; “Dosh”)

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GERSHUNI, MOSHE GIDAL, TIM GROSS, MICHAEL GRUNDMAN, ZWI GUTMAN, NAHUM HABER, SHAMAI HALEVY, YOSEF IDELSON, BENJAMIN JANCO, MARCEL KADISHMAN, MENASHE KAHANA, AHARON KARAVAN, DANI KARMI, DOV KAUFMANN, RICHARD KLARWEIN, JOSEPH KRAKAUER, LEOPOLD KUPFERMAN, MOSHE LAVIE, RAFFI LEVANON, MORDECAI LIFSCHITZ, URI LISHANSKY, BATYA LITVINOVSKY, PINHAS MAIROVICH, ZVI MANDL, SAADIA MANSFELD, ALFRED MELNIKOFF, AVRAHAM MERZER, ARIEH MOKADY, MOSHE MOREH, MORDECAI MOSKOVITZ, SHALOM NARKISS, BEZALEL NARKISS, MORDECHAI NEIMAN, YEHUDAH NIKEL, LEA OFEK, AVRAHAM OFIR, ARIE PALDI, ISRAEL PALOMBO, DAVID PANN, ABEL PINS, JACOB RAPAPORT, NATHAN RATNER, YOHANAN RAU, HEINZ RECHTER REZNIK, DAVID RUBIN, REUVEN RUBINGER, DAVID SAFDIE, MOSHE SCHATZ, BORIS SCHUMACHER, GOTTLIEB SEBBA, SHALOM SHARON, ARYEH SHEMI, MENAHEM SHEMI, YEHIEL SIMA, MIRON STEINHARDT, JAKOB STEMATSKY, AVIGDOR STERNSCHUSS, MOSHE STREICHMAN, YEHEZKIEL TAGGER, SIONA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH TEVET, NAHUM TICHO, ANNA TUMARKIN, IGAEL ULLMAN, MICHA WEILL, SHRAGA WOLPERT, LUDWIG YEHUDA YASKI, AVRAHAM ZARITSKY, YOSSEF ZVIA Literature ADELMAN, URI AGMON, NATHAN AGNON, SHMUEL YOSEF ALFES, BENZION ALMOG, RUTH ALONI, NISSIM ALTERMAN, NATHAN AMICHAI, YEHUDA AMIR, AHARON AMIR, ANDA AMIR, ELI APPELFELD, AHARON ARICHA, YOSEF ASHMAN, AHARON AVIDAN, DAVID AVIGUR-ROTEM, GABRIELA AVINOAM, REUVEN AVI-SHAUL, MORDEKHAI BALLAS, SHIMON BARASH, ASHER BARON, DEVORAH BARTOV, HANOCH BAR-YOSEF, YEHOSHUA BAT-MIRIAM, YOKHEVED BEER, HAIM BEILINSON, MOSHE BEJERANO, MAYA BEN-AMITAI, LEVI BEN-AMOTZ, DAHN BEN-GAVRIEL, MOSHE YA’AKOV BEN-NER, YITZHAK BEN-YEHUDA, HEMDAH BEN YEHUDA, NETIVA BEN YIZHAK, AVRAHAM BEN-ZION, S. BERNSTEIN, ORI BIALIK, HAYYIM NAHMAN BRENNER, JOSEPH HAYYIM BROD, MAX BROIDES, ABRAHAM BROIDO, EPHRAIM BURLA, YEHUDA CARMI, T. CASTEL-BLOOM, ORLY CHOMSKY, DOV DAYAN, YAEL DOR, MOSHE ELMALEH, ABRAHAM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

EVER HADANI EYTAN, RACHEL FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL FINBERT, ELIAN-J. FRANKEL, NAOMI FRIEDMANN, DAVID ARYEH GALAI, BINYAMIN GELDMAN, MORDECHAI GILBOA, AMIR GILEAD, ZERUBAVEL GINZBURG, SIMON GOLDBERG, LEA GORDON, SAMUEL LEIB GOURI, HAIM GREENBERG, URI ZEVI GROSSMAN, DAVID GUR, BATYA GURFEIN, RIVKA HABIBI, EMIL HACOHEN, MORDECAI BEN HILLEL HAEZRAHI, YEHUDA HALKIN, SIMON HAMEIRI, AVIGDOR HAREVEN, SHULAMIT HAZAZ, HAYYIM HENDEL, YEHUDIT HOFFMANN, YOEL HOROWITZ, YAAKOV HOURVITZ, YA’IR JAFFE, ABRAHAM B. KABAK, AARON ABRAHAM KADARI, SHRAGA KAHANA-CARMON, AMALIA KAMSON, YAAKOV (Jacob) DAVID KANIUK, YORAM KARNI, YEHUDA KARU, BARUCH KATZIR, JEHUDIT KENAN, AMOS KENAZ, YEHOSHUA KERET, ETGAR KIPNIS, LEVIN KISHON, EPHRAIM KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAH KOVNER, ABBA KRAFT, WERNER KRAUS, OTA KURZWEIL, BARUCH K. ZETNIK LACHOWER, YERUHAM FISHEL LAMDAN, YIZHAK LAOR, YITZHAK LAPID, SHULAMIT LEVIN, HANOCH LIEBRECHT, SAVYON MATALON, RONIT MEGGED, AHARON MEITUS, ELIAHU MICHAEL, SAMI MIRON, DAN

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Biographies

Literature (continued) MIRSKY, AARON MISHOL, AGI MOSSINSOHN, YIGAL OFEK, URIEL OREN, RAM OREN, YIZHAK ORLAND, YAAKOV ORLEV, URI ORPAZ AVERBUCH, YIZHAK OVSAY, JOSHUA OZ, AMOS PAGIS, DAN PENN, ALEXANDER PINCAS, ISRAEL RAAB, ESTHER RAGEN, NAOMI RAHEL RATOSH, YONATHAN RAVIKOVITCH, DALIA REICH, ASHER RIMON, JACOB RUEBNER, TUVIA SADAN, DOV SADEH, PINHAS SERI, DAN BENAYA SHABTAI, AHARON SHABTAI, YAAKOV SHAHAM, NATHAN SHAHAR, DAVID SHAKED, GERSHON SHALEV, MEIR SHALEV, YITZHAK SHALEV, ZERUYA SHALOM, SHIN SHAMI, YITZHAK SHAMIR, MOSHE SHENHAR, YITZHAK SHIMONI (Shimonovitz), DAVID SHIMONI, YOUVAL SHLONSKY, ABRAHAM SHOFMAN, GERSHON SILMAN, KADISH YEHUDA LEIB SIVAN, ARYE SMILANSKY, MEIR SMILANSKY, MOSHE SMOLI, ELIEZER (Smoler) SOBOL, YEHOSHUA SOMECK, RONNY STEINBERG, JACOB STERN, NOAH STRAUSS, ARYEH LUDWIG STREIT, SHALOM STURMANN, MANFRED

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SUSSMAN, EZRA SVERDLIK, ODED TABIB, MORDEKHAI TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH TAMMUZ, BENJAMIN TCHERNOWITZ-AVIDAR, YEMIMAH TEMKIN TEVET, SHABBETAI TIDHAR, DAVID TOCHNER, MESHULLAM TSALKA, DAN TWERSKY, YOHANAN UKHMANI, AZRIEL UNGERFELD, MOSHE WALLACH, YONA WEINBERG, ZEVI ZEBULUN WERSES, SAMUEL WIESELTHIER, MEIR WOYSLAWSKI, ZEVI YAARI, YEHUDAH YALAN-STEKELIS, MIRIAM YEHOSHUA, AVRAHAM B. YEIVIN, YEHOSHUA HESCHEL YERUSHALMI, RINA YESHURUN, AVOT YIZHAR, S. YONATHAN, NATHAN YZRAELY, YOSSI ZACH, NATHAN ZARCHI, ISRAEL ZELDA (MISHKOVSKY) ZEMACH, SHLOMO ZMORA, YISRAEL Music ABILEAH, ARIE ADLER, ISRAEL ADMON, YEDIDYAH AGADATI, BARUCH AHARON, EZRA ALDEMA, GIL ALEXANDER, HAIM AMIRAN, EMANUEL ARBATOVA, MIA ARGOV, ALEXANDER (SASCHA) AROM, SIMHA ARONOVICH, YURI MIKHAYLOVICH ATZMON, MOSHE AVENARY, HANOCH AVIDOM, MENAHEM AVNI, TZEVI BARDANASHVILI, YOSEF BARENBOIM, DANIEL BAYER, BATHIA BEER, RAMI BEN-HAIM, PAUL BEN-HAIM, YIGAL BEN-SHABETAI, ARI BERGEL, BERND BERTINI, GARY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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BERTONOFF, DEBORAH BOEHM, YOHANAN BOSCOVITCH, ALEXANDER URIYAH BRAUN (BROWN), ARIE BRAUN, YEHEZKIEL BRONFMAN, YEFIM CHURGIN, BATHIA COHEN MELAMED, NISSAN COHEN, YARDENA DA-OZ, RAM DAUS, AVRAHAM DE PHILIPPE, EDIS DORFMAN, JOSEPH EDEN-TAMIR EHRLICH, ABEL ENGEL, JOEL (Yuli Dimitriyevich) EVEN-OR, MARY FEIDMAN, GIYORA FISHER, DUDU FLEISCHER, TSIPPI FRIED (-BISS), MIRIAM GELBRUN, ARTUR GERSON-KIWI, EDITH (Esther) GESHURI, MEIR SHIMON GILBOA, JACOB GOLDSTEIN, RAYMOND GOLINKIN, MORDECAI GRADENWITZ, PETER EMANUEL GRAZIANI, YIZHAK HAJDU, ANDRE HARRAN, DON HERSTIK, NAPHTALI HIRSH, NURIT HIRSHBERG, JEHOASH HOLDHEIM, THEODOR INBAL, ELIAHU JACOBI, HANOCH (Heinrich) JAFFE, ELI KADMAN, GURIT KALICHSTEIN, JOSEPH KARACZEWSKI, HANINA KATZ, RUTH KOPYTMAN, MARK RUVIMOVICH LAKNER, YEHOSHUA LEEF, YINAM LERER, JOSHUA LERER, SHMUEL LEVI, LEO LEVI, YOEL LEVI-AGRON, HASIA LEVI-TANNAI, SARA LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH MAAYANI, AMI MANOR, EHUD MEDINA, AVIHU MEHTA, ZUBIN MINTZ, SHLOMO MIRON, ISSACHAR NAHARIN, OHAD NARDI, NAHUM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

NATRA, SERGIU NAVON, ISAAC ELIYAHU NIKOVA, RINA NOY, MEIR OLIVERO, BETTY ORDMAN, JEANETTE ORGAD, BEN ZION OVED, MARGALIT PANOV, VALERY PARTOS, OEDOEN PELLEG, FRANK PERLMAN, ITZCHAK RAN, SHULAMIT RODAN, MENDI RONLY-RIKLIS, SHALOM SALMON, KAREL (Karl Salomon) SALZMAN, PNINA SCHIDLOWSKY, LEON SEGAL, URI SETER, MORDECHAI SHAHAM, GIL SHALLON, DAVID SHELEM, MATTITYAHU SHEMER, NAOMI SHERIFF, NOAM SHILOAH, AMNON SHLONSKY, VARDINA SHMUELI, HERZL SMOIRA-COHN, MICHAL SOBOL, MORDECHAI STERN, MOSHE sternberg, erich walter TAL, JOSEF TALMON, ZVI TAUBE, MICHAEL WILENSKY, MOSHE YAMPOLSKY, BERTA YELLIN-BENTWICH, TELMA ZEFIRA, BRACHAH ZEHAVI, DAVID ZEIRA, MORDECHAI ZUKERMAN, PINCHAS ZUR, MENAHEM Popular Culture ALBERSTEIN, HAVA ALMAGOR, GILA ARAD, YAEL ARGOV, ZOHAR ARNOLD, PAULA ARTZI, SHLOMO BAKRI, MUHAMMAD BANAI FAMILY BAR, SHLOMO BARUCH, ADAM BEN, ZEHAVA BEN-AVI, ITHAMAR BERKOWITZ, MICKEY BERNSTEIN-COHEN, MIRIAM BRODY, TAL

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Biographies

Popular Culture (continued) BURSTEIN CASPI, MATI CEDAR, JOSEPH CZERNIAK, MOSHE DAMARI, SHOSHANA DAYAN, ASSAF DESHEH, AVRAHAM (Pashanel) DZIGAN, SHIMON EINSTEIN, ARIK FINKEL, SHIMON FOX, EYTAN FRIDMAN, GAL FROMAN, IAN GAON, YEHORAM GEFFEN, AVIV GERSHON, PINCHAS GILADI, ALEX GITAI, AMOS GLOBUS, YORAM GNESSIN, MENAHEM GODIK, GIORA GOLAN, MENACHEM GOLDMAN, YAAKOV BEN ASHER HADDAD, SARIT HAGAI, BARUCH HA-GASHASH HA-HIVER HALEVY, MOSHE HANOKH, SHALOM HAZA, OFRA HEFER, HAYIM HENDEL, NEHAMA HITMAN, UZI IVGY, MOSHE KHOURI, MAKRAM KLEIN, RALPH KONIG, LEA LEIBOWITZ, KEREN MARGALIT, MEIR MERON, HANNA MESKIN, AHARON MILLO, JOSEF MIZRACHI, SHIMON NINI, AHINOAM (NOA) OFIR, SHAIKE POLIKER, YEHUDA PORAT, ORNA RODENSKY, SHEMUEL ROSEN, YEHOSHUA ROTH-SHACHAMOROV, ESTHER ROVINA, HANNA SCHACH, LEONARD LAZARUS TOPOL, CHAIM YARKONI, YAFFA

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ZEMACH, NAHUM ZOHAR, MIRIAM ZOHAR, URI Public & Economic Life AARONSOHN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI ADLER-RUDEL, SALOMON AGRANAT, SHIMON AGRON (Agronsky), GERSHON AHARONOVITCH, YOSEF AHIMEIR, ABBA AKIROV, ALFRED AKZIN, BENJAMIN ALEXANDER, KOBI ALIAV, RUTH ALKAHI, MORDEKHAI ALMOG, YEHUDA ALMOGI, YOSEF AHARON ALONI, SHULAMIT ALOUF, YEHOSHUA ALTMAN, ARYEH ALLON, YIGAL AMIT, MEIR AMZALAK, HAYYIM ANTEBI, ALBERT (Avraham) ARAD, RON ARAN, ZALMAN ARAZI, YEHUDAH ARBELL, MORDECHAI ARENS, MOSHE ARIDOR, YORAM ARIEL, DOV ARIEL, JOSEPH ARISON, TED ARLOSOROFF, CHAIM ARTZI, YITZHAK ASSAF, MICHAEL AUSTER, DANIEL AVIAD, YESHAYAHU AVIDA, YEHUDA LEIB AVIGUR, SHAUL AVI-YITZHAK, DAN AVNERY, URI AVRIEL, EHUD AYALON, AMI BAK BAKSHI-DORON, ELIAHU BARAK, AHARON BARAK, EHUD BARAM, MOSHE BARAM, UZI BARATZ, JOSEPH BARAZANI, MOSHE BAR-ILAN, DAVID BARKATT, REUVEN BAR-LEV, HAIM BARNEA, NAHUM BARNETT, ZERAH BARTH, JACOB

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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BAR-YEHUDAH, ISRAEL BAUM, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN AARON OF KAMENETZ BECKER, AHARON BEER, ISRAEL BEGIN, MENAHEM BEGIN, ZE’EV BINYAMIN BEHAR, NISSIM BEILIN, YOSSI BEINISCH, DORIT BEJERANO BELKIND BEN-AHARON, YIZHAK BEN-AMI, OVED BEN DOV, YAAKOV BEN-ELIEZER, BINYAMIN BEN ELIEZER, MOSHE BEN-GURION, DAVID BEN-HORIN, ELIAHU BEN-ISRAEL, RUTH BENJAMIN OF TIBERIAS BEN-NATAN, ASHER BEN-PORAT, MIRIAM BEN PORAT, MORDECAI BENTOV, MORDEKHAI BENTWICH BEN-YOSEF, SHELOMO BEN-ZVI, IZHAK BEN-ZVI, RAHEL YANAIT BEN-ZVI, SHLOMO BERAB, JACOB BEN HAYYIM BERENSON, ZVI BERLIGNE, ELIYAHU MEIR BERMAN, ADOLF ABRAHAM BERMAN, SIMEON BERNSTEIN, PEREZ BET-ZURI, ELIAHU BEYTH, HANS BIRAM, ARTHUR (Yizhak) BLAU, AMRAM BLAU, MOSHE BOGALE, YONA BOGER, HAYYIM BRILL, JEHIEL BURG, AVRAHAM BURG, YOSEF BUSEL, JOSEPH CARLEBACH, EZRIEL CARMEL, MOSHE CAROL, ARYEH COHEN, ELI COHEN, GE’ULAH COHEN, SHLOMO COHN, HAIM COHN-REISS, EPHRAIM COMAY, MICHAEL SAUL CHELOUCHE CHIZHIK DAGAN, AVIGDOR DANIN, YEHEZKEL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

DANKNER, AMNON DAYAN DAYAN, MOSHE DAYAN, YAEL DERI, ARYEH DICKENSTEIN, ABRAHAM DINITZ, SIMCHA DISKIN, MORDEKHAI DISKIN, MOSES JOSHUA JUDAH LEIB DISSENTCHIK, ARIE DIWAN, JUDAH BEN AMRAM DIZENGOFF, MEIR DOBKIN, ELIYAHU DOLGIN, SIMON ARTHUR DORI, YA’AKOV DREZNER, YEHIEL DOV DULZIN, ARYE LEIB DUSHKIN, ALEXANDER MORDECHAI EBAN, ABBA (Aubrey) EHRLICH, SIMHA EISENBERG, AHARON ELIYAHU EISENBERG, SHOUL EITAN, RAPHAEL (“Raful”) ELATH, ELIAHU ELAZAR, DAVID ELAZARI-VOLCANI, YIZHAK ELDAD, ISRAEL ELIACHAR, MENACHE ELIAV, ARIE LOVA ELIAV, BINYAMIN ELIYAHU, MORDECHAI ELON, BINYAMIN ELON, MENACHEM ELYASHAR, JACOB SAUL BEN ELIEZER JEROHAM ENGLARD, YITZHAK EPSTEIN, IZHAC ESHKOL, LEVI ETTINGER, AKIVA JACOB EVENTOV, YAKIR EVRON, EPHRAIM EYTAN, WALTER FARBSTEIN, JOSHUA HESCHEL FEINBERG FEINSTEIN, HAYYIM JACOB HA-KOHEN FEINSTEIN, MEIR FELMAN, AHARON LEIB FELLER, SHNEYUR ZALMAN FISCHER, STANLEY FOERDER, YESHAYAHU (Herbert) FRANCO, AVRAHAM FREIER, RECHA FRUMKIN, ARYEH LEIB FRUMKIN, ISRAEL DOV GALIL, UZIA GALILI, ISRAEL GEDALIAH OF SIEMIATYCZE GERI, JACOB GILADI, ISRAEL GINOSSAR, ROSA GISSIN, AVSHALOM

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Biographies

Public & Economic Life (continued) GLIKIN, MOSHE GLUECKSOHN, MOSHE GLUSKA, ZEKHARYAH GLUSKIN, ZEEV GOLDBERG, ISAAC LEIB GOLOMB, ELIYAHU GORDON, AHARON DAVID GRAJEWSKI, ELIEZER ZALMAN GRANOTT, ABRAHAM (Granovsky) GROSSMAN, YIZHAK DAVID GRUENBAUM, YIZHAK GRUNER, DOV GUBER, RIVKA GUR, MORDECAI (Motta) GUTMANN, DAVID MEIR GVATI, CHAIM HABIBI, EMIL HACOHEN, DAVID HAKIM, ELIAHU HALPERIN, YEHIEL HALPERN, GEORG GAD HAMMER, ZEVULUN HANKIN, YEHOSHUA HARARI (Blumberg), HAYYIM HAREL, YISRAEL HARMAN (Herman), AVRAHAM HARZFELD, AVRAHAM HATOKAI, ALDIN HAUSDORF, AZRIEL ZELIG HAUSNER, GIDEON HAVIV, AVSHALOM HAVIV-LUBMAN, AVRAHAM DOV HAZAN, YA’AKOV HAZANI, MIKHA’EL YA’AKOV HECHT, REUBEN HELPERN, MICHAEL HERMANN, LEO HERZOG, CHAIM HESHIN, SHNEUR ZALMAN HILLEL, SHELOMO HISIN, HAYYIM HOLZBERG, SIMCHAH HOOFIEN, ELIEZER SIEGFRIED HOREV, AMOS HOROWITZ, DAVID HOS, DOV HURVITZ, ELI HURWITZ, YIGAL IDELOVITCH, DAVID IDELSON, BEBA IRAQI, SHALOM JOSEPH ISRAEL ISRAELI, BENZION

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ITZIK, DALIA JAFFE, BEZALEL JAFFE, MAURICE ABRAHAM JAGLOM, RAYA JOFFE, ELIEZER LIPA JOFFE, HILLEL JOSEPH, DOV JOSEPHTHAL, GIORA KAHANA, KALMAN KAHANE, MEIR KALIR, AVRAHAM KAPLAN, ELIEZER KAPLANSKY, SHELOMO KASHANI, ELIEZER KASZTNER, REZSO RUDOLF KATZ, SHMUEL KATZAV, MOSHE KATZENELSON, YOSEF KATZIR, EPHRAIM KATZNELSON, BERL (Beeri) KATZNELSON, RAHEL KATZNELSON, REUBEN KATZNELSON, SHULAMIT KESSAR, ISRAEL KHOUSHI, ABBA KIRSCHENBAUM, MORDECAI KITRON (KOSTRINSKY), MOSHE KLARMAN, YOSEF KOHN, LEO KOL, MOSHE KOLLEK, THEODORE (Teddy) KORMAN, EDWARD R. KRAUSE, ELIYAHU KRINITZI, AVRAHAM KUBOVY (Kubowitzki), ARYEH LEON LAHAT, SHLOMO (“Chich”) LANDAU, ANNIE LANDAU, DAVID LANDAU, MOSHE LANDAUER, GEORG LAPID, TOMI LAPIN, ISRAEL MOSES FISCHEL LASKOV, HAYYIM LAUFBAHN, YITSHAK LAUTMAN, DOV LAVI, SHELOMO LAVON, PINHAS LEHMANN, SIEGRIED LEVI, MOSHE LEVI, SAID BEN SHALOM LEVI, SHABBETAI LEVIEV, LEV LEVIN, YIZAK MEIR LEVITT, ESTHER LEVONTIN, ZALMAN DAVID LEVY, DAVID LEWIN-EPSTEIN, ELIAHU ZEEV LEWINSKY, YOM TOV LIBAI, DAVID LIPKIN-SHAHAK, AMNON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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LISHANSKY, YOSEF LIVNAT, LIMOR LIVNI, TZIPI LOCKER, BERL LOEWENSON, JEAN (Hans) LOPOLIANSKY, URI LOTAN, GIORA LOURIE, ARTHUR LUDVIPOL, ABRAHAM LURIE, JOSEPH LURIE, TED LURIE, ZVI LUZ, KADISH MAGIDOR, MENACHEM MAIMON, ADA MAIMON, YAACOV MAISEL-SHOHAT, HANNAH MAKLEFF MAOR, GALIA MARGALIT, DAN MARGOLIN, ELIEZER MARGOLIN, JULIJ MARGOLIS-KALVARYSKI, HAIM MARMORI, HANOCH MAZUR, ELIYAHU MAZUZ, MENI MAZZUVAH MEEROVITCH, MENACHE MEIR, GOLDA MEIR BEN HIYYA ROFE MELCHIOR, MICHAEL MERIDOR, DAN MESHEL, YERUHAM METMAN-COHEN, YEHUDAH LEIB MEYUHAS, YOSEF BARAN MILEYKOWSKY, NATHAN (Netanyahu) MILO, RONI MINZ, BENJAMIN MIZRAHI, HANINAH MODAI, YIZHAK MOFAZ, SHAUL MOLLER, HANS and ERICH MOSES, SIEGFRIED MOSSINSON, BENZION MOZES MUYAL, AVRAHAM NADAV, ZEVI NADDAF, ABRAHAM HAYYIM NAFTALI, PEREZ (Fritz) NAKAR, MEIR NAMIR, MORDEKHAI NAMIR, ORA NAVON, JOSEPH NAVON, YITZHAK NEBENZAHL, ITZHAK ERNST NEEMAN, YUVAL NEIPRIS, JOSEPH NETANYAHU, BINYAMIN NETTER, CHARLES NIEGO, JOSEPH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

NIMRODI NIR-RAFALKES, NAHUM NISSAN, AVRAHAM NISSIM, MOSHE NOVOMEYSKY, MOSHE NUROCK, MORDECHAI OFER, AVRAHAM OFNER, FRANCIS-AMIR OLMERT, EHUD OLSHAN, ISAAC OSSOWETZKY, O. YEHOSHUA PA’IL, MEIR PATT, GIDEON PEARLMAN, MOSHE PERES, SHIMON PERETZ, AMIR PERI, YA’AKOV PERLMAN, SAMUEL PERSITZ, SHOSHANAH PEVZNER, SAMUEL JOSEPH PINCUS, LOUIS ARIEH (Louis Abraham) PINKAS, DAVID ZVI POLLACK, ISRAEL PORUSH, MENAHEM & MEIR PROPPER, DAN PUKHACHEWSKY, MICHAEL ZALMAN RAAB, JUDAH RABBI BINYAMIN RABIN, YIZHAK RABINOVICH, ITAMAR RABINOWITZ, LOUIS ISAAC RABINOWITZ, YEHOSHUA RAGER (IJO), ITZHACK RAKOWSKI, PUAH RAMON, HAIM RAMON, ILAN RAPHAEL, GIDEON RAPHAEL, YIZHAK RAZIEL, DAVID RECANATI, ABRAHAM SAMUEL REIK, HAVIVAH (Emma) REMEZ, MOSHE DAVID RIVLIN RIVLIN, YOSEF YIZHAK ROKACH, ELEAZAR ROKACH, SHIMON ROSEN, JOSEPH A. ROSEN, PINHAS ROSEN, SHELOMO ROSENBAUM, SEMYON (Shimshon) ROSENBLUM, HERZL ROSENFELD, SHALOM ROTEM, CVI (Zvi) RUBINSTEIN, AMNON RUPPIN, ARTHUR RUTENBERG, PINHAS (Piotr) SADEH, YIZHAK SALOMON, JOEL MOSES SAMUEL BEN SAMSON SANBAR (Sandberg), MOSHE

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Public & Economic Life (continued) SAPIR, ELIYAHU SAPIR, JOSEPH SAPIR, PINHAS SARID, YOSSI SARUM, ABRAHAM SASSON, ELIYAHU SCHILLER, SOLOMON SCHNITZER, SHMUEL SCHOCKEN SCHUB, MOSHE DAVID SENATOR, DAVID WERNER SHAHAL, MOSHE SHALEM, SAMUEL SHALEV, AVNER SHALOM, SILVAN SHALTIEL, DAVID SHAMGAR, MEIR SHAMIR, YITZHAK SHAPIRA, ABRAHAM SHAPIRA, HAYYIM MOSHE SHAPIRA, YESHAYAHU SHAPIRO, YA’AKOV SHIMSHON SHARANSKY, NATAN (Anatoly) SHARETT, MOSHE SHARON, ARIEL (“Arik”) SHAZAR, SHNEUR ZALMAN SHEETRIT, MEIR SHEINKIN, MENAHEM SHEMTOV, VICTOR SHENKAR, ARIE SHERF, ZEEV SHILOAH, REUBEN SHITRIT, BEHOR SHALOM SHOCHAT, ISRAEL SHOCHAT, MANIA WILBUSHEWITCH SHOHAT, AVRAHAM BEIGA SHOHAT, ELIEZER SHOMRON, DAN SHOSTAK, ELIEZER SHURER, HAIM SHWED, GIL SILBERG, MOSHE SIMHONI, ASSAF SIMON, ARYEH SMOIRA, MOSHE SNEERSOHN, HAYYIM ZEVI SNEH, MOSHE SOLIELI, MORDECAI (Max) SPITZER, MOSHE SPRINZAK, JOSEPH STAMPFER, JEHOSHUA STERN, AVRAHAM (Yair) STURMAN, HAYYIM

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SUPRASKY, YEHOSHUA SUSSMAN, YOEL SWET, GERSHON SZENES, HANNAH SZOLD, HENRIETTA TABENKIN, YIZHAK TABIB, AVRAHAM TAMIR, SHMUEL TARIF, AMIN TCHERNOWITZ, SAMUEL TEHOMI, ABRAHAM TEKOAH, YOSEF THON, YAAKOV YOHANAN TOLKOWSKY, SHEMUEL TOUROFF, NISSAN TRUMPELDOR, JOSEPH TSABAN, YAIR TSUR, JACOB TURNER, YAAKOV UZAN, AHARON UZIEL, BARUCH VALERO VAN LEER, LIA VAN VRIESLAND, SIEGFRIED ADOLF (Zadok) VARDI, MOSHE VITKIN, JOSEPH VON WEISL, ZE’EV (Wolfgang) WALKOMITZ, SIMHAH HAYYIM WARHAFTIG, ZERAH WEINSHALL WEISGAL, MEYER WOLF WEISS, YAACOV WEITZ, NAPHTALI WEIZMAN, EZER WEIZMANN, CHAIM WERTHEIMER, STEF WILBUSCHEWITZ WITKON, ALFRED YA’ACOBI, GAD YA’ALON, MOSHE YAARI, MEIR YADIN, YIGAEL YADLIN, AHARON YAHIL, CHAIM YARIV, AHARON YARON, ZEVI YASSKY, HAIM N. YAVIN, HAYYIM YAVNEELI, SHEMUEL YELLIN YELLIN-MOR, NATHAN YESHAYAHU, ISRAEL YINNON, MOSHE YUDKOVSKY, DOV ZADOK, HAIM JOSEPH ZAMIR, YITZHAK ZE’EVI, REHAVAM ZEID, ALEXANDER ZEMER, HANNAH ZERUBAVEL, JACOB

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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ZISLING, AHARON ZOREF, ABRAHAM SOLOMON ZALMAN ZUR, ZEVI ZURI (Zuri-Szezak), JACOB SAMUEL ZUTA, HAYYIM ARYEH Religion BEKACHE, SHALOM EPSTEIN HA-LEVI, MOSES JEHIEL FAITUSI, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM FINKEL, ELIEZER JUDAH FRANCO, MOSES FRANK, ZEVI PESAH FRENKEL, IZHAK YEDIDIAH GALANTE, MOSES BEN JONATHAN (II) GOLINKIN, DAVID GOREN, SHLOMO GRUENHUT, ELEAZAR (Lazar) HACOHEN, RAPHAEL HAYYIM HADAYAH, OVADIAH HADUTA BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI, EZEKIEL EZRA BEN JOSHUA HALEVI, HAYYIM DAVID HALEVI, JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM HAMEIRI, MOSHE HAMMER, REUVEN HARLAP, JACOB MOSES BEN ZEBULUN HERZOG, ISAAC HIRSCHENSOHN HOROWITZ, SAUL HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI IBN JAMIL, ISAAC NISSIM ISRAELI, SHAUL KASOVSKY, CHAYIM YEHOSHUA KOOK, ABRAHAM ISAAC KOOK, ZEVI JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC HAKOHEN LAU, ISRAEL MEIR LEVI BEN HABIB (Ralbah) LEVIN, ARYEH LEVY, JUDAH BEN MENAHEM MAIMON, JUDAH LEIB MALIK AL-RAMLI MALKHI, MOSES MALKHI, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI MASHASH, SHLOMO MEIR, JACOB MENAHEM BEN MOSES HA-BAVLI MENAHEM MENDEL OF SHKLOV MEYUHAS, MOSES JOSEPH MORDECAI BEN RAPHAEL MEYUHAS MEYUHAS, RAPHAEL MEYUHAS BEN SAMUEL MODAI, HAYYIM NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM I NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM II NATHAN OF GAZA NAVON, JONAH BEN HANUN NAVON, JONAH MOSES BEN BENJAMIN NAZIR, MOSES HA-LEVI NERIAH, MOSHE ZEVI NISSIM, ISAAC

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

OUZIEL, BEN-ZION MEIR HAI PANIGEL, RAPHAEL MEIR BEN JUDAH PARDES, ELIYAHU PARDO, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL PORATH, ISRAEL RABINOWITZ-TEOMIM, ELIJAH DAVID BEN BENJAMIN RAPAPORT, DAVID HA-KOHEN RICHIETTI, JOSEPH SHALLIT BEN ELIEZER RISKIN, SHLOMO RUBIO, MORDECAI SALANT, SAMUEL SARNA, EZEKIEL SCHWARZ, YEHOSEPH SHAPIRA, ABRAHAN ELKANA KAHANA SONNENFELD, JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON STEINSALTZ, ADIN SUZIN, SOLOMON MOSES TOLEDANO, JACOB MOSES TOLEDO, MOSES DE UNTERMAN, ISSER YEHUDA URI BEN SIMEON OF BIALA VITAL, HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH WALDENBERG, ELIEZER JUDAH YIZHAKI, DAVID YOSEF, OVADIAH ZE’EVI, ISRAEL BEN AZARIAH ZEVIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH ZOLTY, YAACOV BEZALEL Science AARONSOHN ABIR (Abramovitz), DAVID ADLER, SAUL AARON AGMON, SHMUEL AHARONI, ISRAEL AHARONOV, YAKIR AMIRA, BINYAMIN AMITSUR, SAMSON ABRAHAM APELOIG, YIZHAK ARNON, ISAAC ARNON, RUTH ASCHNER, MANFRED ASHBEL, DOV AVIDOV, ZVI AVIV, HAIM BEN-ABRAHAM, ZVI BENTOR, JACOB BERENBLUM, ISAAC BERGMANN, ERNST DAVID BERGMANN, FELIX ELIEZER BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH BIRK, YEHUDITH BOBTELSKY, MORDEKHAI (Max) BODENHEIMER, FREDERICK SIMON BONDI, ARON CEDAR, CHAIM CHET, ILAN COHEN, YIGAL RAHAMIM

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History a. Israel, Land and State of Biographies

Science (continued) DEMALACH, YOEL DE VRIES, ANDRE DORON, HAIM DOSTROVSKY, ARYEH DOSTROVSKY, ISRAEL DUVDEVANI, SHMUEL DVORETSKY, ARYEH EFRAT, YAACOV ELDAR, REUVEN ELIAKIM, MARCEL ERLIK, DAVID EVENARI, MICHAEL FARKAS, LADISLAUS (Wilhelm) FEIGENBAUM, ARYEH FEINBRUN-DOTHAN, NAOMI FEINGOLD, DAVID SIDNEY FEKETE, MICHAEL FODOR, ANDOR FRAENKEL, ABRAHAM ADOLF FROHMAN, DOV FURSTENBERG, HILLEL (Harry) GINSBURG, DAVID GOLDBERG, ALEXANDER GOLDBERG, EMANUEL GOLDBLUM, NATAN HAAS, GEORG HALBERSTAEDTER, LUDWIG HALEVY, ABRAHAM HALPERIN, HAIM HALPERN, LIPMAN HANANI, HAIM HARARI, HAYYIM HARARI, OVADIAH HAREL, DAVID HA-REUBENI, EPHRAIM HERSHKO, AVRAM HESTRIN, SHLOMO HESTRIN-LERNER, SARAH HIRSHBERG, YEHUDAH JAMMER, MAX JAMMER, MOSHE JORTNER, JOSHUA KAGAN, HELENA KARPLUS, HEINRICH KATZIR, AHARON KATZIR, EPHRAIM KEDEM, ORA KLIGLER, ISRAEL JACOB KOGAN, ABRAHAM KORINE, EZRA KURREIN, MAX LEEUW, AVRAHAM DE LEIBOWITZ, JOSHUA O.

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LEVINE, RAPHAEL LEVITZKI, ALEXANDER LIBAI, AVINOAM LIFSON, SHNEIOR LOW (Lev), WILLIAM ZE’EV MECHOULAM, RAPHAEL MENDELSSOHN, HEINRICH MER, GIDEON MICHAELSON, ISAAC CHESAR MILLER, LOUIS MIROWSKI, MICHEL NE’EMAN, YUVAL NEUFELD, HENRY OLITZKI, ARYEH LEO OLLENDORFF, FRANZ OPPENHEIMER, HILLEL (Heinz) REINHARD PADEH, BARUCH PEKERIS, CHAIM LEIB PICARD, LEO PNEULI, AMIR PRYWES, MOSHE RABIN, MICHAEL OSER RACAH, GIULIO (Yoel) RACHMILEWITZ, MOSHE RAGER, BRACHA RAHAMIMOFF, RAMI RAM, MOSHE RAMOT, BRACHA RAYSS, TSCHARNA REICHERT, ISRAEL REIFENBERG, ADOLF REINER, MARKUS REVEL, MICHEL ROM, YOSEF ROSEN, MOSHE SACHS, LEO SALITERNIK, ZVI SAMBURSKY, SAMUEL SELA, MICHAEL SHALON, RAHEL SHEBA, CHAIM SHECHTMAN, DAN SHELAH, SAHARON SHIFTAN, ZEEV SIMON, ERNST SINGER, JOSEF SONDHEIMER, FRANZ SOSKIN, SELIG EUGEN STEIN, RICHARD STEIN, YEHEZKIEL STEINBERG, AVRAHAM STOLLER, SAMUEL SUSSMAN, ABRAHAM TABOR, HARRY ZVI TALMI, IGAL VAN DER HOEDEN, JACOB VOET, ANDRIES VROMAN, AKIVA WAHL, ISAAK WALLACH, MOSHE (Moritz)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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WERTHEIMER, CHAIM ERNST WILCHEK, MEIR WILLNER, ITAMAR WINIK, MEIR WINNIK, HENRY ZVI WOOLF, MOSHE YONATH, ADA ZAIZOV, RINA ZARCHIN, ALEXANDER ZIV, JACOB ZOHARY, MICHAEL b. Byzantium Main Surveys

BYZANTINE EMPIRE General Entries

CIRCUS PARTIES CONSTANTINOPLE KOILA Biographies

BASIL I CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS HERACLIUS JUSTINIAN I LEO III (the Isaurian) LEO VI, THE WISE MANUEL I COMNENUS MICHAEL II MICHAEL VIII (Palaeologus) c. Muslim Lands (incl. Islam) Main Surveys

ARAB WORLD EGYPT IRAN IRAQ ISLAM LEBANON LIBYA MOROCCO OTTOMAN EMPIRE SYRIA TUNIS, TUNISIA TURKEY YEMEN General Entries

ABBASIDS AGGADAH AGHLABIDS AHL AL-KITĀB ALAWIDS ALMOHADS ALMORAVIDES ARAB LEAGUE ARABIC LANGUAGE ĀSHŪRĀ AYYUBIDS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BAHUZIM BERBERS BOYCOTT, ARAB BRETHREN OF SINCERITY, EPISTLES OF CAIRO TRIAL CALIPH CAPITULATIONS DAMASCUS AFFAIR DHIMMA, DHIMMI DOENMEH ESCHATOLOGY EXILARCH FATIMIDS FIQH GENIZAH, CAIRO GHETTO HADITH HAFSIDS HAMAS HANĪF HIMYAR HIZBOLLAH HUD IBĀDĪS ISRAELITE JADĪD AL-ISLĀM JEWISH AND ISLAMIC LAW JIHĀD KAKHYA KALĀM KARIYAH, ALKHARĀJ AND JIZYA KIERA KORAN MAMLUKS MERINIDS MILLET MULUK AL-TAWA’IF MUQADDIM MUSTA‘RAB, MUSTA‘RABS NAGID OMAR, COVENANT OF ORIENTAL LITERATURE ORIENTALISTS OZAR HATORAH PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY QAYNUQĀ, BANŪ QURAYZA, BANŪ SA’DIS SARRĀF SATRAP SELJUKS SIJILL SUFISM UMAYYADS WATTASIDS YAHŪD ZIRIDS ZIYANIDS

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AARON ABRAHAM ADAM BALAAM BENJAMIN CAIN CANAAN DANIEL DAVID ELIJAH ELISHA ENOCH EVE EZEKIEL EZRA GOLIATH HAMAN ISAAC ISAIAH ISHMAEL JACOB JEREMIAH JERUSALEM JETHRO JOB, BOOK OF JONAH, BOOK OF JOSEPH JOSHUA KORAH LOT MIRIAM MOSES NEBUCHADNEZZAR NIMROD NOAH PHARAOH POTIPHAR QUEEN OF SHEBA SAMUEL SAUL SETH SOLOMON TERAH Communities

ABADAN ADEN AFGHANISTAN AGADIR AHWAZ AKABA AKRA ALEPPO ALEXANDRIA

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ALGERIA ALGIERS AMADIYA AMASIYA AMRAN ANKARA ANTIOCH ARABIA ARCILA ATLAS AYDIN AZEMMOUR BĀB AL-ABWĀB BAGHDAD BAHREIN BALKH BA’QŪBA BASRA BAYHAN BAYRAMIC BEIRUT BENGHAZI BILBEIS BONE BOUGIE BURSA BUSHIRE CAIRO CANAKKALE CASABLANCA CONSTANTINE DAMANHŪR DAMASCUS DAMAVAND DAMIETTA DAMĪRA DEBDOU DEHOK DEMNAT DHAMĀR DIYALA DJERBA DRA DUMUH EDESSA EDIRNE EL-ARISH EMESA EZINE FAIYUM FEZ GABÈS GALLIPOLI GAZA GAZA STRIP GILAN HABBĀN HABIL HADRAMAUT HAMADAN

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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HAYDAN HEJAZ HERAT HILLA HĪRA HIT HONEIN HORMUZ IRBIL ISFAHAN ISKENDERUN ISTANBUL IZMIR IZMIT JAZIRAT IBN ’UMAR JORDAN, HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JUBAR JUBAYL KAIROUAN KASHAN KAWKABĀN KAZVIN KERMAN KERMANSHAH KHANAQIN KHAYBAR KHURASAN KIRKUK KOILA KURDISTAN LAPSEKI LAR MAHALLA AL-KUBRA MANAKHA MANISSA MANSURA MARDIN MARRAKESH MAWZA MĀZANDARĀN MEDINA MEKNÈS MERSIN MESHED MINYAT ZIFTA MOCHA MOGADOR MOSUL MZAB NAHRAWĀN NAJRĀN NEHARDEA NEHAVEND NISHAPUR NISIBIS OFRAN ORAN PAKISTAN PERSIA PORT SAID

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

QAL’AT HAMMĀD QASR IBN HUBAYRAH RAHBAH, ALRAQQA AlRIZAIEH ROSETTA RUWANDIZ SADAH SAFI SALÉ-RABAT SAN’A SANANDAJ SARUJ SAUDI ARABIA SHARAB SHARM-EL-SHEIKH, TIRAN ISLAND, and TIRAN STRAITS SHIBĀM SHIRAZ SHUSHAN SHUSHTAR SIDON SIJILMASSA SOUS SULEIMANIYA (AL-) SUNBAT TABRIZ TADEF TANGIER(S) TANTA TAYMA TEHERAN TLEMCEN TOKAT TRANSJORDAN TRIPOLI TRIPOLI TUAT TYRE ’uKBARĀ WASIT YARĪM YEZD Biographies

AARON BEN AMRAM AARON BEN BATASH AARON OF BAGHDAD ABBAS I ABBAS II ’aBD AL-HAQQ AL-ISLĀMĪ ABD AL-MĀLIK IBN MĀRWAN ABDALLAH IBN SABĀ’ ABDALLAH IBN SALĀM ABDALLAH, YUSEF ABDUL MAJID ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN BEN AL-FURAT ABRAHAM BEN NATHAN ABU AL-MUNAJJA SOLOMON BEN SHAYA

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History c. Muslim Lands (incl. Islam) Biographies (continued) ABU ‘ISĀ, ISAAC BEN JACOB AL-ISFAHĪN-Ī ABU SA‘D AL-TUSTARĪ ADANI, MAHALAL ADANI, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH (Yeshua) ADJIMAN AKBAR THE GREAT (Moghul) ALASHKAR, SOLOMON ALATON, ISHAK ALCEH, MATILDE AL-GHARĪD AL-YAHŪDĪ ALI IBN SAHL IBN RABBĀN AL-TABARĪ ALNAKAR, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH ALROY, DAVID (Menahem) ALLOUCHE, FELIX NISSIM SAIDOU AMINA AMRAM ANGEL, SHEMAYAHU ARAFAT, YASSER ASAD, HAFIZ ALASHKENAZI, BEHOR ASHKENAZI, JONAH BEN JACOB ASHKENAZI, SOLOMON ASHRIKI, MORDECAI ASSEO, DAVID BEN ISAAC AVEMPACE AVERROES AVICENNA AZANCOT BABAI BEN FARHAD BABAI IBN LUTF BACRI BALI, RIFAT BARAZANI, ASENATH BARUCH BEN SAMUEL BASRI, MEER BATALYAWSĪ, ABU MUHAMMAD ABDALLAH IBN MUHAMMAD IBN AL-SĪD ALBATTAT, REUBEN BAYAZID II BELISHA BENAROYA, AVRAM BENAYAH BENCHIMOL BENGALIL BENIDER BEN-KIKI BENOLIEL BENSUSAN BENVENISTE, MOSES BENWAISH, ABRAHAM BENZAMERO BEN ZAQEN BERGEL BESSIS, ALBERT

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BESSIS, JESHUA BONASTRUC, ISAAC BOUCHARA BOUZAGLO, DAVID BRUDO, ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH BUSNACH BUSTANAI BEN HANINAI BUZAGLO CABESSA (Cabeca, Cabecao) CAMONDO (De) CANSINO CAPSALI, MOSES BEN ELIJAH CARASSO, EMMANUEL CARMONA, BEKHOR ISAAC DAVID CASTRO, ABRAHAM CATTAN CATTAUI COHEN, JUDAH COHEN, LEVI-ABRAHAM CORCOS CORCOS, DAVID CORCOS, STELLA CHALOM, MARCEL CHOURAQUI CHRIQUI DANIEL BEN HASDAI DANIEL, MENAHEM SALIH DANON, ABRAHAM DARMON DARWISH, SHALOM DAYYAN DELMAR DELOUYA EDREHI, MOSES BEN ISAAC ELDAD HA-DANI ELEAZAR BEN JACOB HA-BAVLI ELIAS, JOSEPH EMANUEL EMRANI EPHRAIM BEN SHEMARIAH ESCAPA, JOSEPH BEN SAUL EZEKIEL BEN REUBEN MANASSEH FĀRĀBĪ, ABU NASR MUHAMMAD, ALFARHI FARHI, MORIS FRANCO, GAD FREHA BAT AVRAHAM OF MOROCCO FRESCO, DAVID GABBAI GALANTE, ABRAHAM GALIPAPA, ELIJAH MEVORAKH GARIH, ÜZEYiR GEREZ, JOSEF HABIB GHAZĀLĪ, ABU HAMID MUHAMMAD IBN MUHAMMAD AL-TUSĪ ALGHERON, YAKKIR MORDECAI BEN ELIAKIM GHEZ GOZLAN, ELIE HABIB, MOSES BEN SOLOMON IBN HABSHUSH, SHALOM BEN YAHYA

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HAGIZ HAJJAJ, DANIEL HAKAM, ALHĀKIM BI-AMR ALLAH, ALHALEVA, ISHAK HA-LEVI, EZEKIEL EZRA BEN JOSHUA HA-LEVI, SASSON BEN ELIJAH BEN MOSES HALFON, ABRAHAM HALFON BEN NETHANEL HA-LEVI ABU SAID (Dimyati) HAMON HANDALI, ESTHER HARARI, SIR VICTOR RAPHAEL HASAN, ABU ALI JEPHETH IBN BUNDĀR HASDAI HASSAN HATCHWELL, SOL (Suleika) HIBAT ALLAH, ABU AL-BARAKĀT (NATHANEL) BEN ALI (ELI) AL-BAGHDĀDĪ HIBAT ALLAH, IBN JUMAY’ IBN ZAYN HIBSHUSH, HAYYIM HOZIN, ZEDAKAH BEN SAADIAH HUBES, ROZET HUSSEIN HUSSEINI, HĀJJ (Muhammad) AMIN IBN ABĪ AL SALT IBN AL-BARQŪLĪ IBN KILLIS, ABU AL-FARAJ YA‘QŪB IBN YŪSUF IBN SAHL, ABU ISHĀQ IBRĀHĪM IBRAHIM IBN SAHL AL-ANDALŪSI AL-ISRA’ILI (Abu Ishak) IBRĀHĪM PASHA IRAQI, SHALOM HA-KOHEN (al-Usta) ISCANDARI JACOB BEN HAYYM TALMID JACOB BEN ZEMAH BEN NISSIM JAVETZ, BARZILLAI BEN BARUCH JAVID BEY, MEHMED JIZFĀN, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH JOSEPH BEN AHMAD IBN HASDAI JOSEPH BEN PHINEHAS JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ELIJAH AL-HAKAM JOSEPH ROSH HA-SEDER JOSHUA BEN ABRAHAM MAIMUNI JOSIAH BEN JESSE JUDAH HA-PARSI KA‘B AL-AHBĀR KA‘B AL-ASHRAF KA‘B BEN ASAD KABIR, ABRAHAM SALIH ALKADOORIE KADOORIE, SASSON KAFAH, YIHYE BEN SOLOMON KAFAH, YOSEF KĀHINA KALAI, SAMUEL BEN MOSES KAMHI, JAK V. KANETI, SELIM KARASU, ALBERT KAREH, SOLOMON KASABI, JOSEPH BEN NISSIM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

KAZIN, JUDAH BEN YOM TOV KAZIN, RAPHAEL BEN ELIJAH KEMAL MUSTAFA (ATATURK) KHOMEINI KIMHI, SOLOMON BEN NISSIM JOSEPH DAVID KINDĪ, ABU YŪSUF YA‘QŪB IBN ISHAQ ALKOHEN, ALBERT KOHEN, SAMI KORAH, AMRAM IBN YAHYA KORAH, SHALOM BEN YIHYE KRISPIN, JOSHUA ABRAHAM KUFA KUHAYL, SHUKR SĀLIM KUWAITI, SALEH LANIADO, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC LANIADO, RAPHAEL SOLOMON BEN SAMUEL LANIADO, SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM LANIADO, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM LAPAPA, AARON BEN ISAAC LAWĀNI, DAUD LEV (Lab; Leb), JOSEPH BEN DAVID IBN (Maharival) LEVI, MARIO LEVY-BACRAT, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON LEYON, AVRAM LONGO, SAADIAH LUMBROSO MACNIN MADMŪN BEN JAPHETH BEN BUNDĀR MAGHREBI-MAARAVI MALCHI, ESPERANZA MANSŪR (al-) MANSURAH, SAADIAH BEN JUDAH MANSURAH, SHALOM BEN JUDAH MARHAB AL-YAHŪDĪ IBN AL-HĀRITH MĀSHĀ’ALLAH B. ATHAN MASHAIRI, ALMASHASH, SHLOMO MASLI’AH ŞALIH MASNUT, SAMUEL BEN NISSIM MA’TUK, SULAYMAN BEN DAVID MAYMERAN MELAMED, RAHAMIM REUVEN MELAMED, SIMAN TOV MENASCE, DE MENDA, ELIEZER MENDES MESHWI AL-‘UKBARĪ MEVORAKH BEN SAADIAH MĪKHĀ’ĪL, MURAD MIRIAM BAT BENAYAH OF YEMEN MIZRAHI, ASHER MIZRAHI, DAVID BEN SHALOM MIZRAHI, ELIJAH MOLCHO, DAVID EFFENDI ISAAC PASHA MONZON, ABRAHAM MORDECAI BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI MOSES BEN LEVI MOSES BEN MEVORAKH MOSSERI MOYAL, ESTHER

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History c. Muslim Lands (incl. Islam) Biographies (continued) MUBĀRAK, MUHAMMAD HUSNI SA’ID MUBASHSHIR BEN NISSI HA-LEVI MUBASHSHIR BEN RAV KIMOI HA-KOHEN MUHAMMAD MUHAMMAD ALI NĀDER SHAH NAEH, BARUKH BEN MENAHEM NAHON NAHOUM, HAIM NAHRAI BEN NISSIM NAHUM, AARON SASSON BEN ELIJAH NAHUM, ELIEZER BEN JACOB NAJAR NAJĪB AL-DAWLA NARBONI NASSER, GAMAL ABDUL NATHAN BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN HA-BAVLI NATRONAI BEN HAVIVAI (Zavinai) NAWI NETHANEL BEN AL-FAYYUMI NETHANEL BEN ISAIAH NETIRA NEUMARK, EPHRAIM NISSIM, ABRAHAM HAYYIM NOM, IBRAHIM OBADYA, ABRAHAM OMAR IBN AL-KHAṬ Ṭ Ā B PAHLAVI, MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH PAHLAVI, REZA SHAH PALACHE PALACHE, HAYYIM PALTIEL PARIENTE PARIUM PASSI, DAVID QAZZĀZ, MANASSEH BEN ABRAHAM IBN (AL-) RABĪ IBN ABI AL-HUQAYQ RACCAH, MAS’ŪD BEN AARON RASHID AL-DAWLA (al-Din) RENASSIA, YOSSEF ROSANES ROSANES, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL ROTE RYVEL SA‘ADI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON SAADIAH SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI SA‘D AL-DAWLA AL-SAFĪ IBN HIBBATALLAH SADAT, MUHAMMED ANWAR ALSAHLAN BEN ABRAHAM SA‘ĪD IBN HASAN SALADIN SĀLIH, ABRAHAM SALIH IBN YAHYA IBN JOSEPH

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SALIH, YAHYA BEN JOSEPH (MAHARIS) SAMAMA (Shemama), NESSIM SAMAU’AL BEN JUDAH IBN ‘ABBAS (ibn Yahya alMagribi) SAMBARI, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC SAMRA, DAVID SAMUEL BEN ALI SAMUEL BEN AZARIAH SAMUEL BEN DANIEL ABU RABĪ‘A HA-KOHEN SAMUEL BEN HANANIA SAMUEL BEN HOPHNI SAMUEL IBN ADIYA (al-Samawal ben Gharid ben Adiya) SANU, YAQUB (James) SAPHIR, JACOB SARFATY SARMAD, MUHAMMAD SA‘iD SASSON, AARON BEN JOSEPH SASSOON, SIR EZEKIEL SCIALOM, DAVID DARIO SEBAG SEFIRAH, SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH SELIM I SELIM II SERERO SERERO, SAUL SEROR SERUSI SERUYA SEVERUS SHAHIN SHAKI, ISAAC SHAMOSH, YIZHAK SHASHU, SALIM SHAUL, ANWAR SHEIKH, ABRAHAM BEN SHALOM HA-LEVI ALSHEMARIAH BEN ELHANAN SHIMON, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH IBN SHINAH, SELMAN SHINDOOKH, MOSES BEN MORDECHAI SHOLAL, ISAAC HA-KOHEN SHOLAL, NATHAN (Jonathan) HA-KOHEN SIBONI SID, SAMUEL IBN SITBON SOLAL SOLOMON BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN SOLOMON BEN HASDAI SOMEKH, ABDALLAH BEN ABRAHAM SONCINO SONCINO, JOSHUA STORA SUAREZ SULEIMAN I (the Magnificent) SUMBAL, SAMUEL SUSAN, ISSACHAR BEN MORDECAI TABRIZI, MAHOMET ABU-BEKR-AT-BEN MAHOMET TAM IBN YAHYA, JACOB BEN DAVID TANUJI TANUJI, ISHMAEL HA-KOHEN

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TANUJI, JOSEPH BEN SHALOM HA-KOHEN TARAGAN, BEN-ZION TETUAN UKBA, MAR UMAYYA IBN ABI AL-SALT UZAN VALENSI VENTURA, MICHON (Moses) WAHB IBN MUNABBIH WANNEH, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM WAQQĀSA WUHSHA AL-DALLALA YIHYE, ISAAC HA-LEVI YUDGHAN (Yehudah) YULY YŪSUF AS’AR YATH’AR DHŪ NUWĀS (MASRUQ) ZAKHO ZECHARIAH AL-DĀHIRI ZECHARIAH BEN BARACHEL ZECHARIAH BEN SOLOMON-ROFE ZILKHA ZILKHA, NAIM ZONANA ZUTA ZUTRA, MAR Scholars

AYALON, DAVID BAER, GABRIEL BILLIG, LEVI BRUNSCHVIG, ROBERT BURCKHARDT, JOHANN LUDWIG CAZES, DAVID GOITEIN, SHLOMO DOV (Fritz) GOLDENTHAL, JACOB GOLDZIHER, IGNAZ (Isaac Judah) HEYD, URIEL HIRSCHFELD, HARTWIG HOROVITZ, JOSEF KISTER, MEIR J. LANDAU, JACOB M. LEVI DELLA VIDA, GIORGIO LEWIS, BERNARD MANN, JACOB MAYER, LEO ARY MOREH, SHMUEL MUELLER, DAVID HEINRICH PIAMENTA, MOSHE ROMAN, JACOB BEN ISAAC ROSENTHAL, FRANZ SOMEKH, SASSON STERN, SAMUEL MIKLOS STILLMAN, NORMAN WEIL, GOTTHOLD WEIL, GUSTAV d. Asia and Africa Main Surveys

AFRICA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ASIA CHINA INDIA JAPAN General Entries

AFRICAN JEWISH CONGRESS BAYUDAYA BENE ISRAEL BENE MENASHE BETA ISRAEL HOUSE OF ISRAEL COMMUNITY IBO LEMBA MAKUYA MONGOLS TUTSI ZAKHOR Communities

AHMADNAGAR ALIBAG ASIA MINOR BENARES BOMBAY BURMA CALCUTTA CALICUT CANTON CEYLON (Sri Lanka) CHENNAMANGALAM (Chennotty) CRANGANORE ERNAKULAM ETHIOPIA GOA HANGCHOW HARBIN HONG KONG INDONESIA KAIFENG KASHMIR KENYA KOBE KOCHI MADAGASCAR MADRAS MALAYSIA MANCHURIA MONGOLIA NAGASAKI NINGPO NINGSIA PEKING PHILIPPINES POONA SHANGHAI SINGAPORE SURAT THAILAND TIENTSIN

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History d. Asia and Africa Communities (continued)

IRELAND NEW ZEALAND SOUTH AFRICA SOUTH AFRICAN LITERATURE General Entries

TOKYO TRANSOXIANA YANG-CHOU YOKOHAMA ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE Biographies

ABRAHAM, DAVID AI TIEN BENJAMIN, BARUCH BENZION BENJAMIN, YEHOSHUA BUCHANAN, CLAUDIUS CHAO DAVID, JOSEPH DIVEKAR, SAMUEL EZEKIEL EZEKIEL, MOSES EZEKIEL, NISSIM EZRA FERRIS, IRIS GANDHI, MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND HALLEGUA IRAQI, ELEAZAR BEN AARON HA-KOHEN JACOB, JACK FREDERICK RAPHAEL JOSEPH, SAUL ABDALLAH KADOORIE KADOORIE, LAWRENCE BARON KEHIMKAR, HAYIM SAMUEL KOBAYASHI, MASAYUKI KODER, SAMUEL SHABDAI KODER, SHABDAI SAMUEL KOTSUJI, SETSUZO (Abraham) MARSHALL, DAVID SAUL MOTA, NEHEMIA RAHABI, EZEKIEL RAHABI, NAPHTALI ELIAHU RAHBAR, SAMUEL RAJPURKAR, JOSEPH EZEKIEL ROTENBURG SAMSON, BENJAMIN ABRAHAM SASSOON SCHERESCHEWSKY, SAMUEL ISAAC JOSEPH SENKO, YASUE SINDABAR (Sindabot) TALKER, EZEKIEL SAMUEL TOBIAS, MOSES e. Western Europe 1) England & British Commonwealth Main Surveys

AUSTRALIA ENGLAND ENGLISH LITERATURE

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ALIENS ACT ARCHA ARCHPRESBYTER ASCAMA (Ascamot) ASSIMILATION BATTLE OF CABLE STREET DEISTS EXCHEQUER OF THE JEWS JEW BILL PRESBYTER JUDAEORUM SAINT JAMES CONFERENCE Communities

ABERDEEN ADELAIDE AUCKLAND BALLARAT BATH BEDFORD BELFAST BIRMINGHAM BLOEMFONTEIN BRADFORD BRIGHTON BRISBANE BRISTOL BULAWAYO BURY ST. EDMUNDS CAMBRIDGE CANTERBURY CAPE TOWN CARDIFF CHANNEL ISLANDS CHATHAM CHRISTCHURCH COLCHESTER DUBLIN DUNEDIN DURBAN EAST LONDON EDINBURGH EXETER GATESHEAD ON TYNE GIBRALTAR GLASGOW GLOUCESTER HEREFORD HULL IPSWICH JAMAICA JOHANNESBURG KIMBERLEY KINGS LYNN LEEDS

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LEICESTER LIMERICK LINCOLN LIVERPOOL LONDON MANCHESTER MAURITIUS MELBOURNE NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE NORTHAMPTON NORWICH NOTTINGHAM OUDTSHOORN OXFORD PENZANCE PERTH PLYMOUTH PORT ELIZABETH PORTSMOUTH PRETORIA ROCHESTER SALISBURY SCOTLAND SHEFFIELD SOUTH WEST AFRICA SOUTHAMPTON STAMFORD SUNDERLAND SWANSEA SYDNEY TASMANIA WALES WARWICK WINCHESTER WORCESTER YORK ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE Organizations

AGUDAT HA-SOZYALISTIM HA-IVRIM ANGLO-JEWISH ASSOCIATION BOARD OF DEPUTIES OF BRITISH JEWS BRITISH ISRAELITES CENTRAL BRITISH FUND INSTITUTE OF JEWISH AFFAIRS JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND JEWS COLLEGE JEWS’ TEMPORARY SHELTER MACCABEANS, ORDER OF ANCIENT PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND UNITED SYNAGOGUE WIENER LIBRARY Publications

HA-MEORER JEWISH CHRONICLE JEWISH WORLD ZEIT, DIE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Biographies

Academic Life ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL ADLER, ELKAN NATHAN AINSWORTH, HENRY ALDERMAN, GEOFFREY ALEXANDER, SAMUEL BACON, ROGER BALOGH, THOMAS, BARON BARNETT, LIONEL DAVID BAUMAN, ZYGMUNT BAUMGARTEL, ELISE J. BELOFF, MAX BERLIN, SIR ISAIAH BERNARD, EDWARD BEVAN, EDWYN ROBERT BLISS, FREDERICK JONES BOGDANOR, VERNON BOSHAM, HERBERT DE BRONOWSKI, JACOB BUECHLER, ADOLF CASTELL, EDMUND CESARANI, DAVID CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLY CHOTZNER, JOSEPH COHEN, CHAPMAN COHEN, RUTH LOUISA COHN, NORMAN COHN-SHERBOK, DAN COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM COOK, STANLEY ARTHUR COOKE, GEORGE ALBERT COSTA ATHIAS, SOLOMON DA COWEN, ZELMAN COWLEY, SIR ARTHUR ERNEST CROOL, JOSEPH CROWFOOT, JOHN WINTER CUDWORTH, RALPH DAICHES, DAVID DANBY, HERBERT DAUBE, DAVID DAVIDSON, SAMUEL DEUTSCHER, ISAAC DEVONS, ELY DRIVER, SAMUEL ROLLES DUSCHINSKY, CHARLES (Jacob Koppel) EINZIG, PAUL ELIAS, NORBERT ELKIN, ADOLPHUS PETER ELTON, GEOFFREY RUDOLPH ETHERIDGE, JOHN WESLEY FERDINAND, PHILIP FILIPOWSKI, ZEVI HIRSCH FINCH, SIR HENRY FINLEY, SIR MOSES FISHMAN, WILLIAM FORTES, MEYER FOX, CHARLES FRANKEL, SALLY HERBERT

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Academic Life (continued) FRIEDLAENDER, MICHAEL GARSTANG, JOHN GEDDES, ALEXANDER GILBERT, MARTIN GINSBERG, MORRIS GINSBURG, CHRISTIAN DAVID GLUCKMAN, MAX GOLLANCZ, SIR ISRAEL GOODMAN, MARTIN DAVID GOODMAN, TOBIAS GREGORY, SIR THEODORE GRUENHUT, MAX GUEDALLA, PHILIP GUY, PHILIP LANGSTAFFE ORD HALPER, BENZION HART, HERBERT LIONEL ADOLPHUS HARTOG, SIR PHILIP JOSEPH HELLER, JOSEPH ELIJAH HERFORD, ROBERT TRAVERS HIMMELWEIT, HILDEGARD HIRSCHFELD, HARTWIG HOBSBAWM, ERIC JOHN ERNEST HYDE, THOMAS (Hydius) ISRAEL, JONATHAN JACKSON, BERNARD JACOBS, JOSEPH JAHODA, MARIE JENKINSON, SIR HILARY JESSEY, HENRY JOLOWICZ, HERBERT KALDOR, NICHOLAS KALISCH, MARKUS MORITZ KATZ, DAVID S. KENYON, KATHLEEN MARY KIRKPATRICK, ALEXANDER FRANCIS KLEIN, HYMAN KOCHAN, LIONEL KOSMIN, BARRY KUSHNER, TONY LAKATOS, IMRE LAQUEUR, WALTER ZEEV LAWRENCE, THOMAS EDWARD LEVEEN, JACOB LEVI, DAVID LEVI, LEONE LEVY, REUBEN LEWIS, BERNARD LEWIS, I.M. LIGHTFOOT, JOHN LIPMAN, VIVIAN DAVID LIPSON, EPHRAIM LOEWE, HERBERT MARTIN JAMES

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LOEWE, LOUIS LOWTH, ROBERT LYONS, ISRAEL MACALISTER, ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON MACCOBY, HYAM MANNHEIM, KARL MARGOLIOUTH, DAVID SAMUEL MELVILLE, LEWIS MILIBAND, RALPH MOMIGLIANO, ARNALDO DANTE MONTAGU, MONTAGUE FRANCIS ASHLEY MYERS, CHARLES SAMUEL NADEL, SIEGFRED FREDERICK NAMIER, SIR LEWIS NEUBAUER, ADOLF (Abraham) NOVE, ALEC OESTERLEY, WILLIAM OSCAR EMIL PALMER, EDWARD HENRY PARKER, JOHN PARKES, JAMES WILLIAM PATTERSON, DAVID PETRIE, SIR WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS PEVSNER, SIR NIKOLAUS POCOCKE, EDWARD POCOCKE, RICHARD POLLARD, SIDNEY POPPER, SIR KARL RAIMUND POSTAN, MICHAEL MOISSEY PRAWER, SIEGBERT PRINGLE, MIA RADZINOWICZ, SIR LEON RAJAK, TESSA RAPHAEL, CHAIM REITLINGER, GERALD RICARDO, DAVID ROSENTHAL, ERWIN ROTH, CECIL ROWLEY, HAROLD HENRY RUBENS, ALFRED RUBINSTEIN, WILLIAM D. RUTLAND, SUZANNE SAMUEL, RAPHAEL SCHAMA, SIMON SCHAPERA, ISAAC SCHAPIRO, LEONARD SCHONFIELD, HUGH JOSEPH SELIGMAN, CHARLES GABRIEL SHONFIELD, SIR ANDREW SINGER, PETER SLOTKI, ISRAEL WOLF SMITH, SIR GEORGE ADAM SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON SPENCER, JOHN SRAFFA, PIERO STARKEY, JOHN LLEWELYN STEIN, SIR AUREL STEINBERG, AARON TOVEY, DBLOISSIERS TRISTRAM, HENRY BAKER

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TRIVETH, NICHOLAS (Trivetus) TYNDALE, WILLIAM ULLENDORF, EDWARD VAN PRAAGH, WILLIAM VERMES, GEZA WAKEFIELD, ROBERT (Wakfeldus) WALSTON, SIR CHARLES WALTON, BRYAN WASSERSTEIN, BERNARD WEINGREEN, JACOB WEISS, JOSEPH G. WIENER, HAROLD MARCUS WINTER, PAUL WISTRICH, ROBERT WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG WOLF, ABRAHAM WOLF, LUCIEN WOOLLEY, SIR CHARLES LEONARD ZELLICK, GRAHAM ZIMMERN, SIR ALFRED Art ABRAHAMS, IVOR AMSHEWITZ, JOHN HENRY AUERBACH, FRANK BARLIN, FREDERICK WILLIAM BENNETT, SALOMON YOM TOV BLACK, SIR MISHA BOMBERG, DAVID BRYER, MONTE CARO, SIR ANTHONY CASSAB, JUDY COHEN, BERNARD COHEN, HAROLD COOPER, ALEXANDER COSTA, CATHERINE DA DANIELS, ALFRED DAVIS, HENRY DAVID DUVEEN DUVEEN, JOSEPH, LORD ELKAN, BENNO EPSTEIN, SIR JACOB EZEKIEL, ABRAHAM EZEKIEL FEIBUSCH, HANS FOX, EMANUEL PHILIPS FREEDMAN, BARNETT FREUD, LUCIAN GAMES, ABRAM GERTLER, MARK GLUCK, HANNAH GOMBRICH, sir ERNST HANSON, NORMAN LEONARD HART, SOLOMON ALEXANDER HERMER, MANFRED HILLMAN, DAVID INLANDER, HENRY KAHAN, LOUIS KANTOROWICH, ROY KEMPF, FRANZ MOSHE KESTLEMAN, MORRIS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

KIBEL, WOLF KOENIG, GHISHA KORMIS, FRED KOSSOFF, LEON KOTTLER, MOSES KRAMER, JACOB LANGDON, DAVID LASDUN, DENYS LE ROITH, HAROLD HIRSCH LIPSHITZ, ISRAEL LIPPY MENINSKY, BERNARD MEYEROWITZ, HERBERT VLADIMIR NEMON, OSCAR OPPE, ADOLPH RABIN, SAM RIE, DAME LUCIE ROGERS, CLAUDE MAURICE ROSENBERG, EUGENE ROTHENSTEIN (WILLIAM), MICHAEL ROTHENSTEIN, SIR WILLIAM SALAMAN SCHOTTLANDER, BERNARD SCHOTZ, BENNO SOLOMON, SIMEON SOLOMON, SOLOMON JOSEPH SONNABEND, YOLANDA STERN, IRMA SUTTON, PHILIP SZIGETI, IMRE TOPOLSKI, FELIKS TOWNE, CHARLES UHLMAN, FRED ULLMANN, ERNEST VINCZE, PAUL VOGEL, KAREL WALD, HERMAN WEISZ, VICTOR (“Vicky”) WERTHEIMER, ASHER WILSON, “SCOTTIE” WOLMARK, ALFRED ZEC, PHILIP ZIEGLER, ARCHIBALD ZVIA Literature AARONSON, LAZARUS LEONARD ABSE, DANNIE AGUILAR, GRACE ALVAREZ, ALFRED BARON, JOSEPH ALEXANDER BERGNER, HERZ BLAKE, WILLIAM BOAS, FREDERICK SAMUEL BROOKNER, ANITA BROWNING, ROBERT BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, LORD CECIL, HENRY CHARLES, GERDA CHAUCER, GEOFFREY COHEN, JOHN MICHAEL

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Literature (continued) CUMBERLAND, RICHARD DAVIDSON, LIONEL DICKENS, CHARLES D’ISRAELI, ISAAC ELIOT, GEORGE ELLMANN, RICHARD EMANUEL, WALTER LEWIS FALK, BERNARD FARHI, MORIS FARJEON, BENJAMIN LEOPOLD FEINSTEIN, ELAINE FISCH, HAROLD FRAM, DAVID FRANKAU GEORGE, WALTER LIONEL GERSHON, KAREN GLANVILLE, BRIAN LESTER GOLDHAR, PINCHAS GOLDING, LOUIS GOLLER, IZAK GORDIMER, NADINE GORDON, SAMUEL GROSS, JOHN JACOB HALL, OWEN HAMBURGER, MICHAEL HENRY, EMMA HUDSON, STEPHEN JACOB, NAOMI ELLINGTON JACOBSON, DAN JACOBSON, HOWARD JHABVALA, RUTH PRAWER JOSIPOVICI, GABRIEL KATZ, MENKE KERSH, GERALD KINROSS, ALBERT KOPS, BERNARD KROOK, DOROTHEA LANDAU, JUDAH LOEB (Leo) LEAVIS, QUEENIE DOROTHY LEE, SIR SIDNEY LEFTWICH, JOSEPH LEVERSON, ADA LEVERTOV, DENISE LEVINSON, OLGA LEVY, AMY LEVY, BENN WOLFE LEWIS, LEOPOLD DAVIS LIBERMAN, SERGE LITVINOFF, EMANUEL LYONS, ALBERT MICHAEL NEIL MANKOWITZ, WOLF MARCUS, FRANK

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MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER MARTIN, DAVID MERRICK, LEONARD MEYERSTEIN, EDWARD HARRY WILLIAM MIKES, GEORGE MILLIN, SARAH GERTRUDE MILTON, JOHN MULLER, ROBERT NASSAUER, RUDOLF PINTER, HAROLD PINTO, VIVIAN DE SOLA PYE, JAEL HENRIETTA RAPHAEL, FREDERIC RAPHAEL, JOHN N. RODKER, JOHN ROSENBERG, ISAAC RUBENS, BERNICE RUBENS, PAUL ALFRED RUBINSTEIN, HAROLD FREDERICK SASSOON, SIEGFRIED LORRAINE SCOTT, SIR WALTER SHAFFER, SIR PETER SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM SHULMAN, MILTON SILKIN, JON SINCLAIR, CLIVE SPIELVOGEL, NATHAN STEINER, GEORGE STERN, BERTHA GLADYS STRAUS, RALPH STRAUSS, GUSTAVE LOUIS MAURICE SUTRO, ALFRED SYMONS, JULIAN TARN, NATHANIEL WALEY, ARTHUR WATEN, JUDAH WESKER, ARNOLD WOLFE, HUMBERT ZANGWILL, ISRAEL Music ABRAHAM, GERALD AGUILAR, EMANUEL ABRAHAM BARNETT, JOHN BARNETT, JOHN FRANCIS BART, LIONEL BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS (Isaac) BRAHAM, JOHN COHEN, HARRIET COWEN, SIR FREDERIC HYMEN CRANKO, JOHN DU PRE, JACQUELINE ESPINOSA, EDOUARD FRANKEL, BENJAMIN HASKELL, ARNOLD LIONEL HESS, DAME MYRA ISSERLIS, STEVEN JACOBS, ARTHUR (David) KENTNER, LOUIS LEIGH, ADELE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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LEONI, MYER MARKOVA, ALICIA NATHAN, ISAAC RAMBERT, DAME MARIE ROLL, MICHAEL ROSENTHAL, HAROLD (David) RUSSELL (Levy), HENRY SADIE, STANLEY (John) SALAMAN SAMUEL, HAROLD SCHWARZ, RUDOLF SOLOMON TERTIS, LIONEL WASSERZUG (Lomzer), HAYYIM WILLIAMS, CHARLES Popular Culture ABRAHAMS ALEXANDER, MURIEL BALCON, SIR MICHAEL BARNA, VICTOR BERGMANN, RICHARD BERGNER, ELIZABETH BERKOFF, STEVEN BERMANT, CHAIM ICYK BLOOM, CLAIRE BLUMENFELD, RALPH DAVID BROOK, PETER STEPHEN PAUL BROTHERS, RICHARD BUXTON, ANGELA CASTRO, JACOB DE COLLINS, LOTTIE DELFONT, BERNARD ELLIS, VIVIAN EPSTEIN, BRIAN FELDMAN, MARTIN FLANAGAN, BUD FRANKEL, WILLIAM GINGOLD, HERMIONE GOLDSMITH, LEWIS GOLOMBEK, HARRY GRADE, LEW, BARON GUNSBERG, ISIDOR HANBURY, LILY HANRAY, LAWRENCE HARVEY, LAURENCE HOWARD, LESLIE ISAACS, SIR JEREMY JACKSON, HARRY JAMES, DAVID JAMES, SIDNEY JAY, ALLAN KAY, BARRY KNOPFLER, MARK KORDA, SIR ALEXANDER KOSSOFF, DAVID LAWRENCE, GERALD LION, LEON M. LIPZIN, KENI LOM, HERBERT

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

MANNHEIM, LUCIE MENDOZA, DANIEL MIESES, JACQUES (Jacob) MILLER, MARTIN RUDOLF MILTON, ERNEST MITCHELL, YVONNE MOSHINSKY, ELIJAH NEILSON, JULIA NEWTON-JOHN, OLIVIA NORSA, HANNAH PROOPS, MARJORIE REEVE, ADA REISZ, KAREL RENE, ROY SACHS, ANDREW SACHS, LEONARD SAVILLE, VICTOR SCHACH, LEONARD LAZARUS SCHLESINGER, JOHN SELLERS, PETER SLOMAN, HENRY (Solomon) SOFAER, ABRAHAM SOLOMONS, JACK STEINITZ, WILHELM SUZMAN, JANET SYLVIA, SARAH TEITELBAUM, ABRAHAM TZELNIKER, MEIR ULLMAN, TRACEY VAUGHAN, FRANKIE ZUKERTORT, JOHANNES Public & Economic Life AARON OF LINCOLN AARON OF YORK ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM ABRAHAMS, GERaLD ABRAHAMS, SIR LIONEL ADOLPHUS ALBU, SIR GEORGE ALEXANDER ALEXANDER, BERNARD ALEXANDER, MORRIS ALLENBY, EDMUND HENRY HYNMAN, VISCOUNT AMERY, LEOPOLD STENNETT ASHENHEIM ATTLEE, CLEMENT RICHARD, EARL AVIDA, YEHUDA LEIB BAGRIT, SIR LEON BALFOUR, ARTHUR JAMES, EARL OF BARD, BASIL JOSEPH ASHER BARNATO, BARNEY BARNETT, JOEL BARON BARON, BERNHARD BAROU, NOAH BAUME, PETER BEARSTED, MARCUS SAMUEL, FIRST VISCOUNT BEDDINGTON

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 1) England & British Commonwealth Biographies

Public & Economic Life (continued) BEER, RACHEL (Richa) BEIT, SIR ALFRED BELL, FRANCIS, SIR BENAS, BARON LOUIS BENDER, ALFRED PHILIP BENEDICT BEN MOSES OF LINCOLN BENISCH, ABRAHAM BENJAMIN, ERNEST FRANK BERGTHEIL, JONAS BERNSTEIN, SIDNEY LEWIS, BARON BEVIN, ERNEST BISCHOFFSHEIM BLAUBAUM, ELIAS BLOCH, HYMAN MORRIS BLOCH, SIR MAURICE BOAS, ABRAHAM TOBIAS BODLEY, SIR THOMAS BRAMPTON, EDWARD BRAUDE, JACOB BRISCOE, ROBERT BRITTAN, LEON, LORD BRODETSKY, SELIG BROUGHTON, HUGH BUNZL BURTON, SIR MONTAGUE CACERES, SIMON (Jacob) DE CARDOZO, AARON NUÑEZ CARVAJAL, ABRAHAM ISRAEL (Antonio Fernandez) CASS, FRANK CASS, MOSES HENRY CASSEL, SIR ERNEST JOSEPH CAZALET, EDWARD CECIL, HENRY CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH CHASKELSON, ARTHUR CHURCHILL, SIR WINSTON LEONARD SPENCER CLORE, SIR CHARLES COHEN COHEN COHEN, ABRAHAM COHEN, SIR ANDREW COHEN, ARTHUR COHEN, BARRY COHEN, ISRAEL COHEN, SIR JOHN EDWARD COHEN, LIONEL LEONARD, BARON COHEN, SIR ROBERT WALEY COHEN, SAMUEL HERBERT COHEN, SIMON

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CONDER, CLAUDE REGNIER COSTA COTTON, JACK COWEN, JOSEPH CRISPIN, GILBERT (Gislebertus) CROMWELL, OLIVER CURRIE, EDWINA DANBY, MICHAEL DAVIGDOR DAVIS, SIR EDMUND DAVIS, EDWARD DAVIS, SIR ERNEST HYAM DE LIMA, JOSEPH SUASSO DE PASS DE VRIES, M. DEEDES, SIR WYNDHAM DELL, EDMUND DEUTSCH, ANDRE DIAMOND, JOHN, BARON DISRAELI, BENJAMIN DORMIDO, DAVID ABRABANEL (Manuel Martinez) DUGDALE, BLANCHE ELIZABETH CAMPBELL EDELMAN, MAURICE EDEN, SIR ANTHONY, EARL OF AVON EDER, MONTAGUE DAVID EINFELD, SYDNEY ELIAS LE EVESKE ELIAS, NEY ELYAN, SIR ISADORE VICTOR EZRA, DEREK, BARON FELDBERG, LEON FINESTEIN, ISRAEL FINK, THEODORE FINN, JAMES FISHER, SAMUEL, LORD FISHER, SIR WOOLF FONSECA, ALVARO DE FOX, BERNARD JOSHUA FOX, JACOB SAMUEL FRANCIA, FRANCIS FRANCO FRANKLIN FRANKS FREILICH, MAX MELECH GAMALIEL BEN PEDAHZUR GAWLER, GEORGE GELMAN, MANUEL GERTNER, LEVI and MEIR GESTETNER, DAVID GIDEON, SAMSON GITLIN, JACOB GLUCKMAN, HENRY GLUCKSTEIN GOLDBLOOM, JACOB KOPPEL GOLDSMID GOLDSMID, ALBERT EDWARD WILLIAMSON GOLDSMID-STERN-SOLOMONS, SIR DAVID LIONEL GOLDSTONE, RICHARD JOSEPH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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GOLLANCZ, SIR VICTOR GOMPERTZ GOODMAN, PAUL GORDON, LORD GEORGE GRANT, BARON ALBERT GRAUMANN, SIR HARRY GREEN, PHILIP GREENBERG, LEOPOLD GREENBERG, LEOPOLD JACOB GUEDALLA, HAIM GUTNICK HAHN, KURT HAMBURGER, SIR SIDNEY HAMLYN, PAUL, BARON HARRIS, SIR DAVID HARRIS, SIR PERCY HART HART, DANIEL HASSAN, SIR JOSHUA (Abraham) HATRY, CLARENCE CHARLES HEILBRON, ROSE HENOCHSBERG, EDGAR SAMUEL HENRIQUES HENRY, MICHAEL HENRY OF WINCHESTER HERBSTEIN, JOSEPH HORE-BELISHA, LESLIE LORD HORT, ABRAHAM HOWARD, MICHAEL HUGH OF LINCOLN HYAMSON, ALBERT MONTEFIORE ISAAC OF SOUTHWARK ISAACS, SIR ISAAC ALFRED ISAACS, NATHANIEL ISH-KISHOR, EPHRAIM JACOBS, LAZARUS JACOBS, SIMEON JACOBSON, NATHAN JACOBSON, SYDNEY JAFFE, SIR OTTO JANNER, LORD BARNETT JESSEL, SIR GEORGE JOEL, SIR ASHER JOEL, SOLOMON BARNATO (“Solly”) JOSCE OF YORK JOSEPH JURNET OF NORWICH KAGAN, JOSEPH, BARON KAHN, RICHARD FERDINAND, LORD KALLENBACH, HERMANN KALMS, SIR (HAROLD) STANLEY, BARON KARMINSKI, SIR SEYMOUR EDWARD KASRILS, RONNIE KAUFMAN, SIR GERALD KAYE, SIR EMMANUEL KENTRIDGE, MORRIS KENTRIDGE, SIR SYDNEY KIMCHE, JON KISCH KISSIN, HARRY, BARON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

KOPELOWITZ, LIONEL KUPER, SIMON MEYER LANDA, ABRAM LANDA, MYER JACK LANGERMANN, MAX LASKI LASKI, HAROLD JOSEPH LAUTERPACHT, SIR HERSCH LAWSON LEIBLER, ISI JOSEPH LEITNER, GOTTLEIB LEON, ANTHONY JAMES LEVENE, PETER, BARON LEVER, NORMAN HAROLD LEVEY, BARNETT LEVIN, NATHANIEL WILLIAM LEVIN SMITH, SIR ARCHIBALD LEVY, SIR ALBERT LEVY, BENJAMIN LEVY, SIR DANIEL LEVY, JOSEPH LANGLEY LEVY, MICHAEL ABRAHAM, BARON OF MILL HILL LEWIS, SIR GEORGE LEWIS, HYMAN LEWIS, SAMUEL LICORICIA OF WINCHESTER LINCOLN, TREBITSCH LINDO LITTMAN, JOSEPH AARON LLOYD GEORGE, DAVID LOPES LOVELL, LEOPOLD SOLOMON LOW LOWY, FRANK LYONS, SIR JOSEPH MACCOBY, HAYYIM ZUNDEL MAGNUS MAGNUS, SOLOMON WOLFF MAISELS, ISRAEL AARON MANCROFT MANDELSON, PETER MANNHEIM, HERMANN MARKS, HARRY HANANEL MARKS, SAMUEL MARKS, SIMON BARON MARRE, ALAN, SIR MATALON, ELI MAXWELL, ROBERT MAYER, SIR ROBERT MEDINA, SIR SOLOMON DE MEINERTZHAGEN, RICHARD HENRY MENDES MERTON MEYERSTEIN, EDWARD WILLIAM MICHAELIS, SIR ARCHIE MICHAELIS, SIR MAX MIKARDO, IAN MILLETT, SIR PETER, BARON MILLIN, PHILIP

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Public & Economic Life (continued) MINC, HILARY MISHCON, VICTOR, BARON MOCATTA MONASH, SIR JOHN MOND MONTAGU MONTAGU, LILY MONTEFIORE, JOSEPH BARROW MONTEFIORE, JOSHUA MONTEFIORE, JUDITH MONTEFIORE, SIR MOSES MONTEFIORE, SEBAG-MONTEFIORE MOONMAN, ERIC MORRIS, HENRY HARRIS MORRIS, NATHAN MOSENTHAL MOSER, JACOB MOSER, SIR CLAUDE MOSES, MARCUS MOSS, CELIA AND MARION MYER, SIDNEY BAEVSKI MYERS, SIR ARTHUR MELZINER MYERS, ASHER ISAAC MYERS, SIR MICHAEL NATHAN NATHAN, DAVID NATHAN, HARRY LOUIS, BARON NATHAN, JOSEPH EDWARD NATHAN, MANFRED NATHAN, MULLA IBRAHIM NAVARRO, ABRAHAM NICHOLAS, EDWARD NORDEN OCHBERG, ISAAC OLIPHANT, LAURENCE OPPENHEIM, LASSA FRANCIS LAWRENCE OPPENHEIM, SALLY BARONESS OPPENHEIMER, SIR ERNEST PACIFICO, DAVID PAIVA, JACQUES PALGRAVE PATTERSON, JOHN HENRY PHILLIPS, SIR LIONEL PHILLIPS, MARION PICCIOTTO POLACK, JOEL SAMUEL PORTER, SIR LESLIE PRATT, RICHARD PRYNNE, WILLIAM PULVERMACHER, OSCAR PULZER, PETER G.J. RACHMAN, PETER

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RAISMAN, SIR ABRAHAM JEREMY RAPHAEL, ALEXANDER RATHBONE, ELEANOR RAYNE, SIR MAX, BARON READING READING, FANNY RIFKIND, SIR MALCOLM ROBSON, WILLIAM ALEXANDER RODRIGUES, BARTHOLOMEW ROSENBLUM, SIGMUND GEORGIEVICH ROTHSCHILD ROTHSCHILD, JAMES ARMAND DE ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL CHARLES JACOB, FOURTH BARON ROTHSCHILD SAATCHI, CHARLES SACHER, HARRY SALMON SALMON, ALEXANDER SALMON, CYRIL BARNET, BARON SALOMONS, SIR DAVID SALOMONS, SIR JULIAN EMANUEL SAMUDA, JOSEPH SAMUEL, EDWIN, SECOND VISCOUNT SAMUEL, HAROLD, BARON SAMUEL OF WYCH CROSS SAMUEL, HERBERT LOUIS, FIRST VISCOUNT SAMUEL, HOWARD SAMUEL, SIR SAUL SAMUEL, SYDNEY MONTAGU SAMUEL, WILFRED SAMPSON SAMUELSON, SIR BERNHARD SASSOON SASSOON, VIDAL SCHLESINGER, ISIDORE WILLIAM SCHOMBERG SCHON, FRANK SCHUSTER SCHWARZ, HARRY SCOTT, CHARLES PRESTWICH SEGAL, SAMUEL, BARON SELDEN, JOHN SELIG, PHINEAS SELIGMAN, HERBERT SPENCER SHERMAN, ARCHIE SHILL, LOUIS SHINWELL, EMANUEL, BARON SHORT, RENEE SIEFF, ISRAEL MOSES, BARON SIEFF, REBECCA SILBERMANN, ABRAHAM MORITZ SILKIN, LEWIS, FIRST BARON SILVERMAN, SIDNEY SIMON SIMON, SIR JOHN SIMON, SIR LEON SLATER, OSCAR SLOVO, JOE SMORGON SMUTS, JAN CHRISTIAAN SOLOMON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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SOLOMON SOLOMON, BERTHA SOMEN, ISRAEL SONNTAG, JACOB SOSKICE, SIR FRANK SOUTHWOOD, JULIUS SALTER ELIAS, FIRST VISCOUNT SPEYER, SIR EDGAR SPIELMAN (-N) STEIN, LEONARD STERLING, SIR JEFFREY STERN STERN, SIR FREDERICK CLAUDE STERN, PHILIP COHEN STERNBERG, SIR SIGMUND STORRS, SIR RONALD STRAUSS, GEORGE RUSSEL, BARON SUGAR, SIR ALAN SUGERMAN, SIR BERNARD SUZMAN, HELEN SYKES, SIR MARK SYMONDS, PAUL TAYLOR, SIR PETER MURRAY THATCHER, MARGARET THORN, SIR JULES TOLAND, JOHN TONNA, CHARLOTTE E. TRASKE, JOHN TUCK, RAPHAEL VAN OVEN VOGEL, SIR JULIUS WAGG WALEY WARBURG, FREDERIK WARBURG, SIR SIEGMUND WARREN, SIR CHARLES WAY, LEWIS WEDGWOOD, JOSIAH CLEMENT, FIRST BARON WEIDENFELD, GEORGE, BARON WEINSTOCK, SIR ARNOLD, BARON WEIZMANN, CHAIM WELENSKY, SIR ROY (Roland) WERTH, ALEXANDER WIGODER, BASIL THOMAS, BARON WILSON, SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, HAROLD WINGATE, ORDE WOLFENSOHN, JAMES D. WOLFF, GUSTAV WOLFSON, SIR ISAAC WOOLF, SIR HARRY, BARON WORMS, DE WYNN, SAMUEL XIMENES, SIR DAVID XIMENES, SIR MORRIS YARROW, SIR ALFRED YOUNG, DAVID IVOR, BARON YOUNG OF GRAFFHAM YOUNG, STUART

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Religion ABELSON, JOSHUA ABENDANA, JACOB BEN JOSEPH ABRAHAMS ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL ABRAMSKY, YEHEZKEL ADLER, HERMANN ADLER, MICHAEL ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS APPLE, RAYMOND ARTOM BOTEACH, SHMUEL BRASCH, RUDOLPH BRODIE, SIR ISRAEL CASPER, BERNARD MOSES COHEN, FRANCIS LYON DANGLOW, JACOB DAVIS, ALEXANDER BARNARD ELIJAH MENAHEM BEN MOSES EPSTEIN, ISIDORE FERBER, ZEVI HIRSCH GAON, SOLOMON GOLLANCZ, SIR HERMANN GRONER, DOVID YITZCHOK GRUNFELD, ISIDOR GRYN, HUGO HARRIS, CYRIL KITCHENER HERTZ, JOSEPH HERMAN HERZOG, ISAAC HIRSCHEL, SOLOMON HYAMSON, MOSES JACOB BEN JUDAH OF LONDON JACOBS, LOUIS JAKOBOVITS, IMMANUEL JOSEPH, MORRIS KAHANA, KOPPEL LEVI, JOHN SIMON MARGOLIOUTH, MOSES MATTUCK, ISRAEL ISIDOR MAYBAUM, IGNAZ MELDOLA, RAPHAEL MONTEFIORE, CLAUDE JOSEPH GOLDSMID MOSES BEN YOM-TOV NATHAN, ABRAHAM NIETO, DAVID NIETO, ISAAC ORNSTEIN, ABRAHAM FREDERICK PERLZWEIG, MAURICE L. PORUSH, ISRAEL RABINOWITZ, JOEL RABINOWITZ, LOUIS ISAAC ROBERT OF READING ROMAIN, JONATHAN A. ROSENBAUM, MORRIS SACKS, JONATHAN HENRY SCHIFF, DAVID TEVELE SCHONFELD, VICTOR SILVA, JOSHUA DA SINGER, SIMEON SOLA, DE

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 1) England & British Commonwealth Biographies (continued) Science ANDRADE, EDWARD NEVILLE DA COSTA AYRTON, HERTHA BACHARACH, ALFRED LOUIS BARNETT, SIR LOUIS EDWARD BERNAL, JOHN DESMOND BLOK, ARTHUR BODMER, SIR WALTER BONDI, SIR HERMANN BRAUDE, ERNEST ALEXANDER BRENNER, SYDNEY BRODETSKY, SELIG CARVALLO, JULES CHAIN, SIR ERNST BORIS COHEN, HENRY BARON COHEN, JULIUS BEREND COHEN, SIR PHILIP COPISAROW, MAURICE COSTA, EMANUEL MENDES DA FINLAY-FREUNDLICH, ERWIN FINNISTON, SIR HAROLD MONTAGUE (Monty) FOX, SIR JOHN JACOB FRANKLIN, ROSALIND ELSIE FREUD, ANNA FRIEDLANDER, KATE FRISCH, OTTO ROBERT FROHLICH, HERBERT GABOR, DENNIS GAUNSE, JOACHIM GOLDSTEIN, RICHARD FRANK GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY GUTTMANN, SIR LUDWIG HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM HEILBRON, SIR IAN MORRIS JOSEPHSON, BRIAN DAVID KALNITSKY, GEORGE KATZ, SIR BERNARD KLEIN, MELANIE REIZES KLUG, AARON KORNBERG, HANS LEO KREBS, SIR HANS ADOLF KROTO, SIR HAROLD W. LACHMANN, SIR PETER JULIUS LEVINSTEIN, HERBERT LEVY, HYMAN LEWIS, SIR AUBREY JULIAN LEWKOWITSCH, JULIUS LOCKSPEISER, BEN, SIR LOEWE, FRITZ PHILIPP MARGULES, MAX MELDOLA, RAPHAEL MENDELSSOHN, KURT ALFRED GEORG MILLER, EMANUEL

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MORDELL, LOUIS JOEL NEUBERGER, ALBERT NOSSAL, SIR GUSTAV ORENSTEIN, ALEXANDER JEREMIAH PEIERLS, SIR RUDOLF ERNST PENN, JACK PEPPER, JOSEPH PERUTZ, MAX FERDINAND POLANYI, MICHAEL QUASTEL, JUDAH HIRSCH RAPHAEL, RALPH ALEXANDER ROSENHEAD, LOUIS ROSENHEIM, MAX (Leonard), BARON ROSENHEIM, OTTO ROTBLAT, SIR JOSEPH ROTH, KLAUS FRIEDRICH ROTH, SIR MARTIN ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL MAYER VICTOR, LORD SALAMAN, REDCLIFFE NATHAN SCHRIRE, VELVA SCHUSTER, SIR ARTHUR SEMON, SIR FELIX SIMON, SIR FRANCIS EUGENE SINGER, CHARLES JOSEPH STENGEL, ERWIN SYLVESTER, JAMES JOSEPH TABOR, DAVID TABOR, HARRY ZVI TOBIAS, PHILLIP VALLENTINE TOLANSKY, SAMUEL VANE, SIR JOHN R. VOGEL, ARTHUR ISRAEL WEISS, JOSEPH JOSHUA WINSTON, ROBERT, BARON WOLFF, CHARLOTTE YOUNG, ALEC DAVID YUDKIN, JOHN ZUCKERMAN, SOLLY, LORD 2) France, Luxembourg & Belgium Main Surveys

BELGIUM FRANCE FRENCH LITERATURE General Entries

ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE ASSIMILATION FINALY CASE FRENCH REVOLUTION JEWISH STUDIES PASTOUREAUX SAINT-SIMONISM SANHEDRIN, FRENCH Communities

AGDE AGEN AIX-EN-PROVENCE

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ALBI ALES ALSACE AMMERSCHWIHR ANGERS ANGOULEME ANJOU ANTWERP APT ARLES AUVERGNE AUXERRE AVIGNON BAIGNEUX-LES-JUIFS BAR-LE-DUC BAYONNE BEAUCAIRE BEDARRIDES BELFORT BENFELD BERGHEIM BESANÇON BEZIERS BIARRITZ BIDACHE BISCHHEIM BLOIS BORDEAUX BOULAY BOURG-EN-BRESSE BOURGES BRAY-SUR-SEINE BRESSE BRITTANY BRUSSELS BURGUNDY CADENET CAEN CAPESTANG CARCASSONNE CARPENTRAS CASTELSARRASIN CAVAILLON CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE CHALON-SUR-SAÔNE CHAMBERY CHAMPAGNE CHARLEVILLE CHARTRES CHÂTEAU-LANDON CHÂTEAU-THIERRY CHINON CLERMONT-FERRAND CLUNY COLMAR COMTAT VENAISSIN CORBEIL CREMIEU DAMPIERRE-DE-LAUBE DAUPHINE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

DIGNE DIJON DRAGUIGNAN DREUX ENSISHEIM EPERNAY ÉTAMPES ETTENDORF EVREUX FALAISE FOIX FONTAINEBLEAU FORCALQUIERS FRANCHE-COMTÉ GASCONY GEVAUDAN GHENT GRENOBLE GUEBWILLER HAGUENAU HAVRE, LE HEGENHEIM HYÈRES INGWILLER ISLE-SUR-LA-SORGUE, L’ JOIGNY JUNGHOLZ LANGUEDOC LIÉGE LILLE LIMOGES LIMOUX LODEVE LONS-LE-SAUNIER LORRAINE LUNEL LUNEVILLE LUXEMBOURG LYONS MÂCON MANOSQUE MANS, LE MARSEILLES MELUN METZ MONTELIMAR MONTEREAU MONTPELLIER MORHANGE MULHOUSE NANCY NANTES NARBONNE NEVERS NICE NIMES NYONS OBERNAI ORANGE ORLEANS

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 2) France, Luxembourg & Belgium Communities (continued) PAMIERS PARIS PERPIGNAN PEYREHORADE PHALSBOURG POITIERS POITOU PONTOISE POSQUIERES PROVENCE PROVINS PUY (-EN -VELAY), LE RAMERUPT RHEIMS RIBEAUVILLE ROCHELLE, LA ROSENWILLER (Rosenweiler) ROSHEIM ROUEN ROUFFACH ROUSSILLON SAINT-DENIS SAINTES SAINT-GILES SAINT-JEAN-DE-LUZ SAINT-PAUL-TROIS CHATEAUX SAINT-REMY-DE-PROVENCE SAINT-SYMPHORIEN-DOZON SARREGUEMINES SAVERNE SAVOY SELESTAT SENLIS SENS SERRES SISTERON SOISSONS SOULTZ (Sulz) STRASBOURG TARASCON THIONVILLE TOUL TOULON TOULOUSE TOURAINE TOURS TRETS TREVOUX TROYES VALENCE VALREAS VERDUN VERDUN-SUR-GARONNE

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ACTION FRANCAISE ASSEMBLY OF JEWISH NOTABLES CENTRE DE DOCUMENTATION JUIVE CONTEMPORAINE COMITE DES DELEGATIONS JUIVES CONSISTORY LES COLLOQUES DES INTELLECTUELS JUIFS DE LANGUE FRANCAISE MUSEE D’ART ET DE HISTOIRE DU JUDAISME SEMINAIRE ISRAELITE DE FRANCE SOCIETE DES ETUDES JUIVES UNION GENERALE DES ISRAELITES DE FRANCE (U.G.I.F.) Publications

CROIX, LA REVUE DES ETUDES JUIVES UNIVERS ISRAELITE Biographies

Academic Life ABEL, LOUIS FELIX ABELARD, PETER ADLER, ALEXANDRE AFTALION, ALBERT ALKAN, ALPHONSE AMADO LEVY-VALENSI, ELIANE ANCHEL, ROBERT ARON, RAYMOND ARON, ROBERT ATTALI, JACQUES BADINTER, ELIZABETH BASCH, VICTOR GUILLAUME BEGIN, EMILE-AUGUSTE BENDA, JULIEN BENRUBI, ISAAC BENSOUSSAN, GEORGES BENVENISTE, EMILE BERGSON, HENRI LOUIS BLOCH, CAMILLE BLOCH, GUSTAVE BLOCH, JULES BLOCH, MARC BLUMENKRANZ, BERNHARD BODIN, JEAN BONALD, LOUIS GABRIEL AMBROISE, VICOMTE DE BONFRÈRE, JAQUES BREAL, MICHEL BRUNSCHVICG, LEON BRUNSCHVIG, ROBERT CAHEN, ISIDORE CAQUOT, ANDRE CHALIER, CATHERINE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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CLERMONT-GANNEAU, CHARLES COHEN, GUSTAVE COHEN, MARCEL COHEN, ROBERT COHN, ALBERT DANIEL-ROPS, HENRI DARMESTETER, ARSENE DEPPING, GEORGES-BERNARD DERENBURG DERRIDA, JACQUES DIDEROT, DENIS DIDI-HUBERMAN, GEORGES DRAI, RAPHAEL DUPONT-SOMMER, ANDRE DURKHEIM, EMILE EISENMANN, LOUIS ERLANGER, PHILIPPE FINKIELKRAUT, ALAIN FOURIER, FRANCOIS MARIE CHARLES FRANCK, ADOLPHE FREY, JEAN BAPTISTE FRIEDMANN, GEORGES GAFFAREL (Gaffarellus), JACQUES GENEBRARD, GILBERT GHIRSHMAN, ROMAN GINSBURGER, ERNEST GLOTZ, GUSTAVE GOLDMANN, LUCIEN GOTTSCHALK, MAX GREGORY OF TOURS GUERIN, VICTOR GURVITCH, GEORGES HALBWACHS, MAURICE HALEVY, ELIE HALEVY, JOSEPH HALEVY, MEYER ABRAHAM HALPHEN HALPHEN, LOUIS HAUSER, HENRI HOLBACH, PAUL HENRI DIETRICH, BARON D’ HOURWITZ, ZALKIND ISAAC, JULES MARX JANKELEVITCH, VLADIMIR KAHN, LEON KASPI, ANDRE KOJEVE, ALEXANDRE KRIEGEL, ANNIE LA BOETIE, ETIENNE DE LA PEYRERE, ISAAC LAMBERT, MAYER LE FÈVRE DE LA BODERIE, GUY LEON, XAVIER LÉVI, SYLVAIN LÉVI ALVARÈS, DAVID LEVI BEN ABRAHAM BEN HAYYIM LEVINAS, EMMANUEL LÉVI-PROVENÇAL, EVARISTE LeVI-STRAUSS, CLAUDE LÉVY, ARTHUR LÉVY, BENNY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

LÉVY-BRUHL, LUCIEN LÉVY, ISIDORE LÉVY, PAUL LODS, ADOLPHE LOISY, ALFRED FIRMIN MAES, ANDREAS MAUSS, MARCEL MERCIER, JEAN MONTESQUIEU, CHARLES LOUIS DE SECONDAT, BARON DE LA BREDE ET DE MOPSIK, CHARLES MORIN, EDGAR MUNK, SOLOMON NATHAN, MORDECAI NEHER, ANDRÉ OPPERT, JULES JULIUS OUAKNIN, MARC-ALAIN PALLIÈRe, AIMÉ PARAF, PIERRE PARROT, ANDRÉ PASCAL, BLAISE PEREIRE, EMILE (Jacob) and ISAAC PERELMAN, CHAIM PERROT, JEAN PLANTAVIT DE LA PAUSE, JEAN POLIAKOV, LÉON POSENER, GEORGES HENRI POSTEL, GUILLAUME RABBINOWICZ, ISRAEL MICHEL RAOUL GLABER RAUH, FREDERIC REINACH RENAN, ERNEST REVAH, ISRAEL SALVATOR ROUSSEAU, JEAN JACQUES RUEFF, JACQUES SACY, ANTOINE ISAAC SILVESTRE DE SALVADOR, JOSEPH SAULCY, LOUIS FELICIEN DE JOSEPH CAIGNART SCALIGER, JOSEPH JUSTUS SCHEID, ELIE SCHUHL, PIERRE-MAXIME SCHWAB, MOISE SCHWARTZENBERG, ROGER-GERARD SCHWOB, MARCEL SEPHIHA, HAIM VIDAL SLOUSCHZ, NAHUM SPERBER, DAN STEIN, HENRI STRAUSS-KAHN, DOMINIQUE TRIGANO, SHMOUEL URI, PIERRE EMMANUEL VAJDA, GEORGES VAUX, ROLAND DE VEIL, LEWIS (Daniel) COMPIÉGNE DE VIDAL-NAQUET, PIERRE VINCENT, LOUIS HUGUES VOGÜÉ, CHARLES EUGENE MELCHOIR, COMTE DE

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Academic Life (continued) VOLTAIRE WAHL, JEAN WEIL, SIMONE WEILL, RAYMOND WIEVIORKA, ANNETTE WILLIAM OF AUVERGNE WORMS, RENE ZAFRANI, HAIM Art ADLER, JULES ALDROPHE, ALFRED-PHILIBERT ALECHINSKY, PIERRE ASTRUC, ZACHARIE ATLAN, JEAN BACHI, RAPHAEL BERNSTEIN-SINAIEFF, LEOPOLD BLOC, ANDRE BRENNER, FREDERIC CALLE, SOPHIE CARO-DELVAILLE, HENRI DELAUNAY-TERK, SONIA FRIEDLAENDER, JOHNNY GRUMBACH, ANTOINE IZIS KAGAN, ELIE KIKOINE, MICHEL KISLING, MOISE KOLNIK, ARTHUR LE BÉ, GUILLAUME LÉVY-DHURMER, LUCIEN LOEVENSTEIN, FEDOR MANÉ-KATZ MARCOUSSIS (Marcous), LOUIS MEYER-LEVY, CLAUDE MILICH, ADOLPHE MONDZAIN, SIMON MUTER (Mutermilch), MELA ORLOFF, CHANA PAILES, ISAAC (Jacques) PERSITZ, ALEXANDRE PICART, BERNARD PISSARRO, CAMILLE PONTREMOLI, EMMANUEL PRESSMANE, JOSEPH RAY, MAN SIMON, JEAN HENRI SOLDI (-Colbert), EMILE-ARTHUR SOUTINE, CHAIM TIM WIENER WILDENSTEIN

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ZAK, EUGENE Literature ABECASSIS, ELIETTE ARÉGA, LÉON ARGENS, JEAN BAPTISTE DE BOYER BENICHOU, PAUL BERL, EMMANUEL BERNARD, TRISTAN BERNSTEIN, HENRI-LEON BERRI, CLAUDE BLANCHOT, MAURICE BLOCH, JEAN-RICHARD BLOCH-MICHEL, JEAN BLOY, LEON BOBER, ROBERT CHATEAUBRIAND, FRANÇOIS RENé, VICOMTE DE CIXOUS, HELENE CLAUDEL, PAUL COHEN, ALBERT CRéMIEUX, BENJAMIN CROISSET, FRANCIS DE DUVERNOIS, HENRI EYDOUX, EMMANUEL FLEG, EDMOND (Flegenheimer) FOA, ESTHER EUGéNIE REBECCA FRANCK, HENRI GARY, ROMAIN GOLL, YVAN GRUMBERG, JEAN-CLAUDE HALEVY HALEVY, ELIE HALFON HARRY, MYRIAM HERTZ, HENRI IKOR, ROGER JABèS, EDMOND JACOB, MAX KAHN, GUSTAVE KESSEL, JOSEPH LACRETELLE, JACQUES DE LAHARANNE, ERNEST LANGFUS, ANNA LAZARE, BERNARD LEVY, BERNARD-HENRI LUNEL, ARMAND LUNEL, JACOB DE MANDEL, ARNOLD MAUROIS, ANDRE MEMMI, ALBERT MENDES, CATULLE MIKHAEL, EPHRAIM MILBAUER, JOSEPH MILOSZ, OSCAR MODIANO, PATRICK MONTAIGNE, MICHEL DE MORHANGE, PIERRE NEMIROWSKY, IRENE NEYRAC, PIERRE PéGUY, CHARLES-PIERRE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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PEREC, GEORGES PORTO-RICHE, GEORGES DE PROUST, MARCEL RACINE, JEAN SACHS, MAURICE SARRAUTE, NATHALIE SCHEINERT, DAVID SCHULSINGER, JOSEPH SCHWARZ-BART, ANDRé SEE, EDMOND SPERBER, MANES SPIRE, ANDRE SUARES, ANDRE THARAUD, JEROME and JEAN THEMANLYS, PASCAL VERCORS VIGéE, CLAUDE WEILL, ALEXANDRE ABRAHAM ZOLA, EMILE Music ALKAN (Morhange), CHARLES HENRI-VALENTIN BABILéE, JEAN BLOCH, ANDRE BLUM, RENé BRÉVAL, LUCIENNE CHAGRIN, FRANCIS COLONNE, JULES (Judah) EDOUARD DAVID, ERNEST DUKAS, PAUL ERLANGER, CAMILLE GEDALGE, ANDRE HALÉVY, JACQUES (François) FROMENTAL ÉLIE JONAS, EMILE LEVY LÉVY, LAZARE MACHABEY, ARMAND MILHAUD, DARIUS OFFENBACH, JACQUES ROLAND-MANUEL ROSENTHAL, MANUEL (Emmanuel) TUGAL, PIERRE WALDTEUFEL, EMIL WIENER, JEAN WOLFF, ALBERT LOUIS WORMSER, ANDRÉ (Alphonse-Toussaint) Popular Culture AIMÉE, ANOUK BACRI, JEAN-PIERRE BARBARA BAUR, HARRY BERNHARDT, SARAH BERNSTEIN, OSIP SAMOILOVICH BLOWITZ, HENRI GEORGES STEPHANE ADOLPHE OPPER DE BOBER, ROBERT DARMON, PIERRE ELKABBACH, JEAN-PIERRE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

EPSTEIN, JEAN HELD, ANNA HIRSCH, ROBERT PAUL JANOWSKI, DAVID MARKELOVICH KORENE, VERA LANZMANN, CLAUDE LELOUCH, CLAUDE LINDER, MAX MACIAS, ENRICO MARCEAU, MARCEL MNOUCHKINE, ALEXANDRE MOATI, SERGE OURY, GERARD RACHEL SIGNORET, SIMONE TARTAKOVER, SAVIELLY GRIGORYEVICH Public & Economic Life ABBA MARI BEN ISAAC OF ST. GILLES AGOBARD ALCAN, ALKAN ALPHONSE OF POITIERS ALTARAS, JACQUES ISAAC ANSPACH, PHILIPPE ANTOINE, NICOLAS ASHKENAZI, LEON ATTALI, BERNARD BADINTER, ROBERT BAIL, CHARLES-JOSEPH BAMBERGER, EDOUARD-ADRIEN BARRÉS, AUGUSTE MAURICE BÉDARRIDE, ISRAÉL (Isaiah) BEER-BING, ISAIAH BERNHEIM, LOUIS BERR, JACOB BERR (de Turique), MICHEL BERR ISAAC BERR DE TURIQUE BEUGNOT, AUGUSTE ARTHUR BIGART, JACQUES BISCHOFFSHEIM BLEUSTEIN-BLANCHET, MARCEL BLOCH, PIERRE BLUM, LEON BLUMEL, ANDRE BOKANOWSKI, MAURICE BOURGEOIS, JEAN BROGLIE, VICTOR-CLAUDE, PRINCE DE CALMER, MOSES ELIEZER LIEFMANN CASSIN, RENÉ SAMUEL CERFBERR, HERZ CERFBERR, MAXIMILIEN-CHARLES ALPHONSE CHARLEMAGNE CHARLES IV CHARLES V CHARLES VI CHILDEBERT I CITROËN, ANDRÉ GUSTAVE CLERMONT-TONNERRE, COUNT STANISLAS DE

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Public & Economic Life (continued) CLOOTS, JEAN BAPTISTE DU VAL-DE-GRACE, BARON DE CLOTHAIRE II COHEN, ISAAC KADMI COHEN, JOSEPH COLBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE COPE, JEAN-FRANCOIS CREHANGE, ALEXANDRE CREMIEUX, ISAAC ADOLPHE CUKIERMAN, ROGER DANIEL, JEAN DARMON, AMRAM DARQUIER DE PELLEPOIX, LOUIS DASSAULT, DARIUS PAUL DASSAULT, MARCEL DAUDET, LEON DAVIN DE CADEROUSSE DEUTSCH DE LA MEURTHE, HENRI DEUTZ, SIMON DRACH, PAUL-LOUIS-BERNARD (David) DRAY, JULIEN DREYFUS, ALFRED DRUMONT, EDOUARD-ADOLPHE DU BARTAS, GUILLAUME DE SALLUSTE EICHTHAL, GUSTAVE D’ ELKANN, JEAN-PAUL ENNERY, JONAS D’ ERLANGER, MICHEL ERRERA, PAUL JOSEPH FABIUS, LAURENT FISCHER, JEAN FITERMAN, CHARLES FOULD FURTADO, ABRAHAM GAMZON, ROBERT GINIEWSKI, PAUL GIROUD, FRANCOISE GOBINEAU, JOSEPH ARTHUR, COMTE DE GOUDCHAUX, MICHEL GOUGENOT DES MOUSSEAUX, HENRI GRADIS GRANDVAL (Hirsch-Ollendorf), GILBERT YVES EDMOND GRÉGOIRE, HENRI BAPTISTE GRESH, ALAIN GRUMBACH, SALOMON GUNZBURG, NIKO GUTT, CAMILLE HAMON, LEO HYMANS, PAUL JAURÈS, JEAN LEON JAVAL

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JOHN II (“The Good”) JUSTER, JEAN KAHN, ALBERT KAHN, JEAN KAHN, LOUIS KARPEL, HERMAN KLEIN, THEODORE (Theo) KLOTZ, LOUIS-LUCIEN KOENIGSWARTER KOUCHNER, BERNARD KRASUCKI, HENRI KRIEGEL-VALRIMONT, MAURICE LAMBERT, AIMÉ LAMBERT, RAYMOND RAOUL LANG, JACK LANGALLERIE, PHILIPPE GENTIL DE LAVAL, PIERRE LAZARD LAZAREFF, PIERRE LAZURICK, ROBERT LECACHE, BERNARD LEHMANN, LEONCE LEVAILLANT, ISAIE LEVEN, NARCISSE LEVY LEVY, ABRAHAM EUGENE LÉVY, RAPHAEL LEVY, SAM SAADI LOUIS LUSTIGER, JEAN-MARIE ARON LYON-CAEN, CHARLES LÉON MACHAUT, DENIS DE MALESHERBES, CHRETIEN GUILLAUME DE LA-MOIGNON DE MANDEL, GEORGES MANESSIER DE VESOUL MARITAIN, JACQUES MAURRAS, CHARLES MAYER, DANIEL MAYER, RENÉ MENDES-FRANCE, PIERRE MEYER,LEON MIRABEAU, HONORE GABRIEL RIQUETI, COMTE DE MIRES, JULES ISAAC MOCH, JULES MOCH, JULES SALVADOR NAPOLEON BONAPARTE NAQUET, ALFRED JOSEPH NATHAN, VENGUESSONE NETTER, CHARLES NEVEJEAN, YVONNE NOSTRADAMUS (Michel de Nostre-Dame) OSIRIS, DANIEL ILLFA OULIF, CHARLES NARCISSE PEREIRE, JACOB RODRIGUES PHILIP PICARD, EDMOND PLANTIN, CHRISTOPHE PRISCUS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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PROUDHON, PIERRE JOSEPH PULCELINA OF BLOIS RAPPOPORT, CHARLES RAYNAL, DAVID REINACH ROEDERER, COUNT PIERRE LOUIS ROTHSCHILD ROTHSCHILD, BARON EDMOND JAMES DE ROTTEMBOURG, HENRI ROULEAU, ERIC (Elie Rafoul) SCHILLER, ARMAND SCHRAMECK, ABRAHAM SCHUMANN, MAURICE SEE SEE, LEOPOLD STERN, JACQUES TORRES, HENRY TOUSSENEL, ALPHONSE VALABRÈGUE, MARDOCHÉE GEORGES VALLAT, XAVIER VEIL, SIMONE VENEZIANI, EMMANUEL FELIX VIBERT OF NOGENT VIGENERE, BLAISE DE WAHL, JACQUES HENRI WIENER, ERNEST EDOUARD WORMSER, OLIVIER BORIS ZAY, JEAN Religion ABBA MARI BEN ELIGDOR BEBE, PAULINE BODO ELIEZER OF TOUL FARHI, DANIEL FARHI, GABRIEL HAYYIM BEN HANANEL HA-KOHEN HIRSCHLER, RENE ISIDOR, LAZARE JACOB BEN MOSES OF BAGNOLS JACOB OF MARVEGE JACOB OF ORLEANS JACOB OF PONT-SAINTE-MAXENCE JONATHAN BEN DAVID HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL JOSEPH BEN ASHER OF CHARTRES JOSEPH BEN BARUCH OF CLISSON JOSEPH BEN MOSES OF TROYES JOSEPH HAZZAN BEN JUDAH OF TROYES JUDAH BEN ISAAC (Sir Leon of Paris) JUDAH BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN JUDAH BEN NATHAN KAHN, ZADOC KAPLAN, JACOB KARA, JOSEPH KARMI (Cremieux) KIMHI, DAVID KIMHI, JOSEPH KLEIN, SALOMON WOLF KOKHAVI, DAVID BEN SAMUEL KRYGIER, RIVON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

LATTES, ISAAC BEN JACOB LATTES, JUDAH LEHMANN, JOSEPH LEVI BEN GERSHOM (Ralbag) LÉVI, ISRAEL LÉVY, ALFRED LÉVY, ISAAC LÉVY, SAMUEL LIBER, MAURICE LOEB, ISIDORE LUBETZKY, JUDAH MANOAH OF NARBONNE MEIR BEN ISAAC OF TRINQUETAILLE MEIR BEN SAMUEL OF RAMERUPT MEIR BEN SIMEON HA-ME’ILI MEIRI, MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON MENAHEM BEN HELBO MESHULLAM BEN JACOB OF LUNEL MESHULLAM BEN MOSES MESHULLAM BEN NATHAN OF MELUN MOSES BEN ABRAHAM OF PONTOISE MOSES BEN JACOB OF COUCY MOSES BEN JOSHUA OF NARBONNE MOSES OF EVREUX NETHANEL OF CHINON NISSIM BEN MOSES OF MARSEILLES OVADIA, NISSIM PEREZ BEN ELIJAH OF CORBEIL PROVENÇAL, JACOB BEN DAVID RASHI (Solomon ben Isaac) REUBEN BEN HAYYIM SAMSON BEN ABRAHAM OF SENS SAMSON BEN ISAAC OF CHINON SAMSON BEN JOSEPH OF FALAISE SAMSON BEN SAMSON OF COUCY SAMUEL BEN DAVID SAMUEL BEN MEIR (Rashbam) SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON OF FALAISE SAMUEL OF EVREUX SCHLETTSTADT, SAMUEL BEN AARON SHEMAIAH OF TROYES SIMEON BEN SAMUEL OF JOINVILLE SINZHEIM, JOSEPH DAVID BEN ISAAC SIRAT, RENE SAMUEL SITRUK, JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM OF MONTPELLIER SOLOMON BEN JUDAH “OF DREUX” SOLOMON BEN JUDAH OF LUNEL SOLOMON BEN MEIR TAM, JACOB BEN MEIR TIBBON, IBN (Tibbonids) TOUATI, CHARLES TREVES, JOHANAN BEN MATTATHIAS ULLMANN, SALOMON VAEZ, ABRAHAM WARSCHAWSKI, MAX WEILL, MICHEL AARON WORMS, AARON YOM TOV OF JOIGNY

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 2) France, Luxembourg & Belgium Biographies (continued) Science ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON OF SAINT MAXIMIN ATLAN, HENRI BARUK, HENRI BERNHEIM, HIPPOLYTE BESREDKA, ALEXANDER BONFILS, IMMANUEL BEN JACOB CHARPAK, GEORGES COHEN TANNOUDJI, CLAUDE EPHRUSSI, BORIS ERRERA, LEO GERHARDT, CHARLES FREDERIC GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN HADAMARD, JACQUES SALOMON HAVA OF MANOSQUE ISAAC BEN TODROS JACOB, FRANÇOIS LEVY, LUCIEN LIPPMANN, GABRIEL LIPSKI, ABRAHAM LWOFF, ANDRE MICHEL MEYERSON, EMILE MICHEL-LÉVY, AUGUSTE MINKOWSKI, EUGENE MOISSAN, HENRI SCHWARTZ, LAURENT SIMON, PIERRE STEG, ADOLPHE STERN, ERICH WEIL, R. ADRIENNE WIDAL, FERNAND 3) Germany & Austria Main Surveys

AUSTRIA GERMAN LITERATURE GERMANY General Entries

AGRARIAN LEAGUE ARMLEDER HASIDEI ASHKENAZ JUDENPFENNIGE IUDEX JUDAEORUM LEIBZOLL MAGDEBURG LAW OPFERPFENNIG SCHUTZJUDEN TOLERANZPATENT WIENER GESERA Communities

AACHEN

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AHLEM AHRWEILER ALTENSTADT ALTONA ALZEY AMBERG ANDERNACH ANHALT ANSBACH ARNSTADT ASCHAFFENBURG ASHKENAZ AUGSBURG AURICH BACHARACH BADEN BADEN BEI WIEN BAIERSDORF BAMBERG BAVARIA BAYREUTH BERG BERLIN BIELEFELD BINGEN BOCHUM BONN BOPPARD BRANDENBURG BREISACH BREMEN BRUCHSAL BRUNSWICK BURGENLAND CARINTHIA CHEMNITZ CLEVES COBURG COCHEM COLOGNE CONSTANCE COTTBUS DARMSTADT DEGGENDORF DEUTSCHKREUTZ DEUTZ DORTMUND DRESDEN DUEREN DUESSELDORF DUISBURG DYHERNFURTH EINBECK EISENSTADT EMDEN ENDINGEN ERFURT ESSEN ESSLINGEN ETTLINGEN

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FLOSS FRANKFuRT ON THE MAIN FRANKFuRT ON THE ODER FREIBURG IM BREISGAU FRIEDBERG FUERTH FULDA GELNHAUSEN GELSENKIRCHEN GEMEN GIESSEN GLUECKSTADT GOERLITZ GOETTINGEN GOSLAR GOTHA GRAZ HAGEN HAGENBACH HALBERSTADT HALLE HAMBURG HAMELN HANAU HANOVER HEIDELBERG HEIDINGSFELD HEILBRONN HESSE HILDESHEIM HOHENAU HOHENEMS HOHENZOLLERN HOMBURG INGOLSTADT INNSBRUCK JEBENHAUSEN JUDAESAPTAN JUDENBURG JUELICH KAISERSLAUTERN KARLSRUHE KASSEL KEMPEN KIEL KISSINGEN KITZINGEN KLAGENFURT KLOSTERNEUBURG KOBLENZ KOENIGSBERG KORNEUBURG KREFELD KREMS KREUZNACH LANDAU LANDSHUT LAUINGEN LEIPZIG LINDAU

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

LINZ LIPPE (-Detmold) LUEBECK LUENEBURG MAGDEBURG MAINZ MANNHEIM MARBURG MATTERSDORF (Mattersburg) MECKLENBURG MEININGEN MEISSEN MEMMINGEN MERGENTHEIM MERSEBURG MINDEN MOSBACH MUEHLHAUSEN MUENSTER MUNICH NASSAU (-Usingen) NAUHEIM NIEDERSTETTEN NOERDLINGEN NORDHAUSEN NUREMBERG OETTINGEN OFFENBACH OFFENBURG OLDENBURG OPPENHEIM OSNABRUECK PADERBORN PALATINATE PASSAU PFORZHEIM POMERANIA PRUSSIA PULKAU RAVENSBURG RECKLINGHAUSEN REGENSBURG REUTLINGEN REXINGEN ROEDELHEIM ROTHENBURG OB DER TAUBER SAARBRUECKEN SALZBURG SAXONY SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN SCHNAITTACH SCHWEINFURT SEESEN SHUM SILESIA SOEST SPANDAU SPEYER STENDAL STRAUBING

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AKADEMIE FUER DIE WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS ALLIANZ, ISRAELITISCHE, ZU WIEN BLAU-WEISS CENTRAL-VEREIN DEUTSCHER STAATSBUERGER JUEDISCHEN GLAUBENS CHRISTIAN SOCIAL PARTY CHRISTIAN-SOCIAL PARTY. GERMAN CONSERVATIVE PARTY, GERMAN DEUTSCHER PALAESTINA-VEREIN DEUTSCH-ISRAELITISCHER GEMEINDEBUND ESRA GESELLSCHAFT DER FREUNDE GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS HE-HALUTZ HEIMWEHR HILFSVEREIN DER DEUTSCHEN JUDEN HOCHSCHULE FUER DIE WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS

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INSTITUTUM JUDAICUM DELITZSCHIANUM ISRAELITISCH-THEOLOGISCHE LEHRANSTALT JUEDISCHE FREISCHULE JUEDISCHER FRAUENBUND JUEDISCHER KULTURBUND JUEDISCHER VERLAG JUEDISCH-LITERARISCHE GESELLSCHAFT JUEDISCHE VOLKSPARTEI JUEDISCH-THEOLOGISCHES SEMINAR, BRESLAU KADIMAH KARTELL-CONVENT DER VERBINDUNGEN DEUTSCHER STUDENTEN JUEDISCHEN GLAUBENS KARTELL JUEDISCHER VERBINDUNGEN LANDJUDENSCHAFT NATIONALRAT OESTERREICHISCHE NATIONALBIBLIOTHEK PARLAMENTSKLUB, JUEDISCHER REICHSBUND JUEDISCHER FRONTSOLDATEN SCHUTZBUND, REPUBLIKANISCHER SONCINO GESELLSCHAFT DER FREUNDE DES JUEDISCHEN BUCHES STUDENTS’ FRATERNITIES, GERMAN SWABIAN LEAGUE UNION, OESTERREICHISCH ISRAELITISCHE VERBAND DER DEUTSCHEN JUDEN VERBAND DER VEREINE FUER JUEDISCHE GESCHICHTE UND LITERATUR VERBAND NATIONAL-DEUTSCHER JUDEN VEREIN FUER KULTUR UND WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS VEREIN ZUR ABWEHR DES ANTISEMITISMUS VEREINIGUNG FUER DAS LIBERALE JUDENTUM IN DEUTSCHLAND VOLKSPARTEI, JUEDISCHE ZENTRALRAT DER JUDEN IN DEUTSCHLAND ZENTRALSTELLE DER FUERSORGE FUER KRIEGSFLUECHTLINGE ZENTRAL-WOHLFAHRTSTELLE DER DEUTSCHEN JUDEN Publications

ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG DES JUDENTHUMS ASEFAT HAKHAMIM C.V.-ZEITUNG HA-EMET HA-MAGGID HA-ME’ASSEF HA-SHAHAR HE-HALUTZ ISRAELIT, DER ISRAELITISCHES FAMILIENBLATT JESCHURUN JUDE, DER JUEDISCHE PRESSE JUEDISCHE RUNDSCHAU KEREM HEMED KOHELETH MUSSAR MENORAH

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MONATSSCHRIFT FUER GESCHICHTE UND WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS NEUZEIT, DIE OESTERREICHISCHES CENTRAL-ORGAN FUER GLAUBENSFREIHEIT, CULTUR, GESCHICHTE UND LITERATUR DER JUDEN PHILO VERLAG SULAMITH ZUKUNFT Biographies

Academic Life ABICHT, JOHANN GEORG ADLER, GEORG ADORNO, THEODOR W. ALBERTUS MAGNUS ALT, ALBRECHT ALTMANN, ALEXANDER ARENDT, HANNAH ARNHEIM, HEYMANN ARONIUS, JULIUS ASCHAFFENBURG, GUSTAV ASCHER, SAUL ASHER, DAVID AVE-LALLEMANT, FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN BENEDICT BAER, SELIGMAN ISAAC BAER, YITZHAK BAETHGEN, FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLPH BAUMGARDT, DAVID BAUMGARTEN, EMANUEL MENDEL BECHER, SIEGFRIED BECK, MICHAEL BEER, MAX BEER, PETER (Perez) BENDAVID, LAZARUS (Eleazar) BENFEY, THEODOR BENJACOB, ISAAC BEN ZE’EV, JUDAH LEIB BENZINGER, IMMANUEL BERGSTRAESSER, GOTTHELF BERLINER, ABRAHAM BERNFELD, SIEGFRIED BIALOBLOTZKY, CHRISTIAN HEINRICH FRIEDRICH BIRNBAUM, NATHAN BISCHOFF, ERICH BLEEK, FRIEDRICH BLOCH, ERNST BLOCH, JOSEPH BLOGG, SOLOMON BEN EPHRAIM BLUMENFELD, WALTER BODENSCHATZ, JOHANN CHRISTOPH GEORG BOESCHENSTEIN, JOHANN BOHL (Bohlius), SAMUEL BONDY, CURT BONN, MORITZ JULIUS BORCHARDT, LUDWIG BRANN, MARCUS BRAUNTHAL, JULIUS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BREITHAUPT, JOHANN FRIEDRICH BRESSLAU, HARRY BRILL, ABRAHAM ARDEN BRILLING, BERNHARD BRUNNER, CONSTANTIN BRUNSWIG, ALFRED BUDDE, KARL FERDINAND REINHARD BUEDINGER, MAX BUHLER, CHARLOTTE CALLENBERG, JOHANN HEINRICH CAPITO, WOLFGANG FABRICIUS CARO, GEORG MARTIN CASSEL, DAVID CASSEL, PAULUS STEPHANUS (Selig) CASSIRER, ERNST COHEN, ARTHUR COHEN, HERMANN COHN, GUSTAV COHN, JONAS COHN, LEOPOLD CORNILL, CARL HEINRICH DALMAN, GUSTAF HERMANN DANZ, JOHANN ANDREAS DAVID, MARTIN DAVIDSOHN, ROBERT DELITZSCH, FRANZ (Julius) DELITZSCH, FRIEDRICH DESSAU, HERMANN DESSOIR, MAX DEUTSCH, EMANUEL OSKAR DILLMANN, AUGUST DUBISLAV, WALTER ERNST OTTO DUEHRING, KARL EUGEN DUHM, BERNHARD ECKHART, MEISTER EHRENBERG, VICTOR LEOPOLD EICHHORN, JOHANN GOTTFRIED EISLER, RUDOLF EISSFELDT, OTTO ELBOGEN, ISMAR ENGELMANN, SUSANNE CHARLOTTE ERMAN, JOHANN PETER ADOLF ESCHELBACHER, JOSEPH EUCHEL, ISAAC ABRAHAM EWALD, HEINRICH GEORG AUGUST FAGIUS, PAULUS FICHTE, JOHANN GOTTLIEB FORSTER, JOHANN (Forsthemius) FRANKFURTER, SOLOMON FRIEDRICH FRANKL, PINKUS FRITZ (Pinhas) FRAUENSTAEDT, JULIUS FREIMANN, ARON FREIMANN, JACOB FRENSDORFF, FERDINAND FRENSDORFF, SOLOMON FREUDENTHAL, JACOB FRIEDJUNG, HEINRICH FRIEDLAENDER, MORITZ FRIEDLAENDER, OSKAR EWALD FRIEDRICHSFELD, DAVID

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FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH FUERST, JULIUS GALLING, KURT GANS, EDUARD GEIGER, ABRAHAM GEIGER, BERNHARD GEIGER, LAZARUS (Eliezer Solomon) GEIGER, MORITZ GELBER, NATHAN MICHAEL GESENIUS, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM GHILLANY, FRIEDRICH WILHELM GOLDENTHAL, JACOB GOLDSCHEID, RUDOLF GOLDSCHMIDT, LAZARUS GOLDSCHMIDT, RICHARD HELLMUTH GOLDSTEIN, JULIUS GOMPERZ, THEODOR GRAETZ, HEINRICH GRAF, KARL HEINRICH GRESSMANN, HUGO GRUENBAUM, MAX GRUENHUT, MAX GRUNWALD, MAX GUMPLOWICZ, LUDWIG GUNKEL, HERMANN GUTHE, HERMANN GUTTMANN, JACOB GUTTMANN, JULIUS HALLO, WILLIAM HANAU, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN JUDAH LOEB HA-KOHEN HEGEL, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEICHELHEIM, FRITZ MORITZ HEIDENHEIM, WOLF (Benjamin Ze’ev) HEINEMANN, FRITZ HEINEMANN, JEREMIAH HELLER, HERMANN HELLER, JOSEPH ELIJAH HELLER, THEODOR HENGSTENBERG, ERNST WILHELM HEPPNER, ARON HERDER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED HERZ, MARCUS HERZFELD, ERNST EMIL HERZOG, DAVID HEYMANN, FRITZ HILDESHEIMER, HIRSCH HIRSCH, JULIUS HIRSCH, MENDEL HIRSCHFELD, GUSTAV HIRSCHFELD, HEINRICH OTTO HOELSCHER, GUSTAV

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HOENIGSWALD, RICHARD HORKHEIMER, MAX HOROVITZ, JOSEF HOROVITZ, SAUL HRABANUS MAURUS HUPFELD, HERMANN CHRISTIAN KARL HUSSERL, EDMUND GUSTAV ALBRECHT ILGEN, KARL DAVID ISAACSOHN, SIEGFRIED ITELSON, GREGOR JEREMIAS, ALFRED JERUSALEM, KARL WILHELM JERUSALEM, WILHELM JIRKU, ANTON JOEL, KARL JOST, ISAAC MARCUS KAHLE, PAUL ERNST KANT, IMMANUEL KANTOROWICZ, ERNST HARTWIG KASTEIN, JOSEF KATZ, DAVID KAUFMANN, DAVID KAUFMANN, FELIX KAUFMANN, FRITZ KAUTZSCH, EMIL FRIEDRICH KAYSERLING, MEYER (Moritz) KEIL, KARL FRIEDRICH KELLNER, LEON KIRCHHEIM, RAPHAEL KITTEL, RUDOLF KLEMPERER, VICTOR KOEBNER, RICHARD KRACAUER, ISADOR KRACAUER, SIEGFRIED KRAUSS, FRIEDRICH SALAMO KRAUSS, SAMUEL KRONER, RICHARD KRUG, WILHELM TRAUGOTT LAGARDE, PAUL ANTON DE LANDAUER, GUSTAV LANDAUER, MEYER HEINRICH HIRSCH LANDAUER, SAMUEL LANDSBERGER, BENNO LANDSHUT, SIEGFRIED LANDSHUTH, ELIEZER (Leser) LASK, EMIL LASSON, ADOLF LAZARUS, MORITZ LEBRECHT, FUERCHTEGOTT LEHMANN-HAUPT, CARL FRIEDRICH LESSING, THEODOR LEVISON, WILHELM LEWIN, KURT ZADEK LEWKOWITZ, ALBERT LEWY, JULIUS LIDZBARSKI, MARK (Abraham Mordechai) LIEBERMANN, FELIX LIEBERT, ARTHUR LIEBMANN, OTTO LIPMANN, OTTO

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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LOEWE, JOEL (BRILL) LOEWE, VICTOR LOEWENTHAL, EDUARD LOEWITH, KARL LOEWY, EMANUEL LOWE, ADOLPH LUSCHAN, FELIX VON MAIMON, SOLOMON MANNHEIM, KARL MARCK, SIEGFRIED MARCUS, AARON MARCUS, ERNST MARKUS, LUDWIG MARX, KARL HEINRICH MAUTNER, KONRAD MAYER, GUSTAV MEINHOLD, JOHANNES FRIEDRICH MEISL, JOSEPH MENDELSSOHN MENDELSSOHN, MOSES METZGER, ARNOLD MEYER, EDUARD MICHAELIS, JOHANN DAVID MISES, LUDWIG EDLER VON MITTWOCH, EUGEN MOMMSEN, THEODOR MUELLER, DAVID HEINRICH MUENSTER, SEBASTIAN MUENSTERBERG, HUGO MYNONA NACHOD, OSKAR NAFTALI, PEREZ (Fritz) NELSON, LEONHARD NEUBAUER, JACOB (Jekuthiel) NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH WILHELM NOELDEKE, THEODOR NOTH, MARTIN NOWACK, WILHELM GUSTAV HERMANN NUSSBAUM, ARTHUR NUSSENBLATH, TULO OBERMEYER, JACOB OLSHAUSEN, JUSTUS OPPENHEIMER, FRANZ OPPERT, GUSTAV SALOMON OTTENSOSSER, DAVID OTTO, RUDOLPH PELLICANUS (Rubeaquensis), CONRAD PERLBACH, MAX PERLES PHILIPPSON PICK, HAYYIM HERMANN PINNER, FELIX PISTORIUS (de Nida), JOHANNES POLOTSKY, HANS JACOB POPPER, JOSEF (Lynkeus) POPPER, SIR KARL RAIMUND PRIBRAM, ALFRED FRANCIS RAD, GERHARD VON RECKENDORF, HERMANN SOLOMON REICH, WILHELM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

REICHENBACH, HANS REINACH, ADOLF REUSS, EDUARD RICHTER, ELISE RICHTER, RAOUL RIESS, LUDWIG ROEHRICHT, REINHOLD ROSENMUELLER, ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL ROSENTHAL, LESER ROSIN, DAVID RUEHS, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH RYSSEL, VICTOR SAALSCHUETZ, JOSEPH LEWIN SACHS, MICHAEL SALFELD, SIEGMUND SALOMON, ALICE SALOMON, GOTTFRIED SAMTER, ERNST SATANOW, ISAAC SCHEFTELOWITZ, ISIDOR SCHELER, MAX FERDINAND SCHELLING, FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH SCHICK, CONRAD SCHICKARD, WILHELM (Guillielmus) SCHOEPS, HANS JOACHIM SCHUBERT, KURT SCHUDT, JOHANN JAKOB SCHUERER, EMIL SCHWAB, HERMANN SELLIN, ERNST SELZ, OTTO SIEVERS, EDUARD SIMMEL, GEORG SIMSON, BERNHARD VON SIMSON, PAUL SMEND, RUDOLPH SOMBART, WERNER SPANIER, ARTHUR SPATH, JOHANN PETER SPITZER, HUGO STEIN, ARTHUR STEIN, EDITH STEIN, LUDWIG STEINSCHNEIDER, MORITZ STEINTHAL, HERMANN HEYMANN STERN, ALFRED STERN, FRITZ STERN, MORITZ STERN, WILLIAM STERNBERG, KURT STERN-TAEUBLER, SELMA STEUERNAGEL, CARL STOBBE, OTTO STRACK, HERMANN LEBERECHT STRAUSS, LEO SUEDFELD, GABRIEL SULZBACH, ABRAHAM SULZBACH, WALTER TAEUBLER, EUGEN THIEME, KARL

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THOMSEN, PETER TRAUBE, LUDWIG VATKE, WILHELM VELTWYCK, GERARD VOLZ, PAUL WACHSTEIN, BERNHARD WAGENSEIL, JOHANN CRISTOPH WAHLE, RICHARD WAISMANN, FRIEDRICH WALZER, RICHARD RUDOLF WARBURG, ABY MORITZ WATZINGER, CARL WEIDENREICH, FRANZ WEIGAND, THEODOR WEIL, ERIC WEININGER, OTTO WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS WELTSCH, FELIX (Baruch) WENDLAND, PAUL WERTHEIMER, JOSEPH, RITTER VON WERTHEIMER, MAX WETTE, DE, WILHELM MARTIN LEBERECHT WINCKLER, HUGO WINTERNITZ, MORITZ WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG WOLF, GERSON WOLF, JOHANN CHRISTOPH WORMS, ASHER ANSHEL WRESCHNER, ARTHUR WUENSCHE, AUGUST KARL ZEDNER, JOSEPH ZOLLSCHAN, IGNAZ ZUCKERMANN, BENEDICT ZUNZ, LEOPOLD

FREUNDLICH, OTTO GODAL, ERIC GRUNDIG, LEA AND HANS HALLO, RUDOLF HEARTFIELD, JOHN HEINE, THOMAS THEODOR HENSCHEL BROTHERS HERLINGEN, AARON WOLF HIRSCHFELD-MACK, LUDWIG KAHNWEILER, DANIEL-HENRY KATZ, HANNS LUDWIG KAUFMANN, OSKAR KIRSCHSTEIN, SALLI KIRSZENBAUM, JESEKIEL DAVID KRESTIN, LAZAR LEVY, RUDOLF LIEBERMANN, MAX LILIEN, EPHRAIM MOSES LISMANN, HERMANN MAGNUS, EDUARD MEIDNER, LUDWIG MENDELSOHN, ERIC MESSEL, ALFRED NUSSBAUM, FELIX NUSSBAUM, JAKOB OPPENHEIM, MORITZ DANIEL OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH ORLIK, EMIL OSBORN, MAX RINGL & PIT (STERN, GRETE; ROSENBERG AUERBACH, ELLEN) SALOMON, CHARLOTTE SALOMON, ERICH SEGAL, ARTHUR STRNAD, OSKAR STRUCK, HERMANN TRIER, WALTER URY, LESSER WOLF, GUSTAV WOLLHEIM, GERT WOLPERT, LUDWIG YEHUDA ZADIKOW, ARNOLD

Art ABRAMSON ADLER, FRIEDRICH ARON BARTHOLDY, JACOB BENDEMANN, EDUARD JULIUS FRIEDRICH BENDIX, BENEDICT HEINRICH BIRNBAUM, MENACHEM BLAU, TINA BLOCH, MARTIN CASSIRER, PAUL COHN-WIENER, ERNST EISENSTAEDT, ALFRED ELKAN, BENNO FLECHTHEIM, ALFRED FRANK, JOSEF FREUND, GISELE

Literature ADLER, HERMANN ADLER, PAUL AICHINGER, ILSE ALTENBERG, PETER AMERY, JEAN ANDERS, GUNTER AUERBACH, ERICH AUERNHEIMER, RAOUL AUSLAENDER, ROSE AVIGDOR BEN SIMHAH HA-LEVI OF GLOGAU BAB, JULIUS BECKER, JUREK BEER, MICHAEL BEER-HOFMANN, RICHARD BEN-CHORIN, SHALOM BENJAMIN, WALTER

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BERENDSOHN, WALTER A. BERG, LEO BERMANN, RICHARD ARNOLD BETTAUER, HUGO BIEBER, HUGO BLUMENTHAL, OSKAR BORCHARDT, RUDOLF BRAUN, FELIX BROCH, HERMANN BRUCKNER, FERDINAND CALE, WALTER CELAN, PAUL DOEBLIN, ALFRED DOMIN, HILDE DONATH, ADOLPH EHRENSTEIN, ALBERT EINSTEIN, CARL ELOESSER, ARTHUR FEUCHTWANGER, LION FRANK, BRUNO FRANKL, LUDWIG AUGUST FRANZOS, KARL EMIL FRIED, ERICH FRIEDELL, EGON FRISCH, EFRAIM FULDA, LUDWIG GEIGER, LUDWIG GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOLDSTEIN, MORITZ GOLL, CLAIRE GRONEMANN, SAMUEL (Sami, Sammy) GUMPERT, MARTIN GUNDOLF, FRIEDRICH GUTZKOW, KARL FERDINAND HAAS, WILLY HABE, HANS HASENCLEVER, WALTER HEILBORN, ERNST HEIMANN, MORITZ HEINE, HEINRICH HERMANN, GEORG HERMLIN, STEPHAN HESSEL, FRANZ HEYM, STEFAN HEYMANN, WALTHER HEYSE, PAUL HILDESHEIMER, WOLFGANG HILSENRATH, EDGAR HIRSCHFELD, GEORG HITZIG, JULIUS EDUARD HOCHHUTH, ROLF HOCHWAELDER, FRITZ HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON HOLITSCHER, ARTHUR HOLLAENDER HONIGMANN, BARBARA JACOB, HEINRICH EDUARD JACOBOWSKI, LUDWIG JELINEK, ELFRIEDE KAHANE, ARTHUR

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

KALEKO, MASHA KALISCH, DAVID KAUFMANN, FRITZ MORDECAI KAYSER, RUDOLF KERR, ALFRED KESTEN, HERMANN KLEIN, JULIUS LEOPOLD KOESTLER, ARTHUR KOLMAR, GERTRUD KOMPERT, LEOPOLD KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND KORNFELD, PAUL KRAMER, THEODOR KRAUS, KARL KROJANKER, GUSTAV KUH, EPHRAIM MOSES LANDSBERGER, ARTHUR LASKER-SCHUELER, ELSE LAZARUS, NAHIDA RUTH LEONHARD, RUDOLF LESSING, GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LEWALD, FANNY LIPINER, SIEGFRIED LISSAUER, ERNST LORM, HIERONYMUS LOTHAR, ERNST LOTHAR, RUDOLF LUBLINSKI, SAMUEL LUDWIG, EMIL MANN, THOMAS MARCUSE, LUDWIG MARGUL-SPERBER, ALFRED MAUTHNER, FRITZ MEHRING, WALTER MEYER, RICHARD MORITZ MOMBERT, ALFRED MOSENTHAL, SALOMON HERMANN MUEHSAM, ERICH NADEL, ARNO NEUMANN, ALFRED NEUMANN, ROBERT PAULI, JOHANNES PERUTZ, LEO PICARD, JACOB POLGAR, ALFRED REHFISCH, HANS JOSE REICH-RANICKI, MARCEL ROBERT, LUDWIG RODA RODA, ALEXANDER RODENBERG, JULIUS ROESSLER, CARL ROTH, JOSEPH RUBINER, LUDWIG SACHS, NELLY SALTEN, FELIX SAPHIR, MORITZ (Moses) GOTTLIEB SCHERLAG, MARK SCHILLER, FRIEDRICH VON SCHNITZLER, ARTHUR SCHWIEFERT, PETER

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SEGHERS, ANNA STERNHEIM, CARL STRICH, FRITZ SUESSKIND VON TRIMBERG SUSMAN, MARGARETE TOLLER, ERNST TORBERG, FRIEDRICH TREBITSCH, SIEGFRIED TUCHOLSKY, KURT URY, ELSE VAN HODDIS, JAKOB VIERTEL, BERTHOLD WALDEN, HERWARTH WALDINGER, ERNST WASSERMANN, JAKOB WEISS, ERNST WEISS, PETER WERFEL, FRANZ WIHL, LUDWIG WINDER, LUDWIG WOLF, FRIEDRICH WOLFENSTEIN, ALFRED WOLFSKEHL, KARL WOLFSOHN-HALLE, AHARON ZUCKERMANN, HUGO ZUCKMAYER, CARL ZWEIG, ARNOLD ZWEIG, STEFAN Music ABRAHAM, OTTO ADLER, GUIDO BEDA BEER, AARON BEKKER, PAUL BIE, OSCAR BIRNBAUM, EDUARD BLECH, LEO BRUELL, IGNAZ DAVID, FERDINAND DESSAU, PAUL DEUTSCH, OTTO ERICH EISLER, HANNS FISCHOFF, JOSEPH GEIRINGER, KARL GERNSHEIM, FRIEDRICH GOLDSCHMIDT, HUGO HELLER, STEPHEN HENLE, MORITZ HERZ, HENRI (Heinrich) HILLER, FERDINAND HINRICHSEN

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HOLLAENDER JACOBSTHAL, GUSTAV JADASSOHN, SALOMON JAPHET, ISRAEL MEYER KINSKY, GEORG LUDWIG KOHN, MAIER KOLISCH, RUDOLF LEICHTENTRITT, HUGO LEVI, HERMANN LIPSCHITZ, SOLOMON BEN MOSES LUCCA, PAULINE MARX, ADOLF BERNHARD MENDEL, HERMANN MENDELSSOHN, ARNOLD MENDELSSOHN, FELIX (Jakob Ludwig Felix) MENDELSSOHN HENSEL, FANNY CAECILIE MEYER, ERNST HERMAN MEYERBEER, GIACOMO MOTTL, FELIX JOSEF NADEL, ARNO OCHS, SIEGFRIED SACHS, CURT SCHLESINGER SCHOENBERG, ARNOLD SCHOENE, LOTTE SILBERMANN, ALPHONS STERN, JULIUS STRAUSS, JOHANN SULZER, SOLOMON ULLMAN, VIKTOR UNGER, MAX WAGNER, RICHARD WALTER, BRUNO WEILL, KURT WOLFF, HERMANN Popular Culture ABARBANELL, LINA BARNAY, LUDWIG BARNOWSKY, VIKTOR BERGMANN, RICHARD BERGNER, ELIZABETH BRAHM, OTTO CHRONEGK, LUDWIG DAWISON, BOGUMIL DESSOIR, LUDWIG DEUTSCH, ERNST GIEHSE, THERESE GRANACH, ALEXANDER HOMOLKA, OSCAR JESSNER, LEOPOLD KOLISCH, IGNAZ VON KORTNER, FRITZ LANG, FRITZ LUX, STEFAN MARLE, ARNOLD MASSARY, FRITZI (Friedrike Massarik) MIESES, JACQUES (Jacob) OPHUELS, MAX PALLENBERG, MAX

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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POMMER, ERICH RAINER, LUISE REICHER, EMANUEL RICHTER, HANS SCHILDKRAUT, RUDOLPH SONNENTHAL, ADOLF, RITTER VON SPIELMANN, RUDOLF STERN, ERNEST TARRASCH, SIEGBERT WALBROOK, ANTON WEIGEL, HELENE Public & Economic Life AARON SIMEON BEN JACOB ABRAHAM OF COPENHAGEN ABELES, OTTO ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA ADENAUER, KONRAD ADLER, FRIEDRICH ADLER, MAX ADLER, VICTOR AHLWARDT, HERMANN AMNON OF MAINZ ANDREW OF RINN ARENDT, OTTO ARNDT, ADOLF ARNDT, ERNST MORITZ ARNHEIM, FISCHEL ARNSTEIN ASHER, ABRAHAM AUERBACH, BERTHOLD AUERBACH, ISRAEL AUERBACH, PHILIPP AUSPITZ BACHARACH BACHER, EDUARD BADT, HERMANN BADT-STRAUSS, BERTHA BAECK, LEO BAERWALD, MORITZ BAIERSDORF, SAMSON SOLOMON BALLIN, ALBERT BAMBERGER, LUDWIG BAMBUS, WILLY BAUER, OTTO BAUM, HERBERT BECKER, JULIUS BEER, BERNHARD BEHREND, JACOB FRIEDRICH BEHRENDS (Behrens), LEFFMANN BENEDIKT, MORITZ BENISCH, ABRAHAM BERNAYS BERNHARD, GEORG BERNSTEIN, ARNOLD BERNSTEIN, ARON DAVID BERNSTEIN, EDUARD BIEDERMANN, MICHAEL LAZAR BIENENFELD, FRANZ RUDOLF BIENENSTOCK, MAX

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BING BISCHOFFSHEIM BISMARCK, PRINCE OTTO VON BLAU, BRUNO BLEICHROEDER BLUM, JULIUS BLUMENFELD, KURT YEHUDAH BOERNE, LUDWIG (Loeb Baruch) BORCHARDT, LUCY BRANDT, WILLY BRAUN, ADOLF BREIDENBACH, WOLF BREITNER, HUGO BUBIS, IGNATZ BUCHHOLZ, CARL AUGUST BURCHARDT, HERMANN BURG, MENO CALWER, RICHARD CASPARY, EUGEN CASTIGLIONI, CAMILLO CHARLES IV CHARLES VI COHN, EMIL MOSES COHN, OSCAR COHN-BENDIT, DANIEL COUDENHOVE-KALERGI, HEINRICH VON CUSA, NICHOLAS OF DECKERT, JOSEPH DENIS, ALBERTUS DERNBURG DEUTSCH, SIMON DOHM, CHRISTIAN WILHELM VON DOLLFUSS, ENGELBERT DREYFUS DULCEA OF WORMS EHRENSTAMM EHRLICH, JACOB EICHTHAL-SELIGMANN EISENMENGER, JOHANN ANDREAS EISLER, GERHART EISNER, KURT EISS, ALEXANDER VON ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI ELLENBOGEN, WILHELM ELLSTAETTER, MORITZ EMIN PASHA ENDLICH, QUIRIN ENGELBERG, HAYYIM OF ENSHEIM, MOSES EPHRAIM EPHRAIM, VEITEL HEINE (Hayyim) EPPSTEIN, PAUL ERLANGER ESKELES FEDER, ERNST FEIWEL, BERTHOLD FERDINAND FETTMILCH, VINCENT FISCHER, BERNARD FISCHER, RUTH

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FISCHER, SAMUEL FISCHHOFF, ADOLF FLESCH FRAENKEL FRAENKEL, ELKAN FRAENKEL, ISAAC SECKEL FRAENKEL, LEVI BEN SAUL FRANCIS I FRANCIS JOSEPH I OF HAPSBURG FRANKENBURGER, WOLF FREDERICK I FREDERICK II (the Great) FREDERICK II OF BABENBERG FREDERICK III OF HAPSBURG FREDERICK II OF HOHENSTAUFEN FREDERICK WILLIAM FREIER, RECHA FRIED, ALFRED HERMANN FRIEDEMANN, ADOLF FRIEDLAENDER, DAVID FRIEDMANN, DESIDER FRIEDMANN, PAUL FRITSCH, THEODOR FUERSTENBERG, CARL FUERTH, HENRIETTE GALINSKI, HEINZ GEIGER, SOLOMON ZALMAN (ben Abraham) GELDERN, SIMON VON GELDERN, VAN GERSTEIN, KURT GLASER, JULIUS ANTON (Joshua) GLUECKEL OF HAMELN GOLD, HUGO GOLDHAMMER-SAHAWI, LEO GOLDSCHMIDT, HENRIETTE GOLDSCHMIDT, JAKOB GOLDSCHMIDT, JOHANNA SCHWABE GOLUCHOWSKI, AGENOR, COUNT GOMPERZ GOSLAR, HANS GRATTENAUER, KARL WILHELM FRIEDRICH GROSS, ADOLF GROSSMANN, KURT RICHARD GRUEBER, HEINRICH GRYNSZPAN, HERSCHEL GUTMANN, EUGEN GUTMANN, WILHELM, RITTER VON HAAS, LUDWIG HAASE, HUGO HABER HAHN, ALBERT L. HAHN, KURT

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HAINDORF, ALEXANDER HARDEN, MAXIMILIAN HARDENBERG, KARL AUGUST VON HARTMANN, MORITZ HEINE, SOLOMON HENLE, ELKAN HENRY IV HERMANUS QUONDAM JUDAEUS (Herman of Scheda) HERZ, HENRIETTE HERZ, LEOPOLD EDLER VON (Lippold) HERZBERG, WILHELM (Ze’ev) HERZL, THEODOR HESS, MICHAEL HESS, MOSES HILFERDING, RUDOLF HILLER, KURT HILLESUM, ETTY HIRSCH, ARON SIEGMUND HIRSCH, BARON MAURICE DE HIRSCH, OTTO HIRSCHFELD, EPHRAIM JOSEPH HIRSHEL, MEYER HOENIGSBERG HOFER, ANDREAS HOFMANN, ISAAC LOEW HOLLAENDER, LUDWIG HOMBERG, NAPHTALI HERZ HUMBOLDT, WILHELM VON HUNDT-RADOWSKY, HARTWIG VON ISAAC ISRAEL, WILFRID ITZIG, DANIEL JACOB, BERTHOLD JACOBSOHN, SIEGFRIED JACOBSON, ISRAEL JACOBY, JOHANN JAECKLIN, JUD JAFFE, MEIR OF ULM JOSEPH II JOSEPH BEN GERSHON OF ROSHEIM KAHN, BERNARD KANDLEIN OF REGENSBURG KANTOR, JUDAH LEIB KANTOROWICZ, HERMANN KARMINSKI, HANNAH KARSEN, FRITZ KASKEL KATZ, ALBERT KAUFFMANN, ISAAC KAULLA KELSEN, HANS KLANG, HEINRICH KLEE, ALFRED KOENIGSWARTER KOKESCH, OZER KREISKY, BRUNO KREMENETZKY, JOHANN KUH, ANTON KURANDA, IGNAZ

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LABAND, PAUL LADENBURG LAEMEL, SIMON VON LANDAU, EUGEN LANDAU, JACOB LANDSBERG, OTTO LASKER, EDUARD LASSALLE (LASSAL), FERDINAND LEHMANN, BEHREND LEHMANN, EMIL LEICHTER, KAETE PICK LEIDESDORFER LEMLEIN, ASHER LEOPOLD I LEVI, BEHREND LEVI, PAUL LICHTHEIM, RICHARD LIPPOLD LOEWE, HEINRICH (Eliakim) LOEWE, LUDWIG and ISIDOR LOEWENSTEIN, KURT LORJE, CHAIM LUEGER, KARL LUSTIG, MOSES LUTHER, MARTIN LUXEMBURG, ROSA MAGNUS, MARCUS MARIA THERESA MARR, WILHELM MARX, KARL MAXIMILIAN MELANCHTHON, PHILIPP MELCHIOR, CARL MENDELSSOHN MENDELSSOHN-VEIT-SCHLEGEL, DOROTHEA MERTON MERZBACHER MERZBACHER, GOTTFRIED MESSEL METTERNICH, PRINCE KLEMENS WENZEL VON MEYER, PAULUS (Pawly) MICHAEL, HEIMANN JOSEPH HAYYIM MICHEL, JUD MODEL, MARX MOND MORAWITZ, KARL RITTER VON MORGENSTERN, LINA MOSER, MOSES MOSES, SIEGFRIED MOSSE MOSSNER, WALTHER VON MUELLER-COHEN, ANITA MUHR, ABRAHAM NACHMANN, WERNER NACHOD, JACOB NATHAN, PAUL NEUMEYER, ALFRED NEUMEYER, KARL NIEBUHR, KARSTEN OESTERREICHER, TOBIAS VON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

OFNER, JULIUS OLLENDORFF, FRIEDRICH OPPENHEIM OPPENHEIM OPPENHEIM, LASSA FRANCIS LAWRENCE OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH BEN ISSACHAR SUESSKIND OPPENHEIMER, KARL OPPENHEIMER, SAMUEL OSIANDER, ANDREAS PAPPENHEIM, BERTHA PERNERSTORFER, ENGELBERT PHILIPPSON PICK, ALOIS PICK, HAYYIM HERMANN POPPER, SIEGFRIED PREUSS, HUGO RABINOWICH, SARAH RATHENAU, EMIL RATHENAU, WALTHER REDLICH, JOSEPH REUTER, PAUL JULIUS, BARON VON RIEGNER, GERHART RIESSER, GABRIEL RIESSER, JACOB RINDFLEISCH ROCKER, RUDOLF RODE, WALTHER ROSENBERG, ARTHUR ROSENBERG, LUDWIG ROSENTHAL, PHILIPP ROTHSCHILD RUDOLF I (of Hapsburg) RUMPLER, EDUARD SCHACH, FABIUS SCHACHTEL, HUGO-HILLEL SCHAEFFER, HANS SCHALIT, ISIDOR SCHAPIRA, HERMANN (Zevi-Hirsch) SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIEDRICH SCHLESINGER SCHLESINGER, KARL SCHMID, ANTON VON SCHOCKEN SCHOCKEN, SALMAN SCHOENERER, GEORG VON SCHOLEM, WERNER SCHOTTLAENDER, BENDET (Benedict) SEETZEN, ULRICH JASPER SEIPEL, IGNAZ SERING, MAX SESSA, KARL BORROMAEUS ALEXANDER SHLOM THE MINTMASTER SICHROVSKY, HEINRICH VON SIMON, HEINRICH SIMON, JAMES SIMSON, MARTIN EDUARD VON SINGER, PAUL SMOL (Samuel) SOMARY, FELIX

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 3) Germany & Austria Biographies Public & Economic Life (continued)

SOMMER, EMIL VON SONNEMANN, LEOPOLD SONNENFELS, ALOYS VON SPEYER SPIEGEL, PAUL SPITZER, KARL HEINRICH SPRINGER, AXEL STAHL, FRIEDRICH JULIUS STAHL, HEINRICH STAUB, HERMANN STEIN, BARON KARL VOM ZUM STEINBACH, EMIL STEUSS, DAVID STOECKER, ADOLF STRECKFUSS, ADOLF FRIEDRICH KARL STRICKER, ROBERT STRISOWER, LEO STROUSBERG, BETHEL HENRY SYNGALOWSKI, ARON TEKA THEBEN (MANDL), JACOB KOPPEL TIETZ TODESCO, HERMANN TREITSCHKE, HEINRICH VON TRIETSCH, DAVIS TRITHEMIUS, JOHANNES (Tritheim) ULLSTEIN UNGER, JOSEF VAN DAM, HENDRIK GEORGE VARNHAGEN, RAHEL VEIT VEIT, MORITZ VEITH, JOHANN EMANUEL VOGELSANG, KARL VON WARBURG WARBURG, MAX WASSERMANN, OSKAR WEICHMANN, HERBERT WENCESLAUS IV WERTHEIM WERTHEIMER, SAMSON WETZLAR VON PLANKENSTERN WIDMANSTETTER, JOHANN ALBRECHT (Widmanstadius, Lucrecius) WINKLER, LEO (Judah) WOLF, FRUMET WOLFF, BERNHARD WOLFF, JEANETTE WOLFF, THEODOR WRONSKY, SIDDY WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA YORK-STEINER, HEINRICH ELCHANAN

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ZLOCISTI, THEODOR Religion ADLER ADLER, LAZARUS LEVI ADLER, SAMUEL BLOCH, PHILIPP BRUNA, ISRAEL BEN HAYYIM DEUTSCH, IGNAZ DEUTSCH, ISRAEL DIENEMANN, MAX DUEREN, ISAAC BEN MEIR EGER, AKIVA BEN MOSES GUENS EGER, AKIVA BEN SIMHAH BUNIM EGER, SAMUEL (Perez Sanwel) BEN JUDAH LOEB EHRENTREU, HEINRICH EINHORN, DAVID ELIEZER BEN NATHAN OF MAINZ EPPENSTEIN, SIMON EPSTEIN, JEHIEL MICHAL BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI ETTLINGER, JACOB FORMSTECHER, SOLOMON FRAENKEL, DAVID BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH FREUDENTHAL, MAX GLOGAU, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN ASHER LEMMEL HA-LEVI GUEDEMANN, MORITZ HAGOZER, JACOB AND GERSHOM HAHN, JOSEPH BEN MOSES HAHN, JOSEPH YUSPA BEN PHINEHAS SELIGMANN HALBERSTADT, ABRAHAM BEN MENAHEM MENKE HALBERSTADT, MORDECAI HAMBURG, ABRAHAM BENJAMIN (Wolf) HAMBURGER, JACOB HAYYIM (Eliezer) BEN ISAAC “OR ZARUA” HAYYIM BEN JEHIEL HEFEZ ZAHAV HAYYIM JUDAH BEN HAYYIM HAYYIM PALTIEL BEN JACOB (“Tola’at”) HEILBUT, ELEAZAR LAZI BEN JOSEPH BEN LAZI HEILPRIN, SAMUEL HELMANN BEN ISRAEL HERXHEIMER, SALOMON HERZFELD, LEVI HESS, MENDEL HILDESHEIMER, AZRIEL (Israel) HILDESHEIMER, MEIR HIRSCH, SAMUEL HOESCHEL (Joshua) BEN SAUL HOFFMAN, JACOB HOFFMANN, DAVID ZEVI HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL HOROVITZ, JACOB HOROVITZ, MARCUS HOROWITZ, ISAAC HA-LEVI BEN JACOB JOKEL HOROWITZ, LAZAR BEN DAVID JOSHUA HOESCHEL

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HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN PHINEHAS HALEVI ISSERLEIN, ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH JACOB BEN YAKAR JACOB OF VIENNA JAMPEL, SIGMUND JOEL BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI JONAS, REGINA JOSEPH BEN JOSHUA MOSES OF FRANKFuRT JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEIR JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MOSES OF MAINZ JUDAH LEIB BEN ENOCH ZUNDEL KALONYMUS KAMINKA, ARMAND (Aaron) KANN, MOSES KARGAU, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH KIRSCHSTEIN, MORITZ KISCH, ALEXANDER KLAUSNER, ABRAHAM KLEY, EDUARD (Israel) KOHN, ABRAHAM KRONER, THEODOR LAZA OF FRANKFURT LEHMANN, MARCUS LEWIN, ADOLF LIPSCHUTZ, ISRAEL BEN GEDALIAH LOEWENSTEIN, LEOPOLD MANNHEIMER, ISAAC NOAH MAYBAUM, IGNAZ MEKLENBURG, JACOB ZEVI MENAHEM BEN JACOB MENAHEM OF MERSEBURG MESHULLAM ZALMAN HA-KOHEN MEYER, SELIGMANN MINTZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC MOELLIN, JACOB BEN MOSES (Maharil) MORDECAI BEN HILLEL HA-KOHEN MUNK NOBEL, NEHEMIAH ANTON OPPENHEIM, BEER BEN ISAAC OPPENHEIM, JOACHIM POPPERS, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN HA-KOHEN PRIJS, JOSEPH PROTESTRABBINER RABBINER-SEMINAR FUER DAS ORTHODOXE JUDENTUM RIEGER, PAUL RITTER, IMMANUEL HEINRICH ROSENHEIM, JACOB ROSENTHAL, LUDWIG A. SACHS, MICHAEL SALOMON, GOTTHOLD SAMSON BEN ELIEZER SAMSON HA-NAKDAN SAMUEL BEN KALONYMUS HE-HASID OF SPEYER SAMUEL BEN NATRONAI SCHMIEDL, ADOLF ABRAHAM SELIGMANN, CAESAR SIMEON BAR ISAAC

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

SIMHAH BEN SAMUEL OF SPEYER SOLOMON BEN SAMSON SONDERLING, JACOB SPITZER, SOLOMON STADTHAGEN, JOSEPH STEINHARDT, JOSEPH BEN MENAHEM STEINHARDT, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN SIMEON STERN, SIGISMUND SUTRO, ABRAHAM TAGLICHT, DAVID ISRAEL THEODOR, JULIUS TYRNAU, ISAAC VOGELSTEIN WEIL, JACOB BEN JUDAH WEIL, NETHANEL BEN NAPHTALI ZEYI WESEL, BARUCH BENDET BEN REUBEN WEYL, MEIR BEN SIMHAH WINTER, JACOB Science ABEL, EMIL ABRAHAM, KARL ABRAHAM, MAX ADLER, ALFRED ALBU, ISIDOR ARCO, GEORG WILHELM ALEXANDER HANS, GRAF VON ARONS, LEO ASCHERSON, PAUL FRIEDRICH AUGUST ASKENASY, EUGEN ASKENASY, PAUL AUERBACH, LEOPOLD BAEYER, ADOLF VON BAGINSKY, ADOLF ARON BAMBERGER, EUGEN BAMBERGER, HEINRICH VON BARANY, ROBERT BECHHOLD, JACOB HEINRICH BEER, WILHELM BENEDIKT, MORITZ BERENDT, GOTTLIEB MICHAEL BERL, ERNST BERNSTEIN, JULIUS BERSON, ARTHUR JOSEPH STANISLAV BESSELS, EMIL BILLROTH, THEODOR BLANCKENHORN, MAX BLAU, FRITZ BLOCH, IWAN BORN, MAX BREDIG, GEORGE BRESSLAU, ERNST BREUER, JOSEPH BUCKY, GUSTAV CANNSTADT, KARL FRIEDRICH CANTOR, MORITZ BENEDICT CARO, HEINRICH CARO, NIKODEM COHN, BERTHOLD

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COHN, FERDINAND JULIUS COHN, FRITZ COHN, LASSAR COHNHEIM, JULIUS CONRAD, VICTOR COURANT, RICHARD CREIZENACH, MICHAEL DEMBER, HARRY L. DESSAUER, FRIEDRICH DEUTSCH, FELIX DONATH, EDUARD EDINGER, LUDWIG EDINGER, TILLY EHRENFEST, PAUL EHRLICH, PAUL EINSTEIN, ALBERT EISENSTEIN, FERDINAND GOTTHOLD EISSLER, KURT R. EITINGON, MAX EMBDEN, GUSTAV FEDERN, PAUL FENICHEL, OTTO FINKELSTEIN, HEINRICH FRANCK, JAMES FRANK, ALBERT RUDOLPH FRANKEL, HEINRICH WALTER FRANKENTHAL, KATE FRANKL, VIKTOR E. FREUD, ANNA FREUD, SIGMUND FREUND, MARTIN FRIEDEMANN, ULRICH FRISCH, OTTO ROBERT FROEHLICH, ALFRED GOLDSCHMIDT, GUIDO GOLDSCHMIDT, HANS GOLDSCHMIDT, RICHARD BENEDICT GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR GOLDSTEIN, EUGEN GOLDSTEIN, KURT GOTTLIEB, BERNHARD GRUEN, ADOLF GRUENSTEIN, NATHAN GUMPERT, MARTIN HAAS, FRITZ HABER, FRITZ HALBERSTAEDTER, LUDWIG HANNOVER, RAPHAEL LEVI HARTMANN, HEINZ HAUSDORFF, FELIX (Paul Mongre) HEIDENHAIN, RUDOLF HENLE, JACOB

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HENSEL, KURT HERTZ, GUSTAV HERZOG, REGINALD OLIVER HIRSCH, AUGUST HIRSCH, RACHEL HIRSCHBERG, JULIUS HIRSCHFELD, MAGNUS HITSCHMANN, EDWARD HOFF, HANS HOFFER, WILLI HURWITZ, ADOLF JACOBI, KARL GUSTAV JACOB JACOBI, MORITZ (Moses) HERMANN JACOBSON, PAUL HEINRICH JADASSOHN, JOSEF JELLINEK, KARL KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND KRISTELLER, SAMUEL KRONECKER, LEOPOLD LADENBURG, ALBERT LANDAU, EDMUND LANDSTEINER, KARL LASSAR, OSCAR LESS, EMIL LIEBEN, ADOLPH LIEBEN, ROBERT VON LIEBERMANN, CARL THEODOR LILIENTHAL, OTTO LIPPMANN, EDMUND OSKAR VON LIPPMANN, EDUARD LIPSCHITZ, RUDOLF OTTO SIGISMUND LOEW, MORITZ LOEWE, FRITZ PHILIPP LOEWI, OTTO LONDON, FRITZ LUNGE, GEORG MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV MAGNUS, PAUL WILHELM MAGNUS, RUDOLPH MA’OR KATAN MARCKWALD, WILLY MARCUS, SIEGFRIED MEITNER, LISE METCHNIKOFF, ELIE MEYER, HANS JOHANNES LEOPOLD MEYER, RICHARD JOSEPH MEYER, VICTOR MEYERHOF, MAX MEYERHOF, OTTO MICHAELIS, LEONOR MINKOWSKI, HERMANN MUNK, HERMANN NEUBERG, GUSTAV EMBDEN CARL NEUBURGER, MAX NEUGEBAUER, OTTO NOETHER OPPENHEIM, HERMANN OPPENHEIM, PAUL LEO OPPENHEIMER, CARL PAGEL, JULIUS LEOPOLD

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PANETH, FRIEDRICH ADOLF PICK, ALOIS PICK, ERNST PETER PINNER, ADOLF PLAUT, HUGO CARL PRAGER, RICHARD PREUSS, JULIUS PRINGSHEIM, HANS RANK, OTTO REIK, THEODOR REMAK ROMBERG, MORITZ HEINRICH ROSENBUSCH, KARL HARRY FERDINAND ROSENHEIM, ARTHUR ROTHSCHILD, FRIEDRICH SALOMON RUEDENBERG, REINHOLD SACHS, JULIUS SACKUR, OTTO SAKEL, MANFRED JOSHUA SALOMON-CALVI, WILHELM SCHILDER, PAUL FERDINAND SCHLESINGER, GEORG SCHOENBERG, ALEXANDER JULIUS WILHELM SCHOENHEIMER, RUDOLPH SCHWARZSCHILD, KARL SEMON, RICHARD WOLFGANG SENATOR, HERMANN SIMON, SIR FRANCIS EUGENE SORAUER, PAUL KARL MORITZ SPIEGEL-ADOLF, MONA SPIRO, KARL STEINACH, EUGEN STEKEL, WILHELM STERN, OTTO STILLING, BENEDICT STRASBURGER, EDUARD STRAUS, RAHEL STRAUSS, BENNO STRAUSS, EDUARD SUESS, EDUARD TANDLER, JULIUS TAUSK, VIKTOR TOEPLITZ, OTTO TRAUBE, ISIDOR TRAUBE, LUDWIG TRAUBE, MORITZ TRAUBE, WILHELM UNNA, PAUL GERSON VALENTIN, GABRIEL GUSTAV WALLACH, OTTO WALLICH WARBURG, OTTO WARBURG, OTTO HEINRICH WASSERMANN, AUGUST VON WEIDNER, PAULUS WEIGERT, CARL WEIGERT, FRITZ WIGNER, EUGENE P. WILLSTAETTER, RICHARD WOLFF, CHARLOTTE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

WORMS, ASHER ANSHEL ZUCKERKANDL, EMIL 4) Italy Main Surveys

ITALIAN LITERATURE ITALY General Entries

COLLEGIO RABBINICO ITALIANO DIENCHELELE FINZI-NORSA CONTROVERSY GORNI MONTI DI PIETÀ MORTARA CASE RIVISTA ISRAELITICA VESSILLO ISRAELITICO, IL Communities

ACQUI AGRIGENTO ALESSANDRIA ALGHERO AMALFI ANCONA APULIA AQUILA AQUILEIA AREZZO ASCOLI PICENO ASTI BARI BASSANO BENEVENTO BERGAMO BOLOGNA BOLZANO BOZZOLO BRESCIA BRINDISI CAGLIARI CALABRIA CAPUA CASALE MONFERRATO CATANIA CATANZARO CENTO CESENA CHIERI CIVIDALE COMO CONEGLIANO CORSICA COSENZA CREMONA CUNEO FAENZA FANO FERRARA FINALE EMILIA

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 4) Italy Communities (continued) FLORENCE FORLI FOSSANO FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA GAETA GENOA GORIZIA IMOLA ISTRIA LECCE LEGHORN LODI LOMBARDY LUCCA LUGO MALTA MANTUA MARSALA MERANO MESSINA MILAN MODENA MONCALVO NAPLES ORIA ORVIETO OSTIA OTRANTO PADUA PALERMO PARMA PAVIA PERUGIA PIACENZA PIEDMONT PIOVE DI SACCO PISA POMPEI RAVENNA RECANATI REGGIO DI CALABRIA REGGIO EMILIA RIMINI RIVA (di Trento) ROME ROVIGO SABBIONETA SALERNO SALUZZO SAN DANIELE DE FRIULI SAN MARINO SAN NICANDRO SARDINIA

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SENIGALLIA SICILY SIENA SIPONTO SPOLETO SYRACUSE TARANTO TRANI TRAPANI TRENT TREVISO TRIESTE TURIN TUSCANY URBINO VENICE VENOSA VERCELLI VERONA VICENZA VITERBO VITTORIO VENETO Biographies

AARON OF PESARO ABRABANEL ABRABANEL, BENVENIDA ABRAHAM BEN HAYYIM, THE DYER ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN GARTON ADELKIND, ISRAEL CORNELIUS ALATINO ALATRI, SAMUEL ALATRINI (Alatrino) ALDO MANUZIO ALMAGIA, ROBERTO ALMANSI ALMANZI, JOSEPH AMBRON, SHABBETAI ISAAC ANCONA ANCONA, CESARE D’ ANCONA, MARIO ANCONA, VITO D’ ARBIB ARPA, ABRAMO DALL’ ARTOM ARTOM, CESARE ASCARELLI, DEBORAH ASCARELLI, TULLIO ASCOLI ASCOLI, ETTORE ASCOLI, GRAZIADIO ISAIA ASSEMANI AZEGLIO, MASSIMO TAPARELLI, MARCHESE D AZULAI BACHI, ARMANDO BACHI, RICARDO BAK BALMES, ABRAHAM BEN MEIR DE BARTOLOCCI, GIULIO BARUCH, JACOB BEN MOSES HAYYIM

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BARZILAI BASEVI BASSANI, GIORGIO BASSANO BEDARIDA, GUIDO BELFORTE, SOLOMON BEMPORAD, AZEGLIO BEMPORAD, ENRICO BENEVENTO, IMMANUEL BEN JEKUTHIEL BENJAMIN NEHEMIAH BEN ELNATHAN BERNHEIMER, CARLO BLAYER, PIETRO BOCCACCIO, GIOVANNI BOLAFFI, MICHELE BOLAFFIO, LEONE BOMBERG, DANIEL BONAVENTURA, ENZO JOSEPH BORGHI, LAMBERTO BOZECCO (Bozecchi), BENJAMIN BEN JUDAH BRAGADINI BRUNETTI, ANGELO CAGLI, CORRADO CALIMANI, SIMHA BEN ABRAHAM CAMERINI, EUGENIO SALOMONE CAMMEO, FEDERICO CANTARINI CANTONI, ALBERTO CANTONI, LELIO (Hillel) CANTONI, RAFFAELE CAPON, AUGUSTO CAPSALI, ELIJAH CARPI, LEONE CASSUTO, UMBERTO (Moses David) CASTELLAZZO, MOSES DA CASTELLI, DAVID CASTELNUOVO, ENRICO CASTELNUOVO-TEDESCO, MARIO CASTIGLIONI, HAYYIM (Vittorio) CATTANEO, CARLO CIVITA, DAVIT (David) COEN, ACHILLE COEN, GRAZIADIO VITA ANANIA COHEN COLOGNA (DE), ABRAHAM VITA COLOMBO, SAMUEL COLOMBO, YOSEPH COLON, JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON (Maharik) COLORNI, VITTORE COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER CONAT, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON CONCIO, JOSEPH BEN GERSON CONEGLIANO CONSIGLI(O), AVTALYON (Ottavio) BEN SOLOMON CORCOS, VITTORIO DA VERONA, GUIDO DANTE ALIGHIERI DATO, MORDECAI BEN JUDAH DE BENEDETTI, ALDO DE ROSSI, GIOVANNI BERNARDO DEBENEDETTI, GIACOMO

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

DEL BANCO, ANSELMO (Asher Levi Meshullam) DELLA SETA, ALESSANDRO DELLA TORRE, LELIO (Hillel) DEL MONTE, CRESCENZO DEL VECCHIO DEL VECCHIO, SHABBETAI ELHANAN BEN ELISHA DESSAU, BERNARDO DI GARA, GIOVANNI DIENNA, AZRIEL BEN SOLOMON DIRINGER, DAVID DISEGNI, DARIO DONATI, ENRICO DONATI, LAZZARO DONNOLO, SHABBETAI EGIDIO DA VITERBO ELIJAH BEN SHABBETAI BEER ELIJAH OF LA MASSA ELIJAH OF PESARO ENRIQUES, PAOLO ERRERA, CARLO FALCO, MARIO FANO FANO, GUIDO ALBERTO FARINACCI, ROBERTO FIGO, AZARIAH FINZI FINZI, GIUSEPPE FIORENTINO, SALOMONE FOA FOA, RAIMONDO FOLIGNO, HANANEL (DA) FORMIGGINI, ANGELO FORTUNATO FORTI, BARUCH UZZIEL BEN BARUCH FORTI, JACOB RAPHAEL HEZEKIAH BEN ABRAHAM ISRAEL FRANCES, JACOB BEN DAVID FRANCHETTI, RAIMONDO FRIZZI, BENEDETTO FUBINI, GUIDO FUBINI, MARIO GABBAI GALLICO GENTILI GERSHON, ISAAC GHIRONDI, MORDECAI SAMUEL BEN BENZION ARYEH GINZBURG, NATALIA GIOVANNI MARIA GIUSTINIANI, AGOSTINO (Pantaleone) GIUSTINIANI, MARCO ANTONIO GRAZIANO, ABRAHAM JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI GUASTALLA, ENRICO GUGLIELMO DA PESARO GUIDACERIO, AGACIO GUNZENHAUSER, JOSEPH BEN JACOB HALFANUS IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN JOSEPH IMBONATI, CARLO GIUSEPPE (Imbonatus) IMMANUEL (ben Solomon) OF ROME

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 4) Italy Biographies (continued) ISAAC BEN JACOB MIN HA-LEVIYYIM ISHMAEL BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC HA-KOHEN JAGEL, ABRAHAM BEN HANANIAH DEI GALICCHI JARE JEDIDIAH (AMADIO) BEN MOSES OF RECANATI JERAHMEEL BEN SOLOMON JESI, SAMUEL JOEL, OTTO J. JOHN OF CAPUA JOSEPH HA-KOHEN JOSHUA BOAZ BEN SIMON BARUCH LATTES LATTES, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC LATTES, DANTE LATTES, ISAAC JOSHUA LERMA, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL LEVI, BENEDETTO LEVI, CARLO LEVI (GRAZIADIO), DAVID LEVI, DORO LEVI, EUGENIO LEVI, GIORGIO RENATO LEVI, GIULIO AUGUSTO LEVI, GIUSEPPE LEVI, MARIO GIACOMO LEVI, PAOLO LEVI, PRIMO LEVI-BIANCHINI, ANGELO LEVI-CIVITA, TULLIO LEVI DELLA VIDA, GIORGIO LEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA LEVI-PEROTTI, GIUSTINA LIUZZI LOLLI, EUDE LOMBROSO, CESARE LOPEZ, SABATINO LORIA, ACHILLE LUZZATTI, LUIGI LUZZATTO LUZZATTO, EPRRAIM LUZZATTO, GINO LUZZATTO, ISAAC MAGINO, MEIR MALACHI BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN MALVANO, GIACOMO MANETTI, GIANNOZZO MANIN, DANIELE MANTINO, JACOB BEN SAMUEL MARGULIES, SAMUEL HIRSCH MARINI, SHABBETHAI HAYYIM (Vita) MARLI, SAMUEL (RAPHAEL) BEN MAZLIAH MASSARANI, TULLO MASSARANO, JACCHINO or ISACCHINO

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MAYER, SALLY MEIR BEN EPHRAIM OF PADUA MICHELSTAEDTER, CARLO MILANO, ATTILIO MINZ, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI MINZ, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI MITHRIDATES, FLAVIUS MODENA, ANGELO MODENA, AVTALYON (da) MODENA, FIORETTA DI MODENA, LEONE (Judah Aryeh) MODIGLIANI, AMEDEO MODIGLIANI, VITTORIO EMANUELE MOMIGLIANO, ARNALDO DANTE MOMIGLIANO, ATTILIO MOMIGLIANO, FELICE MONDOLFO, RODOLFO MORAVIA, ALBERTO MORPURGO MORPURGO, GIUSEPPE MORPURGO, RACHEL MORPURGO, SALOMONE MORPURGO, SAMSON BEN JOSHUA MOSES MORTARA, LODOVICO MORTARA, MARCO MOSCATI, SABATINO MOSES OF PALERMO MUSOLINO, BENEDETTO MUSSAFIA, ADOLFO MUSSOLINI, BENITO NATHAN, ERNESTO NATHAN BEN JEHIEL OF ROME NEPPI, HANANEL (Grazziadio) NORZI NORZI, JEDIDIAH SOLOMON RAPHAEL BEN ABRAHAM NUNES VAIS OLIVETTI OLMO, JACOB DANIEL BEN ABRAHAM ORVIETO, ANGIOLO OTTOLENGHI OTTOLENGHI, GIUSEPPE OTTOLENGHI, JOSEPH BEN NATHAN OTTOLENGHI, MOSES JACOB PACIFICI, ALFONSO PACIFICI, RICCARDO PAGNINI, SANTES (Xanthus Pagninus) PAPERNA, ABRAHAM BARUCH PAPO, SAMUEL SHEMAIAH PARDO, JOSEPH PARENZO PASTA, GUIDITTA PERGOLA, RAPHAEL DE LA PERREAU, PIETRO PESARO, ABRAMO PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, GIOVANNI PIPERNO BEER, SERGIO PISA, DA PITIGRILLI POLACCO, VITTORIO

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PONTECORVO, BRUNO PORTALEONE PORTALEONE, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID II PORTO PORTO, ABRAHAM MENAHEM BEN JACOB HAKOHEN PORTO-RAFA, MOSES BEN JEHIEL HA-KOHEN PREZIOSI, GIOVANNI PROVENÇAL, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID PROVENÇAL, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM PROVENÇAL, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM PUGLIESE, EMANUELE PUGLIESE, UMBERTO RABBA, MENAHEM RAPHAEL, MARK (Marco) RASSEGNA MENSILE DI ISRAEL, LA RAVA, MAURIZIO RECANATI REGGIO, ISACCO SAMUEL REUVENI, DAVID REVERE, GIUSEPPE PROSPERO RIETI RIETI, MOSES BEN ISAAC DA ROGERS, ERNESTO ROMANELLI, SAMUEL AARON ROMANIN JACUR, LEONE ROMANIN, SAMUELE ROMANO, JUDAH BEN MOSES BEN DANIEL ROSSELLI ROSSI, MADAMA EUROPA DE ROSSI, SALAMONE DE SABA, UMBERTO SACERDOTE, DAVID SACERDOTI, ANGELO-RAPHAEL CHAIM SAMEGAH, JOSEPH BEN BENJAMIN SANGUINETTI, AZARIAH HAYYIM SARAVAL SARAVAL, JACOB RAPHAEL BEN SIMHAH JUDAH SARAVAL, JUDAH LEIB SARFATI SCHANZER, CARLO SCHIFF, HUGO SEGRE SEGRE, ARTURO SEGRE, BENIAMINO SEGRE, CORRADO SEGRE, EMILIO GINO SEGRE, GINO SEGRE, JOSHUA BENZION SEGRE, ROBERTO SEGRE, SALVATORE SERENI, ANGELO PIERO SERENI, ENZO HAYYIM SERVI, FLAMINIO (Ephraim) SESSO, SALAMONE DA SFORNO, OBADIAH BEN JACOB SIERRA, SERGIO JOSEPH SILANO SINIGAGLIA SINIGAGLIA, LEONE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

SIXTUS OF SIENA SOAVE, MOISE SONCINO SONNINO, SIDNEY SULLAM, SARA COPPIO SVEVO, ITALO TEDESCHI TEDESCHI (Tedesco), MOSES ISAAC BEN SAMUEL TERNI, DANIEL BEN MOSES DAVID TERRACINI, BENVENUTO ARON TERRACINI, UMBERTO ELIA TIVOLI, SERAFINO DA TOAFF TRABOT TREMELLIUS, JOHN IMMANUEL TREVES, EMILIO TREVES, JOHANAN BEN JOSEPH VALABREGA, CESARE VENTURA, RUBINO VITERBO, CARLO ALBERTO VITTA, CINO VIVANTE, CESARE VIVANTI, DAVID ABRAHAM VIVANTI CHARTRES, ANNIE VOLLI, GEMMA VOLTERRA VOLTERRA, EDOARDO VOLTERRA, MESHULLAM BEN MENAHEM DA VOLTERRA, VITO WOLLEMBORG, LEONE YAISH, BARUCH BEN ISAAC IBN ZEVI, BRUNO ZIFRONI, ISRAEL BEN DANIEL ZOLLER, ISRAEL 5) Netherlands Main Surveys

DUTCH LITERATURE NETHERLANDS, THE General Entries

FELIX LIBERTATE Communities

AMSTERDAM HAGUE, THE Biographies

ABENDANA, ISAAC SARDO ABENDANA, JACOB BEN JOSEPH ABRAHAM, SAMUEL ABRAHAM BAR JACOB ALTING, JACOBUS AMELANDER, MENAHEM MANN BEN SOLOMON HA-LEVI ANDRADE, VELOSINO JACOB DE ASSCHER, ABRAHAM ASSER ATHIAS, JOSEPH and IMMANUEL BEEK, MARTINUS ADRIANUS

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 5) Netherlands Biographies (continued) BELINFANTE BELINFANTE, ISAAC BEN ELIAH COHEN BENVENISTE, IMMANUEL BERGH, VAN DEN BERLIJN, ANTON (Aron Wolf) BLANKENSTEIN, MARCUS VAN BOAS BOAS, HENRIETTE BOUWMEESTER, LOUIS FREDERIK JOHANNES BRANDON, OHEB ISAAC BREGSTEIN, MARCEL HENRI BRUGGEN, CARRY VAN CACERES, ABRAHAM CAMPEN (Campensis), JOHANNES VAN CAMPEN, MICHEL HERMAN VAN CASTRO TARTAS, DAVID DE CITROEN, ROELOF PAUL COCCEIUS, JOHANNES COHEN, BENJAMIN COHEN, DAVID COHEN, ERNST JULIUS CORREA, ISABEL REBECCA DE COSTA, ISAAC DA COSTA, URIEL DA CUNAEUS (Van der Cun), PETRUS DA COSTA, JOSEPH MENDES DAVIDS, AARON ISSACHAR (Bernard) BEN NAHMAN DE CHAVES, AARON DE KLERK, MICHEL DE LIEME, NEHEMIA DICKER-BRANDEIS, FREDERIKE DOZY, REINHART PIETER ANNE DRUSIUS, JOHANN CLEMENS DUQUE, SIMON DAVID EERDMANS, BERNARDUS DIRKS ELKERBOUT, BEN ELTE, HARRY EMPEREUR, CONSTANTIN L’ ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM ERPENIUS, THOMAS FRANK, ANNE FRANKFORT, HENRI FRANKFURTER, MOSES FRIEDE, SHALOM GANS, MOZES (“Max”) GASKELL, SONJA GODEFROI, MICHAEL HENRI GOUDEKET, MAURITS GOUDSMIT, JOEL EMANUEL GROTIUS, HUGO HAAN, JACOB ISRAEL DE HAAN, MEIJER DE HARTOG, LEVIE DE

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HEIJERMANS, HERMAN HERTZVELD-HIJMANS, ESTELLA HERZBERG, ABEL JACOB HEYMANS, GERARDUS F. HILLESUM, JEREMIAS HIRSCHEL, LEVIE (Louis) HOND, MEIJER DE HORODISCH, ABRAHAM ISRAELS, JOZEF JACOBS, ALETTA JITTA, DANIEL JOSEPHUS JONG, LOUIS DE KANN, JACOBUS HENRICUS KLEEREKOPER, ASSER BENJAMIN KOENIGSWARTER KUENEN, ABRAHAM LARA, ISAAC COHEN DE LEEUW, JACOB BEN HAYYIM (Heymann) DE LEHREN LEMANS, MOSES LEUSDEN, JOHANN LIMBURG, JOSEPH LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI LOEWENSTAMM LOGGEM, MANUEL VAN MAARSEN, ISAAC MANASSEH BEN ISRAEL MEIJER, JACOB MEIJERS, EDUARD MAURITS MENDELS, MAURITS MEYER, JONAS DANIEL MINCO, MARGA MIRANDA, SALOMON RODRIGUES DE MONTEZINOS, DAVID MORTEIRA, SAUL LEVI MULDER, SAMUEL ISRAEL MULISCH, HARRY MUSSERT, ANTON ADRIAAN NIEROP, VAN ONDERWIJZER, ABRAHAM BEN SAMSON HAKOHEN OPPENHEIM, JACQUES ORNSTEIN, LEONARD SALOMON PALACHE, JUDAH LION PEREIRA DE PAIVA, MOSES PINTO, DE PINTO, ISAAC DE POLAK, GABRIEL ISAAC POLAK, HENRI POLAK, LEONARD PRAAG, SIEGFRIED EMANUEL VAN PRESSER, JACOB PRINS, LIEPMAN PHILIP PROOPS QUERIDO, ISRAEL RELAND, ADRIAN (Hadrian) REMBRANDT VAN RIJN REVESZ, GEZA ROEST, MEIJER MARCUS ROSENBERG, LAZAR

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SANDBERG, WILLEM JACOB SARPHATI, SAMUEL SCHULTENS, ALBRECHT SCHUSTER, AARON SEELIGMANN, ISAC LEO SEELIGMANN, SIGMUND SOLA, DE SPATH, JOHANN PETER SPINOZA, BARUCH DE SUASSO SURENHUIS, WILHELM (Guilielmus) SURGUN, ISAAC TEMPLO, JACOB JUDAH (ARYEH) LEON TIRADO, JACOB URI BEN AARON HA-LEVI VAN DER HOEDEN, JACOB VAN RAALTE, EDUARD ELLIS VAN VRIESLAND, VICTOR EMANUEL VISSER, LODEWIJK ERNST VOS, ISIDOR H. J. VRIEZEN, THEODORUS CHRISTIAAN VROMAN, LEO WAGENAAR, LION WAGNER, SIEGFRIED WEINREB, FRIEDRICH WERTHEIM, ABRAHAM CAREL WIJNKOOP, DAVID 6) Scandinavia Main Surveys

DENMARK FINLAND NORWAY SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE SWEDEN Communities

COPENHAGEN MALMO OSLO STOCKHOLM Biographies

ABRAHAMS, NICOLAI CHRISTIAN LEVIN ADLER, DAVID BARUCH ASLAKSSEN, CORT (Aslacus, Conrad) BALLIN, JOEL BALLIN, MOEGENS BALLIN, SAMUEL JACOB BENDIX, VICTOR EMANUEL BENKOW, JO (Josef Elias) BENTZEN, AAGE BERNADOTTE, FOLKE BESEKOW, SAMUEL BOHR, NIELS HENRIK DAVID BORCHSENIUS, POUL BORGE, VICTOR BRANDES, CARL EDVARD BRANDES, GEORG BRANDES, LUDWIG ISRAEL

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BRICK, DANIEL BUHL, FRANZ PEDER WILLIAM MEYER COHEN, EMIL WILHELM COHN, CILLA CYPORA COHN, GEORG ARYE EDELMANN, RAPHAEL EIBESCHUETZ, SIMON AARON EITINGER, LEO S. ELKAN, SOPHIE EMSHEIMER, ERNST FEIGENBERG, MEIR FISCHER, JOSEF FOIGHEL, ISI FRAENKEL, LOUIS FRIEDMANN, JANE GLUECKSTADT, ISAAC HARTVIG GOLDSCHMIDT, HEINRICH JACOB GOLDSCHMIDT, MEIR ARON GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR MORITZ GONDOR, FERENC GOTEBORG (Gothenburg) GRANDITSKY, PALLE GRUENBAUM, HENRY HAMBRO, JOSEPH HANNOVER, ADOLPH HECKSCHER, ELI FILIP HEDEGARD, OSKAR DAVID LEONARD HERTZ, HENRIK (Heyman) HURWITZ, STEPHAN ISAAC, AARON ISENSTEIN, KURT HARALD JACOBSEN, ARNE EMIL JACOBSON, LUDVIG LEVIN JAKOBSON, MAX JAKUBOWSKI, JACKIE JOSEPHSON KAUFMANN, HANNE KLEIN, GEORGE LAMM, MARTIN LEVERTIN, OSCAR IVAR LEVIN, POUL THEODOR LEVY, LOUIS MANNHEIMER, THEODOR MELCHIOR MELCHIOR, MARCUS MELCHIOR, MICHAEL MEYER, LUDWIG BEATUS MEYER, TORBEN LOUIS MOTTELSON, BENJAMIN R. MOWINCKEL, SIGMUND OLAF PLYTT MUNK, KAJ NARROWE, MORTON NATHANSEN, HENRI NATHANSON, MENDEL LEVIN OPPENHEJM, RALPH GERSON PEDERSEN, JOHANNES QUISLING, VIDKUN ABRAHAM LAURITZ RUBENSON, ROBERT RUBIN, EDGAR SALOMON, GESKEL

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 6) Scandinavia Biographies (continued) SALOMON, JULIUS SALOMONSEN, CARL JULIUS SCHUCK, JOHAN HENRIK EMIL SIESBY, GOTTLIEB ISASCHAR SIMONSEN, DAVID JACOB TAU, MAX TYCHSEN, OLAUS GERHARD (Oluf) VALENTIN, HUGO MAURICE WARBURG, KARL JOHAN WARRENS, ROSA WERGELAND, HENRIK ARNOLD WOLFF, ABRAHAM ALEXANDER YSANDER, TORSTEN ZACHARIAS, JOHN 7) Spain & Portugal Main Surveys

PORTUGAL SPAIN SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE General Entries

ADELANTADOS ALBORAYCOS ANUSIM ARRABY MOOR AUTO DA FÉ BARCELONA, DISPUTATION OF BERUREI AVERAH CALATRAVA CONVERSOS CRYPTO-JEWS INQUISITION LIMPIEZA DE SANGRE RAB DE LA CORTE TORTOSA, DISPUTATION OF Communities

AGRAMUNT AGUILAR DE CAMPÓO ALAGÓN ALBA DE TORMES ALBARRACÍN ALCALÁ DE HENARES ALCAÑIZ ALCOLEA ALJAMA ALMAGRO ALMERIA ASTORGA AVILA AZORES BADAJOZ

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BALAGUER BARBASTRO BARCELONA BAZA BEJA BELMONTE BESALU BIEL BRAGANZA BRIVIESCA BUITRAGO BURGOS BURRIANA CADIZ CALAHORRA CALATAYUD CANARY ISLANDS CARMONA CARRION DE LOS CONDES CARTAGENA (Cartageni) CASTELO BRANCO CASTELLÓN DE LA PLANA CASTROJERIZ CEA CERVERA CEUTA CIUDAD REAL CIUDAD RODRIGO COCA COIMBRA CORDOBA CORUNNA COVILHA CUENCA CHAVES CHILLON DAROCA DENIA DUEÑAS ECIJA ELCHE ELVIRA ESCALONA ESTELLA EVORA FARO FRAGA FUNES GERONA GRANADA GUADALAJARA GUADALUPE HARO HERRERA DE PISUEGRA HÍJAR HUESCA HUETE IBIZA and FORMENTERA ILLESCAS JACA

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JAEN JÁTIVA JEREZ DE LA FRONTERA LAGOS LEIRIA LEON LERIDA LISBON LUCENA LLERENA MADRID MAJORCA MÁLAGA MAQUEDA MEDINA DE POMAR MEDINA DEL CAMPO MEDINACELI MÉRIDA MINORCA MIRANDA DE EBRO MONCORVO MONTCLUS MONTIEL MONZÓN MURCIA MURVIEDRO NÁJERA OCANA OLMEDO OPORTO ORENSE ORIHUELA PALENCIA PALMA, LA PAMPLONA PECHINA PLASENCIA SAHAGÚN SALAMANCA SANTA COLOMA DE QUERALT SANTARÉM SARAGOSSA SEGORBE SEGOVIA SEPÚLVEDA SETUBAL SEVILLE SICILY SIGÜENZA SORIA TALAVERA DE LA REINA TARAZONA TARRAGONA TARREGA TAUSTE TERUEL TOLEDO TOMAR TORTOSA TRUJILLO

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TUDELA VALENCIA VALMASEDA VALLADOLID VICH VILA REAL VILLADIEGO VILLAFRANCA DEL PANADÉS VITORIA ZAMORA Biographies

ABENMENASSE ABENSUR ABENVIVES ABNER OF BURGOS ABOAB ABRABANEL, ABRAVANEL ABRAHAM EL-BARCHILON ABRAHAM OF BEJA ABRAHAM OF SARAGOSSA ABRAHAO, COJE ABU AL-FADL HASDAY ABUDARHAM ABULAFIA ABULAFIA, SAMUEL BEN MEIR HA-LEVI ABULAFIA, SAMUEL HA-LEVI AFFONSO ALCONSTANTINI ALFONSO ALFONSO DE ESPINA ALFONSO DE OROPESA ALFONSO OF ZAMORA ALFONSUS BONIHOMINIS (Buenhombre) AL-MANSUR AL-YAHUDI ALMOSNINO ALTARAS ALVAREZ GATO, JUAN AMADOR DE LOS RIOS, JOSE AMZALAK, MOSES BENSABAT ANTONIO ARAGÃO, FERNÃO XIMENES DE ARDUT ARIAS MONTANO, BENITO ARRAGEL, MOSES AT(H)IAS AUB, MAX AVENDAUTH AVILA, DE AVILA, PROPHET OF BAENA, JUAN ALFONSO DE BARRIOS, DANIEL LEVI (Miguel) DE BENARUS, ADOLFO BENJAMIN (BEN JONAH) OF TUDELA BENOLIEL, JOSEPH (Jose) BENREMOKH BENSAUDE BENVENISTE BENVENISTE, ABRAHAM BENVENISTE, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History e. Western Europe 7) Spain & Portugal Biographies (continued) BENVENISTE, SAMUEL BENVENISTE, SHESHET BEN ISAAC BEN JOSEPH BENVENISTE DE PORTA BENZAMERO BIBAGO, ISAAC BONJORN, BONET DAVI(D) BONSENYOR, JUDAH (Jafuda) BOTAREL, MOSES BEN ISAAC BRANDÃO, AMBRÓSIO FERNANDES CANTERA BURGOS, FRANCISCO CARRASCON, JUAN CASTRO QUESADA, AMERICO CAVALLERIA, DE LA CERVANTES SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE CHARLES V CHAVES CORDOBA, ALONSO FERNANDEZ DE COSTA DE MATTOS, VICENTE DA COTA DE MAGUAQUE, RODRIGO DE CRESCAS CRESQUES ABRAHAM CRESQUES DE VIVERS DESMAESTRE, JONAH DIEZ, MACHO ALEJANDRO ECIJA, JOSEPH (Yucaf) DE ELEAZAR ENRIQUEZ GOMEZ, ANTONIO ENRIQUEZ, ISABEL ESCUDERO, LORENZO FALAQUERA FALAQUERA, NATHAN BEN JOEL FERDINAND AND ISABELLA FERNANDES VILLAREAL, MANOEL FERRIZUEL, JOSEPH HA-NASI FLORETA CA NOGA OF ARAGON FOREIRO, FRANCISCO GALIPAPA, HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM GALIPAPA, MAIMON GAMA, GASPAR DA GAVISON (Gavishon) GEDALIAH, JUDAH GERONDI, ISAAC BEN JUDAH GERONDI, JACOB BEN SHESHET GERONDI, MOSES BEN SOLOMON DESCOLA GERONDI, SAMUEL BEN MESHULLAM GERONDI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC GIKATILLA, ISAAC IBN GIKATILLA, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM GIKATILLA, MOSES BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN GODINEZ, FELIPE GOLLUF, ELEAZAR GRACIAN, SHEALTIEL BEN SOLOMON HABIBA, JOSEPH

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HAMON HANOKH BEN MOSES HASSAN HASSAN IBN (Mar) HASSAN HAYYIM BEN SAMUEL BEN DAVID OF TUDELA HAYYUN, ABRAHAM BEN NISSIM HAYYUN, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM HISDAI IBN SHAPRUT HUARTE DE SAN JUAN, JUAN IBN ABBAS, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL II IBN ALFAKHAR IBN BIKLARISH, JUNAS (Jonah) BEN ISAAC IBN DAUD, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID HALEVI IBN HASAN, JEKUTHIEL BEN ISAAC IBN JANAH, JONAH IBN JAU, JACOB IBN MIGASH, JOSEPH BEN MEIR HA-LEVI IBN MUHAJIR, ABRAHAM BEN MEIR IBN SAID, ISAAC IBN SHOSHAN IBN VERGA, SOLOMON IBN WAQAR IBN ZADOK, SOLOMON IBRAHIM IBN YAQUB OF TORTOSA ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH ISRAELI, ISRAEL JACOBSON, KURT JEHOSEPH HA-NAGID JEWESS OF TOLEDO JOHN JONAH BEN ABRAHAM GERONDI JOSEPH BEN JUSTU OF JAEN JUAN DE CIUDAD JUDAH BEN BARZILLAI AL-BARGELONI KAMNIEL, ABU AL-HASAN MEIR IBN LABI, SOLOMON (IBN) LA GUARDIA, HOLY CHILD OF LEON, LUIS DE LEVY LORKI, JOSHUA MAIMI, SIMON MANUEL I MARTÍNEZ DE OVIEDO, GONZALO MARTÍNEZ, FERRANT MARTINI, RAYMOND MELAMED, MEIR MENAHEM BEN JACOB IBN SARUQ MILLAS VALLICROSA, JOSE MARIA MONTORO, ANTON DE MOSES BEN HANOKH MOSES HA-KOHEN OF TORDESILLAS NAHMIAS, IBN NAHMIAS, JOSEPH BEN JOSEPH NAVARRO NIFOCI, ISAAC NISSIM BEN REUBEN GERONDI OHEV BEN MEIR HA-NASI ORABUENA OROBIO DE CASTRO, ISAAC (Balthazar) PABLO DE SANTA MARIA (el Burguense)

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PARHON, SALOMON BEN ABRAHAM IBN PEREZ BAYER, FRANCISCO PETRUS ALFONSI PICHO (Pichon), JOSEPH PORTELLA, DE RAVAYA (Ravaylla) RECCARED REMOS, MOSES BEN ISAAC RIBEIRO DOS SANTOS, ANTONIO RIBEIRO SANCHEZ, ANTONIO RIMOCH, ASTRUC ROSALES, JACOB ROSALES, JACOB HEBRAEUS (Immanuel Bocarro Frances) ROSANES SAMUEL HA-NAGID (Ismail Ibn Nagrela) SANCHES, FRANCISCO SANCHEZ, GABRIEL SANTANGEL, LUIS DE SARDI, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC SARMIENTO, PEDRO SCHWARZ, SAMUEL SENEOR, ABRAHAM SHALOM, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN JUDAH BEN SAMUEL SILVA, ANTONIO JOSE DA SISEBUT TAMAKH, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI TARONJI Y CORTES, JOSE TORQUEMADA, TOMAS DE TORRES, LUIS DE VECINHO, JOSEPH VERA Y ALARCON, LOPE DE VIDAL, CRESCAS VIDAL YOM TOV OF TOLOSA VIEIRA, ANTONIO VILLAREAL VIVES, JUAN LUIS XIMENES DE CISNEROS, FRANCISCO YOM TOV BEN ABRAHAM ISHBILI (Ritba) ZACUTO, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL ZARZA, SAMUEL IBN SENEH ZARZAL (Zarzab), ABRAHAM IBN ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 8) Switzerland Main Surveys

LUCERNE NEUCHÂTEL SAINT GALL SCHAFFHAUSEN ZURICH Biographies

BAUMGARTNER, WALTER BERTHOLET, ALFRED BIBLIANDER, THEODOR BLOCH, ROLF BRUNSCHVIG, GEORGES BURCKHARDT, JOHANN LUDWIG BUXTORF, JOHANNES (The Elder) BUXTORF, JOHANNES (The Younger) COHN DEUEL, HANS ERWIN DREIFUSS, RUTH DREYFUS DUNANT, JEAN HENRI FARBSTEIN, DAVID ZEVI FEIGEL, SIGI FRAENKEL, JONAS GAON, NESSIM DAVID GIVET, JACQUES GOETSCHEL, JULES GUGGENHEIM, CAMILLE GUGGENHEIM, PAUL GUGGENHEIM-GRUENBERG, FLORENCE HEILPERIN, MICHAEL ANGELO HERSCH, JEANNE HOTTINGER, JOHANN HEINRICH JEHOUDA, JOSUE KRONECKER, HUGO MARTI, KARL MAYER, SALY PAULI, WOLFGANG REICHSTEIN, TADEUS SAGALOWITZ, BENJAMIN SCHACHNOWITZ, SELIG SCHNITZER, ADOLF STAROBINSKI, JEAN TEITLER, SAMUEL ULRICH, JOHANN CASPAR VARLIN (Guggenheim, Willy) WINTERSTEIN, ALFRED ZIMMERLI, WALTHER

SWITZERLAND Communities

AARGAU BASLE BERNE BIEL ENDINGEN AND LENGNAU FRIBOURG GENEVA GROCK LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS LAUSANNE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

f. Eastern Europe 1) Bulgaria, Albania & Armenia Main Surveys

ALBANIA ARMENIA BULGARIA BULGARIAN LITERATURE Communities

ARDASHIR DURAZZO KOLAROVGRAD

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BELEV, ALEXANDER CANETTI, ELIAS HERBST, KARL KALEF, YEHOSHUA PETROV, VALERY ROMANO, MARCO ROSANES, SOLOMON ABRAHAM SARAH OF TURNAVO WAGENSTEIN, ANGEL 2) Czechoslovakia Main Surveys

CZECHOSLOVAKIA CZECHOSLOVAK LITERATURE General Entries

ABRAHAMITES AFIKE JEHUDA BAR KOCHBA ASSOCIATION ČECHU-ŽIDU, SVAZ CZECH MEMORIAL SCROLLS, THE FAMILIANTS LAWS (Familiantengesetze) GESELLSCHAFT DER JUNGEN HEBRAEER HILSNER CASE KULTUSVEREIN LANDESJUDENSCHAFT, BOEHMISCHE POLITISCHE GEMEINDE SELBSTWEHR SLANSKY TRIAL ŽIDOVSKÁ STRANA Communities

ALISTAL AUSTERLITZ BANSKA BYSTRICA BARDEJOV BECHYNE (Bechin) BENEŠOV (Beneschau) BOHEMIA BOSKOVICE (Boskowitz)

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MORAVSKY KRUMLOV MOST NACHOD NITRA NOVE MESTO NAD VAHOM NOVE ZAMKY NOVY BOHUMIN NOVY BYDZOV NOVY JICIN OLOMOUC (Olmuetz) OPAVA OSOBLAHA PEZINOK PIESTANY PILSEN POBEZOVICE NA SUMAVE POHORELICE (Pohrlitz) POLNA PRAGUE PRESOV PROSTEJOV ROUDNICE NAD LABEM SLOVAKIA SOBEDRUHY TABOR TACHOV (Tachau) TEPLICE (Teplice-Sanov) TOPOLCANY TREBIC (Trebitsch) TRENCIN (Trencsin) TREST TRNAVA TURNOV UDLICE UHERSKE HRADISTE UHERSKY BROD USOV USTEK USTI NAD LABEM VOTICE YEDINTSY ZATEC Biographies

ABELES, SIMON (Simele) ASKENAZY, LUDVIK BAK BASS, SHABBETAI BEN JOSEPH BASSEVI OF TREUENBERG (Treuenburg), JACOB BAUM, OSCAR BEER, SAMUEL FRIEDRICH BERGEL, JOSEPH BONDY, BOHUMIL (Gottlieb) BONDY, FILIP BONN, HANUS BOR, JOSEF BRECHER, GIDEON BRETHOLZ, BERTHOLD BROD, MAX CZECH, LUDWIG

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

DAGAN, AVIGDOR D’ELVERT, CHRISTIAN RITTER VON DEMETZ, PETER DEUTSCH, ALADAR DOBRUSCHKA, MOSES DOBRUSCHKA-SCHOENFELD DOSTAL, ZENO EDELSTEIN, JACOB EHRENFELD, NATHAN EIDLITZ, LEOPOLD EISLER, EDMUND MENAHEM EISLER, MORITZ EISNER, PAVEL (Paul) ELIEZER BEN ISAAC ELIJAH OF PRAGUE FEDER, RICHARD FEIGL, BEDRICH (Friedrich) FEUERSTEIN, BEDRICH FIRT, JULIUS FISCHER FISCHER, CAROLUS (Karl) FISCHER, OTOKAR FLEISCHMANN, GISI FORMAN, MILOS FRANKL-GRUEN, ADOLF ABRAHAM FRIEDER, ARMIN FRITTA FRÝD, NORBERT (Nora) FUCHS, ALFRED GAL, FEDOR GALSKY, DESIDER GELLNER, FRANTIŠEK GLASER, EDUARD GOLDFLAM, ARNOST GOLDSTEIN, ANGELO GOLDSTUECKER, EDUARD GOTTLIEB, FRANTIŠEK GROSMAN, LADISLAV GRUENWALD, MORITZ GUTFREUND, OTTO GUTTMANN, ROBERT HAAS, HUGO HAAS, LEO HAAS, SOLOMON BEN JEKUTHIEL KAUFMANN HELLER, YOM TOV LIPMANN BEN NATHAN HALEVI HOCK, SIMON (Sinai) HOFFMANN, CAMILL HOSTOVSKY, EGON ILLOWY (Illovy) JACOB BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON JACOBUS APELLA VICEDOMINUS JAKOBOVITS, TOBIAS JAKOBSON, ROMAN JEITELES JELLINEK, HERMANN JOEL, RAPHAEL JOSEPH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI JUSTITZ, ALFRED KAFKA, BRUNO ALEXANDER

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MUELHAUSEN, YOM TOV LIPMANN MUSIL, ALOIS OLBRACHT, IVAN ORNEST, OTA ORTEN, JIŘÍ OSTRAVA PASCHELES, WOLF PAVEL, OTA PETHAHIAH OF REGENSBURG PETSCHEK PICK, JIRI ROBERT PLACZEK, ABRAHAM POLAČEK, KAREL POLAK, JACOB EDUARD POPPER PREMYSL OTTOKAR II PROSTITZ, ISAAC BEN AARON QUETSCH, SOLOMON RAKOUS, VOJTECH RETI, RICHARD ROTTOVA, INNA RUDOLF II RUFEISEN, JOSEPH SALUS, HUGO SCHMOLKA, MARIE SCHORSCH, GUSTAV SHAHOR SICHER, GUSTAV SIDON, KAROL EFRAIM SIMONE, ANDRE SINGER, LUDVIK SPIEGEL, LUDWIG SPITZER, JURAJ STEIN, AUGUST STEINER, HANNAH STEINER-PRAG, HUGO STEINHERZ, SAMUEL STRANSKY, JAROSLAV SZOBEL, GEZA TELLER, ISSACHAR BAER TEWELES, JUDAH THIEBERGER, FRIEDRICH TIGRID, PAVEL TREBITSCH, ABRAHAM UHDE, MILAN UTITZ, EMIL VOGEL, KAREL VOHRYZEK, JOSEF VOSKOVEC, GEORGE VRCHLICKY, JAROSLAV WEBER, KOLOMAN WEIL, JIŘÍ WEINBERGER, JAROMIR WEINER, RICHARD WEINMANN, JACOB WEISS, JIŘÍ WESSELY, WOLFGANG WINTER, GUSTAV ZELENKA, FRANTIŠEK ZEYER, JULIUS

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ZIDEK, PAVEL 3) Greece Main Surveys

GREECE GREEK LITERATURE, MODERN General Entries

ROMANIOTS Communities

ARTA ATHENS CANEA CHALCIS CHIOS CORFU CORINTH CRETE CUOMOTINI CYPRUS DIDYMOTEIKHON (Didymotica) DRAMA EPIRUS IOANNINA KASTORIA KAVALLA KORONE KOS LARISSA MODON NAUPAKTOS PATRAS PHLORINA RETHYMNON RHODES SALONIKA SERRAI SPARTA THEBES TRIKKALA (Trikala) VEROIA VOLOS XANTHI ZANTE

ESTROSA, DANIEL FRANCO, MOSES HAYYIM (Ben) SHABBETAI (Maharhash) IBN ARDUT, HAYYIM JOSEPH BEN AZRIEL HAKOHEN IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN TAM ISTRUMSA (Istrusa), HAYYIM ABRAHAM JABEZ JOSEPH DAVID (Salonika) KALA’I, MORDECAI BEN SOLOMON KAPUZATO, MOSES HA-YEVANI KORETZ, ZVI LEVI, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH LEVI (Bet ha-Levi), ISAAC BEN SOLOMON LEVI, JACOB BEN ISRAEL LEVI (Bet ha-Levi), SOLOMON BEN ISAAC LEVI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC (II) MAESTRO, YAAKOV MALKHI, EZRA BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI MATSAS, JOSEPH MATSAS, NESTORAS MOISSIS, ASHER MOLHO, ISAAC RAPHAEL MOTAL, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB NEHAMA, JOSEPH NOVITCH, MIRIAM PERAHYAH, AARON BEN HAYYIM ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN PERAHYAH, HASDAI BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN QUERIDO, JACOB RAZON, JACKO RECANATI, ABRAHAM SAMUEL RECANATI, LEON ROMANUS I LECAPENUS SALEM, EMMANUEL RAPHAEL SCHIBY, BARUCH SCIAKI, JOSEPH TEKINALP, MUNIS (Kohen, Moiz) ZARCO, JUDAH 4) Hungary Main Surveys

HUNGARIAN LITERATURE HUNGARY General Entries

Biographies

AFIA, AARON ALHANATI, DAVID ALMOSNINO, MOSES BEN BARUCH ARDITI, ALBERT JUDAH BALBO, MICHAEL BEN SHABBETAI COHEN BELLELI, LAZARUS MENAHEM BEN-AROYA, AVRAHAM BENSANCHI, MENTESH (Mordecai) CAIMIS, JULIUS CAIMIS, MOISIS DALVEN, RACHEL ELAZAR, YAAKOV ELIYIA, JOSEPH

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ARROW CROSS PARTY BEN CHANANJA EGYENLOSEG IZRAELITA MAGYAR IRODALMI TÁRSULAT (IMIT) LANDESRABBINERSCHULE MAGYAR ZSIDO SZEMLE MULT ÉS JÖVÖ PRAEFECTUS JUDAEORUM STATUS QUO ANTE UJ KELET Communities

ABONY

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History f. Eastern Europe 4) Hungary Communities (continued) ALBERTI-IRSA ASZOD BAJA BALASSAGYARMAT BÉKÉSCSABA BELED BERETTYÓUJFALU BODROGKERESZTUR BONYHAD BUDAPEST DEBRECEN EGER ESZTERGOM GYONGYOS GYOR HODMEZOVASARHELY KAPOSVAR KECSKEMET KISVARDA KOSZEG MAKO MISKOLC NAGYKANIZSA NYIREGYHAZA PAKS PAPA PECS PESTSZENTERZSEBET SATORALJA UJHELY SOPRON SZEGED SZEKESFEHERVAR SZOLNOK SZOMBATHELY TISZAESZLAR VAC VESZPREM Biographies

ACSÁDY, IGNÁC ACZÉL, TAMÁS ADAM, LAJOS (Louis) ADLER, MORITZ ÁGAI, ADOLF AKIVA BEN MENAHEM HA-KOHEN OF OFEN ALCONIÈRE, THEODORE AMIGO AUER, LEOPOLD BACHER, WILHELM BAKY, LASZLO BALÁZS, BÉLA BALLAGI, MOR BÁNÓCZI

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BARACS, KÁROLY BARNA, VICTOR BATO, LUDWIG YOMTOV BAUMGARTEN, SANDOR BAUMHORN, LIPOT BECK, KARL ISIDOR BECK, WILLY BENJÁMIN, LÁSZLO BEREGI, ARMIN BENJAMIN BEREGI, OSZKAR BÉRENY, RÓBERT BERNSTEIN, BELA BETTELHEIM BETTELHEIM, SAMUEL BIHARI, ALEXANDER BIRÓ, LAJOS BLAU, LUDWIG LAJOS BLUM, AMRAM BEN ISAAC JACOB BOHM, HENRIK BOKROS-BIRMAN, DEZSÖ (Desiderius) BRAND, JOEL JENÖ BREYER, JULIUS (Gyula) BROD, DOVIDL BRÓDY, HEINRICH (Hayyim) BRÓDY, LÁSZLÓ BRÓDY, LILI BRÓDY, SÁNDOR BRÓDY, ZSIGMOND BRUCK, LAJOS BRUCK, MIKSA BUECHLER, ALEXANDER CHAROUSEK, RUDOLPH CHORIN, AARON CSERGÓ, HUGO CSERMELY, GYULA CZOBEL, BELA DEAK, FERENCZ DENES, BELA DÉRY, TIBOR DEUTSCH, DAVID BEN MENAHEM MENDEL DEUTSCH, ELIEZER HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM DEUTSCH, JUDAH JOEL DÓCZY, LAJOS DUKES, LEOPOLD (Judah Loeb) DUSCHINSKY, JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ISRAEL EGER, SIMHAH BUNIM BEN MOSES EHRENFELD EHRENFELD, SAMUEL BEN DAVID ZEVI EHRENREICH, HAYYIM JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS EINHORN, IGNAZ EISLER, MATYAS ELEK, ARTUR EMÓD, TAMAS ENDRE, LASZLO ENGEL, JOZSEF ENGELMANN, GABRIEL EÖTVÖS, BARON JÓZSEF EPPLER, SANDOR FALK, MIKSA FALUDY, GYÖRGY

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FEJÉR, LEOPOLD FEJTÖ, FRANÇOIS FELEKY, GÉZA FENICHEL, SAMUEL FÉNYES, ADOLF FENYŐ, LÁSZLÓ FENYŐ, MIKSA FERENCZI, SÁNDOR FISCHER, ANNIE FISCHER, GYULA FISCHER, MORITZ VON FLEISCHER, JUDAH LOEB FÖLDES, JOLÁN FRANKEL, LEO FRANKL, ADOLF FRENK, BEER (Issachar Dov) FREUND, VILMOS FRIED, AARON FRIEDMAN, DÉNES FRIEDMANN, ABRAHAM FRIEDMANN, MORITZ FUCHS, MOSES ZEVI FUST, MILAN GÁBOR, ANDOR GÁBOR, IGNÁC GELLÉRI, ANDOR ENDRE GELLÉRT, OSZKÁR GERÖ, ERNÖ GISZKALAY, JÁNOS GLASNER, MOSES SAMUEL GLUECK, ABRAHAM ISAAC GOITEIN, BARUCH BENEDICT GOLDBERGER, IZIDOR GOLDZIHER, IGNAZ (Isaac Judah) GRISHABER, ISAAC GROSS, HEINRICH (Henri) GRUENFELD, JUDAH GRUENHUT, ELEAZAR (Lazar) GRUNVALD, PHILIP (Fulop) GRUNWALD, AMRAM GRUNWALD, JUDAH GUENZLER, ABRAHAM GUTTMANN, MICHAEL (Mihály) HAJDU, MIKLOS HAJNAL, ANNA HAJÓS, ALFRÉD HATVANY-DEUTSCH HAVAS, GÉZA HÁY, GYULA (Julius) HAZAI, SAMU HEGEDÜS, ARMIN HELLER, BERNAT HELLER, JUDAH HELTAI, JENŐ HERTZKA, THEODOR HEVESI, LAJOS (Ludwig) HEVESI, SÁNDOR HEVESI, SIMON HIRSCHLER, IGNAC HIRSCHLER, PÁL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

HOROVITZ, LEOPOLD HOROWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL HA-LEVI HUGÓ, KÁROLY IGNOTUS, HUGÓ ILLÉS, BÉLA ISTOCZY, GYÖZÖ IVANYI-GRUNWALD, BÉLA JAKAB, DEZSŐ JAMBOR, FERENC-IOSEF JÁSZI, OSZKÁR JEREMIAH BEN ISAAC JOAB BEN JEREMIAH JONATHAN BEN JACOB JOSEPH SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN MEIR JUNGREIS, ASHER ANSHEL KACZÉR, ILLÉS KÁDAR, JÁN KAHANA, JEHIEL ZEVI BEN JOSEPH MORDECAI KAHANA, NAHMAN KARÁCSONY, BENÖ KARDOS, ALBERT KARDOS, LÁSZLÓ KARINTHY, FERENC KÁRMÁN, MÓR KATZ, MENAHEM KAUFMANN, ISIDOR KECSKEMÉTI, ÁRMIN KECSKEMÉTI, GYORGY KECSKEMÉTI, LIPOT KELEN, IMRE KELETI, ÁGNES KEMÉNY, SIMON KERTÉSZ, ANDRE KERTÉSZ, IMRE KERTÉSZ, ISTVAN KESZI, IMRE KISS, JÓZSEF KITTSEE, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC KITTSEE, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN SAMUEL KLEIN, MORITZ KLEIN, SAMUEL SHMELKA KLEIN, WILHELM KÓBOR, TAMÁS KOHLBACH, BERTALAN KOHN, SAMUEL KOHUT KOMÁROMI CSIPKÉS, GYÖRGY KOMLÓS, ALADÁR KOMOLY, OTTÓ KOMOR, ANDRAS KONRÁD, GYÖRGY KÖRMENDI, FERENC KORNFELD, ZSIGMOND KOSSUTH, LAJOS KRAUSS, JUDAH HA-KOHEN KRAUSZ, ZSIGMOND KUN, BÉLA KUNFI, ZSIGMOND KUNSTADT, ISAAC (Ignaz) BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN LAJTA, BÉLA

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POLLAK, MIKSA POLLAK, MOSES HA-LEVI QITTNER, ZSIGMUND RADNÓTI, MIKLOS RADÓ, ANTAL RÁKOSI, MÁTYÁS RAPOPORT, BENJAMIN ZEEV WOLF HA-KOHEN BEN ISAAC REICH, IGNAC REICH, KOPPEL (Jacob) REICHARD, PIROSKA RÉVÉSZ, BÉLA REVICZKY, IMRE RICHTMANN, MOZES RÓNAI, JÁNOS ROSENBAUM, MOSES HAYYIM LITS ROSENTHAL, NAPHTALI RÓZSAVÖLGYI, MÁRK SALAMON, ERNO SÁNDOR, PÁL SCHEIBER, ALEXANDER SCHICK, MOSES BEN JOSEPH SCHILLER-SZINESSY, SOLOMON MAYER SCHIPER, IGNACY (Yizhak) SCHLESINGER, AKIVA JOSEPH SCHOENFELD, JOSEPH SCHREINER, MARTIN (Mordechai) SCHWAB, LÖW SCHWARTZ, ABRAHAM JUDAH HA-KOHEN SCHWARTZ, JOSEPH HA-KOHEN SCHWARTZ, PHINEHAS (Pinhas) SELIG HAKOHEN (Sigmund) SCHWEITZER, EDUARD VON SCHWERIN-GOETZ, ELIAKIM HA-KOHEN SEIBER, MÁTYÁS GYÖRGY SHAG, ABRAHAM SIDON, SIMEON SILBERSTEIN, DAVID JUDAH LEIB SILBERSTEIN-ÖTVÖS, ADOLF SIMON, JOSEPH SIMON, TAMÁS SINGER, ABRAHAM SINGER, JOSEPH SINGER, PESAH SOMLYÓ, ZOLTÁN SOMOGYI, BELÁ SONNENFELD, SIGISMUND SPIRO, GYÖRGY STEIN, ELIEZER LIPMAN STERN, JOSEPH STERN, MENAHEM STERN, SAMUEL MIKLOS SZABÓ, IMRE SZABOLCSI, BENCE SZABOLCSI, LAJOS SZABOLCSI, MIKSA SZALASI, FERENC SZÁNTÓ, GYÖRGY SZÁNTÓ, SIMON SZEKELY, EVA

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SZENDE, PÁL SZENDE, STEFAN SZENES, BÉLA SZENES, ERZSI SZENES, HANNAH SZÉP, ERNŐ SZERB, ANTAL SZERENCSÉS, IMRE (Fortunatus) SZILÁGYI, GÉZA SZILARD, LEO SZOMORY, DEZSŐ SZTÓJAY, DÖME TABAK, SOLOMON LEIB TABOR (Tabori), PAUL TABORI, GEORGE TENNENBAUM, JACOB TURÓCZI-TROSTLER, JÓZSEF UJVÁRI, PETER ULLMANN, ADOLPH ULMAN, ABRAHAM UNGAR, JOEL OF RECHNITZ VADÁSZ, LIPÓT VÁGÓ, JÓZSEF VÁGÓ, LÁSZLÓ VALYI, PETER VAMBERY, ARMINIUS (Vamberger, Hermann) VÁNDOR, LAJOS VÁRNAI, ZSENI VAS, ISTVÁN VÁZSONYI, VILMOS VEIGELSBERG, LEO VENETIANER, LAJOS (Ludwig) VÉSZI, ENDRE VÉSZI, JOZSEF VIHAR, BÉLA VOGEL, SIMON WAHRMANN, ISRAEL WAHRMANN, MORITZ WEINER, LEO WEISS, JOSEPH MEIR WEISS, MANFRED WEISZ, MAX WELLESZ, JULIUS WERTHEIMER, EDUARD VON ZELK, ZOLTAN ZIEGLER, IGNAZ ZIPSER, MAJER ZÖLD, MÁRTON ZSIGMOND, EDE ZSOLDOS, JENÖ ZSOLT, BÉLA 5) Poland Main Surveys

LITHUANIA POLAND POLISH LITERATURE General Entries

AGRICULTURE

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AGUDDAT AHIM ARENDA HALLER’S ARMY JABLONNA KOROBKA MORGENTHAU COMMISSION SAMUEL COMMISSION STEIGER TRIAL UGODA Communities

ALEKSANDROW LODZKI AUGUSTOW BEDZIN BELCHATOW BELZYCE BIALA BIALA PODLASKA BIALYSTOK BIELSKO BIELSK PODLASKI BILGORAJ BOCHNIA BOJANOWO BRESLAU BRODY BRZEG BRZESC KUJAWSKI BRZEZINY BUCHACH BUSK BYDGOSZCZ BYTOM CHECINY CHELM CHMIELNIK CHORZOW CHRYZANOW CIECHANOW CRACOW CZESTOCHOWA DABROWA GORNICZA DROGOBYCH (Drohobycz) DZIALOSZYCE (Dzialoshitz) ELBLAG (Elbing) GABIN GALICIA GDANSK (Danzig) GLIWICE GLOGAU GNIEZNO GORA KALWARIA GORLICE GORZOW WIELKOPOLSKI GOSTYNIN GRAJEWO GREAT POLAND GRODZISK MAZOWIECKI GRODZISK WIELKOPOLSKI GROJEC

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History f. Eastern Europe 5) Poland Communities (continued) HALICZ HRUBIESZOW INOWROCLAW IZBICA LUBELSKA JANOW LUBELSKI JAROSLAW JASLO JEDRZEJOW JONAVA JURBARKAS (Jurburg) KALISZ KALUSZYN KALVARIJA KATOWICE KAUNAS KEDAINIAI KELME KIELCE KLODAWA KOCK (Kotsk) KOLBERG KOLO KONIN KONITZ KONSKIE (Konsk) KONSKOWOLA KORNIK KOZIENICE (Kozenitsy) KOZLE KRASNIK KRASNYSTAW KRETINGA KROSNO KROTOSZYN KRYNKI KRZEPICE KUPISKIS (Kupiskiai; Kupishki) KUTNO KYBARTAI LANCUT LASK LEBORK LECZNA LECZYCA LEGNICA LELOW LESKO LESSER POLAND LESZNO LEZAJSK LIPNO LODZ

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ROZWADOW RYMANOW RYPIN RZESZOW SAKIAI (Shakyai, Shakay) SAMBOR SAMOGITIA SANDOMIERZ SANOK SEDUVA SIAULIAI SIEDLCE SIEMIATYCZE SIERADZ SIERPC SKARZYSKO-KAMIENNA SKIERNIEWICE SKUODAS SOCHACZEW SOKOLKA SOKOLOW PODLASKI SOSNOWIEC (Sosnovets) SREM STASZOW STETTIN STOPNICA STRYKOW SUWALKI SWIDNICA SZCZEBRZESZYN SZCZERCOW SZYDLOWIEC TARNOBRZEG TARNOGROD (Tarnograd) TARNOW TAURAGE TELSIAI (Telshi; Telschen) TOMASZOW LUBELSKI TOMASZOW MAZOWIECKI TORUN TROKI TRZCIANKA TYKOCIN TYSZOWCE UKMERGE UTENA VILKAVISKIS VILNA VIRBALIS WARSAW WEGROW WIELICZKA WIELUN WISLICA WLOCLAWEK WLODAWA WODZISLAW WOLBROM WOLOMIN

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WRONKI WYSZKOW WYSZOGROD ZABLUDOW ZABRZE ZAGARE ZAMBROW (Zambrov) ZAMOSC ZARASAI ZAWIERCIE ZDUNSKA-WOLA ZELECHOW ZELOW ZGIERZ (Zgerzh) ZHMERINKA ZMIGROD NOWY ZUELZ ZWOLEN ZYCHLIN ZYRARDOW Organizations

CENTOS COUNCIL OF FOUR LANDS COUNCILS OF THE LANDS ENDECJA (Endeks) FOLKSPARTEI (POLAND) GORDONIA HA-NOAR HA-IVRI-AKIBA HE-HALUTZ JEWISH HISTORICAL INSTITUTE, WARSAW JEWISH SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY MAHZIKE HADAS MINORITY BLOC NARA OZON PPS ROZWOJ SEJM SHOMER ISRAEL TOZ VILNA TROUPE Publications

BEOBACHTER AN DER WEICHSEL CHWILA HA-ASIF HA-BOKER HA-KARMEL HALICZ HA-MIZPEH HAYNT HA-ZEFIRAH HA-ZOFEH IZRAELITA JAFFE JEKELES MOMENT, DER NASZ PRZEGLAD

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Academic Life ASKENAZY, SIMON ATLAS, ELEAZAR BALABAN, MEIR (Majer) BISLICHES, MORDECAI LEIB BODEK, JACOB BORNSTEIN, HAYYIM JEHIEL BUBER, SOLOMON BUCHNER, ABRAHAM CHAJES, SAUL CHARNA, SHALOM YONAH CHATZKELS, HELENE CHWISTEK, LEON DEMBITZER, HAYYIM NATHAN DICKSTEIN, SZYMON EDELMANN, SIMHAH REUBEN FEINSTEIN, ARYEH LOEB FRENK, EZRIEL (Azriel) NATHAN FRIEDBERG, BERNARD FRIEDMAN, PHILIP GLUSK, ABRAHAM ABBA GOLDBERG, BAER (DOV) BEN ALEXANDER GOLDBERG, BORIS GOLDBLUM, ISRAEL ISSER (Isidore) GOLDENBERG, BAERISH GORDON, JACOB HALBERSTAM, SOLOMON (Zalman) HAYYIM HALEVY, ISAAC HANDELSMAN, MARCELI HERSCHBERG, ABRAHAM SAMUEL HURWITZ, JUDAH BEN MORDECAI HA-LEVI HURWITZ, PHINEHAS ELIJAH ILNAE, ELIEZER ISAAC JAWITZ, ZEEV KALECKI, MICHAL KAMENETZKY, ABRAHAM SHALOM KATZ, BENZION KATZENELLENBOGEN, ZEVI HIRSH (Naphtali) KIRSCHBAUM, ELIEZER SINAI KOTARBINSKA, JANINA KRESSEL, GETZEL KROCHMAL, ABRAHAM KROCHMAL, NACHMAN LAUTERBACH, ASHER ZELIG LIPSCHITZ, JACOB HA-LEVI MAGGID-STEINSCHNEIDER, HILLEL NOAH MANASSEH BEN JOSEPH OF ILYA MARK, BERNARD (Berl) MARK, YUDEL MICZYNSKI, SEBASTIAN

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MIESES, FABIUS MIESES, MATTHIAS MOHR, ABRAHAM MENAHEM MENDEL NUSSBAUM, HILARY (Hillel) OBERMANN, JULIAN JOEL PELTIN, SAMUEL HIRSH PINELES, HIRSCH MENDEL BEN SOLOMON (Shalosh) PLUNGIAN (Plungiansky), MORDECAI POSNANSKI RABBINOWITZ, SAUL PHINEHAS REICHERSON, MOSES REIFMANN, JACOB RUBIN, SOLOMON SACHS, SENIOR SCHAFF, ADAM SCHOENHACK, JOSEPH SCHORR, JOSHUA HESCHEL SCHULMAN, KALMAN SHATZKES, MOSES AARON SIMCHONI (Simchowitz), JACOB NAFTALI HERTZ STEIN, EDMUND MENAHEM TCHERIKOWER, ELIAS TRUNK, ISAIAH TUGENDHOLD, JACOB TYKOCINSKI, HAYYIM WETTSTEIN, FEIVEL HIRSCH ZAMENHOF, LUDWIK LAZAR ZHITLOWSKY, CHAIM Art CENTERSZSWER, STANISLAWA FEUERRING, MAXIMILIAN GOTTLIEB, MAURYCY HIRSHENBERG, SAMUEL PILICHOWSKI, LEOPOLD Literature ADALBERG, SAMUEL BEHR, ISSACHAR FALKENSOHN BIEGELEISEN, HENRYK BRANDSTAETTER, ROMAN BRANDYS, KAZIMIERZ BRAUN, MIECZYSLAW BRZECHWA, JAN DRZEWIECKI, HENRYK FELD, ISAAC FELDMAN, WILHELM GORSKA, HALINA GRAY, MARTIN GRYDZEWSKI, MIECZYSLAW GRYNBERG, HENRYK HEMAR, MARIAN HERTZ, BENEDYKT JASIENSKI, BRUNO JASTRUN, MIECZYSLAW JUNOSZA, KLEMENS KLACZKO, JULIAN (Judah) LEC, STANISLAW JERZY

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LESMIAN, BOLESLAW MICKIEWICZ, ADAM MORGENSTERN, SOMA NOWACZYNSKI, ADOLF ORZESKOWA (Orzesko), ELIZA PEIPER, TADEUSZ ROZEWICZ, TADEUSZ RUDNICKI, ADOLF SCHULZ, BRUNO SLONIMSKI, ANTONI STANDE, STANISLAW RYSZARD STERN, ANATOL STRYJKOWSKI, JULJAN SZENWALD, LUCJAN TUWIM, JULIAN WAT, ALEXANDER WAZYK, ADAM WINAWER, BRUNO WITTLIN, JOZEF WOROSZYLSKI, WIKTOR WYGODZKI, STANISLAW Music ALTSCHUL, JOSEPH BERGSON, MICHAEL SZERMAN, PINCHAS WEINTRAUB, SOLOMON WIENIAWSKI, HENRI Popular Culture FORD, ALEXANDER KAMINSKI KIRSZENSTEIN-SZEWINSKA, IRENA MOREWSKI, ABRAHAM POLANSKI, ROMAN ROTBAUM, JACOB RUBINSTEIN, AKIVA SAMBERG, ISAAC (Aizik) SATZ, LUDWIG TURKOW Public & Economic Life DLUGOSZ, JAN FEDERBUSCH, SIMON FORTIS, ABRAHAM ISAAC GOLDMAN, BERNARD GORDON, ABRAHAM GORDON, DAVID GOTTLIEB, HEINRICH GOTTLIEB, HIRSCH LEIB GOTTLIEB, YEHOSHUA GRABSKI, STANISLAW GRAEBER, SCHEALTIEL EISIK GROSS, NATHAN GROSSER, BRONISLAW GRUENBAUM, YIZHAK HARTGLAS, MAXIMILIAN MEIR APOLINARY HAUSNER, BERNARD HERSCH, PESACH LIEBMAN HERZBERG-FRAENKEL, LEO

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HIRSCHHORN, SAMUEL HIRSZOWICZ, ABRAHAM HOROWITZ, SAMUEL BEN ISAIAH ARYEH LEIB HA-LEVI JELENSKI, JAN JOGICHES, LEON JOSELEWICZ, BEREK JOSKO JOZEFOWICZ KAHNSHTAM, AHARON KALLIR, MEIER KATZ-SUCHY, JULIUSZ KIRSCHBRAUN, ELIJAH KLUMEL, MEIR KOLISCHER, HEINRICH KON, FELIKS KOPELSON, ZEMAH KORCZAK, JANUSZ KORKIS, ABRAHAM ADOLF KOSCIUSZKO, TADEUSZ KOVNER, ABBA KRONENBERG LACHS, MANFRED LANDAU, LEIB LANDAU, SHEMUEL HAYYIM LEKERT, HIRSCH LELEWEL, JOACHIM (Ignacy) LEVIN, YIZAK MEIR LEWIN, GERSHON LEWITE, LEON LEWKO, JORDANIS LIBER, MARC LIEBERMAN, HERMAN LIEBERMANN, AARON SAMUEL LILIENBLUM, MOSES LEIB LITAUER, JAN JAKUB LITWAK, A. LONDON, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN MOSES RAPHAEL LUTOSTANSKI, HYPPOLITE MAYZEL, MAURYCY MEISELS, DOV BERUSH MENAHEM MENDEL BEN ISAAC MIESIS, JUDAH LEIB MIKHALEVICH, BEINISH MILL, JOSEPH SOLOMON (John) MOJECKI, PRZECLAW MOND, BERNHARD STANISLAW MOTKE HABAD MUSZKAT, MARION (Max) MUTNIK, ABRAHAM NACHMANOVICH (Nachmanowicz) NATANSON, LUDWIK NEUFELD, DANIEL ORGELBRAND, SAMUEL OSTROPOLER, HERSHELE PAWLIKOWSKI, JOZEF PESAHSON, ISAAC MORDECAI PIATTOLI, SCIPIONE PILSUDSKI, JOZEF

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PINES, MEYER ISSER PLOTNICKA, FRUMKA POPPER-BOZIAN, WOLF PORTNOY, JEKUTHIEL (Noah; Yuzef) POTOCKI, VALENTINE PROHOVNIK, ABRAHAM PRYLUCKI, NOAH PRYLUCKI, ZEVI HIRSCH PRYSTOR, JANINA RAKOWSKI, PUAH RAWNITZKI, YEHOSHUA HANA REICH, LEON REINMANN, SALOMON RINGEL, MICHAEL ROMM ROSEN, MATHIAS ROSENTHAL, PAVEL (Pinhas) ROSMARYN, HENRYK ROTENSTREICH, FISCHEL RUMKOWSKI, CHAIM MORDECHAI SALZ, ABRAHAM ADOLPH SAWICKI, JERZY SCHENIRER (Schnirer), SARAH SCHRENZEL, MOSES SCHUSSHEIM, AARON LEIB SCHWARZBART, ISAAC IGNACY SHABAD, ZEMAH SHULMAN, VICTOR SLAWOJ-SKLADKOWSKI, FELICJAN SLUCKI, ABRAHAM JACOB SLUTZKI, DAVID SMOLAR, HERSH STAND, ADOLF STYBEL, ABRAHAM JOSEPH SUROWIECKI, WAWRZYNIEC SZER, SEWERYN SZERESZEWSKI, MOSES DAVID SZYR, EUGENIUSZ TAMARES, AARON SAMUEL TAUBES, LOEBEL THON, ALBERT THON, OSIAS (Jehoshua) TREPPER, LEOPOLD WEICHERT, MICHAEL WILENSKY, YEHUDAH LEIB NISAN Religion DREYZL, LEAH EISENSTADT, MEIR (Maharam Esh) EISENSTADT, MENAHEM ZEVI ENGEL, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH

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ETTINGER, MORDECAI ZE’EV BEN ISAAC AARON SEGAL EZEKIEL FEIVEL BEN ZE’EV WOLF FALK, JOSHUA BEN ALEXANDER HA-KOHEN FEIGENBAUM, ISAAC HA-KOHEN GESUNDHEIT, JACOB BEN ISAAC GOMBINER, ABRAHAM ABELE BEN HAYYIM HA-LEVI HANOKH ZUNDEL BEN JOSEPH HARIF HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ABRAHAM BEN ISAIAH HOROWITZ, ISAIAH BEN JACOB HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, PHINEHAS BEN ISRAEL HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, SARAH REBECCA RACHEL LEAH ISAAC BEN BEZALEL OF VLADIMIR ISAAC BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI JOEL BEN MOSES GAD JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI GERSHON HAKOHEN OF CRACOW JOSEPH BEN MOSES OF KREMENETS JOSEPH BEN MOSES PHINEHAS JOSEPH SAMUEL BEN ZEVI OF CRACOW JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN JOSEPH OF CRACOW JUDAH BEN NISSAN KAHANA, SOLOMON DAVID KLEPFISH, SAMUEL ZANVIL KOWALSKY, JUDAH LEIB KRENGEL, MENAHEM MENDEL KRISTIANPOLLER LEWYSOHN, ABRAHAM LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM JEKUTHIEL ZALMAN BEN MOSES JOSEPH LIPSCHITZ, SOLOMON ZALMAN LUBLIN, MEIR BEN GEDALIAH MAISEL, ELIJAH HAYYIM MALAKH, HAYYIM BEN SOLOMON MARGOLIES, ISAAC BEN ELIJAH MEHLSACK, ELIAKIM BEN JUDAH HAMILZAHGI MEISELS, DAVID DOV MEISELS, DOV BERUSH MESHULLAM PHOEBUS BEN ISRAEL SAMUEL MICHAELSON, EZEKIEL ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM HAYYIM MORDECAI BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH OF KREMSIER MOSES BEN ISAIAH KATZ PERLMUTTER, ABRAHAM ZEVI PLOTZKI, MEIR DAN OF OSTROVA POLLACK, JACOB BEN JOSEPH RAPOPORT, ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL JEHIEL HA-KOHEN RAPOPORT, SOLOMON JUDAH LEIB REIZES (Reizeles) ROSANES, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN ISSACHAR BERISH

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ROZIN (Rosen), JOSEPH RUBINSTEIN, ISAAC SAMUEL BEN URI SHRAGA PHOEBUS SCHMELKES, GEDALIAH BEN MORDECAI SCHOR, EPHRAIM SOLOMON (THE ELDER) BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH SCHORR, MOSES (Mojzesz) SHALOM SHAKHNA BEN JOSEPH SHAPIRA, MEIR SHIFRAH OF BRODY SHRAGAI, SHLOMO ZALMAN SIRKES, JOEL SLONIK, BENJAMIN AARON BEN ABRAHAM SOCHACZEW, ABRAHAM BEN ZE’EV NAHUM BORNSTEIN OF TRUNK, ISRAEL JOSHUA WEINGARTEN, JOAB JOSHUA ZEMBA, MENAHEM ZUENZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN MOSES Science CALAHORA DICKSTEIN, SAMUEL HIRSZFELD, LUDWIK INFELD, LEOPOLD MARMOREK, ALEXANDER PARNAS, YAKUB KAROL STEINHAUS, HUGO DYONIZY STERN, ABRAHAM JACOB 6) Romania Main Surveys

ROMANIA ROMANIAN LITERATURE General Entries

ADAM AGRICULTURE C.D.E. (Comitetul Democratic Evreiesc) EGALITATEA HASEFER IRON GUARD LUMINA REVISTA CULTULUI MOZAIC Communities

ALBA IULIA ARAD BACAU BAIA-MARE BANAT BARLAD BENDERY BEZIDUL NOU BISTRITA (Bistritz) BORSA BOTOSANI BRAILA BRASOV

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BUCHAREST BUHUSI BUKOVINA BURDUJENI BUZAU CAMPULUNG Moldovenesc CAREI CLUJ CONSTANTA CRAIOVA DARABANI DEJ DOROHOI FAGARAS FALTICENI FOCSANI GALATI (Galatz) GERTSA GURA-HUMORULUI HARLAU HUSI IZMAIL JASSY KALARASH KAUSHANY LUGOJ (Lugos) MARGHITA (Margit(t)a) MIHAILENI MOINESTI MOLDOVENESC NASAUD NASNA ORADEA (Oradea Mare) ORSOVA PASCANI PIATRA-NEAMT (Piatra) PLOESTI RADAUTI (Radautz) REBREANU REGHIN (Reghinul Săsesc) REZINA (Rezinz) ROMAN RYSHKANY SALONTA SATU-MARE SEINI SIBIU SIGHET SIMLEUL-SILVANIEI SIRET SOROKI (Soroca) STEFANESTI SUCEAVA SULITA TALMACIU TARGU-MURES TELENESHTY (Telenesti) TIMISOARA TIRASPOL

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ADELSTEIN-ROZEANU, ANGELICA ADERCA, FELIX ANTONESCU, ION ANTONESCU, MIHAI AXELRAD, AVRAM BALTAZAR, CAMIL BALLY, DAVICION BALLY, ISAAC DAVID BANUŞ, MARIA BARANGA, AUREL BARASCH, JULIUS (Judah) BENADOR, URY BENJAMIN II (Israel Joseph) BERLIAND, SHLOMO MEIR BLANK, MAURICE BLECHER, MARCEL BOGDAN, CORNELIU BONCIU, H. BRAHAM, RANDOLPH L. BRAUNER, HARRY BRESLASU, MARCEL BROCINER, JOSEPH CAJAL, NICOLAE CALIN, VERA CĂLUGĂRU, ION CARMILLY-WEINBERGER, MOSHE CARP, HORIA (Jehoshua) CARP, PAULA CASSIAN, NINA CELAN, PAUL CILIBI, MOISE CODREANU, CORNELIU ZELEA CORNEA, PAUL COSAȘU, RADU CROHMALNICEANU OVID S. CUZA, ALEXANDER C. DAN, SERGIU DOBROGEANU-GHEREA, CONSTANTIN DOMINIC, ALEXANDRU DORIAN, DOREL DORIAN, EMIL DUDA, VIRGIL

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EBNER, MEIR (Mayer) FELLER, SHNEYUR ZALMAN FERARU, LEON FILDERMAN, WILHELM FONDANE, BENJAMIN FURTUNĂ, ENRIC GALACTION, GALA GASTON-MARIN, GHEORGHE GHELERTER, LUDWIG LITMAN GRAUR, ALEXANDRU GRAUR, CONSTANTIN GRUENBERG, KARL GURIAN, SORANA HAIMOVICI, MENDEL HALEVY, MEYER ABRAHAM HASKIL, CLARA HEFTER, ALFRED (Hidalgo) IACOBESCU, D. IONESCO, EUGENE IOSIFESCU, SILVIAN ISER, JOSIF ISOU, ISIDORE JANCO, MARCEL JUSTER, GEORGE LAVI, THEODOR LAZAR, SAMSON LĂZĂREANU, BARBU LECCA, RADU LIPPE, KARPEL LUCA, B. LUDO, ISAC IACOVITZ MAIORESCU, GEORGE TOMA MAXY, MAX HERMAN MILIAN, MAXIMIN MIRODAN, ALEXANDRU MONDA, VIRGILIU MUGUR, FLORIN NEMTEANU, BARBU NIEMIROWER, JACOB ISAAC PANĂ, SAȘA PAUKER, ANA PELTZ, ISAC PINELES, SAMUEL POPPER, JULIUS PORUMBACU, VERONICA PROBST-KRAID, RIZA PSANTIR, JACOB RELGIS, EUGEN ROMAN-RONETTI, MOISE ROSEN, MOSES RUDICH, MAYER SAFRAN, ALEXANDER SAFRAN, BEZALEL ZE’EV SAFRAN, JOSEPH SAINEANU, LAZAR SANIELEVICI, HENRIC SCHWARZFELD SEBASTIAN, MIHAIL SEMILIAN, SAVIN SOLOMON SERBU, IERONIM

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SERGHI, CELLA SEVER, ALEXANDRU SILVIU, GEORGE SIMA, HORIA SOARE, IULIA SPINA, GERI STERN, ADOLPHE STEUERMAN, ADOLF RODION SULITEANU, GISELA TELLER, ZEVI LAZAR TERTULIAN, NICOLAE TOMA, A. TRIVALE, ION TZARA, TRISTAN VEREA, ADRIAN VICOL, ADRIAN VORONCA, ILARIE WALD, HENRI WECHSLER, MAX WEISS, AURELIU ZISSU, ABRAHAM LEIB 7) Russia & Former Soviet Union Main Surveys

RUSSIA RUSSIAN LITERATURE General Entries

AGRICULTURE ASSIMILATION CANTONISTS COSMOPOLITANS CRIMEAN AFFAIR DOCTORS’ PLOT DUMA GERY HAIDAMACKS JEWISH STUDIES KAZYONNY RAVVIN KHAZARS KRIMCHAK LANGUAGE KRIMCHAKS MAY LAWS MOUNTAIN JEWS PALE OF SETTLEMENT PETROGRAD CONFERENCE POGROMS REFUSENIKS SARKIL Communities

ABKHAZIYA (AUTONOMOUS SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC) ALEKSANDRIYA ALEKSANDRIYA ANANYEV ANAPA ARCHANGEL ARMENIA ARTEMOVSK

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ASHKHABAD ASTRAKHAN ATAKI ATIL AZERBAIJAN BAKHCHISARAI BAKU BALANJAR BALTA BAR BARANOVICHI BATUMI BAUSKA BELARUS BELAYA TSERKOV BELGOROD-DNESTROVSKI BELORUSSIA BELTSY BELZ BERDICHEV BERDYANSK BEREGOVO BERESTECHKO BEREZA BEREZHANY BEREZINO BEREZOVKA BERSHAD BESSARABIA BIROBIDZHAN BIRZAI BIRZULA BOBROVY KUT BOBRUISK BOGUSLAV BOJAN BOLEKHOV (Bolechow) BORISLAV BORISOV BRAILOV BRASLAV BRATSLAV BREST-LITOVSK BRICEVA BRICHANY BRYANSK BUKHARA BYKHOV CAUCASUS CHERKASSY CHERNIGOV CHERNOBYL CHERNOVTSY CHORTKOV CHUDNOV CHUFUT-KALE COURLAND CRIMEA DAUGAVPILS DAVID-GORODOK

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LYAKHOVICHI LYUBOML MAKAROV MARCULESTI MEDZIBEZH (Medzibozh) MELITOPOL MERV MEZHIRECH (Mezhirichi) MINSK MIR MOGILEV MOGILEV-PODOLSKI MOLDOVA (Moldavia) MOLODECHNO MONASTYRISKA MOSCOW MOSTISKA MOZYR MSTISLAVL MUKACHEVO NADVORNAYA (Nadworna) NEMIROV NESVIZH NEZHIN NIKOLAYEV NOVAYA USHITSA NOVGOROD-SEVERSK NOVOGRUDOK NOVOSELITSA NOVOZYBKOV NOVY DVOR NOVY OLEKSINIEC ODESSA OLESKO OLGOPOL OLYKA OMSK ORDZHONIKIDZE OREL ORGEYEV (Orhei) ORSHA OSHMYANY OSTROG (Ostraha) OSTRYNA OVRUCH OZERY PALANGA PAVLOGRAD PAVOLOCH PEREYASLAV-KHMELNITSKI PERVOMAISK PINSK PIRYATIN POCHEP PODGAITSY PODKAMEN PODOLIA PODVOLOCHISK (Podwloczyska) POGREBISHCHENSKI (Pogrebishche) POLONNOYE

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POLOTSK POLTAVA PRILUKI PROSKUROV PRUZHANY RADOMYSHL RADOSHKOVICHI (Radoszkowice) RADUN RADZIWILLOW RECHITSA REZEKNE (Rezhitsa) RIGA ROGACHEV ROGATIN ROMNY ROSTOV ROVNO ROZDOL RUZHANY SADAGORA SAMANDAR (Khazar) SAMARKAND SARATOV SARNY SASOV SATANOV SEKIRYANY SEVASTOPOL SHARGOROD SHCHEDRIN SHEPETOVKA SHKLOV SHPOLA SIBERIA SIMFEROPOL SKALAT SKIDEL SKOLE SKVIRA SLAVUTA SLONIM SLUTSK SMELA SMOLENSK SMORGON (Smorgonie) SNYATYN SOKAL STANISLAV STARODUB STARO-KONSTANTINOV STOLBTSY STOLIN STOROZHINETS ST. PETERSBURG STRY (Stryj) SUBCARPATHIAN RUTHENIA SVISLOCH TADZHIKISTAN TAGANROG TALLINN

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ZHITOMIR ZHMERINKA ZHOLKVA ZHURAVNO ZLATOPOL ZOLOCHEV ZOLOTONOSHA ZVENIGORODKA Organizations

AM OLAM ANTI-FASCIST COMMITTEE, JEWISH BENEI MOSHE DECEMBRISTS DEPUTIES OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FOLKSPARTEI HE-HALUTZ INDEPENDENT JEWISH WORKERS PARTY JEWISH SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY JEWISH SOCIETY FOR HISTORY AND ETHNOGRAPHY KOMZET NES ZIYYONAH NEW ISRAEL OCTOBRISTS ODESSA COMMITTEE SOCIETY FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF FULL CIVIL RIGHTS FOR THE JEWISH PEOPLE IN RUSSIA SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF CULTURE AMONG THE JEWS OF RUSSIA UNION OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE UNITED JEWISH SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY VOZROZHDENIYE YEKOPO YEVREYSKI KOMISSARIAT YEVSEKTSIYA ZIONIST SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY Publications

EYNIKEYT HA-MELIZ HA-SHILOAH HA-YOM MORIAH RAZSVET SOVETISH HEYMLAND VOSKHOD Biographies

Academic Life ABRAMOWICZ, DINA ADMONI, VLADIMIR GRIGORYEVICH AGURSKY, MIKHAIL AMUSIN, JOSEPH ANISIMOV, ILYA SHERBATOVICH BERLIN, ISRAEL BERLIN, MOSES BERSHADSKI, SERGEY ALEXANDROVICH BOGORAZ, VLADIMIR GERMANOVICH BORISOV, ANDREY YAKOVLEVICH

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BOROVOY, SAUL YAKOVLEVICH BRAUDO, ALEXANDER ISAYEVICH BUCHBINDER, NAHUM CHORNY, JOSEPH JUDAH CHWOLSON, DANIEL DEBORIN, ABRAM MOISEYEVICH DUBNOW, SIMON EDELMANN, ZEVI HIRSCH ELKIND, ARKADI DANILOVICH FRANK, SEMYON LYUDVIGOVICH GALANT, ELIAHU (IIya) VLADIMIROVICH GAPONOV, BORIS (Dov) GINSBURG, SAUL GOLDSTEIN, SALWIAN GORDIN, JACOB GRANDE, BENZION MOISEEVICH GURLAND, HAYYIM JONAH HARKAVY, ALBERT (Abraham Elijah) HERZENSTEIN, MIKHAIL YAKOVLEVICH HESSEN, JULIUS ISIDOROVICH HORODEZKY, SAMUEL ABBA HOROWITZ, HAYYIM DOV ISRAELSOHN, JACOB IZRAILEVICH JOCHELSON, VLADIMIR (Waldemar) KAHANA, DAVID KATZENELSON, JUDAH LEIB BENJAMIN KIRZHNITZ, ABRAHAM KLATZKIN, JACOB KOIGEN, DAVID KOKOVTSOV, PAUL KONSTANTINOVICH LEKHNO, DAVID LEONTOVICH, FEDOR LESTSCHINSKY, JACOB LEVIN (Lefin), MENAHEM MENDEL LEVIN, MAKSIM GRIGORYEVICH LEVINSOHN, ISAAC BAER LIBERMAN, YEVSEY GRIGORYEVICH LOTMAN, YURI MIKHAILOVICH LOZINSKI, SAMUEL LURIA, ALEXANDER ROMANOVICH LURIA, DAVID BEN JACOB AARON MAGGID, DAVID MANDELSTAMM, BENJAMIN MANDELSTAMM, LEON MAREK, PESACH (Piotr) MARGOLIN, MOSES MARKEL-MOSESSOHN, MIRIAM MARKON, ISAAC DOV BER MARSHAK, SAMUEL YAKOVLEVICH MINOR, SOLOMON ZALMAN (Zalkind) MITIN, MARK BORISOVICH NEKLYUDOV, NICOLAI ADRIANOVICH NEVAKHOVICH, JUDAH LEIB NIKITIN, VICTOR ORSHANSKI, ILYA (Elijah) GRIGORYEVICH OSTROGORSKI, MOSES PEREFERKOVICH, NEHEMIAH PINSKER, SIMHAH POSENER, SOLOMON RABINOVICH, YEHUDAH LEIB (Leon)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

RABINOWITZ, ZEVI HA-COHEN RAFFALOVICH, ARTHUR GERMANOVICH RUBINSTEIN, SERGEY LEONIDOVICH SHESTOV, LEV SLATKINE, MENAHEM MENDEL SOLOVIEV, VLADIMIR SOSIS, ISRAEL STANISLAVSKY, SIMON JUDAH STERNBERG, LEV YAKOVLEVICH SUBBOTIN, ANDREY PAVLOVICH VARGA, YEVGENI SAMOILOVICH VINNIKOV, ISAAC N. VOLYNSKI, AKIM LEVOVICH VYGOTSKI, LEV SEMYONOVICH WARSHAWSKY, ISAAC WEISSENBERG, SAMUEL ABRAMOVICH WIENER, SAMUEL WILENSKY, MICHAEL WUNDERBAR, REUBEN JOSEPH ZAND, MICHAEL ZEITLIN (Zeitlis), JOSHUA ZEITLIN, WILLIAM (Zeev) ZHIRMUNSKY, VIKTOR MAKSIMOVICH Art AIZENBERG, NINA ALTMAN, NATHAN ANTOKOLSKI, MARK (Mordecai) ASKNAZI, ISAAC LVOVICH AXELROD, MEYER BAKST, LEON CHAPIRO, JACQUES GRILICHES, AVENIR GUENZBURG, ILYA YAKOVLEVICH JUDIN, SAMUEL KAPLAN, ANATOLI LVOVICH KUZKOVSKI, JOSEPH LEVITAN, ISAAC ILITCH LISSITZKY, EL (Lazar) NEIZVESTNY, ERNST PAOVLOTZKY, RAUL PASTERNAK, LEONID OSIPOVICH PEVSNER, ANTON and NAUM NEHEMIA (Gabo) RABIN, OSCAR RYBACK, ISSACHAR SEROV, VALENTIN SOUTINE, CHAIM TATLIN, VLADIMIR E. ZHITNITSKI, MARK Literature AGURSKY, SAMUEL AIKHENVALD, YULI ISAYEVICH AIZMAN, DAVID YAKOVLEVICH ALDANOV, MARK ALIGER, MARGARITA YOSIFOVNA ALTAUZEN, YAKOV MOYSEYEVICH ANTOKOLSKI, PAVEL GRIGOREVICH AVERBAKH, LEOPOLD LEONIDOVICH

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BAAZOV, HERZL BABEL, ISAAC EMMANUILOVICH BAGRITSKI, EDUARD GEORGIYEVICH BELINKOV, ARKADII VIKTOROVICH BELOV, A. BEN-ADIR BEN-AMMI, MORDECAI BILL-BELOTSERKOVSKI, VLADIMIR NAUMOVICH BOGROV, GRIGORI ISAAKOVICH BRIK, OSIP MAKSIMOVICH BRODSKI, YOSIF BYADULYA-YASAKAR, ZMITROK CHAKOVSKI, ALEXANDER BORISOVICH CHERNY, SASHA DANIEL, M. DANIEL, YULI MARKOVICH DOLMATOVSKI, YEVGENI ARONOVICH DOMALSKY, I. DUBNOW-ERLICH, SOPHIA EHRENBURG, ILYA GRIGORYEVICH EICHENBAUM, BORIS MIKHAILOVICH FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL FRIEDLAENDER, SOLOMON JUDAH FRUG, SHIMON SHMUEL GALICH, ALEXANDR ARKADYEVICH GEKHT, SEMEN GRIGOREVICH GERSHENZON, MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH GILELS, EMIL GRIGORYEVICH GINSBURG, EVGENIA SEMIONOVNA GODINER, SAMUEL NISSAN GOLODNY, MIKHAIL GORDON, SHMUEL GORKI, MAXIM GORSHMAN, SHIRA GRANIN, DANIEL ALEKSANDROVICH GROSSMAN, LEONID PETROVICH GROSSMAN, VASILI SEMYONOVICH GUKOVSKY, GRIGORY ALEKSANDROVICH ILF, ILYA ILIN, M. INBER, VERA MIKHAILOVNA ISBAKH, ALEXANDER ABRAMOVICH KANNEGISER, LEONID AKIMOVICH KANOVICH, GRIGORY KASSIL, LEV ABRAMOVICH KAVERIN, BENJAMIN ALEKSANDROVICH KAZAKEVICH, EMMANUIL GENRIKHOVICH KHODASEVICH, VLADISLAV FELITSIANOVICH KIPEN, ALEKSANDR ABRAMOVICH KIRSANOV, SEMYON ISAAKOVICH KIRSHON, VLADIMIR MIKHAILOVICH KNUT, DOVID

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KOROLENKO, VLADIMIR GALAKTIONOVICH KOZAKOV, MIKHAIL EMMANUILOVICH KRYMOV, YURI KUSHNER, ALEKSANDER SEMENOVICH LERNER, JOSEPH JUDAH LESKOV, NIKOLAY SEMYONOVICH LEVANDA, LEV (Leo; Yehudah Leib) OSIPOVICH LIBEDINSKI, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH LIVSHITS, BENEDIKT KONSTANTINOVICH LUNTS, LEV NATANOVICH MAMISTABOLOB, ABRAHAM MANDELSHTAM, NADEZHDA YAKOVLEVNA MANDELSHTAM, OSIP EMILYEVICH MINSKI, NIKOLAI MAXIMOVICH NADSON, SEMYON YAKOVLEVICH NOTOVICH, OSIP KONSTANTINOVICH NUSINOV, ISAAC OSIPOVICH, NAHUM PARNAKH, VALENTIN YAKOVLEVICH PASTERNAK, BORIS LEONIDOVICH RABINOVICH, OSIP ARONOVICH SELVINSKI, ILYA LVOVICH SHKLOVSKI, ISAAC VLADIMIROVICH SLONIM, MARC SLONIMSKI, MIKHAIL LEONIDOVICH SLUTSKI, BORIS ABRAMOVICH SOBOL, ANDREY MIKHAILOVICH SVETLOV, MIKHAIL SVIRSKI, ALEXEY IVANOVICH TUR BROTHERS TYNYANOV, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH UTKIN, JOSEPH PAVLOVICH WENGEROFF, PAULINE WENGEROFF, SEMYON AFANASYEVICH YAHUDI, YUSUF YEVTUSHENKO, YEVGENI ALEXANDROVICH YUSHKEVICH, SEMYON SOLOMONOVICH Music ABELIOVICH, LEV MOYSSEYEVICH ABRASS, OSIAS (Joshua) ALSHVANG, ARNOLD ALEKSANDROVICH ARONOVICH, YURI MIKHAYLOVICH BABIN, VICTOR BACHMANN, JACOB BARSHAI, RUDOLPH BELY, VICTOR ARKADYEVICH (Aronovich) BEREGOVSKI, MOSHE BLUMENTHAL, NISSAN, BRODSKY, ADOLF BRUSSILOVSKY, YEVGENI GRIGORYEVICH CHAGY, BERELE CHERNIAVSKY DAVYDOV, KARL YULYEVICH DUNAYEVSKI, ISAAC OSIPOVICH EIFMAN, BORIS ENGEL, JOEL (Yuli Dimitriyevich) GEROVICH, ELIEZER MORDECAI BEN ISAAC GLIÈRE, REINHOLD MORITZEVICH

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GNESIN, MIKHAIL FABIANOVICH KOGAN, LEONID BORISSOVICH KROSHNER, MIKHAIL YEFIMOVICH LAMM, PAVEL ALEKSANDROVICH LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH LITINSKI, GENRIKH ILYICH MESSERER, ASAF MIKHAILOVICH MINKOWSKI, PINCHAS NOWAKOWSKI, DAVID OISTRAKH, DAVID FEDOROVICH PANOV, VALERY PLISETSKAYA, MAYA RUBINSTEIN, IDA SLONIMSKY, SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH SPIVAKOVSKY, TOSSY STEINBERG, MAXIMILIAN OSSEJEVICH TSFASSMAN, ALEXANDER NAUMOVICH VEINBERG, MOISSEY SAMUILOVICH VEPRIK, ALEXANDER MOISEYEVITCH WEINBERG, JACOB ZHITOMIRSKI, ALEXANDER MATVEYEVITCH Popular Culture ABRAMOWITZ, BINA BERNSTEIN, OSIP SAMOILOVICH BOLESLAVSKI, ISAAC BOTVINNIK, MIKHAIL BRONSTEIN, DAVID DONSKOY, MARK SEMENOVICH EISENSTEIN, SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH FLOHR, SALO FRIED, LAZAR GOLDENBURG, SAMUEL GOMELSKY, ALEXANDER GOROKHOVSKAYA, MARIA GRANOVSKY, ALEXANDER GUZIK, HANNA KALIK, MIKHAIL KASPAROV, GARY KORCHNOY, VIKTOR LVOVICH KRISS, GRIGORY LEONIDOV, LEONID MIRONOVICH LOYTER, EFRAIM BARUKHOVICH MIKHOELS, SOLOMON MOSCOVITCH, MAURICE NIMZOVITCH, AARON RAYKIN, ARKADI ISAAKOVICH RUNITSCH, OSSIP SLUTSKAYA, IRINA TAL, MIKHAIL VERTOV, DZIGA Public & Economic Life ABRAMOVICH, ROMAN ARKADYEVICH ABRAMOWITZ, GRIGORI ABRAMOWITZ, RAPHAEL ACOSTA, JOAN D ALEXANDER AMSTERDAM, ABRAHAM MEIR ARONSON, GRIGORI

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ASHANSKI, ABEL-AARON ITSKOVICH AXELROD, LUBOV AXELROD, PAVEL BORISOVICH AZARKH, RAISA MOYSEYEVNA AZEFF, ZEVNO FISHELEVICH BAKST, NICOLAI (Noah) IGNATYEVICH BAKUNIN, MIKHAIL ALEKSANDROYICH BARATZ, HERMANN (Hirsch) BARBASH, SAMUEL BARZILAI, YEHOSHUA BEILIS, MENAHEM MENDEL BELKOWSKY, ZEVI HIRSCH (Grigori) BEREZOVSKY, BORIS ABROMOVICH BERMANN, VASILI (Ze’ev Wolf) BERNSTEIN, NATHAN OSIPOVICH BERNSTEIN-KOGAN (Cohen), JACOB BIENSTOK, JUDAH LEIB BIKERMAN, JOSEPH BLIOKH, IVAN STANISLAVOVICH BLUMENFELD, EMANUEL BLUMENFELD, HERMANN FADDEYEVICH BOGROV, DMITRI BONNER, ELENA GEORGIEVNA BOROCHOV, BER (Dov) BORODIN, MICHAEL MARKOVITSCH BRAFMAN, JACOB BRAMSON, LEON (Leonty) BRANDT, BORIS (Baruch) BRAUN, ABRAHAM BRODSKI BRUCK, GRIGORI BRUTZKUS, BORIS DOV BRUTZKUS, JULIUS BUCHMIL, JOSHUA HESHEL BULAN BUNIN, HAYYIM ISAAC CATHERINE II CHMIELNICKI, BOGDAN DAN, FYODOR ILYICH DASHEWSKI, PINHAS DENIKIN, ANTON IVANOVICH DERZHAVIN, GABRIEL ROMANOVICH DEUTSCH, LEO (Lev Grigoryevich) DIMANSTEIN, SIMON DISKIN, CHAIM DOBIN, SHIMON (Shimoni) DRAGUNSKI, DAVID ABRAMOVICH DUBIN, MORDECAI DUBNOW, ZE’EV DYMSHYTS, VENIAMIN E. EFRON, ILYA EHRLICH, EUGEN EICHENBAUM (Gelber), JACOB EISENSTADT, ISAIAH (Isay) EISMANN, MOSES ELIASBERG, MORDECAI ESTHER FEINBERG, DAVID FOMIN, YEFIM MOISEYEVICH FRIEDLAND

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FRIEDMAN, NAPHTALI FRUMKIN, BORIS MARKOVICH FUENN, SAMUEL JOSEPH GAMARNIK, YAN BORISOVICH GELFOND (Gelfand), ALEXANDER LAZAREVICH (Israel) GERSHUNI, GRIGORI ANDREYEVICH GOLDBERG, ISAAC LEIB GOLDBERG, J. B. GOLDENBERG-GETROITMAN, LAZAR GOLDENWEISER, ALEXANDER SOLOMONOVICH GOLDSTEIN, ALEXANDER GOLITSYN, COUNT NIKOLAI NIKOLAYEVICH GOTS GOZHANSKY, SAMUEL GRULEV, MIKHAIL VLADIMIROVICH GRUNBERG, ABRAHAM GRUSENBERG, OSCAR OSIPOVICH GUENZBURG GUENZBURG GUREVICH, MOSHE GUSEV, SERGEI IVANOVICH GUSINSKY, VLADIMIR ALEXANDROVICH HELFMAN, HESSIA MEYEROVNA HESSEN, JOSEPH VLADIMIROVICH HORODISCHTSCH, LEON HOROWITZ, AARON JUDAH LOEB (Leon) IGNATYEV, COUNT NIKOLAI PAVLOVICH JASINOWSKI, ISRAEL ISIDORE JOFFE, ADOLPH ABRAMOVICH JOSEPH KAGANOVICH, LAZAR MOISEYEVICH KAHAN, BARUCH MORDECAI KAMENEV, LEV BORISOVICH KATKOV, MIKHAIL NIKIFOROVICH KATZENELSON, NISSAN KAUFMAN, AVRAHAM YOSIFOVICH KHODORKOVSKY, MIKHAIL BORISOVICH KOL’TSOV, MIKHAIL KOSSOVSKI, VLADIMIR KOSTOMAROV, NIKOLAI IVANOVICH KREININ, MEIR KREISER, JACOB GRIGORYEVICH KREMER, ARKADI (Aaron, Alexander) KRUSHEVAN, PAVOLAKI KULISHER KUPERNIK; ABRAHAM KURSKY, FRANZ LANDAU, ADOLPH LANDAU, GREGORY ADOLFOVICH LARIN, YURI

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LASERSON, MAX LATZKY-BERTHOLDI, JACOB ZE’EV WOLF (Wilhelm) LENIN, VLADIMIR ILYICH LESTSCHINSKY, JOSEPH LEVIN, EMANUEL LEVIN, SHMARYA LEVINE, EUGENE LEVIN-SHATZKES, YIZHAK LIPMAN, LEVI LITVINOV, MAXIM MAXIMOVICH LOZOVSKI, SOLOMON ABRAMOVICH (Dridzo) LUBARSKY, ABRAHAM ELIJAH LVOVICH, DAVID MANDELBERG, AVIGDOR (Victor) MANDELSTAMM, MAX EMMANUEL MANEVICH, LEV YEFIMOVICH MARGOLIN, ARNOLD MARTOV, JULIUS MAZEH, JACOB MEDEM, VLADIMIR MEISEL, NOAH MEKHLIS, LEV ZAKHAROVICH MINOR, OSIP S. (Joseph) MINTZ, PAUL MORDOVTSEV, DANIIL LUKICH MORDVINOV, NICOLAI SEMIONOVICH MORGULIS, MANASSEH (Mikhail) MYSH, MICHAEL NAIDITSCH, ISAAC ASHER NATANSON, MARK NEVZLIN, LEONID NICHOLAS NISSELOVICH, LEOPOLD (Eliezer) NOTKIN, NATA NOVOMEYSKY, MOSHE NOVOSILTSEV, NICOLAI NIKOLAYEVICH NUDEL, IDA NUROCK, MORDECHAI OBADIAH OLGIN, MOSHE J. PASSOVER, ALEXANDER PAUL I PERETZ, ABRAHAM PERGAMENT, OSIP YAKOVLEVICH PETLYURA, SIMON PINSKER, LEON (Judah Leib) PLEHVE, VYACHESLAV KONSTANTINOVICH VON POBEDONOSTSEV, KONSTANTIN PETROVICH POLYAKOV PORTUGALOV, BENJAMIN OSIPOVICH RADEK, KARL RAFES, MOSES RATNER, MARC BORISOVICH REVUSKY, ABRAHAM ROSENTHAL, LEON (Judah Leib) SCHATZ-ANIN, MAX SCHWARZ, SOLOMON SHARANSKY, NATAN (Anatoly)

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SHEFTEL, MIKHAIL SHMUSHKEVICH, YAACOV SILBERFARB, MOSES SLIOZBERG, HENRY SLONIMSKI, LEONID ZINOVYEVICH SPEYER, BENJAMIN STALIN, JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH STEINBERG, ISAAC NAHMAN STERN, BEZALEL STERN, GRIGORI STIEGLITZ SVERDLOV, YAKOV MIKHAILOVICH SYRKIN, JOSHUA (Grigory) SYRKIN, MOSES NAHUM SOLOMONOVICH TARNOPOL, JOACHIM HAYYIM TEITEL, JACOB TEMKIN, ASHER TIOMKIN, VLADIMIR (Ze’ev) TROTSKY, LEV DAVIDOVICH TSHEMERISKI, ALEXANDER (Solomon) UVAROV, SERGEY SEMYONOVICH VARSHAVSKI, ABRAHAM VINAWER, MAXIM VOZNITSYN, ALEXANDER ARTEMYEVICH WALDMANN, ISRAEL WEINRUB, MATVEY WEINSTEIN, AARON WEIZMANN WITTE, SERGEY YULYEVICH, COUNT YAKIR, YONAH YAROSLAVSKY, YEMELYAN ZAK, ABRAM ZAM, ZVI HERZ ZASLAVSKY, DAVID ZEDERBAUM, ALEXANDER ZEITLIN, HILLEL ZEMLYACHKA (Zalkind), ROZALIYA SAMOYLOVNA ZINOVIEV, GRIGORI YEVSEYEVICH ZLATOPOLSKY, HILLEL ZUCKERMANN, ELIEZER ZUNDELEVITCH, AARON Religion ABU ‘IMRĀN AL-TIFLĪSĪ EPSTEIN, BARUCH HA-LEVI JEWNIN, ABRAHAM JONAH LILIENTHAL, MAX (Menahem) MASKILEISON, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH LEIB MOSES OF KIEV OLSCHWANGER, ISAAC WOLF RABINOWICH (Rabinowitsch), ELIYAHU AKIVA ROSEN, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC SCHLIEFER, SOLOMON SERL BAS JACOB BEN WOLF KRANZ SILBERSTEIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH VOLOZHINER, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC VOLOZHINER, ISAAC BEN HAYYIM WIERNIKORSKI, JUDAH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

YOFFEY ZIRELSON, JUDAH LEIB Science ABELMANN, ILYA SOLOMOVITCH ABRAMOWITZ, EMIL ALFEROV, ZHOREZ I. BAKST, NICOLAI (Noah) IGNATYEVICH CYON, ELIE DE FRANK, ILJA MIKHAILOVICH FREIDLINA, RAKHIL KHATSKELEVNA FRENKEL, JACOB ILICH FROLKIS, VLADIMIR VENIAMIOVICH FRUMKIN, ALEKSANDR NAUMOVICH GELFAND, IZRAIL MOISEVICH GELFOND, ALEKSANDR OSIPOVICH GINZBURG, VITALY LAZAREVICH GRINBERG, ALEKSANDER ABRAMOVICH GUREVICH, MIKHAIL IOSIFOVICH GURWITSCH, ALEXANDER GAVRILOVICH JOFFE, ABRAHAM FEODOROVICH KABACHNIK, MARTIN IZRAILOVICH KANTOROVICH, LEONID KAZARNOVSKI, ISAAC ABRAMOVICH LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH LIPKIN, YOM TOV LIPMAN LOEWINSON-LESSING, FRANZ YULYEVICH MANDELSHTAM, LEONID ISAAKOVICH PIROGOV, NIKOLAI RABINOVICH, ISAAK MOSEYEVICH ROGINSKI, SIMON ZALMANOVICH SAMOILOVICH, RUDOLPH LAZAREVICH STERN, LINA SOLOMONOVNA TALMUD, DAVID L. TAMM, IGOR YEVGENYEVICH VEKSLER, VLADIMIR ZELDOVICH, YAKOV BORISOVICH ZENKEVICH, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH ZILBER, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH 8) Yugoslavia Main Surveys

YUGOSLAVIA YUGOSLAV LITERATURE Communities

ADA BANJA LUKA BELGRADE DUBROVNIK LJUBLJANA MARIBOR MONASTIR NIS NOVI SAD OCHRIDA OSIJEK (Eszek) RIJEKA SARAJEVO SENTA

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History f. Eastern Europe 8) Yugoslavia Communities (continued) SKOPLJE (Skopje) SOMBOR SPLIT SUBOTICA TRAVNIK VARAZDIN VINKOVCI ZAGREB ZEMUN ZENICA ZRENJANIN Biographies

ALBAHARI, DAVID ALBALA, DAVID ALCALAY, ISAAC ALKALAI, DAVID ALKALAJ, ARON BARUH, BORA BIHALJI MERIN, OTO DAVIČO, HAJIM S. DAVIČO, LUJO DAVIČO, OSCAR DAVID, FILIP DEBRECENJI, JOZEF DOHANJ, JULIJE ERLICH, VERA STEIN EVENTOV, YAKIR FELDMAN, MIROSLAV FINCI, ELI FREIBERGER, MIROSLAV SALOM GLID, NANDOR GOTTLIEB, HINKO HABILLO, ELISHA HAJIM, JISRAEL HERMAN, OSKAR IVANJI, IVAN JUN-BRODA, INA KADELBURG, LAVOSLAV KAMHI, LEON KIŠ, DANILO (Daniel) KONFINO, ZAK LEBOVIČ, DJORDJE LEVI, MORITZ LICHT, ALEXANDER LIVNI, HILLEL LOEWENTHAL, ZDENKO MANDL, SAADIA NAHMIJAS, DANILO NAJMAN, JULIJA OFNER, FRANCIS-AMIR PAPO, IZIDOR JOSEF PIJADE, MOSA

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ROMANO, SAMUEL ROTEM, CVI (ZVI) SAMOKOVLIJA, ISAK ŠINKO, ERVIN TIŠMA, ALEKSANDAR VAJS, ALBERT g. United States Main Surveys

AMERICA UNITED STATES LITERATURE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA General Entries

AGRICULTURE ART ASSIMILATION BLACK-JEWISH RELATIONS IN U.S. CEMETERY CHOIRS CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM FAMILY, AMERICAn JEWISH GALVESTON PLAN HISTORIOGRAPHY HOSPITALS JEWISH STUDIES LABOR LOEB-LEOPOLD CASE NEW LEFT NEWSPAPERS, HEBREW PITTSBURGH PLATFORM POLLARD AFFAIR RABBINICAL TRAINING, AMERICAN RECONSTRUCTIONISM REFORM JUDAISM ROSENBERG CASE Communities

AKRON ALABAMA ALASKA ALBANY ALBUQUERQUE ANN ARBOR ARIZONA ARKANSAS ATLANTA ATLANTIC CITY AUSTIN BALTIMORE BERGEN COUNTY BIRMINGHAM BOSTON BRIDGEPORT BROWARD COUNTY BUFFALO CALIFORNIA CAMDEN CHARLESTON CHARLOTTE

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CHICAGO CINCINNATI CLEVELAND COLORADO COLUMBUS CONNECTICUT DALLAS DAYTON DELAWARE DENVER DETROIT DURHAM EL PASO ESSEX COUNTY FALL RIVER FLORIDA GARY GEORGIA HARRISBURG HARTFORD HAWAII HOUSTON HUDSON COUNTY IDAHO ILLINOIS INDIANA INDIANAPOLIS IOWA JACKSONVILLE KANSAS KANSAS CITY KENTUCKY KIRYAS JOEL LAKEWOOD LANCASTER LAS VEGAS LEE AND CHARLOTTE COUNTIES LEHIGH VALLEY LONG BEACH LOS ANGELES LOUISIANA LOUISVILLE MADISON MAINE MARYLAND MASSACHUSETTS MEMPHIS MIAMI-DADE COUNTY MICHIGAN MIDDLESEX COUNTY MILWAUKEE MINNEAPOLIS-SAINT PAUL MINNESOTA MISSISSIPPI MISSOURI MONMOUTH COUNTY MONTANA MORRIS and SUSSEX COUNTIES NAPLES AND COLLIER COUNTIES NASHVILLE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

NEBRASKA NEVADA NEW BEDFORD NEW BRUNSWICK NEW HAMPSHIRE NEW HAVEN NEW JERSEY NEW LONDON NEW MEXICO NEW ORLEANS NEW SQUARE NEW YORK CITY NEW YORK STATE NEWPORT NORFOLK NORTH CAROLINA NORWALK AND WESTPORT OAKLAND OHIO OKLAHOMA OMAHA ORANGE COUNTY OREGON ORLANDO PALM BEACH COUNTY PALM SPRINGS PASSAIC-CLIFTON PATERSON PENNSYLVANIA PHILADELPHIA PHOENIX PITTSBURGH PORTLAND RHODE ISLAND RICHMOND ROCHESTER ROCKLAND COUNTY SACRAMENTO SAN ANTONIO SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA SAN GABRIEL AND POMONA VALLEY SAN JOSE SANTA CRUZ SARASOTA SAVANNAH SCHENECTADY SCRANTON SEATTLE SOUTH CAROLINA SOUTH DAKOTA SPRINGFIELD ST. LOUIS ST. PETERSBURG STAMFORD SYRACUSE TALLAHASSEE TAMPA TENNESSEE TEXAS

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AMERICA-ISRAEL CULTURAL FOUNDATION AMERICAN ACADEMY FOR JEWISH RESEARCH AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR JEWISH EDUCATION AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR JUDAISM AMERICAN GATHERING OF JEWISH HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS AMERICAN ISRAEL PUBLIC AFFAIRS COMMITTEE (AIPAC) AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE AMERICAN JEWISH CONFERENCE AMERICAN JEWISH CONGRESS AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY AMERICAN SEPHARDI FEDERATION AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR JEWISH MUSIC AMERICAN ZIONIST MOVEMENT (AZM) AMIT: MIZRACHI WOMEN’S ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE ASSOCIATION FOR JEWISH STUDIES BALTIMORE HEBREW UNIVERSITY B’NAI B’RITH BOARD OF DELEGATES OF AMERICAN ISRAELITES BONDS, STATE OF ISRAEL BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY BRANDEIS-BARDIN INSTITUT BRITH ABRAHAM CENTER FOR JEWISH HISTORY CENTRAL CONFERENCE OF AMERICAN RABBIS CITY OF HOPE NATIONAL MEDICAL CENTER CLAL

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COALITION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF JEWISH EDUCATION CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENTS OF MAJOR AMERICAN JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS CONFERENCE ON JEWISH SOCIAL STUDIES CONGRESS FOR JEWISH CULTURE COUNCIL OF JEWISH FEDERATIONS AND WELFARE FUNDS DROPSIE UNIVERSITY EDAH EMMA LAZARUS FEDERATION OF JEWISH WOMEN’S CLUBS ETHICAL CULTURE FARBAND FREE SONS OF ISRAEL GRATZ COLLEGE HADASSAH, THE WOMENS ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA HAVURAH HEBREW COLLEGE HEBREW IMMIGRANT AID SOCIETY HEBREW THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE HEBREW UNION COLLEGE-JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION HE-HALUTZ HERZLIAH HEBREW TEACHERS’ INSTITUTE HILLEL HISTADRUT IVRIT OF AMERICA INDUSTRIAL REMOVAL INSTITUTE OF SOUTHERN JEWISH LIFE INSTITUTE OF TRADITIONAL JUDAISM, THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF JEWISH GENEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES INTERNATIONAL LADIES GARMENT WORKERS UNION ISRAEL POLICY FORUM JEWISH AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY JEWISH BOOK COUNCIL JEWISH CAMPING JEWISH COMMUNAL SERVICE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA JEWISH COUNCIL ON PUBLIC AFFAIRS JEWISH CULTURAL RECONSTRUCTION JEWISH EDUCATION SERVICE OF NORTH AMERICA JEWISH LABOR COMMITTEE JEWISH MUSEUM JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA JEWISH SOCIALIST VERBAND JEWISH TEACHERS’ SEMINARY AND PEOPLE’S UNIVERSITY JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA, THE JEWISH WAR VETERANS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA LABOR ZIONIST ALLIANCE (AMEINU) LAURA AND ALVIN SIEGAL COLLEGE OF JUDAIC STUDIES LEAGUE FOR ISRAEL, THE AMERICAN JEWISH MAGNES MEMORIAL MUSEUM MENORAH ASSOCIATION AND MENORAH JOURNAL

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NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOVIET JEWRY NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN NATIONAL FEDERATION OF TEMPLE SISTERHOODS NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR JEWISH CULTURE NATIONAL HAVURAH COMMITTEE NATIONAL JEWISH CENTER FOR IMMUNOLOGY NATIONAL JEWISH DEMOCRATIC COUNCIL NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORY NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER NEW ISRAEL FUND PIONEER WOMEN POALEI AGUDAT ISRAEL PROGRESSIVE JEWISH ALLIANCE RABBINICAL ALLIANCE OF AMERICA RABBINICAL ASSEMBLY RABBINICAL COUNCIL OF AMERICA RECONSTRUCTIONIST RABBINICAL COLLEGE REPUBLICAN JEWISH COALITION SIMON WIESENTHAL CENTER SKIRBALL CULTURAL CENTER SPERTUS INSTITUTE OF JEWISH STUDIES STUDENT STRUGGLE FOR SOVIET JEWRY SYNAGOGUE COUNCIL OF AMERICA, THE TIKKUN TORAH UMESORAH TOURO COLLEGE UNION OF COUNCILS FOR JEWS IN FORMER SOVIET UNION UNION OF ORTHODOX JEWISH CONGREGATIONS OF AMERICA UNION OF ORTHODOX RABBIS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA UNION OF REFORM JUDAISM UNION OF SEPHARDIC CONGREGATIONS UNITED JEWISH COMMUNITIES UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF AMERICA UNIVERSITY OF JUDAISM VAAD HA-HATZALAH WOMEN’S LEAGUE FOR CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM WORKMEN’S CIRCLE YESHIVA UNIVERSITY YESHIVAS CHOVEVEI TORAH YIDDISHER KULTUR FARBAND YOUNG ISRAEL, THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF YOUNG JUDAEA ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA (Z.O.A.) Publications

AMERICAN HEBREW, THE AMERICAN ISRAELITE AMERICAN JEWESS ARBEITER-ZEITUNG ARTSCROLL COMMENTARY DIE DEBORAH JEWISH DAILY FORWARD JEWISH DAY JEWISH MESSENGER, THE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

JEWISH MORNING JOURNAL JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW JEWISH WOMAN, THE LILITH MENORAH ASSOCIATION AND MENORAH JOURNAL MIDSTREAM MORNING FREIHEIT TIKKUN TSUKUNFT Biographies

Academic Life ABELSON, HAROLD HERBERT ABRAHAMSEN, DAVID ABRAM, MORRIS BERTHOLD ABRAMOVITZ, MOSES ABRAMOWICZ, DINA ACKERMAN, NATHAN WARD ADELSON, HOWARD LAURENCE ADLER, CYRUS ADLER, FELIX ADLER, MORTIMER JEROME ADLER, SELIG ADLERBLUM, NIMA AGUS, IRVING ABRAHAM AIKEN, HENRY DAVID AKERLOF, GEORGE ALEXANDER, FRANZ ALMOND, GABRIEL ABRAHAM ALTMAN, OSCAR LOUIS APTER, DAVID ERNEST ARENDT, HANNAH ARNSTEIN, WALTER LEONARD ARROW, KENNETH JOSEPH ASKOWITH, DORA AUERBACH, CARL, A. AUSUBEL, DAVID PAUL AUSUBEL, NATHAN BAILYN, BERNARD BAKAN, DAVID BAMBERGER, FRITZ BAND, ARNOLD BARDIN, SHLOMO BARON, SALO (Shalom) WITTMAYER BASKIN, JUDITH BAUMGARDT, DAVID BECKER, GARY STANLEY BEER, GEORGE LOUIS BELL, DANIEL BENARDETE, MAIR JOSE BENDIX, REINHARD BENEDEK, THERESE F. BEN-HORIN, MEIR BERENBAUM, MICHAEL BERGER, DAVID BERGSON, ABRAM BERKOVITS, ELIEZER BERKSON, ISAAC BAER BERNARD, JESSIE BERNSTEIN, HARRY

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BERNSTEIN, SIMON BESSO, HENRY BETTELHEIM, BRUNO BIALE, DAVID BICKERMAN, ELIAS JOSEPH BIDNEY, DAVID BIEBER, MARGARETE BILDERSEE, ADELE BIRNBAUM, PHILIP BLACK, MAX BLAU, JOSEPH LEON BLAU, PETER MICHAEL BLOCH, HERBERT BLONDHEIM, DAVID SIMON BLOOM, SOLOMON FRANK BLOOMFIELD, LEONARD BLOOMFIELD, MAURICE BLUM, JEROME BOAS, FRANZ BOAS, GEORGE BOKSER, BARUCH BOORSTIN, DANIEL J. BORAH, WOODROW WILSON BOSKOFF, ALVIN BOYARIN, DANIEL BRODSKY, STANLEY L. BRONFENBRENNER, MARTIN BROUDY, HARRY SAMUEL BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER BRUNER, JEROME BUHLER, CHARLOTTE BUNZEL, RUTH LEAH BUTLER, JUDITH BUTTENWIESER, MOSES CAHNMAN, WERNER J. CALABRESI, GUIDO CANTOR, NORMAN FRANK CAPLAN, HARRY CARLEBACH, ELISHEVA CARMILLY-WEINBERGER, MOSHE CHAZAN, ROBERT CHEIN, ISIDOR CHERNISS, HAROLD CHESLER, PHYLLIS CHOMSKY, NOAM AVRAM CHOMSKY, WILLIAM CHOPER, JESSE COHEN, BOAZ COHEN, GERSON D. COHEN, I. BERNARD COHEN, MORRIS RAPHAEL COHEN, NAOMI W. COHEN, NATHAN EDWARD

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COHEN, SAUL BERNARD COHEN, SHAYE J.D. COHEN, WILBUR JOSEPH COLEMAN, EDWARD DAVIDSON COLM, GERHARD COSER, LEWIS A. COSER, ROSE LAUB CREMIN, LAWRENCE ARTHUR DAVIDSON, ISRAEL DAVIS, DAVID BRION DAVIS, MOSHE DAVIS, NATALIE ZEMON DAWIDOWICZ, LUCY DEINARD, EPHRAIM DELOUGAZ, PIERRE PINCHAS DENMARK, FLORENCE LEVIN DEUTSCH, GOTTHARD DIAMOND, SIGMUND DIESENDRUCK, ZEVI DIMITROVSKY, CHAIM ZALMAN DINER, HASIA DINITZ, SIMON DONIGER, WENDY DORFF, ELLIOT N. DORFMAN, JOSEPH DRACHSLER, JULIUS DUBERMAN, MARTIN DUKER, ABRAHAM GORDON DWORKIN, RONALD EATON, JOSEPH W. ECKARDT, ROY A. EDMAN, IRWIN EDWARDS, PAUL EFROS, ISRAEL ISAAC EHRLICH, ARNOLD BOGUMIL EISEN, ARNOLD EISENSTADT, ABRAHAM SELDIN EISENSTEIN, JUDAH DAVID ELAZAR, DANIEL J. EMBER, AARON EMERY, RICHARD WILDER ENDELMAN, TODD EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM EULAU, HEINZ EZEKIEL, MORDECAI JOSEPH BRILL FABRICANT, SOLOMON FARBER, MARVIN FEIGIN, SAMUEL ISAAC FEIGL, HERBERT FEILER, ARTHUR FEIS, HERBERT FELDMAN, LOUIS FELLNER, WILLIAM JOHN FERNBERGER, SAMUEL FEUER, LEWIS SAMUEL FILLER, LOUIS FINE, REUBEN FINE, SIDNEY FINER, HERMAN FINKEL, JOSHUA

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FINKELSTEIN, JACOB JOEL FISCHEL, WALTER JOSEPH FISCHER, LOUIS FISCHER, STANLEY FISHBANE, MICHAEL FISHMAN, JOSHUA AARON FLEXNER FLEXNER, ABRAHAM FLUSSER, DAVID FOX, MARVIN FREEDMAN, JAMES FREIDUS, ABRAHAM SOLOMON FRIED, MORTON HERBERT FRIEDLAENDER, ISRAEL FRIEDMAN, LEE MAX FRIEDMAN, MILTON FRIEDMAN, SHAMMA FRYMER-KENSKY, TIKVA GANDZ, SOLOMON GARTNER, LLOYD P. GAY (Froehlich), PETER JACK (Joachim) GELB, IGNACE JAY GERSHOY, LEO GEVIRTZ, STANLEY GILBERT, FELIX GILBERT, MILTON GILLIGAN, CAROL GILLMAN, NEAL GINOTT, HAIM G. GINSBERG, HAROLD LOUIS GINSBURG, NORTON SIDNEY GINZBERG, ELI GINZBERG, LOUIS GITIN, SEYMOUR GLATZER, NAHUM NORBERT GLAZER, NATHAN GLOCK, CHARLES GLUECK, NELSON GLUECK, SHELDON GOFFMAN, ERVING GOITEIN, SHLOMO DOV (Fritz) GOLB, NORMAN GOLDBERG, HARVEY GOLDENWEISER, ALEXANDER ALEXANDROVICH GOLDENWEISER, EMANUEL ALEXANDROVICH GOLDIN, JUDAH GOLDMAN, ERIC FREDERICK GOLDMAN, HETTY GOLDMAN, MARTIN GOLDSMITH, RAYMOND WILLIAM GOODENOUGH, ERWIN RAMSDELL GOODMAN, NELSON GOODMAN, PAUL GOOR, YEHUDAH GORDIS, ROBERT GORDON, CYRUS HERZL GORDON, MILTON M. GORNICK, VIVIAN GOTTHEIL, RICHARD JAMES HORATIO GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS REICHENTAL

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GOTTSCHALL, MORTON GOULD, SAMUEL BROOKNER GRAYZEL, SOLOMON GREEN, ARTHUR GREENBERG, JOSEPH GREENBERG, MOSHE GREENFIELD, JONAS CARL GREENSTONE, JULIUS HILLEL GROSS, CHARLES GURALNIK, DAVID GURWITSCH, AARON GUTMANN, AMY GUTTMACHER, MANFRED GUTTMAN, LOUIS HABER, SAMUEL L. HABER, WILLIAM HADAS, MOSES HALKIN, ABRAHAM SOLOMON HALLE, MORRIS HALPERN, BENJAMIN HAMEROW, THEODORE STEPHEN HANDLIN, OSCAR HANFMANN, GEORGE MAXIM ANOSSOV HARRIS, MARVIN HARRIS, ZELLIG SABBETAI HARRISSE, HENRY HARTMAN, GEOFFREY HAUPT, PAUL HAUSER, PHILIP MORRIS HEILBRUN, CAROLYN G. HEILPRIN HELLER, HAYYIM HELLMAN, CLARISSE DORIS HENRY, JULES HERBERG, WILL HERSKOVITS, MELVILLE JEAN HEXTER, JACK H. HILBERG, RAUL HIMMELFARB, GERTRUDE HIRSCHMAN, ALBERT OTTO HOFSTADTER, RICHARD HOOK, SIDNEY HOSCHANDER, JACOB HOSELITZ, BERTHOLD FRANK HURWITZ, SAMUEL JUSTIN HUSIK, ISAAC HYMAN, HAROLD MELVIN HYMAN, PAULA E. INKELES, ALEX INSDORF, ANNETTE JACOBSON, ANNA JANOWITZ, MORRIS JANOWSKY, OSCAR ISAIAH JASNY, NAUM JASTROW JONAS, HANS JOSEPH, SAMUEL JOSEPHSON, MATTHEW JUSTMAN, JOSEPH KABAKOFF, JACOB

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KAGAN, SOLOMON ROBERT KAHLER, ERICH KAHN, ALFRED JOSEPH KAHNEMAN, DANIEL KALLEN, HORACE MEYER KANDEL, ISAAC LEON KANTOR, JACOB ROBERT KANTOROWICZ, ERNST HARTWIG KAPLAN, ABRAHAM KARPF, MAURICE JOSEPH KATSH, ABRAHAM ISAAC KATZ, DANIEL KATZ, SOLOMON KATZ, STEVEN T. KAUFMANN, FELIX KAUFMANN, WALTER KELLER, MORTON KEMPNER, ROBERT MAX WASILII KEYSERLING, LEON H. KIRCHHEIMER, OTTO KLEIN, LAWRENCE ROBERT KOBRIN, SOLOMON KOFFKA, KURT KOHN, HANS KOHS, SAMUEL CALMIN KOMAROVSKY, MIRRA KONVITZ, MILTON RIDVAS KRAMER, SAMUEL NOAH KRAUS, MICHAEL KRIEGER, LEONARD KRIPKE, SAUL KRIS, ERNST KRISTELLER, PAUL OSKAR KRISTOL, IRVING KUBLIN, HYMAN KUGEL, JAMES KUHN, THOMAS S. KUZNETS, SIMON LAMM, NORMAN LANDES, DAVID SAUL LANDES, RUTH LANGER, LAWRENCE LAZARSFELD, PAUL F. LAZEROWITZ, MORRIS LEA, HENRY CHARLES LEAF, HAYIM LEHMANN, KARL LEHRMAN, DANIEL LEISERSON, WILLIAM MORRIS LENGYEL, EMIL LEON, HARRY JOSHUA LERNER, ABBA PETACHJA LERNER, GERDA

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LERNER, MAX LERNER, RALPH LESLAU, WOLF LEVENSON, JON LEVENSON, JOSEPH RICHMOND LEVIAS, CASPAR LEVIN, A. LEO LEVIN, NORA LEVINE, BARUCH LEVY, HARRY LOUIS LEVY, LEONARD WILLIAMS LEVY, MARION JOSEPH, JR. LEWIN, KURT ZADEK LEWIS, OSCAR LIBOWITZ, SAMUEL NEHEMIAH LICHTENSTEIN, WALTER LIEBERMAN, MYRON LIEBERMAN, SAUL LIPSET, SEYMOUR MARTIN LIPTZIN, SOL LOEWENSTEIN, KARL LOPEZ, ROBERT SABATINO LORGE, IRVING LOWE, ADOLPH LOWE, ELIAS AVERY LOWIE, ROBERT HARRY LUBIN, ISADOR LUBIN, SIMON JULIUS MACHLUP, FRITZ MAIER, JOSEPH MAISELS, MOSES HAYYIM (Misha) MALACHI, ELIEZER RAPHAEL MALKIEL, YAKOV MALLER, JULIUS BERNARD MALTER, HENRY MANDELBAUM, DAVID GOODMAN MANN, JACOB MANUEL, FRANK EDWARD MARCUS, JACOB RADER MARCUS, JOSEPH MARCUS, RALPH MARCUS, RUTH BARCAN MARCUSE, HERBERT MARGET, ARTHUR W. MARGOLIS, MAX LEOPOLD MARKOWITZ, HARRY M. MARSCHAK, JACOB MARWICK, LAWRENCE MARX, ALEXANDER MASLOW, ABRAHAM H. MAXIMON (Maximowski), SHALOM DOV BER MAYER, ARNO JOSEPH MEDNICK, MARTHA TAMARA SCHUCH MENES, ABRAM MERTON, ROBERT C. MERTON, ROBERT KING MEYER, MICHAEL MEYERHOFF, HANS MILGRAM, STANLEY MILGROM, JACOB

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MISES, LUDWIG EDLER VON MODIGLIANI, FRANCO MONIS, JUDAH MOORE, GEORGE FOOT MORENO, JACOB MORGENSTERN, OSKAR MORGENTHAU, HANS JOACHIM MORRIS, RICHARD BRANDON MORTON, LOUIS C. MOSSE, GEORGE L. MYERHOFF, BARBARA NADLER, MARCUS NAGEL, ERNEST NASATIR, ABRAHAM PHINEAS NATHAN, ROBERT ROY NAUMBURG, MARGARET NEISSER, HANS PHILIPP NELSON, BENJAMIN NEMOY, LEON NETANYAHU, BENZION NEUGARTEN, BERNICE L. NEUSNER, JACOB NEWMAN, AUBREY NUSSBAUM, ARTHUR OKO, ADOLPH S. OPLER, MARVIN KAUFMANN OPLER, MORRIS EDWARD ORLINSKY, HARRY MEYER OSCHINSKY, LAWRENCE OSTROLENK, BERNHARD PAP, ARTHUR PASSOW, AARON HARRY PATAI, RAPHAEL PEIXOTTO, JESSICA BLANCHE PERLBERG, ABRAHAM NATHAN PERLMAN, JACOB PERLMANN, MOSHE PETEGORSKY, DAVID PFEFFER, LEO PFEIFFER, ROBERT HENRY PINSON, KOPPEL S. PIPES, RICHARD EDGAR POLANYI, KARL POMERANTZ, SIDNEY IRVING POPPER, WILLIAM POWDERMAKER, HORTENSE PRIBRAM, KARL PUTNAM, HILARY RADIN, PAUL RAISZ, ERWIN J. RAPPAPORT, ARMIN H. RAPPAPORT, ROY RATNER, SIDNEY RAZRAN, GREGORY REDL, FRITZ REICH, ROBERT BERNARD REICH, WILHELM REINHARZ, JEHUDA REVEL, BERNARD RIESMAN, DAVID

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

RISCHIN, MOSES RIVKIN, ELLIS RIVKIND, ISAAC RIVLIN, HARRY N. ROBACK, ABRAHAM AARON ROBINSON, EDWARD ROBISON, SOPHIA RODELL, FRED M. RODIN, JUDITH ROHEIM, GEZA ROSE, ARNOLD MARSHALL ROSENBACH, ABRAHAM SIMON WOLF ROSENBAUM, JONATHAN ROSENTHAL, ERICH ROSENTHAL, FRANZ ROSENTHAL, JUDAH ROSENTHAL, WILLIAM ROSKIES, DAVID ROSTOW, EUGENE VICTOR ROSTOW, WALT WHITMAN ROWE, LEO STANTON RUBINOW, ISAAC MAX RUDAVSKY, DAVID SACHAR, ABRAM LEON SACHS, HANNS SACHS, JULIUS SAHLINS, MARSHALL SALOMON, ALBERT SAMUELSON, PAUL ANTHONY SANDMEL, SAMUEL SAPIR, EDWARD SARNA, JONATHAN SARNA, NAHUM SAXON, DAVID STEPHEN SCHAECHTER, MORDKHE SCHAFER, STEPHEN SCHAPIRO, JACOB SALWYN SCHAPPES, MORRIS U. SCHARFSTEIN, ZEVI SCHEFFLER, ISRAEL SCHEINDLIN, RAYMOND SCHIFFMAN, LAWRENCE SCHOLES, MYRON SCHRECKER, PAUL SCHWARTZ, ANNA JACOBSON SELIGMAN, EDWIN ROBERT ANDERSON SEMMEL, BERNARD SHANKS, HERSHEL SHAPIRO, DAVID S. SHAPIRO, HAROLD SHAPIRO, HARRY LIONEL SHARFMAN, ISAIAH LEO SHATZKY, JACOB SHEFFER, HENRY M. SHILS, EDWARD SHUB, DAVID SHULIM, JOSEPH ISIDORE SHULVASS, MOSES AVIGDOR SIMON, HERBERT ALEXANDER SINGER, MILTON B.

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SKLARE, MARSHALL SKOSS, SOLOMON LEON (Zalman Leib) SLAVSON, SAMUEL RICHARD SLONIMSKY, HENRY SMELSER, NEIL JOSEPH SMITH, JOHN MERLIN POWIS SMITH, JONATHAN SMITH, MORTON SNYDER, LOUIS LEO SOLOW, ROBERT MERTON SONNE, ISAIAH SORKIN, MICHAEL SOVERN, MICHAEL IRA SPEISER, EPHRAIM AVIGDOR SPIEGEL, SHALOM SPIEGELBERG, HERBERT SPIER, LESLIE SPIRO, MELFORD ELLIOT SPITZER, LEO SPOEHR, ALEXANDER STARR, JOSHUA STEIN, HERBERT STERN, BERNHARD JOSEPH STERN, FRITZ STIGLITZ, JOSEPH STILES, EZRA STILLMAN, NORMAN STRAUSS, LEO SULZBACH, WALTER SWADESH, MORRIS SZAJKOWSKI, ZOSA TANNENBAUM, FRANK TAUBENSCHLAG, RAPHAEL TAUSSIG, FRANK WILLIAM TAX, SOL TCHERNOWITZ, CHAIM TEC, NECHAMA TIGAY, JEFFREY TITIEV, MISCHA TOBACH, ETHEL TOBY, JACKSON TORREY, CHARLES CUTLER TREFOUSSE, HANS LOUIS TRIBE, LAWRENCE H. TRUNK. ISAIAH TUCHMAN, BARBARA WERTHEIM TUMIN, MELVIN MARVIN TWERSKY, ISADORE UNGER, IRWIN VINER, JACOB WALZER, MICHAEL WAXMAN, MEYER WECHSLER, DAVID

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WECHSLER, HERBERT WEINBERG, GLADYS DAVIDSON WEINBERG, SAUL S. WEINREICH, URIEL WEINRYB, BERNARD DOV SUCHER WEISBERGER, BERNARD ALLEN WEISS, ALBERT PAUL WEISS, PAUL WEISS-ROSMARIN, TRUDE WERNER, HEINZ WHITE, HARRY D. WHITE, MORTON GABRIEL WIENER, PHILIP PAUL WIERUSZOWSKI, HELENE WIRTH, LOUIS WISCHNITZER, MARK WISSE, RUTH WOLF, ERIC ROBERT WOLFE, ALAN WOLFE, BERTRAM DAVID WOLFF, WERNER WOLFSON, ELLIOT WOLFSON, HARRY AUSTRYN WOLFSON, THERESA WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA YERUSHALMI, YOSEF HAYIM YOUNG, JAMES YOUTIE, HERBERT CHAYYIM ZEICHNER, OSCAR ZEITLIN, SOLOMON Art ABRAMOVITZ, MAX ADLER, DANKMAR ADLER, SAMUEL M. AGREST, DIANA ALSCHULER, ALFRED ARBUS, DIANE NEMEROV ARNOLD, EVE ARONSON, DAVID AVEDON, RICHARD BAIZERMAN, SAUL BARNET, WILL BASKIN, LEONARD BENN, BEN BEN-ZION (Weinman) BERENSON, BERNARD BERNSTEIN, THERESA BING, ILSE BLOOM, HYMAN BLUME, PETER BOLOTOWSKY, ILYA BOROFSKY, JONATHAN BOURKE-WHITE, MARGARET BRENNER, VICTOR BREUER, MARCEL (Lajos) BRUNNER, ARNOLD BUNSHAFT, GORDON CAPA, CORNELL CAPA, ROBERT

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CARVALHO, SOLOMON NUNES CHAST, ROZ CHICAGO, JUDY CRUMB, ROBERT CSUPO, GABOR (and Irene Klasky) DAVIDSON, JO DINE, JIM EIDLITZ (Abraham Moses), ZERAH BEN MEIR EILSHEMIUS, LOUIS EISENMAN, PETER D. EISENSTAEDT, ALFRED EISNER, WILL EIZENBERG, JULIE ELDER, WILL ELISOFON, ELIOT ERWITT, ELLIOTT ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD ETTLINGER, MARION EZEKIEL, MOSES JACOB FEIFFER, JULES FERBER, HERBERT FLEISCHER, MAX FRANK, ROBERT FRANKENTHALER, HELEN FREED, JAMES INGO FRELENG, I. J. FRIEDLANDER, LEE FURST, MORITZ GANDELSONAS, MARIO GEHRY, FRANK O. GIKOW, RUTH GOLDBERG, BERTRAND GOLDBERG, RUBE GOLDIN, NAN GOLDWATER, JOHN GOLUB, LEON GOODMAN, PERCIVAL GORLIN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB, ADOLPH GREENBERG, CLEMENT GROPPER, WILLIAM GROSS, CHAIM GUTMANN, JOSEPH HALSMAN, PHILIPPE HAMMER, ARMAND HARKAVY, MINNA HIRSCH, JOSEPH HIRSCHFELD, AL HIRSHFIELD, MORRIS JACOBI, LOTTE KAHN, ALBERT KAHN, ELY JACQUES KAHN, LOUIS I. KALMAN, TIBOR KANE, BOB KANE, GIL KANOVITZ, HOWARD KATZ, ALEX KERTESZ, ANDRE KIESLER, FREDERICK JOHN

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

KIRBY, JACK (Kurtzberg) KITAJ, R. B. KLINE FRANZ KOLB, LEON KRASNER, LEE KRUGER, BARBARA KURTZMAN, HARVEY LAPIDUS, MORRIS LASANSKY, MAURICIO LASSAW, IBRAM LAZARUS, MEL LEE, STAN LEIBOVITZ, ANNIE LEVINE, JACK LEVITT, HELENE LEWITT, SOL LIBESKIND, DANIEL LICHTENSTEIN, ROY LIPCHITZ, JACQUES (Chaim Jacob) LIPTON, SEYMOUR LOUIS, MORRIS LOZOWICK, LOUIS MANSO, LEO MARGO, BORIS MARGOULIES, BERTHA MARIL, HERMAN MARK, MARY ELLEN MARYAN MEIER, RICHARD MENDELSOHN, ERIC MENKES, ZYGMUNT MEYEROWITZ, JOEL MOÏSE, THEODORE SYDNEY MOSLER, HENRY MYERS, MYER NADELMAN, ELIE NEUTRA, RICHARD JOSEPH NEVELSON, LOUISE NEWMAN, ARNOLD NEWMAN, BARNETT NEWTON, HELMUT OLITSKI, JULES OPPER, FREDERICK BURR PANOFSKY, ERWIN PEARLSTEIN, PHILIP PENN, IRVING PLACHY, SYLVIA POLSHEK, JAMES RATTNER, ABRAHAM RAY, MAN REDER, BERNARD REISS, LIONEL RIVERS, LARRY ROSE, HERMAN ROSENBERG, HAROLD ROSENTHAL, MAX ROTHKO, MARK ROTHSTEIN, IRMA RUBIN, GAIL SAITOWITZ, STANLEY

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SCHAMES, SAMSON SCHANKER, LOUIS SCHAPIRO, MEYER SCHINDLER, RUDOLPH M. SCHOR, ILYA SCHWARTZ, FREDERIC SCHWARTZ, MANFRED SEGAL, GEORGE SELIGMANN, KURT SERRA, RICHARD SEYMOUR, DAVID SHAHN, BEN SHUSTER, JOE SIEGEL, JERRY SIMON, SIDNEY SISKIND, AARON SOYER, MOSES SOYER, RAPHAEL SPERO, NANCY SPIEGELMAN, ART SPIRO, EUGEN STEIG, WILLIAM, SHREK STEINBERG, SAUL STERN, ROBERT A.M. STERNE, HEDDA STERNE, MAURICE STIEGLITZ, ALFRED STRAND, PAUL TEWI, THEA TIGERMAN, STANLEY TWORKOV, JACK WALKOWITZ, ABRAHAM WEBER, MAX WEEGEE WILSON, SOL WINOGRAND, GARRY ZORACH, WILLIAM ZUCKER, JACQUES Literature ABRAMS, MEYER ADAMS, HANNAH ADLER, RENATA, ESSAYIST ALTER, ROBERT B. ANGOFF, CHARLES ANTIN, MARY APPLE, MAX ASIMOV, ISAAC AUSLANDER, JOSEPH AUSTER, PAUL BAUM, VICKI BEHRMAN, SAMUEL NATHANIEL BELLOW, SAUL

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BERCOVICI, KONRAD BERCOVITCH, SACVAN BLANKFORT, MICHAEL S. BLOOM, HAROLD BODENHEIM, MAXWELL BRINIG, MYRON BRODY, ALTER BRONER, ESTHER M. BRUSTEIN, ROBERT SANFORD BUKIET, MELVIN JULES BUSCH, CHARLES CAHAN, ABRAHAM CAHAN, JUDAH LOEB (Lewis) CALISHER, HORTENSE CHABON, MICHAEL CHAYEFSKY, PADDY CHODOROV, EDWARD CHODOROV, JEROME COHEN, ARTHUR A. COHEN, ROSE GOLLUP COURNOS, JOHN DAHLBERG, EDWARD DAVENPORT, MARCIA DE CASSERES, BENJAMIN DEUTSCH, BABBETTE DOCTOROW, EDGAR LAWRENCE ELKIN, STANLEY EPHRON, NORA EPSTEIN, LESLIE EPSTEIN, MORRIS EPSTEIN, SEYMOUR FADIMAN, CLIFTON FALK, MARCIA FAST, HOWARD MELVIN FEARING, KENNETH FELDMAN, IRVING FERBER, EDNA FIEDLER, LESLIE AARON FINEMAN, IRVING FISH, STANLEY FRANK, WALDO DAVID FRANKEN, ROSE FRANKS, BILHAH ABIGAIL LEVY FREEMAN, JOSEPH FRIEDLAND, ABRAHAM HYMAN (Hayyim) FRIEDMAN, BRUCE JAY FUCHS, DANIEL GABRIEL, GILBERT W. GAMORAN, MAMIE GASSNER, JOHN GELBER, JACK GINSBERG, ALLEN GLANZ-LEYELES, AARON GLASS, MONTAGUE MARSDEN GLUCK, LOUISE GOLD, HERBERT GOLD, MICHAEL GOLDBERG, ISAAC GOLDEN, HARRY LEWIS GOLDMAN, WILLIAM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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GOLDSTEIN, REBECCA GOODMAN, ALLEGRA GREEN, GERALD GREENBERG, JOANNE GREENBERG, SAMUEL BERNARD GROSSMAN, ALLEN HALPER, ALBERT HARRIS, MARK HART, MOSS HECHT, BEN HELLER, JOSEPH HELLINGER, MARK HELLMAN, LILLIAN FLORENCE HINDUS, MAURICE GERSCHON HIRSCH, ERIC DONALD HOBSON, LAURA Z. HOLLANDER, JOHN HOROVITZ, ISRAEL HOWE, IRVING HURST, FANNIE IGNATOW, DAVID ISAACS, JACOB ISAACS, SUSAN JAFFE, RONA JONG, ERICA JUDAH, SAMUEL BENJAMIN HELBERT KALMAN, MAIRA KANIN, GARSON KAPLAN, JOHANNA KAUFMAN, BEL KAUFMAN, GEORGE SIMON KAZIN, ALFRED KELLERMAN, FAYE KELLERMAN, JONATHAN KEMELMAN, HARRY KINGSLEY, SIDNEY KLEPFISZ, IRENA KOBER, ARTHUR KOCH, KENNETH KOMROFF, MANUEL KOPIT, ARTHUR KOSINSKI, JERZY KRAMER, LARRY KRAMM, JOSEPH KRANTZ, JUDITH KREYMBORG, ALFRED KRONENBERGER, LOUIS KUNITZ, STANLEY JASSPON KUSHNER, TONY LAURENTS, ARTHUR LAWSON, JOHN HOWARD LAZARUS, EMMA LEVERTOV, DENISE LEVIANT, CURT LEVIN, HARRY LEVIN, IRA LEVIN, MEYER LEWISOHN, LUDWIG LIEBERMAN, ELIAS LISITZKY, EPHRAIM E.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

LOWENTHAL, MARVIN MAILER, NORMAN MALAMUD, BERNARD MALTZ, ALBERT MAMET, DAVID MILLER, ARTHUR MOISE, PENINA NATHAN, GEORGE JEAN NEMEROV, HOWARD NEUGEBOREN, JAY NISSENSON, HUGH ODETS, CLIFFORD OLSEN, TILLIE OPPEN, GEORGE OPPENHEIM, JAMES ORNITZ, SAMUEL BADISCH OSTRIKER, ALICIA SUSKIN OZICK, CYNTHIA PALEY, GRACE PARKER, DOROTHY PERELMAN, SIDNEY JOSEPH PHILLIPS, WILLIAM PINSKY, ROBERT PLAIN, BELVA PODHORETZ, NORMAN POTOK, CHAIM POUND, EZRA LOOMIS PROSE, FRANCINE RAGEN, NAOMI RAHV, PHILIP RAND, AYN RAPHAELSON, SAMSON REZNIKOFF, CHARLES RICE, ELMER LEOPOLD RICH, ADRIENNE ROBBINS, HAROLD ROSEN, NORMA ROSENFELD, ISAAC ROSENFELD, PAUL ROSS, LILLIAN ROSTEN, LEO CALVIN ROTH, HENRY ROTH, PHILIP MILTON RUKEYSER, MURIEL SALINGER, JEROME DAVID SAMPTER, JESSIE ETHEL SAMUEL, MAURICE SCHISGAL, MURRAY SCHULBERG, BUDD WILSON SCHWARTZ, DELMORE SCHWARZ, LEO WALDER SEGAL, ERICH SEID, RUTH SERLING, ROD SHAPIRO, KARL JAY SHAW, IRWIN SHELDON, SIDNEY SHEVELOVE, BURT SHULMAN, MAX SIMON, KATE

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SIMON, NEIL SINGER, HOWARD SKLAREW, MYRA SOLOTAROFF, THEODORE SONTAG, SUSAN SPEWACK, BELLA SPIEGELMAN, ART SPINGARN STEELE, DANIELLE STEIN, GERTRUDE STEIN, JOSEPH STERN, STEVE STINE, R. L. STONE, IRVING SUSANN, JACQUELINE TAYLOR, SIDNEY TOBENKIN, ELIAS TRILLIN, CALVIN, ESSAYIST TRILLING, DIANA TRILLING, LIONEL TUROW, SCOTT UNTERMEYER, LOUIS URIS, LEON WALLACE, IRVING WALLANT, EDWARD LEWIS WASSERMAN, DALE WASSERSTEIN, WENDY WEIDMAN, JEROME WELLER, MICHAEL WEST, NATHANAEL WOLFERT, IRA WOUK, HERMAN YARMOLINSKY, AVRAHM (Abraham) YEZIERSKA, ANZIA ZUKOFSKY, LOUIS Music ABRAVANEL, MAURICE (DE) ADLER, LARRY (Lawrence) ADLER, RICHARD AMRAM, DAVID ARLEN, HAROLD AVSHALOMOV, JACOB AX, EMMANUEL BABBITT, MILTON BABIN, VICTOR BACHARACH, BURT BAUER, MARION EUGENIE BELL, JOSHUA BENDIX, OTTO BERGER, ARTHUR VICTOR BERK, FRED BERLINSKI, HERMAN

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BERNSTEIN, LEONARD BINDER, ABRAHAM WOLF BLITZSTEIN, MARC BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNY BOLM, ADOLPH RUDOLPHOVICH BORIS, RUTHANNA BRAILOWSKY, ALEXANDER BRONFMAN, YEFIM BROOK, BARRY SHELLEY BROWNING, JOHN CHASINS, ABRAHAM CHUJOY, ANATOLE CHURGIN, BATHIA COHEN, JACOB RAPHAEL COHEN, SELMA JEANNE CONRIED, HEINRICH COPLAND, AARON DIAMOND, DAVID DIAMOND, LOUIS KLEIN DICHTER, MISHA EISENSTEIN, JUDITH KAPLAN ELLSTEIN, ABRAHAM (Abe) FARBER, VIOLA FELDMAN, MORTON FIEDLER, ARTHUR FLEISHER, LEON FOGELBERG, DAN FOSS, LUKAS FREED, ISADORE FRIEDMAN, DEBORAH LYNN FUCHS, LILLIAN GANCHOFF, MOSES GEIRINGER, KARL GERBER, MAYNARD GIDEON, MIRIAM GLASS, PHILIP GLUCK, ALMA GOLDMAN, EDWIN FRANKO GOODMAN, BENNY GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS MOREAU GOULD, MORTON GRAF, HERBERT GRAFFMAN, GARY GREENBERG, NOAH GRUENBERG, LOUIS HALPRIN, ANN HAMMERSTEIN HAYDEN, MELISSA HERRMANN, BERNARD HESKES, IRENE HOROWITZ, VLADIMIR HUROK, SOLOMON ISTOMIN, EUGINE JACOBI, FREDERICK KALIB, SHALOM KATZ, ISRAEL KAYE, NORA KENT, ALLEGRA KERN, JEROME DAVID KIDD, MICHAEL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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KIRCHNER, LEON KIRSTEIN, LINCOLN KLEMPERER, OTTO KOLISCH, RUDOLF KOSTELANETZ, ANDRE LANG, PEARL LAPSON, DVORA LEAR, EVELYN LEFKOWITZ, DAVID LEVINE, JAMES LEVY, MARVIN DAVID LEWENTHAL, RAYMOND LEWITZKY, BELLA LIEBERSON, GODDARD LIEBLING, ESTELLE LIST, GEORGE LOESSER, FRANK LOEWE, FREDERICK LOWINSKY, EDWARD LUBIN, ABRAHAM LUBOSHUTZ MANNES MANNES, LEOPOLD MASLOW, SOPHIE MENDELSON, JACOB BEN-ZION MENKEN, ALAN MERRILL, ROBERT MILLER, MITCH MILSTEIN, NATHAN MLOTEK, CHANA NEWMAN, ALFRED NULMAN, MACY ORENSTEIN, ARBIE OVED, MARGALIT PEERCE, JAN PERAHIA, MURRAY PERLMAN, ITZCHAK PETERS, ROBERTA PLAMENAC, DRAGAN PREVIN, ANDRE (George) PUTTERMAN, DAVID QUELER, EVE RASKIN, JUDITH REICH, STEVE REISENBERG, NADIA RESNIK, REGINA RINGER, ALEXANDER ROBBINS, JEROME ROCHBERG, GEORGE RODGERS, MARY RODGERS, RICHARD ROGERS, BERNARD ROMBERG, SIGMUND ROSE, LEONARD ROSENBAUM, SAMUEL ROSS, HERBERT RUDEL, JULIUS RUDOLF, MAX SCHACHTER, CARL SCHIFRIN, LALO

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

SCHLAMME, MARTHA SCHUMAN, WILLIAM HOWARD SCHWARTZ, STEPHEN SECUNDA, SHOLOM SERKIN, PETER SHAPERO, HAROLD SHARLIN, WILLIAM SHAW, ARTIE SIEGMEISTER, ELIE SILLS, BEVERLY (Belle Silverman) SLATKIN, LEONARD SLONIMSKY, NICOLAS SOKOLOW, ANNA SONDHEIM, STEPHEN SPECTOR, JOHANNA SPIVACKE, HAROLD SPIVAKOVSKY, TOSSY STARER, ROBERT STARK, EDWARD STENN (STEEN), REBECCA STERN, ISAAC STYNE, JULE SZIGETI, JOSEPH TAMIRIS, HELEN TARUSKIN, RICHARD TAUBE, MOSHE TEMIANKA, HENRI THOMAS, MICHAEL TILSON TISCHLER, HANS TOCH, ERNST TOUREL, JENNIE TUCKER, RICHARD TURECK, ROSALYN VOLPE, ARNOLD WALDMAN, LEIBELE WALLENSTEIN, ALFRED WEILL, KURT WEINBERG, JACOB WEINBERGER, JAROMIR WEINER, LAZAR WEINSTOCK, HERBERT WEISGAL, ABBA JOSEPH WEISGALL, HUGO WEISSER, ALBERT WEISSER, JOSHUA WERNER, ERIC WINTERNITZ, EMANUEL WOHLBERG, MOSHE YASSER, JOSEPH ZEMACH, BENJAMIN ZILBERTS, ZAVEL ZIMBALIST, EFREM ZUKOFSKY, PAUL Popular Culture ABARBANELL, LINA ABBOTT, BUD ABEL, ELIE ABRAMOWITZ, BINA ABRAMS, CAL

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ABRAMSON, JESSE ACE, GOODMAN ADAMS, FRANKLIN PIERCE ADLER ADLER, HARRY CLAY ADLER, POLLY ADLER, STELLA ALBERT, MARV ALBERT, MILDRED ALCOTT, AMY ALDRICH, ROBERT ALEXANDER, JASON ALLEN, MEL ALLEN, WOODY, ALPERT, HERB ANTHONY, JOSEPH ARATON, HARVEY ARCEL, RAY ARCHERD, ARMY ARKIN, ALAN W. ARONSON, BORIS ARUM, ROBERT ASNER, EDWARD ATTELL, ABRAHAM WASHINGTON AUERBACH, RED (Arnold Jacob) AVNET, JON AXELROD, ALBERT AXELROD, GEORGE AZENBERG, EMANUEL BACALL, LAUREN BAER, MAX (Maximilian Adelbert) BAKSHI, RALPH BALABAN, BARNEY BALIN, MARTY BARA, THEDA BARR, ROSEANNE BARRIS, CHUCK BELASCO, DAVID BEN-AMI, JACOB BENJAMIN, RICHARD BENNETT, MICHAEL BENNY, JACK BENSON, ROBBY BERENSON, SENDA BERG, GERTRUDE BERG, JACKIE “KID” BERG, MOE BERGEN, POLLY BERGER, ISAAC BERGMAN, ALAN & MARILYN BERGMAN, ANDREW BERGNER, ELIZABETH

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BERKOW, IRA BERLE, MILTON BERLIN, IRVING BERMAN, PANDRO S. BERMAN, SHELLEY BERNARDI, HERSCHEL BERNHARD, SANDRA BERNSTEIN, ALINE BERNSTEIN, ELMER BERNSTEIN, HERMAN BERNSTEIN, SID BERNSTEIN, THEODORE BETTMAN, GARY BIKEL, THEODORE MEIR BIMSTEIN, WHITEY BISHOP, JOEY BLANC, MEL BLANK, LEON BLAU, HERBERT BLOCK, HERBERT LAWRENCE (“Herblock”) BLOOMGARDEN, KERMIT BLUM, WALTER BOCK, JERRY BOGDANOVICH, PETER BOONE, RICHARD BORGE, VICTOR BOUDREAU, LOU BOZYK, MAX BRECKER BROTHERS BRENNER, TEDDY BRICE, FANNY BRODER, DAVID SALZER BRODERICK, MATTHEW BRODY, JANE BROOKS, ALBERT BROOKS, MEL BROOKS, RICHARD BROOKS, JAMES L. BROTHERS, JOYCE BROWN, LAWRENCE H. BRUCE, LENNY BRUCKHEIMER, JERRY BUCHWALD, ART BULOFF, JOSEPH BURNS, GEORGE BURROWS, ABE BURSTEIN BURSTYN, MIKE BUTTONS, RED CAAN, JAMES CAESAR, SID CAHN, SAMMY CANTOR, EDDIE CAPP, AL CARNOVSKY, MORRIS CARTER, NELL CHESS, LEONARD AND PHIL CHETWYND, LIONEL CHOPRA, JOYCE CLAYBURGH, JILL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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CLURMAN, HAROLD COBB, LEE J. COEN, JOEL & ETHAN COHEN, ALEXANDER H. COHEN, ELLIOT ETTELSON COHEN, NATALIE COHEN, SASHA COHN, HARRY COHN, LINDA COLEMAN, CY COMDEN, BETTY COOPER, JACKIE COPELAND, LILLIAN COPPERFIELD, DAVID CORWIN, NORMAN LEWIS COSELL, HOWARD CRYSTAL, BILLY CUBAN, MARK CUKOR, GEORGE CURTIS, JAMIE LEE CURTIS, TONY CURTIZ, MICHAEL DA SILVA, HOWARD DANGERFIELD, RODNEY DANIEL, DAN DARVAS, LILI DASSIN, JULES DAVID, LARRY DAVIS, AL DAVIS, AL “BUMMY” DAVIS, SAMMY JR. DeMILLE, CECIL DEREN, MAYA DIAMOND, I.A.L. DIAMOND, NEIL DILLER, BARRY DONATH, LUDWIG DONEN, STANLEY DOUGLAS, KIRK DOUGLAS, MELVYN DOUGLAS, MICHAEL DREYFUSS, BARNEY DREYFUSS, RICHARD DYLAN, BOB ELFMAN, DANNY ELLIOT, “MAMA” CASS ELMAN, ZIGGY EPSTEIN, ALVIN EPSTEIN, CHARLOTTE EPSTEIN, JULIUS J. and PHILIP G. EVANS, ROBERT FAIN, SAMMY FALK, PETER FEATHER, LEONARD FEINMAN, SIGMUND FELDSHUH, TOVAH FIELDS, DOROTHY FIELDS, JACKIE FINE, REUBEN FISCHLER, STAN

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

FISHER, CARRIE FISHER, EDDIE (Edwin) FLAM, HERB FLECK, BELA FLEISCHER, NATHANIEL STANLEY FLEISHER, LARRY FORD, HARRISON FOREMAN, CARL FORMAN, MILOS FOX, WILLIAM FRANKENHEIMER, JOHN MICHAEL FRANKLIN, SIDNEY FREED, ALAN FREED, ARTHUR FRIEDKIN, WILLIAM FRIEDMAN, BENJAMIN (Benny) FRIEDMAN, KINKY FRIEDMAN, THOMAS FRIENDLY, FRED W. FROHMAN FULLER, SAMUEL MICHAEL FUNT, ALLEN GABEL, MAX GABLER, MILTON GABOR, JOLIE, MAGDA, ZSA ZSA, EVA GAINES, WILLIAM M. GARFIELD, JOHN (Jules) GARFUNKEL, ART GAYLORD, MITCHELL GEFFEN, DAVID GERSHWIN, GEORGE GERSTEN, BERTA GETZ, STAN GIBBS, TERRY GILBERT, BRAD GILBERT, MELISSA GILLMAN, SID GLICKMAN, MARTIN IRVING GLOBUS, YORAM GODDARD, PAULETTE GOLAN, MENACHEM GOLDBERG, MARSHALL “BIGGIE” GOLDBLUM, JEFF GOLDEN, JOHN GOLDENBERG, CHARLES “BUCKET” GOLDSTEIN, JENNIE GOLDSTEIN, RUBY GOLDWYN, SAMUEL GOODRICH, FRANCES AND HACKETT, ALBERT GORCEY, LEO GORDON, MAX GORDON, MICHAEL GORDON, SID GOREN, CHARLES HENRY GOTTLIEB, EDWARD GOULD, ELLIOT GRAHAM, BILL GRANZ, NORMAN GRAZER, BRIAN GREEN, ABEL

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GREEN, ADOLPH GREEN, SHAWN GREENBERG, HENRY BENJAMIN GREENE, LORNE GREENE, SHECKY GREENSPAN, BUD GREY, JOEL GROSSFELD, ABRAHAM ISRAEL GRUNFELD, ERNIE GRUNWALD, HENRY ANATOLE GUBER, PETER GUGGENHEIM, CHARLES GUTHRIE, ARLO HACKETT, BUDDY HALBERSTAM, DAVID HALL, MONTY HALMI, ROBERT HAMLISCH, MARVIN HAMMERSTEIN HARBURG, E.Y. (Edgar “Yip”) HARMATZ, WILLIAM HARNICK, SHELDON HARRIS, BARBARA HARRIS, JED HARRIS, SAM HENRY HARRISON, LESTER HART, KITTY CARLISLE HART, LORENZ HAWN, GOLDIE HEAD, EDITH HECKERLING, AMY HEINE-HEIMOWITZ, MORRIS HENRY, BUCK HENTOFF, NAT HERMAN, JERRY HERSH, SEYMOUR HERSHEY, BARBARA HERSHKOWITZ, VICTOR HERSKOVITZ, MARSHALL and ZWICK, EDWARD HEWITT (Horowitz), DON HILLER, ARTHUR HIRSCH, JUDD HOFFMAN, DUSTIN HOLLANDERSKY, ABRAHAM (“Abe the Newsboy”) HOLLIDAY, JUDY HOLMAN, NATHAN HOLTZMAN, KENNETH DALE HOLZMAN, WILLIAM (RED) HOROWITZ, ISRAEL ALBERT HOUDINI, HARRY HOUSEMAN, JOHN HOWARD, MOe, SHeMP and CURLY (Three Stooges) HUGHES, SARAH

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IAN, JANIS IRVING, AMY IRVING, JULES ISAACS, EDITH JULIET IZENBERG, JERRY JACOBS, HIRSCH JACOBS, BERNARD B. JACOBS, JAMES LESLIE JACOBS, JOE JACOBS, MICHAEL STRAUSS JACOBY, OSWALD JAFFE, SAM JAFFEE, IRVING JAGLOM, HENRY JAMES, HARRY JESSEL, GEORGE ALBERT JOEL, BILLY JOLSON, AL KAEL, PAULINE KAHN, MADELINE KAHN, ROGER KALICH, BERTHA KANE, CAROL KANIN, FAY KARAN, DONNA KARFF, MONA MAY KARP, MAX and SOPHIE KASDAN, LAWRENCE KASHDAN, ISAAC KATZ, MICKEY KATZENBERG, JEFFREY KATZMAN, SAM KAUFMAN, ANDY KAUFMAN, BORIS KAUFMAN, PHILIP KAVNER, JULIE KAYE, DANNY KAZAN, LAINIE KEITEL, HARVEY KEMPNER, AVIVA KESSEL, BARNEY KESSLER, DAVID KING, ALAN KING, CAROLE KING, LARRY KLEIN, ANNE KLEIN, CALVIN KLEIN, MANNIE KLUGMAN, JACK KOLTANOWSKI, GEORGE KONITZ, LEE KOPPETT, LEONARD KOPPLE, BARBARA KORNHEISER, TONY KOUFAX, SANFORD (Sandy) KRAMER, STANLEY E. KRASNA, NORMAN KRAYZELBURG, LENNY KRESSYN, MIRIAM KUBRICK, STANLEY

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KUDROW, LISA LACY, STEVE LAEMMLE, CARL LAHR, BERT (Irving Lahrheim) LAMARR, HEDY LANDAU, MARTIN LANDESMAN, ROCCO LANDIS, JOHN LANDON, MICHAEL LANG, FRITZ LANSING, SHERRY LASKER, EMANUEL LASKY, JESSE L. LASSER, LOUISE LAUREN, RALPH LAVIN, LINDA LAWRENCE, STEVE AND GORME, EYDIE LE ROY, MERVYN LEACHMAN, CLORIS LEAR, NORMAN LEBEDEFF, AARON LEBOW, FRED LEDERER, ESTHER PAULINE LEHMAN, ERNEST LEIBER, JERRY AND STOLLER, MIKE LEONARD, BENNY LEONTOVICH, EUGENIE LERNER, ALAN JAY LESTER, RICHARD LEVANT, OSCAR LEVENE, SAM LEVENSON, SAM LEVIEN, SONYA LEVIN, BERNARD LEVINE, JOSEPH E. LEVINSKY, BATTLING (Barney Lebrowitz) LEVINSON, BARRY LEVY, MARV LEWIS, JERRY LEWIS, SHARI LEWIS, TED (Kid) LIEBERMAN, NANCY LIEBLING, A.J. LIPSYTE, ROBERT MICHAEL LITVAK, ANATOLE (Michael) LITWACK, HARRY LOEW, MARCUS LORRE, PETER LORTEL, LUCILE LOUIS-DREYFUS, JULIA LUBITSCH, ERNST LUKAS, PAUL LUMET, SIDNEY LYONS, LEONARD MALTIN, LEONARD MANILOW, BARRY MANKIEWICZ, HERMAN MANKIEWICZ, JOSEPH LEO MANN, ABBY MANN, DANIEL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

MANN, DELBERT MANN, HERBIE MANNE, SHELLY MARTIN, TONY MARX BROTHERS MASON, JACKIE MATLIN, MARLEE MATTHAU, WALTER MAY, ELAINE MAYER, LOUIS BURT MAYSLES, ALBERT and DAVID PAUL MAZURSKY, PAUL MEDVED, MICHAEL MENDES, SAM MENKEN, ADAH ISAACS MERCHANT, LARRY MERRICK, DAVID MESSING, SHEP MEYERS, NANCY JANE MEZZROW, MILTON (Mezz) MICHAELS, ALAN RICHARD MICHAELS, LORNE MIDLER, BETTE MILLER, MARVIN MIRISCH BROTHERS MIX, RONALD MODELL, ARTHUR B. MOGULESKO, SIGMUND (Zelig) MONROE, MARILYN MOONVES, LES MORRIS, ERROL MORRIS, WILLIAM MOSBACHER, EMIL JR. MOSTEL, ZERO MUNI, PAUL MURRAY, ARTHUR MYERS, LAWRENCE E. (Lon) NAZIMOVA, ALLA NEUWIRTH, BEBE NEVINS, SHEILA NEWMAN, PAUL NEWMAN, RANDALL STUART NICHOLS, MIKE NIMOY, LEONARD NORELL, NORMAN OCHS, PHILIP DAVID OVITZ, MICHAEL PAKULA, ALAN PALMER, LILLI PALTROW, GWYNNETH PAPP, JOSEPH PARKER, SARAH JESSICA PASTERNAK, JOSEPH PATINKIN, MANDY PATKIN, MAX PAUL, GABRIEL HOWARD PENN, ARTHUR PENN, SEAN PERRY, FRANK PERSOFF, NEHEMIAH

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PICON, MOLLY PIKE, LIPMAN E. (Lip) PODOLOFF, MAURICE POLLACK, SYDNEY POLLIN, ABE POMUS, DOC POVICH, SHIRLEY PREMINGER, OTTO LUDWIG PRINCE, HAROLD RADNER, GILDA RAFELSON, ROBERT RAMONE, JOEY RANDALL, TONY REDSTONE , SUMNER REED, Lou REESE, JIMMIE REINER, CARL REINER, ROB REINHARDT, MAX REINSDORF , JERRY REISER, PAUL RESHEVSKY, SAMUEL HERMAN RICH, BUDDY RICHARDS, MARTIN RICKLES, DON RITT, MARTIN RITZ BROTHERS RIVERS, JOAN ROBERTS, TONY ROBINSON, EDWARD G. RODNEY, RED ROSE, BILLY ROSE, MAURICE ROSEN, ALBERT LEONARD ROSENBLOOM, CARROLL ROSENBLOOM, MAX (“Slapsie”) ROSS, BARNEY ROSSEN, ROBERT ROTH, DAVID LEE ROTH, MARK RUDIN, SCOTT RUDNER, RITA RUDOLPH, MARVIN (“Mendy”) RYDER, WINONA SAHL, MORT SAKS, GENE SALITA, DMITRI SALTZMAN, HARRY SAMPRAS, PETE SANDLER, ADAM SAPERSTEIN, ABRAHAM M. (“Abe”) SARACHEK, BERNARD (Red) SAVITT, RICHARD

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SCHAAP, RICHARD SCHACHT, ALEXANDER SCHARY, DORE SCHAYES, ADOLPH (Dolph) SCHECKTER, JODY SCHENKER, JOEL W. SCHNEIDER, ALAN (Abram Leopoldovich) SCHNEIDER, MATHIEU SCHWARTZ, MAURICE SCHWIMMER, DAVID SEDAKA, NEIL SEDRAN (Sedransky), BARNEY SEGAL, GEORGE SEINFELD, JERRY SELDES, MARIAN SELIG, ALLAN H. (“Bud”) SELZNICK SEYMOUR, JANE SHAMSKY, ARTHUR LOUIS SHANDLING, GARY SHAPIRO, ESTHER SHATNER, WILLIAM SHAWN, DICK SHEAN, AL SHEARER, NORMA SHER, SIR ANTHONY SHERMAN, ALEXANDER (“Allie”) SHERMAN, ALLAN SHERRY, LAWRENCE AND NORMAN BURT SHORE, DINAH (Francis Rose) SHUBERT SHUSTER, JOE SIDNEY, SYLVIA SIEGEL, JERRY SILVER, JOAN MICKLIN SILVER, RON SILVERMAN, SIME SILVERS, PHIL SIMMONS, GENE SIMON, CARLY SIMON, PAUL FREDERIC SINGER, BRYAN SKULNIK, MENASHA SOBEL, BERNARD SODERBERGH, STEVEN SOLOMON, HAROLD SONNENFELD, BARRY SORKIN, AARON SPECTOR, PHIL SPELLING, AARON SPELLMAN, FRANK SPIEGEL, SAMUEL P. SPIELBERG, STEVEN SPITZ, MARK STAR, DARREN STARK, ALBERT (“Dolly”) STEIN, JULES STERN, BILL STERN, DAVID STERN, HOWARD

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STERNBERG, JOSEF VON STILLER, BEN STILLMAN, LOUIS STONE, OLIVER STONE, PETER STONE, STEVE STRASBERG, LEE STREISAND, BARBRA STRICK, JOSEPH STROHEIM, ERICH VON STRUG, KERRI SUSSKIND, DAVID TANENBAUM, SIDNEY HAROLD TAYLOR, ELIZABETH TAYMOR, JULIE THALBERG, IRVING GRANT THOMASHEFSKY, BESSIE THOMASHEFSKY, BORIS TOBACK, JAMES TODD, MIKE TORME, MEL TUCKER, SOPHIE ULLMAN, TRACEY WALD, JERRY WALETZKY, JOSH WALLACH, ELI WANAMAKER, SAM WARFIELD, DAVID WARNER WASSERMAN, LEW WEBB, JACK WEIN, GEORGE WEINSTEIN, HARVEY AND BOB WEISSLER, BARRY AND FRAN WEST, MAE WESTHEIMER, RUTH WILDER, BILLY WILDER, GENE WILPON, FRED WINGER, DEBRA WINKLER, HENRY WINKLER, IRWIN WINSTON, STAN WINTERS, SHELLEY WISE, ROBERT EARL WISEMAN, FREDERICK WOLPER, DAVID LLOYD WOOLF, BOB WYLER, WILLIAM WYNN, ED WYNN, KEENAN YARROW, PETER YOUNGMAN, HENNY ZASLOVSKY, MAX ZIEGFELD, FLORENZ ZIMBALIST, EFREM ZINNEMANN, FRED ZORN, JOHN ZUCKER, DAVID ZUCKER, JEFF

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ZUKOR, ADOLPH Public & Economic Life ABBELL, MAXWELL ABELSON, PAUL ABRAHAM ABRAHAMS, ISAAC ABRAMS, CHARLES ABRAMS, ELLIOTT ABRAMS, FLOYD ABRAMS, ROBERT ABRAMSON, JERRY EDWIN ABZUG, BELLA ACKERMAN, GARY ADAMS, ARLIN MARVIN ADAMS, JOHN ADLER, ELMER ADLER, EMANUEL PHILIP ADLER, JULIUS OCHS ADLER, MAX ALEXANDER, ABRAHAM ALEXANDER, BEATRICE ALEXANDER, MOSES ALLEN, ISAAC ALLEN, PAUL ALSCHULER, SAMUEL ALTER, ELEANOR (Breitel) ALTHEIMER, BENJAMIN ALTMAN, BENJAMIN ALTSCHUL, FRANK ALTSCHUL, LOUIS AMATEAU, ALBERT JEAN AMERICAN, SADIE AMRAM, DAVID WERNER AMSTERDAM, BIRDIE AMTER, ISRAEL ANNENBERG, WALTER H. ANSORGE, MARTIN APPELMAN, HARLENE ARONSON, ARNOLD ARVEY, JACOB M. ATRAN, FRANK Z. AUERBACH, BEATRICE FOX BAAR, EMIL BACHARACH BACHARACH, ISAAC BACHE BACKER, GEORGE BAERWALD, PAUL BAKER, EDWARD MAX BALLMER, STEVEN BAMBERGER, LOUIS BAMBERGER, SIMON BARNERT, NATHAN BARONDESS, JOSEPH BARRON, JENNIE LOITMAN BARSHEFSKY, CHARLENE BARSIMSON, JACOB BARUCH BAUM, MORTON

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BAZELON, DAVID L. BEAME, ABRAHAM DAVID BECKELMAN, MOSES W. BECKER BECKER, EDWARD ROY BEDACHT, MAX BEHAR, NISSIM BEHRMAN, MARTIN BEILENSON, ANTHONY BELMONT, AUGUST BENDERLY, SAMSON BENESCH, ALFRED ABRAHAM BENJAMIN, JUDAH PHILIP BEN-VENISTE, RICHARD BERG, PHILIP BERGER, MEYER BERGER, SAMUEL R. BERGER, VICTOR BERKLEY, ROCHELLE BERKLEY, WILLIAM R. BERMAN, HOWARD BERMAN, JULIUS BERNAYS, EDWARD BERNBACH, WILLIAM BERNHEIM, ISAAC WOLFE BERNHEIMER, CHARLES SELIGMAN BERNSTEIN, CARL BERNSTEIN, LUDWIG BEHR BERNSTEIN, ZALMAN CHAIM BERNSTEIN, ZVI HIRSCH BETTMANN, BERNHARD BIALKIN, KENNETH BICKEL, ALEXANDER M. BIEN, JULIUS BIJUR, NATHAN BILLIKOPF, JACOB BINSWANGER, ISIDORE BISGYER, MAURICE BITTELMAN, ALEXANDER BLACK, ALGERNON BLACKSTONE, WILLIAM E. BLANK, ARTHUR BLAUSTEIN BLAUSTEIN, DAVID BLITZER, WOLF BLOCH BLOCH, CLAUDE BLOCK, H&R BLOCK, PAUL BLOOM, BENJAMIN SAMUEL BLOOM, SOL BLOOMBERG, MICHAEL BLOOMINGDALE

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BLUESTONE, JOSEPH ISAAC BLUHDORN, CHARLES BLUMENBERG, LEOPOLD BLUMENFIELD, SAMUEL BLUMENTHAL, GEORGE BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH BLUMENTHAL, WERNER MICHAEL BOESKY, IVAN BOGEN, BORIS DAVID BOLTEN, JOSHUA B. BONDI, AUGUST BONDI, JONAS BONDY, MAX BOOKBINDER, HYMAN H. BORINSTEIN, LOUIS J. BOSCHWITZ, RUDOLPH ELI BOTEIN, BERNARD BOXER, BARBARA BOYAR, LOUIS H. BRANDEIS, LOUIS DEMBITZ BREITEL, CHARLES BRENNER, ROSE BRENTANO BRESLAW, JOSEPH BRESSLER, DAVID MAURICE BREYER, STEPHEN GERALD BRIN, SERGEY BROAD, ELI BROIDO, LOUIS BRONFMAN, EDGAR MILES BROWN, BENJAMIN BROWN, DAVID ABRAHAM BROWN, HAROLD BRUCKMAN, HENRIETTA BUCHALTER, LOUIS (“Lepke”) BUERGENTHAL, THOMAS BURNS, ARTHUR FRANK BUSH, GEORGE HERBERT WALKER BUSH, GEORGE WALKER BUSH, ISIDOR BUSH, SOLOMON BUTTENWIESER BUTZEL CAHN, EDMOND NATHANIEL CALOF, RACHEL CANTOR, ERIC CANTOR, JACOB AARON CARDIN, BENJAMIN L. CARDIN, SHOSHANA CARDOZO CARDOZO, BENJANIN NATHAN Carnegie, Hattie CARTER, JAMES EARL (Jimmy) CARTER, VICTOR M. CELLER, EMANUEL CERF, BENNETT ALFRED CHAIKIN, SOL CHERTOFF , MICHAEL CHIPKIN, ISRAEL

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CHUDOFF, EARL CLINTON, WILLIAM JEFFERSON COHEN COHEN, ALFRED MORTON COHEN, BENJAMIN VICTOR COHEN, FANNIA M. COHEN, H. RODGIN COHEN, JOHN SANFORD COHEN, MARY MATILDA COHEN, PHILIP MELVIN COHEN, WILLIAM S. COHEN, WILLIAM WOLFE COHN, MORRIS MANDEL COHON, GEORGE COLE, KENNETH CONE COPPERSMITH, SAMUEL COWEN, PHILIP CROWN, HENRY CUBAN, MARK CULLMAN CUTLER, BRUCE CUTLER, HARRY DA COSTA, ISAAC D’AMATO, ALPHONSE DARMSTADT, JOSEPH DAROFF, SAMUEL H. DASH, SAMUEL DAVIDSON, WILLIAM DAVIS, ABEL DAVIS, MARVIN H. DAVIS, SUSAN DE CORDOVA, JACOB DE HAAS, JACOB DE LA MOTTA, JACOB DE LEON DE LEON, DANIEL DE LUCENA DELL, MICHAEL DEMBITZ, LEWIS NAPHTALI DERSHOWITZ, ALAN M. DEUTCH, JOHN M. DEUTSCH, BERNARD SEYMOUR DICKSTEIN, SAMUEL DININ, SAMUEL DITTENHOEFER, ABRAM JESSE DORPH, SHELDON DREBEN, SAM DREXLER, MILLARD (Mickey) DROPSIE, MOSES AARON DUBINSKY, DAVID DUSHKIN, ALEXANDER MORDECHAI DYCHE, JOHN ALEXANDER EINSTEIN, LEWIS EISENHOWER, DWIGHT DAVID EISENMAN, CHARLES EISNER, MARK EISNER, MICHAEL DAMMANN EIZENSTAT, STUART ELCAN, MARCUS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ELIAS, ELI ELKUS, ABRAM ISAAC ELLENSTEIN, MEYER C. ELLINGER, MORITZ ELLISON, LAWRENCE J. ELLSBERG, DANIEL ELLSBERG, EDWARD ENGEL, ELIOT L. EPSTEIN, JUDITH ETTENBERG, SYLVIA ETTING EVANS, ELI EVANS, JANE EZEKIEL, JACOB FACTOR, MAX FAIRSTEIN, LINDA FALK FARKAS, RUTH FEINBERG, ABRAHAM FEINBERG, KENNETH FEINBERG, ROBERT FEINGOLD, RUSSELL FEINSTEIN, DIANNE FEINSTONE, MORRIS FEITH, DOUGLAS J. FELDHEIM, PHILIPP FELDMAN, HERMAN FELDMAN, SANDRA FELLER, ABRAHAM HOWARD FELS FERKAUF, EUGENE FILENE FINEMAN, HAYYIM FINKELSTEIN, ARTHUR FISCHEL, ARNOLD FISCHEL, HARRY FISHER, DONALD FISHER, MAX M. FISHMAN, JACOB FLEISCHMANN, JULIUS FLEISHER FLEXNER FOREMAN, MILTON J. FORMAN, PHILLIP FORTAS, ABE FOXMAN, ABRAHAM FRAENKEL, OSMOND K. FRANK, BARNEY FRANK, ELI FRANK, JEROME FRANK, LEO MAX FRANK, RAY FRANKEL, HIRAM D. FRANKEL, LEE KAUFER FRANKEL, MARVIN E. FRANKEL, MAX FRANKEL, SAMUEL BENJAMIN FRANKENTHALER, GEORGE FRANKFURTER, FELIX FRANKS, DAVID

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FRANKS, DAVID SALISBURY FRANKS, JACOB FRANKS, JACOB FREIBERG list FREUND, ERNST FREUND, PAUL ABRAHAM FREUND-ROSENTHAL, MIRIAM KOTTLER FRIEDAN, BETTY FRIEDENBERG, ALBERT MARX FRIEDENBERG, SAMUEL FRIEDENWALD FRIEDLANDER, ISAAC FRIEDLANDER, WALTER FRIEDMAN, HERBERT A. FRIEDSAM, MICHAEL FRIEND, HUGO MORRIS FRIENDLY, HENRY JACOB FRISCH, DANIEL FROST, MARTIN FUCHSBERG, JACOB D. FULD, STANLEY HOWELLS GADOL, MOISES GAER, FELICE GAMORAN, EMANUEL GANS, BIRD STEIN GARMENT, LEONARD GELB, ARTHUR GELLMAN, LEON GEORGE, MANFRED GERSHOVITZ, SAMUEL GERSONI, HENRY GERSTLE, LEWIS GERTZ, ELMER GIMBEL GINGOLD, PINCHAS M. GINSBERG, EDWARD GINSBERG, MITCHELL I. GINSBURG, RUTH JOAN BADER GITLOW, BENJAMIN GLICKMAN, DANIEL GLUCKSMAN, HARRY L. GOLD, BENJAMIN GOLDBERG, ARTHUR JOSEPH GOLDBERG, JEANNETTE MIRIAM GOLDIN, DANIEL SAUL GOLDMAN GOLDMAN, EMMA GOLDMAN, MAYER CLARENCE GOLDMAN, MOSES HA-KOHEN GOLDMAN, PAUL L. GOLDMANN, SIDNEY GOLDMARK GOLDSCHMIDT, NEIL EDWARD

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GOLDSMITH, HORACE WARD GOLDSMITH, SAMUEL ABRAHAM GOLDSTEIN, ABRAHAM SAMUEL GOLDSTEIN, FANNY GOLDSTEIN, JUDAH JAMISON GOLDWASSER, ISRAEL EDWIN GOLDWATER GOLDWATER, SIGMUND SCHULZ GOMEZ GOMPERS, SAMUEL GOODHART, ARTHUR LEHMAN GOODMAN, ANDREW GOODMAN, ARNOLD ABRAHAM, LORD GOTSFELD, BESSIE GOLDSTEIN GOTTESMAN GOULD, MILTON S. GRANT, LEE GRANT, ULYSSES SIMPSON GRATZ GRATZ, REBECCA GREENBAUM, EDWARD SAMUEL GREENBERG, HAYYIM GREENBERG, MAURICE GREENBLATT, ALIZA GREENE, HAROLD GREENEBAUM GREENFIELD, ALBERT MONROE GREENSPAN, ALAN GREENSTEIN, HARRY GROSSINGER, JENNIE GROSSMAN, STEVEN GROVE, ANDREW S. GRUBER, RUTH GRUENBERG, SIDONIE MATSNER GRUENING, ERNEST HENRY GUGGENHEIM GUINZBURG, HAROLD KLEINERT GUZIK, JACOB HACKENBURG, WILLIAM BOWER HAHN, MICHAEL HALLGARTEN HALPRIN, ROSE LURIA HAMMER, ARMAND HANDLER, MILTON HANDLER, RUTH MOSKO HARBY, ISAAC HARBY, LEVI MYERS HARDMAN, JACOB BENJAMIN HARMAN, JANE HARRIS, LOUIS HART, ABRAHAM HART, BERNARD HART, EMANUEL BERNARD HART, EPHRAIM HART, ISAAC HART, MYER HARTOGENSIS, BENJAMIN HENRY HASSENFELD, SYLVIA HAUSER, RITA HAY, JOHN MILTON

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HAYES, ISAAC ISRAEL HAYS HAYS, ARTHUR GARFIELD HAYS, DANIEL PEIXOTTO HELD, ADOLPH HELLERSTEIN, ALVIN K. HELLMAN, ISAIAS WOLF HELMSLEY, LEONA HENDRICKS HENRY, JACOB HENSHEL, HARRY D. HERLANDS, WILLIAM BERNARD HERSTEIN, LILLIAN HERTZ, EMANUEL HEYDENFELDT, SOLOMON HILLMAN, BESSIE ABRAMOWITZ HILLMAN, SIDNEY HILLQUIT, MORRIS HIMMELSTEIN, LENA HIRSCH, SOLOMON HIRSCHMANN, IRA ARTHUR HIRSHHORN, JOSEPH HERMAN HOCHMAN, JULIUS HOENLEIN, MALCOLM HOFFMAN, CHARLES ISAIAH HOFFMAN, JEFFREY HOFFMAN, JULIUS JENNINGS HOFFMAN, PHILIP E. HOLBROOKE, RICHARD CHARLES HOLLZER, HARRY AARON HOLTZMAN, ELIZABETH HONOR, LEO L. HORNER, HENRY HOROWITZ, LOUIS J. HUMPHREY, HUBERT H. HURWICH, LOUIS HURWITZ, HENRY HYMAN, JOSEPH C. ICAHN, CARL INDYK, MARTIN ISAACS ISAACS, ISAIAH ISAACS, JOSEPH ISAACS, NATHAN ISRAEL, STEVE JACKSON, SOLOMON HENRY JACOBS, FRANCES WISEBART JACOBS, IRWIN JACOBS, ROSE GELL JACOBS, SOLOMON JACOBSON, EDWARD (Eddie) JAFFA JAVITS, JACOB KOPPEL JEFFERSON, THOMAS JESSELSON, LUDWIG JOACHIMSEN, PHILIP J. JOEL, RICHARD JOHNSON, LYNDON BAINES JONAS, JOSEPH JONAS, NATHAN S.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

JORDAN, CHARLES HAROLD JOSEPHSON, MANUEL JOSEPHTAL, LOUIS MAURICE JUDAH KAHANE, MEIR KAHN, ALEXANDER KAHN, BERNARD KAHN, DOROTHY C. KAHN, FLORENCE PRAG KAHN, JULIUS KAHN, OTTO HERMANN KALB, BERNARD KALB, MARVIN KALIKOW, PETER KAMPELMAN, MAX M. KANE, IRVING KANEV, ISAAC KANN, PETER R. KANTOR, MICKEY KAPLAN, LOUIS LIONEL KAR-BEN/LERNER KARMAZIN, MEL KARSEN, FRITZ KATZ, LABEL A. KAUFMAN, IRVING R. KAYE, JUDITH KEMPNER, HARRIS KENNEDY, JOHN FITZGERALD KIMMEL, SIDNEY KIRSTEIN, LOUIS EDWARD KISSINGER, HENRY ALFRED KLAPPER, PAUL KLEIN, JULIUS KLEIN, MORTON KLEIN, PHILIP KLUTZNICK, PHILIP MORRIS KNEFLER, FREDERICK KNOPF, ALFRED A. KNOPF, BLANCHE WOLFE KOBLER, FRANZ KOCH, EDWARD IRVING KOENIGSBERG, MOSES KOHL, HERBERT KOHLER, MAX JAMES KOPELMAN, ARIE KOPPEL, TED KOPPLEMANN, HERMAN PAUL KORNFELD, JOSEPH SAUL KOSNER, EDWARD KOZINSKI, ALEX KRAFT, LOUIS KRAUS, ADOLF KRAVIS, HENRY KRAVITCH, PHYLLIS A. KRISTOL, WILLIAM KROCK, ARTHUR KROSS, ANNA KRULEWITCH, MELVIN LEVIN KUHN-LOEB KUNIN, MADELEINE MAY

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KUNSTLER, WILLIAM KUNZ, JOSEF LAURENZ KURSHEEDT, ISRAEL BAER KURTZER, DANIEL CHARLES LA GUARDIA, FIORELLO HENRY LADEJINSKY, WOLF ISAAC LANSKY, MEYER LANTOS, TOM LASKER LAUDER, ESTÉE LAUDER, RONALD LAURENCE, WILLIAM L. LAUTENBERG, FRANK LAUTERBACH, EDWARD H. LAWRENCE, DAVID LAWTON, SAMUEL T. LAZARD LAZARUS LEAVITT, MOSES A. LEFKOWITZ, LOUIS LEFRAK, SAMUEL J. LEHMAN LEHMAN, HERBERT HENRY LEHMAN, IRVING LEHMAN, WILLIAM LEIBER, JUDITH LEIBOWITZ, SAMUEL SIMON LEIDESDORF, SAMUEL DAVID LEIPZIGER, HENRY M. LELYVELD, JOSEPH LEMKIN, RAPHAEL LERNER, MICHAEL LESLIE, ROBERT L. LEVI, EDWARD H. LEVIN, CARL LEVIN, LEWIS CHARLES LEVIN, RICHARD LEVIN, SANDER LEVIN, THEODORE LEVIN-SHATZKES, YIZHAK LEVINSON, SALMON OLIVER LEVITAN, SOLOMON LEVITT LEVITT, ARTHUR SENIOR and JR. LEVY, AARON LEVY, AARON LEVY, ALBERT J. LEVY, ASSER LEVY, CHAPMAN LEVY, HAYMAN LEVY, JEFFERSON MONROE LEVY, JONAS PHILLIPS LEVY, MOSES

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LEVY, MOSES LEVY, MOSES ELIAS LEVY, NATHAN LEVY, URIAH PHILLIPS LEW, JACOB LEWIN, NATHAN LEWIS, ANTHONY LEWIS, PETER B. LEWIS, SAMUEL ALEXANDER LEWISOHN LICHT, FRANK LIEBERMAN, JOSEPH LIEBMANN, ESTHER SCHULHOFF ARON and Jost LILIENTHAL, DAVID ELI LIMAN, ARTHUR LINCOLN, ABRAHAM LINDHEIM, IRMA LEVY LINGLE, LINDA LINOWITZ, SOL MYRON LIPPMANN, WALTER LIPSKY, LOUIS LIT LITTAUER, LUCIUS NATHAN LIVERIGHT, HORACE BRISBIN LOEB, JAMES LONDON, MEYER LOPEZ, AARON LOURIE, NORMAN VICTOR LOVESTONE, JAY LOW, MINNIE LOWENSTEIN, ALLARD KENNETH LOWENSTEIN, SOLOMON LOWEY, NITA LOWN, PHILIP W. LURIE, HARRY LAWRENCE LYONS, EUGENE MACK, JULIAN WILLIAM MACKLOWE, HARRY MADISON, JAMES MAGNES, JUDAH LEON MAGNIN, MARY ANN COHEN MALKIEL, THERESA SERBER MALSIN, LANE BRYANT MANDEL, MARVIN MANN, FREDERIC RAND MANN, THEODORE R. MARCOSSON, ISAAC MARCUS, BERNARD MARCUS, DAVID DANIEL MARCUS, STANLEY MARGARETEN, REGINA MARGOLIN, ARNOLD MARGOSHES, SAMUEL MARIX, ADOLPH MARKEL, LESTER MARKS, HAYMAN MARKS, MARCUS M. MARSHALL, LOUIS MASSELL, SAM JR. MATZ, ISRAEL

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MAYER, LEOPOLD MAYER, LEVY MAZER MAZUR, JAY McDONALD, JAMES GROVER MEARS, OTTO MEDALIE, GEORGE ZERDIN MEED, BENJAMIN MEED, VLADKA MEIER, JULIUS MELTON, FLORENCE ZACKS MELTON, SAMUEL MENDEL MENKEN MESSINGER, RUTH MEYER, ANNIE NATHAN MEYER, BARON DE HIRSCH MEYER, EUGENE MEYERHOFF, HARVEY MEYERHOFF, JOSEPH MICHAEL, JAKOB MICHAEL, MOSES MICHELSON, CHARLES MIKVA, ABNER J. MILKEN, MICHAEL MILL, JOSEPH SOLOMON (John) MILLER, LOUIS E. MILSTEIN MINIS MINOW, NEWTON NORMAN MINSKY, LOUIS MOÏSE, ABRAHAM MONSKY, HENRY MONTOR, HENRY MORDECAI, ALFRED MORDECAI, JACOB MOREEL, BEN MORGENTHAU MORRIS, NELSON MORSE, DAVID ABNER MORSE, LEOPOLD MORWITZ, EDWARD MOSES, MYER MOSES, RAPHAEL J. MOSES, ROBERT MOSKOWITZ, HENRY MOSS, JOHN MYERS, GUSTAVUS MYERS, MORDECAI MYERS, MOSES MYERS, SAMUEL MYERSON, BESS NAAR, DAVID NADLER, JERROLD NAGLER, ISADORE NATHAN NATHAN, MAUD NAUMBURG NELSON, LOUIS NEUBERGER, RICHARD LEWIS NEUMANN, EMANUEL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

NEUMANN, HENRY NEWHOUSE, SAMUEL IRVING NEWMAN, ISIDORE NEWMAN, JON O. NEWMAN, PAULINE NEWMARK NEWMYER, ARTHUR GROVER NILES, DAVID K. NIXON, RICHARD MILHAUS NIZER, LOUIS NOAH, MORDECAI MANUEL NONES, BENJAMIN NORMAN, EDWARD ALBERT NOVAK, ROBERT NOVY, JIM OCHS OHRBACH OPPENHEIMER, FRITZ E. ORTENBERG, ARTHUR OTTINGER, ALBERT PACHECO, RODRIGO BENJAMIN MENDES PACHT, ISAAC PACKMAN, JAMES JOSEPH PADWAY, JOSEPH ARTHUR PALEY, WILLIAM SAMUEL PAM, HUGO PANKEN. JACOB PARNIS, MOLLIE PAT, JACOB PATRICOF, ALAN PEARL, DANIEL PEARLSTINE, NORMAN PEIXOTTO PEIXOTTO, JUDITH PEKARSKY, MAURICE PEKELIS, ALEXANDER HAIM PEMBER, PHOEBE YATES PERELMAN, RONALD O. PERLE, RICHARD N. PERLMAN, ALFRED EDWARD PERLMAN, HELEN HARRIS PERLMAN, SELIG PERSKY, DANIEL PESOTTA, ROSE PFORZHEIMER, CARL HOWARD PHILADELPHIA, JACOB PHILLIPS PHILLIPS, PHILIP PHILLIPS, REBECCA MACHADO PHILLIPSON, IRVING JOSEPH PILCH, JUDAH PINANSKI, ABRAHAM PINNER, MORITZ PINTO, ISAAC PISCO, SERAPHINE POGREBIN, LETTY COTTIN POLACHEK, VICTOR HENRY POLIER, SHAD POLLACK, MILTON POLLAK, WALTER HEILPRIN

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POLYKOFF, SHIRLEY POMERANTZ, FRED POSNER, RICHARD A. POTOFSKY, JACOB SAMUEL PRAGER, DENNIS PRESSMAN, LEE PRITZKER PROSKAUER, JOSEPH MEYER PULITZER, JOSEPH RABB, MAXWELL MILTON RABINOFF, GEORGE W. RABINOWICZ, OSKAR K. RABINOWITZ, LOUIS MAYER RADIN, MAX RATNER, BRUCE RATNER, LEONARD RATSHESKY, ABRAHAM CAPTAIN RAUH, JOSEPH L. RAYNER, ISIDOR RAYNOR, BRUCE RAZOVSKY, CECILIA REAGAN, RONALD WILSON REDLICH, NORMAN REE, HARTVIG PHILIP REESE, MICHAEL REHINE, ZALMA REINHARDT, STEPHEN R. REMNICK, DAVID RENDELL, EDWARD RESNIK, JUDITH REVSON, CHARLES HASKELL RIBICOFF, ABRAHAM A. RICE, ISAAC LEOPOLD RICE, JAMES P. RICE, JOSEPH MAYER RICH RICH, MARC RICHARDS, BERNARD GERSON RICHMAN, JULIA RICKOVER, HYMAN GEORGE RIEGELMAN, HAROLD RIFKIND, SIMON HIRSCH RIKLIS, MESHULAM RIVERA, JACOB RODRIGUEZ RIVLIN, ALICE MITCHELL ROBINSON, JACOB ROBINSON, NEHEMIAH ROCKER RODKINSON, MICHAEL LEVI ROHATYN, FELIX G. ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT, THEODORE ROSE, ALEX

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ROSE, ERNESTINE POTOVSKY ROSE, MAURICE ROSEN, CARL ROSENBERG, ABRAHAM ROSENBERG, ABRAHAM HAYYIM ROSENBERG, ANNA MARIE LEDERER ROSENBERG, JAMES NAUMBURG ROSENBLATT, BERNARD ABRAHAM ROSENBLATT, SOL ARIEH ROSENBLOOM, SOLOMON ROSENBLUM, FRANK ROSENDALE, SIMON WOLFE ROSENFELD, SAMUEL ROSENMAN, SAMUEL IRVING ROSENSAFT, JOSEF ROSENSOHN, ETTA LASKER ROSENTHAL, ABRAHAM MICHAEL ROSENTHAL, BENJAMIN ROSENTHAL, HERMAN ROSENTHAL, IDA COHEN ROSENWALD ROSEWATER, EDWARD ROSS, DENNIS B. ROSS, STEPHEN ROSTOW, EUGENE VICTOR ROSTOW, WALT WHITMAN ROTHBERG, SAMUEL ROTHENBERG, MORRIS ROTHSCHILD, WALTER N. ROTHSTEIN, ARNOLD RUBIN, ROBERT RUBIN, SAMUEL RUBINSTEIN, HELENA RUBY, JACK RUDIN RUDMAN, WARREN BRUCE RUEF, ABRAHAM RUKEYSER, MERRYLE STANLEY SABAN, HAIM SABATH, ADOLF JOACHIM SABSOVICH, H. L. SACHS SAFIRE, WILLIAM SAKOWITZ, BERNARD SALIT, NORMAN SALOMON, HAYM SALTZMAN, MAURICE SALVADOR SALZMAN, WILLIAM SAMUEL, RALPH E. SAND, LEONARD SANDERS, BERNARD SAPIRO, AARON SAPIRSTEIN-STONE-WEISS SARASOHN, KASRIEL HERSCH SARNOFF, DAVID SATINSKY, SOL SCAASI, ARNOLD SCHAKOWSKY, JANICE SCHANBERG, SYDNEY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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SCHECHTMAN, JOSEPH B. SCHECK, BARRY SCHENK, FAYE L. SCHEUER, JAMES SCHIFF, ADAM SCHIFF, DOROTHY SCHIFF, JACOB HENRY SCHLESINGER, BENJAMIN SCHLOSSBERG, JOSEPH SCHMIDT, SAMUEL MYER SCHNEIDER, IRVING SCHOOLMAN, BERTHA S. SCHORR, DANIEL L. SCHOTTLAND, CHARLES IRWIN SCHRADER, ABE SCHULTZ, DUTCH SCHULTZ, HOWARD SCHUSTER, MAX LINCOLN SCHUSTERMAN, CHARLES AND LYNN SCHWAB, JOSEPH J. SCHWARTZ, DAVID SCHWARTZ, FELICE NIERENBERG SCHWARTZ, JOSEPH J. SCHWARZBERG, SAMUEL BENJAMIN SCHWIMMER, ROSIKA SEASONGOOD SEGAL, BERNARD GERARD SEGAL, LOUIS SEIXAS SELDES, GEORGE SELEKMAN, BENJAMIN M. SELIGMAN SELIGSBERG, ALICE LILLIE SELTZER, LOUIS BENSON SEMAN, PHILIP LOUIS SENIOR, MAX SHALOM, ISAAC I. SHANKER, ALBERT SHAPERO, NATE S. SHAPIRO, EZRA Z. SHAPIRO, IRVING SAUL SHAPIRO, ROBERT SHAPIRO, SAMUEL HARVEY SHAPP, MILTON J. SHAVELSON, CLARA LEMLICH SHAW, BENJAMN SHEFTALL SHEINDLIN, JUDITH SHEINKMAN, JACOB SHER, NEAL SHETZER, SIMON SHIPLACOFF, ABRAHAM ISAAC SHRODER, WILLIAM J. SHULMAN, HARRY SIEBERT, MURIEL SIEGEL, BENJAMIN (“Bugsy”) SIEGEL, MARK SIGMAN, MORRIS SILBERBERG, MENDEL SILVER, EDWARD S.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

SILVER, HAROLD M. SILVERSTEIN, LARRY SIMON SIMON, JOSEPH SIMON, NORTON SIMONS, JAMES SIMSON SINGER, ISIDORE SINGER, ISRAEL SLAWSON, JOHN SLOMOVITZ, PHILIP SLOSS, MARCUS CAUFFMAN SOBELOFF, ISIDOR SOBELOFF, SIMON ERNEST SOFAER, ABRAHAM SOKOLOF, PHIL SOLARZ, STEPHEN JOSHUA SOLIS-COHEN SOLOMON, EZEKIEL SOLOMON, HANNAH GREENEBAUM SOLOMONS, ADOLPHUS SIMEON SONNEBORN, RUDOLF GOLDSCHMIDT SONNENFELDT, HELMUT SONNENSCHEIN, ROSA SOROS, GEORGE SPANEL, ABRAM NETHANIEL SPECTER, ARLEN SPEYER SPIEGEL, DORA SPIELVOGEL, CARL, AD, AMBASSADOR SPITZER, ELIOT SPORKIN, STANLEY SQUADRON, HOWARD MAURICE STACHEL, JACOB STARK, LOUIS STEIMER, MOLLY STEIN, HERMAN D. STEINEM, GLORIA STEINGUT STEINHARDT, LAURENCE ADOLF STEINHARDT, MICHAEL STERN, ELIZABETH STERN, HORACE STERN, JULIUS DAVID STERN, LEONARD STERN, LOUIS STERN, MAX STERNE, SIMON STOKES, ROSE PASTOR (Wieslander) STONE, DEWEY STONE, I.F. (Isidore Feinstein) STONE, JULIUS STONE, RICHARD BERNARD STRASSFELD, SHARON STRAUS STRAUS, ROGER JR. STRAUSS, LEVI STRAUSS, LEWIS LICHTENSTEIN STRAUSS, ROBERT SCHWARTZ STROOCK

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STROUSE, MYER STRUNSKY, SIMEON STULBERG, LOUIS SULZBERGER, ARTHUR HAYS SULZBERGER, MAYER SUMMERS, LAWRENCE SUTRO, ADOLPH HEINRICH JOSEPH SWIG, BENJAMIN HARRISON SWOPE, GERARD SWOPE, HERBERT BAYARD SYRKIN, MARIE SZOLD, HENRIETTA SZOLD, ROBERT TAUBMAN, ALFRED A. TAUSSIG TEICHOLZ, BRUCE B. TERKEL, STUDS (Louis) TISCH TISHMAN TOBIAS, ABRAHAM TOBIAS, JOSEPH TORCZYNER, JACQUES TOURO, JUDAH TOUROFF, NISSAN TRAUB, MARVIN TRIGERE, PAULINE TRUMAN, HARRY S. UDIN, SOPHIE ULMAN, JOSEPH N. UNTERMYER, SAMUEL URIS UVILLER, HARRY VANCE, ZEBULON BAIRD VLADECK, BARUCH CHARNEY VOGELSTEIN, LUDWIG VOLCKER, PAUL VON FURSTENBERG, DIANE VORENBERG, JAMES VORSPAN, ALBERT WACHNER, LINDA WACHTLER, SOL WAGG, ABRAHAM WALD, LILLIAN WALDMAN, MORRIS DAVID WALINSKY WALLACE, MIKE (Myron Leon) WALTERS, BARBARA WARBURG WASHINGTON, GEORGE WASSER, DENNIS WASSERMAN-SCHULTZ, DEBBIE WASSERSTEIN, BRUCE WECHSLER, JAMES A.

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WEIL, A. LEO WEIL, FRANK LEOPOLD WEILER, JACK D. WEILL, SANFORD WEINBAUM, MARK EFIMOVICH WEINBERG, HARRY WEINBERG, SIDNEY J. WEINER, ANTHONY D. WEINFELD, EDWARD WEINSTEIN, JACK B. WEINSTEIN, LEWIS H. WEINSTOCK, HARRIS WEISGAL, MEYER WOLF WEISS, MELVYN WEISS, SAMUEL ARTHUR WELLSTONE, PAUL DAVID WELSH, ARTHUR L. (Al) WERTHEIM, MAURICE WEXLER, ROBERT WEXLER, WILLIAM ABE WEXNER, LESLIE H. WHITE, THEODORE H. (“Teddy”) WIENER, ALFRED WIERNIK, PETER WILENTZ, ROBERT N. WILLEN, JOSEPH WILSON, WOODROW WINCHELL, WALTER WOLF WOLF, SIMON WOLFENSOHN, JAMES D. WOLPE, HOWARD ELLIOT WOOLF, LEONARD WURZWEILER, GUSTAV WYDEN, RONALD STEPHEN WYNN, STEVE WYZANSKI, CHARLES EDWARD JR. YANKOWICH, LEON RENE YATES, SIDNEY R. YULEE, DAVID LEVY ZARITSKY, MAX ZELLERBACH ZEMURRAY, SAMUEL ZIMMERMAN, CHARLES SASCHA ZIVION ZLOTOWITZ, MEIR ZUCKER, HENRY L. ZUCKERMAN, BARUCH ZUCKERMAN, BEN ZUCKERMAN, MORTIMER ZUCKERMAN, PAUL ZUKERMAN, JACOB T. ZUNTZ, ALEXANDER Religion AARON, ISRAEL AARONSOHN, MICHAEL AARONSOHN, MOSES ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM ISAAC ABRAMOWITZ, DOV BAER

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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ACKERMAN, PAULA ADAMS, THEODORE ADLER, JOSEPH ADLER, LIEBMANN ADLER, MORRIS ADLER, SAMUEL AGUS, JACOB BERNARD ALBUM, ZVI SHIMON ALPER, MICHAEL ALPERSTEIN, AVRAHAM ANGEL, MARC ARONOWITZ, BENJAMIN ARONSON, DAVID ARZT, MAX ASH, AVRAHAM J. ASHER, JOSEPH ASHINSKY, AARON MORDECAI HALEVI AVRUTICK, ABRAHAM AZUBY, ABRAHAM BAAR, HERMAN BACKMAN, JULES BAMBERGER, BERNARD JACOB BARISHANSKY, RAPHAEL BARNSTON, HENRY BARON, JOSEPH LOUIS BAUM, SHEPARD BAUMOL, JOSHUA BEERMAN, LEONARD BELKIN, SAMUEL BENJAMIN, RAPHAEL BERGER, ELMER BERKOWITZ, HENRY BERMAN, MORTON MAYER BERMAN, MYRON BERNSTEIN, LOUIS BERNSTEIN, PHILIP SIDNEY BESDIN, MORRIS J. BESSER, CHASKEL O. BETTAN, ISRAEL BETTELHEIM, ALBERT (Aaron) SIEGFRIED BLANK, SHELDON HAAS BLEICH, J. DAVID BLOCH, CHAIM BLOCH, ELIJAH MEYER BLOCH, JOSHUA BLUMENTHAL, AARON BOHNEN, ELI AARON BOKSER, BEN ZION BOROWITZ, EUGENE BOSNIAK, JACOB BOTEACH, SHMUEL BRAUDE, MAX A. BRAUDE, WILLIAM GORDON BRESLAU, ISADORE BRICKNER, BALFOUR BRILL, ISAAC BRONSTEIN, HERBERT BROWN, SAUL PARDO BROWNE, EDWARD B.M. BROWNE, LEWIS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BUNIM, IRVING BURSTEIN, ABRAHAM CALISCH, EDWARD NATHAN CANTOR, BERNARD CARLEBACH, SHLOMO COFFEE, RUDOLPH I. COHEN, ARMOND COHEN, HENRY COHEN, JACK COHEN, JACOB XENAB COHEN, JOSEPH ISAAC COHEN, MORTIMER JOSEPH COHEN, SEYMOUR J. COHN, ELKAN COHON, SAMUEL SOLOMON COOK, SAMUEL CRESSON, WARDER CRONBACH, ABRAHAM CURRICK, MAX COHEN CHANOVER, HYMAN CHARLOP, YECHIEL CHAVEL, CHARLES (Dov) BER CHAZAN, ELIAHU CHIEL, ARTHUR CHIEL, SAMUEL DAVIDSON, DAVID DAVIDSON, MAX DAVID DOLGIN, SIMON ARTHUR DONIN, HAYIM HALEVY DRACHMAN, BERNARD DRESNER, SAMUEL DREYFUS, STANLEY DROB, MAX DWORKIN, ZALMAN (Lubavitch) ECKMAN, JULIUS EHRENREICH, BERNARD EICHHORN, DAVID M. EICHLER, MENAHEM EILBERG, AMY EINHORN, DAVID EISENDRATH, MAURICE NATHAN EISENSTADT, BENZION EISENSTEIN, IRA ELFENBEIN, ISRAEL ELIASSOFF, HERMAN ELZAS, BARNETT ABRAHAM ELLENSON, DAVID HARRY ENELOW, HYMAN (Hillel Gershom) EPSTEIN, CHAIM FISCHEL EPSTEIN, GILBERT EPSTEIN, HARRY EPSTEIN, LOUIS M. ETTELESON, HARRY FALK, JOSHUA FEDERBUSCH, SIMON FEIBELMAN, JULIAN BECK FEINBERG, LOUIS FEINSTEIN, MOSES FELDMAN, ABRAHAM JEHIEL FELSENTHAL, BERNHARD

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FEUER, LEON ISRAEL FEUERLICHT, MORRIS M. FEUERSTEIN FINEBERG, SOLOMON ANDHIL FINESHRIBER, WILLIAM HOWARD FINK, JOSEPH L. FINKELSTEIN, LOUIS FINKELSTEIN, SHIMON FLEISCHER, CHARLES FRANKLIN, LEO MORRIS FREEHOF, SOLOMON BENNETT FRIEDERMAN, ZALMAN JACOB FRIEDMAN, THEODORE FRISCH, EPHRAIM GEFFEN, JOEL GEFFEN, TOBIAS GELB, MAX GIFTER, MORDECAI GINZBERG, LOUIS GITTELSOHN, ROLAND BERTRAM GLASER, JOSEPH GLAZER, SIMON GOLD, HENRY RAPHAEL GOLD, WOLF (Zeev) GOLDENSON, SAMUEL HARRY GOLDFARB, ISRAEL GOLDFEDER, FISHEL GOLDIN, HYMAN ELIAS GOLDMAN, ISRAEL GOLDMAN, SOLOMON GOLDSTEIN, HERBERT S. GOLDSTEIN, ISRAEL GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY EMANUEL GOLINKIN, DAVID GOLINKIN, MORDECHAI YAAKOV GOLINKIN, NOAH GOODBLATT, MORRIS GORDON, ALBERT I. GORDON, HAROLD GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV GOTTSCHALK, ALFRED GREENBERG, IRVING GREENBERG, LOUIS GREENBERG, SIDNEY GREENBERG, SIMON GREENWALD, JEKUTHIEL JUDAH (Leopold) GRODZINSKI, ZVI HIRSCH GRUENEWALD, MAX GRYN, HUGO GUTHEIM, JAMES KOPPEL GUTTMANN, ALEXANDER HABERMAN, JOSHUA HAILPERIN, HERMAN

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HALIVNI, DAVID WEISS HALPERN, HARRY HAMMER, REUVEN HARLOW, JULIUS HARRIS, MAURICE HARRISON, LEON HAUPTMAN, JUDITH HEILPRIN, PHINEHAS MENAHEM HELLER HELLER, BERNARD HERSCHER, URI HERSHMAN, ABRAHAM M. HERTZBERG, ARTHUR HIER, MARVIN HIGGER, MICHAEL HIRSCH, EMIL GUSTAVE HIRSCH, RICHARD HIRSHENSON, HAYIM HOCHEIMER, HENRY HOFFMAN, LAWRENCE I. HOROWITZ, PINCHAS HURWITZ, SHMARYA LEIB HYAMSON, MOSES ISRAEL, EDWARD LEOPOLD ISSERMAN, FERDINAND MYRON JACOB, WALTER JACOBS, GEORGE JOSEPH, JACOB JOSPE, ALFRED JUNG, LEO KADUSHIN, MAX KAHN, ROBERT KAMENETSKY, YAAKOV KAMINETSKY, JOSEPH KAPLAN, ARYEH KAPLAN, MORDECAI MENAHEM KARP, ABRAHAM J. KAUVAR, CHARLES ELIEZER HILLEL KELMAN, WOLFE KIEVAL, HERMAN KIRSHBLUM, MORDECAI KLAUSNER, ABRAHAM KLAVAN, ISRAEL KLEIN, EDWARD E. KLEIN, ISAAC KLEIN, PHILIP KLENICKI, LEON KOBER, ADOLF KOGEN, DAVID KOHLER, KAUFMANN KOHN, EUGENE KOHN, JACOB KOLATCH, ALFRED KONVITZ, JOSEPH KORN, BERTRAM WALLACE KOTLER, AARON KRAUSKOPF, JOSEPH KREITMAN, BENJAMIN KRONISH, LEON KURTZ, VERNON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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KUSHNER, HAROLD KUSHNER, LAWRENCE LANDESMAN, ALTER LANDMAN, ISAAC LAUTERBACH, JACOB ZALLEL LAZARON, MORRIS SAMUEL LEESER, ISAAC LEHRMAN, IRVING LEIPZIGER, EMIL WILLIAM LELYVELD, ARTHUR JOSEPH LEVI, SAMAUEL GERSON LEVIN, JUDAH L LEVINGER, LEE JOSEPH LEVINTHAL LEVITSKY, LOUIS MOSES LEVY, CLIFTON HARBY LEVY, FELIX ALEXANDER LEVY, JOSEPH LEONARD LICHTENSTEIN, TEHILLA LIEBER, DAVID LIEBMAN, JOSHUA LOTH LIFSHITZ, DAVID LILIENTHAL, MAX (Menahem) LIPMAN, EUGENE JAY LOEWENSTEIN, BERNHARD LOOKSTEIN, HASKELL LOOKSTEIN, JOSEPH HYMAN LYONS, JACQUES JUDAH MAGNES, JUDAH LEON MAGNIN, EDGAR FOGEL MALEV, WILLIAM S. MALINO, JEROME MALTER, HENRY MANDELBAUM, BERNARD MANISCHEWITZ, HIRSCH MARCUS, JACOB RADER MARGOLIES, MOSES SEBULUN MARGOLIS, GAVRIEL ZEV MARK, JULIUS MARTIN, BERNARD MASLIANSKY, ZVI HIRSCH MATLIN, MOSHE MATT, C. DAVID MATTUCK, ISRAEL ISIDOR MENDES MENDLOWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL MERZBACHER, LEO MEYER, MARTIN ABRAHAM MIELZINER, MOSES MIHALY, EUGENE MILLER, IRVING MILLER, ISRAEL MILLGRAM, ABRAHAM MINDA, ALBERT MINKIN, JACOB SAMUEL MIRSKY, SAMUEL KALMAN MORAIS, SABATO MORGENSTERN, JULIAN MOSES, ADOLPH MOSES, ISAAC S.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

MOWSHOWITZ, ISRAEL NADICH, JUDAH NAROT, JOSEPH NEULANDER, ARTHUR NEUMAN, ABRAHAM AARON NEUMARK, DAVID NEWFIELD, MORRIS NEWMAN, LOUIS ISRAEL NOVAK, DAVID NOVECK, SIMON NUSSBAUM, MAX NUSSBAUM, PERRY OFFNER, STACY OLAN, LEVI OLITZKY, KERRY OSTFELD, BARBARA PARDES, SHMUEL PARIS, HAILU PARZEN, HERBERT PETEGORSKY, DAVID PETUCHOWSKI, JAKOB JOSEF PHILIPSON, DAVID PILCHIK, ELY EMANUEL PLAUT, W. GUNTHER POLISH, DAVID POOL, DAVID DE SOLA PORATH, ISRAEL POUPKO, BERNARD POZNANSKI, GUSTAVUS PREIL, ELAZAR MEYER PRESSMAN, JACOB PRIESAND, SALLY PRINZ, JOACHIM RABINOWITZ, STANLEY RACKMAN, EMANUEL RADIN, ADOLPH MOSES RAISIN, JACOB ZALMAN RAISIN, MAX RAPHALL, MORRIS JACOB REGNER, SIDNEY REINES, ALVIN RICE, ABRAHAM JOSEPH RISKIN, SHLOMO ROSENAU, WILLIAM ROSENBAUM, JONATHAN ROSENBERG, ISRAEL ROSENBLATT, SAMUEL ROTH, JOEL ROTHSCHILD, JACOB M. ROUTTENBERG, MAX JONAH RUBENOVITZ, HERMAN H. RUBENSTEIN, RICHARD LOWELL RUDERMAN, DAVID RUDERMAN, JACOB ISAAC RUDIN, A. JAMES RUDIN, JACOB PHILIP SAMFIELD, MAX SANDROW, EDWARD T. SAPERSTEIN, DAVID SAPERSTEIN, HAROLD

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SAR, SAMUEL SARACHEK, JOSEPH SASSO, SANDY SCHAALMAN, HERMAN SCHACHTER, HERSCHEL SCHACHTER, JACOB J. SCHACTER-SHALOMI, ZALMAN SCHANFARBER, TOBIAS SCHECHTER, ABRAHAM ISRAEL SCHECHTER, MATHILDE SCHECHTER, SOLOMON (Shneur Zalman) SCHEINFELD, SOLOMON ISAAC SCHERMAN, NOSSON SCHINDLER, ALEXANDER M. SCHINDLER, SOLOMON SCHNEEBERGER, HENRY WILLIAM SCHORSCH, ISMAR SCHULMAN, SAMUEL SCHULWEIS, HAROLD SCHWAB, SHIMON SCHWARTZMAN, SYLVAN D. SCHWARZSCHILD, STEVEN SAMUEL SEGAL, BERNARD SEIGEL, JOSHUA SHANKMAN, JACOB K. SHAPIRO, ALEXANDER SHAPIRO, RAMI SHUBOW, JOSEPH SHULMAN, CHARLES E. SIEGEL, MORTON SIEGEL, SEYMOUR SILBER, SAUL SILBERSTEIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH SILVER, ABBA HILLEL SILVER, DANIEL J SILVER, ELIEZER SILVERMAN, IRA SILVERMAN, JOSEPH SILVERMAN, MORRIS SILVERSTEIN, ALAN SILVERSTONE, GEDALYAH SIMON, ABRAM SIMON, CARRIE OBENDORFER SIMON, RALPH SIVITZ, MOSHE SOBEL, RONALD SOLOMON, ELIAS L. SOLOVEICHIK, AARON SOLOVEICHIK, MOSHE SOLOVEITCHIK, JOSEPH DOV SONDERLING, JACOB SPERO, SHUBERT STAMPFER, JOSHUA

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STEINBACH, ALEXANDER ALAN STEINBERG, MILTON STEINBERG, PAUL STERN, CHAIM STERN, JACK STERN, MALCOLM HENRY STERNSTEIN, JOSEPH PHILIP STOLZ, JOSEPH STRASSFELD, MICHAEL SZOLD, BENJAMIN TEITELBAUM, AARON TEITZ, PINCHAS (Mordecai) TELUSHKIN, NISSAN TENDLER, MOSES D. TEPLITZ, SAUL TEUTSCH, DAVID TRACHTENBERG, JOSHUA TUSKA, SIMON VOORSANGER, JACOB VORSPAN, MAX WAGNER, STANLEY M. WASHOFSKY, MARK WASKOW, ARTHUR WAXMAN, MORDECAI WECHSLER, JUDAH WEINBERGER, MOSHE WEINSTEIN, JACOB WEISS, AVI WEISS, SAMSON WIENER, MAX WINE, SHERWIN WISE, ISAAC MAYER WISE, JONAH BONDI WISE, STEPHEN SAMUEL WOLF, ALFRED WOLF, ARNOLD J. WOLPE, DAVID J. WOLSEY, LOUIS YOFFIE, ERIC YUDELOVITZ, ABRAHAM A. ZARCHI, ASHER LIPPMAN ZELDIN, ISAIAH ZELIZER, NATHAN ZIMMERMAN, SHELDON ZLOTOWITZ, MEIR ZLOTOWITZ, BERNARD ZOLA, GARY P. Science ABRAHAMS, ISAAC ABT, ISAAC ARTHUR ADLER, CHARLES ALTSCHUL, AARON MEYER ANFINSEN, CHRISTIAN B. ANGRIST, ALFRED ALVIN ARNON, DANIEL ISRAEL ATLAS, DAVID AXEL, RICHARD AXELROD, JULIUS BACHER, ROBERT FOX

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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BALINT, MICHAEL BALTIMORE, DAVID BAUER, SIMON HARVEY BENACERRAF, BARUJ BENDER, MORRIS BORIS BENIOFF, HUGO BENZER, SEYMOUR BERG, PAUL BERL, ERNST BERLINER, EMILE BETHE, HANS ALBRECHT BIKERMAN, JACOB JOSEPH BLOCH, FELIX BLOCH, HERMAN SAMUEL BLOCH, KONRAD BLUMBERG, BARUCH SAMUEL BODANSKY, OSCAR BODIAN, DAVID BOGORAD, LAWRENCE BOHM, DAVID BOROWITZ, SIDNEY BORSOOK, HENRY BROWN, HAROLD BROWN, HERBERT C. BROWN, MICHAEL STUART BUCKY, GUSTAV BUERGER, LEO CALVIN, MELVIN CHARGAFF, ERWIN COHEN, ELIZABETH D. A. COHEN, HARRY COHEN, PAUL JOSEPH COHEN, PHILIP PACY COHEN, SEYMOUR STANLEY COHEN, STANLEY COHEN, STANLEY N. COHN, EDWIN JOSEPH COOPER, LEON N. CORI, GERTY THERESA CROHN, BURRILL BERNARD DAMESHEK, WILLIAM DAVIDOFF, LEO MAX DAVIDSOHN, ISRAEL DE LEE, JOSEPH B. DEUTSCH, FELIX DEUTSCH, HELENE DISCHE, ZACHARIAS DJERASSI, CARL DORFMAN, RALPH ISADORE DRESSLER, WILLIAM DROSDOFF, MATTHEW DRUCKER, DANIEL CHARLES DUSHMAN, SAUL EDELMAN, GERALD MAURICE EDINGER, TILLY EINHORN, MAX EINHORN, MOSES EINSTEIN, ALBERT ELION, GERTRUDE BELL EPSTEIN, PAUL SOPHUS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ERIKSON, ERIK HOMBERGER ERLANGER, JOSEPH ESTERMANN, IMMANUEL FAJANS, KASIMIR FALK, KAUFMAN GEORGE FELD, JACOB FEUER, HENRY FEYNMAN, RICHARD PHILLIPS FISCHER, EDMOND FISHBEIN, MORRIS FISHBERG, MAURICE FISHMAN, WILLLAM HAROLD FLEISCHER, MICHAEL FOLKMAN, JUDAH FONDILLER, WILLIAM FRANCK, JAMES FRANK, PHILIPP FRANZBLAU, ABRAHAM NORMAN FREUDENTHAL, ALFRED MARTIN FRIEDENWALD FRIEDMAN, JEROME ISAAC FRIEND, CHARLOTTE FROEHLICH, ALFRED FROMM, ERICH FROMM-REICHMANN, FRIEDA FUNK, CASIMIR FURCHGOTT, ROBERT F. GARLOCK, JOHN HENRY GASSER, HERBERT SPENCER GELL-MANN, MURRAY GILBERT, WALTER GILMAN, ALFRED G. GINSBURG, JEKUTHIEL GLASER, DONALD ARTHUR GLAUBER, ROY J. GLICK, DAVID GOLD, HENRY RAPHAEL GOLDBERGER, JOSEPH GOLDMARK, PETER CARL GOLDSTEIN, JOSEPH LEONARD GOLDSTEIN, KURT GOMBERG, MOSES GOULD, STEPHEN JAY GREEN, DAVID EZRA GREENACRE, PHYLLIS GREENBERG, DAVID MORRIS GREENGARD, PAUL GREENSTEIN, JESSE PHILIP GRINKER, ROY RICHARD SR. GROSS, DAVID J. GROSSMAN, MORTON IRVING GRUNBAUM, ADOLF GUTENBERG, BENO GUTMAN, ALEXANDER B. GUTTMACHER, ALAN F. HANDLER, PHILIP HARRIS, MILTON HART, JOEL HARTMANN, HEINZ HASSID, WILLIAM ZEV

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History g. United States Biographies Science (continued)

HAUPTMAN, HERBERT A. HAURWITZ, BERNHARD HAYS, ISAAC HECHT, SELIG HEEGER, ALAN J. HEIDELBERGER, MICHAEL HELPERN, MILTON HEYMAN, MOSES DAVID HIRSCHFELD, ISADOR HOFFMANN, ROALD HOFSTADTER, ROBERT HOLLANDER, FRANKLIN HORWITZ, H. ROBERT HORWITZ, PHINEAS JONATHAN HYDE, IDA HENRIETTA HYMAN, LIBBIE HENRIETTA ISAACS, JACOB ISRAEL, EDWARD JACOBI, ABRAHAM JAFFE, LEONARD JANOWITZ, HENRY D. JUDA, WALTER KANDEL, ERIC R. KANNER, LEO KANTROWITZ, ADRIAN KANTROWITZ, ARTHUR KAPLAN, JOSEPH KARDINER, ABRAM KARLE, JEROME KATZ, ISRAEL KAUFMAN, JOYCE JACOBSON KITSEE, ISADOR KLEMPERER, PAUL KLINE, NATHAN S. KOHN, WALTER KOLLER, CARL KOPLIK, HENRY KORNBERG, ARTHUR KRIM, MATHILDE KUBIE, LAWRENCE LAND, EDWIN H. LANDSTEINER, KARL LANGER, ROBERT LEDEEN, HYMAN LEDERBERG, JOSHUA LEDERER, JEROME F. LEDERMAN, LEON MAX LEE, DAVID M. LEES, LESTER LEFSCHETZ, SOLOMON LEVENE, PHOEBUS AARON THEODOR LEVINE, PHILIP LEVINSON, ABRAHAM

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LEVY, LOUIS EDWARD LEWI, MAURICE J. LIPMAN, JACOB GOODALE LIPMANN, FRITZ ALBERT LITMAN, SAMUEL LOEB, JACQUES LOEB, LEO LOEB, MORRIS LOEWENSTEIN, RUDOLPH MAURICE LOEWI, OTTO LOWDERMILK, WALTER CLAY LURIA, SALVADOR EDWARD MACHT, DAVID MACHTA, LESTER MAHLER, MARGARET MALZBERG, BENJAMIN MANDELBROT, BENOIT MARCUS, RUDOLPH ARTHUR MASSERMAN, JULES HYMAN MASTER, ARTHUR M. MENDEL, LAFAYETTE BENEDICT MESELSON, MATTHEW MICHELSON, ALBERT ABRAHAM MILLMAN, JACOB MOTTELSON, BENJAMIN R. MULLER, HERMAN JOSEPH MUSHER, SIDNEY NAGIN, HARRY S. NAMIAS, JEROME NATHANS, DANIEL NEUGEBAUER, OTTO NEUMANN, JOHANN (Johnny) LUDWIG VON NIRENBERG, MARSHALL WARREN NUNBERG, HERMAN OLAH, GEORGE OPPENHEIMER, J. ROBERT OSHEROFF, DOUGLAS DEAN PEKERIS, CHAIM LEIB PENZIAS, ARNO ALLAN PERL, MARTIN PERLSTEIN, MEYER A. PERLZWEIG, WILLIAM ALEXANDRE PINCUS, GREGORY GOODWIN PINKEL, BENJAMIN POLITZER, H. DAVID PRESS, FRANK PRESSMAN, DAVID PRUSINER, STANLEY B. PTASHNE, MARK RABI, ISIDOR ISAAC RABINOWITCH, EUGENE RACKER, EFRAIM RADO, SANDOR RAPAPORT, DAVID RAPPAPORT, HENRY REDLICH, FREDERICK C. REIK, THEODOR RESNIK, JUDITH RICHTER, BURTON RIGLER, LEO GEORGE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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RITTENBERG, DAVID RODBELL, MARTIN ROSE, IRWIN ROSEN, FRED ROSEN, SAMUEL RUBIN, MORTON JOSEPH SABIN, ALBERT BRUCE SACHS, BERNARD SAGAN, CARL EDWARD SALK, JONAS EDWARD SANDGROUND, JACK HENRY SCHALLY, ANDREW V. SCHAWLOW, ARTHUR L. SCHICK, BELA SCHILDER, PAUL FERDINAND SCHLESINGER, FRANK SCHMERLING, LOUIS SCHWARTZ, MELVIN SCHWINGER, JULIAN SEYMOUR SELDIN, HARRY M. SEQUEYRA, JOHN DE SERBIN, HYMAN SHAPIRO, ASCHER HERMAN SHEAR, MURRAY JACOB SHEDLOVSKY, THEODORE SILVERMAN, ALEXANDER SILVERMAN, LESLIE SILVERSTEIN, ABE SLEPIAN, JOSEPH SOBOTKA, HARRY HERMAN SPIEGEL-ADOLF, MONA SPIEGELMAN, SOL SPITZ, RENE A. SPORN, PHILIP STEIN, WILLIAM HOWARD STEINBERG, MARTIN R. STEINBERGER, JACK STENT, GUNTHER SIEGMUND STERN, ARTHUR C. STERN, KURT GUNTER STERN, OTTO STIEGLITZ, JULIUS OSCAR STROMINGER, JACK SURE, BARNETT SZASZ, THOMAS STEPHEN SZILARD, LEO SZWARC, MICHAEL TARSKI, ALFRED TELLER, EDWARD TEMIN, HOWARD MARTIN TENENBAUM, JOSEPH L. TISCHLER, MAX TOCH, MAXIMILIAN ULAM, STANISLAW MARCIN VARMUS, HAROLD ELIOT WAKSMAN, SELMAN ABRAHAM WALD, GEORGE WATTERS, LEON LAIZER WECHSLER, ISRAEL WEIL, JOSEPH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

WEINBERG, STEVEN WEINHOUSE, SIDNEY WEISENBURG, THEODORE H. WESTHEIMER, FRANK HENRY WEXLER, HARRY WHITE, ROBERT MAYER WIENER, ALEXANDER S. WIENER, NORBERT WIESNER, JEROME BERT WIESNER, JULIUS VON WIGNER, EUGENE P. WINSTEIN, SAUL WINTROBE, MAXWELL MYER WISE, LOUIS ELSBERG WOLBERG, LEWIS ROBERT WOLF, ABNER WOLMAN, ABEL YALOW, ROSALYN SUSSMAN ZACHARIAS, JERROLD REINACH ZAMENHOF, STEPHEN ZARISKI, OSCAR ZIFF, MORRIS ZILBOORG, GREGORY ZIMMERMAN, HARRY M. ZUCROW, MAURICE JOSEPH h. Canada Main Surveys

AMERICA CANADA CANADIAN LITERATURE General Entries

AGRICULTURE B’NAI B’RITH CANADA CANADIAN JEWISH CONGRESS JEWISH IMMIGRANT AID SERVICES OF CANADA Communities

ALBERTA ATLANTIC CANADA BRITISH COLUMBIA CALGARY EDMONTON HAMILTON MANITOBA MONTREAL ONTARIO OTTAWA QUEBEC SASKATCHEWAN TORONTO VANCOUVER WINNIPEG Biographies

ABELLA, ROSALIE SILBERMAN ABRAMOWITZ, HERMAN ADASKIN, MURRAY ANHALT, ISTVAN

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History h. Canada Biographies (continued) ANSELL, DAVID ABRAHAM APPLEBAUM, LOUIS ARNOLD, ABE ASPER, ISRAEL H. AVIDA, YEHUDA LEIB AZRIELI, DAVID BARRETT, DAVID BAYEFSKY, ABA BECKER, LAVY M. BELKIN, SIMON BELZBERG, SAMUEL BENNETT, ARCHIE (Aaron Baehr) BENNETT, AVIE BERCOVITCH, PETER BERNSTEIN, HAROLD JOSEPH BLANKSTEIN, CECIL N. BORENSTEIN, SAM BORNSTEIN, ELI BOROVOY, ALAN BOSCO, MONIQUE BRANDEAU, ESTHER BRANDSTAEDTER, MORDECAI DAVID BRONFMAN CAISERMAN, HANANE MEIER CAISERMAN-ROTH, GHITTA CAPLAN, ELINOR CARR, JUDY FELD CASS, SAMUEL COHEN, HIRSH COHEN, LEONARD COHEN, LYON COHEN, MATT COHEN, MAXWELL COHEN, MORRIS ABRAHAM COHEN, NATHAN COTLER, IRWIN CROLL, DAVID ARNOLD CRONENBERG, DAVID CHERNEY, BRIAN CHERNIACK, SAUL DAN, LESLIE DAVID DAVIS, MORTIMER DE SOLA DENBURG, CHAIM DIAMOND, JACK DIAMOND, JACK DONALDA, PAULINE DUNKELMAN, BENJAMIN DUNKELMAN, ROSE ELBERG, YEHUDA EZRIN, HERSCHEL FEDERMAN, MAX FEINBERG, ABRAHAM L.

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FELDER, GEDALIAH FINESTONE, SHEILA FITCH, LOUIS FRANKLIN, SELIM FREEDMAN, HARRY FREEDMAN, SAMUEL FREIMAN FRENKEL, VERA FRUM FURIE, SYDNEY J. GELBER GERSHMAN, JOSHUA GILBERT, INA GIVENS, PHILIPS. GLICK, IRVING SRUL GOFFMAN, ERVING GOLD, PHILIP GOLDBLOOM FAMILY GOLDSTEIN, ELYSE GORDON, JACOB GORDON, NATHAN GOTLIEB, ALLAN GRAFSTEIN, JERAHMIEL S. GRAUBART, Y. L. GRAY, HERBERT ESER GRAY, MORRIS ABRAHAM GREENE, LORNE GROSSMAN, ALLAN AND LARRY HALPERN, JACK HALL, MONTY HARRIS, SYDNEY HART, AARON HART, BENJAMIN HART, CECIL M. HART, EZEKIEL HART, SAMUEL HAYES, SAUL HEAPS, ABRAHAM ALBERT HEICHELHEIM, FRITZ MORITZ HERSCHORN, JOSHUA (She’ea) HALEVY HERZOG, SHIRA HILLER, ARTHUR HIRSCH, JOHN STEPHEN HIRSCHPRUNG, PINHAS HOROWITZ ISKOWITZ, GERSHON JACOBS, SAMUEL WILLIAM JACOBS, SOLOMON JOSEPH JOSEPH, NORMA BAUMEL JUDAH KAGE, JOSEPH KAHANOVITCH, ISRAEL ISAAC KANEE, SOL KAPLAN, ROBERT P. KAPLANSKY, KALMEN KATTAN, NAIM KAYFETZ, BEN KLEIN, ABRAHAM MOSES KOFFLER, MURRAY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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KREISEL, HENRY KUPER, JACK LAMBERT, PHYLLIS LANDSBERG, MICHELLE LANTOS, ROBERT LASKIN, BORA LASTMAN, MEL LAYTON, IRVING LENKINSKY, LOUIS LEVI, SAMAUEL GERSON LEVINE, LES LEVINE, NORMAN LEWIS, DAVID LEWIS, STEPHEN LITTMAN, SOL LUFTSPRING, SAMMY MANDEL, ELI MARMUR, DOW MARRUS, MICHAEL MATAS, DAVID MAYNARD, FREDELLE BRUSER MAZE, IDA MICHAELS, ANNE MICHAELS, LORNE MIRANSKY, PERETZ MIRVISH, ED/DAVID MORAWETZ, OSCAR MORGENTALER, HENRY MUHLSTOCK, LOUIS NATHAN, HENRY NEMETZ, NATHAN NEWMAN, PETER C. NICHOLS, JACK ORLIKOW, DAVID OSHRY, EPHRAIM PACHTER, CHARLES PETEGORSKY, DAVID PHILLIPS, LAZARUS PHILLIPS, NATHAN PLAUT, W. GUNTHER POLANYI, JOHN PRICE, ABRAHAM RANKIN, HARRY RAPHAEL, WILLIAM RASKY, HARRY RASMINSKY, LOUIS REICHMANN REISMAN, HEATHER RHINEWINE, ABRAHAM RICHLER, MORDECAI ROBACK, LEAH ROBIN, REGINE ROME, DAVID ROSE, FRED ROSENBERG, LOUIS ROSENBERG, STUART E. ROSENBERG, YEHUDAH YUDEL ROSENFELD, FANNY ROTENBERG, MATTIE ROTHSCHILD, KURT

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ROTHSCHILD, ROBERT PHINIAS RUBENSTEIN, LOUIS SACK, BENJAMIN G. SAFDIE, MOSHE SAFDIE, SYLVIA SALSBERG, JOSEPH B. SAMUEL, SIGMUND SCHEUER, EDMUND SCHILD, EDWIN SCHLESINGER, JOE SCHULTZ, SAMUEL SCHWARTZ, GERALD SEGAL, ESTHER SEGAL, HUGH SEGAL, JACOB ISAAC SHAPIRO, BERNARD J. SHARP, ISADORE NATANIEL SHATNER, WILLIAM SHERMAN, JASON SHTERN SHUCHAT, WILFRED SIEGEL, IDA LEWIS SINGER, YVONNE SLONIM, REUBEN SOLA, ABRAHAM DE SPECTOR, NORMAN SPRACHMAN STEIN, JANICE STEINBERG STEINFELD, JJ STERN, HARRY JOSHUA TANENBAUM TORGOV, MORLEY TREPMAN, PAUL UNGERMAN, IRV VAN PAASSEN, PIERRE VEINER, HARRY WADDINGTON, MIRIAM (Dworkin) WASSERMAN, DORA AND BRYNA WAXMAN, AL WAYNE AND SHUSTER WEIDER, BEN WEIDMAN, HIRAM WEINZWEIG, HELEN WEINZWEIG, JOHN WILDER, HERTZ WISEMAN, ADELE WISEMAN, SHLOIME WOLFE WOLOFSKY, HIRSH WOSK YUDIKA ZIPPER, YA’AKOV ZNAIMER, MOSES ZOLF i. Latin America Main Surveys

AMERICA ARGENTINA

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 2. Regional History i. Latin America Main Surveys (continued) BRAZIL CUBA LATIN AMERICA MEXICO SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE General Entries

AGRICULTURE A.M.I.A. DAIA FESELA GENEALOGY LAJSA (LATIN AMERICAN JEWISH STUDIES ASSOCIATION) Communities

BAHIA BARBADOS BOLIVIA BUENOS AIRES CARACAS CARIBBEANS, SPANISH-PORTUGUESE NATION OF THE: LA NACION CAYENNE COLOMBIA CORDOBA CORO COSTA RICA CURACAO CHILE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ECUADOR EL SALVADOR ENTRE RÍOS GUATEMALA GUIANA HAITI HAVANA HONDURAS IQUITOS JAMAICA LIMA MENDOZA MONTEVIDEO NICARAGUA PANAMA PARAGUAY PERU PORTO ALEGRE PUERTO RICO RECIFE RIO DE JANEIRO ROSARIO SANTA FE

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AGUINIS, MARCOS ALPERSOHN, MARCOS ANGEL, AARON ARBELL, MORDECHAI AVNI, HAIM BAITLER, ZOMA BARYLKO, JAIME BEHAR, LEON BEIDERMAN, BERNARDO BELKIN, ARNOLD BENZAQUEN, SAADIA BERAJA, RUBEN BERDICHEVSKY, SCHER BERGER, MEIR BERLINER, ISAAC BERMAN BERMAN, NATALIO BLAZKO, MARTIN BLEJER, DAVID BLIS, DAVID BRENER, PYNCHAS BRIE, LUIS HARTWIG BURLE-MARX, ROBERTO CARVAJAL COHEN GELLERSTEIN, BENJAMIN COHEN, JOSEPH ISAAC CONSTANTINER, JAIME CONSTANTINI, HUMBERTO CZENSTOCHOWSKI, WALTER CHAMUDES REITICH, MARCOS CHEHEBAR, ITZHAK CHOCRON, ISAAC DE SOLA, JUAN BARTOLOMÉ DELVALLE, MAX SHALOM DELVALLE LEVI MADURO, ERIC ARTURO DINES, ALBERTO DOUDTCHITZKY, DINORA DUJOVNE, LEON EICHELBAUM, SAMUEL ELNECAVE, DAVID ESPINOZA, ENRIQUE FAIVOVICH HITZCOVICH, ANGEL FASTLICHT, ADOLFO FEIERSTEIN, RICARDO FEIGL, FRITZ FELDMAN, SHIMSHON SIMON FINGERMAN, GREGORIO FINKELSTEIN, CHAIM FLORENTIN, MEVORAH FREIFELD, ABRAHAM FUTORANSKY, LUISA GAMUS GALLEGOS, PAULINA GELMAN, JUAN

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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GERCHUNOFF, ALBERTO GESANG, NATHAN-NACHMAN GLANTZ, JACOBO GLANTZ, MARGO GOERITZ, MATHIAS GOLDEMBERG, ISAAC GOLDMAN, AHARON GOLDMAN, MOISES GOLOBOFF, GERARDO MARIO GRINSPUN, BERNARDO GROBART, FAVIO GRUNBERG, CARLOS M. HANNEMANN, PABLO HARF, HANNS HARF, SUSE HALLENSTEIN HARKAVI, YIZHAK HERDAN, KURT LUCIAN HOCHSCHILD, MAURICIO ISAACS, JORGE ISAACSON, JOSE JOSEPH, HENRY KAMENSZAIN, TOBIAS KAPLAN, ISAAC KAPLAN, SENDER KITRON (Kostrinsky), MOSHE KLABIN KLEIN, ALBERTO KLENICKI, LEON KOCH, ADELHEID LUCY KOSICE, GYULA KOVADLOFF, SANTIAGO KOZER, JOSE LAFER, HORACIO LASANSKY, MAURICIO LERNER, JAIME LEVI, RINO LEVY, ROBERT LEVY, SION LIACHO, LAZARO LIBEDINSKY, TSCHORNE MARCOS LISPECTOR, CLARICE LIWERANT, DANIEL MADURO, RICARDO MALDONADO DA SILVA, FRANCISCO MENDELSON, JOSE MEYER, MARSHALL MILEVSKY, AHARON MILSTEIN, CESAR MINDLIN, HENRIQUE MIRELMAN MUÑIZ-HUBERMAN, ANGELINA NAJDORF, MIGUEL NAJNUDEL, LEON NASSY, DAVID DE ISAAC COHEN NIERMAN, LEONARDO NORONHA, FERNAO DE NUDELMAN, SANTIAGO I. OSTROWER, FEYGA OTTA, FRANCISCO PECAR, SAMUEL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

PEKERMAN, JOSÉ PIZARNIK, ALEJANDRA PORZEKANSKI, TERESA RABINOVICH, JOSE RAFALIN, DAVID SHLOMO RAFFALOVICH, ISAIAH RAUCH, EDUARDO RAWET, SAMUEL RESNICK, SALOMON ROSENBERG, MOISHE ROSENCOF, MAURICIO ROSENMANN-TAUB, DAVID ROVINSKY, SAMUEL ROZENMACHER, GERMAN SAFRA SAJAROFF, MIGUEL SASLAVSKY, LUIS SATANOWSKI, MARCOS SATZ, MARIO SCLIAR, MOACYR SCHAPIRA, DAVID SCHAULSON BRODSKY, JORGE SCHAULSON NUMHAUSER, JACOBO SCHIFRIN, LALO SCHLESINGER, GUILLERMO SEGALL, LAZAR SELIGSON, ESTHER SEROUSSI, ELIAS SHUA, ANA MARIA SINGERMAN, BERTA SITTEON DABBAH, SHAUL DAVID SNEH, SIMJA SOURASKY STEIMBERG, ALICIA STEINBRUCH, AARÃO STERN, HANS SVERDLIK, ODED SWARSENSKY, HARDI (Bernhard) SZERYNG, HENRYK TARNOPOLSKY, SAMUEL TEITELBOIM VOLOSKY, VOLODIA TEUBAL, EZRA TIEMPO, CÉSAR TIMERMAN, JACOBO TOKER, ELIAHU TOPOLEVSKY, GREGORIO TURKOW, MARK VERBITZKY, BERNARDO WALD, ARNOLD WECHSLER, ELINA WEISER-VARON, BENNO WOLF, RICHARD RIEGEL (Subirana y Lobo) YAGUPSKI, MAXIMO YARCHO, NOE (Noah) ZITNITSKY, PINCAS LAZARO

3. HOLOCAUST HISTORY Main Surveys

HOLOCAUST

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 3. Holocaust History (continued) General Entries

ART AUSCHWITZ AUSCHWITZ BOMBING CONTROVERSY AUSCHWITZ CONVENT AUSCHWITZ TRIALS BABI YAR BADGE, JEWISH BELZEC BERGEN-BELSEN BERMUDA CONFERENCE BERNHEIM PETITION BITBURG CONTROVERSY BOYCOTT, ANTI-NAZI BUCHENWALD CAMPS CHELMNO CHILDREN’S LITERATURE DACHAU DEATH MARCHES DENAZIFICATION DISPLACED PERSONS DRANCY EUROPA PLAN EUTHANASIA – T-4 PROGRAM EVIAN CONFERENCE FACING HISTORY AND OURSELVES FINAL SOLUTION FORCED LABOR FOSSOLI GASSING GENOCIDE CONVENTION GESTAPO GHETTO GURS HAAVARA HOLOCAUST, RESCUE FROM HOLOCAUST, THE HOLOCAUST DENIAL HOLOCAUST REMEMBRANCE DAY HOLOCAUST RESCUERS, JEWISH IRVING V. LIPSTADT JUDENRAT JUDENREIN KAPO KIDDUSH HA-HAYIM KINDERTRANSPORT KISTARCSA KOLDYCHEVO (Koldyczewo) CAMP KRIMCHAKS KRISTALLNACHT MADAGASCAR PLAN MAJDANEK MALINES MAUTHAUSEN MUSELMANN

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NATIONAL SOCIALISM NATZWEILER-STRUTHOF NAZI-DEUTSCH NAZI MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS NINTH FORT NUREMBERG LAWS PARTISANS PLASZOW PONARY (Paneriai) RAVENSBRUECK REFUGEES REPARATIONS, GERMAN RESTITUTION AND INDEMNIFICATION RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS RSHA SACHSENHAUSEN ORANIENBURG SCHACHT PLAN SOBIBOR SONDERKOMMANDO, JEWISH SS AND SD ST. LOUIS, VOYAGE OF STUERMER, DER STUTTHOF THERESIENSTADT TRANSNISTRIA TREBLINKA U.S. ARMY AND THE HOLOCAUST VUGHT WALDHEIM AFFAIR WANNSEE CONFERENCE WAR CRIMES TRIALS WESTERBORK Communities

AACHEN ABONY ADA AHLEM AHRWEILER AIX-EN-PROVENCE ALBA IULIA ALBANIA ALBERTI-IRSA ALEKSANDRIYA ALEKSANDRIYA ALEKSANDROW LODZKI ALESSANDRIA ALGERIA ALISTAL ALSACE ALTENSTADT ALZEY AMBERG AMSTERDAM ANANYEV ANAPA ANDERNACH ANHALT ANSBACH ANTWERP

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ARAD ARNSTADT ARTEMOVSK ASCHAFFENBURG ASZOD ATHENS AUGSBURG AUGUSTOW AURICH AUSTERLITZ AUSTRIA BACAU BADEN BADEN BEI WIEN BAIA-MARE BAJA BAKHCHISARAI BALASSAGYARMAT BALTA BAMBERG BANJA LUKA BANSKA BYSTRICA BAR BARANOVICHI BARDEJOV BARLAD BAR-LE-DUC BAUSKA BAVARIA BAYONNE BAYREUTH BECHYNE (Bechin) BEDZIN BEKESCSABA BELAYA TSERKOV BELCHATOW BELED BELFORT BELGIUM BELGOROD-DNESTROVSKI BELGRADE BELTSY BELZ BELZYCE BENDERY BENEŠOV (Beneschau) BENFELD BERDICHEV BERDYANSK BEREGOVO BERESTECHKO BERETTYOUJFALU BEREZA BEREZHANY BEREZINO BEREZOVKA BERLIN BERSHAD BESANÇON BEZIDUL NOU

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BIALA PODLASKA BIALYSTOK BIELEFELD BIELSKO BIELSK PODLASKI BILGORAJ BINGEN BIRZAI (Birzhi) BIRZULA BISTRITA (Bistritz) BOBROVY KUT BOBRUISK BOCHNIA BOCHUM BODROGKERESZTUR BOGUSLAV BOJAN BOLEKHOV (Bolechow) BOLOGNA BOLZANO BONYHAD BOPPARD BORDEAUX BORISLAV BORISOV BORSA BOSKOVICE (Boskowitz) BOTOSANI BOULAY BOURG-EN-BRESSE BRAILA BRAILOV BRANDYS NAD LABEM BRASLAV BRASOV BRATISLAVA BRATSLAV BRECLAV BREISACH BREMEN BRESLAU BREST-LITOVSK BREZNICE BRICEVA BRICHANY BRNO BRODY BRUCHSAL BRUNSWICK BRUSSELS BRYANSK BRZEG BRZESC KUJAWSKI BRZEZINY BUCHACH BUCHAREST BUCOVICE BUDAPEST BUDYNE NAD OHRI BUHUSI

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 3. Holocaust History Communities (continued) BUKOVINA BULGARIA BURDUJENI BURGENLAND BUSK BUZAU BYDGOSZCZ BYKHOV BYTOM BZENEC CAMPULUNG MOLDOVENESC CARLSBAD CESKA LIPA CESKE BUDEJOVICE CHAMBON-SUR-LIGNON CHEB CHECINY CHELM CHEMNITZ (Karl-Marx-Stadt) CHERKASSY CHERNIGOV CHERNOBYL CHERNOVTSY CHMIELNIK CHORTKOV CHORZOW CHRYZANOW CHUDNOV CIECHANOW CLEVES CLUJ COBURG COCHEM COLMAR COLOGNE CONSTANCE CONSTANTA COTTBUS CRACOW CRAIOVA CZECHOSLOVAKIA CZESTOCHOWA DABROWA GORNICZA DARABANI DARMSTADT DAUGAVPILS DAVID-GORODOK DEBRECEN DEGGENDORF DEJ DENMARK DERAZHNYA DEUTSCHKREUTZ DEUTZ DIJON

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GERMANY GERTSA GIESSEN GLINYANY GLIWICE GLOGAU GLUBOKOYE GLUSSK GNIEZNO GOERLITZ GOETTINGEN GOLCUV JENIKOV GOLOVANEVSK GOMEL GORA KALWARIA GORIZIA GORKI GORLICE GORODENKA GORODOK GORODOK (Grodek Wilenski) GORZOW WIELKOPOLSKI GOSLAR GOSTYNIN GOTHA GRAJEWO GRAZ GREECE GRENOBLE GRODNO GRODZISK MAZOWIECKI GRODZISK WIELKOPOLSKI GROJEC GURA-HUMORULUI GYONGYOS GYÖR HAGEN HAGUE, THE HALBERSTADT HALICZ HALLE HAMBURG HAMELN HANAU HANOVER HARLAU HEIDELBERG HEIDINGSFELD HEILBRONN HERMANUV MESTEC HESSE HILDESHEIM HLOHOVEC HODMEZOVASARHELY HODONIN HOHENAU HOHENEMS HOHENZOLLERN HOLESOV HOMBURG

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HRANICE HRUBIESZOW HUMENNE HUNCOVCE HUNGARY HUSI ILINTSY ILYA INGWILLER INNSBRUCK INOWROCLAW IOANNINA ITALY IVANCICE IVANOVO IVYE IZBICA LUBELSKA IZMAIL IZYASLAV JABLONEC NAD NISOU JANOW LUBELSKI JAROSLAW JASLO JASSY JAUNIJELGAVA JEBENHAUSEN JEDRZEJOW JEKABPILS JELGAVA JEMNICE JEVICKO JIHLAVA JINDRICHUV HRADEC JONAVA JUDENBURG JUELICH) JURBARKAS (Jurburg) KADAN KAISERSLAUTERN KALARASH KALININDORF KALINKOVICHI KALISZ KALUSH KALUSZYN KALVARIJA KAMENETS-PODOLSKI KAMENKA-BUGSKAYA (Strumilovskaya) KANEV KAPOSVAR KARASUBAZAR KARLSRUHE KASEJOVICE KASSEL KASTORIA KATOWICE KAUNAS KAUSHANY KAVALLA KAZATIN

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 3. Holocaust History Communities (continued) KECSKEMET KEDAINIAI KELME KEMPEN KERCH KHARKOV KHERSON KHMELNIK KHOROL KHOTIN KHUST KIEL KIELCE KIEV KILIYA KIROVOGRAD (Kirovo) KISHINEV KISSINGEN KISVARDA KITZINGEN KLAGENFURT KLATOVY (Klattau) KLETSK KLINTSY KLODAWA KOBLENZ KOBRIN KOCK (Kotsk) KOENIGSBERG KOIDANOVO KOJETIN (Kojetein) KOLIN KOLO KOLOMYYA (Kolomea; Kolomyja) KOMARNO KOMARNO KONIN KONOTOP KONSKIE (Konsk) KONSKOWOLA KORETS KOROSTEN KORSUN-SHEVCHENKOVSKI KOS KOSICE KOSOV KOSOVA HORA KOSZEG KOTOVSKOYE KOVEL KOZIENICE (Kozenitsy) KOZLE KRASLAVA KRASNIK KRASNODAR

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KRASNOYE KRASNYSTAW KREFELD KREMENCHUG KREMENETS KREMS KRETINGA KREUZNACH KRICHEV KRIVOI ROG KRIVOYE OZERO KROMERIZ KROSNO KROTOSZYN KRUSTPILS KRYNKI KRZEPICE KUPISKIS (Kupiskiai; Kupishki) KURSK KUTNO KUTY KYBARTAI KYJOV LACHVA (Lachwa) LANCUT LANDAU LANDSHUT LARISSA LASK LATVIA LAZNE KYNZVART LECZNA LECZYCA LEGHORN LEGNICA LEIPZIG LELOW LEOVO (Leova) LEPEL LESHNEV LESKO LESZNO LETICHEV LEZAJSK LIBEREC LIDA LIEGE LIEPAJA LILLE LINZ LIOZNO LIPKANY LIPNIK NAD BECVOU LIPNO LIPOVETS LIPPE (-Detmold) LIPTOVSKY MIKULAS LITHUANIA LITIN LITOMERICE

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LODZ LOMZA (Lomzha; Lomzhe) LOSICE (Lositsy) LOSTICE LOUNY LOWICZ LUBACZOW LUBARTOW LUBAVICH LUBLIN LUBNY LUBRANIEC LUCENEC LUDZA LUEBECK LUENEBURG LUGANSK LUGO LUGOJ (Lugos) LUKOW LUNEVILLE LUTOMIERSK LUTSK LUXEMBOURG LVOV (Lemberg) LYADY LYAKHOVICHI LYCK LYONS LYUBOML MAGDEBURG MAINZ MAKAROV MAKO MAKOW MAZOWIECKI MANNHEIM MANS, LE MANTUA (Mantova) MARCULESTI MARGHITA (Margit(t)a) MARIBOR MARIENBAD MARIJAMPOLE MARSEILLES MATTERSDORF (Mattersburg) MEDZIBEZH (Medzibozh) MEININGEN MELITOPOL MEMEL MEMMINGEN MERGENTHEIM MERSEBURG METZ MEZHIRECH (Mezhirichi) MICHALOVCE MIEDZYRZEC PODLASKI MIELEC MIHAILENI MIKULOV MILAN

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MINDEN MINSK MINSK MAZOWIECKI MIR MIROSLAV MISKOLC MLADA BOLESLAV MLAWA (Mlwa; Mlava) MODENA MOGILEV MOGILEV-PODOLSKI MOINESTI MOLODECHNO MONASTIR MONASTYRISKA MONTPELLIER MORAVIA (Morava) MORAVSKE BUDEJOVICE MORAVSKY KRUMLOV MOSBACH MOSTISKA MOZYR MSTISLAVL MUEHLHAUSEN MUENSTER MUKACHEVO MULHOUSE MUNICH NACHOD NADVORNAYA (Nadworna) NAGYKANIZSA NANCY NANTES NAROL NASAUD NASIELSK NASNA NAUHEIM NEMIROV NESVIZH NEZHIN NICE NIEDERSTETTEN NIKOLAYEV NIS NITRA NOERDLINGEN NORDHAUSEN NORWAY NOVAYA USHITSA NOVE MESTO NAD VAHOM NOVE ZAMKY NOVGOROD-SEVERSK NOVI SAD NOVOGRUDOK NOVOSELITSA NOVOZYBKOV NOVY BOHUMIN NOVY BYDZOV NOVY DVOR

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 3. Holocaust History Communities (continued) NOWY DWOR MAZOWIECKI NOWY SACZ NUREMBERG NYIREGYHAZA ODESSA OETTINGEN OFFENBACH OFFENBURG OLDENBURG OLESKO OLESNICA OLGOPOL OLKUSZ OLOMOUC (Olmuetz) OLYKA OPATOW OPAVA OPOCZNO OPOLE LUBELSKIE OPPENHEIM ORADEA (Oradea Mare) ORDZHONIKIDZE OREL ORGEYEV (Orhei) ORSHA ORSOVA OSHMYANY OSIJEK (Eszek) OSLO OSNABRUECK OSTRAVA OSTROG (Ostraha) OSTROLEKA (Ostrolenka) OSTROWIEC (Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski) OSTROW MAZOWIECKA OSTRYNA OSWIECIM (Auschwitz) OTWOCK OVRUCH OZERY OZORKOW PABIANICE PADERBORN PADUA PAKS PALANGA PALATINATE PANEVEZYS (Panevezhis) PAPA, PARCZEW PARIS PARMA PASCANI PAVLOGRAD PAVOLOCH

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RASEINIAI RAVENSBURG RAWICZ (Rawitsch) REBREANU RECHITSA RECKLINGHAUSEN REGENSBURG REGHIN (Reghinul Săesc) REUTLINGEN REXINGEN REZEKNE (Rezhitsa) REZINA (Rezinz) RIGA RIJEKA ROGACHEV ROGATIN ROKISKIS ROMAN ROMANIA ROME ROMNY ROPCZYCE (Ropshits) ROSHEIM ROSTOV ROUDNICE NAD LABEM ROUEN ROVNO ROZDOL ROZWADOW RUSE RUSSIA RUZHANY RYMANOW RYPIN RYSHKANY RZESZOW SAARBRUECKEN SADAGORA SAINT-DENIS SAKIAI (Shakyai, Shakay) SALONIKA SALONTA SALZBURG SAMBOR SAMOGITIA SANDOMIERZ SANOK SARAJEVO SARNY SARREGUEMINES SASOV SATANOV SATORALJA UJHELY SATU-MARE SAVERNE SAXONY SCHNAITTACH SCHWEINFURT SEDUVA SEESEN

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SEINI SEKIRYANY SELESTAT SERRAI SEVASTOPOL SHARGOROD SHCHEDRIN SHEPETOVKA SHKLOV SHPOLA SIAULIAI SIBIU SIEDLCE SIEMIATYCZE SIENA SIERADZ SIERPC SIGHET SILESIA SIMFEROPOL SIMLEUL-SILVANIEI SIRET SKALAT SKARZYSKO-KAMIENNA SKIDEL SKIERNIEWICE SKOLE SKOPLJE (Skopje) SKUODAS SKVIRA SLAVUTA SLONIM SLUTSK SMELA SMOLENSK SMORGON (Smorgonie) SNYATYN SOCHACZEW SOEST SOKAL SOKOLKA SOKOLOW PODLASKI SOMBOR SOPRON SOROKI (Soroca) SOSNOWIEC (Sosnovets) SPAIN SPANDAU SPEYER SPLIT SREM STANISLAV STARODUB STARO-KONSTANTINOV STASZOW STEFANESTI STENDAL STETTIN STOLBTSY STOLIN

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 3. Holocaust History Communities (continued) STOPNICA STOROZHINETS STRASBOURG STRAUBING STRY (Stryj) STRYKOW STUTTGART STYRIA SUBCARPATHIAN RUTHENIA SUCEAVA SULITA SULZBACH SUWALKI SVISLOCH SWEDEN SWIDNICA SWITZERLAND SZCZEBRZESZYN SZCZERCOW SZEGED SZEKESFEHERVAR SZOLNOK SZOMBATHELY SZYDLOWIEC TABOR TACHOV (Tachau) TAGANROG TALHEIM TALLINN TALNOYE TARGU-MURES TARNOBRZEG TARNOGROD (Tarnograd) TARNOPOL TARNOW TARTU TARUTINO TAUBERBISCHOFSHEIM TAURAGE TELENESHTY (Teleneşti) TELSIAI (Telshi; Telschen) TESCHEN THIONVILLE THURINGIA TIMISOARA TIRASPOL TIRGU-FRUMOS TIRGU NEAMT TLUMACH (Tlumacz) TOLSTOYE TOMASHPOL TOMASZOW LUBELSKI TOMASZOW MAZOWIECKI TOPOLCANY TORCHIN (Torczyn)

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VITEBSK VIZHNITSA VLADIMIR VOLYNSKI VOLHYNIA VOLKOVYSK VOLOS VOLPA VORONEZH VOTICE VOZNESSENK VYSOKOYE WARENDORF WARSAW WEGROW WEINHEIM WESTPHALIA WIELICZKA WIELUN WIENER NEUSTADT WIESBADEN WISLICA WLOCLAWEK WLODAWA WODZISLAW WOLBROM WOLFENBUETTEL WOLOMIN WORMS WRONKI WUERTTEMBERG WUERZBURG WUPPERTAL WYSZKOW WYSZOGROD XANTEN YALTA YAVOROV YEDINTSY YEFINGAR YEVPATORIYA YUGOSLAVIA ZABLUDOW ZABOLOTOV ZABRZE ZAGARE ZAGREB ZALESHCHIKI ZAMBROW (Zambrov) ZAMOSC ZAPOROZHE ZARASAI ZASTAVNA ZATEC ZAWIERCIE ZBARAZH ZBOROV ZDUNSKA-WOLA ZELECHOW ZELOW ZELVA (Zelwa)

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ZEMUN ZERBST ZGIERZ (Zgerzh) ZGURITSA (Zgurita) ZHDANOV ZHIDACHOV ZHITOMIR ZHMERINKA ZHOLKVA ZHURAVNO ZILINA ZLATOPOL ZMIGROD NOWY ZNOJMO (Znaim) ZOLOCHEV ZOLOTONOSHA ZRENJANIN ZVENIGORODKA ZWICKAU ZWOLEN ZYCHLIN ZYRARDOW Organizations

ASSOCIATION OF HOLOCAUST ORGANIZATIONS CENTRE DE DOCUMENTATION JUIVE CONTEMPORAINE CONFERENCE ON JEWISH MATERIAL CLAIMS AGAINST GERMANY COUNCIL OF JEWS FROM GERMANY FORTUNOFF VIDEO ARCHIVES OF HOLOCAUST TESTIMONY INTERNATIONAL TRACING SERVICE JEWISH SUCCESSOR ORGANIZATIONS JUEDISCHER KULTURBUND MEMORIAL FOUNDATION FOR JEWISH CULTURE MORESHET MUSEUM OF JEWISH HERITAGE OFFICE OF SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS (OSI) REICHSVEREINIGUNG REICHSZENTRALE FUER JUEDISCHE AUSWANDERUNG SURVIVORS OF THE SHOAH VISUAL HISTORY FOUNDATION UNION GENERALE DES ISRAELITES DE FRANCE (U.G.I.F.) UNITED RESTITUTION ORGANIZATION UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM UNRRA WAR REFUGEE BOARD YAD VASHEM ZENTRALE STELLE DER LANDESJUSTIZVERWALTUNGEN Biographies

ANIELEWICZ, MORDECAI ARAD, YITZHAK ATLAS, JECHEZKIEL BAK, SAMUEL BARASH, EPHRAIM BECCARI, ARRIGO BENOIT, PIERRE-MARIE BIELSKI, TUVIA, ASAEL, AND ZUS BRAND, JOEL JENO

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I. HISTORY B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 3. Holocaust History Biographies (continued) CALMEYER, HANS CZERNIAKOW, ADAM DICKER-BRANDEIS, FREDERIKE DONATI, ANGELO DOUWES, ARNOLD EDELSTEIN, JACOB ELKES, ELHANAN FLEISCHMANN, GISI FOLEY, FRANCIS FRANK, ANNE FRANKFURTER, DAVID FRY, VARIAN GERSTEIN, KURT GRAEBE, HERMANN FRIEDRICH HAUTVAL, ADELAIDE HO FENG-SHAN KAPLAN, CHAIM ARON KARMEL, ILONA KARSKI, JAN KASZTNER, REZSO RUDOLF KENT, ROMAN KLARSFELD, BEATE AUGUSTE KLARSFELD, SERGE KLEIN, GERDA WEISSMAN KOOK, HILLEL KORCZAK, JANUSZ KORCZAK-MARLA, ROZKA KORETZ, ZVI KOVNER, ABBA K. ZETNICK LANTOS, TOM LERMAN, MILES LEVI, PRIMO LICHTENBERG, BERNHARD LUBETKIN, ZIVIA LUTZ, CARL (Charles) MAESTRO, YAAKOV MAYER, SALY MEED, BENJAMIN MEED, VLADKA MENDES, ARISTIDES DE SOUZA NEVEJEAN, YVONNE PAVELIC, ANTE PECHERSKY, ALEXANDER PLOTNICKA, FRUMKA RINGELBLUM, EMANUEL (Menahem) SANDBERG, WILLEM JACOB SCHINDLER, OSKAR SENDLER, IRENA SHAPIRA, KALONYMOUS KALMAN SPIEGELMAN, ART STAHL, HEINRICH STEFAN, METROPOLITAN STROCHLITZ, SIGMUND SUGIHARA CHIUNE-SEMPO

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TENENBAUM, MORDECAI WALLENBERG, RAOUL WDOWINSKI, DAVID WEICHERT, MICHAEL WEISSMANDEL, MICHAEL DOV WESTERWEEL, JOHAN WIESEL, ELIE WIESENTHAL, SIMON WITTENBERG, YIZHAK ZUCKERMAN, ITZHAK (Antek) ZUROFF, EFRAIM Nazis

BARBIE, NIKOLAUS (“KLAUS”), TRIAL OF BORMANN, MARTIN BRUNNER, ALOIS BUEHLER, JOSEF DEMJANJUK, JOHN EICHMANN, ADOLF OTTO FRANK, HANS MICHAEL FRANK, KARL HERMANN GLOBOCNIK, ODILO GLUECKS, RICHARD GOEBBELS, PAUL JOSEF GOERING, HERMANN WILHELM HEYDRICH, REINHARD TRISTAN HIMMLER, HEINRICH HITLER, ADOLF HOESS, RUDOLF FRANZ FERDINAND KALTENBRUNNER, ERNST KATZMANN, FRIEDRICH (Fritz) LECCA, RADU MENGELE, JOSEF MUELLER, HEINRICH POHL, OSWALD RADEMACHER, FRANZ RAUTER, HANNS ALBIN RIBBENTROP, JOACHIM VON ROSENBERG, ALFRED SAUCKEL, FRITZ (Ernst Friedrich Christoph) SCHELLENBERG, WALTER SEYSS-INQUART, ARTHUR STREICHER, JULIUS STROOP, JUERGEN (Josef) TISO, JOSEF TUKA, VOJTECH VASEK, ANTON WIRTH, CHRISTIAN WISLICENY, DIETER Scholars

BAUER, YEHUDA BERENBAUM, MICHAEL BRAHAM, RANDOLPH L. BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER DAWIDOWICZ, LUCY DVORZETSKY, MARK MEIR FRIEDLAENDER, SAUL GUTMAN, ISRAEL HILBERG, RAUL

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 1. JEWISH LAW Main Surveys

HALAKHAH MISHPAT IVRI General Entries

ABDUCTION ABORTION ACQUISITION ADMISSION ADOPTION ADULTERY AGENCY AGUNAH APOSTASY APOTROPOS APPEAL ARBITRATION ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ASMAKHTA ASSAULT ASSIGNMENT (OF DEBT) ATTORNEY AUTHORITY, RABBINICAL AUTOPSIES AND DISSECTION AV BET DIN BANISHMENT BET DIN AND JUDGES BETROTHAL BIGAMY AND POLYGAMY BLINDNESS BLOOD-AVENGER BLOODGUILT BRIBERY BUSINESS ETHICS CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CAPTIVES, RANSOMING OF CASTRATION CHASTITY CHILD MARRIAGE CHILDREN CITY OF REFUGE CIVIL MARRIAGE CLEVES GET CODIFICATION OF LAW COLLATIO LEGUM MOSAICARUM ET ROMANORUM COMPOUNDING OFFENSES COMPROMISE CONCUBINE CONDITIONS

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CONFESSION CONFISCATION, EXPROPRIATION, FORFEITURE CONFLICT OF LAWS CONFLICT OF OPINION CONSERVATION CONSUMER PROTECTION CONTEMPT OF COURT CONTRACT DAMAGES DAYYAN DEAF-MUTE DETENTION DINA DE-MALKHUTA DINA DISINTERMENT DIVINE PUNISHMENT DIVORCE DOMICILE DOWRY ECOLOGY EMBRYO EVIDENCE EXECUTION (CIVIL) EXTRADITION EXTRAORDINARY REMEDIES FINES FIRSTBORN FLOGGING FORGERY FRAUD GAMBLING GENTILE GERAMA AND GARME GEZERTA GIFT HA’ANAKAH HAFKA’AT SHE’ARIM HAMEZ, SALE OF HASKAMAH HASSAGAT GEVUL HAZAKAH HEFKER HEKDESH HEREM HEREM BET DIN HEREM HA-IKKUL HEREM HA-YISHUV HEREM SETAM HOMICIDE HUMAN DIGNITY AND FREEDOM IMPRISONMENT IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT INCEST INFORMERS INSULT INTERPRETATION JERUSALEM JEW JEWISH AND ISLAMIC LAW, A COMPARATIVE REVIEW KARET KETUBBAH

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LABOR LAW LAW AND MORALITY LAW OF RETURN LEASE AND HIRE LEGAL MAXIMS LEGAL PERSON LEVIRATE MARRIAGE AND HALIZAH LIABILITY LIEN LIMITATION OF ACTIONS LOAN LOST PROPERTY MA’ARUFYA MA’ASEH MAINTENANCE MAJORITY RULE MAMRAM MAMZER MARITIME LAW MARRIAGE MARRIAGE, PROHIBITED MATRIMONIAL PROPERTY MAZRANUT MEDIATION MEDICINE AND THE LAW MEHILAH MILITARY LAW MINHAG MISTAKE MIXED MARRIAGE, INTERMARRIAGE MONEYLENDING NOACHIDE LAWS NUISANCE OATH OBLIGATIONS, LAW OF ONA’AH ONES OPPRESSION ORAL LAW ORPHAN, ORPHANAGE OWNERSHIP PARAPET PARENT AND CHILD PARTNERSHIP PENAL LAW PERJURY PIKKU’AH NEFESH PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION PLEAS PLEDGE POLICE OFFENSES PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE PROPERTY PROSELYTES PUBLIC AUTHORITY

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PUNISHMENT RANSOM RAPE REBELLIOUS SON RIGHTS, HUMAN SALE SEPARATION OF POWERS SERVITUDES SEVARAH SEXUAL OFFENSES SHALISH SHETAR SHI’BUDA DE-RABBI NATHAN SHOMERIM SIKARIKON SLANDER SLAVERY SORCERY STRANGERS AND GENTILES SUCCESSION SUICIDE SURETYSHIP TAKKANOT TAKKANOT HA-KAHAL TALION TAXATION TECHNOLOGY AND HALAKHAH TEMPLE MOUNT THEFT AND ROBBERY TORTS TRADITION TRANSPLANTS UNJUST ENRICHMENT VALUES OF A JEWISH AND DEMOCRATIC STATE VIRGIN, VIRGINITY VOWS AND VOWING WEIGHTS AND MEASURES WIDOW WILLS WITNESS WOMAN YEUSH YUHASIN 2. JEWISH RITUAL & OBSERVANCE Main Surveys

HALAKHAH General Entries

ABLUTION ABOMINATION ADAR ADAR, THE SEVENTH OF ADASS JESHURUN, ADASS JISROEL ADDIR BI-MELUKHAH ADDIR HU ADLOYADA ADON OLAM ADONAI, ADONAI, EL RAHUM VE-HANNUN AFIKOMAN

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AHAVAH RABBAH; AHAVAT OLAM AHOT KETANNAH AKDAMUT MILLIN AL HA-NISSIM AL HET AL TIKREI ALEINU LE-SHABBE’AH AMARKAL AMEN AMIDAH AMULET ANIM ZEMIROT ANINUT ANNA BE-KHO’AH ANNA BE-KORENU APAM ARBA AMMOT ARBA KOSOT ARK ART ARVIT ASHAMNU ASHKAVAH ASHREI ATTAH EHAD ATTAH HORETA LADA’AT ATTAH ZOKHER AUFRUFEN AUTHORITY, RABBINICAL AV AV HA-RAHAMIM AV, THE FIFTEENTH OF AV, THE NINTH OF AVERAH AVI AVI AVINU MALKENU AVINU SHE-BA-SHAMAYIM AVODAH AZAZEL AZERET AZHAROT, AZHARAH BAKI BAKKASHAH BA-MEH MADLIKIN BAR MITZVAH, BAT MITZVAH BAREKHI NAFSHI BAREKHU BARNACLE GOOSE MYTHS BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY BARUKH BARUKH SHE-AMAR BARUKH SHEM KEVOD MALKHUTO LE-OLAM VA-ED BARUKH SHE-PETARANI BATH, BATHING BEARD AND SHAVING BEDIKAT HAMEZ BE-MOZA’EI MENUHAH BENEDICTIONS BENSHEN BERAH DODI

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BIMAH BIRKAT HA-MINIM BIRKAT HA-TORAH BIRTH BIRTH CONTROL BIRTHDAY BITTUL HA-TAMID BLASPHEMY BLEMISH BLESSING AND CURSING BLESSING OF CHILDREN BLOOD BREASTPLATE BRIDEGROOMS OF THE LAW BURIAL CALENDAR CALENDAR REFORM CANDLES CASTRATION CATACOMBS CELIBACY CEMETERY CHILDREN’S SERVICES CHOIRS CIRCUMCISION COFFIN COMMANDMENTS, THE 613 CONFESSION OF SINS CREMATION DAVID DAY AND NIGHT DAY OF ATONEMENT DAYYEINU DEATH DESECRATION DEW, PRAYER FOR DIETARY LAWS DISINTERMENT DUKHAN EGGS EGLAH ARUFAH EHAD MI YODE’A EIN KE-ELOHENU EL MALE RAHAMIM EL MELEKH NE’EMAN EL MELEKH YOSHEV EL NORA ALILAH ELI ZIYYON VE-AREHA ELIJAH, CHAIR OF ELIJAH, CUP OF ELUL ERUV ESHET HAYIL ESTHER, FAST OF ETROG EVER MIN HA-HAI FASTING AND FAST DAYS FESTIVALS FIRST FRUITS FIRZOGERIN

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 2. Jewish Ritual & Observance General Entries (continued) FIVE SPECIES FLOWERS FOOD FOUR SPECIES GE’ULLAH GOMEL, BLESSING OF GOVERNMENT, PRAYER FOR THE GRACE AFTER MEALS GRACE BEFORE MEALS HA LAHMA ANYA HAD GADYA HADRAN HAFTARAH HAGBAHAH, GELILAH HAGGADAH, PASSOVER HAKHEL HAKHNASAT KALLAH HAKKAFOT HALAKHAH LE-MOSHE MI-SINAI HALAKHIC PERIODICALS HALAKHOT GEDOLOT HALAKHOT KEZUVOT (Ketu’ot) HALAKHOT PESUKOT HALLAH HALLEL HALLELUJAH HA-MAVDIL HAMEZ HAMEZ, SALE OF HANUKKAH HAROSET HASHKIVENU HAVDALAH HAZKARAT NESHAMOT HEAD, COVERING OF THE HEKHSHER HESPED HILLULA HILLULA DE-RABBI SHIMON BAR YOHAI HINENI HE-ANI MI-MAAS HONEY HOSHANA RABBA HOSHANOT HUKKAT HA-GOI HUMRA HUSBAND AND WIFE HYGIENE ISRU HAG ISSUR VE-HETTER IYYAR JERUSALEM JUDAISM KABBALAT SHABBAT KADDISH KAPPAROT

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KASHER KAVVANAH KEDUSHAH KERI’AH KEROVAH KEVER AVOT KIDDUSH KINAH KISLEV KITEL KOL NIDREI LAG BA-OMER LEAP YEAR LEKET, SHIKHHAH, AND PE’AH LEKHAH DODI LEVITES IN THE HALAKHAH LIKKUT AZAMOT LITURGY LOTS LULAV MA’ARAVOT MAFTIR MAH NISHTANNAH MAH TOVU MAHZOR MAHZOR VITRY MAIMUNA MALKHUYYOT MA’OZ ZUR MARHESHVAN MAROR MARRIAGE MASHGI’AH MASHIV HA-RU’AH MATZAH MAYIM AHARONIM MEAT MEGILLAH MEHIZAH MELAVVEH MALKAH MEMORBUCH MEMORIAL LIGHT MENORAH ME’OT HITTIM MEZUZAH MIKVEH MILK MINHAH MINYAN MI SHE-BERAKH MI-SINAI NIGGUNIM MITZVAH MIXED SPECIES MIZMOR LE-DAVID MIZMOR SHIR LE-YOM HA-SHABBAT MIZRAH MODEH ANI MONDAY AND THURSDAY MONOGAMY MOON, BLESSING OF THE

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MORNING BENEDICTIONS MOURNING MUKZEH MUSAF NAME, CHANGE OF NE’ILAH NER TAMID NETILAT YADAYIM NEVELAH NEW MOON NEW MOON, ANNOUNCEMENT OF NEW YEAR NIDDAH NIGHT PRAYER NINE DAYS NISAN NISHMAT KOL HAI OMER OMNAM KEN ORAL LAW ORGAN PAROKHET AND KAPPORET PARVEH PASSSOVER PASSOVER, SECOND PE’OT PESUKEI DE-ZIMRA PETIHAH PILGRIM FESTIVALS PIYYUT PIZMON PRAYER PRAYER BOOKS PRIESTLY BLESSING PRIESTS AND PRIESTHOOD PSALMS, BOOK OF PUBERTY PURIM PURIM KATAN PURIM MESHULASH PURIMS, SPECIAL PURITY AND IMPURITY, RITUAL RAIN, PRAYER FOR REBUKE AND REPROOF RESHUT ROSH HA-SHANAH SABBATH SABBATHS, SPECIAL SABBATICAL YEAR AND JUBILEE SACRIFICE SACRILEGE SANDAK SCROLLS, THE FIVE SEDER SEFER TORAH SELIHOT SE’UDAH SE’UDAH SHELISHIT SHA’ATNEZ SHABBAT BERESHIT

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SHABBAT HA-GADOL SHAHARIT SHALOM ALEIKHEM SHAMMASH SHAVUOT SHEHITAH SHELI’AH ZIBBUR SHELOSHET YEMEI HAGBALAH SHELOSHIM SHEMA, READING OF SHEMONEH ESREH SHEVAT SHIR HA-MAALOT SHIR HA-YIHUD SHIVVITI SHOFAR SHOFAROT SHOLEM ZOKHOR SHOVAVIM TAT SHULHAN ARUKH SHULKLAPPER SICK, PRAYER FOR SIDRAH SIMHAT TORAH SIVAN SONG OF SONGS SUKKAH SUKKOT SUN, BLESSING OF THE SYNAGOGUE TAHANUN TAHARAT HA-MISHPAHAH TALLIT TALLIT KATAN TAMMUZ TAMMUZ, FAST OF TASHLIKH TATTOO TECHNOLOGY AND HALAKHAH TEFILLIN TEHINNAH TEKI’ATA (Teki’ot) TEN DAYS OF PENITENCE TEREFAH TERUMOT AND MA’ASEROT TEVET THREE WEEKS TIKKUN HAZOT TISHRI TITHE TKHINES TOHORAH TOKHEHAH TORAH TORAH, READING OF TRAVEL, PRAYER FOR TRIENNIAL CYCLE TU BI-SHEVAT TWILIGHT U-NETANNEH TOKEF

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 2. Jewish Ritual & Observance General Entries (continued) USURY VEIL WINE YA’ALEH VE-YAVO YAD YAH RIBBON OLAM YAHRZEIT YAKNEHAZ YAMIM NORA’IM YEKUM PURKAN YEZIV PITGAM YIGDAL YISHTABBAH YIZKOR YOM KIPPUR KATAN YOZEROT ZEMIROT ZIDDUK HA-DIN ZIKHRONOT ZIZIT ZUR MI-SHELO 3. JEWISH THOUGHT & PHILOSOPHY Main Surveys

PHILOSOPHY, JEWISH General Entries

ABRAHAM ADAM AFTERLIFE AKEDAH ANGEL OF DEATH ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY ANI MA’AMIN ANIMALS, CRUELTY TO ANTHROPOMORPHISM ANTINOMIANISM APIKOROS APOLOGETICS ARTICLES OF FAITH ASCETICISM ASTROLOGY ATOMISM ATONEMENT BEATITUDE BELIEF BODY AND SOUL BUSINESS ETHICS CATEGORIES CAUSE AND EFFECT CHARITY CHASTITY CHILDREN CHIROMANCY CHOSEN PEOPLE

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COMMANDMENTS, REASONS FOR COMPASSION CONSERVATION CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM COSMOLOGY COVETOUSNESS CREATION AND COSMOGONY DEATH DECALOGUE DEREKH EREZ DOMESTIC PEACE DREAMS DUALISM DUTY EMANATION EMOTIONS ESCHATOLOGY ETHICAL CULTURE ETHICAL LITERATURE ETHICS ETIQUETTE EUTHANASIA EVIL EYE EVOLUTION EXISTENTIALISM FEAR OF GOD FORGIVENESS FORM AND MATTER FREEDOM FREE WILL FRIENDSHIP GALUT GEMILUT HASADIM GILGUL GOD GOD, NAMES OF GOOD AND EVIL HASIDEI ASHKENAZ HASIDIM, SEFER HATRED HEART HEMDAT YAMIM HERESY HERMETIC WRITINGS HOMOSEXUALITY HONOR HOSPITALITY HUMILITY HUNTING HYGIENE IMITATION OF GOD INCLINATION, GOOD AND EVIL INGATHERING OF THE EXILES INTELLECT JOY JUDAISM JUSTICE KALAM KEDUSHAH KELAL YISRAEL

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KENESET YISRAEL KIDDUSH HA-SHEM AND HILLUL HA-SHEM KING, KINGSHIP KISS AND KISSING LAMED VAV ZADDIKIM LASHON HA-RA LESBIANISM LIFE AND DEATH LOGIC LOGOS LOVE MAIMONIDEAN CONTROVERSY MAN, THE NATURE OF MARRIAGE MERCY MESSIAH METAPHYSICS METATRON MICROCOSM MIRACLE MONOTHEISM MOSES MUSAR MOVEMENT NATURE NEOLOGY (Neologism) NEO-ORTHODOXY NEOPLATONISM NESHAMAH YETERAH OLAM HA-BA ONANISM ORTHODOXY PARADISE PARENTS, HONOR OF PEACE PIETY AND THE PIOUS PLATO AND PLATONISM PRAYER PRESENCE, DIVINE PROPHETS AND PROPHECY PROSELYTES PROVIDENCE RAINBOW REDEMPTION REMNANT OF ISRAEL REPENTANCE RESURRECTION REVELATION REWARD AND PUNISHMENT RIGHTEOUSNESS RU’AH HA-KODESH SABBATH SATAN SEX SHEKHINAH SICK, VISITING THE SIN SKEPTICS AND SKEPTICISM SON OF MAN SOUL SOUL, IMMORTALITY OF

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SPACE AND PLACE STOICISM SUBSTANCE AND ACCIDENT SUFFERING THEOCRACY THEOLOGY THRONE OF GOD TIME AND ETERNITY TORAH TRUTH VENGEANCE VISIONS WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS WORD ZEDAKAH ZEKHUT AVOT ZODIAC Biographies

ABBA MARI ASTRUC BEN MOSES BEN JOSEPH OF LUNEL ABBAS, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL IBN ABRABANEL, ISAAC BEN JUDAH ABRABANEL, JUDAH ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH LEON ABRAHAM BEN MOSES BEN MAIMON ABULRABI, AARON AKNIN, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH BEN JACOB IBN ALAMI, SOLOMON ALBALAG, ISAAC ALBO, JOSEPH ALCONSTANTINI, ENOCH BEN SOLOMON ALCORSONO, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH ARAMA, ISAAC BEN MOSES ARISTOTLE ARUNDI, ISAAC (Ibn) ASCHER, SAUL ASHKENAZI, SAUL BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN ATLAS, SAMUEL BAECK, LEO BAHYA (Pseudo) BAHYA BEN JOSEPH IBN PAQUDA BERKOVITS, ELIEZER BIBAGO, ABRAHAM BEN SHEM TOV BONAFOS, MENAHEM BEN ABRAHAM BOROWITZ, EUGENE BREUER, ISAAC BUBER, MARTIN CRESCAS, HASDAI DELMEDIGO, ELIJAH BEN MOSES ABBA DELMEDIGO, JOSEPH SOLOMON DONNOLO, SHABBETAI DURAN, PROFIAT (Profayt) DURAN, SIMEON BEN ZEMAH (Rashbaz) FACKENHEIM, EMIL LUDWIG FALAQUERA, SHEM TOV BEN JOSEPH FORMSTECHER, SOLOMON GABIROL, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH, IBN GEIGER, ABRAHAM

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 3. Jewish Thought & Philosophy Biographies (continued) GHĀZALĪ, ABU HAMID MUHAMMAD IBN MUHAMMAD AL-TŪSĪ ALGOLDBERG, OSCAR GOLDMAN, ELIEZER GUTTMANN, JULIUS HABILLO, ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH HARTMAN, DAVID HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA HILLEL BEN SAMUEL (of Verona) HIRSCH, SAMSON (Ben) RAPHAEL HIRSCH, SAMUEL HIWI AL-BALKHI HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL IBN DAUD, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID HALEVI IBN EZRA, ABRAHAM IBN EZRA, MOSES BEN JACOB IBN KAMMŪNA, SA‘D IBN MANSŪR IBN SHEM TOV, ISAAC BEN SHEM TOV IBN SHEM TOV, JOSEPH BEN SHEM TOV IBN SHEM TOV, SHEM TOV BEN JOSEPH BEN SHEM TOV IMAGINATION ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON JABES, EDMOND JAGEL, ABRAHAM JEDAIAH BEN ABRAHAM BEDERSI (ha-Penini) JUDAH BEN ELEAZAR JUDAH HALEVI JUDAH LOEW BEN BEZALEL (Maharal) KAPLAN, MORDECAI MENAHEM KASPI, JOSEPH BEN ABBA MARI IBN KATZ, JOSEPH BEN ELIJAH KELLERMANN, BENZION KOOK, ABRAHAM ISAAC LEIBOWITZ, YESHAYAHU LEON, MESSER DAVID BEN JUDAH LEVI BEN ABRAHAM BEN HAYYIM LEVI BEN GERSHOM (Ralbag) LEVINAS, EMMANUEL LUZZATTO, SAMUEL DAVID LYOTARD, JEAN FRANCOIS MAIMONIDES, MOSES MALKAH, JUDAH BEN NISSIM IBN MANN, ABRAHAM AARON OF POSNAN MATKAH, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON HA-KOHEN MENDELSSOHN, MOSES MOSES BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI MOSES BEN JOSHUA OF NARBONNE MOSES BEN JUDAH NOGA MUKAMMIS, DAVID IBN MARWAN AL-RAQI ALSHIRAZI ALNAGARI, MOSES BEN JUDAH NISSIM BEN MOSES OF MARSEILLES PHILO JUDAEUS POLLEGAR, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH IBN

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RAWIDOWICZ, SIMON ROSENSTOCK-HUESSY, EUGEN ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ ROSSI, AZARIAH (Bonaiuto) BEN MOSES DEI ROTENSTREICH, NATHAN SAADIAH (Ben Joseph) GAON SCHECHTER, SOLOMON (Shneur Zalman) SCHWARZSCHILD, STEVEN SAMUEL SCHWEID, ELIEZER SHALOM, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN JUDAH BEN SAMUEL SHEMARIAH BEN ELIJAH BEN JACOB SIMON, AKIBA ERNST SOLOMON BEN JUDAH OF LUNEL SPINOZA, BARUCH DE STEINHEIM, SALOMON LUDWIG WOLFSON, HARRY AUSTRYN ZADDIK, JOSEPH BEN JACOB IBN ZAMOSC, ISRAEL BEN MOSES HALEVI ZARZA, SAMUEL IBN SENEH ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC BEN SHEALTIEL (GRACIAN) 4. RABBINICS General Entries

ACADEMY ON HIGH AHARONIM BA’ALEI TESHUVAH BET (Ha-) MIDRASH CHIEF RABBI, CHIEF RABBINATE CLEVES GET CODIFICATION OF LAW DARSHAN DERASH DIVINATION EZ HAYYIM GAON GEMATRIA HAGGAHOT HAKHAM HAKHAM BASHI HALAKHAH HALAKHIC PERIODICALS HASIDEI UMMOT HA-OLAM HASIDIM HAVER, HAVERIM HEDER HERMENEUTICS KOLEL LANDESRABBINERSCHULE LANDRABBINER MA’AMAD (Mahamad) MAGGID MITNAGGEDIM NEOLOGY (Neologism) NEO-ORTHODOXY NETUREI KARTA ORAL LAW PARDES PILPUL POSEKIM

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PREACHING RABBANITES RABBI, RABBINATE RABBINER-SEMINAR FUER DAS ORTHODOXE JUDENTUM RABBINICAL ALLIANCE OF AMERICA RABBINICAL ASSEMBLY RABBINICAL CONFERENCES RABBINICAL COUNCIL OF AMERICA RABBINICAL SEMINARIES RABBINICAL TRAINING, AMERICAN REBBETZIN RISHON LE-ZION RISHONIM SAVORA, SAVORAIM SCRIBE SEMIKHAH SIYYUM SLOBODKA YESHIVAH SOFERIM STUDY SYNODS TALMID HAKHAM YESHIVOT YOKE ZADDIK Rabbinic Literature

CHAPBOOKS ECCLESIASTES RABBAH ETHICAL LITERATURE GENESIS RABBATI GEONIC LITERATURE HAGGAHOT MAIMUNIYYOT HA-HINNUKH HAKDAMAH HALAKHOT GEDOLOT HALAKHOT KEZUVOT (Ketu’ot) HALAKHOT PESUKOT HA-PARNAS, SEFER HASSAGOT HEBREW BOOK TITLES HEMDAT YAMIM HIDDUSHIM HOMILETIC LITERATURE KOL BO KUNTERES LA’AZ ME-AM LO’EZ MIDRASH ASERET HA-DIBBEROT MIDRASH HA-GADOL MIDRASH LEKAH TOV MIDRASH PROVERBS MIDRASH SAMUEL (Shemuel) MIDRASH TEHILLIM MIDRASH VA-YISSAU MIDRASHIM, SMALLER MIDRESHEI AGGADAH MINHAGIM BOOKS MISHNAT HA-MIDDOT

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MIVHAR HA-PENINIM NUMBERS RABBAH ORHOT HAYYIM ORHOT ZADDIKIM PERI-EZ-HAYYIM PESIKTA RABBATI PIRKEI DE-RABBI ELIEZER POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE RABBINICAL LITERATURE RESPONSA SEFER HA-MA’ASIM LI-VENEI EREZ YISRAEL SEFER HA-NEYAR SEFER HA-YASHAR SHA’AREI SHEVUOT SUPERCOMMENTARIES ON THE PENTATEUCH TANNA DE-VEI ELIYAHU TARGUM SHENI TOHOROT HA-KODESH TOLEDOT YESHU TOSAFOT YALKUT (ha-) MAKHIRI YALKUT SHIMONI ZERUBBABEL, BOOK OF Biographies

Geonim AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-KOHEN SARGADO ABBA ABIATHAR BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN ABRAHAM BEN N... HA-BAGHDADI ABRAHAM BEN NATHAN ABRAHAM GAON AHA OF SHABHA ALBARADANI, JOSEPH AL-BAZAK, MAZLIAH BEN ELIJAH IBN ALI BEN ZECHARIAH AMRAM BEN SHESHNA (Amram Gaon) AZARIAH BEN SOLOMON BEN ALAN, JOSHUA DANIEL BEN AZARIAH DANIEL BEN ELEAZAR BEN NETHANEL HIBAT ALLAH DAVID BEN DANIEL DAVID BEN JUDAH DAVID BEN ZAKKAI DOSA BEN SAADIAH DUNASH IBN TAMIM ELHANAN BEN HUSHIEL ELHANAN BEN SHEMARIAH ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON HA-KOHEN EPHRAIM BEN SHEMARIAH HAI BAR RAV DAVID GAON HAI BEN NAHSHON HAI BEN SHERIRA HANANEL BEN HUSHIEL HANINA (Ahonai) KAHANA BEN HUNA HEFEZ BEN YAZLIAH HEZEKIAH BEN DAVID HUSHIEL BEN ELHANAN (of Kairouan) IBN ABITUR, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC

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ISAAC ISRAEL BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN JACOB BEN DUNASH BEN AKIVA JACOB HA-KOHEN BAR MORDECAI JOSEPH BAR ABBA JOSEPH BAR HIYYA JOSEPH BEN JACOB BAR SATIA JOSIAH BEN AARON HE-HAVER JUDAH BEN JOSEPH OF KAIROUAN KOHEN-ZEDEK BAR IVOMAI (bar lkhumai) KOHEN ZEDEK OF PUMBEDITA (bar Joseph) MOSES KAHANA BEN JACOB MUBASHSHIR BEN NISSI HA-LEVI MUBASHSHIR BEN RAV KIMOI HA-KOHEN NAHSHON BAR ZADOK NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM I NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM II NATRONAI BAR NEHEMIAH NEHEMIAH BAR KOHEN ZEDEK NETHANEL BEN MOSES HA-LEVI NISSI BEN BERECHIAH AL-NAHRAWANI NISSIM BEN JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN PALTOI BAR ABBAYE PIRKOI BEN BABOI RABBAH SAADIAH (Ben Joseph) GAON SAMUEL BEN ALI SAMUEL BEN DANIEL ABU RABI‘A HA-KOHEN SAMUEL BEN HOPHNI SAR SHALOM BEN BOAZ SAR SHALOM BEN MOSES HALEVI SHEMARIAH BEN ELHANAN SHERIRA BEN HANINA GAON SIMEON BAR ISAAC SIMONA SOLOMON BEN JUDAH YEHUDAI BEN NAHMAN (Yehudai Gaon) ZADOK (ISAAC) BAR MAR YISHI (ASHI) ZEMAH BEN HAYYIM ZEMAH BEN PALTOI ZEMAH ZEDEK BEN ISAAC Rishonim AARON BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI AARON BEN MESHULLAM OF LUNEL AARON OF NEUSTADT ABBA MARI BEN ELIGDOR ABBAS, MOSES BEN SAMUEL ABENAFIA, JOSEPH ABOAB, ISAAC i ABOAB, ISAAC ii ABRAHAM BEN AZRIEL ABRAHAM BEN DAVID MAIMUNI

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ABRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIÈRES (Rabad) ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC OF MONTPELLIER ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC OF NARBONNE ABRAHAM BEN MAZHIR ABRAHAM BEN NATHAN HA-YARHI (“of Lunel”) ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL HE-HASID (of Speyer) ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL OF DREUX ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON ABUDARHAM ABUDARHAM, DAVID BEN JOSEPH ABULAFIA, MEIR ABZARDIEL, MOSES ADANI, DAVID BEN AMRAM ADANI, DAVID BEN YESHA HA-LEVI ADANI, SAADIAH BEN DAVID (Sa’id ibn Daud) ADONIM BEN NISAN HA-LEVI ADRET, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM (Rashba) AGHMATI, ZECHARIAH BEN JUDAH AHITUB BEN ISAAC ALAMANI, AARON HE-HAVER BEN YESHU’AH ALBALIA, BARUCH BEN ISAAC ALBALIA, ISAAC BEN BARUCH AL-BARGELONI, ISAAC BEN REUBEN ALDUBI, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES BEN ISMAIL ALEXANDER SUSLIN HA-KOHEN OF FRANKFuRT ALFASI, ISAAC BEN JACOB (Rif) ALGUADES (Alguadez), MEIR ALI BEN AMRAM AL-MADARI, JUDAH HA-KOHEN BEN ELEAZAR HEHASID AL-NAKAWA, ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH AMRAM OF MAINZ ANAN BEN MARINUS HA-KOHEN ANATOLI, JACOB BEN ABBA MARI BEN SAMSON ANATOLI BEN JOSEPH ANAU ANAV, BENJAMIN BEN ABRAHAM ANAV, JEHIEL BEN JEKUTHIEL BEN BENJAMIN HAROFE ANAV, JUDAH BEN BENJAMIN HA-ROFE ANAV, ZEDEKIAH BEN ABRAHAM ASHER BEN JEHIEL (Rosh) ASHER BEN MESHULAM HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL ASHER BEN SAUL ASHKENAZI, DAN ASTRUC HA-LEVI AVIGDOR BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN BAHYA BEN ASHER BEN HLAVA BAMBERG, SAMUEL BEN BARUCH BARUCH BEN ISAAC OF ALEPPO BARUCH BEN ISAAC OF REGENSBURG BARUCH BEN ISAAC OF WORMS BARUCH BEN SAMUEL OF ALEPPO BARUCH BEN SAMUEL OF MAINZ BEKHOR SHOR, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC BEN MEIR, AARON BENJAMIN BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI BONAFED, DAVID BEN REUBEN BONAVOGLIA, MOSES DE MEDICI BONDAVIN, BONJUDAS (Bonjusas)

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BONFILS, JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL BRUNA, ISRAEL BEN HAYYIM CANPANTON, ISAAC BEN JACOB CANPANTON, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON CRESCAS, ASHER (Bonan) BEN ABRAHAM DANIEL BEN JEHIEL OF ROME DANIEL BEN SAADIAH HA-BAVLI DANIEL BEN SAMUEL IBN ABI RABI HA-KOHEN DAVID BEN ABRAHAM MAIMUNI DAVID BEN DANIEL DAVID BEN HEZEKIAH DAVID BEN JOSHUA MAIMUNI DAVID BEN LEVI OF NARBONNE DAVID BEN SAADIAH DAVID BEN SAMUEL DAVID BEN SAUL DAVID BEN ZAKKAI II DAVID IBN HAJJAR DHAMARI, MANSUR SULEIMAN DHAMARI, SAID BEN DAVID DUEREN, ISAAC BEN MEIR DURAN, SIMEON BEN ZEMAH (Rashbaz) DURAN, SOLOMON BEN SIMEON DURAN, ZEMAH BEN SOLOMON ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH OF WORMS ELEAZAR BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN OF WUERZBURG ELHANAN BEN ISAAC OF DAMPIERRE ELHANAN BEN YAKAR ELIEZER BEN ISAAC OF WORMS ELIEZER BEN JOEL HA-LEVI OF BONN ELIEZER BEN NATHAN OF MAINZ ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL OF METZ ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL OF VERONA ELIEZER OF BEAUGENCY ELIEZER OF TOUL ELIEZER OF TOUQUES ELIJAH BEN JUDAH OF PARIS ELIJAH MENAHEM BEN MOSES ELIJAH OF LA MASSA EPHRAIM BEN ISAAC (of Regensburg) EPHRAIM BEN JACOB OF BONN EPHRAIM IBN AVI ALRAGAN EZRA BEN ABRAHAM BEN MAZHIR EZRA OF MONTCONTOUR GABBAI, MOSES BEN SHEM-TOV GAGIN, HAYYIM GALIPAPA, HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM GATIGNO GERONDI, MOSES BEN SOLOMON DESCOLA GERONDI, SAMUEL BEN MESHULLAM GERONDI, ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI GERSHOM BEN JUDAH MEOR HA-GOLAH GERSHOM BEN SOLOMON GERSHON BEN SOLOMON OF ARLES GRACIAN, SHEALTIEL BEN SOLOMON HABIBA, JOSEPH HANANEL BEN SAMUEL HANOKH BEN MOSES HAYYIM BEN HANANEL HA-KOHEN HAYYIM (Eliezer) BEN ISAAC “OR ZARUA”

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HAYYIM BEN JEHIEL HEFEZ ZAHAV HAYYIM BEN SAMUEL BEN DAVID OF TUDELA HAYYIM PALTIEL BEN JACOB (“Tola’at”) HEZEKIAH BEN JACOB HEZEKIAH BEN MANOAH HILLEL BEN ELIAKIM HILLEL OF ERFURT IBN BALAM, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL IBN EZRA, ABRAHAM IBN GAON, SHEM TOV BEN ABRAHAM IBN GHAYYAT IBN MIGASH, JOSEPH BEN MEIR HA-LEVI IBN PLAT, JOSEPH IBN SHUAIB, JOSHUA ISAAC BAR DORBELO ISAAC BAR ISRAEL IBN AL-SHUWAYK ISAAC BEN ABBA MARI OF MARSEILLES ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM OF NARBONNE ISAAC BEN ASHER HA-LEVI ISAAC BEN ELIEZER ISAAC BEN JACOB HA-LAVAN OF PRAGUE ISAAC BEN JOSEPH OF CORBEIL (Semak) ISAAC BEN JUDAH OF MAINZ ISAAC BEN MEIR (Ribam) ISAAC BEN MELCHIZEDEK OF SIPONTO ISAAC BEN MENAHEM THE GREAT ISAAC BEN MERWAN HA-LEVI ISAAC BEN MORDECAI (Ribam) ISAAC BEN MOSES OF VIENNA ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF DAMPIERRE ISAAC BEN SHESHET PERFET (Ribash) ISAAC BEN TODROS OF BARCELONA ISAAC FROM OURVILLE ISAAC OF CHERNIGOV ISAAC OF EVREUX ISAIAH BEN ELIJAH DI TRANI ISAIAH BEN MALI DI TRANI ISRAEL BEN JOEL (Susslin) ISRAELI, ISRAEL ISRAEL OF BAMBERG ISRAEL OF KREMS ISSERLEIN, ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH JACOB BEN ASHER JACOB BEN MOSES OF BAGNOLS JACOB BEN NETHANEL BEN (AL-) FAYYUMI JACOB BEN SAMSON JACOB BEN YAKAR JACOB OF CORBEIL JACOB OF MARVEGE JACOB OF ORLEANS JACOB OF PONT-SAINTE-MAXENCE JACOB OF VIENNA JAMA, SAMUEL JEHIEL BEN JOSEPH OF PARIS JEROHAM BEN MESHULLAM JESSE BEN HEZEKIAH JOEL BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI JONAH BEN ABRAHAM GERONDI JONATHAN BEN DAVID HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 4. Rabbinics Biographies Rishonim (continued)

JOSEPH BEN BARUCH OF CLISSON JOSEPH BEN JUSTU OF JAEN JOSEPH BEN MOSES OF TROYES JOSEPH HAZZAN BEN JUDAH OF TROYES JOSEPH ROSH HA-SEDER JOSHUA BEN ABRAHAM MAIMUNI JUDAH BEN ASHER JUDAH BEN BARZILLAI AL-BARGELONI JUDAH BEN ISAAC (Sir Leon of Paris) JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEIR JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MOSES OF MAINZ JUDAH BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN JUDAH BEN NATHAN JUDAH BEN SAMUEL HE-HASID KALONYMUS KIMHI, DAVID KIMHI, JOSEPH KIMHI, MORDECAI KIMHI, MOSES KIRIMI, ABRAHAM KOKHAVI, DAVID BEN SAMUEL LATTES, ISAAC BEN JACOB LATTES, JUDAH LEVI BEN GERSHOM (Ralbag) MACHIR BEN JUDAH MAIMON BEN JOSEPH MAIMONIDES, MOSES MANOAH OF NARBONNE MATTATHIAS HA-YIZHARI MAZLI’AH BEN SOLOMON HA-KOHEN MEIR BEN BARUCH HA-LEVI MEIR BEN BARUCH OF ROTHENBURG (Maharam) MEIR BEN ISAAC OF TRINQUETAILLE MEIR BEN ISAAC SHELIAH ZIBBUR MEIR BEN SAMUEL OF RAMERUPT MEIR BEN SIMEON HA-MEILI MEIRI, MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON MENAHEM BEN AARON IBN ZERAH MENAHEM BEN HELBO MENAHEM BEN JACOB MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON MENAHEM OF MERSEBURG MESHULLAM BEN JACOB OF LUNEL MESHULLAM BEN KALONYMUS MESHULLAM BEN MOSES MESHULLAM BEN NATHAN OF MELUN MORDECAI BEN HILLEL HA-KOHEN MOSES BEN ABRAHAM OF PONTOISE MOSES BEN JACOB OF COUCY MOSES BEN JOSEPH BEN MERWAN LEVI MOSES BEN YOM-TOV MOSES HA-DARSHAN MOSES HA-KOHEN OF TORDESILLAS MOSES OF EVREUX

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MOSES OF KIEV MOSES OF PAVIA MOSKONI, JUDAH LEON BEN MOSES MUELHAUSEN, YOM TOV LIPMANN NAHMANIDES NAHMIAS, JOSEPH BEN JOSEPH NAJAR NATHAN BEN JEHIEL OF ROME NATRONAI BAR HILAI NETHANEL BEN AL-FAYYUMI NETHANEL BEN ISAIAH NETHANEL OF CHINON NISSIM BEN REUBEN GERONDI OFFICIAL, NATHAN BEN JOSEPH and JOSEPH PERAHYAH BEN NISSIM PEREZ BEN ELIJAH OF CORBEIL PETTER BEN JOSEPH RASHI (Solomon ben Isaac) REUBEN BEN HAYYIM SAMSON BEN ABRAHAM OF SENS SAMSON BEN ELIEZER SAMSON BEN ISAAC OF CHINON SAMSON BEN JOSEPH OF FALAISE SAMSON BEN SAMSON OF COUCY SAMUEL BEN DAVID SAMUEL BEN KALONYMUS HE-HASID OF SPEYER SAMUEL BEN MEIR (Rashbam) SAMUEL BEN NATRONAI SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON OF FALAISE SAMUEL OF EVREUX SARDI, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC SCHLETTSTADT, SAMUEL BEN AARON SHALOM BEN YIZHAK OF NEUSTADT SHEMAIAH OF TROYES SHIMON, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH IBN SIKILI, JACOB BEN HANANEL SIMEON BEN SAMUEL OF JOINVILLE SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM OF MONTPELLIER SOLOMON BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN SOLOMON BEN JUDAH “OF DREUX” SOLOMON BEN MEIR SOLOMON BEN SAMSON SOLOMON BEN SAMUEL TAKU, MOSES BEN HISDAI TAM, JACOB BEN MEIR TAMAKH, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI TANHUM BEN JOSEPH HA-YERUSHALMI TREVES, JOHANAN BEN MATTATHIAS TYRNAU, ISAAC (Tyrna) VIDAL, CRESCAS VIDAL YOM TOV OF TOLOSA WEIL, JACOB BEN JUDAH YOM TOV BEN ABRAHAM ISHBILI (Ritba) ZECHARIAH BEN BARACHEL ZECHARIAH BEN SOLOMON-ROFE ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI Aharonim AARON BEN DAVID COHEN OF RAGUSA AARON BEN ISAAC BENJAMIN WOLF

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AARON BEN MEIR BRISKER AARON BEN SAMUEL AARON SAMUEL BEN MOSES SHALOM OF KREMENETS AARON SAMUEL BEN NAPHTALI HERZ HA-KOHEN AARONSOHN, MOSES ABBAS, MOSES JUDAH BEN MEIR ABENDANAN ABENSUR, JACOB ABIOB, AARON ABITBOL ABOAB, JACOB BEN SAMUEL ABOAB, SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM ABOAB DA FONSECA, ISAAC ABRAHAM ABELE BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON ABRAHAM ABUSCH (Lissa) BEN ZEVI HIRSCH ABRAHAM BEN AVIGDOR ABRAHAM BEN BENJAMIN ZEEV BRISKER ABRAHAM BEN DANIEL ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH OF VILNA ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN OF ZAMOSC ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI HA-LEVI ABRAHAM BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN HA-SEPHARDI ABRAHAM HAYYIM BEN GEDALIAH ABRAHAMS ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL ABRAHAM ZEVI BEN ELEAZAR ABRAMOWITZ, DOV BAER ABRAMSKY, YEHEZKEL ABRAMSON, SHRAGA ABSABAN, SOLOMON ABTERODE, DAVID BEN MOSES ELIAKIM ABUKARA, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES ABULAFIA, HAYYIM BEN DAVID ABULAFIA, HAYYIM BEN JACOB (I) ABULAFIA, HAYYIM BEN JACOB (II) ABULAFIA, HAYYIM NISSIM BEN ISAAC ABULAFIA, ISAAC ABULAFIA, ISAAC BEN MOSES ABULAFIA, JACOB BEN SOLOMON ABULKER ABYAD, YIHYA BEN SHALOM ACOSTA, ISAAC (Yshak) ADAMS, THEODORE ADARBI, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL ADENI, SOLOMON BAR JOSHUA ADLER, HERMANN ADLER, JOSEPH ADLER, NATHAN BEN SIMEON HA-KOHEN ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS ADLER, SHALOM BEN MENAHEM ADRET, MOSES IBN AGUILAR, MOSES RAPHAEL D AKLAR, MORDECAI BEN RAPHAEL AKRISH, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM ALASHKAR, JOSEPH BEN MOSES ALASHKAR, MOSES BEN ISAAC ALBA, JACOB DI ALBECK ALBELDA, MOSES BEN JACOB ALBUM, ZVI SHIMON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ALCALAY, ISAAC ALEGRE, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON ALFALAS, MOSES ALFANDARI (Alfanderi) ALFANDARI, AARON BEN MOSES ALFANDARI, JACOB ALFANDARI, SOLOMON ELIEZER BEN JACOB ALFASI ALGAZI ALGAZI (Nissim), SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM ALGAZI, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM ALHAYK, UZZIEL BEN MORDECAI ALKALAI, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL ALKALAI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON HAI ALMOSNINO, MOSES BEN BARUCH ALPERSTEIN, AVRAHAM ALSHEIKH, RAPHAEL BEN SHALOM ALSHEIKH, SHALOM BEN JOSEPH ALSHEKH, MOSES ALTMANN, ADOLF ALTSCHUL (-ER; Perles) ALTSCHULER, DAVID AMARILLO, HAYYIM MOSES BEN SOLOMON AMARILLO, SOLOMON BEN JOSEPH AMIEL, MOSHE AVIGDOR AMIGO, ABRAHAM AMRAM, NATHAN BEN HAYYIM ANASCHEHON ANAU ANAU, PHINEHAS HAI BEN MENAHEM ANGEL, MARC ANGEL, MEIR BEN ABRAHAM ANKAWA, RAPHAEL BEN MORDECAI ANSELM HA-LEVI ANTIBI ANTIBI, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC APTOWITZER, VICTOR ARAMA, MEIR BEN ISAAC ARDIT ARDIT, EPHRAIM BEN ABRAHAM ARIELI, YIZHAK ARIPUL, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC AROLLIA, ISAAC BEN MOSES ARONOWITZ, BENJAMIN ARONSON, SOLOMON ARTOM, ELIA SAMUELE ARYEH JUDAH LEIB BEN EPHRAIM HA-KOHEN ARYEH LEIB BEN ELIJAH ARYEH LEIB BEN SAMUEL ZEVI HIRSCH ASAEL, HAYYIM BEN BENJAMIN ASH ASH, AVRAHAM J. ASHER, ABRAHAM BEN GEDALIAH IBN (Aba) ASHER, JOSEPH MICHAEL ASHER ANSCHEL BEN ISAAC OF PRZEMYSL ASHINSKY, AARON MORDECAI HALEVI ASHKENAZI, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB ASHKENAZI, BEZALEL BEN ABRAHAM ASHKENAZI, ELIEZER BEN ELIJAH THE PHYSICIAN ASHKENAZI, GERSHON

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ASHKENAZI, JOSEPH ASHKENAZI, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH ASHKENAZI, JUDAH BEN SIMEON ASHKENAZI, JUDAH SAMUEL ASHKENAZI, MEIR BEN BENJAMIN WOLF ASHKENAZI, MORDECAI BEN ISAAC KOHEN ASHKENAZI, MOSES DAVID ASHKENAZI, NAPHTALI BEN JOSEPH ASHKENAZI, NISSIM ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL ASHKENAZI, SAMUEL JAFFE BEN ISAAC ASHKENAZI, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JACOB (Hakham Zevi) ASSAF, SIMHA ASSEO, DAVID BEN ISAAC ASTRUC, ELIE-ARISTIDE ASZOD, JUDAH BEN ISRAEL ATAR ATTAR, JUDAH BEN JACOB IBN ATTIA, ISAAC BEN ISAIAH AUERBACH AUERBACH, ABRAHAM BEN SELIG AVIEZRI AUERBACH, MEIR BEN ISAAC AVIGDOR BEN JOSEPH HAYYIM AVILA, ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL BEN MOSES DE AVILA, SAMUEL BEN MOSES AVRUTICK, ABRAHAM AYASH AYDAN, DAVID AZEVEDO, MOSES COHEN D’ AZUBIB AZUBY, ABRAHAM BABAD BABAD, JOSEPH BEN MOSES BACHARACH, JAIR HAYYIM BEN MOSES SAMSON BACHARACH, MOSES SAMSON BEN ABRAHAM SAMUEL BACHRACH, JACOB BEN MOSES BACHRACH, JUDAH BEN JOSHUA EZEKIEL BACHRACH, MOSES BEN ISAIAH MENAHEM BACK, SAMUEL BADHAV, ISAAC BEN MICHAEL BADIHI, YAHYA BEN JUDAH BAECK, SAMUEL BAHLUL BAKSHI-DORON, ELIAHU BALIDEH, MOSES BAMBERGER, SELIGMANN BAER BANET BANET, MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM BANET, NAPHTALI BEN MORDECAI BANETH, EZEKIEL BEN JACOB BARBY, MEIR BEN SAUL BARDAKI, ISAIAH BEN ISSACHAR BER BAR-ILAN, MEIR BARISHANSKY, RAPHAEL BARIT, JACOB

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BASCHKO, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN BENJAMIN BASOLA, MOSES BEN MORDECAI BASSANI, MORDECAI (Marco) BAUMOL, JOSHUA BECK, MORITZ BEJA, ISAAC BEN MOSES BEJERANO, BEKHOR HAYYIM BEN MOSES BEKACHE, SHALOM BEKEMOHARAR BELAIS(H), ABRAHAM BEN SHALOM BELGRADO, DAVID FERNANDO BELKIN, SAMUEL BENAIM BENGIS, SELIG REUBEN BENJAMIN, BARUCH BEN ISRAEL BENJAMIN BEN AARON OF ZALOZCE BENJAMIN OF BRODY BENJAMIN OF CAMBRIDGE BENJAMIN ZEEV BEN MATTATHIAS OF ARTA BEN SIMEON, RAPHAEL AARON BENVENISTE, ABRAHAM BENVENISTE, HAYYIM BEN ISRAEL BENVENISTE, JOSEPH BEN MOSES DE SEGOVIA BENVENISTE, JOSHUA RAPHAEL BEN ISRAEL BERAB, JACOB BERAKHAH, ISAAC BERDUGO BERECHIAH BERAKH BEN ELIAKIM GETZEL BERECHIAH BERAKH BEN ISAAC EISIK BERLIN, ARYEH LOEB BEN ABRAHAM MEIR BERLIN, DAVID BEN (Judah) LOEB BERLIN, HAYYIM BERLIN, ISAIAH BEN JUDAH LOEB BERLIN, NAPHTALI ZEVI JUDAH (Ha-Naziv) BERLIN, NOAH HAYYIM ZEVI HIRSCH BERMAN, JACOB BERNFELD, SIMON BERNHEIM, GILLES BERNSTEIN, ARYEH LEIB BERNSTEIN, ISSACHAR BERUSH BEN ARYEH LOEB BERNSTEIN, LOUIS BERTINORO, OBADIAH BEN ABRAHAM YARE BESDIN, MORRIS J. BESSER, CHASKEL O. BEZALEL BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN BEZALEL BEN SOLOMON OF KOBRYN BIALEH, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN NAPHTALI HERZ BIBAS BING, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL BLASER, ISAAC BLAU, AMRAM BLEICH, J. DAVID BLOCH, CHAIM BLOCH, ELIJAH MEYER BLOCH, HERMANN BLOCH, ISSACHAR BAER BEN SAMSON BLOCH, JOSEPH LEIB BLOCH, JOSEPH SAMUEL BLOCH, MATTATHIAS BEN BENJAMIN ZEEV ASHKENAZI

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BLOCH, MOSES BLOCH, SAMSON BEN MOSES BLUM, AMRAM BEN ISAAC JACOB BONAFOUX, DANIEL BEN ISRAEL BONAN BONDI BONDY, FILIP BONFILS, JOSEPH BEN ELIEZER BORDJEL BORGIL, ABRAHAM BEN AZIZ BOSHAL, MOSES BEN SOLOMON BOSKOWITZ, BENJAMIN ZEEV (Wolf) HALEVI BOSKOWITZ, HAYYIM BEN JACOB BOTEACH, SHMUEL BOTON, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH DE BOTON, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES DE BOTON, HIYYA ABRAHAM BEN AARON DI BOTON, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM DI BOTON, MEIR BEN ABRAHAM DI BRACH, SAUL BRAUDE, MARKUS (Mordekhai Ze’ev) BRESLAU, ARYEH LOEB BEN HAYYIM BRESLAU, JOSEPH MOSES BEN DAVID BREUER, JOSEPH BREUER, MORDECHAI BREUER, RAPHAEL BREUER, SOLOMON BRICKNER, BARNETT ROBERT BRIEL, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER BRILL, AZRIEL BRILL, ISAAC BRISZK BRODA BRODA, ABRAHAM BEN SAUL BRODY, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN ISRAEL BROIDA, SIMHAH ZISSEL BEN ISRAEL BRUDO, ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH BRUELL BRUELL, JACOB BUENO, ISAAC ABRAHAM BUKARAT, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON HA-LEVI BULA, RAPHAEL MOSES BULAT, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH BURLA CALAHORA, JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON CALAHORRA, ISRAEL SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON CANTARINI, ISAAC VITA HA-KOHEN CAPSALI, ELIJAH CAPSALI, MOSES BEN ELIJAH CAPUSI, HAYYIM CARIGAL, RAPHAEL HAYYIM ISAAC CARLEBACH, JOSEPH CARLEBACH, SHLOMO CARMI, JOSEPH JEDIDIAH CARMILLY-WEINBERGER, MOSHE CARMOLY, ELIAKIM CARMOLY, ISSACHAR BAER BEN JUDAH LIMA CARO, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH CARO, JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM CARO, JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ISAAC

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

CARVALHO, MORDECAI BARUCH CASE, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM CASES CASES, BENJAMIN BEN DAVID CASTELLO, ABRAHAM ISAAC CASTELNUOVO, MENAHEM AZARIAH MEIR (Menahem Hayyim) BEN ELIJAH CASTIGLIONI, HAYYIM (Vittorio) CASTRO, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM CHAJES, GERSHON BEN ABRAHAM CHAJES, HIRSCH (Zevi) PEREZ CHAJES, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM CHAJES, ZEVI HIRSCH CHARLOP, YECHIEL CHAVEL, CHARLES (Dov) BER CHAZAN, ELIAHU CHEHEBAR, ITZHAK CHELM, SOLOMON BEN MOSES CIECHANOW, ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL LANDAU OF COEN, GRAZIADIO VITA ANANIA COHEN, DAVID (Ha-Nazir) COHEN, HIRSH COHEN, JOSEPH ISAAC COHN, MESHULLAM ZALMAN BEN SOLOMON COLOGNA (DE), ABRAHAM VITA COLOMBO, SAMUEL COLON, JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON (Maharik) COMA, HERZ COMTINO, MORDECAI BEN ELIEZER CONFORTE, DAVID CORCOS, HEZEKIAH MANOAH HAYYIM THE YOUNGER CORIAT CORONEL, NAHMAN NATHAN COVO CULI, JACOB CURIEL, ISRAEL BEN MEIR DI DAHAN DAICHES DAINOW, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN ZEEV WOLF DANGOOR, EZRA SASSON BEN REUBEN DANIEL BEN PERAHYAH HA-KOHEN DANZIG (Danziger), ABRAHAM BEN JEHIEL MICHAL DAVID BEN ARYEH LEIB OF LIDA DAVID BEN HAYYIM OF CORFU DAVID BEN MANASSEH DARSHAN DAVID (Tevele) BEN NATHAN OF LISSA DAVID BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI (Taz) DAVID BEN SHIMEON DAVID BEN SOLOMON IBN ABI ZIMRA (Radbaz) DAVID OF MAKOW DAVIDS, AARON ISSACHAR (Bernard) BEN NAHMAN DEL BENE, ELIEZER DAVID BEN ISAAC DEL BENE, JUDAH ASAHEL BEN DAVID ELIEZER DEL VECCHIO DEL VECCHIO, SHABBETAI ELHANAN BEN ELISHA DELLA TORRE, LELIO (Hillel) DESSLER, ELIJAH ELIEZER DEUTSCH, ALADAR

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DEUTSCH, DAVID BEN MENAHEM MENDEL DEUTSCH, ELIEZER HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM DEUTSCH, IGNAZ DEUTSCH, ISRAEL DEUTSCH, JUDAH JOEL DIENNA, AZRIEL BEN SOLOMON DISEGNI, DARIO DISKIN, MOSES JOSHUA JUDAH LEIB DIWAN, JUDAH BEN AMRAM DOLGIN, SIMON ARTHUR DONIN, HAYIM HALEVY DON-YAHIA, YEHUDAH LEIB DRABKIN, ABRAHAM DRACHMAN, BERNARD DUCKESZ, EDUARD (Yecheskel) DUENNER, JOSEPH ZEVI HIRSCH DURAN DURAN, SIMEON BEN SOLOMON (ben Simeon) DUSCHAK, MORDECAI (Moritz) DUSCHINSKY, JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ISRAEL DUWAYK EDELS, SAMUEL ELIEZER BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI (Maharsha) EGER, AKIVA (“The Younger”) BEN MOSES GUENS EGER, AKIVA BEN SIMHAH BUNIM (“The Elder”) EGER, SAMUEL (Perez Sanwel) BEN JUDAH LOEB EGER, SIMHAH BUNIM BEN MOSES EGER, SOLOMON BEN AKIVA EGOZI EHRENFELD EHRENFELD, NATHAN EHRENFELD, SAMUEL BEN DAVID ZEVI EHRENPREIS, MARCUS (Mordecai) EHRENREICH, HAYYIM JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS EHRENTREU, HEINRICH EIDLITZ, LEOPOLD EISENSTADT, ABRAHAM ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JACOB EISENSTADT, BENZION EISENSTADT, MEIR (Maharam Esh) EISENSTADT, MENAHEM ZEVI EISENSTADT, MOSES ELEAZAR EISENSTADTER, MEIR BEN JUDAH LEIB EISLER, MATYAS ELBAZ ELIAKIM GOETZ BEN MEIR ELIASBERG, MORDECAI ELIEZER BEN MANASSEH BEN BARUCH ELIEZER BEN MEIR HA-LEVI OF PINSK ELIEZER BEN SAMSON ELIJAH BEN BENJAMIN HA-LEVI ELIJAH BEN HAYYIM ELIJAH BEN KALONYMUS OF LUBLIN ELIJAH BEN LOEB OF FULDA

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ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN OF SMYRNA ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN (“Vilna Gaon”) ELIJAH OF PRAGUE ELISHA BEN ABRAHAM ELISHA HAYYIM BEN JACOB ASHKENAZI ELIYAHU, MORDECHAI ELMALEH ELYASHAR, JACOB BEN HAYYIM JOSEPH ELYASHAR, JACOB SAUL BEN ELIEZER JEROHAM EMDEN, JACOB EMMANUEL, ISAAC SAMUEL ENGEL, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH ENGELMANN, GABRIEL ENOCH BEN ABRAHAM EPHRAIM BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN EPHRAIM SOLOMON BEN AARON OF LUNTSHITS (Leczyca) EPHRATI, DAVID TEVELE BEN ABRAHAM EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM MEIR BEN ARYEH LEIB EPSTEIN, BARUCH HA-LEVI EPSTEIN, CHAIM FISCHEL EPSTEIN, ISIDORE EPSTEIN, JEHIEL MICHAL BEN AARON ISAAC HALEVI EPSTEIN, JEHIEL MICHAL BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI EPSTEIN, MOSES MORDECAI EPSTEIN HA-LEVI, MOSES JEHIEL ESCAPA, JOSEPH BEN SAUL ESTROSA, DANIEL ETTINGER, MORDECAI ZEEV BEN ISAAC AARON SEGAL ETTLINGER, JACOB EULENBURG, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM MOSES ISRAEL EYBESCHUETZ, JONATHAN EYLENBURG, ISSACHAR BAER BEN ISRAEL LEISER PARNAS EZEKIEL FEIVEL BEN ZEEV WOLF EZRA BEN EZEKIEL HA-BAVLI FAITUSI, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM FALK, JACOB JOSHUA BEN ZEVI HIRSCH FALK, JOSHUA FALK, JOSHUA BEN ALEXANDER HA-KOHEN FARISSOL, ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI FEDER, RICHARD FEDERBUSCH, SIMON FEIGENBAUM, ISAAC HA-KOHEN FEINSTEIN, MOSES FELDER, GEDALIAH FERBER, ZEVI HIRSCH FEUCHTWANG, DAVID FEUERSTEIN FIGO, AZARIAH FINKEL, ELIEZER JUDAH FINKEL, NATHAN ZEVI BEN MOSES FINKELSTEIN, SHIMON FISCHELS, MEIR BEN EPHRAIM FISCHER, JOSEF FLECKELES, ELEAZAR BEN DAVID

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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FORTI, BARUCH UZZIEL BEN BARUCH FRAENKEL, DAVID BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH FRAENKEL-TEOMIM, BARUCH BEN JOSHUA EZEKIEL FEIWEL FRANCES, ISAAC FRANCO, MOSES FRANK, MENAHEM MENDEL FRANK, ZEVI PESAH FRANKEL, ZACHARIAS FRANKFURTER, MOSES FRANKL, ADOLF FRANKL-GRUEN, ADOLF ABRAHAM FREIBERGER, MIROSLAV SALOM FREIMANN FREIMANN, JACOB FRENKEL, IZHAK YEDIDIAH FREUDEMANN, SIMHAH FREUND, SAMUEL BEN ISSACHAR BAER FRIED, AARON FRIEDERMAN, ZALMAN JACOB FRIEDLAND, NATAN FRIEDMANN, ABRAHAM FRIEDMANN, DAVID BEN SAMUEL FRIEDMANN, MEIR FRUMKIN, ARYEH LEIB FUCHS, MOSES ZEVI FULD, AARON BEN MOSES FUNK, SOLOMON GABBAI IZIDRO (Ysidro), ABRAHAM GAGIN, HAYYIM ABRAHAM BEN MOSES GAGIN, SHALOM MOSES BEN HAYYIM ABRAHAM GALANTE GALANTE, JEDIDIAH BEN MOSES GALANTE, MOSES BEN JONATHAN (II) GALIPAPA, ELIJAH MEVORAKH GANSO, JOSEPH GANZFRIED, SOLOMON BEN JOSEPH GAON, SOLOMON GARMISON, SAMUEL GASTER, MOSES GATIGNO GEDALIAH, JUDAH BEN MOSES GEDALIAH OF SIEMIATYCZE GEDILIAH, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL GEFFEN, TOBIAS GELBHAUS, SIGMUND (Joshua Samuel) GENNAZANO, ELIJAH HAYYIM BEN BENJAMIN OF GENTILI GERSHON, ISAAC GESUNDHEIT, JACOB BEN ISAAC GHERON, YAKKIR MORDECAI BEN ELIAKIM GHEZ GHIRON GIFTER, MORDECAI GINSBURGER, ERNEST GLASNER, MOSES SAMUEL GLAZER, SIMON GLOGAU, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN ASHER LEMMEL HA-LEVI

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

GLUECK, ABRAHAM ISAAC GOITEIN, BARUCH BENEDICT GOLD, WOLF (Ze’ev) GOLDBERGER, IZIDOR GOLDIN, HYMAN ELIAS GOLDMAN, AHARON GOLDSTEIN, HERBERT S. GOLINKIN, MORDECHAI YAAKOV GOMBINER, ABRAHAM ABELE BEN HAYYIM HALEVI GORDON, ELIEZER GORDON, JACOB GOREN, SHLOMO GOSLAR, NAPHTALI HIRSCH BEN JACOB GOTA, MOSES ZERAHIAH BEN SHNEUR GOTTLIEB, JEDIDIAH BEN ISRAEL GRAJEWSKI, ARYEH LEIB GRAJEWSKI, ELIEZER ZALMAN GRAUBART, Y. L. GRAZIANO, ABRAHAM JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI GREENWALD, JEKUTHIEL JUDAH (Leopold) GRISHABER, ISAAC GRODZINSKI, HAYYIM OZER GRODZINSKI, ZVI HIRSCH GROSS, HEINRICH (Henri) GROSSBERG, MENASSEH GROSSMAN, YIZHAK DAVID GRUENFELD, JUDAH GRUENHUT, ELEAZAR (Lazar) GRUENWALD, MORITZ GRUNFELD, ISIDOR GRUNWALD, AMRAM GRUNWALD, JUDAH GRUNWALD, MAX GUEDEMANN, MORITZ GUENZIG, EZRIEL (Azriel) GUENZLER, ABRAHAM GUNZBERG, ARYEH LEIB BEN ASHER GURLAND, HAYYIM JONAH GUTTMACHER, ELIJAH GUTTMANN, ALEXANDER GUTTMANN, MICHAEL (Mihčdly) HAAS, SOLOMON BEN JEKUTHIEL KAUFMANN HABIB, HAYYIM BEN MOSES BEN SHEM TOV HABIB, MOSES BEN SOLOMON IBN HABILLO, ELISHA HABSHUSH, SHALOM BEN YAHYA HACOHEN, MORDECAI HACOHEN, RAPHAEL HAYYIM HADAYAH, OVADIAH HAGIZ, JACOB (Israel) HAHN, JOSEPH BEN MOSES HAHN, JOSEPH YUSPA BEN PHINEHAS SELIGMANN HAKIM, SAMUEL BEN MOSES HA-LEVI IBN HALBERSTADT, ABRAHAM BEN MENAHEM MENKE HALBERSTADT, MORDECAI HALBERSTAM, ISAAC BEN HAYYIM HALEVA, ISHAK

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 4. Rabbinics Biographies Aharonim (continued)

HALEVI, EZEKIEL EZRA BEN JOSHUA HALEVI, HAYYIM DAVID HALEVI, JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI, SASSON BEN ELIJAH BEN MOSES HALEVY, MEYER ABRAHAM HALFON, ABRAHAM HAMBURG, ABRAHAM BENJAMIN (Wolf) HAMBURGER, JACOB HAMEIRI, MOSHE HANDALI, JOSHUA BEN JOSEPH HANNELES, JUDAH LEIB BEN MEIR HANOKH ZUNDEL BEN JOSEPH HARARI HARIF HARIF HA-LEVI HARLAP, JACOB MOSES BEN ZEBULUN HAVER HAYYIM (Ben) SHABBETAI (Maharhash) HAYYIM BEN BEZALEL HAYYIM JUDAH BEN HAYYIM HAYYOT, MENAHEM MANISH BEN ISAAC HAYYUN, ABRAHAM BEN NISSIM HAYYUN, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM HAZZAN HAZZAN, ISRAEL MOSES BEN ELIEZER HEILBRONN, JACOB BEN ELHANAN HEILBRONN, JOSEPH BEN DAVID OF ESCHWEGE HEILBUT, ELEAZAR LAZI BEN JOSEPH BEN LAZI HEILPERN (Raphael), YOM TOV LIPMAN BEN ISRAEL HEILPRIN, JEHIEL BEN SOLOMON HEILPRIN, PHINEHAS MENAHEM HEILPRIN, SAMUEL HELMANN BEN ISRAEL HEILPRUN, ELIEZER LEIZER BEN MORDECAI HELLER, ARYEH LEIB BEN JOSEPH HA-KOHEN OF STRY HELLER, JEHIEL BEN AARON HELLER, JOSHUA BEN AARON HELLER, JUDAH HELLER, YOM TOV LIPMANN BEN NATHAN HA-LEVI HELLER, ZEVI HIRSCH HENKIN, JOSEPH ELIJAH HEPPNER, ARON HERSCHORN, JOSHUA (She’ea) HALEVY HERZFELD, LEVI HERZOG, DAVID HERZOG, ISAAC HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA BEN JACOB HEZEKIAH BEN DAVID DA SILVA HIER, MARVIN HILDESHEIMER, AZRIEL (Israel) HILDESHEIMER, MEIR HILEWITZ, ALTER HILLEL BEN NAPHTALI ZEVI (Herz) HILLMAN, SAMUEL ISAAC HIRSCH, MARKUS

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HIRSCH, SAMSON (Ben) RAPHAEL HIRSCHENSOHN HIRSCHLER, PAL HIRSCHLER, RENE HIRSCHPRUNG, PINHAS HIRSHENSON, HAYIM HIYYA ROFE HOECHHEIMER, MOSES BEN HAYYIM COHEN HOESCHEL (Joshua) BEN SAUL HOFFMAN, JACOB HOFFMANN, DAVID ZEVI HOLLANDER, ISAIAH BEN AARON HOROVITZ, JACOB HOROVITZ, MARCUS HOROWITZ HOROWITZ, ABRAHAM BEN ISAIAH HOROWITZ, ABRAHAM BEN SHABBETAI SHEFTEL HOROWITZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN ELEAZAR HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN ISAAC HOROWITZ, DAVID JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN ZEVI HIRSCH HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ISAAC HA-LEVI BEN JACOB JOKEL HOROWITZ, ISAIAH BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ISAIAH BEN JACOB HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ISAIAH BEN SHABBETAI SHEFTEL HOROWITZ, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM HOROWITZ, JACOB JOKEL BEN MEIR HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, LAZAR BEN DAVID JOSHUA HOESCHEL HOROWITZ, MESHULLAM ISSACHAR BEN ARYEH LEIB HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, MOSES BEN JUDAH HOROWITZ, PHINEHAS BEN ISRAEL HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, PHINEHAS BEN ZEVI HIRSCH HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, SAMUEL SHMELKE OF NIKOLSBURG HOROWITZ, SAUL HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM HALEVI HOROWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN HAYYIM ARYEH LEIBUSH HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JOSHUA MOSES AARON HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN PHINEHAS HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, ZEVI JOSHUA BEN SAMUEL SHMELKE HOZIN, ZEDAKAH BEN SAADIAH HUEBSCH, ADOLPH HURVITZ, JOSEPH YOZEL HURWITZ, SHMARYA LEIB HUTNER, ISAAC HYAMSON, MOSES HYAMSON, NATHAN HYMAN, AARON IBN ARDUT, HAYYIM JOSEPH BEN AZRIEL HAKOHEN IBN DANAN, SAADIAH BEN MAIMUN IBN EZRA, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC IBN EZRA, SOLOMON BEN MOSES IBN HABIB, JACOB BEN SOLOMON IBN HAYYIM, AARON (ben Abraham) IBN HAYYIM, AARON IBN JAMIL, ISAAC NISSIM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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IBN MUSA, HAYYIM BEN JUDAH IBN SHOSHAN, DAVID IBN SHUAIB, JOEL IBN VERGA, JOSEPH IBN YAHYA, DAVID BEN JOSEPH IBN YAHYA, DAVID BEN SOLOMON IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN DAVID IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN JOSEPH IBN YAHYA, JOSEPH BEN DAVID IBN ZUR, JACOB BEN REUBEN IGRA, MESHULLAM (Moses) BEN SAMSON ILLOWY, BERNARD ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM DI MOLINA ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM OF POSEN ISAAC BEN BEZALEL OF VLADIMIR ISAAC BEN JACOB MIN HA-LEVIYYIM ISAAC BENJAMIN WOLF BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN ISAAC BEN NOAH KOHEN SHAPIRA ISAAC BEN SAMSON HA-KOHEN ISAAC BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI ISAIAH HASID FROM ZBARAZH ISAIAH MENAHEM BEN ISAAC ISCANDARI ISHMAEL BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC HA-KOHEN ISIDOR LAZARE ISRAEL ISRAEL, YOM TOV BEN ELIJAH ISRAEL BEN BENJAMIN OF BELZEC ISRAEL BEN SAMUEL OF SHKLOV ISRAELI, SHAUL ISRAEL ISSERL BEN ISAAC SEGAL ISRAEL MEIR HA-KOHEN (Hafez Hayyim) ISRAEL MOSES BEN ARYEH LOEB ISSACHAR BAER BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN (Klazki) ISSACHAR BAER BEN TANHUM ISSACHAR BERMAN BEN NAPHTALI HA-KOHEN ISSAR JUDAH BEN NEHEMIAH OF BRISK ISSERLES, MOSES BEN ISRAEL (Rema) ISTRUMSA (Istrusa), HAYYIM ABRAHAM ITALIENER, BRUNO JABEZ, JOSEPH BEN HAYYIM JACOB, BENNO JACOB BEN AARON OF KARLIN JACOB BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON JACOB BEN BENJAMIN ZEEV JACOB BEN EPHRAIM NAPHTALI HIRSCH OF LUBLIN JACOB BEN JUDAH OF LONDON JACOB BEN MORDECAI OF SCHWERIN JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN JACOB ISAAC BEN SHALOM JACOB JOSEPH OF OSTROG JACOB (Jakob) OF BELZYCE JACOB SAMSON OF SHEPETOVKA JAFFE, MORDECAI-GIMPEL JAFFE, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC ASHKENAZI JAFFE-MARGOLIOT, ISRAEL DAVID JAKOBOVITS, IMMANUEL JAVETZ, BARZILLAI BEN BARUCH JEHIEL MICHAEL (Michel) BEN ABRAHAM MEIR OF CIFER

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

JEHIEL MICHAEL (Michel) BEN JUDAH LEIB HEHASID JELLIN, ARYEH LOEB BEN SHALOM SHAKHNA JELLINEK, ADOLF JENER, ABRAHAM NAPHTALI HIRSCH BEN MORDECAI JEREMIAH BEN ISAAC JERUSALIMSKI, MOSES NAHUM BEN BENJAMIN JESHUA BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI JESURUN, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM HAYYIM JEWNIN, ABRAHAM JONAH JIZFAN, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH JOAB BEN JEREMIAH JOEL, DAVID HEYMANN JOEL, MANUEL JOEL BEN MOSES GAD JOFFEN, ABRAHAM JOLLES, ZECHARIAH ISAIAH JONATHAN BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC JONATHAN BEN JACOB JONATHAN BEN JOSEPH OF RUZHANY joseph, jacob JOSEPH BEN ELIJAH OF ZASLAW JOSEPH BEN ISSACHAR BAER OF PRAGUE JOSEPH BEN JOSHUA MOSES OF FRANKFuRT JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI GERSHON HA-KOHEN OF CRACOW JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI HA-KOHEN JOSEPH BEN MOSES JOSEPH BEN MOSES (Ashkenazi), DARSHAN OF PRZEMYSLANY JOSEPH BEN MOSES OF KREMENETS JOSEPH BEN MOSES PHINEHAS JOSEPH BEN ZADDIK JOSEPH BEN ZE’EV WOLF HA-LEVI JOSEPH DAVID (Salonika) JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ELIJAH AL-HAKAM JOSEPH MAMAN AL-MAGHRIBI JOSEPH SAMUEL BEN ZEVI OF CRACOW JOSEPH SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN MEIR JOSHUA BEN MORDECAI FALK HA-KOHEN JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN JACOB JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN JOSEPH OF CRACOW JOSPE, ALFRED JUDAH ARYEH LEIB BEN DAVID JUDAH BEN ELIEZER JUDAH BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN JUDAH BEN MOSES OF LUBLIN JUDAH BEN NISSAN JUDAH HASID (Segal) HA-LEVI JUDAH LEIB BEN ENOCH ZUNDEL JUDAH LEIB BEN HILLEL OF SCHWERSENZ JUDAH LOEW BEN BEZALEL (Maharal) JUNG, LEO JUNGREIS, ASHER ANSHEL KAATZ, SAUL KADOORIE, SASSON KAEMPF, SAUL ISAAC KAFAH, YIHYE BEN SOLOMON KAFAH, YOSEF

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 4. Rabbinics Biographies Aharonim (continued)

KAHANA, ABRAHAM ARYEH LEIB BEN SHALOM SHAKHNA KAHANA, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM KAHANA, JEHIEL ZEVI BEN JOSEPH MORDECAI KAHANA, KALMAN KAHANA, NAHMAN KAHANA, SOLOMON DAVID KAHANEMAN, JOSEPH (“Ponevezer Rav”) KAHANOV, MOSES NEHEMIAH KAHANOVITCH, ISRAEL ISAAC KAHN, ZADOC KALA’I, MORDECAI BEN SOLOMON KALAI, SAMUEL BEN MOSES KALISCHER, JUDAH LEIB BEN MOSES KALISCHER, ZEVI HIRSCH KALLIR, ELEAZAR BEN ELEAZAR KALMANOWITZ, ABRAHAM KAMELHAR, JEKUTIEL ARYEH BEN GERSHON KAMENETSKY, YAAKOV KANIEVSKY, JACOB ISRAEL KANN, MOSES KAPLAN, ALEXANDER SENDER BEN ZERAH HA-KOHEN KAPLAN, JACOB KAPUZATO, MOSES HA-YEVANI KARA, JOSEPH KARA, MENAHEM BEN JACOB KAREH, SOLOMON KARELITZ, AVRAHAM YESHAYAHU (Hazon Ish) KARFUNKEL, AARON BEN JUDAH LEIB HA-KOHEN KARGAU, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH KARMI (Cremieux) KASABI, JOSEPH BEN NISSIM KASHER, MENAHEM KASOVSKY, CHAYIM YEHOSHUA KASPI, NETHANEL BEN NEHEMIAH KATTINA, JACOB KATZ, MENAHEM KATZ, REUVEN KATZBURG, DAVID ZEVI KATZENELLENBOGEN KATZENELLENBOGEN, DAVID TEVEL KATZENELLENBOGEN, MEIR BEN ISAAC KAUDER, SAMUEL JUDAH BEN DAVID KAZIN, JUDAH BEN YOM TOV KAZIN, RAPHAEL BEN ELIJAH KECSKEMETI, ARMIN KECSKEMETI, LIPOT KIMHI, JACOB BEN SAMUEL KIMHI, RAPHAEL ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH KIMHI, SOLOMON BEN NISSIM JOSEPH DAVID KIRSHBLUM, MORDECAI KITTSEE, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC KITTSEE, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN SAMUEL KLATZKIN, ELIJAH BEN NAPHTALI HERZ

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KLATZKO, MORDECAI BEN ASHER KLAUSNER, ABRAHAM KLAUSNER, ZEVI HIRSCH KLAVAN, ISRAEL KLEIN, MORITZ KLEIN, PHILIP KLEIN, SALOMON WOLF KLEIN, SAMUEL SHMELKA KLEMPERER, GUTMANN (Gumper) KLEPFISH, SAMUEL ZANVIL KLUGER, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH AARON KOENIGSBERGER, BERNHARD (Barukh) KOERNER, MOSES BEN ELIEZER PHOEBUS KOHEN, ELEAZAR BEN ZEEV WOLF KOHEN, RAPHAEL BEN JEKUTHIEL SUESSKIND KOHN, PINCHAS KOHN, SAMUEL KOIDONOVER, AARON SAMUEL BEN ISRAEL KOIDONOVER, ZEVI HIRSCH KOLIN, SAMUEL BEN NATHAN HA-LEVI KONVITZ, JOSEPH KOOK, ZEVI JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC HAKOHEN KOPPELMAN, JACOB BEN SAMUEL BUNIM KORNFELD, AARON BEN MORDECAI BAER KORNIK, MEIR BEN MOSES KOTLER, AARON KOWALSKY, JUDAH LEIB KRAMER, MOSES BEN DAVID, OF VILNA KRANZ, JACOB BEN WOLF (Maggid of Dubno) KRAUSS, JUDAH HA-KOHEN KREMNITZER, JOHANAN BEN MEIR KRENGEL, MENAHEM MENDEL KRISPIN, JOSHUA ABRAHAM KRISTIANPOLLER KROCH, JACOB LEIB BEN SHEMAIAH KROCHMAL, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN ABRAHAM KRONIK, MOSES BEN AKIVA KRYGIER, RIVON LAMPRONTI, ISAAC HEZEKIAH BEN SAMUEL LANDAU, ELEAZAR BEN ISRAEL LANDAU, EZEKIEL BEN JUDAH LANDAU, ISAAC ELIJAH BEN SAMUEL LANDAU, ISRAEL JONAH BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI LANDAU, JACOB LANDAU, LEIBUSH MENDEL LANDAU, NATHAN LANDSOFER, JONAH BEN ELIJAH LANIADO, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC LANIADO, RAPHAEL SOLOMON BEN SAMUEL LANIADO, SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM LANIADO, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM LAPAPA, AARON BEN ISAAC LAPIDOT, ALEXANDER MOSES LATTES, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC LATTES, BONET LATTES, ISAAC JOSHUA LAU, ISRAEL MEIR LAWANI, DAUD LEESER, ISAAC

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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LEEUW, JACOB BEN HAYYIM (Heymann) DE LEHMANN, JOSEPH LEHMANN, MARCUS LEIBOWITZ, BARUCH BER LEMBERGER, MOSES BEN AARON LEON LEON, MESSER JUDAH BEN JEHIEL LEONE, LEON (Judah) DI LERNER, MAYER BEN MORDECAI OF ALTONA LEV (Lab; Leb), JOSEPH BEN DAVID IBN (Maharival) LEVI LEVI, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH LEVI, BENEDETTO LEVI (Bet ha-Levi), ISAAC BEN SOLOMON LEVI, ISRAEL LEVI, JACOB BEN ISRAEL LEVI, MORITZ LEVI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC LEVI (Bet ha-Levi), SOLOMON BEN ISAAC LEVI BEN HABIB (Ralbah) LEVIN, JUDAH Leib LEVIN, ZEVI HIRSCH (-el) BEN ARYEH LOEB LEVY, ALFRED LEVY, ISAAC LEVY, JACOB LEVY, JUDAH BEN MENAHEM LEVY, SAMUEL LEVY, SION LEWIN, AARON BEN NATHAN OF RZESZOW LEWIN, BENJAMIN MANASSEH LEWIN, JOSHUA HESHEL BEN ELIJAH ZEEV HA-LEVI LEWIN, JUDAH LEIB LEWIN, LOUIS LEWINSTEIN, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM ABUSH LEWY, ISRAEL LEWYSOHN, ABRAHAM LEWYSOHN, YEHUDI LEIB LOUIS LIBER, MAURICE LIBSCHITZ, BARUCH MORDECAI BEN JACOB LICHTENSTADT, BENJAMIN WOLF BEN JUDAH LICHTENSTEIN, HILLEL BEN BARUCH LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM JEKUTHIEL ZALMAN BEN MOSES JOSEPH LIFSHITZ, DAVID LIMA, MOSES BEN ISAAC JUDAH LIPKIN (Salanter), ISRAEL BEN ZEEV WOLF LIPSCHITZ, SOLOMON ZALMAN LIPSCHUETZ LIPSCHUETZ, BARUCH ISAAC BEN ISRAEL LIPSCHUETZ, GEDALIAH BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN LIPSCHUETZ, HILLEL ARYEH LEIB BEN ZEEV DOV LIPSCHUETZ, ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER LIPSCHUTZ, ELIEZER BEN SOLOMON LIPSCHUTZ, ISRAEL BEN GEDALIAH LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI LISSER, JOSHUA FALK LOEB, ISIDORE LOEBEL, ISRAEL LOEW, ELEAZAR

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

LOEWENSTAMM LOEWENSTEIN, LEOPOLD LOEWY, JACOB EZEKIEL BEN JOSEPH LOLLI, EUDE LONDON, JACOB BEN MOSES JUDAH LOOKSTEIN, JOSEPH HYMAN LOPIAN, ELIJAH LORBEERBAUM, JACOB BEN JACOB MOSES OF LISSA LUBETZKY, JUDAH LUBLIN, MEIR BEN GEDALIAH LURIA LURIA, DAVID BEN JUDAH LURIA, SOLOMON BEN JEHIEL (Maharshal) LUZZATTO, JACOB BEN ISAAC LUZZATTO, SAMUEL DAVID LUZZATTO, SIMONE BEN ISAAC SIMHAH LYONS, JACQUES JUDAH MAARSEN, ISAAC MAIMI, SIMON MAIMON, JUDAH LEIB MAISEL, ELIJAH HAYYIM MALACHI BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN MALBIM, MEIR LOEB BEN JEHIEL MICHAEL MALCA MALKHI, EZRA BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI MALKHI, MOSES MALKHI, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI MANI MANISCHEWITZ, HIRSCH MANSURAH, SAADIAH BEN JUDAH MANSURAH, SHALOM BEN JUDAH MARGALIOT, REUBEN MARGOLIES, ISAAC BEN ELIJAH MARGOLIES, MOSES SEBULUN MARGOLIOT, MOSES BEN SIMEON MARGOLIOTH MARGOLIOTH, EPHRAIM ZALMAN BEN MENAHEM MANNES MARGOLIOTH, JACOB MARGOLIOTH, JUDAH LOEB MARGOLIS, GAVRIEL ZEV MARGULIES, SAMUEL HIRSCH MARINI, SHABBETHAI HAYYIM (Vita) MARLI, SAMUEL (RAPHAEL) BEN MAZLIAH MARMORSTEIN, ARTHUR MASHASH, SHLOMO MASKILEISON, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH LEIB MASLI’AH SALIH MASNUT, SAMUEL BEN NISSIM MAT, MOSES MATLIN, MOSHE MATTERSDORF, JEREMIAH BEN ISAAC MAYBAUM, SIGMUND MEDINA, SAMUEL BEN MOSES DE MEDINI, HAYYIM HEZEKIAH BEN RAPHAEL ELIJAH MEHLSACK, ELIAKIM BEN JUDAH HA-MILZAHGI MEIR, JACOB MEIR BEN ELIJAH MEIR SIMHAH HA-KOHEN OF DVINSK

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 4. Rabbinics Biographies Aharonim (continued)

MEISEL, MOSES BEN MORDECAI MEISELS, DAVID DOV MEISELS, DOV BERUSH MEKLENBURG, JACOB ZEVI MELAMED, RAHAMIM REUVEN MELAMED, SIMAN TOV MELCHIOR, MARCUS MELCHIOR, MICHAEL MELDOLA MELDOLA, RAPHAEL MELTZER, ISSER ZALMAN MENAHEM BEN MOSES HA-BAVLI MENAHEM MENDEL OF SHKLOV MENDES MENDES MENDLOWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL MESHULLAM PHOEBUS BEN ISRAEL SAMUEL MESHULLAM ZALMAN HA-KOHEN MEYER, SELIGMANN MEYUHAS, MOSES JOSEPH MORDECAI BEN RAPHAEL MEYUHAS MEYUHAS, RAPHAEL MEYUHAS BEN SAMUEL MICHAELSON, EZEKIEL ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM HAYYIM MILEVSKY, AHARON MILLER, ISRAEL MINTZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC MINZ, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI MINZ, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI MIRSKY, SAMUEL KALMAN MIZRAHI, DAVID BEN SHALOM MIZRAHI, ELIJAH MODAI, HAYYIM MODENA, LEONE (Judah Aryeh) MODERN, JUDAH MOELLIN, JACOB BEN MOSES (Maharil) MOHILEWER, SAMUEL MONZON, ABRAHAM MORDECAI (Mokhiah) BEN HAYYIM OF EISENSTADT MORDECAI BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI MORDECAI BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH OF KREMSIER MORPURGO, SAMSON BEN JOSHUA MOSES MORTARA, MARCO MORTEIRA, SAUL LEVI MOSCATO, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH MOSES BEN DANIEL OF ROHATYN MOSES BEN HANOKH MOSES BEN ISAIAH KATZ MOSES BEN JACOB OF KIEV MOSES ESRIM VE-ARBA MOSES ISAAC MOSES ZEEV BEN ELIEZER OF GRODNO MOTAL, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB MOWSHOWITZ, ISRAEL MUELLER, JOEL

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MUENZ, ELEAZAR BEN ARYEH LEIB MUENZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI MUNK MURMELSTEIN, BENJAMIN MUSSAFIA, BENJAMIN BEN IMMANUEL MUSSAFIA, HAYYIM ISAAC NAHON NAHOUM, HAIM NAHUM, ELIEZER BEN JACOB NAJARA NATHAN OF GAZA NATHANSON, JOSEPH SAUL NATONEK, JOSEPH NAVON, EPHRAIM BEN AARON NAVON, JONAH BEN HANUN NAVON, JONAH MOSES BEN BENJAMIN NAWI NAZIR, MOSES HA-LEVI NEPPI, HANANEL (Grazziadio) NERIAH, MOSHE ZEVI NEUDA, ABRAHAM NIEMIROWER, JACOB ISAAC NIETO, DAVID NIETO, ISAAC NISSENBAUM, ISAAC NISSIM, ISAAC NOBEL, NEHEMIAH ANTON NORZI NORZI, JEDIDIAH SOLOMON RAPHAEL BEN ABRAHAM NUNES VAIS OBERNIK, JUDAH OLIVEYRA, SOLOMON BEN DAVID DE OLMO, JACOB DANIEL BEN ABRAHAM OLSCHWANGER, ISAAC WOLF ONDERWIJZER, ABRAHAM BEN SAMSON HA-KOHEN OPPENHEIM, BEER BEN ISAAC OPPENHEIM, DAVID OPPENHEIM, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM OPPENHEIM, HAYYIM OPPENHEIM, JOACHIM ORNSTEIN, JACOB MESHULLAM BEN MORDECAI ZEEV OSHRY, EPHRAIM OTTOLENGHI, JOSEPH BEN NATHAN OUZIEL, BEN-ZION MEIR HAI OVADIA, NISSIM OVCHINSKI, LEVI PACIFICI, RICCARDO PALACHE, HAYYIM PANET, EZEKIEL BEN JOSEPH PANIGEL, ELIYAHU MOSHE PANIGEL, RAPHAEL MEIR BEN JUDAH PAPO, SAMUEL SHEMAIAH PARDES, ELIYAHU PARDES, SHMUEL PARDO PARDO, DAVID SAMUEL BEN JACOB PARDO, JOSEPH PARDO, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL

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PARIS, HAILU PARNAS, HAYYIM NAHMAN PERAHYAH, AARON BEN HAYYIM ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN PERAHYAH, HASDAI BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN PERELMANN, JEROHMAN JUDAH LEIB BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN PEREZ, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH PEREZ BEN MOSES OF BRODY PERGOLA, RAPHAEL DE LA PERLA, JEROHAM FISCHEL BEN ARYEH ZEVI PERLES, ISAAC MOSES PERLES, MOSES MEIR BEN ELEAZAR PERLHEFTER, ISSACHAR BEHR BEN JUDAH MOSES PERLMUTTER, ABRAHAM ZEVI PESANTE, MOSES BEN HAYYIM BEN SHEM TOV PINES, YEHIEL MICHAEL (Michal) PINHEIRO, MOSES PINNER, EPHRAIM MOSES BEN ALEXANDER SUSSKIND PINTO PLACZEK, ABRAHAM PLAUT, HEZEKIAH FEIVEL PLOTZKI, MEIR DAN OF OSTROVA POLACHEK, SOLOMON POLLACK, JACOB BEN JOSEPH POLLAK, MIKSA POLLAK, MOSES HA-LEVI POPPERS, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN HA-KOHEN PORATH, ISRAEL PORGES, MOSES BEN ISRAEL NAPHTALI PORGES, NATHAN PORTO, ABRAHAM MENAHEM BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN PORTO-RAFA, MOSES BEN JEHIEL HA-KOHEN PORUSH, ISRAEL POSNER, DAVID BEN NAPHTALI POSNER, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN JOSEPH POUPKO, BERNARD PRATO, DAVID PREIL, ELAZAR MEYER PRIJS, JOSEPH PRIMO, SAMUEL (Judah) PROSSNITZ, JUDAH LEIB BEN JACOB HOLLESCHAU PROSSTITZ, DANIEL PROVENÇAL, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM PROVENÇAL, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM PUKHOVITSER, JUDAH LEIB QUERIDO, JACOB QUETSCH, SOLOMON RABBA, MENAHEM RABBINOVICZ, RAPHAEL NATHAN NATA RABINOVICH, ISAAC JACOB RABINOWICH (Rabinowitsch), ELIYAHU AKIVA RABINOWITZ, SAMUEL JACOB RABINOWITZ-TEOMIM, ELIJAH DAVID BEN BENJAMIN RACCAH, MASUD BEN AARON RACKMAN, EMANUEL RAGOLER, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON RAGOLER, ELIJAH BEN JACOB RANSCHBURG, BEZALEL BEN JOEL RAPAPORT, DAVID HA-KOHEN

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

RAPHALL, MORRIS JACOB RAPOPORT RAPOPORT, ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL JEHIEL HAKOHEN RAPOPORT, BENJAMIN ZEEV WOLF HA-KOHEN BEN ISAAC RAPOPORT, SAMUEL RAPPAPORT, ISAAC BEN JUDAH HA-KOHEN RATH, MESHULLAM RATNER, DOV BAER REGGIO, ISACCO SAMUEL REICH, KOPPEL (Jacob) REINES, ISAAC JACOB REISCHER, JACOB BEN JOSEPH REIZES (Reizeles) RENASSIA, YOSSEF RESNICK, ZVI (HIRSH) YOSEF HAKOHEN RICE, ABRAHAM JOSEPH RICHIETTI, JOSEPH SHALLIT BEN ELIEZER RISIKOFF, MENAHEM (MENDEL) HACOHEN RISKIN, SHLOMO RIVKES, MOSES BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH ROKEAH, ELAZAR BEN SHMELKE ROSANES, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL ROSANES, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN ISSACHAR BERISH ROSEN, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC ROSEN, MOSES ROSENAK, LEOPOLD ROSENBAUM, MOSES HAYYIM LITS ROSENBERG, ISRAEL ROSENBLATT, MORDECAI BEN MENAHEM ROSENBLATT, SAMUEL ROSENTHAL, NAPHTALI ROZIN (Rosen), JOSEPH ROZOVSKI, PINHAS RUBINSTEIN, ISAAC RUBIO, MORDECAI RUDERMAN, JACOB ISAAC RUELF, ISAAC SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI SACERDOTI, ANGELO-RAPHAEL CHAIM SAFRAN, ALEXANDER SAFRAN, BEZALEL ZEEV SAFRAN, JOSEPH SAGIS SALANT, JOSEPH SUNDEL BEN BENJAMIN BENISH SALANT, SAMUEL SALIH, ABRAHAM SALIH, YAHYA BEN JOSEPH (MAHARIS) SALIH IBN YAHYA IBN JOSEPH SALVENDI, ADOLF SAMEGAH, JOSEPH BEN BENJAMIN SAMUEL BEN AVIGDOR SAMUEL BEN DAVID MOSES HA-LEVI SAMUEL BEN JACOB OF KELMY SAMUEL BEN URI SHRAGA PHOEBUS SANGUINETTI, AZARIAH HAYYIM SAPORTA, HANOKH SAR, SAMUEL SARAVAL

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SARAVAL, JACOB RAPHAEL BEN SIMHAH JUDAH SARAVAL, JUDAH LEIB SARFATY SARNA, EZEKIEL SASPORTAS, JACOB SASSON, AARON BEN JOSEPH SCHACHTER, HERSCHEL SCHACHTER, JACOB J. SCHACTER-SHALOMI, ZALMAN SCHEIBER, ALEXANDER SCHEINFELD, SOLOMON ISAAC SCHERMAN, NOSSON SCHICK, ABRAHAM BEN ARYEH LOEB SCHICK, BARUCH BEN JACOB SCHICK, MOSES BEN JOSEPH SCHIFF, DAVID TEVELE SCHIFF, MEIR BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN SCHILLER-SZINESSY, SOLOMON MAYER SCHLESINGER, AKIVA JOSEPH SCHLIEFER, SOLOMON SCHMELKES, GEDALIAH BEN MORDECAI SCHMELKES, ISAAC JUDAH SCHONFELD, VICTOR SCHOR, ALEXANDER SENDER BEN EPHRAIM ZALMAN SCHOR, EPHRAIM SOLOMON (THE ELDER) BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH SCHORR, ABRAHAM HAYYIM BEN NAPHTALI ZEVI HIRSCH SCHORR, MOSES (Mojzesz) SCHUECK, JENO SCHULHOF, ISAAC SCHUSTER, AARON SCHWAB, LOW SCHWAB, SHIMON SCHWABACHER, SIMEON ARYEH SCHWARTZ, ABRAHAM JUDAH HA-KOHEN SCHWARTZ, JOSEPH HA-KOHEN SCHWARTZ, PHINEHAS (PINHAS) SELIG HA-KOHEN (SIGMUND) SCHWARZ, ADOLF (Aryeh) SCHWARZ, YEHOSEPH SCHWERIN-GOETZ, ELIAKIM HA-KOHEN SEFER HUKKEI HA-TORAH SEFIRAH, SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH SEGAL, GEDALIAH BEN ELIEZER SEGRE SEGRE, JOSHUA BENZION SEGRE, SALVATORE SEIGEL, JOSHUA SERERO SERERO, SAUL SEROR SERVI, FLAMINIO (Ephraim) SFORNO, OBADIAH BEN JACOB

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SHABBETAI BEN MEIR HA-KOHEN (Shakh) SHAG, ABRAHAM SHAKI, ISAAC SHALOM, ABRAHAM (Salonika) SHALOM SHAKHNA BEN JOSEPH SHAPIRA, ABRAHAN ELKANA KAHANA SHAPIRA, ELIJAH BEN BENJAMIN WOLF SHAPIRA, JOSHUA ISAAC BEN JEHIEL SHAPIRA, MEIR SHAPIRO, ARYEH LEIB BEN ISAAC SHAPIRO, SAUL BEN DOV SHATZKES, MOSES SHKOP, SIMEON JUDAH SHREIER, FEIWEL SHVADRON, SHALOM MORDECAI BEN MOSES SIBONI SICHER, GUSTAV SID, SAMUEL IBN SIDON, SIMEON SIERRA, SERGIO JOSEPH SILBER, SAUL SILBERSTEIN, DAVID JUDAH LEIB SILBERSTEIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH SILVA, JOSHUA DA SILVER, ELIEZER SILVERSTONE, GEDALYAH SIMHAH BEN SAMUEL OF SPEYER SINGER, ABRAHAM SINGER, PESAH SINGER, SIMEON SINIGAGLIA SINZHEIM, JOSEPH DAVID BEN ISAAC SIRAT, RENE SAMUEL SIRILLO, SOLOMON BEN JOSEPH SIRKES, JOEL SITRUK, JOSEPH SITTEON DABBAH, SHAUL DAVID SIVITZ, MOSHE SLONIK, BENJAMIN AARON BEN ABRAHAM SOCHACZEW, ABRAHAM BEN ZE’EV NAHUM BORNSTEIN OF SOFER SOFER, HAYYIM BEN MORDECAI EPHRAIM FISCHEL SOFER, MOSES SOLA, ABRAHAM DE SOLOVEICHIK SOLOVEICHIK, AARON SOLOVEICHIK, HAYYIM SOLOVEICHIK, ISAAC ZEEV HA-LEVI SOLOVEICHIK, JOSEPH BAER OF VOLOZHIN SOLOVEICHIK, MOSHE SOLOVEITCHIK, JOSEPH DOV SOMEKH, ABDALLAH BEN ABRAHAM SONCINO, JOSHUA SONNENFELD, JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON SOROTZKIN, ZALMAN BEN BEN-ZION SPEKTOR, ISAAC ELHANAN SPERO, SHUBERT SPITZER, SAMUEL

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SPITZER, SOLOMON STADTHAGEN, JOSEPH STEIN, ELIEZER LIPMAN STEIN, ISAAC STEINHARDT, JOSEPH BEN MENAHEM STEINHARDT, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN SIMEON STEINSALTZ, ADIN STERN, GERSHON STERN, JOSEPH STERN, JOSEPH ZECHARIAH STERN, MENAHEM STRASHUN, MATHIAS (Mattityahu) STRASHUN, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH SUSAN, ISSACHAR BEN MORDECAI SUZIN, SOLOMON MOSES TABAK, SOLOMON LEIB TAENZER, ARNOLD (Aaron) TAGLICHT, DAVID ISRAEL TAM IBN YAHYA, JACOB BEN DAVID TANHUM BEN ELIEZER TANUJI, ISHMAEL HA-KOHEN TANUJI, JOSEPH BEN SHALOM HA-KOHEN TAUBES, AARON MOSES BEN JACOB TAUBES, HAYYIM ZEVI TEDESCHI TEITELBAUM, AARON TEITZ, PINCHAS (MORDECAI) TELUSHKIN, NISSAN TEMPLO, JACOB JUDAH (ARYEH) LEON TENNENBAUM, JACOB TEOMIM, AARON BEN MOSES TEOMIM, ARYEH LEIB TEOMIM, JOSEPH BEN MEIR TERNI, DANIEL BEN MOSES DAVID TEWELES, JUDAH THEODOR, JULIUS TIKTIN TIKTINSKI TOAFF TOLEDANO TOLEDANO, JACOB MOSES TOLEDO, MOSES DE TOUATI, CHARLES TRABOT TRANI, JOSEPH BEN MOSES TRANI, MOSES BEN JOSEPH TREBITSCH, NEHEMIAH (Menahem Nahum) TREVES TREVES, JOHANAN BEN JOSEPH TRUNK, ISRAEL JOSHUA TYKOCINSKI, JEHIEL MICHEL UCKO, SIEGFRIED (Sinai) ULLMANN, SALOMON ULMAN, ABRAHAM UNGAR, JOEL OF RECHNITZ UNTERMAN, ISSER YEHUDA URI BEN SIMEON OF BIALA UZIEL UZIEL, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM VAEZ, ABRAHAM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

VENETIANER, LAJOS (Ludwig) VENTURA, MOISE VITAL, DAVID BEN SOLOMON VITERBO, JEHIEL HAYYIM VIVANTI, DAVID ABRAHAM VOLOZHINER, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC VOLOZHINER, ISAAC BEN HAYYIM VORST, LOUIS J. WAGENAAR, LION WAGNER, STANLEY M. WAHRMANN, ISRAEL WALDENBERG, ELIEZER JUDAH WALKIN, AARON WARSCHAWSKI, MAX WASSERMAN, ELHANAN BUNIM WEBER, KOLOMAN WEIL, NETHANEL BEN NAPHTALI ZEYI WEILL, MICHEL AARON WEINBERG, JEHIEL JACOB WEINER, ANTHONY D. WEINGARTEN, JOAB JOSHUA WEISS, AVI WEISS, ISAAC HIRSCH WEISS, ISAAC JACOB WEISS, JOSEPH MEIR WEISS, SAMSON WEISSMANDEL, MICHAEL DOV WEISZ, MAX WELLESZ, JULIUS WESEL, BARUCH BENDET BEN REUBEN WEYL, MEIR BEN SIMHAH WIEDENFELD, DOV WIERNIKORSKI, JUDAH WILDMANN, ISAAC EISIK WILLOWSKI, JACOB DAVID BEN ZEEV WILNA, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN WOLF WOGUE, LAZARE ELIEZER WOHLGEMUTH, JOSEPH WOLFF, ABRAHAM ALEXANDER WORMS, AARON WURZBURGER, WALTER S. XIMENES, SOLOMON MORDECAI YIHYE, ISAAC HA-LEVI YIZHAKI, DAVID YOFFEY YOSEF, OVADIAH YUDELOVITZ, ABRAHAM A. ZACUTO, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL ZAHALON ZARCHI, ASHER LIPPMAN ZECHARIAH AL-DAHIRI ZECHARIAH MENDEL BEN ARYEH LEIB ZE’EVI, ISRAEL BEN AZARIAH ZEMBA, MENAHEM ZEVI HIRSCH OF NADWORNA ZEVIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH ZIMMELS, HIRSCH JACOB ZIPSER, MAJER ZIRELSON, JUDAH LEIB ZOLTY, YAACOV BEZALEL

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ZOMBER, DOV BAER ZOREF, JOSHUA HESHEL BEN JOSEPH ZUCKER, MOSHE ZUCKERMANDEL, MOSES SAMUEL ZUENZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN MOSES Conservative Rabbis ABRAMOWITZ, HERMAN ADLER, MORRIS AGUS, JACOB BERNARD ARONSON, DAVID ARZT, MAX BERMAN, MYRON BETTELHEIM, ALBERT (Aaron) SIEGFRIED BLUMENTHAL, AARON BOHNEN, ELI AARON BOKSER, BEN ZION BOSNIAK, JACOB BURSTEIN, ABRAHAM CANTOR, BERNARD CASS, SAMUEL CHANOVER, HYMAN CHIEL, ARTHUR CHIEL, SAMUEL COHEN, ARMOND COHEN, MORTIMER JOSEPH COHEN, SEYMOUR J. DAVIDSON, MAX DAVID DRESNER, SAMUEL DROB, MAX EICHLER, MENAHEM EILBERG, AMY EPSTEIN, GILBERT EPSTEIN, HARRY EPSTEIN, LOUIS M. FEINBERG, LOUIS FINKELSTEIN, LOUIS FRIEDMAN, THEODORE GEFFEN, JOEL GELB, MAX GINZBERG, LOUIS GOLDFEDER, FISHEL GOLDMAN, ISRAEL GOLDMAN, SOLOMON GOLDSTEIN, ISRAEL GOLINKIN, DAVID GOODBLATT, MORRIS GORDON, ALBERT I. GREENBERG, LOUIS GREENBERG, SIDNEY GREENBERG, SIMON HAILPERIN, HERMAN HALPERN, HARRY HAMMER, REUVEN

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HARF, HANNS HARLOW, JULIUS HAUPTMAN, JUDITH HERSHMAN, ABRAHAM M. HERTZBERG, ARTHUR HIGGER, MICHAEL KARP, ABRAHAM J. KAUVAR, CHARLES ELIEZER HILLEL KELMAN, WOLFE KIEVAL, HERMAN KLEIN, ISAAC KOGEN, DAVID KOHN, JACOB KREITMAN, BENJAMIN KURTZ, VERNON KUSHNER, HAROLD LEHRMAN, IRVING LEVI, SAMAUEL GERSON LEVITSKY, LOUIS MOSES LIEBER, DAVID MALEV, WILLIAM S. MANDELBAUM, BERNARD MATT, C. DAVID MEYER, MARSHALL MINKIN, JACOB SAMUEL MORAIS, SABATO NADICH, JUDAH NEULANDER, ARTHUR NOVECK, SIMON PARZEN, HERBERT PRESSMAN, JACOB RABINOWITZ, STANLEY ROTH, JOEL ROUTTENBERG, MAX JONAH RUBENOVITZ, HERMAN H. SANDROW, EDWARD T. SARACHEK, JOSEPH SCHECHTER, SOLOMON (Shneur Zalman) SCHILD, EDWIN SEGAL, BERNARD SHAPIRO, ALEXANDER SHUBOW, JOSEPH SHUCHAT, WILFRED SIEGEL, SEYMOUR SILVERMAN, MORRIS SILVERSTEIN, ALAN SIMON, RALPH SLONIM, REUBEN SOLOMON, ELIAS L. STAMPFER, JOSHUA STEINBERG, MILTON STERNSTEIN, JOSEPH PHILIP TEPLITZ, SAUL WAXMAN, MORDECAI WOLPE, HOWARD ELLIOT ZELIZER, NATHAN Reform Rabbis AARON, ISRAEL AARONSOHN, MICHAEL

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ADLER, LAZARUS LEVI ADLER, LIEBMANN ASHER, JOSEPH AUB, JOSEPH AUERBACH, ISAAC LEVIN BACKMAN, JULES BAMBERGER, BERNARD JACOB BARNSTON, HENRY BARON, JOSEPH LOUIS BEBE, PAULINE BEERMAN, LEONARD BENJAMIN, RAPHAEL BERGER, ELMER BERKOWITZ, HENRY BERLIN, SAUL BEN ZEVI HIRSCH LEVIN (Saul Hirschel) BERMAN, MORTON MAYER BERNSTEIN, PHILIP SIDNEY BETTAN, ISRAEL BLANK, SHELDON HAAS BLOCH, JOSHUA BLOCH, PHILIPP BRASCH, RUDOLPH BRAUDE, WILLIAM GORDON BRICKNER, BALFOUR BRICKNER, BARNETT ROBERT BRONSTEIN, HERBERT BROWNE, EDWARD B.M. BROWNE, LEWIS CALISCH, EDWARD NATHAN CHORIN, AARON COFFEE, RUDOLPH I. COHEN, HENRY COHEN, JACOB XENAB COHN, ELKAN COHON, SAMUEL SOLOMON CRONBACH, ABRAHAM CURRICK, MAX COHEN DAVIDSON, DAVID DIENEMANN, MAX DREYFUS, STANLEY EHRENREICH, BERNARD EICHHORN, DAVID M. EINHORN, DAVID EINHORN, IGNAZ EISENDRATH, MAURICE NATHAN ELIASSOFF, HERMAN ELLENSON, DAVID HARRY ELZAS, BARNETT ABRAHAM ENELOW, HYMAN (Hillel Gershom) EPPENSTEIN, SIMON ETTELESON, HARRY FARHI, DANIEL FARHI, GABRIEL FEIBELMAN, JULIAN BECK FEINBERG, ABRAHAM L. FELDMAN, ABRAHAM JEHIEL FELSENTHAL, BERNHARD FEUER, LEON ISRAEL FEUERLICHT, MORRIS M.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

FINEBERG, SOLOMON ANDHIL FINESHRIBER, WILLIAM HOWARD FINK, JOSEPH L. FISCHER, GYULA FRANKL, PINKUS FRITZ (Pinhas) FRANKLIN, LEO MORRIS FREEHOF, SOLOMON BENNETT FREUDENTHAL, MAX FRIEDER, ARMIN FRISCH, EPHRAIM GEIGER, ABRAHAM GLASER, JOSEPH GOLDENSON, SAMUEL HARRY GOLDSTEIN, ELYSE GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY EMANUEL GORDON, NATHAN GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV GOTTSCHALK, ALFRED GOUDEKET, MAURITS GRYN, HUGO GUTHEIM, JAMES KOPPEL HABERMAN, JOSHUA HARRIS, MAURICE HARRISON, LEON HELLER HERXHEIMER, SALOMON HESS, MENDEL HIRSCH, EMIL GUSTAVE HIRSCH, RICHARD HIRSCH, SAMUEL HOCHEIMER, HENRY HOFFMAN, LAWRENCE I. HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL ISRAEL, EDWARD LEOPOLD ISSERMAN, FERDINAND MYRON JACOB, WALTER JOSEPH, MORRIS KAHN, ROBERT KLEIN, EDWARD E. KLEIN, GOTTLIEB KLENICKI, LEON KLEY, EDUARD (Israel) KOBER, ADOLF KOHLBACH, BERTALAN KOHLER, KAUFMANN KOHN, ABRAHAM KORN, BERTRAM WALLACE KRAUSKOPF, JOSEPH KRONISH, LEON KUSHNER, LAWRENCE LANDMAN, ISAAC LAUTERBACH, JACOB ZALLEL LAZARON, MORRIS SAMUEL LEIMDOERFER, DAVID LEIPZIGER, EMIL WILLIAM LELYVELD, ARTHUR JOSEPH LEVINGER, LEE JOSEPH LEVY, CLIFTON HARBY LEVY, FELIX ALEXANDER LEVY, JOSEPH LEONARD

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LIEBMAN, JOSHUA LOTH LILIENTHAL, MAX (Menahem) LIPMAN, EUGENE JAY LOEW, IMMANUEL LOEW, LEOPOLD (Lipot) LOEWENSTEIN, BERNHARD LOOKSTEIN, HASKELL MAGNIN, EDGAR FOGEL MALINO, JEROME MANNHEIMER, ISAAC NOAH MARCUS, JACOB RADER MARK, JULIUS MARTIN, BERNARD MAYBAUM, IGNAZ MERZBACHER, LEO MEYER, MARTIN ABRAHAM MIELZINER, MOSES MIHALY, EUGENE MINDA, ALBERT MORGENSTERN, JULIAN MOSES, ADOLPH MOSES, ISAAC S. NAROT, JOSEPH NEUMARK, DAVID NEWFIELD, MORRIS NEWMAN, LOUIS ISRAEL NUSSBAUM, MAX NUSSBAUM, PERRY OFFNER, STACY OLAN, LEVI OLITZKY, KERRY PERLZWEIG, MAURICE L. PETUCHOWSKI, JAKOB JOSEF PHILIPSON, DAVID PILCHIK, ELY EMANUEL PLAUT, W. GUNTHER POLISH, DAVID POZNANSKI, GUSTAVUS PRIESAND, SALLY RAISIN, JACOB ZALMAN RAISIN, MAX REGNER, SIDNEY RIEGER, PAUL RITTER, IMMANUEL HEINRICH ROSENAU, WILLIAM ROSENTHAL, FERDINAND ROTHSCHILD, JACOB M. RUDERMAN, DAVID RUDIN, JACOB PHILIP SAMFIELD, MAX SAPERSTEIN, DAVID SAPERSTEIN, HAROLD SCHAALMAN, HERMAN SCHANFARBER, TOBIAS

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SCHINDLER, ALEXANDER M. SCHINDLER, SOLOMON SCHULMAN, SAMUEL SCHWARTZMAN, SYLVAN D. SHANKMAN, JACOB K. SHULMAN, CHARLES E. SILVER, ABBA HILLEL SILVER, DANIEL J SILVERMAN, JOSEPH SIMON, ABRAM SOBEL, RONALD SONDERLING, JACOB STEINBACH, ALEXANDER ALAN STEINBERG, PAUL STERN, CHAIM STERN, JACK STERN, MALCOLM HENRY STOLZ, JOSEPH TRACHTENBERG, JOSHUA VOORSANGER, JACOB WASHOFSKY, MARK WECHSLER, JUDAH WEINSTEIN, JACOB WIENER, MAX WILHELM, KURT WISE, ISAAC MAYER WISE, JONAH BONDI WOLF, ALFRED WOLF, ARNOLD J. WOLSEY, LOUIS YOFFIE, ERIC ZELDIN, ISAIAH ZIMMERMAN, SHELDON ZIPSER, MAJER ZLOTOWITZ, BERNARD ZOLA, GARY P. Reconstructionist and Other Rabbis BECKER, LAVY M. COHEN, JACK EISENSTEIN, IRA KOHN, EUGENE SASSO, SANDY SHAPIRO, RAMI STRASSFELD, MICHAEL TEUTSCH, DAVID VORSPAN, MAX

5. KABBALAH & JEWISH MYSTICISM Main Surveys

KABBALAH General Entries

ACADEMY ON HIGH ADAM KADMON ALCHEMY ALLEGORY ALPHABET, HEBREW, IN MIDRASH, TALMUD, AND KABBALAH

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ANTHROPOMORPHISM ANTINOMIANISM BAAL SHEM CHIROMANCY COMMANDMENTS, REASONS FOR DAVID DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY DEVEKUT DIBBUK EIN-SOF ELIJAH EMANATION ESCHATOLOGY ETHICAL LITERATURE GEMATRIA GILGUL GOD GOD, NAMES OF GOLEM HIBBUT HA-KEVER JERUSALEM MAGGID MEDITATION MENORAH MERKABAH MYSTICISM MICHAEL AND GABRIEL PROVIDENCE RAPHAEL RAZIEL REDEMPTION SABBATH SACRIFICE SAMAEL SANDALFON SEFIROT SHIUR KOMAH SONG, ANGELIC SOUL, IMMORTALITY OF USHPIZIN WORLDS, THE FOUR Kabbalistic Literature

AZILUT BAHIR, SEFER HAIGGERET HA-KODESH KANAH AND PELIYAH, BOOKS OF MA’AREKHET HA-ELOHUT RAZA RABBA, SEFER RAZIEL, BOOK OF RAZIM, SEFER HATEMUNAH, THE BOOK OF TOLEDOT HA-ARI ZOHAR Biographies

AARON BERECHIAH BEN MOSES OF MODENA AARON SELIG BEN MOSES OF ZOLKIEW ABI-HASIRA ABRAHAM BEN ALEXANDER OF COLOGNE ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI (ha-Zaken)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI BERUKHIM ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC (Gerondi) ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC OF GRANADA ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL OF BRODY ABRAHAM BEN JEHIEL MICHAL HA-KOHEN ABRAHAM BEN SIMEON OF WORMS ABULAFIA, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL ABULAFIA, TODROS BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI ADADI, ABRAHAM HAYYIM BEN MASOUD HAI ADANI, MIZRAHI SHALOM AKIVA BAER BEN JOSEPH ALBAZ, MOSES BEN MAIMON ALBOTINI, JUDAH BEN MOSES ALCASTIEL, JOSEPH ALDABI, MEIR BEN ISAAC ALEMANNO, JOHANAN BEN ISAAC ALEXANDER SUSSKIND BEN MOSES OF GRODNO ALFANDARI, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC RAPHAEL ALGAZI, ISRAEL JACOB BEN YOM TOV ALGAZI, YOM TOV BEN ISRAEL JACOB ALKABEZ, SOLOMON BEN MOSES HA-LEVI ALMOSNINO, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC AMARILLO, AARON BEN SOLOMON ANGEL, BARUCH ANKAWA, ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI ARHA, ELIEZER BEN ISAAC ARZIN, JOSEPH BEN JACOB ASHER BEN DAVID ASHKENAZI, MALKIEL ASHLAG, YEHUDAH ATTAR, HAYYIM BEN MOSES (IBN) ATTIA, SHEM-TOV AYLLON, SOLOMON BEN JACOB AZIKRI, ELEAZAR BEN MOSES AZRIEL OF GERONA AZULAI AZULAI, ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL AZULAI, ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI AZULAI, HAYYIM JOSEPH DAVID AZULAI, MASUD BACHARACH, NAPHTALI BEN JACOB ELHANAN BARAZANI, SAMUEL BEN NETHANEL HA-LEVI BARUCH BARUCH (ben Abraham) OF KOSOV BASHIRI, YAHYA BASILEA, SOLOMON AVIAD SAR-SHALOM BAVLI, MENAHEM BEN MOSES BENAMOZEGH, ELIJAH BEN ABRAHAM BENJAMIN, ISRAEL BENJAMIN, MOSES BENJAMIN BEN ELIEZER HA-KOHEN VITALE OF REGGIO BIKAYAM, MEIR BEN HALIFA BRANDWEIN, YEHUDAH ZEVI BUSAL, HAYYIM BEN JACOB OBADIAH DE BUZAGLO, SHALOM BEN MOSES CARO, JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM CASTELLAZZO CHOTSH, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JERAHMEEL CORDOVERO, GEDALIAH BEN MOSES CORDOVERO, MOSES BEN JACOB

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 5. Kabbalah & Jewish Mysticism Biographies (continued) CUENQUE (Cuenca), ABRAHAM BEN LEVI DATO, MORDECAI BEN JUDAH DAVID BEN ABRAHAM HA-LAVAN DAVID BEN JUDAH HE-HASID DELACRUT, MATTATHIAS BEN SOLOMON ELIASHOV, SOLOMON BEN HAYYIM ELIEZER FISCHEL BEN ISAAC OF STRZYZOW ELIJAH BEN RAPHAEL SOLOMON HA-LEVI ELIJAH PHINEHAS BEN MEIR EPSTEIN, ARYEH LEIB BEN MORDECAI ERGAS, JOSEPH BEN EMANUEL EYBESCHUETZ, JONATHAN EZRA BEN SOLOMON FALK, SAMUEL JACOB HAYYIM FANO, MENAHEM AZARIAH DA FORTI, JACOB RAPHAEL HEZEKIAH BEN ABRAHAM ISRAEL FRANK, JACOB, AND THE FRANKISTS GABBAI, MEIR BEN EZEKIEL IBN GALANTE, ABRAHAN BEN MORDECAI GALANTE, MOSES BEN MORDECAI GALATINUS, PIETRO (Petrus) COLUMNA GALLICO, ELISHA BEN GABRIEL GEDALIAH HA-LEVI GERONDI, JACOB BEN SHESHET GIKATILLA, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM GIORGIO, FRANCESCO GORDON, JEKUTHIEL BEN LEIB GRUENHUT, DAVID BEN NATHAN HABILLO, DAVID HAGIZ, MOSES HALFAN, ELIJAH MENAHEM HAMIZ, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH HANNOVER, NATHAN NATA HARIRI HART, JACOB HAYON, NEHEMIAH HIYYA BEN MOSES HAYYAT, JUDAH BEN JACOB HAYYIM ABRAHAM RAPHAEL BEN ASHER HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN HAZKUNI, ABRAHAM HERRERA, ABRAHAM KOHEN DE HOROWITZ, ISAIAH BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI HOROWITZ, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM HOROWITZ, SAMUEL SHMELKE OF NIKOLSBURG HOROWITZ, SHABBETAI SHEFTEL BEN AKIVA HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JOSHUA MOSES AARON HA-LEVI IBN GAON, SHEM TOV BEN ABRAHAM IBN MOTOT. SAMUEL BEN SAADIAH IBN SHEM TOV, SHEM TOV IBN WAQAR, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM IDEL, MOSHE ISAAC BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF ACRE ISAAC THE BLIND

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ISAIAH BEN ABRAHAM ISRAEL BEN JONATHAN FROM LECZYCA ISRAEL HARIF OF SATANOV JACOB BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN JACOB DAVID BEN ISRAEL ISSAR JACOB KOPPEL BEN MOSES OF MEZHIRECH JACOB NAZIR JAFFE, ISRAEL BEN AARON JAFFE, MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM JAMAL, SULAYMAN JEHIEL MICHAEL (Michel) BEN ELIEZER JOLLES, JACOB ZEVI BEN NAPHTALI JONAH, MOSES JOSEPH BEN SHALOM ASHKENAZI JOSEPH DELLA REINA JOSEPH IBN SHRAGA JOSEPH IBN TABUL JOSEPH ISSACHAR BAER BEN ELHANAN JOSEPH JOSKE BEN JUDAH JUDEL OF LUBLIN JOSEPH MOSES BEN JEKUTHIEL ZALMAN JOSHUA IBN NUN JUDAH BEN YAKAR JUDAH LEIB BEN BARUCH KARA, AVIGDOR BEN ISAAC KATZ, NAPHTALI BEN ISAAC (ha-Kohen) KHALAZ, JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM KNORR VON ROSENROTH, CHRISTIAN KORAH, HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH KORAH, YIHYE BEN SHALOM LABI, SIMEON LANDAUER, MEYER HEINRICH HIRSCH LARA, HIYYA KOHEN DE LATIF, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM IBN LEON, ISAAC DE LIPSCHUTZ, SHABBETAI BEN JACOB ISAAC LOANZ, ELIJAH BEN MOSES LONZANO, ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL DE LONZANO, MENAHEM BEN JUDAH DE LURIA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON (Ha-Ari) LURIA, JEHIEL BEN ISRAEL ASHKENAZI LUZZATTO, MOSES HAYYIM (Ramhal) MAHALALEL BEN SHABBETAI HALLELYAH MARCUS, AARON MENAHEM ZIYYONI MEYUHAS, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL MOLCHO, SOLOMON MOLITOR, FRANZ JOSEPH MOSES BEN MENAHEM GRAF MOSES BEN SHEM TOV DE LEON MOSES BEN SOLOMON BEN SIMEON OF BURGOS MUELLER, ERNST NAHMANIDES NAHMAN OF KOSOV NAVON, BENJAMIN MORDECAI BEN EPHRAIM NEHEMIAH HA-KOHEN NETHANEL BEN MESHULLAM HA-LEVI ORNSTEIN, MORDECAI ZEEV BEN MOSES OSTROPOLER, SAMSON BEN PESAH OTTOLENGO, SAMUEL DAVID BEN JEHIEL PINTO, JOSIAH BEN JOSEPH

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POPPERS, MEIR BEN JUDAH LOEB HA-KOHEN RECANATI, MENAHEM BEN BENJAMIN REGGIO, ABRAHAM BEN EZRIEL REUBEN HOESHKE BEN HOESHKE KATZ REUCHLIN, JOHANNES RICCHI, RAPHAEL IMMANUEL BEN ABRAHAM HAI RICIUS, PAULUS (Rici) ROVIGO, ABRAHAM BEN MICHAEL RUNKEL, SOLOMON ZALMAN SABA, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB SAHULA, MEIR BEN SOLOMON ABI SAMUEL BEN ELIEZER OF KALVARIJA SANDZER, HAYYIM BEN MENAHEM SARUG (Saruk), ISRAEL SCHOLEM, GERSHOM GERHARD SHABBETAI ZEVI SHARABI, SHALOM SHEPHATIAH BEN AMITTAI SPIRA, NATHAN NATA BEN SOLOMON TAITAZAK, JOSEPH TAYYIB, ISAAC BEN BENJAMIN TEMERLS, JACOB BEN ELIEZER TISHBY, ISAIAH UCEDA, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC VALLE, MOSES DAVID BEN SAMUEL VIDAS, ELIJAH BEN MOSES DE VIGENERE, BLAISE DE VITAL VITAL, HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH VITAL, SAMUEL BEN HAYYIM WANNEH, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM WORMSER, SECKEL (Isaac Loeb) YAKHINI, ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH YIZHAKI, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID ZACUTO, MOSES BEN MORDECAI ZAYYAH, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM IBN ZEMAH, JACOB BEN HAYYIM

6. HASIDISM Main Surveys

HASIDISM General Entries

ADMOR BA’AL SHEM CHABAD DAVID-GORODOK ETHICAL LITERATURE SEFER HA-HAYYIM ZAVA’AT RIBASH Biographies

AARON BEN MOSES HA-LEVI OF STAROSIELCE AARON OF ZHITOMIR ABRAHAM BEN ALEXANDER KATZ OF KALISK ABRAHAM BEN DOV OF MEZHIRECH (ha-Malakh) ABRAHAM DOV BAER OF OVRUCH ABRAHAM GERSHON OF KUTOW ABRAHAM JOSHUA HESCHEL OF APTA (Opatow)

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ADAM BA’AL SHEM ADEL (Ba’al Shem Tov) ALEKSANDROW APTA, MEIR ARYEH JUDAH LEIB (the “Mokhiah”) OF POLONNOYE ARYEH LEIB OF OZAROW ARYEH LEIB OF SHPOLA ARYEH LEIB SARAHS BARUCH BEN JEHIEL OF MEDZIBEZH BELZ BERNARD, HAYYIM DAVID BOBOV DAVID OF TALNA DOV BAER OF MEZHIRECH DWORKIN, ZALMAN (Lubavitch) DYNOW, ZEVI ELIMELECH EGER, JUDAH LEIB OF LUBLIN ELIEZER BEN JACOB HA-LEVI OF TARNOGROD ELIMELECH OF LYZHANSK EPSTEIN, ISAAC BEN MORDECAI EPSTEIN, KALONYMUS KALMAN OF CRACOW GORA KALWARIA GRONER, DOVID YITZCHOK HALBERSTAM HANOKH OF ALEKSANDROW HAYYIM BEN SOLOMON TYRER OF CZERNOWITZ HAYYIM HAIKL BEN SAMUEL OF AMDUR HOROWITZ, PINCHAS HOROWITZ, SAMUEL SHMELKE OF NIKOLSBURG ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER BA’AL SHEM TOV ISRAEL BEN PEREZ OF POLOTSK ISSACHAR DOV BAER BEN ARYEH LEIB OF ZLOCZOW IZBICA-RADZYN JACOB ISAAC HA-HOZEH MI-LUBLIN JACOB JOSEPH BEN ZEVI HA-KOHEN KATZ OF POLONNOYE JEHIEL MEIR (LIFSCHITS) OF GOSTYNIN JEHIEL MICHAEL (Michel) OF ZLOCZOW JOSEPH MOSES OF SALOSITZ KALLO, YIZHAK ISAAC (of Taub) KAMENKA, ZEVI HIRSCH OF KARLIN KAZIMIERZ KOBRIN, MOSES BEN ISRAEL POLIER OF KOIDANOV KORETS, PHINEHAS BEN ABRAHAM ABBA SHAPIRO OF KOTSK, MENAHEM MENDEL OF KOZIENICE, ISRAEL BEN SHABBETAI HAPSTEIN LACHOWICZE, MORDECAI BEN NOAH OF LAWAT, ABRAHAM DAVID BEN JUDAH LEIB LEINER, GERSHON HANOKH BEN JACOV LELOV (Lelow) LEVI ISAAC BEN MEIR OF BERDICHEV LIPSCHUTZ, ARYEH LEIB LUDOMIR, MAID OF LUNIETZ, GEDALIAH BEN ISAAC OF LYUBESHOV MARCUS, AARON MARGOLIOUTH, MEIR OF OSTRAHA (Ostrog)

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II. RELIGION A. JEWISH 6. Hasidism Biographies (continued)

MEIR JEHIEL HA-LEVI OF OSTROWIEC MEISELS, UZZIEL BEN ZEVI HIRSCH MENAHEM MENDEL OF PEREMYSHLANY MENAHEM MENDEL OF VITEBSK MESHULLAM FEIVUSH HELLER OF ZBARAZH MODZHITZ MORDECAI OF NESKHIZ MOSES HAYYIM EPHRAIM OF SUDYLKOW MOSES LEIB OF SASOV MOSES SHOHAM BEN DAN OF DOLINA NAHMAN OF BRATSLAV NAHMAN OF HORODENKA PEREMYSHLYANY, MEIR BEN AARON LEIB OF PRZEDBORZ PRZYSUCHA, JACOB ISAAC BEN ASHER RADOMSKO, SOLOMON HA-KOHEN RABINOWICH OF RADOSHITSER, ISSACHAR BAER RADZYMIN RAPHAEL OF BERSHAD ROPSHITSER, NAPHTALI ZEVI ROTH, AARON RUZHIN, ISRAEL RYMANOWER, MENAHEM MENDEL RYMANOWER, ZEVI HIRSH SAFRIN, ISAAC JUDAH JEHIEL SAVRAN (Bendery) SCHNEERSOHN SCHNEERSOHN, ISAAC SCHNEERSOHN, MENACHEM MENDEL SHABBETAI BEN ZEVI HIRSCH OF RASZKOW SHAPIRA SHAPIRA, KALONYMOUS KALMAN SHAPIRA, YESHAYAHU SHNEUR ZALMAN OF LYADY SIMHAH BEN JOSHUA OF ZALOZHTSY SIMHAH BUNEM OF PRZYSUCHA SLONIM SPINKA, JOSEPH MEIR WEISS OF STERNBERG, SARAH FRANKEL STERNHARZ, NATHAN STRELISK, URI BEN PHINEHAS OF STRETYN, JUDAH ZEVI HIRSCH (Brandwein) OF TEITELBAUM TWERSKI, JACOB ISRAEL TWERSKY VIZHNITZ WAHRMANN, ABRAHAM DAVID BEN ASHER ANSCHEL WALDEN, AARON BEN ISAIAH NATHAN WARKA ZADOK HA-KOHEN RABINOWITZ OF LUBLIN ZE’EV WOLF OF ZHITOMIR ZEVI HIRSCH FRIEDMAN OF LESKO ZHIDACHOV ZUSYA OF HANIPOLI ZWEIFEL, ELIEZER

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B. OTHER 1. CHRISTIANITY Main Surveys

CHRISTIANITY CHURCH, CATHOLIC PROTESTANTS General Entries

ABRAHAM’S BOSOM ALBIGENSES ANTICHRIST APOSTLE ARMAGEDDON ARTHURIAN LEGENDS BAPTISM, FORCED BIBLE SOCIETIES BULLS, PAPAL CARNIVAL CATECHUMENS, HOUSE OF CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH CHURCH COUNCILS CIVILTA CATTOLICA, LA CRUSADES DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY DOMUS CONVERSORUM ECCLESIA ET SYNAGOGA EXCERPTA VALESIANA FRANCISCANS GNOSTICISM HUSSITES INQUISITION INSTITUTUM JUDAICUM DELITZSCHIANUM ISAIAH, ASCENSION OF ISAIAH, MARTYRDOM OF JESUITS JEWISH-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS LATERAN COUNCILS III, IV MANICHAEISM NAZARETH NEW CHRISTIANS NEW TESTAMENT PASSSOVER PILGRIMAGE REFORMATION SERMONS TO JEWS SOLOMON, ODES OF SOMREI SABAT TITHES, CHURCH VATICAN WANDERING JEW Bible

AARON ABRAHAM ADAM CAIN DAVID EVE GOLDEN CALF

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ISAAC JERUSALEM JEZEBEL JONAH, BOOK OF JOSHUA MELCHIZEDEK MOSES NOAH Biographies

ALCUIN ALEXANDER ALEXANDER, MICHAEL SOLOMON ALEXANDER OF HALES ALEXEYEV, ALEXANDER AMBROSE AMULO ANACLETUS II, PETER PIERLEONE ANDREW OF SAINT-VICTOR ANSELM OF CANTERBURY AQUINAS, THOMAS ARBUES, PEDRO DE ARNALDO OF VILLANOVA AUGUSTINE AVITUS BAR HEBRAEUS, JOHANAN BARRUEL, AUGUSTIN BARTH, KARL BASHUYSEN, HEINRICH JACOB VAN BASNAGE, JACQUES CHRISTIAN (Basnage de Beauval) BATE, JULIUS BAUER, BRUNO BEA, AUGUSTIN BENEDICT BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX BERNARDINO DA FELTRE BERNARDINO DA SIENA BERTHOLD OF FREIBURG BERTHOLD OF REGENSBURG (Ratisbon) BONIFACE BORROMEO, CARLO BOSSUET, JACQUES BENIGNE BOUDIN, JEAN-FRANCOIS BRUNNER, SEBASTIAN BUCER, MARTIN BUDNY, SZYMON BUGENHAGEN, JOHANN BURCHARD OF WORMS BURCHARDUS DE MONTE SION CALIXTUS CALVIN, JOHN CAPISTRANO, JOHN (Giovanni) OF CARBEN, VICTOR VON CHIARINI, LUIGI CHRISTIANI, PABLO CHURCH FATHERS CLEMENT CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA CRISPIN, GILBERT (Gislebertus) CUSA, NICHOLAS OF

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DAMIAN, PETER (Petrus Damiani) DIONYSIUS VAN RYCKEL DOMENICO GEROSOLIMITANO DOMINICANS DONIN, NICHOLAS DUNS SCOTUS, JOHN ECKHART, MEISTER EGIDIO DA VITERBO ELHANAN ELIANO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM EUGENIUS EUSEBIUS FABRI, FELIX FERRER, VICENTE FIOGHI (Fiocchi), FABIANO FLORUS OF LYONS FULBERT OF CHARTRES GELASIUS I GRATIAN (Franciscus Gratianus) GREGORY HADRIAN I HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN HELENA AUGUSTA HILDEBERT OF LAVARDIN HILDUIN HIRSCHENSOHN-LICHTENSTEIN, JEHIEL ZEVI HERMANN HONORIUS HOOGSTRAATEN, JACOB INNOCENT ISIDORE OF SEVILLE IVO (Ives) OF CHARTRES JACOB OF KEFAR SAKHNAYYA (Sama) JEROME JESUS JOHN THE BAPTIST JOHN CHRYSOSTOM JOHN PAUL II JOHN XXII JOHN XXIII JONA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA JUDAS JULIUS III JUSTIN MARTYR KOBIELSKI, FRANCISZEK ANTONI KOLLONITSCH, LEOPOLD LEÃO, GASPAR DE LEO LEVERTOFF, PAUL PHILIP LUSTIGER, JEAN-MARIE ARON LUTHER, MARTIN MARGARITA, ANTON MARTIN MELITO OF SARDIS MOROSINI, GIULIO NEANDER, AUGUST NICHOLAS NIEBUHR, REINHOLD NIGRI, PETRUS

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II. RELIGION B. OTHER 1. Christianity Biographies (continued)

NOLA, ELIJAH BEN MENAHEM DA OBADIAH, THE NORMAN PROSELYTE ODO OF CAMBRAI ODO OF CHATEAUROUX ODO OF SULLY OLESNICKI, ZBIGNIEW ORIGEN OROSIUS, PAULUS PABLO DE SANTA MARIA (el Burguense) PAUL IV PAUL VI PAUL OF TARSUS PETER OF BLOIS PETER OF CLUNY PFEFFERKORN, JOHANNES (Joseph) PIERLEONI PIUS X PIUS XI PIUS XII POPES PORCHETUS SALVAGUS QUARESMIUS, FRANCISCUS RABINOVICH, JOSEPH RAMON LULL RATISBONNE BROTHERS RAYMOND DE PENAFORTE RUDOLPH RUEDIGER (Hutzmann) SIMON, RICHARD SIXTUS IV SULPICIUS SEVERUS TILLICH, PAUL WOLFF, JOSEPH

2. ISLAM (SEE MUSLIM LANDS)

3. KARAITES Main Surveys

KARAITES Biographies

AARON BEN ELIJAH AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-ROFE AARON BEN JUDAH KUSDINI ABRAHAM BEN JOSIAH TROKI ABRAHAM BEN JOSIAH YERUSHALMI ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM ABU AL-FARAJ HARUN IBN AL-FARAJ AFENDOPOLO, CALEB BEN ELIJAH AGA ALFASI, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM ALI IBN SULEIMAN AL-TARAS, SIDI IBN

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ANAN BEN DAVID AZARIAH BEN ELIYAH BABOVICH, SIMHAH BEN SOLOMON BALI ABRAHAM BEN JACOB BALI, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM BASHYAZI (Bashyatchi) BASĪR, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN HA-RO’EH ALBEGHI BEIM, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM BEN ZUTA ABU AL-SURRĪ BENJAMIN BEN ELIJAH BENJAMIN BEN ELIJAH DUWAN DANIEL BEN MOSES AL-QŪMISĪ DARI, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM DAVID BEN BOAZ DAVID BEN HUSSEIN, ABU SULEIMAN DAVID BEN JOSHUA DAVID BEN SOLOMON ELIJAH BEN AARON BEN MOSES ELIJAH BEN ABRAHAM ELIJAH BEN BARUCH THE ELDER EZRA BEN NISAN FARAJ, MURAD FIRKOVICH, ABRAHAM (Even Reshef) FIRUZ GIBBOR, JUDAH BEN ELIJAH HADASSI, JUDAH (ha-Avel) BEN ELIJAH HASAN (Hussein) BEN MASHI’AH IBN AL-HĪTĪ, DAVID BEN SE’ADEL IBN FADANJ (Fadanq) IBN SÁQAWAYH (Sakuyah; Saquyah) ISAAC BEN SOLOMON ISAIAH BEN UZZIAH HA-KOHEN ISHMAEL OF ‘UKBARA ISRAEL (ben Samuel?) HA-DAYYAN HA-MA’ARAVI JACOB BEN REUBEN JACOB BEN SIMEON JAPHETH AL-BARQAMANI JAPHETH BEN DAVID IBN SAGHIR JAPHETH BEN ELI HA-LEVI JESHUA BEN JUDAH JOSEPH BEN NOAH JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL BEN ISAAC RODI JOSIAH BEN SAUL BEN ANAN JUDAH BEN ELI (Elan) KALAI, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH KALFA, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH KAZAZ, ELIJAH KIRKISANI, JACOB ALKUKIZOW LABANOS LEONOVICH LEVI BEN JAPHETH LUZKI, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH SOLOMON LUZKI, JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MOSES LUZKI, SIMHAH ISAAC BEN MOSES MALINOVSKI, JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI MARZOUK, MOSHE MENAHEM BEN MICHAEL BEN JOSEPH MORDECAI BEN NISAN

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MOSES BEN ELIJAH HA-LEVI MOSES BEN ELIJAH PASHA MOSES BEN SAMUEL OF DAMASCUS NAHAWENDI, BENJAMIN BEN MOSES ALNISSI (Nissim) BEN NOAH PIGIT, SAMUEL BEN SHEMARIA POKI, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER CHELEBI SAHL BEN MAZLI’AH HA-KOHEN ABU AL-SURRI SAHL IBN FADL SALMON BEN JEROHAM SAMUEL BEN DAVID SAMUEL BEN MOSES AL-MAGHRIBI SAUL BEN ANAN SHAPSHAL (Szapszal) SERAYAH SOLOMON BEN AARON (of Troki) SULTANSKY, MORDECAI BEN JOSEPH TAWRIZI, JUDAH MEIR BEN ABRAHAM TOBIAS BEN MOSES HA-AVEL (Or ha-Matik) TROKI, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM ZEPHANIAH BEN MORDECAI ZERAH BEN NATHAN OF TROKI

4. MARRANOS General Entries

CHUETAS MARRANO MARRANO DIASPORA NEW CHRISTIANS Biographies

ABENAES, SOLOMON ABENATAR MELO, DAVID ABENDANA ABENDANA, ISAAC ABOAB, IMMANUEL ABOAB, ISAAC DE MATTATHIAS ACOSTA, CHRISTOBAL AGUILAR, DIEGO D’ ALEMAN, MATEO ALVARES AMES ANTUNES ARIAS, JOSEPH SEMAH ASSUMPÇÃO, DIOGO DA AZEVEDO BARGAS, ABRAHAM DE BARRASSA, JACOB BARROS BASTO, ARTURO CARLOS DE BELMONTE BERNAL BRUDO, MANUEL BUENO CACERES, FRANCISCO DE CARDOSO CARDOZO, ABRAHAM MIGUEL CARDOZO, ISAAC CASTRO CASTRO, DE CASTRO, PEDRO DE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

CASTRO SARMENTO, JACOB (Henrique) DE CASTRO TARTAS, ISAAC DE CORONEL CHACON, SIR AUGUSTIN COUTINHO CURIEL CHIRINO DIAS, LUIS ENRIQUEZ BASURTO, DIEGO FARIA, FRANCISCO DE FONSECA, DANIEL DE GOMEZ DE SOSSA, ISAAC GRANADA, GABRIEL DE HOMEM, ANTONIO JESURUN JESURUN, REUEL JUAN DE ESPANA JUAN DE VALLADOLID LAGUNA, DANIEL ISRAEL LOPEZ LAMEGO LOBATO LOPEZ, RODERIGO LOPEZ ROSA MACHADO MALDONADO DE SILVA, FRANCISCO MENDES, DIOGO MESQUITA MONTEZINOS, ANTONIO DE NASI, GRACIA NASI, JOSEPH NUÑEZ NUÑEZ, HECTOR OLIVER Y FULLANA, NICOLAS DE ORTA, GARCIA DE PAZ, DUARTE DE PENSO DE LA VEGA, JOSEPH PINA, JACOB (Manuel) DE PINEDA, JUAN DE PINTO DELGADO, JOAO (Mosseh) PRADO, JUAN (Daniel) DE PYRRHUS, DIDACUS ROBLES, ANTONIO RODRIGUES ROCAMORA, ISAAC DE RODRIGUES, DIONISIUS (Diniz) ROJAS, FERNANDO DE SANCHEZ, ANTONIO NUNEZ RIBEIRO SENIOR, SOLOMON SILVA, RODRIGO MENDEZ DA SILVA, SAMUEL DA SILVEYRA, MIGUEL DE SOLIS TEIXEIRA, PEDRO TEIXEIRA DE SAMPAIO, ABRAHAM SENIOR (Diego) TEIXEIRA PINTO, BENTO TORRE, ALFONSO DE LA TREVINO DE SOBREMONTE, TOMAS USQUE, ABRAHAM USQUE, SAMUEL USQUE, SOLOMON VITORIA, FRANCISCO DE ZACUTUS LUSITANUS

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II. RELIGION B. OTHER (continued)

ALPHABET, HEBREW HEBREW GRAMMAR HEBREW LANGUAGE LINGUISTIC LITERATURE, HEBREW MASORAH PRONUNCIATIONS OF HEBREW PROSODY, HEBREW SEMITIC LANGUAGES YIDDISH LANGUAGE

JUDEO-ARABIC LITERATURE JUDEO-FRENCH JUDEO-GREEK JUDEO-ITALIAN JUDEO-PERSIAN JUDEO-PROVENCAL JUDEO-TAT KAF KOF LADINO LAMED MASORETIC ACCENTS MEDINAH MEM MIZRAYIM NAMES NEO-ARAMAIC NOTARIKON NUN OKHLAH VE-OKHLAH PE RESH SADE SAMEKH SHALOM ALEIKHEM SHIN TAV TET UGARITIC VAV YOD ZAYIN

General Entries

Scholars

ABBA ABBREVIATIONS ABRACADABRA ABRECH ABU ACADEMY OF THE HEBREW LANGUAGE ACROSTICS AKKADIAN LANGUAGE AKKUM ALEF ARAMAIC ASH ayin BAAL HA-BAYIT BET BRIT IVRIT OLAMIT DALET FRANCOS (Franji) GIMMEL GREETINGS AND CONGRATULATIONS HAKETIA HAPAX LEGOMENA HE HET JEWISH LANGUAGES JUDEO-ARABIC

ABRAHAM HA-BAVLI ALCALAY, REUVEN ALMOLI, SOLOMON BEN JACOB AUERBACH, ISAAC EISIG BEN ISAIAH AVE-LALLEMANT, FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN BENEDICT AVINERI, YITZHAK AVRUNIN, ABRAHAM BAER, SELIGMAN ISAAC BARANOWICZ, DAVID ELIEZER BAR-ASHER, MOSHE BARDACH, ISRAEL (Isaac hen ftayyim Moses) BARTH, JACOB BEN HAYYIM, ZEEV BEN ZEEV, JUDAH LEIB BEN-ASHER, AARON BEN MOSES BEN-ASHER, MOSES BEN-NAPHTALI, MOSES BEN DAVID BEN-YEHUDA, ELIEZER BLAU, JOSHUA BUCHNER, ZE’EV WOLF BEN DAVID HA-KOHEN BURSTEIN, ISRAEL CAMPEN (Campensis), Johannes Van CASTELL, EDMUND DOTAN, ARON EVEN-SHOSHAN, AVRAHAM GOSHEN-GOTTSTEIN, MOSHE

5. SAMARITANS Main Surveys

samaritans General Entries

AL-ASĀTĪR DUSTAN GERIZIM, MOUNT Biographies

ABU AL-FAT ABU AL-HASAN OF TYRE AMRAM DARAH BABA RABBAH

III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE A. JEWISH LANGUAGES Main Surveys

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HARKAVY, ALEXANDER HAYYUJ, JUDAH (Jahah) BEN DAVID IBN BARUN, ABU IBRAHIM ISAAC BEN JOSEPH IBN BENVENISTE IBN JANAH, JONAH IBN QURAYSH, JUDAH IBN YASHUSH, ISAAC ABU IBRAHIM JACOB BEN HAYYIM BEN ISAAC IBN ADONIJAH JACOB KOPPEL BEN AARON SASSLOWER JEKUTHIEL BEN JUDAH HA-KOHEN JOSEPH BEN DAVID HA-YEVANI KADDARI, MENAHEM ZEVI KUTSCHER, EDWARD YECHEZKEL LARA, DAVID BEN ISAAC COHEN DE LERNER, HAYYIM ZEVI BEN TODROS LEVITA, ELIJAH (Babur) LIFSHITS, SHIYE-MORDKHE MANI, EZRA MENAHEM BEN JACOB IBN SARUQ MORAG, SHLOMO MORDELL, PHINEHAS MOSES BEN HA-NESIAH PLANTAVIT DE LA PAUSE, JEAN POLOTSKY, HANS JACOB SAMSON HA-NAKDAN SARFATTI, GAD SCHAECHTER, MORDKHE SCHNEIDER, MORDECAI BEZALEL SCHULMANN, ELIEZER STEINBERG, JOSHUA WARSHAWSKY, ISAAC WEINREICH, URIEL WIZEN, MOSHE AHARON YALON, HANOCH YEIVIN, ISRAEL ZAMENHOF, LUDWIK LAZAR ZAND, MICHAEL

B. JEWISH LITERATURE Main Surveys

LITERATURE, JEWISH General Entries

ANIMAL TALES BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOPHILES BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE BIOGRAPHIES AND AUTOBIOGRAPHIES BOOKS CHILDREN’S LITERATURE DIBBUK ENCYCLOPEDIAS ETHICAL LITERATURE FABLE FESTSCHRIFTEN FOLKLORE GOLEM KALILA AND DIMNA MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

PARABLE PRINTING, HEBREW SCIENCE FICTION AND FANTASY, JEWISH WANDERING JEW Bible in Jewish Literature

ABRAHAM ABSALOM ADAM AKEDAH ATHALIAH BABEL, TOWER OF BALAAM BELSHAZZAR BIBLE – IN THE ARTS CAIN CHERUB DANIEL DAVID DEBORAH ELIJAH ESTHER EZEKIEL GIDEON HEZEKIAH ISAAC ISAIAH JACOB JEPHTHAH JEREMIAH JERUSALEM JOB, BOOK OF JONAH, BOOK OF JOSEPH JOSHUA LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF MOSES NEBUCHADNEZZAR (Nebuchadrezzer) NOAH PSALMS, BOOK OF RACHEL RUTH, BOOK OF SAMSON SAMUEL SAUL SODOM AND GOMORRAH SOLOMON SONG OF SONGS TEMPLE

C. HEBREW LITERATURE 1. MEDIEVAL Main Surveys

POETRY General Entries

ABRAHAM ALEXANDER THE GREAT

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III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE C. HEBREW LITERATURE 1. Medieval General Entries (continued) ALLEGORY APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA AZ ROV NISSIM BEN HA-MELEKH VE-HA-NAZIR BEN SIRA, ALPHABET OF BIOGRAPHIES AND AUTOBIOGRAPHIES BODLEIAN LIBRARY COLOPHON DANIEL, VISION OF DERASHOT HA-RAN ELIJAH ELIJAH, APOCALYPSE OF EXEMPLA OF THE RABBIS EXEMPLUM FICTION, HEBREW FOUR CAPTIVES, THE HAGIOGRAPHY INCUNABULA INSTITUTE FOR THE RESEARCH OF MEDIEVAL HEBREW POETRY LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS MAGIC MAQAMA MEKIZE NIRDAMIM MOSES, CHRONICLES OF MUSAR HASKEL NAJARA, ISRAEL BEN MOSES NEVU’AT HA-YELED PARABLE PARODY, HEBREW PEREK SHIRAH PIYYUT PURIM-SHPIL TRANSLATION AND TRANSLATORS UZZA AND AZA’EL WILLS, ETHICAL Biographies

AARON HAKIMAN ABBASI, JACOB BEN MOSES IBN ABI ZIMRA, ISAAC MANDIL BEN ABRAHAM ABRAHAM BEN HALFON ABRAHAM BEN HILLEL (Ben Nissim) OF FOSTAT ABRAHAM BEN SHABBETAI HA-KOHEN (Zante) ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON OF TORRUTIEL ABRAHAM OF SARTEANO ABULAFIA, EZEKIEL DAVID BEN MORDECAI ABULAFIA, TODROS BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI ABUN (Abuna, Bun) ACAN, MOSES DE TARREGA AHIMAAZ BEN PALTIEL AL-AVANI, ISAAC ALHADIB, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON BEN ZADDIK AL-HARIZI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON ALI (ben David)

224

ALTARAS, JOSEPH ALVAN BEN ABRAHAM ALVAREZ GATO, JUAN AMITTAI AMITTAI BEN SHEPHATIAH ARCHIVOLTI, SAMUEL ARYEH JUDAH HARRARI (ha-Yarbi) AVIGDOR, ABRAHAM BEDERSI, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BENJAMIN BEN AZRIEL BENJAMIN BEN HIYYA (Jehiel) BENJAMIN BEN ZERAH BERECHIAH BEN NATRONAI HA-NAKDAN BONAFED, SOLOMON BEN REUBEN CASPI, SAUL DAVID BEN AARON IBN HASSIN (Hussein) DAVID BEN MESHULLAM OF SPEYER DE PIERA, MESHULLAM BEN SOLOMON DE PIERA, SOLOMON BEN MESHULLAM DUNASH BEN LABRAT ELEAZAR BEN HALFON HA-KOHEN ELEAZAR BEN JACOB HA-BAVLI ELIJAH BEN ELIEZER PHILOSOPH HAYERUSHALMI ELIJAH BEN SHEMAIAH ELIJAH CHELEBI HA-KOHEN OF ANATOLIA EZOBI, JEHOSEPH BEN HANAN BEN NATHAN FARISSOL, JACOB BEN HAYYIM (Comprat; Vidal) FRANCES, IMMANUEL BEN DAVID FRANCES, JACOB BEN DAVID GABIROL, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH, IBN GALIPAPA, MAIMON GALLEGO, JOSEPH SHALOM GERONDI, ISAAC BEN JUDAH GERONDI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC GIKATILLA, ISAAC IBN GIKATILLA, MOSES BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN HARIZI, ABU ISAAC ABRAHAM HISDAI IBN HISDAI, ABU AL-FADL IBN AL-RABIB, ABRAHAM IBN ALTABBAN, LEVI BEN JACOB IBN AL-TAQANA, MOSES IBN BARZEL, JOSEPH IBN BILIA, DAVID BEN YOM-TOV IBN EZRA, ISAAC IBN EZRA, MOSES BEN JACOB IBN GHAYYAT IBN HABIB, MOSES BEN SHEM TOV IBN HASDAI, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI IBN KAPRON, ISAAC IBN KHALFUN, ISAAC IBN MAR SAUL, ISAAC BEN LEVI IBN PAQUDA, DAVID BEN ELEAZAR IBN SAHL, JOSEPH BEN JACOB IBN SASSON, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH IBN SHUWAYK, ISAAC BEN ISRAEL IBN ZABARA, JOSEPH BEN MEIR IBN ZABARRA, JUDAH IBN ZAKBEL, SOLOMON IMMANUEL (ben Solomon) OF ROME

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ISAAC ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM HA-GORNI ISAAC BEN HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC BEN JUDAH ISAAC BEN JUDAH HA-SENIRI ISSACHAR, SIMHAH JACOB BEN ELEAZAR JACOB BEN JUDAH JACOB BEN NAPHTALI JACOB HA-KATAN JOAB THE GREEK (Ha-Yevani) JOHANAN BEN JOSHUA HA-KOHEN JOSEPH BAR NISSAN JOSEPH BEN ASHER OF CHARTRES JOSEPH BEN ISRAEL JOSEPH BEN JACOB JOSEPH BEN KALONYMUS HA-NAKDAN I JOSEPH BEN SHESHET IBN LATIMI JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON OF CARCASSONNE JOSEPH BEN TANHUM YERUSHALMI JOSEPH BEN UZZIEL JOSHUA JOSHUA BEN ELIJAH HA-LEVI JOSIPHIAH THE PROSELYTE JUDAH BEN ISAAC IBN SHABBETAI JUDAH BEN MENAHEM OF ROME JUDAH HALEVI JUDAH HA-LEVI BEI-RABBI HILLEL KALAI, JOSEPH BEN JACOB KALLIR, ELEAZAR KALONYMUS BEN KALONYMUS LEONTE (Judah) BEN MOSES MATTATHIAS MEIR BEN ELIJAH OF NORWICH MEIR BEN SAMUEL OF SHCHEBRESHIN MERECINA OF GERONA MEVORAKH HA-BAVLI MOSES BEN JOAB MOSES NATHAN OHEV BEN MEIR HA-NASI PHINEHAS BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN (Kafra) PHINEHAS BEN JOSEPH HA -LEVI ROSSENA, DANIEL BEN SAMUEL OF SAADIAH SAHULA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON ABI SAMUEL HA-SHELISHI BEN HOSHANA SANTOB DE CARRION SHABAZI, SHALEM SHE’ERIT HA-HAZZAN SILANO SIMEON BEN MEGAS HA-KOHEN SOLOMON BEN JUDAH HA-BAVLI SOLOMON SULIMAN BEN AMAR SOMMO, JUDAH LEONE BEN ISAAC YANNAI YEHUDI BEN SHESHET YOM TOV OF JOIGNY YOSE BEN YOSE ZARKO (Zarka), JOSEPH BEN JUDAH ZEBIDAH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

2. MODERN Main Surveys

HEBREW LITERATURE, MODERN General Entries

ALLEGORY BIKKUREI HA-ITTIM DAVID HA-ASIF HA-TEKUFAH JERUSALEM KIRJATH SEPHER LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS MOZNAYIM PARODY, HEBREW Biographies

ADELMAN, URI AESCOLY, AARON ZEEV AGMON, NATHAN AGNON, SHMUEL YOSEF AHAD HA-AM AKAVYA, AVRAHAM ARYEH LEIB ALFES, BENZION ALMANZI, JOSEPH ALMOG, RUTH ALONI, NISSIM ALTERMAN, NATHAN AMICHAI, YEHUDA AMIR, AHARON AMIR, ANDA AMIR, ELI ANOKHI, ZALMAN YIZHAK APPELFELD, AHARON ARICHA, YOSEF ASHER, ISAIAH BEN MOSES HA-LEVI ASHMAN, AHARON AVIDAN, DAVID AVIGUR-ROTEM, GABRIELA AVINOAM, REUVEN AVI-SHAUL, MORDEKHAI BACHER, SIMON BADER, GERSHOM (Gustav) BALLAS, SHIMON BARASH, ASHER BARON, DEVORAH BARTOV, HANOCH BAR-YOSEF, YEHOSHUA BASSAN, ABRAHAM HEZEKIAH BEN JACOB BAT-MIRIAM, YOKHEVED BAVLI, HILLEL BE’ER, HAIM BEHAK, JUDAH BEILIN, ASHER BEILINSON, MOSES ELIEZER BEILINSON, MOSHE BEJERANO, MAYA BEN YEHUDA, NETIVA BEN YIZHAK, AVRAHAM BEN-AMITAI, LEVI

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III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE C. HEBREW LITERATURE 2. Modern Biographies (continued) BEN-AMOTZ, DAHN BENJACOB, ISAAC BEN-NER, YITZHAK BEN-YEHEZKIEL, MORDEKHAI BEN-YEHUDA, HEMDAH BEN-ZION, S. BERDYCZEWSKI, MICHA JOSEF BERGSTEIN, FANIA BERKOWITZ, YITZHAK DOV BERNSTEIN, ORI BERSHADSKY, ISAIAH BERTINI, K. AHARON BIALIK, HAYYIM NAHMAN BICK, JACOB SAMUEL BIRKENTHAL, DOV BER BIRSTEIN, YOSSEL BLANK, SAMUEL LEIB BLOCH, SAMSON HA-LEVI (Simson) BOSAK, MEIR BRAININ, REUBEN BRANDSTAEDTER, MORDECAI DAVID BRAUDES, REUBEN ASHER BRAUNSTEIN, MENAHEM MENDEL BRENNER, JOSEPH HAYYIM BRESSELAU, MEYER ISRAEL BRILL, JOSEPH BROIDES, ABRAHAM BROIDO, EPHRAIM BURLA, YEHUDA CAHAN, YAAKOV CARMI, ISAIAH HAI BEN JOSEPH CARMI, T. CASTEL-BLOOM, ORLY CHOMSKY, DOV CHURGIN, YAAKOV YEHOSHUA COHEN, ISRAEL COHEN, SHALOM BEN JACOB DAGON, BARUKH (Asher David) DAYAN, YAEL DOLITZKI, MENAHEM MENDEL DOR, MOSHE DRUYANOW, ALTER (Asher, Avraham Abba) DYKMAN, SHLOMO EHRENKRANZ, BENJAMIN (Wolf) ZEEB EICHENBAUM (Gelber), JACOB ELISHEVA ELMALEH, ABRAHAM EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM EPSTEIN, ZALMAN ERTER, ISAAC EVER HADANI EYTAN, RACHEL FAHN, REUBEN FEDER, TOBIAS FEIERBERG, MORDECAI ZE’EV

226

FEINSTEIN, MOSES FEITELSON, MENAHEM MENDEL FERNHOF, ISAAC FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL FICHMAN, JACOB FISCHMANN, NAHMAN ISAAC FRAENKEL, FAIWEL FRANCO-MENDES, DAVID FRANKEL, NAOMI FREHA BAT AVRAHAM OF MOROCCO FRIEDBERG, ABRAHAM SHALOM FRIEDLAND, ABRAHAM HYMAN (Hayyim) FRIEDMANN, DAVID ARYEH FRISCHMANN, DAVID GALAI, BINYAMIN GELDMAN, MORDECHAI GILBOA, AMIR GILEAD, ZERUBAVEL GINZBURG, SIMON GNESSIN, URI NISSAN GOLDBERG, LEA GOLDENBERG, SAMUEL LEIB GOLDIN, EZRA GORDON, JUDAH LEIB GORDON, SAMUEL LEIB GOREN, NATAN GOTTLIEB, JACOB GOTTLOBER, ABRAHAM BAER GOURI, HAIM GREENBERG, URI ZEVI GROSSMAN, DAVID GUENZBURG, MORDECAI AARON GUR, BATYA GURFEIN, RIVKA HABAS, BRACHA HACOHEN, MORDECAI BEN HILLEL HA-EFRATI, JOSEPH HAEZRAHI, YEHUDA HALKIN, SIMON HAMEIRI, AVIGDOR HAMENAHEM, EZRA HAMON, AARON BEN ISAAC HAREVEN, SHULAMIT HAZAZ, HAYYIM HENDEL, YEHUDIT HILLELS, SHELOMO HOFFMANN, YOEL HOGA, STANISLAV HOROWITZ, YAAKOV HOURVITZ, YA’IR HURWITZ, SAUL ISRAEL IMBER, NAPHTALI HERZ JAFFE, ABRAHAM B. KABAK, AARON ABRAHAM KADARI, SHRAGA KAHANA-CARMON, AMALIA KAMINER, ISAAC KAMSON, YAAKOV (Jacob) DAVID KANIUK, YORAM KAPLAN, PESAH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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KARIV, AVRAHAM YIZHAK KARNI, YEHUDA KARU, BARUCH KATZ (Benshalom), BENZION KATZENELSON, BARUCH KATZENELSON, ITZHAK KATZIR, JEHUDIT KENAANI, DAVID KENAN, AMOS KENAZ, YEHOSHUA KERET, ETGAR KESHET, YESHURUN KIMHI, DOV KINDERFREUND, ARYEH LEIB KIPNIS, LEVIN KISHON, EPHRAIM KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAH KOHEN-ZEDEK, JOSEPH KOVNER, ABBA KOVNER, ABRAHAM URI KURZWEIL, BARUCH K. ZETNIK LACHOWER, YERUHAM FISHEL LAMDAN, YIZHAK LANDAU, JUDAH LOEB (Leo) LAOR, YITZHAK LAPID, SHULAMIT LEBENSOHN, ABRAHAM DOV LEBENSOHN, MICAH JOSEPH LEIBL, DANIEL LENSKI, HAYYIM LETTERIS, MEIR (Max) LEVI, JOSHUA JOSEPH BEN DAVID LEVIN, ALTER ISAAC LEVIN, HANOCH LEVIN, JUDAH LEIB LEVNER, ISRAEL BENJAMIN LEVONTIN, JEHIEL JOSEPH LEWINSKY, ELHANAN LEIB LICHTENBAUM, JOSEPH LIEBRECHT, SAVYON LIPSON, MORDEKHAI LISITZKY, EPHRAIM E. LUBOSHITZKI, AARON LUIDOR, JOSEPH MANDELKERN, SOLOMON MANNE, MORDECAI ZEVI MAPU, ABRAHAM MARKSON, AARON DAVID MATALON, RONIT MEGGED, AHARON MEITUS, ELIAHU MELTZER, SHIMSHON MENDELSOHN, FRANKFURT MOSES MEZAH (SEGAL) JOSHUA HA-LEVI MICHAEL, SAMI MICHALI, BINYAMIN YIZHAK MIRON, DAN MIRSKY, AARON MISHOL, AGI

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

MOHR, MEIR MORPURGO, RACHEL MOSSINSOHN, YIGAL NATHANSON, BERNHARD (Dov Baer) OFEK, URIEL OMER, HILLEL OREN, RAM OREN, YIZHAK ORLAND, YAAKOV ORLEV, URI ORPAZ AVERBUCH, YIZHAK OVSAY, JOSHUA OZ, AMOS PAGIS, DAN PAPERNA, ABRAHAM JACOB PAPPENHEIM, SOLOMON PATAI, JOZSEF PENN, ALEXANDER PENUELI, SHEMUEL YESHAYAHU PERL, JOSEPH PERSKI, JOEL DOV BAER PINCAS, ISRAEL POMERANTZ, BERL POZNANSKY, MENAHEM PREIL, GABRIEL JOSHUA RAAB, ESTHER RABINOVITZ, ALEXANDER SISKIND RABINOWITZ, ELIAHU WOLF RABINOWITZ, YAAKOV RABINOWITZ, ZINA RAHEL RALL, YISRAEL RATOSH, YONATHAN RAVIKOVITCH, DALIA REGELSON, ABRAHAM REICH, ASHER REUVENI, AHARON RIBALOW, MENACHEM RIMON, JACOB RIMON, JOSEPH ZEVI RODIN, ELISHA ROKEAH, DAVID ROMANELLI, SAMUEL AARON ROSEN, ABRAHAM ROSENFELD, AHARON ROSENZWEIG, GERSON RUEBNER, TUVIA SACKLER, HARRY SADAN, DOV SADEH, PINHAS SALKINSON, ISAAC EDWARD (Eliezer) SCHAPIRA, NOAH SCHATZ, ZEVI SCHORR, NAPHTALI MENDEL SCHUR, ZEV WOLF (William) SCHWARTZ, ABRAHAM SAMUEL SENED, ALEXANDER SERI, DAN BENAYA SHAANAN, AVRAHAM SHABTAI, AHARON

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III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE C. HEBREW LITERATURE 2. Modern Biographies (continued) SHABTAI, YAAKOV SHAHAM, NATHAN SHAHAR, DAVID SHAKED, GERSHON SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM SHALEV, MEIR SHALEV, YITZHAK SHALEV, ZERUYA SHALKOVICH, ABRAHAM LEIB SHALOM, SHIN SHAMI, YITZHAK SHAMIR, MOSHE SHAPIRA, HAYYIM NACHMAN SHAPIRO, ABBA CONSTANTIN SHENHAR, YITZHAK SHIMONI (Shimonovitz), DAVID SHIMONI, YOUVAL SHLONSKY, ABRAHAM SHNEOUR (Shneur), ZALMAN SHOFMAN, GERSHON SHOHAM, MATTITYAHU MOSHE SILBERBUSCH, DAVID ISAIAH SILBERSCHLAG, EISIG SILKINER, BENJAMIN NAHUM SILMAN, KADISH YEHUDA LEIB SIVAN, ARYE SMILANSKY, MEIR SMILANSKY, MOSHE SMOLENSKIN, PEREZ SMOLI, ELIEZER (Smoler) SOBEL, JACOB ZEVI SOBOL, YEHOSHUA SOKOLOW, NAHUM SOLODAR, ABRAHAM SOMECK, RONNY STAVI (Stawsky), MOSES STEINBERG, JACOB STEINBERG, JUDAH STEINMAN, ELIEZER STERN, MAX EMANUEL (Mendel) STERN, NOAH STRAUSS, ARYEH LUDWIG STREIT, SHALOM STRELISKER, MARCUS SUSSMAN, EZRA SUWALSKI, ISAAK SVERDLIK, ODED TABIB, MORDEKHAI TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH TAMMUZ, BENJAMIN TAWIOW, ISRAEL HAYYIM TCHERNICHOWSKY, SAUL TCHERNOWITZ-AVIDAR, YEMIMAH TEMKIN TENE, BENJAMIN

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TEVET, SHABBETAI TIDHAR, DAVID TOCHNER, MESHULLAM TRIWOSCH, JOSEPH ELIJAH TSALKA, DAN TWERSKY, YOHANAN UKHMANI, AZRIEL UNGERFELD, MOSHE VOGEL, DAVID WALLACH, YONA WALLENROD, REUBEN WEINBERG, ZEVI ZEBULUN WEISSBERG, ISAAC JACOB WEISSBERG, MEIR (Max) WEISSMAN, BARUCH MORDECAI WEITZ, JOSEPH WERBEL, ELIAHU MORDECAI WERSES, SAMUEL WESSELY, NAPHTALI HERZ WIESELTHIER, MEIR WOLFOWSKI, MENAHEM ZALMAN WOYSLAWSKI, ZEVI YAARI, YEHUDAH YALAN-STEKELIS, MIRIAM YEHOSHUA, AVRAHAM B. YEIVIN, YEHOSHUA HESCHEL YERUSHALMI, RINA YESHURUN, AVOT YIZHAR, S. YONATHAN, NATHAN YZRAELY, YOSSI ZACH, NATHAN ZAMOSC, DAVID ZARCHI, ISRAEL ZEITLIN, AARON ZELDA (MISHKOVSKY) ZEMACH, SHLOMO ZHERNENSKY, MOSHE ELIYAHU ZITRON, SAMUEL LEIB ZMORA, YISRAEL

D. YIDDISH LITERATURE Main Surveys

YIDDISH LITERATURE General Entries

BIOGRAPHIES AND AUTOBIOGRAPHIES BOBE-MAYSE BOVE-BUKH BRIYO VE ZIMRO CAMBRIDGE CODEX CANADIAN LITERATURE (YIDDISH) CHILDREN’S LITERATURE CZERNOWITZ YIDDISH LANGUAGE CONFERENCE GOLDENE KEYT, DI IN-ZIKH KHALYASTRE KI-BUKH KOL MEVASSER

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KULTUR-LIGE MAYSE-BUKH MELOKHIM BUKH PARIZ UN VIENE SHMUEL BUKH SOVETISH HEYMLAND SWEATSHOP POETRY THEATER TOPLPUNKT TSUKUNFT VIDVILT YIDDISH THEATER, FOLKSBIENE YIDISHE SHTIME YIDISHER KEMFER YIDISHES TAGEBLAT YIVO INSTITUTE FOR JEWISH RESEARCH YUNGE, DI YUNGMAN, MOSHE YUNG VILNE ZE’ENAH U-RE’ENAH Biographies

AARON BEN SAMUEL ABRAMOVITSH, SHOLEM YANKEV (Mendele Mokher Seforim) ABTSHUK, AVRAHAM ADLER, JACOB ALPERSOHN, MARCOS ALTMAN, MOISHE ALTSCHUL, MOSES BEN HANOKH ANSHEL OF CRACOW AN-SKI, S. ASCH, SHOLEM ASHENDORF, ISRAEL AUERBACH, EPHRAIM AUERBAKH, ROKHL AUSLAENDER, NAHUM AXELROD, SELIK AXENFELD, ISRAEL AYALTI, HANAN J. BAAL-MAKHSHOVES BASMAN BEN-HAYIM, RIVKE BASS, HYMAN B. BASSIN, MOSES BEIDER, CHAIM BERGELSON, DAVID BERGER, LILY BERGNER, HERZ BERINSKI, LEV BERKOWITZ, YITZHAK DOV BERLINER, ISAAC BERNSTEIN, IGNATZ BIALOSTOTZKY, BENJAMIN JACOB BICKEL, SOLOMON BICKELS-SPITZER, ZVI BILETZKI, ISRAEL HAYYIM BIMKO, FISHEL BIRNBAUM, SOLOMON ASHER BIRSTEIN, YOSSEL BLUM, ELIEZER

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BOMZE, NAHUM BORAISHA, MENAHEM BOTOSHANSKY, JACOB BOVSHOVER, JOSEPH BRAININ, REUBEN BRESCH (Bres), JUDAH LOEB (Leo) BEN MOSES NAPHTALI BRODER, BERL BRODERZON, MOYSHE BRYKS, RACHMIL BUBLICK, GEDALIAH BUCHWALD, NATHANIEL BURSZTYN, MICHAL CAHAN, JUDAH LOEB (Lewis) CALOF, RACHEL CHAGALL, BELLA ROSENFELD CHARNEY, DANIEL CHMELNITZKI, MELECH CORALNIK, ABRAHAM DANIEL, M. DEMBLIN, BENJAMIN DER NISTER DIK, ISAAC MEIR DILLON, ABRAHAM MOSES DINESON, JACOB DLUZHNOWSKY, MOSHE DOBRUSHIN, YEKHEZKEL DOLITZKI, MENAHEM MENDEL DROPKIN, CELIA DYMOV, OSSIP EDELSTADT, DAVID EHRENKRANZ, BENJAMIN (Wolf) ZEEB EINHORN, DAVID ELBERG, YEHUDA EMIOT, ISRAEL ENTIN, JOEL EPSTEIN, MELECH ERIK, MAX ESSELIN, ALTER ESTRAIKH, GENNADY ETTINGER, SOLOMON FALKOWITSCH, JOEL BAERISCH FEFER, ITZIK FEIGENBAUM, BENJAMIN FEINBERG, LEON FELZENBAUM, MICHAEL FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL FININBERG, EZRA FOX, CHAIM-LEIB FRAM, DAVID FRIEDMAN, JACOB FUCHS, ABRAHAM MOSHE FUKS, LAJB FURMAN, YISROEL GEBIRTIG, MORDECAI GILBERT, SHLOMO GINZBURG, ISER GISER, MOSHE DAVID GLANTZ, JACOBO GLANZ-LEYELES, AARON

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III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE D. YIDDISH LITERATURE Biographies (continued) GLASMAN, BARUCH GLATSTEIN, JACOB GLICK, HIRSH GLUECKEL OF HAMELN GODINER, SAMUEL NISSAN GOLDBERG, ABRAHAM GOLDBERG, BEN ZION GOLDFADEN, ABRAHAM GOLDHAR, PINCHAS GOLDIN, EZRA GOLOMB, ABRAHAM GORDIN, ABBA GORDIN, JACOB GORDON, MIKHL GORDON, SHMUEL GORELIK, SHEMARYA GORIN, BERNARD GORSHMAN, SHIRA GOTTESFELD, CHONE GOTTLIEB, JACOB GOTTLOBER, ABRAHAM BAER GRADE, CHAIM GREENBERG, ELIEZER GREENBLATT, ALIZA GROPER, JACOB GROSS, NAPHTALI GROSS-ZIMMERMANN, MOSHE GRYNBERG, BERL GURSHTEIN, AARON GUTMAN, CHAIM HAIMOWITZ, MORRIS JONAH HALKIN, SHMUEL HALPERN, MOYSHE-LEYB HARENDORF, SAMUEL JACOB HARKAVY, ALEXANDER HARSHAV, BENJAMIN HEILPERIN, FALK HELLER, BUNIM HERMAN, DAVID HERSHELE HIRSCHBEIN, PERETZ HIRSCHKAHN, ZEVI HOFFER, YEHIEL HOFSTEIN, DAVID HORONTCHIK, SIMON HOROWITZ, BER HURWITZ, CHAIM (Haykl) ICELAND, REUBEN IGNATOFF, DAVID IMBER, SAMUEL JACOB ISAAC BEN ELIAKIM OF POSEN IZBAN, SHMUEL JANOVSKY, SAUL JOSEPH JOFFE, JUDAH ACHILLES JUSTMAN, MOSHE BUNEM KACYZNE, ALTER

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KACZERGINSKY, SZMERKE KAGANOWSKI, EFRAIM KAHAN, SALOMON KALMANOVITCH, ZELIG KAPLAN, PESAH KARPINOVITSH, AVROM KASSEL, DAVID KATZ, ALEPH KATZ, DOVID KATZ, MENKE KATZ, MOSES KATZENELENBOGEN, URIAH KATZENELSON, BARUCH KATZENELSON, ITZHAK KAZDAN, HAYYIM SOLOMON KERLER, DOV-BER KERLER, YOYSEF KHARIK, IZI (Itzhak) KIPNIS, ITZIK KOBRIN, LEON KOENIG, LEO KOENIGSBERG, DAVID KORN, RACHEL HARING KOTIK, YEKHESKL KRANTZ, PHILIP KULBAK, MOYSHE KURTZ, AARON KUSHNIROV, AARON KVITKO, LEIB LANDAU, ALFRED LANDAU, ZISHE LAPIN, BERL LATTEINER, JOSEPH LEE, MALKE LEHRER, LEIBUSH LEIBL, DANIEL LEIVICK, H. LERER, YEHIEL LEV, ABRAHAM LIBIN, Z. LICHT, MICHAEL LIEBERMAN, CHAIM LIESSIN, ABRAHAM LINETZKY, ISAAC JOEL LITVAKOV, MOSES LITVIN, A. LITVINE, M. LOCKER, MALKE LUDWIG, REUBEN LURIA, NOAH LUTZKY, A. MAGIDOV, JACOB MALACH, LEIB MANGER, ITZIK MANI-LEIB (Brahinsky) MANN, MENDEL MARGOLIN, ANNA MARINOFF, JACOB MARKISH, PERETZ MARMOR, KALMAN

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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MASTBAUM, JOEL MAYZEL, NACHMAN MAZE, IDA MEDRES, ISRAEL MENDELSOHN, SHELOMO MENDELSON, JOSE MESTEL, JACOB MILLER, SHAYE MINKOFF, NAHUM BARUCH MIRANSKY, PERETZ MOLODOWSKY, KADIA MUKDONI, A. MYER, MORRIS NADIR, MOYSHE NAIDUS, LEIB NEUGROESCHEL, MENDEL NEUMANN, YEHESKEL MOSHE NIGER, SHMUEL NISSENSON, AARON NOMBERG, HERSH DAVID OLEVSKI, BUZI OLITZKY OPATOSHU, JOSEPH (Joseph Meyer Opatovsky) ORLAND, HERSHL ORNSTEIN, LEO OSHEROWITCH, MENDL OYVED, MOYSHE PAPIERNIKOV, JOSEPH PERETZ, ISAAC LEIB PERLE, JOSHUA PERLOV, YITSKHOK PERSOV, SHMUEL PINSKI, DAVID PREGER, JACOB RABINOVICH, JOSE RABON, ISRAEL RABOY, ISAAC RASHKIN, LEYB RAVITCH, MELECH RAZUMNI, MARK REBECCA BAT MEIR TIKTINER REISEN, ABRAHAM REJZEN, ZALMAN RESSLER, BENJAMIN REZNIK, LIPE RIVKIN, BORUCH ROCHMAN, LEIB ROGOFF, HARRY (Hillel) ROLNICK, JOSEPH ROSENBLATT, H. ROSENFARB, CHAVA ROSENFELD, JONAH ROSENFELD, MORRIS ROSSIN, SAMUEL RUBIN, HADASSAH RUBINSTEIN, JOSEPH SALKIND, JACOB MEIR SANDLER, BORIS SAPHIRE, SAUL SCHAECHTER-GOTTESMAN, BEYLE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

SCHNAPPER, BER SCHWARTZ, ISRAEL JACOB SCHWARZBARD, SHOLEM (Samuel) SCHWARZMAN, ASHER SEGAL, ESTHER SEGAL, JACOB ISAAC SEGALOWITCH, ZUSMAN SELIKOVITCH, GEORGE (Getzel) SFARD, DAVID SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM SHALOM ALEICHEM SHAMRI, ARIE SHAPIRO, LAMED SHAYEVITSH, SIMKHA-BUNEM SHEKHTMAN, ELYE SHMERUK, CHONE SHOMER SHPIGLBLAT, ALEKSANDER SHRAYBMAN, YEKHIEL SHTERN, ISRAEL SHTIF, NOKHEM SHULNER, DORA SHUMIATCHER-HIRSCHBEIN, ESTHER SIEMIATYCKI, CHAIM SIMON, SHLOME SINGER, ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER, ISRAEL JOSHUA SPECTOR, MORDECAI SPIEGEL, ISAIAH SPIVAK, ELYE STEIMAN, BEYNUSH STEINBARG, ELIEZER STENCL, ABRAHAM NAHUM STERNBERG, JACOB STRIGLER, MORDECAI SUTZKEVER, ABRAHAM TABACHNIK, ABRAHAM BER TASHRAK TEIF, MOSHE TEITSH, MOYSHE TENENBAUM, JOSHUA TEPPER, KOLYA TKATCH, MEIR ZIML TOLUSH TRUNK, YEHIEL YESHAIA TSANIN (YESHAYE), MORDKHE TUNKEL, JOSEPH TUSSMAN, MALKA ULIANOVER, MIRIAM VEINGER, MORDECAI VERGELIS, AARON VINCHEVSKY, MORRIS WALDMAN, MOSHE WARSHAVSKY, YAKIR WARSHAWSKI, MARK WARSZAWSKI, OSER WEINPER (Weinperlech), ZISHE WEINREICH, MAX WEINSTEIN, BERISH WEISSENBERG, ISAAC MEIR

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III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE D. YIDDISH LITERATURE Biographies (continued) WEITER, A. WELNER, PINCHES WENDROFF, ZALMAN WIENER, LEO WIENER, MEIR WISEMAN, SHLOIME WISSE, RUTH WOLF, LEIZER WOLPE, DAVID E. WOOG, MAYER YAKNEHAZ YEHOASH YOFFE, MORDECAI YUD, NAHUM YUDIKA ZABARA, NATAN ZARETZKI, ISAAC ZINBERG, ISRAEL (Sergei) ZUNSER, ELIAKUM ZYCHLINSKA, RAJZEL ZYLBERCWEIG, ZALMAN

IV. JEWS IN WORLD CULTURE A. ART Main Surveys

ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS ART CARTOONISTS PHOTOGRAPHY SCULPTURE General Entries

AGGADAH AN-SKI COLLECTIONS ANTHROPOMORPHISM ART COLLECTORS AND ART DEALERS ART HISTORIANS AND ART CRITICS BEZALEL BOOKPLATES BOOKS CALLIGRAPHY, MODERN HEBREW CALLIGRAPHY AND WRITING MASTERS CARICATURES GLASS GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS LION MEDALISTS MEDALS PARIS SCHOOL OF ART PORTRAITS OF JEWS PRINTERS MARKS STAMPS TYPOGRAPHERS TYPOGRAPHY

232

Bible and Second Temple in Art

ABRAHAM ABSALOM ADAM AKEDAH ATHALIAH BABEL, TOWER OF BALAAM BELSHAZZAR BIBLE CAIN CHERUB COSTA, URIEL DA DANIEL DAVID DEBORAH ELIJAH ESTHER EZEKIEL GIDEON HABAKKUK HASMONEANS HEROD I HEZEKIAH ISAAC ISAIAH JACOB JEPHTHAH JEREMIAH JERUSALEM JOB, BOOK OF JOEL JONAH, BOOK OF JOSEPH JOSEPHUS FLAVIUS JOSHUA JUDAH MACCABEE JUDITH, BOOK OF MOSES NEBUCHADNEZZAR NOAH PSALMS, BOOK OF RACHEL RUTH, BOOK OF SALOME SAMSON SAMUEL SAUL SCROLL OF ESTHER SOLOMON SONG OF SONGS SUSANNA AND THE ELDERS TEMPLE TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS TOBIT, BOOK OF Ritual Art

AMULET AMULETS, SAMARITAN ARK

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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BASILICA CEREMONIAL OBJECTS HANUKKAH LAMP ICONOGRAPHY ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW MENORAH NEW YEAR’S CARDS PAPER-CUTS PAROKHET AND KAPPORET PASSSOVER PEWTER PLATES PORTAL SABBATH SYNAGOGUE TAGIN TOMBS AND TOMBSTONES TORAH ORNAMENTS 1. ARCHITECTURE Biographies

ABRAMOVITZ, MAX ADLER, DANKMAR AGREST, DIANA ALDROPHE, ALFRED-PHILIBERT ALSCHULER, ALFRED BAERWALD, ALEX BAUMGARTEN, SANDOR BAUMHORN, LIPOT BLACK, SIR MISHA BLANKSTEIN, CECIL N. BOHM, HENRIK BREUER, MARCEL (Lajos) BRUNNER, ARNOLD BRYER, MONTE BUNSHAFT, GORDON DAVIS, HENRY DAVID DE KLERK, MICHEL DIAMOND, JACK EIDLITZ (Abraham Moses), ZERAH BEN MEIR EISENMAN, PETER D. EIZENBERG, JULIE ELHANANI, ABA ELHANANI, ARYEH ELTE, HARRY FEUERSTEIN, BEDRICH FRANK, JOSEF FREED, JAMES INGO FREUND, VILMOS GAD, DEVORAH GANDELSONAS, MARIO GEHRY, FRANK O. GOERITZ, MATHIAS GOLDBERG, BERTRAND GOODMAN, PERCIVAL GORLIN, ALEXANDER GRUMBACH, ANTOINE HAJOS, ALFRED HANSON, NORMAN LEONARD HEGEDUS, ARMIN HERMER, MANFRED

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

IDELSON, BENJAMIN JACOBSEN, ARNE EMIL JAKAB, DEZSO KAHN, ALBERT KAHN, ELY JACQUES KAHN, LOUIS I. KANTOROWICH, ROY KARMI, DOV KAUFMANN, OSKAR KAUFMANN, RICHARD KIESLER, FREDERICK JOHN KLARWEIN, JOSEPH KRAKAUER, LEOPOLD LAJTA, BELA LAMBERT, PHYLLIS LAPIDUS, MORRIS LASDUN, DENYS LE ROITH, HAROLD HIRSCH LERNER, JAIME LEVI, RINO LIBESKIND, DANIEL MALNAI, BELA MANDL, SAADIA MANSFELD, ALFRED MEIER, RICHARD MENDELSOHN, ERIC MESSEL, ALFRED MEYER-LEVY, CLAUDE MINDLIN, HENRIQUE NEUTRA, RICHARD JOSEPH PERSITZ, ALEXANDRE POLSHEK, JAMES PONTREMOLI, EMMANUEL QITNER, ZSIGMUND RATNER, YOHANAN RAU, HEINZ RECHTER REZNIK, DAVID ROGERS, ERNESTO ROSENBERG, EUGENE SAFDIE, MOSHE SAITOWITZ, STANLEY SCHINDLER, RUDOLPH M. SCHUMACHER, GOTTLIEB SCHWARTZ, FREDERIC SHARON, ARYEH STERN, ROBERT A.M. STRNAD, OSKAR TIGERMAN, STANLEY VAGO, JOZSEF VAGO, LASZLO YASKI, AVRAHAM ZELENKA, FRANTISEK ZEVI, BRUNO 2. CARTOONING Biographies

BLOCK, HERBERT LAWRENCE (“Herblock”) CAPP, AL CHAST, ROZ

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD A. ART 2. Cartooning Biographies (continued) CRUMB, ROBERT CSUPO, GABOR (and Irene Klasky) EISNER, WILL ELDER, WILL ELISOFON, ELIOT FEIFFER, JULES FLEISCHER, MAX FRELENG, I. J. GARDOSH, KARIEL (Charles; “Dosh”) GODAL, ERIC GOLDBERG, RUBE GOLDWATER, JOHN GROPPER, WILLIAM HIRSCHFELD, AL KANE, BOB KANE, GIL KELEN, IMRE KIRBY, JACK (Kurtzberg) KURTZMAN, HARVEY LANGDON, DAVID LAZARUS, MEL LEE, STAN OPPER, FREDERICK BURR SHUSTER, JOE SIEGEL, JERRY SPIEGELMAN, ART STEIG, WILLIAM, SHREK STEINBERG, SAUL TIM TRIER, WALTER WEISZ, VICTOR (“Vicky”) ZEC, PHILIP 3. PAINTING Biographies

ABERDAM, ALFRED ABRAHAMS, IVOR ABSALON ADLER, JANKEL (Jacob) ADLER, JULES ADLER, MORITZ ADLER, SAMUEL M. ADLIVANKIN, SAMUIL AGAM, YAACOV AIZENBERG, NINA ALCONIERE, THEODORE ALECHINSKY, PIERRE ALTMAN, NATHAN ALVA, SIEGFRIED AMSHEWITZ, JOHN HENRY ANCONA, VITO D’ ANISFELD, BORIS APPELBAUM, MOSHE ARDON, MORDECAI ARIKHA, AVIGDOR

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AROCH, ARIE ARONSON, DAVID ASCHHEIM, ISIDOR ASKNAZI, ISAAC LVOVICH ATAR, HAIM ATLAN, JEAN AUERBACH, FRANK AVNI, AHARON AXELROD, MEYER BACHI, RAPHAEL BACON, YEHUDA BAITLER, ZOMA BAK, SAMUEL BAKST, LEON BALLIN, JOEL BALLIN, MOEGENS BARCINSKY, HENRYK BARLIN, FREDERICK WILLIAM BARNET, WILL BARUH, BORA BAYEFSKY, ABA BECK, WILLY BEERI, TUVIA BELKIN, ARNOLD BENDEMANN, EDUARD JULIUS FRIEDRICH BENN BENN, BEN BEN-ZION (Weinman) BERENY, ROBERT BERGNER, YOSSL (Yosef L.) BERLEWI, HENRYK BERNSTEIN, MOSHE BERNSTEIN, THERESA BEZEM, NAPHTALI BIHARI, ALEXANDER BIRNBAUM, MENACHEM BIRNBAUM, URIEL BLAU, TINA BLOCH, MARTIN BLOOM, HYMAN BLUM, LUDWIG BLUME, PETER BOGEN, ALEXANDER BOLOTOWSKY, ILYA BOMBERG, DAVID BORENSTEIN, SAM BORNFRIEND, JACOB BORNSTEIN, ELI BRAUNER, ISAAC BRAUNER, VICTOR BRAZ, OSIP BRAZER, ABRAM BRODSKII, ISAAK BROWN, AIKA BRUCK, LAJOS BRUCK, MIKSA BUDKO, JOSEPH CAGLI, CORRADO CAHN, MARCELLE CAISERMAN-ROTH, GHITTA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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CARO-DELVAILLE, HENRI CARVALHO, SOLOMON NUNES CASSAB, JUDY CASTEL, MOSHE ELAZAR CASTELLAZZO, MOSES DA CENTERSZSWER, STANISLAWA CHAGALL, MARC CHAPIRO, JACQUES CHICAGO, JUDY CITROEN, ROELOF PAUL COEN, GIUSEPPE COHEN, BERNARD COHEN, HAROLD COHEN GAN, PINHAS COOPER, ALEXANDER CORCOS, VITTORIO COSTA, CATHERINE DA CZOBEL, BELA DANIELS, ALFRED DAVID, JEAN DE CHAVES, AARON DELAUNAY-TERK, SONIA DICKER-BRANDEIS, FREDERIKE DINE, JIM DONATI, ENRICO DONATI, LAZZARO EILSHEMIUS, LOUIS ENGELSBERG, LEON ESTEVENS, DAVID EZEKIEL, ABRAHAM EZEKIEL FEIBUSCH, HANS FEIGL, BEDRICH (Friedrich) FENYES, ADOLF FEUERRING, MAXIMILIAN FIMA FOX, EMANUEL PHILIPS FRAENCKEL, LIEPMANN FRANKENTHALER, HELEN FREEDMAN, BARNETT FRENKEL (Frenel), ITZHAK FREUD, LUCIAN FREUNDLICH, OTTO FRIEDLAENDER, JOHNNY FRITTA GARBUZ, YAIR GERSHUNI, MOSHE GERTLER, MARK GIKOW, RUTH GILBERT, INA GLUCK, HANNAH GOLUB, LEON GOTTLIEB, ADOLPH GOTTLIEB, MAURYCY GROSS, MICHAEL GRUNDIG, LEA AND HANS GRUNDMAN, ZWI GUSTON, PHILIP GUTMAN, NAHUM GUTTMANN, ROBERT HAAN, MEIJER DE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

HAAS, LEO HALEVY, YOSEF HALTER, MAREK HART, SOLOMON ALEXANDER HAYDEN, HENRI HENSCHEL BROTHERS HERDAN, KURT LUCIAN HERLINGEN, AARON WOLF HERMAN, JOSEF HERMAN, OSKAR HILLMAN, DAVID HIRSCH, JOSEPH HIRSCHFELD-MACK, LUDWIG HIRSHENBERG, SAMUEL HIRSHFIELD, MORRIS HOROVITZ, LEOPOLD IBN HAYYIM, JOSEPH INLANDER, HENRY ISER, JOSIF ISKOWITZ, GERSHON ISRAELS, JOZEF IVANYI-GRUNWALD, BELA JANCO, MARCEL JUSTER, GEORGE JUSTITZ, ALFRED KADISHMAN, MENASHE KAHAN, LOUIS KAHANA, AHARON KANOVITZ, HOWARD KARAVAN, DANI KARS, JIRI KATZ, ALEX KATZ, HANNS LUDWIG KAUFMANN, ISIDOR KEMPF, FRANZ MOSHE KESTLEMAN, MORRIS KIBEL, WOLF KIKOINE, MICHEL KIRSCHSTEIN, SALLI KIRSZENBAUM, JESEKIEL DAVID KISLING, MOISE KITAJ, R. B. KLEIN, YVES KLINE FRANZ KOLNIK, ARTHUR KOPF, MAXIM KOPPEL, HEINZ KOSSOFF, LEON KRAMER, JACOB KRASNER, LEE KRAYN, HUGO KRESTIN, LAZAR KUPFERMAN, MOSHE KUZKOVSKI, JOSEPH LASZLO, PHILIP ALEXIUS DE LOMBOS LAVIE, RAFFI LEVANON, MORDECAI LEVINE, JACK LEVITAN, ISAAC ILITCH LEVY, RUDOLF

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD A. ART 3. Painting Biographies (continued) LEVY-DHURMER, LUCIEN LICHTENSTEIN, ROY LIEBERMANN, MAX LIFSCHITZ, URI LISMANN, HERMANN LISSITZKY, EL (Lazar) LITVINOVSKY, PINHAS LOEVENSTEIN, FEDOR LOUIS, MORRIS LOZOWICK, LOUIS MAGNUS, EDUARD MAIROVICH, ZVI MANE-KATZ MANSO, LEO MARCOUSSIS (Marcous), LOUIS MARGO, BORIS MARIL, HERMAN MARYAN MAXY, MAX HERMAN MEIDNER, LUDWIG MENINSKY, BERNARD MENKES, ZYGMUNT MILICH, ADOLPHE MINTCHINE, ABRAHAM MODIGLIANI, AMEDEO MOHOLY-NAGY, LASZLO MOISE, THEODORE SYDNEY MOKADY, MOSHE MONDZAIN, SIMON MOPP MOSKOVITZ, SHALOM MOSLER, HENRY MUHLSTOCK, LOUIS MUTER (Mutermilch), MELA NADELMAN, ELIE NEIMAN, YEHUDAH NEWMAN, BARNETT NICHOLS, JACK NIERMAN, LEONARDO NIKEL, LEA NUSSBAUM, FELIX NUSSBAUM, JAKOB OFEK, AVRAHAM OLITSKI, JULES OPPENHEIM, MORITZ DANIEL OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH ORLIK, EMIL OTTA, FRANCISCO PACHTER, CHARLES PAILES, ISAAC (Jacques) PALDI, ISRAEL PANN, ABEL PAOVLOTZKY, RAUL PASCIN, JULES PASTERNAK, LEONID OSIPOVICH

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PEARLSTEIN, PHILIP PERLMUTTER, IZSAK PICART, BERNARD PILICHOWSKI, LEOPOLD PISSARRO, CAMILLE PRESSMANE, JOSEPH PROBST-KRAID, RIZA RABIN, OSCAR RABIN, SAM RAPHAEL, WILLIAM RASKIN, SAUL RATTNER, ABRAHAM RAY, MAN REDER, BERNARD REISS, LIONEL REMBRANDT VAN RIJN RIVERS, LARRY ROGERS, CLAUDE MAURICE ROSE, HERMAN ROSENBERG, LAZAR ROSENTHAL, MAX ROTHENSTEIN, SIR WILLIAM ROTHKO, MARK RUBIN, REUVEN RYBACK, ISSACHAR SAFDIE, SYLVIA SALAMAN SALOMON, CHARLOTTE SALOMON, GESKEL SCHAMES, SAMSON SCHANKER, LOUIS SCHATZ, BORIS SCHOR, ILYA SCHWARTZ, MANFRED SEBBA, SHALOM SEGAL, ARTHUR SEGALL, LAZAR SELIGMANN, KURT SEROV, VALENTIN SHAHN, BEN SHEMI, MENAHEM SIMA, MIRON SIMON, SIDNEY SOLOMON, SIMEON SOLOMON, SOLOMON JOSEPH SOUTINE, CHAIM SOYER, MOSES SOYER, RAPHAEL SPERO, NANCY SPIRO, EUGEN STEINER-PRAG, HUGO STEINHARDT, JAKOB STEMATSKY, AVIGDOR STERN, IRMA STERNE, HEDDA STERNE, MAURICE STREICHMAN, YEHEZKIEL STRUCK, HERMANN SUTTON, PHILIP SZALIT-MARCUS, RACHEL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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SZOBEL, GEZA SZYK, ARTHUR TAGGER, SIONA TATLIN, VLADIMIR E. TICHO, ANNA TIVOLI, SERAFINO DA TOPOLSKI, FELIKS TOWNE, CHARLES TWORKOV, JACK UHLMAN, FRED ULLMANN, ERNEST URY, LESSER VARLIN (Guggenheim, Willy) WALKOWITZ, ABRAHAM WEBER, MAX WEILL, SHRAGA WILSON, “SCOTTIE” WILSON, SOL WOLF, GUSTAV WOLLHEIM, GERT WOLMARK, ALFRED ZAK, EUGENE ZARITSKY, YOSSEF ZHITNITSKI, MARK ZIEGLER, ARCHIBALD ZUCKER, JACQUES 4. PHOTOGRAPHY Biographies

ARBUS, DIANE NEMEROV ARNOLD, EVE AVEDON, RICHARD BAR-AM, MICHA BING, ILSE BOURKE-WHITE, MARGARET BRENNER, FREDERIC CALLE, SOPHIE CAPA, CORNELL CAPA, ROBERT CARVALHO, SOLOMON NUNES EISENSTAEDT, ALFRED ERWITT, ELLIOTT ETTLINGER, MARION FRANK, ROBERT FREUND, GISELE FRIEDLANDER, LEE GIDAL, TIM GOLDIN, NAN HALSMAN, PHILIPPE HEARTFIELD, JOHN IZIS JACOBI, LOTTE KAGAN, ELIE KERTESZ, ANDRE LEIBOVITZ, ANNIE LEVITT, HELENE MARK, MARY ELLEN MEYEROWITZ, JOEL NEWMAN, ARNOLD NEWTON, HELMUT

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

PENN, IRVING PLACHY, SYLVIA RINGL & PIT (STERN, GRETE; ROSENBERG AUERBACH, ELLEN) RUBIN, GAIL RUBINGER, DAVID SALOMON, ERICH SEYMOUR, DAVID SISKIND, AARON STIEGLITZ, ALFRED STRAND, PAUL VISHNIAC, ROMAN WEEGEE WINOGRAND, GARRY 5. SCULPTURE Biographies

ANTOKOLSKI, MARK (Mordecai) ARONSON, NAUM LVOVICH ASTRUC, ZACHARIE BAIZERMAN, SAUL BASKIN, LEONARD BEER, SAMUEL FRIEDRICH BEN-ZVI, ZEEV BERNSTEIN-SINAIEFF, LEOPOLD BLAZKO, MARTIN BLOC, ANDRE BOKROS-BIRMAN, DEZSO (Desiderius) BOROFSKY, JONATHAN CARO, SIR ANTHONY DA COSTA, JOSEPH MENDES DANZIGER, ITZHAK DAVIDSON, JO EHRLICH, GEORG ELKAN, BENNO ENGEL, JOZSEF EPSTEIN, SIR JACOB ETROG, SOREL EZEKIEL, MOSES JACOB FEIGIN, DOV FERBER, HERBERT FREIFELD, ABRAHAM FRENKEL, VERA GLICENSTEIN, ENRICO GLID, NANDOR GORDON, WILLY GROSS, CHAIM GUENZBURG, ILYA YAKOVLEVICH GUTFREUND, OTTO HABER, SHAMAI HANNEMANN, PABLO HARKAVY, MINNA ISENSTEIN, KURT HARALD KOENIG, GHISHA KOGAN, MOYSE KORMIS, FRED KOSICE, GYULA KOTTLER, MOSES KREMEGNE, PINCHAS LASSAW, IBRAM

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD A. ART 5. Sculpture Biographies (continued) LEVINE, LES LEWITT, SOL LIPCHITZ, JACQUES (Chaim Jacob) LIPSHITZ, ISRAEL LIPPY LIPTON, SEYMOUR LISHANSKY, BATYA MARGOULIES, BERTHA MELNIKOFF, AVRAHAM MEYEROWITZ, HERBERT VLADIMIR NEIZVESTNY, ERNST NEMON, OSCAR NEVELSON, LOUISE NOSSIG, ALFRED ORLOFF, CHANA PALOMBO, DAVID PEVSNER, ANTON and NAUM NEHEMIA (Gabo) RAPAPORT, NATHAN ROTHSTEIN, IRMA SCHOEFFER, NICOLAS SCHOTTLANDER, BERNARD SCHOTZ, BENNO SEGAL, GEORGE SERRA, RICHARD SHEMI, YEHIEL SINGER, YVONNE STERNSCHUSS, MOSHE TEVET, NAHUM TEWI, THEA TUMARKIN, IGAEL ULLMAN, MICHA VOGEL, KAREL WAGNER, SIEGFRIED WALD, HERMAN WERNER, MICHAEL ZADIKOW, ARNOLD ZADKINE, OSSIP ZORACH, WILLIAM ZVIA 6. OTHER Biographies

ABRAMSON ADLER, FRIEDRICH ARON BRENNER, VICTOR COHEN, ELISHEVA GAMES, ABRAM GRILICHES, AVENIR HEINE, THOMAS THEODOR JESI, SAMUEL JOEL BEN SIMEON JOSEPH HA-ZAREFATI KALMAN, MAIRA KALMAN, TIBOR KAPLAN, ANATOLI LVOVICH

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KRUGER, BARBARA LASANSKY, MAURICIO LE BE, GUILLAUME LE WITT, JAN LILIEN, EPHRAIM MOSES MARIANOS MERZER, ARIEH MOREH, MORDECAI MYERS, MYER OFIR, ARIE OSTROWER, FEYGA PINS, JACOB RIE, DAME LUCIE ROTHENSTEIN (WILLIAM), MICHAEL SIMON, JEAN HENRI SOLDI (-Colbert), EMILE-ARTHUR SONNABEND, YOLANDA SZIGETI, IMRE TEMPLO, JACOB JUDAH (ARYEH) LEON TREBITSCH, MOSES LOEB BEN WOLF VINCZE, PAUL WIENER WOLPERT, LUDWIG YEHUDA Scholars, Critics, Collectors, Dealers AMISHAI-MAISELS, ZIVA BARASCH, MOSHE BARTHOLDY, JACOB BERENSON, BERNARD BERSOHN, MATTHIAS BIHALJI MERIN, OTO CASSIRER, PAUL COHN-WIENER, ERNST DAVIS, SIR EDMUND DUVEEN DUVEEN, JOSEPH, LORD ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD FLECHTHEIM, ALFRED GAMZU, HAYYIM GOMBRICH, sir ERNST GUTMANN, JOSEPH HALLO, RUDOLF HAMMER, ARMAND HIRSHHORN, JOSEPH HERMAN IBN HAYYIM, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH KAHNWEILER, DANIEL-HENRY KOLB, LEON NAMENYI, ERNEST (Erno) NARKISS, BEZALEL NARKISS, MORDECHAI OPPE, ADOLPH OSBORN, MAX PANOFSKY, ERWIN ROSENBERG, HAROLD SCHAPIRO, MEYER SPITZER, FREDERICK TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH WERTHEIMER, ASHER WILDENSTEIN WITTKOWER, RUDOLF J.

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B. LITERATURE 1. BULGARIAN LITERATURE

ZEYER, JULIUS 3. DUTCH LITERATURE

Main Surveys

Main Surveys

BULGARIAN LITERATURE

DUTCH LITERATURE

Biographies

Biographies

PETROV, VALERY WAGENSTEIN, ANGEL

BRUGGEN, CARRY VAN CAMPEN, MICHEL HERMAN VAN CORREA, ISABEL REBECCA DE COSTA, ISAAC DA DE LIMA, JOSEPH SUASSO HAAN, JACOB ISRAËL DE HEIJERMANS, HERMAN HERTZVELD-HIJMANS, ESTELLA HERZBERG, ABEL JACOB LOGGEM, MANUEL VAN MINCO, MARGA MULISCH, HARRY PRAAG, SIEGFRIED EMANUEL VAN QUERIDO, ISRAËL VAN VRIESLAND, VICTOR EMANUEL VROMAN, LEO

2. CZECHOSLOVAK LITERATURE Main Surveys

Czechoslovak Literature Biographies

ASKENAZY, LUDVIK BONN, HANUS BOR, JOSEF DAGAN, AVIGDOR DOSTAL, ZENO EISNER, PAVEL (Paul) FISCHER, OTOKAR FRÝD, NORBERT (Nora) GELLNER, FRANTIŠEK GOLDFLAM, ARNOST GOLDSTUECKER, EDUARD GOTTLIEB, FRANTIŠEK GROSMAN, LADISLAV HOFFMANN, CAMILL HOSTOVSKY, EGON KAFKA, FRANTIŠEK KAPPER, SIEGFRIED (Vitezslav) KLIMA, IVAN KNIEZA, EMIL KOHN, SALOMON KRAUS, FRANTIŠEK R. KRAUS, IVAN KRAUS, OTA LANGER, FRANTIŠEK LANGER, JIŘÍ MORDECHAI LAUB, GABRIEL LEDA, EDUARD LISTOPAD, FRANTISEK LUSTIG, ARNOST OLBRACHT, IVAN ORNEST, OTA ORTEN, JIRI PAVEL, OTA PICK, JIŘĪ ROBERT POLACEK, KAREL RAKOUS, VOJTECH ROTTOVA, INNA SALUS, HUGO SIDON, KAROL EFRAIM SPITZER, JURAJ UHDE, MILAN VOHRYZEK, JOSEF VRCHLICKÝ, JAROSLAV WEIL, JIŘĪ WEINER, RICHARD

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

4. ENGLISH LITERATURE Main Surveys

ENGLISH LITERATURE SOUTH AFRICAN LITERATURE UNITED STATES LITERATURE General Entries

CHILDREN’S LITERATURE Biographies

AARONSON, LAZARUS LEONARD ABSE, DANNIE ADAMS, HANNAH AGUILAR, GRACE ALTER, ROBERT B. ALVAREZ, ALFRED ANGOFF, CHARLES ANTIN, MARY APPLE, MAX ASIMOV, ISAAC AUSLANDER, JOSEPH AUSTER, PAUL BARON, JOSEPH ALEXANDER BAUM, VICKI BEHRMAN, SAMUEL NATHANIEL BELLOW, SAUL BERCOVICI, KONRAD BERCOVITCH, SACVAN BLAKE, WILLIAM BLANKFORT, MICHAEL S. BLOOM, HAROLD BOAS, FREDERICK SAMUEL BODENHEIM, MAXWELL BRINIG, MYRON BRODY, ALTER BRONER, ESTHER M.

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD B. LITERATURE 4. English Literature Biographies (continued) BROOKNER, ANITA BROWNING, ROBERT BRUSTEIN, ROBERT SANFORD BUKIET, MELVIN JULES BUSCH, CHARLES BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, LORD CAHAN, ABRAHAM CALISHER, HORTENSE CANADIAN LITERATURE CECIL, HENRY CHABON, MICHAEL CHARLES, GERDA CHAUCER, GEOFFREY CHAYEFSKY, PADDY CHODOROV, EDWARD CHODOROV, JEROME COHEN, ARTHUR A. COHEN, JOHN MICHAEL COHEN, LEONARD COHEN, MATT COHEN, ROSE GOLLUP COURNOS, JOHN CUMBERLAND, RICHARD DAHLBERG, EDWARD DAICHES, DAVID DALESKI, HILLEL DAVENPORT, MARCIA DAVIDSON, LIONEL DE CASSERES, BENJAMIN DEUTSCH, BABBETTE DICKENS, CHARLES D’ISRAELI, ISAAC ELIOT, GEORGE ELKIN, STANLEY ELLMANN, RICHARD EMANUEL, WALTER LEWIS EPHRON, NORA EPSTEIN, LESLIE EPSTEIN, MORRIS EPSTEIN, SEYMOUR EZEKIEL, NISSIM FADIMAN, CLIFTON FALK, BERNARD FALK, MARCIA FARHI, MORIS FARJEON, BENJAMIN LEOPOLD FAST, HOWARD MELVIN FEARING, KENNETH FEINSTEIN, ELAINE FELDMAN, IRVING FERBER, EDNA FIEDLER, LESLIE AARON FINEMAN, IRVING FISCH, HAROLD

240

FISH, STANLEY FRANK, WALDO DAVID FRANKAU FRANKEN, ROSE FRANKS, BILHAH ABIGAIL LEVY FREEMAN, JOSEPH FRIEDMAN, BRUCE JAY FUCHS, DANIEL GABRIEL, GILBERT W. GAMORAN, MAMIE GASSNER, JOHN GELBER, JACK GEORGE, WALTER LIONEL GERSHON, KAREN GINSBERG, ALLEN GLASS, MONTAGUE MARSDEN GLUCK, LOUISE GOLD, HERBERT GOLD, MICHAEL GOLDBERG, ISAAC GOLDEN, HARRY LEWIS GOLDING, LOUIS GOLDMAN, WILLIAM GOLDSTEIN, REBECCA GOLLER, IZAK GOODMAN, ALLEGRA GORDIMER, NADINE GORDON, SAMUEL GREEN, GERALD GREENBERG, JOANNE GREENBERG, SAMUEL BERNARD GROSS, JOHN JACOB GROSSMAN, ALLEN HALL, OWEN HALPER, ALBERT HAMBURGER, MICHAEL HARRIS, MARK HART, MOSS HECHT, BEN HELLER, JOSEPH HELLINGER, MARK HELLMAN, LILLIAN FLORENCE HENRY, EMMA HINDUS, MAURICE GERSCHON HIRSCH, ERIC DONALD HOBSON, LAURA Z. HOLLANDER, JOHN HOROVITZ, ISRAEL HOWE, IRVING HUDSON, STEPHEN HURST, FANNIE IGNATOW, DAVID ISAACS, JACOB ISAACS, SUSAN JACOB, NAOMI ELLINGTON JACOBSON, DAN JACOBSON, HOWARD JAFFE, RONA JHABVALA, RUTH PRAWER

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JONG, ERICA JOSIPOVICI, GABRIEL JUDAH, SAMUEL BENJAMIN HELBERT KALMAN, MAIRA KANIN, GARSON KANOVICH, GRIGORY KAPLAN, JOHANNA KARMEL, ILONA KAUFMAN, BEL KAUFMAN, GEORGE SIMON KAZIN, ALFRED KELLERMAN, FAYE KELLERMAN, JONATHAN KEMELMAN, HARRY KERSH, GERALD KINGSLEY, SIDNEY KINROSS, ALBERT KLEIN, ABRAHAM MOSES KLEPFISZ, IRENA KOBER, ARTHUR KOCH, KENNETH KOESTLER, ARTHUR KOMROFF, MANUEL KOPIT, ARTHUR KOPS, BERNARD KOSINSKI, JERZY KRAMER, LARRY KRAMM, JOSEPH KRANTZ, JUDITH KREISEL, HENRY KREYMBORG, ALFRED KRONENBERGER, LOUIS KROOK, DOROTHEA KUNITZ, STANLEY JASSPON KUSHNER, TONY LAURENTS, ARTHUR LAWSON, JOHN HOWARD LAYTON, IRVING LAZARUS, EMMA LEAVIS, QUEENIE DOROTHY LEE, SIR SIDNEY LEFTWICH, JOSEPH LEVERSON, ADA LEVERTOV, DENISE LEVIANT, CURT LEVIN, HARRY LEVIN, IRA LEVIN, MEYER LEVINE, NORMAN LEVINSON, OLGA LEVY, AMY LEVY, BENN WOLFE LEWIS, LEOPOLD DAVIS LEWISOHN, LUDWIG LIBERMAN, SERGE LIEBERMAN, ELIAS LITVINOFF, EMANUEL LOWENTHAL, MARVIN LYONS, ALBERT MICHAEL NEIL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

MAILER, NORMAN MALAMUD, BERNARD MALTZ, ALBERT MAMET, DAVID MANDEL, ELI MANKOWITZ, WOLF MARCUS, FRANK MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER MARTIN, DAVID MAYNARD, FREDELLE BRUSER MERRICK, LEONARD MEYERSTEIN, EDWARD HARRY WILLIAM MICHAELS, ANNE MIKES, GEORGE MILLER, ARTHUR MILLIN, SARAH GERTRUDE MILTON, JOHN MOÏSE, PENINA MULLER, ROBERT NASSAUER, RUDOLF NATHAN, GEORGE JEAN NEMEROV, HOWARD NEUGEBOREN, JAY NISSENSON, HUGH ODETS, CLIFFORD OLSEN, TILLIE OPPEN, GEORGE OPPENHEIM, JAMES ORNITZ, SAMUEL BADISCH OSTRIKER, ALICIA SUSKIN OZICK, CYNTHIA PALEY, GRACE PARKER, DOROTHY PERELMAN, SIDNEY JOSEPH PHILLIPS, WILLIAM PINSKY, ROBERT PINTO, VIVIAN DE SOLA PLAIN, BELVA PODHORETZ, NORMAN POTOK, CHAIM POUND, EZRA LOOMIS PROSE, FRANCINE PYE, JAEL HENRIETTA RAGEN, NAOMI RAHV, PHILIP RAND, AYN RAPHAEL, FREDERIC RAPHAEL, JOHN N. RAPHAELSON, SAMSON REZNIKOFF, CHARLES RICE, ELMER LEOPOLD RICH, ADRIENNE RICHLER, MORDECAI ROBBINS, HAROLD RODKER, JOHN ROSEN, NORMA ROSENBERG, ISAAC ROSENFELD, ISAAC ROSENFELD, PAUL

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD B. LITERATURE 4. English Literature Biographies (continued) ROSS, LILLIAN ROSTEN, LEO CALVIN ROTH, HENRY ROTH, PHILIP MILTON RUBENS, BERNICE RUBENS, PAUL ALFRED RUBINSTEIN, HAROLD FREDERICK RUKEYSER, MURIEL SALINGER, JEROME DAVID SAMPTER, JESSIE ETHEL SAMUEL, MAURICE SASSOON, SIEGFRIED LORRAINE SCHISGAL, MURRAY SCHULBERG, BUDD WILSON SCHWARTZ, DELMORE SCHWARZ, LEO WALDER SCOTT, SIR WALTER SEGAL, ERICH SEID, RUTH SERLING, ROD SHAFFER, SIR PETER SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM SHAPIRO, KARL JAY SHAW, IRWIN SHELDON, SIDNEY SHEVELOVE, BURT SHULMAN, MAX SHULMAN, MILTON SILKIN, JON SIMON, KATE SIMON, NEIL SINCLAIR, CLIVE SINGER, HOWARD SKLAREW, MYRA SOLOTAROFF, THEODORE SONTAG, SUSAN SPEWACK, BELLA SPIEGELMAN, ART SPIELVOGEL, NATHAN SPINGARN STEELE, DANIELLE STEIN, GERTRUDE STEIN, JOSEPH STEINER, GEORGE STEINFELD, JJ STERN, BERTHA GLADYS STERN, STEVE STINE, R. L. STONE, IRVING STRAUS, RALPH STRAUSS, GUSTAVE LOUIS MAURICE SUSANN, JACQUELINE SUTRO, ALFRED SYMONS, JULIAN

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TARN, NATHANIEL TAYLOR, SIDNEY TOBENKIN, ELIAS TORGOV, MORLEY TRILLIN, CALVIN, ESSAYIST TRILLING, DIANA TRILLING, LIONEL TUROW, SCOTT UNTERMEYER, LOUIS URIS, LEON WADDINGTON, MIRIAM (DWORKIN) WALEY, ARTHUR WALLACE, IRVING WALLANT, EDWARD LEWIS WASSERMAN, DALE WASSERSTEIN, WENDY WATEN, JUDAH WEIDMAN, JEROME WEINZWEIG, HELEN WELLER, MICHAEL WESKER, ARNOLD WEST, NATHANAEL WOLFE, HUMBERT WOLFERT, IRA WOUK, HERMAN YARMOLINSKY, AVRAHM (Abraham) YEZIERSKA, ANZIA ZANGWILL, ISRAEL ZUKOFSKY, LOUIS 5. FRENCH LITERATURE Main Surveys

CANADIAN LITERATURE (French) FRENCH LITERATURE Biographies

ABECASSIS, ELIETTE AREGA, LEON ARGENS, JEAN BAPTISTE DE BOYER BENICHOU, PAUL BERL, EMMANUEL BERNARD, TRISTAN BERNSTEIN, HENRI-LEON BERRI, CLAUDE BLANCHOT, MAURICE BLOCH, JEAN-RICHARD BLOCH-MICHEL, JEAN BLOY, LEON BOBER, ROBERT BOSCO, MONIQUE CHATEAUBRIAND, FRANÇOIS RENÉ, VICOMTE DE CIXOUS, HELENE CLAUDEL, PAUL COHEN, ALBERT CREMIEUX, BENJAMIN CROISSET, FRANCIS DE DUVERNOIS, HENRI EYDOUX, EMMANUEL FEJTO, FRANCOIS

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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FINBERT, ELIAN-J. FLEG, EDMOND (Flegenheimer) FOA, ESTHER EUGÉNIE REBECCA FONDANE, BENJAMIN FRANCK, HENRI GARY, ROMAIN GIVET, JACQUES GOLL, YVAN GRAY, MARTIN GRUMBERG, JEAN-CLAUDE HALEVY HALEVY, ELIE HALFON HALTER, MAREK HARRY, MYRIAM HERTZ, HENRI IKOR, ROGER IONESCO, EUGENE ISOU, ISIDORE JABÈS, EDMOND JACOB, MAX JEHOUDA, JOSUE KAHN, GUSTAVE KATTAN, NAÏM KESSEL, JOSEPH LACRETELLE, JACQUES DE LAHARANNE, ERNEST LANGFUS, ANNA LAZARE, BERNARD LEVY, BERNARD-HENRI LUNEL, ARMAND LUNEL, JACOB DE MANDEL, ARNOLD MAUROIS, ANDRÉ MEMMI, ALBERT MENDES, CATULLE MIKHAËL, EPHRAÏM MILBAUER, JOSEPH MILOSZ, OSCAR MODIANO, PATRICK MONTAIGNE, MICHEL DE MORHANGE, PIERRE NEMETH, ANDOR NEMIROWSKY, IRENE NEYRAC, PIERRE PÉGUY, CHARLES-PIERRE PEREC, GEORGES PORTO-RICHE, GEORGES DE PROUST, MARCEL RACINE, JEAN ROBIN, REGINE RYVEL SACHS, MAURICE SARRAUTE, NATHALIE SCHEINERT, DAVID SCHULSINGER, JOSEPH SCHWARZ-BART, ANDRE SEE, EDMOND SPERBER, MANES SPIRE, ANDRÉ

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

SUARÈS, ANDRÉ THARAUD, JEROME and JEAN THEMANLYS, PASCAL TZARA, TRISTAN VERCORS VIGÉE, CLAUDE VORONCA, ILARIE WEILL, ALEXANDRE ABRAHAM ZOLA, EMILE 6. GERMAN LITERATURE Main Surveys

GERMAN LITERATURE Biographies

ADLER, HERMANN ADLER, PAUL AICHINGER, ILSE ALTENBERG, PETER AMERY, JEAN ANDERS, GUNTER AUERBACH, ERICH AUERNHEIMER, RAOUL AUSLAENDER, ROSE AVIGDOR BEN SIMHAH HA-LEVI OF GLOGAU BAB, JULIUS BAUM, OSCAR BECK, KARL ISIDOR BECKER, JUREK BEER, MICHAEL BEER-HOFMANN, RICHARD BEHR, ISSACHAR FALKENSOHN BEN-CHORIN, SHALOM BEN-GAVRIEL, MOSHE YA’AKOV BENJAMIN, WALTER BERENDSOHN, WALTER A. BERG, LEO BERMANN, RICHARD ARNOLD BETTAUER, HUGO BIEBER, HUGO BIRNBAUM, URIEL BLUMENTHAL, OSKAR BORCHARDT, RUDOLF BRAUN, FELIX BROCH, HERMANN BROD, MAX BRUCKNER, FERDINAND CALE, WALTER CANETTI, ELIAS CELAN, PAUL DOEBLIN, ALFRED DOMIN, HILDE DONATH, ADOLPH EHRENSTEIN, ALBERT EINSTEIN, CARL ELOESSER, ARTHUR FEUCHTWANGER, LION FRAENKEL, JONAS FRANK, BRUNO

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD B. LITERATURE 6. German Literature Biographies (continued) FRANKL, LUDWIG AUGUST FRANZOS, KARL EMIL FRIED, ERICH FRIEDELL, EGON FRISCH, EFRAIM FULDA, LUDWIG GEIGER, LUDWIG GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOLDSTEIN, MORITZ GOLL, CLAIRE GOLL, YVAN GRONEMANN, SAMUEL (Sami, Sammy) GUMPERT, MARTIN GUNDOLF, FRIEDRICH GUTZKOW, KARL FERDINAND HAAS, WILLY HABE, HANS HASENCLEVER, WALTER HAY, GYULA (Julius) HEILBORN, ERNST HEIMANN, MORITZ HEINE, HEINRICH HERMANN, GEORG HERMLIN, STEPHAN HESSEL, FRANZ HEYM, STEFAN HEYMANN, WALTHER HEYSE, PAUL HILDESHEIMER, WOLFGANG HILSENRATH, EDGAR HIRSCHFELD, GEORG HITZIG, JULIUS EDUARD HOCHHUTH, ROLF HOCHWAELDER, FRITZ HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON HOLITSCHER, ARTHUR HOLLAENDER HONIGMANN, BARBARA HUGO, KAROLY JACOB, HEINRICH EDUARD JACOBOWSKI, LUDWIG JELINEK, ELFRIEDE KAFKA, FRANZ KAHANE, ARTHUR KALEKO, MASHA KALISCH, DAVID KARPELES, GUSTAV (Gershon) KAUFMANN, FRITZ MORDECAI KAYSER, RUDOLF KERR, ALFRED KESTEN, HERMANN KLEIN, JULIUS LEOPOLD KOLMAR, GERTRUD KOMPERT, LEOPOLD

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KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND KORNFELD, PAUL KRAFT, WERNER KRAMER, THEODOR KRAUS, KARL KROJANKER, GUSTAV KUH, EPHRAIM MOSES LANDSBERGER, ARTHUR LASKER-SCHUELER, ELSE LAZARUS, NAHIDA RUTH LEONHARD, RUDOLF LESSING, GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LEWALD, FANNY LIPINER, SIEGFRIED LISSAUER, ERNST LORM, HIERONYMUS LOTHAR, ERNST LOTHAR, RUDOLF LUBLINSKI, SAMUEL LUDWIG, EMIL MANN, THOMAS MARCUSE, LUDWIG MARGUL-SPERBER, ALFRED MAUTHNER, FRITZ MEHRING, WALTER MEYER, RICHARD MORITZ MOMBERT, ALFRED MORGENSTERN, SOMA MOSENTHAL, SALOMON HERMANN MUEHSAM, ERICH NADEL, ARNO NEUMANN, ALFRED NEUMANN, ROBERT PAULI, JOHANNES PERUTZ, LEO PICARD, JACOB POLGAR, ALFRED REHFISCH, HANS JOSE REICH-RANICKI, MARCEL ROBERT, LUDWIG RODA RODA, ALEXANDER RODENBERG, JULIUS ROESSLER, CARL ROTH, JOSEPH RUBINER, LUDWIG SACHS, NELLY SALTEN, FELIX SAPHIR, MORITZ (Moses) GOTTLIEB SCHERLAG, MARK SCHILLER, FRIEDRICH VON SCHNITZLER, ARTHUR SCHWIEFERT, PETER SEGHERS, ANNA STERNHEIM, CARL STRICH, FRITZ STURMANN, MANFRED SUESSKIND VON TRIMBERG SUSMAN, MARGARETE TABORI, GEORGE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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TOLLER, ERNST TORBERG, FRIEDRICH TREBITSCH, SIEGFRIED TUCHOLSKY, KURT URY, ELSE VAN HODDIS, JAKOB VIERTEL, BERTHOLD WALDEN, HERWARTH WALDINGER, ERNST WASSERMANN, JAKOB WEISS, ERNST WEISS, PETER WENGEROFF, PAULINE WERFEL, FRANZ WIHL, LUDWIG WINDER, LUDWIG WOLF, FRIEDRICH WOLFENSTEIN, ALFRED WOLFSKEHL, KARL WOLFSOHN-HALLE, AHARON ZUCKERMANN, HUGO ZUCKMAYER, CARL ZWEIG, ARNOLD ZWEIG, STEFAN 7. GREEK LITERATURE Main Surveys

GREEK LITERATURE, MODERN Biographies

ELIYIA, JOSEPH MATSAS, NESTORAS MOISSIS, ASHER 8. HUNGARIAN LITERATURE Main Surveys

HUNGARIAN LITERATURE Biographies

ACSÁDY, IGNÁC ACZÉL, TAMÁS ÁGAI, ADOLF BALÁZS, BÉLA BÁNÓCZI BENJÁMIN, LÁSZLÓ BIRÓ, LAJOS BRÓDY, LÁSZLÓ BRÓDY, LILI BRÓDY, SÁNDOR BRÓDY, ZSIGMOND CSERGŐ, HUGO CSERMELY, GYULA DÉRY, TIBOR DÓCZY, LAJOS ELEK, ARTUR EMŐD, TAMAS FALUDY, GYÖRGY FENYŐ, LÁSZLÓ FENYŐ, MIKSA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

FÖLDES, JOLÁN FUST, MILAN GÁBOR, ANDOR GELLÉRI, ANDOR ENDRE GELLÉRT, OSZKÁR GISZKALAY, JÁNOS HAJNAL, ANNA HELTAI, JENŐ HEVESI, LAJOS (Ludwig) HEVESI, SÁNDOR HUGÓ, KÁROLY IGNOTUS, HUGÓ ILLÉS, BÉLA KACZÉR, ILLÉS KARÁCSONY, BENŐ KARDOS, ALBERT KARDOS, LÁSZLÓ KARINTHY, FERENC KEMÉNY, SIMON KERTÉSZ, IMRE KESZI, IMRE KISS, JÓZSEF KÓBOR, TAMÁS KOMLÓS, ALADÁR KOMOR, ANDRAS KONRÁD, GYÖRGY KÖRMENDI, FERENC LAKATOS, LÁSZLÓ LENGYEL, JÓZSEF LENGYEL, MENYHÉRT (Melchior) LENKEI, HENRIK LUKÁCS, GEoRG (György) MAKAI, EMIL MARKOVITS, RODION (Jakab) MOHÁCSI, JENÖ MOLNÁR, AKOS MOLNÁR, FERENC NAGY, ENDRE ORMÓDY, BERTALAN OSVÁT, ERNÖ PALÁGYI, LAJOS PAP, KÁROLY RADNÓTI, MIKLOS REICHARD, PIROSKA RÉVÉSZ, BÉLA SALAMON, ERNO SIMON, TAMÁS SOMLYÓ, ZOLTÁN SPIRO, GYÖRGY SZABÓ, IMRE SZABOLCSI, LAJOS SZÁNTÓ, GYÖRGY SZENES, BÉLA SZENES, ERZSI SZÉP, ERNŐ SZERB, ANTAL SZILÁGYI, GÉZA SZOMORY, DEZSŐ TURÓCZI-TROSTLER, JÓZSEF

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD B. LITERATURE 8. Hungarian Literature Biographies (continued) UJVÁRI, PÉTER VÁNDOR, LAJOS VÁRNAI, ZSENI VAS, ISTVÁN VÉSZI, ENDRE ZELK, ZOLTAN ZSIGMOND, EDE ZSOLDOS, JENÖ ZSOLT, BÉLA 9. ITALIAN LITERATURE Main Surveys

ITALIAN LITERATURE Biographies

ASCARELLI, DEBORAH BASSANI, GIORGIO BEDARIDA, GUIDO CAMERINI, EUGENIO SALOMONE CASTELNUOVO, ENRICO DA VERONA, GUIDO DANTE ALIGHIERI DE BENEDETTI, ALDO DEBENEDETTI, GIACOMO DEL MONTE, CRESCENZO FIORENTINO, SALOMONE FUBINI, MARIO GINZBURG, NATALIA LEVI, CARLO LEVI, EUGENIO LEVI, GIULIO AUGUSTO LEVI, PAOLO LOPEZ, SABATINO LUZZATTO, GINO MOMIGLIANO, ATTILIO MORAVIA, ALBERTO MORPURGO, GIUSEPPE ORVIETO, ANGIOLO PITIGRILLI REVERE, GIUSEPPE PROSPERO SVEVO, ITALO VIVANTI CHARTRES, ANNIE 10. POLISH LITERATURE Main Surveys

POLISH LITERATURE Biographies

ADALBERG, SAMUEL BIEGELEISEN, HENRYK BRANDSTAETTER, ROMAN BRANDYS, KAZIMIERZ BRAUN, MIECZYSLAW BRZECHWA, JAN

246

DRZEWIECKI, HENRYK FELD, ISAAC FELDMAN, WILHELM GORSKA, HALINA GRYDZEWSKI, MIECZYSLAW GRYNBERG, HENRYK HEMAR, MARIAN HERTZ, BENEDYKT HIRSCHHORN, SAMUEL JASIEŃSKI, BRUNO JASTRUN, MIECZYSLAW JUNOSZA, KLEMENS KLACZKO, JULIAN (Judah) LEC, STANISLAW JERZY LESMIAN, BOLESLAW MICKIEWICZ, ADAM NOWACZYNSKI, ADOLF ORZESKOWA (Orzesko), ELIZA PEIPER, TADEUSZ RÓŻEWICZ, TADEUSZ RUDNICKI, ADOLF SCHULZ, BRUNO SLONIMSKI, ANTONI STANDE, STANISLAW RYSZARD STERN, ANATOL STRYJKOWSKI, JULJAN SZENWALD, LUCJAN TUWIM, JULIAN WAT, ALEXANDER WAZYK, ADAM WINAWER, BRUNO WITTLIN, JÓZEF WOROSZYLSKI, WIKTOR WYGODZKI, STANISLAW 11. ROMANIAN LITERATURE Main Surveys

ROMANIAN LITERATURE Biographies

ADERCA, FELIX AXELRAD, AVRAM BALTAZAR, CAMIL BANUȘ, MARIA BARANGA, AUREL BENADOR, URY BLECHER, MARCEL BONCIU, H. BRESLASU, MARCEL CĂLUGĂRU, ION CASSIAN, NINA CORNEA, PAUL COSAȘU, RADU CROHMALNICEANU, OVID S. DAN, SERGIU DOBROGEANU-GHEREA, CONSTANTIN DOMINIC, ALEXANDRU DORIAN, DOREL DORIAN, EMIL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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DUDA, VIRGIL FERARU, LEON FONDANE, BENJAMIN FURTUNĂ, ENRIC GALACTION, GALA GURIAN, SORANA HEFTER, ALFRED (Hidalgo) IACOBESCU, D. IOSIFESCU, SILVIAN LAZAR, SAMSON LĂZĂREANU, BARBU LUCA, B. LUDO, ISAC IACOVITZ MAIORESCU, GEORGE TOMA MILIAN, MAXIMIN MIRODAN, ALEXANDRU MONDA, VIRGILIU MUGUR, FLORIN NEMTEANU, BARBU PANĂ, SAŞA PELTZ, ISAC PORUMBACU, VERONICA RELGIS, EUGEN ROMAN-RONETTI, MOISE RUDICH, MAYER SANIELEVICI, HENRIC SEBASTIAN, MIHAIL SERBU, IERONIM SERGHI, CELLA SEVER, ALEXANDRU SILVIU, GEORGE SOARE, IULIA STEUERMAN, ADOLF RODION TERTULIAN, NICOLAE TOMA, A. TRIVALE, ION VEREA, ADRIAN VORONCA, ILARIE WEISS, AURELIU 12. RUSSIAN LITERATURE Main Surveys

RUSSIAN LITERATURE Biographies

AGURSKY, SAMUEL AIKHENVALD, YULI ISAYEVICH AIZMAN, DAVID YAKOVLEVICH ALDANOV, MARK ALIGER, MARGARITA YOSIFOVNA ALTAUZEN, YAKOV MOYSEYEVICH ANTOKOLSKI, PAVEL GRIGOREVICH AVERBAKH, LEOPOLD LEONIDOVICH BAAZOV, HERZL BABEL, ISAAC EMMANUILOVICH BAGRITSKI, EDUARD GEORGIYEVICH BELINKOV, ARKADII VIKTOROVICH BELOV, A. BEN-ADIR

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BEN-AMMI, MORDECAI BILL-BELOTSERKOVSKI, VLADIMIR NAUMOVICH BOGROV, GRIGORI ISAAKOVICH BRIK, OSIP MAKSIMOVICH BRODSKI, YOSIF BYADULYA-YASAKAR, ZMITROK CHAKOVSKI, ALEXANDER BORISOVICH CHERNY, SASHA DANIEL, YULI MARKOVICH DOLMATOVSKI, YEVGENI ARONOVICH DOMALSKY, I. DUBNOW-ERLICH, SOPHIA EHRENBURG, ILYA GRIGORYEVICH EICHENBAUM, BORIS MIKHAILOVICH FRIEDLAENDER, SOLOMON JUDAH FRUG, SHIMON SHMUEL GALICH, ALEXANDR ARKADYEVICH GEKHT, SEMEN GRIGOREVICH GERSHENZON, MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH GINSBURG, EVGENIA SEMIONOVNA GOLODNY, MIKHAIL GORKI, MAXIM GRANIN, DANIEL ALEKSANDROVICH GROSSMAN, LEONID PETROVICH GROSSMAN, VASILI SEMYONOVICH GUKOVSKY, GRIGORY ALEKSANDROVICH ILF, ILYA ILIN, M. INBER, VERA MIKHAILOVNA ISBAKH, ALEXANDER ABRAMOVICH KANNEGISER, LEONID AKIMOVICH KASSIL, LEV ABRAMOVICH KAVERIN, BENJAMIN ALEKSANDROVICH KAZAKEVICH, EMMANUIL GENRIKHOVICH KHODASEVICH, VLADISLAV FELITSIANOVICH KIPEN, ALEKSANDR ABRAMOVICH KIRSANOV, SEMYON ISAAKOVICH KIRSHON, VLADIMIR MIKHAILOVICH KNUT, DOVID KOROLENKO, VLADIMIR GALAKTIONOVICH KOZAKOV, MIKHAIL EMMANUILOVICH KRYMOV, YURI KUSHNER, ALEKSANDER SEMENOVICH LERNER, JOSEPH JUDAH LESKOV, NIKOLAY SEMYONOVICH LEVANDA, LEV (Leo; Yehudah Leib) OSIPOVICH LIBEDINSKI, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH LIVSHITS, BENEDIKT KONSTANTINOVICH LUNTS, LEV NATANOVICH MAMISTABOLOB, ABRAHAM MANDELSHTAM, NADEZHDA YAKOVLEVNA MANDELSHTAM, OSIP EMILYEVICH MINSKI, NIKOLAI MAXIMOVICH NADSON, SEMYON YAKOVLEVICH NOTOVICH, OSIP KONSTANTINOVICH NUSINOV, ISAAC OSIPOVICH, NAHUM PARNAKH, VALENTIN YAKOVLEVICH PASTERNAK, BORIS LEONIDOVICH

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD B. LITERATURE 12. Russian Literature Biographies (continued) RABINOVICH, OSIP ARONOVICH SELVINSKI, ILYA LVOVICH SHKLOVSKI, ISAAC VLADIMIROVICH SLONIM, MARC SLONIMSKI, MIKHAIL LEONIDOVICH SLUTSKI, BORIS ABRAMOVICH SOBOL, ANDREY MIKHAILOVICH SVETLOV, MIKHAIL SVIRSKI, ALEXEY IVANOVICH TUR BROTHERS TYNYANOV, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH UTKIN, JOSEPH PAVLOVICH WENGEROFF, SEMYON AFANASYEVICH YEVTUSHENKO, YEVGENI ALEXANDROVICH YUSHKEVICH, SEMYON SOLOMONOVICH 13. SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE Main Surveys

SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE Biographies

ABRAHAMS, NICOLAI CHRISTIAN LEVIN ELKAN, SOPHIE GOLDSCHMIDT, MEIR ARON KAUFMANN, HANNE LEVERTIN, OSCAR IVAR LEVIN, POUL THEODOR LEVY, LOUIS MUNK, KAJ NATHANSEN, HENRI SCHUCK, JOHAN HENRIK EMIL WARBURG, KARL JOHAN WARRENS, ROSA WERGELAND, HENRIK ARNOLD 14. SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE Main Survey

SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE Biographies

AGUINIS, MARCOS CERVANTES SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE CONSTANTINI, HUMBERTO COSTA, URIEL DA COTA DE MAGUAQUE, RODRIGO DE CHOCRON, ISAAC DINES, ALBERTO EICHELBAUM, SAMUEL ENRÍQUEZ, ISABEL ENRÍQUEZ GÓMEZ, ANTONIO ESPINOZA, ENRIQUE FEIERSTEIN, RICARDO FUTORANSKY, LUISA GELMAN, JUAN GERCHUNOFF, ALBERTO

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GLANTZ, MARGO GODÍNEZ, FELIPE GOLDEMBERG, ISAAC GOLOBOFF, GERARDO MARIO GRUNBERG, CARLOS M. ISAACS, JORGE ISAACSON, JOSE KOVADLOFF, SANTIAGO KOZER, JOSE LAGUNA, DANIEL ISRAEL LOPEZ LEÓN, LUIS DE LIACHO, LÁZARO LISPECTOR, CLARICE MUÑIZ-HUBERMAN, ANGELINA PECAR, SAMUEL PIZARNIK, ALEJANDRA RABINOVICH, JOSE RAWET, SAMUEL RIBEIRO DOS SANTOS, ANTONIO ROSENCOF, MAURICIO ROSENMANN-TAUB, DAVID ROVINSKY, SAMUEL ROZENMACHER, GERMAN SATZ, MARIO SCLIAR, MOACYR SELIGSON, ESTHER SHUA, ANA MARIA SILVA, ANTÓNIO JOSÉ DA SNEH, SIMJA STEIMBERG, ALICIA SVERDLIK, ODED TARNOPOLSKY, SAMUEL TIEMPO, CÉSAR TOKER, ELIAHU VERBITZKY, BERNARDO WECHSLER, ELINA 15. YUGOSLAV LITERATURE Main Surveys

YUGOSLAV LITERATURE Biographies

ALBAHARI, DAVID DAVIČO, OSCAR DAVID, FILIP DEBRECENJI, JOZEF FELDMAN, MIROSLAV GOTTLIEB, HINKO IVANJI, IVAN JUN-BRODA, INA KIŠ, DANILO (Daniel) KONFINO, ZAK LEBOVIČ, DJORDJE NAHMIJAS, DANILO NAJMAN, JULIJA ROMANO, SAMUEL SAMOKOVLIJA, ISAK ŠINKO, ERVIN TIŠMA, ALEKSANDAR

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C. MUSIC & DANCE Main Surveys

DANCE MUSIC General Entries

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR JEWISH MUSIC BATSHEVA AND BAT-DOR DANCE COMPANIES BEN SIRA, WISDOM OF BIBLE – IN THE ARTS CANTATAS AND CHORAL WORKS, HEBREW CANTILLATION CHOIRS DIBBUK HASIDISM HA-TIKVAH HAZZAN HORAH INBAL DANCE THEATER ISRAEL CHAMBER ORCHESTRA LADINO MAQAM ORGAN RECORDS, PHONOGRAPH SHTAYGER SOCIETY FOR JEWISH FOLK MUSIC TALMUD, MUSICAL RENDITION TANZHAUS Communities

AFRICA, NORTH: MUSICAL TRADITIONS ALEPPO AMSTERDAM FRANKFuRT ON THE MAIN GREECE INDIA IRAN, MUSICAL TRADITION IRAQ ITALY KARAITES KURDISTAN SAMARITANS TURKEY YEMEN YUGOSLAVIA Ritual

ADDIR HU ADON OLAM AHOT KETANNAH ALEINU LE-SHABBEAH AMEN AMIDAH AVODAH BAKKASHAH EL MALE RAHAMIM HALLELUJAH KADDISH KOL NIDREI

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

LEKHAH DODI MA’OZ ZUR MASORETIC ACCENTS (MUSICAL RENDITION) MI-SINAI NIGGUNIM NUSAH YIGDAL ZEMIROT Bible in Music

ABRAHAM ABSALOM ADAM AKEDAH ATHALIAH BABEL, TOWER OF BELSHAZZAR CAIN COSTA, URIEL DA DANIEL DAVID DEBORAH ELIJAH ESTHER EZEKIEL GIDEON HABAKKUK HASMONEANS HEROD I HEZEKIAH ISAAC ISAIAH JACOB JEPHTHAH JEREMIAH JERUSALEM JOB, BOOK OF JOEL JONAH, BOOK OF JOSEPH JOSHUA LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF MOSES NEBUCHADNEZZAR (Nebuchadrezzer) NOAH PSALMS, BOOK OF RACHEL SAMSON SAMUEL SAUL SCROLLS, THE FIVE SODOM AND GOMORRAH SOLOMON SONG OF SONGS Biographies

ABELIOVICH, LEV MOYSSEYEVICH ABER, ADOLF ABILEAH, ARIE ABRAHAM, GERALD

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD C. MUSIC & DANCE Biographies (continued) ABRAHAM, OTTO ABRASS, OSIAS (Joshua) ABRAVANEL, MAURICE (DE) ACHRON, JOSEPH ACKERMAN, SHABTAI ADASKIN, MURRAY ADLER, GUIDO ADLER, HUGO CHAIM ADLER, ISRAEL ADLER, LARRY (Lawrence) ADLER, RICHARD ADMON, YEDIDYAH AGADATI, BARUCH AGUILAR, EMANUEL ABRAHAM AHARON, EZRA ALDEMA, GIL ALEXANDER, HAIM ALGAZI, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON ALGAZI, LEON (Yehudah) AL-GHARĪD AL-YAHŪDĪ AL-HARIZI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON ALKAN (Morhange), CHARLES HENRI-VALENTIN ALMAN, SAMUEL AL-MANSŪR AL-YAHŪDĪ ALPERT, HERB ALSHVANG, ARNOLD ALEKSANDROVICH ALTER, ISRAEL ALTSCHUL, JOSEPH ALTSCHULER, MODEST AMAR, LICCO AMIRAN, EMANUEL AMRAM, DAVID ANCERL, KARL ANCONA, MARIO ANHALT, ISTVÁN ANTHEIL, GEORGE APEL, WILLI APPLEBAUM, LOUIS ARBATOVA, MIA ARGOV, ALEXANDER (Sascha) ARGOV, ZOHAR ARIE, RAFAEL ARLEN, HAROLD AROM, SIMHA ARONI (Aharoni), TSVI ARONOVICH, YURI MIKHAYLOVICH ARPA, ABRAMO DALL ARTZI, SHLOMO ASHKENAZY, VLADIMIR DAVIDOVICH ATZMON, MOSHE AUER, LEOPOLD AVENARY, HANOCH AVIDOM, MENAHEM AVNI, TZEVI AVSHALOMOV, AARON AVSHALOMOV, JACOB

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AX, EMMANUEL BABBITT, MILTON BABILÉE, JEAN BABIN, VICTOR BACHARACH, BURT BACHAUER, GINA BACHMANN, JACOB BACON, HIRSCH LEIB BACON, ISRAEL BACON, SHLOMO REUVEN BACON, YIDEL BAER, ABRAHAM BAGLEY, DAVID BAR, SHLOMO BARDANASHVILI, YOSEF BARENBOIM, DANIEL BAR-ILAN, DAVID BARMAS, ISSAY BARNEA, EZRA BARNETT, JOHN BARNETT, JOHN FRANCIS BARSHAI, RUDOLPH BART, LIONEL BAUER, JACOB BAUER, MARION EUGENIE BAYER, BATHIA BEDA BEER, AARON BEER, RAMI BEIMEL, JACOB BEKKER, PAUL BELL, JOSHUA BELLISON, SIMEON BELY, VICTOR ARKADYEVICH (Aronovich) BENATZKY, RALPH BENDIX, OTTO BENDIX, VICTOR EMANUEL BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS (Isaac) BEN-HAIM, PAUL BEN-HAIM, YIGAL BEN-SHABETAI, ARI BEREGOVSKI, MOSHE BERGEL, BERND BERGER, ARTHUR VICTOR BERGGRÜN, HEINRICH BERGSON, MICHAEL BERK, FRED BERLIJN, ANTON (Aron Wolf) BERLIN, IRVING BERLINSKI, HERMAN BERNSTEIN, ABRAHAM MOSHE BERNSTEIN, ELMER BERNSTEIN, LEONARD BERTINI, GARY BERTONOFF, DEBORAH BIE, OSCAR BINDER, ABRAHAM WOLF BIRNBAUM, ABRAHAM BAER BIRNBAUM, EDUARD BLANES, JACOB

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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BLANTER, MATVEY ISAAKOVICH BLAUSTEIN, ABRAHAM BLECH, LEO BLINDMAN, YERUHAM BLITZSTEIN, MARC BLOCH, ANDRE BLOCH, CHARLES BLOCH, ERNEST BLOCH, ROSINE BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNY BLUM, RENÉ BLUMENFELD, FELIX MIKHAYLOVICH BLUMENTHAL, NISSAN, BODANZKY, ARTHUR BODKY, ERWIN BOEHM, YOHANAN BOGHEN, FELICE BOLAFFI, MICHELE BOLM, ADOLPH RUDOLPHOVICH BORGE, VICTOR BORIS, RUTHANNA BOROVSKY, ALEXANDER BOSCOVITCH, ALEXANDER URIYAH BOTSTEIN, LEON BOUZAGLO, DAVID BRAHAM, JOHN BRAILOWSKY, ALEXANDER BRANDON, OHEB ISAAC BRANT, HENRY DREYFUS BRAUDO, YEVGENI MAXIMOVICH BRAUN (BROWN), ARIE BRAUN, YEHEZKIEL BRAUNER, HARRY BRECHER, GUSTAVE BRECKER BROTHERS BRÉVAL, LUCIENNE BROD, DOVIDL BROD, MAX BRODER SINGERS BRODSKY, ADOLF BRONFMAN, YEFIM BROOK, BARRY SHELLEY BROWNING, JOHN BRUELL, IGNAZ BRUSSILOVSKY, YEVGENI GRIGORYEVICH BUCHWALD, THEO BUKOFZER, MANFRED BURLE MARX, WALTER CACERES, ABRAHAM CAHN, SAMMY CAREGAL, HAYYIM MOSES BEN ABRAHAM CARLEBACH, SHLOMO CARP, PAULA CASTELNUOVO-TEDESCO, MARIO CERVETTO, JACOB BASEVI CHAGRIN, FRANCIS CHAGY, BERELE CHASINS, ABRAHAM CHERKASSKY, SHURA CHERNEY, BRIAN

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

CHERNIAVSKY CHUJOY, ANATOLE CHURGIN, BATHIA CIVITA, DAVIT (David) COHEN, HARRIET COHEN, JACOB RAPHAEL COHEN, LEONARD COHEN, SELMA JEANNE COHEN, YARDENA COHEN MELAMED, NISSAN COLEMAN, CY COLONNE, JULES (Judah) EDOUARD COMISSIONA, SERGIU CONRIED, HEINRICH CONSOLO, FEDERICO COOPER, EMIL ALBERTOVICH COPLAND, AARON COSTA, SIR MICHAEL COWEN, SIR FREDERIC HYMEN CRANKO, JOHN DA PONTE, LORENZO DAMARI, SHOSHANA DAMROSCH DANTO, LOUIS DA-OZ, RAM DAUS, AVRAHAM DAVIČO, LUJO DAVID, ERNEST DAVID, FERDINAND DAVID, SAMUEL DAVYDOV, KARL YULYEVICH DE PHILIPPE, EDIS DESSAU, PAUL DEUTSCH, MORITZ DEUTSCH, OTTO ERICH DIAMOND, DAVID DICHTER, MISHA DI-ZAHAV, EPHRAIM DOBROVEN, ISSAY ALEXANDROVICH DONALDA, PAULINE DORATI, ANTAL DORFMAN, JOSEPH DRESDEN, SEM DU PRÉ, JACQUELINE DUKAS, PAUL DUNAYEVSKI, ISAAC OSIPOVICH DUQUE, SIMON DAVID DUSHKIN, SAMUEL EDEL, YIZHAK EDEN-TAMIR EHRLICH, ABEL EIFMAN, BORIS EINSTEIN, ALFRED EISENSTEIN, JUDITH KAPLAN EISLER, HANNS ELLSTEIN, ABRAHAM (Abe) ELMAN, MISCHA EMSHEIMER, ERNST ENGEL, JOEL (Yuli Dimitriyevich) EPHROS, GERSHON

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD C. MUSIC & DANCE Biographies (continued) ERLANGER, CAMILLE ESHEL, YITZHAK ESPINOSA, EDOUARD EULENBURG, ERNST EVEN-OR, MARY FALL, LEO FANO, GUIDO ALBERTO FARBER, VIOLA FEIDMAN, GIYORA FEINBERG, SAMUEL YEVGENYEVICH FEINSINGER, JOSHUA FELDMAN, MORTON FEUERMANN, EMANUEL FIEDLER, ARTHUR FISCHER, ANNIE FISCHOFF, JOSEPH FISHER, DUDU FITELBERG, GRZEGORZ (Gregor) FLEISCHER, TSIPPI FLEISHER, LEON FLESCH, CARL FOGELBERG, DAN FOSS, LUKAS FRANKEL, BENJAMIN FREED, ISADORE FREEDMAN, HARRY FRIED (-BISS), MIRIAM FRIEDE, SHALOM FRIEDLAENDER, MAX FRIEDMAN, DEBORAH LYNN FRIEDMAN, KINKY FRIEDMANN, ARON FRIEDMANN, MORITZ FROMM, HERBERT FUCHS, LILLIAN GABRIELOVITCH, OSIP SOLOMONOVICH GANCHOFF, MOSES GANTMAN, JUDAH LEIB (LEO) GASKELL, SONJA GEBIRTIG, MORDECAI GEDALGE, ANDRE GEIRINGER, KARL GELBRUN, ARTUR GERBER, MAYNARD GERNSHEIM, FRIEDRICH GEROVICH, ELIEZER MORDECAI BEN ISAAC GERSON-KIWI, EDITH (Esther) GESHURI, MEIR SHIMON GETZ, STAN GIBBS, TERRY GIDEON, MIRIAM GILBOA, JACOB GILÈLS, EMIL GRIGORYEVICH GIOVANNI MARIA GLANZ, LEIB GLASS, PHILIP

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GLICK, IRVING SRUL GLIÈRE, REINHOLD MORITZEVICH GLUCK, ALMA GNESIN, MIKHAIL FABIANOVICH GODOWSKY, LEOPOLD GOLDBERG, SZYMON GOLDFARB, ISRAEL GOLDMAN, EDWIN FRANKO GOLDMARK, KARL GOLDSCHMIDT, HUGO GOLDSTEIN, JOSEF GOLDSTEIN, RAYMOND GOLINKIN, MORDECAI GOLSCHMANN, VLADIMIR GOODMAN, BENNY GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS MOREAU GOULD, MORTON GRADENWITZ, PETER EMANUEL GRAF, HERBERT GRAFFMAN, GARY GRAZIANI, YIZHAK GREENBERG, NOAH GREENBLATT, ELIYAHU GRUENBERG, LOUIS GUGLIELMO DA PESARO GUSIKOW, JOSEPH MICHAEL HAENDEL, IDA HAHN, REYNALDO HAINOVITZ, ASHER HAJDU, ANDRÉ HALÉVY, JACQUES (Francois) FROMENTAL ÉLIE HALPRIN, ANN HAMDI, LEVI BEN YESHUAH HAMMERSTEIN HARRAN, DON HASKELL, ARNOLD LIONEL HASKIL, CLARA HAST, MARCUS HAUBENSTOCK-RAMATI, ROMAN HAUSER, EMIL HAYDEN, MELISSA HEIFETZ, JASCHA HEILLMANN, YITZHAK HELLER, STEPHEN HEMAN HEMSI, ALBERTO HENLE, MORITZ HENSCHEL, SIR GEORGE (Isidor Georg) HERRMANN, BERNARD HERSCHMAN, MORDECHAI HERSKOVITS, BELA HERSTIK, NAPHTALI HERTZKA, EMIL HERZ, HENRI (Heinrich) HERZOG, GEORGE HESKES, IRENE HESS, DAME MYRA HILLER, FERDINAND HINRICHSEN HIRSH, NURIT

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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HIRSHBERG, JEHOASH HOLDHEIM, THEODOR HOLLAENDER HORENSTEIN, JASCHA HORNBOSTEL, ERICH MORITZ VON HOROWITZ, VLADIMIR HUBERMAN, BRONISLAW HUROK, SOLOMON IBN ABĪ AL SALT IDELSOHN, ABRAHAM ZVI INBAL, ELIAHU ISSERLIS, STEVEN ISTOMIN, EUGeNE JACOBI, ERWIN R. JACOBI, FREDERICK JACOBI, GEORG JACOBI, HANOCH (Heinrich) JACOBS, ARTHUR (David) JACOBSTHAL, GUSTAV JADASSOHN, SALOMON JADLOWKER, HERMANN JAFFE, ELI JANOWSKI, MAX JAPHET, ISRAEL MEYER JASSINOWSKY, PINCHAS JOACHIM, JOSEPH JOCHSBERGER, TZIPORAH JONAS, EMILE JUDAH BEN ISAAC KADMAN, GURIT KAHN, ERICH ITOR KAISER, ALOIS KALIB, SHALOM KALICHSTEIN, JOSEPH KALMAN, EMMERICH (Imre) KARACZEWSKI, HANINA KAREL, RUDOLF KARLINER, BARUCH KARMON, ISRAEL KARNIOL, ALTER YEHIEL KATCHEN, JULIUS KATZ, ISRAEL KATZ, MINDRU KATZ, RUTH KATZ, SHOLOM KAYE, NORA KENT, ALLEGRA KENTNER, LOUIS KERN, JEROME DAVID KERTESZ, ISTVAN KESTENBERG, LEO KIDD, MICHAEL KINSKY, GEORG LUDWIG KIPNIS, ALEXANDER KIPNIS, MENAHEM KIRCHNER, LEON KIRSCHNER, EMANUEL KIRSTEIN, LINCOLN KLEMPERER, OTTO KLETZKI, PAUL

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

KOGAN, LEONID BORISSOVICH KOHN, MAIER KOLISCH, RUDOLF KOLODIN, IRVING KOPYTMAN, MARK RUVIMOVICH KORNGOLD, ERICH WOLFGANG KORNITZER, LEON KOSHETZ, NINA KOSTELANETZ, ANDRE KOUSSEVITZKY, MOSHE KOUSSEVITZKY, SERGE KOWALSKI, MAX KRAUS, GERTRUD KRAUS, LILI KRAUS, MOSHE KREIN, ALEXANDER ABRAMOVICH KREISLER, FRITZ KREMER, ISA KRIPS, JOSEF KROSHNER, MIKHAIL YEFIMOVICH KURTH, ERNEST KURZ, SELMA KUWAeTI, SALEH KWARTIN, ZAVEL LACHMANN, ROBERT LAKNER, YEHOSHUA LAMM, PAVEL ALEKSANDROVICH LANDOWSKA, WANDA LANG, PEARL LAPSON, DVORA LAVRY, MARC LEAR, EVELYN LEBERT, SIGMUND LEEF, YINAM LEFKOWITZ, DAVID LEIBOWITZ, RENE LEICHTENTRITT, HUGO LEIGH, ADELE LEINSDORF, ERICH LEONI, MYER LERER, JOSHUA LERER, SHMUEL LERT, ERNST LEVI-AGRON, HASIA LEVI, HERMANN LEVI, LEO LEVI, YOEL LEVINE, JAMES LEVINSON, ANDRE LEVI-TANNAI, SARA LEVITSKY, MISCHA LEVY LEVY, LAZARE LEVY, MARVIN DAVID LEWANDOWSKI, LOUIS LEWENTHAL, RAYMOND LEWITZKY, BELLA LHEVINNE, JOSEF LICHINE, DAVID LIEBERMANN, ROLF

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD C. MUSIC & DANCE Biographies (continued) LIEBERSON, GODDARD LIEBLING, ESTELLE LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH LIGETTI, GYORGI LIPSCHITZ, SOLOMON BEN MOSES LISSA, ZOFIA LIST, EMANUEL LIST, GEORGE LITINSKI, GENRIKH ILYICH LIUZZI, FERNANDO LOCKSPEISER, EDWARD LOESSER, FRANK LOEWE, FREDERICK LOEWENSTEIN-STRASHUNSKY, JOEL DAVID LONDON, GEORGE LOURIE, ARTHUR (Vincent) LOVY, ISRAEL LOWINSKY, EDWARD LUBIN, ABRAHAM LUBOSHUTZ LUCCA, PAULINE MAAYANI, AMI MAAZEL, LORIN MACHABEY, ARMAND MAHLER, GUSTAV MAJOR, ERVIN MAJOR, JULIUS (Gyula, Jacob) MALAVSKY, SAMUEL MALOVANY, JOSEPH MANDEL, SHELOMOH MANNES MANNES, LEOPOLD MANOR, EHUD MARKOVA, ALICIA MARX, ADOLF BERNHARD MASLOW, SOPHIE MASSARANO, JACCHINO or ISACCHINO MATZENAUER, MARGARETE MAYER, SIR ROBERT MAYKAPAR, SAMUIL MOYSEYEVICH MEDINA, AVIHU MEDVEDEV, MIKHAIL MEHTA, ZUBIN MEISELS, SAUL MENDEL, ARTHUR MENDEL, HERMANN MENDELSON, JACOB BEN-ZION MENDELSON, SOLOMON MENDELSSOHN, ARNOLD MENDELSSOHN, FELIX (Jakob Ludwig Felix) MENDELSSOHN HENSEL, FANNY CAECILIE MENKEN, ALAN MENUHIN, HEFZIBAH MENUHIN, YEHUDI MERRILL, ROBERT MESSERER, ASAF MIKHAILOVICH

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METZGER, OTTILIE (Metzger-Latterman) MEYER, ERNST HERMAN MEYERBEER, GIACOMO MILHAUD, DARIUS MILLER, BEN-ZION MILLER, MITCH MILNER, MOSES MICHAEL MILSTEIN, NATHAN MINKOWSKI, PINCHAS MINTZ, SHLOMO MIRON, ISSACHAR MIZRAHI, ASHER MLOTEK, CHANA MOISEIWITSCH, BENNO MONTEUX, PIERRE MORAWETZ, OSCAR MOROGOWSKI, JACOB SAMUEL MOSCHELES, IGNAZ MOSZKOWSKI, MORITZ MOTTL, FELIX JOSEF MULLER, BENJAMIN NACHEZ, TIVADAR NADEL, ARNO NAHARIN, OHAD NARDI, NAHUM NATHAN, ISAAC NATRA, SERGIU NAUMBOURG, SAMUEL NAVON, ISAAC ELIYAHU NE’EMAN, YEHOSHUA LEIB NETTL, PAUL NEWMAN, ALFRED NIKOVA, RINA NOWAKOWSKI, DAVID NOY, MEIR NULMAN, MACY OBADIAH, THE NORMAN PROSELYTE OCHS, SIEGFRIED OFFENBACH, ISAAC OFFENBACH, JACQUES OISTRAKH, DAVID FEDOROVICH OLIVERO, BETTY ORDMAN, JEANETTE ORENSTEIN, ARBIE ORGAD, BEN ZION ORMANDY, EUGENE OSTFELD, BARBARA OVED, MARGALIT OYSHER, MOISHE PANOV, VALERY PARTOS, OEDOEN PASTA, GUIDITTA PAULY, ROSA PEERCE, JAN PELLEG, FRANK PERAHIA, MURRAY PERGAMENT, MOSES PERLMAN, ITZCHAK PETERS, ROBERTA PIATIGORSKY, GREGOR

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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PINCHERLE, MARC PINCHIK, PIERRE PISK, PAUL AMADEUS PLAMENAC, DRAGAN PLISETSKAYA, MAYA POLACHEK, SENDER POLLACK, EGON POLLAK, ZALMAN POLLINI, BERNHARD POPPER, DAVID PORGES, HEINRICH POSTOLSKY, SHALOM PRESSLER, MENAHEM PREVIN, ANDRE (George) PRUEWAR, JULIUS PUTTERMAN, DAVID QUELER, EVE RABINOVICH, HAIM BEN ZION RABINOVICZ, PINCHAS RADZYNSKI, JAN RAISA, ROSA RAMBERT, DAME MARIE RAN, SHULAMIT RAPPAPORT, JACOB RASKIN, JUDITH RATHAUS, KAROL RAVINA, MENASHE RAVITZ, SHELOMO RAZUMNI, EPHRAIM ZALMAN (Solomon) REDLICH, HANS FERDINAND REICH, STEVE REINER, FRITZ REISENBERG, NADIA REIZENSTEIN, FRANZ REMENYI, EDUARD RESNIK, REGINA RÉTI, RUDOLF RICARDO, DAVID RIETI, VITTORIO RINGER, ALEXANDER RIVLIN, SHELOMO ZALMAN ROBBINS, JEROME ROCHBERG, GEORGE RODAN, MENDI RODGERS, MARY RODGERS, RICHARD RODZINSKY, ARTUR ROGERS, BERNARD ROITMAN, DAVID ROLAND-MANUEL ROLL, MICHAEL ROMANOS MELODOS ROMBERG, SIGMUND RONLY-RIKLIS, SHALOM ROSE, ARNOLD JOSEF ROSE, LEONARD ROSEN, CHARLES ROSENBLATT, JOSEF ROSENFELD, ABRAHAM ISAAC JACOB ROSENSTOCK, JOSEPH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ROSENTHAL, HAROLD (David) ROSENTHAL, MANUEL (Emmanuel) ROSENTHAL, MORIZ (Maurycy) ROSOWSKY, SOLOMON ROSS, HERBERT ROSSI, MADAMA EUROPA DE’ ROSSI, SALAMONE DE ROTHMUELLER, AARON MARKO ROZSAVOLGYI, MARK RUBIN, RUTH RUBINSTEIN, ANTON GRIGORYEVICH RUBINSTEIN, ARTUR RUBINSTEIN, IDA RUDEL, JULIUS RUDINOW, MOSHE RUDOLF, MAX RUSSELL (Levy), HENRY SACERDOTE, DAVID SACHS, CURT SADAI, YIZHAK SADIE, STANLEY (John) SAINT-LEON, ARTHUR MICHEL SALAMAN SALMON, KAREL (Karl Salomon) SALZMAN, PNINA SAMBURSKY, DANIEL SAMINSKY, LAZARE SAMUEL, HAROLD SANDERLING, KURT SANDLER, JACOB KOPPEL SCHACHTER, CARL SCHAECHTER-GOTTESMAN, BEYLE SCHALIT, HEINRICH SCHENKER, HEINRICH SCHIDLOWSKY, LEON SCHIFF, ANDRAS SCHIFRIN, LALO SCHILLINGER, JOSEPH SCHINDLER, KURT SCHLAMME, MARTHA SCHLESINGER SCHMIDT, JOSEPH SCHNABEL, ARTHUR SCHNEIDER, ALEXANDER SCHOENBERG, ARNOLD SCHOENE, LOTTE SCHORR, BARUCH SCHORR, FRIEDRICH SCHREKER, FRANZ SCHUBERT, LIA SCHULHOF, MOSHE SCHULHOFF, JULIUS SCHULLER, GUNTHER SCHUMAN, WILLIAM HOWARD SCHWARTZ, STEPHEN SCHWARZ, RUDOLF SECUNDA, SHOLOM SEGAL, URI SEIBER, MATYAS GYORGY SENDREY, ALFRED

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD C. MUSIC & DANCE Biographies (continued) SERKIN, PETER SERKIN, RUDOLF SETER, MORDECHAI SEVITZKY, FABIEN SHAHAM, GIL SHALLON, DAVID SHAPERO, HAROLD SHARETT, YEHUDAH SHARLIN, WILLIAM SHAW, ARTIE SHELEM, MATTITYAHU SHEMER, NAOMI SHERIFF, NOAM SHESTAPOL, WOLF SHILOAH, AMNON SHLONSKY, VARDINA SHMUELI, HERZL SHULSINGER, BEZALEL SIEGMEISTER, ELIE SILBERMANN, ALPHONS SILLS, BEVERLY (Belle Silverman) SINGER, GEORGE SINGER, JOSEF SINGER, KURT SINIGAGLIA, LEONE SIPRUTINI, EMANUEL SIROTA, GERSHON SLATKIN, LEONARD SLONIMSKY, NICOLAS SLONIMSKY, SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH SMOIRA-COHN, MICHAL SOBOL, MORDECHAI SOKOLOW, ANNA SOLOMON SOLTI, GEORG SONDHEIM, STEPHEN SPECTOR, JOHANNA SPIVACKE, HAROLD SPIVAK, NISSAN SPIVAKOVSKY, TOSSY STARER, ROBERT STARK, EDWARD STEIN, ERWIN STEINBERG, MAXIMILIAN OSSEJEVICH STEINBERG, WILLIAM STENN (STEEN), REBECCA STERN, ISAAC STERN, JULIUS STERN, MOSHE STERNBERG, ERICH-WALTER STEUERMANN, EDWARD STOLYARSKI, PETER SOLOMONOVICH STRAKOSCH, MAURICE STRANSKY, JOSEF STRAUS, OSCAR STRAUSS, JOHANN

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STUTSCHEWSKY, JOACHIM STYNE, JULE SULITEANU, GISELA SULZER, SOLOMON SUSSKIND, WALTER SZABOLCSI, BENCE SZELL, GEORGE SZERMAN, PINCHAS SZERYNG, HENRYK SZIGETI, JOSEPH TAL, JOSEF TALMON, ZVI TAMIRIS, HELEN TANSMAN, ALEXANDER TARUSKIN, RICHARD TAUBE, MICHAEL TAUBE, MOSHE TAUBE, SAMUEL BARUCH TAUBER, RICHARD TAUSIG, KARL TEMIANKA, HENRI TERTIS, LIONEL THALBERG, SIGISMUND THOMAS, MICHAEL TILSON TISCHLER, HANS TOCH, ERNST TOUREL, JENNIE TSFASSMAN, ALEXANDER NAUMOVICH TUCKER, RICHARD TUGAL, PIERRE TURECK, ROSALYN ULLMAN, VIKTOR UNGAR, BENJAMIN UNGER, MAX VALABREGA, CESARE VARDI, ARIEH VEINBERG, MOISSEY SAMUILOVICH VEPRIK, ALEXANDER MOISEYEVITCH VICOL, ADRIAN VIGODA, SAMUEL VINAVER, CHEMJO VOGEL, WLADIMIR VOLPE, ARNOLD WAGHALTER, IGNATZ WAGNER, RICHARD WALDMAN, LEIBELE WALDTEUFEL, EMIL WALLENSTEIN, ALFRED WALTER, BRUNO WASSERZUG (Lomzer), HAYYIM WEILL, KURT WEINBERG, JACOB WEINBERGER, JAROMIR WEINER, LAZAR WEINER, LEO WEINSTOCK, HERBERT WEINTRAUB, SOLOMON WEINZWEIG, JOHN WEISGAL, ABBA JOSEPH WEISGALL, HUGO

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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WEISSBERG, JULIA LAZAREVNA WEISSENBERG, ALEXIS WEISSER, ALBERT WEISSER, JOSHUA WEISSMANN, ADOLF WELLESZ, EGON JOSEPH WERNER, ERIC WERTHEIM, ROSALIE MARIE WIENER, JEAN WIENIAWSKI, HENRI WILENSKY, MOSHE WILLIAMS, CHARLES WINTERNITZ, EMANUEL WITTGENSTEIN, PAUL WOHLBERG, MOSHE WOLFF, ALBERT LOUIS WOLFF, HERMANN WOLFSOHN, JULIUSZ WOLFSTHAL, CHUNE WOLPE, STEFAN WORMSER, ANDRÉ (Alphonse-Toussaint) YAMPOLSKY, BERTA YASSER, JOSEPH YELLIN-BENTWICH, THELMA ZALUDKOWSKI, ELIJAH ZEFIRA, BRACHAH ZEHAVI, DAVID ZEIRA, MORDECHAI ZEMACH, BENJAMIN ZHITOMIRSKI, ALEXANDER MATVEYEVITCH ZILBERTS, ZAVEL ZIMBALIST, EFREM ZUKERMAN, PINCHAS ZUKOFSKY, PAUL ZUR, MENAHEM

D. SCIENCE Main Surveys

CHEMISTRY COMPUTER SCIENCE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES LIFE SCIENCES MATHEMATICS MEDICINE PHYSICS PSYCHIATRY General Entries

AERONAUTICS, AVIATION, AND ASTRONAUTICS ALCHEMY NOBEL PRIZES TECHNOLOGY AND HALAKHAH 1. BIOLOGY General Entries

GENETIC ANCESTRY, JEWISH Biographies

ABIR (ABRAMOVITZ), DAVID

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ABULAFIA, SAMUEL HA-LEVI AHARONI, ISRAEL ALTMAN, SIDNEY ALTSCHUL, AARON MEYER ANFINSEN, CHRISTIAN B. ARNON, DANIEL ISRAEL ARNON, ISAAC ARNON, RUTH ARTOM, CESARE ASCHERSON, PAUL FRIEDRICH AUGUST ASCHNER, MANFRED ASHBEL, DOV ASIMOV, ISAAC ASKENASY, EUGEN ATLAN, HENRI AUERBACH, LEOPOLD AVIV, HAIM AXELROD, JULIUS BALTIMORE, DAVID BERG, PAUL BLOCH, MARCUS (Mordecai) ELIEZER BODENHEIMER, FREDERICK SIMON BODMER, SIR WALTER BOGORAD, LAWRENCE BRESSLAU, ERNST CEDAR, CHAIM COHEN, STANLEY N. COHEN, YIGAL RAHAMIM COHN, FERDINAND JULIUS CHET, ILAN DUVDEVANI, SHMUEL EDINGER, TILLY EIG, ALEXANDER ENRIQUES, PAOLO EPHRUSSI, BORIS ERRERA, LEO EVENARI, MICHAEL EZEKIEL, MOSES FAHN, ABRAHAM FEINBRUN-DOTHAN, NAOMI GILBERT, WALTER GOLDSCHMIDT, RICHARD BENEDICT GOULD, STEPHEN GURWITSCH, ALEXANDER GAVRILOVICH HAAS, FRITZ HAAS, GEORG HABERLANDT, GOTTLIEB HAFFKINE, WALDEMAR MORDECAI HALEVY, ABRAHAM HA-REUBENI, EPHRAIM HORWITZ, H. ROBERT HYMAN, LIBBIE HENRIETTA JACOB, FRANCOIS LEDERBERG, JOSHUA LURIA, SALVADOR EDWARD LWOFF, ANDRE MICHEL MAGNUS, PAUL WILHELM MARMOREK, ALEXANDER MENDELSSOHN, HEINRICH MESELSON, MATTHEW

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD D. SCIENCE 1. Biology Biographies (continued) METCHNIKOFF, ELIE OPPENHEIMER, HILLEL (Heinz) REINHARD PINCUS, GREGORY GOODWIN RAGER, BRACHA RAYSS, TSCHARNA REICHERT, ISRAEL ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL MAYER VICTOR, LORD SACHS, JULIUS SACHS, LEO SEMON, RICHARD WOLFGANG SORAUER, PAUL KARL MORITZ SPIEGELMAN, SOL STEINACH, EUGEN STENT, GUNTHER SIEGMUND STRASBURGER, EDUARD VARMUS, HAROLD ELIOT WAKSMAN, SELMAN ABRAHAM WALD, GEORGE WARBURG, OTTO WIESNER, JULIUS VON ZENKEVICH, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH ZILBER, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH ZOHARY, MICHAEL 2. CHEMISTRY General Entries

CHEMICAL CRAFTS AND INDUSTRIES chemistry Biographies

ABEL, EMIL ASKENASY, PAUL BACHARACH, ALFRED LOUIS BAEYER, ADOLF VON BAMBERGER, EUGEN BECHHOLD, JACOB HEINRICH BERGMANN, ERNST DAVID BERGMANN, FELIX ELIEZER BERGMANN, MAX BERL, ERNST BERNSTEIN, HAROLD JOSEPH BIKERMAN, JACOB JOSEPH BIRK, YEHUDITH BLAU, FRITZ BLOCH, HERMAN SAMUEL BLOCH, KONRAD BLOCH, MOSES RUDOLPH BOBTELSKY, MORDEKHAI (Max) BODANSKY, OSCAR BORSOOK, HENRY BRAUDE, ERNEST ALEXANDER BROWN, HERBERT C. CALVIN, MELVIN CARO, HEINRICH CARO, NIKODEM

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CHAIN, SIR ERNST BORIS CHARGAFF, ERWIN CIECHANOVER, AARON J. COHEN, ERNST JULIUS COHEN, JULIUS BEREND COHEN, SIR PHILIP COHEN, PHILIP PACY COHEN, SEYMOUR STANLEY COHEN, STANLEY COHN, EDWIN JOSEPH COHN, LASSAR COHN, MILDRED COPISAROW, MAURICE DEUEL, HANS ERWIN DISCHE, ZACHARIAS DJERASSI, CARL DONATH, EDUARD DORFMAN, RALPH ISADORE DREYFUS BROTHERS DROSDOFF, MATTHEW DUSHMAN, SAUL EDELMAN, GERALD MAURICE EHRLICH, PAUL ELIEL, ERNEST LUDWIG EMBDEN, GUSTAV FAJANS, KASIMIR FALK, KAUFMAN GEORGE FARKAS, LADISLAUS (Wilhelm) FEIGL, FRITZ FEINGOLD, DAVID SIDNEY FEUER, HENRY FISCHER, EDMOND FISHMAN, WILLLAM HAROLD FLEISCHER, MICHAEL FODOR, ANDOR FOX, SIR JOHN JACOB FRANK, ALBERT RUDOLPH FREIDLINA, RAKHIL KHATSKELEVNA FREUND, MARTIN FRUMKIN, ALEKSANDR NAUMOVICH FUNK, CASIMIR GERHARDT, CHARLES FREDERIC GINSBURG, DAVID GLICK, DAVID GOLDBERG, ALEXANDER GOLDSCHMIDT, GUIDO GOLDSCHMIDT, HANS GOLDSCHMIDT, HEINRICH JACOB GOLDSTEIN, RICHARD FRANK GOMBERG, MOSES GREEN, DAVID EZRA GREENBERG, DAVID MORRIS GREENSTEIN, JESSE PHILIP GRINBERG, ALEKSANDER ABRAMOVICH GRUEN, ADOLF GRUENSTEIN, NATHAN HABER, FRITZ HALPERN, JACK HANDLER, PHILIP HARRIS, MILTON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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HASSID, WILLIAM ZEV HEIDELBERGER, MICHAEL HEILBRON, SIR IAN MORRIS HERSHKO, AVRAM HERZOG, REGINALD OLIVER HESTRIN, SHLOMO HEVESY, GEORGE CHARLES DE HIRSHBERG, YEHUDAH HOFFMANN, ROALD JACOBSON, KURT JACOBSON, PAUL HEINRICH JELLINEK, KARL JOLLES, ZVI ENRICO JORTNER, JOSHUA KABACHNIK, MARTIN IZRAILOVICH KALNITSKY, GEORGE KATZIR, AHARON KATZIR, EPHRAIM KAUFMAN, JOYCE JACOBSON KAZARNOVSKI, ISAAC ABRAMOVICH KEDEM, ORA KHARASCH, MORRIS SELIG KLUG, AARON KOLTHOFF, IZAAK MAURITS KORNBERG, ARTHUR KORNBERG, HANS LEO KREBS, SIR HANS ADOLF KROTO, SIR HAROLD W. LADENBURG, ALBERT LEVENE, PHOEBUS AARON THEODOR LEVI, GIORGIO RENATO LEVI, MARIO GIACOMO LEVINE, RAPHAEL LEVINSTEIN, HERBERT LEVITZKI, ALEXANDER LEVY, LOUIS EDWARD LEWKOWITSCH, JULIUS LIEBEN, ADOLPH LIEBERMANN, CARL THEODOR LIPMAN, JACOB GOODALE LIPMANN, FRITZ ALBERT LIPPMANN, EDMUND OSKAR VON LIPPMANN, EDUARD LOEB, JACQUES LOEB, MORRIS LUNGE, GEORG MARCKWALD, WILLY MARCUS, RUDOLPH ARTHUR MECHOULAM, RAPHAEL MELDOLA, RAPHAEL MENDEL, LAFAYETTE BENEDICT MEYER, HANS JOHANNES LEOPOLD MEYER, RICHARD JOSEPH MEYER, VICTOR MEYERHOF, OTTO MEYERSON, EMILE MICHAELIS, LEONOR MOISSAN, HENRI MOND MUSHER, SIDNEY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

NEUBERG, GUSTAV EMBDEN CARL NEUBERGER, ALBERT NIRENBERG, MARSHALL WARREN OLAH, GEORGE OPPENHEIMER, CARL PANETH, FRIEDRICH ADOLF PARNAS, YAKUB KAROL PERLZWEIG, WILLIAM ALEXANDRE PERUTZ, MAX FERDINAND PINNER, ADOLF POLANYI, JOHN POLANYI, MICHAEL PRINGSHEIM, HANS PTASHNE, MARK QUASTEL, JUDAH HIRSCH RABINOWITCH, EUGENE RACKER, EFRAIM RAPHAEL, RALPH ALEXANDER RAPKINE, LOUIS RAZIN, AHARON REICHINSTEIN, DAVID REICHSTEIN, TADEUS REIFENBERG, ADOLF RITTENBERG, DAVID RODBELL, MARTIN ROGINSKI, SIMON ZALMANOVICH RONA, PETER ROSE, IRWIN ROSENHEIM, ARTHUR ROSENHEIM, OTTO SACKUR, OTTO SCHIFF, HUGO SCHMERLING, LOUIS SCHOENBERG, ALEXANDER JULIUS WILHELM SCHOENHEIMER, RUDOLPH SELA, MICHAEL SHAPIRO, BENJAMIN SHARON, NATHAN SHEAR, MURRAY JACOB SHEDLOVSKY, THEODORE SILVERMAN, ALEXANDER SIMON, ERNST SOBOTKA, HARRY HERMAN SONDHEIMER, FRANZ SPIEGEL-ADOLF, MONA SPIRO, KARL STEIN, WILLIAM HOWARD STERN, KURT GUNTER STIEGLITZ, JULIUS OSCAR STRAUSS, EDUARD STROMINGER, JACK SURE, BARNETT SYRKIN, YAKOV KOVOVICH SZWARC, MICHAEL TALMUD, DAVID L. TISCHLER, MAX TOCH, MAXIMILIAN TRAUBE, ISIDOR TRAUBE, MORITZ TRAUBE, WILHELM

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD D. SCIENCE 2. Chemistry Biographies (continued) VOET, ANDRIES VOGEL, ARTHUR ISRAEL WALLACH, OTTO WARBURG, OTTO HEINRICH WEIGERT, FRITZ WEINHOUSE, SIDNEY WEISS, JOSEPH JOSHUA WERTHEIMER, CHAIM ERNST WESTHEIMER, FRANK HENRY WILLNER, ITAMAR WILLSTAETTER, RICHARD WINSTEIN, SAUL WINTERSTEIN, ALFRED WISE, LOUIS ELSBERG YONATH, ADA ZAMENHOF, STEPHEN 3. ENGINEERING (INCL. INVENTORS) Biographies

ADLER, CHARLES ARCO, GEORG WILHELM ALEXANDER HANS, GRAF VON BERLINER, EMILE BLOK, ARTHUR CARVALLO, JULES COHEN, MORRIS DRUCKER, DANIEL CHARLES FELD, JACOB FONDILLER, WILLIAM FREUDENTHAL, ALFRED MARTIN FROHMAN, DOV GAUNSE, JOACHIM GOLDBERG, EMANUEL GOLDMARK, PETER CARL GUREVICH, MIKHAIL IOSIFOVICH HARARI, OVADIAH HEYMAN, MOSES DAVID ISAACS, JACOB JAFFE, LEONARD JUDA, WALTER KATZ, ISRAEL KITSEE, ISADOR KURREIN, MAX LAND, EDWIN H. LEDEEN, HYMAN LEDERER, JEROME F. LEES, LESTER LEEUW, AVRAHAM DE LIBAI, AVINOAM LIEBEN, ROBERT VON LILIENTHAL, OTTO LIPSKI, ABRAHAM LITMAN, SAMUEL LOCKSPEISER, BEN, SIR MAGINO, MEIR

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MARCUS, SIEGFRIED MICHEL-LEVY, AUGUSTE MILLMAN, JACOB NAGIN, HARRY S. OLLENDORFF, FRANZ PINKEL, BENJAMIN RABINOVICH, ISAAK MOSEYEVICH RAM, MOSHE REINER, MARKUS RESNIK, JUDITH ROM, YOSEF RUEDENBERG, REINHOLD SAMOILOVICH, RUDOLPH LAZAREVICH SCHLESINGER, GEORG SCHWARZ, DAVID SERBIN, HYMAN SHALON, RAHEL SHAPIRO, ASCHER HERMAN SHECHTMAN, DAN SILVERMAN, LESLIE SILVERSTEIN, ABE SINGER, JOSEF SLEPIAN, JOSEPH SPORN, PHILIP STRAUSS, BENNO WEIL, JOSEPH WEIL, R. ADRIENNE WIESNER, JEROME BERT WOLMAN, ABEL YOUNG, ALEC DAVID ZARCHIN, ALEXANDER ZIV, JACOB ZUCROW, MAURICE JOSEPH 4. GEOLOGY Biographies

ANCONA, CESARE D BEN-ABRAHAM, ZVI BENIOFF, HUGO BENTOR, JACOB BERENDT, GOTTLIEB MICHAEL BLANCKENHORN, MAX COHEN, EMIL WILHELM GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR MORITZ LOEWINSON-LESSING, FRANZ YULYEVICH OPPENHEIM, PAUL LEO PICARD, LEO ROSENBUSCH, KARL HARRY FERDINAND SALOMON-CALVI, WILHELM SHIFTAN, ZEEV SUESS, EDUARD VROMAN, AKIVA 5. MEDICINE & PHYSIOLOGY General Entries

ANATOMY ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION AUTOPSIES AND DISSECTION BLINDNESS BLOODLETTING

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GENETIC DISEASES IN JEWS HERBS, MEDICINAL HYGIENE medicine and the law SICKNESS TAY-SACHS DISEASE TRANSPLANTS Biographies

ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON OF SAINT MAXIMIN ABRAHAM, KARL ABRAHAMS, ISAAC ABRAMOWITZ, EMIL ABT, ISAAC ARTHUR ACKORD, ELIAS ADAM, LAJOS (Louis) ADLER, ALFRED ADLER, SAUL AARON ALBU, ISIDOR ALI IBN SAHL IBN RABBAN AL-TABARI ALTSCHUL, EMIL AMATUS LUSITANUS ANGRIST, ALFRED ALVIN ARDUT ASAPH HA-ROFE ASTRUC, SAUL HA-KOHEN AXEL, RICHARD BAKST, NICOLAI (Noah) IGNATYEVICH BALINT, MICHAEL BALLIN, SAMUEL JACOB BAMBERGER, HEINRICH VON BÁRÁNY, ROBERT BARNETT, SIR LOUIS EDWARD BARUK, HENRI BENACERRAF, BARUJ BENCHETRIT, AARON BENDER, MORRIS BORIS BENEDIKT, MORITZ BENEVENUTUS GRAPHEUS HIEROSOLYMITANUS BENZER, SEYMOUR BERENBLUM, ISAAC BERNHEIM, HIPPOLYTE BERNSTEIN, JULIUS BERNSTEIN, NATHAN OSIPOVICH BESREDKA, ALEXANDER BESSELS, EMIL BILLROTH, THEODOR BLOCH, IWAN BLUMBERG, BARUCH SAMUEL BODIAN, DAVID BRENNER, SYDNEY BREUER, JOSEPH BROWN, MICHAEL STUART BUCKY, GUSTAV BUERGER, LEO CALAHORA CANNSTADT, KARL FRIEDRICH COHEN, ELIZABETH D. A. COHEN, HARRY COHEN, HENRY BARON

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

COHNHEIM, JULIUS CORI, GERTY THERESA CYON, ELIE DE DAMESHEK, WILLIAM DAVIDOFF, LEO MAX DAVIDSOHN, ISRAEL DE LEE, JOSEPH B. DE VRIES, ANDRE DEUTSCH, FELIX DEUTSCH, HELENE DIAMOND, LOUIS KLEIN DONNOLO, SHABBETAI DORON, HAIM DOSTROVSKY, ARYEH DRESSLER, WILLIAM EDINGER, LUDWIG EINHORN, MAX EINHORN, MOSES EISSLER, KURT R. EITINGER, LEO S. EITINGON, MAX ELDAR, REUVEN ELIAKIM, MARCEL ELIJAH BEN SHABBETAI BEER ELION, GERTRUDE BELL ERIKSON, ERIK HOMBERGER ERLANGER, JOSEPH ERLIK, DAVID FALAQUERA, NATHAN BEN JOEL FARAJ BEN SOLOMON (Salim) DA AGRIGENTO FEDERN, PAUL FEIGENBAUM, ARYEH FENICHEL, OTTO FERENCZI, SÁNDOR FINKELSTEIN, HEINRICH FISHBEIN, MORRIS FISHBERG, MAURICE FLORETA CA NOGA OF ARAGON FOLKMAN, JUDAH FRANKENTHAL, KATE FRANKL, VIKTOR E. FRANZBLAU, ABRAHAM NORMAN FREUD, ANNA FREUD, SIGMUND FRIEDEMANN, ULRICH FRIEDENWALD FRIEDLANDER, KATE FRIEND, CHARLOTTE FRIGEIS, LAZARO DE FROEHLICH, ALFRED FROLKIS, VLADIMIR VENIAMIOVICH FROMM, ERICH FROMM-REICHMANN, FRIEDA FURCHGOTT, ROBERT F. GARLOCK, JOHN HENRY GASSER, HERBERT SPENCER GILMAN, ALFRED G. GOLD, HENRY RAPHAEL GOLD, PHILIP GOLDBERGER, JOSEPH

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD D. SCIENCE 5. Medicine & Physiology Biographies (continued) GOLDBLUM, NATAN GOLDSTEIN, JOSEPH LEONARD GOLDSTEIN, KURT GOTTLIEB, BERNHARD GREENACRE, PHYLLIS GREENGARD, PAUL GRINKER, ROY RICHARD SR. GROSSMAN, MORTON IRVING GRUBY, DAVID GUMPERT, MARTIN GUTMAN, ALEXANDER B. GUTTMACHER, ALAN F. GUTTMANN, SIR LUDWIG HAJEK, MARKUS HALBERSTAEDTER, LUDWIG HALPERN, LIPMAN HANNOVER, ADOLPH HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM HART, JOEL HARTMANN, HEINZ HAVA OF MANOSQUE HAYS, ISAAC HEIDENHAIN, RUDOLF HELPERN, MILTON HENLE, JACOB HESTRIN-LERNER, SARAH HIRSCH, AUGUST HIRSCH, RACHEL HIRSCHBERG, JULIUS HIRSCHFELD, ISADOR HIRSCHFELD, MAGNUS HIRSCHLER, IGNAC HIRSZFELD, LUDWIK HITSCHMANN, EDWARD HOFF, HANS HOFFER, WILLI HOLLANDER, FRANKLIN HORWITZ, PHINEAS JONATHAN HYDE, IDA HENRIETTA IBN BIKLĀRISH, JUNAS (Jonah) BEN ISAAC ISAAC BEN TODROS JACOBI, ABRAHAM JACOBSON, LUDVIG LEVIN JADASSOHN, JOSEF JANOWITZ, HENRY D. KAGAN, HELENA KANDEL, ERIC R. KANNER, LEO KANTROWITZ, ADRIAN KAPOSI, MORITZ KARDINER, ABRAM KARPLUS, HEINRICH KATZ, SIR BERNARD KISCH, BRUNO ZECHARIAS KLEIN, GEORGE

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KLEIN, MELANIE REIZES KLEMPERER, PAUL KLIGLER, ISRAEL JACOB KLINE, NATHAN S. KOCH, ADELHEID LUCY KOLLER, CARL KOPLIK, HENRY KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND KORINE, EZRA KRIM, MATHILDE KRISTELLER, SAMUEL KRONECKER, HUGO KUBIE, LAWRENCE LACHMANN, SIR PETER JULIUS LANDAU, LEOPOLD LANDSTEINER, KARL LANGER, ROBERT LASSAR, OSCAR LEIBOWITZ, JOSHUA O. LEVI, GIUSEPPE LEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA LEVINE, PHILIP LEVINSON, ABRAHAM LEWI, MAURICE J. LEWIS, SIR AUBREY JULIAN LOEB, LEO LOEWENSTEIN, RUDOLPH MAURICE LOEWI, OTTO MACHT, DAVID MAGNUS, RUDOLPH MAHLER, MARGARET MAIMONIDES, MOSES MALZBERG, BENJAMIN MA’OR KATAN MARCUSE, MOSES MASIE, AARON MEIR MASSERMAN, JULES HYMAN MASTER, ARTHUR M. MER, GIDEON MEYERHOF, MAX MICHAELSON, ISAAC CHESAR MILLER, EMANUEL MILLER, LOUIS MILSTEIN, CESAR MINKOWSKI, EUGENE MIROWSKI, MICHEL MORGENTALER, HENRY MULLER, HERMAN JOSEPH MUNK, HERMANN NASSY, DAVID DE ISAAC COHEN NATHANS, DANIEL NEUFELD, HENRY NOSSAL, SIR GUSTAV NUNBERG, HERMAN OLITZKI, ARYEH LEO OPPENHEIM, HERMANN ORENSTEIN, ALEXANDER JEREMIAH PADEH, BARUCH PAGEL, JULIUS LEOPOLD PAPO, IZIDOR JOSEF

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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PENN, JACK PERLSTEIN, MEYER A. PICK, ALOIS PICK, ERNST PETER PLAUT, HUGO CARL POLAK, JACOB EDUARD POLITZER, ADAM PRESSMAN, DAVID PREUSS, JULIUS PRUSINER, STANLEY B. PRYWES, MOSHE RACHMILEWITZ, MOSHE RADO, SANDOR RAHAMIMOFF, RAMI RAHBAR, SAMUEL RAMOT, BRACHA RANK, OTTO RAPAPORT, DAVID RAPPAPORT, HENRY REDLICH, FREDERICK C. REIK, THEODOR REMAK REVEL, MICHEL RIGLER, LEO GEORGE ROMBERG, MORITZ HEINRICH ROSEN, FRED ROSEN, SAMUEL ROSENHEIM, MAX (Leonard), BARON ROTH, SIR MARTIN ROTHSCHILD, FRIEDRICH SALOMON SABIN, ALBERT BRUCE SACHS, BERNARD SAKEL, MANFRED JOSHUA SALAMAN, REDCLIFFE NATHAN SALITERNIK, ZVI SALK, JONAS EDWARD SALOMONSEN, CARL JULIUS SANDGROUND, JACK HENRY SCHALLY, ANDREW V. SCHICK, BELA SCHILDER, PAUL FERDINAND SCHRIRE, VELVA SCIALOM, DAVID DARIO SELDIN, HARRY M. SEMON, SIR FELIX SENATOR, HERMANN SEQUEYRA, JOHN DE SHEBA, CHAIM SIMON, PIERRE SPITZ, RENE A. STARKENSTEIN, EMIL STEG, ADOLPHE STEIN, RICHARD STEIN, YEHEZKIEL STEINBERG, AVRAHAM STEINBERG, MARTIN R. STEKEL, WILHELM STENGEL, ERWIN STERN, ARTHUR C. STERN, ERICH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

STERN, LINA SOLOMONOVNA STILLING, BENEDICT STRAUS, RAHEL SZASZ, THOMAS STEPHEN TANDLER, JULIUS TARNOPOLSKY, SAMUEL TAUSK, VIKTOR TELLER, ISSACHAR BAER TEMIN, HOWARD MARTIN TENDLER, MOSES D. TENENBAUM, JOSEPH L. TOBIAS, PHILLIP VALLENTINE TRAMER, MORITZ TRAUBE, LUDWIG UNNA, PAUL GERSON VALENTIN, GABRIEL GUSTAV VAN DER HOEDEN, JACOB VANE, SIR JOHN R. VORONOFF, SERGE WALLACH, MOSHE (Moritz) WASSERMANN, AUGUST VON WATTERS, LEON LAIZER WECHSLER, ISRAEL WEIDNER, PAULUS WEIGERT, CARL WEISENBURG, THEODORE H. WIDAL, FERNAND WIENER, ALEXANDER S. WINNIK, HENRY ZVI WINSTON, ROBERT, BARON WINTROBE, MAXWELL MYER WOLBERG, LEWIS ROBERT WOLF, ABNER WOLFF, CHARLOTTE WOOLF, MOSHE WORMS, ASHER ANSHEL YALOW, ROSALYN SUSSMAN YUDKIN, JOHN ZACUTUS LUSITANUS ZAIZOV, RINA ZIFF, MORRIS ZILBOORG, GREGORY ZIMMERMAN, HARRY M. ZONDEK ZUCKERKANDL, EMIL ZUCKERMAN, SOLLY, LORD 6. PHYSICS & MATHEMATICS (INCL. ASTRONOMY & METEOROLOGY) Biographies

ABELMANN, ILYA SOLOMOVITCH ABRAHAM, MAX ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA AGMON, SHMUEL AHARONOV, YAKIR ALFEROV, ZHOREZ I. AMIRA, BINYAMIN AMITSUR, SAMSON ABRAHAM ANDRADE, EDWARD NEVILLE DA COSTA ARONS, LEO

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD D. SCIENCE 6. Physics & Mathematics (incl. Astronomy & Meteorology) Biographies (continued) ATLAS, DAVID AYRTON, HERTHA BACHER, ROBERT FOX BAGINSKY, ADOLF ARON BAUER, SIMON HARVEY BEER, WILHELM BEMPORAD, AZEGLIO BERNAL, JOHN DESMOND BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH BERSON, ARTHUR JOSEPH STANISLAV BESICOVITCH, ABRAM SAMOILOVITCH BETHE, HANS ALBRECHT BLOCH, FELIX BOHM, DAVID BOHR, NIELS HENRIK DAVID BONDI, SIR HERMANN BONFILS, IMMANUEL BEN JACOB BONJORN, BONET DAVI(D) BORN, MAX BOROWITZ, SIDNEY BREDIG, GEORGE BRODETSKY, SELIG BROWN, HAROLD CANTOR, MORITZ BENEDICT CHARPAK, GEORGES COHEN TANNOUDJI, CLAUDE COHEN, PAUL JOSEPH COHN, BERTHOLD COHN, FRITZ COHN, TOBIAS BEN MOSES CONRAD, VICTOR COOPER, LEON N. COURANT, RICHARD CREIZENACH, MICHAEL CROHN, BURRILL BERNARD DEMBER, HARRY L. DE-SHALIT, AMOS DESSAU, BERNARDO DESSAUER, FRIEDRICH DICKSTEIN, SAMUEL DOMNINUS OF LARISSA DOSTROVSKY, ISRAEL DVORETSKY, ARYEH EHRENFEST, PAUL EINSTEIN, ALBERT EISENSTEIN, FERDINAND GOTTHOLD EPSTEIN, PAUL SOPHUS ESTERMANN, IMMANUEL FEJER, LEOPOLD FEKETE, MICHAEL FEYNMAN, RICHARD PHILLIPS FINLAY-FREUNDLICH, ERWIN FINNISTON, SIR HAROLD MONTAGUE (Monty) FRAENKEL, ABRAHAM ADOLF FRANCK, JAMES

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FRANK, ILJA MIKHAILOVICH FRANK, PHILIPP FRANKEL, HEINRICH WALTER FRANKLIN, ROSALIND ELSIE FRENKEL, JACOB ILICH FRIEDMAN, JEROME ISAAC FRISCH, OTTO ROBERT FROHLICH, HERBERT FUBINI, GUIDO FURSTENBERG, HILLEL (Harry) GABOR, DENNIS GANS, DAVID BEN SOLOMON GELFAND, IZRAIL MOISEVICH GELFOND, ALEKSANDR OSIPOVICH GELL-MANN, MURRAY GINSBURG, JEKUTHIEL GINZBURG, VITALY LAZAREVICH GLASER, DONALD ARTHUR GLASHOW, SHELDON LEE GLAUBER, ROY J. GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN GOLDSTEIN, EUGEN GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY GROSS, DAVID J. GUTENBERG, BENO HADAMARD, JACQUES SALOMON HAIMOVICI, MENDEL HANANI, HAIM HANNOVER, RAPHAEL LEVI HARARI, HAYYIM HAREL, DAVID HASSAN IBN (Mar) HASSAN HAUPTMAN, HERBERT A. HAURWITZ, BERNHARD HAUSDORFF, FELIX (Paul Mongre) HECHT, SELIG HEEGER, ALAN J. HENSEL, KURT HERTZ, GUSTAV HOFSTADTER, ROBERT HURWITZ, ADOLF IBN SA‘ĪD, ISAAC INFELD, LEOPOLD ISRAEL, EDWARD ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH JACOBI, KARL GUSTAV JACOB JACOBI, MORITZ (Moses) HERMANN JAMMER, MAX JAMMER, MOSHE JOFFE, ABRAHAM FEODOROVICH JOSEPHSON, BRIAN DAVID KANTOROVICH, LEONID KANTROWITZ, ARTHUR KAPLAN, JOSEPH KARLE, JEROME KARMAN, THEODORE VON KOGAN, ABRAHAM KOHN, WALTER KORN, ARTHUR KRONECKER, LEOPOLD

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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LANDAU, EDMUND LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH LEDERMAN, LEON MAX LEE, DAVID M. LEFSCHETZ, SOLOMON LESS, EMIL LEVI-CIVITA, TULLIO LEVITSKY, JACOB LEVY, HYMAN LEVY, LUCIEN LICHTENFELD, GABRIEL JUDAH LIFSON, SHNEIOR LIPKIN, YOM TOV LIPMAN LIPPMANN, GABRIEL LIPSCHITZ, RUDOLF OTTO SIGISMUND LOEW, MORITZ LOEWE, FRITZ PHILIPP LOEWY, MAURICE LONDON, FRITZ LOW (Lev), WILLIAM ZE’EV MACHTA, LESTER MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV MANDELBROT, BENOIT MANDELSHTAM, LEONID ISAAKOVICH MARGULES, MAX MĀSHĀ’ALLAH B. ATHAN MEITNER, LISE MENDELSSOHN, KURT ALFRED GEORG MICHELSON, ALBERT ABRAHAM MINKOWSKI, HERMANN MORDELL, LOUIS JOEL MOTTELSON, BENJAMIN R. NAMIAS, JEROME NE’EMAN, YUVAL NEUGEBAUER, OTTO NEUMANN, JOHANN (Johnny) LUDWIG VON NOETHER OPPENHEIMER, J. ROBERT ORNSTEIN, LEONARD SALOMON OSHEROFF, DOUGLAS DEAN PAULI, WOLFGANG PEIERLS, SIR RUDOLF ERNST PEKERIS, CHAIM LEIB PENZIAS, ARNO ALLAN PEPPER, JOSEPH PERL, MARTIN PIROGOV, NIKOLAI POLITZER, H. DAVID PONTECORVO, BRUNO PRAGER, RICHARD PRESS, FRANK PRIGOGINE, ILYA RABI, ISIDOR ISAAC RABIN, MICHAEL OSER RACAH, GIULIO (Yoel) REINES, FREDERICK RICHTER, BURTON ROSEN, MOSHE ROSENHEAD, LOUIS ROTBLAT, SIR JOSEPH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

ROTENBERG, MATTIE ROTH, KLAUS FRIEDRICH RUBENSON, ROBERT RUBIN, MORTON JOSEPH SAGAN, CARL EDWARD SAMBURSKY, SAMUEL SCHAWLOW, ARTHUR L. SCHLESINGER, FRANK SCHUR, ISSAI (Isaiah) SCHUSTER, SIR ARTHUR SCHWARTZ, LAURENT SCHWARTZ, MELVIN SCHWARZSCHILD, KARL SCHWINGER, JULIAN SEYMOUR SEGRÈ, BENIAMINO SEGRÈ, CORRADO SEGRÈ, EMILIO GINO SHELAH, SAHARON SIMON, SIR FRANCIS EUGENE STEINBERGER, JACK STEINHAUS, HUGO DYONIZY STERN, ABRAHAM JACOB STERN, OTTO SYLVESTER, JAMES JOSEPH SZILARD, LEO TABOR, DAVID TABOR, HARRY ZVI TALMI, IGAL TAMM, IGOR YEVGENYEVICH TARSKI, ALFRED TELLER, EDWARD TEPPER, MORRIS THRASYLLUS OF MENDES TOEPLITZ, OTTO TOLANSKY, SAMUEL ULAM, STANISLAW MARCIN VEKSLER, VLADIMIR WEIL, ANDRE WEINBERG, STEVEN WEISSKOPF, VICTOR F. WEXLER, HARRY WHITE, ROBERT MAYER WIENER, NORBERT WIGNER, EUGENE P. WILCHEK, MEIR ZACHARIAS, JERROLD REINACH ZACUTO, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL ZARISKI, OSCAR ZELDOVICH, YAKOV BORISOVICH 7. OTHER Biographies

AVIDOV, ZVI BONDI, ARON COSTA, EMANUEL MENDES DA DEMALACH, YOEL EFRAT, YAACOV GRUNBAUM, ADOLF HALPERIN, HAIM LOWDERMILK, WALTER CLAY

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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD D. SCIENCE 7. Other Biographies (continued) NEUBURGER, MAX PNEULI, AMIR SINGER, CHARLES JOSEPH SLONIMSKI, HAYYIM SELIG SOSKIN, SELIG EUGEN STOLLER, SAMUEL SUSSMAN, ABRAHAM WAHL, ISAAK WINIK, MEIR

V. WOMEN Main Surveys

WOMAN General Entries

AGGADAH ANUSIM ASCETICISM BANKING AND BANKERS BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY BIRTH COOKBOOKS DOMESTIC PEACE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE FEMINISM HALUKKAH HASIDISM HISTORIANS HISTORIOGRAPHY LESBIANISM LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS ORPHAN, ORPHANAGE PROSTITUTION PSYCHOLOGY REBBETZIN SALONS SHEKHINAH SHTETL SOCIALISM SOCIOLOGY STUDY THEOLOGY Women in Bible

ABIGAIL ABISHAG THE SHUNAMMITE ASENATH Athaliah BATH-SHEBA BILHAH DEBORAH DELILAH ELISHEBA

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EN-DOR, WITCH OF ESTHER EVE hagar HANNAH HULDAH JAEL JEZEBEL JOCHEBED KETURAH LEAH MAACAH MERAB MICHAL MIRIAM NAAMAH NAOMI PENINNAH RACHEL RAHAB REBEKAH RIZPAH SARAH SHIPHRAH AND PUAH SHULAMMITE TAMAR VASHTI ZILPAH ZIPPORAH Women in Talmud and Second Temple Period

BERURYAH CLEOPATRA OF JERUSALEM CYPROS DORIS HANNAH AND HER SEVEN SONS HERODIAS HOMA HOVAH IMMA SHALOM JUDITH MARTHA SALOME SALOME ALEXANDRA YALTA Women in Jewish Ritual

AUFRUFEN BAR MITZVAH, BAT MITZVAH BLOOD CANDLES DIETARY LAWS ESHET HAYIL FESTIVALS FIRZOGERIN HAGGADAH, PASSOVER HALLAH HEAD, COVERING OF THE KADDISH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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NEW MOON NIDDAH PASSSOVER PRAYER SEMIKHAH SHEHITAH SYNAGOGUE TKHINES Organizations

AMIT: MIZRACHI WOMEN’S ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA BNAI BRITH WOMEN EMMA LAZARUS FEDERATION OF JEWISH WOMEN’S CLUBS EMUNAH HADASSAH, THE WOMENS ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA HEVRAH, HAVURAH INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN INTERNATIONAL LADIES GARMENT WORKERS UNION JUEDISCHER FRAUENBUND NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN NATIONAL FEDERATION OF TEMPLE SISTERHOODS WIZO WOMEN’S LEAGUE FOR CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM Publications

AMERICAN JEWESS DIE DEBORAH JEWISH WOMAN, THE LILITH Biographies

Academic Life ABRAMOWICZ, DINA ADLERBLUM, NIMA ARENDT, HANNAH ASKOWITH, DORA BADINTER, ELIZABETH BASKIN, JUDITH BAUMGARTEL, ELISE J. BENEDEK, THERESE F. BERNARD, JESSIE BIEBER, MARGARETE BILDERSEE, ADELE BOAS, HENRIETTE BONDY, RUTH BUHLER, CHARLOTTE BUNZEL, RUTH LEAH BUTLER, JUDITH CALIN, VERA CARLEBACH, ELISHEVA CHALIER, CATHERINE CHATZKELS, HELENE CHESLER, PHYLLIS COHEN, NAOMI W. COHEN, RUTH LOUISA COSER, ROSE LAUB DALVEN, RACHEL DAVIS, NATALIE ZEMON DAWIDOWICZ, LUCY

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

DENMARK, FLORENCE LEVIN DINER, HASIA DONIGER, WENDY DOTHAN, TRUDE ENGELMANN, SUSANNE CHARLOTTE EPSTEIN, CLAIRE ERLICH, VERA STEIN FRYMER-KENSKY, TIKVA GAVISON, RUTH GILLIGAN, CAROL GOLDMAN, HETTY GORNICK, VIVIAN GUGGENHEIM-GRUENBERG, FLORENCE GUTMANN, AMY HEILBRUN, CAROLYN G. HELLMAN, CLARISSE DORIS HERSCH, JEANNE HIMMELFARB, GERTRUDE HIMMELWEIT, HILDEGARD HYMAN, PAULA E. INSDORF, ANNETTE JACOBSON, ANNA JAHODA, MARIE JOSEPH, NORMA BAUMEL KOMAROVSKY, MIRRA KOTARBINSKA, JANINA KRIEGEL, ANNIE LANDES, RUTH LAPIDOT, RUTH LEIBOWITZ, NEHAMA LERNER, GERDA LEVIN, NORA MANHEIM, BILHAH MARCUS, RUTH BARCAN MARKEL-MOSESSOHN, MIRIAM MEDNICK, MARTHA TAMARA SCHUCH MEYER, ANNIE NATHAN MYERHOFF, BARBARA NAUMBURG, MARGARET NEUGARTEN, BERNICE L. NOVITCH, MIRIAM PEIXOTTO, JESSICA BLANCHE PORZEKANSKI, TERESA POWDERMAKER, HORTENSE PRINGLE, MIA RAJAK, TESSA RICHTER, ELISE ROBISON, SOPHIA RODIN, JUDITH RUTLAND, SUZANNE SALOMON, ALICE SCHWARTZ, ANNA JACOBSON SHAHAR, SHULAMIT SHUVAL, JUDITH STEIN, EDITH STEIN, JANICE STERN-TAEUBLER, SELMA TEC, NECHAMA TOBACH, ETHEL TUCHMAN, BARBARA WERTHEIM

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V. WOMEN Biographies Academic Life (continued)

WEIL, SIMONE WEINBERG, GLADYS DAVIDSON WEISS-ROSMARIN, TRUDE WIERUSZOWSKI, HELENE WIEVIORKA, ANNETTE WISSE, RUTH WOLFSON, THERESA WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA YEFET, SARAH Art AGREST, DIANA AIZENBERG, NINA AMISHAI-MAISELS, ZIVA ARBUS, DIANE NEMEROV ARNOLD, EVE BERNSTEIN, THERESA BING, ILSE BLAU, TINA BOURKE-WHITE, MARGARET CAISERMAN-ROTH, GHITTA CALLE, SOPHIE CASSAB, JUDY CENTERSZSWER, STANISLAWA CHICAGO, JUDY COHEN, ELISHEVA COSTA, CATHERINE DA DAVIDSON, JO DELAUNAY-TERK, SONIA DICKER-BRANDEIS, FREDERIKE EIZENBERG, JULIE FRANKENTHALER, HELEN FRENKEL, VERA FREUND, GISELE GAD, DEVORAH GIKOW, RUTH GILBERT, INA GLUCK, HANNAH GOLDIN, NAN GRUNDIG, LEA AND HANS HARKAVY, MINNA JACOBI, LOTTE KOENIG, GHISHA KRUGER, BARBARA LAMBERT, PHYLLIS LEIBOVITZ, ANNIE LEVITT, HELENE LISHANSKY, BATYA MARGOULIES, BERTHA MARK, MARY ELLEN MUTER (Mutermilch), MELA NEVELSON, LOUISE NIKEL, LEA ORLOFF, CHANA OSTROWER, FEYGA PLACHY, SYLVIA

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RIE, DAME LUCIE RINGL & PIT (Stern, Grete; Rosenberg Auerbach, Ellen) ROTHSTEIN, IRMA RUBIN, GAIL SAFDIE, SYLVIA SALOMON, CHARLOTTE SINGER, YVONNE SONNABEND, YOLANDA SPERO, NANCY STERN, IRMA STERNE, HEDDA SZALIT-MARCUS, RACHEL TAGGER, SIONA TEWI, THEA TICHO, ANNA ZVIA Literature ABECASSIS, ELIETTE ADAMS, HANNAH ADLER, RENATA AGUILAR, GRACE AICHINGER, ILSE ALIGER, MARGARITA YOSIFOVNA ALMOG, RUTH AMIR, ANDA ANTIN, MARY ASCARELLI, DEBORAH AUERBAKH, ROKHL AUSLAENDER, ROSE AVIGUR-ROTEM, GABRIELA BANUS, MARIA BARON, DEVORAH BASMAN BEN-HAYIM, RIVKE BAT-MIRIAM, YOKHEVED BAUM, VICKI BEJERANO, MAYA BEN-YEHUDA, HEMDAH BEN YEHUDA, NETIVA BERGER, LILY BERGSTEIN, FANIA BOSCO, MONIQUE BRONER, ESTHER M. BROOKNER, ANITA BRUGGEN, CARRY VAN CALISHER, HORTENSE CALOF, RACHEL CASSIAN, NINA CASTEL-BLOOM, ORLY CHAGALL, BELLA ROSENFELD CHARLES, GERDA CIXOUS, HELENE COHEN, ROSE GOLLUP COHN, CILLA CYPORA CORREA, ISABEL REBECCA DE DAVENPORT, MARCIA DEUTSCH, BABBETTE DOMIN, HILDE DROPKIN, CELIA DUBNOW-ERLICH, SOPHIA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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ELISHEVA ELKAN, SOPHIE ENRIQUEZ, ISABEL EPHRON, NORA EYTAN, RACHEL FALK, MARCIA FEINSTEIN, ELAINE FERBER, EDNA FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL FOA, ESTHER EUGENIE REBECCA FRANKEL, NAOMI FRANKEN, ROSE FRANKS, BILHAH ABIGAIL LEVY FREHA BAT AVRAHAM OF MOROCCO FUTORANSKY, LUISA GAMORAN, MAMIE GERSHON, KAREN GINSBURG, EVGENIA SEMIONOVNA GINZBURG, NATALIA GLUCK, LOUISE GLUECKEL OF HAMELN GOLDBERG, LEA GOLDSTEIN, REBECCA GOLL, CLAIRE GORDIMER, NADINE GORSHMAN, SHIRA GORSKA, HALINA GREENBERG, JOANNE GREENBLATT, ALIZA GUR, BATYA GURFEIN, RIVKA GURIAN, SORANA HABAS, BRACHA HAJNAL, ANNA HAREVEN, SHULAMIT HARRY, MYRIAM HELLMAN, LILLIAN FLORENCE HENDEL, YEHUDIT HENRY, EMMA HERTZVELD-HIJMANS, ESTELLA HOBSON, LAURA Z. HONIGMANN, BARBARA HURST, FANNIE INBER, VERA MIKHAILOVNA ISAACS, SUSAN JACOB, NAOMI ELLINGTON JAFFE, RONA JELINEK, ELFRIEDE JHABVALA, RUTH PRAWER JONG, ERICA JUN-BRODA, INA KAHANA-CARMON, AMALIA KALEKO, MASHA KALMAN, MAIRA KAPLAN, JOHANNA KARMEL, ILONA KATZIR, JEHUDIT KAUFMAN, BEL KELLERMAN, FAYE KLEPFISZ, IRENA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

KOLMAR, GERTRUD KORN, RACHEL HARING KRANTZ, JUDITH KROOK, DOROTHEA LANGFUS, ANNA LAPID, SHULAMIT LASKER-SCHUELER, ELSE LAZARUS, EMMA LAZARUS, NAHIDA RUTH LEE, MALKE LEVERSON, ADA LEVERTOV, DENISE LEVINSON, OLGA LEVI-PEROTTI, GIUSTINA LEVY, AMY LEWALD, FANNY LIEBRECHT, SAVYON LISPECTOR, CLARICE LOCKER, MALKE MANDELSHTAM, NADEZHDA YAKOVLEVNA MARGOLIN, ANNA MATALON, RONIT MAYNARD, FREDELLE BRUSER MAZE, IDA MERECINA OF GERONA MICHAELS, ANNE MILLIN, SARAH GERTRUDE MINCO, MARGA MISHOL, AGI MOISE, PENINA MOLODOWSKY, KADIA MORPURGO, RACHEL MUÑIZ-HUBERMAN, ANGELINA NAJMAN, JULIJA NEMIROWSKY, IRENE OLSEN, TILLIE ORZESKOWA (Orzesko), ELIZA OSTRIKER, ALICIA SUSKIN OZICK, CYNTHIA PALEY, GRACE PARKER, DOROTHY PIZARNIK, ALEJANDRA PLAIN, BELVA PORUMBACU, VERONICA PORZEKANSKI, TERESA PROSE, FRANCINE PYE, JAEL HENRIETTA RAAB, ESTHER RABINOWITZ, ZINA RAGEN, NAOMI RAHEL RAND, AYN RAVIKOVITCH, DALIA REBECCA BAT MEIR TIKTINER RICH, ADRIENNE ROBIN, REGINE ROSEN, NORMA ROSENFARB, CHAVA ROSS, LILLIAN ROTTOVA, INNA

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V. WOMEN Biographies Literature (continued)

RUBENS, BERNICE RUBIN, HADASSAH RUKEYSER, MURIEL SACHS, NELLY SAMPTER, JESSIE ETHEL SARRAUTE, NATHALIE SEGAL, ESTHER SEGHERS, ANNA SEID, RUTH SELIGSON, ESTHER SHALEV, ZERUYA SHUA, ANA MARIA SHULNER, DORA SHUMIATCHER-HIRSCHBEIN, ESTHER SIMON, KATE SKLAREW, MYRA SOARE, IULIA SONTAG, SUSAN SPEWACK, BELLA STEELE, DANIELLE STEIMBERG, ALICIA STEIN, GERTRUDE STERN, BERTHA GLADYS SULLAM, SARA COPPIO SUSANN, JACQUELINE SUSMAN, MARGARETE SZENES, ERZSI TAYLOR, SIDNEY TCHERNOWITZ-AVIDAR, YEMIMAH TRILLING, DIANA TUSSMAN, MALKA ULIANOVER, MIRIAM URY, ELSE VIVANTI CHARTRES, ANNIE WADDINGTON, MIRIAM (DWORKIN) WARRENS, ROSA WASSERSTEIN, WENDY WECHSLER, ELINA WEINZWEIG, HELEN WENGEROFF, PAULINE WISEMAN, ADELE YALAN-STEKELIS, MIRIAM YERUSHALMI, RINA YEZIERSKA, ANZIA YUDIKA ZELDA (MISHKOVSKY) ZYCHLINSKA, RAJZEL Music & Dance ARBATOVA, MIA BACHAUER, GINA BAUER, MARION EUGENIE BAYER, BATHIA BERTONOFF, DEBORAH BLOCH, ROSINE BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNY

270

BOGHEN, FELICE BORIS, RUTHANNA BREVAL, LUCIENNE CARP, PAULA CHURGIN, BATHIA COHEN, HARRIET COHEN, SELMA JEANNE COHEN, YARDENA DE PHILIPPE, EDIS DONALDA, PAULINE DU PRÉ, JACQUELINE EDEN-TAMIR EISENSTEIN, JUDITH KAPLAN EVEN-OR, MARY FARBER, VIOLA FISCHER, ANNIE FLEISCHER, TSIPPI FRIED (-BISS), MIRIAM FRIEDMAN, DEBORAH LYNN FUCHS, LILLIAN GASKELL, SONJA GERSON-KIWI, EDITH (Esther) GIDEON, MIRIAM GIOVANNI MARIA GLUCK, ALMA HAENDEL, IDA HALPRIN, ANN HASKIL, CLARA HAYDEN, MELISSA HAZZAN HESKES, IRENE HESS, DAME MYRA HIRSH, NURIT JOCHSBERGER, TZIPORAH KADMAN, GURIT KATZ, RUTH KAYE, NORA KENT, ALLEGRA KOSHETZ, NINA KRAUS, GERTRUD KRAUS, LILI KREMER, ISA KURZ, SELMA LANDOWSKA, WANDA LANG, PEARL LAPSON, DVORA LEAR, EVELYN LEIGH, ADELE LEVI-AGRON, HASIA LEVI-TANNAI, SARA LEWITZKY, BELLA LIEBLING, ESTELLE LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH LISSA, ZOFIA LUCCA, PAULINE MARKOVA, ALICIA MASLOW, SOPHIE MATZENAUER, MARGARETE MENDELSSOHN HENSEL, FANNY CAECILIE MENUHIN, HEFZIBAH

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

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METZGER, OTTILIE (Metzger-Latterman) MLOTEK, CHANA NIKOVA, RINA OLIVERO, BETTY ORDMAN, JEANETTE OSTFELD, BARBARA OVED, MARGALIT PASTA, GUIDITTA PAULY, ROSA PETERS, ROBERTA PLISETSKAYA, MAYA QUELER, EVE RAISA, ROSA RAMBERT, DAME MARIE RAN, SHULAMIT RASKIN, JUDITH REISENBERG, NADIA RESNIK, REGINA RODGERS, MARY ROSSI, MADAMA EUROPA DE’ RUBIN, RUTH RUBINSTEIN, IDA SALZMAN, PNINA SCHAECHTER-GOTTESMAN, BEYLE SCHLAMME, MARTHA SCHOENE, LOTTE SCHUBERT, LIA SHEMER, NAOMI SHLONSKY, VARDINA SILLS, BEVERLY (Belle Silverman) SMOIRA-COHN, MICHAL SOKOLOW, ANNA SPECTOR, JOHANNA STENN (STEEN), REBECCA SULITEANU, GISELA TAMIRIS, HELEN TOUREL, JENNIE TURECK, ROSALYN WEISSBERG, JULIA LAZAREVNA WERTHEIM, ROSALIE MARIE YAMPOLSKY, BERTA YELLIN-BENTWICH, ThELMA ZEFIRA, BRACHAH Popular Culture ABARBANELL, LINA ADELSTEIN-ROZEANU, ANGELICA ADLER, POLLY ADLER, STELLA AIMÉE, ANOUK ALBERSTEIN, HAVA ALBERT, MILDRED ALCOTT, AMY ALEXANDER, MURIEL ALMAGOR, GILA ARAD, YAEL ARNOLD, PAULA BACALL, LAUREN BARA, THEDA BARBARA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

BARR, ROSEANNE BEN, ZEHAVA BERENSON, SENDA BERG, GERTRUDE BERGEN, POLLY BERGMAN, ALAN & MARILYN BERGNER, ELIZABETH BERNHARD, SANDRA BERNHARDT, SARAH BERNSTEIN, ALINE BERNSTEIN-COHEN, MIRIAM BLOOM, CLAIRE BRICE, FANNY BRODY, JANE BROTHERS, JOYCE BUXTON, ANGELA CARTER, NELL CHOPRA, JOYCE CLAYBURGH, JILL COHEN, NATALIE COHEN, SASHA COHN, LINDA COLLINS, LOTTIE COMDEN, BETTY COPELAND, LILLIAN CURTIS, JAMIE LEE DAMARI, SHOSHANA DARVAS, LILI DEREN, MAYA ELLIOT, “MAMA” CASS EPSTEIN, CHARLOTTE FRIEDMANN, JANE GABOR, JOLIE, MAGDA, ZSA ZSA, EVA GERSTEN, BERTA GIEHSE, THERESE GILBERT, MELISSA GINGOLD, HERMIONE GODDARD, PAULETTE GOLDSTEIN, JENNIE GOODRICH, FRANCES AND HACKETT, ALBERT GOROKHOVSKAYA, MARIA GUZIK, HANNA HADDAD, SARIT HANBURY, LILY HARRIS, BARBARA HART, KITTY CARLISLE HAWN, GOLDIE HAZA, OFRA HEAD, EDITH HECKERLING, AMY HELD, ANNA HELDMAN, GLADYS HENDEL, NEHAMA HERSHEY, BARBARA HOLLIDAY, JUDY HUGHES, SARAH IAN, JANIS IRVING, AMY ISAACS, EDITH JULIET KAEL, PAULINE

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V. WOMEN Biographies Popular Culture (continued)

KAHN, MADELINE KALICH, BERTHA KANE, CAROL KANIN, FAY KARAN, DONNA KARFF, MONA. MAY KARP, MAX and SOPHIE KAVNER, JULIE KAZAN, LAINIE KELETI, AGNES KEMPNER, AVIVA KING, CAROLE KIRSZENSTEIN-SZEWINSKA, IRENA KLEIN, ANNE KONIG, LEA KOPPLE, BARBARA KORENE, VERA KRESSYN, MIRIAM KUDROW, LISA LAMARR, HEDY LANSING, SHERRY LASSER, LOUISE LAVIN, LINDA LAWRENCE, STEVE AND GORME, EYDIE LEACHMAN, CLORIS LEDERER, ESTHER PAULINE LEIBOWITZ, KEREN LEONTOVICH, EUGENIE LEVIEN, SONYA LEWIS, SHARI LIEBERMAN, NANCY LORTEL, LUCILE LOUIS-DREYFUS, JULIA MANNHEIM, LUCIE MATLIN, MARLEE MAY, ELAINE MENKEN, ADAH ISAACS MERON, HANNA MEYERS, NANCY JANE MIDLER, BETTE MITCHELL, YVONNE MONROE, MARILYN NAZIMOVA, ALLA NEILSON, JULIA NEUWIRTH, BEBE NEVINS, SHEILA NEWTON-JOHN, OLIVIA NORSA, HANNAH PALMER, LILLI PALTROW, GWYNNETH PARKER, SARAH JESSICA PATINKIN, MANDY PICON, MOLLY PORAT, ORNA PROOPS, MARJORIE RACHEL

272

RADNER, GILDA RAINER, LUISE RIVERS, JOAN ROSENFELD, FANNY ROTH-SHACHAMOROV, ESTHER ROVINA, HANNA RUDNER, RITA RYDER, WINONA SELDES, MARIAN SEYMOUR, JANE SHAPIRO, ESTHER SHEARER, NORMA SHORE, DINAH SIDNEY, SYLVIA SIGNORET, SIMONE SILVER, JOAN MICKLIN SIMON, CARLY SINGERMAN, BERTA SLUTSKAYA, IRINA STREISAND, BARBRA STRUG, KERRI SUZMAN, JANET SYLVIA, SARAH TAYLOR, ELIZABETH TAYMOR, JULIE THOMASHEFSKY, BESSIE TUCKER, SOPHIE WASSERMAN, DORA AND BRYNA WEIGEL, HELENE WEISSLER, BARRY AND FRAN WEST, MAE WESTHEIMER, RUTH WINGER, DEBRA WINTERS, SHELLEY ZOHAR, MIRIAM Public & Economic Life ABELLA, ROSALIE SILBERMAN ABRABANEL, BENVENIDA ABZUG, BELLA ACKERMAN, PAULA ALEXANDER, BEATRICE ALIAV, RUTH ALONI, SHULAMIT ALTER, ELEANOR (Breitel) AMERICAN, SADIE AMSTERDAM, BIRDIE APPELMAN, HARLENE AUERBACH, BEATRICE FOX AZARKH, RAISA MOYSEYEVNA BADT-STRAUSS, BERTHA BALABANOFF, ANGELICA BARRON, JENNIE LOITMAN BARSHEFSKY, CHARLENE BEER, RACHEL (Richa) BEINISCH, DORIT BEN-ISRAEL, RUTH BEN-PORAT, MIRIAM BEN-ZVI, RAHEL YANAIT BERKLEY, ROCHELLE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

thematic outline

BONNER, ELENA GEORGIEVNA BORCHARDT, LUCY BOXER, BARBARA BRANDEAU, ESTHER BRENNER, ROSE BRUCKMAN, HENRIETTA CAPLAN, ELINOR CARDIN, SHOSHANA Carnegie, Hattie CARR, JUDY FELD COHEN, FANNIA M. COHEN, GE’ULAH COHEN, MARY MATILDA CORCOS, STELLA CURRIE, EDWINA DAVIS, SUSAN DAYAN, YAEL DREIFUSS, RUTH DUGDALE, BLANCHE ELIZABETH CAMPBELL DULCEA OF WORMS DUNKELMAN, ROSE EPSTEIN, JUDITH ESTERKE OF OPOCZNO ESTHER ETTENBERG, SYLVIA EVANS, JANE FAIRSTEIN, LINDA FARKAS, RUTH FEINSTEIN, DIANNE FELDMAN, SANDRA FERRIS, IRIS FINESTONE, SHEILA FISCHER, RUTH FISHELS, ROIZEL OF CRACOW FLEISCHMANN, GISI FRANK, ANNE FRANK, RAY FREIER, RECHA FREUND-ROSENTHAL, MIRIAM KOTTLER FRIEDAN, BETTY FUERTH, HENRIETTE GAER, FELICE GAMUS GALLEGOS, PAULINA GANS, BIRD STEIN GINOSSAR, ROSA GINSBURG, RUTH JOAN BADER GIROUD, FRANCOISE GOLDBERG, JEANNETTE MIRIAM GOLDMAN, EMMA GOLDSCHMIDT, HENRIETTE GOLDSCHMIDT, JOHANNA SCHWABE GOLDSTEIN, FANNY GOTSFELD, BESSIE GOLDSTEIN GRATZ, REBECCA GROSSINGER, JENNIE GRUBER, RUTH GRUENBERG, SIDONIE MATSNER GUBER, RIVKA HALPRIN, ROSE LURIA HANDALI, ESTHER

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

HANDLER, RUTH MOSKO HARMAN, JANE HASSENFELD, SYLVIA HAUSER, RITA HAUTVAL, ADELAIDE HEILBRON, ROSE HELFMAN, HESSIA MEYEROVNA HELMSLEY, LEONA HERSTEIN, LILLIAN HERZ, HENRIETTE HERZOG, SHIRA HILLESUM, ETTY HILLMAN, BESSIE ABRAMOWITZ HIMMELSTEIN, LENA HOLTZMAN, ELIZABETH IDELSON, BEBA ITZIK, DALIA JACOBS, ALETTA JACOBS, FRANCES WISEBART JACOBS, ROSE GELL JAGLOM, RAYA KAHN, DOROTHY C. KAHN, FLORENCE PRAG KANDLEIN OF REGENSBURG KARMINSKI, HANNAH KATZNELSON, RAHEL KATZNELSON, SHULAMIT KAYE, JUDITH KLARSFELD, BEATE AUGUSTE KLEIN, GERDA WEISSMAN KNOPF, BLANCHE WOLFE KORCZAK-MARLA, ROZKA KRAVITCH, PHYLLIS A. KROSS, ANNA KUNIN, MADELEINE MAY LANDAU, ANNIE LAUDER, ESTÉE LEIBER, JUDITH LEICHTER, KAETE PICK LEVITT, ESTHER LICORICIA OF WINCHESTER LIEBMANN, ESTHER SCHULHOFF ARON and Jost LINDHEIM, IRMA LEVY LINGLE, LINDA LIVNAT, LIMOR LIVNI, TZIPI LOW, MINNIE LOWEY, NITA LUBETKIN, ZIVIA LUXEMBURG, ROSA MAGNIN, MARY ANN COHEN MAIMON, ADA MALCHI, ESPERANZA MALKIEL, THERESA SERBER MALSIN, LANE BRYANT MAOR, GALIA MARIA THERESA MEIR, GOLDA MELTON, FLORENCE ZACKS MENDELSSOHN-VEIT-SCHLEGEL, DOROTHEA

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V. WOMEN Biographies Public & Economic Life (continued)

MESSINGER, RUTH MONTAGU, LILY MONTEFIORE, JUDITH MORGENSTERN, LINA MOSS, CELIA AND MARION MUELLER-COHEN, ANITA MYERSON, BESS NAMIR, ORA NATHAN, MAUD NATHAN, VENGUESSONE NEVEJEAN, YVONNE NEWMAN, PAULINE NUDEL, IDA OPPENHEIM, SALLY BARONESS PAPPENHEIM, BERTHA PARNIS, MOLLIE PAUKER, ANA PEIXOTTO, JUDITH PEMBER, PHOEBE YATES PERLMAN, HELEN HARRIS PERSITZ, SHOSHANAH PESOTTA, ROSE PHILLIPS, REBECCA MACHADO PISCO, SERAPHINE PLOTNICKA, FRUMKA POGREBIN, LETTY COTTIN POLYKOFF, SHIRLEY PRYSTOR, JANINA PULCELINA OF BLOIS RABINOWICH, SARAH RAKOWSKI, PUAH RATHBONE, ELEANOR RAZOVSKY, CECILIA READING, FANNY REEVE, ADA REIK, HAVIVAH (Emma) REISMAN, HEATHER RESNIK, JUDITH RICHMAN, JULIA RIVLIN, ALICE MITCHELL ROBACK, LEAH ROSE, ERNESTINE POTOVSKY ROSENBERG, ANNA MARIE LEDERER ROSENSOHN, ETTA LASKER ROSENTHAL, IDA COHEN RUBINSTEIN, HELENA SARAH OF TURNAVO SCHAKOWSKY, JANICE SCHENIRER (Schnirer), SARAH SCHENK, FAYE L. SCHIFF, DOROTHY SCHMOLKA, MARIE SCHOOLMAN, BERTHA S. SCHWARTZ, FELICE NIERENBERG SCHWIMMER, ROSIKA SELIGSBERG, ALICE LILLIE

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SENDLER, IRENA SHAVELSON, CLARA LEMLICH SHEINDLIN, JUDITH SHORT, RENEE SIEBERT, MURIEL SIEFF, REBECCA SIEGEL, IDA LEWIS SOLOMON, BERTHA SOLOMON, HANNAH GREENEBAUM SONNENSCHEIN, ROSA SPIEGEL, DORA STEIMER, MOLLY STEINEM, GLORIA STEINER, HANNAH STERN, ELIZABETH STOKES, ROSE PASTOR (Wieslander) STRASSFELD, SHARON SUZMAN, HELEN SYRKIN, MARIE SZENES, HANNAH SZOLD, HENRIETTA THATCHER, MARGARET TONNA, CHARLOTTE E. TRIGERE, PAULINE UDIN, SOPHIE VARNHAGEN, RAHEL VEIL, SIMONE VON FURSTENBERG, DIANE WACHNER, LINDA WALD, LILLIAN WALTERS, BARBARA WASSERMAN-SCHULTZ, DEBBIE WEIGEL, CATHERINE WOLF, FRUMET WOLFF, JEANETTE WRONSKY, SIDDY WUHSHA AL-DALLALA WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA ZEMER, HANNAH ZEMLYACHKA (Zalkind), ROZALIYA SAMOYLOVNA Religion ABERLIN, RACHEL BACHARACH, EVA BARAZANI, ASENATH BAS-TOVIM, SARAH BEBE, PAULINE BERLIN, RAYNA BATYA DREYZL, LEAH EILBERG, AMY FRANK, EVA GOLDSTEIN, ELYSE HAUPTMAN, JUDITH HOROWITZ, SARAH REBECCA RACHEL LEAH ISSERLEIN, ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH JONAS, REGINA LAZA OF FRANKFURT LICHTENSTEIN, TEHILLA LUDOMIR, MAID OF

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

thematic outline

MIRIAM BAT BENAYAH OF YEMEN MODENA, FIORETTA DI OFFNER, STACY OSTFELD, BARBARA PRIESAND, SALLY RASHI SASSO, SANDY SCHECHTER, MATHILDE SERL BAS JACOB BEN WOLF KRANZ SHIFRAH OF BRODY SIMON, CARRIE OBENDORFER STERNBERG, SARAH FRANKEL Science ARNON, RUTH AYRTON, HERTHA BIRK, YEHUDITH COHEN, ELIZABETH D.A. COHN, MILDRED CORI, GERTY THERESA DEUTSCH, HELENE EDINGER, TILLY ELION, GERTRUDE BELL FEINBRUN-DOTHAN, NAOMI FLORETA CA NOGA OF ARAGON FRANKENTHAL, KATE FRANKLIN, ROSALIND ELSIE FREIDLINA, RAKHIL KHATSKELEVNA FREUD, ANNA

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

FRIEDLANDER, KATE FRIEND, CHARLOTTE FROMM-REICHMANN, FRIEDA GREENACRE, PHYLLIS HAVA OF MANOSQUE HESTRIN-LERNER, SARAH HIRSCH, RACHEL HYDE, IDA HENRIETTA HYMAN, LIBBIE HENRIETTA KAGAN, HELENA KAUFMAN, JOYCE JACOBSON KLEIN, MELANIE REIZES KOCH, ADELHEID LUCY KRIM, MATHILDE LEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA MAHLER, MARGARET MEITNER, LISE RAMOT, BRACHA RAYSS, TSCHARNA ROTENBERG, MATTIE SHALON, RAHEL SPIEGEL-ADOLF, MONA STERN, LINA SOLOMONOVNA STRAUS, RAHEL WEIL, R. ADRIENNE WOLFF, CHARLOTTE YALOW, ROSALYN SUSSMAN YONATH, ADA ZAIZOV, RINA

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INTRODUCTION TO THE INDEX

Creating a comprehensive book index for a work with the scope and depth of the Encyclopaedia Judaica (EJ) is a worthy challenge for any team of indexers. This is especially true because of the ambitious standard set by the first edition’s index by Prof. Raphael Posner. I am confident that users of the second edition’s index will agree that this index has risen to that challenge for a new generation of users. A good reference index is not a concordance, a mere listing of every instance in which a person or a place is mentioned in print. An index’s purpose is to help the user find relevant information as quickly and easily as possible. To do this, the index must do two things well. It must point a user toward those places where useful information is to be found. And it must gather those pointers in a single, easily found place, so that a user need not search here and there about the index, gathering references as if on a scavenger hunt of arcana. An index that does both of these things will help a user to quickly and confidently find all of the relevant information about a topic. To create this index a large team of indexers from around the globe has read and reread essays, seeking to ensure that our coverage of terms, themes, and concepts is both comprehensive and useful. Many headings and subheadings have been consolidated to ensure that all of the significant information about a topic or an aspect of a topic has been gathered in a single place. We have consulted frequently with the first edition’s index as we built the index for the second edition. The valuable See and See Also cross-references created by Prof. Posner for the first edition have been carried over wherever possible, and enhanced with additional references for the many new topics that appear in the second edition. We have also incorporated many of the first edition’s headings and subheadings in the second edition’s index. Great thanks are due to the help provided by that singular reference. Users will find two other avenues for accessing information in this edition as described below: the thematic outline and the online e-book version of this reference. THE THEMATIC OUTLINE

An index is not a thematic outline, nor is a thematic outline an index. Instead, the two tools are designed to work together. The thematic outline that precedes this introduction arranges all the entries under logically structured main categories. It is an excellent tool for researchers seeking an overview of the encyclopedia’s coverage. The alphabetical index is an excellent tool for researchers seeking specific information. Using the two together can greatly enhance any research effort. A reader who finds an essay of interest in the thematic outline would be well served to check the index for a sense of the encyclopedia’s specific coverage of the topic. A user of the index who finds a topic of interest would be well served to consult the thematic outline for a handy overview of that topic’s place in the encyclopedia. Where practical the structure of the index’s headings and subheadings has been coordinated with the thematic outline to help users move smoothly from one to the other. I strongly encourage readers and researchers alike to use both tools. 277

INTRODUCTION TO THE INDEX

SEARCHING THE E-BOOK VERSION OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA

A print index is designed to be a complete and independent reference source for that print edition, and this is the case with the index for Encyclopaedia Judaica. However, it is worth noting that this second edition of Encyclopaedia Judaica will be released in both a print and an e-book format available as part of the Gale Virtual Reference Library. Many purchasers of this edition will have access to both versions of the encyclopedia. Electronic references provide search tools that simply can not exist in the printed version of a book. A user seeking additional ways to search the Encyclopaedia Judaica would do well to consult the electronic version. Every effort has been made to use both the index and the thematic outline to enhance the searchability of the electronic version of this reference. In the e-book version page references in the index and main entries in the thematic version are hyperlinked to the entry and page to which they refer. Users who scroll to the end of an essay in the e-book version will see a list of the indexing terms that point to the essay. In those terms at the bottom, page references that point to other essays are hyperlinked to those essays to provide users with direct access to other information on a topic. For general searching of the e-book version of Encyclopaedia Judaica, headings from the print index are included in the keyword search. Should a concept or name appear nowhere in either the thematic outline or the index, or should a user wish to conduct an exhaustive search for all mentions of a name or a concept, a convenient full-text search of the entire Encyclopaedia Judaica is available for the e-book. CONVENTIONS OF THE INDEX

Alphabetization: This index is sorted letter-by-letter to reflect the arrangement of essays in the encyclopedia itself. To find headings the user should search alphabetically as if there are no spaces between words. Diacritical marks such as “H.” or “a¯” are ignored for sorting purposes. The sort stops at the period, comma, colon, and semi-colon punctuation marks. Words that break at those marks will sort above words that carry through, e.g. Rubin, Solomon comes before Rubiner, Ludwig. Numbers, including Roman numerals, will appear at the top of lists. Parenthetical modifiers are not included in the sorting. Initial articles in both English and foreign languages – e.g. the, a, der, or la – are ignored for sorting purposes. Page References: The volume number precedes the page reference the first time that the volume number is used, e.g. 8:123, 157 or 12:15-27, 145. Bolded page references refer to a main essay on a topic, e.g. Lee, Stan, 12:598 or Kirby, Jack, 12:183-184. Italicized page references refer to an image or map, e.g. A (letter), 1: 207 or Israel (ancient), 10: 101. Page references followed by an italicized t indicate a table or genealogical chart, e.g. Kibbutz festivals, 12:120t or Rothschild family, 17:488t. Color inserts have been identified by the volume to which they belong, e.g. Maus (Spiegelman), vol. 2: color insert or Mint, vol. 16: color insert. Person Names: Person names with surnames are generally inverted and appear as they have been listed in their main essay in the encyclopedia, e.g. Kane, Bob, 11:760-761. Person names consisting of forenames only are in natural order as Caecilius of Calacte, 4:331-332. Where advisable – especially with names containing bar, ben, or ibn – a See cross-reference has been created from the alternate inversion. See references have also been created for 278

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INTRODUCTION TO THE INDEX

alternate names, so that all of the page references for a person are gathered under a single heading. Work Names: Titles of works such as novels, newspapers, monographs, and other longer works have been italicized, e.g. Diary of a Young Girl (Frank), or The Spirit (comic strip). Short works such as poems, short stories, or songs appear in quote marks, e.g. “Frailach in Swing” (Elman). Most work names have received a parenthetical qualifier to distinguish them from similarly titled works, e.g. Sefer ha-Musar (Aknin) and Sefer ha-Musar (Kaspi). Books of the Bible appear in this format: Exodus, Book of. In the case of works known by both foreign-language and English-language titles, the language of original publication has generally been preferred, with See references pointing to that name, from the English-language variant. Place Names: Most place names have received a modifier to specify their location, e.g. Fort Michilimackinac (MI) or Eshtemoa (ancient Israel). Modifiers generally favor the current place unless a place name is only relevant within the context of its ancient location, e.g. Jahaz (Moab). Postal abbreviations for states and provinces have been used for place names within the U.S. and Canada, e.g. NY for New York and QC for Quebec. A list of geographic and other abbreviations used in the index follows this introduction. Term Selection, Inversions and Natural Word Order: The terms selected for headings and subheadings in this index reflect the terms and concepts used in the essays themselves and seek to replicate them as closely as possible. Wherever practical, concept terms appear in natural word order, e.g. “Jewish philosophy” instead of “Philosophy, Jewish”. See references have been created from the inverted term in many cases to avoid confusion and direct the user to the correct term. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Finally, in addition to thanking Prof. Posner for the guidance provided by the index for the first edition, great thanks are due to Trish Yancey of Factiva and her team of indexers. They worked many long hours to create this index and bring it to a successful and timely conclusion. I would also like to thank the many Thomson Gale editors and staff members who have contributed to this index, especially indexing specialists Lynne Maday, Amy Jerome, and Cathy Fisher, without whose help this index would simply not exist. John Magee Manager, Book and Database Indexing Thomson Learning

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ABBREVIATIONS OF THE INDEX

The following standard abbreviations have been used in this index. AB Alberta AK Alaska AL Alabama AS American Samoa AR Arkansas AZ Arizona BC British Colombia B.C.E Before Common Era c. century CA California CO Colorado CT Connecticut d. died DC District of Columbia DE Delaware fl. flourished FL Florida FM Federated States of Micronesia GA Georgia GU Guam HI Hawaii IA Iowa ID Idaho IL Illinois IN Indiana Inc. Incorporated Jr. Junior KS Kansas KY Kentucky LA Louisiana Ltd. Limited MA Massachusetts MB Manitoba MD Maryland ME Maine MH Marshall Islands MI Michigan MN Minnesota MO Missouri MP Northern Mariana Islands MS Mississippi MT Montana NB New Brunswick NC North Carolina ND North Dakota NE Nebraska NH New Hampshire

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

NJ NL NM NS NT NU NV NY OH OK ON OR PA PE PR PW QC RI SC SD (Nazi intelligence unit) SD (place) SK Sr. SS TN TX U.K. UN U.S. USSR UT v. VA VI vol. vs. VT WA WI WV WW I WW II WY YT

New Jersey Newfoundland and Labrador New Mexico Nova Scotia Northwest Territories Nunavut Nevada New York Ohio Oklahoma Ontario Oregon Pennsylvania Prince Edward Island Puerto Rico Palau Quebec Rhode Island South Carolina Sicherheitsdienst South Dakota Saskatchewan Senior Schutzstaffel Tennessee Texas United Kingdom United Nations United States of America United Soviet Socialist Republics Utah versus in legal citations Virginia Virgin Islands volume versus Vermont Washington Wisconsin West Virginia World War I World War II Wyoming Yukon

281

INDEX

Page numbers in bold indicate main entries. Page numbers in italic indicate illustrations or maps. A “t” following a page number indicates a table or chart. References to color inserts include the pertinent volume number. Please see the “Introduction to the Index” for a full explanation of the conventions used in this index. 9/11 attacks. See September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks 23 Contratos Comercials Escritos por Los Judios de Toldeo en Los Siglos XIII Y XIV: Edicion Completa y Estudio Linguistico de los Datos Judeo-arabes Andalusies (Ferrando), 18:471 The 28th Day of Elul (Elman), 9:407 29 mois et quelques jours (Elkabbach), 6:356 1939 White Paper, 10:203

A A (letter), 1:207, 2:5 Aachen (Germany), 1:207 De Aanslag. See The Assault Aargau (Switzerland), 1:207–208 Aaron (biblical figure), 1:208–211 ancient paintings, 6:53–54 artwork, 14:542 Eleazar (High Priest), 6:298 Elisheba, 6:354 golden calf, 6:618 mediation by, 13:719 Miriam, 14:311–312 Moses, 14:523–531, 535 rod of, 17:365 Aaron, House of. See Aaronides Aaron, Israel, 1:211 Aaron, Judah, 15:474 Aaron, Sons of. See Aaronides Aaron ben Abraham Safarty, 18:55 Aaron ben Amram, 1:211–212, 11:425 Aaron ben Asher, 13:649–650 Aaron ben Batash, 1:212, 16:346 Aaron ben David Cohen of Ragusa, 1:212, 6:38 Aaron ben Elijah, 1:212–213 Aaron ben Elijah ha-Kohen, 2:24 Aaron ben Gershon Elmali, 6:363

Aaron ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf, 1:213 Aaron ben Israel Broda, 4:193 Aaron ben Jacob ha-Kohen of Lunel, 1:213–214, 12:405 Aaron ben Jeshua. See Abu al-Faraj Harun ibn al-Faraj Aaron ben Jeshu’a. See Abu al-Faraj Harun ibn al-Faraj Aaron ben Jonah, 6:34 Aaron ben Joseph ha-Kohen Sargado, 1:214 Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi, 1:214–215, 14:463 Aaron ben Joseph ha-Rofe, 1:213, 215–216 Aaron ben Joshua ibn Alamani. See Alamani, Aaron he-H: aver ben Yeshu’ah Aaron ben Judah Kosdani. See Aaron ben Judah Kusdini Aaron ben Judah Kusdini, 1:216 Aaron ben Judah of Constantinople. See Aaron ben Judah Kusdini Aaron ben Mashiah, 11:555 Aaron ben Meir. See Ben Meir, Aaron Aaron ben Meir Brisker, 1:216 Aaron ben Meshullam of Lunel, 1:216 Aaron ben Moses ha-Levi of Starosielce, 1:216–217 Aaron ben Reuben Elmaleh, 6:364 Aaron ben Samuel, 1:217 Aaron ben Samuel (of Hergerhausen), 1:217 Aaron ben Senton. See Aaron ben Batash Aaron ben Senton-ben Shem Tov. See Aaron Ben Batash Aaron ben Solomon Duran, 6:56 Aaron Berechiah ben Moses of Modena, 1:217, 14:407 Aaron fil Josce of York. See Aaron of York Aaron H: akiman, 1:217 Aaron ha-Levi of Barcelona. See Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi Aaronides, 1:217–219, 218t Aaron Isaac. See Isaac, Aaron Aaron Menahem Mendel, of Radzymin, 17:61 Aaron of Baghdad, 1:219 Aaron of Barcelona. See Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi Aaron of Copenhagen. See Aaron Simeon ben Jacob Abraham of Copenhagen

Aaron of Kremenets. See Aaron Samuel ben Moses Shalom of Kremenets Aaron of Lincoln, 1:219 Aaron of Lunel (12/13th c.). See Aaron ben Jacob ha-Kohen of Lunel Aaron of Lunel (13/14th c.). See Aaron ben Meshullam of Lunel Aaron of Neustadt, 1:219–220 Aaron of Nicomedia. See Aaron ben Elijah Aaron of Pesaro, 1:220 Aaron of Ragusa. See Aaron ben David Cohen of Ragusa Aaron of Starosielce. See Aaron ben Moses ha-Levi of Starosielce Aaron of York, 1:220 Aaron of Zhitomir, 1:220 Aaron of Zolkiew. See Aaron Selig ben Moses of Zolkiew Aaron Samuel ben Moses Shalom of Kremenets, 1:220 Aaron Samuel ben Naphtali Herz haKohen, 1:220 Aaron Selig ben Moses of Zolkiew, 1:220–221 Aaron Setzer. See Aaron ben Elijah ha-Kohen Aaron Simeon ben Jacob Abraham of Copenhagen, 1:221 Aaronsohn, Aaron, 1:221–222, 223, 6:736, 15:267–268 Aaronsohn, Alexander, 1:222 Aaronsohn, Michael, 1:223 Aaronsohn, Moses, 1:223–224 Aaronsohn, Sarah, 1:222–223, 15:267– 268 Aaronsohn family, 1:221–223 Aaronson, Lazarus Leonard, 1:224 Aaron the Elder. See Aaron ben Joseph ha-Rofe Aaron the Great. See Perlov, Aaron ben Jacob Aaron the Second, 11:810 Aaron the Younger. See Aaron ben Elijah Aaron with Tablet (Reder), 17:156 Aaron Wolff Schreiber of Gewitsch. See Herlingen, Aaron Wolff of Gewitsch Ab, Ninth of. See Av, the Ninth of Aba. See Asher, Abraham ben Gedaliah Ibn 283

INDEX

Abadan (Iran), 1:224 Abaddon, 1:224 Abaelard, Peter. See Abelard, Peter Abaelardus, Petrus. See Abelard, Peter Abag. See Gottlober, Abraham Baer Abailard, Pierre. See Abelard, Peter Abandoned Property. See Rekhush Natush The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust (Wyman), 9:420 Abarbanel, Isaac, 7:360 Abarbanell, Lina, 1:224 Abazardiel. See Abzardiel, Moses Abazardiel, Moses. See Abzardiel, Moses Abba, 1:224–225 Abba (3rd-4th centuries), 1:225 Abba (4th-5th centuries), 1:225 Abba (8th century), 1:225 Abba Arikha. See Rav Abba bar Ah: a, 1:225 Abba bar Avina, 1:225–226 Abba bar Hanna. See Rabbah bar H: ana Abba bar Huna. See Rabbah bar Huna Abba bar Kahana, 1:226 Abba bar Marta, 1:226 Abba bar Memel, 1:226 Abba bar Minah. See Abba bar Avina Abba bar Zavda, 1:226–227 Abba bar Zemina, 1:227 Abba bar Zevina. See Abba bar Zemina Abba bar Zimna. See Abba bar Zemina Abba bar Zimona. See Abba bar Zemina Abba ben Abba ha-Kohen, 1:227 Abba ben Aivu. See Rav Abba ben Dostai. See Abba Yose ben Dostai Abba Benjamin, 1:227 Abba Dan. See Avdan Abba Gulish, 1:227 Abba Guryon of Sidon, 1:227–228 Abba H: ilkiah, 1:228 Abba Hoshaya of Tiriah. See Abba Oshaya of Tiriah Abbahu, 1:228–229, 18:594 Abbahu de-Shemu’el. See Abba ben Abba ha-Kohen Abba Isi ben H: anin. See Abba Yose ben H: anin Abba Kohen Bardela, 1:229 Abba Kolon, 1:229 Abba Mari Astruc, 1:302, 422, 12:697 Abba Mari ben Eligdor, 1:229 284

Abba Mari ben Isaac of St. Gilles, 1:230 Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph Astruc of Lunel, 1:230, 2:530 Abba of Acre. See Abba of Akko Abba of Akko, 1:230 Abba of Sidon. See Abba Guryon of Sidon Abba Oshaya of Tiriah, 1:230–231 Abbas, Judah ben Samuel ibn, 1:231 Abbas, Mahmoud, 10:252, 15:595, 600 Abbas, Moses ben Samuel, 1:231–232 Abbas, Moses Judah ben Meir, 1:232 Abbas, Samuel, 3:683 Abba Sakkara. See Abba Sikra Abba Saul, 1:232 Abba Saul ben Batnit, 1:232 Abba Shaul Heisinovitch. See Ah: imeir, Abba Abbas I, 1:231 Abbasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn, 1:232– 233 Abbasids, 1:233–234, 4:364, 10:14–15, 11:155 Abbas II, 1:231 Abba Sikra, 1:234–235 Abba Umana, 1:235 Abbaye, 1:235–236 Abbaye Kashisha, 1:236 Abbaye the Elder. See Abbaye Kashisha Abba Yose ben Dosai. See Abba Yose ben Dostai Abba Yose ben Dostai, 1:236 Abba Yose ben Hanan. See Abba Yose ben H: anin Abba Yose ben H: anin, 1:236 Abba Yose ben Johanan. See Abba Yose ben H: anin Abba Yudan. See Avdan Abbell, Maxwell, 1:236 Abbing, Justine. See Bruggen, Carry van Abbott, Bud, 1:236–237 Abbott, William. See Abbott, Bud Abbreviations, 1:237–240 EAbd al-H: aqq al-Isla¯m¯ı, 1:240 Abdallah, Yusef, 1:240 Abdallah ibn Saba¯D, 1:240–241 Abdallah ibn Sala¯am, 1:241 DAbd al-Malik, 14:497 Abd al-Ma¯lik Ma¯wan, 1:241 Abde. See Avedat DAbdin, Sheikh, 15:596 Abdon, 1:241, 11:565 Abduction, 1:241–243 domicile of minors and, 5:742

Mortara case, 14:513 ‘Abduh, Muhammad, 10:93–94 Abdullah (King of Saudi Arabia), 18:78 Abdullah (King of Transjordan). See Abdullah ibn Hussein Abdullah ibn Hussein, 1:243–244, 11:404 Abdullah II (King of Jordan), 11:405 Abdullah Yacoub. See Querido, Jacob Abdul Mejid I, 1:244 Abécassis, Eliette, 1:244–245 Abed-Nego. See Shadrach, Meshach, Abed-Nego Abedroth, David ben Moses Eliakim. See Abterode, David ben Moses Eliakim Abeilard, Peter. See Abelard, Peter Abel (ancient Israel). See Abel-BethMaacah (ancient Israel) Abel (biblical figure), 1:245, 291, 4:340–342, 18:319 Abel, Avel, 1:245 Abel, Elie, 1:245 Abel, Emil, 1:245 Abel, Louis Felix, 1:246 Abelard, Peter, 1:246 Abel-Beth-Maacah (ancient Israel), 1:246–247 Abele Poswoler. See Abraham Abele ben Abraham Solomon Abeles, Otto, 1:247 Abeles, Simele. See Abeles, Simon Abeles, Simon, 1:247 Abeliovich, Lev Moysseyevich, 1:247 Abella, Rosalie Silberman, 1:247–248 Abel-Maim (ancient Israel). See AbelBeth-Maacah (ancient Israel) Abelman, Jonathan. See Jonathan ben Abraham Isaac Abelmann, Ilya Solomovich, 1:248 Abel-Maul (ancient Israel), 1:248 Abel Mayin. See Abel-Beth-Maacah Abel-Meholah (ancient Israel), 1:248, 6:350 Abel Shittim (ancient Israel), 1:248 Abelson, Harold Herbert, 1:248–249 Abelson, Joshua, 1:249 Abelson, Paul, 1:249 Abenabez, Moses. See Abbas, Moses ben Samuel Abenabez, Moses ben Samuel. See Abbas, Moses ben Samuel Abenaes, Solomon, 1:249–250 Abenafia, Joseph, 1:250, 15:581 Abenaish, Solomon. See Abenaes, Solomon Abenalaza. See Eleazar

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INDEX

Abenalazar. See Eleazar Abenardut family. See Ardut family Abenatar family. See Atar family Abenatar Melo, David, 1:250 Abenavez, Moses. See Abbas, Moses ben Samuel Abenavez, Moses ben Samuel. See Abbas, Moses ben Samuel Aben-Ayesh. See Abenaes, Solomon Aben-Ayesh, Solomon. See Abenaes, Solomon Abenbenist. See Benveniste Abenbenist family. See Benveniste family Abendana, David, 1:250 Abendana, Isaac, 1:250 Abendana, Isaac Sardo, 1:251 Abendana, Jacob ben Joseph, 1:251 Abendana family, 1:250 Abendanan, Maimon, 1:251 Abendanan, Saadiah. See Ibn Danan, Saadiah ben Maimun Abendanan, Samuel, 1:251 Abendanan, Saul, 1:251–252 Abendanan, Solomon, 1:251 Abendanan family, 1:251–252 Abengalel family. See Bengalil family Abenmenasse, Judah, 1:252 Abenmenasse, Samuel, 1:252 Abenmenasse family, 1:252 Abensur, Jacob, 1:252–253 Abensur, Louis. See Abensur, Jacob Abensur family, 1:252 Abenvives family, 1:253 Abenyaex, Solomon. See Abenaes, Solomon Aben-Yuly. See Yuly family Aben-Yuly family. See Yuly family Abenzardel, Moses. See Abzardiel, Moses Aber, Adolf, 1:253 Aberdam, Alfred, 1:253, 15:649 Aberdeen (Scotland), 1:253–254 Aberdeen Bible, 3:679 Abergel family. See Bergel family Aberle, Reb. See Nathan, Abraham Aberlin, Rachel, 1:254 Abe Schrader Corp., 18:166, 167 Abe the Newsboy. See Hollandersky, Abraham Abgar of Edessa, 3:599 Abgar V (King of Adiabene), 15:506 Ab-H: isda Az: z: uri. See Abu al-Hasan of Tyre Abi-Afeta Ban ab-H: isdah. See Abu alFat Abiatar family. See Atar family

Abiathar, 1:254–255, 2:132, 18:755 Abiathar ben Elijah ha-Kohen, 1:255, 18:770 Abichabod. See Ichabod Abicht, Johann Georg, 1:255 DAbid, Ezra Menasheh, 15:473 Abiezer, 1:255 Abiezer the Anathothite, 1:255 Abigail, 1:256 Abi-H: asira, Jacob II ben Masoud, 1:256 Abi-H: asira family, 1:256 Abihaz: ira family, 18:572–573 Abihu, 1:256–257, 14:721–722 Abijah, 1:257, 542 Abijam. See Abijah Abileah, Arie, 1:257 Abilene (Syria), 1:257 Abimelech (King of Gerar), 1:257–258 Abraham, 1:282 Jotham, 11:465 Judges, Book of, 11:564 See also Ahimelech Abimelech (King of Philistines), 16:55 Abimelech (son of Gideon), 1:258 Abimelechn (Ruler of Shechem), 3:5–6 Abinadab, 1:258–259 Abinnaxim family. See Abenmenasse family A Bintl Blumen (Shalom Aleichem), 18:381 Abiob, Aaron, 1:259 Abir, David, 1:259 Abiram, 5:440 Abishag the Shunammite, 1:259, 413 Abishai, 1:260 Abish‘a Scroll, 15:754–755 Abitbol, Amor ben Solomon, 1:260 Abitbol, Saul Jeshua ben Isaac, 1:260 Abitbol family, 1:260 Abi Zimra, David ben Solomon ibn. See David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra Abi Zimra, Isaac Mandil ben Abraham, 1:260 Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. See Abkhaziya Abkhaziya (Georgia), 1:261, 261 Ablution, immersion, 1:261–263 Abner, 1:263–264 David and, 5:447 Joab as murderer of, 11:339 Palti, 15:607 Abner bar Ner ha-Sharoni. See Bashiri, Yah: ya Abner of Burgos, 1:264–265, 15:562, 16:87

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Aboab, Immanuel, 1:265–266, 2:267 Aboab, Isaac da Fonseca. See Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac Aboab, Isaac de Mattathias, 1:268 Aboab, Isaac I, 1:266–267, 686 Aboab, Isaac II, 1:267–268 Aboab, Jacob ben Samuel, 1:268 Aboab, Mattathias. See Aboab, Isaac de Mattathias Aboab, Samuel ben Abraham, 1:268– 269 Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac, 1:269 Amsterdam, 2:109 as bibliophile, 3:683 Aboab family, 1:265, 267t Aboaf family. See Aboab family L’abolition (Badinter), 3:50 Abomination, 1:269–270 Abomination of Desolation, 1:270 Abony (Hungary), 1:270 Abortion, 1:270–273, 10:288, 14:488 Aboulker family. See Abulker family About the Fifth Year. See Fun Finften Yor A Boyden (Shalom Aleichem), 18:385 Abrabanel, Benvegnita. See Abrabanel, Benvenida Abrabanel, Benvenida, 1:274, 275–276 Abrabanel, Bienvenita. See Abrabanel, Benvenida Abrabanel, Isaac ben Judah (14371538), 1:276–279, 12:519, 16:90 articles of faith, 2:531 biblical exegesis and study, 3:643, 662 biography of, 3:706 Derekh Emunah and, 3:571 H: asidei Ummot ha-Olam, 8:389 Joshua, Book of, 11:444 moneylending, 14:440 Abrabanel, Isaac ben Samuel, 1:274 Abrabanel, Jacob, 1:274 Abrabanel, Jacob ben Samuel, 1:274 Abrabanel, Joseph, 1:274 Abrabanel, Judah (fl. 1310), 1:274–275 Abrabanel, Judah (fl. 1535), 10:791 Abrabanel, Judah (of Córdoba). See Abrabanel, Judah (fl. 1310) Abrabanel, Judah (son of Samuel of Seville), 1:275 Abrabanel, Judah ben Isaac, 1:274 Abrabanel, Judah ben Isaac (c. 1460-c. 1523), 1:274, 279–280, 11:379, 16:90 Abrabanel, Judah ben Samuel, 1:274 Abrabanel, Samuel (1473-1547), 1:274–275, 276 Abrabanel, Samuel (of Seville), 1:274– 275 285

INDEX

Abrabanel family (Italy), 1:274, 7:84 Abrabanel family (Spain), 1:274–275, 275t Abracadabra, 1:280 Abraham, 1:280–288 Abimelech and, 1:257 Abraham’s bosom, 1:316, 317 adoption, 1:415 in the aggadah, 1:283–284 Akedah, 1:555–560 angels announcing birth of Isaac, vol. 7: color insert Apocalypse of, 1:288–289 in the arts, 1:287–288 biblical, 1:281, 281–282 Christian tradition, 1:285 Eliezer, 6:322 Ephron, 6:461–462 as ethical ideal, 6:532 historicity of, 9:165, 15:747 interpretations, 16:62, 63 Islamic tradition, 1:286 Jewish philosopher, 1:284–285 Laban and, 12:406–407 Mamre (Israel), 13:442 medieval Hebrew literature, 1:286–287 Melchizedek and, 14:11 oak of Abraham in Hebron, 15:357 other books of, 1:290 as Patriarch, 15:689–691 Philistines and, 16:55 sacrifice of Isaac, vol. 8: color insert Sarah, 18:46, 47 Testament of, 1:291 Abraham, Abele ben Abraham Solomon, 1:291 Abraham, Abraham, 1:288, 5:588 Abraham, Apocalypse of. See Apocalypse of Abraham Abraham, David, 1:289 Abraham, Gerald, 1:289–290 Abraham, Karl, 1:290 Abraham, Louis. See Pincus, Louis Arieh Abraham, Max, 1:290 Abraham, other books of, 1:290 Abraham, Otto, 1:290–291 Abraham, Samuel, 1:291 Abraham, Testament of. See Testament of Abraham Abraham Aaron ben Shalom Broda, 4:193 Abraham Abele ben Abraham Solomon, 1:291 286

Abraham Abusch ben Z: evi Hirsch, 1:291–292 Abraham Abusch Lissa. See Abraham Abusch ben Z: evi Hirsch Abraham a Sancta Clara, 1:292 Abraham Axelrod. See Abraham ben Alexander of Cologne Abraham bar H: ayya. See Abraham bar H: iyya Abraham bar H: iyya, 1:292–294, 2:618, 13:673, 16:82 emanation, 6:373 gilgul, 19:37 language of, 8:659 soul, immortality of, 19:37 Abraham bar Jacob, 1:294, 2:122 Abraham ben Abraham. See Potocki, Valentine Abraham ben Alexander Katz of Kalisk, 1:294 Abraham ben Alexander Katz of Kalisz. See Abraham ben Alexander Katz of Kalisk Abraham ben Alexander of Cologne, 1:294 Abraham ben Aryeh Loeb H: ayyim haKohen of Mogilev, 11:412 Abraham ben Avigdor, 1:295 Abraham ben Axelrad of Cologne. See Abraham ben Alexander of Cologne Abraham ben Azriel, 1:295, 11:423, 18:603 Abraham ben Benjamin Ze’ev Brisker, 1:295 Abraham ben Daniel, 1:295–296 Abraham ben David Maimuni, 1:296 Abraham ben David of Posquières, 1:296–298, 4:772, 11:426 Abraham ben Dov of Mezhirech, 1:298 Abraham ben Eliezer ha-Levi, 1:298– 299, 11:428 Abraham ben Eliezer ha-Levi Berukhim, 1:299 Abraham ben Elijah of Vilna, 1:299, 3:610 Abraham ben H: alfon, 1:299–300 Abraham ben H: asdai, 11:541 Abraham ben H: ayyim, 1:300 Abraham ben H: ayyim, dei Tintori. See Abraham ben H: ayyim, the Dyer Abraham ben H: ayyim, the Dyer, 1:300 Abraham ben Heilprin. See Abraham ben H: ayyim Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat, 1:300 Abraham ben H: isdai, 11:555 Abraham ben H: iyya ha-Nasi, 2:624, 6:399 Abraham ben Isaac, 1:300–301, 547– 548, 6:325–326

Abraham ben Isaac ben Garton, 1:301 Abraham ben Isaac Gerondi. See Abraham ben Isaac Abraham ben Isaac ha-Kohen alFurat, 1:301 Abraham ben Isaac ha-Kohen of Zamos´c´, 1:301 Abraham ben Isaac of Granada, 1:301–302 Abraham ben Isaac of Montpellier, 1:302 Abraham ben Isaac of Narbonne, 1:302–303, 11:483, 484 Abraham ben Israel of Brody, 1:303 Abraham ben Jacob. See Abraham bar Jacob Abraham ben Jehiel (12th c.), 2:136 Abraham ben Jehiel Michal ha-Kohen, 1:303 Abraham ben Joseph Elmaleh, 6:364 Abraham ben Joseph of Lissa, 1:303 Abraham ben Josiah Troki, 1:303 Abraham ben Josiah Yerushalmi, 1:303–304 Abraham ben Judah ben Abraham, 1:304 Abraham ben Judah Elmalik, 6:363 Abraham ben Judah Leon, 1:304 Abraham ben Maimon. See Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon Abraham ben Mazhir, 1:304 Abraham ben Mordecai ha-Levi, 1:304 Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, 1:304–308 Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat, 1:300 Bilbeis, letter to Jews of, 3:697 Islamic influence on, 11:267 Judeo-Arabic literature and, 11:536–537 Sufism and, 11:542–543 Abraham ben Moses ha-Kohen haSephardi, 1:308 Abraham ben Naphtali Tang. See Abrahams, Abraham Abraham ben Nathan (11th-12th centuries), 1:308–309 Abraham ben Nathan (c. 1025), 1:309 Abraham ben Nathan ha-Baghdadi, 1:309 Abraham ben Nathan ha-Yarhi, 1:309, 2:133 Abraham ben Nisssim of Fostat. See Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat Abraham ben Samuel Feivush. See H: ayyim ben Samuel Feivush Abraham ben Samuel he-H: asid, 1:309, 3:683 Abraham ben Samuel of Dreux, 1:310

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INDEX

Abraham ben Shabbetai, 3:697 Abraham of Dreux. See Abraham ben Samuel of Dreux Abraham ben Shabbetai ha-Kohen, 1:310 Abraham of Fostat. See Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat Abraham ben Sherira, 11:418 Abraham of Granada. See Abraham Abraham ben Simeon of Saint ben Isaac of Granada Maximin, 1:310 Abraham of Hamburg. See Nathan, Abraham ben Simeon of Worms, Abraham 1:310 Abraham of Kalisk. See Abraham ben Abraham ben Solomon, 1:310, 11:538 Alexander Katz of Kalisk Abraham ben Solomon of Torrutiel, Abraham of Lissa. See Abraham ben 1:311, 11:427 Joseph of Lissa Abraham ben Solomon Zalman Broda, Abraham of Mezhirech. See Abraham 4:193 Abraham ben Yashar. See Abu Sa’d al-Tustar¯ı ben Dov of Mezhirech Abraham of Miropolye. See Abraham Abraham ben Yoske of Leszno. See ben Isaac of Montpellier Abraham ben Joseph of Lissa Abraham of Narbonne. See Abraham Abraham de Porto. See Alvarez, ben Isaac of Narbonne Fernando Abraham of Ovruch. See Abraham Abraham de Toledo. See Toledo, Dov Baer of Ovruch Abraham de Abraham of Posquières. See Abraham Abraham Dov Baer of Ovruch, 1:311 ben David of Posquières Abraham El-Barchilon, 1:311 Abraham of Ragola. See Ragoler, Abraham family, 1:288 Abraham ben Solomon Abraham fil’ Deulecresse, 15:312 Abraham of Ragoler. See Ragoler, Abraham Gaon, 1:311 Abraham ben Solomon Abraham Gershon of Kutow, 1:311– Abraham of Sancta Clara. See 312, 8:395 Abraham a Sancta Clara Abraham Guer of Cordova. See Abraham of Saragossa, 1:313 Escudero, Lorenzo Abraham of Sarteano, 1:313–314 Abraham ha-Bavli, 1:312 Abraham of Theomanaria, 11:474 Abraham ha-Levi, 1:312 Abraham of Torrutiel. See Abraham Abraham H: ayyim ben Gedaliah, 1:312 ben Solomon of Torrutiel Abraham he-H: asid. See Abraham ben Abraham of Vilna. See Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat Elijah of Vilna Abraham he-H: asid of Cairo, 4:77 Abraham of Worms. See Abraham ben Abraham he-H: aver. See Abraham ben Simeon of Worms Hillel of Fostat Abrahams, Abraham (Author), 1:315 Abrahami, Z: evi. See Abramowitz, Abrahams, Abraham (Scholar), 1:315 Grigori Abrahams, Abraham Isaac, 1:315 Abrahamites, 1:312, 15:323 Abrahams, Adolphe, 1:314 Abraham Joshua Heschel of Apta, Abrahams, Barnett, 1:314 1:312–313 Abrahams, Gerald, 1:315 Abraham Joshua Heschel of Opatow. See Abraham Joshua Heschel of Abrahams, Harold Maurice, 1:314–315 Apta Abrahams, I., 11:313 Abraham Judaeus Bohemus, 1:313 Abrahams, Isaac, 1:315 Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Spanish Abrahams, Israel (Rabbi), 1:316 civil war, 15:218 Abrahams, Israel (Scholar), 1:315–316 Abraham Maimuni. See Abraham ben Abrahams, Ivor, 1:316 Moses ben Maimon Abrahams, Joseph, 1:314 Abraham of Apta. See Abraham Abrahams, Lionel, 1:316 Joshua Heschel of Apta Abrahams, Nicolai Christian Levin, Abraham of Beja, 1:313 1:316 Abraham of Bohemia. See Abraham Abrahams, Sidney, 1:314 Judaeus Bohemus Abrahams, Solly. See Abrahams, Abraham of Brody. See Abraham ben Sidney Israel of Brody Abraham’s bosom, 1:316–317 Abraham of Cologne. See Abraham ben Alexander of Cologne Abrahamsen, David, 1:317 ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Abraham Seneor. See Seneor, Abraham Abrahams family (Athletes), 1:314– 315 Abrahams family (Scholars), 1:314 Abrahamson, Abe, 4:267 Abrahamson, Otto. See Brahm, Otto Abraham & Straus (A. & S.), 1:288, 5:588 Abraham the Pious. See Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat Abraham Z: evi ben Eleazar, 1:317 Abraha˜o, Coje, 1:317 Abram. See Abraham Abram, Morris Berthold, 1:317–318, 4:124 Abram Bonet Avigdor. See Avigdor, Abraham Abramovich, Bernat, 4:91 Abramovich, Roman Arkadyevich, 1:318 Abramovitsh, Sholem Jacob. See Abramovitsh, Sholem Yankev Abramovitsh, Sholem Yankev, 1:318– 322, 3:691, 8:693, 18:367–368, 21:345–346 Abramovitz, David. See Abir, David Abramovitz, Max, 1:323 Abramovitz, Moses, 1:323 Abramowicz, Dina, 1:323–324 Abramowitz, Bina, 1:324 Abramowitz, Dov Baer, 1:324 Abramowitz, Emil, 1:324 Abramowitz, Grigori, 1:324–325 Abramowitz, Herman, 1:325 Abramowitz, Raphael, 1:325, 16:348 Abramowitz, Rein. See Abramowitz, Raphael Abrams, Cal, 1:325–326 Abrams, Calvin Ross. See Abrams, Cal Abrams, Charles, 1:326 Abrams, Elliott, 1:326–327 Abrams, Floyd M., 1:327 Abrams, Meyer H., 1:327 Abrams, Robert, 1:327–328, 12:602, 15:224 Abramsky, Yeh: ezkel, 1:328 Abramson, Abraham, 1:328 Abramson, Jacob, 1:328 Abramson, Jerry Edwin, 1:328 Abramson, Jesse, 1:328–329 Abramson, Shraga, 1:329 Abramson family, 1:328 Abrass, Joshua. See Abrass, Osias Abrass, Osias, 1:329 Abravanel, Maurice. See Abravanel, Maurice de 287

INDEX

Abravanel, Maurice de, 1:329 Abravanel family (Spain). See Abrabanel family (Spain) Abravaniel family (Spain). See Abrabanel family (Spain) Abrech, 1:329–330 Abrek. See Abrech A Briv tsu a Gutn Fraynd (Shalom Aleichem), 18:381 Abruzzi, Duke D’. See Tepper, Kolya Absaban, Solomon, 1:330 Ab SDad, 6:231 Absalom (biblical figure), 1:330–331 Ahimazz, 1:543 Ahithophel the Gilonite, 1:545 Amasa, 2:32 Amnon, 2:87 David and, 5:447–448, 450, 451 Tamar and, 19:494 tomb of Absalom, vol. 10: color insert Absalom (name), 1:331–332 Absalom, monument of, 1:332 Absalom and Achithophel (Dryden), 1:331 Absalon, 1:332 Abse, Dannie, 1:332–333 Absolon (Makai), 9:604 Absolute idealism, 18:119–120 Absolute rule based on mercantile economy, 15:449 Absolution. See Forgiveness Absorption in Israel. See Aliyah The Absorption of Immigrants (Eisenstadt), 5:295, 6:271 Abstinence. See Fasting and abstinence Abt, Isaac Arthur, 1:333 Abterode, David ben Moses Eliakim, 1:333 Abterode, Solomon, 1:333 Abtshuk, Avraham, 1:333 Abtshuk, Avrom. See Abtshuk, Avraham Abu, 1:333 Abu Aaron, 18:460 Abu Aaron ben Samuel ha-Nasi. See Aaron of Baghdad Abu Alafia family. See Abulafia family Abualefia family. See Abulafia family Abu¯ al-Fadl Da¯Du¯d ibn Ab¯ı al-Baya¯n Suleima¯n al-Isra¯D¯ıl¯ı. See David ben Solomon Abu al-Fad: l Hasday, 1:333–334 Abu al-Faraj. See Bar Hebraeus, Johanan Abu al-Faraj Harun ibn al-Faraj, 1:334, 11:425 288

Abu al-Fat, 1:334, 2:105 Abu al-Hasan. See Ibn al-Taqana, Moses Abu al-Hasan of Tyre, 1:335 Abu Ali al-Hussein ibn DAbdallah ibn S¯ına¯. See Avicenna Abu Ali Hasan ibn Bundar, 1:387 Abual-Muna¯ ibn abi Nas: r al-Kohen al-DAt: t: a¯r, 11:536 Abu al-Munajja¯ Solomon ben Shaya, 1:335 Abu al Rabi, Aaron. See Abulrabi, Aaron Abu al-Walid Muhammad Ibn Rushd. See Averroes Abu-DAmr. See Ibn Sahl, Joseph ben Jacob Abu Aweigila (Sinai), 1:335 Abu ‘Aweiqila (Sinai). See Abu Aweigila (Sinai) Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Fajja. See Avempace Abucarat, Abraham. See Bukarat, Abraham ben Solomon ha-Levi Abucarat, Abraham ben Solomon haLevi. See Bukarat, Abraham ben Solomon ha-Levi Abudaram family. See Abudarham family Abudaran family. See Abudarham family Abudarham, David ben Joseph, 1:336 Abudarham family, 1:335–336 Abudarhan family. See Abudarham family Abudarhen family. See Abudarham family Abudiente, Gideon. See Gideon, Samson Abu Ghosh, 1:336 Abu Harun. See Ibn Ezra, Moses ben Jacob Abu Ibrahim. See Ibn Khalfun, Isaac Abu¯ Ibra¯h¯ım ibn Kasta¯r. See Ibn Yashush, Isaac Abu Ibrahim Abu I-Khayr family. See Abulker family Abu EImram Mu¯sa¯ al-Z: afa¯ra¯n¯ı. See Abu EImra¯n al-Tifl¯ıs¯ı Abu EImra¯n al-Tifl¯ıs¯ı, 1:336 Abu Isa¯, Isaac ben Jacob al-Is: fah¯ın¯ı, 1:337 Abu ‘¯Isa¯, 15:786 Abu¯ Ish: a¯q. See Ibrahim ibn Sahl al-Andalus¯ı al-IsraDili Abu Ish: aq Abraham ibn Eta, 11:727 Abu Ish: a¯q Ibrahim ibn EAt: a¯D. See Abraham ben Nathan (c. 1025) Abu¯ Ish: a¯q KaEb al-Ah: ba¯r. See Ka’b al-Ah: ba¯r

Abu JaEfar Muhammad al-T: abarï, 3:668–669 Abukara, Abraham ben Moses, 1:337 Abukara, Jacob ben Elijah, 1:337 Abukarat, Abraham. See Bukarat, Abraham ben Solomon ha-Levi Abukarat, Abraham ben Isaac ha-Levi, 4:257 Abukarat, Abraham ben Solomon haLevi. See Bukarat, Abraham ben Solomon ha-Levi Abulaffia family. See Abulafia family Abulafia, Abraham ben Samuel, 1:337–339, 11:607–608, 15:249–250 allegories, 1:667 approach to meditation, 13:761– 762 Abulafia, Ezekiel David ben Mordecai, 1:339 Abulafia, H: ayyim, 3:695 Abulafia, H: ayyim ben David, 1:339 Abulafia, H: ayyim ben Jacob I, 1:339 Abulafia, H: ayyim ben Jacob II, 1:339– 340 Abulafia, H: ayyim Nissim ben Isaac, 1:340 Abulafia, Hezekiah. See Abulafia, Ezekiel David ben Mordecai Abulafia, Isaac ben Moses, 1:340, 516– 517 Abulafia, Issachar, 4:270 Abulafia, Jacob ben Solomon, 1:340– 341 Abulafia, Meir, 1:341–342, 341t, 6:176 Abulafia, Meir ben Todros ha-Levi, 13:652 Abulafia, Samuel ben Meir ha-Levi, 1:343 Abulafia, Samuel ha-Levi, 1:343 Abulafia, Todros, 16:117, 267 Abulafia, Todros ben Joseph ha-Levi, 1:343–344, 18:327 Abulafia, Todros ben Judah ha-Levi, 1:344–345 Abulafia family, 1:337 Abulefia family. See Abulafia family Abu l-Fahm. See Ibn Altabban, Levi ben Jacob Abulfahm, Levi. See Ibn Altabban, Levi ben Jacob Abulker, Isaac ben Samuel, 1:345 Abulker family, 1:345 Abulrabi, Aaron, 1:345–346 Abu Mans: u¯r al-Daimari, 11:538 Abun, 1:346 Abuna. See Abun Abu¯ Nas: . See Fa¯ra¯b¯ı, Abu¯ Nas: r Muh: ammad al-

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Abu Nazzara. See Sanu¯D, YaDqub Abu Naz: z: a¯ra. See Sanu¯D, YaDqub Abu Saad,. See Ibn Ezra, Isaac Abu Sa’d al-Tustar¯ı, 1:346 Abu¯ SaEd ben Sahl al-Tustari. See Abu SaEd al-Tustar¯ı Abu Sahl. See Dunash Ibn Tamim Abu Sa’id. See Ben-Asher, Aaron ben Moses Abu SaDid. See Levi ben Japheth Abu SaD¯ıd ben Boaz. See David ben Boaz Abu SaDid H: alfon ha-Levi of Damietta, 11:493 Abusch Frankfurter. See Abraham Abusch ben Z: evi Hirsch Abu Suleiman al-Qu¯mis¯ı. See David al-Qumisì Abu Suleiman Da¯Du¯d ibn Ibrahim Al-Fa¯s¯ı. See Alfasi, David ben Abraham Abu Suleiman ibn Muhagir. See David ibn Hajjar Abu YaDqu¯b al-Bas: ¯ır. See Bas: ¯ır, Joseph ben Abraham ha-Kohen Haro’eh alAbu YaDq¯ub Yu¯suf ibn Nu¯h. See Joseph ben Noah Abu¯ Yesha’. See Fa¯ra¯b¯ı, Abu¯ Nas: r Muh: ammad alAbu Zakariyya¯ Yah: ya¯. See Ibn BalDam, Judah ben Samuel Abu-Zikri. See Zuta Abwehrverein. See Verein Zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus Abyad: Yih: ya ben Shalom, 1:346 Abysmal Reflections (Barasch), 3:135 Abyssinia. See Ethiopia Abzardiel, Moses, 1:346 Abzug, Bella Savitzky, 1:346–347, 15:224 Açac de Çalema, 3:688 Acacia, 1:347 Academias morales de las musas (Enríquez Gomez), 6:446 Academic Sports Association (A.S.A), 2:541 Academicus. See Hersch, Pesach Liebman Academies in Babylonia and Erez: Israel, 1:347–351 Academy for Jewish Religion, 17:28 Academy for Jewish Scholarship. See Akademie Fuer Die Wissenschaft Des Judentums Academy for the Hebrew Language, 8:573 Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, 11:763 Academy of the Hebrew Language, 1:351–353, 3:388, 18:724

Academy on High, 1:353–354 Açan, Moses de Tarrega, 1:354 Açan, Moses de Zaragua. See Açan, Moses de Tarrega Accents of the Torah. See Masorah vocalization Acchabaron (Galilee). See Akhbarei (Galilee) Accident and substance. See Substance and accident Acco. See Acre (Israel) Accounting for Genocide (Fein), 9:416, 418 Acculturation. See Assimilation Ace, Goodman, 1:354 Ace, Jane, 1:354 Achan, 1:354, 355 Achbor, 1:355 “Achdut” club, 18:125 Acher. See Elisha ben Avuyah Achish, 1:355, 5:447 Achor, valley of (ancient Israel), 1:355 Achron, Joseph, 1:355–356 Achsah, 1:356 Achshaph (ancient Israel), 1:356 Het Achterhuis. See Diary of a Young Girl Achzib (ancient Israel), 1:356–357 Ackerman, Gary, 1:357 Ackerman, Nathan Ward, 1:357 Ackerman, Paula Herskovitz, 1:357– 358, 18:278 Ackerman, Shabtai, 1:358 The Ackerman Institute for Family Therapy, 1:357 Ackord, Elias, 1:358 Acorns, vol. 16: color insert Acosta, Christobal, 1:358–359 Acosta, Gabriel. See Costa, Uriel da Acosta, Isaac, 1:359 Acosta, Joan D’, 1:359 Acosta, Uriel da. See Costa, Uriel da Acosta, Yhsak. See Acosta, Isaac Acqui (Italy), 1:359 Acquisition, 1:359–363, 12:568 The Acra, 1:363–364 Acraba (ancient Israel), 1:364 Acre (Israel), 1:364–368, 366, 11:693, 14:778 Acre-Tyre Plain (Israel), 10:111 Acro, pseudo-, 1:368 The Acrophile. See Ha-Yored leMa’alah Acrostics, 1:368–369, 385 Acsády, Ignác, 1:369 Acta Isidori et Lamponis, 1:635, 12:453–454

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

L’Action catholique (newspaper), 4:403 Action Française, 1:369–370 L’Action française, 1:369, 370 Act of Faith. See Auto da Fé Actors, 5:341–342 Aimée, Anouk, 1:550 Alexander, Jason, 1:623 Alexander, Muriel, 1:624 Aliturus, 1:660 Almagor, Gila, 1:678 Barnowsky, Viktor, 3:170 Benjamin, Richard, 3:358 Benny, Jack, 3:358–359 Benson, Robby, 3:378 Beregi, Oszkár, 3:408 Berg, Gertrude, 3:415 Bergen, Polly, 3:419–420 Bergner, Elisabeth, 3:430 Berkoff, Steven, 3:438 Berman, Shelley, 3:464–465 Bernardi, Herschel, 3:468–469 Bernhard, Sandra, 3:473 Bernhard, Sarah, 3:473–474 Bernstein-Cohen, Miriam, 3:486 Besekow, Samuel, 3:494 Bouwmeester, Louis Frederik Johannes, 4:107 Brice, Fanny, 4:177 Broderick, Matthew, 4:195 Brooks, Albert, 4:209 Brooks, Mel, 4:209–210 Buloff, Joseph, 4:278 Burns, George, 4:298 Burstyn, Mike, 4:301 Busch, Charles, 4:303 Caan, James, 4:329 Carnovsky, Morris, 4:486–487 Carter, Nell, 4:498 Chronegk, Ludwig, 4:695 Clayburgh, Jill, 4:752 Cobb, Lee J., 4:764 Cooper, Jackie, 5:205 Crystal, Billy, 5:315 Curtis, Jamie Lee, 5:342 Curtis, Tony, 5:342–343 Da Silva, Howard, 5:439 Dessoir, Ludwig, 5:605 Deutsch, Ernst, 5:622 Donath, Ludwig, 5:748 Douglas, Kirk, 5:764–765 Douglas, Melvyn, 5:765 Douglas, Michael, 5:765 Einstein, Arik, 6:263 England, 5:58, 6:716, 11:76 Ford, Harrison, 7:125 289

INDEX

Actors, continued Hanbury, Lily, 8:318 Hanray, Lawrence, 8:330–331 Harris, Barbara, 8:362 Hawn, Goldie, 8:473–474 Hershey, Barbara, 9:45 Hirsch, Judd, 9:126 Hirsch, Robert Paul, 9:129 Hoffman, Dustin, 9:307–308 Holliday, Judy, 9:322–323 Homolka, Oscar, 9:516 Howard, Leslie, 9:572 Howard, Moe, Shemp, and Curly, 9:572–573 Huarte de San Juan, Juan, 9:575 Israel, 10:821 Jaffe, Sam, 11:69 Lahr, Bert, 12:439–440 Lamarr, Hedy, 12:442 Landon, Michael, 12:473 Lasser, Louise, 12:503 Lavin, Linda, 12:532 Lawrence, Gerald, 12:545 Leachman, Cloris, 12:563 Lederer, Francis, 12:597 Leonidov, Leonid Mironovich, 12:648 Leontovich, Eugenie, 12:649 Levant, Oscar, 12:678 Levene, Sam, 12:679 Levey, Barnett, 12:682 Matlin, Marlee, 13:679–680 Matthau, Walter, 13:687 Mazursky, Paul, 13:709 Menken, Adah Isaacs, 14:48 Mitchell, Yvonne, 14:369 Mogulesko, Sigmund, 14:418 Morewski, Abraham, 14:486 Moscheles, Ignaz, 14:516 Neilson, Julia, 15:66 Neuwirth, Bebe, 15:125–126 Persoff, Nehemiah, 15:793 Picon, Molly, 16:147 Polanski, Roman, 16:326 Rachel (Felix, Eliza Rachel), 17:50 Radner, Gilda, 17:55 Rainer, Luise, 17:74 Randall, Tony, 17:90–91 Reeve, Ada, 17:162 Reiner, Carl, 17:205–206 Reiner, Rob, 17:206–207 Rickles, Don, 17:292 Rieser, Paul, 17:212 Ritt, Martin, 17:345 Roberts, Tony, 17:354 290

Robinson, Edward G., 17:355 Rodensky, Shemuel, 17:363 Roessler, Carl, 17;367 Rovina, Hanna, 17:501 Rubinstein, Ida, 17:517 Rudner, Rita, 17:523 Runitsch, Ossip, 17:529 Schottlaender, Bendet, 18:165 Schwimmer, David, 18:195 Segal, George, 18:246 Seldes, Marian, 18:259 Sellers, Peter, 18:271–272 Seymour, Jane, 18:332–333 Shatner, William, 18:420 Sher, Sir Anthony, 18:461 Signoret, Simone, 18:568 Silver, Ron, 18:585–586 Singerman, Berta, 18:640–641 Sloman, Henry, 18:675 Sofaer, Abraham, 18:740 Yiddish Ben-Ami, Jacob, 3:316 Dzigan, Shimon, 6:80 Kalich, Bertha, 11:734 Lebedeff, Aaron, 12:589 Satz, Ludwig, 18:76 Actors’ Equity Association, 18:586 Acts of Alexandrian Martyrs. See Alexandrian Martyrs, Acts of Acts of Pilate, 15:394 Acts of the Alexandrine Martyrs. See Acta Isidori et Lamponis Acts of the Apostles, 15:190 Acts of the Pagan Martyrs. See Alexandrian Martyrs, Acts of Acts of Thomas, 15:394 Actuality and Potentiality. See Form and matter ACWA. See Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA) Aczél, Tamás, 1:370 Ada (Austria), 1:370 Ada¯b al-Fala¯sifa (H: unain), 1:657 Adabberah va-Yirvah: Li (Kariv), 11:808 Adad. See Hadad Adadah. See Aroer (Israel) Adadi, Abraham H: ayyim ben masoud H: ai, 1:370 Adah, 1:370–371 Adalberg, Samuel, 1:371 Adam, 1:371–376 aggadic literature, 1:372–373 in the arts, 1:375–376 biblical literature, 1:371 Eve and, 6:572–573

Islamic legend, 1:374–375 medieval philosphy, 1:373–374 Seth and, 18:319 symbolism of, 16:106, 107 Adam (ancient Israel), 1:376 Adam (journal), 1:376–377 Adam (Sobol), 18:702 Adam (sculpture, Epstein), 6:471 Adam, Lajos, 1:377 Adam, Louis. See Adam, Lajos Adam, other books of, 1:377 Adamah le-Lo Z: el (Sened), 18:288 Adam and Eve, Book of the Life of. See Book of the Life of Adam and Eve Adam Ba’al Shem, 1:378, 3:9 Adam Elyon. See Adam Kadmon Adam ha-Kohen. See Lebensohn, Abraham Dov Adamit (Israel), 1:378 Adam Kadmon, 1:378–379, 11:645 Adam Kadmon (Herrera), 9:40–41 “Adam mi-Yisrael” (Hazaz), 8:493 Adams, Arlin Marvin, 1:379–380 Adams, Franklin Pierce, 1:380 Adams, Hannah, 1:380 Adams, John, 1:380 Adams, Theodore L., 1:380–381 Adani. See Dahan Family Adani, David ben Amram, 1:381 Adani, David ben Yesha ha-Levi, 1:381 Adani, Mahalal, 1:381, 389 Adani, Mahallal ben Shalom ben Jacob. See Adani, Mahalal Adani, Mizrah: i Shalom, 1:381 Adani, Saadiah ben David, 1:381 Adani, Sa’id ibn Daud. See Adani, Saadiah ben David Adani, Samuel ben Joseph, 1:381–382 Adani, Samuel ben Yeshua. See Adani, Samuel ben Joseph Adani, Shalom Jacob. See Adani, Mahalal Adani, Solomon. See Adeni, Solomon bar Joshua Adar, 1:382 Adar, seventh of, 1:382–383 Adar, Zvi, 1:383 Adarbi, Isaac ben Samuel, 1:383, 15:537 Adarique, Isaac, 4:257 Adar symbolism, vol. 2: color insert Adasa (ancient Israel) l, 1:383 Adas Israel Anshe Poilen (Ontario), 8:304 Adaskin, Murray, 1:384 Adass Jeshurun, Adass Jisroel, 1:384

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Adath Israel (Cincinnati), 7:705 Adato, Solomon, 16:346 Adda bar Ahavah, 1:384–385 Addams, Jane, 18:320 Adderet Eliyahu (Bashyazi), 3:198, 11:800 Adderet Eliyahu (Elijah), 6:339 “Addir bi-Melukhah,” 1:385 “Addir Hu,” 1:385 Addison, Lancelot, 6:180 Additional service. See Musaf Addresses to the German Nation. See Reden an die deutsche Nation (Fichte) Addu. See Hadad Ad Eilat (Shamir), 18:392 Adel, 1:385 Adelaide (Australia), 1:385–386 Adelantado. See Adelantados Adelantados, 1:386 Adelantatus. See Adelantados Adelbert, Maximilian. See Baer, Max Adelkind, Cornelio, 15:641 Adelkind, Israel Cornelius, 1:386, 4:52 Adelman, A. See Tashrak Adelman, Uri, 1:386 Adelson, Howard Laurence, 1:386 Adelstein, Angelica. See AdelsteinRozeanu, Angelica Adelstein-Rozeanu, Angelica, 1:386– 387 Aden (Saudi Arabia), 1:381–382, 387– 389, 5:681 Adenantado. See Adelantados Adenauer, Konrad, 1:390 Adeni, Solomon bar Joshua, 1:390, 14:329 Aderca, Felix, 1:390–391 Aderca, Froim Zeilig. See Aderca, Felix AdeReT. See Rabinowitz-Teomim, Elijah David ben Benjamin Adhan, Solomon, 5:379 Adiabene (Mesopotamia), 1:391–392, 3:27, 10:823, 14:447 Adiabene family Ananias of Adiabene, 2:129 Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities on, 11:440 Adieu Babylone (Kattan), 4:425 Adir. See Deinard, Ephraim Adi the Arab, 15:377 Adjiman, Abraham, 1:392 Adjiman, Baruch, 1:392 Adjiman, Eliya, 1:392 Adjiman, Isaiah, 15:542 Adjiman, Meir, 15:542 Adjiman, Yeshaya, 1:392

Adjiman family, 1:392 ADL (Anti-Defamation League). See Anti-Defamation League (ADL) Adler. See Der Keneder Adler Adler, Abraham, 8:504 Adler, Alexandre, 1:394 Adler, Alfred, 1:394–395, 5:302, 6:160– 161 Adler, Celia, 1:394 Adler, Chaim, 18:735 Adler, Charles, 1:395 Adler, Cyrus, 1:395, 5:172 American Jewish Committee, 2:54, 55 American Jewish Historical Society, 2:58, 59 Dropsie College, 6:25 Jewish Quarterly Review, 11:313 Jewish Theological Seminary, 6:197, 11:328, 329 Adler, Dankmar, 1:395–396 Adler, David Baruch, 1:396 Adler, Elkan Nathan, 1:392, 396 as bibliophile, 3:684 Eleazar ben Jacob ha-Bavli, 6:302 Judeo-Persian manuscripts collected by, 11:558 Adler, Elmer, 1:396 Adler, Emanuel Philip, 1:396, 11:468 Adler, Felix, 1:392, 396–397, 407, 4:122 Adler, Frances, 1:394 Adler, Friedrich (designer), 1:397 Adler, Friedrich (labor leader), 1:397, 16:340–341, 18:705, 712 Adler, Georg, 1:397 Adler, Guido, 1:397–398 Adler, Harry Clay, 1:398 Adler, Herbert Marcus, 1:392 Adler, Hermann (poet), 1:398–399 Adler, Hermann (rabbi), 1:392, 398, 11:417 Adler, Hermann Naphtali. See Adler, Hermann (rabbi) Adler, Hugo Chaim, 1:399 Adler, Isaac, 1:392 Adler, Israel, 1:399 Adler, Jacob (actor), 1:392–393, 393t Adler, Jacob (artist). See Adler, Jankel Adler, Jacob (poet), 1:399–400 Adler, Jankel, 1:400–401, 4:87 Adler, Joseph, 1:401 Adler, Jules, 1:401, 3:695 Adler, Julia, 1:394 Adler, Julius Ochs, 1:401 Adler, Larry, 1:401–402 Adler, Lazarus Levi, 1:402

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Adler, Liebman, 1:402 Adler, Luther, 1:394 Adler, Marcus, 1:392 Adler, Marcus Nathan, 1:392 Adler, Max, 18:705 Adler, Max (Philanthropist), 1:402 Adler, Max (Socialist), 1:402–403, 18:729 Adler, Michael, 1:403 Adler, Mordechai. See Adler, Marcus Adler, Moritz, 1:403 Adler, Morris, 1:403, 12:411 Adler, Mortimer Jerome, 1:403–404 Adler, Naphtali. See Adler, Hermann (rabbi) Adler, Nathan, 4:58 Adler, Nathan ben Simeon ha-Kohen, 1:392, 404–405 Adler, Nathan Marcus, 1:392, 405, 6:415 Jews’ College, 11:332 Schiller-Szinessy, Solomon Mayer and, 18:134 Adler, Nettie, 1:392 Adler, Paul, 1:405 Adler, Pearl. See Adler, Polly Adler, Polly, 1:405–406 Adler, Rachel, 6:755, 756, 16:111–112 Adler, Renata, 1:406 Adler, Richard, 1:406–407 Adler, Samuel (1809-1891), 1:392, 407, 15:199 Adler, Samuel M. (1898-1979), 1:407 Adler, Sara, 1:393–394 Adler, Saul Aaron, 1:407–408 Adler, Selig, 1:408 Adler, Shalom ben Menahem, 1:408 Adler, Shulamit. See Aloni, Shulamit Adler, Stella, 1:394, 408–409 Adler, Victor, 1:409, 4:137, 16:340, 18:705 Adlerblum, Nima, 1:409 Adler family (Frankfurt, Germany), 1:392, 393t Adler family (U.S.), 1:392–394 Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum, 1:402 Adler-Rudel, Salomon, 1:409–410 Adlivankin, Samuil, 1:410 Adloyada, 1:410, vol. 6: color insert Ad Mashber (Halkin), 8:736–737 Administrative Behavior (Simon), 18:611 The Admiral’s Log Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 (Moreel), 14:483 Admission, 1:410–411, 5:191 Admon, Yedidyah, 1:411 291

INDEX

Admon ben Gaddai, 1:412 Admoni, Vladimir Grigoryevich, 1:412 Admonition. See Rebuke and reproof Admonition and chastisement. See Rebuke and reproof Admor, 1:412 Adolphus, Jacob, 1:412 Adolphus, John, 1:412 Adolphus, John Leycester, 1:412 Adolphus, Joy. See Adolphus, Simhah Adolphus, Meir. See Adolphus, Michael Adolphus, Michael, 1:412 Adolphus, Moses, 1:412 Adolphus, Simhah, 1:412 Adolphus family, 1:412 Adonai, 7:674–675 Adonai, Adonai, El Rah: um ve-H: annun, 1:412 Adoni-Bezek, 1:413, 414 Adonijah, 1:259, 413, 18:755 Adonim. See Dunash Ibn Tamim Adonim ben Nisan ha-Levi, 1:413 Adonim ha-Levi. See Dunash ben Labrat Adoniram, 1:413 Adonis. See Tammuz (SumerianBabylonian fertility god) Adonis (Sivan), 18:647 Adoni-Zedek, 1:413–414 Adon Olam, 1:414, 414–415 Adoption, 1:415–420, 6:693 biblical, 1:415–416 Halakhah, 1:417–418 Israel, 1:418–419 Adoraim (ancient Israel), 1:420 Adoram. See Adoniram Adorno, Theodor W., 1:420, 18:739 Ad quaestiones et obiecta Judaei cuiusdam Responsio (Calvin), 4:376– 377 Adrakhta, writ of, 6:592–593 Adrammelech (deity), 1:421, 2:126 Adrammelech (son of Sennacherib), 1:421 Adret, Moses ibn, 1:421 Adret, Solomon ben Abraham, 1:421– 423, 8:449 Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi and, 1:215 Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph Astruc of Lunel and, 1:230 allegorical interpretation of scripture, 3:645 amulets, 2:121 Anatoli, Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Samson, 2:132 292

codification, 4:774 mistakes, 14:368–369 moneylending, 14:439 Adrian I. See Hadrian I (pope) Adrianople (Turkey). See Edirne (Turkey) Adriel, 1:423 Adullam (ancient Israel), 1:423–424 Adullam Region (ancient Israel), 1:424 Adultery, 1:424–427 abortion, 1:272 bigamy and polygamy, 3:691–694 bitter water ordeal, 11:374 Joseph and Potiphar’s wife, 11:407, 411, 413 ordeal of jealousy, 15:462–463 as sexual offense, 18:329 Talmud, 4:582 water of bitterness, 15:462 Adult Jewish Education (AJE), 4:15 Advances in Petrography in Russia. See Uspekhi petrografii v Rossii (Loewinson-Lessing) Adventures of an Economist (Modigliani), 14:411 The Adventures of Augie March (Bellow), 3:300, 301 The Adventures of Mr. Ionel Lacusta Termidor. See Aventurile domnului Ionel Läcusta Termidor Adverbs in Hebrew, 8:585–586 Adversus Judaeorum inveteratum duritiam (Peter of Cluny), 16:15–16 Advertising, 1:427–429, 3:471, 4:315, 5:329, 12:496 Advertising, misrepresentation, 5:188 Aegidius da Viterbo. See Egidio Da Viterbo Aelana. See Akaba (Jordan) Aelfric of Eynsham, 3:611 Aelia Capitolina, 1:429, 429, 11:152 Aelian, 1:429 Aeltestenrat, Kovno, 6:358–359 Der aelteste Prophetismus (Sellin), 18:272 Aeon (Mombert), 14:430 Aerojet Engineering Corporation, 11:812 Aeronautics, 1:429–430 Brodetsky, Selig, 4:196 Hoffman, Jeffrey, 9:308 Kármán, Theodore Von, 11:811– 812 Lees, Lester, 12:600 Lilienthal, Otto, 13:17 Rom, Yosef, 17:373 Rumpler. Eduard, 17:529

Schwarz, David, 18:189 Silverstein, Abe, 18:588 Aeronomy, 11:776 Aescoly, Aaron Ze’ev, 1:430–431 Aesopian fables, 6:666, 667, 669 Afam. See Apam Afarayim. See Hapharaim (Ancient Israel) Afarsemon. See Balsam Afendopolo, Caleb ben Elijah, 1:431 Afer, Constantinus. See Africanus Affirmative action and quotas, 3:737 Affonso, 1:431–432 Affonso Henriques, King of Portugal, 1:431 Affonso II, King of Portugal, 1:431 Affonso III, King of Portugal, 1:431 Affonso IV, King of Portugal, 1:431 Affonso V, King of Portugal, 1:431– 432 Afforestation, 6:452 Afghanistan, 1:432, 432–433 Jewish quarters, 11:312 Judeo-Persian language in, 11:548 Afia, Aaron, 1:433 Afike Jehuda, 1:433 Afikim (Israel), 1:433–434 Afikoman, 1:434 Aflalo, Moses, 14:499 AFL-CIO. See American Federation of Labor Afonso. See Affonso Afriat, Judah, 15:391 Africa, 1:434–437, 435 African Jewish Congress, 1:440– 441 community organization and structures, 5:108, 115t, 119t foreign policy and relations with Israel (state), 10:257–258, 259, 260, 262, 263, 264, 265 technical and economic assistance, 10:221, 266 House of Israel community, 9:569–570 Jewish settlement, 1:434–437 languages, biblical translations, 3:601–602, 637 Lemba, 12:636–637 See also North Africa; South Africa African Americans, antisemitism and, 2:231–232, 238 African Jewish Congress (AJC), 1:440– 441 Africanus, 6:159 Afro. See Ephron (town, Israel)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Afro-Asian Institute, 18:709 Aftalion, Albert, 1:441 After All is Said and Done. See Nokh Alemen After Auschwitz (Rubenstein), 9:392– 393, 17:271–272, 511 After Emancipation (Ellenson), 6:360 Afterlife, 1:441–442 beatitude, 3:237–240 body and soul, concept of, 4:31 embalming, 6:390 existence, 14:34 Mishnah, 14:323 Netherworld, 15:110–112 philosophy of, 13:447–448 See also Eschatology; Olam ha-ba After the Fall (Miller), 14:252 After the Tradition: Essays on Modern Jewish Writing (Alter), 2:18 Afulah (Israel), 1:442–443 Aga, Benjamin, 1:443 Aga, Samuel ben Abraham, 1:443 Die Agadah der Palaestinensischen Amoraeer (Bacher), 1:460 Die Agadah der Tannaiten (Bacher), 1:460 Agadati, Baruch, 1:443–444 Agadir (Morocco), 1:444 Aga family, 1:443 Agag, 1:444–445, 2:29, 30, 31 Ágai, Adolf, 1:445 Against Appion (Josephus), 11:440 Against the Apocalypse: Responses to Catastrophe in Modern Jewish Culture (Roskies), 9:415 Agam, Yaacov, 1:445 Agar, Emile. See Gary, Romain Agatharchides of Cnidus, 1:445–446 Agatstein, Mieczyslaw. See Jastrun, Mieczyslaw Agbara v. Agbara, 5:135–136 Agde (France), 1:446 Age and the aged, 1:446–449, 5:568– 570, 12:417 Agen (France), 1:449 Agency, 1:449–454, 15:425 Agenda 21 (sustainable development plan), 6:453 The Age of Capital (Howbsbawm), 9:299 The Age of Empire (Howbsbawm), 9:299 The Age of Extremes (Howbsbawm), 9:299 The Age of Revolution (Howbsbawm), 9:299 Age of the earth, 15:498

Age of the Ghetto (Italy), 10:800–801 Aggadah (Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen of Frankfurt), 1:630 Aggadah or Haggadah, 1:454–464 Aaron, 1:210 Abba Bar Kahana, 1:226 Abiathar, 1:254–255 Abigail, 1:256 Abilmelech, 1:257–258 Abishag the Shunammite, 1:259 Abishai, 1:260 Abner, 1:264 Aboab, Isaac I, 1:266 Abraham, 1:283–284 Abraham, Testament of, 1:291 Abraham’s bosom, 1:317 Absalom, 1:331 academies, 1:348 Achan, 1:354 Adam, 1:372–373, 374–375 Adonijah, 1:413 Adret, Solomon ben Abraham, 1:423 Agag, 1:445 Aggadat Bereshit, 1:464 Ahab, 1:524 Ahasuerus, 1:538, 14:479 Ahimelech the Hittite, 1:545 Ahithophel the Gilonite, 1:545 DAlef, 1:607–608 Alexander the Great, 1:626–627 allegorical interpretation of scripture in, 3:643–644 Amalekites, 2:30–31 Amasa, 2:33 Amaziah, 2:36 Ammonites, 2:86 Amon, 2:88 amoraim, 2:94 Amram, 2:103 anthropomorphism, 2:190 Antoninus Pius, 2:248–249 Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:184–185 Ark of the Covenant, 2:468–469 Asa, 2:540–541 Ashburnham Pentateuch, 1:463 Asher, 2:560 Balaam, 3:80 Baruch, 3:182 Bath-Sheba, 3:212 Belshazzar, 3:306 Benjamin, tribe of, 3:356 Bethsaida (Israel), 3:536 Bilhah in, 3:698 Bithiah in, 3:729

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Boaz, 4:22–23 Cain, 4:340 Caleb, Calebites, 4:354 calligraphy, modern Hebrew, 4:366–367 cherub, cherubim, 4:600–601 Chilion, 13:361–362 Christian illustrated manuscripts, 1:463 Church Fathers, 4:721 commentaries, 11:69 copper serpent, 5:214–215 David, 5:451–453 day and night, 5:486–487 Deborah, 5:518–519 Delilah, 5:539 Dinah, 5:669 doctrines, 1:458–459 Doeg, 5:730 Edom, 6:156–157 eggs, 6:219–620 Eglon (King), 6:222 Egyptians, 16:28–29 Eldad and Medad, 6:293 Eleazar ben Azariah, 6:299–300, 300–301 Eleazar ben H: arsom, 6:301–302 Eleazar ben Pedat, 6:306–307 Eleazar ben Simeon, 6:308 Eleazar ben Yose I, 6:308 Eleazar ben Zadok, 6:309 Eleazar ha-Kappar, 6:309 Eleazar H: isma, 6:309–310 Eleazar of Modi’in, 6:310 Eli, 6:317 Eliakim Goetz ben Meir, 6:318 Eli and Hannah, 6:317 Eliezer, 6:322 Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, 6:322–325 Elihu, 6:331 Elijah, 6:333–334 Eliphaz, 6:350 Elisha, 6:351 Elkanah, 6:357 Enoch, 6:442 Enosh, 6:445 Ephraim, 6:456, 456–457 Esau, 6:487–488 Esther, 6:516, 14:479 Esther Rabbah, 6:519–520 Eve, 6:573 evolution in, 6:587 Ezekiel, 6:644–645 Ezra, 6:653 fire, 7:43–44 293

INDEX

Aggadah or Haggadah, continued the Flood, 7:83 folkloristic, 1:455–456 Gabriel, 14:168 Gad, 7:330 Garden of Eden, 7:388–389 Gehazi, 7:411–412 Gehenna, 15:111–112 geography, 7:489–490 Gibeonites, 7:585 Gideon, 7:587–588 God, 7:660–661 golden calf, 7:700–701 Goliath, 7:738 Hadrian, 8:194 Hagar, 8:206 Ham, 8:290 Haman, 8:294 Hananiah son of Azzur, 8:317 H: anina bar H: ama, 8:321–322 H: anina ben Dosa, 8:323 Hannah and birth of Samuel, 8:324–325 heart references, 8:509–510 Hebrew manuscripts, 13:489 H: elbo, 8:780 Hezekiah, 9:89 historical, 1:457–458 Hosea, Book of, 9:558 Huldah, 9:581 Hur, 9:623 Hushai the Archite, 9:640 hymns, 1:385 intention of act, 11:58–59 Isaac, 10:33 Isaiah, Book of, 10:73 Ishmael (son of Abraham), 10:81– 82 Islamic, 1:463 Israel, Kingdom of, 10:741 Issachar, 10:767 Ithamar, 10:817 Jacob, 11:20–22, 27 Jair, 11:73 Japeth, 11:86 Jehoiachin, 11:107 Jehoiada, 11:108 Jehoiakim, 11:109 Jehoram (King of Israel), 11:110 Jephthah, 11:123 Jeremiah, 11:133 Jeroboam I, 11:140–141 Jerusalem, 11:211–213, 226 Jesse, 11:243 Jethro, 11:252 294

Jezebel in, 11:334 Joab, 11:339 Job, 11:356–357 Jochebed, 11:360–361 Jonah, Book of, 11:390 Jonathan (son of Saul), 11:395– 396 Joseph, 11:411–412 Joseph ben Judah Engel, 6:409 Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities and, 11:438 Joshua, 11:443 Joshua ben Levi, 11:453–454 Josiah, 11:459 Jotham, 11:466 Jubilees, Book of, 11:473 Judah, 11:477–478 Judah Loew ben Bezalel, influence of, 11:507 Kabbalah, influence on, 11:669– 671 kabbalists’ interpretations of, 11:669–670 Kamz: a and Bar Kamz: a, 11:758 Kohath and Kohathites, 12:257 Korah, 12:298–299 Krochmal, Nachman, 12:368 Laban, 12:406–407 Lamech, 12:445 Leah, 12:567 leprosy, 12:653 Levi, 12:683–684 Lot, 13:216 Mahlon, 13:361–362 Malachi, Book of, 13:423 Manasseh (King), 13:453 Manasseh (tribe), 13:452 manna, 13:478–479 methods, 1:456–457 Micaiah (son of Imlah), 14:165 Michael (angel), 14:168 Michah (prophet and book), 14:163 Michal, 14:172 Midian, Midianites, 14:181–182 Miriam, 14:311–312 Mishnah, 14:322–323 moon, 14:467–468 Mordecai (5th c. B.C.E.), 14:479 Moses, 14:534, 538 Mount Sinai, 18:627–629 mushrooms, 14:636 Naaman, 14:713–714 Nabal, 14:715–716 Naboth, 14:720 Nadab and Abihu, 14:721–722

Naomi, 14:773 Nashon, 14:757 Nebuchadnezzar, 15:49–50 Nebuzaradan, 15:52 Nedarim, 15:53–54 Nehemiah (5th c. B.C.E.), 15:61 Netherworld, 15:111–112 niddah, 15:257 Nimrod, 15:269 Nineveh, 15:272 Noah, 15:288 Og, 15:391–392 Orpah, 15:482 Othniel, 15:515 Passover, Dayyeinu, 5:496 patriarchs and matriarchs, 15:691 Peninnah, 15:726 Perez, 15:769 Philistines, 16:55 Phinehas, 16:114–115, 115 Phinehas ben H: ama ha-Kohen, 16:116 pigs, 16:150–151 Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer, 16:182–183 Pollegar, Isaac ben Joseph ibn, 16:359 Potiphar, 16:419–420 pre-Middle Ages, 13:88–89, 91–93 Queen of Sheba, 16:765 Rabbah bar bar H: ana, 17:8 Rachel, 17:48 Rahab, 17:66–67 Rea Sea, 17:160–161 Rebekah, 17:137–138 Rehoboam, 17:192 religious impact of Bible and, 3:661, 662 Reuben, 17:246 rod of Aaron, 17:365 rod of Moses, 17:366 Ruth, Book of, 17:595 Samael, 17:715 Samson, 17:750 Samuel, 17:755–756 Sarah, 18:46–47 Saul, 18:80–81 Sennacherib, 18:290 Seth, 18:319 Sheba ben Bichri, 18:428 Shem, 18:453 Shimei, 18:480 Sihon, 15:391–392 Simeon, 18:592 Simeon ben Gamaliel II, 18:596 Simeon ben Jehozadak, 18:597

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Simeon ha-Timni, 18:601 Sodom and Gomorrah, 18:738– 739 Solomon, 18:759–760 sources of, 1:454–455 structure and style, 1:457 studies and scholarship, 1:460–463 sun, 19:313–314 synagogues, 19:364 Tabernacle, 19:423–424 Tablets of the Law, 19:425 Tamar, 19:493–494 Terah, 19:645–646 32 rules, 3:129 Thummim, 20:423 Titus, Flavius Vespasianus, 19:744 Tower of Babel, 3:20–21 Tubal-Cain, 20:166 twelve tribes, 20:140 Uriah, 20:421 Urim, 20:423 Vashti, 20:479 Venice edition, 8:214–215 in vernacular, Mayse-Bukh, 13:702–703 wells, 21:7 wilderness, 21:61 witch of En-Dor, 6:405 women in, 1:459–460 Zebulon, 10:767 Zechariah, 21:481, 482, 485–486 Zedekiah, 21:489 Zelophehad, 21:502 Zerah the Cushite, 21:513 Zerubbabel, 21:517 Zimri, 21:536 Zipporah, 21:639 See also Midrash Aggadat Arba Kosot (Pappenheim), 8:687, 15:618 Aggadat Aseret Harugei Malkhut, 7:10 Aggadat Bereshit, 1:464 Aggadat Desheh (song), 6:263 Aggadat Eikhah. See Lamentations Rabbah Aggadat Proverbs. See Midrash Proverbs Aggadat Samuel. See Midrash Samuel Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, 14:187 Aggadat Tehillim. See Midrash Tehillim Aggadic Midrash. See Midrash Aggadah Aggav karka, 1:362 Aggide. See Akkad (Sumer) Aggudath Harabbonim. See Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada

Aghlabids, 11:726–727 Aghlabids dynasty, 1:464–465 Aghmati, Zechariah ben Judah, 1:465 Agmon, Nathan, 1:465, 8:716, 11:441 Agmon, Shmuel, 1:465 Agnes Jordan (Hirschfeld), 9:137 Agnon, Shmuel Yosef, 1:465–469, 8:696–697, 698–699, 11:217 Agnon’s Alef Bet. See Sefer ha-Otiyyot Agobard, 1:469, 2:124, 3:121, 13:296 Agorah series of coins, 5:55 Agoranomos, 1:469–470 Agram. See Zagreb (Croatia) Agramunt (Spain), 1:470 Agranat, Shimon, 1:470 Agranat Commission, 6:289 Agranium. See Hagronia (Mesopotamia) Agrarian League, 1:470 Agrat Bat Mahalath, 1:470–471, 5:575 Agrest, Diana, 1:471 Agricultural arendas, 2:422–423 Agricultural festivals, 5:167 Agricultural land-management methods and implements in ancient Erez: Israel, 1:471–486 agronomy, 6:290 field boundaries, 1:474–476 hoeing, weeding, harvesting, 1:484–485 implements, installations, 1:482– 483 irrigation, 1:481–482 land-management, 1:472–474 manuring procedures, 1:479–480 plowing, 1:483–484 Raab, Judah, 17:5–6 shape and size, 1:476–479 Solomon, 18:757 sowing, planting, 1:484 terracing, 1:474 topographical influence, 1:472 winnowing, 1:485–486 Agriculture, 1:486–502 Abel, 1:245 Agrarian League, Germany, 1:470 agronomy Elazari-Volcani, Yiz: h: ak, 6:290 Rosen, Joseph A., 17:428 American-Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation, 2:60 Am Olam, 2:87–88 Argentina, 6:448–449 Babylon, 1:493–494 Birobidzhan, 3:717–720 in Bolivia, 4:48

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Bondi, Aron, 4:57 Brazil, 4:145–146 Broward County, FL, 4:212–213 Brown, Bejamin, 4:214 Brutzkus, Boris Dov, 4:228 Canada, 1:500, 4:399, 407 citriculture, 4:737–738 commandments concerning, 5:82t Dagon, god of, 5:378 drought, 6:707–708 economic history, 6:96–97, 100– 101, 102, 132–133 economic history, and employment in, 6:132–134 Erez: Israel, 1:471–486 Europe Jewish Colonization Association, 11:286 modern, 1:497–499 fig cultivation, 7:18 five species, 7:66 flax, 7:69–70 flowers, 7:89–91 Halperin, Haim, 8:283 Israel, 1:486–490, 6:543 aliyah, First, 10:357–358, 480–482 aliyah, Fourth, 10:199 aliyah, Second, 10:358–359 aliyah and absorption of immigrants, 10:342, 527– 529, 528t animal distribution and, 10:142–143 Arab, 10:713 Arab labor, 10:195 Arab population, 10:485–486 Baron de Rothschild settlements, 11:9 citrus culture, 6:750 continuous from ancient times in Peki’in, 15:716– 717 cooperatives, 5:209–210 Demalach, Yoel, 5:548 development projects in foreign nations, 10:267 education, 10:668–669 employment trends, 10:557– 558 Erfat, Yaacov, 6:216 Farmers’ Federation of Israel, 6:718 Israel Prize, 10:760 Jewish Agency, 11:259 Lavi, Shelomo, 12:531 Levitt, Esther, 12:743 295

INDEX

Agriculture, continued performance, 10:530–531 population of Sharon region, 10:378 rural planning, 10:368–369 schools, 13:788 self-sufficiency, 10:222 settlement beyond Green Line, 10:361–366 Joseph’s agrarian measures in Egypt, 11:409, 410 Lachish region, 12:422–423 Latin America, 1:500–501 lease and hire, 12:572 leket, shikhh: ah, and pe’ah, 12:631–632 Middle Ages, 1:494–497 mixed species, 14:385–387 Moab, 14:400 modern period, 12:427 movements, Esra, 6:509 nomadism/seminomadism and, 15:294, 295 olive cultivation, 15:406–407 Oppenheimer, Hillel, 15:448 organizations, Esra, 6:509 ORT, 15:488–492 Ottoman period, 10:174, 183 Palestine, 10:201, 204, 206 Arab, 10:710–711 Byzantine-Muslim period, 1:492–493 downturn, 10:502–503 economic affairs, 10:506–511 employment in, 10:495–496 Hasmonean period, 1:490 Histadrut and, 10:595 land purchases by Jews, 10:488 leaders, 13:765 Mishnaic and Talmudic period, 1:490–492 mixed farming strategy, 10:491–942, 508–509, 510– 511 Reichert, Israel, 17:199–200 restructuring of, 10:496 Second Temple period, 1:490 post World War II, 10:506– 507 population, farm output and land possession, 10:483t Ra-anannah, 17:6 research, 6:574 Romania, 4:177–178 Russia, 4:177–178 schools Beit Jama¯l, 3:272 296

Mikveh Israel, 14:222 Second Aliyah, 10:483–485 Smilansky, Moshe, 18:687 U.S., 1:499–500 Morgenthau, Henry, Jr., 14:489 settlement of Jews, 11:262 USSR regime projects, 17:544–545 water supply constraints, 10:531– 532 See also Agricultural landmanagement methods and implements in ancient Erez: Israel; Botany; Moshavim Agrigento (Italy), 1:502 Agrippa, Caius Julius, 1:503–504 Agrippa, Marcus Julius. See Agrippa II Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius, 1:504 Agrippa I, 1:502–503, 502t–503t, 9:199 Caligula, Caius Caesar Augustus, 4:363 Capito, Marcus Herennius, 4:451 Drusilla (daughter), 6:28 Jonathan ben Anan, 11:396 Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities on, 11:440 Julius Archelaus and, 11:574 Justus of Tiberias and, 11:581–582 Agrippa II, 1:503 Anan, son of Anan, 2:126 Bethsaida (Israel), 3:536 Drusilla (wife), 6:28, 394 Eleazar ben Ananias, 6:299 Juvenal on, 11:582 Agrippias. See Anthedon (Hellenistic city) Agrippina (ancient Israel), 1:504 Agrob. See Trachonitis (Palestine) Agro-Joint. See American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation Agron (Saadia Gaon), 8:653, 13:31–32 Agron, Gershon, 1:504 Agronim, 12:672–673 Agronsky, Gershon. See Agron, Gershon Agudat ha-Soz: yalistim ha-Ivrim, 1:504–505, 18:704 Agudath Harabbonim. See Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada Agudath Israel of America, 18:181 Agudat Israel, 1:505–508 Bar-Ilan University, 3:153 Birnbaum, Nathan, 3:715 Blau, Amram, 3:742 Blau, Moshe, 3:744 Bloch, Joseph Leib, 3:763

Dubin, Mordecai, 6:31 education, Jewish, 6:184 Halévy, Isaac, 8:270 Latvia, 12:522 Levin, Yiz: h: ak Meir, 12:714 Lieben, Salomon, 12:803 Poland Kirschbraun, Elijah, 12:188 Schwab, Hermann, 18:179 Silver, Eliezer, 18:585 U.S. branch, 18:585 zionism and, 14:15 See also Po’alei Agudat Israel Aguddat Ah: im, 1:508 Aguddat ha-Koremim, 8:470 Aguddat ha-Soz: yalistim ha-Ivrim. See Agudat ha-SoZ: yalistim ha-Ivrim Aguilar, Diego D’, 1:508–509 Aguilar, Emanuel Abraham, 1:509 Aguilar, Grace, 1:509 Aguilar, Moses Raphael D’, 1:509–510 Aguilar de Campóo (Spain), 1:509– 510 Aguilar Samuda, Joseph d’. See Samuda, Joseph d’Aguilar Aguinis, Marcos, 1:510, 16:350 A Gumsucker on the Tramp (Spielvogel), 19:109 Agunah, 1:510–520 annullment issues, 1:514–517 avoidance of precautions, 1:512– 513 Benjamin Ze’ev Ben Mattathias of Arta, 3::364 Chmielnicki massacres, 9:72 civil marriage, 4:746–748 concubine, 5:135 definition, 1:510–511 divorce, 5:711–719 Epstein, Louis M., 6:475 feminism and, 6:753 husband death, proof of, 1:511– 512 Israel, 1:513, 517–520 Judah ben Bava, 11:484 Kahana, Solomon David, 11:712 ketubbah, 12:97 Sasson, Aaron ben Joseph, 18:67– 68 Slonik, Benjamin Aaron ben Abraham, 18:675 takkanot, 19:440, 443–444, 450– 452 Tevul Yom, 19:658 witnesses, 21:120, 124 Agunot, 4:656, 5:173, 18:169, 21:206– 207

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Agur (biblical figure). See Solomon (biblical figure) Agur (Landau), 8:444 Agur (son of Jakeh), 1:521 Agursky, Mikhail, 1:520 Agursky, Samuel, 1:520–521 Agus, Irving Abraham, 1:521 Agus, Jacob B., 1:521–522 Ah: a (Babylonian scholar). See Ah: ai (Babylonian scholar) Ah: a (Palestinian amora), 1:522 Ahab (King of Israel), 1:522–525, 523, 9:176 Elijah, 6:331–332, 335–336 Jezebel and, 11:333–334 at Jezreel, 11:334 Moab, 14:402 Ahab (son of Kolaiah), 1:525 Ah: a bar H: anina, 1:525 Ah: a bar Rav, 1:525 Ah: a ben Jacob, 1:525 Ah: ad ha-Am, 1:525–529, 3:561–562, 8:692–693, 10:682, 683 biblical exegesis and study, 3:647 on blood libel, 3:778 Brenner, Joseph H: ayyim, 4:160 Dubnow, Simon, 6:34 Ehrenpreis, Marcus, 6:240 encyclopedias, 6:400 Ha-Shiloah: , 8:381 Hebrew vocabulary, 8:675 Judaism, on essence of, 11:512 Minsk Conference, 14:297 Montefiore, Claude Joseph Goldsmid, 14:456 Moses, 14:537 Nordau, Max, 15:298 Odessa Committee, 15:382 soul, immortality of, 19:38 translations of writings of, 18:613– 614 Ah: ai (Babylonian scholar), 1:529 Ah: ai (Palestinian amora). See Ah: a (Palestinian amora) Ah: ai ben Josiah, 1:529 Ah: ai of Shabh: a. See Ah: a of Shabh: a Ahalan H: aver (Ziblin), 18:206 Ahamant. See Rabbath-Ammon (Ancient Israel) Ah: a of Shabh: a, 1:529–531 Ah: arei ha-H: agim (Kenaz), 12:75 ‘Ah: arit ha-yamim. See Eschatology Aharon, Ezra, 1:531 Aharoni. See Mazeh, Jacob Aharoni, Israel, 1:531 Aharoni, Yoh: anan, 1:531–532, 2:329, 330, 371, 11:523, 524

Ah: aronim, 1:532–537 eighteenth century, 1:534–535 informers, 9:785 mishpat Ivri, 14:340 nineteenth century, 1:535–536 seventeenth century, 1:532–534 sixteenth century, 1:532 Aharonov, Yakir, 1:537 Aharonovitch, Yosef, 1:537–538, 4:159 Aharonovitz, Joseph. See Aharonovitch, Yosef Aharonowitz, Isaac. See Arnon, Isaac Aharonowitz, Zalman. See Aran, Zalman Ahasuerus, 1:538, 18:215, 216, 333 Biztha, 3:730 Mordecai, 14:478–479 See also Wandering Jew Ahasuerus-Xerxes, 1:538, 18:216 Ahasver. See Wandering Jew Ahavah ba-Ta’anugim (Moses), 14:552–553 Ahavah Rabbah, 1:538–539 Ahavah Zarah (Barash), 3:136 Ahavat David (Fleckeles), 7:71 Ahavat David (Franco-Mendes), 6:399 Ahavat Olam, 1:538–539 Ahavat Z: iyyon (Mapu), 18:202 Ahaz, 1:539, 2:88, 9:179–180 Edom, 6:155 eschatology, 6:491 Ahaziah, 1:539–540 Ahaziah (son of Ahab, king of Israel), 1:539, 9:177 Ahaziah (son of Jehoram, king of Judah), 1:539–540 Ah: dut ha-Avodah (periodical), 1:540, 8:382, 18:425 Ah: dut ha-Avodah ha-Historit (Shapiro), 1:540 Ah: dut ha-Avodah-Po’alei Zion, 8:341 Ah: dut ha-Avodah-Po’alei Zion, 1:540– 541 A héber nyelv elemi tankönyve (Ballagi), 3:91 Ahenakew, David, 18:65 Ah: er. See Elisha ben Avuyah Ah: erim, 1:541 Ahh: ad ha-Am, 8:726–727 Ahijah, 1:541 Ahijah the Shilonite, 1:542, 18:758 Ahikam, 1:542, 6:287, 18:398 Ahikar, 1:542, 543 Ahikar, Book of, 1:542–543, 542t Ahilot, 15:394 Ah: im (Barash), 3:136

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Ahimaaz (father-in-law of Saul), 1:543 Ahimaaz (son of Zadok), 1:543 Ahimaaz (son-in-law of Solomon), 1:543 Ah: imaaz: , 15:607 Ahimaaz, Chronicle of, 5:691 Ahimaaz ben Paltiel, 1:543–544, 543t, 3:706, 8:653 Ahimaaz chronicle. See Megillat Yuh: asin Ahiman, 1:544 Ah: imeir, Abba, 1:544 Ahimelech (son of Abiathar), 1:545 Ahimelech (son of Ahitub), 1:544 Ahimelech the Hittite, 1:545 Ah: io, 1:258, 259 Ah: isefer publishing house, 18:374 Ahithophel the Gilonite, 1:545 Ahitub, 1:545–546 Ahitub ben Isaac, 1:546 Ah: itub ben Isaac, 15:581 Ah: ituv ve-Z: almon (Mattathias), 13:685–686 Ahlab (Canaan), 1:546 Ahl al-Kita¯b, 1:546 DAh: lamah, 16:477 Ahlem (Germany), 1:547 Ahlwardt, Hermann, 1:547 Ah: mad Kha¯n, Sayyid, Sir, 10:94 Ahmadnagar (India), 1:547 AHO (Association of Holocaust Organizations). See Association of Holocaust Organizations (AHO) Ahonai ben Kahana ben Huna. See H: anina ben Kahana ben Huna Ah: ot Ketannah (Abraham ben Isaac), 1:300, 547–548 Ahrne, Mariane, 18:93 Ahrweiler (Germany), 1:548 Ahwaz (Persia), 1:548 Ai (ancient Israel), 1:548–549 Aiath. See Ai (Ancient Israel) Aibu (3rd-4th c.), 1:549 Aibu (father of Rav), 1:549 Aibu (grandson of Rav), 1:549 Aibu (son of Rav), 1:549 Aichinger, Ilse, 1:549 AIDS/HIV, 15:227–228 AIef, Beit, Gimmel, Dalet. See Druyanow, Alter Aijah. See Ai (Ancient Israel) Aijalon (ancient Israel), 1:549–550 Aijalon (territory of Zebulun), 1:550 Aiken, Henry David, 1:550 Aikhenvald Yuli Isayevich, 1:550 AIKO, 19:649–650 297

INDEX

Aila. See Elath (Israel) Aimée, Anouk, 1:550 Ain. See En-Rimmon (ancient Israel) Ainsworth, Henry, 1:550–551 AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committee). See American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft, 2:52 Aircraft, 5:439–440 Airplane hijackings, 6:282–283, 447– 448 AIS. See Association for Jewish Studies Aish HaTorah, 1:551, 3:680 Aiskowitz, Goodman. See Ace, Goodman Ai T’ien, 1:551–552, 11:726 Aix-en-Provence (France), 1:552 Aix-la-Chapelle. See Aachen (Germany) Aizenberg, Nina, 1:553 Aizman, David Yakolevich, 1:553 AJA (American Jewish Archives). See American Jewish Archives (AJA) AJA (Anglo-Jewish Association). See Anglo-Jewish Association (AJA) AJC (African Jewish Congress), 1:440– 441 AJC (American Jewish Committee). See American Jewish Committee (AJC) AJCongress (American Jewish Congress). See American Jewish Congress (AJCongress) AJOP (Association for Jewish Outreach Professionals and Programs), 3:7 AJPC (American Jewish Periodical Center). See American Jewish Periodical Center (AJPC) Ajzersztejn, Rivka. See Robin, Régine Akaba (Jordan), 1:553, 6:287 Akademie Fuer Die Wissenschaft Des Judentums, 1:554 Akasi, Jacob. See Abbasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn Akasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn. See Abbasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn Akavya, Avraham Aryeh Leib, 1:554 Akavyah ben Mahalalel, 1:554, 5:760– 761, 6:215 Akbara (Galilee). See Akhbarei (Galilee) Akbar Abu¯ al-Fath: Jala¯l al-D¯ın Muhammad. See Akbar the Great Akbar the Great, 1:554–555 Akbon, 3:16 Akdamut Millin (Meir ben Isaac Shli’ah: Z: ibbur), 1:555, 13:784 298

Akedah, 1:555–560 Akedah illustration (Prais), vol. 2: color insert Akedat Yizhak (Arama), 2:531 Akerlof, George A., 1:560 A Khasene on Klezmer (Shalom Aleichem), 18:384 Akhbarei (Galilee), 1:560–561 Akhbar Marcus ben Samuel. See Meisel Mordecai ben Samuel Akhbar Marx ben Samuel. See Meisel Mordecai ben Samuel Akhbar Mordecai ben Samuel. See Meisel Mordecai ben Samuel akhchisarai (Ukraine), 3:72 Akhenaten. See Akhenaton Akhenaton, 1:561, 2:41, 6:284 Akhen H: az: -Am (Bialik), 3:562 Akhetaton (Egypt). See El-Amarna (Egypt) Akhshaf. See Achshaph (ancient Israel) Akhshav u-ve-Yamim Ah: erim (Amchai), 2:71 Akhzar mi-Kol ha-Melekh (Aloni), 1:687 Akhzar mi-kol ha-Melekh (Shamir), 8:720 Akiba. See Ha-No’ar Ha-Ivri-Akiba Akirov, Alfred, 1:561–562 Akiva, 1:562–563 Bible text treated as binding authority by, 3:584–585 biblical exegesis and study, 3:641 Dosa ben Harkinas, 5:760–761 Eduyyot, 6:215 Eleazar ben Shammua, 6:307 hermaneutics, 9:28 Johanan ben Torta and, 11:373 Johanan ha-Sandelar and, 11:377 Joshua ben Hananiah, 11:450, 451 Joshua ha-Garsi, 11:455 Lag ba-Omer and, 12:436, 15:421 Otiyyot De R. Akiva, 14:188 Pappus ben Judah, 15:619 Simeon ha-Timni, 18:602 Akiva Baer ben Joseph, 1:563 Akiva ben Jacob Frankfurter, 7:76 Akiva ben Joseph. See Akiva Akiva ben Menahem ha-Kohen of Ofen, 1:563–564 Akka, 3:23, 6:535 Akkad (Sumer), 1:564, 564 Akkadian language, 1:564–569, 565t, 3:216, 8:621, 622, 624, 647 El-Amarna letters, 6:284–285 Epic of Atrahasis, 7:81 Mesopotamia, 14:87

in Mishnaic Hebrew, 8:647 Semitic languages and, 18:282 Akkerman. See Belgorod-Dnestrovski (Ukraine) Akkerman (Ukraine). See BelgorodDnestrovski Akko. See Acre (Israel) Akkum, 1:569 Die Akkumulation des Kapitals (Luxemburg), 13:277 Akkush. See Achish Aklar Mordecai ben Raphael, 1:569, 11:557 Aknin, Joseph ben Judah ben Jacob ibn, 1:569–570, 3:645, 6:173, 11:535–536 Akra. See The Acra Akra (Iraq), 1:570–571, 3:138 Akrish, Isaac ben Abraham, 1:571 Akron (OH), 1:571 Aksai, Jacob ben Moses ibn. See Abbasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn Aktion Petliura, 13:291 Aktion Reinhard, 3:309–311, 9:85 Akzin, Benjamin, 1:571–572 Alabama (U.S.), 1:572–573, 573, 573t, 15:134–135 See also names of specific cities in Alabama Alabarch, 1:573–574 Alagón (Spain), 1:574 Alais. See Elasa (Israel) Alais (France). See Alès (France) Al-DA¯l, 6:298 Alalach. See Alalakh Alalah. See Alalakh Alalakh (Turkey), 1:574 Alamah (Gilead), 1:575 Alamani, Aaron he-H: aver ben Yeshu’ah, 1:575 A‘la¯ Mawdu¯d¯ı, Abu¯ al-, 10:94–95 Alami, Solomon, 1:575 Al-Andalus. See Spain, cultural and social life, Moorish Al EAq¯ıda al-Raf¯ı Ea (Ibn Daud), 9:662, 663 Al-Aqsa Intifada (2000), 15:595, 599, 600 Al Arba’a Sippurim (Shaked), 18:367 A la Recherche du temps perdu (Proust), 16:635 Alaric II, 1:575 Alarko Holdings, 1:578 Alasa. See Elasah Al-Asad al-Mahalli. See Jacob ben Isaac ¯ l-Asa¯t:¯ır, 1:576 A

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Alashiya. See Cyprus Alashkar, Joseph ben Moses, 1:576 Alashkar, Moses ben Isaac, 1:515, 576–577, 6:233 Alashkar, Solomon, 1:577, 15:523 Alaska (U.S.), 1:577, 577–578, 577t Alatini family. See Alatino family Alatino, Azriel Bonaiuto. See Alatino, Azriel Pethahiah Alatino, Azriel Pethahiah, 1:578 Alatino, Moses Amram, 1:578 Alatino family, 1:578 Alaton, Ishak, 1:578 Alatri, Samuel, 1:578–579 Alatrini, Isaac ben Abraham, 1:579 Alatrini, Johanan Judah ben Salomon, 1:579 Alatrini family, 1:579 Alatrino family. See Alatrini family Alatzar. See Eleazar Al-Avani, Isaac, 1:579 Alawid dynasty, 1:579–581, 14:497– 499 EAlawiyyu¯n dynasty. See Alawid dynasty Alazar. See Eleazar family Alazar, Don Mair, 6:298 Alazar, Mosse, 6:298 Alazar, Todros, 6:298 Alba, Jacob di, 1:581 Alba Bible, 3:636 Alba Carolina (Transylvania). See Alba Iulia (Transylvania) Alba de Tormes (Spain), 1:581 Albahari, David, 1:581 Alba Iulia (Transylvania), 1:581–582 Albala, David, 1:582 Albalag, Isaac, 1:582–583, 2:160, 461, 16:87 allegorical interpretation of scripture, 3:645 soul, immortality of, 19:37 Albala-Levy, Ana, 11:469 Albalia, Baruch ben Isaac, 1:583 Albalia, Isaac ben Baruch, 1:583–584 Al-Balideh, Moses. See Balideh, Moses Albania, 1:584, 584, 584 Albany (NY), 1:584–586 Albaradani, Joseph, 1:586 Al-Bargeloni, Isaac ben Reuben, 1:586, 6:158 Al-Bargeloni, Judah. See Judah ben Barzillai al-Bargeloni Albarracín (Spain), 1:587 al-Bas: ¯ır, Joseph ben Abraham haKohen Haro’eh. See Bas: ¯ır, Joseph ben Abraham ha-Kohen Haro’eh al-

Albategnius, 4:62 Al-Bathaniyya. See Bashan region (Israel) Albaz, Moses ben Maimon, 1:587, 6:290 Al-Baz: ak, Maz: li’ah: ben Elijah ibn, 1:587 Albeck, H: anokh, 1:587, 3:126, 14:325– 326 Albeck, Shalom, 1:302, 587–588 Albeck family, 1:587–588 Albelda, Moses ben Jacob, 1:588 Albenzubron. See Gabirol, Solomon ben Judah, ibn Alberstein, Hava, 1:588 Albert, Marv, 1:588–589 Albert, Mildred Elizabeth Levine, 1:589 Alberta (Canada), 1:589–591 Albert Einstein Archives (Hebrew University), 6:262 Alberti-Irsa (Hungary), 1:591 Albertirsa (Hungary). See Alberti-Irsa (Hungary) Albert-Lazard, Albert, 2:517 Albert Shanker Institute (Washington, D.C.), 18:397 Albertus Denis. See Denis, Albertus Albertus Magnus, 1:591 Albert V (Holy Roman Emperor), 11:337 Albi (France), 1:591–592 Albigenses, 1:592–593, 3:629 Albinus, 2:126, 129 Albinus, Lucceius, 1:593 Albinus Flaccus. See Alcuin al-B¯ıra. See Ramallah (Palestine) Albo, Joseph, 1:593–595, 2:267, 618– 619, 16:89–90 Adam, 1:374 allegorical interpretation of scripture, 3:645 articles of faith, 2:531 commandments, reasons for, 5:88 freedom of thought, 7:227 inclination, good and evil, 9:757 Maimonides’ essential principles of Judaism, 11:513 moneylending, 14:439–440 on peace, 15:702 revelation, 17:257 soul, immortality of, 19:37–38 Torah, 20:41, 43, 45 vegetarianism, 5:165 Albom, Mitch, 4:125 Alboraycos, 1:595 Albotini, Judah ben Moses, 1:595–596

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Albrecht, Bruno. See Katzmann, Friedrich Albright, William Foxwell, 1:596, 2:374, 378, 8:621, 13:60 biblical archaeology of, 3:650, 654 Joshua, Book of, 11:447, 448 Albu, George, 1:596 Albu, Isidor, 1:596 Album, Simon Hirsch, 1:596–597 Albuquerque (NM), 1:597–598 Albutaini, Judah. See Albotini, Judah ben Moses Albutaini, Judah ben Moses. See Albotini, Judah ben Moses Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 1:598 Alcalaj, Isaac. See Alcalay, Isaac Alcalay, Isaac, 1:598 Alcalay, Reuven, 1:598 Alcama. See Aljama Alcan, Félix, 1:599 Alcan, Michel, 1:599 Alcan, Moy¨se, 1:599 Alcan family, 1:599 Alcañiz (Spain), 1:599 Alçar ben Alazrach Eleazar, 6:298 Alcastiel, Joseph, 1:599 Alcay, Albert, 4:91 Alceh, Matilde, 1:599 Alchemy, 1:599–603 Alcimus, 1:603 Alcohol and drunkenness, 6:26–28, 14:58 Bronfman family liquor business (Seagram’s), 4:205–206 contemporary U.S., 6:704 etiquette, 6:539 Noah, 15:288, 289, 290 Alcolea (Aragon), 1:603 Alcolea de Cinca (Aragon). See Alcolea (Aragon) Alconière, Theodore, 1:603 Alconstantini, Bafi’el. See Alconstantini, Bah: ya Alconstantini, Bah: i’el. See Alconstantini, Bah: ya Alconstantini, Bah: ya, 1:604 Al-Constantini, Enoch ben Solomon, 1:604 Alconstantini, Moses, 1:604 Alconstantini, Solomon, 1:604 Alconstantini family, 1:604 Alcorsono, Judah ben Joseph, 1:604– 605 Alcott, Amy, 1:605 Alcuin, 1:605 Aldabi. See Abulrabi, Aaron Aldabi, Aaron. See Abulrabi, Aaron 299

INDEX

Aldabi, Meir ben Isaac, 1:605, 6:399 Aldanov, Mark, 1:605–606 Aldema, Gil, 1:606 Alderman, Geoffrey, 1:606 ALDJR. See American League for the Defense of Jewish Rights Al-Doji, Menahem. See Alroy, David Aldo Manuzio, 1:606 Aldrich, Robert, 1:606–607 Aldrophe, Alfred-Philibert, 1:607 Aldubi, Abraham ben Moses ben Ismail, 1:607 Alduin. See Hilduin Aldus Manutius. See Aldo Manuzio Al-Dusta¯n. See Dustan Alechinsky, Pierre, 1:607 DAlef, 1:607–608 Alef (periodical), 2:78 Alegre, Abraham ben Solomon, 1:608 Aleichem, Sholem, 1:321 Aleinu le-Shabbe’ah: , 2:76 apologetics, 2:267 Aleinu le-Shabbe’ah: , 1:608–610, 608t Aleksander Jagiellonczyk, 1:610 Aleksandriya (Kirovograd district, Ukraine), 1:610 Aleksandriya (Rovno district, Volhynia, Ukraine), 1:610 Aleksandrov, Hillel, 11:322 Aleksandrow dynasty, 1:610–611, 8:423, 424 Aleksandrow Lodzki (Poland), 1:611 Alemán, Mateo, 1:611 Alemanno, Johanan ben Isaac, 1:611– 613 Alemeth (territory of Benjamin). See Almon (territory of Benjamin) Aleph Zadik, 4:14 Aleppo (Syria), 1:613–617, 3:399 Aleppo Jews in Israel, 10:296 bakkashot, 3:73 capitulations, 4:452 Francos of, 4:451 Kaz: in, Judah ben Yom Tov, 12:45 Sitteon Dabbah, Shaul David, 18:646–647 Aleppo Codex, 4:173 Alès (France), 1:617 Alessandra Tornimparte. See Ginzburg, Natalia Alessandria (Italy), 1:617–618 Ale Verk: Yubileum Oysgabe (Shalom Aleichem), 18:385 Ale Verk fun Shalom Aleichem (Shalom Aleichem), 18:383 Alexander (c. 36-37 B.C.E.), 1:618–619, 618t 300

Alexander (Hassid dynasty). See Aleksandrow dynasty Alexander (King of Poland), 11:462 Alexander (popes), 1:619–620 Alexander (Russian czars), 1:620–621 Alexander (Son of Aristobulus II), 1:629–630, 629t Alexander, A., 3:614 Alexander, Abraham, 1:621 Alexander, Abraham, Senior. See Alexander, Abraham Alexander, Alexander, 1:621 Alexander, Beatrice, 1:621–622 Alexander, Bernard, 1:622 Alexander, E., 16:138 Alexander, Franz, 1:622 Alexander, Haim, 1:622–623 Alexander, Heinz. See Alexander, Haim Alexander, James, 15:196 Alexander, Jason, 1:623, 15:228 Alexander, Jeffrey, 18:730–731 Alexander, Judah Leib. See Alexander, Levy Alexander, Kobi, 1:623 Alexander, Levy, 1:621 Alexander, M., 6:451 Alexander, Michael Solomon, 1:623– 624 Alexander, Morris, 1:624, 16:349 Alexander, Moses, 1:624 Alexander, Muriel, 1:624 Alexander, Samuel, 1:624–625 Alexander, Tiberius Julius. See Severus, Alexander Alexander I (czar), 1:620 blood libel and, 3:779 Pale of Settlement under, 15:577 Alexander II (pope), 1:619 Alexander II (czar), 1:620, 9:235, 17:534 emancipation, 6:383–384 Judaizers under, 11:522 Levanda, Lev Osipovich, 12:677 numerus clausus, 15:343 Pale of Settlement under, 15:578 Alexander III (czar), 1:620–621, 16:373 blood libel and, 3:779 emancipation, 6:384 laws restricting Jews, 13:701–702 numerus clausus, 15:343 Alexander III (pope), 1:619 Alexander IV (czar), 16:373 Alexander IV (pope), 1:619 Alexander V (pope), 1:619

Alexander VI (pope), 1:619, 16:374 Alexander VII (pope), 1:619–620, 16:376 Alexander Balas, 1:625, 11:398 Alexander family, 1:621 Alexander Lysimachus, 1:627 Alexander Nevsky (motion picture), 6:274 Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1:628 Alexander of Hales, 1:628–629 Alexander of Macedonia, 7:13 Alexander Polyhistor, 1:629 Alexander’s Department Store, 15:226 Alexandersohn, Jonathan, 18:195 Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen of Frankfurt, 1:630, 11:424 Alexander Susskind ben Moses of Grodno, 1:630–631 Alexander the False, 1:625 Alexander the Great, 1:625–627, 3:25, 26, 18:602 influence of, 6:554 Josippon, 11:462 Alexander the Zealot, 1:631 Alexander Yannai. See Yannai, Alexander Alexandra (daughter of Aristobulus II), 1:631, 631t Alexandra (daughter of Hyrcanus II), 1:631, 631t Alexandrah. See Alexandri Alexandrai. See Alexandri Alexandra Salome. See Salome Alexandra Alexandretta (Turkey). See Iskenderun (Turkey) Alexandri, 1:631–632 Alexandria (Egypt), 1:632–635, 633, 14:28 Anatoli ben Joseph, 2:133 Andronicus son of Meshullam, 2:145 Angel, Aaron, 2:146 beliefs of Jewish community, 2:456 community organization and structures, 5:101 Jews, 1:434–435, 6:228–230 temporary expulsion of Jews from, 4:326 Alexandrian Martyrs, Acts of, 1:635– 636 Alexandrium (Jordan Valley). See Sart: aba (Jordan Valley) Alexandros. See Alexandri; Yannai, Alexander Alexandrovich, Sergei, 14:517 Alexandrovsk. See Zaporozhe (Ukraine)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Alexas, 1:636 Alexenicer, Jose, 16:349 Alexeyev, Alexander, 1:636 Alez (France). See Alès (France) “Alfa Beta of Ben Sira”, 7:12 Al-Fakhar. See Ibn Alfakhar Alfalas, Moses, 1:636 Alfandari, Aaron ben Moses, 1:637 Alfandari, Elijah ben Jacob, 1:637 Alfandari, H: ayyim (Rabbenu), 1:637 Alfandari, H: ayyim (the Elder), 1:637 Alfandari, H: ayyim ben Isaac Raphael, 1:637–638 Alfandari, Isaac Raphael, 1:637 Alfandari, Jacob, 1:638 Alfandari, Joseph, 1:637 Alfandari, Obadiah, 1:636–637 Alfandari, Solomon Eliezer ben Jacob, 1:340, 638 Alfandaric family. See Alfandari family Alfandari family, 1:636–637 Alfandary, Solomon ben H: ayyim, 1:637 Alfandrec family. See Alfandari family al-Faraj, Abu. See Abu al-Faraj Alfas, Benzion. See Alfes, Benzion Alfasi, David ben Abraham, 1:638–639 dictionary for Hebrew and biblical Aramaic, 13:31 Judeo-Arabic literature and, 11:532 Alfasi, Isaac ben Jacob, 1:639–641, 4:770, 779 Abraham ben David of Posquières, 1:297 in Fez, Morocco, 7:6 halakhah, 8:257 Joseph ben Justu of Jaén, 11:423 Judah ben Barzillai al-Bargeloni, 11:483 Montpelier (France), 14:463 Nissim ben Reuben Gerondi, 15:281 Alfasi, MasEud Raphael, 1:638 Alfasi, Solomon ben MasEud Raphael, 1:638 Alfasi family, 1:638 Al-Fayyumi, Saadiah. See Saadiah Gaon Alfei Menasheh (Samaria), 1:641 Alferov, Zhores I., 1:641 Alfes, Benzion, 1:641–642 Alfes’ Story. See Ma’aseh Alfes Alfieri, Vittorio, 10:788 Alfonsìn, Raul, 2:442, 443 Alfonso. See Affonso Alfonso (Spanish kings), 1:642

Alfonso I (King of Aragon), 1:642 Alfonso II (King of Aragon), 1:642 Alfonso IV (King of Aragon), 6:91 Alfonso V (King of Aragon), 1:642, 18:44 Alfonso VI (King of Castile and Leon), 1:642 Alfonso VII (King of Castile and Leon), 1:642, 18:570 Alfonso VIII (King of Castile), 1:642, 11:255 Alfonso X, King of Castile, 1:343, 642, 18:327 Alfonso XI (King of Castile and Leon), 1:642 Alfonso de Espina, 1:642 Alfonso de la Cavallería, 15:375 Alfonso de Oropesa, 1:643 Alfonso de Spina. See Alfonso de Espina Alfonso D’espina. See Alfonso de Espina Alfonso of Burgos. See Abner of Burgos Alfonso of Valladolid. See Abner of Burgos Alfonso of Zamora, 1:643 Alfonsus Bonihominis, 1:643 Alfonsus Buenhombre. See Alfonsus Bonihominis Alfred J. Kahn Doctoral Fellowship, 11:719 Alfred the Great, 3:611 Al-Furaydis. See Furaydis, Al- (Israel) Algazi, Abraham ben Moses, 1:643 Algazi, H: ayyim ben Abraham, 1:643 Algazi, H: ayyim ben Menahem, 1:643 Algazi, Isaac ben Abraham, 1:643–644 Algazi, Isaac ben Solomon, 1:644 Algazi, Israel Jacob ben Yom Tov, 1:644 Algazi, Judah, 1:644 Algazi, Leon, 1:644–645, 12:661 Algazi, Moses ben Abraham, 1:643 Algazi, Moses ben Joseph, 1:644 Algazi, Nissim. See Algazi, Solomon ben Abraham (1610?-c.1683) Algazi, Nissim Jacob Ben H: ayyim Solomon, 1:643 Algazi, Solomon, 4:103 Algazi, Solomon ben Abraham (1610?c.1683), 1:645, 18:345 Algazi, Solomon ben Abraham (16731762), 1:645 Algazi, Yehudah. See Algazi, Leon Algazi, Yom Tov ben Israel Jacob, 1:645 Algazi family, 1:643–644

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Algemeyne Entsiklopedye (encyclopedia), 6:399 Algemeyne Ilustrirte Entsiklopedye (Goldblatt), 6:399 Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland. See Bund Di Algemeyne Yidishe Entsiklopedye (Lurie, Horowitz), 6:399 Algeria, 1:645–652, 646, 650t, 2:322– 323, 14:712 Abulker family, 1:345 amulets, 2:123 antisemitism, 1:649–651, 4:533 Algiers, 1:653–654 assimilation, 1:648 Azubib family, 2:772–773 Bone, 4:61 Bougie, 4:105 Busnach, Naphtali ben Moses, 4:316 community organization and structures, 5:105, 108, 110, 111– 112, 118t Draï, Raphaël, 6:7 French immigration, 7:163 Gozlan, Elie, 8:21–22 Holocaust, 1:649 immigration to Israel from, 10:523 Israel (State), 1:651 Jews dress, 6:14 French rule, 1:648–649 modern, 1:649–651 music, 1:440 Muslim rule, 1:645–648 Oran, 15:459–460 synagogue architecture, 19:375 Al-Ghar¯ıd: al-Yahu¯d¯ı, 1:652 Al-Ghaza¯l¯ı, 11:539, 541 Alghero (Sardinia), 1:652 Algiers (Algeria), 1:652–654 Duran, Simeon ben Simeon, 6:61 Duran, Simeon ben Solomon, 6:58 Duran family, 6:56 Algonquin Round Table, 1:380 Algorithms, 5:129–131 Alguades, Don Meir, 15:562 Alguades, Meir, 1:654 Alguadez, Meir. See Alguades, Meir Algum, 1:654 Al ha-Bikkoret ha-Yoz: eret (Fichman), 7:8 Alh: adib, Isaac ben Solomon ben Z: addik, 1:654 Al Ha-H: alomot (Shah: ar), 18:363 Al-H: a¯kim ghetto created by, 11:312 301

INDEX

Al-H: a¯kim, continued Jubayl, 11:473 Al ha-Mishmar (newspaper), 1:655 Alhanati, David, 1:655 Al ha-Nissim, 1:655, 2:75 Al-H: arizi, Judah, 15:655 Al-H: arizi, Judah ben Solomon, 1:579, 655–657, 6:173, 8:660, 9:591 Edessa, 6:147 Joseph ben Baruch of Clisson and, 11:419 Joseph ben Tanh: um Yerushalmi, 11:427 on Josiah ben Jesse, 11:460 as Orientalist, 15:471 Al-H: asan (Mulay of Morroco), 14:499 Alh: ayk, Uzziel ben Mordecai, 1:657 Al H: et (prayer), 1:658 al-H: ¯ıra. See H: ¯ıra (Persia) Ali, 1:240–241, 658 Aliama. See Aljama Aliav, Ruth, 1:658 Alibag (India), 1:658 Ali ben Amram, 1:659 Ali ben David. See Ali Ali ben Zechariah, 1:659 Alien Love. See Ahavah Zarah Aliens Act of 1905, 1:659 Alien slaves. See Slavery Aliger, Margarita Yosifovna, 1:659 Ali ibn Sahl ibn Rabba¯n al-T¸abar¯ı, 1:659–660 Ali ibn Suleiman, 1:660 Al¯ı Jandub¯ı, 1:439–440 Alik ve-ha-Kallaniyyot (Shamir), 18:392 Alilot Akavyah (Burla), 4:295 Alimony, 4:748 Al-Iscandari family. See Iscandari family Alistál (Slovakia), 1:660 Al-Istibsar (Basir), 3:200 Aliturus, 1:660 Alityros. See Aliturus Aliyah, 1:660–661, 10:346, 481t 1948-Six-Day War, 10:339–345 by 1958, 10:223 1980s and 1990s, 10:239, 241, 243, 263, 264 1982-1992, 10:350, 352–353 1993-2002, 10:353–354 American Jewish Committee, 2:55 American Joint Distribution Committee, 2:62–63 Amidar, 2:76–77 Churchill White Paper and, 10:336 302

education and, 10:343, 344, 526, 657, 658, 668 Ethiopians, 10:631 Fifth, 10:201, 496, 498 First, 1:660, 10:180, 193–194, 273, 282, 357–358, 480–482, 522–523 Fourth, 10:199–201, 337, 489–490, 523–524 Hasidic, 8:395 of Holocaust survivors, 10:215 Horev Commission, 9:525 housing, 10:526–527, 527 illegal post World War II, 10:467 illegal pre World War II, 10:499– 500 Israel (state), 10:329–373, 334t, 341t, 342t, 344t, 345t, 347t, 349t, 351t, 352t, 354–366, 358t 1880–1948, 10:333–339, 334t post 1980s settlements and housing, 10:365–366 1982-1992, 10:345t, 347t, 350–353, 351t 1993-2002, 10:345t, 347t, 351t, 353–354 absorption methods, 10:340– 345 building and construction of housing, 10:354–355 from Bukhara, 4:263 from Bulgaria, 4:273–274 from Bushire, 4:306 difficulties, 10:330 health services, 10:675 ingathering of exiles, 10:339– 340 introduction, 10:329 from Iran, 10:11–12, 11t, 20 land ownership, 10:371–372, 527 land reclamation, 10:372–373 motives for aliyah, 10:329– 330 post-1948, 10:339–354, 341t, 355–357, 360–361 post-Six Day War, 10:344t, 345–350, 345t, 347t, 349t, 361–365 pre-WW I settlements and housing, 10:357–359, 358t public housing, 10:355 regional and settlement planning, 10:370–371 rural development, 10:366– 370 from Russia, 17:558, 569–571, 570t, 571t, 572, 573, 579 Second Temple period to H: ibbat Zion or 1880s, 10:330–333

teshuvah, 3:572 urbanization, 10:366–370 Israel Defense Forces role, 10:467– 468 Law of Return, 10:215, 414–415, 626 musicians, 10:688, 689 non-Jewish, 10:636 of North African Jews, 10:223–224 of Oriental Jews, 10:215, 223–224, 226, 235–236 Palestine (Mandate) housing and settlements, 10:354 Palestine Office, 15:595 partisan groups after WW II, 15:668 post-Holocaust problems, 10:216 Second, 10:180–181, 194–196, 282, 334–335, 358–359, 482–485, 523 Histadrut and, 10:606 Six-Day War to 1982, 10:345–350 Soviet Jews, 10:631–632 burial and, 10:638 from Soviet Union, 10:346, 348– 349 of Soviet Union Jews, 10:235, 453 theater and, 10:688 Third, 10:199, 335, 489, 510, 523 from West, 10:344–345 women and, 6:754 during World War II, 10:339 Youth Aliyah, 10:338, 343–344 See also Migrations; Torah, reading of; Youth Aliyah movement Aliyah Bet. See Illegal immigration Aliyyat Yeladim va-No’ar. See Youth Aliyah Aljama, 1:661 Al-Jazair (Algeria). See Algiers (Algeria) Al-Jaza¯’ir. See Algeria Al-Kabbir. See Attar, Judah ben Jacob Ibn Alkabez: , Solomon ben Moses ha-Levi, 1:662–663, 662t Alkabri, Joseph. See Ferrizuel, Joseph ha-Nasi Alkah: i, Mordekhai, 1:663, 6:22 Alkalai, Abraham ben Samuel, 1:663 Alkalai, David, 1:663 Alkalai, Judah ben Solomon H: ai, 1:663–664, 11:308, 21:540–541 Alkalai, Y., redemption, 17:155 Alkalaj, Aron, 1:664 Alkalaj, Isaac. See Alcalay, Isaac

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Alkan, Alphonse, 1:664 Alkan, Charles Henri-Valentin, 1:665 Alkan family. See Alcan family Al-Khad: ir, 14:539 al-Khalil. See Hebron (Israel) al-Kirkisa¯ni, Abu Yu¯suf YaDqu¯b, 11:790 Al-Kita¯b al-Ka¯fi (Abu al-Faraj), 1:334 Al-Kita¯b al-Mushtamil (Abu al-Faraj), 1:334 Al-Kufa. See Kufa (Iraq) Al-Ku¯fa (Iraq). See Kufa (Iraq) Alkvit, B. See Blum, Eliezer Allah Karim (Orloff-Arieli), 8:718 Allaman Oglou. See Ashkenazi, Solomon All But My Life (Weissman), 4:631 Allegeine Juedische KolonisationsOrganisation. See AIKO Allegorical interpretation of Bible, 3:641, 643–645, 660, 665 Allegories, 1:373–374, 665–667 Allemania. See Germany Allen, Gracie, 4:298 Allen, Isaac, 1:667 Allen, Isaac A., 15:205 Allen, Lewis. See Reed, Lou Allen, Mel, 1:667–668 Allen, Paul G., 1:668–669 Allen, Woody, 1:669–670, 12:503 Allenby, Edmund Henry Hynman, 1:222, 670, 2:393 Allenby, George, 11:305 Allende, Salvador, 4:644 Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums (periodical), 1:670–671 All God’s Children: A Jew Speaks (Cohen), 5:9 Alliance, David (Lord), 11:820 L’Alliance avec la nature (Chalier), 4:562 Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1:671– 675, 673t Alkalai, Judan ben Solomon H: ai, 1:664 American Joint Distribution Committee, 2:62 Anglo Jewish Association, 2:162 archives, 2:409 assimilation, 9:237–238 Benas, Baron Louis, 3:319 Bigarte, Jacques, 3:694 Board of Delegates of American Israelites, 4:19 boycott, anti-Nazi, 4:110 Brafman, Jacob, 4:116 Cahen, Isidore, 4:337

Carvallo, Jules, 4:503 Cassin, René Samuel, 4:509 Cazès, David, 4:533 education, Jewish, 6:183–184, 185, 213–214 founding, 7:158 France, 7:166–167 Hirsch, Baron Maurice de, 9:127 language, 12:482 League of Nations, 12:565 Lehmann, Léonce, 12:615 Libya, 12:793 Loeb, Isidore, 13:160 Morocco, 14:500, 502–503, 504, 505–507 Mortara case, 14:513 in Ottoman empire, 6:149, 15:530, 542 philanthropy, 16:43 social organization, 9:245 Alliance Israélite Universelle, 18:722 Alliance of German Jews. See Verband der Deutschen Juden Allianz, Israelitische zu Wien, 1:675 Allium cepa. See Onions All My Sons (Miller), 14:251 Allon, Gedalya, 1:675 Allon, Yigal, 1:675–676 Palmah: , 15:604 settlements beyond Green Line and, 10:362, 364, 440, 441 Allon Bakhut (Benjamin), 3:360 Allonei Abba (Israel), 1:676–677 Allonei Yitz: h: ak (Israel), 1:677 Allonim (Israel), 1:677 Allouche, Felix Nissim S’Aidou, 1:677 All Rivers Run to The Sea (Wiesel), 9:401 “All the news that’s fit to print” slogan, 15:375–376 All the Presidents’ Men (motion picture), 15:572 Alluf, 1:677 Allweiss, Solomon. See Alva, Siegfried Alma (Sobol), 18:702, 702 Al-Madari, Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar he-H: asid, 1:677 Al-Madari, Judah ha-Kohen ben Eliezer he-H: asid. See Al-Madari, Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar he-H: asid Al-Maghar. See Maghar, al- (Israel) Almagià, Roberto, 1:677–678 Almagor (Israel), 1:678 Almagor, Gila, 1:678 Almagro (Spain), 1:678 Almah (Israel), 1:678

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Alm al Fath. See Ibn Shuwayk, Isaac ben Israel al-Ma’mu¯n, 6:603–604 Alman, Samuel, 1:678–679 Almansi, Dante, 1:679 Almansi family, 1:679 Al-Mansura (Egypt). See Mansura (Egypt) Al-Mansurah (Egypt). See Mansura (Egypt) Al-Mans: u¯r al-Yahu¯d¯ı, 1:679 al-Mansur Ibn Abi DAmir. See Mans: u¯r Almanzi, Joseph, 1:679 Almanzi family. See Almansi family Almanzor. See Mans: u¯r Al-Mawjib. See Arnon Almemar, 3:701 Almería (Spain), 1:680 Almog. See Algum Almog, Ruth, 1:680 Almog, Yehuda, 1:680–681, 8:293 Almogi, Yosef Aharon, 1:681 Almohades, 4:105 Almohad persecutions, 6:5 Almohads, 1:681–682, 684, 11:757 conquering of Tunisia, 11:727 Morocco, 14:494–495 Omar, Covenant of, 15:417–418 Sijilmassa (Morocco), 18:572 Almoli, Solomon ben Jacob, 1:682, 6:399 Almon (territory of Benjamin), 1:682 Almond, 1:683, vol. 16: color insert Almond, Gabriel Abraham, 1:683 Almon-Diblathaim (Moabite plain), 1:683 Almoravids, 1:681, 684, 18:572 Almosnino, Abraham, 1:684, 18:451 Almosnino, Isaac H: asdai, 1:685 Almosnino, Joseph ben Isaac, 1:685 Almosnino, Moses, 15:540, 541, 16:109 Almosnino, Moses ben Baruch, 1:685 Almosnino family, 1:684–685, 684t Almsgiving. See Charity al-MuDallima, 2:17 Al-Mudari, Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar he-H: asid. See Al-Madari, Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar he-H: asid Almug. See Algum Al-Muhtawi (Basir), 3:200 al-Mukammas: , ibn Marwa¯n al-Ra¯qi. See Mukammis: , ibn Marwa¯n al-Ra¯qi al-Shirazi alAl-Mukha¯) (Yemen). See Mocha (Yemen) 303

INDEX

Almuli, Jesse, 4:103 Almuli, Solomon ben Jacob. See Almoli, Solomon ben Jacob Al-Mundari, Judah ha-Kohen. See AlMadari, Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar he-H: asid Al-Mundari, Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar he-H: asid. See Al-Madari, Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar he-H: asid Al-Munqidh min al-D: ala¯l (al-Ghaza¯l¯ıi), 7:571 Al-Muqtadir (caliph), 11:425 Al-Muwah: h: hidu¯n. See Almohads Al-Muwah: h: idu¯n. See Almohads al-NahDa¯wend¯ı, Benjamin ben Moses. See NahDa¯wend¯ı, Benjamin ben Moses alAl-Nahrawani, Nissi ben Berechiah. See Nissi ben Berechiah alNahrawani Alnakar, Abraham ben Joseph, 1:685– 686 Al-Nakawa, Israel ben Joseph, 1:266, 686 Al-Nuqra. See Bashan region (Israel) Aloni, Nissim, 1:687, 8:723 Aloni, Shulamit, 1:687 Alonso de Espina. See Alfonso de Espina Alonso Fernandez de Cordoba. See Córdoba, Alonso Fernandez de Alonso of Cartagena, 15:563 Alouf, Yehoshua, 1:687–688 Al-Palas, Moses, 15:572–573 Al-Palas family. See Palache family Alper, Michael, 1:688 Alperovitz v. Mizrahi, 5:197–198 Alpersohn, Marcos, 1:688 Alpersohn, Mordecai. See Alpersohn, Marcos Alperstein, Avraham Eliezer ben Yeshaya, 1:688 Alpert, Herb, 1:688–689 Alphabet acrostics, 1:368–369 Nun, 15:344 Pe, 15:700 Alphabet, Hebrew. See Hebrew alphabet Alphabetizing compositions. See Acrostics Alphabet of Ben Sira, 3:375–376, 6:667, 7:12, 11:427, 454, 13:19, 170 Alphonse of Poitiers, 1:730, 7:150 Al-Pumbedita. See Pumbedita (Babylonia) al-Qa¯nu¯n f¯ı al-T: ibb (Avicenna), 2:728–729, vol. 8: color insert 304

Al-Qirqisa¯n¯ı, Jacob, 11:532 Al-Quds. See Jerusalem (Israel) al-Queda Morocco, 14:505 Saudi Arabia support of, 18:77–78 al-Qu¯mis¯ı, Daniel ben Moses. See Daniel ben Moses al-Qu¯mis¯ı al-Qu¯mis¯ı, David. See David alQumisì Al-Ra¯a. See Ra¯ma, al- (Israel) Alrabi. See Abulrabi, Aaron Alrabi, Aaron. See Abulrabi, Aaron Al-Ragil, Moses. See Arragel, Moses Al-Rah: bah. See Rah: bah, al(Mesopotamia) al-Raqqa. See Raqqa (Mesopotamia) Al-Rashid (Mulay of Morroco), 14:497 Al-Reuti family. See Rote family Al-Roh: i, David. See Alroy, David Alroy (Disraeli), 5:699 Alroy, David, 2:5–6 al-Rueti. See Rote family Al-Ruha. See Edessa (Turkey) Al-SabDuni. See Siboni family Alsace (France), 2:6–9, 7 Bischheim, 3:724 Joseph ben Gershon of Rosheim, 11:420–421 linguistic assimilation, 8:436 Al Saf Beit ha-Midrash (Bialik), 3:562 Al-Salt. See Salt Al-Sam, 2:79 Al-SamawEal al-Maghribï, 3:669 Al-Samawal ben Gha¯rid Ablaq. See Samuel ibn DA¯diya¯ Alsari. See Fuerst, Julius Alsatian rite, 2:6 Alsbacher Ethical Testament, 4:755 Alschuler, Alfred S., 2:9–10 Alschuler, Samuel, 2:10 al-Shaharasta¯n¯ı, 6:65–67 Alsheikh, Raphael ben Shalom, 2:10 Alsheikh, Shalom ben Joseph, 2:10 Alshekh, Hayyim, 2:10, 11 Alshekh, Moses, 2:10–11 Al Shelosha Mah: zot (Shaked), 18:367 Alshvang, Arnold Aleksandrovich, 2:11 Alsingari, Solomon. See Solomon Suliman ben Amar Alsókubin (Slovakia). See Dolni Kubin (Slovakia) Alt, Albrecht, 2:11, 3:658 Joshua, Book of, 11:446, 447, 449 moneylending, 14:436–437 Noth, Martin, 15:315 Altabet, Mark A., 6:450–451

al-Tabib, Yahya ibn Suleiman. See Zechariah ben Solomon-Rofe Al-Tal. See Bethsaida (Israel) Altalena, 20:660 Altalena (ship), 3:261, 346 Al-Tamiz (Basir), 3:200 Altaras, David ben Solomon, 2:16–17 Altaras, Jacques Isaac, 2:17 Altaras, Joseph, 2:17 Altaras, Moses, 2:16 Altaras, Nissim, 2:17 Altaras, Solomon, the Elder, 2:16 Altaras, Solomon, the Younger, 2:17 Al-Tara¯s, S¯ıd¯ı ibn, 2:17 Altaras family, 2:16–17 Al Targum Rav Sa’adyah la-Torah (Zucker), 21:674–675 Altars, 2:11–16, 16:515 Joshua, Book of, 11:448–449 Moses, 2:29 Altauzen, Dzhek Moyseyevich. See Altauzen, Yakov Moyseyevich Altauzen, Yakov Moyseyevich, 2:17 Al-Tayyah, Moses. See Ibn al-Taqana, Moses Alt-Breisach (Germany). See Breisach; Breisach (Germany) Al Tehi ka-Avotekha (Duran), 6:56–57, 13:112 Al-Tell. See Bethsaida (Israel) Altenberg, Peter, 2:17 Altenstadt (Germany), 2:17–18 Alter, Abraham Mordecai, 7:761 Alter, Eleanor B., 2:18 Alter, Isaac Meir, 18:604 Alter, Israel, 2:18, 7:761 Alter, Judah Aryeh Leib, 7:761 Alter, Mendele, 15:561 Alter, Robert B., 2:18, 3:624, 15:358 Alter, Victor, 2:18, 6:481 Alterman, Nathan, 2:19–20, 8:720, 18:761 Alternate history (counterfactual thought), 18:206 Alternate history literature, 18:201 Al-ThaDlabï, 3:669 Altheimer, Benjamin, 2:20 Al tikrei, 2:20 Alting, Jacobus, 2:20–21 Altman, Aryeh, 2:21 Altman, Benjamin, 2:21, 15:203 Altman, Moishe, 2:21 Altman, Morris, 15:203 Altman, Nathan, 2:21–22 Altman, Oscar Louis, 2:22 Altman, Sidney, 2:22, 4:593, 13:9

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Altman Foundation, 2:21 Altmann, Adolf, 2:22–23 Altmann, Alexander, 2:23, 4:125, 16:69, 70 Altneuland (Herzel), 18:202 Alt-Ofen (Hungary). See Obuda (Hungary) Altona (Germany), 2:23–24, 8:296 Altschul, Aaron ben Moses Meir Perles, 2:24 Altschul, Aaron Meyer, 2:25 Altschul, Abraham ben Isaac Perles, 2:24 Altschul, Abraham Eberle, 2:24 Altschul, Eleazar ben Abraham H: anokh Perles, 2:24 Altschul, Eliakim ben ZeEev Wolf, 2:24 Altschul, Emil, 2:25 Altschul, Frank, 2:25 Altschul, Gottschalk ben ZeEev Wolf. See Altschul, Eliakim ben ZeEev Wolf Altschul, H: anokh ben Moses, 2:24 Altschul, Isaac, 2:24 Altschul, Joseph, 2:25 Altschul, Judah Aaron Moses ben Abraham H: anokh, 2:24 Altschul, Louis, 2:25–26 Altschul, Moses, 2:24 Altschul, Moses ben H: anokh, 2:26 Altschul, Moses Meir ben Isaac Eleazar Perles, 2:24 Altschul, Naphtali Hirsch ben Asher, 2:24 Altschul, ZeEev Wolf ben Dov Baer, 2:24 Altschuler, Aaron ben Moses Meir Perles. See Altschul, Aaron ben Moses Meir Perles Altschuler, Abraham ben Isaac Perles. See Altschul, Abraham ben Isaac Perles Altschuler, David, 2:26, 3:643 Altschuler, Eleazar ben Abraham H: anokh Perles. See Altschul, Eleazar ben Abraham H: anokh Perles Altschuler, Gottschalk ben ZeDev Wolf. See Altschul, Eliakim ben ZeEev Wolf Altschuler, Hillel, 3:643 Altschuler, Isaac. See Altschul, Isaac Altschuler, Judah Aaron Moses ben Abraham H: anokh. See Altschul, Judah Aaron Moses ben Abraham H: anokh Altschuler, Modest, 2:26 Altschuler, Moses Meir ben Isaac Eleazar Perles. See Altschul, Moses Meir ben Isaac Eleazar Perles

Altschuler, Naphtali Hirsch ben Asher. See Altschul, Naphtali Hirsch ben Asher Altschuler, ZeEev Wolf ben Dov Baer. See Altschul, ZeEev Wolf ben Dov Baer Altschuler family. See Altschul family Altschul family, 2:24–25 Alttestamentliche Studien (Eerdmans), 6:215–216 Altusky, Hirsch, 2:48 Al-Tustar¯ı. See Sahl ibn Fad: l Alukah, 5:572 Alummot (Israel), 2:26 EAluqah. See Alukah ¯ Q¯I, Shalom ha-Kohen Al-Usta. See IrA Alva, Siegfried, 2:26 Al-Valensi. See Valensi family Alvan ben Abraham, 2:27 Alvares, Daniel Cohen Henriques, 2:27 Alvares, Duarte Henriques, 2:27 Alvares, Isaac, 2:27 Alvares, Isaque, 2:27 Alvares, Nuño, 4:121 Alvares, Samuel Dios-Ayuda, 2:27 Alvares Correa family, 2:27 Alvares de Tavara, Manuel. See Zacutus Lusitanus Alvares family, 2:27 Alvarez, Alfred, 2:27 Alvarez, Antonio, 2:27 Alvarez, Daniel Cohen Henriques. See Alvares, Daniel Cohen Henriques Alvarez, Duarte Henriques. See Alvares, Duarte Henriques Alvarez, Fernando, 2:27 Alvarez, Isaac. See Alvares, Isaac Alvarez, Martin. See Bueno, Ephraim Hezekiah Alvarez, Rodrigo, 2:27 Alvarez, Samuel Dios-Ayuda, 2:27 Alvarez Delcon, Garcia. See Alvares, Samuel Dios-Ayuda Alvarez Delcón, Garcia. See Alvares, Samuel Dios-Ayuda Alvarez family. See Alvares family Álvarez Gato, Juan, 2:27 Alvaro, Paolo, 4:30 Alvarus of Córdoba. See Alvaro, Paolo Al-Yamani a-Rabba¯n¯ı. See Adani, Saadiah ben David Al-YasaD. See Elisha AlyasaD. See Elisha Al-Yazid (Mulay of Morroco), 14:497– 498 Alypius of Antioch, 2:82 Alyussani, Isaac ben Levi. See Ibn Mar Saul, Isaac ben Levi

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Alzey (Germany), 2:27 Am, Ma’akhal Melakhim (Laor), 12:488 Am, Ma’akhal Melakhim (Laor), 18:206 AMaD. See Dik, Isaac Amadio ben Moses of Recanati. See Jedidiah ben Moses of Recanati Amadio ben Moses of Rimin. See Jedidiah ben Moses of Recanati DAmadiya (Kurdistan), 2:27–28, 3:138 Amado Lévy-Valensi, Eliane, 2:28 Amador de los Rios, Jose, 2:28 A magyar birodalom története (Acsády), 1:369 A magyar jobbágyság történte (Acsády), 1:369 Amalek, 2:28–31, 33 Amalekites, 1:444–445, 2:28–31, 18:79 Amalfi (Italy), 2:31 Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA), 4:608–609, 9:117, 118, 12:411, 18:144 Potofsky, Jacob Samuel, 16:420– 421 Sheinkman, Jacob, 18:438 Amana (Syria), 2:31 Amanah (Syria), 2:31 Amar, David, 16:346 Amar, Licco, 2:31 Amarillo, Aaron ben Solomon, 2:31– 32 Amarillo, H: ayyim Moses ben Solomon, 2:32 Amarillo, Moses, 2:31 Amarillo, Solomon ben Joseph, 2:32, 4:102 Amarkal, 2:32 Amarna tablets, 8:621–622, 9:623–624 Amarot Tehorot (Eliezer ben Jacob haLevi of Tarnogrod), 6:326 Amasa, 2:32–33 Amasai, 2:32 Amasiya (Turkey), 2:33 Amateau, Albert Jean, 2:33–34 Amatus Lusitanus, 2:34–35, 135 Amaw, 2:30 A Mayse mit a Grinhorn (Shalom Aleichem), 18:388 Amaziah, 2:35–36, 97, 98, 6:155, 156, 15:357 The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier and Clay (Chabon), 4:555 Amazing Stories (periodical), 18:197 Amaz: yah (Israel), 2:36 Amaz: yahu (Shemariah ben Elijah ben Jacob), 18:457 Amberg (Germany), 2:36 305

INDEX

Le ambizioni sbagliate (Moravia). See Wheel of Fortune (Moravia) Ambron, Ezekiel, 2:37 Ambron, Sabbato Isaac, 2:37 Ambron, Shabbetai Isaac, 2:36–37 Ambrose, 2:37, 4:720, 9:206 Ambrose of Milan. See Ambrose Ambrosian Bible, 3:678 Ameimar, 2:37–38 Ameinu. See Labor Zionist Alliance Amelander, Menahem Mann ben Shlomo, 2:108 Amelander, Menahem Mann ben Solomon Ha-Levi, 2:38 Amen, 2:38–39, 3:192, 6:365 Amenhotep III. See Amenophis III Amenities, communal, 2:39–40, 6:95 Amenities of Literature (D’Israeli), 5:702 Amenophis III, 2:40–41 Amenophis IV. See Akhenaton America, 2:41–46, 42, 43, 44, 45, 107 Jewish settlement in, Jewish Immigrant Aid Services of Canada, 11:299–300 Judah Loew ben Bezalel on, 11:507 See also Canada; Latin America; United States La America (newspaper), 7:332 America-Israel Cultural Foundation, 2:46–47 America-Israel Culture House (NY), 2:46 American, Sadie, 2:47 American Abstract Artists, 4:50 American Academy for Jewish Research, 2:47, 18:723 American Association for Jewish Education, 2:47–48, 6:196 See also Jewish Education Service of North America The American College (Flexner), 7:78 American Communist Party, 3:247, 5:98, 13:232 American Council for Judaism, 2:48 American Ethical Union. See Ethical culture American Examiner (periodical), 2:49 American Exceptionalism, 13:232 American Families of Jewish Descent (Stern), 19:214 American Federation of Labor, 12:411 American Foreign Policy Between the Wars (Adler), 1:408 American Foundation for AIDS Research (Amfar), 5:56 American Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors, 2:48–49 306

American Graffiti, 6:21 American Greetings Corporation, 18:39 American Hebrew (periodical), 2:49, 4:214, 5:255 American history Bailyn, Bernard, 3:68–69 Boorstin, Daniel J., 4:79 Sarna, Jonathan Daniel, 18:58–59 American Indians. See Native Americans American Israelite (periodical), 2:50, 6:320 American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), 2:50–52, 18:462 The American Jew: A Zionist Analysis (Halpern), 8:283 American Jewess (periodical), 2:53 American Jewish Archives (AJA), 2:53–54, 407, 9:161–162, 425 An American Jewish Bibliography (Rosenbach), 17:432 American Jewish Committee (AJC), 2:54–56, 5:90–91 Adler, Cyrus, 1:395 Bijur, Nathan, 3:695 Fineberg, Solomon Andhil, 7:26 Loeb, Morris, 13:161 Slawson, John, 18:673 American Jewish Conference, 2:56, 14:451 American Jewish Congress (AJCongress), 2:56–58 Bikel, Theodore Meir, 3:696 Black-Jewish relations in U.S. and, 3:735 boycotts, anti-Nazi, 4:111 minority rights, 14:289 Pam, Hugo, 15:608 American Jewish family, 6:695–707 American Jewish Historical Society, 2:58–59, 9:160, 18:723 Adler, Cyrus, 1:395 American Sephardi Federation, 2:64 Center for Jewish History, 4:542 founding, 9:161 Holocaust, 9:425 Karp, Abraham J., 11:815 American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation (Agro-Joint), 2:60, 3:718 American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), 2:59–64, 3:434, 7:19, 9:245, 490, 11:719, 20:256–257 Asociación Mutual Israelista Argentina, 2:71

Baerwald, Pau, 3:55 education, Jewish, 6:186 France, 7:163 Haber, Samuel L., 8:175 Holocaust rescues funding, 13:700 Hyman, Joseph, 9:650 Jordan, Charles Harold, 11:403 Latvia, 12:521 Leavitt, Moses, 12:577 Romania, 7:19 Slovak Jews, aid to, 18:684 The American Jewish League for Israel, 12:563–564 American Jewish Periodical Center (AJPC), 2:54 American Jewish Publication Society. See Jewish Publication Society American Jewish World Service, 14:123 American Jewish Year Book (periodical), 2:56 American League for the Defense of Jewish Rights (ALDJR), 4:110–111 American literature. See Canadian literature; United States literature The American Negro: A Study in Racial Crossing (Herskovits), 9:46 American Palestine Fund, Inc., 2:46 American Pastoral (Roth), 20:295–296 American Pop (Bakshi), 3:74 The American Princess. See HaNesikhah ha-Amerikait American Professors for Peach, 13:75 American Psychiatry Association, 11:766 American Psychoanalytic Association, 13:169 American Red Cross, 18:773 American Revolution, 2:43–44 Bush, Solomon, 4:305 New York City and, 15:197–198 American Sephardi Federation (ASF), 2:64–65, 4:542 Americans for Democratic Action, 2:653 Americans no Iewes, or Improbabilities that the Americans Are of that Race (L’Estrange), 14:460 American Society for Jewish Music (ASJM), 2:65 Americans of Jewish Descent (Stern), 2:54 American Youth and the Holocaust study, 9:449 American Zionist Committee for Public Affairs, 2:50 American Zionist Council (AZC) American Israel Public Affairs Committee, 2:50

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

American Zionist Movement, 2:65 American Zionist Emergency Council, 2:65, 6:773, 18:584, 21:607 American Zionist Federation, 2:65 American Zionist Medical Unit (AZMU), 2:60, 8:186 American Zionist Movement (AZM), 2:65 Americas. See America Amerika – heute und morgen (Holitscher), 9:321 Das amerikanische Wirtschaftswunder (Hirsch), 9:126 Améry, Jean, 2:65–66 Amery, John, 2:66 Amery, Julian, Baron Amery of Lustleigh, 2:66 Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett, 2:66 Amery, Leopold Charles Mauritz. See Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett Ames family, 2:66 Amfar (American Foundation for AIDS Research), 5:56 Am ha-arez: , 2:66–70 AMIA (Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina), 2:70–71, 11:754 Amichai, Yehuda, 2:71–72, 8:703, 704, 11:217 Amici Israel association, 4:712 Amidah, 2:72–76 Al ha-Nissim, 1:655, 2:75 Al H: et, 1:658 Anenu, 2:75 Arvit, 2:537 Attah, Eh: ad, 2:645 benedictions, 3:331–332 Berakhot, 3:399–400 Birkat ha-Minim, 3:711–712 Book of Life, 4:69 festivals, 6:770 Jerusalem, 11:214 kedushah, 2:74 Kerovah, 12:88 kerovah, 12:88 laborer, 12:410 liturgy, 13:131–132, 135–136 Maimon ben Joseph, 13:371 Maimonides, Moses, 13:384 min, 2:72, 74, 75, 14:280 minh: ah, 2:72, 74, 75, 14:302 Ne’ilah, 2:72, 76, 15:65 prayers for rain, 13:601 priestly blessing, 16:510–511 proselytes, 16:589 resurrection, 17:240–241

Shemoneh Esreh, 18:458 Shofarot, 18:508 syogogues, 19:353, 362 Amidar, 2:76–77 Amiel, Barbara, 11:467 Amiel, Moshe Avigdor, 2:77 Amiel - Rabbi Emanuel Rackman Program for Practical Rabbinics, 17:30 Amiens, Viscomte D’. See Calmer, Moses Eliezer Liefmann Amieth. See Almon (territory of Benjamin) Amigo, Abraham, 2:77 Amigo, Isaac, 2:77 Amigo, Joseph Meir, 2:77 Amigo, Meir, 2:77 Amigo family, 2:77 Amina, 2:77–78, 11:555, 556 Aminoff, Abraham, 11:557 Amintu¯ (widow), 6:66 Amir (Israel), 2:78 Amir, Aharon, 2:78, 4:393 Amir, Anda, 2:78 Amir, Eli, 2:78 Amir, Menahem, 2:78–79 Amir, Yigal, 10:246–247 Amira, Binyamin, 2:79 Amiran, David, 2:79 Amiran, Emanuel, 2:79 Amiran, Ruth, 2:79, 329, 330, 371 Amir Faysal, 10:17 Amirim (Israel), 2:79 Amishai-Maisels, Ziva, 2:79–80 AMIT (Mizrachi Women’s Organization of America), 2:80 Amit, Meir, 2:80 Amital, Yeh: udah: , 15:703 Amitay, Morris J., 2:51, 52 Amitsur, Samson Abraham, 2:80–81 Amittai, 2:81 Amittai ben Avida Ahizedek. See Caro, David Amittai ben Shephatiah, 2:81, 4:184 Amittai of Oria, 15:470 Amlander, Menahem. See Amelander, Menahem Mann ben Solomon HaLevi Amman (ancient Israel). See RabbathAmmon (ancient Israel) Amman (Jordan), 11:404 See also Rabbath-Ammon (ancient Israel) Ammatha (ancient city), 2:81 Ammatu. See Ammatha (ancient city) Ammatus. See Ammatha (ancient city) Ammerschweier (France). See Ammerschwihr (France)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Ammerschwihr (France), 2:81–82 Ammi’ad, 2:82 Ammianus Marcellinus, 2:82, 11:573 Ammi bar Nathan, 2:82, 11:478–479 Amminadab (Ammonite king), 2:85 Amminadav (Israel), 2:83 Amminadbi (Ammonite king). See Amminadab (Ammonite king) Ammon and Ammonites, 2:83, 83–87 alphabet, Hebrew, 1:694t, 695 Amalekites, 2:29 conquest of, 11:122–123 David and, 5:450 inscriptions and seals, 3:657 Jotham and, 11:465 Moab, 14:399 Ammudei ha-Avodah (Landshuth), 12:476–477 Ammudei ha-Golah (Corbeil), 4:773 Ammudei Lashon (Loewe), 13:166 Ammudei Sheva (Aaron Selig ben Moses of Zolkiew), 1:221 Ammud ha-Esh (Barash), 3:136 Ammundei Gavra (Segal), 18:246 Amnon (son of David), 2:87, 19:494 Amnon of Mainz, 2:87 Am Olam, 2:87–88 Amon, 2:88, 9:181 Among Friends: Who We Like, Why We Like Them and What We Do with Them (Pogrebin), 16:278 Among Lions. See Be-Tokh Leva Eim Among People. See Vlyudjakh Among the Nations. See Silbermann Amora, 2:88–89 academies, 1:349–350 Dimi, 5:662 Dimi of Nehardea, 5:662–663 Levi, 12:684 Levi ben Sisi, 12:702–703 Amoraic period Bible, interpretation of, 9:817–818 legal maxims, 12:603 Samael, 17:714 Satan, 18:72–73 sevarah, 18:323 Takkanot, 19:446 Amoraim, 2:88, 89–95, 89t, 91, 92 academies, 1:349–351 aggadah, 1:455–458, 459, 462, 464, 2:94 Alexandri, 1:631–632 aliyah of, 10:330 Babylonian, 10:40–41, 11:135–136, 708 baraitot, 3:124–126 307

INDEX

Amoraim, continued Benjamin ben Japheth, 3:361 codification of law, 4:768 controversy restrictions, 5:157 Eleazar ben Pedat, 6:306–307 Eleazar ben Yose II, 6:308–309 halakhah, 2:89, 94, 8:252–256 H: ama Bar Bisa, 8:291 H: ama Bar H: anina, 8:291 H: ama of Nehardea, 8:291 Hamnuna, 8:310 Hamnuna Saba, 8:310 Hamnuna Zuta, 8:310 H: ana Bar H: anilai, 8:313 H: ana ben Bizna, 8:313 H: anina Bar Papa, 8:322 H: anina ben Abbahu, 8:322 H: isda, 9:144 H: iyya, 9:295–296 H: iyya bar Abba, 9:295–297 H: iyya bar Avin, 9:297 Hoshaiah, Rav, 9:559 H: unya of Beth-Horon, 9:622 Jerusalem Talmud, 2:93, 95, 19:483–485 Ketuvim cited by, 3:579 law and morality, 12:536–537, 539 legal maxims, 12:603–604 liturgy, 13:131 Mishnah, 14:320–321 Mishnaic Hebrew of, 8:649–650 mishpat Ivri, 14:337, 340 Palestinian, 11:30, 32–33 Isaac Nappah: a, 10:52 savora, 18:85 Sheshet, 8:313, 18:466 Simeon ben Abba, 18:594 Simeon ben Jehozadak, 18:597 Simeon ben Lakish, 18:597–598 Simeon ben Pazzi, 18:599 Simlai, 18:606 tannaim, 19:505 Amorite language, 8:621, 622, 625 Amorites, 2:95–97 Adoni-Zedek, 1:414 Anath, 2:131 defeat of, 11:72 Mari, 2:131 Phoenicia, 16:120 Amorkesos, 11:464 Amos, 2:97–103 book, 2:98–100 eschatology in, 6:490 prophecies, 2:100–103 prophet, 2:97–98, 101–103 308

Amos Studies (Morgenstern), 14:486 Un amour amaldroit (Bosco), 4:425 Amphibians, 7:297 Amphictyonic hypothesis, 3:654, 658 Amram (14th c.), 2:103–104 Amram (Babylonian amoraim), 2:103 Amram (father of Aaron, Moses, and Miriam), 2:103, 14:311–312, 523, 526 Amram, David, 2:104 Amram, David Werner, 2:104 Amram, Mordecai. See Hirsch, Markus Amram, Nathan ben H: ayyim, 2:104 Amram, Werner David, 2:104 Amram ben Sheshna, 2:104–105 Amidah, 2:73, 75 angels, 2:158 Amram Darah, 2:105 Amram Gaon. See Amram ben Sheshna Amram H: asida, 2:105 Amram I, 2:103 Amram II, 2:103 Amram of Mainz, 2:106 Amran (Yemen), 2:106 Am Rande der Zeit (Bab), 3:14 Amraphel, 2:106 Am Roked (Kadman), 11:700 Amschelberg (Bohemia). See Kosová Hora (Bohemia) Amshewitz, John Henry, 2:106 Amshinov, Jacob David of, 20:651 Amshinov dynasty, 20:651 Amsterdam (Netherlands), 2:106–120, 116 1795-1870, 2:110–111, 6:749 1870-1940, 2:113–115 pre-1795, 2:106–110, 117 Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac, 1:269 bankers, moneylending, 3:114 community leaders seventeenth century, 15:759 diamond trade and industry, 5:635 post-1945, 2:116–120 Holocaust, 2:115–116, 18:11 Meyer, Jonas Daniel, 14:147 printing, publishing, 7:207, 16:533 Sarphati, Samuel, social projects by, 18:60 seals, use of, 18:227 Sheluh: ei Erez: Israel, 18:449 ties with Cochin (India), 15:759 See also The Netherlands Amsterdam, Birdie, 2:120–121 Amsterdam editions, Haggadah, 8:215

Amsterdam Joodsche Raad, 2:599 Amsterdam School (architectural movement), 5:534 Amtah: binyamin, 3:9 Amtchislav (Belarus). See Mstislavl (Belarus) Amuladi (king of Kedar), 14:403 Amulets, 2:121–123 ba’al shem, 3:9 birth amulet, vol. 7: color insert birth customs and folklore, 3:721, 722 Judeo-Persian, 11:554 Samaritan, 2:123–124 See also Magic A mulher que escrevu a Bíblia (Moacyr), 18:207 Amulo, 2:124 Amunhotpe, Nebmare. See Amenophis III Amurru. See Amorites Amusin, Joseph, 2:124, 11:321 Am va-Sefer (Brit Ivrit Olamit), 4:189 Amzalak, H: ayyim, 2:124 Amzalak, Moses Bensabat, 2:124–125 Anab, 2:125 Anacharsis. See Cloots, Jean Baptiste du Val-de-Grâce Anacletus II, 2:125, 16:148, 373 Anaharath, 2:125 Anak, Anakim, 1:544, 2:125–126 Anakim. See Anak, Anakim An American Testament: A Narrative of Rebels and Romantics (Freeman), 7:228 Anammelech, 2:126 Anan (Babylonian scholar), 2:126 Anan (high priest). See Anan ben Seth Anan, son of Anan, 2:126–127 Anan ben David, 2:127–128 Judeo-Arabic literature and, 11:532 Karaites historical development, 11:787–789 Anan ben Marinus ha-Kohen, 2:128 Anan ben Seth, 2:128–129 biblical commentaries by, 3:641 biography of, 3:706 Ananel the Babylonian. See Hanamel Ananiah ben Azariah (groom), 6:312 Ananias and Helkias, 2:129 Ananias ben Nedebeus, 2:129, 6:299 Ananias of Adiabene, 2:129 Ananias son of Zadok, 2:130 Ananiev (Ukraine). See Ananyev (Ukraine) Ananites, 2:127–128, 11:787

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Ananiyyim. See Ananites Ananus, son of Seth. See Anan ben Seth Ananyev (Ukraine), 2:130 Anapa (Russia), 2:130 Anarchism, 3:75, 18:709–710 Anarchisms, 16:13 Anaschehon, Joseph, I, 2:130 Anaschehon, Joseph, II, 2:130 Anaschehon, Meir, II, 2:130 Anaschehon family, 2:130–131 Anaschichun family. See Anaschehon family Anashikon, Meir. See Anaschehon, Meir, II Anath, 2:131, 3:11, 12 Anathema. See Blessing and cursing Anat Hoffman v. Jerusalem Municipal Council, 5:128 Anathoth (Israel), 2:131, 132 Anatol ben Joseph, 15:581 Anatoli. See Anatoli ben Joseph Anatoli, Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Samson, 2:132–133, 3:645, 12:698, 16:86 Judah ha-Nasi and, 11:501 Anatolia. See Asia Minor Anatoli ben Joseph, 2:133 Anatomy, 2:133–135, 13:721–722 See also Medicine Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp (Gutman & Berenbaum), 9:420 Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp (Van Pelt), 9:415 Anatomy of the SS State (Jacobesen), 9:416 Anau, Phinehas H: ai ben Menahem, 2:136–137 Anau family, 2:136, 136 Anav. See Anab Anav, Abraham ben Jacob, 2:136 Anav, Benjamin ben Abraham, 2:137 Anav, Jehiel ben Jekuthiel ben Benjamin ha-Rofe, 2:137–138 Anav, Judah ben Benjamin ha-Rofe, 2:138 Anav, Moses ben Abraham, 2:136 Anav, Nathan ben Jehiel. See Nathan ben Jehiel of Rome Anav, Salvatore, 2:136 Anav, Zedekiah ben Abraham, 2:136, 138–139 Anav family. See Anau family Anbar. See Pumbedita (Babylonia) Ancˇerl, Karel, 2:139 Ancestral guilt, inheriting, 21:498 Ancestral merit, inheriting, 21:497–498

Anchel, Robert, 2:139 Anchetatorul apatic. See The Apathetic Interrogator Anchor Bible, 3:616–617 Ancient Aramaic. See Aramaic, ancient The Ancient Economy (Finley), 7:39 The Ancient Melodies of the Liturgy of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews (de Sola), 18:751 Ancient of Days, 2:139–140 Ancient Order of Maccabeans. See Order of Ancient Maccabeans Ancona (Italy), 2:140–141 Paul IV, 15:531–532 Paul VI, 15:695 Ancona, Alessandro, 2:141–142 Ancona, Cesare D’, 2:142 Ancona, Mario, 2:142 Ancona, Paolo, 2:142 Ancona, Sansone, 2:142, 16:345 Ancona, Vito D’, 2:142–143 Ancona family, 2:141–142 Ancyra. See Ankara (Turkey) Andalusian poetry, 1:438–439, 6:47–48 Anderle von Rinn. See Andrew of Rinn Andernach (Germany), 2:143 Anders, Guenther, 2:143 Andersch, Alfred, 2:65 Anderson, Gilbert Maxwell, 14:570 Anderson, Paul, 18:93 And He Is Different. See Ve-Hu Ah: er And It Came to Pass (Bialik), 18:761 Andrada, Salvador d’, 15:195 Andrade, Abraham, 4:83 Andrade, Edward Neville da Costa, 2:143–144 Andrade, Velosino Jacob de, 2:144 Andreas. See Lucuas Andreas of Rinn. See Andrew of Rinn Andreas of Saint-Victor. See Andrew of Saint-Victor Andrewes, Lancelot, 2:144, 3:613 Andrew of Rinn, 2:144 Andrew of Saint-Victor, 2:144–145, 4:96 Andreyev (Poland). See Jedrzejow (Poland) Androgynos, 2:145 Andronicus II (Byzantine emperor), 4:327 Andronicus son of Meshullam, 2:145 And Stars Remain (Epstein and Epstein), 6:474 “And the Angels Sing” (Elman), 6:365 And the Crooked Shall be Made Straight (Robinson), 9:415

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Anello, Solomon, 1:502 Anenu, 2:75 Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre, 2:145 Anes. See Ames family Añes, Dunstan. See Añes, Gonsalvo Añes, Francisco, 2:66 Añes, George, 2:66 Añes, Gonsalvo, 2:66 Añes, Jacob, 2:66 Añes, Sarah, 2:66 Añes, William, 2:66 Añes family. See Ames family Anfei Erez: (Silver), 18:585 Anfinsen, Christian Boehmer, 2:145– 146, 4:592–593, 13:10 Angaria, 2:146 Angel, Aaron, 2:146–147 Angel, Baruch, 2:147 Angel, Marc D., 2:147 Angel, Meir ben Abraham, 2:147 Angel, Shemayahu, 2:147 Angelo, Aaron Vita di, 17:297 Angel of Death, 2:147–150 The Angel of Death. See Mengele, Josef Angels and angelology, 2:150–161 Abaddon, 1:224 Abraham announcement of birth of Isaac, vol. 7: color insert Apocalypse of, 1:288–289 Testament of, 1:291 Adam, 1:372 “Addir bi-Melukhah,” 1:385 Amen, 2:39 amulets, 2:121, 122 Apocalypse, 2:257 Apocrypha, 2:152–156 Balaam, 3:78 Belial, 3:289–290 Bible, 2:150–152 cherub and cherubim, 2:150, 4:600–601 Daniel ben Moses al-Qu¯mis¯ı, 5:428 Daniel’s dream, 5:421 Dead Sea Scrolls, 5:502–503 death, angel of, 2:147–150 vs. demons, 5:573–574 Elimelech of Lyzhansk, 6:348 Enoch, Ethiopic Book of, 6:443 Gabriel, 2:152, 153, 5:421, 14:167– 169 host of heaven, 9:566–567 idolatry, 9:710 Jacob and, 11:18, 19 in art, 11:23–24 309

INDEX

Angels and angelology, continued Jerusalem Talmud, 19:484 Jewish philosophy, 2:159–161 Karaites, 11:789 liturgy, 2:158 logos, 2:159, 13:174–175 magic, 13:342–345, 347–348, 350, 352 Maimonides, 2:160, 13:390 manna, 13:478 Manual of Discipline, 5:676–677 Metatron, 14:132–134 Michael, 2:152, 14:167–169 Midrash, 2:156–158 modern period, 2:161 Moses, 14:534–536, 539 mysticism, 2:158–159 nature of man, 13:446, 448, 450 Philo (the Elder), 16:58 prayer, 16:459 providence, 16:648–649 Raphael, 17:93–94 Sadducees, 17:655 Samael, 17:715 Samson, 17:749 Sandalfon, 18:10 Sefer ha-Razim, 17:130 Solomon, 18:760 Solomon, Testament of, 18:768 song, angelic, 19:14 Talmud, 2:156–158 Uriel, 20:421–422 visions, 20:543–545 watchers, 20:688 See also Nephilim; Satan The Angels Are Coming. See Malakhim Ba’im Angels in America (Kushner), 15:227 Angelus, Theodore Ducas, 6:463 The Angel with the Trumpet. See Der Engel mit der Posaune Angers (France), 2:161, 175 Anghelov, Dimitur, 4:276 Angicaymal. See Ernakulam Anglican Church Alexander, Michael Solomon, 1:623–624 Israel (state), 10:640 Jewish relations, 11:281 See also World Council of Churches (WCC) Anglo-American Committee of Enquiry Regarding the Problems of European Jewry and Palestine (1946), 3:703, 15:584–585, 586 Anglo-Boer War. See Boer War 310

Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society, 2:161–162 Anglo-Israeli theory, 4:188 Anglo-Jewish Association (AJA), 2:162, 3:319, 353, 6:415, 419, 12:565 Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition (1887), 11:292, 14:626 Anglo-Palestine Bank, 3:180, 10:513, 514, 547, 586, 587 Anglo-Saxon Federation of America, 4:188 Angoff, Charles, 2:162 Angora. See Ankara (Turkey) Angoulême (France), 2:162–163 Angrist, Alfred Alvin, 2:163 Anhalt (Germany), 2:163 Anhalt, István, 2:163–164 Anielewicz, Mordecai, 2:164 Anilaeus and Asinaeus, 2:164–165, 3:27, 11:440 Ani Ma’amin, 2:165 Animales feroces (Chocrón), 4:657 Animal Liberation (Singer), 18:640 Animals, 2:168t–171t in art bulls, bronze figures, vol. 1: color insert calf, ivory figure, vol. 1: color insert fish, paper cut, vol. 2: color insert Jonah and the whale, illustration, vol. 1: color insert leopard, mosaic, vol. 1: color insert lion, seal, vol. 1: color insert lionness and cub, mosaic, vol. 1: color insert monkey, bronze figure, vol. 1: color insert ram, mosaic, vol. 1: color insert sacrificial animals, painting, vol. 1: color insert scarab seals, 18:225 sculpture, 18:222 Taurus the Bull, mosaic, vol. 1: color insert Tiberias reliefs, vol. 1: color insert of the Bible and Talmud, 2:166– 172, 12:696–697 blemished, 3:749–750 bull symbolism, 18:570 Commandments, the 613, 5:75– 76, 78, 80–84 concern for, 5:165–166

cruelty to, 2:165–166 damages from, 2:751–752 dietary laws, 5:650–659 Elephantine Temple, 6:312–313 fables, 6:666–669 fasting, 6:721 firstborn, 7:45–46 goats, 5:488, 492–493 hides, 12:574–577 homicidal, bloodguilt of, 3:774 vs. human life ethics, 5:168–169 Ir ha-Niddah: at, 10:28–29 Israel, 10:143 leopards, 12:649 lions, 5:418 lion symbolism, 18:570 Mishnah, 14:324 mixed species, 14:385–387 moles, 14:425 nature of man, 13:448 nevelah, 15:129 Noah, 15:287–288 Parah, 15:630 prehistoric Israel, 10:142 prohibited, hare, 8:347–348 proverbs, 16:647 ritual purity and impurity, 16:746–747 sacrifices, 17:639–649 Sheh: itah, 18:434–437 soul, 19:34 terefah, 19:647 torts, 20:63–66 tribal representations, 11:26 See also specific animals and classes of animals The Animals’ Collection (Kalonymus ben Kalonymus). See Iggeret Ba’alei H: ayyim Animal slaughtering, commandments concerning, 5:76t–77t Animal tales, 2:173–174, 15:622 Anim Zemirot, 2:174 Aninut, 2:174, 14:587 Anise, vol. 16: color insert Anisfeld, Boris, 2:174–175 Anisimov, Ilya Sherbatovich, 2:175 Ani ve-Shimon u-Moise ha-Kattan (Banai), 3:106 Anjou (France), 2:175 Ankara (Turkey), 2:175–176 Ankawa, Abraham ben Mordecai, 2:176, 13:24 Ankawa, Raphael ben Mordecai, 2:176 Ankori, Zevi, 2:176–177 Anman. See Rosenthal, Pavel

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Anman, P. Rol. See Rosenthal, Pavel Anna Akhmatova (Eichenbaum), 6:246 Annaba (Algeria). See Bone (Algeria) Anna be-Kho’ah, 2:177 Anna be-Korenu, 2:177 Annaeus Seneca. See Seneca the Elder Annals. See Kita¯b al-Tar¯ıkh Ann Arbor (MI), 2:177–178 Anna Teller (Seid), 18:253 L’Année Sociologique (periodical), 6:63–64 Anne Frank: The Whole Story, 9:440 Annenberg, Walter H., 2:178–179, 6:25–26, 11:468 Annenberg Research Institute for Judaic and Near Eastern Studies, 6:25–26 Annita (King of Kusˇsˇar), 9:291 The Ann Landers Encyclopedia (Lederer), 12:596 Annotations (Ainsworth), 1:550–551 Annulment, 1:514–517, 518, 520 Anointing, 2:179–180, 15:395–396 Anokhi, Zalman Yiz: h: ak, 2:180 “The Anonymous” (13th c.). See Jacob ha-Katan Another Language (Franken), 7:202 An San. See Chao Ch’eng Ansbach (Germany), 2:180, 7:144 Ansell, David Abraham, 2:180–181 Anselm ha-Levi, 2:181 Anselm of Canterbury, 2:181 Anshei Knesset ha-Gedolah. See Synagogue, The Great Anshel ha-Levi. See Anselm ha-Levi Anshel of Cracow, 2:181 An-Ski, S., 2:181–182, 11:694, 17:98 The Dybbuk, 8:179 Justman, Moshe Bunem, 11:581 An-Ski collections, 2:182–183 Ansorge, Martin Charles, 2:183–184 Anspach, Philippe, 2:184 Antaka (Turkey). See Antioch (Turkey) Antakya (Turkey). See Antioch (Turkey) Antebi, Albert, 2:184 Antebi, Avraham. See Antebi, Albert Antelope, 2:184–185 Anthedon (Hellenistic city), 2:185 Anthologie juive des orgines á nos jours (Fleg), 7:72 Anthony, Joseph, 2:185 Anthropocentrism, 5:164 Anthropodicy Job as, 11:355–356 Anthropology, 2:185–188 Boas, Franz, 4:21–22

Bunzel, Ruth Leah, 4:285 cultural materialism, 8:363 Elkin, Adolphus Peter, 6:359 Erlich, Vera Stein, 6:481 Fortes, Meyer, 7:133 Harris, Marvin, 8:363 Herskovits, Melville Jean, 9:46 Landes, Ruth, 12:468–469 Levin, Maksim Grigoryevich, 12:710 Levi-Strauss, Claude, 12:730 Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien, 12:756–757 Lewis, I. M., 12:765 Lewis, Oscar, 12:766 Lowie, Robert Harry, 13:236–237 Luschan, Felix von, 13:270 Montagu, Montague Francis Ashley, 14:452 Polányi, Karl, 16:326–327 race, theory of, 17:45–47 Radin, Paul, 17:54–55 Rappaport, Roy, 17:100 Róheim, Géza, 17:369–370 Sapir, Edward, 18:37 Schapera, Isaac, 18:107 Seligman, Charles Gabriel, 18:266 Shapiro, Larry Lionel, 18:405–406 Singer, Milton B., 18:639 Anthropomorphic God, 11:516 Anthropomorphism, 1:213, 379, 2:188–192, 7:659, 11:730 Antibi, Abraham ben Isaac, 2:192, 192–193 Antibi, Jacob, 2:192 Antibi family, 2:192 Antichresis, 2:193 Antichrist, 2:193–194, 474–475 Anti-Christian Polemics. See Polemics and polemical literature Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 2:194–195, 9:245 American Israel Public Affairs Committee, 2:52 Arab propaganda, 2:194 Foxman, Abraham, 7:142 history of, 4:14 Anti-Dictator. See Discours de la servitude volontaire Anti-Fascist Committee, Jewish, 2:196–197 Antigonus, 11:414, 13:299 Antigonus I, 2:197 Antigonus II, 2:197–198, 9:197 Antigonus Mattathias, 8:446–447 Antigonus of Carystus, 2:198 Antigonus of Sokho, 2:198

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Anti-Israel Arab boycott, 4:111–113 Anti-Jewish boycotts, 4:109–110, 9:328, 461. See also antisemitic political parties and organizations; Antisemitism; Boycotts Anti-Jewish Decrees. See Antisemitism Antilles, Netherlands. See Netherlands Antilles Antimony, 14:128 Antin, Mary, 2:198–199 Anti-Nazi boycotts, 4:110–111, 111t Antinomianism, 1:231, 2:199–201, 18:353 Antioch (Turkey), 2:201, 201–202 Antiochene school, 3:665–666 Antioch on the River Chrysorrhoas. See Gerasa (Jordan) Antiochus (ancient Israel). See Banias (ancient Israel) Antiochus, Scroll of. See Scroll of Antiochus Antiochus I, 2:202 Antiochus II, 2:202, 5:422 Antiochus III, 2:202–203, 3:26, 9:192, 193, 13:295 Antiochus IV, 2:203, 9:193, 194 blood libel and, 3:775 Eleazar, 6:298 Jason and, 2:203, 11:90 Jerusalem and, 11:148 Nicholas of Damascus on, 15:252 Scroll of Antiochus, 18:213–214 Antiochus V, 2:203 Antiochus VII, 2:203, 18:601 Antiochus IX, 2:203–204 Antiochus Cyzicenus. See Antiochus IX Antiochus dynasty, 2:202–204 Antiochus Epiphanes. See Antiochus IV Antiochus Eupator. See Antiochus V Antiochus III, 4:781 Antiochus Sidetes. See Antiochus VII Antiochus Soter. See Antiochus I Antiochus the Great. See Antiochus III Antiochus Theos. See Antiochus II Antipas. See Antipater II Antipas, Herod, 2:204, 204, 9:39 fortification of Sepphoris, 18:306 John the Baptist and, 11:381 Antipater Joseph (son), 11:414 Julius Caesar and, 11:574 Antipater I, 2:204–205, 205 Antipater II, 2:205, 205 Antipatris (Palestine), 2:205–206 Antiphonal Psalmody. See Music 311

INDEX

Antiphony I (Brant), 4:130 Antiproton, 18:252 Antiquities of the Jews. See Jewish Antiquities Antisemitism, 2:206–246, 215, 14:41– 142 Abbas I, 3:15 Abbasids, 1:234 Abbas II, 1:231, 3:15 Abd al-H: aqq al-Isla¯m¯ı, 1:240 Abraham a Sancta Clara, 1:292 Aden, 1:388, 389, 5:681 Afghanistan, 1:433 Africa, 1:436 Agobard, 1:469, 2:124 Ahlwardt, Hermann, 1:547 Alaric II, 1:575 Algeria, 1:649–651, 4:533 Algiers, 1:653–654 Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1:671–675 American Jewish Committee, 2:55–56 American Jewish Congress, 2:57– 58 Amran, 2:106 Amsterdam, 2:106, 115–166, 119 Amulo, 2:124 Andrew of Rinn, 2:144 Anglo-Saxon Federation of America, 4:188 Anti-Defamation League, 2:194– 196 in antiquity, 2:206–209 anti-sheh: itah movements and, 18:435 Apion, 2:256 Arab countries, 2:225–226, 236 Argentina Buenos Aires, 4:253–254 DAIA, 5:379–380 Asia-Pacific region, 2:238–239 Austria, 2:217, 219, 4:224, 16:340 Carinthia, 4:480 Charles VI of Hapsburg, 4:576–577 Christian Social Party, 4:694 Deckert, Joseph, 5:528 Eisenstadt, 6:268–269 references in Catholic literature, 18:168 Schoenerer, Georg von, 18:156–157 Seipel, Ignaz on, 18:255 Babylonia Sasanid dynasty, 3:29–30 badges, Jewish, 3:45–48 Austria, 2:689 312

Belgium, 2:250 Boniface IX, 4:63 England, 3:45 France, 2:6, 81, 3:45–46, 47 Germany, 3:46–47, 450 Italy, 2:137, 140, 292, 3:46, 47, 12:506 Netherlands, 2:115 Spain, 6:91 Basil I, decrees of, 18:460–461 Battle of Cable Street, 3:215 Belgium, 2:234, 16:144 Bernheim Petition, 3:475–476 of Billroth, Theodor, 3:699 Birobidzhan, interest in, 3:719 Bischhoff, Erich, 3:724 Black Code of 1685, 8:240 Black Death and, 3:731–734, 732– 733, 15:94–95 Blake, William, 3:737 blood libel and, 3:775, 776, 778, 779, 17:163 Bloomberg, Michael, on, 3:782 B’nai Brith, 4:14, 15 Board of Delegates of American Israelites, 4:19 Bohemia, 1:312, 4:39, 41 Bonald, Louis de, 4:55 Boniface VIII, 4:63 boycotts, 4:109–110 Brafman, Jacob, 4:116–117 Brazil, 4:148–150, 151, 16:407, 18:31–32, 33 British West Indies, 4:473, 474 Brunner, Sebastian, 4:224 Bucer, Martin, 4:237 Bukhara (Uzbekistan), 4:261–262 Bulgaria, 4:271–273 Byzantine empire, 4:325–326 Calvin, John, 17:163 Canada, 4:18, 91, 186, 394–395, 396–397, 402, 403–404, 408– 409, 415–416, 422, 423 Ahenakew, David, 18:65 Alberta, 1:590 Scheuer, Edmund on, 18:124 caricatures of Jews, 4:477–479 carnival customs, 4:486 Carthage, 4:499 Catholic Chuch Second Vatican Council on, 11:380 Catholic Church, 4:710–711, 712, 713–714, 716–717 Calixtus III, 4:365 censorship, 4:540

Church Fathers, 4:719–721 La Civiltà Cattolica, 4:748– 749 Clement, 4:752–753 Clement VIII, 2:140 Crusades, 2:162, 5:310–315 Dominicans, 5:745–746, 17:126–127 Paul IV, 2:140 Caucasus, 4:527 Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, 4:563 Chiarini, Luigi, 4:607 Chile, 4:643 Christianity, 2:106, 124, 239, 4:685, 690, 713 early period, 2:209–210 Melito of Sardis, 14:13 Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 4:725 circuses, 4:735 Colombia, 4:475 “cosmopolitans,” 5:232 Coudenhove-Kallergi, Heinrich von, 5:238 Crimean affair, 5:301 Cuba, 5:319–321 Cuza, Alexander C., 5:345 Czechoslovakia, 2:229, 5:360–361, 363, 13:600 in literature, 5:365–366 Slánsky´ Trial, 18:665–666 pre WW II, 5:356 Czech Republic, 4:534–535 Carlsbad, 4:482 Ceska Lipa, 4:552 Ceske Budejovice, 4:552 Cheb, 4:585–586 Chomutov, 4:666 Miroslav, 14:314 Damascus Affair, 5:399–401 Denmark, 5:584 development of, 9:238, 10:36, 821 Diaspora, 2:207–209 discrimination and, 5:679–681 Dubrovnik (Croatia), 6:38–39 Dutch literature and, 6:68–69 early Islam, 2:210 early postwar period, 2:224–225 economic history, 6:103–129, 134– 138 effect on Jewish philosophy, 16:92 Egypt, 6:234–235 Alexandria, 1:632, 634, 635– 636, 6:229–230 Arab rule, 6:230–232 Cairo, 4:343–344, 345

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

modern period, 6:234–236 Ottoman Turks, 6:232–234 Roman era, 6:228–229, 16:28 Eichmann, Adolf Otto, 6:248 Eisenmenger, Johann Andreas, 6:268 Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, 6:303–304 emancipation period, 2:214–223 England, 6:410, 418, 423, 425, 426, 427 Canterbury, 4:435–436 London, 13:182 Enlightenment period, 2:213–214 Erasmus of Rotterdam, 6:477 Evian Conference, 6:576–577 expulsions, German, 7:523 expulsions and, 6:625 Filderman, Wilhelm, 7:19 Ford, Henry, 18:39 former Communist nations, 11:282 France, 2:6–9, 221–223, 238, 4:82 Action Française, 1:369–370 Agde, 1:446 Agen, 1:449 Aix-en-Provence, 1:552 Albi, 1:591–592 Alphonse of Poitiers, 1:730 Bergheim, 3:427 Béziers, 3:559 Blois, 1:609 Cadenet, 4:331 Caen, 4:332, 460–461, 515 Carcassonne, 4:460–461 Carpentras, 4:493–494 Castelsarrasin, 4:515 Châlons-sur-Marne, 4:563 Chalon-sur-Saône, 4:563 Chambéry, 4:564 Champagne, 4:565 Charles II, King of France, 1:310 Charles IV, 4:575 Charles VI, 4:576 Chateaubriand, François René, 4:582–583 Chinon, 4:651 Clermont-Ferrand, 4:755 Cluny, 4:763 Draguignan, 6:6–7 Dreyfus affair, 6:18–19, 26 Drumont, Edouard-Adolphe, 6:26 Ensisheim, 6:447 French Revolution, 7:252–255

Lyons, 1:469 Morhange, 14:491 Pastoureaux, 15:685 Provence, 1:592, 16:638 Savoy, 18:86 Third Republic, 7:158 twentieth century, 3:378, 5:438, 441, 7:167–168, 13:692 Galicia Lvov, 4:724 Germany, 2:215, 215–216, 217, 218–219, 238, 4:540, 546, 7:624, 12:436 Agrarian League, 1:470 Berlin, 3:445, 447, 448–451 Calwer, Richard, 4:378 Carben, Victor von, 4:460 Charles IV, 4:575 Chemnitz, 4:593–594 Christian Social Party, 4:695 Cleves, 4:759 Coburg, 4:764 Cochem, 4:765 Delitzsch, Friedrich, 5:540– 541 Einbeck, 6:255 Emden, 6:392 Erfurt, 6:478 Essen, 6:509 Esslingen, 6:514 Fulda, 7:309 German Conservative Party, 5:177 Hamburg, 8:296 Hanover, 8:330 Heidingsfeld, 8:764 Kristallnacht, 12:362–363 medieval, 5:436 Mommsen, Theodor, 14:431 Mosbach, 14:515 Nuremberg laws, 15:348–350 Saxony, 18:88 Unified Germany, 7:543 Greece Chalcis, 4:561 Chios, 4:651 Haidamacks, 8:233–234 Hapsburg dominions, 2:219 Hep! Hep!, 8:811–812 Herzl, Theodor, 9:55 Hungary, 1:369, 377, 2:217, 219– 220, 4:540, 9:612, 618–619, 10:786 Ada, 1:370 Alberti-Irsa, 1:591

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

literature, 9:604–605 informers, 9:780–786 interreligious societies to fight, 11:278–279 inter-war period, 2:223–224 Iran, 10:12–13 Hamadan, 8:292–293 Iraq, 5:681, 10:18–19, 20–21 H: illa, 9:107–108 Ireland, 10:26–27 Irving v. Lipstadt, 10:30–32 Islam dhimma, dhimmi, 5:631–632 Israel, 2:206–207 Istanbul (Ottoman period), 10:778 Italy, 2:140, 4:382, 445, 10:799– 801, 803–805, 807, 808–809, 810–811, 812, 813 Acqui, 1:359 Alessandria, 1:618 Bergamo, 3:418 Bologna, 4:49 Brescia, 4:163 Calabria, 4:348 Capistrano, John of, 4:445 Capua, 4:457 carnival celebrations, 4:486 Casale Monferrato, 4:504 Catania, 4:523 Catanzaro, 4:523 Cesena, 4:551–552 Chieri, 4:615 Fascist regime, 6:716–717 Franciscan order, 3:469 Palermo, 15:581 Rome, 4:523–524 Japan, 2:240–242, 11:81, 85, 18:289 Jewish identity and, 11:293, 297, 299 Jewish image, 7:511–513 Jewish labor and, 12:411 John Paul II on, 11:384 Josephus on, 11:438, 440 Justin Martyr, 11:580 of Juvenal, 11:582 Latin America, 2:46, 235, 238, 12:511 League of Nations, 12:565 Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, 5:92–94 Libya, 5:681 Lithuania Aleksander Jagiellonczyk, 1:610 Brest-Litovsk, 4:168–170 liturgy Kol Nidrei, 12:277 313

INDEX

Antisemitism, continued Luther, Martin, 17:163–164 Majorca Chuetas, 4:707–708 Masaryk, Thomas Garrigue and, 13:600 medals indicating, 13:714, 715t, 716 Middle Ages, 2:211–212, 476–477, 477, 6:555–556 agriculture, Jewish, 1:494 Dulcea of Worms, 6:44 France, 4:460, 563 Hugh of Lincoln, 9:579 modern 1970s, 2:233–238 1980s, 2:238–242 1990s, 2:242–244 2000s, 2:244–245 origins of, 6:544 Mojecki, Przeclaw, 14:423 Morocco, 14:499, 501, 502–503 Casablanca, 4:503, 504 Moses, 14:531–532 New Zealand, 15:244–245 Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 7:512, 15:262 Nordau, Max, 15:298 in Norway, 15:308–309, 310 oaths more Judaico or Juramentum Judaeorum, 15:364–365 Ónody, Géza, 15:434 OZON, 15:558 Palestinian Authority, 2:328 Paraguay, 15:630 in partisan movement, 15:666 Peru, 15:795–796 pogroms, 16:279–282 Poland, 1:508, 2:217, 220, 229, 4:445, 540, 5:97–98, 11:102, 12:594–595, 16:300–305, 317– 318, 321, 322–323 Aleksander Jagiellonczyk, 1:610 Bialystok, 3:567 Breslau, 18:319 Checiny, 4:586 Chelm, 4:588 Chmielnicki, Bogdan, 4:654– 656 Chmielnik, 4:656, 657 Chryzanow, 4:707 Ciechanow, 4:725 Cracow, 5:261–262 Dmowski, Roman, 5:723–724 Endecja party, 6:402–403, 11:740 314

Kalisz, 11:740 Legnica, 12:610 literature, 16:335–338 Mlawa, 14:395–396 nineteenth century, 11:117– 118 Pilsudski, Józef, 16:163–164 Rozwój, 17:505–506 Samuel Commission, 17:775 Skarga, Piotr, 18:657 political participation and, 16:339 Portugal, 1:431–432, 18:28–29 Lisbon, 13:79–80 Protestants, 16:631, 633 Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, 6:297 Prussia Calmanson, Jacob, 4:374 Rathenau, Walther, 17:111 Reformation, 2:212–213 refutations, 6:688 Rindfleisch, 17:334–335 Rohling, August, 17:370 Roman Empire, 4:486, 12:453– 454, 17:374–375 Romania, 2:217, 220–221, 5:433– 434, 8:474, 11:91, 92, 17:382, 383, 396 Campulung Moldovenesc, 4:390 Cluj, 4:762 Codreanu, Corneliu Zelea, 4:781 Focsani, 7:93 Iron Guard, 10:29–30 Siret, 18:643 Slonim, 18:676 Rosenberg, Alfred, 17:434–435 Ruehs, Christian Friedrich, 17:526 Russia, 2:217, 221–222, 4:525, 540, 9:238 1970s, 17:569 1980s, 17:572–573 Alexander, 1:620–621 cantonists, 4:437–439 Eliasberg, Mordecai, 6:319 Moscow, 14:517–518, 520– 521 post-WW II, 17:553–554, 556, 558 Russian Federation, 17:583– 586 USSR regime, 17:543 WW II, 17:547–549 Saint Louis incident, 5:320 Sardinia, 18:53 Alghero, 1:652

Cagliari, 4:335 Schnitzler, Arthur on, 18:152 science fiction and fantasy, 18:201–202 Sephardim and, 18:301–302 Serbia Ada, 1:370 Slovakia, 18:683, 684 Dunajska Streda, 6:46 socialism and, 18:704, 705, 707, 708, 710–711 South Africa, 2:238 Spain, 2:213, 4:519 Aguilar de Campóo, 1:509– 510 Alba de Tormes, 1:581 Albarracín, 1:587 Alfonso X, 1:642 Almohads, 1:681 Cádiz, 4:331 Calahorra, 4:350 Calatayud, 4:351–352 Carmona, 4:485 Carrion de los Condes, 4:496 Cartagena, 4:496–497, 497 Castellón de la Plana, 4:514 Castile, 1:643 Castrojeriz, 4:518–519 Cea, 4:534 Cervera, 4:550–551 Chillón, 4:645 Ciudad Real, 4:745 Ciudad Rodrigo, 4:745 Coca, 4:764–765 Écija, 6:91 Elvira, 6:371 Escalona, 6:488 Estella, 6:514–515 Madrid, 13:333 Majorca, 13:412–414 medieval, 5:437 Miranda de Ebro, 14:310 Segovia, 18:250 Seville, 18:327 Tarragona, 19:521 St. Eustatius, 4:472 Stalin, Joseph, 5:96, 99 Swedish literature, 18:92 Switzerland Berne, 3:471 Endingen and Lengnau, 6:404 Syria, 4:495–496, 5:681 Aleppo, 1:614, 615, 616, 4:587 Der Talmudjude (Rohling), 17:370 Transylvania Alba Iulia, 1:582

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Turkey Edessa, 6:148–150 U.K., 2:233, 237 Aliens Act of 1905, 1:659 Samuel Commission, 17:775 Ukraine, 20:235–236, 238, 244– 245 Aleksandriya, 1:610 Bratslav, 4:134 Cherkassy, 4:594–595 Chernigov, 4:596 Chernobyl, 4:597 Chernovtsy, 4:597–599 Chudnov, 4:708 Ehrlich, Eugen, 6:243 Haller’s Army, 8:281 Yekaterinoslav, 5:724–725 Uman massacre, 20:244–245 United Nations, 20:268–269 Uruguay, 20:426 U.S., 2:214, 223, 229–233, 237, 238, 20:387–394 1920s-1930s, 6:697 Alabama, 1:573 Birmingham, 3:713 Black-Jewish relations in, 3:736 Boston, 4:99 Civil War, 2:44, 8:34–35 dance, 5:414 Detroit (MI), 5:610–611 efforts to combat, 15:716 Frank, Leo, 7:192–193 Global Anti-Semitism Review Act of 2004, 4:305 Montana, 14:454 North Carolina, 15:303 Orange County, 15:462 Westchester County, 21:22 USSR, 2:226–229, 235–236, 4:65, 16:320–321 Broadsky, Joseph, trial of, 4:198 dance, 5:415 doctors’ plot, 5:728–729 literature, 5:427 Venezuela, 4:474–475, 20:497–498 Curaçao, 4:471 Wagner, Richard, 20:595 Wiener Gesera, 21:50 Yemen, 18:6 See also Blood libel; Communism; Emancipation; Neo-Nazism; Numerus clausus Antisemitism, its History and Causes (Lazare), 12:558

Antisemitism and the Christian Mind (Davies), 4:684 L’Antisémitismeé son histoire et ses causes (Lazare), 12:558 Anti-semitizm w Swietle Cyfr (Alter), 2:18 Anti-sheh: itah movements, 18:435 Antisthenes, 2:459 Anti-Trinitarians, 4:249–250 Anti-Zionism 1970s, 2:236–237 1980s, 2:239–240 1990s, 2:243–244 Berger, Elmer, 3:424 Blau, Amram, 3:742 Brach, Saul, 4:116 Brazil, 4:151 Dragunski, David Abramovich, 6:7 Dubnow, Simon, 6:35–37 Montefiore, Claude Joseph Goldsmid, 14:455 Norway, 15:308–309 Antloifers (Bryks), 4:230 Antoine, Nicolas, 2:246 Antokolski, Mark, 2:246–247 Antokolski, Mordecai. See Antokolski, Mark Antokolski, Pavel Grigorevich, 2:247 Antonescu, Ion, 2:247 Antonescu, Mihai, 2:247 Antonia (fortress in Jerusalem), 2:247– 248 Antonin Collections, 13:494–495 Antoninus Pius, 2:248–249 Antonio, 2:249 Antonius Diogenes, 2:249 Antonius Julianus, 2:249 Ants, 2:184 Antschel, Paul. See Celan, Paul Antuñes family, 2:249 Antwerp (Belgium), 2:249–251, 3:281– 282, 5:635 Anusim, 2:251–254, 3:121 Aklar Mordecai ben Raphael, 1:569 Bibago, Isaac, 3:571 Jewish identity and, 9:223, 11:294– 295 new Muslims, 11:58 Paul IV, 9:226 Portuguese communities, 6:588 Uzbekistan, 4:259 In Anxiety. See In Umru (Litvakov) L’an zéro de l’Allemagne (Morin), 14:492 Apam, 2:254 Apamea (Turkey), 2:254, 587

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Apartheid, 7:762 The Apathetic Interrogator (Duda), 6:40 Apel, Willi, 2:254 Apeloig, Yitzhak, 2:254–255 Apes, 2:254 Apfelboym, Maurycy. See Appelbaum, Moshe Aphek, 2:205, 255, 6:85 Aphraates, 4:720 Aphrahat, 3:599 Aphrodite (opera, Erlanger), 6:480 Apikoros, 2:255–256, 9:20 Apikoros Sleuth (Majzels), 4:424 Apion, 2:256, 3:775 ‘Apiru, 15:748 Apiryon Asah Lo (Solomon ben Aaron), 18:769 Apocalypse, 2:256–258 of Abraham, 1:288–289 Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:184–185 Apocalypse of Elijah, 6:337 apocrypha, 6:495–498 Bloch, Joshua, on, 3:764 Daniel, Vision of (13c.), 5:426 Daniel and, 5:418, 420–421, 423– 424, 6:494–495 Dead Sea Scrolls, 6:498–500 Elijah, 6:333 Greek Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:186 Isaiah, Book of, 10:66–67 See also Eschatology Apocalypse of Abraham, 1:288–289 Apocalypse of Adam, 14:728–729 Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:184–186 Apocalypse of Elijah, 6:337 Apocalypse of Isaiah Deutero-Isaiah, 6:493 eschatology, 6:491, 494 Apocalypsis Moysis. See Book of the Life of Adam and Eve Apocalyptic esotericism. See Kabbalah Apocalyptic literature Abraham ben Eliezer ha-Levi, 1:298 Assumption of Moses, 14:544–545 Beck(ius) Matthias Friedrich, 3:250 Enoch, 6:441–445 ingathering of the exiles, 9:786 Joel, Book of, 11:361–362 Judah Halevi, 11:495 Judas (Christian writer), 11:523 medieval, 7:10–11 modern biblical criticism and, 3:654–655 315

INDEX

Apocalyptic literature, continued Moses, 14:533 mysticism in, 11:590 olam ha-ba, 15:399–400 paradise in, 15:628 Persian influence, 6:495 Samael, 17:714 Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, 15:692 See also Apocalypse; Eschatology Apocrypha, 2:258, 258–261 Abraham, Testament of, 1:291 angels in, 2:152–156 Apocalypse of Elijah, 6:337 Assumption of Moses, 14:544–545 astrology, 2:615–616 astronomy, 2:621 Book of the Life of Adam and Eve, 1:377–378 Davidic Messiah, 14:111–112 devil in, 13:668–669 dualism, 6:30 folklore, 7:96–97 halakhah, 8:255 Hebrew fiction, 7:11–12 Hellenistic literature, 7:659 Jacob, Testament of, 11:29 Jeremiah, Epistle of, 11:135 Jewish censorship, 4:540–541 Jewish literature, 13:85–86 Joseph and Asenath, 11:418 Jubilees, Book of, 13:668–669 Kahana, Abraham, 11:710 labor, 12:409 Lamech, 12:444–445 magic, 13:343–344 Martyrdom of Isaiah, 10:76 New Testament, 15:191 Prayer of Manasseh, 13:453–454 pre-Middle Ages, 13:85–86 providence, 16:648–649 Psalms of Solomon, 18:766–767 Rest of the Words of Baruch, 3:187–188 Sabbath, 17:618 Sifrei ha-Minim, 18:564 Temple destruction, 10:144 Ten Lost Tribes, 19:639 Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, 15:691–693 Tobit, 6:691 Wisdom of Ben Sira, 3:376–378 Wisdom of Solomon, 18:768–769 Apocryphal Ezra. See Ezra, Greek Book of Apocryphal literature Abraham, other books of, 1:290 316

Abraham, Testament of, 1:291 Adam, other books of, 1:377 Adam and Eve, Book of, 1:377– 378 afterlife, 1:441 Apocalypse of Abraham, 1:288–289 Book of Baruch, 3:185–186 Enoch, 6:441–442 Enoch, Ethiopic Book of, 6:442– 444 Enoch, Slavonic Book of, 6:444– 445 eschatology, 6:495–498 Esther, additions to the Book of, 8:294 God, names of, 7:676–677 Lamech, Book of, 12:445 Maccabees, Book of, 8:325, 331 magic, 13:343–344 prayer, 16:458 Rest of the Words of Baruch, 3:187–188 Susanna and the Elders, 19:326– 327 Tobit, Book of, 20:12–14 The Apocryphon of John, 14:729 Apodictic legal formulation, in Book of the Covenant, 4:68 Apollinaris of Hierapolis, 4:719 Apollonia (Israel), 2:261–262 Apollonius, 2:262 Apollonius Molon, 2:262, 14:532 Apologetic literature. See Apologetics Apologetics, 2:262–269 Christianity, 2:263–264 eighteenth century, 2:268 Hellenism, 2:262–263 Luzzatto, Simone ben lsaac Simh: ah, 13:287–288 medieval, 2:264–268 Midrash, 2:263 nineteenth century, 2:268–269 Philo Verlag, 16:114 Talmud, 2:263 twentieth century, 2:269 Apologia (Pico della Miraondola), 16:146–147 The Apologia (Jedaiah ben Abraham Bedersi), 11:101 Apologia David altera (Ambrose), 2:37 Apologie des Juifs (Hourwitz), 8:439 An Apology for the Honourable Nation of the Jews, and all the Sons of Israel (Nicholas), 15:252 Apostasy, 1:209, 2:269–277 Abdallah ibn Sala¯am, 1:241 Abner of Burgos, 1: 264–265

Alboraycos, 1:595 Alexander, Michael Solomon, 1:623 Alexeyev, Alexander, 1:636 Alfonso of Zamora, 1:643 Bernays, Michael, 3:470 Bourges, 4:106 Brafman, Jacob, 4:116 Brandstaetter, Roman, 4:128 Carben, Victor von, 4:460 Cassel, Paulus Stephanus, 4:508 Christiani, Pablo, 4:673 Christianity, 2:270–272, 4:677 Christian Science Church, 4:694 Chwolson, Daniel, 4:724 Dawlah, Rashid al-, 8:292 Diaspora, 2:274–275 Donin, Nicholas, 5:750 eighteenth century, 2:271–272 Elisha ben Avuyah, 6:352–354 Fioghi, Fabiano, 7:41 folklore, 2:277 Frank, Jacob, 7:187–189 Gamaliel ben Pedahzur, 7:366 Gans, Eduard, 7:377 Ginsburg, Christian David, 7:610 golden calf, 1:209, 14:525, 528, 530, 535–536 Halévy, Daniel, 8:269 Hellenism, 2:269–270 Hermanus Quondam Judaeus, 9:25 Hirschensohn-Lichtenstein, Jehiel Z: evi Hermann, 9:136 informers revealed by, 9:780 Islam, 2:270, 275 Jewish law, 2:275–277, 12:543–544 Jona, Giovanni Battista, 11:387 Juan de Espagña, 11:472 from Judaism to Christianity Buedinger, Max, 4:251 Carben, Victor von, 4:460 Domus Conversorum, 5:747 Drach, Paul-Louis-Bernard, 6:5–6 Ehrlich, Arnold Bogumil, 6:242–243 Eliano, Giovanni Battista, 6:318 Elias Le Eveske, 6:320 Engelberg, H: ayyim of, 6:409 Este, Joa˜o Baptista de, 6:514 Hermanus Quondam Judaeus, 9:25 Hirschensohn-Lichtenstein, Jehiel Z: evi Hermann, 9:136

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

John XXII on, 11:379 Julian III on, 11:574 Levertoff, Paul Philip, 12:681 Mithridates, Flavius, 14:370 Morosini, Giulio, 14:508 in Ottoman empire, 15:531 Pablo de Santa Maria, 15:562–563 Vineam sorce of Nicholas III, 15:249 from Judaism to Islam Ba¯ba¯¯ı ben Farha¯d, JudeoPersian poetry of, 11:556 Jewish identity and, 11:295 in Ottoman empire, 15:531 Klaczko, Julian, 12:209 Kraus, Karl, 12:341 Lorki, Joshua, 13:192–193 Lothar, Ernst, 13:216 Margarita, Anton, 13:522 Margoliouth, Moses, 13:528 Maritain, Raïssa, 13:546 Marranos, 2:271 medieval Germany, 16:25–26 Mendelssohn-Veit-Schlegel, Dorothea, 14:41 Mithridates, Flavius, 14:370–371 Monis, Judah, 14:444 Neander, August, 15:47 nineteenth century, 2:272 Nola, Elijah ben Menachem da, 15:294 Nuñez, Henrique, 15:345 Pasternak, Boris Leonidovich, 15:684 Pasternak, Boris Leonidovich: , 2:272–273 Pauli, Johannes, 15:695–696 Petrus Alfonsi, 16:21 Pfefferkorn, Johannes, 16:25–26 Pitigrilli, 16:188 Provence (France), 16:638 Rabinovich, Joseph, 17:37 Ratisbonne brothers, 17:111–112 Reformation period, 2:271 Reuter, Paul Julius, Freiherr von, 17:249 Ricardo, David, 17:282 Ricius, Paulus, 17:292 Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen, 17:450–451 Rufeisen, Oswald, 2:273, 274 SaEid ibn Hasan, 17:668 Salkinson, Isaac Edward, 17:691– 692 Samau’al ben Judah ibn EAbba¯s al-Maghrib¯ı, 17:741–742

Schereschewsky, Samuel Isaac Joseph, 18:122 Schumann, Maurice, 18:175 Seneor, Abraham, 18:288–289 Shabbetai Z: evi, 18:348–350, 351 Sixtus of Siena, 18:656 Spain Alcañiz, 1:599 Stahl, Friedrich Julius, 19:156–157 Stein, Edith, 19:176 Trebitsch, Arthur, 20:124 Trebitsch, Siegfried, 20:124 twentieth century, 2:272–273 Vambery, Arminius, 20:470 Veith, Johann Emanuel, 20:491 Weidner, Paulus, 20:699 Weininger, Otto, 20:722 Wolff, Joseph, 21:144–145 Zˇídek, Pavel, 21:527 Zoller, Israel, 21:666 See also Conversion; Forced conversion The Apostate (Molnár), 14:427 Apostles, 2:277–278 Apostolic Age, 2:278 Apostomos, 2:278 Apoteke, 12:815–816 Apotropos, 2:278–283 Apparel industry. See Clothing and textiles industry; Fashion industry Apparition. See Divination Appeals, 2:283–284 Appeals of Communism (Almond), 1:683 Appearance of a Man (Backer), 3:40 Appel, Judah Leib, 2:284–285 Appelbaum, Moshe, 2:285 Appelboym, Maurycy. See Appelbaum, Moshe Appelfeld, Aharon, 2:285–286, 8:704, 705 Appelman, Harlene, 2:286–287 Apphus. See Jonathan the Hasmonean Appian of Alexandria, 2:287 Appion, 11:440 Appiryon Asah Lo (Troki), 11:792 Apple, Max, 2:287 Apple, Raymond, 2:287–288 Applebaum, David, 18:775 Applebaum, Louis, 2:288 Applebaum, Maurycy. See Appelbaum, Moshe Apple blossoms, vol. 16: color insert Apples, 2:287 Appleton’s New American Cyclopaedia, 8:768

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Appobalsamon. See Balsam Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (motion picture), 6:21 The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (Richler), 4:423–424 L’Apprenti sorcier. See The Sorcerer’s Apprentice Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust and Its Legacy (Rubenstein & Roth), 9:418 Apt (France), 2:288 Apta (Poland). See Opatow Apta, Meir, 2:288 Apter, David Ernest, 2:288–289 Aptheker, Haim. See Atar, Haim Aptowitzer, Avigdor. See Aptowitzer, Victor Aptowitzer, Victor, 2:289 Aptrod, David. See Abterode, David ben Moses Eliakim Aptrod, David ben Moses Eliakim. See Abterode, David ben Moses Eliakim Apuleius, Lucius, 2:289 Apulia (Italy), 2:289–291 Apulum (Transylvania). See Alba Iulia (Transylvania) EAqedah. See Akedah An Aquarius. See Vodná´r Aquila, 15:433–434 Greek translation of Bible by, 3:585, 597, 601 Targum Onkelos and, 3:590 Aquila (Italy), 2:291 Aquileia (Italy), 2:291 Aquinas, Thomas, 2:291–292, 6:50 Aquino, Benigno S., 18:752 Aquino, Corazon, 18:752 “A.R.”. See Rothstein, Arnold DAra (Canaan), 2:292 al -’Araba. See The Arabah Araba (Israel), 2:292–293 The Arabah, 2:293, 10:122–123 Arabarch. See Alabarch Arab boycott, 4:111–113, 10:22, 256 Arabia, 2:293–296, 294, 15:259 See also Saudi Arabia Arabian Peninsula. See Arabia Arabic and Judeo-Arabic Bible translations ancient, 3:603–605 modern, 3:627 Arabic language, 2:296–299, 297, 8:658–659 Abu, 1:333 Ammonites, 2:84 Blau, Joshua, 3:743–744 commentaries in, 11:86–87 317

INDEX

Arabic language, continued Dunash ibn Tamim, 6:48–49 Hebrew, influence on, 8:658–665 Hebrew translations, 2:132 Al-H: arizi, Judah ben Solomon, 1:655–657 in Mishnaic Hebrew, 8:647–648 Moreh, Shmuel, 14:484 nouns, 8:556 Semitic languages and, 18:283 sentence syntax, 8:602 Skoss, Solomon Leon, 18:662 translations from Hebrew, 8:734 See also Judeo-Arabic language Arabic Literary Society, 6:318 Arabic literature, 4:170–171, 10:734– 737, 15:472–473 See also Judeo-Arabic literature Arabishce Syntax (Reckendorf), 17:146 Arab-Israeli conflict Arab League, 2:300 Arab world, 2:305–309, 310–311, 328 bi-nationalism, 3:702–703 Holocaust art imagery, 2:520–521 peace negotiations, 4:760–761 Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, 4:760– 761 Arab-Israel War (1948) Jordan, 11:404 Arabists Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne, 5:772 Heller, Bernát, 8:793–794 Arab League, 2:299–300, 6:145, 12:580 Arab League Council, boycott against Palestine, 4:111–112 Arab Legion, 1:243–244, 11:178–179 Arab Literature under the Shadow of War (Ballas), 3:92 Arab nationalism, 1:244, 10:196, 271– 272, 279–281 Arab period Egypt Alexandria, 1:634 Israel, land of, 10:157, 157–161 Arab population Gaza Strip after Six-Day war, 10:717–718 Egyptian control, 10:303, 717 Israel (state), 10:278, 485–486, 521–522, 679, 712–739 1948–67, 10:712–715 1970s, 10:719–721 1980s to mid-1990s, 10:721– 728 1995 to 2005, 10:728–733 318

in administered territories, 10:239, 241–242 Arab refugees, 10:256, 267– 271 arts and popular culture, 10:733–734 Bedouin, 10:737–739 demography, 10:485–486, 521–522 farming, and urbanization, 10:485–486 Gaza Strip, 10:303, 717 health services, 10:679 Jordanian Rule, 1948–67, 10:715–717 post-Six-Day War, 10:231, 232, 717–719 refugee problem, 10:256 refugees and, 10:256 Six-Day War and, 10:231, 232 standard of living, 10:224– 225 voting by, 10:250–251 Palestine (Mandate), 10:710–712, 712t West Bank after Six-Day war, 10:717–718 Jordanian control, 10:715– 717 See also Palestinians Arab Revolt (1936-1939), 10:277, 338, 18:753 Arab world, 1945-2006, 2:300–328 Algeria, 2:322–323 Arab-Israeli conflict, 2:305, 306– 309, 310–311, 328 Bombay, Arabic Jews in, 4:51 caricatures of Jews, 4:479 democracy, 2:326–328 demography, 2:328 discrimination and, 5:681 Egypt, 2:300, 307–308, 309–311, 326–327 Egyptian-Israeli peace, 2:311–313 Fertile Crescent, 2:300, 301 foreign policy and relations with Israel (state), 10:264, 12:546 globalization, 2:324–326 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 2:301 inter-Arab politics, 2:301–304, 309–310 Iran-Iraq war, 2:313 Iraq, 2:301, 326–328 Islamists, 2:324–325, 326 Israel, 2:313–316, 317–320, 320– 324, 475–476 Jordan, 2:305, 316–320

Lebanon, 2:301, 313, 314 Maghreb, 2:300, 320–324 Morocco, 2:306, 314, 320–322, 326, 327 musical influence of, 14:696 Nasserists, 2:325–326 Operation Peace for Galilee, 2:313 Oslo Accords, 2:316–320 Palestine, 2:301, 302–303, 317–320 Palestine Liberation Organization, 2:304–305, 313, 317 Palestinian Authority, 2:300, 301, 320, 326 Sudan, 2:300–301 Syria, 2:302–303, 306, 317–320 Tunisia, 2:323–324 Yemen, 2:304 See also Middle East; Near East Arab world, pre-1945 Abbasids, 1:233–234 blood libel in, 3:780 Arad (Israel), 2:328–331 archaeology, 2:371 Eliashib (name), 6:320 excavations, 5:335 stone altar at, 2:12 Arad (Romania), 2:331 Arad, Ron, 2:331–332 Arad, Yael, 2:332 Arad, Yitzhak, 2:332 Arad ostraca, 3:656 Arad Program, 21:614 Aradus (Syria), 2:332 Arafat, Musa, 15:600 Arafat, Yasser, 2:309, 332–335 agreements signed with, 10:245, 246 Bush, George W., 4:305 death of, 15:595 Al -Fatah: and, 10:279–280 Intifada (second), 10:251 Oslo Accords, 10:245 Palestine Liberation Organization and, 15:590, 593, 594, 595 Palestinian Authority and, 15:596, 597, 598, 599, 600 Wye Plantation Agreement, 10:249 Araga¯o, Ferna¯o Ximenes de, 2:335 Aragon (medieval Spain) Alconstantini family, 1:604 conversion in, 5:437 Eleazar family, 6:298 Aragon, Louis, 3:763 Aragon Synagogue, 11:828 Arakhim u-Derakhim (Dinur), 5:672 Arakhin, 2:335–337

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Aram. See Mar (term of respect) Aram (Syria) Ahab, 1:523 Ahaz, 1:539 Aram-Damascus, 2:359–360, 8:485–486 Arama, Isaac, 2:160, 531, 6:726 Abraham, 1:285 allegorical interpretation of scripture, 3:645 Bibago, Abrahem ben Shem Tov, 3:571 exile, meaning of, 7:360 H: asidei Ummot ha-Olam, 8:389 Maimonides’ essential principles of Judaism, 11:513 Moses, 14:537 Arama, Isaac ben Moses, 2:339–341 Arama, Meir ben Isaac, 2:341–342 Arama, Moses, 2:274 Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. (Driver), 6:22 Aramaic language, 2:342–359, 344t, 345t, 8:647–648, 669–670 alphabet, Hebrew, 1:694t, 695– 697, 706, 709t Amorites, 2:96 ancient, 2:342, 343–346, 345t Chaldean language, 4:561, 562 classical, 2:356 Daniel, Book of, 5:424 Dead Sea scrolls, 8:635 decline in importance of, 3:641 European languages and, 2:356 He, letter, 8:506 Hebrew, spoken, 2:357 Hebrew grammar, influence on, 8:573 Hebrew influenced by, 11:301 Jewish languages, as element in, 11:302 Job, Aramaisms in book of, 11:351 Jonah, Aramaisms in book of, 11:389 Judah ha-Nasi on, 11:503 Judeo-Persian grammars, 11:554 Lamentations Rabbah, 12:452 late, 2:343, 348–357, 350t Eastern, 2:352–357, 353t, 355t Western, 2:348–349 Levi, Testament of, 12:694–695 middle, 2:342–343, 347–348 in Mishnaic Hebrew, 8:647–648 Mishnaic Hebrew and, 2:356 Neo-Aramaic, 15:70–72 New Testament and, 15:192 official, 2:343–347, 345

parts of Bible composed in, 3:581 proverbs, 16:647 Scroll of Antiochus, 18:214 Semetic languages and, 18:282, 284 translations of Bible, ancient CPA, 3:600 Judith, Book of, 11:567 Onkelos, 15:433–434 Peshitta (Syriac Aramaic), 3:599–601 Samaritan Bible, 3:599, 652 targumim, 3:588–594 Aramaic literature Abraham ben Daniel, 1:295 Ah: a of Shabh: a, 1:530 Akdamut Millin, 1:555 A¯l-Asa¯t: ¯ır, 1:576 The Jewish War (Josephus), lost Aramaic version of, 11:436 Josippon, 11:462 Sefer ha-Mitzvot, 2:127 Die aramaischen Texte vom Toten Meer (Beyer), 18:470 Aram and Arameans, 2:337–339, 338 Aramatha. See Ramoth-Gilead (ancient Israel) Aram-Damascus, 2:359–360 Aramean kingdom, 2:489 Arameans Chaldeans, 4:561 Laban, 12:406 Pekod, 15:717 Les Araméens (Dupont-Sommer), 6:51 Aram Zoba. See Aleppo Aram-Z: oba (Syria). See Aleppo (Syria) Aram-Z: ova (Syria). See Aleppo (Syria) Aran, Zalman, 2:360 Aranha, Oswaldo, 4:153 Aranne, Zalman, 10:224 DArDara (Israel), 2:360 Ararat, 2:360–361 Ararat (NY), 15:291 Araton, Harvey, 2:361 Araunah, 2:361 The Aravah. See The Arabah Aravot. See Hoshanot Arazi, Yehuda, 2:361–362 Arba’ah Kinyanim (Canpanton), 4:432 Arba’ah minim. See Four species Arba’ah Turim. See Even Shetiyyah Arba’ah Turim (Jacob ben Asher), 4:307, 8:552, 11:30 Arba Ammot, 1:360, 2:362 Arba kosot, 2:362 Arba Panim (Ephraim ben Isaac). See Four Aspects (Ephraim ben Isaac)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Arba Shitot, 11:729 Arbatova, Mia, 2:362–363 Arbatta, 2:363 Arbeh. See Locusts Das Arbeitende EretzYisrael (periodical), 18:425 Arbeiter Ring. See Workmen’s Circle Arbeiter-Zeitung (newspaper), 2:363, 12:625 Arbeit macht frei mi-Toitland Europa, 8:723 Arbeitslager. See Camps, concentration and extermination Die Arbeitslosen von Marienthal (Lazarsfeld), 12:559–560 Arbel (Israel), 2:363–364 Arbela (Israel). See Arbel (Israel) Arbell, Mordecai, 2:364 Arbeter Ring. See Workmen’s Circle Arbib, Isaac ben Arroyo. See Arollia, Isaac ben Moses Arbib family, 2:364 Arbil (Iraq). See Irbil (Iraq) Arbitration, 1:249, 2:364–368 Arbol de Diana (Pizarnik), 16:209 Arbués, Pedro de, 2:368 Arbus, Diane, 2:368–369, 16:125 Arcel, Ray, 2:369 Archa, 2:369–370, 14:442 Archaeologists, 2:125, 370–372 Aharoni, Yoh: anan, 1:531–532 Albright, William Foxwell, 1:596 Ben-Dor, Immanuel, 3:328 Dothan, Trude, 5:764 Finkelstein, Israel, 7:33–34 Frankfort, Henri, 7:204 Herzfeld, Ernst Emil, 9:53 Hirschfeld, Gustav, 9:137 Kempinsky, Aharon, 12:73 Lawrence, Thomas Edward, 12:546 Lehmann, Karl, 12:615 Levi, Doro, 12:687 Mazar, Amihai, 13:705 Mazar, Benjamin, 13:705–706 Moscati, Sabatino, 14:515 Petrie, Sir William Matthew Flinders, 16:18–19 Raban, Avner, 17:6 Ramoth-Gilead, 17:88 Reifenberg, Adolf, 17:203 Reinach, Solomon, 17:205 Saulcy, Louis Felicien de Joseph Caignart, 18:83 Schaeffer, Claude F.A., 18:102–103 Schumacher, Gottlieb, 18:175 See also specific names 319

INDEX

Archaeology, 2:372–397, 373 Achzib, 1:356 Ai, 1:548–549 Alalakh, 1:574 altars, 2:12, 14 animal reliefs at Tiberias (3rd c. B.C.E.), vol. 10: color insert archaeological periods, 2:380–397 Bronze Age, 2:384–387, 12:420–421 Byzantine, 2:391 Chalcolithic, 2:383–384 Crusader, 2:392 Hellenistic, 2:388–390 Iron Age, 2:387–388 Islamic, 2:391–392 Ottoman, 2:392–393 Persian, 2:388 prehistoric, 2:381–383 Roman, 2:390–391 Assyria and Mesopotamia, 14:92– 93 Babylon, 3:24 Banias, 3:109 Bar Kokhba, 3:160–162 bas relief of menorah (3rd c.), vol. 14: color insert Beersheba, 3:256–257 Bet She’arim amphitheater (8th c.), vol. 14: color insert Bible and, 11:77 biblical criticism and, 3:650, 652, 654 bone-reaping hook (10th millenium B.C.E.), vol. 10: color insert B: ar‘am Synagogue remains, Golan Heights (3rd c.), vol. 14: color insert Butnah, 4:318 capital, Corinthian (4th-3rd c. B.C.E.), vol. 10: color insert capital from Kaz: erin synagogue (3rd-5th c.), vol. 14: color insert capital from Philistine city, vol. 10: color insert Christian history, 7:174–175 chronology, 4:704–705 Copper scroll, 5:213–214 Della Seta, Alessandro, 5:541 Delos (Greece), 5:545 dolmens, 5:736–737 Dura-Europos, 6:51–55 economic history, 6:95–96 Edom, 6:152 Ein Fashkhah, 6:255–256 320

Ein Gedi, vol. 10: color insert Ekron, 6:281–282 Elam, 6:283–284 El-Amarna, 6:284–285 El-Amarna letters, 6:284–285 Elephantine, 6:311–314 Elusa, 6:370–371 Emar, 6:386–390 Emmaus, 6:395–396 En-Gedi, 6:406–407 Eshtaol, 6:507 “Galilean” Mona Lisa (3rd c.), vol. 14: color insert gateway decoration, Jerusalem (19th c.), vol. 10: color insert Gezer, 7:569 gibeah, geba, 7:580–582 glass, 7:628–632 Golan, 17:79–80 Hammath, 8:307 Hanfmann, George Maxim Anossov, 8:320 H: azor, 8:498–500 Herat, 9:7 history of research in Israel, 2:377–379 household objects (2nd c. B.C.E.), vol. 10: color insert household objects, Golan Heights (3rd-5th c.), vol. 14: color insert Israel Caesarea, 4:333–334 Epstein, Claire, 6:469 Israel Exploration Society, 10:750 Jerusalem, 18:126–127 Misrephoth-Maim, 14:364 Judean Desert caves expeditions, 11:523–525 Kazerin, Golan Heights, vol. 14: color insert Lachish ostraca, 12:421–422 Loewy, Emanuel, 13:172 Madaba mosaic map, 13:329–330 Mamshit, vol. 10: color insert Masada, vol. 14: color insert methods and approaches, 2:372, 374–377 mikveh, 14:227–228 Mizpeh, 14:388 mizrah: of ancient synagogues, 16:421–426 Moab, 14:399, 400, 403 Modi’in, 14:412 Moloch, cult of, 14:427–428 MurabbaEat scrolls, 14:616–617

Nash papyrus, 14:783–784 Old City, Jerusalem, vol. 10: color insert origins of Israel and Israelites, 2:379–380 ossuaries, 15:506–507 ostraca, 15:508–509 Oven Cave, Carmel Cave, and River Cave (Israel), vol. 10: color insert Palestine seals, 18:226 Palestine Exploration Fund, 15:589 Philistines, 7:619 pillars, 16:159–161 pottery, 16:421–426 Rabbath-Ammon, 17:11 Ramat Rah: el, 17:82 sarcophagi, 15:506–507 Sepphoris, 18:307 Shaalbim, 18:334 Sha’ar ha-Golan, 18:336 Shechem, 18:430 Shivta (4th-6th c.), vol. 14: color insert Shuqba Cave, 20:593 Sinai, 14:528 Solomon, 18:755, 757–758 Spain Elche, 6:292 synagogue at Tiberias, vol. 10: color insert synagogue pavement (5th-6th c.), vol. 14: color insert Syria Ebla, 6:85–87 Tel Hazor, vol. 10: color insert Tell al-Q¯ıda¯h, 8:498–499 Tel Reh: ov, 17:193–195 tombs of Absalom, Zechariah, and the Hezir family, vol. 10: color insert underwater, 17:6 Wadi al-Nat: t: uf, 20:593 Wadi Da¯liya, 20:593 wine press (2nd c.), vol. 10: color insert Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (Albright), 1:596 The Archaeology of Palestine (Albright), 1:596 The Archaeology of the United Monarchy: An Alternative View (Finkelstein), 7:34 Archagathus. See Caecilius of Calacte Archangel (Russia), 2:397 Archeion. See Archives

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Archelais (Jordan Valley), 2:397 Archelaus, 2:397–398, 3:110, 4:455, 11:367 Archeologists. See Archaeologists Archeology. See Archaeology Archer, Armand. See Archerd, Army Archerd, Army, 2:398 Archipherecites, 2:398 Archisynagogos, 2:398, 4:163 Architecture and architects, 2:399–402 Abramovitz, Max, 1:323 Agrest, Diana, 1:471 Almoravids, 1:684 Baerwald, Alex, 3:54 basilica, 3:199 biblical influence, 3:673 bimah, 3:701–702 Black, Sir Misha, 3:731 Blankstein, Cecil, 3:740 Brazil Lerner, Jaime, 12:657–658 Breuer, Marcel, 4:172 Brunner, Arnold, 4:224 Brutzkus, David Anatol, 4:228–229 Bryer, Monte, 4:229 Bunshaft, Gordon, 4:284–285 Canada, 12:442–443 Denmark, 11:52 door and doorpost, 5:752–753 Dutch De Klerk, Michel, 5:534–535 Eidlitz, Leopold, 3:740 Elh: anani, Aba, 6:316 Elh: anani, Aryeh, 6:316 Elte, Harry, 6:369 England Rosenberg, Eugene, 17:435– 436 France Aldrophe, Alfred-Philibert, 1:607 Persitz, Alexandre, 15:792 Frank, Josef, 7:192 Gehry, 7:412 Germany Mendelsohn, Eric, 14:29–30 Hanson, Norman Leonard, 8:331 Hegedüs, Armin, 8:755 Hellenistic Jewish, 8:789–790 historians of England, 16:23 Hungary, 11:73, 12:440 Baumhorn, Lipót, 3:222 Israel, 10:701–704, 702–704 Karmi, Dov, 11:813

Rachter, Ya’akov, 17:144–145 Ratner, Yohanan, 17:113 Rau, Heinz, 17:115 Rechter family, 17:144–145 Italy Rogers, Ernesto, 17:368 Kantorowich, Roy, 11:771–772 Kaufmann, Richard, 12:32–33 Lambert, Phyllis, 12:442–443 Lapidus, Morris, 12:491 Lasdun, Sir Denys, 12:494 Levi, Rino, 12:692 Neutra, Richard Joseph, 15:125 Palestine (Mandate), 10:701–702 Palestine (Ottoman), 10:701 Phoenician, 16:123 photography, 16:126 pillars, 16:159–161 Schindeler, Rudolph M., 18:137 Sebestyén, Artur, 8:755 Sharon, Aryeh, 18:417–418 Solomon, 18:757–758 South Africa Hermer, Manfred, 9:29 Le Roith, Harold Hirsch, 12:659 Sterk, Izidor, 8:755 synogogue, 11:722, 16:160–161, 19:364–383 Tower of Babel, 3:19, 20–21 U.K., 5:481, 12:494 U.S. Adler, Dankmar, 1:395–396 Eisenman, Peter, 6:267 Eizenberg, Julie, 6:280 Freed, James Ingo, 7:224 Koning, Hendrick, 6:280 Lapidus, Morris, 12:491 Lerner, Ralph, 12:659 Libeskind, Daniel, 12:782 Meier, Richard, 13:774 Schwartz, Frederic, 18:184 See also specific locations Archives, 2:402–418 Archives de la Planete, 11:718 Archives of Jewish resistance, 3:569 Archives of Traditional Music, 13:83 biblical period, 2:402–405 The Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People, 2:413–414 Central Zionist Archives, 2:414 Diaspora, 2:406–410 Holocaust period, 2:410–413, 9:362

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Israel, 2:414–417 Middle Ages, 2:405–406 post-biblical period, 2:405 Rabbi Moses Nahum Yerushalimsky Collection, 18:155 Archivolti, Samuel, 2:418 Archivo Urbino, 2:409 Arch of Titus, 14:51, 19:743 Archon, 2:418–419 Archpresbyter, 2:419, 6:320, 411 Arcila, 2:419 Arco, Georg Wilhelm Alexander Hans, Graf Von, 2:419 Ard-al-Birka. See Benjamin, Walter Ardashir (Armenia), 2:419–420 Ardavan, 2:420 Ardeal. See Transylvania Ardit, Ephraim ben Abraham, 2:420 Ardit, Solomon, 3:695 Ardit family, 2:420 Arditi, Albert Judah, 2:420–421 Arditi, Benjamin, 4:276 Arditi, Eliezer, 4:276 Ardon, Mordecai, 2:421, 8:743 Ardut family, 2:421 Aréga, Léon, 2:421 Areios (King of Sparta), 15:431 Areios I, 2:421–422 Arenda, 2:422–423, 16:296–297 Arendt, Hannah, 2:143, 423–424, 16:109, 18:736 Eichmann in Jerusalem, 6:251–252 Judenrat institution, 11:527 Arendt, Otto, 2:424 Arens, Moshe, 2:424–425 Areopolis. See Rabbath-Moab (ancient Israel) Ares, 2:425 Aretas, 2:425 Arethusa (Judea), 2:425 Areus. See Areios I Areus I. See Areios I Arezzo (Italy), 2:425–426 Argens, Jean Baptiste de Boyer, 2:426 Argentina, 2:426–450, 428, 446t pre-1840, 2:426 1840-1890, 2:427 1890-1918, 2:427–431 1918-1930, 2:431–433 1930-1946, 2:433–437 1946-1968, 2:437–440 1968-2005, 2:437–448 agriculture, Jewish, 1:501, 11:775 Brie, Luis Hartwig, 4:181 cooperatives, 5:206 321

INDEX

Argentina, continued Daia, 5:379–380 education, Jewish, 6:211–212, 7:33 Entre Ríos, 6:448–449 Finkelstein, Chaim, 7:33 Fondo Communal of Clara, 11:775 immigration to, 11:286–287 Jewish community, 3:398–399, 11:754 Jewish settlement in, 2:46 Jewish writers, 19:90 journalism, 11:469, 12:513–514, 16:496 legal status, 2:427 literature Aguinis, Marcos, 1:510 Alpersohn, Marcos, 1:688 Constantini, Humberto, 5:182 Eichelbaum, Samuel, 6:245 Espinoza, Enrique, 6:509 Liacho, Lázaro, 12:773 poetry, 8:111, 115, 16:209 Rozenmacher, Germán, 17:503 Satz, Mario, 18:76 Sneh, Simja, 18:697 twentieth century, 6:732–733 Meyer, Marshall T., 14:148 Moisesville, 7:709 Nazi fugitives, 6:250, 15:76–77 philanthropy, 16:42 politics, 16:350 relations with Israel, 2:448–450 Zionism, 12:206–207, 21:593 Argintar, Virginia, 15:605 Argob, 2:450 Argonautica (Flaccus), 7:66 Argosi da Silva, Phinehas Hananiah. See Loeb, Baruch Argov, Alexander, 2:451 Argov, Zohar, 2:451 Argumentation and dialectic. See Disputations and polemics Arh: a, Eliezer ben Isaac, 2:451 Arhangelsk (Russia). See Archangel (Russia) Arias, Joseph Semah, 2:451–452 Arias Montano, Benito, 2:452 Aricha, Yosef, 2:452 Aridor, Yoram, 2:452–453 Arie, Rafael, 2:453 Ariel, 2:453 Ariel (Israel), 2:453–454 Ariel, Dov, 2:454 Ariel, Joseph, 2:454 322

Arieli, Yehoshua, 2:454 Arieli, Yi z: h: ak, 2:454 Arieti. See Rieti family Arikha, Avigdor, 2:454–455 Arimanon. See Ramoth-Gilead (ancient Israel) Ari Noh: em (Modena), 14:409 Arioch, 2:455 Aripul, Samuel ben Isaac, 2:455 Arish, El-. See El-Arish (Egypt) Arison, Shari, 2:455 Arison, Ted, 2:455 Arisoteikhem, 8:278 Aristeas, 2:456 Job, Testament of, 11:359 religious impact of Bible on Hellenistic Judaism and, 3:660 Aristeas, Letter of, 2:456–457, 4:73 Aristides of Athens, 4:719 Aristobulus (brother of Agrippa), 2:458–459 Aristobulus (son of Herod), 1:618– 619, 2:458 Aristobulus I (King of Judea), 2:457, 8:446, 9:195 Aristobulus II (King of Judea), 2:457– 458, 11:574 Aristobulus III (high priest), 2:458 Aristobulus of Paneas, 2:459–460, 16:74–75 allegorical interpretation of scripture, 3:644, 660 Moses, 14:531 The Aristocrat. See Samuel ben Ali Ariston of Pella, 2:460, 4:719 Aristotelianism, 2:460–462, 16:78, 83, 84, 88, 106–107 Aaron ben Elijah, 1:212–213 Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1:628 allegorical interpretation of scripture and, 3:644, 645 beatitude, 3:238–240 Bibago, Abrahem ben Shem Tov, commentator on, 3:570–571 commentaries by Ibn Shem Tov, Joseph ben Shem Tov, 9:690– 691 cosmology, 5:231 Crescas critique, 5:285–287 emanation, 6:373, 374 God, attributes of, 7:667 H: ibat Allah criticism, 9:93 Ibn Daud, Abraham ben David Halevi, 9:663–665 Ibn Gabirol, 7:324–325 imagination and, 9:736 immortality of the soul, 1:442

Maimonides, 16:85 matter and form, 7:324–325 miracles, 14:307–308 modern biblical study, as precursor of, 3:648 nature, 15:34–35 space and place, 19:66 See also Aristotle Aristotle, 2:460–462 Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1:628 body and soul, concept of, 4:31 Bonafed, Solomon ben Reuben, 4:54 categories, 4:524–525 on categories of beings, 4:524–525 Clearchus of Soli, 4:752 Islamic interpretation, 6:709–710 Judah ben Eleazar on, 11:485 Judah Halevi on, 11:498 Judah Loew ben Bezalel on, 11:507 Levi Ben Gershom on, 12:698–699 moneylending, 14:437 Philo Judaeus and, 16:62 platonism, 16:226–227 See also Aristotelianism Arithmetic. See Mathematics Arizona (U.S.), 2:463, 463 Ark, 2:463–464 ceremonial objects, 4:547–548 dancing before, 5:409 Moses, 14:527, 529 Ner Tamid, 15:88 ritual opening, 16:16–17 Ark, the Aphod, and the “Tent of Meeting” (Morgenstern), 14:486 Arka¯n al-isla¯m. See Islam Arkansas (U.S.), 2:465, 465 Arkansas Jewish Assembly, 2:465 Arkhangelsk. See Archangel (Russia) Arkin, Alan W., 2:466 Ark of Moses, 2:469, vol. 8: color insert Ark of Noah, 2:469 Ark of Testimony. See Aron ha-Edut Ark of the Covenant, 2:466–469, 468 Abinadab and, 1:258–259 ancient paintings, 6:53–54 Arlen, Harold, 2:469–470 Arles (France), 2:470–471 Arlosoroff, Chaim, 2:471–472 Arluck, Hyman. See Arlen, Harold Armageddon, 2:472 Armed and Dangerous: My Undercover Struggle Against Apartheid (Kasrils), 11:825–826

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Armed forces. See Military service Armenia, 2:472–474 Armenian Bible, 3:602–603 Armenian Church Israel (state), 10:644 Armenian Church in Israel, 10:639, 642 Armilus, 2:474–475 Armistice agreements, Israel-Arab, 2:475–476, 8:741 See also Sinai Campaign Armiya. See Jeremiah Armleder, 2:6, 476–477, 477, 3:31, 4:79 Armonim, Tavasim u-Petakim miShamayim (Sened), 18:288 Armonium, Tavasim, u-Petakim miShamayim (Sened), 18:288 Arms (weapons), 5:198–200, 439 Arms, Coats of. See Heraldry Armstrong, Louis, 4:112 Army service. See Military service Arnaldo of Villanova, 2:477 Arnd ben Isaac. See Aaron ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf Arnd ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf. See Aaron ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf Arndt, Adolf, 2:477, 12:551 Arndt, Ernst Moritz, 2:477–478 Arnheim, Fischel, 2:478, 16:344 Arnheim, Heymann, 2:478 Arnold, Abe, 2:478 Arnold, Eve, 2:478–479 Arnold, Paula, 2:479 Arnold Levenberg (Pinski), 16:175–176 Arnold of Vilanova. See Arnaldo of Villanova Arnoldovich, Mikhail. See Milner, Moses Michael Arnon, 2:479 Arnon, Abraham, 2:480 Arnon, Daniel Israel, 2:480 Arnon, Isaac, 2:480 Arnon, Ruth, 2:480–481, 15:313 Arnona, 2:481 Arnstadt (Germany), 2:481 Arnstein, Julius (Nick), 4:177 Arnstein, Walter Leonard, 2:483 Arnsteiner family. See Arnstein family Arnstein family, 2:481–482, 482t Arnswalde, Moses. See Philippson, Moses Aroch, Arie, 2:483, 10:696 Aroer (Israel), 2:483–484 Arollia, Isaac ben Moses, 2:484 Arom, Simha, 2:484 Aron, Esther. See Liebmann, Esther Schuloff Aaron

Aron, Isa, 6:201 Aron, Leo, 2:486 Aron, Raymond, 2:484–485, 18:730 Aron, Robert, 2:485 Aron Czenstochower. See Syngalowski, Aron Aron family, 2:484 Aron ha-Edut (Aboab), 1:267 Aron ha-Edut (Alcorsono), 1:604–605 Aroni, Tsvi, 2:485 Aronid, Moses, 3:570 Aronius, Julius, 2:485–486 Aron Kodesh. See Ark Aronova ljubav (Sˇinko), 18:641 Aronovich, Yuri Mikhaylovich, 2:486 Aronowitz, Benjamin, 2:486 Arons, Leo, 2:486 Aronsohn, Z. I. See Anokhi, Zalman Yiz: h: ak Aronson, Arnold, 2:486–487, 3:736 Aronson, Boris, 2:487 Aronson, David (painter), 2:488 Aronson, David (rabbi), 2:487–488 Aronson, Grigori, 2:488 Aronson, Max. See Anderson, Gilbert Maxwell Aronson, Naum, 2:488 Aronson, Solomon, 2:488–489 Aroti, Isaac, 17:476 Aroti family. See Rote family Arouet, François-Marie. See Voltaire Around the World. See Arum der Velt Arpa, Abramo Dall’, 2:489 Arpad, 2:489 Arquivo Histórico Judaico Brasileiro, 18:33 DArra¯ba (Israel), 2:489 Arraby Moor, 2:489–490 Arragel, Moses, 2:490, 3:636 Arrapha archives, 2:404 Ar-Reuti family. See Rote family Arrian, 2:490 Arricha de Tolvens. See Hollaender, Victor Arrow, Kenneth Joseph, 2:490 Arrow Cross Party, 2:491, 3:75 Arrowsnake. See Kippod Arrow’s paradox, 2:490 Arroyo, Isaac ben (Arbib), 2:364 Arrueti, Joseph, 17:476 Arrueti, Juce. See Arrueti, Joseph Arrueti family. See Rote family Arsacid dynasty, 3:26 Arshawsky, Arthur. See Shaw, Artie Arsur. See Apollonia (Israel) Arta, 2:521

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Artabanus. See Ardavan Artafernes. See Holofernes Artamonov, Mikhail, 11:321 Art and artists, 2:491–521 Abraham ben Jacob, 2:122 Absalom, 1:331 Agadati, Baruch, 1:443–444 Akedah, 1:559–560 Alechinsky, Pierre, 1:607 Amshewitz, John Henry, 2:106 anthropomorphism, 2:191 antiquity to 1800, 2:491–492 after the fall of Jerusalem, 2:493–494 biblical period, 2:492–493, 502–503 crafts, 2:496 early Christian art and, 2:494 funerary, 2:497 illuminated manuscripts, 2:495–496, 497–498 Islam, 2:495 museums and collections, 2:498–499 new developments, 2:498–499 Northern Europe, 2:495 printed book, 2:497 Renaissance period, 2:496 ritual, 2:496–497 Roman Empire, 2:494–495 Sanctuary and First Temple Period, 2:492–493 Second Temple Period, 2:493 Auerbach, Frank, 2:654 Balaam, 3:81 Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, 3:557 Bibles, illuminated, 3:678–679 Bible’s impact on, 3:673–674 Brazil, 4:152 Burle-Marx, Roberto, 4:296 Cain, images of, 4:341–342 calligraphy, Hebrew, 4:366–367 “Canaanites,” 4:393 Canada Caiserman-Roth-Ghitta, 4:347 Iskowitz, Gershon, 10:87 Raphael, William, 17:95–96 caricatures of Jews, 4:477–479, 499 cartoonists and cartoons, 4:499– 501 Cassab, Judy, 4:507 ceremonial, 2:525–526 ceremonial objects, 4:547–549 cherub, cherubim, 4:601 Chicago, Judy, 4:612 323

INDEX

Art and artists, continued childbirth amulets, 2:122 Christian Abraham, 1:287 Adam, 1:375–376 Elijah, 6:336 Herod I, 9:37–38 collectors and dealers, 2:523–524 collectors of ritual art, 4:548–549 crafts, 5:263–272, 16:123 Cubists, 15:648 Czechoslovakia, 6:734–735 Dada, 11:77–78 Daniel in, 5:418–419 David in, 5:456–457 Deborah and, 5:519 Dibbuk, 5:644 Dicker-Brandeis, Frederike, 5:646 Dine, Jim, 5:669–670 Dura-Europa paintings, 6:52–55 in Eastern Europe, 2:507–509 ecclesia et synagga, 6:88 Ehrlich, Georg, 6:243–244 Eilshemius, Louis M., 6:255 Ein Hod, 6:257–258 Estevens, David, 6:515 Esther, representation of, 6:516– 517 expressionism, Meidner, Ludwig, 13:773–774 Ezekiel in, 6:645–646 Fauvists, 15:648 Ferber, Herbert, 6:759 Fima, Efraim, 7:20–21 folklore, 7:103 Fox, Emanuel Philips, 7:140 Fraenckel, Liepmann, 7:142 France Adler, Jules, 1:401 Cahn, Marcelle, 4:338 Calle, Sophie, 4:365 Caro-Delvaille, Henri, 4:492 Chagall, Marc, 4:556–557 Chapiro, Jacques, 4:568 Ecole de Paris artists, 2:517 Modigliani, Amedeo, 14:411 Picart, Bernard, 16:144–145 Frankenthaler, Helen, 7:203–204 Freedman, Barnett, 7:224 Germany Abramson family, 1:328 Adler, Friedrich, 1:397 Cassirer, Paul, 4:510 Schottlander, Bernard, 18:166 Segal, Arthur, 18:244 324

Gottlieb, Adolph, 8:9 Gottlieb, Maurycy, 8:13 Gross, Michael, 8:96 Grundig, Hans, 8:111 Grundig, Lea, 8:111 Grundman, Zwi, 8:111–112 Guggenheim, Peggy, 8:124 Guston, Philip, 8:149 Gutman, Nahum, 8:152–153 Gutmann, Joseph, 8:154 Guttmann, Robert, 8:159 Haan, Meijer De, 8:164–165 Haggadot, illuminated, 4:76, 8:210–214 H: anukkah lamps, 8:334–335 Hayden, Henri, 8:474–475 Hellenism, 2:493, 8:789–790 Henschel brothers, 8:811 heraldry, 9:6–7 Herdan, Kurt Lucian, 9:9 Herman, Josef, 9:24 Herman, Oskar, 9:24 Hildesheimer, Wolfgang, 9:105 Hillman, David, 9:117 Hirsch, Joseph, 9:126 Hirschfeld, Al, 9:136 Hirschfeld-Mack, Ludwig, 9:139 historians and critics, 2:524–528 Holocaust ghettos and camps, 2:515, 516–519, 3:41 influence of, 2:519–521 Hungary, 10:821, 12:505 Alconière, Theodore, 1:603 Laszlo, Philip Alexius de Lombos, 12:505 Perlmutter, Izsák, 15:780 Schoeffer, Nicolas, 18:155 iconography, 9:703–706 illuminated amulets, 2:122–123 illuminated manuscripts, Hebrew, 9:734–735 illustrated books, 4:75–76 Isaac (patriarch), 10:34–35 Isaiah, Book of, 10:74–75 Isaiah’s prophecies in, 10:74–75 Islamic Abraham, 1:287 historians of, 6:545 Israel, 10:695, 696–698, 699–700, 701 Agam, Yaacov, 1:445 Arab population, 10:733–734 artworks, 10:695–701 Castel, Moshe Elazar, 4:511– 512

galleries and museums, 10:697–698, 704, 757–758 Janco, 11:77–78 Lavie, Raffi, 12:532 Sebba, Shalom, 18:231 Israel Arab, 10:734 Israëls, Jozef, 10:765 Italy Cagli, Corrado, 4:335 Castellazzo, Moses da, 4:513 Corcos, Vittorio, 5:218 Jacob in, 11:23–24 Jephthah in, 11:123 Jeremiah in, 11:134 Jerusalem in, 11:224–228 Jewish Abraham, 1:287–288 Abraham bar Jacob, 1:294 Adam, 1:376 Adler, Jacob, 1:400–401 Adler, Samuel M., 1:407 Jewish school of Paris, 15:647–648 Jewish themes in, 14:49 Job in, 11:358 Joel, Book of, 11:362 Jonah, Book of, 11:391 Joseph as portrayed in, 11:412– 413 Josephus and, 11:441–442 Joshua as portrayed in, 11:444 Judah Maccabee in, 11:511 Judith, Book of, 11:568 Kahana, Aharon, 11:710 Kanovitz, Howard, 11:767 Karavan, Dani, 11:803–804 Katz, Alex, 12:8–9 Katz, Hans Ludwig, 12:11–12 Kaufmann, Isidor, 12:32 Kempf, Franz Moshe, 12:73 kettubot, illuminated, 12:97–98 Kirszenbaum, Jesekiel David, 12:190 Kistling, Moise, 12:201 Kitaj, R. B., 12:205–206 Klein, Yves, 12:226 Lamentations, Book of, 12:447, 450 Lasansky, Mauricio, 12:494 Lassaw, Ibram, 12:502–503 Lavie, Raffi, 12:532 Lifschitz, Uri, 13:11 Lilien, Ephraim Moses, 13:14 lion, image of, 13:62 Mandelshtam, Osip Emilyevich, 13:463–464 medals, 13:713–717

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

menorah in, 14:53–54 Merzer, Arieh, 14:74 Mesopotamia, 14:92 Middle Ages Absalom, 1:331 Creation, 5:279–280 modern defined, 2:500–504 Erez: Israel, 2:509–513 Moholy-Nagy, László, 14:419–420 Moïse, Theodore Sydney, 14:421– 422 Mokady, Moshe, 14:423 Mondzain, Simon, 14:435 Montparnasse school of art, 15:647, 648, 649 Mopp, 14:469 Moses, 14:539–540, 541–542 murals, Mexico, 3:296 Nebuchadnezzar, 15:51 Neiman, Yehudah, 15:66 Neoromanticism, 15:648 “New Figuration,” 13:11 Newman, Barnett, 15:145–146 Noah in, 15:289–290 Palestine (Ottoman), 10:695 paper-cuts, 15:615–616 Paris school, 15:647–651 Passover and Seder in, 15:682–683 pewter plates, 16:24 Phoenicia, 16:123 pillar motif, 16:160 poetic cinema, 11:734 Poland Barcinsky, Henryk, 3:146 Centerszwer, Stanisława, 4:543 Halter, Marek, 8:286–287 Le Witt, Jan, 12:769 Pilichowski, Leopold, 16:159 portal, 16:402 portraits, of Jews, 16:408 psalms, 16:678 Rachel in, 17:48–49 Rattner, Abraham, 17:114–115 Ray, Man, 17:126 Reder, Bernard, 17:155–156 Reiss, Lionel, 17:212–213 Rembrandt van Rijn, 17:215–216 Renaissance, 3:411 Rivers, Larry, 17:347 Rogers, Claude Maurice, 17:368 Rose, Herman, 17:426 Rosenberg, Isaac, 17:436–437 Rosenberg, James Naumburg, 17:437

Rosenberg, Lazar, 17:437–438 Rosenmann-Taub, David, 17:449 Rosenthal Maz, 17:455–456 Rothenstein, Michael, 17:486 Russia 1970s, 17:566 Aizenberg, Nina, 1:553 Levitan, Isaac Ilitch, 12:732 Rabin, Oscar, 17:33–34 Raskin, Saul, 17:107–108 Serov, Valentin, 18:314 Ruth, Book of, 17:595–596 Sabbath, 17:621–622 Salome, 17:694 Samson, 17:750–752 Samuel, 17:756 Saul, 18:81–82 Scroll of Esther, 18:218–220, 219 Segall, Lasar, 18:248–249 Sima, Miron, 18:590 Simon, Sidney, 18:617 Singer, Yvonne, 18:640 Solomon, 18:761–762, 761–763 Solomon, Simeon, 18:767 Solomon, Solomon Joseph, 18:767–768 spice box, Havdallah, 8:467–468 Surrealists, 15:648 synagogue destruction, 19:356–357 Titus, Flavius Vespasianus, 19:744–745 tombstones, 20:35–36 Tower of Babel, 3:21 U.K. Costa, Catherine da, 5:233 Rabin, Sam, 17:34 Rie, Dame Lucie, 17:293 Schotz, Benno, 18:166 twentieth century, 6:729, 14:48 U.S., 2:513–516 Carvalho, Solomon Nunes, 4:502 Lewitt, Sol, 12:769–770 New York City, 15:221 Pearlstein, Philip, 15:706 Peixotto, George da Maduro, 15:713–714 Reder, Bernard, 17:155–156 Reiss, Lionel, 17:212–213 San Diego, 18:14 Sarasota, 18:50–51 Schames, Samson, 18:106 Schanker, Louis, 18:106–107 Schor, Ilya, 18:162 Schwartz, Manfred, 18:186

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Segal, George, 18:246 Seligmann, Kurt, 18:267–268 Serra, Richard, 18:314 Shahn, Ben, 18:365–366 twentieth century, 14:49 USSR Adlivankin, Samuil, 1:410 Western Europe, 2:504–507 Yemen, 21:309 See also Painters and painting; Sculpture; specific artists The Art and Craft of Judging: The Opinions of Judge Learned Hand (Shanks), 18:397 Artapan. See Ardavan Artapanus, 2:521–522 Moses, 14:531, 532 religious impact of Bible on Hellenistic Judaism and, 3:660 Art: as, 2:522 Artaxata (Armenia). See Ardashir (Armenia) Artaxerxes, 2:522–523, 6:659 Art collectors and art dealers, 2:523– 524 Duveen, Joseph, 6:73 Duveen, Joseph Joel, 6:73 Flechtheim, Alfred, 7:70–71 Hirshhorn, Joseph Herman, 9:143 Schocken, Salman, 18:154–155 Artemion, 2:524 Artemovsk (Ukraine), 2:524 Artephius, 1:602 Art historians and art critics, 2:524– 528 Barasch, Moshe, 3:135 Berenson, Bernard, 3:411 Bersohn, Matthias, 3:489 Brookner, Anita, 4:208 Didi-Huberman, Georges, 5:647 Donath, Adolph, 5:747–748 Erlanger, Philippe, 6:481 Greenberg, Clement, 8:67–68 Hallo, Rudolph, 8:282 Rosenberg, Harold, 17:436 Schapiro, Meyer, 18:109–110 Arthurian legends, 2:528–529 Artichoke, 20:488 Articles of faith, 2:165, 529–532, 11:789 Artificial insemination, 2:532–533 Artisans. See Crafts Artis Cabbalisticae, hoc est reconditae theologiae et philosophiae Scriptorum Tomus I (Pistorius), 16:187 Artists International Association, 3:731 Art Music. See Music 325

INDEX

The Art of Biblical Poetry (Alter), 16:256 The Art of Educational Research, Its Problems and Procedures (Abelson), 1:248 Artom, Cesare, 2:534 Artom, Elia Samuele, 2:534 Artom, Emanuele, 15:668 Artom, Isaac, 16:345 Artom, Meir, 15:581 Artom family, 2:533 Arts and the Man (Edman), 6:150 ArtScroll, 2:534–535, 18:123 ArtScroll/Mesorah series, 18:123, 21:644–645 Artukovic´, Andrija, 15:698 Artzi, Shlomo, 2:535 Artzi, Yitzhak, 2:535–536 Aruba (Netherlands Antilles), 4:472 Aruck, Hyman. See Arlen, Harold Aruck ha-shalem (Kohut, Alexander), 12:266 Aruety, Abraham. See Aruety, Habran Aruety, Habran, 17:476 Aruety family. See Rote family Arugat ha-Bosem (Abraham ben Azriel), 1:295, 18:772 Arukh (Nathan ben Jehiel), 11:74, 12:405, 13:43 Arukh ha-Shulh: an (Epstein), 6:473 Arukh la-Ner. See Ettlinger, Jacob Arum, Robert, 2:536 Arumah (Canaan). See Ruma (Canaan) Arumah (Galilee). See Ruma (Galilee) Arum der Velt (Hirschbein), 9:133 Arum Vokzal (Bergelson), 3:419 Arundi, Isaac, 2:536 Arusi, Abraham, 2:106 Arusi, Abraham ben Moses Ha-Levi, 2:536 Arvey, Jacob M., 2:536–537 Arvic. See Judeo-Arabic Arvit, 2:72, 75, 537–538, 13:305 Aryan, Semitic races, 17:46–47 Aryeh. See Judah ben Isaac (11661224) Aryeh Judah Harari, 2:538, 14:463 Aryeh Judah Leib ben Ephraim haKohen, 2:538 Aryeh Judah Leib of Polonnoye, 2:538 Aryeh Leib ben Asher. See Gunzberg, Aryeh Leib ben Asher Aryeh Leib ben Elijah, 2:538 Aryeh Leib ben Joseph ha-Kohen. See Heller, Aryeh Leib ben Joseph HaKohen of Stry 326

Aryeh Leib ben Samuel Z: evi Hirsch, 2:538–539 Aryeh Leib of Oz´arów, 2:539 Aryeh Leib of Shpola, 2:539 Aryeh Leib Sarahs, 2:539 Aryeh Leibush Bolekhover. See Aryeh Leib ben Elijah Arzhak, Nikolai. See Daniel, Yuli Markovich Arz: i Ha-Shomer ha-Z: a’ir. See Kibbutz Arz: i Ha-Shomer ha-Z: a’ir Arzila. See Arcila Arzin, Joseph ben Jacob, 2:539–540 Arzt, Max, 2:540 Asa, 2:540–541, 3:13, 9:175 A.S.A. (Academic Sports Association), 2:541 Asad, Hafez al-, 2:541–542 al-Asad al-Mah: all¯ı. See Jacob ben Isaac Asael, H: ayyim ben Benjamin, 2:542 Asaf. See Asaph ha-Rofe As: a¯f ben Barakhya¯, 18:761 Asaf ha-Levi Ish Yerushalayim. See Levin, Alter Isaac Asahel, 1:264, 2:542 DAsa¯ E-i P¯ıra¯n (Brudo), 4:221 Asaph, 2:542–543 Asaph ben Berechiah. See Asaph haRofe Asaph ha-Rofe, 2:543–544 Asaph ha-Yarhoni. See Asaph ha-Rofe Asaph ha-Yehudi. See Asaph ha-Rofe Asaphites. See Asaph Asaph Judaeus. See Asaph ha-Rofe Asarah batlanim. See Batlanim Asarah harugei ha-malkhut (Emra¯ni). See The Ten Martyrs of the Kingdom (Emra¯ni) Asarah harugei malkhut. See The Ten Martyrs Asarah ha-rugei malkhut. See The Ten Martyrs Asarah Ma’amarot (Abraham ben Benjamin Ze’ev Brisker), 1:295 Asarah Ma’amarot (Elijah ben Baruch), 6:338 Asaramel, 2:544 Asbili, Yom Tov. See Yom Tov ben Abraham Ishbili Ascalon (Israel). See Ashkelon (Israel) Ascama, 2:545 Ascamot. See Ascama Ascandarani, Joseph ben Abraham, 10:79 Ascandarani family. See Iscandari family Ascarelli, Deborah. See Ascarelli, Devora

Ascarelli, Devora, 2:545, 7:50 Ascarelli, Tullio, 2:545 Ascending and descending numbers, 15:337 Ascension of Isaiah, 10:75–76 The Ascent of Man (Bronowski), 4:207 Ascent to Heaven (Rudnicki), 9:410 Asceticism, 2:545–550, 3:155, 6:532 Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, 1:307–308 fasting, 6:720, 722 philosophical analysis of, 16:81 Sefer ha-Nezirim (Fraenkel), 7:144 See also Nazirite Asch, Sholem, 2:550–551, 11:412, 12:660–661, 14:541 Aschaffenburg (Germany), 2:551–552 Aschaffenburg, Gustav, 2:552 Ascher, Saul, 2:552 Ascherson, Paul Friedrich August, 2:552 Aschheim, Isidor, 2:552 Aschner, Manfred, 2:553 Ascoli, Ettore, 2:553–554 Ascoli, Graziadio Isaia, 2:554 Ascoli family, 2:553 Ascoli Piceno (Italy), 2:554 Asefat H: akhamim (Israel Isserl ben Isaac Segal), 10:753 Asefat H: akhamim (journal), 2:554–555 Asefat ha-Nivh: arim, 10:392–393 Asenapper, 2:555 Asenath, 2:555, 11:418 Asenov, Dragomir, 4:276 Aseret ha-Dibbrot. See Decalogue Aseret Yemai Teshuvah. See Ten Days of Penitence Aseret yemei teshuvah. See Ten Days of Penitence ASF. See American Sephardi Federation (ASF) Asfi (Morocco). See Safi (Morocco) Asgnedau. See Asmodeus Ash (abbreviation), 2:555 Ash, Abraham, 2:555 Ash, Abraham ben Joseph, 2:555–556 Ash, Abraham Joseph, 1:223, 2:555, 556 Ash, Joel Ben Meir Jospeh, 2:556 Ashamnu, 2:556, 8:493 Asham Talui (Segrè), 18:252 Ashanski, Abel-Aaron Itskovich, 2:556 Ash‘arite Kala¯m, 16:77 AshDariyya, 11:729–730 Ashartu (Emarite deity), 6:387 AshaDya¯, Naj¯ıb, 15:473

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Ashbel, Dov, 2:556–557 Ashburnham Pentateuch, 1:463, 3:674, 675 Ashdod (Israel), 2:557–558, 11:715– 716 Ashdot Ya’akov (Israel), 2:558 Ashendorf, Israel, 2:558 Ashenheim, Louis, 2:558 Ashenheim, Neville Noel, 2:558–559 Ashenheim family, 2:558–559 Asher (son of Jacob), 2:559, 559–560 Asher, Abraham, 2:560 Asher, Abraham ben Gedaliah Ibn, 2:560 Asher, Adolph. See Asher, Abraham Asher, ben Jehiel, 2:32, 6:174 Asher, David, 2:560 Asher, Isaiah ben Moses ha-Levi, 2:561 Asher, Joseph, 2:561 Asher, Joseph Michael, 2:561 Asherah, 2:562, 3:656, 6:332 Asher Anshel ben Isaac of Przemys´l, 2:562 Asher Barash Bio-Bibliographical Institute, 18:724 Asher ben David, 2:563 Asher ben Jehiel, 2:563–564, 4:772, 773, 779, 18:574 fines and damages, 7:29 halakhah, 8:257 Asher ben Meshullam ha-Kohen of Lunel, 2:564–565 Asher ben Saul, 2:565, 4:653 Asherim, 3:656 Asher of Cracow. See Anshel of Cracow Ash family, 2:555–556 Ashi, 2:565–566 Ashima, 2:566 Ashinsky, Aaron Mordecai Halevi, 2:566 Ashkanasy, Maurice, 2:566–567 Ashkavah, 2:567 Ashkelon (Israel), 2:567–569, 11:772, 15:263 Ashkelon onions, 15:433 Ashkenaz (biblical name), 2:569 Ashkenaz (Jewish settlement, NW Europe), 2:107, 472, 569–571, 570 Akdamut Millin, 1:555 Aleinu le-Shabbe’ah: , 1:609–610 alphabet, Hebrew, 1:705t, 706, 716t, 717t, 718 Amsterdam, 2:106–108, 110, 114, 116, 117, 6:41 emancipation, 6:749

Schuster, Aaron, 18:177 amulets, 2:122 An-Ski collections, 2:182–183 arts, Sabbath, 17:620–621 betrothal customs and, 3:541 Bible cantillation, 13:658–664, 663–664 birth customs and folklore, 3:721– 722 Caracas (Venezuela), 4:459–460 Caribbean, 4:477 Caucasus, 4:527–528 Chernovtsy (Ukraine), 4:597 Chile, 4:638, 640, 641, 643 Cuba, 5:317–318 demography, 5:571 domestic violence, Middle Ages, 5:740 Dutch literature and, 6:69 economic history, modern, 6:118– 119 Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, 6:303–305 Eleazar ben Moses ha-Darshan of Wuerzburg, 6:305 El Male Rah: amim (funeral prayer), 6:364–365 England, 6:414–415 Elhanan ben Yakar, 6:316 London, 12:747, 13:180–181 Europe, 1:521, 9:211–212, 222 evil eye folk beliefs, 6:585 Halakhah, 6:41 H: anukkah, 13:496–497 hymns, 1:385, 414–415, 6:259–260 illuminated Hebrew Bibles, 3:678 influence of Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg, 13:781–782 Israel (state), 10:294 religious schools, 10:632–633 tensions with other edot, 10:298–299, 300 Istanbul (Ottoman period), 10:774, 775, 777–778 Jacob Saul ben Eliezer Jeroham Elyashar, 6:371–372 Jerusalem nineteenth century, 11:172– 173 seventeenth century, 11:164 Kaddish, 11:697 kolel, 12:273 Latin America, 12:510–511 literature fiction, 7:14 folk, Mayse-Bukh, 13:702–703 h: asidic, 1:219, 6:529–531

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

liturgy, 13:134 Mi-Sinai Niggunim, 14:363– 364 shtayger, 18:522–523 Mexican leaders, 6:748 Montreal (Canada), 14:463–464 morbidity statistics, 18:546 Pale of Settlement, 18:602 Palestine (Ottoman), 10:294, 619– 621 population, 18:300 post-Holocaust aliyah, 10:215 pre-French Revolution, 7:253 rabbis, dress, 6:15 renewal of Jerusalem community, 14:24–25 Sarajevo, 18:48 Seattle (WA), 18:229 Sefer ha-H: ayyim, 18:239–240 Simferopol, 18:602 similarities to Sephardim, 18:295– 296 traditional cookery style, 7:118 U.K., 18:129 See also Germany Ashkenazi, Abraham ben Jacob, 2:571–572 Ashkenazi, Abraham Nathan ben Elisha Hayyim. See Nathan of Gaza Ashkenazi, Asher Judah ben Nathan. See Weidner, Paulus Ashkenazi, Azariah H: ayyim, 6:354 Ashkenazi, Azriel. See Gunzenhauser, Azriel Ashkenazi, Bahur ben Asher ha-Levi. See Levita, Elijah Ashkenazi, Beh: or, 2:572, 16:346 Ashkenazi, Berman. See Issachar Berman ben Naphtali ha-Kohen Ashkenazi, Bezalel ben Abraham, 2:572–573, 13:262 Ashkenazi, Dan, 2:573 Ashkenazi, David, 4:190 Ashkenazi, Eliezer Baruch. See Meyer, Paulus Ashkenazi, Eliezer ben Elijah the Physician, 2:573 Ashkenazi, Eliezer Isaac. See Eliezer ben Isaac Ashkenazi, Feibush. See Joel ben Simeon Ashkenazi, Gershon, 2:574, 14:472 Ashkenazi, Hakham Zevi, 6:21 Ashkenazi, Jacob. See Temerls, Jacob ben Eliezer Ashkenazi, Jacob ben Isaac, 3:611 Ashkenazi, Jehiel ben Israel. See Luria, Jehiel ben Israel Ashkenazi 327

INDEX

Ashkenazi, Jonah ben Jacob, 2:574 Ashkenazi, Joseph, 2:574–575 Ashkenazi, Joseph ben Jacob. See Gunzenhauser, Joseph ben Jacob Ashkenazi, Joseph ben Shalom. See Joseph ben Shalom Ashkenazi Ashkenazi, Judah ben Joseph, 2:575 Ashkenazi, Judah ben Simeon, 2:575 Ashkenazi, Judah Samuel, 2:575 Ashkenazi, Leon, 2:575–576 Ashkenazi, Malkiel, 2:576 Ashkenazi, Meir ben Benjamin Wolf, 2:576 Ashkenazi, Menahem. See Bekemoharar, Menahem ben Isaac Ashkenazi Ashkenazi, Mordecai ben Isaac Kohen, 2:576 Ashkenazi, Moses David, 2:576–577 Ashkenazi, Naphtali ben Joseph, 2:577 Ashkenazi, Nissim Abraham ben Raphael, 2:577 Ashkenazi, Samuel Jaffe ben Isaac, 2:577 Ashkenazi, Saul ben Moses ha-Kohen, 2:577 Ashkenazi, Shalom, of Neustadt, 4:269 Ashkenazi, Solomon, 2:577–578, 9:7, 15:541, 16:345–346 Ashkenazi, Z: evi Hirsch ben Jacob, 2:578–579, 8:477, 478 Ashkenazim. See Ashkenaz (Jewish settlement, NW Europe) Ashkenazy, Vladimir Davidovich, 2:579 Ashkhabad, 2:579 Ashlag, Judah Leib, 11:679 Ashlag, Yehudah, 2:579–580, 4:128 Ashman, Aharon, 2:580, 8:715 Ashmedai. See Asmodeus Ashmedai (opera, Tal), 18:762–763 Ash: or (groom), 6:312 Ashrei, 2:580 Ashriki, Mordecai, 2:580–581 Ashtamker, Benjamin Samson, 15:474 Ashtar. See Ashtoreth Ashtaroth (biblical city), 2:581 Ashtor, Eliyahu, 2:581 Ashtoreth, 2:131, 581–582, 3:11 Ashtumker, B. S. See Ashtamker, Benjamin Samson DA¯shu¯ra¯E, 2:582 Ashurbanipal, 14:91, 403 Ashurbanipal library, 2:404 Asia, 2:582–586, 583, 585t, 586 agriculture, 12:427 aliyah and absorption, Israel, 10:341t 328

foreign policy and relations with Israel, 10:264–265, 265 technical and economic assistance, 10:221 Middle Ages, Jewish education, 6:176 Asia Minor, 2:586–587, 587, 3:729 Asia Minor Agreement. See SykesPicot Agreement Asian communities, 5:115t, 120t Asian Socialist Conference, 18:709 Asia-Pacific region, 2:238–239 Di Asife (Shalom Aleichem), 18:381 Asila. See Arcila Asimov, Isaac, 2:588 Asinaeus and Anilaeus, 2:164–165, 11:440 Asinius Pollio, Gaius, 2:588 ASJM. See American Society for Jewish Music Askama. See Ascama Askelon (Israel). See Ashkelon (Israel) Askenasy, Eugen, 2:588 Askenasy, Paul, 2:588–589 Askenazy, Simon, 2:589 Asˇkenazy, Ludvík, 2:589 Askhabad. See Ashkhabad Asknazi, Isaac Lvovich, 2:589 Askowith, Dora, 2:590 Aslakssen, Cort, 2:590 Asmakhta, 2:590–592, 7:27 Asmodeus, 2:592–593 Asmussen, J. P., Judeo-Persian literature, 11:558 Asner, Edward, 2:593 Asochis (Galilee). See Shih: in (Galilee) Asociación Israelita de Beneficencia, 17:423 Asociación Israelita Sefaradi La Fraternidad, 3:262 Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA), 2:70–71 Asophon. See Zaphon Aspamia. See Spain Aspects of Judaism (Montefiore), 14:455 Asper, Israel H., 2:593–594 Asper, Izzy. See Asper, Israel H. Asper family, 11:470 Asqanu. See Ashkelon (Israel) Assa. See Assi Assaf, Michael, 2:594 Assaf, Simh: a, 2:594–595, 9:160 Assault, 2:595–598 The Assault (Mulisch), 6:71 Asscher, Abraham, 2:599 Assemani family, 2:599

Assembly. See Congregations Assembly, Sukkot. See Hakhel Assembly of Jewish Notables, 2:8, 599–602, 600, 7:155, 8:439, 9:231, 18:641–642 Assembly of Sages (journal). See Asefat H: akhamim (journal) Asseo, David, 2:602 Asser, Carel, 12:552 Asser, Moses, 12:552, 16:345 Asser, Tobias, M. C., 2:114, 12:552 Asser family, 2:112, 602 Asses, 2:594 Balaam, 3:78 worship, 2:615–616 Assessment. See Damages Asset lien, 12:812–817 Assi, 2:603 Ammi ben Nathan and, 2:82 Amram I, 2:103 Judah III, 11:478 Assi, Rav, 2:603, 18:598 Assideans. See Hassideans Assignment of debt, 2:603–605 Assimilation, 2:605–613 Aguddat Ah: im, 1:508 Algeria, 1:648 antiquity and Middle ages, 2:605– 606 Bohemia, 4:40–41 Buchner, Abraham, 4:243 Byk, Emil, 4:323–324 Canada, 4:420 Cˇechu˚-Zˇidu˚, Svaz, 4:534–535 communism and, 5:91–96 Enlightenment period, 2:606–607 Germany Berlin, 3:446 Central-Verein Deutscher Staatsbuerger Juedischen Glaubens, 4:546 Halakhah technology, 19:573 Haskalah and, 8:434, 439–440 Hungary, 9:611, 618 Kook, Abraham Isaac, 12:291 late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, 2:607–608, 9:283–284 linguistic, 8:436–437 literature Poland, 6:748 Orthodox Judaism and, 15:493– 494, 496, 498 Peru, 15:794, 797 Poland, 4:318, 16:302 Czartoryski, Prince Adam Jerzy, 5:351–352

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Eisenbaum, Antoni, 6:265 political participation and, 16:339 Russia 1970s, 17:564–566 post-WW II, 17:553 USSR regime, 17:544 Shomer Israel, 18:518 surnames, establishment of, 14:768 U.S., 2:608–611, 6:695–696, 698– 700 USSR, 2:611–613 Western countries, 2:611 Associated Artists of Revolutionary Russia, 4:197 Association for Defense against Antisemitism. See Verein Zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus Association for Friendship and Cultural Ties with Israel, 14:520 Association for Jewish Demography and Statistics, 18:724 Association for Jewish Outreach Professionals and Programs (AJOP), 3:7 Association for Jewish Studies (AIS), 11:318 Association for Jewish Studies (AJS), 2:613–614 Association for Medieval JudeoArabic, 3:744 Association for Psychoanalytic Medicine (APM), 11:804 Association for the Diffusion of Religious Knowledge, 6:205 See also Jewish Religious Education Board Association of Activists and Friends of Soviet Jewish Culture, 14:520 Association of Holocaust Children (Poland), 2:64 Association of Holocaust Organizations (AHO), 2:614–615, 614–615 Association of Israel. See Agudat Israel Association of Jewish 6th Formers, 6:428 Association of Jewish Libraries, 12:785 Association of Reform Rabbis of New York and Vicinity, 18:586 Associations. See specific society or association Association Vidas Largas for the Defense and Promotion of the Judeo-Spanish Language and Culture, 18:306 Assumpça˜o, Diogo da, 2:615 Assumptio Moysis. See Assumption of Moses Assumption of Moses, 14:533, 544–545

Assur (Iraq), 2:404, 615 Ass worship, 2:615–616 Assyria Ahaz, 1:539 Akkadian language, 1:565 Ammonites, 2:85–86 Arameans, 2:337 archives, 2:403 Esarhaddon, 6:486 Hammurapi, 8:309–310 Haran, 8:343–344 Haurina, 8:461 Megiddo, 13:767 Mesopotamia, 14:87–88 Moab, 14:402–403 Nineveh, 15:271–272 Phoenicia, 16:121–122 rebellions, 2:489 Sargon II, 18:56 Shalmaneser III, 18:375–376 Assyrian exile, 6:607–608, 9:180 Assyriology, 15:471 archaeological excavations, 14:92– 93 Finkelstein, Jacob Joel, 7:34 Hallo, William, 8:282 Landsberger, Benno, 12:475–476 Lewy, Julius, 12:771 Oppenheim, H: ayyim, 15:445 Oppert, Jules Julius, 15:452 Pick, H: ayyim Hermann, 16:146 Astarte, 2:581–582 Astarté. See Ashtoreth Asti (Italy), 2:616 Astorga (Spain), 2:616 Astrakhan (Russia), 2:616 Astrological chiromancy, 4:653–654 Astrology, 2:616–620, 21:646–647 Abraham bar H: iyya, 1:293 Cresques de Vivers, 5:288 divination and, 5:705 Nostradamus, 15:314 Paltiel, 15:607 theories of Ibn Ezra, Abraham ben Meir, 9:670–671 Astronautics. See Aeronautics Astronomy, 2:620–626 Abraham bar H: iyya, 1:293 Albalia, Isaac ben Baruch, 1:583 Alh: adib, Isaac ben Solomon ben Z: addik, 1:654 Anatoli, Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Samson, 2:132 Apocrypha, 2:621 Beer, Wilhelm, 3:254 Bemporad, Azeglio, 3:312

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Bible, 2:620–621 Cleomedes, 4:753 Comtino, Mordecai ben Eliezer, 5:132–133 Delacrut, Mattathias ben Solomon, 5:535 Dunash ibn Tamim, 6:48–49 H: assa¯n ibn H: assa¯n, 8:454 Hoffman, Jeffrey, 9:308 Ibn Daud, Abraham ben David Halevi, 9:662–665 Ibn Sahl, Joseph ben Jacob, 9:689 Israeli, Isaac ben Joseph, 10:751 Jonathan ben Joseph of Ruzhany, 11:398 Judeo-Arabic literature on, 11:531 Judeo-Persian, 11:554 Lattes, Bonet, 12:518–519 Levi Ben Gershom, 12:698, 701 Loew, Moritz, 13:164 Loewy, Maurice, 13:172 Maimonides, Moses, 13:395 Ma¯sha¯’Allah ben Athanˇ, 13:600 measurement, 13:674 Middle Ages, 2:622–625 modern times, 2:625–626 Nieto, David, 15:261 Nifoci, Isaac, 15:262 physics and, 16:132–133, 141 Renaissance, 2:625–626 Schickard, Wilhelm, 18:128 Schlesinger, Frank, 18:140 Schwarzschild, Karl, 18:193 Shesh-Kenafayim, 4:62 Talmud and Midrash, 2:621–622 Astrophysics, 16:141 Astruc, Elie-Aristide, 2:626–627 Astruc, Jean, 2:627, 3:646, 649 Astruc, Mardochee, 11:560 Astruc, Saul ha-Kohen, 2:627, 4:56 Astruc, Zacharie, 2:627 Astruc de Noves. See Abba Mari ben Eligdor Astruc ha-Levi, 2:627 Asveiros. See Quintilius Varus Asylum altars as, 2:13, 15 cities, 4:742–744, 743 See also Refugees Aszód (Hungary), 2:627–628 Aszod, Judah ben Israel, 2:628 Atair (Mombert), 14:430 Ataki (Moldavia), 2:628–629 Atar, Haim, 2:629 Atar, Moses, 16:346 Atar family, 2:629 329

INDEX

Atarot (Israel), 2:629 Ataroth (biblical settlements), 2:629– 630 Ataturk. See Kemal Mustafa Atavism, 13:178 Ateret Bah: urim (Ehrenfeld), 6:239 Atfah, 2:468 Athaliah, 2:630, 9:177, 11:107–108 Athanasius Syro-Hexapla, 3:601 on Zenobia, 15:377 Atheism, 7:670 Athens (Greece), 2:630–632, 9:340 Athens and Jerusalem (Shestov), 18:467 Athias, David, 4:82 Athias, Immanuel, 2:632–633 Athias, Jacob H: ayyim, 4:82 Athias, Joseph, 2:109, 632–633 Athias, Solomon da Costa. See Costa Athias, Solomon da Athias family. See Atias family Athletics. See Sports Athlit (Israel), 1:221, 2:633–634, 634 At Home in America: Second Generation (Moore), 9:152–153 Athribis (Egypt), 2:634 Athronges, 2:634 Atias family, 2:632 Atil (Turkey), 2:634–635 Atirat. See Asherah Atlan, Henri, 2:635 Atlan, Jean, 2:635 Atlanta (GA), 2:635–639, 7:502, 13:667–668 Atlantic (vessel), 15:689 Atlantic Canada, 2:639–641 Atlantic City (NJ), 2:641 Atlantic Jewish Council, 2:640 Atlas (mountains), 2:641–642 Atlas, David, 2:642 Atlas, Eleazar, 2:642–643 Atlas, Jechezkiel, 2:643, 15:667 Atlas, Samuel, 2:643 Atlas of Israel (Amiran), 2:79 Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land (Smith), 18:688 Atlas Shrugged (Rand), 17:90 Atmospheres (Ligeti), 13:12 Atmospheric sciences, 6:449–450 Atom bomb. See Nuclear physics Atomic Energy Commission, 13:16, 18:587 Atomism, 1:213, 2:643–644 Aton cult, 1:561, 2:41 Atonement, 2:644 fasting, 6:719, 720, 722 330

forgiveness, 7:127–129 Kipper, 12:180–183 See also Day of Atonement Atran, Frank Z., 2:644–645 Attachment to God. See Devekut Attah, Eh: ad, 2:645 Attah Beh: artanu, 2:75 Attah Horeta Lada’at, 2:645 Attah Zokher, 2:645 Attal, Jacob, 14:499 Attali, Bernard, 2:645 Attali, Jacques, 2:645 Attar, H: ayyim ben Moses, 2:645–646 Attar, Judah ben Jacob Ibn, 2:646 Attar family. See Atar family Attell, Abe. See Attell, Abraham Washington Attell, Abraham Washington, 2:646– 647 At the Depot. See Arum Vokzal At the End of Days. See Be-Kez: haYamim At the Gate (Molodowsky), 14:430 Attia, Isaac ben Isaiah, 2:647 Attia, Shem Tov, 2:647 Attias, Jean-Christophe, 11:326 Attik yomaya. See Ancient of Days Attlee, Clement Richard, Earl, 2:647– 648 Atto di Fede. See Auto da Fé Attorneys, 2:648 Belgium Picard, Edmond, 16:144 Canada Bercovitch, Peter, 3:401 Freedman, Samuel, 7:225 human rights, 13:670–671 Matas, David, 13:670–671 Dash, Samuel, 5:438–439 Denmark Hurwitz, Stephan, 9:633 France Berr, Michel, 3:487 Beugnot, Auguste Arthur, 3:555 Germany Hollaender, Ludwig, 9:321– 322 Greece Alhanati, David, 1:655 Herzog, Chaim, 9:67–68 Hessen, Joseph Vladimiovich, 9:78 Israel Akzin, Benjamin, 1:571–572 Attorney General, 13:709 Israel (State) Shapiro, Ya’akov Shimshon, 18:408

Latvia Mintz, Paul, 14:301–302 Lauterbach, Edward H., 12:529 Poland Lemkin, Raphael, 12:637–638 Lieberman, Herman, 12:804 Polish Berenson, Leon, 3:411–412 Russia Pergament, Osip Yakovlevich, 15:770 Slonimski, Leonid Zinovyevich, 18:679 Sawicki, Jerzy, 18:86 Scheck, Barry, 18:116 scholars Ben-Israel, Ruth, 3:353 David, Martin, 5:464 Sciaki, Joseph, 18:197 South Africa Alexander, Morris, 1:624 de Vries, M., 5:629–630 Morris, Henry Harris, 14:510 Solomon, Bertha, 18:764 Turkey Franco, Gad, 7:177 U.S. Abrams, Floyd M., 1:327 Abrams, Robert, 1:327–328 Bacher, Eduard, 3:36 Benesch, Alfred Abraham, 3:340 Benjamin, Judah Philip, 3:357–358 Ben-Veniste, Richard, 3:384– 385 Berman, Julius, 3:463 Bialkin, Kenneth J, 3:565–566 Chertoff, Michael, 4:599–600 Dershowitz, Alan M., 5:600 Deutsch, Bernard Seymour, 5:621 Dittenhoefer, Abram Jesse, 5:702 Dworkin, Ronald, 6:74–75 Fraenkel, Osmond K., 7:145 Frankel, Hiram D., 7:196–197 Frankenthaler, Alfred, 7:203 Frankenthaler, George, 7:203 Herlands, William Bernard, 9:22–23 Hertz, Emanuel, 9:47 Hoffman, Charles Isaiah, 9:307 Hoffman, Philip E., 9:309– 310 Lefkowitz, Louis, 12:602

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Lehmann, Emil, 12:615 Leibowitz, Samuel Simon, 12:622 Levi, Edward H., 12:687 Lewin, Nathan, 12:761–762 Lieberman, Joseph, 12:804– 805 Mayer, Levy, 13:699 Medalie, George Zerdin, 13:713 Morse, David Abner, 14:512– 513 Pfeffer, Leo, 16:25 Sapiro, Aaron, 18:39 Schiff, Adam, 18:128–129 Segal, Bernard Gerard, 18:245 Shanks, Hershel, 18:397 Shapiro, Robert, 18:407–408 Shapiro, Samuel Harvey, 18:408 Shetzer, Simon, 18:471 Sloss, Marcus Cauffman, 18:680 See also specific attorneys Atwood, Margaret, 15:563 Atzmon, Moshe, 2:648–649 Aub, Joseph, 2:649 Aub, Max, 2:649 Auckland (New Zealand), 2:649 Audoin. See Hilduin Auer, Leopold, 2:649–650 Auerbach, Abraham ben Selig Avi’ezri, 2:652 Auerbach, Arnold Jacob. See Auerbach, “Red” Auerbach, Beatrice Fox, 2:652 Auerbach, Berthold, 2:653, 13:193 Auerbach, Carl A., 2:653 Auerbach, Elias, 2:653–654 Auerbach, Ellen Rosenberg, 17:336– 337 Auerbach, Ephraim, 2:654 Auerbach, Erich, 2:654 Auerbach, Frank, 2:654 Auerbach, Isaac Eisig ben Isaiah, 2:654–655 Auerbach, Isaac Levin, 2:655 Auerbach, Israel, 2:655 Auerbach, Jacob, German translation of Bible, 3:631 Auerbach, Judith, 18:733 Auerbach, Leopold, 2:655 Auerbach, Meir ben Isaac, 2:655–656 Auerbach, Menahem Mendel, 2:650 Auerbach, Moses, 2:652 Auerbach, Nathan of Satanov, 2:650 Auerbach, Philipp, 2:656

Auerbach, “Red,” 2:656–657 Auerbach, Walter, 17:337 Auerbach, Z: evi Benjamin, 1:302 Auerbach family, 2:650–652, 2 :651 Auerbakh, Rachel. See Auerbakh, Rokhl Auerbakh, Rokhl, 2:657 Auernheimer, Raoul, 2:657 Aufrichtig, Marv Philip. See Albert, Marv Aufrufen, 2:657 Aufruf zum Mißtrauen (Aichinger), 1:549 Augsburg (Germany), 2:657–658 Augury. See Divination August III. See Frederick Augustus II (King of Saxony) Augustine, 2:658–659, 4:720, 9:205– 206 Augustow (Poland), 2:659 Augustus, 2:659–660 Diaspora, 5:640 Egyptian Jews, 6:228–229 Augustus III. See Frederick Augustus II (King of Saxony) Auman, Yisrael. See Aumman, Robert J. Aumman, Robert J., 2:660 Au nom de l’autre, sur l’antisémitisme qui vient (Finkielkraut), 7:36 Auranitis. See Hauran (Syria) Aurelia Esbus. See Heshbon (ancient Israel) Aurelius, Marcus. See Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Aurich (Germany), 2:660 Aurum Coronarium, 2:661 Auscha. See Ustek (Czech Republic) Auschwitz (town; Poland). See Oswiecim Auschwitz Bombing Controversy, 2:673–674 Auschwitz concentration camp, 2:661– 673, 671, 5:358, 9:337–338, 430, 13:159–160 aerial view, vol. 9: color insert child survivors, 9:488 crematorium, 2:663, 664, 667 gas chambers, 2:664–665, 667 historiography, 9:420 Hoess, Rudolf, 9:304–306 infrastructure, 2:661 John Paul II’s visit to, 11:384 knowledge of, 2:670 liberation, 2:672 living conditions, 2:662–663 main camp and fence, vol. 9: color insert

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

medical experimentation, 2:669– 670, 14:47 orchestras, 14:698 photographs, 9:481–482, 488 population, 2:662 Ravensbrueck concentration camp and, 17:121 selection of prisoners, 2:669, 9:482 transports to, 2:662, 666, 670, 9:479 working conditions, 2:663–664 Auschwitz Convent, 2:674–675, 11:384 Auschwitz trials, 2:676 Aus der Petersburger Bibliothek (Solomon ben Aaron), 18:769 Aus drei Jahrtausenten (Baeck), 3:51 Ausdruckstanz dance, 5:412–413 Ausgewaehlte Dedicte (Bab), 3:14 Aus Halb-Asien (Franzos), 7:219 Auslaender, Nahum, 2:677 Auslaender, Rose, 2:677 Auslander, Joseph, 2:677 Auspitz, L. A., 3:687 Auspitz, Rudolph, 16:340 Auspitz family, 2:677–678 Aussig. See Usti Nad Labem Auster, Daniel, 2:678 Auster, Paul, 2:678 Austerlitz (Czech Republic), 2:678– 679 Austerlitz, Friedrich, 16:340 Austin (TX), 2:679–680 Australia, 2:680–688, 681, 682t antisemitism, 2:687 cultural and social life assimilation, 2:611 communal centers, 14:7–8 community organization and structures, 5:108, 110, 119t community organizations, 2:686–687 h: ud Habonim, 9:717t, 719 journalism in, 11:470 libraries, 12:786 literature, 6:717, 12:781 museums, 14:634 newspapers, 16:487 Sephardi Jews, 2:681–682 synagogues, 2:685–686 defense, Australia and New Zealand Army Corps, 14:432 early twentieth century, 2:682–683 education, 2:685, 6:207–208 foreign relations with Israel, 2:687 government officials Baume, Peter, 3:220–221 331

INDEX

Australia, continued Cass, Moses Henry, 4:506– 507 Einfeld, Sydney, 6:256 Isaacs, Sir Isaac Alfred, 10:54–55 Jews in public life, 2:680–681, 687, 12:619–620 laws and legal systems criminals, 5:480 law, 11:55, 12:548 WW II war crimes trials, 20:646–647 Zionism, 21:580–581 mid to late twentieth century, 2:684 nineteenth century, 2:680–681, 14:456 political theories, parties and organizations, 12:456–457, 749, 16:339–340, 18:706 population, 2:682t, 683–684 synagogues, 2:685–686 Australia-Israel Review (periodical). See The Review (periodical) The Australian Aborigines (Elkin), 6:359 Australian Association for Jewish Studies, 2:685 Australian Jewish News (newspaper), 2:686 Australian Victories in France in 1918 (Monash), 14:432 Australian Writers: The Face of Literature (Kahan), 11:708 Austria, 2:688–702, 689, 692t, 12:547– 548 1980s, 2:698–699 1990s and after, 2:699–701 antisemitism, 2:217, 219, 691, 701, 4:224, 5:736 (See also AustriaHungary; specific cities; specific rulers) badges, Jewish, 2:689 Carinthia, 4:480 Charles VI of Hapsburg, 4:576–577 Eisenstadt, 6:268–269 references in Catholic literature, 18:168 Waldheim Affair, 20:602–604 Counter Reformation-nineteenth century, 2:689–690 cultural and social life archives, 2:408 community, nature of, 5:110 journalism, 11:466–467 libraries, 12:786 332

museums, 14:627 Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek, 15:384 seals, use of, 18:227 economic affairs publishing, 16:715–716 reparations, 6:280–281 education contributions to general, 6:160–161 Jewish education, 6:177–179, 181–182 foreign policy and affairs Israel, 2:698, 701–702 Jerusalem, 11:168–169 reparations, 6:280–281 Holocaust, 2:693–695 archives, 2:408 documentation, resource centers, 9:428 Dzialoszyce, 6:80 Ehrlich, Jacob, 6:244 Sephardim, 18:301 Styria, 19:279 Tyrol, 20:220 war crimes trials, 20:642–643 Wiener Neustadt, 21:51 laws and legal systems, 12:548–549 Code of Regulations Concerning the Jews, 7:342 emancipation, 6:375, 380, 7:175 Hapsburg monarchy, 8:342– 343 Middle Ages, 10:820 war crimes trials, 20:642–643 Middle Ages, 2:688–689, 10:820 nineteenth century, 2:690–692, 692t political theories, parties and organizations Berih: ah, 3:434 Blau-Weiss, 3:747 Christian Social Party, 4:694 Ehrlich, Jacob, 6:244 Juedischer Parlamentsklub, 15:652 Nationalrat, 15:26 Zionism, 2:691–692 politicians Byk, Emil, 4:323–324 Ehrlich, Jacob, 6:244 Heimwehr, 8:770 Leichter, Kaethe Pick, 12:625 Pernerstorfer, Engelbert, 15:780–781 Seipel, Ignaz, 18:254–255

post-WW I, 2:692–693 post-WW II, 2:695–698 Austria-Hungary antisemitism, anti-Jewish boycotts, 4:109 laws and legal systems emancipation, 12:778–779, 18:683 Toleranzpatent, 20:29 political theories, parties and organizations, 16:338, 340–341 liberalism, 12:778–779 Oesterreichische-Israelitische Union, 20:249 Po’alei Zion, 16:245 Volkspartei, Juedische, 20:574 Zionism, 21:581–582 population, 16:395 printing, publishing, 16:536–537 resistance and rescue Jewish participation in military service, 14:241– 242 pogrom self-defense, 18:263 self-defense, 18:263 Ausubel, David Paul, 2:702–703 Ausubel, Nathan, 2:703 An Authentic Account of the Late Expedition to Bulam (Montefiore), 14:456 The Authoritarian Personality (AJC), 2:56 Authorities. See Reshut Authority, public. See Public authority Authority, rabbinical, 2:703–705 Landrabbiner, 12:474 Noachide laws, 15:285–286 The Author of Himself. See Mein Leben (Reich-Ranicki) Autism, early infantile, 11:766 Autobiographies. See Biographies and autobiographies Autobiography of an Adventurer (Lincoln), 13:27 Autocritique (Morin), 14:492 Auto da Fe (Canetti). See Die Blendung Auto da Fé, 2:705–706, 18:45 Autoemancipation (Pinsker), 9:247, 11:700, 16:173 Autographs, 2:706 Automobile racing, 19:134 Autonomism, 2:706–707, 6:37, 7:56 Autonomy, 2:707–710 Diaspora, 5:642 duty, 6:72, 12:562 Lesser Poland, 12:664 Poland, 16:303

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Autonomy, judicial, 2:710–711, 14:341–344, 16:735–736 Autopsies and dissection, 2:711–713, 15:567 Autour du monde fellowships, 11:718 Auvergne (France), 2:713 Auxerre (France), 2:713 Av, 2:713–714 Av, the fifteenth of, 2:714 Av, the ninth of, 2:714–716, 7:120, 12:446, 13:661–662 See also Kinah Avadenka, Lynne, 4:372 Avahu. See Abbahu Avar. See Lead Avazim. See Hussites Av Bet Din, 2:716–717 Avco Corporation, 11:772 Avdan, 2:717 Avdat I. See Obedas I (Arabian king) Avdat II. See Obedas II (Arabian king) Avdimai of Haifa. See Avdimi of Haifa Avdima of Haifa. See Avdimi of Haifa Avdimi Bar H: ama, 2:717 Avdimi Nah: ta. See Dimi Avdimi of Haifa, 2:717 Avedah. See Lost property Avedat (Negev), 2:717–719, 718 Avedon, Richard, 2:719–720, 16:126 Avel. See Abel Avé-Lallemant, Friedrich Christian Benedict, 2:720 Avelei Zion, 2:720–721, 5:428 Avelim (Israel), 2:721 Avelut. See Mourning Avempace, 2:721–722 Avenarius. See Gabirol, Solomon ben Judah, ibn Avenary, Hanoch, 2:722, 8:504 Avendauth, 2:722 Avendeath. See Avendauth Avendeuth. See Avendauth Avenger. See Blood-avengers Aventurile domnului Ionel Läcusta Termidor (Aderca), 1:391 Averah, 2:722 Averbakh, Leopold Leonidovich, 2:722–723 Avernas de Gras, Baron of. See Suasso, Antonio Lopez Averroes, 2:723–726 Albalag, Isaac, 1:582–583 Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1:628 allegorical interpretation of scripture, 3:645 angels and, 2:160

categories, 4:524–525 commentaries by Ibn Shem Tov, Joseph ben Shem Tov, 9:690, 691 Crescas, Hasdai, 2:266 Levi Ben Gershom on, 12:698–699 Av ha-Rah: amim, 2:726 Avia, 2:726 Aviad, Yeshayahu, 2:726 Avi’asaf (Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi of Bonn), 6:327 Aviation. See Aeronautics Avi Avi, 2:726–727 Avicenna, 2:160, 727–729, 4:529, 19:284 Avicenna’s Canon. See al-Qa¯nu¯n f¯ı al-T: ibb Avida, Yehuda Leib, 2:729, 3:611 Avidan. See Avdan Avidan, David, 2:729–730, 18:204 Avidom, Menahem, 2:730 Avidov, Zvi, 2:730–731 Avigad, Nah: man, 2:371, 731, 11:524 Avigdor (Israel), 2:731 Avigdor, Abraham, 2:731–732 Avigdor, Abram Bonet. See Avigdor, Abraham Avigdor, Bonet Ben Meshullam Ben Solomon. See Avigdor, Abraham Avigdor, Jacob, 15:527, 537 Avigdor ben Elijah ha-Kohen, 2:732 Avigdor ben Isaac Kara. See Kara, Avigdor ben Isaac Avigdor ben Joseph H: ayyim, 2:732– 733 Avigdor ben Simh: ah ha-Levi of Glogau, 2:733 Avignon (France), 2:733–734 Avigur, Shaul, 2:734–735 Avigur-Rotem, Gabriela, 2:735 Avi ha-Ezri. See My Father Is My Help Avih: ayil, 2:735 Avikhavod. See Ichabod Ávila (Spain), 2:735–736 Avila, De family, 2:736 Avila, Eliezer ben Samuel ben Moses De, 2:736 Avila, prophet of, 2:736 Avila, Samuel ben Moses, 2:736–737 Avimi, 2:737 Avimi ben Abbahu, 2:737 Avin, 2:737 Avina, 2:737–738 Avineri, Shlomo, 2:738 Avineri, Yitzhak, 2:738 Avinoam, Reuven, 2:738–739 Avin the Carpenter, 2:738

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Avinu Malkenu (prayer), 2:739–740 Avinu She-ba-Shamayim, 2:740 Avira, 2:740 Aviram, Joseph, 2:740 Avi-Shaul, Mordekhai, 2:740, 8:719 Avitus, 2:741 Avitzur, Shmuel, 2:741 Aviv, Haim, 2:741 Avi-Yitzhak, Dan, 2:741 Avi-Yonah, Michael, 2:371, 741–742 Avlona. See Valona (Albania) Avnei Derekh (Luz), 13:278 Avnei Kodesh (Elbaz), 1:260 Avnei Nezer (Sochaczew), 18:704 Avnei Shayish (Abitbol), 1:260 Avnei Yehoshu’a (Falk), 8:735 Avnei Zikkaron (Firkovich), 7:44 Avner. See Rosenfeld, Aharon Avnery, Uri, 2:742–743, 4:393 Avnet, John, 2:743 Avni, Aharon, 2:743 Avni, Haim, 2:743 Avni, Tzevi, 2:743–744 Avnimos ha-Gardi, 15:383 Avodah, 2:744–745 Avodah Zarah, 2:745–746 Avodat ha-Bore (Akiva Baer ben Joseph), 1:563 Avodat ha-Kodesh (Adret), 1:423 Avodat ha-Levi (Aaron ben Moses haLevi of Starosielce), 1:216 Avodat ha-Tamid (Habillo), 8:179 Avodat Massa (Joseph ben Saul Escapa), 6:488 Avodat Yisrael (Baer), 3:53 Avot, 6:526 commentaries, 12:714, 18:602 Avot (tractate), 2:746–750 Avot de-Rabbi Nathan, 2:750–751, 13:719 See also Nathan Ha-Bavli Avot de-Rabbi Nathan (Schechter), 18:113 Avot nezikin, 2:751–753 Avriel, Ehud, 2:753 Avrunin, Abraham, 2:753–754 Avrutick, Abraham N., 2:754 Avshalomov, Aaron, 2:754 Avshalomov, Jacob, 2:754 Avtalyon, 2:754–755 biblical exegesis and study, 3:641 God fearers as ancestors of, 11:293 Shemaiah (1st c. B.C.E.), 18:456 Avtinas family, 2:755 Avudama of Haifa. See Avdimi of Haifa 333

INDEX

Avun. See Avin Avvim, 2:755 AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) aircraft, 2:52 The Awakening of Word Lore: From the Masorah to the Beginnings of Hebrew Lexicography. See Min ha-Masorah el Reshit ha-Milona Eut ha-Irvit Ax, Emanuel, 2:755 Axel, Richard, 2:755–756, 13:10–11 Axelrad, Adolf. See Axelrad, Avram Axelrad, Avram, 2:756 Axelrod, Albert, 2:756 Axelrod, Albie. See Axelrod, Albert Axelrod, Esther. See Axelrod, Lubov Axelrod, George, 2:756 Axelrod, Julius, 2:756–757, 13:10 Axelrod, Lubov, 2:757 Axelrod, Meyer, 2:757 Axelrod, Pavel Borisovich, 2:757–758, 16:348 Axelrod, Selik, 2:758 Axenfeld, Israel, 2:758, 9:593 Axiomatik der relativistischen RaumZeit-Lehre (Reichenbach), 17:199 Ayalah. See Horowitz, Aaron Judah Loeb Ayalon, Ami, 2:758–759 Ayalon, David, 2:759 Ayalti, Hanan J., 2:759 Ayaluna. See Aijalon Ayanot, 2:759 Ayash family, 2:759–760 Aydan, David, 2:760 Aydin (Turkey), 2:760 Ayelet Ha-Shah: ar (newspaper). See Jutrzenka Ayil Meshullash (Elijah ben Solomon Zalman), 6:343, 345 DAyin, 2:760 Ayin, Hillel. See Omer, Hillel Ayin be-Ayin (Mohr), 14:420 Ayllon, Solomon ben Jacob, 2:760– 761, 8:477, 478 Joseph della Raina legend, 11:428 Sheluh: ei Erez: Israel, 18:451 Ayna (ancient Israel). See Ai (ancient Israel) Aynzamlung (Shamri), 18:395 Ayrton, Hertha, 2:761 Ayyal, Ayyalah. See Deer Ayyalon. See Aijalon al-Ayyam (newspaper), 15:597 Ayyash family. See Ayash family Ayyelet ha-Shah: ar, 2:761 Ayyubid dynasty, 2:761–762 Ayzik Sheftl (Pinski), 16:175 334

Ayznban-Geshikhtn (Shalom Aleichem), 18:384 Az: ancot family, 2:762 Azar. See Rabinovitz, Alexander Siskind Azarch, Abraham. See Granovsky, Alexander Azardel, Moses. See Abzardiel, Moses Az: arel (Pap), 15:614 Azariah (Book of Daniel), 5:418, 419 Azariah (first c. C.E.), 2:762 Azariah (fourth c. C.E.), 2:762 Azariah ben Eliyah, 2:762 Azariah ben Solomon, 2:762–763 Azariah ben Zechariah, 11:418 Azarkh, Raïsa Moyseyevna, 2:763 Az: at Yehoshu’a (Shapira), 18:401 Azazel, 2:763–764, 5:573 Azazel rites, 5:492–493 AZC. See American Zionist Council Azeff, Yevno Fishelevich, 2:764, 18:707 Azeglio, Massimo Taparelli, Marchese D’, 2:765 Azekah (Israel), 2:765 Az ember tragédiája (Madách), 9:603 Azemmour (Morocco), 2:765 Azenberg, Emanuel, 2:765–766 Azerbaijan, 2:766–767 Messianic movement in, 6 Persia, 2:76 See also Mountain Jews Az: eret, 2:767 Azevedo, Moses Cohen D’, 2:768 Azevedo family, 2:767 Azharot (Isaac ben Reuben alBargeloni), 6:158 Azharot, Azharah, 2:768 Azikri, Eleazar ben Moses, 2:768–769 Az: ilut, 2:769–770, 6:374 Aziz, 2:770 ‘Az¯ız al-, 6:724 Aziz ben Jonah Naim. See Naim, Aziz ben Jonah Azizus (King of Emesa), 6:28 AZJ (periodical). See Allgemeine Zeitung Des Judentums (periodical) Azkari, Eleazar ben Moses. See Azikri, Eleazar ben Moses AZM. See American Zionist Movement Azmon (Israel), 2:770 AZMU (American Zionist Medical Unit), 2:60, 8:186 Aznoth-Tabor (Israel), 2:770 Azor (Israel), 2:770–771 Azores, 2:771 Azrach, Abraham, 8:33

Azrail. See Angel of Death Azrieli, David, 2:771 Azriel of Gerona, 2:771–772, 13:761 Azriel of Shklov. See Israel ben Samuel of Shklov Az Rov Nissim, 2:772 A zsidókról (Ballagi), 3:91 Azubib, Joseph ben Nehorai, 2:772 Azubib, Saadiah ben Nehorai, 2:272 Azubib family, 2:772–773 Azuby, Abraham, 2:773 Az új keresztény (Ujvári), 20:232 Azulai (Castilian family), 2:773, 773 Azulai (Italian family), 2:773 Azulai, Abraham ben Israel, 2:774 Azulai, Abraham ben Mordecai, 2:774 Azulai, H: ayyim Joseph David, 2:77, 774–775, 3:572, 4:21, 104, 117, 7:16 Adeni, Solomon bar Joshua, 1:390 bibliography of, 3:681, 682 Jacob ben H: ayyim Joseph Elyashar, 6:371 Joshua ben Nun, 11:457 Azulai, MasDud, 2:775 Az: z: abim (Brenner), 4:160

B B (letter), 3:5, 4:5 Ba (3rd-4th centuries). See Abba (3rd4th centuries) Ba (4th-5th centuries). See Abba (4th5th centuries) Ba Ahmad (Sultan of Morocco), 14:499–500 Baal. See Baal worship Baalah, 3:5 Ba’alat ha-Armon (Goldberg), 8:721 Baal-Berith, 3:5–6 Ba’al berit milah. See Sandak Ba’alei Asufot (Lattes), 12:519 Ba’alei Mikra. See Karaites Ba’alei Shem. See Ba’al Shem Ba’alei teshuvah, 3:6–7 Baal-Gad (ancient Israel), 3:7 Ba’al ha-Bayit, 3:7 Baal-Hadad. See Rimmon Ba’al ha-Kelim. See Laniado, Samuel ben Abraham Ba’al ha-Kenafayim, 4:62 Ba’al ha-Ma’amarim. See Bachrach, Jacob Ben Moses Ba’al ha-Turim. See Jacob ben Asher Baal Hazor (ancient Israel), 3:7 Ba’al he-Arukh. See Nathan ben Jehiel of Rome Baalis (King of Ammon), 2:86, 3:8

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Baal-Makhshoves, 3:8 Baal-Meon (Transjordan), 3:8 Baal-Perazim, 3:8–9 Ba’al Shem, 3:9, 12:466 Ba’al Shem of Bingen. See Adam Ba’al Shem Ba’al Shem of London. See Falk, Samuel Jacob H: ayyim Ba’al Shem Tov. See Israel ben Eliezer Ba’al Shem Tov Ba’al Shem Tov family, 10:744 Baal T’fillah (Baer), 3:52 Ba’al ve-Ishah (Shalev), 18:373 Baal worship, 3:5, 6, 9–12 Elijah, 6:331–332, 335 extermination of, 11:113 Jezebel, 1:524 Baal-Zephon (Egypt), 3:13 Baanah. See Rechab and Baanah Baar, Emil N., 3:13 Baar, Herman, 3:13 Baasa. See Baasha Baasha, 2:85, 3:13 Baaz. See Jachin and Boaz (sanctuary pillars) Baazov, Herzl, 3:14 Baazov, Meir, 3:14 Bab, Julius, 3:14 Babad, Joseph ben Moses, 3:15 Babad, Simeon, 3:15 Babad family, 3:14 Baba ha-Gadol. See Baba Rabbah Babai ben Farhad, 3:15 Ba¯ba¯¯ı ben Farha¯d, 11:556 Babai ben Lut¸f, 3:15 Ba¯ba¯¯ı ben Lut: f of Kashan, 11:555 Ba¯b al-Abwa¯b (Caucasus), 3:16 See also Derbent (Caucasus) Babalikashvili, Nisan, 11:322 Baba Rabbah, 3:16 Babatha, 11:524 Babbitt, Milton, 3:16–17 Babel, Isaac Emmanuilovitch, 3:17–19, 15:380 Babel, Nathalie, 3:18, 19 Babel, Tower of, 3:19–21, 4:94 Babilée, Jean, 3:21 Babin, Victor, 3:21–22 Babi Yar (Kuznetsov), 9:405 Babi Yar (Ukraine), 3:22–23, 9:430 “Babi Yar” (Yevtushenko), 3:22, 18:685–686, 21:327 Babovich, Simh: ah ben Solomon ben Nahamu, 3:23, 7:44, 11:793 Bábszinház (Bródy), 4:201 Babylon (Mesopotamia), 3:23–24 alphabet, Hebrew, 1:698–699, 701t, 706, 707, 712t

Geonim, 7:380–384, 383t, 384t host of heaven, and practices in, 9:567 Sura and Pumbedita, 7:380–384 Tower of Babel, 3:19 See also Exilarch; Nebuchadnezzar Babylonia, 3:24–30 Abba, 1:225 academies, 1:347–351, 350 alluf, 1:677 Kairouan, 11:726–727 agriculture, 1:493–494 Akkadian language, 1:565–566 Ammonites, 2:85–86 amoraim, 2:89, 89–95, 91, 11:708, 12:702–703 Anilaeus and Asinaeus, 2:164–165 archives, 2:403, 404 Borsippa, 4:94 crowns and wreaths, 5:308 diaspora, 9:203–204 education, 6:163–169 Elam, 6:283 ethics, 6:535 exile, 3:25, 6:608–611, 9:180, 186, 21:488–489 economic history, 6:98–99 education during, 6:163 eschatology, 6:492–493 Jewish identity and, 11:292 return from, 6:658, 659 Hammurapi, 8:309–310 Jewish community, 3:27–29 Judeo-Arabic literature in, 11:530– 531 magical prayers, 11:594 Middle Ages education, Jewish, 6:172–173 Moab, 14:403 moneylending, 14:438 monogamy, 14:448 Nebuchadnezzar, 15:48–49 Nehardea, 15:59–60 Nehar Pekod, 15:60 Neh: utei, 15:65 population, 16:386 Rabbinic academies, 3:27–28 Shalmaneser V, 18:376 shekel weights, 18:439 See also Exilarch; Iraq; Mesopotamia; Nebuchadnezzar Babylonian, the. See Nathan Ha-Bavli Babylonian Aramaic, 2:353–356, 353t, 355t Babylonian brothers (Anilaeus and Asinaeus), 11:440

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Babylonian dialect. See Akkadian language Babylonian Empire. See Babylonia Babylonian Masorah system, 13:630– 633 contamination of, 13:618 notations, 13:619–620 terminology, 13:617–618 tonal meanings, 13:624 Torah divisions, 13:607, 609–610 written symbols, 13:616 Babylonian supralinear punctuation, 3:591 Babylonian Talmud, 5:429, 11:741– 742, 13:91, 19:470–481, 472t, 473t Aggadah of the Bavli, 19:478–479 am ha-arez: , 2:68, 69 Amidah, 2:76 amoraim, 2:89, 93, 94, 95, 11:136 Arakhin, 2:336–337 Ashi’s authorship, 2:565–566 astrology, 2:617 baraita, 3:125 Bava Batra, 3:223–224 Bava Kamma, 3:224–226 Bava Metz: ia, 3:226–227 Bavli, 19:470, 475–478 biblical orthography, 13:612 commentators Rashi, 17:104–105 Dikdukei Soferim, variant readings of, 17:31 Eleazar ben Parta, 6:305 Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, 6:325 Elisha ben Avuyah, 6:352–354 Eruvin (tractate), 6:485–486 H: ama Bar Bisa, 8:291 history of interpretation, 19:479– 481 Jacob ben Korshai, 11:34 Jesus in, 11:249–250 Johanan ben Nappah: a, 11:370–372 Kallah, 11:741–742 laws and legal systems divine punishment, 5:709 maz: anut in, 13:708 Megillah, 13:768 Me’ilah, 13:775 Menah: , 14:27–28 Mishnah, 14:328 mishpat Ivri, 14:337, 346 mistakes, 14:367 Niddah, 15:258–259 prolongation of life, 13:744 proverbs, 16:647 rabbinic literature, 19:475–477 335

INDEX

Babylonian Talmud, continued Rav, as founder of, 17:117 redaction, 9:206 Resh Lakish, 18:597–598 Samuel, as founder of, 17:117 Semah: ot, 18:273 Sugya, 19:470–475 on Targum Onkelos, 3:590 tractates, 13:667 Babylonische Wanderung (Doeblin), 5:729–730 Bacall, Lauren, 3:30 Bacau (Romania), 3:30–31 Bacchides, 3:31 Bathbasi, siege of, 18:601 Elasa, 6:287 Jonathan the Hasmonean, 11:398 Bacchus. See Dionysus, cult of Bacculus, 13:674 Bach, Aaron J., 14:446 Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel, 14:542 Bacharach (Germany), 3:31 Bacharach, Abraham Samuel ben Isaac, 3:32 Bacharach, Alfred Louis, 3:32 Bacharach, Benjamin, 3:32, 33 Bacharach, Burt, 3:32 Bacharach, Ephraim Gumbrecht, 3:32 Bacharach, Eva, 3:32–33 Bacharach, Gottschalk of, 3:32 Bacharach, Harry, 3:32, 33 Bacharach, H: avvah. See Bacharach, Eva Bacharach, Isaac, 3:32, 33 Bacharach, Israel, 3:32 Bacharach, Jacob, 3:32 Bacharach, Jair H: ayyim ben Moses Samson, 3:33–34, 6:628, 13:676 Bacharach, Judah Loeb ben Aaron, 3:32 Bacharach, Menachem, 3:32 Bacharach, Moses Samson ben Abraham Samuel, 3:34 Bacharach, Naphtali ben Jacob Elhanan, 3:34–35 Bacharach, Simon. See Bacher, Simon Bacharach, Tobias ben Joseph Solomon, 3:32 Bacharach family (Europe), 3:31–32 Bacharach family (U.S.), 3:32 Bachauer, Gina, 3:35 Bache, Jules Semon, 3:35–36 Bache family, 3:35–36 Bacher, Eduard, 3:36 Bacher, Robert Fox, 3:36 Bacher, Simon, 3:36 336

Bacher, Wilhelm, 3:36–37 aggadah, 1:460 Judeo-Persian literature, 11:558 Bacherach (Germany). See Bacharach (Germany) Bacherach family. See Bacharach family Bachi, Armando, 3:37 Bachi, Raphael, 3:37 Bachi, Riccardo, 3:37–38 Bachi, Roberto, 3:38, 18:735 Bachman, Jacob, 3:38 Bachrach, Israel, 3:39 Bachrach, Jacob ben Moses, 3:38–39 Bachrach, Judah ben Joshua Ezekiel, 3:39 Bachrach, Moses ben Isaiah Menahem, 3:39 Bachrach family. See Bacharach family Bachrich family. See Bacharach family Bârlad (Moldavia). See Barlad (Moldovia) Back, Samuel, 3:39 Backer, George, 3:39–40 Backman, Jules, 3:40 Backofen, Jacob. See Reischer, Jacob ben Joseph BackRub, 4:183 “Back to God” telecast, 11:723 Bacon, Hirsch Leib, 3:40, 8:504 Bacon, Isaac, 8:504 Bacon, Israel, 3:40 Bacon, Roger, 2:144, 3:40–41 Bacon, Shlomo Reuven, 3:41 Bacon, Yehuda, 3:41 Bacon, Yidel, 3:41 Bacrat, Abraham ben Solomon. See Levy-Bacrat, Abraham ben Solomon Bacri, David Coen, 3:41 Bacri, Jacob Coen, 3:42 Bacri, Jean-Pierre, 3:42 Bacri, Joseph Coen, 3:41–42 Bacri family, 3:41 Bacteriology. See Medicine Baculus Jacobi. See Jacob’s staff Bacu˘u (Romania). See Bacau (Romania) Badajoz (Spain), 3:42 Badè, William Frederick, 3:43 Baden (Germany), 3:43, 43–44, 6:363 antisemitism, 9:466 Frederick I, 7:220–221 Baden-Baden (Germany), 9:466 Baden Bei Wien (Austria), 3:44 Baden-Durlach (Germany), 3:43, 44 Bader, Gershom, 3:44–45

Bader, Gustav. See Bader, Gershom Badge of Shame. See Jewish badges Badges, Jewish. See Jewish badges Badh: an, 3:48 Badhav, Isaac ben Michael, 3:48–49 Bad Homburg (Germany). See Homburg (Germany) Badih: i, Yah: ya ben Judah, 3:49 Badinter, Elizabeth, 3:49 Badinter, Robert, 3:49–50 Ba¯d¯ıs (King of Granada), 11:111 Bad Kissingen. See Kissingen (Germany) Bad Koenigswart. See Lazne Kynzvart (Czech Republic) Bad Kreuznach (Germany). See Kreuznach (Germany) Bad Mergentheim. See Mergentheim (Germany) Bad Nahuheim. See Nauheim (Germany) Bad Nauheim. See Nauheim (Germany) Badt, Hermann, 3:50 Badt-Strauss, Bertha, 3:50 Baeck, Leo, 3:50–51, 11:513 Baeck, Samuel, 3:52 Baehr, Aaron. See Bennett, Archie Baena, Juan Alfonso de, 3:52 Baena, Juan de. See Pineda, Juan de Baer, Abraham, 3:52 Baer, Buddy, 3:53 Baer, Fritz. See Baer, Yitzhak Baer, Gabriel, 3:52 Baer, Issachar. See Jeiteles, Berthold Baer, Issachar Falkensohn. See Behr, Issachar Falkenstein Baer, Jacob Henry. See Baer, Buddy Baer, Max, 3:52–53 Baer, Max Jr., 3:53 Baer, Seligman Isaac, 3:53, 13:653 German translation of Bible by, 3:631 printed editions of Hebrew Bible, 3:587–588 Baer, Simeon Akiva. See Akiva Baer ben Joseph Baer, Yitzhak, 3:53–54, 9:160–161 “Ba-Erev” (Feierberg), 6:731 Baer Frankfurter. See Joseph Issachar Baer ben Elhanan Ba’er Heitev. See Isaiah ben Abraham Ba’er Heitev (Isaiah ben Abraham), 10:76–77 Baerwald, Alex, 3:54 Baerwald, Moritz, 3:54–55 Baerwald, Paul, 3:55

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Baethgen, Friedrich Wilhelm Adolph, 3:55 Baeyer, Adolf Von, 3:55 Bag. See Goldberg, Baer ben Alexander Ba Gad (Alfalas), 1:636 Les Bagages de Sable (Langfus), 12:482 Bagely, David, 3:59–60 Baghdad (Iraq), 3:55–59, 10:15 Aaron ben Amram and, 1:211 Aaron H: akiman and, 1:211 Abbasid dynasty, 1:234 bar mitzvah, 3:165–166 demography, 10:16 exilarchate and, 6:605 exilarchs, 5:466–467, 469 h: akham bashi, 8:268 Jewish quarter, 11:312 Kaz: in, Raphael ben Elijah, 12:45 Netira, 15:113 Ottoman conquest of, 15:525 philanthropy in, 11:36–37 Baghdadali, Ezekiel hen Joseph Nissim Menahem. See Gabbai, Ezekiel ben Joseph Nissim Menahem Baghdadli. See Gabbai, Ezekiel ben Joseph Nissim Menahem Baginsky, Adolf Aron, 3:59 Bagliar, Joseph, 15:523 Bagoti, 3:60 Bagrit, Leon. See Bagrit, Sir Leon Bagrit, Sir Leon, 3:60 Bagritski, Eduard Georgiyevitch, 3:60 BaH: . See Sirkes, Joel Baha¯’¯ı, 10:650 Hamadan, 8:293 holy places in Israel, 9:501, 502 Ba-H: anuto shel Mar Lublin (Agnon), 1:467 Bahat: , 16:478 Bahia (Brazil), 3:60–62 Bahir, Sefer ha-. See Sefer ha-Bahir Bahlul, Daniel ben Judah, 3:63 Bahlul, Eleazar, 3:64 Bahlul, Samuel, 3:64 Bahlul family, 3:63–64 Bahrain (Middle East), 3:64 Bah: ur, 3:64 Bah: ur (Levita), 12:731 Bah: urim (Israel), 3:64 Bah: ur yeshivah, 3:7 Bah: uz: im, 3:64 Bah: ya, 3:65 Bah: ya ben Asher ben H: lava, 3:65–66, 645 Bah: ya ben Joseph Ibn Paquda, 3:66– 67, 66–67, 6:527–528, 16:81, 106, 198, 489t beatitude, 3:237

Bible narratives, 7:14 commandments, reasons for, 5:86–87 Divine attributes, 19:283–284 duty, 6:72 education, 6:173 free will, 7:231 God, attributes of, 7:667 God, nature of, 7:661, 662 Judeo-Arabic literature and, 11:534, 539 repentance, 17:222 Baia-Mare (Romania), 3:67 Baiersdorf (Germany), 3:67–68 Baiersdorf, Samson Solomon, 3:68 Baigneux-Les-Juifs (France), 3:68 Bail. See Suretyship Bail, Charles Joseph, 3:68 Bailees. See Shomerim Bailyn, Bernard, 3:68–69 Bairam Ali. See Merv (ancient city) Baitler, Zoma, 3:69 Baito Anaia. See Bet-Anath (Israel) Baitos ben Zonin, 3:69 Baizerman, Saul, 3:69 Baja (Hungary), 3:69–70 Bajaya (Algeria). See Bougie (Algeria) Bajjana (Spain). See Pechina (Spain) Bak, Gerson, 3:70 Bak, Israel, 3:71, 8:466 Bak, Jacob, 3:70 Bak, Joseph, 3:70 Bak, Judah, 3:70 Bak, Moses, 3:70 Bak, Nisan, 3:71 Bak, Samuel, 3:71 Bakan, David, 3:72 Bakehouses, communal, 2:39 Bak family (Ashkenazi), 3:70 Bak family (Israel), 3:71 Bakhmut (Ukraine). See Artemovsk (Ukraine) Baki, 3:72 Baking. See Cooking and baking Baking and cooking. See Cooking and baking Bakkashah, 1:438, 439, 617, 3:72–73 Bakker-Nort, Betsie, 16:345 Bakl, Mania, 2:87 Bakri. See Bacri family Bakri, Mohammed, 3:73 Bakshi, Ralph, 3:73–74 Bakshi-Doron, Eliahu, 3:74 Bakst, Leon, 3:74 Bakst, Nicolai Ignatyetvich, 3:74–75 Bakst, Noah. See Bakst, Nicolai Ignatyetvich

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Baku (Azerbaijan), 3:75 Bakunin, MIkhail Aleksandrovich, 3:75 Baky, Lázló, 3:75–76 Balaam, 3:76–81, 11:250–251, 14:401, 528, 536, 545 “The Balaam Pericope,” 3:76, 77 Balaban, Barney, 3:81 Balaban, Majer. See Balaban, Meir Balaban, Meir, 3:81–82 Balabanoff, Angelica, 3:82–83 Balabanov, Angelica, 18:713 Bala¯dhur¯ı, 15:419 Balaguer (Spain), 3:83 Balak, 3:77, 83, 14:401 Balance, 3:83 Balance à trois (Babilée), 3:21 Balanjar (Caucasus), 3:83–84 Balansi, Isaac ben David, 3:679 Balassagyarmat (Hungary), 3:84 Baláz, Béla, 3:84 Balbo, Michael ben Shabbetai Cohen, 3:84–85 Balcon, Michael. See Balcon, Sir Michael Balcon, Sir Michael, 3:85 Bal-Dimyen. See Shtif, Nokhem Balearic Islands, 9:795 Balfour, Arthur James, Earl of, 3:85, 6:42 Balfour Declaration, 3:85–89, 4:722, 6:417, 430, 9:249, 13:148, 20:747 American Jewish Committee, 2:55 American Jewry and, 2:45 Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice Stennet, 2:66 Biltmore Program and, 3:700 Churchill White Paper, 10:198 Frank, Z: evi Pesah: , 7:196 Montefiore, Claude, 2:162 Nordau, Max, 15:298 Ottoman empire and, 15:544–545 Palestine Inquiry Commissions, 15:582 Palestine Liberation Organization, 15:591 San Remo Conference and, 18:26 Balfouriyyah, 3:90 Bali, Abraham ben Jacob, 3:90 Bali, Moses ben Abraham, 3:90 Bali, Rifat, 3:90 Balideh, Moses, 3:90 Balin, Marty, 3:90–91 Baline, Israel. See Berlin, Irving Balint, Michael, 3:91 Balkans community, nature of, 5:110–111 337

INDEX

Balkans, continued Congress of Berlin, 3:453–454, 6:381–382 eighteenth-early nineteenth century education, Jewish, 6:183–184 emancipation, 6:381 Ladino newspapers, 16:495 Middle Ages agriculture, Jewish, 1:495 Balkan Wars (1912-1913), 18:315 Balkh, 3:91 Ballagi, Mór, 3:91, 632 Ballarat (Australia), 3:92 Ballas, Dalia. See Itzik, Dalia Ballas, Shimon, 3:92, 15:473 Ballet, 5:412 choreographers, 13:667 Eifman, Boris, 6:253 Lewitzky, Bella, 12:770 Lichine, David, 12:795–796 Schubert, Lia, 18:168–169 Espinosa, Edouard, 6:508 European, 5:444, 12:479 Hayden, Melissa, 8:475 Levinson, Andre, 12:722–723 Ordman, Jeanette, 15:463 Plisetskaya, Maya, 16:238 Ballin, Albert, 3:92–93 Ballin, Joel, 3:93 Ballin, Moegens, 3:93 Ballin, Samuel Jacob, 3:93 Ballmer, Steve, 3:93–94 Bally, Davicon, 3:94 Bally, Isaac David, 3:94 Balm. See Balsam Balm (plant), vol. 16: color insert Balmes, Abraham ben Meir de, 3:94– 95, 13:42–43 Balmes, Abraham de, 3:94, 4:52 Balm for the Body (Falaquera). See Zori ha-Guf Balogh, Thomas, Baron, 3:95 Balsam, 3:95–96, 15:396 Balshazzar, 5:420 Balta (Ukraine), 3:96 Baltassar. See Belteshazzar Baltazar, Camil, 3:96 Baltic states emancipation, 6:385 Latvia, 12:520–524 Baltimore (MD), 3:97–100 Baltimore Ravens football team, 14:407 Meyerhoff, Harvey, 14:151–152 pioneer Jews, 6:542–543 338

Baltimore, David, 3:100, 13:9 Baltimore Bargain House, 3:98 Baltimore Hebrew University (MD), 3:98, 100–101, 11:776 Balyash: family. See Palache family Bamah. See Cult Places, Israelite Bamberg (Germany), 3:101, 778 Bamberg, Israel of. See Israel of Bamberg Bamberg, Samuel ben Baruch, 3:101– 102 Bamberger, Bernard Jacob, 3:102 Bamberger, Edouard-Adrien, 3:102 Bamberger, Eugen, 3:102 Bamberger, Fritz, 3:102 Bamberger, Heinrich Von, 3:103 Bamberger, Isaac Dov ha-Levi. See Bamberger, Seligmann Baer Bamberger, Louis, 3:103, 6:513 Bamberger, Ludwig, 3:103, 725, 726, 12:778, 16:344 Bamberger, Moses Loeb, 3:104 Bamberger, Moses Loeb II, 3:104 Bamberger, Moses Loeb III, 3:104 Bamberger, Nathan, 3:104 Bamberger, Seckel (1863-1934), 3:104 Bamberger, Seckel Isaac, 3:104 Bamberger, Selig, 3:104 Bamberger, Seligmann Baer, 3:103, 15:493 Bamberger, Simon, 3:105 Bamberger, Simon Simh: , 3:104 Bamberger, Simon Simh: II, 3:104 Bamberger, Simon Simh: III, 3:104 Bamberger, Solomon, 3:104 Bamberger, Solomon Memah: em, 3:104 Bamberger family, 3:104 Bambus, Willy, 3:105 Ba-Meh Madlikin, 3:105 Ba-Mishol ha-Z: ar (Kabak), 11:584 Banai, Ehud, 3:106 Banai, Evyatar, 3:106 Banai, Gavri, 3:106, 8:206–207 Banai, Meir, 3:106 Banai, Orna, 3:106 Banai, Yossi, 3:105–106 Banai, Yuval, 3:106 Banai family, 3:105–106 Bana’im, 18:232 Banat (Romania), 3:106–107 Band, Arnold, 3:107 Agnon, Shmuel Yosef, 1:468 on Jewish studies, 11:317–318 Bandera, Stefan, 4:86 Bandes, Louis E. See Miller, Louis E.

Bandman, Daniel, 14:454 Banet, Aber, 3:107 Banet, Fradl, 3:107 Banet, Jacob, 3:107 Banet, Johanan, 3:107 Banet, Mordecai ben Abraham, 3:107– 108, 4:156 Banet, Mordecai ben Yom Tov, 3:107 Banet, Naphtali ben Mordecai, 3:108 Banet family, 3:107 Baneth, David Hartwig, 3:108 Baneth, Eduard Ezekiel, 3:108 Baneth, Ezekiel ben Jacob, 3:108–109 Baneth family, 3:108 See also Banet family Banias (ancient Israel), 3:109, 9:40 Banishment, 3:109–111 Banja Luka, 3:111 Bank Hapoalim, 10:579, 587, 590, 601 Banking and bankers, 3:111–119 Aaron ben Amram, 1:211–212 Abbasid dynasty, 1:234 antiquity, 3:111 Benwaish, Abraham, 3:386 Bischhoffsheim family, 3:724–725 Blank, Maurice, 3:739 Blumenthal, George, 4:12 Blum Pasha, 4:7 Boas family, 4:20–21 in Bologna, 4:48 Borovoy, Saul, 4:92 brokers, 4:203–204 Camondo family, 4:382 cooperatives, 5:206 Credit Mobilier, 15:759 Denmark Adler, David Baruch, 1:396 Dreyfus family, 6:18 economic history, 6:103, 107, 113 Egypt Harari, Sir Victor Raphael, 8:345 England, 6:411–413 Benas, Baron Louis, 3:319 Europe Jewish Colonization Association, 11:286 Mendelssohn and Co., 14:31 Fraenkel, Louis, 7:145 Germany Bamberger, Ludwig, 3:103 Itzig, Daniel, 10:818–819 Riesser, Jacob, 17:296 Hallgarten family, 8:281 Hambros, 8:295

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Holocaust restitution, 6:280–281, 18:637 Israel Dickenstein, Abraham, 5:645– 646 Hoofien, Eliezer Sigried, 9:521 Levontin, Zalman David, 12:744–745 Mizrachi, 14:391–392 Italy Forlìì, 7:129–130 monti di pietà, 14:461 Ravenna, 17:120 Rieti family, 17:296–297 Jewish Colonial Trust, 11:285 Kaskel family, 11:822 Ladenburg, Wolf Hayum, 12:427 Lánczy, Léo, 12:456 Landau, Eugen, 12:459 Luzzatto family, 18:10 Middle Ages the caliphate, 3:111–112 Conversos, 3:113–114 Holy Roman Empire, 3:114 Italy, 3:114, 10:778–799, 16:6 merchants, 3:112 moneylenders, 3:112–113 women bankers, 3:115 Morawitz, Karl Ritter von, 14:478 Netherlands Lehren family, 12:616–617 in New York City, 15:203, 225– 226 nineteenth and twentieth centuries, 3:115 merchant bankers, 3:115–116 Russia and Eastern Europe, 3:116–117 Scandinavia and the Netherlands, 3:117 U.S., 3:117–119, 15:761 Oppenheim family, 15:443 Orvieto, 15:500 in Ottoman empire, 15:525, 532– 533, 542 Padua, 15:566 in Parma, 15:652–653 Poland Lewko, Jordanis, 12:770 Raisman, Sir Jeremy, 17:75 Rathenau, Walther, 17:110–111 Ratshesky Abraham Captain, 17:114 Ravay, Joseph, 17:119 Recanati, Leon, 17:141–142 role and influence of Jewish bankers, 3:119

Rosen, Mathias, 17:429 Rosenbloom, Solomon, 17:442– 443 Rothschild, Nathaniel Charles Jacob, 17:494 Rothschild Bank, 16:20 Russia Barbash, Samuel, 3:140 Horodischtsh, Leon, 9:528 s: arra¯f, 18:61 Turkey Carmona, Bekhor Isaac David, 4:486 U.K. Cassel, Ernest Joseph, 4:508 U.S., 3:117–119 Becker family, 3:244 Belmont, August, 3:301 Lazard family, 12:558 Lehman, Herbert Henry, 12:613–614 Levitan, Solomon, 12:732 See also Financiers; Moneylending; Obligations, law of Bank Leumi le-Israel, 3:180, 10:547, 579, 587, 590 Bank notes, Israeli, 5:55 See also Coins and currency Bank of Israel (BOI), 5:54, 7:55–56, 10:551–553, 570–573, 579, 581–586, 590 The Bankrupts (Glanville), 6:438 Banners, 3:119–120 Banning. See H: erem Bannus, ascetic, 2:547–548 Bánóczi, Józef, 3:120 Bánóczi, Lázló, 3:120 Bánóczi family, 3:120 Banon, Jacob, 16:346 Banska, Bystrica (Slovakia), 3:120 Bántomlács (Romania). See Talmaciu (Romania) Banu¯ al-Aghlab. See Aghlabids dynasty Banu Hafs. See Hafsids Banu- Marin. See Merinids Banus, 3:120 Banus, Maria, 3:120–121 Banu¯ Sa’d family. See Sa’dis family Banu Wattas. See Wattasid dynasty Banu Ziyan. See Ziyanid dynasty Banya Luka. See Banja Luka Baptism, 11:381 Baptism, forced. See Forced Baptism Ba¯qa¯ al-Gharbbiyya (Israel), 3:122– 123 Ba¯qa¯ al-Sharqiyya (Israel), 3:122–123 Ba’qu¯ba (Iraq), 3:123

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Bar (Ukraine), 3:123 Bar, Shlomo, 3:123 Bara, Theda, 3:123–124 Baracs, Károly, 3:124 Bar-Adon, Pesah, 11:524 Baraita (of Sifra), 18:561 Baraita, Baraitot, 3:124–128, 21:523 Midreshei Halakhah, 14:196 Sifra, 18:561 Baraita de-Melekhet ha-Mishkan, 3:128 Baraita de-Niddah, 3:128–129, 15:256 Baraita de-Rav Adda (Adda bar Ahavah), 1:384 Baraita of 32 Rules, 3:129, 6:329 Baraita of 49 Rules. See Mishnat haMiddot Barak (biblical figure), 3:129–130, 8:361, 9:170, 11:563–564 Barak, Aharon, 3:130–131, 14:358– 359, 362, 20:466–468 Barak, Ehud, 3:131–132, 266, 10:250 American Israel Public Affairs Committee, 2:51 government of, 10:459–460, 459t Palestinian Authority and, 15:599 Sharansky, Natan and, 18:412 Sharon, Ariel and, 18:417 Shas (political party) and, 18:419 Bar-am, Micha, 3:132 Baram, Moshe, 3:132 Baram, Uzi, 3:133 Baranga, Aurel, 3:133 Baranovichi (Belarus), 3:133–134 Baranowicz, David Eliezer, 3:134 Baranowicze (Belarus). See Baranovichi (Belarus) Bárány, Robert, 3:134 Barasch, Julius, 3:134–135, 6:399 Barasch, Moshe, 3:135 Barasch Judah. See Barasch, Julius Barash, Asher, 3:135–137 Barash, Ephraim, 3:137, 568, 569 Bar-Asher, Moshe, 3:137 Baratz, Hermann, 3:137–138 Baratz, Hirsch. See Baratz, Hermann Baratz, Joseph, 3:138 Barazani, Asenath, 3:138, 15:525 Barazani, Moshe, 3:138 Barazani, Samuel ben Nethaniel HaLevi, 3:138–139 Barbados (Caribbean), 2:41, 3:139, 4:473 Barbara, 3:139–140 Bar bar Huna. See Rabbah bar Huna Barbarians, 3:140 Barbarossa. See Frederick I (Holy Roman Emperor) 339

INDEX

Barbary States. See Africa Barbash, Samuel, 3:140 Barbastro (Spain), 3:140, 14:466–467 Barbie, Klaus, 13:297 Barbie, Nikolaus. trial of, 3:141 Barbie dolls, 8:320 Barby, Meir ben Saul, 3:141–142 Barcelona (Spain), 3:142–145, 146, 17:127 Barcelona, Disputation of. See Disputation of Barcelona Barcelona, Isaac ben Reuben of. See Al-Bargeloni, Isaac ben Reuben Barcinsky, Henryk, 3:146 Barczinsky, Henoch. See Barcinsky, Henryk Bard, Basil Joseph Asher, 3:147 Bardach, Israel, 3:147 Bardaki, Isaiah ben Issachar Ber, 3:147 Bardanashvilli, Josef, 3:147 Bar-Daroma, H: ayyim Ze’ev, 3:147– 148 Bardejov (Slovakia), 3:148 Bar Derora. See Liebermann, Aaron Samuel Bardin, Shlomo, 3:148–149, 4:124 Bardiya, 4:379 Bar DEbhraya, Johanan. See Bar Hebraeus, Johanan Bareheadedness. See Head, covering of Barekhi nafshi, 3:149 Barekhu, 3:149 Barenboim, Daniel, 3:149–150, 6:51 Ba¯rforush (Iran), 13:704–705 Bargas, Abraham de, 3:150 Bargeloni, Judah ben Barzillai al-. See Judah ben Barzillai al-Bargeloni Bargh: uti, Marwan, 15:600 Bar Giora, Simeon, 3:150–151, 11:383 Bar-Giora society, 8:382 Bar Hebraeus, Johanan, 2:17, 3:151, 599 Bar Hediya, 3:151–152 Bar-Hillel, Yehoshua, 3:152 Bar Hiyya, Abraham, 2:618 Bari (Italy), 3:152 Bar-Ilan, David, 3:153 Bar-Ilan, Meir, 3:153, 8:497, 14:390– 392 Bar-Ilan Responsa Project, 5:131–132 Bar-Ilan University, 3:153–154, 14:391 Barishansky, Raphael, 3:154 Barit, Jacob, 3:154–155 Barjanski, Alexander, 18:762 Bar-Josef, Ofer, 3:193 Bar-Josef, Yehoshua, 3:193 Bar-Josef, Yosef, 3:193 340

Barkai (Israel), 3:155 Bar Kalba Savu’a. See Ben Kalba Savu’a Bar Kappara, 3:155–156, 18:597–598 Judah ha-Nasi, 3:156, 11:504 parodies of, 15:655 Barkat, Reuven, 3:156 Bar Kochba Association, 3:156 Bar Kokhba (d. 135), 3:156–162, 9:202 Bethar, 3:527–528 letters, 12:669–670 Bar Kokhba revolt, 3:158, 158–162, 159, 18:573, 20:628 Ben Kosebat letters, 14:617 coinage, 5:50–51 Israel (ancient), 10:148–151 Julius Severus, 11:575 Lag ba-Omer and, 12:437 Palestine (Roman), 10:148–151 Bar Kokhva (Halkin), 8:275 Bar Kozeva. See Bar Kokhba Bar Kozevah. See Bar Kokhba Barlaam and Josaphat. See Ben haMelekh ve-ha-Nazir Barlach, Ernst, 15:289 Barlad (Moldovia), 3:162 Bar-le-Duc (France), 3:162 Bar-Lev, Haim, 3:162–163 Barley, 3:163, 7:93, vol. 16: color insert Barlin, Frederick William, 3:163 Barlow, Samuel, 8:366 Barmas, Issay, 3:163–164 Bar Mitzvah, Bat Mitzvah, 3:164–167, 11:778, 13:139 Barukh she-petarani, 3:192 haftarah, 8:198–200 mitzvot, 14:372 photographs of, 16:128, vol. 3: color insert Barna, Victor, 3:167 Barnacle Goose myths, 3:167 Barnard, Christaan, 18:168 Bar-Nash. See Schapira, Noah Barnato, Barney, 3:167–168, 11:365, 377, 16:349 Barnay, Ludwig, 3:168 Barnea, Ezra, 3:168 Barnea, Nahum, 3:168 Barnert, Nathan, 3:168, 15:686 Barnet, Dov Ber. See Ross, Barney Barnet, Jacob, 3:318 Barnet, Will, 3:169 Barnett, Bernhard. See Beer, Bernhard Barnett, Charles, 16:349 Barnett, Joel, Baron, 3:169

Barnett, John, 3:169 Barnett, John Francis, 3:169 Barnett, Lewis Edward. See Barnett, Sir Lewis Edward Barnett, Lionel David, 3:169 Barnett, Richard David, 2:371, 3:169– 170 Barnett, Sir Lewis Edward, 3:170 Barnett, Zerah, 3:170 Barnowsky, Viktor, 3:170 Barnston, Henry, 3:170 Baron, Bernhard, 3:171 Baron, David. See Pinter, Harold Baron, Devorah, 3:171 Baron, Joseph Alexander, 3:171–172 Baron, Joseph Louis, 3:172 Bar-On, M. Y., 15:662 Baron, Salo Wittmayer, 3:172–173 American Academy for Jewish Research, 2:47 American Jewish Historical Society, 2:59 Blau, Joseph Leon, 3:743 Jewish studies in American universities, 11:317 Baron, Shalmo Wittmayer. See Baron, Salo Wittmayer Baron d’Auvernas le Gras. See Suasso, Antonio Lopez Baron de Hirsch Fund, 3:173, 695 Barondess, Joseph, 3:173, 15:205 Baroness Oppenheim-Barnes. See Oppenheim, Sally Baron Taylor of Gosforth. See Taylor, Sir Peter Murray Baron von Sparzenstein. See Ricius, Paulus Baroque period Italian literature, 10:791–792 Lamentations, Book of, 12:450 Baroto. See Beirut Baroto (Lebanon). See Beirut Barou, Noah, 3:173–174 Barouch, André, 16:346 Bar Pada. See Judah ben Pedaya Barr, Roseanne, 3:174 Barranquilla (Colombia), 5:62–63 Barrassa, Jacob, 3:174 Barrenness and fertility, 2:532–533, 3:174–175, 6:692 Barrés, Auguste Maurice, 3:175 Barrett, David, 3:175–176, 4:186–187, 187, 16:341 Barrios, Daniel Levi De, 3:176–177, 6:69 Barrios, Miguel de, 6:446 Barris, Chuck, 3:177

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Barron, Jennie, 3:177 Barron, Milton, 18:733 Barros Basto, Arturo Carlos de, 3:177– 178, 15:441 Barroso, Gustavo, 4:149–150 Barruel, Augustin, 3:178 Barshai, Rudolf, 3:178 Barshefsky, Charlene, 3:178–179 Barsimon, Jacob, 3:179, 15:195 Bart, Lionel, 3:179 Barter. See H: alifin Bartfa (Slovakia). See Bardejov (Slovakia) Bartfeldt (Slovakia). See Bardejov (Slovakia) Barth, Aharon, 3:180 Barth, Eliezer, 3:180 Barth, Jacob, 3:179 Barth, Karl, 3:180, 651 Bartholdy, Jacob, 3:180 Bartolocci, Giulio, 2:37, 3:180–181, 681, 8:514 Bartov, Hanoch, 3:181, 8:704 Bar Tuvia. See Fraenkel, Faiwel Bar Tuviah. See Fraenkel, Faiwel Baruch (kabbalists), 3:182–183 Baruch (scribe), 3:181–182 Baruch, Adam, 3:184 Baruch, Apocalypse of. See Apocalypse of Baruch Baruch, Bernard, 3:183–184 Baruch, Book of, 3:185–186, 11:129, 131–132 Baruch, Franziska, 4:369 Baruch, Greek Apocalypse of. See Greek Apocalypse of Baruch Baruch, Jacob ben Moses H: ayyim, 3:186–187 Baruch, Joseph Marcou, 3:187, 4:276 Baruch, Judah, 15:542 Baruch, Kosman ben Josef, 2:38 Baruch, Loeb. See Boerne, Ludwig Baruch, Paul. See Bekker, Paul Baruch, Rest of the Words of. See Rest of the Words of Baruch Baruch, Simon, 3:183 Baruch Ashkenazi, 3:83 Baruch ben David Yavan, 3:188 Baruch ben Isaac Mitrani, 6:149 Baruch ben Isaac of Aleppo, 3:188 Baruch ben Isaac of Regensburg, 3:188 Baruch ben Isaac of Worms, 3:189 Baruch ben Jehiel of Medzibezh, 3:189 Baruch ben Samuel, 3:189–190 Baruch ben Samuel of Aleppo, 3:190 Baruch ben Samuel of Mainz, 3:190

Baruch ben Samuel of Pinsk, 8:474 Baruch family, 3:183–184 Baruch of Arezo, 18:354 Baruch of Greece. See Baruch ben Samuel of Aleppo Baruch (ben Abraham) of Kosov, 3:190–191 Baruch of Medzibezh. See Baruch ben Jehiel of Medzibezh Baruch Shei’ah: Togarmi, 3:182–183 Baruch the Kabbalist, 3:182–183 Baruch the Sephardi. See Baruch ben Samuel of Aleppo Baruh, Armand, 4:276 Baruh, Bora, 3:191 Baruh, Victor, 4:276 Baruj Spinoza (Dujovne), 6:43 Baruk, Henri, 3:191 Barukh, 3:191 Barukh ben Isaac, 1:613 Barukh she-Amar, 3:191–192 Barukh Shem, 18:454 Barukh shem kevod malkhuto le-olam va-ed, 3:192 Barukh she-petarani, 3:192 Barukh Spinoza u-Zemanno (Sokolow), 18:749 Barukh Ta’am (Fraenkel-Teomim), 7:145 Bar-Yehudah, Israel, 3:192–193 Barylko, Jaime, 3:193 “Bar Yoh: ai Nimshah: ta Ashrekha” (Labi), 12:408 Bar-Yosef, Rivka, 18:737 Bar-Yosef, Y., 8:720 Barzel. See Iron Barzilai, Giuseppe, 3:194 Barzilai, Salvatore, 3:194 Barzilai, Yehoshua, 3:194 Barzilai family, 3:194 Barzilay, Isaac E., 2:47 Barzillai (biblical figures), 3:194 Barzillai of Abel-Meholah, 3:194 Barzillai the Gileadite, 3:194, 18:755 Basal. See Basle (Switzerland) Basar. See Flesh Basar va-Dam. See Flesh Basar va-Dam (Shenhar), 18:459 Basch, Henry, 15:677 Basch, Jacob, 15:676 Basch, Victor Guillaume, 3:194–195 Baschko, Z: evi Hirsch ben Benjamin, 3:195 Baseball, 1:325–326, 19:134–136 Allen, Mel, 1:667–668 Berg, Moe, 3:416–417

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Boudreau, Lou, 4:105 Daniel, Dan, 5:425 Dreyfuss, Barney, 6:20–21 Green, Shawn David, 8:66–67 Greenberg, Henry Benjamin, 8:69– 70 Holtzman, Kenneth Dale, 9:498 Patkin, Max, 15:688 Paul, Gabriel Howard, 15:695 Pike, Lipman Emanuel, 16:152 Reese, Jimmie, 17:162 Reinsdorf, Jerry, 17:210 Rosen, Albert Leonard, 17:427 Schacht, Alexander, 18:98–99 Selig, Allan H., 18:265 Shamsky, Arthur Louis, 18:395 Sherry, Lawrence, 18:465 Sherry, Norman Burt, 18:465 Basevi, Abraham, 3:195 Basevi, Abramo, 3:195 Basevi, Emanuele, 3:195 Basevi, Gioacchino, 3:195 Basevi, James Palladio, 3:195 Basevi, Joseph, 3:195 Basevi, Maria. See Disraeli, Maria Basevi, Naphtali. See Basevi, Nathan Basevi, Nathan, 3:195 Basevi, Nathanel, 3:195 Basevi Cervetto. See Basevi family Basevi Cervetto, Jacob. See Cervetto, Jacob Basevi Basevi della Gondola. See Basevi family Basevi family, 3:195–196 Bash. See Basevi family Bashan (Israel). See Bozrah (Israel) Bashan region (Israel), 3:196, 196–197, 10:130, 131, 11:814 Bashevi, Maria. See Disraeli, Maria Bashevis, Isaac. See Singer, Isaac Bashevis Bashiri, Yah: ya, 3:197 Bashrav (Ehrlich), 6:242 Bashyazi, Moses, 3:198 Bashyazi family, 3:197–198 Basic Black with Pearls (Weinzweig), 20:729 Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation of 1992, 14:359–360 Basic Law: Human Dignity and Freedom of 1992, 14:359–360 Basilea, Solomon Aviad Sar-Shalom, 3:199 Basil I (Byzantine emperor), 3:198– 199, 4:327 Basilica, 3:199 Bas: ¯ır, Joseph ben Abraham ha-Kohen Haro’eh al-, 3:200, 11:425, 532, 790 341

INDEX

Basketball, 19:136–138 announcing, 7:638 Berenson, Senda, 3:412 Berkowitz, Mickey, 3:440 Brody, Tal, 4:202, 14:392 Brown, Herb, 4:215 Brown, Lawrence H., 4:215 Dallas Mavericks, 5:326 Gottlieb, Edward, 8:10–11 Grunfeld, Ernie, 8:112 Harrison, Lester, 8:366 Holman, Nathan, 9:323–324 Holzman, William “Red,” 9:503– 504 Klein, Ralph, 12:225 Lieberman, Nancy Elizabeth, 12:805–806 Litwack, Harry, 13:142 Mizrachi, Shimon, 14:392 Podoloff, Maurice, 16:253 Reinsdorf, Jerry, 17:210 Rosen, Yehoshua, 17:431 Rudolph, Marvin, 17:525 Saperstein, Abraham M., 18:34 Saracheck, Bernard, 18:40–41 Schayes, Adolph, 18:112 Sedran, Barney, 18:237 Basket tax, 5:242 Baskin, Judith, 3:200–201 Baskin, Leonard, 3:201 Basle (Switzerland), 3:201–202 Basle Program, 3:202–203, 15:298 Basman, Ben-Hayim, Rivke, 3:203–204 Basnage, de Beuval. See Basnage, Jacques Christian Basnage, Jacques Christian, 3:204, 16:629 Basola, Moses ben Mordecai, 2:141, 3:204–205 Basola, Moses II, 3:204–205 Basola, Moses III, 3:204–205 Basque language, 3:636 Basra (Iraq), 3:205–206 Bas: ri, Meer, 3:206, 15:473 Bass, Hyman B., 3:206 Bass, Shabbetai ben Joseph, 3:206, 681, 6:77–78 Bassan, Abraham Hezekiah ben Jacob, 3:206–207 Bassan family. See Bassano family Bassani, Giorgio, 3:207, 10:794 Bassani, Marco. See Bassani, Mordecai Bassani, Mordecai, 3:207, 208 Bassani family. See Bassano family Bassano (Italy), 3:207–208 Bassano, Isaiah ben Israel Hezekiah, 3:208 342

Bassano, Israel Benjamin, 3:208 Bassano family, 3:208 Bassermann, Albert, 4:118 Bassevi of Treuenberg, Jacob, 3:208– 209, 4:39, 9:6 Bassin, Moses, 3:209 Bassin, Moyshe. See Bassin, Moses Bassista, Shabbetai ben Joseph. See Bass, Shabbetai ben Joseph Bassola, Moses ben Mordecai. See Basola, Moses ben Mordecai Bassora (Iraq). See Basra (Iraq) Bassus, Lucilius, 3:209 Basta. See Baza (Spain) Basta (Spain). See Baza (Spain) Bastard. See Mamzer Bas Tovim, Sarah, 3:209, 7:50 Batalyawsi, Abu Muhammad Abdallah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Sid Al-, 3:210 Batanea. See Bashan region (Israel) Bat Avin (Abraham Dov Baer of Ovruch), 1:311 Bat-Dor Dance Company. See Batsheva and Bat-Dor dance companies Bate, Julius, 3:210 Ba-Teva (Solodar), 18:754 Bath (England), 3:210 Bath, bathing, 3:210–211 See also Mikveh Bat H: efer, 3:211 Bath-Sheba, 1:545, 3:211–212, 5:452– 453, 457, 458, 18:755 Bathyra (Syria), 3:212 Bathyra, sons of, 3:212 Batista, Fulgencio, 5:323 Bat Kol, 3:213 Batlanim, 3:213 Batman (comic strip), 11:760–761 Batman (motion picture), 6:315 Bat-Miriam, Yokheved, 3:213–214 Bat Mitzvah. See Bar Mitzvah, Bat Mitzvah Bato, Ludwig Yomtov, 3:214 Baton Rouge (LA), 13:224 Bats, 3:209–210 Bat Shelomo, 3:214 Bat-Sheva. See Basevi family Batsheva and Bat-Dor dance companies, 3:214–215 Battat, Reuben, 3:215 Battei ha-Nefesh ve ha-Lh: ashim (Levi), 12:697 The Battiad (Mendes), 6:437 Battle of al-Qas: r al-Kab¯ır of 1578. See Battle of the Three Kings of 1578

Battle of Cable Street (England), 3:215 Battle of the Three Kings of 1578, 14:497 Battleship Potemkin (motion picture), 6:274 Batumi (Georgia), 3:215 Bat yaEanah, 15:550 Bat Yam (Israel), 3:215–216, vol. 21: color inserts Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm, Graf von, 3:216 Bauer, Bruno, 3:216, 9:232 Bauer, Felice, 11:704–705 Bauer, Hans, 3:216, 13:58 Bauer, Jacob, 3:217 Bauer, Lina. See Morgenstern, Lina Bauer, Marion Eugenie, 3:217 Bauer, Otto, 3:217, 16:340, 18:705, 715, 729 Bauer, Simon Harvey, 3:218 Bauer, Yehudah, 3:218–219 Bauernfreund, Jakub. See Bornfriend, Jacob Bauhaus, 4:172, 14:420 Baum, Father Gregory, 4:681 Baum, Herbert, 3:219 Baum, Menah: em ben Aaron of Kamenetz, 3:219 Baum, Morton, 3:220, 15:220 Baum, Oscar, 3:220 Baum, Shepard, 3:220 Baum, Vicki, 3:220 Bauman, Zygmunt, 3:220 Baumann, Gustav, 3:769 Baumann, Isaac, of Hesse-Cassel, 3:769, 16:349 Baumann, Kurt, 11:570 Baume, Erne. See Baume, Peter Baume, Peter, 3:220–221 Baumgardt, David, 3:221 Baumgartel, Elise J., 3:221 Baumgarten, Emanuel Mendel, 3:221– 222 Baumgarten, Jean, 11:325 Baumgarten, Sandor, 3:222 Baumgartner, Hieronymus, 4:70 Baumgartner, Walter, 3:222 Baumhorn, Lipót, 3:222 Baumol, Joshua, 3:222 Baur, Ferdinand Christian, 15:191 Baur, Harry, 3:223 Bauska (Latvia), 3:223 Bava Batra (tractate), 1:341, 3:223–224 Bava ben Buta, 3:224 Bava Kamma, 3:28, 224–226, 6:397 Bava Metz: ia, 3:226–227

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Bava(h) Rabbah. See Baba Rabbah Bavaria (Germany), 3:228, 228–229 Landshut, 12:476 Lauingen, 12:526 revolution (1918), 6:276 Bavli, Hillel, 3:230, 8:736 Bavli, Menahem ben Moses, 3:230 Bavli v. Rabbinical Court of Appeals, 14:362 Baxa, Karel, 9:120 Bayahu, Jonathen ben, 3:160 Bayard, Herbert, 11:468 Bay Area Jewish Healing Center, 6:254 Bayazid II, 3:230 Bay di Taykhn fun Mazovye (Bursztyn), 4:203 Bayefsky, Aba, 3:230–231 Bayer, Bathja. See Bayer, Batya Bayer, Batya, 3:231 Bayhan (Saudi Arabia), 3:231 Bayit le-Adam Eh: ad (Orpaz), 15:483 Bayit va-Gan. See Bat Yam (Israel) Baym Dnieper (Bergelson), 3:419 Baym Toyer (Molodowsky). See At the Gate (Molodowsky) Bay Nakht Oyfn Altn Mark (Perets), 21:347 Bayne, ben Joseph ibn Paquda. See Bah: ya ben Joseph Ibn Paquda Bayonne (France), 3:231–232 Bayramic, 3:232 Bayreuth (Germany), 3:232–233 Bayside Land Corporation Ltd., 15:588 Bayt al-Maqdis. See Jerusalem (Israel) Baytalsky, Mikhail Davidovich. See Domalsky, I. Bayt Jann. See Beit Jann Bay Tree, 3:233 Bayudaya, 3:233, 11:521 Bay Zikh (journal), 21:354 Baza (Spain), 3:233 Bazelon, David L., 3:233–234, 12:556 Bazín (Slovakia). See Pezinok (Slovakia) A Bazini zsidók (Biró), 9:604 Baz¯ırka¯n, 6:233 BBYO (B’nai B’rith Youth Organization), 4:14–15 Bdellium, 3:234 Bé, Guillaume le. See Le Bé, Guillaume Bea, Augustin, 3:234, 11:380 Beackon, Derek, 6:426 Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of. See Disraeli, Benjamin Beadle. See Shammash Beame, Abraham David, 3:234–235, 15:215, 216, 224

Beans, 3:235 Bear, 3:235 Bear, Jacob, 6:451 Beard and shaving, 3:235–236 Bearing Witness teacher training program, 9:454 Bearsted, Marcus Richard Samuel, Third Viscount, 3:237 Bearsted, Marcus Samuel, First Viscount, 3:236–237 Bearsted, Walter Horace Samuel, Second Viscount, 3:237 Beati misericordes (Morpurgo), 14:509 Beating. See Floggings Beatitude, 3:237–241 The Beatles (musical group), 6:468, 12:666 Beaucaire (France), 3:241 Beautiful Gate. See Nicanor’s gate (Jerusalem) Beautiful Losers (Cohen), 4:423, 5:25 Beauty and the environment, 5:168 Bebai, 3:241 Bebai Bar Abbaye, 3:241 Bebe, Pauline, 3:241–242 Beber, Sam, 4:14 Bebuquin oder die Dilettanten des Wunders (Einstein), 6:263 Beccari, Arrigo, 3:242 Bech(ius), Matthias Friedrich, 3:243 Becha (Kirovograd district, Ukraine). See Aleksandriya (Kirovograd district, Ukraine) Becher, Sigfried, 3:242 Bechhold, Jacob Heinrich, 3:242 Bechin (Bohemia). See Bechyne (Bohemia) Bechtolsheim, Andy, 4:183 Bechyne (Bohemia), 3:242–243 Beck, Balthazar, 4:472 Beck, Karl Isidore, 3:243 Beck, Michael, 3:243 Beck, Willy, 3:243 Beckelman, Moses W., 3:244 Becker, Aharon, 3:244 Becker, Edward Roy, 3:244–245 Becker, Gary Stanley, 3:245 Becker, Ham G., 3:244 Becker, Harry, 15:304 Becker, Helen. See Tamiris, Helen Becker, Howard, 18:734 Becker, James Herman, 3:244 Becker, Julius, 3:245 Becker, Jurek, 3:245–246 Becker, Lavy M., 3:246 Becker family, 3:244 Becket, Thomas, 4:96

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Beckett, Samuel, 3:742–743 Bécsi Magyar Ujság (newspaper), 8:282 Beda, 3:246–247 Bedacht, Max, 3:247 Bedarida, Guido, 3:247 Bédarride, Israél, 3:247 Bédarrides (France), 3:247 Bedarrides of Montpellier, 11:560 Bedbugs (Sinclair), 18:632 Beddington, Alfed Henry, 3:248 Beddington, Claude, 3:248 Beddington, Edward Henry Lionel, Sir, 3:248 Beddington, Henry Beddington, 3:248 Beddington, Henry Moses, 3:248 Beddington, John Louis “Jack,” 3:248 Beddington, Maurice, 3:248 Beddington, William Richard, 3:248 Beddington family, 3:248 Bede, English translation of Bible, 3:611 Bedeken, 3:48 Bedek ha-Bayit (Aaron ben Joseph haLevi), 1:215 Bedek ha-Bayit (Caro), 8:444 Bedersi, Abraham ben Isaac, 3:248, 16:117, 267–268 Bedersi, Jedaiah ha-Penini. See Jedaiah ben Abraham Bedersi Bedford (England), 3:248–249 Bedikat H: amez: , 3:249 Bedil. See Tin Bedouins, 10:737–739 Ishmaelites as, 10:85 Israel (state), 10:737–739 Bedzin (Poland), 3:249–250 Bee, 3:250 Be-Ein H: azon, 17:236 Be-Ein Mattarah (Bershadsky), 3:489 Beek, Martinus Adrianus, 3:250 Beekeeping, 3:250 Be-Emz: a ha-Roman (Bartov), 3:181 Beer (Israel), 3:250 Beer, Aaron, 2:76, 3:250–251 Beer, Bernhard, 3:251, 6:11, 12:615 Beer, George Lucas, 3:251 Be’er, Haim, 3:251–252 Beer, Israel, 3:252 Beer, Jacob Liebmann. See Meyerbeer, Giacomo Beer, Max, 3:252 Beer, Michael, 3:253 Beer, Moses. See Beer, Max Be’er, Orah, 3:256 Beer, Peter, 3:253 Beer, Rachel, 3:253 343

INDEX

Be’er, Rami, 3:254 Beer, Richa. See Beer, Rachel Beer, Samuel Friedrich, 3:254, 18:223 Beer, Wilhelm, 3:254 Be’er Avraham (Weinberg), 18:677 Beer-Bing, Isaiah, 3:254, 703 Be-Erez: Gezerah (Almog), 1:680 Be’er ha-Golah (Bezalel), 9:225 Beer-Hoffman, Richard, 3:254–255 Be’eri (Israel), 3:255 Beeri, Tuvia, 3:255 Beerman, Leonard, 3:255–256, 13:204 Be’er Mayim H: ayyim (H: ayyim), 8:481 Be’er Moshe (Epstein), 6:476 Be’erot, Yiz: h: ak, 3:256 Beeroth (ancient Israel), 3:256, 17:142–143 Beersheba (Israel), 2:371, 3:256–258 Be’er Toviyyha, 3:258 Be’er Ya’akov, 3:258 Beet, 3:258 Be-Fardes ha-H: asidut (Buber), 8:416– 417 Befejezetlen mondat, 5:600–601 Before, During and After (Halbreich), 9:413 Begging and beggars, 3:258–260, 6:690 Beghi, Elijah Afdah. See Beghi, Elijah Afidah Beghi, Elijah Afidah, 3:260, 11:546 Beghi, Joseph ben Moses, 3:260 Beghi, Moses ben Benjamin, 3:260 Beghi family, 3:260 Bégin, Emile Auguste, 3:261 Begin, Menah: em, 3:261–262, 9:283, 17:264–267 American Israel Public Affairs Committee, 2:51 governments of, 10:444–448, 445t, 447t Lebanese War and, 10:240, 12:583 Likud, 13:13 as prime minister, 10:238–239 Schindler, Alexander M. and, 18:135–136 settlements beyond Green Line and, 10:363–364 Begin, Ze’ev Binyamin, 3:262 Begun, Yosef, 14:520 Behak, Judah, 3:262 Beham, Barthel, 4:70 Beham, Hans Sebald, 4:70 Behar, Bucha, 4:276 Behar, Leon, 3:262–263 Behar, Nissim, 2:184, 3:263 Beharav, Dmitri. See Bogrov, Dmitri 344

Behavioral psychology. See Psychology Behavior finance theories, 11:725 Behemoth, 3:263 Behem v. the Rabbinical Hight Court of Appeals, 5:138–139 Beh: inat ha-Dat (Delmedigo), 2:531 Beh: inat ha-Dat (Delmedigo, Elijah ben Moses Abba), 5:542 Behind the Door. See Dietro la porta Behind the Polish-Soviet Break (Brody), 4:200 Beh: inot, 11:634–635 Behold a Great Image, 16:127–128, 129 Behold the Man (Moorcock), 18:199 Be-H: ozai, 3:263 Behr, Issachar Falkenstein, 3:263–264 Behrein. See Bahrain (Middle East) Behrend, Jacob Friedrich, 3:264, 12:551 Behrends, Leffmann, 3:264, 8:330, 13:253 Behrens, Leffman. See Behrends, Leffmann Behrman, Martin, 3:264 Behrman, Samuel Nathaniel, 3:264– 265 Bei Avidan, 3:265 Beider, Chaim, 3:265 Beiderman, Bernardo, 3:265 Beihan. See Bayhan (Saudi Arabia) Beijing (China). See Peking (China) Beilenson, Anthony Charles, 3:265– 266 Beilin, Arkadi, 3:75 Beilin, Asher, 3:266 Beilin, Yossi, 3:266–267 Beilinson, Moses Eliezer, 3:267, 13:260 Beilinson, Moshe, 3:266 Beilis, Menahem Mendel, 3:267–268 Beilis blood libel trial (Kiev), 12:780 Duma, 6:45 Nicholas II and, 15:250 Beim, Solomon ben Abraham, 3:268 Beimel, Jacob, 3:268 Bein, Alexander, 3:268 Beinart, Haim, 3:268–269 Bein ha-Metim u-vein ha-H: ayyim (Sened), 18:288 Bein ha-Mez: arim. See Three weeks Bein ha-Shemashot. See Twilight Beinisch, Dorit, 3:269 Bein Mayim le-Mayim (Brenner), 4:160 Bein Z: eh: ok le-Dema (Shaked), 18:367, 368 Bei-Rav, 3:269 Beirav, Jacob. See Berab, Jacob

Beirav, Jacob ben H: ayyim. See Berab, Jacob ben H: ayyim Beirut, 3:269–271, 12:587–589 Beisan. See Bet(h)-Shean (Israel) Beis HaMidrash LaTorah. See Hebrew Theological College Beit, Alfred. See Beit, Sir Alfred Beit, Sir Alfred, 3:271 Beit Abraham (Abraham ben Isaac haKohen of Zamos´c´), 1:301 Beit Aharon (Aaron ben Samuel), 1:217 Beit Aharon (Abiob), 1:259 Beit Avraham (Abraham ben Josiah Troki), 1:303 Beit Avraham (Weinberg), 18:677 Beit-El. See Pisa, da, family Beit Eshel. See Bet Eshel (Israel) Beit Gubrin. See Bet Guvrin (Israel) Beit ha-Beh: ira (Ha-Meiri), 8:667 Beit ha-Beh: irah (Meiri), 13:786 Beit ha-Levi: Novellae on the Talmud, 102 responsa and sermons (Soloveichik), 18:776 Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin, 3:271–272 Beit ha-Oz: ar (Abraham ben Josiah Troki), 1:303 Beit ha-Oz: ar (Joseph ben Judah Engel), 6:409 Beit Hashoah Museum of Tolerance, 9:451 Beit Hillel (Lipschuetz), 13:73 Beit Jama¯l, 3:272 Beit Jann, 3:272 Beit Leh: em Yehudah (Modena), 14:409 Beit Mo’ed (Rabba), 17:7 Beitraege zur aelteren deutschen Wirtschafts-und Verfassungsgeschichte (Caro), 4:487 Beitraege zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament (Wette de), 21:30 Beitraege zur Geographie Palaestinas (Hildesheimer), 9:105 Beitraege zur geschichte und Literatur im geonaeischen Zeitalter (Eppenstein), 6:465 Beit T’Shuva, 13:210 Beit Tzvi school, 11:736 Beit Ya’ar ha-Levanon. See House of the Forest of Lebanon Beit Yehudah (Levinsohn), 12:721 Beit Yehudah (Modena), 14:409 Beit Yisrael (Falk), 6:686 Beit Yosef (Caro), 1:532, 4:489–490, 776, 778, 779, 8:257, 14:481 Beja (Portugal), 3:272 Beja, Isaac ben Moses, 3:272 Bejerano, Bejerano, 3:272

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Bejerano, Bekhor H: ayyim ben Moses, 3:272–273 Bejerano, Maya, 3:273 Bejerano, Moshe, 3:272 Bejerano, Shimon, 3:272 Bejerano family, 3:272 Bejski report, 2:453 Bekache, Shalom, 3:273 Békécsaba (Hungary), 3:274–275 Bekemoharar, Joseph Raphael ben Mordecai, 3:274 Bekemoharar, Menahem (III), 3:274 Bekemoharar, Menahem ben Isaac Ashkenazi, 3:273 Bekemoharar, Menahem (II) ben Mordecai, 3:274 Bekemoharar, Menahem (IV) R. Mordecai Simeon, 3:274 Bekemoharar, Mordecai ben Menahem, 3:273–274 Bekemoharar, Mordecai (II) ben Menahem, 3:274 Bekemoharar, Mordechai Simeon ben Nissim Solomon, 3:274 Bekemoharar, Raphael, 3:274 Bekemoharar, Yom Tov, 3:274 Bekemoharrar family, 3:273–274 Békessy, János. See Habe, Hans Be-Kez: ha-Yamim (Hazaz), 8:493 Bekher. See Camels Bekhor. See Firstborn Bekhorot, 3:275–276 Bekhor Shor, Joseph ben Isaac, 3:276– 277, 642 Bekker, Balthasar, 2:21, 15:191 Bekker, Paul, 3:277 Beklemishev, Yuri Solomonovich. See Krymov, Yuri Be-Kolar Eh: ad (Hazaz), 8:494 Bel. See Marduk Belachatow (Poland), 3:279 Belair (Satan). See Belial Belais(h), Abraham ben Shalom, 3:277, 16:346 Bel and the Dragon, 3:277 Belarus, 3:277–278 cultural and social life community archives, 2:408 Karaites, 4:130 literature, 4:323 Lithuanian Jewry, 13:121 museums, 14:630 Holocaust Baranovichi, 3:134 Bereza, 3:413–414 Bobruisk, 4:24–25 Borisov, 4:86

Braslav, 4:130–131 Bykhov, 4:324 David-Godorok, 5:473–474 Dolginovo, 5:735 Druya, 6:28–29 Dubrovno, 6:39 Dyatlovo, 6:75 Ilya, 9:736 Ivanovo, 10:821 Ivye, 10:822 Kobrin, 12:244 Koidanovo, 12:267 Krichev, 12:356 Lachva, 12:426 Lepel, 12:650 Lida, 12:802 Lyakhovichi, 13:293 Minsk, 14:293–297 Mir, 14:304–305 Mogilev, 14:417 Molodechno, 14:429 Mozyr, 14:592–593 Mstislavl, 14:593 Nazi occupation, 11:735–736 Novogrudok, 15:321 Novy Dvor, 15:323–324 Orsha, 15:487 Oshmyany, 15:502–503 Ostryna, 15:514–515 Ozery, 15:557 Pinsk, 16:172 Polotsk, 16:361 Pruzhany, 16:657 Radoshkovichi, 17:59 Radun, 17:59 Rechitsa, 17:144 Rogachev, 17:367–368 Shchedrin, 18:426 Skidel, 18:658 Slonim, 18:676–677 Slutsk, 18:685 Stolbsty, 19:234 Stolin, 19:234 Svisloch, 19:334 Vitebsk, 20:560 Volkovysk, 20:573–574 Volpa, 20:578 Vysokoye, 20:590 Zelva, 21:502 See also Belorussia (Russia); specific cities Belasco, David. See James, David Belaya Tserkov (Ukraine), 3:278–279 Belaya Vezha, Sarkil (Khazaria) Beled (Hungary), 3:279

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Belev, Alexander, 3:279 Belfast (Ireland), 3:280, 11:68 Belfort (France), 3:280 Belforte, Solomon, 3:280 Belgium, 3:280–287, 281, 14:625 antisemitism, 2:234 cultural and social life literature, 5:305 museums, 5:305 newspapers, 16:487 demography, 4:227 early postwar years, 3:284–285 emancipation, 6:378 Holocaust, 3:282–283, 9:339 Antwerp, 2:250 badges, Jewish, 2:250 Brussels, 4:227 leather industry and trade, 12:576 literature, 18:118 Middle Ages, 3:280–281 modern period community life, 3:285 interfaith relations, 3:285 politics, 3:285 relations with Israel, 3:286– 287 remembering the Holocaust, 3:286–287 resistance, 3:282–283 Belgorod-Dnestrovski (Ukraine), 3:287–288 Belgrade (Serbia), 3:288–289, 14:629 Belgrado, David Fernando, 3:289 Belial, 3:289–290 Beliar. See Belial Belief, 3:290–294, 6:682–683 Beli Kokhav (Burla), 4:295 Belinas. See Banias (ancient Israel) Belinfante, Aron, 3:295 Belinfante, Ary, 3:295 Belinfante, Elijah Hezekiah, 3:294 Belinfante, Emilie Josephine, 3:295 Belinfante, George, 3:295 Belinfante, Isaac, 3:295 Belinfante, Isaac ben Eliah Cohen, 3:295 Belinfante, Jacob Cohen, 3:295 Belinfante, Joseph Cohen, 3:294 Belinfante, Josephus Justus, 3:295 Belinfante, Judith, 3:295 Belinfante, Maurits Ernst, 3:295 Belinfante, Meir H: ayyim, 3:294 Belinfante, Moses Cohen, 2:112, 3:295 Belinfante, Saddik, 3:294 Belinfante, Sara, 3:295 Belinfante family, 3:294–295 345

INDEX

Belinkov, Arkhadii Viktorovich, 3:295–296 Belinson, Moses Eliezer. See Beilinson, Moses Eliezer Belinson, Moses Eliezeri. See Beilinson, Moses Eliezer Belisha, Barrow, 3:296 Belisha, Isaac, 3:296 Belisha, Moses, 3:296 Belisha, Solomon, 3:296 Belisha family, 3:296 Belize (Central America), 4:476 Belkin, Arnold, 3:296 Belkin, Samuel, 3:296, 15:498 Belkin, Simon, 3:296–297 Belkind, Israel, 3:297 Belkind, Meir, 3:297 Belkind, Na’aman, 3:297, 15:268 Belkind, Shimshon, 3:297 Belkind family, 3:297, 297t Belkowsky, Z: evi Hirsch, 3:297–298 Bell, Daniel, 3:298 Bell, Francis Henry Dillon. See Bell, Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell, Joshua, 3:299 Bell, Sir Francis Henry Dillon, 3:299 The Bellarosa Connection (Bellow), 3:300 Belleli, Lazarus Menahem, 3:299 Belleli, Vito, 15:689 Bellinson, Simeon, 3:299–300 Bellis (Russia), 3:778, 779 Bellow, Saul, 3:300–301, 9:595–596, 20:293–294 Bellum Civile (Lucan), 13:247 Belmain. See Ibleam (Israel) Belmont, August, 3:301, 15:200 Belmonte, 3:302 Belmonte, Francisco Isaac, 3:302 Belmonte, Isaac Nuñez, 3:302, 16:344– 345 Belmonte, Jacob Abraham, 3:302 Belmonte, Jacob Israel, 3:302 Belmonte, Manuel, 3:302 Belmonte, Moses, 3:302 Belmonte family, 3:302 Belmonte Science Laboratory for Youth, 8:743 Beloff, Max, Baron, 3:302–303 Belogorsk (Ukraine). See Karasubazar (Ukraine) Belorussia (Russia), 3:303–305 agriculture, Jewish, 1:498 education, Jewish, 6:188 Holocaust, 17:597–598 See also Belarus 346

Belov, A., 3:305–306 The Beloved and the Pleasant or The Black Youth. See Ha-Ne Eehovim veha-Ne Eimim oder der Shvartse Yungermantshik Belshazzar, 7:32 Belshazzar (biblical figure), 1:538, 3:306–307 Belteshazzar (biblical figure), 3:307, 5:419 Beltsy (Moldova), 3:307 Bely, Viktor Arkadyevich, 3:307–308 Belz (Ukraine), 3:308 Belz, Aaron, 3:308 Belzberg, Samuel, 3:309 Belzec concentration camp, 3:309–312, 9:336, 343, 430, 11:751, 754, 13:239, 244 Belzer, Nissi. See Spivak, Nissan Belzer H: asidim, 8:423, 428–429 Belz h: asidic dynasty, 3:308–309 Belzyce (Poland), 3:312 Be-Mehoza Yisadeti et Medinat haYehudim (Gose), 18:206 Be-Mifneh ha-Dorot (Dinur), 5:672 Be-Moaz’ei Menuh: a, 3:312 Bemporad, Azeglio, 3:312 Bemporad, Enrico, 3:312–313 Ben, Zehava, 3:313 Bena’ah, 3:313 Ben-Abraham, Zvi, 3:313 Benacerraf, Baruj, 3:313–314, 13:11 Ben-Adir, 3:314 Benador, Ury, 3:314 Benadov, Haim, 4:276 Ben-Aharon,Yitzh: ak, 3:314–315 Benaiah (3rd c.). See Bena’ah Benaiah (biblical figure), 3:315 Benaim, Jacob H: ayyim, 3:315, 4:104 Benaim, Joseph, 3:315 Benaim, Moses, 3:315 Benaim, Raphael H: ayyim, 3:315 Benaim family, 3:315 Ben DAla¯n, Joshua, 3:315 Ben’a¯lan, Joshua, 3:315 Ben-ami, Jacob, 3:316 Ben-ami, Oved, 3:316 Ben-Amitai, Levi, 3:316 Ben Ammi (Ben-Zion), 3:392 Ben-Ammi, Mordecai, 3:316–317 Ben-Amotz, Dahn, 3:317 Benamozegh, Elijah ben Abraham, 3:317, 15:602 Benardete, Mair José, 3:318 Benares (India), 3:318 Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua, 3:318

Benário, Olga, 4:149 Ben-Aroya, Avraham, 3:318–319 Benaroya, Avram, 3:319 Benaroya, Mois, 4:276 Benarus, Adolfo, 3:319 Benas, Baron Louis, 3:319 Benas, Bertram Benjamin Baron, 3:319 Benas, Henriette. See Goldschmidt, Henriette Ben-Asher, Aaron ben Moses, 3:319– 320 Ben-Asher, Moses, 3:321 Ben Asher’s Creed: A Study of the History of the Controversy (Dotan), 5:762–763 Ben Asher system (Hebrew grammar), 3:588, 11:117 Benatar family. See Atar family Benatzky, Ralph, 3:312 Ben-avi, Ithamar, 3:322 Ben-Avigdor. See Shalkovich, Abraham Leib Benayah, Ben Merjaz, 3:322 Benayah, Miriam, 3:322 Benayah family, 3:322 Benayahu, Meir, 3:322 Benazareff, David, 14:503 Benazerat, David, 16:346 Ben Azzai, Simeon, 3:322–323, 8:391, 18:601 Ben Bag Bag, 3:323 Benbassa, Esther, 11:326 Ben Chananjah, 3:323 Benchetrit, Aaron, 3:323 Benchimol, Abraham, 3:324 Benchimol, H: ayyim, 3:324 Benchimol family, 3:324 Ben-Chorin, Schalom, 3:324 Benda, Julien, 3:324–325 Bendahan, Jacob, 5:379 Bendahan, Joseph, 5:379 Bendahan, Joseph Nissim, 5:379 Bendahan, Maimon, 5:379 Bendahan, Moses, 5:379 Ben David (Modena), 14:409 Bendavid, Eleazar. See Bendavid, Lazarus Ben-David, Joseph, 3:325, 18:735 Bendavid, Lazarus, 3:325, 11:569 Bendek, Therese F., 3:329 Bendell, Herman, 16:124 Bendemann, Eduard Julius Friedrich, 3:325–326 Bendemman, Felix, 3:326 Bendemman, Rudolf, 3:326 Bender, Alfred Philip, 3:326

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Bender, Morris Boris, 3:326 Benderly, Samson, 3:98, 326–327, 11:271–272, 15:208 Bureau of Jewish Education (New York, NY), 6:194–195 summer camps, 6:199–200 Bendery (Romania), 3:327 Bendery dynasty. See Savran dynasty Bendin (Poland). See Bedzin (Poland) Bendix, Benedict Heinrich, 3:327 Bendix, Otto, 3:327 Bendix, Reinhard, 3:327–328 Bendix, Victor Emanuel, 3:328 Bendor, Ariel, 20:468 Ben-dor, Immanuel, 3:328 Ben Dov, Yaakov, 3:328 Bene-Berak, 3:328–329, 11:715–716, 742 Benedict (popes), 3:329–330 Benedict, Isaac. See Benedict, Sir Julius Benedict, Julius. See Benedict, Sir Julius Benedict, Sir Julius, 3:330 Benedict VIII (pope), 3:329, 16:372 Benedict XII (pope), 3:329, 16:374 Benedict XIII (antipope), 3:329, 4:74, 13:193, 14:467 Benedict XIII (pope), 4:277, 15:609, 16:374, 20:62 Pablo de Santa Maria, 15:562 papal bulls, 3:330 Benedict XIV, 2:144, 3:122, 330 Benedict XV (pope), 16:377 Benedict XVI (pope), 16:378 Benedict ben Moses of Lincoln, 3:330 Benedict family. See Banet family Benedictions, 1:538–539, 3:330–333, 13:131–132, 14:492 Benedict le Puncteur of Oxford, 15:554 Benedikt, Moritz (journalist), 3:333 Benedikt, Moritz (neurologist), 3:333 Bene Ephraim, 3:334 Beneficencia, 6:140–141 Benefield, 3:342 Bene hanevi’im, 6:168 Benei Aish (Israel), 3:334 Benei Arav (Smilansky), 18:687 Benei Binyamin, 1:222, 3:334 Benei Darom (Israel), 3:334 Benei Deror (Israel), 3:334 Benei ha-Ir, 12:605 Benei Moshe, 1:526, 3:334–335 Benei Moshe League, 12:666 Bene Israel, 3:335–339 India, 1:658, 3:356–357

Israel (state), 10:226, 298 Italy, 4:50 Benei Zion (Israel), 3:339 Benei Zion Society, founder Mazeh, Jacob, 13:706 Ben-Eleizer, Binyamin, 3:339–340 Ben Eleizer, Moshe, 3:340 Bene Menashe, 3:340 Ben Erez: ve-Shamayim (Sackler), 8:736 Benesch, Alfred Abraham, 3:340 Beneschau (Bohemia). See Benesˇov (Bohemia) Benesˇov (Bohemia), 3:340–341 Benet, Ezekiel ben Jacob. See Baneth, Ezekiel ben Jacob Benet, Mordecai ben Abraham. See Banet, Mordecai ben Abraham Benet, Naphtali ben Mordecai. See Banet, Naphtali ben Mordecai Benet family. See Banet family Benet Mikra, 3:662 Benevento (Italy), 3:341 Benevento, Immanuel ben Jekuthiel, 3:341 Benevenutus Grapheus Heirosolymitanus, 3:341 Benevolent societies. See Charity; Philanthropy Ben-Ezer, Judah. See Raab, Judah Benfey, Theodor, 3:342 Bengalil, Abraham, 3:342 Bengalil, Joseph, 3:342 Bengalil, Samuel, 3:342 Bengalil family, 3:342 Ben-Gavriel, Moshe Ya’akov, 3:342 Benghazi (Libya), 3:342–343, 12:791 Bengis, Selig Reuben, 3:343–344 Ben-Gurion, David, 3:344–348, 9:50 Adenauer, Konrad, 1:390 Aliav, Ruth, 1:658 Blood for Trucks offer, 4:120 declaration of independence, Israel, 5:529–530 Eichmann trial, 6:250 Eldad, Israel, 6:292 Eshkol, Levi, 6:506 governments of first, 10:429, 429t second, 10:430, 430t third, 10:430–431, 431t fourth, 10:431, 431t seventh, 10:433, 433t eighth, 10:434, 434t ninth, 10:435–436, 435t tenth, 10:436–437, 436t Histadrut and, 10:595, 597, 600

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Jewish identity, what constitutes, 11:298 Jewish Legion, 11:303, 305 Lavon and, 10:225, 12:533–534 resignation (1953), 10:217 resignation (1960), 10:225 Sharett, Moshe and, 18:412–413 State of Israel Bonds, 4:58 Ben-Gurion, Paula, 3:344 Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 3:348–349 Ben-Hadad (Kings), 1:523, 3:349–350, 6:350 Ben-Hadad I, 3:349 Ben-Hadad II, 3:349–350 Ben-Hadad III, 3:350 Ben-Haim, Paul, 3:350–351 Ben-Haim, Yigal, 3:351 Ben H: akhinai. See Hananiah ben H: akhinai Ben ha-Melekh Ve-ha-Nazir, 3:351, 6:667 Benhamu, Shlomo, 2:71 Ben Hanila. See Tanh: um ben H: anilai Ben Harosh, Moshe. See Bar-Asher, Moshe Ben H: ayyim, Ze’ev, 3:351–352, 13:615 Ben He He, 3:352 Ben Horin, Eliyahu, 3:352 Ben Horin, Meir, 3:352 Benichou, Paul, 3:352–353 Benider, Abraham, 3:353 Benider, Jacob, 3:353 Benider family, 3:353 Benioff, Hugo, 3:353 Benisch, Abraham, 3:353, 614 Ben-Israel, Ruth, 3:353 Benista, Zehava. See Ben, Zehava Benjacob, Isaac, 3:353–354, 682 Benjamin (biblical figure, tribe), 3:354, 354–356 Anathoth, 2:132 Jabesh-Gilead and, 11:6 Jacob’s blessing, 11:27 Judges, Book of, 11:565–566 Mizpeh, 14:388 Benjamin, Baruch ben Israel, 3:356 Benjamin, Baruch Tzion, 3:356–357 Benjamin, Ernest Frank, 3:357 Benjamin, Israel, 3:208, 357 Benjamin, Israel Joseph. See Benjamin II Benjamin, Judah Philip, 3:357–358, 12:555 American Jewish Archives, 2:53 on slavery, 3:734 347

INDEX

Benjámin, Lázló, 3:357–358 Benjamin, Lewis Saul. See Melville, Lewis Benjamin, Moses, 3:358 Benjamin, Raphael, 3:358 Benjamin, Richard, 3:358 Benjamin, Walter, 3:359 Benjamin, Yehoshua, 3:360 Benjamin and Vladka Meed Registry of Jewish Holocaust Survivors, 2:49, 20:276 Benjamin ben Aaron of Zalozce, 3:360 Benjamin ben Azriel, 3:360 Benjamin ben Eliezer ha-Kohen Vitale of Reggio, 3:360–361, 18:354 Benjamin ben Elijah, 3:361 Benjamin ben Elijah Duwan, 3:361 Benjamin ben H: iyya, 3:361 Benjamin ben Japheth, 3:361 Benjamin ben Jehiel, 2:136 Benjamin ben Moses NahDa¯wend¯ı. See NahDa¯wend¯ı, Benjamin ben Moses alBenjamin ben Solomon ha-levi, 3:361 Benjamin Ben Zerah, 3:362 Benjamin II, 3:356, 6:147 Benjamin Nehemia Ben Elnathan, 3:362, 9:157 Benjamin of Brody, 3:362 Benjamin of Cambridge, 3:362 Benjamin of Tiberias, 3:362, 4:326 Benjamin of Tudela, 2:108, 3:362–364, 363 EAmadiya, 2:27–28 on Bingen, 3:704 Borsippa, 4:94 on Brindisi, 4:184 Byzantine empire, Jewish communities in, 4:327 Daniel ben Jehiel, 2:136 on Drama (Greek city), 6:7 dyeing, 6:76 Egypt, 6:231 French scholars, 6:174, 13:258 on functions of rabbinate, 18:275 Hamadan, 8:292 on Jewish quarters, 11:310 Jubayl, 11:473 Lunel (France), 13:258 Modon, 14:412–413 on Palermo, 15:580 Patras, 15:688 Benjamin Ze’ev Ben Mattathias of Arta, 3:364 Ben Jonah of Tudela. See Benjamin of Tudela Ben Kalba Savu’a, 3:365 348

Ben Karshook’s Wisdom (Browning), 4:218 Ben-Kiki, Eleasar, 3:365 Ben-Kiki, Reuben, 3:365 Ben-Kiki family, 3:365 Ben Kosebat letters, 14:617 Benkow, Jo, 3:365 Ben Kozevah. See Bar Kokhba Ben Koziva. See Bar Kokhba Ben La’anah, 3:365 Ben Malca, Jacob ben Joseph, 13:429– 430 Ben Malca, Khalifa, 13:430 Ben Malca family. See Malca family Ben Mar David of Narbonne. See Moses ben Joshua of Narbonne Ben Meir, Aaron, 3:366 Benn, 3:366 Benn, Ben, 3:366–367 Ben-Naphtali, Jacob ben David. See Ben-Naphtali, Moses ben David Ben-Naphtali, Moses Ben David, 3:367 Ben-Naphtali System, 13:644, 650 Ben-Natan, Asher, 3:367 Ben-Natan, Shemu’el. See Pevzner, Samuel Joseph Ben Naz: er, 15:377 Bennett, Archie, 3:368 Bennett, Avie. J., 3:368 Bennett, Michael, 3:369 Bennett, Salomon Yom Tov, 3:369 Benny, Jack, 3:369–370 Benoit, Pierre-Marie, 3:370–371 Benoliel, 3:371 Benoliel, Eliezer, 3:371 Benoliel, Joseph, 3:371, 8:243 Benoliel, Judah, 3:371, 14:499 Ben Paltiel, Ahimaaz, 8:666 Ben Petura, 3:371 Ben Peturi. See Ben Petura Ben Peturin. See Ben Petura Ben-Porat, Miriam, 3:371–372 Ben-Porat, Mordekhai, 3:372 Benremokh, Abraham ben H: ayyim, 3:372 Benremokh, H: ayyim ben Shem Tov, 3:372 Benremokh, Saul Ben Shem Tov, 3:372 Benremokh, Shem Tov, 3:372 Benremokh, Yamin, 3:372 Benremokh family, 3:372 Benremokh, Solomon, 3:372 Benrubi, Isaac, 3:372–373 Bensanchi, Mentesh, 3:373 Bensanchi, Mordecai. See Bensanchi, Mentesh

Ben-Sasson, Haim Hillel, 3:373, 9:153, 161 Bensaude, 3:373 Bensaude, Abraham, 3:373 Bensaude, Elias, 3:373 Bensaude, Joaquim, 3:373 Bensaude, José, 3:373 Bensaude, Solomon, 3:373 Ben Sender, Ephraim Moses. See Cilibi Moïse Ben Senton-Ben Shem Tov. See Aaron ben Batash Ben-Shabetai, Ari, 3:373–374 Ben Shachar v. Yosef Machlev, 5:138 Ben-Shakhar, Gershon, 3:374 Benshalom, Benzion. See Katz, Benzion (1907-1968) Ben Shemen, 3:374 Benshen, 3:374 Ben Simeon, Raphael Aaron, 3:374– 375 Ben Sira, Alphabet of. See Alphabet of Ben Sira Ben Sira, Simeon ben Jesus, 3:376 Elijah, 6:333 Joseph ben Uzziel, grandson of, 11:427 on labor, 12:409 on tripartite canon, 3:576, 579 See also Alphabet of Ben Sira Ben Sira, Wisdom of (Apocrypha), 3:376–378 Benson, Robby, 3:378 Bensoussan, Georges, 3:378 Ben St: ada, 3:378 Ben St: ara. See Ben Stada Bensusan, 3:379 Bensusan, Levy. See Bensusan Bensusan, Nathan Levi, 3:379 Bensusan, Samuel Levy, 3:380 Ben Susan, Y., 3:605 Ben Temalyon, 3:380 Bentor, Jacob, 3:380 Bentov, Mordekhai, 1:655, 3:381–382, 702 Bentwich, Herbert, 3:381 Bentwich, Joseph, 3:381 Bentwich, Norman De Mattos, 3:381 Bentwich family, 3:381 Bentzen, Aage, 3:381–382 Benvenist, Adzay, 3:382 Benvenist, H: ayyim ben Israel. See Benveniste, H: ayyim ben Israel Benveniste, Abraham (18th c.), 3:382 Benveniste, Abraham (1406-1454), 3:382, 6:176 Benveniste, Emile, 3:382

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Benveniste, H: ayyim ben Israel, 1:637, 3:382–383, 4:102, 18:344–345 Benveniste, Immanuel, 3:383 Benveniste, Isaac Ben Joseph, 3:383 Benveniste, Joseph Ben Moses De Segovia, 3:383–384 Benveniste, Joshua Raphael Ben Israel, 3:384 Benveniste, Judah ben Abraham, 3:382 Benveniste, Manoel. See Benveniste, Immanuel Benveniste, Moses, 3:384, 4:102, 15:541, 678 Benveniste, Nissim, 3:382 Ben-Veniste, Richard, 3:384–385 Benveniste, Samuel, 3:385 Benveniste, Sheshet Ben Isaac Ben Joseph, 3:385 Benveniste De Porta, 3:385 Benveniste family, 3:382 Benveniste Ibn Benveniste, 3:382 Benvenisti, David, 3:386 Benvist family. See Benveniste family Benwaish, Abraham, 3:386 Ben-Yehezki’el, Mordekhai, 3:386 Ben-Yehuda, Eliezer, 3:386–388, 8:671–673, 675, 10:683, 704–705 Ben-Yehuda, Hemdah, 3:388 Ben Yehuda, Netiva, 3:388–389 Ben-Yehudah, Barukh, 3:389 Ben Yizhak, Avraham, 3:389 Ben-Yosef, Shelomo, 3:390 Ben Yukhid (Ben-Ammi), 3:316 Benzamero, 3:390 Benzamero, Aaron, 3:390 Benzamero, Abraham, 3:390 Benzamero, Abraham ben Meir, 3:390 Benzamero, David, 3:390 Benzamero, Ephraim, 3:390 Benzamero, Isaac II, 3:390 Benzamero, Judah, 3:390 Benzamero, Judah ben Ephraim, 3:390 Benzamero, Meir, 3:390 Benzamero, Moses, 3:390 Benzamero, Moses II, 3:390 Benzamero, Sliman, 3:390 Benzamero, Solomon, 3:390 Benzamero, Solomon II, 3:390 Ben Zaqen, 3:390 Ben Zaqen, Isaac ben Vidal, 3:390 Ben Zaqen, Jacob ben Samuel, 3:390 Ben Zaqen, Joseph, 3:390 Ben Zaqen, Leon, 3:390, 16:346 Ben Zaqen, Samuel, 3:390 Ben Zaqen family, 3:390 Benzaquén, Saadia, 3:390–391

Ben Ze’ev, Judah Leib, 3:391, 15:658 Ben Zekunim (Abulafia), 1:339 Benzer, Seymour, 3:391, 13:11 Benzinger, Immanuel, 3:391–392 Ben-Zion, 3:392, 4:50 Ben-Zion, S., 3:392–393 Ben Zita, Abu Al-Surri. See Ben Zuta, Abu Al-Surri Ben Zizit Ha-Kasat, 3:393 Ben Zoma, Simeon, 3:393, 18:601 Ben Zuta, Abu Al-Surri, 3:393 Ben-Zvi, Izhak, 3:393–395, 4:189, 14:430 Arad, 2:330 Jewish Legion, 11:303, 305 Ben-Zvi, Rahel Yanait, 3:395, 6:260 Ben-Zvi, Shlomo, 3:395 Ben-Zvi, Zeev, 3:395, 18:223 Ben-Zvi Institute, 18:724 Ben Zvi Institute for the Study of the Jewish Communitities of the East, 3:395–396 Beobachter An Der Weichsel, 3:396 Beograd (Serbia). See Belgrade (Serbia) Be-Olam she-Shaka 1884-1914 (Dinur), 5:672 Beon. See Baal-Meon Be-Ovoyn Oves (Dineson), 5:671 Berab, Jacob, 3:397–398, 18:276 Berab, Jacob, I, 18:376 Berab, Jacob ben H: ayyim, 3:398 Berachia, 3:406 Berah Dodi, 3:391 Beraja, Ruben Ezra, 3:398–399 Berakhah, Isaac, 3:399 Berakh Moshe (Adret), 1:421 Berakhot (tractate), 3:330–333, 399– 400 Berats, 8:245–246 Berbers, 3:400–401, 11:530, 14:493, 496 See also Sijilmassa (Morocco) Berchenko, Israel. See Galili, Israel Bercovici, Konrad, 3:401, 14:541 Bercovitch, Peter, 3:401, 16:341 Bercovitch, Sacvan, 3:401–402 Bercu Haimovici. See Bonciu, H. Berdichev, 3:402–405 Berdichevsky Scher, Jose, 3:403 Berdugo, 3:403–404 Berdugo, Jacob ben Mordecai, 3:404 Berdugo, Jekuthiel H: ayyim ben Elisha, 3:404 Berdugo, Joseph, 3:404 Berdugo, Joshua ben Jacob, 3:404

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Berdugo, Judah ben Joseph, 3:403 Berdugo, Maimon, 3:403 Berdugo, Mordecai ben Joseph, 3:403 Berdugo, Moses ben Abraham, 3:403 Berdugo, Raphael, 3:403 Berdugo, Solomon ben Daniel, 3:404 Berdugo, Yah: ya, 3:403 Berdyansk (Ukraine), 3:404 Berdyczewski, Immanuel bin Gorion, 3:406 Berdyczewski, Micha Josef, 3:404–406, 4:159, 8:726–727, 11:412, 12:424 Berechiah, 3:406 Berechiah ben Isaac ha-Levi, 7:550 Berechiah ben Natronai ha-Nakdan, 3:406–407, 6:437, 667–668, 15:554 Berechiah Berakh ben Eliakim Getzel, 3:407 Berechiah Berakh ben Isaac Eisik, 3:407 Berechiah family, 11:727 Beregi, Ármin Bengamin, 3:407 Beregi, Oszkár, 3:408 Beregovo (Ukraine), 3:408 Beregovski, Moshe, 3:408 Beregovskii, Moses, 11:322 Berek son of Yosel. See Joselewicz, Berek Berele Bunes. See Issachar Baer ben Tanh: um Berenbaum, Michael, 3:408–409 Berenblum, Isaac, 3:409 Berend Lehmann Museum, 8:263 Berendsohn, Walter A., 3:409–410 Berendt, Gottlieb Michael, 3:410 Berenguer, Ramon, 20:60–61 Berenice, 3:410–411, 11:582 Berenice (daughter of Agrippa I), 1:503, 3:410–411 Berenice (daughter of Salome), 3:410, 410t Berenike (Egypt and Israel), 3:411 Berenson, Bernard, 3:411, 6:73 Berenson, Leon, 3:411–412, 12:553 Berenson, Zvi, 3:412 Berenson (Abbott), Senda (Valvrojenski), 3:412 Berenstein, Issachar Baer, 6:685 Berény, Róbert, 3:412 Bereshit-Na¯meh (Sha¯hin), 18:365 Beresht Zuta, 14:189 Berestechko (Ukraine), 3:412–413 Beresteczko (Ukraine). See Berestechko (Ukraine) Berettyóújfalu (Hungary), 3:413 Bereza (Belarus), 3:413–414 Bereza Kartuska (Belarus). See Bereza (Belarus) 349

INDEX

Berezhany (Ukraine), 3:414 Berezino (Belarus), 3:414 Berezovka (Ukraine), 3:414 Berezovsky, Boris Abramovich, 3:414– 415 Berg (Germany), 3:415 Berg, Gertrude (Edelstein), 3:415 Berg, Jackie “Kid” (Judah Berman), 3:415–416 Berg, Karen, 3:417–418 Berg, Leo, 3:416 Berg, Moe (Morris), 3:416–417 Berg, Morris. See Berg, Moe Berg, Paul, 3:417, 13:9 Berg, Philip (Gruberger), 3:417–418, 13:205 Bergamo (Italy), 3:418 Berge, Meere und Giganten (Doeblin), 5:729–730 Bergel, Bernd, 3:418 Bergel, Joseph, 3:418 Bergel family, 3:418 Bergelson, David, 3:418–419 Bergen, Polly, 3:419–420 Bergen-Belsen (Germany), 3:420–422, 632, 676 Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 9:342, 369–370, 17:131 Bitburg Controversy, 3:728 John XXIII on, 11:380 SS and SD burial of prisoners, 9:487 survivors, 9:487 Bergen County (NJ), 3:422–423 Berger, Arthur Victor, 3:423–424 Berger, David, 3:424 Berger, Elmer, 3:424 Berger, Isaac (“Ike”), 3:424–425 Berger, Lili, 3:425 Berger, Meir, 3:425 Berger, Meyer, 3:425 Berger, Samuel R. (Sandy), 3:425 Berger, Sandy. See Berger, Samuel R. Berger, Victor, 3:426, 18:708 Berger-Barzilai, Joseph, 3:426 Berggrün, Heinrich, 3:426 Bergh, Daniel Van Den, 3:426 Bergh, George Van Den, 3:427 Bergh, Robert Van Den, 3:427 Bergh, Samuel Van Den, 3:427, 16:345 Bergh, Sidney James Van Den, 3:427, 16:345 Bergh, Simon Van Den, 3:426–427 Bergh, Van Den, 3:426–427 Bergh, Zadok Van Den, 3:426 Bergheim (France), 3:427 350

Bergman, Alan, 3:427 Bergman, Andrew, 3:427–428 Bergman, Judah. See Berg, Jackie “Kid” Bergman, Lawrence, 14:464 Bergman, Marilyn, 3:427 Bergman, Samuel Hugo, 3:428–429, 12:788 Bergmann, Ernst David, 3:429 Bergmann, Felix Eliezer, 3:429 Bergmann, Judah, 3:429–430 Bergmann, Max, 3:430 Bergmann, Richard, 3:430 Bergner, Elisabeth, 3:430 Bergner, Herz, 3:430 Bergner, Hinde, 17:123 Bergner, Yosef. See Bergner, Yossl Bergner, Yossl, 3:431 Bergner, Zejharye Khone. See Ravitch, Melech Bergner, Zekharye Khone. See Ravitch, Melech Bergreen, Morris, 18:660 Bergson, Abram, 3:431–432 Bergson, Henri, 3:431 Bergson, Henri Louis, 3:432–433 Bergson, Joseph, 3:431 Bergson, Michael, 3:431, 433 Bergson (Berkson) family, 3:431 Bergstein, Fania, 3:433 Bergstraesser, Gotthelf, 3:433, 13:58 Bergtheil, Jonas, 3:433, 16:349 Berih: ah, 3:433–436, 9:381 Berinski, Lev, 3:436 Berit Avraham (Horowitz), 9:532 Berit Emet (Caro), 4:487 Berit ha-Biryonim, 3:436 Berit ha-Olamit shel Torah vaAvodah, 14:391 Berit Menuh: ah (Abraham ben Isaac of Granada), 1:301–302 Berit milah. See Circumcision Berit Shalom, 3:436–437, 702, 703, 13:269 Berit Trumpeldor. See Betar Berk, Fred, 3:437, 5:414 Berkeley (CA) New Left, 15:142 University of California, 15:358 Berkelhammer, Wilhelm, 15:326 Berkley, Rochelle, 3:437 Berkley, William R., 3:437 Berkman, Alexander, 18:710 Berkoff, Steven, 3:438 Berkovits, Eliezer, 3:438–439, 9:399– 400

Berkow, Ira, 3:439–440 Berkowicz, Joseph, 3:440, 11:406 Berkowicz, Józef. See Berkowicz, Joseph Berkowicz, Michael, 3:689 Berkowitz, Henry, 3:440, 6:192 Berkowitz, Mickey, 3:440 Berkowitz, Yitzh: ak Dov, 3:440–442, 8:717–718 Berkson, Isaac Baer, 3:442 Berkson family. See Bergson family Berl, Emmanuel, 3:442 Berl, Ernst, 3:442 Berle, Milton, 3:442–443, 15:221 Berlewi, Henryk, 3:443–444 Berliand, Shlomo Meir, 3:444 Berligne, Eliyahu Meir, 3:444 Berlijn, Anton, 3:444 Berlin (Baline), Irving (Israel), 3:455– 456 Berlin (Germany), 3:444–453, 7:349, 16:535 17th-18th centuries, 3:445–447 19th and 20th centuries, 3:447– 452 Aaron ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf and, 1:213 antisemitism, 3:445, 447, 448–451 assimilation, 3:446 badges, Jewish, 3:450 Black Death, 3:445 displaced persons (DP), 3:451 East Berlin, 3:452 Hebrew printing industry, 3:452 Holocaust memorials, 6:267, 9:431, vol. 9: color insert Host, desecration of, 3:445 Jewish Museum, 4:13 Juedische Freischule, 3:446, 447, 11:569 Kristallnacht, 3:449 Liebmann family, 12:810–811 Middle Ages, 3:444–445 museums, 14:628 Orthodox Judaism, 3:448 population statistics, 3:451t Reform Judaism, 3:448 reunification, 3:452 Zionist movement, 3:448 Berlin, Aryeh Loeb ben Abraham Meir, 3:453 Berlin, Congress of. See Congress of Berlin Berlin, Daniel. See Itzig, Daniel Berlin, David ben Judah Loeb. See Berlin, David ben Loeb Berlin, David ben (Judah) Loeb, 3:454

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Berlin, Hayyim, 3:455, 14:517 Berlin, Irving, 3:455–456, 4:177, 14:571 Berlin, Isaiah, 3:456 Berlin, Isaiah ben Judah Loeb (Pick, Isaiah), 3:456–457 Berlin, Israel, 3:457 Berlin, Meir. See Bar-Ilan, Meir Berlin, Moses, 3:457 Berlin, Naphtali Z: evi Judah (ha-Nez: iv), 3:457–458, 18:776 Berlin, Noah H: ayyim Z: evi Hirsch, 3:458–459 Berlin, Rayna Batya, 3:459 Berlin, Saul ben Z: evi Hirsch Levin, 3:459–460, 7:126 Berlin-Al-exanderplatz (Doeblin), 5:729–730 Berlin Chantiers: Essair sur les passés fragiles (Robin), 17:354 Berliner, Abraham, 3:460 Berliner, David, 9:135 Berliner, Emile, 1:430, 3:460–461, 17:149 Berliner, Isaac, 3:461 Berlinger, Mendel. See Berle, Milton Berlin Junction (Serra), 18:314 Berlin Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, 6:267 Berlinski, Herman, 3:461 Berman, Aaron Levi, 7:143 Berman, Adof Abraham, 3:461, 16:347 Berman, Adolfo, 16:349 Berman, Howard Lawrence, 3:461–462 Berman, Issachar, 7:143 Berman, Jacob, 3:462, 16:347 Berman, Jakub, 3:462–463 Berman, Judah Loeb, 7:143 Berman, Julius, 3:463 Berman, Morton Mayer, 3:463–464 Berman, Myron R., 3:464 Berman, Pandro S., 3:464 Berman, Pauline, 15:476 Berman, Saul, 6:142 Berman, Shelley, 3:464 Berman, Simeon, 3:465 Berman Ashkenazi. See Issachar Berman ben Naphtali ha-Kohen Berman Berman, Natalio, 3:465 Bermann, Adolf. See Kóbor, Tamás Bermann, Richard Arnold, 3:465 Bermann, Vasili, 3:466 Bermant, Chaim Icyk, 3:466 Bermbach, William, 3:471 Bermuda Conference, 3:466 Bernadotte, Count, 11:178 Bernadotte, Folke, 3:466–467, 10:210, 211, 212

Bernadotte Rescue Operation Oppenhejm, Ralph Gerson, 15:451 Ravensbrueck concentration camp and, 17:121 Bernal, Abraham, 3:467 Bernal, Edward, 3:467–468 Bernal, Jacob, 3:467 Bernal, Jacob Israel, 3:467 Bernal, John Desmond, 3:467 Bernal, Marco, 3:467 Bernal, Ralph, 3:467 Bernal family, 3:467 Bernal-Osborne, Ralph, 3:467 Bernard, H: ayyim David, 3:468 Bernard, H: ayyim Dov. See Friedberg, Bernard Bernard, Jessie, 2:610, 3:468, 18:736 Bernard, Rosine. See Bernhardt, Sarah Bernard, Tristan, 3:468 Bernardi, Herschel, 3:468–469 Bernardino da Feltre, 3:469, 4:48, 163, 14:461 Brescia, 4:163 Padua, 15:566 Pavia, 15:698 Bernardino da Siena, 3:469 Bernard of Clairvaux, 2:125, 3:469, 9:214–215 Bernays, Edward L., 3:470–471 Bernays, Isaac ben Jacob, 3:469–470 Bernays, Jacob, 3:470 Bernays, Michael, 3:470 Bernays, Paul Isaac, 3:470 Bernays family, 3:469–470 Bernbach, William, 1:428 Berne (Switzerland), 3:471–472, 688, 4:225 Bernfeld, Siegfried, 3:472, 6:161 Bernfeld, Simon, 3:472, 9:160 Bernhard, Emil. See Cohn, Emil Moses Bernhard, Georg, 3:472–473 Bernhard, Sandra, 3:473 Bernhardt, Sarah, 3:473–474, 14:570 Bernhart (Hoffmann), 9:312 Bernheim, Franz, 12:565 Bernheim, Gilles, 3:474 Bernheim, Hippolyte, 3:474 Bernheim, Isaac Wolfe, 3:474 Bernheim, Louis, 3:475 Bernheimer, Carlo, 3:475 Bernheimer, Charles Seligman, 3:475 Bernheim Petition, 3:475–476, 18:580 Bernstein, Abraham Moshe, 3:476 Bernstein, Aline, 3:476 Bernstein, Arnold, 3:476 Bernstein, Aron David, 3:476–477

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Bernstein, Aryeh Leib, 3:477 Bernstein, Béla, 3:477, 15:355 Bernstein, Carl, 3:477–478, 11:468 Bernstein, Charles, 20:300 Bernstein, Deborah, 18:736–737 Bernstein, Eduard, 3:478, 16:344, 18:705, 729 Bernstein, Elmer, 3:478 Bernstein, Fritz. See Bernstein, Perez Bernstein, Harold Joseph, 3:478–479 Bernstein, Harry, 3:479 Bernstein, Henri-Leon, 3:479 Bernstein, Henry, 11:568 Bernstein, Herman, 2:49, 3:479 Bernstein, Ignatz, 3:479 Bernstein, Issachar ber, 3:477 Bernstein, Issachar Berush ben Aryeh Loeb, 3:480 Bernstein, Jacob Naphtali Herz, 3:480 Bernstein, Joseph, 3:480 Bernstein, Julius, 3:480 Bernstein, Karl, 12:553 Bernstein, Leonard, 3:480–481, 12:451 Bernstein, Louis, 3:481–482 Bernstein, Luca. See Luca, B. Bernstein, Ludwig Behr, 3:482 Bernstein, Meyer Yefimiovich. See Medvedev, Mikhail Bernstein, Morris Louis. See Louis, Morris Bernstein, Moshe, 3:482 Bernstein, Nathan Osipovitch, 3:482– 483 Bernstein, Ori, 3:483 Bernstein, Osip Samoilovich, 3:483 Bernstein, Perez (Fritz), 3:483 Bernstein, Philip. See Hugó, Károly Bernstein, Philip Sidney, 3:435, 483– 484 Bernstein, Sid, 3:484 Bernstein, Sidney Lewis, 3:484 Bernstein, Simon, 3:484 Bernstein, Theodore M., 3:484–485 Bernstein, Theresa, 3:485 Bernstein, Zalman Chaim, 3:485 Bernstein, Zvi Hirsch, 3:485–486 Bernstein-Cohen, Jacob. See BernsteinKogan, Jacob Bernstein-Cohen, Miriam, 3:486 Bernstein-Kogan, Jacob, 3:486 Bernstein-Namierowski, Lewis. See Namier, Sir Lewis Bernstein-Sinaieff, Leopold, 3:486 Beroea. See Veroia Beror H: ayil (Israel), 3:486 Berosus (Berossus), 3:486–487, 15:287 351

INDEX

Berr, Jacob, 3:487 Berr (de Turique), Michel, 3:487–488 Berr Isaac Berr de Turique, 3:488, 8:437, 439, 13:194 Bershad (Ukraine), 3:488 Bershadski, Sergey Alexandrovich, 3:488–489 Bershadsky, Isaiah, 3:489 Bersin, Alan, 18:15 Bersohn, Matthias, 3:489 Berson, Arthur Joseph Stanislav, 1:430, 3:489–490 Berstein, Marver H., 4:124 Berthold of Freiburg, 3:490 Berthold of Ratisbon. See Berthold of Regensburg Berthold of Regensburg, 3:490, 775 Bertholet, Alfred, 3:490 Bertig, Mordecai. See Gebirtig, Mordechai Bertini, Gary, 3:490–491 Bertini, K. Aharon, 3:491 Bertinoro, Obadiah ben Abraham Yare, 3:491, 491–492, 14:329, 15:581 Bertonoff, Deborah, 3:492 Berurei Averah/Averot, 3:492 Beruryah, 3:492–493 Berytus (Lebanon). See Beirut Besalú (Spain), 3:493 Besançcon (France), 3:493–494 Besara (Israel). See Bet She’arim (Israel) Besdin, Morris J., 3:494 Besdin, Samuel, 3:494 Besekow, Samuel, 3:494 Besem. See Balsam BeShT. See Israel ben Eliezer Ba’al Shem Tov Besicovitch, Abram Samoilovitch, 3:494–495 Besor, Brook of (Israel), 3:495 Besredka, Alexander, 3:495 Bessarabia Holocaust Dombroveni, 5:738 Kaushany, 12:37 Khotin, 12:117–118 Kiliya, 12:154 Kishinev, 12:199 Sekiryany, 18:256–257 Vad Raskov, 20:457 Valea-Lui-Vlad, 20:459 Yedintsy, 21:292–293 Bessarabia (Moldova), 3:495–498, 496, 5:738 Bessels, Emil, 3:498 Besser, Chaskel O., 3:498 352

Bessin, Hyman, 15:517 Bessis, Albert, 3:498–499, 16:346 Bessis, Jeshua, 3:499 Besso, Henry, 3:499 Best, Werner, 5:582 The Best and the Brightest (Halberstam), 8:265 Bestiality, 18:329 Bestimmung, Heimat and Alter der synagogalen Poesie (Edelmann), 6:143 “Best interest of the ch: ild” concept, 15:639–640 The Best of Everything (Jaffe), 11:68–69 The Best Use of Economic Resources (Kantorovich), 11:771 Beszterdebánya (Slovakia). See Banska, Bystrica (Slovakia) Bet, 3:499 Bet Aglayim (Israel), 3:499 Beta Israel, 3:499–509 Eldad ha-Dani, 6:294 history of, 3:499–502, 503–509 Israel, and immigration and absorption of Ethiopian Jews of, 3:507, 508–509 Italy, and conquest of, 3:504–505 leadership of, 3:504, 505 legends and, 3:499 missionaries and, 3:503–504 organization of, 3:502 study of, 6:677–678 Bet Alfa (Israel), 3:509 Bet Alpha synagogue, 2:371 Bet-Anath (Israel), 2:131, 3:509–510 Bet Aniyya (Israel). See Bethany (Israel) Betar, 3:510–511 Anielewicz, Mordecai, 2:164 Begin, Menah: em, 3:261 Eliav, Binyamin, 6:321 Jabotinsky, Vladimir, 11:10–11 Jewish State Party, 11:315, 316 Kahane, Meir, 11:715 Bet-Arabah (Israel), 3:511 Bet Berl Teachers Training College, 18:618 Bet-Cherem (Israel), 3:511–512 Bet-Dagon (Israel), 3:512 Bet din and judges, 3:512–524, 5:495 Amsterdam, 2:107 authorization for rabbinical court decisions by Israel, 3:520 civil law in, 3:520–521 dayyanim appointments and status, 3:522–523 defined, 3:512–513

Ehrlich, Arnold Bogumi, 6:243 in Europe, 3:515 extralegal remedies in capital cases, 6:631–632 High Courts and, 3:521 Israel (state), 3:516–524 of Judah ha-Nasi, 11:502–503 judgments of, 3:523 jurisdiction law, 3:517–520 Middle Ages, 3:514–515 origins of, 3:513–514 procedural rules and, 3:522 and refusal, writ of, 3:520–521 in Russia, 3:515 structure of, 3:521–522 Talmudic period, 3:514 See also Judges and judiciary Bet-Eden (Syria), 3:524 Bet-El (Israel), 3:524–526 Ai, 1:548 Jacob and, 11:18, 19–20 temple, 2:97–100 Bet El Kabbalists, 11:621 Bet Eshel (Israel), 3:526 Bet Garmu family, 3:526 Bet Gufnin. See Gofnah Bet Guvrin (Israel), 3:526–527 Beth Adam decision, 17:174–175 Bet ha-Emek (Israel), 3:527 Bet ha-Levi (Israel), 3:527, 12:685 Bet ha-Midrash (Jellinek), 14:539 Bet H: anan (Israel), 3:527 Bet Hananyah (Israel). See Bethany (Israel) Beth-Anath (Israel). See Bet-Anath (Israel) Bethany (Israel), 3:527 Bethar, 3:527 Bet-Haram (Israel), 3:528–529 Bet H: arodon (Israel), 3:529 Beth-Baal-Meon. See Baal-Meon Bethbasi (Israel), 3:529 Beth-Cherem (Israel), 6:260 Beth-Dagon (Israel). See Bet-Dagon (Israel) Beth Din of America, 13:188 Bethe, Hans Albrecht, 3:529 Beth-Eden (Syria). See Bet-Eden (Syria) Beth-El (Israel). See Bet-El (Israel) Beth El: Ehrentempel verdienter ungarischer Israeliten (Reich), 17:196 Beth-El Mountains (Israel), 10:115 Bethel-Sharezer. See Sharezer Bet H: erut (Israel), 3:529 Beth Hamedrash Heshaim, 6:204

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Beth-Haram (Israel). See Bet-Haram (Israel) Beth-Haran (Israel). See Bet-Haram (Israel) Beth Hatefutsoth, 3:529–530 Beth Hayeled School (New York, NY), 6:197 Bet Hillel (Israel), 3:530 Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai, 3:530– 533 creation, 5:275–276 halakhah, approach to, 6:486, 8:255 h: allah, 8:278 H: anukkah lamp, 8:333 hefker, 8:753–755 marriage, 8:255, 21:324 on New Year, 15:193 on non-Jewish women and niddah, 15:256–257 praising the bride, 8:247–248 resurrection, 17:242 Second Temple period, 1:348 on Shema reading, 18:454 Beth Jacob Congregation, 13:200 Beth Jacob schools, 3:533, 12:455, 18:121 Bethlehem (Israel), 3:533–535 See also Ephrath Bethleptepha (Israel), 3:535 Beth-Meon. See Baal-Meon Beth Mikra (periodical), 18:724 Bet(h)-Horon (Israel), 3:535 Bethphage (Israel), 3:536 Bethsaida (Israel), 3:536 Beth Shalom (Philadelphia), 5:29 Bethuel, 3:536–537 Bethulia (Israel), 3:537 Bet (Bayt) Iksa (Israel), 3:537 Bet Keshet (Israel), 3:537 Bet(h) Leh: em (Ha-Gelilit) (Israel), 3:537 Bet(h)-Maon (Israel), 3:537 Bet Meir (Israel), 3:537 Bet (ha)-Midrash, 3:537–538 Bet Neh: emyah (Israel), 3:538 Bet Netofah (Israel), 3:538 Bet(h)-Nimrah (Israel), 3:538–539 Be-Tokh Leva Eim (Dolitzki), 5:735–736 Betomarsea (Israel), 13:407 Bet Oren (Israel), 3:539 Bet Oved (Israel), 3:539 Bet Porat (Joseph ben Judah Engel), 6:409 The Betrayal (Kreisel), 4:424 Bet(h)-Rehob (Israel), 3:539

Betrothal, 3:539–541 Bet Shammai. See Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai Bet Shammai school, 18:394 Bet(h)-Shean (Israel), 3:541–547 Bet She’arim (Israel), 3:547–548 Bet(h)-Shemesh (Israel), 3:548–550, 549 Bet(h)-Shittah (Israel), 3:550 Bettan, Israel, 3:550 Bettauer, Hugo, 3:550–551 Bettelheim, Aaron Siegfried. See Bettelheim, Albert Siegfried Bettelheim, Albert Siegfried, 3:551 Bettelheim, Bruno, 3:551–552 Bettelheim, Karl, 3:551 Bettelheim, Lipot Leopold Meyer Leb, 3:551 Bettelheim, Loeb, 3:551 Bettelheim, Moses, 3:551 Bettelheim, Samuel, 3:552 Bettelheim family, 3:551 Better Generation (Balin), 3:91 Bettman, Gary, 3:552 Bettman, Gilbert, 15:393 Bettmann, Bernhardt, 3:552 The Betty Bacharach Home for Afflicted Children (NJ), 3:32, 33 Bet-Unyaki, 3:729 Between Earth and Heaven. See Ben Erez: ve-Shamayim Between the Calendars (Ben Yehuda), 3:389 Between the Dead and the Living (Sened). See Bein ha-Metim u-vein ha-H: ayyim (Sened) Between Two Worlds (weekly column), 6:259 Between Worlds: The Paintings and Drawings of Samuel Bak from 19462001, 3:71 Bet Yannai (Israel), 3:552 Bet Yehoshu’a (Israel), 3:552–553 Bet Yerah: (Israel), 3:553, 553–554 Bet Yiz: h: ak (Israel), 3:554 Bet Yosef (Israel), 3:554 Bet Zayit (Israel), 3:554 Bet Zayyada (Israel). See Bethsaida (Israel) Bet Zekharyah (Israel), 3:554 Bet Zera (Israel), 3:554, 554 Bet Z: erifa family, 3:554–555 Bet Zevul (H: alap), 8:358 Bet(h)-Zur (Israel), 3:555 Bet-Z: uri, Eliahu, 3:555 Beugnot, Auguste Arthur, 3:555 Be’ur ha-Gra (Elijah ben Solomon Zalman), 6:345

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Be’urim H: adashim (Lebensohn), 12:590 Be’ur Inyan Shenei Kavvim (Provençal, Moses), 16:636 Beuthen (Germany). See Bytom (Germany) Bevan, Edwyn Robert, 3:555–556 Be-Veito ba-Midbar (Shalev), 18:372 Bevin, Ernest, 3:556, 6:430 Bey, Cattaui, 16:346 Be-Yishuv shel Ya’ar (Hazaz), 8:492 Beyond Criticism (Shapiro), 18:406 Beyond the river, 6:551–552 Beyond the River Lethe. See Me-Ever Nehar ha-Lethe (Lenski) Beyrouth (Lebanon). See Beirut Beyth, Hans, 3:556 Bez: ah (Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi), 1:215 Bez: ah (tractate), 3:556 Bezalel, 3:557 Bezalel, Cecil. See Roth, Cecil Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design (Jerusalem), 3:557, 4:75, 10:653, 695, 696, 13:14, 18:110, 111 Bezalel Ashkenazi, 11:163 Bezalel ben Moses ha-Kohen, 3:557– 558 Bezalel ben Solomon of Kobryn, 3:558 Bezalel National Art Museum. See Israel Museum Bezalel style, 2:510 Bezek (Israel), 1:413, 3:558 Bezek Law, 13:145 Bezem, Naftali, 3:558 Bezidul Nou (Romania), 3:558–559 Béziers (France), 3:559–560 Bezprozvany, Hyman B. See Bass, Hyman B. Bezrucˇ, Petr, 5:366 Bezusy entuziast (Altauzen), 2:17 Bi’ah marriage, 4:747 Biala. See Zuelz Biala (Poland), 3:560, 689 Biale, David, 3:560 Biale dynasty, 8:422 Bialeh, Z: evi Hirsch ben Naphtali Herz, 3:560–561 Bialik, H: ayyim Nah: man, 2:21, 3:561– 565, 8:725, 727–728, 9:412, 15:380 aggadah, 1:460 children’s literature, 4:621 Dvir publishing firm, 6:74 Hebrew language, 8:675 influence on Fichman, Jacob, 7:8–9 Judeo-Persian poetry of, 11:558 353

INDEX

Bialik, H: ayyim Nah: man, continued Lachower, Yeruh: am Fishel, 12:424 Moriah publishing house, 14:491, 17:126 piyyut, language of, 8:652 Rawnitzki, Yehoshua H: ana, 17:126 Shalom Aleichem and, 18:384 Solomon, 18:761 translation of Julius Caesar, 18:370 Bialkin, Kenneth J., 3:565–566, 728 Bialloblotzky, Christian Heinrich Friedrich. See Bialoblotzky, Christian Heinrich Friedrich Bialoblocki, Samuel Sheraga, 3:566 Bialoblotzky, Christian Heinrich Friedrich, 3:566 Bialostozky, Benjamin Jacob, 3:566 Biała Podlaska (Poland), 3:560 Bialystok (Poland), 3:137, 567–570, 567t, 568 Holocaust, 16:312–313 partisans, 15:666, 667 pogrom (1906), 6:45 Biarritz (France), 3:570 Biazi v. Levi, 5:127 Bibago, Abrahem ben Shem Tov, 3:570–571, 11:472 Bibas, Abraham, 3:571 Bibas, H: ayyim, 3:571 Bibas, Joseph, 3:571 Bibas, Judah, 3:572 Bibas, Samuel, 3:572 Bibas, Shem Tov, 3:571 Bibas family, 3:571–572 Bible, 3:572–679, 13:446–448 allegories, 1:665, 16:74–75, 106 altars in, 2:12–13 Alt School or Alt-Noth trend, 2:11 anatomy, 2:133 angels, 2:150–152 Angel of Death, 2:148–149 cherubim, 4:600 Gabriel, 14:167–169 Michael, 14:167–169 Raphael, 17:93 Raziel, 17:128–129 Uriel, 20:421–422 animals, 2:166–167, 168t–171t, 12:696–697 amphibia, 2:172 animal tales, 2:173 antelope, 2:184–185 ants, 2:184 apes, 2:254 birds, 2:171–172 camels, 4:380–381 354

cattle, 4:526–527 deer, 5:530–531 eagles, 6:81 fish, 2:172 horses, 9:546 invertebrates, 2:172 mammals, 2:167–171, 12:649 owls in, 15:550 ravens, 17:119 red heifer, 17:156–157 reptiles, 2:172 sheep, 18:431 anointing, 2:179–180 apocalyse, 2:257 Arabia, 2:293 Arad, 2:328–329 Aramaic, 2:343–345 Aram and Arameans, 2:337, 338, 339 Ararat, 2:361 archaeology, 2:380, 11:77 in the arts, 3:669–679 fine art, 3:673–674 music, 3:672–673 astrology, 2:615–616 astronomy, 2:620–621 atonement, 2:644 Bethlehem (Israel), 3:533–534 blindness in, 3:753–754 breast as heart, 8:508–509 bribery, 4:175 candles, 4:429 canon, 3:574–583 Armenian, 3:603 Christian, 3:574, 666 contents of, 3:576 definition and use of concept, 3:574–575 definitive canon, 11:10 Hellenistic, 3:579, 579t languages of, 3:582–583 New Testament, 15:190–191 number of books in, 3:580 order of books, 3:579t, 580– 582, 580t, 581t, 582t order of books in, 3:579t, 580–582, 580t, 581t, 582t process of canonization, 3:575–576 significance of, 3:575 tripartite, 3:576–579 capital punishment, 4:445–446 carts and chariots, 4:497 castration, 4:516–517 cause and effect, relation between, 4:529

celibacy, 4:537 census, 4:541–542 Chaldeans, 4:561–562 charity, 4:569 chastity, 4:581 Christianity allegorical interpretation of scripture in, 3:643 biblical exegesis and study, Jewish influence on, 3:648 canon, 3:574, 666 religious impact of Bible on, 3:663–667 Septuagint and, 3:596–597 translations, modern, 3:611, 625 cloth and clothing, 6:12 dyeing, 6:76, 77 sha’atnez, 18:336 commentaries Alshekh, Moses, 2:10–11 early Christian, 11:143 German, 13:775–776, 15:718– 719 Italian, 5:441 Italy, 6:717 Kara, Joseph, 11:783–784 Kara, Menahem ben Jacob, 11:784 Karaite, 5:428 Kirimi, Abraham, 12:185 la’az in, 12:405–406 Laniado, Abraham ben Isaac, 12:484 Laniado, Samuel ben Abraham, 12:485 Latif, Isaac B. Abraham ibn, 12:506–507 Levi Ben Gershom, 12:699 Me-Am Lo’ez, 13:710–711 medieval France, 7:153 medieval Spain, 6:681 medieval Syria, 13:603 Philo Judaeus, 16:60, 61–62 Sforno, Obadiah ben Jacob, 18:333–334 concordances and dictionaries glossaries, 3:605–606, 628 criticism, 2:627 Davidson, Samuel, 5:477 development of, 15:744 Hitzig, Ferdinand, 9:293–294 Hupfeld, Hermann Christian Karl, 9:622 Ilgen, Karl David, 9:721 Jacob, Benno, 11:25 Jeremias, Alfred, 11:136

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Pedersen, Johannes, 15:711– 712 Perles, Felix, 15:776 Perles, Joseph, 15:776 Protestant, 5:477, 16:26–27 Smend, Rudolph, 18:686–687 curses, power of, 3:752 Damascus Keter (13th c.), vol. 7: color insert day and night in, 5:486–488 death, 2:148, 5:510–511 burial customs, 4:291–292 cemeteries, 4:538 debt recovery in, 6:590–591 deep, the, 5:530 deists and, 5:533–534 demons, demonology, 5:572–573 desecration, 5:601 dew, 5:629–630 divination, 5:704–705 divorce, 5:710–711 door and doorpost, 5:752–753 dowries, 5:768 dreams, 6:8–9 drunkenness, 6:26–27 dysphemisms, 6:550 ebony, 6:88 ecology, 6:92–93 education, 6:159, 12:621–622 Emar cuneiform discoveries, 6:386–390 emotions, 6:396 environmental responsibility, 6:449, 454 ethics in, 6:531–534 euphemisms, 6:549–550, 13:616 evil eye in, 6:584, 585 evil speech, 12:495 exegesis and study, 3:640–656, 9:814–821 allegorical interpretation, 3:641, 643–645, 660, 665 Alshekh, Moses, 2:10, 11 archaeological influence on, 3:650, 652, 654 Ben-Asher, Aaron ben Moses, 3:319–320 Bendavid, Lazarus, 3:325 Bozecco, Benjamin ben Judah, 4:113–114 Breuer, Mordecai, 4:172–173 Breuer, Raphael, 4:173 Buber, Martin, 4:231, 235 Budde, Karl Ferdinand Reinhard, 4:249 Buhl, Franz Peder William Mayer, 4:256

Buttenweiser, Moses, 4:319 Dubno, Solomon ben Joel, 14:486 Duhm, Bernhard, 6:42–43 Dupont-Sommer, André, 6:51 Eerdmans, Bernardus Dirks, 6:215–216 Eissfeldt, Otto, 6:278 Eliezer of Beaugency, 6:330 in France, 3:642 French commentators, 3:642 Hebrew manuscripts, 13:488 homiletic commentary, 3:641, 660–662 Ibn Ezra, Abraham ben Meir, 9:666–669 Judaism, development of concept of, 11:517 in Judeo-Persian, 11:551 La Peyrère, Isaac, 12:488–489 Levenson, Jon D., 12:679–680 Levine, Baruch, 12:717 literal commentary, 3:641, 642 Middle Ages, 13:94–95 modern critical studies, 3:648–656 modern Jewish exegesis, 3:645–648, 663 Morgenstern, Julian, 14:486 pardes as mnemonic for types of, 15:632 philological commentary, 3:642 philosophical commentary, 3:643 philosophical methodology applied to, 16:72–73, 74–75 Postillae Perpetuae of Nicholas de Lyre, 15:251 pre-Middle Ages, 13:87–88 rabbinic literature, 3:641–643, 660–662 Rosenmueller, Ernst Friedrich Karl, 17:449 Rosenthal, Judah, 17:454 Sarna, Nahum M., 18:59 Solieli, Mordecai, 18:753 Spanish commentators, 3:642 synthetic commentary, 3:642– 643 Talmudic literature, 3:640– 641, 660–663 by women, 3:663 fables, 6:666–667 family in, 6:690–693 fasting, 6:719–721, 722–723 fictional stories from, 7:11

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

friendship, 7:289–290 Gemara order of books in, 3:581 religious impact of, 3:662 grammar, 8:554–558, 576–577 h: amez: , 8:302 Hapax Legomena, 8:337 hatred, 8:458 Havilah, 8:470 Hebrew manuscripts, 13:488 Hexateuch, 11:446 history of, 3:583–586 homicide, 6:220–221, 9:506–507 homosexuality, 9:516 honor, 9:519 hospitality, 9:561 host of heaven, 9:566–567 human dignity and freedom, 9:586–587 as human document, 16:93 humility, 9:589–590 humor, 9:590 hunting, 9:621 hygiene, 9:647–648 iconography, 9:703–704, 704 idolatry, 9:710–712 illuminated or illustrated, 3:674– 679 imitation of God, 9:737–738 imprisonment, 5:606, 9:743 imprisonment for debt, 9:748 inaccuracies, Abd al-H: aqq al-Isla¯m¯ı on, 1:240 incest, 9:755 inclination, good and evil, 9:756– 757 Islam allegorical interpretation of scripture in, 3:644 art of, 3:674 Bible translations in Arabic and Judeo-Arabic, 3:603– 605, 627 exegesis and study stimulated by rise of, 3:641 religious impact on, 3:667– 669 tales, 10:754 jealousy in, 11:98 Jerusalem in, 11:208–211 Jewish identity in, 11:292–293 Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities and, 11:438 Josiah’s discovery of “Book of the Torah,” 11:457–458 joy, concept of, 11:470–471 Jubilees, Book of, 11:473, 474 355

INDEX

Bible, continued Judaism during biblical period, development of, 11:514–515 kapparot custom, 11:782 Karaites and Karitism, 11:785–786 kiss of death, 5:513 labor and laborers, 12:408–409, 410 laws and legal systems judges in, 5:495 justice, terms for, 11:578 labor laws, 12:411–412 law of evidence, 6:577, 578, 579 legal maxims, 12:603 morality and law, 12:535 prohibitions in and penal law, 15:720 shomerim, 18:513–514 as source of law, 14:337 taxation, 19:534 leprosy, 12:650–653 letters and letter writers, 12:668– 669 literature influenced by Danish, 18:89 Dante, 10:788 Dutch, 6:67–68 Egyptian, 6:225–226 English, 6:432–434 Hungarian, 9:602–604 Italian, 10:787–788 musical intonation, 13:656– 664 Norwegian, 18:90–91 Russian, 17:587–588 Swedish, 18:90–91 logos, 13:174 lots, 13:217–219 love, 13:227–229 Maimonides, Moses, 13:392 manna, 13:478 Mari (Mesopotamia), 13:537–541 marriages, 12:725, 13:563–564, 565 mashal proverbs, 16:640–642 mathematics in, 13:671 Matriarchs, 4:562–563 medicine in, 13:720–722 miracles, 14:305–306, 309 mishmarot and ma’amadot, 14:317–318, 319 mitzvah, 14:372 moneylending, 14:436–437 monogamy, 14:447–448 monotheism, 14:448–450 names for Bible as a whole, 3:574 356

in Hellenistic Judaism, 3:660 Jewish sensitivities regarding, 3:608 sections and individual books, 3:576 naturalistic explanations, 15:280 nature of man, 13:446–448 nomadism in, 15:294–295 oaths in, 15:358–360 oils in, 15:395–396 olam ha-ba in, 15:400 “Old Testament,” 15:190, 191 Oral Law and, 15:455 parables, 15:620–621 paradise in Eden narrative, 15:623–627 parody in, 15:654 peace, concept of, 15:700–701 perjury in, 15:772 Philo Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum, 16:58–59 physical format, 4:71–76 places named in, 6:568–569 printing, 2:633 proverbs, 16:647 providence, 16:648 psychiatry, 16:684 psychology, 16:687 punishment, 16:734–735, 736–737 purity and impurity, ritual, 16:746–750 reading al tikrei, 2:20 mnemonics, 13:619, 14:397 vocalizations, 13:611 related materials, 3:656–658 religious impact, 3:659–669 Christianity, 3:663–667 Islam, 3:667–669 Judaism, 3:659–663 sacrifices, 17:643 Satan, 18:72 sederim, 18:235 shofar, 18:506–507 signs and symbols, 18:568–570 sin, 18:621–624 sociology of, 3:658–659 Tabernacle, 19:418–423 taking of life in, 13:743 Tanakh, 19:499 texts and editions evolution of text, 3:583–586 Hebrew editions, printed, 3:586–588 polyglots, 3:588, 613, 636, 13:56

Thanksgiving Psalms, 5:507, 19:668 theology, 19:694–695 anthropomorphism, 2:188– 189 deism, 5:533–534 eschatology, 6:489–495 particularism in, 11:514–515 universalism in, 11:514–515 throat as heart, 8:509 translations, ancient, 3:588–606, 12:405–406 Aquila, 15:433–434 Arabic and Judeo-Arabic, 3:603–605 Aramaic, 3:588–594, 599–601, 600, 652 Armenian, 3:602–603 Egyptian (Coptic), 3:602 Ethiopic, 3:601 glossaries, 3:605–606, 12:406 Greek, 3:595–598, 13:87 Hungariand, 10:829 Judeo-Persian, 11:552–553 Karaite, 3:604–605 Latin, 3:598, 11:142–143 Onkelos, 15:433–434 Peshitta, 3:599–600 Saadiah Gaon, 3:603–604, 605, 17:612–613 Samaritan, 3:599, 652 Septuagint, 18:307 sharh, 3:605 Syriac, 3:599–601 translations, modern, 3:606–640 aesthetics of, 3:609 Arabic, 3:627 Basque, 3:636 Catalan, 3:627 Celtic, 3:636–637 Danish, 3:627 Dutch, 3:627–628 English, 2:144, 633, 3:611– 627, 18:688 faithfulness to original text in, 3:606–608, 621, 625, 628 feminist sensitivities regarding, 3:608 Finnish, 3:628 French, 3:628–629 German, 3:629–632, 4:231, 235, 7:509, 14:36–37, 39, 15:719 Greek, 3:636 Hebrew, 2:633 Hungarian, 3:632

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Icelandic, 3:632–633 on Internet, 3:637 Italian, 3:633 Jewish languages, 3:609–611 Jewish sensitivities regarding, 3:608 Judeo-Italian, 11:547 Judeo-Persian, 11:557 Lithuanian, 3:636 Maltese, 3:636 name of God, 3:608–609 neo-Aramaic, 15:70–72 non-European languages, 3:637 Norwegian, 3:633 Provençal, 3:629 Romanian, 3:633 Romanish, 3:633 Slavonic, 3:634–636 Spanish, 2:490, 3:636 Swedish, 3:636 transmission of, 13:606–612 methods of writing, 13:606– 609, 787 writing instruments, 4:73 Urim and Thummim, 5:704 wisdom as female, 16:105 women in charitable work, 16:46 niddah, 15:254 stereotypes of, 16:105–106 Yiddish language, 2:108 zeal in, 11:98 See also Bible scholars; Pentateuch; specific books, people and places of the Bible The Bible and the Image, the History of Photography in the Holy Land 18391899 (Nir), 16:127 The Bible as it Was (Kugel), 1:461 “Bible as Literature” movement, 3:655 Bible codes, 3:679–680 The Bible in Spain (Borrow), 13:80 Bible Project (Yerushalmi), 8:722 Bible scholars Aharoni, Yoh: anan, 1:531–532, 2:329, 330, 371, 11:523, 524 Ainsworth, Henry, 1:550–551 Albright, William Foxwell, 1:596, 2:374, 378, 8:621, 13:60 biblical archaeology, 3:650, 654 Joshua, Book of, 11:447, 448 Alt, Albrecht, 2:11, 3:658 Joshua, Book of, 11:446, 447, 449 moneylending, 14:436–437

Noth, Martin, 15:315 Andrewes, Lancelot, 2:144, 3:613 Astruc, Jean, 2:627, 3:646, 649 Badè, William Frederick, 3:43 Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm, Graf von, 3:216 Bauer, Hans, 3:216, 13:58 Baumgartel, Elise J., 3:221 Baumgartner, Walter, 3:222 Bech(ius), Matthias Friedrich, 3:243 Beek, Martinus Adrianus, 3:250 Ben-Asher, Aaron ben Moses, 3:319–320 Ben-Asher, Moses, 3:312, 320 Ben-Naphtali, Moses Ben David, 3:367 Bentzen, Aage, 3:381–382 Benzinger, Immanuel, 3:391–392 Bergstraesser, Gotthelf, 3:433, 13:58 Bertholet, Alfred, 3:490 Bleek, Friedrich, 3:747–748 Bonfrère, Jacques, 4:62–63 Budde, Karl Ferdinand Reinhard, 4:249 Buhl, Franz Peder William Meyer, 4:256, 11:343, 344 Buttenwieser, Moses, 4:319 Cassuto, Umberto, 3:647–648, 650, 4:510–511, 9:161 Cheyne, Thomas Kelly, 4:606 Cocceius, Johannes, 4:765 Colenso, John William, 5:57 Colombo, Samuel, 5:64 Cook, Stanley Arthur, 5:200 Cooke, George Albert, 5:203 Cornill, Carl Heinrich, 5:224 Crowfoot, John Winter, 5:307, 15:589 Davidson, Samuel, 5:477 Delitzsch, Friedrich, 5:540–541, 8:470 Del Medico, Henri E., 5:542 Deutsch, Emanuel Oskar, 5:622 Diez Macho, Alejandro, 5:659 Dillmann, August, 5:661–662 Dothan, Trude, 5:764 Driver, Samuel Rolles, 6:22, 15:554 Dubno, Solomon ben Joel, 6:34, 8:436, 440 Amsterdam, 2:108 biblical exegesis and study of, 3:646 as bibliophile, 3:684 Mendelssohn, Moses, 2:108 Duhm, Bernhard, 6:42–43

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Dupont-Sommer, André, 6:51 Eerdmans, Bernardus Dirks, 6:215–216 Ehrlich, Arnold Bogumil, 3:647, 6:242–243 Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried, 3:646, 649, 6:247 Eissfeldt, Otto, 6:278 Erman, Johann Peter Adolph, 6:482 Ewald, Heinrich Georg August, 3:649, 6:589 Feigin, Samuel Isaac, 6:734 Finkelstein, Jacob Joel, 7:34 Fishbane, Michael, 4:125, 7:60 Frankfort, Henri, 3:651, 7:204 Frymer-Kensky, Tikva, 7:303 Galling, Kurt, 7:350 Garstang, John, 7:391, 8:499 Geddes, Alexander, 7:408 Gelb, Ignace Jay, 7:417–418 Gesenius, Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm, 7:562, 13:57–58, 15:753 Gevirtz, Stanley, 7:567 Ginsberg, Harold Lewis, 7:609–610 English translations of Bible, 3:621, 622 Job, Book of, 11:343, 344, 346, 351, 352, 353, 355 Ugaritic language and biblical exegesis, 3:652 Ginsburg, Christian David, 3:588, 7:610–611 Gordis, Robert, 7:764, 11:343, 353 Gordon, Cyrus Herzl, 7:767 Graetz, Heinrich, 8:26–29 Graf, Karl Heinrich, 8:29, 16:630 Greenberg, Moshe, 8:72–73 Greenfield, Jonas Carl, 8:79 Gressman, Hugo, 8:87 Gruenberg, Samuel, 8:107 Gunkel, Hermann, 3:650–651, 8:137 Guthe, Hermann, 8:150 Hallo, William, 8:282 Haran, Menahem, 8:344 Held, Moshe, 8:781 Heller, H: ayyim, 8:794 Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm, 8:807 Hirschler, Pál, 9:140 Hitzig, Ferdinand, 9:293–294 Hoelscher, Gustav, 9:302, 11:442 Hoffmann, David Z: evi, 9:310–311 Hoschander, Jacob, 9:547 Hottinger, Johann Heinrich, 9:568 357

INDEX

Bible scholars, continued Hrabanus Maurus, 9:573 Hupfeld, Hermann Christian Karl, 9:622 Ilgen, Karl David, 9:721 Jacob, Benno, 11:25 Jacob ben H: ayyim ben Issac ibn Adonijah, 4:52, 11:32, 13:620– 621 Jampel, Sigmund, 11:77 Jeremias, Alfred, 3:651, 11:136 Jirku, Anton, 11:337–338 Kalisch, Markus Moritz, 11:736 Kaufmann, Yeh: ezkel, 12:33 Job, Book of, 11:347 Joel, Book of, 11:362 Jonah, Book of, 11:388 Joshua and book of Joshua, 11:442, 449 Kautzsch, Emil Friedrich, 12:37 Keil, Karl Friedrich, 12:67 Kenyon, Dame Kathleen Mary, 11:201, 12:80 Kirkpatrick, Alexander Francis, 12:186–187 Kittel, Rudolf, 12:207 Kuenen, Abraham, 12:378–379 Kugel, James L., 1:461, 12:379–380 Landsberger, Benno, 12:475–476 La Peyrère, Isaac, 3:649, 12:488– 489 Lauterbach, Asher Zelig, 12:529 Leibowitz, Neh: ama, 3:625, 12:621– 622 Leusden, Johann, 12:675 Levenson, Jon D., 12:679–680 Levine, Baruch, 12:717 Lewy, Julius, 12:771 Lightfoot, John, 13:13, 59 Lods, Adolphe, 3:658, 13:155 Loewe, Joel, 13:166 Loewisohn, Solomon, 8:440, 687, 13:171 Loisy, Alfred Firmin, 13:176 Lowth, Robert, 3:646, 737, 13:237 Macalister, Robert Alexander Stewart, 2:377, 13:315, 15:589 Mahler, Eduard, 13:360 Malamat, Abraham, 13:425–426 Margolis, Max Leopold, 3:614, 13:529–530 Marti, Karl, 13:581–582 Mazar, Benjamin, 2:371, 3:547, 9:159, 13:705–706 Meinhold, Johannes Friedrich, 13:775 Meyer, Eduard, 9:159, 14:146 358

Michaelis, Johann David, 8:515, 14:169 Milgrom, Jacob, 14:233 Morgenstern, Julian, 14:486 Mowinckel, Sigmund Olaf Plytt, 3:651, 14:590 Nathan, Mordecai, 15:10–11 Neubauer, Adolf, 15:115 Nicholas de Lyre, 8:512 Noth, Martin, 2:11, 3:651, 15:315 Joshua, Book of, 11:446, 447, 449 sociology of Bible and, 3:658 Nowack, Wilhelm Gustav Hermann, 15:324 Orlinsky, Harry Meyer, 2:47, 3:614, 621, 622, 15:478 Parrot, André, 15:664 Pedersen, Johannes, 3:651, 658, 659, 15:711–712 Pellicanus, Conrad, 15:696, 718– 719 Petrie, Sir William Matthew Flinders, 15:589, 16:18–19 Pfeiffer, Robert Henry, 16:26–27 Popper, William, 16:380 Rad, Gerhard von, 17:52 Reuss, Eduard, 17:249 Rosenmueller, Ernst Friedrich Karl, 17:449 Rowley, Harold Henry, 17:502– 503 Ryssel, Victor, 17:603 Sandmel, Samuel, 18:16 Sarna, Nahum M., 4:125, 18:59 Schaeffer, Claude F.A., 18:102–103 Seeligmann, Isac Leo, 18:238–239 Segal, Moses Hirsch (Zevi), 8:355, 574, 640–641, 13:59, 14:330, 18:247–248 biblical exegesis and study, 3:647 modern biblical exegesis by, 3:650 Sellin, Ernst, 18:272 Shapiro, David S., 18:404 Smend, Rudolph, 6:278, 18:239, 686–687 Smith, John Merlin Powis, 18:688 Smith, Sir George Adam, 18:687– 688 Smith, William Robertson, 3:658, 18:689 Solieli, Mordecai, 18:753 Speiser, Ephraim Avigdor, 9:159, 294–295, 19:94–95 Steuernagel, Carl, 19:224 Tadmor, Hayim, 19:431

Talmon, Shemaryahu, 19:469 Tavus, Jacob ben Joseph, 3:609, 11:552, 19:531 Theodore of Mopsuestia, 3:599, 648, 666, 19:692 Tigay, Jeffrey H., 19:719 Torrey, Charles Cutler, 20:59–60 Tur-Sinai, Naphtali Herz, 20:204– 205 biblical exegesis and study, 3:647 Job, Book of, 11:343, 344, 346, 351, 352 Tyndale, William, 3:611, 612, 619, 20:212 Vatke, Wilhelm, 3:649, 20:486 Vaux, Roland de, 20:487 Volz, Paul, 20:580 Vriezen, Theodorus Christiaan, 20:588 Walton, Bryan, 13:56, 20:614 Weill, Raymond, 20:714 Weingreen, Jacob, 20:721 Weiss, Meir, 20:735 Wellhausen, Julius, 6–7, 16:630, 21:6–7 Eissfeldt, Otto, 6:278 on incense altar, 2:14 modern biblical crticism and, 3:648, 649–650 Wette, de, Wilhelm Martin Leberecht, 21:30 Wiener, Harold Marcus, 21:47 Winckler, Hugo, 3:651, 21:79–80 Woolley, Sir Charles Leonard, 21:212 Yeivin, Shemuel, 21:298 Zimmerli, Walther, 21:534 Bible societies, 3:680–681 Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia (Dotan), 5:762–763 Bibliander, Theodor, 3:681 Biblia Polyglotta, 2:452 Biblia Regia. See Biblia Polyglotta Biblia Sacra hebraice, chaldaice graece et latine (Plantin), 16:219 Biblical Aramaic, 2:343–345 Biblical archaeology, 3:650, 652, 654 Biblical Archaeology Review (periodical), 18:397 Biblical criticism, 3:648–656 Aaron ben Elijah, 1:212 Aaronides in, 1:218–219 Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph Astruc of Lunel, 1:230 Abrabanel, Isaac ben Judah, 1:276–279 Abraham, 1:283

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, 1:305–306 Abraham ben Solomon, 1:310 Adar, Zvi, 1:383 Ainsworth, Henry, 1:550–551 Albelda, Moses ben Jacob, 1:588 Albright, William Foxwell, 1:596 Alcuin, 1:605 Alemanno, Johann ben Isaac, 1:611 Ali ibn Suleiman, 1:660 archaeological influence and evidence, 3:650, 652 Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm, Graf von, 3:216 “biblical theology” movement, 3:651–652 Calvin, John, 4:376–377 Castelli, David, 4:513–514 Castro Quesada, Americo, 4:519 Celsus, 4:537–538 Cheyne, Thomas Kelly, 4:606–607 Cocceius, Johannes, 4:765 Coèn, Graziadio Vita Anania, 4:781 Cornill, Carl Heinrich, 5:224 Costa, Uriel da, 5:234–235 early modern period, development in, 3:648–649 Ehrlich Arnold Bogumil, 6:242– 243 Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, 6:303–305 form criticism, 3:650–651 Hitzig, Ferdinand, 9:293–294 H: iwi al-Balkhi, 9:295 La Peyrère, Isaac, 12:488–489 later twentieth century developments in, 3:652–656 Meyer, Eduard, 14:146 nineteenth and early twentieth century developments in, 3:649– 651 Smend, Rudolph, 18:686–687 Biblical imagery, 2:502–503 Biblical Interpretations in Ancient Israel (Fishbane), 7:60 Biblical literature Aaron, 1:208–210 Aaronides, 1:217–219, 218t abomination, 1:269–270 abortion, 1:270–271 Abraham, 1:281, 281–282 Absalom, 1:330 Achan, 1:354 Achbor, 1:355 acrostics, 1:368–369

Adam, 1:371–372 adoption, 1:415–416 adultery, 1:423–424, 423–425 afterlife, 1:441 age and the aged, 1:446–447 Ahaziah, 1:539 Ai, 1:548–549 aims and purposes, 4:700–702 alchemy, 1:599–600 algum, 1:654 Baal worship, 3:12 banishment, 3:110 barrenness and fertility, 3:175 belief, faith, 3:290–291 benedictions, 3:331–332 Cain, 4:340 capital punishment, 4:445–446 carts, 4:497 cedar, 4:535 chariots, 4:497 children’s, 4:619 choral singing, 4:658–659 chosen people doctrine, 4:669–670 Chronicles, book of, 4:695–704, 695t circumcision, 4:730–731 cities, 4:739–741, 742–744 city of refuge, 4:742–744, 743 community structure, 5:101 compassion, 5:122–123 composition and formation, 4:702–703 compounding offenses, 5:123 compromise, 5:124, 125 concubines, 5:133–134 confession of sins, 5:148–149 confiscation, expropriation, forfeiture, 5:150–151 congregation, 5:158–160 conservation, 5:164–166 contractual ties, 5:190 conversion, laws of, 16:587–589 copper scroll, 5:213–214 copper serpent, 5:214–215 corvée labor, 5:226 cosmogony, 5:273–280 Covenant, 5:249–253 covetousness, 5:254 crafts, 5:263–264 creation, 5:273–280 cremation, 5:281 Crete, 5:289 crocodiles, 5:304–305 crowns, 5:307–308 crucifixion, 5:309–310

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

cult sacrifices, 5:330–333 Damascus, 5:390–391 Dead Sea scrolls and, 5:503–504 divine presence, 16:481–484 drama, German, 7:509–510 dualism, 6:30 earth in, 6:82 Edom and Esau, 6:488 El, name of God, 7:672–674 Elam, 6:283–284 Elath, 6:287 Eldad and Medad, 6:293 elders, 6:294–296 elephants, 6:310–311 Eli, 6:317 Eliezer, 6:322 Elijah, 6:332–333 embalming, 6:390 emotions, 6:396 En-Gedi, 6:407 environment and beauty, 5:168 Ephod, 6:455–456 Ephraim, 6:456–457 Erez: Israel agriculture, 1:472–473 Esau, 6:487, 488 eschatology Dead sea scrolls, 6:498–500 post-exhilic prophets, 6:492– 495 pre-exhilic prophets, 6:490– 492 fire, 7:43–44 firstborn, 7:45–46 first fruits, 7:48–49 fish and fishing, 7:58–59 flogging, 7:78 flora, 7:90–91 forgiveness, 7:127–128 fruit trees, 5:166–167 Gaza, 7:399 geneology, 8:290 Genesis, book of, 7:440–447, 441t, 447t Gideon, 7:586–588, 587 Gilead, 7:600–601 Gilgal, 7:601–602 glass, 7:629 goats, 7:651–652 God, 3:290, 7:652–658 Gog and Magog, 7:683–684 Golan, 17:78–79 golden calf, 7:700 Goliath, 7:738–739 good and evil, 7:752 Habakkuk, 8:171–172 359

INDEX

Biblical literature, continued haftarah, 8:198–200 Hagar, 8:205–206 Haggai, 8:222–223 hagiography, 8:224–226 hakhel, 8:247 hakkafot, 8:250 Hannah and birth of Samuel, 8:324–325 hassegat gevul, 8:448–449 hatred, ill-will, 8:458 h: erem, 9:10–11 hermaneutics, 9:25–29 Hezekiah, 9:87–90 historiography, 9:153–154 Hittites, 9:292–293 Holiness code, 9:318–320, 12:738– 740 human rights, 17:312–313 hunting, 5:166 Jubilee, 5:166 Kings, Kingship, 12:167–168 lamentations, 14:586–587 land management, 1:472–486 law and morality, 12:535 Leviathan, 12:696–697 Levi ben Gershom commentaries, 12:699 Levirate marriage and h: aliz: a, 12:725 locust plague, 6:494 masorah vocalization, 7:475–476 mourning, 14:585–586 mules, 14:609–610 music, 14:640–642 mythical influences, 14:711 Nah: manides commentary, 14:740– 741 plagues of Egypt, 6:494, 16:210– 214, 211t planning and construction, laws of, 16:215–216 plants and products of plants, 16:220t–225t poetry, 16:254–262 police offenses, 16:331–332 pomegranates, 16:364 poor, provision for, 16:371–372 poverty, 16:427 prayer, 16:456–458 prayer, women’s role in, 16:460 precious stones and jewelry, 16:475–478, 476t primogeniture, 19:284 prostitution, 16:625–626 ransom, 17:91–92 360

Rashi, 17:101–106, 102t Rea Sea, 17:160 Rebekah, 17:137–138 rebellious son, 17:138–139 rebuke and reproof, 17:139–140 redemption, 17:151–152 red heifer, 17:156–157 reeds, 17:161 Reifmann, Jacob, 17:203–204 remnant of Israel, 17:217 repentance, 17:221 Rephaim, 17:224 Resheph, 17:226 resurrection, 17:240–241 Reuben, 17:244–246, 245 revelation, 17:253–254 reward and punishment, 17:269– 270 right and left, 17:301 righteousness, 17:307–308 Rome and Esau, 6:488 Rowley, Harold Henry, 17:502– 503 sabbatical year, 5:166 shemittah and yovel, 6:454 Song of Songs, 19:14–19 son of man, 19:25 sorcery, 19:27 Sotah (tractate), 19:32–33 soul, 19:33–34 soul, immortality of, 19:35 sources of, 4:699–700 strangers and gentiles, 19:241–242 suffering, 7:656 suicide, 19:295–296 sukkah, 19:297–298 Sukkot, 19:299–300 Sumerian influence, 19:311–312 supercommentaries, 19:315–316 suretyship, 19:317–318 sustainable development, 6:454 theodicy, 7:656 tombs and tombstones, 20:33, 34 trade and commerce, 20:79–81 treasure, treasury, 20:122–123 truth, 20:162 Tu Bi-Shevat, 20:167 twelve tribes, 20:137–140 unjust enrichment, 20:413–414 usury, 20:437–438 veil, 20:490 vine, 20:536–537 virginity, 20:539–540 visions, 20:543–544 vows and vowing, 20:585–586

waste disposal, 5:167 weights and measures, 20:700–701 widows, 21:40–42 wilderness, 21:60 willow, 21:65 wisdom literature, 21:95–98 witness, 21:115 wood, 21:210 yoke, 21:381 Zadok, 21:439–441 Zaken Mamre, 21:446 Zechariah, 21:482–486 zekhut avot, 21:497 Zephaniah, 21:511–512 See also Eschatology; Haggadah, Passover; Prophets and prophecy Biblical Myth and Legend in Jewish Education (Fineberg), 7:26 Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (Fishbane), 7:60 Biblical period liturgy, 13:131 sculpture, 18:222 ships and sailing, 18:486–487 Biblical scholars. See Bible scholars “Biblical theology” movement, 3:651– 652 Bibliography, 3:681–683 Bass, Shabbetai ben Joseph, 3:206 Benjacob, Isaac, 3:353–354 Bernard, Edward, 3:467–468 Chajes, Saul, 4:559–560 Cowley, Sir Arthur Ernest, 5:256 Deutsch, Otto Erich, 5:625 encyclopedias, 6:401–402 Freidus, Abraham Solomon, 7:236 Freimann, Aron, 7:237–238 Habermann, Abraham Meir, 8:176–177 Heilprin, Jehiel Ben Solomon, 3:681, 8:768–769 Herschel, Levie, 9:134–135 Neubauer, Adolf, 15:115 Polak, Gabriel Isaac, 16:286 Rapoport, Solomon Judah Leib, 17:99 Roan, Jacob ben Isaac, 17:374 Roest, Meijer Marcus, 17:367 Rosenthal, Leser, 17:455 Schapiro, Israel, 18:108–109 Seeligmann, Sigmund, 18:239 Slatkine, Menahem Mendel, 18:666–667 Bibliography of Jewish Music (Sendrey), 18:287 Bibliophiles, 3:683–685 Adler, Elkan Nathan, 1:396

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Adler, Elmer, 1:396 Almanzi, Joseph, 1:679 Baracs, Károly, 3:124 Beer, Bernhard, 3:251 Benoliel, Joseph, 3:371 Horodisch, Abraham, 9:527–528 Montezinos, David, 14:460 Mortara, Marco, 14:513 Rosenbach, Abraham Simon Wolf, 17:431–432 Rosenthal, Leser, 17:455 Simonsen, David Jacob, 18:618 Biblioteca di studi sociali (Mondolfo), 14:435 Bibliotheca Americana Vetustissima (Harrisse), 8:366 Bibliotheca Historica Italo-Judaica (Milano), 14:232 Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica (Bartolocci), 2:37, 3:181 Bibliotheca Sancta ex praecipuis Catholicae Ecclesiae auctoribus collecta (Sixtus of Siena), 18:656 Bibliothèque Nationale (France), 3:685, 11:558 Biblisches Organon, 9:137 Bîrlad (Moldavia). See Barlad (Moldovia) Bick, Jacob Samuel, 3:685, 4:199 Bickel, Alexander M., 3:685 Bickel, Solomon, 3:686 Bickels-Spitzer, Zvi, 3:686 Bickerman, Elias Joseph, 3:686, 18:217 Biculturalism, 6:698 Bidache (France), 3:686 Biden, Louis H., 2:49 Bidermanas, Izrael. See Izis Bidner, Zelig. See Ben Horin, Eliyahu Bidney, David, 3:686–687 Bie, Oscar, 3:687 Bieber, Hugo, 3:687 Bieber, Margarete, 3:687 Biedermann, Michael Lazar, 3:687 Biegeleisen, Henryk, 3:688 Biegeleisen-Z˙elsazowski, Bronislaw, 3:688 Biel (Spain), 3:688 Biel (Switzerland), 3:688 Bielefeld (Germany), 3:688 Bielski, Asael, 3:688–689 Bielski, Tuvia, 3:688–689, 9:496 Bielski, Zus, 3:688–689 Bielsko (Poland), 3:689 Bielsk Podlaski (Poland), 3:689–690 Bien, Julius, 3:690 Bienenfeld, Franz Rudolf, 3:690 Bienenstock, Max, 3:690

Bienstok, Judah Lieb, 3:690–691 Bienveniste family. See Benveniste family Bierer, Rubin, 3:691, 11:699 Bi-Fero’a Pera’ot be-Yisrael (Eismann), 6:276 Bigamy and polygamy, 3:691–694, 6:693, 15:539 Bulgarian Romaniots, 4:269 concubines, 5:135 Gershom ben Judah Me’or haGolah, 7:552 H: aliz: ah in Ashkenaz, 12:727 See also Monogamy Bigart, Jacques, 3:694–695 Bigdei ha-Melekh ha-H: adashim (Aloni), 1:687 Bigman, Stanley, 18:733 Bihalji, Pavle, 3:695 Bihalji Merin, Oto, 3:695 Bihari, Alexander, 3:695 Bijur, Nathan, 2:49, 3:695 Bikayam, Meir ben H: alifa, 3:695 Bikel, Theodore Meir, 3:696 Bikerman, Jacob Joseph, 3:696 Bikerman, Joseph, 3:696 Bikhowsky, Elizaveta. See Elisheva Bikkurei ha-Ittim, 3:696–697, 8:688, 12:460 Bikkurei Yehudah (Don-Yah: ia), 5:752 Bikkur h: olim. See Sicknesses, sick, visiting the Bikkurim (tractate), 3:697 Bikszad dynasty, 8:425 Bilam (Shoham), 8:716 Bilbeis (Egypt), 3:697 Bilbu¯,YaDqu¯b, 15:473 Bilder aus dem juedischen Familienleben (Mosenthal), 14:521– 522 Bildersee, Adele, 3:697–698 Biletzki, Israel H: ayyim, 3:698 Bilgoraj (Poland), 3:698 Bilhah, 1:415, 3:698 Bill-Belotserkovski, Vladimir Naumovich, 3:698–699 Billiards, 19:138 Billig, Levi, 3:699 Billikopf, Jacob, 3:699 Billings (MT), 14:454 Bill of Rights (U.S.), 2:42 Billroth, Theodor, 3:699 Bills & Contracts From Lucena (Rivlin), 18:471 Billy Bathgate (Doctorow), 5:728 Bilsky, Moses, 15:516 Biltmore Program, 3:699–700 American Jewish Committee, 2:55

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

bi-nationalism and, 3:703 Bilu, 3:700–701, 6:37 Bimah, 3:701–702 Bimetallism, in currency, 2:424 Bimko, Fishel, 3:702 Bimstein, “Whitey,” 3:702 Binah la-Ittim (Hart), 8:370 Binah le-Ittim (Figo), 7:18–19 Bi-nationalism, 3:702–703 Binder, Abraham Wolf, 3:703, 8:503 Binder, Alexander. See Panaˇ, Sas¸a Bineter family. See Banet family Binet family. See Banet family Bin-Forion, Micha Josef. See Berdyczewski, Micha Josef Bing, Abraham, 3:704 Bing, Albert, 3:704 Bing, Ilse, 3:704 Bing, Isaac ben Samuel, 3:704 Bing, Joseph, 3:704 Bing, Seligmann, 15:442 Bing, Solomon, 3:704 Bingen (Germany), 3:703, 704–705 Bingen, Jacques, 15:668 Bing family, 3:703–704 Bingham, Theodore A., 6:193, 15:209 Bin-Gorion, Micha Josef. See Berdyczewski, Micha Josef Binswanger, Isidore, 3:705 Bintel Brief, 6:696–697, 15:210, 16:503–504, 20:325–326 Binyamin, Rabbi. See Rabbi Binyamin Binyaminah (Israel), 3:705 Binyamin ben Mishael. See Amina Binyamin Ze’ev. See Herzl, Theodor Binyamin Ze’ev (Benjamin), 3:364 Binyan Ari’el (Loewenstamm), 13:167– 168 Binyan Av (Bakshi-Doron), 3:74 Binyan av rule, 9:26–27 Binyan ha-Bayit (Altschuler), 2:26 Binyan Shelomo (Hanau), 8:318 Binyan Shelomo le-H: okhmat Bez: alel (Adeni), 1:390 Binyan Z: iyyon (Freimann), 7:237 Biochemistry, 13:10 Canada Fishman, William Harold, 7:65 France Rapkine, Louis, 17:97 Germany Ehrlich, Paul, 6:244 Embden, Gustav, 6:390–391 Meyerhof, Otto, 13:10, 14:151 Michaelis, Leonor, 14:169 361

INDEX

Biochemistry, continued Neuberg, Gustav Embden Carl, 15:116 Oppenheimer, Carl, 15:447 Pringsheim, Hans, 16:528 Warburg, Otto Heinrich, 20:633 Hungary Rona, Peter, 17:418 Israel Ciechanover, Aaron J., 4:725 Fodor, Andor, 7:94 Hershko, Avram, 4:593, 9:45, 13:10 Hestrin, Shlomo, 9:79 Katzir, Aharon, 12:22 Katzir, Ephraim, 12:22–23, 13:10 Levitzki, Alexander, 12:744 Razin, Aharon, 17:130 Sela, Michael, 13:11, 18:257 Shapiro, Benjamin, 18:404 Sharon, Nathan, 18:418 Simon, Ernst, 6:161, 18:611 Wertheimer, Chaim Ernst, 21:16 Poland Parnas, Yakub Karol, 15:654 Portugal Jacobson, Kurt, 11:55 Switzerland Winterstein, Alfred, 21:92 U.K. Chain, Sir Ernest Boris, 4:558 Cohen, Sir Philip, 5:31 Klug, Aaron, 4:593, 12:233, 13:9 Kornberg, Hans Leo, 12:311– 312 Krebs, Hans Adolf, 12:347, 13:10 Neuberger, Albert, 15:116 Perutz, Max Ferdinand, 15:798 Quastel, Judah Hirsch, 16:761–762 Rosenheim, Otto, 17:448 U.S. Berg, Paul, 3:417 Bodansky, Oscar, 4:27 Borsook, Henry, 4:95 Calvin, Melvin, 4:377–378, 13:10 Chargaff, Erwin, 4:568 Cohen, Philip Pacy, 5:31, 13:10 Cohen, Seymour Stanley, 5:34, 13:9 362

Cohen, Stanley, 5:36 Cohn, Edwin Joseph, 5:40 Cori, Gerty Theresa, 5:223 Dische, Zacharias, 5:676 Dorfman, Ralph Isadore, 5:756 Edelman, Gerald Maurice, 6:142 Fischer, Edmond, 7:53, 13:10 Funk, Casimir, 7:310 Glick, David, 7:636 Green, David Ezra, 8:66 Greenberg, David Morris, 8:68 Greenstein, Jesse Philip, 8:81 Handler, Milton, 8:319 Handler, Philip, 8:319 Hassid, William Zev, 8:455 Heidelberger, Michael, 8:762– 763, 13:11 Kalnitsky, George, 11:747 Kornberg, Arthur, 12:311, 13:9 Langer, Robert S., 12:481 Levene, Phoebus Aaron Theodor, 12:679 Lipmann, Fritz Albert, 13:68 Nirenberg, Marshall Warren, 13:9, 15:273–274, 476 Perlzweig, William Alexandre, 15:780 Ptashne, Mark Stephen, 13:9, 16:693 Rabinowitch, Eugene, 17:40 Racker, Efraim, 17:51 Rittenberg, David, 13:10, 17:345–346 Rodbell, Martin, 13:10, 17:362 Shear, Murray Jacob, 18:427 Sobotka, Harry Herman, 18:703 Stein, Wililam Howard, 19:182 Stern, Kurt Gunter, 19:213 Strominger, Jack, 13:11, 19:260 Sure, Barnett, 19:317 Weinhouse Sidney, 20:722 Zamenhof, Stephen, 21:451 Biodiversity, 5:164 Bioengineering, 11:772 Bioethics Draï, Raphaël, 6:7 France, 6:716 Biographies and autobiographies, 3:705–709 as exempla, 6:599

Heilprin, Jehiel Ben Solomon, 8:768 Historia Augusta, 9:151 Italian Renaissance, 7:15 Josephus’ The Life, 11:440 leaders of modern hasidic movements, 11:751–752 Luftspring, Sammy, 13:253 Lukacs, Georg, 13:253 rabbis, of, 11:751–752 Biological plant protection, 6:452 Biology Austria Marmorek, Alexander, 13:556–557 Belgium Arnon, Isaac, 2:480 Canada Altman, Sidney, 2:22, 4:593, 13:9 France Atlan, Henri, 2:635 Jacob, François, 11:27–28 Lwoff, Andre Michel, 13:9, 293 Germany Aschner, Manfred, 2:553 Auerbach, Leopold, 2:655 Cohn, Ferdinand Julius, 5:41, 13:7 Edinger, Tilly, 6:147–148 Haberlandt, Gottlieb, 8:176 Sorauer, Paul Karl Moritz, 19:27 Steinach, Eugen, 19:182–183 Horwitz, H. Robert, 9:546–547 Israel Arnon, Ruth, 2:480–481, 15:313 Aviv, Haim, 2:741 Chet, Ilan, 4:605–606, 6:452 Cohen, Yigal Rahamim, 5:38 Rager, Bracha, 17:65 Italy Artom, Cesare, 2:534 Levi-Montalcini, Rita, 12:706 Romania Sanielevici, Henric, 18:24 Russia Gurwitsch, Alexander Gavrilovich, 8:142 Haffkine, Waldemar Mordecai, 8:196 Metchnikoff, Elie, 14:134 Zenkevich, Lev Aleksandrovich, 21:508– 509

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Zilber, Lev Aleksandrovich, 21:530 U.K. Bodmer, Walter, 4:29–30 Rothschild, Nathaniel Mayer Victor, Lord, 17:491, 494 U.S. Altschul, Aaron Meyer, 2:25 Anfinsen, Christian Boehmer, 2:145–146, 4:592–593, 13:10 Arnon, Daniel Israel, 2:480 Asimov, Isaac, 2:588 Axelrod, Julius, 2:756–757, 13:10 Baltimore, David, 3:100 Berg, Paul, 3:417, 13:9 Bogorad, Lawrence, 4:36 Gilbert, Walter, 4:593, 7:598, 13:9 Gould, Stephen Jay, 8:18–19 Horwitz, H. Robert, 9:546, 13:9 Luria, Salvador Edward, 13:9, 267–268 Meselson, Matthew, 13:9, 14:74 Pincus, Gregory Goodwin, 16:165 Rose, Irwin, 17:426 Spiegelman, Sol, 13:9, 19:107–108 Stent, Gunther Siegmund, 13:9, 19:202 Varmus, Harold Eliot, 20:477 Waksman, Selman Abraham, 20:599 Wald, George, 13:10, 20:600 See also Life sciences Biophysics, 13:12 Biow, Milton H., 1:428, 3:428 Bira family. See Adolphus family Biram, Arthur, 3:709–710 Biran, Avraham, 3:710 Biranit (Israel), 3:710 Birbaum, Nathan. See Burns, George Birck, Sixtus, 18:761 Birds, 2:171–172 barnacle geese, 3:167 buzzards, 4:323 doves, 5:768 eagles, 6:81 hoopoes, 9:522 peacocks, 15:704 pelicans, 15:717–718 pheasants, 16:32–33 Birds’ Head Haggadah, 8:212–213

Birds of Shade (Seri). See Z: ipporei Z: el (Seri) Biriyyah (Israel), 3:710–711, 6:264 Birk, Alm, 16:343 Birk, Yehudith, 3:711 Birkat ha-Levanah. See Blessing of the Moon Birkat ha-mazon. See Grace after meals Birkat ha-Minim, 3:711–712 Amidah, 2:74 Jewish identity and, 11:294 luz of the spine, 13:279 Birkat ha-Torah, 3:712 Birkat Shemu’el (Leibowitz), 12:620 Birkenau concentration camp, 3:421, 9:430, 481–482, 488 Birkenstadt, Ger Shon Ben Abraham. See Chajes, Gershon ben Abraham Birkenstadt, Gershon Ben Abraham. See Chajes, Gershon ben Abraham Birkenthal, Dov Ber, 2:268, 3:712 Birmingham (AL), 3:712–713 Birmingham (England), 3:713–714 Birmingham, Steven, 15:227 Birnbaum, A. H., 15:475 Birnbaum, Abraham Baer, 3:714 Birnbaum, Eduard, 2:25, 3:714 Birnbaum, Ferdinand, 6:161 Birnbaum, Jacob, 3:716 Birnbaum, Menachem, 3:714 Birnbaum, Nathan (1864-1937), 3:714–716, 11:699, 18:257 Birnbaum, Nathan (1896-1996). See Burns, George Birnbaum, Philip, 3:716 Birnbaum, Pierre, 11:326 Birnbaum, Solomon Asher, 3:716 Birnbaum, Uriel, 3:716–717 Birnboim, Moses Joseph, 3:717 Biró, Lajos, 3:717 Birobidzhan (Russia), 3:717–720 Birobidzhan (USSR), 3:718, 719 The Birobidzhan Affair (Emiot), 6:395 Der Birobidzhaner Inyen (Emiot). See The Birobidzhan Affair (Emiot) Birobidzhan Jewish Musical Chamber Theater, 14:520 Birs Nimrud (Iraq), 4:94 Birstein, Yossel, 3:720 Birth, 3:720–723 abortion, 1:271–272 amulets, vol. 7: color insert astrology, 2:617, 619 birthdays, 3:723 celebrations, dance, 5:411 Commandments, 5:75

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

folklore, 7:100, 103, 106, 109–110 impurity period, 12:737–738 Lilith, 13:17–19 niddah, 15:256–258 rites and rituals Sholem Zokhor, 18:512–513 sacrifice following, 17:640–641 vital statistics, 20:551t–552t, 556– 557 The Birth and Growth of Religion (Moore), 14:469 Birth certificate, Chinese, vol. 20: color insert Birth control, 3:723 Judith, wife of Rabbi H: iyya, and, 11:566 onanism, 15:426–427 See also Barrenness and fertility Birthdates, 3:721 Birthday celebrations, 3:723–724 The Birthday Party (Pinter), 16:177 Birth defects, 1:272 The Birth of Energy (sculpture, Epstein), 6:471 The Birth of Europe (Lopez), 13:189– 190 Birthright Israel, 7:137 Birthrights Jacob, 11:18, 21, 27 Jacob and Esau, 6:487–488 Manasseh and Ephraim, 6:456, 457, 11:20 Birzai (Lithuania), 3:724 Birzula (Ukraine), 3:724 Bisa, 15:501 Bischheim (France), 3:724 Bischhoff, Erich, 3:724 Bischhoffsheim, Amalia, 3:725 Bischhoffsheim, Ellen Odette, 3:725 Bischhoffsheim, Henry Louis, 3:725 Bischhoffsheim, Raphael, 3:724–725 Bischhoffsheim, Raphael Jonathan, 3:725 Bischhoffsheim, Raphael Louis, 3:725 Bischhoffsheim family, 3:724–725, 725t Bischofsheim on the Tauber (Germany). See Tauberbischofsheim (Germany) Bisenz (Czech Republic). See Bzenec (Czech Republic) Bisgyer, Maurice, 3:725 Bi-Shevilei Musar (Benamozegh), 3:317 Bishop, Joey, 3:726 “Bishop of the Jews.” See Episcopus Judaeorum 363

INDEX

Bisliches, Mordecai Leib, 3:726 Bismarck, Otto von, 3:726 Bleichroeder, Gerson von, relationship with, 3:726, 748 Blowitz, Henri Georges Stephane Adolphe Opper de, as interviewer of, 3:784 Lasker, Eduard, 12:497 Bistrita (Romania), 3:727 Bistritski, Nathan. See Agmon, Nathan Bitan Aharon (Israel), 3:727 Bitburg Controversy, 3:727–728 Bithiah, 3:729 Bithynia (Asia Minor), 3:729 Bitola (F.Y.R. of Macedonia). See Monastir (F.Y.R. of Macedonia) Bitolj (F.Y.R. of Macedonia). See Monastir (F.Y.R. of Macedonia) Bittelman, Alexander, 3:729 Het bittere kruid (Minco). See Bitter Herbs (Minco) Bitter Herbs (Minco), 6:71 Bitterns, 3:729 Bitter water ordeal, 11:374, 15:462 Bittul ha-Tamid, 3:729–730 Bitumen, 3:730 Biur (Mendelssohn), 6:34, 8:437 Biurists, 3:631 Bi-Ymei Milh: amah u-Mahpekhah 1914-21 (Dinur), 5:672 Biztha, 3:730 Biz: z: a and pesharah, 5:124 Biz: z: aron (Israel), 3:730 Black, Algernon David, 3:730 Black, Conrad, 11:467 Black, Fischer, 18:159–160 Black, Max, 3:730–731 Black, Misha. See Black, Sir Misha Black, Sir Misha, 3:731 Black Americans. See African Americans Blackbirds of 1928, 7:17 The Black Book. See Cartea Neagra Black Box (Amos Oz), 15:555 Black Canopy. See H: uppah Sheh: orah (Ratosh) Black Death, 3:731–734, 732, 9:215– 216 antisemitism, 15:94–95 Brussels, 4:226 France, 7:151 Alsace, 2:6 Franche-Comté, 7:172 Lorraine, 13:194 Nyons, 15:356 Obernai, 15:368 Sèlestat, 18:260 364

Seres, 18:316 Germany, 4:63, 5:60 Ansbach, 2:180 Bacharach, 3:31 Berlin, 3:445 Bingen, 3:704 Bonn, 4:63 Boppard, 4:79 Brandenburg, 4:125, 126 Breisach, 4:167 Bruchsal, 4:219 Brunswick, 4:226 Bytom, 4:324 Dresden persecutions, 6:10 Dueren, 6:41 Duisberg, 6:43 Frankfurt on the Main, 7:208 Fulda, 7:309 Juelich, 11:572 Kaiserslautern, 11:728 Landau, 12:457 Landshut, 12:476 Lauingen, 12:526 Lueneburg, 13:253 Noerdlingen, 15:293 Nordhausen, 15:299 Nuremberg, 15:346 Offenbach, 15:386 Offenburg, 15:387 Oldenburg, 15:401 Osnabrueck, 15:505 Palatinate, 15:575 Passau, 15:677 Italy Parma, 15:652 Lag ba-Omer associated with, 15:421 Luxembourg, 13:275 Oppenheim, 15:442 Spain Barcelona, 3:143 Dueñas, 6:40 Lérida, 12:654–655 Sargossa, 18:42–43 Switzerland Berne, 3:471 Lucerne, 13:249 Black Form Dedicated to the Missing Jews (Lewitt), 12:769–770 Black Hundreds, 15:250 Black-Jewish relations in United States, 3:734–737 affirmative action and numerus clausus, 15:343 Butzel, Fred M., 4:320 Goodman, Benny, 15:220

Passover and Seder, significance of, 15:681–682 See also Civil rights movement; New York City Black Jews India, supporters, 6:741 United States, 11:520, 521 Black Judaizing movements, 1:437 Black Mountain: An Exploration of Community (Duberman), 6:31 Black Panther movement (Israel), 10:442 Black Saturday, 8:204 Blackstone, William E., 3:737 Blair, Tony, 6:432, 12:753 Blake, William, 3:737–738 Bronowski, Jacob, 4:207 Moses, 14:542 Blanc, Mel, 3:738 Blanchot, Maurice, 3:738 Blanckenhorn, Max, 3:738 Blanes, Jacob, 3:738 Blank, Aristide, 3:739 Blank, Arthur M., 3:739 Blank, Leon, 3:739 Blank, Maurice, 3:739–740 Blank, Samuel Leib, 3:740 Blank, Sheldon Haas, 3:740 Blankenstein, Marcus van, 3:740 Blankenstein, Solomon. See Schiller, Solomon Blankfort, Michael S., 3:740 Blankstein, Cecil, 3:740 Blanter, Matvey Isaakovich, 3:740–741 Blaser, Isaac, 3:741 Blasphemy, 3:741–742, 5:79t Blass, Simcha, 6:452 Blatas, Arbit, 15:649 Blatt, Joseph, 15:397 Blau, Amram, 3:742, 744 Blau, Bruno, 3:742 Blau, Fritz, 3:742 Blau, Herbert, 3:742–743 Blau, Joseph Leon, 3:743 Blau, Joshua, 3:743–744 Blau, Ludwig Lajos, 3:744 Blau, Moshe, 3:744 Blau, Peter Michael, 3:744–745 Blau, Pinchas, 3:744 Blau, Tina, 3:745 Blaubaum, Elias, 3:745 Der blaue Reiter, 4:139 Blaustein, Abraham, 3:746 Blaustein, David, 3:746 Blaustein, Jacob, 2:55, 3:745–746 Blaustein, Louis, 3:98, 745

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Blaustein family, 3:745–746 Blaustein Philanthropic Group, 3:746 Blau-Weiss, 3:746–747, 8:385, 11:721, 12:466 Blayer, Pietro, 3:747 Blazko, Martin, 3:747 Blech, Leo, 3:747 Blecher, Marcel, 3:747 The Bleeding Man (painting, Mopp), 14:470 Bleek, Friedrich, 3:747–748 Bleich, J. David, 3:748 Bleichroeder, Gerson von, 3:726, 748 Bleichroeder, Samuel, 3:748 Bleichroeder family, 3:748 Blejer, David, 3:748–749, 16:349 Blejer, Mario Israel, 3:749 Blemishes, 3:749–750 Blendenish (Altman), 2:21 Die Blendung (Canetti), 4:431 Blessé (Morhange), 14:491 Blessedness. See Beatitude Blessing and cursing, 3:330–333, 750– 752 Berakhot, 3:400 blasphemy, 3:741–742 children, blessing of, 3:752 in colophons, 5:65–67 grace after meals, 8:22–23, 18:489 grace before meals, 8:24 oaths, relationship to curses, 15:358, 462 ordeal and curses, 15:462 Blessing of children, 3:752 Blessing of the Moon, 14:468 Bleter far Yidishe Demografye, Statistik un Ekonomik, 4:228 Bleustein-Blanchet, Marcel, 3:752–753 Blick, Elsa. See Triolet, Elsa Blíˇzenci (Dostál), 5:762 Blindman, Yeruh: am, 3:753 Blind man and lame parable, 6:647 Blindness, 3:753–756, 754, 7:86 Bliokh, Ivan Stanislavovich, 3:756 Blis, David, 3:756–757 Bliss. See Beatitude Bliss, Frederick Jones, 3:757, 15:589 Blitz, Jekuthiel ben Isaac, 3:610 Blitzer, Wolf, 3:757 Blitzkrieg, 9:332–333 Blitzstein, Marc, 1:224, 3:757 Blobel, Paul, 3:22 Bloc, André, 3:757–758 Bloch, Adolfo, 11:469 Bloch, André, 3:758 Bloch, Annette, 3:769

Bloch, Camille, 3:758 Bloch, Chaim Isaac, 3:758–759 Bloch, Charles (h: azzan), 3:759 Bloch, Charles (publisher), 3:758 Bloch, Claude, 3:759 Bloch, Darius Paul. See Dassault, Darius Paul Bloch, Dora, 6:448 Bloch, Edward, 3:758 Bloch, Edward H., 3:758 Bloch, Elijah Meyer, 3:759 Bloch, Ernest, 3:759–760, 4:661–662, 18:762 Bloch, Ernst, 3:760–761 Bloch, Felix, 3:761 Bloch, Gustave, 3:761 Bloch, H: ayyim Isaac ben H: anokh Zundel ha-Kohen, 3:761 Bloch, Henry Wollman, 3:768 Bloch, Herbert, 3:761–762, 5:302, 18:732 Bloch, Hermann, 3:762 Bloch, Herman Samuel, 3:762 Bloch, Hyman Morris, 3:762 Bloch, Issachar Baer ben Samson, 3:762 Bloch, Iwan, 3:762–763 Bloch, Jean-Richard, 3:763 Bloch, Joseph, 3:763, 18:705 Bloch, Joseph Leib, 3:763 Bloch, Joseph Samuel, 3:763–764, 16:340 Bloch, Joshua, 3:764 Bloch, Jules, 3:764 Bloch, Konrad, 3:765, 13:10 Bloch, Marc, 3:765, 18:730 Bloch, Marcus Eliezer, 3:765 Bloch, Martin, 3:766 Bloch, Mattathias ben Benjamin Ze’ev Ashkenazi, 3:766 Bloch, Maurice. See Bloch, Sir Maurice Bloch, Mór. See Ballagi, Mór Bloch, Moses, 3:766 Bloch, Moses Rudolph, 3:766–767 Bloch, Philipp, 3:767 Bloch, Richard, 3:768–769 Bloch, Rolf, 3:767 Bloch, Rosine, 3:767 Bloch, Sam, 2:48, 49 Bloch, Samson ben Moses, 3:767 Bloch, Samson ha-Levi, 3:767–768 Bloch, Samson the H: asid. See Bloch, Samson ben Moses Bloch, Sir Maurice, 3:766 Bloch Editores, 11:469–470

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Bloch family, 3:758 Blochman family, 18:14 Bloch-Michel, Jean, 3:768 Block, Herbert Lawrence, 3:769 Block, H&R, 3:768–769 Block, Joseph Samuel, 4:712 Block, Paul, 3:769, 11:468 Block 23/ Mikhtavim mi-Nes Z: iyyonah (Kenan), 12:75 Bloemfontein (South Africa), 3:769– 770 Blogg, Solomon ben Ephraim, 3:770 Blois (France), 3:770 Blok, Arthur, 3:770 Blonde on Blonde (Dylan), 6:78 Blondes, David, 3:770–771, 779 Blondheim, David Simon, 3:771, 12:405 Blondheim, Solomon Hillel, 3:771 Blondzhende Shtern (Shalom Aleichem), 18:384 Blood, 3:771–772 altars and, 2:12, 13–14 Brazil, colonial, 4:143 cult, 5:331 in folk medicine, 7:111 Judaizers, 11:520 menstrual, 2:135, 3:772, 776 niddah, 15:253–258 Passover, 15:679 plagues of Egypt, 16:212–213 sheh: itah, 18:434 virginal, 15:255 Blood-avengers, 3:772–773 Blood-for-trucks negotiations, 6:250 Blood for Trucks offer, 4:120, 9:490– 491 Blood from the Sky (Rawicz), 9:411 Bloodguilt, 3:773–774, 4:68 Blood Harvest. See Shtol un Ayzn Bloodletting, 3:774 Blood libel, 3:266–267, 774–780, 777 Aleppo (Syria), 1:615 Alexeyev, Alexander, 1:636 Alfonso X, King of Castile, 1:642 Alfonso de Espina, 1:642 Amasiya (Turkey), 2:33 Andrew of Rinn, 2:144 antisemitism and, 3:776, 778, 779, 17:163 apologetics, 2:267 Arab countries, 3:780 Austria, 2:144 Beilis, 6:45, 15:250 Beirut, 3:270 Benedict XIV, 3:330 365

INDEX

Blood libel, continued Berne (Switzerland), 3:471 Biel, 3:688 Bielsk Podlaski, 3:689 Bloch, Joseph Samuel, 3:764 in Blois, 3:770 Blondes, David, 3:770, 779 Boleslav V, 4:45 Bourgeois, Jean, 4:106 Bristol, England, 4:185 Bruna, Israel ben H: ayyim, 4:222 Buna, Israel ben H: ayyim, 7:222 Bursa, 4:300 Bury St. Edmunds, 4:302 Canterbury Tales, 4:584 Catholic Church, 3:776, 778, 779, 4:710–712, 17:163 Christians accused of, 3:775, 776 La Civiltà Cattolica, 4:748–749 Classical period, 3:774–775 Clement XII, 16:376 Clement XIII, 4:753, 16:376 Clement XIV, 3:778, 4:753, 16:376 Clement XIII, 4:753 Council of the Lands, 5:244 Damascus Affair, 5:399–401 Damocritus, 5:403 defined, 3:774 Donin, Nicholas, 5:750 Dubossary (Moldova), 6:38 Dubrovnik (Croatia), 6:38 Eastern Europe, 3:778 Elijah of Prague, 6:347 Endingen libel, 6:403–404 England, 3:775 London, 6:410 Northampton, 15:301 Norwich, 15:312 France, 4:105 Blois, 7:150 Boulay, 4:105 Bourgeois, Jean, 4:106 Lévy, Raphaël, 12:754 Paris, 15:643 Troyes, 20:157 Valréas, 20:466 Frankist movement, 7:185–188, 191 Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, 7:222 Germany, 4:79 Boppard, 4:79 Endingen, 6:403–404 Fulda, 7:222, 309 Pforzheim, 16:27 366

Ravensburg, 17:121 thirteenth century, late, 17:334–335 Velhartice, 3:778 Hilsner Case, 9:119–120 Istanbul (Ottoman period), 10:778 Italy, 10:798 Brescia, 4:163 Rome, 17:414 Trent, 3:469, 15:566 Izmir (Turkey), 10:827 Joseph ben Gershon of Rosheim, 11:420, 421 Kalisz, Statute of, 4:45 Kolin (Czech Republic), 12:273 Levinsohn, Isaac Baer on, 3:779 Machaut, Denis de, 15:643–644 Majorca (Spain), 13:410, 414 Malta, 13:436 map of sites in Europe, 3:777 Meyer, Paulus, 14:149 Middle Ages, 3:775–776, 9:214 modern period, 3:776–780 Olkusz (Poland), 15:408 Ónody, Géza, 15:434 origins of, 3:774–775 Orléans and Blois communities, 15:476 Ottoman empire, 15:529–531 Passover, association with, 3:775– 776, 778 Pezinok (Slovakia), 16:24 prohibitions on consuming blood, 3:772 Raphaël Levy, 12:754 refutations of, 3:776, 778, 779 Rohling, August, 3:764, 778 Rudolf I, 17:524 Russia, 3:778–780, 18:51 Polna, 3:779, 15:352 Velizh, 3:779, 14:483, 20:492– 493 Sandomierz (Poland), 18:17 Sochaczew, 18:703 Spain, 12:438 Der Stuermer, 19:275 Tirgu Neamt (Romania), 19:730– 731 Tiszaeszlar (Hungary), 3:778, 779, 4:246, 15:355, 19:735 Volhynia (Ukraine), 20:571 Volos (Greece), 20:574 See also Damascus Affair Blood on the Tracks (Dylan), 6:78 Blood revenge, 6:691 Blood Simple (motion picture), 4:782

The Bloody Countess. See La condesa sangrienta Bloom, Benjamin Samuel, 3:780 Bloom, Claire, 3:780–781 Bloom, Harold, 3:781 Bloom, Hyman, 3:781 Bloom, Robert, 1:577–578 Bloom, Sol, 3:782 Bloom, Solomon Frank, 3:782 Bloomberg, Abe, 16:349 Bloomberg, Michael R., 3:782, 15:224, 226, 238 Bloomberg LP, 3:782 Bloomfield, Leonard, 3:783 Bloomfield, Maurice, 3:783 Bloomfield, Meyer, 15:205 Bloomfield-Zeisler, Fanny, 3:783 Bloomgarden, Kermit, 3:783 Bloomgarden, Yehoash Solomon. See Yehoash Bloomingdale, Alfred S., 3:784 Bloomingdale, Benjamin, 15:203 Bloomingdale, Emanuel Watson, 3:784 Bloomingdale, Hiram C., 3:784 Bloomingdale, Joseph Bernhardt, 3:784, 15:203 Bloomingdale, Lyman Gustavus, 3:783–784, 15:203 Bloomingdale, Samuel Joseph, 3:784 Bloomingdale family, 3:783–784, 5:588 Bloomingdale’s Department Store, 3:784, 15:203, 226 The Bloudy Tenet of Persecution for Cause of Conscience Disgust (Williams), 9:227–228 Blowitz, Henri Georges Stephane Adolphe Opper de, 3:784 Bloy, Léon, 3:784 Blue Army. See Haller’s Army Bluestone, Joseph Isaac, 4:5–6 Die Bluete des Chaos (Mombert), 14:430 Bluhdorn, Charles G., 4:6 Blum, Amram ben Isaac Jacob, 4:6 Blum, Ben-Zion, 4:6 Blum, Eliezer, 4:6–7 Blum, Isaac Jacob, 4:6 Blum, Jerome, 4:7 Blum, Judah Z: evi, 4:6 Blum, Julius, 4:7 Blum, Léon, 4:7–8, 11:467, 16:343, 18:705 Blum, Ludwig, 4:8 Blum, Moses Nahum, 4:6 Blum, René, 4:8 Blum, Walter, 4:8–9 Blumberg, Baruch Samuel, 4:9, 13:9

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Blumberg, H: ayyim. See Harari, H: ayyim Blume, Peter, 4:9 Blumel, André, 4:9–10 Blumenberg, Leopold, 4:10 Blumenfeld, Aharon. See RomanRonetti, Moïse Blumenfeld, Dov Ber, 4:199 Blumenfeld, Emanuel, 4:10 Blumenfeld, Felix Mikhaylovich, 4:10 Blumenfeld, Hermann Fadeevich, 4:10–11, 12:554 Blumenfeld, Kurt Yehudah, 4:11 Blumenfeld, Ralph David, 4:11, 11:467 Blumenfeld, Walter, 4:11 Blumenfeld alleys, 4:11 Blumenfield, Samuel, 4:11 Blumenkranz, Bernhard, 4:11, 11:324 Blumenthal, Aaron H., 4:12 Blumenthal, Albert, 15:224 Blumenthal, David, 4:12 Blumenthal, George, 4:12 Blumenthal, I.D., 4:579 Blumenthal, Joseph (1834-1901), 4:12, 15:211 Blumenthal, Joseph (1897-1990), 4:12 Blumenthal, Nissan, 4:12–13 Blumenthal, Oskar, 4:13 Blumenthal, Werner Michael, 4:13 Blumenthal family, 15:303 Blumlein, Aaron. See Aaron of Neustadt Blutiker Shptas (Shalom Aleichem), 18:388 Bluwstein, Rahel. See Rah: el B’nai B’rith, 4:13–18 America, 2:43 American Jewish Archives, 2:53 American Jewish Conference, 2:56 Anti-Defamation League, 2:194, 195 Bien, Julius, 3:690 Bisgyer, Maurice, 3:725 B’nai B’rith Girls, 4:14 B’nai B’rith Hillel Foundation, 12:635 B’nai B’rith Women, 4:14, 17 B’nai B’rith Youth Organization (BBYO), 4:14–15 boycotts, anti-Nazi, 4:111 Canada, 14:466 Hillel, 9:111–112 Hillel Foundation, 9:725, 16:724 Independent Order of True Sisters, 4:220 Jewish settlement in America and, 2:43

New York City, 15:198 publishing, 16:724 San Diego, 18:13 Wexler, William Abe, 21:32 Bnei Akiva, 4:18–19, 492–493, 14:391, 15:87 Board of Delegates of American Israelites, 4:19–20 Board of Deputies of British Jews, 2:408, 4:20, 12:565 Anglo-Jewish Association, 2:162 Fisher, Samuel, Baron Fisher of Camden, 7:64 Boas, Abraham, 4:20 Boas, Abraham Tobias, 1:385, 4:21 Boas, A.T. See Boas, Abraham Tobias Boas, Franz, 2:185–186, 4:21–22, 13:236–237, 18:731 Boas, Frederick Samuel, 4:22 Boas, George, 4:22 Boas, Harold, 4:21 Boas, Henriette, 4:22 Boas, Hyman, 4:20 Boas, Isaac Herbert, 4:21 Boas, Simon, 4:20 Boas, Tobias, 4:20–21 Boas family, 4:20–21 Boaz, 1:416, 4:22–23 Boaz and Jachin (sanctuary pillars). See Jachin and Boaz (sanctuary pillars) Bobe-Mayse, 4:23 Bober, Robert, 4:23 Bobov, 4:23–24 Bobover H: asidim, 8:424, 15:230–231 Bobrovy Kut (Ukraine), 4:24, 11:735 Bobruisk (Belarus), 4:24–25 Bobtelsky, Mordekhai, 4:25 Boca Raton (FL), 15:605 Boccaccio, Giovanni, 4:25, 10:789 Bochnia (Poland), 4:25–26 Bochum (Germany), 4:26 Bock, Jerry, 4:26, 8:360 Bodansky, Meyer, 4:27 Bodansky, Oscar, 4:27 Bodanzky, Arthur, 4:27 Bodek, Jacob, 4:27 Bodenheim, Maxwell, 4:27 Bodenheimer, Frederick Simon, 4:27 Bodenheimer, Max Isidor, 4:27–28 Bodenschatz, Johann Christoph Georg, 4:28, 18:605 Bodenstein, Charlotte. See Schoene, Lotte Bodian, David, 4:28 Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex” (Butler), 4:317

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Bodin, Jean, 4:28–29, 9:227 Bodky, Erwin, 4:29 Bodleian Library, 4:29 Bodley, Sir Thomas, 4:29 Bodley, Thomas. See Bodley, Sir Thomas Bodmer, Johann Jacob, 15:289, 18:761 Bodmer, Sir Walter, 4:29–30 Bodmer, Walter. See Bodmer, Sir Walter Bodo, 4:30, 6:14 Bodrogkeresztúr (Hungary), 4:30 Body and soul, 4:30–31 Boehm, Adolf, 4:31 Boehm, Yohanan, 4:31–32 Boehmisch-Leipa (Czech Republic). See Ceska Lipa (Czech Republic) Boerne, Ludwig, 4:32 Boer War, 3:769 Boeschenstein, Johann, 4:32 Boesing (Slovakia). See Pezinok (Slovakia) Boesky, Ivan Frederick, 4:33 Boethus, ben Zonin. See Baitos Boethusians, 2:198, 4:33–34, 358 Boetticher, Paul Anton de. See Lagarde, Paul de Bogale, Yona, 3:505, 4:34 Bogart, Humphrey, 3:30 Bogaty, Jacob, 11:116 Bogdan, Corneliu, 4:34 Bogdanor, Vernon, 4:34 Bogdanovich, Peter, 4:34–35 Bogen, Alexander, 4:35 Bogen, Boris David, 2:59, 4:35, 728 Boger, H: ayyim, 4:35 Boghen, Felice, 4:36 Bogorad, Lawrence, 4:36 Bogoraz, Vladimir Germanovich, 4:36, 11:361 Bogrov, Dmitri, 4:36–37 Bogrov, Grigori Isaakovich, 4:37, 12:457 Boguslav (Ukraine), 4:37 Bohemia, 4:37–41, 38 Abrahamites, 1:312 conferences, 5:145–146 equality, 7:173 fur trade, 7:313 Holocaust Kosová Hora, 12:321 Holocaust Period, 5:358–359 Jewish population, 4:40t Landesjudenschaft, Boehmische, 12:469 laws controlling Jewish population, 6:689–690 367

INDEX

Bohemia, continued leather industry and trade, 12:575–576 peddling in, 15:709 scholars, 9:298 textiles, 19:663–664 See also Czechoslovakia Bohemia (newspaper), 11:704 Boh: em Z: addik (Perl), 15:774 Bohl, Samuel, 4:41 Bohm, David, 4:41–42 Böhm, Henrik, 4:42 Böhm, Tomas, 18:93 Bohnen, Eli Aaron, 4:42 Bohóc (Bródy), 4:201 Bohor, Jisrael. See Hajim, Jisrael Bohr, Niels Henrik David, 4:42 Bohybryszcze. See Pogrebishchenski Boingo (music group). See Oingo Boingo (music group) Bojan (Ukraine), 4:42–43 Bojanowo (Poland), 4:43 Bokanowski, Maurice, 4:43, 16:343 Boker Avraham (Cardozo), 4:464, 18:353 Boker shel Shotim (Ben-Ner), 3:368 Boker Yizrah: (Kamelhar), 11:751 Bokher, Elye. See Levita, Elijah Bokros-Birman, Dezsö, 4:43 Bokser, Baruch M., 4:43–44 Bokser, Ben Zion, 4:44 Bolaffi, Ezekiel. See Abulafia, Ezekiel David ben Mordecai Bolaffi, Giulio, 15:668 Bolaffi, Hezekiah David ben Mordecai. See Abulafia, Ezekiel David ben Mordecai Bolaffi, Michele, 4:44 Bolaffio, Leone, 4:44 Bolechów (Poland). See Bolekhov Bolechów (Ukraine). See Bolekhov (Ukraine) Bolekhov (Ukraine), 4:44–45 Boleslavski, Isaac, 4:46 Boleslav V, 4:45 Bolivia, 4:46–48 Bolm, Adolph Rudolphovich, 4:48 Bologna (Italy), 4:48–50 Bolotowsky, Ilya, 4:50 Bolshaya Seidemenukha. See Kalinindorf The Bolshevik Revolution, its Rise and Meaning (Litvinov), 13:141 Bolshevik theory, 5:92–94 Bolshevism in American Labor Unions (Dyche), 6:76 Bolten, Joshua B., 4:50 368

Bolten, Seymour, 4:50 Bolzano (Italy), 4:50–51 Bolzen (Italy). See Bolzano (Italy) Bombay (India), 3:335–338, 4:51–52 Bomberg, Daniel, 4:52, 8:514 Adelkind, Israel Cornelius, 1:386 early printed editions of Hebrew Bible, 3:587 Targum Yerushalmi II, 3:592 Bomberg, David, 4:52–53 The Bombing of Auschwitz: Should the Allies Have Attempted It?, 9:420 Bom Retiro (Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil), 18:31 Bomze, Nahum, 4:53 Bona (Algeria). See Bone (Algeria) Bonacosa, Jacob, 15:566 Bonafed, David ben Reuben, 4:53 Bonafed, Solomon ben Reuben, 4:53– 54 Bonafos, Menahem B. Abraham, 4:54– 55 Bonafoux, Daniel ben Israel, 4:55, 18:352–353 En Bonafoux del’Argentière. See Kaspi, Joseph ben Abba Mari ibn Bonaiuoto, Isaac Levi, 2:409 Bonald, Louis Gabriel Ambroise, Vicomte de, 4:55 Bonan, David, 4:55–56 Bonan, H: ayyim Mordecai, 4:55 Bonan, Isaac, 4:55 Bonan, MasEud, 4:55 Bonan family, 4:55–56 Bonaparte, Napoleon. See Napoleon Bonaparte Bonastruc, Isaac, 4:56, 6:58 Bonaventura, Arnaldo, 4:56 Bonaventura, Enzo Joseph, 4:56 Bonavoglia, Moses de’ Medici, 4:56 Bonciu, H., 4:56 Bondavin, Bonjudas, 4:56–57 Bondi, Abraham ben Yom Tov, 4:57 Bondi, Aron, 4:57 Bondi, August, 3:734, 4:57 Bondi, Elijah ben Selig, 4:57 Bondi, Hermann. See Bondi, Sir Hermann Bondi, Isaac, 15:199 Bondi, Jonas, 4:58 Bondi, Nehemiah Feivel, 4:57 Bondi, Simeon ben Isaac, 4:57 Bondi, Sir Hermann, 4:57–58 Bondi, Yom Tov ben Abraham, 4:57 Bondi family, 4:57 Bonds of indebtedness, 5:154–155

sale of, 2:604 State of Israel, 4:58–59, 59 Bondy, Bohumil, 4:59–60 Bondy, Curt, 4:60, 6:160 Bondy, Filip, 4:60, 129 Bondy, Gertrud, 4:60 Bondy, Gottlieb. See Bondy, Bohumil Bondy, Jonah, 4:57 Bondy, Max, 4:60 Bondy, Ruth, 4:60–61 Bondy, Samuel, 4:57 Bondy family. See Bondi family Bone (Algeria), 4:61 Bone, Sir Muirhead, 4:52 Bone-reaping hook (10th millenium B.C.E.), vol. 10: color insert Bonet, Jacob, 4:63 Bonfil, Robert, 4:61–62 Bonfils, Immanuel ben Jacob, 4:62, 13:674 Bonfils, Joseph ben Eliezer, 4:62 Bonfils, Joseph ben Samuel, 2:175, 4:62, 8:488, 14:438 Bonfrère, Jacques, 4:62–63 Boniface IX, 4:63, 16:374 Boniface popes, 4:63 Boniface VIII, 4:63, 16:373 Bonjorn, Bonet Davi, 4:63 Bonjorn, David Bonet. See Bonjorn, Bonet Davi Bonjusas. See Bondavin, Bonjudas Bonn (Germany), 4:63–64 Bonn, Hanusˇ, 4:64 Bonn, Moritz Julius, 4:64–65 Bonn, Moses, 2:24 Bonné, Alfred Abraham, 4:65 Bonner, Elena Georgievna, 4:65 Bono, David, 4:77 Bonsenyor, Astruc ben Judah, 4:65 Bonsenyor, Judah, 4:65 Bonte family. See Bondi family Bonyhád (Hungary), 4:66 The Boof of Morality. See Sefer haMusar (Kaspi) The Book and the Sword: A Life of Learning in the Shadow of Destruction (Halivni), 8:275 Bookbinder, Hyman H., 4:66–67 Bookbinding, 2:496, 4:73–75 Book of Adam and Eve. See Book of the Life of Adam and Eve The Book of Argument and Proofs in Defense of the Despised Faith (Halevi). See Kita¯b al-H: ujja wa al-Dal¯ıl fi Nas: r al-Dhal¯ı (Halevi) The Book of Blessings: New Jewish Prayers for Daily Life, the Sabbath, and the New Moon Festival (Falk), 13:138

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Book of Brightness. See Sefer ha-Bahir The Book of Daniel (Doctorow), 5:728 The Book of Degrees (Falaquera). See Sefer ha-Ma’alot Book of Delights. See Sefer Sha’ashu’im Book of Doctrines and Beliefs (Gaon), 11:730 Book of Enoch, 14:132–133 Book of Festivals (Lewisnsky), 6:74 The Book of God: A Response to the Bible (Josipovici), 6:439 Book of Intercalculation. See Sefer haIbbur Book of Jashar (aggadic work). See Sefer ha-Yashar Book of Jashar (poetic source book), 4:69 The Book of Jokes and Witticisms (Druyanow), 6:29 Book of Jubilees. See Jubilees, Book of Book of Life, 4:69–70 Book of Lights and Watch Towers (al-Kirkisa˘n˘ı), 6:230 Book of Magical Secrets. See Sefer haRazim “The Book of Minute Research.” See Kita¯b al-Tashw¯ır (Ibn Jana¯ah: , Jonah) Book of Miracles..., An Historical Account of the Ten Tribes Settled Beyond the River Sambatyon in the East (Edrehi) Book of Miracles... (Edrehi). See An Historical Account of the Ten Tribes Settled Beyond the River Sambatyon in the East (Edrehi) Book of Nahum, 14:758 Book of Opinions and Beliefs (Saadiah Gaon), 16:78–79 Book of Prayers (Calisch), 4:364 Book of Precepts. See Sefer ha-Mitzvot Book of Principles. See Sefer ha-Ikkarim Book of Principles (Albo). See Sefer haIkkarim (Albo) Book of Raziel. See Raziel, Book of The Book of Redemption. See Sefer haMaasiyyot Book of Remembrance (Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn), 6:460 The Book of Riddles (Gikatilla). See Sefer ha-Meshalim “Book of Righteousness, The”. See Sefer ha-Yashar Book of Roots. See Sefer ha-Shorashim The Book of Routes (Ibn Khurdadhbah), 6:106 The Book of Ruth and Esther (Pissarro), 16:187 Book of Secrets. See Sefer ha-Razim

Book of Songs. See Kita¯ab al-Agha¯n¯ı Book of Stories. See Mayse-Bukh Book of Stories (Nissim). See Sefer haMaasiyyot “Book of the Commandments.” See Sefer ha-Mitzvot Book of the Cook. See Kita¯b al-Tabba¯kh Book of the Covenant, 4:67–69, 6:616–617 “Book of the Dead” (Egyptian), 6:534– 535 Book of the Druggist. See Kita¯b al-Tabba¯kh Book of the Five Substances (treatise), 6:397 The Book of the Great Secret. See Raza Rabba; Sefer Raza Rabba “Book of the Laws of the Torah, The.” See Sefer H: ukkei ha-Torah Book of the Life of Adam and Eve, 1:377–378, 15:394 Book of the Living. See Book of Life Book of the Microcosm. See Sefer haOlam ha-Katan Book of the Paths of Peace (Mendelssohn). See Sefer Netivot haShalom (Mendelssohn) The Book of the Sacred Magic of AbraMelin, 11:667 Book of the Secret. See Sefer ha-Sod (Kaspi) Book of the Secrets of Enoch. See Enoch, Slavonic Book of The Book of the Seeker (Falaquera). See Sefer ha-Mevakesh The Book of the Soul (Falaquera). See Sefer ha-Nefesh Book of the Stones of Joshua. See Avnei Yehoshu’a Book of the Wars of the Lord, 4:70 Book of the Wars of the Lord (Reuben). See Sefer Milhamot Adonai (Reuben) Book of Travels. See Sefer ha-Massa’ot Book of Treasure (Emra¯ni), 6:398 Book of Victory (Emra¯ni), 6:398 Book of Wisdom (Eleazar ben Judah of Worms), 6:304 Book of Zerubbabel, 21:517–518 Bookplates, 4:70–71 Books, 4:71–76 art in, 2:497–498 in Bibliothèque Nationale, 3:685 burning, 9:328 chapbooks, 4:568 collectors of, 3:683–685 illuminated Mah: zor, 13:363–365 Warsaw ghetto, 9:472

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

See also Illuminated manuscripts; Printing; Publishing Books and Fates. See Knihy a osudy Books of the Bible. See specific books by name. Books of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah and Israel, 4:76–77, 9:154 Book trade, 4:77–78 Brentano family, 4:162–163 Horodisch, Abraham, 9:527–528 Rosenbach, Abraham Simon Wolf, 17:431–432 Boone, Richard, 4:78–79 Boorstin, Daniel J., 4:79 Boorstin, H: annah: Coh: n, 15:572 Booz. See Jachin and Boaz (sanctuary pillars) Bopp, F., 4:155 Boppard (Germany), 4:79 Bor, Josef, 4:79 Borah, Woodrow Wilson, 4:80 Boraisha, Menahem, 4:80 Borchardt, Georg. See Hermann, Georg Borchardt, Lucy, 4:80 Borchardt, Ludwig, 2:371, 4:80–81 Borchardt, Rudolf, 4:81 Borchsenius, Poul, 4:81 Bordeaux (France), 4:81–83 “Bordeaux Itinerary.” See Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum The Border (Feinstein), 6:440, 741 Borders, decorative, in books, 4:75 Border Street (Ford), 9:440 Bordjel, Abraham, 4:83 Bordjel, Elijah H: ai I, 4:84 Bordjel, Elijah H: ai II, 4:84 Bordjel, Nathan I, 4:83 Bordjel, Nathan II, 4:84 Bordjel family, 4:83–84 Borenstein, Sam, 4:84 Borge, Victor, 4:84–85 Borgenicht, Louis, 15:205 Borghi, Lamberto, 4:85, 6:161 Borgil, Abraham ben Aziz, 4:85, 270 Borinstein, Louis J., 4:85 Boris, Ruthanna, 4:85 Borislav (Ukraine), 4:85–86 Borisov (Belarus), 4:86 Borisov, Andrey Yakovlevich, 4:86 Borisovich, Rudolf. See Barshai, Rudolf Bormann, Martin, 4:87 Born, Max, 4:87, 15:193 Bornfriend, Jacob, 4:87 Bornstein, Eli, 4:87–88 369

INDEX

Bornstein, H: ayyim Jehiel, 4:88 Borochov, Ber, 4:88–90, 18:717 Borodavka, Isaac, 4:91 Borodin, Michael Markovitsch, 4:91 Borofsky, Jonathan, 4:91 Boro Park (NYC), 15:203, 213, 217, 223, 231–232 Borovoy, A. Alan, 4:91–92 Borovoy, Saul, 4:92 Borovsky, Alexander, 4:92 Borowitz, Abram Solman. See Burrows, Abe Borowitz, Eugene B., 4:92–94 Borowitz, Sidney, 4:94 Borowski, Tadeusz, 9:412 Borromeo, Carlo, 4:94 Bors¸a (Romania). See Borsa (Romania) Borsa (Romania), 4:94 Borscht Belt (NY), 15:221, 241 Borsippa (Bablyonia), 4:94 Borsook, Henry, 4:95 Boryslaw (Ukraine). See Borislav; Borislav (Ukraine) Bosak, Meir, 4:95 Boschwitz, Rudolph Eli, 4:95 Bosco, Monique, 4:95–96, 425 Boscovitch, Alexander Uriyah, 4:96 Bosem. See Balsam Boshal, Moses ben Solomon, 4:96 Bosham, Herbert de, 4:96, 8:512 Boskoff, Alvin, 4:97, 18:732 Boskovice (Czech Republic), 4:97 Boskowitz (Czech Republic). See Boskovice (Czech Republic) Boskowitz, Benjamin Ze’ev ha-Levi, 4:98 Boskowitz, H: ayyim ben Jacob, 4:98 Bosna-Serai (Bosnia-Herzegovina). See Sarajevo (Bosnia-Herzegovina) Bosnia. See Bosnia-Herzegovina Bosnia-Herzegovina, Travnik, 20:122 Bosniak, Jacob, 4:98 Bosnian War (1992-1994), Jewish refugees, 18:49 Bosor. See Boz: rah (Trachonitis) Bosphorus, kingdom of. See Kingdom of Bosphorus Bossuet, Jacques Benigne, 4:99 Bostal, Moses. See Boshal, Moses ben Solomon Boston (MA), 4:99–101, 13:664 h: asidism, 9:541 Horowitz, Pinchas David haLevi, 9:541 New England Holocaust Memorial, vol. 9: color insert 370

Boswell: a Modern Comedy (Elkin), 6:359 Botanical medicine. See Medicine Botany Acosta, Christobal, 1:358–359 Austria Fahn, Abraham, 6:676 Wiesner, Julius von, 21:55–56 Belgium Errera, Léo, 6:483 Duvdevani, Shmuel, 6:73 dye plants, 6:77 Eig, Alexander, 6:253 Germany Ascherson, Paul Friedrich August, 2:552 Askenasy, Eugen, 2:588 Magnus, Paul Wilhelm, 13:357 Sachs, Julius, 17:635 Strasburger, Eduard, 13:7, 19:245–246 Warburg, Otto, 20:632–633 Halevi, Abraham H., 8:269 Ha-Reubeni, Ephraim, 8:353 India Ezekiel, Moses, 6:648 Israel, 6:676, 739 Duvdevani, Shmuel, 6:73 Evenari, Michael, 6:573–574 Feinbrun-Dothan, Naomi, 6:739 Halevy, Abraham H., 8:269 Ha-Reubeni, Ephraim, 8:353 Rayss, Tscharna, 17:128 Reichert, Israel, 17:199–200 Zohary, Michael, 21:664 mixed species, 14:385–387 Oppenheimer, Hillel, 15:448 Reichert, Israel, 17:199–200 Russia Eig, Alexander, 6:253 See also specific plants Botarel, Moses ben Isaac, 4:101, 11:613 Boteach, Shmuel, 4:101 Botein, Bernard, 4:101–102 Both Sides Now (Slonim), 18:678 Boton, Abraham ben Judah di, 4:102 Boton, Abraham ben Moses de, 4:102 Boton, H: iyya Abraham ben Aaron di, 4:102 Boton, Jacob ben Abraham di, 4:102– 103 Boton, Meir ben Abraham di, 4:103 Botosani (Romania), 4:103

Botoshansky, Jacob, 4:103–104 Botstein, Leon, 4:104 Botswana, 6:371 See also South Africa Botticelli, Sandro, 14:542 Botvinnik, Mikhail, 4:104, 207 Bouchara, Abraham, 4:104 Bouchara, Isaac, 4:104 Bouchara, Jacob Raphael, 4:104 Bouchara family, 4:104–105 Boudin, Jean-François, 4:105 Boudreau, Lou, 4:105 Bougie (Algeria), 4:105 Bou-Hallais, 15:391 Boulay (France), 4:105 Boule, 4:105–106 Les boulevards de ceinture (Modiano). See Circle Line Boulevards (Modiano) Boundaries, 1:474–476 Boundary stones, moving, 8:448–450, 12:473 Bourassa, Henri, 4:397 Bourel, Dominique, 11:325 Bourg-en-Bresse (France), 4:106 Bourgeois, Jean, 4:106 Bourges (France), 4:106 Bourke-White, Margaret, 4:106–107 Bourla, Yehuda. See Burla, Yehuda Boussidan, Ya’akov, 4:372–373 Bouwmeester, Louis Frederik Johannes, 4:107 Bouzaglo, David, 4:107 Bove-Bukh (Levita), 4:107–108, 15:651 Bovo D’Antona, 4:23 Bovshover, Joseph, 4:108, 18:370 Bowling (tenpin), 17:483–484, 19:138 Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI), 3:711 Box (flora), 4:108 Boxer, Barbara, 4:108 Boxer, Oswald, 4:145 Boxing, 3:52–53, 19:138–139 Baer, Max, 3:52 Berg, Jackie “Kid,” 3:415–416 Bimstein, Morris “Whitey,” 3:702 Brenner, Teddy, 4:162 Davis, Al “Bummy,” 5:479 Fields, Jackie, 7:17–18 Fleischer, Nathaniel Stanley, 7:74 Hollandersky, Abraham, 9:322 Leonard, Benny, 12:647 Levinsky, Battling, 12:720 Lewis, Ted, 12:767 Luftspring, Sammy, 13:253 Mendoza, Daniel, 14:45 Newark (NJ), 6:512

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Razon, Jacko, 17:130–131 Rosenbloom, Max Everitt “Slapsie Maxie,” 17:442 Ross, Barney, 17:468–469 Solomons, Jack, 18:773 Boyar, Louis H., 4:108–109 Boyarin, Daniel, 1:461, 4:109, 15:358 Boyarin, Mordkhe. See Litvine, M. Boycotts anti-Jewish, 4:109–110, 9:328, 461 anti-Nazi, 4:110–111, 111t Arab, 4:111–113 movements, Bohemia, 4:41 See also antisemitic political parties and organizations Boycott Sabbath, 5:61 Der Boym fun Lebn (Rosenfarb), 4:427 The Boys of Summer (Kahn), 11:724 Boystk (Latvia). See Bauska (Latvia) Bozecco, Benjamin ben Judah, 4:113– 114 Bozrah (Israel), 4:115, 6:152, 8:260 Boz: rah (Bashan), 4:114, 114–115 Boz: rah (Edom), 4:115 Boz: rah (Trachonitis), 4:115 Bozyk, Max, 4:115 Bozyk, Rose, 4:115 Bozzolo (Italy), 4:116 Braak, Menno ter, 6:69 Braatbard, Avraham Haim, 2:38 Brabanel family. See Abrabanel family Brach, Saul, 4:116 Brack, Viktor, 4:387 Bradford (England), 4:116 Bradlow, Henry, 3:769 Brafman, Jacob, 4:116–117 Bragadini, Alvise, 4:117, 15:641 Bragadini, Giovanni, 4:117 Bragadini family, 4:117 Braganza (Portugal), 4:117 Bragin, Abraham on Birobidzhan, 3:718 Braham, John, 4:117 Braham, Randolph Louis, 4:118 Brahinsky, Mani Leib. See Mani Leib Brahm, Otto, 4:118 Braˇila (Romania). See Braila (Romania) Braila (Romania), 4:118 Braille, 3:754 Brailov (Ukraine), 4:118–119 Brailowsky, Alexander, 4:119 “The Brain.” See Rothstein, Arnold “Brain, The”. See Rothstein, Arnold Brainin, Joseph, 4:119 Brainin, Reuben, 4:119, 8:726

Brampton, Edward. See Brampton, Sir Edward Brampton, Sir Edward, 4:120 Bramson, Leon, 4:120 Bramson, Leon (Leonty), 16:348 Branche francaise de la Jewish Trust Corporation for Germany, 11:327 Branco, Joa˜o Rodrigues de Castelo. See Amatus Lusitanus Brand, Joel, 9:122 Brand, Joel Jenö, 4:120–121 Branda˜o, Edward. See Brampton, Sir Edward Branda˜o, Ambrósio Fernandes, 4:121, 143 Brandeau, Esther, 4:121 Brandeis, Adolph, 4:121 Brandeis, Frederika, 4:121, 122 Brandeis, Jonas L., 15:415 Brandeis, Louis Dembitz, 4:121–124, 20:328, 21:606 American Jewish Congress, 2:57 Breslau, Isadore, 4:166 Frankfuter, Felix, 7:205 on Jewish Legion, 11:305 labor movement and, 15:205 U.S. Supreme Court, 12:556 Brandeis, Pavel, 5:646 Brandeis an der Elbe (Czech Republic). See Brandys nad Labem (Czech Republic) Brandeis-Bardin Institute, 4:124 Brandeis Camp Institute, 3:148–149 Brandeis University, 4:124–125 American Jewish Historical Society, 2:58 Fox, Marvin, 7:141 Jewish studies at, 11:317, 319 Levine, Baruch, 12:717 Shapero, Harold, 18:397 Brandenburg (Germany), 4:125–126 Brandes, Carl Edvard, 4:126 Brandes, Georg, 4:126–127, 7:38 Brandes, Ludwig Israel, 4:127 Brandes, Reuben Asher, 8:691 Brandon, David H: enry, 15:610 Brandon, Edward. See Brampton, Sir Edward Brandon, Jacques-Emile-Edouard, 2:505 Brandon, Oheb Isaac, 4:127 Brandstaedter, Mordecai David, 4:127 Brandstaetter, Roman, 4:127–128 Brandt, Boris, 4:128 Brandt, Willy, 3:757, 4:128 Brandwein, Yehuda Z: evi, 4:128–129 Brandys, Kazimierz, 4:129

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Brandys nad Labem (Czech Republic), 4:129 Brann, Marcus, 4:129, 14:433 Brant, Henry Dreyfuss, 4:129–130 Brant Shpigl (Altschul), 2:26 Brasch, Rudolph, 4:130 Brash, Henry, 7:87 Brasil, País do futuro (Zweig), 17:338 Braslav (Belarus), 4:130–131 Braslav H: asidim, 8:425 Braslavi, Joseph, 4:131 Braslavski, Joseph. See Braslavi, Joseph Braslaw (Belarus). See Braslav (Belarus) Bras¸ov (Romania), 4:131 Brassavola, 2:34 Brassó (Romania). See Bras¸ov (Romania) Bratcher, Robert G., 3:619 Bratislava (Slovakia), 4:131–134, 132t, 18:682, 684 Bratslav (Ukraine), 4:134 Braude, Ernest Alexander, 4:134 Braude, Jacob, 4:135 Braude, Markus, 4:135 Braude, Max A., 4:135 Braude, Mordecau ZeEev. See Braude, Markus Braude, Mordekhai Ze’ev. See Braude, Markus Braude, William Gordon, 4:135–136 Braudes, Reuben Asher, 4:136 Braudo, Alexander Isayevich, 4:137 Braudo, Yevgeni Maximovich, 4:137 Braun, Abraham, 4:137 Braun, Adolf, 4:137 Braun, Arie, 4:137 Braun, Felix, 4:137–138 Braun, Gyozo. See Barna, Victor Braun, Heinrich, 4:137 Braun, Lily, 4:137 Braun, Mieczyslaw, 4:138 Braun, Sergei. See Braun, Abraham Braun, Yehezkiel, 4:138 Brauner, Harry, 4:138–139 Brauner, Isaac, 4:139 Brauner, Victor, 4:139, 15:648 Brauner, Wincenty. See Brauner, Isaac Braunschweig (Germany). See Brunswick (Germany) Braunstein, Menahem Mendel, 4:139– 140 Braunstein, Mieczyslaw. See Braun, Mieczyslaw Braunthal, Julius, 4:140, 16:341, 18:705 Braverman, Avishay, 4:140 371

INDEX

Braverman, Nahum, 13:202 Brawer, Abraham Jacob, 4:140 Brawer, Moshe, 4:140–141 Bray-sur-Seine (France), 4:141 Braz, Osip, 4:141 Brazda, 7:25 Brazer, Abram, 4:141–142 Brazil, 4:142–154 Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac, 1:269 agricultural settlements in, 4:145– 146 agriculture, Jewish, 1:501 Alvares Correa family, 2:27 antisemitism, 4:148–150, 151, 16:407, 18:31–32, 33 anti-Zionist movement, 4:151 architecture, 2:400, 12:657–658, 692 Bahia new Christians, 3:60–61 Branda˜o, Ambrósio Fernandes, 4:121, 143 cemeteries, 18:31 Colonial period, 4:142–143 communism, 4:149 community leaders, 6:735 community life and social organization in, 4:146–148 Crypto-Jews in, 4:143 as Dutch colony, 4:144 education, 4:148, 152, 18:32, 33 education, Jewish, 6:212 hospitals, 18:31 immigration to, 11:287 independence, 4:144–145 Inquisition, 4:142, 143, 9:796–797 interfaith relations, 4:151–152 Jewish organizations, 18:31, 33–34 Jewish settlement in, 2:41, 46, 4:469, 470–471 journalism, 11:469–470, 12:514, 16:496 Levi-Strauss, Claude, 12:730 literature, 4:152 Dines, Alberto, 5:670–671 Rawet, Samuek, 17:124 Scliar, Moacyr, 18:207 migrations, 18:30, 31, 32 modern period, 4:145–150, 12:436 New Christians, 4:142–144 Noronha, Ferna˜o de, 15:301 political participation of Jews in, 4:148, 150–151, 153 politics, 16:350 population statistics, Jewish, 4:142, 146t, 153, 154 as Portuguese colony, 4:142–144 372

Portuguese translations of Bible, 3:633 post-WW II, 4:150–151 relations with Israel (state), 4:153–154 Sephardim, 18:31 settlements, 4:142 synagogues, 18:33 terrorism in, 4:153 twenty-first century, 4:152–153 Tzvi Migdal traffic network, 4:147–148 universities, 18:33 urban immigration, 4:146 Vargas regime, 4:148–150 Zionism, 18:32, 21:593–594 Zionist movement, 4:148, 150–151 Bread, 1:434, 4:154–155, 7:115, 8:277– 278 H: allah, 7:118 Lodz ghetto, 9:470 shewbread or showbread, 18:473– 474 See also Manna; Shewbread or showbread Bread and Salt (Bursztyn). See Broyt mit Zalts Bread of affliction. See Matzah Break Glass in Case of Fire. See Rómpase en case de incendio Breaking New Ground (Levi), 12:693 Breaking Point (Presser), 9:409 Breaking Ranks (Podhoretz), 16:251 The Breaks of the Game (Halberstam), 8:265 Bréal, Michel, 4:155–156 Breastplates, 4:156, 16:512, 20:52 Brecher, Gideon, 4:156 Brecher, Gustav, 4:156 Brecker, Michael, 4:156 Brecker, Randy, 4:156 Brecker Brothers, 4:156 Breclav (Czech Republic), 4:156–157 Bredig, George, 4:157 Bregstein, Marcel Henri, 4:157 Bregstein, Philo, 4:157 Breidenbach, Julius, 4:157 Breidenbach, Moritz, 4:157 Breidenbach, Wolf, 4:157, 15:386 Breisach (Germany), 4:157 Breitel, Charles, 4:157–158 Breithaupt, Johann Friedrich, 4:158 Breitner, Hugo, 4:158, 16:341, 18:705 Breman Museum, 2:638 Bremen (Germany), 4:158 Brenendike Likht. See Burning Lights

Brener, Pynchas, 4:158 Brenner, Frédéric, 4:158–159 Brenner, Joseph H: ayyim, 4:159–161, 8:301, 696, 728, 13:254 Brenner, Rose, 4:161 Brenner, Sydney, 4:161–162, 13:9 Brenner, Teddy, 4:162 Brenner, Uri, 15:604 Brenner, Victor, 4:162 Brentano, Arthur, 4:162–163 Brentano, August, 4:162 Brentano, Lowell, 4:163 Brentano, Simon, 4:162, 163 Brentano family, 4:162–163 Bresch, Judah Loeb ben Moses Naphtali, 4:163 Bresch, Leo, 3:610 Brescia (Italy), 4:163 Breshis-Inmitn (Lutzky), 13:275 Breslasu, Marcel, 4:163–164 Breslau (Poland), 4:164–165, 7:200– 201, 18:578–580 Breslau, Aryeh Loeb ben H: ayyim, 4:165–166 Breslau, Isadore, 2:47, 4:166 Breslau, Joseph Moses ben David, 4:166 Breslaw, Joseph, 4:166–167 Bresliska, Marcel. See Breslasu, Marcel Bresnitz-Lokschan (Czech Republic). See Breznice; Breznice (Czech Republic) Bresse (France), 4:167 Bresselau, Meyer Israel, 4:167 Bresslau, Ernst, 4:167 Bresslau, Harry, 4:167–168 Bresslau, Helena, 4:167 Bressler, David Maurice, 4:168 Brest Kuyavsk (Poland). See Brzesc Kujawski (Poland) Brest-Litovsk (Lithuania), 4:168–170, 18:775 Bretagne (France). See Brittany (France) Bretholz, Berthold, 4:170 Brethren of Sincerity, Epistles of. See Epistles of Brethren of Sincerity Breton, André, 4:139 Breton language, biblical translations into, 3:637 Breuer, Isaac, 4:171 Breuer, Joseph (1842-1925), 4:171 Breuer, Joseph (1882-1980), 4:171– 172, 18:180 Breuer, Marcel, 4:172 Breuer, Mordechai, 4:172–173 Breuer, Raphael, 4:173

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Breuer, Solomon, 4:173 Breuerer family, 4:79 Bréval, Lucienne, 4:174 Bréviaire de la haine (Poliakov), 9:415–421 Breyer, Julius, 4:174 Breyer, Stephen Gerald, 4:174–175, 12:556–557 Breyter, Isaac, 16:349 Brezin (Poland). See Brzeziny (Poland) Brezinka (Poland). See Birkenau concentration camp Breznice (Czech Republic), 4:175 Brˇeznice (Czech Republic). See Breznice; Breznice (Czech Republic) Briar, vol. 16: color insert Briar Rose (Yolen), 18:200 Bribery, 4:175–177 Brice, Fanny, 4:177 Briceni (Moldova). See Brichany (Moldova) Briceva (Ukraine), 4:177–178 Brichany (Moldova), 4:178 Brick, Daniel, 4:178 Brickner, Balfour, 4:178–179 Brickner, Barnett Robert, 4:179 Bridal Canopy. See Hakhasat Kallah Bridegrooms of the Law, 4:179–180 Bridge (card game). See Cards and cardplaying Bridgeport (CT), 4:180 Brie, Luis Hartwig, 4:181 Brief aan mijn moeder (Meijer). See Letter to My Mother (Meijer) The Brief Travels of Benjamin the Third, Kitser Masoes Binyomen Hashlishi Brieg (Poland). See Brzeg (Poland) Briel, Judah ben Eliezer, 4:181 Brietel, Charles, 2:18 Brifnshteler, 6:187 The Brigade. See Piz: ei Bagrut The Brigegroom Cometh (Frank), 7:195 Bright, John, 3:651 Bright, Myron, 15:304 Brighton (England), 4:181 Brighton Beach (NYC), 15:230, 231 Brik, Osip Maksimovich, 4:181 Brill, Abraham Arden, 4:181–182 Brill, Azriel, 4:182 Brill, Isaac Lipa, 4:182 Brill, Jehiel, 4:182–183, 8:267 Brill, Joel, 8:724 Brill, Joseph, 4:183, 15:662 Brill, Samuel Loew, 4:182 Brill Building songwriters, 18:234

Brilling, Bernhard, 4:183 Brin, Sergey, 4:183–184 Brindisi (Italy), 4:184 Bringing It Back Home (Dylan), 6:78 Brinig, Myron, 4:184 Brinker, Menachem, 4:184–185 Brisac. See Ensheim, Moses Brisbane (Australia), 4:185 Briscoe, Benjamin, 16:343 Briscoe, Robert, 4:185, 6:33, 16:343 Brisk (Lithuania). See Brest-Litovsk; Brest-Litovsk (Lithuania) Brisk de Koyavi (Poland). See Brzesc Kujawski (Poland) Brisker, R’ H: ayyim. See Soloveichik, H: ayyim Brisker, Yehudah. See Haezrah: i, Yehuda Bristol (England), 4:185–186 Briszk, Mordecai ben Joshua, 4:186 Briszk, Nathan Z: evi ben Joshua, 4:186 Briszk family, 4:186 Britain. See United Kingdom Brith Abraham, 4:186 British Art, 5:429 British Columbia (Canada), 4:186–188 British Commonwealth. See United Kingdom British Guiana. See Guiana British Israelite movement, 4:211 British Israelites, 3:670, 4:188 British Israel World Federation, 4:188 British literature Daniel in, 5:418 Davidson, Lionel, 5:476 Jacobson, Howard, 11:53–54 Leavis, Queenie Dorothy, 12:577 Leveen, Jacob, 12:678 Leverson, Ada, 12:680–681 Levertov, Denise, 12:681–682 Raphael, Chaim, 17:94 Raphael, Frederic, 17:94 Rubens, Bernice, 17:510 Sassoon, Siegfried Lorraine, 18:71 Shaffer, Peter, 18:361 twentieth century, 6:716 See also English literature British Museum Miscellany, 3:678 Samaritan amulets, 2:123 British West Indies, 4:473–474 Brit Ivrit Olamit, 4:188–189 Brittan, Leon, Baron, 4:189 Brittan, Sir Samuel, 4:189 Brittany (France), 2:175, 4:189, 7:150 Briviesca (Spain), 4:189–190

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Briyo ve-Zimro (fiction), 4:190 Brno (Czech Republic), 4:190–191 Broad, Eli, 4:191 Broad, Max, 18:377 Broad bean blossoms, vol. 16: color insert Broad Foundation, 4:191 Broadway Heartbeat (Sobel), 18:699 Broadway theater (New York City, NY), 15:220, 227–228 Burrows, Abe, 4:299 Fields, Dorothy, 7:17 Kanin, Garson, 11:763 Lahr, Bert, 12:439–440 Landesman, Rocco, 12:470 Broch, Hermann, 4:191–192 Brociner, Andrei, 4:192 Brociner, Joseph, 4:192 Brociner, Marco, 4:192 Brociner, Mauriciu, 4:192 Brod, Dovidl, 4:192 Brod, Max, 4:192–193, 11:705, 12:480 Broda, Aaron, 4:193 Broda, Abraham, 4:166 Broda, Abraham ben Saul, 4:194 Broda, Benjamin, 4:193 Broda, Dov Ber, 4:193 Broda, H: ayyim, 4:193 Broda, Joseph, 4:193 Broda, Moses, 4:194 Broda family, 4:193–194 Brodavka, Isaac. See Borodavka, Isaac Broder, Berl, 4:194 Broder, David Salzer, 4:194–195 Broderick, Matthew, 4:195, 15:652 Broder Singers, 4:194, 195, 19:678 Brodersohn, Mario, 16:350 Broderzon, Moyshe, 4:195–196 Broderzon, Sheyne Miriam, 4:195–196 Brodetsky, Selig, 4:196 Brodie, Israel. See Brodie, Sir Israel Brodie, Sir Israel, 4:196, 6:419, 11:332 Brodski, Abraham, 4:197 Brodski, Arieh Leibush, 4:197 Brodski, Eliezer, 4:197 Brodski, Israel, 4:197 Brodski, Meir, 4:196–197 Brodski, Samuel, 4:197 Brodski, Yosif. See Brodsky, Joseph Brodski family, 4:196–197 Brodskii, Isaak, 4:197 Brodsky, Adolf, 4:197–198 Brodsky, Joseph, 4:198 Brodsky, Stanley L., 4:198 Brodsky Quartet, 4:197 373

INDEX

Brody (Ukraine), 4:198–200 Brody, Adrien, 16:210 Brody, Alter, 4:200 Brody, H: ayyim. See Brody, Heinrich Brody, Heinrich, 4:200 Brody, Heinrich (H: ayyim), 6:302 Brody, Jane E., 4:200–201 Bródy, László, 4:201 Bródy, Lili, 4:201 Brody, R., 2:47 Bródy, Sándor, 4:201 Brody, Solomon Zalman ben Israel, 4:201 Brody, Tal, 4:202 Bródy, Zsigmond, 4:202 Broglie, Victor-Claude, Prince de, 4:202 Broida, Simh: ah Zissel ben Israel, 4:202, 13:190–191 Broides, Abraham, 4:202–203 Broido, Ephraim, 4:203 Broido, Louis, 4:203 Broido, Lucy Kaufmann, 4:203 The Broken Branch (Vamos), 16:148– 149 Broken Millstones. See Reh: ayim Shevurim Brokerage, 1:451 Brokers (economics), 4:203–204 Bromberg (Poland). See Bydgoszcz (Poland) Bromet, H.L., 16:345 Broner, Esther M., 4:204, 15:682 Bronfenbrenner, Martin, 4:204–205 Bronfman, Aileen Mindel, 4:205–206 Bronfman, Charles Rosner, 4:206 Bronfman, Edgar Miles, 4:206 Bronfman, Sam, 4:205, 346, 407, 408, 422, 423, 14:464 Bronfman, Yefim, 4:206–207 Bronfman family, 4:205–206 Bronice forest (Ukraine), 6:23–24 Bronowski, Jacob, 4:207 Bronstein, David, 4:207 Bronstein, Herbert, 4:207–208 Bronstein, Lev. See Trotsky, Lev Davidovich Bronze Age Arad, 2:329–330 archaeology, 2:384–387, 12:420– 421 architecture, 2:399 Finkelstein, Israel, 7:33–34 Brook, Barry Shelley, 4:208 Brook, Peter Stephen Paul, 4:208 Brookner, Anita, 4:208–209, 6:439 374

Brooks, Albert, 4:209 Brooks, James L., 4:209 Brooks, Mel, 4:209–210, 15:228 Brooks, Richard, 4:210 Broom (flora), 4:210 Brooten, Bernadette, 4:125 Bross, Jacob, 4:211 Brother Daniel case, 11:298 The Brotherhood. See Aguddat Ah: im Brothers ona’ah and, 15:425 Brothers. See Ah: im Brothers, Joyce, 4:211 Brothers, Richard, 4:188, 211 The Brothers Ashkenazi (Singer), 18:637 Brothers’ role, 6:692, 693 Brotzlewsky, Haim. See Bar-Lev, Haim Broudy, Harry Samuel, 4:211–212 Broughton, Hugh, 4:212 Broun, Kenneth, 6:62 Broward County (FL), 4:212–213, 7:88 Brown, Aika, 4:214 Brown, Arie. See Braun, Arie Brown, Benjamin, 4:214, 14:446 Brown, David Abraham, 4:214 Brown, General George S., 2:51 Brown, H. Maurine. See Neuberger, H. Maurine Brown, Harold, 4:214 Brown, Herbert C., 4:214–215, 593 Brown, John, 4:57 Brown, Larry. See Brown, Lawrence H. Brown, Lawrence H., 4:215 Brown, Michael Stuart, 4:215–216, 13:10 Brown, Saul Pardo, 4:216 Browne, Edward B. M., 4:216–217 Browne, Lewis, 4:217 Browning, Christopher R., 4:217 Browning, John, 4:217–218 Browning, Robert, 4:218, 6:436 Brownsville (NY), 12:469 Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 18:700 Broyt mit Zalts (Bursztyn), 4:203 Bruce, Lenny, 4:218–219 Bruchsal (Germany), 4:219 Bruck, Grigori, 4:219 Bruck, Lajos, 4:219 Bruck, Miksa, 4:219 Bruckheimer, Jerry, 4:219–220 Bruckman, Henrietta, 4:220 Bruckner, Ferdinand, 4:220 Brudo, Abraham ben Elijah, 4:220 Brudo, Manuel, 4:220–221

Bruecke und Tuer (Simmel), 18:607 Bruell, Adolf, 4:221 Bruell, Ignaz, 4:221 Bruell, Jacob, 4:221–222 Bruell, Nehemiah, 3:682, 4:221 Bruell family, 4:221 Bruenn (Czech Republic). See Brno; Brno (Czech Republic) Bruex (Czechoslovakia). See Most (Czechoslovakia) Bruggen, Carry van, 4:222, 6:70 Bruller, Jean. See Vercors Brumlik, Micha, 16:344 Brun, Antoinette, 7:22–23 Bruna, Israel ben H: ayyim, 4:222, 7:222 Bruner, Jerome Seymour, 4:222–223 Brunetti, Angelo, 4:223 Brunner, Alois, 4:223–224 Brunner, Arnold, 4:224 Brunner, Constantin, 4:224 Brunner, John, 14:434 Brunner, Jozˇef. See Debrecenji, Jozˇef Brunner, Sebastian, 4:224 Brunschvicg, Leon, 4:224–225, 15:674 Brunschvig, Georges, 4:225 Brunschvig, Robert, 4:225 Brunswick (Germany), 4:225–226 Brunswig, Alfred, 4:226 Brusa (Anatolia). See Bursa (Anatolia) Brussels (Belgium), 4:226–227 Brussilovsky, Yevgeni Grigoryevich, 4:227–228 Brustein, Robert Sanford, 4:228 Brutal Mandate (Lowenstein), 13:235 Brutzkus, Boris Dov, 4:228–229 Brutzkus, David Anatol, 4:228–229 Brutzkus, Julius, 4:229 Bryansk (Russia), 4:229 Bryer, Monte, 4:229 Bryks, Rachmil, 4:229–230 Brzechwa, Jan, 4:230 Brzeg (Poland), 4:230 Brzeg Dolny (Poland). See Dyhernfurth (Poland) Brzes´c´. See Bresch, Judah Loeb ben Moses Naphtali Brzes´c´, Leyb. See Bresch, Judah Loeb ben Moses Naphtali Brzesc Kujawski (Poland), 4:230 Brzez´any (Ukraine). See Berezhany (Ukraine) Brzeziny (Poland), 4:230–231 Buber, Martin, 4:231–236, 7:666, 8:416–417, 16:98, 109–110 Bar Kochba Association, 3:156

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

on Bible, 4:231, 235 bi-nationalism promoted by, 3:703 biography, 4:231–232 Borowitz, Eugene B., 4:92 Brod, Max, 4:192 Centenary of, 4:235 disputations and polemics, 5:698– 699 Existentialism, 6:612 free will, 7:233 German translation of Bible by, 3:631 good and evil, 4:233, 7:754 H: asidism, 4:231, 234, 8:416–417 I and Thou, 4:231, 232–233, 234 impact on education, 6:161 on Judaism, 4:234 Der Jude, 4:231, 11:523 Landauer, Gustav, 12:467 miracles, 14:309 Moses, 14:538 mysticism of, 4:234 nature, 15:35 philosophy of, 4:232–233 redemption, 17:154 repentance, 17:223–224 Rosenzweig, Franz, 4:231, 233, 235, 17:460 on Shekhinah, 18:442 socialism of, 4:231, 235 theology of, 4:233–234 Torah, 20:43–44 truth, 20:162 Zionism of, 4:231, 234–235 Buber, Solomon, 4:236, 12:452, 16:12 Bubis, Ignatz, 4:236–237, 16:344 Bublick, Gedaliah, 4:237 Bucer, Martin, 4:237, 376 Buchach (Ukraine), 4:237–238 Buchalter, “Lepke.” See Buchalter, Louis Buchalter, Louis, 4:238 Buchanan, Claudius, 4:238–239 Bucharest (Romania), 3:135, 4:239– 241, 239t Buchbinder, Nahum, 4:241 Buchenwald concentration camp, 4:241–242, 11:812, 15:246, 18:99 Buchholz, Carl August, 4:242, 13:252 Buchmil, Joshua Heshel, 4:242–243 Buchner, Abraham, 4:243, 8:436, 15:352 Buchner, Ze’ev Wolf ben David haKohen, 4:243 Buchwald, Art, 4:243 Buchwald, Naftule. See Buchwald, Nathaniel

Buchwald, Nathaniel, 4:243 Buchwald, Theo, 4:244 Buchwald Martyn. See Balin, Marty Buckley, William F., 3:728 Bucky, Gustav, 4:244 Bucovice (Czech Republic), 4:244 Bucures: ti (Romania). See Bucharest (Romania) Bucurie (Banus), 3:121 Buczacz (Ukraine). See Buchach (Ukraine) Buda community, 4:244–245 Budapest (Hungary), 4:244–249, 246t, 9:341, 12:470 Budapesti tavasz (Karinthy), 11:808 Budde, Karl Ferdinand Reinhard, 4:249 Budge, E.A.W., 2:123 Budin (Czech Republic). See Budyneˇ Nad Ohrˇí (Czech Rebublic) Budko, Joseph, 4:70, 249 Budnaeus, Simon. See Budny, Szymon Budny, Szymon, 4:249–250 Buduilu, king of Ammon, 2:85 Budyneˇ Nad Ohrˇí (Czech Rebublic), 4:250 Buechelin, Paul. See Fagius, Paulus Buechler, Adolf, 4:250–251 Buechler, Alexander, 4:251 Buedinger, Max, 4:251 Buehler, Josef, 4:251–252 Buelow, Bernhard von, 9:57–58, 59 Bueno, Ephraim Hezekiah, 4:252 Bueno, Isaac Abraham, 4:252 Bueno, Joseph, 4:252 Bueno de Mesquita, Benjamin, 4:252 Bueno de Mesquita, David, 4:252 Bueno de Mesquita, Isaac, 4:252 Bueno de Mesquita, Jacob, 4:252 Bueno de Mesquita, Joseph, 4:252 Bueno de Mesquita family. See Bueno family Bueno family, 4:252 Buenos Aires (Argentina), 2:439, 4:252–254, 11:754 Buergenthal, Thomas, 4:254 Buerger, Leo, 4:254 Buerger’s disease, 4:254 Bueschenthal, Lippmann Moses, 18:761 Bueshel, Ben Zion. See Orgad, Ben Zion Buffalo (NY), 4:254–255, 7:30–31 Buffaloes, 4:255–256 Bugenhagen, Johann, 4:256 Buhl, Franz Peder William Meyer, 4:256, 11:343, 344

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Buhler, Charlotte, 4:256 Buhler, Karl, 4:256 Buhus¸i (Romania). See Buhusi (Romania) Buhusi (Romania), 4:256–257 Building. See Architecture and architects; Construction Building and construction, 9:538 Building a Philosophy of Education (Broudy), 4:211–212 Buitrago (Spain), 4:257 Bukarat, Abraham ben Solomon haLevi, 4:257 Bukhara (Uzbekistan), 4:257–265, 258, 20:447 aliyah from, 4:263 anusim, 4:259 communities of Jews Israel (state), 10:297 costumes, 4:263–264 Jewish community, 4:257–258 Judeo-Persian literature in, 11:556–557 literature, 4:262–263 music-dance, 4:264 New York City, Russian Jewish community in, 15:230 Russian regime in, 4:259–261 Soviet Union rule over, 4:261–262 Bukha¯ra¯¯ı, Kha¯ja, 11:555 Buki ben Yogli. See Katzenelson, Judah Leib Benjamin Bukiet, Melvin Jules, 4:265 Bukofzer, Manfred, 4:265 Bukovina (Romania), 4:265–266, 6:87–88 Bukrat, Abraham ben Solomon haLevi. See Bukarat, Abraham ben Solomon ha-Levi Bula, Raphael Moses, 4:266 Bula, Solomon, 4:266 Bu¯la¯n (Khazar king), 4:266–267 Bulat, Judah ben Joseph, 4:267, 6:399 Bulawayo (Zimbabwe), 4:267 Bulgaria, 4:267–275, 268 ancient period, 4:267–268 anti-Jewish policies, 4:271–273 antisemitism, 4:271–273 Byzantine and Bulgar rule, 4:268– 269 communal organization in, 4:270 Communism in, 4:273–274 Congress of Berlin, 3:454 education in, 4:270 Holocaust, 6:7, 9:339 deportation policy, 4:271–273 Ruse, 17:530–531 375

INDEX

Bulgaria, continued Sephardim, 18:301 immigration to Israel from, 4:273– 274 independence, period following, 4:269–270 Jewish participation in military service, 14:245 journalism in, 4:270–271 Ladino newspapers, 16:495 language, 3:634, 4:275 Law to Protect the Nation, 19:172 Nikopol, 15:266 partisans, 15:668 population, Jewish, 4:268 population statistics, 4:271t post-WW II, 4:273–275 pre-WW II, 4:267–271 rabbis and scholars, 4:270 relations with Israel (state), 4:275 restitution of Jews in, 4:273 Sarah of Turnovo, influence of, 18:47 settlements, 4:268, 271t Sofia, 18:745 Turkish rule, 4:269 WW II, 4:271–273 Zionism, 11:733, 21:582–583, 583 Zionism in, 4:270 Bulgarian literature, 3:671, 4:270–271, 275–277, 16:21 Canetti, Elias, 4:430–431 Petrov, Valeri, 4:276 Wagenstein, Angel Raymond, 20:594 Bullae. See Seals Bulletin of the Jewish University of Moscow (periodical), 14:520 Bullfighter from Brooklyn: An Autobiography of Sidney Franklin (Franklin), 7:216 Bullfighting, 7:216, 19:139 Bull of July 12, 1555, Papal, 2:140 Bulls, papal. See Papal bulls Buloff, Joseph, 4:278 Bun. See Abun; Avin Buna labor camp, 17:130–131 Bunche, Ralph, 2:475 Bund, 4:137, 278–284, 18:715–716 establishment of, 9:245 1907 to 1917, 4:281 Abramowitz, Raphael, 1:325 Agudat Israel, 1:505 Alter, Victor, 2:18 Argentina, 2:430, 445 376

communism, 4:281–282 Comintern and, 5:96–97 Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, 12:639 Trotsky, Lev Davidovich, 20:157 Yevsektsiya and, 21:326 Duma, 6:45 Eisenstadt, Isaiah, 6:270 Erlich, Henryk, 6:481 establishment of, 4:280–281 Esther (1880-1943), 6:518 Gozhansky, Samuel, 8:21 Gurevich, Moshe, 8:140 Independent Jewish Workers Party, 9:770–771 Jewish socialism, 18:715–716 Kopelson, Z: emah: , 12:294 leaders Hersch, Pesach Liebman, 9:42 Medem, Vladimir, 13:717 Zygelbojm, Samuel Mordecai, 21:696–697 Leivik, H., 12:629 Lekert, Hirsch, 12:630 Lewis, David, 12:764 Liber, Marc, 12:775 Liessin, Abraham, 12:819 Lithuania, 13:121 Litwak, A., 13:142 Lodz Bakers Union, 6:32 Mill, Joseph Solomon, 14:250 Mutnik, Abraham, 14:705 origins of, pre-Bund, 4:278–279 pioneers Kremer, Arkadi, 12:353 Pesah: son, Isaac Mordecai, 16:6 Poland, 4:282–283 Rafes, Moses, 17:63 Russia, 17:537–538 Belorussia, 3:304 Bobruisk, 4:25 Borisov, 4:86 Russian Revolution and aftermath, 4:281–282 self defense, 18:262 socialism and, 18:707 Tshemeriski, Alexander, 20:165 Uruguay, 20:425 Warsaw (Poland), 20:668–669, 673 Workmen’s Circle, 21:214–215 Zhitlowsky, Chaim, 21:523 Zionism and, 4:278, 279, 280, 281 Bund der Landwirte. See Agrarian League Bunderker, S. R., 15:474

Bundes Bruder, 4:13 Bund hymn, 2:182 Bundle of Letters. See Bintel Brief Bunem, Simhah, 20:651 Bunim, Irving M., 4:284 Bunin, H: ayyim Isaac, 4:284 Bunshaft, Gordon, 4:284–285 Bunzel, Ruth Leah, 2:186, 4:285 Bunzi, George, 4:285 Bunzi, Hugo, 4:285 Bunzi, Max, 4:285 Bunzi, Moritz, 4:285 Bunzi family, 4:285 Burchard of Worms, 4:285 Burchardt, Hermann, 4:285–286, 8:621 Burchardus de Monte Sion, 4:286 Burchstein, Raisa. See Raisa, Rosa Burckhardt, Johann Ludwig, 4:286 Burden of proof, 18:323 Burdujeni (Romania), 4:286 Bureau of Jewish Education (New York, NY), 6:194–195 Burg, Avraham, 4:286–287 Burg, Avrum. See Burg, Avraham Burg, Menke. See Burg, Meno Burg, Meno, 4:287 Burg, Yosef, 4:287–288 Burgel family. See Bordjel family Burgenland (Austria), 4:288–289, 289 Burgin, Nellie Paulina. See Bergen, Polly Burgon, Dean, 3:664 Burgos (Spain), 4:289, 289–290 el Burguense. See Pablo de Santa Maria Burgundy (France), 4:290–291 Burha¯n Niz: a¯m Shah, 1:547 Burial customs, 4:291–294, 782–783 aliyah and, 10:329 Altschul, Emil, 2:25 aninut, 2:174 archaeology religious interpretations and, 10:631 Ash, Abraham, 2:555 ashkavah, 2:567 coffins, 4:783 vs. cremation, 5:281 David, 5:453 death, 5:510 demons, demonology, 5:576 dolmens and, 5:736–737 epitaphs, 6:464 gemilut H: asadim, 7:428 hakkafot, 8:250

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Hebron (Israel), 8:744, 745 h: ibbut ha-kever, 9:94 Holocaust, mass graves, 9:369 husband’s obligation, 9:636 impalement punishment and, 9:742 Israel (state), 10:637–638 Jerusalem, 11:202, 203–204, 210 keri’ah, 12:84–85 kitel, 12:206 likkut az: amot, 13:13 Mendelssohn, Moses, 14:37 Moses, 14:526, 529–530, 536 niddui and h: erem, 9:15 organ transplantation and, 13:747 in ossuaries, 15:506–507 Palestine (Ottoman), 10:620 Phinehas, 16:114–115 priests, 16:525 purity and impurity, ritual, 16:753 requirements, 14:37 rites against Angel of Death, 2:149 Samaritans, 17:732 in sarcophagi, 15:506–507 Sefer Torah, 18:242 suicides, 19:295 tallit, 19:466 Tobit, Book of, 20:12 See also Cemeteries; Funerals Burla, Israel Jacob, 4:294 Burla, Jacob Hai ben Judah, 4:295 Burla, Joseph Nissim ben H: ayyim, 4:294 Burla, Judah Bekhor ben Israel Jacob, 4:294 Burla, Yehuda, 4:295–296, 11:500 Burla family, 4:294–295 Burle-Marx, Roberto, 4:296 Burle Marx, Walter, 4:296 Burleski, elegii, difiramby v presrennoy prose (Slonimsky), 18:680 Burma, 4:296, 296–297 Burnaya zhizn Lazika Roytshvantsa (Ehrenburg). See The Stormy Life of Lazik Roitschwantz (Ehrenburg) Burning (execution method). See Capital punishment Burning bush, 4:297–298, 6:613, 14:524, 527, 535 Burning Lights (Chagall), 4:556 Burns, Arthur Frank, 4:298 Burns, George, 4:298–299 Burnstein, George. See London, George Burnsun, George. See London, George Burriana (Spain), 4:299

Burrows, Abe, 4:299 Burrows, James, 4:299 Bursa (Anatolia), 4:300–301 Bursa (Asia Minor) Ottoman empire, first Jewish community to come under protection of, 15:520 Burschenschaften. See Student’s fraternities, German Burstein, Abraham, 4:301 Burstein, Israel, 4:301 Burstein, Pesach, 4:301 Burstein, Pinchas. See Maryan Burstein, Reuven. See Barkat, Reuven Burstein family, 4:301 Burstyn, Mike, 4:301 Bursztyn, Michal, 4:302 Burton, Montague. See Burton, Sir Montague Burton, Sir Montague, 4:302 Burton, Tim, 6:315 Bury St. Edmunds (England), 4:302 Busaglo, Shalom ben Moses. See Buzaglo, Shalom ben Moses Busal, H: ayyim ben Jacob Obadiah de, 4:302–303 Busch, Charles, 4:303, 303 Busch, Isidor. See Bush, Isidor Busel, Hayyuta, 4:303 Busel, Joseph, 4:303 Bush, burning, 4:297–298 Bush, George Herbert Walker, 4:303– 304 American Israel Public Affairs Committee, 2:51, 52 Boschwitz, Rudolph Eli, 4:95 Bush, George Walker, 4:304–305 American Israel Public Affairs Committee, 2:52 Bolten, Joshua B., 4:50 Palestinian Authority and, 15:599– 600 Bush, Isidor, 4:305, 15:384 Bush, Solomon, 4:305 Bushehr (Persian Gulf). See Bushire (Persian Gulf) Bushire (Persian Gulf), 4:306 Business. See Industrialists; Trade and commerce Business ethics, 4:306–315 competition, 4:312–315 historic sources, 4:307–309 individual and corporate responsibilities, 4:308–312 Israel, state of, 4:315 wealth, role of, 4:306–307 Busk (Ukraine), 4:315–316

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Busnach, Naphtali, 4:316 Busnach, Naphtali ben Moses, 4:316 Busnach family, 4:316 Bus: r al-H: ar¯ır¯ı. See Boz: rah (Trachonitis) Bustanai, 15:419 Bustanai ben H: aninai, 4:316–317 Bustenai (journal), 4:317 Butcher of Lyons, 3:141 Butcher Shop (Segal), 18:246 Butelbroit, Israel. See Giladi, Israel Butler, Benjamin Franklin, 4:19 Butler, Judith, 4:317, 18:733, 736 Butnah (Israel), 4:318 Butrymowicz, Mateusz, 4:318 Butschowitz (Czech Republic). See Bucovice Buttenweiser, Benjamin Joseph, 4:318– 319 Buttenweiser, Helen Lehman, 4:319 Buttenwieser, Joseph Leon, 4:318–319 Buttenwieser, Moses, 4:319 Buttenwieser family, 4:318–319 Buttons, Red, 4:319–320 Butzel, Fred M., 4:320 Butzel, Henry M., 4:320, 12:556 Butzel, Leo M., 4:320 Butzel, Magnus, 4:320 Butzel, Martin, 4:320 Butzel, Martin L., 4:320 Butzel family, 4:320 Butzer, Martin. See Bucer, Martin Buxbaum, Nathan, 4:320 Buxton, Angela, 4:320–321 Buxtorf, Johannes (1564-1629), 3:681, 4:321 Buxtorf, Johannes (1599-1664), 2:21, 4:321–322 Buxtorf family, 3:587, 4:77 Buzagli, Shalom ben Moses. See Buzaglo, Shalom ben Moses Buzaglio, Shalom ben Moses. See Buzaglo, Shalom ben Moses Buzaglo, Abraham, 4:322 Buzaglo, Joseph, 4:322 Buzaglo, Shalom ben Moses, 4:322 Buzaglo family, 4:322 Buzar-Kasbadji, Nadya, 1:440 Buzaˇu (Romania). See Buzau (Romania) Buzau (Romania), 4:322 Buzzards, 4:323 Byadulya-Yasakar, Zmitrok, 4:323 Byblos (Lebanon). See JUBAYL Bydgoszcz (Poland), 4:323, 16:308 By Herself (Kabak). See Levaddah 377

INDEX

By´k, Beran a Váhy (Dostál), 5:762 Byk, Emil, 4:323–324 Bykhov (Belarus), 4:324 Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 4:324 By the Rivers of Mazovia (Bursztyn). See Bay di Taykhn fun Mazovye Bytom (Germany), 4:324 By Words Alone: The Holocaust in Literature (Ezrahi), 9:414 Byzantine Empire, 2:391, 4:324–328, 325 Bulgaria ruled by, 4:268–269 circus parties, 4:735–736 Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, 5:181 Egypt Alexandria, 1:634 Greece Salonika, 17:699–700 Heraclius, 9:5–6 Israel (ancient), 10:156 Justinian I, 11:579–580 Karaism, 11:791 Leo III, 12:642 Leo VI, 12:642 Masada (Israel), 13:599 medicine, 13:725 Michael II, 14:165 Michael VIII Palaeologus, 14:165 population, medieval, 16:386 pottery, 16:426 trade, 1:386 Byzantine Kabbalah, Kanah and Peliyah, 11:759 Byzantium (Turkey). See Constantinople (Turkey) Bzenec (Czech Republic), 4:328

C C (letter), 4:329, 5:5 C. V. See Central-Verein Deutscher Staatsbuerger Juedischen Glaubens CAA. See Creative Artists Agency Caan, James, 4:329 Caballeria family, de la. See Cavalleria family, de la Cabbage, 4:329 Cabeça family. See Cabessa family Cabeçäo family. See Cabessa family Caberet, 9:442 Cabessa, Abraham, 4:329–330 Cabessa family, 4:329–330 Cabildo, Abierto, 2:427 Cables (motion picture), 6:263 Cabor. See Cabul (Israel) Cabul (Israel), 4:330 378

Caceres, Abraham, 2:119, 4:330 Caceres, Daniel de, 4:330–331 Caceres, Diego Garcia de, 4:636 Caceres, Francisco de, 4:330–331 Caceres, Jacob de. See Caceres, Simon de Caceres, Simon de, 4:331, 331, 637 Cacophysms, 6:551 Cadenet (France), 4:331 Cádiz (Spain), 4:331 Caecilius of Calacte, 4:331–332 Caedmon, English translation of Bible, 3:611 Caen (France), 4:332 Câeres, Leonor de, 4:501 Caesar, Sextus Julius, 4:332 Caesar, Sid, 4:332–333 Caesarea (ancient Israel). See Banias (ancient Israel) Caesarea (Cappadocia), 4:335 Caesarea (Israel), 4:333–335, 16:385 Caesarea Philippi. See Banias (ancient Israel) Caesarius of Arles, 4:721 Caesarius of Heisterbach, 3:775 Cafersi. See Kefar Yasif (Upper Galilee) Caffa. See Feodosiya (Ukraine) The Cage (Sender), 4:631 Cagli, Corrado, 4:335 Cagliari (Sardinia), 4:335 Cahan, Abraham, 4:335–336, 15:210, 20:280–281 Jewish Daily Forward, 16:503–504, 20:325–326 use of Yiddish in speeches, 18:719 Cahan, Judah Loeb, 4:336 Cahan, Yaakov, 4:336–337, 8:715 Cahen, Isidore, 4:337 Cahen, Samuel, 3:629 CAHJP (The Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People). See The Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People Cahn, Aaron, 15:415 Cahn, Edmond Nathaniel, 4:337–338, 12:556 Cahn, Marcelle, 4:338 Cahn, Moïse. See Crohma˘lniceanu, Ovid S. Cahn, Sammy, 4:338 Cahnman, Werner J., 4:338–339, 18:733 Cahun, Lémon, 2:8 Caiaphas, Joseph, 4:339 Caïmis, Julius, 4:339 Caimis, Moisis, 4:339–340

Caimont. See Jokneam (Israel) Cain, 1:245, 4:340–342, 12:444–445, 18:319 Caine, Thomas Henry Hall, 6:436 Cairo (Egypt), 4:342, 342–346, 343, 11:312, 14:300 See also Genizah, Cairo Cairo Genizah. See Genizah, Cairo Cairo trial, 4:346 Caiserman, Hanane Meier, 4:205, 346 Caiserman-Roth, Ghitta, 4:347 Caius Julius Caesar Actanianus. See Augustus Caius Suetonius Tranquillas. See Suetonius Caius Suetonius Tranquillus. See Suetonius Cajal, Nicolae, 4:347, 8:379–380 CAJE (Coalition for the Advancement of Jewish Education), 4:763–764 Cajetan of Berchem-Haimhausen, 4:658 Calabrese, Joseph Vital. See Vital, Joseph Calabresi, Guido, 4:347–348 Calabria (Italy), 4:348 Calahora, Aaron, 4:349 Calahora, David, 4:349 Calahora, Israel Samuel ben Solomon. See Calahorra, Israel Samuel ben Solomon Calahora, Joseph ben Solomon, 4:349 Calahora, Mattathias, 4:349 Calahora, Solomon, 4:348–349 Calahora family, 4:348–349 Calahorra (Spain), 4:349–350 Calahorra, Israel Samuel ben Solomon, 4:350 Calahorra family. See Calahora family Calamus, sweet, 4:350–351 Calatayud (Spain), 4:351–352 Calatrava, 4:352 Calculation of the Courses of the Stars. See H: eshbon Mahalekhot haKokhavim Calcutta (India), 4:352–353 Caldwell, Erskine, 4:107 Calé, Walter, 4:353 Caleb (biblical figure), 14:525 Calebites, 1:356, 4:353–354 Calendar reform, 4:359–360 Calendars, 4:88, 354–359 Abraham bar H: iyya, 1:293 Abudarham’s tables, 1:336 Adar, 1:382–383 Akavya, Avraham Aryeh Leib, 1:554

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Apocrypha, 2:259 Babylon, 3:27, 28 Baraita de-Rav Adda, 1:384 bet din rulings, 3:515, 10:146 Bornstein, H: ayyim Jehiel, 4:88 Cohn, Berthold, 5:40 dating, 4:705 Day of Atonement, 5:488 Dead Sea Scrolls, 5:502, 503, 505 duration of day, 6:586 Dustan, 6:66 Enoch, Ethiopic Book of, 6:443 Filipowski, Z: evi Hirsch, 7:20 Gezer, 7:569 Hahn, Joseph Yuspa ben Phinehas Seligmann, 8:231 Hillel II, 9:110 Holiness Code, 9:320 Isaac ben Solomon, 10:49–50 Iyyar, 10:823 Johanan ben Zakkai, 10:146 Jubilees, Book of, 11:474 Karaites, 11:798 Kornik, Meir ben Moses, 12:314 leap year, 12:567 lunar, 2:128 Marh: eshvan, 13:533 Me-ha-Ibbur u-Minyan haShanim, 3:39 Meshwi al-EUkbar¯ı, 14:80 Mesopotamia, 14:90 Nahshon Bar Zadok, 14:757 New Moon, 15:150–151 New Year, 15:193 Nieto, David, 15:261 pages in illuminated Spanish Hebrew Bibles, 3:677 physics and, 16:132–133 reform of, 4:359–360 Saadiah Gaon, 17:606, 607 Samaritans, 17:732–733 Seder Olam, 18:235–236 Seleucid era, 18:260 Sivan, 18:647 Slonimski H: ayyim, 18:679 Tykocinski, Jehiel Michel, 20:212 year, 21:291–292 See also New Moons; specific months Calf, golden. See Golden calf Calgary (Canada), 1:589–591, 4:360– 361 Calicut (India), 4:361 Calid Hebraeus. See Khalid ben Jasikhi California (U.S.), 2:43, 4:361, 361–363 Orange County, 15:460–462

Pacht, Isaac, 15:563 Palm Springs and desert area, 15:606 See also specific California cities Caligula, Caius Caesar Augustus, 1:502, 4:363, 451, 6:229, 397, 9:199 Calimani, Simh: ah ben Abraham, 4:363 Calimani, Simone. See Calimani, Simh: ah ben Abraham Calin, Vera, 4:363–364 Caliph, 3:111–112, 4:364 Caliphate. See Caliph Calisch, Edward Nathan, 4:364 Calisher, Hortense, 4:365 Calisthenics. See Gymnastics Calixtus (popes), 4:365 Calixtus II (pope), 4:277, 365, 16:372– 373 Calixtus III, 4:365, 16:374 Calle, Sophie, 4:365 Callenberg, Johann Heinrich, 4:366 Calligraphy, modern Hebrew. See Modern Hebrew calligraphy Calligraphy and writing masters, 4:373–474 See also Modern Hebrew calligraphy; Writing Callinicum, synagogue destruction, 2:37 Callisthenes, 4:374 Call It Sleep (Roth), 17:481–482 Call me Sammy (Luftspring), 13:253 Calmanson, Jacob, 4:374 Calmanson, Jacques. See Calmanson, Jacob Calmer, Antoine Louis Isaac Calmer, 4:374 Calmer, Moses Eliezer Liefmann, 4:374 Calmeyer, Hans-Georg, 4:374–375 Calneh (Mesopotamia), 4:375 Calneh (Syria), 4:375 Calno (Syria). See Calneh (Syria) Caló, Eugenio, 15:668 Calof, Rachel Bella Kahn, 4:375–376 Calsena (Spain). See Pechina (Spain) Caˇlugaˇru, Ion, 4:376 Calumny. See Slander Calvin, John, 4:376–377, 14:440–441, 17:163 Calvin, Melvin, 4:377–378, 13:10 Calvinism, 4:376–377, 12:675 Calvinist Bibles, 3:612–613 Calwer, Richard, 4:378 Cambridge (England), 4:378–379, 7:477–478 Genizah, Cairo, 11:548, 549, 558

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Cambridge University (England), 4:378–379 Cambridge Yiddish Codex, 4:379 Cambyses, 4:379 Camden (NJ), 4:379–380 Camels, 4:380–381, 7:93 Cameri, 3:696, 4:381 Camerini, Donnato, 15:653 Camerini, Eugenio Salomone, 4:381 Camerino, Manuele da, 14:461 Cameri Theater, 10:686, 687–688 Cammeo, Federico, 4:381–382, 12:552 Camondo, Abraham-Behor, 4:382 Camondo, Abraham de, 10:781, 15:527 Camondo, Abraham-Salomon, 4:382 Camondo, Isaac de, 4:382 Camondo, Moïse de, 4:382 Camondo, Nissim de, 4:382 Camondo, Solomon, 15:542 Camondo de family. See Camondo family Camondo family, 4:382 Campanton, Isaac ben Jacob. See Canpanton, Isaac ben Jacob Camp David Accords, 6:236, 10:238, 259, 20:398 Kach on, 11:693 settlements beyond Green Line, 10:364 Campen, Johannes van, 4:383 Campen, Michel Herman van, 4:383 Campensis. See Campen, Johannes van Campensis, Transislanus. See Campen, Johannes van Campfire (motion picture), 4:535, 536 Camping, Jewish. See Jewish camping Camp of National Unity. See OZON Camp of National Unity (Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego). See OZON Camps concentration and extermination, 4:383–390, 9:336 (See also specific camps) administration and structure, 4:388–389 art and artists, 2:516–519 Belzec, 3:309–312 Bergen Belsen, 3:420–422 Bitburg Controversy, 3:727– 728 Buchenwald, 4:241–242 Chelmno, 4:589–590 Cueno (Italy), 5:338–339 Czech Republic, Theresienstadt, 19:703 379

INDEX

Camps, continued Dachau, 5:375–376 death camps and killing centers, 4:385–387 death marches from, 5:513– 515, 514, 9:342, 515 death statistics, 4:390 Drancy (France), 6:7 establishment of, 9:288–299 euthanasia program, 4:384– 385 evacuation, 4:389–390 forced labor, 7:122–124 Gurs, 8:141 kapos, 11:781 liberation, 9:342–343 locations of, 4:389 Lublin (Poland), 16:310 Majdanek (Poland), 13:407– 408 Malines (Belgium), 13:431– 432 Mauthausen, 13:692–693 medical experiments, 4:387– 388, 5:376, 14:47 Natzweiler-Struthof, 15:36 Ohdruf, 9:486 pre-WW II, 4:383–384 prison labor program, 4:385 psychological trauma of survivors, 3:551, 6:279 Skarzysko-Kamienna (Poland), 18:657 Sobibor, 15:707, 18:700–701 tracing services, 9:813–814 types of, 4:383 Ukraine, Lvov, 13:291–292 Wobbelin, survivors, 9:486 WW II, 4:384 educational and recreational (See also Jewish camping) Achvah, 6:199–200 Brandeis-Bardin Institute, 4:124 Kawaga, 6:241 Massad, 6:200 Pennsylvania, 15:729 Ramah, 6:200, 542 Yavneh, 6:200 Campulung Moldovenesc (Romania), 4:390 Câmpulung Moldovenesc (Romania). See Campulung Moldovenesc (Romania) Campus Maximus Legionis. See Legio (ancient Israel) Cana. See Kefar Kanna (Israel) 380

Canaan (son of Ham), 4:390–391, 391 Canaan, Land of, 4:391–393, 392 Adoni-Bezek, 1:413 Anaharath, 2:125 Ashdod, 2:557 Asherah, 2:562 borders, 6:236 Canaanite-Phoenician script, 1:689, 691 Chedorlaomer, 4:587 conquest and settlement in Book of Judges, 9:169–170, 11:562 demons, demonology, 5:572, 573 economic history, 6:96 elders, 6:295 Genesis, Book of, 7:445–446 Hadad, 8:184 Hebrew language, 8:621 h: erem, 9:10–13 invasion of, 2:106 Jerusalem, 11:144–145 Joshua’s conquest and settlement of, 9:167–169, 11:442, 446–447 Judah, tribe of, 11:475, 477 language, 18:281 Libnah, 12:783 Megiddo, 13:766–767 peoples driven out of, 11:99 Phoenicia, 16:118–124 priesthood, 16:153 Samaritan chronology, 17:719 Semitic languages, 18:281 spies from Kadesh-Barnea, 11:698 Tell Arad, 2:328–329, 330 Twelve Tribes, 20:138, 139 Ugaritic, 20:229 war and warfare, 20:621, 622 weights and measures, 20:700, 703 Canaanite Myths and Legends (Driver), 6:22 “Canaanites,” 1:413, 2:78, 4:393 Canada, 4:393–421, 5:108, 110, 119t 1960 -1990, 4:410–411, 423 Abella, Rosalie Silberman, 1:247– 248 abortion, 14:488 Abramowitz, Herman, 1:325 acculturation, Scheuer, Edmund on, 18:124 agriculture, Jewish, 1:500 antisemitism, 4:91, 186, 394–395, 396–397, 402, 403–405, 408– 409, 414–416, 422, 423 Alberta, 1:590 Scheuer, Edmund on, 18:124 architecture, 12:442–443

art Bayefsky, Aba, 3:230 Iskowitz, Gershon, 10:87 Levine, Les, 12:719 assimilation, 4:420 Atlantic, 2:639–641 B’nai Brith Canada, 4:17–18 B’nai B’rith Canada, 4:14 Borenstein, Sam, 4:84 Borovoy, A. Alan, 4:91–92 British Colombia, 4:186–188 Caplan, Elinor, 4:454 civil rights, 4:408–409 clothing industry, 4:396, 401–402, 405 community leaders, 6:663–664, 728 Bennett, Archie, 3:368 Bercovitch, Peter, 3:401 community organization, Montreal, 14:466 courts, 12:499–500 demographics, Montreal, 14:464– 465 economics, 4:412–413 education, 4:397, 402, 403, 409, 419–420 Montreal, 14:465–466 education, Jewish, 6:208–210, 209t film, 12:486 government officials, 6:663–664 Phillips, Lazarus, 16:56 Phillips, Nathan, 16:56–57 Hillel, 4:17 history, 4:394–396 Holocaust, 4:18, 408, 419, 423 response to, 9:370 immigration, 4:404–405, 411 Jewish Colonization Association, 11:287 industrialists Bronfman, Edgar Miles, 4:206 Davis, Mortimer B., 5:481 Lastman, Melvin Douglas, 12:503–504 Israel (State), 4:415–416, 419 Israel, and relations with, 4:420– 421 Jewish community leaders, 11:51 Jewish farm colonies, 18:64–65 Jewish Immigrant Aid Services of Canada, 11:299–300 Jewish immigration to, 2:41, 46 Jewish studies in, 11:316–319 Joseph family, 11:415 journalism, 11:470, 12:474–475

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Judah family, 11:479 Judaism, 4:416–417 labor, 4:400, 406–407 labor union activities, 4:401–402, 405 laws and legal systems, 12:549, 14:488 Levi, Samuel Gershon, 12:692–693 libraries, 12:786 map, 4:394 migrations, 4:395, 398, 408, 410, 411, 414–415, 421–422 museums, 14:634 music, 1:384 newspapers, 16:487–488 Ontario, 15:434–436 Orthodox Judaism, rabbis, 6:745– 746 Ottawa, 15:516–517 Pachter, Charles, 15:563 philanthropy, 5:481, 16:42 Dan, Leslie L., 5:408 political history, 4:401–402, 405– 406, 413–415, 420–421 political participation, 16:341–342 Belkin, Simon, 3:296–297 politicians Cherniack, Saul Mark, 4:595 Lewis, David, 12:764 Lewis, Stephen, 12:767 Segal, Hugh, 18:246–247 population statistics, Jewish, 4:393, 394, 394t, 402–403, 405–406, 412t, 413t Quebec issue, 14:466 socialism, 18:706 social organization, 4:393–394, 394, 397–400, 402, 403, 405, 413, 417–419, 419–420, 423 trade and commerce, 4:394–395 Vancouver, 4:187, 188 WW II, 4:407–408, 409–410, 422– 423, 423 WW II war crimes trials, 20:646 Yiddish education, 6:189 youth movements, h: ud Habonim, 9:717t, 718 Zionism, 21:583–585 zionism, 4:410 Zionist movement, 4:400–401, 406–407, 408, 421–423 See also specific Canadian cities and provinces Canadian Constitutional Law (Laskin), 12:500 Canadian Council for Israel and Jewish Advocacy (CIJA), 4:418

The Canadian Eagle. See Der Keneder Adler Canadian Jewish Congress (CJC), 3:296–297, 4:187, 346, 402, 403, 407, 418, 421–423, 11:300, 716, 761–762, 14:466 Canadian Jewish News (newspaper), 4:419 Canadian Jewish Standard (periodical), 6:50 Canadian literature, 4:423–428 biblical influence, 3:672 Jewish contribution, 4:413 Layton, Irving, 12:557–558 Levine, Norman, 12:719 Maynard, Fredelle Bruser, 13:702 Richler, Mordecai, 17:288 Roskies, David G., 17:467–468 Sherman, Jason, 18:464–465 Canadian Medicine Aid Programme (CAN-MAP), 5:408 Canadian Security Intelligence Service, 11:779 Canakkale (Turkey), 4:428, 12:491 Çanakkale (Turkey). See Canakkale (Turkey) Cananaite language, 8:621–625 Canano, 2:34, 35 Canary Islands (Spain), 4:428–429, 9:798–799 See also New Granada Canatha. See Kenath (ancient city) Cancioniero de Baena (Baena), 3:52 Candelabrum. See H: anukkah lamp Candia, 3:84 Candles, 4:429–430 Candles in the Wind. See Svechi na vetru (Kanovich) Candlestick of Light. See Menorat haMa’or Candle tax, 4:430 Candlewicks (Esselin), 6:509 Cane, Mark, 6:450 Canea (Crete), 4:430 Canetti, Elias, 2:65, 4:430–431 CAN-MAP (Canadian Medicine Aid Programme), 5:408 The Cannibal Galaxy (Ozick), 15:558 Cannibalism, 6:707 Cannstadt, Karl Friedrich, 4:431 Canoeing, 19:139 The Canonization of the Synagogue Service (Hoffman), 9:309 Canon of Medicine. See al-Qa¯nu¯n f¯ı al-T: ibb Canpanton, Isaac ben Jacob, 4:431– 432, 12:644 Canpanton, Judah ben Solomon, 4:432

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Cansino, Abraham, 4:432 Cansino, Jacob, 4:432 Cansino family, 4:432, 432t Cantarini, Angelo di Grassin, 4:433 Cantarini, Isaac Vita ha-Kohen, 4:433 Cantarini, Leone di Simone, 4:433 Cantarini family, 4:433 Cantatas and choral works, Hebrew. See Hebrew cantatas and choral works Cantera Burgos, Francisco, 4:435 Canterbury (England), 4:435, 435–436 The Canterbury Tales (Chaucer), 3:775–776, 4:584 Cantheras, Simeon. See Simeon ben Boethus Cantheras, Simeon ben Boethus. See Simeon ben Boethus A Canticle for Leibowitz (Miller), 18:199 Canticle of Canticles. See Song of Songs Canticum Canticorum. See Song of Songs Cantillation, 4:436, 8:627, 10:815, 13:656–664 Canton (China), 4:436 Cantoni, Alberto, 4:436–437 Cantoni, Hillel. See Cantoni, Lelio Cantoni, Lelio, 4:437 Cantoni, Raffaele, 4:437, 7:85 Cantonists, 4:437–439 Finland, 7:37 forced baptism, 3:122 Moscow, 14:517 residence rights of, 15:579 Cantor, Bernard, 4:439 Cantor, Eddie, 4:439 Cantor, Eric, 4:439–440 Cantor, Jacob A., 15:211 Cantor, Jacob Aaron, 4:440 Cantor, Moritz Benedict, 4:440 Cantor, Norman Frank, 4:440–441 Cantorial Anthology (Ephros ), 6:462 Cantors. See H: azzanim Cantors Assembly of the United States, 8:504–505 CanWest Capital, 18:184 CanWest Global Communications, 18:184 Capa, Cornell, 4:441 Capa, Robert, 4:441, 441–442, 16:126 Caparcotnei. See Kefar Otnay (ancient city) The Cape Argus (newspaper), 18:763 Cape Board of Jewish Education, 6:210 381

INDEX

Caper (flora), 4:442–443 Capernaum (Israel), 4:443, 443, 9:500 Capestang (France), 4:443 Cape Town (South Africa), 4:444–445, 14:634–635 Caphtor (Middle East), 4:445 Capillary-electrometer, 13:70 Capistrano, Giovanni. See Capistrano, John of Capistrano, John of, 4:445, 12:610, 15:566, 18:578 Capital punishment, 4:445–451, 9:507, 12:537 abortion, 1:271 autonomy, judicial, 2:711 Babylonia, 3:28 Badinter, Robert, 3:50 biblical literature, 4:445–446 bloodguilt, 3:774 Commandments, 5:78 confession, 5:147 cremation, 5:281 defenses against, 13:5–6, 15:720– 723 divine punishment, 5:708, 709 extraordinary remedies, 6:331, 332 flogging, 7:78 h: azakah in cases of, 8:489 impalement, 9:742 imprisonment, 9:743 informers, 9:784 Inquisition, 9:790 Israel (State), 4:448–451 Joseph David on, 11:428 karet, 11:806–807 Leibowitz, Samuel Simon, 12:622 nasi, 4:614 Noachide laws, violations of, 15:286, 287 Parthnia, 4:601 Sadducees, 17:655 Spain, 19:75 Talmud, 4:446–448 Talmudic literature, 5:606 witness, 21:116 zaken mamre, 21:446 Capito, Marcus Herennius, 4:451 Capito, Wolfgang Fabricius, 4:451 Capitolias (Middle East), 4:451–452 Capitulations, 4:452–454, 9:501, 15:524, 533 Caplan, Elinor, 4:454 Caplan, Harry, 4:454 Caplin, Alfred Gerald. See Capp, Al Capnio. See Reuchlin, Johannes Capnion. See Reuchlin, Johannes 382

Capon, Augusto, 4:454 Capp, Al, 4:454–455 Cappadocia (Asia Minor), 4:455 Capsali, Elijah, 3:683, 4:163, 455–456, 9:225, 15:534 Capsali, Moses ben Elijah, 4:456, 5:106–107, 10:775, 14:393–394, 15:534, 536 Captives, ransoming of, 4:456–457 Capua (Italy), 4:457–458 Capucci, Hilarion, 20:483 Capusi, H: ayyim, 4:458 Caquot, André, 4:458, 11:326 Cara, Avigdor ben Isaac. See Kara, Avigdor ben Isaac Caracalla, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 4:458–459, 9:203, 204 Caracas (Venezuela), 4:459–460 Caraffa, Cardinal Giovanni Pietro. See Paul IV (pope) Caraffa, Giovanni Pietro. See Paul IV (pope) Carasso, Emmanuel, 4:460, 15:543– 544 Caravita, Joseph ben Abraham, 3:586 Carben, Victor von, 4:460 Carcassona family, 1:652 Carcassone (France), 4:460–461 Carchemish (Syria), 4:461 Cardiff (Wales), 4:461–462 Cardin, Benjamin Louis, 4:462 Cardin, Shoshana Shoubin, 4:462–463 Cardinal Numbers (Shelah), 18:445 Cardiology. See Medicine Cardoso, Abraham Michael. See Cardozo, Abraham Miguel Cardoso, Abraham Miguel. See Cardozo, Abraham Miguel Cardoso, Fernando. See Cardozo, Isaac Cardoso, Isaac. See Cardozo, Isaac Cardoso, Isaac Nuñes, 4:463 Cardoso, Jacob, 4:463 Cardoso family, 4:463 Cardozo, Aaron Nuñez, 4:464 Cardozo, Abraham Miguel, 1:637, 4:55, 463, 464–466, 12:791, 15:538, 18:347, 352, 353 Cardozo, Albert Jacob, 4:463, 15:199, 200 Cardozo, Benjamin Nathan, 4:466, 12:556, 611 Cardozo, David Nuñez, 4:463 Cardozo, Ernest Abraham, 4:463 Cardozo, Fernando. See Cardozo, Isaac Cardozo, Isaac Nuñes, 4:463, 466–467 apologetics, 2:267

Enríquez, Isabel, 6:446 Cardozo, Jacob Nuñez, 4:463 Cardozo, Michael Hart IV, 4:463–464 Cardozo family (ex-Marranos). See Cardoso family Cardozo family (U.S.), 4:463–464, 463t Cards and cardplaying, 4:467–468, 7:371, 11:57 Caregal, H: ayyim Moses ben Abraham, 4:468 Carei (Romania), 4:468 Carei-Mare (Romania). See Carei (Romania) The Caretaker (Pinter), 16:177 Cargo Ships El-Yam Ltd., 6:371 Caria (Asia Minor), 4:468 Caribbean agriculture, Jewish, 1:501 Jewish settlement, 2:41, 12:508 museums, 14:634 See also The Spanish-Portuguese Nation of the Caribbean: La Nacion Caricatures, 4:477–479, 499 Carigal, Raphael H: ayyim Isaac, 4:479 Carinthia (Austria), 4:480 Carl-Blumenkranz, Malla, 4:371 Carlebach, Elisheva, 4:480 Carlebach, Ezriel, 4:480, 15:326 Carlebach, Joseph, 4:481 Carlebach, Shlomo, 4:481–482, 13:203, 15:234 Carlebach family, 4:481t Carlosburg (Transylvania). See Alba Iulia (Transylvania) Carlsbad (Czech Republic), 4:482–483, 13:254 Carlson, Gerald, 15:79 Carmel (Israel), 4:483 Carmel, Moshe, 4:483 Carmel, Mount (Israel). See Mount Carmel (Israel) Carmel Cave (Israel), vol. 10: color insert Carmel Coast Plain (Israel), 10:111 Carmel College, 6:206, 211 Carmelite monks, 6:336, 8:235 Carmi, Charney. See Carmi, T. Carmi, Isaiah H: ai ben Joseph, 4:484 Carmi, Joseph Jedidiah, 4:484 Carmi, T., 4:484, 8:703 Carmilly-Weinberger, Moshe, 4:485 Carmoly, Eliakim, 4:485 as bibliophile, 3:684 forgeries, 7:126 Carmoly, Issachar Baer ben Judah Lima, 4:485

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

INDEX

Carmona (Spain), 4:485–486 Carmona, Bekhor Isaac David, 4:486 Carmona, Daniel, 16:346 Carnegie, Hattie, 4:486, 15:30 Carnival (pre-Lenten period), 4:486 Carnival Overture (composition, Morawetz), 14:478 Carnivals, 1:410, 7:371 Carnovsky, Morris, 4:486–487 Caro, Anthony. See Caro, Sir Anthony Caro, David, 4:487 Caro, Georg Martin, 4:487–488 Caro, Heinrich, 4:488 Caro, Isaac ben Joseph, 4:488 Caro, Joseph ben Ephraim, 2:10, 4:488–491, 8:480 Absaban, Solomon, 1:330 Ah: aronim, 1:532 Bedek ha-Bayit, 8:444 on bimah, 3:701 at Biriyyah, 3:710 business ethics, 4:307 codification, 4:775–780 fines and damages, 7:29 halakhah, 8:257 Laniado, Abraham Ben Isaac, 12:484 Lev, Joseph Ben David Ibn, 12:676 Maggid Meisharim autobiographical elements in, 3:706–707 printing of, 3:704 Mordacai ben Hillel ha-Kohen, 14:481 on onanism, 15:427 Shulh: an Arukh, 18:529–530 Caro, Joseph H: ayyim ben Isaac, 4:491–492 Caro, Nikodem, 4:492 Caro, Sir Anthony, 4:487, 18:223 Carob, 4:492, 7:93, vol. 16: color insert Caro-Delvaille, Henri, 4:492 Carol, Aryeh, 4:492–493 Carp, Horia, 4:493 Carp, Jehoshua. See Carp, Horia Carp, Matatias, 4:493 Carp, Paula, 4:493 Carpathia. See Subcarpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia. See Subcarpathian Ruthenia Carpatho-Russia. See Subcarpathian Ruthenia Carpatho-Ukraine. See Subcarpathian Ruthenia Carpentras (France), 4:105, 493–495, 13:259

Carpet pages in Hebrew illuminated manuscripts, 3:675–678 Carpi, Leone, 4:495, 544 Carr, Judy Feld, 4:495–496 Carrascon (Texeda), 4:496 Carrascon, Juan, 4:496 Carregal, Raphael H: ayyim Isaac. See Carigal, Raphael H: ayyim Isaac Carr-Gottstein, Inc., 1:577 Carrion de Los Condes (Spain), 4:496 Carta esperanzada a un General (Aguinis), 1:510 Cartagena (Spain), 4:496–497 Cartaphilus. See Wandering Jew Las cartas que no llegaron (Rosencof), 17:444 Cartea Neagra (Carp), 4:493 Carter, Jimmy, 4:497–498, 6:280, 12:656 Carter, Nell, 4:498 Carter, Victor M., 4:498–499 Cartesian approach, to New Testament, 15:191 Carthage (North Africa), 4:499 amulets, 2:123 Phoenician colonization, 16:122 Cartigena. See Cartagena (Spain) Cartography. See Map makers Cartoonists and cartoons, 4:499–501 Amshewitz, John Henry, 2:106 Bakshi, Ralph, 3:73–74 Block, Herbert Lawrence, 3:769 Capp, Al, 4:454–455 caricatures, 4:477–479 Chast, Roz, 4:581 Crumb, Robert, 5:310 Csupo, Gabor, 5:315–316 Eisner, WIll, 6:277–278 Elder, Will, 6:296–297 Elisofon, Eliot, 6:354–355, 16:126 Feiffer, Jules, 6:733 Fleischer, Max, 7:73 Freleng, Isadore “Friz”, 7:238 Gardosh, Kariel, 7:389 Godal, Eric, 7:678 Goldberg, Rube, 7:696 Goldwater, John L., 7:734 Gropper, William, 8:94 Hirschfeld, Al, 9:136 Kane, Bob, 11:760–761 Kane, Gil, 11:761 Kelen, Imre, 12:68 Kirby, Jack, 12:183–184, 598 Klasky, Arlene, 5:315–316 Kurtzman, Harvey, 6:296, 12:395 Langdon, David, 12:479

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22

Lazarus, Mel, 12:561 Lee, Stan, 12:598 Lurie, Ranan Raymond, 13:270 Opper, Frederick Burr, 4:499, 15:451 Shuster, Joe, 18:536 Siegel, Jerry, 18:555 Spiegelman, Art, 4:500–501, 19:107 Steig, William, 19:173–174 Steinberg, Saul, 15:225, 19:189– 190 Tim, 19:724 Trier, Walter, 20:144 Weisz, Victor, 20:741 Zec, Philip, 21:481 Carts and chariots, 4:497, 11:592 Carvajal, Abraham Israel, 4:502 Carvajal, Antonio Fernandez. See Carvajal, Abraham Israel Carvajal, Luis de, 4:501 Carvajal family, 4:501–502, 501t Carvajal y de la Cueva, Luis de, 4:501 Carvalho, Emanuel N., 6:190 Carvalho, Mordecai Baruch, 4:502 Carvalho, Solomon Nunes, 4:502, 16:125 Carvallo, Jules, 4:502–503 Casa, Joseph ben Abraham. See Case, Joseph ben Abraham Casablanca (Morocco), 4:503–504 Casablanca (motion picture), 6:474 Casa dei catecumeni. See Catechumens, house of Casale Monferrato (Italy), 4:504–505 Case, Joseph ben Abraham, 4:505 The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial (Van Pelt), 9:420 The Case for the Chosen People (Plaut), 16:228 The Case of Professor Körner. See Pˇrípad profesora Körnera The Case of Sergeant Grischa (Zweig), 21:694 Casès, Benjamin ben David, 4:505 Cases family, 4:505 Casimir III, 4:505, 6:515 Casimir IV, 4:445 Casius (Egypt), 3:13 Caspari, C. P., 3:633 Caspary, Eugen, 4:505–506 Casper, B. M., 11:378 Casper, Bernard Moses, 4:506 Caspi, Joseph, 2:461 Caspi, Joseph ben Abba Mari. See Kaspi, Joseph ben Abba Mari ibn Caspi, Matti, 4:506 383

INDEX

Caspi, Saul, 4:506 Cass, Frank, 4:506 Cass, Mama. See Elliot, “Mama