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Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (Аdomas Jurgis Čartoriskis, also known as Adam George Czartoryski in English; 14 January 177015 July 1861) was a Polish nobleman, statesman and author.
Adam Sędziwój Czarnkowski, of the Nałęcz coat-of-arms (1555-1628) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic).
Administrative division of Polish territories during World War II can be divided into several phases, when territories of the Second Polish Republic were administered first by Nazi Germany (in the west) and Soviet Union (in the east), then (following German invasion of the Soviet Union) in their entirety by Nazi Germany and finally (following Soviet push westwards) by the Soviet Union again.
The three consecutive partitions of Poland carried out in the late 18th century by the Austrian, Prussian and the Russian empires, between 1772 and 1795, resulted in the complete disappearance of sovereign Poland from the map of Europe until the end of World War One in 1918.
The administrative division of the Kingdom of Poland evolved over the several centuries.
The administrative division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the result of the long and complicated history of the fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom and the union of Poland and Lithuania.
Adolf Bniński (21 August 1884 – 1942) was a Polish agricultural, conservative and royalist activist.
Not to be confused with Agnes of Brandenburg Agnes of Babenberg (Agnes von Babenberg, Agnieszka Babenberg; b. ca. 1108/13 – d. 24/25 January 1163), was a German noblewoman, a scion of the Franconian House of Babenberg and by marriage High Duchess of Poland and Duchess of Silesia.
Agnieszka Lipska Baranowska (1819–1890) was a Polish playwright and poet.
Alain Ngamayama is a Polish footballer who played as a midfielder for Warta Poznań.
Aleksander Sielski (1610-1682) was a Polish noble.
Amica Wronki was a Polish football club based in Wronki, Poland.
An Eye for an Eye: The Untold Story of Jewish Revenge Against Germans in 1945 is a 1993 book by John Sack, in which Sack states that some Jews in Eastern Europe took revenge on their former captors while overseeing over 1,000 concentration camps in Poland for German civilians.
Anastasia of Greater Poland (Anastazja Mieszkówna; b. ca. 1164 – d. aft. 31 May 1240), was Duchess of Pomerania by marriage to Bogislaw I, Duke of Pomerania, and regent from 1187 until 1208.
Princess Anna Alojza Ostrogska (1600–1654) was a Polish–Lithuanian noblewoman and heiress, known for her great fortune, and famously pious and ascetic lifestyle.
Anna of Greater Poland (Anna wielkopolska; b. 1253 – d. aft. 26 June 1295), was a Greater Poland princess member of the House of Piast and abbess at Owińska.
Antoni Gąsiorowski (born November 24, 1932, in Poznań) is a Polish medievalist historian, professor of humanities, member of the członek krajowy korespondent of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Antoni Madaliński (1739–1805) – Polish Lieutenant General, commander of 1st Greater Polish National Cavalry Brigade during Kościuszko Uprising.
Prince Antoni Henryk Radziwiłł (13 June 1775 – 7 April 1833) was a Polish and Prussian noble, aristocrat, musician and politician.
Artur Hojan (7 August 1973 – found dead, 9 February 2014) was a journalist and published author specializing in the history of the Chełmno extermination camp and the Nazi involuntary euthanasia programme conducted in the territory of occupied Poland by the SS during World War II.
KKS Astra Krotoszyn is a Polish sports club from Krotoszyn, Greater Poland.
The Austro-Polish War or Polish-Austrian War was a part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809 (a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleon's French Empire and Bavaria).
Łódź Army (Armia Łódź) was one of the Polish armies that took part in the Invasion of Poland of 1939.
Łódź Voivodeship (also known as Łódź Province, or by its Polish name, województwo łódzkie) is a province (voivodeship) in central Poland.
Łęczyca Voivodeship (Województwo łęczyckie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from the 14th century until the partitions of Poland in 1772–1795.
Świebodzin (Schwiebus) is a town in western Poland with 21,757 inhabitants (2004).
Żarnów is a historical village in Opoczno County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.
Żary (Sorau, Žarow) is a town in western Poland with about 39,900 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Lubusz Voivodeship (since 1999, previously in Zielona Góra Voivodeship (1975–1998)).
Żubroń (Żubroń) is a hybrid of domestic cattle and wisent.
Babimost (Bomst) is a small town in Poland in Zielona Gora County, Lubusz Voivodeship.
Barbara Radziwiłłówna is a Polish historical film.
The Barycz (Bartsch) is a river in Greater Poland and Lower Silesian Voivodeships in western Poland.
The Battle of Lawica was one of battles of the Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19).
In the Battle of Cedynia or Zehden, an army of Mieszko I of Poland defeated forces of Hodo or Odo I of Lusatia on 24 June 972, near the Oder river.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Kłecko was fought on May 7, 1656, between forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth commanded by Regimentarz Stefan Czarniecki and Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski and a Swedish force commanded by prince Adolf Johan av Pfalz-Zweibrücken.
The Battle of Kcynia took place on June 1, 1656, and was one of battles of the Swedish invasion of Poland.
The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.
The Battle of Lubrze was a night battle which took place during the Deluge (part of the Second Northern War) in August 1656 between Polish forces under voivode of Kalisz Andrzej Karol Grudziński and a Swedish-Brandenburg force under Jan Wejhard von Wrzesowicz.
The Battle of Mątwy (Bitwa pod Mątwami) was the biggest and bloodiest battle of the so-called Lubomirski Rokosz, a rebellion against Polish King John II Casimir, initiated by a magnate and hetman, Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski.
The Battle of Mokra took place on September 1, 1939 near the village of Mokra, 5 km north from Kłobuck, 23 km north-west from Częstochowa, Poland.
The Battle of Pyzdry, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on April 29, 1863, near the town of Pyzdry, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Radzymin took place on April 25, 1809 during the brief Polish–Austrian War.
The first Battle of Raszyn was fought on 19 April 1809 between armies of the Austrian Empire under Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este and the Duchy of Warsaw under Józef Antoni Poniatowski, as part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of the Border (Bitwa graniczna) refers to the battles that occurred in the first daysThe Battle of the Border began on 1 September, but sources vary with their assignment of an end date for this phase of the campaign.
The Battle of Ujście was fought on July 24–25, 1655 between forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth commanded by Krzysztof Opaliński and Andrzej Grudziński on one side, and on the other Swedish forces commanded by Arvid Wittenberg.
The Battle of Warsaw (Schlacht von Warschau; Bitwa pod Warszawą; Tredagarsslaget vid Warszawa) was a battle which took place near Warsaw on, between the armies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden and Brandenburg.
Bazar House in Miloslaw (Dom „Bazar” w Miłosławiu) - historic property located in the street Miloslaw- Spring of Nations 24 (Reg. No.: 1924 / A, 29/12/1983), in the district of Września, in Greater Poland.
MKS Błękitni Wronki is a Polish association football club from Wronki, Greater Poland.
Bełz Voivodeship (Województwo bełskie, Palatinatus Belzensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 1462 to the Partitions of Poland in 1772–1795.
Bernard of Niemodlin (Bernard Niemodliński; b. 1374/78 – d. 2/4 April 1455), was a Duke of Strzelce and Niemodlin during 1382–1400 (with his brothers as co-rulers), Duke of Opole during 1396–1400 (with his brother as co-ruler), from 1400 until 1450 sole ruler over Strzelce and Niemodlin, from 1401 ruler over Olesno and Lubliniec, from 1420 ruler over Prudnik and in 1424 ruler over Głogówek, during 1434–1450 ruler over Kluczbork and Byczyna and from 1450 ruler over only Olesno.
Bernhard (– 2 February 1212), a member of the House of Ascania, was Count of Anhalt and Ballenstedt, and Lord of Bernburg through his paternal inheritance.
Białogard (Belgard; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Biôłogard) is a town in Middle Pomerania, northwestern Poland with 24,399 inhabitants (2004).
The earliest Bible translations into the Polish language date to the 13th century.
Biecz (Beitsch) is a town and municipality in southeastern Poland, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Gorlice County.
Bigos (бігас,, or бігус), often translated into English as hunter's stew, is a Polish dish of finely chopped meat of various kinds stewed with sauerkraut and shredded fresh cabbage.
The Bishopric of Lebus was a Roman Catholic diocese of Poland and later an ecclesiastical territory of the Holy Roman Empire.
Bledzew (Blesen) is a village in Międzyrzecz County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.
Bnin (Seebrück) is part of the town of Kórnik, south-east of the city of Poznań, in Greater Poland Voivodeship in western Poland, between Lake Kórnickie and Lake Bnińskie.
Bogusław Leszczyński, count of Leszno (1614–1659) from the Leszczyński Family of Holy Roman Empire counts, was a Polish noble (szlachcic) and politician from Wielkopolska region.
Bolesław I the Tall (Bolesław I Wysoki) (b. 1127 – d. Leśnica, 7 or 8 December 1201) was a Duke of Wroclaw from 1163 until his death in 1201.
Bolesław II the Generous, also known as the Bold and the Cruel (Bolesław II Szczodry; Śmiały; Okrutny; c. 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082), was Duke of Poland from 1058 to 1076 and third King of Poland from 1076 to 1079.
Boleslaw III the Wasteful (Bolesław III Rozrzutny; 23 September 1291 – Brieg, 21 April 1352), was a Duke of Legnica, Brzeg (Brieg) from 1296 until 1342, and Duke of Wrocław from 1296 until 1311.
Bolesław III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Bolesław III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138), was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138.
Bolesław of Kuyavia (also known as Mieszkowic) (Bolesław kujawski (Mieszkowic)) (1159 – 13 September 1195) was a Duke of Kuyavia from 1186 until his death.
Bolesław of Oleśnica (Bolesław oleśnicki; c. 1295 – before 23 April 1321), was a Duke of Żagań, Ścinawa, etc., during 1309-1312 (with his brothers as co-rulers), Duke of Oleśnica, Namysłów, Gniezno and Kalisz during 1312-1313 (with his brother as co-ruler), Duke of Gniezno during 1313-1314 (alone) and Duke of Oleśnica since 1313 until his death (alone).
Bolesław the Pious (Bolesław Pobożny) (1224/27 – 14 April 1279) was a Duke of Greater Poland during 1239–1247 (according to some historians during 1239–1241 sole Duke of Ujście), Duke of Kalisz during 1247–1249, Duke of Gniezno during 1249–1250, Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz during 1253–1257, Duke of whole Greater Poland and Poznań during 1257–1273, in 1261 ruler over Ląd, regent of the Duchies of Mazovia, Płock and Czersk during 1262–1264, ruler over Bydgoszcz during 1268–1273, Duke of Inowrocław during 1271–1273, and Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz from 1273 until his death.
Bolesław V the Chaste (Bolesław Wstydliwy; 21 June 1226 – 7 December 1279) was a Duke of Sandomierz in Lesser Poland from 1232 and High Duke of Poland from 1243 until his death, as the last male representant of the Piast Lesser Poland branch.
Bolko I of Opole (Bolko I Opolski; before 21 October 1258 – 14 May 1313), was a Duke of Opole from 1282 (until 1284 with his brother as co-ruler), Niemodlin and Strzelce Opolskie until his death.
Bolko IV of Opole (Bolko IV Opolski; 1363/67 – 6 May 1437), was a Duke of Strzelce and Niemodlin during 1382–1400 (with his brothers as co-rulers), Duke of Opole from 1396 (until 1400 with his brother as co-ruler, except Olesno).
The Polish Border Guard (Polish Straż Graniczna, also abbreviated as SG) is a state security agency tasked with patrolling the Polish border.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
Bretislav I (Břetislav I.; 1002/1005–10 January 1055), known as the "Bohemian Achilles", of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1035 until his death.
Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.
The Bronze and Iron Age cultures in Poland are known mainly from archeological research.
Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship (Palatinatus Brestensis, Województwo brzesko-kujawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland (later Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth), from the 14th century to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.
Bydgoszcz District (Polish: Rejencja Bydgoska, German Regirugnsbezirk Bromberg) was the more northern of two administrative districts of the Grand Duchy of Poznań (1815-1918) (later also called the Province of Poznań (1849-1918)).
Bytom (Polish pronunciation:; Silesian: Bytůń, Beuthen O.S.) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
The Campaign of Grodno was a plan developed by Johann Patkul and Otto Arnold von Paykull during the Swedish invasion of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a part of the Great Northern War.
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (31 July 1884 – 2 February 1945) was a monarchist conservative German politician, executive, economist, civil servant, and opponent of the Nazi regime.
Casimir I the Restorer (b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.
Casimir II of Łęczyca (pl: Kazimierz II łęczycki; c. 1261/62 – 10 June 1294), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Brześć Kujawski during 1267–1288, Duke of Dobrzyń during 1275–1288 and Duke of Łęczyca since 1288 until his death.
Casimir II the Just (Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy; 1138 – 5 May 1194) was a Lesser Polish Duke at Wiślica during 1166–1173, and at Sandomierz after 1173.
Casimir of Bytom (Kazimierz bytomski) (1253/57 – 10 March 1312) was a Duke of Opole during 1282–1284 (with his brother as co-ruler) and Duke of Bytom from 1284 until his death.
The Central Economic Society for the Grand Duchy of Poznań (Centralne Towarzystwo Gospodarcze dla Wielkiego Księstwa Poznańskiego) was a social-economic organization of Polish landowners in the Greater Poland region (at this time called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) established at a meeting held 13–17 February 1861 as a result of a merger of several local societies.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.
Chęciny (Yiddish: חענטשין – Khantchin or Chentshin) is a town in Kielce County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,252 inhabitants (2006).
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).
Chodzież (Kolmar in Posen) is a town in northwestern Poland with 20,400 inhabitants (1995).
Chojna (Königsberg in der Neumark; Czińsbarg; Regiomontanus Neomarchicus "King's Mountain in (the) New March") is a small town in western Poland in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Choszczno (Arnswalde) is a town (population around 16,173) in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Church of St.
Chwarszczany (Quartschen) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Boleszkowice, within Myślibórz County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.
The Greater Poland Civil War (Wojna domowa w Wielkopolsce) refers to the conflict that took place during 1382–1385 in the Greater Poland province of the Kingdom of Poland during the interregnum period following the transition of power between the Piast dynasty, Angevin dynasty and the Jagiellon dynasty.
Clan Ostoja (ancient Polish: Ostoya) was a powerful group of knights and lords in late-medieval Europe.
Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and member of the Bavarian noble family von Stauffenberg, who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power.
The Collegiate church in Wiślica (full name: Collegiate Basilica of the Birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Wiślica, Bazylika kolegiacka Narodzenia Najświętszej Marii Panny w Wiślicy) is a Gothic church, erected in 1350 in the southern Polish village of Wiślica, during the reign of King Casimir III of Poland.
A konfederacja ("confederation") was an ad hoc association formed by Polish-Lithuanian szlachta (nobility), clergy, cities, or military forces in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for the attainment of stated aims.
Constance of Greater Poland (also known as of Poznań) (Konstancja wielkopolska (poznańska)) (1245/46 – 8 October 1281) was a princess of Greater Poland, a member of the House of Piast, and by marriage a Margravine of Brandenburg–Stendal.
Constance of Wrocław (c.1221–27 – 21 or 23 February 1257) was a Princess of Silesia and the Duchess of Kuyavia.
Constance (Konstancja) (died 1351) was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast and sovereign Duchess of Wodzisław Śląski from 1324 until her death.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Constitution of May 3, 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja 1791 roku) is an 1891 Romantic oil painting on canvas by the Polish artist Jan Matejko.
The Council of Four Lands (Va'ad Arba' Aratzot) in Lublin, Poland was the central body of Jewish authority in Poland from the second half of the 16th century to 1764.
Counter-reformation in Poland refers to the response (Counter-Reformation) of Catholic Church in Poland (more precisely, the Kingdom of Poland until 1568, and thereafter the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) to the spread of Protestantism in Poland (the Protestant Reformation).
A croissant is a buttery, flaky, viennoiserie pastry named for its crescent shape.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
Crown Tribunal (Polish: Trybunał Koronny, Latin Iudicium Ordinarium Generale Tribunalis Regni) – was the highest appeal court in the Crown of the Polish Kingdom for most cases, exceptions being the cases were a noble landowner was threatened with loss of life and/or property - then he could appeal to the Sejm court (parliament court).
Cybina is a river in Greater Poland, a right affluent of Warta.
Czaplinek (Tempelburg) is a town in Drawsko County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 7,155 inhabitants (2016).
Czarnowąsy (Czarnowanz, 1936–1945: Klosterbrück) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dobrzeń Wielki, within Opole County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Częstochowa,, is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants as of June 2009.
Człopa (Schloppe) is a city in Wałcz County of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland.
Czerwieńsk (Rothenburg an der Oder) is a town in Zielona Góra County, Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,152 inhabitants (2005).
Dagome iudex is one of the earliest historical documents relating to Poland.
Daniel Niklaus Chodowiecki (16 October 1726 – 7 February 1801) was a Polish—and later German—painter and printmaker with Huguenot ancestry, who is most famous as an etcher.
Dariusz Ratajczak (November 28, 1962 – 2010) was a Polish historian (formerly of the University of Opole), publicist and right-wing activist.
Dąbrówka High School in Poznań (officially in Polish: VII Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Dąbrówki w Poznaniu, in abbreviated version known also as VII LO or colloquially simply as Dąbrówka) is a public school, located in the Poznań district of Jeżyce; it offers education to teenagers above 15 years of age.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden (DZN, German Newspaper in the Netherlands) was a German-language nationwide newspaper based in Amsterdam, which was published during almost the entire occupation of the Netherlands in World War II from June 5, 1940 to May 5, 1945, the day of the German capitulation in the "Fortress Holland".
Modern sources on the Slavic languages normally describe the Polish language as consisting of four major dialect groups, each primarily associated with a certain geographical region, and often further subdivided into subdialectal groups (called gwara in Polish):Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley (2006).
Dobrzyń Land (ziemia dobrzyńska) is a historic region, with the capital in the town of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, in central-northern Poland, within the Greater Poland, between Mazovia and Prussia.
Dolsk (Dolzig) is a town of approximately 1,400 inhabitants (as of 2005) in the Greater Poland Voivodeship of Poland.
Domarad Grzymała of the Grzymała coat of arms (? -1324) was bishop of Poznań in the years 1318-1324.
A Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu (DOK, English: Corps District Command) was a military district of the Ministry of Military Affairs of the Second Polish Republic.
The Duchy of Greater Poland was a historical Polish province established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty.
The Duchy of Masovia was a medieval duchy formed when the Polish Kingdom of the Piasts fragmented in 1138.
The Duchy of Pomerania (Herzogtum Pommern, Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins).
The Duchy of Silesia (Księstwo śląskie, Herzogtum Schlesien) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Poland.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Dyskobolia Grodzisk Wielkopolski is a Polish football club based in Grodzisk Wielkopolski, Poland.
Działyński (Dzialin) was a Polish noble family whose name comes from their original place of settlement, Działyń in Dobrzyń Land.
Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (commonly abbreviated as E. T. A. Hoffmann; born Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann; 24 January 177625 June 1822) was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist.
The E11 European long distance path or E11 path is one of the European long-distance paths, running 2560 km (about 1600 miles) west-east from The Hague in the Netherlands through Germany and Poland to the Lithuanian border.
Ełk (Old Prussian: Luks; Lukas; before 1939 rendered in Polish as Łęg or Łęk) is a town in northeastern Poland with 61,156 inhabitants.
Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz (Poniec, 14 October 1895 – 22 December 1975, London) was a Polish military intelligence officer who specialized in clandestine warfare.
Edmund Wacław Naganowski (26 September 1853 – 28 January 1915), was a Polish publicist and writer also known under pen names E. Działosz, Latarnik and Edmund Sas (Sas most likely refers to his Sas coat of arms).
Compulsory education in Poland starts at the age of six from the mandatory "0" reception class (Polish zerówka or klasa 0, literally Year 0).
Count Edward Bernard Raczyński (December 19, 1891 – July 30, 1993) was a Polish diplomat, writer, politician and President of Poland in exile (between 1979 and 1986).
Edward Dembowski (25 April or 31 May 1822 – 27 February 1846) was a Polish philosopher, literary critic, journalist, and leftist independence activist.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
During World War II, the Nazi German Einsatzkommandos were a sub-group of five Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads (term used by Holocaust historians) – up to 3,000 men total – usually composed of 500–1,000 functionaries of the SS and Gestapo, whose mission was to exterminate Jews, Polish intellectuals, Romani, homosexuals, communists and the NKVD collaborators in the captured territories often far behind the advancing German front.
Elisabeth of Greater Poland (Elżbieta Mieszkówna; Eliška Polská) (1152 – 2 April 1209) was a Polish princess of the House of Piast and, by her two marriages, Duchess of Bohemia and Margravine of Lusatia.
Elizabeth Granowska or Elisabeth Pilecki (Elżbieta Granowska z Pileckich / Elżbieta z Pilczy; – 12 May 1420 in Kraków) was Queen consort of Poland (1417–1420) as the third wife of Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila), Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland (reigning from 1386 to 1434).
Elizabeth of Hungary (Erzsébet magyar hercegnő, Elżbieta węgierska; – 21 July 1154), was a Hungarian princess member of the House of Árpád and by marriage Duchess of Greater Poland.
Elizabeth Richeza of Poland (Eliška-Rejčka; Ryksa-Elżbieta; 1 September 1288 – 19 October 1335), was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast and by her two marriages Queen consort of Bohemia, Poland and Duchess consort of Austria and Styria.
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).
An English exonym is a name in the English language for a place (a toponym), or occasionally other terms, which does not follow the local usage (the endonym).
Erich Weise (4 September 1895 – April 1972) was a German historian and archivist.
The ethnic cleansing of Zamojszczyzna by Nazi Germany (Aktion Zamosc, also: Operation Himmlerstadt) during World War II was carried out as part of a greater plan of forcible removal of the entire Polish populations from targeted regions of occupied Poland in preparation for the state-sponsored settlement of the ethnic German Volksdeutsche.
Eudoxia Iziaslavna of Kiev (Евдоксия Изяславна, italic; c. 1131 – c. 1187), was a Kievan Rus' princess member of the Rurikid dynasty and by marriage Duchess of Greater Poland and since 1173 High Duchess of Poland.
Euphemia of Greater Poland (Eufemia Odonicówna) (c. 1230 – 15 February after 1281), was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast from the Greater Poland branch and by marriage was Duchess of Kalisz, Wieluń and Opole-Racibórz.
Euphemia of Greater Poland (Eufemia wielkopolska) (1253 – 5 September 1298) was a Greater Poland princess member of the House of Piast and nun at St.
Euphrosyne of Greater Poland (Eufrozyna wielkopolska; 1247/50 – 17/19 February 1298) was a Greater Poland princess, member of the House of Piast and abbess of St.
Eustachy Trepka (born around 1510, died October 17, 1558) was a Polish Lutheran theologian, pastor, and translator.
The Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany during World War II was a massive Nazi German operation consisting of the forced resettlement of over 1.7 million Poles from all territories of occupied Poland with the aim of their geopolitical Germanization (see Lebensraum) between 1939–1944.
Fenenna of Kuyavia (also known as of Inowrocław; Fenenna kujawska or inowrocławska; ca. 1276–1295) was a Queen of Hungary by marriage to King Andrew III.
Prince Feodor Ostrogski (1360–1446) was a powerful magnate in Volhynia of Rurikid stock, son of Daniil Ostrogski.
The 1.KFA Fireballs Wielkopolska is a Polish American football club from Poznań, Greater Poland Voivodeship, which currently competes in the PLFA II, the second division of Polish American Football League.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The flag of Poland consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper one white and the lower one red.
The flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland was the largest of a series of flights and expulsions of Germans in Europe during and after World War II.
The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
Fort VII, officially Konzentrationslager Posen (renamed later), was a Nazi German death camp set up in Poznań in German-occupied Poland during World War II, located in one of the 19th-century forts circling the city.
Frederick I (or Ferri) (c. 1143 – 7 April 1206) was the duke of Lorraine from 1205 to his death.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Klub Sportowy Górnik Konin is a Polish football club based in Konin, Poland.
The Gąsawa massacre (Zbrodnia gąsawska, literally "the Gąsawa crime") was a 1227 attack on a meeting of Polish Piast dukes which was being held near the village of Gąsawa in Kujawy, Poland.
Poland is a country in Central Europe with an area of 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq. mi.), and mostly temperate climate.
German Eastern Marches Society (Deutscher Ostmarkenverein, also known in German as Verein zur Förderung des Deutschtums in den Ostmarken) was a German radical,Geoff Eley, op.cit., extremely nationalist xenophobic organization founded in 1894.
The German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe ahead of the Red Army advance in World War II was delayed until the last moment.
The registered German minority in Poland at the 2011 national census consisted of 148,000 people, of whom 64,000 declared both German and Polish ethnicities and 45,000 solely German ethnicity.
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.
The German–Polish customs war was a political and economic conflict between the Second Polish Republic and the Weimar Republic, which began in June 1925 (shortly after the death of German president Friedrich Ebert from SPD) and ended officially in March 1934.
The German–Polish War which took place from 1002 to 1018 consisted of a series of struggles between the Ottonian king Henry II of Germany (Holy Roman Emperor from 1014) and the Polish Piast ruler Bolesław I the Brave.
After partitioning Poland in the end of 18th century, the Kingdom of Prussia and later German Empire imposed a number of Germanisation policies and measures in the newly gained territories, aimed at limiting the Polish ethnic presence in these areas.
The Germanisation of the Province of Posen was a policy of the Kulturkampf measures enacted by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, whose goal was to Germanize Polish-speaking areas in the Prussian Province of Posen by eradicating and discrimination of Polish language and culture, as well as to reduce the influence of the "ultramontanist" Roman Catholic clergy in those regions.
German–Polish relations have a long and complicated history.
Giecz is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dominowo, within Środa Wielkopolska County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Giovanni Battista di Quadro (Polish Jan Baptysta Quadro, Latin Joannes Baptista Quadro) (died between 10 April 1590 and 16 January 1591) was an Italian renaissance architect, one of the most famous architects in Central Europe in his epoque.
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
Gniezno Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo Gnieźnieńskie, Latin: Palatinatus Gnesnensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland for a short time from 1768, when it was cut from the Kalisz Voivodeship, to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.
The Goplans or Goplanes (Glopeani, Goplanie) was an early West Slavic tribe that inhabited the central parts of the Kujawy region, with their probable seat at Kruszwica.
Gorzów Wielkopolski (abbreviated Gorzów Wlkp.; Landsberg an der Warthe; Łącbarg) is a city in western Poland, on the Warta river.
The Gothic style arrived in Poland in the first half of the 13th century with the arrival of members of the Dominican and Franciscan orders.
The Grand Duchy of Posen (Großherzogtum Posen; Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie) was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.
"Gray Ranks" (Szare Szeregi) was a codename for the underground paramilitary Polish Scouting Association (Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego) during World War II.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.
Great Russia, sometimes Great Rus' (Великая Русь, Velikaya Rus', Великая Россия, Velikaya Rossiya, Великороссия, Velikorossiya), is an obsolete name formerly applied to the territories of "Russia proper", the land that formed the core of Muscovy and later, Russia.
Greater Poland or Great Poland (Polish: Wielkopolska) is a historic region of west-central Poland Greater Poland may also refer to.
Greater Poland Uprising (also Wielkopolska Uprising or Great Poland Uprising) may refer to a number of armed rebellions in the region of Greater Poland.
The 1794 Greater Poland uprising (Polish: Powstanie Wielkopolskie 1794 roku) was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against Kingdom of Prussia which had taken possession of this territory after the 1793 Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Greater Poland uprising of 1806 was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against the occupying Prussian forces after the Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1772–1795).
The 1846 Wielkopolska uprising (powstanie wielkopolskie 1846 roku) was a planned military insurrection by Poles in the land of Greater Poland against the Prussian forces, designed to be part of a general Polish uprising in all three partitions of Poland, against the Russians, Austrians and Prussians.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1848 or Poznań Uprising (powstanie wielkopolskie 1848 roku or powstanie poznańskie) was an unsuccessful military insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region (German: Grand Duchy of Poznań or Provinz Posen) against German rule.
Greater Poland Voivodeship (in Polish: Województwo Wielkopolskie), also known as Wielkopolska Voivodeship, Wielkopolska Province, or Greater Poland Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in west-central Poland.
Grodziskie (other names: Grätzer, Grodzisz) is a historical style of beer from Poland that is typically made from oak-smoked wheat malt.
Grodzka Street is a historical street in Old Town of Bydgoszcz, Poland.
Guderian is a German surname.
(10 May 1878 – 3 October 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor in 1923 (for a brief period of 102 days) and Foreign Minister 1923–1929, during the Weimar Republic.
Hauskyjza (Silesian: home cheese from the German Hauskäse) - a foodstuff made of cottage cheese, carum and other ingredients, which are mixed, put aside for a few days to acquire the characteristic sharp flavor, scent and tacky consistency, and then warmed and fried.
Saint Hedwig of Silesia (Święta Jadwiga Śląska), also Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Heilige Hedwig von Andechs, Hedvigis; 1174 – 15 October 1243), a member of the Bavarian comital House of Andechs, was Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231 as well as High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238.
The Heim ins Reich (meaning "back home to the Reich") was a foreign policy pursued by Adolf Hitler during World War II, beginning in 1938.
Helena of Znojmo (Helena Znojemská; Helena znojemska; c. 1141–1202/06), was a Bohemian princess, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty.
Henry I, Lord of Mecklenburg (nicknamed the Pilgrim, – 2 January 1302) ruled Mecklenburg from 1264 to 1275 and from 1299 until his death.
Henry III (I) of Głogów (Henryk III głogowski) (1251/60 – 3 December 1309) was a Duke of Głogów (Glogau) from 1274 to his death and also Duke of parts of Greater Poland during 1306–1309.
Henry IV (II) the Faithful (– 22 January 1342) was a Duke of Żagań and parts of Greater Poland from 1309 until 1317 (with his brothers in all the lands except Głogów in different divisions among them), Duke of Głogów from 1318 until 1321 (with his brother as co-ruler) and sole ruler over Żagań from 1321 until his death.
Henry V the Fat (Heinrich V der Dicke, Henryk V Brzuchaty) (– 22 February 1296) was a Duke of Jawor (Jauer) from 1273, of Legnica (Liegnitz) from 1278, and Duke of Wrocław (Breslau) from 1290.
Henry VI the Good (also known as of Wrocław) (Henryk VI Dobry or Wrocławski) (18 March 1294 – 24 November 1335) was a Duke of Wrocław since 1296 (with his brothers as co-rulers until 1311).
Henryk Śniegocki (January 18, 1893 in Kościan – December 1, 1971 in Poznań) was a teacher and a participant in the Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919).
Herbert Lange (29 September 1909 – 20 April 1945) was an SS-Sturmbannführer and the commandant of Chełmno extermination camp until April 1942; leader of the SS Special Detachment Lange conducting the extermination of Jews from the Łódź Ghetto.
Gdańsk (or;; Kashubian: Gduńsk; Danzig) is one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe in general.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The History of interwar Poland comprises the period from the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918, until the joint Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
The Polish language is a West Slavic language, and thus descends from Proto-Slavic, and more distantly from Proto-Indo-European.
The history of Pomerania starts shortly before 1000 AD with ongoing conquests by newly arrived Polans rulers.
History of Pomerania between 1933 and 1945 covers the period of one decade of the long history of Pomerania, lasting from the Adolf Hitler's rise to power until the end of World War II in Europe.
Poznań, today Poland's fifth largest city, is also one of the country's oldest cities, and was an important political and religious center in the early Polish state of the 10th century.
The history of rail transport in Poland dates back to the first half of the 19th century when railways were built under Prussian, Russian, and Austrian rule.
In the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C. (late Bronze Age) Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture.
History of Szczecin (Stettin) - in Poland.
The 18th-Century for the Jews of Poland was a tumultuous period as political unrest in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth led to changes in the treatment and behavior of Jews living within its territory.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The history of the Jews in Poland before the 18th century covers the period of Jewish-Polish history from its origins, roughly until the political and socio-economic circumstances leading to the dismemberment of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the second half of the 18th century by the neighbouring empires (see also: Partitions of Poland).
History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–1795) is concerned with the final decades of existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Wrocław (Vratislav, Breslau) has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
Ignacy Jan Paderewski (– 29 June 1941) was a Polish pianist and composer, politician, statesman and spokesman for Polish independence.
Ignacy Prądzyński (1792–1850) was a Polish military commander and a general of the Polish Army.
The Imperial Castle in Poznań, popularly called Zamek (Zamek Cesarski w Poznaniu, Königliches Residenzschloss Posen), is a palace in Poznań, in Poland.
Inowrocław Voivodeship (województwo inowrocławskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from the 14th century to the First Partition of Poland in 1772.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Monika Jagaciak Jankic (born 15 January 1994), known professionally as Jac Jagaciak, is a Polish model.
Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig (Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.
Jakub Świnka (died 4 March 1314) was a Polish Catholic priest, the Archbishop of Gniezno and a notable politician, supporter of the idea of unification of all Polish lands under the rule of Władysław I the Elbow-high ("the Short").
Jakub Jasiński of Rawicz Clan (24 July 1761, in Węglów near Pyzdry in Greater Poland – 4 November 1794, in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish general, and poet of Enlightenment.
Jan Henryk Dąbrowski (also known as Johann Heinrich Dąbrowski (Dombrowski) in German and Jean Henri Dombrowski in French; 29 August 1755 – 6 June 1818) was a Polish general and statesman, widely respected after his death for his patriotic attitude, and described as a national hero.
Nałęcz coat of Arms.Jan Gerbicz, or Herbisz was a thirteenth century bishop of Poznan (around 1240-1297).
Jan II the Mad also known as the Bad, the Wild or the Cruel (Jan II Szalony or Zły or Dziki or Okrutny; 16 April 1435 – 22 September 1504), was a Duke of Żagań-Przewóz since 1439 (with his brothers as co-rulers until 1449), from 1449 Duke of Przewóz (as co-ruler of his younger brother), during 1461–1468 and briefly in 1472 Duke of Żagań and during 1476–1488 Duke of half-Głogów (the Duchy was finally reunited in 1480).
Jan Kiliński (1760 in Trzemeszno - 28 January 1819 in Warsaw) was one of the commanders of the Kościuszko Uprising.
Jan Nepomucen Umiński of Cholewa (1778-1851) was a Polish military officer and a brigadier general of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw.
Jan V of Lutogniew (died February 14, 1374) was a Polish Catholic priest,and Bishop of Poznań from 1354-1376.
Jan Piotr Rządkowski (1860–1934) was a Polish military officer and a General of the Polish Army.
Jan Skrzetuski is a fictional character created by Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz in the novel With Fire and Sword.
Jan z Jani (Joannes de Janie in Medieval Latin, Jan von der Jane in German) (1400–1461) - of the Clan of Ostoja was the first Polish Duke of Pomerelia (from 1454 to 1461) and one of the leaders of the Prussian Confederation, serving as a commander in the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66).
Janusz Pałubicki (born 1948) is a Polish politician and activist.
Prince Janusz Radziwiłł, also known as Janusz the Second or Janusz the Younger (Jonušas Radvila, 2 December 1612 – 31 December 1655) was a noble and magnate in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Jarocin Festival was one of the biggest and most important rock music festivals in the 1980s Europe, by far the biggest festival of alternative music in the Warsaw Pact countries.
Jastrzębiec is a Polish coat of arms.
Jaxa of Köpenick (sometimes Jaksa or Jacza of Copnic, Jaksa z Kopnika or Jaksa z Kopanicy, Jaksa being an early Sorbian and/or Polish form of James) (fl. 1151-1157) was a prince of the West Slavic Sprevan Duchy of Kopanica.
Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki (Iosif Romanovich while in the Russian military; sometimes also Dowbór-Muśnicki; 25 October 1867 – 26 October 1937) was a Russian military officer and Polish general, serving with the Imperial Russian and then Polish armies.
Józef Niemojewski (of Rola coat of arms) (born July 4, 1769 in Śrem - died July 16, 1839 in Rokitnica) was a Brigadier General of the Duchy of Warsaw, Major General of the Polish insurrectionist forces in Wielkopolska during the Greater Poland Uprising (1794) and the Kościuszko Uprising, Brigadier General in the Grande Armée of Napoleon Bonaparte and elected starosta of Śrem eldership.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Jędrzej Kitowicz (1727 or 1728 – 3 April 1804) was a Polish historian and diarist.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
John (Jan Ścinawski; c. 1298 – by 19 May 1365) was a Duke of Żagań, Ścinawa, etc.
Juliusz Paetz (2 February 1935 in Poznań) is a Polish bishop of the Catholic Church.
Jungdeutsche Partei in Polen (JDP), or the Young German Party in Poland (Partia Młodoniemiecka w Polsce), was a Nazi German extreme right-wing political party founded in 1931 by members of the ethnic German minority residing in the Second Polish Republic.
Kańczuga is a town in Przeworsk County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with a population of 3,187 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
Kaczmarek (archaic feminine: Kaczmarkowa, plural Kaczmarkowie) is the 18th most common surname in Poland (62,399 people in 2009) and the second most popular in Greater Poland (24,185) and Lubusz Land (3,121).
Kalisz (Old Greek: Καλισία, Latin: Calisia, Yiddish: קאַליש, Kalisch) is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants (December 2017), the capital city of the Kalisz Region.
Kalisz Region (Kaliskie) is a historical and ethnographical area of Poland, located in central Poland mainly in the Greater Poland Lakes Area and South Greater Poland Plain.
Kalisz Voivodeship (1) 1975–1998 was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodeship.
Kalisz Voivodeship 1314–1793 (Polish: Województwo Kaliskie, Latin: Palatinatus Calisiensis) was an administrative unit of Poland from 1314 to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.
Karol Libelt (8 April 1807, Chwaliszewo, Poznań, Duchy of Warsaw - 9 June 1875, Brdowo) was a Polish philosopher, writer, political and social activist, social worker and liberal, nationalist politician, president of the PTPN.
Karol Marcinkowski (23 June 1800 in Posen, Kingdom of Prussia, today Poznań in Poland–6 November 1846) was a Polish physician, social activist in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Posen), supporter of the basic education (Praca organiczna) programmes, organizer of the Scientific Help Society (Towarzystwo Pomocy Naukowej) and the Poznań Bazar (Bazar Poznański) - the Polish mall in Poznań that included a hotel, meeting rooms, crafts and shops.
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland.
Kasper Niesiecki (31 December 1682 – 9 July 1744), also known as Kacper Niesiecki, was a Polish heraldist, Jesuit, lexicographer, writer, theologian and preacher.
Kazimierz Franciszek Czarnkowski, (1613/17–1656), of the Nałęcz coat of arms, was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic).
Kórnik (Kurnik, 1939-45 Burgstadt) is a town with about 6,800 inhabitants (2006), located in western Poland, about south-east of the city of Poznań.
Kłecko (German: Kletzko, 1940-45 Klötzen) is a town in Gniezno County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,712 inhabitants (2004).
Kłobuck (Klobutzko) is a town in Poland, with 13,061 inhabitants (2016).
KKS Włókniarz 1925 Kalisz, also known by its past names KKS Kalisz or Włókniarz Kalisz, is a Polish football club based in Kalisz, Poland.
Kluski (singular: klusek or kluska) is a generic Polish name for all kinds of soft, mushy dumplings, usually without a filling.
Koło (during the German occupation called Wartbrücken in 1940–41, Warthbrücken in 1941–45) is a town on the Warta River in central Poland with 23,101 inhabitants (2006).
The Kościelecki (or, plural, Kościeleccy) - were a noble family which was part of the political and economic elite in Kujawy and Royal Prussia in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794.
Koźmin Wielkopolski (Koschmin) is a town in Krotoszyn County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 6,678 inhabitants according to the 2010 census.
Konin is a city in central Poland, on the Warta River.
Konrad I of Oleśnica (Konrad I oleśnicki) (– 22 December 1366) was a Duke of Żagań and Ścinawa during 1309–1312 (with his brothers as co-rulers), Duke of Oleśnica, Namysłów, Gniezno and Kalisz during 1312–1313 (with his brother as co-ruler), Duke of Kalisz during 1313–1314 (alone), Duke of Namysłów since 1313 (alone) and Duke of Oleśnica since 1321 until his death (alone).
Konrad I of Głogów (Konrad I głogowski; – 6 August 1273/74), a member of the Silesian Piasts, was Silesian duke of Głogów from 1251 until his death.
Konrad II the Hunchback (Konrad II Garbaty) (1252/65 – 11 October 1304) was Duke of Ścinawa from 1278 to 1284, patriarch of Aquileia in 1299, and Duke of Żagań from 1284 until his death.
TP Ostrovia 1909 Ostrow Wielkopolski is a Polish football club based in Ostrów Wielkopolski, one of the oldest still existing football club in the Greater Poland region.
Krajina is a Slavic toponym, meaning 'frontier' or 'march'.
Krajna is a forested historical region in Poland, situated in the border area between the Greater Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Pomeranian Voivodeships.
The Kreis Birnbaum (Powiat międzychodzki) was an administrative district in Prussia (Kreis) in the west of the Grand Duchy of Posen and the succeeding Province of Posen, part of Regierungsbezirk Posen between 1815 and 1920.
Kreis Wirsitz was one of 14 or 15 Kreise (English: counties) in the northern administrative district of Bromberg, in the Prussian province of Posen.
Kresy Zachodnie (Western Borderlands) is a term used by Poles, mostly in a historical context, to refer to the western parts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that in the partitions were annexed by Prussia.
Krzepice (Krippitz) is a Polish town near Częstochowa, in Kłobuck County, Silesian Voivodeship, in northwestern corner of Lesser Poland.
Krzysztof Boguszewski of Ostoja (died 1635) was a Polish Baroque painter.
Krzysztof „Grabaż” Grabowski (born March 13, 1965 in Piła) – Polish poet, singer, author of lyrics and music for songs by bands Pidżama Porno, Strachy Na Lachy, Ręce Do Góry and Lavina Cox.
Krzysztof Marcinkowski (29 April 1960 – 19 December 2013) was a Polish footballer who primarily played as a midfielder.
Krzysztof Opaliński (21 January 1611 – 6 December 1655) was a Polish nobleman, politician, writer, satirist and Governor of Poznań.
Ksawery Faustyn Ignacy Zakrzewski (15 February 1876 in Wełna – 18 November 1915 in Poznań) was a Polish physician, independence activist, director of Poznań's Polish Gymnastic Society "Falcon", co-editor of biweekly magazine Sokół, co-founder (with Marian Seyda) of magazine Kurier Poznański.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
Lech Browary Wielkopolski (English: Lech Breweries of Greater Poland) is a big industrial brewery in Poznań, with a production capacity of 7.5 million hl.
Lech Poznań is a Polish professional football club based in Poznań and currently competing in the Ekstraklasa, the nation's highest division.
Lech, Czech and Rus refers to a founding myth of three Slavic peoples: the Poles (or Lechites), the Czechs, and the Rus' people.
Lechites, or Lekhites, is a name given to certain West Slavic peoples, including the ancestors of modern Poles and the historical Pomeranians and Polabians, speakers of the Lechitic languages.
The Lechitic (or Lekhitic) languages are a language subgroup consisting of Polish and several other languages and dialects that originally were spoken in the area.
Legislative Sejm (Sejm Ustawodawczy) of the Second Polish Republic was the first national parliament (Sejm) of the newly independent Second Polish Republic.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Lesser Poland Province (Prowincya Małopolska, Polonia Minor) was an administrative division of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1569 until 1793 and the biggest province of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province (in Polish, województwo małopolskie), also known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship (province), in southern Poland.
Leszczyński (plural: Leszczyńscy, feminine form: Leszczyńska) was a prominent Polish noble family.
Leszek the White (Leszek Biały; ca. 1184/85 – 24 November 1227) was Prince of Sandomierz and High Duke of Poland during 1194–1198, 1199, 1206–1210 and 1211–1227.
Crown Metrica 1618–1619 Cardinale Jan Aleksander Lipski Lipski (plural: Lipscy, feminine form: Lipska) was a Polish nobility family.
Lipsko is a town in Poland, in northern Lesser Poland, Mazowsze Voivodship.
This is a list of Slavic tribes reported in the Middle Ages, that is, before the year AD 1500.
This list covers English language country names with their etymologies.
This is a list of the main sporting local derbies in Poland.
Einsatzgruppen (German for "task forces", "deployment groups"; singular Einsatzgruppe; official full name Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD) were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II.
This article provides a collection of the etymology of the names of country subdivisions.
Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages.
There are many historical regions of Central Europe.
The following is a list of notable trees from around the world.
Here is a list of principalities and regions written in the Latin language and English and other names on the right.
The mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland have two major traditions: Polish-Italian and Dutch-Flemish, that dominated in northern Poland.
This is a list of Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials.
This is a list of OECD regions by GDP (PPP) per capita, a ranking of subnational entities from members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by gross domestic product at purchasing power parity prices per capita.
This article is about placeholder names for things, persons, places, time, numbers and other concepts in various languages.
This is a list of dishes found in Polish cuisine.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
The following is a list of population centers by latitude.
–Listed below are examples of surviving buildings in Romanesque style in Europe, sorted by modernday countries.
Theatre festivals are amongst the earliest types of festival.
The List of towns in Farther Pomerania includes towns that lost their town status over time as well as towns which lie west of the Oder river, but east of the Oder-Neisse line (Stettiner Zipfel area), and thus historically are associated rather with Vorpommern.
A list of towns in Europe with German town law.
This is a list of wars involving Germany since unification in 1871.
Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Lubomirski's rebellion or Lubomirski's rokosz (rokosz Lubomirskiego), was a rebellion against Polish King John II Casimir, initiated by the Polish nobleman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski.
Lubusz Land (Ziemia Lubuska, Lubusz; Land Lebus) is a historical region and cultural landscape in Poland and Germany on both sides of the Oder river.
Lubusz Voivodeship, or Lubusz Province (in Polish, województwo lubuskie), is a voivodeship (province) in western Poland.
Lucia of Rügen (died February 12 between 1208 and 1231), was the daughter of Jaromar I, Prince of Rügen and his wife Hildegard, daughter of Canute V of Denmark and Helena of Sweden.
Ludgarda (c. 1260/61 – bef. 14 December 1283), was a German noblewoman of the House of Mecklenburg, and by marriage Duchess consort of Poznań during 1273-1283 and of all Greater Poland during 1279-1283.
Ludwik Adam Mierosławski (January 17, 1814 in Nemours, Seine-et-Marne – November 22, 1878 in Paris) was a Polish general, writer, poet, historian and political activist.
The Lugii (or Lugi, Lygii, Ligii, Lugiones, Lygians, Ligians, Lugians, or Lougoi) were a large tribal confederation mentioned by Roman authors living in ca.
Luisenschule (initially in Szkoła Luizy, later in Szkoła Ludwiki) was a female school, open in Posen in the years of 1830-1919.
The Lwów Oath (Śluby lwowskie) was an oath made on April 1, 1656 by Polish king John II Casimir in Latin cathedral in the city of Lwów (today Lviv, western Ukraine).
Maciej Piaszczyński (born May 28, 1989 in Pleszew, Poland) is an international speedway rider who has represented Poland U-21 national team.
Magda Linette (born 12 February 1992) is a Polish professional tennis player.
Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland dominated between 1550 and 1650, when it was finally replaced with baroque.
Marceli Żółtowski (14 March 1812 in Białcz, Kreis Kosten – 29 April 1901 in Poznań) was a Polish count and politician.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
Mary, also known as Maria (137117 May 1395), reigned as Queen of Hungary and Croatia between 1382 and 1385, and from 1386 until her death.
Masovian Voivodeship, 1526–1795 was an administrative region of the Kingdom of Poland, and of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, from the 1526 to the partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795).
Saint Maximilian Maria Kolbe (Maksymilian Maria Kolbe; 8 January 1894 – 14 August 1941) was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II.
The Mazanki is a type of Slavic folk musical instrument that belongs to a group of idiophones or string instruments.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Mazurzenie or mazuration is the replacement or merger of Polish's series of retroflex fricatives and affricates (written sz, ż, cz, dż) into the alveolar series (written s, z, c, dz).
The building of the Mechanical School in Bydgoszcz is a historic public edifice, serving educational purposes, located at Świętej Trójcy Street 37, in downtown.
Mestwin I (Mściwój I gdański or Mszczuj I, Mscëwòj I; born c. 1160, died 1/2 May 1219 or 1220) was regent (a "namiestnik" or starosta) of Pomerelia (styled himself as princeps Pomoranorum) from about 1205 until his death.
Mestwin II (Mściwój II or Mszczuj II) (1220 – December 25, 1294) was a Duke of Pomerelia, member of the Samborides dynasty.
Meteorite falls, also called observed falls, are meteorites collected after their fall from space was observed by people or automated devices.
Międzychód (Birnbaum) is a town in Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland, the administrative seat of Międzychód County.
Międzyrzecz (Meserici, Meseritz) is a town in western Poland, on the Obra and Paklica river, with 18,310 inhabitants (June 30, 2017).
Michał Drzymała (13 September 1857 – 25 April 1937) was a Polish peasant living in the Greater Poland region (or the Grand Duchy of Posen) under Prussian rule.
Middle Silesia (Śląsk środkowy, Mittelschlesien) was a colloquial designation for the Regierungsbezirk Breslau subdivision in the Prussian province of Silesia from 1813 to 1945.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
Mieszko I of Cieszyn (Mieszko cieszyński, Měšek I. Těšínský, Mesko I (Teschen); also known as Mieszko I of Opole; 1252/56 – by 27 June 1315), was a Duke of Racibórz during 1282–1290 (with his brother as co-ruler) and the first Duke of Cieszyn since 1290 until his death.
Mieszko II Lambert (c. 990 – 10/11 May 1034) was King of Poland from 1025–1031, and Duke from 1032 until his death.
Mieszko II the Fat (Mieszko II Otyły) (– 22 October 1246) was a Duke of Opole-Racibórz from 1230 until his death, and Duke of Kalisz-Wieluń during 1234–1239 (with his brother as co-ruler).
Mieszko III the Old (Mieszko III Stary) (c. 1126/27 – 13 March 1202), of the royal Piast dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland from 1138 and High Duke of Poland, with interruptions, from 1173 until his death.
Mieszko the Younger (also known as of Kalisz) (Mieszko Młodszy (kaliski)) (between 1160 and 1165 – 2 August 1193) was a Duke of Kalisz since 1191 until his death.
Mikołaj Błociszewski (Nicholas de Błociszewo) of Ostoja coat of arms (d. 1419) - the court knight and deputy of King Jogaila (Władysław Jagiełło) to negotiate with the Teutonic Knights.
Mikołaj II Radziwiłł (Mikalojus Radvila) (1470–1521) was a magnate and statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Mikołaj from Kutno (Mikołaj Kucieński) (born ca. 1430 – died 1493) was a governor of Łęczyca province, a main district governor of Greater Poland, and cooperated closely with Casimir IV Jagiellon.
Mikołaj Zebrzydowski (1553–1620) of Radwan coat of arms, voivode of Lublin from 1589, Grand Crown Marshal 1596–1600, voivode of Kraków from 1601.
Milicz (Militsch) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
The Military Administration in Poland (Militärverwaltung in Polen) refers to the military occupation authority established in the brief period during, and in the immediate aftermath of, the German invasion of Poland (September–October 1939), in which the occupied Polish territories were administered by the Wehrmacht, as opposed to the later civil administration of the Generalgouvernement.
Mogilno is a town in central Poland, situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998).
The Mogilno Falsification (falsyfikat mogileński) is a medieval document, allegedly issued in Płock in 1065.
Moritz Lewitt (12 August 1863 – 1 April 1936) was a German chess master.
MS Aallotar was a car-passenger ferry built in 1972 by Dubegion-Normandie S.A., Nantes, France for the Finland Steamship Company, who used her in traffic of the Silja Line marketing company.
Mstów is a village (town in 1279 - 1870) in Częstochowa County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Murowana Goślina ((German-nazi 1943-45 Goslin) is a town in Poznań County in western Poland, with 10,336 inhabitants (2009). It lies approximately north of the major city of Poznań, on the main road and railway line to Wągrowiec. The Trojanka stream flows through northern and western parts of the town, reaching the river Warta a few kilometres to the west. The town is divided into two main parts – the older part of the town to the north, centred on the market square and St. James' church, and the modern estate of Zielone Wzgórza to the south, consisting mainly of blocks of flats and houses built since 1983. Murowana Goślina is also the seat of the municipality called Gmina Murowana Goślina, which has a total population of 15,713 (2007) and covers an area of. The area around Murowana Goślina contains many lakes and forest areas, particularly within the protected area called Puszcza Zielonka Landscape Park. The region is popular with holiday-makers and day-trippers.
Nałęcz is a Polish coat of arms.
The ethnonyms for the Poles (people) and Poland (their country) include endonyms (the way Polish people refer to themselves and their country) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Poles and their country).
Napoleon Mateusz Tadeusz Orda (Напалео́н О́рда; February 11, 1807 – April 26, 1883) was a Polish-Lithuanian musician, pianist, composer and artist, best known for numerous sketches of historical sites of present-day Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Poland.
National costumes of Poland (Polish: stroje ludowe) vary by region.
National Democracy (Narodowa Demokracja, also known from its abbreviation ND as "Endecja") was a Polish political movement active from the second half of the 19th century under the foreign partitions of the country until the end of the Second Polish Republic.
Narodowa Organizacja Wojskowa (National Military Organization, NOW) was one of the Polish resistance movements in World War II.
The National Museum in Warsaw (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie), popularly abbreviated as MNW, is a national museum in Warsaw, one of the largest museums in Poland and the largest in the capital.
There are 23 national parks in Poland.
The National Party (Stronnictwo Narodowe, SN) was a Polish nationalist political party formed on 7 October 1928 after the transformation of Popular National Union.
The National Workers' Party (Narodowa Partia Robotnicza, NPR) was a political party in Poland.
Crimes against the Polish nation committed by Nazi Germany and the collaborationist forces during the invasion of Poland, along with auxiliary battalions during the subsequent occupation of Poland in World War II, claimed the lives of 2.77 million Poles and 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews, according to estimates of the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN).
The Netze District or District of the Netze (Netzedistrikt or Netze-Distrikt; Obwód Nadnotecki) was a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 until 1807.
The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.
Nowe Brzesko is a town in Proszowice County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Nowy Korczyn is a village in Busko County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland.
The following events occurred in October 1939.
Odechów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Skaryszew, within Radom County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
HKS Odlew Poznań is a Polish amateur association football club from Poznań, Greater Poland.
Odolan (d. 1145) was a Polish nobleman.
Odolanów (Adelnau) is a town in the Greater Poland Voivodeship of Poland, about south-west from Ostrów Wielkopolski, with over 5000 inhabitants.
Odon of Poznań, also known as Odon of Greater Poland and Mieszkowic, (Odon poznański (wielkopolski, Mieszkowic); – 20 April 1194) was a Duke of Greater Poland and Poznań during 1177–1182, and Duke of Kalisz from 1193 to 1194.
This article discusses the organizational and administrative structure of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Olędrzy (Singluar form: Olęder; Holländer, Hauländer) were people, often of Dutch or German ancestry, who lived in settlements in Poland organized under a particular type of law.
Oleśnica (Oels) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Olimp was a Polish anti-Nazi resistance organization active in Breslau (Wrocław) during World War II.
Opatówek is a town of 3,800 inhabitants situated 10 km southeast from Kalisz, county (Powiat) of Kalisz County in the province of Wielkopolska, Poland.
Operation Tannenberg (Unternehmen Tannenberg) was a codename for one of the extermination actions by Nazi Germany that was directed at the Polish nationals during the opening stages of World War II in Europe, part of the Generalplan Ost for the German colonization of the East.
Operation Tempest (akcja „Burza”, sometimes referred in English as Operation Storm) was a series of anti-Nazi uprisings conducted during World War II by the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), the dominant force in the Polish resistance.
The full structure of the Polish Land Forces is.
The Ossolineum or the National Ossoliński Institute (Zakład Narodowy im., ZNiO) is a non-profit foundation located in Wrocław, Poland since 1947, and subsidized from the state budget.
Ostbahn (for Eastern Railway) in the General Government, were the Nazi German railways in occupied Poland during World War II, subordinated to the General Directorate of Eastern Railways (Generaldirektion der Ostbahn, Gedob) in occupied Kraków; a branch of the Deutsche Reichsbahn National Railway of Germany in the newly-created Generalgouvernement territory under Hans Frank.
Ostoja is a Polish coat of arms that probably origin from Sarmatian Tamga and refer to Royal Sarmatians using Draco standard.
Ostrów Tumski (Polish pronunciation:, meaning "Cathedral Island"; German Dom Insel) is an island between two branches of the river Warta in the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Otto Skorzeny (12 June 19085 July 1975) was an Austrian born SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) in the Waffen-SS during World War II.
Pałuki is a historic and ethnographic region lying in central Poland, part of Greater Poland, among Pomerania and Cuiavia.
The pacification actions in German-occupied Poland during World War II were one of many punitive measures designed to inflict terror on the civilian population of local villages and towns with the use of military and police force.
The Panslavic Congress of Singers – the international assembly of the choirs and associations of singers which took place in Poznań within 18–21 of May 1929 during the commencing of the Polish General Exhibition.
The Partition Sejm (Sejm Rozbiorowy) was a Sejm lasting from 1773 to 1775 in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, convened by its three neighbours (the Russian Empire, Prussia and Austria) in order to legalize their First Partition of Poland.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paulina Wilkońska (1815 – 9 June 1875) was a Polish novelist, editor, and diarist.
Paweł Cyms (1894 - 1949) was a soldier of the Imperial German Army and captain of infantry in the Second Polish Republic.
Paweł Giżycki (1692 – 1762) was a Polish Jesuit architect.
The Peace of Bautzen or the Peace of Budziszyn was a treaty concluded on January 30, 1018, between the Ottonian Holy Roman Emperor Henry II and the Piast duke of the Polans Bolesław I Chrobry which ended a series of Polish-German wars over the control of Lusatia and Upper Lusatia (Milzenerland or Milsko, the eastern part of the margraviate of Meissen (Miśnia)) as well as Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia.
Ryszard "Peja" Andrzejewski (born 17 September 1976 in Poznań) is a Polish rap musician, songwriter and producer.
People's Libraries Society (Towarzystwo Czytelni Ludowych, TCL) was an educational society established in 1880 for the Prussian partition of Poland (active in the regions of Greater Poland or the Grand Duchy of Poznan, Pomerania, West Prussia, Kashubia and Silesia).
The Pforta monastery is a former Cistercian monastery located near Naumburg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
The Piast Trail is the oldest tourist and historical trail in Poland.
Piła (Schneidemühl) is a town in northwestern Poland.
The Piła Airport opened in 1913 in the town of Piła, in the rather sparsely populated part of northern Wielkopolska, Poland.
A pilgrimage church (Wallfahrtskirche) is a church to which pilgrimages are regularly made, or a church along a pilgrimage route, like the Way of St. James, that is visited by pilgrims.
Pilica is a river in central Poland, the longest left tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 333 kilometres (8th longest) and a basin area of 9,258 km2 (all in Poland).
Piotr Konieczka (April 29, 1901 - September 1, 1939) was a Corporal of the Polish Army.
Piotr Tomicki (1464 – 19 October 1535) was a Roman Catholic Bishop of Przemyśl and Poznań, Archbishop of Kraków, Vice-Chancellor of the Crown, and Royal Secretary.
The ED73 is a Polish four-car, long distance EMU operated by Przewozy Regionalne (PR), based on the ED72.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Poland in antiquity is characterized by peoples belonging to numerous archeological cultures living in and migrating through various parts of the territory that now constitutes Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 450–500 AD.
The most important phenomenon that took place within the lands of Poland in the Early Middle Ages, as well as other parts of Central Europe was the arrival and permanent settlement of the West Slavs.
The Polans (also known as Polanes, Polanians;, derived from Old Slavic pole, "field" or "plain", see polje) were a West Slavic tribe, part of the Lechitic group, inhabiting the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century.
"Pole and Hungarian brothers be" (the Polish version) and "Pole and Hungarian, two good friends" (Hungarian version) are respective forms of a popular bilingual saying about the traditional kinship, brotherhood, and camaraderie between the Polish and Hungarian peoples.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Following the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under the German civil administration.
The following is a list of the Polish military oaths, both historical and contemporary.
Polish OOB during the invasion of Poland.
The term "Polish Border Strip" (Polnischer Grenzstreifen; polski pas graniczny) or "Polish Frontier Strip" refers to those territories which the German Empire wanted to annex from Congress Poland after World War I. It appeared in plans proposed by German officials as a territory to be annexed by German Empire after an expected German and Central Powers victory.
Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating in or widely popular in Poland.
Polish historic regions are regions that were related to a former Polish state, or are within present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish Military Organisation, PMO ('Polska Organizacja Wojskowa', POW) was a secret military organization created by Józef Piłsudski in August 1914, and officially named in November 1914, during World War I. Its tasks were to gather intelligence and sabotage the enemies of the Polish people.
Polish National Committee (Komitet Narodowy Polski) was as organisation created during the Greater Poland Uprising of 1848.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
The Polish Reformed Church, officially called the Evangelical Reformed Church in the Republic of Poland (Polish: Kościół Ewangelicko-Reformowany w RP) is a historic Reformed Protestant church in Poland established in the 16th century, still in existence today.
Polish Rugby Union (Polish: Polski Związek Rugby), abbreviated to PZR, is the only legal Polish representative of Polish rugby union and rugby sevens for both men and women's rugby and all age groups.
Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA (PKP SA, Polish State Railways, Inc.) is the dominant railway operator in Poland.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The free election of 1573 was the first ever royal election to be held in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The third free election in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1587, after the death of King Stefan Batory.
On June 17, 1696, King John III Sobieski died in his palace at Wilanów near Warsaw.
In early 1700, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and Elector of Saxony, Augustus II the Strong began the Great Northern War by attacking Swedish Livonia.
The Seven Years' War, which ended in 1763, established a new pattern of political alliances in Europe.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights.
The Polish–Lithuanian and Prussian alliance was a mutual defense alliance signed on 29 March 1790 in Warsaw between representatives of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Polish–Teutonic War of 1519–1521 (Reiterkrieg, horsemen's war, Wojna pruska, Prussian War) was fought between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights, ending with an armistice in April 1521.
Polonia may mean.
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Polterabend is a German wedding custom in which, on the night before the wedding, the guests break porcelain to bring luck to the couple's marriage.
Pomerania during the Early Modern Age covers the history of Pomerania in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
Pomerania during the High Middle Ages covers the history of Pomerania in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Pomerelia (Pomerelia; Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania (Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland.
Pompeo Ferrari (circa 1660 – 15 May 1736) was an Italian architect, known as the best Baroque artist of Greater Poland.
Związek Ludowo-Narodowy (ZLN; Popular National Union) was a Polish political party aligned with the National Democracy political movement during the Second Polish Republic, gathering together right-wing politicians with conservative and nationalist opinions.
Poraj is a Polish Coat of Arms.
The Frontier March of Posen-West Prussia (Grenzmark Posen-Westpreußen, Marchia Graniczna Poznańsko-Zachodniopruska) was a province of the Free State of Prussia within the German Weimar Republic.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Army Poznań (Armia Poznań) led by Major General Tadeusz Kutrzeba was one of the Polish Armies during the Invasion of Poland in 1939.
Poznań Fortress, known in German as Festung Posen (Polish: Twierdza Poznań) was a set of fortifications in the city of Poznań (German: Posen) in western Poland, built under Prussian rule in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Poznań Główny (Polish for Poznan main station), commonly called Dworzec Główny, is the main railway station for the city of Poznań, Poland's fifth largest city, and capital of the Greater Poland voivodeship.
The Poznań International Fair (PIF, Międzynarodowe Targi Poznańskie, MTP) is the biggest industrial fair in Poland.
Poznań Voivodeship 14th century to 1793 (Palatinatus Posnaniensis, Województwo Poznańskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from the 14th century to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.
The Prague Slavic Congress of 1848 (Slovanský sjezd) took place in Prague between June 2 and June 12, 1848.
Princes Group is an international food and drink group involved in the manufacture, import and distribution of branded and customer own-brand products.
There were several proposals for a Jewish state in the course of Jewish history between the destruction of ancient Israel and the founding of the modern State of Israel.
The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen, Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918.
The Province of Silesia (Provinz Schlesien; Prowincja Śląska; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ) was a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia, existing from 1815 to 1919, when it was divided into the Upper and Lower Silesia provinces, and briefly again from 1938 to 1941.
The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions of Prussia upon the Stein-Hardenberg Reforms.
A prowincja (plural: prowincje) was the largest territorial subdivision in medieval and Renaissance-era Poland, and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.
The Prussian Partition (Zabór pruski), or Prussian Poland, refers to the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired during the Partitions of Poland, in the late 18th century by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Prussian Settlement Commission (Königlich Preußische Ansiedlungskommission in den Provinzen Westpreußen und Posen; Królewska Komisja Osadnicza dla Prus Zachodnich i Poznańskiego) was a Prussian government commission that operated between 1886 and 1924, but actively only until 1918.
The Prussian uprisings were two major and three smaller uprisings by the Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes, against the Teutonic Knights that took place in the 13th century during the Prussian Crusade.
Przemko II of Głogów (Przemko II głogowski) (– 11 January 1331) was a Duke of Żagań, Ścinawa, etc., from 1309 to 1321 (with his brothers as co-rulers), Duke of Oleśnica, Namysłów, Gniezno and Kalisz from 1309 to 1312 (with his brothers as co-ruler) and Duke of Głogów starting in 1318 (until 1321 with his brother, then alone).
Przemko of Ścinawa (Przemko ścinawski) (1255/65 – 26 February 1289) was Duke of Żagań from 1278 to 1284 and Duke of Ścinawa from 1284 until his death.
Przemysł I (5 June 1220/4 June 1221 – 4 June 1257), a member of the Piast dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland from 1239 until his death, from 1241 with his brother Bolesław the Pious as co-ruler.
Przemysł II (also given in English and Latin as Premyslas or Premislaus or less properly Przemysław; 14 October 1257 – 8 February 1296), was the Duke of Poznań from 1257–1279, of Greater Poland from 1279–1296, of Kraków from 1290–1291, and Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomerelia) from 1294–1296, and then King of Poland from 1295 until his death.
Przemysł of Inowrocław (pl: Przemysł inowrocławski; ca. 1278 – November 1338/16 February 1339), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Inowrocław during 1287-1314 (under the regency of his mother until 1294 and his brother during 1294-1296), since 1300 vassal of King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, Duke of Dobrzyń during 1303-1305, since 1306 vassal of the Kingdom of Poland, Governor of the Duchy of Pomerelia (Gdańsk Pomerania) during 1306-1309 (on behalf of his uncle Władysław I the Elbow-high), since 1314 ruler over Bydgoszcz and Wyszogród, Duke of Inowrocław since 1320/24, in 1327 he exchange Inowrocław for Sieradz.
Przemysław of Racibórz (Przemysław raciborski) (between 21 October 1258 and 12 June 1268 – 7 May 1306) was a Duke of Racibórz since 1282 until his death (until 1290 with his brother as co-ruler).
Antonin. The Przygodzice Radziwiłł Family Fee Tail (Polish: Ordynacja Przygodzicka Radziwiłłów) was a fee tail established in the Prussian Partition of Poland by Prince Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł for his son Antoni Henryk Radziwiłł in 1873.
Pyzdry (Peisern) is a town in Września County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,163 inhabitants (2004).
The PZL.37 Łoś (moose) was a Polish twin-engined medium bomber designed and manufactured by national aircraft company PZL.
---- Radoszyce (ראַדאָשיץ‎, רדושיץ‎ Radoshits, "Radoshitz, Radoschitz, Radoszyc") is a town in Końskie County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland (historic province of Lesser Poland).
Rafał Leszczyński (October 1579 – 29 March 1636) was a Polish–Lithuanian noble and Imperial count.
Rafał Leszczyński (1650–1703) from the Leszczyński family of Counts of the Holy Roman Empire, was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), father of King of Poland Stanisław I Leszczyński.
Rakoniewice (Rakwitz) is a town in Grodzisk Wielkopolski County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,576 inhabitants (2006).
Rawa Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland since 15th century until the partitions of Poland in 1795.
Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane, literally "Regained Lands") was an official term used by the People's Republic of Poland to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Polish regions are regions located within the present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.
The Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German Reichsgau formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II.
The Repnin Sejm (Sejm Repninowski) was a Sejm (session of the parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place between 1767 and 1768 in Warsaw.
The Republic of Ostrów (Republika Ostrowska) was a short-lived autonomous republic in the Polish area of Ostrów Wielkopolski.
Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust are those who, during World War II, helped Jews and others escape the Holocaust conducted by Nazi Germany.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Richeza of Sweden (Rikissa Valdemarsdotter, Ryksa szwedzka, Ryksa Waldemarówna; b. between 1265 and 1270 – d. before 1292), was a Swedish princess member of the House of Bjelbo and by marriage Duchess of Greater Poland during 1285-1292 and High Duchess consort of Poland during 1290-1291.
Rodryg Dunin (June 26, 1870 – October 26, 1928) was a Polish noble (szlachta), a hrabia (Count), and an industrialist and agriculturalist.
The Archdiocese of Wrocław (Archidiecezja wrocławska; Erzbistum Breslau; Arcidiecéze vratislavská; Archidioecesis Vratislaviensis) is a Latin Rite archdiocese of the Catholic Church named after its capital Wrocław in Poland.
Roman Stanisław Dmowski (9 August 1864 – 2 January 1939) was a Polish politician, statesman, and co-founder and chief ideologue of the right-wing National Democracy ("ND": in Polish, "Endecja") political movement.
Romanesque architecture in Poland dates back to the 11th century to the reign of Casimir I the Restorer.
Below is list of exonyms of Romanian language, or exonym-words for places outside Romania and Republic of Moldova.
Rostworowski (plural: Rostworowscy, feminine form: Rostworowska) is a Polish aristocratic family, originating in Greater Poland and using the Nałęcz coat-of-arms.
The Royal Castle in Poznań (Zamek Królewski w Poznaniu) dates from 1249 and the reign of Przemysł I. Located in the Polish city of Poznań, it was largely destroyed during the Second World War but has since been partly rebuilt.
Rydzyna (Reisen) is a Polish town that was the seat of king Stanisław I during his first short reign from 1704 to 1709.
The castle in Rydzyna was built at the beginning of the 15th century by Jan of Czernina.
Salome of Greater Poland also known as Salomea Odonicówna (literally daughter of Odonic) (Salomea wielkopolska or Odonicówna; b. – d. April 1267?), was a Polish princess member of the Piast dynasty from the Greater Poland branch and by marriage Duchess of Glogów.
The Samborides or House of Sobiesław were a ruling dynasty in the historic region of Pomerelia.
Samuel Twardowski (before 1600 – 1661) was a Polish poet, diarist, and essayist who gained popularity in 17th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, called by his contemporaries 'Polish Virgil'.
The Sandomierz Agreement (or Sandomierz Consensus; lat. Consensus Sendomiriensis) was an agreement reached in 1570 in Sandomierz between a number of Protestant groups in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Słomniki is a town in southern Poland, situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Kraków Voivodeship (1975-1998).
A Schultüte (or school cone, even though the German word Tüte is translated into English in most other contexts as "bag" - see also Skolekræmmerhus or Skolepose), is a large cone-shaped container made of paper or cardboard or plastic.
The second Mongol invasion of Poland was carried out by general Boroldai (Burundai) in 1259–1260.
The Second Northern War (1655–60, also First or Little Northern War) was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), Russia (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway (1657–58 and 1658–60).
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Sejm of the Grand Duchy of Posen (Provinziallandtag des Großherzogthums Posen, Sejm Wielkiego Księstwa Poznańskiego) was the parliament in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Posen and the Province of Posen, seated in Poznań/Posen.
The general sejm (sejm walny, also translated as the full or ordinary sejm) was the parliament of Kingdom of Poland.
A sejmik (diminutive of sejm, occasionally translated as a dietine; seimelis) was one of various local parliaments in the history of Poland.
Seniorate Province, also known as the Senioral Province (Dzielnica senioralna), Duchy of Kraków (Księstwo krakowskie), Duchy of Cracow, Principality of Cracow, Principality of Kraków, was the superior among the five provinces established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty.
Sergiusz Prusak (born 1 May 1979) is a Polish footballer (Goalkeeper) who is currently playing for Górnik Łęczna.
Serock is a town at the north bank of the Zegrze lake in the Legionowo County, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland, around north of Warsaw.
Siege of Malbork (Siege of Marienburg) occurred during the Thirteen Years' War between the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Siege of Marienburg took place between September 28, 1457 - August 5, 1460, during the Thirteen Years' War.
The Siege of Stralsund was a battle during the Great Northern War.
The Siege of Toruń was one of the battles during the Swedish invasion of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Second Northern War / Deluge).
The Siege of Warsaw took place between April 24 and July 1, 1656.
Siemowit IV (Ziemowit IV), also known as Siemowit IV the Younger (pl: Siemowit IV Młodszy; ca. 1353/1356 – 21 January 1426), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch, from 1373/74 Duke of Rawa, and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brother in 1381, ruler over Rawa, Płock, Sochaczew, Gostynin, Płońsk and Wizna, since 1386 hereditary Polish vassal, since 1388 ruler over Belz, during 1382–1401 he lost Wizna and during 1384–1399 and 1407–1411 he lost Zawkrze, during 1384–1399 he lost Płońsk, taken by the Teutonic Order.
Sieradz (Syradia, 1941-45 Schieratz) is a town on the Warta river in central Poland with 42,762 inhabitants (2016).
Sieradz Land (Ziemia Sieradzka) is a historical region of Poland, the southeastern part of Greater Poland.
Sieradz Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975–1998, superseded by Łódź Voivodeship.
Sieradz Voivodeship (Województwo sieradzkie, Palatinatus Siradiensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1339 to the second partition of Poland in 1793.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Silent Sejm (also Dumb Sejm and literally Mute Sejm, Нямы сойм; Sejm Niemy; Nebylusis seimas) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717 held in Warsaw.
The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159), eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland.
Silesian Przesieka, literally Silesian Cutting (Przesieka Śląska or Oseg, Schlesischer Grenzwald, Hag or Preseka, Indago) was a densely forested, uninhabited and unpassable strip of land in the middle of Silesia, spreading from Golden Mountains in the south, along the Nysa Kłodzka to the Odra, and then along the Stobrawa, reaching the towns of Namysłów and Byczyna in northern Silesia.
Siwki or Siwek (literally Easter Greys, as in grey horses) is a regional tradition rooted in Polish folklore, in which a procession of dressed up individuals stops passers-by and performs tricks on them.
Skała is a town in southern Poland, situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Kraków Voivodeship (1975-1998).
Skrzynno is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wieniawa, within Przysucha County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
Skwierzyna (Schwerin an der Warthe) is a town of 10,339 inhabitants (2005) in Lubusz Voivodeship in western Poland, the administrative seat of the Gmina Skwierzyna.
Sokół, or in full the "Falcon" Polish Gymnastic Society (Polskie Towarzystwo Gimnastyczne "Sokół"), is the Polish offshoot of the Czech (pan-Slavic oriented) Sokol movement, and the oldest youth movement organization of Poland.
Sokola Dąbrowa (Falkenwalde) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bledzew, within Międzyrzecz County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.
Sorbs (Serbja, Serby, Sorben), known also by their former autonyms Lusatians and Wends, are a West Slavic ethnic group predominantly inhabiting their homeland in Lusatia, a region divided between Germany (the states of Saxony and Brandenburg) and Poland (the provinces of Lower Silesia and Lubusz).
South Prussia (Südpreußen; Prusy Południowe) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.
MKS Sparta Szamotuły is a Polish association football club, from Szamotuły, Greater Poland.
Stanisław Karnkowski (1520–1603), from Junosza, was the Great Referendary of the Crown (since 1558), the Great Secretary of the Crown (since 1563), bishop of Włocławek (1567-1580), archbishop of Gniezno – Primate of Poland (since 1581).
Stanisław Józef Bronisław Kasznica (July 25, 1908 – May 12, 1948) was the last commander of the National Armed Forces (NSZ), an anti-communist, and anti-Nazi paramilitary organization, which was part of the Polish resistance movement in World War II and in the period following it.
Stanisław Kozierowski (1874 – 1949) was a Polish Catholic priest and historian.
Stanisław Kubicki (November 7, 1889 in Zeigenhain – 1942 in Berlin) was a Polish painter, printmaker, member of the Expressionist movement in the arts and literature.
Stanisław I Leszczyński (also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Stanislovas Leščinskis, Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
Count Stanisław Szczęsny Feliks Potocki (1751–1805), of the Piława coat of arms, known as Szczęsny Potocki was a member of the Polish szlachta and a military commander of the forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and then Poland.
Stanislaw Kostka Łukomski (21 October 1874 – 4 November 1948) was a leading Polish bishop and right wing political activist of the early 20th century, who was possibly assassinated shortly after World War II.
Stare Drawsko (Draheim, old Drahim before 1945) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Czaplinek, within Drawsko County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.
The General Charter of Jewish Liberties known as the Statute of Kalisz, and as the Kalisz Privilege, was issued by the Duke of Greater Poland Boleslaus the Pious on September 8, 1264 in Kalisz.
Statutes of Casimir the Great or Piotrków-Wiślica Statutes (Statuty wiślicko-piotrkowskie) - a collection of laws issued by Casimir III the Great, the king of Poland, in the years 1346-1362 during congresses in Piotrków and Wiślica.
Stefan Czarniecki of the Łodzia coat of arms (1599 – 16 February 1665) was a Polish nobleman, general and military commander.
Stephen of Greater Poland (Stefan Mieszkowic; 1150 – 18 October 1166/77?), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast.
Stibor of Stiboricz of Ostoja (also written in English as Scibor or Czibor; Ścibor ze Ściborzyc, Stiborici Stibor, Știbor de Știborici, Stibor zo Stiboríc; c. 1348 – February 1414) was an aristocrat of Polish origin in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Sułkowski (Polish plural: Sułkowscy) family is a Polish family of nobility and gentry consisting of famous members and having owned palaces in Rydzyna and Bielsko.
Sulejów is a town in central Poland with 6,272 inhabitants (2016).
The Swedish invasion of Poland (1701–1706), also known as Charles XII's invasion of Poland or the Polish front of the Great Northern War, was a conflict in eastern Europe overshadowed by the ongoing Great Northern War fought between the Swedish Empire against the Russian Empire, Denmark-Norway, Saxony and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Swietopelk II, also Zwantepolc II or Swantopolk II, (1190/1200 – 11 January 1266), sometimes known as the Great (Świętopełk II Wielki; Kashubian: Swiãtopôłk II Wiôldżi), was ruling Duke of Pomerelia-Gdańsk from 1215 until his death.
Szczebrzeszyn ("shcheh-BZHEH-shen") is a city in southeastern Poland in Lublin Voivodeship, in Zamość County, about 20 km west of Zamość.
Szczerbiec is the coronation sword that was used in crowning ceremonies of most Polish monarchs from 1320 to 1764.
Szlichtyngowa (German: Schlichtingsheim) is a town in Poland, in the Wschowa County of the Lubuskie Voivodship, near the Oder River.
Tadeusz Czesław Malinowski (born April 8, 1932, in Poznań, Poland) is a Polish scientist and archaeologist specialising in the Bronze Age and early Iron Age.
Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko; February 4 or 12, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States.
The Tarnogród Confederation was a confederation of szlachta in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the years 1715–1716.
Tassilo, Baron von Heydebrand und der Lasa (known in English as "Baron von der Lasa", 17 October 1818, Berlin – 27 July 1899, Storchnest near Lissa, Greater Poland, then German Empire) was an important German chess master, chess historian and theoretician of the nineteenth century, a member of the Berlin Chess Club and a founder of the Berlin Chess School (the Berlin Pleiades).
Teodor Kazimierz Czartoryski (1704 – 1 March 1768 in Dolsk) was a bishop of Poznań and a member of the magnate family of Czartoryski in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Teodor Teofil Matecki (April 25, 1810 – May 15, 1886) was a Polish physician, social activist and member of Poznań Society of Friends of Learning.
The territorial changes of Germany include all changes in the borders and territory of Germany from its formation in 1871 to the present.
Poland (Polska) is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north.
The last will and testament of the Piast duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland, established rules for governance of the Polish kingdom by his four surviving sons after his death.
The city of Danzig (Gdańsk) was captured by the State of the Teutonic Order on 13 November 1308, resulting in a massacre of its inhabitants and marking the beginning of tensions between Poland and the Teutonic Order.
The Deluge (Potop) is a historical novel by the Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz, published in 1886.
The Holocaust in German-occupied Poland was the last and most lethal phase of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" (Endlösung der Judenfrage), marked by the construction of death camps on German-occupied Polish soil.
The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
The Treaty of Kępno (Umowa kępińska, Układ w Kępnie) was an agreement between the High Duke of Poland and Wielkopolska Przemysł II and the Duke of Pomerania Mestwin II (sometimes rendered as "Mściwój") signed on February 15, 1282, which transferred the suzerainty over Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomeralia) to Przemysł.
The treaty of Marienburg, concluded on 29 June 1656, was a Brandenburg-Prussian – Swedish alliance during the Second Northern War.
Treaty of Radnot was a treaty signed during the Second Northern War in Radnot in Transylvania (now Iernut in Romania) on 6 December 1656.
The Trojanka, also called Goślinka, is a stream, a right tributary of the Warta river, lying within the district of Gmina Murowana Goślina in Greater Poland Voivodeship, western Poland.
Trzcianka (Schönlanke) is a town in the Greater Poland region in Poland.
Trzemeszno (Tremessen) is a town in central Poland belonging to the group of the oldest settlements in the region.
The Únětice culture (Czech Únětická kultura, German Aunjetitzer Kultur, Polish Kultura unietycka) is an archaeological culture at the start of the Central European Bronze Age, dated roughly to about 2300–1600BC.
In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.
Union of Poles in Germany (Związek Polaków w Niemczech, Bund der Polen in Deutschland e.V.) is an organisation of the Polish minority in Germany, founded in 1922.
Universitas Cantat is the presentation forum of the musical life of the academic centers from entire world.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
A vampire burial or anti-vampire burial is a burial performed in a way which was believed to prevent the deceased from revenance in the form of a vampire or to prevent an "actual" vampire from revenance.
Viacheslava of Novgorod (Вячеслава новгородская, Wierzchosława Nowogrodzka; b. ca. 1125 – d. 15 March by 1162?), was a Kievan Rus' princess member of the House of Rurik and by marriage Duchess of Masovia and Kuyavia and High Duchess of Poland since 1146.
A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.
In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship.
Wałcz (German: Deutsch Krone) is a county town in Wałcz County of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland.
Waldemar Kraft (19 February 1898 in Brzustow, Jarotschin district, in the Province of Posen (today Brzostów, Poland) – 12 July 1977 in Bonn) was a German politician who served as Federal Minister for Special Affairs in the Cabinet of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer from 1953 to 1956.
Waldemar Maciszewski (19271956) was a Polish pianist and composer.
Walenty Stefański (1813, Śródka, Poznań County - 1877) was a Polish bookseller, publisher, political activist and co-founder of the Polish League (Liga Polska).
Walter Braemer (7 January 1883 13 June 1955) was a general in the Reichswehr and the Wehrmacht and a high-ranking SS commander during the Nazi era.
Walter Kuhn (27 September 1903 – 5 August 1983), was a Nazi party member, nationalist historian and Ostforschung researcher interested in linguistics and German minorities outside Germany, particularly in the area of Ukraine.
It's estimated that over six million Polish citizens,Project in Posterum, Retrieved 20 September 2013.
Warfare in Medieval Poland covers the military history of Poland during the Piast and Jagiellon dynasties (10th–16th centuries).
The Warta (Polish pronunciation: Warthe; Varta) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder River (Odra).
Wawrzyniec Styczeń (January 5, 1836 in Wola Drwińska near Bochnia – May 29, 1908 in Niepołomice) was a Polish social activist, lawyer, president of the Kraków branch of the Youth Club Sokół ("Falcon"), member of the Society of Appreciation of the History and Monuments of Kraków, and member of the Kraków City Council.
Władysław I Herman (1044 – 4 June 1102) was a Duke of Poland from 1079 until his death.
Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1306 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Vladislaus II the Exile (Władysław II Wygnaniec) (1105 – 30 May 1159) was a High Duke of Poland and Duke of Silesia from 1138 until his expulsion in 1146.
Władysław III Spindleshanks (Władysław Laskonogi; b. 1161/67 – 3 November 1231), of the Piast Dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland (during 1194–1202 over all the land and during 1202–1229 only over the southern part), High Duke of Poland and Duke of Kraków during 1202–1206 and 1228–1231, Duke of Kalisz during 1202–1206, ruler of Lubusz during 1206–1210 and 1218–1225, and ruler over Gniezno during 1216–1217.
Władysław (also named Włodzisław) Odonic (nicknamed Plwacz) (Władysław (Włodzisław) Odonic (Plwacz)) (– 5 June 1239) was a Duke of Kalisz 1207–1217, Duke of Poznań 1216–1217, ruler of Ujście in 1223, ruler of Nakło from 1225, and Duke of all Greater Poland 1229–1234; from 1234 until his death he was ruler over only the north and east of the Warta river (some historians believed that shortly before his death, he lost Ujście and Nakło).
Władysław of Legnica (Władysław legnicki; 6 June 1296 – after 13 January 1352), was a Duke of Legnica during 1296–1312 (with his brothers until 1311 and briefly alone during 1311–1312), of Brzeg and Wrocław during 1296–1311 (with his brothers).
Władysław of Opole (Władysław opolski) (– 27 August/13 September 1281/2) was a Duke of Kalisz during 1234–1244, Duke of Wieluń from 1234 to 1249 and Duke of Opole–Racibórz from 1246 until his death.
Wenceslaus III (Václav III., Vencel, Wacław, Václav; 6 October 12894 August 1306) was King of Hungary between 1301 and 1305, and King of Bohemia and Poland from 1305.
New Galicia or West Galicia (Nowa Galicja or Galicja Zachodnia, Neugalizien or Westgalizien) was an administrative region of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, constituted from the territory annexed in the course of the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
West Pomeranian Voivodeship or West Pomerania Province (in Polish, województwo zachodniopomorskie.
The Province of West Prussia (Provinz Westpreußen; Zôpadné Prësë; Prusy Zachodnie) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1824 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); it also briefly formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia until 1919/20.
The Western Institute in Poznań (Polish: Instytut Zachodni, German West-Institut, French: L'Institut Occidental) is a scientific research society focusing on the Western provinces of Poland - Kresy Zachodnie (including Greater Poland, Silesia, Pomerania), history, economy and politics of Germany, and the Polish-German relations in history and today.
Wielkopolska Cavalry Brigade (Polish: Wielkopolska Brygada Kawalerii) was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period.
The Wielkopolska Chronicle (or Chronicle of Greater Poland, Kronika wielkopolska) is an anonymous medieval chronicle describing supposed history of Poland from legendary times up to the year 1273.
The Wielkopolski is a breed of horse that was originated in Central and Western Poland in 1964, and is occasionally known as Mazursko-Poznanski.
Wielkopolski Bank Kredytowy SA (Greater Poland Credit Bank) was a Poland-based commercial bank, which offered the normal range of retail and commercial financial services through its branch network.
'Wielkopolski' National Park (Wielkopolski Park Narodowy, or the National Park of Greater Poland) is a National Park within the Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) region of west-central Poland, approximately south of the regional capital, Poznań.
Wieluń (Welun) is a city in central Poland with 22,973 inhabitants (2016).
Wieluń Land (Ziemia Wieluńska) was an administrative territorial entity of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which for centuries was part of Sieradz Voivodeship, Province of Greater Poland.
Wierzchoslawa Ludmilla of Greater Poland (Wierzchoslawa Ludmiła Mieszkówna; b. bef. 1153 – d. bef. 1223), was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast, by marriage Lady of Bitsch and during 1205-1206 Duchess of Lorraine.
Wiktor Budzyński (Lithuanian: Viktoras Budzinskis), born March 7, 1888 in the village of Eustachow near Vilkaviškis, died 1976 in Puszczykowo near Poznań, was an ethnic Polish politician, active in the interbellum period in the Republic of Lithuania.
Wiktor Kurnatowski (?-1846) was a Polish lithographer and conspirator.
Wilanów Palace or Wilanowski Palace (pałac w Wilanowie) is a royal palace located in the Wilanów district, Warsaw.
Wincenty of Niałka (Vincent) was the Archbishop of Gniezno in the years 1220–1232.
Wind power is a minor but growing source of electricity in Poland.
Witold Hulewicz (1895–1941) was a Polish poet, literary critic, translator and publisher.
Witold Jakóbczyk (1909–1986) was a Polish historian and professor at Poznań University, specializing in the history of Greater Poland in the 19th century.
Wojciechowski (feminine: Wojciechowska; plural Wojciechowscy) is the 16th most common surname in Poland (66,879 people in 2009) and also the third most common in Greater Poland (12,928).
Wolbrom (Wolfram) is a town in Olkusz County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 9,568 inhabitants (2005).
Wolsztyn (Wollstein) is a town in western Poland, on the western edge of Greater Poland Voivodeship (from 1975 to 1998 it was in Zielona Góra Voivodeship).
Mass evacuation, forced displacement, expulsion, and deportation of millions of people took place across most countries involved in World War II.
Wprost (meaning "Directly") is a Polish-language weekly newsmagazine published in Poznań, Poland.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Września school strike or Września children strike refers to the protests of Polish children and their parents against Germanization that occurred in Września in the years 1901–1904.
Wyrzysk (Wirsitz) is a town in Poland with 5,263 (2004) inhabitants, situated in Piła County, Greater Poland Voivodeship.
Zabłocki (feminine: Zabłocka, plural: Zabłoccy) is the name of a Polish aristocratic family of ancient lineage (Jastrzębiec) and Coat of arms Łada, who assumed the name of Zabłocki after acquisition of Zabłocie Pułtuskie in Wielkopolska in the year 1500.
Zbąszyń (Bentschen) is a town in western Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodeship, in Nowy Tomyśl County.
Zbigniew (also known as Zbygniew; ca. 1073 – 8 July 1113?M. Spórna, P. Wierzbicki: Słownik władców Polski i pretendentów do tronu polskiego, p. 501; B. Snoch: Protoplasta książąt śląskich, Katowice, 1985, p. 13,.), was a Prince of Poland (in Greater Poland, Kuyavia and Masovia) during 1102-1107.
Marcin Zborowski Andrzej Zborowski Zborowski (feminine form: Zborowska, plural: Zborowscy) of the Jastrzębiec coat of arms was a Polish noble family from Greater Poland, It played a significant role in Polish politics in the 16th century.
Zielona Góra Airport (Port Lotniczy Zielona Góra-Babimost) is a regional airport located within the greater Zielona Góra agglomeration (the so-called Lubusian Tri-city) in western Poland.
Zwoleń (זוואלין Zvolin) is a town in Poland, in Masovian Voivodeship, about east of Radom.
Zygmunt Gorgolewski (February 14, 1845 – July 6, 1903) was a Polish architect, renowned for his construction of the Grand Theatre in Lviv.
Zygmunt Grudziński (1568 or 1572 – 1653) was a Polish noble (szlachcic) of Grzymała coat of arms.
Zygmunt Wojciechowski (27 April 1900 – 14 October 1955) was a Polish historian and nationalist politician.
Year 1003 (MIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1004 (MIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year in topic Year 1012 (MXII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year in topic Year 1013 (MXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year in topic Year 1015 (MXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1016 (MXVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1017 (MXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1018 (MXVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
14 Greater Poland Infantry Division (Polish: 14 Wielkopolska Dywizja Piechoty) was a unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period, which took part in the Polish September Campaign.
16th Greater Poland Uhlan Regiment of General Gustaw Orlicz-Dreszer (Polish language: 16 Pulk Ulanow Wielkopolskich im. gen. dyw. Gustawa Orlicz-Dreszera, 16 p.ul.) was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic.
18th Pomeranian Uhlan Regiment (Polish language: 18 Pulk Ulanów Pomorskich, 18 p.ul.) was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic.
The 1913 season was Wisła Kraków 8th year as a club.
This year is famous for the end of the First World War, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, as well as for the flu pandemic, that killed 50-100 million people worldwide.
1937 peasant strike in Poland, also known in some Polish sources as the Great Peasant Uprising (Wielki Strajk Chłopski) was a mass strike and demonstration of peasants organized by the People's Party and aimed at the ruling sanacja government.
On May 15, 1936, president of Poland Ignacy Mościcki designed the government under prime minister Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski.
1948 Team Speedway Polish Championship season was the first season and is used to determine the Team Polish Champion.
The 1st Grenadier Division (literal translation 1st Grenadiers Division) was a Polish infantry formation raised in France during the early stages of World War II.
The 2012–13 Ekstraliga was the 38th edition of the women's football premier league in Poland.
26th Greater Poland Uhlan Regiment of Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (Polish: 26 Pulk Ulanow Wielkopolskich, im. Hetmana Jana Karola Chodkiewicza, 26 p.ul.) was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic.
The 36th Infantry Regiment of the Academic Legion (Polish 36 pułk piechoty Legii Akademickiej, 36pp) was a Polish military unit.
Polish 5th Siberian Rifle Division (5.; also known as the Siberian Division and Siberian Brigade) was a Polish military unit formed in 1919 in Russia during World War I. The division fought during the Polish-Bolshevik War, but as it was attached to the White Russian formations, it is considered to have fought more in the Russian Civil War.
The 74 Infantry Regiment (Polish 74 pułk piechoty) was a Polish military unit.
Year 930 (CMXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 940 (CMXL) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 960 (CMLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 963 (CMLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 965 (CMLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 966 (CMLXVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 967 (CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 968 (CMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 969 (CMLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 977 (CMLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 978 (CMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 982 (CMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 984 (CMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 986 (CMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 988 (CMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 990 (CMXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 992 (CMXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 996 (CMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 997 (CMXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.