ⓘ Italian irredentism in Nice
Italian irredentism in Nice was the political movement supporting the annexation of the County of Nice to the Kingdom of Italy.
According to some Italian nationalists and fascists like Ermanno Amicucci, Italian- and Ligurian-speaking populations of the County of Nice Italian: Nizza formed the majority of the countys population until the mid-19th century. However, French nationalists and linguists argue that both Occitan and Ligurian languages were spoken in the County of Nice.
During the Italian unification, in 1860, the House of Savoy allowed the Second French Empire to annex Nice from the Kingdom of Sardinia in exchange for French support of its quest to unify Italy. Consequently, the Niçois were excluded from the Italian unification movement and the region has since become primarily French-speaking.
The region around Nicaea, as Nice was known in Latin, was inhabited by the Ligures until its occupation by the Roman Empire. The Ligures were conquered by Augustus and, according to Theodor Mommsen, fully Romanised by the 4th century, when the invasions of the Migration Period began.
The Franks conquered the region after the fall of Rome, and the local Romance language speaking populations became integrated within the County of Provence, with a period of independence as a maritime republic 1108–1176. In 1388, the commune of Nice sought the protection of the Duchy of Savoy, and Nice continued to be controlled, directly or indirectly, by the Savoy monarchs right up until 1860.
During this time, the maritime strength of Nice rapidly increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates. Fortifications were largely extended by the House of Savoy and the roads of the city and surrounding region improved. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, abolished the use of Latin and established Italian as the official language of Nice in 1561.
Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the French First Republic, the County of Nice was part of France until 1814; but after that year it was placed under the protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna.
By a treaty concluded in 1860 between the Sardinian king and Napoleon III, the County of Nice was again ceded to France, along with Savoy, as a territorial reward for French assistance in the Second Italian War of Independence against Austria, which saw Lombardy unified with Piedmont-Sardinia.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, born in Nice, strongly opposed the cession to France, arguing that the plebiscite that ratified the treaty was not "universal" and contained irregularities. He was elected at the "French National Assembly" for Nice with 70% of the votes in 1871, and quickly promoted the withdrawal of France from Nice, but the elections were invalidated by the French authorities.
In 1871/72 there were popular riots in the city called by Garibaldi Vespri Nizzardi or Nizzard Vespers, promoted by the "Garibaldini" in favour of unification with the Kingdom of Italy. Fifteen Nizzardi Italians were processed and condemned for these riots, supported by the Nizzardo Republican Party
More than 11.000 Nizzardi Italians refused to be French and moved to Italy mainly Turin and Genoa after 1861. The French government closed the Italian language newspapers Diritto di Nizza and Voce di Nizza in 1861, and Il Pensiero di Nizza in 1895. In these newspapers wrote the most famous writers in Italian language of Nice: Giuseppe Bres, Henri Sappia, Giuseppe Andre.
One of the most renowned Nizzardo Italians was Luciano Mereu, a follower of Garibaldi. On November 1870 he was temporarily exiled from Nice together with the "Garibaldini" Adriano Gilli, Carlo Perino and Alberto Cougnet. Later, Luciano Mereu was elected in 1871 as counselor of Nizza under Mayor Augusto Raynaud 1871–1876 and was member of the Commissione garibaldina di Nizza with Donato Rasteu, its President until 1885.
Benito Mussolini considered the annexation of Nice to be one of his main targets. In 1942, during World War II, after Operation Torch the landing of the Allies in North Africa, the former County of Nice was occupied and administered by Italy from November 11, 1942 until September 8, 1943.
The Italian occupation government was far less severe than that of Vichy France. Therefore, thousands of Jews took refuge there. For a while the city became an important centre for various Jewish organizations. However, when the Italians signed the Armistice of Cassibile with the Allies, German troops invaded the region on September 8, 1943 and initiated brutal raids. Alois Brunner, the SS official for Jewish affairs, was placed at the head of units formed to search out Jews. Within five months, 5.000 Jews were caught and deported.
The area was returned to France following the war and in 1947, the areas of La Brigue and Tende, which had remained Italian after 1860 were ceded to France. Thereafter, a quarter of the Nizzardi Italians living in that mountainous area moved to Piedmont and Liguria in Italy mainly from the Roya Valley and Tenda.
Today, after a sustained process of Francization conducted since 1861, the former county is predominantly French-speaking. Only along the coast around Menton and in the mountains around Tende there are still some native speakers of the original Intemelio dialect of Ligurian.
Currently the area is part of the Alpes-Maritimes department of France.
In Nice the language of Church, Municipality, Law, School, Theatre was always the Italian language.From 460 AD to the mid-19th century the County of Nice counted 269 writers, not including the still living. Of these 269 writers, 90 used Italian, 69 Latin, 45 Italian and Latin, 7 Italian and French, 6 Italian with Latin and French, 2 Italian with Nizzardo dialect and French, 2 Italian and Provençal.
Before the year 1000 the area of Nice was part of the Ligurian League, under the Republic of Genoa; the population spoke a dialect different from the one of western Liguria, whereas in the eastern part the language, which today is called Intemelio was spoken. The medieval writer and poet Dante Alighieri wrote in his Divine Comedy that the Var near Nice was the western limit of the Italian Liguria.
Around the 12th century, Nice came under the control of the French Capetian House of Anjou. They favoured the immigration of peasants from Provence, who brought with them their Occitan language. From 1388 to 1860, the County of Nice was under Savoyard rule and remained connected to the Italian dialects and peninsula. In the fantastic linguistics and historical inventions of the Italian fascists, in this era, the people of the mountainous areas of the upper Var Valley started to lose their former Ligurian linguistic characteristics and began to adopt Provençal influences. They believe that in those centuries the local Niçard dialect became distinct from the Monegasque of the Principality of Monaco.
Traditionally, Italian linguists maintained that Niçard originated as a Ligurian dialect. On the other hand, French linguists argue that Niçard is a dialect of Occitan while conceding that Monegasque is a dialect of Ligurian. However, Sue Wright notes that before the Kingdom of Sardinia ceded the County of Nice to France, "Nice was not French-speaking before the annexation but underwent a shift to French in a short time. and it is surprising that the local Italian dialect, the Nissart, disappeared quickly from the private domain." She also wrote that one of the main reasons of the disappearance of the Italian language in the County was because "many of the administrative class under Piedmont-Savoy ruler, the soldiers; jurists; civil servants and professionals, who used Italian in their working lives, moved to Piedmont, after the annexation and their places and roles were taken by newcomers from France".
Indeed, immediately after 1861, the French government closed all the Italian language newspapers and more than 11.000 Nizzardi Italians moved to the Kingdom of Italy. The dimension of this exodus can be deducted by the fact that in the Savoy census of 1858, Nice had only 44.000 inhabitants. In 1881, The New York Times wrote, "Before the French annexation, the Niçois were quite as much Italian as the Genoese and their dialect was if anything, nearer the Tuscan, than is the harsh dialect of Genoa.
Giuseppe Garibaldi defined his "Nizzardo" as an Italian dialect, albeit with strong similarities to Occitan and with some French influences, and for this reason promoted the union of Nice to the Kingdom of Italy.
Today some scholars, like the German Werner Forner, the French Jean-Philippe Dalbera and the Italian Giulia Petracco Sicardi, agree that the Niçard has some characteristics - phonetic, lexical and morphological - that are typical of western Ligurian. The French scholar Bernard Cerquiglini pinpoints in his Les langues de France the actual existence of a Ligurian minority in Tende, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin and Menton.
Another reduction in the number of the Nizzardi Italians happened after World War II, when defeated Italy was forced to surrender to France the small mountainous area of the County of Nice, that had been retained in 1860. From the Val di Roia, Tenda and Briga one quarter of the local population moved to Italy in 1947.
In the century of nationalism between 1850 and 1950, the Nizzardi Italians were reduced from the 70% majority of the 125.000 people living in the County of Nice at the time of the French annexation, to a current minority of nearly two thousand in the area of Tende and Menton today.
Nowadays, the populations of Nice and its surroundings are fluent in French, but a few of them still speak the original Niçard language of Nissa La Bella.
- Holt, Edgar. The Making of Italy 1815–1870, Atheneum. New York, 1971
- Ralph Schor, Henri Courriere dir., Le comte de Nice, la France et lItalie. Regards sur le rattachement de 1860. Actes du colloque organise à luniversite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 23 avril 2010, Nice, editions Serre, 2011, 175 p.
- Barberis, Francesco. Nizza italiana: raccolta di varie poesie italiane e nizzarde, corredate di note. Editore Tip. Sborgi e Guarnieri Nizza, 1871. University of California, 2007
- Stuart, J. Woolf. Il risorgimento italiano. Einaudi. Torino, 1981
- Werner Forner. L’intemelia linguistica, Intemelion I. Genoa, 1995.
- Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Centre Histoire du droit. Les Alpes Maritimes et la frontiere 1860 à nos jours. Actes du colloque de Nice 1990. Ed. Serre. Nice,1992
- Bec, Pierre. La Langue Occitane. Presses Universitaires de France. Paris, 1963
- Andre, Giuseppe. Nizza, negli ultimi quattro anni. Editore Gilletta. Nizza, 1875
- Amicucci, Ermanno. Nizza e l’Italia. Ed. Mondadori. Milano, 1939.
- Gray, Ezio. Le terre nostre ritornano. Malta, Corsica, Nizza. De Agostini Editoriale. Novara, 1943
- Barelli Herve, Rocca Roger. Histoire de lidentite niçoise. Serre. Nice, 1995. ISBN 2-86410-223-4
- Italian irredentism Italian irredentismo italiano was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist
- commemorates the 150th year of Nice s annexation. Bishopric of Nice Provence Italia irredenta Italian irredentism in Nice Amicucci, Ermanno. Nizza e l Italia
- Italian irredentism in Savoy was the political movement among Savoyards promoting annexation to the Savoy dynasty s Kingdom of Italy It was active from
- as the official language. Occitan language Italian irredentism in Nice The counts of Ventimiglia in Italian PDF Archived from the original PDF
- and Nice Italian Nizza were temporarily annexed to the Kingdom of Italy nearly fulfilling in those years the ambitions of Italian irredentism For
- included Nice and most of the coastal County of Nice. Felibrige Italian irredentism in Nice Ligurian language Monegasque language Nissa La Bella Hammarstrom
- France up to the Rhone. The Italian occupation of Corsica had been strongly promoted by Italian irredentism during Italy s Fascist period. The occupation
- Imperialism, colonialism and irredentism played an important role in the foreign policy of Fascist Italy Among the regime s goals were the acquisition
- geography. Irredentism may operate as a device for a government to redirect their citizens discontent against outsiders. The word from Italian irredento
- Italian colonists in Albania were Italians who, between the two world wars, moved to Albania to colonize the Balkan country for the Kingdom of Italy
- between Italy and Allied armed forces in September 1943, when Italian troops on French soil retreated under pressure from the Germans. The initial Italian occupation
- Italian Fascism Italian fascismo italiano also known as Classical Fascism or simply Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy
- for Corsica within the French state. He briefly supported Italian irredentism in Corsica in the later 1930s, before returning to a position of French - Corsican
- territories of the Kingdom of Italy after 1946 the Italian Republic The genesis of the Italian colonial empire was the purchase in 1869 of Assab Bay on the
- Italian Somalis Italian Italo - Somali are Somali descendants from Italian colonists, as well as long - term Italian residents in Somalia. In 1892, the
- Djibouti, Corsica and Nice to Italy when World War II was just beginning. However it was only in November 1942 that Italian troops occupied with Rommel s
- these irredentism ideals, during World War II all the coastal area between Italy and Monte Carlo was occupied and administered by the Kingdom of Italy until
- Italian settlers in Libya Italian Italo - libici, also called Italian Libyans typically refers to Italians and their descendants, who resided or were
- Italian Eritreans or Eritrean Italians are Eritrean - born descendants of Italian settlers as well as Italian long - term residents in Eritrea. Their ancestry
- Italians in Egypt, also referred to as Italian Egyptians, are a community with a history that goes back to Roman times. Perhaps the most famous Italian
- part in several wars, and returned to Italy in 1848. After the Revolutions of 1848, the apparent leader of the Italian unification movement was Italian nationalist
- Party Italian Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Italian Fascism
- acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties. In 1936, the region was integrated into Italian East Africa as part of the Italian Empire. This
- The Italian concession of Tientsin Chinese: 天津意租界 pinyin: Tiānjīn Yì Zūjie, Italian Concessione italiana di Tientsin was a small territory concession
- Italian Libya Italian Libia Italiana Arabic: ليبيا الإيطالية Lībyā al - Ītālīya was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy located in North Africa, in what
- Kingdom of Italy Italian Regno d Italia was a state which existed from 1861 - when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy - until
- The Italian Islands of the Aegean Italian Isole italiane dell Egeo Greek: Ἰταλικαὶ Νῆσοι Αἰγαίου Πελάγους were a group of twelve major islands the
- Italian colonists were settled in the Dodecanese Islands of the Aegean Sea in the 1930s by the Fascist Italian government of Benito Mussolini, Italy having
- Italian East Africa Italian Africa Orientale Italiana was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa. It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian
- invasion of Albania Italian invasion of Egypt Italian invasion of France Italian irredentism Italian irredentism in Nice Italian Islands European Parliament
Users also searched:
irredentism, Nice, Italian, Italian irredentism in Nice, italian irredentism in nice, political controversies. italian irredentism in nice,
no need to download or install
Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!online intellectual game →