Henry IV of France

Henry IVHenri IVHenry of NavarreKing Henry IVHenry III of NavarreHenry IIIKing Henri IVKing Henry IV of FranceHenri IV of FranceHenri de Navarre
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre ; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.wikipedia
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House of Bourbon

BourbonBourbonsBourbon dynasty
He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Under the Salic law, the Head of the House of Bourbon, as the senior representative of the senior-surviving branch of the Capetian dynasty, became King of France as Henry IV.

François Ravaillac

Ravaillac
He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.
François Ravaillac (1578 – 27 May 1610) was a French Catholic zealot who assassinated King Henry IV of France in 1610.

Capetian dynasty

CapetianCapetiansCapetian kings
He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Henry IV was a Protestant at the time of his accession, but realized the necessity of conversion after four years of religious warfare.

Antoine of Navarre

Antoine de BourbonAntoineAntoine, King of Navarre
The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother.
He was the father of Henry IV of France.

French Wars of Religion

Wars of Religionreligious warsHuguenot Wars
As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.
Foreign allies provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Habsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, and England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d'Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and her son, Henry of Navarre.

St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

St Bartholomew's Day massacreMassacre of St. BartholomewSaint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.
Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place a few days after the wedding day (18 August) of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France).

Edict of Nantes

Revocation of the Edict of NantesEdit de Nantesconcession
Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.

Henry III of France

Henry IIIHenri IIIHenry of Valois
Henry IV and his predecessor Henry III of France are both direct descendants of the Saint-King Louis IX. Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574.
Henry III's legitimate heir was his distant cousin, King Henry III of Navarre, a Protestant.

Marche Henri IV

Vive Henri IVMarche Henri IV / Vive Henri IVVive le roi Henri
He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.
"Marche Henri IV", alternatively "Vive Henri IV" or "Vive le roi Henri", is a popular French song celebrating King Henry IV of France (also known as Le Bon Roi Henri, "Good King Henry").

Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques

PauPau, FrancePalois
Henry de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn.
He gained access to the throne of France in 1589 under the title of Henry IV.

Kingdom of Navarre

NavarreKingdom of PamplonaPamplona
Henry de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn.
The remaining northern part of the kingdom was again joined with France by personal union in 1589 when King Henry III of Navarre inherited the French throne as Henry IV of France, and in 1620 it was merged into the Kingdom of France.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother.
The wars only concluded when Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, promising official toleration of the Protestant minority, but under highly restricted conditions.

Margaret of Valois

Marguerite de ValoisMarguerite of ValoisMargaret
At Queen Joan's death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici.
By her marriage to Henry III of Navarre (later Henry IV of France), she was queen of Navarre and then France at her husband's 1589 accession to the latter throne.

Voltaire

François-Marie ArouetVoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.
He instead turned to an epic poem about Henry IV of France that he had begun in early 1717.

Jeanne d'Albret

Jeanne III of NavarreJeanne IIIJoan III of Navarre
The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother.
She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, becoming the Duchess of Vendôme, and was the mother of Henri de Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France, the first Bourbon king of France.

Acadia

Acadiel'AcadieHistory of Acadia
During his reign, the French colonization of the Americas truly began with the foundation of the colony of Acadia and its capital Port-Royal.
Henry IV of France chartered a colony south of the St. Lawrence River between the 40th and 46th parallels in 1603, and he recognized it as La Cadie.

Paris

Paris, FranceParísParisian
The wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral.
The conflicts ended when pretender to the throne Henry IV, after converting to Catholicism to gain entry to the capital, entered the city in 1594 to claim the crown of France.

Henriade

La HenriadeHenriad
He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.
According to Voltaire himself, the poem concerns and was written in honour of the life of Henry IV of France, and is a celebration of his life.

Charles IX of France

Charles IXKing Charles IXCharles
Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574.
In 1572, after several unsuccessful peace attempts, Charles ordered the marriage of his sister Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre (the future King Henry IV of France), a major Protestant nobleman who was in the line of succession to the French throne, in a last desperate bid to reconcile his people.

Battle of Arques

ArquesBattle of Arques (1589)fights in the neighbourhood of Arques
Henry was victorious at the Battle of Arques and the Battle of Ivry, but failed to take Paris after besieging it in 1590.
The Battle of Arques occurred on 15–29 September 1589 between the French royal forces of King Henry IV of France and troops of the Catholic League commanded by Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne during the eighth and final war (1585-1598) of the French Wars of Religion.

Battle of Ivry

Ivrya battle
Henry was victorious at the Battle of Arques and the Battle of Ivry, but failed to take Paris after besieging it in 1590.
The battle was a decisive victory for Henry IV of France, leading Huguenot and English forces against the Catholic League by the Duc de Mayenne and Spanish forces under the Count of Egmont.

Catherine de Bourbon

CatherineCatherine de NavarreCatherine of Navarre
He named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn.
She ruled the principality of Béarn in the name of her brother, King Henry III of Navarre, from 1576 until 1596.

Henry I, Duke of Guise

Duke of GuiseHenry of GuiseHenry, Duke of Guise
The third was Henry I, Duke of Guise, who pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists.
In 1576 he founded the Catholic League to prevent the heir, King Henry of Navarre, head of the Huguenot movement, from succeeding to the French throne.

Siege of Paris (1590)

Siege of ParisParislay siege to Paris
Henry was victorious at the Battle of Arques and the Battle of Ivry, but failed to take Paris after besieging it in 1590.
The siege of Paris took place in 1590 during the French Wars of Religion when the French Royal Army under Henry of Navarre, and supported by the Huguenots, failed to capture the city of Paris from the Catholic League.

Politique

politiques
As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era.
For example, the politique policies of Henry IV of France, such as the Edict of Nantes (a document granting unprecedented political and religious liberties to the minority French Protestants), directly contributed to the centralized administrative system of seventeenth century France and the absolutism embodied by Louis XIV of France, which included an eventual revocation of the Edict.