Film censorship in the Republic of Ireland - Wikipedia

Film censorship in the Republic of Ireland

Film censorship in the Republic of Ireland began on a national basis with the introduction of the Censorship of Films Act in 1923.[1] This act established the office of the Censor of Films,[2] an office since replaced and renamed in 2008 as the Irish Film Classification Office.

ApproachEdit

During the early and mid-20th century, the original Film Censors Office heavily cut films and videos for rental release, or placed high age ratings on them. Figures released by the Film Censors Office state that 2,500 films received theatrical performance bans, and over 11,000 films were cut, between the 1920s and 1980s.[3] Films previously banned in Ireland have included Scarface (1932), A Clockwork Orange (1971), and Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979).

Since the release of Michael Collins in 1996, which was initially rated PG despite its depictions of strong violence, the censor's office has generally applied age ratings and has not requested cuts to films. Former head censor Sheamus Smith (who held the position between 1986–2002) banned several but never cut them as his predecessors did, despite frequent requests from distributors to secure lower certificates and wider audiences. Smith wasn't fond of his official 'Film Censor' title as he felt that the term was emotive and implied someone who "butchers or bans movies". Smith believed that a director's vision should remain intact regardless of the certificate and that "it's an arrogance for a censor or classifier to be cutting up and changing it".[4]

Current director Ger Connolly follows the same policy,[5] although one instance of cutting involving previous censor John Kelleher exists, regarding Korean horror film The Isle. He didn't force censorship upon the film's distributor, but didn't immediately grant a certificate after viewing it on 8 September (just two days before its original release date) and "drew attention to scenes of sexual violence and explicit self-mutilation that were causing us concern". He gave them two options – either they could resubmit it for a second viewing/re-assessment or submit a censored version to secure a certificate. The distributor, Tartan, went with the latter, removing 3m 15s on top of 1m 50s already removed by the BBFC showing animal cruelty, specifically shots of a drowning bird and mutilated fish, which earned them an 18 certificate on 29 September – the changes weren't legally required but sped up the release process.[6]

LegislationEdit

The main legislation under which Irish films are rated and censored include:

  • The Censorship of Films Act, 1923 was an act "to provide for the official censoring of cinematographic pictures and for other matters connected therewith". It established the office of the Official Censor of Films and a Censorship of Films Appeal Board (see William Magennis) and that no film be exhibited in public without a certificate.
  • The Censorship of Films Act, 1923 was amended by the Censorship of Films (Amendment) Act, 1925, in connection with advertisements for films. It was amended by the Censorship of Films (Amendment) Act, 1930 to extend the legislation to "vocal or other sounds" accompanying pictures.
  • The Emergency Powers Act 1939 dealt with the preservation of the State in time of war and contained provisions relating to the censorship of communications, including mail,[7] newspapers and periodicals.
  • The Censorship of Films (Amendment) Act 1970 allowed films to be resubmitted for certification seven years after being rejected.
  • The Video Recordings Act, 1989 adds video/DVD recordings to the Film Censor's responsibility to examine. A different classification can be given than the same feature film was give but the censor cannot refuse to grant a certificate for a video if a certificate is in force for the same feature film.

Notable banned/cut filmsEdit

While a number of films were formerly banned or cut by the Film Censor's Office, a review in 2000 meant that many of these have since been un-banned and rated anywhere from G to 18. During that review process it was decided that no more films would be banned for either cinema or video release, but some bans are still in place.

Prior to the Video Recordings Act 1989, many films which were banned in the cinema were freely available on video tape to anyone in Ireland regardless of age.

A notable recent ban was that of Boy Eats Girl in 2005, a film starring Irish actress Samantha Mumba, due its graphic depiction of a suicide attempt. Following an appeal, it was passed uncut with a 15A rating, far from the highest possible.

The listed year refers to when the film was banned by the Office, not necessarily the original release date.

Date Title Notes Post-ban/current certificate
1927 The Unknown Banned on 27 August for its cruel sensationalism and semi-nudity of the heroine. As with Frankenstein, the unrestricted General certificate caused concern for 'youngsters and nervous adults'.

The Appeal Board upheld the rejection in the same year, though no specific date is available.[8]

1931 Dracula Passed with proposed cuts on 5 June, with a request for the distributor to "delete some of the horrors and re-show the film".[9] PG[10][11]
1932 Monkey Business Banned because censors feared it would encourage anarchic tendencies.[12][13] Passed on 8 January with '16 unspecified cuts to script', including characters falling over each other in a dance scene.[14][15] G[16][17]
1932 Frankenstein Banned on 5 February for being demoralising & unsuitable for children or 'nervous people' – age-restricted certificates weren't introduced until 1965.

Overturned by the Appeal Board on 8 March and given a certificate on 9 March (uncut).[18]

G (1932)

PG (video)[19][20][21]

1932 Freaks Upheld on video in 1999 for being "grossly offensive" to disabled people, according to then-assistant censor (and current director) Ger Connolly.[13][22][23][24]
1932 Scarface Banned on 19 August. Upheld by the Films Appeal Board on 30 September.

Banned on 29 August 1941 (under the alternate title of 'Gang War'). Upheld by the Films Appeal Board on 7 October.

Banned on 24 April 1953 (under the original title). No appeal was lodged.

Various reasons include pandering to sensationalism, glamorizing the gangster lifestyle and implying an incestuous relationship between the protagonist and his sister.[25]

PG[26][27]
1942 Fantasia Initially cut on 30 April. Dr. Richard Hayes (Film Censor from October 1940 to January 1954) cut the scientific talk which introduces the 'Rite of Spring' section, stating that it 'gave an entirely materialistic view of the origin of life'[28]:120[29] – it's since been reinstated.[30] G[31]
1942 A Day in Soviet Russia Passed with "extensive cuts under the EPO" (for infringing on wartime neutrality) on 2 June 1942.[32]

The documentary was advertised to open on a Sunday but the certificate was withdrawn on Saturday afternoon.[33]:170

1943 Casablanca Banned on 19 March for infringing on the Emergency Powers Order preserving wartime neutrality, by portraying Vichy France and Nazi Germany in a "sinister light".

Passed with cuts on 15 June 1945 after the EPO was lifted – this time the cuts were to dialogue between Rick and Ilsa referring to their love affair.[34]

Passed with one cut on 16 July 1974. RTÉ inquired about showing the film on TV – it still required a dialogue cut to Ilsa expressing her love for Rick.[35]

All releases since are uncut.

G[36]
1943 A Yank in the RAF Passed with 30 cuts on 10 August due to the EPO. It was passed on 27 July 1945 after the EPO was lifted, this time with only 5 cuts.[37] The certificate was withdrawn after one week's run at the Savoy Cinema in September after 41,000 had seen the film.:170–175[33] G[38]
1943 The Outlaw Banned due to sexual references.[39]
1945 Mildred Pierce [39] PG[40][41]
1945 Brief Encounter Initially banned as it was considered too permissive of adultery – ban lifted[39] PG[42][43][44][45]
1946 The Big Sleep Initially banned because of its sexual references – ban lifted.[39] PG[46]
1950 Outrage Banned due to its rape theme.[39]
1966 Pasażerka Initially banned and described by the censor as a "horror film" – he also objected to a scene showing naked women being driven to the camp.[47] Overturned by the Films Appeal Board without cuts.[48] 16
1967 Ulysses Based on the book by James Joyce, it was banned for being "subversive to public morality", upheld by the Films Appeal Board and banned for a second time in 1975 – ban lifted in September 2000 at director Joseph Strick's's request,[49][50] although it was screened at the Irish Film Theatre (a private club cinema) in the late 1970s.[51]

The first public screening was held in February 2001, with then-censor Sheamus Smith and Strick both in attendance. It went on general release at the IFI from 8 February 2001.[52]

15[53]
1973 Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex Banned on 20 March.[54] A cut version was passed in 1979 and released theatrically in 1980, removing both a bestiality reference ("the greatest lay I ever had", referring to a sheep) and a man having sex with a bread loaf – ban/censorship lifted.[55][56] 18[57][58][59]
1973 A Clockwork Orange Banned on 10 April – Warner Bros. decided against appealing due to the film causing public controversy. Passed uncut for cinema on 13 December 1999 and released on 17 March 2000.[60][61][62]

The re-release poster was rejected due to the words "ultra-violence" and "rape" in the tagline (it's a replica of the original British version). Sheamus Smith explained his rejection to the Irish Times; "I believe that the use of those words in the context of advertising would be offensive and inappropriate".[63]

18[64]
1980 Monty Python's Life of Brian Banned on 29 April. Overturned by the Films Appeal Board on 7 August 1987.[54] 18 (1987)

15 (video re-rating)[65][66]

1980 Zombie Flesh Eaters Banned on 14 October. Overturned by the Films Appeal Board on 31 October.[54]

Re-banned for video in 1994 as prohibition order #702[67] and passed in 2012.

18 (very strong & gory violence – 2012)[68]
1981 Last Tango in Paris[54] Ban lifted. 18[69]
1982 Porky's Banned on 1 February. Overturned by the Film Appeals Board on 19 February.[54] 16 (theatrical)

18 (video)[70]

1982 Richard Pryor: Live on the Sunset Strip Banned on 23 July. Released on DVD in 2006.[54] 18
1982 Fast Times at Ridgemont High Banned on 8 October. Overturned by the Film Appeals Board on 29 October with cuts. Uncut on home video.[54] 18[71]
1982 Monsignor Banned on 29 November due to its conflation of religion and adultery, as it features an affair between a priest and a postulant nun. Overturned by the Film Appeals Board on 17 December.[54]

The decision caused controversy among members of Fianna Fáil – chairman Ned Brennan believed the majority of the Irish public didn't want it to be released and said "standards must be maintained", wanting it banned on "moral grounds".[72][73]

16
1983 Monty Python's The Meaning of Life Banned on 27 June (lifted in 1990).[74][54] 15[75]
1984 Cannibal Holocaust Ban lifted in 2006.[citation needed] 18
1985 Crimes of Passion Banned on 18 November.[54][76] Released on DVD in 2008. 18
1986 Working Girls Banned on 12 August.[54] Upheld by the Film Appeals Board on 28 September.[77]
1987 Personal Services Banned on 13 March. Overturned by the Film Appeals Board on 12 May.[54] 18[78]
1989 Meet the Feebles Still banned, as of 2009.[citation needed]
1991 Whore Banned on 9 August.[54] Upheld by the Films Appeal Board on 20 September, although an earlier appeal meeting held on 28 August failed to come to a decision.

This all postponed the Irish home release, due on the week of the failed appeal with 2,000 copies. The video distributor (National Cable Vision) submitted a tape to Smith for a reconsideration on home media, where it had the unfortunate honor of being the first ever banned video - new legislation providing that power had been passed in July. [79][80][81][82][83]

1991 The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Banned for video in 1991 as prohibition order #3 - revoked on 2 September 1999 with an 18 certificate.[84] 18 (strong horror and bloody violence - 2013)[85]
1993 Bad Lieutenant Banned on 29 January due to its "demeaning treatment of women".[54][86][87][88] Re-banned on 1 April 2003 for video.[89]
1994 Natural Born Killers Banned[90] on 11 October[54] because Sheamus Smith was concerned about "copycat" killings linked to the film. This reasoning was accepted by the Films Appeal Board and the ban upheld[91] on 20 January 1995[92] – ban lifted in 2001.[93] 18[94]
1994 Dangerous Game Banned for video, most likely due to a violent rape scene. The cinema distributors (Abbey Films) never submitted it for an Irish theatrical release. Polygram appealed the decision – the viewing took place on 23 November, where the ban was upheld.[88]
1994 I Spit on Your Grave Banned on video four times, in 1994 (prohibition order #701), 2000, 5 February 2002 and 14 September 2010 (#1 the latter times).[95][96][97][98]
1995 Showgirls Banned on 8 November – no reason was given but speculation pointed towards the rape scene, which was initially cut in the UK.[99][100][93][54] Passed uncut on 23 October 2017 for video.[101] 18
1996 From Dusk till Dawn Banned on 1 May due to its "irresponsible and totally gratuitous" violence, especially in the wake of the then-recent Dunblane and Port Arthur massacres.[100][54] Ban lifted on 27 January 2004 for video.[102] 18
1997 Crash Passed with one cut of 35s to sexually explicit dialogue, in the sex scene between James and Catherine where she fantasizes about Vaughn. This was in an attempt to dissuade the distributors from releasing it on video, as they'd have to prepare a specially cut Irish version at high expense for a small market. It didn't work.[103][104][105] 18[106]
1997 Preaching to the Perverted Banned for cinema on 28 October[54] and later on video[107] – the trailer caused a mass recall of Donnie Brasco's rental video (which had been passed as an 18), due to having not been classified. 3,300 copies were withdrawn and replaced, with a potential fine of €1000 to stores providing it.[108][109]
1999 Romance Still banned.[93]
1999 From Dusk Till Dawn 2: Texas Blood Money Presumably banned upon release. Ban lifted on 16 November 2004 for video.[110] 18
1999 The Idiots Banned for video in October, no doubt due to unsimulated sexual content showing an erection and vaginal penetration.[111][112][113]
2000 Of Freaks and Men Banned for video due to sadistic scenes of sexual humiliation.[114]
2001 WWF Wrestlemania 16 Banned on video due to the use of realistic weapons, including metal chairs, timber wrapped with barbed wire, shinai and sledgehammers. Deputy censor Audrey Conlon also cited the "gladitorial bloodlust" of the crowd baying for increasingly extreme violence.

Clear Vision Ltd. lodged an appeal (the result of which is unknown) and claimed that "our fans love the wild soap opera element", but the IFCO countered this by stating, "This is one of the most dangerous and pernicious aspects of the entire business. The universal distinguishing feature of all soap opera is that the story lines are regularly made more explicit and, in many instances, more violent, simply to keep audience share.[115]

2002 Cradle of Fear Banned on 28 March for video.[116]
2002 Riki-Oh: The Story of Ricky Banned on 28 March for video.[116]
2002 For Your Pleasure Banned on 28 March for video.[116]
2002 Turkish Delight Banned on 26 August for video.[117]
2002 The Pornographer Banned on 30 September for video. The censored UK version was submitted, which had already removed 12s showing ejaculation for a BBFC 18 certificate.[118]
2002 Baise-moi Banned on 28 November for video – the decision was upheld by the Films Appeal Board. Released theatrically in the summer of 2002, but only on a club basis at the IFI, where admission is restricted to members and guests of 18 years and over.[119][120][93][121]
2003 Man Bites Dog Banned on 20 March for video.[122]
2003 Spun Banned on 8 July under Section 7 (2) of the Censorship of Films Act, 1923.[123] According to Kelleher, he didn't object to the content and only banned it to showcase a legal anomaly, meaning that video and cinema releases of the same work automatically got the same rating. He knew the ban would be reversed and the law was changed soon after. Overturned by the Films Appeal Board on 21 July.[54][124] 18[125]
2005 Boy Eats Girl Banned for containing an 'ostensible' but graphic suicide attempt. The decision was reversed on 25 July.[126] 15A (theatrical)[127]

18 (video)[128]

2005 Deep Throat The uncut version was banned on 13 September for video. A censored version was passed '18' as in the UK (where the uncut version got an 'R18', meaning it could only be bought in licensed sex shops) – all hardcore scenes were re-framed.[129][130]

As in the UK, the accompanying documentary Inside Deep Throat was passed 18 uncut (for cinema and video) due to the explicit sexual images appearing in a documentary context.[131][132] The uncut, R18 version of the film itself was only screened in the UK on a double bill with Inside... "merely to put the documentary into context", according to a spokespersion for distributor Momentum Pictures.[133][134]

18 (censored)

Film ratingsEdit

Eight film rating categories exist, although a film may have been re-rated by the time of its video/DVD release.

Symbol Name Cinema Video Consumer advice
 

 

General  Y  Y Suitable for children of a school going age.

Theme – such films will not include themes or content that will upset younger children.

Violence – mild and unsustained. There will be an absence of blood or injury detail and any outcome will be reassuring.

Sexual content/nudity – very mild (e.g., kissing, dating, references to ‘making love’). In certain circumstances, non-sexual nudity may be acceptable.

Language – may include infrequent use of mild bad language and slang.

Drugs – forbidden unless clearly set within an educational context.[135]

 

 

Parental
Guidance
 Y  Y Suitable for children aged eight and over.

Theme – while more mature issues might be addressed (e.g., war, family issues) there will generally be a positive or redemptive resolution.

Violence – frightening sequences should not be sustained or graphic. However, some stronger violence may be permissible in what is clearly a fantasy or comic context.

Sexual content/nudity – mild; any sexual activity will be implied rather than depicted. Subtle innuendo may be accepted.

Language – mild. However, in rare instances, a PG film may contain infrequent strong language provided it is used discreetly and is contextually justified. Discriminatory or racist terms will only be acceptable if used in a clearly educational context.

Drugs – any references to drug use should be mild and will relate to soft drug use only. Where stronger references are made they will be set within a clearly educational context.[136]

  12A  Y  N Suitable for viewers of twelve and over. However, they can also be seen by younger children – provided they are accompanied by an adult who has deemed the film appropriate viewing for that child.

Theme – mature themes are acceptable (crime, bereavement, relationships, etc.) provided they are depicted in a fashion suitable for young teenagers (i.e., in such a way that they will already have been familiar with in their everyday lives). Themes of suicide or self-harm or other imitable behaviour will only be acceptable if depicted without detail and in a clearly educational context.

Violence – moderate violence and more prolonged threat/horror are acceptable at 12A. This is particularly the case when depicted in a fantasy context (common at this category). Stronger images of injury detail may be acceptable if justified by the context in which they are presented (i.e., in an accurate depiction of warfare).

Sexual content/nudity – sexual content (situations and dialogue) presented without explicit detail may be acceptable at 12A. Brief sexual nudity may also be acceptable.

Language – some infrequent strong language may be acceptable, but should be used in a non-aggressive manner. Use of discriminatory language should be justified by the overall context of the film.

Drugs – images of or references to soft drugs may be permitted in an appropriate context. Generally, content relating to hard drugs is not acceptable unless there is a clear anti-drug message and the misuse of drugs is not glamorized.[137]

Announced on 9 December 2004 and took effect on 1 January 2005.[138]

  12  N  Y Suitable for viewers of twelve and over.

The guidelines for 12 are identical to the guidelines for 12A.[139]

  15A  Y  N Suitable for viewers of 15 and over. However, they can also be seen by younger children – provided they are accompanied by an adult who has deemed the film appropriate viewing for that child.

Theme – most themes/content will be acceptable with classification decided by the way the subject is treated.

Violence – this may be realistic but not gratuitous or focus on bloody injury. Strong gory images will only be permitted if justified by the context in which they are presented. We take particular account of the way in which sexual violence is portrayed. Any such content in this category should be discreetly presented and contextually justified. Generally, horror in this category will be psychological in nature. Acts of sadism common to the genre are not permissible.

Sexual content/nudity – strong sex references may be acceptable. Scenes of a sexual nature may also be acceptable but will not be explicit or prolonged.

Language – strong language is allowed. Frequent or aggressive use of these terms will have to be justified within the context of the piece.

Drugs – scenes or dialogue relating to drugs may be acceptable in an appropriate context, but not if there is glamorization, instruction or encouragement as to use.[140]

Announced on 9 December 2004 and took effect on 1 January 2005.[138]

  15  N  Y Suitable for viewers of 15 and over.

The guidelines for 15 are identical to the guidelines for 15A.[141]

  16  Y  N Suitable for viewers of 16 and over.

Theme – most themes/content will be acceptable with classification decided by the way the subject is treated.

Violence – this might be intensely depicted and may include some gory imagery. We take particular account of the way in which sexual violence is portrayed. The portrayal of such content in this category should not be explicit and must have clear contextual justification. Strong horror and sustained threat may be acceptable but will not include the strongest images of sadism and torture.

Sexual content/nudity – strong sexual themes and content may be permissible provided it is not gratuitous.

Language – strong language is acceptable.

Drugs – themes and scenes relating to hard drug use might feature. However, any instructional or glamorised drug use, particularly involving teen protagonists, is unlikely to be acceptable.[142]

Announced on 9 December 2004 and took effect on 1 January 2005.[138]

Because there is no direct equivalent on video, a film rated 16 for cinema can get either a 15 or 18 on video, depending on its strength.[142]

 

 

18  Y  Y Suitable for viewers of eighteen or over.

One of IFCO's guiding principles is that adults (i.e., persons over 18) should be free, within the law, to choose what they wish to view.[143]

There are three former categories no longer in use:

Symbol Name Cinema Video Consumer advice Example films
12RA  N  Y Suitable for viewers of 12 and over.

Cannot be supplied to anyone under the age of 12, and which has a suggestion for a "Responsible Adult" to be present if a younger person watches the film (no longer issued).

If re-released, the rating is automatically changed to 12 (exceptions are noted in brackets).

Jurassic Park[144][145][146]

The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers

Star Trek Generations (since re-rated PG in 2009)

The Nightmare Before Christmas (since re-rated PG on DVD)

Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me (re-rated 15 at first, then re-rated 12 in 2011)

Star Trek V: The Final Frontier (since re-rated PG)

Only Fools and Horses – The Complete Series 7 (since re-rated PG)

Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (since re-rated PG)

Pleasantville

The Mask

Brendan Grace: Live at the Gleneagle, Killarney

Police Story 4: First Strike

The Bachelor

An Evening With Niall Toibin

Dumb and Dumberer: When Harry Met Lloyd

  12PG  Y  N Suitable for viewers of 12 and over.

However, they can also be seen by younger children – provided they are accompanied by an adult who has deemed the film appropriate viewing for that child.

Works in the same way as today's 12A. Introduced on 1 June 2001 and replaced by 12A on 1 January 2005.

Theme/Content – Likely to feature more mature themes, e.g. Involving crime, conflict, relationships, etc., but young persons of twelve and over will already be familiar with them from their television viewing.

Context – A flexibility of approach is retained whereby the context and impact of the film are viewed as a whole, rather than rating it only on the basis of one short image or scene.

Violence – Relatively mild or moderate and shouldn't be imitative, gratuitous, nor glamourised.

Sexual content/Nudity – Generally, only mild dialogue and natural non-sexual nudity are acceptable.

Drugs – Mild or brief images of 'soft' drugs may be permitted in an appropriate context, but normally no images of or references to 'hard' drugs are acceptable.

Language – Commonly used milder swear words may be acceptable, but not sexually violent, explicit or threatening language.[147]

Pearl Harbor (the first film with a 12PG rating)[4]

Hulk

Die Another Day

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

  15PG  Y  N Suitable for viewers of 15 and over.

However, they can also be seen by younger children – provided they are accompanied by an adult who has deemed the film appropriate viewing for that child.

Works in the same way as today's 15A. Introduced on 1 June 2001 and replaced by 15A on 1 January 2005.

Theme/Content – Most themes/content will be acceptable with classification normally decided by the way the subject is treated. It is worth noting that our recent nationwide survey research confirms that both parents and adolescents often experience embarrassment when they view films featuring more mature themes (e.g. sexual activity or nudity) in each other's company.

Context – Modern adolescents of fifteen and older will generally be aware of, and be able to appreciate, the context of a film.

Violence – This may be realistic but not gratuitous, prolonged or overly bloody. We take particular account of the way in which sexual violence is portrayed.

Drugs – Scenes/dialogue relating to drugs may be acceptable in an appropriate context, but not if there is instruction or encouragement as to use.

Sexual content/Nudity – Mild/moderate sexual activity/nudity is acceptable, particularly when portrayed positively.[148]

The Pianist

Alien vs. Predator

The Passion of the Christ

Bad Santa (this controversial decision led to the creation of the 16 rating – the extended cut is rated 18 on DVD)

The G, PG and 18 certifications have the same principles on video, but some 18s films may be denied a video release certificate.

Films which are banned and do not have an appeal lodged, or which fail on appeal, have an enforcement noticed published in Iris Oifigiúil, the state's journal. The most recent enforcement notice, as of 2005, appeared on 20 September 2005 journal, and was the first of the year. Revocation notices are also published in the journal, where a film has been banned and then allowed. The 2010 DVD release of the 1978 film I Spit on Your Grave is the most recent instance of an IFCO ban.[149]

Current disparitiesEdit

Ratings usually match those of the UK, or are one level higher or lower, but extremely rare disparities spanning two or three ratings do exist:[150]

Title Original release date BBFC rating Content warning IFCO rating Content warning
Scarface 1932 15 strong language and violence[151] PG[26][27]
Son of Fury 1942 U mild violence[152] 12[153]
On the Waterfront 1954 PG[154] mild violence[155] 15[156]
The Desperate Hours 1955 PG[157] mild bad language and violence 15[158]
Desire Under the Elms 1958 PG[159] mild sex references and violence 15[160][161]
The Defiant Ones 1958 U[162] 12[163]
The Camp on Blood Island 1958 15 moderate violence, torture scenes[164] PG mild/moderate violence

[165]

Yesterday's Enemy 1959 PG moderate violence[166] 15 war action footage, moderate torture and executions

[167]

Une femme est une femme 1961 PG[168] 15[169]
She 1965 U[170] mild fantasy horror and violence 12[171]
King Rat 1965 PG[172] mild bad language, threat and war horror 15[173]
Romeo and Juliet 1968 PG[174] 15[175][176]
The Valley of Gwangi 1969 U some mild violence[177] 12[178]
The Omega Man 1971 PG[179] mild language/nudity, moderate violence/horror[179] 15[179]
Love and Death 1975 PG[180] 15[181]
One Sings, the Other Doesn't 1977 12 one use of strong language, moderate nudity and sex references[182] 18 adult themes of abortion, suicide and despair

[183]

Doctor Who season 18 episode 7 - Logopolis 1981 U[184][185][186] 12[187][188] mild/moderate violence, mild horror[189]
Shock Treatment 1981 PG mild language and sex references[190] 15[191][192]
The A-Team (season 1) - Disc 4 1983 12 G[193]
Manon des Sources 1986 PG[194] mild bad language and (a) suicide reference[195] 15[196]
Prince – Sign o' the Times 1987 15[197] G[198]
Rocky V 1990 PG[199] moderate violence and mild language 15[200][201][202] Upon original release, Sheamus Smith objected to the "extreme violence" of the final street fight.

UIP appealed for an "Under 12's accompanied" certificate, which was unanimously vetoed.

The Simpsons (season 2) - Disc 1 1990/1991 U[203][204][205][206][207][208][209] 12[210]
Bubblegum Crash 1991 12[211] 18[212]
Baby Snatcher 1992 PG 15 [213][214]
Midnight Run for Your Life 1994 PG[215] 15[216][217]
While You Were Sleeping 1995 PG[218] infrequent mild language and one sex reference[219] 15[220]
Legacy of Sin 1995 PG[221] 15[222]
First Knight 1995 PG 15 [223]
3 Ninjas Knuckle Up 1995 PG (cut) [224] 15 [225]
Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls 1995 PG (cut)[226] rated 12 uncut in 2019 for moderate sex references, rude humour, comic violence, gore[227] 15[228]
Spy Hard 1996 PG[229] 15[230][231]
Michael Collins 1996 15 strong violence, strong language[232] PG (theatrical)A explicit cruelty and violence, crude language[233][234]
Picture Perfect 1997 PG[235] moderate sexual references and mild bad language[236] 15[237]
Who Am I? 1998 12 frequent, moderate fight sequences[238] 18[239]
The Vicar of Dibley (season 2) - Disc 3 1997/1998 PG[240][241][242][243] 15[244][245]
The X-Files (season 6) - Disc 4 1998/1999 12[246][247][248][249] infrequent, mild language

some moderate sex/nudity

some moderate/some strong violence

mild sci-fi horror

(overall for this disc - taken from 2004 De Agostini magazine edition, i.e. the individual release in Issue 33)

18[250]
The Cider House Rules 1999 12 dramatic themes and one brief sex scene[232] 18 themes of abortion, incest and drugs

[251]

Head video censor Audrey Conlon advocated a 15 certificate on the basis it was an important subject for that age group to discuss, but Smith felt the matter-of-fact" treatment was inappropriate given the then-current context of the subject in the country.[252]

Gorgeous 1999 PG[253] occasional mild slapstick violence[254] 15[255][256]
Angel (season 1) - Disc 2 1999/2000 12[257][258][259][260] 18[261]
Tokyo Raiders 2001 12 moderate violence[262] 18[263]
The In Crowd 2001 12 infrequent strong language, moderate violence, sex and drug references[264] 18[265]
DVD audio commentary by The Band and others (bonus material for The Last Waltz) 2002 15[266]

(main feature rated U)[267]

infrequent strong language[268] PG[269]

(main feature rated G)[270]

The Simpsons (season 14) - Episode 2 2002 12[271] moderate sex references G[272] none
Subway Monkey Hour 2002 18[273] 12[274]
I Capture the Castle 2003 PG infrequent mild language and sex references[275] 15PG (theatrical)[276]

15 (video)[277]

Million Dollar Baby 2004 12A one use of strong language, moderate violence and adult theme[278] 16 (theatrical)B explicit boxing violence[279]
Ringers: Lord of the Fans 2005 12[280] drug references G[281]
Boy Eats Girl 2005 18[282] strong bloody violence 15A[283]C strong violence, moderate sex/nudity, strong language (adapted from grid)

This film contains a scene which depicts an ostensible suicide attempt. In the opinion of the Film Censor, certain viewers may find this scene disturbing.

The film was certified 15A on foot of an appeal by its distributor to the Censorship of Films Appeal Board. The appeal followed on the Film Censor's decision to withhold a certificate unless the specified scene was deleted. (official)

Apocalypto 2006 18[284] strong bloody violence and gore 15AB very strong explicit bloody violence incl. ritual sacrifice in an historical context[285]
Bandidas 2006 12[286] moderate language, violence and sex references G[287]
The Notorious Bettie Page 2006 18 sexual fetish theme[288] 15AB mild/moderate sexual content & nudity with bondage theme and one expletive[289]
The Tiger's Tail 2006 18 scene of sexual violence[290] 15AB moderate drugs, sex and violence[291]
Underworld: Evolution 2006 18 strong bloody violence[292] 15AB fantasy horror, vampire/werewolf gorefest[293]
Garage 2007 18[294] brief strong sexual images 15AB strong language, moderate sexual references/content[295]
The History Channel: Inside the Mind of a Suicide Bomber (bonus material for The Siege: Definitive Edition) 2007 18[296] 12[297]
Frost/Nixon 2008 15 strong language[298] PG infrequent moderate to strong language, mild sex references and brief archive war footage

[299]

Bangkok Dangerous 2008 18 strong bloody violence[300] 15AB strong gun and physical violence with high body count and some gory images[301]
Blindness 2008 18 strong violence, some sexual[302] 15AC scenes of harrowing mob violence and panic, including sexual violence[303]

(noted as being at the high end of 15A)

The Ricky Gervais Show (season 1) - Episode 4 2010 PG[304] mild language and sex references 15[305] strong sexual references (in the conversations)
Eat Pray Love (director's cut) 2010 15[306][307] one use of strong language PG[308] relationship tensions and mild sexual references
Wrinkles 2011 15 strong language[309] PG mild innuendo

[310]

Eureka Seven: Good Night, Sleep Tight, Young Lovers 2011 15 strong violence and threat[311] PG mild language, mild violence

[312]

Bullseye (American Horror Story) 2014 12 moderate language, sex references, threat, violence, injury detail[313] 18 strong violence

[314]

The Queen of Ireland 2015 18 strong sexual detail, sex references[315] 15AB strong language and brief strong sex references[316]
Time Trial 2017 18 very strong language[317] 15A very strong language, doping theme[318]
A 12 certificate on video.[319][320][321]
B 15 certificate on video.[322][323][324][325][326][327][328][329][330][331][332][333]
C 18 certificate on video.[334][335][336]

Potential disparitiesEdit

This list covers disparities which would've occurred had the films not been edited to receive a lower rating:

Title Original release date Potential BBFC rating (if uncut) BBFC rating (cut) Content warning Censorship/context IFCO rating (uncut) Content warning Censorship/context
Immortals 2011 18 15 strong bloody violence 18s of cuts (including substitutions) to reduce strong violence and gore:[337]

- removal of the bloody focus on Theseus' mother's throat cut by Hyperion (i.e. her head being pulled back to expose the injury, a further shot of bloodletting and her son's shocked reaction)

- reducing the focus on the oracle's companions dying of burn wounds (the second shot was removed)

- reducing the focus on Hyperion gouging Dareios' eyes (the sound of them bursting is reduced in volume)

- removing the negotiator's beheading (uncut, we see his head rolling off with blood spraying from the stump - the UK version cuts off right as the sword makes contact with his neck)

- reducing focus throughout on large splashes of blood resulting from characters being killed (no footage removed - some of the blood was digitally altered from red to black)

The original running time was 110m 52s, which was reduced to 110 34s.[338]

15A frequent strong gory violence in mainly fantasy setting, one moderate/strong sex scene The running time is 110m 50s, confirming it's the uncut version. It was also submitted on 18th Oct 2011 as opposed to the UK version nearly a month later on 2nd November 2011.[339]

However, the video release was the cut UK version, retaining the equivalent 15 certificate.[340]

Talihina Sky: The Story of Kings of Leon 2011 18 15 strong language and soft drug use A scene where the band watches porn on a hotel television was edited to remove brief images of real sex (vaginal penetration by penis) - this was a substitution of blurring the offending footage.[341][342]

The running time remained unaltered at 86m 36s.

15A frequent strong language, very brief strong sex scene, scenes of soft drug use[343] The lengthened content warning describing the footage confirms it's uncut.
Every Day 2018 18 12A moderate bad language, infrequent suicide references 4s of cuts to remove images of suicide techniques.

The original running time was 97m 26s, which was reduced to 97m 22s.[344]

12A moderate sex references The running time is 97m 26s, exactly matching the initial UK submission.[345]

Former disparitiesEdit

Title Original release date BBFC rating (original) BBFC rating (current) Content warning IFCO rating (original) IFCO rating (current) Content warning
Citizen Kane 1941 A (1941)[346]

U (1985, 1991, 1994, 1999, 2009)[347]

U (2012)[348] None required (1999)

infrequent mild violence (2009)

mild violence (2012)

12 (2003)[349] G (2012)[350] None (2012)
Jaws 1975 A (1975)[351]

PG (1987, 1993, 2000)[352]

12A (2012) one use of strong language and moderate violence (2005)[353]

(the 'strong language' referred to here applies to the bonus material, which raised the overall certificate to a 12)[354][355][356]

moderate threat and occasional gory moments (2012)[357]

15 (2000) [358][359] 12A (2012)[360]

12 (2012)[361]

some gory scenes with moderately frightening content (2012, cinema)

strong violence, strong scare(s) and threat (2012, video)

Watership Down 1978 U (1978, 1987, 2005, 2013)[362] mild threat and violence (2005)[363]

very mild language, mild violence and threat (2013)[364]

12 (2005)[363] G (2001, 2013)[363] none (2013)[365]
For Your Eyes Only 1981 A (1981)[366]

PG (1986, 1993)[367][368]

PG (2001)[369] moderate violence and mild sex (2006, 2008)[370]

mild action violence and (a) sex reference (2012)[371]

15 (2001) PG (2006, 2008, 2012)[371]
Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan 1982 A [cut] (1982)[372][373]

PG [cut] (1987)[374]

15 [uncut] (1989, 1992)[375][376]

12 [uncut, director's] (2003, 2017)[377]

12 [uncut, theatrical] (2009)

12A [uncut, theatrical] (2013)

moderate horror and threat [theatrical] (2009, 2013)[378][379]

moderate horror, threat [director's] (2017)[380]

PG [uncut, theatrical] (2002) 12 [uncut, director's] (2003, 2016)

12 [uncut, theatrical] (2009)[381]

moderate action violence and threat [director's] [2016][382]
Ladyhawke 1985 PG (1985, 1987, 2002) mild violence (2014)[383] 15 (2002)[384] PG (2014) mild/moderate fantasy violence[385]
Groundhog Day 1993 PG (1993, 1994)[386] mild suicide references and sex references (2009, 2018)[387] 15[388] PG (2009) moderate violence played for comedy[389]

ExceptionsEdit

The restrictions applied to commercial cinemas did not apply to film clubs. The Irish Film Theatre (1977–1984), its predecessor, the Irish Film Society and its successor, the Irish Film Institute, specialised for decades in showing arthouse films that were uncut because films shown privately were not required to be examined by the Censor's Office.[390] The National Film Institute (later Irish Film Institute) had originally been set up to comply with the 1939 encyclical Vigilanti Cura. At one time this gave rise to a legal anomaly where the 35 mm prints of a particular film would to be required to have any "cuts" mandated by the Film Censors Office whereas the 16 mm prints were not, on the erroneous belief that all 16 mm prints were destined for private film clubs. In practice, some commercial cinemas in smaller towns as well as "travelling cinemas" (often showing films in village halls owned by the Catholic Church) were only equipped to show the 16 mm prints. The closure of virtually all of these smaller cinemas (owing to the rising popularity of television and video) has meant that nowadays the only places showing these 16 mm prints are bona fide film clubs.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rockett, Kevin (2004). "Irish Film Censorship: A Cultural Journey from Silent Cinema to Internet Pornography (extract)" (PDF). ifco.ie. Irish Film Classification Office. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  2. ^ http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1923/act/23/enacted/en/print#sec1
  3. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records". TCD. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Watching Films for a Living".
  5. ^ "Free Text Host – the Anonymous Text Hosting Service – No Registration Required".
  6. ^ Dwyer, Michael (1 October 2004). "Censor blocks 'notorious' Korean film". The Irish Times.
  7. ^ "Emergency Powers Act, 1939". Attorney General of Ireland. 3 September 1939. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  8. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  9. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  10. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/0wkAAOSwKS9eGU2J/s-l1600.jpg
  11. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/JsIAAOSwUD9evc56/s-l1600.jpg
  12. ^ Malone, Aubrey (27 May 2011). "West and the Rest". Censoring Hollywood: Sex and Violence in Film and on the Cutting Room Floor. McFarland & Co Inc. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7864-6465-4. Retrieved 3 July 2013. The Marx Brothers 'Monkey Business' was also banned in Ireland in 1931 for fear it would "provoke the Irish to anarchy".
  13. ^ a b "Ten films banned in Ireland".
  14. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  15. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  16. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/7sUAAOSwsZJaZ55j/s-l1600.jpg
  17. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/jMMAAOSwX7BaZ55s/s-l1600.jpg
  18. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  19. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/M4gAAOSwilpefNhp/s-l1600.jpg
  20. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/l2cAAOSwCeFefNhr/s-l1600.jpg
  21. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/VSIAAOSwA2hevcHY/s-l1600.jpg
  22. ^ "Film Review: Tod Browning's controversial cult horror Freaks".
  23. ^ Biltereyst, D.; Vande Winkel, R.; Winkel, Roel Vande (26 March 2013). Silencing Cinema: Film Censorship around the World. ISBN 978-1-137-06198-0.
  24. ^ Biltereyst, Vande Winkel, Daniel, Roel. Silencing Cinema: Film Censorship around the World. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-230-34081-4.
  25. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  26. ^ a b https://www.customaniacs.org/forum/scanned-labels/102745-scarface-1932-a.html
  27. ^ a b https://imgur.com/a/QdZPuUR
  28. ^ Rockett, Kevin (2004). Irish film censorship : a cultural journey from silent cinema to Internet pornography. Dublin: Four Courts. ISBN 978-1-85182-844-9.
  29. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/15EC4571007370AF
  32. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  33. ^ a b Quigley, Martin S. (1999). A U.S.Spy in Ireland. Dublin: Marino Books. ISBN 1-86023-095-4.
  34. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  35. ^ "The mystery of the 'Casablanca' dialogue cut by the film censor".
  36. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/12e1df075582878d28c
  37. ^ "Irish Film Censors' Records – Trinity College Dublin".
  38. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/ZckAAOSw03VegeiW/s-l1600.jpg
  39. ^ a b c d e Chapman, James (2003). Cinemas of the world: film and society from 1895 to the present (illustrated ed.). Reaktion Books. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-86189-162-4.
  40. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/~3kAAOSwfVpYtg0k/s-l1600.jpg
  41. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/fj0AAOSw4A5Ytg0z/s-l1600.jpg
  42. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/Q7MAAOSw2spbK-8s/s-l1600.jpg
  43. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/nXkAAOSw8wlfC1iM/s-l1600.jpg
  44. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/xLUAAOSwAppeZ7yl/s-l1600.jpg
  45. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/BXEAAOSwfjtfAC-W/s-l1600.jpg
  46. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/zWsAAOSwpVdfDDmV/s-l1600.jpg
  47. ^ Linehan, Fergus (21 January 1966). "Polish war film is banned by censor on "horror" grounds". The Irish Times.
  48. ^ Linehan, Fergus (31 January 1966). "Polish film passed". The Irish Times.
  49. ^ "Ban on 'Ulysses' film lifted after 33 years". The Irish Times. Michael Dwyer. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  50. ^ "After 33 years, censor lets Irish audiences see banned 'Ulysses' film". The Independent. Jane Robins. 28 September 2000. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  51. ^ Fallon, Donal. "Ulysses versus the censors". Spiked Online. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  52. ^ "Ulysses Premiere 33 Years After Being Made". RTÉ Archives. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  53. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/vbMAAOSwa4xe5DTK/s-l1600.jpg
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Films banned in Ireland". boards.ie. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  55. ^ "Censored! As a 1978 movie is banned, John Meagher looks at 70 years of cuts". The Irish Independent. The Irish Independent. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  56. ^ "Song Contest Tied". Melon Farmers Censorship Watch. The Irish Independent. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  57. ^ https://www.customaniacs.org/forum/custom-labels/30269-everything-you-always-wanted-know-about-sex-but-were-afraid-ask.html
  58. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/fBsAAOSwN5Ve8Dli/s-l1600.jpg
  59. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/nOIAAOSwcN9e8Dll/s-l1600.jpg
  60. ^ "Ireland : The Banning and Unbanning of Films". merlin.obs.coe.int. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  61. ^ "Banned like Clockwork". Come Here To Me!. 21 July 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  62. ^ Dwyer, Michael (14 December 1999). "Passed like 'Clockwork' following a 26-year delay". The Irish Times.
  63. ^ Dwyer, Michael (4 March 2000). "Kubrick film arrives – minus its poster". The Irish Times.
  64. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/12eec61490792dac132
  65. ^ https://discogslabs.imgix.net/films/5dd1c2f4061ce0002a7be781.jpeg?auto=compress%2Cformat&blur=0&ch=Width%2CDPR%2CViewport-Width&dpr=2&fit=max&fm=jpg&h=2000&w=2000&s=99e0c14f424a7f8d0cbaf50f2b6c4f3a
  66. ^ https://discogslabs.imgix.net/films/5ec429a1b81ffd9682c56ac2.jpeg?auto=compress%2Cformat&blur=0&ch=Width%2CDPR%2CViewport-Width&dpr=2&fit=max&fm=jpg&h=2000&w=2000&s=8de13c7b7b71584f2e3bfb9bec54377f
  67. ^ Rockett, Kevin (2004). Irish Film Censorship: A Cultural Journey from Silent Cinema to Internet Pornography. Four Courts Press. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-85182-845-6.
  68. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/74A2649B0073707D
  69. ^ https://discogslabs.imgix.net/films/5c5b1cb9677f730027fcf606.jpeg?auto=compress%2Cformat&blur=0&ch=Width%2CDPR%2CViewport-Width&dpr=2&fit=max&fm=jpg&h=2000&w=2000&s=7283b7e029e16ae9a67e938be5ed345c
  70. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/KLsAAOSwRuhfAcn5/s-l1600.jpg
  71. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/DVoAAOSwgaZegQBR/s-l1600.jpg
  72. ^ "Ex-TD criticises film about priest". The Irish Times. 6 January 1983.
  73. ^ Comiskey, Ray (15 January 1983). "'Monsignor' fails to excite". The Irish Times.
  74. ^ "Banned Films Around the World | BusinessWeek". Images.businessweek.com. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
  75. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/-C0AAOSwhuRfC2O3/s-l1600.jpg
  76. ^ Dwyer, Michael (20 October 1989). "Ken Russell: films with flamboyance". The Irish Times.
  77. ^ Hegarty, Jerome P. (25 September 1991). "Letters to the Editor: Rejecting a film". The Irish Times.
  78. ^ https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5179XTV53FL._AC_.jpg
  79. ^ Dwyer, Michael (13 August 1991). "Russell film ban to be appealed". The Irish Times.
  80. ^ Dwyer, Michael (29 August 1991). "Board fails to decide on Russell film". The Irish Times.
  81. ^ Dwyer, Michael (21 September 1991). "Ban on Russell film is upheld". The Irish Times.
  82. ^ Rockett, Kevin (2004). Irish Film Censorship: A Cultural Journey from Silent Cinema to Internet Pornography. Four Courts Press. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-85182-845-6.
  83. ^ https://www.oireachtas.ie/en/debates/debate/dail/1992-10-28/4/
  84. ^ Rockett, Kevin (2004). Irish Film Censorship: A Cultural Journey from Silent Cinema to Internet Pornography. Four Courts Press. p. 286, 290, 445. ISBN 978-1-85182-845-6.
  85. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/5F121CBA00736FD3
  86. ^ "Violent 'Bad Lieutenant' has been banned in Ireland". The Buffalo News. 7 February 1993. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  87. ^ Dwyer, Michael (5 February 1993). "Film about amoral policeman is banned". The Irish Times.
  88. ^ a b Dwyer, Michael (23 November 1994). "Madonna film is banned by the censor". The Irish Times.
  89. ^ "No.27 – 279–287 – 04042003" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  90. ^ "'Natural Born Killers' Is Banned in Ireland". The New York Times. 28 October 1994. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  91. ^ Jones, Derek (December 2001). Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-79863-4. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  92. ^ Battersby, Eileen (29 December 1994). "Movie Mad". The Irish Times.
  93. ^ a b c d "Banned Films". Everything2. Everything2. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  94. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/1d6f49a0df28a9ccfef
  95. ^ "No.13 – 223–225 – 12022002" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  96. ^ "Re-release of 'I Spit on Your Grave' banned by film body – The Irish Times – Tue, Sep 21, 2010". The Irish Times. 21 September 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
  97. ^ "I Spit On Your Grave". Irish Film Classification Office. Irish Film Classification Office. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  98. ^ Rockett, Kevin (2004). Irish Film Censorship: A Cultural Journey from Silent Cinema to Internet Pornography. Four Courts Press. p. 279, 443. ISBN 978-1-85182-845-6.
  99. ^ "Showgirls' banned in Ireland". UPI. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  100. ^ a b "'Gratuitously violent' film banned". www.irishtimes.com. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  101. ^ "Showgirls". IFCO: Irish Film Classification Office. Irish Film Classification Office. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  102. ^ "No. 017 – 239 -251 – 27022004" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  103. ^ "Film Ireland Editors Letter". web.archive.org. 16 March 2007. Archived from the original on 16 March 2007.
  104. ^ Biltereyst, D.; Vande Winkel, R.; Winkel, Roel Vande (26 March 2013). Silencing Cinema: Film Censorship around the World. ISBN 978-1-137-06198-0.
  105. ^ Rockett, Kevin (2004). Irish Film Censorship: A Cultural Journey from Silent Cinema to Internet Pornography. Four Courts. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-85182-844-9.
  106. ^ https://discogslabs.imgix.net/films/5c06a8b97b306200288cfeaa.jpeg?auto=compress%2Cformat&blur=0&ch=Width%2CDPR%2CViewport-Width&dpr=2&fit=max&fm=jpg&h=2000&w=2000&s=ce89e829775fa22fcc9e355c34bdf8fa
  107. ^ "Irish Censor Bans Both Film and Trailer". January 1999.
  108. ^ "Trailer to video of gangster movie is illegal".
  109. ^ "Monty outstrips them all".
  110. ^ "No. 093 – 1231–1246 – 19112004" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  111. ^ Gibbons, Fiachra; Correspondent, Arts (26 October 1999). "Lars Von Trier film banned in Ireland" – via www.theguardian.com.
  112. ^ "UK News Archive: 1999". melonfarmers.co.uk.
  113. ^ "A Look at Lars – Film Ireland". filmireland.net.
  114. ^ Dwyer, Michael (21 October 2000). "Censor hits out". The Irish Times.
  115. ^ Holmquist, Kathryn (27 March 2001). "Wrestling with our convictions". The Irish Times.
  116. ^ a b c "No.28 – 417–436 – 05042002" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  117. ^ "No.71 – 939–945 – 03092002" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  118. ^ "No.81 – 1043–1047 – 08102002" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  119. ^ "No.96 – 1207–1224 – 29112002" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  120. ^ "10 Films The Irish Censors Hated". What Culture. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  121. ^ "Film censor bans video and DVD release of controversial French film". The Irish Times. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  122. ^ "No.24 – 227–235 – 25032003" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  123. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). web.archive.org. 15 March 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2016.
  124. ^ "The director who didn't say 'cut'". The Irish Times. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  125. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/zFgAAOSwihtd8Zq7/s-l1600.jpg
  126. ^ Clarke, Donald. "Boy will get to eat girl after all". The Irish Times.
  127. ^ [1][dead link]
  128. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  129. ^ "No. 75 – 931 – 937 – 20092005" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  130. ^ "Deep Throat (1972) / Inside Deep Throat (2005)". Imgur.
  131. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/sites/default/files/attachments/BBFC_AnnualReport_2005.pdf
  132. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/3969D800005551BF
  133. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/deep-throat-the-biggest-porn-film-ever-is-cleared-for-release-490764.html
  134. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/jun/11/film.filmnews
  135. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  136. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  137. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/ifco/ifcoweb.nsf/web/12pgguidelines?OpenDocument&type=graphic
  138. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  139. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  140. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  141. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  142. ^ a b http://www.ifco.ie/ifco/ifcoweb.nsf/web/16guidelines?OpenDocument&type=graphic
  143. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  144. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/IRkAAOSw~ANfR0xm/s-l1600.jpg
  145. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/TUwAAOSwyrBfR0yG/s-l1600.jpg
  146. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/Q1AAAOSwUlxfR0yb/s-l1600.jpg
  147. ^ "IFCO: 12PG". web.archive.org. 9 December 2004. Archived from the original on 9 December 2004. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  148. ^ "IFCO: 15PG". web.archive.org. 8 December 2004. Archived from the original on 8 December 2004. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  149. ^ "Irish censors ban re-release of 1978 horror film". BBC News Northern Ireland. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  150. ^ "BBFC/IFCO disparities".
  151. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/scarface-1932
  152. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/son-fury-story-benjamin-blake-1970
  153. ^ https://imgur.com/a/voMQSfG
  154. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/waterfront-1954
  155. ^ https://www.amazon.co.uk/Waterfront-DVD-Marlon-Brando/dp/B00LTK2YSG/ref=sr_1_2?keywords=on+the+waterfront&qid=1577473865&sr=8-2
  156. ^ https://imgur.com/a/E1fhTOM
  157. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/desperate-hours-1955
  158. ^ https://www.customaniacs.org/forum/scanned-labels/152834-desperate-hours.html
  159. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/desire-under-elms-1957
  160. ^ https://www.customaniacs.org/forum/scanned-labels/166590-desire-under-elms.html
  161. ^ https://imgur.com/a/tpaqlFW
  162. ^ "THE DEFIANT ONES | British Board of Film Classification". bbfc.co.uk.
  163. ^ "The Defiant Ones - BBFC U, IFCO 12". Imgur.
  164. ^ "The camp on blood island". British Board of Film Classification.
  165. ^ [2][dead link]
  166. ^ "Yesterday's Enemy". 4 October 2010 – via Amazon.
  167. ^ [3][dead link]
  168. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/une-femme-est-une-femme-woman-woman-1999
  169. ^ https://imgur.com/a/w0LK1Lg
  170. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/she-1965
  171. ^ https://imgur.com/a/nNQzwiY
  172. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/king-rat-2005-0
  173. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/o6UAAOSwIVNfCOZ4/s-l1600.jpg
  174. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/romeo-and-juliet-1968
  175. ^ https://imgur.com/a/8kPxzdW
  176. ^ "The Irish Times". 18 May 1996.
  177. ^ "The valley of gwangi". British Board of Film Classification.
  178. ^ "The Valley of Gwangi – BBFC U, IFCO 12".
  179. ^ a b c "The Omega Man (1971)".
  180. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/love-and-death-1975
  181. ^ https://imgur.com/a/hfjqKfp
  182. ^ "ONE SINGS, THE OTHER DOEsn't – l'UNE CHANTE l'AUTRE PAS". British Board of Film Classification.
  183. ^ [4][dead link]
  184. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/doctor-who-logopolis-video
  185. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/JCwAAOSwHwldy-Og/s-l1600.jpg
  186. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/jHEAAOSwubJdy-Oi/s-l1600.jpg
  187. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/cAgAAOSwfXtetsJE/s-l1600.jpg
  188. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/XrgAAOSw1gVetsJI/s-l1600.jpg
  189. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/957F766D0078EE0D
  190. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/shock-treatment
  191. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/obcAAOSwyt9e7S8u/s-l1600.jpg
  192. ^ https://ibb.co/fp2vD0H
  193. ^ https://imgur.com/gallery/Kz0dXJR
  194. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/manon-des-sources-2000-1
  195. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/manon-des-sources-1999
  196. ^ https://imgur.com/a/6FWSXsc
  197. ^ "PRINCE – SIGN O THE TIMES". British Board of Film Classification.
  198. ^ "Prince – Sign 'O' the Times (1987)".
  199. ^ "ROCKY V". British Board of Film Classification.
  200. ^ Dwyer, Michael (27 July 1990). "Censor's ruling on 'Rocky' upheld". The Irish Times.
  201. ^ "Rocky V - BBFC PG, IFCO 15". Imgur.
  202. ^ Irish_Film_Classification_Office#Previous_appeals_(excluding_bans)
  203. ^ https://www.simpsonsarchive.com/guides/bbfc.html
  204. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/simpsons-bart-gets-f-1992
  205. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/simpsons-simpsons-and-delilah-1992
  206. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/simpsons-tree-house-horror-1992
  207. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/simpsons-two-cars-every-garage-and-three-eyes-every-fish-1993
  208. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/simpsons-dancing-homer-1994
  209. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/simpsons-dead-putting-society-1995
  210. ^ https://imgur.com/a/D1nzHXI
  211. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/search/releases/bubblegum%2Bcrash
  212. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/0G8AAOSwYMlfHXPq/s-l1600.jpg
  213. ^ "- IMDb" – via www.imdb.com.
  214. ^ "Baby Snatcher - BBFC PG, IFCO 15". Imgur.
  215. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/midnight-run-your-life
  216. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/HpwAAOSw8lte7zeN/s-l1600.jpg
  217. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/PcQAAOSw8zJe7zeP/s-l1600.jpg
  218. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/while-you-were-sleeping-1995
  219. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/while-you-were-sleeping-video
  220. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/123ab2effef3aae52c3
  221. ^ "Legacy of Sin". British Board of Film Classification.
  222. ^ "Leagcy of Sin". Imgur.
  223. ^ "First Knight - BBFC PG, IFCO 15". Imgur.
  224. ^ "3 ninjas knuckle up". British Board of Film Classification.
  225. ^ "3 Ninjas Knuckle up (1995)".
  226. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/ace-ventura-when-nature-calls-1970-1
  227. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/ace-ventura-when-nature-calls-video
  228. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/12cdaf1fdc23313cd78
  229. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/spy-hard-1996
  230. ^ https://assets.catawiki.nl/assets/2015/6/20/8/0/7/807fcb4c-1744-11e5-9018-d9c0a98ee6fe.jpg
  231. ^ https://imgur.com/a/F3QOsKg
  232. ^ a b "Michael Collins (1996)". British Board of Film Classification.
  233. ^ "Michael Collins (1996)".
  234. ^ "Censor gives 'Collins' PG cert".
  235. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/picture-perfect-2002-1
  236. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/picture-perfect-film
  237. ^ https://imgur.com/a/CdRl8aj
  238. ^ "WHO AM I?". British Board of Film Classification.
  239. ^ "Photo". 1.bp.blogspot.com. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  240. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/vicar-dibley-engagement-1999
  241. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/search/releases/dibley%2Blive
  242. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/search/releases/celebrity%2Bvicar
  243. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/vicar-dibley-love-marriage-2000
  244. ^ https://imgur.com/a/hXFgCrE
  245. ^ http://zummer.blogspot.com/2016/10/biggest-disparity-between-bbfc-and-ifco.html
  246. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/x-files-season-6-agua-malia-2000
  247. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/x-files-season-6-monday-2000
  248. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/x-files-season-6-arcadia-2000
  249. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/x-files-season-6-alpha-2000
  250. ^ https://imgur.com/a/X4y61FV
  251. ^ "Film with abortion theme is given 18 certificate".
  252. ^ Rockett, Kevin (2004). Irish Film Censorship: A Cultural Journey from Silent Cinema to Internet Pornography. Four Courts Press. p. 291, 445. ISBN 978-1-85182-845-6.
  253. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/gorgeous-0
  254. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/4q0AAOSw6lFe-Hmd/s-l1600.jpg
  255. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/VVUAAOSwuhZefHbS/s-l1600.jpg
  256. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/94wAAOSwy8Ze-Hmb/s-l1600.jpg
  257. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/angel-rm-wa-vu-2000-0
  258. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/angel-sense-sensitivity-2000-0
  259. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/angel-bachelor-party-2000-0
  260. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/angel-will-remember-you-2000-0
  261. ^ https://imgur.com/a/Hx1jvKg
  262. ^ "Tokyo raiders". British Board of Film Classification.
  263. ^ "Photo". postimg.cc. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  264. ^ "The in crowd". British Board of Film Classification.
  265. ^ "photo". postimg.cc. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  266. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/last-waltz-1970
  267. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/last-waltz-2002-0
  268. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/1314f856a550db9d52f
  269. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/13ed525fdd532b5f5f1
  270. ^ https://imgur.com/a/FTeWvx0
  271. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/simpsons-video-248
  272. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/C0AF6EE40078E3A6
  273. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/tom-greens-subway-monkey-hour-video
  274. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/g78AAOSwnvpeoIFa/s-l1600.jpg
  275. ^ "I capture the castle". British Board of Film Classification.
  276. ^ "I Capture the Castle – Cinema, Movie, Film Review".
  277. ^ "View Image".
  278. ^ "MILLION DOLLAR BABY". British Board of Film Classification.
  279. ^ [5][dead link]
  280. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/ringers-lord-fans-2005-2
  281. ^ https://imgur.com/a/RN84BqQ
  282. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/boy-eats-girl-video
  283. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/25D8697C005279A7
  284. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/apocalypto-2007-0
  285. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/413119FE00647AB6
  286. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/bandidas-2011-0
  287. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/E826A7480073657E
  288. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/notorious-bettie-page-1
  289. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/A958E8C9005D49BB
  290. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/tigers-tail-2007-0
  291. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/970BBC51004979BD
  292. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/underworld-evolution-2006-1
  293. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/DC87BADF00644872
  294. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/garage-film
  295. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/3BD6D4BC0053DE8C
  296. ^ "INSIDE THE MIND OF a SUICIDE BOMBER". British Board of Film Classification.
  297. ^ https://imgur.com/a/P4ROs7h
  298. ^ "FROST/NIXON". British Board of Film Classification.
  299. ^ [6][dead link]
  300. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/bangkok-dangerous-film
  301. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/A49050F8004EF60E
  302. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/blindness-film
  303. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/C64A640200504BE6
  304. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/ricky-gervais-show-video-31
  305. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/9775EDB700736DB5
  306. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/eat-pray-love-video-0
  307. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/aRYAAOSwxL1cuf1Z/s-l1600.jpg
  308. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/42C1C8BA00735F20
  309. ^ "WRINKLES". British Board of Film Classification.
  310. ^ [7][dead link]
  311. ^ "EUREKA SEVEN - GOOD NIGHT, SLEEP TIGHT, YOUNG LOVERS". British Board of Film Classification.
  312. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/62CC14300078E3A8
  313. ^ "American horror story: freakshow". British Board of Film Classification.
  314. ^ [8][dead link]
  315. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/queen-ireland-film
  316. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/DC9C6229004083EF
  317. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/time-trial-film
  318. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/3B02AB050042D74D
  319. ^ "View Image".
  320. ^ https://a1.amlimg.com/YjY3NzU2NWQ5MTJlY2ZhMDQzNTMxMjY3NzhjYTk3Y2U79Yb6XtoW1iWQiihZF7rUaHR0cDovL21lZGlhLmFkc2ltZy5jb20vOTM3MDNhZDMyOWFmNThhMjIxZWI4ZjVhZjRjYTZhYWM0MDE3NDMxNmZlYjA4YmQwYWJkY2M4Mjg0Y2I5ZTc2Yi5qcGd8fHx8fHwzMzd4NTI1fGh0dHA6Ly93d3cuYWR2ZXJ0cy5pZS9zdGF0aWMvaS93YXRlcm1hcmsucG5nfHx8.jpg
  321. ^ https://a1.amlimg.com/OWVkODNmNTczN2M1MjIzZDJlYzQzOWM1OTZiM2M1YWGpObVNw2QwNb6ZfpSXUFL-aHR0cDovL21lZGlhLmFkc2ltZy5jb20vYjQwNzJjZDVkNWE4OWRjOTdmMWY3OTZiZmU2MDhiZmU4MjhmN2Q2ZjhjY2JhZGEyM2U4OTllODY1YWYzOGEyNi5qcGd8fHx8fHw3MDB4NTI1fGh0dHA6Ly93d3cuYWR2ZXJ0cy5pZS9zdGF0aWMvaS93YXRlcm1hcmsucG5nfHx8.jpg
  322. ^ "Photo". Amazon. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  323. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/aVEAAOSwt35dtfGb/s-l1600.jpg
  324. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/hKEAAOSwWDRbOTj3/s-l1600.jpg
  325. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/Rd8AAOSw9GNc-Buh/s-l1600.jpg
  326. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/eRsAAOSwupRc-Buk/s-l1600.jpg
  327. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/LXQAAOSwKvZc-Buh/s-l1600.jpg
  328. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/84FC5B06007370A4
  329. ^ https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/A1dapQqrVXL._AC_SL1500_.jpg
  330. ^ https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/A1ZvBddQgAL._AC_SL1500_.jpg
  331. ^ https://a1.amlimg.com/YzgyODQ5NzcxYTZiMTRkMTczZjAzMDFmZTk5ZDhhMznn_W59Evk95wGjZ4LMZhzRaHR0cDovL21lZGlhLmFkc2ltZy5jb20vMDVkZDI2MDlhYzljN2Y2ODQ1NzI1MjBmNTQ2MDIwN2RjODA3ZDFjNTFlMzkwODg3YWFhNGVmYTgwNDIxYjY3Zi5qcGd8fHx8fHwzOTR4NTI1fGh0dHA6Ly93d3cuYWR2ZXJ0cy5pZS9zdGF0aWMvaS93YXRlcm1hcmsucG5nfHx8.jpg
  332. ^ https://a1.amlimg.com/YzIzYjAyYjQ0ODQyNDZmN2VhZTEwYmRmNzRiNzc1MTAFhxd0nlyVwQOUgYLxuy4jaHR0cDovL21lZGlhLmFkc2ltZy5jb20vZTk1NTI1NjBhYTdmNmQ5MzlkNWFjZDI0Nzg2YzFmZTUyMDJkOGY3N2FjMjBjMzJkMzcwYjg2NzI4ZmI0ZTc4Zi5qcGd8fHx8fHwzOTR4NTI1fGh0dHA6Ly93d3cuYWR2ZXJ0cy5pZS9zdGF0aWMvaS93YXRlcm1hcmsucG5nfHx8.jpg
  333. ^ https://a1.amlimg.com/MDVhNjJlYTVlOTQ2MWFjYWU0MDE4NmY0OGE3NWFlYWFkMtCpWnrYBLu_dJkiSeHbaHR0cDovL21lZGlhLmFkc2ltZy5jb20vYTAyMTIxMGRjNjZkZGQ5OTZlN2VkYmIyMmViNTc0NWM4MjhiNTU4NzI0YWYzM2U3MzdiNzBiOTI5NzAzOGMwYi5qcGd8fHx8fHwzOTR4NTI1fGh0dHA6Ly93d3cuYWR2ZXJ0cy5pZS9zdGF0aWMvaS93YXRlcm1hcmsucG5nfHx8.jpg
  334. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20171114121206/http://ifco.ie/ifco/ifcoweb.nsf/lookupreports2/D2E379DFC484D98E802571AB0039E72B/$File/2005%20Annual%20Report.pdf?openelement
  335. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/7zsAAOSwLIJe1lMa/s-l1600.jpg
  336. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/~IIAAOSwf1Rey8Oo/s-l1600.jpg
  337. ^ https://www.movie-censorship.com/report.php?ID=427095
  338. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/immortals-film-0
  339. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/674BCF1C0054C812
  340. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/00B07E340078EA47
  341. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/talihina-sky-story-kings-leon-film
  342. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/sites/default/files/attachments/BBFC_AnnualReport_2011.pdf
  343. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/5ADFF74A005117CE
  344. ^ https://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/every-day-film
  345. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/EF1802420053C201
  346. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/citizen-kane-film
  347. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/citizen-kane-1941
  348. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/citizen-kane-video-3
  349. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/1dde8eb1eaaeb2e5227
  350. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/DE9D36DF007372AE
  351. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/jaws-film
  352. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/jaws-1975
  353. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/12ee3584ecaf64fd9b3
  354. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/12d0e6d481a41457924
  355. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/jaws-gag-reel-1970
  356. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/jaws-30th-anniversary-story-board-comparison-2005
  357. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/jaws-film-0
  358. ^ https://imgur.com/a/aWDevwM
  359. ^ http://www.45worlds.com/i/125b97e467aa141c965
  360. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/63A9A93D005830E7
  361. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/9BE2B9FD00735F08
  362. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/watership-down-1978
  363. ^ a b c https://imgur.com/a/REJqGXj
  364. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/watership-down-video
  365. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/79D01D1400737048
  366. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/your-eyes-only-1970-7
  367. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/your-eyes-only-1970-6
  368. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/your-eyes-only-1
  369. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/your-eyes-only-2000
  370. ^ https://moviecentrallibrary.blogspot.com/2015/04/for-your-eyes-only-1981.html
  371. ^ a b https://imgur.com/a/avfHccs
  372. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan-0
  373. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/case-studies/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan
  374. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan-video-7
  375. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan-video-5
  376. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan-video-6
  377. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan-video-4
  378. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan-video-8
  379. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan-film
  380. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/star-trek-ii-wrath-khan-video-2
  381. ^ https://imgur.com/a/ig0tzpK
  382. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/842C583700737299
  383. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/0wsAAOSwTxhfEM1T/s-l1600.jpg
  384. ^ https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/nsgAAOSwTRdfB0XC/s-l1600.jpg
  385. ^ http://www.ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/CBBEA0950078EAE1
  386. ^ https://bbfc.co.uk/releases/groundhog-day-1993
  387. ^ https://imgur.com/a/3DZQnQs
  388. ^ https://cover.box3.net/index.php?pid=cove2&p=v&rid=58649&&por=5&mod=cd
  389. ^ http://ifco.ie/en/ifco/pages/121736E50078E4E0
  390. ^ Flynn, Roderick; Brereton, Patrick (30 July 2007). Historical Dictionary of Irish Cinema. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8108-5557-1.

External linksEdit

Legislation links