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America's 25 Worst Highway Bottlenecks, 2012 Each year, the Daily Beast compiles a list of the country's worst bottlenecks using data supplied by INRIX, a traffic tracking and analyzing company. Their Traffic Index collects data from 100 million vehicles to score the amount of extra time it takes to drive through a particular stretch of highway during rush hour. Consult the table below to find out what freeways to avoid when you hit the road. RankCityFreewayWorst corridorLength of worst corridorExtra time during rush hourWorst travel hour 1.Los AngelesHarbor Freeway/CA-100 northboundI-10/Santa Monica Freeway to Stadium Way/Exit 24C3.1 miles8 minutesTuesday, 6–7P.M. 2.New York CityVan Wyck Expressway/I-678 northboundBelt Parkway/Exit 1 to Maine Street/Exit 83.1miles10 minutesMonday, 8–9A.M. 3.San FranciscoCalifornia Delta Highway/CA-4 westboundHillcrest Avenue to Somersville Road2.9 miles6 minutesTuesday, 6–7A.M. 4.ChicagoStevenson Expressway/I-55 southboundState Street/Exit 293C to Pulaski Road/Exit 2875.7 miles10 minutesThursday, 4–5P.M. 5.Dallas-Ft. WorthLoop 820/I-820 westboundTX-26/Grapevine Highway to US-377/Denton Highway/Exit 193.1 miles6 minutesFriday, 5–6P.M. 6.HoustonUS-59 northboundBuffalo Speedway to I-454.8 miles7 minutesFriday, 5–6P.M. 7.SeattleI-405 southboundWA-520/NE 14th Street/Exit 14 to SE Coal Creek Parkway/Exit104.5 miles7 minutesThursday, 5–6P.M. 8.Washington, D.C.Capital Beltway/I-495 outer loopUS-1/Baltimore Avenue/Exit 25 to MD-97/Georgia Avenue/Exit 316.3 miles8 minutesWednesday, 8–9A.M. 9.BostonSoutheast Expressway/I-93 southboundI-90 to Freeport Street/Exit 133.7 miles6 minutesFriday, 4–5P.M. 10.PittsburghPenn Lincoln Parkway/I-376 eastboundLydia Street/Exit 2 to US-19/PA-51/Exit 53.4 miles9 minutesWednesday, 8–9A.M. 11.Austin, Texas1-35 southboundUS-183/Exit 239-240 to Woodland Avenue6.7 miles10 minutesThursday, 5–6P.M. 12.MiamiDolphin Expressway/SR 836 westboundI-95 to FL-959/Red Road5.5 miles11 minutesFriday, 5–6P.M. 13.San DiegoCA-78 eastboundRancho Santa Fe Road to Mission Road4.2 miles5 minutesWednesday, 5–6P.M. 14.HonoluluLunalilo Freeway/I-1 eastboundHI-92 to S. Vineyard Boulevard/Ward Avenue3.9 miles9 minutesWednesday, 5–6P.M. 15.Minneapolis-St. PaulI-494 eastboundUS-212/Prairie Center Drive/Exit 1 to CR-32/Penn Ave/Exit 65.7 miles6 minutesThursday, 5–6P.M. 16.PhiladelphiaDelaware Expressway/I-95 southboundAcademy Road/Exit 32 to Girard Avenue/Exit 238.3 miles7 minutesTuesday, 8–9A.M. 17.New OrleansI-10 westboundCauseway Boulevard/Exit 228 to End Boulevard/Florida Boulevard5 miles5 minutesThursday, 5–6P.M. 18.BaltimoreBaltimore Beltway inner loop/I-695 northboundUS-1/Southwestern Boulevard/Exit 12 to Security Boulevard/Exit 175.3 miles4 minutesThursday, 5–6P.M. 19.AtlantaGA-400/US-19 southboundCA-120/Old Milton Parkway/Exit to GA-140/Holcomb Bridge Road/Exit 74.7 miles4 minutesTuesday, 8–9A.M. 20.Bridgeport, Conn.Connecticut Turnpike/I-95 northboundField Point Road to Mill Plain Road/Exit 2122.2 miles12 minutesFriday, 5–6P.M. 21.PhoenixPapago Freeway/I-10 westboundAZ-51/AZ-202/Exit 147 to 35th Avenue/Exit 1416.2 miles4 minutesThursday, 5–6P.M. 22.Sacramento, Calif.S. Sacramento Freeway/CA-99 southbound12th Avenue to Mack Road/Bruceville Road5.4 miles4 minutesWednesday, 5–6P.M. 23.San JoseBayshore Freeway/US-101 southboundFair Oaks Avenue to De La Cruz Boulevard4.2 miles5 minutesThursday, 5–6P.M. 24.Baton Rouge, La.I-12 eastboundEssen Lane to O'Neal Lane5.8 miles6 minutesThursday, 5–6P.M. 25.Riverside, Calif.Riverside Freeway/CA-91 westboundMcKinley Street to Auto Center Drive/Serfas Club Drive5.6 miles6 minutesMonday, 6–7A.M. Source: The Daily Beast, INRIX.

Traffic Congestion in U.S. Cities, 2002 RankUrban areaAnnual delay per person in hours 1. Los Angeles, Calif.136 2.San Francisco-Oakland, Calif.92 3.Washington, DC-Md.-Va.84 4.Seattle-Everett, Wash.82 5. Houston, Tex.75 6. San Jose, Calif.74 6.Dallas-Fort Worth, Tex.74 8.New York, N.Y.-Northeastern N.J.73 9. Atlanta, Ga.70 10.Miami-Hialeah, Fla.69 11.Chicago, Ill.-Northwestern Ind.67 11. Boston, Mass.67 11. Denver, Colo.67 14.Orlando, Fla.66 15.San Bernardino-Riverside, Calif.64 16.Ft. Lauderdale-Hollywood-Pompano Beach, Fla.61 16. Austin, Tex.61 18. Phoenix, Ariz.59 19. Detroit, Mich.55 20.Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn.54 21. San Diego, Calif.51 22. Baltimore, Md.50 23.Portland-Vancouver, Ore.-Wash.47 23. Charlotte, N.C.47 25.Louisville, Ky.-Ind.46 26.Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Fla.45 26. Albuquerque, N.M.45 28.Nashville, Tenn.44 29.Cincinnati, Ohio-Ky.43 29.W. Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach, Fla.43 29. Indianapolis, Ind.43 29. San Antonio, Tex.43 29.St. Louis, Mo.-Ill.43 34. Sacramento, Calif.42 34.Philadelphia, Pa.-N.J.42 36.Providence-Pawtucket, R.I.-Mass.41 37. Las Vegas, Nev.38 38. Columbus, Ohio36 39.Tacoma, Wash.34 39.Memphis, Tenn.-Ark.-Miss.34 41. Milwaukee, Wis.32 41. Jacksonville, Fla.32 43.Birmingham, Ala.31 44. Colorado Springs, Colo.27 45.Charleston, S.C.26 46. Tucson, Ariz.25 46.Norfolk-Newport News-Virginia Beach, Va.25 46.Omaha, Neb.-Iowa25 49. Fresno, Calif.24 49. Honolulu, Hawaii24 49.Pensacola, Fla.24 NOTE: Study conducted in 75 urbanized areas. Source:Texas Transportation Institute, the Texas A&M University System.The 2002 Urban Mobility Report,David Schrank and Tim Lomax. Web: http://mobility.tamu.e du.

Nano: World's Cheapest Car: Nano Specs Cost: $2,500 Five-door hatchback Two-cylinder engine Speeds of up to 65 miles per hour Avg. MPG: 50 No: radio, air conditioning, power steering, or power windows The newest Nano has four wheels and runs on two cylinders. No, Apple Computer did not introduce a self-propelled MP3 player (not yet, anyway). The Tata Nano is a tiny, five-door hatchback that was unveiled at a car show in early January 2008 in New Delhi, India. A two-cylinder engine, which is located in the back, powers the car. The Nano, nicknamed the "People's Car," can reach speeds of up to 65 miles per hour and gets about 50 miles per gallon of gasoline, which is on par with most hybrids. The five-seat mini car, which looks a lot like a bubble on wheels, is about 11 feet long and 5 feet wide. Cheap but Spare At only $2,500, the Nano lacks many of the accessories and luxuries of other, more expensive cars. Indeed, it doesn't have a radio, air conditioning, power steering, or power windows, and the dashboard is adorned with only a speedometer, an oil light, and a fuel gauge. Ratan Tata, the chairman of the Tata Group, which developed the Nano, said he hopes to sell about one million of the cars in India. "We indeed have a People's Car, which is affordable and yet built to meet safety requirements and emission norms, to be fuel efficient and low on emissions," Tata said. He chose the name "Nano" because the word "connotes high-tech and small size," he said. Environmental Impact While some auto enthusiasts hailed the Nano for its fuel efficiency and low price, which will provide mobility to a much wider population in India, many environmentalists are concerned that a million new cars in India, the world's second-most-populous country, with a population of more than 1.1 billion, will contribute further to global warming. Indeed, India's emissions of carbon dioxide are the fourth highest in the world, and New Delhi, the capital of India, is the fourth-most-polluted city in the world. Some suggested that Tata should have used his significant resources to work toward improving India's mass transportation system rather than further clog India's already intolerably congested roads. "In my view, this represents a bankruptcy of policy as far as transport options are concerned," said chief U.N. climate scientist Rajendra Pachauri, who shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prizewith Al Gore. "If our roads are going to be flooded with these cars by a few million each year, what is that going to do? Every car that goes on the road is going to use road space. Congestion and air pollutionare twin problems," he said. "Why not improve the quality and reliability of buses?"

Most Expensive Cars, 2007 RankMake, modelPrice 1.Bugatti Veyron 16.4$1.4 million 2.Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren 722 Edition482,750 3.Maybach 62S SSC Ultimate Aero428,750 4.Rolls-Royce Drophead Coupe412,000 5.Lamborghini Murcielago LP640 Roadster362,400 6.Bentley Azure337,085 7.Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano F1280,295 8.Aston Martin DB9 Volante convertible175,550 9.Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet (2008 model)136,500 10.Maserati Quattroporte Automatic Executive GT126,500 NOTE: All base prices are for 2007 models, unless noted otherwise. Includes only vehicles currently sold in the U.S. Source: Forbes.com.

Top AAA Cars, 2006 AAA evaluates more than 200 vehicles each year and selects the top-rated vehicle in each category, based on cost and type. Cars are rated according to value, fuel economy, braking, ride, handling, passenger environment, cargo space, and other criteria. CategoryMake/model $50,000 or moreJaguar XJ8L $40,000–$50,000Infiniti M35/M45 $35,000–$40,000Volvo S80 $30,000–$35,000BMW 3 Series $25,000–$30,000Toyota Avalon $20,000–$25,000Dodge Charger $15,000–$20,000Honda Accord Sedan Under $15,000Mazda 3 SUV over $30,000Mercedes-Benz M-Class SUV under $30,000Ford Escape Hybrid MinivanHonda Odyssey Pickup TruckHonda Ridgeline Cool CarChevrolet Corvette Z06 Source:AAA. Web: www.aaa.com.

Most Stolen Cars, 2007 RankYear, make, model 1.1995 Honda Civic 2.1991 Honda Accord 3.1989 Toyota Camry 4.1997 Ford F150 Series 5.1994 Chevrolet C/K 1500 Pickup 6.1994 Acura Integra 7.2004 Dodge Ram Pickup 8.1994 Nissan Sentra 9.1988 Toyota Pickup 10.2007 Toyota Corolla Source:National Insurance Crime Bureau

Most and Least Knowledgeable U.S. Drivers, 2010 Based on the average scores on a 20-question driving test commissioned by the GMAC Insurance Company, the most knowledgeable drivers in the U.S. are from Kansas and the least knowledgeable are from New York. RankState 1. Kansas 2. Oregon 3. South Dakota 4. Minnesota 5. Iowa 6. Nebraska 7. Indiana 8. Idaho 9. Montana 10. Alaska 11. Washington 12. Wisconsin 13. Oklahoma 14. North Dakota 15. Michigan 16. Missouri 17. Arizona 18. Wyoming 19. Tennessee 20. Maryland 21. Nevada 22. Vermont 23. Utah 24. Colorado 25. Delaware 26. Maine 27. Ohio 28. Virginia 29. New Mexico 30. South Carolina 31. Alabama 32. Georgia 33. Illinois 34. Connecticut 35. Texas 36. Arkansas 37. North Carolina 38. Massachusetts 39. Pennsylvania 40. Mississippi 41. Florida 42. Kentucky 43. New Hampshire 44. Hawaii 45. West Virginia 46. Louisiana 47. Rhode Island 48. California 49. District of Columbia 50. New Jersey 51. New York Source:General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) Insurance National Drivers Test administered to 5,000 licensed drivers nationwide. Widespread Bad Driving Habits According to the GMAC survey: 50% report that they do not know how to merge into heavy traffic. 60% say that they change lanes on a highway without using their blinker. 17% percent of Americans have driven without a rear view or driver's side mirror. 20% do not know that a pedestrian has the right of way at a marked or unmarked crosswalk. 25% drivers would roll through a stop sign rather than come to a complete stop. One-third admit they speed up to make a yellow light even when pedestrians are in the crosswalk.

Parents Magazineand AAA Best Cars for Families, 2005 EconomyHonda Civic Mazda3 Scion XB SedansChrysler 300 Honda Accord Toyota Camry Station WagonsFord Freestyle Mazda6 Subaru Legacy/Outback Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs)Dodge Durango Volvo XC90 Nissan Murano MinivansChrysler Town & Country Honda Odyssey Toyota Sienna Source:AAA andParents Magazine,April 2005.

Top-Selling Vehicles in the U.S., 2005 RankVehicleNumber 1.Ford F-Series901,463 2.Chevrolet Silverado705,891 3.Toyota Camry433,703 4.Dodge Ram400,453 5.Honda Accord369,293 6.Honda Civic308,415 7.Nissan Altima255,371 8.Chevrolet Impala246,481 9.Chevrolet Malibu245,861 10.Chevrolet TrailBlazer244,150 Source:Automotive News, Edmunds. Web: www.edmunds.com.

Most Stolen Cars, 2007 RankYear, make, model 1.1995 Honda Civic 2.1991 Honda Accord 3.1989 Toyota Camry 4.1997 Ford F150 Series 5.1994 Chevrolet C/K 1500 Pickup 6.1994 Acura Integra 7.2004 Dodge Ram Pickup 8.1994 Nissan Sentra 9.1988 Toyota Pickup 10.2007 Toyota Corolla Source:National Insurance Crime Bureau

Car Theft by Top Ten U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 2005 RankMetropolitan Statistical AreaVehicles stolenRate1 1.Modesto, Calif.7,0711,418.80 2.Las Vegas/Paradise, Nev.22,4651,360.90 3.Stockton, Calif.7,5861,167.30 4.Phoenix/Mesa/Scottsdale, Ariz.41,0001,103.50 5.Visalia/Porterville, Calif.4,2571,060.20 6.Seattle/Tacoma/Bellevue, Wash.33,4941,057.60 7.Sacramento/Arden-Arcade/Roseville, Calif.20,2681,005.00 8.San Diego/Carlsbad/San Marcos, Calif.28,845983.90 9.Fresno, Calif.8,478978.11 10.Yakima, Wash.2,212965.54 1. Ranked by the rate of vehicle thefts reported per 100,000 people based on the 2000 Census. Source:National Insurance Crime Bureau.

Most Congested Roads, 2012 Below are the most congested roads in the United States, including the average speed and travel time delay for the worst stretches of asphalt in 2012. RoadLocationAverage speedTravel time delay Cross Bronx Expressway New York, N.Y.13 mph41 min I-405 SB Los Angeles, Calif.14 mph26 min Van Wyck Expressway SB New York, N.Y.12 mph23 min I-10 EB Los Angeles, Calif.19 mph32 min CA-91 Riverside, Calif.22 mph38 min Long Island Expressway EB New York, N.Y.19 mph33 min Brooklyn Queens Expressway SB New York, N.Y.16 mph27 min I-405 NB Los Angeles, Calif.22 mph31 min I-90/I-94 WB Chicago, Ill.20 mph30 min I-5 SB Los Angeles, Calif.22 mph31 min Source:Traffic Scorecard, INRIX.

Most Congested Roads, 2010 Below are the most congested roads in the United States, including the amount of fuel, time, and money spent in 2010. RoadLocationHours Wasted in TrafficFuel Wasted in Traffic (gallons)Total Cost of Congestion Harbor Freeway Los Angeles, Calif.1.44 million2.17 million95 million Van Wyck Expressway New York, N.Y.690,0001.086 million46.9 million I-35 Southbound Austin, Tex.546,0001.698 million77.8 million I-10 Eastbound Houston, Tex.475,000951,00043.2 million Southeast Expressway/1-93 Northbound Boston, Mass.470,0002.44 million105 million 1-495 Outer Loop Washington, D.C.465,0001.36 million61 million 1-5 SouthBound Seattle, Wash.441,0001.93 million84.8 million Penn Lincoln Parkway Pittsburgh, Pa.443,000728,00033.3 million Dolphin Expressway Miami, Fla.431,0001.1 million45.3 million Stevenson Expressway Chicago, Ill.414,0001.24 million55 million Source:Texas Transportation Institute, INRIX, The Weather Channel

What Your Car Color Says About You Based on the DuPont Automotive rankings of most popular automotive colors in North America, here’s what Color Answer Book author Leatrice Eiseman says vehicles are revealing about their owners’ personalities: *.Silver:Elegant, loves futuristic looks, cool *.White:Fastidious *.Vibrant Red:Sexy, speedy, high-energy and dynamic *.Light to Mid-Blue:Cool, calm, faithful, quiet *.Dark Blue:Credible, confident, dependable *.Taupe/Light Brown:Timeless, basic and simple tastes *.Black:Empowered, not easily manipulated, loves elegance, appreciates classics *.Neutral Gray:Sober, corporate, practical, pragmatic *.Dark Green:Traditional, trustworthy, well-balanced *.Bright Yellow-Green:Trendy, whimsical, lively *.Yellow Gold:Intelligent, warm, loves comfort and will pay for it *.Sunshine Yellow:Sunny disposition, joyful and young at heart *.Deep Brown:Down-to-earth, no-nonsense *.Orange:Fun loving, talkative, fickle and trendy *.Deep Purple:Creative, individualistic, original Source:2004 DuPont Automotive Color Popularity Report.

Most Popular Car Colors, 2012 (Percentage of vehicles manufactured during these model years) Color% manufactured 1. White/white pearl 23% 3. Black/black effect 21 4. Silver 18 5. Red 8 6. Blue 6 7. Brown/beige 6 8. Green 1 9. Yellow/Gold 1 10. Others 2 Source:2012 Global Color Popularity Report.

Most Popular Car Colors, 2012 (Percentage of vehicles manufactured during these model years) Color% manufactured 1. White/white pearl 23% 3. Black/black effect 21 4. Silver 18 5. Red 8 6. Blue 6 7. Brown/beige 6 8. Green 1 9. Yellow/Gold 1 10. Others 2 Source:2012 Global Color Popularity Report.

Travel Websites *.Adventure Travel & Ecotourism *.Adventure Travel Tips: www.adventuretrav eltips.com *.Outside Online outside.away.com *.International Ecotourism Society: www.ecotourism.or g *.Backpacking and Hiking *.American Hiking Society: www.americanhikin g.org *.Appalachian Mountain Club: www.outdoors.org *.Rocky Mountain National Park: www.explore- rocky.com *.Rail Connection (Europe): www.railconnection. com *.Fares & Reservations *.CheapTickets: www.cheaptickets.c om *.Expedia (Microsoft): www.expedia.com *.Orbitz: www.orbitz.com *.Priceline: www.priceline.com *.Travelocity: www.travelocity.co m *.Student Travel *.Hostelling International: www.hihostels.com *.STA Travel: www.sta- travel.com *.Student Universe: www.studentuniver se.com *.Useful Travel Information *.Exchange Rates: www.x-rates.com *.Intellicast (weather): www.intellicast.com *.National Center for Infectious Diseases Travelers' Health Page: www.cdc.gov/travel *.Travel Guides *.Fodor's Travel Online: www.fodors.com *.Frommer's: www.frommers.com *.Lonely Planet: www.lonelyplanet.c om *.National Park Service: www.nps.gov *.Rough Guides: www.roughguides.c om *.Travel Notes: www.travelnotes.or g *.Volunteer Vacations *.Charity Guide: charityguide.org/cha rity/vacation.htm *.Earthwatch Institute: www.earthwatch.or g *.Global Volunteer Network: www.volunteer.org. nz/ *.Global Volunteers: www.globalvoluntee rs.org

Travel Scams: You Don't Get Something for Nothing Source:U.S. Department of Consumer Affairs Beware of travel companies that misrepresent information about the bookings and transportation costs. For example, a company that offers an unbelievably low airfare may make up the loss in another way such as overpriced hotel accomodations. In most cases, one should assume that “If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.” The following tips from the U.S. Department of Consumer Affairs can save you from a disappointing vacation. Don't be taken by solicitations by postcard, letter, or phone claiming you've won a free trip or can get discounts on hotels and airfares. These offers usually don't disclose the hidden fees involved, for example, deposits, surcharges, excessive handling fees or taxes. Some travel scams require you to purchase a product to get a trip that is “free” or “two-for-one.” You'll end up paying for the “free trip” or more for the product than the trip is worth, and the two-for-one deal might be more expensive than if you had arranged a trip yourself by watching airfare deals. Be wary of travel offers which ask you to redeem vouchers or certificates from out-of-state companies. Their offers are usually valid only for a limited time and on a space-available basis. The hotels are often budget rooms and very uncomfortable. The company charges you for the trip in advance, but will the company still be in business when you're ready to take the trip? Check the reputation of any travel service you use, especially travel clubs offering discounts on their services in exchange for an annual fee. Contact your state or local consumer protection agency or the Better Business Bureau. Request copies of a travel club's or agent's brochures and contracts before purchasing your ticket. Don't rely on oral promises. Find out about cancellation policies and never sign contracts that have blank or incomplete spaces. Never give out your credit card number to a club or company with which you're unfamiliar or which requires you to call 900 numbers for information. Don't feel pressured by requests for an immediate decision or a statement that the offer is only good “if you act now.” Don't deal with companies that request payment in advance or that don't have escrow accounts where your deposit is held. Research cut-rate offers, especially when dealing with travel consolidators who might not be able to provide your tickets until close to your departure date. You can protect yourself by using a credit card to purchase travel services. If you don't get what you paid for, contact the credit card issuer and you might be able to get the charges reversed. Be aware that you have 60 days to dispute a charge.

Got a Yen...To Learn About Foreign Exchange? Source: FDIC Consumer News,Spring 1995. The value of the U.S. dollar has an impact on all our lives, not just those of us who travel abroad. So what does it mean when the dollar is “up” against the French franc or “down” against the Japanese yen? Is it better to have a “strong” or a “weak” dollar? Who determines the value of the dollar versus foreign currencies? Economic conditions in the U.S. play a big role in why the dollar fluctuates in value. An example: Large trade deficits mean dollars are flooding the world markets, causing a greater supply than demand, which creates a weak dollar. And if foreign investors think U.S. interest rates are heading down, they'll put more money outside the U.S. looking for higher rates, which lessens the demand for dollars and weakens the dollar's value. When the dollar is weak—or down—against a foreign currency, that means it takes more dollars to buy the same amount of foreign money, and items you buy while abroad will cost you more. When the dollar is strong—or up—against a foreign currency, that means it takes fewer dollars to buy the same amount of foreign money, and items you buy while abroad will cost you less (or as many like to look at it, you can buy more stuff). Let's say you're planning a trip to England and you're told a cab ride from the airport to your hotel in London costs 25 British pounds. If it takes $1.50 to buy one British pound, that cab fare will cost the equivalent of about $37.50 ($1.50 × 25). If at the time of your trip the dollar has weakened, however, it might take $1.75 to equal one British pound. That same 25 pound cab ride would end up costing you about $6.25 more ($1.75 × 25 = $43.75). Likewise, if the dollar gets stronger, that cab ride might cost you only $1.25 per British pound, or $31.25 ($1.25 × 25 = $31.25). This same principle applies to anything else you might buy—souvenirs, food and so on—while you're away. Many people planning a trip try to predict what a foreign currency will be worth in the future. If they think the dollar will be strong they may hold off converting their dollars until right before they depart. Or if they think the dollar will be weaker, they may convert their dollars several weeks before they depart. It's a tough decision to make. It's like trying to predict what a stock will be worth on a certain day. As a general rule, you shouldn't exchange all your money at one time because you could end up guessing wrong or converting too much money and losing again when you convert back to dollars or to another currency. Just because you got a good price exchanging dollars for pounds doesn't mean you'll get a good price exchanging pounds for French francs.

A Safe Trip Abroad The U.S. Department of State offers the following tips for safe travel abroad: Dress conservatively. Thieves often target tourists, so avoid wearing anything that will make you stand out, and leave your expensive jewelry at home. Travel light. You will be able to move more quickly and will be more likely to have a free hand. Also, you will be less tired and less likely to set your luggage down and leave it unattended. Conceal your valuables. Leave your passport, cash, and credit cards locked in a hotel safe if possible. When you carry them on you, conceal them in several different places rather than all in one wallet, pocket, or bag. Avoid using handbags, fanny packs, and outside pockets that are easy targets for thieves. If you wear glasses, pack an extra pair. Pack your glasses and any medicines you need in your carry-on luggage. Keep medicines in their original labeled containers. This will help you to avoid problems when passing through customs. Bring copies of your prescriptions and the generic names for the drugs. If a medication contains narcotics, carry a letter from your doctor attesting to your need to take the drug. If you have any doubt about the legality of carrying a certain drug into a foreign country, consult the embassy or consulate of that country first. Bring travelers' checks and a major credit card instead of cash. Leave a copy of the serial numbers of your travelers' checks with a friend or relative at home. Carry your copy with you in a separate place, and as you cash the checks, cross them off the list. Bring an extra set of passport photos and a photocopy of your passport information page. This will make it easier to get a replacement if your passport is lost or stolen. Put your name, address, and telephone number inside each piece of luggage. Use covered luggage tags to avoid casual observation of your name, address, and nationality. Always lock your luggage. Consider getting a telephone calling card that can be used from overseas locations. Access numbers to U.S. operators are published in many international papers, but find out your access number before you go. Source:U.S. Dept. of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs. Web: http://travel.state.gov.

Current Travel Warnings for U.S. Citizens1 Travel warnings are issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid a certain country. The countries listed below are currently on that list. In addition to this list, the State Department issues Consular Information Sheets for every country of the world with information on such matters as the health conditions, crime, unusual currency or entry requirements, or any areas of instability. CountryMost recent warning issued Israel, the West Bank and Gaza 6/22/2011 Sudan 6/22/2011 Cote d'Ivoire 6/16/2011 Philippines 6/14/2011 Burundi 6/1/2011 Yemen 5/25/2011 Syria 4/25/2011 Uzbekistan 4/25/2011 Mexico 4/22/2011 Burkina Faso 4/19/2011 Nigeria 4/15/2011 Iraq 4/12/2011 Lebanon 4/4/2011 Algeria 3/16/2011 Mauritania 3/11/2011 Afghanistan 3/8/2011 Mali 3/2/2011 Eritrea 2/27/2011 Libya 2/25/2011 Pakistan 2/2/2011 Haiti 1/20/2011 Central African Republic 1/14/2011 Niger 1/12/2011 Nepal 1/12/2011 Kenya 12/28/2010 Somalia 12/27/2010 Saudi Arabia 12/23/2010 Colombia 12/8/2010 Guinea 12/3/2010 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 11/25/2010 Chad 11/10/2010 Iran 10/8/2010 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of 8/27/2010 NOTE: In the wake of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on Sept. 11, 2001, the State Department issued a worldwide caution for U.S. citizens traveling abroad. 1. As of July 2011. Source:U.S. Department of State. Web: http://travel.state.gov.

Vaccine Recommendations for International Travelers (Two Years of Age and Older) Source:Centers for Disease Control, July 10, 2000 ( http://www.cdc.gov) The following vaccines should be reviewed with a physician at least ten weeks before departure to ensure the proper scheduling of the various appropriate vaccines and dosages. Primary Vaccine Series.For travelers over two years of age the following immunizations normally given during childhood should be up to date: Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTP or DTaP) Vaccine until age 7, then Td Vaccine Polio (OPV) Vaccine Haemophilus Influenza B (HbCV) Vaccine Hepatitis B (HBV) Vaccine Varicella vaccine (for persons who have never had chickenpox) Children over two should be “on schedule” with each vaccine's primary-series schedule, while adults should have completed the primary series. If you are unsure about your vaccine history, consult with your physician. In addition, adult travelers may want to consider: Influenza (Flu) Vaccine—(Recommended for adults 65 years or older, or other high risk individuals) Pneumococcal Vaccine—(Recommended for adults 65 years or older, or other high risk individuals) Booster or Additional Doses: Tetanus and diphtheria: A booster dose of adult Tetanus-diphtheria (Td) is recommended every ten years. Polio: An additional single dose of vaccine should be received by adult travelers going to the developing countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and the Indian Subcontinent, and the majority of the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. This additional dose of polio vaccine should be received only once during the adult years. Enhanced Inactivated Polio Vaccine (eIPV) is recommended for this dose. Measles: Persons born in or after 1957 should consider a second dose of measles vaccine before traveling abroad. Additional Vaccines.Yellow fevervaccine is recommended if traveling to certain parts of Africa and South America.Hepatitis Bvaccine should be considered for those who will live six months or more in areas of developing countries where Hepatitis B is prevalent (Southeast Asia, Africa, the Middle East, the islands of the South and Western Pacific, and the Amazon region of South America), and who will have frequent close contact with the local population.Hepatitis AVaccine and/orImmune Globulin(IG) is recommended for travelers to all areasexceptJapan, Australia, New Zealand, Northern and Western Europe and North America (except Mexico).Typhoidvaccine is recommended for travelers spending four weeks or more in areas where food and water precautions are recommended—many parts of the world, especially developing countries.Meningococcalvaccine is recommended for travelers to sub-Saharan Africa, especially if close contact with the locals is anticipated, or if travel occurs during the dry season from December through June.Japanese EncephalitisorTick-borne Encephalitisvaccines should be considered for long-term travelers to geographic areas of risk.Choleravaccine is of questionable benefit to travelers of any age.

Customs Information United States residents must declare all articles acquired abroad and in their possession at the time of their return. In addition, articles acquired in the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, or Guam and not accompanying you must be declared at the time of your return. The wearing or use of an article acquired abroad doesnotexempt it from duty. Customs declaration forms are distributed on vessels and planes, and should be prepared in advance of arrival for presentation to the customs inspectors. If you have not exceeded the duty-free exemption allowed, you may make an oral declaration to the customs inspector. However, the inspector can request a written declaration and may do so. A written declaration is necessary when (1) the total fair retail value of articles exceeds the personal exemption of $400; (2) over 1 liter of liquor, 200 cigarettes, or 100 cigars are included; (3) items are not intended for your personal or household use, or articles brought home for another person; (4) when a customs duty or internal revenue tax is collectible on any article in your possession; and (5) if your personal exemption was used in the last 30 days. An exception to the above are regulations applicable to articles purchased in the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, or Guam where you may receive a customs exemption of $1,200. Not more than $400 of this exemption may be applied to merchandise obtained elsewhere than in these islands or $600 if acquired in a Caribbean Basin beneficiary country. Five liters of alcoholic beverages and 1000 cigarettes may be included provided not more than one liter and 200 cigarettes were acquired elsewhere than in these islands. Articles acquired in and sent from these islands to the United States may be claimed under your duty-free personal exemption if properly declared at the time of your return. For information on rules applying to beneficiary countries and a list of them check with your local Customs office or write for the pamphlet “GSP and the Traveler” from the U.S. Customs Services, P.O. Box 7407, Washington, DC 20044. Since rules change it is always wise to check with customs before leaving, to get information pertinent to the areas you will be visiting. Articles accompanying you, in excess of your personal exemption, up to $1000 will be assessed at a flat rate of duty of 10% based on fair retail value in country of acquisition. (If articles were acquired in the insular possessions, the flat rate of duty is 5% and these goods may accompany you or be shipped home.) These articles must be for your personal use or for use as gifts and not for sale. This provision may be used every 30 days, excluding the day of your last arrival. Any items which have a “free” duty rate will be excluded before duty is calculated. You may mail articles bought for your personal use back to the U.S. at a duty free rate of $200 per day (excluding restricted items such as liquor). Other exemptions include in part: automobiles, boats, planes, or other vehicles taken abroad for noncommercial use. Foreign-made personal articles (e.g., watches, cameras, etc.) taken abroad should be registered with Customs before departure. Customs will register anything with a serial number or identifying marks. Sales receipt or insurance document are sufficient Customs identification. Registration of articles for which you have documented proof of purchase is redundant and is not necessary. Gifts of not more than $100 can be shipped back to the United States tax and duty free ($200 if mailed from the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, or Guam). Household effects and tools of trade which you take out of the United States are duty free at time of return. Prohibited and restricted articles include in part: absinthe, narcotics and dangerous drugs, obscene articles and publications, seditious and treasonable materials, hazardous articles (e.g., fireworks, dangerous toys, toxic and poisonous substances, and switchblade knives), biological materials of public health or veterinary importance, fruit, vegetables and plants, meats, poultry and products thereof, birds, monkeys, and turtles. You can get additional information on this subject from the publicationPets, Wildlife, U.S. Customs.For a free copy write to the U.S. Customs Service, P.O. Box 7407, Washington, DC 20044. If you understate the value of an article you declare, or if you otherwise misrepresent an article in your declaration, you may have to pay a penalty in addition to payment of duty. Under certain circumstances, the article could be seized and forfeited if the penalty is not paid. If you fail to declare an article acquired abroad, not only is the article subject to seizure and forfeiture, but you will be liable for a personal penalty in an amount equal to the value of the article in the United States. In addition, you may also be liable to criminal prosecution.

Visas Some countries require visas for entry. These should be obtained from the appropriate foreign consular representative before proceeding abroad. Allow sufficient time for processing your visa application, especially if you are applying by mail. Most foreign consular representatives are located in principal cities, and in many instances, a traveler may be required to obtain visas from the consular office in the area of his/her residence. Processing and visa fees vary. Consult the embassy or consulate of the country you plan to visit for specific details.

U.S. Passport Information With a few exceptions, a passport is required for all U.S. citizens to depart and enter the United States and to enter most foreign countries. Persons who travel to a country where a U.S. passport is not required should be in possession of documentary evidence of their U.S. citizenship and identity to facilitate reentry into the United States. Travelers should check passport and visa requirements with consular officials of the countries to be visited well in advance of their departure date. Application for a passport may be made at a passport agency, many federal and state courts, probate courts, some county and municipal offices, and some post offices. The fourteen major cities with U.S. passport agencies are Boston, Chicago, Denver, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Norwalk, Conn., Philadelphia, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, DC. All persons are required to obtain individual passports in their own names. Neither spouses nor children may be included in each other's passports. All applicants must appear in person before the clerk or agent executing the application if it is their first time applying. Applications for children under the age of 14 must have consent of both parents of proper documentation granting custody to the applying parent. First-time passport applicants must apply in person. Applicants must present the following items at a passport facility: Completed Form DSP-11, Application for Passport (available at passport agencies, many travel agencies, or on the Web). This form may be completed in advance; however, it must be signed by you in person before a passport agent. Proof of U.S. citizenship. You may use one of the following: previous U.S. passport; certified birth certificate issued by the city, county, or state; Consular Report of Birth Abroad; Naturalization Certificate; or Certificate of Citizenship. Proof of identity. Acceptable proof includes: previous U.S. passport; Naturalization Certificate; Certificate of Citizenship; current, valid driver's license; government ID (city, state, or federal); military ID (military and dependents); work ID (must be currently employed by the company); student ID (must be currently enrolled); Merchant Marines card (also known as a “Seamen's” or “Z” card); pilot or flight attendant ID.Note:Social Security cards are NOT acceptable as identification. Two passport photographs. Photographs must be 2 × 2 inches in size. The image size from the bottom of the chin to the top of the head should be between 1 inch and 13/8 inches. They may be in color or black and white. They must be full face, front view with a plain white or off-white background. Photographs should be taken in normal street attire, without a hat or headgear that obscures the hair or hairline. The applicable fee. A fee of $110 plus a $25 execution fee is charged for adults 16 years and older for a passport book valid for ten years from the date of issue. The fee for children under 16 years of age is $80 for a five-year passport book plus $25 for the execution of the application. The fee for passport book renewals by mail is $110 (there is no execution fee added). DSP-64 Lost or Stolen Passport Form (if necessary). In addition to the items listed above, if your passport was lost or stolen, you will need to complete and submit this form (available at passport facilities and on the Web). Passport renewals can be handled through the mail in some instances. You may apply by mail if: (1) you can submit your most recent passport and it is not mutilated, altered, or damaged; (2) you were at least 16 years old when your most recent passport was issued; (3) you were issued your most recent passport less than 15 years ago; and (4) you use the same name as on your most recent passport, OR, you have had your name changed by marriage or court order and can submit proper documentation to reflect your name changes. In order to apply for a renewal by mail, you must fill out and submit Form DSP-82, which can be obtained at a passport facility or downloaded from the Web site. Attach to it the following: (1) your most recent passport; (2) two identical passport photographs; and (3) the $40 fee. If your name changed, enclose a certified copy of the Court Order, Adoption Decree, Marriage Certificate, or Divorce Decree specifying another name for you to use. Mail the above items to: National Passport Center; P.O. Box 13349, Philadelphia, PA 19101-3349. Normal processing time for a passport application is 25 working days. However, it is recommended that you apply for your passport several months in advance of your planned departure. If you will need visas from foreign embassies, allow more time. If you need to leave in a hurry, you may expedite the process for an additional fee of $60 per passport. When requesting expedited service, two-way overnight mail for each application is strongly suggested.

Tips on Tipping Source:American Society of Travel Agents, Alexandria, Va. Who do you tip? When? How much? These are the questions that have nagged at consumers since the first service transaction. The practice of tipping is meant as a form of thank-you for services rendered, or beforehand as a subtle bribe for special treatment. Tipping need not be considered mandatory or automatic. Too often, tips are taken for granted or expected regardless of the quality of service. Tipping should be done at your discretion and as a reward for good or superlative service. Below are some tipping suggestions for travelers. At nearly every step of the traveling process, there are professionals waiting to “lighten your load” or provide assistance. So remember to carry a lot of change and small bills for tips. 1.Taxi/Limo Drivers:A $2 to $3 tip is usually satisfactory; more if he helps you with your bags and/or takes special steps to get you to your destination on time. 2.Porters:A standard tip for airport and train porters is $1 per bag; more if your luggage is very heavy. 3.Hotel Bellman:Again, $1 per bag is standard. Tip when he shows you to your room and again if he assists you upon checkout. Tip more if he provides any additional service. Note: A $5 tip upon arrival can usually guarantee you special attention should you require it. 4.Doorman:Typically, a $1 tip for hailing a taxi is appropriate. However, you may want to tip more for special service, such as carrying your bags or shielding you with an umbrella. 5.Concierge:Tip for special services such as making restaurant or theater reservations, arranging sightseeing tours, etc. The amount of the tip is generally dependent on the type and complexity of service(s) provided—$2 to $10 is a standard range. You may elect to tip for each service, or in one sum upon departure. If you want to ensure special treatment from the concierge, you might consider a $10–$20 tip upon arrival. 6.Hotel Maid:Maids are often forgotten about when it comes to tipping because they typically do their work when you are not around. For stays of more than one night, $1 per night is standard. The tip should be left in the hotel room in a marked envelope. 7.Parking Attendants:Tip $1 to $2 when your car is delivered. 8.Waiters:15–20% of your pre-tax check is considered standard. The same applies for room service waiters. Some restaurants will automatically add a 15% gratuity to your bill, especially for large parties—look for it before tipping. If the 15% is added, you need only tip up to another 5% for superlative service. 9.Cloakroom Attendants:If there is a charge for the service, a tip is not necessary. However, if there is no charge, or extra care is taken with your coat and/or bags, a $1 to $2 tip is appropriate. 10.Tour Guides/Charter Bus Drivers:If a tip is not automatically included, tip $1 for a half-day tour, $2 for full-day tour, and anywhere from $5 to $10 for a week-long tour. Tip a private guide more. These are some of the people you are most likely to encounter while traveling in the U.S. Undoubtedly there will be others. If there is one standard rule in tipping it is this: If someone renders special service to you along the way, show your appreciation with a tip. NOTE: International travelers should be aware that tipping customs outside the U.S. are often very different. Consult travel guides for the country you are visiting.

State and Territory Tourism Offices The following is a selected list of state tourism office Web addresses and phone numbers. Where a toll-free number is available, it is given. However, the numbers are subject to change. Alabama 800-ALABAMA www.touralabama.or g Alaska 800-862-5275 www.travelalaska.co m Arizona 866-275-5816 www.arizonaguide.co m Arkansas 800-NATURAL www.arkansas.com California 800-GOCALIF www.gocalif.ca.gov Colorado 800-COLORADO www.colorado.com Connecticut 888-CT-VISIT www.ctbound.org Delaware 866-2-VISIT-DE www.visitdelaware.co m District of Columbia (Washington, DC) 800-422-8644 www.washington.org Florida 888-7FLA-USA www.flausa.com Georgia 800-VISIT-GA http://www.explorege orgia.org/ Guam 671-646-5278/9 (not toll-free) www.visitguam.org Hawaii 800-GO-HAWAII www.gohawaii.com Idaho 888-84-IDAHO http://www.visitidaho .org/ Illinois 800-2-CONNECT www.enjoyillinois.co m Indiana 888-ENJOY-IN www.enjoyindiana.co m Iowa 888-472-6035 www.traveliowa.com/ Kansas 800-2-KANSAS www.travelks.com Kentucky 502-223-8687 (not toll-free) www.tourky.com Louisiana 800-99-GUMBO www.louisianatravel.c om Maine 888-MAINE-45 www.visitmaine.com Maryland 866-MD-WELCOME www.mdisfun.org Massachusetts 800-227-MASS www.massvacation.co m Michigan 800-644-2489 www.michigan.org Minnesota 888-TOURISM www.exploreminneso ta.com Mississippi 800-SEE-MISS www.visitmississippi. org Missouri 800-519-2100 www.visitmo.com Montana 800-VISIT-MT www.visitmt.com Nebraska 877-NEBRASKA www.visitnebraska.or g Nevada 800-NEVADA-8 www.travelnevada.co m New Hampshire 800-FUN-IN-NH www.visitnh.gov New Jersey 800-VISIT-NJ www.state.nj.us/trave l New Mexico 800-733-6396 ext. 0643 www.newmexico.org New York 800-CALL-NYS www.iloveny.com North Carolina 800-VISIT-NC www.visitnc.com North Dakota 800-HELLO-ND www.ndtourism.com Ohio 800-BUCKEYE www.ohiotourism.co m Oklahoma 800-652-6552 www.travelok.com Oregon 800-547-7842 www.traveloregon.co m Pennsylvania 800-VISIT-PA www.visitpa.com Puerto Rico 800-866-7827 www.seepuertorico.co m Rhode Island 800-250-7384 www.visitrhodeisland .com South Carolina 866-224-9339 www.discoversouthca rolina.com South Dakota 800-S-DAKOTA www.travelsd.com Tennessee 800-GO-2-TENN www.tourism.state.tn. us Texas 800-8888-TEX www.traveltex.com U.S. Virgin Islands 800-372-USVI http://www.visitusvi.c om Utah 800-UTAH-FUN www.utah.com Vermont 800-VERMONT www.vermontvacatio n.com Virginia 800-VISIT-VA www.virginia.org Washington 877-260-2731 www.tourism.wa.gov Washington, DC See District of Columbia West Virginia 800-CALL-WVA www.wvtourism.com Wisconsin 800-432-TRIP www.travelwisconsin. com Wyoming 800-225-5996 www.wyomingtouris m.org

Tips to Save Money on Family Vacations With the country mired in a recession, many American families are looking for ways to cut back on expenditures and trim their budgets. At the same time, parents recognize the benefits of taking time off to relax with their kids—and to escape the economic malaise. Here are some tips to save money on much-needed getaways. *.Check to see if you can save money by purchasing tickets to attractions in advance. Many amusement parks offer up to 20% off for advance booking. Check to see how far in advance you must book to qualify for the discount. Note that some destinations charge children by height, not age, so you may end up paying full price for your taller offspring. Also be on the lookout for coupons and discounts offered by groups such as AAA. *.Buy sunscreen, bug spray, and other supplies at home rather than at tourist destinations, which tend to wildly mark up such necessities. *.Rent a house instead of staying at a hotel. A weekly house rental is usually much cheaper than paying nightly hotel rates. This option allows you to cook in rather than eat out every meal. Renting a house is particularly attractive to larger families since most hotels only allow four guests per room. *.Choose a destination that's within driving distance. Driving is much cheaper than flying, and why not explore the treasures in your own backyard? If you must fly, don't fly direct. You can save hundreds of dollars on each ticket by making a connection. *.If you grocery shop at your destination, go to a market outside the tourist area. Small markets in tourist sites tend to be expensive! *.If you're traveling internationally, buy local food and avoid American food. Expand your palette and avoid paying a premium for imported fare. No need to pay $10 for a box of American corn flakes. *.Travel off season. Hotel rates, airfare, and admission prices are often deeply discounted during non-peak periods. Be flexible! Even traveling a few weeks before or after school vacation can save big bucks. *.Don't feel obligated to be on the go every day. Do the tourist thing one day, then have one day of down time. Vacations are meant to be a time to relax and get away from all the over-scheduling. *.Have a friend take care of your pets rather than board them. A week of doggie daycare can cost up to $300. *.Stay with family or friends who live near a tourist area. Alternatively, do a house-swap with another family.

Extreme Vacations How to find adventure and excitement on holiday A tropical getaway or leisurely day at a spa satisfies people who crave R&R, but few thrill seekers are content with extended downtime. Indeed, an increasing number of travelers are seeking out vacations that offer adventure and excitement. As a result, the extreme tourism industry has boomed in the 21st century. Below are some ideas for adrenaline pumping, non-leisure leisure activities. Climb a volcano One of the most fascinating of Earth's formations, volcanoesare vents or fissures in the Earth's crust through which gases, lava, and solid fragments are discharged. Adventure seekers can climb the steep concave sides of Mt. St. Helensin Washington state, the gently sloping large shield cones of the Hawaiian Islands,and the steep slopes of cinder cones made of cinder-like materials such as Parícutinin Mexico. Heli-skiing Heli-skiing provides serious extremists access to untouched slopes, challenging terrain, and wilderness solitude. The helicopter'smaneuverability and ability to land and take off in small areas has been adopted for a wide range of services, including air-sea rescue, fire fighting, traffic control, and now access to otherwise inaccessible peaks such as the Chugach mountain rangein Alaska and the Andes mountainsin South America. Climb to the top of the world At 29,035 feet (8,850 meters) high, on the border of Tibetand Nepal, in the central Himalayas, Mount Everestis the highest mountain in the world. Called Chomo-Lungma (Mother Goddess of the Land) by Tibetans, it is named in English for the surveyor Sir George Everest. Though thousands have summated the peak since it was first climbed in 1953, it's still considered the holy grail of mountain climbing and an achievement of a lifetime. Attempting Everest is not for the feint of heart due to its dangers, including avalanches, crevasses, ferocious winds up to 125 mph, sudden storms, temperatures of 40 degrees Fahrenheit below zero, and oxygen deprivation. Sandboarding Get a rush by riding down sand dunes on a Formica board in the surreal desert landscapes of exotic destinations such as Algeria, Arabia, New Zealand, Oman, or South Africa. Closer to home is Nevada's Sand Mountain with 4,795 acres of sandboarding terrain. A year-round extreme sport, sandboarding provides a similar adrenaline-pumping experience as snowboarding. The world's tallest sand dune resides in Cerro Blanco near the Andes mountain range in Peru. Shark diving Become an underwater explorer by diving in warm waters, where sharksare most abundant, and try to catch a glimpse of the much feared predator. There are about 250 types of sharks from the two feet (60 cm) pygmy shark to 50 foot (15 m) giants. With ears that can hear sounds more than 700 feet away and a nose that smell a distance of 1,600 feet, chances of meeting a shark are good. Locations such as Cape Point, South Africa, Fiji, and Guadalupe Island promise an exhilarating swim with Mako, Blue, Tiger, or Great White sharks with little between you and their rows of teeth. Space exploration If you dreamed of being a Moon-walking astronaut as a kid and love adventure, the new cutting edge space exploration voyages may be your ideal vacation. Travel to the International Space Station, space walk, and orbit Earth. View the billions of stars and neighboring planets 24 hours a day without the atmosphere diminishing their luminescence. Space travel isn't cheap, however, with seats starting at $20 million. Canyoning Canyoning is an exciting outdoor activity that involves hiking, climbing, and rappelling through canyons of waterfalls, limestone walls, and pools of water. Wetsuit wearing canyoners often have to climb challenging boulders and tube through narrow underground cave rivers. The unearthly Waitomo cave system in New Zealand is well-known for its underground rapids. With a mix of climbing, rappelling, and cave tubing, Carlsbad Caverns National Park in southern New Mexicois a challenging adventure with an interesting twist: the 300 caveswere carved out by limestone-dissolving sulfuric acidrather than by rivers and waterfalls. White water rafting White-water rafting is a thrilling and challenging adventure that can vary in intensity depending on the river. Using a raft, passengers navigate rapids and whitewater using paddles and body weight. Rapids are categorized from Class 1 to 6, according to their intensity, required skill level, and level of dange. Class 1 are very small rapids and Class 6 are extremely dangerous and largely unsafe to navigate. Zimbabwe'sZambezi River, below Victoria Falls, is acclaimed as being the wildest river in the world with long and violent rapids, steep gradients, and big drops.

The Gap Year A growing trend among American students After four years of high school or college, not all students are ready to continue with formal education. For some, a one-year break from academia provides time to learn more about themselves and the world. A gap year provides such an opportunity. STA travel, a student travel organization, defines the gap year as "a period of time taken by a student to travel or work, often after high school or before starting graduate school, as a break from formal education, or a career path." Even though a gap year is often taken between high school and college or undergraduate and graduate school, it can be taken at any point in life as a transition from one major event to another. Instead of rest and relaxation, though, most gap years are packed full of adventure, travel, culture, and education. Tradition abroad Although a gap year is a new concept to Americans, it's an established tradition for students in the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. In the UK and Australia, about 11% of students take a gap year or go "walking about" before enrolling in University. American universities A gap year can act as an alternative pathway to college for students who are burned out and drained from high school. Many "gappers" who enroll in college appear to have better focus and overall performance during their undergraduate years than students who followed the traditional education track, leading American colleges to recognize the benefits of veering from the traditional educational track. The College Board reports that three out of every five students at public universities do not graduate with a degree within five years. Princeton Universityrecognizes the benefits of the gap year and created a program called "bridge year" that allows accepted students to complete public service abroad before starting their freshman year. What do gappers learn? Students often attain confidence, motivation, and focus during their gap year. "Gappers" have the opportunity to rely on themselves, expand their comfort zone, and establish a wider understanding of themselves and the outside world. Through travel, cultural immersion, working, and volunteering, students acquire skills that allow them to be more self-sufficient, resourceful, and bold. In addition, many students gain an appreciation for hard work and education—all of which contribute to becoming more effective learners. Destination unknown Since there is no existing curriculum or pattern to follow during a gap year, students are free to design their own experience and pursue personal interests. Independent or structured travel, working or volunteering abroad, educational programs, and service work, such as City Year or AmeriCorps, are popular gap year activities.

America's Best Beaches, 2011 The following table lists the top ten best beaches to visit in the United States for 2011, according to Dr. Stephen P. Leatherman, author ofAmerica's Best Beaches. In addition, find a list of the previous top-rated beaches in America below. NameLocation 1.Siesta BeachSarasota, Florida 2.Coronado BeachSan Diego, California 3.Kahanamoku BeachOahu, Hawaii 4.Main BeachEast Hampton, New York 5.Cape HatterasOuter Banks, North Carolina 6.St. George Island State ParkEastpoint, Florida 7.Beachwalker ParkKiawah Island, South Carolina 8.Coast Guard BeachCape Cod, Massachusetts 9.Waimanalo Bay Beach ParkOahu, Hawaii 10.Cape Florida State ParkKey Biscayne, Florida Previous Winners of the Best American Beach Award (excluded from 2011 list) YearNameLocation 2010Coopers BeachSouthampton, New York 2009Hanalei BayKauai, Hawaii 2008Caladesi Island State ParkDunedin/Clearwater, Florida 2007Ocracoke Lifeguard BeachOuter Banks, North Carolina 2006Fleming Beach ParkMaui, Hawaii 2005Fort DeSoto ParkNorth Beach, Florida 2004Hanauma BayOahu, Hawaii 2003KaanapaliHawaii 2002St. Joseph Peninsula State ParkFlorida 2001Poipu Beach ParkHawaii 2000Mauna Kea BeachHawaii 1999Wailea BeachHawaii 1998Kailua Beach ParkHawaii 1997HulopoeHawaii 1996Lanikai BeachHawaii 1995St. Andrews SRAFlorida 1994Grayton Beach SRAFlorida 1993HapunaHawaii 1992Bahia Honda SRAFlorida 1991Kapalua Bay BeachHawaii Released since 1991, 650 major public recreational beaches in the U.S. are rated according to 50 criteria.Source:Dr. Stephen P. Leatherman (aka Dr. Beach), author ofAmerica's Best Beachesand professor of environmental studies at Florida International University.

Paid Vacation Around the World The following table lists nine countries and the average number of paid vacation days per year employees receive in each country. Italy42 days France37 days Germany35 days Brazil34 days United Kingdom28 days Canada26 days Korea25 days Japan25 days U.S.13 days Source:World Tourism Organization (WTO).

Distinctive Destinations for 2011 Each year the National Trust for Historic Preservation designates a dozen distinctive places for Americans to visit. According to Richard Moe, president of the National Trust, “The communities named to this list are pockets of serenity amid the sprawl, clutter, and homogenization that have overwhelmed so many American vacation spots.” Each of the 12 cities and towns met a number of important criteria, including dynamic downtowns, cultural diversity, attractive architecture, cultural landscapes and a strong commitment to historic preservation, sustainability and revitalization. These 12 cities and towns (in alphabetical order by city) are: 1. Alexandria, Virginia 2. Chapel Hill, North Carolina 3. Colorado Springs, Colorado 4. Dandridge, Tennessee 5. Eureka, California 6. Muskogee, Oklahoma 7. New Bedford, Massachusetts 8. Paducah, Kentucky 9. Saint Paul, Minnesota 10. San Angelo, Texas 11. Sheridan, Wyoming 12. Sonoma, California

Distinctive Destinations for 2010 Each year the National Trust for Historic Preservation designates a dozen distinctive places for Americans to visit. According to Richard Moe, president of the National Trust, “The communities named to this list are pockets of serenity amid the sprawl, clutter, and homogenization that have overwhelmed so many American vacation spots.” Each of the 12 cities and towns met a number of important criteria, including dynamic downtowns, cultural diversity, attractive architecture, cultural landscapes and a strong commitment to historic preservation, sustainability and revitalization. These 12 cities and towns (in alphabetical order by city) are: 1. Bastrop, Texas 2. Cedar Falls, Iowa 3. Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania 4. The Crooked Road, Virginia 5. Fort Collins, Colorado 6. Huntsville, Alabama 7. Marquette, Michigan 8. Provincetown, Massachusetts 9. Rockland, Maine 10. Simsbury, Connecticut 11. Sitka, Alaska 12. St. Louis, Missouri

Top U.S. States and Cities Visited by Overseas Travelers, 20101 State/territoryNumber of arrivalsU.S. cityNumber of arrivals 1. New York8.6 million1.New York8.5 million 2. Florida5.8 million2.Los Angeles3.3 million 3. California5.6 million3.Miami3.1 million 4. Nevada2.5 million4.Orlando2.7 million 5. Hawaii2.1 million5.San Francisco2.6 million 6. Guam1.3 million6.Las Vegas2.4 million 7. Massachusetts1.3 million7.Metro DC area1.7 million 8. Illinois1.2 million8.Oahu/Honolulu1.6 million 9. Texas1.0 million9.Boston1.2 million 10. New Jersey975,00010.Chicago1.1 million Top 10 state/territory total30.4 millionTop 10 city total28.2 million NOTE: Includes travelers for business and pleasure, international travelers in transit through the United States, and students; excludes travel by international personnel and international businessmen employed in the United States. 1. Excludes visitors from Canada and Mexico. Source:U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries/International Trade Administration.

America's Worst Traffic Cities From Los Angeles to Boston, drivers wasted an average of 42 hours in traffic in 2012—the equivalent of one week's vacation. Find the 10 worst cities for traffic in America, along with total annual hours wasted. RankCityAnnual Hours of Delay 1.Los Angeles59 2.Honolulu50 3.San Francisco49 4.Austin38 5.New York50 6.Bridgeport39 7.San Jose31 8.Seattle35 9.Washington, D.C.41 10.Boston31 Source: Inrix, 2013.

Top Ten Honeymoon Destinations, 2012 The following table lists the top ten honeymoon destinations of 2012, according to TheKnot.com's annual survey 1. Costa Ricaand Belize 2. Turks and Caicos 3. Croatia 4. St. Lucia 5. Bora Bora 6. Thailand 7. New Zealand 8. Africa 9. Scotland 10. Marrakesh Source: CNN.com Related Links Top Ten Best Honeymoon Destinations: 2010 Top Ten Best Honeymoon Destinations: 2009

Top Ten Honeymoon Destinations The following table lists the top ten honeymoon destinations of 2008, according toModern Bridemagazine. 1. Italy6. Costa Rica 2. Hawaii7. Bali 3. Tahiti8. Fiji 4. Mexico9. France 5. Greece10. Turks and Caicos Source:The Tenth Annual Honeymoon Survey (of travel agents),Modern Bridemagazine, 2008.

America's Best Beaches, 2013 The following table lists the top ten best beaches to visit in the United States for 2013, according to Dr. Stephen P. Leatherman, author ofAmerica's Best Beaches. In addition, find a list of the previous top-rated beaches in America below. NameLocation 1.Main BeachEast Hampton, New York 2.Kahanamoku BeachOahu, Hawaii 3.St. George Island State ParkEastpoint, Florida 4.Hamoa BeachMaui, Hawaii 5.Waimanalo Bay Beach ParkOahu, Hawaii 6.Barefoot BeachBonita Springs, Florida 7.Cape Florida State ParkKey Biscayne, Florida 8.Cape HatterasOuter Banks, North Carolina 9.Coast Guard BeachCape Cod, Massachusetts 10.Beachwalker ParkKiawah Island, South Carolina Previous Winners of the Best American Beach Award (excluded from 2013 list) YearNameLocation 2012Coronado BeachSan Diego, California 2011Siesta BeachSarasota, Florida 2010Coopers BeachSouthampton, New York 2009Hanalei BayKauai, Hawaii 2008Caladesi Island State ParkDunedin/Clearwater, Florida 2007Ocracoke Lifeguard BeachOuter Banks, North Carolina 2006Fleming Beach ParkMaui, Hawaii 2005Fort DeSoto ParkNorth Beach, Florida 2004Hanauma BayOahu, Hawaii 2003KaanapaliHawaii 2002St. Joseph Peninsula State ParkFlorida 2001Poipu Beach ParkHawaii 2000Mauna Kea BeachHawaii 1999Wailea BeachHawaii 1998Kailua Beach ParkHawaii 1997HulopoeHawaii 1996Lanikai BeachHawaii 1995St. Andrews SRAFlorida 1994Grayton Beach SRAFlorida 1993HapunaHawaii 1992Bahia Honda SRAFlorida 1991Kapalua Bay BeachHawaii Released since 1991, 650 major public recreational beaches in the U.S. are rated according to 50 criteria.Source:Dr. Stephen P. Leatherman (aka Dr. Beach), author ofAmerica's Best Beachesand professor of environmental studies at Florida International University.

The World's Top Tourism Destinations (international tourist arrivals) The following table shows the top ten tourism destinations according to the number and percent of tourist arrivals in each country during 2010. 2010 rankCountryArrivals (millions)Percent change 2009/2008Percent change 2010/2009 20092010 1.France76.876.8-3.0%0.0 2.United States55.059.7-5.18.7 3.China50.955.7-4.19.4 4.Spain52.252.7-8.81.0 5.Italy43.243.61.20.9 6.United Kingdom28.228.1-6.4-0.2 7.Turkey25.527.02.05.9 8.Germany24.226.9-2.710.9 9.Malaysia23.624.67.23.9 10.Mexico21.522.4-5.24.4 Source:World Tourism Organization (WTO). Web: www.world- tourism.org.

Tourism by World Region In 2006, most international travel was undertaken for the purpose of leisure and recreation (51%), reaching a total of 430 million. Business travel accounted for some 16% of the total (131 million) and another 27% covered travel for other motives, such as visiting friends and relatives, religious purposes, and health treatments (225 million). Just about half of all international tourists arrived over land by road (43%) or rail (4%) to their destination in 2006. Air transport represented 46% of arrivals and transport over water accounted for 7%. Region2006 market share Europe54.4% Northern Europe 6.5 Western Europe 17.7 Central/Eastern Europe10.8 Southern/Mediterran ean Europe 19.5 Asia and the Pacific19.8 Northeast Asia 11.1% Southeast Asia 6.4 Oceania 1.2 South Asia 1.0 Americas16.1 North America 10.7 Caribbean 2.3 Central America 0.8% South America 2.2 Africa4.8 North Africa 1.8 Subsaharan Africa 3.0 Middle East4.9 Source:World Tourism Organization (WTO). Web: www.world- tourism.org.

Top Nationalities of Foreign Travelers to the U.S., 2011 The U.S. Travel Association tracks the nationalities of foreigners who visit the United States. In 2011, more Canadians traveled to the U.S. than residents of any other country. Residence of travelers to the U.S.2011 Arrivals 1. Canada21 million 2.Mexico13.4 million 3.United Kingdom3.8 million 4.Japan3.3 million 5.Germany1.8 million 6.Brazil1.51 million 7.France1.50 million 8.South Korea1.15 million 9.China1.09 million 10.Australia1.04 million 11.Italy892,000 12.Spain700,000 13.India663,000 14.Netherlands601,000 15.Venezuela561,000 Total foreign tourists, all countries49,570,225 Source:Office of Travel and Tourism Industries/International Trade Administration. Web: www.tia.org

Top Nationalities of Foreign Travelers to the U.S., 2009 The U.S. Travel Association tracks the nationalities of foreigners who visit the United States. In 2009, more Canadians traveled to the U.S. than residents of any other country. Residence of travelers to the U.S.2009 Arrivals 1. Canada17,964,450 2.Mexico13,164,000 3.United Kingdom3,899,170 4.Japan2,918,270 5.Germany1,686,830 6.France1,204,490 7.Brazil892,610 8.Italy753,300 9.South Korea743,850 10.Australia723,580 11.Spain596,770 12.India549,470 13.Netherlands547,790 14.China524,820 15.Venezuela507,190 16.Columbia424,530 17.Ireland411,200 18.Argentina356,430 19.Switzerland355,730 20.Sweden324,420 21.Israel308,210 22.Belgium245,710 23.Denmark245,620 24.Taiwan239,545 25.Dominican Republic227,950 Total foreign tourists, all countries49,570,225 Source:Office of Travel and Tourism Industries/International Trade Administration. Web: www.tia.org

Top U.S. States and Cities Visited by Overseas Travelers, 20111 State/territoryNumber of arrivalsU.S. cityNumber of arrivals 1. New York 9.50 million1.New York9.28 million 2. California6.13 million2.Los Angeles3.65 million 3. Florida5.68 million3.Miami2.95 million 4. Nevada2.87 million4.San Francisco2.87 million 5. Hawaii2.28 million5.Orlando2.78 million 6. Massachusetts1.42 million5.Las Vegas2.78 million 7. Texas1.28 million7.Metro DC area1.81 million 8. Illinois1.25 million8.Oahu/Honolulu1.78 million 9. Guam1.22 million9.Boston1.31 million 10. New Jersey976,00010.Chicago1.19 million NOTE: Includes travelers for business and pleasure, international travelers in transit through the United States, and students; excludes travel by international personnel and international businessmen employed in the United States. 1. Excludes visitors from Canada and Mexico. Source:U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries/International Trade Administration.

The World's Most-Visited Tourist Attractions: Recently,Travel + Leisurecompiled a list of the most-visited tourist attractions in the world by gathering data supplied by the attraction sites themselves. The results were surprising. 1. Times Square, New York City Over 39 million visitors a year visit the heart of New York City to shop, see a Broadway show, take in all the sights and sounds or just to people watch. In 2009, pedestrian-only areas with tables were added so tourists could sit while taking in the complete spectacle that is Time Square. 2. Central Park, New York City This nearly 850 acre square park is visited yearly by 38 million people. It's the Big Apple location that is enjoyed more than any other by locals and tourists equally. With a zoo, horse-drawn carriages, a John Lennon memorial, and more, this park has something for everyone. 3. Union Station, Washington, D.C. Along with over 12,000 daily commuters, this station also receives visits from 37 million tourists a year. And it's easy to see why. Opened in 1907, the station has over 70 shops and provides architecture buffs with examples of Baroque, Beaux-Arts and Classical styles. 4. The Las Vegas Strip In 2011, nearly 29.5 million travelers stayed in hotels along the Las Vegas strip, an increase from years past. Part of the reason for the increase could be the huge 2009 hit movie,The Hangover, which features the Las Vegas strip, and Caesar's Palace, in particular. The Vegas strip also continues to attract mega stars like Tim McGraw, Faith Hill and Celine Dion for nightly performances which run for weeks at a time, drawing fans from all over. Las Vegas, the amusement park for adults, shows no sign of slowing down. 5. Niagara Falls, New York and Ontario, Canada Even though there are approximately 500 taller waterfalls in the world, Niagara Falls draws 22.5 million visitors a year who want to see its volume and power. Six million cubic feet of water flows down per minute. And Niagara Falls ranges in height from 70 to 188 feet. It's also an easy location for many tourists in the U.S. and Canada to get to. 6. Grand Central Station, New York City Commuters aside, 21.6 million tourists visit Grand Central's terminal each year. Visitors take in the ceiling which is painted with night sky constellations as well as shops and events. There is also the popular, historic Oyster Bar, featured on an episode ofMad Men. 7. Faneuil Hall Marketplace, Boston With its history as well as its variety of shops and restaurants, Faneuil Hall attracts 18 million people a year. A downtown marketplace located not too far from Boston's financial district and the harbor, Faneuil Hall is a pedestrian-only area where tourists can get a bite to eat, buy souvenirs and be entertained by street performers. The fact that it's been around since 1742 and was the site of speeches by the likes of George Washington adds to Faneuil Hall's allure. 8. Disney World’s Magic Kingdom, Orlando Nearly 17 million people a year visit the world's most-visited and best known amusement park. A must for any family, people still come in droves to take in Cinderella's castle as well as other classic sites and rides. 9. Disneyland Park, Anaheim, CA The second most-visited theme park in the world brings in nearly 16 million people per year. Smaller than the Magic Kingdom in Orlando, this amusement park still has 85 acres of rides and thrills including the popular Indiana Jones Adventure. 10. Grand Bazaar, Istanbul This 15th-century bazaar receives 15 million visitors a year. Both locals and tourists bargain hunt for carpets, jewelry, ceramics and more. There are vendors selling food and Turkish coffee, too, when people need a break from all the shopping. Source:Travel + Leisure Magazine, 2011

Places to See Before They Disappear: Many of the world's most wondrous and beautiful destinations are in danger of being destroyed by a combination of environmental and social factors: a warming climate, pollution, strained resources, bulging populations, and booming tourist traffic. Below are some popular locations worth visiting before they disappear. Glaciers, Glacier National Park United States and Canada Glacier National Park contains some of the most beautiful, primitive wilderness in the Rocky Mountains. There are more than 200 glacier-fed lakes, high peaks, sheer precipices, large forests, waterfalls, much wildlife, and a great variety of wildflowers. However, temperature fluctuations have caused glacier growth and depletion. Ten thousand years ago, the area of Glacier National Park was covered by ice up to one mile below sea level. The latest warm period has caused the number of glaciers to decrease from 150 in 1850 to 26 today. If current global warming trends continue, there will be no glaciers left in Glacier National Park by 2030. Venice, Italy With as many as 40 floods per year between March and September, Venice is slowly sinking at an estimated rate of 2.5 inches every 10 ten years. Venice, a city of beauty and charm, was built as a collection of 118 separate islands, relying entirely on a canal system of about 150 canals, mostly very narrow, crossed by some 400 bridges. A severe flood in December 2008 brought renewed attention to Venice's vulnerable state and imminent fate as an underwater city. The Dead Sea Border between Israel and the West Bank (W) and Jordan (E) Known as one of the saltiest water bodies in the world and the lowest dry point on earth, the Dead Sea is fed by the Jordan River and a number of small streams. Because it is located in a very hot and dry region, the Dead Sea loses much water through evaporation, causing its level to fluctuate during the year. However, inflow to the Dead Sea has been greatly reduced by the increased use of the Jordan River by Israelis, Palestinians, and Jordanians, who have growing populations and increased agricultural needs, resulting in falling water levels. Currently, the Dead Sea recedes about three feet each year. Mexico City, Mexico In the past 100 years, Mexico City has sunk more than 30 feet. The original city was built on the site of a former lake—the Aztecs built the city on a series of aquatic platforms, but when the Spanish conquered the city, they drained the lake, causing it to sink. As the city population ballooned and the demand for water increased in the 20thcentury, the government began pumping much of the city's supply out of the underground aquifer that once fed the lake, causing the city to sink further. No practical plan has been made for the future to provide the 22 million inhabitants of Mexico City with the water they need without destroying the city. Taj Mahal Agra, Uttar Pradesh state, India A mausoleum in northern India on the Yamuna River, the Taj Mahal is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and the finest example of the late style of Indian Islamic architecture. The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan ordered it built after the death of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The building, which was completed between 1632 and 1638, is visited by three to four million tourists each year. The crowds and air pollution, however, have caused irreversible damage to the building's façade, prompting tourism officials to consider closing the historic site to the public. Pyramids of Giza Giza, Egypt One of the original Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Pyramids of Giza, located outside modern Cairo, consist of three magnificent royal tombs guarded by a Sphinx. The Pyramids have been a heavily trafficked sightseeing area for centuries, but the pollution and magnitude of visitors has taken its toll on the ancient structures, which are not protected by Egyptian officials. Although camel and horseback tours are now banned from the site, the structures are still difficult to see through the crowds and vendors. Little Green Street London, United Kingdom Located in the center of London, Little Green Street, is one of only a few surviving streets from Georgian England. Lined with about a dozen 18thcentury homes, Little Green Street only stretches a city block in length, but has survived the Blitz in World War II and three centuries of construction. As a perfect example of Regency London, it has been featured in poetry, photo shoots, and music videos, but today it is threatened by construction. Although an attempt to acquire the property failed in 2008, developers' appeals continue, and the threat of Little Green Street's destruction looms ahead.

Foreign Embassies in the United States (part 2 & last part): Embassy of the Republic of Chad,2002 R St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-462-4009. Fax: 202-265-1937. http://www.chademb assy.org/ Embassy of Chile,1732 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. Phone: 202-785-1746. Fax: 202-887-5579. http://www.chile- usa.org/ Embassy of the People's Republic of China,2300 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-328-2500. Fax: 202-588-0032. http://www.china- embassy.org/ Embassy of Colombia,2118 Leroy Pl., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-387-8338. Fax: 202-232-8643. http://www.colombia emb.org/ Embassy of the Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros,c/o Permanent Mission of the Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros to the United Nations, 420 E. 50th St., New York, N.Y. 10022. Phone: 212-972-8010. Fax: 212-983-4712. Embassy of the Democratic Republic of Congo,1800 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-234-7690. Fax: 202-234-2609. Embassy of the Republic of Congo,4891 Colorado Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20011. Phone: 202-726-5500. Fax: 202-726-1860. Embassy of Costa Rica,2114 S St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-234-2945. Fax: 202-265-4795. http://www.costarica- embassy.org/ Embassy of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire,2424 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007. Phone: 202-797-0300. Embassy of the Republic of Croatia,2343 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008-2853. Phone: 202-588-5899. Fax: 202-588-8936. http://www.croatiaem b.org/ Cuban Interests Section,2630 16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-797-8518. Fax: 202-986-7283. Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus,2211 R St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-462-5772. Fax: 202-483-6710. http://www.cyprusem bassy.net/ Embassy of the Czech Republic,3900 Spring of Freedom St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-274-9100. Fax: 202-966-8540. http://www.mzv.cz /washington/ Royal Danish Embassy,3200 Whitehaven St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-234-4300. Fax: 202-328-1470. http://www.ambwash ington.um.dk/en/ Embassy of the Republic of Djibouti,1156 15th St., N.W., Suite 515, Washington, D.C. 20005. Phone: 202-331-0270. Fax: 202-331-0302. Embassy of the Commonwealth of Dominica,3216 New Mexico Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20016. Phone: 202-364-6781. Fax: 202-364-6791. Embassy of the Dominican Republic,1715 22nd St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-332-6280. Fax: 202-265-8057. http://www.domrep.o rg/ Embassy of Ecuador,2535 15th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-234-7200. Fax: 202-667-3482. http://www.ecuador.o rg/ Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt,3521 International Court, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-895-5463. Fax: 202-244-4319. http://www.egyptemb assy.us/ Embassy of El Salvador,2308 California St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-265-9671. Fax: 202-234-3834 www.elsalvador.org/h ome.nsf/home Embassy of Equatorial Guinea,2020 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-518-5700. Fax: 202-518-5252. Embassy of the State of Eritrea,1708 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C., 20009. Phone: 202-319-1991. Fax: 202-319-1304. Embassy of Estonia,2131 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-588-0101. Fax: 202-588-0108. http://www.estemb.or g/ Embassy of Ethiopia,3506 International Dr., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-364-1200. Fax: 202-587-0195. http://www.ethiopian embassy.org/ European Union Delegation,2300 M St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037. Phone: 202-862-9500. Fax: 202-429-1766. http://www.eurunion. org Embassy of Fiji,2233 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Suite 240, Washington, D.C. 20007. Phone: 202-337-8320. Fax: 202-337-1996. http://www.fijiembas sy.org Embassy of Finland,3301 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-298-5800. Fax: 202-298-6030. http://www.finland.or g/ Embassy of France,4101 Reservoir Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007. Phone: 202-944-6000. Fax: 202-944-6166. http://www.ambafran ce-us.org/intheus /embassy.asp Embassy of the Gabonese Republic,2034 20th St., N.W., Suite 200, Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-797-1000. Fax: 202-332-0668. Embassy of the Republic of the Gambia,1156 15th St., N.W., Suite 905, Washington, D.C. 20005. Phone: 202-785-1399. Fax: 202-785-1430. Embassy of the Republic of Georgia,1101 15th St., N.W., Suite 602, Washington, D.C. 20005. Phone: 202-387-2390. Fax: 202-393-4537. http://www.georgiae mb.org/ Embassy of Germany,4645 Reservoir Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007-1998. Phone: 202-298-4000. Fax: 202-298-4249. http://www.germany- info.org/l Embassy of Ghana,3512 International Dr., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-686-4520. Fax: 202-686-4527. http://www.ghana- embassy.org/ Embassy of Greece,2211 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-939-1306. Fax: 234-2803. http://www.greekemb assy.org/

Foreign Embassies in the United States (part 1): Source:U.S. Department of State. Embassy of Afghanistan,2341 Wyoming Ave., N.W.,Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-483-6410. Fax: 202-483–6488. www.embassyofafgha nistan.org Embassy of the Republic of Albania,2100 S St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-223-4942. Fax: 202-628-7342. Embassy of the Democratic & Popular Republic of Algeria,2118 Kalorama Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-265-2800. Fax: 202-667-2174. http://www.algeria- us.org/ Embassy of Andorra/Permanent Mission to the UN,2 United Nations Plaza, 25th flr., New York, N.Y. 10017. Phone: 212-750-8064. Fax: 212-750-6630. http://www.andorra.a d/ Embassy of the Republic of Angola,2100–2108 16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-785-1156. Fax: 202-785-1258. http://www.angola.or g/ Embassy of Antigua & Barbuda,3216 New Mexico Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20016. Phone: 202-362-5122. Fax: 202-362-5225. http://www.geograph ia.com/antigua- barbuda/ Embassy of the Argentine Republic,1600 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-238-6401. Fax: 202-332-3171. http://www.embassyo fargentina.us/ Embassy of the Republic of Armenia,2225 R Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-319-1976. Fax: 202-319-2982. http://www.armeniae mb.org/ Embassy of Australia,1601 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. Phone: 202-797-3000. Fax: 202-797-3168. http://www.austemb. org/ Embassy of Austria,3524 International Court, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008-3027. Phone: 202-895-6700. Fax: 202-895-6750. http://www.austria.or g Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan,2741 34th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-337-3500. Fax: 202-337-5911. http://www.azembass y.com/ Embassy of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas,2220 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-319-2660. Fax: 202-319-2668. Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain,3502 International Dr., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-342-1111. Fax: 202-362-2192. http://www.bahraine mbassy.org/ Embassy of the People's Republic of Bangladesh,3510 International Drive, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-244-0183. Fax: (202) 244-7830. http://www.banglado ot.org Embassy of Barbados,2144 Wyoming Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-939-9200. Fax: (202) 332-7467. Embassy of the Republic of Belarus,1619 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone: 202-986-1604. Fax: 202-986-1805. http://www.belaruse mbassy.org/ Embassy of Belgium,3330 Garfield St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-333-6900. Fax: 202-338-4960. http://diplobel.us/ Embassy of Belize,2535 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-332-9636. Fax: 202-332-6888. www.embassyofbeliz e.org Embassy of the Republic of Benin,2124 Kalorama Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-232-6656. Fax: 202-265-1996. Bhutan Permanent Mission to the UN,2 UN Plaza, 27th Floor, New York NY 10017. Phone: 212-826-1919. Fax: 212-826-2998. Embassy of Bolivia,3014 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-483-4410. Fax: 202-328-3712. www.bolivia-usa.org Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina,2109 E St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037. Phone: 202-337-1500. Fax: 202-337-1502. www.bhembassy.org/ Embassy of Botswana,1531-1533 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. Phone: 202-244-4990. Fax: 202-244-4164. http://www.botswana embassy.org/ Brazilian Embassy,3006 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-238-2700. Fax: 202-238-2827. http://www.brasilemb .org/ Embassy of Brunei Darussalam,3520 International Court, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-237-1838. Fax: 202-885-0560. http://www.bruneiem bassy.org Embassy of the Republic of Bulgaria,1621 22nd St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-387-0174. Fax: 202-234-7973. http://www.bulgaria- embassy.org/ Embassy of Burkina Faso,2340 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-332-5577. Fax: 202-667-1882. http://burkinaembassy -usa.org/ Embassy of the Republic of Burundi,2233 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Suite 212, Washington, D.C. 20007. Phone: 202-342-2574. Fax: 202-342-2578. Embassy of the Kingdom of Cambodia,4530 16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20011. Phone: 202-726-7742. Fax: 202-726-8381. http://www.embassy. org/cambodia/ Embassy of the Republic of Cameroon,2349 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-265-8790. Fax: 202-387-3826. http://www.ambacam -usa.org/ Embassy of Canada,501 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001. Phone: 202-682-1740. Fax: 202-682-7701. http://canadianembas sy.org/ Embassy of the Republic of Cape Verde,3415 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007. Phone: 202-965-6820. Fax: 202-965-1207. Embassy of Central African Republic,1618 22nd St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: 202-483-7800. Fax: 202-332-9893.

Some Milestones in U.S. Diplomatic History Source:U.S. State Department Benjamin Franklin was the first U.S. diplomat.He was appointed in 1776 to help gain French support for American independence and later became minister to France (1778). With John Jay and John Adams, he negotiated the peace treaty with Great Britain (Treaty of Paris, Sept. 3, 1783). The rank of ambassador was first used by the United States in 1893. Thomas F. Bayardwas appointed ambassador to Great Britain (March 30) and James B. Eustis became ambassador to France (April 18). Prior to this, the highest-ranking U.S. diplomats were ministers. Six U.S. ambassadors have been killed by terrorists:John Gordon Mein, Guatemala (August 28, 1968); Cleo A. Noel, Jr., Sudan (March 1, l973); Rodger P. Davies, Cyprus (Aug. 19, 1974); Francis E. Meloy, Jr., Lebanon (June 16, 1976); Adolph Dubs, Afghanistan (Feb. 14, 1979); Christopher Stevens, Libya (Sep. 11, 2012). A number of distinguished writers have held diplomatic or consular posts: Washington Irving,Minister to Spain, 1842–46. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Consul at Liverpool, 1853–57. Bret Harte, Consul at Crefeld, 1878–1880, and at Glasgow, 1880–1885. James Russell Lowell, Minister to Spain, 1877–80; to Great Britain, 1880–85. James Fenimore Cooper, Consul at Lyon, 1826. William Dean Howells, Consul at Venice, 1861–65. Archibald MacLeish, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, 1944–45.

Israel's 60th Anniversary May 14, 1948, the Jewish National Council proclaimed the State of Israel: Ariel Sharon, Israeli Prime Minister, 2001–2006 May 14, 2008, marked the 60th anniversary of the creation of the modern State of Israel. As part of the 19th-century Zionistmovement, Jews had begun settling in Palestineas early as 1820. This effort to establish a Jewish homeland received British approval in the Balfour Declarationof 1917. During the 1930s, Jews persecuted by the Hitlerregime poured into Palestine. The postwar acknowledgment of the Holocaust—Hitler's genocide of 6 million Jews—increased international interest in and sympathy for the cause of Zionism. However, Arabs in Palestine and surrounding countries bitterly opposed prewar and postwar proposals to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish sectors. The British mandate to govern Palestine ended after the war, and, in 1947, the UN voted to partition Palestine. When the British officially withdrew on May 14, 1948, the Jewish National Council proclaimed the State of Israel. Prominent Israeli Politicians Ehud Barak David Ben-Gurion Yizhak Ben-Zvi Golda Meir Moshe Dayan Abba Eban Levi Eshkol Benjamin Netanyahu Ehud Olmert Shimon Peres Yitzhak Rabin Yitzhak Shamir Moshe Sharett Ariel Sharon Chaim Weizmann Ezer Weizman Other Players in Modern Israel's History Mahmoud Abbas Yasir Arafat Menachem Begin Anwar Sadat

U.S. Representatives to the United Nations YearAmbassador 1946 Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 1946–1947Herschel V. Johnson (acting) 1947–1953Warren R. Austin 1953–1960 Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. 1960–1961James J. Wadsworth 1961–1965 Adlai E. Stevenson 1965–1968 Arthur J. Goldberg 1968 George W. Ball 1968–1969James Russell Wiggins 1969–1971Charles W. Yost 1971–1973 George H. W. Bush 1973–1975John A. Scali 1975–1976 Daniel P. Moynihan 1976–1977William W. Scranton 1977–1979 Andrew Young 1979–1981Donald McHenry 1981–1985 Jeane J. Kirkpatrick 1985–1989Vernon A. Walters 1989–1992Thomas J. Pickering 1992–1993Edward J. Perkins 1993–1996 Madeleine K. Albright 1997–1998 Bill Richardson 1998–1999A. Peter Burleigh (acting) 1999–2001 Richard Holbrooke 2001James B. Cunningham (acting) 2001–2004 John D. Negroponte 2004–2005 John Danforth 2005–2006 John Bolton 2007–2009Zalmay Khalilzad 2009–2013Susan Rice 2013–Samantha Power

Selected International Organizations Learn about various international organizations that operate cooperatively throughout the world. Each organization is composed of several or many countries with a joint goal. African Union(AU)1 *.Members:(53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Western Sahara, Zambia, Zimbabwe Arab League(AL) *.Members: (21 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization *.Observers: (3) Eritrea, India, Venezuela Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN) *.Members:(10) Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam *.Associate Member:(1) Papua New Guinea Commonwealth of Nations *.Members:(53) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji (suspended), the Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, UK, Vanuatu, Zambia Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS) *.Members:(12) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Group of 8(G-8) *.Members:(9) Canada, EU (as one member), France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, U.S. Group of 20(G-20) *.Members:(20) Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU (as one member), France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, UK, U.S. European Union(EU) *.Members:(28) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK. North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) *.Members:(28) Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, UK, U.S. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) *.Members:(12) Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela 1. The Organization of African Unity (OAU), the African Union's predecessor, was formally disbanded on July 8, 2002. The AU was inaugurated July 9, 2002. The 53 member nations remain the same.

Members of the United Nations (193 nations) This table provides information about the member countries of the United Nations, including the date of admission CountryJoined UN1 Afghanistan1946 Albania1955 Algeria1962 Andorra1993 Angola1976 Antigua and Barbuda1981Argentina 1945 ... Bosnia and Herzegovina1992 Botswana1966 Brazil1945 Brunei1984 Bulgaria1955 Burkina Faso1960 Burma (Myanmar)1948 Burundi1962 Cambodia1955 Cameroon1960 Canada1945 Cape Verde1975 Central African Republic1960 Chad1960 Chile1945 China 21945 Colombia1945 Comoros1975 Congo, Rep. of1960 Congo, Dem. Rep. of1960 Costa Rica1945 Côte d'Ivoire1960 Croatia1992 Cuba1945 Cyprus1960 Czech Republic 31993 Denmark1945 Djibouti1977 Dominica1978 Dominican Republic1945 East Timor 42002 Ecuador1945 Egypt1945 El Salvador1945 Equatorial Guinea1968Eritrea 1993 Estonia... Guinea-Bissau1974Guyana 1966 Haiti ... Korea, North1991 Korea, South1991Kuwait 1963 ... Liechtenstein1990Lithuania 1991 ... Marshall Islands1991Mauritania 1961 ... Montenegro4, 62006 Morocco1956 Mozambique1975 Namibia1990 Nauru1999 Nepal1955 Netherlands1945 New Zealand1945Nicaragua 1945 ... Papua New Guinea1975 Paraguay1945 Peru1945 Philippines1945 Poland1945 Portugal1955 Qatar1971 Romania1955 Russia1945 Rwanda1962 St. Kitts and Nevis1983 St. Lucia1979 St. Vincent and the Grenadines1980 Samoa1976 San Marino1992 São Tomé and Príncipe1975 Saudi Arabia1945 Senegal1960 Serbia62000 Seychelles1976 Sierra Leone1961 Singapore1965 Slovakia 31993 Slovenia1992 Solomon Islands1978 Somalia1960 South Africa1945 South Sudan2011 Spain1955 Sri Lanka1955 Sudan1956 Suriname1975 Swaziland1968 Sweden1946 Switzerland 42002 Syria1945 Tajikistan1992 Tanzania1961 Thailand1946 Togo1960 Tonga1999 Trinidad and Tobago1962 Tunisia1956 Turkey1945 Turkmenistan1992 Tuvalu2000 Uganda1962 Ukraine1945 United Arab Emirates1971 United Kingdom1945 United States1945Uruguay 1945 ... 1. The UN officially came into existence on Oct. 24, 1945. 2. On Oct. 25, 1971, the UN voted membership to the People's Republic of China, which replaced the Republic of China (Taiwan) in the world body. 3. Czechoslovakia was an original member of the United Nations from Oct. 24, 1945. As of Dec. 31, 1992, it ceased to exist and the Czech Republic and Slovakia as successor states were admitted Jan. 19, 1993. 4. Newest members. 5. The General Assembly on April 8, 1993, decided to admit the state provisionally being referred to as “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” pending settlement of the difference that has arisen over its name. 6. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a charter member; after its dissolution, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was admitted Nov. 1, 2000. On Feb. 4, 2003, the name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was changed to Serbia and Montenegro; in 2006, Serbia and Montenegro became separate countries.

UN Peacekeeping Missions Since 1948 there have been 67 UN peacekeeping operations. Close to 130 nations have contributed personnel at various times, and 115 are currently providing uniformed peacekeepers. As of Aug.31, 2012, there were 15 peacekeeping operations under way with a total of 116,515 personnel. Of the 18,170 civilians serving, 12,573 are local. Total fatalities among the peacekeepers stand at 3,025. Current UN Peacekeeping Operations Region/CountryBegan AFRICA Western Sahara (MINURSO)April 1991 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)June 2010 Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI)April 2004 Liberia (UNMIL)Sept. 2003 Sudan (UNMIS)March 2005 Darfur (UNAMID)July 2007 AMERICA Haiti (MINUSTAH)June 2004 ASIA and the Pacific India/Pakistan (UNMOGIP)Jan. 1949 Timor-Leste (UNMIT)Aug. 2006 Afghanistan (UNAMA)¹2006 EUROPE Cyprus (UNFICYP)March 1964 Kosovo (UNMIK)June 1999 MIDDLE EAST Middle East (UNTSO))May 1948 Syria (UNDOF)June 1974 Lebanon (UNIFIL)March 1978¹ UNAMA is a special political mission, directed and supported by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO). Completed UN Peacekeeping Operations Region/CountryDuration AFRICA Congo (ONUC)July 1960–June 1964 Congo (MONUC)Nov. 1999–July 2010 Angola (UNAVEM I)Dec. 1988–May 1991 Aouzou Strip (UNASOG)May-June 1994 Namibia (UNTAG)April 1989–March 1990 Angola (UNAVEM II)May 1991–Feb. 1995 Somalia (UNOSOM I)April 1992–March 1993 Mozambique (ONUMOZ)Dec. 1992–Dec. 1994 Côte d'Ivoire (MINUCI)May 2003-April 2004 Somalia (UNOSOM II)March 1993–March 1995 Rwanda/Uganda (UNOMUR)June 1993–Sept. 1994 Liberia (UNOMIL)Sept. 1993–Sept. 1997 Rwanda (UNAMIR)Oct. 1993–March 1996 Angola (UNAVEM III)Feb. 1995–June 1997 Angola (MONUA)June 1997–Feb. 1999 Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL)July 1998–Oct. 1999 Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)Oct. 1999–Dec. 2005 Central African Republic (MINURCA)April 1998–Feb. 2000 Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT)Sept. 2007–Dec. 2010 Burundi (ONUB)June 2004–Dec. 2006 Ethiopia/ Eritrea (UNMEE)September 2000–July 2008 AMERICAS Dominican Republic (DOMREP)May 1965–Oct. 1966 Central America Observer Group (ONUCA)Nov. 1989–Jan. 1992 El Salvador (ONUSAL)July 1991–April 1995 Haiti (UNMIH)Sept. 1993–June 1996 Haiti (UNSMIH)July 1996–July 1997 Guatemala (MINUGUA)Jan.–May 1997 Haiti (UNTMIH)Aug.–Nov. 1997 Haiti (MIPONUH)Dec. 1997–March 2000 MIDEAST Middle East—1st UN Emergency Force (UNEF I)Nov. 1956–June 1967 Lebanon (UNOGIL)June–Dec. 1958 Yemen (UNYOM)July 1963–Sept. 1964 Middle East—2nd UN Emergency Force (UNEF II)Oct. 1973–July 1979 Iran/Iraq (UNIIMOG)Aug. 1988–Feb. 1991 Iraq/Kuwait (UNIKOM)April 1991–Oct. 2003 ASIA West New Guinea (UNSF)Oct. 1962–April 1963 India/Pakistan (UNIPOM)Sept. 1965–March 1966 Afghanistan/Pakistan (UNGOMAP)May 1988–March 1990 Cambodia (UNAMIC)Oct. 1991–March 1992 Cambodia (UNTAC)March 1992–Sept. 1993 Tajikistan (UNMOT)Dec. 1994–May 2000 East Timor (UNTAET)Oct. 1999–May 2002 East Timor (UNMISET)May 2002–May 2005 EUROPE Former Yugoslavia (UNPROFOR)Feb. 1992–March 1995 Croatia (UNCRO)March 1995–Jan. 1996 Former Yugoslavia (UNPREDEP) Rep. of Macedonia March 1995–Feb. 1999 Bosnia & Herzegovina (UNMIBH)Dec. 1995–Dec. 2002 Georgia (UNOMIG)Aug. 1993–June 2009 Croatia (UNTAES)Jan. 1996–Jan. 1998 Prevlaka Peninsula (UNMOP)Feb. 1996–Dec. 2002 Croatia (UNPSG)Jan. 1998–Oct. 1998 Source:United Nations Dept. of Public Information.

Agencies of the United Nations Linked to the United Nations through special agreements, the separate, autonomous specialized agencies of the UN family set standards and guidelines, help formulate policies, provide technical assistance, and other forms of practical help in virtually all areas of economic and social endeavor. *.The International Labor Organization (ILO) formulates policies and programs to improve working conditions and employment opportunities, and defines international labor standards as guidelines for governments. *.The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity and food security, and to better the conditions of rural populations. *.The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) promotes education for all, cultural development, protection of the world's natural and cultural heritage, press freedom, and communication. *.The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates programs aimed at solving health problems and the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health; it works in areas such as immunization, health education, and the provision of essential drugs. *.The World Bank group provides loans and technical assistance to developing countries to reduce poverty and advance sustainable economic growth. *.The International Monetary Fund (IMF) facilitates international monetary cooperation and financial stability, and provides a permanent forum for consultation, advice, and assistance on financial issues. *.The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) sets international standards necessary for the safety, security, efficiency, and regularity of air transport, and serves as the medium for cooperation in all areas of civil aviation. *.The Universal Postal Union (UPU) establishes international regulations for the organization and improvement of postal services, provides technical assistance, and promotes cooperation in postal matters. *.The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) fosters international cooperation for the improvement and use of telecommunications of all kinds, coordinates usage of radio and TV frequencies, promotes safety measures, and conducts research. *.The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) promotes scientific research on the atmosphere and on climate change, and facilitates the global exchange of meteorological data and information. *.The International Maritime Organization (IMO) works to improve international shipping procedures, encourages the highest standards in marine safety, and seeks to prevent marine pollution from ships. *.The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) promotes international protection of intellectual property and fosters cooperation on copyrights, trademarks, industrial designs, and patents. *.The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) mobilizes financial resources for better food production and nutrition among the poor in developing countries. *.The UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) promotes the industrial advancement of developing countries through technical assistance, advisory services, and training. *.The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) an autonomous intergovernmental organization under the aegis of the UN, works for the safe and peaceful uses of atomic energy. *.The UN and the World Trade Organization (WTO) the major entity overseeing international trade, cooperate in assisting developing countries' exports through the Geneva-based International Trade Center.

International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice is the UN's principal judicial organ. Based in The Hague, Netherlands, the Court pursues two primary objectives: (1) settling legal disputes submitted by states in accordance with international law, and (2) advising on legal questions brought by authorized international organs and agencies. The Court consists of 15 judges elected to 9-year terms by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council during independent sittings. No more than one judge of any nationality may serve simultaneously, and judges are in all respects required to act as independent magistrates. The Court's jurisdiction and competency in settling disputes is dependent upon a state's acceptance of its jurisdiction thereof. The Court rules in accordance with international treaties, conventions, international custom, general principles of law, and, when relevant, judicial decision or teachings of the “most highly qualified publicists.”

Principal Organs of the United Nations Security Council The Security Council is the primary instrument for establishing and maintaining international peace. Its main purpose is to prevent war by settling disputes between nations. Under the charter, the council is permitted to dispatch a UN force to stop aggression. All member nations undertake to make available armed forces, assistance, and facilities to maintain international peace and security. The Security Council has 15 members. There are five permanent members: the United States, the Russian Federation, Britain, France, and China; and ten temporary members elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms, from five different regions of the world. Voting on procedural matters requires a nine-vote majority to carry. However, on questions of substance, the vote of each of the five permanent members is required. As of Jan. 2009, the ten elected nonpermanent members were Austria, Japan, Uganda, Mexico, Turkey, Burkina Faso, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Vietnam, Costa Rica, and Croatia. In Jan. 2010 the terms of Burkina Faso, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Vietnam, Costa Rica, and Croatia will expire.

Principal Organs of the United Nations Economic and Social Council This council is composed of 54 members elected by the General Assembly to three-year terms. It works under the authority of the General Assembly and seeks to promote progress in terms of higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social viability; it also seeks solutions to international socioeconomic, health, and other problems through international and cultural cooperation. Finally, it advocates for the universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.

Principal Organs of the United Nations Trusteeship Council The UN charter originally established the Trusteeship Council as a main organ of the UN and entrusted it with the administration of territories placed under the trusteeship system. The Trusteeship Council suspended operations on Nov. 1, 1994, after the October independence of Palau, the last UN territory. In a May 1994 resolution, the Trusteeship Council amended its rules of procedure, agreeing to meet only as occasion required (by its decision or by request of a majority of its own General Assembly/Security Council members) rather than annually. The Trusteeship Council is comprised of the five permanent members of the Security Council. Now that the aims of the trusteeship system have been fulfilled, however, its functions and powers have been lying dormant.

The Difference between the U.K., Great Britain, England, and the British Isles Key differences of these names often used interchangeably

There are key differences between Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and England—names often used interchangeably. Great Britain Great Britain is an island that consists of three somewhat autonomous regions that include England, Scotland, and Wales. It is located east of Ireland and northwest of Francein the Atlantic Ocean. The United Kingdom The United Kingdom is a country that includes England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Its official name is “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.” England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland are often mistaken as names of countries, but they are only a part of the United Kingdom. The British Isles The British Isles is another term altogether and encompasses Great Britain, the island of Ireland, and several other smaller islands, such as the Isle of Man. The Isle of Man is not a part of the United Kingdom or the European Union, even though its Lord is the Monarch of the United Kingdom. The Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nationsis a voluntary association of countries that were formerly British colonies. Members of the Commonwealth of Nations recognize the United Kingdom Monarch as their own king or queen, but remain politically independent. Members of the Commonwealth of Nations Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Canada Cameroon Cyprus Dominica Gambia Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Maldives Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibi a Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Papua New Guinea Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

United Nations Preamble of the United Nations Charter The Charter of the United Nations was adopted at the San Francisco Conference of 1945. The complete text is available on the UN website, www.un.org/aboutun /charter. We the peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and To promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends To practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and To unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and To insure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and To employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims. Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.

Secretariat This is the directorate on UN operations, apart from political decisions. The staff works under the secretary-general, whom it assists and advises. Secretaries-General Ban Ki-moon, South Korea, Jan. 1, 2007 Kofi Annan, Ghana, 1997–2006 Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Egypt, 1992–1996 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, Peru, 1982–1991 Kurt Waldheim, Austria, 1972–1981 U Thant, Burma (Myanmar), 1961–1971 Dag Hammarskjöld, Sweden, 1953–1961 Trygve Lie, Norway, 1946–1953

General Assembly The General Assembly is the world's forum for discussing matters affecting world peace and security, and for making recommendations concerning them. It has no power to enforce decisions. It is composed of the 51 original member nations and those admitted since, totaling 192. On important questions, including international peace and security, a two-thirds majority of those present and voting is required. Decisions on other questions are made by a simple majority. Emphasis is given to questions relating to international peace and security brought before it by members, the Security Council, or nonmembers. It also maintains a broad program of international cooperation in economic, social, cultural, educational, and health fields, and for assisting in human rights and freedoms.

The Difference between the U.K., Great Britain, England, and the British Isles Key differences of these names often used interchangeably: There are key differences between Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and England—names often used interchangeably. Great Britain Great Britain is an island that consists of three somewhat autonomous regions that include England, Scotland, and Wales. It is located east of Ireland and northwest of Francein the Atlantic Ocean. The United Kingdom The United Kingdom is a country that includes England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Its official name is “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.” England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland are often mistaken as names of countries, but they are only a part of the United Kingdom. The British Isles The British Isles is another term altogether and encompasses Great Britain, the island of Ireland, and several other smaller islands, such as the Isle of Man. The Isle of Man is not a part of the United Kingdom or the European Union, even though its Lord is the Monarch of the United Kingdom. The Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nationsis a voluntary association of countries that were formerly British colonies. Members of the Commonwealth of Nations recognize the United Kingdom Monarch as their own king or queen, but remain politically independent. Members of the Commonwealth of Nations Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Canada Cameroon Cyprus Dominica Gambia Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Maldives Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibi a Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Papua New Guinea Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Former Place Names of Countries and Cities Current nameOld Name EthiopiaAbyssinia Ankara, TurkeyAngora, Turkey Czech Republic and SlovakiaBohemia, Moravia, Chechoslovakia Sri LankaCeylon Istanbul, TurkeyConstantinople, Turkey Beijing, ChinaPeking, China IranPersia IraqMesopotamia ZimbabweSouthern Rhodesia ZambiaNorthern Rhodesia Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamSaigon, South Vietnam St. Petersburg, RussiaPetrograd and Leningrad, Russia ThailandSiam TanzaniaTanganyika and Zanzibar, German East Africa Democratic Republic of CongoZaire NamibiaSouth-West Africa MoldovaMoldavia Burkina FasoUpper Volta LibyaTripolitania and Cyrenaica AlgeriaNumidia MaliSudanese Republic FranceGaul Central African Republic, ChadFrench Equatorial Africa Rwanda and BurundiGerman East Africa China (north)Cathay China (south)Mangi VietnamCochin-China (south), Annam (central), Tonkin (north) MyanmarBurma Tokyo, JapanEdo Korea (North and South)Choson CambodiaKampuchea TaiwanFormosa

State, Country, and Nation The criteria that define a country, an independent State, and a nation: There is a difference between the terms nation, state, and country, even though the words are often used interchangeably. Country and State are synonymous terms that both apply to self-governing political entities. A nation, however, is a group of people who share the same culture but do not have sovereignty. When the “s” of state is lowercase, it constitutes a part of a whole country, such as the different states of the United States of America. When the “S” of State is uppercase it signifies an independent country. How were countries defined in the past? In the past, governments often used two opposing theories to define a country—the Montevideo Convention treaty or the constitutive theory of statehood. In 1933, at the Montevideo Convention in Uruguay, a treaty was signed on the Rights and Duties of States. The treaty defined a State using four criteria—a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and a capacity to enter into relations with other States. The convention also declared that a State did not have to be recognized by other States, meaning a country could exist even if other countries did not recognize it. Conversely, the constitutive theory of statehood said that a country existed if it was recognized as sovereign by other countries. Therefore, if other countries recognized a country as independent, it was, even if the country did not have control of its territory or a permanent population. What makes an independent State or a country today? Has internationally recognized land and borders even if border disputes exist; Has permanent residents; Has sovereignty so that no other country has power over its territory; Has organized economic activity that regulates foreign and domestic trade and issues money; Has a transportation network for moving goods and people; Has an education system; Has recognition from other independent states How many countries are there in the world? Today, there are 195 independent countries or states recognized in the world. Kosovo, which declared independence from Serbiain February 2008 is the newest country. Territories, such as Hong Kong, Bermuda, Puerto Rico, and Greenlandthat belong to other countries are not considered countries. Disputes often arise when a territory claims to be a country, but is not recognized by any other countries. Taiwan, for example, claims to be an independent country, but Chinastates that Taiwan is a part of China. Therefore, other countries that don’t want to upset China also do not recognize Taiwan as independent. What are a nation and a nation-state? A nation is a group of people who share the same culture, language, institutions, religion, and history—usually a group of people larger than a tribe or community. When a nation of people has an independent State of their own it is often called a nation-state. The Kurdsare a nation without a State, but France, Germany, and Japanare examples of nation-states.

Highest Infant Mortality Rate The countries with the highest infant mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 births) in 2012. 1. Afghanistan121.63 2. Mali108.70 3. Somalia103.72 4. Central African Republic97.17 5. Guinea-Bissau94.40 6. Chad93.61 7. Niger89.70 8. Angola83.53 9. Burkina Faso79.84 10. Malawi79.02 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists.Sources:1.The World Factbook, 2012.2. U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.

Lowest Infant Mortality Rate The countries with the lowest infant mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 births) in 2012. 1. Monaco1.8 2. Japan2.21 3. Bermuda2.47 4. Singapore2.65 5. Sweden2.74 6.Hong Kong2.9 7.Macau S.A.R.3.17 8. Iceland3.18 9. Italy3.36 10. Spain3.37 NOTE:Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists.Sources:1.The World Factbook, 2012.2. U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.

Highest Life Expectancy, 2012 The countries with the highest life expectancy (in years). 1. Monaco89.68 2.Macau84.43 3. Japan83.91 4. Singapore83.75 5. San Marino83.07 6. Andorra82.50 7. Guernsey82.240 8.Hong Kong S.A.R.82.12 9. Australia81.90 10. Italy81.86 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists.Sources:1.The World Factbook, 2012.2. U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.

Lowest Life Expectancy, 2012 The countries with the lowest life expectancy (in years). 1. Chad48.69 2. Guinea-Bissau49.11 3. South Africa49.41 4. Swaziland49.42 5. Afghanistan49.72 6. Central African Republic50.48 7. Somalia50.80 8. Zimbabwe51.82 9. Lesotho51.86 10. Mozambique52.02 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists.Sources:1.The World Factbook, 2012.2. U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.

Lowest Literacy Rates The countries with the lowest literacy rate. 1. Burkina Faso23.6% 2. Mali24.0 3. Chad25.7 4. Niger28.7 5. Guinea29.5 6. Benin34.7 7. Sierra Leone34.8 8. Ethiopia35.9 9. Mozambique38.7 10. Senegal39.3 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented above cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists.Sources:1.The World Factbook, 2010.2. U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.

Lowest Inflation The countries with the lowest inflation in 2011. 1. Qatar–2.5% 2. Northern Mariana Islands-.80 3. Bahrain-.40 4. Japan-.30 5. Central African Republic.10 6. Kiribati.20 7. Switzerland.20 8. Liechtenstein.30 9. Saint Martin.70 10. United Arab Emirates.90 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available figure in these lists.Source:The World Factbook, 2012.

Lowest Population Density The top ten least densely populated countries, in square kilometers, in 2011. 1. Western Sahara1.85 2. Mongolia1.99 3. Namibia2.59 4. Australia2.80 5. Iceland3.08 6. Mauritania3.11 7. Suriname3.12 8. Botswana3.58 9. Libya3.67 10. Canada3.71 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented above cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available figure in these lists. †Population density calculated using population and land area.Source:The World Factbook, 2011.

Highest GDP Per Capita The countries with the highest gross domestic product per capita in U.S. dollars, in 2011. 1. Qatar$98,900 2. Liechtenstein89,400 3. Luxembourg80,600 4. Bermuda69,900 5. Singapore59,700 6. Jersey57,000 7. Falkland Islands55,400 8. Norway51,600 9. Brunei49,500 10. Hong Kong49,400 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists.Sources:1.The World Factbook, 2012.2. U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.

Lowest GDP Per Capita The countries with the lowest gross domestic product per capita in U.S. dollars, in 2011. 1. Congo, Democratic Republic of the$300 2. Zimbabwe500 3. Burundi600 4. Liberia600 5. Somalia700 6. Eritrea700 7. Niger800 8. Central African Republic800 9. Malawi900 10. Madagascar900 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists.Sources:1.The World Factbook, 2012.2. U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.

Highest Inflation The countries with the highest inflation in 2011. 1. Belarus53.3% 2. Ethiopia33 3. Venezuela26.1 4. Argentina22 5. Guinea21.4 6. Iran20.6 7. Eritrea20 8. Yemen19.5 9. Uganda14.4 10. Vietnam13.9 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented above cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available figure in these lists.Source:The World Factbook, 2012.

How Many Countries? There are 196 countriesin the world today. Unless you don't count Taiwan… Taiwanis not considered an official country by many, which would bring the count down to195 countries.Although Taiwan operates as an independent country, many countries (including the U.S.) do not officially recognize it as one. Because the People's Republic of Chinaconsiders Taiwan a breakaway province of China, countries who wish to maintain diplomatic relations with China have had to sever their formal relations with Taiwan (more than 100 countries, however, have unofficial relations with Taiwan). How many countries belong to the United Nations? 192 countriesare UN members. The exceptions are Taiwan (in 1971, the UN ousted Taiwan and replaced it with the People's Republic of China) and Vatican City. Kosovo is not yet a member. The newest UN members are Switzerland(2002) and Montenegro(2006). What are the world's newest countries? The world's newest country is South Sudan, which gained independence from Sudan on July 9, 2011. Before that, the newest country was Kosovo, which declared independence from Serbia in February 2008. Montenegro became a country in June 2006, after splitting off from Serbia. Since 1990, 29 new nations have come into being. Many of these emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union (14 countries) and the breakup of the former Yugoslavia (7 countries).Seeour Guide to New Nations. Are there still any countries that have colonies? There are61 coloniesor territories in the world. Eight countries maintain them: Australia (6), Denmark (2), Netherlands (2), France (16), New Zealand (3), Norway (3), the United Kingdom (15), and the United States (14).See Territories, Colonies, and Dependenciesfor a list of the world's colonies and what countries administrate them, p. 663. Are there still territories in the world that are claimed by more than one country? There aresix major disputed territoriesin the world: the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, the Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, Western Sahara, and Antarctica(about a dozen nations have laid claims to portions of it). In addition, there are innumerable other territorial disputes throughout the world, many of which had resulted in ongoing armed conflicts.

Largest Countries in the World The top ten largest countries, in square miles, in 2012. 1. Russia6,601,668 2. Canada3,855,102 3. United States3,794,100 4. China3,705,407 5. Brazil3,287,612 6. Australia2,988,901 7. India1,269,219 8. Argentina1,073,518 9. Kazakhstan1,052,089 10. Algeria919,595 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented above cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists. *Size refers to the total area of a country, which includes the land area plus bodies of water.Sources:The World Factbook, 2012.

Smallest Countries in the World The top ten smallest countries, in square miles, as of 2012. 1. Vatican City0.17 2. Monaco0.75 3. Nauru8.11 4. Tuvalu10.04 5. San Marino23.63 6. Liechtenstein61.78 7.Saint Kitts and Nevis100.77 8. Maldives115.83 9. Malta122.01 10. Grenada132.82 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results. Only countries for which statistics were available in sources 1 and 2 figure in these lists. *Size refers to the total area of a country, which includes the land area plus bodies of water.Sources:1.The World Factbook.2. U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.

Highest Population Density The top ten most densely populated countries, in square kilometers, in 2011. 1. Monaco15,293 2. Singapore6,843 3. Holy See1,884 4. Maldives1,328 5. Malta1,287 6. Bangladesh1,199 7. Bahrain971 8. Taiwan714 9. Barbados664 10. Mauritius637 NOTE: Country rankings of the type presented below cannot pretend to be definitive; instead they aspire only to provide the reader with an approximation of the high and low ends on a particular scale. Country data vary enormously depending on the sources, and the absence of reliable data on some countries requires their omission, which further skews the results.Only countries for which statistics were available figure in these lists. †Population density calculated using population and land area.Source:The World Factbook, 2011.

Global Political, Economic, and Social Facts From the UN'sHuman Development Report 2007/2008 In 2008, 34 journalists died in the line of duty.That's down from the 65 killed In 2007. In 103 countries the proportion ofwomen in parliamentincreased between 1995 and 2008, butaround the world it still averages just 18.4%. As of 2007, only 28 countries, representing 13% of the world's population, arefully democratic.54 countries, representing 38.3% of the world's population areflawed democracies; 30 arehybrid regimes; and 55, or 38.2% of the world's population, areauthoritarian regimes. Between 1970 and 2005 the under-5mortality rateworldwide fell from 96 to 76 per 1,000 live births. Multiparty electionsare now held in 140 of the world's 195 countries. Coups overthrew 46 elected governments in the second half of the twentieth century. The proportion of theworld's extremely poorfell from 29% in 1990 to 23% in 1999. In 2006,2.6 billion people, or 40% of the world’s population, lived on less than $2 a day,with 1 billion of them surviving on the margins of subsistence with less than $1 a day. In 2006, 1.1 billion people lacked access tosafe water, and 2.6 billion did not have access to any form of improved sanitation services. Just 125 countries, with 62% of the world's population, have a free or partlyfree press. Of the world's estimated 854 millionilliterate adults, 544 million are women. Armed conflict continues to blight the lives of millions: since 1990, 3.6 million people have died as a result ofcivil wars and ethnic violence,more than 16 times the number killed in wars between states. Civilianshave accounted for more than90% of thecasualties—either injured or killed—in post-cold war conflicts. Ninety countries are affected bylandminesand unexploded ordinance, with rough estimates of 15,000 to 20,000 mine victims each year. Greenhouse gasesin the Earth’s atmosphere are accruing at a record rate. In 2007, there were 380 parts per million ofcarbon dioxidein the atmosphere, which exceeds the natural range of the past 650,000 years. The United States has acarbon footprintfive times that of China, and over 15 times that of India. The 23 million residents of the US state of Texas emit morecarbon dioxidethan the entire population of sub-Saharan Africa, which is 720 million people.

A Profile of the World, 2012 Source: The World Factbook, 2012 Geography Age:4.55 billion years old. Total area:510.072 million sq km (196.940 million sq mi).Land area:148.94 million sq km (57.506 million sq mi).Water area:361.132 million sq km (139.434 million sq mi).Coastline: Land boundaries:251,060 km (156,262.58 mi.), not counting shared boundaries twice. Climate:Two large areas of polar climates are separated by two rather narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates. Terrain:Highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,850 m (29,035 ft) and lowest land depression is the Dead Sea at –411 m (–1,349 ft) below sea level. The greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at –10,924 m Land use:Arable land:10.57%.Permanent crops:1.04%.Other:88.39% (2005 est.).Irrigated land:3,245,556 sq km. See also Atlas of the World. People Population:7,021,836,029 (July 2012 est.). Growth rate:1.096% (2012 est.). Birth rate:19.14 births/1,000 population (2012 est.). Death rate:7.99 deaths/1,000 population (2012 est.). Sex ratio (at birth):1.07 males/females (2011 est.). Infant mortality rate:39.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.). Life expectancy at birth:Total population:67.59 years.Male:65.59 years.Female:69.73 years (2012 est.). Total fertility rate:2.47 children born per woman (2012 est.). Literacy:Age 15 and over who can read and write (2005 est.).Total population:83.7%.Male:88.3%.Female:79.2%NOTE:More than two-thirds of the world's 793 million illiterate adults are found in only eight Government and Economy Political divisions:195 sovereign nations, 72 dependent areas, and 6 disputed territories. Economy:In 2011, world output — and per capita income — began to recover from the 2008–09 recession, the first global downturn since 1946. Gross World Product (GWP) grew 3.7%, a slowdown GWP/PPP:$79.39 trillion (2011 est.). GWP—real growth rate:3.7% (2011 est.). GWP/PPP—per capita:$11,900 (2011 est.). GWP composition:agriculture 6%, industry 30.7%, services 63.4% (2011 est.). Inflation rate (consumer price index):developed countries: 3.1%; developing countries: 6.3% (2011 est.). Note: Developed countries 0% to 4% typically; developing countries 5% to 10% typically; Unemployment rate:9.1% (2011 est.). Exports:$18.15 trillion (2011 est.). Imports:$17.94 trillion (2011 est.). External debt:$69.05 trillion (2011 est.)

History and symbolism of the Irish tricolour Rarely has a flag possessed such lasting relevance as that of the "Tricolour," the national flag of the Republic of Ireland. Its three equal stripes illustrate the Irish political landscape as accurately today as in 1848, the year the flag was first unfurled. orange— standing for Irish Protestants green— signifying Irish Catholics and the republican cause white— representing the hope for peace between them Why Orange? The color orange is associated with Northern Irish Protestants because of William of Orange(William III), the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland who in 1690 defeated the deposed King James II, a Roman Catholic, in the fateful Battle of the Boynenear Dublin. William III's victory secured Protestant dominance over the island, to the enormous benefit of the 17th-century colonizers of northern Ireland — the English (mainly Anglicans) and Scots (mostly Presbyterians). Sometimes called Orangemen, Protestants in Northern Ireland celebrate the anniversary of the battle each July 12th. Green for the Emerald Isle? Green as the color standing for the Irish Catholic nationalists of the south may have something to do with shamrocks and verdant landscapes, but more importantly, green symbolizes revolution. An earlier, unofficial Irish flag —the gold harp on a green background— served from 1798 until the early twentieth century as a symbol of nationalism. As the revolutionary James Connollywrote, just weeks before he participated in the quixotic Easter Rebellion (1916) that led to his execution by firing squad: For centuries the green flag of Ireland was a thing accurst and hated by the English garrison in Ireland, as it is still in their inmost hearts... ...the green flag of Ireland will be solemnly hoisted over Liberty Hall as a symbol of our faith in freedom, and as a token to all the world that the working class of Dublin stands for the cause of Ireland, and the cause of Ireland is the cause of a separate and distinct nationality. —Worker's Republic,April 8, 1916 A Lasting Truce between Orange and Green? Although it was not adopted as the national flag of Ireland until independence from Britain on December 6, 1921, the Tricolour was first unfurled in public on March 7, 1848, by the militant nationalist Thomas Francis Meagher1, (the stripes, however, were arranged differently at that time). Explaining the significance of the Tricolour, Meagher expressed a hope for his country that is unfortunately still unrealized today: The white in the center signifies a lasting truce between the "Orange" and the "Green," and I trust that beneath its folds the hands of the Irish Protestant and the Irish Catholic may be clasped in generous and heroic brotherhood. 1. Irish revolutionary was just one of Meagher's careers: he was also a prisoner in a Tasmanian penal colony, a New York City lawyer, and a Civil War general for the Union Army.

U.S. Flag Timeline A history of Old Glory by Ann-Marie Imbornoni 1776 1777 1794 1814 1818 1912 1916 1949 1960 1776 Jan. 2 The first unofficial national flag, called the Grand Unionor Continental Colours, was raised at the behest of Gen. George Washingtonnear his headquarters outside Boston, Mass. The flag had 13 alternating red and white horizontal stripes and the British Union Flag (a predecessor of the Union Jack) in the upper left corner. May According to a popular story, George Washington and two other representatives from the Continental Congresscalled upon a Philadelphia seamstress, Betsy Ross, to ask her to make a new American flag. This version of events cannot be confirmed by historians, however. Although nobody knows for sure who designed the flag, it may have been Continental Congress member Francis Hopkinson. Top 1777 June 14 The first official flag, also known as the Stars and Stripes or Old Glory, was approved by the Continental Congress: "Resolved, That the Flag of the United States be 13 stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union be 13 stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation." The resolution did not specify how the stars should be arranged, and so the layout varied. Top 1794 Jan. 13 Congress authorized the addition of two more stars and two more stripes to mark the admission of Vermontand Kentuckyto the Union in 1791 and 1792, respectively. This 15-star, 15-stripe flag, which came into use after May 1795, was the " star-spangled banner" that inspired lawyer and poet Francis Scott Key. Top 1814 Sept. 14 As daylight broke, Francis Scott Key saw the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry, after it had been bombarded all night by the British. Inspired, he wrote a poem entitled "The Defense of Fort M'Henry," which was later set to music and renamed the " Star-Spangled Banner." Congress made it the official national anthem in 1931. Top 1818 April 4 After five more statesjoined the Union, Congress passed legislation fixing the number of stripes at 13 and requiring that the number of stars equal the number of states. (Each new star was to be added on the 4th of July following the state's entry into the Union.) Top 1912 After New Mexicoand Arizonajoined the Union on Jan. 6 and Feb. 14, respectively, the flag had 48 stars. On June 24, President William Howard Taftissued an executive order that established the proportions of the flag and set the arrangement of the stars in horizontal rows. Top 1916 May 30 President Woodrow Wilsonproclaimed Flag Daya day of national celebration. Top 1949 Aug. 3 President Harry Trumansigned an Act of Congress that requested that the president issue an annual proclamation calling for the observance of Flag Dayand for the display of the flag on all federal government buildings. Top 1960 July 4 The last new star, bringing the total to 50, was added after Hawaiibecame a state.

Disaster Survival Guide You never know when disaster will strike. If it does, it’s important to be prepared. Your life—or the lives of others—may depend on knowing how get out of a tough jam. Here are some tricks that experts say will increase a person’s chances of surviving a sticky situation. You are bitten by a snake Even if you once saw it done in a movie, don’t try to suck the venom and spit it out. This will only make you absorb even more venom. Remain calm-most snake bites aren’t fatal. Panic will only make your heart beat faster, speeding the venom through your body. Clean the wound the way you would any other type of wound. Then tie a band between the wound and your heart to keep the venom from spreading too quickly. Don’t make the band as tight as a tourniquet. Seek medical attention right away. If you are in the woods and can’t easily get to a doctor, go to a road and wave down a car. You are in water with sharks Try to keep still, to keep the shark from noticing you. If you think it’s attacking, hit it in the eyes or gills. (Punch the nose only if you can’t reach the eyes or gills.) Use your fists or any hard object. Sharks aren’t interested in going after prey that fights back, so it will probably swim away. To avoid this frightening problem, it’s best not to swim alone far from the ocean’s shore. Don’t swim during the twilight or evening or wear brightly colored swimwear. Don’t swim if you have an open wound. You are attacked by a bear Don’t turn your back on the bear and run away. The bear will think you are prey and chase you. There’s no way you can outrun a bear. Nor can you out-climb one. Bears will chase you up a tree, where there’s no escape. Your best hope is lie down and play dead. The bear might come over and inspect you, maybe even swipe at you with its claws. With any luck, it will lose interest and leave. Your car is sinking First and most importantly, open the car windows. You want water to fill the car so the pressure on the car’s inside and outside will be equal. Now you will be able to open the doors. Get out of the car as quickly as possible. If you can’t open the windows, try to break them. If that doesn’t work, wait while the car slowly fills with water. Once the water has reached your head, the water pressure should be equalized. Hold your breath, open the door and swim out. You are in a lightning storm It’s not what you do—it’s what you shouldn’t do: don’t stay in high places or open ground. Don’t stand under a tree or flagpole or in a picnic area, baseball dugout or bleachers. Don’t go near metal fences and any body of water. It’s better to stand inside a large building than a small one. Once inside, don’t touch anything conductive that leads to the outside, such as window frames, showers and pipes. Don’t pick up a telephone or use a computer or TV. If you’re inside a car, roll up the windows and try not to touch anything that can conduct electricity. Your tongue is stuck to a cold pole This isn’t life-threatening—but it’s painful and embarrassing. The best advice is not to put your tongue on a freezing pole in the first place. But if you do, don’t try to quickly pull your tongue off the pole—you’ll rip it! Instead, move your hands (they should be in gloves!) over the pole near your tongue. This should warm the pole enough to let you slowly pull your tongue off. If warm water is nearby, splash it over your tongue to thaw it. Don’t put cool water or your saliva over the area: they will both freeze, making the situation stickier.

Billion Dollar U.S. Weather Disasters, 1980–2013 (part 3 & last part): Severe Storms and Tornadoes(March 2006); preliminary estimate of over $1.0 billion in damage/costs; 10 deaths reported. 2005Hurricane Wilma(October); preliminary estimate of over $ 10.0 billion in damage/costs; estimated 35 deaths. Hurricane Rita(September); preliminary estimate of over $ 10.0 billion in damage/costs; estimated 35 deaths. Hurricane Katrina(August); preliminary estimate of around $100 billion in damage/costs, making this the most expensive natural disaster in U.S. history; circa 1800 deaths - the highest U.S. total since the 1928 major hurricane in southern Florida. Hurricane Dennis(July); preliminary estimate of over $2 billion in damage/costs; at least 12 deaths. Midwest Drought(Spring-Summer); preliminary estimate of over $1.0 billion in damage/costs; no reported deaths. 2004Hurricane Jeanne(September); preliminary estimate of over $6.9 billion in damage/costs; at least 28 deaths. Hurricane Ivan(September); NY. estimate of over $14 billion in damage/costs; at least 57 deaths. Hurricane Frances(September); estimate of approximately $9 billion in damage/costs; at least 48 deaths. Hurricane Charley(August); estimate of approximately $15 billion in damage/costs; at least 34 deaths. 2003Southern California Wildfires(Oct.–Nov.); estimate of over $2.5 billion damage/costs; 22 deaths. Hurricane Isabel(Sept.); estimate of approximately $5 billion in damages/costs; at least 55 deaths. Severe Storms and Tornadoes(May); over $3.4 billion in damages/costs; 51 deaths. Storms and Hail(April.); over $ 1.6 billion in damages/costs: 3 deaths. 2002Widespread Drought(Spring–Fall); estimate of over $ 10.0 billion in damages; no deaths. Western Fire Season(Spring–Fall); $ 2.0 billion in damages/costs; 21 deaths. 2001Tropical Storm Allison(June); preliminary estimate of approximately $5.0 (5.1) billion; 43 deaths. Midwest and Ohio Tornadoes(June); $1.9 billion in damage/costs, at least 3 deaths. 2000Drought/Heat Wave(Spring–Summer); preliminary estimate more than $4.0 (4.2) billion; estimated 140 deaths nationwide. Western Fire Season(Spring–Summer); more than $2.0 (2.1) billion; no deaths reported. 1999Hurricane Floyd(Sept.); at least $6.0 (6.5) billion; 77 deaths. Eastern Drought/Heat Wave(Summer); more than $1.0 (1.1) billion; estimated 502 deaths. Oklahoma-Kansas Tornadoes(May); at least $1.6 (1.7) billion; 55 deaths. Arkansas-Tennessee Tornadoes(Jan.); approximately $1.3 (1.4) billion; 17 deaths. 1998Texas Flooding(Oct.–Nov.); approximately $1.0 (1.1) billion; 31 deaths. Hurricane Georges(Sept.); estimated $5.9 (6.5) billion; 16 deaths. Hurricane Bonnie(Aug.); approximately $1.0 (1.1) billion; 3 deaths. Southern Drought/Heat Wave(Summer); $6.0-$9.0 billion; at least 200 deaths. Minnesota Severe Storms/Hail(May); more than $1.5 (1.7) billion; 1 death. Southeast Tornadoes and Flooding(Winter–Spring); more than $1.0 (1.1) billion; at least 132 deaths. Northeast Ice Storm(Jan.); more than $1.4 (1.5) billion; 16 deaths. 1997Northern Plains Flooding(April–May); approximately $3.7 (4.1) billion; 11 deaths. Mississippi and Ohio Valleys Flooding and Tornadoes(March); estimated $1.0 (1.1) billion; 67 deaths. West Coast Flooding(Dec. 1996–Jan. 1997); approximately $3.0 (3.4) billion; 36 deaths. 1996Hurricane Fran(Sept.); more than $5.0 (5.8) billion; 37 deaths. Southern Plains Severe Drought(Fall 1995–Summer 1996); approximately $5.0 (6.0) billion; no deaths. Pacific Northwest Severe Flooding(Feb.); approximately $1.0 (1.2) billion; 9 deaths. Blizzard of '96 and Flooding(Jan.); approximately $3.0 (3.5) billion; 187 deaths. 1995Hurricane Opal(Oct.); more than $3.0 (3.6) billion; 27 deaths. Hurricane Marilyn(Sept.); estimated $2.1 (2.5) billion; 13 deaths. Southern Severe Weather and Flooding(May); 5.0-$6.0 (6.5-7.1) billion; 32 deaths. California Flooding(Jan.–March); more than $3.0 (3.6) billion; 27 deaths. 1994Western Fire Season(Summer–Fall); approximately $1.0 (1.2) billion; death toll undetermined. Texas Flooding(Oct.); approximately $1.0 (1.2) billion; 19 deaths. Tropical Storm Alberto(July); approximately $1.0 (1.2) billion; 32 deaths. Southeast Ice Storm(Feb.); approximately $3.0 (3.7) billion; 9 deaths. 1993California Wildfires(Fall); approximately $1.0 (1.3) billion; 4 deaths. Midwest Flooding(Summer); approximately $21.0 (26.7) billion; 48 deaths. Drought/Heat Wave(Summer); about $1.0 (1.3) billion; at least 16 deaths. “Storm of the Century” Blizzard(March); $3.0-$6.0 (3.8-7.6) billion; approximately 270 deaths. 1992Nor'easter of 1992(Dec.); $1.0-$2.0 (1.3-2.6) billion; 19 deaths. Hurricane Iniki(Sept.); about $1.8 (2.4) billion; 7 deaths. Hurricane Andrew(Aug.); approximately $27.0 (35.6) billion; 61 deaths. 1991Oakland Firestorm(Oct.): approximately $2.5 (3.5) billion; 25 deaths. Hurricane Bob(Aug.); $1.5 (2.1) billion; 18 deaths.

Billion Dollar U.S. Weather Disasters, 1980–2013 (part 2): Southeast/Midwest Tornadoes and Severe Weather(June 18-22, 2011); over $1.3 billion in total damages/costs; an estimated 81 tornadoes over central and southern states; wind and hail damage in the Southeast; 3 deaths. Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes(May 22–27, 2011); estimate of over $9.1 billion in total damage/costs; an estimated 180 tornadoes over central and southern states; 177 reported deaths. Southeast/Ohio Valley/Midwest Tornadoes(April 25-30, 2011); over $10.2 billion in total damages/costs; an estimated 343 tornadoes over central and southern states; 321 deaths (240 in Alabama). Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes(April 14–16, 2011); Over $2.1 billion in total losses/costs; an estimated 177 tornadoes in several central and southern states; 38 deaths (22 in North Carolina). Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes(April 8–11, 2011); over $1.5 billion in losses/costs; an estimated 59 tornadoes in central and southern states; no deaths reported. Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes(April 4–5, 2011); over $2.8 billion in total losses with damage in several central and southern states; an estimated 46 tornadoes reported; 9 deaths. Groundhog Day Blizzard(Jan. 29–Feb. 3, 2011); over $1.8 billion in damages/costs from a large winter storm affecting central, eastern and northeastern states; Chicago was at a standstill; 36 deaths. 2010Midwest Tornadoes and Severe Weather(May 2010 ); total losses exceeded $3.0 billion in damages/costs; 3 deaths. Mid-South Flooding and Severe Weather(April-May 2010 ); total losses exceeded $2.3 billion in damages/costs; 32 deaths. Northeast Flooding(March 2010 ); over $1.5 billion in damages/costs; 11 deaths. 2009Southwest/Great Plains Drought(entire year 2009); estimate of over $5.0 billion in damage/costs; no reported deaths. Western Wildfires(Summer-Fall 2009); over $1.0 billion in damages/costs (including annual fire suppression costs); 10 deaths. Midwest, South and Eastern Severe Weather(June 2009); Over $1.1 billion in damages/costs; no deaths reported. South/Southeast Tornadoes and Severe Weather(April 2009); over $1.2 billion in damages/costs; 6 deaths. Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes(March 2009); Over $1.0 billion in damages/costs with majority of damage in TX; no deaths reported. Southeast/Ohio Valley Severe Weather(February 2009); over $1.4 billion in damages/costs with majority of damage in OK and OH; 10 deaths. 2008Widespread Drought(entire year 2008); estimate of over $2.0 billion in damage/costs; no reported deaths. Hurricane Ike(September 2008); estimate of over $27.0 billion in damage/costs; 112 deaths reported. Hurricane Gustav(September 2008); preliminary estimate of at least $5.0 billion in damage/costs; 43 deaths reported. Hurricane Dolly(July 2008); preliminary estimate of over $1.2 billion in damage/costs; three deaths reported. US Wildfires(Summer-Fall 2008); preliminary estimate of over $2.0 billion in damage/costs; 16 deaths reported. Midwest Flood(June 2008); preliminary estimate of over $15 billion in damage/costs; 24 deaths reported. Midwest/Mid-Atlantic Severe Weather/Tornadoes(June 2008); preliminary estimate of over $1.1 billion in damage/costs; 18 deaths reported. Midwest/Ohio Valley Severe Weather/Tornadoes(May 2008); preliminary estimate of over $2.4 billion in damage/costs; 13 deaths reported. Southeast/Midwest Tornadoes(February 2008); preliminary estimate of over $1.0 billion in damage/costs; 57 deaths reported. 2007Great Plains and Eastern Drought(entire year 2007); preliminary estimate of over $5.0 billion in damage/costs; no reported deaths. Western Wildfires(Summer-Fall 2007); preliminary estimate of over $1.0 billion in damage/costs; at least 12 deaths. East/South Severe Weather(April 2007); preliminary estimate of over $1.5 billion in damage/costs; nine deaths reported. 2006Wildfires(Entire year 2006); preliminary estimate of over $1.0 billion in damage/costs; 28 deaths, including 20 firefighters. Widespread Drought(Spring-Summer 2006); preliminary estimate of over $6.0 billion in damage/costs; some heat-related deaths, but not beyond typical annual averages. Northeast Flooding(June 2006); preliminary estimate of over $1.0 billion in damage/costs; at least 20 deaths reported. Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes(April 2006); preliminary estimate of over $1.5 billion in damage/costs; 10 deaths reported. Midwest/Ohio Valley Tornadoes(April 2006); preliminary estimate of over $1.1 billion in damage/costs; 27 deaths reported.

Billion Dollar U.S. Weather Disasters, 1980–2013 (part 1): Source:National Climatic Data Center The U.S. has sustained 123 weather-related disasters during the 1980-2012 period in which overall damages and costs reached or exceeded $1 billion at the time of the event. Twelve occurred during 2011 alone—the most for any year on record, with total costs being approximately $52 billion. Two damage figures are given for events prior to 2002: the first represents actual dollar costs and is not adjusted for inflation. The second (in parentheses) is the dollar cost normalized to 2002 dollars using a GNP inflation/wealth index. The total normalized losses for the 99 events are over $725 billion. Sources include Storm Data (NCDC publication), the National Weather Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, other U.S. government agencies, individual state emergency management agencies, state and regional climate centers, and insurance industry estimates. 2013Category 4 Tornado in Oklahoma(May 20, 2013); an enormous category 4 tornado hit Oklahoma City, Moore, and Newcastle. Moore was the hardest hit. The city's Plaza Towers Elementary School was flattened. More than 90 people were killed in the storm, including 20 children. The tornado, stretching about a mile wide, was on the ground for 40 minutes. 2012National Drought(2012); a drought began in the spring of 2012 due to the lack of snow the U.S. received during the previous winter. The drought has caused 123 deaths and over $40 billion in damages / cost. Southeast/Ohio Valley Tornadoes(March 2–3 2012); a total of 75 tornadoes caused 4 billion in damages/costs and 42 deaths. Texas Tornadoes(April 2–3 2012); a total of 22 tornadoes, including several in the Dallas area, caused 1.3 billion in damages/costs. The tornadoes caused no deaths. Midwest Tornadoes(April 13–14 2012); 98 confirmed tornadoes hit Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa. The damage cost $283 million in Wichita alone. The disaster caused nearly $2 billion in total damages/costs. Six people were killed. Midwest/Ohio Valley Storms(April 28–May 1 2012); a total of 38 tornadoes and large hail caused major damage, especially in St. Louis. At least $4 billion in damages/costs was estimated. One person was killed. Southern Plains/Midwest/Northeast Severe Weather(May 25–30 2012); a total of 27 tornadoes and severe storms caused major damage in several states and cost $2.5 billion. One person was killed. Rockies/Southwest Severe Weather(June 6–12 2012); 25 tornadoes and large hail hit Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. The hail damage cost more than $1 billion in Colorado alone. The total cost of the storms was estimated at $3 billion. East/Northeast/Plains Severe Storms (Derecho)(June 29–July 2 2012); a large storm system, also called a derecho, left damage from Ohio and Indiana through the mid-Atlantic. Damage by this disaster was estimated at $4 billion. The storm system also caused 28 deaths. Hurricane Isaac(August 2012); the hurricane hit the Gulf Coast, bringing flooding, strong winds and tornadoes. Isaac caused an estimated 2.3 billion in damages and 42 deaths. Western Wildfires(Summer/Fall 2012); various wildfires burned up 9.1 million acres. The most intense wildfires were in the western part of the United States. The estimated cost of damage was between $1 and $2 billion. Hurricane Sandy(October 2012); Sandy struck the east coast, killing 132 people. Sandy caused an estimated $82 billion dollars in damages to New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. 2011Texas, New Mexico, Arizona Wildfires(Spring-Fall, 2011); over $1.0 billion in total damages/costs; drought and extreme heat caused several historic wildfires across Texas, New Mexico and Arizona; over 3 million acres burned in Texas; 5 deaths reported. Hurricane Irene(August 20–29, 2011); estimate of over $7.3 billion in total damage/costs; minimal category 1 hurricane hit coastal North Carolina and moved north along Mid-Atlantic Coast causing flooding in the Northeast; numerous tornadoes were also reported; 45 reported deaths. Upper Midwest Flooding(Summer 2011); over $2.0 billion in total damages/costs; melting snow combined with above normal precipitation caused the Missouri and Souris Rivers to flood across the Upper Midwest; 4,000 homes were flooded and 11,000 people evacuated Minot, North Dakota; 5 deaths. Mississippi River Flooding(Spring–Summer 2011); $3.0–4.0 billion in total losses/costs; nearly 300 percent more than normal precipitation amounts in the Ohio Valley combined with melting snow caused historical flooding along the Mississippi River and its tributaries; 7 deaths reported. Southern Plains/Southwest Drought and Heatwave(Spring–Fall, 2011); nearly $10.0 billion in losses to crops, livestock and timber; Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, southern Kansas, and western Louisiana are all impacted; no deaths reported.

Tsunami Factfile The Indian Ocean tsunami that occured in December 2004 was the deadliest in history: Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Deadliest in History On Dec. 26, 2004, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake—the largest earthquakein 40 years—ruptured in the Indian Ocean, off the northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The earthquake triggered the deadliest tsunamiin world history, so powerful that the waves caused loss of life on the coast of Africa and were even detected on the East Coast of the United States. More than 225,000 people have died from the disaster, a half a million have been injured, thousands still remain missing, and millions were left homeless. Eleven countries bordering the Indian Ocean—all relatively poor and vulnerable—suffered devastation. Hardest hit were Indonesia(particularly the province of Aceh), Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, and the Maldives. The catastrophic damage included the destruction of entire cities, the contamination of farmland and forests, and the depletion of fishing stocks. Some areas faced starvation and increased suseptibility to disease. Even countries with relatively low death tolls suffered enormous damage—the Maldives, for example, had less than 100 deaths, yet the tsunami left 14 of the archipelago's islands uninhabitable, requiring its inhabitants to be permanently evacuated, and another 79 islands without safe drinking water. Seestatistics on Deadliest Tsunamisand Deadliest Earthquakes. The Science of Tsunami A tsunami(pronounced soo-NAHM-ee) is a series of huge waves that occur as the result of a violent underwater disturbance, such as an earthquakeor volcanic eruption. The waves travel in all directions from the epicenter of the disturbance. The waves may travel in the open sea as fast as 450 miles per hour. As they travel in the open ocean, tsunami waves are generally not particularly large—hence the difficulty in detecting the approach of a tsunami. But as these powerful waves approach shallow waters along the coast, their velocity is slowed and they consequently grow to a great height before smashing into the shore. They can grow as high as 100 feet; the Indian Ocean tsunami generated waves reaching 30 feet. Tsunamiis the Japanese word for "harbor wave." They are sometimes mistakenly referred to as tidal waves, but tsunamis have nothing to do with the tides. Tsunamis have been relatively rare in the Indian Ocean, and are most common in the Pacific Ocean. For more details on Tsunami, see our encyclopedia articleand Tsunami FAQs. Countries Damaged by the Indian Ocean Tsunami Deadliest Tsunamis in History Fatalities1YearMagnitudePrincipal areas 350,00020049.0Indian Ocean 100,000+1410 b.c.Crete-Santorini, Ancient Greece 100,00017558.5Portugal, Morocco, Ireland, and the United Kingdom 100,0001908Messina, Italy 40,00017827.0South China Sea, Taiwan 36,5001883Krakatau, Indonesia 30,00017078.4Tokaido-Nankaido, Japan 26,36018967.6Sanriku, Japan 25,67418688.5Northern Chile 15,03017926.4Kyushu Island, Japan Source:National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Deadliest Earthquakes in History FatalitiesYearMagnitudePrincipal areas 830,00015568.0Shansi, China 255,000+19768.0Tangshan, China 230,000+20049.1off west coast of northern Sumatra 230,0001138n.a.Aleppo, Syria 222,57020107.0Haiti 200,00019208.6Gansu, China 200,00019277.9near Xining, China 200,000856n.a.Damghan, Iran 150,000893n.a.Ardabil, Iran 143,00019237.9Kwanto, Japan Source:National Earthquake Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey. Data compiled from several sources.

The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake: At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, the people of San Francisco were awakened by an earthquakethat would devastate the city. The main temblor, having a 7.7–7.9 magnitude, lasted about one minute and was the result of the rupturing of the northernmost 296 miles of the 800-mile San Andreas fault. But when calculating destruction, the earthquake took second place to the great fire that followed. The fire, lasting four days, most likely started with broken gas lines (and, in some cases, was helped along by people hoping to collect insurance for their property—they were covered for fire, but not earthquake, damage). With water mains broken, fighting the fires was almost impossible, and about 500 city blocks were destroyed. The damages were estimated at about $400,000,000 in 1906 dollars, which would translate to about $8.2 billion today. Uncertain Death Toll In 1906 San Franciscowas the ninth largest U.S. city with a population of 400,000, and over 225,000 were left homeless by the disaster. The death toll is uncertain. City officials estimated the casualties at 700 but more modern calculations say about 3,000 lost their lives. The lowballing city figures may have been a public relations ploy to downplay the disaster with an eye on rebuilding the city. On April 20, the U.S.S.Chicagorescued 20,000 victims, one of the largest sea evacuations in history, rivaling Dunkirkin World War II. Martial law was not declared, but some 500 looters were shot by police and the military. Shifting Seismologic Knowledge The epicenter of this earthquake has moved around in the past 100 years, as advances in seismology have been made. It was first thought to have been in Marin County, then northwest of the Golden Gate, and most recently, in the Pacific Ocean about two miles west of San Francisco. The plate-tectonics theorythat would shed some light on the quake wasn't formulated until the 1920s and not embraced until some three decades later. The San Andreas faultis on the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. During the earthquake, the ground west of the fault tended to move northward and, in the most extreme instance, a 21-foot shift was measured. Earthquake ruptures are fast movers—seismologists estimated the average speed of this rupture to have been 8,300 mi/hr going north, and 6,300 mi/hr traveling south. The quake was felt from southern Oregon to south of Los Angeles and inland as far as central Nevada. Magnitude Charles Richterdeveloped his scale in 1935 to measure the amount of seismic energy released, the magnitude, of an earthquake. Seismologists found the Richter scale fine for lower magnitude quakes, but inaccurate for higher magnitude ones. The 1906 earthquake was assigned a Richter rating of 8.3, but on the newer moment magnitude scaleit has been demoted to one measuring 7.8 or 7.9. "The Big One" On Oct. 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m., at the height of the rush hour, Bay Area residents thought the "big one" had struck. The 7.1 Richter scale (6.9 moment magnitude) Loma Prieta earthquake, with its epicenter about 60 miles from San Francisco, was the largest one to hit the region since 1906. Sixty to 70 deaths were reported, freeways and bridges were damaged, and the World Series between the Oakland and San Francisco teams was postponed for 10 days. Property damage was estimated at $6 billion dollars, making this the costliest natural disaster to that date. But seismologists said this was not the major earthquake feared by all. That one is still in the future. In 1906 there were only about 650,000 people living in the area, but today more than 7 million people make their homes in the San Francisco Bay region. Scientists in 2003 estimated that there is a 62% probability of a 6.7 magnitude or larger earthquake hitting the Bay Area in the next 30 years and Californians live in the shadow of "the big one."

Hurricane Katrina: Hurricane Katrina slammed into the U.S. Gulf Coast on Aug. 29, 2005, destroying beachfront towns in Mississippiand Louisiana, displacing a million people, and killing almost 1,800. When levees in New Orleanswere breached, 80% of the city was submerged by the flooding. About 20% of its 500,000 citizens were trapped in the city without power, food, or drinking water. Rescue efforts were so delayed and haphazard that many were stranded for days on rooftops and in attics before help arrived. The city became a toxic pool of sewage, chemicals, and corpses, and in the ensuing chaos, mayhem and looting became rampant—about 15% of the city's police force had simply walked off the job. The 20,000 people who made their way to the Superdome, the city's emergency shelter, found themselves crammed into sweltering and fetid conditions. At a second shelter, the convention center, evacuees were terrorized by roaming gangs and random gunfire. Relief workers, medical help, security forces, and essential supplies remained profoundly inadequate during the first critical days of the disaster. Poor and Elderly Disproportionately Affected As most of the city's citizens fled the city, those without cars or the financial means to relocate were left behind. The 100,000 who remained in the drowning city were largely poor and predominantly black, exposing the racial dimension of New Orleans’s persistent poverty: 28% of New Orleanians are poor (twice the national average) and 84% of those are black. The elderly poor were also disproportionately affected by the disaster: 70% of the New Orleans area's 53 nursing homes were not evacuated before the hurricane struck. A Natural Disaster Waiting to Happen Hurricane Katrina has been called the most anticipated disaster in modern American history. For years, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had ranked New Orleans and San Francisco as the two cities most vulnerable to catastrophic natural disaster, and a day before Katrina's landfall, the National Weather Service warned that the hurricane would cause "human suffering incredible by modern standards." All Levels of Government Falter Americans were shaken not simply by the magnitude of the disaster but by how ill-prepared all levels of government were in its aftermath. Although New Orleans had performed a hurricane drill the previous year, the city and state governments had no transportation or crime prevention plans in place, and such negligence had devastating consequences. Homeland Security and FEMA The Department of Homeland Security, the new cabinet agency created for the very purpose of increasing domestic security, had unveiled its National Response Plan in Jan. 2005, which promised "vastly improved coordination among federal, state, local, and tribal organizations . . . by increasing the speed, effectiveness, and efficiency of incident management." Yet Michael Chertoff, the Department's Secretary, waited until two days after the hurricane hit before putting the plan into effect by declaring it an "incident of national significance." Critics claimed Homeland Security's efforts had been focused on the prevention of terrorism at the expense of preparing for natural catastrophes. Seeming not to grasp the scale of the disaster, Chertoff and Michael Brown, the director of FEMA, expressed surprise at the dangerous conditions in the convention center in New Orleans, days after its horrific images had saturated the airwaves, making them appear less informed than the average TV viewer. Brown was so inept in managing the crisis that he was quietly removed after two weeks. All three top jobs at FEMA had been filled by political appointees with no emergency management experience, and half of the agency's senior career professionals had been cut since 2000. The President's Response In sharp contrast to the leadership he displayed after the Sept. 11 terrorist attack, President Bushinitially seemed off-key and out of touch, declaring that he didn't "think anybody anticipated the breach of the levees" and waiting four days before his first brief visit to the region. Trust in the president's ability to lead the country during a crisis had been a central factor in his reelection, but two-thirds of Americans considered his response to Katrina inadequate. To repair his image, Bush acknowledged the government's faltering response and pledged "one of the largest reconstruction efforts the world has ever seen." A Year Later A year after Katrina, the population of New Orleans was less than half of what it was before the storm hit. Nearly half the city's hospitals remained shut and half its doctors had moved out of the area. Electricity was restored to just 60% of the city.

Hurricanes by the Numbers (Atlantic hurricane statistics) Millions live in the paths of the biggest storms Source: U.S. Census Bureau 10 The number of hurricanes during the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, with only two of them as major hurricanes (Category 3-strength or higher). However, one of the major hurricanes was Hurricane Sandy. It struck southeastern Cuba at Category 3 strength, then made landfall in New Jersey as a post-tropical cyclone. It was the second costliest cyclone on record (not adjusted for inflation) at $50 billion, ranking only behind Hurricane Katrina from 2005. The only other hurricane to make landfall in the U.S. in 2012 was Hurricane Isaac, which hit Louisiana. 82.2 million Population as of July 1, 2012, of coastal states stretching from North Carolina to Texas — the areas most threatened by Atlantic hurricanes. An estimated 26.2 percent of the nation's population live in these states. 34.1 million Population in 1960 of the states stretching from North Carolina to Texas. Approximately 19 percent of the nation's population lived in these areas at that time. 240.9% Percentage growth of the population of the states stretching from North Carolina to Texas between 1960 and 2012. 591,821 Collective land area in square miles of the states stretching from North Carolina to Texas. 10 Year Anniversary of Hurricane Isabel 2003 The costliest and deadliest hurricane of 2003, Hurricane Isabel made landfall in the U.S. on the Outer Banks of North Carolina on Sept. 18, destroying many homes on the barrier island. Isabel later moved north through Virginia and Washington, D.C., and ended up causing about $3 billion in damage to the mid-Atlantic region. Category 2 The strength of Hurricane Isabel at landfall based on the Saffir-Simpson scale, with maximum sustained winds measured at 105 mph. Isabel reached a peak as a Category 5 storm on Sept. 11 south of Bermuda, but gradually weakened as it approached landfall. 3 Counties that encompass the land area of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The area includes parts of Currituck, Dare and Hyde counties. 64,509 Population of Currituck County, Dare County and Hyde County in North Carolina in 2012. 26,581 The number of occupied housing units in Currituck, Dare and Hyde counties combined. $236,500; 321,200; and 93,600 Median home value of owner-occupied units in Currituck, Dare and Hyde counties, respectively. 32.0, 19.5 and 25.1 minutes Mean commuting time to work for residents in Currituck, Dare and Hyde counties, respectively. 7.8%, 11.1% and 25.1% The percent of people who live below poverty level in in Currituck, Dare and Hyde counties, respectively. History of Hurricane Naming Conventions Andrea The name of the first Atlantic storm of 2013. Hurricane names rotate in a six-year cycle with the 2013 list being a repeat of the 2007 names. 76 The number of hurricane names officially retired by the World Meteorological Organization. Although hurricane names are recycled every six years, for reasons of sensitivity, hurricane names that were so deadly and costly that re-use of the name would be considered inappropriate are retired. 1950 The year the Weather Bureau officially began naming hurricanes. 2005 In one of the busiest Atlantic hurricane seasons on record, 28 named storms formed, forcing use of the alternate Greek alphabet scheme for the first time. When the National Hurricane Center's list of 21 approved names runs out for the year, hurricanes are named after Greek letters. Of the 28 named storms in 2005, 15 were hurricanes, with four storms reaching Category 5 status (Dennis, Katrina, Rita and Wilma) and three more being considered major. Preparing for Emergencies Using Census Bureau Statistics The growth in population of coastal areas illustrates the importance of emergency planning and preparedness for areas that are more susceptible to inclement weather conditions. The U.S. Census Bureau's official decennial census and population estimates, along with annually updated socio-economic data from the American Community Survey, provide a detailed look at the nation's growing coastal population. Emergency planners and community leaders can better assess the needs of coastal populations using Census Bureau statistics.

Hurricane Season The deadliest, strongest, and costliest Atlantic storms Quizzes and Crosswords Extreme Weather Disasters Quiz Great Disasters Quiz Weather Disasters Crossword Hurricane Season 2013—Predictions According to Tropical Storm Risk (TSR), an above-average hurricane season is predicted for 2013. TSR predicts the Atlantic basin will see 15.4 named storms (winds of 39 mph or higher), including 7.7 hurricanes (winds of 74 mph or higher), and 3.4 major hurricanes (Category 3, 4 or 5; winds of 111 mph or higher) in 2013. Hurricane Season 2012—Review The 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, which began June 1 and ended November 30, tied 2011, 2010, 1995, and 1887 for the third most active season in recorded history. In 2012, there were 10 hurricanes, 2 major hurricanes, 19 tropical storms, and 19 tropical cyclones. Total damage was estimated at $76.8 billion and 322 people were killed. Most of the damage was done by the two major hurricanes, Hurricane Sandy and Hurricane Isaac. Hurricane Season 2011—Review The 2011 Atlantic hurricane season, which began June 1 and ended November 30, tied 2010, 1995, and 1887 for the third highest number of tropical storms with 20, including seven hurricanes, four of them major hurricanes. Hurricanes: Irene, Katia, Maria, Nate, Ophelia, Philippe, Rina Tropical storms: Arlene, Bret, Cindy, Don, Emily, Franklin, Gert, Harvey, Jose, Lee, Sean, tropical depression Ten, unnamed tropical storm. Hurricane Season 2010—Review The 2010 Atlantic hurricane season, which began June 1 and ended November 30, produced the third largest number of named storms, with 20, and the second largest number of hurricanes, with 12. This places 2010 as the tenth most active season since 1950. Hurricanes: Alex, Danielle, Earl, Igor, Julia, Karl, Lisa, Otto, Paula, Richard, Shary, Tomas. Tropical storms: Bonnie, Colin, Fiona, Gaston, Hermine, Matthew, Nicole. Hurricane Season 2009—Review The 2009 Atlantic hurricane season, which began June 1 and ended November 30, produced fewer, shorter-lived, and generally weaker named storms than in years past. There were nine named storms, three of which became hurricanes and two became major hurricanes. An average season sees 11 named storms, with six becoming hurricanes, including two major hurricanes. The named storms were: Ana, Bill, Claudette, Danny, Erika, Fred, Grace, Henri, and Ida.

Tornadoes Facts and figures about twisters Tornado Index Average number of tornadoes per year (1950–2010):1,253 Top 5 states with highest incidence of tornadoes:Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Florida, Nebraska States with lowest incidence of tornadoes):Alaska, Rhode Island, Hawaii, Vermont, Oregon Most tornadoes in one day:316 (April 2011) Most tornadoes in one month:543 (May 2003) Most tornado deaths in one year:550 (2011) Fewest tornado deaths in one year:15 (1986) Source: Storm Prediction Centerat the National Weather Service Although tornadoescan happen at any time of year, they are especially common during the spring and early summer. May and June are the peak months in terms of numbers of tornadoes, but April appears to be the deadliest month. Two of the all-time worst tornado disasters occurred in April. On April 3-4, 1974, 148 twisters struck 13 states, causing more than 300 deaths, and on April 27, 2011, 137 reported tornadoes swept through the south, killing nearly 300 people in six states. Most of the fatalities occurred in Alabama. May holds the record for experiencing the most tornadoes. In May 2003, there were 543 recorded tornadoes. On average, 60 people die each year as a result of tornadoes, mostly from flying and falling debris. What Is a Tornado? A tornado is a dark funnel-shaped cloud made up of violently rotating winds that can reach speeds of up to 300 m.p.h. The diameter of a tornado can vary between a few feet and a mile, and its track can extend from less than a mile to several hundred miles. Tornadoes generally travel in a northeast direction (depending on the prevailing winds) at speeds ranging from 20-60 m.p.h. What Causes a Tornado? Tornadoes are most often spawned by giant thunderstorms known as "supercells." These powerful, highly organized storms form when warm, moist air along the ground rushes upward, meeting cooler, drier air. As the rising warm air cools, the moisture it carries condenses, forming a massive thundercloud, sometimes growing to as much as 50,000 ft. in height. Variable winds at different levels of the atmosphere feed the updraft and cause the formation of the tornado's characteristic funnel shape. Did you know? April is the deadliest month for tornadoes [ more] Where Do Tornadoes Occur? The conditions that lead to the formation of tornadoes are most often met in the central and southern U.S., where warm, humid air from the Gulf of Mexico collides with cool, dry air from the Rockies and Canada. This area, dubbed "tornado alley," extends roughly from the Rocky Mountains to the Appalachians, and from Iowa and Nebraska to the Gulf of Mexico. Tornadoes can also occur elsewhere, though, including all U.S. states, Europe, Asia, and Australia. What Kind of Destruction Do Tornadoes Cause? The Fujitascale classifies tornadoes according to the damage they cause. Almost half of all tornadoes fall into the F1 or "moderate damage" category. These tornadoes reach speeds of 73-112 m.p.h. and can overturn automobiles and mobile homes, rip off the roofs of houses, and uproot trees. Only about 1 percent of tornadoes are classified as F5, causing "incredible damage." With wind speeds in excess of 261 m.p.h., these tornadoes are capable of lifting houses off their foundations and hurling them considerable distances.

Lightning Zeus, park rangers, and the probability of being struck by lightning Here are a few things to bear in mind if you don't want to become a victim of a "fiery flaming thunderbolt," as Homercalled Zeus's favorite weapon: Avoid Florida, Texas, and North Carolina—the states with the greatest number of lightning deaths. Especially avoid these states in June (the worst month for lightning), followed by August, July, April, and September. open spaces, fields, and ballparks(location of 28% of deaths and 29% of lightning injuries) standing under trees (18% of deaths and 13% of injuries) boating, fishing, and other water-related activities (13% of deaths and 6% of injuries) golfcourses, tractors or heavy road equipment, and telephone booths airplanes are also a bad idea—the deadliest lightning strike ever was of a Boeing 707 near Elkton, Maryland, on Dec. 8, 1963. The plane then crashed, killing 81 people. Zeus, the Greek king of the gods, punished wayward mortals and miscreant gods by hurling thunderbolts at them. Sky deities from many world religions, including Zeus's Roman counterpart Jupiter, the Germanic Thor, the MayanChac, and the SlavicPerun, all used the thunderbolt as the paramount symbol of power. Whether deserving the wrath of the gods or not, chances are slim that you'll meet your end from a bolt of lightning. Lightning causes only an average of 57 deaths and 300 injuries in the United States each year. The National Weather Service publicationStorm Datarecorded a total of 9,207 deaths—the most of all the severe weather categories—between 1940 and 2011. In 2012, there were 28 lightning fatalities in the U.S. Dead Ringers Whatever your strategy for avoiding lightning, be sure to stay clear of church bells. During the Middle Ages, their ringing was believed to diffuse lightning, and many medieval bells were engraved withFulgura frango("I break up the lightning"). This suspect theory was discredited by a medieval scholar who observed that over a 33-year period, there were 386 lightning strikes on church towers and 103 fatalities among bell ringers. Shocking Humor Should you live to tell the tale of being struck by lightning, you can join the Lightning Strike and Electric Shock Survivors International, Inc. (LSESSI), a non-profit support group for such survivors. With its motto, "Join us if it strikes you," and newsletter,Hit or Miss, the group emphasizes the necessity of a sense of humor in overcoming trauma. One LSESSI member has been victimized both indoors and outdoors. The record holder, however, is Roy C. Sullivan, an ex-park ranger who survived seven different lightning strikes. According to theGuinness Book of Records, Sullivan was first hit by lightning in 1942, which caused him to lose his big toenail. Over the next 35 years, lightning burned off Sullivan's eyebrows, seared his left shoulders, set his hair on fire, struck his legs, injured his ankle, and burned his stomach and chest. Safe Spots The safest place to be during a thunderstorm is in a building, preferably one with a lightning rod. The rod offers protection by intercepting lightning—an electrical charge—and transmitting its current into the ground. Made out of metal so that it conducts the charge, it is usually located as high as possible because of lightning's tendency to strike the nearest object to it. (And yes, Benjamin Franklindid invent the lightning rod, as well as prove that lightning was actually electricity through his flying-a-kite-during-a-thunderstorm experiment.) The other safe place is a car with the windows rolled up, as long as you don't touch any of the metal parts. If lightning strikes, the car's metal body will conduct the charge down to the ground—contrary to popular belief, the rubber of the wheels offers no protection.

Major Terrorist Acts Suspected of or Inspired by al-Qaeda (part 3 & last part): *.2010 (Oct.):Two packages are found on separate cargo planes. Each package contains a bomb consisting of 300 to 400 grams (11-14 oz) of plastic explosives and a detonating mechanism. The bombs are discovered as a result of intelligence received from Saudi Arabia's security chief. The packages, bound from Yemen to the United States, are discovered at en route stop-overs, one in England and one in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. A week after the packages are found, al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) takes responsibility for the plot. *.2011 (Jan.):Two Frenchmen are killed in Niger. France highly suspects the al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). *.2011 (Jan.):Four suicide bombings occur in Iraq between January 18-20. At least 137 people are killed and 230 are injured. Al-Qaeda is suspected in all four bombings. *.2011 (April):Men claiming to be Moroccan members of AQIM appear on the internet and threaten to attack Moroccan interests. The following week a bomb killing 15 people, including 10 foreigners, explodes in Marrakesh, Morocco. *.2012 (Summer):Over the summer of 2012, al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and Ansar Dine, another radical Islamist group, take advantage of the instability and an increasingly weak military in Mali and capture Timbuktu, Kidal, and Gao, cities in the north. They implement and brutally enforce Shariah, or Islamic law. They also destroy many ancient books and manuscripts and vandalized tombs, saying that worshipping saints violates the tenets of Islam. The Islamists continue to stretch their area of control into the fall, prompting concern that legions of Islamists will gather and train in northern Mali and threaten large swaths of Africa. ECOWAS begins planning a military action to reclaim the north from the Islamists. *.2012 (Sept.):Militants armed with antiaircraft weapons and rocket-propelled grenades fire upon the American consulate in Benghazi, Libya, killing U.S. ambassador to Libya Christopher Stevens and three other embassy officials. U.S. secretary of state Hillary Clinton says the U.S. believes that al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, a group closely linked to al-Qaeda, orchestrated the attack. *.2013 (Jan.):Militants push into the southern part of Mali, crossing into the area controlled by the government. France sends about 2,150 troops to Mali to push them back. By the end of January, French troops push the militants out of Gao and Timbuktu, forcing them back to northern Mali. Soldiers from other African nations are also deployed to Mali to aid in the effort and will take a more active role in both combat and training Malian troops once France withdraws from Mali. *.2013 (Jan. 16):Islamic militants enter neighboring Algeria from Mali and take dozens of foreign hostages at the BP-controlled In Amenas gas field. Algerian officials say the militants are members of an offshoot of al-Qaeda called Al Mulathameen and are acting in retaliation for France's intervention in Mali. On Jan. 17, Algerian troops storm the complex and attack the kidnappers. By the end of the standoff on Jan. 20, 29 militants and 37 hostages are killed. Three Americans are among the dead. *.2013 (April 15):Multiple bombs explode near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. Two bombs go off around 2:50 in the afternoon as runners finish the race. Three people are killed and more than 170 people are injured. Three days later, the FBI releases photos and video of two suspects in the hope that the public can help identify them. Just hours after the FBI releases the images, the two suspects rob a gas station in Central Square then shoot and kill a MIT police officer in his car. Afterwards, the two men carjack a SUV and tell the driver that they had set off the explosions at the marathon. Police pursue the vehicle into Watertown. During the shootout, a MBTA officer is shot and one of the suspects, identified as Tamerlan Tsarnaev, age 26, is killed. A suicide vest is found on his body. The other suspect, Dzhokhar A. Tsarnaev, age 19, remains at large for several hours, causing a massive manhunt and lockdown for all of Boston, Cambridge, and many other surrounding communities. The manhunt ends the next evening, on April 19, when he is found alive, but seriously injured, hiding in a boat behind a house in Watertown. The two suspects are brothers and had been living together on Norfolk Street in Cambridge. They have lived in the U.S. for about a decade, but are from an area near Chechnya, a region in Russia. While the ongoing investigation so far has shown that the two suspects were not acting with any known terrorist group, evidence suggests they may have learned how to build the bombs online from an affiliate of Al Qaeda in Yemen.

Major Terrorist Acts Suspected of or Inspired by al-Qaeda (part 2): *.2008 (Jan.):In the worst attack in Iraq in months, a suicide bomber kills 30 people at a home where mourners were paying their respects to the family of a man killed in a car bomb. The Iraqi military blames the attack on al-Qaeda in Iraq. *.2008 (Feb.):Nearly 100 people die when two women suicide bombers, who are believed to be mentally impaired, attack crowded pet markets in eastern Baghdad. The U.S. military says al-Qaeda in Iraq has been recruiting female patients at psychiatric hospitals to become suicide bombers. *.2008 (April):A suicide bomber attacks the funeral for two nephews of a prominent Sunni tribal leader, Sheik Kareem Kamil al-Azawi, killing 30 people in Iraq's Diyala Province. *.2008 (April):A suicide car bomber kills 40 people in Baquba, the capital of Diyala Province in Iraq. *.2008 (April):Thirty-five people die and 62 are injured when a woman detonates explosives that she was carrying under her dress in a busy shopping district in Iraq’s Diyala Province. *.2008 (May):At least 12 worshipers are killed and 44 more injured when a bomb explodes in the Bin Salman mosque near Sana, Yemen. *.2008 (May):An al-Qaeda suicide bomber detonates explosives in Hit, a city in the Anbar Province of Iraq, killing six policemen and four civilians, and injuring 12 other people. *.2008 (June):A car bomb explodes outside the Danish Embassy in Pakistan, killing six people and injuring dozens. Al-Qaeda claims responsibility, saying the attack was retaliation for the 2006 publication of political cartoons in the Danish newspaperJyllands-Postenthat depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad. *.2008 (June):A female suicide bomber kills 15 and wounds 40 others, including seven Iraqi policemen, near a courthouse in Baquba, Iraq. *.2008 (June):A suicide bomber kills at least 20 people at a meeting between sheiks and Americans in Karmah, a town west of Baghdad. *.2008 (Aug.):About two dozens worshippers are killed in three separate attacks as they make their way toward Karbala to celebrate the birthday of 9th-century imam Muhammad al-Mahdi. Iraqi officials blame al-Qaeda in Iraq for the attacks. *.2008 (Aug.):A bomb left on the street explodes and tears through a bus carrying Lebanese troops, killing 15 people, nine of them soldiers. No one claims responsibility for the attack, but in 2007, the army fought an al-Qaeda linked Islamist group in Tripoli. *.2008 (Aug.):At least 43 people are killed when a suicide bomber drives an explosives-laden car into a police academy in Issers, a town in northern Algeria. *.2008 (Aug.):Two car bombs explode at a military command and a hotel in Bouira, killing a dozen people. No group takes responsibility for either attack, Algerian officials said they suspect al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb is behind the bombings. *.2008 (Sept.):In its first acknowledged ground attack inside Pakistan, U.S. commandos raid a village that is home to al-Qaeda militants in the tribal region near the border with Afghanistan. The number of casualties is unclear. *.2008 (Sept.):A car bomb and a rocket strike the U.S. embassy in Yemen as staff arrived to work, killing 16 people, including 4 civilians. At least 25 suspected al-Qaeda militants are arrested for the attack. *.2008 (Nov.):at least 28 people die and over 60 more are injured when three bombs explode minutes apart in Baghdad, Iraq. Officials suspect the explosions are linked to al-Qaeda. *.2009 (April):on April 6 in Baghdad, a series of six attacks kills 36 people and injure more than 100 in Shiite neighborhoods; April 23: at least 80 people are killed in three separate suicide bombings in Baghdad. This is the largest single-day death toll due to attacks since February 2008. One of the bombings is reportedly set off by a female, who was standing among a group of women and children receiving food aid. *.2009 (Dec.):A Nigerian man on a flight from Amsterdam to Detroit attempted to ignite an explosive device hidden in his underwear. The explosive device that failed to detonate was a mixture of powder and liquid that did not alert security personnel in the airport. The alleged bomber, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, told officials later that he was directed by the terrorist group al-Qaeda. The suspect was already on the government's watch list when he attempted the bombing; his father, a respected Nigerian banker, had told the U.S. government that he was worried about his son's increased extremism. *.2009 (Dec.):A suicide bomber kills eight Americans civilians, seven of them CIA agents, at a base in Afghanistan. It's the deadliest attack on the agency since 9/11. The attacker is reportedly a double agent from Jordan who was acting on behalf of al-Qaeda.

Major Terrorist Acts Suspected of or Inspired by al-Qaeda (part 1): The following list includes the date, target of attacks, and casualties of significant attacks by the terrorist goup al-Qaeda. *.1993 (Feb.):Bombing of World Trade Center (WTC); 6 killed. *.1993 (Oct.):Killing of U.S. soldiers in Somalia. *.1996 (June):Truck bombing at Khobar Towers barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killed 19 Americans. *.1998 (Aug.):Bombing of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania; 224 killed, including 12 Americans. *.1999 (Dec.):Plot to bomb millennium celebrations in Seattle foiled when customs agents arrest an Algerian smuggling explosives into the U.S. *.2000 (Oct.):Bombing of the USSColein port in Yemen; 17 U.S. sailors killed. *.2001 (Sept.):Destruction of WTC; attack on Pentagon. Total dead 2,992. *.2001 (Dec.):Man tried to denote shoe bomb on flight from Paris to Miami. *.2002 (April):Explosion at historic synagogue in Tunisia left 21 dead, including 11 German tourists. *.2002 (May):Car exploded outside hotel in Karachi, Pakistan, killing 14, including 11 French citizens. *.2002 (June):Bomb exploded outside American consulate in Karachi, Pakistan, killing 12. *.2002 (Oct.):Boat crashed into oil tanker off Yemen coast, killing 1. *.2002 (Oct.):Nightclub bombings in Bali, Indonesia, killed 202, mostly Australian citizens. *.2002 (Nov.):Suicide attack on a hotel in Mombasa, Kenya, killed 16. *.2003 (May):Suicide bombers killed 34, including 8 Americans, at housing compounds for Westerners in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. *.2003 (May):4 bombs killed 33 people targeting Jewish, Spanish, and Belgian sites in Casablanca, Morocco. *.2003 (Aug.):Suicide car-bomb killed 12, injured 150 at Marriott Hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia. *.2003 (Nov.):Explosions rocked a Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, housing compound, killing 17. *.2003 (Nov.):Suicide car-bombers simultaneously attacked 2 synagogues in Istanbul, Turkey, killing 25 and injuring hundreds. *.2003 (Nov.):Truck bombs detonated at London bank and British consulate in Istanbul, Turkey, killing 26. *.2004 (March):10 bombs on 4 trains exploded almost simultaneously during the morning rush hour in Madrid, Spain, killing 191 and injuring more than 1,500. *.2004 (May):Terrorists attacked Saudi oil company offices in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, killing 22. *.2004 (June):Terrorists kidnapped and executed American Paul Johnson, Jr., in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. *.2004 (Sept.):Car bomb outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia, killed 9. *.2004 (Dec.):Terrorists entered the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing 9 (including 4 attackers). *.2005 (July):Bombs exploded on 3 trains and a bus in London, England, killing 52. *.2005 (Oct.):22 killed by 3 suicide bombs in Bali, Indonesia. *.2005 (Nov.):57 killed at 3 American hotels in Amman, Jordan. *.2006 (Jan.):Two suicide bombers carrying police badges blow themselves up near a celebration at the Police Academy in Baghdad, killing nearly 20 police officers. Al-Qaeda in Iraq takes responsibility. *.2006 (Aug.):Police arrest 24 British-born Muslims, most of whom have ties to Pakistan, who had allegedly plotted to blow up as many as 10 planes using liquid explosives. Officials say details of the plan were similar to other schemes devised by al-Qaeda. *.2007 (April):Suicide bombers attack a government building in Algeria's capital, Algiers, killing 35 and wounding hundreds more. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb claims responsibility. *.2007 (April):Eight people, including two Iraqi legislators, die when a suicide bomber strikes inside the Parliament building in Baghdad. An organization that includes al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia claims responsibility. In another attack, the Sarafiya Bridge that spans the Tigris River is destroyed. *.2007 (June):British police find car bombs in two vehicles in London. The attackers reportedly tried to detonate the bombs using cell phones but failed. Government officials say al-Qaeda is linked to the attempted attack. The following day, an SUV carrying bombs bursts into flames after it slams into an entrance to Glasgow Airport. Officials say the attacks are connected. *.2007 (Dec.):As many as 60 people are killed in two suicide attacks near United Nations offices and government buildings in Algiers, Algeria. The bombings occur within minutes of each other. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, formerly called the Salafist Group for Preaching, claims responsibility. It's the worst attack in the Algeria in more than 10 years. *.2007 (Dec.):Benazir Bhutto, former Pakistani prime minister, is assassinated in a suicide attack on Dec. 27, 2007, at a campaign rally in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. President Pervez Musharraf blames al Qaeda for the attack, which kills 23 other people. Baitullah Mehsud, a Taliban leader with close ties to al Qaeda is later cited as the assassin.

September 11, 2001: Timeline of Terrorism (all times are eastern daylight time) *.An American Airlines Boeing 767 and a United Airlines Boeing 767, both en route from Boston to Los Angeles, were hijacked and flown only minutes apart into the north and south towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Shortly afterward, an American Airlines Boeing 757, en route from Washington, DC, to Los Angeles, crashed into the Pentagon. A fourth hijacked plane, operated by United and headed from Newark to San Francisco, crashed in a field near Shanksville, Pa. Both World Trade Center towers collapsed, and a section of the Pentagon was destroyed. All 266 people aboard the planes were killed; the total number of dead and missing was 3,038 (including the 19 hijackers). The names of the hijackers, Islamic radicals part of the al-Qaeda terrorist organization, were released a few days after the attacks. *.8:45A.M.—American Airlines Flight 11, Boston to Los Angeles, with 92 people aboard, crashes into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. *.9:03A.M.—United Airlines Flight 175, Boston to Los Angeles, with 65 people aboard, flies into the south tower of the World Trade Center. *.9:40A.M.—American Flight 77, Washington, DC, to Los Angeles, with 64 people aboard, crashes into the Pentagon. *.9:48A.M.—The U.S. Capitol and the West Wing of the White House are evacuated. *.9:49A.M.—The Federal Aviation Administration orders all aircraft grounded in the United States. *.9:50A.M.—South tower of the World Trade Center collapses. *.9:58A.M.—Emergency operator in Pennsylvania receives a call from a passenger on United Flight 93, Newark to San Francisco, with 45 people aboard, stating the plane was being hijacked. *.10:00A.M.—United Flight 93 crashes about 80 mi southeast of Pittsburgh. Passengers apparently attempted to overpower the hijackers, who were heading the plane toward Washington, DC. *.10:29A.M.—North tower of the World Trade Center collapses. *.5:20P.M.—Another World Trade Center building collapses.

Miscellaneous Disasters 1952 Dec. 4–7, London, England:high-pressure system settled over London, trapping pollution near the ground. Some 4,000 people died in “Great Smog,” mostly from respiratory and cardiac distress. 1981 July 18, Kansas City, Mo.:suspended walkway in Hyatt Regency Hotel collapsed; 113 dead, 186 injured. 1982 Sept. 29–Oct. 1:seven people in the Chicago area were killed after taking Extra-Strength Tylenol capsules laced with cyanide. 31 million bottles of Tylenol were eventually taken off the market. The murderer was never caught. 1990 July 2, Mecca, Saudi Arabia:a stampede in a 1,800-foot-long pedestrian tunnel leading from Mecca to a tent city for pilgrims resulted in the deaths of 1,426 pilgrims. 1991 Nov. 29, nr. Coalinga, Calif.:a massive traffic accident during a severe dust storm involved 104 vehicles in a pileup on Interstate 5; 17 killed. 1995 June 29, Seoul, Korea:five-story wing of Sampoong Department Store collapsed, killing at least 206 people, injuring 910 others. 1996 May 10–11, Mt. Everest, Nepal:8 climbers died near summit during storm on mountain. A total of 15 climbers died that season, the worst single loss of life on Everest. 1997 April 15, Mecca, Saudi Arabia:fire and stampede in pilgrim's encampment killed 217 and injured at least 1,300. 2004 Feb. 1, Mecca, Saudi Arabia:a stampede at the Hajj pilgrimage, during the stone-throwing ritual, killed 251 pilgrims. 2005 Aug. 31, Baghdad, Iraq:rumor of a bomber led to a stampede of Shiite pilgrims on a bridge over the Tigris, killing more than 950. 2006 Jan. 12, Mecca, Saudi Arabia:a stampede by pilgrims on the annual hajj killed at least 360. Jan. 28, Katowice, Poland:67 people died from the collapse of the roof of. the International Exhibition Hall. There had been 500 people inside at the time. Feb. 21, Moscow, Russia:a market roof collapsed, killing 56 people. April 17, Mexico:an overcrowded tour bus returning from a religious festival veered off the road and plunged down a ravine, killing 47. 2007 June 17, Nashville, Tenn.:A race-car driver performing a stunt at a children's charity event lost control of his car and crashed into bystanders, killing 6. Aug. 1, Minneapolis, Minn.:An eight-lane interstate bridge packed with cars broke into sections and collapsed into the Mississippi River, killing at least nine and injuring at least 60. The bridge was in the midst of repairs when it buckled and broke apart. Aug. 14, Hunan province, China:A bridge undergoing construction collapsed in southern China, killing at least 28 people. 2008 Feb. 21, Venezuela:a Venezuelan passenger plane crashes into an Andean Mountain within the Sierra La Culata National Park killing all 46 people aboard. June 21, the Philippines:a ferry, thePrincess of the Stars, is struck by Typhoon Fengshen, killing most of the 865 passengers and crew. There are 59 known survivors. Almost 500 other people die during the storm. Aug. 1, Pakistan:a large mass of ice breaks on K2, the world's second-highest mountain, causing an avalanche that kills 11 climbers and injures several others. Aug. 4, Himachal Pradesh:almost 150 people die when rumors of a landslide cause pilgrims to stampede during a festival celebrating the Hindu mother goddess at Naina Devi temple in northern India. Sept. 30, India:over 100 people die and hundreds more are seriously injured when a wall of the Chamunda Devi temple in Jodhpur, northern India, collapses during the Navratra religious festival and causes a stampede.

Terrorist Attacks in the U.S. or Against Americans (part 2 of 2): 2001 Sept. 11, New York City, Arlington, Va., and Shanksville, Pa.:hijackers crashed 2 commercial jets into twin towers of World Trade Center; 2 more hijacked jets were crashed into the Pentagon and a field in rural Pa. Total dead and missing numbered 2,9921: 2,749 in New York City, 184 at the Pentagon, 40 in Pa., and 19 hijackers. Islamic al-Qaeda terrorist group blamed. (See September 11, 2001: Timeline of Terrorism.) 2002 June 14, Karachi, Pakistan:bomb explodes outside American consulate in Karachi, Pakistan, killing 12. Linked to al-Qaeda. 20031 May 12, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia:suicide bombers kill 34, including 8 Americans, at housing compounds for Westerners. Al-Qaeda suspected. 2004 May 29–31, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia:terrorists attack the offices of a Saudi oil company in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, take foreign oil workers hostage in a nearby residential compound, leaving 22 people dead including one American. June 11–19, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia:terrorists kidnap and execute Paul Johnson Jr., an American, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 2 other Americans and BBC cameraman killed by gun attacks. Dec. 6, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia:terrorists storm the U.S. consulate, killing 5 consulate employees. 4 terrorists were killed by Saudi security. 2005 Nov. 9, Amman, Jordan:suicide bombers hit 3 American hotels, Radisson, Grand Hyatt, and Days Inn, in Amman, Jordan, killing 57. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility. 2006 Sept. 13, Damascus, Syria:an attack by four gunman on the American embassy is foiled. 2007 Jan. 12, Athens, Greece:the U.S. embassy is fired on by an anti-tank missile causing damage but no injuries. Dec. 11, Algeria:more than 60 people are killed, including 11 United Nations staff members, when Al Qaeda terrorists detonate two car bombs near Algeria's Constitutional Council and the United Nations offices. 2008 May 26, Iraq:a suicide bomber on a motorcycle kills six U.S. soldiers and wounds 18 others in Tarmiya. June 24, Iraq:a suicide bomber kills at least 20 people, including three U.S. Marines, at a meeting between sheiks and Americans in Karmah, a town west of Baghdad. June 12, Afghanistan:four American servicemen are killed when a roadside bomb explodes near a U.S. military vehicle in Farah Province. July 13, Afghanistan:nine U.S.soldiers and at least 15 NATO troops die when Taliban militants boldly attack an American base in Kunar Province, which borders Pakistan. It's the most deadly against U.S. troops in three years. Aug. 18 and 19, Afghanistan:as many as 15 suicide bombers backed by about 30 militants attack a U.S. military base, Camp Salerno, in Bamiyan. Fighting between U.S. troops and members of the Taliban rages overnight. No U.S. troops are killed. Sept. 16, Yemen:a car bomb and a rocket strike the U.S. embassy in Yemen as staff arrived to work, killing 16 people, including 4 civilians. At least 25 suspected al-Qaeda militants are arrested for the attack. Nov. 26, India:in a series of attacks on several of Mumbai's landmarks and commercial hubs that are popular with Americans and other foreign tourists, including at least two five-star hotels, a hospital, a train station, and a cinema. About 300 people are wounded and nearly 190 people die, including at least 5 Americans. 2009 Feb. 9, Iraq:a suicide bomber kills four American soldiers and their Iraqi translator near a police checkpoint. April 10, Iraq:a suicide attack kills five American soldiers and two Iraqi policemen. June 1, Little Rock, Arkansas:Abdulhakim Muhammed, a Muslim convert from Memphis, Tennessee, is charged with shooting two soldiers outside a military recruiting center. One is killed and the other is wounded. In a January 2010 letter to the judge hearing his case, Muhammed asked to change his plea from not guilty to guilty, claimed ties to al-Qaeda, and called the shooting a jihadi attack "to fight those who wage war on Islam and Muslims." Dec. 25:A Nigerian man on a flight from Amsterdam to Detroit attempted to ignite an explosive device hidden in his underwear. The explosive device that failed to detonate was a mixture of powder and liquid that did not alert security personnel in the airport. The alleged bomber, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, told officials later that he was directed by the terrorist group Al Qaeda. The suspect was already on the government's watch list when he attempted the bombing; his father, a respected Nigerian banker, had told the U.S. government that he was worried about his son's increased extremism. Dec. 30, Iraq:a suicide bomber kills eight Americans civilians, seven of them CIA agents, at a base in Afghanistan. It's the deadliest attack on the agency since 9/11. The attacker is reportedly a double agent from Jordan who was acting on behalf of al-Qaeda.

Terrorist Attacks in the U.S. or Against Americans (part 1 of 2): The following timeline lists terrorist attacks against the United States and Americans living either in the U.S. or abroad. 1920 Sept. 16, New York City: TNT bomb planted in unattended horse- drawn wagon exploded on Wall Street opposite House of Morgan, killing 35 people and injuring hundreds more. Bolshevist or anarchist terrorists believed responsible, but crime never solved. 1975 Jan. 24, New York City:bomb set off in historic Fraunces Tavernkilled 4 and injured more than 50 people. Puerto Rican nationalist group (FALN) claimed responsibility, and police tied 13 other bombings to the group. 1979 Nov. 4, Tehran, Iran:Iranian radical students seized the U.S. embassy, taking 66 hostages. 14 were later released. The remaining 52 were freed after 444 days on the day of President Reagan's inauguration. 1982–1991 Lebanon:Thirty US and other Western hostages kidnapped in Lebanon by Hezbollah. Some were killed, some died in captivity, and some were eventually released. Terry Anderson was held for 2,454 days. 1983 April 18, Beirut, Lebanon:U.S. embassy destroyed in suicide car-bomb attack; 63 dead, including 17 Americans. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Oct. 23, Beirut, Lebanon:Shiite suicide bombers exploded truck near U.S. military barracks at Beirut airport, killing 241 marines. Minutes later a second bomb killed 58 French paratroopers in their barracks in West Beirut. Dec. 12, Kuwait City, Kuwait:Shiite truck bombers attacked the U.S. embassy and other targets, killing 5 and injuring 80. 1984 Sept. 20, east Beirut, Lebanon:truck bomb exploded outside the U.S. embassy annex, killing 24, including 2 U.S. military. Dec. 3, Beirut, Lebanon:Kuwait Airways Flight 221, from Kuwait to Pakistan, hijacked and diverted to Tehran. 2 Americans killed. 1985 April 12, Madrid, Spain:Bombing at restaurant frequented by U.S. soldiers, killed 18 Spaniards and injured 82. June 14, Beirut, Lebanon:TWA Flight 847 en route from Athens to Rome hijacked to Beirut by Hezbollah terrorists and held for 17 days. A U.S. Navy diver executed. Oct. 7, Mediterranean Sea:gunmen attack Italian cruise ship,Achille Lauro. One U.S. tourist killed. Hijacking linked to Libya. Dec. 18, Rome, Italy, and Vienna, Austria:airports in Rome and Vienna were bombed, killing 20 people, 5 of whom were Americans. Bombing linked to Libya. 1986 April 2, Athens, Greece:A bomb exploded aboard TWA flight 840 en route from Rome to Athens, killing 4 Americans and injuring 9. April 5, West Berlin, Germany:Libyans bombed a disco frequented by U.S. servicemen, killing 2 and injuring hundreds. 1988 Dec. 21, Lockerbie, Scotland:N.Y.-bound Pan-Am Boeing 747 exploded in flight from a terrorist bomb and crashed into Scottish village, killing all 259 aboard and 11 on the ground. Passengers included 35 Syracuse University students and many U.S. military personnel. Libya formally admitted responsibility 15 years later (Aug. 2003) and offered $2.7 billion compensation to victims' families. 1993 Feb. 26, New York City:bomb exploded in basement garage of World Trade Center, killing 6 and injuring at least 1,040 others. In 1995, militant Islamist Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman and 9 others were convicted of conspiracy charges, and in 1998, Ramzi Yousef, believed to have been the mastermind, was convicted of the bombing. Al-Qaeda involvement is suspected. 1995 April 19, Oklahoma City:car bomb exploded outside federal office building, collapsing wall and floors. 168 people were killed, including 19 children and 1 person who died in rescue effort. Over 220 buildings sustained damage. Timothy McVeighand Terry Nichols later convicted in the antigovernment plot to avenge the Branch Davidian standoff in Waco, Tex., exactly 2 years earlier. (See Miscellaneous Disasters.) Nov. 13, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia:car bomb exploded at U.S. military headquarters, killing 5 U.S. military servicemen. 1996 June 25, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia:truck bomb exploded outside Khobar Towers military complex, killing 19 American servicemen and injuring hundreds of others. 13 Saudis and a Lebanese, all alleged members of Islamic militant group Hezbollah, were indicted on charges relating to the attack in June 2001. 1998 Aug. 7, Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania:truck bombs exploded almost simultaneously near 2 U.S. embassies, killing 224 (213 in Kenya and 11 in Tanzania) and injuring about 4,500. 4 men connected with al-Qaeda 2 of whom had received training at al-Qaedacamps inside Afghanistan, were convicted of the killings in May 2001 and later sentenced to life in prison. A federal grand jury had indicted 22 men in connection with the attacks, including Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden, who remained at large. 2000 Oct. 12, Aden, Yemen:U.S. Navy destroyer USSColeheavily damaged when a small boat loaded with explosives blew up alongside it. 17 sailors killed. Linked to Osama bin Laden, or members of al-Qaedaterrorist network.

Terrorist Attacks in the U.S. or Against Americans (part 1 of 2): The following timeline lists terrorist attacks against the United States and Americans living either in the U.S. or abroad. 1920 Sept. 16, New York City: TNT bomb planted in unattended horse- drawn wagon exploded on Wall Street opposite House of Morgan, killing 35 people and injuring hundreds more. Bolshevist or anarchist terrorists believed responsible, but crime never solved. 1975 Jan. 24, New York City:bomb set off in historic Fraunces Tavernkilled 4 and injured more than 50 people. Puerto Rican nationalist group (FALN) claimed responsibility, and police tied 13 other bombings to the group. 1979 Nov. 4, Tehran, Iran:Iranian radical students seized the U.S. embassy, taking 66 hostages. 14 were later released. The remaining 52 were freed after 444 days on the day of President Reagan's inauguration. 1982–1991 Lebanon:Thirty US and other Western hostages kidnapped in Lebanon by Hezbollah. Some were killed, some died in captivity, and some were eventually released. Terry Anderson was held for 2,454 days. 1983 April 18, Beirut, Lebanon:U.S. embassy destroyed in suicide car-bomb attack; 63 dead, including 17 Americans. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Oct. 23, Beirut, Lebanon:Shiite suicide bombers exploded truck near U.S. military barracks at Beirut airport, killing 241 marines. Minutes later a second bomb killed 58 French paratroopers in their barracks in West Beirut. Dec. 12, Kuwait City, Kuwait:Shiite truck bombers attacked the U.S. embassy and other targets, killing 5 and injuring 80. 1984 Sept. 20, east Beirut, Lebanon:truck bomb exploded outside the U.S. embassy annex, killing 24, including 2 U.S. military. Dec. 3, Beirut, Lebanon:Kuwait Airways Flight 221, from Kuwait to Pakistan, hijacked and diverted to Tehran. 2 Americans killed. 1985 April 12, Madrid, Spain:Bombing at restaurant frequented by U.S. soldiers, killed 18 Spaniards and injured 82. June 14, Beirut, Lebanon:TWA Flight 847 en route from Athens to Rome hijacked to Beirut by Hezbollah terrorists and held for 17 days. A U.S. Navy diver executed. Oct. 7, Mediterranean Sea:gunmen attack Italian cruise ship,Achille Lauro. One U.S. tourist killed. Hijacking linked to Libya. Dec. 18, Rome, Italy, and Vienna, Austria:airports in Rome and Vienna were bombed, killing 20 people, 5 of whom were Americans. Bombing linked to Libya. 1986 April 2, Athens, Greece:A bomb exploded aboard TWA flight 840 en route from Rome to Athens, killing 4 Americans and injuring 9. April 5, West Berlin, Germany:Libyans bombed a disco frequented by U.S. servicemen, killing 2 and injuring hundreds. 1988 Dec. 21, Lockerbie, Scotland:N.Y.-bound Pan-Am Boeing 747 exploded in flight from a terrorist bomb and crashed into Scottish village, killing all 259 aboard and 11 on the ground. Passengers included 35 Syracuse University students and many U.S. military personnel. Libya formally admitted responsibility 15 years later (Aug. 2003) and offered $2.7 billion compensation to victims' families. 1993 Feb. 26, New York City:bomb exploded in basement garage of World Trade Center, killing 6 and injuring at least 1,040 others. In 1995, militant Islamist Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman and 9 others were convicted of conspiracy charges, and in 1998, Ramzi Yousef, believed to have been the mastermind, was convicted of the bombing. Al-Qaeda involvement is suspected. 1995 April 19, Oklahoma City:car bomb exploded outside federal office building, collapsing wall and floors. 168 people were killed, including 19 children and 1 person who died in rescue effort. Over 220 buildings sustained damage. Timothy McVeighand Terry Nichols later convicted in the antigovernment plot to avenge the Branch Davidian standoff in Waco, Tex., exactly 2 years earlier. (See Miscellaneous Disasters.) Nov. 13, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia:car bomb exploded at U.S. military headquarters, killing 5 U.S. military servicemen. 1996 June 25, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia:truck bomb exploded outside Khobar Towers military complex, killing 19 American servicemen and injuring hundreds of others. 13 Saudis and a Lebanese, all alleged members of Islamic militant group Hezbollah, were indicted on charges relating to the attack in June 2001. 1998 Aug. 7, Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania:truck bombs exploded almost simultaneously near 2 U.S. embassies, killing 224 (213 in Kenya and 11 in Tanzania) and injuring about 4,500. 4 men connected with al-Qaeda 2 of whom had received training at al-Qaedacamps inside Afghanistan, were convicted of the killings in May 2001 and later sentenced to life in prison. A federal grand jury had indicted 22 men in connection with the attacks, including Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden, who remained at large. 2000 Oct. 12, Aden, Yemen:U.S. Navy destroyer USSColeheavily damaged when a small boat loaded with explosives blew up alongside it. 17 sailors killed. Linked to Osama bin Laden, or members of al-Qaedaterrorist network.

The 2013 Boston Marathon Tragedy Three people were killed and hundreds injured after multiple bombs exploded during the Boston Marathon. Boston Marathon Shrine, April 20, 2013 Photo credit: Natalie Baumgardner On Monday, April 15, 2013, multiple bombs exploded during the Boston Marathon. The bombs went off at 2:50 in the afternoon as runners finished the race. At least three people were killed. One was an eight year old boy. More than 170 people were injured. The first explosion happened on Boylston Street close to the finish line. The second blast came about ten seconds later, 50 to 100 yards away. Another explosion happened during the afternoon at the JFK Library, but officials confirmed that incident was not connected. The Search for Suspects A U.S. government official said that neither the Boston police nor the FBI received any threats of an attack leading up to the marathon. Parents of the 2012 Newtown, Conn., shooting victims were in attendance near the finish line, sitting in the VIP section of the bleachers, but none of them were injured. President Obamasaid from the White House briefing room, "We still do not know who did this or why, and people shouldn't jump to conclusions before we have all the facts, but make no mistake: We will get to the bottom of this. Any responsible individuals, any responsible groups will feel the full weight of justice." On April 18, 2013, three days after the marathon bombing, the FBI released photos and video of two suspects in the hope that the public could help identify them. "Somebody out there knows these individuals as friends, neighbors, co-workers, or family members. Though it may be difficult, the nation is counting on those with information to come forward and provide it to us," said FBI special agent Richard DesLauriers upon the release of the photos and video. On the same day the images were released, President Obama spoke at the Cathedral of the Holy Cross in Boston's South End. After the service, both the president and First lady Michelle Obamavisited those injured in the explosions who were still recovering in the various hospitals throughout Boston. Boston Lockdown Just hours after the FBI released the images, the two suspects robbed a gas station in Central Square then shot and killed a MIT police officer in his car. Afterwards, the two men carjacked a SUV and told the driver that they had set off the explosions at the marathon. Police pursued the vehicle into Watertown. During the shootout, a MBTA officer was shot and one of the suspects, identified as Tamerlan Tsarnaev, was killed. A suicide vest was found on his body. The other suspect, Dzhokhar A. Tsarnaev, age 19, remained at large for several hours, causing a massive manhunt and lockdown for all of Boston, Cambridge, and many other surrounding communities. The manhunt continued throughout Friday, April 19, 2013, until he was found alive, but seriously injured, hiding in a boat behind a house in Watertown. The two suspects were brothers and had been living together on Norfolk Street in Cambridge. They had lived in the U.S. for about a decade, but were from an area near Chechnya, a region in Russia.

Sports Disasters 1955 June 11, Le Mans, France:racing car in Grand Prix hurtled into grandstand, killing 82 spectators. 1964 May 24, Lima, Peru:more than 300 soccer fans killed and over 500 injured during riot and panic following unpopular ruling by referee in Peru vs. Argentina soccer game. It is worst soccer disaster on record. 1971 Jan. 2, Glasgow, Scotland:66 killed in crush at Glasgow Rangers home stadium when soccer fans trying to leave encountered fans trying to return to stadium after hearing that a late goal had been scored. 1972 Sept. 5, Munich, Germany:Arab terrorists invaded the Olympic village killing 2 Israeli athletes and taking 9 hostage. In shootout, 9 athletes, 5 guerrillas, and 1 policeman killed. 1980 Jan. 20, Sincelejo, Colombia:bleachers at a bullring collapsed, leaving 222 dead. 1982 Oct. 20, Moscow:according toSovietsky Sport,as many as 340 died at Lenin Stadium when exiting soccer fans collided with returning fans after final goal was scored. All the fans had been crowded into one section of stadium by police. 1985 May 11, Bradford, England:56 burned to death and over 200 injured when fire engulfed main grandstand at Bradford's soccer stadium. May 29, Brussels, Belgium:when British Liverpool club fans attacked rival Italian supporters of Juventus team at the Heysel Stadium before the European Champion's Cup final, a concrete retaining wall collapsed and 39 people were trampled to death. More than 400 people were injured. 1988 March 12, Katmandu, Nepal:some 80 soccer fans seeking cover during a violent hail storm at the national stadium were trampled to death in a stampede because the stadium doors were locked. 1989 April 15, Sheffield, England:96 people were killed at Hillsborough stadium during a semifinal match between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest. Most of the victims, who were Liverpool fans, were crushed against a barrier on an overcrowded area behind one of the goals. It is Britain's worst soccer disaster. 1996 Oct. 16, Guatemala City:at least 84 killed and 147 injured by stampeding soccer fans before a 1998 World Cup qualifying match between Guatemala and Costa Rica held at Mateo Flores National Stadium. 2001 May 9, Accra, Ghana:at least 120 people were killed in a stampede at a soccer match. It was Africa's worst soccer-related disaster. 2012 Feb. 1, Port Said, Egypt:at least 73 people were killed in a fight between fans of rival teams at a soccer match. Security at the gates was questioned as fans used knives, clubs, and other weapons in the brawl. 2013 April 15, Boston, Mass., United States:multiple bombs explode near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The bombs explode at 2:50 in the afternoon as runners finish the race. At least three people are killed, including an eight year old boy. More than 170 people are injured. The first explosion happens on Boylston Street close to the finish line. The second blast comes about ten seconds later, 50 to 100 yards away. A third explosion happens an hour after the first two, but it is a controlled explosion because the police had found the device. Officials also report that two other devices are found around the marathon area, but they are dismantled. Officials confirm that the devices are bombs.

Tsunami in Japan 2011: Waves Stirred Up Tsunami in Japan Japanwas hit by a 9.0 magnitude earthquakeon March 11, 2011, that triggered a deadly 23-foot tsunami in the country's north. The giant waves deluged cities and rural areas alike, sweeping away cars, homes, buildings, a train, and boats, leaving a path of death and devastation in its wake. Video footage showed cars racing away from surging waves. The earthquake—the largest in Japan's history—struck about 230 miles northeast of Tokyo. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued warnings for Russia, Taiwan, Hawaii, Indonesia, the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Australia, and the west coasts the U.S., Mexico, Central America, and South America. According to the official toll, the disasters left 15,839 dead, 5,950 injured, and 3,642 missing. Earthquake Causes Nuclear Disaster What's more, cooling systems in one of the reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in the Fukushima prefecture on the east coast of Japan failed shortly after the earthquake, causing a nuclear crisis. This initial reactor failure was followed by an explosion and eventual partial meltdowns in two reactors, then by a fire in another reactor which released radioactivity directly into the atmosphere. The nuclear troubles were not limited to the Daiichi plant; three other nuclear facilities also reported problems. More than 200,000 residents were evacuated from affected areas. On April 12, Japan raised its assessment of the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to Level 7, the worst rating on the international scale, putting the disaster on par with the 1986 Chernobyl explosion. Developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) along with countries who use nuclear energy, the scale defines level 7 as a nuclear accident that involves "widespread health and environmental effects" and the "external release of a significant fraction of the reactor core inventory." Almost two months later, the IAEA called the status of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant "very serious." At a news conference on March 13, Prime Minister Naoto Kan, who later gave the disaster the name "Great East Japan Earthquake", emphasized the gravity of the situation: "I think that the earthquake, tsunami, and the situation at our nuclear reactors makes up the worst crisis in the 65 years since the war. If the nation works together, we will overcome." The government called in 100,000 troops to aid in the relief effort. The deployment was the largest since World War II. The tsunami in Japan recalled the 2004 disaster in the Indian Ocean. On Dec. 26, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake—the largest earthquakein 40 years—ruptured in the Indian Ocean, off the northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The earthquake stirred up the deadliest tsunamiin world history, so powerful that the waves caused loss of life on the coast of Africa and were even detected on the East Coast of the United States. More than 225,000 people died from the disaster, a half a million were injured, and millions were left homeless. Seestatistics on Deadliest Tsunamisand Deadliest Earthquakes. The Science of Tsunami A tsunami(pronounced soo-NAHM-ee) is a series of huge waves that occur as the result of a violent underwater disturbance, such as an earthquakeor volcanic eruption. The waves travel in all directions from the epicenter of the disturbance. The waves may travel in the open sea as fast as 450 miles per hour. As they travel in the open ocean, tsunami waves are generally not particularly large—hence the difficulty in detecting the approach of a tsunami. But as these powerful waves approach shallow waters along the coast, their velocity is slowed and they consequently grow to a great height before smashing into the shore. They can grow as high as 100 feet; the Indian Ocean tsunami generated waves reaching 30 feet. Tsunamiis the Japanese word for "harbor wave." They are sometimes mistakenly referred to as tidal waves, but tsunamis have nothing to do with the tides. Tsunamis have been relatively rare in the Indian Ocean, and are most common in the Pacific Ocean.

Nuclear Disaster Glossary: Terms and Definitions Becquerel, Cesium, Hibakusha, Pressurized water reactor, and more by Catherine McNiff Below are terms and definitions frequently used in the aftermath of the nuclear disaster in Japan. A-M| N-Z Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) Also known as radiation sickness, this serious illness is caused by high doses of radiation. The first symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and often include skin damage. Apocalypse A great disaster, usually equated with the end of the world. Becquerel A measurement of radioactivity; its symbol is Bq. Cesium Cesium is a naturally occurring element found combined with other elements in rocks, soil, and dust in low amounts. Nuclear explosions or the breakdown of uranium in fuel elements can produce two radioactive forms of cesium134Cs and137Cs. Both isotopes decay into non-radioactive elements. The half-life of134Cs is two years, and 30 years for137Cs. Boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) In the boiling water reactor (BWR), the water that passes over the reactor core to slow down the neutrons and acts as a coolant is also the steam source for the turbine, which in turn powers the generator to produce energy. Chernobyl The Chernobyl nuclear power station was the site of the world's worst nuclear accident, in 1986. The result of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel, the accident released at least 5% of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere and claimed 30 lives within the first few weeks, and unconfirmed numbers over the ensuing years. Cold shutdown The term used to define a reactor coolant system at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature below 200 degrees Fahrenheit following a reactor cooldown. Containment vessels A gas-tight shell or other enclosure around a nuclear reactor to confine fission products that otherwise might be released into the atmosphere in the event of an accident. Such enclosures are usually dome-shaped and made of steel-reinforced concrete. Cooldown The gradual decrease in reactor fuel rod temperature caused by the removal of heat from the reactor coolant system after the reactor has been shutdown. Core The central portion of a nuclear reactor, which contains the fuel assemblies, moderator, neutron poisons, control rods, and support structures. The reactor core is where fission takes place. Exposure Absorption of ionizing radiation or ingestion of a radioisotope. Acute exposure is a large exposure received over a short period of time. Chronic exposure is exposure received over a long period of time, such as during a lifetime. Fission The splitting of an atom, which releases a considerable amount of energy (usually in the form of heat) that can be used to produce electricity. During fission, the heavy nucleus splits into roughly equal parts, producing the nuclei of at least two lighter elements. In addition to energy, this reaction usually releases gamma radiation and two or more daughter neutrons. Fuel rod A long, slender, zirconium metal tube containing pellets of fissionable material, which provide fuel for nuclear reactors. Fuel rods are assembled into bundles called fuel assemblies, which are loaded individually into the reactor core. Fukushima Daiichi Explosions, fire, and a failed cooling system caused by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and a 23-foot tsunami in this Japanese nuclear power plant in March 2011 released radioactivity directly into the atmosphere and into the sea. Half-life The time required for half the amount of a substance (as a drug, radioactive tracer, or pesticide) in or introduced into a living system or ecosystem to be eliminated or disintegrated by natural processes. Hibakusha The surviving victims of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, meaning "explosion-affected people" International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) The International Atomic Energy Agency, the center of worldwide cooperation in the nuclear field, through which member countries and multiple international partners work together to promote the safe, secure, and peaceful use of nuclear technologies. The United Nations established the IAEA in 1957 as "Atoms for Peace." The IAEA and its then director, Mohamed ElBaradei, shared the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize. International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale is a tool for promptly communicating to the public in consistent terms the safety significance of reported nuclear and radiological incidents and accidents. A-M|N-Z Meltdown The melting of a significant portion of a nuclear-reactor core due to inadequate cooling of the fuel elements, a condition that could lead to the escape of radiation.

Oil Spill Glossary Berm, Dispersants, Static Kill, and more A-Q| R-W Annulus The space between the pipe and the wellbore. Biodegradation The breaking down of substances by microorganisms, such as oil-hungry Alcanivorax, which use the substances for food and generally release harmless byproducts such as carbon dioxide and water. Berm A wall or barrier of sand usually used to protect against flooding along coasts, used to stop oil from washing up on Gulf Coast beaches. Boom A temporary floating barrier used to contain an oil spill. Blowout An uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids into the wellbore, and sometimes catastrophically to the surface. A blowout may consist of salt water, oil, gas or a mixture of these. Blind shear ram The part of the blowout preventer that can completely seal the well. Blowout preventer (BOP) A large valve at the top of a well that may be closed in the event of a problem. Bottom kill A procedure in which mud and cement are pumped from deep underground to seal the well permanently. Containment cap A collection device engineered to create a seal over an open pipe atop the blowout preventer to funnel leaking oil up to a tanker ship floating above. Crude oil Unrefined petroleum or liquid petroleum. Dispersants Chemicals, such as Corexit, used to break down spilled oil into small droplets. Fossil fuels Fuel, such as oil, formed in the earth from plant or animal remains. Junk shot One method of temporarily plugging an oil leak by shooting material such as shredded tires and golf balls into the broken wellhead. Loop current Flow of warm ocean water that steers Gulf waters toward Florida. Moratorium Suspension of activity. A-Q|R-W Relief well A secondary well drilled to intersect the leaking main well, allowing engineers to intercept the oil flow from the reservoir below and pump in cement and heavy fluids to stop the leak. Rig Machine used to drill a wellbore. Riser pipe The pipe that connects an underwater wellhead to the drilling rig floating on the surface of the ocean above. Skimmers Devices, such as boats, used to remove oil from the water's surface. Slick A thin film of oil on the water's surface. Static Kill A method of spill containment which involves pumping mud and cement into the damaged well to prevent more oil from leaking into the ocean. Tar balls Dense, black sticky spheres of hydrocarbons; formed from weathered oil. Top hat A containment device used to cap off the oil. Top kill A temporary method of sealing an oil well involving pumping dense mud into the blowout preventer under such high pressure that it forces the leaking oil back into the ground. Wellbore A hole drilled for the purpose of extracting oil. Wellhead A system of spools, valves and assorted adapters that provide pressure control of a production well. The wellhead is the component at the surface of the wellbore to which the apparatus for extracting the oil is attached. The blowout preventer is at the wellhead.

Oil Spills and Disasters The following list includes major oil spills since 1967. The circumstances surrounding the spill, amount of oil spilled, and the attendant environmental damage is also given. 1967 March 18, Cornwall, Eng.:Torrey Canyonran aground, spilling 38 million gallons of crude oil off the Scilly Islands. 1976 Dec. 15, Buzzards Bay, Mass.:Argo Merchantran aground and broke apart southeast of Nantucket Island, spilling its entire cargo of 7.7 million gallons of fuel oil. 1977 April, North Sea:blowout of well in Ekofisk oil field leaked 81 million gallons. 1978 March 16, off Portsall, France:wrecked supertankerAmoco Cadizspilled 68 million gallons, causing widespread environmental damage over 100 mi of Brittany coast. 1979 June 3, Gulf of Mexico:exploratory oil well Ixtoc 1 blew out, spilling an estimated 140 million gallons of crude oil into the open sea. Although it is one of the largest known oil spills, it had a low environmental impact. July 19, Tobago:theAtlantic Empressand theAegean Captaincollided, spilling 46 million gallons of crude. While being towed, theAtlantic Empressspilled an additional 41 million gallons off Barbados on Aug. 2. 1980 March 30, Stavanger, Norway:floating hotel in North Sea collapsed, killing 123 oil workers. 1983 Feb. 4, Persian Gulf, Iran:Nowruz Field platform spilled 80 million gallons of oil. Aug. 6, Cape Town, South Africa:the Spanish tankerCastillo de Bellvercaught fire, spilling 78 million gallons of oil off the coast. 1988 July 6, North Sea off Scotland:166 workers killed in explosion and fire on Occidental Petroleum'sPiper Alpharig in North Sea; 64 survivors. It is the world's worst offshore oil disaster. Nov. 10, Saint John's, Newfoundland:Odysseyspilled 43 million gallons of oil. 1989 March 24, Prince William Sound, Alaska:tankerExxon Valdezhit an undersea reef and spilled 10 million–plus gallons of oil into the water, causing the worst oil spill in U.S. history. Dec. 19, off Las Palmas, the Canary Islands:explosion in Iranian supertanker, theKharg-5,caused 19 million gallons of crude oil to spill into Atlantic Ocean about 400 mi north of Las Palmas, forming a 100-square-mile oil slick. 1990 June 8, off Galveston, Tex.:Mega Borgreleased 5.1 million gallons of oil some 60 nautical miles south-southeast of Galveston as a result of an explosion and subsequent fire in the pump room. 1991 Jan. 23–27, southern Kuwait:during the Persian Gulf War, Iraq deliberately released 240–460 million gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf from tankers 10 mi off Kuwait. Spill had little military significance. On Jan. 27, U.S. warplanes bombed pipe systems to stop the flow of oil. April 11, Genoa, Italy:Havenspilled 42 million gallons of oil in Genoa port. May 28, Angola:ABT Summerexploded and leaked 15–78 million gallons of oil off the coast of Angola. It's not clear how much sank or burned. 1992 March 2, Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan:88 million gallons of oil spilled from an oil well. 1993 Aug. 10, Tampa Bay, Fla.:three ships collided, the bargeBouchard B155,the freighterBalsa 37,and the bargeOcean 255.TheBouchardspilled an estimated 336,000 gallons of No. 6 fuel oil into Tampa Bay. 1994 Sept. 8, Russia:dam built to contain oil burst and spilled oil into Kolva River tributary. U.S. Energy Department estimated spill at 2 million barrels. Russian state-owned oil company claimed spill was only 102,000 barrels. 1996 Feb. 15, off Welsh coast:supertankerSea Empressran aground at port of Milford Haven, Wales, spewed out 70,000 tons of crude oil, and created a 25-mile slick. 1999 Dec. 12, French Atlantic coast:Maltese-registered tankerErikabroke apart and sank off Britanny, spilling 3 million gallons of heavy oil into the sea. 2000 Jan. 18, off Rio de Janeiro:ruptured pipeline owned by government oil company, Petrobras, spewed 343,200 gallons of heavy oil into Guanabara Bay. Nov. 28, Mississippi River south of New Orleans:oil tankerWestchesterlost power and ran aground near Port Sulphur, La., dumping 567,000 gallons of crude oil into lower Mississippi. Spill was largest in U.S. waters sinceExxon Valdezdisaster in March 1989. 2002 Nov. 13, Spain:Prestigesuffered a damaged hull and was towed to sea and sank. Much of the 20 million gallons of oil remains underwater. 2003 July 28, Pakistan:TheTasman Spirit,a tanker, ran aground near the Karachi port, and eventually cracked into two pieces. One of its four oil tanks burst open, leaking 28,000 tons of crude oil into the sea. 2004 Dec. 7, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, Alaska:A major storm pushed the M/VSelendang Ayuup onto a rocky shore, breaking it in two. 337,000 gallons of oil were released, most of which was driven onto the shoreline of Makushin and Skan Bays.

Ten Largest Oil Spills in the U.S. The following table lists the largest oil spills in U.S. history. The date of the spill, circumstances surrounding the spill, and amount of oil spilled are also given. RankDateCauseSourceLocationSpill Volume 1.April 20, 2010explosiondrilling rigDeepwater HorizonGulf of Mexico, 50 miles off the coast of Louisianaan estimated 200,000 gallons a day 2.March 24, 1989reef collisiontankerExxon ValdezPrince William Sound, Alaska10+ million gallons 3.Dec. 15, 1976ran agroundtankerArgo MerchantNantucket Island7.7 million gallons 4.Aug.–Sept. 2005Hurricane Katrinavarious sourcesNew Orleans, La.7 million gallons 5.June 8, 1990explosiontankerMega Borg60 miles off Galveston, Texas5.1 million gallons 6.Nov. 28, 2000ran agroundtankerWestchesterPort Sulphur, La.567,000 gallons 7.Jan. 23, 2010collisiontankerEagle OtomePort Arthur, Texas462,000 gallons 8.July 25, 2008collisionunnamed bargeNew Orleans, La.419,000 gallons 9.Dec. 7, 2004ran agroundM/VSelendang AyuAleutian Islands, Alaska337,000 gallons 10.Aug. 10, 1993collisionbargeBouchard B155Tampa Bay, Fla.336,000 gallons

Ten Largest Oil Spills in the World The following table lists the largest oil spills in the world. The date of the spill, circumstances surrounding the spill, and amount of oil spilled are also given. RankDateCauseSourceLocationSpill Volume 1.April 20, 2010explosiondrilling rigDeepwater HorizonGulf of Mexico, 50 miles off the coast of Louisianaan estimated 200,000 gallons a day 2.Jan. 23–27, 1991deliberate act by Iraqtankers10 mi off Kuwait240–460 million gallons 3.June 3, 1979well blowoutoil well Ixtoc 1Gulf of Mexico140 million gallons 4.March 2, 1992leakoil wellFergana Valley, Uzbekistan88 million gallons 5.July 19, 1979collisiontankersAtlantic Empressand theAegean CaptainTrinidad & Tobago87 million gallons 6.Sept. 8, 1994dam burstoil reservoirRussia84 million gallons 7.April, 1977well blowoutEkofisk oil fieldNorth Sea81 million gallons 8.Feb. 4, 1983collisionNowruz field platformPersian Gulf, Iran80 million gallons 9.May 28, 1991explosiontanker ABT Summeroff Angola78 million gallons 10.Aug. 6, 1983firetankerCastillo de BellverCape Town, South Africa78 million gallons

2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Timeline (part 2 of 2): Saturday, May 29 40 days into the spill, the "top kill" method is abandoned because the mixture cannot overpower the pressure of the oil spilling from the leak. June Tuesday, June 1 Outrage ensues when Tony Hayward says, "I'd like my life back." BP shares plunge about 17%, losing $23 billion in market value; BP stock lost about $67 billion over the six weeks since the explosion. The U.S. Justice Department launches a criminal investigation into the initial explosion and the ensuing spill. Fishing restrictions increase to 37% of federal waters in the Gulf. Thursday, June 3 Technicians cut a riser pipe nearly one-mile under the surface and plan to then dome the leak and siphon the oil to a tank on the surface. As a result, the rate of flow increased by 20% beause the oil has less distance to travel to leak. Friday, June 4 President Obama cancels his trip to Australia, Indonesia, and Guam to make his third trip to the Gulf Coast. He voices his outrage at BP for spending millions of dollars on television advertisements. Saturday, June 12 President Obama speaks with British Prime Minister David Cameron about BP oil spill. The U.S. Coast Guard orders BP engineers to increase the rate of containment of the spewing oil; the consequences for failing to do so are not outlined, however. Sunday, June 13 BP officials state that the containment cap captured 15,000 barrels of oil on the previous day, bringing the total number of barrels captured by the device to 119,000. Monday, June 14 President Obama visits the Gulf for the fourth time in eight weeks. Congress and the Obama administration demand that BP halt paying dividends to its shareholders in order to ensure that the company will have money to pay for damages. BP says it will be able to siphon 40,000 to 53,000 barrels a day by the end of June. Tuesday, June 15 Oil executives are summoned to Congress to testify about the safety of offshore drilling and share their response plans for another such disaster. Leak estimates are increased to 60,000 barrels per day; this means 2.5 million barrels a day are spilling into the Gulf. At this rate, the amount of the ExxonValdezspill is reproduced every four days. That night, President Obama delivers a speech about the oil spill from the Oval Office. The speech, his first from the Oval Office, is watched by 32 million viewers. Wednesday, June 16 President Obama meets with top executives and lawyers of BP at the White House. He later announces that BP agreed to create a $20 billion fund to pay claims and damages. The fund will be run by Kenneth R. Feinberg, who oversaw the compensation for victims of Sept. 11. Thursday, June 17 Tony Hayward testifies before Congress. The U.S. Coast Guard reports that containment devices should be able to capture 53,000 barrels per day by the end of June. In the future, the collection of 60,000 to 80,000 barrels a day may take place with the successful implementation of a new, multi-hose well cap. BP recovers 25,290 barrels of oil, the most it has recovered in a single day. Rep. Joe Barton (R-Texas) apologizes to BP for being forced by the Obama administration to create a $20 billion fund, calling it a "shakedown." Under pressure, he later apologizes for his apology. Friday, June 18 Tony Hayward steps away from BP's response efforts and passes the responsibilities to Robert Dudley, the managing director of BP. Hayward still remains the CEO of BP. The Center for Biological Diversity files a lawsuit against BP, seeking monetary penalties for the disaster under the Clean Water Act. The Center calculates that BP's liability will be around $19 billion, assuming the spill continues into August. Saturday, June 19 Anadarko Petroleum, which owns a quarter of the well, denies any responsibility for the disaster. CEO Jim Hackett blames BP for "gross negligence." Sunday, June 20 Photos of Hayward with his son as a yacht race make their way into the US media and cause frenzy throughout the country. Tuesday, June 22 American Bob Dudley assumes control of the spill from Hayward at a major oil industry conference; Hayward is not present. Chief of staff Steve Westwell delivers a speech on Hayward's behalf and is disrupted as two Greenpeace protesters assume the stage. Wednesday, June 23 An underwater robot bumps into the wellhead cap which results in oil gushing unhindered for several hours. Friday, June 25 BP announces the cost of containing and cleaning the oil spill reaches $2.35 billion. Monday, June 28 The Guardian, a widely circulated British newspaper, publishes a protest letter signed by 171 critics, writers, and artists about BP's financial ties to the Tate Britain gallery. Later on, activists dump molasses over the gallery's steps during a party intended to celebrate ten years of BP sponsorship. Wednesday, June 30 Tall waves, created as a result of Hurricane Alex, halt clean-up efforts.

2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Timeline (part 2 of 2): Saturday, May 29 40 days into the spill, the "top kill" method is abandoned because the mixture cannot overpower the pressure of the oil spilling from the leak. June Tuesday, June 1 Outrage ensues when Tony Hayward says, "I'd like my life back." BP shares plunge about 17%, losing $23 billion in market value; BP stock lost about $67 billion over the six weeks since the explosion. The U.S. Justice Department launches a criminal investigation into the initial explosion and the ensuing spill. Fishing restrictions increase to 37% of federal waters in the Gulf. Thursday, June 3 Technicians cut a riser pipe nearly one-mile under the surface and plan to then dome the leak and siphon the oil to a tank on the surface. As a result, the rate of flow increased by 20% beause the oil has less distance to travel to leak. Friday, June 4 President Obama cancels his trip to Australia, Indonesia, and Guam to make his third trip to the Gulf Coast. He voices his outrage at BP for spending millions of dollars on television advertisements. Saturday, June 12 President Obama speaks with British Prime Minister David Cameron about BP oil spill. The U.S. Coast Guard orders BP engineers to increase the rate of containment of the spewing oil; the consequences for failing to do so are not outlined, however. Sunday, June 13 BP officials state that the containment cap captured 15,000 barrels of oil on the previous day, bringing the total number of barrels captured by the device to 119,000. Monday, June 14 President Obama visits the Gulf for the fourth time in eight weeks. Congress and the Obama administration demand that BP halt paying dividends to its shareholders in order to ensure that the company will have money to pay for damages. BP says it will be able to siphon 40,000 to 53,000 barrels a day by the end of June. Tuesday, June 15 Oil executives are summoned to Congress to testify about the safety of offshore drilling and share their response plans for another such disaster. Leak estimates are increased to 60,000 barrels per day; this means 2.5 million barrels a day are spilling into the Gulf. At this rate, the amount of the ExxonValdezspill is reproduced every four days. That night, President Obama delivers a speech about the oil spill from the Oval Office. The speech, his first from the Oval Office, is watched by 32 million viewers. Wednesday, June 16 President Obama meets with top executives and lawyers of BP at the White House. He later announces that BP agreed to create a $20 billion fund to pay claims and damages. The fund will be run by Kenneth R. Feinberg, who oversaw the compensation for victims of Sept. 11. Thursday, June 17 Tony Hayward testifies before Congress. The U.S. Coast Guard reports that containment devices should be able to capture 53,000 barrels per day by the end of June. In the future, the collection of 60,000 to 80,000 barrels a day may take place with the successful implementation of a new, multi-hose well cap. BP recovers 25,290 barrels of oil, the most it has recovered in a single day. Rep. Joe Barton (R-Texas) apologizes to BP for being forced by the Obama administration to create a $20 billion fund, calling it a "shakedown." Under pressure, he later apologizes for his apology. Friday, June 18 Tony Hayward steps away from BP's response efforts and passes the responsibilities to Robert Dudley, the managing director of BP. Hayward still remains the CEO of BP. The Center for Biological Diversity files a lawsuit against BP, seeking monetary penalties for the disaster under the Clean Water Act. The Center calculates that BP's liability will be around $19 billion, assuming the spill continues into August. Saturday, June 19 Anadarko Petroleum, which owns a quarter of the well, denies any responsibility for the disaster. CEO Jim Hackett blames BP for "gross negligence." Sunday, June 20 Photos of Hayward with his son as a yacht race make their way into the US media and cause frenzy throughout the country. Tuesday, June 22 American Bob Dudley assumes control of the spill from Hayward at a major oil industry conference; Hayward is not present. Chief of staff Steve Westwell delivers a speech on Hayward's behalf and is disrupted as two Greenpeace protesters assume the stage. Wednesday, June 23 An underwater robot bumps into the wellhead cap which results in oil gushing unhindered for several hours. Friday, June 25 BP announces the cost of containing and cleaning the oil spill reaches $2.35 billion. Monday, June 28 The Guardian, a widely circulated British newspaper, publishes a protest letter signed by 171 critics, writers, and artists about BP's financial ties to the Tate Britain gallery. Later on, activists dump molasses over the gallery's steps during a party intended to celebrate ten years of BP sponsorship. Wednesday, June 30 Tall waves, created as a result of Hurricane Alex, halt clean-up efforts.

2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Timeline (part 1 of 2): The following timeline includes the major developments related to the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The circumstances surrounding the spill, the amount of oil spilled, and the attendant environmental damage are also given. April Tuesday, April 20 Located about 50 miles southeast of the Louisiana coast, British Petroleum's (BP)Deepwater Horizonoil rig explodes around 11 p.m. EST. As many as 15 crew members are reported missing; 98 workers escape without serious injury. Thursday, April 22 The search continues for 11 confirmed missing workers.Deepwater Horizoncontinues to burn. A 30-mile-long plume of smoke emanates from the rig. Effects of the explosion may have been worse if the rig had been in production rather than in exploration mode. The rig later sinks into the ocean. Sunday, April 25 The Coast Guard allows the use of remote underwater robots to activate a blowout preventer to stop the leak. Monday, April 26 Rescue efforts for missing crew members are suspended. Underwater robots discover two leaks that are dumping about 1,000 barrels of oil per day into the ocean. Speculation about the environmental, financial, and personal impact of the oil spill (or more accurately described, oil leak) raises wide concern. Wednesday, April 28 Experts are stumped about how to stop the leaks and effectively clean up the oil already in the ocean. The U.S. Coast Guard suggests a solution to set the oil slick on fire; a contained area is set on fire later in the day. Experts revised their leak rates from 1,000 barrels of oil per day to 5,000. It is confirmed that the oil slick has reached the Mississippi Delta. Thursday, April 29 President Obama pledges all available resources to contain the spill. He also says that BP will be held responsible for the cleanup. Friday, April 30 The Obama administration states that it will not authorize any new offshore drilling until the cause of the rig explosion is fully understood and measures to prevent another such disaster are put in place. BP CEO Tony Hayward says that BP takes full responsibility for the spill and will pay for the cleanup and all legitimate claims. May Saturday, May 1 The leak rate is revised further to 25,000 barrels per day from the previous estimate of 5,000. Sunday, May 2 President Obama visits the Gulf Coast to see the results of the cleanup. BP begins to dig a relief well alongside the failed well, but the project will take several weeks—perhaps months—to complete. A 10-day ban on fishing in affected areas is put into place. Monday, May 3 The oil slick appears to be drifting toward the Alabama and Florida coasts. BP tries to stop one of the leaks by installing a shutoff valve. Tuesday, May 4 News reports reveal that BP had a handful of options to prevent the disaster but did not implement all of them. Aside from a $500,000 acoustic cut-off switch, a deep-water valve could have been placed under the sea floor as another measure to seal any potential leaks. The relaxing of U.S. regulation in recent years allowed BP save money by not employing such preventative measures. Wednesday, May 5 BP succeeds in plugging one of three leaks in the oil line. It plans to lower a 100-ton containment dome over one of the remaining leaks to siphon the oil. Though the leak is plugged, it fails to affect the amount of oil spilling out. Friday, May 7 The containment dome fails. Later, it is speculated that BP may have been able to seal the leak rather than trying to siphon the oil from the leak into a nearby tank. The dome failed due to frozen materials clogging the device. The Fishing ban is extended and expanded. Sunday, May 9 BP reveals a "junk shot" plan that includes plugging the leak by pumping golf balls and shredded tires into the oil well. Tuesday, May 11—Wednesday, May 12 Executives from BP, Transocean, which owns the oil rig, and Halliburton, the company contracted to cement to well, appear at congressional hearings in Washington. Each executive blames the other companies for the disaster and concedes that many errors led to the explosion. Friday, May 14 BP attempts to intubate the bigger of the two oil leaks with a smaller pipe to siphon the oil. President Obama lambasts the involved companies for trying to dodge blame for the disaster. Sunday, May 16 The intubation of the leak succeeds, but it fails to capture a significant amount of oil. Tuesday, May 18 The no-fishing zone is extended to 19% of waters in the Gulf of Louisiana. Monday, May 24 BP further delays a method to clog the well and thus prevent further leaks. The method is called "top kill." Wednesday, May 26 "Top kill" is attempted and seems to succeed—a mixture of cement and mud is pumped into the leak 5,000 feet below the surface in order to clog the well. Friday, May 28 President Obama returns to the Louisiana Gulf for his second visit. Tony Hayward says that the disaster has cost BP $930 million.

Railroad Accidents (part 2 of 2): 1989 Jan. 15, Maizdi Khan, Bangladesh:train carrying Muslim pilgrims crashed head-on with a mail train, killing at least 110 people and injuring as many as 1,000. Many people were riding on the roof of the trains and between the cars. June 3, Ural Mountains:gas exploded beneath 2 trains, killing 575. Aug. 10, nr. Los Mochis, Mexico:a passenger train traveling from Mazatlán to Mexicali plunged off a bridge at Puente del Rio Bamoa, killing an estimated 85 people and injuring 107. 1990 Jan. 4, Sangi village, Sindh province, Pakistan:overcrowded 16-car passenger train rammed into a standing freight train. At least 210 people were killed and 700 were believed injured in what is said to be Pakistan's worst train disaster. 1993 Sept. 22, nr. Mobile, Ala.:Amtrak'sSunset Limited,en route to Miami, jumped rails on weakened bridge and plunged into Big Bayou Canot, killing 47 people. 1995 Aug. 20, Firozabad, northern India:a speeding passenger train rammed another train that was stalled, killing 358. 1997 March 3, Punjab province, Pakistan:passenger train crashed due to failed brakes, killing 119 and injuring at least 80 people. 1998 June 3, nr. Eschede, Germany:Inter City Express passenger train traveling at 125 mph crashed into support pier of overpass, killing 98. It is nation's worst train accident since WWII.Crash may have been caused by a defective wheel. 1999 Aug. 2, Calcutta, India:2 trains collided north of Calcutta, killing at least 285. Oct. 5, London:outbound Thames commuter train passed a red signal near Paddington Station and collided with London-bound Great Western express, killing 31 people and injuring 245. 2002 Feb. 20, nr. Ayyat, Egypt:361 killed in fire after gas cylinder used for cooking exploded aboard crowded passenger train. Egypt's worst train disaster. May 25, Muamba, Mozambique:192 died and dozens more injured when passenger cars rolled for several miles at top speed into freight cars from which they had been disconnected because of mechanical problems. June 24, nr. Msagali, central Tanzania:runaway passenger train collided with freight train on same track, leaving 200 dead. 2004 Feb. 18, Neishabour, Iran:runaway rail cars, loaded with fertilizer, petrol, and sulfur products, rolled 31 mi down the rails, caught fire, and exploded, killing more than 320 and devastating 5 villages. Mar, 11, Madrid, Spain:Spain's most horrific terrorist attack: 191 people were killed and 1,400 were injured in bombings at Madrid's railway station. A Moroccan affiliate of al-Qaeda claimed responsibility. April 22, Ryongchon, North Korea:2 trains carrying flammable liquids collided, causing a huge explosion near the Chinese border, killing at least 161 and injuring more than 1,300. 2005 April 25, Osaka, Japan:commuter train derailed and hit an apartment building near Osaka, killing at least 107 and injuring 460. It was the worst Japanese train accident since 1963. The accident was allegedly caused by the driver trying to get the train back on schedule. July 13, Ghotki, Pakistan:3 trains collided near Ghotki as the Karachi Express driver misread a signal and rammed the Quetta Express. Derailed carriages were then hit by a third train. At least 133 are killed. 2006 Jan. 23, Bioce, Montenegro:a train derailed and plunged into the Moraca canyon, killing 46 and injuring 19. July 11, Mumbai, India:a series of bombs exploded on commuter trains in Mumbai during the evening rush hour, killing at least 200 people. 2007 Aug. 1, Benaleka, Congo:a passenger train running between Ilebo and Kananga derailed after the brakes failed, killing about 100 people. Dec. 19, Mehrabpurp, Pakistan:a crowded passenger train derailed, killing at least 45 people and injuring over 100 more. 2008 April 28, China:a passenger train running from Beijing to Qingdao city derailed, killing 70 people and injuring more than 400 others. Aug. 8, Czech Republic:a passenger train running from Krakow to Prague crashed into a collapsed bridge, killing six people and injuring about 100 others. Sept. 12, California:a metrolink commuter train collided with a freight train northwest of Los Angeles, killing 25 passengers. 2009 June 22, Washington D.C.:nine people died and over 70 more were injured when a subway train crashed at rush hour. June 30, Italy:a freight train that was traveling from La Spezia to Pisa derailed and crashed into a small Italian town, killing 12 people and injuring at least 50 more. Nov. 27, Russia:26 people are killed when a bomb explodes on a luxury train that runs from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Chechen rebels claim responsibility for the attack.. 2010 March 29, Russia:thirty-eight people are killed after two female suicide bombers enter the Moscow Metro. May 28, India:a passenger train derails in West Bengal to avoid damage on the railway track, hits an oncoming train filled with goods and 148 people are killed.

Railroad Accidents (part 1 of 2): While trains are convenient for travel and for transporting goods, they have become a greater danger over the years as their speed has increased. Sometimes railroad accidents are caused by human error, but other causes include derailment, explosions on board, and bridge collapses. NOTE:Very few passengers were killed in a single U.S. train wreck up until 1853. The early trains ran slowly and made short trips, night travel was rare, and there were not many of them in operation. 1831 June 17, nr. Charleston, S.C.:boiler exploded on America's first passenger locomotive,The Best Friend of Charleston,injuring the fireman and the engineer. 1833 Nov. 8, nr. Heightstown, N.J.:world's first train wreck and first passenger fatalities recorded. A 24-passenger Camden & Amboy train derailed due to a broken axle, killing 2 passengers and injuring all others. Former president John Quincy Adams and Cornelius Vanderbilt, who later made a fortune in railroads, were aboard. 1853 May 6, Norwalk, Conn.:New Haven Railroad train ran through an open drawbridge and plunged into the Norwalk River. 46 passengers were crushed to death or drowned. This was the first major drawbridge accident. 1856 July 17, Camp Hill, nr. Ft. Washington, Pa.:2 Northern Penn trains crashed head-on. Approximately 50–60 people died, mostly children on their way to a Sunday school picnic. 1876 Dec. 29, Ashtabula, Ohio:Lake Shore train fell into the Ashtabula River when the bridge it was crossing collapsedduring a snowstorm; 92 people were killed. 1887 Aug. 10, nr. Chatsworth, Ill.:a burning railroad trestle collapsed while a Toledo, Peoria & Western train was crossing, killing 81 and injuring 372. 1904 Aug. 7, Eden, Colo.:train derailed on bridge during flash flood; 96 killed. 1910 March 1, Wellington, Wash.:2 trains swept into canyon by avalanche; 96 dead. 1915 May 22, Quintinshill, Scotland:2 passenger trains and troop train collided at Quintinshill near Gretna Green; 227 killed. 1917 Dec. 12, Modane, France:nearly 550 killed in derailment of troop train near mouth of Mt. Cenis tunnel. 1918 July 9, Nashville, Tenn.:101 killed in a 2-train collision near Nashville. Nov. 1, New York City:derailment of subway train in Malbone St. tunnel in Brooklyn left 92 dead. 1926 March 14, Virilla River Canyon, Costa Rica:an overcrowded train carrying pilgrims derailed while crossing the Colima Bridge, killing over 300 people and injuring hundreds more. 1939 Dec. 22, nr. Magdeburg, Germany:more than 125 killed in collision; 99 killed in another wreck near Friedrichshafen. 1943 Dec. 16, nr. Rennert, N.C.:72 killed in derailment and collision of 2 Atlantic Coast Line trains. 1944 March 2, nr. Salerno, Italy:521 suffocated when Italian train stalled in tunnel. 1949 Oct. 22, nr. Nowy Dwor, Poland:more than 200 reported killed in derailment of Danzig-Warsaw express. 1950 Nov. 22, Richmond Hill, N.Y.:79 died when one Long Island Railroad commuter train crashed into rear of another. 1951 Feb. 6, Woodbridge, N.J.:85 died when Pennsylvania Railroad commuter train plunged through temporary overpass. 1952 Oct. 8, Harrow-Wealdstone, England:2 express trains crashed into commuter train; 112 dead. 1957 Sept. 1, nr. Kendal, Jamaica:about 175 killed when train plunged into ravine. Sept. 29, nr. Montgomery, West Pakistan:express train crashed into standing oil train; nearly 300 killed. Dec. 4, St. John's, England:92 killed and 187 injured as one commuter train crashed into another in fog. 1960 Nov. 14, Pardubice, Czechoslovakia:2 trains collided; 110 dead, 106 injured. 1962 May 3, nr. Tokyo:163 killed and 400 injured when train crashed into wreckage of collision between inbound freight train and outbound commuter train. 1963 Nov. 9, nr. Yokohama, Japan:2 passenger trains crashed into derailed freight train, killing 162. 1964 July 26, Custoias, Portugal:passenger train derailed; 94 dead. 1970 Feb. 4, nr. Buenos Aires:236 killed when express train crashed into standing commuter train. 1972 July 21, Seville, Spain:head-on crash of two passenger trains killed 76. 1972 Oct. 6, nr. Saltillo, Mexico:train carrying religious pilgrims derailed and caught fire, killing 204 and injuring over 1,000. Oct. 30, Chicago:2 Illinois Central commuter trains collided during morning rush hour; 45 dead and over 200 injured. 1974 Aug. 30, Zagreb, Yugoslavia:train entering station derailed, killing 153 and injuring over 60. 1981 June 6, nr. Mansi, India:driver of train carrying over 500 passengers braked to avoid hitting a cow, causing train to plunge off a bridge into the Baghmati River; 268 passengers were reported killed, but at least 300 more were missing. 1982 July 11, Tepic, Mexico:Nogales-Guadalajara train plunged down mountain gorge, killing 120.

Space Accidents 1967 Jan. 27,Apollo 1:a fire aboard the space capsule on the ground at Cape Kennedy, Fla., killed astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White, and Roger Chaffee. April 23–24,Soyuz 1:Vladimir M. Komarov was killed when his craft crashed after its parachute lines, released at 23,000 ft for reentry, became snarled. 1971 June 6–30,Soyuz 11:3 cosmonauts, Georgi T. Dolrovolsky, Vladislav N. Volkov, and Viktor I. Patsayev, found dead in the craft after its automatic landing. Apparent cause of death was loss of pressurization in the space craft during reentry into Earth's atmosphere. 1980 March 18, USSR:a Vostok rocket exploded on its launch pad while being refueled, killing 50 at the Plesetsk Space Center. 1986 Jan. 28,ChallengerSpace Shuttle:exploded 73 seconds after liftoff, killing all 7 crew members. They were: Francis R. Scobee, Michael J. Smith, Judith A. Resnik, Ronald E. McNair, Ellison S. Onizuka, Gregory B. Jarvis, and schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe. A booster leak ignited the fuel, causing the explosion. 2003 Feb. 1,ColumbiaSpace Shuttle:broke up on reentering Earth's atmosphere on its way to Kennedy Space Center, killing all 7 crew members. They were: Rick D. Husband, William C. McCool, Michael P. Anderson, David M. Brown, Kalpana Chawla, Laurel Clark, and the first Israeli astronaut, Ilan Ramon. Foam insulation fell from the shuttle during launch, damaging the left wing. On reentry, hot gases entered the wing, leading to the disintegration of the shuttle. See also Space Shuttle Timelineand Profiles of the Columbia Astronauts

Aircraft Crashes (part 2 of 2): 1976 Sept. 10, Zagreb, Yugoslavia:midair collision between British Airways Trident and Yugoslav charter DC-9 fatal to all 176 people aboard. Sept. 19, Karatepe, Turkey:Turkish Airlines 727 crashes into mountainous terrain killing 154 people. 1977 March 27, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands:Pan American and KLM Boeing 747s collided on runway. All 249 on KLM plane and 333 of 394 aboard Pan Am jet killed. Total of 582 is highest for any type of aviation disaster. 1978 Jan. 1, Bombay:Air India 747 with 213 aboard exploded and plunged into sea minutes after takeoff. Sept. 25, San Diego, Calif.:Pacific Southwest plane collided in midair with Cessna. All 135 on airliner, 2 in Cessna, and 7 on ground killed for total of 144. Nov. 15, Colombo, Sri Lanka:chartered Icelandic Airlines DC-8, carrying 249 Muslim pilgrims from Mecca, crashed in thunderstorm during landing approach; 183 killed. 1979 May 25, Chicago:American Airlines DC-10 lost left engine upon takeoff and crashed seconds later, killing all 272 people aboard and 3 on the ground in worst U.S. air disaster. Nov. 26, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia:Pakistan International Airlines 707 carrying pilgrims returning from Mecca crashed on takeoff; all 156 aboard killed. Nov. 28, Mt. Erebus, Antarctica:Air New Zealand DC-10 crashed on sightseeing flight; 257 killed. 1980 Aug. 19, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia:all 301 aboard Saudi Arabian jet killed when burning plane made safe landing but passengers were unable to escape. 1981 Dec. 1, Ajaccio, Corsica:Yugoslav DC-9 Super 80 carrying tourists crashed into mountain on landing approach, killing all 178 aboard. 1983 June 28, near Cuenca, Ecuador:Ecuadorian jetliner crashed in mountains, killing 119. Aug. 30, nr. island of Sakhalin off Siberia:Korean Air Lines Boeing 747 shot down by Soviet fighter after it strayed off course into Soviet airspace. All 269 aboard killed. Secret Soviet documents released in Oct. 1992 reveal that the plane was flying a straight course for two hours with its navigational lights on and did not take evasive action. Crew was unaware of its location and never saw the Soviet fighter that downed them. The Soviet fighter did not give a warning by firing tracer bullets as originally claimed. Nov. 27, Madrid:Colombian Avianca Boeing 747 crashed near Mejorada del Campó Airport, killing 181 people aboard. Eleven people survived. 1985 June 23, Atlantic Ocean:Air India 747 exploded over the ocean killing 329. The probable cause was a Sikh terrorist bomb. Aug. 12, Japan:Japan Air Lines Boeing 747 crashed into a mountain, killing 520 of the 524 aboard. Highest death toll in a single-plane crash in aviation history. Dec. 12, Gander, Newfoundland:a chartered Arrow Air DC-8 bringing American soldiers home for Christmas crashed on takeoff. All 256 aboard died. 1987 May 9, Poland:Polish airliner Ilyushin 62M, on charter flight to N.Y., crashed after takeoff from Warsaw, killing 183. Aug. 16, Romulus, Mich.:Northwest Airlines McDonnell Douglas MD-80 crashed into a highway shortly after takeoff from Detroit Metropolitan Airport, killing 156 (including 2 on the ground). Girl, 4, only survivor. Nov. 26, south of Mauritius:South African Airways Boeing 747 went down in rough seas; 160 died. Nov. 29, Burma:Korean Air Boeing 747 jetliner exploded from bomb planted by North Korean agents and crashed into sea, killing all 115 aboard. 1988 July 3, Persian Gulf:U.S. Navy cruiserVincennesshot down Iran Air Airbus A-300 after mistaking it for an attacking jet fighter; 290 killed. Aug. 28, Ramstein Air Force Base, West Germany:3 jets from Italian Air Force acrobatic team collided in midair during air show and crashed, killing 70 people, including the pilots and spectators on the ground. Dec. 21, Lockerbie, Scotland:N.Y.-bound Pan-Am Boeing 747 exploded in flight from a terrorist bomb and crashed into Scottish village, killing all 259 aboard and 11 on the ground.See Terrorist Attacks. 1989 June 7, Paramaribo, Suriname:a Surinam Airways DC-8 carrying 174 passengers crashed into the jungle while making a third attempt to land in a thick fog, killing 168 aboard. July 19, Sioux City, Iowa:United Airlines DC-10 crashed during an emergency landing. Out of a total of 296 aboard, 111 were killed, 172 were injured, and 13 escaped unharmed. 1991 May 26, nr. Bangkok, Thailand:Austrian Lauda Air Boeing 767, en route to Vienna, crashed into jungle hilltop shortly after takeoff from Bangkok airport, killing all 223 aboard. Thailand's worst air disaster. July 11, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia:Canadian-chartered DC-8 carrying pilgrims returning to Nigeria crashed after takeoff, killing 261 people. 1994 Jan. 3, Irkutsk, Russia:Russian Tupolev-154 crashes after taking off, killing all 124 people. April 14, northern Iraq:two American F-15C fighter aircraft mistook two U.S. Army blackhawk helicopters for Russian-made Iraqi MI-24 helicopters and shot them down over no-fly zone, killing all 26 on board.

Aircraft Crashes (part 1 of 2): Find a list of the worst aircraft crashes in the world, including theHindenburgdisaster and the Sept 11, 2001, attacks. (See also Terrorist Attacks.) 1921 Aug. 24, England:British dirigibleAR-2broke in two on trial trip near Hull; 62 died. 1925 Sept. 3, Caldwell, Ohio:U.S. dirigibleShenandoahbroke apart; 14 dead. 1930 Oct. 5, Beauvais, France:British dirigibleR 101crashed, killing 47. 1933 April 4, N.J.:U.S. dirigibleAkroncrashed; 73 died. 1937 May 6, Lakehurst, N.J.:German zeppelin Hindenburgdestroyed by fire at tower mooring; 36 killed. 1945 July 28, New York City:U.S. Army bomber B-25 crashed into Empire State Building; 13 dead. 1953 June 18, near Tokyo:Crash of U.S. Air Force C-124 Globemaster killed 129 servicemen. 1956 June 30, Grand Canyon, Ariz.:TWA Super Constellation and United Airlines DC-7 collided over the Painted Desert, killing a total of 128 passengers and crew from both aircraft. 1960 Dec. 16, New York City:United DC-8 and Trans World Super Constellation collided and crashed, killing 134 in air and on ground. 1961 Feb. 15, nr. Brussels, Belgium:72 on board and farmer on ground killed in crash of Sabena plane; U.S. figure skating team wiped out. 1962 March 4, Douala, Cameroon:Trans-African DC-7 crashed on takeoff, killing all 111 people aboard. June 3, Paris:Chartered Air France Boeing 707 crashed after takeoff at Orly Airport, killing 130. June 22, Grande-Teree Island, Guadeloupe:Air France Boeing 707 crashed, killing all 113 aboard. 1963 Nov. 29, Montreal:Trans-Canada Airlines DC-8F crashed after taking off. All 118 aboard died. 1965 May 20, Cairo:Pakistan International Airways 707 crashed on landing at airport; 124 killed. 1966 Jan. 24, Mont Blanc:Air India Boeing 707 crashed into a mountain in a fog; 117 dead. Feb. 4, Tokyo:All-Nippon 727 jet crashed into Tokyo Bay as it approached airport, killing all 133 aboard. March 5, near Gotemba City, Japan:BOAC Boeing 707 broke apart in flight and crashed into Mount Fuji; 124 dead. Dec. 24, Binh Thai, South Vietnam:crash of military-chartered CL-44 into village killed 129. 1967 April 20, Nicosia, Cyprus:Chartered Swiss Globe Britannia Turboprop crashed while landing, killing 126. 1970 Feb. 15, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic:Dominican DC-9 plunged into Caribbean on takeoff; 102 dead. July 3, near Barcelona, Spain:British charter Dan-Air Comet jet crashed into the sea while coming in for a landing at Barcelona; 112 dead. July 5, Toronto:Air Canada DC-8 crashed on landing approach; 109 dead. Nov. 14, Huntington, W.Va.:Chartered Southern Airways DC-9 crashed and burned on approach to Tri-State Airport; 75 dead, including entire Marshall University football team. 1971 July 30, Morioka, Japan:Japanese Boeing 727 and F-86 fighter collided in midair; 162 died. Sept. 4, near Juneau, Alaska:Alaskan Airlines Boeing 727 crashed into Chilkoot Mountains; 109 killed. 1972 May 5, Palermo, Sicily:Alitalia DC-8 hit mountain, killing 115. June 18, London:BEA Trident jetliner crashed after takeoff from Heathrow Airport. All 118 aboard were killed. Aug. 14, East Berlin, East Germany:Soviet-built East German Ilyushin Il-62 plane crashed, killing 156. Oct. 13, Moscow, Russia:Aeroflot Ilyushin IL-14 crashed during landing due to pilot fatigue and 176 people perish. Dec. 3, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands:Spanish charter jet Convair 990-A jet carrying West German tourists crashed on takeoff; all 155 aboard killed. Dec. 30, Miami, Fla.:Eastern Airlines Lockheed 1011 TriStar jumbo jet, Flight 401, crashed into Everglades; 101 killed, 75 survived. 1973 Jan. 22, Kano, Nigeria:171 Nigerian Muslims returning from Mecca and 5 crewmen died in crash. Feb. 21, Sinai:civilian Libyan Arab Airlines Boeing 727 shot down by Israeli fighters after it had strayed off course; 108 died, 5 survived. Officials claimed that the pilot had ignored fighters' warnings to land. April 10, Hochwald, Switzerland:British airliner carrying tourists to Swiss fair crashed in blizzard; 106 dead. July 11, Paris:Boeing 707 of Varig Airlines, en route to Rio de Janeiro, crashed near airport, killing 122 of 134 passengers. 1974 March 3, Paris:Turkish DC-10 jumbo jet crashed in forest shortly after takeoff; all 346 killed. Dec. 4, Colombo, Sri Lanka:Dutch DC-8 carrying Muslims to Meccakilled all 191 when it crashed on landing approach. 1975 April 4, nr. Saigon, Vietnam:Air Force Galaxy C-5A crashed after takeoff, killing 172, mostly Vietnamese children. Aug. 3, Agadir, Morocco:chartered Boeing 707, returning Moroccan workers home after vacation in France, plunged into mountainside; all 188 killed.

Fires and Explosions Worst U.S. Forest Fires Whether you're talking about forest fires or kitchen fires, factory explosions or arson, when fires get out of control, the damage can be devastating. 1666 Sept. 2, England:“Great Fire of London” destroyed much of the city, including St. Paul's Cathedral. Damage £10 million. 1835 Dec. 16, New York City:530 buildings destroyed by fire. 1871 Oct. 8, Chicago:the “Chicago Fire” burned 17,450 buildings and killed 250 people; $196 million in damage. 1872 Nov. 9, Boston:fire destroyed 800 buildings; $75 million in damage. 1876 Dec. 5, New York City:fire in Brooklyn Theater killed more than 300. 1881 Dec. 8, Vienna:at least 620 died in fire at Ring Theatre. 1900 May 1, Scofield, Utah:explosion of blasting powder in coal mine killed 200. 1900 June 30, Hoboken, N.J.:piers of North German Lloyd Steamship line burned; 326 dead. 1903 Dec. 30, Chicago:Iroquois Theatre fire killed 602. 1904 Feb. 7, Baltimore, Md.:blaze spread through downtown Baltimore. More than 1,500 buildings were destroyed. Damages $150 million, but no lives lost June 15, New York City, NY:the steamship ferryGeneral Slocumignited on a voyage to Long Island; over 1,000 dead. 1906 March 10, France:explosion in coal mine in Courrières killed 1,060. 1907 Dec. 6, Monongah, W. Va.:coal mine explosion killed 362. Dec. 19, Jacobs Creek, Pa.:explosion in coal mine left 239 dead. 1908 Jan. 13, Boyertown, Pa.:fire in Rhoads Opera House killed 170 people who were attending church-sponsored stage performance. March 4, Collinwood, Ohio:fire in Collinwood school killed 176. Led to revision of fire codes for schools. 1909 Nov. 13, Cherry, Ill.:explosion in coal mine killed 259. 1911 March 25, New York City:fire in Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fatal to 145. 1913 Oct. 22, Dawson, N.M.:coal mine explosion left 263 dead. 1917 April 10, Eddystone, Pa.:explosion in munitions plant killed 133. 1917 Dec. 6, Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia:Belgian steamer collided with ammunition shipMont Blanc, which was carrying over 2,500 tons of explosives. Explosion leveled part of Halifaxand left about 1,600 people dead. 1921 Sept. 21, Oppau, Germany:ammonium nitrate exploded destroying the BASF plant and nearby houses, killing 430 people. 1923 May 17, Beulah, S.C.:fire started by a candle during a Cleveland school play killed 77. 1928 May 19, Mather, Pa.:coal mine explosion left 195 dead. 1930 April 21, Columbus, Ohio:fire in Ohio State Penitentiary killed 320 convicts. 1937 March 18, New London, Tex.:explosion de-stroyed schoolhouse; 294 killed. 1940 April 23, Natchez, Mississippi:209 die when a packed dance hall erupts in flames during a performance by Walter Barnes and His Royal Creolians Orchestra. The blaze is fueled by decorative Spanish moss covering the building's rafters, which generated flammable methane gas once burned. Among those to perish were Barnes and nine members of his band. 1942 April 26, Manchuria:explosion in Honkeiko Colliery killed 1,549. Nov. 28, Boston, Mass.:Coconut Grove nightclub fire killed 491. 1944 July 6, Hartford, Conn.:fire and ensuing stampede in main tent of Ringling Brothers Circus killed 168 and injured 487. July 17, Port Chicago, Calif.:322 killed when ammunition ships exploded. Oct. 20, Cleveland:spilled liquid natural gas exploded, killing 130. 1946 Dec. 7, Atlanta:fire in Winecoff Hotel killed 119. 1947 April 16–18, Texas City, Tex.:most of the city destroyed by a fire and subsequent explosion on the French freighterGrandcamp, which was carrying a cargo of ammonium nitrate. At least 516 were killed and over 3,000 injured. 1949 Sept. 2, China:fire on Chongqing(Chungking) waterfront killed 1,700. 1954 May 26, off Quonset Point, R.I.:explosion and fire on aircraft carrierBenningtonkilled 103. 1956 Aug. 7, Colombia:seven army ammunition trucks exploded at Cali, killing about 1,100. Aug. 8, Belgium:262 died in coal mine fire at Marcinelle. 1958 Dec. 1, Chicago:fire at Our Lady of Angels, a Roman Catholic grade school, resulted in deaths of 90 students and 3 nuns. 1960 Jan. 21, Coalbrook, South Africa:coal mine explosion killed 437. Nov. 13, Syria:152 children killed in moviehouse fire. 1961 Dec. 17, Niteroi, Brazil:circus fire fatal to 323. 1962 Feb. 7, Saarland, West Germany:coal mine gas explosion killed 298. 1963 Nov. 9, Japan:explosion in coal mine at Omuta killed 447. 1965 May 28, India:coal mine fire in state of Biharkilled 375. June 1, nr. Fukuoka, Japan:coal mine explosion killed 236. 1967 May 22, Brussels, Belgium:fire in L'Innovation department store left 322 dead. July 29, off North Vietnam:fire on U.S. carrierForrestalkilled 134. 1969 Jan. 14, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii:nuclear aircraft carrierEnterpriseripped by explosions; 27 dead, 82 injured. 1970 Nov. 1, Saint-Laurent-du-Pont, France:fire in dance hall killed 146 young people. 1972 May 13, Osaka, Japan:118 people died in fire in nightclub on top floor of Sennichi department store.

Nuclear and Chemical Accidents Though nuclear power is a good source of energy and is generally not a threat, there have been instances when security measures have failed. Nuclear meltdowns can cause dangerous radiation to escape into the surrounding environment. 1952 Dec. 12, Chalk River, nr. Ottawa, Canada:a partial meltdown of the reactor's uranium fuel core resulted after the accidental removal of four control rods. Although millions of gallons of radioactive water accumulated inside the reactor, there were no injuries. 1953 Love Canal, nr. Niagara Falls, N.Y.:was destroyed by waste from chemical plants. By the 1990s, the town had been cleaned up enough for families to begin moving back to the area. 1957 Oct. 7, Windscale Pile No. 1, north of Liverpool, England:fire in a graphite-cooled reactor spewed radiation over the countryside, contaminating a 200-square-mile area. South Ural Mountains:explosion of radioactive wastes at Soviet nuclear weapons factory 12 mi from city of Kyshtym forced the evacuation of over 10,000 people from a contaminated area. No casualties were reported by Soviet officials. 1976 nr. Greifswald, East Germany:radioactive core of reactor in the Lubmin nuclear power plant nearly melted down due to the failure of safety systems during a fire. 1979 March 28, Three Mile Island, nr. Harrisburg, Pa.:one of two reactors lost its coolant, which caused overheating and partial meltdown of its uranium core. Some radioactive water and gases were released. This was the worst accident in U.S. nuclear-reactor history. 1984 Dec. 3, Bhopal, India:toxic gas, methyl isocyanate, seeped from Union Carbide insecticide plant, killing more than 2,000 and injuring about 150,000. 1986 April 26, Chernobyl, nr. Kiev, Ukraine:explosion and fire in the graphite core of one of four reactors released radioactive material that spread over part of the Soviet Union, eastern Europe, Scandinavia, and later western Europe. 31 claimed dead. Total casualties are unknown. Worst such accident to date. 1987 Sept. 18, Goiânia, Brazil:244 people contaminated with cesium-137 from a cancer-therapy machine that had been sold as scrap. Four people died in worst radiation disaster in Western Hemisphere. 1999 Sept. 30, Tokaimura, Japan:uncontrolled chain reaction in a uranium-processing nuclear fuel plant spewed high levels of radioactive gas into the air, killing two workers and seriously injuring one other. 2004 Aug. 9, Mihama, Japan:nonradioactive steam leaked from a nuclear power plant, killing four workers and severely burning seven others. 2007 July 17, Kashiwazaki, Japan:radiation leaks, burst pipes, and fires at a major nuclear power plant followed a 6.8 magnitude earthquake near Niigata. Japanese officials, frustrated at the plant operators' delay in reporting the damage, closed the plant a week later until its safety could be confirmed. Further investigation revealed that the plant had unknowingly been built directly on top of an active seismic fault. 2008 February 7, Port Wentworth, Georgia:an explosion fueled by combustible sugar dust killed 13 people and injured several others at the Imperial Sugar plant near Savannah. 2011 March 12, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan:an explosion in reactor No. 1 caused one of the buildings to crumble to the ground. The cooling system at the reactor failed shortly after the earthquake and tsunami hit Japan. By Tuesday, March 15, two more explosions and a fire had officials and workers at the plant struggling to regain control of four reactors. The fire, which happened at reactor No. 4, was contained by noon on Tuesday, but not before the incident released radioactivity directly into the atmosphere.

Droughts and Heat Waves 1930s Many states:longest drought of the 20th century. Peak periods were 1930, 1934, 1936, 1939, and 1940. During 1934, dry regions stretched solidly from N.Y. and Pa. across the Great Plains to the Calif. coast. A great “dust bowl” covered some 50 million acres in the south-central plains during the winter of 1935–1936. 1955 Aug. 31–Sept. 7, Los Angeles:8-day run of 100°-plus heat left 946 people dead. 1972 July 14–26, New York City:891 people died in 14-day heat wave. 1980 June–Sept., central and eastern U.S.:an estimated 10,000 people were killed during the summer in a long heat wave and drought. Damages totaled about $20 billion. 1982–1983 worldwide:El Niño caused wildly unusual weather in the U.S. and elsewhere throughout 1983. Drought in the western Pacific region led to disastrous forest fires in Indonesia and Australia. Overall loss to world economy was over $8 billion. Similar event in 1997–1998 resulted in estimated loss of $25–$33 billion. 1988 Summer, central and eastern U.S.:a severe drought and heat wave killed an estimated 5,000–10,000 people, including heat stress-related deaths. Damages reached $40 billion. 1995 July 12–17, Chicago:739 people died in record heat wave. 1996 Fall 1995–summer 1996, Tex. and Okla.:severe drought in southern plains region caused $4 billion in agricultural losses; no deaths. 1998 Summer, southern U.S.:severe heat and drought spread across Tex. and Okla., all the way to N.C. and S.C, killing at least 200. Estimated damages of $6–$9 billion. 1999 Summer, eastern U.S.:rainfall shortages resulted in worst drought on record for Md., Del., N.J., and R.I. The state of W.Va. was declared a disaster area. 3.81 million acres were consumed by fire as of mid-Aug. Record heat throughout the country resulted in 502 deaths nationwide. 2000 Spring–summer, southern U.S.:severe drought and heat killed an estimated 140 people. Damages were estimated at $4 billion. 2003 May–June, southern India:a monthlong intense heat wave claimed more than 1,500 lives. Aug., Europe:drought conditions and a heat wave, one of the worst in 150 years, broke temperature records from London to Portugal, fueled forest fires, ruined crops, and caused thousands of deaths. (French fatalities estimated at more than 14,000.) 2006 July 16–25, California:a two-week heat wave killed at least 140 people. 2007 August, southeastern U.S.:more than 50 deaths and innumerable cases of heat-related illneses have been attributed to the excessive heat. Drinking water sources, such as Atlanta's Lake Lanier, have also been severely depleted. 2008 June 4, California:With reservoir levels well below average and the state experiencing its driest spring in 88 years, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger officially declares that California is in a drought and warns of potential rationing. It is the first such declaration in 17 years. 2012 Spring, several states:A national drought begins in the spring of 2012 due to the lack of snow the U.S. received during the previous winter. The drought causes 123 deaths and over $40 billion in damages.

U.S. Tornadoes Find a list of the most deadly and intense tornadoes in the U.S. with casualty information. 1840 May 6, Natchez, Miss.:tornado struck heart of the city, killing 317 and injuring over 1,000. 1880 April 18, Marshfield, Mo.:series of 24 tornadoes demolished city, killing 99 people. 1884 Feb. 19, Miss., Ala., N.C., S.C., Tenn., Ky., Ind.:series of 60 tornadoes caused estimated 800 deaths. 1890 March 27, Louisville, Ky.:twister hit community and caused 76 deaths. 1896 May 27, eastern Mo. and southern Ill.:series of 18 tornadoes; 1 tornado destroyed large section of St. Louis, Mo., killing 255. 1899 June 12, New Richmond, Wis.:tornado struck while circus was in town, causing 117 deaths. 1902 May 18, Goliad, Tex.:tornado killed 114. 1903 June 1, Gainesville, Holland, Ga.:twister caused 98 deaths. 1905 May 10, Snyder, Okla.:tornado killed 97. 1908 April 24–25, La., Miss., Ala., Ga.:18 tornadoes resulted in 310 deaths (143 of these caused by 1 tornado that moved from Amite, La. to Purvis, Miss.). April 24, Natchez, Miss.:twister struck, causing 91 deaths. 1913 March 23, eastern Nebr. and western Iowa:Easter Sunday: 8 tornadoes resulted in 181 deaths (103 in Omaha, Nebr.). 1917 May 26, Mattoon, Ill.:tornado smashed area, causing 101 deaths. 1920 April 20, Starkville, Miss.; Waco, Ala.:tornado killed 88. 1924 June 28, Lorain, Sandusky, Ohio:tornado swept through cities, causing 85 deaths. 1925 March 18, Mo., Ill., Ind.:the “Tri-State Tornado” was the most violent single twister in U.S. history. It caused the deaths of 695 people and injured over 2,000. Property damage was estimated at $16.5 million. 1927 May 9, Poplar Bluff, Mo.:twister killed 98. Sept. 29, St. Louis, Mo.:a five-minute tornado ripped through the city and caused 79 deaths. 1932 March 21–22, Ala., Miss., Ga., Tenn.:outbreak of 33 tornadoes killed 334 (268 in Ala.). 1936 April 5–6, Deep South:series of 17 tornadoes; 216 killed in Tupelo, Miss., and 203 killed in Gainesville, Ga. 1944 June 23, W. Va., Pa., Md.:4 tornadoes caused 153 deaths. 1947 April 9, Woodward, Okla.:tornado demolished town, killing 181. 1952 March 21–22, Ark. and Tenn.:28 tornadoes caused 204 deaths. 1953 May 11, Waco, Tex.:a single tornado killed 114. June 8, Flint, Mich.:tornado killed 115. June 9, Worcester, Mass.:tornado hit town, killing 90. 1955 May 25, Udall, Kans.:tornado killed 80. 1965 April 11–12, Midwest–Great Lakes region:tornadoes in Iowa, Ill., Ind., Ohio, Mich., and Wis. caused 256 deaths. 1967 April 21, northern Ill., also Mo., Iowa, lower Mich.:series of 52 tornadoes caused 58 deaths. 1971 Feb. 21, Miss., La., Ark., Tenn.:series of 10 tornadoes resulted in 121 deaths. 1974 April 3–4:a series of 148 twisters within 16 hours comprised the deadly “Super Tornado Outbreak” that struck 13 states in the East, South, and Midwest. Before it was over, 330 died and 5,484 were injured in a damage path covering more than 2,500 mi. 1979 April 10, northern Tex. and southern Okla.:11 tornadoes caused 59 deaths. 1984 March 28, N.C. and S.C.:22 tornadoes caused 57 deaths. 1985 May 31, Pa. and Ohio:27 tornadoes resulted in 75 deaths. Estimated damages were $450 million. 1990 Aug. 28, northern Ill.:fast-moving tornado struck the southwest suburbs of Chicago, killing 29 and injuring more than 300. 1992 Nov. 21–23, southeast Tex. to Mid-Atlantic and Ohio Valley:total of 94 tornadoes caused 26 deaths and $291 million in damage. 1994 March 27, Ala., Ga., and N.C.:Palm Sunday tornado outbreak resulted in 42 deaths and 320 injuries. Property damages reached $107 million. Twenty people died and 90 were injured when a tornado caused the roof of a church near Piedmont, Ala., to collapse. 1997 May 27, central Tex.:multiple tornadoes, including one particularly strong twister that devastated the town of Jarrell, caused 29 deaths and an estimated $20 million in damage. 1999 Jan. 17–22, Tenn. and Ark.:a series of tornadoes left 17 dead. Damages were estimated at $1.3 billion. May 3, Okla. and Kans.:unusually large twister, thought to have been a mile wide at times, killed 44 people and injured at least 748. A separate tornado killed another 5 and injured about 150 in Kans. Damages totaled at least $1 billion. 2000 Feb. 14, southwest Ga.:at least 5 tornadoes struck southwest Ga., killing 19 people and injuring over 100. 2002 Nov. 9–11, central and southeast U.S.:series of more than 70 tornadoes across 9 states from Miss. to Pa. killed 36 people. 2003 May 1–10, southern and midwestern U.S.:more than 400 tornadoes in 10 days killed 42. 2006 March–April, plains, Tenn, and Ohio valley, U.S.:more than 500 tornadoes killed 47 people in the 2–month period. 2007 March 1, Ala., Minn., Miss., and Ga.:a series of tornados killed about 20 people, including eight high school students. May 7, Kans.:ten people died in a Category F-5 tornado that completely wiped out a small Kansas farming town.

Typhoons 1906 Sept. 18, Hong Kong:typhoon with tsunami killed an estimated 10,000 people. 1934 Sept. 21, Japan:typhoon killed more than 4,000 on Honshu. 1949 Dec. 5, off Korea:typhoon struck fishing fleet; several thousand men reported dead. 1958 Sept. 27, Honshu, Japan:“Vera” left nearly 5,000 dead and 1.5 million homeless. 1959 Aug. 20, Fukien province, China:“Iris” killed 2,334. 1960 June 9, Fukien province, China:“Mary” caused at least 1,600 deaths. 1984 Sept. 2–3, Philippines:“Ike” hit seven major islands, leaving 1,300 dead. 1991 Nov. 5, central Philippines:flash floods from tropical storm “Thelma” killed about 3,000 people. City of Ormoc on Leytewas worst hit. 2003 Sept. 12, South Korea:With winds up to 130 mph, Typhoon Maemi, one of the most powerful typhoons to hit South Korea in a century, kills at least 110 people, disrupts electrical power and communications systems, knocks over ships in the port, and forces the evacuation of thousands from their homes. 2004 Oct. 20, Japan:Typhoon Tokage, the deadliest typhoon to hit Japan in more than two decades, kills at least 80 people as heavy rains flood tens of thousands of houses and trigger numerous landslides. The typhoon produces a record (since 1970) 80 ft (24 m) high wave, eight-stories high. 2007 Aug.18, Taiwan:Typhoon Sepat, hit Taiwan with winds over 120 mph, cutting power supplies to nearly 57,000 homes, killing over 40 people, injuring 12 more, and forcing more than a thousand others to evacuate. 2008 June 21, the Philippines:a ferry, thePrincess of the Stars, is struck by Typhoon Fengshen, killing most of the 865 passengers and crew. There are 59 known survivors. Almost 500 other people die during the storm. July 28, Taiwan:Typhoon Fung Wong, hit the east central coast of Taiwan with winds over 105 mph, only a week after a tropical storm killed 19 people.

Major Blizzards in the U.S. 1888 Jan. 12, Dakota and Montana territories, Minn., Nebr., Kans., and Tex.:“Schoolchildren's Blizzard” resulted in 235 deaths, many of which were children on their way home from school. March 11–14, East Coast:“ Blizzard of 1888” resulted in 400 deaths and as much as 5 ft of snow. Damage was estimated at $20 million. 1949 Jan. 2–4, Nebr., Wyo., S.D., Utah, Colo., and Nev.:Actually one of a series of winter storms between Jan. 1 and Feb. 22. Although only 1 ft to 30 in. of snow fell, fierce winds of up to 72 mph created drifts as high as 30 ft. Tens of thousands of cattle and sheep perished. 1950 Nov. 25–27, eastern U.S.:“Storm of the Century” generated heavy snow and hurricane-force winds across 22 states and claimed 383 lives. Damages estimated at $70 million. 1977 Jan. 28–29, Buffalo, N.Y.:“Blizzard of 1977” dumped about 7 in. of new snow on top of 30–35 in. already on the ground. With winds gusting to 70 mph, drifts were as high as 30 ft. Death toll reached 29, and seven western N.Y. counties were declared a national disaster area. 1978 Feb. 6–8, eastern U.S.:“Blizzard of 1978” battered the East Coast, particularly the Northeast; claimed 54 lives and caused $1 billion in damage. Snowfall ranged from 2–4 ft in New England, plus nearly 2 ft of snow already on the ground from an earlier storm. 1993 March 12–14, eastern U.S.:“Superstorm” paralyzed the eastern seaboard, causing the deaths of some 270 people. Record snowfalls (with rates of 2–3 in. per hour) and high winds caused $3 billion to $6 billion in damage. 1996 Jan. 6–8, eastern U.S.:heavy snow paralyzed the Appalachians, the mid-Atlantic, and the Northeast; 187 were killed in the blizzard and in the floods that resulted after a sudden warm-up. Damages reached $3 billion. 1999 Jan. 1–3, Midwest U.S.:major blizzard and sub-zero temperatures wreak havoc in Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio; 73 were killed in the blizzard and transportation systems in the region were paralyzed. Damages reached about $500 million.

Other Hurricanes 1780 Oct. 10–16, Barbados, West Indies:“The Great Hurricane of 1780” killed 20,000–22,000 people and completely flattened the islands of Barbados, Martinique, and St. Eustatius;it is the deadliest Western Hemisphere hurricane on record. 1926 Oct. 20, Cuba:powerful hurricane killed 650. 1930 Sept. 3, Dominican Republic:hurricane killed about 8,000 people. 1955 Sept. 19, Mexico:“Hilda” took 200 lives. Sept. 22–28, Caribbean:“Janet” killed 200 in Honduras and 300 in Mexico. 1961 Oct. 31, British Honduras:“Hattie” devastated capital of Belize, killing at least 400. 1963 Oct. 2–7, Caribbean:“Flora” killed about 7,200 in Haiti and Cuba. 1966 Sept. 24–30, Caribbean area:“Inez” killed 293. 1974 Sept. 14–19, Honduras:“Fifi” struck northern part of country, leaving 8,000 dead and 100,000 homeless. 1988 Sept. 12–17, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico:“Gilbert” took at least 260 lives and caused some 39 tornadoes in Tex. 1997 Oct. 8–10, southern Mexico:“Pauline” devastated resort city of Acapulco and villages along the coast in states of Oaxacaand Guerrero,leaving 217 dead and 20,000 homeless. 1998 Sept. 20–29, Caribbean, Fla. Keys, and Gulf Coast:“George” killed about 600 people, mostly in Dominican Republic. Damage estimated to be $5 billion, including $2 billion in Puerto Rico. Oct. 26–Nov. 4, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala:“Mitch” killed more than 14,500 people, becoming the deadliest Atlantic storm in 200 years. Two to three million people were left homeless; damages were more than $5 billion. 2004 Sept. 18, Haiti:Floods from tropical storm “Jeanne” killed more than 2,400 in Haiti and left 300,000 homeless. 2007 Aug. 13–23, Caribbean and Mexico:“Dean,” a category 5 hurricane with winds reaching 150 mph, took 32 lives and caused more than $200 million in damage. Aug. 31–Sept. 5, Caribbean, Nicaragua, and Honduras:“Felix,” a category 5 hurricane with winds reaching 150 mph, took at least 130 lives and left 70 others missing. 2008 Aug. 28–Sept. 2, Caribbean and Gulf Coast:"Gustav" killed at least 137 people and injured many more when it made landfall in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Thousands were left homeless and without food and water. In the U.S., "Gustav" forced the entire city of New Orleans to evacuate and left 26 people dead in three states. Sept. 7–8, Haiti, Cuba, Turks and Caicos islands:“Ike,” a category 2 hurricane with winds reaching 120 mph, took at least 61 lives in Haiti, left more than 80% of homes destroyed on Turks and Caicos islands, and caused four deaths and 800,000 people to evacuate their homes in Cuba. Nov. 8, Cuba:“Paloma,” a category 3 hurricane with winds reaching 120 mph, forced more than 300,000 people in Cuba to evacuate their homes and caused about $9.4 billion in damages.

U.S. Hurricanes Find data about the most intense and deadliest hurricanes to strike the U.S. Figures include U.S. deaths only, except where noted. Damages are actual cost in U.S. dollars, followed in parentheses by dollar figures adjusted to the year 2000.) 1776 Sept. 2–9, N.C. to Nova Scotia:called the “Hurricane of Independence,” it is believed that 4,170 in the U.S. and Canada died in the storm. 1856 Aug. 11, Last Island, La.:400 died. 1893 Aug. 28, Savannah, Ga., Charleston, S.C., Sea Islands, S.C.:at least 1,000 died. 1900 Sept. 8, Galveston, Tex.:an estimated 6,000–8,000 died in hurricane and tidal surge. The “Galveston Hurricane” is considered the deadliest in U.S. history. 1909 Sept. 10–21, La. and Miss.:350 deaths. 1915 Aug. 5–23, Galveston, Tex., and New Orleans, La.:275 killed. 1919 Sept. 2–15, Fla. Keys, La., and southern Tex.:more than 600 killed, mostly lost on ships at sea. 1926 Sept. 11–22, southeast Fla. and Ala.:243 deaths. 1928 Sept. 6–20, Lake Okeechobee, southeast Fla.:1,836 deaths. Second-deadliest U.S. hurricane on record. 1935 Aug. 29–Sept. 10, Fla. Keys:“Labor Day Hurricane”; 408 deaths. 1938 Sept. 10–22, Long Island, N.Y., and southern New England:“New England Hurricane”; 600 deaths. 1944 Sept. 9–16, N.C. to New England:390 deaths, 344 of which were at sea. 1947 Sept. 4–21, southeast Fla., La., Miss., Ala.:51 killed. 1954 Aug. 25–31, N.C. to New England:“Carol” killed 60 in Long Island–New England area. Oct. 5–18, S.C. to N.Y.:“Hazel” killed 95 in U.S.; about 400–1,000 in Haiti; 78 in Canada. 1955 Aug. 7–21, N.C. to New England:“Diane” took 184 lives and cost $8.3 million ($5.5 billion). 1957 June 25–28, southwest La. and northern Tex.:“Audrey” wiped out Cameron, La., causing 390 deaths. 1960 Aug. 29–Sept. 13, Fla. to New England:“Donna” killed 50 in the U.S.; 115 deaths in Antilles. 1961 Sept. 3–15, Tex. coast:“Carla” devastated Tex. gulf cities, taking 46 lives. 1965 Aug. 27–Sept. 12, southern Fla. and La.:“Betsy” killed 75 and cost more than $1.4 ($8.5) billion. 1969 Aug. 14–22, Miss., La., Ala., Va., and W. Va.:256 killed as a result of “Camille.” Damages estimated at $1.4 ($6.9) billion. 1972 June 14–23, northwest Fla. to N.Y.:“Agnes” caused widespread flash floods killing 117 (50 in Pa). Damages estimated at over $2.1 ($8.6) billion. Still the worst natural disaster ever in Pa. 1979 Aug. 25–Sept. 7, Caribbean to New England:“David” caused five U.S. deaths; 1,200 in the Dominican Republic. Aug. 29–Sept. 15, Ala. and Miss.:“Frederic” devastated Mobile, Ala., and caused $2.3 ($4.9) billion in damage overall. 1980 Aug. 3–10, Caribbean to Tex. Gulf:“Allen” killed 28 in U.S.; over 200 in Caribbean. 1983 Aug. 15–21, Galveston and Houston, Tex.:“Alicia” caused 21 deaths and $2 ($3.4) billion in damages. 1985 Oct. 6–Nov. 1, La. southeast U.S.:“Juan,” a Category 1 hurricane, caused severe flooding and $1.5 ($2.4) billion in damages; 63 people died. 1989 Sept. 10–22, Caribbean Sea, S.C., and N.C.:“Hugo” claimed 86 lives (57 U.S. mainland) and damages estimated over $7 ($9.7) billion. 1991 Oct. 30–Nov. 1, Eastern Atlantic seaboard:an unnamed hurricane labeled the “perfect storm” caused extensive erosion and flooding along the Atlantic seaboard and created 39-foot waves. 1992 Aug. 22–26, Bahamas, southern Fla., and La.:Hurricane “Andrew” left 26 dead and more than 100,000 homes destroyed or damaged. Total U.S. damages estimated at $26.5 ($34.9) billion. 1994 Nov. 8–21, Caribbean and southern Fla.:“Gordon” led to an estimated 1,122 deaths in Haiti. Eight died in Fla. 1995 Nov. 29, Fla. Panhandle and Ala.:storm surge during “Opal” caused extensive damage to coastal areas; nine U.S. deaths and damages of $3 ($3.5) billion. 1996 Sept. 5, N.C. and Va.:“Fran” took 37 lives and caused more than $3.2 ($3.6) billion in damage. 1999 Sept. 14–18, Bahamas to New England:“Floyd” and associated flooding caused at least 57 deaths. Damage estimated at $4.5 ($4.6) billion. 2001 June 8–15, Gulf Coast to southern New England:tropical storm “Allison” caused severe flooding, damage estimated at $5 billion (actual cost); 41 deaths. 2003 Sept. 18, N.C. and Va.:“Isabel” took 50 lives and caused more than $3.7 billion in damage. 2004 Aug. 13–Sept. 26, Fla., Ala., and southern U.S.:Four major hurricanes hit Fla. in 6 weeks. “Charley,” on Aug. 13, a Category 4 hurricane, killed 34; “Frances,” on Sept. 5, killed 48. “Ivan” swept from Grenada to Ala. and Fla. on Sept. 16, killing 57 in the U.S. and 66 in the Caribbean. “Jeanne,” on Sept. 26, flooded Fla. again, killing 28. Total U.S. damages from the 4 hurricanes estimated to exceed $35 billion.

Cyclones 1864 Oct. 5, Calcutta, India:70,000 killed. 1942 Oct. 16, Bengal, India:about 40,000 lives lost. 1960 Oct. 10, East Pakistan:cyclone and tidal wave killed about 6,000. 1963 May 28–29, East Pakistan:cyclone killed about 22,000 along coast. 1965 May 11–12 and June 1–2, East Pakistan:cyclones killed about 47,000. Dec. 15, Karachi, Pakistan:about 10,000 killed. 1970 Nov. 12–13, East Pakistan:cyclone and tidal waves killed 200,000 and another 100,000 were reported missing. 1971 Sept. 29, Orissa state, India:cyclone and tidal wave killed as many as 10,000 off the Bay of Bengal. 1974 Dec. 25, Darwin, Australia:cyclone destroyed nearly the entire city; 50 reported dead. 1977 Nov. 19, Andhra Pradesh, India:cyclone and tidal wave claimed lives of 20,000. 1991 April 30, southeast Bangladesh:cyclone killed over 131,000 and left up to 9 million homeless. Thousands of survivors died from hunger and water-borne disease. 1999 Oct. 29, Orissa state, India:supercyclone swept in from Bay of Bengal, killing at least 9,573 and leaving over 10 million homeless. 2004 March 8, Antalaha, Madagascar:Cyclone Gafilo, with winds of 160 mph and heavy rains, leaves hundreds of thousands homeless and killed 295 people. More than 100 were on a ferry that sank off the island of Comoros. 2007 November 15, southern Bangladesh:Cyclone Sidr, with winds over 100 miles per hour, kills nearly 3,500 people in southern Bangladesh. The United Nations reports that a million people are left homeless. 2008 May 3, Myanmar:Cyclone Nargis hits the Irrawaddy Delta and the city of Yangon, killing at least 22,500 people— 41,000 more are still missing. Most of the deaths and destruction were caused by a 12-foot high tidal wave that formed during the storm.

Floods, Avalanches, and Tidal Waves 1228 Holland:100,000 people reputedly drowned by sea flood in Friesland. 1642 China:rebels destroyed Kaifengseawall; 300,000 drowned. 1889 May 31, Johnstown, Pa.:more than 2,200 died in flood after South Fork Dam collapsed. 1910 March 1, Wellington, Wash.:avalanche in Cascade Range swept 2 trains into canyon, killing 96. Worst U.S. avalanche. 1903 June 14, Willow Creek, Ore.:Flash floods swept away town of Heppner, killing more than 240. 1913 March–April, Ohio:Statewide flooding of rivers killed at least 428. 1928 March 12, Santa Paula, Calif.:collapse of St. Francis Dam left 450 dead. 1931 July–Aug., China:flood along Yangtze River left 3.7 million people dead from disease, starvation, or drowning. 1953 Jan. 31–Feb. 5, northwest Europe:storm followed by floods devastated North Seacoastal areas. Netherlands hit hardest; 1,794 dead. 1954 Aug., Teheran, Iran:flood rains resulted in some 10,000 deaths. 1959 Dec. 2, Fréjus, France:flood caused by collapse of Malpasset Dam left 412 dead. 1962 Jan. 10, Peru:avalanche down extinct Huascaranvolcano killed more than 3,000. 1963 Oct. 9, Italy:landslide into the Vaiont Dam;flood killed about 2,000. 1966 Oct. 21, Aberfan, Wales:avalanche of coal, waste, mud, and rocks killed 144 people, including 116 children in school. 1969 Jan. 18–26, southern Calif.:floods and mudslides from heavy rains caused widespread property damage; at least 100 dead. Another downpour (Feb. 23–26) caused further floods and mudslides; at least 18 dead. 1970 Nov. 13, East Pakistan:200,000 killed by cyclone-driven tidal wave from Bay of Bengal.Over 100,000 missing. 1971 Aug., Hanoi, North Vietnam:heavy rains flooded the Red River Delta, killing 100,000. 1972 Feb. 26, Man, W. Va.:a slag-pile dam collapsed under pressure of torrential rains, flooding 17-mi valley, killing more than 118. June 9–10, Rapid City, S.D.:flash flood caused 237 deaths and $160 million in damage. 1975 Aug. 5, Yangtze River, China:63 dams failed, killing an estimated 80,000 to 200,000 people from floods and subsequent famine. The Chinese government never acknowledged the event. 1976 Aug. 1, Loveland, Colo.:flash flood along Route 34 in Big Thompson Canyon left 139 dead. 1988 Aug.–Sept., Bangladesh:heaviest monsoon in 70 years killed more than 1,300. Floods inundated three-fourths of country, leaving 30 million homeless and damages estimated over $1 billion. 1993 June–Aug., Ill., Iowa, Kan., Ky., Minn., Mo., Neb., N.D., S.D., Wis.:flooding of the Mississippi River and tributaries caused 50 deaths and about $12 billion in damage. Almost 70,000 left homeless. 1997 Dec. 1996–Jan. 1997, U.S. West Coast:torrential rains and snowmelt produced severe floods in parts of Calif., Ore., Wash., Idaho, Nev., and Mont., causing 36 deaths and about $2–3 billion in damage. March, Ohio and Mississippi Valleys:flooding and tornadoes plagued Ark., Mo., Miss., Tenn., Ill., Ind., Ky., Ohio, and W.Va. 67 were killed and damage totaled approximately $1 billion. April, N.D., S.D., and Minn.:Grand Forks, N.D., and surrounding area devastated as the Red River swelled 13 ft above flood level. Eleven deaths were recorded. Summer, central and northeast China:heavy flooding of Yangtze Riverkilled more than 3,000 and left 14 million homeless. Estimated damages exceeded $20 billion. 1999 Summer, Asia:torrential downpours and flooding left more than 950 dead and millions homeless in S. Korea, China, Japan, the Philippines, and Thailand. Oct., southwest Mexico:heavy rains killed at least 360 people in mudslides and flood waters. Nov. and Dec., Vietnam:devastating floods caused $285 million in damage and killed more than 700 people. Dec. 15–16, northern Venezuela:heavy rains caused catastrophic flooding and mudslides, killing an estimated 5,000 to 20,000 people. Country's worst modern-day natural disaster. 2000 Feb., southeast Africa:weeks of rain resulted in deadly floods in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, killing more than 700 people and leaving 280,000 homeless. mid-September, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam:rising flood waters from the Mekong Riverand its tributaries destroyed crops and livestock and left at least 235 people dead and 4.5 million homeless. Damages were estimated at $50 million in Cambodia and $24 million in Thailand. 2002 Sept. 20, Karmadon Gorge, North Ossetia, Russia:an avalanche caused by a 500-ft chunk of glacier left 150 people dead. June–Aug., Asia:annual monsoons caused record floods and more than 2,000 deaths in China, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.t5 Aug., Europe:record flooding across central and eastern Europe killed 108 people and caused billions of dollars of extensive infrastructure damage and deforestation.

Major U.S. Epidemics 1793 Philadelphia:more than 4,000 residents died from yellow fever. 1832 July–Aug., New York City:over 3,000 people killed in a choleraepidemic. Oct., New Orleans:cholera took the lives of 4,340 people. 1848 New York City:more than 5,000 deaths caused by cholera. 1853 New Orleans:yellow fever killed 7,790. 1867 New Orleans:3,093 perished from yellow fever. 1878 Southern states:over 13,000 people died from yellow fever in lower Mississippi Valley. 1916 Nationwide:over 7,000 deaths occurred and 27,363 cases were reported of polio(infantile paralysis) in America's worst polio epidemic. 1918 March–Nov., nationwide:outbreak of Spanish influenza killed over 500,000 people in the worst single U.S. epidemic. 1949 Nationwide:2,720 deaths occurred from polio, and 42,173 cases were reported. 1952 Nationwide:polio killed 3,300; 57,628 cases reported. 1981–Dec. 2005: Total estimated U.S. AIDS cases: 988,376; total estimated AIDS deaths: 550,394 (Centers for Disease Control). 2009 In April, H1N1, also known as Swine Flu, breaks out and quickly spreads to more than 70 countries. The Centers for Disease Control reports that between April and October, 22 million Americans had contracted the virus, 98,000 required hospitalization, and about 3,900 people died from H1N1-related causes.

Worst Industrial Accidents in History The following table includes information about the worst industrial disasters in history. YearDayIncidentLocationFatalities 201304/24Rana Plaza, a building containing several factories, collapsesSavar, Bangladeshmore than 1,100 198412/0242 tons of lethal methyl isocyanate leak from the Union Carbide pesticide plantBhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India2,259 (immediately) An estimated 25,000 are believed to have died since from the exposure 194204/26A coal dust and gas explosion in a mineBenxihu Colliery, Benxi Liaoning, China1,549 198604/26Explosion during an unauthorized test at the Chernobyl nuclear power plantPrypiat, Ukraine50 due to radiation 3,940 due to radiation induced cancer and leukemia 194704/16Fire near 2,300 tons of ammonium nitrate on S.S. Grandcamp causes explosionPort of Texas City, Texas, USA581 198411/19Explosions at a Liquid Petroleum Gas tank farmSan Juanico, Mexico500 190603/10Coal dust explosionCourrieres, France1,099 197607/10ICMESA, a chemical manufacturing plant, releases dioxins (TCDD)Seveso, Italy3,300 farm animals 80,000 animals are later slaughtered 198903/24Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker, spills 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil into the seaPrince William Sounds, Alaska, USA100,000 to 250,000 seabirds 200005/13Explosion at a fireworks storage depotEnschede, Netherlands23

Fatal Mining Accidents in the U.S. The following table includes information about the most fatal mining accidents in the United States. Only accidents with ten or more fatalities are listed. YearDayMineLocationTypeFatalities 201004/05Upper Big Branch Mine-South, Performance Coal CompanyRaleigh County, Montcoal, West VirginiaExplosion of Gas or Dust29 200601/02Sago Mine, Anker West Virginia Mining Company Inc.Upshur County, Buckhannon, West VirginiaExplosion12 200109/23No. 5 Mine, Jim Walter Resources, Inc.Tuscaloosa County, Brookwood, AlabamaExplosion13 198909/13William Station No. 9 Mine, Pyro Mining Co.Union Co., Wheatcroft, KentuckyExplosion10 198412/19Wilberg Mine, Emery Mining Corp.Emery Co., Orangeville, UtahFire27 198112/08No. 21 Mine, Grundy Mining Co.Marion Co., Whitwell, TennesseeExplosion13 198103/15Dutch Creek No. 1, Mid-Continent Resources, Inc.Pitkin Co., Redstone, ColoradoExplosion15 197603/9-11Scotia Mine, Blue Diamond Coal Co.Letcher Co., Oven Fork, KentuckyExplosion26 197012/30Nos. 15 and 16 Mines, Finley Coal Co.Leslie Co., Hyden, KentuckyExplosion38 196811/20Consol No. 9Farmington, West VirginiaExplosion78 195112/21Orient No. 2West Frankfort, IllinoisExplosion119 194703/25Centralia No. 5Centralia, IllinoisExplosion111 194003/16Willow Grove No. 10St. Clairsville, OhioExplosion72 194001/10Pond Creek No. 1Bartley, West VirginiaExplosion91 191310/22Stag Canon No. 2Dawson, New MexicoExplosion263 190911/13Cherry MineCherry, IllinoisFire259 190712/06Monongah Nos. 6 and 8Monongah, West VirginiaExplosion362 Source:Mine Safety and Health Administration,Historical Data on Mine Disasters in the United StatesWeb: www.msha.gov/.

Major Earthquakes around the World, 2012 The following table lists the date, location, and magnitude of major earthquakes around the world during 2012. DateLocationMagnitude1 Jan. 11Sumatra, Indonesia7.2 Feb. 2Vanuatu7.1 March 20Ometepec, Mexico7.4 March 25Talca, Chile7.1 April 11Aceh Province, Indonesia8.6 April 11Aceh Province, Indonesia8.2 April 12Baja California, Mexico7.0 May 21Northern Italy6.0 Source:various NOTE: A major earthquake is defined here as having a magnitude of 6.0 or more. 1. Unless otherwise indicated, magnitudes listed are moment magnitudes, the newest, most uniformly applicable magnitude scale.

Major Earthquakes around the World, 2011 The following table lists the date, location, and magnitude of major earthquakes around the world during 2011. DateLocationMagnitude1 Jan. 1Santiago del Estero, Argentina7.0 Jan. 13Loyalty Islands7.0 Jan. 18Pakistan7.2 March 9Honshu, Japan7.2 March 11Tohoku, Japan9.0 March 11Honshu, Japan7.9 March 11Honshu, Japan7.7 April 7Honshu, Japan7.1 June 23Aleutian Islands, Alaska, United States7.2 July 6Kermadec Islands, New Zealand7.6 July 10Honshu, Japan7.0 Aug. 20Port Vila, Vanuatu7.1 Sept. 3Isangel, Vanuatu7.0 Sept. 15Ndoi Islands, Fiji7.3 Oct. 21Kermadec Islands, New Zealand7.4 Oct. 23Van, Turkey7.2 Dec. 14Lae, Papua New Guinea7.1 Source:various NOTE: A major earthquake is defined here as having a magnitude of 6.0 or more. 1. Unless otherwise indicated, magnitudes listed are moment magnitudes, the newest, most uniformly applicable magnitude scale.

Major Earthquakes around the World, 2010 The following table lists the date, location, and magnitude of major earthquakes around the world during 2010. DateLocationMagnitude1 Jan. 12Haiti7.0 Feb. 27Maule region, Chile8.8 March 15Biobío Region, Chile7.2 April 4Baja California, Mexico7.2 April 6Sumatra, Indonesia7.7 May 9Sumatra, Indonesia7.2 June 13Nicobar Islands, India7.5 July 24Mindanao, Philippines7.6 August 10Port Vila, Vanuatu7.5 Dec. 21Bonin Islands, Japan7.4 Dec. 25Coast of Vanuatu7.3 Source:various NOTE: A major earthquake is defined here as having a magnitude of 6.0 or more. 1. Unless otherwise indicated, magnitudes listed are moment magnitudes, the newest, most uniformly applicable magnitude scale.

Major Earthquakes around the World, 2009 The following table lists the date, location, and magnitude of major earthquakes around the world during 2009. DateLocationMagnitude1 Jan. 3North Coast of Papua, Indonesia7.6 Jan. 15East of Kuril Islands7.4 Feb. 11Kepulauan Talud, Indonesia7.2 March 19Tonga Region7.6 April 6Central Italy6.3 May 18Greater Los Angeles area, California4.7 May 25North Korea4.7 May 28Offshore Honduras7.3 July 15New Zealand7.6 Aug. 3Gulf of California6.9 Aug. 9Izu Islands, Japan Region7.1 Aug. 10Andaman Islands, India Region7.6 Sept. 2Java, Indonesia7.0 Sept. 21Bhutan6.1 Sept. 29Samoa Islands Region8.0 Sept. 30Southern Sumatra, Indonesia7.6 Source:Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology: Earthquake Events 2009: IRIS NOTE: A major earthquake is defined here as having a magnitude of 6.0 or more. 1. Unless otherwise indicated, magnitudes listed are moment magnitudes, the newest, most uniformly applicable magnitude scale.

Estimated Deaths from Earthquakes, 2009 The following table gives the number of people who died in earthquakes in 2009. The magnitude of each earthquake is also shown. Magnitudes listed are moment magnitudes, the newest, most uniformly applicable magnitude scale. DateRegionMagnitudeNumber killed April 6Central Italy6.3287 May 28Offshore Honduras7.37 Sept. 2Java, Indonesia7.072 Sept. 29Samoa Islands Region8.0110 Sept. 30Southern Sumatra, Indonesia7.61100 Source:Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology: Earthquake Events 2009: IRIS

Major Earthquakes around the World, 2008 The following table lists the date, location, and magnitude of major earthquakes around the world during 2008. DateLocationMagnitude1 Jan. 5Queen Charlotte Islands Region6.6 Jan. 10Off the coast of Oregon6.4 Feb. 20Simeulue, Indonesia7.4 Feb. 24Neveda6.0 Feb. 25Kepulauan Mentawai Region, Indonesia7.0 March 21Xinjiang-Xizang Border Region7.2 April 9Loyalty Islands7.3 April 18Illinois5.2 May 12China7.9 June 13Eastern Honshu, Japan6.9 July 19Honshu, Japan7.0 Oct. 6Kyrgyzstan6.6 Oct. 11Russia6.3 Oct. 29Pakistan6.4 Nov. 16Indonesia7.3 Dec. 20Japan6.3 Source:Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology: Earthquake Events 2008: IRIS NOTE: A major earthquake is defined here as having a magnitude of 6.0 or more. 1. Unless otherwise indicated, magnitudes listed are moment magnitudes, the newest, most uniformly applicable magnitude scale.

Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions Here is information on significant earthquakes and volcanic eruptions going back as early asA.D.79 and through the present. A.D. 79 Aug. 24, Italy: eruption of Mt. Vesuvius buried cities of Pompeiiand Herculaneum, killing thousands. 856 Dec. 22, Damghan, Iran:earthquake killed 200,000. 893 March 23, Ardabil, Iran:earthquake killed about 150,000 people. 1138 Aug. 9, Aleppo, Syria:deadly earthquake claimed lives of 230,000 people. 1290 Sept., Chihli, China:earthquake killed about 100,000 people. 1556 Jan. 23, Shaanxi (Shensi) province, China:most deadly earthquake in history; 830,000 killed. 1667 Nov., Shemakha, Caucasia:earthquake killed about 80,000 people. 1693 Jan. 11, Sicily, Italy:earthquake killed about 60,000 people. 1707 Oct. 28, Japan:tsunami caused by an earthquake drowned 30,000. 1727 Nov. 18, Tabriz, Iran:about 77,000 victims killed in deadly earthquake. 1755 Nov. 1, Portugal:earthquake, fires, and Atlantic tsunami leveled Lisbon and was felt as far away as southern France and North Africa; 70,000 killed. 1782 South Sea, China:tsunami killed 40,000. 1783 Feb. 4, Calabria, Italy:series of 6 earthquakes over two-month period caused massive destruction, killing 50,000. One of first scientifically investigated earthquakes. June 8, Iceland:eruption of Laki volcano lasted until Feb. 1784. Haze from eruption resulted in loss of island's livestock and widespread crop failure; 9,350 deaths, mostly due to starvation. 1792 May 21, Kyushu Island, Japan:collapse of old lava dome during eruption of Unzen volcano caused avalanche and tsunami that killed an estimated 14,300 people. (Most were killed by the tsunami.) Japan's greatest volcano disaster. 1811 Dec. 16, Mississippi Valley, nr. New Madrid, Mo.:earthquake reversed the course of the Mississippi River. Fatalities unknown due to sparse population in area. Aftershocks and tremors continued into 1812. It has been estimated that three of the series of earthquakes had surface-wave magnitudes of 8.6, 8.4, and 8.8 on the Richter scale.It is the largest series of earthquakes known to have occurred in North America. 1815 April 5, 10–11, Netherlands Indies (Sumbawa, Indonesia):eruption of Tambora largest in historic times. An estimated 92,000 people were killed, about 10,000 directly as a result of explosions and ash fall and about 82,000 indirectly by starvation and disease. 1877 June 26, north-central Ecuador:eruption of Mt. Cotopaxi caused severe mudflows that wiped out surrounding cities and valleys; 1,000 deaths. 1883 Aug. 26–28, Netherlands Indies (Krakatau, Indonesia):eruption of Krakatau;violent explosions destroyed two-thirds of island and caused a tsunami on Java and Sumatra, killing more than 36,000. It was felt as far away as Cape Hornand possibly England. 1886 Aug. 31, Charleston, S.C.:magnitude 7.3 quake, killed 60 people and caused extensive damage. 1896 June 15, Sanriku, Japan:earthquake and tidal wave killed 27,000. 1902 May 7, St. Vincent, West Indies:Soufrière volcano erupted, devastating one-third of the island and killing some 1,680 people. May 8, Martinique, West Indies: Mt. Peléeerupted and wiped out city of St. Pierre; 40,000 dead. 1906 April 18, San Francisco:earthquake accompanied by fire razed more than 4 sq mi; estimates range from 700 to 3,000 dead or missing.For more, see The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. 1908 Dec. 28, Messina, Sicily:city totally destroyed by earthquake. Estimated death toll, from quake and tsunami, 70,000–100,000 in Sicilyand southern Italy. 1915 Jan. 13, Avezzano, Italy:magnitude 7.5 earthquake left 29,980 dead. 1920 Dec. 16, Gansu province, China:magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 200,000 in northwest China. 1923 Sept. 1, Japan:magnitude 7.9 earthquake destroyed one-third of Tokyo and most of Yokohama. More than 140,000 killed. 1927 May 22, nr. Xining, China:magnitude 7.9 earthquake claimed approximately 200,000 victims. 1932 Dec. 25, Gansu, China:magnitude 7.6 earthquake killed approximately 70,000. 1933 March 10, Long Beach, Calif.:117 left dead by earthquake. 1935 May 30, Pakistan:earthquake at Quettakilled 30,000–60,000. 1939 Jan. 24, Chile:earthquake razed 50,000 sq mi; about 30,000 killed. Dec. 27, northern Turkey:severe quakes destroyed city of Erzingan; about 30,000 casualties. 1948 Oct. 5, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan:magnitude 7.3 earthquake destroyed the city, killing 110,000. 1950 Aug. 15, India:earthquake affected 30,000 sq mi in Assam;1500 killed. 1960 Feb. 29, Agadir, Morocco:10,000–12,000 dead as earthquake set off tidal wave and fire, destroying most of city. May 22, Chile:strongest earthquake ever recorded (9.5 magnitude) struck near the coast, causing a tsunami that traveled as far as Hawaii, Japan, and New Zealand, killing 4,000–5,000.

Frequency of Earthquakes Worldwide The following table lists the frequency of earthquakes worldwide, according to magnitude and annual average. DescriptorMagnitudeAnnual average Great8 or higher11 Major7–7.9172 Strong6–6.91342 Moderate5–5.91,3192 Light4–4.9c. 13,000 Minor3–3.9c. 130,000 Very minor2–2.9c. 1,300,000 1. Based on observations since 1900. 2. Based on observations since 1990. NOTE: The NEIC estimates that several million earthquakes occur in the world each year. Many go undetected because they hit remote areas or have very small magnitudes. Source:National Earthquake Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey.

The Severity of an Earthquake Source:National Earthquake Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes are the result of forces deep within Earth's interior that continuously affect its surface. The energy from these forces is stored in a variety of ways within the rocks. When this energy is released suddenly—by shearing movements along faults in the crust of Earth, for example—an earthquake results. The area of the fault where the sudden rupture takes place is called the focus or hypocenter of the earthquake. The point on Earth's surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter of the earthquake. The severity of an earthquake can be expressed in terms of both intensity and magnitude. The two terms are quite different, however, and they are often confused. Intensity is based on the observed effects of ground shaking on people, buildings, and natural features. It varies from place to place within the disturbed region depending on the location of the observer with respect to the earthquake epicenter. Magnitude is related to the amount of seismic energy released at the hypocenter of the earthquake. It is based on the amplitude of the earthquake waves recorded on instruments, which have a common calibration. Magnitude is thus represented by a single, instrumentally determined value. The Richter Magnitude Scale Seismic waves are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through Earth; they are recorded on instruments called seismographs. Seismographs record a zigzag trace that shows the varying amplitude of ground oscillations beneath the instrument. Sensitive seismographs, which greatly magnify these ground motions, can detect strong earthquakes from sources anywhere in the world. The time, location, and magnitude of an earthquake can be determined from the data recorded by seismograph stations. The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of earthquakes. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs. Adjustments are included in the magnitude formula to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquakes. On the Richter Scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions. For example, a magnitude of 5.3 might be computed for a moderate earthquake, and a strong earthquake might be rated as magnitude 6.3. Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; as an estimate of energy, each whole number step in the magnitude scale corresponds to the release of about 31 times more energy than the amount associated with the preceding whole number value. Although the Richter Scale has no upper limit, the largest known shocks have had magnitudes in the 8.8 to 8.9 range. Why Are There So Many Earthquake Magnitude Scales? Earthquake size, as measured by the Richter Scale, is a well-known, but not well understood, concept. What is even less well understood is the proliferation of magnitude scales and their relation to Richter's original magnitude scale. Richter's magnitude scale was first created for measuring the size of earthquakes occurring in southern California, using relatively high-frequency data from nearby seismograph stations. This magnitude scale was referred to as ML, with the L standing for local. As more seismograph stations were installed around the world, it became apparent that the method developed by Richter was strictly valid only for certain frequency and distance ranges. In order to take advantage of the growing number of globally distributed seismograph stations, new magnitude scales that are an extension of Richter's original idea were developed. These include body-wave magnitude, “mb,” and surface-wave magnitude, “MS.” Each is valid for a particular frequency range and type of seismic signal. In its range of validity each is equivalent to the Richter magnitude. Because of the limitations of all three magnitude scales—ML, mb, and MS—a new, more uniformly applicable extension of the magnitude scale, known as moment magnitude, or “MW,” was developed. In particular, for very large earthquakes moment magnitude gives the most reliable estimate of earthquake size. New techniques that take advantage of modern telecommunications have recently been implemented, allowing reporting agencies to obtain rapid estimates of moment magnitude for significant earthquakes. So nowadays, when most seismologists announce a magnitude number, they are rarely referring to the Richter Scale. The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale The effect of an earthquake on Earth's surface is called the intensity.

Tsunami in Japan 2011: Waves Stirred Up by Earthquake Cause Wide Destruction Learn about the science behind tsunamis and earthquakes Source: U.S. Geological Survey Tsunami. Relief Effort in Japan Tsunami in Japan Japanwas hit by a 9.0 magnitude earthquakeon March 11, 2011, that triggered a deadly 23-foot tsunami in the country's north. The giant waves deluged cities and rural areas alike, sweeping away cars, homes, buildings, a train, and boats, leaving a path of death and devastation in its wake. Video footage showed cars racing away from surging waves. The earthquake—the largest in Japan's history—struck about 230 miles northeast of Tokyo. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued warnings for Russia, Taiwan, Hawaii, Indonesia, the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Australia, and the west coasts the U.S., Mexico, Central America, and South America. According to the official toll, the disasters left 15,839 dead, 5,950 injured, and 3,642 missing. Earthquake Causes Nuclear Disaster What's more, cooling systems in one of the reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in the Fukushima prefecture on the east coast of Japan failed shortly after the earthquake, causing a nuclear crisis. This initial reactor failure was followed by an explosion and eventual partial meltdowns in two reactors, then by a fire in another reactor which released radioactivity directly into the atmosphere. The nuclear troubles were not limited to the Daiichi plant; three other nuclear facilities also reported problems. More than 200,000 residents were evacuated from affected areas. On April 12, Japan raised its assessment of the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to Level 7, the worst rating on the international scale, putting the disaster on par with the 1986 Chernobyl explosion. Developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) along with countries who use nuclear energy, the scale defines level 7 as a nuclear accident that involves "widespread health and environmental effects" and the "external release of a significant fraction of the reactor core inventory." Almost two months later, the IAEA called the status of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant "very serious." At a news conference on March 13, Prime Minister Naoto Kan, who later gave the disaster the name "Great East Japan Earthquake", emphasized the gravity of the situation: "I think that the earthquake, tsunami, and the situation at our nuclear reactors makes up the worst crisis in the 65 years since the war. If the nation works together, we will overcome." The government called in 100,000 troops to aid in the relief effort. The deployment was the largest since World War II. The tsunami in Japan recalled the 2004 disaster in the Indian Ocean. On Dec. 26, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake—the largest earthquakein 40 years—ruptured in the Indian Ocean, off the northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The earthquake stirred up the deadliest tsunamiin world history, so powerful that the waves caused loss of life on the coast of Africa and were even detected on the East Coast of the United States. More than 225,000 people died from the disaster, a half a million were injured, and millions were left homeless. Seestatistics on Deadliest Tsunamisand Deadliest Earthquakes. The Science of Tsunami A tsunami(pronounced soo-NAHM-ee) is a series of huge waves that occur as the result of a violent underwater disturbance, such as an earthquakeor volcanic eruption. The waves travel in all directions from the epicenter of the disturbance. The waves may travel in the open sea as fast as 450 miles per hour. As they travel in the open ocean, tsunami waves are generally not particularly large—hence the difficulty in detecting the approach of a tsunami. But as these powerful waves approach shallow waters along the coast, their velocity is slowed and they consequently grow to a great height before smashing into the shore. They can grow as high as 100 feet; the Indian Ocean tsunami generated waves reaching 30 feet. Tsunamiis the Japanese word for "harbor wave." They are sometimes mistakenly referred to as tidal waves, but tsunamis have nothing to do with the tides. Tsunamis have been relatively rare in the Indian Ocean, and are most common in the Pacific Ocean.

Spain: Kings, Queens, Prime Ministers Kings and queens Carlos II(1665–1700) Felipe V(1700–1724, 1724–1746) Luis I (1724) Fernando VI(1746–1759) Carlos III(1759–1788) Carlos IV(1788–1808) Joaquín Murat, gran duque de Berg (1808) Fernando VII(1808–1833) Isabel II(1833–1868) María Cristina, regent (1833–1840) Baldomero Espartero, duque de la Victoria, regent (1840–1843) Carlos VI (1860) Amadeo I(1871–1873) Carlos VII (1872–1876) Alfonso XII(1874–1885) María Cristina, regent (1885–1886, 1886–1902) Alfonso XIII(1886–1931) Juan Carlos I(1975– ) Prime Ministers Francisco Franco(1938–1973), also head of state (1936–1975) Luis Carrero Blanco(1973) Torcuato Fernández Miranda, acting (1973–1974) Carlos Arias Navarro (1974–1976) Adolfo Suárez González (1976–1981) Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo y Bustelo (1981–1982) Felipe González Márquez(1981–1996) José María Aznar(1996–2004) José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (2004– )

Sweden: Kings and Queens Kings and Queens Karl XII(1697–1718) Ulrica Eleonora (1719–1720) Fredrik I (1720–1751) Adolf Fredrik (1751–1771) Gustaf III(1771–1792) Gustaf IV Adolf(1792–1809) Karl XIII(1809–1818) Karl XIV Johan(1818–1844) Oscar I(1844–1859) Karl XV(1859–1872) Oscar II(1872–1907) Gustaf V(1907–1950) Gustaf VI Adolf(1950–1973) Carl XVI Gustaf(1973– )

Turkey: Rulers Sultans Mustafa II(1695–1703) Ahmed III(1703–1730) Mahmud I(1730–1754) Osman III (1754–1757) Mustafa III(1757–1774) Abdülhamit I(1774–1789) Selim III(1789–1807) Mustafa IV(1807–1808) Mahmut II(1808–1839) Abdülmecit I(1839–1861) Abdülaziz I(1861–1876) Murad V(1876) Abdülhamit II (1876–1909) Mehmet V(1909–1918) Mehmet VI(1918–1923) Presidents Mustafa Kemal(Kemal Atatürk), chairman of the presidium of the Grand National Assembly (1922–1923), president (1923–1938) Mustafa Abdülhalik Renda (1938) Ismet Inönü(1938–1950) Mahmud Celal Bayar(1950–1960) Cemal Gürsel(1960–1966) Cevdet Sunay(1966–1973) Fahri Korutürk (1973–1980) Kenan Evren (1980–1989) Turgut Özal (1989–1993) Süleyman Demirel(1993–2000) Ahmet Necdet Sezer (2000– )

Vietnam: Rulers North Vietnam Presidents Ho Chi Minh(1945–1969) Ton Duc Thang (1969–1976) South Vietnam Presidents Ngo Dinh Diem(1955–1963) Duong Van Minh(1963–1964, 1975) Nguyen Khanh (!964) Phan Khac Suu (1964–1965) Nguyen Van Thieu(1965–1975) Tran Van Huong (1975) Huynh Tan Phat (1975–1976) Vietnam *.Ton Duc Thang, president (1976–1980) *.Nguyen Huu Tho, acting president (1980–1981) *.Truong Chinh, chairman of the state council (1981–1987) *.Vo Chi Cong, chairman of the state council (1987–1992) *.Le Duc Anh, president (1992–1997) *.Tran Duc Luong, president (1997– )

Biography South America: Venezuela Presidents Francisco Antonio Zea, acting (1819) Simón Bolívar(1819) José Antonio Páez(1830–1835, 1839–1843, 1861–1863) Andrés Narvarte, acting (1835, 1836–1837) José María Vargas (1835, 1935–1936) Pedro Briceño, provisional (1835) Santiago Mariño, Superior Chief of State (1835) José María Carreño, acting (1835, 1937) Carlos Soublette, acting (1837–1839, 1843–1847) Santos Michelena, acting (1843) Diego Bautista Urbaneja, acting (1847) José Tadeo Monagas(1847–1851) Antonio Leocadio Guzmán, acting (1851) José Gregorio Monaga (1851–1855, 1855–1858) Joaquín Herrera, acting (1855) Pedro Gual, president of provisional government (1858), acting president (1859, 1861) Julián Castro (1858–1859) Juan Crisóstomo Falcón (1859, 1865–1868), provisional (1863–1865) Manuel Felipe de Tovar, acting (1859–1861) Antonio Guzmán Blanco(1863, 1865, 1870–1877, 1879–1874, 1886–1888), supreme director (1879) Guillermo Tell Villegas (1868–1869, 1892) José Ruperto Monagas, acting (1869–1870) Juan Vicente González, acting (1870) Esteban Palacios, acting (1870) Jacinto Gutiérrez Martínez, acting (1877, 1878–1879) Francisco Linares Alcántara (!877–1878) José Gregorio Valera, acting (1879) Gregorio Cedeño (1879) José Rafael Pacheco (1879) Joaquín Crespo(1884–1886, 1892–1894, 1894–1898) Manuel Antonio Diez, acting (1886) Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl (1880–1890) Raimundo Andueza Palacio (1990–1892) Manuel Guzmán Álvarez, acting (1894, 1898) Ignacio Andrade (1898–1899) Víctor Rodríguez Párraga, acting (1899) Cipriano Castro(1899–1909) Juan Vicente Gómez(1909–1910, 1910–1914, 1922–1929, 1931–1935) Emilio Constantino Guerrero, acting (1910) Jesús Ramón Ayala, acting (1910) Victorino Márquez Bustillos, provisional (1914–1922) Juan Bautista Pérez (1929–1931) Pedro Itriago Chacín, acting (1931) Eleazar López Contreras (1935–1936, 1936–1941) Arminio Borjas, acting (1936) Isaías Medina Angarita (1941–1945) Rómulo Betancourt, chairman revolutionary junta (1945–1948), president (1959–1964) Rómulo Gallegos(1948) Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, chairman, military junta (1948–1950) German Suárez Flamerich, chairman, military junta (1950–1952) Marcos Pérez Jiménez(1952–1958) Wolfgang Larrazábal, chairman, government junta (1958) Edgar Sanabria Arcia, chairman, government junta (1958–1959) Raúl Leoni(1964–1969) Rafael Caldera(1969–1974, 1994–1999) Carlos Andrés Pérez(1974–1979, 1989–1993) Luis Herrera Campins (1979–1984) Jaime Lusinchi (1984–1989) Octavio Lepage, acting (1993) Ramón José Velásquez, interim (1993–1994) Hugo Chávez (1999– )

Biography South America: Peru *.Eduardo López de Romaña, president of Peru (1899–03) *.Manuel Candamo, president of Peru (1903–04) *.Serapio Calderón, acting president of Peru (1904) *.José Pardo y Barreda, president of Peru (1904–08) *. Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo, president of Peru (1908–12; 1919–30) *.Guillermo E. Billinghurst, president of Peru (1912–14) *.Óscar Raymundo Benavides Larrea, president of Peru (1914–15) *.José Pardo y Barreda, president of Peru (1915–19) *.Manuel María Ponce Brousset, Peruvian chairman military junta (1930) *.Luis M. Sánchez Cerro, president of Preu (1930–31) *.Mariano Holguín Maldonado, Peruvian chairman Transitional Junta (1931) *.Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias, Peruvian chairman Transitional Junta (1931) *.Gustavo A. Jiménez, Peruvian chairman Transitional Junta (1931) *.David Samanez Ocampo y Sobrino, Peruvian chairman National Junta (1931) *.Luis M. Sánchez Cerro, president of Peru (1931–33) *.Óscar Raymundo Benavides Larrea, president of Peru (1933–39) *.Manuel Prado y Ugarteche, president of Peru (1939–45, 1956–62) *.José Luis Bustamante y Rivero, president of Peru (1945–48) *. Manuel Apolinario Odría Amoretti, president of Peru (1948–50; 1950–56) *.Zenón Noriega Agüero, Peruvian chairman military junta (1950) *.Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy, Peruvian junta chairman (1962–63) *.Nicolás Lindley López, Peruvian junta chairman (1963) *. Fernando Belaúnde Terry, president of Peru (1963–68, 1980–85) *. Juan Velasco Alvarado, president of Peru (1968–75) *.Francisco Morales Bermúdez, president of Peru (1975–80) *.Alan García Pérez , president of Peru (1985–90) *. Alberto Fujimori, president of Peru (1990–2000) *.Valentín Paniagua, president of Peru (2000–2001) *. Alejandro Toledo, president of Peru (2001– Uruguay *.Juan Lindolfo Cuestas, president of Uruguay (1897–99, 1899–1903) *. José Batlle y Ordóñez, president of Uruguay (1903–07, 1911–15) *.Claudio Wílliman, president of Uruguay (1907–11) *.Feliciano Viera, president of Uruguay (1915–19) *.Baltasar Brum, president of Uruguay (1919–23) *.José Serrato, president of Uruguay (1923–27) *.Juan Campisteguy, president of Uruguay (1927–31) *. Gabriel Terra, president of Uruguay (1931–38) *.Alfredo Baldomir, president of Uruguay (1938–43) *.Juan José de Amézaga, president of Uruguay (1943–47) *.Tomás Berreta, president of Uruguay (1947) *.Luis Batlle Berres, president of Uruguay (1947–51) *.Andrés Martínez Trueba, president of Uruguay (1951–52) *.Andrés Martínez Trueba, president of the National Council (1952–55) *.Luis Batlle Berres, president of the National Council (1955–56) *.Alberto Fermín Zubiría, president of the National Council (1957–57) *.Arturo Lezama, president of the National Council (1957–58) *.Carlos L. Fischer, president of the National Council (1958–59) *.Martín R. Echegoyen, president of the National Council (1959–60) *.Benito Nardone, president of the National Council (1960–61) *.Eduardo Víctor Haedo, president of the National Council (1961–62) *.Faustino Harrison, president of the National Council (1962–63) *.Daniel Fernández Crespo, president of the National Council (1963–64) *.Luis Giannattasio, president of the National Council (1964–65) *.Wáshington Beltrán, president of the National Council (1965–66) *.Alberto Héber Usher, president of the National Council (1966–67) *.Óscar Diego Gestido, president of Uruguay (1967) *.Jorge Pacheco Areco, president of Uruguay (1967–72) *.Juan María Bordaberry Arocena, president of Uruguay (1972–76) *.Alberto Demicheli, acting president of Uruguay (1976) *.Aparicio Méndez, president of Uruguay (1976–81) *.Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Armelino, president of Uruguay (1981–85) *.Rafael Addiego Bruno, acting president of Uruguay (1985) *.Julio María Sanguinetti Cairolo, president of Uruguay (1985–90) *.Luis Alberto Lacalle, president of Uruguay (1990–95) *.Julio María Sanguinetti Cairolo, president of Uruguay (1995–2000) *.Jorge Batlle, president of Uruguay (2000–)

Biography South America: Brazil *. Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, Bragança dynasty (1822–31) *. Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, Bragança dynasty (1831–89) *. Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca, president of Brazil (1889–91) *. Floriano Peixoto, acting president of Brazil (1891–94) *.Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales, president of Brazil (1898–1902) *.Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, president of Brazil (1902–06) *.Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena, president of Brazil (1906–09) *.Nilo Peçanha, president of Brazil (1909–10) *.Venceslau Brás Pereira Gomes, president of Brazil (1914–18) *.Delfim Moreira, acting president of Brazil (1918–19) *.Epitâcio da Silva Pessoa, president of Brazil (1919–22) *.Artur da Silva Bernardes, president of Brazil (1922–26) *.Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa, president of Brazil (1926–30) *.Augusto Tasso Fragoso, chairman Government Junta (1930) *. Getúlio Vargas, pesident of Brazil (1930–45, 1951–54) *.José Linhares, president of Brazil (1945–46) *.Eurico Gaspar Dutra, president of Brazil (1946–51) *.João Café Filho, president of Brazil (1954–56) *.Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, president of Brazil (1956–61) *. Jânio da Silva Quadros, president of Brazil (1961) *. João Belchior Marques Goulart, president of Brazil (1961–64) *. Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco, president of Brazil (1964–67) *. Artur da Costa e Silva, president of Brazil (1967–69) *.Military junta: Augusto Hamann Rademaker Grünewald, Aurélio de Lyra Tavares, Márcio de Souza e Mello (1969) *. Emílio Garrastazú Médici, president of Brazil (1969–74) *.Ernesto Geisel, president of Brazil (1974–79) *. João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo, president of Brazil (1979–85) *. José Sarney, president of Brazil (1985–90) *. Fernando Collor de Mello, president of Brazil (1990–92) *.Itamar Franco, acting for Collor (1992–95) *. Fernando Henrique Cardoso, president of Brazil (1995–) Chile *. Bernardo O'Higgins, supreme director of Chile (1818–23) *. Manuel Bulnes, president of Chile (1841–51) *. Manuel Montt, president of Chile (1851–61) *. Domingo Santa María, president of Chile (1881–86) *. José Manuel Balmaceda, president of Chile (1886–91) *. Jorge Montt, president of Chile (1891–96) *.Federico Errázuriz Echaurren, president of Chile (1896–01) *.Aníbal Zañartu Zañartu, acting president of Chile (1901) *.Germán Riesco, president of Chile (1901–06) *. Pedro Montt, president of Chile (1906–10) *.Elías Fernández Albano, acting president of Chile (1910) *.Emiliano Figueroa Larraín, president of Chile (1910) *.Ramón Barros Luco, president of Chile (1910–15) *.Juan Luis Sanfuentes, president of Chile (1915–20) *.Arturo Alessandri Palma, president of Chile (1920–24) *.Luis Altamirano Talavera, Chilean junta chairman (1924–25) *.Pedro Pablo Dartnell Encina, Chilean junta chairman (1925) *.Arturo Alessandri Palma, president of Chile (1925) *.Luis Barros Borgoño, acting, president of Chile (1925) *.Emiliano Figueroa Larraín, president of Chile (1925–27) *. Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, president of Chile (1927–31, 1952–58) *.Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez, president of Chile (1931–32) *.Arturo Puga Osorio, chairman Junta of the Socialist Republic of Chile (1932) *.Carlos Gregorio Dávila Espinosa, chairman Junta of the Socialist Republic of Chile, provisional president of the Socialist Republic of Chile (1932) *.Bartolomé Blanche Espejo, provisional president of Chile (1932) *.Abraham Oyanedel Urrutia, acting president of Chile (1932) *.Arturo Alessandri Palma, president of Chile (1932–38) *.Pedro Aguirre Cerda, president of Chile (1938–41) *.Jerónimo Méndez Arancibia, acting president of Chile (1941–42) *.Juan Antonio Ríos Morales, president of Chile (1942–46) *.Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez, acting president of Chile (1946) *.Vicente Merino Bielich, acting president of Chile (1946) *.Juan Antonio Iribarren Cabezas, acting president of Chile (1946) *.Gabriel González Videla, president of Chile (1946–52) *.Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez, president of Chile (1958–64) *. Eduardo Frei Montalva, president of Chile (1964–70) *. Salvador Allende, president of Chile (1970–73) *. Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, Junta leader (1973–74), president of Chile (1974–90) *. José Toribio Merino Castro, Junta leader (1973–74) *. César Mendoza Durán, Junta leader (1973–74) *. Gustavo Leigh Guzmán, Junta leader (1973–74) *. Patricio Aylwin Azócar, president of Chile (1990–94) *.Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, president of Chile (1994–2000) *.Ricardo Lagos Escobar, president of Chile (2000–)

Biography South America: Argentina *. Juan Facundo Quiroga, Argentine caudillo(1790–1835) *. Juan Martín de Pueyrredón,Argentine general, supreme director of the United Provinces of La Plata (1816–19) *. Bernardino Rivadavia, Argentine statesman and diplomat, first president of the United Provinces of La Plata (1826–27) *. Juan Manuel de Rosas, Argentine dictator, governor of Buenos Aires province (1829–32, 1835–52) *. Justo José de Urquiza, Argentine general and politician, president of the confederation (1854–60) *. Bartolomé MitreArgentine statesman, general, and author, president of the republic (1862–68) *. Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Argentine statesman, educator, and author, president of the republic (1868–74) *. Nicolás Avellaneda, Argentine statesman, president of the republic (1874–80) *. Julio Argentino Roca, general, president of Argentina (1880–86, 1898–1904) *. Miguel Juárez Celman, president of Argentina (1886–90) *.Manuel A. Quintana, president of Argentina (1904–06) *.José Figueroa Alcorta, president of Argentina (1906–10) *. Roque Sáenz Peña, Argentine statesman, president of the republic (1910–14) *.Victorino de la Plaza, president of Argentina (1914–16) *. Hipólito Irigoyen, Argentine political leader, president of the republic (1916–22, 1928–30) *. Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear, Argentine statesman and diplomat, president of the republic (1922–28) *.José Félix Uriburu, president of Argentina (1930–32) *. Agustín Pedro Justo, president of Argentina (1932–38) *.Roberto M. Ortiz, president of Argentina (1938–42) *.Ramón S. Castillo, president of Argentina (1940–43) *.Arturo Rawson Corvalán, president of the Provisional Government (1943) *.Pedro Pablo Ramírez Machuca, president of the Provisional Government (1943–44) *.Edelmiro J. Farrell, president of Argentina (1944–46) *. Juan Domingo Perón,president of Argentina (1946–55, 1973–74) *.José Domingo Molina Gómez, Argentine chairman of military junta (1955) *.Eduardo A. Lonardi, provisional president of Argentina (1955) *. Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, president of Argentina (1955–58) *. Arturo Frondizi, president of Argentina (1958–62) *.José María Guido, acting president of Argentina (1962–63) *. Arturo Illia, president of Argentina (1963–66) *.Revolutionary Junta: Pascual Ángel Pistarini Ludena, Benigno Ignacio Marcelino Varela Barnadou, Adolfo Teodoro Álvarez Melendi (1966) *. Juan Carlos Onganía, president of Argentina (1966–70) *.Pedro Alberto José Gnavi, Argentine chairman Junta of Commanders (1970) *.Roberto Marcelo Levingston, president of Argentina (1970–71) *.Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, president of Argentina (1971–73) *.Héctor José Cámpora, president of Argentina (1973) *.Isabel Perón, president of Argentina (1974–76) *.Military junta: Jorge Rafael Videla, Emilio Eduardo Massera, Orlando Ramón Agosti (1976) *.Jorge Rafael Videla, president of Argentina (1976–81) *.Roberto Eduardo Viola, president of Argentina (1981) *.Carlos Alberto Lacoste, acting president of Argentina (1981) *. Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri, Argentine general, president of Argentina (1981–82) *.Alfredo Óscar Saint Jean, acting president of Argentina (1982) *.Reynaldo Bignone, president of Argentina (1982–83) *. Raúl Alfonsín, president of Argentina (1983–89) *. Carlos Saul Menem, president of Argentina (1989–1999) *.Fernando de la Rúa, president of Argentina (1999–)

Poland: Rulers Polish Royalty *. Mieszko I, duke of Poland (962–92), the first important member of the Piastdynasty *. Boleslaus I, Polish ruler (992–1025) *. Mieszko II, king of Poland (1025–34) *. Casimir I, duke of Poland (c.1040–18) *. Boleslaus II, duke (1058–76), and later king (1076–79) of Poland *. Ladislaus Herman, duke of Poland (1079–1102) *. Boleslaus III, duke of Poland (1102–38) *. Casimir II, duke of Poland (1177–94) *. Ladislaus I, duke (1306–20) and later king (1320–33) of Poland *. Casimir III, king of Poland (1333–70) *. Ladislaus II, king of Poland (1386–1434), grand duke of Lithuania (1378–1401), founder of the Jagiellodynasty *. Jadwiga, Polish queen (1384–99) *. Ladislaus III, king of Poland (1434–44) and, as Uladislaus I, king of Hungary (1440–44) *. Casimir IV, king of Poland (1447–92) *. Sigismund I, king of Poland (1506–48) *. Sigismund II, king of Poland (1548–72). *. Sigismund III, king of Poland (1587–1632) and Sweden (1592–99) *. Ladislaus IV, king of Poland (1632–48) *. John II, king of Poland (1648–68) *. John III (John Sobieski), king of Poland (1674–96), champion of Christian Europe against the Ottomans *. Augustus II, king of Poland (1697–1733) and, as Frederick Augustus I, elector of Saxony (1694–1733) *. Stanislaus I, king of Poland (1704–09, 1733–35) and duke of Lorraine (1735–66) *. Augustus III, king of Poland (1735–63) and, as Frederick Augustus II, elector of Saxony (1733–63) *. Stanislaus II, last king of Poland (1764–95) Polish Republic and Polish People's Republic Prime MinistersJedrzej Moraczewski (1918–1919) Ignace Paderewski(1919) Leopold Skulski (1919–1920) Wladislaw Grabski (!920, 1923–1925) Wincenty Witos(1920–1921, 1923, 1926)) Antonin Ponikowski (1921–1922) Artur Sliwinski (!922) Wojciech Korfanty (!922) Julian Ignacy Nowak (!922) Wladyslaw Sikorski(!922–1923) Aleksander hrabia Skrzynski (1925–1926) Kazimierz Bartel (1926, 1928–1929, 1929–1930) Józef Pilsudski(1926–1928, 1930) Kazimierz Switalski (1929) Walery Slawek (1930, 1930–1931, 1935) Aleksander Prystor (1931–1933) Janusz Jedrzejewicz (1933–1934) Leon Kozlowski (1934–1935) Marian Koscialkowski-Zyndram (1935–1936) Felicjan Slawoj-Skladkowski (1936–1939) PremiersEdward Osóbka-Morawski (1945–1947, 1954–1970) Józef Cyrankiewic(1947–1952) Boleslaw Bierut (1952–1954) Piotr Jaroszewicz(1970–1980) Edward Babiuch (1980) Józef Pinkowski (1980–1981) Wojciech Jaruzelski(1981–1985) Zbigniew Messner (1985–1988) Mieczyslaw Rakowski (1888–1989) Czeslaw Kiszczak (1989) Tadeusz Mazowiecki (1989–1991) Jan Krzysztof Bielecki (1991) Jan Olszewski (1991–1992) Waldemar Pawlak (1992, 1993–1995) Hanna Suchocka (1992–1993) Józef Oleksy (1995–1996) Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz (1996–1997) Marek Belka (acting) (1997) Jerzy Buzek (1997–2001) Leszek Miller (2001– ) Presidents Wojciech Jaruzelski(1989–1990) Lech Walesa(1990–1995) Aleksander Kwasniewski(1995– )

Portugal: Kings, Queens, Presidents Kings and Queens AIfonso I(1128-1185) Sancho I(1185–1211) AIfonso II(1211–1223) Sancho II (1223-1245) AIfonso III(1248-1279) Diniz(1279-1325) AIfonso IV(1325-1357) Pedro I(1357-1367) Ferdinand I(1367-1383) João I(1385–1433) Duarte(1433-1438) AIfonso V(1438-1481) João II(1481-1495) Manuel I(1495–1521) João III(1521-1527) Sebastian(1557–1578) Henry, cardinal (1557-1580) Phillip I(1580–1598) Phillip II(1598–1621) Phillip III(1621–1640) João IV(1640-1656) Alfonso VI(1656–1683) Pedro II(1683–1706) João V(1706–1750) José I (1750–1777) Maria I(1777–1816) João VI o Clemente(1816–1826) Isabel Maria, president of council of regency (1826–1828) Pedro IV de Alcântara, regent (1826–1828) Maria II da Glória(1828, 1834–1853) Miguel I(1828–1834) Pedro V de Alcântara(1853–1861) Ferdinand II, regent (1853–1855) Luís I(1861–1889) Carlos I(1889–1908) Manuel II(1908–1910) Presidents Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga(1910–1911, 1915) Manuel José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira e Peyrelongue (1911–1915) Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães (1915–1917, 1925–1926) Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais (1917–1918) João do Canto e Castro Silva Antunes (1918–1919) António José de Almeida(1919–1923) Manuel Teixeira Gomes (1923–1925) José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior, acting (1926) Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa , acting (1926) António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona(1926–1951) António de Oliveira Salazar, acting (1951) Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes (1951–1958) Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás (1958–1974) António de Spínola(1974) Francisco da Costa Gomes (1974–1976) António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes(1976–1986) Mário Soares(1986–1996) Jorge Sampaio(1996–2006 ) Aníbal Cavaco Silva (2006- )

Philippines: Presidents Presidents Manuel L. Quezon(1935–1944) Jorge B. Vargas, president of the Executive Commission of the Philippine Council of State (1943) José P. Laurel (1943–1945) Sergio Osmeña(1944–1946) Manuel Roxas y Acuña (1946–1948) Elpidio Quirino(1948–1953) Ramon Magsaysay(1953–1957) Carlos Polestico Garcia (1957–1961) Diosdado Macapagal(1961–1965) Ferdinand E. MarcosA0831745 (1965–1986) Corazon Aquino(1986–1992) Fidel V. Ramos(1992–1998) Joseph Estrada (1998–2001) Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo(2001– )

Iraq: Rulers Kings Faisal I(1921–1933) Ghazi I (1933–1939) Faisal II(1939–1958) Abd al-Ilah, regent (1939–1941, 1941–1953) Sharaf ibn Rajih al-Fawwaz, regent (1941) Chairman of the Sovereignty CouncilMuhammad Najib ar-Ruba`i PresidentsAbd as-Salam `Arif (1963–1966) Abd ar-Rahman al-Bazzaz (!966) Abd ar-Rahman `Arif (1966–1968) Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (1968–1979) Saddam Hussein(1979–2003

Ireland: Presidents PresidentsTimothy Sullivan, Frank Fahy, and Conor Alexander Maguire, presidential commission (1937–1938) Douglas Hyde(1938–1945) Sean T. O'Kelly (1945–1959) Eamon de Valera(1959–1973) Erskine H. Childers(1973–1974) Sean Treacy, James Clement Dooge, Thomas O'Higgin, presidential commission (1974, 1976) Cearbhall O Dalaigh (1974–1976) Patrick J. Hillery (1976–1990) Mary Robinson (1990–1997) Liam Hamilton, Seamus Pattison, Liam Cosgrave, and Brian Mullooly, presidential commission (1997) Mary McAleese (1997– ) Prime Ministers William Thomas Cosgrave(1922–1932) Eamon de Valera(1932–1948, 1951–1954, 1957–1959) John A. Costello (1948–1951, 1954–1957) Sean F. Lemass (1959–1966) John Lynch(1966–1973, 1977–1979) Liam Cosgrave(1973–1977) Charles Haughey(1979–1981, 1982, 1987–1992) Garrett FitzGerald(1981–1982, 1982–1987) Albert Reynolds(1992–1994) John Bruton(1994–1997)

Israel: Prime Ministers Prime Ministers David Ben-Gurion(1948–1953, 1955–1963) Moshe Sharett(1953–1955) Levi Eshkol(1963–1969) Yigal Allon, acting (1969) Golda Meir(1969–1974) Yitzhak Rabin(1974–1977, 1992–1995) Shimon Peres(1977, 1984–1986, 1995–1996) Menachem Begin(1977–1983) Yitzhak Shamir(1983–1984, 1986–1992) Benjamin Netanyahu(1996–1999) Ehud Barak(1999–2001) Ariel Sharon(2001–2006) Ehud Olmert(2006–2009) Benjamin Netanyahu(2009–)

Jordan: Kings Kings Abdullah I, emir (1921–1946), king (1946–1951) Naif, regent (1951) Talal (1951–1952) Hussein(1952–1999) Hassan, regent (1998–1999) Abdullah II(1999– )

Mexico: Presidents Presidents *. Guadalupe Victoria(1824–1829) *. Vicente Ramón Guerrero(1829) *.Pedro Velez, Lucas Alamán Luis de Quintana, acting presidents (!829–1830) *. Anastasio Bustamante(1830–1832, 1837–1841) *.Manuel Gómez Pedraza (1832–1833) *.Valentín Gómez Farías (1833, 1846–1847) *. Antonio López de Santa Anna(1833–1837, 1841–1844, 1844–1845, 1847, 1853–1855) *.Valentín Canalizo (1844) *.José Joaquín de Herrera (1845,. 1848–1851) *.Gabriel Valencia (1846–1846) *. Mariano Paredes(1846) *.José Mariano de Salas (1846, 1859) *.José Manuel de la Peña y Peña (1847, 1848) *.Pedro María de Anaya (1847–1848) *. Mariano Arista(1851–1853) *. Rómulo Díaz de la Vega(1855) *.Juan Álvarez (1856) *. Ignacio Comonfort(1856–1858) *. Félix María Zuloaga(1858, 1859–1860) *.Manuel Robles Pezuela (1858–1859) *.Miguel Miramón (1859) *.Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (1862–1863) *.Teodosio Lares (1863) *.Supreme Provisional Executive Power (1863–1864) *. Maximiliano I, emperor of Mexican Empire (1864–1867) *. Benito Juárez., president (1867–1872) *.Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (1872–1876) *.José María Iglesias (1876) *. Porfirio Díaz(1876–1880, 1884–1911) *.Manuel González (1880–1884) *.Francisco León de la Barra (1911) *. Francisco Indalécio Madero(1911–1913) *. Victoriano Huerta(1913–1914) *.Francisco S. Carvajal (1914) *. Venustiano Carranza(1914, 1915–1920) *.Antonio I. Villarreal González (1914) *.Eulalio Martín Gutiérrez Ortiz (1914–1915) *.Roque González Garza (1915) *.Francisco Lagos Cházaro (1915) *. Adolfo de la Huerta(1920) *. Álvaro Obregón(1920–1924) *.Plutarco Elías Calles (1924–1928) *.Emilio Portes Gil (1928–1930) *.Pascual Ortiz Rubio (1930–1932) *.Abelardo L. Rodríguez (1932–1934) *. Lázaro Cárdenas(1934–1940) *. Manuel Ávila Camacho(1940–1946) *. Miguel Alemán(1946–1952) *.Adolfo Ruíz Cortines (1952–1958) *. Adolfo López Mateos(1958–1964) *. Gustavo Díaz Ordaz(1964–1970) *. Luis Echeverría Álvarez(1970–1976) *. José López Portillo(1976–1982) *. Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado(1982–1988) *. Carlos Salinas de Gortari(1988–1994) *. Ernesto Zedillo(1994–2000) *. Vicente Fox Quesada(2000– )

Pakistan: Prime Ministers Prime Ministers Liaquat Ali Khan(1947–1951) Khwaja Nazimuddin (1951–1953) Mohammad Ali Bogra (1953–1955) Chaudhri Mohammad Ali (1955–1956) Husayn Sahid Suhrawardi (1956–1957) Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar (1957) Malik Firoz Khan Nun (1957–1958) Muhammad Ayub Khan(1958) Nurul Amin (1971) Zulfikar Ali Bhutto(1973–1977), president (1971–1973) Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq(1977–1985, 1988) Mohammad Khan Junejo (1985–1988) Benazir Bhutto(1988–1990, 1993–1996) Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (1990) Nawaz Sharif(1990–1993, 1997–1999) Balakh Sher Mazari (1993) Moeen Qureshi (1993) Miraj Khalid (1996–1997) Pervez Musharraf(1999– )

Modern Egypt: Rulers *. Baybars I, Mamluk sultan (1260–77) of Egypt and Syria *. Muhammad Ali, pasha of Egypt after 1805 *. Ismail Pasha, ruler of Egypt (1863–79) *. Tewfik Pasha (Muhammad Tewfik), khedive of Egypt (1879–92) *. Abbas II, last khedive of Egypt (1892–1914) *. Fuad I (Ahmed Fuad Pasha), first king of modern Egypt (1922–36) *. Farouk, king of Egypt (1936–52) *. Gamal Abdal Nasser, Egyptian army officer and political leader, first president of the republic of Egypt (1956–70) *. Anwar al-Sadat, Egyptian political leader and president (1970–81) *. Muhammad Hosni Mubarak, president of Egypt (1981–)

India: Rulers *. Maurya, ancient Indian dynasty (c.325–c.183B.C.) *. Asoka, Indian emperor (c.273–c.232B.C.) of the Mauryadynasty *. Harsha, Indian emperor (606–47) *. Prithvi Raj, ruler of the Chauan dynasty of N. India (d. 1192) *. Mughal, Muslim empire in India (1526–1857) *. Babur, founder of the Mughalempire of India (1494–1530) *. Humayun, second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56) *. Sher Khan, Afghan ruler in N. India (1540–45) *. Akbar, Mughalemperor of India (1556–1605) *. Jahangir, Mughalemperor of India (1605–27) *. Shah Jahan, Mughalemperor of India (1628–58) *. Aurangzeb, Mughalemperor of India (1658–1707) *. Sivaji, Indian ruler, leader of the Marathas(1674–80) *. Shah Alam, Mughalemperor of India (1759–1806) *. Haidar Ali, Indian ruler (1761–82) *. Tippoo Sahib, Indian ruler, sultan of Mysore (1782–99) *. Warren Hastings, first governor general of British India (1774–84) *. Ranjit Singh, Indian maharaja, ruler of the Sikhs (1799–1839) *. Bahadur Shah II, last Mughalemperor of India (1837–57) *. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian political and spiritual leader (1869–1948) *. Rajendra Prasad, first president of India (1950–62) *. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian philosopher, president of India (1962–67) *. Varahagiri Venkata Giri, president of India (1969–74) *. Indira Gandhi, Indian political leader, prime minister (1966–77, 1980–84) *. Rajiv Gandhi, prime minister of India (1984–89) *. H. D. Deve Gowda, prime minister of India (1996–1997) *. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, prime minister of India (1996, 1998–)

Indonesia: Presidents Presidents Sukarno(1945–1967) Sjafruddin Prawiranegara (1948–1949, 1958–1961) Suharto(1967–1998) B. J. Habibie(1998–1999) Abdurrahman Wahid (1999–2001) Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of Sukarno(2001– )

Modern Persia and Iran: Rulers *. Samanid, Muslim Persian dynasty that ruled (819–1005) in Khorasan and Transoxiana *. Ismail, shah of Persia (1502–24), founder of the Safavid dynasty *. Tahmasp, shah of Persia (1524–76) *. Abbas I, shah of Persia (1587–1628), of the Safavid dynasty *. Sultan Husayn, Safavid shah of Persia (1694–1722) *. Nadir Shah, shah of Iran (1736–47) *. Karim Khan, ruler of Persia (1750–79), founder of the Zand dynasty *. Aga Muhammad Khan, shah of Persia, founder of the Qajar dynasty (1796–97) *. Fath Ali Shah, shah of Persia (1797–1834) *. Nasir ad-Din, shah of Persia (1848–96) *. Muzaffar ad-Din, shah of Persia (1896–1907) *. Muhammad Ali, shah of Persia (1906–09) *. Ahmad Mirza, shah of Persia (1909–25) *. Reza Shah Pahlevi, shah of Iran (1925–41) *. Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi, shah of Iran (1941–79) *. Muhammad Mussadegh, Iranian political leader, prime minister of Iran (1951–53) *. Amir Abbas Hoveida, Iranian political leader, prime minister of Iran (1965–77) *. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Iranian Shiitereligious leader (1979–89) *.Mohammad Khatami, president of Iran (1997–)

Canadian Prime Ministers Since 1867 This page lists the term in office, political party, and the name of each prime minister of Canada from 1867 to the present. TermPrime MinisterParty 1867–1873 Sir John A. MacdonaldConservative 1873–1878 Alexander MackenzieLiberal 1878–1891 Sir John A. MacdonaldConservative 1891–1892 Sir John J. C. AbbottConservative 1892–1894 Sir John S. D. ThompsonConservative 1894–1896 Sir Mackenzie BowellConservative 1896 Sir Charles TupperConservative 1896–1911 Sir Wilfrid LaurierLiberal 1911–1917 Sir Robert L. BordenConservative 1917–1920 Sir Robert L. BordenUnionist 1920–1921 Arthur MeighenUnionist 1921–1926 W. L. Mackenzie KingLiberal 1926 Arthur MeighenConservative 1926–1930 W. L. Mackenzie KingLiberal 1930–1935 Richard B. BennettConservative 1935–1948 W. L. Mackenzie KingLiberal 1948–1957 Louis S. St. LaurentLiberal 1957–1963 John G. DiefenbakerConservative 1963–1968 Lester B. PearsonLiberal 1968–1979 Pierre Elliott TrudeauLiberal 1979–1980 Charles Joseph ClarkConservative 1980–1984 Pierre Elliott TrudeauLiberal 1984 John TurnerLiberal 1984–1993 Brian MulroneyConservative 1993Kim CampbellConservative 1993–2003Jean ChrétienLiberal 2003–2006Paul MartinLiberal 2006–Stephen HarperConservative

China: Rulers See this list of Chinese Dynasties. *. Liu Pang, founder of the Handynasty (206–195B.C.) *. Wu-ti, posthumous temple name of the fifth emperor (140–87B.C.) of the Handynasty *. Wang Mang, Chinese Handynasty regent (45B.C.–A.D.23) *. Sui, dynasty of China that ruled from 581 to 618 *. Hsüan-tsung, Chinese emperor (712–56), ninth of the T'ang dynasty *. Sung, dynasty of China that ruled 960–1279 *. Chao K'uang-yin, founder of the Sungdynasty (960–79) *. Hui-tsung, Chinese emperor of the Northern Sung dynasty, painter, and a great patron of art (1082–1135) *. Kublai Khan, Mongol emperor, founder of the Yüan dynasty of China (1215–94) *. Ming, dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644 *. Yung-lo, reign title of the third emperor (1403–24) of the Chinese Mingdynasty *. Nurhaci, Manchu national founder (1559–1626) *. Manchu, people who lived in Manchuria for many centuries and who ruled China from 1644 until 1912 *. K'ang-hsi, second emperor of the Ch'ing dynasty of China (1661–1722) *. Ch'ien-lung, reign title of the fourth emperor (1735–96) of the Ch'ing dynasty *. Tz'u Hsi, Tsu Hsi, dowager empress of China (1861–1908) and regent (1861–73, 1874–89, 1898–1908) *. Kuang-hsu, emperor of China (1875–1908) *. Henry Pu Yi, last emperor (1908–12) of China *. Yüan Shih-kai, president of China (1912–16) *. Li Yüan-hung, president of China (1916–17, 1922–23) *. Chiang Kai-shek, Chinese Nationalist leader (1928–48) *. Lin Sen, president of China (1932–43) *. Mao Zedong, founder of the People's Republic of China (1943–76) *. Deng Xiaoping, Chinese revolutionary and government leader (1945–89) *. Li Peng, Chinese premier (1987–98) *. Jiang Zemin, president of China (1993–2003) *. Hu Jintao, president of China (2003– )

Denmark: Kings and Queens *. Harold Bluetooth, king of Denmark (935–c. 985) *. Sweyn, king of Denmark (986–1014) *. Harthacanute, king of Denmark (1035–42) and of the English (1040–42) *. Canute the Saint, king (1080–86) and patron saint of Denmark *. Waldemar I (Waldemar the Great), king of Denmark (1157–82) *. Waldemar II, king of Denmark (1202–41) *. Waldemar IV, king of Denmark (1340–75) *. Margaret I, queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (1353–1412) *. Christian III, king of Denmark and Norway (1534–59) *. Christian IV, king of Denmark and Norway (1588–1648) *. Frederick III, king of Denmark and Norway (1648–70) *. Christian V, king of Denmark and Norway (1670–99) *. Frederick IV, king of Denmark and Norway (1699–1730) *. Frederick V, king of Denmark and Norway (1746–66) *. Christian VII, king of Denmark and Norway (1766–1808) *. Frederick VI, king of Denmark (1808–39) and Norway (1808–14) *. Christian VIII, king of Denmark (1839–48) *. Frederick VII, king of Denmark, duke of Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg (1848–63) *. Christian IX, king of Denmark (1863–1906) *. Frederick VIII, king of Denmark (1906–12) *. Christian X, king of Denmark (1912–47) and Iceland (1912–44) *. Frederick IX, king of Denmark (1947–72) *. Margaret II, queen of Denmark (1972–)

Rulers of Scotland *. Kenneth I, traditional founder of the kingdom of Scotland (c. 843–858) *. Kenneth II, Scottish king (971–995) *. Macbeth, king of Scotland (1040–57) *. Malcolm III, king of Scotland (1057–93) *. Alexander I, king of Scotland (1107–24) *. David I, king of Scotland (1124–53) *. Malcolm IV, king of Scotland (1153–65) *. William the Lion, king of Scotland (1165–1214) *. Alexander II, king of Scotland (1214–49) *. Alexander III, king of Scotland (1249–86) *. Margaret Maid of Norway, queen of Scotland (1286–90) *. John de Baliol, king of Scotland (1292–96) *. Robert I, king of Scotland (1306–29) *. David II, king of Scotland (1329–34, 1341–71) *. Edward de Baliol, English-supported king of Scotland (1332–41) *. Robert II, king of Scotland (1371–90) *. Robert Stuart, regent of Scotland (1389–1399) *. Robert III, king of Scotland (1390–1406) *. David Stuart, regent of Scotland (1399–1402) *. James I, king of Scotland (1406–37) *. James II, king of Scotland (1437–60) *. James III, king of Scotland (1460–88) *. James IV, king of Scotland (1488–1513) *. James V, king of Scotland (1513–42) *. John Stuart, regent of Scotland (1515–1524) *. Mary Queen of Scots(1542–67) *.James VI, king of Scotland (1567–1625), and as James I, king of England (1603–25) *. John Erskine Mar, regent of Scotland. (1571–72)

British Prime Ministers Since 1770 Find the name, term dates, and political party affiliation of every British Prime Minister from 1770 to the present. NameTerm Lord North(Tory)1770–1782 Marquis of Rockingham(Whig)1782–1782 Earl of Shelburne(Whig)1782–1783 Duke of Portland(Coalition)1783–1783 William Pitt, the Younger(Tory)1783–1801 Henry Addington(Tory)1801–1804 William Pitt, the Younger(Tory)1804–1806 Baron Grenville(Whig)1806–1807 Duke of Portland(Tory)1807–1809 Spencer Perceval(Tory)1809–1812 Earl of Liverpool(Tory)1812–1827 George Canning(Tory)1827–1827 Viscount Goderich(Tory)1827–1828 Duke of Wellington(Tory)1828–1830 Earl Grey(Whig)1830–1834 Viscount Melbourne(Whig)1834–1834 Sir Robert Peel(Tory)1834–1835 Viscount Melbourne(Whig)1835–1841 Sir Robert Peel(Tory)1841–1846 Earl Russell(Whig)1846–1852 Earl of Derby(Tory)1852–1852 Earl of Aberdeen(Coalition)1852–1855 Viscount Palmerston(Liberal)1855–1858 Earl of Derby(Conservative)1858–1859 Viscount Palmerston(Liberal)1859–1865 Earl Russell(Liberal)1865–1866 Earl of Derby(Conservative)1866–1868 Benjamin Disraeli(Conservative)1868–1868 William E. Gladstone(Liberal)1868–1874 Benjamin Disraeli(Conservative)1874–1880 William E. Gladstone(Liberal)1880–1885 Marquis of Salisbury(Conservative)1885–1886 William E. Gladstone(Liberal)1886–1886 Marquis of Salisbury(Conservative)1886–1892 William E. Gladstone(Liberal)1892–1894 Earl of Rosebery(Liberal)1894–1895 Marquis of Salisbury(Conservative)1895–1902 Arthur James Balfour(Conservative)1902–1905 Sir H. Campbell- Bannerman(Liberal)1905–1908 Herbert H. Asquith(Liberal)1908–1915 Herbert H. Asquith(Coalition)1915–1916 David Lloyd George(Coalition)1916–1922 Andrew Bonar Law(Conservative)1922–1923 Stanley Baldwin(Conservative)1923–1924 James Ramsay MacDonald(Labour)1924–1924 Stanley Baldwin(Conservative)1924–1929 James Ramsay MacDonald(Labour)1929–1931 James Ramsay MacDonald(Coalition)1931–1935 Stanley Baldwin(Coalition)1935–1937 Neville Chamberlain(Coalition)1937–1940 Winston Churchill(Coalition)1940–1945 Clement R. Attlee(Labour)1945–1951 Sir Winston Churchill(Conservative)1951–1955 Sir Anthony Eden(Conservative)1955–1957 Harold Macmillan(Conservative)1957–1963 Sir Alec Frederick Douglas-Home (Conservative) 1963–1964 Harold Wilson(Labour)1964–1970 Edward Heath(Conservative)1970–1974 Harold Wilson(Labour)1974–1976 James Callaghan(Labour)1976–1979 Margaret Thatcher(Conservative)1979–1990 John Major(Conservative)1990–1997 Tony Blair(Labour)1997–2007 Gordon Brown(Labour)2007–2010 David Cameron(Coalition)2010–

Austria: Rulers Emperors Franz I, last Holy Roman Emperor, first Emperor of Austria (1804–1835) Ferdinand I(1835–1848) Franz Joseph I(1848–1916) Karl I, last emperor of Austria (1916–1918) PresidentsFranz Dinghofer, Johann Nepomuk Hauser, and Karl Seitz, directory of the Council of State (1918–1919) Karl Seitz, president of the Constituent National Assembly (1919–1920) Michael Hainisch(1920–1928) Wilhelm Miklas (1928–1938) Karl Renner(1945–1950) Leopold Figl (1950–1951) Theodor Körner (1951–1957) Julius Raab, acting (1957) Adolf Schärf (1957–1965) Josef Klaus, acting (1965) Franz Jonas(1965–1974) Bruno Kreisky, acting (1974) Rudolf Kirchschläger (1974–1986) Kurt Waldheim(1986–1992) Thomas Klestil (1992–2004) Heinz Fischer (2004–

Rulers of England and Great Britain Find the name, birth date, and the number of years each monarch ruled England and Great Britain. NameBornRuled1 SAXONS2 Egbert3c. 775802–839 Ethelwulf?839–858 Ethelbald?858–860 Ethelbert?860–865 Ethelred I?865–871 Alfred the Great849871–899 Edward the Elderc. 870899–924 Athelstan895924–939 Edmund I the Deed-doer921939–946 Edredc. 925946–955 Edwy the Fairc. 943955–959 Edgar the Peaceful943959–975 Edward the Martyrc. 962975–978 Ethelred II the Unready968978–1016 Edmund II Ironsidec. 9931016 DANES Canute9951016–1035 Harold I Harefootc.10161035–1040 Hardecanutec.10181040–1042 SAXONS Edward the Confessorc.10041042–1066 Harold IIc.10201066 HOUSE OF NORMANDY William I the Conqueror10271066–1087 William II Rufusc.10561087–1100 Henry I Beauclerc10681100–1135 Stephen of Boulognec.11001135–1154 HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET Henry II11331154–1189 Richard I Coeur de Lion11571189–1199 John Lackland11671199–1216 Henry III12071216–1272 Edward I Longshanks12391272–1307 Edward II12841307–1327 Edward III13121327–1377 Richard II13671377–13994 HOUSE OF LANCASTER Henry IV Bolingbroke13671399–1413 Henry V13871413–1422 Henry VI14211422–14615 HOUSE OF YORK Edward IV14421461–14835 Edward V14701483–1483 Richard III14521483–1485 HOUSE OF TUDOR Henry VII14571485–1509 Henry VIII14911509–1547 Edward VI15371547–1553 Jane (Lady Jane Grey)615371553–1553 Mary I(“Bloody Mary”)15161553–1558 Elizabeth I15331558–1603 HOUSE OF STUART James I715661603–1625 Charles I16001625–1649 COMMONWEALTH Council of State—1649–1653 Oliver Cromwell815991653–1658 Richard Cromwell816261658–16599 RESTORATION OF HOUSE OF STUART Charles II16301660–1685 James II16331685–168810 William III1116501689–1702 Mary II1116621689–1694 Anne16651702–1714 HOUSE OF HANOVERGeorge I 1660 ... HOUSE OF SAXE-COBURG12 Edward VII18411901–1910 HOUSE OF WINDSOR12 George V18651910–1936 Edward VIII1894193613 George VI18951936–1952 Elizabeth II19261952– 1. Year of end of rule is also that of death, unless otherwise indicated. 2. Dates for Saxon kings are still controversial. 3. Became king of West Saxons in 802; considered (from 828) first king of all England. 4. Died 1400. 5. Henry VI reigned again briefly 1470–1471. 6. Nominal queen for 9 days; not counted as queen by some authorities. She was beheaded in 1554. 7. Ruled in Scotland as James VI (1567–1625). 8. Lord Protector. 9. Died 1712. 10. Died 1701. 11. Joint rulers (1689–1694). 12. Name changed from Saxe-Coburg to Windsor in 1917. 13. Was known after his abdication as the Duke of Windsor, died 1972.

Australia: Prime Ministers Prime Ministers Edmund Barton(1901–1903) Alfred Deakin(1903–1904, 1905–1908, 1909–1910) John Christian Watson (1904) George Huston Reid (1904–1905) Andrew Fisher(1908–1909, 1910–1913, 1914–1915) Joseph Cook(1913–1914) William Morris Hughes(1915–1923) Stanley Melbourne Bruce(1923–1929) James Henry Scullin (1929–1932) Joseph Aloysius Lyons(1932–1939) Sir Earle Page, acting (1939) Robert Gordon Menzies(1939–1941, 1949–1966) Arthur William Fadden (1941) John Curtin(1941–1945) Francis Michael Forde (1945) Joseph Benedict Chifley (1945–1949) Harold Holt(1966–1967) John McEwen (1967–1968) John Grey Gorton (1968–1971) William McMahon (1971–1972) Gough Whitlam(1972–1975) Malcolm Fraser (1975–1983) Robert J. Hawke(1983–1991) Paul Keating(1991–1996) John Howard(1996– )

Africa: Rulers (part 2 of 2): Selected Rulers from Other African Nations (alphabetical by last name) *. Ahmadou Ahidjo, president of the United Republic of Cameroon (1960–82) *. Pietro Badoglio, governor of Tripolitania (Libya) (1929–33) *. Italo Balbo, governor-general of Libya (1933–40) *. Hastings Kamuzu Banda, African political leader, president of Malawi (1966–94) *. Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, president of Tunisia (1987–) *. Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian Prime Minister (1962–63), president (1962–65) *. Jean Bedel Bokassa, president of Central African Republic (1966–79) *. Houari Boumedienne, president and prime minister of Algeria (1965–78) *. Ketchwayo Cetshwayo, king of the Zulus (1872–79) *. David Dacko, president of the Central African Republic (1960–66, 1979–81) *. Moktar Ould Daddah, president of Mauritania (1961–78) *. José Eduardo Dos Santos, Angolan president (1979–) *. Félix Éboué, commissioner-General of French Congo and French Equatorial Africa (1941–44) *. Gnassingbé Eyadéma, president of Togo (1967–) *. Yakubu Gowon, Nigerian head of state (1966–75) *. Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese Di Neghelli, governor of Cyrenaica, Libya (1930–34), Governor-General (1940–41) *. Teshafi Teezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold, prime minister of Ethiopia (1961–74) *. Félix Houphouët- Boigny, African political leader, president (1960–93) of Côte d'Ivoire. *. Idris I, king of Libya (1951–69) *. Joseph Leabua Jonathan, prime minister of Lesotho (1965–86) *. Jugurtha, king of Numidia (118–106B.C.) *. Kenneth David Kaunda, African political leader, president of Zambia (1964–91) *. Jomo Kenyatta, African political leader, first president of Kenya (1964–78) *. Khama, chief of the Bamangwato people of Bechuanaland (now Botswana) (1875–1923?) *. Sir Seretse Khama, president of Botswana (1966–80) *. Seyni Kountché, president of Niger(1974–87) *. Hilla Limann, president of Ghana (1979–81) *. Lobengula, king of Matabeleland (now in Zimbabwe) (1870–93) *. Samora Machel, president of Mozambique (1975–86) *. Sir Milton Margai, prime minister of Sierra Leone (1961–64) *. Mengistu Haile Mariam, president of Ethiopia (1987–91) *. Masinissa, king of Numidia (c. 238 – 148?B.C.) *. Menelik II, emperor of Ethiopia after 1889 *. Pierre Messmer, high commissioner of French Congo and French Equatorial Africa (1958) *. Daniel T. arap Moi, president of Kenya (1978–) *. Robert Gabriel Mugabe, president of Zimbabwe (1987–) *. Mutesa I, kabaka, or king, of Buganda (now in Uganda), c.1857–84 *. Agostinho Neto, first president of independent Angola (1975–79) *. Francisco Macias Nguema, first president of Equatorial Guinea (1968–79) *. Kwame Nkrumah, African political leader, prime minister (1957–60) and president (1960–66) of Ghana *. Julius Kambarage Nyerere, African political leader, first president (1964–85) of Tanzania *. Apollo Milton Obote, president of Uganda (1966–71, 1980–85) *. Sylvanus Olympio, African political leader, president of Togo (1961–63) *. Muammar Al-Qaddafi, de facto Libyan Head of State (1969–) *. Radama I, founder of the kingdom of Madagascar *. Denis Sassou- Nguesso, Congolese army officer and president of the Congo (Brazzaville) (1979–92, 1997–) *. Haile Selassie, emperor of Ethiopia (1930–74) *. Léopold Sédar Senghor, African statesman and poet, president (1960–80) of the republic of Senegal *. Alhaji Shehu Shagari, president of Nigeria (1979–83) *. Shaka, paramount chief (1818–28) of the Zulus *. Ian D. Smith, prime minister of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) (1964–65), prime minister of Rhodesia (1965–79) *. Sobhuza II, king of Swaziland (1921–82) *. Siaka Probyn Stevens, president of Sierra Leone (1971–85) *. Tewodros II, emperor of Ethiopia (1855–68) *. William Richard Tolbert, Jr., president of Liberia (1971–80) *. Ahmed Sékou Touré, African political leader, president (1958–84) of the republic of Guinea *. Philibert Tsiranana, president of the Malagasy Republic (now Madagascar) (1960–72) *. William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman, president of Liberia (1944–71) *. Maxime Weygand, Algerian Governor-General (1941) *. Fulbert Youlou, first president of the Congo (Brazzaville) (1960–63)

Africa: Rulers (part 1 of 2): Congo: Rulers *.Theophile Theodore Joseph Antoine Baron Wahis, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1900–12) *.Felix Alexandre Fuch, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1912–16) *.Eugene Joseph Marie Henry, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1916–21) *.Maurice Eugene Auguste Lippens, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1921–23) *.Martin Joseph Marie René Rutten, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1923–27) *.Auguste Constant Tilkens, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1927–34) *.Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1934–46) *.Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1946–51) *.Léon Antoine Marie Petillon, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1951–58) *.Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1958–60) *. Patrice Emergy Lumumba, prime minister of the Republic of the Congo (1960) *. Moise Tshombe, president of Katanga (1960–61), prime minister of the Republic of the Congo (1964–65) *. Joseph Kasavubu, president of the Republic of the Congo (1960–65) *. Mobutu Sese Seko, president of Zaïre (1965–97) *. Laurent Kabila, president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997–2001) *. Joseph Kabila, son of Laurent, president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001–) Morocco: Rulers *. Yakub I, ruler of Morocco (1184–99) and Moorish Spain. *. Ismail, sultan of Morocco (1672–1727) *. Abd ar-Rahman, sultan of Morocco (1822–59) *. Hassan, sultan of Morocco (1873–94) *. Abd al-Aziz IV, sultan of Morocco (1894–1908) *. Abd al-Hafiz, sultan of Morocco (1908–12) *.Yusuf, sultan of Morocco (1912–27) *. Muhammad V, sultan of Morocco (1927–53, 1955–57), king of Morocco (1957–61) *.Muhammad VI, sultan of Morocco (1953–55) *.Council of Throne Guardians (1955) *. Hassan II, king of Morocco (1961–1999) *.Muhammad VI, king of Morocco (1999–) South Africa: Rulers *. Sir John Henry Brand, South African politician, president of the Orange Free State (1864–71) *. Stephanus Johannes Paulus Krüger, president of Transvaal (1883–1902) *. Martinus Theunis Steyn, last president (1896–1900) of the Orange Free State *.Hamilton John Goold-Adams, governor of the Orange Free State (1901–02, 1907–10) *. Sir Alfred Milner, governor of Cape Colony (1897–1901), governor of Orange River Colony, Orange Free State (1902–05), governor of Transvaal (1902) *.Sir John Gordon Sprigg, premier of Cape Colony (1900–04) *.Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson, governor of Natal (1893–1901), governor of Cape Colony (1901–09) *.Sir Henry Edward McCallum, governor of Natal (1901–07) *. Leander Starr Jameson, premier of Cape Colony (1904–08) *.William Waldegrave Palmer, Earl of Selborne, governor of the Orange Free State (1905–07), governor of Transvaal (1906–10) *.Sir Matthew Nathan, governor of Natal (1907–10) *.John Xavier Merriman, premier of Cape Colony (1908–10) *.Paul Sandford, Baron Methuen of Corsham, governor of Natal (1910) *. Herbert John Gladstone, Viscount Gladstone, governor-general of South Africa (1910–14) *. Louis Botha, prime minister of South Africa (1910–19) *.Sydney Charles Buxton, Viscount Buxton, governor-general of South Africa (1914–20) *. Jan Christian Smuts, prime minister of South Africa (1919–24, 1939–48 *.Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert, Duke of Connaught, governor-general of South Africa (1920–24) *.Alexander, Earl of Athlone, governor-general of South Africa (1924–31) *. James Hertzog, prime minister of South Africa (1924–39) *.George Herbert Hyde Villiers, Earl of Clarendon, governor-general of South Africa (1931–37) *.Sir Patrick Duncan, governor-general of South Africa (1937–43) *.Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet, acting governor-general of South Africa (1943–46) *.Gideon Brand van Zyl, governor-general of South Africa (1946–51) *. Daniel F. Malan, prime minister of South Africa, (1948–54) *.Ernest George Jansen, governor-general of South Africa (1951–59) *.Johannes G. Strijdom, prime minister of South Africa (1954–58) *.Charles Robberts Swart, governor-general of South Africa (1959–61), president of South Africa (1961–67) *. Hendrik F. Verwoerd, prime minister of South Africa (1958–66) *.Jozua François Naudé, acting president of South Africa (1967–68) *.Jacobus Johannes Fouché, president of South Africa (1968–75) *.Nicolaas J. Diederichs, president of South Africa (1975–78) *.Marais Viljoen, president of South Africa (1978, 1979–84) *. B. J. Vorster, prime minister of South Africa (1966–78), governor-general of South Africa (1978–79) *. Pieter Willem Botha, prime minister of South Africa (1978–84), governor-general of South Africa (1984–89) *.J. Christian Heunis, acting president of South Africa (1989) *. Frederik Willem de Klerk, South African president (1989–94) *. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, South African president (1994–1999) *. Thabo Mbeki, South African president (1999–)

Africa: Rulers Congo: Rulers *.Theophile Theodore Joseph Antoine Baron Wahis, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1900–12) *.Felix Alexandre Fuch, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1912–16) *.Eugene Joseph Marie Henry, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1916–21) *.Maurice Eugene Auguste Lippens, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1921–23) *.Martin Joseph Marie René Rutten, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1923–27) *.Auguste Constant Tilkens, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1927–34) *.Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1934–46) *.Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1946–51) *.Léon Antoine Marie Petillon, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1951–58) *.Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis, governor-general of the Belgian Congo (1958–60) *. Patrice Emergy Lumumba, prime minister of the Republic of the Congo (1960) *. Moise Tshombe, president of Katanga (1960–61), prime minister of the Republic of the Congo (1964–65) *. Joseph Kasavubu, president of the Republic of the Congo (1960–65) *. Mobutu Sese Seko, president of Zaïre (1965–97) *. Laurent Kabila, president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997–2001) *. Joseph Kabila, son of Laurent, president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001–) Morocco: Rulers *. Yakub I, ruler of Morocco (1184–99) and Moorish Spain. *. Ismail, sultan of Morocco (1672–1727) *. Abd ar-Rahman, sultan of Morocco (1822–59) *. Hassan, sultan of Morocco (1873–94) *. Abd al-Aziz IV, sultan of Morocco (1894–1908) *. Abd al-Hafiz, sultan of Morocco (1908–12) *.Yusuf, sultan of Morocco (1912–27) *. Muhammad V, sultan of Morocco (1927–53, 1955–57), king of Morocco (1957–61) *.Muhammad VI, sultan of Morocco (1953–55) *.Council of Throne Guardians (1955) *. Hassan II, king of Morocco (1961–1999) *.Muhammad VI, king of Morocco (1999–) South Africa: Rulers *. Sir John Henry Brand, South African politician, president of the Orange Free State (1864–71) *. Stephanus Johannes Paulus Krüger, president of Transvaal (1883–1902) *. Martinus Theunis Steyn, last president (1896–1900) of the Orange Free State *.Hamilton John Goold-Adams, governor of the Orange Free State (1901–02, 1907–10) *. Sir Alfred Milner, governor of Cape Colony (1897–1901), governor of Orange River Colony, Orange Free State (1902–05), governor of Transvaal (1902) *.Sir John Gordon Sprigg, premier of Cape Colony (1900–04) *.Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson, governor of Natal (1893–1901), governor of Cape Colony (1901–09) *.Sir Henry Edward McCallum, governor of Natal (1901–07) *. Leander Starr Jameson, premier of Cape Colony (1904–08) *.William Waldegrave Palmer, Earl of Selborne, governor of the Orange Free State (1905–07), governor of Transvaal (1906–10) *.Sir Matthew Nathan, governor of Natal (1907–10) *.John Xavier Merriman, premier of Cape Colony (1908–10) *.Paul Sandford, Baron Methuen of Corsham, governor of Natal (1910) *. Herbert John Gladstone, Viscount Gladstone, governor-general of South Africa (1910–14) *. Louis Botha, prime minister of South Africa (1910–19) *.Sydney Charles Buxton, Viscount Buxton, governor-general of South Africa (1914–20) *. Jan Christian Smuts, prime minister of South Africa (1919–24, 1939–48 *.Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert, Duke of Connaught, governor-general of South Africa (1920–24) *.Alexander, Earl of Athlone, governor-general of South Africa (1924–31) *. James Hertzog, prime minister of South Africa (1924–39) *.George Herbert Hyde Villiers, Earl of Clarendon, governor-general of South Africa (1931–37) *.Sir Patrick Duncan, governor-general of South Africa (1937–43) *.Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet, acting governor-general of South Africa (1943–46) *.Gideon Brand van Zyl, governor-general of South Africa (1946–51) *. Daniel F. Malan, prime minister of South Africa, (1948–54) *.Ernest George Jansen, governor-general of South Africa (1951–59) *.Johannes G. Strijdom, prime minister of South Africa (1954–58) *.Charles Robberts Swart, governor-general of South Africa (1959–61), president of South Africa (1961–67) *. Hendrik F. Verwoerd, prime minister of South Africa (1958–66) *.Jozua François Naudé, acting president of South Africa (1967–68) *.Jacobus Johannes Fouché, president of South Africa (1968–75) *.Nicolaas J. Diederichs, president of South Africa (1975–78) *.Marais Viljoen, president of South Africa (1978, 1979–84) *. B. J. Vorster, prime minister of South Africa (1966–78), governor-general of South Africa (1978–79) *. Pieter Willem Botha, prime minister of South Africa (1978–84), governor-general of South Africa (1984–89) *.J. Christian Heunis, acting president of South Africa (1989) *. Frederik Willem de Klerk, South African president (1989–94) *. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, South African president (1994–1999) *. Thabo Mbeki, South African president (1999–)

Holy Roman Empire: Emperors *. Charlemagne(Charles I), emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814) *. Charles II, emperor of the West (875–77) and king of the West Franks (843–77) *. Otto I, Holy Roman emperor (962–73) and German king (936–73) *. Otto II, Holy Roman emperor (973–83) and German king (961–83) *. Otto III, Holy Roman emperor (996–1002) and German king (983–1002) *. Henry II, Holy Roman emperor (1014–24) and German king (1002–24), last of the Saxon line *. Conrad II, Holy Roman emperor (1027–39) and German king (1024–39), first of the Salian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire *. Henry III, Holy Roman emperor (1046–56) and German king (1039–56) *. Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor (1084–1105) and German king (1056–1105) *. Henry V, Holy Roman emperor (1111–25) and German king (1105–25) *. Lothair II, also called Lothair III, Holy Roman emperor (1133–37) and German king (1125–37) *. Frederick I, Holy Roman emperor (1155–90) and German king (1152–90) *. Henry VI, Holy Roman emperor (1191–97) and German king (1190–97) *. Constance, Holy Roman empress, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI *. Otto IV, Holy Roman emperor (1209–15) and German king (1208–15) *. Frederick II, Holy Roman emperor (1220–50) and German king (1212–20), king of Sicily (1197–1250), and king of Jerusalem (1229–50) *. Henry VII, Holy Roman emperor (1312–13) and German king (1308–13) *. Louis IV, Holy Roman emperor (1328–47) and German king (1314–47), duke of Upper Bavaria *. Charles IV, Holy Roman emperor (1355–78), German king (1347–78), and king of Bohemia (1346–78) *. Wenceslaus, Holy Roman emperor (uncrowned) and German king (1378–1400), king of Bohemia (1378–1419) as Wenceslaus IV, elector of Brandenburg (1373–76) *. Sigismund, Holy Roman emperor (1433–37), German king (1410–37), king of Hungary (1387–1437) and of Bohemia (1419–37), elector of Brandenburg (1376–1415) *. Frederick III, Holy Roman emperor (1452–93) and German king (1440–93) *. Maximilian I, Holy Roman emperor and German king (1493–1519) *. Charles V, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56) *. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman emperor (1558–64), king of Bohemia (1526–64) and of Hungary (1526–64) *. Maximilian II, Holy Roman emperor (1564–76), king of Bohemia (1562–76) and of Hungary (1563–76) *. Rudolf II, Holy Roman emperor (1576–1612), king of Bohemia (1575–1611) and of Hungary (1572–1608) *. Matthias, Holy Roman emperor (1612–19), king of Bohemia (1611–17) and of Hungary (1608–18) *. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman emperor (1619–37), king of Bohemia (1617–37) and of Hungary (1618–37) *. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman emperor (1637–57), king of Hungary (1626–57) and of Bohemia (1627–57) *. Leopold I, Holy Roman emperor (1658–1705), king of Bohemia (1656–1705) and of Hungary (1655–1705) *. Joseph I, Holy Roman emperor (1705–11), king of Hungary (1687–1711) and of Bohemia (1705–11) *. Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor (1711–40), king of Bohemia (1711–40) and, as Charles III, king of Hungary (1712–40) *. Charles VII, Holy Roman emperor (1742–45) and, as Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria (1726–45) *. Francis I, Holy Roman emperor (1745–65), duke of Lorraine (1729–37) as Francis Stephen, grand duke of Tuscany (1737–65) *. Joseph II, Holy Roman emperor (1765–90), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780–90) *. Leopold II, Holy Roman emperor (1790–92), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1790–92), as Leopold I grand duke of Tuscany (1765–90) *. Francis II, last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806), first emperor of Austria as Francis I (1804–35), king of Bohemia and of Hungary (1792–1835)

Byzantium: Emperors *. Leo I, Byzantine or East Roman emperor (457–74) *. Justin I, Byzantine emperor (518–27) *. Justinian I, Byzantine emperor (527–65) *. Theodora, Byzantine empress (527–48) *. Justin II, Byzantine emperor (565–78) *. Maurice, Byzantine emperor (582–602) *. Heraclius, Byzantine emperor (610–41) *. Constans II, Byzantine emperor (641–68) *. Constantine IV, Byzantine emperor (668–85) *. Justinian II, Byzantine emperor (685–95, 705–11) *. Leo III, Byzantine emperor (717–41) *. Constantine V, Byzantine emperor (741–75) *. Leo IV, Byzantine emperor (775–80) *. Constantine VI, Byzantine emperor (780–97) *. Irene, Byzantine empress (797–802) *. Nicephorus I, Byzantine emperor (802–11) *. Michael I, Byzantine emperor (811–13) *. Leo V, Byzantine emperor (813–20) *. Michael II, Byzantine emperor (820–29) *. Michael III, Byzantine emperor (842–67) *. Basil I, Byzantine emperor (867–86) *. Leo VI, Byzantine emperor (886–912) *. Constantine VII, Byzantine emperor (913–59) *. Romanus I, Byzantine emperor (usurper) (920–44) *. Romanus II, Byzantine emperor (959–63) *. Nicephorus II (Nicephorus Phocas), Byzantine emperor (963–69) *. John I (John Tzimisces), Byzantine emperor (969–76) *. Basil II, Byzantine emperor (976–1025) *. Romanus III (Romanus Argyrus), Byzantine emperor (1028–34) *. Zoë, Byzantine empress (1028–50) *. Comnenus, family name of several Byzantine emperors in the 11th and 12th centuries *. Isaac I (Isaac Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1057–59), first of the Comneni dynasty *. Romanus IV (Romanus Diogenes), Byzantine emperor (1068–71) *. Alexius I (Alexius Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118) *. John II (John Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1118–43) *. Manuel I (Manuel Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1143–80) *. Alexius II, Byzantine emperor (1180–83) *. Andronicus I (Andronicus Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1183–85) *. Isaac II (Isaac Angelus), Byzantine emperor (1185–95, 1203–04) *. Alexius III (Alexius Angelus), Byzantine emperor (1195–1203) *. Alexius IV, Byzantine emperor (1203–04) *. Alexius V (Alexius Ducas Mourtzouphlos), Byzantine emperor (1204) *. Baldwin I, first Latin emperor of Constantinople (1204–05) *. Theodore I, Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1204–22) *. Robert of Courtenay, Latin emperor of Constantinople (1218–28) *. John III (John Ducas Vatatzes), Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1222–54) *. Theodore II, Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1254–58) *. Baldwin II, last Latin emperor of Constantinople (1228–61) *. John IV (John Lascaris), Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1258–61) *. Michael VIII, Byzantine emperor (1261–82), first of the Palaeologusdynasty *. Andronicus II (Andronicus Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1282–1328) *. Andronicus III, Byzantine emperor (1328–41) *. John V (John Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1341–91) *. John VI (John Cantacuzene), Byzantine emperor (1347–54) *. John VII (John Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1390, 1399–1402) *. Manuel II, Byzantine emperor (1391–1425) *. John VIII, Byzantine emperor (1425–48) *. Constantine XI, last Byzantine emperor (1449–53)

Roman Republic and Roman Empire: Rulers Roman Republic *. Cato the Elder,statesman (234–149B.C.) *. Gracchi, (Tiberius Sempronius Graccus [d. 133B.C.] and Caius Sempronius Gracchus [d. 121B.C.], statesmen and social reformers *. Caius Marius, general and consul (157–86B.C.) *. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, general and consul (138–78B.C.) *. Pompey, general and member of First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Crassus (106–48B.C.) *. Marcus Licinius Crassus, member of First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey (d. 53B.C.) *. Cato the Younger, statesman (95–46B.C.) *. Julius Caesar, general and statesman (100?–44B.C.) *. Marc Antony, politician and soldier, member of Second Triumvirate with Lepidus and Octavian (Augustus) (83–30B.C.) *. Lepidus, member of Second Triumvirate with Marc Antony and Octavian (d. 13B.C.) Roman Empire *. Augustus, (Octavian) first emperor, grandnephew of Julius Caesar, (27B.C.–A.D.14) *. Tiberius, stepson of Augustus, (14–37) *. Caligula, grandnephew of Tiberius (37–41) *. Claudius, uncle of Caligula (41–54) *. Nero, stepson of Claudius (54–68) *. Galba, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (68–69) *. Otho, military commander (69) *. Vitellius, military commander (69) *. Vespasian, military commander (69–79) *. Titus, son of Vespasian (79–81) *. Domitian, son of Vespasian (81–96) *. Nerva, elected interim ruler (96-98) *. Trajan, adopted son of Nerva (98–117) *. Hadrian, ward of Trajan (117–138) *. Antoninus Pius, adopted by Hadrian (138–161) *. Marcus Aurelius, adopted by Antoninus Pius (161–180) *.Lucius Verus, adopted by Antoninus Pius; ruled jointly with Marcus Aurelius (161–169) *. Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius (180–192) *. Pertinax, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard (193) *. Didius Julianus, bought office from the Praetorian Guard (193) *. Severus, proclaimed emperor (193–211) *. Caracalla, son of Severus (211–217) *.Geta, son of Severus, ruled jointly with Caracalla (211–212) *. Macrinus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (217–18) *. Heliogabalus, cousin of Caracalla (218–222) *. Alexander Severus, cousin of Heliogabalus (222–235) *. Maximin, proclaimed emperor by soldiers, (235–238) *. Gordian I, made emperor by the senate (238) *. Gordian II, son of Gordian I, ruled jointly with his father (238) *.Balbinus, elected joint emperor by the senate (238) *.Pupienus Maximus, elected joint emperor with Balbinus by the senate (238) *. Gordian III, son of Gordian II (238–244) *. Philip (the Arabian), assassin of Gordian III (244–249) *. Decius, proclaimed emperor by the soldiers (249–2251) *.Hostilianus, son of Decius, colleague of Gallus (251) *. Gallus, military commander (251–253) *.Aemilianus, military commander (253) *. Valerian, military commander (253–260) *. Gallienus, son of Valerian, coemperor with his father and later sole emperor (253–268) *. Claudius II, military commander (268–270) *. Aurelian, chosen by Claudius II as successor (270–275) *. Tacitus, chosen by the senate (275–276) *.Florianus, half brother of Tacitus (276) *. Probus, military commander (276–282) *. Carus, proclaimed by the Praetorian Guard (282–283) *. Carinus, son of Carus (283–285) *.Numerianus, son of Carus, joint emperor with Carinus (283–284) *. Diocletian, military commander, divided the empire; ruled jointly with Maximian and Constantius I 284–305) *. Maximian, appointed joint emperor by Diocletian (286–305) *. Constantius I, joint emperor and successor of Diocletian (305–306) *. Galerius, joint emperor with Constantius I (305–310) *. Maximin, nephew of Galerius (308–313) *. Licinius, appointed emperor in the West by Galerius; later emperor in the East (308–324) *. Maxentius, son of Maximian (306–312) *. Constantine I (the Great), son of Constantius I (306–337) *. Constantine II, son of Constantine I (337–340) *. Constans, son of Constantine I (337–350) *. Constantius II, son of Constantine I (337–361) *.Magnentius, usurped Constans' throne, (350–353) *. Julian (the Apostate), nephew of Constantine I (361–363) *. Jovian, elected by the army (363–364) *. Valentinian I, proclaimed by the army; ruled in the West (364–375) *. Valens, brother of Valentinian I; ruled in the East (364–378) *. Gratian, son of Valentinian I; coruler in the West with Valentinian II (375–383) *. Maximus, usurper in the West (383–388) *. Valentinian II, son of Valentinian I, ruler of the West (375–392) *.Eugenius, usurper in the West (393–394) *. Theodosius I (the Great), appointed ruler of the East (379–395) by Gratian; last ruler of united empire (394–395) Emperors in the East *. Arcadius, son of Theodosius I (395–408) *. Theodosius II, son of Arcadius, (408–450) *. Marcian, brother-in-law of Theodosius II (450–457) *. Leo I, chosen by the senate (457–474) *.Leo II, grandson of Leo I (474) *. Zeno(474–475) *. Basilicus(475–476) Emperors in the West *. Honorius, son of Theodosius (395–423) *.Maximus, usurper in Spain (409–411) *. Constantius III, named joint emperor by Honorius (421)

Ancient Persia: Kings *. Cambyses, two kings of the Achaemeniddynasty of Persia (c. 600–500B.C.) *. Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenidsand of the Persian Empire (c. 559–529B.C.) *. Darius I (Darius the Great), king of ancient Persia (521–486B.C.) *. Xerxes I (Xerxes the Great), king of ancient Persia (486–465B.C.) *. Artaxerxes I, king of ancient Persia (464–425B.C.), of the dynasty of the Achaemenis *. Xerxes II, king of ancient Persia (424B.C.) *. Darius II, king of ancient Persia (423?–404B.C.) *. Tissaphernes, Persian satrap of coastal Asia Minor (c.413–395B.C.) *. Artaxerxes II, king of ancient Persia (404–358B.C.) *. Mausolus, Persian satrap, ruler over Caria (c.376–353B.C.) *. Artaxerxes III, king of ancient Persia (358–338B.C.) *. Darius III (Darius Codomannus), king of ancient Persia (336–330B.C.) *. Tiridates, king of Parthia (c.248–211B.C.), second ruler of the Arsacid dynasty *. Shapur I, king of Persia (241–72) *. Shapur II, king of Persia (310–79), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty *. Ardashir II, king of Persia (379–83), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty *. Shapur III, king of Persia (383–88), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty *. Khosrow I (Khosrow Anüshirvan), king of Persia (531–79) *. Khosrow II (Khosrow Parviz), king of Persia of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty (590–628)

Ancient Greece and Macedon: Rulers *. Draco, Athenian politician (c. 621B.C.) *. Solon, chief magistrate of Athens (594–546B.C.) *. Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens (605?–527B.C.) *. Hippias, tyrant of Athens (527–510B.C.) *. Hipparchus, tyrant of Athens (c. 555–514B.C.) *. Themistocles, Athenian statesman (c. 525–462B.C.) *. Cimon, Athenian general and statesman (d. 449B.C.) *. Cleisthenes, democratic ruler of Athens (506B.C.) *. Pericles, Athenian statesman (c. 495-429B.C.) *. Cleon, Athenian statesman (d. 422B.C.) *. Alcibiades, Athenian statesman, (c. 450–404B.C.) *. Agesilaus II, king of Sparta (c. 444–360B.C.) *. Agis, name of four Spartan kings *. Philip II, king of Macedon and Greece (359–336B.C.) *. Alexander the Great, , king of Macedon and much of Asia, (356–323B.C.) *. Lysimachus, general of Alexander the Great, ruler of Thrace, west Asia Minor, and Macedonia, (c. 355–281B.C.) *. Cassander, king of Macedon (358–297B.C.) *. Demetrius I, king of Macedon (c. 337–283B.C.) *. Antigonus II, king of Macedon (c. 320-239B.C.) *. Demetrius II, king of Macedon (c. 239–229B.C.) *. Antigonus III, king of Macedon (d. 221B.C.) *. Cleomenes III, king of Sparta (235–221B.C.) *. Philip V, king of Macedon (221–179B.C.) *. Perseus, last king of Macedon (179–168B.C.)

Ancient Egypt: Rulers *. Amenemhet I, king of ancient Egypt, founder of the XII dynasty (2000–1970B.C.) *. Sesostris I, king of ancient Egypt, second ruler of the XII dynasty (1980–1926B.C.) *. Amasis I, king of ancient Egypt (c.1570–1545B.C.), founder of the XVIII dynasty *. Thutmose I, king of ancient Egypt (1525–1495B.C.), third ruler of the XVIII dynasty *. Hatshepsut, queen of ancient Egypt (1486–1468B.C.), of the XVIII dynasty *. Ikhnaton, king of ancient Egypt (c.1372–1354B.C.), of the XVIII dynasty *. Ramses, name of several kings of ancient Egypt of the XIX and XX dynasties *. Horemheb, king of ancient Egypt (c.1342–c.1303B.C.), founder of the XIX dynasty *. Seti I, king of ancient Egypt (1302–1290B.C.), of the XIX dynasty *. Merneptah, king of ancient Egypt (1224–1215B.C.), of the XIX dynasty *. Sheshonk I, king of ancient Egypt (950–924?B.C.), founder of the XXII (Libyan) dynasty *. Piankhi, king of ancient Nubia(c.741–c.715B.C.) *. Taharka, king of ancient Egypt (688–663B.C.), last ruler of the XXV dynasty *. Psamtik, king of ancient Egypt (661–609B.C.), founder of the XXVI dynasty *. Apries, king of ancient Egypt (588–569B.C.), of the XXVI dynasty *. Amasis II, king of ancient Egypt (569–525B.C.), of the XXVI dynasty *. Ptolemy I (Ptolemy Soter), king of ancient Egypt (323–284B.C.), the first ruler of the Macedonian dynasty (or Lagid dynasty) *. Ptolemy II (Ptolemy Philadelphus), king of ancient Egypt (285–246B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Berenice, queen of ancient Cyrene and Egypt (273–221B.C.) *. Ptolemy III (Ptolemy Euergetes), king of ancient Egypt (246–221B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy IV (Ptolemy Philopator), king of ancient Egypt (221–205B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy V (Ptolemy Epiphanes), king of ancient Egypt (205–180B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy VI (Ptolemy Philometor), king of ancient Egypt (180–145B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy VII (Ptolemy Physcon), king of ancient Egypt (145–116B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy VIII (Ptolemy Lathyrus), king of ancient Egypt (116–107B.C., 88–81B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy IX, king of ancient Egypt (107–88B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy X, king of ancient Egypt (80B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Cleopatra, queen of Egypt (69–30B.C.) *. Ptolemy XI (Ptolemy Auletes), king of ancient Egypt (80–58B.C., 55–51B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy XII, king of ancient Egypt (51–47B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty *. Ptolemy XIII, king of ancient Egypt (47–44B.C.), the last of the Macedonian dynasty

Pentagon History World's largest office building has distinctive past The world's largest office building, the Pentagon is synonymous with the Department of Defenseand a symbol of American military might. Exactly 60 years before the September 2001 attacks, on September 11, 1941, ground was broken in Arlington Country, Virginia, for a huge new building to house the War Department, forerunner of today's Department of Defense. The department was then operating from 17 separate buildings in Washington. Pearl Harbor Alters Plans At certain periods 13,000 people worked on the project. Originally, plans called for three floors, but as the military prepared for war after the attack on Pearl Harbor, two more floors were added. To conserve steel, concrete ramps were used in place of elevators and the outside walls were made of reinforced concrete. The Pentagon was built in "stripped classical" style, a variation of Greek and Roman classicism popular in the middle of the 20th century and often used for government buildings. On January 15, 1943, just 16 months after construction began, the Pentagon was completed. In April, occupants began moving in. Including outside facilities, the project cost about $83,000,000. Five Sides, Five Layers, Five Floors Since five roads surrounded the site, builders chose a five-sided building, which is how the Pentagon got its name. The building consists of five concentric rings connected by ten corridors that run, like spokes, from the inner ring to the outer. Interior courtyards that provide light separate the rings. The corridors are a total of 17.5 miles long, while the building provides a gross floor area of 6,500,000 square feet. There are 3,800,000 square feet for offices, concessions, and storage. The five-sided center courtyard covers five acres. A shopping concourse, numerous snack bars, cafeterias, dining rooms, banks, a subway station, and a bus platform make the Pentagon "a city within a city." Massive Dimensions The structure is supported by 41,492 concrete piles. There are five floors, plus mezzanines and basements. The building itself is 77 feet, 3.5 inches high. Each outside wall is 921 feet long. More than seven acres of glass went into the 7,754 windows in the Pentagon. There are 16,250 light fixtures, with some 250 bulb replacements made each day. There are 7,000 electric clock outlets, 691 drinking fountains, 131 stairways, 19 escalators, 13 elevators, 672 firehouse cabinets, and 284 rest rooms. The Pentagon site covers a total of 583 acres, while the building itself sits on 29 acres. The Pentagon's sewage treatment plant and the heating and refrigeration unit each cover one acre. The parking lot is 67 acres and has spaces for 8,770 vehicles. Miles of Cables Thirty miles of access highway and 21 bridges and overpasses were built to connect the complex to nearby roads. Some 100,000 miles of telephone cable handle the 200,000 phone calls made at the Pentagon each day. The Defense Post Office handles 1,200,000 pieces of mail each month. At its peak during World War II, 33,000 people worked in the Pentagon. A Historic Landmark In 1992, the Pentagon became a national historic landmark. Architects noted the building's unusual shape, facades, courtyard, two terraces, and its history as significant characteristics. September 11 Attack In 1990, a major renovation plan was approved, calling for the building to be gutted, asbestos removed, and new plumbing, wiring, and other features installed in compliance with current building codes. The plane that crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, hit a section that had recently been renovated and was still only partially occupied. Authorities say the death toll of 189 would have likely been much higher if the area had been fully occupied. The crash caused a gash on the west side of the Pentagon measuring 30 yards wide and 10 yards deep; 185,693 square feet were damaged and 37,161 square feet were destroyed. Three of the five Pentagon rings were damaged. It cost $501 million to repair the building; repairs were finished within a year of the attack.

Arlington National Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery occupies 612 acres in Virginiaon the Potomac River, directly opposite Washington. This land was part of the estate of John Parke Custis, Martha Washington'sson. His son, George Washington Parke Custis, built the mansion which later became the home of Robert E. Lee. In 1864, Arlington became a military cemetery. More than 240,000 service members and their dependents are buried there. Expansion of the cemetery began in 1966, using a 180-acre tract of land directly east of the present site. Among the many famous and distinguished people buried in the cemetery are presidents William Howard Taftand John F. Kennedy; a number of supreme court justices, including Chief Justice Earl Warren, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.,and Thurgood Marshall; explorers Robert Pearyand Matthew Henson; civil rights leader Medgar Evers; band leader Glenn Miller; and mystery writer Dashiell Hammett. There are also 3,800 Civil War “contrabands” (fugitive and liberated slaves) buried there, their headstones engraved only with “Civilian” or “Citizen.” In 1921, an Unknown American Soldierof World War I was buried in the cemetery; the monument at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was opened to the public without ceremony in 1932. Two additional Unknowns, one from World War II and one from the Korean War, were buried May 30, 1958. The Unknown Serviceman of Vietnam was buried on May 28, 1984. In June 1998 his body was disinterred and recent DNA-testing technology was used to identify him as First Lt. Michael Blassie, an Air Force pilot from St. Louis. It is possible that technology will prevent there from ever being another “unknown” buried in the tomb. The inscription carved on the Tomb of the Unknowns reads: HERE RESTS IN HONORED GLORY AN AMERICAN SOLDIER KNOWN BUT TO GOD

Mount Rushmore Mount Rushmore(6,000 ft), in South Dakota, became a celebrated American landmark after sculptor Gutzon Borglumtook on the project of carving into the side of it the heads of four great presidents. From 1927 until his death in 1941, Borglum worked on chiseling the 60-foot likenesses of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. His son, Lincoln, finished the sculpture later that year.

The Supreme Court Building Source:U.S. Supreme Court. Web: www.supremecourtus .gov. Despite its role as a coequal branch of government, the Supreme Court was not provided with a building of its own until 1935, the 146th year of its existence. Initially, the Court met in the Merchants Exchange Building in New York City. When the national capital moved to Philadelphiain 1790, the Court moved with it, establishing Chambers first in Independence Halland later in the City Hall. When the Federal Government moved, in 1800, to the permanent capital in Washington, D.C., Congress lent the Court space in the new Capitol Building. The Court was to change its meeting place a half dozen times within the Capitol. Additionally, the Court convened for a short period in a private house after the British set fire to the Capitol during the War of 1812. Following this episode, the Court returned to the Capitol and met from 1819 to 1860 in a chamber now restored as the “Old Supreme Court Chamber.” Then from 1860 until 1935, the Court sat in what is now known as the “Old Senate Chamber.” Finally in 1929, Chief Justice William Howard Taft, who had been president of the United States from 1909 to 1913, persuaded Congress to end this arrangement and authorize the construction of a permanent home for the Court. Architect Cass Gilbertwas charged by Chief Justice Taft to design “a building of dignity and importance suitable for its use as the permanent home of the Supreme Court of the United States.” Neither Taft nor Gilbert survived to see the Supreme Court Building completed. The construction, begun in 1932, was completed in 1935, when the Court was finally able to occupy its own building.

The Liberty Bell The Liberty Bell was cast in England in 1752 for the Pennsylvania Statehouse (now named Independence Hall) in Philadelphia. It was recast in Philadelphiain 1753. It is inscribed with the words, “Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof” (Lev. 25:10). The bell was rung on July 8, 1776, for the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence. Hidden in Allentown during the British occupation of Philadelphia, it was re-placed in Independence Hall in 1778. The bell cracked on July 8, 1835, while tolling the death of Chief Justice John Marshall. In 1976 the Liberty Bell was moved to a special exhibition building near Independence Hall.

Washington Monument Construction of this magnificent Washington, DC, monument took nearly a century of planning, building, and controversy. Provision for a large equestrian statue of George Washingtonwas made in the original city plan, but the project was soon dropped. After Washington's death it was taken up again, and a number of false starts and changes of design were made. Finally, in 1848, work was begun on the monument that stands today. The design, by architect Robert Mills, then featured an ornate base. In 1854, however, political squabbling and a lack of money brought construction to a halt. Work was resumed in 1880, and the monument was completed in 1884 and opened to the public in 1888. The tapered shaft, faced with white marble and rising from walls 15 ft (4.6 m) thick at the base, was modeled after the obelisksof ancient Egypt. The monument, one of the tallest masonry constructions in the world, stands just over 555 ft (169 m). Memorial stones from the 50 states, foreign countries, and organizations line the interior walls. The top, reached only by elevator, commands a panoramic view of the city.

The White House: The White House, the official residence of the president, is at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, DC 20500. The site, covering about 18 acres, was selected by President Washington and city planner Pierre Charles L'Enfant, and the architect was James Hoban. The design appears to have been influenced by Leinster House, Dublin, and James Gibb'sBook of Architecture.The cornerstone was laid Oct. 13, 1792, and the first residents were President John Adamsand First Lady Abigail Adamsin Nov. 1800. The White House has a fascinating history. The main building was burned by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812. Afterward, when the building was being restored, the smoke-stained gray stone walls were painted white. The name “White House,” however, was not used officially until President Theodore Roosevelthad it engraved on his stationery in 1901. Prior to that, the building was known variously as the “President's Palace,” the “President's House,” and the “Executive Mansion.” Over the years, there have been several additions made to the main building, including the west wing (1902), the east wing (1942), and a penthouse and a bomb shelter (1952). The west wing, which contains the president's oval office and the offices of his staff, is the center of activity at the White House. During Harry Truman'spresidency, from Dec. 1948 to March 1952, the interior of the White House was rebuilt, and the outer walls were strengthened. Nevertheless, the exterior stone walls are the same ones that were first put in place when the White House was constructed two centuries ago. The rooms for public functions are on the first floor; the second and third floors are used as the residence of the president and first family. The most celebrated public room is the East Room, where formal receptions take place. Other public rooms are the Red Room, the Green Room, and the Blue Room. The State Dining Room is used for formal dinners. In all, there are 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, 28 fireplaces, 8 staircases, and 3 elevators. Source:Department of the Interior, U.S. National Park Service

U.S. Capitol: When the French architect and engineer Maj. Pierre Charles L'Enfantfirst began to lay out the plans for a new federal city (now Washington, DC), he noted that Jenkins' Hill, overlooking the area, seemed to be “a pedestal waiting for a monument.” It was here that the U.S. Capitol would be built. The basic structure as we know it today evolved over a period of more than 150 years. In 1792 a competition was held for the design of a capitol building. Dr. William Thornton, a physician and amateur architect, submitted the winning plan, a simple, low-lying structure of classical proportions with a shallow dome. Later, internal modifications were made by Benjamin Henry Latrobe. After the building was burned by the British in 1814, Latrobe and architect Charles Bulfinchwere responsible for its reconstruction. Finally, under Thomas Walter, who was Architect of the Capitol from 1851 to 1865, the House and Senate wings and the imposing cast-iron dome topped with the Statue of Freedom were added, and the Capitol assumed the form we see today. The Capitol building is rich in historic associations. It was in the old Senate chamber that Daniel Webstercried out, “Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable!” In Statuary Hall, which used to be the old House chamber, a small disk on the floor marks the spot where John Quincy Adamswas fatally stricken after more than 50 years of service to his country. A whisper from one side of this room can be heard across the vast space of the hall. Visitors can see the original Supreme Courtchamber a floor below the Rotunda. The Capitol Building is also a vast artistic treasure house. The works of such famous artists as Gilbert Stuart, Rembrandt Peale, and John Trumbullare displayed on the walls. The Great Rotunda, with its 180-foot- (54.9-meter-) high dome, is decorated with a fresco by Constantino Brumidi, which extends some 300 ft (90 m) in circumference. Throughout the building are many paintings of events in U.S. history and sculptures of outstanding Americans.The 68-acre (27.5-hectare) park that the Capitol is situated on was designed by the 19th-century landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. There are free guided tours of the Capitol, which include admission to the House and Senate galleries. Those who wish to visit the visitors' gallery in either wing without taking the tour may obtain passes from their senators or representatives. Visitors may ride on the monorail subway that joins the House and Senate wings of the Capitol with the congressional office buildings.

U.S. Historical Monuments: The Statue of Liberty: The Statue of Liberty (“Liberty Enlightening the World”) is a 225-ton, steel-reinforced copper female figure, 151 ft 1 in. (46.05 m) in height, facing the ocean from Liberty Island1in New York Harbor. The right hand holds aloft a torch, and the left hand carries a tablet upon which is inscribed: “July IV MDCCLXXVI.” The statue was designed by Fredéric Auguste Bartholdiof Alsace as a gift to the United States from the people of Franceto memorialize the alliance of the two countries in the American Revolutionand their abiding friendship. The French people contributed the $250,000 cost. The 150-foot pedestal was designed by Richard M. Huntand built by Gen. Charles P. Stone, both Americans. It contains steel underpinnings designed by Alexander Eiffelof France to support the statue. The $270,000 cost was borne by popular subscription in this country. President Grover Clevelandaccepted the statue for the United States on Oct. 28, 1886. The Statue of Liberty was designated a National Monument in 1924 and a World Heritage Site in 1984. On Sept. 26, 1972, President Richard M. Nixondedicated the American Museum of Immigration, housed in structural additions to the base of the statue. In 1984 scaffolding went up for a major restoration and the torch was extinguished on July 4. It was relit with much ceremony July 4, 1986, to mark its centennial. On a tablet inside the pedestal is engraved the following sonnet, written by Emma Lazarus(1849–1887): The New ColossusNot like the brazen giant of Greek fame. With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!” 1. Called Bedloe's Island prior to 1956.

Seven New Wonders The original Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list that has no doubt long frustrated intrepid travelers. Six of the seven structures on the list haven't existed for centuries, and must be forever imagined, never seen. (And one of the seven, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, may never have existed at all, according to some historians.) Herodotus is believed to have started the original list, way back in the 5th century B.C., so it's no surprise that the architectural marvels he praised were not around for modern man to admire. But as of 7/7/07 travelers should take note: a new list is out, one that's modern in both origin and scope, and each of the structures on it can be viewed in person. 100 Million Votes The new Seven Wonders of the World was compiled by popular vote over a six year period by a nonprofit group headed by Swiss adventurer Bernard Weber. In 1999 Weber began collecting suggestions from Internet users around the world. A list of over 200 nominations was narrowed down to 70, and then to 21, and finally to 7. The group reported more than 100 million votes, received via the Internet and cell phone messages, which, if true, makes this the largest poll ever conducted. Not everyone has welcomed the list with open arms. Egyptian officials were not pleased that the Pyramids of Giza, the only original wonder that still exists, had to compete in the contest. Eventually the organizers decided to remove it from the voting and make it an honorary choice (making it a list of eight). And the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) did not support the contest, pointing out that the results reflected only the opinions of the cyber voters. But for Warner and other organizers, the contest was a way to celebrate cultural diversity and history, and to encourage travel and communication. Half of the money raised during the contest will be used to fund the preservation and restoration of monuments around the world, including a giant Buddha statue destroyed by the Taliban in 2000 in Afghanistan. The new list: The Great Wall of China This 4,160-mile wall was built to protect China from invading Huns, Mongols, and other tribes, and to unite fortifications into one defense system. Begun in the 7thcentury B.C., the barricade took hundreds of years to build, and ranks as the world's longest man-made structure-and is apparently the only one visible from space. Petra Jordan This ancient capital city was built around 9 B.C. during the reign of King Aretas IV and continued to flourish during the Roman Empire. It is now visible in its pink stone ruins and carved façade. Christ Redeemer Statue Brazil Standing 125 feet tall atop the Corcovado Mountain high above Rio, this statue took five years to build. Constructed in France by sculptor Paul Landowski, it was shipped to Brazil in pieces, and then carried up the mountain by train, where it was reassembled. Machu Picchu Peru This "city in the clouds" was built 8,000 feet above sea level in the 15thcentury by Incan emperor Pachacutec. Abandoned by the Incas, the city remained unknown until it was rediscovered by an explorer in 1911. Pyramid at Chichen Itza Mexico The center of Mayan civilization in its day, Chichen Itza is still visible in several structures, including the pyramid of Kukulkan. Roman Colosseum Italy This giant, 50,000 seat amphitheater in the center of Rome was built over 2,000 years ago, and still influences the design of sports stadiums worldwide. Taj Mahal India Built in 1630 by a grieving emperor, Shah Jahan, in honor of his dead wife, this white marble structure combines Indian, Persian, and Islamic style of architecture.

World Trade Center History (part 2 of 2): Rebuilding Plans In 2002, separate design contests were held for rebuilding the World Trade Center site and creating a memorial for the victims of the attacks. The first round of finalists for the site, unveiled in July 2002, were widely criticized as being too boring and having too much of an emphasis on office space, leading to a new round of finalists in December. In February 2003, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, which was established by Governor Pataki to coordinate the various agencies and advisory committees involved in the rebuilding efforts, chose architect Daniel Libeskind's design for rebuilding the 16-acre site of the former World Trade Center. The design included a hanging garden, a memorial, a cultural center, and Freedom Tower, which would be a symbolic 1,776 feet tall from the ground to the top of its spire. This would make it taller than any building currently standing in the world. (The Burj Dubai skyscraper currently under construction in the United Arab Emirates is expected to be higher, however.) In July 2003, David Childs was brought in as the new lead architect of Freedom Tower, although Libeskind remained in charge of designing the site in general. The two had different visions for the tower; a design combining the approaches of both architects was unveiled in December 2003. It would include wind turbines in its spire, designed to generate as much as 20% of the building's power. On July 4, 2004, New York Governor Pataki, New Jersey Governor McGreevey, and New York City Mayor Bloomberg laid the cornerstone for Freedom Tower. The skyscraper, estimated to cost $1.5 billion, was expected to be ready for its first occupants by late 2008, while construction on the site in general was expected to last through 2015. Just as construction was beginning, security concerns were raised, leading to a complete redesign of the tower. The new plans were released on June 29, 2005. The tower is to be moved further back from the street, and will have a cubic base the same size as each of the Twin Towers. The wind turbines have been eliminated. The design recalls that of the old buildings, while adding its own twists: starting with the square base, the tower's design moves to triangular forms, creating an octagon in the middle, and culminates in a square at the top, rotated 45 degrees from the base. A spire will rise a bit more than 400 feet beyond that, to retain the planned total height of 1,776 feet. Work on excavating the foundation finally got underway in late April 2006. Refined plans were announced in June 2006, calling for glass prisms around a concrete base, to liven up the area while meeting security requirements. The tower is now planned to cost $2 billion, and be ready for occupants in 2011. Design for World Trade Center Memorial Selected The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation announced in January 2004 that architects Michael Arad and Peter Walker had won a competition to design the memorial to the people who died at the World Trade Center. There had been more than 5,000 entries in the competition. The memorial, Reflecting Absence, would honor those who died at the World Trade Center in terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and February 26, 1993. In the 1993 tragedy, a truck bomb exploded in a garage in the north tower, killing six people and injuring more than a thousand. Reflecting Absence, which will be built where the Twin Towers once stood, includes two shallow pools surrounded by leafy trees. The names of the victims would be etched in walls around the pools. “In its powerful, yet simple articulation of the footprints of the Twin Towers, Reflecting Absence has made