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■ AUTHOR Cr •. * A • 

"the treasury or KNuWJ.KJx-.K .V l.iHIlAHV Ol' ItKIKKKN'i.'E." 

>"-, ' New E.iiujQ.i'' .'^ 

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London : 

Trill t«;d by A. Spottiswooob, 

New-Street Square. 



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Thb publication of this volume haTiog been protrncted very condderably 
beyond the time I liad originally calculated on, and the tank having proved a 
far more onerous one than my unguine expectations had led me to antici- 
pate, I fVeely confeii, that, whatever iu ultimate fate mny be, I feel no 
ordinary degree of gratification in having at length brought it to a doio— a 
gratification arising from a practical knowledge of the labour required for 
its production ; heightened by a recollection of the serious interruption 1 
met with, flrom severe and prolonged illness, during its early progress. Yet, 
though sometimes daunted, and often discouraged, (if I may apply the words 
of a great man, on an important subject, to my comparatively insiguificant 
undertaking), " despondency has never so far prevailed as to depress me to 

On the present occasion, I have but little to say. I shall not trouble the 
reader with a needless dissertation qu the uses and value of Biography ; the 
subject Is too obvious to require demonstration — too trite to call for a pre- 
fatory remark. Neither, in what I deem it necessary to state, do I wish to 
arrogate to myself any peculiar merit. But let no one imagine that I am 
tndiflbrent as to the success of this volume, or that I should not I .>i stiy 
exult to learn that it met with the approbation of a discerning publit" If 
I had no other motive, the highly favourable reception given to its precursor 
would have been a sufficient inducement, I tnut, to make me anxious to 
execute the present Work in a manner that might not be deemed discre- 
ditable either to my Judgment, or my regard for truth and strict impar- 

Persons not in the habit of consulting different biographical autliorities, 
can have no idea of the discrepancies that arc to be met with in the relation 
of mere matters of fact ; but this, perplexing as it is, bears no proportion to 
the wilftil perversions that abound where scope is given for the expression of 
political feeling, or the promulgation of a particular doctrine. So prone, 
indeed, arc many to this corrupt practice, tliat it appears as thougli they 
considered it ajjaramouut duty, to carry on, pei' fas et nefas, an eternal 
crusade against all opinions which are not in accordance with their own — 
against every one who is disposed to take a straightforward and rational 
view of things, rather than to glance at them through the oblique medium 


of «omo wild or fHticiriil theory. Tho amnunt of injury thus done to the 
causo of truth, it i.4 impossible to estimate: lentimciits, glossed over by a 
false philosopiiy, are slavishly copied from one work to another, till tho dis- 
semination of error becomes general, and tho evils inflicted on society arc 
past redemption. 

Throughout the following pages, I have never allowed myself to be satis- 
fled with one authority, wliere more were obtainable ; nor have 1 grudged my 
labour in any way that I thought would render the volume more acceptable 
to the public ; — but to expect that it can be immaculate, would be the height 
of absurdity. If I have fallen into errors similar to those which I have 
condemned, a heavy responsibility will rest on mc ; if I havo committed 
any of a less serious nature, I hope they will bo found so venial, that their 
obliteration may be an easy employment when revising a future edition. 

The steady patronage bestowed upon "The Tkeasuuy of Knowledge" 
demands my reiterated thanks. Thirty thousand* copies of tliat work have 
been legitimately sold in this country, and a still greater number, ns 1 am 
credibly informed, jthalcd in America : it is therefore not unreasonable to 
expect, that, unless there be more defects in the present volume than I am 
conscious of, it will meet with a proportionate circulation. Nothing but a 
large sale can ever repay me ; and I naturally cherish tlic hope that, in a 
commercial as well as in a moral sense, I may not have laboured in vain. 

Adhering to my original design, I have surrounded the pages with " Maxims 
and Precepts." They amount to nearly three tliousand five hundred, and 
have occupied much more time and thought than the Public may consider 
tliey deserve. I believe I can fairly claim about fifteen hundred as my own ; 
for the " better half" I am indebted to the words and sentiments of others : 
but liow they have been manufactured, or where gleaned, is of trilling mo- 
ment, so that they have sufficient merit to warrant their introduction. If 
any reader desire to know my motives for having adopted a plan so unique, 1 
beg to refer him to the " Introductory Observations " to the volume before 
mentioned. Should his fastidious taste still remain unsatisfied, I can only 
say, with Shylock, " It is my humour." 

S. M. 

J^ A Slitlement to this Edition brings it down from the period oi 
Queen Victoria's accession to the day of publication. 

» Tills was written iii 1838 ; aiiJ that " The Trrasury of Knorchdgf: " lias since tlial 
time greatly riH'ii in public estliiuatioii, its iiicreusviJ sale is a nioht {rralir\iiig (iroof. 















Die I 
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Id ot 






AA, Pr.rr.R Van dp.r, a dihtiiiKulthod 
lawyer, boriiat Lciiivaiii, wlm heiMiiie pri'xi- 
iltMit of the council of Luxembourg, In i:S7 1. 

AA, I'rter Van prii, sin t^nilnenl l)o<ik- 
hctlcr of Leyilrn, who, imtIv in llie IHIh 
ccnlurv, rnnipilcil antl |iiililiKliL-il m-vt'ral 
(■xlousltncollei'llonii'or voyaKL'N and iravcU, 
ainoni( wliicli wan lii» " (talt'rio<iii Monili-," 
an llluHtratutI Atlan, In m voIh. Uii-d, 1730. 

AA, Charles Mrnrv Van prr. a l.ii- 
(licran minlNtcr. born at /.uolli^ who tntik 
a leadiuff |iart in eotabliKhinir at liarrleni 
llie Academy of SrienreH and the Sm-iely 
fur the Ktudy of Uk'oiinmica. Born, I7IH; 
died, I7U5. 

AA. Urrard Van drr, and his sons 
AuoLPHiJB and Philip (three diNtlneuiKlied 
meniliem of an ancient faniily in the Ne- 
llierl.indM) are hnnnnrahly mentioned in the 
aiinaU of the United I'rovlnetii for the |iro- 
nilneiit part thev took in rcHiittinir the ty- 
ranny olFliillpH. of Spain, and the Hut>- 
se(|Uent libi-ratioii of their country. 

AAOARI), CiMiisTiAN, a DanUli |K>et, 
ami profei>«or of noelry at Sora, and nf 
theology at Kli»-en in Jutland. Ui>rn, Itil6; 
died, I(i(i4. 

AAUARL), Nicholas, brolhiT of the 
above, a phllosonhical writer, and a pro- 
fesfior at Sora. liorn, Itil'i; died, lGi7. 

AAI.ST, EvRRARD, a Dutch |iuinter, 
eminent lor fruit pieces and armoury. Uorn 
at Ueirt, in l<>u-i ; died, lH.i8. 

AAl.SI", William, nephew of the above, 
and giill higher in repute as a painter. 
Born, ir>'iO ; died, 1079. 

AAGESKN, SiiENDorSvRNDfcalled also 
SiiRNo AfioNia), a Dani§li historian and 
anthpiary of the I'ith century. 

AAltiiN, St. a Hritifth martyr, who, witli 
hlii brother J nliiiK,!iiincred during tlic peise- 
eutlon id° tile C'hristiiug, under the emperor 
Dioclesilnn, a.d. 3o:i, and wai canonized 
ten centuries afterwards. 

A A RUN of Alexandria, a priest and 
physician of tin- 7th century. He was a 
vohiminous author, and tlie flrst who de- 
scribed the measles and Kniall-pox, diseases 
which were at t\r.\>. U-nv new to Ef^ynt. and 
by him KuppoRc<l to liuve originated there. 

AARON, Isaac, a Greek; interpreter to 
the emperor Manuel Coinnenus, by whom 
he waii deprived both of liis office and his 
Night, on acharre of wilful misinterpreta- 
tion. He was subseipiently reiniitated in liis 
oAice ; and reveng'ed himself ou his ene- 

mies with savaiTPrriietly ; but died in con* 
xenuence of toitnre inllirled on hiui by 
oriler of the i'ni|M-ror U.iac Aiiirelu<<, on his 
accession to the throne, in I3u:l. 

AARON of Harcki.ona, a Spanish Jew 
of the l:llh renlui y ; author of" Precepts 
on Mos«-*," printed at Venice in l.vj.1. 

AARON, I'lKTRO, a I'lorcnline of the 
I6tli century, canon of Rimini, and an 
elaborate writer on music. 

AARON SCIiASCON, a raMd of the I7lh 
renturv ; author nf " I'he Law of Trulh," 
prlntetl at Venice in mil. 

AARON IIKN ASSKR, a learned Jew of 
the sth century ; said to be the inteiilor of 
Hebrew points and accents. 

AARON HARISCIKiN, the Caralle, a 
rabbi of (he lutli century, author of a C'otn- 
mentary on the I'ent.iieuch. 

AARON HACHARON, a Jew ol Nicome- 
dia, Ituni in ia4ii. He was the uulhor nf a 
woik on the Jewish doctrines and cusloin<i, 
entitled <' The Garden of F.iien." 

AARON UKN CHAIM,a Jew of Momreo; 
author of " Treatises on the Scripiuies," 
printed at Venice in l6o9. 

AARSENS, i'RANCiB Van. Lord of So- 
nieldyck and Spyck, in Holland, a cele- 
brated Dutch aliiloniatisl, who, after re- 
sidiutf li ye.irs at Paris, first as ajreiit and 
then as ambassador for the United States, 
was twice sent as ambassador to I'.iiffland. 
Born at tlie Ha<ue in 1373; died, 1641. 

AARI'GEN, ajiainter, of vcryconsideia- 
ble merit, but oi low and dissolute liabils. 
He was born at Leydeii In i 49h ; and is 
said to have met his Jealli by beinj; drowned 
in a drunken frolic, in 1564. 

ABA, or ALBON, crowned king ofHun- 
trary on the deposition of Peter, surnsnied 
the German, in IU4I, and put to death tor 
his cruelty in 1014. 

ABAC'O, AvARisTO Fblicr D'All, a 
ccltjbrated com|>nser and violinist of \er- 
ona, in the I8II1 century. 

ABACO, Baron, also a native of Verona, 
(in the IKth century) and celehratid as an 
amateur <roniposer and performer on the 

ABAGA, or ABAKA-KHAN, a warlike 
eni|)eror of the Moguls, and a formidable 
opponent of the crusaders. He succeeded 
Ills lather In the empire in I2b4, and died 
in l'J83. 

ABAMOUI'I, a Neapolitan Liberal, bom 
about I7bu. He wasoiie nf the members of 






a llrto {ilnibriflal Uiograpfiij. 


IIm' «'<irriillvi< rninnilMlnii al Na|il<'*« mIh-ii 
llir l.iiirr lit'iMMir a rc|iiililU' ; l)iii ili cllncil 
(iiHi f »licii ilii- iiiiiii.ircliy m>i» realnri'd, 
AIIMIIS, A ))'li'hriiti><l I'liariutrr of «n- 

ll>|illlv, o.ilil loli.ivi' |>ii>M'>M'il va>l iilillltlt-a, 
ami li> li.oi* iK'rii nidiiutil mIIIi llir |Miwt'r 
1)1 |i«rriirniiii|r nilr.ii'uliitiii euro, lint of 
wliniii fvcii the roiiiiliy wlilrli ]i>t\v him 
lilrlli In tiTy iiiK'rrtiilii ; koiiii' callliiK l>i>i> 

II Si'\tlil:iii, wlillr otiii m iiiaiiil.ilii that Ill- 
wan it liull«p of onr of llii- Wt-itL-rii luli'x "f 
Si-otlaiiil : 11 |ifrH(iiiii|t«> '» *l>"i'l> "( mIioiii 
(lirri* In r.ir iiiorv ol lablc rciordt'd lliiiii 
■if triitli. 

AltAS, SritAii. •iirnanipd the (iie-At, 7ili 
kliiK III r<'r>ia. With tin' a«tiiilai>ri' ol' Ihtt 
Kiittllnh, III mn, hf limk (•riiiiiK, ami inailc 
li|mluii thf ia|illaliil IVr^la. liifd in Iti'Jtt. 

AltAS, Sciuil^ iri'i'it K>'i*"'''"*'> '^f "■*' 
prccriliHir ; a iirim-r rrfiiarkahlc for hi* 
niililiirito ami liiiiiiaiilly. llfliiKaii to rclKii 

III KU-i, ami ilifil III leiiti. 

AHASSON, nil liii|><ih|iir ; uhn wn* piit tit 
ilcaih for prrii'iidiiii; ihtit lie wiu graiKlxoii 
to Aliai the (iririt. 

AltASSA, or AHItASSA, i-iiiUr of tlic ra- 
lipli Maroiiii Ml Itnorlilil, who Ka\e her In 
niarrinKL- lo hU vi/.li'r (ilarar, on romlltlon 
lh:ii Dx-ir innrrin^c ulionld iif«rr lit' mn- 
iiiiininai<'<l ; hut liavlnif broken the rmilrart, 

IliP (Mlliihjiiit Oiafar to liealh, and huiiiolinl 
hU wii'c frfim the palace. k'^Io? oi'der« 
that no nni' nhould allord her reliel'. The 

riimanllc liiridcnlii ariKiii^ Troni thiimtraiiKe 
marriage have furnislied llicniea lor many 
an nrleiilal tale. 

AIIATI-', Andrea, a Neapolitan artict, 
who, a* a painter ol' fruit and ubjerts of 
(till life, acipiiretl Kreat celebrity. He wait 
employed, together with Liiea Giordio, in 
adoriiinir the Kururial for Charles II. of 
Spain. Died. 1733. 

AHAl)/l T, FiHMiN, a French author of 
Kreat merll, and whoiie modeHlv wax equal 
lo Ills eriidilion. MIn father died in hU in- 
Inm-y ; and IiIh mother, In order to iieciire 
liU ediiraiion in the Frnlentaiit faith, lent 
him, at two yearn of age, to Geneva. Afier 
llniMiiii): hit Ktiidie* he went to ilolland, 
ami from thence to Kiiffland, where he 
fornii d an intimacy with Mr Isaac Newton, 
liy whom he waH much admired and e»- 
leemed. He wa* also highly panei;\ri!<ed 
by Vollair*' and Koimiicau. In Mhorl, tiiouKh 
he pnhliiilicd little, he had acquired anionic 
literary men a character for profound learn- 
ing', and hi* correct jndKniciit was uuivcr- 
xally acknowledged by them. He wan born 
at ll/.es In 1679, and clieilai Geneva In 1767. 

A BKA DIE, J AMES, an eminent Protciitant 
divine, who accompanied Marxhal Schoin- 
b('r)( to England in I6H8, and wa« (iresent 
when thai i(i'eat coniniander fell at the bat- 
tle, of the Itoyne. On hlit return to London 
he was appointed minlRter of the French 
church in the Savov, and wasiiibnequently 
made dean of Killaloe. He wrote manv 
workM, chiefly theolo|rical and In the French 
lanj^iiare; the most esteemed of which ig 
eniiilcil " Traile dc la Verliede la Religion 
Chretieniie." Horn at Berne in 1658 ; died 
ill London, I7'J7. 

ABHAS, the uncleof Mahomet, of whom, 
fliniiirji oppoiicd to him at first, tie became 

a ilix'lpli', and mried In hi* army a* • 
tfeiicral. He diril In the J'.;il year uf the 
llrKira— A.I) lii.i. I 

AlillAS, Eun Adkai Ahkalia, ••<iiof the 
fori'Kolnif ; chief of llir " Sah.ihali," or 
ciimpaiiioiiit of III!' i'roplicl, and author of 
.t " (.'omniciiiary on the Koran," i 

ABltAS, IIai.i, or MAiii't, a IVrKlan | 
phyniciaii of the liilli cnitiiry ; author of a 

iionipoiu iHiok on medicine, ciiljed " 'I he 
{oyal Work," which ha« liei n traiiilated 
into Latin. 

AllliAl I, Nirni.o, an llallan painter in 
frcKco ; Imrii at IMoilcna in \'>\-J. 

AHItAIISSA, I'aii., a port >.f Sicily, 
who fliMiri>lii-il iilioiit the year l.'>7u, and 
traiiNlalcd the lliail and Od)iiiicy Into 
Latin verxe, 

Altlll'., LomsK, a French poet of the isih 
century, (iirnamed l,a lliltr Cmilofttiii ir. 

AHIIIATI, FiiiPro, an liMorlcal painter, 
of coiinidcrahle eminence. Horn at Milan 
in 1640; died In 171.). i 

AiilUiN, or AllllO, rmNurg, a Normnn 
monk of tile mil renlury, who wrott. In 
Latin veme, an account of Ihe (lege ol 
I'ari* by the Normami. , 

AlllioN, or ABIIO, Fi.oniACRNiis, n 
learnt il Frcnchnian of the mth (ciitiiry, 
and abbot of I'leiiry; the author of nu- 
meroiiit erclcnlaHtieal bio);raphieK. For a 
lihort time he prei>iiled o\er llie monasierv 
of llamsay, and was a great favourite witli 
Ethelred. He wai killed In icxH, while eii- 
deavoiiriiig to niiell a lumnlt between imo 
conlemliiig parties of French and Gasrona. 

ABBOT, (JKonoR, archbUhop of Canter- 
bury in the relgiiH of James I. and Charlesl., 
and one of the mont active political charac- 
ters of ijmt period. He was born, In iviv, 
at Guildford In Surrey, where his father 
was a weaver and clothworker. After re- 
ceiving hU education at the graniinar 
school in that town, he w, !< sent to Bajjol 
college, Oxford; and became siiccesNi\ely 
master of University college, dean of Win- 
cliester, vice-chancellor of Oxford, bishop 
of Lichlield and Coventry, then of London, 
and lastly, primateof all t^ngland. Towards i 
the close of his life an event occurred, ! 
whicli for a time caused his siisiiension ' 
from the arcliiepiscopal olfice ; for oeliig at , 
the seat of Lord /oiicli in Hampshire, wldle 
on a hunting (>arly he accidentally hIioi one ' 
of Ills lordship's keep«'rs. He was the authur 
of several theological works ; and was one 
of the eight divinet, who, In l6iM, by the or- ' 
der of James I. translated the edition of 
the Bible now in use. He died at Croydon 
in 1633, and was buried In his native town, 
where he had founded and liberally en- 
dowed a hospital. 

ABBOT, RonKRT. bishop of Salisbury, 
and elder orotlier of the above. He was an 
eminent divine, and famous for his skill in 
conducting polemical discussions, and vin- 
dicating the gupremacv of kings. Born, 
l.'seo; died, 1617. Dr. Fuller, sjieaking of 
the two brothers, says, " George was the 
more plausible preacher, Robert the great- 
est scholar; George the abler staiesman, 
Robert the deeiier divine ; gravity did frown 
in George, and smile in Robert." 

ABBOT, Mauhicb, youngest brother of 
















i " 








pry, 1 
|h!( all I 
III ill , 
vtn- i 






Ir of 

V ■ 

TiiKv WHO l.l■rK^( r>i dibmski.vkj, will not hr lurrNru to uv oriiKtii. 


*1 jlrlD Qlntbrrodl UtoarapUv* 


tliu liirf^iiijiii; ; k>,i* kii «>iiiiii«'iit l.iinili)ii 
nil rcll lilt, .i'kI ntir itf I'll! lii'il illriTlorn iil 
lllr K.ml lllllll ('olillUM). Ill' M'I'Ull lilt! 

oilifi! i>r kill rill III lii.T, u I* .irU'r»'.iril« 
I'lnl iii,t)iir, uiiil n-iirci'iiicil iliii iily in 
|>>irl|;|iiiL'iil ,il (III- riiiiiiiM'iii I'liiriil ol tliv 
rt'lKii "t Cllikrli* I., Ii) mIiuiii hu Ma» 

AUIt(»T, (iKoKOR, mm cif Sir Mmiriri', 
WHii till- iiiiiliiir III II i'.ir',i|ilir.i>f mi ilic llonk 
of Jiili, ami iii'\fr;il mlirr ri'luioiin wnrko. 
III! look ii|i .iriiM III l.itiiiir oi' ilii! imria- 
uii'iil.trliiiu III iIk! cnll Mar*. Horn, lUuu; 
(licil, Mi IN. 

AhiKH', Ciiaiilkh, i l.or.l I'oi.chkiitiir) 
wiuiliorii at Aliiii)(iioii, Itrrk*, in i7'>7 ; and 
liuvliiic n-i'i-lvi'il llir niiliiiii'iiti of liin t-ilii- 
calloii lit Wesliiitiinii r Scliooi, wmt I'liti-n-il 
ol i;iirliii'i Cliinvli, tixloril, in 177 i. Wliilf 
ttii-ri> he w;u irriiiily iliiitin:;iil»liv(l for liia 
iili.iiniiD'iiti ; .iiiil Ik I..1I111 iioeiii on liie 
c/ur I'liliT Kitlnril hliii not oiilv llii; |)rui>, 
bill siliio u v.iliiilili! ((olil iiitil.kl Iroin (lie 
einprcKii of UiiHti,i. Alirr HiirmliiiK noiiie 
time abroad, lie \v,i<> cullnl lo tin- b.ir, und 
|ir.i('llH('i| witli tvcry |iriii>|>r(:l of Ix't-oinlii); 
n |io|iular aiivoc.iti-. Ili> lorcn-lc iiiirmiili, 
however, were but of fliort rnniiiiiiaiK-e, 
for on entirinif iiarliitiiiciit fur llrUtmi he 
MUM ii|ii'eiiily noiici'd lor Iiim talfiil itinl himi- 
ne«H-like haliltii, and on the I'm ni.ilion of 
the A(hliii;;lon inliil>lry he wai iiiiiioiiili'd 
Secretary for Ireland, and kreiu r ol tlie 
privy Heal, lie now foninn'iiccd tmne iiHt-- 
ful reroriiiH in Ireland, but before hi-coiiid 
Cfiiiiiilete Iheiii he wan elertrd S|M'aker of 
the HouHe of Conini'iDH. In thit nltnalinn 
he (ll<i|)layed not only Ihetalrnt but the tact 
and .iddrcKK necexxary lor tie ilnticH of Ids 
oltice ; and ho fir wan he from beiiii; bi- 
goted to 11 In parly, that on the division cnn- 
cerniii)f l.oril Melville, the nninbtrrt for and 
aKaiiiiil lliat nobleinan beinic eiinal, he Rave 
the caHtinir vote ajrainHt hliii. In Isl7 an 
epileptic attack oliiiffeil him to re<ii|(ii the 
olfice of Speaker; on which occaKion he 
wan called to the upper liniine by the title 
of Uaroii ColclieKter, with a peiikion of 
4000/. per aniiiini. iVIiich of the reiiiaiiider 
of hi* life wan parsed abroad and in Scot- 
land; and he died in May, IhW, leavintf 
two HOUR, lie way chielly remarkable for 
hiH profound kiiowlcd|{e of the forinn and 
precedents of the IIuuhc ; tlionifh as an 
orator he wax, If not a great, at least a 
Huent and an eletcant speaker. 


was a native of Canterbury, and received his 
education at the King's School of that city. 
His voutli, according to the account given 
of him by his friend and schoolfellow, Sir 
Egertoii Brydgea, was marked by industry, 
regularity, andcorrectneiisof conduct ; and 
his pro}rres» in learning did credit to that 
excellent free-school in wliicli it was at- 
tained. In 17BI hewaHelecied to ascholar- 
»hip In Corpus Chrlsti College, Oxford, 
where he was sooii alike disiiiiguinhed for 
iciiolastic attaiiiiiients and for purity of 
moral conduct; and, having the good for- 
tune to be appointed tutor to the son of 
Jud^e Duller, tliis gentleman took great 
interest in his welfare, and with his cha- 
racteristic acutencKH of ohservatioii, ad- 
vised Abljott to turn his attention to the 

law, mill not tn the iliurch, fur wlncli lie 
had hllhrrto denlgiii il hiniaelf. ArliiiK iiii 
till* advice, he llrsi atleiidid in Ihu iidice <•! 
S.iiiily* and i'n. to belike hlnntaiir to Hit; 
drv, and for a llinc prolllleiui alinly of legal 
science: he tlien placed himsell under Ilie 
liillion of a iiieclal pleader, Mr. (aflcr- 
wardinaron) Wood, Alter piactlklng mine 
lliiie an a njH'clal pleader he wa» ralleil to 
the bar, being llien In the i.ld year of lil« 
age, and ueni the Oxford circnll.* HU 
practice «oou became eHtriiNivi', and for 
twi'iily year* he «tradlly pursued Ids tvay. 
aciiiiirliig both lortnne and repuiatlon, ana 
niaVliiK lilnii>elf known to the proiensioii im>I 
inert'ly at a nklllul pleailer, bul aino as a 
learned and .icciirale laMwriler. in Ihi.^ 
Ills InceMant and arduous labmir had iiegiin 
to have a hrrioii* ellert ii|miii his health and 
spirits. Mis kight, loo, w.ts unpaired, and 
It Is said tlial bul lor the dimuasion of his 
friends he would liave wliollv retired from 
the profession, lie had as tar back as ihoh 
ri'fuied a Meal on Hie Ir-iicIi, his |irol'eiwloiiai 
enioliiiui'iits at that lime being far greater 
than those of a jud|re. Hut wiicii, in l»i(i, 
he ua» again offered promotion, his health 
had liecoiiie soune(|ual to the toils of prac- 
lice Ih.il he closed wUh the offer, and was 
made a puisne Judge In the Couimon I'ieaN. 
'I'liiH took jilace In I'ebriiary, and in the 
following May he was removei! to the King's 
llciich, on llie death of Mr. Justice Le 
lllanc. Ill IHIH, on the death of tord 
Klleiibnrouifh, lie became Lord Chief Jim- 
lice of the KIiik'i* Itencli ; and thougli his 
iiillexible Toryism rendered him unpopular 
w nil a portion of ihe public, it wa* admitleit 
by men of all ranks and partien, that a 
niore Impartial chief jii«tl< e had never pre- 
sided in that court. Many InHiances oc- 
ciired during hl« official career to prove 
that superior irbanity, singular clearnens. 
a Hirong iiior.tl seiike, anu much judicial 
wlxdoni, were ipialiiles to which he was no 
)>tranj;cr. During tlie premiership of Mr. 
Canning he was raised to llie iieerage, but 
(lid not long enjoy his title. Uleti, ibaw. 

AllBr. TiioMAit, a German writer, was 
born .it Uiiu, in Suabia, in 1738. Hi: is one 
ol' the most surprising Instances on record 
of precocity of talent ; iiavlng produced a 
clever work, entilied " llistoria Vite Ma- 
gistra" at tlie early age of 1:1. After filling 
the chair of philosophy at Frankfort on liie 
Oder, and of mathematics at Kintelen in 
Westphalia, he was fortunate enough to 
atinict Ihe notice of the prince of Schauni- 
berg-Llnpe, by whom lie was held in lii!;h 
estimation and efTectually patronised. Me 
wa.H the author of several works ; and his 
treatises on " Merit," and on the " Duty 
of Dying for our Country," are full of ta- 
lent and promise: but the latter he was nut 
destined to fulHI, as he died at the early age 
of 38, in 1766. 

ABDALLA, the father of Malionict. 
Though originally only a camcl-drivLT, it 
appears that he was held in iiigh estimation 
by his tribe : indeed, so extravagant is the 
praise bestowed upon him, that, among 
other absurdities which are related, it ii> 
said that on his wedding night a hundred 

{;lrU died of grief and disappoiiitmeiit, for 
laving lost the honour uf being liis bride. 



A no] 

^ 0t\D 9.4nibrrsal IStogt-aptj). 

f AHF 

AUIMLLA II., caliph of ihe Saracenii, a 
o-lcbrateil warrior, uho took J«TiiHaluiii, 
and onleri-d all the Chriiiti:ui» and Jews to 
be branded in the hand. Died, 781. 

AUDALLAII, KnN Ali, Ihe unr.le of the 
fimt two raliphii ol the Abasslde dynasty, 
lie was i^nilty of enorroou^> cruelties, and 
was at lenKlli put to dtath in 734. 

ADDALLAil, Uiin Zoiiier, an Arabian 
UBurjH:r. who »ei/.ed the caliphate in6B0, and 
retauictl it nine years. He was slain in the 
7i<l vcarofhis age, while defending the city 
of Mecca. 

ABUALMALEK, fifth caliph of the race 
of the Uniir.iades. His relt^n, which was 
very prosperous, cuniinenced in 684, and 
continued for 31 years, having during that 
time extended his conqnrsts into India and 
Spain, ai>d connuered Mecca and Medina. 
On account of his extreme avarice, lie was 
called the peeler of stone ; whence, we are 
told, tiie vulgar saying of skinning a /tint 
is derived. 

ABDALONYMUS, a descendant of the 
Itlngs of Sidon, but reduced to the condition 
of a husbandman. When Alexander the 
(ircat conquered that country, and allowed 
Hepliestion to dispose of the crown, Abdal- 
onynius was selected, and biought before 
the Macedonian hero; who, observing the 
dignity of his aspect, said to his courtiers, 
•• 1 wish to Icnow liow he bore his poverty." 
Abdalonymus, liearing this, said, " Would 
to heaven I may liear my prosperity as 
well j" wliich answer so pleased the con- 
queror, that he confirmed the appointment. 
ADDALRAHMAN, a Saracen eeneral and 
governor of Spain in the eighth century, 
who, after ravaging France, was attacked 
at I'oursby Charles Martel, and slain in 731. 
ABDALKAHMAN, surnamed the Just, a 
descendant of the Ommlades, who, after tlie 
rum of his fi»iiily, went to Spain in 756, 
where he headed the Saracens against their 
king, Joseph, whom he slew, and was ac- 
knowledged caliph. He dieii at Cordova in 
700. of which place lie had assumed the title 
of King. 

ABUAS, a Christian bishop In Persia, in 
the time of 'Iheodosius the Younger, and an 
intemperate zealot, to whose frenzy has 
been attributed the thirty vears' persecution 
of the Chrlstiiins, of whicn he Iiimself was 
one of the earliest victims. 

ABDIAS, of Babylon, an impostor who 
affirmed that he was one of the 72 disciples 
sent by Uur Saviour, and that St. Simon and 
St. Jude had appointed him first bishop of 
Babylon. He was the author of a legend 
entitled " Historia certaminis Apostoloci," 
printed at Basle in 1571. 

ABDOA, a Persian, who suffered martyr- 
dom in support of Christianity, a.o. S50. 

ABDOLLATIPH, a Persian historian, 
born at Bagdat in 1161. He is Raid to have 
been a man of great learning and a volu- 
minous writer ; but the only one of his 
works known in Europe is an abridged his- 
tory of Egypt, enlitled " Al-kilal Alsager," 
or the little book, which was published from 
a MS. in the Bodleian Library, by Professor 
White, in 1 800. 

son of a potter, but who became a general. 


and afterwards a monarch, the conqueror 
of Morocco, and the destroyer of the Alino- 
ravidc familv. He asi-uined Ihe title of 
Emir Al Mumenin (head of tlie true bt- 
lievers), and died in lljti. 

ABEILLE, Gaspar, a French poet and 
dramatic writer, whose works, tl gh nu- 
merous, are now forgotten. His ready wit 
and conversational powers, aided by an ex- 
traordinary flexibility of the muscIcK of the 
face, whicn he used to great advantage in 
reading and recitation, rendered him a ge- 
neral favourite, and in private life he was 
greaf'v esteemed. He was born at Rie?, in 
Provence, I64H; and died at Paris in I7>>. 
ABEILLE. Scipio, brother of the above, 
author of '' A History of the Bones," and 
"The Complete Army Surgeon," for the 
performance of which Ids office of surgeon- 
major is likely to have well qualified him. 
He died in 1697. 

ABEILLE, Louis Paul, secretary to tl>« 
council-general of trade. Sec, and author nf 
several works on agriculture and <.-oinnieice. 
Born at Toulouse, 1719 ; died at Paris, Ib07. 
AB''L, Dr. Clarke, was the historian of 
lord Amherst's embassy to China, which he 
accompanied as chkl medical officer and 
naturalist. He was a deep and philosophic 
thinker, a close observer of the mysteries 
of nature, and a man of a benevolent mind. 
Died, 1836. 

ABEL,king of Denmark, seco: d surviving 
son of Valdaniar II. His father created 
him duke of Slcswlck and South Jutland, 
and at his death, in 1340, left him inde- 
iiendent master of those provinces. Slain 
in battle, 1 3o3. 

ABEL, Thomas, teacher of niufilc and 
grammar to Catharine, queen of Henry VI 1 1. 
Having written a trac: against Ihe divorce 
of Catharine, he incurred Henry's displea- 
sure ; and fordenvingthe li'iig's supremacy 
he was tried, condemned, and executed, in 

ABEL, Caspar, a German historian, born 
at Hindenburg, in 1675 ; died in \~6J. 

ABEL, Charles Frederick, a German 
musician and composer, rcmaikably skilful 
on the \iol di Gamba. He resided man^ 
years in England, and was appointed musi- 
cian to queen Charlotte. He died in 1767. 

AUELA, John Francis, commander of 
the order of St. John of Jerusalem ; author 
of a valuable and interesting work eiitiilid 
"Malta lllustrata," which was printed in 
that island, in 1647. 

ABELARD, or ABAILARD, Peter, so 
celebrated for his learning and his misfor- 
tunes, the latter arising from his love of 
the equally celebrated Helolse, was born at 
the village of Palais, near Nantes, in Bri- 
tany, 1079. Having made extraordinary 
progress at the univ°niity of Paris, and 
surpassed all his compeers, he opened a 
school of theology, philosoohy, and rhe- 
toric, which was thronged with' pupils, and 
where some of the most distinguished cha- 
racters of the day imbibed their scholastic 
philosophy. While he was thus in the ze- 
nith of his popularity he became so violently 
enamoured with the beautiful and accom- 
plished niece of Fulbcrt, a canon of Paris, 
as to forget his duty, his lectures, and his 

f >l 


Til p. 

A It r 









I * 












1 1 








''«''• IHtli, ii m.tutf ' ""!' "eloiM- only „ 

"'« '•»priidentiiterf-.?« A* lovers; but 
for concralnien S""*', had ^one too far 

«'•;'•'» lo his siste/'s ll^.'"'''?'''! who had re- 
followed thereby hS' '" ^"'""X, wa« 
J lo a son. Up H.ur. ^' *ho irave bi^h 

*wretly; bnt a hn..'"?'"''*^'' '<> marry her 
vva« obialned, H& 1.""' '""•"^'^ -""enf 
ation, chose riiuZ ,' 1*^ " slranpe Infatu 
lord's niisifess , ,1 ^'"' considered Abe" 

nwested his disi)|pa«iir» I . '*'• "'at he ma- 
ifreat severity ;'S^'JL,''f''-^ating her ",1, 

itX"""^?^ on re ea1;S'[;';"7'"'«luen;j 

ngly carried lit-r aivav J^ i ■ "^ accord- 

the convent of Artente„f."'' 'J'*'"*^'' ''er i„ 

m, the reli,.ions lSt";Cdid'n''; "'[« P"" 
veil. Irritated at Abelarrf f 1. "?' '*''«^ »he 
'oise In a nionaste/v ih J ^""^ P'acing He- 
••uffians, »ho brok^in,^^!?"^? ''ircd some 
subjected the StinaJ v/.•*"'he^ and 
horninions niuiilat "n Pni 'f '"" «» an /»■- 
and sorrow, |,e now L--. "^ ""'' *''anTe 
abbey of Si Dennk ,. '}'".? * "'""'' in t | 
veil/ After t^?e hid s^'I "'l'"'*'" '"ok e 
hi«?nef, Abelard resun?eW''/ "'odfratd 
the violence oi hi« «.?i • '"* 'ectmes, bnt 
'vaschar^ed w%,he»Pr^ """" '"creased ; he 
condeu.ncd hy "ouncrt '''• ^"** '"is works 
oratorv i„ tl,e%.roc",e"of Tr/?r* "''■«''«' »" 
/araciete, but DewM..?,.i '^°5'*'.'',', •^a"«'l the 
''in. ; and after a iKr °". *"" '"Howed 
Cissiludes he lU.d 1 ,i,r e'ttraordinarv vi- 
fe', "ear Ok Ions s„r tfr/'-y. "^ ^'. Mar- 
thc. corps,' being se,,tt„ «'."•' ' '<»• «•» 
'"■;«'tcd it in thekracete of °.'f.' ."'«' ^e- 
, -lin.ent she was at h »i h ' "'.''•-''' "tab- 
l^"d with the viewof bein^T '.''« abbess, 
^-dc. 1„ 1800 the ashes of Lh"""''' ''' '"* 
'o the museum of Frlncl, m """'*' "»ken 
.''aris; and on the museum, h "^"""'"ents at 

j,j^^ = [aue I 

P-^r^ons oni/eScrTptu?"'" »',!?[' "" **'»'-«• 

,7'hbi, remarktLle f^;'}**" ? ^^P""'*'' Jt-w I 
'"'^'uii^t and a n,Mnf ■"""'""•'>«» as a 
various «orks, a ,d \, ,s Tli"'*'V "« ^"ote 

iS'?l -'-'°^'y- ^i^l.t^^l.U^fe-^" 


the '2tl, century ' h"W.1"P''?'"«^'=»» «f 
the author of a wort L^'\*''^y «""wn as ' 
Latin under the ,?tle of*" 'A'^^v?'"" ""« I 

^entvr'y ; auiho'i-^^*a ^H.'S;*'"" '" »''« '7tl. I 

f.fen^land. ai.,i ^\,Xlll"9,^'*J" J»me» ii,' 

- -...™, aiiu on the mimoiin. I. ■ — -•■■ciiis at 
'". 1817, they w-rereomv? .''f "?''«''l'-oyed. 
"' ''ere la Chais^! a" an 'ir^'^"^ cemetery 
poet, philosopher, theoloti,""""' '"^'cian, 
•iiatician, Abelard haH j^^'^"' and "'athe- 

!''."'«; bJt the meKy oT'hu''''r''''f''"'' 
taiiinienu lias been swe^nt .i '"* «P'endid at- 
oblivion. while the taMT," "''' &"""of 
oveand its bitter frufts is ia^± Pass.onate 
'0 the remotest posterity. ^ '" ^wcend 

"•e king of Holand ^/f.r^^"'^'^ *« "'"/for 
eiied to throw I ii;''^:,r" "'"natch thPeat^ 

produced for the occasion •TM^'''^ ^ear. 
"cod and Abel related tl?-,; ''*' ""*«' >*"f- 
o" ""at occasion than he ever h'?'.:^^'"^'- 
afterwards. He is sa i .^ 7 ''"^ ''^fore or 
a secret by xvhich he nreier. If.''^, P°'«''«*'''J 
^"e of his voice to an ev ri" "'^ '!"""-al 
«e died in the beginning of the. K.h °'^' ''"«^- 

- ■"•■,111 Scotland. nhviiirioA , ',"""« o' 
of fengJand. and autWr of ,h" "'S''' ''• 
Achlevemenu of Scotland " »*^ Martial 

bravest of Britiirii ^i„ "*'•»'«. one of ih« 
'738, at TiiiK Vlark^'*' ***"• ^orn in 
fhi^'*^ Jhe army'in ,?!^'"*"">'"'hire, and 
the 2nd dragoon guards 'h' " '^•""''et i" 
honour durino. the !»Jj^ "^ "^rved with 
'hat of Amen?an indepen^r;-' *"*•■• »"^ » 
rising in his profeS m ?'^*' gradually 
jank o, n,ajorV-ne?Lnn ?OT^ ti!^'"*^ "'^ 
sikill was severely Diif »„ .1 . *^'* "ulitarv 
astronscampaigfs h Fi^ '!j* '^'*' '" "'edis- 
vW, ""•' '795. A&l'^,!:'' »■«» Holland 
ployed in the We«f i„ i ""'* he was eiu- 

'K^i^hed hTm.eu\'y"te..""'"''*= ''« ^™- 
n'Oi-t valuable is ,,Z tl "^ *"'"« of the 
enemy. On his return f^'°''^"'ff to the 
"ade governor of Ue"isre ^f u'^.''« ***« 
raised to the rank of ie„,?.L^''f'"' »"d 
"e was then appointed t.^nZT^-^'"'*'^^^- 
the troops in frelimi ,. i ""^ c<»mnian.l of 
eaual dimness and ?nA. '"-■'"•-' he dispJaye 
ajer. he ^^AT^^''^}''. and', so'o' 

coinniander-in-cl M'!,"''^'" ^'^^ that" ? 

the French, and di«n^ growing power ot 
^o""try. H'avi' dX :^d';H"'*="' "f 'ha 
Aboukir early i7, Mar^u .'he enemy at 
came to action win, m ' '**"'» he ag;, 
'he san.e n.onth , "'^"' "» "'« 2ist oC 
of Alexandr a '"^i,^",. "'•' "eighb.M.rho,^' 
battle, the Hr li^h ./ ' "'^"^'* * «le>perate 
"ally victorious •bu,'?;''"' ***''•« again s?!! 
»VH« so severeV won r;:i'''",^"'V''''''»' 
'n a week after the b/l,.' '"" '"' ilieU 
miral's ship, which Mi'H: "•' h""''l the a,l- 
'^'alta. Hiswidow "'^...^-o'l'V ^' him to 
and a pension of two tt. , '"l^ (baroness, 
annun, was as,ig, ^d ,' ''f .""^ P;'""ds f,^.} 
of her dignity. " " '" her lor the support 

brother of ti,e abov'e, a ^e^"?/;". ,)'o"".'er 
K.U., and for thirty ve-Tr!. '" "'t^arniy, 
Ca-tle of Edinburgh^ ^7i'',''?'^^'''">r of the 

ABERCkOAIHiP I *^''' "*27. 
author of a •''unvysai'r.V'.'""""' "'""•''"; 

}5^;'':!5j''^ «ota„V:J^ty'^"iV';iioft;..r: 


tidUW. ot \ 

MaweT" 6ie('l ?«;«■"" ".""*-'' 
ABEKLI J ^ *"• 

landscape WfUer'^'i'**' "" t'i""ent Swiss | 
'72:^: dlTd H'tu;, S." "' ^""erthur,) 

H a 


A no] 

9 lletD (^ntbrrsal ISiograptH'- 


AHKUNKTMY, John, an Irish dissenter 
and divine, nf whose scrmonH iheruarc two 
vnlnnics, wliirh are lield in considerable 
esteem. Itnrn at Colcraine, ICHO ; died at 
Dublin, 1740. 

AHF-RNEIIIY, John, F.R.S., a unrtreon 
of threat reoiite and extensive iiractice. lie 
was broii<,'lit up under Sir Ciianes l)licl(. 
Burffcon to St. Rurtholnmew'B Hospital, and 
was acknowledf^ed to possess very consi- 
dcrnble talent and orlKinnlity ; thourh lie 
doubtless owed ninnli of his lame to a ninnt 
eccentrieity of manner, by wliicli be was 
ever dlstinifiiiNbed. He was the author of 
" Sur^'ieal Observations," " Physioloffical 
Essays," \c. Uorii, 1764 ; died, 1631. 

ABGARUS, a kiwg of Edessa, in Me«o- 
potaniia, colem|)orai'y with Our Saviour, 
to whom be is said to have written a letter 
and received an answer lo it. Ltoth letter 
and answer arc pronounced by Uie best cri- 
tics to be mere forijeries. 

ABOII.LUS, surnamed I'rp.bter John, 
son of a kintf of the Krisi. He accompa- 
nied Charlemacne to the Holy Land; and 
after bis leader's return to Europe made 
vast connuests in Abyssinia, whicli was long 
calle<l *' Prester John's Dominion." He is 
reputed to have written an account of Charle- 
magne's deeds in the Ea<>t. 

AIHLDUAAKD, PiriLip Christian, a 
Danish physician ; one of the ablest natu- 
ralists of the Ibih century. 

ARILDGAAKD, Nicholas Abraham, 
brother of the above; a clever historical 
painter, and author'of some efpially elegant 
and useful essays on ta^te in works of ait, 
Uorn, 1744; died, IK09. 

ABINGTON, Frances, a celebrated co- 
mic actress, born in London, 1731 ; died in 
Dublin, IBI5. 

ABLAVIUS, minister of state under Con- 
Btantinc the Great, who named lilni one of 
the council for his son Constantius ; but the 
latter deprived him of his employment, and 
treacherously put him to death. 

ABNEY. Sir Thoma«, an eminent ma- 
gistrate of London, lord mayor in 1700, and 
M.P. for the city. When the king of France 
had proclaimed the Pretender king of Great 
Britain, he proposed an address to king 
William, and the measure having been fol- 
lowed by other corpi>rations, proved of 
great service to the king, wlio was thereby 
encouraii^cd to dissolve the parliament, and 
take the sense of the people, which wag 
almost universally in favour of the Pro- 
testant succession. He was one of the first 
promoters of the Rank of England, and 
one of its earliest directors. Died, 1733. 

ABOS, cliapcl master of the conservatory 
of La Pietkat Naples, about the middle of 
the 18th century ; and author of the opera 
of " Tito Manlio." 

ABOU-HAINFAH, a Mussulman philoso- 
pher. He was very popular until he gave 
oflence by denying predestination, which 
caused hlni to be much persecuted, -.ind he 
at length died in prison at Bagdad. Nearly 
four centuries after his death a mausoleum 
was erected to his memory, and a college 
founded for the followers of Ids doctrines. 

ABOU, Joseph, a learned Mussulman and 

supreme judge or Bagdad during the cali- 
phate of Hnroiin al Ka«chid. 

ABOIJLAINA, a Mahometan doctor, of 
whose wit and talent at repartee tliere are 
many anecdntes. 

ABOllLOLA, Ahmed ben Soliman, an 
Arabian poet of great merit, but who was 
blind from his third year. Died, 1067. 

ABKABANEL, Isaac, a Jewish rabbi, of 
Portugal, author of Commentaries on llie 
Old Testament, and various other works, 
theological and controversial. Born at 
Lisbon, I4:i7 ; died at Venice, 1508. 

ABRAHAM, an emperor of the Moors of 
Africa in the I3tli century. 

ABRAHAM, Usque, a Portuguese Jew, 
author of a Spanish translation of the Bible. 

ABRAHAM, Nicholas, a learned Jesuit, 
and professor of theology in the university 
of Pont-^-Mousson ; aullior of a com- 
mentary on Virgil and some of Cicero's 
Orations. Born, 1589; died, 1656. 

ABRAHAM, A. Sancta Clara, a native 
of Suabia, whose real name was Ulrich Me- 
gerle. He was an Augustine friar, and 
extremely affected and eccentric as a 
preacher. Born, 1613; died, 1709. 

ABRAHAM, Ben Chaili, a Spanish r.^bbi 
of the i:itli century, who practised astro- 
logy, and predicted the coming of the 
M) ssiali. 

ABRAHAM, a teacher of music at Paris, 
composer of airs for the clarionet, and au- 
thor of a method for the bassoon. Died, 180.>. 

ABRASDATES, king of Susa. rendered 
memorable by the afl'ection of his wife. 

ABRESCH, Fredkkick Louis, a cele- 
brated Dutch critic. He was an admirable 
Greek scholar, and his scholia on Greek 
authors are deservedly held in very higli 
esteem. Born at Hamburgh, Iii99; died in 
Switzerland, where he was rector of a col- 
lege, 1783. 

ABROSI, John, an Italian physician of 
the I6th century; author of a Dialogue on 

ABRUZZO, Balthazar, a Sicilian philo- 
sopher and civilian. Born in 1601 ; died, 1663. 

ABRUZZO, Peter, a Neapolitan archi- 
tect in the 17th century. 

ABSALOM, archbishop of Lunden in 
Denmark ; eminent as a statesman and 
warrior, and founder of the castle and city 
of Copenhagen. Died, 1301. 

ABSTEMIUS, Laurentius, an Italian 
author of the loth century. He is chiefly 
known by his fables, which have been ap- 
pended to some editions of ^op and Pliee- 
drus, and by a commentary on some pas- 
sages of Ovid. 

ABUBEKER, father-in-law and succes- 
sor of Mahomet. His original name was 
changed to that of Abubeker, or " Father 
of the Virgin," on the occasion of his 
daughter Ayesha becoming the bride of 
Mahomet. On succeeding his son-in-law 
he assumed the title of caliph, which signi- 
fies both successor and vicar, and whicli 
was first borne by him. He won vast ter- 
ritory from the Syrians, Persians, and 
Greeks. Died, 634. 

ABUCARAS, Theodore, bishop of Caria 
In the 8lh century; author of somecontro- 













































A hit] 

S llekD illntbrrsal IJiograpf);^. 


veriiial In-aties which were publiiihetl at 
litpjidfiladt ill I6()6, and of a trfati«e " De 
Uiiioneut liicariiaticiie," published at l'ari» 
in I6BJ. 

ARUDADMER, chief of the Arabian Rcct 
nf Karniiitiaii!<, and a bitter enemy of tlie 
Mahonietang. On one occaiiion he plun- 
dered Mecca, murdered vast nunil)cr« of 
pilf^rima, and carried away the celebrated 
black ilone, which the Mahonu'tanit ho 
highly value on the suppoKition that it fell 
from ileaven. The stuDe wan subaequeiitly 
raiisomed. Died 95J. 

ADULFARAGIUS, Greoort, orifrinally 
a physician of Armenia, but subi-equently a 
bishop. Of his various works tlie most 
esteemed is a Universal History, an edition 
of which, with a Latin translation, was pub- 
lished at Oxford, by Dr. I'ococke, in Iti63. 
He eventually became primate of the East, 
and died in 1266. 

ABULFAZEL, vizier to the celebrated 
mofful emperor Akbar, and author of 
" Ayeen Atberry"— a statistical and jfeo- 
graphical account of the Mogul empire, and 
an history of the reign of the emperor Ak- 
bar ; the former work wa« translated Into 
English by Mr. Gladwin in 1785. Died, by 
the hands of an assassin, in 1604. 

ABULFEDA, Ibmakl, prince of Hamah 
in Syria. He was distinguished as a niili- 
tarv commander; but still more as an ex- 
cellent historian and geographer, being 
the author of a descriiitinn of Chorasmia 
and Mawaralnahre, and the lives of Maho- 
met and Saladin, Sec. The former work 
has been published with a Latin translation, 
added to the Arabic original ; and portions 
of his various works have been separaiely 
translated into English. Died, 1339. 

ABULGAZI, Bayatur, khan of the Tar- 
tars, and author of an esteemed Tartar 
history. Some Russian exiles in Siberia 
having discovered the MS. of this work, it 
was brought to Europe and translated into 
German and French. Born at I) i gens, the 
capital of Karasm, 1605 ; died, I66J. 

ABU, Moslem, governor of Khorassan. 
At an enormous sacrifice of human life, he 
aided in establisliing the Abasside dynasty 
upon the ruin of that of the Oraiuiadcs ; 
but his services to the caliph Almaiuor did 
not prevent that prince from causing him 
to he put to death, a.d. 759. 

ABU'LOLA, an Arabian p'^ct, of whose 
works some portions were published by 
Fabricius and Goliui, about the middle of 
the 17th century. Born 973 ; died I057. 

ABUNDANCE, John, thcassumed name 
of a French poet of the I6th century. 

ABU-NOWAS, an Arabian poet. Boro, 
763 ; died 810. 

ABU-OBEIDAH, a friend and associate 
of Mahomet, and the conqueror of great 
part of Palestine and Syria. Died, by the 
pestilence, 639. 

ABU-TEMAN, a celebrated Arabian poet. 
Some of his works have been published in 
England. Died, 845. 

ABUZAID, IVIiRZA. a soldier in the ser- 
vice of Uleg Beg, who, taking advantage 
of the feud Detween that i^^rsonage and his 
son, proclaimed himself in 1450; but alter 

f gaining considerable territory, he perished 
II an anibusca<le,^in \i6>>. 

ABVDENUS, tlie reputed autlior of a 
historv of Adsyria and Ch.ildt'a, which Is 
now ffwt, except some fragments inserted 
by Eiiseliius in fiis I'reparatio Etangt-lira. 

ACACIUS, bishop of Brrca, in Syria, the 
opponent of St. Chrysostoro and Cyril of 
Alexandria. Died, 436. 

ACACI US, bishop of Amida, on the Tigris, 
a man honourably distinguished for having 
solil the church-plate to ransom 7000 I'er- 
sians, who hail been taken prisoners in liie 
war between riieo<lo8ius the Younger, and 
Varannes, kingof I'ersia. The latter mon- 
arch was induced by this truly Christian be- 
nevolence to consent to llie termination of 
the war. I'his gnod prelate flourislied early 
in the fifth century, but the exact time of 
his death i^ unknown. 

ACACIUS, surnamed Monophthalmus, 
from having lost an eye, was the disciple 
and successor of Eusebiu*, bishop of Ca'sa- 
rea, whose life he wrote. He was the 
founder of a sect called AcacianI, and died 
about the year 365. 

ACADEMUS, an Athenian citizen, who, 
in the time of llieseiis, had the luinour of 
foiindiiiit the Acailemic itrove, and of giving 
his name to a sect of pliilosophei*. 

ACAMI'IXTLI, the first king of the an- 
cient Mexicans whom he govt rned forty 
years. He gave many valuable laws to Ins 
subjects, and fonniled the cupiuil of the 
kingdom. Died, I4W. 

ACCA, St., an Anjilo-Saxon divine, bi- 
shop of Hexliani, in the eiglith cenimy— a 
patron of learning and the arts ; author of 
" Sufterings of the Saints," and epistles, 
and ail improver of church music. Died,7io. 

ACCA LAUKENTIA. by some called 
LuPA, the wife of Fausluliis. thesh<pheiil ; to 
whose honour the Romans tievottd a festival, 
as being tlie nurse of Itomiiiiisand Kemus, 

ACCARISI, Jamks, a nativeof Bologna, 
and professor of rhetoric at Mantua ; alter 
which he entercti into orders, and was made 
bishop of Vesta, where he died in 1054. 

ACCAR!SI, Francis, a native of An- 
rona, professor of civil law at Sienna ami 
Pisa. Difd, I6-J2. 

ACCIAIOLI, DoNATra, a noble and 
learned Florentine of the titli century ; dis- 
tinguished for his translation of Plutarch, 
and commentaries on^Aristotle. [The name 
of this family is variously written, AcciA- 
OLI, AcciAiuoLi, and Acciajuoli.) 

ACCIAIOLI, John, a member of the 
same family as the above ; an author and 
public lecturer, in the I6th century. 

ACCIAIOLI, Maodalena, a Florentine 
ladv; autlioreshof " David Persecuted," 
anil other (loenis. Died, 1610. 

ACCIAIOLI, Zenobio, a poet and critic ; 
also the iranslator, from the Greek, of 
Politian's epigrams, and librarian to Leo X. 
Died, 1520. 

ACCIAIOLI, Renatib, a noble Floren- 
tine, who, ill the 14th century, conquered 
Athens, Corinth, and Ba-otia: which lie be- 
queathed reHp'ctivi'ly to the Venetians, 
rheodosius i'ala'oiogiis, and his natural 
son Anthnnv. 




^ flt\D Mnititual l)tograpl3t>. 


At'CIo, ZijcHio, apoctof Vtioiia, in the 
loth reiiliiry. 

ACCIIIS, l.iicii's, a Latin |)oet and dra- 
luatist. He died at>oiit n.c. 1^0. 

ACCIOS, an orator, a|r.iin!it whom Cicero 
defended Cluiiitius. 

ACCIUS, TuLLius, prlnre of tlieVolscI; 
to whom Coriolanus renortcd for aid against 

ACCOLTI, JJknbdict, an Italian law- 
yer, born at Plorencc In 1415, anil BUfceeded 
I'nggio an secretary to that republic in 1 450. 
lie wan the author of many valuable workc, 
amone which was a narrative of the wars in 
i'aleiiune, to which lasso was niuchlndebted 
inconi|>OBing^ the " JeiusaUni Delivered. " 
Died, HQ6. 

ACCOI.ri, Benedict, a relation of the 
prccwIiMH-, born in 1497, was no perfect a 
master of tlie Latin toni^uc, th.it he was 
called the Cicero of the aire. He was 
hiKJily clistiMKUiHlii'd by the iiupes Leo X., 
Adrian VI., and Clement VII., the la^t of 
whom niaile liini a cardinal. Died, 1549. 

ACCOLTI, I'ETEd, son of the above, 
abaiiiliMicd the profession of the law to 
enter ihe church; and, as cardinal of An- 
coiia, composed the l'ai)al bull against Lu- 
ther. Died, 1532. 

Ai'COLI'l, ItKiiNAiiD, brother of the last 
named, a |K)et of considerable powers: his 
worki* were publisbe<l at Florence, in 1513. 

ACCOLTI, Fkancis, uncle of the above; 
a lavvxer and scholar of >;re;U ability, but 
evi'n iii'ire remarkable for his parsimony 
than for his talents. 

ACCOLTI, Hknedict, a man of violent 
p.issions, who conspired witli tive oilier.-^ to 
murder Pius IV. HesutTercd death in 1561. 

ACCORSO, MAaiANGRLO, a native oi 
Aqiiila, ill the Itith century ; an eminent 
critic and scholar. He I'.ubli.-.jied remarks 
on Ausoniusaiid Ovid, eiitiildl " Diatribae," 
and an edition of Ammiaiius Marcelllnus. 

ACI'KDI, Joseph, an Italian; author of 
" Voyage au Cape Nord, par la Suede," in 

ACCnno, Francis, an Italian Jesuit and 
poet at Naples, in lt)66. 

an eminent Italian lawyer, born ut Florence 
in 118'J, and died in 1229. This individual 
rendered himself famous by his " Perpetual 
Commentary," or " Great Gloss," in illus- 
tration of the code, the institutes, and the 

ACESIUS, bishop of Constantinople, in 
the time of Constantino, who said to him, 
in allusion to his rigid opinions, " Mak<' 
yourself a ladder, Acesius, and go up to 
Heaven alone." 

ACEVEDO, Felix Alvarez, a Spanish 
officer, and one of the principal actors in 
the revolution in his native country, in 1820. 
He was killed in the same year, in an am- 
buscade, after having defeated a party of 
the royalists. 

ACfi, Van, or ACHEN, John, an erai- 
nent historical and portrait painter. Born 
at Cologne, 1 066 ; died 1621. 

ACH/j:i)S, a Greek poet and satirist, con- 
temp )rary with ^schylus; but though he is 

said to have written forty tragedies, nothiiis' 
but a few fragments at present exi.-t. 

ACHARD, Anthony, a learned divine. 
Uorii at Geneva, \6<J6; died, 177.'. 

ACHARD, soinetlmes called St, Victor, 
from his having been abbot of St. Victor, in 
Paris, was a bishop of Avranches, in Nor- 
mandy, and the author of sonic religious 
works. Died, 1172. 

ACHARD, Claude Francis, a physician, 
secretary to the academy, and librarian, of' 
Marseilles. He was the author of several 
valuable works, and the comniler of sonic 
catalogues, particularly that ot the museum 
of Marseilles. Born in I7S3 ; dieil, 1809. 

ACHARD, F.C., a distinguished Prussian 
chymlst; known as the tirst fabricator of 
beet-root sugar, in 1793 ; and author of se- 
veral treatises on chymistry and agriculture. 
Died in 1821. 

ACHAKDS, Elbazer, bishop of Avignon, 
remarkable for the benevolent courage he 
ilisplayed when the plague raged in histee. 
Being sent by Clement Xil. to China, to 
settle the disputes which prevailed among 
the missionaries, he died there. In 1741, 
without having accomplished his object. 

ACII EN WALL, GoDPRET,a distinguished 
lecturer on history and jurisprudence, in 
the university of Gottingen. Died, 1772. 

ACHER, N., a French judge; author of 
an " Abrege des HomnieslUustres dc Plu- 
tarque," I807. 

ACHERI, Liio u', a Benedictiue monk ; 
autliorof " Lives of the Saints," &c. Born 
at St. Uuintin, in Picardy, 1609; died, at 
Paris, I6b5. 

ACHILLES TATIUS, a native of Alex- 
andria, who lived during the third century, 
and in liis old age was converted to Chris- 
tianity, and became a bishop. He origi- 
nally taught rhetoric in his native city, and 
wrote a "Treatise on the Sphere;" a 
" History of Great Men ;" and a Romance, 
entitled " The Loves of Clitophon and 

ACHILLINI, Alexander, a Bolognese 
physician, known by his publications on ana- 
tomy and medicine. Died, ISI2. 

ACHILLINI, John Philotheus, brother 
of the above, and author of an eulogistic 
poem, entitled " Viridario." Died, loSa. 

ACHILLINI, Claude, a relation of the 
above, distinguished for his knowledge of 
medicine, theology, and jurisprudence. 
Born, at Bologna, 1574; died, 1640. 

ACH.ME r I., emperor of Turkey, son and 
successor of Mahomet 111. Born, I5b8; 
died, liil7. 

ACHMET n., succeeded his brother So- 
Irman on the throne of Constantinople. 
Died, 1695. 

ACHMET III., son of Mahomet IV., was 
placed on the throne by the heads of a fac- 
tion which had deposed his brother, AIus- 
tapha II. He was afterwards deposed, and 
his nephew, Mahomet V., exalted to the 
throne. Died in prison, 1736. 

ACHMET, Bacha, a general of Solyman, 
and governor of Egypt. 

ACHMET, an Arabian writer in the 
fourth century. His book " On tlie Inter- 

WHOSO thinks before he acts, THRIVBTH before IfK THINKS. 










r of 

iik ; 




II a- 






























^ llrtD ^Inibrrsal IStogravtli*- 

A t) A 

pn-tation of Dreams," wan publUhL'd at 
I'arU in I On:!. 

ACIDAI.ms, Vai.rns, a German author, 
and ctU;hr.ittd critic. Died, 1595, aged 2H. 

ACII.IL's, Cau's, a valiant soldier under 
Julius (.'ii-sar : he !;rH|>|tleil an eneniyN gvA- 
ley with his riirhttiand, which bcuii; rut olT, 
he Ht'i/.ed it wiili hin left, anil boarded it, 
nntwitli>t:iiidini( he watt opposed by all the 
crt'W upon deck. 

ACINUYNIJS, Skptimich, a Roman con- 
sul, and governor of Aniioch, in the fourth 
i-entiirv. Ila^in|; smtcnced a man to l>e 
Ii;ini7c(t for a dulit owing by him to the pub- 
lic treasury, if it was not paid by a certain 
'l.iy, a very rich cili/.en proposed to pay the 
sum for him if he would consent to his 
wife's dishonour; but havinn^ accomplished 
his base <lesif|^n. he treacherously g»\e her 
a ha;;; of earth, instead of the money ; 
which being reported to Acindynus, he eon- 
ileiiined the citizen to |)ay the debt, and to 
ffive the land from whence the earth was 
taken, to the wife. 

ACINDYNUS, Grehory, a monk, and a 
controversial writer, silenced by the patri- 
arch of Constantinople, 1341. 

ACKEKMANN, Coniiad, a German co- 
median, and founder of the modern Ger- 
man theatre. Died, 1771. 

MKB, an eminent physlciau ; author of a 
" Manual of Military Medicine," and other 
valuable works. Born in I75(j ; and died at 
Altdorf, ill Francouia, in ihui. 

ACKERMANN, Rudolph, an in&renious 
and enterprising tradesman, was bom at 
Scneeberir, Saxtuiy, in 17C4, and came to 
England previous to the French revolution. 
After fullowiii(f for a time the occupation 
of a carriage draui^htsnian, he settled in 
the Strand as a priiitseller, where he 
established a flourishing and extensive con- 
cern, furiiishing employment to numerous 
arti^ts, and judiciously catering for the 
public Mstc ill elegant and ornamental 
works of art. His " Forget me Not" was 
the (irst of that class of '"^Annuals" which 
appeared in this country ; and to him also 
are we indebted for the introduction and 
much of the success of the lithographic 
art ; while the good taste and spirit he 
evinced in producing the "Histories" of 
Westminster, Oxford, &c., and other hand- 
somely embellished works, entitle him to 
the respect of all who know how to appre- 
ciate them. Died, 1834. 

ACKMAN, William, a Scotch artist of 
the 1 8th century. As a portrait painter, he 
was held in high estimation ; but is chiefly 
remembered a* the flrst influential person 
who appreciated and encouraged the poet 

ACOLUTHUS, Andrew, a learned pro- 
fessor of languages at Ureslaw ; author of 
a treatise *' l)e Aquis Amaris," and other 
works. Died, 1704. 

ACONTIUS, Jamks, a native of Trent, 
eminent, in tlie 16th century, as a philoso- 
pher, a divine, and a civilian. 

ACOSTA, Christopher, a Portiiguse 
surgeon and naturalist of the sixteenth cen- 
tury ; author of " A Treatise on the Drugs 

ami Medicinal I'lanls of the East liidics," 
and other works. 

ACOSTA, Gahriri,, professor of ilivinity 
at Coiinlira ; author ol a commentary on the 
Old Testament. Died, l(i5U. 

ACOSTA, Joseph, a provincial of the 
Jesuits III I'eru. His history, natural and 
moral, or the West Indies, is particularly 
celebrated. Died, 16U0. 

ACOSTA, Uriel, a Portuguese of Jewish 
descent, who made some stir during the 
seventeenth century by his freaks in iliaiig- 
Ing his cree<l. The whole life of tins m:iii 
indlckted insanity ; and bis death by his 
own hand, in 1647, conlirmed the opinion. 

ACQUAVIVA, Andrew Matthew, 
prince of Teranio and duke of Atri, was 
a learned Ncaiwlitan, to whom belonj's the 
merit of having puhlishfd the first Eiicy- 
clopiedla. Uorn, 1156; died, l5iH. 

ACRON, a Sicilian physician, celebrated 
for having exiN'lled the plague from Athens, 
by burning perfumes. D.r. 473. 

ACRONIUS, John, a mathomatician o( 
Friesland, who wrote on the motion of the 
earth. Died, I56J. 

ACRONIUS, John, a Dutch writer ol 
the seventeenth century, who wrote against 
the Romi«h religion. 

ACROHOLITA, Groroe, one of the Ry- 
zantine historians of the lliirleenth century, 
celebrated lor his knowledge of poetry, 
mathematics, and rhetoric. Uorn, Mio ; 
died, liS'i. 

abo\e, and grand chancellor of the empire. 

ACrON, Joseph, son of a physician, 
born at Hesan<;oii, in 1737. He entered into 
tlie French navy, and afterwards into that 
of the grand duke of Tuscany. His rescu- 
ing 40UU Spaniards from the Barbary cor- 
sairs, made him known at the court of Na- 
ples ; and, through the patronage of the 
queen, he became minister of the marine, 
and afterwards of the linances. He was 
dismissed from the ministry in I6U3, and re- 
tired into Sicily, where he died in 1808. 

ACrUARUJS, John, a Greek physician 
of the I3th century, who distinguished him- 
self by the analysis and employment of the 
milder cathartics and simple water. 

ACUNA, Christopher, born at Burgos. 
Spain, 1597, became a Jesuit in 161.;, and 
subsequently a missionary in America. On 
Ills return to Spain, he published " A De- 
scription of the Great River of the Ama- 

ACUNA, Fernando dr, a Spanish poet 
of some celebrity. Died at Grenada In Ititio. 

ADAIR, Jambs, sergeant-at-law, born in 
London, and educated at Peter-House, 
Cambridge, where he took his degree of 
M. A. in I7ft7. In 1771, he was chosen re- 
corder of London ; an oflice which he held 
for ten years. At his death, which hap- 
pened in'l79H. he was member of parliament 
for Highain Ferrers, king's prime ^erjeallt- 
at-law, and chief-justice at Chester. 

ADAIR, James, a trader and resident 
among tlie N. American Indians, whose li- 
neage he deduces from the Jews, in a pub- 
lication dated 1775. 

ADAIR, James Makittkick, a physi- 



g^ Tg ; 





















^ ^rtD (itnibersal liiograpfiy. 


rliiu of HiiiiR' ciiiiiiciicf, ami a native of 
Sciitl.inil ; iiiitliDr of :« iiiiiiiIiit of uicdical 
liiul other uoi'liH. UIimI at llarrowgatf, 
ill iMii-^. 

AUAI.AKI), or ADKI.AUD, a Gvrniaii 
(liviiio mill llii'olii;;ii:al wrltt^r, tin- (,'r,iii<liioii 
of CMi;irlfs Marlrl, '.nid <<>usiii-j.'i'riiiaii of 
("liarlfiii.uMie. lie U iii'wi lli^lill)full(la•ll for 
(lif f'liiiil.itloii of a <lli.(iii(-t alibcy, called 
Ni'w Corbie, a» a m'liiinar.v for the ediiea- 
lioii of iiilssion.irlts, who were to be ein- 
ployed ill the ennversioii of the northern 
iiatloiis. Morn, 7')J ; tliid, 857. 

ADAI.IU'.UON. a celebiati d archbUliop 
of Klieiiii^, and ehiiiu-ellor of I'rAiice ; who 
dl.^lillLMll^hed liiiiist If, us a iirelale and a 
iiolltii-iaii, iMi'ler l.otliaire, Louis V., and 
Hiitfli Capet. Died in UbS. 

ADAI.HKKON, Abcblinv's, ordained bl- 
iih()|i of Laoii, in i»77, by tlie |irecedinff. 
lie trtaciirri)iii.iy delivered u|> Arnoiil, arch- 
bihliop of Khelnoi, and Charlen, duke of 
Lorralii, to Hugli Capet. Died, 1030. 

ADAI.HKRT, nrehbUhop of I'raKue, In 
the loth eemury. He was one of liie lirbt 
founders of the I hrlstian religion in Huii- 
Bary ; and also preailied tiie (fos|)cl In 
Prussia, and in Liihuaiiia, wliere he was 
lUiirderiHl by Sego. a paijan priest. Holes- 
laus, princ'! of I'oiaiid, is said to liave ran- 
somed his body with an equal weight of gold. 

ADALBEKT, an ambitious, elorpient, 
and di>igninif prelate, ereaUd arclibisliop 
of Bremen and HanibuiL'li, 1043. During 
the minority of Henry IV. of Germany, lie 
aeted as recent, but his despotic conduct 
rendered him obnoxious to the people. 
Uied, 1073. 

ADAM, ScOTi'8, a doctor of the Sor- 
bonne, In the I3tli ceiiturv, and author of a 
life of David I. of Scotland. 

ADAM, Alexandkh, a learned Scotch 
schoolnidslcr, well known to the literary 
and sciioUhtic world by his '• Latin Lexi- 
con," " Roman Antiquities," \c. Uorii, 
1741 ; died, I6C9. 

ADAM, Lambkrt SiGisBKRT, an emi- 
nent Ireiich sculptor, many of wliose works 
were executed lor the decoration of Ver- 
sailles and St. Cloud. Uorn, 1700; died, I75<). 

ADAM, N1CU0LA8 Sebastian, brother 
of tliu above, ami eminent in the same pro- 
fession. He executed the admired statue 
of " rrometlieus Chained." Born, I70j ; 
died, 1778. 

ADAM of Bremen, canon of the catlie- 
dial of Bremen about the dose of tlie lltli 
century; author of an ecclesiastical history, 
and numerous otiier works; and iiidelatij<:a 
ble as a Christian missionary. 

ADAM, Mki.chior, a German divine and 
biograpiiical author of tlie iTth century, to 
wliose voluminous writing's subserpieiit bio- 
graphers have been greatly indebted. 

ADAM, Nicholas, a French gramma- 
rian ; author of " The True Mode of ac- 
quiring a Language wiiether Living or 
Dead, by means ol ihe French," and other 
works of considerable ingenuity. Born, 
1716; died, I79i. 

ADAM, RoBEiiT, F. U.S. and F. S.A.; 
a celtbrated architect, much employed upon 
the p\iblic buildings and noblemen's maii- 

sioiisof London. One of Ids works, executed 
In coiiiiiiiclioii with his broilier, is the no- 
ble raii»;e of buildings called the " Adel- 
ulii," tliu name being the Greek word for 
'' Uriitliers." He at one time repres4'nted 
Ihu countv of Kinross in Parliament. Born 
at Kirkalily, Fifeshire, I73H ; died, 1702. 

ADAM, James, brotlierof the above, and 
hiscoadjiitor Inmost of his labours. D. 1794. 

ADAM, Thomas, an Fnglisli divine, and 
for :,a years the rector of vUntrlngham, in 
Lincolnshire, liavlng repeatedly refused pre- 
ferment. He was the autliorof some religi- 
ous works. Born, at Leeds, I7ul ; died, I7b4. 

ADAMANTKo, a learned Italian mathe- 
matician and oiienlallst; author of " Glos- 
sas el Interpretationes in Talmud Hebrao- 
rum." Died, ISHI. 

AOAMANTIIJS, a Greek physician of the 
ilftli century ; author of a work on pliysi- 
ognomy, wliicli has been often printed. 

ADAMANUS, abbot of Icolmkii, in the 
8th century ; author of allfe of St. Columba. 

Al.iAMI, Leonardo, an Italian scholar, 
eminent for his skill in the Greek and Ori- 
ental languages, and librarian to cardinal 
liiiperiali. Born, 1090, at Bolsema, in Tus- 
cany ; died, 1719. 

ADAMS, Sir Thomas, an eminent citi- 
zen of London, of which he was lord mayor 
In 1045. He wait a loyni and prudent ma- 
gistrate, and distinguished by many public 
acts of munilicence. Born, at Wem, in 
Sliropshire, libS ; died, hitj7. 

AIJAMS, William, an English divine of 
the leih cimtury ; author of an answer to 
Hume on the Miracles. Died, 1789. 

ADAMS, Joseph, an able English physi- 
cian ; author of a treatise on epilepsy, and 
numerous other medical works of^ { 
merit. Born, I7S8; died, I81H. 

ADAIMS, Georoe, a celebrated maker of 
mathematical instruments ; author of " Mi- 
cograpliiie lilustrata," and other scientific 
works. Died, I78ij. 

ADAMS, George, son of the above, and 
of the same profession ; author of " An 
Essay on Vision, ice." Uorn, 1750 ; died 1793. 

ADAMS, John, second I'resideat of the 
United States of America, and a political 
writer of considerable reputation. Before 
the Revolution, Mr. Adams attained great 
eminence as a lawyer, and published an 
essay " On Common and Feudal Law." 
On the breach with the niollier country, he 
espoused tiie colonial cause, and employed 
his pen with great activity. He was one of 
the principal promoters of the memorable 
resolution passed July 4, 1776, declaring the 
American States free, sovereign, and inde- 
pendent. Mr. Adams subsequently pro- 
ceeded with Dr. Franklin to tiie court of 
France, in order to negociate a treaty of 
peace and alliance with that country. He 
was afterwards nominated plenipotentiary 
to Holland, and materially contributed to 
liasten a rupture between the United Pro- 
vinces and Great Britain. Lastly, he was 
employed in negociatiiig a general peace at 
Paris : and w<ts the nrst ambassador re- 
ceived by tills country from America after 
it was enected. This distinguished indivi- 
dual also look a great share,ln conjunction 





























y of 





^ |lrb) ^^ntberdfll 13tottrapf)]t). 

f API 


wilh VViiKliiiis;(nn, lliiiiiiltiiii, nml other fu- 
ilvral tcuiUTH, ill fciriiiliiif tht; preHt'iit coii- 
Htltutioii of tht- Uiiiliit StaU-N, ill n»7, when 
(Jeiu'r.it WnnhiiiKtoii wan cln'tt'il prfHitleiit, 
and Mr. Adams vk-c-iirfNidciil. On thit rr- 
lirenif'Dt of Washiiii^toii, Mr. Ad.iiiiit wax 
eh'ctud his HUc<'('«sor ; and, at (lie cone In - 
nIoii of hid preHldeiiry, rt'liri'd from piihlic 
life, Willi the ch;ir:i(-t('r of an ahic, active, 
iiidi-pnident, and iiprlirht KlaUiinian, even 
aniniii; Ihotic whom? purty \U'\s» were "p- 
pimcd tr>liiH opinions. Unrn, 17:15 ; died, 1836. 

ADAMS, Samuki., an active nieniljcr of 
•lie llrsl American coiijfress, and one r.f the 
most iM)werfiil advocates of the political hc- 
parntion of that country from Kngland. 
Horn, lTi-2; died, 1803. 

ADAMS, I.UMilenaiit-Oencral, entered 
the Unecn'D lloyaJH an eni^lu'n, and conti- 
nned in that rc^'inicnt until (at Glhraitar) 
ho became adjutant. He afterwards joined 
the 78th Hi|{hlaiideri4, as captain ; went 
with that reiflnient to Men^ral ; ami, in the 
Mahratta war of IH<)3, foiif^ht under the 
Duke of Wellington, who warmly com- 
mended his services. I'runiotcd to the 
r:ink of lleiitenaiit-colonel, he pursued liiii 
military career in India with ardour and 
Nuccesg. He returned to Kngland a major- 
general, and waa promoted to the rank of 
a lieutenant-general some time afterwards. 
He died upon his own estate in I'emhrnke 
in IH34, ill coiiBe(picnce of ills fowling- 
piece going off while he was getting over 
a hedge, hy which accident one side of his 
heati wa» blown off. 

A DAMSON, Patrick, archbishop of St. 
Andrews, in Scotland, and ambassador from 
James VI. to Queen F.U/.abeth ; butchlelly 
remembered for his disputes with the pres- 
bytery, by which he w.is involved In ruin. 
Uorn, 15J6; dleil, 1509. 

ADAMUS, DoRF.NSia, an English abbot, 
who in the year isiio wrote a work on 
" The Rudiments of Music." 

ADANSON, MiCHAEi,, an eminent French 
naturalist, of Scottish extraction, born at 
Alx, ill I'rovence, 1727. At the Revolution, 
he was reduced to extreme Indigence, and 
died In I8(i6, leaving behind hima vast num- 
ber of manuscripts. 

ADDINGTON, Anthony, a physician, 
born In I7U, and educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford. He was the father of Vis- 
count Sidniouth ; and, about 1736, settled at 
Reading, wliere he had considerable prac- 
tice in cases of insanity. Died in I7!)0. 

ADDISON, Lancblot, an English di- 
vine, was horn at Crosby Ravensworth, 
VVe>tmorel;ind, in 163.2. He early distin- 
guished himself bv his attachment to the 
!>tiiarl family, and appears to have sup- 

Forted a consistent and upright character, 
le held the living of Miiston, Wilts, with 
a preliend in the cathedral of Salisbury, and 
was eventually made dean of Llchlield. He 
died in I7U3. 

ADDISON, Joseph, so highly celebrated 
in Englisii literature, was the son of Dr. 
Addison, the subject of the foregoing arti- 
cle. He was born May I, 1672, at Milston, 
and, after receiving the rudiments of edu- 
cation at Salisbury and I.iclitield, was sent 
to the Charier-house, where he contracted 

Ills lirst intimacy with Mr., afUrw ird* Sir 
Richard, Steele. At llie age nf |.'>, I c wa^ 
entered of Uuecn's Collegr. Oxford, wlieri' 
he soon bee .line disliiuniislicd for da-sical 
literature, and for his skill in l.:iliii poc fry. 
Al 22, he addressed hoiipc l'.li|<lish verct s In 
the veteran poet, Dryilen ; and slioilly :if- 
terwards piibiuhed a Ir.inshitlon til' part of 
Virgil's fourth Georgic. In irtHiS, he ;iil- 
drcssed a complimentary poem, on one of 
the campaigns of King William, to llic lord 
keeper Soniers, who procured him a pin- 
sloii from the crown ol :u)til. per annum, to 
enable lilm to travel. On his reliirii iiomr, 
In 1702, he found his r)ld friends onl ol 
jilace : but. In 1701, he u;i» liilrofluced liy 
lord Halifax to lord (jodolpliin. ns a (itpir- 
son to celebrate the victory of lllriilieiiii ; 
on which occasion he produced " I lit: Cam- 
paign," for which he was appointed com- 
missioner of appeals. After this, he ac- 
conipanied the iiiar(|uis td' Wharton to Ire- 
land, as secrelurv. While lliere, Steele 
commenced the " Tallerj" to which Aiidi- 
soi) liberally contributed. I'liis was lollowed 
by the " Spectator," which was also en- 
riched by the eontrlhiitions of Addison, 
whose papers are distlngnislied by one ol' 
the letters of the word Clio, This piildic.i- 
lion was succeeded by the " Guardian," a 
similar work, in which Addison also bore a 
considerable share. In 1713, his famous lia- , 
gedy of Calo was brought upon the stage, 
and performed wiliiout interruption for 
thirty-live nights. In I71ti, Addison mar- 
ried the countess dowager of VViirwiek ; but 
tin; union is said to have been far from fe- 
licitous. The following year, he became 
secretary of state, which place he soon re- 
signed, on a pension of |6UU/. a-year. In ■ 
his retirement he wrote " A Defence of the 
Chribtian Religion," and also laid tlie plan 
of an I'.nglisli Dictionary, upon the model 
of Ihe Italian Delia Crusca. He closed bis 
life in a manner suitable to his character. 
When given over by his physicians, Aildison 
sent lor his step-son, the young earl of War- 
wick, whom tie was anxious to reclaim 
from irrei'ular habits and erroneous opi- j 
nioiis, and, grasping his hand, excliinied 
impressively, " See in what peace a Chris- 
tian can die !" but whether this affecting 
Intt niew had any effect upon the young 
carl is not known, as his own death hap- 
pened shortly after. Addison died, at Hoi- i 
land House, June 17, 1719; leaving an only 
daughter, who died, unmarried. In 1797. 
Of Addison's numerous and well-known > 
writings, it may be affirmed, that they rest 
on the solid basis of real excellence, in mo- 
ral tendency as well as in litei-ary merit ; 
vice and folly are satiri/.ed, virtue and de- 
corum are rendered attractive ; and while 
polished diction and attic wit aboiinii, ilie 
purest ethics are inculcated. May we iioi 
then repeat tlie laudatory and einphaiic 
words of Dr. Johnson ; — "Whoever would 
attain an English style, familiar hut not 
coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, 
must give liis days and nights to tlie volumes 
of Addison." 

ADELAIDE, IMadamr, aunt to f.ouis 
XVI. of France. This princess, in order to 
avoid the sanguinary fiirv of tlic revolu- 
tionists, and accompanied by lier sister. 
Mad. Victoire, quitted I'aris on the I9lli of 




fl fit\a (ilnibrrsal tiiograpfii). 


Kcliiiiarjr, I7UI. Afnr ktikiiiir prolfriloii 
ill Rome, N.iplrn, itml ollirr |>l.ii-<'«, llii-y 
round t lfiii\Hiriiry aoyliiiii in ('nrfii, fmni 
wIu'Hcc llii'y wiTf ri>iiM'v«'«l |o Trii-Hic liy 
tilt! KuimiMii Ki'xiriil OiiIm liiitnni, and Ihcru 
flxcil llu'ir n-nldcnrf. Vlcloire dird llii! 
BIh of June. I7t>» ; and Adilaidc lurvivcd 
lic^iiiilfr unly nin« nioiiilia. 

AOKLAKD, a monk n{ Hath in tlii> ISIIi 
crnliiry ; a man of fiinnidfriilde liMrnini;. 
III! (r.ivi-llt><l into Kifvpt and Aribia; and 
Iraiiiilalfd Kiirlid'n I'.lvnuMilH out of Araliic 
into Latin, bt'Toru any (jrcrii i-opiri liud 
Im'imi diicovcrt'd. lit; alio wrote Hevcral 
triMiiicii on nullirnialiiMl and iiiiMlical lub- 
jeriH, wlili-li rem.ilii in MS. at Oxford. 

AOKI.IIOI.I), liinliop of lltnt'lit, tilt' c,\- 
tliedraJ of wliich lie foundtnl. Ili- wrutv tlie 
lift! of hit patron, tliu empt-ror lit-nry II., 
and dlfd in \a-il. 

Al>r,l,Ell, CiTRTiua, namt'd al«n Svrvi- 
nen, an fininfiit naval commander, bom in 
Norw.iy, \iifi, lie went to Venice, wlicre 
he wan made ailmlral; and, afier iH-rlnnu- 
liitr many ^'allant cxploilt a)fain«t the TurkH. 
retired In I'oiiiitantinople, where he eiKleil 
hilt dayi in honour and tran(|utllity. beini^ 
made ailniiral-inchier of tlie Daniitli lleet, 
and created a noble, lie died In l«'~75. 

ADBI.IING, John ('iihibtopiier. a 
Gerinin philoloirint of irreat merit ; chieHy 
celebrated for lil» " Oriimnialical and Cri- 
tical Dictionary," 5 voin. 4to. Uorn, iTa* ; 
died, iMNf. 

ADKMAR, a monk of the loth century, 
who wrote the chronicle* of France., pub- 
llHhed by Labbe. 

AUEK, William, a phytlclan of Tou- 
louse, who wrote a book In 16-il, entitled, 
" Ue if-ifroli* ft Morbi* Evan(;ellcii;" In 
which he proves tliat the dioeaM s healed by 
Our Saviour were Incurable by medicine. 

ADET, P. A,, envoy from France to the 
United StatuDln ITSKJ : autlior of several chy- 
mlcal works, flrl);inal and translated, and of 
a desiffn for new chymlc.kl cliui-octeis and 

ADHAI>-KDDOl)LAT, emperor of Per- 
sia, born about 9:)5. In 977 he became mas- 
ter of Baifdad, which he adorned with hog- 
pitaU, mosques, and otlier public works. 
He was also a great encourager of learning. 
Died, a»2, 

ADIIELMK, a learned prelate under the 
Saxon Heptarchy, and nephew to king Ina. 
He was tlie lirst Englishman who wrote in 
Latin, the ^taI who brought |>oetrv into this 
country, and the first bishop of Sherborne. 
He died In 7U9, and was canonized. 

ADLER, James Gboroe, a learned Da- 
nish orientalist, born in \^^6•, author of 
'* Museum Culicuni," some works on the 
Jewisli language, laws, and riles, and seve- 
ral philological publications. 

ADLKK, Philip, a German engraver of 
the 16th ceiituiy, whose style or etching 
appears to have founded a school which 
gave rise to the Hoplers and Hollar. He 
died about 1530. 

ADLERFELDT, GrsTAVUS, aSwedish his- 
torian in the time of Charles XII., wliom he 
accompanied tliroughout his campaigns; 
of which he wrote an esteemed account ; 
and It is not a little singular that his history 

Is coiitinucd up to ilie very day wlii-n a 
caniiiiii bail deiirived him of lift*; wliicli 
occurred at the lultleof Pultowa, in I70!i. 

ADL/KEITEK, John, a (iermnn histo- 
rian, and cliaiii'elior of llavaria. He wrote 
the annals of that stale In Latin ; and dietl 
about the year I(iti3. 

A l)U, archbishop of Vienne, distinguished 
by his ph'ty, and m ho ac<|uir<!d considerable 
celehriiy as ail historian. Oii-d, mi, 

ADoLFATI, an Italian com|Mi<M'r and au- 
thor of several o|N'r.is. In imilalion of Mar- 
cello, he wrote a piece In which there were 
two sorts of time in the s.inie air; llie one 
of two notes, the other of three. 

ADOLPIIIJS, emperor of (lermany, vtns 
tlie count of Nassau, and elevated to tlieini- 
|ieriiil throne in fiUU. Slain by Albert, duke 
of AuNlria, IWH. 

ADOLPIHIS, count of Cleves, celehraled 
by the inoliliition of the Order of Fools, In 
\:im, wiiich consisted of the iirlncipal no- 
blemen of Cleves. I Ills oruer has long 
cea.M'd to exist. 

Sweden, born in 1710. and succeeded his 
father, Frederic, in I7'M. He died, greatly 
regretted, in 1771. 

ADREI'S, Fhancib dr nRAi'MONT, Ra- 
ron des, a Huguenot leader, of a cruel, 
llery, and enter|irisiiig spirit. Kesentmeiit 
to the duke of Guise led him to side with 
the Huguenot party in I5ti3; and he signa- 
liztid himself by many able and daring ex- 
ploits, the skill and bravery of which were 
soiled vvitli the most detestable cruelly. 
1'lie aspect of Adrets, like his character, 
was most forbiildlng ; he lived abhorred, 
and died, universally hated, in I jh7. 

ADRIA, John Jamks, a Sicilian writer 
and physician, wlio pratUised with great re- 
putation at Palermo, and was niiule pliy- 
sician-general to Charles V. He died In i:>GO. 

ADR! AM, Marir, a female, who, at the 
age of 16, fought valiantly during the whole 
time that her native town, Lyons, was be- 
sieged, in 1*93. After llie eni;ai;eiiient she 
was arrested, and being asked how she had 
dared to use arms! she replied, " I used 
them to serve my country, and deliver it 
from its oppressors." She was instantly 
condemned and executetl. 

ADRIAN, or HADRIAN, Publius JEuva, 
the Roman emperor, born a.u. 76. His 
father, who was cousin-german to 'I'r.ijan, 
died when he was ten years old, and left 
him in the guardlanshiji of bis illustrious 
kinsman. He married Sabina, the heiress 
of Trajan, whom he accompanied in hi* ex- 
peditions, and became successively pra'ior, 
governor of Pannonia, and consul. On the 
death of Trajan, In 117, he assumed the go- 
vernment, made peace with the Persians, 
and remitted the debts of the Roman people. 
In ViO he visited Gaul, and thence piissed 
over to Britain, where he built a wall, t-o 
miles In leii^^tli, from the mouth nf the I vne 
to Solway Frith, to secure the Roman pro- 
vinces from the incursions of the Caledo- 
nians. He next travelled into Africa and 
Asia, and, on his return, was initialed into 
the Eleusiiiian mysteries at AM.ens. In his 
reign the Christians suHerei' a dreadful per- 
secution; he built a temple to Jupiter on 



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a llrlD {rtnibrrsal liiograpfii). 


Mount Calvary, and had thf IniaK*'* of 
iiwinr i-nt(ravri'i on tl.«< Kat<-i of Jt-riiMlfni. 
Adrian dlml at llalu-, in \M, aire<i )'>3. 
Though III general he uat a jUHt and uhlo 
fuller, he wanul'ten ea|>rlclouiand vindictive. 

ADKIAN I. There were several popei 
of thU name: tlic Itntt who liore It wait a 
noble Itoinan, raloed to the I'apal chair In 
773. lie had a tante tor an hltectiire, whicli 
he evinced In the enibellblinieni of St. i'e- 
ler'x t-hiirch; and ex|iended vaNt iiinit in 
re-biilldiiiK the ualh, and rektorlnif the aii- 
ciuiil ai|iiediictt of the t-ity. lie died in7l>.'>. 

ADKIAN II. mireeeiled to tlie pontiflcale 
In 8i!7. DuriiifT the lite yearn in which lie 
lilleil it, liiii anihitioiiii and liitrii!uiii^ dU- 
pokition did much towanU tlie mibjection of 
tlie Kiiro(HMn koverei;;!!* to llie »ee of 
Rome. He died in b7J. 

ADRIAN III. wan elected In 684, and 
dieil the followint; year, wliiie on a iourney 
to Worms, whither he wai pruceeuiiiK to 
h(dd a diet. 

ADRIAN IV., the only KnjIUhman who 
attained the I'aiiai dlenity, was born towards 
the ( ioke of tlie llth century, at Lani(ley, 
near St. AlbanV. Hin name was Niciiolaii 
lireaki^pear ; and. In liik childhood, he w.ik 
dependent for hix daily Huhkiktcnce on the 
charity of the monastery, t<i whicli hin fa- 
ther wuM a servitor. Unable through po- 
verty to attend tlie »chool«, he was refused 
admission into the monastery for dellciency 
in learninir; and went to France, where he 
became a clerk In the monastery of St. Ru- 
fiis, near Avitfnon, of which he was after- 
wards chosen abbot. Eugcnius III. made 
him a cardinal in II4G; and, two years af- 
terwards, sent him legate to Denmark and 
Norwav. wliere he made many converts. 
Inl|}4'he was chosen pope, and assumed 
the name of Adrian, on which, Henry II. 
of Knjfland, sent the abbot of St. Alb.iii's, 
with tlirce bishops, to congratulate him. 
The |)ope, disregarding the slight nut upon 
iiim In Ills youtli, treate<l the abbot with 
great courtesy, and granted the abbey e.\- 
traordinarv privileges ; he also issued in fa- 
vour of Henry the celebrated bull which 
sanctioned the conqiieslof Ireland. In ll.M 
he excommunicated the king of Sicily for 
ravaging the territories of the church ; and, 
about the same time, tlie emperor Frederic 
having entered Italy with a powerful army, 
and meeting Adrian near Sutriuin, con- 
cluded a iieace Willi hira. Attliisinterview 
Frederic held the pojie's stirrup while he 
mounted on liorseback ; after which tlie for- 
mer was conducted to St. I'eterV church, 
and Ills holiness consecrated liim king of the 
Romans. The death of Adrian took place 
in 1159. 

ADKIAN V. was a Genoese, and raised to 
tlie pontiflcatc in IS76, but survived his ele- 
vation little more than a month. 

ADRIAN VI., who succeeded Leo X., in 
January, 1S33, was a native of Utreclit, of 
mean parentage, and born in 1459. He re- 
ceived his edmation at Louvain, and suc- 
cessively became canon of St. Peter, pro- 
fessor of divinity, dean of the cathedral, 
and vice-chancellor of the university, where 
he founded a college. Ferdinand, king of 
Spain, gave him the bishopric of TortMa ; 
and, In ISI7, he was made cardinal. He 

was also .ip|Hilii(ed regent during the niliio- 
rlly of ChaileK V., wlio priHured hini his 
election to the Papal cluiir. Dieil, I.ViJ. 

ADRIAN, i)R t'AirKLLu, an Itillati of 
great learning and ability, was born at (.'or- 
netio, in Tuiicanv. Ily his laleiils he roS4> 
to keveral employments under Innocent 
VIII. ; and came to Kn,'lan<l in the reign 
of Henry VII., wliomade liini his agent at 
Rome, and gave him flrkt the bishopric of 
Hereford, and afterwards that of lluth and 
Wells. Adrian farmed out lils latter bish- 
opric to Wi>lM>y, living hlms<-if at Rome, 
where he built a HU|N-rb palace, wlilcti he 
left to the king of Knitland and his succes- 
sors ; and In isu;i he was made carillnal by 
Alexander VI. A vague orophecy had gone 
abroad that Leo X. ■hunld be succeeded by 
an Adrian : and I'aslelio was so far the slave 
of superstition as to allow this alnurd pre- 
diction to influence him In organizing a 
conspiracy, the object of which was the de- 
thronement of that pontiir, and his own 
elevation to the vacant chair. Refore the 
plot was matured, the vigilance fif Leo de- 
tected his desigim, and a line of I3,)u<i du- 
cats was imposed ii|M)ii liiiii, with a iMTenip- 
tory prohibition of quitting the Roman ter- 
ritories. He Hed, however, from that city 
In 1518, and was excoromunicateil ; and it 
Is uncertain what became of hini afterwards, 
though it is Mup|K>sed he died in Asia. 

ADRIANI, Marcil Vihoil, chancellor 
of the republic |of Florence, was born in 
1464. He was highly accomplished in the 
Greek and Latin languages, as ap|M-are<l In 
his translation of Dioscorlde* from the for- 
mer into llic latter. Died, 1531. 

ADRIANI, John Daptist, son of the 
aliove, was born at Florence In 1513, and 
became secretary to that republic. He 
was a man of considerable attainments; and 
his chief work is entitled " Deli' Istoria de 
Buol Tempi," or history of hU own times, 
from l'>J6 to 1574. Died at Florence In 1579. 

ADRIANI, Marcf.i>, son of the preced- 
ing, succeeded his father in the professor- 
ship, and was a member of the academy of 
Florence. He also publislied some works, 
and died in IC04. 

ADRIANO, a Spanish painter of tome 
repute, and a Carmelite friar, who Is said 
to have destroyed his paintings almost as 
soon as he had liiiiNhed them. Died, 1600. 

ADRICHOMIIJS, Christian, a geogra- 
pher and historian, born at Delft, in Hol- 
land, in 1533; died at Cologne, 1585. 

ADRY, J. F., a French professor of rhe- 
toric, horn in 1749 ; author of a great va- 
riety of publications—" Histolre de Vittoria 
Accarambono," " Vie du Pere Male- 
braiiche," " Vie dc la Duehcsse de Schom- 
berg," itc. : with new editions, or transla- 
tions from standard authoi's, enriched with 
ingenious prefaces and notes. Died, 1818. 

£Di:siUS, a Platonic philosopher of the 
fourth century, who pretended to hold com- 
munion with tlie deities. 

AGIDIUS, DE CoLUUNA, a Roman monk 
of the Augustine order, was distinguikhed 
in tlie I3th century among th« scholastics, 
and obtained the appellation of the most 
profound doctor. He was preceptor to the 
sons of Philip III. of France, and taught 






^ llrtD 9^ttubereal IStograyf)]!?. 


|>llilonn|i|iy iinil |li)'o|ii;(V Willi lllgli rcputil- 
tloii ill I'.iri*. He (lied III i:il«t. 

AlfilUIOS, Pktkh, n lawyer iiiiil notary 
<>r Aiilweij), mill ii man nl' ciiiiNltli-r.tbli' 
Iritrnlii^, wiio w.in i-diuMtfil liy I'.raNiniM, 
mill obdiini'd tlii; rrlrinUlilp of >\r riiomuii 
Mor*'. Horn, M<ti); dit'il, is:i3. 

A'.filNl'.rA, I'Atii.i'g, u native of llu; U- 
land /i:|{lna; ii nifillral aullinr, iind lli<> 
llrNt who notiit'd tlir catliartlc (|ualUioii of 
rliiiliarb. Uicd .ibniitoau. 

jT.(tlNIIARI>, a<ji:rnian, wnfttfcrt'tary to 
Cliarli'iiiaKiu'i atid wi'iitethu lilt! oriiigni.iN- 
tcr, and itUo anii.iU Iroiii 741 to hh!) ; tliu Hi hi 
L'ditioii of wliicli iy that of I'arlt, u voIh., 
folio, MTi, TliU writt-r in faiiioiiii for aitin- 
Ifiil.ir lovi' advt-iituru with the iiriiiccM Im- 
ina, daughter of CIrai IfiimKiK! i ulio, carry- 
iiiK Idiii aiTost acoiiri-yaru from hercliani- 
b«r, to prevent tin* 1 1 aci-n of bin fooUtepnln 
the liiiow, w.iR obHirveil by the ciiipiTur, 
who Kenerouiily :i|;rL'i-d tn their union. 

/F.I.FKIC, son of an eail of Kent, and 
ari-libUliop of Cnnterbiiry In the niiiidiu of 
tlie lUtli i-entiiry, was a liiinliiary for the 
(lark Hire in which he lived. He beranie a 
monk of liie llt'nedlcllne order at Abinjriion, 
under the abliot Athelwold, who, on liUin-o- 
inoiiun III Iheiteeof Wincheiiter, look /lllfric 
with lilm to Inxtriirt yoiitli in Ids eatliedriil. 
Here lie drew up liU " l^tln Saxon Voca> 
biliary," wliith was publi>hed at Oxford In 
liiS!). Me also iraiiiiUted from the Latin into 
the Saxoii langiiaire most of the bUtoricul 
bookg of the Old Teiitanient, a« well as 
" Caiioniifor the KeKUlationof tlie Clergy." 
which are initerted in Spelnian's Coiincilg. 
HeiiUbscipiently became abbot of St. Aiban's, 
and eoinposed a Litur»;y for the service of 
ld« abbey, wlilch wan used iu Leiand'stiine. 
In Ub9, lie was created bishop of Wilton ; 
and, in g.)4, was tnuislated to the see of 
Caiiterliiiry, where he exerted himself with 
spirit and priidenee in the defence of his see 
afrainst the liu'ursinn'% of tlie IJancs. This 
active and able prelate died in I00>. 

/tLIAN, Clauuh's, an historian and rhe- 
torician, was horn in Italy, in l(>0. All hi* 
prodiieiions are written in (jreek, which, 
although he never left his native country, 
ho wrote witli the greatest purity. He was 
surnanied Honeytongue, on account of the 
sweetness of his style. 

AXIANUS, Meccius, a Greek physician 
of the second century, and the master of 
Galen, who mentions him in terms of high 
praise. He was the first who made use of 
the therlnca as a remedy and preservative 
ag'ainst the plague. 

^LIUS, Sextus PoETt's Catus, a Roman 
lawyer who was made consul at the close of 
the second Piinic war. He published a col- 
lection, entitled " Novella," which were 
called, after him, the /Elian laws; and was 
author of " Tripartite," the oldest treatise 
on jurisprudence now known. 

JV.L^T, KvERHAHD VAN, a Dutcli painter, 
born at Delft in liiO'i, and died in I6^H. He 
wns famous for his skill in painting fruit 
pieces and dead game. His nephew, Wil- 
liam VAN /F.LsT, also distinguished himself 
as a painter, and studie<l in Trance and Italy, 
where he received flattering marks ot favour. 
He died in Iti7». 

/I.MII.I AM, Sr. .Ikuoiii:, a Venetian iio- 
liienmn, who, heinic taken prisoner In hl« 
yoiilli, made a vow that, on his releise, he 
would di'\ote hi-, life lo the cart! of oriihaiis. 
In pur>-n.inre of this pleiiKe, he laid the 
foiiiiilnllon of a hoh|.iinl and religious order, 
the olijeet of whieli was to instruct )ouiiir 
perMoiis. and partieiil.irly orphans, iii reli- 
gion. I'o tills and other pious worlis he 
Haerlllreil hi* whole Income; and, at Ills 

death, in Ia;i7, was enrolled by a |iapal de- 
cree among the taints. 

/I.MII.Il'S, Pai'i.is, an llln triouti |{.>- 
nian ireneial, tlie son of I'aiiliis jlliiiiliiis, 
the Consul, who fell at ('aiin.i', was Ixirii 
about avH B.C. At the age of •i-i, he servi'd 
the oltlee of consul; uiul. when he wasiiu, 
accepted the command of tlie armies against 
I'erses, king of Macedon, whom he took 
prisoner, ami led in triuini h to Home, lit 
afterwards ferted tin 



iiMir ; and 
died in tlie tittli year of Ills age, ainidsl the 
general lanienlatlniis .if his coiintrvnien. 
lie gre.itly enriched his country by tlitf spoil 
taken In his warfare with I'eriies, which was 
so great, that It freed the Koinans fioni 
taxes fur \2'> years. 

i1-;.MILllJS, I'AiM.fs, an historian of great 
celehr.ty, Iku'ii at Verona. Thirty vear.s of 
his life were eini.ioyed In writing tlie liis- 
torv of France, from I'haraniond down to 
Charles VIII. Died, l:^.<i). 

A;NT.AS, or A'.NtiUS, an Irish abbot or 
bishop uf the bill century, who compiled a 
curliHis account of IrUli saintslnlive books, 
and also wrote the history of the Old Testa- 
ment in verse. Died, h-.'O. 

/F.NKAS, Gazeus, a riatoulcpliilosopher, 
who embraced Christianity in the lifth 
century. He wrote a book on the Immor- 
tality of the Soul, \c. 

jT'.NEAS, TACTicua, an ancient Greek 
writer, who flourished about MO n. c. Hi-, 
is one of the oldest authoni on ihe art of 
war. and is said to have coiniir.inded at the ' 
battle of IMantinea. 

A:PINUS, John, a Franciscan friar, who 
became a zealous and able follower of Lu- 
ther, and was appointetl pastor of the 
church of St. Peter, at Hamburgh, iiorn, 
Ugfl ; died, I5S3. 

A'RSKNS, Peteh, surnanicd Lonoo, an 
eminent painter, born at Amsterdam, 1511), 
and died, io73. 

^SCHINES, a philosopher of Athens, in 
the fourth century, b.c. He obtained in- 
struction from Socrates, hy whom he was 
much esteemeil. He went to the court of 
Uionysiiis, of Syracuse, who liberally ri:- 
wardcd him for hisSoeraticdialoiiues ; and, 
on the expulsion of the philosophers from 
Sicily, lie returned to Atlu-ns, and taught 
philosophy in private. 

A:SCHINES, a celebrated orator, born at 
Athens, 327 B.C., and died at Samos, aged 
7S. He was a coieniporary and rival of i 
Demosthenes. j 

/F.SCHYLUS, one of the most famous tra- ; 
gic writers of Greece, was born at Athens ; 
about 500 years b.c. His mind very early i 
received an impulse from the poetry of Ho- 1 
nier; and, before his 2oth year, he com- 1 
posed pieces for public representation. So ! 
great was his fertility, that he wrote 70 tra- I 











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I.lullt' INJfHlhl Alii: MAUK LKllirKIl UY NUT IlKIMIlDIMi 111. 


xl llrto Qtliiibrroiil liiogvapf)?. 



Kr llt'-i, of wlili'li 'j> );hIiii'i| tlic |iri/e. Till* 
Krral l.illier of III)' (irei'iaii •Iiiki- hai hecii 
vi'iy al)ly iraimUlcil liiin Kii^rlMi by arrli- 
iU.i< on I'otier. He ilii'd in Sicily, in III* 
o'.uli \<Mr. 

/i-'.SOl*, tliu unrivalled f.ilinlUt, wa« born 
III I'lirvKi.i, aliiiiit iiUU n. c. UN wlndc tim- 
lor) Is very olxfiire ; but we are tolil llial lie 
».i-> kolil .lit a tUte to Oeiiiareliii4, ,in Athe- 
nian, by wlileli iiieaii'* be :iri|nlrid a kiiow- 
leil|{eot the (iriek laiiKnaKc; that he altvr- 
wards iiaMied Niiere>>iii\ely into the Ken lee uf 
Xanthiiii and Idiiein, of SaiiiOH ; and (hat, 
lia\iiii( obtained bin freedoiii by the kin ineHii 
of the I itler, he travelled liilo Ureere and 
Asia .Minor, iiioiileailn'.: nioralily by lii« fa- 
bli'H. Ileiiiit Ni'iii to DelplioH wiibaii oirerinic, 
he no Irritaled the people by IiIk een-'iireii mi 
tlieir iiianncrH, that they threw liliii from 
Ihe top of .1 rock. The Atlieiii iiik erected a 
lilatiie to liU nieniory, and all Ureere la- 
nieiiied liU tra^^icai fate, which happened 
about 5G0 ii.c. 

/I'^.SOI'llS, Ci.oDii'!!, a lloiiian actor, coii- 
teiii;'<ir,iry and rival of RoM'liiii, and like 
him the friend of Cicero, to whom he )rave 
le-<soii!i on oratorical action. Ilis excellence 
was III tragedy ; and he entered ko Ibo- 
roiii^iily into his jiart, aiocca^'loiially to Iimc 
.ill recollection of his own ideiitit). I'lii- 
larch asuerlK, that once, when perl'ormiii); 
the character of Atreii", he wa.s so traiis- 
iinrled with fury, an to btrike aiservaiit with 
iiU Hceptre, which killed liiiii on the spot. 
.'I'.-op wan ^'rlMtly addicted to luxury ; yet, 
iiotwitli<<iandiiiK:, 8o well was he rewarded, 
that he left a fortune eipial (o lilii, uuu/. 

/F'. riON, a (Grecian painter, celebrated 
for lib pictures, and particularly for one, 
repreKeniinir the nuptials of Alexander the 
Ureal and tloxaiia. 

^T/nUS, a pliysiclan of Mesopotamia, in 
the llftli century, and who is said to be the 
lirst Christian physician whose medical 
writings have come down to us. 

AKTIUS, a famous Roman {general, who 
lived under the third Valentiniaii, and nobly 
defended the declinlnii; fcn-tniUH of the em- 
pire ; thrice vanquishing the Uiirprundians 
and Flanks, and driving the ferocioiifi Attila 
beyond the Rhine ; but having excited the 
jealousy of the dastardly emperor, he was 
slabbed by hiiii, in 4.J4. 

AFCR, UoMiTius, an ancient orator, born 
at MsTiies. During the reigns of Tiberius, 
('.iligula, Claudius and Nero, he made him- 
self formidable .as an iiii'oriner, and con- 
temptible as an adulator. Under Cali|,'ula 
he was made consul. DiclI, a.d. 59. 

AFKLirro, Matthew, an Italian law- 
yer, born at Naples in I43U. He attained 
threat eminence, and published several vo- 
luminous works on Sicilian and Neapolitan 
law. Died, 1G73. 

AFFO, IREN/KU8, a native of the duchy of 
Placentia; author of" Isloriadi Parma," 
and other historical works, valiiahle for their 
research, but written in a loose and ram- 
bling style. He died about the close of the 
16th century. 

AFFRY, Louis AuGfsTiNB Philip. 
count d', a Swii-s staiesinan, appointed 
chief magistrate of Switzerland after Huo- 
naparte had proclaimed himself protector 

of llic lleUelic coiifi deia. y, v».i» l.oi ii at 
Freybiirg, In 1743. From the coniiiience- 
meiit of the French revolution, wlun be 
coiiiniaiided Ihe aiiiiy on Ihe I pper Rhine, 
nil Ids death, he bore a pi'oiliiiienl | art In 
Ihe affairs ot his country ; bill, llinliiiK IIh 
flower of the French irresistible, he endea 
voiired to promote the views of lliinna- 
pane, by assUlIng In the formalloii ul ihe 
gi>verniiienl ; while he displayed the skill 
of an experleiii'ed «tati fiii.iii in emit avoiii- 
iiig lo bi nefit Ihe mUresi'. of bis coiinliy 
men, and to «hiel<l them from the penis of 
war. Uleil, IHIO. 

AFIIAMX, ><f I'errara, the ln>eiilor of 
the banNoon, HouiUhed In the nltli ceiiliiry. 

AFRAMUS, I l.alindiauiatl.t, wh>llved 
about luii yearn n. c, ami wrote Kcvetal 
Comedies in Imilalion of iMeiiaiidi r. 

AFR.VMIJS, a Roman heiiator, put to 
death by Nero for writing a satire <>n him. 

AFRICAMl!J, Jui.ira, an eniiin nt Chris- 
tian historian of Hie third rentnry ; priiici- 
nally known by a chronologieal work in five 
nooks, which contains a sericN of events 
from the beginning of the world to the year 
of Christ, Ti\. 

AUAN DIIRII, RoDBHic Mom/, a Spanish 
missionary ol the I7lh century, who distin- 
guished himself by bis zeal in propag.iting 
Chrisiianity in Japan, and oilier parts of 
the Ivist. 

AGAI'F'rUS I., pone in 935: author of 
some extant letters : he pawned the sacred 
vessel, of St. Peter, In order to travel to 
('oii»(aiitinople. The second |>o|k; of this 
name was elected iii!)lU, and died, !)'>0. He 
has left behind him the reputation of a man 
of wonderful sanctity. 

AOARl>, Ahthiiii, an Knglish antiquary 
of great learning and reseaich, one of the 
original fonnders of the Aiilii|uariaiiSociclv, 
was born in Derbyshire, Ijlo, ainldied, I6li>. 

AGASIAS, a sculptor of I'^phesns, cele- 
brated for his admirable statue called the 
Gladiator, which was found with the Apollu 
Ueividere at Nettuiio, the ancient Antiuni. 

AOA t'HANGF.I.llS.an Armenian historian 
of the nth century; author of uii account 
of the introduction of Cliristianity into Ins 
native country. 

AGATIIARCHIDKS, tutor to Ptolemy 
Philadelphiis ; and author of nnmerons 
works, of which only some fragments re- 
main, whieli were preserved by DirHloriis 
and I'hotius. He was the tint aullior who 
described the rhinoceros. 

AGATHIAS,aGreeklii8torlan of the sixth 
century, who wrote a history of the reign 
of .Instinian. 

AGATHARCUS, an ancient painter, horn 
at Samos about 400 years b. o. Vitrnvins 
speaks of him as the lirst who painted scenes 
for the theatres. 

A(;ATHn;MKR, a Greek geographer of 
llic third century. 

AGATHO, a tragic and comic writer of 
Alliens, U35 D. C. 

AGATHO, a native of Palermo, raised 
from a monastery lo the pontificate in 679, 
and died in GB2. 

AGATHOCLI^S, the Sicilian tyrant, was 
t'le son of a potter, a native of Rliegium, 








21 flrb) 9ilnibn0til liiograpfiv. 

f .\<1N' 

llalv, miiJ Ixfanif innii»«hrly % toltlirr, 
('••iiiiiiliMi, ((•'■••'''>it> ■'"' !''''•••■• Aflir tU'- 
rrnlliiir llic Ciirlliticiiil'to*! Ix* |>riN'liilniril 
lihiiM'ir kliiK of Mil Sl< IIt- Hit Mililh-rx, on 
nfoMiiilnrnrri-art, <>bllir<-iltiliii i'>l\i from liU 
(-411111, «nil iiiiirtlt'K'il III* •<>ii«. wIkiiii Iki IuiI 
l«H ImIhihI. KtiiiriiliiK wHlt * »lron«; fitrcr, 
III' |iiil l'> iliMili llic niulliir«T>, Willi llirlr 
v»(*r» .iikI fliililini. I'lulilr I" llvf III lr«ii- 
<|iillliiv Niiil liin<liiiii. iIioiikIi ""w I-o' •'!- 
t (tilt III III ytarit, li«> mxlr :iiirX|M'illiltiii luio 
ll.ily, mill llifiire In Otf l.lpkri lnUiiilii, 
Willi li liflaltluivlcr cnnlrliiiiltoi), anil |iliiii- 
iliTiil of nil ilif inanun* ot llm leiiiiilrn. 
Alter III* rcliirii lie I* "itl'l lo Ii»m* Ix-vii 
|io|>oiii-<l liy iiii'»i)i of »ii fiivfiionifil lonili- 
jilck, KKPil MS. 

Alil.l.AS, an ailnilrol Un-rk trul|ilor, 
who Ihfil ulMiut 4:17 ii.c. 

AfJKI.Noril, an Anirlo-Saxon nrrlali;, 
iirnmoliHl lo llii> »••«• of lanli-rlmry In lifJO. 
Ill- illiiliiKuliihcil himwif liy Kn-al ri- 
llxloiiii n'\\, anil *illl niori' liy lli« flrin 
maniu'r In whii-li lu> nfiiM-il, on Ihi- ili-.tili 
of I'aniilr, lo crown llnroUl, who hiul iirl»-il 
Ihi' lliroiii- ill Ihi- ab»rtu«- of hU brolhiT, 
llirilloaiiiile. Dltd, lo;m. 

AGKI.UIS, Anthony, a li-armd prcU-^l- 
aiillc of Naplri In llic IU(h rintiir^^. Ilv 
wilt on<< of iho ciiraior* of the \itlUMii 
|ir«>>ii, and bUliop of Arernn. l)if>il I6uti. 

AUKIt, or AliKKIIIS, Nicholas, n |)hy<i- 
ri;in anil hotanUt in Ihu I7tli (-ciiliiry, Hiitl 
prolViiHor ol ini-diolnf at StratliurKli. 

AUKSANOr.K, a Khoilian iciilptor, »\\\y 
iMiMcil lo have llwil In the lifih ci-niiiry 11. c. 
)l(> Ivrclibnktftl by h.tviiiK, in roii|iitictioii 
with hl!> Nonn, rxtniUMl tlinl :uliiiir;iblu nio- 
iiuinent of (Irci'lan nrt, tlir L.iocuon, ulilrh 
wa« (llM-otiTiHl in the Ititli century in tlir 
batliH of Tiiiii. 

AOESILAUS, kine or Sparta, luccn-dcil 
hit brothiT Ari«. lie aciinlicil (treiit re- 
nown by bin exploliN airainiil Ihc I'crNliins, 
ami al«oaKaini>t the Thebanx ami AtheiiiaiiH, 
but wan ilefcateil by KpaniiiiondaH. Ai;eiii- 
lain next went lo ussint 'riiclKH, In liU at- 
teinpt to take the throne of Kvypt, but wan 
brilM-d to espiiiiKe the pari of Necianahis, hjn 
anta)(*>'<'*'- ^i> '''" return, he dU-d in 
Africa, SOU B.C., after a rei)?ii of 4\ years. 

AGGAS, Ralph, a surveyor and enpraver 
of the 16th century, who limt drew 11 plan 
of London, which. althoiiK'h referred to the 
time of Henry VIII. and Kdward VI., ap- 
l>ears not to liavc U'eii iiKule on wtkhI until 
about 15611. It was re-|>iibliiihed in Kilu, 
and re-enyravrd by Vertiic in I74N, He also 
drew plans of Oxford, Cambridge, and 
Dunwich, in SufTolk. Died, 1570. 

A G I Lll LF, kinjc of the Lombards, crowned 
at Milan in A9I. Soon after his accessiion, 
he quitted the Arian communion for tlie 
Catholic, in which he was followed by num- 
bers of his subjects, many of whom had 
hitherto berii I'.iifans. In the third year of 
his rei);ii, he had to suiitaiii a war ai^ainst 
some of his own rcU'llioiis dukes, whom in 
the end lie forced to liiibinit : "ul, having; 
securiHl and aufcnicnti-d his don .nlons, and 
employed himself in rehuildiiii; and endow- 
inif churches, lie died, in 6I9. 

AGIS III., kin;^ of Sparta, succeeded his 
father, Archldamiis, b.c. 3IU. He was a 

(irlnre of |rre;it ma'{ii.iliiililly ; and, llioilirh 
le dclriiird the >lai'i'iloiiiaii doiiiliialinn, lir 
wiiiild ii'it e\|><»e hit niiiuiry In rum by ir 
■ Uliiii( II, iiiilll /Mexander mss deeply en 
ir.lKi'd III Ills rei>lail expidilioii ; wliin hi 
rained nil army of ';ii,iii)ii iiieii, whlili w,i> 
deleaieil by Aiiilpali r, KMveriiur of Mace- 
don, and AkIs himself idaln. Ill* end uan 
nioiit Klorioii* '. lor, beliiK earned neierely 
woiindeil Iroin the lielil, the mildlers who 
bore lilin wire on the |Miiiit of beliiK mir 
roiiiideil by ilie enemy; on which, com 

inandlnK iheiii I I liliii down, and itc 

Kirte ilieir own liien lor the xervlce of their 
coiinlry, he foiii^lit ulone on liU knee», and 
killed ke\eral ol ihe a>Kallanl'>, till he wai> 
olriick throu'.-hlhelH)ily with adari, n,'* ::r7. 

AlilS IV. kliiK of Sparta, wan Ihe son ni 
r.udiinldas, and celebraied by bis virtues 
and iliaih. His llrst attempl was to renew 
the orit(liial l.iw fur the eipial division of 
landed pro|M'rly, which was opposed by 11 
iiurly, at Ihe head of which was hi* col- 
leaifiie, l.eoiiidas. 'I he latter was di |)oi>ed, 
and the Joint sovereixnty devolved to liln 
sou CleomlirotiiN, who riitered Into the 
views ol' Avis. I'revloiialy, however, to a 
parlltlon o? the lainU, AKtsilaiis, uncle to 
A);|s, who was deeply In debt, pro|ioiied Ihe 
aboljiion ol all deliis, wlilcli would render 
the former ineasiire more palatable. This 
deeii accomplished, the liiMiienllal ami wily 
Spartan found meaiiH to pohipone Ihe ullier 
e<|uall/ln)r operation, until A\fi» was obll)(eil 
to march 011 an expiilition. l)iirlu)( his 
absence. A);esllaus conducted himself so ly- 
raniiically, that n conspiracy was formed 
to restore the deposed kiiir. Leonidas ; 
which succei'diiiir, A^is and liis colleaKue, 
Cleombroius, took sanctuary In a temple. 
The latter was immediately dragKcd forth 
and banished, .but AkIs remaineir » consl 
derable time in safely, until liis friends 
were brlln-d to betray him, and he was 
thrown into a prison, lie sufTered death 
with Kre.it magnanimity, n.r. 341. 

AGLIDNBY, KiiwAUi), an old Eiifrlish 
poet, who wrote a Kenealojty of ipieeii 
Ulizabetli, for winch she granted hiiu a 

AOLIONRY, John, a learned divine, 
born in Cumberland. He was made chap- 
lain to ipiren KiizalM'th ; was concerned >n 
the present translation of the New Testa- 
ment, and died at Isllp, of whicli he was 
rector, In 16 10. 

AGLIONHV, William, an Knglish di- 
plomatist and polite writir, of the I7ili am! 
I8th centuries; author of a book entitled 
" I'aintiu!,' Illustrated." 

AGNKLLDS. Andrew, an archbishop ol 
Ravenna, in the ninth century. He wrote 
the lives of his predecessors in that avc. 

AGNESI, Maria Gaetana, an Italian 
lady of extraordinary talents, born at Milan, 
1718. So profound were her mathematical 
attainments, tliatwheii, in 17.50, her father, 
who was a professor In the university of 
Uologna, was unable to continue his lee 
lures in consennence of ill health, she ob 
talned permission from Ihe pope to M\ his 
clmlr. At the early ai^eof 19, she had sup- 
ported 191 theses, which were piibiislitd in 
1738 under the title of •« l»ro|iositi<.nrs I'hi- 
losophlca-." She was also mistress of Ihe 






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Lallii, (iri'ik, llilinw, Fri'iith, (irfiiiau, 
iiii'l S|iiiiiMi l.iiiifiliiur.. AKiif»l rellnd l'> 
tliu iiiiMi.tiiii'ry of ill) r Niiiiii, Ht Mllnii. 
wrhui'u ihi' ill«i<l )il All ii<lviiiii'i!<l .iKi', hi till' 
yuiir 17311. 

AfJNKSI, Mauia iBumi*, "Utii Hu. 
•Ixivi*, w.ii* II MiiiiiU'laii ofmurli irniilim, li< 'h 
lit Mlliii, I7.M). Slir ri>iii|HMt'<l llirer >>|»'i,iii, 
" Si. pi |,l.ii," '• Clro," iiinl " Mlocrl." 

AttNOLo, lUci to t)', '« Hloniitliic irulp- 
tor mill iiri'iilti-ct of KK'iit rrpnl.itloii j burn, 
1400 ; ilji'l, iiij. 

A(j(J|IAKI}, arclibUhnp of l.yont, wni 
oni> of till' iiiokI K'lcbr.iii'il pri'liilf* of ihi! 
iiliilli rtiitiiry. HU wurko wrrc liiirliil lii 
iiliitriirKy, iiiiill tlif niiiiiiiKrrl|>i of ihfm wni 
,u rlilnil'.illy foiiixl In a liookacllir'n iliop at 
Lyoim. Dfi'il, UK). 

AUOP, John, a li-nriinl Ariin-nliui i-iltle 
mill Krmiim.ii'lmi of tin- I7tli ciiitury. Ill* 
workN wiTf |irliili-(l at iloiiii', iU7'). 

AGfiRACKIIKS, ,1 (•ri-rl.in ulatuiirv In 
till) lll'tli I'LMitnry ii.r. Il<' wat .i |iiipi( of 
I'hldUn, and oiiit of till- iiiuitt Hkllfiil arilntii 
of hU lliiic. 

AfiOsriNI, l.ioNAHix), an iniliioiii antl- 
ipiary of tlio 17th i-i-ntiiry. olHclally cni- 
ployi'il hy Pope- Aii-kuiili^r Vll. 

AGOSriNO, I'At'i,, of Valtrano, a ri-lc- 
hratL-d iiiii«li-l.iii. Horn, ia!i:>; (lliil, iii'^. 
Hu lurprjiwil the world with liln priidiictinnii 
for four, nix, or i'l({lif I'liolr* or I'lmriimic^, 
■oiiii! of which Iiliilli be villi); In four or hix 
jiartii only, without diinlnlAhui); the har- 

AQOUI.T, William d', a Provini.al jfcn- 
tlunian of tlio Ivtii ci-ntiiry, wliowaH oni; of 
till* nioKt pltaNliiK iiootx anil uiniablu piT- 
•oiiii ofhU tliiio. 111! illi'l In I IHI. 

AUIU-'UA, Makia I)', the writtr of sonn; 
wild le){uii(lii, iiidlcattvc of iltliir iiLsanlty 
or nioat liiipiidi'iit linpoiitni'i.', was born 
at A),'ri'da, in Spain, in lOO'j ; took llii! vill, 
IG2(», in .1 convent founded hy Inr I'athtr 
and motlit-r, dedicated to the " linniacii- 
latf Conception," of whieh iilie wa* chosen 
inperior, l6'/7, and died, 1663. The piece of 
abtiiirdlty which tilie pretended to have di- 
vine authority for writing, wan translated 
by Fatlier Cro/et Into tlie French lan(,MiaKe 
In 1600. and republinlied at UrusseU, 17 IB, 
in 3 vols. 4to. 

AGKICOLA, C.VEIU8 Jtaius, an eminent 
Roman coinniaiider, horn a. !>• 40, in the 
relKn of Caligula. (Hh lir^t military service 
wan under SuetoiilUH Panlinus In Dritain ; 
and, on his return to Uonie, lie was made 
(juiistor ill Asia, and became triliune of ilie 
people and prjctor under Nero. Hy Ves- 
pasian, whose cause he espoused, he was 
made a patrician and irovernorof Aouitania; 
the difpilty of consul follnvred ; ana, In the 
same year, 77, he married his daughter to 
Tacitus, the Instorian, who has so admi- 
rably written his life. Next yiar he was 
appointed governor of Britain ; extended 
Ins coimuc.'.ts into Scotland ; and built a 
chain of forts fiom the Clyde to the Frith 
of Forth, to previ nt the incursions of the 
iiihabitdutsor the North, lie defeated Gal- 
itacut on the Grampian Hills, and then 
made peace with the Caledonians. On the 
accession of Ooniltian, Agricola had a tri- 
umph decreed him, but was recalled, and 

•lilt fovrrinr in HyriA, Miitiri' he diid, 
A. It. Ji; tgV't U. 

\<iUI(.:<i|.A. GRuRim, the nninl ci-U 
f>«4ti't iurl.illurKl«l of his tliiD' ; bom ,ii 
UUuilii f«, .Munla, in I4l>t, and dud, !'.>.'>. 

AGkh <>t-^i GKoHdR Ani HRW, 11 Uvr 
man iiliymcian, tiif'"<f of a t-urious w'>rk on 
the nnillipllcitlon of W*>» >ni| plant*, ol 
whi. ll 4 Irencli translation apc >reil nt Aiit- 
•terdHi.i 111 I7W. Iln was born at kall'lion, 
IU73, »nd illid, I7ii«. 

AGUICUl.A, JmiN, a iMileniiial writer 
of celebrity, born at tiili:hi'ii, Saxony, n\>j, 
an 1 died at Herlln, IMK. Kioin heing the 
frlciiil and mtiolar, lie heeaiiie the aiilauo 
iilsl of Martin l.iither, against wlioin, ii» 
well lu MeUncthoii. he innlntalni'd a -pi- 
ritnt controversy, advocating the dm trine 
of faith III opiHisitlon to the works ol ihe 
law. whence the sect, of which he hecainr 
lethler, received llif name of Alillnoniiaiis. 

AtiltlCOLA, KouoLPHUB, one of the iiiosi 
learnid innn in llie I'ltli century, spoken ol 
both by P.ra«miis and liayle with gri'it re- 
spect, was born Id Fri«»laiid, |44';, and diid, 
H»l. Agricola wa« the llr>t wiio Intro- 
duced the (jreek language Into Germany. 

AtJitlPI'A, Camili.r, a celebrated arclil 
ti'Cl of .Milan In tlie Itttli century, who, uii- 
iler the |Hiiitillcate of (Gregory XIII., ac- 
roinii|l>hi'd Ihe removal of a vast obelisk to 
St. Peter\ Sipiare : an accoiint of which 
labour he publikhi'J at Rome, |:.h;i. 

AfiKII'PA, Hknhy ("oiiNKin's. IhU 
higlilygtfieil but eccentric man was born in 
I4si>, at Cologne, ol a noble family, lie 
became secretary to the emiieror Maximi- 
lian, by whom iie was knighted lor his 
bravery In the Italian wars. He next tra- 
velled through tariouri parts of i'Minipe, 
and, while InT^iiKlaiid, wrote a cominenlary 
on St. Paul's Kplstles. In lAlh lie settled ai 
Met/, which place, however, he was obliged 
to ipilt, at the instigHtloii of tlie monks, and 
went to Coloitiie, and thence to Geneva. 
He next travelled lo Antwerp, in Muv, and 
was taken into the service of Margaret of 
Austria, governess of the Low Countries. In 
lljo he published his treatise of the *' Vanity 
of the Sciences," and soon afterwards his 
" Occult Philosophy." In 1535 he was at 
Lyons, where lie was imprisoned for de- 
faming the king's mother, but soon ob- 
tained his dls«:liarge, and died the name 
vear at Grenoble. All hi* works were col- 
lecitd and printed at Lyon*, I&5U, In 3 vol*. 

AtiRIPPA, I., Hbkod, grandson of Herod 
the Great. He gave great oflence to Ijbe- 
riufl, who threw him into prison; but, on 
Caligula's succession, was not only releaked, 
but received from tiiat emperor a golden 
chain equal in weight to the iron one he 
had worn in his coniinenient, as also the 
kingdom of Judea. He commenced a per- 
Kecutlon of the Christians, in which the 
apostle St. James iierished ; and he is tlic 
person represented to have been eaten by 
worms, on account of his impiety in accept- 
ing the adoration of the people. 

AGHIPPA II., Hbrod, son and successor 
of the preceding, was the seventh and last 
of the Jewish monarch* of the family of 
Herod the Great. It was before thii prince 
Uiat St. Paul pleaded his cause with so inacb 



C 3 




^ fit\xi Sftnibental IStograpfit). 


eloquence, that Aerinpa acknowledged he 
had aInioHt peniuadecl lilm to be a Christian. 
He died at Rome about the year 94. 

AGRirPA, Marcus Vipsanius, the celc- 
br.ited friend and grncral of Anp^UfitUK 
CcLRiir, acquired f^reat fame by his niiliiary 
exploits, for which triumphs were decreed 
to liini. lie dleu B.C. lU. 

AGRIP^A, Mbnrnius, consul of Rome, 
B.C. 503. He i» felebratetl for having^ ap- 
peased a commotion amon^ the RomauR, oy 
the political fable of the belly and the mem- 
bers ; and died at an advanced are, very 
poor, but universally esteemed for nis wis- 
dom and integrity. 

AGRIPPINA, the elder, daujthter of Mar- 
cus Agripi^, was married in the first in- 
stance to Tiberius, who divorced her, and 
she became the wife of Germanicus Cicsar, 
whom she accompanied in his military ex- 
rieilitinn". On the death of the latter at 
A'Uicx h, A.D. 19, she returned to Rome with 
his aslies, and took advantage of the public 

f'rief for tlie death of her husbani to accu^ 
Mso, who was suspected of having has- 
tened ir. The latter was sliortly afterwards 
found dead in hisi bed ; and Tiberius, jealous 
of the aificlion of tlie people lor Aerippina, 
banished her to a small island, wiiere she 
died of hunger, in 35. 

AGRIPPINA, the younger, daughter of 
the I'ortgoiiig, and mother of Nero, was at 
once cruel and licentious. After losing two 
huKb:inds, she married her uncle, the em- 
peror Claudius, wliom she poisoned in S4, 
to make way for her son Nero, who causi;d 
her to be assassinated; and exhibited (o the 
senate a list of all the crimes of wliich she 
had been guilty. 

AGUESSKAU, Henry Francis d', called 
by Voltaire the most learned magistrate 
that France ever produced, was born at 
Limoges in IC68, and died 1751. His works 
were published in 13 vols. 4to. 

AGUILLON, Frances, an eminent ma- 
thematician at the beginning of the 15th 
century, was a Jesuit ot Brussels, and died 
nt Seville, I6I7. 

AODIRRA Joseph Saens d', a Spanish 
Benedictine, madecardinalby Innocent XI. 
He wrote voluminously on theology, philo- 
sophy, &c. Died at Rome, 1699. 

AGUJARI, LucRBTiA,acelebratea ».'>iger, 
who received a salary of loot, a night for 
tv^o songs. Died at Parma, 1783. 

AGYL^.US, Henry, a lawyer and gene- 
ral scholar, born at Uois-le-Duc, 1533 ; 
died, 1595. 

AHLWART, Peter, a learned German, 
son of a shoemaker at Greifswald, where 
he was born in 1710, and died, 1791. He 
was the founder of the Society of Abelites, 
the object of which was to promote sin- 

AHMED-DEN-FARES, »urnamed£/«o2i. 
an Arabian lexicographer and lawyer. Died 
about 999. 

AMROU, a Spanish Moor, who wrote poems 
in the eastern style, and an historical work 
on the annals of Spain. Died in 970. 

AHMED-KHAN, emperor of the Moguls, 
succeeaed his brother, Abaker Khan, in 

1382; and was slain after a short reign of 
two years. 

AHMED RF.SMY HAJI, a Turkish his- 
torian, who was counsellor of the Divan, 
and cliancellor to the sultan Mustapha III. 

of the kingdom of Candahar and Caubiil, 
erected them into a kingdom, and took the 
royal title. He died in 1773, leaving the 
crown to his son, Timur Shah. 

AHRENDT, or ARENTS, Martin Fre- 
deric, an antiquary and paleographer, 
was a native of Holstein. He 8i)ent forty 
jjearsin travelling on foot through Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark, France, Spain, Italy, 
and other parts of Europe, In search of 
Scandinavian antiquities and Runic monu- 
ments, and carried on an extensive cor- 
respondence with his learn'^d contempo- 
raries relative to the objects of his investi- 
gation. He died at a small village near 
Vienna, in 1834. 

A I DAN, a monk, who converted a large 
portion of the northern part of Britain to 
Christianity. He was aftervsards bishop of 
Lindisfern. Died about 651. 

A IGNAN, Stephen, a French writer,and 
a member of the Academie Franqaise. He 
was a zealous re|>ublican, and at the early 
age of 19, in the fiercest time of the revo- 
lution, he was appointed to an official situa- 
tion in t'ie district of Orleans. He sub^^c- 
qucntly filled offices under Napoleon ; and 
also distinguished himself as the author of 
several dramas and poems, as well as by the 
translation of part of the works of Gold- 
smith and Pope. Born, 1773 ; died, 1835. 

AIGNEAL'X, Robert and Anthony, 
brothers, natives of Vire, in Normandy, 
who jointly translated Virgil and Horace 
into I'rriich verse, and wrote several poems. 
They died about the same time, at the close 
of the 16th century. 

AIK IN, Edmund, an architect, and the 
author of an account of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. Died, 1820. 

AIKIN, John, M. D., born Jan. 15, 1747, 
at Kibworlh, Leicestershire, was the only 
son of Ur. 'I. Aikin, a dissenting minister 
and schoolmaster. He commenced his edu- 
cation at home ; from thence he went to 
the dissenter's academy at Warrington, and 
ill 1764 became a student in the Onivertity 
of Edinburgh, where he spent two years ; 
and, after tnree more passed as a pupil to 
Mr. White, of Manchester, settled in Chester 
as a surgeon, but soon removed to War- 
rington, where he remained until 1784, in 
which year he proceeded to Leyden, and 
graduated as a physician. On his return he 
went to Yarmouth, Norfolk, where, with 
little interruption, he continued till 1793, 
when he removed to London. Dr. Aikin 
now seems to have devoted himself chiefly 
to literature, in which he was eminently 
successful. In 1796 he became the editor o'f 
the Monthly Magazine, which he superin- 
tended from its commencement till ieu6. 
In 1799, he published, in conjunction with 
Dr. Enfield, the first volume of a General 
Biographical Dictionary, in 4to, which, 
however, was not completed till 1815. Dr. 
Aikin died December 7, 1833, aged 75, at 
his residence in Stoke Newington. 











































a iirlD J^nibfrsal l>tograpt))j» 

[a I, 




















AIKMAN, \Vii,LiAM, a piiiiner of emi- 
nence, born atCairnny, in Scotland, in 1683. 
Afier flnishinff his t-dication, hi; travelled 
to Italy, 'liirkey, and Smyrna. In 1713 he 
returned hfinie, and »as encouraged by the 
Ouke of Argyle, through whom he was eni- 

Iiloycd at court, and by the principal iio- 
lility. Died, 1731. 

A ILLY, I'ftrr u', a cardinal and Icfjate 
in the time of Charle:i VI. of Knince. was 
born at Compiegne, 1350. He received from 
tiiat monarch the see of Puy and Cambray, 
with the chancellorship of the university 
of i'aris ; and, before his elevation to the 
purple, presided at the famous council of 
Constance, which condemned John lluss to 
the stake. Died, 1419. 

abbot of Kevcsby, Lincolnshire, was born 
in llo<), and died in IIK6. Me wrote a 
" Genealogy of English Kings," ice. 

AIMON, of Aquitaine, author of a le- 
gendary history of France, is 8uppos«'d to 
have lived in the ninth century. The his- 
tory is brought down to l I6S by another 
hand ; and is in tlie third volume of the col- 
Iccti'in of Duchesne. 

AINSWOKTH, Henrt, an eminent bib- 
lical commentator and divine among the 
English nonconformists, flourished at the 
latter end of the 16th century. His writings 
exhibited much learning andacuteness, and 
excited the attention of Hall, bishop of 
Exeter, who entered the lists against him. 
He subsequently went to Amsterdam, where 
he died in 1632. 

AINSWORTH, Robert, a grammarian 
and classical author. His most important 
work is the celebrated Dictionary of the 
Latin tongue which bears his name. He 
was a native of Woodyale, in Lancashire, 
where he was born in 1660. He died iu 
London in 1743. 

AITON, William, an excellent botanist, 
born in Lanarkshire. He was a great fa- 
vourite with George III., who appointed 
him head-gardener to the royal demesne at 
Kew in l7o9. In this situation he formed 
one of the best collections of rare exotic 
plants in the known world, catalogues of 
which he published in 1789. Died, 1793. 

AITZEMA, Leo, an historian of Friesland, 
born, 1600, and died, 1669. He was author 
of the History of the United Provinces, in 
15 vols., an extremely valuable work. 

AKAKIA, Martin, physician to Henry 
ill., and author of several medical works. 
Born, 1479; died, 1568. 

AK BAH, a celebrated Saracen conqueror, 
who overran the whole of Africa, from 
Cairo to the Atlantic ocean ; but a general 
revolt among the Greeks and Africans re- 
called him from the West, and he eventually 
fell a sacrifiue to it. 

AKBAR, or AKBER, Mohammed, sultan 
of the Moguls, and a descendant of Tiniour 
Tamerlane, was only 14 years of age when 
he succeeded to the throne. He was a war- 
hke, liberal, and able monarch ; and tlic 
flrst action of his reign was to recover Delhi 
froni the Patan«. He reigned 50 years, was 
eminently successful as a conqueror, and 
'I I'll in I60.>, leaving behind him a charac- 
ter for justice, clemency, valour, and a love 

of learning, 8urpasse<i by few rc'-narcli*, 
whateter their <reed or country. 

AKENSIDE, Mark, a poet and physi- 
cian, but who claims atlention from his emi- 
nence in Ihc former character, more than 
from his professional fame, was born in 1721 
at Newcastle-u|wii-Tyne. He finished his 
studies at the universities of Edinburgh and 
Leyden, in the latter of which he took his de- 
gree as a doctor of medicine in 1744. In the 
same year appeared his most distinguished 
poem. " On the Pleasures of the Imagina- 
tion," whicli raised liim at once into poetical 
eminence. This wa» followed by the " Epis- 
tle to Curio," a satire ; and, in 1745, he pub- 
lished ten odes on various subjects. He con- 
tinued, from time to time, to send forth 
his |)oetical effusions, most of which ap- 
peared in Dodsley's Collection. Dr. Aken- 
side also wrote a number of medical works. 
He died in 1770, aged 49. 

AKERBLAD, John David, a learned 
Swede, who accompanied the Swedish em- 
bassy to Constantinople, and distinguished 
himself as an oriental linguist and anti- 
quary. Died, 1819. 

AKIBA, a Jew, of low origin, but whose 
devotion to literature raised him to emi- 
nence, and to the rank of rabbi. On the 
defeat and destruction of Barcochebas, who 
had declared himself the Messiah, and to 
whose faction Akiba had joined himself, he 
was taken prisoner by the emperor Hadrian, 
and flayed alive, at the age of 120. 

ALABASTER, William, an English di- 
vine, born in SuA°olk, and educated at Cam- 
bridge. He was the autlior of a Latin tra- 
?edv called " Roxana," and of a Lexicon 
entaglotton. Died, 1610. 
ALAIN, Dr l' Islk, surnamed the Uni- 
versal Doctor, was a divine of great renown 
in the university of Paris, and the autlior of 
several works. Died, 1294. 

ALAIN, Chaiitifr, a French writer of 
the I4th century. He was the author of 
some esteemed works, of whicli his " Chron- 
icles of Charles Ml.," to whom he was se- 
cretary, is the principal. 

ALAMANM, Louis, a Florentine poet 
and statesman, born in 1496, and died, 155G ; 
he was distinguished from his youth for his 
progress in pnilosopliy and Greek literature. 
He had two sons, one of whom, Baptibte, 
became almoner to (|ueen Catherine de Me- 
dicis, and successively bishop of Bazas and 
Mai;on. Two others of this family, and l>otli 
named Loi'is, also became famous in the 
world of letters. 

ALAN, of Lynn, Norfolk, was a doctor of 
divinity in tlie 13th century, and acquired 
great reputation both as a student and a 

ALAN, of Tewkesbury, wasanthor of the 
" Life and Banishment oY Thomas k Becket, 
Archbishop of Canterbury." Died, I'JOI. 

ALAN, ALLEYN, or ALLEN, William, 
an Englishman of good family, was born at 
Kossai, Lancashire, in 15S0. Educated at 
Oxford by a tutor warmly attached to po- 
pery, he 'entered upon tne world under a 
strong prepossession in favour of the Catho- 
lic faith ; and, while very young, became 
principal of St. Mar)'s College and proctor 
of the university. On the accession of Eliz- 





A I- a] 

^ llrtD Qtlntberoal l3iograpf)9. 


it M 
1 1 

h ': 


abcih, he went to Loiivain, ami wati iip- 
ixiliittul licnd of the Kiiglibh Collep:. lie 
MOW Ktrciiiioiisly t'XrrtiuT hiiiiHvir, both by 
hii« \Mitiii);ii and I'xainph-, to ailvancc tlie 
impal rauH(> ; nnd by hiH»iti,');<-i*tlonH, Philip 
II. waH Induced to iiiidertakt! tliu inviiHiou 
of rM(;lanil ; to faollltntr which Alan puh- 
li-hed a defence of the pnpe'i bull ai;»ln«t 
I'.li/abelh, with an exliortatinn to her sub- 
jeelN to riKC In favour of the Spnniardx, 
For tlie«e Kcrvlcen he wan made arehhishop 
of Merhlln, and a cardinal. It Ik »aid, that 
lownrdi* the cIoki: of liU life he re|H<nte'l of 
(he iiieasureM he hod reconinicnded against 
his country ; and, on his death-bed, wiNluid 
to address' tlic KnirHxh 8tndvnt!« at Koine, 
hut wnx prevented hy the axccndant Jesnit. 
He died in I6<)i. not without miRpicion that 
he wa« poitoneil, 

ALAND, Sir Ji>hn Fortescur (Lord 
Fortesciie), a baron of the e\che(|uer, and 
a piii8iie jud);e of the coiirtji of Rlni^'s 
Hcnch and Common IMea«, in the reljfns of 
(•eorppe I. and II., wan descended from the 
ranioiiR Sir John Forlescue, lord chief jus- 
tice and loni hiss'li cimnccllor of F.iic:land In 
the reiffii of llenrv N I. He was born In 
1070, and received hUeducition at Oxford : 
was an able lawvrr, an Impartial judfre, and 
well verseil In Ssaxon literature. He livwl 
in habits of intimacy witli Pope, and the 
other win of the day ; and wrote tlic legal 
bHrlesqiie of " StradlinK versus Styles." 

ALAKI), Francis, a native of Brussels, 
was bred in the Koinish failli ; but, meeiiny^ 
with the works of Luther, he turned Pro- 
testant, and escaped to VVittemberff. After 
some time he returned to Itrussels, and 
died in l/>78. 

ALARl), Wii.MAM, son of the above, be- 
cwwv rector of the college of Kreiupeii, 
where he died, 1644. 

ALARD, LAMnKRT,son of the last named, 
compiled a Greek Lexicon, wrote some the- 
ological works tnd Latin poems, and was 
lns|iector of the public scliools of Bruns- 
wick. i)ied in liSTi. 

ALAKIC I., king of the Visigoths, and 
con(pieror of Ki>uie, was descenaeil from n 
noble family, and for some years served in 
the imperial armies ; but, being refused 
preferment, he revolted against Arcadius, 
and desolated many of the provinces, 
sparing neither age nor t-ex. In tlie year 
400, being then the acknowledged sovereign 
of the Visigotlis, he invaded Italy, and car- 
ried off immense pitiader. In 40.', he made 
A secontl irruption, but wasdefeated by Sti- 
llclio, and compelled to sue for peace. A fter 
this, he was employed in the ser\ice of tl'e 
emperor Honorius, but soon violated his 
engagements, and again entered tlie Roman 
territorv,and laid siege to the capital. His 
terms were complied with, and he retired 
into Tuscauy ; but, being joined by his bro- 
tlier, Aiaulpnus, he returned again to Rome, 
which he sacked in ^10. Afier ravaging 
Italy, he sailed for Sicily ; and having 
taken tlie city of Cosenza, died there. 

ALARIC II., king of the Visigoths, suc- 
ceeded his father Eui ic in 484, and reigned 
over all the country between the Rlioneand 
the Gamiine. He adapted to bis states thp 
riieiHlosian collection of laws, and pub- 
lisheil it .IS the law of the Visigoths, since 

known by the title of the code of Alaric. 
He was slain in a battle by Clevis, king of 
the Franks, .'>U7. 

ALASCO, John, uncle to Si^lsmiind, 
king of Poland, Mras born tn 1499. He was 
in great esteem with most of the learned 
men of liU dav, ami enjoyed the friendship 
of many of tliVni, particuiarlv Erasmus and 
/uinglius, throngh which he Decame a con- 
vert to the Protestant faith ; to which he 
was so zealously devoted as to obtain the 
title of the Reformer of Poland. He died at 
Frankfurt in 1360. 

ALBAN,St., celebrated n« the llrst Chris- 
tian martyr in CJreat Britain, was born at 
Verulam, near St. Alban's, Hertlordshire, in 
the third century. In his vouth he visited 
Rome, and served as a soldier under Dio- 
clesian ; and, on his return to Verulam, be- 
came a convert to Christianity, for which he 
sutfered death in :i03. 

ALBANEZE, an Italian musician of great 
repute, die<l ut Paris in 1800. 

ALBANI, Alexander, an eminent vir- 
tuoso, born at llrblno. iC92, raised to the 
rank of cardinal by Innocent XIII., and 
died, 1779, ageil R7, very highly esteemed. 
In 1763, his collection of drawings and en- 
gravings, consisting of 300 volumes, was 
purchased by George III. for 14,000 crowns. 

ALBANI, John Francis, nephew of the 
above, was born at Rome, 1720, and, in 
1747, was made a cardinal, which was fol- 
lowed by numerous preferments. He op- 
posed the supnrcsslon of the Jesuits, as a 
measure fraught witli danger to the church ; 
but, in all otner respects, was a most en- 
lightened prelate. He imitated his uncle in 
his encouragement of letters and learned 
men ; but his liberality could not save Idra 
from republican rigour, when the French 
entered Rome, where they plundered his 
palace, confiscated his estates, and reduceil 
iiiin, tiu'n in his 77th year, to poverty : ail 
his valuable collection was sent ofl to Paris, 
and even the plants of his garden were 
rooted up and sold. Amidst this devasta- 
tion, the cardinal look rei'nge in a convent, 
whence he removed to Naples ; and returned 
to Rome in iRoo, where he lived in private 
lodgin&:s till his death in 1803. 

ALBANI, or ALBANY, countess of, was 
the Princess Louisa iNIaria Caroline, who 
married Charles Stuart, " the Pretender." 
She w;w cousin of the last reigning Prince 
of Stolberg-Gedern ; was born in 17i53 ; mar- 
ried in 1772, when slie took tlie title of 
Countess of Albanv ; but to escape from the 
barbarity of l.er iiii^band, who lived in a 
continual state of intoxication, she retired, 
in 1780, to a cloister. At his death, in 1768, 
the French court allowed her an annuity of 
60,000 livies ; and she survived the house of 
Stuart, which became extinct at the death 
of her brother-in-law, the cardinal of York, 
in 1807. She di d at Florence, in 1824; 
and Victor Alfieri has tarnsniittea her name 
and misfortunes to posterity. 

ALBANI, John Jeromk, a civilian and 
theoln"-ic.il writer, born at Bergamo in 1504, 
arrived at the dignity of a cardinal in 1570, 
and died in 1501. 

ALBANO, Francisco, a verv celebrated 
painter, born at Bologna, 1578, and died, 

that ANi.br is not warrantable that has seen two SI'NS. 





















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^ llrtD (^nibrrstil ISiograpfiy. 

[a I. It 

moo. Alhunn fxcelli'd in <l<'lln(-;itin|^ feiiii- 
uiwv. and inlaniiiif beauty ; and Ids pit^turt'* 
are cxiTcdingly valuable. 

ALHANO, Giovanni Haptista, yoniiRer 
brollMT of tlie above, uao also a '|iaiuter, 
and clilt'tly exrellcd in laiidgi-ape. 

AiJiATKGNI, an Aratdan cliieflain and 
eminent aNtronomer. He lived in (lie 'JlU 
rentnry, and wrote a work entitled " Tlie 
Scienee of the Slars." 

ALKEKGAri, Capackm.!, a Holoijnese 
marquis, wan a drainalic writer anil actor, 
and railed the (iarrirk of Italy. Died, |hU3. 

AI.KKRIC, a monkUli historian of the latli 
eentury, who compiled a i'liroiiiele of Uid- 
versal History up to 1341. 

ALBKROM, GiuLio, a eardlnal, and mi- 
nister of the king ofSpain, was llie son of 
a gardener: but beiii!^ posNesKseil of un- 
common talent!), and with a dls(>o8ilion 
suited to the intrii;uiiig (Kiliry of tlie eourt, 
he obtained patronajfe, and rapidly reached 
the blithest otttecH in the Niate. Ity his abi- 
lity and activity he created a naval force, 
re-or);anised llic army, and rendered Spain 
more powerful than it had been since the 
lime of Philip II. ; but he was eventually 
foiled by the combined etVorts of KiiKland 
and France, who made his dismissal fnmi 
the connrils of the Spanish monarch the 
chief condition of peace, linrn, iCtii ; 
died, 17.^3. 

ALDLKT, EiiASMtis, a learned German 
divine of the 16th century, who composed a 
Latin work called " I'iie Koran of the 
Cordeliers." Uitxl, IS'il. 

SIS, a canon of Ai\-1 i-Cliapelle in the 13th 
eenturv. He wrote in Latin what is ea- 
teenieu an accurate " History of the Kxpe- 
dilion to Jeriisaleni, under Godfrey of Biil- 
loyn, and other Leaders," reprinted in Iti63. 

ALBERT. Louis Joseph i>*, son of Louis 
Charles, duke de Luynes, born in lt)73, and 
died, 1738. He distinguished himself in se- 
veral battles, for which he was amiointed 
lield-iiiarshal by the emperor I'harles VII.. 
whr sent him ambassador to France, and 
created him Prince of Grimberfjhen. 

ALBERT, of Stade, a monk of the 1.1th 
century, who wrote a " Chronicle from the 
Creation to 1256." 

ALBERT, of Strasburg, tlie compiler of a 
" Chronicle from 1373 to 1378." He 
flourished in the 14th eentury. 

ALBERT, Hbnrt Christian, professor 
of the English lancruaee at the university of 
Halle, Germany, dieu in 1600. 

ALBERT I., emperor and duke of Aus- 
tria, surnamea the Triumphant, was son of 
the emperor Rodolph of Hapsburfi^, and 
a competitor for the imperial crown with 
Adolplius of Nassau, whom he defeated and 
killed in battle. He was born in 1248 ; and 
died, by assassination, in 13O8. 

ALBERT II., eivperor and duke of Aus- 
tria, was son of Albert the fourth duke of 
Austria, and succeeded to the kin|rdom of 
Hungary and Bohemia on the deatli of Sl- 
?isinund, whose daughter he bad married. 
Died, 1429. 

ALBERT, archduke of Austria, son of 
Maximilian II,, was born, 1559. He was at 

lirht desti' e<l for the church, and, when 
very \iiiin);,was created cardinal and arch- 
bishop ol Toledo. In I'>!Ih, I'liillp II. of 
Spain contracted his daughter Isahella to 
Albert, »ho thereuiton renounced his cardi- 
nalate and ecclesla>tlcal chara<-t«T. Tin; 
Nellierlands, and the provinres of Bur- 
Ifundy and t'harleroi, were her iKjrIion, and 
tlu-y were henceforth considen'il a» joint so- 
verelj^ns of those countries. Died in 1031. 

ALBERT, Jank n', daughter of Marga- 
ret, cpieen of Navarre, and the mother of 
Henry IV. of France, at whose birth '.he 
following strange incident is said to have 
oiciirred : — The king, her father, promised 
to put into her liamU his vill, on condition 
that during the paii^s of child-birth she 
should sing a Bearnoise song. To this she 
acceded, and when her father entered the 
chauiber, she sang a popular song in tlie 
laiigu'.ige of her native country. <'ii this he 
iireseiited her with a gold box containing 
his will, and threw round her neck a itliaiii 
of gold, saying. "These are for \ou, my 
daughter, but this is mine '." at ifie sami; 
lime taking the Infant in his arms, and 
carrying it to bis chamber. Died, 1573. 

ALBERT, king of Sweden, was elected 
to the tlinme on the deposition of Magnus 
II. in l:t<>3. The latter, siip|iorted by l>eii- 
iiiark and Norway, endeavoured to recover 
his crown, but was defeated bv Albert, and 
taken prisoner. The nobles, nowever, lie- 
came iliisatisfled with bis rule, and applied 
for aid to Margaret, queen of beninark and 
Norway, by whom he was defeated In a 
bloody battle, taken prisoner, and contined 
for seven years. He was at length lilM;rated 
on condition of surrendering Stockholm to 
Margaret ; and he passed the remainder of 
bis days at Mecklenburg, where he died in 

ALBERT, marquis of Brandenburg-Cnlin- 
baeh,surnamed the German Aleibiades, born 
in 1533, was a principal actor in the trou- 
bles of Germany during the reign of Charles 
v., against whom he made war. Uied in 
Indigencv and exile, I55B. 

ALBERT, Charles d', duke of Luynes, 
born in 157B. Henry IV. of France, who 
was his godfather, placed him as a page 
about his son, afterwards Louis XIII., over 
whom, by his artful manner, he gained such 
an ascendancy, that he obtained the highest 
honours in the state, and was made con- 
stable of France; but his ambition and ty- 
r.inny rendered him odious to the {leople. 
Died, 1631. 

ALUERTET, a mathematician and poet of 
Provence in the 13th century. 

ALBERTI, Aristotilk, a mechanic of 
Bologna in the 1 5th century. It is said he 
removed entire the tower of St. Mary del 
Tenipis thirty-live paces, and, at Cento, set 
upright another which was live feet out of 
its perpendicular. 

ALBERTI, CiiKRcniNO, a famous Flo- 
rentine painter, born in 1553, and died, 1615. 
His works, both iu fresco and oil, are much 

ALBERTI, Giovanni, brother of the 
above, was also an eminent painter at 
Rome, and greatly admired for tlie excel-: 
lence ol his |ier8|H-ctite. 1' 







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AI.Br.liri, DoMiNico, a Venetian com- 
poser i\nil liiirpsitlioid player of eniiiieiioe 

: III tlu- Uiisl century. 

ALlili;ilTI, GKORfiE WiLUAM, a learned 
Geriii;iii divine, bmii in 172'>; died, 1758. 

I AI.ISIUITI, John, aGennini lawyer, who 
abridged tlie Koran, with note!), and alflo 

I iiiibiished, in I5ji>, the New Tchtameiit in 

I Svriac, most of tlu' copies of wliich were 
Kent to (he Kaht. He died in 1569. 

I ALIJEIITI, LEANUEFt, a Holognese monk 
of the itith centurv ; author of a history of 

I his native city, and one of Italy. Died, 1553. 

j ALISEKTI, Leoni Haftista, an eminent 
architect, painter, scnlptor, nnd scholar, 
born at Venice in the beftinninc^ of the ISth 

I century. At the atfc of twenty lie composed 
a Latin comedy, eatilled " Philodoxius," 
which many learned men believed at fust 
was the work of the ancient poet, LepidUK; 
and, as such, it was printed by the younger 
Aldus. Iheinventl-juof the camera ohscura 
Iku been attributed to him. Died, 148). 

an eminent Italian lexicographer of the ibth 
century. Born, 1737 ; died, lh03. 

ALBCariNI, Francis, an ecclesiagtic of 
Florence, and an able antiijuary, in the be- 
ginning of the I6th century; author of se- 
veral valuable works. 

ALUKRI'IM, Paul, a Venetian priest 
and author, so highly esteemed in his day 
for his skill as a politician, that he was en- 
trusted with an embassy to Turkey. His 
preaching and his writings, chiefly on the- 
ology, were so much valued, that at his 
death a medal was struck to his memory. 
Born, 1430; died, 1475. 

ALUEIITUS, Maontis, a Dominican, 
and one of the most celebrated schoolmen 
of the luth century, was born at Laningen. 
Suabia. He was successively vicar-general 
and provincial of his order ; and his celebrity 
as a public preceptor attracted the attention 
of pope Alexander IV., who appointed him 
master of the holy palace. In I2C0, he was 
elected bisliop of Ratisbon, but afterwards 
resigned this dignity, and went to Cologne, 
where he died, in ISBO. His works, which 
were voluminous, and on various subjects, 
were published at Lyons, 1651. 

ALBICIIS, archbishop of Prague, whose 
encouragement of John Huss caused him to 
be much abused by the opponents of that 

ALBINOVANUS, C. Pedo, a Latin ^loet 
of the time of Augustus. He was the friend 
of Ovid, and author of several poems, Hcc. 
Two elegies of his are still extant ; one on 
the death of Mececnas, the other on the 
death of Drusus. 

ALBINUS, a Roman, consul in the year 
157 B. c. ; and author of a history of Rome, 
written in Greek, which is commended by 

ALBINUS, Bernard Si£OFRED, one of 
the ablest anatomists of modern times, was 
born at Frankfort in I6i)6, He was a pupil 
of the celebrated Boerhaave, and became 

trofessor of anatomy In the university of 
eydefi, which situation he tilled for nearly 
half a century, during which time he pub- 
lished numerous professional works. Died, 

A I. BINDS, CiiiiisriAN Bernar.!), hiollier 
ofihe above, professor fifaniiloiny at UM'»;clit, 
and author of two \aluable works on that 
Rcieiire. Died, 177P. 

ALBO, JosEPit, a learned Spanisli rahlil, 
whffassisted, in I41'J, at a conrert:nce be- 
tween the Christians and Jews, and wrote a 
book, called " Sepher Hlkkarlm," against 
the gospels. 

ALBOI N, king of the Lombards in the sixth 
century. He succeeded Ills father, Aiidoin, 
ill 1561 ; eonc|uered and slew Cuniniiind, 
king of the Gepidte, whose daughter, Rosa- 
mond, he afterwards married. He suhju- 
gated great part of Italy; but havliig "in- 
curred the just resentment of his wife, hy 
sending her wine in a cup, wrought from 
the skull of her own father, and forcing her 
to drink from it, she had him assassinated, 
A. D. 574. 

ALBON, Jaqdes d'. Marquis de Fronsac, 
and iMareschal de St. Andre, a French ge- 
neral, wlio acquired great re|)utation about 
the middle of the IGtu century. Quesnoy, 
St. Quentln, Rent!, &c., were the chief 
scenes of his exploits. He was deputed to 
carry the collar of the order of St. Andre 
to Henry VIII., of England, who made him 
a knight of the garter. At the death of 
Henry II., he was chosen one of the re. 
gency ; and fell in the battle of Drenx, 1562. 

ALBRECHTSBERGER, a Germai. musi- 
cian, and one of the niost learned of mo- 
dern contrapuntists, was born at Kloster 
Neubar, in 173C ; became court organist 
and a member of the academy at Vienna : 
was the instructor of Beethoven ; and died 
ill 1803. 

ALBRE T, Charlotte d', sister of John 
d'Alhret, king of Navarre, and wife of Ctesar 
Borgia. She was a poetess of no mean 
powers, and as remarkable for virtue as her 
husband was for vice. Died, 1514. 

ALBRET, Charles n', constable of 
France in the reign of Charles VI., to 
whom he was related by blood. He com- 
manded the French army at the famous 
battle of Agincourt, in w'hich ho lost his 
life, 1SI4. 

ALBRET, Jeanne, daughter of Margaret, 
queen of Navarre, and mother of Henry of 
Navarre, afterwards Henry IV., of France. 
Died suddenly in 1572. 

ALBUMAZAR, an Arabian philosopher 
in the ninth century, who combined the 
study of pliysic with that of judicial astrology 
and astronomy. 

ALBUQUERQUE, Matthias d', a Por- 
tuguese general, who was sent to Brazil in 
1628, and successfully defended the pro- 
vince of Peruambuco against the Dutch. 
He was recalled in 1635 ; espoused the 
cause of the House of Braganza, and was 
made commander of the army in 1643, when 
he gained the decisive victory of Campo 
Major, and was created a grandee of Por- 

a Portuguese nobleman in the 17th cen- 
tury, who fought with great bravery against 
the Dutch in the Brazilian war, of wliich 
he wrote a history. Died, 1688. 

ALB(]QUERQUE,Alphonso, the founder 
of the Portuguese empire in the East, was 

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born at Lisbon, at the end of the 14th cen- 
tury. In 150.1, he heiitled an eNpedition 
sent out by Kinannel, klii},' of Portugal, ami 
jfainrd larire poss('R«lon» on the coa^t of Co- 
I'liln, took the island of Ormuz. In tlie Per- 
sian Gulf, subdued Goa, exteniied his con- 
riuests over the whole coast of Malabar, and 
made the islands of Sumatra, Malacca, and 
various others, tributary to the I'ortuifuese 
governuKMit. An order for his recall had 
been issued, and even his successor in the 
command appointed, when death put an end 
to his career, at Goa, in ISI.i. 

ALBUTIIJS, Caitis SiLts, a Roman ora- 
tor in the time of Auj;iisIu<<, was a native 
of Novara, and starved biuisell to death on 
account of some insult he bad received. 

ALCAMENES, a Greek statuarv, who 
was the disciple and rival of I'liidias. 

ALCyEUS, the Lesbian, an ancient lyric 
poet, was born at Mitylene about 600 years 
B. c, and is said to have been enamoured 
with Sappho.— There was also an early 
Athenian poet of this name, said to have 
been the author of some tragedies in the in- 
fancy of that species of composition. 

ALCIATI, Andrew, a Milanese lawyer 
of eminence in the I6th century, who en- 
joyed many dig'nities. Died at I'avia, 1350. 

ALCIATI, Francis, nephew of the 
above, was also a distinznislied lawver, and 
a professor at Pavia. Pope Pius Vl. made 
him chancellor of Rome, and a cardinal. 
He died in 1580. 

ALCIATI, Tbrencr, a Jesuit ofthe I7th 
century, who collected the materials from 
which cardinal Pallanicino wrote the history 
of the council of Trent. 

ALCIATI, John Paul, a native of Milan 
in the 16th century, who quitted Ids country 
and tlie Romish faith for the Calvinistic 
doctrine, which he also renounced, and em- 
braced Socinianism. 

ALCIBIADES, a celebrated Athenian ge- 
neral and statesman, the son of Cliiiias, and 
a descendant of Ajax, of Salamis, was born 
B. c. 450. He is generally quoted as one 
of the most striking instances on record of 
an individual imitating, within himself, ail 
the gifts and graces both of nature and for- 
tune. He early became the disciple of So- 
crates, who took great pains to form his 
mind to the love of virtue, and acconifianied 
that philosopher on some of his military ex- 
peditions. In the Peloponnesian war, he 
was appointed to command with Nicias, in 
an expedition against Syracuse ; but while 
thus employed, a charge was preferred 
against him of impiety. On one night all 
the Hermiie, or half-statues of Mercury, in 
Athens, were defaced and mutilated ; and 
information was given that this sacrilei;e 
was the work of Aicibiades and his dissolute 
companions, in one of their frequent mo- 
ments of revelry and intemperance. For 
this lie was ordered home ; but, fearful of 
the consequences, he withdrew to Sparta, 
and stirred up the Lacedcemonians to de- 
clare war against Athens. He afterwards 
went over to the king of Persia, by whose 
interest he obtained nis pardon and recall. 
He then commanded with success against 
tlie Lacedemonians ; and, having compelled 
them to sue for peace, was received at 

Alhens in triumph. The ilefcat of the Atlic" 
nian licet, liv L>sander, being attributed to 
Alciliiades, lie was deprived of his coni- 
iiianil. On this be retired into Thrace, and 
afterwards to a small town in Phrygia, 
where Phariiabaziis, the Persian satrap, at 
the insligation of the Athenian tyrants, 
caused tlie house in which he resided to be 
set lire to in tl>e night, and when lie at- 
tempted to escape, lie was slain by arrows, 
B. c. -104. 

ALCIDAMUS, a Greek rhetorician, who 
flourished about 4U0 B.C., of whose ora- 
tions two are still extant — one appended to 
Aldus's edition of il'xiiiiies, and the other to 
Aldus's edition of Isocrates. 

ALCINO[JS, a philosopher ofthe second 
century, who wrote an " Introduction to 
the Philosophy of Plato," which is deenuul 
a good 8umniar)[, and has been translated 
into English by Stanley. 

ALCIPHROiv, a Greek epistolary writer, 
who is supposed to liave flourished in the 
third century before Clirist. His letters, 
which give an excellent picture of Grecian 
customs and manners, are distinguished by 
clearness and simplicity ; but it is sus- 
pected that they arc the production of a 
much lati-r era. 

ALCMjEON. a Pythagorean philosopher 
of Ciotona, who is said to have been the 
first anatomist. 

ALCMAN, a lyric poet, of Greece, flou- 
rished n. c. 672. Some ve.-ges of his are 
preserved in Athenteus. 

ALCOCK, John, successively bishop of 
Rochester, Worcester, and Ely, founder of 
Jesus College, Cambridge, and of the gram- 
mar school at Kingston-upon-Hull, was a 
prelate distinguish^ for bis love of learning 
and of learned men. His temporal honours 
kept pace with his ecclesiastical dignities;! 
Edward IV. conferring on him the presi-i 
dency of Wales, and the chancellorship of 
England. Died, 1300. 

ALCOCK, John, author of some excel- 
lent choral music ; died, 1S06. 

ALCOCK, Nathan, an English physician 
of tiie iBth century, celebrated for his ana- 
tomical lectures at Oxford. 

ALCUINllS, or ALBINUS, Flaccus, an 
English prelate of the eighth century, edu- 
cated by the venerable liede. He went on 
an embassy from OfTa to Charlemagne, 
whom he instructed in rhetoric, logic, di- 
vinity. Sec, Died at Tours, 804. 

ALCYONIUS, Peter, an Italian philo- 
logist and critic of the 16th century. He 
wrote a treatise on Exile, and translated four 
treatises of Aristotle into Latin. Died, I5'J7. 

ALDEGKiEF, a Weslphalian, born In 
1302, was both a painter and an engraver : 
his principal work is a large picture of tlie 

ALDERETE, Dieoo Gratian dr, an 
eminent Spanish author of the 16th century. 
Besides a variety of original writings, lie 
left translations from Xenophon, Tiiiic)- 
dldes,and other Greek classics. Died, lobO.' 

ALDERF.TE, Bernard, a Spanish Je- 
suit, the first of his order on wliom the uni- 
versity of Salamanca conferred the degree 
of doctor. Died, 1637. 





AI.DIir.l.M, orADKI.M, Sr., an r.ii- 

f[IUIi prflaio, liiini »( IMaliiichliiiry, wIiiti- 
10 fiMiiultHi n inoiiAklfry, of wlilcli Ik- wun 
(he lliittuliliol. Died, 7'.n). 

AI.DHIIN, nil r.ii|{ll»li lilNlinp In llii< loili 
Kiiil Mill ri'iiiiirli'H, rliU'lly nittiiior.iltit! amlit! 
I'oiiiuirr ol tliclil»liii|iiii- of Diiilmiii. Dii-d, 
lulH, liiivliiK ciiiDVi'il III!' prrlucy 'M yiai-x. 

ALDOIIIIANDIM, Sylvkhikk, ii Flci- 
n'lilliic Inwyor niul writer of llic Ititli ccn- 
liiry. lit' wnit ii|>)i<iliit)'tl iKlvocatc i<f Hit* 
Irc.iHiirv and nixisiollo clmiiibiM', liy |i(i|if 
r.iiil III. Dll'd, I.ViH. 

AI.DOUItANDINI, Ci.KMRNT, kon of tlir 
iiri'i'rdliii;, hccaiiio pope under lliii nuiiiv uf 

AI.DINI, 'I'oiiiAii, a plivNlriuM suid Imla- 
iiiht of I'eiieiia. He w:h itiipi riiiteiidunt of 
■ lie FitrneHlau irarden at Koine, on wliieli 
aeeoiinl liU niiiiie \v.k!i prellxed lo llie de- 
Keriptlon ol it wrilleii hy I'eler CnHlielJ. 

A 1.1)1 N I, A., nephew of (>iilvaiil ; liorn 
nt l<c>lo|riia in I7.''ij; uiillior of " Ksi^ai 'I'lie- 
orl<|ue mir la (ialv;inisiiie;" and " Aecoiint 
nf l.iie liiiprovenieiiU In UahanUm," piili- 
lulied ill Loudon. 

Al.DKKI), tlie lUst F.nslisli bishop who 
viiilied JeriiMlem, lived in Die reiin* of 
Kdward llie t'onfesiwir, Harold, and William 
•lie Conqueror. On Ihe death of Kdward, 
lie crowned Harold, and performed the same 
ceremony for William. Died, liidH. 

AI.OIUCH, Hrnhy, liorii in Wriitinin- 
Kter, 1647, Hiul educated liy Iliitiliy. From 
Wcttminster-tchoul ho went tu Christ 
Church, Uxfoi'd, and waN eleclud simleiit, 
and afterwardii canon and dean. He hiiilt 
au elejranl cliaiH'l to Trinity Collepe, and 
the iH'aiitilul church of All t<ainl!<. He had 
also threat »klll in muHli', and composed 
many nervicoa fur the church. Ueaii Aldrich 
died, 1710. 

ALURICII, Robert, a native of Duck- 
iiiBhanishlre, wasi ediicatctl at Ktoii, of 
which rollei;c he siibHequently became mas- 
ter and provoiit. In lj:i7, he'wu* made bi- 
shop of Carlisle; a ilatioii lor whicli hiii 
learnini; and Piety, which are extolled by 
Leland, well lilted him. Died, I5'>5. 

ALUROVANUUS, ()i,YS8K9,a celebratcHi 
natural historian, born at bologna, \:,ii. 
He was a j'rcat traveller, and formed a most 
su|H>rb collection of minerals, plants, ani- 
mals, Sic, bv which lie ruined his fortune, 
and ditHi in an hospital, i(i05, i^cd bO. 


ALEANUF.R, JEROxtE, a cardinal, born 
in MDO, distin);uished himself in the itilli 
centiirv »s a violent op^Kiser of Luther and 
the reformation. He died, 154a. His great 
nephew, of the same name, iiiheriltMi the 
ability of his ancestor, and was eiuiiieut as 
a scholar and an antiquary. 

ALF.MAN, a cardinal of the 13th century. 
He was degi^ded from the purple for his 
opposition to Eii^eniiis IV. The sentence 
was reversed by Nicholas V. ; and after the 
cardinal's death, in MOO, he was canonized. 

ALEMAN, Matthew, a Spaniard ; au- 
thor of " Guzman de Alfarathe," or the 
•♦ Sp.inish Rogue." 

ALKMANNI, Nicholas, aiearned Greek 
antiqnarv, born, I58y, and became keeper of 
the >aiican library at Rome. Died, 1626. 

AI.FMIIKR'r, Jean i.k Honii d*. a cele- 
liralrd pliiloKoplier and inulliematiclan, and 
an eleKaiit writer, bornat I'arU, 1717. He 
had the name of Le UoikI from the ehiiieh 
near which he was exposed as a foiimllliiK. 
The scienees were Kceally enriched hy him ; 
and his wi itiiiKH ilisplay eoiiNideruhle Keiiiiis, 
JiuUment, and taste. Died, I7HJ. 

AI.KN, John Van, »n eminent Diileli 
landscape painter. Dietl, ItiUH. 

ALKNKt, Ji'i.itis, a Jesuit of llresela, 
who rendered himself dlstiiiKiilNlied by his 
zeal III propaKatiiiK Clirlstianity In Chinii, 
where he luUinred for 36 years', and died, 

AI.F.R, I'aim., a learned French Jesuit, 
died. I7'J7. His " (iradiis ad I'ariiassnin" 
has been loii|r In established use In all Ihe 
public NchooU <if Kuro|ie. 

AI.IS, At.KXANDElt, a Scotch dhliie, 
who opposeil the tenets of Luther, which 
heaflerwardsentferly embraced. Dieil, 1565. 

ALKSIO, Matthew I'kkkz n', a pulnti-r 
and eiif(ntver at Itouie, whose hifiire of St. 
Christoiiher, in fresco, in Ihe rreat church 
of Seville, Ih much admired. Died, I6uu. 

AI.KSSI, Galeas, nn architect, born at 
t'eriisia, whose works are spread over Ger- 
many and the south of Kuro|)e ; but his fame 
principally rests on the nion.isiery and 
cliiirch of the Ksciirial. Ditnl, 1573. 

roism is so universally a theme, was the son 
of I'hilip, kinr of Mactrdoii, by Olyiiiiiias, 
daiifrhler of Neoptolemiis, kiii)f of Eplrus, 
and born ii. c. 3.'iti ; the same year in which 
tlie temple of Diana at Ephesns was de- 
stroyed. Alexander received his education 
under Lysimaclius and Aristotle, and i^ave 
several proofs of manly skill and coiirnire 
while very youii^ ; oiicuf which, thebreak- 
iiif(-ln of his tiery steed, Uncephaliis, is 
mentioned by all his historians as an inci- 
dent which convinced his father of his fu- 
ture unconiiuerable spirit. Alexander was 
much atlaclied to his mother, and sided 
with her in the disputes which led to her 
divorce from i'hilip. While the latter was 
making prenarations for his grand exiiedi- 
lion into Asia, he was assassinated by I'au 
sanias ; and Alexander succeeded to the 
throne in his '.2Uth year, ills youth at first 
excited an inclination in several of the 
states of Greece to throw oft' the yoke of 
the Macedonian usurpation ; but the liero 
soon quelled the design, and was aekii<.w- 
ledged general of Greece. He then marched 
into Thrace, and gained several conquests. 
During his absence Thebes revelled; and 
when Alexander returned, he took that city 
by storm, made a dreadful carnage of the 
inhabitants, and destroyed all the biiiUliiigs 
except the residence of I'indar, the jioel. 
'This severe example had its ellect on the 
olherstates; and even Athens distinguished 
itself by a servile submission to tin; con- 
queror. Alexander next turned his ariiis 
against Darius, king of Persia; and, at 
32, crossed the Hellespont, at the head of 
•10,000 men. With this force he defiate<l 
the IVrsians at the Granicus, and made 
himself master of numerous places. At Gor- 
diuni, where he assembled ids arinv, lie is 
said to have cut the famous knot ou ivliich 
the fate of Asia depended. Shortly after this, 




























7i |lrU) {.Inibrrtial 13iograpf));. 

,\ II 

Ik- .ii(iiin (lirialfil lliu kiiiir nl' IVrxia ni'ar 
Usim, mill tocik liiiiiiriinf lr*'UNiirc« mid 
iii.iny iiriHoniTK ; luiioim whom were (ln! 
iiioilier, uili-, itiiil rliililrrii of DariiiH. 'I'liii* 
vli'loiy wax lolliiwi'il hy llii! ('oiii|iii'Ht of 
i'liii'iiirht, DaiiiiiHi-iiH, and Hcvi'ial oilier 
Kt;U<'«. Ali'Xiiiiili'r iirxt lM'»lr(»«'il 'I'yri', wlilrll 
liiiii; rrHiNlcil liltii, tkiiil, ill ri'U'iiKi', III* coin- 
iiiillcil liorrililH i-riicltirM on ihi- iiilialiltaiitN. 
lit! tlirii wriit to JiTiiK.ilciii, paKHcd Into 
KKypt, Hiilidut'd It, and founded tlii! city »l 
AFexandrla. DariiiH now <-<dleiied aiioliier 
ariiiv, and was deleiled at Arlii la, wliieli 
decided llii; late i,( Western AHia. TliiH 
h'rent li.iltle \v,m foilowid liy the eaiiliire. ol° 
SiiHa anil l'erse|Mdis ; llielasi of wlileli Alex- 
ander (leHlro>ed at the iiislij^atlon of Ills 
niistri'KM. Me now (irejiared lor an ex|»e- 
dllion to India ; .mil, alter a periloiiM inarrli, 
reaelied the Indus, ii. r. :i37, wliii'h he 
eiokhed at iliu iiart where the eltyof Allnek 
now ht.inds. Alexander reeelved Iliu sub- 
iiiIshIoii ofHeveral of the |ii'tty itrlnees of llii; 
eoiinlry, Iml was opiioxed fiv I'oniH, wlio 
valiantly witlislood tiiu hivadcr; and, al- 
tlioii^'h eoiii|iiered and made prisoner, the 
victor, iileasL'd with IiIm spirit, restored him 
his doiiiiiilons, and made liliii an ally. 'Ihc 
coiupieror next enteied the fertile plains 
now called the I'anjah, took tlii; city of 
Saii);ala, and directed his course to the 
(ianifi's; from which object, however, he 
was diterled by the rainy Heason. and the 
disaffection of IiIh own troopo. lie accord- 
inirly erected twelve altars of an extraordi- 
nary kize to mark the liinilH of his pio|;rei>!«, 
remnants of whicli are said to be Htill in 
existence. Alexander, therefore, retraced 
hU Ktept to the llydaspeR, uii the bankH of 
which lie built two cities, NiciL-a and llii- 
cephala; and embarked, with his lif^iit 
troopi), on board a lleet he had constructed, 
leaving the main army to inarch hy land. 
After a severe contest with the Mallii, in 
wliich he wan wounded and IiIh whole army 
nearly lost, he proceeded down the river 
to I'atala; and, having entered the Indian 
Ocean, and uerformed Home rites in honour 
of Neptune, he left his Heet; Kivintj orders 
to Nearchns, who had tlie command, to sail 
to tlic i'ersiau Gulf, and thence up the 
Tigris to Mesopotamia. Alexander then 
prepared to march to Babyl'iii, towards 
which capital he proceeded in triumphal 
prnj;res8. Reaching Susa, he began to give 
way to a passioii for pleasure and joviality, 
and married Statira, tlie daughter of Darius. 
At lengtli he reached Ilabylon, wliere he 
gave orders indicating future undertakings 
of great magnitude ; wlien he was seized 
with an illness, in consequence of indulging 
in liahits of intemperance, and died of a 
fever, in the I3th year of lug eventful reign, 
and till! :iJd of his life, b. c. 3T3, V\ lien 
niliiireil to name his successor, he is said 
to have leplied, " to the most worthy." 
I'lirsuant to his own direction, his body was 
conveyed to Alexandria in a golden coffin, 
enclosed in a sumptuous sarcophagus, sup- 
posed to be now in tlie Uritisli Museum. 

Rome, was born at Acre, in Pha-nicia, in 
•-•o.i. Ihi' nriiicipal public event of his 
reijrn was the war with Artaxerxes, king 
of I'ersia, over whom he gained a great 

victory in iM-rson, and on his reiiiin to 
Rome was honoured with a triiiiii|ih, ||c 
next marcheil .iifiiiist the (iernians, who 
had iniiuled (iaiil ; and while there, a se 
ililion broke out in IiIm aiiiiv, headed hy 
Maxiiiiiii, and the emperor and his mother 
were iniirdered, u:.i, 

ALEXANDER, king of I'.daii.l, elected 
on the death of his btollii r, John Alhert, In 
l.'ioi, was a iirinee of a heavy |{eniii«aiid re- 
markable taiitiinilly, but eourugeous and 
humane. Died, |.'>(X!. 

ALEXANDI'.R I., bishop of Rome, sue 
ceeded Evarislus In ilie tenth vear ol Ira 
Jaii.aiiiUiitlered inarlyidom under Hadrian, 
in ll!i. riiis pontiff is said to be llie first who 
introduced tlie use of holy water into the * 
service of the Roniisii church. •" 

ALEXANDER II., elected to tlie papal 
throne in toi.t, wnsa man of a humane and 
tolerant disposition, thouuli the liceiitioiin- 
ness of Ills life and manners caused great 
scandal. Died, lo;:i. 

ALI.XANDER III. succeeded Adrian IV. 
in livj; was a ponlilf of great ability, and 
deservedly popular witli his subjects.' Died 
at Rome, I Ihi. 

ALEXANDER IV., ascemled the p:i|>al 
throne in iv.'.l, and seemed more eonceriied 
to preserve and enlarge tlie privileges of a 
monastic order, than to correct abiis<-s or 
encourage improvements. Dieil, l-iCl. 

ALEXANDER V., originally a t;reek 
monk from Camlia, was raisi d to tlie papal 
throiK! ill 1409 by the council of I'isa. His 
munificence, during his pontificate, was so 
unliounded, that he used to say, '• When I 
became a bisiioi), I was rich ; wlnn a cardi- 
nal, poor ; and when a itoiie, a beirttar." 
Ditd, mo. *" 

ALEXANDER Vf., a native of Valencia, 
in Spain, was raised to the popedom in 
I4y2. As an e-cclesiastic, Alexander was in 
tlie highest degree ambitious, bigolted, and 
intolerant; and formed alliances with all 
the princes of his time only to break them. 
I'liis pontifT pursued his profligate career 
till 1503, wiien he was cut off by the same 
means he had used for the ruin of otiicrs. 
At a banouet whicli he and his son, the in- 
famous Ciksar llorgia, had prepared for 
some newly created cardinals, the poUon 
intended for them was by some mistake ad- 
ministered lotlie contriversof the plot; and 
Alexander died the next day in great agony. 

ALEXANDER VII. This pontiffexpend/.l 
vast sums in improving and embellishing the 
city of Rome, aiul was a great friend to the 
fine arts and literature. He was born at 
Sienna in I'lSy, elected to the popeilom in 
I6ir,, and died in ltiG7. 

ALEXANDER VIII., the last pope of 
that name, was elected lt)t>9, at theadvam ed 
age of bo; and died two years afterwards. 
He was unpopular on account of his exces- 
sive nepnti»iu. 

ALEXANDER I., king of Scotland, son 
of Malcolm III., ascended the throne in 
1107; and merited, by tlie vigour and im- 
petuosity of his character, the appell»tioii 
of T/ip Fierce. Died, \vu. 

ALEXANDER II., son of William the 
Lion, was ral-ied to the throne of Scotland, i 





t I 

t I 


1 ! ; 

\ 1 



^ fit\D ^m\}tru\ l3tograpfJt?. 


1314, Ix'iii^ then in bin intli viar. In \T2l, 
lit- niiirrii-d Joan, mIsIit of llonry III., of 
Kiinlnnd ; liy wlifcli neacr wag restored to 
till- two klni;il'<m8. Died, I'i49. 

AI.KXANOKR III., «on of the preccdlnfc, 
KiKTeeilecl, I '.'49, wlien only cltjlit years of 
•.ice. He married Marjfaret, daughter of 
ifenry III. of F.n^^l.tnd, and lived upon 
ternin of close frlendsltip with Ids latlier-ln- 
law, whom, in liU wars with the barons, he 
as-ilHted with 9(ioo men. Alexander was 
siccidciitally killed while hnntinff, In 138°>. 

AI.KXANDKK, a Sicilian abbot of the 
latli century ; author of a memoir of Uoi;er, 
kinif of Sicily, widch Ih in the collection 
culled " Hispania llluslrata." 

Neapolitiin jurlhCon'tult of the m\\ century. 
He was iniieli attached to the belles lettres, 
and is eliieily known by a work entitled 
" Dies Geniales," an imitaUon of the Noc- 
tes AtticK of Ciellius. 

ALEXANDER, Thaluanx's, a Greek 
physician of the sixth century. His works 
are considered the best after those of Hip- 
pocrates ; and are printed both in Greek 
and Latin. 

ALEXANDER, bishop of Alexandria, 
who opposed Ari.is, and condemned Ids er- 
rors at the council of Nice, died, 326. 

ALEXANDER, bishop of Hierapoiis, in 
the liftli century, who esimused '.he doctrine 
that there were two dlHerent natures in 
Christ : for which he was banished by the 
council of Ephcsus. 

ALEXANDER, of /Effea, the tutor of 
Nero, wlkom he Is said to have corrupted by 
his instructions. 

ALEXANDER DE MEDICf, a licentious 
duke of Florence, assassinated by Lorenzo 
de Medici, a relation, at the instigation of 
Stro/.zl, a republican, 1537. 

ALEXANDER, an English abbot, who 
supported tlie rights of his master, Henrv III. 
at the court of Rome, with such boianess, 
that Handulphus, the pope's legate in Eng- 
land, excommunicated and imprisoned hira. 
Died about 1317. 

ALEXANDER, Noel, a Dominican, a 
laborious writer, born at Rouen, 1639, and 
died at Paris,. 1784. His most celebrated 
work is a Latin Church History, in 36 vols. 

ALEXANDER, of Paris, a Norman poet 
of the 13th century, who wrote a metrical 
poem called " Alexander the Great," in 
verses of twelve syllables, which measure 
has ever since been called " Alexandrine." 

ALEXANDER, Neuskgi, grand duke of 
Russia, born iai8. The most noted action 
of his life was a great victory he obtained 
over the more northern tribes on the banks 
of the Neva. Died, 1263. 

ALEXANDER, Sir William, earl of 
Stirling, an eminent Scottish statesman and 
poet in the reigns of James 1. and Charles I. 
Died, 1640. 

ALEXANDER, William, an ingenious 
artist, born at Maidstone, 1786. He came 
to London, and studied the flne arts with so 
mucli success, that he was selected to ac- 
company the embassy of Lord Macartney to 
China. On his return, he published a splen- 
did work on the costume of China ; and, on 
the formation of the Royal Military College 

at Marlciw, Mr. Alexander was appointed 
drawinjf-maKter. At the time of his death, 
in iHin, he was kee| cr of the anthiultiis at 
the Uritish Museum. 

ALEXANDER, William, styled, through 
courtesy, earl uf Stirling, was born at New 
York, and became a major-general in the 
service of the United States diiriug the Ame- 
rican war. lit! wax a bravo omeer, but 
more distinguUhed by his attention to ma- 
thematics and astronomy than by hit mili- 
tary talents. He died, 178;). 

ALEXANDER, Thomas, earl of Selkirk, 
known as (he foinider of a colony In Ca- 
nada, and for his writings on politics and 
statistiiH. He died in 1830. 

ALEXANDER I., emperor of RusHla and 
king of Poland, eldest son of Paul I., was 
boriiDec. 22, 1777 ; succeeded, March, 1801 ; 
and was crowned at Moscow Sept< mber fol- 
lowing; wlien a ukase was pi iblihhed for di- 
minishing taxes, liberating debtors, prohi- 
biting prosecutions for tie recovery of 
flnes, discontinuing the mrde cf recruiting 
the army, and granting a 'reo pardon to all 
deserters. In 1803, Alexr.ndor offered bis 
mediation to cflTect a reconciliation between 
England and France; and in 18U5, a con- 
vention was entered Into between Russia, 
England, Austria, and Sweden, for the pur- 
pose of resisting the encroachments of the 
French on the territories of independent 
states. On the 3d of December the battle 
of Austerlitz took place, at which Alexan- 
der appeared at the head of .50,000 men, 
but was defeated, and compelled to retreat 
to his dominions. Ere long, however, he 
again appeared on the theatre of war, but 
the scene of it was changed to Poland. 
On November 36, 1806, was fought the 
battle of Pultusk ; and on the 7th and 
8th February, 1807, that of Eyiau, neitlier 
of which engagements was decisive; but on 
the Mth June the Russians were completely 
defeated at Friedland by Napoleon. The 
result of this victory was an interview be- 
tween the two emperors, wIdch led to the 
treaty of Tilsit. The seizure of tlie Danish 
fleet b^ the English occasioned a declara- 
tion ot war from Russia against this coun- 
try ; but hostilities only extended to the 
cessation of trade between the two nalionti. 
A second meeting of the French and Rus- 
sian sovereigns took place at Erfurt, Sept. 
37, 1808 ; Buonaparte being anxious to se- 
cure the friendship of Alexander previously 
to his meditated subjugation of Spain. 
While the former was engaged in this un- 
dertaking, the latter made Tiimseir master 
of the Swedish provinces of Finland, in 1809. 
The interruption of commerce with England 
now began to be severely felt by Russia ; 
and Alexander determined to throw off the 
French yoke. On the 23d March, 1812, an 
imperial ukase was issued, ordering a levy 
of two men out of every 500 throughout the 
Russian empire, and all matters of dispute 
with Great Britain were pacifically ar- 
ranged. The invasion of Russia which fol- 
lowed, though the most important event in 
the reign of Al>^xander, is not one in which 
he was so far personally concerned as to 
require a detailed relation here. On join- 
ing his army in Poland, February, 1813, 
Alexander published the famous manifesto. 




I I 
















Scl lletD Silnibersal IStogvapti;. 


wliirli fit-rved ii« the liakix of tlie coalition 
lA' tin; otIiiT Eiirnptiui pow<'rii a(f:iiii»t the 
rapacity of the French emperor. Germany, 
iiiiil I hen France, bccanie the Kcene of lio»- 
lIlJlieH ; and the capture of i'arix, April 30, 
I Hit, wait followed by the abdication of 
litionap'.irie, and the reHtoratlon of the 
HoiirlioiiH. After tlie i onclii>icin of peace, 
Alexander vii-ltid I'.iiirlaiiil, in company 
with the kinif of l'riis>ia ; and. on hU re- 
I tnrn to his own duniinions, lie z.ealnimly 
I eniplciyed hinifielf in ameliorating the inler- 
I nal condition of Ids empire. His death tuok 
I pi. ice at ra}(aiiriici(, in the Crimea, Uec. I. 
: iHi'i; and he was nucceeded by his second 
I broilier. NicliohiH, agreeable toadocunient 
t sjg'ned by Ids eldest brother, Coiistantine, 
! re«i((ninar to him the iii<ht of sncccKsion. 
I Alexander was a sincere lover of peace ; 
! viffiiant, brave, and active in war; tolerant 
I in liiD reilKions principles; mild and ami- 
able in private life, yet strict in the adml- 
, iiistratloD of public jiiNtice: a patron of 
literature and the artx; and though, as a 
' monarch, ambitions of power, yet reco''. 
ni^^iiiK the spirit of the a);e, and frequently 
actiiiiiT In accordance witli liberal in-in- 

ALEXANDRINr, Juuua, a physician of 
Trent, in the 16th century. He w;u tlie 
lirst who endeavoured to prove the con- 
nexion of bodily diseases with the passions : 
and was tlie author of several medical 

ALEXIS, a Greek comic poet, uncle and 
instructor of Alexander. Of Ids writin^^s, 
only a few fragments remain, wliich are 
preserved in the collection of poems of the 
more ancient Greek authors. 

A LEXIS, MiCHAELOviTSH, czar of Russia, 
born in lew : succeeded his father Michael 
in 1646 ; died, 1677. He was the father of 
Peter the Great, and the lirst Russian mo- 
narch who acted on the policy of a more 
intimate connexion with the otliep Euro- 
pean stales. 

ALEXIS. PETaoviT8CH, only son of Peter 
the Great, born 1690. This unhappy prince 
opposed the new policy of his fatlier, and 
expressed an unalterable attachment to the 
ancient barbarous usages and customs of 
Ins country ; for which the czar resolved to 
disinherit him. Alexis tied to his brother- 
in-law, the emperor of Germany, and lay 
concealed for some time at Vienna, until 
his retreat was discovered by his father, 
before whom he was conducted as a crimi- 
nal, and compelled formally to rerwunce 
the succession ; after this he was tried by se- 
cret jud^res, and condemned to death, 1719. 
ALEXIS DEL ARCO, a Spanish painler. 
born at Madrid, in 1625. He was deaf and 
dumb; but his reputation, particularly as a 
portrait painter, was considerable. Died 
in 1700. 

ALEXIUS I., CoMNENUs, emperor of the 
the East, born at Constantinople, 1048. He 
signalized himself in the wars with the 
Turks and Saracens, was bountiful to his 
friends and clement to Ids enemies, a lover 
of letters, and e>|ually versed in the arts of 
government and of war. He died, Ills. 

ALEXIUS II., CoMNENUS, succeeded his 
fallicr Michael on the throne of Constanti- 
nople, in 1180, when only twelve years of 

age ; and, with his mother, was murdered 
two years afterwards by Andronicus, who 
usur|)ed the crown. 

ALEXIliSIII.,AN0BHJ8,eni|ierorin II9>, 
gained that station by tlie barest perlldy 
towards ids brnther, Isaac Aiigelus, whom 
he contiiied in prison, and caused liis eyes 
to be nut out. His efl'eminate reii^n ren- 
dered liiiii despicable, and his capital was 
besieged and taken, \WJ, by an army of 
Venetian and French crusaders, headed by 
his nephew, Alexius, son of Isaac. Tlie 
usurper received the same piinisliment he 
had inflicted on his brother, and died a few 
years afterwards in a monastery at Nice ; 
and the conipieror ulaced his bliml father 
on the III rone, witii whom he reigned as 
Alexius IV. ; but his elevation was suc- 
ceeded by a rebellion, and he was deposed, 
imprisoned, and put to death, I3U4. 

ALEXIUS v., DrcAS, surnamed Mort- 
ziiVFLK, from his black shaggy eyebrows, 
was raised to the throne after the murder 
of Alexius IV., but de|>osed by the crusa- 
ders, who attacked and took his capital, 
and he was put to an ignominious death. 

ALEVN, Charles, an English historical 
poet. Died, 1640. 

ALFARAlil, an eminent Arabian philo- 
sopher in the lOth century, who obtained 
niucli reputation In Ids day, as being a 
great traveller, and master of seventy lan- 
guages. Among his works arc several 
treatises on Aristotle, and an Encyclopedia, 
the manuscript of wfiicli is in the Escurial. 

ALFARO Y GAMON, Juan de, a distin- 
guished Spanish p.iinter, born 1640. He died 
in Ids 4Ut[i year, of grief, occasioned by the 
banisliment of bis patron, the admiral of 

ALFENUS VARUS, Fublius, a Roman 
civilian, who became consul, and is men- 
tioned by Horace and Virgil with gratitude. 

ALFIERI, Victor, a celebrated Italian 

fioet, born at Asti, in i'iedmont, in 1749. 
lis lirst work was a tragedy, entitled 
" Cleopatra," which was acted at Turin. 
1773 ; this was followed by a farce, called 
" The Poets ;" and within seven years he 
produced fourteen dramas, besides various 
other works. At the age of 48. he began to 
study Greek, and made several translations 
from that language. His Incesssant labours 
at length undermined his constitution, and 
he died, at Florence, in 1h03, unexcelled by 
any poet of his age and country. 

ALFORD, Michael, an English Jesuit, 
born in London, 1.087. He died at St. 
Onier's, 1652, leaving behind him two cele- 
brated works, " Britannia llliistrata," and 
" Annales Ecclesiastlci Britannorum." 

GAN, an Arabian astronomer of the 9th 
century; author of an " Introduction to 
Astronomy," and other scientitic treatises. 

ALFRAGO, Andrew, an Italian physi- 
cian; author of a history of Arabian pliy- 
sicians and philosophers, and other works 
connected with the East, where he resided 
for some years. Died, at Padua, 152U. 

ALFRED THE GREAT. This monarch 
was the youngest son of Ethelwolf, king of 
the West Saxons, and born at Wantage, 
Berks, in 849. On the deatli of his brother 

■r? the fihst step towards improvement, is to be convinced that wk need it. 

D 1 

! ! 



9 llrtD QAnibersal litograpfj^. 


F.tlielrcd, Alfred giirctri'dnl to llie throiu- of 
Kii/laiid, H7I, in liiK 3'id year, at a ilmi- 
when liU kini;doni whh a lut-y to dnnicslic 
(lifiHCiHioiiit, and to tlu; tnv;iHioiis of (he 
Dmiiii, whom he cnK»«r<'il ^tt WHtoii, but, 
after a hard conflict, wiiu forced to ntreat, 
and coDcliide a treaty on diHadviintau'eous 
ternm. The Danes itoon violated tlieir en- 
ffafrement, and renewed their liostllity with 
such KUCceitH, tliat, in H77, the kinfj^ wan un- 
der the nercHiilty of iayinjf a»i<l(! tlie en- 
KiKUfi of royalty, and concealln)^ liiniNelf in 
the cottai^c of one of liiii lierdiiMicn. He 
afterwara* retired to tlie island of Atliel- 
ney, and tliere received information tliat 
one of his chiefs had ohtalncd a ^reat vic- 
tory over the Danes, and taken their nia- 
{(Ical standard. Alfre<l then disi^uised him- 
self ns a liarper, entered the Danish canip, 
and K^ilncd a knowledfce of the stale of the 
enemy. After this, he directed his nobles to 
niret him at Selwood, witli their vassals, 
wliich was done so secretly, that the Danes 
were surprised at EddinVton. and com- 
pletely routed. He now put his kinf^doni 
Into a state of defence, increased his navy, 
and brouy^ht London into a flourisliih); state ; 
but, after a rest of some years, an immense 
number of Danisli forces landed in Kent, 
and committed Kreat rava^^es ; tliey were, 
however, soon defeated by Alfred, who 
caused several of tlic leaders to be executed 
at AVinchester. Thus he secured llic peace 
of iiis dominions, and struck (error into his 
enemies, after so battles by sea and land, 
in all of^which he was personally en^^aged. 
But the warlike exploits of Alfred formed, 
perhaps, the least of tlie services he ren- 
dered his country, ilc composed a body of 
statutes, instituted the trial by jury, and 
divided the kingdom into sliires and hun- 
dreds ; was so exact in his governiuent, 
that robbery was unheard of, and valuable 
goods might be left on the liigh roads, flis 
great cuuncil, consisting of bishops, earls, 
aldermen, and thanes, was, by an express 
law, called together twice a year in Lon- 
don, for the oetter government of the 
realm. The state of learning in his time 
was so low, that, from the Tliames to (he 
H umber, Bcarceiy a man could be found 
who understood tlie service of the church, 
or could translate a single sentence of Latin 
into Kn^lish. To remedy this evil, he in- 
vited men of learning from all quarters, and 
placed tliem at the liead of seminaries in 
various parts of his kingdom ; and, if he 
was not Slie founder of the (Jniversity of 
Oxford, it is certain he raised it to a repu- 
tation wliich it had never before enjoyed. 
Alfred himself wrote several works, and 
translated otiiers from the Latin, pardcu- 
larly " Orosius's History of the Pagans," 
and " Boiithius's Consolations of I'hiloso- 
phy." He divided the twenty-four hours 
into three equal parts, one devoted to the 
service of God, another to public aiTairs, 
and the third to rest and rcfresliment ; his 
revenue, also, was divided into two cmial 
moieties, one dedicated to sacred, the otner 
to civil uses. To Alfred England is in- 
debted for the foundation of her na\al 
establishment, and he was the first who 
sent out ships to make the discovery of a 
north-east passage. To crown his great 
public character, Alfred is desciibed as one 

of the most mild and amiable men in private 
life; of a teniiter serene and chei rfiil, af- 
fable, kind, and merciful, and not atrrse 
to society, or (o innocent recreation ; he 
was also personally well-favoured, pomess- 
Ing a handsome and vigorous form, and a 
dignilied and engaging as|iect. Died, OUO. 

ALFHKD, siirnanied " Tiic Philosopher," 
an I'.nglislinian, was greatly esteemed at the 
court of Rome, and attended (.'anlinal Ut- 
tolioni the legate to England. Ilc wrote 
five books on tl:e " Cunsolations of Boe- 
thiiis," and died, I-/7U. 

ALFRED, nn English liisliop of the loth 
century; aiitlior <>f a " History of tlie Ab- 
bey of Malmsbury," a treatise " De Nalii- 
ri* Iterum," &c. 

ALUARDl. Alexander, a Bolognose 
sculptor of tlie 17tli 'entiiry. There is an 
admirable group of his, at Bologna, of the 
beheading of St. Taiii. 

AI.GAROTTI, FnANCis, an eminent Ita- 
lian writer, born at Venice, 1712. He was a 
great connolseiir of tlie line arts; and hi- 
works are critical and phllophical. Died,i7fil 

ALilAZEN, an Arabian mathematician, 
who was the llrst that showed the import- 
ance of refractions in astronomy. He died 
at (.'airo, in 1036. 

A LI, cousin, son-in-law, and vizier of 
Mahomet, and one of the main pillars of 
the new faith. He obtained the nam;' of 
the Lion of God, always Viclorioiis ; but 
was opposed in his succession to the cali- 
pliale by Omar and Othmaii, and retlrei; 
into Arabia, and made a collection of the 
sayings of (he proplie(. There he laid (lie 
foundadon of a new sect, and, after (he 
death of Othman, he was declared caliph, 
655 ; but was murdered four years after- 
wards in the mosque. 

ALI BEG, a man of cxtraordln\'-v learn- 
ing and attainments, born in I i md, of 
Christian parents, but was kidnapped in 
his infancy by a horde of Tartars, who sold 
nim to tlie I urks, in whose language and 
religion he was educated. His skill in lan- 
guages procured him the post of chief in- 
terpreter to tlie grand signjor ; while his 
leisure hours were employed in translating 
the Bible and the catechism of tlie Church 
of England into the Turkish language. The 
work by which he is principally known to 
Europeans is an account of the religions 
ceremonies, &c. of the Turks. Died, 1675. 

ALI BEY, a Greek, son of a Natolian 
priest, born, 17^8. He fell when a child 
into the hands of robbers, who carried him 
to Cairo, and sold him to Ibrahim, lieute- 
nant of the Janlsaries, wlio reared and 
adopted liiiii. All soon rose to the rank of 
sangiak, or member of the council ; and 
when his patron was assassinated by Ibra- 
him, the Circassian, he avenged his death, 
and slew the murderer with his own hand. 
This action raised him numerous enemies, 
and he was obliged to riy to Jerusalem, 
and thence to Acre ; but in time he was re- 
called by the people, and, being placed at 
the head ol the goveriinieiit, Egypt began 
to recover its former splendour. In a bat- 
tle fought against the troops of a rebellious 
Mameluke, Ali was cut down, after defciid- 
Ing himself witli a degree of desperate va- 






9 ^etD 9ilniber0al IJiograptS- 


l"iir thai liai m-arcely ever iMaii exceeded, 
and died of hi» vvuuiidi ei|{lit dayH after- 
»ardD, 177.1. 

A LI I'AC'IIA, (or, more eoriertly, Ali. 
|i'<ielia III' Jaiuiiiia), a bold, iiitelliifent, itiid 
eritfty Alb,tiii:tii, wo* b'>rii, at Tepellni, in 
1711; and tlioii)rli at liie outlet of hit ca- 
reer lie WAN iiiifortiiiiate, yet by bis «xtra- 
ordiir.iry HtrenKtb of mind, k>'(-'''' abllitieit, 
and contempt ol' danger, uuiieil \iith tlie 
base<<t cruelly and |ierlidy, be raiked bim- 
sell' to princely inde|ieiideiice. illf father, 
an Albanian cliief, died of ffrief, in conse- 
(juence of beinif atripped of hi;, territories ; 
but liiM mother, who vim remarltable for 
energy ofcharacter, Hpirited ui> hereon to as- 
sume tlie cr)nduct of a predatory troop of blft 
countrymen. With this band he committed 
HO many depredations, that the ailjacent 
tribes took up arms iu their own defence, 
and carried olV his mother and sister, whom 
tliey treated with ifreat cruelty. Tliis roused 
the natiirallv iniplacable temper of Ali, and 
lie rowed the extermination of tiie whole 
race; wliicli oath, in the sequel, lie almost 
literally executed. He raised a l)ody of 
■joO'i men, assumed Kreat authority, and 
wreal(ed his vengeance upon the Suliotes, 
whom he treated with the most horrible 
barbarity. During (illy years of constant 
warfare he brousjlit under his sway a wide 
extent of territory, which the Forte sanc- 
tioned his iiolding, with the tile ot pacha. 
He received ajrent^ from foreign powers, aii(l 
ullinintely intri^tie<l with England, France, 
and Russia. I'lie jealousy ol the Porte was 
at length excited, and sleps were taken to 
arrest liit progress ; but for several years 
Ali set the ()ttoman power at defiance. 
The insurrection of the Oret-ks in I8«i was 
an event of which lie was taking tiie ne- 
cessary steps to avail himself, but bis for- 
tunes gradually sunk under tlie power of 
the i'orte. He was surprised by the craft 
of Hassan i'acha, who iiad been sent to de- 
i&aiiil ills head. When Hassan declared his 
errand, All replied, " My b<sad is not to 
be <lelivered up so easily ;" accompanying 
the words with a pistol-ball, which broke 
his opponent's thigh. He shot two more 
dead upon tlie spot, but fell the same nio- 
nuMit. His head was severed from liis body, 
and sent to Constantinople. 

ALIAMKI", James, an eminent French 
engraver of the 18ili century. 

AI.IPAC, J., born In 1746, at Valvas j au- 
thor of several minor poems. 

ALISON, KicHAai), one of the ten com- 
posers who, by command of Elizabeth, 
adapted the Fsalms to music. 

ALIX, Peter, a Fiencb abbot of the 
i7th century ; author of a " Dialogue entre 
Poiite noir et la Pillorie," and other works. 

ALKEMADB, Cornelius Van, a Dutch 
antiiiuary, who published a dissertation on 
tournaments, a series of co'ns, a treatise on 
burial ceremonies, and another on the an- 
cient manners of the Hollanders. He died 
in ltJ70. 

ALKMAAR, Henry d', a German poet 
of the lath century. 

ALLAINVAL, Leonor Soulas d', a 
I'rench abbe and dramatic poet, of consi- 
derable merit. He died at Paris, I7-5J. 

ALLAIN DE LA ( OUR TlERr, .1., lH,rn 
In 17J0 ; author of " The History ol Slan." 

ALLAIS, Drni's Vaihaisk n, a rreiicb 
author of tiic I7th century. His priniipal 
iirodiiclion was a political romance, styled, 
'' A History of the Sevarambians." 

ALLAN, David, if S<;oitish portrait and 
historical painter of tlie iHtli century, hoiii 
at Edinburgh. There are sevvrai engrav- 
ings from Ills pictures. Died, 1790. 

ALLAN, Oboror, F. A.S., son of the 
abov(', M. P. for the city of Durham, and 
a principal contributor to NIcholls' LIter.iry 
Anecdotes. Horn, t76i ; died, IH38. 

ALLAN, CiKOHOB, a re8|iectable attorney 
of Darlington, ^ <irkshire, distinguished as 
an antiquary. Died, luun. 

ALLAKD, Guy, a French writer, known 
princiiially by numerous works upon the 
genealogical history of Daiiphiny. Died 
ill I7IU. 

ALLATIUS, Lro, a Greek physh ian and 
man of letters, librarian of ihe Vatican at 
Rome, and professor in the Greek collcj^e 
there. Died, 1609, aged b3. 

ALLEGRAIN, CuRiSTonti'.R Gahrif.i., 
an eminent French sculptor. Died, I7!i5. 

AI.LEGRI, Alexander, an Italian sa- 
tirical poet, wlio llrst served in the army, 
and then became an ecclesiastic. He bad 
a great turn for burlesque poetry ; and his 
principal work, " Rime Piaceovoli," has 
gone through several editions. 

ALLEGIll, GiiF.ooRio, a celebrated Ro- 
man musical roiii)K>ser, whose works are 
still retained In the pontihcal chauei. lite 
chief is th" " Miserere," which is alw 
sung on Good Friday. Died, lOiO, 

AI.LEIN, Joseph, a nonconformist mi- 
nister, known cliielly as the author of " An 
Alarm ro unconverted Sinners," which lias 
ffone through numerous editions. Uoru 
in l6J:i, at Devizes ; died at Datli, I6R8. 

ALLEN, John, archbishop of Dublin and 
chancellor of Ireland, crueily niurdered by 
the son of the earl of Klldare, 1534. 

ALLEN, Thomas, an eminent scholar in 
the reign of Elizabeth, considered the tirst 
mathematician of bis day. Born, liVi ; 
died, 1032. 

ALLEN, Ira, an American topographer 
of the I8th century ; author of a '♦ History, 
Natural and Political, of the State of Ver- 
mont," published in 1798. 

ALLEN, Ethan, an American general 
during the war with England. As a mili- 
tary man, he was liighly distinguisiied for 
courage and address; but he nas the un- 
fortunate stigma of being the lirst American 
author who advocated inlidelity. He died 
in 1803. 

ALLEN, Thomas, an Industrious writer 
and compiler of antiouarian and historical 
works ; the chief of which were, •' The His- 
tory and Antiquities of Lambeth ;" " The 
History and Antiquities of London, West- 
minster, and Southwark;" with various 
county histories. Born in 1803, and died, 
of cholera, July, 1833. 

ALLEN, Anthony, a lawyer and anti- 
quary of the I3th century. 

ALLERSTAIN, a German Jesuit of the 
18th century. He was one of the mission- 



he that is wise in small matters, will not be foolish in larob ones. 



1 » 

I ' 






a fi,t\D AAnittnal Dtograpfip. 


'irict (oCliliin, wlierc li«! ilicil; anil w:i« iiu- 
(liiir of loiiiK titlimlilt- ontruiioiiikal olncr- 
viiiloiu. Uleil uUoiit 177k. 

ALLKSTKY, Kiciiahp, born at U|.|>Im({- 
tnii, in Slirn|ithlr<-, IAIi>, wm u (tililfllt of 
Cliriii Cliiircli, Oxloiil, ami oriKinally iW- 
Hi)fnvd for lilt; church ; lint (Jnnni; the civil 
»ara, h(> J'lini-il the royal army, and wai 
iircM-nt a( llic battle of Ki'iiiton, At tbe 
Itcittor.illon he tmik ordcm, anil iiib«e- 
'inintly etijnyed many clerical di^nitiei. 
I>ii'(l at F.tiin, lOBO. 

ALLKY, William, a zcaloii* nicnibrr of 
the ri-roriniil church, wan Ixirii at tircat 
Wycombe, liuckliiKliaiUHhire, made liiHhop 
orKxelerin IMuby Kll/abcth,anddied, IA7U. 
AI.LKYN, EnwAiiD, a celebrated actor 
In the reifrn* of Kll/abeth and Janiei, and 
foiiniler of Dulwlch College, was born In 
London, 1566. He was the flnt maiiter of 
hit own collei^e, and, dying in 1036, wa* 
buried in iti chapel. 

ALLIONI, Charles, a celebrated phyil- 
clan, medical writer, and pruremior of bo- 
t.iny in the universily of 'I'uiint Uorn, ITU ; 
lied, 1604. 

AI.LIX, Prtrr, a learned divine, born 
at Aleti<;on, in France, lUit, wan miiiixter 
of tlie Reformed Cliurch at Koiieii ami 
Cliarenton. On the repeal of the Udict of 
Nanteii, he came to KnKland, was created 
l>. U. at Oxfo.-d, and made treasurer of the 
church at Saliiibiiry. Died in London, 1717. 
AI.LOISI, Ualtiiazar, a Itologneoe liis- 
toric.il and portrait painter, who obtained 
the name of Galanino. Died, I63H. 

ALI.OKI, Albxanokr, a Florentine 
painter, who excelled in naked figures. 
Me died in 1607. 

ALLORI, CHIII8T0PHAN0, Called also 
Dhonzino, the son of the above, was also 
an eminent painter, chiefly dlRtiiiguished 
for his small pictures. Died, 1619. 

ALLY (Vizier), ex nabob of Oiidc, was 
the adopted son of the former nabob of 
Uude, Ausuf ab Dowlah, who declared him- 
self Kiicccssor. The English government, 
however, deposed him In favour of the 
brother of Ausuf, but settled on him a pen- 
sion of £35,000. >Yliile eiigaged witli the 
agents of the East India Company, who 
had been sent to meet him at lieiiares for 
the purpose of making arrangements for 
his future residence, he gave a signal, on 
which his armed followers rushed in and 
treacherously murdered the Company's 
officers. For a time he made his escape, 
but surrendered on condition that his life 
should be spared. Died in prison, 1817, 
aged only 36. 

ALMAGRO, DiEOO d', a Spaniard of 
low origin, who accompanied I'izarro in 
the expedition against Peru, in which liis 
valour, profligacy, and cruelly were equally 
displayed. In 1535, he took Cuzco, the ca- 
pital of Chill, by storm, and put Atahualpa, 
the last of the Incas, to a most horrid death ; 
but quarrelling with the brolheri of Pizarro 
aiiout the division of their spoil, a schism 
ensued, and Almagro was eventually taken 
prisoner and strangled, 1538. 

ALMAMON, or ABDALLAH, caliph of 
Hagdad. 8on of llaroun al Raschid, suc- 
ceeded ills brother Al Ainin, 814, and died, 

H3.1. lie founded an :ir.i<<emv at llagdad, to 
which he iiiviied able proieiiior* of lan- 
guage* and sciein'CM, and left behind bim a 
character lor clemency aii-l benevolence. | 

ALMANASOR, JACiin, a caliph of the Sa- 
racens III Africa, vilio, after conquering 
territory to the extent of laoo liaKUe* In 
leiigtii, met with such a reverse of fortune, 
that he becameabaker at Alexandria, in the 
exercise of which business he died, in 1305. 

ALIMAN/UR, Nuriianied the Victori<iU4, 
the second caliph of the Iioiim! of Aban, i 
succeeded to the throne In 7.VI. During | 
bis reii,''!! the city of liagdad was rai>i'<l | 
from the rnundatioii, niiu was made the | 
imperial residence. 

ALMAHUS. abbot of the monastery of I 
St. Austin, Canterbury, made bishop of 
Sherborne, loas. 

ALMEIDA, Francisco, > Portuguese, 
appointed in 1505, the first viceroy ol liiilia. 
After a perilous voyage, he crossed ihe 
Cape of Good Hope, and proceetled aloiig 
Ihe coast of Africa, spreading terror and 
desolation ; he reduced several places under 
the dominion of I'ortUKal, gained some ex- 
Ir.iordlnitry victories, and was killed on 
Ills return in a quarrel with the natives at 
the ('ape, in I5u<i. 

ALMEIDA, LoRRNZo, son ol Francisco, 
wiis also an enter|irislng commander and 
navigator, and ilistinguir'ied himself by 
many expeditions in Ihe Indian seas. Ceylon 
was by him made tributary to Portugal. 
I.oren/.o lost his life in an engagement with 
the Egyptian fleet in the bay of Canibaya. 

ALSiELOVEEN, Thbodorb Jansen 
Van, a iibysician, born near Utrecht, was 
a man of deep reading and research, and 
professor of liistory, the Greek language, 
and medicine, at Harderwick. He died at 
Amsterdam, 1743. 

ALMINARA, Marquis, Spanish envoy to 
France from Ciiarles IV.; diplomatist, and 
the author of an able " Reply to ("evallos," 
respecting the former's abdication, and of 
" A History of the Inquisition." 

ALMON, John, a political writer and 
publisher, and the friend of W iikes, was 
born at Liverpool in I7:i8. In 1774 he com- 
menced the Parliamentary Register ; be 
was also the author of a Life of Lord Chat- 
ham, and various biograiihical, political, 
and literary anecdotes. He died in I805. 

ALOADDIN, commonly called the Old 
Man of the Mountains, prince of the Arsn- 
cides, or Assassins. He was the sliiek of 
a Syrian tribe professing the Mahometan 
religion, and from his followers the word 
assassin has its derivation. 

ALOMPRA, the founder of the Ourman 
empire, a man of obscure birth, but who 
raised liimself to Independence and sove- 
reign power, and established a new dynasty 
about the middle of the I8th century. 

ALONZO DE VI ado, a Spanish Liberal, 
born, 1775 ; author of a plan for reforming 
the Spanish armv, of a treatise on architec- 
ture, and several translations. 

ALPHERY. Mikepher or Nicephorus, 
a Russian prince, who, during the civil di;^- 
sensions in his country, came to I^nu'laiul, 
was educated at Oxford, and, In 1018, ob- 
tained the living of V>arlev, Himtiiigdon- 






I. ^- 



iliul, In 

il Ull- 

1 hlni It 



Ill)- Sa- 





, 111 lli<; 


ill liOA. 



AImk, 1 

Uiirliiir ' 


ktlu llic 


Jery of 

llo|) of 




rd ihu 


1 alonir 
or uiid 



It UlldiT 



nif tx- 


li'd on 

Ivi-fi at 


or iiiid 



M-\f by 











It, wa» 


h, and 




died at 



ivoy to 


st, and 




and of 



r and 


i, wag 


; coni- 


•; he 




3 llrto Qilntbrrtial tSiograpt)i;. 


•liire, whpiK-r he w»( ■ iccli'd In the civil 
w:ir. At |li« R)'«t(>rikn<.ik hewn* rcln^iiilvd 
III III* ll»lii|{; and, ilthoUKh tulcu Inviicil 
to rrliirii to IliUKJa. lor the |>iir|i<>i<e of bo- 
liilf iil'.ictil (III thr llirone, In- prrlVrri''! re- 
nialiiinif In ihit roimirt wllli hi* llnrk. Ilu 
died at HanimiTtiiiich, ' the ajfc of Ho. 

ALI'HONSO I., or AL( Uo KNRIUlJi:/, 
nmt kliiir of I'orltiif"!, non of Henry of 
Itiirirntidy. ronnt <>( Cortiitral. ilr foiivht 
iiu'i-conl'iilly ai{'.ilni)t the Moort, ralM-il hU 
country to ,i iiowcriiil monarchy, and died, 
llHi, after a relKii ol ,^ year*. 

Al.iMIONSO III., the (Jreat, king of the 
Akiiirlaii, horn 84~, kiu ceeded lii>t father 
<»rdo({<.|io, Hl.>, iui<l dieil nt Zaniora, 9IJ. 
He ciiii(|iicred niauy |>laceii from the Moor*, 
w»n a (latriin of Icsriieil m"ii, and dl^lln- 
lf*il»heil hlniHcIf f»r piitv and jimtlce. 

ALPHONSO IV., iiirnained the Urave, 
■on of klni( UeniN, wlioin he Riicceedcd, 
1331, wa* an able and iniiiartial itovirelKii, 
and died, i:«7. 

ALI'HONSO v., aiirnained the Maifnan- 
ImoiM, king; of Arntfcon, born, I3H4, ruc- 
rceded his ruber, Ferdinand the Jnut, MI6, 
and died at Naples, Mi8, Icavinir hln .Neapo- 
litan dominioiiit to bin natural non Ferdi- 
nand, and tliofie of Spain, iiardwiia, and Si- 
cily to hli brother Juan, kins; of Navarre. 
Thl« monarch wan accounted the most ac- 
cnmpliithed prince of tii« time: he trave 
ihelter to the Greek literati expelled from 
C'onfttantlnople, and wa« in other rcRpects 
a great patron of learning. 

ALI'HONSO X., called the Wise, klnpfof 
leon and Castile, siucceeded hin father, 
Ferdinand III., I3.il, ani died, l3Ht, aifed 
81. Ak a ruler, Alphonso wa« nilii)(uided 
and unfortunate ; but a« a patron and an 
encourager of the icIenccH, he obtained 
much reputation. He completed a code of 
laws, began by hU father, Ktill known under 
the title of " Las Tartldas," and preceded 
the other nations of Europe In mibstltutiiig 
the vernacular tongue for tlie Latin in l.iw 
proceedings, HiR favourite puiKUit, how- 
ever, was astronomy, and he employed the 
most famous astronomers to draw up the 
celebrated taoles called after him the Alphon- 
sine Tables, which were first published at 
Venice, H81. 

a voiuminou« Spanish writer, who llourislied 
during the Uth century. 

ALPINI, Prospero, a Venetian physi- 
cian, born, lii6J, and died, 1617. He was 
the greatest botanist of his day, the first 
who explained the impregnation and gene- 
ration of plants by the sexual system, and 
is the author of many valuable works on his 
favourite pursuit. 

ALSOP, Anthony, an eminent English 
divine and scholar, tfourlshed in the early 
part of the last century, and died, 1726. 
His principal work was a selection from 
^8op, entitled *• Fabularum Aisopicarum 
Delectus," published in 1698. 

ALSOP, Vincent, a nonconformist di- 
vine of the I7th century, born in North- 
aniptonshire. He became minister of 
"elby, ^in that county, whence he was 
ejected in 1662, and, at his death, in 1703, 
was pastor to a dissenting congregation in 

ALSOP, KlcilARi), a native f>f Mi'Idle- 
town, In Connrrilriit, North Aiiierui ; ,i 
niNcellaneoiK wilier, and llie lriUl^l.kl<>|■ ni 
various work* Ironi liie Freiitli and liall in ; 
aiiioiiit wlileh was ibe " Natural andChil 
llutory of Chill," from the Italian of .Mo- 
lina. Horn, 17.50; died, IHlj. 

AI.STKDItJS, John IIrnrv, a r.rrinaii 
philosopher and Protestant divliiu, horn 
about l.<HH, and died, I6:ih ; author of some 
celebrated theoloif leal eolleetions, but cliii lly 
known for Ills Encyclopiidla. 

ALSTON, ("iiAHi.rs, an iMiilnent Si-ntch 
physician aii<l botanist; author of " Tiro- 
ciniiiin DolaiiK-iim Kdinbiirifiiise," v,c. ; 
and public lecturer at I'llinburgh. Horn, 
I6HJ ; (lied, I7i>0. 

ALSTKOEMI-.R, Jonas, a dMInguMied 
Swede, born of poor parents at Allni.Ms. 
West Gothland, In Itifi^. Afti r strutrirllnif 
with poverty for a long time, be tlMiid 
London, and paying parlliular allcrition to 
the eonimerrlal ami inaiiiif.ictiiri<i«- sources 
of British prospi'rity, he relumed to Swe- 
den In I73:i, resfdviiiij to carry tlie plans he 
had formetl Into execution. Ila\ini{ oh 
tallied a license to establish manufactures 
In the town in which he was liorii, II soon 
became the seat of Industry and acti*ity, 
which afforded an e\arn|ile to the whole 
kingdom. He estahlishrd a sugar house ul 
Gotienbiirgh, and traded to the Indies and 
the Levant; Improved rural eeoimniy ; cul- 
tivated plants iirnper for dyeing ; a°nd im- 
proved the wool trade, by importing sheep 
from Spain and England, and the goat t'loni 
Aiigor.i. For tlieoe important lienctiis, Al- 
Rlroemer received a patent of nobilit\, was 
made Knight of the Polar Star, aiid ho- 
noured with the title of Chancellor of iDm- 
merct! ; the Academy of Sciences ciiose liim 
a member, and the national states decreed 
him a st line to be erected to liis memory 
(m till- exchange of Stockholm. Died iTiii. 

ALTAEIMP-S, Mark, a iiepln w of pope 
Pins IV., memorable as one of the ••ardi- 
iials in tlie council of Trent. 

ALTEII, Francis Ciiaiu.ks, a Genn.in 
Jesuit and I us critic; (ireek feiicher 

in the scho' of St. Anne at Vienna, in 
which capital he died, Ib04. 

ALI HAMERL'S, a divine of Nuremberg ; 
author of various theological works, and a 
principal promoter of the Reformation In 
Uerne, Switzerland. Died, 1 !.')(». 

ALTICOZZI, Lorf.N/o, a Jesuit of Cor- 
toiia, born, 16h9 ; died, 1777. He was the 
author of several polemical tre;itises, hut 
chieily known by his work, " The Sum of 
St. Augustine." 

ALTILIO, Gabriel, aNeapolitan; author 
of some Laiin poems of great beauty. He 
was tutor to prince Feniinand, son of Al- 
phonsus II., and was subsequently made 
bishop of Pollcastro. Died, 1501. 

ALTING, Henrv, an eminent German 
divine, born at Embden, I.5b3 ; died, 101 1. 
He distinguished himself at the synod of 
Dort, as "ileputy from tiie Palatinate, and 
did much in advancement of the Proie.>tant 
interest in Germany by his lein|ieiaic con- 
duct and abilities as a reasoner. ISorn, 
la»3 ; died, 1644. 

ALTING, James, son of the above, was 










^ lleto ^nibcrsal 13iograp^s. 


e(liic:UL(l ill Groiiiufftii, ;iiid came to Eng- 
laiiil, ulufrx' III' was ord.iiiied a priest of the 
I'liuroli by tl:e bi»lio|i of Worcester. In 
Hill, iiL' was clioseii Hebnw professor at 
(Jroiiiiijjeii, and afterwards professor of 
divinity, liorii, KilHj died, 1679. 

ALIlNfi, Menson, a burgomaster of 
Gioniiij,'eii, aiillior of the best description of 
the Low Countries now extant. Died, 1713. 
ALTISSIMO, ll>f poetical surname of an 
Italian pnet named Cliristoplier. His sur- 
name and a poetic crown were given to bim 
on account of liis great popnfcirity as an 

ALTMAN, John Georoe, a Swiss histo- 
rian and divine, curate of Inns in tlie same 
canton, and prn^e^so^ of moral pliilosopliy 
and Grecliat Ucrne. Born, 1697. Died, 1758. 
AI.TUORFKR, or ALTORF, Albert, a 
, Bavarian iiaiiilcr, architect, and entfraver. 
i He ni^ied himself by liis merits to the rank 
j oi senator of Ratishon, which city he adorned 
I with many handsome editices. Born, MSB; 
I died, 1576. 

ALURED, an ancient Enu'lish historian, 
I who llourished in the l)i-ginniiis of the 1:2th 
I century. His annals are very valuable, and 
' coinprisp the history of the Britons, Saxons, 
I'.iiid Normans, down to his own time, 11'.'!). 

I Al.VA, Feiidnand Alvarez, dnke of, 

the dcscenita.U of an illustrious family in 

i Spain, was a famous general under theempe- 

I rors Charles V.,aiid Philip II. He made his 

first caiJiiiaign at the battle of Pavia. At 

I tiife siege of Metz he performed prodig-ies 

: of valour ; and in the war with the pope he 

was completely successful ; but he was as 

cruel as he was brave. In I5i)7, Philip sent 

him to reduce the Low Countries, then in 

I a stale of revolt. Here he landed with 

] 10,000 men, and immediately commenced 

ja series of cruelties almost unparalleled in 

I the annals i^f history, annihilating every 

I remaining privilej^e of the people. He was 

I subsequently employed ajhtinst Don Aii- 

( toiiio, who had assumed the crown of Por- 

1 tu)>:al, and drove him from that kinerdom, 

tlie whole of which he reduced to Pnili|)'8 

authority. Died in 1589, ag'cd 74. 

ALVARI.Z, Emanuel, a distinguished 
Poriiit^uese grammarian, born at Madeira, 
loSii, and died at the college of Evora, of 
which he was rector, 1582. 

AI,VAR\i)0, Don Pedro, one of the ra- 
))aciou3 conquerors of Spanish America, 
who accompanied Cortes to America. He 
was appointed to the irovernment of Guati- 
mala, and was slain in 1541. 

ALVARAUO, Alphonso d', a Spanish 
adventurer, who accompanied Pizarro in his 
expedition to Peru; and who was equally 
distinguished for his bravery and his cru- 
elty. Died, 1553. 

ALVAREZ, Francis, a Portuguese di- 
vine, born at Colmbra, towards the end of 
the 15th centurv, and died, 1540, leaving 
behind him in Portuguese an account of 
his embassy to David, king of Abyssinia, 
and a description of Ethiopian man ^rs ami 
customs, which is deemed the first accurate 
account of Abyssinia. 

ALVAREZ, GoMKZ, a Spanisli poet. The 
chief of his works, which were written in 

Latin, is a 

poein on the Order of the Gol- 
den Fleece. Born, 148B; died, 1538. 

ALVAROTTO, . I AME9,a lawyer of Padua, 
distinguished for his attainments both in the 
civil and canon law; author of " Commen- 
taria In Llbros Feudorum." Born, 1474 ; 
died, 1542. 

ALVENSLEBEN, Philip Chas., Count 
d', son of a counsellor of war at Hanover, was 
a distinguished diplomatist, and In 1791 was 
placed at the head of the department for 
foreign affairs at Hanover, in which he 
gave general satisfaction. The Count 
wrote a " History of the War from the 
the Peace of Munster to that of Hubetts- 
bourg." Born, 1745; died, 1802. 

ALVIANO, Bartholomew, an eminent 
Venetian general, whose exertions against 
the eniperor Maximilian, in 1508, caused 
the republic to decree him triumphal ho- 
nours. In the siege of Padua by the em- 
peror, and at the battles of La Motte and 
Alariu'uano, Alvlano displayed the most he- 
roic qualities. His deatli was occasioned by 
excessive fatigue while laying siege to Bres- 
cia. Born, 1455; died, 1515. 

ALXINGER, J. B., born at Vienna, in 
1755 ; author of some admired German po- 
ems and translations. Died, 1797< 

ALYPIIJS, an architect of Antioch, em- 
|)ioycd by Julius in his attempt to rebuild 
tlie temple of Jerusalem. He was subse- 
quently banished, on a charge of practising 
the black art, and died in exile. Alypius 
urote a " Geographical Description of the 
World," published in 1B28 at Geneva. 

ALYPIUS, bishop of Tagasta, Africa, the 
friend of St. Augustine, with whom he was 
baptized at Milan, in 386. He opposed the 
Donatists and Pelagians with great zeal ; 
and died in 430. 

AMADEDDULAT, frst sultan of the 
Buiyan dynasty, was the son of a flsherman 
of Dilem, on the Caspian Sea. He rose to 
distinction in the armies of Mal>:an, sultan 
of Dilem, and subsequently gained pos- 
session of Persia Proper, Persian Irak, and 
Kcrman, of whicli lie assumed tlie sove- 
reignty, and fixed tlie seat of his govern- 
ment at Schiraz, in 933. He died, 949, and 
left his crown to his nephew, Adadeildulat. 

AMADEUS v., count of Savoy, succeeded 
to the sovereignty of that state, 1285, and 
died at Avignon, 1323. Although a prince 
of such small dominions, lie acquired the 
surname of Great, from his wisdom and 

AMADEUS VIU., count of Savoy, electetl, 
1391, and died, 1451. He vvas one of the 
most singular characters ' . his time ; and, 
from his prudence in keeping peace with his 
neighbours, obtained the title of the Pacific. 

AMADEUS IX., count of Savoy, altliough 
undistinguished by deeds of renown, de- 
serves honourable mention as a prince who 
possessed all the Christian virtues in an 
eminent degree, and particularly that of 
charity. He married lolande, of France, 
who seconded him in all his good works; 
and his subjects conferred on him the title 
of the Blessed. He died, universally re- 
gretted, 1472. 

AMADUZZI, John Christopher, a 
learned Roman of the I8ih century ; in- 

leahning is the ornament op youth and cohfort of aoe. 


































lawyers' houses are built on the HKAU3 OK tools. 

A M A ] 

^ lletD QAnibersal l^iograp^y. 


spector of the printing office of the Propa- 
ganda at Unme. 

A MAI A, Francis, a Spanisli lawyer of 
niiioh reputation, and professor of legal sci- 
ence at Salamanca, but afterwards a coun 
seller at Vallailolid, where he died, 1640. 

a Persian poet in the lifth century, » ..ter- 
tained at the court of sultan Kliedar Khan, 
who instituted an academy ol poets, of 
which lie made Amak president. His chief 
poem is the " History of tlie Loves of Jo- 
seph and Zulelskah.'' 

AMAI.ARIUS, FoRTUNATUa, archbishop 
of Treves in 810. He established Christianity 
in Saxony, consecrated a church at Ham- 
burgh, and was sent ambassador in 813 to 
Constantinople by Charlemagne. Died, 8U. 

AMALTHEOS, Attilius, made archbishop 
of Athens, by Paul V., who sent hiiu nuncio 
to Cologne. Died, I6U0. 

AMALTHEUS, Jerome, an Italian phy- 
sician and poet of some repute ; born, ijo7, 
and died, 1 57'!. 

AMALTHEUS, John Baptist, brother 
of the above, was born, IS-i5 ; attended the 
Venetian ambassador (o England, and, on 
his return, was made secretary to pope 
Pins IV. His Latin poems were printed, 
ISSO; and he died, I&73. 

AMALTHEUS, Cornelius, another bro- 
ther of the above, was also eminent in 
physic and poetry. 

AMAND, Mark Anthony Gerard, 
Sieiir de St., a French poet, born at Rouen, 
1594, and died, 1661. He was one of the 
first members of the French academy, and 
distinguished himself in amatory and comic 

AMAR DURIVIER, J. A., born in 1765 ; 
autlior of a great variety of literary works, 
translations from Gay, Terence, Lucan, &c. 

AMARA-SINGHA, a Hindoo author of 
great antiquity, who compiled a dictionary 
of the Sanscrit language, part of which was 
published at Rome, 17UB. An entire manu- 
script copy of tht original is in the royal 
library at Paris, written in the century 
preceding the birth of Ciirist. 

AMARETTf, Abbe C, a Milanese mi- 
neralogist, born ill 1743 ; author of " Vi- 
aggjo di Trilaghi," " Memoirs of l.eonardo 
di Vinci,'' Sec. ice. He was a knight of 
Napoleon's order of the Iron Crown. 

AMASEO, Romulus, an eminent »eachcr 
of the belles lettres at Padua, wliere he 
had himself completed his education.. Re- 
moving to Bologna, where he married, he 
acquired so high a reputation that he was 
admitted to the citizenship. His celebrity 
at length caused him to be invited to Rome 
by Paul III., by whom he was employed in 
various embassies; and by Julius III. he 
was appointed secretary of the briefs. He 
translated Pausanias and the Cyrus of 
Xenophon into Latin ; and published a 
volume of his own Latin speeches. Born, 
1489; died, 1653. 

AMATI, a celebrated violin maker of 
Cremona, who lived about the year 1600. 

AMATUS, a Portuguese Jew, born, 15H, 
at Castel Bianco. He studied medicine 
with success at the university of Salamanca, 


and afterwards gave lectures on tin- science 
at Fcrrara, Aucona, aud other phiccs. He 
published two treatises on subjects con- 
nected with his profession. 

AMAURl, DK Chartres, a Frcmli vi- 
sionary of the 13th century, who inaiiiljiiicd 
the eternity of matter, and that religion 
ha<l three epochs, agreeable to the tlircc 
persons of the Trinity. Mis ojilnioiis were 
condemned by the council ol Paris, r.>09, 
and some of liis followers burnt. To avoid 
a similar fate, he renounced bis errors, but 
died of vexation. 

AMBERGER, Christopher, a painter 
of Nuremberg in the 16(h century, was a 
disciple of Hans Holbein. Mis principal 
work is the history of Josepli, in twelve 
pictures. Amberger was likewise a good 
engraver in wood. Died, liJO. 

AMBOISE, Francis, a French writer, 
educated in the college of Navarre, and 
afterv»ards an advocate in the parliament 
of Paris, and counsellor of slatt;. He pub- 
lished several poetical pieces in Frendi and 
Latin, but is chieHv known as the collector 
and editor of the works of the celebrated 
Abelard. He died al>out 1612. 

AMBOISE, (iEoar.R u', a French cardi- 
nal and minister of state, born of a noble 
famllv, 1460. He became successively bi- 
shopofMontauban, archbishop of Narlionne, 
and lastly of Rouen. I.ouis Xll. made him 
prime minister, and he soon acquired great 
popularity by taking olT llic taxes which 
Iiad been usually levied on the people at 
the accession of every new monarch. The 
king, bv his advice, undertook the conquest 
of the 'Milanese, which succeeded. Soon 
after this, he was appointed the [mpe's le- 
gate in France, with the dignity ot cardi- 
nal, and in that capacity etiected a great 
reform among the religious orders. He 
died in 1510. 

AMBOISE, Amert d', a famous French 
admiral, and brother of the above, who 
giined a splendid victory over the sultan 
of Egypt, in I->10. 

AMBOISE, Michael d', a natural son 
of Amboise, admiral of France, born at 
Naples, and died in great poverty, 1547. 
He was the autlior of numerous poems in 
the French language, whicli he published 
under the name of the Signior de Cliavilloii. 

AMBROGI, Antoine, a Roman Jesuit 
and poet, was born in 1712. He translated 
Virgil and some of the works of Voltaire 
into Italian. Died, VbS. 

AMBROGIO, Tesco, one of the most 
celebratevi among the early Italian orien- 
talists, was born at I'avia, in 14G9, and 
died, r>40. 

AMBROSE, St., bishop of Milan, was 
born, 340, at Aries, in Gallia Narbonensis, 
of which province his father was lieutenant. 
While yet a youth, lie pleaded causes with 
so much eloqu;'nce, that Probiis, prefect of 
Italy, chose him one of his council, and 
afterwards nominated hir-i governor of 
Milan, which office he held five years. In 
374, Auxeutius, bishop of Milan, died ; and 
so fierce was the contest in the election of 
a successor to the vacant see, that the go- 
vernor was called upon to quell the tumult. 
This be attempted by persuasion in the 

liberty under a good oovernhent is tub most rational indepencbncb. 



1 ; 


A me] 

^ j^eb ^nibetfial ISiograp^p. 


grciit cliiirch ; and at the conclusion of his 
iiddress, a voi( e in the crowd exclainied, 
" Ambrose is bisliop." Thi» circiinistaiice 
was considered as »( divine direction, and 
Atnhrose was declared to be the object not 
onlv of the popular choice, but of divine se- 
lection. His hrst eflbrts were directed to 
the extermination of Arianis.m. which was 
then making (jreat uropress. He also suc- 
cessfully resisted the Pagans, who were 
atienipliMff to restore their ancient worship. 
When Maximinus invaded Italy, and ac- 
tually entered IMilan, Ambrose remained 
at his post, to assuage the calamities pro- 
duced uy the invading a'"'"}'; When, in 
I'onseciuenre of a tumult at Thessaionica, 
Theodosius sent an order for a general 
massacre, Ambrose repaired to the empe- 
ror, iemonstrate<l with liini on his barbarity, 
anri prevailed on him to promise that the 
cf)mmand should be revoked. The mandate 
was, however, carried into execution, and 
7000 persons were slaughtered in cold 
Ijlood. Shortly afterwards, when Theodo- 
sius, in the anguish of self-reproach, was 
about to enter the great church of Milan, 
Amijrose met him at the porch, and sternly 
forbade him to appear m the holy place. 
The emperor pleiided the example of Da- 
vid : — " You have imitated David in his 
crime, imitate him in his repentance," was 
the reply ; and Theodosius was compelled, 
not only to perform a penance, but to sign 
an edict, which ordained that an interval 
of thirty days should pass before any sen- 
tence of death or of confiscation should be 
executed. He died at Milan, in 397. 

AAIBROSI, John, an Italian astrono- 
mer, whose Dialogue on Astronomy is in 
the Index Ex|)urgatoriu8. 

Britons. He came from Armorica to assist 
in expelling the Saxons, who had been in- 
vited over by Vortigern ; and on the death 
of that monarch tne sovereignty was in- 
vested in him. Died, at Winchester, in S08. 

AMBKOSINI, Ambrozio, a Ferrarese : 
author of several oratorios, canzoni, and 
sonnets ; died in 1700. 

AMBROSINI, GiuLio,aMantuan, born in 
IStiO ; author of a work on Demonology. 

AMEILHON, Hubert Pascal, a learned 
Frenchman, born^ 1730 ; author of " His- 
toire du Bas t^mpire," of a celebrated work 
on the Commerce of the 
of •' Researches into the Me'cl 
of the Ancients." Died, IBII. 

AMELIA, Anne, princess of Prussia, 
sister of Frederick the Great, born, 1723, 
and died, I7»'2» She was distinguished by 
her taste for the arts, and set to music 
" The Death of the Messia! ," by Ramler. 

AMELIA, duchess d-ivager of Saxe 
Weimar, born, 1739, duchess of Brunswick 
and Liineburg. At the age of 17 she mar- 
ried, and in I7S7 gave birth to a son, but 
lost the duke, her husband, the year fol- 
lowing, in the discharge of her duties as 
regent she was most exemplary ; and libe- 
rally patronized men of learning and ge- 
nius, among whom were Wieland, Goethe, 
Schiller, and Herder. Died, 1807. 

AMELIA, youngest child of George III. 
and queen Cliarlotte ; a princess who in 

Egyptians, and 


mind and manners was amiable and accom- 
plished, and whose taste for the fine arts 
was only equalled by her fervent piety and 

f>ure benevolence. She possessed in the 
lighest degree the affection of her royal 
father, and her death is supposed to have 
had the most serious effect upon the state 
of his mind. Born, 1783 ; died, 1810. 

AMELOT, N., a French minister of stale 
in 1788, who was accused of persecuting one 
Latude, as the agent of M. Ponipador, dur- 
ing the ancient regime. For some offence 
to the republicans, he was imprisoned in 
the Luxemburg, where his life was saved 
and prolonged by a young female, who 
avowed a passion for him ; but at length 
he died in the prison. His victim, Latude, 
on escaping from the Bastile, brought an 
action of damages, and recovered from 
Amelot's heirs. 

las, a French historian of the 17th century. 
He resided for some time at Venice, as sec- 
retary to the French embassy, and wrote a 
history of its government. He also trans- 
lated The Prince (by Machiavel), and other 
Italian works into Frencli. Died, 1706. 

AMELUNGHI, Jerome, a Pisan poet, 
preceding Tasso in the mock-heroic style ; 
author of" La Gigantea del Forabosco," 
in 1547. 

AMENTA, N., an admired Neapolitan 
poet, born in 1659; author of " La Cos- 
tan^a," " La Fon;a," " La Cariotta," 
" La Gemelle," comedies, &e. &c. 

AMERBACH, John, a printer of Basil, 
in the isth century ; the first who us^d the 
Roman type instead of Gothic and Italian. 
Died, IS 15. 

AMERBACH, Boniface, son of the 
above, syndic of Basil; an intimate <riend 
of Erasmus. Died, 1302. 

AMERBACH, Vitus, a learned professor 
at Wittemburg, in the 16th century : editor 
of the orations of Isocrates and Demos- 
thenes ; and translator of selections from 
Epiphanius and St. Chrysostom. 

AMERICUS VESPUCIUS, or, more pro- 
perly, Amerigo Vespucci, an eminent 
navigator, was borr. at)Florenee, in 1451. 
After receiving a liberal education, he was 
sent by his father to Spain for the purpose 
of conducting his commercial affairs ; and, 
being at Seville when Columbus was making 
preparations for his second voyage, he re- 
solved to quit mercantile pursuits, and 
enter on the career of discovery. His first 
expedition to the new continent was in 149< . 
under the command of OJeda, a year afts. 
the discovery and examination of that part 
of the coast by Columbus. After this he 
entered the service of king Emmanuel of 
Portugal, and made two voyages in Por- 
tuguese ships ; the first in 1501 ; the second 
in 1503. Thfi object of this last voyage was 
to find a westerly passage to Malacca. He 
arrived at Brazil, and discovered the Bay 
of All Saints. In 1S05, he again entered the 
service of the king of Spain, but made no 
more voyages, as appears from memo- 
randa, showing that he was at Seville till 
1508. at which time he was appointed prin- 
cipal pilot. His duties were to prepare 
charts, and prescribe routes for vessels in 
their voyagess to the new world, which 










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ami] a i^eto ^ftnibersal litograpi^j). [amm | 

soon received his name. This honour 
certainly belomjcd to Columbus rather 
than to Anieriuro, for the vjrior discovery of 
the continent by the former is not to be 
questioned. He died in I,>|6. 

AMES, William, an En^lisli divine of 
the time of J-.imcs I. and Charles I. lie 
was author of a vast number of controver- 
sial treatises, but is now cliieHy known by 
his " Medulla Theologica," and " Treatise 
on Conscience." Died, i633. 

AMES, FisHFR, an American political 
writer. In 1768 he became a member of 
the house of representatives, and distin- 
guished himself as a |)olitician. He retired 
from professional business in 1796, but was 
chosen president of Harvard colU ■;je. Tiie 
works of Mr. Ames were published at Bos- 
ton, 1809. Born, 1758; died, 18U4. 

AMES. Joseph, the celebrated historian 
of British typograpliy, was born at Yar- 
mouth, 1689, auddied, 1759. His father ap- 
prenticed liim to a plane-maker in London; 
and, after serving out Ins time, he became 
a ship-chandler at Wapping, which busi- 
ness, notwithstanding his antiquarian pur- 
suits, he carried on uniil his death. He 
early discovered a taste lor English history 
and antiquities ; and brought out, in 1749, 
after a labour of 25 years, ^' Typographical 
Antiquities ;" being an historical account 
of printing in England, with some memoirs 
of ancient printers, and a register of tlie 
books printed by them from 1471 to ICOO; 
with an appendix concerning printing in 
Scotland and Ireland to the same time. 

AMHERST, Jeffery, lord, a distin- 
guished British olticer, was descended from 
an ancient Kentish family, near Sevenoaks, 
where he was born, 1717. He entered into 
the army in 1731, and became aide-de camp 
to lord l.igonier, with whom he served at 
the battles of Koroux, Dettingcn, and Fonte- 
noy. In 1758 he was sent to America, 
where he captured Louisbourg, and all its 
dependencies in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
This was Collowed by tlie reduction of Fort 
du Quesne, Niagara, and 1'iconderago, 
which paved the way for the entire con- 
quest of Canada. For these services, ge- 
neral Amherst received the thanks of oar- 
liamect, and the order of the Bath.' In 
M Ll763 he was made governor of Virginia; 
-*and, in 1776, created baron Amherst. In 
179S, he resigned the commandership-in- 
chief to the duKe of York, and the following 
year received the rank of rield-niarshaf. 
He died in 1797. 

AMHURST, Nicholas, an English poli- 
tical and miscellaneous writer, born at 
Marden, Kent, 170I, and died, 1743. He 
was author of the " Terree Filius," a sati- 
rical work on tlie university of Oxford ; and 
published, witli the assistance of Fulteney 
and lord Bolingbroke, the work by which he 
is most known, entitled "The Craftsman." 

AMICO, Antonio, a Sicilian priest, and 
canon of the cathedral of Palermo, distin- 
guished by some considerable works in his- 
tory and antiquities; for which Fliilip IV. 
of 'Spain, made him historiographer royal. 
Died, 1641. 

AMICO, ViTO Maria, a professor of the- 
oloey in the 18th century ; principally known 
by his Sicilian antiquities. 

AMIC'OM, GiACOMO, a Venetian liistnri- 1 
cal and portrait painter, who visited l"ni<laiid i 
in 17'.'9. He afterwards went to Spain, w.is \ 
appointed portrait painter to llie kin;;, and \ 
died there, 175a. | 

AMILCAR, a Carthaginian general, of i 
great valour, was descended from the an- 
cient kings of Tyre; ami beinjj early en- 
trusted with military command, he distin- 
guished himself in the wars of Carthage, 
particularly against the Romans, towards 
wliom he bore an implacable hatred. He 
was the father of Hannibal. 

AMIOT, Father, one of the most learned 
of the French niissinii,\ries to China, born at 
Toulon, 1718, and ilied at Fekin, l7Ji, aged 
77. This zealous Jesuit, wlio arrived at 
Macao in 1750, was invited to Pekiii, in 
1751, by the emperor of China, and remained 
in that capital 43 years. By continued ap- 
plication he became acquainted with tlie 
Cliinese and Tartar languas^es; and, from 
time to time, remitted to France the result 
of his labours, which afterwards appeared 
in several publications. 

AMINTA, T., author of the mock-heroic 
poem, " La Nanea," in 1J6G. 

AM^IAN. Tiiere were three noted phy- 
sicians of this name. The first, John Con- 
rad, a native of Schaffliaiisen, was born, 
1669, and ilied, 17'^4, at Mariniind, in the 
Netiierlaiids. He was chieliy distingnislied 
by Ills success in teaching persons born deaf 
and dumb to speak. -His son, John, was a 
fellow of the Royal Society in London, and 
a member of the Academy of Sciences at 
Petersburgh, wliere he lectured on botany, 
and acquired great reputation ; lie dieil, 
1740. — The third, Paul, was a native of 
Ureslaw, who settled in 1674 at Leipsic, 
where he gave lectures on physiology, na- 
tural history, and botany ; he (lie<l, 1691. 

AMMAN, Justus, a famous engraver and 
f inter at Zurich, in the 16th century. He 
pitintcd with great brilliancy on glass, but 
excelled chiefly in engraving, both on wood 
and copper. Died, 1591. 

AMMANATI, Bartholomew, a Floren- 
tine architect and sculptor in tlie I6tli cen- 
tury, whose chief performances are the co- 
lossal statue of Neptune at Venice, and tlie 
stttue of Hercules at Padua. 

AMMIANUS, MARCRLi.iNfs, a Latin his- 
torian of the tourtli century, born at An- 
tioch. He wrote the lioman liistorv from 
the reign of Nerva to tlie death of Valens, 
in 31 books, of which only la are extant; 
and died about a9u. 

AMMIRATO, SciPio, an esteemed Nea- 
politan poet, born In 1531; author ot" a 
" History of Florence," which lie wrote at 
the instance of the Grand Duke Cosmo ; of 
the " Argomenti " to " Orlando Furioso ;'' 
and of numerous prose tracts, political and 
historical. Died, 1601. 

AMMON, Andreas, a Latin poet, born 
at Lucca, in Italy, of whose genius Erasmus 
made frequent and honourable mention. 
He was sent to England in an ofl^cial clia- 
racter, by pope Leo X., and was appointed 
Latin secretary to Heniv VIII. He subse- 
quently became prebendary of Salisbury, 
liavin? previously received some valuable 
church preferment. Died, 1517. • 









^ lleto ^ntberoal IStograp^iD. 


AM MOM US. Tli.re were two pliiloso- 
pliiT* of (liis name, of the pcripiUetic 
scliool ; one Hoiirisiu'il at Athens ahoiit tlic 
year do, and the other t.iiii^ht at Ah-x.indria 
111 ilie sivth century. Thi- latter was a (Hh- 
oiple of I'riieliis, and obtained great reputa- 
tion as a prec< ptor. 

AMMONIUS, a surgeon of Alevandrin, 
who invented a method of extraetiii<^ tlie 
Htone I'roiii the Idadder, wliicli procured hiai 
tlie ^url^.lllle of ihe Llthotonii»t. 

AMMONIUS, Lkvinus, a monk of Flan- 
ileri., niiieh esteemed by Erasmilsi for his 
leiirnin;; and piety. Died, I53(i. 

AMMONIUS SACCAS, a philosopher of 
the third eeiitury, founder of the neo-pla- 
tonic sect, w.is born of Christian parents at 
Alexandria, and died about 24;i. 

AMONTONS, GuiLi.Ai'ME, a French nia- 
tliematician, born in Normandy, iGbJ, and 
died, 17(15. lie devoted himself to tlie litudy 
of natural philosopliy ; and con>tructed a 
new tliermometer, hygroscope, and other 
idiilosophical instrumeiiLs. 

AMOKR, S. D., a Sicilian poet, born in 
I6H; author of " L' Ausfusto," and " 11 
Sesostri," tragedies, kc. &c. 

AMORBI'TI, Charles, a mineralogist, 
born at Oncglia, in the Milanese, 1740, and 
died, isiti. He became one of tlie keepers 
of the Ambrosian library, at Milan, and pub- 
lislied, ill Italian, " A Tour from Milan to 
the Three Lakes of Coino, Lugano, and 
Major." He composed also a great num- 
per of memoirs and tracts, for which he 
was rewarded with the decoration of the 
order of the Iron Crown. 

AMORY, THoitfAS, a dissenting minister 
of eininciiee, born at Taunton, ITOl, and 
died, 1771; leaving behind several volumes 
of sermons, and also the lives of Grove, 
Uensnii, and Chandler. 

AMUIIY, Thomas, a singular character, 
was son of coun>iellor Amory, appointed 
by William III. secretary for the forfeited 
estates in Ireland. He led a very recluse life 
ill hi^ house in Orchard Street, Westmin- 
ster, carefullyshunningcompany,and never 
stirriii!;' out till the evening. He was the au- 
thor oi '• John Huncle," '• Memoirs," and 
other eccentric books. Died, 17B9, aged 97. 

AMDRAIH II., emperor of the Turks, 
was son of Mahomet I., whom he suc- 
ceeded in 1421. He was an exceedingly 
warlike prince, and among his numerous 
victories was that of Varna, in 1444, when 
tlie Christians were defeated, and numbered 
among their slain the king of Hungary. 
George Castriot, celebrated by the nanie 
of Scaiiderbeg, at length put a period to 
tlie career ol Amurath, who died of cha- 
grin at his reverses, in Uol. 

AMURATH III. succeeded his father, 
Si'lim II., in 1375. On his accession, he 
caused liis live brothers to be murdered. 
Died, 1.96. 

AMURATH IV. succeeded Ills uncle Mus- 
tapha in 1622. He recovered Uagdad from 
the Persians, in i6J7 ; after which he put 
30,000 of his prisoners to the sword. D. 1640 

AMVN AHMED, a learned Persian of 
tlie 17th century, who wrote an elaboiate 
work, entitled, " The Seven Climates, or 
a Geogra|ihical Description of tlie East." 

AMYOT, James, bishop of Aiixerre, and 
grand almoner of France, born at Melun, 
of obscure parents, 1514, and died, 15UJ. 
He left the univeisity of Paris at the age 
of 2:), and was reeum mended to the duchess 
of Herri, by wliose means he became pro- 
fessor of Greek and Latin at Oourges. 
He wag afterwards appointed preceptor to 
llie sons of Henry II., and, while engaged 
in this employment, he translated the Lives 
of Plutarch. Charles IX. gave him the ab- 
bey of Cornelius de Conipeigne, and made 
liini grand almoner of France and bishop 
of Auxerre. 

AMYRAUT, Moses, a learned French 
theologian, born at liourgueil, IS96, and 
died, I6i4, very generally respected, not 
only for his moderation and abilities, but 
also for his beneliceiicc and charity. His 
voluminous works are chiefly theological. 

AMYRUTZES, a peripatetic philoso- 
pher, born at Trebizond. He was high in 
favour with the emperor David, and ac- 
companied that prince to ('onstantinople, 
whither the Turks carried him after their 
reduction of Trebizond in 1461. Here lie 
deserted both his sovereign and his reli- 
gion, and assuming tlie name of Mahomet 
aeg, and embracing the Mahometan creed, 
he was much employed by Mahomet II. 

ANACHARSIS, a Scythian philosopher, 
flourished about CUO years B. c. He tra- 
velled to Athens, where he was mucli 
esteemed by Solon, and was the only stran- 
ger the Atlieiiians ever admitted to the ho- 
nour of citizenship. On l><s return to Scy- 
tliia he attempted to introduce some of the 
institutions and customs of Greece ; but 
while in the art of performing a rite to 
Cybele, he was killed by an arrow. 

ANACLETUS, or CLETUS, reckoned by 
Roman Catholics the third ,iope, succeeded 
Sinus as bishop of the church of the Ro- 
mans in 79, and held that office till his 
death in 93, when he was enrolled among 
the saints and martyrs. 

ANACREON, a famous Greek lyric poet, 
born at Teos, Ionia, about the sixth cen- 
tury B. c. He was entertained by Poly- 
crates at Sanios, and afterwards lived with 
Hipparchus, at Athens, whence he returned 
to reofl, and remained there till the revolt 
of Histieus, when he removed to Abdera, 
where he was choked by a grape-stone in 
the act of drinking. His poems are exqui- 
sitely beautiful, lively, and natural, i'lierc 
have been several English translation^', but 
the one in highest esteem is by Moore. 

ANARIA, G. L., a noble Calabrian cos- 
mographer, born in 1581 ; author of a cele- 
brated work on deinonoiogy, published at 
Venice, " apud Aldum," 1589. 

ANASTASIUS I., emperor of the East, 
born in Illyricum, 430, and died, 518. He 
was elevated to the throne in 491. 

ANASTASIUS II., raised to the throne 
of Constantinople from the condition of se- 
cretary, 713, was a man of learning and a 
zealous Catholic, yet he did not neglect tlie 
defence of the empire, then threatened by 
the Saracens. He was put to death by 
Leo, who had usurped the crown. 

ANASTASIUS I., pope, a Roman, suc- 
ceeded Siricius in 32B, and died, 403. His 























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a flfto 5^lnibrrsal Uiograpl)!,). 


epistle to Joliii, hishop of .Icnisah'iii, who 
had wnllfii to luin in hrhalf of Kiirtinus, a 
pri'sbvtcr of Aqiiil.i;!, is I'xiiMit, together 
with Kiilhniis' '.ipolo'^'>. 

ANASTASIUS 11.7-011 of ;i Uoniaii citi- 
zen, siicceedi'd pop,; (;,i;,siiis in JOG, and 
died in 498. 

ANASTAsniS II r., a lloman bv birili, 
was raised to the papal chair, after Str- 
gius, 911, and died two years afterwards. 

ANASTASIUS IV., siicc,.,.,!,..! Kii-feipiiis 
III., U.'>3, and (lied tlie lollowing year. 
Ten lelteis of this popi; are preserved in 
the {'ollcelions of Councils liy l.aliho and 
;ilid ill D\\ Chesne'j llislory of 


of Anlidcli ill tlie' 

I HKnroLiTANrs, bishop 
sixth century, liauislied 
by Justin the Yoiiii'fer for holdliifc tlie opi- 
iiion that the body of Christ was iiu-apalile 
of siili'ering even before the resurrection. 
H(! was afterwards restored to his see by 
Mauritius, and died, .Vin. 

ANASIASms, called BiDl.loTHKOARita, 
a Koinaii abbot, of Greek origin, of the 
nthcentury ; authorof" Lihcr I'ontilicalis." 
H(- was principal librarian in the Vatican. 

ANATOLI US, patriarch of Constantinn- 
ple, who contended against pope Leo for 
the erpiality of the two churches. Died, 458. 

ANAXAGORAS, of Clazonienoe, a cele- 
brated philosopher, born ii. c. 500. He in- 
lu>rited a considerable estate in his own 
country, which he relinquished to indulge 
his thirst for knowledge at Atlntiis, where 
he applied to the study of poetry and elo- 
quence, and taught philosophy, having liad 
among his pupils Kuripides, the tragedian, 
and I'ericU.'s, the orator. His reputation, 
however, created him enemies, and he was 
condemned to death on a charge of athe- 
ism, but the sentence was commuted into 
banlshuiciit. Anaxagoras then withdrew 
to Lainpsacus, vvhere he taught philosophy 
undisturbed until his dtrath, which hap- 
pened in his 72d year, p. c. 4'2S. 

ANAXANDRIDI.S, a Greek comic poet, 
said to \\ii\ii been the first wlio introduced 
love adventures on the stage. He was a 
native of Rhodes, and starved to death 
at Athens for libelling the government, 
11. c. 400. 

ANAXARCHIIS, a Grecian philosopher 
of the eleatic sect of Leiicippiis, He was 
the friend and companion of Alexander the 
(ireat, whom he accompanied on his Asiatic 
ev|H!dition, and who admitted him to gi jat 

ANAXIMANDER, the frie.ul and disci- 
i)le of 'riiales, of Miletus, born, ii. c. eio. 
He had a considerable knowledge of astro- 
nomy and geograiihy, and was the lirst who 
noticed the obliquity of the ecliptic : he 
also taught that the moon receives her 
light from the sun, and that the earth is 
globular; ai 1 to him is ascribed theinven- 
tio", of the sphere and geographical charts. 

ANAXIMENES, the pupil and successor 
of Anaximaiider. He maintained that air 
is tlie (ir»t principle of all things; and 
I'liny attributes to him the invention of the 

ANAXIMENES, of Lampsacus, a Greek 
historian and philosopher, son of Arislo- 

cles. He was one of the iireceptors of 
Alexander the fireat, wIkmii he accouipa- 
nie<l in most of his campaigns, and afti'r- 
wards wrr>te the history of his reign, and 
that of his father l'hili|). 

ANCHIETA, .Ids., a I'orlugucsn Jesuit, 
surnamed the Apostle of the New World, 
born at 'i'dierille, I53H, and died, 1>'J7. At 
the age of 'JH, he went to Ura/.il, where he 
foiiniled the liist college for the conversion 
of the savage natives. 

ANCIIWn/, N., the Cracovian nuncio 
to the Polish Diet ; a man as talenleil as 
lixse ; who s )ld Poland to Russia and her 
partitionary colleagues, in 1782, and was 
hanged the year after, in an insurrection 
of tin; pcopli'. 

ANCfLLON, J. P. F., a celebrated histo- 
rian, born in 17t)fi ; authorof " Tabli;au 
des Revolutions du Systeme Politique," A:c. 

ANCILLON, David, a learned French 
divine, born at Met/., I(il7, and died. 1G92. 
On the revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
he retired from Meaiix, of which he had 
been for some time the pastor, to Frank- 
fort, and thence to Haiia'J, wliere he at- 
tained to great celebrity by his theological 
writings and discoveries ; and lie after- 
wards accei)ted a situation in the French 
church at Llerlin. His eldest son, Charles 
Ancillon, obtained through his intliience 
the office of historiographer to the king of 
Prussia, and was afterwards made inspec- 
tor of the kyencli courts of justice. He 
was a man of much general reading, wrote 
several treatises, Sec, and died. Via. 

John James, a Swedish military officer, 
who assassinated king Gustavus III. at a 
masked ball ; for which crime lie was 
scourged on three successive days, had his 
right hand cut off, and was then decapi- 
tated. Born, 1758 ; executed, 1792. 

ANCONA, CvRiAco d', an Italian anti- 
quary, collector of inscriptions, and author 
of " Itinerarium lllyricuiii ;" born in 1420. 

ANCOIJRT, Fi-oiiENf Carton n',arele- 
brafed French actor and dramatic writer, 
born at Fontainbleau, luUl, and died, I72<>. 
He was educated in the Jesuits' (..'ollege at 
Paris, and was admitted an advocate at 
the age of 17 ; but, falling in love with an 
actress, he married \wr, went upon the 
stage, and began to write for the tneatres. 
Retiring from this cinploynieiit in 1718, to 
his estate in Berry, he applied himself 
almost wholly to devotion, and composed 
a translation of the Psalms in verse, and a 
sacred tragedy. He was the author of S2 
dramatic pieces, of which about one half 
still keep the stage. 

ANCIJS MARTI US, fourth king of Rome, 
elected on the death of I'ullus Hostilius, 
B. c. 634. During Iiib reign. Koine was 
enlarged by takingin the walls of theAven- 
tine Hill, and occupying the 'lill Janicii- 
lum, beyond the Tiber. He also built the 
bridge called Sublicius, erected a public 
prison in the forum, extended the territo- 
ries of Rome quite to the sea, and built the 
town and porte of Ostia, at the mouth of 
the Tiber. Aucus died after a prosperous 
reign of 24 years. 
ANDERSON, Adam, a native lof ScoU 




f^i ; 

COMMCPN noNrtlM Irt l.li:ilM,Y l.l.fMTlMMi: J!ASIS Ol' (,CH KK N M K M • 


a jilrU) Muibcriinl iiiograpbjj. 


land, was t'ni many years n inanacfinsr 
cli-rk in tlic- Soutli-Sci lloiisc, u iniHlt-i; lor 
tlip KctllcnK iits In Utorif'rA, and in llic- 
court of tlif Scotch corporatlou in Lundun. 
>I(! wrote a work on llii- lliHtorical and 
Clironnlo^ical Ufduction of Trado and 
CoMiMifrcu ; and died, nti'j, aged 75. 

ANDERSON, John, F. U.S., professor of 
natural pliilosopliy lu the university of 
GlaHifow, and foun'der of the UMcful institu- 
tion in tli.U city liiarin); hiit name, was liorn 
in 17;^^, at lloseneatli, in Uumhartonsliire. 
His tjreat cliaracteristiu was an ardent de- 
sire tor the instrueiion of his fcllovv-nieu. 
and he was indefatigable In studyinff and 
exemplifying the application of Kclence to 
mechanlca) practice; for which purpose, in 
addition to his academical lahours, he 
tau(;ht his anti-loga-class, as he called it, 
twict! every week, during the session, to 
the I lid of liis life. He died in 1796. direct- 
iinv h\ lii^ will that tiie wliole of his pro- 
pel ir.-lioulil lie devoted to Iho establishment 
of an eddcational institution in Glas^^ow, 
to be denominated Anderson's University, 
for tlie use of the unacademioal classes ; 
which may justiy be con-idered as the p.i- 
rent of the "various Meclianics' Institutions 
whicli liave of late years arisen throuifliout 
the country. 

ANDKRSON, Alexandeh, an eminent 
scholar of the I7th century, born at Aberdeen, 
and afterwardsjprol'essor of mathematics at 
Paris; author ofvarious treatises principally 
connected witli his favourite science. 

ANDERSON, Lawrence, one of the 
chief promoters of the reformation of reii- 
(rion in Sweden. He was chancellor to 
Gustavus Vasa; but having engaged in a 
conspiracy, he passed the years of life left 
to him by the king's clemency, in retire- 
ment. Died, 1553. 

ANDERSON, Sir Edmund, lord chief 
justice of the Common Pleas under queen 
Elizabeth, to which situation he was pro- 
moted in 158V. He sat on the trials of the 
unfortunate Mary, queen of Scots, and of 
Davison, the secretary, for issuing the 
warrant under which she was executed. 
Anderson's Reports, folio, 1644, is still a 
book of authority. He was a native of 
Lincolnshire, and died, l6o.i. 

ANDERSON, George, a native of Tun- 
dern, Sleswick. During 1644, and the six 
following years, he fpent his tinie in tra- 
velling through the East, and visited the 
Arabias, Persia, India, China, the Japanese 
Islands, Tartary, and the Holy Land. The 
duke of Holstein-Gottorp, on his return, 
liaving vainly endeavoured to induce hitn 
to commit his adventures to writing, em- 
ployed Ills librarian, Oleariiis, to take 
down the account from his own mouth as 
he related them to his liighness ; the scribe 
being concealed behind the tapestry of the 
apartment. This work was afterwards 
published in Sleswick, 1669. 

ANDERSON, Gborge, a young man of 
extraordinary talents, born at Weston, 
Buckinghamshire, in 176o, and died, 1796. 
His parents were peasants, and he worked 
as a day-labourer in the fields ; his genius, 
however, overcame every difficulty, and 
he attained of liimse'>f so great a know- 
ledge of the mathematics, ns procured him a 

i'splaceat Ww Hoard of Control, and af- 
terwards the situation of accomplant-ircii. 
Mr. Anderson piililislictl a " General View 
of the Ad'airs of the East India Company, 
since the conclusi(Hi of the War in I7h4 ;" 
and translated from the (ireek of Archim- 
edes, " Arenarius, or a Treatise on num- 
bering the Sand." 

ANDERSON, James, an advocate at the 
Scottish bar, eminent for his learning and 
aiitii|uarian research, born at Edinburyh, 
1662. and <lied, 179H, through an apoplectic 
stroke. His lirst work, " An Essay, prov- 
ing the Indepenilciice of the Crown of 
Scotland," published 170), procured him 
the thanks of the Scottish parliament, un- 
der whose auspices he subsequently pro- 
duced a series of the " Charters and Seals 
of the Scottish INIonarchs from the earliest 
Antiquitv down to the Union with England." 
But the book which gained liiin the great- 
est reputation was, " Selectus Diplomatum 
et Niiinismatum Scotioe Thesaurus." 

ANDERSON, RonEiiT, M. D., a nalive 
of Carnwath, in Lanarkshire ; author of 
numerous works, critical and biographical. 
Of those most highly valued are the lol- 
lowiiii;:— " Lives of the British I'oets," in 
M vols., published in 1795 ; " Works and 
Life of Tobias Smollett;" and the " Life 
of Samuel Johnson." Died, 1830. 

ANDERSON, James, a Scottish miscel- 
laneous writer, born at Hermiston, near 
Edinburgh, 1739, and died, 1808. lie pub- 
lished a series of " Essays on Planting," 
which procured him much reputation as an 
agriculturist ; and, in 1780, the University 
ot Aberdeen conferred on liim the degree 
of LL.D. In 1783, he removed to Edin- 
burgh, and projected the establishment of 
the North Britisli Fisheries ; for which pur- 
pose he was employed by government to 
survey the coast of Scotland, and received 
great commendation for his services. Dr. 
Anderson was the author of a number of 
publications cliiefly on agricultural aiiairs ; 
he also wrote for the Encyclopredia Bri- 
tannica, and was a montlily" reviewer. 

ANDERSON, John, son of a merchant 
at Hamburgh, of which city he himself be- 
came principal magistrate in 1725. He was 
employed in various negotiations to dif- 
ferent European courts ; and during his re- 
sidence there, he cultivated an acquaint- 
ance with all whom he found distinguished 
for their literary attainments, and kept up 
a voluminous correspondence with them 
after Ills return. He died, 1743, ased 79. 
His principal work is, "The Natural His- 
tory of Greenland, Davis's Straits, and the 
Countries situated in the Arctic Circle." 

ANDERSON, Walter, D. D., a Scottish 
clergyman and historian of the last cen- 
tury ; chiefly known by Ins History of the 
reigns of Francis if. and Charles IX. of 
France. Died, 1800. 

ANDLO, Peter d', a lawyer and pro- 
fessor at Basil, in tlie I5th century; author 
of a treatise " De Imperio Romano." 

ANDOCIDES, one of the ten Greek ora- 
tors, whose lives are written by Plutarch ; 
he flourished, b. c. 4G8. 

ANDRADA, Anthony d', a Portuguese 
Jesuit, who discovered in 1624 the country 





sa fit\o i'lniljerfial Uiojirapfji?. 











of L';itli,iy ;iml ■|'liil)it, of wliicli he piib- 
lislicd iiii account. lU'iiicil at Coa, lti.14. 

ANDRAOA, UiKCio dk I'xyva d', a 
li-iinifcl l'oriii;jui^e divino, vvlio distin- 
L'liisliL'd hiiiisi'lf at liio council of rreiU by 
Ids taltMits and elofincnce, and wrotu an 
elaborate defence of it against the attack 
of Clieinnitius ; he died, 1575. — His brotlier, 
FiiANCis Andiiada, was hl8torio;;ia|)licr to 
tlie kinj? of Spain, and wrote the History 
of Jolm III-, kiiij' of Portiitfal. — Another 
brother, Thomas Andhada. iiii Ausfiistine 
friar, called by his order Thoiiias of Jesus, 
attended Don Sebastian in bis expedition 
against the emperor of Morocco, was taken 
prisoner, and shut up in a cave by tlie 
Moors, in wliich place iii^ wrote a book 
called " The Sutlerinj;s of Jesus." 

ANDIIK, C. C, a laborious Grrniaii au- 
thor; born in 1703; editor of the " Coni- 
pendiosc Uibliothek," 17b!); and many 
works on history, botany, mineralogy, and 

ANDUK, J., horn in 1711 ; one of the 
most celebrated German composers. Died, 
IHUU. His son, J. A., was the lirst to apply 
litho<rrapby to the printin<f of music, IHOI. 

ANDIIE, H., an e.v-i(;suit, born in 17'15 ; 
editor of " Gazette Litcraire tie Wurtz- 
buirg," and author of many works, chiefly 
Latin, on I'edajfogy, <&c. iVc. 

ANDRK', John, a major in tlie British 
service in the American war ; who, being 
led toofferhisi-ervices to negotiate between 
ths noted general Arnold and general Sir 
Henry Clinton, was taken prisoner by the 
Americans within their lines; and, owinjf 
to bis dist^uiseand the nature of his mission, 
he was tried and executed as a spy, Oct. 2, 
1780. On going to the place of execution, 
he said, with concern. " Must I die in this 
manner I" Being told it was unavoidable, 
he replied, " I am reconciled to my fate, 
but not to the luode ; it will, however, be 
but a momentary pang." His fortitude 
excited the admiration, and melted the 
hearts of all the spectators. When asked 
if lie had anything to say, he replied, 
" Nothing, but to request that you will 
witness to the world that I die like a brave 
man." A monument is erected to him in 
Westminster Aubev. 

ANDRE, Y'vesMari, a French Jesuit, 
and professor of mathematics at Caen ; au- 
thor of " Traite sur l'Homnie,"&c. Born, 
ie75; died, 1764. 

ANDREA, CavalCanti, a noble Italian, 
and voluminous author, remarkable for the 
copiousness and elegance of his style. He 
died in 1672. and left a collection of no- 
vels, an Italian biograp! y, and many mi- 
nor poems. 

ANDREA. Ceccheni, a Tuscan; author 
of •' Tioja Distrutta," a tragedy, and se- 
veral minor pieces, publisliedin 1663. 

ANDREA, SALVADoni, a Tuscan poet, 
born about 1600; left three volumes of co- 
medies, masks, operas, and poems—-" II 
Medoro," '« La Flora," " Le Fonti di Ar- 
denna," &c. 

ANDREADA, Ferdinand, a Portuguese 
admiral, who, in 1518, commanded the lirst 
European lleet that ever visited the coast 
of China, 

ANDRI'/V, .loiiN <;f.iihaiii) RKiNii\nD, 
an ingenious naturali»t of HaiiuMir, horn, 
I7W4, and died, 171)). He publi-lied a " Tour 
in Switzerland," and a " rre.ilise on the 
several kinds of Earth in Hanover," 

ANDREAS, James, a German reformer, 
horn at Wirtembeig, isas, and died, 1590. 
He was at the diets of Ratisbon aii<l Augs- 
burg; secretary at the conference at 
Worms ; and alterwards made chancellor 
and rector of the university of Tubingen, 

ANDREAS, John, bishop of Aleria, in 
Corsica, born, 1417, and died, 1475. He 
was a zealous promoter of the art of print- 
ing, and superintended the impressions of 
several classical works at Rome. 

ANDREINI, FiiANcis, a celebrated comic 
writer, of Pistoia ; author of '* Le Bravure 
del ('ai)itano Spavento," &c. Died, 1616, 

ANDREINI, Isabella, wife of the pre- 
ceding, was a celebrated and beautiful Im- 
provisatore, comedian, and comic writer. 
She displayed great precocity of genius, 
was Well Versed in pliilosophy and lan- 
guages, sang and played with exquisite 
taste, and was of irreproachable morals. 
Born at Padua, in 1563 ; died at Lyons, in 

ANDREINI, John Baptist, son of Fran- 
cis ; and author of several dramas and po- 
ems ; among which is " L'Adamo," a mys- 
tery, which suggested (as it is said) to Rlil- 
ton, while at iMilan, his Paradise Lost. 

ANDRELINI, PoBLio Festo, a native 
of Italy, poet laureat to Louis XII,, of 
France, and professor of poetry and phi- 
losophy in the university of Paris, Died, 1518. 

ANDREOSSI, Francis, an eminent 
French engineer and mathematician, was 
born at Paris, in 1633, He assisted Riquet 
in forming the canal of Languedoc, the sole 
merit of which stupendous work has been 
unjustly claimed for him. Died, 1688. 

ANDREOSSI, Anthony Francis, count, 
a distinguished French military officer and 
engineer, and eminent also as a diplomatist, 
was dckcended from the subject of the pre- 
ceding article, and born In Languedoc, 
1761, He was a lieutenant of artillery at 
twenty ; served with distinction in Italy and 
Egypt'; and had reached the rank of in- 
spector-general of the artillery when Napo- 
leon ascended the throne. He was succes- 
sively ambass-'idor to London, Vienna, and 
Constantinojilc; And received many marks 
of the imperial favour. On the restoration 
of Louis XVIII. in 1814, Andreossi was re- 
called from his embassy to the Porte, and 
presented with the cross of St. Louis ; but 
on the return of Naiioleon from Elba, he 
again attached himseU to his old master; 
and was one of the commissioners cliosen 
to treat VfitU the allien by the provisional 
governinenl. He wrote " Histoire Generale 
du Canal d«i Midi;" the " Campaign of the 
Gallo-Balavian Army on the Main and Red- 
nitz," Sic. Died, 1828. 

ANDREOZZI, G., one of tlie most cele- 
brated composers of Italy. Born, 1767. 

ANDRES, Don Juan, a Spanish au- 
thor, celebrated in the controversy respect- 
ing the Amalfian origin of the mariner's 
compass ; author of a work on the " Origin 
of Letters," in Italian, and of another in 




^ jlrb) ^Intbcrsal ISiograpTjt?. 



Spanish, entitled, " Cart.is Funiiliiircii a se 

ANIJRE DKS VOSGES, J. F., born in 
174 1 1 author of " Lc; Tartan; ;" " Parin," 
and many translatJouM from En|;lls1i worlis. 

ANDREW, John, a liarntd bisliop of 
Aleria, in Corsica; and editor of the wurlis 
of Herodotus, Livy, and olliur classics. He 
died, I4»;i. 

ANDREW, bishop of Crete, born at Da- 
mpens, and died about 7ao. He wrote 
r.onimentarieH on the Scriptures, &c., pub- 
iislied at I'aris, 1644. 

ANDREW, of Ratisbon, an historian of 
tlie Uth century, who wrote a chronicle of 
tlie dukei of Bavaria, and a hiiitory of 

ANDREW, of Pisa, a sculptor and ar- 
chitect, born in I3?u, and died in 1345. He 
built several f^rand structures at Florence 
and Venice ; and also obtained great repu- 
tation as a painter, poet, and musician. 

ANDREW, of Cyrcne, an imuostor who, 
in the rei"fn of Trajan, had the art to de- 
ceive his fellow-countrymen, tlie Jews, into 
a belief that he was ordained to be their 
liberator. Tlii-y accordingly revolted, and 
horrible cruelties were committed on both 
sides before they were reduced to obedience, 

ANDREWS. Henry, a self-taught ma- 
thematician, born of poor parents at Fries- 
ton, near GranthHm, 1744. and died, Jan. 
36, 1830. Having, while ni a menial em- 
ployment, occupied his leisure moments in 
tlie study of astronomical science, be at- 
tained therein great proliciency, and for 
more than 40 years was a computer of the 
Nautical Ephemeris, and the calculator of 
Moore's Almanack. 

ANDREWS, James Pettit, an English 
miscellaneous writer, youngest son or Jo- 
seph Andrews, Esq., of Newbury, Berks, 
wliere he was born, 1737, and died at 
Urompton, 1797. He received a private 
education, and was early distinguished by 
an attachment to liteiature and the fine 
arts, to the former of wliicli he may be said 
to have been professionally attached until 
his death. 

ANDREWS. Lancelot, an eminent En- 
glish divine, bishop of Wincheiiter in the 
reigns of James I. and Charles 1., born in 
London, 1565 ; died at Wiiicliester House, 
Southwark, I63ti, and buried in the church 
of St. Saviour, in wliicli an ele;;ant monu- 
ment was erected to Ids memory. 

ANDREWS, Miles Peter, a dramatic 
writer, son of a niercliaiit in tlic city of 
London, in wlios^e conn ing-house he was 
brought up ; but having a decided turn for 
theatrical amuscnients. and coming into a 
considerable fortune by the deatli of an 
elder brother, he bade adieu to mercantile 
pursuits, and amused himself by writing for 
the stage. He died suddenly in 1UI4. 

ANDRIEU, Bertrand, a mcdallic en- 
graver, born at Bordeaux, 17CI, and died 
at Pans, 1832; considered as tlie restorer 
of the art of engraving medals, wliich had 
declined after trie reign of Louis XIV. 

ANDRIEIIX, F. G. T. S., a clever and 
voluminous French author, dramatist, poet, 
and politician, born in 1755. He was mem- 
ber of the legislative assembly in 1798 ; op- 

posed to arbitrary power, he ailvoealcd 
warmly tiie libcrty'of the press and tlie sys- 
tem of " Ecoles Priniaires." He was one 
of the projectors and cliief contributors of 
the " Decade Plillosopliiqne," and was an 
active member of the liintiiute and the 
Acndeniie Fran(;aise. Amoiisr his dramati'" 
pieces, are " Anaximaii'ler," " l.es Etonr- 
dis," " Le Vieiix Fal," and " Le Jeuiie 
Hoinnio a I'Epreuve," Ike. \c. 

ANDRIOI.I, M. A., a Veronese physician; 
author of a work on Platonic Lo>e, l«76. 

ANDRISCUS, a man of mean extraction, 
who, pietendiiig to be the son of Per.-eus, 
the last king ol Macedonia, took the name 
of Philip, and was called I'sendo PliilippilS. 
Having obtained a siLMial victory over Jii- 
ventus, the Roman priit'ir, be assumed the 
kingly power ; but in the end was con- 
quered, and scrveil to grace the triumph of 
itietellus, before whom lie walked In chains. 

ANDROMACHllS, of Crete, physician to 
Nero ; he wrote, in elegiac verce, a de- 
scription of the Tlieriacii, a medicine wliich 
he Invented, and dcdicatedit to llaMmperor. 

ANDKONICIJS, of Cyrestlies, a Greek 
architect, who built the lanmus octagonal 
temple of the winds, at Athens, which, till 
lately, was used as a mosque by the I iirks. 
He is also said to be the inventor of tlie 

ANDROMCUS, Livius, the oldest dra- 
matic author in the Latin language, who 
flourished about 240 years b. c. Nearly all 
Ids works are lost. 

ANDRONICUS, of Rhodes, a follower of 
Aristotle, and to whom we are indebted for 
restoring and publishing the works of that 
philosopher, b. c. 63. 

ANDRONICIIS, of Thessalonica, a 
learned Greek of the 15th century, whose 
reputation was great at Rome and Flo- 
rence, wheie he taught. Died, 1478. 

ANDROMCUS I., emperor of the East, 
was the son of Isaac, and grandson of Alexis 
Coninenus. He was of an active martial 
mind, and eloquent ; but had many vices. 
On the death of his cousin, the emperor 
Manuel, in 1163, he was chosen partner in 
tlie government with Alexis 11., who, being 
a mere youth, soon fell a sacrifice to his 
coadjutor's thirst of power ; but the people, 
exasfierated at his various cruelties, pro- 
claimed Isaac Angelus emperor, put out 
theeyesof Andronicus, led him through the 
streets in derision, and at length t>tabbed 
him, aged 73. a. d. 1185. 

iiamed the Elder, succeeded Michael VIII., 
in I2t*3; but was glad to find refuge in a 
cloister, in 1325, his grandson having driven 
him from the throne. 

eminent French architect of the 16th cen- 
tury, who designed the Pont Neiif, and 
commenced the uuilding of it fn 1578. He 
was also employed, in 1596, to continue the 
gallery of tlie Louvre ; but was obliged to 
quit France during the persecution of the 
Protestants, and no further account of him 
is on record. 

ANDllV, Nicholas, aphysicianand me- 
dical author, of Lyons, in the 17th ceiitiii'v ; 
afterwards dean of the faculty of niediciiie 





^ ^eh) QAnibersal l3(ograpf)t). 


in the royal collepe of I'arin, where he also 
filled a profestior^ chair. He dieil la 1743. 

ANKLLO, Thomas, commonly known as 
Ma!I9aniki.[.o, a tifiiiernian of Naples, born 
l<>0», whin that kingdom w»8Rubfert to the 
house of Austria, and (foverned oy a vlce- 
roj. The people had borne the )foke with 
prtat patience until 1846, in winch year a 
iii'w and oppressive tax upon all kinds of 
fruit being imposed, occasioned scneral 
digconteiit. At this time, Massanielio, then 
in his ■J4th year, earned his livelihood by 
'ishin^ ; nnil, observing the murniuringv 
that prevailed, he began to entertain an 
idea of redressing the grievance. He ac- 
cordingly imparted his design to some 
companions, who laughed at him ; but, 
when he assured tliem he was in earnest, 
thev readily promined him their assistance. 
A not soco ensued, in consequence of the 
xhopkeepers refusing to trade with the 
country people ; and an officer was sent by 
the re?enl to quell the tumult. The multi- 
tude, however, grew more incensed at his 
appearance ; Rud Mast^anielio, by his ha- 
rangues, inflamed them to acts of more 
daring violence. After burning the toll- 
houses, they marched to the palace of the 
viceroy, which they entered and rifled ; the 
governor himself escaped with difflcultv ; 
and the prince of liisignano, to whom tnc 
people were much attached, quitted the 
city. Thus left without a head, the multi- 
tude chose Massanielio for their leader; a 
stage was erected in the market-place, on 
which this new ruler sat to give audience 
and to administer justice, which he did 
with eoual gravity and impartiality. 150,000 
men ooeyed liis orders, and an incredible 
number of women, armed like Amazons, 
were enrolled in tne same cause. In this 
state of things, (he viceroy applied to the 
archbishop, wnose mild persuasions had 
nearly succeeded in restoring order, when 
an attempt being made to assassinate the 
new chiet, the negotiation was broken off, 
and the rage of the people burst forth with 
redoubled fury. Massanielio, however, was 
prevailed upon to renew the treaty, and to 
visit the palace, which he did with uncom- 
mon pomp, mounted on liorseback, dressed 
in cloth of silver, a plume of feathers in his 
hat, and a drawn sword in his hand, at- 
tended by (50,000 armed followers. On the 
Sunday fnllowing, the terms were ratified 
at the cathedral church, and every thing 
had now an auspicious appearance ; when, 
unfortunately for IMassanieilo, ambition in- 
duced liim to violate his engagement and 
to hold a power he knew not now to direct. 
He became so capricious and tyrannical, 
that a scheme was laid to assassinate him ; 
and as he fell, his last words were, " Un- 
grateful traitors !" 

ANEURIN, a Britisti poet and cliieftain 
of the sixth century, supposed by some au- 
thors to be the same with Gildas, the histo- 
rian : he took a part in the battle of Cat- 
traetli, which he made the gut^ect of a 
poem ; this, and " Odes of the Months," 
form the whole of his known works;' and 
are to be found in the Welsh Archaiology. 
Died, .570. 

ANFOSSI, Pabqitalb, an Italian musi- 
cian, born at Naples, I73€ ; died, 1795. He 

was composer to the theatre at Roine, ami 
afterwards travelled to Paris, where he pre- 
sented to the Academy of l>iuslc his " In- 
connue," adapted to trench words. 

ANGRLI, liONAVP.NTniiA, a celebrated 
historian, of Parma; died in 1576. 

ANOELI, Peter, a distinguished modern 
Latin imet ; born at Barga, Tuscany, I517; 
died at Pisa, 1596. 

AiNGEI.ICO, John, an Italian painter ; a 
Dominican ; he )>aln(ed the chapel of Ni- 
cholas v., who oflered him the archbishopric 
of Florence, which he refused. Died, 1448. 

ANGELIS, Stephbn de, an Italian ma- 
thematician : he was for some time a Je- 
suit, but quilted the order, and became a 
teacher of mathematics at Padua, where he 
died at the close of the 17th century. 

ANGELO, FioniozzoLA, a Florentine 
poet, honoured by Clement Vllth's friend- 
ship, and much esteemed ; died in Rome, 
1348: author of <' Discorso digli Animali," 
" I Lucldi," and " La Trinuzzia," come- 
dies, and a great variety of other works. 
He is chiefly admired by his countrymen 
for the purity and beauty of his diction. 

ANGELO, PoLiciANO, bom in 1454 ; au- 
thor of numerous works, in prose and 
verse, translations from Greek and Latin ; 
" Rusticus," •• Orfeo Favoli," Sec. 

ANGELO, MicHABL db Buonarotti, the 
descendant of a noble but reduced family 
in Tuscany, was born, in 1474, in the terri- 
tory of Arezzo. He was endowed with ex- 
traordinary abilities, being incomparable 
as a painter, sculptor, and architect ; while 
as a poet he was far above mediocrity. To 
record his great aclilevements here would 
be impossible. As a designer he is allowed 
to be without an equal, and his knowledge 
of anatomy was perfection itself. Many of 
the most splendid edifices in Italv owe their 
existence to his masterly hand ; and as 
a painter, in his delineation of the grand 
and the terrible he has never been equalled. 
After a life of glory, spent in the most ex- 
alted pursuits, he died, iQimensely rich, at 
Rome, lUH, and was tliere buried ; but the 
grand duke of Tuscan V had his body removed 
to Florence, and re-interred with princely 
honours. Sir Joshua Reynolds, in a dis- 
course to the students ofthe Royal Acaileniy, 
in 1790, speaking of Mtcliael Angelo, em- 
phatically exclaimed—" to kiss the hem of 
his garment, to catch the slightest of his 
perfections, would he glory and distinction 
enough for an ambitious man !" 

ANGELONI, Francesco, an Italian liis- 
torlan, born at Terni, and died at Krin)e, 
1653; principally known by an clahorate 
work, published in 1685, on the history of 
Rome, which he illustrated by a reference 
to ancient medals. 

ANGELUCCI, Theodore, an Italian 
poet and physician, who held a professor- 
ship at Padua, was a member ofthe acadeuiy 
of Venice, and princi|>al physician at Mon- 
tagnana, where lie died, 1600. 

ANGELUS, Christopher, aGreek, who, 
being driven from Ids own country by the 
Turks, found an asylum in England iu 1608 ; 
and, under the patronage of the bi-hop of 
Norwich, he was placed in Trinity (^oiieire, 
Cambridge, whence he removed to Baliol 


ir Tou MUST havb pride, be proud of good actions. 


I. 'I 



^ lletD snnibcmil litograpdn. 



College, Oxfonl, where lie wan of g rent ser- 
vice to the Jiiitlor fitiiilentt, and wliere he 
(lied, I03H. He piililiHiied many works In 
Greek, KnglJNli, and Latin. 

ANGKRSTKIN, John Jtiutis, a dlntin- 
giiiKhed patron of tlie line nrto, born nt St. 
Felersbnrjf, ITa") ; died at Blacklicatli, Jan. 
'J'l, 1823. lie came over to England under 
the patronaice of tiie late Andrew 'I'lionipNon, 
Ek(|., with whom he lived in partnerHliip 
unwardu of 5U years. Mr. Angerstein ex- 
lilhited much pnl)lic spirit on several occa- 
siouK, and was the fli'Nt who proposed a re- 
ward of 30U0I. from the fund at Lloyd's to 
the inventor of tlie life-boats. His cele- 
brated collection of paintings, esteemed in- 
fcrioi' to none of the same extent in Europe, 
was purehased by the English government 
for 6o,oou{., ana forms the nucleus of a 
national (gallery. 

ANGHlEKA, Peter Martyr d', an 
Italian scholar of a noble INIilaiiese family, 
born, M.^'> ; died, 15%, at Grenada; leaving 
several hihtorical works, which are usually 
quoted under the name of Peter Martyr. 

ANOILBERT, St.. the son-in-law of 
Charlemagne, and afterwards abbot of St. 
Riciuier. He had a great taste for poetry, 
but nothing remains of him except a history 
of Ills monastery. lie died, 814. 

ANGIOLELLO, John Mario. aVenetlan 
historian of the 15th century, taken captive 
bv the Turks, and made slave to Sultan 
Mnstapha, whom he attended in an expe- 
dition to Persia, 1473, and wrote tlie history 
of Mahomet If., in the Turkish and Italian 
languages ; also the history of Ussun Cag- 
san. He died about 1530. 

ANGOULEME, Charles db Valoib, 
duke d', natural son of Charles IX. ; born, 
1575 ; and died, 1650. Catherine de Medicis 
bequeathed to him her estates, but the will 
was set aside in favour of Margaret de Va- 
lois. Charles, however, retained the title of 
count d' Auvergne, and in 1819 was made 
duke of Angouleme. He gained great re- 
putation as a military Cv^mniander, but was 
twice charge'! with treason, and the second 
time condennied to death, \vhlch sentence 
was changed into perpetual imprisonment. 
He was, however, once more pardoned, and 
employed both in a military capacity and 
in various embassies ; he also wrote his own 

ANGUIER, Francis and Michael, two 
scul|)tor8, natives of Eu, Normandy. Fran- 
cis, the eldest, was keeper of the royal ca- 
binet of antiquities, and executed several 
great works, particularly the mausoleum of 
the duke of INiontmorency. Michael's best 
piece was a crucifix over the altar of the 
church of the Sorbonne. The former died, 
10(39; the latter, 1686. 

ANGUILLARA, GiovANNE dell% one of 
the most esteemed modern Italian poets 

born in 1517 ; 

; author of " Edipo, Iragedia." 
His translations of the " Luclid" and 
" Metamorphoses" are standard Italian 

Crenionese painter, born in 1550. Her style 
as an author is said to have been as ad- 
mirable as her paintings. 

ANICH, Pkter, a native of Inspruck, 
son of a labourer, born, 1733, and died, I7t>6. 

HI* early genius being dlKCovi red by rulher 
Hill, a Jesuit, he gave him iuhtriicliiiui*, and 
in a xhort time he became an Mi: aKirnnn- 
mer and mechanic, and constructed various 
malhenialical in.^trumtnts. 

AMCHINI, Lewis, a cclebraled uv- 
dallist. His chief work U a medal repre- 
senting tlie Interview of Alexander Ihe 
Great and Ihe High Priest at Jerusalem, 
which Mii'hael Angelo pronounced to be 
the perfection of the art. 

ANNACOMNENA, was the daughter of 
the emperor Alexius Comnenus I., at whose 
death she conspired to place Ihe crown on 
the head of her husband, Niceplioriis Dri- 
ennius, but williout sncce^s. She (hen 
turned her attention to literary piirsiiits, 
and wrote the " Alexiad," a history of lier 
father's reign. Died, 1148. 

ANNA IVANOVNA, eraprew of all the 
Russlas, daughter of the czar Ivan Alexio- 
wltch ; born, 1693 ; succeeded to the crown 
on the death of Peter II., 1730 ; and died, 
1740. During her reign, Russia was on a 
peaceable footing with all her neighbours, 
without engaging in any of their quiirrelH,e.\- 
cept a war with tlie Uttoinaii Porte in 1737. 

ANNE, of Austria, queen of France, 
eldest daughter of Philip III. of Spain; 
born, 1604 ; married LouisXIII. of France, 
1615, at whose death, 1643, she was declared 
sole reirent during the minority <if her son, 
Louis XIV., who assumed the reigns of go- 
vernment, 1661. Anne then retired, passing 
the remainder of her life in pious exercises, 
and died in 1666. 

ANNE, of Beauieu, daughter of LouisXI. 
of France, and wife of Peter Beauieu, duke 
of Bourbon ; appointed by her lather's will 
gouvernante during the minority of his son, 
Charles VIII. This preference excited a 
civil commotion, which was terminated by 
the defeat of the insurgent nobles, I48H. 
The princess held the reigns with much 
firmness, and in general acted prudently. 
She died, 1522. 

ANNE, of Brittany, queen of France, 
daughter and heiress of Francis II., duke of 
Brittany ; born, 1476 ; married to Charles 
VIII,, of France, 1491 ; and, on his death, 
1499, to Louis XII. ; and died, 1514. This 
|)i'inces8 first instituted the order of maids 
of honour to the queen ; lirst had the pre- 
rogative of guards and gentlemen of lier 
own, and was the lirst who gave audience 
to foreign ambassadors. 

ANNE, ofCleves, daughter of John, third 
duke of Cleves, and wife of Henry VIII. of 
England, who divorced her. Died, 1557. 

ANNE, queen of Great Britain, second 
daughter of James II., by his first wife, 
Anne Hyde, was born in 1664 ; married to 
prince George of Denmark, 1683 ; succeeded 
to the crown on the death of William III., 
1702 ; and died, 1714, aged 50. The con- 
tention of parties during the reign of 
Anne was extremely violent, in consequence 
of the hopes entertained by the Jacobites 
that she would be induced oy natural feel- 
ings to favour the succession of her brother, 
the Pretender. Her reign was also much 
distinguished for learning; and the number 
of eminent writers who flourished under 
her, several of whom rose to high stationsj, 
has rendered it a sort of Augustan age of 












ArrEOTiONS Ann iiARORn to scprnRxa, than knkmik!< to hi'iidi p. 































^ jlrb Silnibrrsal ISiogvAvfR). 


KiiKliitti litiT;»tiiri', lli»ii!;h nrltliiT ht-r own 
(liH|iositinii nor a>-i|iiirenii'nU had any kharu 
in uiakinif it itucli. 

ANNKSI.KY, ArtiIUR, carl of Anslcsea, 
ami lont privy m\\\ in the ri-iiriiof CharlfM II., 
born iit biililin, ItiU ; ami dii-il, liiMi. At 
Ihc roinnit-nrtMnvnt of the livil waiN he 
.ioliH'il thi; royal |iar(v, anil sat in llie par- 
llaint'nt at Oxfonl, 11)43 ; hut, having niiitle 
(iLMcu with tlie rupuljlicanx. In; was Kent 
i-oniniitisioncr lo UlxttT, Itil.'i. He, how- 
ever, took an active part in the restoration 
of the y\nj, for whielt tiu was rrcateil earl 
of Anjflesc.i, made ireaMircr of the navy, 
and, shortly nflerwarils, lord privy seal. 

ANNKSI.KY, SAMi'RL.nn Enphsh divine, 
born in Warwickshire about 1620 ; dieil, 
ItiDH. At the time of tlie rebellion, he 
preached some vi(dent sermons aKainot the 
crown and cliurcli,. for which he received 
llie vicarage of St. Giles, Crip|>le);ate ; but, 
in 1002, hi! was ejected from it for non- 

ANNETT, I'F.TER, adeisticalwriterof the 
I6lh cenlnry ; author of " 'I'lie Free En- 
nidrer," anil other works of a Hcentical turn. 
lie waH a native of Liverpool, ami died, I77H. 

ANNIIIS, of Vlteibo, a Doniinician monk, 
wlio wrote various books whicli he pre- 
tended were the remains of eminent ancient 
authorg, particularly Manetho, Archilochus, 
and Xenophon. For a time the imposture 
succeeded, and they were printed in 1498. 
Annlus died at Rome, 1503. 

ANNO, Archbishop of Cologne In the 
lUh century. He was chancellor to the 
emperor Henry III., and rei^ent during the 
minority of Henry IV. ; aiid fnun the ex- 
emplary conduct he displayed in tlioseiiilua- 
tions, as well as from tlie sanctity of his 
life, he acquired tlie title of Saint. 

ANQUEI'II., Louis PiERRB, acelebraled 
historian, born at I'aris, I7jh ; died, 1HU8. 
Having: distini^uisiied himself as an able 
teacher of theology and fjeneral literature, 
he was appointed prior of the abbey de la 
Koe, in Anjoii, director of the college of 
Senlis, and prior of Chateau Kenard. 
Durinfc the heij^ht of the revolution lie was 
thrown into prison, where he began his 
*' lluivcrsal History," which was afterwards 
published In twelve volumes. At the for- 
mation of the French Institute, Anquetil 
became one of the original members, and 
obtained a situation under government. 

Hyacinthe, brotlier of the preceding, was 
born at Paris, 1731 ; and died, 1805. In or- 
der to gratify Ids taste for oriental literature, 
he joined the expedition fitting out for India, 
in 1574, as a private soldier; employed 
every moment of his leisure in the study of 
the Sanscrit ; and made sufficient progress 
hi that tongue to translate the " Venditlade 
Sade," a dictionary of the language. On 
the taking of Pondicherry by the English, 
he returned to Europe, visited London and 
Oxford, and conveyed the various MSS. he 
had obtained to Paris. He was then ap- 
pointed oriental Interpreter in the king's 
library, with a pension, and devoted him >elf 
to the publication of his researches. 

ANSALUI, C. J., a celebrated savant, 
of Piacenza, born in 1700. His best anti- 
■iuariau treatises are in Latin. 

AN.SART, Andrkw Joskimi, a French 
historian and eccleslaKtii'al viriler; horn, 
I7.<3 : died, l7Ui'. He b<'eamea Ueiiidlrtlne, 
bill, being appointed to a idaci- of ii'iii.t in 
his order, he decaniiird with the IuikIa, and 
joined (he order of Ivlalla. 

ANSCAKKJS, bishop of llanihurirh and 
Bremen, born In France, 8i)l ; died. Mil. I 
lie preached the gospel to the Danes and 
Swedes, and was very instrumental in con- 
verting the northern nations to Chriktianlty. 

ANSELM, archhlshoi> of Canterbury in 
tlie reigns of William Rufiis and lleiirv I., 
born .-It Aost, Picdinont, IU33; died att'an- 
lerbury, liou, and canoni/.ed in the reign of 
Henry Vll. He was ori),'inally a monk, 
and afterwards suiierior of the abbey of 
Hec, Normandy, visiting Endand several 
times during his abbacy, lie was called to 
attend VV'illiam Uiifiis in a lit of sickness at 
Gloucester, which leil (o his appointment to 
the primacy. But diflerences arising iie- 
tween I'le king and the prelate, in conse- 
nuenci! of the attachment of tlie latter to 
the pope, Aiislein left the kingdom, and 
the kins seized his revenues. On the death 
of Wiinani, he however returned to Eng- 
land, and was well received ; but a new 
rupture arising, in conse(|iience of the 
archliishop's refusing to be re-invested by 
the king, the dispute was relerred to the 
pope, who decided in favour of Aiiselni. 
rills was resisted ; and at h ngtii the pope 
made a concession, by allowing the English 
bishops and alibots to do homage to ihe 
king for their temporalities, which restored 
Anselin to favour. 

ANSEI.MK, of Paris, an Augustine monk, 
born, tiiJ.S : died, 1(591. He was the ori'.'i- 
nal compiler of the Historical Genealogies 
of the House of France. 

ANSEL^IE, Gkorgr. Tliere were two 
of this name : the elder, a in.ithematiciaii 
of some eminence in the early part of the 
ISth century, died, 1 1 to. Ills grandson, 
who assumed the name of Nepas, was a 
physician at Parma, of which city he was a 
native, and died, 1528. 

ANSON, Lord George, a celebrated 
naval commander, was born at his father's 
seat in the parish of Colwich, Staffordshire, 
1697, and died at Moor Park, Hertford- 
shire, 1762. He entered early into the navy, 
and was made post-captain in 1724. Being 
ordered lo the South Carolina station, he 
purchased land, and built a town tliere, 
called after his name. In 1739 he was ap- 
pointed commodore of an expedition agviinst 
the Spanish settlements in the Pacilic 
Ocean ; and sailed from Portsmouth the 
following year with five men-of-war, a 
sloop, and two victuallers ; doubled Cape 
Horn in March, 1741, after losing two of 
his ships; and in June following arrived off 
Juan Fernandez, with only two ships and 
two tenders. This place he left in Sep- 
tember, took some prizes, burnt Paita, and 
continued on the American coast, in ex- 
pectation of falling in with the annual Aca- 
pulco ship, till Klay, 1742; when, having 
only his ship, the Centurion, left, he crossed 
the southern ocean for China, where he 
stayed several months, and returned in 
quest of the galleon, wnich he fell in with, 
and captured after a smart action. Ha\iug 







r , 


] 1 


Pa Nil] 

^ llrhi iilnibrifial liiogravfitf. 


























iiilil lli« |irl/i' III Clilll.l, lit' mIIi'iI r<>i VuK 
Iniul, mill iiiTlvril iii Siiltlirnd. Juix' \n, 
17 11, |>ii«"ltii; III .1 ('i\( IIiI'iiiikIi IIio iiililMt of 
It rii'iicli lli'i'l, Iticii i-nilmiiK In lli<- ('liitii- 

lll'l. Ill 1717 III* < iiiiiliili'il III)' oliiiliiirl 

lli'i'l, niid iM|iliirril nix I'rriifli liini-tii'-M.ir, 
mIiii'Ii Mcri' flint iiyliiir II l,ii)(o lli'd lioiiiiil to 
llic Kiiht mill \\t'»i niillrN. Two nf tliniu 
|irl/rN \*vrv till- liitliirlliii' iiiul llu> Ulnry, 
Mlili-h indiii'i'il llii- o.\|it ilii ol' till* iiinurr lu 
miy III III)- iiiliiilr.il, on irlWiiff ii|i IiIm ^wonl, 
"Sir, yoii Ii,iu< roiii|ii<'rc<l llm liivliifllili'. 
mill (il'ory rollowM )oti." For (licnu aiul 
ndicr iicr\ircii, li« w'n* i'r«Mtcil ii |iu«'r. iiml 
nllcru'iinU iiiiidi' VIro Adnilr.il ol' I'.iiKlitiid. 
Ill |7M lif WW* ii|i|H)litli'il Kli'nt Lord (if IIk- 
Adiiilritlty, wliU'h poHt lir held, fXct'pt lor ii 
Hliort liilerviil, iiiiUI hi* ilintli. In I7^m, Ik* 
aKiiiii cnnini.iiidi'd tlio vli;lllllf I llft-l, iliid wiiN 
aiipoliittHl ;tdiiilriil. mid roniiniuidtir-lii-clilfr 
ol IiIk iii;i|ci>t>'ii lli'i-ti, I'or llii! |>lir|ioii(i of 
coiirt'yhiir lii-'r iii.iliHiy, i|iirvii ('harlotU', 
from i'liMliiivcii to KiikIiuiiI. 

ANSON, I'rtbr lltMiKHT, a niliirclliuic- 

oim wrtlcri born at I'.irl*, 1744; dlt-d, isio. 

ANSPAl'll, llcr Sirrno llluhncHH Ki.i/.* 

AHKni, MiirK-nitliif of, wiiit iliu vonni'i'iit 

iliuiKlitcr ol' AiigiistiiH, fiui ol li*Tkvlt>v. 

I I'd II (;ood and lilitlily cillllT.ili'd iindcr- 

i»tnndliiiri lliix liidy joined tliu iiio>t |>rc|ioH- 

Acsslnc niannt'i'!*, uiid n l.iricc |i<irlloii oi (e- 

{niinliic Ix'uniy. When little more (haii hl\- 

teen. I.idy l'li/:il>elh niiirried iMr. (nl'ter- 

I vviinU eur'l of) Cniven, liy wlioni hIiu had 

»e\en elillilren; Imt after lit In^ to);i>tlu'r 

thirteen year>i. they veiiarated I'rom nintiiai 

t'eeliiiRs of dfs>atist'aetion. l.aily t'rateu 

made a lour, and look up her lesidenee in 

the eoiirt of Ainpaeli, where Nheeiitablisiicil 

a theatre, wrote iilayc, direeted the per- 

I formniiee, and lieeame a prinelpal pei'Hoii- 

'nue with the Marcrave ; the Marnniviiie 

I wi\R generally eontined to her ehamber by 

ill health, mid ohortly nfter died. Lady 
t'raxen remained a visitor at AuHpaeh, and 
neeonipanied the Margrave in M» exenr- 
iiions to other eonrts. Six weekM after the 
death of lord t'nwen, his widow married 
Ihe Margrave, and both eame to Eiiiiland. 
The Mar);ra\e disjK>sed of his prinriiiallty 
to the kin^ of Prussia, nnd having pnrehastil 
ilrandenbiirg:!! house, llanimrnrmith. It be- 
eame the S''v\\c of fashionable dissipation ; 
the tpiwn, however, refused to reeelve the 
Marsrravine at her drawliijf-room, and no 
other infliieiiee eould obtain her admission 
tothe llritisli oouri. In iHOii ihe Marffrave 
died, and after tliat event tlie Marirrnvlne 
rosideil (renerally abroad. At Naples the 
kiii)C gT''*" '•' •■ '^''^ (iiTes of ground, on 
which she ereeted a handsome villa, and 
there contiuuitl to rwlde until her (Icath, 
whieh took plaee in \«-2S. 

in 1734 ; studied at Eton and Cambridge: 
and on suceeedinu' to some patrimonial 
i)r»>|HTty, resided principally at llatli. Hn 
blcndeil' the avocations of a country gentle- 
man with literary pursuit*, and, among 
many other thin);s, produceil that humour- 
ous iH>eni, " The New Bath Guide," which 
obtained a rapid and deserved popularity. 
I)ie<I, IS05. 

ANSTIS, John, an antiquary, and the 
author of various heraldic works, was born 

at St. Neoin, Cornwall. In KUW. mid edu- 
eiiled nt Oxford. He wan inemlH-r for St. 
(ji'riniklii4, and In I7i:i appointed xailer 
kliiK at urniH. Died, 1714. 

ANTAIl, an Arahlnn chief and ilUliii- 
Killibvd poel, who lived In the (llli century. 
IIU works, which forin a portion of the la 
niouv Moall.ikali, are <levoieil to ihe de- 
Ncrlpllon of hi* warlike derds, ami his love 
for the fair Abla. The celebrated Arabian 
romance, eiitiibd " Aiitar," by Asmai, 
ullords a iierfect Mea of the manners, opi- 
nions, and siiperttilioiiN of the early Ara< 
bians; and of this there U iin I'ngliiib ver- 
sion, entitled " Aiitar, a lledoueen Uo- 
niaiice, translated Iroin the Arable by Ter- 
rick llaDillton,"ln4 vols, laino. 

AN Til KM I (IS, a Lydlan, eminent as an 
architect, sculptor, and maihenialictan. 
lie was employed by the em|ieror Justinian ; 
and dlrnl in .'iSt. 

AN'i'llINO, rRRURniciC, Ihe companion 
III arms and biographer of the lamous Mar- 
shal Suwarrow, was born at (loiha, in 
Saxony, and died at St. I'etersburgh, in 

ANTHONY, St.,thb Grrat, the founder 
of nionnstic institutions, was iM>rn a. u. 
•i.W, at I'oma, in Heraclea, a town of l)p|N-r 
Kgvpt. In ;U)A, having sold all his property 
and given Ihe proceeds to the |)oor, he 
withdrew Into the desert, whitliera iiuniber 
of disciples were attracted by his reputation 
for sanctity; and thus was tormed the llrst 
community of monks. He afterwards went 
to Alexandria, to seek Ihe honour of mar- 
tyrdom, amid the nersecutions then raging 
UKainst llie Christians; but as his life was 
spared, he again retired to the desert; and 
died at the great age of lo.'i. 

AN'I'ilONY, of ilurffundy, an illegitimate 
son of riiillp, 4like of Burgundy. He serve«l 
with Kreat credit in Swit/erland, and against 
the Moors in Africa; and was liigh In the 
favour of Louis XI. and Charles Vill. of 
France. Horn, H2I ; died, IS04. 

AN TIGNAC, A., born in 1770 ; a favourite 
French c/iuii«»ifiter, charged with cele- 
brating botli Bonaparte and tlic Bourbons. 

AN ITGONUS, SocHA«i<8, a Jew, founder 
of the sect of the Sadducees, aJ>out 3uo 
years, b.c. 

ANTIGONCS, one of the generals of 
Alexander the Great, and iiniverKally sup- 
posed to be the illegitimate son of Philip, 
Alexander's father. In the division of the 
orovinces after the king's death, he received 
I'aniphylia, Lycia, and I'hrygia ; to which 
Lycoonia was afterwards added. He was 
the most powerful of those who shared the 
Grecian empire, and was the lirst of them 
who assumed the title of king, which he 
did 36 years after the death of Alexander. 
His power at length became so very formid- 
able that a conspiracy was formed against 
him bv Cassander, Lysimachus, and Selen- 
cus ; by whom he was ultimately defeated, 
and slam at the battle of Ipsus, b. c. 301. 

ANTIMACO, Mark Anthony, a learned 
Italian author of several Latin poems, and 
a teacher of Greek at Mantua and Ferrara. 
He translated nuicli from the Greek, and 
was a7.ealou8 promoter of classical learning. 
Born, 1472 ; died, 1552. 






























a llrb) (Inibrroal Uiograpfiv. 


N I 


ANIINI'., ^Iai H Fhani'oin i>', II Hrriirli 
Mi'iirilirhiii' iiiiiiik ; iiiilltoi ul nil l'.i»»ty <iii 
lliii Art <i| trrUMiix l>«(<'»» <<«'> I><*ri)i 
lilHH ; till il, 17 IH. 

ANIHK litis iiiK <j|ir.\r, kliiifof/jrl.i 
.iiiil A»i.i. Ill- i'iMii|iii'ii'i| ilir ifi-i iihn iHirt 
ul (hd'it^ iif »lili'li Kiiiiii- cillrit liii|iliirnl 
llii- iilil III ItiMMc; mill ll.iiiiiili.il, wliii li.iil 
l.lkrii n 111^1' III liU riiiirl, i'iiriiiii'.i.:i'il liliii 
In liiaki' Mill' ii,;iilii>( ll.ily ; |iii( iim IIMSI- 
■•iilri wi'ic iiiil iiKri'iMJilc'tii III*! iiilvlci- III 
lliiiiiiili.il, mill III- »,!>• I'liiHiiu'ri'il iiiitl 
dIiIIKI'iI III I'i'liir liryiiiiil iiiniiiil Y.iiii iin, iiiiil 
|iiiy II yiitily llni- m voiio i.iU-iiIk In ilii Ko- 
lii.iiH. |l|« rrvt'iiiirx liriiii( iniilili' (o |iuy 
till' liiic, Uv iilli'iii|ili-il til iiliiiiilcr llir Ifiii- 
|ili.' Ill' Hrliit III SiiHliiii.i, uliirli Nil liiri'iixril 
till- liiliiiliil.tiilN, lliiit thry killril liiiii Mitli 
iiiit riillnwi'rH, II. i\ Ih7, 

ANTIoriKIS, III A-rnliin, a iilillimiiiilicr, 
mill illNri|ili>ii|'|*llllii, III!' I'I'.iI'iiiIkI, III' MilK 
highly CHd'oiiiril liy Cicrrn lor IiIh niiiili- ul' 
riiiicalliiii, mill nuihliliTi'il tin- Ix'nt |iiil)llc 
tiMfliiT ol till- ri'.ilDiilr |ihlliiMi|i|iy. 

AN riOCIMiS, II iiioiikotSi'liu, I'.ili'Niliir, 
who wroto in llir Hi-\i'iitli ci'iilnry luu lioiiii- 
llcN (III till- Si'riiiiiiifM, Hiill I'Maiit. 

ANril>A'li;K, uii»li\i-(ir>l>i(iil<iri, |iii|ill 
III Aiislollc, iiiid llii! I'liltlifiil iiiliilNti'r III' 
l'liili|i iliitl AlrNilliilcr. Wlilii! Ali'Xiiiiili-r 
WiiH iiliniiiil, III? left Aiitl|isilrr In the )(ii- 
vcriinirni oi Miici'ilnn ; mi'l liy IiIn iirinlriit 
iiiiiir.i(ri'iiii'iil III? kirfit iill Uri'i'i'i! in nrilcr. 
On tin? (It'alli of IiIm iiniHlcr, in lliu ilUtriliii- 
linii of liU iiTiitoricN, Aiiti|iiii<'r olniilnrd 
llii; Kiirojii'mi |irovln>'('H. Not luntfixltrr tin- 
roiifi'iU?riili' Niiih'it of (iriii'i'i! attaikcil liliii, 
lint lif siiImIiii-iI tliciii, iiinl Nnl)\i-rti'il tlirlr 
ijciiiorr.itii' fiiriiiH of jfovi'rniiiriil, on Mlii<?|i 
III' \\i\n i-allril till! nitlii'r of Ori'L'ci'. llu 
itlril M. (-. :ilb. 

AN ril'Ari''.ll, LwTii'ii C.-KTiini, aUonian 
liMorian, nlio livril in llic liiiio of (fraccliiiK, 
.mil wrote an ao:uiiiit uf the Sfcoiul rniiic 

AN ril'AI'r.ll, of Sidnn, a stole philoso- 
I'lu-r and |"U'l. iniu'li praihcd liy t'ieeroand 
Seneca, lie lived aliniii I lu ii.c. 

ANTII'ANKS. a Greek eoniif poet, in the 
time of Alexander, \iliu gaiiii.d tliree \>tm:s 
at tlie Oiinijiic (ranieii. 

ANTII'HII.llS, a painlor, rival of ApclUs ; 
eeiubrated for a line drawint; re|ireiieiitiii(; 
a yoiitii blowing' a Kpark uf lire. 

ANI'IIMIUN, the lUiamniisian, an Athe- 
nian orator, wlio rtnurlKlied u. c. 4UU. lie 
»»s tlie lltht who laid down the rnleM of 
oratory, and aHhisled in establishin)^ the ty- 
ranny of the four hundred ; for which lie was 
put to deatii, 11. c. 411. 



, Jamf.8, a 
llalian xclioiar of CainuanuH; he became 
chief minister to the dukes of Milan, and 
died, i.'Sis. 

ANTISTIIENES, founder of the ser| of 
the t^ynics, by whose means IMelitns was put 
to death, and Anytiis banislied, for tlieir 
persecution of Socrates. He was born at 
Athens, B. c. 423. 

ANTOINKTTK, Marib. of Lorraine, 
archduchessof Austria and queen of France, 
horn at Vienna, in n'tH, was the dan^rhter 
of the emperor Francis I. aiiil Maria 
'riicre>a. To a beautitnl person, and a 

liiltlily ciilMvaleil inliid. she added llie 
I hariiiii of Keiilli'iK HI ami friiiliilni' i{m4 e ; 
anil whin nhe lilt Meiin.i fi>r Vi'i'a.illlrii, 
to ifiw her hand lo the miii of Umiu XV., 
kliiit of I ranee, aflerwariN l.oiiix of nn 
liapiiy iiieniiirv, the e.iplliil ol her iiallve 
I.iikI \\;i* lllli'il mIIIi mirrow. Ill I77i>. wlieii 
only I'l yi'irx of ai()', nhe w.in liiarrled ; and 
whin her husband a'.eenili'd llie Ihroiir iihe 
Ifainnl Ihe alio tloini of tin- people by re- 
peated ai'tsof Kenrriixiiy. It w.ii>,howi'ver, 
noon oliHi rvi'il Ihat her naliiral livi Iim nn 
brniiKhl upon lirr Ihe xcindal other < neinii « 
alioiit till' t-iiiirl, who ntliiliiiled the iiiuliH 
irnlKi'd fr.iiikni'Ni and threrlnines* of her 
nature to levity and IndUen lion. An e\- 
Iraordlnary occurrence iidiled fnil to the 
llame of iMliiinny, while It Hnlijicltd the 
name of the ipieeii to a dli<;;ra< • fnl l.twinill. 
Two jeMi'ller* ileinanded tlie p.iynieiit ol 
an iinineiiHe price for a iieckl.iee, uliicli 
had been piircli.ised In llie name of the 
(|neeii. In the examination which she de- 
iiianilcd, it was proved tliat nhe b.id never 
onliTid llii> purcliase. A l.tdy of her size 
and coniplexlon had iinpiideiidy puMsed 
hersi'ir oil for till! ipieeii, anil at midniKhl 
liiid a iiieeljiiif with a eardiiial in the park 
of VerhailleH. NoltvitliKlaiidin^r this, the 
eni'inics of the (pieen micceeilcil In casllnir a 
Nti;(ma on her ; and the credulous and lii- 
falnated people laid every piildie disaster 
to her charge. On the ,'illi of October tlir 
I'.irisians rii-hed to NersailleH, and, break- 
iiiff Into the caslle on the follow lni( morn- 
ing, lliey miirdircd several of the body- 
guard!!, and littered aifaiiihl the c|ueen the 
nio-.t fiirioii.H ihrealH. In the nihldle < f the 
ni;,'-lit, a clergyman wrote to her, " Take 
ineaNiireN for your lirein'rvatlon; ea ly In 
the inornirii;, at o clock, yon are to be 
niiirdcred." She remained tranf|iiil. anil 
concealed the Idler. The Infuriated iiiob 
rushed into her rliainber ; she lied to Ihe 
kin^. To put a stop to the scene of out- 
rat,'e, the klnir and 'iticeii showed them- 
selves with botli their children, In the bal- 
cony. This spectacle made a momentary 
impression on the enraged people; but 
soon tlie crv resounded from every moiilh, 
" No ehililren ! the queen— the queen 
alone!" She Instantly nut her son and 
daiiKliter into the arms of tlie kin?, and re- 
tiirnid to the balcony. Tliis unexpected 
courage disarmed the mob ; and their 
threats were followed bv iliouls of aiipro- 
bation. Hut the rei(lcidal mania was now 
arriviiii^aia fearful height, and thoKe events 
which in Ihe sequel delu|^ed France with 
blood, v«ere Ihickeninp: around the roy.il 
family with all the fervid ulooin of un ap- 
proaching' tempest. At length came the 
fatal lOth of Auiriist, I79'i. Prepared for 
the worst, she exerted all her |iower to ex- 
cite the king to meet death sword in hand : 
but he thought resistance was in vain, ami 
was led, with his consort, before tlie legis- 
lative assembly, where she heard his deposi- 
tion announced, and then accompanied iiiin 
to the Temple. 'I'liere, deprived of every 
semblance of royalty, and bereft of every 
comfort, she displayed the magnanimity of 
a heroine and t>ie patient cnuurance of a 
martyr. At le.igth the Convention ordered 
her to be brought before the revolutionary 
tribunal. She was charged with having 





^ 0etD JL^ntUereal Btograp^s. 

[AST 1 

" Oh tlie Oriifin of the Sc 
" Order of I euiplars," I 

dissipated the tinauces, exhaufit|>d the pub- 
lic treasury, corresponded with the foreig;n 
enemies ol France, and favoured its domes- 
tic focfi. To all tliese charfj^cs, and others 
still more infamous, she replied with firm- 
ness and decision, and a just indiifnation; 
and shelieard her sentenct.' pronounced witli 
perfect calmness. On the following morn- 
ing, when she ascended the cart which con- 
veyed her to the scafl'old, it was observed 
that grief had distorted her features, and 
in the damp, unwholesome prison, she had 
almost lost one of her eyes. A deep silence 
leis^ned, and the people, before so furious, 
seemed to be tilled with shame and awe. 
When she reached the top of the scafl'old, 
she threw herself on her knees, e>:claiininff, 
" O (Jod, enlighten and affect nry execu- 
tioner! Farewell, mv children, for ever; 
I !;o to your father!'' Thus perislicd the 
lovely iMarie Antoinette, in the 3bth year 
of her age, Oct. 16, 1793. 

ANTON, C. GoTLEin, a learned Lusanan 
noble and nia^Nstrate, born in 1731 : author 
of a variety of curious pliilolofficai, histo- 
rical, and critical worlis ; anionj; others, 
a "History of the Ancient Germans;" 

Sciavonian^i ;" of tlic 

■ SiC. 6ic. 

ANTONKLLK, PKTKfi Antony, Mar- 
qnis d' ; a conspicuous character in the 
French revolution. He voted tor the death 
of tlie queen, and for the destruction of tlie 
Girondists. He was himself near meeting 
the fate to which he so readily consii^neu 
others, as he was tried for complicity in the 
conspiracy of Uabeuf ; but he was fortunate 
enoui^ii to be acquitted, and died at an ad- 
vanced ajfe, in 1«I7. 

AN TONELLI, Nicholas Maria, countof 
Pergola, who rose througli various eccle- 
siOAitical (iromotions to tliat .of cardinal, 
was born, 1097, and died, 17G7. 

ANTONI, Sebastiano Ueoli, a Vicen- 
7.an noble autlior, bora in li>4>s ; autlior of 
" Ihe Conspiracy of Uruius," a trasjedy. 

ANTONIANO, Sylvio, an Italian iwet, 
made a cardinal by Clement VHI.,'born at 
Home, 154(1 ; died, ifioj. 

John, a Ui'-li poet, born in Zealand, 
IG47 ; died, lu84. He is principally known 
by his poem in honour of the river Y, 
whicli Hows tlirou;;!) Amsterdam ; in which 
city his works were collected and ]uib- 
lishcd, 171-1. 

ANTON I NE, DE FoRCiOLioNi, a Romish 
preli>tc and saint, born at Florence, 1389; 
died, 1459, and canonized 1523. He hic-hly 
distiu(ruisned iiimself at the council of Flo- 
rence where he disputed with the Greeks. 

ANTONINf, Annibal and Joseph, two 
brotliers, natives of Italy, in the i7th and 
1 8th centuries : they wrote in conjunction 
the history of Luchnia : and Annibal was 
the compiler of an Italian grammar and 

ANTONINUS PIUS, Titus Aurelius 
FuLvius, emperor of Rome, was born at 
Lanuvium, (<6 ; succeeded Adrian, 138; and 
died, 161. His reign was disting'ui>hed by 
tranquillity, and by such excellent inanage- 
lucut, as procured him the title of fius. 

ANTONINUS, Marcus Annius Airk- 
L1U9, surnamed the Philosopher, born, Ivl ; 
adopted by Pius Antoninus, whom he suc- 
ceeded, in conjunction with Lucius Vents, 
as emperor of Rome ; and died, 160. His 
death occasioned universal mourning 
throughout the empire ; the Roman senate 
and people voted him a god, and his image 
was long afterwards regarded with peculiar 
veneration. Tills emperor's bo( a of medi- 
tations in Greek and Latin has been often 
printed, and iiriversally admired for the 
excellence of its morality. 

ANTONINUS.a geographicnl author, the 
writer of a valuable Itineraritini, whose 
age is unknown. Burton publislied an ex- 
cellent commentary on it, as far as rriaics 
to Uritain. 

Messina, Sicily, 1426 : died, 1475. He is 
said to have been the first artist who intro- 
duced oil painting into Italy. 

ANTONIO, Nicholas, a Spanish histo- 
rian, born at Seville, 1617 ; died, 16S4. 

ANTONIUS, GoDEFROY. a celebrated 
German lawyer, born in Westphalia, and 
died chancellor of the university of Giesseii, 
where aUo he was a professor of law, 1618. 

ANTONIUS, Marcus, a brave and elo- 
quent Roman consul, who was afterwards 
appointed governor of Cilicia, and subse- 
quently censor. He was one of the greatest 
orators among the Romans ; and, accord- 
ing to Cicero, it was owing to him that 
Rome became a rival in eloquence to 
Greece. He was slain during the disturb- 
ances raised by Marias and Cinna, B.C. 67. 

ANTONIUS, Marcus, the celebrated 
triumvir, born, b.c. 86, v. as son of Mar- 
cus Cretins, by Julia, a lady of the Caesarian 
family, of distinguished merit. Anthony, 
on tile death of his father, soon wasted his 
whole patrimony, then went into Syria, and 
assisted in the restoration of Ptolemy to the 
throne of E'jypt ; thence he proceeded to 
join Csesar in Gaul, and on his return to 
Rome was made questor. When Ctesar 
made himself master of that city, he ap- 

Fointed Anthony to the government of 
taly, and afterwards master of the horse. 
Anthony was also the colleague of Caesar in 
the consulship ; and, at the death of the 
latter, strove to get possession of the sove- 
reign power, by ingratiating himself with 
tiic people and tiie army. In order to 
check bis ambition, the patriots took the 
part of Octaviiis. tlie heir of Caesar ; and 
Anthony, being defeated in his endeavours 
to gain Macedonia and Syria, and also in 
an attempt upon Cisalpine Gaul, fled to the 
Alps, and afterwards formed with Lepidus 
and Octavins the second triumvirate : to 
which combination Cicero fell a sacrihce. 
Anthony was greatly instrumental to the 
defeat of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi ; 
he then went into Asia, where he bowed to 
the all-conquering charms and blandish- 
ments of Cleopatra ; and. after his defeat at 
Actium, put an end to his own existence, 
B.C. 30, aged 56. 

ANTONIUS, ^.Lius Nebrissensis. a 
Spanish writer, born at Lebrisa, 1442 ; died, 
1522. He was an eminent professor at the 
university of Salamanca, and wrote the 
History of New Spain, and other works'. 

not to offend is the firgt stef towards pleasing. 


I ant: = 

I AriiK- 
)rn, lyi ; 

111! suc- 
i Vcriis, : 
180. His 
lournint; I 
m senate 
is image | 

peculiar | 
of meUi- ] 
en oflen 
I for the i 

itlior. tlic| 
1, wliose 
;A an ex- 
M relaics 

bnrn at 
S. He is 
rho Intro- 


isli histo 

lalia, and 
if Giessen, 
law, 161 B. 
B and elo- 
and subse- 
le greatest 
d, accord- 
liim that 
luencc to 
he disturb- 
i, B. c. 67. 
1 of Mar- 
i Caesarian 
wasted his 
Syria, and 
emy to the 
oceeded to 
; return lo 
len CtEsar 
ity, he ap- 
rnnient ot 
tiie horse. 
)f Csesar in 
ath of the 
»f tlie sove- 
imself with 
I order to 
ts tooit tlie 
Isesar; and 
nd also in 
fled to the 
th Lepidus 
ivirate ; to 
a gacrihce. 
tal to the 
Fhilippi ; 
bowed to 
is defeat at 

ssENsis, a 
1442 ; died, 
sssor at the 
wrote the 
r works. 










^ l^eto Sftnibersal Hioqva^fiV' 


AN rON Y, of Dourbon, sou of Charles of 
Doiirboii, duke of Vemlonif, born 15'/7 ; mar- 
ried Joan d' Albrat, queen of Navarre, IJ4H, 
who bruu),'ht him in dowry the principality 
of Uearn, and the title of king of Navarre ; 
and died from a wound received in the 
tihouUler at the siege of Rouen, lo63. 

ANTONY, St., of Padua, a learned 
Francificnn monk, was born at Lisbon, ilUo ; 
died at t'udua, IXU ; and was canonized. 
His work)) were printed at the Hague, 1641. 

AN ION Y, of I'ratoveccliio, 'i'uscany, an 
eminent Italian lawyer, in the isih century. 

ANVAIU, a Persian poet, born at Clio- 
rasan. He was well versed in astrology, 
and composed several books on that science: 
but having failed in a prediction, he retireii 
from the court of the sultan Sangiar, and 
died at naike in 1306. 

ANVILLE, Jean Baptiste Bouroiig- 
NOM 1)', first geographer to the king of 
France, member of the Academy of In- 
scrif !ions and Belles Lettres, of the Anti- 
quaiian Society of London, and adjoint- 
geographer lo the Parisian Academy of 
Sciences; born at Paris, 1697: died, 1782. 
D'Anville devoted his whole life to geogra- 
phical studies, and the numerous valuable 
maps and works he published left him with- 
out a rival. Among the best of his works 
are the "Atlas of Ancient Egypt;" " Or- 
bisvVeteribus Notus ; and " Orbis Roma- 
nus." He pubiislied 78 treatises and 311 
maps, all of which are distinguished for 
their accuracy and perspicuity. 

ANYSIUS, or ANISO, Giovanni, an 
Italian poet of some celebrity, born at Na- 
ples about 1473; died, 1540. 

ANYTA, an ancient Greek poetess, some 
of whose compositions are preserved in a 
collection of eminent female poets, pub- 
lisl;ed at Hamburgh, 1734. 

ANYTIJS, an Athenian rhetorician, wh<. 
prevailed on Aristophanes to ridicule Socra 
tes in a comedy, and linally, in conjunction 
with Melitus, procured his condemnation. 
VVnen the people discovered their error, 
Anvtus was .banished, and stoned to death 
at Heraclea. 

APACZAI, John, a native of Apatza, 
Transylvania, who studied the oriental lan- 
guages at Utrecht, and afterwards taught 
mathematics and natural philosophy in the 
university of Weissenburg. Died, 1659. 

APEL, or APELLES, John, a German 
lawyer, and one of the earliest preachers of 
the Reformation ; born at Nuremburg, 1486, 
and (lied tliere, 1536. 

APELIIOOM, a Dutch poet of some ce- 
lebrity, who died about 1780. 

APELLES, the most celebrated among 
the painters of antiquity, was born, as 
Pliny affirms, in the Isle of Cos, though 
otlier writers name Ephesus as his native 
place. He lived in the time of Alexander 
the Great, who would suffer no other artist 
to paint his picture. 

APELLES, a native of Syria, in the second 
century ; the founder of an heretical sect, 
I who denied the propheU, the law of Moses, 
and tlie resurrection. 

APELLICON, a peripatetic philosopher, 
to whom the world is indebted for the works 
of Aristotle, which he collected and bought 

at a vast expense, about 'M years n. c. 
They were afterwards seized by the dictator 
Sylla, and carried by him to Rome. 

APER, Marcus, a Gaul by birth, and one 
of the finest orators of the first century : he 
died about 85. 

APHTHONIUS, of Antioch, a rhcloriclan 
of the third century, who wrote a treatise 
entitled " Progyiuiiasmata Rhetoriea," the 
best edition of wliich was published at Am- 
sterdam, 1645. 

APIAN, I'ETER, a German mathematician 
and astronomer, born in Misnia, 1495 ; dietl, 
1589. Apian was the first who disoovi red 
that the tails of comets are J.1 ways projecU'd 
in a direction from the sun. and records his 
observations upon Ave which appeared in 
the years 1531, 1533, 1533, 1538, and 1539. 

APICIUS, a noted epicure in the reigns of 
Augustus and Tiberius. It is recorded of 
him that he spent 3,500,000/. sterling in 
prox iding for the luxuries of his table ; but, 
lindi;ig his finances reduced to 250,000 
crowns, he poisoned himself for fear of 
starving. There were, however, two other 
epicures of the same name ; one who lived In 
the time of Sylla ; and the other, whose ex- 
travagance and gluttonous propensities were 
less enormous, contemporary with Trajan. 

APION, a learned grammarian and histo- 
rian, born at Oasis, Egypt, in the first cen- 
tury, and was a professor at Rome in the 
reign of Tiberius. In his " Antiquities of 
Egypt," he attacked the Jews, and was an- 
swered by Josephus. 

APOLLINARIS, Caius Sulpitius, a na- 
tive of Carthage, was professor of grammar 
at Rome in the second century. 

APOLLINARIUS, Claudius, bishop of 
Hierapolis, Phrygia, about 177, who wrote 
an apology for the Christian religion, ad- 
dressed to Marcus Aurelius. 

APOLLINARIUS, a presbyter of Alexan- 
dria In the fourth century, who wrote a his- 
tory of the Hebrews in Greek heroic verse. 
He had a son who became bishop of Laodi- 
cea, and wrote a treatise against paganism, 
which he sent to Julian. He died about 383. 

APOLLO DORUS, a grammarian of 
Athens, flourished B.C. I04. Three books 
of his on the origin of the gods arc extant. 

APOLLODORUS. a famous painter at 
Athens, B.C. 408. Pliny mentions two pic- 
tures by him, one of a priest of Apollo at 
the altar, and the other of the shipwreck of 

APOLLODORUS, a celebrated architect, 
was born at Damascus, and lived under 
Trajan and Adrian. He was employed by 
the former In building the great stone bridge 
over the Danube, and other structures ; 
but, falling into disurace with Adrian, he 
lost his life through that emperor's caprice. 

APOLLONIA, afemale Christian martyr, 
who, at a very advanced a!»e, fell a sacrihctj 
to intolerance at Alexandria, 348. 

poet of Navarre in the 15th century, who 
published an epic on the siege of Jerusalem, 
and other pieces. 

APOLLONIUS, Dyscolus, a gramma- 
rian of Alexandria in the second century, 
who wrote a work on Syntax : a collection 
of historical curiosities is also ascribed to 






1 J 



^ ^eto ^'tnibersal l3iograpfj]?. 


him. There was another grammarian of 
this name, who lived in tlie roiyrn of Aiiffus- 
tii8 Casar, an'! compiled a Lexicon llome- 
riciim, printeu at HariM, 1773. 

APOLLONIUS, of Perf^a, a mathema- 
tician of Alexandria, about 240 years, b.c. 
He composed several curious Kt^onietrioal 
works, of which Itis booli on conic sections 
alone exists. 

APOLLONIUS, RiioDiiia, so called from 
the city of Rhodes, in whirh he presided 
over a school of rlictoric, was a native of 
Alexandria, and aftcrwanls became keener 
of the celebrated library there, in which 
situation he remained until his death, B.C. 
340. He wrote a poen, in four books, on 
the expedition of the Argonauts. 

APOLLONIUS, TvANEUs, a philosophic 
empiric of Tyana, in Cappadocia; born 
about the Christian era. He visited Rome, 
where Vespasian became his dupe ; but Do- 
mitian sent him to prison. He soon ob- 
tained his release, and died about the end 
of the first century. 

APOLLONIUS, a Roman senator and 
Christian martyr, who lived in the reigrn of 
Cominodus, aiid probably guttered death 
about 186. 

APONO, or ABANO, Peter de, an as- 
trologer and physician, born at Abano, near 
Padua, I2r>0; died, 1316. He made himself 
celebrated by a work entitled, " Co ciiiator 
UitTerentiorum Philosophorum et precipue 

APOSTOLIUS, Michael, a learned 
Greek of the iSth century, who compiled a 
collection of the sayinf^s of wise men, and 
another of proverbs. 

APPIAN, an ancient historian, born at 
Alexandria, whence he went to Rome, in 
tile reis'n of Trajan, and became an emi- 
nent pleader. He wrote tlie history of 
Rome in Greek. 

APPIANI, Andre, a celebrated Milanese 
painter, born in 17''>0. His pieces are found 
In most of the palaces of Milan ; but his 
master-piece, in fresco, adorns the cupola 
of Santa Maria de S. Celso. Died, 1B18. 

APREKCE, or RHRSE, John, a learned 
antiquary, born in Wales ia (he early part 
or the Kitli century, and died in the reii^n of 
queen Mary. One of his works, entitled 
" Fides llistoriie Uritanniu;," is preserved in 
manuscript in the Cottonlan collection. 

APR(>SIO, Anoei.ico, an Augustine monk, 
born at Genoa, 1607; ilied, 16K1. He wrote 
a number of books, hut is best known by a 
work, entitled " Bitiliotheca Aprosiaua." 

APTHORP, East, a learned divine, born 
in New England, 1732, and died at Canter- 
bury, 1816. Tlie Societv for the Propag:a- 
tion" of the Gospel in foreign Parts sent 
him out as one ot their missionaries to Cam- 
bridL'e, Massachusetts, in which state he re- 
sided for a short time, and then returned to 
England, and obtained the living of Croy- 
don, Surry, about 1765. In 1778 he too'k 
the degree of D. D., and was appointed to 
the rectory of St. Mary-le-bow, London ; 
(mt, in 1793, he resigned ids living on ob. 
taining the valuable 'all of Finsbury, inSt. 
Paul's Cathedral. 

APULEIUS, Lucius, a Platonic philoso- 
pher in the second century, born at Ma- 

daiira, Africa. Hecou'posed several borks, 
tlie chief of which is a romance, entitled 
" The Golden Ass," which has been trans- 
lated Into almost all the modern European 

AQUAVIVA, Andrew Matthew, duke 
of Atri, Naples, born about 1436, was cele- 
brated both as a scholar and a soldier, and 
died, ti38. 

AQUAVIVA, Claude, born at Naples, 
1543, became general of the order of Jesuits, 
and died, 1615. 

AQUAVIVA, Octavio, a iirelato of preat 
reputed piety and learning, dit^ archbishop 
of Naples, 1612. 

AQUILA, of Sinopc, Pontiis, an architect 
an<l mathen.atician in the time of Adrian, 
by whom he was employed in the rebuilding 
of Jei'isalem, where he embraced the Chris- 
tian religion, but was afterwards excom- 
municated for practising astrology, and 
turned Jew. 

AQDILANO, Serafino, an admired 
Italian poet, born at Aquila, Abruzzo, 1466, 
and died, 15U<). 

AQU ILAN US, Sebastianus, a Neapolitan 
physician of Padua; died, 1543. 

AQUINAS, St., Thomas d', called the 
Angelic Doctor, descended from the counts 
of Aquino, in Calabria, Naples, was born 
1334; died, 1274; and canoni/ed, IU33, by 
John XXII. His wri(in!,^s, whicli were held 
in the highest estimation, gave rise to a sect 
called, after him, Tliomists. 

AQUINO, Charles d', a Neapolitan 
Jesuit, born, 1654 ; died, 1740. He was an 
eminent teacher of riietoric at Rome. 

AQUINO, or AQUIN, Louis Claude d', 
a distinguished musician, born at Paris, 
1694 ; died, 1772. At the aire of six, he per- 
formed on the harpsichord before Louis 
XIV. ; at eight, the celebrated Bernier de- 
clared he could teach him no more ; and at 
twelve, he become organist of a church at 

AQUINO, Philiv, a learned Jew of the 
17th century, horn at Avignon, converted to 
the Chrisiian faith, and received baptism at 
Aquino, Naples, wlience he derived his 
name. He was celebrated for his skill in 
the Hebrew language ; and was entrtisted 
by Le Jay with the care of printing and cor- 
recting the Hebrew and Chaldee text of his 
Polyglot Bible. 

ARABSCHAH, a Mahometan historian, 
who wrote a History of Tamerlane, and a 
treatise on the divine unity. He was a na- 
tive of Damascus, where he died, 1450. 

ARABELLA STUART, commonly called 
the lady Arabella, was the only child of 
Charles Stuart, earl of Lennox, the brother 
of Henry lord Darnley, father to James VI., 
of Scotland, by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Williain Cavendish. This innocent vic- 
tim of jealousy and state policy, while an 
infant lost her father, and thus became 
heiress to a large estate. Several matches 
Were projected (or her at home and abroad : 
and her cousin, king James, was inclined 
to marry her to lord Esme Stuart, whom he 
had created duke of Lennox, and whom, 
before his marriage, he considered as his 
heir ; but this union was prevented by queen 
Elizabeth, who held the lady Arabella under 

flattery is like false MONET ; IT impoverishes those who take it. 




\\ bnrkn, 


11 trans- 


w, duke 

•as ci'k'- 

ier, and 





of great 




■ Adrian, 




le Chris- 




gy, and 




zo, 1 400, 


and a 
I'aB a na- 

IV called 

111 i Id of 

1 brollicr 


of Sir 

Int vic- 

lliilR an 

I became 


pbro-id : 


lltom lie 

] whom, 

as his 

' queen 

I under 




^ llctD ^ntbersal 33tograpfJ9. 


restraint, and regarded licr with a jealoua 
eye. On tlu; doatli of tliat queen, an abor- 
tive conspinicy was formed for settinfr up 
Arabella Stuart in opposition to her cousin 
James. In I6I0, she was privately married 
to INlr. William Seymour, grandson of tlie 
earl of Hertford ; by which union she fell 
under the royal displeasure, was placed in 
confinement at Lamlieth, and her husband 
sent to the Tower. Shortly afterwards they 
separately made their escape ; Mr. Seymour 
irot safe to tlie Continent, but the lady 
Arabella was overtaken, shut up in the 
Tower, and passed the remainder of her 
life in close and melancholy conlinement, 
which nnaily deprived her of her reason ; 
and she died September 27, 1615, aged U8. 

ARAGON, TiTLLiA d', a poetess of the 
16th century ; descended from an illegiti- 
mate branch of the royal family of Spain ; 
and lii?hly celebrated "for her wit, beauty, 
and various accomplishments. 

ARA.IA, Francisco, a Neapolitan musi- 
cian and composer in the iSth century, who 
entered tlie service of the Kmpress Cathe- 
rine of Russia, and produced at St. I'eters- 
biirgli " Cephalo et I'rocris," the first 
opera written in the Russian language. 

ARAM, Eti<;ENF, a man no less notorious 
for his studious hiibits and great attain- 
ments, than for the crime which brought 
him to ail untimely end, was the son ot a 
gar<leiier, and a iiiiti •f n.anisgill, in Ne 

h oestitute of 

., atid Working 

It,, such was his 

• . that he soon 

i^ress in the mathe 

therdale, Yorkshire 
th(! advantages of e ' 
at his father's hum* ■• 
desire to obtain kno : 
made considerable pi 
matics ; then applied so sexlulously to the 
Latin tongue, as to read the Roman clas- 
sics ; and afterwards studied Greek with 
great success. Thus qualified, in 1734 he 
became uslier i.i a school at Knaresbo- 
rough, where he married. In 1744 we (ind 
that he taught Latin and writing in Lon- 
don, and transmitteil the acts of iiarlianietit 
to be registered in Chancery ; and, in 1757, 
he assisted in the frec-seliool at Lynn. 
During this period he studied history," an- 
tiquity, heraldry, and botany, wrote poetry, 
and became proficient in tlie Hebrew, Ara- 
bic, and Chaldee languages. In the follow- 
ing year he was appreliended at Lynn for 
the murder of one Daniel Clarke, a shoe- 
niaker, of Knaresborough, which took place 
thirteen years before, and for which he was 
tried at York, Aug. 8, 1759. He made a 
most skilful, argumentative, and eloquent 
defence, but was found guilty. The next 
nioruing he confessed the crime, attribut- 
ing it to his suspicion of Clarke's having a 
criminal intercourse with his wife. Having 
inetrectually endeavoured to commit sui- 
cide in the night, by wounding himself in 
the arm, he was conveyed in a state of stu- 
por to the gallows, and afterwards hung in 
chains in Knaresborough Forest. The sin- 
gular discovery of Clarke's mysterious mur- 
der, and its commission by a man of Aram's 
otherwise irreproachable character, learned 
acquirements, and scholastic habits, toge- 
ther with his remarkable defence, were of 
course calculated to excite a high degne 
of interest— an interest, indeed, not likely 
to subside, when we recollect that the me- 

lancholy tale has served as a basis for liie 
enchanting fictions of a novelist and the 
exquisite pathos of a poet. 

ARANTIUS, Julius C.tsxar, a Uoloi;- 
nese physician and anatomist; burn, 15J»; 
died, 1589. 

ARATOR, a Latin poet of the fifth cen- 
tury, born in Liguria, and patroni/.ed by 
Hope Vigilius, to whom he presented the 
Acts of the Apostles in Latin verse. 

AUATUS, a Cilician |:>oetand astronomer, 
born about JOO B.C. His poem, entitled 
" Phajnoraena," was translated by Cicero 
into Latin : and St. I'aul qiiot*^ a passage 
from it in his speech to the Athenians. 

ARATUS, of Sicyon, son of Cliiiias, born 
B.C. '/73. His father fell in a tumult ex- 
cited by Abantidas ; and the escape of young 
Aratus. then only seven years of age, arose 
from his taking refuge in the house of the 
tyrant's sister, who humanely preserved 
him, and caused him to be brought up nri- 
vately at Argos. On arriving at maturity, 
he determined to restore the liberty of his 
country, which he did without bloodshed. 
Uy his activity, he also brought alioiit the 
Achoian league, and recovered Corinth 
from Antigoiiiis of Macedoii. He wrote 
Commentaries of his own transactions and 
times ; and died, b. c. 216. 

ARAZZO, C. M., a Syrian historian, born 
in 1500. 

ARBAHD, Francis, Sieur de Porchercs, 
one of ttic first nieuibcrs of the French 
Academy. Died, 1640. 

ARBOGAS r, Lens Fr. Ant., a French 
geometrician, professor of mathematics at 
Strasburgli, associate of the institute, de- 
" Convention, and mem- 
y learned societii s. Died, 1803. 

ARBOGASTES, a Frank by birth, and a 
soldier of fortune, who raised himself by 
his merit to the title of count, under Gra- 
tian, after whose death he entered into the 
service of Valentinian the Younger and 
Tiieexlosius : by the latter of whom he was 
sent into Gaul to oppose Victor, son of 
MaximuH, whom he defeated and kilJed. 
Arbogastes then ingratiated himself with 
the army, who raised him to the post of 
general, without consulting tlie court ; but, 
after the departure of Theodosius for Con- 
stantinople, he filled every post with his 
creatures, and reauced Valentinian to de- 
pendence upon his will. The young >>:;; 
peror was shortly afterwards found dead ; 
and Arbogastes, not choosing to assume the 
purple liimseir, beiii^ a barbarian by ori- 
gin, set up tlie rhetorician Biigenius, whom 
he liad raised to tiie rank of master of the 
offices. Theodosius immediately prepared 
for war asrainst tlie usurper, whom tie to- 
tally defe.ited. Arbogastes escaped to the 
mountains, where he wandered for some 
time, and at length put an end to his life, 
about 395. 

ARBRISSEL, Robert n% founder of the 
abbey of Fontevraud, was born in the village 
of Arbrissel, Brittany, about 1047 ; died, 
1117; and was buried in his own abbey. 

ARBUC.K LE, James, a Scotch poet, born 
at Glasgow, and died in the north t f Ire- 
land, where he had settled as a school- 
master, 1734. 

Strasburgli, associati 
Duty to the National ( 
ber of many learned 







i .J 



a 0.t\o ^nittrml IStogvapfij). 


ARBUISSON, De Voison de, a Frrnch 
engineer of eminence; author of a work. 
" Snr la Force <le» Projections don Volcans." 
ARIiUTHNOT, Alkxander, a Scottish 
divine, and a xealons refornier, was horn 
in IS38, and died in 1583. Me idited Hucli- 
anan'8 History of Scotland, and was a 
strenuous champion for tlie Reforniation. 

ARBUTIINO I", JoHN.a celebrated writer 
and nliyfiician in the reign of queen Anne, 
was oorn at Arbuthnoc, near Montrose, and 
educated at Aberdeen. He was appointed 
physician in ordinary to the (iiieen, and ad- 
mitted a fellow of the college. He euf^a^'ed 
with Pope and Swift in many of their lite- 
rary schemes, particularly in the satire un- 
der the title of " Martinus Scribierns." 
In 1797, Dr. Arbuthnot published " Tables 
of Ancient Coins, Weights, and Measures," 
which valuable worli was followed by an 
" Essay concerning Aliments," Sit., and 
another on the " LfTccts of Air on Human 
Bodies." So excellent a character did he 
bear with his contemporaries, tliat Swift 
thi'< pithily describes him: " He has more 
'vit than all our race, and his humanity is 
equal to his wit." He died in 1735. 

ARCKRE, Anthony, a learned French- 
man, who applied to the study of the ori- 
ental languages, made a tour into the East, 
and returned richly furniiihed with manu- 
scripts; but died or a fever, 1699, aged 3S. 
ARCERE, Louis Sxkphen, a French ec- 
clesiastic, poet, and historian of the IKtIi 
century ; cliiefly known by his works on 
Rochelle and Amiens. 

AftCESILAUS, a Greek philosopher, the 
founder of the second or middle academy, 
was born at Pitane, in i£olia, b. c. 316. lie 
maintained that " man knows nothing," 
and rejected as false and delusive the testi- 
mony of the senses. 

ARCHELAUS, king of Maccdon, natural 
son of Perdiccas II., whom he succeeded, 
after murdering his brother Alcetas. He 
liberally encouraged literature and the 
arts, entertained and patronized Euripides 
and Zeuxis. He died about B. c. 398'. 

ARCHELAUS, a Greek philosopher, the 
disciple and successor of Anaxagoras at 
Lampsacus, but removed afterwards to 
Athens, where he had Socrates for a pupil. 
ARCHELAUS, a geographer ; author of 
a treatise on all the cftuntries conquered 
by Alexander, in whose time he lived. 

ARCHELAUS, a Christian divine, bishop 
of Mesopotamia, who Hourislied under Pro- 
bus, about 378, and was a zealous cham- 
Sion for the Catholic faitli against the 

ARCHIAS, Aums Licinios, a natJvc of 
Antioch, chieHy known from the eloquent 
orations made oy Cicero, to defend his right 
to the citizenship of Rome. 

ARCH! DAM US III., king of Sparta, son 
of Agesilaus, whom he succeeded b. c. 361, 
and, in the sacred war, gave assistance to 
the Phocians. He was slain in a battle 
with the Messapians, after a reign of llf- 
tcen years. 

ARCHIGENES, a Greek physician of the 
pneumatic rect, who nourished in the times 
of Domitian and Trajan. His works are 
frequently referred to by Galen. 

ARCHILOCHUS, a Greek satirist, bnrn 
in the isle of Paros, u. c. cuu. The inven- 
tion of the Iambic metre is aUrlbuted to 
him ; and so virulent were his poems, tliat 
they were prohibited by the Spartan go- 

ARCHIMEDES, the most celebrated ma- 
thematician among the ancients, was a na- 
tive of Syracuse, and related to king Hiero. 
He was equally skilled in the sciences of as- 
tronomy, geometry, mechanics,hydrostutics, 
and optics ; his aptness in solving problems 
had become proverbial in Cicero's days, 
and his singulur ingenuity in the invention 
and construction of warlike engines, is 
much dwelt upon by l.ivy. The combina- 
tion of uulleys for raising immense wciglits, 
the endless screw. Sec, were invented by 
him ; but his genius for invention was ne- 
ver injre signally displayed than in tlie 
defence of Syracuse, wlien* it was besieged 
by Marceilus; for among other astonishing 
novelties, he produced a burning glass, 
composed of reflecting mirrors, by which 
he iired the enemy's fleet. At length, how- 
ever, the city was taken by storm, and 
Archimedes, tiien in his 74th year, was 
among the slain. B.C. St3. 

ARCHINTO, OcTAvius, a Milanese noble- 
man, born about the end of the 16th century, 
and died, 1656 ; he was employed in several 

Folitical offices, and rtceivea from Philip 
II. of Spain the title of Count du Barata. 

ARCHINTO, Charles, a learned Mila- 
nese of noble family, born in 1669, foiiixled 
an academy for tlie sciences and mecha- 
nics in his native city, which he enriched 
with an extensive llibriiry, c&c. 

ARCHON, Louis, an antiquary, chaplain 
to Louis XIV., born at Auvergne, 1645 ; 
died, 1717 ; author of a «• History of llie 
Royal Chapel of France." 

ARCHYTAS, a Pythagorean philosopher 
and mathematician of 1'areiitum, flourished 
about 400 B. c. He was one of the tirst 
who applied the theory of mathematics to 
practical purposes. 

ARCHENHOLZ, John, a Swedish histo- 
rian, born atHelsingtbrs, 1695; died, 1777: 
he published various works, principally 
relating to the history of his own country. 

ARCHENHOLZ, John William von, a 
vpry voluminous German author ; born, 1743 ; 
died, 1812. His two most important worivs 
are "Annuals of British History," 20 vols., 
and a " History of the Seven Years' War. 

ARCO, Nicholas, Count n', a Latin 
poet, born at Arco, in the Tyrol, 1479; 
died, 1546. 

ARCON, J. C. Eleonore Lemiceaud d', 
a French officer, born at Pontarlier, 1733 ; 
died, 1800. He became general of a divi- 
sion, inspector of fortifications, member of 
the Institute, and senator : and was the in- 
ventor of the famous floating batteries u«ed 
at the siege of Gibraltar in 1782. 

AKCONS, C^sar de, born in Gascony, 
and died, 1681 ; was advocate in the Parlia- 
ment of Bourdeaux, and published several 
treatises on philosophy and theology. 

ARCQ, Philip Augustus, Chevalier d', 
a supposed natural son of the Count de 
Toulouse, born at Paris, and died, 1779 : he 

idleness is troublesome; intemperance hurtful; ignorance intolerable. 




^ jaeto 9Bniber0aI IStogtavl^s- 


wrote several works on history, Sic.f and 
At the close of Ills life retired to Gentiiljr, 
where he devoted tlie remainder of ills days 
to religion. 

ARCUDIUS, Petbr, a Greek priest, 
born in the isle of Corfu, and died, 1035 : 
lie wrote several pieces in defence of the 
Rnmish Church, and was sent by Cleutent 
VI if. to Russia, to settle some religious 

ARCUUI, Alexandkr Thomas d', a 
Dominican of Venice, who wrote several 
works, cliieMy biographical, of which the 
" Uaiatana Lctterata " is the principal : he 
died, 1730. 

ARCULPHUS, a French divine of the se- 
venth century, who visUe<i the Holy Land, 
and wrote an account of his travels. 

ARCY, Patrick, a military writer of 
the 18th century, was born at Ualway. He 
entered into the military service of France 
in 1739, and served with distinction in Ger- 
many and Flanders. Died, 1779. 

ARDERN, John, an En(;lii<h surgeon of 
Newark-upon-Trent, to whom the credit of 
beiuif the reviver of surg(!ry in this coun- 
try in the Utli century liaji been given. 

ARUENE, Esprit Jean db Rome d', a 
French author, born at IVfarseillcs, 1684 ; 
where he died, in 1748. 

ARDENE, John I'aul, brother of thi- 
preceding, was a priest at Marseilles, and 
superior of a college ; but more celebrated 
as a florist than as an ecclesiastic. On that 
pleasing subject he wrote some esteemed 
works ; and also, " Letters on Physic," for 
the practice of ecclesiastics. Died, 1769. 

ARDERNE, James, an English divine, 
made dean of Chester by Charles II., and 
died, 1691. 

ARDlNOHELLr, Maria, a Neapolitan 
author, of noble origin, born in 1730. He 
was distinguished in alge ira and the physi- 
cal sciences, 

AREAGATHUS, a Greek physician, who 
lived B.C. a69, and practiced with repute 
at Rome ; but liaving introduced the use 
of caustics and the knife, he was banished. 

ARENA, Anthony de, a French writer 
of the loth century, chiefly known by his 
poem on the war of Provence, carried on 
l>y Charles V. ; died, 1544. 

ARENA, James or, a learned civilian 
and writer in the 13th century. He was 
professor of law at Padua and bologna, 
and wrote Commentaries on the Digest and 
the Code. 

ARENA, JosKPii de, an oflicer in the 
French service, born in Corsica ; arrested 
at the opera, Aug. 10, 1801, and executed 
Jan. 3) tollowing. for an attempt on the life 
of iiuonaparte, then first consul. 

ARENDT, Martin Frederic, a cele- 
brated traveller, whose object was the cul- 
tivation of science, was born at Altona, in 
1769. He commenced his travels in 1798, 
visiting the northern parts of Europe, and 
making researches into the anticpiitics of 
the countries through wliich he passed. 
He afterwards travelled through Spnin, 
Italy, and Hungary ; and it was his practice 
to carry all his papers with him, live on 
the charily of otherb, and sleep in (he open 
air. Died, 1824. 

ARESi, Paul, bishop of Tortona, Milan, 
born, 1574 ; died, 1644. He taught iIkoIol^v, 
philosophy, and rhetoric, at Ronie and Na- 

Cles, and wrote some philusopliical and re- 
gions pieces. 

ARET/F.US, a Greek physician in the 
time of Vespasian : his works arc held in 
great esteem. 

ARETIN, A. and J.G., brothers, born In 
1769 and 1771 ; authors of several German 
works on the line arts, " Magaziii des Arts 
du Uessin," kc. 

ARETIN, J. C, Baron, born in 1773; a 
laborious German bibliograph, curator of 
the Royal Library at Munich, and member 
of the most famous German academieH. 
Among his works are, " Historical and Lite- 
rary Memoirs :" a " History ol the Jews of 
Bavaria ;" " On the Eflects of Printing ;'' 
and many curious treatises on mnemo- 
nics, a universal language, the divining 
rod, &c. He edited the " Aurora" in isoO, 
and published the " Nouvel liulicatenr Lit- 
tcraire," at Tubingen, in IBOh. Died, im. 

ARETINO, Charles, born in Tuscany, 
in the 15th ccntory. He was svcretary to 
the republic of Florence; and eminent both 
as a Greek sc. olar and a Latin poet. Died 
in 1470. 

ARETINO, Francis, a learned civilian 
of Italy in the isth century. 

ARETINO, Gi'iDo, a native of Arezzo, 
Tuscany, who lived in (he lltli century, 
and is celebrated for having invented the 
musical gamut. 

ARETINO, Leonard, an Italian histo- 
rian, born at Are//o, 1370 ; died, 1443. He 
was secretary to several popes, and after- 
wards to the republic of Florence ; added a 
Supplement to Livy on the Punk* nar, and 
wrote the History of Italy, &c. 

ARETINO, Peter, an Italian satirical 
writer of great celebrity ,was born at Ares/o, 
in Tuscany, in 1498; and who, though oc- 
casionally as just as he was severe, may 
fairly be considered one of the most uni- 
versal and reckless libellers that ever lived. 
Yet although he was so licentious a writer, 
that his very name is expressive of inde- 
cency and profligacy, he wrote many works 
of devotion, and gave the preference to 
the latter, whenever tiiey accorded with 
his interest. His " Ragionamcnti," a 
bitter satire on the scandalous lives of the 
nuns, married women, and mistresses of 
the cardinals, Sec, was every where read 
with disgusting avidity. A multitude of sa- 
tires, on all the European sovereigns, 
earned him the title of " Scourge of Prin- 
ces.'" By some he was bribed to silence ; 
by others, punished. Licentiousness stains 
the wit of all his works, comedies, satires, 
sonnets, \c. &c. He died in 1557. 

ARICI, C^sAR, an Italian poet, born in 
1785 ; author of an admired didactic poem, 
called *• La Coltivatione degli Olivi." 

ARION, a Lesbian poet of the seventh 
century, B.C. ; the inventor of Dythiram- 
bics ; of whom numerous fables have been 
written. Of his wriiin-is, all that remains 
is a " Hymn to Neptune." 

ARETIUS, Benedict, an ecclesiastic of 
Berne, Switzerland ; endnent as a botanist 
and theologian. Died, 1574. 




V "■ I 



I no] 

a llcto JUttibcrBal IjtogmptiB. 



AKOAIZ, or ARGAE/, OiiKfioav i>r, a 
Spitiiish llt-iii'ilicliiK!, In the I7lli century, 
wliri piililJNheil at IMiidrid an eccleHiiistical 
liiMlory of Spain, wliicli he iittribnted to 
St. Gregory, bigliop of Grcnadii. but wliich 
wiin afterwards proved to be a forgery. 

AIt(;AI.L, Richard, an En((lish poet in 
llie rti^Mi of James I., piitronized liy Dr. 
.loliii Kinpf, bi8liop of London, 

AKGKLLAII, Philip, a printer of Bo- 
loifiia, of wliicli rity lie bi'canie a ma<;i8- 
tralo, was bmn in Minrt. Croi.i Dolofi^na he 
removed to Milan, to snperinti'iid the print- 
ing' of IVIuratori's " Scrifiliores Italicarnm 
iiernin," under the aimpices of llie empe- 
ror riiarlis VI., who granted hlni a |ien- 
sion, and made him one of IiIh secretarieH. 

AKGBLLA'I'I, l'RANCia,Hon of the above, 
author of a work entitled " Ucc^merone," 
written in imitation uf Boccacio. Died 
in 17.54. 

AllGBNS, John Baptistb de Boyer, 
ManiiiiM dc, a French misceliaiieoiiB writer, 
son to the soiicitor-gcMieral of the Parlia- 
ment of Aix, la which city he was bnrn, in 
1701. lie at first chose the profession of 
arms, and wag wounded at the Kiegc of 
Kell, I7:i4, but afterwards turned his atten- 
tion to literary ]iursuits; went to Holland, 
and was invited by Frederick William, king 
of Prussia, to his court, who made Uiiii one 
of his chamberlaitis. Died, 1771. 

AHGLNSOLA. Lupercio Leonardo d', 
a Spanish poet, boriint Ualbastro, Arriigon, 
in 1565, was secretary of war at Naples, 
under the viceroy there. He was the au- 
thor of three tragedies and various poems. 
Died, 1613. 

ARGKNSOLA, Bartholomew d*, bro- 
ther of the preceding, was chaplain to the 
empress Maria of Austria, and the writer of 
sonic historical works of merit, viz., a 
" History of the Conguest of the Molucca 
Islands,'^ " Annals of^ the Kingdom of Ar- 
ragon," &c. Died, 1731. 

ARGENSON, Mark Rene lb Voter de 
Paulmy, Marquis d', a distinguished states- 
man in tlie reign of Louis XIV., born at 
Venice, 1652; died, Pai. He was lieu- 
tenant-general of the police in Paris, and 
the first who introduced Icttres-de-cachet : 
he was subsequently chancellor; but finally 
retired under some disgrace to a monastery, 
ill v'hich he died. 

ARGEM'AL, ('harles AtJOT'STiN de 
Ferriol, Count d', a French writer of the 
iHth century, to whom some writers attribute 
the novel, entitled. " Meinoircs du Couite 
de Comminges." Died, 1788. 

ARGENTERO, G., a celebrated Pied- 
montcsc physiciiin, born in 1553 : he trans- 
lated Gnleii. 

ARGENTIER, John, an Italian phy- 
sician, liorn at Quiers, Piedmont, 1513; 
died at Turin, 1572. 

ARGENTRE, Charles Duflessis d', a 
learned French prelate, born, 1673; died, 
1740: he became doctor of the Sorbonne, 
almoner to the king, and bishop of Tulles. 

ARGENVILlE, Antoine Joseph De- 
SALLiKR d', a native of Paris, in which city 
his father was a bookseller. He was one 
of the members of the French academy, en- 
gaged in Che compilation of the Encyclo- 

pedie, and a corrcsponillntr associate of 
most of the European literary societies. 
He died, 1706. 

ARGILLATA, Peter de, a physician 
and professor of logic at Mologna : died, 
142.'): his surgical observations, in six 
books, passed through many editions, and 
are very valuable. 

AROULI, Andrew, a matlicmatician, 
born at Tagliacozzo, Naples, 1570 ; <lie<l, 
1053. He was professor of niiitheniatics at 
I'adua, with the title of Chctulier of St. 

ARGOLI, John, son of the above, was a 
nott of some celebrity, and also an archaio- 
logical writer. He was professor of juris- 
prudence at Bologna ; and died about 1660. 

AIIGONNE, Noel, Bonaventi'ub d', 
a French Carthusian monk of the I7tli cen- 
tury. His " MclarigoR d' Histoire et de 
Literature," (lublished under the name of 
Vigneul de Marville, is a very clever collec- 
tion of anecdotes, accompanied by striking 
and just remarks. Argonne is also favour- 
ably" known as the author of '• Traits de la 
Lecture des Peres de 1' Eglise." 

ARGOTA, Jerome Contador d', a Por- 
tuguese monk, born at Coliares. 1676; died, 
1749. He was a member of the Portuguese 
academy of history, and author of several 
works on antiquities, &c. 

ARGDELLADA. Raymond, born in 1768: 
a liberal deputy of the Spanish Cortes. He 
was the chief framer of the Spnnish Consti- 
tution, published at Cadiz in 1812. 

ARGUELLES, Auoubtus, a Spanish pa- 
triot, born in 1775; joined the consiitii- 
tional revolution wliich broke out at Cadiz 
in 1812, and drew up the official report of 
that event. He was suddenly arrested by 
Ferdinand VII., and sent to the gallies for 
ten years, by the king's arbitrary authority. 
He refused subscriptions from the English, 
on the ground that they had deserted or be- 
trayed Spanish liberty. 

ARGUI'.S, Gerard d', a mathematician, 
born at Lyons, 1597 ; died, 1661. He wrote 
several treatises on Perspective, Conic 
Sections, Stone-cutting, &c. 

ARGUS TIN, D'Antonio, a Spanish an- 
tiquarian, born at Saragossa, in 1517 ; au- 
thor of " Dialogns de las Medallas." 

ARGYROPVLUS, John, one of the 
learned men who, in the 15th century, un- 
der the patronage of the Medici, contributed 
to the revival of Greek learning. In ad- 
dition to his exertions as a teacher and lec- 
turer, he published translations from Aris- 
totle, and a commentary on tiie Ethics of 
that philosopher. 

ARI ERODE, an Icelandic scholar of the 
11th century ; and the earliest of the Nor- 
thern historians. Of bis numerous writings 
only the Schedoeand Landnamabok remain. 

ARIOSTI, Attilio, a Bolognesc com- 
poser, who gave lessons to Handel, with 
v^'honi and Boiioncini, he composed the well 
known opera of Muzio Scevola. 

ARIOSTO, Ludovico, one of the most 
celebrated of the Italian poets, was born at 
Reggio, in Lonibardy. and even in his child- 
hood evinced his noetic genius. At Ferrara, 
where he was educated, he greatly distin- 


do cood to yoi;r friend, that he may be the more your friend. 




a lleto Wnibersal l3iograp^p. 


Kuished himself; but Ills studies were di- 
rectud less towards the law, for which pm- 
fcission he was intended, than towards litera- 
ture. The cardiuiti Ippoliw d' I'ste be- 
came his patron ; Ijut seems to have valued 
him rather ai> a scholar and man of busiucRs 
than as a poet : for when Arlooio presented 
a copy of his Immortal Orlando, the car- 
dinal inquited, " Where did you picl( up 
this trumpery, master Ludovico!'' Ari- 
Oslo's writinffs were very numerous and 
various, but the " Orlando Furioso" is the 
basis or his fame. Born, M74 ; died, 1533. 

ARIOSTO, OAnaiBL, brother of the 
above ; verv inferior to him in f^enlus, but 
a respectable Latin poet. His works were 
published at Ferrara, in 1583. 

ARIOSTO, HoRACR, son of the last 
named; author of a poem entitled Alphseus, 
several comedies, and a defence of the Or- 
lando against the criticism of Pellegrini. 

ARISI, FaANCis, an eminent advocate of 
Cremona; author of various worlis, of 
which the most valuable is his " Cremona 
Litcrata." Born, 1657 ; died, 1743. 

AKfSTAINAIUS, a Greel( writer of the 
fourth century. He is praised by Animia- 
nus Marceliinus ; but is only known now by 
two books of Amatory Epistles, of aonie 

ARiSTARCHUS,a critic and grammarian, 
a native of Samothrace, who lionrishcd about 
a century and a half b. c. Having settled 
at Alexandria, he was made tutor to the son 
of Ptolemy Fhiloniater. His criticianis were 
so severe that his name has ijecnmn pro- 
verbial. He died at Cvprus in lii»72d year ; 
as some assert, by voluntary starvation. 

ARISI'ARCHUS, the Samian, a Greek 
philosopher, supposed to have flourished 
about four centuries b. c. He is said to be 
the lirst who knew of the earth's rotatory 
motion on its own axis ; and a work of his, 
of which an edition in Gretk and Latin was 
published by Dr. VVallis, in 1688, treats of 
the mafj^nitude and distance of the sun and 

ARISTEAS, a Jew, in the employment of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus. He is said to have 
assisted in the Septuagint translation of the 
Bible ; and a history of it is attributed to 
him, but on no satisf^ictory grounds. 

ARISI'IOES, an Athenian patriot, whose 
unbending integrity procured him the name 
of "The Just." He was a great admirer 
of the laws of Lycurgus, and opposed to the 
headlong democracy of the party headed by 
Themistocles. At the battle of Marathon 
hu was next in command to Miltiades, and 
bore himself with great intre;)idity. This 
caused him to be made archon in the fol- 
lowins; vear ; but his rigid integrity in this 
station led to so strong an opposition by 
the popular party, that he was ostracizecf. 
He was recalled from banishment to oppose 
the Persians under Xerxes, and, both at 
Salamis and Platsea, exerted himself to the 
utmost to serve and save his country. A 
still higher proof was given of his love of 
justice by his efforts, thonj^h ineffectual, to 
save his rival, Theniistocles, from banish- 
ment; and by the fact, that though he had 
borne all the highest oiiices of tlie state he 
was very poor at his death, which took 
place in 467 B.C. 

ARISI'IUES, JEi.iv», a native of Adrian!, 
in Mysia ; an orator of great practice and 
ability during the reigns of Antoninus, Au- 
relius, and Conimodus. An edition of his 
wo'-ks was published in two 4to. volumes, 
Oxford, 1722. 

ARIsriDES, a Christiai; philosopher, of 
Athens, in the second century. Jerome 
praises his " Apology for the Christian 
Faith," but none of his writings are known 
to be extant. 

ARISTIOES, a painter of Thebes in the 
third century B.C., famous for his power 
of representing the passions. 

ARISTIDES, QuiNTiLiAN, a Greek mu- 
sician, who, about the year 130, wrote a 
treatise on the music of Ids country. 

ARISTIDES, of Miletus, an hi^torian 
often mentioned by i'lutarch ; but his 
works were replete with licentious talcs. 

ARISTIPPU3, founder of the Cyrenaic 
sect of philosophers, was born at Cyrene 
about four centuries B.C. He became a 
pupil of Socrates, but hit mode of life was 
so effeminate as to induce that great man to 
compose the lecture on pleasures, which is 
preserved in the Memorabilia of Xenophon. 
Excellent as that lecture is, it liad little 
effect on Aristippus: who, both in lecturing 
and living, made pleasure the chief ^ooij. 
At Corintli he was the companion ot the 
courtezan Lais; and, at Syracuse, he was 
favoured by the tyrant, Ulonysius, to 
v.honi, in common with manv other philo- 
sophers, he paid ids court. He established 
a school of philosophy at Cyrene, which 
continued for about a century, when it was 
merged into the sect of Epicurus. 

ARIS TO, of Chios, a stole philosopher, 
B.C. 260, who held logic to be useless and 
physics incomprehensible. 

ARISTO, an Aristotelian philosoplier, 
of Ceos, B. c. 230. A work of his, eniitled 
" Amatory Sirailies," is cited by At1iena.ii8. 

ARISTOGiroN, a citizen of Alliens, b.c. 
516, who was executed, after being horribly 
treated, for conspiring with his friend Har- 
modius to slay the tyrants Hippias and ili|>- 
parchus. Hipparchus they succeeded in 
slaying ; and Hippias. who put Aristogiton 
to death, was expelled the state about three 
years afterwards, when the statues <,{ 
Aristogiton and Harmodius were placed in 
the forum, and it was decreed that no slave 
should ever bear the name of either. 

ARISTOMENES, a Greek, son of Nico- 
medes, a descendant of the regal family of 
Messene, whose exertions caused .the Mes- 
senians, in conjunction with the Arcadians 
and Argives, to coraraenee the second Mes- 
senianwai', B.C. 685, in order to shake ofl' the 
yoke of Sparta. The Messenians, however, 
were unsuccessful, and went over to Sicily, 
where they founded the city of Messina. 

ARISTOPHANES, a dramatic poet of 
Athens, contemporary with Socrates, Plato, 
Sic. in the 5th century, B.C. His comedies 
were marked by a severity of satire which 
made him at once feared and popular ; and 
his description of Athenian manners was so 
exact, that when Dionysius, of Syracuse, 
wished to study the language and manners 
of Athens, Plato sent him the comedies of 
Aristophanes as the readiest means of doing 









^ l^rtD ^ntberoal ISiograp^g. 



«o. Like most satirisU, Aristonlianc* was 
unjustly personal, and his coinedy of " The 
Clouds " was written In obvious dc>lre to 
ridicule Socrates, lie is said to have written 
lirty-four comedies, but of these only eleven 
remain, of Mliich the critics deem '* Plutus" 
the most nerl'ect. Thout^h his wit was de- 
based by liccntiousneiis, ' and his satire by 
personality, his style was beautiful. The 
time of Ills death is unknown. 

AllIsrOTI.E, the great founder of the 
|>eripatetic sect of philosopliers, was born at 
StaKyra, in Thrace, b. c. 384. At the ai^e 
of 17, he l)ecamc a pupil of I'lato, who called 
him the " mind" of his school. The fame 
of his abilities having reached I'hilip of Ma- 
cedon, that prince made him tutor to his 
Sf.ji, Alexander the Great; and he so care- 
fully attended the voung prince, that Pliilip 
rebuilt the town oi Staf^yra, wliich he had 
razed, and restored the ex()ellcd inhabit- 
ants to their town and privileges. When 
Alexander set out on his expedition to Asia, 
Aristotle returned to Athens, and obtained 
leave to occupy the Lycoeura as a school of 
philosophy, where he established the sect 
called, from his habit of walking as he lec- 
tured, the peripaltlic. Envy of his abili- 
ties caused him to be accused of impiety, 
and he retired to Chalcis, remarking, in al- 
lusion to the judicial murder of Suorates, 
that he did not wish to tee the Athenians a 
second time guilty of crime against philoso- 
phy. He remained at Chalcis till his deatli, 
in the 63d year of his age, b. c. 3'i3. His 
writings arc numerous and various; and of 
the art of logic, especially of the syllogism, 
he may almost be called the inventor. Both 
in physics and metaphysics he had many 
erroneous opinions, but that was the fault 
of his age rather than of his individual in- 
tellect; and looking at the extent of his 
writings, and the vahieof by far the greater 
portion of them, we must hold him to rank 
very high indeed among the most intel- 
lectual of mankind. 

ARISTOXKNUS, a philosopher and mu- 
sician, pupil of Aristotle. His works are 
said to liP-ve been very numerous, but none 
have come down to us except his Harmonic 
Elements, which is considered to be the 
oldest musical treatise existing. 

ARIUSj a presbyter of the church of 
Alexandria in the fourth century. Having 
maintained that the Son and the Father 
were essentially distinct, and that the Son 
was created out of nothing by the will of 
the Father, Alexander the bishop, in oppo- 
sition to whose preaching he broached this 
doctrine, called a council, in which the 
doctrine was condemned, and AriU'^, and 
those who sided with liim, excommunicated. 
He was, after much discussion, recalled 
from banishment by the emperor Constan- 
tine, and was just about to be received 
again into the pale of the church, when hr 
died suddenly. Of his writings, only two 
epistles are extant ; and though there is a 
sect called " Arians," its doctrines are far 
more modilied and less startling than tliosc 
held by Aries. 

ARKWRIGHT, Sir Richard, the in- 
ventor of machinery, by which our cotton 
manufactures have "been increased to an 
almost incredible extent, was born at 

Preston, Lancashire, in 1733: and his first 
emiiloymeiit was that of a barber. Not- 
withstanding the obstacles thrown in his 
way at first by poverty and want of me- 
chanical skill to reduce his inventions to 
practice, and afterwards by the unprinci- 
|iled invasion of his rights by rival manu- 
facturers, he realised a very large fortune ; 
and his machines, but little improved u|>on, 
have been the cause of almost innumerable 
fortunes to be made by others. Mr. Ark- 
wright was not knighted, as many sup- 
pose on account of his inventions, but on 
the occasion of presenting an address as 
high sheriff' of the county of Derby, con- 
gratulating G(>orge III. on the failure of the 
attempt made on his life by Margaret 
Nicholson. Died, 1733. 

ARLAND, James Anthony, a Genevese 
painter of great merit. His last work was 
the " Amour of Jupiter with Loda," which, 
from some whim unexplained, he destroyed 
by cutting it to pieces. A copy of it was 
sold in the artist's lifetime for 600 guineas 
Born, 1668 ; died, 1743. 

A R LOTTO, Mainardo, a facetious Flo- 
rentine of the 15th century, and of whose 
witticisms a collection has been frequently 
printed, was a parish minister in the bishop- 
ric of Fiesole ; who, though reganled as a 
religious buflbon by some, was as benevo- 
lent as he was jocose and witty. Born, 
1393; died, 1483. 

ARMBLLINI, Mariatjo, a learned Do 
minican, born at Ancona, was the author of 
" Bibliotheca Benedictino Casinensis," and 
other works. Died, 1737. 

ARM FELDT, GusTAVCH Maorick, Count 
d', a Swedish statesman of some note. He 
was frequently involved in difficulties, but 
he surmounted them all, and at his death 
held several important offices in Russia. 
Died, 1814. 

ARMINIUS, or HERMANN, who by his 
intrepidity and success, acquired the title of 
" the Deliverer of Germany," was the son 
of Seginier, a chief of the Catti. Having 
been sent to Rome as a hostage, he was 
there educated, served in the Roman army, 
and for his valour was raised to cilizcnslnp 
and knighted. But his attachment to his 
native country induced him to revolt, and 
he became one of the most powerful leadeis 
of the discontented German nations. He 
drew Varus, the Roman commander on the 
Rhine, into that ambuscade in which he and 
nearly all his troops were slain, and com- 
pletely baffled (jermanicus ; but alter having 
ibr years withstood the vast power of Rome, 
Arniinius was assassinated by one uf his own 
countrymen, in the 37th year of his age, 

A.O. 31. 

Dntch divine, was the founder of the sect 
of Christians called Arminians, whose dis- 
tinguishing tenets are, that the merits of 
Christ extend to all mankind, and that the 
grate necessary to salvation is attainable by 
all. This striking opposition to the doc- 
trines of Calvin, caused Arniinius and liis 
followers, who in Holland are called Re- 
monstrants, to be much persecuted. He 
was learned, pious, eloquent, and the ad- 
vocate of toleration. Born, at Oudewater, 
in Holland, 1S60 ; died, 1690. 



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ARMSTRONG, John, a poet and physi- 
cian, was born at Castleton, in Roxburf^h- 
►hire. In 1709. In 1760 he was appointed 
ithysirian to tlie army in tierniany ; in 1771 
he made the tour of Italy, witli Fuseli llie 
painter; and died in 1779. His chief worl; 
iH the poem on " The Art of Prescrvinfj 
llealtli," which was very deservedly popu- 
lar, and is, in fnct, one of the best didactic 
poems in our lan?ua){:c. His medical works 
and short pneuis had but limited success 
even in his own time. ' He lived on teinis of 
intimacy with tlic wits and poets of the day, 
and contributed to Thomson's Castle of In- 
dolence the beautiful stanzas descriptive of 
the diseases resulting: from indolence. 

ARMSTRONG, John, a pliysician and 
medical writer, celebrated for tils researches 
conceminff the causes and phenomena of 
febrile diseases, wna K^m^ ^i Bishopswear- 
moutli, Durham, in 1784. He took Ids de- 
gree of M. D. at Edinburgh, in 1807, and 
was chosen physician to the Sutherland 
UispenNary in 1811: but finding that his 
professional works had bla/.om-d his fame 
in the metropolis, lie resigned liis situation 
in 1818, and commenced practice in London. 
In 1831 lie engaged with Mr. E. Grainger in 
the funnation of a medical school in Webb- 
street, Borough, where he delivered lec- 
tures on the practice of phyglc. In 1836 he 
joined Dr. Boot and Mr. E. Bennett in 
establishing a new school of medicine in 
Dciin-sireet, Soho, but shortly after relin- 
(|»ished his coiineNion with it. He died in 
1K:><), of phthisis pulmonaiis. Few men 
were ever more anxiously devoted to the 
duties of their profession than Dr. Arm- 
strong, and few have been so successful in 
tlieir elucidation of medical science. His 
works are numerous, and highly valuable. 

ARNALD, Richard, an English divine, 
author of " A Comiuentary on the Apocry- 
,.hal Books." Died, 1736. 

ARNALL, William, a political writer 
during the ministry of Sir Ilobert Walpole. 
His chief work was the " Free Briton," in 
whicli the mcasure-s of Walpole were indis- 
e iminately defended. He was a man of 
much talent, but great imprudence ; fur 
lliDUgh he is said to have received 11,000<. 
in less than five years, he died in great po- 
verty at the early age of •.'6, in 1741. 

ARNAUD, DE Mereuil, a Provencal 
poet of the 13th century. His chief produc- 
tions were amatory songs and sonnets. 
Uiid, laao. 

ARNAUD, Francis, a French divine and 
man of letters. He chiefly wrote for jour- 
nals. Died, 1784. 

ARNAUD, Francis T. M. Baculard d', 
a French writer of the 18th century ; author 
of numerous poems, plays, and prose fic- 
tions. He was favourably noticed by Vol- 
taire, and Frederic, king of Prussia. 

ARNAUD, Georre d', a French critic, 
whose works are very numerous and erii- 
litc. He gave promise of critical excel- 
lence; hut was cut short in his learned ca- 
reer by death at the early age of 29. Born, 
1718; died, 1747. 

ARNAULD, Anthony, a Frencli lawver, 
attorney-general to Catherine de Medici ; 
author of «< Avis au Rol Louis XIII. pour 

bien regncr," and other works. Born, 1330 ; 
died, 1619. 

ARNAULD, RonRRT, eldest son of the 
preceding, author of Memoirs of hi:* own 
time, and translator of the Confessions of 
Saint Augustine. Born, 1389; died, 1674. 

ARNAULD, Anthony, doctor of the 
Sorbonne, was brother of the preccdinir, 
and tlie 20th child of their parents. He 
deeply eng^iged in controversy with both 
Jesuits and Jansenists ; and in addition to 
his numerous controversial and theological 
works, he wrote much in the lirlles ieth-et 
and philosophy. Born, 1613; died, 16<)4. 

ARNDT, Christian, logical professor at 
Rostock, in Germany ; author of " Observa- 
tions on the right use of Logic in Divinity," 
Sic. Born, 1K33 ; died, 1683. 

ARNDT, Joshua, brother of the above, 
and his successor in the chair at Rostock ; 
autlior of a " Dictionary of Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities," and other valuable works. 
Born, 16'J6 ; died, 1683. 

ARNDT, C. Gottlieb Von, imperial 
Russian councillor, assistant to the empress 
Catherine II. in ner literary employment, 
and author of a learned work on " The 
Origin of European Dialects," published in 
1318. He died at Heidelberg in 1839. 

ARNDT, Charles, son of the last-named, 
Hebrew professor at Rostock ; author of 
Philological Discourses, Bibllotheca Poli- 
tico Henildica, Sec. Born, 1673 ; died, 1781. 

ARNDT, John, a native of Anhalt; autlior 
of a treatise On True Christianity. Born, 
1353; died, 1621. 

ARNR, Dr. Thomas Auotjstine, a ce- 
lebrated composer of music. At the early 
age of 18, he produced an opera entitled 
" Rosamond," and shortly afterwards com- 
posed the music for a masque, entitled 
" Alfred," written by Thompson and Mallet. 
On the masque of Comiis bein;<r adapted to 
tlie stage, Arne's music for it obtained him 
so high a reputation, and such constant em- 
ployment, that a mere catalogue of the va- 
rious works he was subseniiently the author 
of, would demand a far larger space than 
we can afford. His sister was the cele- 
brated Mrs. Cibber. Born, 1704 ; died, 177«. 

ARNC, Michael, son of the preceding, 
and. like liim, a musical composer; author 
of the music of Alcraena and of Cymon. 

ARNIGIO, Bartholomew, an Italian 
poet, was originally a blacksmith, but at 18 
years of age he devoted himself to literature, 
and distinguished himself so much, that tiie 
university of Padua gave him the degree of 
doctor. As a physician, which prolession 
he followed, lie was far less distinguished 
than as a poet. His works arc numerous. 
Born, 1523; died, 1677. 

ARNOBIUS, an African rhetorician at 
Sicca, in the third century. He embraced 
the Christian religion, and published a de- 
fence of it, which has been frequently re- 

ARNOLD, a Lombard monk of the 13th 
century, who made himself obnoxious to the 
court of Rome by 'preaching against tha 
pluralities of the clergy. His opinions were 
condiniiied in a council, at which Pope in- 
nocent II. presided ; and Arnold took refuge 
in Switzerland. Under Pope Adrian IV. he 





^ |lrh) Sllnibertfal IStograp^i). 

[a us 

nirain got involved In diniciiltio*, aiiil wnii 
pill to (Irsith III 1133. 

AKNOl.li, (.'iiiitBTOPHRH, profciwor of 
|)ortry, liiNtnry.anil rhetoric, •( Altnrf, and 
author of a trratlic on thu tcailinony or Jo- 
MciihiiH r«-ii|iet'tlnff Chrliit, niid niimeroui 
otiicr work*. Horn, Itia7 ( died, UiM. 

ARNOLD, IlRNRDtcT, till American frc- 
ncral. who during llie early iiart of hi.i ca- 
reer devoted hlH bent energlc* to promote 
the cauHehe had eipouie<l, and who after- 
wardM disgraced himaelf by trencheroualy 
betrayinir 't* ^^ (red a nurifeon; but 
on the commencement of hostilltlci be- 
tween Great llritain and the colonlei, he 
entered Into the fervlce of the latter, 
and w;m choiien captain of a company or 
volunteer* at Newliavcn. He aeon row 
to the rank of colonel, and commanded 
an e\|)edltion to Canada. He afterward* 
dintliiKuiithed hinuelf by Ida bravery, when 
coniniandini; a llotilla on Lake ChaniplaiD. 
and on other ocra«ion», and wa* promotea 
to the rank of general. He tubscquently en- 
tered into negotiations with genenU Clinton, 
to whom he pro|>o*ed to surrender a post of 
crreat congcqucnce, with which Washlmrton 
lind entrusted him. But the capture of the 
officer [See Andr6l sent by general Clinton, 
cauhcd the plot to be diiicovered, and Arnold 
hastily escaped to the royalixt quarters. He 
wns employed under general Clinton ai^aliist 
hiii former comrades, and had the rank of 
bri};adier-genercil, when he retired to Eng- 
land, where lie died, in 1801. 

ARNOLD, John, an Euffiish wattch- 
makcr, and autlior of many inventions to- 
wards the accurate mensuration of time. 
Born, 1744 ; died, 1799. 

ARNOLD, Dr. Samubl, a musical cora- 

KMiT of eminence. He edited the works of 
andcl, and composed the " Prodigal Son," 
and other excellent oratorios. His opera of 
the " Maid of the Mill." still keeps the 
stage. Born, 1739 ; died, 18U3. 

ARNOLD, Thomas, an English physician, 
eminent for his skill in the treatment of 
mental insanity. He wan tlie author of 
" Observations on the Management of the 
Insane," " A Case of Hydrophobia success- 
ful ly treated," &c. Born, 1743; died, 1816. 

ARNOLD, Christopher, a German pea- 
sant, whose energy and natural genius ena- 
ble«l him to become one of the most accom- 
plished astronomers of his age. The only 
work he left was entitled " Signs of Divine 
Grace, exhibited in a Sohir Miracle." 
Born, 1646 ; died, 1695. 

ARNOLD, John, a miller, celebrated in 
consequence of the interference on his be- 
half of Frederic the Great of Prussia. Be- 
lieving that Arnold had been wronged of 
territorial land, by the decision against him 
of a law-suit, Frederic reversed the sen- 
tence, and imprisoned the judges. 

ARNOLDB, Richard, a citizen of Lon- 
don in the 16th century, and author of a 
work entitled " Arnoide's Chronicle," con- 
taining much valuable information. 

ARNOT, Huoo, an eminent Scottish 
writer. He was educated for the bar, but 
illness rendering him until for so laborious 
a profession, he devoted himself to litera- 
ture. His " History of Edinburgh," and col- 

lection of celebrated criminal trials, show 
bini to have possessed very cnnslJerable 
abilities. Born, 1740; died, I7ti6. 

ARNOIIL, an eminent French prelate of 
the lutli rcntury ; author of various works 
in prose and vcrae, to he found In the Spl' 
ceU'giuni of D'Acherl, and tlio Bibluithcca 

ARNOULT, an eminent Parisian actress 
and wit. She waa admired bv D'Alenibert, 
Rousseau, and other literati of her time. 
Born, 1740; died, IHua. 

ARNOULT, Jban Baptist, a French Je- 
suit and author. The most valuable of his 
work* i* " Le Prece|)teur," which was the 
nioilel of Dodsley '• Preceptor. Born, I6H9 ; 
died, 1733. 

ARNULPH, or RRNULPHUS, bishop of 
Rochester in the reign of Henry I. ; author 
of " TcxtUH Ron°eiu)i«," an account of the 
charters, Ac, of his cathedral. Died, 11 -^4. 

AROMATRI, JosRPH, an Italian phy- 
sician ; author of " Riposte alle considera- 
zione dl Aiessandro Taitsoni Sopra le rime 
del Potrarca." Born, ISOO ; died, 1660. 

ARPINO, JoBRPHiNO, an Italian painter, 
patronized by pope Gregory XIII. Born, 
1560; died, 1640. 

ARRIA, a Roman lady, who, when her 
husband, Ciecina Pictus, was ordered lo 
put himself to death, for rebellion against 
the emperor Claudius, perceiving him hi- 
sltate. pluiii'ed a dagger into her bosom, 
oxclainiing, '' My Pectus ! It Is not painful." 

ARRIAN, a Greek lilsiorian, who took 
up his residenre at Rome in the second 
century. He was patronized by the eiii|)e' 
ror Adrian ; and tiie younger I'llny ad- 
mired him so much as to address to him no 
fewer than seven of his e|iistles. The his- 
torical writings of Arrian were numerous, 
but two of them only remain entire, viz., 
seven books on the expedition of Alexander, 
and a book on the affairs of India : the 
lattir being a sequel to the former. Thcie 
are some historical fragments of Arrian in 
Photlus. In addition to the above, we have, 
of Arrian's writings. " Enchiridion," a 
moral treatise, an epistle to Adrian, Sic. 

ARRIBAVENF., John Francis, an 
Italian poet of the 16th century; author of 
'• Maritime Eclogues," «ic. 

ARRIGHETTI, Philip, an ecclesiastic of 
Florence ; author of a life of St. Francis, and 
translator of the Rhetoric and Poetics of 
Aristotleinto Italian. Born, 1583; died, 1663. 

Florentine poet and ecclesiastic of the 18th 
century. His poems are still popular for 
their pathos and elegance of style. 

ARRIGHITTI, a Jesuit of the 18th cen- 
tury ; author of a work on the Theory of 

ARROWBMITH, Aaron, an eminent pe- 
0!i:rapher and hydographer. His maps and 
charts are very' numerous, and held in high 
estimation; a'nd his tract, entitled " A 
Companion to the Map of the World," con- 
tains mucli valuable inrormalion. Born, 
1750; died, 1823. 

ARSACES I. the founder of the Parthian 
monarchy, and of the dynasty of the Ana- 
cides, flourished in the third century b. c. 
In revenge for an ungrateful insult offered 



























A in] 

^ lleta) Qtlnibrrsal litograpfiK?. 


Id lilit brotliirliy lliu i(()v<Tiir)r<>lii|>roviiirf, 
III! riiiM!il till' Nt;iiitl.(iil (if ix-volt ill I'lirtliiii 
at(itiii»t Sflciii-iiit; and, liaxInKHiii-t-t'tili'il in 
(MiiaiiclimtliiK 111! fonntryiiii'ii, tlivy vlcctcil 
liliii thctr kiiii;. Ilu i-i-lKiit:«l iiri)M|itToii*ly 
for :iH vfiirH. 

AKSl'.MUS, n Roman dimon of t\,v 
foiirlli rt-iitiiry, uiiil iiitor to ArciiiliiM, hoii 
of riii'iMloMiiH. The I'lnptTor cuiiiini,' into 
hii4 sillily, iiikI Hcrin); lliu pupil ititllii|f mid 
till! iiuihttTiilaniliiig, ordered liitHon to tIhc, 
iiiid rcci'ivi: liiii lemonit in ii bccoiiilnK |io«< 
tur<!, which III irritated the prince, tlnit Iil> 
directed iiii otHccr to dUp^itoli ArseliiiiH ; 
hill ilie ollicer k^vu hlin inl'orniiitlon oftlie 
prinie'it liiueneHM ; on wliich lie Hed into 
l'°|j:ypt, where lie died at the a^e of 03. 

AKSII.IJ Francksco, an Italian pliy- 
Rii'inn of the Kith century : author of a 
imcni " Ue Houtlii Urbaiii>.'' IJied, IMV. 

ARTAI.IS, JoHKrif, a Sicilian !;i!iitleii)an, 
who diKtini^niNlied iiiiiiKelf for courage at 
the memorable Hiej^e of Caiidia ; antlior of 
" La I'iUife," an opiira, and numerous 
pociii!*. Horn, Iti38 ; died, UiTJ, 

AUTAXKIIXKS I. Hiirnanied Lonifiniannx, 
was liie third xon of Xerxew, kini; of I'er- 
hI:i. He ftlevv liln brother DariiiH on su>pl- 
cion of his lH!iiiK K'i"ty '>f tl>e niiirder of 
IiIh father. ArtuxerxeH then aNcended the 
throne n. c. 4i>ri, and in hiiitlnie peace wa<t 
restored between I'lirtia and Alliens, after 
a war of Al yearH. lie died n. c. -t'^l. 

AKTAXI-'RXiCS II,. fiiirnamed Mnemon. 
wan the eldest hoii ot Uariiin Nothiiii, and 
tM-f;an hlH rei^n n. c. 4U4. He died »l the 
age of 94, after reif^nin;; C2 years. 

ARTAXKKXKS III. succeeded hlH father, 
the preceding monarch, ii. c. 359. He 
murdered two of IiIh brotherfi, and after- 
wards put to death all the reinalniiif; 
liraiicheg of the family. In H<,'ynt he slew 
the sacred bull Apix, and i^ave tlie Hesli to 
his soldiers ; for which big eunuch, Ba^'oas, 
an Kf^yptian, caused him to be poisoned, 
and alter Kiviiijr the carcase to the cats, 
made knife iiandies of bis bones. This hap- 
pened n. c. 33U. 

SHIR, the lirst kinf^ of Persia, of the race 
of Sassaiiideg, was the son of a shepherd. 
On the death of his grandfather he solicited 
the guvernincnt, but being refused, he re- 
tired to Persia Proper, where he excited 
the people to revolt. lie defeated and slew 
Ardavan and his son. He married the 
daiisliler of Ardavan, who attempted to 
poison him, for which nhe was sentenced to 
death. The olTicer, however, to whom the 
execution was committal, concealed the 
qneen, who was in a stale of pregnancy, 
and she was afterwards delivered o? a son. 
'I he secret being discovered to the king, he 
applauded the condurt of the officer, and 
acknowledged the child as his heir. He 
died, A. D. 340. 

ARTEAGA, Stephrn, a Spanish Jesuit 
of the 18th century ; author of a treatise 
on Ideal Beauty ; a history of Italian the- 
atrical music, Sec. Died, I7!>9. 

ARTE 01, Peter, a Swedish physician 
and naturalist. After his death, his " Uib- 
liotheca Icthyologica," and " Philosophia 
Icthyologica," were edited by Linineus. 
Horn, l7Uj ; accidentally drowned, 17.». 

ARIEIMIDOKIIS, DAi.niANrs, an \\\,U, 
slaii ; author of a Treatli>e on OriMiim. He 
lived ill the rtign of Anloniiiiis I'lii*. 

ARTKMIUORUH, aUoan Ephesian; au- 
thor of a geographical work, of which oiih 
some fragiiienls remain. He lloiirUhed in 
the lli'sl eeiiliiry n. c. 

ARTEMISIA, queen of Cairn, and one 
of llin allies of Xerxes at the faniouN billle 
of S.ilaniis. 

AIU'EMISIA, another queen of Ciiira, 
whose splendid inonunii'iit lo her himliand, 
MaiisoluH, was the origin uf the word iiiau- 
soleuin. Oled, Xil B. 0, 

All TEMON, the Inventor of the battering 
ram and the testudo, was a iialite of I'ia- 
'/.oiiieiie, and coteniporary with Pericles. 

ARTEVEI.I.E, Jamkb. a rii h brewer, of 
Ghent, who by his weallli, elotiiienre, and 
taienlH, acquired unbounded inlliienie over 
his countrymen. Having conipelleil IIm! 
count of b'landeiH to take reriiL'cin Fniine, 
lie formed an alliance with Edward III. of 
England, and strove tolruiisi'er llie rieiiii^li 
Hovereignly to the Hlack Prince. Killed, 
in a popular tumult, at Ghent, in IJt.'i. 

ARTEVELLE, I'liiLii', son of the pre- 
ceding, was chosen by the Flemings as 
their leader when tliey revolted ag.iiiist 
their count in IWi; but after liaving iiiaile 
himself master of 13riiges, he was defeated 
and killed at the battle of llosbeeq in the 
same year. I 

ARTHUR, a Dritish prince, whose history 
is so ijiterwovcn with romance, tliat it is 
dilticiilt to separate the one from the oilier, j 
He is sta-ted to have succeeded to the rule 
of Uritain, a. i>. aiH; and to have been 
slain in combat wiili his nephew, INIendred, 
in S43. 

ARTIGAS, Don John, born at Monte 
Video, in 17<>0: llrst entered the Spanish 
service ; quitted it, and was foremost umoii;' 
those who fought for independence. He 
subsequently, however, became an object 
of suspicion to the governmenl of Uiieinis 
Ayres; and, being declared a traitor, look 
up arms, and possessed hiiiiseir fur some 
years of the territory called the Hainla 
Oriental; but having sustained a defeat he 
was compelled to seek refuge in Paraguay, 
where he died in 1826. 

ARTIZENIUS, Henry, professor of 
rhetoric and history at Miucugen; author 
of a treatise " De Nuptiis inter Fratrem et 
Sororem," Sec. Born, 1708; died, I7.iy. 

ARTI/.ENU)S, John Henry, son of Ihe 
above, prf>fessor of law at Dtrccht ; aiitlior 
of a work " On the Jurisprudence oftlie 
Netherlands," and editor of the works of 
Aralor, ic. Born, 1734 ; died, 1797. 

ARTIZENIUS, Otho, paternal uncle of 
the last named, professor of the Belles 
Lettres at Amsterdam, author of a disserta- 
tion " De Milliario Aureo,"iVc. Born, 17u:J; 
died, 17(i3. 

ARTOSl, Giovanni Maria, an ecclesi- 
astic of Bologna ; author of " The Art of 
Counterpoint, ' and other musical works. 

ARUNDEL, Mary, eountcssof, a learned 
lady of the Icth century. She translated 
the apotliL-gms of Ihe seven wise phiiosopliers 
from the Greek into Latin. 



the deai'ty of the soul la innocknoe and humility. 

t ■ 






a lletD (ittttbersal liiograpi)^. 


A III) N DEL, TiinMAS.arrhbiihop of Can- 
terbury in tlic rfixiiH of Kiclinrd II. nnd 
llfiiry IV. aiiil V., terribly nieinoniblc lu a 
purMCLiiCor of (lie Lolbtrdu and Wickllliitet, 
and for bavins b«t!n a cblef party in pro- 
curing the horrible act Dc Hervtlco Com- 
biircndo. Horn, 1353; diod, 1413. 

ARUNDEL, Thomas Howahd, earl of, 
whoHe claHMJcul laNte and public spirit de- 
ii<-rv(><i the hlgliot praise, lived In the reigns 
of JaineH I. aud Cli.irle* I. : but left En- 
gland at the bcgluuing nf (he civil wars, 
and died at I'a'lua, In 1040. The celebrated 
Arundellan marblen, which were presented 
to the unlveriiity of Oxford by his grandson, 
were, with manv other valuable relics of 
antiquity, brought from the Levant at the 
expense of (IiIh niunlflcent nobleman. 

ARUNDEL, Blanoib, daughter of the 
carl of Worcester, and wife of lord Arun- 
del ; is memorable for having defended 
Wardour Castle against the parllameotarv 
army, under Sir Edward Hungerfoni. 
Born, 1S83 ; died, 1040. 

ASAPH, St., aiiritish monk, author of 
the Life of Vortlgern, &c. It is from this 
saint, who flourished about tile close of tlie 
nrtii century, that the Welch see has its 

ASCII AM, RooER, a learned Englishman 
of the I6th rentnry. He had the honour of 
directing the studies of queen Elisabeth. 
Of ills writings, tlie most valuable is his 
treatise, entitled, " The Schoolmaster." 
Died, 1368. 

ASCHAM, Anthont, a friend of Crom- 
well, by wiiora he was sent, in 1050, as en- 
voy to Spain, where he ancl his interpreter 
were assas^iinated by some royalist exiles. 
He was author of a " Discourse on the 
Revolutions and Confusions of Govern- 

ASCLEPIADES, a Grceli physician ; au- 
thor of " Commentaries on Hippocrates," 
•■Vc. Died, n. c. 03. 

ASCOLI, Lkcco di, a Rolognese mathe- 
matician of the I4tli century ; burned to 
death at Florence, on an accusation of 
lieresy, In 1356. 

ASDRUBAL, the son-in-law and succes- 
sor of Amilcar, the father of Hannibal, in 
the comuiaud of tlie Carthaginian army in 
Spain. He extended tlieir conquests in 
that country, and built New Carthage, now 
Cartiiagena. After governing there for 
eii^ht years, he met ids death by assayslna- 
tioii, B. c. 220. 

ASELLI, or ASELLIUS, Caspar, an 
Italian anatomist of the 17tli century. He 
nrst discovered the system of vessels called 
iac teals. 

ASGILL, Sir Charles, a military officer, 
who was to have suffered death by order of 
Washington, in retaliation for the death of 
tlie American captain Hardy, but was 
spared at the intercession of the queen of 
France. Died, 1833. 

ASGILL, John, an English barrister, and 
member oi parliament in the I7th century, 
wiio was expelled from parliament on ac- 
count of his writings, which were denoted 
blasphemous. He fell into poverty, and, 
for about 30 years, remained a prisoner for 
debt in the King's Bench. Died, 1783. 

ASH, John, L.L.D., an Anabap(lN( di 
vine ; author of a well known English dic- 
tionary, iiorn, 1734; died, 177 i>. 

ASHLEY, RoBinr, an English barrister 
of the I7ih c< ntury ; author or a " Reladon 
of the Kingdom of Cochin China," Sic. 

ASHMOLR, Eliab, a celebrated English 
antl<|uary of the 17th century. IVIIsled by 
the notorious Dr. Lee. he dabbled for a 
lime in alchemy ; but fortunately for both 
his fame and fortune he abandoned that de- 
lusive pursuit, and executed his admirable 
" History of the Order of the Oirter." 
Having unrchaied the curiosities of Tra- 
descatil, the famous gardener, he presented 
them, and subsequently his books and IVISS. 
to the university of Oxford ; and thus laid 
tiie foundation of (he valuable Ashmolean 
Museum. Born, 1017 ; died, 1093. 

ASIITON, Charles, a learned divine and 
critic of the 18th century ; author of some 
criticisms in the " Bibllotheca LIterarIa," 
and " Origen de Oratlonc," Sec. Born, 
1005 ; died, 1753. 

ASHWELL, OsoROR, an EoKlish divine 
of the 17th century ; author or several re- 
ligious works. Born, 1013; died, 1093. 

ASKEW, Annr, one of the victims of 
tiie horrible persecutions in tlic time of 
Henry VIII. Slie was burned to death, 
having previously undergone the torture oi 
the rack. In 1G40. 

ASKEW, Anthony, a physician and 
scliolar of the 18th century; author of an 
appendix to the Greek Lexicon of Scapula, 
Sic. Born at Kendal, 1733 ; died, 1784. 

ASPASIA, a Greek courtezan, whose 
lieauty and accomplishments had so power- 
ful an inlluence, that she numbered even 
the grave and moral Socrates among her 
acquaintance. To marry her, (he great 
Pericles divorced his wife; and the Pelo- 
ponnesiau war is said to have originated in 
Aspasia, from anger at an affront she had 
received from thu Mtegarians. 

ASPINWALL. William, an American 
physician, was born, in 1743. in the i>tate 
of Massachusetts, and took liis dej^ree at 
Harvard college, wliere he was educated. 
In the war of independence he was ap- 
pointed a surgeon In the army; and at the 
battle of Lexington he fou^'iit as a volunteer. 
He was greatly instrumental in promoting 
inoculation for tlie small-pox; yet when 
vaccine inoculation was introduced, he 
warmly patronitied and adopted the prac- 
tice, although it greatly reduced his pro- 
fessional emoluments. As a physician lie 
enjoyed a high reputation. Died, 1833. 

ASPREMONT, Francis, Viscount d\ the 
famous governor of Bayonne, who, when 
commanded by Charles IX. to massacre the 
Calviiiists, heroically replied, " Sire, among 
the citizens and soldiers I have found men 
devoted to your majesty ; but not a single 

ASSELYN, John, a Dutch painter; who 
chiefly excelled in battle-pieces and histori- 
cal paintings. Born, 1610; died, 1650. 

ASSEMANI, Joseph Simon, arclibishop 
of Tyre; author of " Bibliotlieca Orientnlis 
Clementino Vaticana." &c. Born. 1U87 ; 
died, 1788. 









fl llrtD Sitniber^al l»togvapf)v. 

[a IK 

A98EMANI,STitpiiRN, nephew of Ihc pre- 
CcilliiK ; kt-viw-r of (In; ViiH(»n IHirary, •nd 
aiUlior of" Arte Sunt toriiiii M;irlyriMiin." 

ASSKK, a Kililil <.i (lit'lifih ceiilury ; ihm' 
of the roni|)iler» of llic llnhyloiiUii i aliiiuil. 
Ukd, 457. 

AStJKKIUS MKNF.VF.NSH, a l.-arned rc- 
cleniiiiitir, the tutor, lrU'ti<», aiiH hiographer 
of Alfr«;<l the Grcut, by wlioin he win niatie 
blihop of iiherhorii)'. Ills " AihiiiIh" con- 
tain, at once, the fullest and mmtt iiiiihrntlc 
acroiint of the life of UU ',iun;iiHt novei-fiffii 
anil friend. Died, OOU. 

ASTEl.I,, IMarv, the d.uiKhter of a mer- 
chant »t NcwcaHlle, and a woni.in of very 
cooNiderahle talent an a (KilemU'ul diNpiitant. 
She obtained ifreat |>opularUy ainonff the 
hif(h church party an one of the niont ktrcn- 
iioim ImpuEnerR of the principles of Locke. 
Born, I66H; died, 1731. 

ASTLE, TiioMAi, an eminent archaiolo- 

flcal writer: author of a trcatlM! " On the 
)rli;in and Progrea* of Writing," Sec. Ac. 
Died, I HI) J. 

AS TLKY. Philip, author of •« UemarkH 
on the I'rofension and Duty of a Soldier," 
" A »y8teiii of F.quettrlau Kducatlon, ^c. ; 
but better known as the founder, and for 
many yeam the manager, of the Amphi- 
theatre, near Wuntminnter Uridge. born, 
1743; died, I8M. 

ASTON, Sir AariuiR, a hiave com- 
niaiuler of tht royaliitt troops in the reiffn of 
Charlet I., who greatly diHtiniruislied liiin- 
Kelf at the battle of Edge-hiil, «<c. He wa^ 
governor of Drogheda in t(i4!), when it was 
taken bv Cromwell, and U tald to have had 
hU braing beaten out with hit own wooden 


STON, Sir Thomas, a brave and lovr.l 
subject, who, in the civil warn, ralsej a 
troop of horse for the king's service ; and 
was high sheriff of Cheshire, in I6U3. He 
was killed while attempting to escap<> after 
being captured by the repiinlicans, in 1643. 

AS TOKOA, Marquis, a Spanish grandee, 
declared a traitor by Napoleon In 1808. 

ASTORI, John Anthony, a Venetian 
scholar of the 17th century ; author of nu- 
merous dissertations on Greek and Roman 

ASTORINI, ELiAS.a Nea|>olitan professor 
of mathematics ; autfior of a translation of 
F.uclid, and a Dissertation on the life of the 
Pectus, Sic. Died, 17U2. 

ASTKUC, John, an eminent French phy- 
!:ician of tlie 17th century ; autlior of tlic 
Natural History of Langucdoc, some me- 
dical treatises, &c. Born, 1684 ; died, 1766. 

ATAHUALPA, Kometiraes written ATA- 
RALIPA, the laiit Inca of Peru, who was 
barbarously |uil to death by the Spaniards, 
in 1553. 

ATAIDK, DoM Louis d', a Portuguese 
noble and military officer, who was ap- 
|)ointed viceroy of India in 1569, at a period 
ulieii all tlie native powers were combined 
to exi>el the Portuguese. His efforts to 
quell the revolt were successful, and he re- 
turned ; but on being sent out a second 
time, lie died at Qoa, tSbO. 

A TANAGI, Df.nis, an Italian author and 
editor, of the I6th century. Among his 
worlis are a " Treatise on the Excellence of 

History ;" an edUion of the Rhetoric of 
Aristotle, Ike, 

ATHANASms, St., one of the father* of 
the thrii-tiaiichurcli, wan a native of Kgy pi, 
and nucieitHor of AU'xaiider in the hiithopric 
of Alexandria. Hi* defence of the doctrliR' 
of the Trinity against Arlu* and hi* lollowert 
lii\olved lilm In much diltirulty .iiid *uller- 
log, whicli lie Imre with extraordinary pa- 
tience and fortitude. Of Id* nnmeroii* wri- 
ting* the most valuable are " The Abridg- 
ment of the Scriptures," and " The l.ile of 
St. Anthony." The creed called by hi* 
name is »ii|iiK)»ed to have been written long 
after hi* death. Born, aatt ; died, 373. 

ATHKl.STAN, an Illegitimate son of Ed- 
ward the Elder, and hi* successor on the 
tliroiie of England, in 9'i5. 

ATHENAGORAS, an Athenian plilhwo- 
pher of the ad century. He became a eon 
vert to Cliri*tlanity, and Clement of Alex- 
andria wa* ainoni? his pupils. He wrote an 
" Apology for the Cliristlaim," and a trea- 
tise " <»ii the Resurrection of the Dead." 

ATHEN/EUS, a learned grammarian, 
born at Naucratis, in Egypt, In the third 
century. The only work of his now extant 
Is " The Delpnosophibts, or the Table Talk 
of the Sophists." 

ATHENitUS, of Byzantium, an engineer 
in the time of the emperor Gallienus: au- 
thor of a treatise on tne (Machines of War. 

ATHENA IS, Empress of the West, the 
daughter of an Athenian sophist, but whose 
learning and beauty Induced Theodosiiis the 
Younger to marry her, and she took the 
name of Eudoxla. The emperor, however, 
became Jealous of her, and she was ba- 
nished to Jerusalem, where she died, in 
460. Among her writings was a poetical 
translation of part of the Old Testament. 

ATHIAS, Joseph, a Jewish printer of 
AniKlerdain in the 17th century ; editor of 
the Bible in Hebrew, English, Spanish, and 

ATHOL, John Murray, Duke of. In 
17»<l he petitioned parliament, complaining 
of his father's transfer of tlie sovereignty 
of the Idle of Man to the English Crown In 
1765, for the sum of 70,uoo<., and an annuity 
of 3,00u/. during the lives of him and hN 
duchess, and praying for a bill to amend it. 
The question was lost in conseiiuence of a 
counter-petition from the island ; but the 
duke was named captain-general, and go- 
vernor-in-chief of tlie Isle of Man, from 
Feb. 4, 1793. In 1805 he presented another 
petition, which met with great oppofiiiion 
on the part of the inhabitants of the island. 
However, a grant of one-fourth of the Cus- 
toms was made to the duke. In hereditary 
succession, with an increase of the annuity. 
He died in IH30, aged 75. 

A TKYNS, Sir Robkht, a dlstinguislied 
lawyer and patriot, who aided in the de- 
fence of Lord William Russell, and con- 
ducted that of Sir W. Williams, speaker of 
the Hou^e of Commons, when prosecuted 
for signing the orders to print Danger- 
field's narrative of the Popish plot. He 
also distinguished himself by his opposi- 
tion to the arbitrary measures of James II., 
and at the Revolution was made chief ba- 
ron of the Exchequer. He subsequently 



'■ ' I 




^ llrtD ^nibersal IStograpi^s. 


was maile speaker, which office he held till 
1093. Horn, I6>l ; died, 171.9. 

ATKVNS, Sir Rodeht, son of the above, 
aiitlinr nf " The Anciciil and i)reseiit State 
of Oloiicestur." Uorii, 10 16; died, 1711. 

ATKYNS, Richard, of the same family 
with the ahove ; author of the " Origin 
and Growth of I'rintiniJ;." Died, 1677. 

ATllATUS, Hugo, an Enjflish cardinal 
of the 13th century; a skilful inathnmati- 
cian and natural philosopher; author of 
" Canones Medicinales," &c. 

AITAIGNANT, Gabriel Charles 
DK l', a French ecclesiastic and poet ; 
author of " Pieces Uerol)ee8 k un Ami," 
See. Bor.i, 1697 ; died, 1779. 

ATTAR l>I, Uonaventure, provlncial»of 
the Augustines in Sicily and Malta, in the 
istli century; author of " Dilancia della 
Verita," &c. 

ATTF.NDOLO, Darius, a military offi- 
cer of the 16th century ; author of a " His- 
tory of Dueliinjr," I'oeins, &c. 

ATTENDOLO, John Baptist, a secu- 
lar priest and poet of Naples ; author of 
" Observations on the Poetical Works of 
I'etrarch," &c. Died, 1392. 

ATTKRIJURY, Francis, an English pre 
late, and a preacher of consiimuiate abi- 
lities, was born in 1662, at Milton Keynes, 
near Newport Pagnell, and was educated 
at Westminster School, whence he was sent 
to Christchurch, Oxford. In lu9l he took 
holy orders, and in 1693 was made chaplain 
in ordinary to the king, and lecturer at 
St. Bride's. In these situations, and as 
preacher at Bridewell, he attracted much 
notice by the eloquence of his discourses ; 
but his constant advocacy of high church 
principles exposed him to the attacks of 
Hoadly, and often of otliers of less repute. 
In 1700 he began a controversy on the pow- 
ers and rights of convocations, in which he 
acquitted himself so much to the satisfac- 
tion of the party with which he sided, that 
he received the degree.of D. D., and the 
thanks of the lower house of convocation. 
On the accession of Queen Anne, he was 
made her chaplain in ordinary, and shortly 
afterwards he received the deanery of Car- 
lisle. His rise hencel'orth was rapid : he 
was successively made preacher at the 
Rolls Chapel, a canon of Exetir, dean of 
Christchurch, bishop of Rochester, and 
dean of Westminster, which last preferment 
he owed to the recommendation of Lord 
Oxford. Hitherto his course had been in- 
variably I*"' iperous ; but the death of 
Queen Anne altered the whole complexion 
of his circumstances. His higli church prin- 
ciples were sufficiently well Known ; and it 
is asserted that he was imprudent enough 
to boast, that if a sufficient guard could be 
obtained, he would proclaim the Pretender, 
and that too In full canonicals. Be this 
true or false, it Is certain that he took se- 
veral occasions to render himself obnoxious 
to George I., and was sufficiently active in 
correspondence with the friends of the Pre- 
tender to involve himself in a " Bill of 
Fains and Penalties." He died an exile, at 
Paris, in 1731. 

ATFERBURY, Lewis, LL.D., elder 
brother of the above ; author of some ser- 

mons, tracts against Popery, kc. Born, 
16.56; died, 1731. 

ATTICUS, son of Julius Atticus, and a 
descendant of the family of Miltiades, ac- 
quired so much reputation as a teacher of 
eloquence at Athens, that he was Invited by 
Titus Antoninus to superintend the educa- 
tion of his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius 
and Lucius Varus. He subsequently became 
consul, prefect of the free cities of Asia, 
&c. He employed his great wealth in pub- 
lic works ; but at the close of his life he re- 
tired to Marathon, his native place, where 
he died, a. u. 185. 

ATTICUS, Titus Pomponius. a Roman 
knight, whose vast wealth enabled him to 
aid men of all parties, while his prudence 
prevented him from siding with any of 
them in their public measures. He thus 
escaped injury amid tlie contentions of 
Cinna and Marius, Caesar and Ponifiey, 
and in the horrible times of the Triumvi- 
rate. Of the ability and influence of Atti- 
cus, we may form some opinion from tlie 
correspondence between him and Cicero. 
He is said t'^ have written "Annals" of 
great value ; but it Is for his prudence, his 
wealth, and, above all, his I'riendship with 
Cicero, that he is now remembered. Died, 
B. c. 33, aged 77. 

ATTILA, king of the Huns, surnamed 
the Scourge of God. His ruling passion 
was war; and the Romans learned to trem- 
ble at his name, so terrible were the inju- 
ries he inflicted on them. On the last oc- 
casioh of his invading Italv, he spread ter- 
ror and des )lation over all Lombardy, and 
the fugitive! thence founded the afterwards 
mighty city of Venice. Died, 453. 

ATTIRET, John Francis, a French Je- 
suit and paiiiter. Being appointed mis- 
sionary to Ptikin, he acquired great favour 
with the emperor Kien Long, of whose 
gardens he wrote a very amusing account. 
Born, 1703; died, 176H. 

ATWOOD, George, F.R.S., an eminent 
mathematician ; author of a " Dissertation 
on the Construction and Properties of 
Arches," and many other valuable works 
on mechanical and mathematical science. 
Born, 174;- ; died, 1807. 

AUBAT, Abbe, ccnseur royal in 1784 ; a 
sarcastic French fabulist, whom Voltaire 
pronounces first after La Fontaine. 

AUBAIS, Charles de Baschi, Mar- 
quis d'j autlioi' of a work on historical 
geogrp.phy, Arc. Died, 1777. 

AU'lERT, William, Sieur d'Massouig- 
nes ; advocate of the Parliament of Paris, 
and author of " Histoire dcs Guerres des 
Chretiens contre les Turcs, sous Godcfroy 
de Bouillon," Sec. Born, 1S33; died, 1601. 

AUBERT DU BAYET, an active military 
officer of the French republic. After much 
service in the army, lie was sent as am- 
bassador to Constantinople, where he died, 
aged 37, in 1797. 

AUBERY, Anthony, a French lawyer 
of tlie 17th century ; author of a " History 
of Cardinal Richelieu," Sec. His works are 
valuable for their facts, but mean in style. 

ADBERY, Louis de Maurier, a French 
historian of the I7ih century; author of 
" Memoirs for the History of Holland," &c. 
































^ iHeb) ^Anibrr^al 2>togvapf)|). 

[a V n 










































L'8 (tes 


s ani- 


•ks are 
• reiich 
lior of 
," &c. 








AUniONE, Theodori: Aorippa d', a 
Freiicli Ciilviiiirtt of tfood family, remark- 
able for his attadiniciit to Henry IV., and 
for the lioiRslv with which hu spoke tin- 
truth to that kill)? even when it was least 
agreeable. He spent the latter part of his 
life in retirement at Geneva. Died, 1630. 

AUBIGNE, Constant d', son of the 
above, and father of th'j notorious Madame 
de Maiutenon. Hi» moral character was 
very inferior to that of his father ; but as 
an author, his Universal History, and his 
satires, ))oeni8, memoirs, Sec, do him cou- 
sider.ibje credit. 

AUULET, J. B. C. F., an able French 
botanist ; author of " Histnire des Fl.mtes 
de la Giiiane Fran(;oise." Born, 1720 ; died, 
1778. It was ill honour of him that Lin- 
nieus gave the name of Verbena Aubletia 
to a species of vervain. 

AIJURliY, John, an eminent English 
topographer and antiquary of the nili cen- 
tury. He left a vast number of MSS., 
evincing great research ; but he only pub- 
lished one work, entitled, " Miscellanies," 
a collection of popular superstitions. Many 
of his MSS. are in the Asliniolean Museum 
at Oxford. Died, about 1700. 

All Bill ET, Claude, a French painter of 
natural history subjects. Died, 1740. 

AUBRIOT, Hugh, a French merchant, 
mayor of Paris, and superintendant of 
finance to Charles V. He was imprisoned 
for heresy, bu;the populace, who had risen 
against the taxes termed Mailloliiis.released 
him, and he escaped to Burgundy. It was 
from him that the French reformers had the 
name of Huguenots. 

knight of the time of Charles v., who, ac- 
cording to tradition, was basely murdered, 
ill i;i71, bv his companion in arms, Richard 
de MacaiVe. The murder was discovcrtd 
by means of a donr of the deceased, who 
showed the most hostile disposition to Hie 
MMiiderer. The king compelled Macaire 
to light with his accuser, tlie dog, in order 
to decide tlie case ; and the murderer was 
conquered. From this story the dra'ua of 
" The Dog of MoiUargis" has been taken. 

AUBRY, John Baptist, a French prior, 
who was deprivetl of his situation at the re- 
volution ; author of •' Questions Philoso- 
plii(|ues sur la Religion Naturelle," &c. 
Born, 173o; died, 1809. 

AUBRY, Mi,LE.,angurauteof IheFrench 
opera, who, in 1793, publicly personated the 
" Goddess of Reason" at Paris. 

AUBRY, C. L., a Parisian librarian, and 
profound mathematician, born in 1746 ; au- 
thor of a work addressed to the Legislative 
Body in 1799, " OnWeights and Measures ;" 
and another, " On the Decimal System." 

AUBRY, John FaAriciS, a French phy- 
sician of the 18th century ; author of " Les 
Oracles de Cos," a review of the practice of 
Hippocrates, and other ancient physicians, 

AUBRY DUBONCHET, N., a deputy of 
the Tiers Etats In 1769 ; and author of se- 
veral works on politic.il economy. 

AUBRY, F., one of t.':e French Committee 
of Public Safety in 1794, who aimed at coun- 
ter-revolution. He deprived Buonaparte, 
after the siege of Toulon, of military em- 

ployments, and reduced him to great dis- 
tress ; the latter revenged himself after- 
wards, by preventing his re-entry into 
France after his deportation to Cayenne, on 
the return of gome of his fellow-victims. 

AUBRY DE GOUGES, Marik-Olympie, 
a female republican, celebrated for her 
beauty and talents, bo^n in 1755. She founded 
the popular female societies called Tricoteu- 
ses, and was a perfect enthusiast in her poli- 
tical opinions. Atlengthshe wasput to death 
by Robespierre's party, in consequence of 
their licentious and cruel profligacy having 
urged her to denounce them in a pam- 
phlet called the " Trois Urnes." She died 
with heroi sj'irit. She is the author of the 
" Memoires of Madame de Valmont ;" of 
" L' Esclavage des Negres," a melodrama ; 
" Le Marriage de Cherubin," a comedy : 
and " Mollere chez Ninon," an episodical 
piece, &c. 

AUBUSSON, Peter d', surnamed the 
Buckler of the Church, alter having served 
with great distinction nnder the emperor 
Sigismund against the Turks, entered the 
order of St. John of Jerusalem, became 
grand-master, and, in 1460, compelled Ma- 
homet II. to raise the siege of I>.nodes. 
Died, 1503. 

English eeneral. He served with great 
zeal and ability in North and South America, 
and when cominaiuliiig in India, reduced to 
the dominion of Great Britain the rich set- 
tlements of Java and Batavia. On Ills re- 
turn to Europe, he was appointed to the 
command in Ireland, where he died in 1832. 

AUCKLAND, William Eden, lord, an 
able negotiator, was the third £oii of Sir 
Robert Eden, bart of West Auckland, Dur- 
ham. He was appointed under-secrctary of 
state in 1772; went to Ireland in Hso with 
lord Carlisle, as chief secretary ; in 1788 
w'.is ambassador to Spain ; and in the yeir 
following was ambassador to Holland. He 
wrote " The Principles of Penal Law ;" 
" The History of New Holland," and nu- 
merous other valuable works. Born, 1744 ; 
died, !814. 

AUDE, Joseph, knight of Malta, b rn in 
1755 ; secretary to the Neapolitan philoso- 
phical minister, Carraccioli, and subse- 
qnenlly to the French Plinv, Buffon, whose 
lite he published in 1788. He is the author 
of several dramas ; " Le Heline Aii^loisc," 
" Le Retour de Camille," " Le Noiiveau 
Ricco," and some melodrames ; " The 
Exiles of Siberia," &c. 

AUDEBERT, Germain, a French lawyer 
of the l6th centurv ; author of " Roma," 
Venetla," and other Latin poems. Died, 


AUDEBERT, John Baptist, a cele- 
brated French engraver of natural history, 
born in 1739. The spirit of his engravings of 
monkeys, snakes, birds. Sec. is inimitable. 
Died, 1800. 

AUDIFREDI, John Baptist, a famous 
Italian astr>nomer, born in 1714 ; author 
of " Demonstrazioiic dellc Stazione dclla 
Cometa, 1769," Jtc. 

AUDIFFREEDY, Thrrese, b.rnin Gui- 
nea in 1757. When returning thither, at 18, 
from Bourdcaux, she was subjected, through 




I ■ 



EI I ■ 




the eftect of lier yuiitlifiil beauty, to tlu: re- 
ji't'ti'd love of the captain of ilievoHsel, but 
\v«8 relievcil from iii<; oflVrtMl violeiu't" by 
Soiiiiiii) and tin- Chevalier Andiflreily, Ihl' 
latter of whom Hbo married ; and beeoniin)r 
one of the riehest proprietorH in i'ayenne, 
she waved Pichef^ru. and tiie itumcroiiH <le- 

Korled victims of the iMtii Fruclidor, from 
einijf starved to death. 

AUDIoniKR, Vital d', a French noble- 
man ; anllior of a " TrealiHe on tiie true 
and ancient iisa|i>:e of Duels." Died, 1630. 

AUDI NOT, founder of the Theatre Audi- 
not, and the inventor of melodramas, was 
born at Nancy, about \Tr<o, lie was a fa- 
vourite actor in, as well as autliorof, many 
of the latter. He died at Paris, in I8ut. 

AUDLEY, Thomas, cbaiieellor of Kn?- 
landdnringpartof Mic reiffn of Henry VI If., 
and disprracefuliy subservient to the evil will 
of that king. Died, 1.^41. 

AD DRAN, the name of a family of French 
artists ; of whom the following arc the most 
eminent— Charles Audran. the elder, was 
born at Paris, in l.'i94 ; and died in 1673. 
His works are numerous and excellent.— 
Claude, a nephew of the preceding:, was 
born, at Lyons, in 1639, and studied under 
his uncle. He was employed by Le Brun 
in painting' part of the pictures of Alexan- 
der's battles, at Versailles, and became pro- 
fessor of painting in tlie royal academy of 
Paris, where he died in 1684.— Giiiard, the 
brother of the last-mentioned, and the most 
celebrated of the family, was born, at Lyons, 
in 1640; studied under Le Urun at Paris; 
and engraved that artist's pictures in a 
masterly style. He died in 1703.— Claude, 
nepliew of Girard. was born, at Lyons, in 
1685. He was celebrated for ornamental 
designs; appointed king's paintt-r ; and 
died in 1734.— John, brother of Claude, was 
born in 1667 ; studied cncrraving under his 
uncle ; and died, at Paris, in 17oG. 

AIJORAN, P. G., was born in Daunhiny, 
about 1770 : and made professor of Hebrew 
at the College de France, in 1799. This 
scholar taught himself Hebrew by the sy- 
noptical and analytical method first applied 
by Dumarsais and De Gebetin to gram- 
matical science ; and was the author of a 
" Grammalre Hebralque." 

AUDREIN, Yves M., a French ecclesi- 
astic, who ioined Robespierre, declared for 
the revolution, and proposed his " Plan d' 
Education," to wiliidraw the education of 
youth from the priesthood. In 1800, while 
proceeding to his bishopric, he was dragged 
out of his carriage by the Cliouans, and as- 

AUGE, Daniel Aucbntius, a French 
author of the lith century. He translated 
portions of .St. Macarius and Synesius from 
the Greek, and wrote numerous dialogues 
on oratory, &c. 

AUGER, Athanasius, a learned abbe, 
and professor of rhetoric at the college of 
St. Rouen, was born at Paris, in 1734. He 
piiblishe<l several political works, (among 
others, " Catechisme du Citoyen FranQois," 
•.Vc.) iu favour of the revolution. His learned 
publications are numerous: " Constitution 
desRomains;"" DelaTragedicGrecque ;" 
the complete works of Isocrates, Lysias, Xe- 
nophon, &c. Died, 1792. 

AUGER, LoiMB Simon, bnrii at Paris in 
177'^, was a man of exten-ive learning, l»e- 
inif till' conductor of sevenil Journals, am', 
fine of tlie iM'incipal autliors o'' the Univer- 
sal Diography. He committed > uicide in I h-.y. 

duke ofCastigiione, and a ma.shal of France, 
was born at Paris, in 17'>7. Having entered 
the arntv early in life, he <listingui8^ed liiin- 
seif, ana rose to the rank of brigadier-ge- 
neral in 1794. At the battles of Casti^rlione 
and Arcole, in 1796, his personal bravery 
was eminently conspicuous ; and, in short, 
tlirough all the campaigns of Napoleon, 
from that time till the memorable retreat 
from Russia in 1813, he displayed great skill, 
and fliled the most important stations ; re- 
ceiving as a reward for his services the ba- 
ton of a field marshal and a dukedom. On 
the abdication of the emperor, he was among 
the first to ofler his allegiance to the Uour- 
bons, for which he was amply rewarded ; 
yet, it is said, he was eoualiy ready on Na- 
poleon's return from Elba to serve his old 
master, who, however, rejected his services, 
and declared him a traitor. He died in 1816. 

AUGURELLO, Giovanni Aurelio, an 
Italian poet and professor of the belles Ih- 
<im; author of "Chrvsopwia," and pther 
poems, Latin and Italian. Born, 1440; 
died, 1524. 

AUGUSTIN, St., bishop of Hippo, and 
one of the fathers of the Christian church, 
was born at Tagaste, in Africa, a. d. 334. 
He was in his youth attached to the Mani- 
chean doctrines, and of very loose morals ; 
but his conversion from his errors was com- 
plete and permanent ; and he wrote with 
great zeal, and very voluminouslv, against 
all the sects which the church helu tone he- 
retical. He died in 430. 

AUGUSTIN, Anthony, a Spanish pre- 
late of the 16th century : author of some 
treatises on law and on medals. Died, 1586. 

AUGUSTIN, or AUSTIN, St., stvled the 
Apostle of the English, was sent Ijy pope 
Gregory I. at the head of 40 monks to preach 
the gospel in England. He landed in 597 ; 
and so rapid was his success, that the pope 
made him archbishop of Canterbury, Kent 
being the first scene of his invaluable laboui. 
Elated by the success of his mission, he en- 
deavoured to bring the Welsh bishops, who 
were descendants of the British converts of 
the second century, under the jurisdiction 
of the church of Rome, to which they had 
never submitted ; but they asserted their in- 
dependence, and 1200 monks of Bangor 
were soon after put to the sword by Ethel- 
frid, king of Northumberland, at the insti- 
gation, it is said, of tlie oflended prelate, 
lie died earlv in the seventh century, but the 
year of his oeath is variously given. 

AU6USTUI.US, Romulus, the last em- 

Eeror of the West, was ■■aised to the throne 
y his father, the patrician Orestes, who 
deposed Julius Nepos, in 476 ; but his reign 
was little more than nominal, and of very 
short duration ; being soon aftiT conquered 
and dethroned by Odoacer, king of the 
Heruli, who spared his life, and allowed 
him a pension. 

AUGUSTUS, Caius Julius C.ksar Oc- 
TAViANUs, a Roman emperor, was the son 






























^ J^eta) Q^inibereal l^togray^s. 



ofCaius Octavius anclArcia, niece of Julius 
Cesar, who, nn tlie dvalli of hia father, 
wliicli liappiMied when lie was only four 
vears old, ailopted liim as his son. When 
L'lEsar was asKiassinated. Octavius (for by 
that name he was called before his accession 
to the throne), <vas in Epirus, whence he 
ininicdialely returned to secure his inherit- 
ance, and entered into an alliance with An- 
tony and Lcnidus, though he at first was 
inimical to tlie foriner. The triumvirate 
thus formed shed the best blood of Rome ; 
and Octavius was fully as guilty a'* either of 
his associates. At lenj^th Lepidus was de- 
posed, Antony hurried to ruin and death, 
and Octavius, then 36 years of age, became 
em|>eror, with the title of Augustus. As 
eniperor,'hi8 course was wise ancTbeneficent; 
literature and the arts nourished under his 
auspices ; good laws were enacted; and he 
was in many respects deserving of the lavish 
praise heaped upon him by the writers of 
that time. Born, B.C. 63 ; died, a.d. 14. 

ALiLISIO, Dominic, a Nca|xilitan pro- 
fessor of civil law, but more celebrated as 
a lliignist and for his great proficiency in 
general science and the Mies Ictlres. He 
was author of " Commentaries on Civil 
Law ;" a " History of the Rise and Progress 
of Medicine," &c. Born, 1639 ; died, 1717. 

AULNAGE, F. H. S. dk, a Spanish wri- 
ter, born in 1739 ; author of a work on 
ancient pantomime, and of " Histoire Ge- 
nerale des Religions," &c. 

AULUS OELLIUS, a grammarian in the 
reigns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius ; 
chiefly remembered for his " Noctes Attica." 

AUNGERVILLE, Richard, or Richard 
DE liURY, was the tutor of Edward III., by 
whom he was made bishop of London, 
Lord High Chancellor, Lord High Trea- 
surer, &e. He was a munificent patron of 
learning, and the author of a learned 
work, entitled, •• Philobiblion." Born, 
IStil : died, 1345. 

AUNOY, Countess of, a lively French au- 
tlioress of the 17th century. Died, 1703. 

AURELIAN, Lucius Domitius, a Ro- 
man empercr, was the son of a peasant, and 
born in Pannonia, about the year 220. Having 
throughout an active life greatly distin- 
guished himself as a skilful, valiant, and 
successful general, he was chosen emperor 
on the death of Claudius II. in 270. He 
drove the barbarians from Italy, conquered 
Tetricus, who had assun)ed the purple in 
Gaul, and vanquished the celebrated Zeno- 
bia, of Palmyra, and carried her a prisoner 
to Rome ; but while on his march towards 
Persia, in 275, he was assassinated by his 
mutinous troops. 

AURELIO, Louis, an Italian monk of the 
17th century ; author of an account of the 
Bohemian rebellion. He also abridged the 
Universal History of Tursellinus, and other 
works. Died, 1637. 

AURENGZEBE, the Great Mogul, or era- 
peror of Hindostan, was the third son of 
Shah Jehan. His early life was marked by 
gravity and seeming devotion, but these 
were merely the disguise of an ambitious 
and crafty spirit. He deposed his father, 
put to death two of his brothers, and the 
son of the elder of them, and assumed the 
sovereign authoriiy. Ill, however, as he 

obtained his power, he used it with skill and 
courage. He subdued Golconda, the Car- 
natic, Visapour, and Bengal, and routed the 
pirates who had infestra the mouth of the 
Ganges. His achievements obtained him 
the respect of Europenn as well as Asiatic 
powers. But the clo^e tif his life was em- 
bittered by the rebfllic is conduct of his 
sons, who aimed atd <H)^.Dg him, as he had 
deposed his father. Bvrn, 1618; died, 1707. 
After the death of Aureng2ebe, the might 
and splendour of the Mogid empire rapidly 

AURIA, ViKCBNTio, a Sicilian author of 
the 17th century. His principal work is a 
history of eminent Sicilians. Born, 1625 ; 
died, 1710. 

AURI6M, Giles de, a French lawyer 
and poet of the 16th century ; author of a 
poem, entitled. " Tuteur d' Amour," and 
some other works of no great value. 

AUSKGIUS, a French abbot of the ninth 
century, who made a collection of the capi- 
tularies of Charlemagne and his son Louis, 
which has been several times reprinted. 
Died, 834. 

AUSONIDS, Decius Magnus, a Roman 
poet of the fourth century ; son of Julius 
Ausonius, a physician of Bourdeanx. He 
early gave proof of genius, and was ap- 
pointed tutor to Gratian, son of the em- 
peior Valintinlan ; and when his pupil came 
to the throne, he made him Prtetorian pre- 
fect of Gaul, and subsequently raised him to 
the consulship. His poems are various both 
as to subject and merit ; but though tliey 
contain much that Is beautiful, they are but 
too frequently deformed by licentiousness. 

AUSTEN, Jane, the authoress of " Pride 
and Prejudice," " Sense and Sensibility," 
and other prose fictions, was the daughter 
of a clergyman in Hampshire. Born, 1773 ; 
died, unmarried, 1817. 

AUSTREA, D. Joan, a Spanish admiral, 
born in 1S4S ; remembered as the conqueror 
of the Turks at Lepanto. 

AUVERGNE, Theophilus Malo de La- 
tour d', a distinguished soldier, citizen, 
and scholar of the French republic, was 
born in 1743, at Carhaix, in Lower Bri- 
tanny. He nrsi served in the army during 
the American war ; and when the French 
revolution broke out, he was living in re- 
tirement, on his half-pay. This called him 
again into active life ; and he was entrusted 
with the command of 8000 grenadiers, and 
dislinguislied himself in various successful 
enterprises on the Spanish frontier. In 
179S he returned to his studies; but, in 
1799, he once more took tlie field, generally 
serving in lieu of a friend's only son, who 
had been drawn as a conscript. Bonaparte 
rewarded his bravery by bestowing on him 
the honourable title of First Grenadier of 
France ; but he did not long retain it, being 
killed at the battle of Neuburgh, in I800. 
He was well versed in history, and an emi- 
nent linguist ; author of a Franco-Celtic 
Dictionary, and various other philological 
works of merit. 

AUVERGNE, Anthonv d', a French 
musician and composer of the isth century, 
who comimsed the first comic opera ever 
performed in France. Died, 1797. 




y \ 




^ lleb ^IniUersal 13iograp^s. 


AVALOS, Ferdinand, Marquis of Pes- 
c;ir:i, a brave Neiipolitan soldier, and the 
autlior of a " Dialogue on Love," wlijoli In- 
wrote wliile a prisoner of war, and deli- 
cated to Ids wife, the beautiful Vittoria Co- 
lonna. Doru, 1481) ; ditd, 15.25. 

AVALOS, Alphonso d', Marquis del 
Vasto, nephew of the preceding, was born 
at Naples, in 1502, and obtained tlie com- 
mand of the imperial army at his uncle's 
death, for the brilliant valour he displayed 
at the sieife of Pavia. Died, 1546. 

AVAUX, Claude de Mesne, Count d', a 
celebrated French diplomatist, and an ac- 
complished scholar. Oied, 1650. 

de, a Spanish writer, who, to the great 
annoyance of Cervantes, wrote a continua- 
tion of tlic first part of Don Quixote. 

AVELLONE, F., an Italian dramatic 
writer, born in 1756, whose pieces are nu- 
merous, and many of thcni successful ; '• Lan- 
terne Majrlque," "Jules VVillenvel," &c. 

AVEIIANI, Bendeict, a Florentine, was a 
learned and voluminous prose writer and 
poet. Born, 1645 ; died, 1707. 

AVERANI, Joseph, brother of the above; 
author of various scientific treatises, and of 
a defence of Galileo. 

AVENTINE, John, a native of Bavaria; 
author of the " Annals of Bavaria," and of 
a curious work, entitled, " Numcuandi per 
digitos," &c. Born, 1466; died, 1534. 

AVENZOAR, or EBN ZOAR, an Arabian 
physician of the 1 2th century, born at Se- 
ville ; author of a medical compendium, 
entitled, " AI Thelser." 

AVERDY, Clembnt CHARLiiS de l', 
comptroller-greneral of France in the istli 
century ; author of " Code Penal, " and 
other useful works. He was guillotined in 
1794, on a charp^e of havinyr caused the 
scarcity of wheat which then atfiicted France. 
bian philosopher and physician of the I2th 
century. His talents caused him to be made 
chief ruler of Morocco by tlie caliph, Jacob 
Alman/or, but being accused of heresy by 
the Mahoni'-tan priests, lie was imprisoned 
and otherwise persecuted. Again, however, 
he acquired lioth the royal favour and the 
popular confldencc, and died at Morocco, 
In iiiiS, in possession of the highest honours 
below the sovereignty. He was author of 
a paraphrase of Plato's Republic, and seve- 
ral other works. 

AVESBURY, Robert of, an English 
writer of the 14th century ; author of a his- 
tory of Edward III. 

AVIANO, Jerome, an Italian poet of the 
I6th century. 

AVICENNA, otherwise EBN-SINA, an 
Arabian plii'^sopher and physician of tiie 
11th centnry. Of his numerous works the 
most valuable are his " Commentaries on 
Aristotle. He died in great poverty, 1037. 
AVIENUS, RiTFUs Festus, a Latin poet 
of the fourth centnry. 

AVIGNV, C.J. L., a national French poet, 
born at Martinique, in 1760 ; author of 
" Jeanne D'Arc/' " Le Depart de La Pe- 
rousp;" and some successful dramas. " La 
Lettres," " Les Deux Jockeys," " Uoria" 
SiC. His best prose production is on tlic I 

progress of the British power in India, in- 
serted in Michard's " Histoire de M)sore." 
AVILA Y ZDNIGA, Loris d', a distin- 
guished diplomatist, warrior, and historian, 
under Cliarles V. He wrote " Comnienta- 
ries " on the wars of his sovereign, who so 
niucli admired them, that he deemed him- 
self more fortunate than Alexander, in 
having such an liistorian. 

AVILA, John d', a Spanish priest, who 
for tlie space of forty years jonrneyed 
through the Andalusian mountains and fo- 
rests, enforcing by his precepts and exam- 
pie tlie doctrines of the Gospel ; on which 
account he acquired the appellation of the 
Apostle of Andalusia. Died, li69. 

AVILER, Ai'oiTsTiNE Charles d', a 
French architect of the I7th century ; au- 
thor of some valuable works on architecture. 

lawyer of the 16th century; author of 
" Commonlaries on tlic Provincial Laws of 

AVISON, Charles, a composer and mu- 
sician ; autlior of " Essays on Musical Ex- 
pression," &c. Died, 1770. 

AVITUS, Marcus M^ecilius, raised to 
the empire of the West on the death of 
Maxinius, in 455, but deposed after a reign 
of only fourteen months. 

AVOGADllO, Lucia, an Italian poctiss, 
whose early talents won the praise of 
Tasso. Died, 1568. 

AVRIGNY, Hyacinth Robillard d', a 
French Jesuit and historical writer, was 
born at Caen in 1675, and died in 1719. 

AYALA, Peter Lopez d', a Itarned, 
brave, and eloquent Spanish statesman, was 
born in Muicia, in I33J. After serving 
under four Castilian monarchs, both in tlie 
council and the field, and distinguisliing 
himself also as a man of erudition, he died 
in 1407. 

AYALA, a Dutch physician wlio practised 
at Antwerp in the I6tli centnry ; autlior of 
a " 1 realise on the Plague," " Carmen 
pro vera Medicina," kc. 

AYESHA, daiijjliterof Abubeker, and fa- 
vourite wife of iVIahomet. On tlie deatli of 
her husband she resorted to arms to oppose 
the succession of All ; but though conquered 
by him she was dismissed in safety, and 
died in retirement at Mecca, in 677. The 
Mussulmen venerate her memory, and de- 
signate her the prophetess. 

AYLMER, John, bishopof London in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth. He was a ready, 
but not very rii^idiy principled writer; and 
was more disposed to intolerance than is 
consistent with tlie character of a true 
Christian. Born, 1521 ; died, 1594. 

AYLOFFE, Sir Joseph, an able anti- 
quary of the 18th century. He was keefier 
of the state papers, and author of '• The 
Universal Librarian," besides numerous 
other works. Born, 1708; died, 1781. 

AYMON, John, a Piedmoiitese priest of 
the I7th century. He abjured Papacy for 
the doctrines of Calvin, but returned to his 
original faith and had a pension from the 
cardinal de Nnailles. Availing himself of 
his intimacy with the librarian of the royal 
collection at Paris, he stole some MSS., one 
of which, an account of^he synod of Jerii- 

A clear conscience is the best law, and ifiiuPERANCE THE BEST PHYSIC. 



mlia, in- 
a distiii- 
I, who so 
ncd hini- 
ntlcr, ill 

lest, wlio 
i and fo- 
ld cxiini- 
011 wliicli 
3H of the 

ES d', a 
tirv ; a>i- 
, aFrcnih 
uthor of 
I Laws of 

r and mii- 
isical Ex- 

raiscd to 

dtath ol 

er a reign 

n poetess, 
praise of 

■ARD d', a 

riter, was 


I Uarned, 

^nian, was 


,)th in the 


lie died 

f practised 

atiUior of 


, and fa- 
deatli of 
,o oppose 
" ty, and 
li77. The 
and dc- 

lon in the 
a ready, 
ter; and 
! ihati is 
a true 

)le anli- 
is keeper 
)f " 'riie 

[priest of 
pacy for 
ed to liis 
roni the 
,mseif cf 
Ihe royal 
ISS., one 
lof Jerii- 





^ 0t\D ^nifitrml ISiograpl^i?. 


salcm in 1673, he published in Holland. He 
wrote a *' Picture of the Court of Rome," 
and some other works. 

A YRAOLT, Pierre, a French lawyer of 
the I6th century; autlmr of a treatise " De 
Patrie Jure," occasioned by the seduction of 
his son by tlie Jesuits, and other works. 
Born, IS3(>; died, 1601. 

AYRTON, Edmund, a composer of ca- 
thednil music, and one of tlie directors of 
the Commemoration of Handel. Born, 
1734 ; died, 1808. 

AYSCOUGH, Samuel, an industrious 
literary character of the last century. He 
contributed largely to the British Critic and 
other periodicals; and compiled a variety 
of laborious indexes, of which, his Index to 
Shakspeare is the principal. He was curate 
of St. Giles's, ana lecturer at Shoreditch. 
Born, 1745 j died, 1804. 

AYSCOUGH, Oeoroe Edward, son of 
the dean ^f Bristol, by a sister of the first 
lord Lyttleton. He was the author of a 
volume of travels on the continent, and tlie 
tragedy of tiemiramis. Died, 1779. 

AYSCUE, Sir Georob, a distlng'iiished 
admiral in the time of Cromwell, and one 
of the coadjutors of Blake in his famous ac- 
tion with the Dutch admiral. Van Tromp. 
At the restoration he was made rear-admiral 
of the Blue ; and being captured in Albe- 
marle's action off Dunkirk, remained many 
years a prisoner. 

AYTON, Sir Robert, a native of Fife- 
sliiie, ill Scotland, a poet of considerable 
merit, was born in 1570. He wrote in 
Greek, I.atin, and French, as well as En- 
glish. Died, teas. 

AZAIS, P. H., born in 1766; author of a 
" Systeme Universel," and the editor of I 

several litcrarv and political works, " Le 
Mercure," " Aristarque," &c. 

AZARA, Don Joseph Nicholas d', a 
Spanish grandee, born in Arragon, I73t ; 
ambassador, first to Home, and next to 
France ; a good writer in Spanish, Italian, 
and French ; a ripe antiquarian, and a great 
patron of th^ fine arts. His " Suite de 
Pierres Gravees," published in Spain, is 
much esteemed. He tnmslated into Spanish 
" MIddleton's Life of Cicero;" " Bowles's 
Natural Historv of Spain ;" " Seneca ;" 
and " Bodont's Horace." He died suddenly, 
by his flre-side, in 1804. 

AZARA, Felix d', a Spanish naturalist 
and traveller of the luth century ; author of 
a " Natural History of Paraguay," and 
other valuable works. Born, 1746; the 
time of his death is uncertain. 

AZNAR, count of Gascony, distinj'ulshed 
for qnelling an insurrection of the Navar- 
rese Gascons, in 824 ; but being discontented 
with Pepin, klngof Aqiiitaine, for whom he 
put down the insurgents, he subsequently, 
in 831, seized on a part of Navarre, and be- 
came the founder of tlie kingdom of that 
name. Died, 836. 

AZUNI, Dominic Albert, a Sardinian, 
born in 1760. He was the author of " Sys- 
tem Universel du Droit Maritime de I'Eu- 
rope," Stc, a work of the highetit merit, 
written in the purest French. Made presi- 
sident of the Genoese board of trade by Na- 
poleon, he fell with his patron, and retired 
to private life. Died, 1827. 

A/.ZO, I'oRTius, an Italian jurist of tlie 
13th century; author of "A Summary of 
tlie Cmtes or institutes." He is said to have 
-been executed for killing a man in a per- 
sonal conflict. ' •' 


BAAHDIN, Mahomet Gkbet Axuu, a 
Persian doctor ; author of " A Sumnisry of 
Canon and Civil Law," whicli he wrote by 
order of Abbas the Great, and in his name. 

BAAN, John d', a Dutch portrait painter 
who was employed in England under the 
patronage of Cliarles II. Died, 1702. 

BAAN, James, 6on of the above, and of 
the same profession. Died, 17uo. 

BAARSUORP, Cornelius, physician to 
the emperor Charles V. ; author of " Me- 
thodus Unirersie Artis Medicse." Died, 1563. 

BAART, Peter, a Fleming of the I8th 
century ; author of Flemish Georgics," &c. 

BABA, a Turkish impostor of the I3th 
century, who affected to have a mission 
from Heaven. He had many followers in 
Natolia, which country he overran ; but his 
success was only temporary, and his sect 
sunk into obscuntv. 

BABACOUSCHI, a mufU of the citvof 
Cafla, in Mauris,* who died in the year of 

the Hegira, 783. His real name was Abda- 
rahnian Mosthala ; and he was author of a 
work, entitled " The Friend of Princes." 

BABRK, KiroRKMi, a Persian impostor, 
suniauied the Impious, who, in the early 
part ot the ninth centurv, appeared as the 
apostle of a new religion. For twenty years 
he baffled all the attempts that were made 
to put him down ; but at length he was 
taken prisoner, and suffered a cruel deatli, 
in 837. 

BABIN, Francis, a French divine and 
jirofessor of divinity at Anijers ; editor of 
" The Conferences of the Diocese of Au- 
gers. Died, 1734. 

BABl NG'I'ON, Anthony, a gentleman of 
good family and fortune in Derbyshire, who 
was detected in a conspiracy to assassinate 
queen Elizabeth; for wliicn he was exe- 
cuted in 1586. 

BABINGTON, Gervasb, a bishop of 
Worcester, at the end of tne iGth and he- 













^ llctD ^ntbersal l^tograptu- 


Rinninc: of tlie I7tli centiirieH. He whh a 
learned and |)ioug man, and a considerable 
benefactor to the library of Worcester ca- 
thedral, lie Miiccessively held the blHlioprkii 
ol* Llandart, Rxeter, and Worcester. 

BABINGTON, Dr. William, an eminent 
physician, and lecturer on medicine and 
chemititry at Guy's lioHpital, was born in 
1757; and after a lonv life of usefulness in 
his nrofession, of wiiicli he was a distin- 
guished ornament, died in April, 1833, a^i^ed 
76. He was the aullior of " A New System 
of Mineralogy," besides some other scien- 
tific treatises. 

DABCEUF, Francis Noel, a violent par- 
tizan of the French revolution. Me assumed 
the name of Gracchus, and conducted a 
journal called «• The tribune of the Peo- 
ple ;" but his share in a conspiracy belntf 
proved, he was condemned to be g:uillotlne<r, 
wliich he avoided by suicide, while under 
sentence in prison, 1797. 

BABRIAS, orBABRIUS, a Greek poet, 
frequently quoted by Suidas. 

BABUR, or BABR, Mohammed, a sove- 
reign of the Mogul empire, in Western Tar- 
tary and Khorassan, who ascended the 
throne in 1494, and who, in 1525, invaded 
and conquered Hindostan. He died in 1530, 
and Ills posterity reigned over India for two 
centuries and a half. Babur was the great 
grandson of Tamerlane. 

BABY LAS, bishop of Antloch, put to 
death in the persecution of Decius, a.d. 251. 

BACAf, Ibrahim Bkn Omar, author of 
lives of eminent men, &c. Died, 835 of the 

BACCAINf, Benedict, professor of ec- 
clesiastical history at Modena, :ind author 
of various learned works. Born, 1657 ; 
died, 1721. 

BACCAl.ARY SANNA,Vincent, marquis 
of St. Vincent, an able commander and 
sfatesman under Charles II., and Philip V. 
of Spain ; autli^r of" Memoirs of Pliilip V." 
&c. Died, 1726. 

BACIIHIS, sometimes called BAHJS, a 
king of Conntli, whu ruled with sucli mo- 
deration and equity, that to commemorate 
him his successors were called Bacchidne. 

BACCHUS, king of Mauritania, son-in- 
law of Jugurtha, whom lie betrayed into the 
hands of the Romans under SyHii. 

BACCHYLIDILS, a Greek lyric poet, 
who fidurislied about 450 years b. c. He 
was the coteniporarv and rival of Pindar ; 
and Horace is snid to have imitated liim in 
some of liig Odes. 

BACCIO, Andrew, an Italian physician 
of the I6th century ; niitlior of several 
treatises on poisons, antidotes, iVc. 

BACCIO, Francisco Bartolomeo, an 
eminent portrait and liistorical painter, was 
born at Savijrnana, near Florence, in i469. 
He is considered the inventor of the jointetl 
lay liguie, used by painters; and is the iirst 
who painted draperies with grace and cor- 
rectness. Di«ul, 1517. 

BACELLAR, Anthony Barbosa, a 
Portuguese poet, historian, and civilian ; 
hut wlio is chiefly remembered for a work 
in defence of the house of Bragan/.a, which 
paved his way to fortune, and established 
him as a favourite at tlic court. 

BACH, John Sebastian, a German mu- 
sician of lirst-rale merit, lie is said lo have 
equalled Handel as an organist ; and as a 
scientilic composer he has attained a ce- 
lebrity rarely excelled. Born, 1685 ; died, 

BACH, Charles Ph.:.ip Emanuel, and 
John Christian, the two most eminent of 
tlie eleven <<onB of Sebastian ; all of whom 
followed their father's profession. 

BACHAUMONT, Francis le Coioneux 
DR, a French lawyer and poet, co-autlior 
with Cliapelle of a lively and spirited piece, 
in prose and verse, entitled, " A Journey to 
Montpelier." Born, 1624 ; died, 1702. 

BACHAUMONT, Louis Petit, a French 
writer; author of a voluminous work, en- 
titled, " Secret Memoirs towards a History 
of the French Ilepublic of Letters," Sic- 
Died, 1771. 

BACHELIER, Nicholas, a French sculp- 
tor, pupil of Michael Angelo. Several of 
his productions are in the cathedral of To- 
louse, his native city. Died, 15S4. 

BACHELIER, John James, a French 
painter, born in 1724. was director of the 
royal porcelain manutactory ofSerres,and 
the discoverer of an encaustic composition 
for the preservation of marble statues. 
That his love for tlie arts was great and 
disinterested, niav be fairly inferred from 
the fact of his devoting a fortune of 6(),ooo 
francs to the establishment of a scliool for 
gratuitously teaching tiie art of drawing. 
Died, t803. 

BACHER. Georoe Frederic, a German 
physician of the I nth century ; author of 
'' Treatises on Dropsy," a disease wliich he 
was very skilful in treating. 

BACHER, A. A. P. F., son of the pre- 
ceding, and of tlie same profession ; author 
of a work on law, and a contributor to the 
Journal de Medicine. Died, 1807. 

BACHOVIUS, Reinier, a German civi- 
lian of the t6th century; author of a ca- 
tecliisin in vindication of Calvinism. 

BACHOVIUS, Reinier, son of the aljovc; 
professor of civil law at Heidelberg; author 
of a treatise " De Actionibus," &c. 

BACHMEISTER, H. L. C, a miscella- 
neous writer, born at Hcrnhorn, in the 
principalitv of Nassau- Dillenbourg, in 1736; 
autlior of " An Abridgment of tlie Geogra- 
phy of the Russian Enipire ;" " A Collection 
of 'Memoirs relating to Peter I.:" " The 
Russian Library," 1 1 vols., &c. Died, 1806. 
BACICI, John Baptist Gauli, an Italian 
painter, chlcHy of scriptural subjects and 
portraits. Born, 1639; died, 1709. 

BACKER, James, a Dutch historical 
painter of great ability. Born at Antwei'i), 
in 1530; died, 1560. 

BACKER, Jacob, a portrait and histori- 
cal painter. Born at Harlingcn, 1609; 
died, 1651. 

BACKHOUSE, William, an English 
astronomer and alchemist ; author of " Flie 
C(miplaint of Nature," " The Golden 
Fleece," &c. Died. 1 062. 

an eminent painter, whose sea-tiicces are 
worthy of the highest praise. He studii d 
nature attentively in all lier forms, ;ind gave 
to every subject »ucli tiansparency and liis- 

LET not the eye «0 beyond the ear, nor the TONfJUE so *'AIl AS TIIE FKKT. 



II imi- 
1 have 
(I as a 


:,, and 
unt of 


•ney to 

k, en- 
," &c- 

eral of 
of To- 
ot the 
en, and 
■at and 
1 from 

■ 60,000 

Bol for 

tlior of 
hich he 

lie pre- 
to the 

in civi- 
a ca- 


|in the 
In 173G; 

Jl, 1806. 

Its and 


1609 ; 

1" The 


us are 
Itnitit d 
1 gave 
I lus- 





9 IHeto SUntbersal lStograpT)t>. 


(rr, ai< placed him above all the artists of 
his time, except tlic voiiiiffer Vandervelde. 
Indeed, it is said to have neeii his frequent 
custom, whenever he could procure resolute 
mariners, to ijo to sea in a storm, in order 
to st'>re ills mind with IniajfCH of tliL aiwry 
elements, and to wurlt incessantly on iiis 
return while tlicy were vividly Impressed on 
his memory, liurn at Embden, 1631; died, 

HACKLER D'ALHK, Itaron Aubkiit 
l.ot'is, an eminent French military ijeojjra- 
plicr and eiifriiiper ; author of a " Chart of 
the Theatre of War in the lirst ("ampaifi^ns 
of Buonaparte in Italy," \c. Born at St. 
Hoi, 1761 ; died at Paris, 1821. 

Bacon, lioBBRT, an EnKfllsh friar ; di- 
vinity lecturer at Oxford ; author of" The 
Life of St. Edmund, archbishop of Canter- 
bury," Sec. Died, l'i48. 

BACON, Ron En, a celebrated English 
friar and philosopher. He was born at 11- 
chestur, Somersetthire, in 1214, and received 
his education at Oxford and Paris. He was 
so ardent in his pursuit of knowledge, that 
he expended iouol. In the course of 20 
years. His attainments caused him to be 
much persecuted by his ignorant contem- 
poraries, who imputed them to magic. Se- 
veral of his works r.emain in MSS., but the 
chief of them are collected in one folio 
volume, entitled, " Opus Majus." Con 
sidering the time at which he lived, he was 
unquestionably a very great man ; for 
though his natural philosophy is in some 
particulars erroneous, it is quite clear that 
he at least approximated to the discovery of 
the telescope, tlie camera obsciira. and gun- 
powder ; and he not only detected the error 
of the calendar, but actually suggested the 
reformation afterwards made in It by pope 
Gregory XIII. Died, 1292. 

BACON, Sir Nicholas, keeper of the 
great seal, and privy counsellor to queen 
lUizabcth. He was the lirst lord keeper 
that ranked as lord chancellor. Born, 1310 ; 
died, 1579. 

BACON, Anne, second wifeof the above ; 
a lady remarkable for her intimate acquain- 
tance with both the ancient and modern 
languages. She tran^^lated " The Sermons 
of Ochinus " from the Italian, and " Bishop 
Jewel's Apology for the Church of England" 
from the Latin. Born, l5-i8 ; died, 16U0. 

BACON, Francis, an eminent statesman, 
and still more eminent philosopher, son of 
the lord keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, by his 
second wife. During the reign of Eliyabeth 
he made no great progress, l)ut on the ac- 
cession of James I. he was knighted, and 
made one of the king's counsel. In the fol- 
lowing year he was made solicitor-general ; 
and during the fourteen years following he 
continued to rise till he became higli chan- 
cellor of Great Britain, baron Verulani, 
and viscount St. Alban's. His fall was as 
sudden as his rise had been great : being 
accused of corruption in his office, he was 
dismissed and heavily lined ; and though he 
was subsequently noticed by Charles f., he 
spent the remainder of his life in study and 
retirement. It is rather as a philosopher 
than as a statesman that he demands our 
admiration. His works are invaluable, and 
too numerous to be mentioned here ; biit if 

none of them existed but his " Novum Or- 
ganum Scieiiti.irum," he would have t'ained 
himself a deathless name. Born, l,>6! ; 
died, I6'J6. 

BACON, Anthony, <lckr brother of the 
cliancellor, a skilful politician, and a friend 
of tlie carl of Essex. As he siciit the 
greater portion of his time abroail, and was 
much devoted to learned pursuits, he he- 
came personally acciuaiitted with mo^t of 
the foreign literati, and w;isalso honoured 
with the friendship of Henry IV. of Iraiuc. 

BACON, Sir Nathaniki,, half brother of 
the chancellor. He posMSsed great ability 
as a landscape painter. Died, 16I,'>. 

BACON, Phanuel, an English divine ; 
author of some dramas, and a poem, en- 
titled, " The Artificial Kite." Died, 1783. 

BACON, John, an eminent English 
sculptor, and the inventor of a method of 
making statues in artificial stone. His 
chief worlds are a bust of George III., in 
the hall of Christ-church, Oxford, lord 
Chatham's monuments in Guildhall and 
Westminster Abbey, and those of Dr. Jolin- 
soii and Mr. Howard in St. Paul's. Born, 
1740 ; died, 1799. 

called the resolute doctor, an Engli.sh monk; 
author of a " Compendium of the Law of 
Christ," &c. Died, 1346. 

BACQUE, Leo, bishop of Pamiers ; au- 
thor of a Latin poem on the education of a 
prince. Born, 1600 ; died, 1694. 

BACQUERIIE, Benedict de, a physician 
of the 17th century ; author of *' Sciium 

BACQUET, a French advocate; author of 
various law treatises, of uliich an edition, 
in 2 vols., was published at L>oiis, in 1711. 
Died, 1597. 

BACTISHNA. Georoe Ebn, a Christian 
physician at tiiu court of the ealipli Al- 

BAC TISHNA, Gabriel, son of the above, 
and physician to Harouii al Kaschid. 

BADCOCK, Samuel, an English divine 
and author of no mean celebritv ; but chiefly 
known by his critiques in the Monthly Re- 
view. Born, 1747 ; died, 1788. 

BADEN, James, professor of Latin and 
eloquence in the university of Co|)eiihagen ; 
author of a Danish and German Dictionary, 
a translation of Tacitus, Sic, Born, 1735 ; 
died, 1805. 

BADEN, Richard de. chancellor of 
Cambridge in 1326, when nc founded Uni- 
versity Hall. That building being burnt 
down, a new edifice was erected by the 
(laughter of Gilbert de Clare, earl of Glou- 
cester, who gave it the name it still bears of 
Clare Hall. 

BADENS, Francis, a portrait and histo- 
rical painter, born at Antwerp, IS71 ; died, 

BADIA, Domingo, a Spanish traveller, 
was born in 1766. Being well skilled in 
Arabic, he determined on travelling in the 
East; and having submitted to a well- 
known Mussulman rite, he was personalty 
qualified for tlie task, and assumed the 
name of Ali Bey. Undsr this disguise lie 
visited Tripoli, Egypt, Mecca, and Syria 
undiscovered, and was everywliere "re- 





;* * 


la 0rlu QHnibcvsal ISiogravtii). 


R II 'I 

;\ ■■ 

coived with fuvriiir, a* » true believer. It 
ii* now kiKiwii lliiit lie wiiD cniiil(>y('(l w a 
polUienI aifeiit by tlic i'rinccor Peacf, at 
the liistif^aliou of lliioiiiipurte : and on IiIh 
return to hlx native coiiutry lie e8|iuuiie(l 
the French ciiiine there. ATter the bultle 
of Vlltoria, he took reruge in France, and 
died there in l8-i4. 

nADILR, Antonio, an Italian painter, 
celebrated for the accuracy and colouring; 
of his portraits, but derivinir iitill greater 
honour from havin^r two such dUciple* as 
I'aiil Veronese and UaptUta Zelotli. Born, 
I4B(); died, IS60. 

BAUUEL, Claodr, a French Froteitant 
divine; aiitlior of 8ome theological trea- 
tiiios, kc. Died, IS61. 

IIAUUKSCI1I. a Peniian poet, whose mo- 
ral poeiiia are silll extant. 

HAi:ilSIUS, or VEKENSTIL, IlKNny, a 
(irinter and ninthematlciaii of the lOth cen- 
tury. He rc^iided at Louvain, and there 
piibliMhed, in IA38, " Tables of the Latitudes 
mid Longitudes of the I'ianets," 8cc. 

BAERS'IRAT. a Dutcli i>ainter, chiefly 
of xea pieces. Died, 1687. 

BAFFIN, WiLMAM, an Eiip^lish navl- 
(rator of the I7th reiitury, famous for his 
<liscoveries in the Arctic regloiiH, was born 
in l.'>H4. He visited West Greenland in idis, 
a^Miii ill 1615, and made a voyaffe to Spitz- 
beri^en in 1014. In l6'J3.ind lti34 he ascer- 
tained the limits of that vast inlet of the 
sea, since distinfj^ulshed by the appellation 
of Bartiii'sBay. 

bian commentator on Euclid. 

BAGDEDIN, Mahombt, an Arabian ma- 
thematician of the lOth century ; author of 
a treatise " On the Division of Superficies," 
of which there is a Latin version, by John 

BAGE, Robert, an English novelist, 
was born at Derby, in iTin; and died at 
Tamwortli, in IKOI. During the greater 
jiarl of his life he followed the occupation 
of a paper maker. " Mount Kenneth," 
" Barharo Downs," " The Fair Syrian," 
Sic., owe their existence to him. 

BAGFORD, John, a book collector and 
antiquary. Several of his letters are in the 
British Museum. Born, issi ; died, 1716. 

BAGGER, John, a verv learned Dane, 
bishop of Copenhagen, and author of seve- 
ral treatises in Latin and Danish. Born, 
1646; died, 1693. 

BAGGESEN, Ehanuel, a Danish poet. 
He usually wrote in the German language : 
and his chief productions are a pastoral 
epic, entitled, " Fartlienalse, oder die Al- 
peiiricse," and a mock epic, entitled," Adam 
and I've," but his songs and short poems are 
very numerous and popular. Born, 1764; 
died, 1836. 

BAGLIONE, G10VA.NNI, an Italian 
painter of the 17th century, distinguished 
for his works in fresco ; maiiv of wliich 
adorn the walls and ceilings of^the Roman 
church. Died, 1644. 

BA(;LIONI, John Padl, an Halian sol- 
dier of fortune in the 16th century. He was 
put to death by Leo X., in 1530. 

BAGLIVI, Georob, an illustrious Italian 
physician, born at Apulia, and elected pro- | 

fessor of anatomy at Rome ; was author of 
" Tlie Praxis Medica," and several works 
connected with his profession, all of which 
were written in Latin. Born, 1667 ; died, 

BAGNIOLI, JtTMus Casar, an Italian 
poet ; author of " The J udgment of Paris," 
a poem, <.Vc. Died, i6uo. 

BAGOPHANES, a goyernor of Babylon, 
who, when Alexander approached the city, 
raii^'ed all the streets to be strewed, and 
incense to be burnt on the altars. 

BAGOT, Lewis, an Englisli prelate, and 
brother to the first Lord Bagot, was born 
in 1740. He was at (irst a canon of Christ- 
church, Oxford, then dean, and surces- 
sivcly became the bishop of Bristol, Nor- 
wich, and St. Asaph. He was the author 
of ''Sermons on the Prophecies," Stc. 
Died, 1803. 

BAGOUS, a eunuch, »t first the faronrite, 
and afterwards the murderer of Artaxerxes 
Ochus, king of Persia. He was putto death 
by Darius Codomanus, n.c. 356. 

BAGKATION, K.A., a Russian prince 
and councillor, who especially distinguished 
himself in the campaigns in Italy under 
Suwarrow, and was mortally wounded at 
the battle of Moscow in 1813. 

BAGSHAW, William, an English di- 
vine, ejected from his living for non-con- 
formity, in 1663. He was the author of some 
works on practical divinity. Died in 1703. 

BAGSHAW, Edward, an English civi- 
lian of tlie 17th century. In the commence- 
ment of the rebelliou he sided with tlie 
Parliament, but subsequently became a 
royalist He wrote several works on law 
and politics. 

BAGSHAW, Edward, son of the pre- 
ceding, was a clergyman, and an opponent 
of Baxter. 

BAHIER, John, a French priest, and 
the author of some Latin poems which arc 
in tlie collection of De Brienne. Died, 1707. 

BAHRDT, Charles Fhedbric, a Ger- 
man divine and author. He was born at 
Biscliofswerda, and studied a' Leipsie, 
where a prosecution having been com- 
menced against him at Vienna for the he- 
terodoxv of his writings, he fled to Prussia ; 
and at lengtli he settled at Haile, took a 
farm and an inn, and openly avowed him- 
self a deist. Died, 1793. 

BAIAN, ur BAION, Andrbw, a native 
of Goa, who was converted to Christianity, 
and ordained a priest at Rome about 1630. 
He translated the /Eneid into Greek verse, 
and the Lusiad into Latin. 

BAIER, John William, a German di- 
vine; auinor of a " Compendium of Theo- 
logy," Sec. Born, 1647 ; died, 1694. 

BAIER, .fouN Jambs, a German physi- 
cian, and director of the botanical garden 
at Altdorf ; author of " De Hortis ceiebri- 
oribus Germanise, et Horti Medici Acade- 
mici Altdorfint Hist.," Sic. Stc. Born, 1677 ; 
died, 1735. 

BAIF. Lazarus, a French abbot, and 
counsellor to the parliament of Paris, in the 
16tli century; author of treatises « De re 
Navali," " De re Vestiaria," &c. 

BAIF. John Antony, son of the above, 
and author of some poems. Died. 1S93. 












a llrto Wnibcrfial ISiograpfii). 


HAIL, Loi'is, 11 Frciirh ilivliic of ilu! I7tli 
rciiiiiry ; author of an account of cclc- 
bralfcl pn'.iiliLT*, II " Suniniary of Coun- 
cils," .Vc. 

HAIL, Chaiilks JdRF.Pii, a niiUve of 
KlaiidtrK, ant! an ofliccr In the Fr<;nch 
army at iiH (lihlrandniunt In 18l.'> ; author of 
" KHsaJ!* IliKt. (>t Crit. Hiir roru'aniNntiun 
>I*'H Arnii'C!*, ct Riir I'AdniinlHtnition IMIIi- 
lainj en France," fn:, Stc. Uorn, 1777 ; 
ilicd, \Hii. 

HAILIKS, William, physician to Frede- 
ric 11. of I'ruHMJa ; autlior of an " Essay 
on the llatli VVater§." 

HAILKY, Nathan, an F-nRlinh lexlcofy- 
rapluT, WUH a school nr.iftter at Stt^pney. 
Iksidfs several school books, he was the 
author of " Uiciionaruni Uoniesticuni ;" 
but Ills principal work was an Etymologi- 
cal Enj^ll'-li Dictionary, wliiili mav fairly 
b(! rcf^ardcd ai the baxis of Or. Joiinsou'it 
unrivalled work. Ulud, I74'J. 

BAILEY, I'KTKii, author of " Sketches 
from St. Oeorfje's Fields," " The Uueen's 
Appeal," \c. Oied, 18.U. 

HAILLET, Adrian, a learned French 
writer and critic; author of "Juijenicns 
des Savans, sur les prlncii)au\ Ouvrax*!^ 
lies Auteurs," " Lives of the Saints," &c. 
&c. Horn, IG49 ; died, 1706. 

HAILLIE, KociiR, snmanied La Riviere, 
physician to Henry IV. of France, and au- 
thor of " A Summary of the Doctrines of 
I'aracelsus." He pretended to great skill 
in astrolofry. Died, I60j. 

HAILLIE, RonERT, a Scotch divine, born 
at GhiRgow in I59<). He was one of the de- 
putation sent to l^ndon to exhibit charges 
against Archbishop Laud ; and also one of 
the connnissioners sent from the general 
assembly of Scotland to Charles II. at the 
Hague. His letters, and a journal of his 
transactions in England, were published in 
1775. Died, 1663. 

HAILLIE, Mattiikw, M.D., a celebrated 
anatomist and physician. He succeeded 
Dr. Hunter as lecturer on anatomy, in con- 
junction with Mr. Cruickshank, at St. 
George's Hospital : he was also one of the 
physicians in ordinary to their majesties 
George III. and IV., and was held in high 
esteem among his professional brethren. 
He was the author of several highly- 
esteemed works, as well as of many im- 
portant papers in the Philosophical 'I rans- 
actions, &c. ; and he presented to the Col- 
lege of Physicians a valuable museum of 
anatomical specimens. Died, 1823. 

HAILLIE, Colonel John, an ?ctiv? and 
able officer of the East India Conpany, 
and lately a Director, went out to India, 
as a cadet, in 1791. At thecommeiicement 
of tiie iMahratta war he was selected to su- 
perintend the various important negotia- 
tions on which depended the establishment 
of tlie British power in the province of 
Uunillccundy, and in this he was eminently 
successful, having effected the peaceable 
transfer to the British dominions of a terri- 
tory yielding an annual revenue of 225,ooo/. 
On returning to England Colonel Baillie 
was, in I820, elected'M. P. for lledon ; and 
subsequently represented the burghs of In- 
verness, &c. Died, 1833. 

HAILLOII, VVri.MAM hk, a In ;hIi phy- 
sician : author of " CruK'illornm Mi illilna- 
liuni Llbriiluo,"c!liC. Horn, i.'iJh ; dlccl, niiii. 

HAII.LY, David, a painier, engraver, 
and author, of Leydeu. Horn, Kl.'io. 

HAII.LY, John Syi.vani s, a learned 
Fr«Mu:h astronomer, and a poet of no ineoii- 
siflerable ability, was b'irn in t7iti; author 
of various works, the principal of which 
was his '• History of Astronomy." Al 
the Revolution, he was made p'resideni 
of the lirst national assemblv ; he next be 
came mayor of Paris ; but liis conduct in 
repressing tumult, and showing sympathy 
with the royal family, made him uupopnlar. 
He resigntirl his office, and In I7!i'l lie was 
denounced by the anarchists of the day, and 

HAINHRIDGE, Dr. John, an eminenl 

1)hyKician and astrononuT, born in l.',H2. 
I(^ gained considerable reputation by his 
work entitled a " Description of tin; Lite 
Comet in 1GI8," and was appointed profes- 
sor of astronomy at Oxford. Died, lt)4 !. 

BAINS, MiciiAF.i., a divine, deputy from 
Loiivain to the Council of Trent. His 
writings were condemned for their leaning 
to Calvinism. Horn, 1.513 ; died, iMd. 

BAIRD, Sir David, a distinguished En- 
glish general, was of Scottish desreni, and 
entered the army as an ensign in the 2d 
foot in 1772. He served in the East Indies 
for many years ; and among other brilliant 
achievements in which lie was engaged, 
was the celebrated taking of Scringapatain, 
and the siege of Pondiclierrv. In ihUl he 
was sent, with a large body of troopc, from 
India, to assist the Mritlsh army in Egypt, 
and joined General Hutchinson a ftnv davs 
before the surrender of Alexandria. In 
1802 he returned with his troops across the 
desert to India; and, obtaining permission 
to return to Englaiul, arrived in I804, after 
having been captured on his passage by 
a French privateer, and retaken. In I8iia 
he commanded the expedition which took 
the Cape of Good Ho|:e fiom the Dutch ; 
and he was subsequently at the siege 
of Copenhagen, where he was wounded. 
On the death of Sir John Moore, nt (^o- 
runna, the command devolved upon ge- 
neral Baird, who lost his arm. For his 
gallantry on this occasion he was made a 
baronet. He subsequently was governor of 
Kinsalu and of Fort St. George; and died 
in 182!). 

who,with Sadoc, his fellowdiscinle, founded 
the sect of the Sadducees, wiio were for 
some time called, after liim, Baithosai. 

BAJAZET I., sultan of the Turks, a 
renowned warrior, but a tyrant ; dtleated 
and made prisoner on the plains of Angora 
by the famous Tamerlane. The treatment 
of the royal captive is said by the Turks 
to have been cruel, but by the Persians to 
have been liberal and generous. Died, 

BAJAZET II., sultan of the Turks. His 
reign was turbulent ; he was much engaged 
against the Venetians and other Christian 
powers, and his latter years were embit- 
tered by the enmity of nis son Selim, by 
whom, after he had resigned the crown to 
him, he was poisoned in 1512. 



1 t 

; 1 



a lletD Qilnibrvoal Diograpf)s. 


IIAKI'.lt, Daviii, an Kmfli«li monk <.f 

till- llcncdlrlin dir, Klliflnally u I'ik- 

Icnliinl, hill liriiiu: o.nvrlU'cl lo llir KcHiilitli 
liilili, III' I Mini' III l''.nul.iiiil lilt II iiili»iiinurv 
fiiini liiilv, while III* riuniMKlon lonk 
I'l.uf. lit' wroif III! t'\|ioiiHlitii III llyllon'ii 
'• Si'iilf of I't rrttllon." iHiil In KMI. 

HAKKU, Sir IttciuiiK, luiHior nf ii 
•' t'lii'oiilili' ttl" Hid KIiik* <>' I'nK'"""!." **^^' 
Kill n, IMIH ; tlli'tl, IM!>. 

HAKKIt, TiioMAH, n illvlne ami nntl- 
(iiiiirv ; iiiillior tif " UrHftHliint on Ixitrn- 
liilC," .vf. \c. Horn, iMii ; ilifd, nnu lln 
loci ilic llvliiK of l.onir NfWtiMi al tlii! ac- 
i'1'iK.ion of Klii)c William III., tor (lii-llnliiif 
111 iiiki' llii- oallm of iuprfinacy anil .ilU!- 

IIAKF.R, llRNiiY, a illllBi-nt an.l Infi-nl- 
oim imtnrilUt. Ill- wa* orlKlnally liroii)clit 
ii|i lit a lioiik«i'llir, anil murrli-il kiiii of (lie 
ilauirtiti'rit of Hie rilt'lirntt'd Uaiili^l Dv I'oc. 
H«« ohliiltiftl III!' iroia inoilal of llif Koyal 
Soi'li'iv, for liU iiiliroiii-o|)li-al i!X|ii'rini«>nU 
on »ah'ntr imrtlfU'H ; ami wrote •• Tim lliil- 
vi'me," n iioimm, " I'lio Miironroiic niaili- 
Ivnsy." ,Vc. Horn, I704 ; illi^il, 1774. 

HAKKIt, Oavid KiiRKiNR, «oii <if the 
nliovi', lint ,iilo|ili'il by an undo whom he 
mii'i'fi'ikil In till- biinhit'MH of a wilk tlirow- 
uler In Sjiltalrti'lilit. Ih' wiw antlior of the 
" Companion l»> Hit" riavliiinitf," nubin'- 
qiiiMitly enlar^eil by St«;|»lit'n Jmios and 
itiiblUlit'd iiiidiT the tlllu <>f " UluKiapliia 
Uraiiiatlca." Dhd, 1771. 

ItAKKIt, Sir Okokok, M. D., born in 
I7!JJ, wan a iihynlchin of i-onslderabli! ri'pu- 
tntlon, and a iVIlow of the Koyal ami Anil- 
iiiiarlnn Socletlen. He wan one of the pliy. 
•Vlnns in onllnarv lo the kintf. iieaten a 
baronet In 1770, electeil presldint of the 
Colleifc of I'hyniclanit in I7a7, and > ltd 
In 1809. 

RAKEWELl., RonKiiT, a country gen- 
tleman of small fortune, whoneqiilrwl eon- 
slderahle iiolorUly as a tira/.ler at Oiiihley, 
in Leicestershire, lie gn atlv improved hU 
hroeds of ealtle and sheep ; but it was ob- 
jected to his stoi'k that tliey were •' loo 
dear for niiv one to purchase, and too fat 
for any oue'lo eat." Horn, I7W ; die<l, 1795. 

lUKKI'.R, I'KTKii HU7.1N0A, a Dutch 
poet ; author of n poem on the I nundatlon 
of 1740, and of numerous soni^s and satires 
on England. Born, 1715 ; died, 1801. 

BALAMIO, FEiiDiNANn, a Sicilian phy- 
sician ; tran>lator, into Latin, of several 
treatises by O.ilen. 

BALASSI, Mario, a El'irentlne painter. 
His copy of Raphael's *' Iransdifuration " 
was astonishinjly exact. Born, IGOI ; died, 

BALBI,JoHN, a Dominican of Genoa; 
author of " Catliolieon, sen Summa Gram- 

BALBINUS, Decimus Cxluts; chosen 
emperor of Rome, in conjunciion with 
Maximus. in 237 ; and murdered by the sol- 
diery in the i"ollowiu(f year. 

BALBOA, Vasoo Nunkz db. a Castllian, 
one of the lirst who visited rtie West In- 
dies. He established a colony on tlie isthmus 
of Panama, where he built the first town on 
the continent of South America, penetrated 
into the interior, discovered the Pacific 

Ocean, and obtained Inforinallon ri'stu'ctliiK 
lilt' eni|tlre of I'i'iil. .lealnini of his talt'iiU 
and Niici'i'iis, rival aihi'iitiirtTs ai'ciisi'd lilni 
of ilJHloyaliy, and lie wan put to tiealh In 
l.'>\7, by I'eilrarl.is Davila, Hie Spanikh n"- 
vernor of I) irleii. 

HALIllll''NA, liKHNAimo iiR, a Spnntiih 
poet, II lid liUliop of Purto Rico, In Ante 
rica. Dliil, IUJ7. 

IIAI. BUS. I.i'cini ConNKi.itis TiiitoriiA- 
NRH, II nalive of Caill/., wIiom! military ex- 
pliiils eauNcil l'iiiii|iey lo oblaiii for him the 
prlvlli'u'es of n Itoman eill/.en ; anil lit- sub- 
seipienlly beciiiiie eoiisul, beliiK' Ibe lir^t 
foreiKiier on whom that dlirnlty wan con- 

IIAI.rANQIIAL, WaU'RH, a Kcolcb di- 
vine, will) accompanied James I. to ■''ai^'- 
laiid. He wa« made dean nf Kothesli^r anil 
bishop of Durham, but In the dill wars lie 
was a severe siiHVrer, belii(r drlvtii from 
jilace to place for slieller. He wiule Hie 
*' Declarallon of Charles I, eoneernlntr Hie 
late Tumult-* In Scotland," \c. Died, imii. 

BAI.CHEN, .loiiN, an Enirllsh admiral, 
who was lost, with all his crew, on board 
bis uliip the Victory, in a violent storm tilf 
Jersey, October 3, 1714. 

BALDKRIC, bishop of Dol in Britanny, 
ill the I'itb century ; iiulhor of a history of 
the Crusade lo Hit! year loHO. 

BAI.DI, Bkiinaud, an Italian niatheipa- 
tictan and poet ; uutlior of Italian |H>eini^ 
lives ol malhematlelans, <S>:c. Born at Or- 
bino, |,v>3 ; died, I(il7. 

BALDI, DEUBALI)IS,nn Italian lawyer 
and author. Born, 131!) ; died, 1400. 

BALDI, Jamks, a German Jesuit and 
|)oet. Born, ItiiKl ; died, liiiiS. 

BALDI, I.A7.7.AHO, a Tuscan paliiter,cm- 
ployed by Alexaiiiler VII. to paint the g:al- 
lery at ^fonte Cavallo. Died, 170;<. 

BALDINUCCI, PiiiMP, a FlorenHiic ar- 
tist and connoisseur ; author of *' A General 
History of Painlers," &c. Born, 1034 ; 
died, Kinti. 

BALDUCK, Ralph dr, bishop of Lon- 
don, and loi'ti bif^h chancellor in the relffii 
of Edward I. ; author of a *' History of Bri- 
tish Afl'alrs," which was extant in l.elaiid's 
lime, but is now hisl. Died, I307. 

BALDINGER, Ehnkst Godkhry, a 
German physician ; author of a " Disser- 
tation on the Maladies of Soldiers," and 
numerous other works, chictly medical. 
Born, 1738; died, I8U4. 

BALDOCK, Robert tr, a divine, who 
was favoured by Edward II. He shared his 
royal master's misfortunes, and dieil In 

BALDWIN I., a distinguished leader in 
the fourth Crusade. On the conquest of 
Constantinople by the LaUiis in l'Ai4, he 
was elected emperor of the East ; but be- 
ings taken prisoner by the Greeks, he was 
never afterwards heard of. 

BALDWIN II. succeeded his brother Ro- 
bert as emperor of the East in 1228. On 
the takim; of Constantinople in 1261, by 
Michael Pala>olo«:us, Baldwin escaped to 
Italy, where he died, 1273. 

BALDWIN, William, an English writer 
of the 16th century ; one of the cYilct" authors 
of " The Mirror lor Magistrates." 




I'll llilll 
Itlll III 

Ikll K'>- 

I Aiiiv- 


iiy rx- 
mil llii* 

IC Mllll- 

ic lir^t 

XH ('(III- 

itch ill- 
,o Kii(f- 
tiT mill 
viirit lit; 
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lllc iIk! 
liiK (lie 
il, IU4i. 

orm oil 

jtlory oi' 


1 lit Ui^ 

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ult and 

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Itliic nr- 
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ed to 


























I. A. I 

la llctD 9!liubn-0(il Uiogvapl));. 


II.M.DWIN, archbUhop of Canterbury. 
'I'lilt iiri'laii- a('roiii|)aiil(!il KIrliard I. to 
I'ali'HlliH, and ilii'il thrrc, I'iOl. HU wrllliiK" 
\M>ri! |iiiIiIIhIii'iI liy 'l'l«iiii'r, In HiiW. 

IIAI.DWIN I., kiiiit of Ji'i'iualini, nih-- 
i-i'fdcil to that illKiilty In ||0(). took Aiili- 
(latrln, Cii'iiari'a, itinl AxotiiN, In IIUI, nnil 
Acre III I KM. Oli'd, IIIH. 

IIALOWIN li., klHK of Jcrimati-ni, sue 
ceedi'il th<< above In IUh; r.uitaif, bro||ii-r 
of Haliiwlii I,, liaviiiK ri-nounciMl IiIh cliilin 
to the tbronr. ilalilvvlii II. wan taken pri- 
itoiitT bv till' Sar.ii'riiH in wu, and gA\o. 
tliein llie rity of Tyre at liU ranmini. Dli'il, 

liALinvIN lir. Hiici-ei'di'd to the tliiMiio 
III 1143. lie took Awaloii anil other iilurix 
Irnm the Inllili'U. Died, IlilJ. 

IIALDWIN IV., the tiiii of Amaury, kuc- 
reeded hli father on the tlironi! of Jerima- 
Icni In 1174. lie nuliHi'iiiiently reHlgned in 
faioiir of bin ni'iiliuw. bled, tlH.^. 

HAI-UWIN v., ncplievT and iiiii:een«or of 
the Lut named, wai |ioUoned, In lIHti. 

HAI.UWIN, FiiANcis a le.irned civlllau 
of the Kitli century, much employed by the 
potentate* of hU time, lie In lald to liave 
owed niurh of big worldly »uccrM to a very 
culpable pliancy In adaptini; hU religion to 
that of hi* employer, lie wrote " Leijeit 
de Ke runtlca Novella," >Vc. \c. 

DALK, RoBBiir, prior of the Carmelite* 
of Norwich ; author of "Annale* per brtv 
vei> Ordlnis Carmelltarum," Stc. Died, 1S03. 
DALE. John, a Carmelito of Norwich, 
who embraced the Frotektant faith, and be- 
came a '/ealous writer aKain«t Popery. In 
the rejgn of Edward VI., he wan made 
bishop of OsBory, in Ireland, and endan* 
B'erei! hiH life by IiIh /ealoug en'orti to re- 
form hilt Ulocete. During the reign of Mary, 
he found safety in Switzerland ; and on his 
return to England at the accmiiion ot Eliz- 
abeth, he obtained a prebend of Canterbury. 
Of his numerous works, the most lin|iortanl 
is a Latin account of eminent Uritliili 
writers. Uorii, 1403 ; died, 1503. 

BALECHOU, NiouoLAB, a French en- 
graver, whose works are held in high esti- 
mation. Uorn, 1710 ; died, 1765. 

BALBN, Matthias, a Dutch antiquary 
of the 17th century ; author of a descrip- 
tion of the cityofDordt. 

BALEN, Hkndrich VAN,aDutchnaintcr, 
whose " Judgment of Paris" and " Drown- 
ing of Pharaoh" are much admired. Born, 
1560 ; died, 1632. 

BALEN, John van, son of the above, 
a distinguished historical and landscape 

BALES, Pbtbr, a skilful penman, cm- 
ployed by secretary Walsingham to imitate 
writings. He published a work called " The 
Writing Master." Born, 1547 ; died, 1600. 
BALESTRA, Antony, a Veronese histo- 
rical painter. Born, 1666; died, 1730. 

BALEY, Waltek, an English phvslcian ; 
author of " Directions for Healtfi," &c. 
Born, 1529 ; died, 1593. 

BALFOUR, Albzander, a novelist and 
miscellaneous writer, was a native of For- 
farshire, Scotland. He was the author of 
" Highland Mary," besides other novels 

and |Ki( nis, and for many )car<t a cunlrl 
biiior to >arloiiN ScoltUli pi I'lnillcaU. Iluin, 
1707 ; ilU'il, IK'JO. 

UALFOIMt, Sir Anijiiivv, an eniiufit 
liolani'.t ao<l pli^nli'ian, and oiiv to whont 
nii'dicil nclcnce In Scotl.iiWI owes a lutln;; 
debt iif gratitude tor a botanli' garden, lun 
si'iiMi, \'c., was Itorn In iU:io, at Dtniiillnr, 
File, and illtd In 101)1. 

UALUDY, John, an tmini'iit ilivinu of 
the church of l''iii{laiiil, ami a ilicnIoglC'il 
writer, was born at Sbilllcid In lUHii, ami In 
1727 bi'cami' a preliindary ofSalUbuiy. lie 
engagi il lU-i'itly in Ilic liangorlan contio. 
verHy ; and among lils xi'vi iiii work" iiiav be 
noticed "All r..iiay on Ke<li million; " a 
" Letter to a UeM mii tho Kcaiily and rx> 
cellencL' of Moral Virtue," Xc. Dud, 17 IH. 
UALUUY, TiioMAH, »on of ili<! abovi-, 
prebend and anlidcacoii of VVlm IichIi.t ; 
aiillior of '* Divine llcnevoiciici'. aMMrii'd 
and vinillcateil," a serinoii on t'liiiicb (Jo- 
veriinif lit, A(C. Uorn, I7I6; died, l7l)o. 

BALI, Maiila Hali, a Malioiiit:iaii ; au- 
thor of a Treatlxi! on MuHMiilman JiirUpru- 
dence. Died, 977 of tin: llcglra. 

BALIOL, Sir.luiiN db, a native of Dnr* 
ham, wiio. on tin- mariiage of the daughter 
of Henry III. to Alexander III. ol Scotlainl, 
was niade one of the guardlaiiHof the ri>>al 
pair. He founded liailol College, Oxford ; 
and having Hided with Henry 111. a;;aiii'4t bis 
revolted barons, the latter seized upon liU 
lands. Died, 1369. 

BALIOL, John dk, son of the preceding, 
laid claim to tlio crown uf Scotland on the 
death of queen Margaret. IIIh claim was 
disputed by several coinpetitorH, one of 
whom was the famous Koberl Bruce. But 
Edward 1., to whom tlie matter was re- 
ferred, decided in favour of Baliol. He 
soon gave offence to I'dwant ; and being 
defeated by him in a baltli; near Dunbar, 
he was sent, together witli bis sun, to the 
Toner of London. The lnlercesi.ioii of the 
pope having procured Mn release, be re- 
tired to France, where be died In 1314. 

RALKINI. a Mahometan phliosophi r ; 
author of " Uuestlons on the Sciences," Acf. 
BALL, John, a imrilan divine, who, 
while be ditapproveu of the dixripllne of 
the church, wrote agaiiiHt Keparation from 
it on that ground. Horn, \r>u:>; died, 104U. 
BALLANDEN, John, a Scotcli divine of 
the lOtli century ; author of various works, 
both prose and verse,and traufclator of Hector 
B6etniuB'8 History of Scotiaiul. Died, imi. 
BALLANTYNK, Jamrs, a printe* of 
considerable note in Edinburgh, and at 
whose press the whole of the productions 
of Sir Walter Scott were prlntca, was a na- 
tive of Kelso, where he llrst opened an 
office for the " Kelso Mail," of which be 
was the editor. On removing to Kdinbiirgh 
he engaged in various important works, 
the principal of which were those of tlie 
great novelist ; and for many years he also 
conducted the " Edlnbiirgli Weekly Jour- 
nal." He survived his friend and Vatroii 
but a few months, dying in January, iba:). 
BALLANTYNE, John, brotlier' of the 
preceding, acted during the early career of 
the mysterious " author of Waverlcy " as 
his confidant, and managed all tlic bii-iness 





I \ 




i s: 

il i 

f I 

nrmm votJHuri.f wiiii.k v<iiin«j ; vou wii.i. want hmt whkn old. 


21 |lrhi Silnibrvoal liiogravfiv. 



n{ iliu roiiinniiilrntioii of liU Mork* lo llio 
iMilillr. Ilr I* »!»') rt'iiH'Uilx'ii tl liy liU rim- 
liinimnirlr* an " il IVIIdvv oI liilinilr liil- 
iiMiur," wlii'nf iiiiKil'ili s wfTi' ■•I" liii'X- 

ll.lllhlil.il' UK llH niil.lf of Irllllllf lllVIII MUi 

iinrlN.illi'il. DIril, Ih'il, aKcd IJ. 

IIAI.I.AKI), (JKoiKiK, orlirlniilly n l.ill'tr, 
WUH liitni III ( '•.uii|Piltn, III (■|iMUT»t»Thlilr»', 
wliiro III' iu'>|iilr< ll »c) iniK'li nklll In tin; 
S;i\.in liiinii;ii;(', lliut doim! ({iiitlcm«'ii iil- 
litwfil liliii n |M'ii»lon, mill iironircd him a 
Hltiiiitioii III llu' iiiilvcMlv "I Oxiortl. III! 
wroti- " Mriiii>li'ii of Li'tti'iird tlrltiitli l.ii- 
ill«-«." Dii'cl, I7.V.. 

KAI.I Alto, Viii.ANT Vasiion, a roar-ml- 
mlriil .ll ilii' HrltiKli u.wv, via* liorii In I774. 
Oil I'litiTliilf ii;iv,»l life In- a4'Coiini;iiih'il Villi- 
(Minrr on liiH liborloiiH voyiiK*' of dinroviTy 
to till! iiorlli-wi'itlro.ist of Anu'rlcn, In wlilcli 
he w.is iiliMiit from KiiKliiml nisirly live 
Vi'.irN, III 1HII7, wlniiCii|ii.>iii nfllie Uloiide 
fii(,M»i', III! laplnri'd live Fri-niii prlviitt'orH. 
Ill' iiltirsv.ird* dlntlnainlslird lilmm-lf at thi! 
Iiiklnx of Gm\drtloii|ii' ; iind cvtiiUually iit- 
tiiiiii!(l till! rank of rfur-admiral, In ISii. 
Died, \H.i'i, 

IIALI.KIIINI, I'KTKR and Jkrome, two 
pricKtH and brnthi-M, ii,itlvi'« of Veroiiii, who, 
in till! IHth ri:Mtnry, conjointly wrote somo 
woikH, and I'dlted nevcral tdilioiw of ecclc- 
siaHtical aiithorH. 

HAI.LESTKROS, Franoib, on cmlninl 
Spanish orticir. Ho istTved aKaiiwt the 
French both ni* i-ommnndir-in-chlcf and un- 
der ulr Arthur WiilhtHli-y ; and when I't-r- 
ilinand VII. rerovin-d hU crown, Uallestc- 
ro« received the apiHilntinenl of warminU- 
tcr. From this he was dUniiHsed, and re- 
tired on half-pay to Valladolid. IJorn, 1770. 
HAI.LKXOI'.IID, N., a cill/eii of Geneva, 
aulhorofalrealUe on the •* IMiyKlcal lidiira- 
tlon «l Children," «<c. Dorn, 17^6 ; died, 

IJAI.LI, JosKPH, a Sicilian divine ; author 
of a treatise " De Mortc Corporuin Nalu- 
raliuin," tn: Died, l(j40. 

IJAI.LI AN I, John Baptist, a senator of 
Genoa ; author of a treiUise on the " Natu- 
ral Motion of Heavy Uoiiies." Uorn, 1586 ; 
died, 10U6. 

HALLIN, Ci.AUDB, a skilful Frencli gold- 
smith. He execnied some very flue works 
after antique vases, Inc., for Louis XIV. 
and cardinal Richelieu, and was made di- 
rector of the Mint for casts and medals. 
Born, 1615; died, 1078. 

HALSAMOV; Theodore, patriarch of 
Antioch in the 12th century, and author of 
several treatises on Canon Law. 

bishop of Ely, and founder of I'eter-house 
Collefje at Cambridge. Died. Vi^'. 

BALTHASAK, Christopher, a French 
advocate of the J7th century, who renounced 
his profession to embrace and advocate the 
Protestant fiillh, which he defended with 
great ability against Uaionius and others. 

BALTHASAR, J. A. Felix de, president 
of the municipal council of Lucerne: au- 
thor of " A Uefence of William Tell,'* &c. 
Died, 1810. 

BALTIIAZARINI, an Italian musician, 
greatly caressed at tlie court of Henry III. 

of Fr ini'i*. Ills biilli't of " Ct ri'H and her 
NympliN," in Mippo'trd to be the origin of 
the Iri'iii'li b.illi'l hrroiipie. 

II A I. res, John FiiANcis.a Frriirh .Ifmill, 
llbiai'iiiii of Ulieinii; iiiitlmr ot " A Rrply 
to Fonleni'lli''s History of Oracle*," ic. 
Horn, 11)67 ; died, I74:i. 

UAI.III''., John, a niitlve of France, made 
a rardiiial by pope I'uiil II., iiinl imprl 
soiled for II yearn In an ir^ n rage by Louis 
XI. for hikviiig engaged In Inatonable cor- 
respondinee with the duke of llurgundy. 

Uli'd, 14UI. 

HALllZK, Stephem, a French writer; 
author of " Lives of the I'opes of A\igiioii, 
\c. Horn, 16;il ; dhd, 1718. 

HAL/AC, John LoiisGukz dk. a Fremh 
writer of great rrpiil.ilion, which he cliiefly 
owed to the elegance oMiit style ; niidior of 
" Letters," " The I'rlnce," ''I he I'iiristl'iii 
Socrates," \c. Horn, I5»«; died, l«5l. 

BAMIIRIUE, (Christopher, archhishop 
of York, was sent ambassador from Henry 
VIII. to poiie Julius II,, who made him a 
earillnal. Uied of poison administered by 
his servant, 1514. 

UAMFIELU, Francis, a nonconforini'it 
divine ; author of a work on the observance 
of the Sabbalh. He wosconiiiiitted to New- 
gate for liolding a conventicle, and died 
there, 1684. 

BAMI'FVLDE, Sir Charles Warwick, 
Bart., a descendant of one of the oldest 
and most distinguished families in Devon- 
shire, and during seven successive parlia- 
ments one of tlie members for Exeter. In 
18.'3, when he was 71 vears of age, he was 
assassinated close to his own house, in Mon- 
tague-si|uare, by a man named Mnrland, 
who blew his own brains out iiiimcdlately 

BANCHf, Seraphin, a priest of the Do- 
minican order at Florence, to whom a fa- 
natic, named Barriere, disclosed his inten- 
tion to assassinate Henry IV. Danchi's In- 
foriuaiton saved tlie king, who rewarded 
him with the archbishopric of Angouleme. 
BANCK, Lawrence, a Swedish lawyer; 
author of several works against i'apal usur- 
pation. Died, IC63. 

BANCROFT, Richard, archbisliop of 
Canterbury ; a distinguished opponent of the 
Puritans and a supporter ol tlie English 
church. Born at Famworth in Lancashire, 
1544; died, 1610. 

BANCROFT, John, nophew of the above, 
bishop of Oxford, and builder of tiie palsice 
of Cuddesden for the bishops of that see. 
Died, 1640. 

BANDELLO, Matthew, a Dominican 
monk of the Milanese. He wrote tales in 
tl)c manner of Boccacio, and proceeding to 
France obtained the bishopric of Agen. 
Died, 1561. 

BANDINELLI, Haccio, a Florentine 
sculptor and painter. His group of the 
Laocoon is highly esteemed. Born, 1487; 
died, 1559. 

BANDINI, Anoelo Maria, an Italian 

antiquary and bibliographer ; author of 

" De Florentini Juntarum Tvpograpiiia," 

&o. Died, 1800. 

BANDUUI, Anselm, a Uenedictinct 



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bnrn III lJ.ihiiiili,i, hut utiiillfil iiikI \vr<i|«> In 
Fruiu'i' ; iiiiihiir of " Aiitii|iiltifi of I'oii- 
i>t.tiilliio|)li-,*' \<-. DIvil, 174:). 

IIANtJlllS/l'iioMAit, iiniffHiior of dlvlnlt) 
and llrhrrw at (JiiiiviiiiitKfii ; aiitlior of a 
" llt'liruw Li'Xicoii,'' iic. Horn, ICuo; difd, 
Mil) I. 

HANGIUS, I'KrrR, a Swi'dl.li divhip ; 
liUhop of \S'>hiirif, iiiicl aiuhor of an " Kc- 
I'Ji'iiiahtliMl Hliiory of SMttloii," \c. Uul'll, 
lUiJ : •lii'd, iti'.iU. 

IIANIl'll, Antony, a French wrlti-r j 
aiitlior of an " l-.x|ilanation of the Fuhlcn 
of Antiiiiiltv," •'<('. Horn, lt>7:i ; (III d, 1741. 
IIANlSlh'.lt, John, llu- lir<.t pcrrornD-r 
of any fch'hrity ii|Hin the violin ; coniimM'r 
of (he niimlc ol Datenaiil'ii o|ieia uf Clrcc. 
Died, IU7!i. 

HANlsri'K, John, an F.niflUh phyolriaii 
of ihi- Kjtii century ; author of various lur- 
glcal ireatUei. Died, ICU. 

DANKBS, Sir John, clilef juiiticc of the 
Cominon I'leaw tii (he relgti of Charlcii I. 
>IIh lady, v«l(h (lie family, bi-iii|{ a( (lulr 
neat at Corfe Casllc, wt-re mininioncd to 
Niirrender It, hut «he luccetkfully defended 
it af(alnit the parliamentarv troop*, (111 re- 
lieved by the arrival of lord Carnarvon with 
a btjdy of horiic. Sir John died in 1644. 

RANKES, llBNiiY, M.P., waiaiiillvc 
of DorHetNhire, and Drst eniercd parliament 
Ini780, for(?orfcCa«tle, his family bornui^li ; 
anil for whicli lie Kat until IHM. when he 
wan elected a representative of the county, 
and re-elected In the lanie vear. In l8ao, 
he wan, after a hard itrujfgle, defeated In 
hU efforts to obtain, once more, a seat in 
the Mouse of Comninn*. He was an accom- 
plisht'd rciiolar. and had obtained the de- 
gree of M.A. In (lolllici he wan an admirer 
of tlie principles of Mr. I'itt. Died, Uec. 
IB34, at Tregothan, Cornwall, aged 77. 

BANKS, John, a bookseller, and author 
of a " Critical Keview of the Life of Crom- 
well," iiC. Born, 1709; died, 1751. 

BANKS, John, an English dramatist ot 
the IBth century ; author of the " Earl of 
Essex," a tragedy, Stc. 

BANKS, Sir Joskfh, an eminent English 
naturalist, and for many years president of 
the Koyiil Society, was the son of W. 
Banks, Eg(|., of Revesby Abbey, Llncoln- 
sbire, where he was born. His enthusiasm 
in the study of natural history may be 
Judged of from the fact that it led liiin to 
accompany Cook in his flrst circumnaviga- 
tion of the world. Sir Joseph wrote but 
little, and, excepting papers in scientilic 
periodicals, publlshedonly one small work, 
a treatise on the " Blight, Mildew, or Kust 
in Corn." Born, 1743 ; died, 1630. 

BANKS, Thomas, an eminent English 
sculptor. Among the best of his works are 
" Caractacus taken Prisoner to Rome," and 
" Achilles mourning the Loss of Briseis." 
He also executed the admirable monument 
in Westminster Abbey, to the memory of 
Sir Eyre Coote. Born, 1735; died, 1805. 

BANNIER, John, a Swedish general. 
He served undt^r tiustavus Adolphus ; and 
at the death of that prince became com. 
mander in chief. Born, 1601 ; died, 1641. 

BANNISTER, Richard, a skilful oculist ; 
author of a treatise on " Diseases of the 
Eyes." Died, 1624. 

KANUIH), a Scotch gi'iicral, conccriiod 
with MaclNjih In liiit coniplracy, and after- 
wardN put to death by him. 

BAN IT, Sionoha, a celebrated Italian 
singer, wiinenloved great iMipuUrlty both 
in Oerniany and England. Died, IHOO. 

IIAI'TIST, a [Hirlriilt |iaiii(er of Anivtrrp, 
who wa« much employed in this country. 
Died, 1091. 

IIAI'TISTE, JoiiN,surnami>d Monnovkfi, 
a I'lemlHh painter, employed by William 111. 
to decorate Kensington palace. Born, lUaj; 
died, Him>. 

BAlMiSTE, John GAsrAnn, born at An- 
twerp, was the disciple of BoMcli.iert ; and 
was eiigage<l by Sir I'eter l.ely and Kncller, 
to paint tlie ponturek and draperies of their 
portraits. Died, 1091. 

MAI'TISTIN, J. B. S., a Florentine com- 
poser and musician, who Hrst made the vie 
loncello popular In France. Died, 1710. 

i> monk who revived the sect of (lie Mniio- 
ph.<'Hltes, and was made by his party bixhop 
of K UisNa. Died, IAH8. 

l)At;\N/AN(i, UKDKMPTtTs, a Bani:iblle 
monk ; he wai a skilful malheniaticiaii, 
and corn ponded wKli lord Bacon, who 
hiffhly csteL.iied him. He was aullior of 
" IJranoscopia," " Campus Phllosopliicus," 
SiC. Born, lAOO; died, lOli. 

BARATHIEK, Bahtiiklrmy, an Kalian 
lawyer of the ISth centurv ; author of a 
'• Digest of the Feudal Law'." 

BAKATIER, John Philip, a native of 
Schwabach, near Nuremberg, reniarkatdc 
for the precocity and extent of his learning ; 
author of •< Critical Dissertations," '< Anll- 
Artenionius,"<.^<c.&c. Born, 1731 ;dlcd, l74o. 
BARBA, Alvarrz Alonzo, a Spanish 
prieiit of the I7th centurv ; author of a 
'' Treatise on Metallurgy." 

BARBADII.LO, ALPHONsiia Jp.rom ns 
Salas, a Spanish dramatist of the nth cen- 
turv ; author of" Adventures of Don Diego 
de Noche," comedies. Sec. 

BARIiADINO, a Portugueie of the 18th 
century; author of a treatise " Un the 
State of Portuguese Literature." 

BARBARINO, Fhancisca, an early 
Italian poet; author of " Document! d' 
Aniore." Born, I3C4 ; died, 1348. 

BARBARO, Francis, a Venetian writer ; 
author of a treatise" De Re Uxoria," (rans- 
ladons from I'hKarch, &c. Born, 1398; 
died, 1454 

BARBARO, Ermalao, nephew of the 
above, bishop of Verona ; translator of 
portions of il-sop into Latin. Cied, 1470. 

BARBARO, Ermalao, grandson of Fran- 
cis, ambassador from Venice 'o the emperor 
Frederic, who knighted bin.. He xvas ex- 
pelled the republic on the pape making him 
patriarch of Aquiieia. He translated the 
rhetoric of Aristotle, and commented on 
Pliny. Born, 1454 ; died, 1493. 

BARBARO, Daniel, nephew of the last 
named. Joint patriarch of Aquiieia ; author 
of a treatise " On Eloquence," &c. Born, 
1513 ; died, 1570. 

BARBAROSSA, Aruch, a famous pi- 
rate, the history of whose exploits would 
fill many pages. He proclaimed himself 
king of Algiers and Tunis, and took pos- 






i I 



i - 





^ |leb) (Diuberfial l^tograpf)]^. 


*os»ioii of the kingdoiu of Trenicreii ; but 
\..i.-, ''I'lV'iitfd by Gomure/., f{"V«'riior of 
Oniii, ami put t(i deiitli, in t.ilH. 

UAIIUAUOSSA, IIeviiadin, brother of 
the above, whom he succeedtul in the kiiiif- 
dom of Ali,'ierR. He coniinaiidcd the navy 
of the Turkf, and reduced Veiiienand other 
phirea to tlieir dominion. Died, 1347. 

ISAKKAIILI), Anna L.«titia, w.ih the 
(lanifliter of the Kev. John Aikin, and one 
of the boBt and most popular female writers 
of the age ; authoress of Hymii)), and Karly 
Lessoim for Children. She also edited some 
standard novels, &('. ; and a))pi'nded to 
them some clever notice*, tiographical and 
criti'.al. Born, 1743; died, IBW. 

OAKBAIIOIIX CiiAiiLF.s, a member of 
the national -.loMjiiibly of France at the re- 
volution. He (>|)posed Robespierre, and at 
the fall of the Girondists was thrown into 
pribon, and guilloiined In 1794. 

HARnA/AN, Stephen, a Fiench writer ; 
author of a" Father's Instructions to his 
Son," and editor of various old French tales 
and fables. Uorn, 1G!)G ; died, 177G. 

I3AR.RAZAN, Aiinold William, was a 
brave and noble French general, wliose 
valour, probity, and disinterestedness dur- 
ini^ a long and successful career under the 
reigns of Charles VI. and VII. gained for 
him the glorious appellation of '* tie Irre- 
proachable Kniglil." Died, 1433. 

3AKBA TELLI. Bernardino, an Italian 
painter, particulaily excellent in deline- 
ating (lowers, fruits, and animals. Born, 
1342; died, 1612. 

Lotus, a French geographer: author of an 
" Historic Map of tlie World," &c. Born, 
1710; died, 1781. 

BARBERINO, Fa*NCis, an Italian poet; 
author of " Preceptsof Love." Born, 1264; 
died, 1348. 

BARBERI>'0, Francis, nephew of pope 
Urban VIII.; a cardinal, and legate in 
France and Spain. Died, 1679. 

BARBERINO, Anthony, brother of the 
above, a cardinal and archbisliop of Kheims. 
Died. 1671. 

BARBEU DUBOURG. James, a French 
physician ; auihor of ?. '' Journal of Medi- 
cine," "Aphorisms of Medicine," &c. Born, 
1709 ; died, 1779. 

BAR BE YR AC, Charles, a French pliy- 
sician, whom Locke compared to our 
own Sydenham ; author ol^ " Qiiestiones 
Medictc Duodecim," &c. Born, 1629 ; 
died, 1699. 

BARBEYRAtj, John, nephew of the 
above ; -rofessor of law at Berne, and sub- 
sequently at Groningen. To the perform- 
ance of Ills duty as a lecturer, he added 
niost laborious exertions as an author. He 
translated the most valuable portions of 
Grotius, Puffendorf, and otiier able civilians 
into French, and wrote a ** History of An- 
cient Treaties," a treatise on Gaming, ice. 
Born, 16^4 ; died, 1747. 

BARBIER D'AUCOUR, John, a French 
lawver, and tutor to the son of the famous 
Colbert : author of " Sentimens de Cleanthe 
sur les Cntertiens d'Ariste et d'Eugene," 
Ac. Born, 1641 ; died, 1694. 

ItARIIIKIU, John I'iiancis, also calleil 
GliEKCINI, ail eiiiiiii'iit historical paiiili:r. 
Born, 1,'><)(I ; died, 1600. 

BARBIKRI, I'aul Anthony, hiotlicr of 
the above, an eminent painter of still life 
subjects. iJied, I64U. 

BARBOSA, Arias, a learned Portuguese, 
professor of Greek at Salamanca; author 
of a treatise " f>n Prosody," and some 
Latin poems. Uied, 1S4U. 

BARBOSA, Pkter, chancellor of Por- 
tugal ; author of tieatises " On the Di- 
gests." Uied, 159U. 

BA'RBOSA, AuousTiN, soii of the last 
named, bishop of llgento ; author of a trea- 
tise " be Odicio I'.pTsropi," &c. Uied, 164h'. 

BARBOUR, John, a Scotch poet and di- 
vine, chaplain to David Bruce, of whose life 
and actions he wrote a history. Born, 133U ; 
died, 1378. 

Conrad, a German physician and chymist ; 
author of " Venieiita Chemicie," &c. Born, 
1666; died, 1717. 

BARCLAY, Alexander, a writer of the 
16th century, whose place of nativity is dis- 
puted by England and Scotland ; the trans- 
lator into English of the " NavisStultifera, 
or Ship of Fools." Died, 153i. 

BARCLAY, William, a native of Scot- 
laud, who emigrated to 1' ranee, and became 
professor of law at Angers, where he was 
considered one of the most eminei.t civilians 
of his time. He was the author of various 
treatises on the rights of popes and kings. 
Died, 1603. 

BARCLAY, John, son of the last named; 
author of " Luphormion," a Latin satire ; 
" Argenis," a romance, &c. &c. Born in 
France, 1382; died at Rome, 1621. 

BARCLAY, Robert, a Quaker, and one 
of the most eminent writers of that sect ; 
author of " An \pology for the Quakers," 
&c. Uniting all the advantages of a learned 
education to great natural abilities, he be- 
came the redoubted champion of liis reli- 
gious priiicii>l(;s ; and as he travelled with 
the famous William Penn through England, 
Holland, and Germany, he was extensively 
known and everywhere highly respected. 
His writings, indeed, not only tended to 
propagate the doctrines of the Society of 
Friends, but tended materially to rectify 
public opinion concerning them, and to 
procure lor them greater Indulgence frdm 
the government. Born at Gordonstown, in 
Scotland, 1648; died, IG90. 

BARCLAY DE TGLi^Y, a Russian ge- 
neral, who, in the German and Polish cam- 
paigns of 1806 and 1807, b'^readisiinguished 
share, and was made a lield-marshal. He 
succeeded Kutusof as commandcr-in-chiuf, 
headed the Russians at the battle of Leipsic, 
and led them into France in 1813. He was 
at one time minister of war, and ultimately 
was honoured with the title of prince. 
Died, 1818. 

a Jewish impostor, who, under the pretence 
of being the real Messiah, obtained many 
followers, overrunning ludaea, and putting 
many Romans to the sword ; but he was at 
length defeated and slain by Julius Scvcrus, 
in 134. 




IV KOll IT. 


Iso ("iklU^il 
i |>uiiiti;r. 

irotlier of 
still lilv 

L ; aiitliur 

lid liUIUU 

of Por- 
thu Di- 

' the last 
of a tii'a- 
>ied, 1648, 
ut ami dl 
^vliose lif< 
)in, 1320 ; 

EN, John 
. chvniist ; 
<c. "Born, 

iter of the 
vity Is dis- 
the trans- 

e of Scot- 
nd became 
;re he was 
.t civilians 
of various 
ind kings. 

1st nanieii; 
tin batire ; 
. Born in 

and one 

that sect ; 


a It'ariit'd 

US he be- 

I" his rili- 

llcd with 




li-ndt'd to 

ociety of 

;o rectify 

and to 

ncc frdm 

stown, in 

Jssian ge- 

llish cam- 


Ihal. He 



He was 




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le was at 




^ llftD ^nibersal l3tograpT)s. 

[ha 11 

BAilDAS, uncle and giiardian to the em- 
peror Michael III., put to death for en- 
deavoiiriiicr jo sc;it himself on his nephew'g 
thr me, by Uasilius, the Mace Ionian, in 8t}8. 

BARDAS, siirnamcd SCF.LEaUS, a ae- 
neral of tht; emperor, John /imisces. After 
many vicissitudes, coniteiiuentonhisainilnff 
at the purple, he was taken into favour by 
the emperor I3asil. 

BARUESANES, a learned Syrian heretic 
of the second century, wlio taii;rht that 
Christ dl scended from Heaven, not with a 
real, but an aerial bouy ; and who denied 
the resurrection. 

BARDESANES, a writer of the third cen- 
tury; authorof aworkontheGymnosophists. 

BARDIN, PiERiiK, a French writer; au- 
thor of " Le Grand Cha: 'leli.in de France," 
\c. He lost his life whili; attempting' to 
rescue a drowning man, 1U37. 

BAUDNEY, RiciiAiiD,an Knsflish monk ; 
author of the " Life of Robert (irusthead, 
bishop of Lincoln." Uied, l.V)4. 

BAREBONE, I'raise God, an M.P., and 
one of the most furious and notorious fana- 
tics of Cromwell's time, I'rom whom the 
Barehone's parliament derived its name. 

B A RENT, Dietrich, a iJuteh historical 
and portrait painter. Born, 1534 ; died, 1582. 

BARETTI, JosEfH, a native of Turin. 
wlio resid(!d niaiiv years in this country, and 
wrote the Engllsii language wilh ease and 
purity. Dr. Johnson procured him the 
situation nf Italian teacher in Mr. Tl rale's 
family. His works are very numerous, hut 
the most valuable is his Italian and English 
Dictionary. Born, 1716; died, 1789. 

BARGRAVE, Isaac, chaplain to James F., 
and dean of Canterbury. In the civil war 
he was thrown Into prison by Col. Sandys, 
whose life he had formerly saved. Died, 

BARKER, Robert, known as inventor of 
the panorama, was born in Kells, in Ireland. 
1740. While viewing the scenery round 
Edinburgh, whither lie had removed as a 
portrait painter, he was struck with the idea 
of representing similar views in a circular 
painting, in which he ultimately succeeded, 
and tiiereby eventually realized a corsider- 
able fortune. Died, 1806. 

BARKHAM, JoHN,an English ;\nliquuiy, 
sai<l to be the real author of the " Display 
of Heraldry," published under the name of 
Gwillim. Born, 1572 ; died, 1643. 

BARKS DALE, Clement, an English di- 
vine: authorof" Monumeuta Liierarla;" 
" Life of Grotius," Stc. &c. Born, 1609 ; 
died, 1687. 

BARLAAM, a learned divine of Calabria 
in the I4th century. He wrote alternately 
for the Greek and Latin church ; his advo- 
cacy of the latter being purchased by th?: 
bishopric of Gieraci, in Italy. Died, 1348. 

BARLiEOS, Gaspard, a professor of lo- 
gic and philosophy at Leyden and Ai.ister- 
ilara ; author of Letters, Orations, and Latin 
poems. Bom, 1584 ; died, 1648. 

BARLiEUS, Lambert, Greek professor 
at Leyden ; author of " Annotations on the 
Theogony of Hesiod," &c. Died. 1653. 

BAULAUD, Adrian, a Dutch critic, and 
professor of eloquence at Louvain ; author 
of a " Chronicle of the Dukes of Brabant," 

" Notes on Terence, Menander," &c, <SiC. 
Died, 1543. 

BARLETTI, Gabriel, a Neapolitan 
preacher of the 15th century. His sermons 
arc disfigured by buirooneriesand vulgarity, 
but were much admired by his contempo- 

BARLOW, Thomas, bishop of Lincoln in 
the reigns of Charles II., James II., and 
William III. He was a man of the most 
versatile and accommodating principles, if' 
we may Judce by his acts. Under the flrst- 
named King he wrote against popery ; under 
the second he wrote in favour of the royal 
power to dispense with the penal laws 
against it; and under the third he was 
among the most active in punishing non- 
juring clergymen. He wrote " Cases of 
Conscience," &c. Born, 1607; died, 1691. 

BARLOW, Francis, an English artist; 
an excellent painter of animals. Died, 1703. 

BARLOW, Joel, a native of the United 
States of America, and one of the deputies 
sent by the Constitutional Society to address 
the French Convention. He was also, in 
1811, appointed ambassador to Napoleon; 
and being invited bv the duke of Bassano to 
a conference with the emperor at Wilna, he 
proceeded thither, but the privations he was 
compelled to endure on ills Journev, and 
the fatigue of travelling night and day, 
caused his death. He was a political writer 
and a poet, his prin'* ..''I worn being " The 

BARLOWE, William, bishop of Bath 
and Wells, deprived by queen Mary for 
having married ; but made bishop of Win- 
chester on the acces-iioii of queeu Elizabeth. 
Died, 1658. 

BARLOWE, William, son of the above, 
archdeacon of Sarura ; he was well skilled 
in natural philosophy, and was the first 
English writer on the properties of the 
loadstone. Died, 1635. 

BARNARD, THEODORE, a Dutch painter 
who settled in England ; said to have 
painted the kings and bishops in Chinheater 

BARNARD, John, D.D., prebendary of 
Lincoln in the reign of Charles II. ; author 
of a " Life of Dr. Heylyn,"&:c. Died, 1683. 

BARNARD, Sir John, lord mayor of 
London, and one of its representatives in 
parliament for 40 years. He was an able 
speaker, and a remarkably conscientious 
and religious man ; and si- greatly was he 
respected by his fellow citizens, that they 
erected a statue to his memory in the Royal 
Exchange. Born at Reading, 1685 ; died, 

BARNAVE, Anthont Pbtbr Joseph, 
an eloquent and popular member of the 
French national assembW. He was charged 
with the conveyance of^the king fron. Va- 
rennes to Paris ; on which occasion he v on- 
ducted himself with great delicacy and re- 
spect. Though he had retired to private 
life, he was arrested by the faction then in 
power, and guillotined in 1794. 

BARNES, Juliana, prioress of St. Al- 
ban's in the 15th century ; author of treatises 
on Hunting, Hawking, anu Heraldry. 

BARNES, Robert. D. D., chaplain to 
Henry Vill.; burnt lo death in Smithlield 


the virtues ok men are catching as well as their vices. 


«. *? 





n jHetD ^nibet'sal ISiograpl^n. 


for Luthcranitni, in 1540; author of a tiea- 
tisc on Juiitilicatioii, kc. 

DARNES, Joshua, a learned divine, edu- 
cated at Clirist's Hospitiil, London, and 
Kmanuel college, Cambridge; author of tlie 
" Life of Kdward II!.," and a poem " On 
the History of Esther," and editor of the 
works of Euripides, Anacreon, and Homer. 
Born, 1654 ; died, 1713. 

stateMnan, put to death by Maurice, prince 
of Orange, on an Ill-sustained charge of 
having plotted to betray his country to 
Spain. Beheaded, 1619. 

BARNEY, Joshua, a distinguished na- 
val commander in the service of the United 
States, was born at Baltimore, in 1759. 
When a boy he made several voyages to 
Europe ; and in 1776, when not seventeen, 
he was presented with a lieutenant's com- 
mission on account of his bravery. During 
the struggle for American independence, 
Barney took several vessels, and performed 
numerous acts of gallantry ; was taken and 
retaken ; taken again and sent to Plymouth, 
from which place he made his escape ; was 
again retaken, but finally escaped, and ar- 
rived in Philadelphia in 17B3. He immedi- 
ately entered on active duty, and conti- 
nued a successful career till the end of the 
war. In 1795 he received the commission 
of captain in the French service, and com- 
manded a French squadron, but resigned his 
command in 1800, and returned to America. 
In 1813 he was appointed to cumniand the 
flotilla for defence of the Chesiipeakc. 
During the summer of 1814 he kept up an 
active warfare with the British ; but having 
lauded most of his men, and joined the 
army when they entered the Patuxent, he 
was wounded and made prisoner. Died, at 
Pittsburg, 1818. 

DARO, PiERBE, a French protestant di- 
vine, who came to England in the iGth cen- 
tury, and was chosen Lady Margaret's pro- 
fessor of divinity at Cambridge ; author of 
some polemical works in Latin. 

BAROCCIO, Frederigo, an Italian 
painter, chiefly of scriptural subjects. Born 
at Urbino, 1S»8; died, 16S2. 

BARON, BoNADVENTURE, the assumed 
name of Fitzgerald, a native of Ireland, 
who became a Franciscan monk ; author of 
Latin poems, and a body of divinity. Died, 

BARON, or BOYRON, Michael, a cele- 
brated French actor and dramatic writer, 
patronized by Louis XIV. Died, 1739. 

BARON, H. T., professor of medicine at 
Paris, and a contributor to the Pharmaco- 
pseia. Died, 1758. 

BARONI, Leonard, a Neapolitan singer 
and poetess of the 17th century. 

BARONIUS, Caesar, confessor to Cle- 
ment VIII., who made him cardinal and 
librarian of the Vatican ; author of " Eccle- 
siastical Annals. Born at Sora, 1588 ; died, 

BAROZZT, James, a celebrated architect, 
successor to Michael Angelo as architect of 
St. Peter's ; author of ''Rules for the Five 
Orders of Architecture," Sec. Born, 1507 ; 
died, 1577. 

BARRAL, Peter, a French abbe ; author 

of a " Dictionary of Roman Antiquities," 
&c. Died, 1772. 

BARRAL, Louis Matthias de, bishop 
ofTroyes, was a native of Grenoble. He 
emigrated at the Revolution ; but returning 
to Irance in 1801, Buonaparte made him 
bishop of Meaux, and afterwards arch- 
bishop of Tours, and almoner to the em- 
press Josephine. In 1814 Louis XVIIi. 
created him a peer; but having takm his 
place in the chamber of peers during the 
hundred days, he was excluded on the 
king's second restoration, and died in 1816. 

BARRAS, Paul Francis John Nicholas, 
count de, was originally a sub-lieutenant in 
the regiment of Languedoc, and served for 
some time in India. Embracing revolu- 
tionary principles, he assisted at the attack 
on the Hastile, and voted, in the National 
Convention, for the death of the unfortunate 
Louis XVI. He subsequently became one 
of the chiefs of the government, but retired 
from public life when Buonaparte assumed 
the direction of afl°airs. For some years lie 
resided at Rome, but returned to France in 
1814, and remained there till his death 
in 1839. 

BARRF/, Louis Francis Joseph de la, 
a French writer; author of " Memoirs for 
the History of France and Burgundy," &c. 
Born, 1688 ; died, 1738. 

BARRE', Joseph, chancellor of the uni- 
versity of Paris: author of a " History o( 
Germany," &c. &c. Born, 1692; died, 1764. 

BARRE', M'lLLiAM Vincent, a native of 
France, who after serving in the Russian 
navy with credit in his vouth, returned to 
his own country on the breaking out of the 
French revolution, joined his countrymen 
in arms, and was eventually appointed in- 
terpreter to the French government ; but 
having indulged his vein of sarcasm on the 
legitimacy of the first consul he was put 
under arrest. He escaped the vigilance of 
his enemies, and got to London, where he 
published a " History of the first Co- su- 
late." He translated into French Sir Sidney 
Smith's pamphlet on the expedition into 
Egypt; for which the English government 
rewarded him. While at DubTiii, in 1629, 
he committed suicide. 

BARRELIER, James, a friar and bota- 
nist ; author of " Plantae per Galliain, His- 
paniam," &c. Born, 1696 ; died, 1763. 

BARRERE, Pierre, a French physician ; 
author of a " Dissertation sur la couleur des 
Negres," &c. Died, 1755. 

BARRET, George, a landscape painter 
of considerable eminence. He was bom in 
Dublin, but passed most of his life in Eng- 
land, and was a chict'foundei of the Royal 
Academy. Born, 1730 ; died, 1784. 

BARRETT, William, an English topo- 
grapher ; author of a *' History of Bristol." 
Died, 17B9. 

BARRINGTON, John Shute, the first 
viscount Bari'ington ; author of" An Essay 
on the several Dispensations of God to Man- 
kind," " Tlie Rights of Protestant Dissent- 
ers,'' &c. Born, 1678 ; died, 1734. 

BARRINGTON, William Wildman, 
eldest sun of the above, was horn in 1717, 
and f;lled the ofhces o*" r.^rr:'""." iit war, and 
chancellor of the exchequer. Died, 179s 












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BARRINGTON, Daines, fourth son of 
ylscount Barrington, was bred to the law, 
and rose to the office of second Justice o' 
Chester. He vras author of " Observations 
on the Statutes," &c. Born, 1727 ; died, 1800. 

BARRINGTON, Samuel, youngest bro- 
ther of the last-named, entered early Into 
the navy, and became rear-admiral of the 
white. He took St. Lucia, in the face of a 
superior force; and was conspicuous for his 
zeal and coui*age at the memorable relief of 
Gibraltar, hy lord Howe. Died, ISOO. 

BARRINGTON, Shote, bishop of Dur- 
ham, was the sixth son of the first Viscount 
Barrin^ton, and born in 1734. After ob- 
taining a fellowship at Merton College, Ox- 
foril, and taking: his degrees, he was ap- 
pointed royal chaplain on the accession of 
George 111. In 1768 he was made a canon 
of St. Paul's, and in the following' year was 
raised to the bishopric of LlandafT. In 
1782 he was promoted to the see of Salis- 
bury, whence, !n 1791, he was translated to 
that of Durham. He engaged in tome con- 
troversial disputes both with the Calvinists 
and Romanists ; but, tliough hostile to the 
doctrines cf the latter, he was a liberal be- 
nefactor of the French clergy who took re- 
fuge in England during the Revolution ; 
and few men were more munificent in their 
charitable support of our various benevo- 
lent institutions. Died, 1826. 

BARRINGTON, the Hon. Gkoroe, M.P.. 
was born at Durham, in 1794, and entered 
the naval service at the usual aije. He ob- 
tained the rank of post captain in Ib26; 
and in tlie following year married Lady Ca- 
roline, third daughter of Karl Grey, who, 
on becoming prime minister, appointed him 
a lord of tlie Admiralty. He was returned 
one of the members for the newly-created 
borough of Sunderland in lti32, from which 
!ie al'rerwards retired in consequence of ill 
health, which continued until his death; in 
June, 1835. 

BARROS, John de, a learned Portuguese, 
tre.isurer of the Indies, and autlior of a 
" History of Asia and the Indies." Died, 

BARROW, Isaac, D, D., a learned divine 
and mathematician ; author of numerous 
mathematical and theological works ; and 
one who. for versatility oT knowledge, had 
few rivals. King Charles 11. used to say of 
him, that he wa*- an unfair preacher, for lie 
exhausted every subject upon which he dls- 
coursfd. Born in London, 1630 ; chosen 
vice-chancellor of Cambridge, 1657; died, 

BARRUEL, AuousTiN, a French eccle- 
siastic, Lnd of some note as a man of let- 
ters during the French Revolution, was 
born in 1741. He was for some years editor 
of " Le Journal Ecclesiastlque ;" but as 
the principles he there advocated were op- 
posc'l to the Revolution, he was obliged to 
fly to I'ngland, whtre, in 1794, he published 
his " History of tl.«,' French Clergy," &C. ; I 
but his best known work is entitled " Me- 
moirs for a History of Jacobinism, Impiety, 
and Anarchy," in 5 vols, evo, ; a produc- 
tion in which fact and llction are so closely 
iiitirwovcn as to destroy its ai;th<>n(iolty. 
lie returned to ''ranee in 1802, and died 
there in 1B20, aged 79. 

Joseph, Count de, was born at the castle 
of Beauvcrt, near Marseilles, in 1756. In 
I79U he belonged to the national guar<l at 
Bagnols ; and on the flight of the royal fa- 
mily to Varennes he ofTered himself as a 
hostage for Louis XVI. In 1795 he was 
editor of the Journal entitled " Les Actes 
des Ap6tres ;" for which he was sentenced 
to deportation, but escaped. For a time 
during the consulate he was under the sur- 
veillance of the police ; but at length ob- 
taining the protection of the Emprctj Jose- 
phine, he wiis appointed to an office in the 
department of Jura; where he died in 1817. 
He wrote the Life of Rousseau, and various 
works relative to the Bourbons during their 

BARRY, Girald, better known ns Gi- 
raldus Cambrensis ; author of " Topogra- 
phia Hibernica," " Itinerarium Carabrice," 
Ike. He flourished in the 12th century, but 
the date of his death is not known. 

BARRY, Spranoek, a celebrated actor ; 
and, for a time, the rival of Garrick. who, 
however. In the higher walks of the drama, 
greatly excelled him. Born, 1719; died, 1777. 

BARRY, James lord of Sautry, chief 
Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland ; au- 
thor of " The Case of Tenures upon the 
Commission of Defective Titles." Died, 1673. 

BARRY, James T., a painter of consi- 
derable giinius, and a skiilul writer on his 
art, was born at Cork, in 1741. The cele- 
brated Edmund Burke was his decided friend 
and patron ; by whose means he was ena- 
bled to travel, and study the great master- 
pieces of art in Italy. Died, 1806. 

BARRY, Georoe, a Presbyterian divine; 
author of a " History of tlie Orkney Is- 
lands," Sec. Died, 1803. 

BARTAS, William de Sallust du, a 
French poet, warrior, and statesman, ; con- 
fidentially employed by Henry IV.; author 
of " The Week of the Creation," tec. 
Died, 1590. 

BARTH, John, a French naval officer- 
remarkable for his skill and daring as a pri- 
vateer. Born at Dunkirk, 1551 ; died, 17U2. 

BARTHE, Nicholas Thomas, a French 
dramatic writer, and translator of" Ovid's 
Art of Love " into French, Sic. Born, 1733 ; 
died, 1785. 

BARTHELF.M I, Nicholas, a monk of the 
15th century ; author of a treatise " On the 
Active and Contemplative Life," &c. 

BARTHELRMON, Francis Hippomte, 
a musical composer and violinist, was born 
at Bourdeaux, in 1741, but resided chietly in 
London, and was for many years leader at 
the Opera-house. As a composer he was re- 
markable tor rapidity ; and as a performer 
for taste and execution. Died, 1808. 

BARTHELEMY.JohnJames. the learned 
author of " The Voyage of the Younger 
Anacharsis in Greece;" was born at Cassis, 
in Provence, 1716; died, 1795. 

BARTHEZ, Paul Joseph, an eminent 
French physician, \.as born at Moiitpellier, 
in 17:^4, wliere lie founded a medical school, 
which acquired great reputation throughout 
Europe. For many years lie practised in 
Paris, and was consulted upon the most im- 
portant cases ; he also wrote in the " Jour- 

A man's own breast is the safest di:pository for his secrets. 



:) I 


^ HetD ililniDergal l3iograpfji). 


nal (\es Savans," the " Encyclopedia," kc. ; 
and was a nienbcr of almost every learned 
society. During the revolution he sutlen-d 
ereatiy in his fortune; but Napoleon, who 
knew his f^reat ineritH, restored him, in his 
old age, to wealtliand honour)*. Died, iROfi. 

HARTHIUS, Gaspard, a German writer: 
author of " Commentaries on Statins and 
Claudian," Sec. Died, 1658. 

BAIITHOLDY, Jacob Solomon, a Prus- 
sian diplomatist, born a Jew. but after tra- 
velling in Greece he abjured Judaism, and 
became a Protestant. In 1807 he served 
airainst the French as an officer in the land- 
wher of Vienna, and wrote a tract called 
" The War of the Tyrol," which produced 
a great sensation. In 1814 he accompanied 
tlie Allies to Paris, and then visited Lon- 
don. The year after he was appointed 
Prussian consul-general at Rome ; and after 
the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle he was made 
charge de aflair«s at the court of Tuscany. 
Died, IBM. 

BARTHOLINt'. Gaspard. a Danish phy- 
sician and divine; author or" Institutiones 
Anatomicee," Sec. Born, 1S85 ; died, 1629. 
BARTHOLIN E,TH0i:AS,son of the above, 
anatomical professor at Copenhagen ; autlior 
of various works on anatomy and medicine. 
Born, 1616 ; died, 1G80. His two sons, Gas- 
pard and Thomas, both deserve mention ; 
the former as an eminent anatomist and 
physician— the latter as an antiquarian. 

BARTHOLOMEW, archbishop of Braga, 
was born at Lisbon, 1514. At the council of 
Trent lie urged the necessity of reforming 
the clergy. Subsequently he resigned the 
archbishopric, and retired to a nionaatcry. 
Died, 1590. 

BARTOLT, or BARTOLUS, a learned 
civilian, who flourished in the I4th century, 
and is said to have contributed more than 
any other person to the elucidation of legal 
science. Born, 1312; died, 1356. 

BAR TOLI, Daniel, a learned Jesuit ; 
author of " A History of the Jesuits," &c. 
Born at Ferrara, 1608 ; died, I6r '>. 

BARTOLI, Cosmo, an Italian writer of 
the 16th century; author of a" Life of Fre- 
deric Barbarossa," *c. 

BARTOLO, an Italian lawyer of the I4th 
century ; professor of law at Pisa, and au- 
thor of numerous works on law and other 

BARTOLLOCCI, Julius, author of" Bib- 
liutheca Rabbinica," &c. 3orn, lbI3; died, 

BARTOLOZZI, Francis, an engraver of 
first-rate merit, was born at Florence in 
1738; came to k.ngland in 1764; admitted a 
member of the Royal Academy in 1769 ; went 
to Lisbon, at the invitation of the prince- 
regent of Portugal, in 1^02; and there died 
in 1819. The productions of liis graver are 
numerous, highly esteemed, and eagerly 
sought after. 

BARTON, Elizabeth, a religious im- 
postor, called Ihe Holy Maid of Kent, was 
a poor country girl, born at Allington in 
that county, who, instructed bv priests, de- 
clared she was divinely inspirea, denounced 
the heresies of the reformed religion, and 
pretended to t'le gift of prophecy; but ha^- 
ing included the ki.ig (Henry VIII.) in her 

predictions and denunciation!), she and her 
associates were tried and executed for high 
treason, 1584. 

BARTRAM, John, an eminent American 
botanist, was born in Chester county, Penn- 
sylvania, in 17UI. He formed a botanic gar- 
den near Philadelphia, said to have been 
the iirst estabiisliinent of the kind in Ame- 
rica; and so intimate an acquaintance had 
he with the vcgetalile kingdom, that Lin- 
nicus pronounced him " the greatest natu- 
ral botanist in the world." Died, 1777. 

BARTRAM, William, a son of the pre- 
ceding, was also a distinguished naturalist. 
At the request of Dr. Fothergill. he tra- 
velled through the Floridas, Carolina, and 
Georgia, tor the purpose of making re- 
searches in natural history, and transmitted 
to his employer in London the valuable col- 
lections and"drawings which he had made. 
His " American Ornithology " may be con- 
sidered the precursor of Hilson's invaluable 
work. Died, 1833. 

BARWICK, John, an English divine, 
who exerted himself with considerable zeal 
and ability on the royal side in the civil 
wars. Born, 1613 ; died, 1664. 

BARWICK, Peter, brother of the above, 
an eminent physician ; author of a "Defence 
of Harvey's Doctrine of the Circulation of 
the Blood," &c. Died, 1705. 

BASEDOW, John Bernard, a German 
writer, and professor of moral philosophy 
and belles lettres. His novel plans of edu- 
cation excited great attention in Germany ; 
and in the seminary he established at 
Dessau, called " The Pliilantliropinum," 
many excHent teachers were formed, and 
great good effected. Born, 1723 ; died, 

BASHUifSEN, Henry James Van, a 
learned divine and oriental critic ; author 
of " Rabliinical Dissertations," &c. Born 
at Hanau, 1579 ; dieu, 1758. 

BASIL, St., surnamed the Great, to dis- 
tinguish him .from other patriarchs of tlie 
same nami;, was born, in 326, at Casarea, 
in Cappadocia; and is honoured by tlie 
Greek church as one of its most illustrious 
patrons. He is chiefly remembered for his 
ascetic doctrines, and his zeal to promote 
monastic ( lEcipiine. Died, 379. 

BAS I LI DES, a philosopiierof Alexandria 
in the second century, who enjoined live 
years silerce to ''is followers. 

BASILIsEUS, emperor of the East; lie 
was dethroned and died in prison, 477. 

BASILIDS I., the Macedonian, emperor 
of tiie Easi: ; killed by a stag while hunting, 
in 836. 

BASILIUti II., succeeded to John Zimis- 
ces, in 97G. He was guilty of abominable 
cruelty in his war with the Bulgarians. 
Died, 1025 

BASILIl S, an impostor, who excited a 
revolt in the eastern empire, in 934, and was 
burnt to death at Constantinople. 

BAS I LO\V ITZ, JoH N, emperor of Russia; 
he added Astracan to his empire, and was 
the first who assumed the style and title of 
Czar. Die!, 1584. 

archdeacon of Leicester, and iiithor of some 

never lauoh at your own wit: leave that to the company. 



















9 j^eto ^nibereal IStograp^s. 


cxcclloDt Latin translations from the Greek. 
Ulcd, I2.'i3. 

UASIKK, Isaac, a learned divine, prc- 
liend of Uurliam. On tlic brealtin;; out of 
the civil war he lofit all his prefermeiits ; 
on which he made a journey t« the Muroa, 
where he iireachcd with (i^reat success aiiiorii^ 
the Greek cliristians: and on his return 
wrote an account of his travels. Born, 
1607 ; died, I67t). 

BASKKKVILLE, Sir Simo. . an Enfrlish 
phvslciaii of jprcat eminence and wealth ; 
Knii;hte<l by Charles I. Died, »0<l. 

BASKtRVILLE, John, a celebrated 
letter-founder and printer ; and one to 
whom tlie tvpographical art is much in- 
debted. It has been remarked, however, 
that his books are far more ele^ntly than 
correctly printed. Born at WoTverley, in 
Worcestershire, in 1706; died, 1775. 

BASNAGE, Benjamin, a French Pro- 
testant divine ; autlior of " A Treatise on 
the Church." Born, I560; died, 1652. 

BASNAGE, Anthony, son of the above ; 
imprisoned at Havre de Grace on account 
of his religion. Born, 1610; died, 1691. 

BASNAGE, DE Franquenet, Hlnry, 
brottier of the last named ; advocate of the 
parliaii!ent of Normandv; author of a 
" Treatiue on Mortgages," Z •. Born, 1615 ; 
died. I6r>5. 

BAS''<AGc;, deBeauval, James, aPrcncl. 
Protestant divi v.e ; author of a " History of 
the Jews since tlie coming of Our Saviour," 
&c. Born, 1653; died, 1723. 

BASNAGE, DB Beauval, Henry, brother 
of the last mentioned, successor of Bayle in 
writing tlie " History of the Works of the 
Learned." Born, 1650; died, 1710. 

BASNET, Edward, dean of St. Patrick's, 
Dublin, who exchanged his clerical for 
a military habit, and served under the lord 
deputyf against O'Neil, the rebel. He died 
durin r the brief reig'n of Edward VI. 

BASSAN or BASSAN, James, an Italian 
paii)t(.r, chierty of landscapes. Born, 1510; 
died, '594. 

BAS :ANI,Giamattista, a musical com- 
poser of the i7th centui-y. 

BAliSANTI N, Jame3, a Scotch astronomer 
of the I6th century ; author of " Astrono- 
mia," " A Treatise on '.he Astrolabe," &c. 
BASSET, Peter, chamberlain to Henry 
V. of England ; author of a history of that 
king, which is still extant in MS. 

BASSI, Laura Maria Catharine, a 
learned Italian lady, wliosc singular accom- 
plishments procured licr the professor's 
chair at Bologna, and the title of doctor of 
philosophy. Born, 17H ; died, 1776. 

BASSOMPIEURE, Francis dk, a mar- 
shal of France, distinguishe:' both as a sol- 
dier and a statesman, and eminently re- 
markable for his personal attractions ■ v» 'lo, 
after being patronized by Menry IV. and 
Louis Xlil., \,'as imprisoned for 12 ^'ears 
for giving some offence to cardinal Riclie- 
lieu. He was author of his own memoirs 
and several other works. Born, 1575 : died, 

BASSUET, PiERnr, an eminent French 
surijreon ; author of numerous dissertations 
on subjects connected vuth his i rofession. 
Born, 1706; died, 1757. 

BAS'i'A, Georoe, an Italian general of 
the i6tli century; author of two treatises on 
military discipline. 

BASTARD, I'homas, an Engrlish divine 
and poet. Died, 1618. 

BAS TON, Robert, an English poet of the 
lUh century, and public orator at Oxfonl. 

BASTIDE, John Francis db la, an in- 
dustrious French miscellaneous writer, was 
born at Marseilles in 1724. He settled in 
Paris, where he engaj^ed in various literary 
enterprises ; of which the most voluminous 
were the " Bibliolheque L'liiverselle des 
RomauH," in 112 vols, md the " Cliois dcs 
Anciens Mercures," in 108 vols. 

BASTWICK, John, an English physi- 
cian, and a furious writer against the ciiurch 
in the time of Charles I. Born, at Writtie, 
i Essex, 1593; died, 1650. 

BATE, John, an English divine, and 
prior of the Carmelite monastery at York, 
in the 15th century ; author of a " Com- 

pendium of Logic," &c. 

BATE, George, physician to Charles I. 
Oliver Cromwell, and Charles II., and one 
of the first members of the Royal Society. 
He was the author of a Latin history of tlie 
civil wars, and some medical works. Born, 
1503; died, 1069. 

BATE, JuLU's.aii English divine ; author 
of a Hebrew Lexicon, &c. Died, 1771. 

BAI ECUMBE, William, an English ma- 
thematician of the 15th century ; author of 
a treatise, " De Sphoera Solida," &c. 

B A I'KM AN, Willi AM, bishopof Norwich, 
a learned prelate, and the founder of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Died, 1354. 

BATES, William, a non-confornii«t di- 
vine ; author of " Lives of Learned and 
Pious Men," &c. Born, 1625 ; died, 1699. 

BATES, JoAH, an eminent musician, born 
at Halifax, Yorkshire, in 1740. He was una- 
nimously chosen conductor of the comme- 
moration of Handel at Westminster Abbey ; 
and till llie year 1793 lie conducted the clio- 
ral jMirformances of ancient music, wlien 
he retired, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Oreatorex. He died in 179D. His wife was 
a lirst-rate singer. 

BATHALMUSI, an Arabian writer ; au- 
thor of a work on Genealogies, Sic, Died, 
421 of the Hegira. 

BATHE, William, an Irish Jesuit, go- 
vernor of the Irisli seminary at Salamanca. 
Died, 1641. 

BA'IHURST, Ralph, dean of Wells ; au- 
thor of some elegant Latin poems, and one 
of the founders of the Koval Society. Born, 
16J0; died, 1704. 

BA THIIRS r, Allen, Earl, a zealous op- 
poser of the measures of sir liobert VVal- 
pole, and the intimate friend of Boliiig- 
nroke. Pope, Addison, and the other eminent 
writers of his time. Bom, 1684; dijd, 1775. 

BATHDUST, Henry, Earl, son of the 
above, and lord chancellor of Eniiliind ; au- 
thor of the " Theory of Evidence," &c. 
Born, 1714; died, 17[i4. 

BATHYLLUS, the cotemporary of Pyla- 
des, and one of the most celi'bi'iced paiito- 
miniistsoi'antiqutty,\v:ij L-oiii at Alexandrii, 
and became tlie slave of Miweiias, «lio en- 
franchisul liiin. Tlie art of tliesecelcb'-.ited 



h 1' 



^ ^etD ^ntbetsal ISiograpl^s. 


mimes cnnsUtnd in expressinfi^ the paoslong 
by gpstureR, Rttituder, Sec, not bjr the mn- 
(lern fooleries ot'harlfquin, clown, and scenic 
chanp^eM. liathyllus excelled in represent- 
inc^ comedy ; Pylades in trai^edy. 

UATONI, PoMPBO GiROLAMO, an eminent 
Italian painter, esteemed as the rextorcr of 
the Roman school. His most admired work 
is the " Contention of St. I'eter and Simon 
the Man^ician," in St. I'eter's, at Rome. 
Horn at Lucca, I708; died at Rome, I7b7. 

BATOU, or BATU KHAN, grandson of 
Zenghis Khan, and his successor in the nor- 
thern part of his vast empire. He died, 
after a long reign and very numerous con- 
quests, in 1376. 

OATSCH, Augustus John Oeoror 
Charles, an eminent German naturalist; 
author of" Elenchus Fungorum," &c. Born, 
1761 ; died, 1801. 

BATTELY, John, archdeacon of Canter- 
burr, and chaplain to archbishop Sancroft ; 
autnor of " Antiquitates Rutiipinse," &c. 
Died, 1708. 

BA'I'TEUX, Charles, a French writer ; 
editor and commentator on the poetics of 
Horace, Vida, &c. Born, 1713; died, 1780. 

BATTIE, William, a physician, very 
sliilful in the cure of mental aberrations ; 
author of a " Treatise on Mental Madness," 
iic. Born, 1708 ; died, 1776. 

BAT'l'!SHILL,JoNATHAN, a musical com- 
poser of some note ; the author of many 
deservedly admired anthems, songs, glees. 
&c. Born, 1738; died, 1801. 

Cjesar, advocate of the parliament of Paris; 
autlior of " The I'tility of Travel," &c. 
Born, 1048; died, 1732. 

BAUDIER, Michael, historiographer to 
Louis Xl[I ; author of a " General History 
of the Religion of the Turks," &c. 

BAUDIN, Peter Charles, a memlxT of 
the French National Assembly and Conven- 
tion ; author of " Anecdotes sur la Consti- 
tution," &c. Born, 1751 ; died, 1799. 

BAUDIUS, Dominic, professor <>f elo- 
quence at Leyden, and hisioriographer to 
the states ; author of Latin pocnin, &c. ice. 
Born, IS6I ; died, 1613. 

BAUDELOQUE, John Louis, an eminent 
French surgeon aiKl accoucheur, whose 
skill induced Napoleon to apjwint him prin- 
cipal midwii'e to the empress Maria Louisa. 
His works on midwifery are much'esteemed. 
Born, 1746; died, 1810. 

BAUDOT DE JUILLI, Nicholas, a 
French historian ; author of the " Historv 
of Catharine of France, queen of England," 
&c. Born, 1678 ; died, 1759. 

BAUDOUIN, Benedict, a French di- 
vide of the 17th century ; author of a dis- 
sertation " De La Chaussure des Anciens.'' 

BAUDRAND, Michael Anthony, a 
French jgeograpner ; author of a " Geogra- 
phical Dictionary." Born, 1633 ; died, 1700. 

BAUER, Ferdinand, a German artist, 
highly distinguished as a botanical painter. 
He came to England, and made drawings 
of the exotic plants in the royal (gardens of 
Kew ; and was engaged as draiigiitsnian to 
accompany Mr. Robert Brown, "in Captain 
I-'lindcrs' expedition to the coast of New 
Holland, between 180'.' and 1803, for the 

purpose of making drawings there fror. the 
livinj' plants, which were afterwards lub- 
iished. Died, at Vienna, 182<i. 

BAUHINUS, or BAUHIN.JoiiN.a French 
physician and celebrated botanist; author 
of ■" Historia Plantarum," &c. Born at Ba- 
sil, 1541 ; died, 1613. 

BAUHINUS, or BAUHIN, Oaspard, bro- 
ther of the above ; an excellent botanist, 
author of " Institntiones Anatomicir," 
" Phytoplnax," " Pinax," and numerous 
other works. Born, lS(iO ; died, 1624. 

BAULDRI, Paul, professor of sacred 
history at Utrecht ; author of " Chronolo- 
gical Tables," Sic. Born, 1639 ; died, 1706. 
BAULOT, James, a French lithotomlst, 
whose method was adopted and improved 
upon by the celebrated Cheseiden. Born, 
t.>91 : died, 1730. 

BAUME, James Francis db la, a 
French divine ; author of '• The Christiade," 
&c. Died, 1757. 

BAUME, Anthony, a French chemist ; 
author of a " Treatise on Theoretical and 
Experimental Chemistry," " A Manual of 
Pharmacy," &c. Died, 1805. 

BAUME, Nicholas Augustus de la. 
Marquis of Montrevel, and a marshal of 
France, was born 1636. It is lelated of 
him, that although from his earliest youth 
he had !>een distinguished by his daring va- 
lour, and had frequently braved deatli in 
tlie Held of battle, yet such was his ridicu- 
lous superstition, that on the contents of a 
salt-ocllar having been accidentally thrown 
on him, he instantly exclaimed that he was 
a dead man, and actually expire<l from the 
terror with which it inspired him. Died, I7l(>. 
BAUMER, John William, a German 
physician ; author of a " Nafiral History of 
the Mineral Kingdom," &c. Born, 1719 ; 
died. 17b8. 

BAUMGARTEN, Alexander Gottlieb, 
professor of philosophy at Frankfort on the 
Oder ; author of " Metaphysica," " Etbica 
Philosophica," ic. Born, 1714 ; died, 1762. 
BAUR, Frederic William Von, a Rus- 
sian general, much emuloyed by the em- 
press, Catharine II. ; autnor of " Memolres 
Hititorigues et Geographiques sur la Vala- 
chie," &c. Died, 1783. 

BAUR, John William, a painter, of 
Strasljurgli ; chiefly noted for his architec- 
tural subiects. Born, 1610; died, 1640. 

BAWD WEEN, William, an English di- 
vine and antimiary ; editor of two volumes 
of Doomsday Book. He proposed to com- 
plete the work in eight otlier volumes, but 
died before he could eflcct it, in 1816. 

BAXTER, Richard, an eminent non- 
conformist divine, and most voluminous 
writer. Foremost among liis most popular 
works is the "Saint's Everlasting Rest," 
In 16S5 he was tried before the brutal judge 
Jefferies, grossly insulted by him, ana sen- 
tenced to line and imprisonment; but the 
punishment was shortly after remitted by 
the king. Born, 1615 ; died, 1691. 

BAX'I'ER, William, nephew of the pre- 
ceding; author of a Latin Grammar; Dic- 
tionary of British Antiquities, ikc. Born, 
1616 ; died, 1723. 

BAXTER, Andrew, an eminent meta- 
physiciai), and aullior of an " Enquiry into 

where hate bears sovereignty, honour hath no certainty. 





















Ji (li- 




BEA j 

sa l^eto ^^nibersal Btograp^g. 


Mil! Natnio of tli<' Human Soul," &c. Born 
It AI)L'it]ft;n, 1GI7; died, 173U. 

nAYARD, I'lEKRR DU Teriiail, Cheva- 
lier dc, a ii'ible Frcncliman >iy birth, and 
one of the bravest military leaders of the 
16th century. So admirable, indeed, was 
his character, that he universally obtained 
the glorious apnellation of " the fearless 
and irreproachable Knight." Born, 1476 ; 
killed at the siege of Rebec, 1531. 

BAYER, John, a German astronomer of 
the 17th century ; author of " Uranonie- 
tria," a celestial atlas. 

BAYER, TiiEOPHiLus Sieokreo, a 
German philologist ; author of a very curi- 
ous and able work, entitled, " IMusicum 
Siniciim." Born, lij94 ; died, I7a8. 

BAYEUX, N., an advocate of Caen ; au- 
thor of " RcOcctions on the Reign of Tra- 
jan," Sec. Cut to death in the prison of 
Orleans, 1792. 

BAYLE, Peter, a celebrated French 
writer, philosopher, and critic ; author o 
the well-l<nown " Biographical, Historical, 
and Critical Dictionary," and of several 
other literary, philosophical, and theological 
works. Born, 1647 ; died, 1706. 

BAYLEY, Anselm, an English divine ; 
author of " A Grammar of the Hebrew Lan- 
guage," &c. &c. Died, 1794. 

BAYLEY, Richard, an eminent Ameri- 
can physician, was born in Connecticut, in 
1745. After studying at home, he compietcd 
his professional education in London, an J 
settled at New York. In 1792 he was ap- 
pointed professor of anatomy in the college 
of Columbia, where he acquired great CL-le- 
brity. In 1799 lie published his work On 
Yellow Fever, wherein he proved it to be a 
local malady. His death took place in I80i, 
in consequence of fever caught in the dis- 
charge of his duty as health physician. 

BAYLY, Lewis, bishop of Bangor; au- 
thor of " The Practice of Piety ;'' a work 
which was so much esteemed that it went 
through sixty editions. Died, 1632. 

BAYLY, William, an astronomer, who 
went out with Capt. Cook in the last two 
voyages ol' that celebrated circiimnavigiitor. 
Died, 1810. 

BEACON, Thomas, prebendary of Can- 
terbury in the reign of queen Elizabeth ; 
author of numerous works against popery. 

BEARD, John, an eminent actor, and 
the successor of Rich, as manager of Co- 
vent-gardcn Theatre. He died in 1768, 
aged 74. 

BEATON, or BETHUNE, a cardinal, and 
archbishop of St. Andrews, in Scotland ; 
whose infamous persecutions of his Protes- 
tant countrymen caused him to be assassi' 
nated in his castle, in 1546. 

BEATON, James, nephew of thr above, 
and bishop of Glasgow ; author of " A His- 
tory of Scotland." Born, 15J0; died, 1603. 

BEATTIE, James, LL.D., a celebrated 
Scotch writer ; anthor of" The Minstrel," 
a poem ; " Elements of Moral Science," 
and various other works of merit. Born at 
Laurencekirk, nas ; died, 1803. 

BEATTIE, JAMiis Hay, son of the above, 
remarkable for his piety rather than his 
talents, though the iait'ir were far from 
mean. Born, i768 ; died, 1790. 

BEAU, John Loi'is le, a French writer, 
the editor of an edition of Homer, in Greek 
and Latin. Born, 1721 ; died, 1766. 

BEAU, Charles le, brother of the above, 
author of "A History of the Lower Em- 
pire," kc. Born, 1701 ; died, 1778. 

BEAU, Jean Baptiste le, a French Jesuit 
and antiquary ; author of " Diatribo; dua- ; 
prima, oe partlbus Tenipli Auguralis ; al- 
tera, de mense etdie Pharsalicie Victorite," 
Sec. Died, 1670. 

BEAUCHAMP, Richarb, an English 
iirelatc, admirably skilled in architecture. 
lie was surveyor of tlie works at Windsor, 
and rebuilt the chapel there in the reign of 
Edward IV. The great hall in the episcopal 
palace of Salisbury, and the S( piilcliral ciia- 
pel in the cathedral, are also monuments of 
Ills taste and science. Died, 1481. 

BEAUCHAMP, Peter Francis Oodard 
DE, a French writer ; author of " Recher- 
clies sur les Theatres de France," Ac. Died, 

BEAUCHAMP, Joseph, a French astro- 
nomer and Bernardine monk, born at Ve- 
soul, in 1752, During the revolution hu was 
employed on a secret nli^8ion by Na; oleoii, 
but falling into the hands of the Ir^nglish, 
they delivered him up to the Turks, by 
whom he was imprisoned as a spy. He was 
subsequently released, and died at Nice, 18V2. 

BEAUCHATEAU, Francis Matthias 
Chatelet de, a French poet, remarkable 
for his precocious talentii ; author of " La 
Lyre du jeune Apollon," published when he 
was only twelve years old. Born, 1645 ; 
visited Eiii^landin 1660, and went to Persia, 
where, it is said, he soon after died. 

BEAUCLERK, Topham, a gentleman of 
great literary talents, and a friend of Dr. 
Johnson, who said tliat " Beaiiclerk's talents 
were those wliich he had felt himself more 
inclined to envy than those of any one 
else he had ever known." Born, 1739 ; 
died, 1780. 

BEAUFORT, Henry, the half-brother 
ot Henry IV. of England, was a cardinal, 
bishop o'f Winchester, and chancellor of the 
kingdom. He was proud, ambitious, and 
immensely rich; but the hospital of St. 
Cross, at 'Winchester, which he founded, 
and niinieroiis charitable bequests, prove 
that his riches were ultimately well applied. 
Died, 1447. 

BEAUFORT, Margaret, countess of 
Richiiioiid and Derby,raother of Henry VII. 
She foundci! St. John's College, and Clirist's 
Colle^j'e, ('ambridge, and distinguished her- 
self likewise as an author. Born, 1441 ; 
died, l;09. 

BEAUFORT. Francis de Vendome, 
duke of, son of Ci^sar, duke of Vendome, 
was imprisoned by cardinal Ma/.arine. On 
his escape, he broke out into oi)en violence, 
but soon succeeded in making his peace, 
and was appointed admiral of France. 
Killed at the siege of Candia, 1669, 

BEAUFORT, Louis de, author of " Dis- 
sertations upon the Uncertainty of the First 
Five Ages of the Roman Republic," and 
other learned works. Died, 1795. 

BEAUHARNOIS, Alexander de, a 
French nobleman, born in 1760. He took 
part in the revolution, and after having 


to believe a business impossible, is the way to make it so. 

! t 


I I 




^ jHetD 9Aniber0al IJiograpfj^. 


been at one time prcoidcnt of the national 
asHumbly, anil servidin the aroiiua of France 
with distinction. \\u put to death by the 
revolutionary tribunal just previous to the 
fall of ilic inonHter Robespierre, in 17U4. 
Hl8 widow, JosKPHiNE, was afterwards 
wife of Honanarte, who divorced her to 
nmrry Maria Louisa of Austria. 

BlyAl)HARNOlj5, Francis, marquis de, 
elder brotht-r of Alexander, was born in 
1756. He was appointed niiO^r-generiil in 
the army of the Prince of Coud6, in 1792 ; 
protested against the unlawful treatment of 
the kinff, in a letter to the pretldent of the 
national assembly ; and when Buonaparte 
became (Irst consul, he exliorted him to re- 
store the sceptre to the house of Bourbon. 
He was afterwards appointed ambassador 
to the court of Spain, but fell into disgrace 
with Napoleon, and was banished. He re- 
turned to Paris after the restoration, and 
died in 1819. 

BEAIIHARNOIS, EcoENE de, son of the 
above, was born in 1780 ; entered the army 
early, and became one of Napoleon's gene- 
rals, and his viceroy in Italy, which otfice 
he filled with credit and distinction, from 
1805 to 1814 ; when on his patron's reverses 
he retired to Bavaria, married the king's 
daughter, was made duke of Leuchtenberg, 
and died at Munich, 1824. 

BEAULIEU, Louis le Blanc, professor 
of divinity at Sedan; author of "Theses 
Sedancnses," &c. Born, 161 1. Died, 1675. 

BEAU LIEU, Sebastian de Pontault 
DE, a celebrated French engineer and fleld- 
marshal under Louis XIV. ; author of 
" Views and Plans of the Battles and Sieges 
of Louis XIV." Died, 1674. 

BEAUMARCHAIS, Peter Augustin 
Caron de, an eminent French writer, and 
a man of singular versatility of talent ; a 
politician, an artist, a merchant, and a 
dramatist. He was author of the comedies of 
"The Barber of Seville," " The Marriage 
of Figaro," &c. ; but it was to a law-suit 
that he was first indebted for his popularity 
as an author; the memorials and pleadings 
which he drew up being so full of wit, sa- 
tire, and sound reasoning, as to attract 
public attention in an extraordinary degree. 
Born, 173?; died, 1799. 

BEAUMELLE, Laurence, a French 
writer and critic ; author of " Letters to 
Voltaire." of whom he was a decided o| po- 
nent ; "Commentary on the Henriade," 
&c. Born, 1727 ; died, 1773. 

BEAUMONT, Sir John, a judge of the 
Common Pleas, knighted by diaries I. ; 
author of " Bosworth Field," a poem. Sec. 
Born, 1582: died, 1628. 

BEAU MOM', Fpancis, the celebrated 
English dramatic poet, was a younger bro- 
ther of tlie above; and, in conjunction with 
his friend Flelc'.er, the author of a number 
of excellent plays. They were both admi- 
rable delineators of human nature, and 
their contemporaries preferred their dramas 
even to those of Shakspeare, whom they 
evidently made their model ; hut impartial 
posterity has reversed this decision, and ad- 
judged the palm to the bard of Avon. Born, 
1585 ; died, 1613, 

BEAJTvICNT, Joseph, an English divine, 
regius professor of divinity at Cambridge; 

autlior of " Psyche, or Love's Mystery," 
Ac. Died, I08y. 

tutor to Louis XIII., and subsequently arch- 
bishop of Paris ; author of a " History of 
Henry IV." Died, 1670. 

BEAUMONT, Ei.iB de, a French advo- 
cate, distinguished for his memoir in favour 
of the uiifortimate family of Calas. Born, 
1732; died, I7b5. 

BEAUMONT. Madame Le rniNOB de, a 
French I'idy, who devoted her talents to the 
instruction' of yonlli, and wrote many 
pleasing moral works ; among others, 
" Magazin des Adolescens," " M.iga/.indes 
Jeunes Dames," some novels, &c. Born, 
1711 ; died, 1780. 

BEAUMONT, Sir Georoe, bart., a dis- 
tinguished amateur artist, was born at Dun- 
mow, Essex, in 1763 ; died, 1827. 

BEAUNE, Floriment de, a French ma- 
thematician ; discoverer of a method to de- 
termine the nature of curves by the proper- 
tits of their triangles. Died, 1652. 

BEAURAIN, John de, geographer to 
Louis XV. ; author of a " De»cri|)tion of 
the Campaigns of Luxeniboiir^r, from 1690 
to 1694." Born, 1697; died, 1771. 

BEAURIEU, Gabpard Guillard de, a 
French writer ; author of " L'Elev^ de la 
Nature," Hcc. Born, 1727 ; died, 1795. 

BEAUSOBRE, Isaac de, a French pro- 
testant divine, who settled at Berlin, and 
became chaplain to the king of Prussia; 
autlio/ of " Defense de la Doctrine des Re- 
formes," Sec. Born, 1659; died, 1738. 

BEAUSOBRE, Lewis, counsellor to the 
king of Prussia ; author of " Philosophical 
Dissertations on the Nature of Fire," &c. 
Born, 1730 ; died, 1783. 

BEAUVAIS, V»^iLLiAM, ai'thorof awork 
on die medals of the Roman empire. Born, 
1698 ; died, 1773. 

physician, member of the Convention at the 
revolution; author of" Essais Historiques 
sur Orleans," &c. Born, 1745 ; died, 1794. 

BEAUVILLIERS, Francis de, duke de 
St. Aignan, a soldier, courtier, and poet, 
in the reign of Louis XIV. Born, 1607 ; 
died, 1687. 

BEAUVILLIERS, Paul de, eldest son of 
the preceding, was liighly distinguished for 
talents and probity. He held high offices 
in the state, and shared with the virtuous 
archbishop of Cambray in the education of 
the duke of Burgundy. Died, 1714. 

BEAUZEE, Nicholas, an eminent French 
critic ai'd grammarian ; the author of several 
works, and a contributor to the Encyclo- 
pedic. Born, 171; , diod, 1789. 

BEAVER, John, a monk of Vl'estmlnster 
in the 14th century ; author of a " Chro- 
nicle of the Af!\iirs of Britain," &c. 

BECCADELLI, Locis, an Italian eccle- 
siastic ; preceptor to prince Ferdinand of 
Tuscany, and author of the Lives of Cardi- 
nals Pole and Beuibo. Died, 1572. 

BIlCCADELLI, Antonio, of F^krnio; 
author oi a *' Histoi'y of Alphonso, king of 
Arragdii," &.C. Born, 1374; died, 1471. 

BECCARI, Augustine, the hrst Italian 
pastoral poet. Died, 1520. 






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BECC'ARI, James IUrtholomrw, a 
n..|o.Mi<scpl)v»lrlan ; author of a "Treatine 
on tin; Molioii of FiiiidH," &c. Born, 1(582; 
died, 17iit>. 

DECCARIA, Giovanni Battista, an In- 
(ftnioiis practical phiiosophor, wiioge wliole 
liCe w.i» (It'votfd to that important dtudy. 
III! w;i» profetisor of nhiloHopliy at Palermo 
and Konic, and publlslied geveral wnrlts of 
jrriMt men*, partlcniarly on tlie nature of 
tliu electric fluid. Horn, I7in ; died, I7BI. 

an eniiniMit Italian ; author of tiie celebrated 
" Trentist! on Crime* and Punishnients," 
&c. Born at Milan, 17:i5 ; died, 1794. 

an It.ilian poet. Died, 1553. 

BECERRA, Gaspakd, a Sjianlsh pninter 
ani '"ulptor, pupil of Riiohael. Hiu chef d' 
oeuvi is a statue of the virgin. Died, l.'>70. 

BECHER, John Joachim, an eminent 
chemist, first physician to the elector of 
Ment/ and Bavaria: author of " Physica 
Subterranea," " Epistola; Chymica;," &c. 
Born, 1635 ; died, 1685. 

BECKER, Daniel, physician to the elec- 
tor of Brandenburgh ; author of •' Com- 
mentariuB de Tiieriaca," &c. Died, 1670. 

BECKET, Thomas k, archbishop of Can- 
terbury ; a man raised from a comparatively 
low station to the verv highest offices by 
Henry II., but prouu, insolent, and un- 

ffratefiil. Having shewn iiimself the vio- 
cnt opponent of his royal patron, the latter 
gave utterance to some hasty expressions 
respecting him in the presence of his cour- 
tiers, and he was at length assassinated 
at the altar of Canterbury cathedral, in 
1170. After his death he was canonized. 

BECKINGHAM, Charles, an English 
dramatist ; author of " Scipio Africanus," 
a tragedy, &c. Died, 1730. 

BECKMANN, John Anthont, a native 
of Hanover, and a professor at Gottingen, 
where lie lectured for many years on sub- 
jects connected with rural and political 
economy. Sec. He was the author or several 
works, of which, his " History of Discove- 
ries and Inventions" is the best known. 
Born, 1739; died, 1811. 

liECLARD, Peter Augustus, an emi- 
nent French anatomist, was born at Angers, 
in 1785 ; became professor of anatomy and 
physiology at Paris, where he attained tlie 
iii(^hest reputation as a lecturer and man 
of science. He wrote " Anatomical Me- 
moirs," Sic, and died in 1825. 

BEDE, or BEDA, surnamed " the Vene- 
rable," an ancient English monk, and the 
most eminent writer of his time ; author of 
an "Ecclesiastical History of England," and 
other valuable works. Born, 673 ; died, 735. 

BEDELL, William, bishop of Kiimore 
and Arniogh ; greatly reverenced in Ireland 
for his learning, piety, and benevolence. 
Born, 1570 ; died, 1641. 

BEDFORD, John, duke of, third son of 
king Henry IV. of England ; and one of the 
most successful commanders ever opposed 
to the French. He was appointed resrent of 
France by the will of Henry V., arid well 
sustained the glorv of his conntrv during 
the arduous Btruggle there. '' ied at Rouen, 

BEDFORD, HiLKiAH, an English divine, 
who was heavily tintd as the author of" The 
llere<litarv Riglit of the Crown of England 
asserted,' a Jacobite work, which wan In 
reality written by George Harbin. Died, 1724. 

BEDLOE, WiLLUM, captain, an infar^;;: 
informer, noted for his perjuries, and re- 
warded with 500/. for pretended information 
respf:('ting a popish plot, and the death of 
Sir I'.dniundbury Godfrey. Died, 1680. 

BEERING, Vitus, a captain in the Rus- 
sian navy, and a ceh brateu navigator of the 
northern seas, who, being cast on a dcstdate 
island, perished there, in 1741. This is now 
called Beering's Island, and the straits be 
tween Asia and America have also received 
his name. 

BEETHOVEN, Louis Von, a celebrated 
composer, and the pupil of Haydn, whose 
works are numerous and highly esteemed by 
the musical world. Born at Bonn, 1770 ; 
died, 1877. 

BEDOS DECELLES, Francis, a French 
Benedictine monk ; author of a " Treatise 
on Dialling," &c. Born, 17^6; died, 1779. 

BEGA, CoRrELivs, a Dutch painter, 
ehieily of cattle and landscapes. Born, lu^o ; 
died, 1664. 

BEGER, Laurrnce, a German writer; 
author of " Spicilegium Antiquitatis," Ike, 
Born, 1658; died, 1705. 

BEGEYN, Abraham, a Dutch landscape 
painter ; some fine pictures by whom are at 
the Hague. 

BEGUILLET, Edmund, advocate of the 
parliament o6 Dijon; author of the" Prin- 
ciples of Architecture," iic. Died, I7U6. 

BEHAIM, or BEIIEM, Martin, a geo- 
grapher and navigator ot the istii century ; 
said to have discovered the Brazils and tne 
Isle of Fayal, and to have sailed as far as 
the Straits of Magellan. 

BEHN, Aphra, a female writer In the 
reign of Charles II., of considerable ability, 
but whos'j works were most remarkable for 
their disregard of decency ami morals : her 
productions were chiefly poems, novels, and 
plays. Died, 16S9. 

BEICH, Joachim Francis, a native of 
Suabia, eminent as a painter of cattle pieces 
and landscapes. Born, 1665 ; died, 114^, 

BEINASCHI, John Baptist, a native of 
Piedmont, an eminent historical painter. 
Born, 1634 ; died, 1688. 

BEK, David, a Dutch painter, pupil of 
Vandyke, and portrait painter to Christina, 
queen of Sweden. Born, 1621 ; died, 1656. 

BEK, or BEAK, Anthony de, bishop of 
Durham, a bold, spirited, and magnificent 
prelate, who united the skill and courage 
of a soldier to the austerity of a divine. He 
led the van of the English army under Ed- 
ward I. in an expedition against tlie Scots ; 
built Barnard Castle and other fortresses, 
and performed many gallant e.sploits ; but 
at length broke his heart at being excom- 
municated by the arclibisliop of York, 
in 1310. 

BEKKHER, Balthasar, a divine of 
Amsterdam ; suspended from his functions 
for publishing " The World Bewitclied," a 
refutation of the popular errors in witch- 
craft, &c. Born, 1634 ; died, 1698. 






■ 1' ■'I 

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^ ^(iD 9tiitbrr0al IkJiograpfii}. 

[hi: I, 

ni'.KKI'.H, KMXABRTii, It Dutch Uly of 
ronslilrraltln iiutU (is llic writer of works of 
lli'tiiiii tiiciiKMiiiix till- ixii'NtmonilN. Uorii, 
lTi»i (IM, IH04. 

IM'.L, John Jamkh, a roiinm'llor of Hoiir- 
(leiiiix; compiler ol the " Dictioiiimiru Ntm- 
lo)(|(|iic," uikI author of " Letter* on Vol- 
t;ilre'« Marliimu-," Ac. Died, 1738. 

HFJ., Matthiaii, nil Hiiii)fi\rliin divine, 
liisiiirio;7ni|)lu'r to the einiiciiir CliarlcM VI.; 
author <!> " Aji|inratiii« ad lllNtoriani Hun- 
Kill III," iVc. Horn, lUHl; died, 1749. 

UKL, CiiARLKS Andrkw, boii of tlie 
nliove, lihrariaii iind profi'Niior of poetry to 
the uiiiveniity of Lelp-dc. Horn, 1717; died, 
by hlx own hand, 17K'J. 

HKLESIS, a Chaldean, who ralseil Ar- 
hacen to the throne of Media, and was re- 
warded with the !;overiinieiit of liahylon. 

HKLGRADU, Jamrh, an Italian Jesuit, 
eniliient a« a poet, niitkpiary, and mathe- 
iiiatidan ; aiitlior ol° a treatise, entitleil, 
" 'I'liA I'vUteiicc of God DemoiHtrated (ieo- 
nietrlcally," ftc. Uorii, 1704 ; died, I7w9. 

IIKLGUANO, Manuel, an active par- 
tisan and coniinander In the cause of South 
American Independence, whose disinterested 
conduct in the discharge of his duty proved 
hivlily favourable to Buenos Ayrcs aiiJ the 
neiKhDourliiK state*. Died, 1820. 


eminent French engineer and mathemati- 
cian ; author of " Diellonnalrc portatlf de 
i'lufjfenleurg," Sec. Born, 1695 ; died, 1761. 
BELING, Richard, an IrlRh gentleman, 
who took part in the rebellion of 1G4I, but 
recovered hU estates at the Restoration ; 
author of " Vindlciue Caiholicorum iliber- 
nlic." Born, 1613 ; died, 1677. 

BELISARIUS, ii celebrated Roman gc- 
neral, to whom the emperor Justinian 
chlelly owed the splendour of his ciffn ; 
and bv whose skill and bravery the Per- 
sians, Vandals, Goths, and Bnlu^arians, were 
successively conquered. Much has been 
said of the emperor's ingratitude to his 
faithful general, as well as of his hlindncss 
and of Ills being reduced to beggary : but 
as these stories were never related till the 
I'Jth century, there Is every reason to be- 
lieve them to be mere fictions. Died, 565. 

BCLI., Andrew, D.D. and LL.D., an 
English divine, the projector and founder 
of those excellent establishments called 
National Scliools ; author of " An Experi- 
ment in Education at the Male Asylum, 
Madras," " Instructions for conducting 
Schools on the Madras System," Sic. Stc. 
Dr. Bel! had acanlred considerable pro- 
perty in (he East Indies, and had some lu- 
crative preferments in this country ; and 
he bequeathed nearly all that he possessed 
to institutions connected with education 
and literature. Born, at St. .\ndrew8, Scot- 
land, 1753 ; died, 1833. 

BELL, Benjamin, un eminent surgeon, 
and writer on surgery ; author of a " Trea- 
tise on the Management of Ulcers," j:c.<Scc. 
Born, at Dumfries, 1749; died, 1B06. » 

BELL, Henry, the first successful appller 
of steam to the purposes of navigation in 
Europe, was born in Linllthgowsliire, in 
1767. After serving an apprenticeship to 
his uncle, who was a millwright, he went to 

l.ondoii, and was in the eniplojr of Mr. 
Reniile, the celthr.itcd eiigincer ; hut It was 
not till tlie year IHi'j that he produced a 
vessel calculated lo eHlablish the practica- 
bility and important uses of steam iiavli;a- 
tlon ; and though Mr. I'nllon, an American 
engineer, hail launched a lio.it iip'>n llir 
same |>riiicliile live years before, wl>i h li:id 
performed loinr voyage* iiiion the Hudson 
river, >et Bell must lie at hsist allowed the 
praise ol having done, in his own eoiinli'v, 
what all other men, iiotwl(li-.t',iiiilintc Ihi 
superior advaiitai(es of skill aii'l c'lpltiil, 
had failed in doing. He died, at Helens- 
burgh, In IH.IO. 

IIKLL, Jamkr, an eniinrnt geogrnphlciil 
writer, was horn at Jeilhiirt.'li, In 1769. lie 
was brought up as a weaver, and iM'canie a 
manufacturer of cotton goods at (Jiasgow ; 
hut left that business, and, helng an Indefa- 
tigable student, became a teacher «( the 
eiassies lo young men prepariiii; fur the 
university. He was the author of "A Sys- 
tem of popular anil sclentillc Gengra|iliy," 
in A vols, ; " A (Gazetteer of England and 
Wales," ice. Died, 1833. 

BI'LL, John, of Antermnny, Scotland, 
author of '• Travels from St. I'eti'rshiirgh 
to various parts of Asia;" was altaehed ^is 
surgeon to an embassy, first from Russia to 
I'ersia, and afterwanis to another from 
Russia to China, through Siberia ; of whi'li 
his " Travels " furnish an interesting ac- 
count. Born, 1691 ; died, 1780. 

BELL, John, a distinguished surgeon In 
Edinburgh, and the author of numerous 

firofmslonal works of high merit, was horn 
n 1763. Ill addition to his medical skill, he 
was a good classical scholar, and Inferior to 
none In conversational iiowers and general 
Information. Died, at Rome, in 1830. 

BI'.LL, John, an active and intelligent 
London tradesman ; the publisher or an 
embellished edition of "The British Poets," 
in 109 vols., and the projector and original 
proprietor of " The Weekly Messenger." 
Bocn, 1746; died, 1831. 

BELL, Braufre, a learned En:;llsh anti- 
quary, of tlie 18th century. He bequeathed 
his library !ind medals to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he had received liis 

BELLAMY, James, a Dutch poet, whose 
patriotic songs and other lyrics are highly 
and deservedly esteemed. Born, 1753 ; 
died, 1796. 

BELLARMIN, Robert, a learned cardi- 
nal : author of numerous controversial 
works, remarkable for their zealous oppo- 
sition to the reformed religion. Born, 1543; 
died, 1631. 

BELLAY, John du, arclibishop of Paris, 
and subsequently a cardinal ; author of an 
" Apology for Francis I. ;" " Epigrams," 
&c. Born, 1493 ; died, 1560. 

BELLAY, Joachim du, often called the 
French Ovid and Catullus ; author of Latin 
and French poems. Born, 1534 ; died, 1560. 

BELLE, Stephen de la, a Florentine 
engraver, whose works aic highly esteemed. 
Born, 1610; died, 1664. 

BELLEFOREST, Francis de, a French 
writer; author of a " General History of 
France," &c. Born, 1530 ; died, 1583. 






[hi I. 

of Mr. 
t it \y.\n 
liircil n 

• nil till' 

I \\ liiiil 
kvi'il IIk' 

illK 111! 


rn|>liU il 
(>!>. Me 
I'C.imt' H 
lanffow ; 
I iiiilt'rik- 

• Ot till' 

f.ir llic 
" A SyK- 
and ami 

iiclit'd .IS 
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ler fnim 
of \vlii"!i 
Hthig ac- 

irgpon In 
Wits born 
I Kkill, lie 
iifcrior to 
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r of an 
|i Poets," 

lush anti- 



lived liiK 

It, wliose 
le liih'lily 
, 1752; 

bd cardi- 
lis oppo- 
In, 1542; 

>f Paris, I 
Lor ol' an 

Jilled the 
|of Latin 
ed, 1560. 

[story of 


roHOKi) roMPi.AiiANRa u roppKHv; and ArrKiMxi) karinkhs i« a monsikk. 



a §it\D Stttubrvsal IStograpfis. 

[it» I. 

DF.I.I,K(iMll>K, John lUfTiiT Mouvan 
PK, a Fntiih Jc»iilt, cxpt-lifd from the 
•ocit'ty for ('arl<-»i;iiii«Mi ; tianilntor of St. 
<'hryiio«toni, Tliumax ii Kemplit, \c. Died, 

UKLLF.ISI.K, CiiAHi.r.t Louis AuousTUs 
FouQORT, Count di', a French niarihal, 
whrwe talent* and endnent incceimet were 
rewarded hy liU noverelKn, Loiili XV., with 
the!durhe..tdlKnitleii. Horn, IOhi ; died, 1761. 

UF.LLF.NUl'.N, Wjli.iam, a ScofllHh 
writer of theneventh century, diittinKnlNhcd 
for the purity of IiIm Uttin conipoHl(ion«. 

nKLLF.N(Ji:il, FiiANcm, a doctor of the 
Sorbonnt! ; author of a " ttrlticai Kmiay oii 
the Worlm of Kollln," Ac. Uicd, 1749. 

BF.LI.KT, CiiAni.Eii, a French writer; 
lior of '' L'Adoratlon Cliretleniu! daiiit 

" \c. Died, 1771. 
French pliVNirian ; 


la Devotion KoKaIn 

llKLLKF, UA\rr, a 
aiiihor of a " History of Cataline'it Conspi- 
racy," Siv. Died, 17'78. 

IIRLLIXRI), AiniiBMN Daniei,, Count 
de, a dlstin)i<iiitlieil French general and dip- 
lomatist, was born in 1773, in La Vendee. 
He entered the military service early, and 
was Koon made an olticer of Dumourie/.'s 
iitalT: lie afterward* Hcrved with Buonaparte 
In Italy and l^gypt ; and, retiirninif from tlie 
latter country, he parllcipated in the victo- 
rieii of (Jlin and Aimtcrlit/, and fouf^ht in 
all the great battles in the war with I'rns- 
aia. He next went to Spain; but in 1812 
joined the army destined for the invafilnii 
of Russia, and particularly dlstinf^uislied 
himself ill tlie battle of Moskwa. At Leip- 
sic, a cannon-ball carried away his arm. 
After Najioieon'* abdication, he was made 
a peer of^ France, and major-general of the 
army under the duke de llcrrl. When the 
emperor returned from KIba. he dispatched 
Uelliard to king Joachim at Naples, but the 
vessel was intercepted by a Hritish ship, 
and drifen back to France. On the return 
of the Bourbons, he was for a sliort time 
imprisoned, but soon taken into favour 
again. When Loui« Philippe ascended tlie 
throne, he sent Belliard to Berlin, to treat 
respecting the acknowledgment of the new 
dynasty ; and during his embassy to Brus- 
sels, he contributed more than any other 
diplomatist to the formation of the new Bel- 
gian government. He died in 1832. 

BELLIEVRE, Pomponius de, a French 
statesman, chancellor to Henry IV. Born, 
1529; died, 1607. 

BELLI N, James Nicholas, a French 

feogranlier ; author of " Hydrographie 
raiKjoise," &c. Died, 1772. 

BELLINI, Gentile, an emiitcnt Venetian 
painter, employed to adorn the Council 
Hall or that republic. Died, 1501. 

BELLINI, John, brother and assistant 
of the above ; and the instructoi of Titian 
and Giorgione. Died, 1512. 

BELLINI, Laurence, an Italian physi- 
cian : author of several anatomical and me- 
dical works in Latin. Born, IG43 ; died, 1702. 

BELLMAN, Charles Michael, b. Swe- 
dish poet, patronize'* by Gustavu^ Adol- 
phus ; and the most original, while strictly 
national, poet of Sweden. Born, 1741 ; 
diid, 1795. 

BELI.OCU. PiKHUK, «alet de rliainlnr 
to I.oiiIm XIV. ; author of a poem on ihc 
Hotel d<H linalides, \c. Died, I7u4. 


DK, a French dramalist ; author of '* The 
Slegeof Calais," Jci. Born, 1727 ; died, 1771. 

IIKLLONI, Jrhomk, a celebrated llomiin 
banker, created a nianiuls by Pope Bene- 
dict XIV.; author of an " Kt'say on Com- 
merce." Died, 1760. 

BKI.I.OUI, John Pf.tp.r, a celebrated 
Italian aniirpiary andcoiiiioi«seur in the po- 
lite arts; author of " Lives of Modern 
Painttrx. Architects, and Sculptors," itc. 
Died, I Mi. 

BKI.l.oTI, PKrRH, an Italian painter, 
chiefly of portraits. Born, 162.5; died, 1700. 

BKLf)SIELSK Y, Prince, a Russian noble ; 
author of " Poesies Fraiivolses d'ua Prince 
Etranger," A,c. DieJ, 1809. 

BF.LON, Pktkr, a French physician and 
travidler ; aiitlior of some aide works on 
iiatiir.il history, and ot a " Description of 
Pale>(ine, Greece, and Arabia." Died, be- 
ing assassinated in France, 1564. 

BIW.OF, John nK Blois, advocate to the 
privy council of Louis XIV.; author of 
'' Apologic de la Laiigue Latine." 

BEI.SHAM, Thomas, an eminent (Unita- 
rian divine ; author of a discourse *' On the 
liiiiMirtance of Failli, and the Dutv of 
making Open Professions of it," &c. Died, 
in his HOth year, 182$*. 

BELSHAM, William, brother of the 
preceding, an eminent writer; author of 
" Essays, Political and Literary," " History 
of Great Britain, from the Revolution to 
the Treaty of Amiens," in 12 vols. 8vo., Sec. 
Died, aged 75, in 1827. 

BELSliNCE, Hknry FrancisXavier de, 
a Frencli prelate, celebrated for tlic courage 
and benevolence displayed by him when the 
plague ravaged Marseilles in 1720; author 
of " L' Histoire des Evfiijue de Marseilles," 
&c. Born, 1671 ; died, 175-5. 

BELUS, celebrated in profane history as 
the founder of the Babylonian empire. He 
wag deified after his death, and a temple 
was erected to him at Babylon. He is, pro- 
bably, the Baal of Phaniciaand the Nimrod 
of Scripture. Flourished 1322 b. c. 

BELYN, a British prince and commander 
under Caractacus. 

BELZONI, John Baptist, an enter- 
prising traveller, whose researches in Egypt 
exhibit a most diligent and praiseworthy 
industry, and have been of great service to 
those engaged in the study of its antiqui- 
ties, was born at Padua. He came to Eng- 
land in 1803; and becoming involved in pe- 
cuniary ditficulties wliile residing in London, 
he was under the necessity of obtaining a 
subsistence by the display of feats of strength 
and activity at Astiey'u Amphitheatre; for 
which his colossal stature and extraordinary 
muscular powers eminently qualitied him. 
At length he left this country, and entered 
on his travels tlirongli Egypt, in 1815; 
evincing consummate talent, and meeting 
with corresponding success. In 1816 he 
sent the busts of Jupiter Mcmnon, &c. to 
the British Museum ; published a narrative 
of his operations in 1820 ; and in the fol- 
lowing year exhibited a model of a splendid 







■u lii 122 



L25 III ,.4 

ill ''^ 


6" - 


4v °> 









(716) 872-4503 




f 1 

H ■ 


































fl llefeD lAniber^al litograptlS- 


tomb which he had dtscovcnd ne.ir Thehc«. 
Hut, while nr.ikiiiif pri|iaratloMii for paiutlnfr 
froiii liciili) to HoiisHa and Tinibuctnn. he 
wait attncked with dyitcntery, and died ut 
Oato, In I8!i3. 

UEMBO, Prtkr, a nnhle Venetian and 
poet; secretary to Leo X., and promoted 
to be bUhop of Bergamo and a cardinal by 
Paul III.; author of a Hlntory of Venice, 
&c. Uorn, M7o; died, 1647. 

BENAVIDIO, Marcus Mantua, Cheva- 
lier, an Italian jurliicoMult; author of" Vitie 
Virorum lliU8tiium," kc. Died, 1583. 

RKNIioW, John, a brave Englith admi- 
ral, horn at Slircwsbury, In 1650. Hit skill 
and valour in an action with a Uarb.try pi- 
rate of superior force, gained him the confl- 
denre of the nation, and he was soon en- 
trusted with a fleet. In 17U3, during an en- 
Rafrement with the French admiral, Du 
CasMc, in the West Indies, he had his Icr 
carried nway by a chain shot ; and at this 
critical Instant several of his captains havlnff 
sli^ncd a paper dt daring that " nothinif 
was to be done," the enemy effected his es- 
cape. Benbow brouKlit the deitnqucnis to 
a court-martiai, and two were shot; but 
the effects of his wound, and the vexation 
he suffered, cauHed his death. 

UENCIO, Francis, an Italian Jesuit; 
author of Latin poems, Sec. Died, 1594. 

BENEDETTO, Castiolione, an Italian 
painter, chiefly of pastoral scenes. Uorn, 
1016 ; died. 1670. 

BENEDICT, St., the founder of the flntt 
rellffious order In the West, was born in 
SpoTeto, in 48U ; and, retiring to a cavern 
when only I4 years of age. Ills fame for 

fiious austerities brought him numerous fol- 
owers : the monastery of Monte CaDsIno, 
near Naples, was lounded by him ; and the 
ordef ol St. Benedict thenceforward estab- 

BENEDICT XIV. Probfkr Lahber- 
TiNi, the successor of pope Clement XII., 
was a great patron of the arts and sciences, 
an enactor of good laws, and one who 
strove to maintam purity of doctrine and of 
manners by setting a worthy example in his 
own person. Bom, at Bologna, in 1675 ; 
died, 1758. 

BENEDICT, an Fnclish abbot nf a noble 
family in Northumberland. He introduced 
chanting in choir*. Died, i7oa. 

BENEDICTUS, Alexander, an Italian 
anatomist of the I5th century ; author of 
" Historia Corporis huuiani," Stc, 

BENEFIELD, Sebastian, an English di- 
vine; author of several theological works. 
Died, leau. 

BENEVUTI, Charles, a Jesuit; author 
of " Reflections on Jesuitism," Sec. Born, 
1716 ; died, 1780. 

BENEZET, Anthony, an American phi- 
lanthropist; author of "A Caution to Great 
Britain and her Colonies." '• Historical 
Account of Guinea," Stc. VieA, 1784. 

BENOER, Elizabeth Ooilvy, a female 
of strong Intuitive genius; author of" Bi- 
ovraphital Memoirs :" historical accounts 
or '' Anne Boleyn," " Mary, Queen of 

Scou," and of the 
Died, 1637. 

" Queen of Bohemia.' 

BENI, Paul, an eminent Italian philo- 
logcr ; author of " Reniarks on Arioslu and 
lasso," Sec. Dii'd, 1637. 

BENJAMIN of rudela,one of the earliest 
travellers of tlie mtddie ages who viNlted the 
central regions of Asia ; author of a Hebrew 
work of travels, which, though interestinH 
and romantic, is said to be remarkable 
chiefly for the abundance of its misrepre- 
sentations. Died, 1173. 

BENINI, Vincent, a learned ItaiiMi 
physician ; author of " Notes on Celsus," 
Sec. Born, 1713; died, 1764. 

BENIVIENI, Jerome, an Italian port; 
autiior of *' Canxone dell' Ainore celest e 
Divino," Sec. Died, 1543. 

BENNET, Henry, carl of Arlington, one 
of the cabinet council of Charles 11., known 
in history by the name of the Cabul. Uorn, 
1618; died, lii85. 

RENNET, Christopher, an English phy- 
sician ; author of " Tabidorum 1 neatrum, 
seu I'hthisicos," Sec. Died, 1685. 

BENNET, Thomas, an EngUsh divine; 
author of a Hebrew Grammar, an Essay on 
the Thirty-nine Articles, Sec. Born, 1673 ; 
died, 1730. 

BENNINGSKN, Levin Auoustus, baron 
of, an eminent Russian general, was born 
In Hanover, in 17-15 ; entered the service of 
Catharine II., and distinguished himself by 

Sreat gallantry in the war against Poland. 
le was commander-in-chler at the mur- 
derous battle of Eyiau. In 1813, he led a 
Russian army into Saxony, took part in the 
battle of Leipsic, and blockaded Haniburir. 
He Anally settleti in his native country, aiid 
died in 1836. 

a Russian poet ; author of " Koiuala," a 
poem ; a translation of Ossian, Sec. Uorn, 
1780 ; died, 1BU8. 

BENOIT, Elias, a learned Protestant 
divine; pastor of the church of Delft; 
author of a << History of the Edict of 
Nantes." Uorn, 1640; died, t73t<. 

BENSERADE, Isaac de, a poet at the 
court of Louis XIV., born In 1613, was pa 
tronized by Kiclielieu, Mazarine, and tlic 
king. His madrigals, sonnets, and songs, 
as well as his wit and general conversa- 
tional powers, rendercu iiim a great fa- 
vourite ; and lie was called, hv way of emi- 
nence, " le poil'tedc lacoeur.'' Died, l(>9l, 
BENSON, Geohob, a di'Menting minis- 
ter ; author of a " Defence of tlie Reason- 
ableness of Prayer," and various ottwr re- 
ligious and controversial tracts. Born, 
1669 ; died, 1763. 

BENT, John Van der, a Dutch land- 
scape painter, pupil of Vandervelde and 
Wmivermans. Horn, 1650 ; died, 1690. 

BENTHAM, Thomas, bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry, in the reign of^ queen Eii/.- 
abeth ; author of an " Exposition of the Acts 
of the Apostles," tec. Died, 1578. 

BENTHAM, Edward, an English divine, 
prebend an<l treasurer of Hereiord ; author 
of some religious tracts and sermons. Born, 
1707 ; died, 1776. | 

BENTHAM, Jaubs, an English divine 
and antiniiary, brother of the last named ; 
author or the " History and Antiquities of , 
the Church of Ely." Died, 1704. 













Inn phllo- 
rio«ti< and 

le earllevl 
vUited the 

a HebreM 


id ItaliMi 

a Celitu*," 

liaD port; 
re celt-tt e 

nffton, one 
11., known 
iki>. Born, 

ngllih phy- 

i(h divine; 
in EBsay on 
)orn, 1673; 

rrwa, baron 
I, wan born 
e service of 

liinmclf by 
n»l Poland, 
t the mur- 
3, hu led a 

part in tlie 
I Haniburf?. 
ouutry, and 


Coiuala," a 
&c. Uorn, 


of Delft; 
le Edict of 

poet at the 
13, was pa 
le, and tlic 

and BonKX, 
. conversa- 
li great fa- 
way of enil- 

Uied, 1091. 
ting minis- 
Uie Keason- 
U8 oUier re- 
[:t8. Born, 

Dutch land- 
rveldc and 
d, 1690. 
of Lichfield 
queen Eiiz- 
n of the Act* 

;li«h divine, 
srd; author 
noni. Uorn, 

jlish divine 
act named : 
itiquitlet of I 














li n 


a llrto {^nibersal Utograpfii?. 


ItKNIHNM, Jf.rrmv, .i (llotlnfcuinhnl 
jiiri'>t mill |Militiral wrilt-r, and the fattier of 
that rhiM of ptiliiiral <ronomt«ts itylt'd 
ll|ilitari:inK, wIiom! doctrine It Id to view 
f\ery thiiii; accorilini; a* it I x Affected hy 
th<' jirlnciplc of " the )rr(>ate»t h,ii)iilMe«« 
of till! vreatest niimher.'' HIh piil>llthed 
work* arc Munieroun, and tliooe wliirh re- 
main in MS. or uiiiiiililihhed, rhoii|{li printed, 
Klill more mo. lint a very diiiicult and pro- 
lix Ntylu ha'* renderi-rl liini ratlxT the in- 
Klmcior of writer* tliiin of the reading nub- 
ile in general ; and liin workH, which liavc 
hi!<-n tr.iniilatcd Inin many lanKua^e*, are 
better kuoun and appreciated ou tlie Conti- 
nent tlian in F.ngianii. lie wa* a man of 
primitive uianner>, UNblemlHlied character, 
and zealouitly alive to what he couKlilered 
the interiiit of the people at large. Dorn, 
17-10; died, 1833. 

UENTINCK, William, ftr«t earl of Port- 
land, wan the »on of nobli! Dutcli parent*, 
and accompanied U'iillani III. to kngland, 
by whom he wa* mucii emiiloyed, and re- 
warded witli an e.trldom. Died, I70y. 

BENTINCK, William Hrnry Cavbn- 
OISH, tliird duke of Portland, wax born in 
1738. Duriiif; the American war lie acted 
with the opposition, and was appointed 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland In I7H3, but con- 
tinued in that office only three montlis, 
owing to the breaking up of the adniinigtra- 
iion by the death of the marquis of Rock- 
ln;7liam. In 1793 he was appointed chan- 
cellor of Oxford, and soon after joined Mr. 
Pitt'* party. He held the office of home 
secretary from 1794 to I80i, and succeeded 
Lord Grenvlllc as tlmt lord of the treasury 
ill 1807, but shortly after resigned It, and 
died in isoH. 

BENTIVOGLIO, OtnDO, a celebrated 
cardinal, and legale at the court of France. 
He was an able politician and liUtorian. 
Among other works he wrote " A History 
of the Civil Wars of Flanders," «• Memoirs/' 
iic. Born, 1579 ; died, 1641. 

BENTIVOGLIO, Herculbb, a poet and 
dipioniatUt, was born at Bologna, In 1506, 
and (lied in 1573. 

BKNTIVOGLIO, Cornblio, a cardinal, 
poet, and patron of tlie tine arts, was born 
at Ferrara, 1688 ; and died at Rome, 1707. 
BENTLEY, Richard, a celebrated Eng- 
lish divine, and highly accomplished classical 
scholar ; master of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and archdeacon of Ely. HU editions 
of Horace, Terence, and Plicedrus ; and his 
part in the controversy on the genuineness 
of the Epistles of Phalaris, display vast eru- 
dition and sagacity. Born, 1661 ; died, 1743. 
BENTLEY, Richard, son of the above, a 
dramatic writer ; author of *• The Wishes," 
and other dramas, &c. Died, 1783. 

BENYUWSKY, Maurice AnousTOs, 
Count de, a native of Hungary, who, after 
serving in the imperial armies. Joined the 
Polish nobility, and fought against Russia 
for thtlr independence, out was taken pri- 
soner and exiled to Kanitschaika. From 
that remote region, however, he escaped ; 
and after various fortunes, he was sent out 
by the Frencli to Madagascar, the sove- 
reignty of which Island he afterwards at- 
tiaipted to assume. He was slain in an ac- 
tion with the French, 1786. I 

BENZELIUS, Eric, arclihi*liop of UpMl. 
and chancellor nf its university ; author of 
a Swedish translation of the Bible, Stc. 
Died, 1709. 

BENXIO, Trifonb; an Itai.an poet of 
the I6tli century. 

BEoLCO, Anoelo, surnamed Ruizanto, 
an Italian farce writer. Died, 1543. 

RERCHTOLD, Leopold, count, a distin- 
guished plilianthropiiit, was born In 1758. 
He spent thirteen years of his life in tra- 
veiling thrniigh Europe, and four in tra- 
velling through Ai>ia and Africa, for the 
exiirci<M iiurpoKC* of assuaging human misery 
in Us direst forms, and leaving no method 
unattempled that humanity or patriotism 
could suggest. He at length fell a victim 
to a contagions fever, at his palace of lluch- 
lowitz, in Moravia, which lie had titled up 
a* an hospital for the reception of tlie kick 
and wounded Austrian soldiers. Died, ihv9. 

French divine of the 11th century, born at 
Tours, whose denial of traiisubslantiation 
was declared the vilest heresy, and as such 
was condemned at Rome. He nnderwent 
much persecution, recanted, and again re- 
turned tn his opinion*. Died, 1088. 

BERENGER, James, a celebrated anato- 
nii*t and physician of tlie '6lh century, born 
at Carpi, in italv, and dieil at Ferrara, 1550. 
He made several Important anatomical dis- 
coveries, and is said to be tlie first who used 
i.ien-ury in syphilitic disease*. 

BERENGER I., king of Italy, who as- 
sumed the sovereignty on the death nf 
Charles I., In 886. He was defeated by 
Rodolph of Uiireundy, in 933, and shortly 
afterwards assassinated. 

BERENGER II. became king of Italy In 
95U ; but was subsetpiently deposed for his 
tyranny, and died in cononement in Ger- 

BERENGER, Petrr, apnpil ofAbelard. 
and author of an apology for that celebratea 
and unfortunate person. 

BERENGER, Laurenci Pbtbr, a na- 
tive of Provence, professor of rhetoric at 
Orleans previous to the revolution ; and, 
after the restoration of the Bourbons, pro- 
fessor at the Lyceum of Lyons, and Inspec- 
tor of academies; author of " Les Soirees 
Proven^let," Sec. kc. Died, 1833. 

BERENGER. Richard, gentleman of 
the horse to George III.; author of the 
" History and Art of Horsemanship." Died, 

BERENICE, daughter of Agrlppa, king 
of Judaea, and wife of her father's brother, 
Herod, who was made king of Clialcis by 
the emperor Claudius. Becoming a widow, 
she gave her hand to Polemon, king of 
Cillcia, but she soon deserted him, and 
became the mistress of Titus, who, It was 
thought, would have made her his wife but 
for the murmurs of the Romans. 

PERENICE, daughter of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, and wife of Antioclius, King ot 
Syria. Slie was deserted by her hiuband 
In favour of his former wife Laodice, by 
whose orders she was strangled in her re- 
tirement at Antioch, B.C. 348. 

BERENICE, daughter of Ptuler.iv Aule- 
tes, king of Egypt. She usurped tier fa- 

hb old. 




U: Ij 

^ 1' = 


rs f 


n i 


i V 




a lletD Snntbrrsal liiogray^s. 


thcr'n Ihroni', nnd put licr flrtt liiinband In 
death ; but the Rnnikiii rrplaord i'tolrmy 
on liik throne ; and he canted hlit rebvllioui 
daiijrii'er to be evet-uted. 

llKilErilM, I'RTKR, an Italian arrhl- 
tfrt and painter, of great merit. Uorn, Hid, 
died, 106!). 

DKRO, Mattriai Van der, a Flemish 
painter, pupil uf Rubens. Uorn, 1612 ; died, 

UKROEN, Dirk Van pbr, a celebrated 

landiicapp uiul portrait painter. Died, lOHtf. 

RERGHKM, Nicholas, an excellent and 

indi^fatiifabte Dutch lundscaiMs painter. 

Dorn, 1631 ; died, 1683. 

liERGIRR, Nicholas Stlvrstbr, ca- 
non of the t-alhedral nf Paris ; author of 
<* Dciiint Sclf-confiiled," Ac. Died, 1790. 

ItERUMANN, ToRBBRN OLor, an emi- 
nent SwediKh chenilKt, and a member of 
nearly all (he learned societies in Europe ; 
to whom the world Is Indebted for many 
valuable additions to itcientlflc knowledge. 
Born, t7U ; died, I7B4. 

liERIUARD, Claude, professor of phi- 
losophy at Fodua ; author of " Circulus 
i'isanus," ice. Dorn, 1578; died, 166J. 

BERING'I'ON, JOBRPH, a Roman Catho- 
lic clerKVinan ; authorofa " HiNtory oftlic 
Lives ol' Helolsc and Abelard ;" a « Lite- 
rary History of the Middle Ages," Sec. tx. 
Died, 1827. 

UERKELEV, GRORns. earl of, one of 
the privv council of Charles II. ; author of 
" Historical Applications and Occasional 
Meditations." Died, 1698. 

BERKELEY. Sir William, of the same 
family ax the above ; vice-admiral of the 
white. He was killed In an action with the 
Dutch, 1666. 

BERKELEY, Gborob, bishop of Cloyne, 
was a inctapliyslcal writer of conxlderdble 
celebrity, and one whoNe virtues, however 
manifest, have been somewhat |>oetically 
exaggerated by Pope. Beside* other works, 
he is the author of " Principles of Human 
Knowledge ;" " Dialogues between Hylas 
and Philonus;" Itc. His hvpothesis of the 
non-existence of material objects In nature 
otherwise than in the mina, made much 
noise in his time. Born, HA? ; died, 1753. 
BERKENHOUT, John, an English phy- 
sician and miscellaneous writer: author of 
" Bingraphia Literaria ;" " Outlines of 
the Natural History of Great Britain and 
Ireland," Sec. Stc. Born, 1731 ; died, 1791. 
BERKLEY. John lb Franc von, a 
Dutch physician, naturalist, and poet ; au- 
thor cf " Poems ;" " Natural History of 
Holland," Stc. Born, 1739; died, 1813. 

BERKLEY, Sir William, governor of 
Virginia : author of " The Description and 
Laws of Virginia," &c. Died, 1677. 

BERNARD, of Mbnthon, an ecclesias- 
tic of the loih century : founder of the 
well-known and invaluable monasteries of 
the Great and Little St. Bernard, in the 
passage of the Alps Died, 1006. 

BERNARD, St., abbot of the monastery 
of CUirvaux in the 13th century. His fame 
for wisdom was very great, and few eccle- 
siastical affairs in his time were undertaken 
without his being consulted. Died, 1IS3. 

BERNARD, EDtVARD, an English philo- 
soplier and critic ; author ol' " Ktyniolngl- 
ciini linuiiiniruiii," a " Trcatiite oii Ancient 
Weight* and l>lea»urcs," ftc. icM. Born, 
I6:1H ; died, 1697. 

BERNARD, James, a French Protestant 
divine: author of a " HIstoriciil and Po- 
litical Account of Europe," \c. Born, I6.'>B; 
died, 1718. 

BERNARD, of Thurlngia, an enthusiast 
of tlie loih century, who iircillcted tliat the 
end nf the world wa* at liaiid, nnd caused 
much terror to his Ignorant and sufiersti- 
tiouH ttelievcrs. 

BERNARD, John, an actor :autlior of 
" Rpirospectioi^ of the Stage." Died, 18:8. 

1>ERNARD, Claudr, surnamed '< the 
poor pi'iesl," was a native of Dijon, whoite 
active benevolence towards the |)oor and 
sick was unremitting durinif the whole 
course of hi* life, and for whose support 
he not only expendid hi* whole Inheritance, 
30,000/., but was continually employed in 
soliciting for them the benefactions of 
other*. Born, 1588 ; died, 1641. 

BERNARiJ, Pktrr Joseph, a French 
amatory poet, styled by Voltaire U gtntil 
Itcrnard, an epithet by which he is stMl dis- 
tinguished. Born at Grenoble, 1710 ; died, 

BERNARD, Sir Thomas, a gentleman 
and scholar, to whom tiie Society for bet- 
tering the Condition of the Poor owes Its 
eiitablisliment, and who was also tlie active 

Eroraoter of many charities, was born at 
iiiroln, 1750 ; died, 1818. 
BERNARD, duke of Weimar, the fourth 
son of duke John of Saxe-Weimar, was a 
general whose magnanimity, skill, and Im- 
petuous valour were frequently displayed 
while commanding the Swedish arniy after 
the death of Gustavus ; and who afterwards, 
Willie in alliance with France, did great Kcr- 
vice to the Protestant cause. He died by 
poison, administered, as his cotemporaries 
asserted, at the Instigation of the duke of 
Riclielleii, who had oecome Jealous of his 
power : but of this there is no sub^iantial 
proof. Born, I6U4 ; died, 1639. 

BERNARDEZ, Dieko, called by his 
countrymen the Portuguese Theocritus, 
was not more eminent as a pastoral poet, 
than as a brave warrior; and after numer- 
ous deeds of heroism, was taken prisoner 
by the Moors at the battle of Aicazaniulver, 
Died, 1596. 

BERNARD!, Auoubtub Frederic, a 
German philologist, wiiose great aim was 
to invent a universal grammar common to 
all languages, and who, in his endeavours 
to effect that object, displayed great inge- 
nuity and learning. Born, at Berlin, 1768 ; 
died, 1830. 

BERNARDI. John, a celebrated en- 
graver and ar;hitect. Died, 1555. 

BERNARDINE. a Romish saint ; canon- 
ized for his zeal in causing more than 300 
monasteries to l>e founded. Born at Massa, 
in Tuscany, 13ho; died, 1444. 

Hknhy, a philosopher and moralist; au- 
thor of " Paul and Virginia," " Studies of 
Nature," " Harmonies of Nature," Sic. 
During the reign of terror he narrowly 






a fi,t\D (Anibersal l3iograpf)Q. 


Guraped the guillotine ; but on Ntpoleon'a 
vxaltatlim to powi-r he received a (iciiklon. 
which clieere<l the f[\oom of povert; and 
(iiAirrat that had surrounded liioi. Born, 
1737 ; died, 1814. 

DI'.RNI, Franorsco, an eminent Italian 
poet of the I0th century. He remodelled Bo- 
Jardo'a Orlando J unamorato, and wan the 
author of " Rime Hurletche," and various 
Lailii poem*. Died, 1330. 

BRKNIA, or BI-:RNI, Francis, aTuacan 
poet ; called the Italian Scarron. Uieil, IS43. 

BKRNIER, Prancib, a French phjrslclan 
and traveller, who rcfiiiled at the court of 
Aurunfrzebe for twelve years a« his physi- 
cian. Me afterwards publi<ihed his travels, 
which, as a work of interest and authen- 
ticity, is irreally esteemed. Died, 1688. 

HERNIER, John, a French physician ; 
author of " Medical Essays," '< Critique on 
the Worlts of Rabilaia," ic. 

BERNINI, OiovANNi Lorrnzo, called 
// eavatifi Bernini, wax born in Naplei, 
IS98, and obtained amonfr his rotcinpora- 
ries tlie reputation of bulnic the Michael 
Antrelu of modern times, on account of his 
success as a painter, a statuary, and an 
architect. At the a^e of 18 he produced 
(he Apollo and Daphne, in marble, a mas- 
ter-piece of grace and execution ; and he 
continued in the inderatlgrable pursuit of 
ttie arts, as a Hculptor and an architect, 
till the period of his deatli, which happened 
in 1680, wlien lie was 83 years of are; 
having amassed a princely fortune bylii* 

DERNIS, Cardinal Francis Joachim dr 
PiRRREs DB, a French poet, who, in early 
life, liavtng written sonic liKht |>oenis which 
plea8e<i the noted Madame de Pompadour, 
she obtained for him a |)en!<iiin, and he 
subsequently Ailed important orttces in the 
state, waa sent as ambassador to Rome, 
and at lentfth he arrived at the diirnlty of 
a cardinal. The French revolution deprived 
him of his fortune, and reduced liiin to a 
slate of poverty in liis old affe, from which 
he was relleveu hy a pension from tlie Spa- 
nish court. Born, 1715; died, I7i)4. 

BI'^RNOUILLI, Jamrs, a celebrated ma- 
tliematician, born at Bale in 16.54; died, 1705. 

BEKNOUiLLI, John, brotlier of the 
ahove, and lilie nini an eminent mathema- 
tician. Ill fact, lie was regarded as tlie 
worthy rival of Newton and Leibnitz. 
Born, 1667; died, 1748. 

BERNOUILLI, Daniel, son of the last 
named ; professor of philosophy at BaKle ; 
and. like his father and uncle, \x-ry higlily 
skilled in the mathematics. Born, 1700; 
died, 1783. [Several otiier members of this 
family, not here Inserted, were also distin- 
Ruishud for their ma'hematical attain- 

BERNSTORFF,JoHN IIartwioErnrbt, 
count, a celebrated statesman in the em- 
ployment of the king of Denmark; and 
founder of the Danish Society of Language 
and the Fine Arts, and the Economical and 
Agricultural Society. Born at Hanover, 
17i'i; died, 1772. 

BERNSTORFF, Andrew Prter, count, 
nrphew oi tlie above, a Danish minister of 
stale. During the American war he effected 

the armed neutrality of Russia, Prusnia, 
Denmark, and Swe^ien, for the protection 
of the trade of those powers against the 
belliirerent*; and it was chiefly owing to 
his skilful policy that Denmark was pre- 
vented from being drawn Into collision with 
either Sweden or Russia, wlien the war 
broke out between those powers, in 1788. 
Born, 1735 ; died, 1797. 

DEROALDUS, Philip, an Italian pro- 
fessor of eloquence. Born, 1453; died, 1505. 

BEROALDUS, Philip, nephew of tlie 
above, an lulian p<jct, librarian of tlie 
Vatican under pope Leo X. Died, 151 h. 

BEROSUS, priest of the temple of Belus, 
at Babylon, In the time of Ptolemy Phlla- 
delphus. He wrote a hixtory of Cnaldtea, 
some fragmenta of whlcli are preserved by 

BERQUIN, Louia Di, a French gentle- 
man of noble family, burnt to death for 
ProtetUntism in 1539. 

BERQUIN, Arnauld, an elegant French 
writer; author of " Idyls," •'^L' Amides 
Enfans," and other Interesting worka for 
youth. Born, 1749; died, 1791. 

BERRBTINI, Nioholab, an eminent his- 
torical painter, pupil of Carlo Murattl. 
Born, 1(S17 ; died, 1083. 

BERRI, Charlrb Ferdinand drBodr- 
BON, duke de, second son of the count d' 
Artois. aflerwarda Charles X. of France: 
assassinated by one Louvel, who attacked 
him Just as he had left the opera-house, and 
was on ttie point of stepping into his car- 
riaire, Feb. 13, I830, He shared in common 
with the Bourbons all the reverses they 
were doomed to suffer ; and he deserved a 
better fate, if it were only for the benevo- 
lence of hlH character. 

BERRIMAN. William, an RnglUh di- 
vine; author of Ave volumes of Sermons, &c. 
Born, 1688; died, 1750. 

BEKRUYER, Joseph Isaac, a French 
Jesuit, whoKc writings were condemned at 
Rome for their too great lilieralUy ; author 
of a " History of the People of Ood," iic. 
Died, 1758. 

BERRY, Sir John, an English naval 
commander, knighted for his dutinguislied 
bravery at the battle of Southwold Bay. 
He died of poison, administered to him on 
board his ship, 1691. 

BERRY. Rear-admiral Sir Edward, 
Bart.. K.C.B. This officer was the only 
one in the royal navy who hail received 
three medals for his services, having com- 
manded a liiic-of -battle ship in the memora- 
ble battles of the Nile, Trafalgar, and St. 
Domingo. Died, 1831. 

BERSMANN, Georoe, a learned Ger- 
man; author of Notes on some of the 
Classicfi, and of a Latin version of tlie 
Psaime of David. Born, 1538; died, 1611. 

BERTAUT, John, a French prelate and 
poet; chaplain to Catherine de Medicis, 
and secretary of the cabinet to Henry III. 
Born, I.S62; died, 1611. 

BERTH I ER,WiLLiAMFRANCi8,a learned 
Jesuit ; one of the editors of the Journal de 
Trevoux, and translator of the Psalms into 
French. Born, 1704; died, 1783. 

BERTHIER, Joseph Stephen, a French 
philosopher of the Society of the Oratory ; 






I i * 





^ I 

ii ii 


^ llrtD (ilnibrrsal Hioqra^fi^. 


aiiilinr nf " l'hy«li|u<] tlvt romclii," Sec. 
Born, 1710 ; dic<l, 1783. 

DF.RTIIIKK, Alkxanokr, prince of 
Ni'uri-lialel mitl Wat^ram, a iiiarnhal and 
vit-L'-cuiiilable of France, was Jwrn at Ver- 
•ailUw, In I7A.1, and mtyH with Lsirajrctie 
In the war <>f American hxleitcndencc. At 
the comnienccmfntor the French revolution 
he wa* m.ule a general oiticer, fouirht gal- 
lanil/ in La Veiulee, and wai at the head 
of llnonaimrte's Htan III Italv, Eifjrpt, and 
Germany ; In nhort, he wan tne comimnlon 
of Na|M>leon In all liUeX|M'dlllnnii, occupying 
one of the chief Ktatloiit, and honoured 
with hit entire conHdence. On the reatora- 
tioii of l.ouii), however, in lHt4, he ininic- 
dlalely reco);nlzi'd hU authority, and wat 
crealetl ajieer: b'.it when hit former nianter 
returned froni KIba, he retired to hii lainily 
at Bamberir, where, a« *oon as the niuitlc of 
the Russian troo|t«, on their in:irch to the 
Frencii borders, wa^ heard at the gates of 
the city, lie put an end to his life in a flt of 
frenzy or remorse^ by throwing himself 
from a window of the third story of his 
palsice, JuiH! I, IhiA. 

UFJilHULLKT, CuAUDR Ixntm, crunt, 
one of the most eminent chyinists of the 
day, was l>orn at Talloire, Savoy, in n4t>, 
andsludlid medicine at 1nrin. lie afler- 
w.irils settleti in I'aris, where he became in- 
timate with Lavoisier, wasadniitt»d a mem- 
ber of the Academy of Sciences, and made 
profesfior of the normal school, lli; accom- 
panied HiionaiArlc to Kgypt, and returned 
with him ; and, during tlie eni|H>ror'8 rei^cn, 
was made a senator and an olficer of the 
legion of honour ; notwithstanding wliich he 
was one of the flrst to dei>ert iiis patron 
when ills fortunes were on the decline : for 
which he receivid the title of count ironi 
Louis Will. His principal woil( is " Kiwai 
de Statlnue Chlmique," but he wrote many 
other valuable eshays, and had also a large 
share In the reformation of the chemical 
nomenclature. Died, 1833. 

BERTIIULON, N. i»R St. Lazarb, a 
French chemist and nliilo»oplier of the I8th 
century, whose works on a:roi<tation, elec- 
tricity, and other scieiititiv^ iiibjecl.'*, evince 
much learning and ability. Uorii at Lyons, 
and died In 1799. 

BERTHUI)D,FERDiNAND,a skilful Swiss 
clock and chronometer maker; author of 
" Trait* dcs Horologes M.;,rine :" " His- 
toirede la Mesure du I'emiw par ies Horo- 
loges," &c. Born at I'lancemont, Neuf- 
ciiatel, 1737; died, 1607. His nephew, 
Louis, inherited his talents, and was not 
less celebrated than his uncle. The accu- 
racy of their chronometers Is proverbial. 

BERTf , ^LBXANDEH PoMFKY, a native of 
Lucca ; author of " La Caduta de' decem- 
viri della Roraana Republica," &c. Born, 
1686 ; died, 1753. 

BERTI, John Laurbncb, an Italian 
monk, and general of the order of the Au- 
gustines; author of some Italian poetry, a 
work " De Disciplinis Tbeologicis," Sec. 
Born, IfiM ; died, 1766. 

UERTl, John Laurbncb, an Augustine 
monk ; author of an " Ecclesia^ticai His- 
tory," in Latin, &c. Born, 1696 ; died, 1766. 
BERTIE, WiLLOuoHBY, earl of Abing- 
don; a nobleman distinguished equally by 

his talent and his eccentricity, lie was au- 
thor of reveral |>olitical and satirical pam- 
phlets ; for one of wliich— the reixirt of a 
speech he had delivered in parliMment— he 
wa* prosecuted, and imprisoned In the 
Kinir's liehch. Died, I7UI. 

liEKI'IN, JoaRPH, a French physician 
and anatomist ; author of a treatise on 
Osteology, and other valuable works on 
anatomy. Born, 1713; died, 1781. 

BBRI'IN, Anthony, a French military 
officer and an elegant noet ; author of a 
" Collection of Elegies," and other |K>ems, 
which were greatly esiecnied. born in the 
isle of lioiirbon, 1753; ditd at St. Do- 
mingo, 1790. 

BEKI'INAZZI, CiiARtRt Antront, a 
celebrated comedian, and an accoiuplisned 
wit, was born at Turin, in 1713, and for 
more than forty years was one of the most 
diHiini^ushed comic actors at Paris. Died, 

BKRTOLI, GioVANNt DoMRNico, bnrn 
In 1676, obtained the name of the patriarch 
ofAquileia, fiom his having llrst directed 
attention to tlii! anilquliles of that place, 
and for his successful endeavours to pre- 
vent the inhabitants from mutilating or de 
siroying them. Died, 1758. 

HEK riUS, Peter, professor of mathe 
matics, and cosmographer to the king of 
France ; author oi " 1'heatruni Geogra- 
phia Veteris," SlC. Born, 1505 ; died, 1630. 
IIERTHAM, Cornelius Bonavrnturb, 
Helircw professor at Geneva and Lausanne ; 
author of a " Di-»ertation on ihe Republic 
of the Hebrews," &c. Born, I&31 ; died, 1594. 
UERIRAND, John Baptibt, a French 
phyi-ician ; authok of a " Historical Account 
of the Plague at Marseilles," Sic. Born, 
1670; died, 1753. 

BERTRANUI, John Aubrosb Maria, 
an eminent surgeon and anatomist of Turin ; 
author of a treatise on surgical operations, 
and various other professional works. Born, 
1733 ; died, 1765. 

BERULLE, Pierre de, cardinal, foun- 
der of the Congregation of the Oratory. 
He was einployt^ in many aiTalrs of state 
in France; and accompanied Henrietta 
Maria, wile of Charles L, to England. 
Died, 1639. 

BLRWICK, James Fitzjamks, duke of, 
natural son of James II. and ArabeJa 
Churchill, sUter of the duke of Marlbo- 
rough ; a distinguished and gallant soldier, 
and author of a valuable volume of Me- 
moirs. Killed at tlie siege of Philipsburgh, 
in 1734. 

BERYLLUS, an Arabian bishop, of the 
third century ; converted by Origen from 
his heterodox opinion, that Christ had no 
existence prior to his incarnation. 

BKSOLDE, Ciiribtopiier, a counsellor 
of Vienna: author of a " Synopsis of Poli- 
tics," a" History of the Ottoman Empire," 
SiC. Born, 1577 ; died, 1638. 

BESPLAS. Joseph, a French divine ; au- 
thor oi an " Essay on Pulpit Eloquence," 
&c. Born, 1734 ; died, 1783. 

BESSARION, John, a Greek priest, one 
of the mo>t eminent revivers of learning in 
the 15th century, and founder of the noble 
library of St. Mark, at Venice. He trans- 

THB troubles that comb or NECKSSITY, OVOHT to be BORNB with FiiRTITUDB. 










fl ^rtai lAtiibrrftiv'. t3iograpf)|)- 





l«ie<l from Ariitnilr, Xniophon, Mr. ; mid 
ce.ilnukly defrnilrtl i'Ulo tjpiinit the alUrk* 
or Ueorite of Trebixond. He van inadp a 
cardinal by poiie Eugrne, and had Iho title 
of patriarcli oi Coii»lantino|ile iciveii hlui 
by I'iiu II. Dorn, 1 30.1; died, 1473. 

IIESSIKRF^, John IIaftist, dnkc of Ir- 
tria, and a French roanhal, Ma« iKirn at 
I'oltnii, in I7S9. He di«liii|culi>hrd himMlf 
in many mrmnrablc balllet, and wan hlrhlv 
««t«'rnifd by Naimlmii for hi* honour, tklll, 
and braverv. lie fell in the roiubat that 
preceded the battle of Lutxen. 

UETHF.NCOURT, John ue, • Norman 
baron, sind a military adventurer, who con- 
'incred til' Canary iciandf, and afierwani* 
held them as a lief of the crown of Castllu. 
Died, n-a. 

BKTHLKM-GABOR, a native ofTranty I- 
vania, wlxweconraire and wily policy made 
him ruler of that country, ami eiialtled him 
to die in |>eaceable |ios!ie*«ion of it, In opite 
of the utmost efforu of the emperor of 
Germany. Died, IS39. 

BKTIS, governor of Gan, who for 
hr.ive defence of it was put to death 
Alexander the Great, and dra^f^cd at 
chariot wlieeU when dead, b. c. 333. 

UErPEBTON, Thomas, a celebrated 
actor : he excelled in the repreiU'nt'.ilion of 
Shaktpeare's principal tragic characters. 
Born, 163.5; died, I7u0. 

DETTINELLI, Xavirr. a Jesuit of Man- 
tua, and, on the suppression of his order, 
teacher of elixiuence at Modena. He was 
an elegant and accomplished writer, epis- 
tolary, ilramatic. and poetical; hit princi- 
pal work is tlic *' Lettere dieci di Virgiiio 
a^li Arcadi." Born, 1718 ; died, I808. 

BE'rrs, John, an Engiisli physician of 
the time of Charles II.; author ol'^a treatise 
" De Ortii et Nalura Sanguinis," Sec. 

BETULEIUS, SisTus, a Suabian; pro- 
vost of the college of AunburB ; author of 
a " Concordance of the New festament," 
" Commentaries on Cicero," and other 
classics, Sec. Died, 1554. 

BETUSSE, Joseph, an Italian poet of 
the I6ih century : he translated into Italian 
the Ijitin work* of Boccacio, and wrote a 
life of him. 

BEUERNONVILLE, Peter Ribl, Count 
de, a French marshal : minister of war in 
I7U3; ambassador at Berlin and Madrid 
during the consulate, and under the empire 
trraiKToiticer of the legion of honour. He 
voted for the deposition of Na|K>leon, and 
attached himself to Louis, by whom he was 
rewarded with the title of marshal. Died, 


BEUF, John lb, a French antiquary; 
author of " Memoirs of the History of 
Auxerre," Sec. Ik»rn, I6©7 ; died, 1670. 

BEULANUS, Samuel, a British annalist, 
supposed to have flourished in the ninth 
century, who made some additions to Neu- 
nius's ^' Hisloria Britonum." 

BEUTHER. Michael, a German physi- 
cian and antiquary; author of " Animad- 
versiones Historicie et Chronographicte," 
" Commentaries on Sallust, Tacitus," Sec. 
Died, I5«7. 

BEVER. Dr. Thomas, an Englbh civi- 
lian; a judf^e of the Cinque Pons, and au- 

tlior of a trealls<- on " The Legal Polity of 
tlie KonianM," Aic. Uled, I7VI. 

IIEVERIDGE, William, bishop of St. 
Anaph ; an eminent orientalist, critic, and 
ttieolnifian, and one of the moot dlslin- 
guislied scholars that ever adorned the 
prelacy, was born at Harrow, Lliicolnidilre, 
In I6:IH, and educated at St. Jolsn's College, 
Cumlirid;,'e. He was the author of numer- 
ous works; amoiiK whicli are 13 volumes ol 
*' Sermons," " I'rivale Fliouglils on Reli- 

tlnn," " Instituiioiiuni Cliroiiologicjruni 
ibn duo," Sev. For plely ami simplicity of 
character he was ever distinguished: and 
he iH'queathed the principal part of his pro- 
perty to charitable uses. Uied, 17C7. 

BEVER LAN I), A phi an, a Dutch civi- 
lian, who nroHlitUted ills pen to tlie roniim- 
silion of oWeiH! works, for which he was 
Imprinoned. lie died insane, about 1713. 

BEVERLY, John of, tutor to the vene- 
rable Bede, and subHe<|uently archbishop 
of York. He was one of the nioNt learned 
men of his time, and several of his devo- 
tional treatises are still extant. Died, 731. 

REVERNINCK, Jerome Van, a Dutch 
staiesman ; greatly instrumental in |>er- 
fecting the treaty of Nimeugen, which pro- 
duced a general peace. Born,IGl4 ; dicd,IO<JU. 

UEVERWICK, John dr. a Dutch phy- 
sician ; author of some valuable works on 
professional subjects. Born, 1594 ; died, 1647. 

BEWICK, John, an English artist re- 
siding at Newcastle, whose " History of 
Qu idriiiieds," by the beauty and spirit uf its 
illustrations, gave the llrNt inipuUe to that 
improvenioiit in the art of wood engraving 
which has at length been carried to such 
exquisite perfectifin. Died, 1795. His bro- 
ther, Thomas, who followed the same pro- 
fession, died in 1838. 

BEWLY, William, an English chemist 
and natural philosopher, whose rcsearclies 
and experiments did much for the improve- 
ment of chemistry. He published some 
valuable papers In the Monthly Review, 
but left no separate treatise. Died, I7H3. 

BEYER, Georob, a German lawyer and 
law lecturer ; author of " NoUUo! auctorum 
Judicorum," Sec. Died, 17M. 

BEYER, or BE(ER, AuouiTua, a German 
divine ; author of historical and critical re- 
marks on scarce books. Sec. Died, 1741. 

BEZA, Theodore, a native of France, 
and, for some time a Catholic and prior of 
Longjumeau. The tutor under wliom he 
studied imbued his mind witii Protestant 
principles, and having married, attachment 
to his wile added force to his scruples of 
conscience. Abandoning the preferment 
he already ei^oyed and the still higher ones 
which he doubtless might have attained to, 
he fled to Geneva. Thence he went to 
Lausanne, where he became professor of 
Greek, but Anally settled at Geneva, and 
became Calvin's colleague ia both the 
church and the university. He greatly aided 
in diffusing and upholding the principles of 
the Reformers, and was a very versatile 
writer. His Latin poems are elegant, and 
his controversial prose very subtle and vi- 
gorous. But his writings are now but tittle 
consulted, if we except his Latin version of 

the drunkard's work is little, Birr his expenses are great. 

. .'I 

II < > 

i r 



] a lletD 9itn(ber«al liiograpfis. 

thtt New TMlamcnt, with note*. Dorn, 
tSIO ; (lluil, 1006. 

KIAGIOI.I, JoiAPiiAT. an Italian llniruUI, 
profiKiior of Gruek ami Li»Un at IJrbliio; 
and nftcrwardii, while rfnlillng in I'arln, the 
aiitlinr n( Coinmi-nlariiit on the povni* of 
Uintc, Mlrhacl Anicelo, Sec. Died, iH3l. 

HIANCMI, John Antomo, an Italian 
nuink and inc|iil«ltor nt Konie; author of 
drama* ; a ircatlae " Delia potcite e |>oll- 
lia della Chie«a," ^c, publtthed under the 
name of Farnahio Oiachomo Annutinl. 
Died, 1748. 

lUANCHI, Antonio, ft Venetian rondo- 
Her of the iHth century, who obtained great 
note by hit poetical talents; author oi " II 
Tenipli ovvcro di Solomone," " A Trestlte 
on Italian ComMjr," &c. 

BIANCHI, John, known alto by the Latin 
name of Janub HLANCua, ft celebrated lu- 
llan phyilclan, auatomM, and naturallut, 
and the reviver of the Academy of the 
Leincei. Born at Rlrolnl, 16V3; died, Wi. 

BIANCHI, Pranois, a musical composer, 
born at Cremona ; author of " DIsertor 
Franchesc," " Semlramide," Ac. He carae 
to Eniflami, wrote " Castore e Polliice" for 
Madame Slorace, and " [net de Casiro" 
for Mrs. Uilllnfton; and died early in the 
present century. 

IIIANCIIINI, Francis, a philosopher and 
matiieniatirian of Verona ; author of " Is- 
toriu Universale provatacon M'inumenilet 
figiirata con symboli df|;li Antichi,'* and a 
vast number of scientillc and literary trea- 
tises. Born, 1663 ; died, 17'.i9. 

BIAS, one of the seven sajres of Orcere, 
and ft native of Priene, in Ionia ; cclcbralcd 
for his knowledee ami strict reg;iril to Jus- 
tice. He Hourishcd in the Mixth and seventh 
centuries, B.C., and died at a very advanced 

BIBIENA, MiRNARDO DA, ft Roman car- 
dinal, raised from a low origin )iy Leo X. ; 
author of aconiedy entitled " I-aCalandria," 
greatly admired in Italy. Born, 1470 ; died, 
by poison, as is suppose'), IS30. 

BIBIENA, Ferdinand Galli, an emi- 
nent painter and architect. Born, at Bo- 
logna, I6J7 ; died, 1743. 

BICHAT, Maris Francis Xavikr, a ce- 
lebrated French physician ; author of " Phy- 
siological KeHcarcnes respecting Life and 
Deatii," " Anatomy as applied to Phy- 
siology and Medicine," Sec. Born, 1771 ; 
died, 1603. 

miral of the Red, and at nne time a lord of 
the admiralty: a meritorious n.nal offirer, 
who, although he successively served un- 
der Howe, Nelson, and other illustrious 
commanders, never had the good fortune to 
assist in those great victories which im- 
moruUzed their names. Born, 173!) ; died 

BICKERSTAKF, Isaac, a dramatic writer 
of the 18th century ; author of " Love in a 
Village," " Lionel and Clarissa," &c. 

BIDDERMAN, John Gottlibb. a Ger- 
man writer, and rector of tbe.public school 
at Friedburif ; author of treatises " De 
Latinitate Maccaronica," " De insolentia, 
titulorum llbrariorum," Ssc. Died, 177:2. 


DIDDLE, John, r Sorinfan writer of con- 
siderable note in the Udm of Charles I. and 
during the Commonwealth, and now re- 
garded as tJie founder of Unitarian doctrines ; 
author of" Confessions of Faith concerning 
the llolv Trinity," and other works in de- 
fence of his principles. He was more than 
once iirosecutcd and Imiirisoned, and died 
of a fever caught in gaol In 1033. 

DIDLAKE, John, Dr., a dlviae of the 
church of England; author of" The Country 
Parson," and other poems, " An Introduc- 
tion to Geography," ta. Bom, 17M ; died, 

RIDLOO. GoorRBY, ft Dutch anatomist : 
ftttlbor of " Anfttomift Corporis Humanl," 
Sic. Born, I64B ; died, 1713. 

BIEL, a German ecclesiastic, professor 
of divlDlty at Tubingen ; author of '* Lec- 
tures on the Mass," Stc. Died, 149S. 

BIEL, John CiiRisnAN, a Oermftn Pro- 
tesunt dlTlne, pastor at Brunswick ; author 
of a valuable Lexicon of the .Septuag int 
version of the Old Testament. Died, 1745. 

BIELFIELD, Jamgb Frbokric, Baron 
de, a celebrated modern writer; author of 
" Political Iiutiiutions," kc. Born, at Ham- 
burgh, 1717 ; died, 1770. 

BIEVRE, Marksghal, Marquis de, a 
life-guard of the king of France, not un- 
known as an author, but far more for his 
puns and repartees. 1'he following an<'C- 
doie shows the inveteracy of his habit, 
while it proves " the ruling passion strong 
in death." He went to Spa to recruit hu 
health, but died there ; and, when at the 
point of death, said to those around him, 
*' Mes amis, Je ni'en vais de cc pas" (de 
Spa). Uorn, 1747 ; died, 1769. 

niGLAND, John, a voluminous uritir, 
whose llrst publication did nr>tapp(:ar till he 
was fifty years of age ; author of " A Sy»- 
tein of Geography and History" " Histo- 
ries of Spain and England," *' Letters on 
Englishand French History," &c.vVc. Died, 
I8J2, aged 63. 

niGM'., Marquekin dk la, a doctor of 
the Snrbnnne ; compiler of the first edlllnn 
of the " bibliotheca Patrum." He \tas 
born in 1546, and died at Paris about the 
close of the I6th century. 

BIGNEY, Ghacf. de la, a French eccle- 
siastic : author of a poem entitl«tl " Le 
Roman dcs Oiseaux." Died about 1374. 

BIGMCUURT, Simon DR,,a counsellor 
of Rhelms ; author of " I'ensees ct Reliec- 
tious PhilosopLiqucs." Born, 1709; died, 

BIGNON, Jeromk, a learned French 
writer; anthor of treatJHes "On Rome and 
its Antiquitie4»," "On the election of the 
Pones," &c. ; and editor of the " Formulte" 
of Marculplius. Born, 1380 ; died, 1636. 

BIGNON, John Paul, grandson of the 
above, librarian to the king of France : au- 
thor of " Les Avantures d' Abdalla Itis d' 
Hanitf," Sec. Died, 1743. 

BIGOT, Americ, an eminent French 
scholar. He askistctl in the publication of 
several works ; and having discovered Pal- 
lodiiis's Life of Chrysoxtnm in the duke's 
lihrary at Florence, he published both the 
Greek text and his own Latin translation of 
it. Born, I6S6 ; died, 1689. 





a lletD 91tntbrr0al Biograpfis. 


llli.DF.IlDYK, 0., a nio<1«>rn Dulih |ioi<t, 
bnrii III I7IU), and niii> of lli<! Itr»t nf lilt 
iniintry ; uiiili'>r of llip " Deulh of (Edl- 
i.u«;"" Till' Falrjf VrgtU- :" " Winler 
V'lowi-rit and Autiiniu Lcavtn;'' and ni'veral 
nirrUoiloiiii iraii«Utliin« from lli« (ireek 
l>o<-iN and Iragudijim, from I'o|h-'s EMajr 
on Man, kv. 

lULI-'INUKR, ORonnr. Drrnaro, a 
(icrnian writer and iirol'oitnr uf |>lillt)ito|ihjr 
and (In'olmry. He win a man of most i>x- 
ifiiHlvc Icaminar, and Uii^ autlior of " Uilii- 
rid.ilionvs i'hilo«o|tldca-/' Uc. Uorn, I6J3; 
died, 17V). 

IIII.GUKR, John Rlric, a 8wis« mir- 
fri'oii ; author of M'vvral |irori-«i>ioiial trea- 
liiicii, in one of wliU-li he nialntainii thu in- 
utility of aniputsllon in catc* of guiuliot 
woiindit. DittI, 1700. 

niLLAUD, Varbnnr* pk, the M>n of a 
French advin-ate at Ki)cliellc,,wa<i educated 
at tlic name college a« Fouche, and iinived 
hiinnelf one of tlie niont violent and i.aiij(ui- 
nary rharacters <>f (he French revolution. 
lie >>ore a iirlnclpal part in the murder* 
and horrid inaMacre* which followe«i the 
deiitriictinn of the Uaitilc ; voted immediate 
death to tlie unfortunate Loiili XVI ; and 
officiated a* president of the Convention on 
the I8th of Oct., I79J. lie wan attt-rwardii 
deported to Cayenne, and luhitlHted on a 
■mall penalon allowed him by I'ethloii. 
Died at St. Uominfro, In 1819. 

BILLING, SiniiMOND, a patriotic and 
connUtent French liberal, born at Caliuar, 
in Altacc, In 1773. He entered the arniv at 
the very coiiimencemciit nf the revolution, 
and diiiiii^uUhed hi'iiielf at the battle of 
GenapiH* and on other occasions ; was 
coinmU»ary of war to the armies of the 
North, the llliine, kc. in 1793, and to the 
army of Germany at the time of General 
Moreau'i retreat ; and was present In many 
celebrated battles and sieges. In conse- 
quence of certain changes in the govern- 
ment, he for a time retired to private life, 
and devote<l his time and taienti to the 
formation of Bible Societies and tht^ educa- 
tion of Protestant youth. But I. ;V'l not 
wholly abandon the mllitarv pr.it siun: 
and, when the reverses of Napolc : had 
endani;ered the kafety of France, Biilinif, 
as the commander of a legion of iU-y na- 
tional guard, surrounded and defended the 
chamber of representatives while it was in 
the act of pronouncing the emperor's for- 
feiture, and was otiierwise active In bring- 
ing about his alidication. He was also, In 
concert with General la Fayette, greatly 
instrumental In cffectinif the revolution of 
I83U, which seated Louis I'hilippe on the 
throne ; preserving tliroughoiit his charac- 
ter a love of rational liberty, and a sin- 
cere reifard for the happiness and morals of 
the people. He died In 1833. 

BILLINGTON, Emzabbtii, the mo»t ce- 
lebrated English female singer of her time. 
She was of German extraction, though born 
in England. Her popularity was equally 
great in England and on the Continent, and 
remained undiminished to the very close of 
her puUic career in 1809. Died, 1817. 

BILLINGSLEY, Sir Henry, was a native 
or Canterbury, who, as a London trades- 
man, acquired great wealth, and became its 

chief mairUtratr. He was taught mathema- 
tics by an expelled friar, to whom lie had 
geiieroiitiv slveii shelter and support, and 
was thi! /Irst who puhlUhtMl Kmiid's Ele- 
ments in English. Uled, imO. 

BILSON, Thomas, bUhop of Winchester 
In the reigns nf queen Elliabelh and James 
I. ; autlior of a treatise on ( hrliti's Utwcent 
into Hell, and one of the tran»lator» of the 
Bible. Born, liJ8 ; die<t, 1016. 

BINGHAM, JotRfH, an eminent F.nglinh 
di\ Ine ; author of « Uriglneit Ecclesiasticir," 
" Scholastic History of Lay BaptUm," &c. 
Born, 1608 ; died, 1733. 

BINGHAM, Sir GKonnx Rinotrr, a ma- 
jor-general in the British army, was born 
in 1777. He entered the service In 1703, as 
an ensign In the 69th foot ; and progreMlvely 
advanced in different regiments, nil he be- 
came lieutenant-colonel of the i'iA, b4>ing 
present at the most ini|>ortaiit tramtactlons 
in the Peninsula, for which services he was 
rewarded by knighthood. He afterwards 
had thecharge of Buonaparte from England 
to SI. Helena, where he remained several 
years, and was promoted to the rank of 
major-general, and colonel-commandant of 
the 3d rifle brigade. Died, January, 1833. 

BIN(ai:Y (descended from Engiinh pa- 
rents, and considered as the Garrick nf the 
Dutch stage), was born at Uotterdam, In 
17ij, and Jitd in 1818. 

BINGLEY, William, a clergYman: au- 
thor of " Animal Biography," "Memoirs of 
British Quadrupeds,'^ \c. he. Dud, 1833. 

BIKKUECK, MoHRif, an EnKlish gen- 
tleman wlio emigrated to America, where 
he purchased so va<>t a tract of land as to 
acquire the title of " Emperor of the Prai- 
ries;" author of "Utters from Illinois," 
" Notes of a Journey In America," &c. &:c. 
He was accidentally drowned in I83S. 

BLACKWELL, Alrxanorr, a Scottish 
pliVHician, who settled in Sweden, and was 
beheaded there, for supposed participation 
in a conspiracy, 1746. 

BiON, a Greek philosopher, in the reign 
nf Antigonus Gonalus, king or Macedon, in 
the third century, B.C. Some few frag- 
mentii of his writings remain. 

BION, a Greek pastoral |ioet : his |)oems, 
published with those of his friend and dis- 
ciple, Mosclius, are remarkable for siniiiii- 
city and sweetness. By some he is said to 
have lived in the second, and by others in 
the third century, b. c. 

BION, Nicholas, a French mathemati- 
cian ; author of a " Trcatice on tlie Use of 
the Globes," &c. Died, 1733. 

BIRAGUE, Clbment, an engraver on 
gems, said to have been the flrst discoverer 
of the art of engraving on diamonds. He 
wa< born at Milan, and flourished during 
the middle of the 16th century. 

BIRAGUE, Rrnr dr, a Milanese of noble 
family, who soU)<[lit shelter in France from 
the vengeance of l/>nis Sforza, and became 
a cardinal and chancellor of France. He 
is infamously memorable as one of the au- 
thors of tlie niassacre of St. Bartholomew. 
Born, 1509 ; died, iS83. 

BIRCH, Thomas, originally a Quaker, 
but subsequently a divine of tlie Church oi 
England. He was an industrious historian 




ill I 

) ■. 








a lletai lAnibrrMl l3iograpl)9. 


mill bloKr»|ihrr J himI niiihor, amonf many 
oIIht Work*, or h " liutnrv of lliu Rnyal 
Socli'ly ;" •' Mfiiinirii of llie Kclrnof UU)'(>ii 
I:iI/»Im'||i," \l'. Ilurn, I7u.t ; dfi-d, 17OU. 

Ill 1(1), Wii.i.iAM, an pnilnciit miit'rian In 
tliu rclKii of Kllxah«-tli. lie clilrfly coiniHiMtl 
iMi-r<*<l niunlc : and lo Mm " Non nobis l)»- 
mine" I* atlrlbiiti^. Uorn, 1343 ; dii;<l, 1633. 

IIIRI), John, Hn nninent nialhcniallctl 
inxirunii'ht niakir ; author of " Tlic M«- 
tliod ol roimtrncUnfl Mural Quadrant*," tic, 
Died, I7M. 

niltO,KnwAnn(lt.'A.)iipAinlrr, rhleAy 

of roiiiio mibieclii, hut uiio alio nxcrntH 
many rcllKloua :in<l liiklorlcal iiliTni. and 
wan nia<lc liUlnrlrnl ii^inliT to Ihi* iirinceM 
Clmrlotlv of \>'iilc)l. lioni, 1771 ; dicil, ISIO. 

Olltl'N, JniiN F.RNKaT DR. duke of four- 
land, who, thuuKli tii« Non or a p«aiant, by 
liU liaudfonie puraon and nddrcM, obialncd 
an unlH>undpd infliifncu ovrr Annr, dauKb- 
tcr of I'l-ler I. and ilucliew of Courlnnd, 
who, wht-n (he ancundcd tli<> throne of 
UukhI.i, coniniUtcd the rt-inii of Kovcrnnicnt 
lo Kireii, niudc hlni duke nf Courliind, iind 
at her death, In 1740, left liliu rcircnt of the 
empire. He wn* Hiib«ei|uenllY banlNhi'd lo 
Siberia; rei-nlled by I'eter (11., and hU 
duchy rentored to him bv C.itliarine. in 1703, 
but wiilcli, nix yenm afterwardi, ne rellii- 
qui«hed in favour of his eldent ion. Uorn, 
l(iH7; died, I77». 

illKKKNIIEAU, Sir John, a poliiiinl 
writiT of the I7in nntury ; mveral liinrs 
impriiioMrd durinir tht Comnionweaitli fur 
wrUln)r in favour uf the exiled king. Horn, 
liil.'i: died, 1670. 

UIKKIIEAU, Hrnhy, a modern Latin 
poci, born in 1617 ; autlior of " Utlum Lite 
rarium." &c. lie died nt the latter end of 
tlie nth century. 

UIKON, Armand dr Gontatjt, baron 
de, a relebrated French ffeneral. lidMoured 
witti the fricndHhIp of Henry IV. Hf wiu 
hiain at the aleifc of Epernay, In Chain- 
pat^ne, in 1503. 

IIIRON, Charles dk Gomtaut, duke de, 
non of the above ; admiral and marshal of 
France, and a favourite of Henry IV., who 
appointed hlin hli ambaaandor to England, 
Itc., and rained him to the dukedom. He 
was, howtrer, leduced b^ ihc Intrlfjues of 
the court of Spain to Join In a conopinicy 
ai(aln»thU royal and truly reneroux friend ; 
for which crime he waa tried, condemned, 
and beheaded, In 1603. 

BIRON, DuKB DR Lauzdn, born about 
1700 ; one of the most celebrated men of 
the French revolution, remarkable at once 
for his amours, his iittachment to liberty, 
and his militarv exploits. He served with 
La Fayette in America; and attached hlin- 
Hclf to the party of the duke of OrleaiiH, on 
his return. In 1793 he was joined with 
'lalleyrand in a mission to this country; 
on his return, served under Kociiambcmu, 
in Flanders ; and perished by tlie guillotine 
at tlie end of 1703, on a charge of counter- 
revolution. He died stoicaliv. orderinir 
oysters, and driiikinff wine with the exe- 

BISCHOP, John de, a Dutch historical 
and landsca|)c painter. Boru, 1646; died, 

UISCHOP, Samubl, an English divine uid 
|>oet. Born, I7ai ; died, 1705. 

P.lsroF., RirfiAni>, an EnRllsh divine; 
author of " The History of the Art* of the 
Apo«iles, ronnrroed by other Authors." 
I)le<l, 1748. 

BISI, BoNAVRNTURR, an cxlremed Bo- 
loi(iiesr miniature and historical painter. 
Died, |(M3. 

BISSET, Charlrs, anabh* physician, and 
a writer on fnrtiflcalinn, which art be studied 
while In the 43d rrfrlmeiil, and reielved 
■iromotion for his skill in it at the sleire of 
Berren-op-ZooMi, bv the duke of Cumber- 
land. Born, 1710; died, 1701. 

IIISSKT, .Iamrs, an Ingenhms arlisl and 
amusing writer, was liornat Perth, In 1703, 
but ).eltled early In life at Blrminghara, 
where he estahltxhed a iiiiiseum and shop 
for curiosities, which he afterwards re- 
moved to Leamington. He had a remark- 
able fiicllity in wrilliiK rhymes; and lM>ing 
ever ready to make his muKe Mibserve Ihe 
cau»e of loyally, or aid Ihe pr<igress of art. 

his various works pres4-nt a nioiley anpear- 

l^ularly droll and 

'< (Juides," " Directories," 

ks jirei 

anee, and an 

and " I'oelic Surveys" of the towns in 
which he iited, look nddiv enough when 
placed In JuMaposliion with " Patriotic 
I'iarions," " Critical EHsayn/'and "Comic 
Stricliires on tlic Fine Arts :" yet such were 
ainoM!,' his numerous productions, all of 
which are more or less Indebted (or their 
nniorleiy to tliejingleof rhyme. Die«l, mas. 

BISSET, ItoHRRT, a native of Scotland ; 
author of a " Life of Burke;" a " Sketch 
of Democracy," *c. Died, l«oa. 

DISSON, H. T. J. O., b«irn in 17«7;a 
French general, who fought in most of Na- 
poleon's campaigns, l,'.) his death, at his 
return In I8I I. lie was of prodigious size, 
strength, and appetite, and was always sup- 
plied with double raiiuns of food by order 
of Napoleon. 

BITAUBF., Paul Jrrrmiah, the son of 
French refugee parents at Konlgsberg, 
where he was born. In t7'i3, but In aner life 
settled In Paris. He was an author of con- 
siderable repute, and patronised by Frede- 
rick II. of Prussia and by Napoleon. He 
translated ifomcr, and wrote " Joseph" and 
other poems. Died, 1 808. 

BIVAK, Don Rodiiigo Dias dr, or /A« 
Cid, a hero of Spain, whose aslnnlslilng va- 
lour In various encounters with the IMoors, 
and Ills uiiiust banishment, afforded rich ma- 
terials both for history and romance. Born 
at Burpos, 1010 ; died at Valencia, 1090. 

Bl/ur, Pierre, a French writer; au- 
thor of a curious work, entitled, " llistoire 
Medallique de la llepubllquc de Hollande." 
Born, 1636; died, 1600. 

BLACK, Joseph, an eminent chemist, 
born at Bordeaux, in Fniiice, but of Scottish 
parents; author ot " Lectures on Chemistry," 
besides other valuable works ; and of whom 
it may Justly be said, that few men have 
made more important discoveries in chemi- 
cal science. Born, 1738 ; died, 1709. 

BLACKBDRNE, Francis, an English 
divine, eniineiit as a tlieolngical writer, and 
reinarkable for the publication of works 
favouring dissent from the church to which 



..-*''»■* ^•» - 





































9 lleta) (tintbersal 13iogr&pI)9. 

[ill. A 

hr brlonnrd. He wbi arrlulekcon of Cleve- 
land and a prebrnd of York; but no llitic 
of a cliiin'hinan In hU wriiinirii, that lin wuh 
invited to luceiied Ur. (Chandler at mlnUler 
nfthe chapet In the Uld Jewry. Uorii, I70i; 
dlrd, I7M7. 

liLACKU)CK, TnoMAi, a Scotch divhif 
and |ioel ; author of " The (•rahain," an 
heroic ballad; " Raniark* on Civil Llborty," 
&c. Born, 1731 ; died, I7BI. 

BLACKMORE, Sir KioiiARD, a phyilcian 
and |ioet ; and tlie author of luauy Morki 
iKitli in prose and senv, the principal of 
which la hit poem, tiititifd *' Creation." 
Llv|u||r>«hedid in the time of Drydcn, I'ope, 
and other wita and talirlttt, to whom he 
waj op|)oiied In polliict, he met with an 
unmerited degrree of ridicule; fur ilioUKh 
at a poet he waa Inferior to many. h<; wat 
hy no meant dettltuteof tali-nt, and what U 
better, he Kimtiiincd llif reputation nf liflnf; 
a piout and coniM-ienil»tifi man. Uied, I7'.<*J. 

BLACKSTONE, Sir William, an emi- 
nent Eiigllxh Judf(c: author of the ucll 
known " Commeiilarien," and other valua- 
ble worku on law, ttr. Uorn, 1733; died, 1780. 

BI.ACKWALL, Anthony, an Engliih di- 
vine; author of a Latin tiraniiiiar, an In- 
troduction to the Clatvlct, Vc. Died, 1730. 

BLACKWELL, Thomas, Greek profeator 

of Aberdeen; author of " An Inquiry into 
• - - - ... . - -- „ /, 

Wrltlnst of llomtr ;* 
jf Al 



the Life and 

inoirt of the Court of Auguitut," &c 

1701 ; died, 1737. 

beth, hutband and wife : the latter, a wo- 
man of talent, in oriler to procure iiibaiiit- 
i'iK'4- for her huiiband while in priton for 
debt, publiihed a " Herbal" in two volumes, 
folio, wltli 600 ulatet, drawn, engraved, 
and coloured by liertelf, all in tlie Kpacc of 
four year*. The work tucce«^ed, and her 
hutband wat liberated; but he teemed 
doomed to be the aport of fortune ; for after 
having been invitcti to Stockholm, and pen- 
sioned by the king' of Sweden, in conwe- 
quencc of hit beinif the author of a work on 
arricuilurc Mhicli attracted the notice of 
that monarch ; and havlnir alto had the 
merit of tuccet^fully pretcnbinf; for hU nia- 
J«Kty when he waa dan|ferout>ly ill, he was 
charired with bvinK concerned in a plot 
with count I'ettln for overturning the ktnif- 
dom, tried, and beheaded, in 1747. 

BLACKWOOD, Sir Henrt, a inerito- 
riout Britith admiral, waa the sixth ton of 
Sir John Blackwood, bart., and born in 
1770. Havlnff entered the naval service at 
ihe early age of 1 1 yearn, he was present 
at the action off the Dodger Bank ; and on 
the commencenient of hostilities with the 
French, in 1793. he became first lieutenant 
of Ihe Invlncihie man-of-war, in which ca- 
pacity he acted on the " glorious tlrst of 
June," 1794, with distingul>hed bravery, 
and was in consequence promoted to the 
rank of commander. In 1798, when captain 
of the Brilliant, of 88 guns, he gallantly 
maintained a iiiott unequal combat, off the 
island of Tenerifl'e, with two large French 
frigates, each of which was nearly double 
his own force, and beat them off. After this 
he was engaged In various services, as cap- 
tain of the Heneiope, of 36 gunt, under 
lordi Keith and Nelson, Sir Sidney Smith, 

' In 1800 he wat anpninted to the 
ind of the AJax. or HO guiit, and 
lord ('olliiigwood't llert on the aiinl- 

and other eminent men ; and it was owing 
chlerty to hit skill and bravery that the 
(•ulllauiiie Tell, of M) guiit, which e«cap«'d 
from Lord Neltoii at Alioukir, wat captured. 
The next nci-ne of hit naval trlory wa» Ihe 
ever-meinorabie battle of Trafalgar, where 
he |H>rforiued the mott etteiitlai tervlcc, at 
captain of the Euryalu<4, and witiic^Hcd Ihe 
death of hit friend and heroic commander, 
wlioiie latt wordt to hini were " God bleit 
you, Blackwood— I thall never tee you 
more." In 1800 he wat appointed to the 

Joined lord t:oiiiiig' 

vertary of the battle of Trafalgar. 1'hi*, 
however, wat a niclancholv event, as the 
t<!iiuel proved; for, during the night of Ihe 
14th of February. 1807, Ihe Al>x w** found 
lo be on Ore, aiuf In athort time went down 
with half her crew ; Sir Henry, like many 
others, heln^ saved Mith the greatest ditll- 
culty. Aller tlilt he commanded the War- 
tiiiie, and wat present at tlie hlockadMi of 
Brett and Kochfori, and engaged In various 
enterpritet. In 1814 hit royal highness the 
duko of Clarence made him captain of the 
fleet, and he was appointed to bring over 
the crowned heads from France to this 
country ; on which occaHionhe was created 
a baronet, and promoted to the rank of 
rear-admiral. In 1819 Sir Henry was a|>- 
poiiitud commander-in-chief of tiie naval 
ForceK In the East Indies, from which sta- 
tion he NiH'edllv returned; and in 1837 Ihe 
lord high admiral raised him to the com- 
mand at Chatham. He died in December, 
1833; leaving bWiInd him the character of a 
brave, skilful officer, and an amiable man. 

BLACKWOOD, Adam, a Scotch writer ; 
author of « The Martyrdom of Mary 
Stuart," written in French, 6tc. Born, 1539; 
died, ICI.1. 

BLADEN, Martin, a military officer un- 
der the dulie of Marlborough ; author of 
" Orpheus and Eurydice," a luasaue : " A 
Translation of Cssar't CommeDtarles," kc. 
Died, 1740. 

BLAEU, or JEMSSEN, William, a cele- 
brated geographer, and the disciple of Tycho 
Bral'.c. He was the author of a very mag- 
nilicent alias. Died, 1038. 

BLAIR, John, a Scotch divine of the 14th 
century ; author of a Latin poem on the 
" Death of Wallace." 

BLAIK, Patrick, an eminent Scotch phy- 
sician and botanist, of the 18th century ; 
author of " Botanic Essays, &c." 

BLAIR, John, a prebend of Westmin- 
ster; author of •' Chronological Tables," 
and " Lectures on the Canon of the Old 
Testament." Died, 1783. 

BLAIR, HooH, an eminent Scotch divine: 
author of a " Dissertation on the Poems of 
Ossian," " Lectures on Rhetoric," " Belles 
Lettres." and " Sermons," in five volumes, 
which have ever been greatly esteemed. 
Born at Edinburgh, 1718; died, 1800. 

BLAIK, Robert, a Scotch divine ; author 
of the well known and admirable poem, 
•♦ The Grave," Born, J700 ; died, 1746. 

BLAKE, Robert, a celebrated English 
admiral during tlie Commonwealth, whose 
skill and courage were equalled onlv by his 
disinterested patriotism and love of Jusilce ; 
and whose brilliant achievements proudly 



1 l 

h ■ 

I . 

■ ) 







11 r 

I ,' 

MAKK I r vui II MiMit ro A Norr, haihkh ihan mahnv a aur iHun wuman. 

III. a] 

a llrto f1nibrrtaljMiograp|[ff. 


■luUtiii'il ihf hoii'iur of hU rounlry. mid 
■rraily niliiiiu'rtl lli imviil rliarai-lcr. 
Anioiiir hli iiiiiiM-roiK ipillitiii rX|iloll«, ihi> 

iiicMi imii-il 4ri> llir lour ilt^iNritlf <-MK.i|r<' 

'vvX uiiilri 
RiliM-tl 11 >ic<l4li<l iiiiNTtorlty ovrr our 

niriil* Im- foil 'hi wllli Ilir lliili-li lift 
A<liiilr.il V*ii I'ronip; hy whuh In- iml only 

nilKliliiMil iiav«l i>|>|iniiciil, bill, hy Hip iMild 
lartu-i lif inlriMliit'ctl, iiiriia4Hl Hut liilr('|>l- 
liitv aiid kplrll of •■nl«r|irla«>, by whlcli lliu 
llrul>li navy lia* bteii I'lcr ulncu to lil|rlily 
iluiiiiKiiUliii). Uurn, at UrlilguMraler, l^MH); 

died, lA.'iN. 

Itl.AKK, J(<*riiiM, • R|ianlili irrnrral, 
whiMf ardciil /''ul iiK'->l)w> tlie cni'inii-ii nriiii 
rounlry m»« n.i irvncially iiiarktHi by cor- 
rf*|Mtiidinf( RiKCiiiii ; but IIkhikIi hi- cxdo- 
rlfiifi d niiiny doftaU. hi- iltll Hiitlalni-d lii* 
niilliarv rhanirlt-r. I)lfd, IH77. 

ItLAKK, William, • hivhly K>ri<>d but 
rerv t-ccculric ariint and wni«-r; atillior of 
" Kuio|M'," :i |iio|ihi'ry ; " Ain«-rli-;«," a 
|iro|thct-y ; " Sniiifi oi l'^x|vrii>n('v ;" nn<l 
ail liiliuily of adiulrabk- viiKravhiK*. Iluiiii 
17^0; difd, IK-/7. 

III.AMI'INI, TiioMAi, a IlrnetlU-tinc 
monk ; edllor of » »|ileii<lld i-dliton of thi- 
worka of St. AuRfualin. Ui<-d, 1710. 

IU.ANC, Antony hb Uuillrt d«. n 
Fri-nrh draniall*!; auih'ir of " Mnnco C»- 
iwf," • lrai:t-dv, and viirlouii olhcr dniniM. 
Itorii, I73U; dft-d, 170'.'. 

IILANC, John ItKHVAnn lk, n Fn-nrh 
wrllir; author of " Ll-IIiti on \\w ICtinlith 
Niiilon," \c. Horn, I7U7; died, nui. 

III.ANC'IIARU, Jamb*, an rnilni-nt and 
liulefiitlirahic p;iinler, di-nonilnalt-d the 
French ritian. Uorn, lOuu; died, 1038. 

UI.ANCIIAUD, John lUmtT, a Frenrh 
JeRiiil, siiid piofeaaor of rliclorlo : author of 
" The T('iu|ile of the Mu»eii," i\c. Uorn, 
17.11 : died, 1797. 

ULANCIIAIIU, Fhancib, a relehrated 
French aeronaut, born In I73H, mok dUltn- 
KuUhetl from hit youlli liy hi* nu-i-h»iiU-al 
InvenUon*. After niakinu; hi* firm aeroMtatlc 
voyajre iu I7h4, hecrnmied the Channel from 
Dover to CalaU, I7e.'i: for which exploit lie 
was rewarded by the kinit of France with 
ia,(K>0 fraiim, and a pension of I3(Mi. lie 
flrct made iiie of a iwracliute in London, in 
I7B5 ; went through variouii couutriei on 
the Continent, cxhibltliiir hit aeronautic 
•kill ; viitlied America wiih the tanir object ; 
and, relurninK in 1798, ascended in Itouen, 
with tlxtecn peraont in a large balloon, and 
drticended at a place fifteen mile* distant. 

He died iu 1809. Ilia wife, Madamk 

Blanchard, continued to make aerial 
voyaire*; butinJune, 1819, having ascended 
from Tivoli, in Paris, her balloon took 
lire, at a considerable heifrhl, owing to 
some fire-works whicli she carried with lu-r, 
the car fell, and the hapless aeronaut wa^ 
dashed to pieces. 

BLANCHARD, William, a comedian of 
sterling talent at Covent Garden Theatre, 
whose faithful representation of many of 
Shakspemre's most difficult characters ob- 
tained for him the suriragesol'suchas were 
realjudgeaof the histrionic art ; but, though 
a g( neral favourite, he won not the " mil- 
lion " by moniilrosities, nor the Just reward 
of Ills talent* from thealrlral managers. 
Died, 1833, In the 6(ithyear of his age, hav- 

Ing retired from liie »tjge a short tiuie 

ni.ANCIIK, of Caslile, nnern of Louis 
VIII. of Fiance. She died of grii f. on »«'■ 
coiait of llie defeat ami iniprisniiiiieiit of her 
son, L<iui« IX., In Palestine, I'iia. 

BI.ANCIIKLANDK, 1*. F., Ixirn In 173); 
governor of St. Domiiigo wnrii the dei rie 
of Instant einaiirlpatlon for the slave* 
causeil a universal tumult. He urged the 
suNiiension of the de«-rre, and, being ar- 
restiil as a roiinter-revoliilloni*i, was con- 
dui-ted to I'aris, Bn4 fwrUhcd by the gu.l- 
lotlne In t7l>:i. 

IILAN('lli:r, ^Abiir, a French writer: 
author of " Varietv* Morale* el Amuiunti.-*,'' 
&(.. Died, 1748. 

IILAND, F.LiZABBTH, an Fnglish lady, 
rmineiit lor her knowledge of Hebrew. 
A phylactery of her writing* is preserved by 
the Koyal Society. Died, I7'<U. 

HI.ANDIIATA, Urohor, an llali.in phy- 
sician ; privy counsellor to Stephen llarotll, 
\k\n\i of I'oland. lie wa* strangled by In* 
nephew, whom he had made his heir, Ii93. 

BLANK, Sir UiLiiKaT, Bart., M. D., of 
Ayr, washorn in I74<i, and, after practiving 
In Ills profession HlllinMich siiecc**. became 
phyniclan in ordinary to George III., and 
was. In 1819, created a baronet. He died 
In June, 1834. 

BLANK KN, John, an eminent Dutch 
engliirer, born in I7U; distinguished for 
his double-power sleain-englnes ; and for 
his dtM'ks, dikes, drains, and batteries, on 
alniokt all the coasU of Holland. 

BLANKOFF, John Truniz, a Dutch 
marine painter, of the 17th century ; par- 
tiiularly skilful in storm-piece*. 

BI.ANTYKR, the hon. lieutenant-general, 
lord, wa* born iu Edinburgh in I77f, and 
entered the army in hi* I9tli year. He 
served in the Peninsular war ; at the con- 
clusion of widi'h he received public ihaiilts 
for hi* services, and afterwards became 
lord-lieutenant of Renfrewshire. He was 
residing with hi* family at Brussels, during 
the struggle of the Belirian* lor a se|iaraie 
government ; when looking out from an up- 

Iier window, where no danger wa* appre- 
lended, to see the Dutch troop* who were 
advancing into the Park, he was struck in 
the neck by a musket ball, and the etluiiioii 
of blood was so great that lie died a few 
moments after, Sept. 1830. 

BLASIUS, Geraud, a Flemish physician 
and anatomist ; author of " Zootomin.-, seu 
Anatomite Variorum Animalium," &c. &c. 
Die«J, 1683. 

DLAVNEY, Dr. Brnjauin, an English 
divine and biblical critic ; author of a "\)W- 
•ertalion on tlie Seventy Weeks of Daniel," 
dec. Died, 1801. 

BLEDDYN, a British hard of the I3tli 
century, many of whose piece* are in the 
Welsh Arcliaiology. 

BLEDRI, bishop of LlandaflT in I0J3; 
■nrnamed the wife on account of hi* great 

BLEFKCN, DiTHMAR, a voyager of the 
IGlli century ; author ot an " Account of 
Iceland," jcc. 

BLF.GWKYD, cliaiwellor of LlandaflT to 







WUMAN. ll 


1 ihort liNip 


en nl l.iiuU J 

irrli r, on M'- i 

iiiiieiit of bt-r a 



Htrri In 1731; 

II llin dei r«e 

lh<! lUvf* 


u uri(rd the 


ll, bt-InK tr- 

It, wa« con- 

by lilt' KU.I- 


ncli writer : 





'nfflUli Udy, 
of lli'lirow. 


|)ri'ifr«ctl by 


Italian pliy- 


•lien llarolli, 


ikIihI by hit 


I* heir, IM3. 

., M. !>., of 




cci»», became 


Ke III., ami 

vl. He difil 


ncnt Dulcli 


nKuUliL-d fur 

■« ; an<l fur 

lattvrleit, on 




z, a Dutch 

entury ; |iar- 




In ms, and 



1 year. He 


at the con- 


iibllc ihanlii 


rdii becaiiic 

re. He wax 


licU, during 


r a i>c|iarale 


from an u|>- 


w:i* appre- 

>• who WtT)! 


as ttruck In 


the eAuKlon 


died a few 

ih phytlciau 
Dtointn;, oeu 


1," Stc.Su'. 



an Fnglish 
ofa" l)l>i- 


of Uauiel." 

of tllR <3lll 


1 are In the 

ifr In I0J3; 


if Ilia great 


rafjer of the 


Account of 

Lliiidaff to 




Bl (*] 

fl llrtai (ilnibercal Diograpliv. 


ht« briilhrr, Murfin, prliit-e uf (JlaniorK in, 
In tilt* iiiih riniurt. 

m.K.ISWUK, I'urri* Vav, horn in I7ai ; 
KmiMl |MMi«toii«ry nl lliv Dtitth »lBir>i(ji'- 
nrral at ttie riMiiUillnii, by wliicli lie Wiu 
ill»i-«l«'il III lil> iirtiri-. Ill' W.I* Ibt- iiullior of 
a valiublc v%i>rk, " !>«■ AKfrfitiui." 

III.KTKUIF., Jdiim I'mii ir Krnr dr i.a, 
pri)frii«>r iif cloiiiiriH r III llir riiytil rnlli'Ki' 
of I'irU, and niiihor of :i Iraiiilutloii oi imrt 
of Tacllua, a " l.lfu of the iiuperor Julian," 
SiC. Died, I77i. 

111. Kill, rjRiiHOR Mii.i.Kn, wai the non 
of Ailnilr.il Sir It. II. HIIrIi. He eiiliTrd 
tlie iiaty, In I7UI. mi lixunl llie Ali-xaiulcr, 
riiniiiiaiiilril by hi* I'.illirr, in which ihlp lie 
Via* tiiki'ii liy llie Freiirh in llit-ianie year ; 
bill from whom he rnntrivi'd to curuiie tlx 
niniiiliD sifierwariU. He wan iii.uli' a llen- 
leiianl In IhuI, unil fniiKht iiikIit NeUnn In 
ihe batili' of Trafalir.ir, in wlilrli lie wat 
M'Verely wouiideil. He wan made a roni- 
maiiilcr In IMM; iiikI, havliiK Liken a 
French privati-er, he wat ponied, ami n|>- 
pointed lo the (llattun two yean atlerwardit. 
He died in i»M. 

ciiABL Hyacinth, a French draniailut and 
piiel of celebrltv, horn In 17.13; author of 
'* Orplieiit," and other (raffeille* ; a " Hl»- 
lory of KiiiMia." and a " Collection of Heroic 
KxploilR," admired for the purity of their 
Ktyle. At bin death, In IWJ7, he wan con- 
«ervalor of the library of tlie aneiial. 

KI.IZ/ARD, SlrWiLLiAM, aturfeonand 
anatomiit of conniderable eminence, wat 
linrii in 1743. Durln;f a loiiff life of profe*. 
Nional arlitlly and ex|N'rlenre he nialii- 
Uined a IiIkIi reputation ; and wat formally 
years profeiiior of anatomy to the Roval 
Coliere of Siirfireoiit ; and a fellow of the 
Royal and Aiitiipiarlan Socletiet. He wat 
alto the author of teveral valuable worki, 
vi(., " Siifriretliiint for the Improvementt of 
llotpita!*;'' " JlefliMtlon* on Police;" 
*' lecture on the Large Hlood Vettielt," Ac. 
Dieil, at the great age otvi. In Sept. lbJ.>. 

ni.UCH, MircusGliezrr, an Ingenlout 
nalurnlUt and phynlcian, and a Jew by birth, 
wan born at Antpach, of mean pareiit.ii<e ; 
but entering Into tlie tervice of a phytltian. 
he ttudieil medicine, anatomy, and natural 
history witli great hUcccKt, and became par- 
ticularly eminent in the laxt-nanied Hclence. 
Hit " Ichthyology," proiliiceil at Berlin In 
I7ti.5, at the expeime of the wealthiest princes 
of Germany, It a magnlllcent national work. 
Hit treatite " On Intestinal Worms" It also 
in high cttimatton. Born, 1733 ; died, 1799. 

BLOCK, Joanna Koertrn, a Dutch fe- 
male, whose singular talents In cutting 
lanUscapet, flowers, portraits. Sec, out of 
paper, entitle her to rank as an artist of no 
mean skill, so true were her works to na- 
ture. She was greatly patronised, and ob- 
tained higli prices for her productions. 
Horn, I6J0; died, I7IS. 

BLOEMART, Abraham, a Diitcli painter 
or considerable merit, whose brilliant co- 
louring and Inventive powers atone for va- 
rious minor faulU. Born, 1565 ; died, 1647. 

BLOEMART, CoHNRtius, a son of the 
preceding, who, as an engraver, became 
eminent, and may be regarded as the 

foiiiiilerof a new •chool, 

reinarkalile lor the 

ioiiiiiii>ri>i a new •ciiooi, reinarsaiii 
piiilly and ooIIiu'm uf the burin 
I0u3; illi'l, Wii-o. 

III.OMI.Fir.l.l>, Francis, an l.ngliih lo- 
|Hilirapher and liltine; author nl " Collec- 
laiiea l'uiitalirlglen>la," Ae. Died, I7.V}. 

IILOMI'IKLI), EiiWAHii Valuntinr. a 
ill<liiiu'iil«lieil riavuleal scholar, was (he bro- 
ther of Dr. Illomllelil, hiahop of London, 
ami iHirii In l7i<>., ||f recelied hit eilura- 
tlon at Calm college, Cainbrlilgr, where, 
beildes other pritei, he (tallied, In IkiMi, a 
medal for writing Id* beautiful ode, " In 
Dealiierluiii I'ortoni." In IHI3 a fellow- 
uliip ill F.niiiniiel college wa» conferred on 
him. In tlie followinn >ear he vli>il(*d («er- 
niaiiy, iN'caineMcipr.iinted with ie>eral emi- 
nent literary eliaracter*, and iicipilred an 
Intimate knowledge of the (ierinan Ian- 
Ullage. On his return to F.ndiand he iiul»- 
Imheii In the " Miiitwum Criiii'iim, or < am- 
bridge CiasnU nl lleMMrches," reniarka on 
Oeriiiaii literature. He iub»equeiitly went 
to Switzerland with a young nolileiiian lo 
wlioiii he wan tutor, and hearing that he 
liad lieeii ap|Miiiiteil prix'tor by the Dniver- 
illy for tlie apuroai hing year, he travelled 
home with such rapldllv that the futigiie of 
It brought on a lit of (liiiets, of wlinth he 
died In Octohei-, Ibia. He Iraiitlated 
" MattlilHr's tjreek Grammar," and began 
"Schnelder'tGre«-k and German Lexicon." 

niature painter ; and author of a treatite on 
a method »f engraving hi colours. Uorii, 
1670; itiid, 1741. 

BLONDEL, David, a French Protestant 
divine, and the tuccetsorof Vottlut at pro- 
fettor of hiktory at Anitterdam ; author of 
" Lxplicatioiis on the Eucharltt," itc. 
Born, I5UI ; died, 105.1. 

BLON DEL, Francis, a Frem h architect 
and liiploinaliat ; author of •• The Art of 
tlirouiiig BunilM," various treatises on 
architecture, Sii: Born, 1617; died, toso. 

BLONDEL, John Francis, of the tame 
family as the above, and aUo an architect. 
He wat profettor of architecture in the 
academy of Parlt: and the author of a 
" Course of Civil Arcliliecture," and other 
works belonging to the art. Burn, 1703 : 
died, 1774. 

BLONDEL, a minstrel, and favourite of 
Richard Cceur de Lion ; whom he Im said to 
have dlHCovered In his German dungeon, 
by slngiii!; Iieneatli its walls the lirstpart of 
a song or their Joint compotliioii. 

BLONDU9, Flavkjs, otherwise called 
Flavio Blondi, an Italian writer of the I5lh 
century ; author of " Roma llluttrata," &c. 

BLOOD. Thomas, Colonel, a bold and 
desperate trithman, originally an olflccr In 
Cromwell's army, and notorious In English 
history for his daring attempt on the lile of 
the duke of Ormond, and tor his theft of 
the crown and regalia from the Tower. 
For some reason, never yet explained, this 
desperado was not only pardoned by Charles 
II., but received from hlin a peosion of 
iool. per annum. Died, I6U0. 

BLOOM FIELD, Robert, an English 
neiitant-poet, wastheson of apoor tailor at 
Honingtoti, Suffolk, and himself a shoe- 
maker. His principal work Is a poem eu> 








l!» i 


I i 

; !l 

9 ^etD tltnibetsal iSiograplls. 


1794 ; and commanded the cavalry at the 
bnttic of Jena, whicli decided for a time the 
fate of the Fruitglan monarchy. When 
Priig8ia entered into the coalition against 
Napoleon, in 1813, our hero, then 7o years 
old, was made (general of the centre of the 
allied army ; itistlnguislied liiniKelf at Lut- 
zen and Leipsic, pursued the Hyinff French 
across the ilhine, and, after a year of ob- 
stinate conriicis in France, headed the right 
wing of the allied army under the walls of 
Paris, at the time of Napoleon's abdication 
in 1814. In England, which he visited with 
the allied soveieigns, he was received with 
enthusiasm, and was eminently popular. 
Being re-inve!ited with the command of the 
Prussian army during the Hundred Days, 
he was defeated by Napoleon at LIgny, on 
June 16, 18IS; on which occasion he was 
unhorsed, and charged over by both the 
French and Prussian cavalry. Marshal 
Grouchy was commissioned bv Napoleon to 
push Blucher's retreat, and cneck his junc- 
tion with the British ariiiv, which Welling- 
ton required. But having deceived Grouchy, 
by leaving a body of ids troops to niasic ihe 
operation, he retrograded unmolested, by a 
ifcilful and dangerous flank movement; and 
his advanced division, under Bulow, arrived 
at Waterloo at 5 o'clock. Just as the whole 
reserved elite of the French army was ad- 
vancing in dense column to make their last 
desperate effort to break through the Bri- 
tish squares. This fresh flank attack on the 
advancing column contributed greatly to 
decide the victory, and Blucher arrived in 
time to participate in the pursuit. Blucher's 
conduct afterwards was generally pro- 
nounced by the liberals at Paris, especiall 
as regarded the bridge of Jena, and tl>>, 
spoliation of the Museum, vindictive and 
illiberal ; but it could not be expected that 
he ehonid have had any regard for the glo- 
ries of the French capital. He was a ruugh 
and fearless soldier ; brave, honest, and 
free ; beloved by his comrades, and a sworn 
foe to the enemies of his country. Born at 
Rostock, 1743 ; died, at his estate in Silesia, 
1819, aged 77. 

BLUM, JoACHiH Christian, a German ; 
author of " Lyrical Poems;" "The Pro- 
menades:" " Dictionary of Proverbs;" 
" The Deliverance of Rathenau," Ike. 
Born, 1739; died, 1790. 

BLU MAUGR, Lewis, a German satirical 
poet ; author of a " Travesty of the yEneid," 
&c. Born, 17SS ; died, 1788. 

BLUTEAU, Dou RAFBAEt, a Roman 
Catholic priest, born in Linden, of French 
parents ; author of a valuable Portuguese 
and Latin Dictionary. Died, 1734. 

Moorish king of Granada : he was expelled 
for the last time from Granada by Ferdi- 
nand of Castile and Arragon, in 1491 ; and 
afterwards resided in Africa, where he was 
killed in battle in the service of the king 
of Fez. 

BOADICEA, or BONDUCA, a British 
heroine, tlie widow of Prasatagus, and 
queen of the Iceni. Having been ignomi- 
niously treated by the Romans, she headed 
an insurrection against them, attacked 
their settlements, and' reduced London to 
ashes ; but being at length utterly defeated 


titled " The Farmer's Boy," which pleas- 
ingly describes the scenes the author wit- 
nessed wliili! in that humble rustic station, 
and displays very considerable genius; but 
his subsequent publications, though ixis- 
s ;ssing the merit of simplicitv, were not 
e |ual to (he first. Althougli brought for- 
ward and patronised by the exertions of 
Capel Lofft, and even assisted by the duke 
of Grafton, the modest bard had a large 
share of the ills to which flesh is heirto, and 
his littler years were clouded by penury 
and dejection. Born, 17G6; died, 18.23. 

BLCSIUS, or LV. BLOIS, Louis, abbot 
of the monastery of Liessies in Hainault: 
aiithor of " Speculum ReMglosorum.'' 
Died, 1566. 

BLOUNT, Charles, earl of Devonshire. 
He succeeded to his family title of lord 
Mountjoy in 1594, and was much favoured 
and employed by queen Elizabeth. In tiie 
year I603 he returned from Ireland, where 
he had been employed in suppressing the 
rebellion, and brought with him the head 
of the celebrated rebel Tyrone. James I. 
made him master of tlie ordnance and earl 
of Devonshire : but having married the di- 
vorced lady Hich, daughter of the earl of 
Essex, he Tell into disgrace. Born, 1563 ; 
died, 1606. 

BLOUNT, TuouAS, an English writer ; 
author of " Bocobei ; or the History of the 
King's Escape after the Battle of Worces- 
ter ;" " Fragmenta A"tiquitatl8," ilkc. Born, 
1619 ; died, 1679. 

BLOUNT, Sir Henrt, a traveller 
through Turkey, Syria, and Egypt; author 
of a " Voyage to the Levant." He was 
knighted by Ciiarles II., but sided with the 
parliament, and was rewarded with a com- 
missionership of trade. Born, 1602; died, 


BLOUNT, Sir Thomas Pope, bart., eld- 
est son of Uie above ; member of several 
parliaments, and appointed commissioner 
of accounts at the Revolution; author of 
" Censura celebriorum auctorum," Sec. 
Bore, 1649 ; died, 1697. 

BLOUNT, Charles, youngest brother of 
the last named ; author of some deistical 
writings. He died by his own hand, 1693. 

BLOW, John, (Mus. Doc), an English 
musician and composer of great ability ; 
author of antlisnis, services, &c., and of° 
some secular compositions, which are pub- 
lished collectively under the title of " Am- 
phion Angllcus.'' Died, 1708. 

BLUCHER, Field-marshal Lebrecht 
Von ; a distinguished Prussian general, 
wliose impetuous intrepidity and eagerness 
to attack the enemy gained him the lamiliar 
appellation of " Marshal Forward." He 
entered the Swedish service when quite a 
youth, and iu the first campaign was made 
prisoner by the Prussians, whom he after- 
wards Joineu, and rose to the rank of cap- 
tain ; but being discontented with the pro- 
motion of other officers over his liead, he 
obtained iiis discharge from the Great Fre- 
deric, who dismissed him with the pithy re- 
mark, that " he might go to tlie devil if he 
pleased ;" and he afterwards lived many 
years in retirement. Being recalled by ills 
successor, King William, he was made ma- 
jor-general after the battle of Leystadt, in 







ivalry at the 
For a time the 
chy. Whun 
litlon against 
then 70 years 
centre of the 
iitieir at Lut- 
lyiiiK French 
I year of ob- 
ded the right 
' the walls of 
'li abdication 
I visited with 
ercived witli 
tly popular, 
iniand of the 
ndrcd Days, 
It Ligny, on 
uion he was 
by both the 
f. Marshal 
Napoleon to 
[•(•k hlsjiinc- 
ich Welling- 
ed Grouchy, 
to mask the 
olesti'd, by a 
renient; and 
ilow, arrived 
iis the whole 
rmy was ad- 
ike their last 
ugh the Bri- 
ittack on the 
I greatly to 
er arrived in 
It. Blucher'8 
iierally pro- 
8, especiali 
na, and tt.*. 
idictive and 
tpected that 
for the glo- 
as a rougli 
lionest, and 
and a sworn 
I3orn at 
in Silesia, 

German ; 

Tlie Pro- 
?roverbs : " 
' ," Hcc. 

an satirical 
he yEneid," 

a Roman 
of French 



the last 
8 expelled 
by Ferdi- 
1491 ; and 
re he was 

f the king 

a British 
igus, and 
n ignomi- 
he headed 

London to 





a ^eto lAntbereal ISiograpfis. 


by Suetonius Paulinus, she put an end to 
her life by poison, a. d. 61. 

BOIIART, Jacob, a German gardener, 
who had the care of the physic garden at 
Oxford ; author of " Catalogus Plantarum 
horti Mpdirte Oxontensis." Died, 1079. 

BOCCACCIO, Giovanni, a celebrated 
Italian writer, possessing tlie most lively 
imagination, united with tenderness of ex- 
prcDsion and warmth of feeling. He was 
the friend of Petrarch, and author of "The 
Decameron," &c. Boccaccio was the son of 
a Florentine merchant, but born in Paris, 
1313 ; died, 1375. 

BOCCAGE, Maria Annk lb Page, a 
French poetess ; author of " Paradis Tcr- 
restre,"' Sec. Born, 1710; died, 1802. 

BOCCALINI, Trajan, an Italian satirist; 
author of the " Political Touchstone," a 
" Satire on the Spaniards," Sec. His writ- 
ings gave 8o much offence (o the Spanish 
court, that It caused him to be murdered at 
Venice, 1613. 

BOCCHERIM, Luioi, a celebrated com- 
poser of iniitruniental music, pensioned for 
liis merit by the king of Prussia, and warmly 
patronised by the king of Spain. Born, 
1740 ; ditid, 1805. 

ISOCCHI, Achilles, a Bolognese, of a 
noble family, who distinguiiilied hhiiself in 
the I6tli Century bv his attachment to lite- 
rature ; autiior of *' Apologia in Plautum," 
and uumerous other works. 

DEN, a fanatic of that city in tlie 16th cen- 
tury, who headed some revoitcrs, and made 
themselves inasterH of Munstcr, where he 
assumed tlit! characters of king and pro- 
phet. The city was at length taken by the 
bishop, and Boccold was hanged. 

BOCCONE, Paul, an Italian naturalist; 
author of " Musea di Piante rare." Born, 
1633; died, 1704. 

BOCHART, Samurl, a French Protest- 
ant divine ; autiior of " Geographia Sacra," 
a treatise on the " Terrestrial Paradise," 
&c. Born, 1599; died, 1667. 

BOCM. or BOCHIUS, John, a Flemish 
writer of the 16tli century ; author of vari- 
ous Latin works, and styled, from his skill 
in Latin poetry, the Belgic Virgil. Born, 
1555; died, 1609. 

BOCCOCI, Joseph, a Spanish author, 
born in 1775. He served at first in the 
army, in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794, 
against republican France, but afterwards 
devoted himself to letters. He Is the au- 
thor of several comedies played at the Ma- 
drid theatre. 

BOCQUILLOT, Lazarus A drew, a 
French divine ; author of a " rreatise on 
the Liturgy," " Life of the Chevalier Bay- 
ard," ice. Died, l7-i8. 

BODARD DE TEZAZ, N. M. F., born in 
175)!; a French poet and diplomatist; am- 
bassador to Naples lor the Republic in 1799 ; 
author of" Le Ballon," a comedy; "Al- 
lonsko," a melodrama; •* Minette at Ma- 
rine," an opera, &c. 

BODE, John Joachim Christopher, a 
German writer. He was originally a mu- 
sician in a Hanoverian regiment ; lie tlien 
became a bookseller, and Anally rose to be 
privy counsellor to the landgrave of Hesse 

Harmstadt. He translatecl some of ihc 
be>t French and Eniflish authors into Ger- 
man witli coisiderable taste and Judgment. 
Died, 1793. 

BODE, Christopher Auoi'stcb, a 
learned German linguist and critic ; who 
edited the New Testament in Ethiopic, all 
the Evangelists in Persian, St. Matthew in 
Arabic, &c. Born, 1733 ; died, 1796. 

BODE, John Ehlert, a celebrated Ger- 
man astronomer; author of an " Atlas of 
Celestial Maps,"&c. Born, 1747; died, 1636. 

BODENSCHATZ, J. C. G., a distin- 
guished German orientalist, born io 1717, 
died in 1797 ; author of " Constitution Ec- 
clesiastique des Juifa Modernes," fee. 

BODIN, P. J. F., a French surgeon, born 
in 1760; was a member of the Convention, 
voted against the death of Loula XVI., ana 
was afterwards Judge of Poitiers: he was 
author of a work on " Accouchcmens," &c. 

BODIN, John, a French lawvcr; author 
of a treatise " De Republica,""&c. Born, 
1530; died, 151MJ. 

BODLEY, Sir Thomas, a native of Exe- 
ter, but educated partly at Geneva and 
partly at Oxford. He was on several occa- 
sions employed on embassies by queeo Eli- 
zabeth; but he Is chiefly remarkable for 
having rebuilt the University Library of Ox- 
ford, and bequeathed his fortune to its suit- 
port and augmentation; whence it is called 
the Bodleian Library. Born, 1544 ; died, 1613. 

BODMANN, T.J., a German, born in 
1754 ; professor of political and legislative 
science at Maycnce ; author of many 
esteemed works in this department, and co- 
editor of the " Magazin pour la Jurispru- 

BODMER, John Jacob, a German poet ; 
translator ofMilton's Paradise Lost, and of 
the Iliad and Odyssey, 6cc. 6cc. ; and author 
of an epic entitled " Noah," &c. Born, 
1695; died, 1783. 

BODONI, John Baptist, an eminent Ita- 
lian printer, born in 1740, diedin 1813 ; consi- 
dered as one of the most skilfkil of nio<lern 
typographers ; his numerous editions of 
works being always superior. 

BO DSON, Joseph, a democratlcal French 
engraver, born in 1768. He took an active 
part in the revolution : was a most influen- 
tial member of the Electoral Club of the 
Parisian Commune, in 1794 : and was de- 
nounced for taking off his hat before the 
royal family in the Temple, while lie had 
the charge of them. He was repeatedly 
arrested, imprisoned, and narrowly escaped 
the guillotine, in consequence or charges 
by his democratlcal colleagues. 

BOECE, or BOETHIUS, Hector, a 
Scotch writer of the I6lh century, remark- 
able alike for his great learning and too 
easy credulity ; author of the " History of 
Scotland," Sec. Born, 1465 ; died, 1536. 

BOECLER, John Henry, a German phi- 
lologist: author of " Annotations on Greek 
and Latin Classics," Stc. ice. Died, 169». 

BOEHM, or B(£HMEN, Jacob, a Ger- 
man visionary, whose rhapsodical works on 
reliit ions subjects, tiiough to all reasonable 
men they appeared wnollv absurd where 
they were not wholly unintelligible, had 




;j j 

1 < 



^ §it\D Iftnibersal ISiograyibS- 


many admirer*, and caused much idle dis- 
puUktlon. Born, I57S ; died, 1634. 

BOF.HM, William Anthony, a learned 
German divine, and cliaplain to prince 
George of Denmark. Dorn, 1673 ; died, 1733. 

BOEHMRR, O. G., a professor at Got- 
tingren, born in 1761. Always a liberal, and 
attached to the French party, he edited an 
independent Journal in 1791. He coni^ra- 
tulated the French republic on its union 
with Belgrium in 1796, and was complimented 
with the rirht of sitting in the Convention. 
He was suosequently persecuted by the 
anti-French party, and imprisoned at Eh- 
renbretslein and Erfurt. He was author of a 
" Memoir to demonstrate the Rhine as the 
Natural Boundary of France," &c., and 
many iwlitical German works. 

BOERHAAVB, Herman, one of the most 
eminent physicians of modern times, born 
at Woorhout, near Leyden. His knowiedg'e 
as an anatomist, chemist, and botanist, as 
well as in the causes, nature, and treatment 
of diseases, was unrivalled; his fame, in- 
deed, was spread over the world. Peter 
the Great visited him on his travels ; and a 
Chinese mandarin wrote to him with this 
address, " To Boerhaave, the celi-brated 
physician of Europe." His writings are 
numerous, and are rei^arded as text-books 
to the profession. Born, I66B; died, 173B. 

BOETHIE, Stephen db la, a French 
lawyer; author of some poems in Latin and 
French ; and translator of portions of Xe- 
nophon and Plutarch. Died, 1563. 

BOETHIUS, Anicius Manlius Tor- 
QUatub Sbverinvs, a Roman philosopher, 
whose virtues, services, honours, and tra- 
gical end, all combine to render his name 
memorable, was born a. d. 470 ; studied at 
Rome and Athens ; was profoundly learned ; 
and tilled the highest omees under the go- 
vernment of Theodoric the Gnth. He was 
long the oracle of his sovereign and the idol 
of the people ; but his strict integrity and 
inflexible justice raised up enemies in those 
who loved extortion and oppression, and lie 
at last fell a victim to their maciiinations. 
He was accused of a treasonable corre- 
spondence with the court of Constantinople, 
and executed in 534. 

BOETTCHER, John Frederic, an al- 
chemist, who in making vain aichemical 
attempts, was fortunate enough to discover 
the mode of making the famed and valued 
Dresden porcelain. Died, 1719. 

BOFFNAUD, Germain, a French ar- 
chitect ; author of a " Treatise on the 
Principles of Architecture." Born, 1667 ; 
died, 1755. 

BOGAN, Zachart. an English divine; 
author of " A Help toPraycr ;" additions to 
Rous'b " Archttologie Atticae," &c. Born, 
1625 ; died, 1659. 

BOODANOVITSCH, Hippolytds Theo- 
oorovitbch, a Russian of distinguished 
literary talents ; the editor of the St. Pe- 
tersburg Courier, and author of " Dous- 
clienka/' * romantic poem ; " Historical 
Picture of Russia," Sec. He filled various 
oiKcial situations under the government of 
Catharine, and was also employed as a di- 
plomatist. Born, 1743 ; died, 1803. 

BOGORiS, the first Christian king of 

Bulgaria ; converted by his sister, who had 
been taken prisoner by the troops of Thco- 
dosia, and was restored to him by tiiat 

BOGUE, David, a dissenting minister of 
very considerable acquirements ; pastor of 
a congreicatlon at Gosport, Hants, where he 
also kept an establishment fortiie education 
of young men destined for the Christian 
ministrv, in connection with the Independ- 
ents. He is considered as the father of the 
London Missionary Society, and he also 
contributed greatly to the formation of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. He 
wrote an " Essay on the Divine Autliority 
of tlie New Testament," a " History of the 
Dissenters," ice. Born, 1740; died, 1895. 

BOHADIN, an Arabian historian of the 
12th century; a favourite of Saladin, whose 
Life he wrote. 

BOHEMOND, the first prince of ADtioch. 
He took Antioch in 1098, and subsequently 
took Laodicea. Died, llll. 

BOH N, John, a German physician; au- 
thor of a " Treatise on the Duties of a 
Physician," Sec. Born, 1640 ; died, 1719. 

BOHUN, Edmund, a political writer of 
note in the rei^rns of James 11. and Wil- 
liam II.; author of a " Defence of King 
Charles II.'s Declaration ;" a " Geogra- 
phical Dictionary;" " Life of Bishop 
Jewel," Sic. He was living at the acces- 
sion of queen Anne ; but tlie exact date of 
his death is uncertain. 

BOIARDO, Matteo Maria, count of 
Scandiano.and governor of Reggio ; author 
of " Orlando Mamorato,"— of which Arios- 
to's Orlando Furloso is a sequel— and other 
poems. Born, 1434 ; died, 1494. 

BOICHOT, Jean, a distinguished French 
sculptor; born in 1738, died in 1814. The 
" CnloBsal Group of Saint Michael," and tlie 
" Sitting Hercules," are among his best 
works. I'he bas-reliefs of the rivers on the 
Triumphal Arch of the Carousal are his. 
His style may truly be said to unite the 
graccliil and the niajei<tic. 

BOIELDIEU, Adrian, a celebrated 
French musical composer, born in 1775; 
author of numerous well-known operas ; 
" Le Calife de Bagdad," "Jean de Paris," 
Sec. " Telcinaque " is thought his c/irf- 
d'auvre. His style is characterized by a 
sweet and natural melody, much imagina- 
tive gaiety, and simple but pleasing ac- 

UOIGNE, Count, a French soldier of 
fortune, was born at Charaberry, in 1751. 
When seventeen vears old, he entered the 
French army, wliich he quitted for the 
Russian service in about live years, and 
was taken prisoner at the siege of Tenedos. 
After being released he left Russia, and in 
1778 went into the service of the East India 
Company ; but fancying himself neglected, 
he oAered himself to the notice of Mahajee 
Scindiah, the celebrated prince of the Mah- 
rattas, to whom he was of the greatest use 
during his campaigns, and who loaded him 
with honours and riches. Having remitted 
his vast fortune to England, and wishing to 
return to Europe for the sake of his health, 
he left India in 1793. and settled at Cham- 
berry, where he did much good with hi* 

a genius will educate himgelp in spite op obstacles. 



!Ount or 

; author 


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iid other 


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' and the 


Mr best 


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are hiR. 



nite the 




n 1T75; 


operas ; 


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id by a 



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Idler of 



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ered the 


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, and in 

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he Mali- 

test use 

ded him 


shin? to 

t Cham- 

lith hi* 




^ ^eto ^nibevsal Biograp^^. 


money In applyini; it to benevolent and 
palrintic piir^iostH. He died in isao, pos- 
ofSMeJ of about twenty millions of francs, 
the greater part of which he bequeathed to 
his son. 

BOILEAIJ, OiLKs, a French writer; au- 
thor of a traiiHlatinn of Eplctetus, \c. 
Born, 1031 ; died, I66». 

130ILEAU, J AM Kit, brother of the above, 
doctor of the Sorbonne; author of some 
learned works on Ecclesiaslical History. 
Born, I6:i3 ; died, 1716. 

DOILRAU, Nicholas, Sieur des Preaux, 
a celebrated French poet, satirist, and cri- 
tic; enjoying a reputation in France very 
similar to that of Pope in England. Born, 
1630; died, 1711. 

BOILEAU, John James, a French di- 
vine; author of " Letters on Morality and 
Devotion,*' &c. Died, 1735. 

BOILLY, N., an agreeable and pro- 
ductive French painter, bom in 1768. His 
most celebrated pieces are, " The Arrival 
of the Diligence ;" " The Daparturc of the 
Conscripts :" and " Interior of M. Isabeau's 
Atelier.'' He has some afiectation of Dutch 
colouring, but truth of execution is his great 

BOINDIN, Nicholas, a French drama- 
tist: autlior of several comedies. Having 
died ail avowed atheist, he was interred 
withoutanyreligiousceremonles. Died,i7Sl. 

DOINVILLE, Db, was bom of a noble fa- 
mily, at Slrasburg, in 1770. He quitted a 
lucrative office, and Joined the Frencli re- 
publican party in 1791. He then came to 
England with La Fayette, as aid-de-canip. 
He. married an English lady of great talent 
and beauty, accepted a command under 
Napoleon, and perished in the retreat from 

BOIS. John on, a French monk, who 
served in the army of Henry III. On the 
death of Henry IV. he accused ilie Jesuits 
of having caused the us>ast>iiiation of that 
prince. For this aceusation he was con- 
lined in the castle of St. Angelo, at Rome, 
where lie died, 1636. 

BOIS, Philip du, a French divine; edi- 
tor of an edition of Tibullus, Catullus, and 
PropertluB, ad usum Delphini. Died, 1703. 

BOIS, Gbraro su, a priest of the Oia- 
tory ; author of "Annals of France:" 
" History of the Church of Paris," &c. 
Died, 1696. 

BOISMORAND, Abb6 Chiron dr, an 
unpriucipled French satirist. Bred a Jesuit, 
he first satirised that order, and tlien re- 
futed his own ! Died, 1740. 

BOISROBERT, Francis lk Mktkl de, 
a French abbot, celebrated for his wit, 
and patronised by Richelieu. His poems, 
plays, tales, &c., are extremely numerous. 
Died, 1663. 

BOISSARD, John James, a French an- 
tiquary ; author of •» Theatrum Vltse Hn- 
manoB," &c. Died, 1602. 

BOISSAT, Peter de, an eccentric 
Frenchman ; at first a priest, then a sol- 
•".'er, and at Jast a pilgrim ; author of 

..^.""'o're Ncgropontique, ou, les Amours 
d'Alexandre Castriol." Died, 1662. 

thony, Count de, a distinguished French 

senator and literary character, and a man 
who throughout the revolutionary frenzy 
constantly displayed great firmness and a 
disinterested love of liberty. By Na|)oleon 
he was made a senator and commander of 
the legion of honour; and in 1614 Louis 
XVIII. created him a peer ; hut he was, 
for a time onlv, <leprlved of his title, in 
consequence of his recognition of tliu em- 
peror on his return f.oin Elba. His writings 
are on various subjects : among them are 
" The Literary and Political Studies of an 
Old Man;" an " Essay on the Life of 
Malesherbes," .i<c. Born, 1756 ; died, 1836. 

BOISSY, Louis DE, a French comic 
writer, who, although he had been the au- 
thor of numerous successful comedies, was 
reduced to such extreme distress, that hud 
he not been opportunely rescued by the 
marchioness de Pompadour, he and his 
wife would have perished through liungcr. 
Died, 1758. 

BOISTE, P. C. v., a French lexicogra- 
pher, born in 1763; author of several valua- 
ble dictionaries. The name Bonaparte fol- 
lowing the article " Spoliateur,'' in his 
" Dictlonnaire Universel," he was com- 
pelled by the police to substitute Frederic 
the tireat for the former. 

BOIVIN, Francis de. a French writer; 
author of a " History of the Wars of Pied- 
mont." Died, 161 R. 

BOIVIN, Louis, a French advocate ; au- 
thor of poems, and some learned historical 
treatises. Died, 17U4. 

BOIVIN, John, brother of the above., 
professor of (ireeic in the royal college of 
Paris, and keeper of the king's library ; 
author of a French version of the " Birds 
of Aristophanes," and the " (Edipus of So- 
phocles,'' &c. &c. Died, 1726. 

man writer, chlelly on classical literature ; 
author of " An Apology for Homer," and ttie 
<' Shield of Achilles," Sec. Died, 1726. 

BOIZOT, Louis Simon, born in 1743 : a 
French painter and sculptor, but more dis- 
tinguished as the latter. The " Victory of 
the Fountain of the Place du Chatalet," is 
ills chef d^aiivre. Elegant, graceful, and 
delicate as are the various productions of 
his chisel, he is accused of too great mono- 
tony n the attitude and expression of his 
figures, as well as inaccuracy of outline. 

BOKHAKI,acelebrated Mussulman doc- 
tor; he was a predcstlnarian, and the au- 
thor of a collection of traditions, entitled 
" Tektirtch." Died, 256 of ilie Hegira. 

BOL, Ferdinand, a Dutcli historical 
and portrait painter, pupil of Rembrandt. 
Born, 1611; died, 1681. 

BOLANOBR, John, a historical painter, 
pupil of Guide. Died, 1660. 

BOLD, Samuel, an English divine and 
controversial writer ; author of a " Plea 
for Moderation towards Dissenters," &c. 
Died, 1737. 

BOLUONIC, C, an Italian writer, born 
in 1768 ; author of " La Constituzione 
Francese," (pubUshed in 1799J, which con- 
tributed to diffuse the renorated seeds of 
freedom over Italy at that epoch. 

BOLES LA US I., became duke of Poland 
in 988 ; had his dukedom raised to a king- 




I ^ 




\ I 



21 fit\D ^nibtVMl ISiograptlfi- 


doni by the emperor Otlio III., and made 
Moravia tributorjr to hit kin^om. Died,i038. 

BOLESLAUS II., kinir of Poland, son 
and ■ucci'Hor of Cailniir I. The •uveilly 
with which he treated hi« aubjccts on occa- 
•lon of a revolt, chiefly caused by his long 
altsence In RiiMia, an(i the consequent in- 
Adeilty o( the wives of hi* Boldiera, he was 
abandoned by his subjects, and died in 
Hungary about loso. 

BOLKYN, Annr, the daughter of Sir 
Thomas Uoieyn, and one of tlie maids of 
honour to queen Catharine, whom Henry 
VIII. divorced. She then became the wife 
of Henry, and rootlier of queen Eiizabcth ; 
but was put to death by her husband for 
alleged infldelily to his bed. Born, iso7 ; 
Beheaded, 1536. 

BOLINGBROKB, Hbnrt St. John, 
Viscount, % distinguished statesman and po- 
litical writer, was born at Battersea, in 1673, 
ami completed his studies at Oxford, lie 
entered ijarlianient in 1700, became secre- 
tary at war in 1704 ; resigned his office in 
1707 ; again formed part of the ministry in 
1710, and concluded the peace of Utrecht. 
Two years after this he was created Viscount 
Bnlingbroko ; but, being dissatistied that he 
had not been raised to an earldom, he 
quarrelled with his colleagues, became a 
prey to the impetuosity of nis passions, and 
exiilbited a versatility of conduct tliat has 
rendered his patriotism and political honesty 
open to suspicion. The Whigs having gained 
the ascendancy on the accession of Ueorge 
I., preparations were made for the im- 
peachment of Boiingbroke, who accordingly 
fled to France, and being invited to Lor- 
raine by Charlet Stuart, the Pretender, he 
became hit secretary of state. For this he 
was impeached and attainted ; and it was 
not till 1733 that he was allowed to return 
to England. His estates were restored to 
him in 173o, but liis seat in the liouse of 
lords was still denied him : this raised his 
indignation ; and he exerted all his talents 
against the ministry, till at length the over- 
throw of Sir Robert VValpole was elTectt-d. 
In I73S he again withdrew to France, wliere 
he remained till the death of hli« father ; 
after which event he settled at Uatlersea. 
and died in 17SI, after a long and painful 
disease, in his eightieth year. He was the 
intimate friend of Pope, and furnished him 
with many useful hints; while his own 
writings rank among the most eloquent and 
vigorous in the English language ; but it is 
to be deplored that he made tliem the ve- 
hicle of many revolting attacks on Chris- 
tianity. He was ambitious, proud, and pas- 
sionate ; vet capable of inspiring the warm- 
est t'ricna«hip, or ^ecoming a most impla- 
cable enemy. 

BOLIVAR, SiMorf, the celebrated Liber- 
ator of South America, and tiie most dis- 
tinguished military commander that has 
yet appeared there, was born of noble pa- 
rents in the city of Caraccas. in I7B3. 
Having acquired the elements or a liberal 
education at home, he was sent to Madrid 
to complete his studies ; and afterwards vi- 
sited Paris, into the amusements of which 
gay citv lie not merely entered with youth- 
ful ardour, but formed an acquaintance 
there with several distinguished men. He 

then made the tour of Southern Europe, 
again visited the Spanish capital, and mar- 
ried the young and beautiful daughter of 
the Marquis de (Jstarit del Cro ; but soon 
after his return to his native land, whither 
she accompanied him, his youthful bride 
fell a victim to the yc-ilow fever ; and he 
once more vislte<l Euro|>c as a relief to his 
sorrow for one so fervently beloved. On 
returning to South America, in 18I0, he 
pledged himself to the cause of independ- 
ence, and commenced his military career 
at Vene/.ueia, as a colonel in the service of 
the new ly founded republic ; soon after this 
he was associated with Don Louis Lopez 
Mendcz, for the purpose of communicating 
inlelligence of the change of government 
to Great Britain. In IBII he served under 
Miranda, and had the command of Puerto 
Cabello ; but the Spanish prisoners having 
risen and seized the fort, he was obliged to 
quit the town and proceed to Caraccas. At 
length Miranda was compelled to submit 
to Monteverde, the royalist general ; and 
Bolivar, entering the service of the patrioU 
of New Grenada, soon had another oppor- 
tunity of asNistIng his old friends the Vene- 
zuelans. For a while he was successful, 
but reverses followed ; and when, in IHI5, 
the Spanish forceti under Morillo arrived, 
he threw himself into Cariliagena, and sub- 
scquently retreated to St. Domingo. The 
spirit of resistance was, however, by no 
means extinguished : lie found new means 
to lead his countrymen to victory ; and after 
nianv desperate conflicts the independence 
of Colombia was scaled, and Bolivar was 
chosen president of the republic, in IB3I. 
His renown was now at its height, and 
every act of his government showed how 
zealously alive he was to the improvement 
of tiie national inHtitutlons and tlie moral 
elevation of the people over whom he ruled. 
In 1833 he went to the assistance of the 
Peruvians, and having succeeded in settliof; 
tlieir internal divisions, and cstablixliiiig 
their Independence, he was proclaimed Li- 
berator 01 Peru, and invested with supreme 
authority. In 1836 he visited Upper Peru, 
which detached itself from the government 
of Buenos Ayrcs, and was formed into a 
new republic, named Bolivia, in honour of 
the liberator ; but domestic factions sprung 
up, the purity of his motives was called in 
qiii.-stlon, and he was charged with aiming 
at a per|ietual dictatorship ; he accordingly 
declared his determination to resign his 
power as soon as his numerous enemies 
were overcome, and to repel the imputa- 
tions of ambition cast upon him, by retiring 
to seclusion upon his patrimonial estate. 
The vicc-pr. sident, Santander, urged him, 
in reply, to resume his station as constitu- 
tional president ; and thougii he was beset 
by the Jealousy and distrust of rival fac- 
tions, he continued to extrcise the chief 
authority in Colombia till May, *i 830, when. 
dissatisHed with the aspect of internal 
aff°airii, he resigned the presidency, and ex- 
pressed a determination to leave the 
country. The people ere long became 
sensible of their injustice to his merit, and 
were soliciting him to resume the govern- 
ment, when his death, which happened in 
December, 1830, |>r«-vented the accomplish- 
ment of their wishes. As a general, Boli- 



I ^ 


ml iiiar- 
liler of 
ut noon 
il briilc 
and lie* 
f to liU 
5(1. On 
810, he 
' career 
rvloe of 
rtcr this 
I Lopez 
tl under 
lifted to 
icmi. At 
I Rubmit 
i\ ; and 
le Vene- 
in 1815, 
and Kub- 
:o. The 
, by no 
r means 
ind after 
ivar was 
in I6:il. 
|ht, and 
cd how 
le moral 
le ruled, 
of the 
ncd Lf- 
into a 
Inour of 
tiled in 
ign Ills 
,1 fac- 
.nd ex- 
|e the 
t, and 
Ined in 




n ^rto 9Aniber0al ISiograytis. 


var was distinRulshed for an irrepressible 
ardour, and (c>r the perseverance under 
adverse circumstances which eventually 
liberated South America from the dominion 
of Spain. As a statesman, he was not 
equally eminent; yet his views were 
liberal, and his general administration 
just. With a noble disrejrard of money, 
lie expended a large fortune In the public 
service: and, whatever might be his anpira- 
lions atter power, he was the true friend 
and supiwrter of iiis country's independ- 
ence. He was forty-seven years of age 
when he died. In perMu he was thin, and 
somewhat below ilie middle size, but ca- 
pable of great endurance; his complexion 
sallow, and his eyes dark and penetrating. 
His intellect was undoubtedly of the highest 
order, and his general character of that ar- 
dent, lofty cast, which is so well calculated 
to take the lead among a people emerging 
from the yoke of tyranny. 

BOLLANDUS, John, a learned Flemish 
Jesuit ; one of the compilers of the " Acta 
Sanctorum." Died, 166s. 

BOLOONESE. Francisco, the assumed 
name of Francis Orimaldi, an excellent 
landscape painter, pupil of Annibal Ca- 
racci. Died, 1680. 

BOLSEC, Jkromb. a Carmelite friar of 
Paris. He became tor a time a Calvinist, 
but again returned to the Romish faith, 
and marked his u-al against Protestantism 
by bitter untruths in his lives of Calvin and 
1 heodore Beza. Died, 1583. 

BOLSWERT, ScRBLDT.an engraver ofthe 
17th century, a native of Friesland, but who 
passed most of his life in Antwerp ; distin- 

?:ui8hed for the exrellence of his engravings 
rom Rubens and Vandyck. 

BOLTON, EoMCNO, an English anti- 
quary, of the 17th century ; author of 
" Elements of Armories ;" " Nero Cssar, 
or Monarchie depraved," &c. 

BOLTON, Robert, a purlUn divine; 
author of a " Treatise on Happiness," &c. 
Born, 1571 ; died, 1631. 

BOLTON, Robert, dean of Carlisle ; 
author of an " Essay on the Employment 
of Time," Stc. Died, 1763. 

BOLTON, Sir William, a captain in the 
British navy, and a nephew of lord Nelson, 
commenced his career, in 1793, as a mid- 
shipman, on board the Agamemnon, com- 
manded by his gallant uncle : under whom 
he served with credit and ability on the 
most trying occasions, during a great part 
of the war. Although he old not attain 
higher promotion, owing chiefly to his not 
beinr present in the ever-memorable battle 
of Trafalgar (which Nelson emphatically 
regretted during the engagement), hu 
merits as a naval officer, his gentlemanly 
deportment, and above all, his humanity, 
deserve to be recorded. Born, 1777 ; died, 
1830. ' 

BOLTS, William, an English merchant, 
Dutch extraction, born in 1740. He 
was invested with high employ in the East 
India Company's service, and realized a 
■ari^e fortune in India; but being accused 
of a d«'sisn to subvert the Indian govern- 
ment, he was arrested, sent to England, 
Imprisoiicd, and subjected to a seven 


years' process, which ditsi|imted hJH large 
fortune. Hu aied at last in a poorhouae. 
He left a work " On Bengal," and " Con- 
siderations on the AAairs of India." 

BULi£ANI,()RnANoVALERiANO,a learned 
monk : teacher of Greek at Venice, and ihe 
first who wrote a grammar of that language 
in Latin. Died, 1534. 

BOMBELLI, Sebastian, an eminent Bo- 
logneie liisturiral and portrait painter. 
Born, 1635; died, 1685. 

BOMBELLI, Kafhabl, a celebrated al- 
gebraist of the I6II1 century, and the Rrht 
who invented a uniform method of working 

BOMBERO, Daniel, a Dutch printer ; 
whose Bible and Talmud arc highly valued. 
Died, 1549. 

BOMPAR'r, J. B., a French republican 
vice-admiral, born in I7S7 ; brought into 
notice by his flgliting a British frigate, of 
44 guns, with iiis ship, the AmbuKcade, 36 
guns, off New York. His ship was taken, 
and himself made prisoner, during the ex- 
petlition to Irelanci In 1798. He always re- 
tained bis steady republican feelings during 
Bonaparte's Imperial ascendancy, and even 
during the Hundred Days. 

BON, L. A., born in 1770 ; one of the most 
distinguished of the French revolutionary 
generals; first in America; next in Italy; 
and lastly in Egypt; where he took poHses- 
sion of Suez in 1798. He fell at the siege of 
Acre In 1799. 

BON ST. HILARY, Francis Xavier. a 
learned French writer; author of " Me- 
nioire sur les Marrones d'Inde," Sic. 
Died, 1761. 

BONA, John, cardinal ; author of seve- 
ral devotional works. Raised to the car- 
dinalate by Clement IX. Died, 1674. 

BONAMY, Peter Nicholas, a French 
ecclesiastic ; historiographer of Paris, 11- 
brarian of St. Victor, and conductor of the 
'journal of Verdun, a clever periodical 
work. He also contributed largely to the 
Memoirs of tlie Academy of Inscriptions. 
Born, 1694; died, 1770. 

BONAMY, General, born in 1764; one 
of the conquerors of Naples, in i789. In 
charging the principal reuoubt at Moskwa. 
he received twenty bayonet wounds, ana 
was left in the hands of the Russians. He 
returned to France In 1814. 

BONANNI, Philip, a learned Jesuit of 
Rome ; autlior of a " History of the Church 
of the Vatican;" " Collection of the Me- 
dals of the Popes," Sec. Sic. Died, 1735. 

BONARELLI, Gut Ubaldo, an Italian 
poet; autlior of " Flllt dl Sciro," kc. 
Born, 1553; died, 16O8. 

BONASONI, GuiLio, a Bolognese painter 
and engraver of the Kith century. In the 
latter capacity he especiallv excelled ; and 
he engraved many of the chef d'oeuvres of 
Michael Angelo, RalTaelle, Sic, in a style 
of great beauty. 

BONAVENTURE.JohnFidanza. While 
only general of the order of Franciscans, 
his reputation for probity and wisdom 
caused the cardinals to leave to him the 
nomination of a successor to Clement IV. 
He named Theobald, archdeacon of Liege, 
who became pope, with the title of Grc- 





I' «' 

1 \ 



\ i 



^ lleto {Rnibersal iStograpl^s. 


gory X., nnd iinde Donaveiilure a cardinal. 
Hi! died, 1374 ; and wai ciiiioiiized, \i»a. 

UONAVBNTUIIR, nf i'adiia, made car- 
dinal by Urban VI. in 1378; a friend of 
I'ctrarrli, and anlliur ot several religious 
piecei. AsHaMinated, IUi>6. 

BONCIIAMP, Arthur ob, a celebrated 
ircncral of the Vendean rnyalisti*, and who 
had Kcrved uitli didtlnction an an olHcer in 
tlie American war. In liiin liumanity wait 
not IfKH conipicnouH than %'alour^ a* the last 
act of hit life amply tettllied ; tor it was to 
hi* interfcrencf tliat ft,000 prisonrrs, whom 
tlic exasperated royalUts had taken, were 
saved from instant death. He was mortally 
wounded in the battle of Chollet, 1793. 

BONCERF, F. F., born in 174S; author 
of the famous pamphlet, " Les Inconvenl- 
eni« des Droits I'eodaux," while secretary 
to Turgfot. Condemned to be burnt. It be- 
came the basis of the fundamental aecrees 
of the Constituent Assembly of 1769. Having 
been in the service of D'Orleans, h^ nar- 
rowly escaped tlie guillotine by one vote, 
on the fall of his patron, and died from the 
shock he then sustained. 

BOND, John, an Cngliih physician ; au- 
thor of critical notes on Horace, I'ersius, 
and other claKsics. Died, 1613. 

BOND, Olivbr, born In 1730; a famous 
Irish associate with Napuer Tandv and 
Theodore Wolfe Tone, in tne Irish rebellion 
of 1797-8. He was arrested in 179B ; terms 
were made with government to send iilm to 
America; but he was found dead (with 
apoplexy, as reported) In prison. 

UONDAM, i'KTRR, a famous Dutch 
writer of voluminous and useless commen- 
taries. Born In 17Z7 ; died in itioo. 

iioNDI. Clembnt, the poetical Delllle 
of tlie Italians ; author of tne " Conversa- 
zione," which resembles Cowper's Task ; 
" The ^.neid," translated In vers! ■cioltl, 
iic. Died, 1816. 

BONDY, Count de, born in I7M; a 
French liberal, but keepint^ aloof from the 
revolutionary tempest till he was called into 
eminent public service by Napoleon, who 
made him his chamberlain in 1805. Prom 
tliat time he always remained faithful to 
liim. attcndinf^ must of his campaigns. As 
prefect of the Rlione, durlni; the Hundred 
Days, he urged constitutional and reform- 
ing measures on his patron. He always sat 
witli tlie partee gauche, when elected de- 
nnty dc L'Indre, in 1818, and advocated 
liberal measures. 

BONE, Henry, an eminent artist, cele- 
brated for Ills skill in enamel painting, was 
born at Truro, in 1753. On coming to 
London h ' was for many years engaged in 
that brancli of the art which consists in 

1)ainting devices in enamel for Jewellery ; 
lut he subsequently attained the highest 
excellence as a miniature portrait painter 
on ivory and In enamel. Continuing to rise 
ill piibl!c estimation, and having for his 
patrons the royal family and principal no- 
bility, Kir. Bone carried his art to the ut- 
most perfection, increasing the tize of his 
plates beyond anything which had before 
been attempted, and executing in enamel 
several copies of pictures by the lirst mas- 
ters ; one of which, I'itian's " Bacchus and 

Ariadne," he painted on a plate IR Inches 
b^ 16, and sold it to the late O. Bowles, 
k^., of Uanstcad. for 3300 guineas. 
Among his most raunillcent patrons was tlie 
duke of Bedford, wlio possesses some of the 
most exquisite of his works, including a 
serieji of portraits of the Kiissell family 
■roni the reis[n of Henry Vlil. to the pre- 
sent time. He clos<:d a long life of perse- 
vering industry and tntogrltf , in December, 
1834 ; leaving his series of Elizabethan por- 
traits t<> be disposed of for the benelit of 
his fann , 

BONerACIO, Vsnbtuno, ai; Italian 
painter of eminence. Died, loao. 

BONER, Ulrich, the most ancient Ger- 
man fabulist, was a Doniinlran friar of 
Heme, In the uth century, i. . oublithed 
his fables under the title of " i>er Edel- 
stein" (The Gem). 

BUNET, Theoprilub, a celebrated Ger- 
man physician ; author of several learned 
works. Died, 1669. 

BONHOMME, Dupin P.J. B., born In 
1737 : a respectable conventionalist, and 
friend of mod< rate liberty, who perished in 
1793 by the revolutionary tribunal. 

BONIFACE, St., whose name was Wil- 
frid, a saint of tlie Romlih calendar, was 
a native of England, and made archbishop 
by Henry III. He travelled through many 
parts of Germany, of which country he was 
called the apostle ; and after reclaiming 
many from paganism, he was slain by some 
peasants in Friesland, in 7S4. 

BONIFACE, the name assumed by nine 
popes ; but the lives nf whom present no- 
thing worthy of particular notice. 

BONIFACE, count of the Roman empire 
*n the 3th century, and an intimate friend 
of St. Augustine, at whose desire he devoted 
himself to public affairs. He was slain in 
a desperate contest with Aetias, in 433. 

BONIFACE. Hyacinth, advocate of the 

Sarlianient of Alx ; author of " Avrdts 
lo tables dn Parliament de Provence." 
Born, 1613 ; died, 1695. 

BONIFACIO, Balthazar, a learned 
Venetian, bisliop of Capo dMstrla ; author 
of « Historla Ludicia," Latin poems, &c. 
Died, 1659. 

BONJOUR, William, a French monk, 
and missionary to China; author of " Dis- 
sertadonson the Scripture," &c. Died, 1714. 

BONNAIRE, J. G., a French general, 
born 1)1 1737 ; a respectable conventionalist, 
and friend of moderate liberty, who {le- 
rished in 1793 by the revolutionary tribunal. 

BONNAIRE, J. G., a French general, 
born in 177 1 : tried for firingon Col. Gordon ; 
sent by tlu^ kingtosuiumon Conde,in isiS; 
and condemned to degradation iuid exile in 
1816, of which sentence he died, broken- 

BONNEFONS, John, a French writer 
of Latin poems ; whicn are printed with 
those of Beza in Barbau's edition of i7«7. 
Born, 1554 ; died, 1014. 

BONNELL,, Jaubs, accomptant-generai 
of Ireland in the reign of James n. ; re- 
markable for his firmness and integrity in 
the discharge of his public duty in a trou- 
blesome and periloua time. Some " Me- 
ditations" of Us, printed with his Life, 


self-conceit is the ordinary attendant of ignorance. 



















































a ^etD 9!liuber0al Btograpfii). 


written by anhdracnn llantillon, khow him 
lo liKVi- liren » man of con»ideritble iiitel- 
IpcI. Horn, 16^3 ; died, I6W. 

HONNER, Edmvnd, «n Enrliih prelate, 
cli»(fracffiilljr noiorlou* for ni« atrocloui 
|ier»ecitlinn of (he Hrotettanlii diiriii|f (he 
rriiel reign of fjueen Mary, On the acces- 
kIoii of queen Llitalieth, he refuted to (alte 
the oath of (upremacy, and wai committeH 
to tlic Mar!>h:il*ea, where he remained 
nearly ten year«, and where he died, l«00. 
BONNET, CiiAHLBB, a distinirulslied 
naturalint of Genet a : author of " Insec- 
tolo^ ;" " Eiway on Phy«ioloiry ;" " Con- 
ftiilcrationi on Orf^aniieU Bodies," tec. 
Born, nm ; died, 1793. 

BONNEVAL, Claudii;s Alexandkr, 
count of, a French adventurer, Mn-in-iaw 
of maranal Biron. After cervin? under 
prince Eni^ene against the Turk*, resent- 
ment for havinr been imprisoned for chal- 
Iciiginif the prince caused him to fro over 
lo the Turks, and become a MnsMuiman. 
His services were highly valued by the 
grand seignior, who gave him (he title; of 
Achmet l>acha, and raided him from rank 
to rank, till he became master of the ord- 
nance, In which office be died in 1747. 

BONNEVIE, Abbe, born in 1764 ; a 
great preacher of funeral orations over the 
Bonaparte family and Bonapartists : and 
equally zealous in preachin|f funeral ora- 
tions for the Bourbons, auer their fall. 
" Is the abb^ as virulent against the tyrant 
as ever!" asked Napoleon, in passing his 
cure, on returning from Elba. But the 
abbe had disappeared. 

BONNEVILLE, N., a poet of the French 
revolution, born in 1760 : he was the friend 
of Condorcet, La Fayette, and Paine ; and 
was with Kosciusko when he fell. Thougli 
denounced by Murat, in the National Con- 
vention, as an aristocrat, he was so far from 
being an ultra in his views of liberty, ashim- 
self to denounce Bonaparte (on his becom- 
ing emperor) aa the Cromwell of France ; 
when the latter suppressed his periodical, 
the " Bien Liforme." Among liis works, 
are, " Theatre Allemand," " Poesies Re- 
publicaines," " Nouveaii Code Conjugal," 
*< Esprit des Religions," &c. 

BONNIER, A. E., a French republican, 
born in 1750. He was sent aa plenipotentiary 
to a " confereace" with Prince Metternicli, 
in 1799, at Rastadt ; but the negotiation was 
broken off by Austria, and Bonnier was mur- 
dered between that town and Strasburg, and 
his papers taken away, although attended 
by an escort of hussars. The mystery ot 
this act has never been thoroughly cleareil 
up. Bonnier's seat in the Council of An- 
cients was for two years after covered with 
crape, as a testimony of respect. 

BONNINOTON, Richard Parkes, a 
British artist of great merit and of singular 
precocity. At three years old he could 
sketch most of the objects he saw, and at 
IS was admitted to draw in the Louvre at 
Paris. After visiting Italy he brought back 
many able specimens of his works, and 
Hnished a successful, though brief, career, 
at the ajfe of 27, in 182?. 

BONNYCASTLE, John, professor of 
mathematics at the Royal Military Acade- 
my, Woolwich ; author of " The Scholar's 

C; Hide to Aritlimeiio ;" '* The i:icmen(>i <»f 
Geometry ;" " A Treatise ii|>on Astrono- 
my, " itv. Uied, IB'JI. 

BONOMI, Josp.pii, an Italian architect 
of coniiiderabie taste and KenlUH ; from 
whose design (lie Roman C'atliolic cli<i|)cl 
near Maiicliester square was erected. Uied, 

BONTEMPI, Giovanni Andrea Anoe- 
LiNi, an Italian musician of the 17th cen- 
tury ; author of " Nova qualiior vocibus 
coniponendi Mediodus," ttc. 

BONTEMS, Madame, a literary lady of 
Paris ; author of an elegant Freiu-Ii version 
of ThouiHoii's Seasons. Died, 1768. 

BONTIUS, Jamks, a Dutch iihysician at 
Ratavia in (he (7tli century ; author of 
" llistoriie Naturalls et Medicic India; Uri- 
entails, Libri Sex," kc. 

BOOKER, the Rev. Lpkk, LL.D., a 
clergyman of (lie church of England, dis- 
(inguUhed for his literary acquireiiieiXs no 
lens than for his zeal in Itic cause of ti nth, 
was born, at Nottingham, in 1762; took 
holy orders in 1785; and evenlnaliy became 
the vicar of Dudley. As a niiniitlcr of (he 
natinnai church he was distinguished for 
an impressive and commanding eloquence, 
which gave a grace to his sound theology 
and fervid piety ; and as a proof of the higli 
degree of public estimation in wliich he 
was held as a preacher, it is sufficient to 
state, (hat durini^ liis ministry he preached 
one hundred and seventy-three sermons 011 
public and charitable occasions, and that 
the collections made on behalf of the ob- 
jects for which he pleaded amounted to 
nearly 9000/. Dr. Booker was (he author 
of many excellent worku; viz. " Poems" 
on various occasions; "Christian Intrepi- 
dity;" " Calista, or the Picture of Modern 
Lile;" ''Euthanasia, the State of Man 
after Death ;" " Discourses and Disserta- 
tions," 3 vols. ; and a variety of others. 
tie was also a fearless antagonist of the 
emissaries of infldelity, and a powerful de- 
fenderof the church at^: inst Unitarian or 
Papal aggressors. Dieo, October, IB35. 

BOONE, Daniel, one of the first ad- 
venturers who penetrated Into the wilds of 
Kentucky, was born in Virginia, and from 
his earliest infancy was addicted to hunting 
in the woods. In 1769 he lirst set out, in 
company with a few friends; and after nu- 
merous perils and adventures, lie founded 
Booiieshorough, the earliest si-ttlenient in 
Kentucky, now a flourishing town, though 
at that time a wilderness. He was subse- 
quently taken prisoner by the Indians, but 
escaped ; and, being joined by other adven- 
turers, was enabled to repulse them on se- 
veral occasions, though neitlier art nor 
treachery were left unemployed to take 
him. At length, in 1796, he removed to Upper 
I/)ulsiana, where he received a grant troni 
the Spanish authorities of 2,00U acres of 
land for himself, and 800 acres for each of 
his children, friends, and followers, lie 
then settled with them on the Missouri ri- 
ver, at Cliaretie, some distance beyond the 
inhabited parts of the country, where he 
followed Ills usual course of life— hunting 
and trapping for bears— until Sept. 1822, 
when he died, aged 84. 
BOOTH, Barton, a celebrated actor 




^1 ;.. 









i I 




a ^etD 9tlnibet0al IStograv^ff. 


lilt' t'eiKllM n( qiifrii Aiiiiu nnd <icnr);e I. ; 
truiiHliitor III' (eturul of ilio<*ilei ol' Horace, 
mid aiitlior ol° " Uido mid Ivivat," k 
iiiM(|uc, Stc. Horn, Iti8l ; dli-d, 1733. 

UOuril, Ukohok, baron D«Umer«, a 
7.LMlnuf« partUaii ol' Charlea II. lleinr de- 
ft'uted by the inirll.uueiitury i^eiivral, Lam- 
licrt, lie watt coiitliivd in the 'lower iiiilil 
tlie death of Croinwi'll. He then obtained 
hi* liberty, and waa one ol' the twelve dele> 
Ifaleii H'nl lo tin! new king. It was on iiii« 
uccuHion lli.tt lie obtained hit title, aud a 
present of lo.OOO/. Died, lam. 

HOUril, IlKNiiY, earl of Warrington, 
■on of thu ulinve. Having been among 
tlioHe who vuiud I'or the exclunion of tli« 
duke 0*° York, when that |H;rkonagi- liccaniu 
king, he wun committed to tliu Tuwer. and 
wu»,trl(Mi for high treaMin, but iici|<>itted, 
iu Hi'iite of tlie I'lfortH of tlie iiil'anioiiit Jef- 
forieii. 0» tlie ao.fision of William III., 
he wiis made a privy councillor and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer. Ilia effort* to li- 
mit the prerog-ailve, however, caused him 
to fall into disgrace ; but he \v.:8 allowed 
to retire from oflici- with a pension, and 
the titli! of carl of Warrington. Died, 1694. 

noKUA, John Charles, a French ma- 
thematician and Hstroiioiner ; author of a 
" Uissertatloii on the Construction of Hy- 
draulic Machinery ;" a " Narrative of a 
Voyage to the South Sea," &c. He invented 
the rellecling circle, and made several Im- 
provements In hydraulics. Uorii, 1733 ; 
died, I7U9. 

BUKOK, Andrkw, an Rngllsh physi- 
cian ; author of " The Merrie Tales of the 
Madman of Gotham," and several other 
quaint works. Died, 1339. 

nORDE. John Uenjamin db la, a 
French miscellaneous writer ; author of 
" Adela de Pontliieii ; " " Essais sur la 
Muslque, anclenne et modcrne;" " Me- 
moirs de Courcy," &c. He was guillotined 
in 1794. 

BORDEN, Theophilus db, a French 
physician ; author of " Rccherches sur 
quelques polntes de I'Hlstolre de la Mede- 
clne,'' &c. Died, 1776. 

BORDELON, Laurbnob. a voluiulnous 
French writer ; author of '* Dialogues for 
the Living ;" " Curious Varieties ; " se- 
veral dramatic pieces, &c. Born, 16S3 ; 
died. 1730. 

BORELLI, John Alphonso, an Italian 
uliiloMopher and niathematiclan ; rt-meni- 
bered cliledy I'orlielng the first who applied 
mathematical calculation and mechanical 
principles to account for the action of the 
muscles. Born, I6U8 ; died, 1679. 

BOKGHESB, Maria Paulinb, princeM, 
the beautiful sister of Napoleon Buona- 
parte, was born at AJaccio, in 1780. Her 
nrst huiiband was General Leclerc, with 
whom she went to St. Domingo, but who 
dying in 1802, she became. In the following 
year, the wife of the prince Camillo Borg- 
liese. Napoleon was much attached to her; 
and that her love for him was equally sin- 
cere, was manifest on many striking occa- 
sions, though she frequently disputed wi$ 
him, and refused to follow the caprices of 
his policy. When Napoleon resigned his 
crown in 1614, and retired to KIba, Pauline 
left her palace in Rome, and followed him 

to Ills ulace of exile. Before the battle of 
WateihMi, she pitkced ail her diamonds, 
which were of great value, at his dlsiioMal 
and tliey were In his carriage, which wiu 
taken In that battle. She lived afterwards, 
separated from her hukband, at Rome, and 
her house was the centre of the most s|ilen- 
dld society. When sliu heard of her bro- 
ther's Illness at St. Helena, she rc|>eateilly 
requested iiermlsslon to go to him ; at 
length her n-quest was granted, and she 
was Just about to ilepari, when the lews of 
his death reached her. Died, 183.'. 

BURGIA, CvKSAR, son of cardinal Ro- 
drigo, afterwards nope Alexander VI. He 
was at first devoted to the church, and be- 
came a cardinal, but more ambitious pros 
iiects for him caused hi* father to secularize 
■dm. After serving in the army of LouU 
Xil., he became duke of Romagna, mid 
extended his |>ower and possessions so 
greatly, ami In so remorseless a manner, 
tliat the Italian states became alarmed, and 
a c(iiifederacy was formed against liini. 
After opiKising oil efl'orls nu'ainst him with 
eijual skill and wickedness, he was slain In 
a skirmish before the castle of Vlana, IS07. 

BORGIA, Stkpiibn, a cardinal, was a 
native of Valletrl. He had an eiithuslastlc 
lo\c for art, and throughout life devoted 

frcat attention to the collection of relics. 
t was usual with him to change a valuable 
Ciccf of plate for some rare article to adorn 
Is museum ; and on one occasion, to pur- 
chase an Egyptian mummy, he even parted 
with the plate from his table, and the 
buckles from his shoes. Plus VI. created 
hlni cardinal in 1780; and the succeeding 
pope named cardinal Borgia president of 
the council when the French garrison eva- 
cuated Rome. He was the author of some 
works in support of the papal temporalities. 
Died, at Lyons, I804. 

BORIR, Jean, oneof tbemostsanguinary 
monsters of the Frencli revolution, and in- 
ventor of the" Farandoles." He was a law- 
yer; born about 1770; died in 1805, in exile. 

BOKKIIAUGEN.M.B.,acelflbrated Ger- 
man natuiallst and entomologist, and one 
of the editors of the " Reinlscne Magadn." 
Born, I7J3-, died, 1807. 

BORLASE, William, an eminent English 
to|iographer and antiquary ; author of 
" Tlie Antiquities, historical and monu- 
mental, of the County of Cornwall ;" the 
" Natural History of Cornwall," Stc. Boru, 
1696; died, 1773. 

BORIS, Gadbnow, grand master of the 
horse to Theodore Ivauowltz, emperor ol 
Russia. He is said to have put to death 
both the emperor's brother and the enipe-l 
ror himself; and it is certain that at the] 
death of the latter Boris became emperor. 
He governed cruelly and tyrannically, bui 
died suddenly. Just as Russia was Invaded 
by a Polish army, which was headed by a 
young mouK, wno pretended to be Deme- 
trius, the deceased brother of Theodore, 
in 1605. 

BORN, loNATios, baron; an cnilneni 
German mineralogist and writer ; author of 
a treatise on " TTie Process of Amalgama- 
tion," &c. Born, 1742; died, 1791. 

BORRI, Joseph Francis, an adventurer 
of the 17th century, who attracted much 





[>attlo of 

llcll WiU 

)mc, ana 
fct »|ilcn- 
litT br«- 
lilin ; ut 
and ihr 

1 IKWIt ol 

inal Ro 
VI. lie 

, and 111! 
uUH (iroit 
uf LouU 
;na, ntid 
iiili>nii M) 
nied, and 
nut lil'ii. 
him will) 
M slain Im 
ina« I507' 
kl, wan a 
B devoted 
of rellrs. 
t valuable 
e to adorn 
a, to pur- 
eu parted 
and the 
. created 
lident of 
iaon eva 
of Kome 

I, and in- 
rasa law- 
I In exile. 
I and one 

lithor of 
\\;" the 

kr of the 
Iperor of 
\o death 
|e em pe- 
al the 
Illy, bu 
1 Invaded 
led by a 

jthor of 



■■ WHO riNDi PLBAiuna in vicb, anu pain in viiiruB, i* a novicr in IIUTII. 


a lletD ^Aniberdal ISiograpfiv. 


notice by hli fanatical luTCRir* in rellg;inn, 
and by hit pretenxion* as an alclunilst and 
physician. After a longcoiine of bold and 
impudent Imposture, he was iniprUoncd, 
at first 111 the prison of the lixpilsltlon at 
Rome, and aftvi wards In the I'aittlu of St. 
Anirrlo, where he died, I69S. He is chiefly 
remembered now for his tract entitled 
« La Chlano del Cabtnetto," a series of 
letters on alchemy, 

DORRICIIIUS, Olaus, a DanUh physi- 
cian and counsellor of the Royal Ch.inrcry 
of Denmark ; author of " Cngitaitoncs de 
varlU l.lMKua- Lailni> telatlbus," a treatise 
" Ue Ortu rt l>ro)frcssii Chimlai," kc. 
In s|>ite of his great lenrnlnif and ability, 
he lavished much time and money In the 
folly of alchemy. Died, l<!9o. 

liOllROMEO, Charles, a cardinal ; au> 
thor of a vast niiinlH'r of moral and doc- 
trinal treallDC >. Died, 1S94 ; ami was ca- 
nonizeil sixteen years after by i'aul V. 

HURROMEO, FRRDP.RIC, a cousln-rer- 
man of the above. archbiKlion of Milan, 
and also a cardinal; author of" SarrI Ra- 
gionamenti ;" " RagionamentI Splrituall," 
&c. Died, 1633. 


painter, who Imitated the style of Correrlo, 
and had much of the taste of Michael Au- 
grlo. Pius VI. made him a knight of the 
golden spur, and the king of Sardinia 
granted him a pension. He died at Vog- 
hera, in ISIO. 

BORROMMI, Franobbco, an Italian 
architect : the pupil of Mudernu. whom he 
succeeded as architect of St. Peter's, at 
Rome. His best work Is the college of tlie 
Propaganda. Died, b; his own hand, while 
in a fit of insanity, 1007. 

BOS, Lambbrt, professor of Greek at 
Franeker; author of the well-known and 
valuable work on the Greek Ellipses, an 
excellent edition of the Septuagint, with 
Prolegomena and various readings, 6cc. 
Born, 1070 ; died, 1717. 

BOSC, Peter dt7, an eminent French 
Calvinlst preacher of the I7tli century ; 
author of nnmerons sermons, epistles, po- 
ems, &c. On the revocation of tlie edict of 
Nantes, he eacaped to Holland, where he 
died, in 1093. 

BOSC, LoDii Auousraa Williau, a 
French naturalist, and the author of several 
agricultural and other works. He held a 
responslblesituationin the French post-office 
under the old regime ; but. in 1793, being 
driven from his place by the Jacobins, he 
sought a retreat In the forest of Montmo- 
renci, where he lived three years In soli- 
tude, devoting his time to the stady of na- 
tural history. 

BOSCAOER, John, a French lawyer and 
writer; author of a treatise ou " French 
and Roman Law," ttc. Died, 1667. 

BOSCAN. John Almaoatbr, a Spanish 
poet, who Ant introduced Into Spanish the 
hendecasvllabic verse. His works are pub- 
lished with those of Oarcilasso. Died, 1544. 
,.BOSCAWEN, Edward, a brave and 
biglily distinguished English admiral. He 
served under Anson in the engagement of 

r "i? »">*9terre, and received the thanks 
or 1 ariiament and a pension for his ex- 

ploit* while serving in tlie Athinlir and in 
the Mediterranean. Horn, 171 1 ; illiil, 17GI. 

IIOSCAWEN, William, nephew of llie 
above; author of an " Ruay on the Pro- 
gress of Satire;" a tniiiMlaiinn of llnrucr, 
ice. Born, I7.VJ; dird, I^ll. 

BOSCH, Hbrnahu, a Dutch ixxt, lK)rn 
in 1746; author of " l'.gotlsni,"aiiil" Horn ir» 
PoeniH ;'• and co-editor of the " J.mu* " 
and " Eclair Politique." 

HOSCH, Jrhomr, a lamous Dutch hi)>- 
llomaiiUl; born In 1740, died in lull. His 
library catalogue was reniarkablr for tiie 
number of prinerp* editionH it contaiiuMl. 

BOSCH, I..A. G., one of tlie llrpi Frem-h 
naturalUU of tlie age ; born In I73t' ; pa- 
tronised by Iho minlNter Rolande. He had 
tlie courage to acrnnipany Miidnme Roiande 
to the foot of the ncafTold. He v«roto " IIih- 
toire Natureiie des Coquilles," " Dii-- 
tionnalre d'Agriculture," ^c. His brother, 
(Stephen Bosch) also publiniied some well 
written works on agriculture and the ot'cu- 
pallon of tlie poor. 

BOSCOVICH. Roger JosErii, a Jesuit, 
and profesHor or mathematics in the Roman 
college of that order; author of a Latin 
poem on eclipses, Stc, Sic. Born, 1711 ; 
died, 1787. 

BOSSCHA, H., a Dutch poet and miscel- 
laneous writer; born in 1760; author of 
" Belgica Libertas:" and a " History ol 
the Revolution of Holland." 

BOSS I, (\ A., Baron de, an eminent mo- 
dern Italian poet, born at Piedmont in 
I7S8. He favoured the French interciit on 
tlie Republic's invasion of Italy, and was 
rewarded by posts in France by NaiMWeon. 
He is chiefly known by lila exertions in 
this country in favour of the Protestant 
Vaudois. " Oromasia" is liU chief work 
in poetry. 

iiOSSU, Rbnb lr, an eminent French 
critic of the 17th century ; autlior of a 
" Treatise on Epic Poetry ;" " I'araliei of 
the I'liilosopiiy of Descartes and of Aris- 
totle," &c. 

BOSSUET, Jacques Benionr, bishop of 
Meaux, a very eminent French prcactier 
and controversial writer ; author of a 
" Discourse on llniversal History ;" of ini- 
mcroug funeral and other orations of siiieii- 
did excellence ; an " Exposition of the 
Roman Catholic Faith," &c. Born, lOiT; 
died, 1704. 

BOSSUT, C. A., a celebrated French ma- 
thematician, and the friend and .iKHociate 
of Condorcet. D'Alembert, Baiily, and La- 
voissier. His " Tralte Elcinentaire dt- 
Mechanique et de Dynami(|ue," is well 
known. Born, 1730; died, 1814. 

BOSTON, John, a monk of St. Edmonds- 
bury, in the 19th century ; author of " Sjie- 
ciiium Csenobitarum," &c. 

BOSWELL, James, the friend and bio- 
grapher of Johnson, was the eldeitt son of 
lord Auchlnleck, a Scotch judge. The i^ood 
taste of this gentleman led him to seelc the 
friendship of Dr. Johnson, of whose life lie 
has given a most Interesting account, form- 
ing the beat specimen of faitliful biograuhy 
in the language; and which has secured to 
the biographer an extent and permaiit.ncy 
of fame which his talents, though far from 



I I 

roRroNB ruvf'B ro many too much, iiiit to nunk knuI'ok. 



21 fi.t\D ^nnibrrdfll 13iograpf)v. 


inrnnildcrabic, coiilil wtrccly have pro- 
ciiri-d lilm tr lixcrlpil upon any other lub- 
Jcct. Horn, 1740; died, I7S5. 

BOSWRLL, Sir Alkxandkr, eldeit ton 
of the preri-diiiR:, uii<i born in 1779, and 
•iirreeiU-d til* falhtfr In Ihr poi>M>ii»tnn of the 
family eiitatc. lie wnn a lilurary anti<|uary 
of no Inconnldrrabln erudition, and the au- 
thor of ni»ny popular nonat and (toclical 
jettx d'ftiiiil. He lidicriteil all the Tory 
iiplrit of lilii fiillifr ; and nonie altaeltii on 
ttie cliaraclcr of Janie* Stuart, Em|. Iiavlm; 
apiH-ariHl in tlic " Heacoii" *:,d " Senti- 
nel " newKini|>eri, which were Ir.ired to 
Sir Alcxaniler, a duel took place between 
tlietc gentlemen, when the latter fell, mor- 
tally wounded in the neck, Miirrh M, IH33. 
Mr. Stuart wan tried for this offence, but 
hononiiibly act|ultted. 

UOSWRLL, James, the lecnnd ton of the 
biographer of JoIuihou, wa* born In 1779, 
aiiif educ:ite<l at \Ve-<tniln»ti:r School, lie 
poMfhxrd talent* of a HU|ierior order; and 
the likill with \«hlrh he ediied the eninrred 
and amended edition of Malone'i ShaKi- 

f tea re. in 31 vol*., affonlH nnipic evidence of 
il* Kcnolarslilp, Judfrnient, and discrimina- 
tion. Indeed, lo satiitficd wa* Mr. Mitlone 
with hi« iieculiar tilneh* for *uch a tank, that 
he nelerteil him a* liU literary executor. 
He die<l in I8S3, aged 43. 

BOTELLO, Don NoNo Alvarez de, a 
celebrated viceroy of India when the Por- 
tuxueitc held dominion there ; and whose 
graliautry and iklll tended greatly to aug- 
ment their Hindoatanic poiii>e*iion*. lie 
grained several victories over the Dutch, 
and detitroyed the fleet and army of the 
Achenese which were beKiefflng Malacca ; 
but lost III* life, in 163!), by being crushetl 
between his own vetsel and one of the 

BOTH, JoiiM and Andrew, brother*, 
two Flemish painters, born at IJtrecht, in 
the early part of the I7th century. John 
chofie for nis model the works or Claude 
Lorraine, while Andrew studied the human 
figure ; but tliev freriucntly united in the 
same work*, and their lalraurs barnionUed 
so well, that their pictures could not be 
suspected of being joint productions. 

BOTHWELL, James Hepburn, earl of, 
the second husband of the ill-fated Mary of 
Scotland ; and the supposed insliffator, at 
least, of the murder of her llrst luuband, 
Henry Darnley. Bothwell died, in exile, 
at Denmark, in tS77> 

BOTT, John de, a French architect. 
Being a Protestant, he had no chance of 
obtaining patronage In his own country ; 
and therefore entered into the service of 
William, prince of Orange, whom he ac- 
companied to England. On tlie death of 
that prince, he went into the service of the 
elector of Brandenburvb, by whom he was 
made a major-general. The fortiflcations 
of Wesel and the arsenal of Berlin are 
among the numerous proofs of his talent. 
Died, I74S. 

BOTZARIS, Marco, a brave and pa- 
triotic Suliote, appointed stratarch of Wes- 
tern Greece in 1831. He was killed in a 
night attack on the Turks, 1833. 

BOUCHARDON, Edmund, an eminent 

French architect; m:iny of whone works 
adorn I'uris. Born, 1008 ; died, 1763. 

BOUCHER, Francis, a French painter 
of some note, and who, but for tlie rapidity 
of IiIh execution, would probably have ar- 
rived at great eminence, but the eaxe with 
which he executed rendered him careless. 
Born, 1704 ; died, 1770. 

BOUCHER, Luc, a Jacobin leader of the 
Faubourg St. Antolne, who, on the 30lli 
May, 1795, forced himself into the National 
Convention, and sei/.in? Ferrand, one of the 
memtM-rs, beheaded hini In the lobby with 
hi* own hand, and ilxed hi* head on a pike, 
parading it ihroiiKh tlie ' Salle.' lie was 
afterwards guillotined. 

liOUCHEK, Jonathan, an English di- 
vine; author of " The Cumberland Man," 
«tc. Died, IR04. 

BOUCHOTTE, J. B., born in 1754; he 
was a second lieutenant in 1775, and waa 
war minister to tlie French republic In 1793, 
during its most eveiitlul and victorious pe- 
riod. He was denounced bv tlie ultra Ja- 
colilno, and narrowly escaped tlie guillotine, 
but retired into pritate life. 

BOUCiCAULT, Marshal, count of Beau- 
fort, a celebrated French soldier of the l&th 
century. He served against the Turks, and 
in llie Italian strife between the Guelphs 
and Ghibehnes ; and, at the battle of Agin- 
court, was taken prl«oiier and brought to 
England, where he died in 1431. 

BOUDINOT, ELiAt, was born in Phila- 
delphia, in 1740 ; studied the law, and be- 
came eminent in that profession ; but dur- 
ing the American coiuest lie was chosen a 
member of congreu, made its i>re>ident in 
MSi, and after the adoption of^ the consti- 
tution, he entered the house of rejsresenta- 
tlves. On retiring from public life, he de- 
voted himself earnestly to biblical litera- 
ture ; and, being possessed of an ample for- 
tune, made munincent donations to various 
charitable and theological institutions, fore- 
most among which was the American Bible 
Society, of whicli he became president, lie 
died in 1 831, aged 83. 

BOUFFLERS, Louis Francis, duke of, a 
distinguished marslial of France. In 1708 
he defended Lille for four months against 
prince Eugene, who, when he at ^ngth 
took that place, said to tlie niariihal " I am 
very proud of having taken Lille, but I 
should be still more proud of defending it 
as you have." Died, 1711. 

BOUFFLERS, Stanislacb, chevalier de, 
son of the marchioness of Boufflers, mis- 
tress of SUnislaus, king of Poland, born in 
1737, was distinguished for tlie elegance of 
his manners and conversation, lie was 
destined for the church, but declared that 
his love of pleasure would interfere with 
the duties of this profession, and therefore 
entered the military service. He emigrated 
from France in 1793, to Prussia. He left 
several works of merit, " Le Libre Arbltre," 
Sec. Hit character \\m been thus summed 
up : "A libertine abbe ; a military philo- 
sopher; a song-making diplomatist : an 
emigrant republican." Died, I8is. 

BOUGAINVILLE, Jean Pierre de, a 
French writer; author of " Philip of Ma- 
cedon," a tragedy, &c.; and editor of 

TO a man full or questions, hake no answer. 




toiin «ork«| 

i,rh pulnter ] 
the rapidity 
ly have »r- 
le fan*! wllh I 
ini careleu. 

oatler of the 
nil the aoth , 
Ihc National 
d, one of the t 
c lobby MithI B 
til on a pike, 
le.' He wa«| 

Enclith di 
irlana Man," 

In 17M; he 
775, and wa« 
public In I7B3, 
victorious pe- 

the ultra Ja< 
the guillotine 

count of Beau- 

illcrof thel5th 

the Turki, anil 

n the Ouelplw 

battle of AKln- 

nd brought to 


born in Phlla 

le law, and be 

wion ; hut dur 

e wa«cho»en a 

iU ure>ldent In 
of^the conitl- 
of reprenenta- 

»Uc lire, he de- 

, biblical lltera- 

f an ample for- 
lona to various ^ 
itltutlons, fore- g 
merlcan DIble 
president. He 

JiciB, duke of, a 

lance. In 1708 

Imonlhs against 

he at lengih 

..larshal " I am 

\n Llllc, but I 

of defending It 

M, chevalier de, 
iBoufHera, mis- 
Tolaiid, born In 
khe elegance of 
lion, lie was 
i declared that 
[interfere with 
and therefore 
i Heemlirrated 
l-nssla. He left 
Libre Arbltre," 
J) thus summed 
Imilitarv phllo- 
plomatUt; an 
I, 1815. 

1 Philip of Ma- 
and editor of 


a llrto SAnibrrsal 13tograpf))). 


Frerrt'* (rrtal work on Chronology. Horn, 
1731; ihi'd, I7rt3. 

HOlXJMNVIl.l.r, Loris Antoink dr, 
a Freni-h urtirrr, lUilhiKiiiitluMl Imth in tht- 
mlllliiry and naviil wrUii'. Wlii-n i.«!rvln|f 
hi I'au'.KU, niKlcr IMoiiicitlm, hi: tliiphiyeil 
to niiicli Itrawry th;tl he nhl.ilni-d the rank 
of colom-l, and «ub*«M|n»-nlly hccuiiu' ii ge- 
iii-ral. IhuItT (lur fnipirf he uuh niiiile a 
M-nator, anil a mciiihiT of (hf liiNiiliile. 
llouKainUllc flrrunina«iKaleil the worlil, 
anil iMirli'lit'il the itriiMit'c of gi-oKraphy hy 
a nuiiilirr III new ilUcowrii'M, limn, I73<J; 
ilicd, IHII. 

IMMUilvWT, c;uii.i.Ai'MK HvAriNTiir, a 
Frt'iicli JrHiiil; uiilliorof " AnniM-ini-nt I'lii- 
liHto|ilili|iii: «ur If linifuaKf iIch IK^Icm," 
" lllHdiry oi (he Wan of l.ouiit XIII.," 
" HlHtory of the Iriatv of \Vi'itt|iliulia," 
ice. liitrn, lOUU ; iliiil, n*:i. 

IKXIUDKH, I'lKHHK, a Krcmh niathe- 
niaticiun anil hyili'o);r,i|ihcr ; author ol'(r«;a- 
tl»e« oil Nuviifalion and rilolai(c, ami on 
(hi! CoiiKtnii'tlon of Ships ; and niinieroiis 
other valuahlewnrkx of Hcicncf. Dieil, I7'>8. 

ItOUIIlEK, John, an cmim-nt hrt-m-h 
uriler of the I7th century ; aiitlmr of <* I^-t- 
lirii on the I'lieraiHsutit'," " Disoertalimis 
on tleriHlotUM," in-. Horn, IC73 ; illeil, 1746. 

HOUHOIJUS, Dominic, a French Jesuit 
and orlllc; author of" l.«'» Fntietienu d' 
AriKte et d'Kugeiie," " IVIanli^rc de hleii 
Denser Nur Ii-m Ouvrairesde rEnprlt," Sic, 
born, 16:^8; died, 17113. 

UOIMLi.ARD, J., a celebraled French 
ensraver, horn in 1744, died in IHOO. ills 
" Horeas et Orylhea" is a inanterpieie, 

UOUILI.F:, Francis Clauob Amour, 
marquis de, born in 17 >9 ; a uintiiiguiithed 
French general, celebrated bv IiIm exploitK 
up to the era of the French revolution : 
from which, although he sat on liberal 

f)rinciple8 in the lirHt AHsiinbly of Notables, 
le detached himself, and, after making ex- 
cellent preiiarationa to assist the iiiirortu- 
nate Louis XVi. in escaping from Vareniies, 
which liiH Novereign refused to avail him- 
self of, since it could not be effected with- 
out bloodshed, he tjuitted France and served 
under the allies, lie died in London in \S00. 
ills " Memoirs of the French Revolution " 
rank deservedly high. 

HOUILLY, J. N., an eminent French 
diplomatist, born in 1770. In Ills views of 
the revolution, he concurred with Ills friend 
Mirabeau. Author of " Pierre le Grand," 
" L'Ahlje de L'Kiiee," " Leonore," " He 
lena," "Agnes Sorel," " La Veiilesse di 
Hiron," kc. 

bUUILLUN, Rose, born In 1770; a he- 
roine of the Frencli revolution, who entered 
the army as a volunteer, and fought as a 
private in the 6th battalion of the Haute 
Saoii, at the battle of Limhack, where her 
husband was killed by her side. She had a 
pension from the National Convention. 

de St. Saire ; author of a " History of Ma- 
homet," a " History of the Arabians," a 
" History of the Peerage of France," Sec, 
Born, 1658 ; died, 1722. 

BOULANGER, Nicholas Antony, a 
French mathematician and engineer ; autlior 
of" Traite du Despotisiue Orientale," ■<"' 
Born, 1723 ; died, 1769. 



IIOHI.AIll), ANTOINR Makik llr.NRI, a 

ilislinKUlitlK'd Freiii'h «iii<in/, linrn in I7'>4| 
and incinlM-r of thr Chaniber of Di-piitiiN 
ill IHI5. He In author of niinii'rou<« traiu- 
latloiiH from l'.iiKli.>liii(anitaril writing* ; and 
was honoiiri'd hy the friendship of La 
Har|N>, .vi'. Died, iHj.i. 

born In 1761 ; one of the most dintingulHheii 
oratorH in the French revolution, and author 
of eminent worku on politlcil krieiire. He 
was prcNlilint of thr Civil Trihiinal at 
Nancy, in I7!):i, and had ]in-M share in I'oii- 
hrmlng the expatriation of thfemiiiraiitH in 
I71>3, when a nieniber of the Five Hiinilreil. 
lie was Rnhse(|uently f.iilhfiil to llnnaparle 
throiiKli all the latter i-hanges of I'nrtune : 
and on that account was proscrilii'd, ami 
haiilHlifil to Frankfort, by the Uourhoim, on 
their last restoration in |HI5. 

BOU LTER,Hi'(iii,archhl3hnp of Armagh, 
eminent for bin heiievolent exertions lo al- 
levlatf tl'.e diHtre«s of the Irish during the 
•carciiy of 1740, und for the part he look 
in establishing kchooU for the instruction 
of the Irish children. Died, 1713. 

IKiULTON, Matthew, an eminent en- 

frineer, wliosu spirit and talent improved 
iiniiinerable mechanical proceshes, and 
whose name, with thai of hispartner. Watt, 
is irrevm'ahly connected with that of the 
Wonderful power of whicli they made such 
skilful use the steam engine, was born at 
Birmingham, in 1738. Amnnff the many 
ffreat undertakings in wliich Boiilton and 
vVatt were engaged, one of the most useful 
and iin[)ortant was the improvement of the 
coinage ; the coins struck at the " Soho " 
maiuMactory being "arely surpassed in 
beauty or accuracy. After a long life un- 
interruptedly devoteJ to the advancement 
of the useful arts, and the promotion of the 
commercial interests of his country, he 
died in IHU9. 

BOUQUEIj Madame, born about 1773; 
a victim of affection and hospllality, during 
the revolution. She concealed Petition 
Buzot, and her uncle, Giiadet, during one 
of the search-warrants of the terrorists, and 
their retreat being discovered, she was sent 
to the guillotine with them, and died with 
great fortitude. 

BOURBON, Charles, dukede.constable 
of France, a powerful enemy of Francis I., 
and his opponent at Pavia when Francis 
was taken prisoner. His life was chiefly 
spent in warfare, and he was killed while 
heaiting the assault on Rome, In 1537. 

BOURBON, Robert the Strong, duke of 
NeAvstria, founder of the family wliicii has 
so long governed France, Spain, Sicily, &c. 
lost his life in a battle with the Normans in 
866. Historians differ as to his descent, some 
contending that Pepin, of Heristel, was his 
ancestor ; others trace his genealogy to the 
kings of Lombardy ; and some say he de- 
rived his origin from a natural son of 

BOURBON, Louis, cardinal and arch- 
bishop of Toledo ; son of Louis, brother of 
Charles 111. of Spain. After the imprison- 
luent of Ferdinand at Valeni;ay, he joined 
the cortes, and ultimately beeaiiie president 
of the provisional junta before which the 
king swore, in 1820, to abide by the con- 


the useful, and tub beautiful are never far asunder. 



;. ' 

t J! 




l¥ ! 



A llrto Hntbrrtal 13iograpf|tt. 




•llliilion of the corlftuf INI-J. Uorii, 1777; 

dl«!<l, IH^U. 

IIOUKIION, Loi'ii II(:nhyJ<>«ki>ii. diikf 
(If, iiiiil prill' c (If ('iiiiili', |Mit .III I'liil I'l lit» 

i-«l»ttiice, Alljf. -/J, 18J0. Me follKlll ll'ihlj 
III lit)' r»)ali>t '.iriiiy ; iiiut :iU('r (In* ctiii* 
liuJKii In IbOi), tci'oniiHiiilril hi* rulii-r In 
V'm;{IiiiiI, iiikI uii-> rcMlilliiu; >%ltli lilni ill 
UiiiKliMil ilnuiii>|ii IHOI, wiit'ii hl« loii, llip 
(lilki* (rKiiirli'i'iit wamiiiirilfrrd. 'riiciluki*'H 
ili'iilh !<• .lUrlliiilcd l» III)' fM-lli'llK-Ml of lilt 
liiinit rcaiHTliiiir III*! r<>tii|iillnii of July, 
Id. 10. lilt |ir(i|MTly tie UTi by will In tliu 
tliiki- irAiiiii.ilc, ililnl Koii (if Lniiiii l'lilll|i|ii% 
kliiif ol' lliv l-'ieiuii, Midi ilic cxi-riillnii »( » 
l.iri^e lic(iu)'»t III hii|ilii t Diiwt'ii, liurniicHii 
<lf t-Vuciiem, an EiiKlUliwuaiiiii, wlih 
wlioiii llf 1 1 vol. 

HOUKHON, NinioiAs, a Frnicli poel ; 
iiiillior of " Siiirn'," a rollrcllon "f I..1II11 
cplidrritnii ; a (liiiirtlc poem, callcil " Per- 
riiria:" :i lrcnil««* " DviKicrorinii nioilbux," 
>.Vc. I)lf(i alinut is.'io. 

HOURUON, Niciioi.A*. nipliew of tlic 
alKivc, pmreMoror Urofk ; aiiilior of '* An 
liiiprcrailon siir.iinil the t'arrlciilv of Henry 
IV.," \c. D(f.l, i«4«. 

HOURIIOITK, a Kri-nrliiicobin, rem irk- 
ablc for liU legUlailve ferocity ami mlliliii'y 
couniffe; born aboul 1703. Ileiiii; oiip ot' 
the Convention in 1784, and aimliif; at the 
illctatomliip, on the ikt i'rarlal he and iiU 
cnlleiiifueii were cruiihi'd hy l.i'ifeiiil re ; and 
after puniardliifr liiniNcIf before the revolu- 
tionary tribuniU ineffectually, he wan guil- 

liOUItCHIER, Thomas, cardinal, and 
archbishop of Canterbury. He crowned no 
fewer than three of our kinirii, viz., Kd- 
ward IV., Kichard ill., and Henry Vii. 
Died, UB6. 

KOUKCHiF.R, John, lord Keniers, a 
niilliary roniniaiider of irreat skill and re- 
ptile In the rehfiis of Henry VII. and VIII., 
iiy llie latter of whom he was made governor 
of Calais ; author of a iraiislalion o| ■< Frois- 
rart," "The Life of Marcus Auieliun," &c. 
Uied, 1533. 

ilOURDALOUE, Uuis, a French Jesuit, 
and one of the inoNt eloquent prcnclKsrs in 
France. His sermons even in the perl^al, 
deprived as they are of the eloquent eye, 
the graceful action, and the melodious 
voice, bear sulticlent evidence of ids kciiIus 
to juflily the praises that have been be- 
stowed upon him. Horn, 1632 ; died, 1704. 

BOIiRDELUT, John, a French lawyer, 
master of requests to Mary de Medlcls; au- 
Uior of a " Commentary on the Satires of 
Juvenal," &c. ; and editor of the works of 
Fetronlus and Heiiodorus. Died, 1638. 

BOURDELOT.PibkrbMbchon, nephew 
of the aiiove ; a physician, patronised by 
Christina, queen of Sweden, andolhercinl- 
nent peiionage* ; author of an " Account 
of Mount A^tna," Sec. Died, 1685. 

B0URDI:L0T, Pibrrb Bonnet, nephew 
of the last naineil, a physician, and author 
of some annotations on Colomie's " Uibllo- 
theque ClioUle." Died, 17U9. 

BOURDON. NiOHOi^AS, born about 1770 ; a 
member of llie revolutionary tribunal of 
Nismes, who blew out his brains on liearin^^ 
of the fall of his pa iron, Robespierre. 

IKiIIRIHIN.Skiiasi iAN,.i Fniirh iial.ilir ; 
his cli'f il'if iivr> l« " rill' CiiiillUl'Mi of 
St. IVii r," whiili 111' rXiTUt.'l fur Ihr 
chuit'h of Notre Dame. i)u-il, Iii7l. 

DOlIUDON. Lkonahii, iHirn In I7))<); a 
saiii(iiiii irv ennventloiinli'.t, who wioluil lo 
inlepltcl r.ouU XM. from seelnif hi* family, 
Hiivinir (|iiarrrlle<l with hi* e- lle^if ite, 
Hohe>plerre, wh>>, In 171)4, hail resMt-d lilt 
etlortH lo nerve liiii fricnilii, Vlnceiii and 
Kontlii, he and llarrai lieadid Hie Nation il 
(•iiunlt, who dii|ii'rM'd llie H.itelliti ■ of lli.il 
Ivrant on hit fall, and Kfl/.ed l<i.« iierxin. 
lie wat HI lit lo till' (M-lli' I'f ll.liii, U4 one 
ot the hmiirri-rtionitlt of I7U4 ; hiil w.i-> at- 
Itrwarils eni|il<iyrd hy the Direeior). He 
was twice piihllrly r.illed uii U'<iia»tln: In 
Hie Ciinvintion, in I7U4, and in ihe rliiq 
Cent*, In I7!*7, the whole asmnihly ap- 
|ilaiidin|r. ThU de<itro>er of Kro\tii nun 
wat at (he Haiiie time founder oi' " l.'Kcole 
de« Eleven ill' la I'atriu," nnddud a iinliiral 
death, iit director of it. He piiblinhrd a 
"Memoir nil .Naliniial Education;" and 
a " S.intrii.lotide Drama." 

ItOllRDONNAVE, Brrnaiid Ikanos 
Maiir ur i.a, a French niilliary and riiil 
otfit'er of rreat talenls. He besieged and 
eaiiliired Mailrat in I74(i ; and the wt-^llh 
he earned home eaiiHed him toheiiroMteuti'd 
and inipritoiii'd. Alllioii;;li he ua^ honour- 
ably .icqiiiited, this ali'alr ruined IiIh heallli, 
ami he dlid In I754> 

IIOURtJELAl", CI.AUDK, a French vele 
riiiary surgeon ofeiiiiiience In hU iirofesxlon; 
author of " The Elements of Horseman- 
ship," " The Materia Medica of the Veti- 
rinary Sohool," See. Died, 1779. 

llolllKiEOlS, Sir linNcis, a native <>r 
England, hut ot Swiss family; painter t» 
the kluR of I'idaiid, and subxequenlly to 
tieorKe III. of Eni^land. His landseH|M'N 
and sea pieces are highly csteeiiKHl. He 
left his One collection to Dulwich ColleKe, 
with IU,0(iu{. for hulldlnv a gallery, and 
keeping the pictures in preservation. 
Born, I7'^6; died, 1811. 

BOUROOINO, John FRANris, baron il<-, 
!i<>rn In I74R; anib:iS!i:idor to Spain on Ihe 
part of the Freni-li repiihlie, and ullerwanls 
of Napoleon, who siihfieqiicntiy heiil him lo 
Stockholm, and in I^U7 t<> Saxony. He died 
in IHII. He has left several ai'proved works; 
" Tableau de rEspoffne Moderne;" " Me- 
niolres de I'le VI.,^' and " Histolre de 

BOURGUET, Louis, a French natural 
philosopher, professor of niatheniaties and 
philosophy at Neufchatel ; author of " Let- 
Ire sur la'Formatlon des Sets et des Crys- 
taiix," &c. Died, 1743. 

BOilRIGNON, Antoinette db i.a Porte, 
a Flemish fanatic. Holding religion lo con- 
sist neither in practice nor in knowli-d^^e, 
but In direct impulses from and communion 
with the Deity, she made many disciples, 
and wrote numerous bonks, remarkable 
chiefly for their absurdity where they were 
at all intelligible. Unlike most laiiatles, 
she had a lar^e share of worldly wisdom, 
and was excessively avaricious and penu- 
rious. Born, 1616: died, I68U. 

BOU RN E, Vincent, sub-master of West- 
minster School ; author of Latin poetry of 
singular elegance and purity. Died, 17'17> 






irltlisil.ili'r ; 
iirllUl'iii of 
ixl I'lir III!' 

I hi iTi>»; It 
in wl>li«il lo 
f Itm family. 
I-' lliMirni*, 
n*«l>l<-il III* 
I'liici'iir iniil 
till* Niiiiiiii.il 

mil* of iii.ii 
liijt pfrMiii, 

litlll, H* OIIC 
lull W.l'> *(■ 

•criof). Ilf 
iiHuaitoiii : ill 
III il.f riiKi 
iwi'iiilily ap- 
Krouii fiirii 

K " l.'K.oli' 

kmI a iiatiir.il 
piibllKhtti a 
ittioii ;" and 

riD I'liASirs 
iry aiiU il*il 
u'tieKL-ct iiiiil 

I tilt! WtMlth 


^\a^ liniioiir- 

L-(l lil« IkmIIIi, 

French vi-li' 
lU iirofcHlon; 
I llorNcnian- 

of the Vi'U- 

), a iiafivf of 
palnttr I') 

HeMuenlly l" 


eiiictl. Hf 
<li ColhJKi". 
'.ilU'ry, ami 

11 It IIY WHAT vr.H «AV MR lll'tT Jl DOII Of TIIKII\ tlMNm. 


s, liarnii il>', 

lain on tlic 
1(1 alti-rwai'ilii 
hCllt liiiii lo 

ny. Ilu tlicil 
irovfd works; 
rue;" " Me- 

lliiitoiri,' Uu 

lu-li natural 

luMiKitiCH and 

tor of " Ltt- 

et de» Crys- 


DRi.A Porte, 
llffion to con- 

i conininnion 
ny ilicciplfR, 
ire tliey were 
lost taiiatios, 

Idly wigdoni, 
iti and peiiu- 

flln poetry of , 
Died, 1747. ! 


now 1 

A llrto Mnibei'sal Uiograpd^. 


lUlHIISAUI T, RoMJiNP.a Frnieli wrlliT, 
who, ilioii|(lii)i ^tltule of fihii ailmi, iitlaliifil 
D prortrWiM-y liv ^ulliordiip, and wroii- iic- 
v«-r«l ilranio* and roniaiicr*. Anion); liU 
wi.rfc* »r* " a:mp In lown," " Ajiop at 
<"oiirt." fLni •• Uliem lo Italivt." Horn, 
Hi.lK ; dlid, 1701, 

HOIITKKWEK, Fri!d««IP, profei«ir of 
mofrvl plillmoiiliy atOotiliiifen, \-m lintn In 
I7iit>, and illitl ill IfW. Ill- Willi the aulli'T 
of many v:ilii ilili- uorki, of wlilrli III* " ||l«- 
lory of MoiliTii I'ottry ami F.|.M|iienit'" 
may be reifardrd aa tiie iiii< t- 

IIOWDI.KH, TnoM*a, un Inirllnii pby- 
•Irliii ; author of " |.«iier< from Holland," 
and editor >f ihc" I'anilly Slukiipfarf," \c. 
Horn, 1744 ; il ed, iHtj.'i. 

IIOWDLKK, Janic, nUter of tin- above; 
aiithoreKK of nonif iiiperlor pottry. 0.1784. 

liOVVUI.KK, IIannaMj another aUler of 
the hi'lore nii'iillniHd Tliom,i« Howdler ; 
anilinr of " I'lieiim and Kiway*," In u voU., 
■lid of lonie iHipnlar " Sermon* on the 
Uortrlnen and Umieii of Chrlntlaiiity." Shi) 
died, nt the ai(e of 7(1, In IH lo. 

IIOWOICH, Thomas Kdwahii. a writer 
ill the Mirvice of the KiitflMi Afriian Coin- 
nany, waa a native of Mriiilol, horn In I7U3. 
lie wa* leleeled tocondurta niUilon to the 
kliiK of A»hanlee, uf which mUxion he pub- 
lixhed a very Interwtliiif iu-counf. He airaiii 
net out lo exiilore ihe interior of Afrlea, 
and had already reached the river Gambhi, 
when a fever, jirodiiced eliielly hy anxiety, 
terminated lili life, in |Hi4< lie »axaii ex- 
cellent lliiKitiHl and a pleaHiii); writer; and 
beNideH the work already mentioned, the 
public are indebted to him for :i traiiNlittion 
of Mollah't 'I'raielit to the Soiirceii of the 
Senegal and Gambia; and other workH. 

BUV> UUIN, an American lc);l»lator and 
man of letlem, born at liotiton. I7U7. He 
wai one of the niont deteriiiineu opiioneiiti 
of the ri^lit of colonial taxation. IngU'cd on 
by Kiiffland, and wax one of the nr»>tdeputi<'H 
to ConifrciiK. He became governor of Massa- 
chiMetii, and president of the Plilladelpbian 
Academy of Sciences; and died in ivuo. 
Hi« " Discourse on the New Constitution 
of the United States," is deservedly ad- 

UOWICN, Rear-admiral James, a dis- 
tinguished naval officer. He commenced 
his career in the merchant >ervice, and 
al'ierwardH entered the royal navy, where, 
durins' upwards of AO years, lie maintained 
the British seaman's character for gtiU 
laiiiry and useful labour in Ids country's 
weal, lie then retired ; and died at Ufra- 
combe, Devonshire, in 183S, aged BS. 

BOWER, Archibald, a Scotch writer of 
trreat and versatile ability ; but so lax in 
principle as to chanije from Catholicism to 
Protestantism, and then to Catholicism 
aifain, and ffnally to Protestantism, in which 
faith, according to the declaration of his 
widow, he died. He wrote a " History of 
the I'opes," conducted the " Hlstorla l.ite- 
rarla,"and contribuied largely to the "Uni- 
versal History.'* Born, IC7(5; died, 1766. 

BOWLE, John, an English divine; au- 
thor of some papers in the Archseologla, 
contributor to Grainger's Biographical His- 
tory of England, \c. ; and one of the de- 

fenders ol the reputation of Villon ataln*! 
the atta< k of I.ukIi i. Died, I7HH. 

HOW YF.Il, Wii.i lAM. niieniliieiil Finrliuli 
prliitiT and <'la»lcal schol;ii'. He piihllihed 
never.ll learned works; Inn hi* clilel iier- 
forinanrc Mas a Greek edition of the New 
Tentament, wllli cribcal and emendatory 
notes. Born, liiM ; died, 1777. 

BUXHUKN, MakU /uiiiiLs, professor 
of rhetoric, politics, ami history, In the unt- 
veislty of Leyden; author of a treatise on 
the dlscowry of Printing, iiiid i>( nUiwiroiH 
Latin works, both prose and verse< ll«f<>, 
161 !i; died, I6J3. 

BOYCK, WiM.iAM, doctor of mnslc. and 
an eminent coni|>o<ier both of karred and 
secular ph'i en. Born, I7lu; died, 1770. 

BOYD, Makk Ai.kxanurr, an eminent 
Scotch writer; author o( " KplitolH Hero- 
Idl"," Ac. Born, 1469; died, 1601. 

BOYD, HtioH MAnAULRV, a Scotch po- 
litical writer, to whom, wlthoutanysufflclng 
reaHon, the celebrate<l Letters of Junius 
were at one lime attributed. Hi -(ccoDipa- 
tiled lord Macartney to Madras, itUen he 
died. In 1781. 

BOYD, Rohrrt, an eminent Scotch di- 
vine, born at Glasgow, in I17B ; died, I997. 
BOYD, /.ACHAiiY, a Scotch divine of the 
171I1 century, and twice rector of the uni- 
versity of Glasifow. Among various other 
works which lie iiubllshed, is " The Last 
B.ittle of the Soul In Death:" and among 
the iniiiieroiis MSS. he left, Is a collection 
of (Miaitit poems, entitled. " /Ion's Flow- 
ers, " iiopiilarly called *• Zarhary Boyd's 
Bible.'* He died in Itl53, leaving a consi- 
derable legacy lo the Glasgow college. 

BOYDF.LL, John, originally an English 
eiiirraver, and al'terwards an eminent print- 
seller. Ills sfilrlt and liberality enabled 
him lo ani.iss a considerable fortune, and at 
tlie same time greatly to elevate our na- 
tional character as to the art. He was for 
niany years an alderman of London, and 
served the office of lord mayor In 1790. 
Born, 1719; died, 1804. 

BOYF.R, Abei, a French refugee; au- 
thor of a French Dictionary and Grammar, 
which have had a very extensive circulation; 
and of several literary and (lolltlcal publi- 
cations of merit. Born, 1664 ; died, 1739. 

BOYER, John Baptist Nicholas, a 
French physician, eminently skilful in the 
treatment of infectious discas<;s ; author of 
a " Pharmacopeia," tracts on contagious 
disorders, &c. Died, 1768. 

BOYLE, Richard, earl of Cork, an emi- 
nent statesman in the reign of James I.: 
and founderofa family greatly distinguished 
in the arts, sciences, and literature. Born 
at Canterbury, 1566; died, 1643. 

BOYLE, RooBR, earl of Orrery, nfthson 
of the above. When only seven years old 
he was created baron Broghill ; and, from 
an early age, was conspicuous for his zeal 
in the King's service. But after the king 
was put to death, the baron transferred his 
services to Cromwell, by whom he was 
greatly trusted and employed. At the death 
of Cromwell he aided in bringing back 
Charles II., and wascreated earl of Orrery 
for his service on that occasion. Born in 





] \i 









9 ^eU) {ftntbersal 13tograpfis. 


IrtMamI, 1631 ; 'lied, 1679. He was the au- 
thor of several poems and plays. 

BOYI.E, Robert, brother of the last 
named, a hlifhly distiiicruJHhcd philosopher, 
not unworthy to be ranked with Uacon and 
Newton. His whole life was devoted to 
philosophy ; and his productions, almost 
without an exception of ^rreat value, are so 
numerous, that a mere list of tlieir titles 
would far exceed the space we can aflbrd 
to this article. Born at Lismore, Ireland, 
1627; died, 1691. 

BOYLE, CuARLFs, lord Boyle, second 
son of Roger, earl ol Orrery, a statesman 
and scholar ; editor of the eiistles of Fha- 
laris, and author of some slight hut clever 
literary papers. Born, 1676; died, 1731. 

BOYLE, John, earl of Cork and Orrery, 
only son of the la^t named; author of a 
translation, with notes, of the " Epistles of 
Pliny the Younger," '• Remarks on the 
Life and Writings of Swift," pai>ers in the 
" Connoisseur," and the " VVorld," &c. 
Born, 1707; died, 1762. 

BOYLE, Richard, third earl of Burling- 
ton, and fourth earl of Cork, another branch 
of tlie same dintinguiNhed family. He was 
an enthusiastic amateur of architecture, and 
a very generous friend to men of letters. 
In him bishop Berkeley found his earliest 
and most emcient patron ; and Pope did 
Uini the honour to address to him his fourth 
epistle. Born, 1695 ; died, 1753. 

BOYLSTON, Zabdiel, an American phy- 
sician, who introduced the system of inocu- 
lating for the small-pox into his native 
country. Born, 1680 ; died, I76C. 

BOYS, William, an eminent antiquary 
and naturalist ; author of a " Historv of 
Sandwich," " Observations on Kit's Coty 
house in Kent," published in the " Archse- 
ologia," &c. Died, 1803. 

BOYSE, Samuel, a clever but eccentric 
and dissipated English writer; author of 
" The Deity," and other poems ; and of va- 
rious contributions to periodical works. 
His bad habits rendered all etl'orts to serve 
him unavailing, and he died in great misery 
and poverty, in 1749. 

BOZE, Claude Gros de, a French writer 
and urcheeologist ; authornf the" Medallic 
History of Louis XIV," &c. Born, 1680; 
died, 1754. 

BRABO, a kinsman of Julius Caesar, and 
one of his followers in Gaul. He is said to 
have possessed great strength and courage; 
and Brabant derives iu name from his. 

BRACCIOLINI, Francis, surnamcd Deli' 
Api, secretary to Cardinal Antonio Barbe- 
rini ; author of" La Croce Riaquistrata," 
" Lo Scheme degli Dei," &c. Born, 1566 ; 
died, 1645. 

BRACTON, Henry de, an English law 
writer of the 13th century ; author of the 
well known and esteemed treatise " De 
Legibus et Consuctudinibus Angliae." 

BRADBURY, Thomas, an eminent non- 
conformist divine, who took a distinguished 
part in the controversy with Dr. Watts on 
the subject of the Trinity. Died, 1759. 

BRADDOCK, Edward, major general. 
He was commander in chief, in America, dur- 
ing the war with France in the I8lh century ; 

and was slain when on the eve of investing 
Fort Duquesne, in 1755. 

BRADFORD, John, an eminent preacher 
of the reformed religion, who was burnt at 
Smithlield in the reign of Mary, 1555. 

BRADLEY, James, an English divine, 
astronomer, and matlieniatlciun ; Savilian 
professor of astronomy at Oxford, contri- 
butor to the" Philosophical Transactions," 
and author of some Astronomical Observa- 
tions, published seiiaratcly. Died, 1762. 

BRADLEY, Richard, professorof botany 
at Cambridge, and autliorof several works, 
chiefly compilations, on Botany and Horti- 
culture. Dr. Brewster's popular invention, 
the Kaleidoscope, was at one time said to 
be due to Bradley ; but it appears that the 
Doctor's instrument and the one proposed by 
Bradley are quite different, and that the 
latter would be very inferior. Died, 1733. 

BRADSHAW, John, an English lawyer, 
noted in our history for having acted as pre- 
sident on the trial of Charles 1. Died, 1059. 
He had a niagniiicent funeral ; but at the 
restoration Ids remains were removed from 
Westminster Abbey, and hanged on a gal- 
lows at Tyburn, with those of Cromwell and 
I re ton. 

BRADSTREET,ANNA,an English poetess 
of the 17th century. Her father was gover- 
nor of New England, where she wrote and 
published her poems. 

BRADWARDIN, Thomas, archbishop of 
Canterbury ; author of a treatise " De Causa 
Dei," directed against Pelagianism ; some 
mathematical tracts, <S(C. Died, 1349. 
• BRADY, Nicholas, Dr., an English di- 
vine; translator of the £neid, and, in con- 
junction with Tate, of tlie Psalms. Born at 
Biindon, Ireland, 1659; died, 1726. 

BRADY, Robert, an English physician 
and historical writer. Died, 1700. 

BRAHE, Tycho, a Dane of a noble fa- 
mily ; a ceieii.'ated fistrnnomer. Tlioiigli Ids 
system is now superseded by that of Coper- 
nicus, he deserves honourable mention as 
an ingenious theorist; and, apart from his 
error as to the earth being Hie fixed centic 
of the universe, his observations as a prac- 
tical astronomer are highly valuable. Born, 
iS46; died, 1601. 

BRAINERD, David, a celebrated Ame 
rican missionary, who signalized himself by 
his successful endeavours to convert the 
Indians on the Susquehannah, Delaware, 
&c. Died, aged 30, 1747. 

BRAITHWAITE, John, an ingenious me- 
chanic, constructor of a diving machine, 
with wliich he explored the Royal George, 
sunk off Spithead ; the Hartwell East India- 
man, off one of the Cape de Verd Islands; 
and the Abergavenny East In'*.ia-man, ofl 
tlie Isle of Portland. From the first he 
only succeeded in raising some guns and 
an anclior ; but from the second and third 
he brought up property to a very large 
amount. Died, I8I8. 

PRAMAH, Joseph, an English engineer, 
distinguished for tlie number, value, and in- 
genuity of his mechanical inventions Among 
these were his invaluable hydrostatic press, 
his safety locks, various improvements in 
the steam-engine, in the process of making 




of investing 

lent pre.icher 
was burnt at 
y, 1555. 
Ifllsii divine, 
III ; Saviliaii 
ford, eontri- 
leal Observa- 
)ifd, 1702. 
.•veral worlds, 
ly and Horti- 
ar invention, 
time said to 
?ars that the 
; proposed by 
tnd that tlie 
Died, 1732. 
^lish lawyer> 
acted aspre- 
. Died, ms9. 
; but at the 
emovcd from 
:ed on a gaU 

iglisli poetess 
ir was pover- 
lic wrote and 

irchbisliop of 
;e"Dc Causa 
mism ; some 
d, KI49. 
n English di- 
I and, in con- 
ms. Born at 

ish physician 

a noble fa- 
riioiigh his 
at of Coper- 
mention as 
art from his 
fixed centre 
as a prac- 
lable. Born, 

irated Ame 
himself by 

convert the 

)g macliine, 
yal George, 
East Indla- 
ird Islands; 
ia-man, ofl 
;he lirst he 
e guns and 
d and third 
very large 

It engineer, 
liie, and in- 
lons Among 
itatic press, 
Ivemenls in 
1 of making 




^ lleto 9}{ntbevfial iSiograpfijD. 


I paper, in the construction oi main-pipes, 
wlieei-carriuges, tlie beer-machine, ike. 
Born, I7'is«; <lie'i, ih14. 

celebrated Italian architect, who first de- 
si;;iied and conim»'nced tlic church of St. 
I'eter at Koine. He was a skilful painter 
and inusician as well as architect, and a 
volume of poems from his pen was printed 
in 1756. Died, 1514. 

French nobleman, distinguished for his sct- 
entilic attainiiienrs ; discoverer of the com- 
position of the diamond, and a great im- 
prover of the manufacture of porcelain. 
Born, 17J5; died, 1824. 

BRAND, John, an able and voluminous 
writer on politics and pnlitical economy ; 
author of numerous political pamphlets and 
some poems. He was rector of Wickham 
Market, in Suffolk, and of St. George, 
Soiithwark. Died, 1609. 

BRAND, John, an English divine and 
aiitlfiuary ; author of the " History and An- 
tiquities of the Town of Newcastle," " OI>- 
servations on Popular Antiquities," &c. 
Born, 1743; died, I8(i6. 

BRANDER, Gustavus, an English anti- 
quary and naturalist. He was nf a Swedish 
family, but born in London, where he was 
an eminent merchant and a director of the 
Bank. He contributed larjfely to the Trans- 
actions of the Antiquarian Society, Sec. 
Born, 1720; died, 1787. 

BRANDES, Ernest, a Hanoverian au- 
thor and statesman, born in 1758, and died 
in iHiu. He was a friend of Burke; and 
published a work on the French revolu- 
tion, in refutation of Barruel. 

BRANDT, Sebastian, chancellor of 
Strasburg; author of " Varia Carmina," 
" Navis Stnltifera," &c. Died, 1520. 

BRANDT, a German chemist of the 17th 
century ; who is said to have discovered 
phosphorus while attempting to And a sol- 
vent oy which to convert silver into gold. 

BRANDT, Ernevold, c )unt de, a Dan- 
ish statesman, convicted of being concerned 
in the conspiracy of count Struensee, and 
executed in 1772. 

BRANDT, Georoe, an eminent Swedish 
natural philosopher; author of accounts of 
various valuable experiments made by him 
upon the metals. Dieii, 1768. 

DEILLES, a celebrated French chronicler. 
He was a favoured attendant upon Charles 
IX., Henry III., and theDukede Alen^on ; 
and his memoirs, though somewhat too free 
in their details, are highly valuable as gra- 
phic and faithful illustrations of an inter- 
esting period of French history. 

BRANWHITE, Peregrine, the author 
of various poems, was born at Lavenham, 
Suffolk, 1745; died in London, 1794. 

BRARENS, Henrt, a Danish naval offi- 
cer, and writer on navigation ; author of a 
" bystem of Practical Navigation," &c. 
Born, 1751 ; died, 1826. 

BRATHWAYTE, Richard, an English 
poet; author of " Tlie Golden Fleece," 

*' Tile Prodigal's Tears, Fhe English 

Gentleman," &c. Born, 1588 ; died, 1673. 

BRAUN.Geohoe, a German ecclesiastic; 
author of Liu's of Jc!4us Christ and the Vir- 
gin Mary ; an oration against dissolute 
clerics, &c. Died, 1622. 

BRAY, Sir Reginald, an English states- 
man, and favourite of llenry VII. He wai 
a frank friend to that sovereign : disdaining 
to withhold his disapproval wnen It was de- 
served. He is chiefly memorable for having 
superintended the erection of that beautiful 
structure, Henry VII. 's chapel at Westmin- 
ster, and for having finished that of St. 
George at Windsor. Died, 1503. 

BRAY, Dr. Thomas, an English divine, 
who laboured with great zeal in propagating 
the Gospel In foreign parts, and who went 
several times to America to promote that 
object, was born in 1656 ; and died, rector 
of St. Botolph's, Aldgate, In 1730. 

BRAY, William, F.S. A., an industrious 
antiquary ; editor of Evelyn's Diary and 
Memoirs, and a contributor to the Archae- 
ologia,&c. Died, 1832; aged 97. 

BREBEUF, Georoe de, a French poet: 
author of " Lucan Travestle," " Poetical 
Eulogies," &c. Died, 1661. 

BREDA, John van, a Dutch painter; a 
very close imitator of the style of Woover- 
raans. Died, 1750. 

BREENBERG, Bartholombw, a cele- 
brated painter, particularly skilful in small 
landscapes. Born at Utrecht, I6i0 ; died, 1660. 

BUEGUET, Abraham Lodis, an eminent 
watch and chronometer maker at Paris, by 
birth a Swiss. Born, 1747 ; died, 1823. 

BREISLAK, Scipio, a celebrated Italian 

geologist, born at Rome in 1768, who under 
uonapare was appointed inspector of the 
saltpetre works and powder mills in Italy. 
He wrote several scientific works, and was 
intimate with Ciivier, Chaptal, &c. Died, 


BREITINGUER, John James, a Swiss 
divine; author of a treatise " De eo quod 
nimium est in studio Grammatico," and 
editor- of a new translation of the Septua- 
gint, &c. Died, 1776. 

BREITKOPF, John Gottlieb Emha- 
NUEL, a printerand type founder of Leipsic ; 
he discovered an improved composition or 
type metal, and wrote a treatise on Bibliog- 
raphy, Sec. Born, 1719; died, 1794. 

BRENNER, Henry, royal librarian of 
Stockliolm, an eminent oriental scholar: 
translator of the " History of Armenia" 
from tlie language of that country ; and 
author of " Ooservations on Czar Peter the 
Great agiiinst the Persians," &'C. Died, 1732. 

BRENNUS, a ireneial of the GauLs, who, 
after ravaging Tliessaly and Greece, at- 
tempted to plunder the temple of Dclphos. 
Being repulsed, he slew himself, 278 b. c. 

BRENNUS, a memorable Gallic general. 
Having invested Rome, he wai ofAered a 
thousand pounds weiglit of gold to spare 
the city. While the gold was being weigned, 
he threw his sword and helmet into the op- 
posite scale ; and when reproached for his 
injustice, replied with the scornful excla- 
mation, " Ft» victisl"—woe to the van- 
quished ! Enraged at this insolence, Ca- 
mllliis put an end to the negociatioii, ^ave 
battle to the Gauls, and put them to fliglit. 
Tills occurred about 388 B.C. 




f I 

' %: 

n - 



IIIIII'IIM', l.iii'i>« llhNiit nn liiKiirNii'. 
riiitiil ill', II Iji'iirli Miilili'tiiiiii , iiiilliiir nr 

lliH'llia, II I'llllrill Ili'lllUl' nil I'l'l'lll'll IllM ll'V, 

>\i'. Ill' una rnnlliii il In llic nun i'mI nf Si, 
l.iwiuiia, iit'i'iiiilliiir In IMiiinl, r<ir ImivIhk 
III MM I'll II |in>i>ili>ii liii' llii< |<i'liiri'«ii of IMi'ili 
li'iiliiiiH, mIhi'I' lie illnl, III inilM, 

lllllhAINI',, .Iami'n, nil i'IiiIiii'IiI I'ri'iirli 
*>rt'lr«lii>i|li<, ivliiiai' lllill'l'illlltnlili' ^I'lll, III 
llllirlillll |iriili<<liallli<a, lllilliriil llllll In nil 
ili'tliiki' Vill liMM'lil')*) mi llllll III* |iu<vri« 
WI'IO itlajiliivi'il III illlliiial «'Vi'l\ vlllitU)' 
lllliillUlliilll (l:llli'l>, III' Wila llm nilllliir nl 

" Sjililliinl Siiiiit'," wlili'li \u<i'i' I'Xiirinrly 
liiijinlil. Iliilii, 1701 ; illi'il, 17(17. 

IIKIIM'.I., Samiici. 1)1', II |iiM'l tinil Imlii 
lilal, lli< una llllnl' li> Mil' |illnrraa iif Sil^i< 
4^illlil, llllll nnlliiil' III " IMiiarnliiul'l Ui'irn 
lliii'iiiii," viiiliiiia inii'iMa, iVr. lliMii, 17)11 ; 
ilii'il, mvH. 

IIKIUlJI'.WM'I'.li, I'nANi'iN l^iiPtri'iiN, 
iliikr III', il iinlili'iiiiin ivliii ili'viili'il niiirli iil 
li'iilliiii III, mill I «i|ii'iitli'i| liii)|i' aiiiiia In IIm< 
liiiinitvi'iiii'iil mill I'Mi'iialiiii iif I'ltiiiil nnil 
HillliMl, \i llllll, aiTollilnl liV lliil akill nl 
ililiiilli'V, III' I'lli'i'li'il. mill nlllninlrly nmili' 
11 1« aiiiiiTii III tirolll. Iliii'ti, I7:iili llllll. liiDii. 

IIKIIM'OlIT, AitryANiiKii lliioii, ntlnilnil 
loliljii itrt I llllll nil VII I iilllr)'r,miil Hie )iiilli|ri'a| 
Iniiilii'!' Ill' iiiliiiliiil lliiDil. Ill' llllll' II pm'l In 
l.iMil IIiiwc'n ri'li'lirulril ilrliii'y, ,linii<, I, 
I7III: III Hio rolliiiUnir yciir lii< ilcrininlii 
I'l'i'iii'li Ni|iiiiilii>n. I'liiiliiiliiK Ihi'i'i' atili III 
llll< iMlli ; mill lliilll'y iltallnuillaliril llllliat'll' 

ririioN n.KAaiiii int<; mhiik, in I'lini'iiniiiiri an ii iii'aiTiinii.i'ii iiini'iN 

nitK] sn fli'lu (IliiiUri'tfiil UioQiapfiv. 

IIIII.UIIIUNY, loi la HirollilP, niiiliiiil 
ill* I'l'llllllx, II llMIIIII'll I'll'lnll IVllll'I'i III! 
Iliornl •• Mlaliill'i'iln Iti'i ■iliilliillaili' iJiMiia," 
" < IliliiiiiiiiiiD'a lira Kiila ili> lil ll iilali'liiii 

Hmi'," ,\i', lili'il, I7IH. 

IIKI'ltl'.WOnll, I'.lMVAIIti, nil I'liullali 
iililli|iiiil y mill niiillii'iiiiillrliin I iiiillinl' nl 
" l'lii< I'lilrl.iirliitl (Jiiii'i iinii'iil nl llii< An 
I'li'iil I'liniili," n iii'iillai' " |»i> I'liiiili'i-lliiia 
I'l I'li'lll Vi'li'iiini Niiiiiinniiiiii," .\r. Ilniii, 

IMM 1 llll'll, (III I, 

IlKl'.r, Aniiionv, II l'°i'i'nrli willi'i'i nil 
Hint' III' " r<i|iiiiii'iil:il'lra nil Mnlli'li'," 
" Unnll'i'Nillanna," II |ini<in, \i'. Ull'il, l7t)'J. 

I<t<r. t'l''.|i|l,, l.ni'iK Ai'iil'Mi'K I.R TnNNlr 
lint, nil I'liiliii'iii l''ii'iirli ill|ilniiiiillai. mill 
III niit< lliiiii ai'i'i'i'liiiy nl alilli< ; lull lii'iiiit ii 
ri'illniia |tm||aiiii nf li'liilini'i'liv. Ill' Wila rnin 
IH'llnl III lli'i> liniii I'rmii'ii III ilii< i'niiinii>iiri< 
llll'lll of llli< Ki'lnlllllnli. Ill IHII'J li|i una 

|H>iiiillti<il III irliini, mill llll'll III IN07. 

lll(l''.rON,'Nli'llii|,Aii,mi l'.ll||llall IMlatnnil 
|i«rl III llirlliiir nl i|iM'i'ii l',ll>nlii<lli: niillini' 

nl' " An Olil Mnil'a l.l'aann nilil n YnllllK 

Miiii'a l.iiii'," '• I'lilllliirt nnil fniyilnii," -Vf. 

HUl'VI'dN, Kaymonii, II l''iiMH'li I'lliir mill 

llilaainiiAly In llio Wrnl liiillia; millinl nf u 

I roiii'li mill (niililii'nii ItlilloiiniVt <V>'- 

nii'ii, iciTP. 

IIUI rscilM.inKR. IlKNiiv (JniirnRV 
viiN, nil Hniiiriii'imi, wlinai' h'I'miiIIIIIy nl' In- 
li'lll Wila niily i<i)iiiilli'il liy llic |irrai<i i>i'iilii'i< 
IVllll M llll'll lll< I'MTI'lalNl'll In aillll'jailltf llli> 
Killtra mill llli|ina|iil'i<< of lllO N|ti>< UiH'll, 
I7.t!>: llllll, IHIil. 

lUtKIMillKI,, |*Ki'ru, I'niiiiiiniily ktinwii 
na " Olil lli'i'iiithi'l," mi I'liilni'iil '|iiilnlri' ; 

Ollll'll)' III Onllllllilll'liri< al|l^|i'«'|a, mi' ll III 

I'liaiio iii«<ri'v-iiiiiklii|tM> Hni'ii iit'iir llroiln, 
lAlO; iIIihI, IATO, 

HUKVOilKI., John, anil nf tliofni-rirnlntf, 
onllnl, iVnni lllailil'aa, " Vi'lvrl Hl'i'iiiflu'l ;"' 
Ml i'\«-rlloiit n lmiilai-ii|ii< iminlri, llinl Kii 
iH'lia IMliili'il Kiiiiio |iU'lii|-ra In t'ni|,|iiiii'lliiii 
Willi llllll -Itlllioiia liiilllii)r III thii IIkiii'ch. 
Mniil nl Ulilaarli, IMio; illnl, lit'J,\. 

HKI'.dlilll'l., I'kikii, n lirnllicr nf llii< 
nlinvi\ mill niKi- n iminli'i'. Ilia rniiiliu'sa I'm' 
|inlnllii|r linl'iiMo aiiliii'Cia iirni'in'ril lilni llii> 
anlii'iiiiicinr** HollNli." nii'il, tiK'J, Aiuillicr 
Iniillicr, AtiiiKiuM, I'xri'lliil In I'l-nli uikI 

HKII'I.H'S nr l)|i llUr.HII.. .lAM^^ n 
l''i-i>iioli lloiii'ilu'iiiii' monk niul miili|iini'y ; 
niltlinr nl' " l.«> riiiMtir lira Anliiiiilloa iU< 
Pnila," \i-. Diitl, Kill. 

lUlF.VAl, John Piiiant ok, nil Kii^IImIi 
wrlti'i' mill iiillit.iry ollii'i'i' ; niillmr nl' •' I'lio 
llUlorv ol «ln> llniino ol NnKinii j" ** rnliio," 
n |HM<iii. \i\ Dli'il, I7:«». 

UKV.UKU, Antmonv, n (Iramntlat of iIio 
linio ol'Jitiiica I. 'iiiil riiiirli'N I. ; niillior of 
" Tho LoioslokKiiis:,"" riiot'nunirylJirl," 
\i'. .Vc. 

imF.YOKNUAl'H, Hi«nNAHi>PK, nilinn 
of ilu> ohiin-h of MnyiMiio in ilio iiiih roii- 
liiry ; niiilior of a liniriirit Dnrrallvo of liU 
jouViiry to J(<nisnl(<ni mul Mniinl SInnl. 

imr.YMl'S, Jamkh. a iHilnnlKl of Dnnt- 
»<o ; author of *' t-^inolcnUis IMniilnnim Ua- 
rK>rHni," \v. l>l«il, UW. 

HRKVNU'S, John Puiur, a imtiiralist 
ofilif isili ooniury : author of a troalisc on 
tho korniM instH't, \o. 

orcaalniia ihirliin' lli«< iviir. 


nil liinnv nllit'i' 

iHl'll, INI I 

IllllI'Vr, nr IlintVI'irS, Phuii', n I'lt'tii'li 
ivrlli'i i miilmrnf " Aiiiinli'aMiimll ;" " 'I'lii'- 
iilniiii <Ji'n|tui|ililrinn l''ni'ii|iit' Vrli'ila," iVr. 

Dil'll. IIMIN. 

IlltliaJS, IIkniiVi III! f'liilnriit I''.iikIUIi 
ninllii'iiiiilli'lnii, nml Miivlllmi iii'iirr'anr of 
ironiiii'li'y III tKI'mil ; iiiillini' ni' " Aililinii'- 
lliMi l,ii|inrlllinilrii," " Tnlilia for llio liii- 
in'iivi'iiiinl nf Niivluiillnii," " Anlniiiilvi'r 
Hinlii'a tJi'iiliirtl'li'ii', ' .Vi'. Horn, lilKl; 
llll'll, in:io. 

IIKKiiiS, UiM.iAM, nni'inliii'nt|iliyaii'liin 
nnilni'iillni ; millinrnf "(i|i|liiiliiinK^rn°|ililn," 
mi aniilniiili'iil ili'KiTl|illnn nf llii< I'yo mill n 
iii'w llii'iiry of vlxlnii. Dli'il, I7i)l. 

UK 1 1. 1., MAi'riiKW.mii'niliirnt ImnNrniii' 
iinlnior, i'iii|ilini<il liy |in|ir tii'i'Knry Mil. 
Ill ili'i-nrntliiK: llio ViitU-mi, Dlnl, l.Mil. 

HUH. I., I'Ai'i,, lirolhi'mf Ihi'lnal nniiiiil, 
mill iiIno I'liilni'iit na a InmlNi'niM' |i;ilnirr. 
l*o|)«< I'li'iiiiul VIM. riiiplnyi'il liliii In pnliil 
n ImuNi'npi' hlxly-i'lttlil fi'i't wlilc for tlio 
Nonln ('loiiinitlnii; In wlili'li plri'r In' Inlro- 
(liK-i'd Si. t'li'iiii'iit thrown Into II. i' ki'.i iillli 
an mii'lior nlinrliril lo IiIn iii'ik. Dli'd, tilvO. 

Tii'iioli «rlli'r, kiitiwiH'liU'ilv iVnin lilawnrk, 
ontilU'il," Till- I'liyfloliii^y lif Tniiti!." Horn, 
n.W, llll'll, iHSti, 

ItltlNDI.l'.Y, jAMicd, an oniliirnt V.iiirl>:in 
iiicflinntr and (<n){lni'i<r, lo ivliosi' gi'mt /cni 
and ahlltlii's wo owi' aoiiip of Iho ni"Nl Im- 
ooriiinl of our iiavi)rahli' oannls. So liix'hlv, 
Indi'iHl, did ho rKtlin.ito llii'lr iniportniii'i; In 
a t'oninirrrial iintinii, that, hi'lii^' jnoiilarly 
aiiktHi, whllo iiiulor oxainlnatlnii 'hofnri' a 
ooninillti'o of tho llonio, for «lint piirpni*!! 
he *iu| iMiHod rlviTu to liniL' hpcn cn-aiwl, In* 



y,^ I 







it V'.\lirl':ii> 

niMNt tiii- 
« l>lKl>ly. 
rtniiiM- li> 
bi'foif a 

i>lllftl, lu- 


Kill I 

H |lrU) 9lln(bn-fla( Uiograpf));. 

I II no 

i|iillt< ni'iliiiialy ri'|illi'il, " 'I II (I'i'il iiiivlKnIilii 
tiiiiitU." IIU llixl K><'')l work w.i« III)' I'.i 
ihil liiiiii Wiirali'y III Mniii ImiIi'I'i wIiIi Ii Im> 
rHi'i'dU-il fur III!' tliik)' iif lliJilKi'tviili'i', III' 
iilti'l wniilii riiiii|ilrli'il llii< (Jniliil Iritiik, 
llliiiiliiuli.liii,('lir«lnltt'lil,iil|il iiIImI'ii. IIuIii, 
I7in ; iIkiI, iHi. 

Mil I N K l.r, V , Dr. .Imi n, liUliii|i of ('loyiir, 
iiii iilili' illvliM', liiii 'lill iiiiiii' niiliii'iil rnr 
liU m li'lilllli' iin|iilt'i'iiii'liN, wim lioril Itl 
I7IIII. NMillr II Kiiiiliiiili- III' Oxfiiril lii> tvii* 
I'lnlnl III Mil' |iiiirri<iiiir«lil|i iil lulriiiiniiiy In 
lliilillii iiiilvi'mlly, nil liiitiniirlo Mrjilt'ti'lilii 

^iirvloiiit willhiK* itliil illiiriivi'ili'ii III m li'iH'd 
illlV I'lllllll'il liliii ; lUlil nil Im'Iiik itiUnilci'il 
III ifii- lil>li>i|i|lr (if Cliiyiii', III iHYil, III' wiu 
Kiirrrnli'il In llii' iirniruiior'ii rliuir liy llii< 
iiKni'iii air Wlllliiiit iliinilltoii. Dli'il, Mi'ti 
iriiilM'r, unit, 

IIUINVII.MI.IIS, IMANiltil'iitiK li'Aii- 
MiAi, MiiiK'liliiiM'aii iif, liorrllily nolorloiiR 
liir liitvliiir iioimiMi'il liiT dillii'i', liriillii'r, 
mill iwit mUIiTii. Sill' Ii.kI roniii i| II itImiIiiiiI 
iilliirliiiH'iil liir II (•luriiii nltli'i-r, iiiiiiii'il 
(Jiiili'ii til. ('mix ; mill her rmiilly I'luixril liliii 
III III' mill III llir lliulllc. t lirri' li<< li'iiriii'ij 
IViiiii u Irlliiw til'lxiiiit'i' llii'iirl of riiiii|Miiiiii|- 
IliK mililli' |iiiUiiiiii, iif wlilrli lie iiiiil Iil* iiiU- 
ItTH iiiimIi' liar III tivi'iiiri' liii'liiM'lvrii on lii-r 

ruiiilly, nil iiiiiNk iih|i|iliit( rr Ilia fiirti 

wlilln III' wiiK illillllliiK jiiiliitiii, lii'illi'il miil- 
ili'iily ; mill licr iiiixli'ly In nliiiiln ii riiMkrl 
Hull liiitl Im'|iiii)(i'iI III liliii, It'll III liii|itlrli'ii 
wlili'h Irriiillllili'il ill III r ilrlri'lluii. .Sli(> 
iviiN lii'liniili'il, mill hi'r limly liiinil, Iil7(l. 

IIKISIIANK, Ailiiiinil Sir CiiAHMiN. Ilii 
ciili'ri'il llic niivvi on lioiinl ilii- Alcldc, In 
17711 ; I'l'i'i'lvnl ii'iii'vi'ii' wiiiinil In Uniliicy'ii 
llcrt on (liii I'iili ol° April, l7H'i', iiml wan 
iiroiuiili'il (o llii> riink ol° lii'tilriiiiiil in I7l)u. 
Ill' nIiiii'I'iI III!' iirllvi' ncrvli't'ii of Inrd ilooil 
oirTiiiiioii, iinil III l.onl Ni'Ihoii iliiriiiK (lui 
hIi'Ki' III' llimtlii, ivlirri' \w iD'iirly limt an 
ryi' ; \\\\\ iimili' rii|ilitln In I7)n ; iiihI Ilii* 
I'i'illiiwIiiK yi'ar rti-i'lvt'il ilii> iliitiikit of ihi> 
iiiliiilruiiy Vor liin I'oiiihii'l iliirliiK llii' cafi- 
liirc III Niitnit Diitcli iilil|i« In Siililiintin lliiy. 
'I'Ik' 'iriiini'HM with wliicli Nir illiiirli'i iii'lnl, 
iliH'llril till' <liN|i(iii|liiin In iniillny wliirli 
llicn ii|i|>i>ari'il lliroiiicli ilii' llrct iii ili<'(^ip«'. 
In IHOA III* wait iipiKiliili'il i'oniinnniicr of 
llii' Ari'lliiiK.1 ; mill In IHo7 lU'lilrvi'il ilni 
niptiirc ol' tliit IkIiiiiiI oI' ('iir!i(;(iii, wlit'u liu 
rci-i'ivi'il III)' hiiiiiiiir of kiilirlilliooil. 'I'liu 
I'oIIom'Iiik: yi'Ur lu! wn« Mimic ifn'.'i'rnor of 
SI. ViiiccnrN, in whU'lmdition In; ri'iiiiiini'il 
till IiIr liciith ; bcliiK' niiNi'd to tin; rniik of 
ri'iiMKlniinil ni iHii.i, and to that of vU-o- 
adiiilriilin IX'.k). Dii'd, iH';t). 

III) riiiliicnl I'Vi'Mcli lawyer anil plilli>loi(iHt ; 
Hiillior ol' a ircaliKc " I)h Ui'kIo ri-rNanim 
I'rliii'ipatlo," .Vc, Durinir tin? »lr|(t! of I'nrln 
l)y lli'iirv IV., In I.17U, lit! riMnalncd In the 
oity, anil waa coiiipclled liy llir pariiHiiiM of 
the Ij'iikiu! to art am llrnt prcKldcnt of thi> 
imrlianu'iit; and liU oondiirt aH a luajrUlrate 
wn* ninde the pretext fur putting iiim to 
de»th, in isui, 

IlKISSON, MATiniHiN Jamkji, a French 
rhendHt and natiirallHt : author of a tri'iilini! 
on " Oriiiiholory." '' I'rlnclpU's of Che- 
mistry," Aie. IVorn, I7a.l; died, 1800. 

IIKISSOT. PiKRHK, n French phyHlrian ; 
Biltlinr of a treatUe in favour of bleeding in 

I'iUi'n of piriirliiy mill liiMitMiMi.ill'iii of Hie 
Viai'i'r.l ; mid iilllnrnr liiilrii'a Irnillae " De 
t'liniliiiiii' IMnrlioiiini," Dlnl, I'lVV. 

nitlSHOI, .Ikan ririuif, oiH'iif the ni<i«l 
iirllvc iif III!' I'rriii'li m-viiIiiIIiiiiIkIh, and n 
clever wiilrr; imlliiir nf " I.eCuiirler llrl 
tri'pir," mill iillicr |MilMii';ii IniiriiaU; "A 

Iiliin III' t'liililiM I fur Hie Depillleii of llin 
•ei.ple," " AihlreM III nil llepiilillr.ilK," \e. 
lie Hrii« n IIIIIII III K>eiil mill vera.illle iiliillly, 
wlilrli he e\iiii'id Jiiilli In llie ieKl«lNllve mi 
•eiiihly mill ii« ,i nieliilN'r ol liie roiiveiilliiii ; 
lint lie li.id mil llin ninriil eniir.iKe In iihalitlii 
frnlli II piirlli'ipilllnli III llinae M'l'iiea of levo- 
lilllniiiiiy vlnleiiie wlileii entered mi inniiy 
Willi elerniil Inf.iiiiy ; iiilhniiKli hi* friillieM 
endetivniir In aiive the life of llie king ahntvii 
llmt lie In realily diaiipproved oi Iheni. 
IJiiiilile til realat tlie {Hiwer of llolN'iplerre, 
he endeaviiiireil to eaenpe In Swll/,erl4iid, 
hill mw% arre«leil,rnndeiiiiied,anil eiei'iiled, 
In I7li;i. llrlMMit whn a greiit iidinlrer of the 
Anierli'Hiii, iiaaiinied Hie hulilla of the Una- 
kern, iind Inlrndiieed the iMahlnii of wearing 
Hie hair wlHiniil powder. He w<i* aUo the 
lender of Hie party called the (lirundiili, or 

lllliri'ON, Tmoman, a dealer In mnatl 
eoiii. noted, nnaceoniit nfhia allarhiiient In 
niiialc, UN the " niiuleal itiinii coal- man." 
Ilia piiaalon for niiiaic wiiNNni-h liiat lie niir- 
chaai'd every hook on the aiili|eet that he 
cniHd meet with ; and It aeenia tliat he alao 
acipilred a very reapei'lalde knowledge of 
ehemialry. Ill* harmleaa life wax iiiit an 
end III hy a ailiv trirk of a venlrlloiinlal, 
which I'riKhleiieil lilin ho iiiiich that he ni.'ver 
recovered. Horn, Kt.'il; died, 1714. 

IIKOCKI.KSKY, iliciiAiifi, an eminent 
phyalcian and illerary man ; siiilhor of Nome 
niedlciii IraciN, " A OiNaerlallnii on the Mii- 
Nic nf (he AncieniN," fn', Horn, I7ri ; died, 
1 7117. 

IlKtlDKAU, .lotiN, A Freiicli critic of llii! 
Killi century ; antiinr of " AniiolalloneN in 
Xenophonleni," " Notiit In Mitrtiaiein," \c. 
llltOKCKIMIYSI''., .loiiN, a diiitlii-.;niHhed 
Dutch Ncholar ; aiitlinr of poeiim, and idltor 
of Nome vaiiiahte eilitioiiN of I'ropcrtlua, 
'rihiilliiN, and oilier ciaNNicN. Died, 1707. 

llltDtil.ll'', Vicroii Fkancin, diikede, a 
gailiini French general under Hie old nmn- 
arcliy, who emigrated at theciiiiiiiiencemenl 
of the revoiiilion, and put hlniNelf at tiie 
head of a corpH of einlgrantiut (^tiampaigni:. 
linrn, I7IH; died, |H<i4. 

HItDIVIl', Ai.KXANDRH, an nttornny and 
Nalirical |ioel, whime wrillui;K, on the niile 
of ('haricH I., are Haid to have greatly oh- 
Htnicted tlie iirngreNH of piirilaniNni. In ad- 
dilion to wrlling aalltlcal mmgH, he trauH- 
lated from l.ncretliiH and Horace, and wrote 
a Comedy, called " 'I he Cunning Lovers." 
Horn, iti'JO; died, I0<i6. 

HKOMI'', IticMAKi), annngliiihdramaliNi, 
contemporary with llenJniiKon, to whom lie 
waN originally Ncrvant. 1(1* coniedieH were 
formerly very |>opuiar, biitUiey arc not now 
performed. Died, W.n. 

KItoMFIF.I.D, W.i.MAM. an eminent 

F.ngiiih Riirgeon ; author of " Ciiiriirgical 

OI>«ervatlonNandCaKeN,""The('ily Match," 

a comedy, Ace. Horn, 1712; died, l7U!i. 

nnONUN'IART, AuousTK Loins, a pro- 






fetwor or chemiHtry, ami siirircon to l.niii^ 
XVI.; rtiithor of " TabltMU Aiialyliqile cIih 
CoiiiblnaUoii!) ct DrcniiipooilioiiH Avh Dilte- 
rcnteN .SiibHtances," <Si(-. Died, 1801. 

UROOCMAN, C'liAKLKS Uliuc, a Swe- 
dish wrilur oil cducaMnii : especially ns re- 
l^anU tlif education o( tcaclicrs. Ilin iirin- 
cl|ial worit is " An Account of the l^diira- 
tioiinl Institiitioni) of Germany, from the 
earliest period up to liiiiowii time. Died, 1813. 

UKOOKE, or UROKK, Sir Robeiit, 
cliief Justice of the coiiiiiinn pleas in the 
reiKi) of (lucen IMary ; and author of various 
lufful worKs. Died, 1558. 

liROOKK, FiiANOKs, a clever novelist 
and dramatic writer; authoress of " Lady 
Juliet Mandeville," and other novels; the 
tragedies of " Virjfinia," and the " Sieife of 
Sinope:" " Rosiiia," a musical cntcrtain- 
nient, Stc, Died, I7H9. 

BROOKE, IIrnry, a pnlitical niul literary 
writer; author of " Letters addressed to 
the people of Ireland;" " The Eaii of 
Westmoreland," a tragedy ; the celebrated 
novel of" The Fool ofQuality," iiC. Horn 
at Rantavan, in Ireland, 1706 ; died, 1783. 

BROOKE, James, a uolitfcal writer and 

poet. He succeeded Wilkes as editor of 

{ the North Briton, which hf continued to 

[ conduct to the end of its publication. Uied, 

j 1807. 

I BROOKES, Joshua, an eminent anato- 
I mist and surgeon, was born in 17(il ; and 
after studying under the most celebrated 
men of his day, commenced his career as a 
professor of anatomy, pathology, and sur- 
gery, when al)oiit 26 yeiirs of age. His mu- 
seum was enriched with the choicest ana- 
tomical specimens and osteological prepa- 
rations ; and the lectures on anatomy and 
its kindred sciences, which, during a' long 
life lie was in tlu! habit of delivering to his 
pupils (of whom he could reckon 7000), laid 
the foundation of their scieiitidc fame to 
some of the mo$t distinguished members of 
the profession. His last appearance as a 
lecturer was in i8'/7; and in January, 1633, 
he died, aged 72. 

BROOKS, John, an able officer in the 
American army, a skilful iihysician, and a 
man of letters. He early distinguished 
himself in the war of American indepen- 
dence, and ultiniHteiy arrived at the rank 
of a general ; tiut the duties of a soldier did 
not unfit him fnr professional pursuits; he 
was the president of many literary, religious, 
patriotic, and benevolent societies; and for 
many years tilled the office of chief magis- 
trate for his native town, Aledford, in Mas- 
sachusetts. Burn, 1732; died, 1825. 

BROO.ME, Dr. William, an English di- 
vine and poet. In addition to his own po- 
ems, and a translation of Anacreon's Odes, 
lie contributed eight books to Pope's trans- 
lation of the Odyssey ; but having com- 
plained of his scanty remuneration, his bro- 
ther liard rewarded him with a niche in the 
Dunciad. He was vicar of Eye, Suflblk, 
where he died, in 1745. 

BROSCHI, Carlo, better known by the 
name of Fannelli, one of the finest singers 
ever known. He was retained to divert the 
melancholy of Philip V. of Spain, and ac- 
quired vast political power in the reigns of 

^ |lrh) linniberiial Biograyfis. 

that monarch and liis snecpssor. Unlike the 
generality of r'lyal favourites, In- lieli-iveil 
with invariable imideslv and honour. Born 
at Naples, 1703; died, 1782. 

BiiOSSARD, Srhastian hr, an eminent 
French musician ; author of " Frodumus 
Musicaiis," .Vc. Di.d, 1730. 

BROSSE, OuY 1>B LA, a French bot.inist 
and physician to Louis XIII.: author of 
L'Ouvefture du Jardiii Royal," and other 
botanical works. Died, 1731 • 

BROSSES, Chaklks dr, a French law- 
ver, and the schoolfellow and friend of 
Billion ; author of " Letters on Heiciilu- 
iieum," Sec. Born, 1709; dieil, 1777. 

BROTHERS, Richard, a fanatic, who, 
in 1793, coiiimenced hi* career as llie apostle 
ofaii(!W religion, and announced himself 
as " nephew of the Almighty and prince of 
the Hebrews, ap|iointed to lead them to the 
land of Canaan." He prcdi( ted \arloii8 
al)siirdities, and it is a melancholy fact that 
his disciples were not conlined to the poor 
and ignorant. The greatorientalist, Hallied, 
and oilier men of iini|Uestionalile ability, ad- 
vocated this maniac, whose career at length 
attracted the notice of government, and he 
wascommitted to Bedlam for life as a con- 
firmed lunatic. He puhlislied several works, 
redolent alike of blasphemy and absurdity. 

BKOI'IER, Gabrikl, a learned French 
Jesuit, and librarian to the college of l.oiils 
le Grand; author of a treatise " On the 
Ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Roman Coins," 
an excellent edition of I'acitus, and other 
classics, &c. Born, 1723; died, 1769. 

BJIOTIER, Andrew Charles, a French 
abbe, nephew of the above. He was a 
friend to the royalist cause, and the editor 
of I.' Annee Litteraire," which was so ob- 
noxious to the party in power that he was 
transported toGuiana, where liedied, in 1798. 

BROUGHTON, Hugh, a learned Hebrew 
scholar and polemical writer, who was edu- 
cated at the expense of the celebrate I Ber- 
nard Gilpin. Born, I34d; died, 1612. 

BRnlJUHTON, Ihomas, a prebendary 
of Salisbury, and a literary character of 
considerable merit; author of" Christianity 
distinct from the Religion of Nature;" 
" Dissertations on the Prospects of Fu- 
turity ;" " Hercules," a drama, &c. He 
was also one of the principal contributors to 
the Biographia Brilannica. Died, 1774. 

BRODNCKER, William, lord, the first 
president of the Royal Society at Oxford, 
and author of some papers in the " Pliilo 
sophical Transactions," ice. Died, 1584. 

BROUSSONET, Peter Augustus Maria, 
an eminent French naturalist; author of 
" Ictliyologia;" '■' Varia? positiones circa 
Respiriitionem," Su: Born, 1761 ; died, l«07. 

BROWALLIUS, John, bishop of Abo; 
an eminent naturalist, and the author o 
various tracts on botanv. Sec. Died, I75S. 

BROWN, Charles Brockden, an emi- 
nent American writer, chiefly known in this 
country by his powerful novels, '• Wieland, ' 
and "E<lgar Huntley." Died, itjio. 

BROWN, Robert, an English clergyman, 
founder oi the sect of Brownists, gubse- 
quenily better known by the title of Inde- 
pendents. Hiscliief work was a controversial 



:| V 


iliko llie 
•. Horn 


itlior of 
id othur 

leli law- 
rieiiil of 

ic, who, 
e ajioiitlf 
I liiiii!-elf 
prince of 
III to the 
fact that 
the poor 
, H allied, 
jilitv, -.id- 
at length 
t, and he 
us a I'on- 
al works, 
il French 
; of l.onis 
" On the 
n Coins," 
md other 

I a French 

e was a 

ihe editor 

its so ob- 

at he was 

d, in 1798. 

1 Hebrew 

was i'i!u- 

fite I Ber- 


racter of 

lof Indc- 
























a lleto {[Intlirrgal Uiograp^^ 


one, '• A Treatise on Reformation, without 
tarrjinx l'i>r any Man." Notwiihstandlnif 
IiIh viiiicnl liosiility to Ihe churcli, be at 
l<'ii;;ili iH-canie reconciled toitciilicrtlirongli 
comiiilonoi policy, and obtained a bniclii'e; 
but lii^ cliaractcr remained as violnit as 
e\er: and, wIumi no years old, he was im- 
prisoned 111 Nortbaniptoii );aol lor an as- 
saiili, and ilii'<l tin re in IG3U. 

UROWN, Thomas, a hiiinoiiroiis writer, 
more distiiijfuislicd for wit than for nioi-ality. 
His works, iiKlecd, iiotwidistandiii); their 
(?reat literary merit, have fallen into com- 
parative iibli\ ion on account of their coarse- 
ness. IJIi'd, I7U4. 

IIROW.N, John, D.D., an eminent clcr- 
Kyniaii and imiefali^able writer. Hu was 
born, in 17l^, at Rotlibiiry. Nortliiimberlaml; 
educated at at. John's College, Canibrid^cu ; 
and after various cliiirch f)reternicntsb<.'came 
chaplain to tlie kin);. 'I lie chief of his nu- 
merous works are " Essays on the Charac- 
teristirsof the I'^arlof Shaftesbury," " Bar- 
barossa," a tragedy ; an " Estimate of the 
IManners and i'riiiciples of the Times," a 
" History of the Rise and I'rojjress of 
I'oetry," and " Thoughts on Civil Liberty, 
Llcentiousness,and Faction." It is supposed 
that Ills mental exertions were too great, 
for he fell into a state of dejection wliich 
terminated in his death, by bis own hand, 
in 1760. 

BROWN, Launcrlot, an eminent land- 
scape gardener, whose great nieiit con- 
sisted ill imitating nature, and abandoning 
the stift' and clipped formality so univerKally 
prevalent at that time in the pleasure 
grounds of our nobility. From his constant 
use of the phrase " this spot has great ca- 
pabilities," he was called Capability Brown. 
Born, 1715; died, 1782. 

BROWN, John, a Scotch painter and au- 
thor, favourably known in the former cha- 
racter by his painting of the bust of Homer 
from the Townley marbles, and by his por- 
trait of Pope. As an author he is even more 
distinguished bv his " Letters on the I'oetry 
and Music of the Italian Opera," which lie 
addressed to his friend. Lord Monboddo. 
Born, 1752; died, 1787. 

BROWN, John, a very learned, though 
self-educated Scotch divine ; author of the 
" Self-interpreting Bible," " Dictionary of 
the Bible," and numerous other religious 
works. Born, 17^2; died, 1787. 

BROWN, John, M.l).. an eniinentScotch 
physician, and the founder of a new system 
of medicine, which bears his name, fie di- 
vided all diseases into two great classes ; — 
the one from deficient excitement, and the 
other from its redundance ; and though his 
opinions have not been unconditionally re- 
ceived, they have very materially inlluenced 
the practice of his professional successors. 
Dr. Brown's principal works are " Ele- 
ments of Medicine," and " Observations on 
tlie Old Systems of Pliysic." Born, 1735 ; 
died, 1788. 

BROWN, John, an eminent English en- 
graver; his best works are engravings from 
Salvator Rosa. Died, 1801. 

BROWN, Dr. Thomas, an able meta- 
physician and moral essayist; professor of 
nioral philosophy at Edinburgh. Ke wrote 
" Observations on Darwin's Zooiioniia," 


some poems, and several moral and inela 
physical essays ; but his fame chieily rests 
U|ioii his treatise "On the I'hiloHophy ol 
the Human Mind," a work which is deserv- 
edly held in very high estimation. Born, 
1777; dicil, iHiO. 

BROWNE, Ulysses Maximilian, the son 
of an expatriated Irisli officer, entered the 
Austrian service, and by his great skill and 
bravery, when employed against the Turks, 
rose, to the rank of lleid-marslial. He after- 
wards greatly distinguished himself at I'la- 
ceiitia, and other places in Italy ; and at 
lenirth died ol the wounds lie received at 
the battle oi; Prague. Born, 1705; died, 1757. 

BROWNE, Sir Thomas, anemlnent phy- 
sician, and learned author. His " Religio 
Medici" attracted much notice; and his 
treatises " On Urn Burial," and " On Vul- 
gar Errors," abound with curious erudition, 
in which, however, they are excelled bv 
his tract, entltM, " The Garden of Cyrus." 
Of his style Dr. Johnson was the defender ; 
and also, perhaps uiicoiisirioiisly, in some 
degree the imitator. Born, 1605; died, 1682. 

BROWNE, Edward, son of Sir Thomas, 
physielan to Charles II., translator of some 
of the Lives of Plutarch, and author of an 
amusing book of Travels. Born, 1042; 
died, 1708. 

BROWNE, I'ATRirK, M.D., anemlnent 
naturalist ; author of " I'lie Civil and Na- 
tural History of Jamaica." catalogues of the 
birds and fish of Irelanii, and of the plants 
of the Sugar Islands. Born in Ireland, 1720 ; 
died, 1790. 

BROWNE, Sir Wiu.iam, an able and 
eccentric physician of tlie IHth century. 
He was the author of numerous optical and 
other Essays; and, at his death, bequeathed 
a sum of money for the provision of three 
medals, of the value of live guineas each, 
for Greek and Latin odes and epigrams by 
undergraduates of Cambridge. Born, 1092 ; 
died, 1774. 

BROWNE, Simon, a dissenting minister 
of considerable ability, but cliieny remark- 
able for an unhappy hallucination. He im- 
agined tliat " God had anniliilated in him 
the thinking substance, and utterly divested 
him of consciousness." This delusion |ier- 
petually haunted linn, and yet he furnished 
the completest refutation to it by composing 
several argumentative tracts, and by some 
very laborious compilations. Died, 1732. 

BROWNE, Isaac Hawkins, an English 
lawyer and poet. His best English works 
are a poem addressed to Higlimore, the 
painter, " On Desiirn and Beauty ;" and a 
shorter one, called '• The Pipe of Tobacco,'* 
in which he very skilfully imitated the tone 
of thought and expression of Cibber, Piii- 
jips, Tl^ionison, Young, Swift, and Poih'. 
Tlie work, however, on which his reputation 
chiefly depends is a Latin (mem, on the Im- 
mortality of the Soul. Born, 1706; died, 1776. 

BROWNE, William, an English pout of 
the I7tli century ; author of " Britaiiiiia"8 
Pastorals," " The Shepherd's Pipe," &c. 

BROWNE, Georok, Count.de, an Ifish 
officer in the Russian service, who su nobly 
distinguislicd himself on many great occa- 
sions, that he was rewarded with the go- 
vernment of Livonia; from which, when he 






' I ,; ; 

:; \ 


a fi.t\xi QAntbersal IStograpfis. 


had licJd it 30 vear», lie wUlied to retire, 
but C'ntheriiic If. wouUI not accept his re- 
iilirnatlon, rcplyinff, " Dcatli alone iliall 
partus." Born, I69B; «lled, 1792. 

nuOWNE, WiLUAM Georoe, an enter- 
prlHlng EnKllsli traveller; author of " Tra- 
vels in Africa, E/rypt, and Assyria." He 
was murdered while on his way to explore 
the rcKions south of the Caspian, by a Per- 
sian banditti, in 1814. 

UROWNRIGG, WiLUAM, an ingenious 
physician and natural phll080",)her ; author 
of " The Art of maliinp; common Salt," 
treatises nn platiiia and carbonic acid, &c. 
Died, 1800. 

HRUCE, Robert, a descendant of Da- 
vid, eari of Hnntinfirdon, and competitor 
with John Ballot for tlie crown of Scotland, 
at the death of Alexander III. 

BRUCE, Robert, grandson of the above, 
and the most heroic of the Scottish kings. 
After many desperate struggles, he totally 
defeated Edward II. at tlie battle of Ban- 
nockburn, and thus firmly established him- 
self on the throne ; hut his life was so com- 
pletely devoted to his country, that it belongs 
ratlier to history than to biography to be 
his chronicler. He was born in 1274; died, 

BRUCE, Peter Henrt, a German mi- 
litary officer of Scotch deiicent. He was at 
the battle of Pruth, and was several times 
employed by the Russian court in diplomatic 
missions. His memoirs, published after liis 
death, give some curious details of his 
travels. He died in Scotland in 1757. 

BRUCE, Michael, a Scotch poet. His 
parents being of the poorest class, iiis early 
life was one of considerable privation. Tliis 
and his ardent attachment to poetry, pro- 
bably aggravated a constitutional predispo- 
sition to consumption, and lie died in the 
3l8t year of liis age, in 17G7. His poems 
are few in number, but singularly plaintive 
and. elegant. 

BRUCE, James, one of the most cele- 
brated of modern travellers. For a short 
time he held the post of British consul at 
Algiers, but resigned it iu order to gratify 
his passion for travelling. After traversing 
tlie greater |)ortion of Asia Minor, he set 
out on a journey to ascertain tlie source of 
the Nile. An account of this journey he 
subsequently published; and some of his 
statements, particularly those which re- 
ferred to the manners and customs of Abys- 
sinia, were received with mingled incre- 
dulity and ridicule. Though greatly an- 
noyed by the disgraceful illiWerality with 
which he had been treated, he bore the 
taunts and sneers of his shallow critics with 
a taciturn pride, not deigning to satisfy 
disbelief, or to disarm ridicule, but trusting 
the dav would ere lon^ arrive when the 
truth of what he had written would be con- 
firmed by others ; and it is now clearl . 
proved, from the statements of manysubse- 

3uent travellers, that he was every way un- 
eserving of the censure bestowed on him. 
He was uorn at Kiniiaird-house, atirlin;;- 
shire, in 1730; and died, in consequence of 
an injury sustained by falling down stairs, 
at ills paternal estate, in 1794. 

BRUCE, John, an able writer on com- 
merce, moral philosophy, and political eco- 

nomy ; author of" First Principles of Phi- 
losophy," " Aiiiials of the East India Com- 
pany," iVc. Ditd, 1826, aged, fi'.'. 

BRUCKER, John James, a (ierman Lu- 
tlieran clergyman; author of " Histora 
Critica Philosophite," kc. Born, 169C ; died, 

BRUCKNER, John, a Lutheran divine, 
pastor of the Walloon congregation at Nor- 
wich; author of " Theorie du Systeme 
Animale," " Criticism on the Diversions of 
Purley," ice. Born, 1720; died, 1804. 

BRUEYS, David Auocstin, a French 
dr.imatic writer; in earlv life a Protestant, 
but converted to the Catholic f.iitli, and af- 
terwards its most bigotted adherent. Born, 
1640 ; died, 1733. 

BRUEYS, Francis Paul, a gallant 
French admiral, commanding the fleet 
wliicli conveyed the army of Bonaparte to 
Egypt, and killed at the battle of the Nile. 

BRUGNATELLI, Loitib, nn iUlian phy- 
sician and chemist ; author of " Bibliotlieca 
Tisica d' Europe," &c. Sec. Born, 1726; 
died, mi 8. 

BR(IGMANS,SebaldJustinu8, a learned 
Dutcliman, ph)sician-in-chief of the army, 
and the autnor of some valuable medical 
Works. After the union of Holland with 
France, Napoleon made him iBy>cctor-ge- 
neral of the hospitals; and it has been re- 
marked that so skilful were his arrange- 
ments, that the number of deaths by wounds 
and diseases were never increased by lios- 
uital fevers. After the battle of Waterloo, 
ne proniply procured medical aid for up- 
wards of 20,000 men. Born, 1763; died, 1809. 

BRUGUIERES,JoiiN William, a French 
naturalist and physician ; author of many 
essays on subjects of natural history, tli« 
best of which is the Natural History of 
Worms in the Encyclopeedie Methodique. 
Died, 1799. 

BRUHL, Henrt, count of, minister of 
Augustus III. king of Poland; one of the 
most artful and expensive courtiers that 
ever governed a weak and credulous prince. 
He kept 300 domestics, paying them better 
than the king himself, and furnishing a 
more sumptuous table; but, as was natu- 
ral, he plunged the country into debt and 
disgrace. Born, 1700 ; died, 1763. 

BRUMOV, Peter, a learned French 
Jesuit; author of the " Theatre desGrecs," 
" History of the Galilean Church," &c. 
Born, 1688 ; died, 1742. 

BRUN Charles le, one of the most 
famous painters France has ever produced ; 
and author of two clever works, *' On Phy- 
siognomy," and " On tlie Passions." Born, 
1619 ; died, 1690. 

BRUN, Pierre le. a French divine ; au- 
thor of a "Critical History of theSupersti- 
" xis Practices which have seduced the Vul- 
L.i' and embarrassed the Learned," &c. 
Uorn, 1661 ; died, 1729. 

BRUNCK, Richard Francis Philip, a 

Profound classical scholar aud critic, was 
nrn at Strasburg, but educated bv the 
Jesuits at Paris. For some time lie was 
employed in state affairs, but at length de- 
voted 'himself wholly to study; and pro- 
duced the " Greek Anthology," besides 
highly valuable editions of Aristophanes, 




M of Plii- 
idia Coiii- 

rmaii Lii- 
" Histora 
61(0 ; dicil, 

an divine, 
>n al Nor- 
ersioii* of 

a French 
Lli, and af- 
nt. Uorn, 

a gallant 

tlie fleet 

naparte to 

' the Nile. 

;alian phy- 
OTB, lTi6; 

3, a learned 
the army, 
lie medical 
Hand with 
U>ec tor-ge- 
ts been re- 
B arrange- 
; by wounds 
ied by lios- 
id for up- 
I died, 1809. 
I, a French 
. of many 
istory, the 
History of 


ninister of 
one of the 
rtiers that 
ous prince, 
lem better 
rnishing a 
was natu- 
debt and 

les Grecs," 
rdi," Sic. 

. the most 
produced ; 
On Phy- 
kis." Born, 

livine ; au- 
e Supersti- 
ed the Vul- 
ned," Sec. 

Philip, a 
critic, was 
cd bv the 
lie lie was 
length de- 
and pro- 
" beffliies 




a fi.t\B SUntbersal l>iograpI)V. 

f HUi; 

SdpiiocU's, Virgil, xc. When the revolu- 
tion broke out he took |>4rt in it, and was 
iniprinoiied at B€»an<;on by the tyrant Ro- 
lifupierre, whose d»'ath, however, released 
him. Born, 1719; died, 1803. 

HRUNE, W. M. A., a French marshal, wis 
born in 1763. Law and lileniture occupied 
Mi attention till tlie Fn-nch revolution, 
wlien be embraced the military profession, 
and served as adjutai.t under Duniourier, in 
thecamjiaignof 1791. He afterwards served 
miller Huiinaparte, in Italy, gaining rapid 
iironiotion ; :«nd in 1799 he was commander- 
in-chief of tin- Fr. nchan.i Dutch forces. In 
North Holland, wlio so s^cce^sfully opposed 
tlie English umhr the duke of York. In 
180.1, he was sent as ambassador to Con- 
stantinople, and, during his absence, was 
made a marshal. On his return he was ap- 
pointed governor of the Han-eatic cities, in 
which station he gave some ofTeme to Na- 
poleon, and iheir cordiality teased. He 
submitted to the Hourbons in isu; but on 
his old master's return from F.lba he joined 
him and took the command of a division of 
the army in the south of France ; and on 
the emperor's second abdication, he was 
put to death by a royalist i«arty at Avignon. 
August 2, 1815. 

BRUNEAU, Mathurin, an adventurer, 
who in 1818 assumed the title of Charles of 
France, was the son of a clog maker. After 
numerous eflbrts to pass for some |)erson of 
importance, he was incarcerated ; and from 
his conrinenieiit addressed a letter, signed 
Dauphin Bourbon, to the governor of tlie 
Isle of Giiernsej, requesting him to inform 
his Britannic Majesty of the captivity of 
Louis XVII. This letter b«.'ing intercepted 
by tlie local authorities, Briineau was traas- 
ferred to the prison at Rouen : here he en- 
gaged a person named Branzon as liis se- 
cretary, who found means so far to impose 
on the duchess d'Angonleme, as to obtain 
her interest ; and at length a party in his 
favour procure<l him abundant supplies. 
This encouraged the enterprize, until the 
principal, his secretary, and many friends 
were brought before 'the bar of justice, 
wliere Bruneau was declared an impostor 
and a vagabond, and condemned to seven 
years' imprisonment. Finding, however, 
that the fraud was still niaintaiaed by a 
powerful party, he was removed to the 
prison at Caen in 1821, and was afterwards 
sent to enl his days in the Castle of Mont 
Saint Michael, situated on an isolated rock 
which runs into the sea. 

BRUNELLESCHI, Philip, a Florentine 
arcliitect, patronized by Cosmo de Medici. 
Among the chief of his architectural works 
are the Pitti Palace, the monastery of Fie- 
sole, and the cupola of the cathedral church 
ofSanta Maria del Friare at Florence. He 
was also a sculptor and a poet, as well as 
an architect; -.ind some of his burlesque 
verses are published with those of Burcbi- 
ello. Born, ia77 ; died, U46. 

BRUNNER, John Conraj), Baron de 
urunn, a Swiss physician and anatomist: 
author of various tracte on physiology and 
anatomy. Born, 1653; died, 1727. 

BRUNO, a saint of the Romish calendar, 
and founder of the Carthusian order of 
wonks, the first house of which he esta- 

blished ill the desert of Chartreuse. He 
wrote a (^niinientary on tlie I'salnis and on 
St. Paul's Epistles, ice. Born, loao ; died, 

BRUNO, surnamed thr Grkat, arch- 
bishop of Cologne and duke of Lorraine ; an 
able politician, who took a conspicuous part 
in all the great transactions of his time. 
He was the brother of the emperor Otlio I., 
and died in 965. 

BRUNO, GioiiDANO, a Neapolitan, ami 
originally a monk of the Dominican onler. 
Ihe boldness with which he censured the 
irregularities of his iiiouastery, obliged him 
to leave It ; and. Hying to Geneva, he em- 
braced the Protestant religion. Be/.a and 
Calvin, however, obliged hlin to (jiiit tint 
city, and lie proceeded to Paris, wiiere he 
excited much attention by his strictures on 
the Aristotieian I'liiiosopliy. After visiting 
England he settled at Padua, where his 
freedom of speech attracted the attention 
of tlie Inquisition of Venice. He was ap- 
prehended, and, refusing to recant, he was 
burnt in 1600. The chief of his works is 
entitled Spaccio della Bestia Triomphanle. 

BRUNSFELS, Otho, a German physi- 
cian and botanist; and author of "Catalo- 
giis Illustriuni Medicorum," treatises on 
Botany, &c. Died, IS34. 

BRUNSWICK, FBRDiNAND,duke of, one 
of the principal generals in tlie seven years 
war in Germany. Born, 1721 ; died, 1792. 

imilian Julius Leopold, brother of the 
preceding, was a prince wliose name is re- 
vered for his disinterested Ijenevolence and 
humanity ; of which the last action of his 
life is a striking example: — During a terri- 
ble inundation of the Oder, which spread 
destruction in the neighbournood of Frank- 
fort, where the prince commanded a regi- 
ment in the garrison, his zeal to save the 
lives of a family surrounded by the waters, 
induced him to put off in a boat to their as- 
sistance, when he was swept away by the 
torrent, and perished in the humane at- 
tempt. Born, 1751 ; died, 1785. 

William Ferdinand, duke of, nephew of 
the preceding. He studied the art of war 
under his uncle, and highly distinguished 
himself in the service of Frederick of 
Prussia. At the commencement of the 
French revolution, he took the command of 
the Prussian and Austrian forces intended 
for the liberation of Louis XVI.; but the 
violent manifesto he publislied served only 
to stimulate the republican army under 
Duniourier, and he was compelled to retreat. 
The ill success of this expedition caused 
him to resign the command, and occupy 
himself with the domestic allairs of his new 
province. In 1806 he was again appointed 
leader of Ihe Prussian army, and was mor- 
tally wounded at the battle of Auerstadt in 
that year. 

BRUNSWICK DELS, Frederick Au- 
OD8TU8, duke of, younger brother of the 
above, and a general officer in the Prussian 
service. He was more distinguished as an 
author than as a general ; his treatise on 
Great Men, Remarks on the Character and 
actions of Alexander the Great, and nume- 




mm J 

la llpta) {.^Intbersal btosrapfii). 


roils otimr work*, li;ivlii)f Ih'I'ii nuirli ail- 
niired, llionjfli oaly privalfly clrculatfd. 
Uorn, 1741 ; liicd, IHOJ. 

imUNSWICK, KiiKiiitHiCK William, 
duke of, yoiiiiifcHt loii of CluirleH Willhiin 
Fcrdliaiid of Hriiiiitwick, and lirothiT of tlic 

Ccr»t'ciitL-(l queen Caroline nf Kngland, wag 
orn III 1771. He soon entered the Prussian 
army, ami, stiiiiiilatiul by Ills father's iin- 
iiappy fiite and the wrongs of his country, 
took an active part in the war atrainst revo- 
lutionary France. In I6U9 lie raked a hody 
of volunteers in Itolieniia ; but findinif mi 
chance of iiiakiiiff anetfectual stand iifr'iii>'<t 
the power of France, lie embarked his 
troops Ibr F.ni;laiid, where they were taken 
into the llritish service, and employed in 
the I'enins'ila. Foreseeing that great 
changes were likely to take place on tlie 
Continent, he hastened to his paternal do- 
minions in ltii:i, raised a l.ir|;e body of 
troops, and was among the toremost to 
meet the French army in IBI5, when, two 
days before the decisive battle of Waterloo, 
he fell, gallantly lighting at the head of his 
" brave Urunswickcrs." 

iiHUNTON, Mary, the daughter of colo- 
nel liaifour, was born in one of the Orkney 
iiiies; married a minister of the Scotch 
church ; and is known as the authoress of 
the excellent novels, " Discipline," " Self 
Control," and other valuable works. Born, 
1778; died, 1818. 

imuSANTINI, Vincent, count, an Ita- 
lian poet of the 16th century ; author of 
" Angelica Inamorata," &c. 

URUSONIIJS, I.. DoMiTiuB, author of a 
work entitled " Facetiarum exeniplorum- 
que Libri VII. ;" but better known by tlie 
title of " Speculum Muiuli." 

DilUTO, John Michabi,, an eminent tra- 
veller and writer of the isth century ; au- 
thor of a •• History of Hungary," " Critical 
Annotations on the works of Cicero, Ho- 
race," &c., and of the " Eight tirst books 
of the History of Florence." Died, 1594. 

BRUTUS, Lucius Junius, one of the 
most celebrated characters of antiquity, was 
the son of Marcus Junius, a wealthy patri- 
cian of Rome. The father and brother of 
Lucius Junius were assassinated by order 
of their relative, Tarquin tlie Proud; and 
Lucius Junius owed tlie preservation of his 
life to an assumed idiotisni. So completely 
did this impose upon the tyrant, that lie not 
only spared his young relative's life, but 
brought him up in his own family, where 
ho was treated as a mere idiot, and sur- 
nanicd Brutus. He bore all contumely with 
patience until tlie outrage of Sextus Tar- 
quin [See Lucretia] allurded him an oppor- 
tunity to arouse the people against botii the 
king and his hons. Throwing off his pre- 
tended want of intellect, and displaying an 
energy the more startling by contrast with 
his former manner, he joined with Lucre- 
tia's husband, Collaiiiius; caused the gates 
to be shut, assembled the senate, dilated 
upon the tyrannies of Tarquin, and caused 
a decree to be made for banishing the king, 
and establishing a republic. This great 
chanire accordingly took place, and Brutus 
and Collatinus were appointed chief magis- 
trates of the coniinonwealtli witli the title 
of consuls. Terrible as the tyranny of Tar 

quin h;ui been, his expulsion and the entire 
change in the form of government gave 
great oflViice to many of the Honiaii patri- 
cians ; and among those who were opJMised 
to the new cnnstltutlon were the two sons 
of Brutus and three nephews of Collatinus, 
all of whom conipired, with other malcon- 
tents, to murder the two consuls and restore 
Tarquin and the monarchy. The intention* 
of the consiiirators were dimTlosed by a 
slave to I'oplicola Valerius, a senator; and 
the conspirators were brought before the 
consular tribunal for Judgment. Mischievous 
as were the intentions of the criminals, the 

Ceople would fain have piiniNlied them only 
y lianishment ; and Coliiitinus, in Uh af- 
fection for his nephews, was equally dis- 
posed to be lenient. Brutns, on tlic con- 
trary, determined to show that no rank or 
relationship should avail the enemies of 
Koinan liberty ; and, disregarding the en- 
treaties of the multitude and his own feel- 
ings as a parent, he sternly sentenced his 
sons to death. Collatinus, even after tills 
signal proof of the inriexibillty of Brutus, 
endeavoured to save his nephews. But the 
young men were executed, and Collatinus 
retired from the consuNliip, Fopllcola Va- 
lerius was elected as his successor, and in 
conjuncton with Brutus, proceedeil against 
the Veientes, who, with Tarquin and his 
partisans were niarchiiig against Rome. The 
Roman cavalry was commanded by Brutus, 
while the enemy's cavalry was led on by 
Aruns, one of the sons of Tarquin. These 
leaders were speedily engaged hand to hand ; 
and so great was tlieir mutual hate, that 
each in nis desire to wound his opponent 
neglected to protect himself ; and they both 
fell dead upon the tield. Tlie conflict end- 
ing in the victory of the Romans, the body 
of Brutus was interred witli great solemnity, 
and a statue was erected to his memory. 
His death took place b. c. S09. 

BRUTUS, Marcus Junius, an illustrious 
Roman, and a descendant of tlic preceding. 
His mother was the sister of Cato ; and as 
she had disgraced herself by an intrigue 
with Julius Ciesar, Marcus was by many 
thought to be his son. He at first sided with 
Ponipey, but being treated with great lenity 
and consideration after the battle of Phar- 
salla, he attached himself to Ctcsar, by 
whom he was greatly caressed and en- 
trusted. But the stern republican spirit of 
his reputed ancestor, which he inherited, 
rendered it impossible for all Coesar's kind- 
ness to him to reconcile him to dear's am- 
bition ; and he at length conspired with 
Cassias and others, and slew him, B.C. 39. 
Antony succeeded in exciting the popular 
indignation against the murderers of Ceesar, 
who fled from Rome, and raised an army, 
of which Brutus and Cassius took the com- 
mand ; but being totally defeated at the bat- 
tle of Philippi, where they encountered the 
army of Antony, Brutus escaped with only 
a few friends, passed tlie night in a cave, 
and, as he saw his cause irretrievably 
ruined, requested Strato, one of his confi- 
dants, to kill him. For a lon^ time his 
friend refused; but on hearing Brutus call 
one of his slaves to perform the fatal office, 
he exclaimed, " Forbid it, Go<ls, that it 
should ever be said that Brutus died by the 
hand of a slave for want of a friend !" and I 

gratitude is the memory of the heart. 


Igf I 

■I * 


(1 (he entire ' 
imi'iit K»ve 
iinmii patrl- 

LTO Op|M)H«Ml 
lU (wo 80IIII 
' CollUllllUH, 

her malcoii- 
land restore 
le liilentioDt 
lionet! by ti 
cnator ; anil 

before llie | 
iiniiiiils, till' 
(1 tlieiii only 
«, ill lib al- 
eqii'.klly liin- 
oii the con- 
t no rank nr 

eiieniiei) of 
illng the cii- 
hiH owii feel- 
en tciu'cd lil« 
Ml after tliU 
y of Uriitus, 
W8. Hut the 
id Collatinuii 
i'opllcola Va- 
!«Hor, and in 
•eded a);alnst 
[]uln and his 
fttRonie. The 
cd by Urutiio, 
a« led on by 
rquin. These 
liand to hand ; 
al hate, that 
his opponent 
and they both 

conflict cnd- 
ins, the body 
cat solemnity, 

his memory. 


an illustrious 
le preceding:. 
Cato; and as 
an intrigue 
as by many 
rst sided with 
.. great lenity 
ttfe of Phar- 
Cicsar, by 
sed and en- 
can spirit of 
c inherited, 
icesar's kind- 
Ciear's aiii- 
iispired with 
lim, B.C. 39. 
the popular 
ers of Csesar, 
led an army, 
lok the corn- 
ed at the bat- 
ountered the 
ed with only 
.t in a cave, 
of his conli- 
ig time his 
Brutus call 
. fatal office, 
ods, that it 
died by the 
iend '." and 

I ■JO 



iSl llcta) 9ltnibrr0al l$togravf)i). 


prcsentinjr the sword as he turned away his 
face, the nolile ll'inun fell on it and ex- 
pired, B.C. 43, in the 43<l year of his af^e. 

HIlUYI'.Uh', John i>k i.a. an eiiiliient 
French writer; author of '* Dialoftnes on 
Unietism," publliihed after his decease; and 
of " TheophrHHtiis, translated from the 
Greek, with the Manners of the present 
Aire." or thlx admirable and admired vurk 
Voltaire says, " Its rapid and iiervoiin giylu 
utriic k tlie piihlle at ome ; and the alliiHloiiN 
to livln|fiMi«oim, which abound tlirou)fh its 
paifes completed its success." Hum, 1041 ; 
died, liiOfi. ' 

HimVN, NicHoi.As. A Dutch poet and 
dramatist of the nn» century, inaiiv of 
wlio»e tragedies still keep i>o»sesslon of the 

HIUIYN, CoRNRMrsLE, a Dutch painter 
and traveller of Ihe 17th century; author of 

Voyages to the Levant," and '•Travels to 
MuHcovy, Persia," ice. 

BRYAN, MiniiARL, a connoisseur of paint- 
ings, whoM! judgment was highly esteemed, 
though he lost large sums by his own pur- 
chases. Me was the author <if a valuable 
" Hlographical and (Jritical Dictionary of 
Painters and Engravers." Horn, 1757 ; died. 
1821. ' 

BRYAN, or HRIANT, Sir Francis, a 
distinguished soldier and statesman. He 
serve«l with great credit against the French 
in the earl ofSurrey's e\|H!dition, and sub- 
sequently became chief Jiisticia-y of Ire- 
land, lie Is chiefly memorable, iiowcver, 
as a poet ; his works being printed with 
those of his friends Wyalt and lord Surrey. 
Died, ISSO. 

BRYANT, Jacob, a distinguished anti- 
auarian and philologist; author of an able, 
tnough singular, " Analysis of Ancient My- 
thology," published in three vols. 4fo; a 
treatise on the Truth of Christianity, a work 
In denial of the existence of Troy', and va- 
rious otiier publications of great erudition 
and ingenuity. Born, I7IS; died, I8U4. 

BRYDONE, Patrick, a Scotch gentle- 
man ; author of " Travels into Sicily and 
Malta," &c. Born, 1741; died, 1819. 

BRYENNIUS, Manuel, an early musical 
composer ; he published, in the 14th cen- 
tury, a treatise on harmonics, of which a 
Latin translation, together with the compo- 
sitions of the author, was published by Dr. 
VVallis in 1699. 

BUACHE, Philip, an able French hy- 
drographer ; author of some valuable hydro- 
Jfraphical and geographical works. Born, 
«700 ; died, 1775. 

BUAT NANCAY, IRITIS Gabriel du, an 
eniiiient Freiicli diplomatist and writer; au- 
thor of a " History of the Ancient Nations 
of Europe," " Maxims of Monarchical Go- 
vernment," &c. Born, 1732; died, I7b7. 

BUC, Sir George, historian and anti- 
quary, was gentleman of tlie privy chamber 

Richard III.," «« Tlie Art of Revels," &e. 

BUCER, Martin, a friend of Luther, 
? i.i^.","""^"* a preacher of the reformed 
laitli, that Cranmer, when archbishop of 
Canterbury, invited him to England, and 
he became professor of theology at Cam- 
bridge. Born, 1491 ; died, 1551. 


BIJCHAN, RIgiil Hon. SriAiiT Kuhkink, 
earl of. This iinlileiiiiii wu'* iiidi lili'.Mlily 
ilevotnl to literary and i-cieiilllii' imiMiit-, 
and may jnslly be hIvImI llir loiiiuii'i' i>t ilir 
Antiquarian hoclcly' In Scotland. In I7'il 
he iiiittitutcd an annual coiiiiiii-iiior.itjoii .it 

Kdnuni, tlie birlli place of Tli huh, in 

honour of the poet ; and on that occaximi 
Burnt rompoHed his " AildrcKnto thi; Shade 
of the Hani of Ednain." Died, \hJ9, 

BUrilAN, William, M.I)., a iiitive of 
Scotland, and aiilhor of the will known 
'• Donientic Medicine," Ac. Horn, l7v<J; 
died, |H()5. 

BUCHANAN, Gkouok, an miineiit Scotch 
historian and poet. The few \viirk<i wlilcli 
lie wrote in his vernacular tongue are 
greatly admired ; hut his f:inu> cliieily rtsiH 
on his Latin works, which are singularly 
beautiful in their style. Horn, I50«i; died, 

BUCHANAN, Claudius, D.D., a Scotch 
divine, chaplain at Bengal, and professor 
and vice-provost of the college al Fori 
Williaiii. Uf his numerous works tli(! most 
interesthiif are " Christian Researclies in 
Asia," and a " Mi:iiioir on the Expediency 
of an Ecclesiastical Establishment in India." 
Born, I7««; died, l«lj. 

BUCHANAN, Francis, M. D., author of 
" Travel* in the Mysore," a " History of 
Nepal," Ac. was born in Stiriingsliire, 17'iJ, 
and educated at (ilangow. He entered pub- 
lic lii'e as an ashistaiit-siirgeon on board a 
man-of-war, and afterwariln oht:iiiie<l an ap- 
pointmeiit as surtreoii in the East India l^oiii- 
panv's «ervic<'. Having in the course of hU 
iiieifical studies paid particular attention to 
botany and other lirinches oi' natural sci- 
ence, he was enabled to take advantage 
during the dlfl'erent missions in wliicli he 
was engaged, of making collections of rare 
plants, animals, (ihhes, Sec; and, indeed, so 
valuable were nis services considered, tli li 
he was entrusted with the survey and exa- 
mination into the state of the country taken 
from Tippoo Sultan, and various other statis- 
tical employments. After twenty years of 
active life, spent chieily among the lialf-ci- 
vilizcd triljes of India, and exposed to the 
malignant inlliience of the climate, he re- 
tire<l to his native land in Iki >, and Axed his 
residence al Leney, in I'ertlishire, still pro- 
secuting with pleasure the studies and sclen- 
tilic pursuits which had engrossed the bu- 
sier part of hiij life. Died, 18."J. 

nuCHOLT/EK, Abu.miam, a learned 
German divine of the lelbriiieil religion; 
author of " Index Chronologicus," Ike. 
Died, 1584. 

duke of, the unworthy favourite of James I. 
and Charles I,, was raised to the higliest 
offices in the slate, i>ecamc the disi>ens«'r of 
all favours and honours, and conducted him- 
self with so much pride and insolence as to 
excite popular hatred and disgust. Being 
entrusted with tlie command ofaii arniv, he 
lost the flower of it in an ill-conducteil at- 
tack on the isle of Itlie, and returned to 
refit his shattered armament. When he was 
again about to sail, he was assassinated at 
Portsinoiilh, by a lieutenant of the name of 
Felton, Augustus, i6U>^, 



A man'* niiLiNo rAiiauiN is imk krv iiv which vuii may odiik at ma (■hahaotkii. 


Hi! I 



A llrto ([Inibri'fial Uiograpfiv. 


iliiki' III', koii of llii> iircriNlliu, WM lN>rii In 
lll'V? ; «IiiiIm-iI III ('tiiiiliil<l|rt' ; irrvol llii< 
khiK' III llii* rivll wnr*: IhiillilN I'olitlit Mrl/.i'il 
liy (lie ii.irll.iiiK'iil, ulilfli, liowiivrr, wu* nf- 
it'rwuriU rmiorcil io lilni ; uiid lie cveiiln- 
.illy IxM-itiiii' It iiiliiUlfi' III ClitirliM II., mill 
M',1* our oi liU niiiKl |irolllu:it>(> coiirll<>r». 
IIIn |iiillilriil cniiiliii-i uitii, like liU trciicrnl 
licliitvloiir, I'liiiriirli'i'l/fil liy iiii|irlii<'i|ilcil 
li'Vlly uiiil liii|irii(li'iit'r ; ;iii(l IIhiiikIi IiIh III«^ 
I'liry mill fiiii>urii;ili<>iMl |>4iv«i'ri« wttrc I'.ir 
iiliiivi- iiifilioiTllv, yi't III' wiiM (III iilijci't of 
ciiiiti'iiiiii, mill illi'il, iiniTKrrliril, at KIrliy 
MoorKlilr, ^ iii'kiililri-, III iili'ii. 

nii('klN(illAM AND CIIANDOS, Annr 
ri.i'/.A, (liirlii-»!< ol' ; iliiiiiflilii' iiiiil licii'ciii* of 
the hul iliikr of vMiuiiiiim ; liorii In I77!i ; 
iiiitrrii'il (ii till' iiiiii'i|iii« i>r ItiickliiKliaiii, 
llii'ii rml r('iii|ilc, III l71Ki: liy wlimii Iter 
(iiAt'o liiiil mi only clilUI, ilio I'lri'iii'iit ni.ir- 
ijiilii of CIiaiiiIkii. ' 'riiroii'.rliKiit lift* thin 
miihibic iiiiil iu-fiiiu|ili-<lii'>l vvoniiui (llK|ilityril 
IhoKi' InillH oT I'lim'.irtrr wlili'li kIkmI IIic 
briKlitfiii limtrc on rx.ilicil rmik, mul liiil- 
linv till! mi'iiiory of ilu'ir iiohm'smuii. SIu> 
u'.iM bniinilli'NK In licr (-luirlili-ii ; iiloim, af 
I'criionittc, unil niiii-i'ro ; »i(liili",i\vhi)f Iroiii 
till* " pouipit mul vnnlili'H" of ilii> worlil, lo 
liiilul);!' Ill lilt' Hci'i't'l fli.iriiiM III' ivilriMiieiil, 
\vlu>rt> nIu> I'oilUl t'ni'i)iiini)fi' llii' iIcm-ivIiik:, 
rcioi'Mi lliv I'rrliiit, uiul nimisii'i' (o ili<> nv- 

C(>ll<<llll>ll III' tllt> lliNllI'Mhtll. SIlO llll'll tt( 

Slowc, iiecti .'iii, Miiv 1(1, KM; mill lii-r n-- 
iimliiH were InUMrcil at AiiiijJiiloii, a iinict 
aiul ni'i'liuU'il vlllaKf, near » liirliculcr, ii 
iipot fiiiloarnl to Iht by onrly rccolU'cilonii, 
(AvIiiKton Hi>u«t> lu'liiir th'o nrnt ol" the 
riiaiuloK family), and wlioro she had I'ver 
lilHTally «'X«T«-Ii««vl ihow rirtuci) wlilcli are 
hiTi" bru'lly, but loo feebly, ri-cortU-il. 

FII'.LD, diiko of, son of llic larlof Mul- 
Krave, wan born in liiii) ; served uiiiler Mar- 
Mial 'riiroiine, and tixik a part In the levo- 
liKloii of itMs, lie aU'i distlniriiiiibed hiiii- 
self ivi a jioet. RurkliiKlmni House, in St, 
James's I'ark, since ronvirled into a royal 
palaee, wa« originally built for him. Died, 

HUCKINK, Ahnoi.d, an artist of the 
I.'ith century, luid the lirst who eii|fraved 
maps on rop;ier. lie illustrateit an edition 
of Ptolemy, which was nrinled by Sweyn- 
heim, of Home, uuc uf tlie earliest printers 
in that country. 

lUlCKMlNSFER, Joseph Sikvkns, an 
American divine of great reputation as an 
orator and man of Idlers; niithorof numer- 
ous sermons and orations ; and editor of an 
American edition of " Griesliach's Greek 
Testament." Born, 17!*4 ; died, IS12. 

UUCilt)/, P. JosKPH, a naturalist and 
botanist of Sleti, who must have been one 
ol the most inda-trious compilers that ever 
lived ; Ins works formiii^ more than 300 
volumes. Horn, 1737; died, I6ii7. 

Ul'DD.T.CS, John Francis, a Lutheran 
divine: professor of theolotrv at Jena, and 
auihor of a " German Historical Dlc- 
tionarv," v*>.c. Died, \t:9. 

Hl'DKUS.or BUDE'.WiLLtAM.a French- 
man distjiifruis' ed for his profound acquaint- 
ance with cUissical literature; author of 
" Conimeniarii Lin<rux l^ritciae," and other 
valuable works. Died, 1540. 

IlllDiil I.I., l.uaTArK, ft ilMlngttlalMd 
writer, liunoiiriMl with the frlendiinlp of Ad- 
ilimiii, and ntlicr vriMt men of liU time, vtnn 
born al F.xeier, In Iiiha. He wrote nieniol 

of (he " lloylen," *• The lll»lory of C'lei i 

lies," and niiiiicrnuii paiiemiii t 

and other perlmlicnU. lie L-onimltledmilclde 

ory of I 
II the U 


In I7J7 

1)11 KFIF.lt, Claiidk, a learned Tole, of 
French deNcenl ; aiithnr of " F.lciiiriiii de 
IMela|iliy«lipiei," " Irulie de l.i Societe 
Civile,''^ and other iible works. Horn, 1001 ; 
died, 17;i7. 

IIUFFON, (ii.ouiiK l.oniii i.k Ci.Kiir, 
count de, an einlneiit French writer; au- 
thor of the wllkiiown" HiKloIre Natnielle, 
ireiieraUi et p.ii'liciillere," a work replete 
wi h iniijeNlic descriptions of nature, pro- 
found tlionirhts, and eh)i|Ui'nt lanKuai^e; 
and line wlilcli, however ihe vaviiencsH of 
some of its hypolluNcs iii.iy becrltlcNed, will 
ever coiinnand the adiniration of mankind. 
HuH'on wa» tlie author of other literary pro- 
dnciloiis; but Ihe forejfuliiK, consl-tiiiu; of 
"d volumes, occupied nearly W yeais nt his 
ll'i , mill lias alone Inimorlalixed his name. 
I >'rn at Monlbard, Uurgundy, t7u7 ; died, 

lUKHiF., Chi'valicr Thomas, an emi- 
ii'Mit Danish asironomer; Kreatly dlstln- 
guisheil by his triKonomclrical survey of the 
hiiaiiJ of Aenland. HIsotherelilef works arc 
a treatise on " Matheinalics," :>iid " An 
Account of the slate of the Arts and Sci- 
ences, fiC, in Fi'uncc, at the close of tiie 
Revolution." Born, 1740; died, I8I.'>. 

BDLI., John, doctor of music, woscham- 
ber musician to James I. His compositions 
were very numerous; the national anthem 
of " God save the KiiiK " belnir amnng; 
them. The time of his death is uncertain, 
but he was alive at the comnieneement of 
the year 103'.!. 

BULL, Gkoiiok, bishop of St. David's, a 
learned prelate, and a very industrious and 
able theolo^iical writer: author of " Har- 
nioiiia Apostollca," " Defensio Fidel Nicc- 
na," i;c. Born, 1634; died, 1709. 

BULLET, John Ba»'ti8t, a French an- 
tii^uariun and philolov'ist ; author of" Me- 
moires sur la Laugiie Celtique," iic. Born, 
1689; died, 1775. 

BULLET, Pktkr, an eminent French 
architectofthe I7ih century. He constructed 
the church of St. Thomas Aijulnas, and 
many other splendid edifices in Paris : he 
was also the author of some good architec- 
tural works. 

BULLEYN, William, an English phy- 
sician and botanist ; author of '' The Go- 
vernment of Health," \c. Died, 1576 . 

BULLIALDUS, Ismael, a Freiieh astro- 
nomer and mathematician ; author of" I'hi- 
lolaus— a Dissertation on the True Sys- 
tem of the World," " Tabulte Philolaicie," 
SiC. Born, 1605 ; died, 1694. 

BULLIARO, Pierre, a French botanist; 
author of" Dictionaire Elementaire Bota- 
niq-.'e," " Herbierde la France," &c. He 
de<igned and engraved his own plates. 
Born, 1743 : died, 1793. 

BULLINGER, Henry, a Swiss pastor of 
the reformed church, and the intimate 
friend of Zuinglius, whom he succeeded aa 




'I *l 





IIM riiAT IB NITBK tBLl Witt Hot nrir- 


a llrti) {Itnibrvflnl liiogt 1D9 



pimtor of /iirlrli. Illn wrtlliiirx wcrn vory 
iiunu'rniio, lull liiMiiK Hliiidiit ciillri'ly roii- 
triivt'rul.il, lliry iif ntvt IIKit' ri'Karilrd. 
llDrii, \M\ ; (lii'il, |'>7J. 

lilll.OW, lli'.NiiY Wit.MAM, a I'mmhiii 
ori'iiiiiii(l«ral)le tult'iitii, liiit wIkmk! t'Xtnivn- 

f;tk»t iiiillnnn of itirii itlld lliliifpi ri-riiU'rcil 
lid ( ar«'«3r nii iiiirnrtiiiiaU! oiu-. Vi r) eiirly 
III llfp lie eiiicri-'l thv iiriny. siiil horc n part 
in llic limurm-tloii oT tlui Ni-lliiThiiiiti 
uif,ilri»t till! cnipcror Jimi-ph ; lie aftcrwariU 
went to AnieniM nii i>iiiii<' onnimcrrinl ope- 
I'lilitlliiii, but llilN ritilliiif, lie bf('»nii!a NMi*- 
ilt'iih'irh'lnii pn-iiclirr tfirri-. On liN ri'tiirn 
t<> Kiiropt 111- wrotK Ik work on niilitnry lac- 
llcM, \«lil('li bctnic tllanii'lrU'iilly iippimcil to 
tlif rxmllnif :tyht('iii of liiiHlcrii wiirlarc, im-- 
iMHifincil iniu'li ('(inli'ovrrKy, iin<l proiMiriil 
liliii till' (llmiiictloii <>( liicllriiin Miilow. 
M(! next ni);iiircil in piibli<ililii(( u <Jfrnian 
iK^wNpapcr In KiiKLinil, wliicli proved a ruin- 
oiiii Hpoi'iilatlon ; lie tliiii went to rraiirt*, 
wlx'ir h«; rt in.'ilni'd lliri-i; ycarx, but bt'i-oin. 
Iii|7 oliiioxiiiiia to the polli-c, hi- wan onlcn-d 
to (|iiit Ibiit coiiiitiy. On ri'tiiniinif to iter- 
llii he piibliHiied it paniplilct in I'livoiir of 
lloiiaparie : tbiM <'ri'aied great Hiispit ion that 
liu wax ;t ipy ill tli*> cniiKM'or'A pay; and 
now, niiiliiitr blnixelf sbiiiinL-d in hocii.'ty, lu* 
(■ii(l<'avouri!(l to ri'vi'nice IiIiiiniMI' by writinif 
a tevrri! Mnliruon piihric nirii and iiicaHiiroH. 
At li'iip:!!) Iif! waK cited bcforr tUe tribunal. 
Ht'iilfnci-d to perpetual iniprlHonnient, ami 
died, wliiki In prison, at Rlt^a, In IH07. 

IIULOW, Fkrokrh; William, count. 
Von Dt'iiiipwitz, a gallant i'rusHlan general, 
wlioM* Hfrvlocs were most ciwentlal to liU 
country on niaiiy pLTiloutt occakioui. Ho 
wan actively entrased at^ainbt the French at 
the earlieot (leriotU of the late war; and, 
in IBOH, waH made a i;eiieral of brigade. 
Hi* memorable victories, in lUlU, at ^l<>ck- 
ern, Luckau, GroHbeeren, and Uennewitz, 
were rewarded by iiroinotion and a title. 
He afterwardft distlnfruished binitieir in 
Weotphalla, Holland, iielKium, Stc. ; and, 
a« coniinander of the fourth divigjon of the 
allied army, he contributed esHcntially to 
the virtorioiiM close of the battle of Waterloo. 
rhou)(h a dilii^ent, active, and enterprising 
soldier. Billow also cultivated the line artti, 
and was much esteemed us a );ood citizen. 
Horn, ITU; died, 1816. 

I31INYAN, John, the celebrated author 
of" The I'llgriin'H Proifress," &c., was the 
son of A travelling tinker, ami for a time 
followed his father's occupation. Mean, 
however, as was his origin, and dlsitipated 
as his early habits confessedly were, it ap- 
pears that he abandoned the latter, and 
attached himself to the Anabaptists, among 
whom he soon became dlstinguiKhed as a 

fireacher. Ueiiig Imprisoned for coniraven- 
ng the laws against Dissenters, he employed 
the twelve years of his coiillnement in writing 
the most popular allegory in our language, 
" Tile I'ilgrim's Progress," He was at 
length released tlirouKh the interposition of 
the bishop of Lincoln, and resumed his 
ministry at Bedford, in the gaol of which 
town he had been imprisoned. Born, 1628 : 
died, 1688. 

BUONAFEDE, Appian, an Italian abbot : 
author of '< The Poellial Chronology of 



CURIOSITY about trifles IS 

Spirit n( 

rjreat IMeii.*' lie filnton* « 
I'liilosopi )," A.'. Dtrd, ilM, 

llUoNAMICI. (U»rKiJr(:iii, ioninil«» iry 

peiierni of artillery In the mtvIi f llie 

king of Nupieit ; author of " ('uiiiiiiviiltill 
do Ovllo ltaiiiii,".vc. Horn, t7IUi •lixl, I7i>l. 

BUONAI'AKIK., Nm'ol«on, emperor of 
tlu! FreiK'b, king ofliilv, ^c, wa< born at 
AJaccio. in the Ulaiiil ol Cornlra, Augunt I'l, 
I7III). Hlsorlgin was reipechible; his father, 
Cliarli'M itiiona|>irle, \tas an ailvncateof con- 
siderable re| iitalloii, aii<l IiIh iii'iiIiit, uIioih' 
maiden name was .Mane l.iiilia Kikiiiollne, 
was well dcHceiidril, niiiarkalile tor beaiily, 
Htrong-iiilmii'd, and aicompllslieil. Napo- 
leon was their sei-ond clilld ; Joi>i'pli, nller- 
ward* king of Spain. beliiK' lil* M'lilor. Me 
was educated at tin- iiiilllary school oi 
llrleiine, and entered llie army as a aecruid 
lieiilenanl of arlillery, in l7H.i, At tlie ngr 
of twenty, the rrench Kevrilutloii oik'iimI ,i 
fleM to tlie exertions of Napoleon ; and dur- 
ing his correHpondence with the Coislraii 
gi'iieral, Paoii, who had vainly eiideavoiiicd 
to enlist lilm on his side, (be i;<-riiis fif fu- 
ture ambition began to be developed. In 
I7!»:i, duriiiif llie niicn of terror, be was ac- 
tively einphiyed at the sic;;e of^Toiilon, on 
whicli occasion the convention gave him 
the command of tliu artillery; nml by bis 
•'ouraireand exertion'* the city was recovereil 
from the Kngllsliand royalists, Siihse(|uently 
to this he displa)('d great talents in the 
army emidoyed against I'iedinont; and, in 
October, 179», we (liid him at Paris, com 
niandlng tin; conventional troo|Hi which (t<>- 
fcatcd those ot the sirtions, and qnellt 
the revolt. In March, riiii, he married 
Josephine, widow of viiconnt de BeaMliar 
nols, who siifl'en d under Kobesplerre : lie 
was now appointed to the c^omniand of the 
army of Italy, and on the mtli of ,May tol- 
lowing he gained the battle of l.odl. 'I'lie 
subjugation of the various Italian states, 
uiiu his repealed successes over the Aiis- 
triaiiH ended in a peace when In^ was wltliln 
thirty miles of Vienna. Thus disengaged; a 
new theatre for the display of his genius 
presented itself. With a large fleet, and 
40,000 troops on board the transports, he 
set sail lor the intended coiifpiest of Kcvfit 
in May, I7D8. On liis way thither he took 
Malta; and on the 2'J<I of September we find 
him celebrating the battle of the Pyramids 
at Grand Cairo, but liis progress was checked 
by the heroism of Sir Sidney Smith ami his 
handful of British troopsat St. John d'Acre ; 
and the various reverses which ihe French 
army continued to meet wltli, coupled with 
the fact that his presence seemed necessary 
at home, induced Buonaparte to embark se- 
cretly for France, accompanied by a few 
officers wholly devoted to nim,and to leave 
his brave, but shattered army, to the care 
of general Kleber. He landed at Frejus, In 
October, 1799: hastened to Paris ; overthrew 
the directorial government ; anri was raised 
to the supreme power by the title of First 
Consul. He now led a powerful army over 
the Alps; fought the celebrated battle of 
Marengo, in June, IhoO: and once more b(;- 
came master of the whole of Italy. A jicare 
with Austria followed these successes ; and, 
soon after, a brief and hollow peace with 
England. On the 30th of Mav, I8U4, be 

A mark op a little mind. 


ir you WOULD DR KMI'I.OYICtl IN iKHIOl'l BCSINKKIt, tM> NDT »r.T IP »iili A Ml rrooN 

a llrtD ^Inibrrdal t3tograpf)9. 

wan minrA in the ini|icrlal (Utility ; and In 

DemnluT wai «to\*im'iI, wllh III* cmpn-M, 

Jo»r|ililiu', hy |K)p»! I'liM VMI. Ilirf, Urivf 

i\» <inr ftpiiiT U, wi* iiiiiKt iiollci! tin liit'lili'iit 

Ino Htrlkliiif to Im' nvcrlookfti : — Ai loon h« 

iIm! holy |Hiiiilfi' hnd ljlctiii«!<l the crown, llii- 

fnifHTor, wlilioiil wallinK for tlifrfnialndvr 

lit the riTfinony, cavrrly ivUed It, and 

imttinif It llrNt upon hlit own liciid, after- 

wardi« pluri-d It on tliv lii-ail of Joitcitlilne, 

lie now gi'rloiinlv nicdilatcd tlit* invaftlon of 

r.iifflaiid, RMicnihllnif a niinivroiii llotiila, 

and rollcctliiir 3(H).ouo troo|iti. which w«>ru 

)'ncaiiipi>d III till* nel|i(hl)ourlio(l oritoiili>Knf. 

oMtrnidbJy for that piir|)OH<>; but AuHtrla and 

HiMMla a|i|HMirlnif in ainnt a^tt'iiit hini, and 

(lie batilc of TriifalKar havlii|r noarly annl- 

lilhUfd the Frt-ncli na>y, hu auandoiii-d the 

dcsiirn, and niarchcd hln troopn lollit* bank« 

of the I>;iiiiiIks (Mi the lltli of NovciiiUt, 

I80A, the Krenili army entered Vienna; (lie 

ineinoruhlc Imtlle of Auhterllt/. took place 

on the 'id of Occember, and the huiiiiUatiiifr 

treaty of Prcubiirtf followed. Thin vear, 

Itkx), may be resardcd i\» the era ol kinK- 

inakinir. New dynaKtliii were created by 

hini, and prliic«!« promoted or traiiNferred 

according to IiIh imperial will : the crown 

of NaplcM lie U-Htowed on hN brotlicr Jo- 

xeph, that of Holland on lx>iils, and \Ve«t- 

phalia on Jerome; while the Confederation 

of the Khiiic wax called into exixtence to 

Rive stability to hiii extended dominion. 

Pru.isia acaln declared war; but the diKati- 

troini battle of Jena annihilated her hopes, 

and both Khe and lluiUila were glad to make 

R[>ace with the French emperor in I8U7. 
a|Hilcon now turned his eye on Spain ; 
treacherously causing the abdication of 
('liarles IV. and the forced resignation of 
Ferdinand, while he sent HO.OOO men into 
that country, seized all the strong places, 
and olitHlned possession of the capital : 
but this was the great error of Ma life, and 
one of the main causes which led to hU 
downfall. In mm), white his armies were 
occupied in the Peninsula, Austria again 
ventured to try her strength with France. 
Napoleon thereupon left Paris, and at the 
head of his troops once more entered the 
Austrian capital, gained the decisive victory 
of Wagram, and soon concluded a peace : 
one of^the secret conditions of which was, 
that lie should have his marriage with Jose- 
phine dissolved, and unite liiiiiself to the 
daughter of the emperor, Francis II. His 
former niarria);e wasuccordingly annulled ; 
Josephine, with the title of ex-empress, re- 
tired to Navarre, a seat about 30 miles rrom 
Paris; and he espoused the archduchess 
Maria Louisa in April, 1810. The fruit of 
this union was a son, born, March33. 1811, 
who was named Napoleon Francis Charles 
Joseph, and styled king of Rome. Dissatis- 
fled with the conduct of Russia, he now put 
himself at the head of an invadiiii' army, 
prodigious in number, and adniiniDly ap- 
pointed, and marched with his numerous 
allies towards the enemy's frontiers, gained 
several battles, and at length reached Mos- 
cow, where he honied to establish his winter 
quarters, but which he found in flames. A 
retreat was unavoidable; and now was pre- 
sented to the eye of ambition the most ap- 
palling scene recorded in modern history — 
a brave and devoted army encountering all 

the horrnni of famine in a clinute so In 
siipimrtahly cold iliiit their Ircc/lng brNili' 
Ntrewed the ro.i.t», mIiIIi- an exaHperaleil 
phalanx of ('oss.ickt hung upon the rear of 
the main army, hewing down without re- 
morse the enfeebled and wrelclii>d fugiliteii. 
lliioiia|iartr lied tol'aiis, partially iIIm-IimtiI 
his losses, and called ii|kiii the itenate for ii 
newrtniiyof .'no.iMM) men ; uliirli wa* iiiiani 
nioiisly 'igreed to, and he mnri'hiHl to meet 
the ciiiiihined KilH»ian and I'rintHiaii forces. 
Victory still for a time hovertd ovtr lii> 
bannerN; hut Austria having Joined (hero 
alitiuii, the great battle of l.el|mlc. in which 
In- lo»t half of his army, was decisive as !• 
the H ir In (jermany. Na|)oleon, however, 
again returned to Paris, and deinanil*'il 
another levy of 300,t)00 nii-n. I'lie levy i*»» 
granted, ami the new campaign, 1814, was 
attended witii various success ; till the over- 
wlielnilng number of his enemies, who en- 
tered the French frontiers at dili'erfiit 
|H)iiics, at lengtli compelled htm toalMlicate, 
and accept the sovereignty of the isle of 
Klltii, with the title of ex-emptror, and a 
|N'ii«lon of two millions of llvres, From this 
plii'-;'e he soon found means to etif.ipe, se- 
ere-tly embarking on the night of the 2.ith 
of February, 1h13, in some liired feluccas, 
accompanied by about I30U men: he lande<l 
al Frejus on the 1st of March, speedily 
reached l»aris, and expelled Louis XVIII. 
from the kingdom. Hut tiie confederated 
armies were now in motion ; and though he 
iiiarclied against them wiili a large army 
and an immense supply of stores and am- 
munition, the ever memorable battle of 
Waterloo put an end to his political career. 
He withdrew from the army, and proceeded 
to the coast, with the intention of embarking 
for America; but fearful of being cantiired 
by the Uritisli crulzers, he resigned himself, 
on the 15th of July, into the hands of ca|)- 
taln Maitland, and went on board the Belle- 
I'oiihon. liy the joint determination of iiie 
allies he was sent to the isle of St. Ilrlena, 
where, accompanied by several of his old 
friends and domestics, he arrived on the 
I3tli of October, l8lo, as a state prisoner. 
During his exile he was subject to much 
annoyance, real or imaginary, and died on 
the 5th of May, laai, of cancer in the sto- 
mach : a disease which was evidently here- 
ditary, his father having, at about the same 
age, (lied of a simitar malady. In giving 
tills sketch of Napoleon's life, we have 
somewhat exceeded our usual limits; and 
it is neither our purpose nor our wish to 
make a single comment on his character as 
a man. His wondrous deeds will long aff'ord 
matter for deep reflection; and while some 
may be dazzled by his amazing military ta- 
lents and stupendous achievements, others 
will turn from them with sickening disgust. 
[In order to account for Bucnaparte being 
here spelt with the letter h. which in others 
places has been occasionally omitted, it is 
necessary to observe that he retained that 
letter in his signature till after his tirst Italian 
campaign ;— not that it can be a matter of 
the sliglitest importance, since the name is 
sometimes spelt both with and without the 
K in the same official document.] 

BUONAPARTE, Napoleon Francib 
Charles Joseph, duke of Reichstatit, only 
son of the emperor Napoleon by Ids second 

[DtO I 

so In- ll 

bTNill'S f 



I3i I 


; I! 






























fl llrto 9}1nibfr«al 13iogvapTi9. 




wifip, Maria l.nnlna nf Aiintrlit. Aflrr hU 
rBlhrr'n ilnurnfitll, he wit* wholly iiiiilcr lh« 
rnri' of hi* ^rfi,nMA\\\r.T. Iho cmiuTor of 
Au*tri:i. Ilr waa from Inritii'jr of n v%ciil(ly 
conilltiitloii, :in<l \ ra|il(l ilrclliie ti-rmlitatol 
hU lift- In IMli, at iho PArly afrn of at. It 
wotijil apiwar, rrniii a work hy nl. tie Mont- 
b«>l, cnlllleU, " l.« l>iu- de KelrlmtaiU," 
thai the younif Napolfoii |>o«hmii;iI many 
amiable c|u»llcliii, and waa irn atly beloved 
by tliiMie who knew hini ; wlilU* he had all 
the enthuHiaim uiid panolon of youth In ex- 
treme fo't'K, :iUernatlii)( witli ^i illniru*!, a 
cannon, and a rapidity In liilhoniinif the 
character* of the pcntoni with whom he wa* 
lucewiarily brought Into contact, which are 
the Miiual qualltle* ofaifc; and that he took 
the dr«|)«>t lnl«re«t In rvi-ry tiling con* 
nirlcd with hi* father'* former irrealneif, 
or rclailnir to nillltary nfTalr*. 

HUONAPARTK, Marik I.ktitia, the 
mother of Napoleon. From the widow of a 
(Kior C'orKican officer alie nuw henielf elc- 
VHleil to the dignity of belii|f the mother of 
nionari'hs; and i he ilvetl to witnexit their 
rrnioviil front the thrnnc* they had re*|M-c- 
tlvely n*un)ed. Died. Feb. 3, IH:iO. 

[The inont authentic ^enealoirlcal docn- 
nients a*crlb« a Florentiiiu oriifin to the 
nuonupurte family, and trace them back 
to llie year I ISO, when one of them wa* ex- 
iled from Florence ai a Ohlbclllni! ; and in 
|.'i;i'i we llnd that John Unonap.trte was po- 
destd of that city. In UO-l, M* dencendanl 
and nametake, who wa«i plenlnntentlary to 
Uiibrlel Vineonti, duke of Milan, iiiiiriiid 
the niece of pope NIchola* V. His mm 
(Nieliola* Ihioimparte) uaa anib.i-nadnr 
fmni the »ame |>onllir to several courts, 
and vleegiTent nf the holy hoc at A«i'olj, 
III l.'iii? Gabriel Bnonaparie efitahliMird 
liimielf at Ajacclo, and for M'\errtl (;eiie- 
ratloim hU dexcendanls were KiuTitKlvel}' 
lieniN of the ilderi. of that city. Itiit Napo- 
leon nuniiaparte ridiculed tlie pride of an- 
cestry, and wa« ready on all occaKlnns to 
derlarp, that tlic exalted htation he had at- 
tained due to his own merits alone.] 

nHO J. SI Venetian architect of the 13th 
century, who erected the well-known tower 
of St. Nlark, at Venice, a campanile or 
bell-tower at Arezzo, and several other 
grand ediliccH. He is deservedly reckoned 
amonif the earliest improver* of modern 

lUlONONCINI, Giovanni Baptista, a 
celebrated Italian composer, and one of 
Handel's mOHt powerful rivals in Eiifrland. 
Besides operas, he composed various can- 
tata* and xonalas, and the strand funeral 
anthem for the duke nf Marlborough. He 
is supposed to have died at Venice about 
the middle of the 18th century. 

DUPALDS, a famous sculptor of the isle 
of Chios in the sixth century, b.c. He is 
said to have hanged hiniseU'ln vexation at 
a Ratire written upon him by Hipponax, a 
poet, whose leanness he had caricatured in 
a statue. 

BURCARD, or BROCARUUS, bishop of 
VVorms, ill the lith century. Assisted by 
the abbot Albert, he compiled the famous 
f«"ii "°" "*' Canons, in 20 books, entitled 

Magna Decretorum, seu C'anonum Vo- 
lumen." Died, loM. 


itURCARU, or BRfK'ARD, a (iermaii 
friar of the onler of l)onnnl< aii*. Me u.m 
•ent on a nilsailon to the Holy Land, iiul In 
that part he reinalnrd ten yearn. On liU 
return, alter vl*ltlii); America, (.'lllci.i, and 
other countries, he wrote an accouni o^ In* 
travels, which I* printed In an old Frem h 
collection, entitled, " Mer des lliaioire*." 
He went to l>ule*llne in I3au; but the time 
of hi* death Is uncertain. 

nURCHARD, John, a native of Ger- 
many ; ma*ter of the ceremonies to the 
P'ipe, and, KiiliHcquently, bl*hop of Citta dl 
C'aitello: author of a jouinal or diary of 
Pope Alexander VI., the MS. of «hlrli, 
wlt^ a continuation by some otlur hand, i» 
In the Chigi library at Rome. Died, i.vi.i. 

BURCHIF.LLO, a Florentine l)arber, la- 
mous as a wit and a fioet, hut quite as re- 
markable for Indecorum of expren'-lon a> 
for keennessofwit. Uorn, IU8U ; died, Mlh. 

DIJRCKHARDI', John Lkwis, a SwIm 
gentleman, who pro|io*ed to the KiigliKh aN- 
*oeliitlon icir explorlni{ Africa, to im; tlieir 
mlsHlonary. He wa* unfortunately carried 
off by dy*enlery while waiting for the cara- 
van with wliirh he wa* to go to Timhiictoo. 
His |>a|)ers were sent to England, and from 
tlieni have bi-en published nis " Travel* in 
Nuhia." and "Travels In Syria and the 
Holy Land." Uorn, 1784; died, 1816. 

liURCKHARDT, John Charlrn, a 
learned German aitronomer; author oi' 
" Table* do la Lune," &c., and of a German 
trnn*latir)n of " La Place'* La Mechanhjue 
Celeste." Born, 1773; died, I83S. 

BUROER, Gkoroe, an eminent dissent- 
ing niini«ter; author of " Evangelical 
Truth Defended," SiC, and one of tlie 
editor* nf the '' Evangelical Magazine." 
Died, 1838. 

BURDON. William, an able English 
writer; author of "Materials for Think- 
inir." of which Coltott largely availed him- 
selr In his Lacon ; " Tlioughts on Politics, 
Morality^ and Literature," " Life and Cha- 
racter ol Buonaparte," tec. Died, 1818. 

BURE, William dr, a Parisian book- 
seller; author of" Bibliograpliia Instrnc- 
teur ; ou, Traite des LIvres, rare* et sin- 
gulieres,*' and other valuable works. Died, 

BURETTE. Pierre Jean.b French phy- 
sician, eminent for his skill In his own pro- 
fession and still more so for his attainments 
as a liii<fuist. His works arc numerous; 
in one or tliem he is thought to have proved 
the genuineness of Plato's Dialogue on 
Music, which has been supposed to oe spu- 
rious. Born, 1669 ; died, 1747. 

BURGER, GoDPHsy Auoustus, a cele- 
brated German poet; well known in (hi* 
country by his ballad poems of the "WiUi 
Huntsman's Chase" and " Leonora," bntli 
of which have been translated into Eni;lisli, 
and become highly popular. Born, 174k; 
died, 1794. 

BURGESS, DANiEL,adlssenting preacher, 
very popular in his day on account of his 
quaint and familiar style of pulpit oratory, 
of which a single specimen will sulHce. 
"If," said lie, on one occasion, "any 
among you want a cheap suit, lie must i^o to 
Monmouth-street; if a suit for life, he will 



j' • « 1 

truth's OHKATEST friend is time, IIRR greatest enemy is niEJUDlCE. 


^ ^e\D Q^ntbet'0al ^iograpj^g. 


t'o to tlie Court of Chancery ; but if you 
want an eternal suit, you must go to Cliri«t 
and put on his robe of rigrhteousncss." 
Born, 1643; died, 1713. 

HURGH, James, the able author of the 
" Difi^iiity of Human Nature," &c., was a 
native of Scotland, and educated at St. 
Andrew's. Though brought up to a trade, 
lie afterwards filled several situations, more 
or less connected with literature, and for 
the last twenty years of his IfM' was master 
of an academy at Stoke Newington. Born, 
1714 ; died, 1775. 

OlIRGOYNE, John, an English general. 
During the American war he led tlie army 
which was to penetrate from Canada into 
the revolted provinces, in which he en- 
countered <lifficulties too great for its suc- 
cessful issue. Little interest is now attached 
to his memory as a commander, but he de- 
serves our notice as the author of " The 
Maid of the Oaks," "The Lord of the 
Manor," and some other dramatic works. 
Died, 1792. 

BURHILL, Ur. Robert, a learned di- 
vine, chaplain to Sir Whiter Raleigh, and 
one of his assistants in the composition of 
Ills " History of the World." Died, 1641. 

BURIDAN, John, a philosopher of the 
14th century. Beinir expelled from Paris 
through the influence of his philosopliical 
opponents, he sought shelter in tieriiiany, 
and was instrumental in founding the uni- 
versity of Vienna. He wrote commentaries 
on tlie logic, ethics, and metaplivsics of 
Aristotle ; but is now chiefly remembered as 
the inventor of the well-known dilemma of 
the ass between two bundles of hay, by 
which he used to illustrate the doctrine o'f 
free-will. Died, l3o8. 

BURKE, Edmund, an eminent modern 
writer, an orator of the first class, and an 
able statesman, was the son of a highly re- 
spectable attorney in Dublin, where he was 
born, January 1, 1730. After coninleting 
his studies at Trinity College, Dublin, lie 
entered himself as a law student in the 
Temple. It seems, however, that he ap- 
plied himself far more zealously to letters 
than to law ; :ind the fatigue attendant upon 
authorship caused him a severe illness, 
which led to his acquaintance with Dr. Nu- 
gent, wiiose daughter he married. His 
" Vindication of Natural Society," and his 
" Essay on tlie Sublime and Beautiful," in- 
troduced him to the best literary society ; 
and he at length determined upon devoting 
himself to that pursuit for which he was un- 
doubtedly the best fitted— politics. Of his 
public course, pa' '.icularly his hostility to 
the doctrines of revolutionary France, we 
need not here spsak, for it is a portion, 
and a prominent portion, of the history of 
his time. In private life he was kind and 
amiable ; in public, ardent and indefatiga- 
ble. As an orator and writer, lie was almost 
without a rival. Died, 1797. 

BURKITT, William, an Enirlish divine; 
antlior of a "Practical Exposition of the 
New Testament." Born, 1650; died, 1703. 
BURLAMAQUI, John James, professor of 
jurisprudence at Geneva ; author of " Prih- 
cipes du Droit Naturel," Sec. Born, 1694 ; 
died, 1750. 
BURLEIGH, William Cecil, lord high- 

treasurer of England in the reij;n of Eliza- 
beth ; born in 1520, and brouuht up to 
the study of the law. He was patroni/.ed 
by the protector Somerset, in Edward the 
Sixth's reign, and made a privy councillor; 
and when lilizabeth came to the throne, his 
political sagacity and the devotion he 
showed to his sovereign earned for him the 
highest honours. His state |>olicy has been 
admitted on all hands, but it squared little 
with humanity, as may be gathered from 
the persecutions which he encouraged 
against the unfortunate Mary, queeu of 
ScoU. Died, 1598. 

BCRMAN, Peter, a celebrated Dutch 
critic and scholar; professor of history, 
rhetoric, and Greek at the univeriiiiy of 
Leyden. He wrote a variety of disserta- 
tions and epistles, pbilological and critical, 
and published editions of various Latin clas- 
sics with notes. Born, 166S; died, 1741. 

BURMAN, Peter, a nepliew of tlie above, 
professor of history and rhetoric at Amster- 
dam ; editor of the works of Claudian, 
Aristophanes, &c. Born, 1714; died, 1778. 

BURMAN, John, brother of the prece- 
ding, and eminent equally as a jihysiclan 
and a botanist ; autnor of " Tliesaurug 
Zeilanicus," Sec. Born, 1707 ; died, 1779. 

BURN, Richard, LL.D., an English 
clergyman ; author of a " History of tlie 
Poor Laws." joint author with Mr. Nichol- 
son of a *' History of Westmoreland and 
Cumberland," and compiler of the well- 
known work "Burn's Justice." Died, 1789. 

BURNET, Thomas, an English divine 
and philosoplier ; author of " ArchaeoloKia 
antlqua de Reriim Originibus," Sec. He 
was master of the Charter house, and is 
ilistinguislif.d for the bold resistance he 
made to James II., who wished to make a 
Roman Catholic a pensioner of that esta- 
blishment. Died, 1715. 

BURNET, Gilbert, bishop of Salisbury ; 
a learned prelate and an able and industrious 
writer : author of tlie well-known and va- 
luable " Histcry of the Reformation," " His- 
tory of his own Times," &c. Born, 1643 ; 
died, 1715. 

BURNETT, James, Lord Monboddo, a 
distinguished Scotcli judge; author of a 
" Dissertation on tlie Origin of Language," 
&c. Though both learned and acute, he 
exposed himself to much and merited ridi- 
cule by asserting the existence of mermaids 
and satyrs, and by other ridiculous iheories, 
particularly his whimsical speculations rela- 
tive to a supposed affinity between the hu- 
man raceand the monkey tribe. Born, 1714; 
died, 1779. 

BURNETT, George, a modern English 
author of some talent and more industry. 
He wrote " Letters on the State of Poland," 
and the Introduction to Mavor's Universal 
History ; he also edited various publications, 
but died in penury, 1811. 

BURNETT, Gilbert Thomas, F.L. S., 
the lineal descendant of the celebrated 
Bishop Burnet, was born in 1800, and hav- 
ing received a classical and scientific edu- 
cation, studied with success under medical 
and anatomical professors ; and, ultimately, 
became the self-taught professor of medical 
botany at King's Colleire, London. He had 
for some time previously lectured upon his 





of Eli/a- 
uht up to 
Iward the 
rxiiicillor ; 
lirone, his 
lOtion he 
)r him the 
r has been 
ared little 
eied from 
quecu of 

ted Dutch 
(f history, 
verfiiy of 
f disserta- 
id critical, 
Latin clas- 
d, 1741. 
the above, 
at Amster- 
lied, 1778. 
the prece- 
i jihysician 
ed, 1779. 
in English 
;ory of the 
Ir. Nichol- 
reland and 

the well- 
Died, 1789. 
lish divine 
' &c. He 
se, and is 
stance he 
Ito make a 

that esta- 

Salisbury ; 
bi and va- 
h," " His- 
[rn, 1643; 

tBODDO, a 

Jior of a 
Ttcute, he 
^ted ridi- 
Ions rela- 
the bu- 
rn, 1714; 


IF. L. S., 

\nd hav- 
Jfic cdu- 
I He had 
Ipon his 




^ ^etD QAiiibersal ISiograpti?. 


favourite study at tlie Munterian theatre in 
Windmill-street, and to whicii he owt<l his 
appointment to the honorary professorship 
to the Medico- Uotaniral Souietv, before his 
election to the chair at Kine'sCollege. He 
died in 183). 

BURNEY, Charles, a doctor of music, 
and a composer of considerable talent, was 
born at Shrewsbury, in 1726, and studied 
under Dr. Arne. He was the author of a 
" General History of Music:" " The Life of 
Metastasio ;" " A Musical Tour through 
France and Italy," &c. Died, 1814. 

BURNEY, Charles, second son of the 
musical com^mser, was a classical scholar 
and critic of high reputation. Dr. Burney's 
classical acauirements were first displayed 
in the Monthly Review, and there were few 
Greek scholars who could compete with 
him. Among his works are an Appendix to 
Scapula's Greek Lexicon, the clioral odes 
of Ajichylus, Sic. His valuable library was 
purchased by parliament for the British 
Museum. Born, 1757; died, 1817. 

BURNEY, Rear-Admiral James, son of 
the above, entered the navy at an early age, 
and accompanied the ill-fated Cook on his 
two last voyages. After long and arduous 
services he attained the rank of rear-admi- 
ral. He was an able geosrapher; and his 

History of Voyages of Discovery," and 
other valuable writings, show him to have 
been an accurate thinker. Born, 1739; 
died, 1821. 

BURNEY, William, LL.D., master of 
the Royal Academy, Gosport; a school 
where many distinguished naval and mili- 
tary officers have been educated. Hr; was 
the author of " Lives of the Naval Heroes 
of Great Britain," ice. Born, 1762; died, 


BURNS, Robert, a celebrated Scotch 
poet, whose rich humour, pathos, and 
energy, have never been surpassed, was 
born in 1759, nep.r the town of Ayr. His 
parents were inhumble circumstances, but 
they gave him a good plain education, and 
as he grew up he added to it an acquaint- 
ance with French and mathematics. His 
poems are too well known and appreciated 
to need description in this place ; but it 
is not unnecessary to remark that his prose, 
consisting chiefly of letters hastily written 
and never intended for publication, are 
scarcely less honourable to his genius. He 
was naturally of a convivial turn ; and af- 
ter having been unfortunate in various at- 
tempts to gain a living by agricultural and 
other pursuits, he was made an exciseman : 
this employment confirmed him in habits of 
dissipation, and caused an illness, of which 
he died, in the 37th year of his age, in 1796. 
An excellent etlition of his works, with a 
Life, kc. by Allan Cunningham, was pub- 
lished iu 1835. 

BURRILL, James, an American senator, 
who for many years filled the highest judi- 
cial offices in Rhode island, and subse- 
quently was a distinguished member in the 
senate of the United States. Born, 1772; 
died, i8io. 

BURROW, Sir Jambs, an eminent English 
lawyer ; author of four volumes of Reports, 
an Essa y on Punctuation." &c. Died, 1762. 

BURROW, Reuben, an able mathema- 
tician ; author of a tract " On Projectiles," 
a " Restitution of Apollonius on Inclina- 
tions." &c. He was nlaking a tri?onome- 
trical survey of Bengal when he died", In 1791. 

BURTON, Robert, an English divine ; 
author of that singular work, " The Ana- 
tomy of Melancholy ;" which archbishop 
Herring describes as " the pleasantest, the 
most learned, and the most full of sterling 
sense." The archbishop adds, that the wits 
of the reigns of Anne and the first George 
were deeply indebted to Burton ; and we 
may venture to say, that the " wits" of 
the succeeding reigns have been no less so. 
Born, 1576 ; died, 1640. 

BURTON, William, brother of the pre- 
ceding; author of "The Description of 
Leicestershire," the first of a series of 
county histories he intended to publish, for 
which he had collected a vast mass of ma- 
terials. Died, 1645. 

BURTON, William, a schoolmaster of 
Kingston, in Surrey ; author of a commen- 
tary on that portion of the Itinerary of 
Antoninus which relates to Britain, &c. 
Died, 1657. 

BURTON, John, an English divine and 
critic ; author of various theological trea- 
tises ; poetry in Greek, Latin, and English ; 
and other productions. Diea, 1771. 

BURTON, the Rev. Edward, D.D., re- 
gius professor of diviniiv in the university 
of Oxford, and rectorotEwelme, was born 
in 1794 ; educated at Westminster, and 
matriculated at Christchurch, Oxford. His 
talents, close application, and exemplary 
conduct, did not pass unnoticed ; and pro- 
ceeding from one honourable station to 
another, he soon began to take a promi- 
nent part in academical matters. In 1824 
he was appointed select preacher to the 
university ; in 1826, a public examiner ; in 
1827 he preached the Bampton lectures; 
and in 1829 he succeeded Dr. Lloyd, the 
bishop of Oxford, as professor of divinity. 
His zeal and diligence in communicating 
theological knowledge to the future candi- 
dates for holy orders never slackened ; 
neither was his mind ever drawn from his 
ministerial duties as rector of Ewclme : in 
both be was conscientious and indefati- 
gable. As an author, also, his various 
pamphlets and the works he edited, prove 
that he was able and industrious. Died, 
January 19, 1836, aged 42. 

Ghislen, an eminent Flemish scholar and 
traveller. He is said to have understood 
seven languages ; and was possessed of 
great political as well as literary ability. 
His principal works are, " Letters from 
France to the emperor Rodolph," and 
" Travels in the East." Died, 1592. 

BUSBY, Dr. Richard, the venerable 
master of Westminster School— celebrated 
alike for his abilities as a classical teacher 
and an unflinching disciplinarian— was born 
in 1606. He held the situation of head-master 
from 1640 to the time of his decease, in 1695 
— a period of 55 years ! 

BUSCH, John Georoe, a political eco- 
nomist and mathematician, and director of 
th'd Afaderay of Commerce at Hamburgh ; 
author of " The Theory of Commerce," 


the earth is always frozen to the idle husbandman. 


^ ^eh) ttnibersal l3tograpf)s. 


" Rssayg on Commerce," " An Essay on 
the Circulation of Money," &c. Born, 1738; 
died, 1800. 

BUSCHi:, or BUSCHIUS, Herman von 
DER, a learned German, friend and fellow- 
labourer of Luther ; author of Scholia on 
ancient writers, Latin poems, &c. Died, 1534. 

architect of the ilth century. He erected 
the cathedral church of Pisa, the first spe- 
cimen of the Lombard ecclesiastical style 
of building. 

DUSCHING, Anthony Frederic, an 
able and industriius writer, to whom the 
science of statistics is grf atly indebted ; 
author of a " Magazine of Modern History 
and Geograpliy ;" " Elements of Natural 
History;" •' Character of Frederic II. of 
Prussia;" " History and Theory of the 
Belles Lettres," &c. &c. His works, in 
short, amount to 100 volumes. Born, i734; 
died, 1793. 

BUTE, John Stuart, earl of, a British 
statesman, descended from an ancient 
Scotch family, was born early in the 1 8th 
century. ln'l73B he was appointed one of 
the lords of the bedchamber to Frederic, 
prince of Wales, the father of George Hi. 
Soon after the young king's accession, over 
whom Bute possessed unbounded inliuence, 
he was made secretary of state, and, quickly 
after, first lord of the treasury. Under his 
ministry, a peace, which disappointed the 
hopes of the people, was concluded with 
France and Spain ; and what added greatly 
to his unpopularity, was the marked fa- 
vouritism he showed for his countrymen, 
tilling the most lucrative offices in the state 
with Scotchmen. He at length resigned 
his offices, and retired into private life, 
which he adorned by his benevolent dispo- 
sition, and his love of science. Botany 
was his favourite study ; ana ne expended 
vast sums in its pursuit. Died. 1793. 

UUTLEK, Alban, an English Catholic 
divine. He was for some time chaplain to 
the <luke of Not folk, but at length became 
president of the college of St. Omer's. The 
chief of his works is the " Lives of the 
Fathers, Martyrs, and other principal 
Saints." Died, 1773. 

BUTLER, Joseph, bishop of Durliani, an 
extremely learned and able prelate ; author 
of the well-known and invuliiible work. 
'• The Analojfy of Religion, f tural and 
Revealed, to the Course and Constitution of 
Nature." Born, 1692; died, 17J2. 

BUTLKR, Samuel, an English poet, 
whose principal work, " Hudibrah," is pro- 
bably, both in design and eNecution, the 
most strikingly original we have. Wit 
aboinuls Ihroughnnt it, and the odd double 
rhymes in winch the author so much de- 
iiglitcd, arc singularly well adapted to add 
pnint to the ridicule he chose to inflict. 
His other works are far Inferior to Hudl- 
bras; and of the thousand imitations of 
that work, not one has the true Hndibraslic 
commingling of wit, humour, knowledge of 
the woric' and facility of expression. Born, 
1612; died, Ki&O. 

BUTLER, Charles, a Roman Catholic, 
bred to the legal profession, and a most in- 
defatigable and accomplished scholar. His 
numerous works, wKh the exception of his 

" Notes to Coke upon Littleton," and his 
" Reminiscences," are of a religious or po- 
litical character ; and, indeed, as the aole 
advocate of his own religious community, 
he is principally to be regarded. So inces- 
santly was he occupied in literary matters, 
that the mere enumeration of his works 
would occupy far more space than we car) 
devote to a brief notice ; for it may be truly 
said that neither the fire of youth, the in- 
terruption of business, the variety of his 
employments, nor the bustle of the world, 
could ever mo<lerate his ardour for study. 
He was the author of " Lives of the Saints," 
" Historical Account of the Laws against 
the Roman Catholics," " Book of the Ca- 
tholic Church," <kc. Born, 1750 ; died, 1832. 

BUTTNER, Christopher William, a 
German naturalist and philologist, whose 
zeal in pursuit of his favourite studies was 
such, that, in order to buy books, he re- 
stricted himself to what was barely neces- 
sary to sustain life, never making more 
than one frugal meal a day. Born, 1716 ; 
died, 1801. 

BUXHOWDEN, Frederic William, 
count of, a general in the Russian army. 
He entered on a military life at an early 
age, and was engaged in the war against 
the Turks in 1769 ; till, rising by degrees, 
he, in 1794, obtained the command of War- 
saw and the administration of Poland. In 
1805 he commanded the left wing of the 
army at the battle of Austerlitz, which ad- 
vanced while the centre and right wing 
were beaten ; but after the battle of Pultusk 
he was unjustly superseded by Bennigsen. 
He was. however, again made comniander- 
in-chiet, and, in I80U, conquered Finland. 
Died, 1811. 

BUXTON, Jedediah, a singularly gifted 
person, whose powers of calculation, de- 
rived solely from nature, have probably 
never been equalled. It is said that he 
was asked this most difficult question — " In 
a body whose three sid( s are, respectively, 
23,145,789 yards, 5,642,732 yards, and 54,965 
yards, how many cubical eighths of an inch 
are there t" and that, amid all the distrac- 
tions of the labours of a hundred men, he 
gave the exact answer in little more than 
hve hours ! But it was only in calculating 
that he had any intellectual superiority: in 
other respects, his mind was rather below 
than above the average. He died towards 
tlie close of the I8th century. 

BUXTORF, John, a Calvinist divine, 
professor of Clialdee and Hebrew at Basil ; 
author of " Tiiesaurus Linguse Hebraicee," 
" Institutio Epistolaris Hebraica," Sic. 
Born, 1564 ; died, 1629. 

BUXTORF, John, son of the preceding, 
and his successor in the professorship at 
Basil; author of a " Clialdaic and Syriac 
Lexicon," &c., besides other classical and 
tlieological works. It is recorded of him, that 
at the early age of four years he was able 
to read Hebrew and Latin. — Two others of 
the same name, his son and nephew, were 
also noted for their skill in the Hebrew 

BYNG, George, Viscount Torrington, 
an eminent English admin>l. Died, 1733. 

BYNG, John, fourth son of the above, 
and, like his father, an admiral. After 

none covet fbcretb but those who mean to divdlok theh. 





and his 

iiB or po- 
the aole 


o inces- 


B worlts 


we cai) 


be truly 


the in- 


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s world. 

>r study. 






the Ca- 




LIAM, a 

, whose 


dies was 


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1, 1716; 





n arniv. 
an early 




tnd. In 


f of the 


lich ad- 

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y ffiftcd 


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tliat he 


n— " In 




d 54,96.5 

an inch 



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hip at 

af and 


n, that 


as able 

lers of 

, were 








U llelD ilDniberfial 13tograpf)s. 


having frequently and hiphly distinguished 
liimsfcif, lie was tried by court-martial for 
allegf<l coward l.;f. He was dispatdied to 
the relief of Minorra, at that time block- 
aded by a French licit ; and his hesitation 
to engage an enemy of superior strength 
excited the clamour of the nation against 
him. When the news arriveil in England, 
the dastard ministry, wishing to avert the 
public odium from their unsuccessful mea- 
sures, took advantage of the admiral's un- 
popularity ; and though the court by which 
the ill-fated commander was tried, recom- 
mended him to mercy, they suffered the un- 
just sentence to be carried into execution. 
He was shot at Portsmouth, March u, 1737 ; 
meeting his death with the firmness of a 
hero and the resignation of a Christian. 

BYRNE, William, an eminent English 
engraver. His works are very numerous, 
and remarkable for the excellence of their 
aerial perspective. Died, 1805. 

BY ROM, John, an ingenious prose writer 
and poet, and the inventor of a system of 
HtenoL'raphy. He was also a contributor 
to the Spectator, under the signature of 
" John Shadow." Born, 1691 ; died, 1763. 

BYRON, the Hon. John, an eminent na- 
val commanderand circumnavigator, whose 
surterings. when wrecked in the M'ager, are 
graphically described in his " Narrative." 
He rose to the rank of admiral, and com- 
manded in the West Indies during the Ame- 
rican war. Born, 17S3 ; died, 1768. 

BYRON, Right Hon. Gkoroe Gordon 
Byron, lord, grandson of the preceding, 
born, Jan. 33d, 1788, was the sixth in de- 
scent from his ancestor. Sir John Byron, 
who received the estate of Newstead as a 
grant from king Henry VIII. The noto- 
riously licentious conduct of his father, 
Capt. Byron, who had deserted his wife and 
squandered her fortune, made him an exile 
from England ; and he died in 1791, leaving 
his widow and son almost destitute. Mrs. 
Byron having previous to this event retired 
to her native city of Aberdeen, in order to 
live within the limits of her scanty income, 
she placed her son early in the grammar 
school of that city; but when, in 1798, by 
the death of his great uncle, without issue, 
he became possessed of the family title and 
estates, he was placed under the guardian- 
ship ot lord Carlisle, who sent him to Har- 
row. His love of liberty and independence 
were prominent traits in his disposition, 
aii<l they were seconded bv a fixed aversion 
to control. In 1804 he went to Cambridge, 
and there became chiefly remarkable Tor 
his eccentric habiU, and his defiance of the 
rules of discipline. On quitting Cambridge 
he took up Ins residence at Newstead abbey, 
and hoon after published his " Hours of 
Idleness." Although marked by some fea- 
tures of juvenility, this production gave un- 
doubted indications of poetic genius; but It 
met with most severe and unmerited censure 
from the Edinburgh Review. The ridicule 
thus cast by the critic on the poet was not 
suflered to rest there; he exerted his powers, 
and amply revenged himself in the cele- 
brated satire of " English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers." About that period he expe- 
«.'""-''!^L* great disappointment in seeing 
miss Chaworth, who had been the early 


object of his love, married to another. His 
course of life was now marked by extrava- 

ffance and dissipation, impairing both liis 
icalth and fortune ; and it was probably to ex- 
tricate himself from the Circean snares by 
which he was surrounded, that he resolved on 
an excursion to the Continent. He was ac- 
companicil by his friend and fellow-collegian, 
John Cam Hobhouse, Esq. ; and after a stay 
of two years he returncdj and gave to tlie 
world tne first two cantos of " Childe Ha- 
rold's Pilgrimage." This was quickly suc- 
ceeded by " The Giaour," " The Bride of 
Abydos," " Lara," " I'he Corsair," &c. : 
and the noble bard became the poetical idol 
of the day. In January, 1815, he married 
Anna Isabella, only daughter of Sir Ralph 
Milbanke Noel ; but the union was not pro- 
ductive of happiness, and they separated 
soon after the birth of a daughter. This 
rupture gave rise to many rumours re- 
dounding little to lord Byron's credit, and 
he again went to the Continent, with a de- 
termination not to return to his native 
country. He often changed his residence ; 
and during his various travels, while he 
visited the most celebrated parts of the 
south of Europe, his admirers In England 
were indulged with the productions of his 
powerful and versatile muse : sometimes 
proudly soaring into the pure regions of 
taste, breathing noble sentiments andchi- 
valric feelingp; at other times, descending 
to Impure voluptuousness, or grovelling in 
sheer vulgarity. In 1833 the state of the 
Greeks awoke his noble feeling of indepen- 
dence ; and, with a disinterested generosity 
that scarcely has its parallel, he resolved to 
devote his fortune, his pen, and his sword 
in tlieir cause. His energies, however, 
were no sooner called Into action, than he 
was assailed by disease; and he expired, of 
a fever, at Messalonghi, on the I9th of 
April, 1834, in the 37th year of his age— to 
the inexpressible sorrow of the Greeks, by 
whom he was venerated for his personal ex- 
ertions and liberal pecuniary aid. Few in- 
stances have occurred in which inconsistency 
appeared so glaring as in the various quali- 
flcatioiiB of this highly gifted nobleman. 
With powers of reasoning oeyond the facul- 
ties of most other men, he was capricious 
and unfixed ; and with a poetic taste that 
approached the sublime was sometimes 
niixed a reckless unalloyed profligacy — 
evidently the offspring of sensuality, and 
the parent of immoral consetiuences in 
others. In proportion, therefore, as we ad- 
mire the commanding tal(;nts and poetic 
eloquence of Byron, so are we compelled 
to deprecate the unholy purposes to which 
they were too often made subservient. 
" Prostituted genius is but splendid guilt." 
We close this sketch by observing, that his 
lordship's daughter, the hon. Augusta Ada 
Byron, was married to lord King, in 1835. 

BYTHNER.VicTORiNUS, was a native of 
Poland, but educated in England, where 
he finally established himself as a physician; 
auiliorof" Lyra PropheticaDavidis Regis," 
&c. Died, 1664. 

BZOVIUS, or BZOVSKI. Abraham, a 
learned Pole ; professor of theology and 
philosophy. He wrote the " Lives of the 
Popes," " Annals of tiie Church," &c. 
Born, 1567; died, 1637. 











III '« 

1 1 






TlIK MOllB aCKI'flCAI, A MAN 13, THE MOKK AUUU(iANl' AM) ( i iN'il.lTKll. 


^ llrtD $ftutber0al t^tograpfjj). 

[CA D 


CAAD, or CAH, Bbn /ohair, nn Arabian 
Jew, rab'ii, iuid poet. He satirised Maho- 
met ho severely, that " tlie f'rophct" made 
war on tlie Anibian Jews for the purpose of 
(retting the poet into his power; but wlien 
nialioinet's success was no lonsrer doubtful, 
Caab became his /.oalous paitej^ryrist; aban- 
doned Judaism for IV1ahnnietani!sm, ami was 
greatly in Maltoniet's favour. He is said to 
nave assisted in the composition of the Ko- 
ran. Died, A.u. 6'23. 

CABALLl^RU, Marquis, a Spanisli libe- 
ral, born in 1769. He adliered to Josepli 
lionaparte on llie abdication of Cliarles iV. 
and was made one of his chief ministers. 
On the iaii of tlie former, Ferdinand VII. 
passed a decree of perpetual banishment 
against him; but he was recalled by the 
Constitutionalists ill 1818. 

Ca B A N IS, Peter Joh n (• eoro e, a French 
physician of considerable eminence. Be- 
coming intimate with Mirabeau, he was 
made a member of the council of Five Hun- 
dred: and under the government of Napo- 
leon he was one of the senators. His writings 
ai'e cliiefly medical \ but in addition to tliese 
he published an interesting account of the 
last illness and death of Mirabeau. Born, 
1757; died, 1807. 

CABARRUS, Francois, count, a French- 
man, who having settled in Spain in a com- 
mercial character, rendered that country 
considerable service in establishing a paper 
currency, when cut oft' from her resources 
in America. He was afterwards the Spanish 
minister of finance ; lo which office lie was 
appointed by Joseph Bonaparte. Born, l7aSi ; 
died, 1810. 

CABASILAS, NiLUs, archbisliop of Thes- 
salonica in the Uth century; author of a 
very able treatise against the infallibility and 
supremacy of the pope. 

CABASILAS, Nicholas, nephew of the 
above, and his successor in tlie archbishop- 
ric; author of an " Exposition of the 
Liturgy," &c. 

CABASSOLE, Philip du, a French bi- 
shop, chancellor to tie queen of Sicily^ pa- 
triarch of Constantinople, and a cardinal ; 
author of " Tlie Life and Miracles of St. 
Mary Magdalen," &c. Died, 1372. 

CAHASSUT, John, a French divine, and 
professor of canon law at Avignon ; author 
of " Juris Cauonici theoria et praxis," &c. 
Died, 1685. 

i)E, a proveiiQal poet of the t3th century, 
celebrated alilie for his talents and misfor- 
tunes. Having excited the jealousy of Ray- 
mond de Seillans, he had him put to death ; 
and his heart was dressed and served up to 
the ladv, who, on learning the horrible na- 
ture or her repast, died ot grief. 

CABOT, Sebastian, an English navigator 
of great eminence, was the son of a skilful 
Venetian pilot, who resided at Bri-tol. He 
made several voyages with his father (who 
had obtained from Henry VIII. letters pa- 

tent, empowering liim and his ilirce sons to 
discover luiknown lands and conquer them), 
and they on one occasion discovered New- 
foundland, and on another saw the main- 
land of America, being the tlrst Europeans 
who had done so. He was among the Arst 
to notice the variations of the needle. His 
kklll in maritime affairs induced Edward VI. 
to settle a [Huision on him :is grand pilot of 
England; and he was coiMulted on all ques- 
tions relating to trade and navigation, ile 
published a map of the world, and li work, 
entitled, " Naviga/.ione nelle pane Septen- 
trionale." Born, 1477; died, 1J57. 

CABOT, Vincent, a French civilian of 
the Itith century ; author of a work, enti- 
tled, " Les Politique*." 

CABRAL, or CABRARA, Pri.ro Alva- 
nez, a celebrated Portuguese navigator of 
the Kith century. 

CACCIA, GuoLiELMO, snrnamed, from 
his place of residence, 11 Moncalvo, a very 
excellent painter. He executed some fine 
altiir pieces, but his fame chied^ lests upon 
hissmail Madonnas, whichare highly valued. 
Died, \m5. 

CACCIM, GiULio, an Italian musician 
and comp<'>ser. In conjunction with Peri, 
he composed the opera of <' Eurydice," on 
the occasion of the marriage of Henri Qua- 
tre and Mary de Medicis; and it is sad to 
have been the first opera performed in 
public. He was also the author of a work, 
entitled " Nuovo Musiclie." Died, itiis. 

CACCINI. Francesca, daughter of the 

above, iniich celebrated at Florence in the 

17th century, as a poetess and composer uf 


CAD A LOUS, bishop of Parma in the I Ith 

j century. He was elected pope by the Im- 

I perlalists, in 1061, and took the name of 

Honorius II.; but the council of Mantua 

i deposed him in I0G4, an event which he did 

j not long survive. 

I CADAMOSTO, Louis, a Venetian navi- 
I gator, patronised and employed by the king 
of Portugal. He discfivered Cape Verd Is- 
lands. An account of -his voyages and dis- 
j coveries was published after his death, 
I which took place in 1164. 
! CA DE, John, a noted rebel, bctterknown 
{ by the familiar appellation of Jack Cade, 
, was a native of Ireland, from which country 
i he had been obliged to dee for his crimes. 
I During the feeble government of Henry VI. 
! he put himself at the head of ^O.ouo men, 
I collected from the populace in Keut, and 
: marched into London, where he boldly pro- 
I posed the rectifving of various ab'jses in 
I the state. Elated with liis popu'arity and 
; success, he next assumed the title of Lord 
Mortimer, declaring himself the rightful 
. heir to the throne, as a descendant of Ed- 
ward 1 1 1.; but this foolish and presumptuous 
extravagance induced the citizens to resist 
him, and the insur|;euts were soon coin- 
pelled to submit to the r.)yal authorilv. Ai; 
who returned to their lionies were pardoned ; 







a lleto Janibersal IStograp^g. 


but Cade, wlio was exceplt-d from the ge- 
iiiral amiieiily, and for wliose body I0()0 
marks were odercd by ilic g-ovrniiiit'iit, wan- 
dered about the woods of Kriit and Sussex, 
for a lime, till at leiintli lie was discovered, 
and killed in a K'trden at Holkfleld, Sussex, 
by a gentleniiin of Kent, named Alexan- 
der Eden. 

CADET, J. March., a Corsican, born In 
iir>i; iiispectorof the mines in Coi-sica, and 
autlior of some eminent i;eolo{rical, statis- 
tical, and niineralo^ical works; among 
others, one on Corsican jaspers. 

CADET DE VADX, Anthony Alexis, a 
Jriiich author, editor, and member of va- 
rious learned societies. He esUblislied tlie 
"Journal de Paris." and wrote 8e\eral 
works cmnected v»ith agriculture, born, 
174a; died, 1828. 

I.0UI8, brother of the preceUing; author of 
the '• Dictionary of Chemistry," 4 vols. ; 
various Travels; " Letters on London and 
tlie Enfflisli Nation," &c. Born, 1769; 
died, i8-il. 

CADMUS, the founder of Thebes. His 
historv, like that of many otiier personages 
of hin^h antiquity, is mucii ndnf;led with fa- 
ble. It seems certain, however, that he 
was born in Flioenicla or Egypt, and that 
Greece owed to hlni the sixteen lettiirs of 
which its alphabet originally consisted. He 
flourisiied In t!ie I6th century B. c. 

CADMUS, the Milesian, the first Grceic 
author who wrote a prose history. Dlony- 
sius. of Halicarnassus, ascribes to this writer 
" The Aiiti(|Ultles of Miletus and all Ionia," 
but no portion of the work is now extant. 

CADOG, son of Brvchan, a saint, and 
founder of some churches in Wales in the 
liflli century. 

CADOG, surnamed The Wise, a Welch 
bard of tlie sixth century. He was the tirst 
who made a complete collection of British 

CADOG AN, William, first earl of Cado- 
gan, entered the army early In life; and, 
after he had attained the rank of a briga- 
dier-general, distinguished himself at the 
battle of Blenheim, in short, he was present 
with the duke of Marlborough in a!: his 

fpreat victories; and, at his death, succeeded 
lini as commander-in-chief, and master of 
the ordnance. Died, I7".i7. 

CADOGAN, William Bromley, M.A., 
second son of lord Cadogan. He held the 
livin!,'s of St. Giles, Reading, and St. Luke, 
Chelsea, and was a most zealous and exem- 
plary preacher. A volume of his sermons 
remains. Died, 1797. 

CADOGAN, William, M.D., a skilful 
English physician ; author of a treatise on 
the Gout, In which he wisely insists upon 
abstinence as the best preventive and cure ; 
an *' Essay on Nursing," &c. Died, i797. 

CADOUDAL, Oeorce, a famous Chouan 
chief, horn in 1769. Ak'ier liie ill success of 
his efforts for the restoration of the Bour- 
bons, he came to terms with general Brune, 
in 1600, dispersed his troops, and proceeded 
to London. Wliile there, he was accused by 
the Frencli government of planning the in- 
fernal machine, George having avowed a 
personal hostility to the First Consul. He 
afterwards, on receiving the cordon rouge 

from Monsieur (Charles X.), and a lieu- 
tenant-general's commissinn, embarked with 
I'ii'hegru in a secret expeditlim, and landed 
at Falaise. It has been said that the object 
was to assassinate Bonaparte, as well as to 
excite a counter-revolution ; and I'itt was 
accused of sanctioning the enterprise, by a 
letter to lord Hutchinson, wliicli is denied. 
That these charges were fabricated by the 
emissaries of Bonaparte there is every reason 
to believe. He was, however, traced by the 
Parisian police, and put under arrest by a 
violent seuure, while descending from a ca- 
briolet, during which he wounded two of 
the officers; and, after a summary judicial 
process, was executed on the 6th of June, 
1804. He died with great courage. The 
two .brothers Polignac were also involved 
In the same proces", and condemned to 
death, but escaped through the humane ex- 
ertions of Murat. 

CADWAl.ADYR,CA9Air,, aWelrhnoetof 
the 16th century ; some of whose works still 
remain in MS., and indicate much ability. 

CA:CILIUS, Statius, acoinlc poet, con- 
temporary with Ennliis, and said to be tie 
author 01 forlv comedies. A fragment ol 
his Is Inserted in Mattalre's " Corpus 

CiEDMON, a Saxon ecclesiastic, sup- 
posed to have flourished In the fifth century. 
A fragment of a hymn, by this author, is 
preserved In king Alfred's translation of 
Bede ; and is the oldest specimen extant of 
Saxon poetry. 

C^.LIUS AURELIANUS, an African phy- 
sician, who is supposed to iiave flourished 
in the second century b. c. His treatises 
on acute and chronic diseases were published 
separately at Amsterdam, and also in iioi- 
lier's " Principes Medico; Artis." 

CA:SALPINUS, Andrew, an Italian phy- 
sician and natural philosopher. This en- 
lightened man in some degree anticipated 
the grand discoveries of Harvey and Lin- 
naeus; his" Questiones Peripatetlca;," con- 
taining some hints on the circulation of the 
blood ; and his treatise " De Plantis," 
giving the first example of a system of bo- 
tanical arrangement, based on similarity of 
structure. Died, I60a. 

C^SAR, Caiub Julius, the first Roman 
emperor, and one of the greatest men that 
even Rome ever produced. "At the early 
age of sixteen he lost his father, who was a 

firs tor ; and, very shortly after that event, 
le married Cornelia, the daughter of Cor- 
nelius Cinna, the friend of Mariiis. This 
connection gave great offence to the pow- 
erful Sylla. who, having vainly endeavoured 
to bring about a divorce, caused Cwsar to 
be proscribed. Ctesar, however, escaped 
the search that was made after lilra, and 
Sylla was at length Induced to exempt him 
from prosecution, though he did so very 
unwillingly, telling tliose who interceded 
with him that they would repent their kind- 
ness, as he could see in Caesar the germ of 
many Mariutes. Having distinguished him- 
self as an orator in the impeachment of 
Cornelius Dolabella, he speedily grew a 
public favourite, and became successively 
military tribune, qutestor, and tedile. The 
profusion with which he lavished his liber- 
ality, while in these oflices, involved him 






'■' , 

» : 

1*. '. V 


9 llrtD SAntbersat 13iograptiy> 


vftry «le«'|)ly In debt; but havinf; nbtaine<l 
the goveriiiiient of Spain, he conlriveil to 
amnsg money siiiricient for tlielr discharge, 
thniii'li Ihev are Raid to have exceeded a 
niilhSn aiidaliair, fcterlin)f; a fact which, 
as he held the governmentoiily a year, ^ayii 
but little for lii» ficrupuloUHuesii an to the 
means he UHed for gelf-a^j^randizemeiit. 
Havhi); united with Fompey and Crassus in 
the memorable coalition, called " the tirst 
triumvirate," he became coniiul. and then 
obtained the (government of Gaul, with the 
command of four legions. And now it was 
that liiii geniuii had ample scope, liis mili- 
tary career was rapid and brilliant. Bel- 
gians, Helvetians, and Nervians succumbed 
to him; the German tribes were repulsed, 
and Gaul was wholly subjected to the Roman 
power. These transacifons, and his inva- 
sions of Britain, are beautifully and gra- 
phically related in his Commentaries. His 
successes had the effect of exciting the 
Jealousy of Pompey, who had inlluence 
enough in the senate to cause Ca:sar to be 
recalled from the government of Gaul. He 
refused to obey this order, and nuirclied with 
his army into Italy, i'ompey retiring into 
Greece. Having sei/.ed the public treasury, 
and commissioned Mark Anthony to watch 
overhif interests in Rome, he proceeded to 
Spain, where a large army remained in Pom- 
pey 'g interest, which he defeated, and on his 
return to Rome was declared Dictator. He 
then followed Pompey into Greece, and de- 
feated him in the memorable battle of I'har- 
salia, from which Pompey escaped only to 
be assassinated in Egypt. Having crushed 
every attempt at resistance on the part of 
the sons and friends of Pompey, and having 
been honoured with four several triumplis, 
he was declared perpetual dictator ; a title 
which some of his friends wished to alter to 
that of l(ing. And as the great lx>dy of the 
Roman people, dazzled by his military ge- 
nius, and gratified by the liberality of liis 
largesses, were insensible of, or inuiiferent 
to. Ills insatiable thirst for domination, it is 
more than probable that he would have be- 
come an absolute king, but that Brutus and 
other republicans penetrated his designs, 
and sternly resolved to make his life the 
sacrifice to the freedom of his country. 
Notwithstanding dark hints had been given 
to liini of !-.is danger, he attended a meeting 
of the senate without taking any measures 
for the safety of his person, and felt beneath 
the daggers of the conspirators on the ides 
of March, in the year 43 B.C., and in the 
S6tli of his age. 

C^SAR, Sir Julius, an eminent English 
civilian, who filled various important ofnces 
in the reigns of queen Elizabeth, and kings 
James I. and Charles I. Hig lastolHce was 
that of master of the rolls, which he held 
above so years. Born, 1S57 ; died, 1636. 

CAFFA, Melchior, an able sculptor, 
many of whose works adorned the churches 
of Rome. Died, 1687. 

CAFFARELLI, Gaetano Majorano, a 
celebrated Italian singer. He studied un- 
der Porpira, who made him practise the 
elements of singing from a single sheet of 
music paper for five years. He was so well 
rewarded for his talent, that he purchased 
the dukedom of Santo Dorato. Died, 1783. 

CAFFARELLI, a republican French ge- 
neral, born in n!>6. lie protested against 
the despotism of Louis XVI., and served 
with great distinction under Klebcr and 
Moreuu on the Rhine, where he lost a leg, 
and under Bonaparte in Egvpt. He was 
killed at St. Jean d'Acre, in 1799, by a can- 
non-ball ; and his tomb still remains, with- 
out the walls. 

CAFFIAdX, Joseph, a Benedictine of 
the congregation of St. Maur; author of 
the " Genealogical Treasury ;"an " Essay 
towards a History of Music," &c. Died, 1777. 

NESE, a celebrated painter. His works are 
somewhat deficient in correctness of draw- 
ing and propriety of costume ; but these 
defects are amply compensated by his ex- 
cellence of colouring, and by his grace and 
harmony of composition. His wori(8 are 
verv numerous ; nut the best of them are 
to be found in the churches of Venice, in 
which city he long resided, and where he 
died, ill 1 538. 

CAGLIOSTRO, Alexander, Count, the 
assumed title of an initiostor, whose rral 
name was Joseph BaUamo. He was born 
at Palermo ; and having lost his father at 
an early age, he was placed under the pro- 
i.ertion of the friars of mercy, whose order 
he entered as a novice. Here he acquired 
the elements of chemistry and physic ; but 
he speedily made his escape, and com- 
mitted so many frauds in Palermo that he 
was obliged to' abscond. After visiting va- 
rious parts, he at length reached Naples. 
where he married a woman of as abandoned 
a disposition as himself, witli whom he tra- 
velled to Spain, Portugal, and England, pre- 
tending to su|K-rnatural powers, and wring- 
ing considerable sums from those who be- 
came his dupes. In England this exem- 
plary couple established an order of what 
they called Egyptian Masonry, and as their 
dupes were of the higher orcler, they easily 
obtained from them the loan of valuable 
jewels, on pretext of some intended cere- 
monials. V> itii these they went oft' to Pa- 
ris, and lived there in a style of the utmost 
extravagance. The count, however, was 
thrown into the Bastile, on a charge of be- 
ing concerned in the fraud of the cele- 
brated diamond necklace of Murie Antoi- 
netie ; and when he obtained his liberty he 
judged it high time to quit France. He 
then went to Italy, where his wilt di- 
vulged some of his ciinies to the Inquisi- 
tion, and he was confined in the dungeons 
of the Castle of St. Aiigelo, and died there 
in 1794. 

CAGNATI, Marsh.io, an Italian physi- 
cian, and teacher of medicine and philoso- 
phy, in the I7lh century ; author of " Opu^- 
cula Varia ;" " De Sanitate Tuenda," &c. 

CAGNOLI, Anthony, an Italian astrono- 
mer and mathematician ; author of " Tri- 
gonometry, rectilineal and spherical," and 
other scientific treatises of great merit. 
Died, 1S16. 

CAIETAU, the assumed name, taken 
from that of his birth-place, of Thomas de 
Vio, a Neapolitan monk, and subsequently 
general of his order; author of a work on 
the " Power of the Pope," which procured 
him the archbishopric of Palermo and a 




.»8 riRK. 


•rench !?e- 
ed ai^aiiist 
iiid served 
Aebcr and 
loKt a ivg, 
:, lie won 
I, by a tan- 
iaiu8, wltli- 

edictine of 
author of 
an " Essay 
Died, 1777. 
g works are 
!8S of draw- 
; but thise 
1 by his t'X- 
8 grace and 
worlds are 
(f thtMii are 
f Venice, in 
id where he 

, Count, tlie 
wliose real 
e was born 
lis lather at 
(ler tlie pro- 
whose order 
lie acquired 
pliytiic ; but 
, and coni- 
rmo that lie 
visiting va- 
hed Naples, 
M aban<loned 
khom he ira- 
^ngland, pre- 
, and wring- 
lose who be- 
this exeni- 
der of what 
and as their 
, they easily 
of valuable 
tended cere- 
it off to Pa- 
the utmost 
^wever, was 
liarge of be- 
sf the ccle- 
lurie Aiifol- 
is liberty he 
France. He 
is wife di- 
the luquisi- 
le dungeons 
li died there 

alian physi 
inA philoso- 
ol " Opu»- 
enda," &c. 
iiau astrono- 
,r of '• Tri- 
jrical," and 
treat merit. 

^me, taken 
Thomas de 
f a work on 
eh procured 
Irmo and a 




n llrtD Qdntbci'fial t3tograpf)i). 


cardinalatp; " Conimenlaries on Aristotle 
and Ac|iiiiia»," &o. Died, 1534. 

CAILI.E, Nicholas Louis de la, an 
eminent French niathematician and antro- 
noiiicr; author of " Elements of Astio- 
nnmy," ami of numerous other valuable 
works of science, born, 1713 ; died, 1703. 

CAIUS, otherwise GAIUS, an eminent 
Rnm.in lawyer ; author of a valuable body 
of legal institutes. He died about the 
beginning of the third century. 

CALAMY, Edmund, a presbyterian di- 
vine. He was educated at Cambridge, and 
obtained a living ; but he resigned it, and 
joined the non-conformisU, rather than 
comply with the order for readiiiir the book 
(il sports, lie now entered warmly into the 
religious dis|>utes of tlie time, and was one 
of the writers of Ihe treatise against epis- 
copacy, entilled, from the initials of its 
antliurs, " Smectvmnuuii." Though he 
preached bt-fore the House of Commons, 
anil was one of the assembly of divines at 
V^'estminster, he opposed both the execu- 
tion of Charles I. and the subsequent domi- 
nation of Cromwell. At the deatli of the 
latter, he actively aideil in the restoration, 
and became chaplain to Charles II. The 
act of uniformity caused him again to se- 
cede, and he died in retirement in 1656. 

CALAMY, Edmund, grandson of the 
above, and a dissenting minister of great 
note. He was a very voluminous writer. 
Besides numerous scrnious, and controver- 
sial tracts against Echard, Hoadly, and 
others, he published an abridgment of 
" ISaxter's History of liis Life and Times," 
with numerous supplementary articles. 
Died, 1732. 

CALANUS, an Indian philosopher, much 
esteemed liy Alexander the Great. At the 
age of 83, being artticted with a painful ill- 
ness, be caused a funeral pile to be erect- 
ed, which he ascended with a composed 
countenance, and expired in the flames, 
saying, that having lost Ids health and seen 
Alexander, life had no mure charms fur 

CALAS, John, a merchant of Toulouse, 
memontble as the victim of judicial mur- 
der. His eldest son committed suicide ; and 
as he was known to be attached to the Ro- 
man Catholic faith, a rabble cry arose that 
he had on that account been murdered by 
his father, it was in vain that the un- 
happy parent pointed out the fact that he 
had a Roman Catholic servant who was 
uninjured. He was condemneil literally 
without the shadow of a proof of his guilt', 
and nut to death by t>eing broken on the 
wheel. VolLiire and others subsequently 
caused the process to be revised, and Ihe 
unhufipy widow procured a pension. The 
' njust and ignominious death of Calas took 
place in 1762. 

CALASIO, Marius, a Franciscan friar 
of the I7ih century, professor of Hebrew 
at Rome; author of " Canones generales 
Linguffi Hebraicae," and " Concordantite 
sacrorum Uiblioruin Hebraicorum." 

CALCAGMM, CffiLio, an Italian mili- 
tary officer, wlio b.jre arms under the em- 
peror Maximilian, and popeJulius II., and 
was distinguished equally as a soldier and 
a negociator. Quitting the profession of 

arms, he became professor of belles letlres 
ill the university of Ferrara. His Latin 
poetry "as much esteeiiird, but as a prose 
writer he is more valuable for his matter 
than for his style. Died, 1541. 

CALCRAFI", John, a gentleman of 
Dorsetshire, and for many years an M. P., 
entered parliament in 1796. He voted with 
the Whig party, and esi)ecially distintruished 
himself In favour of George IV., while he 
was prince of Wales; it was, therefore, 
with surprise and indignation, that the 
Whigs saw their friend secede from lliem, 
and accept office in the Tory administration 
formed in 1828 under the duke of Welling- 
ton. He retired, of course, when that ad- 
luiniBtration was dissolved; but he voted 
on their side until 1831, when he gave the 
casting vot- in favour of the Reform Hill. 
From this time he seemed dejected, a de- 
gree of mental alienation succeeded, and 
he committed suicide. 

CALDAS, FaANCis Joseph, a distin- 
guished Spanish naturalist. He was em- 
ployed by the Congress of New Granada 
to complete the Flora of Bogota^ when the 
disturbed state of public affairs interrupted 
the work ; and this unfortunate gentleman 
and his colleague, Don Lozano, having 
sided with tlie patriot party, were put to 
death by the Spanish general Morillo, 
in 1816. ' »" •» 

distinguished Spanish dramatist of the 17th 
century. In his youth he bore arms, but 
subsequently became canon of Toledo, and 
employed his leisure in literature. His 
plajs are very numerous, but, tliough po- 
pular in Spain, their chief merit to an 
English reader is in their plots ; his diction 
being generally inflated, and not unfre- 
queiitly coarse. Born, 1600; died, 1687. 

CALDERWOOD, David, a Scotch pres- 
bvterian divine of the reign of ('harles II. 
His opposition to episcopacy caused him lo 
be banished, and he went to reside in Hol- 
land, where he published his celebrated 
" Altare Damascenura." He subsequently 
returned to Scotland, and by his writings 
and personal exertions greatly aided in the 
establishment of presbyterianis'm. Died, 1651. 

CALENIUS, Walter, a native of Wales, 
and one of its historians. He was arch- 
deacon of Oxford in 1120. 

CALENITUS, Elisius, a Neapolitan 
poet, and prose author. He was precep- 
tor to Frederic, the son of Ferdinand, king 
of Naples, and the earliest writer on the 
illegality of putting criminals to death ex- 
cept for murder. Died, 1503. 

CALEPINO, Ambrose, an Italian gram- 
marian and philologist ; author of a very 
valuable polyglott dictionary, and other 
learned and useful works. Died, 15I0. 

CALEITI, Giuseppe, surnamed II Crb- 
MONESE, an admirable Italian painter. 
His principal picture is that of St. Mark, in 
the church San Benedetto, at Ferrara. In 
some of his works he so closely imitated 
Titian, that connoisseurs can scarcely dis- 
tinguish them. Died, 16&). 

CALIGULA, Caius Casar Augustus 
Germanicus, the Roman emperor and ty- 
rant, began his reign a. d. 37, with every 
promising appearance of becoming the real 






"^ llelD {.^nibersiil Biograpfitj. 


(A I. 

fiither aixl frieml of IiIh people ; but at llio 
end of eiKlit iiioikIin hi* w.m M>i/.eil witli a 
fever, wliFcli It Ih eliiirlt ibly prcHUtin il niimt 
have permanently deranged liix intellecU, 
for hU dlNpoffition totally chang:ed, .ind lie 
committed the most atrocious acts of im- 
piety, cruelty, anil folly. He caused sacri- 
ricc-t to be ottered to himself, his wife, and 
his favourite liorse ; murdered many of his 
subjects with his own hands; had others 
put to the racit while he was enjoying his 
meals, or beheaded In his presence. But In 
the midst of hU puorinities he was assassi- 
nated by a tribune of the people, as he 
name out of tlie theatre, a.d. 41, in the 39th 
year of his ajje. 

CALIFPIIS, a Greek mathematician of 
the fourth century B.C., famous for havinpr 
corrected the cycle of nineteen years, in- 
vented by INIeton, to show the correspon- 
dence of time in the revululioiis of tlie sun 
and moon. 

CALLCOTT, John Wall, doctor of mu- 
sic, an eminent English composer. The 
nobleman's catch-club havinj; proposed a 

Prize, be sent in a hundred composiiioim! 
t was then ruled that no individual should 
send more than ihrct >ron)pogltions of a 
sort ; and Calcott accotcinclyi in 1789, sent 
twelve, four of which (gained the four me- 
dals ! For many years he carried off at 
least one annual prize, until I79:i, when the 
prizes ceased to be given. He wrote, be- 
sides glees, catches, and other composi- 
tions, a " Musical Grammar," and made 
some progress with a " Musical Diction- 
ary." Born, 1766; died, 1821. 

CALLET, John Francis, a celebrated 
French mathematician, hydrographer and 
engineer ; author of " A Memoir on the 
Discovery of the Lone^itude ;" a " Supple- 
ment to Bezout's 'rrigonometry ;" and a 
" Table of Loffarithms, from 1 to lOS.OOO " 
Died, 1798. 

CALLIMACHUS, a Greek poet and his- 
torian. The remains of his uritings, con- 
sisting of elegies, hymns, and epigrams, 
have been nublislied bv several eminent 
editors, and translated into English by 
Dodd and Tytfi-r. 

CALLIMACHUS, a sculptor and archi- 
tect of Corinth. He is said to have invented 
the Corinthian order of architecture, and 
to have taken the hint of its capital front a 
plant of the acanthus which surrounded a 
basket cov«red with a tile on a tomb. He 
flourished in the sixth century B.C. 

CALLINUS, a Greciaa orator and poet, 
supposed to have lived in the eighth cen- 
tury B.C. Some of his poetry is in the 
collection of Stobeeus ; and he is said to 
have been the inventor of elegiac verse. 

CALLISTHENES, a Greek philosopher 
and lioet, a relative and pupil of Aristotle, 
by whom he was recommended to Alexan- 
der the Great. He accompanied that prince 
in the expedition against Persia, and was 
at first much esteemed by him. It seems, 
however, that the philosopher had no small 
portion of arrogance, a quality not likely 
to serve him with a despotic and irritable 
prince. He crowned the offences of his 
tree speaking by boldly reprobating Alex- 
ander's assumption of divine honours. 
For this he was put to death ; but historians 

difl'ei' as to tin; nio^le of his exceulioii. 
He w;is the autlior of a " Hi-itorv of llie 
Actions of Alexander;" a " llistory of 
Greece," kc. 

CALLOT, James, an eminent French en- 
graver. His plates are very numerous 
and highly esteemed, and his drawings 
scarcely less so. Died, I6:i6. 

CALLY, PiRRRR, a French divine ;ind 
philosopher. He was a staunch Cart<siaii, 
and was much engaged in controversies on 
that subject. He also distinguished himself 
in converting Protestants to llie church of 
Rome ; and envy of his tlieological success, 
added to enmity against his philoHOphy, 
raised him poweVfur enemies, who caused 
him to be banished from Caen, of which he 
was cure, to Moullns. On his return, lie 
aijain renewed his exertions among the Pro- 
testants, and published a work on the aijree- 
iiient between theology and philosophy, 
upon the subject of rransuhstantiaiion. 
Tills work was condemned us heretical, 
and he was obliged to recant in his own 
church. In addition to his controversial 
works, he wrote some sermons, and an 
" Introduction to Philosophy," and edited 
" Boetliius de Consolatione."" Died, 1709. 

CALMET, AuousTiN, a French Benedic- 
tine abbot of Scnones ; author of a " Uni- 
versal History," " Dictionary of the Bible," 
and other learned and well-known works. 
Born, 1672; died, 1757. 

CALO, John, or Johannitz, a Bulgarian 
chief of the Uth century. He put the em- 
peror Baldwin to deatlj, and committed most 
wanton cruelties in Greece ; but was cut 
short in his evil career by tlie hand of an 

CAL0NNE,CHAnLE8 Alexander de, an 
eminent French statesman, who succeeded 
Neckcr as comptroller-general of the fi- 
nances in 1783 ; but after four years of in- 
cessant endeavours at liiiancial reform, was 
obliged to retire to England. He wrote 
"Observations sur |ilusieurs Matiercs du 
Droit Civile et Couluraier," ice. Ike. ijorn, 
1734 ; died, 1802. 

CALPRENEDE, Walter de Costes, 
lord of, a French nobleman and friend of 
the great Condc, who is said to have aided 
blm in the composition of " Cassandra," 
" Pharainond," &c., voluminous romances, 
once very popular, but now sunk into al- 
most entire oblivion. Died, 1663. 

tus, a Sicilian Latin poet of the third cen- 
tury. Seven of his Eclogues are to be found 
in the "Poetae Latini Minores," published 
at Leyden in 1731, and are thought to be 
second only to the Eclogues of Virgil. 

CALVART, Denis, an eminent Dutch 
painter, who had the honour of giving the 
earliest instructions to Guido, Aloano, and 
Domenechino. His chef-d'ieuvre is the 
picture of St. Michael, in the church of St. 
Peter, at Bologna. Died, 1619. 

CALVERT, Georob, first lord Balti- 
more, an English statesman. He was for 
some time secretary of state to James I., 
but was obliged to resign this office on be- 
coming a Roman Catholic. He did not lose 
the favour of the king, however; but ob- 
tained a valuable grant of land in America, 
and by his wise and just conduct formed the 





NIUS, Ti- 
lth ird cen- 
be found 

jht to be 
Int Dutch 
pving the 
i»o, and 

re is tlie 
Irch of St. 

Id Balti- 
was for 
|J antes ■•. 
ce on he- 
ld not lose 
but ob- 
I America, ! 
}rnied the 



























a ^etp gftnibersal 13iograp^g. 


Colony which hiw In modern timen IncreaBed 
to the populous and wealthy slate of Mary- 
liinil. Died, 1633. 

CALVERT, Freokrick, seventh lord 
Baltimore ; author of a " lour to the East, 
with Remarks on Constantinople and the 
lurks," "Caelestcs et Infer!," &c. Died, 

CALVERT, General Sir Harry, bart., 
G. C. 1(. and G. C. il., entered the army in 
1778, and proceeding to America, was there 
made a prisoner of w.ir. In 1793 he was 
appointed aid-de-camp to the duke of York; 
in which station he used his energetic exer- 
tions to Improve tlie condition or the men, 
and to increase the efficiency of the English 
army. The general had retired from the 
public service, when he was seized with 
apoplexy, and died in I8SA. 

CALVERT, Frederick, an ingenious 
and enterprifiing artist residing' in London, 
whose numerous drawing!) \\m\ llthographin 
prints afford ample evidence botli of his 
versatility and untiring' assiduity. Died, iHa;. 
CALVI, Lazzaro, an able Italian artist, 
but of so jealous and evil a disposition, that 
he poisoned an artist who rivalled him ; 
and, on finding Luca Cambrasn's portion of 
the decoration of a church preferred to his 
own, abandoned liis own profession, and 
did not resume it for a period of 20 years. 
Died, 1606. 

CALVIN, properly CAUVIN, John, after 
Lntlier the most eminent of the religious 
reformers. His writings, both controversial 
and practical, were very numerous, and 
marked by great vigour and perspicuity; 
and though they are now little read, the 
principles they inculcate are held by a vast 
body in all countries in which the reformed 
reliqrion is established or tolerated. There 
is. however, a deep stain in the character 
of this reformer. While vindicating the li- 
berty of conscience, he so far forgot his own 
principles and disobeyed the behests of the 

?:osj)el, as to consign to the flames the un- 
ortunate Servetus. The principal work of 
Calvin is his " Christian Institute." Born 
at Noyon, in Picardy, 1509; died, 15)4. 

CALVISIUS, Sellius, a German writer; 
author of "Opus Chronologicum," a work 
much praised by Scaliger and other learned 
men ; a treatise on music ; a work against 
the Gregorian calendar, &c. He also com- 
posed several psalms and other pieces of 
church music. Died, ISis. 

CAMBACERES, Jean Jacques Regis, 
duke of Rome, &c., one of those characters 
whicli the French revolution raised to dis- 
tinction, was born at Montpellier, in 1733, 
brought np to the legal profession, and by 
his talents soon attracted the notice of the 
convention, by whom he was appointed to 
various judicial offices. In the discussion 
relative to the fate of Louis XIV., although 
he was one who declared Mm guilty, yet he 
disputed the ripht of the convention to judge 
him, and voted for his provisory arrest, or, 
in case of hostile invasion, his death. For 
a time he had the management of foreign 
affairs; and when Buonaparte was first con- 
sul, Cimbacires was chosen second consul. 
After Napoleon became emperor, lie was an 
especial favourite, and was created arch- 
chaucellor, grand officer of the legion of 

honour, and ultimately duke of Parma and 
president of the chamber of peers. In fine, 
lie always showed a sincere attachiiieut to 
Napoleon, and devoted his best energies to 
his cause ; and though he was banished on 
the second restoration of Louis XVIII., yet 
he was afterwards allowed to return to 
Paris, where he died in 13U4. 

CAMBRIDGE, Richard Owen, an Eng- 
lish writer of great and versatile ability ; 
author of " The Scribhierlad," a satire ; a 
" History of the Coromandel War," Sic. 
Died, 1803. 

CAM BYSES, king of Persia, succeeded 
his father, the great Cyrus, in 539 n. c. 
He was or a violent and vindi<'tlve dispo- 
sition, which he manifested equally by his 
invasions of Egypt and Ethiopia, and bv his 
cruel treatment of his own subjects. Died, 
B.C. s.'l. 

CAMDEN, William, a learned English 
antiquary. He received his early educa- 
tion at Christ's Hospital, and subsequently 
studied at Oxford, where he took his B.A. 
degree. Alter fllling the situations of se- 
cond and chief master of Westminster 
school, his proficiency in antiquarian lore 
procured him the honourable and lucrative 
ofllcc of Clarencieux king at arms. In 
addition to his great and well-known work, 
" The Britannia," he published " Annals of 
Queen Elizabeth," a Greek grammar, &c. 
Born, 1551 ; died, 1633. 

CAMERARIUS, Joachim, a learned Ger- 
man writer, the iriend and biographer of 
IVIelancthon. In addition to his original 
writings, he published several translations 
from tlie Greek. Born, 1500 ; died, 1574. 

CAMERARIUS, Joachim, son of the 
above; author of some botanical essays, &c. 
Born, 1 ')34 ; died, 1598. 

CAMERON, Lleut.-gen. Sir Allan. In 
1793 he raised, from his private funds, the 
79th, or " Cameron Highlanders ;" and 
after a long life spent in the service of his 
country, died in 1838. 

CAMERON, Right Rev. Alexander, 
D. D., Catholic bishop of the Lowland dis- 
trict of Scotland, died in March, 1828, in 
Chapel-lane, Edinburgh. This venerable 
man was esteemed by all ranks of people j 
he was pious without bigotry, and pro- 
foundly learned, without pedantry. In his 
sermons he was content to enforce the 
grand truths on which all Christian sects 
agree, and shunned in the pulpit the contro- 
versial points of faith. 

CAMERON, John, a Scotch Protestant 
divine, who after fllling the divinity chair 
at Glasgow, obtained that of Montauban, in 
France. Mild by naturi: and tolerant by 
Christian philosophy, he endeavoured to me- 
diate between Protestants and Papists ; but 
some furious zealots belonging to the lat- 
ter caused him to be so severely assaulted, 
that he died from the effects or the brutal 
attack. His works were collected and 
published in three 4to. volumes. Died, 1635. 
CAMILLA, daughter of Metabus, king of 
the Volsci. On succeeding her father she 
distinguished herseif in arms, and fell in 
battle assisting Turnus against i£neas. 

CAMILLAS, Marcus Furius, a Roman 
general. After obtaining the highest ho- 




FANCY BirOtll.l) DK IMlKrAllKI) Willi A *;i)0|) Dlfi UtirillN. 


a flrh) {Antbersal tyiograpti:^. 


nniiDi frnm hid an|>laii(llii(r <oiii|).Urlof», In- 
uiiH rlinrKcd witli |MTiilatinn, ttiid wpiit into 
»:xilc. Hut when llri-miUH .iml lii^ (tiiiiU 
bt'tili'grd the ciipllal, C.niillliig iioltly gt-t 
Hhlde lilH private feillnjfs, haiitcncd to Koine, 
and freed it from tlie barbarlAii*; after 
wIiIlIi lie wan made dictator. Died, B.C. 3<15. 

CAMOF.NS, Louis, a rortURuene poet 
of nr!it-rate celebrity, was born at LiHbon 
about the year iSiO, and received lilii edu- 
cation at t'oiinbra. lie served with great 
credit aifaiiiHt the Moors in Africa ; and 
mibseqiiently joined in an expedition to tlie 
Kast Indies, wliere he wrote a consider- 
able |)ortion of hit " l.usiad." Tliis poem 
lias been several limes translated into Eng- 
lish. Died. 1579. 

CAM I'AN ELLA, TiioMAB, an Italian monk 
of the Uominican order. Hating strongly 
opposed the (leripalctic philosopliy, his ene- 
mies caused him to be accused of conspiracy, 
and he was conflned first at Naples and af- 
terwards at Rome. From the latter place 
he escaped to France, where Cardinal 
Richelieu obtained him a pension. His best 
works are " Ue recia Ratlone Studendi," 
and " Aphorlsnia i'olltica." Died, 16W. 

CAMFANO, NovARF.SE, an Italian eccle- 
siastic of the 13th century ; author of " Com- 
mentaries on Euclid," itc, 

CAMPANO, John Anthony, bishop of 
Terrano ; author of the History of Andrew 
Braccio; treatises, moral and [lolitlcal; 
Latin poems, orations, &c. Died, 1477. 

CAMPBELL, Archibald, marquis of 
Argyle, a zealous and gallant partisan of 
the covenanters. At the restoration of 
('harles II. the marquis was committed to 
the Tower. After remaining a prisoner 
about Ave months, he was sent to Scotland, 
where he was tried for high treason, and 
beheaded in 16C1. 

CAMPBELL, Archibald, earl of Ar- 
gyle, son of the above, and a most zealous 
and gallant adherent of the royal cause : 
so much so. Indeed, tliat he was excepted 
from the general pardon issued by Cromwell 
in 1634. Thougii he defeated the endea- 
vours of his enemies to bring him to the 
scaffold, tills noble man most unfortunately 
ventured to return from Holland, where he 
had found shelter, and being apprehended, 
was conveyed to Edinburgh and beheaded 
in 1685. 

CAMPBELL, John, duke of Argyle and 
of Greenwich, was distinguished equally as 
a soldier and a statesman. He was briga- 
dier-general at the famous battle of Rami- 
lles. and commanded with brilliant effect at 
Ouaenarde and Malplaquet. To these ser- 
vices he added that of beating the earl of 
Mar at Dumblain, and compelling the Pre- 
tender to quit the kingdom. These actions, 
and his exertions in bringing about the 
union, were rewarded with the garter and 
the English dukedom of Greenwich. He 
also held several offices, of which Sir R. 
Walpole deprived him, but which he re- 
gained or. tliat minister's removal. Born, 
1671 ; died, 1743. 

CAMPBELL, Archibald, a relative of 
the above, and bishop of Aberdeen; author 
of the very scarce and curious work, " The 
Doctrine of a Middle State between Death 

and the Retmrrecilon." He resigned Ills 
bishopric III 1721, and died in 1744. 

('AMPIJELL, John, a Scotch architect, 
surveyor of tlie works at (ireenwicii ; :iu- 
tiior of <' Vitruvius Britatnlcui." Died, 

CAMPBELL, Gboror, D. D., a Scotch 
divine ; author of a " Vlndlealion of tlie 
Christian Religion." Died, 1757. 

CAMPBELL, John, a clever and Indus- 
trioim Scotch writer ; author of the " Mili- 
tary Histories of Prince Eugene and the 
Diilte of Marlborough:" a "Political Sur- 
vey of Britain;" the << Lives of the Admi- 
rals," Ac. Died, 1775. 

CAMPBELL, Okorob, D. D., a Scotch 
divine, principal of Marischal College, Aber- 
deen, and professor of divinity there ; au- 
thor of a "Translation of the Gospels ;" a 
"Reply to Hume on the Miracles;" and 
" Lectures on Ecclesiastical History." 
Dorn, 1709; died, 1796. 

CAMPBELL, Major-gen. Sir Nkil, was 
the ofticcr selected by tlie British govern- 
ment to accompany Napoleon to the island 
of Elba ; and it was during a sliort excur- 
sion, which his bad state of health rendered 
necessary, that Napoleon effected his es- 
cape. This brave and meritorious olticer, 
after spending thirty-one years in the ser- 
vice of his country, fell a sacrifice to the 
noxious climate of Sierra Leone, of which 
colony he had been appointed commander- 
in-chief. Died, 1827. 

CAMPBELL, Major-general Sir James, 
entered the army as an ensign in the Ist 
regiment of foot, about the year 1794 ; 
served at Gibraltar; and was at the taking 
of iMinorca In 1798. He was soon after ap- 
pointed major: was sent out to India, and 
served in the Mahratta war, as lieutenant- 
colonel of the 74tli foot. In 1808 he re- 
turned lo England with his regiment, con- 
sisting only or about 130 men. When it had 
been recruited, it was sent to the Peninsula, 
and led on to victory bv Its gallant chief, at 
Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajos, and Vittoria, 
where he commanded a brigade. At tlie 
former of these places lie stormed and car- 
ried the breach at the head of his own regi- 
ment; he was severely wounded at Vitto- 
ria, and also at Salamanca. In 1834 he 
was appointed colonel of the74tli, but in the 
year following, laden with the honours 
which he had won, he died. In Paris, having 
served his country for a period of 44 years. 

CAMPE, Joachim Henry, a German 
writer; author of a German dictionary, 
" Letters from Paris, eulogistic of the 
French Revolution;" "Theophron;" and 
the " New Robinson Crusoe." The last 
named work, bv which he is chieflv known 
in England, is founded on the popular work 
of DcToe. Born, 1746; died, 1618. 

CAMPEGGIO, Lorenzo, originally a 
professor of civil law at Bologne, but on 
the death of his wife he entered the church, 
became a bishop, and at length a cardinal. 
In 1619 he was sent as legate to England, 
and while here was nominated bishop of Sa- 
lisbury. After being for some time in Ger- 
many as legate, and employed In opposing 
Lutheranism, he again came to England to 
decide between Henry VIII. and Catharine 
of Arragon, on which occasion he offended 



led IiIh 


:\\ ; aii- 



of tilt! 

I indiiif 
kiid the 
:al Siii'- 
I Adml- 

B, Aber- 
re ; au- 
eU j" a 
i;" and 


u island 
: excur- 
hift es- 
the 8er- 
B to the 
f which 

I the Ut 
,r 1794; 
e trtkinK 
fier ap- 
lia, and 
lie ic- 
it, con- 
.1 it had 
;hicf, at 
At the 
nd car- 
n regl- 
t Viito- 
834 he 
t in the 
of the 
, and 
le last 
ir work 

ally a 
Ibut on 
In Ger 
land to 




A ^rtD 9}lntbcr0al l3tograpf))i. 



FIiMiry without bring; of any r«'al ler^ice to 
the qiioeii. lit' npiK'art tomivc been '.i man 
of connldcrablelcarntn;; and natural ability ; 
for lif reckoned Eraiiniu* and other eminent 
*rlii)lars aniontr bin friend.s. Ulcd, l^. 

CAMI'F.CiOIO, brother of the above, and 
a bUhop; author »f several treatises on 
canon law. Died, 150-1. 

CAMi'KR, PBTRR.a Dutch physician and 
naturalist. Ills writinfCMon variout depart- 
ments of natural history and pliilosoiiby are 
collected in six volumes ; and, in addition to 
these, he wrote an Infcenious treatise on the 
iibysiof^nomies of men of different nations. 
Born, nxi; died, 1789. 

CAMi'HUYSKN, Dvhk, a Dutch land- 
scape painter of the I7th century ; dlittin- 
guiiihed for the excellence of iiis moonlight 

CAMPI, Bkrnadin, an Italian painter; 
and author of an excellent treatise on the 
principlesof his art. Died, 1584. 

CAMPIAN, Edmund, an English JcHUit. 
He was educated at Ciirist'M iloHpital, and 
graduated at Oxford ; but on a visit to Ire- 
land was induced to turn I'aplKt, and enter 
its a Jesuit at Douay. He wrote *' Chrono- 
loffia Universalis," and a drama, called 
" Nertar and Ambrosia." Being chosen by 
Gregory XIII. to come to England as 
missionary, he was discovered, tried 
high treason, and executed in i'i8i. 

CAMPIsrilON, Jean (Jualbrrt dk, a 
French dramatic poet, 'three volumes of 
Ills plays are extant; and some nf them are 
thought to be but little inferior to those of 
his celebrated coDtemporary, Kacine. liorn, 
1G56 ; died, 17^3. 

CAMi'O, Antonio, an Italian writer of 
the 15th century ; author of the " History 
of Cremona." 

CAMPOMANES, Don Pedro Rodri- 
OUBZ, count de, a celebrated Spanish slates- 
man, whose profound and elevated views in 
political economy obtained him, in 1765, the 
appointment of bscal to the council of Cas- 
tile ; of which he was afterwards made pre- 
sident and minister of state ; but when count 
Florida Ulanca came Into office, he was 
ejected. He wrote many useful works ; and 
died in 1789. 

CAMPS, Francis de, abbot of Ligny ; 
author of a " History of France," " Disser- 
tation on Medals," &c. Died, 1723. 

CAMPSON, Gauri, raised by the Mame- 
lukes to the Bultanshipof Egypt; and slain, 
after a beneficent reign of 12 years, in an 
action withSelim, emperor of the Turks, in 

CAMUS, John Peter, a French prelate, 
remarkable for the raillery he introduced 
into his sermons. He was created bishop 
of Dellay by Henry IV., but his severe re- 
proofs of the monks, and his endeavours to 
check their irregulariticA, made him many 
enemies, and he at lengtli resigned his bi- 
shopric and retired to a monastery. Among 
his writings were several religious ro- 
manceii. written with the intention to sup- 
plant the less edifying fictions which were 
just at that time so popular. Born, 1583 : 
died, 1652. , • 

CAMUS, Stephen le, a doctor of the 
borbonne, bishop of Grenoble, and a cardl- 

author of " Melanges HiHtori(|U( 
toria Albfgensium," Sec. Died, 

nal ; a prelate of most exemplary elia racier. 
He lived with the uliiinst Hell'-ilciiial, and 
appropriated niuih nf bis revenue to re 
lievlnir the poor an I loundlng charilaliie In- 
siiiutions. Ills works «re "A Dlscourneon 
the Perj)etual Virgiritly of the Virgin Mary ;" 
and " Personal Letters." Died, I7(i7. 

CAMUS, Charles Stephen I.odir, a 
French writer ; author of '* 'I'reatUeH on 
Mechanics and Arithmetic," a " Course of 
Mathematics," \c. Died, I7i>8. 

CAMUS, Antony LE,a French physician ; 
author of" Medical Miscellanies," " Physic 
for the Mind," \c. Died, 1778. 

CAMUS, Armand Gaston, was one of 
the ditputies from Paris to the slates-general 
in 1789; and, when a nieinbt^r of the con- 
vention, voted for the death of the king. 
Although he opposed the establishment of 
the consular governing nt, yet Honaparie 
continued him in his office of archivist, 
which he held several years. Born, 1740 ; 
died, 1804. 

CAMUSAT, Nicholas, canon ofl'royes; 

ues;" "Hls- 


CANALEITI, or CANALE, Antonio, a 
Venetian painter, whose excellence was 
chiefly in landscape. To him is ascribed the 
merit of having been the first to make the 
camera ol>6Cura useful In painting. Born, 
16^7; died, 1768. 

CANANI, John Baptist, an Italian ana- 
tomist, professor of anatomy and medicine 
at Ferrara; authorof a valuable and scarce 
work, entitled " Musculorum HiinianI Cor- 
oris Piclurata Dissectio." Some writers 
attribute to him the discovery of the valves 
of the veins. Died, 1590. 

CANAVE, Philip, sieur ilu Fresne, an 
eminent French statesman and lawyer. He 
was employed in several embassies from 
Henry IV., accounts of which are published 
in three folio volumes. He was converted 
from Calvinism in the well-known contro- 
versy between Du Perron and Du Plcssis 
Mornay. Born, l.'iSl ; died, 1610. 

CANDAULES, a king of Lydia, put to 
death by his favourite, Gygcs, at the insti- 
gation of the queen. Gyges subsequently 
slew her also, and assumed the crown, 
B.C. 718. 

CAN DIDO, Peter, whose real name is 
said to hava been De Witte, was a native 
of Bruges, where he was distinguished as 
an historical painter. Many of his works 
have been engraved. 

CANGE, Charles du Fresnb du, a 
French antiquarv ; author of a " History 
of the Empire of Constantinople;" " By- 
zantine History," 6cc. Died, 1688. 

CANINI, Anoelo, an Italian gramma- 
rian ; author of " Observations on the 
Greek Language," Sec. Died, 1S57. 

CANISIUS, Henry, a German writer; 
author of " Treatises on Canon Law," and 
on Antiquities. Died, 1610. 

CANirz, Baron de, a Prussian privy 
connuiilor: author of some elegant Ger- 
man poeius. Died, 1690. 

CANNE, John, an English puritan of the 
17th century. Bting obliged to fly from 
England, he settled at Amsterdam, and 
succeeded Heii.''y Ainsworth as pastor there. 

ia7 A child without innocbwce is like a flower without perfumb. 




a lletD 9^n(brrsal l}iogravf)s. 



lli> imbllilied a Ulble, with numcrout mar- 
Kliial rt-rcmicM. 

CANNRMAN, Ei.ui, a Dulcli itatciinian, 
iKirii ill 1778. In I79H he Joined llif rcvo- 
ludnii, and held ;i lilvh nnaiiclal po»t at llic 
liaKiif, wlivn llollanii w;iit united to France. 
In iHlj he via* anionir the flrit to declare 
the Independence of Holland ; and chief 
contributor to the reitoration of the lioutv 
of OmiiKi'- 

CANNKS, Francii, a learnetl Spaniard, 
born in 1737, and died in I7D3. lie wn* the 
author of " A SpanUh and Arabian Grani- 
inar ami Dictionary." 

CANNING, tlie Riirbt lion. '^RORnR, i 
hlirhly iciried orator and dUtinKUinhed |m>II- 
liclan, wan bnrii in Uindoii, April 11, 1770. 
Hill father, who wa* from Ireland, was a 
man of conilderabie literary abilltiei: but 
having offended lii* family by inarrylnic a 
lady witiiout fortune, came to London, en- 
tered himself of the Middle Temple, and was 
called to ihe bar. Like many otlicrs iiimi- 
larly iltualed, he toon abandoned tlie law 
for literature ; but thii failing to provide 
him with the mean* of nupport, he com- 
menced ibuHineM ai a wine merchant, and 
failed. Repeated divappoiiilmenis KerloUNly 
affected his health and kpiritit, and lie died, 
brnlten-lienrted, on the very dav that his 
iiilUnt son was one year old. His widow, 
reduced by dire necessity, had recourse to 
the stage for support, anu married an actor : 
he also died, and she then became the wife 
of Mr. Huiin, a linen-draper of Exeter. Uut 
she had the happiness to live to see the 
success of her son, and to receive from him 
at all times the tenderest marks of lilial affec- 
tion. 'I'lie friends of his father flr»t placed 
him at Hyde Abbey school, Winchester, and 
afterwards at Eton, where he greatly distin- 
guished himself as a scholar, and formed 
many connections which were of great ser- 
vice to iiim in his afterlife. While at Eton, 
he displayed great skill as an author, in 
his contributions to the " Microcoitm," a 
periodical work conducted by the senior 
Kchoiurs. At Oxford also he uUtiiiufulshed 
himself; and proceeded thence to Lincoln's 
Inn, his oratorical talents suggesting tlie 
bar as the profession best adapted for him. 
Being introduced to the House of Commons 
by Mr. Pitt, lie abandoned the bar, and 
devoted himself wliolly to politics. His 
strenuous and able support of the minister 
was rewarded In 1796 with an under secre- 
taryship of state; and in the year 1800 he 
was placed in affluence by his marriage with 
Miss Joanna Scott, the daughter of general 
Scott, with a fortune of 100,000/. His 
talents as a poet and politinal writer were 
unquestionable, and he made an expert use 
of them in the articles he contributed to the 
" Antijacobin," a celebrated publication, 
in which the Whigs were wittily, unmerci- 
fully, and in tome cases unjustifiabiy, held 
up to popular contempt. After the death of 
Pitt, ana the dissolution of the coalition 
ministry of Fox and Grenville, Canning be- 
came foreign secretary in Percival's admi- 
nistration; and to himinayjustly be ascribed 
the line of British policy in Spain, which de- 
stroyed the hopes of Napoleon, and led to 
his final overthrow ; for. as he once empha- 
tically declared, " his had been the hand 

which cnnini Med England to an nlllancu 
with Spain." HavliiK,aNil was ailcgnl, un- 
fairly eiideiivoure«l to procure the removal 
of lord CaMtlereagh from nftlce, a duel took 

tiluce. iiiul both partlcit had to (|iiU office, 
n 1813 hi! waH elected a memlier for ihe 
rreat commercial town of Li\erpooi; and 
in 1 81(1 lie ai;ain liecame minister, lieliig np- 

tioiiileil prei<iilent of (he board of control, 
n IIiIh mIIiuiIoii he iiuilelilniself extremely 
uniNipiilar by his I'efence of the Six Acts, 
and other no less obufixious measures. On 
the rHiirii of queen Caroline to England In 
1830, Mr. Canning retired from otflie, that 
he might not have occasion to vote against 
lier. This did not prevent his being ap- 
pointed governor-general of India In 1833; 
and he had already made preparatiims for 
Ills departure, when tlie melancholy death 
of the niar(|uis of Londonderry caused the 
seals of the foreign office to be delivered 
to Mr. Canning, in conjunction witli Mr. 
Hiiskisson, lie now advocated a course of 
both home and foreign |>olity, strikingly 
at variance with that of which he had for 
years been the wlttient and readiest, if not 
the most profound defender. His new po- 
licy was as popular as Ills old had been ob- 
noxious : and the earl of Liverpool being 
sei/.ed with paralysis, from which there was 
no hope of tiis recovery, Mr. Canning 
reached the grand object of his ambition — 
lliat of being the acknowledged head of ad- 
ministration. But though the new premier 
was popular with the country, the party 
with wlioni he had in a great measure 
ceased to act rendered his task a difficult 
one. The opposition to him was fierce— 
almost rancorous ; and it was soon obvious 
that lie was suffering both in mind and body 
from over-exertion and constant excite- 
ment. These, aggravating the effects of a 
severe cold, caught while attemling the fu- 
neral of the duke of York, brought on a 
most painful inflaniniatory disease, wiiich 
terminated Ills life, at tlic age of fifty-seven, 
fn 1837. As an orator, he has rarely been 
excelled for ilnished elegance and crassicaj 
taste ; pouring forth his eloquence in a per- 
sii isive, impassioned, and fearless tone ; or 
i- ' happy vein of caustic irony demolishing 
the arguments of ids opponents. That 
he was ambitious of place and power, and 
that during his nolitical career he made 
some sacrifices of^ principle to expedieiicv, 
no one will deny; but, as a statesman, his 
great aim was to iipliold the honour ot his 
country, and to pursue a liberal line of po- 
licy at home and abroad ; while he was a 
decided enemy to all intermeddling with 
those institutions which the wisdom and 
experience of ages had built up and ce- 

CANO, ALONzo,a Spanish artist; so mas- 
terly a painter, sculptor, and architect, 
that he was sumamed the Michael Angelo 
of Spain. His colossal statues of St. Peter 
and St. Paul were so admirably executid. 
that foreign artists from ail parts travelled 
to see and copy them. Unhappily, in the 
midst of his triumph and celebrity, he be- 
came the victim of a horrible suspicion. 
During his absence from home his wife was 
murdered, and his house robbed by an 
Italian servant; and Cano. being suspected, 
was put to the rack. The torture itself 



h I 




liiel took 
Hit oHlii'. 
r f<»r tin- 
ool; iin<l 

Six AcU, 
urcH. On 
dkIuikI In 

« aKaii)*' 
l)eli>K »V- 
i in 1833; 
alioni for 
loly tleatli 
■anted Uie 
I delivered | 
Willi Mr. 
courie of' 
lie had for 
leii, If not 
i« new po- 
id been ob- 
pool being 
1 tlier« wai 
-. Canninff 
head of ad- 
ew premier 
, the party 
lit measure 
k a difficult 
vas herce— 
aon obvioua 
id and body 
ant cxolte- 
■ffecls of a 
nsf the fu- 
ugiit on a 
!a»e, which 
rarely been 
id clMslcul 
:e in a per- 
8B tone ; or 
1118. That 
power, and 
■ he made 
;e8iiian, hU 
lour of his 
line of po- 
he wa« a 
_lln(? with 
risdom and 
lip and ce- 

kt ; 80 mas- 


arl Angelo 

? St. Ptler 


Jh travelled 

Illy, in the 

Tity, he be- 

[ suspicion. 

Is wife was 

led by an 


Vure "-"' 





a llrto {(Iniberdal Dtograpfii*. 

[(■ A N 

roiild not sliattc )il« nrinncmi. and a* ilure 
w.is no rvldi'iice aK'tlo-'t liliu lu> w;in rv- 
Iraitrd. Ilf then ciiti rid (lit- rhunh ; iiml 
iiltliouirli lit- ulrlrtly atlciided to his rrll- 
irlouii (liille<i, vet III* love of the urlN wa* 
iiniihnted, ami the " rullnif |a«iilon " was 
Klill HO Rtronif, that on hU death lied he 
averted M* fme from Ihe irncilix of his 
ronfiMor, heiaiiHe It was ill-carved. Horn, 
I6UH; died, 167(1. 

CANO, Mhlciiior, a Hpaiilsh prelate; 
author of << Locoruiu TlMiologicoruiii," kc. 
Died, lAflo. 

CANO, John Srrabtian, • Spanish na- 
viffator, who was emplovcd as principal 
iurvi\yi|iir olficer hy Mairellan, whorircum- 
navltratcd the iflohe In I.VJi)-i. Died, isafl. 

CANO, Jams8, a Portuguese navlirator, 
who In tnc tlfteentli century discovered the 
kingdom of Congo. 

CANORMUS, a German nilneralogUt of 

Keat celi'hrily, born In ITia; director of 
I- mines to the emperor of Kussla. He 
piiblUhed numerous works on his favourite 
M-ience : " Description des priiu-ipales 
Mines situees dans la Hesse, dans la iiart/, 
Sic. iii:. ;" " I'rinrlpes F'lcmeniaires de la 
Science des Mines;" " L'Kxploitallon et la 
Preparation de Culvre," Ike. ttc. 

CANOVA, Antonio, acelebrated modern 
sculptor. He was horn, In I7S7, at the little 
village of Pasnagno, In tlie Venetian terri- 
tory. The seigneur of the villagp. having 
seen the (igure of a lion modelled by Ca- 
nova when onlv twelve years of age, was 
generous enough to place liini withTorrctll, 
of Vienna, at that time tlic gres'.est living 
sculptor. At the close of his sti dies at Vi- 
enna he settled at Venice, and nanit'ested 
Ihe originality of his powers by various 
works. From Venice ho passed to Rome, 
wltere he was greatly patronized, and in a 
coiimaratively brief time he was admired 
by all Europe, and more or less employed 
by every European potentate. Fortune 
and honours flowed In upon him, and he 
used them wisely and honourably. Among 
his numerous works the tineat are " Cupid 
and Psvche," " Venus and Adonis," 
" Mary Magdalen,*' and " Napoleon hold- 
ing the Sceptre." Died, 1833. 

CANOVAI, Stanislaus, an Italian ma- 
thematician, born in 1740. He was brought 
into notice by a work to prove that AmerTco 
Vespuccio was the first discoverer of the 
New World. Among his works are " Dis- 
sertatione suite vicende delle Longltudlne 
Geogralich6 dai Tempi diCesare Augusto." 

CANSTEIN, Charles Hildkt;rand, ba- 
ron, a German nobleman, distinguished for 
an improvement in printing, analogous to 
stereotyping. He caused bibles and testa- 
ments to be printed from entire pages ; the 
testaments being sold as low as fourpence 
each. How the naron's pages were formed 
does not clearly appear. Died, 1719. 

CANTACUZENUS, John, emperor of 
Constantinople. After Ailing several im- 
portant offices he was proclaimed emperor 
by the nobles and soldiery ; and he endea- 
voured to heal the wounds which live years 
of civil war had inflicted on the state ; but 
the jealousy of Palseologus, the rebellion of 
his owr. son, and other disasters, induced 
him to resign the crown and retire to a 

niniiaslery, where In: (employed hiniielf In 
literary hUiours. He itled In nil, hilnu 
iiiori! than luu yearn oM ; unil lie niav he 
rontldereil as one of Ihe greatest anioiig tin- 
successors of Constaiuliie. 

CANTACII/EM'.. Prince, a Greek pa 
triot, desrended from Mh' r.tiiinus Kantcrn 
emperor, John, and oik iI iIiv lirMt to join 
V|isilanti In 1831, win n .!<-< Urluir I'nr the li- 
berty of Greece, since rei-hiiliirHlieil. 

CANTAKINI, SiMOM, snnnimed the Pe- 
zarese, an Italian painter, wlioNt- works arc 
frequently mistaken for tliom- oi lils great 
master, Giiido. Died, iiiiu. 

CANTEL, Pktrr Joseph, a Frem h Je- 
suit ; author of a trentise " De Komanu- 
Repiihllca." and " Historia rivllis i r eceli-- 
siastica ^tetropolllanarum Urlilniii, ' and 
editor of Valerius Maximus, and Jus. in. 
Died, I6H3. 

CANTEMIR, Drmrthitis, a Molihuian 
iirlni'C ; author of "The System of the