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Cornell University Library
U800 .D38 1894
An illustrated history of arms and armou

3 1Q9/I nrin 70e ggi

Cornell University

The original of tiiis book is in

tile Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in

the United States on the use of the text.









* Quum prorepserunt primls anlmalia tenis,

Mutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubilia propter
Unguibus et pugnis, dein fastibus, atque ita porro
Pugnabant armis quae post fabiicaverat csus."
Horace, Sat. I. ui









I. Aebibsed Histoby of Ancient Asms , . 17

IL ATiMS OP Pre-histokio Times, and oe the Stone Age.

ill chipped flint
of polished flint ..... . . 75

III. Ancient Aems of the Bbonze and Ibon Ages.

Indian arms in brouze and iron 85
American arms 88
Assyrian arms, etc. 92
Egyptian arms 101
Greek and Etruscan arms 106
Eoman, Samnite, and Dacian arms 117

rV. Abms of the Bbonze Age of the so-oalled Babbabio

Westeen Nations.
Germanic arms in bronze . . . . .129
Kelto-Gallic, Grallic, and Lower-Britannio arms
British arms in bronze . ... . 133
Scandinavian arms in bronze
Bronze arms of various countries .... 139

V. Akms of the Ibon Age belonging to Noethbbn Nations.

Germanic arms of the iron age . . 149
Scandinavian arms of the iron age . .158
Arms of the iron age of various nations . .159

VI Contents.

VI. Aems or THE Cheistian Middle Ages, or the Renais-
Complete equipments of the Middle Ages . 161
Complete equipments of the Eenaissance . 197

centuries .......
Complete equipments of the seventeentli and eighteenth

Description of suits of armour, excepting the helmet .

Thehehnet . 239
The shield . 287
Coats and cuirasses 309
The arm-guard 328
The gauntlet 331
Greaves and hose 337
The spur 342
Horse armour 349
The saddle . 355
The stirrup .
The bridle ,
The sword .
The dagger, poniard, etc. 400
The lance, pike, and stake 414
The mace 420
The morgenstern or morning- star 422
The flail 424
The "war-scythe 427
The scythe-knife 428
The gisarme .
The voulge .
The war-hammer 435
The war-hatchet 438
The halbard .
The ranseur .
The partizan 446
The bayonet 448
The spontoon 451
The military fork 452
Arms and utensils of war and chase 454
Machines of war and siege weapons 455
The sling and the staff sling .
Contents. vii
VL Abus op the Ohbistian Middle Ages, etc. —continued.
The blow-pipe
Bows and arrows
. . .... 468
ThecTosB-bow 473

Heavy artillery
The mortar
.... 185
The cannon .

Portable fire-arms

. ....
The hand cannon, hackbnss,
, .

arquebus, muskets, etc.

The pistol
Accessories for fire-arms ... .

Vin. ThbAib-gtjn 537

IX. The Akt of the Abuotiber and Abqtizbusieb, —Moko-

GBAiis, Initials, and Names of Abmohbebs.

Monograms and names of Grerman armourers . . 540

German armourers of later years of the eighteenth and
b^'nning of the nineteenth centuries, celebrated for
their fire- aud air-guns . . 560
Monograms and names of Italian armourers . . 563

armourers ....
Monograms and names of Spanish and Portuguese

Monograms and names of French armourers

... .
Monog;rams, initials, and names of English armourers . 574
Monograms and names of Swiss armourers . . 575
Monogiams and names of Flemish and Dutch armourers 576
Monograms, initials, marks, and names of armourers
and towns found on Oriental arms 576

unknown ...*...
Monograms and sdgnatuies the origin of which is


XL Advicb and Becbipts fob Colleotoes uf Abjis .=583




ALL that
can interest the archseologist, the historian, the
the soldier, and even the ordinary observer, on
the progressive march and the successive development of the
arms of various nations in the past centuries, has been con-
rlensed in the first chapter of this book in the "Abridged
History of Ancient Arms," of which several extracts, more
or less modified, are to be seen as headings to the sub-
divisions, so as to spare the reader the trouble of looking
through the whole history every time that he is desirous of
information on only one point.
It would have been useless to describe the historical
development of each kind of arm, as these will be found in
the different special chapters where these arms are described
in chronologic order.
This chronological system is found to be the best for a
book which is destined to be at the same time a guide to the
people at large, and a scientific encyclopaedia to collectors,
tor such repetitions as must inevitably result will contribute
to facilitate study.
In addition to this a special chapter describes the pro-
gressive march of the armourer's art, and gives all the
iirmourers' signs and marks which it has been possible to
collect; another chapter treats of the arms and alphabets
which have been used in the tribunals of the free-judges
(francs-juges). The whole work is divided into six principal
parts, among which the most important treat of the arms of

2 Introduction.

the middle ages, of tte Eenaissance, of the seventeenth and

eighteenth centuries. The author, who has visited for years
all the museums and arsenals of Europe, and the most
important collections of amateurs, has thus been enabled to
gather enough authentic materials to dispense with referring
to any books of compilation. As to the kinds of arms which
no longer exist, these have been studied in manuscripts, in
miniatures, on coins of the period, and on ancient monuments,
where sculpture has preserved forms, the exactitude of which
can rarely be disputed.
Notwithstanding the present decided taste for retrospec-
tive knowledge, which has given birth to a perfect torrent of
local and special treatises, as also to more important works,
no complete work has as yet existed, either in France or
elsewhere, on the subject of ancient armour. Nevertheless
there are few things more indispensable to an artist than the
knowledge which enables him, at first sight of a sword, a
helmet, a shield, or any other piece of armour, to fix the
nation and period to which its wearer belonged.
The uncertainty on this head has given rise to many
mistakes, which having rapidly become traditional have thus
perpetuated lamentable historical errors. The faulty classi-
fication of a large number of museums and arsenals has
particularly contributed to the diffusion of these popular
errors, which have by degrees crept into historical treatises
the majority of guide-books, sculptures, and mural paintings
have actually transformed our galleries of painting and
sculpture into public schools for instruction in anachro
Several of these collections of armour exhibit specimens,
the alleged dates of which are centuries earlier than the true
ones. It is more particularly in the Swiss museums and
arsenals that these errors abound. There we find a large
number of swords ascribed to the time of Charles the Bold,
the shape of which declares immediately the end of the
sixteenth and even the beginning of the seventeenth century,
as also some armour of the same date, said to have been
worn at the battle of Sempach. The gjrmnasium of Morat
exhibits war-harness of the seventeenth century, as " taken
from the Burgimdians kiUed in the battle," where under the
walls of the city the terrible duke lost, in 1476, his military
Introduction. 3
honour, after having lost at Granson all his treasures.
Another suit of armour, whose burgonet, with its shade and
ear-pieces, the lobster-tailed cuishes,and the breastplate, all
equally announce the seventeenth century, has been attributed
to Aiian of Bubenberg, the valiant chief of the fifteen
hundred Bernese who defended Morat for ten days against
the artillery of the archduke.
In the arsenal of Soleure the blunders are stUl greater. All
the personages of the celebrated group, which is composed
after a design of Disteli, and is meant to represent the recon-
ciliation of the confederates at the Diet of Stanz, in 1487,
by the intercession of the venerable Mcolaus Von der Vine,
are clad in armour of the sixteenth and seventeenth
The famous iron shield of modern fabrication, attributed
to Philip the (1419), in spite of the round targets with
which the inights in relief are armed, has been engraved in
a Swiss publication, and accompanied by a learned disserta-
tion. This object, and also a French cuirassier's breastplate
of the First Empire, in which an unskilful armourer has
awkwardly hammered out two receptacles for a female bust,
still figure there as precious relics of the middle ages, a fact
at which the merchant who sold them to the arsenal, and
who is still living at Soleure, no doubt enjoys many a hearty
laugh in his sleeve.
In the arsenal of Zurich all the bossed breastplates of
fluted armour are rated as cuirasses for women, as though the
female bosom occupied the lower portion of the chest!
In England even, a country famed for its archseological
researches, the armoury of the Tower of London had
preserved a large quantity of fantastic attributions until
Mr. John Hewett had showed their faultiness in a descrip-
tive catalogue. In the classification of this museum, and
likewise in the drawing-up the catalogue of his own celebrated
collection. Dr. Meyrick, who has long been considered pro-
foundly learned on the subject of ancient armour, has some-
times erroneously attributed dates whose errors have to be
measured by centuries. At the armoury of Madrid will be
found such gross errors as the assigned dates differing by
more than four and even five hundred years from the
leal ones, and these monstrous blunders axe reprinted in
4 Introduction.

the texts which accompany published representations of the

arms. Even in learned Germany these errors are not less
frequent. The collection of Ambras at Vienna, for which
Sclienk, of Notzing, had published, in 1601, a description
in Latin, afterwards translated intoGerman by Engelbertus
Moyse van Campenhouten, and illustrated by numerous
engravings, each one more fantastic than another, exhibits at
this moment a suit of armour of the end of the sixteenth
century, which is attributed in the museum to the Eoman
King Eobert, who died in 1410. In the armoury of the
same city the observer may have the satisfaction of seeing
a fight between lay figures attired in armour of the
beginning of the seventeenth century, which are shown to
him as " Germans fighting against Romans ;" and similarly
he may admire at the Dresden Museum a suit of armour and
a helmet of the seventeenth century attributed to Edward IV.
of England, who had nevertheless ceased to reign in 1483.
There was also to be seen at the national museum of Bavaria
at Munich, before M. de Hefner Alteneck had been named
director of it, a collar of a buff coat, of the time of the Thirty
Years' War, attached as a shoulder-piece to the much-valued
doublet with cuishes and hose of the fourteenth century.
The museum of Cassel also shows among ancient armour a
morion and a small helmet, which are certainly much rusted,
but which belonged to ancient troopers of the seventeenth
century. In the national museum of Brunswick there is a
similar morion, which, as being exceedingly rusty, has been
labelled "twelfth century." A great number of these
mistakes made by French and Italian museums might be
quoted, but we may as well refrain. All these anachronisms
have been carried on into books. There may be seen in a small
illustrated treatise, published recently at Paris (headed,
Armes et Armures, par Lacombe, Hachette, 1868), a suit
of armour of the end of the reign of Henri IV., who died in
1610, labelled as armour of Charles the Bold, who died in
1477, where the small helmet figures under the name of
morion, the large bassineted helmet of the fourteenth
century is called a "mezail," a word which signifies the
defensive armour worn only over the eye and forehead, the
" francisque " is called a defensive weapon, the long pistol of
the seventeenth century a petronel, the halbard a partisan,
Introduction. 5
the gisarme a fauchard, the spontoon and partisan hil-
barde, &c.
The desire ofexhibiting " historical " curiosities has
tempted many museums to accept and even to construct for
their objects, genealogies and titles, which, being afSrmed by
tradition, have at last become gospel truths to the keepers,
and to the crowd among whom these gigantic errors are
circulated and preserved. When will the world begin to see
that a beautiful specimen of sculpture, painting, chasing, or
of any other artistic work, needs no other title than that
which the critic finds in its execution, and in the style of its
epoch, shown by the archaeological imprint, now faded away
with Gothic art, and whose stamp is not to be found in the
works either of the ancients or of their imitators? Titles so
often conjecturally, and falsely, ascribed serve but to throw
discredit as much on the collector as on the keeper.
The errors which are so frequent in the chronological
classification, and in the histories ascribed to armour, are
even more numerous as regards their nationality and
manufacture. Many armourers without merit, and whose
existence must have equalled that of Methuselah in order to
produce only the half of what is attributed to them, are
extolled to the detriment of really great artists, whose
masterpieces figure under the name of some favourite work-
man, too often extolled with an idolatrous faith, discreditable
to men whose real duty is to plant landmarks to histories
based upon substantial evidences which happily are beyond
the reach of mutilation.
It is a sad thing to say, that though archseological in-
vestigators in vain turn over the dust of centuries and pass
their lives in pointing out, with evidence in their hands, all
these involuntary errors, these childish jugglings, the band
of compilers continue to manufacture books out of old books,
copying afresh that which has already been copied without
examination, and so going on from father to son, writing
about subjects with which they are acquainted only through
As in museums of keramic ware and mosaics, the pro-
ductions of Italian art are generally most numerous, and
those of France in collections of enamelling on metals and
of sumptuous pieces of furniture, so the museums of ancient
6 Introduction.

armour are everywhere filled, for the most part, with

German work. There is no country where the art of
armoury was so widely spread as in Germany, nor brought
to such a pitch of excellence, in the manufacture of plate
armour, the laminated joints of which covered even the legs
of the war-horse. Her numerous towns and princely
residences, as well as the greater part of the free cities, have
fvirnished during the middle ages and Eenaissance a wide
field for the artist to display great beauty in the gorgeous
armour and arms of that period ; the precious work of which
was often paid to him at its weight in gold, by simple
patricians, who, like Fugger and others, were rich merchants,
and at that time handled the sword as well as the clothyard,
or the money bag.
Notwithstanding the monograms with which the handsome
arquebuses, swords, helmets, and breastplates are marked,
and notwithstanding the design of the figures and ornaments
which indicate a German school of art, the greater part of
these arms continues to figure in catalogues and treatises as
productions of Italian art. As if Italy, the country of such
men as Antonio Picinino, Andrea di Perrara, Ventura Cani,
Lazarino Caminazzi, Colombo, Badile, Franoino, Mutto,
Berselli, Benisolo, Giocatane, and many other celebrated
armourers, needed a fictitious reputation, and required to be
decorated with borrowed plumes.
It will be seen in the chapter which treats " of the
armourer's art," that the Editors of these treatises are but
slightly acquainted with art criticisms and recent archfeolo-
gical discoveries ; for to them, armours made for the kings
of France, at Munich and Augsburg, still remain Italian,
and similarly the armour made by such men as Peter Pah,
Wulff, Kolmann, and Peter (Pedro), of these same cities, is
still counted as Spanish. They persist in ignoring the fact
that Seusenhofer of Innsbruck was charged with the forging
of the armour of the sons of Francis the First, a magnificent
undertaking, which nevertheless retains an Italian label.
Even in Germany the depreciation of national art has
insinuated itself into public collections, for when the author
of this book, not ten years ago, had recognised at the Dresden
Museum, in several fine pieces of armour, ascribed to Italian
artists, incontestable proofs of German workmanship, he met
Introduction. 7
with no reply but skrugs and incredulous emiles. At present
his statement is no longer contradicted, and it is well known
that many of these pieces of armour are the work of the
celebrated Kellermann of Augsburg, who for one single suit
of armour was paid fourteen thousand dollars. The cele-
brated piece of armour ornamented with embossed (repousse)
representing the labours of Hercules, in the museum
of Dresden, is likewise Gferman.
When the armour of Senri II., at the Louvre, is compared
with the designs composed for the studios of Munich, by the
painters Schwarz, Van Achen, Brockbergen and Jean Milich,
which are preserved in the Cabinet of Engravings, in this
city, it will be seen (as also on the buckler of the Ambras
coHection, the counterfeit of which is in France) that its exe-
cution has been scrupulously based upon these models, which
have been photographed and published by M. de Hefner
Alteneck, who discovered them in the cabinet of engravings
at Munich. It is particularly Pl. xvii. which gives us the
most striking proof. To have an idea of what the German
armourers were able to do in the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries, the reader should visit the Imperial Arsenal, and
the Ambras collection at Vienna. The niello-work and
incrustation in gold and silver (Taucher-arbeiten, in German)
are of a massiveness that leaves far behind similar works of
Spain ; and the hammered work is equal to that of Italy.
As to the forms of the armour, they are always graceful and
Fire arms even more than side arms and plate armour
owe their perfection to the German armourers, who invented
the air-gun in 1560 the rifled barrel (called in German

Biichsenlauf) in 1440, or according to others, in 1500 ; the

wheel-lock in 1515 ; the arquebuse in 1551 ; the double
trigger (Stecher in German) in 1543 ; the iron ramrod (the
use of which contributed to the Prussian victory at Mollwitz)
in 1730, and lastly, in 1827, the famed needle-gun.
As the archreological and special character of the matter
treated of in this book might easily lead to useless digressions
and to the use of technicaKties which are too often employed
to hide the absence of real knowledge and well-digested
study, notes of reference have been entirely dispensed with
in the Historical Chapter, and names which every one can
8 Introduction.

understand, printed in French, German and Englisli, are

employed for the designation of the objects spoken of in the
work. The author nevertheless could not refrain from
exaotly quoting the sources, whether monuments, manuscripts,
or armour, from which he has derived his knowledge, so as
to afford means of criticism, as well as of information for
this sisecial study.
As soon French edition leaves the press, translai-
as the
and in German will be published in London
tions in English
and Leipsic by Messrs. Bell and Daldy, and Mons. E. A.
Semann respectively.
Before beginning the work itself, it will be useful to pass-
in review the more important collections of armour, so as to-
enable the reader to judge by their formation in what chrono-
logical order the taste for ancient armour has developed
itself in Europe since the Eenaissance.
The first gathering together of arms and armour as a
collection, and not for ordinary use, does not appear to date
earlier than the sixteenth or end of the fifteenth century.
It will be seen by the catalogue published by M. Leroux de
Lancy in 1848, in the Library of Charts, that Louis XII.
had formed, in 1502, a cabinet of arms at Amboise. The
celebrated museum of historical armour at Dresden, one of
the finest in Europe, owes its origin to Henry the Pious.
Augustus I., who was a collector of armour during thirty-
three years (from 1553 to 1586), is nevertheless the real
founder of the present museum, which contains upwards of
sixty thousand pieces, and is especially rich in swords, but
few of the pieces of armour and arms date farther back than
the end of the fifteenth century.
The Marshal Strozzi, who died in 1558, left a cabinet of
armour of which Brantome speaks very fully :

" If the Marshal Strozzi was tasteful in fine books he was

equally so in armour, and in arms, for he had a large hall
and two rooms, which I had seen in past days in Borne, in
his palace in the Borgo and his arms were of all sorts, as

much for horse as for foot-soldiers, and of all countries,

French, Spanish, Italian, German, Hungarian and Bohemian,
and briefly, of several other Christian nations, and also
armour belonging to Turks, Moors, Arabs and savagp
nations. But what was most beautiful to behold were the
Introduction. i>

arms in antique fashion, of the old Eoman soldiers and

legionaries. All this was so beautiful that one knew not
which to admire most, the armour itself, or the curiosity
of the person who had placed it there. And to complete
the whole, there was a separate chamber filled with all sorts
of engines of war, of machines, ladders, bridges, fortifications,
and ingenious artifices and instruments ia short, of all

inventions for offensive and defensive warfare, the whole

formed and imitated in wood so cleverly and truly, that any
one had only to take the pattern in full size, and use it at
need. I have since seen all these cabinets at Lyons, whither
the last M. Strozzi, his son, had transferred them, and also
saw that they were not kept so carefully as they had been
at Eome. I noticed that they were confused and spoiled, at
which I mourned in my heart ; it is a very great pity, for
they were very valuable, and a king could not have done
better than buy them, but M. Strozzi disordered and sold
everything ; this I therefore represented to him one day, for
he would take a hundred crowns for a thing which was
worth more than a thousand. Among the other rare things
which I noticed was a shield made from the entire shell of a
turtle, so large that it would have covered the tallest man
from head to foot, and so hard that an arquebuse would have
pierced it with difficulty from a distance, and yet withal, it
was but slightly heavy. There were also the tails of two
marine horses, the handsomest, longest, thickest and whitest
that I have ever seen. I may possibly have been too long
and tedious in speaking of this cabinet of arms, but certainly
had I wished to amuse myself in telling over its curiosities,
all would have taken pleasure in reading them."
The fine Ambras collection, now in Vienna at the Belvedere,
composed only of choice pieces, was commenced in 1570, by
the Archduke Ferdinand, Count of Tyrol (son of the Emperor
Ferdinand I., and husband of the beautiful Philippine Welser
of Augsburg), in his castle of Ambras, near the town of
Innsbruck, where the prince had collected a hundred and fifty
complete suits of armour, and a large number of offensive
and defensive arms, and war harness. A
cabinet of curiosities
and art-objects, of which the greater number are now in the
Armoury at Vienna, and only a small part still remains at
Ambras; more than nine hundred historical portraits, of
10 Introduction.

small artistic merit, it is a collection of two thousand

true ;

five hundred medals and and several thousand engrav-

ings a library of four thousand printed volumes and five

hundred manuscripts, among vehich may still he seen the

three celebrated volumes of water-colour drawings, executed
by Glockenthon, containing the exact fac-similes of the
arms and armour of the three arsenals of the Emperor

Maximilian all these at that time formed a whole, which
few cities cotild eijual. The main body of this collection.
Which had lost only ten handsome suits of armour, carried off
by the Trench army, was transferred to Vienna in 1806.
The first work containing representations and descriptions of
these treasures was published in the seventeenth century in
Latin, by Jacob Schrenk of Notzing, a slight work, which
has nevertheless been translated into German by Engelbertus
Moyse de Compenhouten.
M. le Baron de Sacken has published another work, in
1862, in which the best pieces of the collection have been
reproduced by means of photography. Vienna also possesses
the celebrated collection of the emperor at the Arsenal of
Artillery, and that of the " Arsenal of the City." The
Arsenal of Imperial Artillery at Vienna is an immense pile
of buildings close to the terminus of the Southern railway, aud
contains one of the richest collections of armour in Europe,
derived from the private cabinets belonging to the empeiois
of Austria. Placed in a building which is one of the most
successful and beautiful of our time (the work of the Couu-,
eellor Hansen), this collection contains more than seven
hundred specimens it is at present under the superintendence

of Captain Querin Leitner, who has classified it perfectly,

and who is engaged on a publication (Waffensammlung des
osterreichischen Kaiserhauses im Artillerie Arsenal Vienna,

1868) intended to furnish reproductions of the most remark-

able pieces of armour in the musemn, which will contribute
to diffuse a taste for ancient armour.
The arsenal of the city of Vienna, which dates from the
end of the fifteenth century, and whose construction, though
worse than insignificant, was erected about 1732, contains
but little good armour, yet has forty large shields or " Setz-
schilde " of the end of the fifteenth century, and a large quan-
tity of cut-and-thrust weapons.
Introduction. 11
There may also be seen the head of the Grand Vizir
Mustafa, the cruel monster to whom the sultan sent the bow-
string, in 1684, after his defeat beneath the walls of Vienna.
The best suits of armour of this museum, where there is a
complete absence of classification, and a large number of
objects ridiculously misnamed, are shockingly bedaubed with
black paint.
The first mention of a collection of armour in the Tower
of London is to be found in an inventory of 1547, and in an
order of 1578. Paul Hentzner, a German traveller, also
speaks, in 1598, of the fine armours of the Tower of London,
though at that time they were rather an arsenal than a gallery.
In 1630, the real nucleus of the collection was commenced
at Greenwich, and with what remained from the piQages of
the civil wars, towards the end of the seventeenth century, the
actual gallery, whose classification Dr. Meyrick afterwards
directed, was formed. Since 1820, the collection has been
augmented by different purchases. The fire of 1841 deprived
them only of a few cannons, which were completely destroyed.
There is no keeper; nevertheless Mr. John Hewett, an
archaeologist, has been able to publish an official catalogue
of the arsenal, divided into twenty classes, in which thirteen
objects represent ancient armour, forty stand for the stone
age, a hundred and twenty for the age of bronze, and twenty-
five for that of iron. The arms, beginning from the com-
mencement of the middle ages down to our own times, number
about five thousand seven hundred. The whole collection,
therefore, comprises more than five thousand eight hundred
objects, the oriental division of which is remarkably well
represented. In addition to the collection of the Tower of
London we must also mention the celebrated Llewellyn
Meyrick collection at Goodrich Court, in Herefordshire, one
of the most perfect in Europe.
The arsenal of Berlin, which contains a small quantity of
armour belonging to the Electors, is not rich in either ancient
armour or arms, and is principally composed of guns, both
with flint-locks and with pistons, and of trophies taken in
the wars which Prussia has sustained; it is placed in the
building to which the masks of Schluter have given an
European celebrity. There is also at Berlin, in the Monbijou
Palace, a certain amount of historical armour and arms, as
12 Introduction.

well as the handsome collection of Prince Charles of Prussia,

a thing of worth which unfortunately lacks space enough to
be properly exhibited and classed chronologically.
The commencement of the Museum of Artillery at Paris
dates from 1788. A collection of armour and machinery had
been commenced, which was pillaged on the 14th of July,
1789. In 1795, this museum was rearranged in the convent
of the Dominican Jacobins of St. Thomas Aquinas ; in 1799
it was enriched by the celebrated collection of the arsenal of
Strasbourg, and in 1804, by the gallery which the Dukes of
Bouillon had already formed at Sedan. The museum was
again pillaged in 1830, but lost only a few of its treasures,
the greater part of which were brought back after the days
of July. In 1852, twenty of the richest and most curious
objects were transferred from the Museum of Artillery to be
placed in that of the Sovereigns at the Louvre, a loss which
was in part repaired by an imperial decree, which presented
to the Museum of Artillery the valuable arms belonging to
the library of the Eue de Eichelieu. Since then many gifts
have been made to this beautiful collection, conspicuous
among which are those made by Napoleon III. and the Baron
des Mazis. At present it is the richest and one of the best
organised of collections ; for its excellent classification, which
is due to the knowledge of the keeper, M. Penguilly THaridon,
leaves but little to be desired. There are fifty objects for
the weapons of the flint age, a hundred and fifty for those of
the bronze age and for ancient armour, thirty for the iron
age, nineteen hundred and seventy for the armour and weapons
of the middle ages, the Eenaissance, and the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries, three thousand for oriental and modern
weapons, cannon, machines, and divers other objects, com-
prising in all five thousand and two hundred numbers cata-
logued with much care.
Another old and important collection of weapons and
armour belongs to the Counts of Erbach, at Erbach Castle^
in Hesse-Darmstadt, near Oppenheim. It was begun at the
end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century,
by the Count Francis, an enthusiastic collector. The museum
contains and sixty offensive and defensive
four hundred
weapons, six hundred and twenty fire-arms, and a few
himdred weapons of the flint, bronze, and iron ages, classic.
Introduction. 13
Keltic, German, &c. The Count Eberhard, grandson of the
founder, has himself drawn up the catalogue.
The Armeria Turin was founded by the King Charles
Albert, in 1833. The Coimt Vittorio Seyssel of Ais pub-
lished in 1840 the catalogue, which contains fifteen hundred
and fifty-four specimens of ancient and modern weapons,
among which are a great number of defensive arms, both rare
and artistic.
The museum of Sigmaringen is, like those of Munich and
Turin, a modem creation, for the first gathering together of
art objects dates no farther back than the year 1842. In
the " Artistic Guide for Germany," by the present writer, will
be found an especial chapter, which gives summarily a descrip-
tion of the numerous collections which H.E.H. the Prince
of Hohenzollern has brought together in his residence, and
which have also been largely augmented by the recent
purchase of the collection of the Baron of Mayenfisch, super-
intendent of fine arts to the prince. The Counsellor Dr.
Lehner is keeper and librarian, and has been entrusted with
the chronological arrangement of the catalogue, in different
series, and with publishing fao-similes of the most remarkable
objects by means of photography. The collection of weapons
and armoux numbers more than three thousand pieces, among
which are some exceedingly valuable in an historic and
artistic point of view. The building, which the prince has
had erected in the Anglo-Gothic style, is designed by Kruger
of Dvisseldorf, and is graceful in form and worthy of its
contents. The fresco paintings, by Professor Muller of
Diisseldorf, are a work of art, which wUl in themselves repay
a journey to Sigmaringen, a place where the traveller may
find museums of every kind, with two exceptions, natural
history and natural philosophy.
M. Hefner-Alteneck has also published a work on these
museums, in which we recognise the habitual exactness of
this carefol describer.
The national museum of Bavaria, at this time one of the
richest in art-objects of the Gothic and Eenaissance styles,
originated in 1853, in the reign of King Maximilian II. It
occupies fifty-nine halls of a vast building, three stories high.
It is to the energetic activity of the late Baron Aretin, and
to the solid knowledge of the director, M. de Hefner-Alteneck,
14 Introduction.

that Germany owes the rapid collection of so many treasures,

among which may be counted more than a thousand weapons
and pieces of ancient armour. The construction of the build-
ding is defective in all respects, and the classification of the
contents faulty. Happily the new director is engaged in
rendering the classification more available for study by a
chronologic and generic catalogue. The large number and,
for the most part, the historic and artistic value of the objects
exhibited, place the National Museum of Bavaria among the
first of these instructive establishments.
We also find at Munich a collection of ancient arms, in
the arsenal of the city ; these are objects which have belonged
to the different corporations, dating as far back as the four-
teenth century. But the organisation of this collection dates
only from 1866. All is arranged there in chronological
order so as to show the armour worn by the lower orders,
grouped together in their different epochs, the last of which
comes down to the end of the Thirty Tears' War. The
arsenal of the city of Munich, of which the keeper, M. Kaspar
Braun, has published, in 1866, a descriptive catalogue, con-
tains in all about fourteen hundred ancient weapons and
pieces of armour, both for the horse and rider.
The King of Sweden, Charles XV., has also commenced a
cabinet of ancient armour, composed for the most part of
the Soldinska collection from Nuremberg, brought thence
about 1856. It comprises more than a thousand specimens,
among which will be found a great many oriental weapons,
and a large number of western arms of the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries. A series of fac-similes of this beau-
tiful coUeotion has been published by Lahure, at Paris.
The cabinet of armour of the Emperor Napoleon III.,
commenced only a few years back, and which is placed in
the castle of Pierrefonds, is already one of the richest in the
empire, especially so in fine German tilting armour of the
best periods. According to the catalogue published by
M. 0. Penguilly I'Haridon, it contains five hundred and
twenty-five ancient weapons and suits of armour, and four
machines for ancient warfare, of which the two balistEe,
erroneously called catapults, and intended to shoot arrows,
are constructed after the designs of Hiero and Philo, two
Greek authors, contemporaneous with the successors of

Introduction. 15
Alexander and Vitruvius, which last are supposed to
have lived in the reign of Augustus. The other two are
catapults of the kind oallei palintones, also constructed after
the designs of Hiero. These four machines of warfare have
been taken, some years since, to the Museum of St. Germain.
Some photographic representations, by Chevalier, have been
published by Olaye, in 1867, but are not sold to the public.
Another fine collection of armour and weapons but recently
begun, is that of the Senator Count of Nieuwerkerke, placed
in the apartments which he occupies at the Louvre. This
cabinet, entirely formed of choice pieces, contains more than
three hundred and thirty specimens, of which M. de Beaumont
is forming a catalogue, to be illustrated with copperplate
We may also point out in France the museum of Chartres,
which possesses a good collection of ancient weapons ; among
other things the war-harness attributed to Philip IV., le Bel
(1285 to 1314), where the bassinet alone indicates the date,
for the coat of mail, of which a portion is modern, belongs
to many different periods.
For the study of weapons in flint and bronze, of primitive
and ancient times, the museums of Mayence, Copenhagen,
Schwerin, Sigmaringen, Saint Germain, and Christy's Ethmo-
graphic collection at London, ai'e those which offer the
greatest amount of resources.
All travellers know the museums of armour at Madrid,
and of Tzarskoe-Selo at St. Petersburg; reproductions of
the most remarkable objects have been published in photo-
graphs and lithographs, but no one has given any information
regarding these museums, nor of those of Venice and Malta.
As for the arsenals of the Swiss Cantons, which, though
they date back as far as the earliest wars, contain few things
anterior to the end of the fifteenth century, there are but
those of Geneva, Soleure, Lucerne, and Berne, which possess
what can be called a collection of ancient weapons ; Morat,
Zurich, Basle, and Liesthal are less richly gifted, and the
other chief towns of the Cantons have hardly anything re-
maining of their armour or weapons of offence.
Holland does not possess a museum of ancient arms, nor
has she any in her arsenals private collections are rare

we know of none but that of the Baron de Bogaert van

] 6 Introduction.

Heeswyk, in Lis coimtry-liouse near Bois-le-Duc, and that of

the late M. Kruseman, a painter, which now belongs to the
Archseological Society of Amsterdam.
The collection of ancient arms at Brussels is somewhat
extensive, and is placed in the museum of the " Porte de
Besides the first-class museums which we have here cited,
there are still a large number of important collections, most
of which are mentioned along with the engravings from
them in the body of this work, and if we count the galleries
in process of formation, we must admit that the taste for
armour nearly equals that which has been so universally
shown for keramic ware.


all countries, and as nmch among primitive tribes as
IN among ci-vilised nations, the question of weapons has been
one of great importance. From the beginning, man, exposed
on the earth without means of defence, must have been
forced to invent methods of repelling the attacks of those
creatures who were with him joint proprietors of the soil,
and to whom Nature, in depriving them of reason, had given
as compensation natural weapons. Hence, weapons, originally
invented for destructive purposes, have become the most
powerful means of civilisation ; the improvement of these
deadly instruments has constantly supplied deficiency of
numbers, and finally secured the triumph of reason ; for, in
modem times, the most ambitious of conquerors contributes
to civilisation, since he is always followed by the pioneers of
and mechanical culture. Gunpowder has, in all
probability,opened the road to printing, has lessened the
stoppages and smoothed the road of progress by supplying
strength to disciplined minorities arrayed against bar-
barous masses. Mind has found means of resisting and
subduing brute force. If we deplore warfare, we must not
regret the ever increasing perfection of weapons, which,
though making warfare more deadly at a given time, yet
by shortening renders it eventually less fatal to mankind.
Even among the most backward in civilisation, the im-
provement of weapons can have nothing injurious to the
progressive march of society, since all progress is mutually
advantageous ; and as soon as intellectual culture gains ground,
no matter in what branch, the chances of unjust war, and
dread of the reign of brute force, diminish.

Of the earliest known civilisations those of India and

America the latter, though lost and almost ignored, has
left the most ancient trace of a defensive weapon, perfected
18 Abridged Kistory

in its form.This is tlie helmet worn by a figure on a bas-

relief, in Palanque, in the ruins of the city Culhuacan, whose
date may possibly reach back three thousand five hundred
years, and the circumference of which measures over eighteen
To obtain an exact account of the progressive march in
the construction of weapons among different nations, and of
the transitions and combinations which are to be seen in the
forms of these products, they should be divided into four
distinct heads weapons of prcvhistoric times, of the age of

stone, rough, chipped, and polished; weapons of the age

of bronze —
a category in which are comprehended the manu-
factures of the ancients as well as those of the Scandinavians,
Germans, Britons, Kelts, Gauls, and others; the early
weapons of the age of iron, which includes the Merovingian
times and the reigns of a few of the Carlovingian kings, that
is to say, the end of ancient times and the beginning of the
middle ages ; and, lastly, the weapons of the middle ages,
the Eenaissance, and the seventeenth and eighteenth cen-
The use of the words, " an age of bronze," does not infer
that iron was unknown at this period it indicates only that

the use of this metal was not widely spread, and that nearly
all tools, and all weapons, even edged ones, were among most
nations made of bronze. Ingots of iron, wedge or pick-
shaped, and a few other objects in forged iron preserved in
the Assyrian museum at the Louvre, and also a fragment of
an Assyrian coat of maU in steel, in the British Museum,
are proofs that in the tenth century before Christ the
Assyrians were as well acquainted with this metal as the
Egyptians. Thirty passages in the Iliad and the Odyssey,
where iron is often spoken of, under the epithet of" difficult to
work in," show that the Greeks were likewise acquainted
with it. Bronze, on the contrary, which is a mixture of
metals (called erroneously in Grimm's dictionary " messing,"
brass), has nothing in Nature exactly corresponding to it ; it
isa composition formed by man, and which varies according
to the country and 'the time sometimes, for instance, it is

copper and tin, sometimes copper, tin, lead, spis-glas, &c., and
requires the knowledge of a mixed fusion of metals; for
while pure copper can be worked with the hammer only,

of Ancient Arms. 19
bronze must be submitted to the action of melting. The
preparation of iron- only needs a high degree of oxygenal
h^t and. its separation from carbon to become malleable —
fact known even to the Kaffirs, who employ bellows to send
oxygen through their fiirnaces. The use of bronze, instead
of ^preceding, must necessarily have followed the use of iron,
as. the latter metal might be worked without being completely

Earth, wood, stone, and the skins of animals, which can

be fouiid aver aU the earth, must of necessity have been the
first materials- which loan employed in -the manufacture of
his utensils and weapons. The use of stones for the manu-
facture of the latter dates back everywhere to the infancy of
all nations, and it is these rude creations alone Tvhich still
compose the arms of the savage. There are even some coun-
tries, where, notwithstanding that tte preparation and employ-
ment of metals for other uses was known, the inhabitants
still continued to make use of stone only for the manufacture
of offensive weapons. Such was the case in America anterior
to its final discovery by Columbus. Flint, chalcedony, ser-
pentine, and particularly the fragile black obsidian, in which
the ancient mirrors of the Incas were cut, were all in request
for the heads of lances, and arrows, and blades of swords, for
war-hatchets and knives copper and bronze were used only

for tlie making of tools.

In:Europe stone weapons are found of vory great antiquity,
and they serve to show that man must have existed during
the third geological period ; a fact of which the picture of
the mastodon or mammoth engraved on a deer's antler found
in Perigord, as also the numerous bones of the cave-deer,
scattered among flint hatchets, which have been gathered in
platonic strata, have furnished additional proof. When
these rough sketches shall have been examined under the
microscope, so as to obviate the possibility of deception, it
will then be time enough to discuss the hypothesis. It is
not enough, though, that these bones and weapons should
have been found in alluvial-diluvial districts, for these might

have been subjected to disturbance a fact which is indeed
demonstrated by the " movable deposits," so called because
composed of objects belonging to different epochs. The
diluvium fAlpin) contains no organic matter in the state of
20 Abridged History
ossine, a substance whioh characterizes bone not fossilized :
lience results that any alluvial deposit containing even the
smallest bone with ossine must be posterior to that great
terrestrial perturbation designated as the deluge.
A great many tools and weapons in worked stone are also
a sure sign that they do not date further back than the
deluge, as they are made out of pebbles, and everything tends
to show that these must have been rolled together before
being shaped by man's art.
It is impossible to assert the priority of one people over
another respecting the first manufacture of these weapons, as
they are to be found everywhere. Some weapons have been
found in France of flint, chipped by splintering, mixed with
bones of reindeer, and fossil bones, both occasionally carved
by the hand of man, and used as handles for the flint, which
is always the cutting instrument, and whose manufacture,
without the aid of metals or corrosive acids, can be explained
only by the comparative ease with which flint, freshly
quarried, and before undergoing the influence of the outward
air, can be chipped and splintered.
Lines of demarcation between the so-called ages of rough
stone, worked stone, and even of bronze, can be drawn only
with that small amount of certainty which belongs to epochs
partly or wholly pre-historic. Objects of two, and even of
all three epochs, have been found intermingled — a fact which
indicates a transition state. The researches made in the
ancient German cemetery of Hallstatt, near Ischl in Austria,
have brought to light instruments in stone, bronze, and iron,
and even some half bronze and half iron, the whole at times
mingled in a single tomb, of which more than a thousand
have been visited. The kitchen refuse heaps {KioTikenmoedr

ing Kitchen midden) of Denmark, as well as the objects
found in the lacustrine habitations of Switzerland, Savoy,
and the Duchy of Baden, though all found in alluvial soil,
may nevertheless be attributed with certainty to the pure
flint age, when no weapons or utensils showed any trace of
metal, while the lake dwellings found near Noceto, Castiana,
and Peschiera belong to the epoch known as the age of
Of all these primitive weapons those found in Denmark
(at present coimterfeited in Germany) show the greatest
of Ancient Arms. 21
amount of finish curiously enough, they appear to indicate

that at these epochs civilisation was more advanced in the

north than in the central parts of Europe. We must, never-
theless, remember that these arms have been found in alluvial
deposits, and must necessarily be more modem than those
found in the caverns or in diluvial and quaternary strata.
As for the weapons in polished stone, these are most fre-
quently of granitic serpentine, not a hard stone, though more
so than ordinary serpentine. They have also been found in
flint, in chalcedony, basalt, jade and jadaic stone of different

colours. The jade-like stone, so common in Auvergne, is of

the same kind as that which was formerly employed to make
amulets against spinal complaints, whence it took the name
of nephritic stone. The talismans or stones of victory of
the Scandinavian Sagas were probably nothing more than
serpentine. Some wedges have been found too small for any
other use, which must have been worn round the neck as a
talisman, as is shown by the hole through which the string
was passed. In the north these stones are always green, a
colour which appears to be much liked and considered sym-
bolical by the Teutonic races, for it predominated largely at
a later period in their enamels and miniatures, whUe blue
takes the principal place in works of Gaulish and Frankish
origin. The nations in remote antiquity appear to have
used stone weapons simultaneously with iron and bronze
ones, as the museums of London and Berlin possess several
very ancient examples of Assyrian and Egyptian origin in
these materials.
Bronze weapons have been discovered in the north as
frequently as on classic soU. They may have been intro-
duced in the west by victorious oriental races, as the weapons
of the so-called age of bronze of the different countries re-
semble each other more than those of other periods ; and in
the Scandinavian Sagas we find the conquerors treating dis-
dainfully the people still content with flint weapons, and
calling them "little demons of the earth." The use of
bronze weapons had not yet ceased completely among the
Gauls after the conquest of Csesar, and it may be admitted
that the superiority of iron weapons contributed to the
success of the Pranks, as it had done to that of the Eomans.
If one wishes to become apt in the knowledge of classifying
22 Abridged History

ciironologically the weapons of these periods, which so much

resemble one. another, and in-.whieh transition states are.' sd
frequent, the construction of the different tombs^ should; b©^
studied. The high hillocks surrounded or surmounted b|:

stones, more or less colossal (and called dolmens), and whostf-

interiors, closed with slabs of stone, contain bones unburnt,'
and flint weapons, may be considered as very ancient ioiabs.
The second category of tombs is most commonly recognisable
by a smaller hillock, and by the absence of large blocks of
stone, by a vault or tomb formed of unhewn stones of small
size, and heaped together without much skill, aid by the
urn, which indicates a burnt corpse. These tombs generally,
contain objects in bronze. Tombs still less eleyated, and-'

constructed almost wholly of earth,. belong to the third stage,-

in which the burning of bodies had again given way to rtheir
burial, and where the tombs often form cemeteries, ranging
from south to north.
While engaged on the subject of ancient weapons, we must
especially seek for the first traces which have reached us on
Hindoo, Assyrian, and Egyptian monuments. From the
foundation of the cities of Nineveh and Babylon: by Assur
and Nimrod, in the twenty-fifth century b.o., until the
third century B.O., in the reign of Sardaiiapalus V., there
are no monuments from which the slightest notion can be
gathered of the arms of a soldier under the five great Asiatic
monarchies. We are equally ignorant of the equipment of
the armies with which Belus conquered the Arabs in B.C.
1992, and Ninus, his son, subdued Armenia, Media and
nearly the whole of Northern Asia nor does anything in-

dicate to us in what manner were constructed the brilliant

weapons in use under the gorgeous Semiramis, the widow of
Ninus, who, from b.Oj 1968 to 1916, extended her empire
as far as the Indus, and accumulated fabulous treasures at
Babylon. From the reign of Ninyas, her son, history fur-
nishes absolutely nothing respecttQg the long line of hi&
successors, save a few tales about the well-known Sardanapalus,'
who w»s dethroned in 759.
The Chaldasan, Babylonian, Assyrian, Median, and Persian
bas-reliefs and casts in the British Museum, and in those of
Berlin, Munich, and Zurich, are useful supplements to written
documents, and furnish ample materials for the history of
of Ancienit Arms. 23
the armament of these military monarchies, from, the
thirteenth to the seventh century B.C., for, in contradistinc-
tion to all Hindoo and Egyptian monuments, the subjects of
these sculptures, which are nearly all provided with cimei-
form inscriptions, offer for the most part warlike episodes,
and show us the entire armament of the soldier duriiig
seven centuries. In this interval military eqtiipment appears
to have changed but little, and the valuable evidence of

Sennacherib (b.c. 712 707) informs us that the Chaldsean
soldier was armed like his Assyrian contemporary.
The infantry soldier of the regular troops wore for defen-
sive armour the helmet with chin-strap, sometimes orna-
mented with a crest of horsehair ; a round buckler, and for
sieges, a long pavois, a cuirass, or, more properly, corselet,
made with plates of inetal sewed on to woven stuffs or skins,
and also real coats of mail in steel, such as the fragment in
the British Museum shows, or sometimes a long tunic,
probably of buff leather. Leggings, or greaves, covered the
front of the leg as high as the knee-joint. The offensive
arms were the lance, sword, sKng, and bow. The auxiliary
soldier, like the militia, wore either a helmet^ without a crest
or chin-strap, or a frontlet with chin-strap of leather or metal,
resembling that worn by the Frankish-Merovingian warriors.
The buckler, generally breast-high when round, and two-
thirds of the height of a man when it was long, was usually
squared at the base and rounded at the top ; it covered nearly
the whole body of the man, who wore a long tunic, and had, like
&e regular soldier, for offensive arms, a sword, which hung at
the left side, a lance, sling, BJid bow. The Persian archer
on the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, the ancient capital of
the ancient monarchy of- Persia (560), is often covered
with a casque or bonnet, which resembles in shape the
cap of the French magistracy. Two mouldings of these
bas-reliefs, exhibited in the British Museum, also show-
casques in scales, and with chin-pieces, which greatly re-
semble those of the second part of the Christian middle

The Assyrian horseman rode without either saddle or

spurs,wore a casque with cheek-straps, but -without a crest,
and whose semi-conical shape, something like the Gaulish
helmets, differed from those worn by the foot soldiers ; he
24 Abridged History
rarely carried a buckler, but wore a cuirass, or rather, coat of
mail, witb a sort of miner's apron banging from tbe back, which
resembled the garde-reins in plate-armour of the middle ages,
and was, like it, intended to protect the lower part of the back.
He also wore leggings of scales made in the same manner
as the corselet, and always carried the lance and sword.
The archer, who is sometimes represented mounted, wore
the corselet, but seldom the casque. Like the auxiliary
soldier, his head was protected only by the frontlet. Often
the lower part of the archer's leg is encased in greaves.
When on foot he wears the long tunic. In addition to the
bow, arrows, and quiver, he carries a sword, but not a lance.
The Assyrians were acquainted with war-chariots, which
are to be seen on several of their bas-reliefs, carved in the
thirteenth century e.g., which invalidates the opinion of
Virgil, attributing their invention to Erichthonius, King of
Athens, and also those of other authors, who give the credit
to Triptolemus and Trochilus. We see, too, on these
valuable granite sculptures, the catapult and the balista,
whose invention is due to the Assyrians, as classic authors
affirm. —
The shape of these war-engines intended to hurl
projectiles of all kinds against the enemy, to batter in the
walls of the besieged cities, and to strike from far oif their

defenders differ but slightly from the Greek and Eoman
ones. As to the ancient Persian arms, the only guides we
have are a few casts from the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, exhi-
bited in the Louvre and the British Museum, among those
of Chaldsea, Babylonia, Assyria, and Media. The defensive
armour, as we have already mentioned, resembles more closely
!that of Europe during the middle ages than Asiatic armour.
They had the helmet with scales, one laid over the other,
:and with the chin-guard, and perhaps also the vizor turning
on a pivot. Mithras sacrificing the bull, on a monument
(an engraving of which is to be seen in De la Chaussee,
Kom. MS.), wears the helmet with rounded head-piece in
ithe Etruscan style. This piece of sculpture, which is
believed to date back to the birth of him who reformed
Magianism, a time which wavers between the twelfth and
sixteenth centuries B.C., is not much to depend on. It is
doubtful whether the shape of the helmet, and still more of
the knife, with which the god sacrifices, and which resembles

of Ancient Arms. 25
the modem Indian dagger, can really be attributed to the
ancient Persians, whose language, the Zend, has been dead
for a long time, though the Ghebir priests use it still, in
repeating prayers of which they have ceased to understand
the meaning. The bronze Persian helmet with rounded
top of the dynasty of the Sassanides (e.g. 220 — 552), pre-
served in the British Museum, recalls the shape of the
German round-topped casque of the tenth century.
After the fourth dynasty, that of the Caliphs (652), until
the end of the twelfth, that of the Mongols, and other
Mahomedan rulers, Persian weapons take an entirely Mus-
sulman character. During the dynasty of the Sophis
(1499— 1736), Persian weapons have hardly changed form,
and greatly resemble one another. The miniatures in a
copy of the Schah-Nameh, or Eoyal Book, composed by the
poet Ferdusi, in the reign of Mahmoud (999), and copied at
the beginning of the seventeenth century, now in the library
at Munich, show nearly the same shape of helmets, and the
same weapons that are stiU used in Persian warfare, from
whence comes the scimitar, a name derived from the
Persian chimichir, or chimchir, a weapon called seymitar by
the Germans, and acinace by the Eomans, the forefather of the
sabre, the German Sable, or Sabel, which was already
known by the Dacians, and on the farther shore of the Ehine,
about the fourth century, and introduced into the rest of
Central Europe at the beginning of the first Crusade.
The Chaldasan and Median weapons are often confounded
with those of Assyria. The soldier of ancient Babylon
which was peopled by Chaldseans from the sea, whose capital

was Teredos nevertheless appears to have worn, instead of
the conical casque, a metal head-dress, similar to that
represented on a Persian bas-relief, already mentioned, and
which has the shape of a French judge's cap. Media, the
most powerful kingdom among those which were formed
from the ruins of the first Assyrian empire, can with diffi-
culty be separated in treating of the armament of its troops,
from Persia, and particularly inasmuch as its first king,
Arbaces, did not live more than 759 years B.C., and that
the kingdom of the Medes was, in 536, already absorbed
in that of Persians under Cyrus. From this time forward
the terms Medes and Persians are always spoken of to-
26 Ah-id'ffed History

getherj and employed indistinctly for tte inhabitants of these

two even the Persian wars against
different countries, so .that
the Greeks have been called Median wars.
Without taking into account the-fabulous history in whicb'
the Hindoos place their origin at a date of exaggerated'
antiquity, we may fix the first known dynasty of kings, that
of the Chandras, at B.C. 3200, a dynasty which had probably
been preceded by many periods of civilisation, now lost to us.
It is much to be regretted that the English officials who
have successively governed India should not have gathered
more of the numerous and splendid architectural ruins,
which even now cover the soil. The few sculptures in the
British and South Kensington Museums are insufficient, nor
do the Louvre or the Berlin Museum possess any of the
peculiar carvings, figures twisted and contorted in the style
of the European religious sculptures of the end of the seven-
teenth and beginning of the eighteenth century. And none
of the museums possess any monuments for the study of
Hindoo armom-. The photographs exhibited at the Kensing-
ton Museum, which represent a large number of ruined
palaces, temples, and a few commemorative stones in sculp-
tiu'ed granite, show that the Hindoos, like the Egyptians,
cared Httle to perpetuate their feats of arms on buildings,
for among all the sculptures there are only a few stones of
Beejanuggur, the Hunguls, which represent warlike subjects,
nor do these date farther back than the first haK of the'
Christian middle ages. The figures represented betoken
that Hindoo war-harness has changed but little as regards
offensive armour and it is only in the casques that a radical

change has manifested itself, since the fourteenth and

fifteenth centuries of our era, when the Arab taste began to
react against that which had nearly effaced it, in its own produc-
tions. As to the Javanese armour, there is only a fine
statue of the Goddess of War in the Museum of Berlin,
which gives a few indications, though not very ancient, by
reason of the sword which she carries.

The funereal and civil monuments of Egypt a country
where the genius of the nation turned inore towards agricul-
ture and the sciences than towards war — also exhibit far fewer
military subjects than do those of Assyria. Denon, in his
" Voyages dans la Basse et Haute Egypte," has, it is true,

of Ancient Arms. 27
given a few drawings of weapons, as also has M. Prisso

d'Avesnes, in liis " Monuments E^^tiens ;" but these are too
few, even when combined with the bas-reliefe of Thebes, and
the few actual weapons presei'ved in' the musemns of J Londoii,
the Louvre, and Berlin, to' convey an. exact idea of the arm-
ing of the whole pi the Egyptian forces. In the drawings

we find a helmet, which recalls the fool's cap and bells of this
Christian middle ages, and the casque of the Hindoot
Hungul ; a coat of bronze scale armour, drawn by M. Prisse
d'Avesnes from a monument of the age of the Pharaohs
(eighteenth dynasty, B. c. 1000), judging from a Biblical
inscription engtayed on one of the scales, which measures
an inch and a half iii length, by three-fourths of an inch
in breath. The buckler, square at the base and rounded
at the top, has a hole pierced in ,it, through which the
soldier can see thfe enemy without imperilling his safety
this buckler was nearly the height of a man. The bow,

the arrows with their qtiiyer, a hlow-warder a peculiar-
instrument, which brings to mind the small round shield with
hooks, and the swordrhreaher of the middle ages, and intended
like the latter to catch and break the adversary's sword ; a
few swords, or rather knives, with a single edge, in the style of
the Meroviugian " scrama saxe," and rarely the lance with a
metal head ; these are all that we know of the armour of
this country, for the kind of hood on the wounded warrior,
from a bas-relief of Thebes, does not enable one to dis-
tinguish whether it be a piece of defensive armour or a simple
covering. The few daggers in bronze exhibited in the
l^yptian museum at the Louvre seem by their shape to
indicapte a Greek origin, though the weapons were found in
Egypt. The coat in crocodile's skin in the Egyptian mu-
seum of the Belvedere at Vienna, and the bronze dagger in
the museum of Berlin, appear, nevertheless, to be of very
great Egyptian antiquity.
Etruria, Greece, and Eome, have fortunately left us wea-
pons in which art manifests itself as well in the harmony of
form as in the detailed execution; and it is only by starting
from the epoch when these countries were flourishing that a
history of weapons can be based on' a firm footing, by study-
ing the pieces exhibited in a large number of museums.
The offensive and defensive Greek weapons in the time of

28 Abridged History
Homer (b. o. all composed of bronze, though iron,
1000) were
as weare aware, was not unknown. The defensive armour
was composed of the cuirass, breast- and back-plate, each
plate cast or hammered in one piece, and also the corselet of
imbricated scales, the casque, the large round convex shield,
and the greaves, or leggings. The offensive weapons were
the cut-and-thrust sword, straight-bladed, at first short and
broad, afterwards longer and double-edged, sharp-pointed,
with a rectangular sheath, always worn on the right side
the " parazonium," a short, broad dagger (resembling the
" langue de boeuf " of the middle ages), worn on the left, the
lance, from eleven to fifteen feet in length, the blade broad,
long, and sharp, rounded towards the socket, and with a cross-
piece in the centre, and which was used either to thrust or to
throw, and the javelin, with its amentum or thong, which
was a kind of long arrow. The Greeks had at that period
no cavaby ; they had even no phrase to signify mounting on
horseback, similar circumstances being probably the reason
why the French language lacks a substantive to render the
German word " Eeiteu." Later on, in the year b. c. 400, the
Greeks made an addition to their armies by enrolling slingers
and horsemen.
The Etruscan armour, a portion of which ought to precede
in this work Greek armour, shows in its first period the
influence of the Phoenicians, and in its second that of the
Greeks, with whom the Etruscans, after the emigration of
were so closely allied. The third period is purely
Eoman, and is involved in obscurity. Polybius, born in the
year 552, after the foundation of Eome, or 202 before
Christ, is the first author who has described the arms of
a Boman soldier, and speaks only of those of his own time.
The information left by this tutor and friend of the second
Scipio Africanus, taken with the small indications furnished
by monumental sculptures on the borders of the Ehine in
Germany, by the columns of Trajan and Antoninus, and by
the Arch of Orange (in France), comprise almost all that is
known on the subject. Thanks to the poems ascribed to
Homer, we have much better information about the Greek
arms in use in the tenth, or possibly in the thirteenth,
century before Christ, at the time of the siege of Troy, than
on those with which this sovereign people subdued the
o/ Ancient Arms. 29
world. It is very probable that the Eomans, as well as the
Greeks and Etruscans, at first used only bronze in the fabrica-
tion of their offensive weapons, but in the time of Polybius
this metal was no longer employed except for casques, breast-
plates, greaves, and other arms of defence. Whilst bronze
was still the only metal in use among the Gatds, the Bomait
weapons were already made wholly of iron and steel.
The Eoman army was composed of three kinds of troops,
the velites, or foot soldiers lightly-armed, the Jiastarii, spearmen,
or legionaries, and the cavalry. The first were armed with
small javelins, about four feet in length, the iron of which
measured nine inches, with swords, and with a light shield,
roimd or oval, three feet in diameter, and called parma, on
account of its round shape. This was the same kind of
shield which the gladiators used. The casque had generally
cheek-pieces, but no crest, though sometimes it was orna-
mented with woH-skin. The spearman was protected by a
helmet of iron or leather, ornamented with a plume of three
black and red feathers, by greaves (ecreoe), by a breast-
plate (or cuirass with two shoulder-pieces), all of bronze.
He also carried a large convex shield of wood, leather, and
iron, four feet in length and two and a half feet wide. TTis
weapons of attack were the Iberian (or Spanish) sword, worn
on the right side, similar to the Greek soldier, two javelins,
one of which was the celebrated pilum of the legionary,
which we shall meet at a later period in the Frank equip-
ment. The slinger was armed with the sling, copied from
that cajried by the Achseans.
The cavalry soldier in the time of Polybius was equipped
Hke the Greek. As before that time the cavalry soldier's only
weapon of defence had been a roxmd, oval, or hexagonal shield
of bull's hide, it was now foimd necessary to equip him in a
more complete style, so as to resist the formidable attacks of
barbarians. Later on, in the time of Trajan and of Septimius
Severus, a flexible cuirass was added, being either a squamata,
composed of small iron or bronze scales sewed on linen or
leather, or a hamcUa, made of metal chains — ^the same kind of
coat of mail as those that have been found at Avenches, in
Switzerland, and which are at present exhibited in the
museum of that town. On examining the Trajan Column it
will be seen that a great many of the soldiers represented
30 Abridged History

on have breast-plates
it that are made neither of mail nor
scales, of metal, something like the armour
but of long plates
of the middle ages and
; from the bas-reliefs on this monu-
the Roman army was composed of a
ment it will be seen, that
great number of troops whose different equipments varied
as milch as the/ do how in our modem armies.
The ancient as well as the Greeks made use of
machines in war. Besides the scythe chariots originally
imported, like many other instruments of warfare, from
Assyria, they were acquainted also with battering-rams,
which lad been already in use at Palss-Tyros (the ancient
Tyre, founded about 1900 B.C.), and are mentioned in the old
Testament. Ezekiel (599 b.c.) says that the king of Babylon
used battering-rams against the walls of Jerusalem. (Ezekiel,
ch. :xxi. V. 22.)
Of these instruments of war, already referred to, the halista
was used to shoot enormous arrows, and the catapult, or tormen-
tum, even larger projectiles, some of which were ingot-shaped,
sharpened at both ends these in Greece were often inscribed

with the word AEAHI (receive this), as we may see by

several leaden specimens, which have, been found in making
excavations. Among the Greeks those catapults which fired
point-blank were called a}&vTova, while those which carried
missile's as our mortars throw shells were called iraXivTova.
Another engine used in warfare was the tolleno, a kind of
weighing machine with two baskets attached to it which was
used to deposit the attacking party in the besieged place.
M. Ehodios makes mention in his treatise IIEPI nOAE-
MIKHS TEXNHS (Athens, 1868) of a catapult, or more pro-
perly portable balista, something like the crossbow of the
middle ages, which he describes and illustrates from the
Byzantine MSS. but we doubt if the kind of crossbow that

M. Ehodius calls gastrafetes, because the crossbow-man used

to rest it on his stomach, can be traced back to the Greeks
and- Eomans, for the ancient writings do not mention it.
We have already seen from the introduction that several
of these machines of war, described by Heron, Philon, and
Vitruvius, and which were called respectively, eutJiyiones,
xybeles, palintones, and scorpion catapults, have been made at
the present day for Napoleon III.'s collection of arms. With
regard to the polyspaste or crane of Archimedes (an engine
of Ancient Arms. 31
whicli was used to raise and shatter to pieces wJiole vessels)
a good deal of uncertainty exists, but there is good reason to
believe that it may be identified with those enormous hooks
that were used to pulL off the heads of the batteriirg-rams.
The. shell-like covering or shed tmder which the battering-
ram was worked was called <e«iij(fo,- or tortoise, from its
resemblance to the shell of that animal.
M. Ehodioa has' also told us in Jiis very interesting work
that his ancestors, the Greeks, made use also of explosive

machines, somewhat like an air-cannon or air-gun of the

present day on a gigantic scale.
Bronze arms, showing more or less in their make the
influence of their ahdent models, have been found in the
tombs of almost all those European nations whioli the
Eomans usedtooaU barbarians; but those of Scandinavia
(Northern Geriaany and Denmark) are like the Danish arms
of the stone age, far superior to those of other northern
countries, and falling very little short of the arms of the
Greeks and Eomans tKeinselves. The specimens contained
in the museums of Copenhagen and of London, placed,
as they are, side by side with the arms of the Britons
and Anglo-Saxons, show what progress the art of working in
metal had already made. The defensive armour of the
Scandinavian soldier seems to have consisted only in the
round or oblong shield, the cuirass, and the casque, although
not a single specimen of the latter is to be found in the

museum at Copenhagen; and' the large twists of liair

worn seem to prove that the casque was used only by the
chiefs, a custom prevailing also among the Franks and
Germans. The casque with horns found in the Thames, and
preserved in the British Museum among the national arms,
may very likely have been of Danish origin, as well as the
shield exhibited side by side with it.
In treating of the arms of Keltic Gaul and of Lower
Brittany, our researches are attended with still greater com-
plications. It is very difficult, in fact almost impossible, to
draw up a distinct category of those that have been found in
France. On this point all is uncertain. Even that famous
weapon, the celt, an axe, or, more properly speaking, axe-head,
easily recognisable from its straight socket and ring, has been
found in Eussia, in France, in Italy, in Germany, and in

32 Abridged Eistonj
England — a fact wMcli shows the extreme difficulty of an
accurate classification. The kelts seem to have been spread
in every direction, and to have belonged to no country in
particular. As late as the time of Julius Caesar the defensive
arms of the Gtauls were, like their offensive arms, of bronze,
and consisted of a conical casque, very pointed, like those ex-
hibited in the museum at Eouen, and worn most probably only
by the chiefs. We cannot even attribute this casque entirely
to Gaul, for some have been found at Posen, and at Inn, in
Bavaria, where this helmet is exhibited in the national
museum of Munich, under the title of Hungarian or Avar
helmet. The cuirass was the same as the one worn by the
Roman soldier, some specimens of which are to be seen in
the Museum of Artillery in Paris in the Louvre, and at Saint-
Germain. The shield completed the defensive arms. From
the carvings on the sarcophagus of the Vigna-Ammendola, and
from those on the Arch of Orange, we see that the shield
was sometimes round and sometimes oblong, but rather wider
in the middle than at the ends. The weapons consisted of
an axe, which varied considerably in shape with this is often

classed the celt, which we incline to believe to have been a

javelin-head ; a sword, which also varied in its form, being
sometimes the short Greek sword, sometimes the three-edged
sword, without a guard to it, such as may be seen in the
Eoman bas-relief of the Melpomene in the Louvre. The
lance, the javelin, and the bow, were among their weapons.
The Gallic standard with the device of the boar, represented
on one of the bas-reliefs of the Arch of Orange, is a proof of
the influence of Eoman taste in armour. One of these made
of bronze, was discovered in Bohemia, and is now exhibited in
the museum at Prague. The arms of the Germanic nations
during the so-called bronze age were as varied as those of Gtaul.
The numerous excavations that have been made in the
cemetery of Hallstatt in Austria, where more than a thousand
Germanic tombs have been opened, have only served to increase
our imcertainty on this subject, for the bronze casques found
in these sepulchres, together with other weapons made of
iron, bronze,and stone, are exactly like the double-crested
casques preserved in the museum of Saint-Germain, that
are generally supposed to be Etruscan, or Umbrian, though
by some considered Keltic. Wefind among the ancient

of Ancient Arms. 33
Britisliweapons exMbited in the museums in England, some
that were in shape like the Danish, and among the arms
found at Hallstatt the celt frequently occtu-s the short swords

remind us strongly of those of Greece, while the Scandi-

navian and Gennanic ones bear the same characteristics,
without taking into account the so-called Keltic sword an —
epithet, by-the-bye, unpleasantly vague.
The bronze weapons belonging to this age that have been
discovered in Eussia and in Hungary consist almost entirely
of battle-axes and spear-heads. Several of the Russian axes
are ornamented with the device of a ram's head.
The period which by common consent is usually though
improperly called the Iron Age, ought, logically speaking, to
end at the close of the fifth century, that is, after the down-
fall of the Western Empire, but many carry it as far as the

end of the Carlovingian dynasty, a.d. 987 a very easy but
not very correct limit to assign.
Its proper termination is undoubtedly that period imme-
diately preceding the age of chivalry, that is, the seventh and
eighth centuries.
We have already seen that iron was known in all times,
but that when universally adopted for the purpose of making
arms of defence and offence, bronze was still in use. The
Eomans very soon learnt the superiority of the iron over the
bronze weapon for offensive purposes; they accordingly
used bronze only for arms of defence. In the year 202 b.o.
the Roman soldier was furnished with weapons of iron only,
and there is no doubt that, in the second Punic war, this
fact contributed in no small degree to the Eoman victories.
Several of the iron weapons discovered in the cemetery of the
Catalauni (in the department of Marne), and which are at
present preserved in the museum of Saint-Germain, would seem
to be of Germanic origitt, because the swords are very like
those found at Tiefenau and at Neufchatel in Switzerland
weapons probably made by the Burgundians, who were so
celebrated for working in iron. Helvetia, which in the year
450 had been rendered almost desert by those systematic
massacres perpetrated by the Eomans, was repopulated about
550 Aj). by the Burgundians, numbers of which people had
abeady settled in the west, by the AUemanni, who took pos-
session of that portion where German {Allemand) is spoken to

34 Abridged Uistorij
this day, and by the Ostrogoths, who settled in the south,
where Italian and French is now spoken. The Burgundians
were a tall, strong race, and from the length of their sword-
hilts we see that they must have had very large hands. A
battle-axe and two iron spear-heads, found near the village
of Onswala (Bara-Schonen) in Switzerland, prove conclusively,
from the difference of their shape, that they must have be-
longed to a people who were neither Gauls nor Franks, but
most probably Burgundians.
The arms of the Germanic races generally are very little
known we only know that their favourite weapons were the

lance, the battle-axe, and the sword ; and that their shields

were painted in bright colours usually white and red that ;

they were made of plaited osier covered with leather, and

generally about eight feet by two in size. Their shields were
subsequently made of lime-wood bound with iron but the;

iron framework of several round shields, with very prominent

bosses (a shape which seems to have been particularly in
favour with the Franks), has been discovered at Sigmaringen,
in Bavaria, in Hesse, in Silesia, in Denmark, and in England
these shields being everywhere adopted. The battle-axe of
the Northern Germanic races is easily distinguishable from
that of their brethren of the south by its different shape. The
francisque, the characteristic weapon of the Franks, is not to be
foimd anywhere those discovered being always of the Saxon

shape. The only remains of a Germanic cuirass belonging

to these ages that have been discovered, are those at present
exhibited in the museum at Zurich, and which were found in
the territory originally occupied by the Allemanni. The
workmanship of this cuirass is very curious it is made of

small metal scales joined together. The Quadi were most

probably the only people who had armour made of horn.
Concerning the Franks and their mode of equipment, our
information is fuller than with regard to any other nation of
those times. This we gather from several authors, Sidonius
Apollinaris, Procopius, Agathias, and Gregory of Tours, &c.,
and also from the numerous excavations that have been made
in the Merovingian cemeteries, by means of which we can
make out a nearly complete classiiication of armour, such as
was originally worn by these rude warriors. This armour,
which was, on the whole, not unlike that of the Germans"
of Ancient Arras. 35
consisted of a small circular shield of convex sliape, about
fifty centimetres in diameter, and made of wood or leather.
No helmets or cuirasses have yet been found, but we know
from history that their chiefs wore them. The common
soldier used to have part of his head shaved, and had a
pig-tail like a Chinaman only that it was twisted round

Ms head to form a protection for it, somewhat in the style

of a helmet, and dyed red. But with weapons of offence
he was well provided these consisted of a double-edged,

smooth, narrow sword, two feet eight inches in length, and

pointed at the end, and the long dagger or cutlass about
twenty inches in length, called a scrama saxe the latter part

of the word means a knife, the first part being derived either
from the word scamata, a line drawn on the arena between two
contending gladiators, or from scrarsan (to clip), from which
word is derived the German Scheere. Hence scrama saxe would
mean either a cutting-knife, or otherwise a duellist's knife.
Many of these knives have been found with very long
tangs. A specimen is to be seen in the museum of Zurich
more than nine inches in length; another at Sigmaringen,
ten inches in length. Some archeaologists try to persuade
themselves that these swords were intended merely for hewing
wood, because the length of the haft seems to prove that
both hands were used ; but the scrama saxe is undoubtedly
a weapon, and not an implement of husbandry, as we inva-
riably find it in the tombs of warriors laid side by side
with the long spaiha.
This weapon appears to have been generally in use
by all the Teutonic nations, inasmuch as the museum of
Copenhagen as well as most of the German and Swiss museums
contain specimens of it. The blade is single-edged, sharpened
to a point, and scooped out in several places to make it lighter
and more serviceable. These weapons, which M. Penguilly
I'Haridon has restored in such perfection for the " Mus6e Im-
p&iale d'Artillerie " at Paris, were attached to a leathern belt,
furnished with clasps. The javelin, or pilum,' with a barbed

point, the lance with a long iron head, and the battle-axe,
completed the list, bows and arrows being more frequently-
used for the chase than for war. The javelin being hurled
at the enemy's shield, could, if fixed therein, drag it down by
its weight.
36 Abridged Eidory

The Frank used then to follow up his attack with the

sword or with the francisque, a single-edged weapon not —

double-edged, as many have asserted often making use of this
likewise to hurl at the foeman's shield when the javelin had
not taken effect.
The sword said to have belonged to Childerio I. (457-481),
and still preserved in the Louvre, has been so imperfectly
restored that it is impossible to form a correct idea of its
original appearance. The pommel has been placed on the
lower part of the hilt instead of the upper, so that it looks a
second guard, and gives the weapon an utterly absurd shape.
We unfortunately have neither documents nor arms which
would enable us to give a detailed account of the manner in
which the Franks were armed between the end of the Mero-
vingian and the beginning of the Carlovingian dynasty. The
sword and spurs that are said to have belonged to Chai-le-
magne are almost all that remains, for the ivory cover belong-
ing to the Antiphonarium of St. Gregory, made in the end of
the eighth century, has Koman characters traced upon it,
and was no doubt copied from a diptych. We must look in
the Bible of Charles II., surnamed " le Chauve," and even
on that we must not place much reliance, for the artist
has evidently allowed his fancy to guide him in some
of the illustrations. In one of these the king is re-
presented sitting on a throne, surrounded by guards clad
like Eoman warriors, in mantles like those worn by the Pre-
torian guard; whilst in a bas-relief now in the church of
Saint-Julien at Brioude (Haute Loire), made in the seventh
or eighth century, a warrior is represented in a coat of
mail, and a conical helmet and in a German MS. of Wes-

sobrunn, at Munich, written in 810, the soldiers have

helmets that come low down on the neck, and round shields.
It is impossible to reconcile either of these pictures with the
evidence of the monk of Saint-Gall, who -nTote as an eye-wit-
ness about the end of the ninth century, and says that Charle-
magne and his soldiers were literally encased in iron that the

emperor wore an iron helmet his arms were protected by


plates of iron, his thighs by scales of the same the lower part

of his legs was protected by greaves, and his horse was clad
in armour from head to foot. This testimony is confirmed
by the laws of that sovereign, who ordered that all warriors
of Ancient Arms. 37
should wear ai-mlets, helmets, leg-pieces, and also carry a
shield. Although the Codex aureus evangelia of the monastery
of Saint-Emeran at Ratishon, a work undoubtedly written
about 870 a.d., shows in the equipment of the soldiers many
Eoman characteristics similar to those in the Bible of Charles
le Chauve before mentioned, and of the Codex aureus of Saint-
Gall, it is hardly likely that such a retrogression should have
taken place in the days of Charles II. from the formidable
and complete equipment in the reign of Charlemagne. The
Leges Longohardorum of the ninth century, which are pre-
served in the library of Stuttgard, confirm these doubts, for
in them the king of Lombardy is represented bearing a long
shield like those worn in the fourteenth century, and the
bas-relief on a shrine of the ninth century in the treasury of
the church of Saint-Maurice in Switzerland, shows a warrior
in a complete suit of mail armour.
After these we find a singular dearth of historical and
archsBological traces, with the exception of the Martyrologium,
a manuscript preserved in the same library, and the Biblia
Sacra, another MS. in the Imperial library at Paris ; both
these MSS. are of the tenth century. In these the German
knights are already armed in the same manner as the Norman
knights that are represented in the Bayeux tapestry about the
end of the eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth centuries.
As we remarked above, there is a great scarcity of docu-
ments on this subject during the Carlovingian period, from
the year 687 to 1)87 ;but for the period of the Crusades
(1096 to 1270) our information is much fuller.
An Anglo-Saxon MS. of the British Museum library, the
PsychomacMa et Prudentius, written in the tenth century, repre-
sents a soldier without any coat of mail, but wearing a helmet
with a rounded crown, like the soldiers in the Biblia Sacra
mentioned above whilst another Anglo-Saxon MS., called

Aelfric, written in the eleventh century, represents a knight

in mail armour, with a helmet of a very singular shape, having
no nose-piece to it, though in the Martyrologium, a MS. written
in the tenth century, now in the library at Stuttgard, the soldiers
are represented wearing helmets with the nose-guard. The
Aelfric MS. is particularly interesting to the archKologist for
the various shapes of swords it gives, for by the length and
shape of the blades one can fix the date with tolerable accuracy.
38 Abridged Hidory
In the illustrations of this MS. may be seen swords with tri-

by the warriors in the Biblia Sacra.

Idbated hilts, like those borne
The German knight, however, is armed in a very different
manner in the Jeremias Apoealypsis, a MS. of the eleventh
century, in the library at Diisseldorf. He is there represented
as wearing a hauberk with long sleeves of mail, and the upper
and lower part of his hose are of the same material while he

also carries the little bassinet and the long-pointed shield of

a convex shape, square at the top and pointed at the end. The
same armour may be seen on one of the statues of the founders
of the cathedral at Naumburg, of the same date ; the only dif-
ference being that the shield on that statue is of the shape
that is generally called in France, Norman. Wealso see
the same armour in the sculptures of twelfth-century date
on the gate of Heimburg in Austria, a town close to the
Hungarian frontier. The warriors on the mitre of Seligenthal
in Bavaria, on which the artist has represented the martyr-
dom of St. Stephen and of St. Thomas Becket, have very tall,
rounded helmets, like sugar-loaves in shape. A bas-relief of
the eleventh century, in the basilica at Zurich, represents the
Duke of Bourckhard with helmet and sword, the shape of which
reminds one of the weapons of the Martyrologium of Stuttgard.
A statuette in yellow copper of the tenth century, in the col-
lection of Count Nieuwerkerke, is very interesting, because the
nose-piece of the helmet is much broader at the bottom than
others of the same time. The Bayeux tapestry, which was
made soon after the conquest of England by William the Con-
queror, in the year 1066, is our best authority on the subject of
Norman armour, as it shows us the manner in which soldiers
were armed about the end of the eleventh and first part of the
twelfth centuries. The conical helmet on the bas-relief of
Brioude is also to be seen in the tapestry, but it has generally
a fixed nose-piece, similar to the casques in the Martyr-
ologium of the tenth century. Henry I. of England (1100)
and Alexander I. of Scotland (1107-1128) are represented on
their seals wearing the conical helmets, called in Franco
Norman ; it is only toward the end of the twelfth century
that we find helmets with round crowns worn in England,
similar to that on the seal of Richard I., Coeur de Lion
(1189-1199), though this same kind of casque was worn in
Germany as early as the ninth century. (See MS. of Wes-
of Ancient Arms. 39
sobniim, and tho reliquary of the churcli of Saint-Maurice.)
On the other hand, the frescoes on the dome of the cathe-
dral at Brunswick, painted in the reign of Henry the Lion,
Tvho died in the year 1195, represent Imights wearing conical
casques, and others already provided with rounded helms.
About the end of the tenth and beginning of the eleventh
century, a knight wore usually a long tunic or hauberk
(called in German BaZ«6ergr; in old German, hrunne or hrunica),
that extended to just above the knee, and with sleeves which
at first reached to the elbow, but were subsequently brought
lower down on the arm. He also wore a sort of hood called
a camail, which covered the greater part of the head and
neck, so that only a little of the face remained exposed.
This hauberk or smock frock was made of leather or linen,
and had either strong wrought iron rings, sewed on it side by
side, or chains placed either lengthways or crossways, or
metal plates in the shape of scales. In the Bayeux tapestry
William the Conqueror is represented with the lower part of
his stockings covered with rings, while the knights, like the
Anglo-Saxon warriors, have their feet bound round with
thongs. The statue of one of the founders of the cathedral
at Naumburg, a building of the eleventh century, mentioned
above, wears leggings covered with mail, and the figures re-
presented on coins of the reign of Henry the Lion, Duke of
Brunswick, have the same kind of armour.
The Norman hauberk, therefore, was a sort of close-fitting
upper garment, with stockings attached to it. It was made
in one piece from the neck to the knees, and reached down
to the elbows. The camail was a separate garment, and pro-
tected the back of the neck, the head, and a portion of the
face ; but amongst the Normans additional safety was afforded
by the conical helmet, fitted sometimes with a long nose-piece,
and sometimes with a guard for the back of the neck.
The hauberk is generally represented having a lattice-
work, and in each of the squares large iron rings sewed
on, or the heads of nails riveted. In the designs on the
MSS. it is almost impossible to distinguish the one kind from
the other. Coats are also to be seen, made entirely of iron
scales, and hauberks latticed all over, but not having either
nails or rings fastened to them. The Veleslav manuscript,
in the library of the Prince Lobkowitz at Eaudnitz, seems

40 Abridged History
to prove that the knowledge of body-armour in BoHemia
had not made very much progress in the thirteenth century
but, nevertheless, we already find pointed mailed shoes in use
(a la poulaine), hats, large iron helmets, and small shields.
The latter may also be seen in the valuable MS. of that time
called the German Jilneid of Henry I. of Waldeck, in the
library at Berlin. In this last-mentioned MS. the horses are
covered with housings in lattice work and studded with nail-
heads, and the knights have high helmets with crests, two
things that were very rare at that time. The German MS.
Ti istan and Isolde, written in the thirteenth century, now in the
library at Munich, is also very interesting, for in it we see
the knights armed with leg-pieces of plate and solerets, or
small shoes, a la poulaine.
The defensive armour of the Norman was completed
by a shield, generally pear-shaped, being rounded at the
top and pointed at the bottom, and of a sufficient size to
cover the body, reaching as it did a little above the shoulder
and just below the hip. The Anglo-Saxon shield was round
and convex, something like those of the Franks, and also
like the circular buckler of the fifteenth century. His wea-
pons consisted in a long cross-hilted sword, which was never
very sharp, a mace, a battle-axe with either a long or short
handle, and a lance with a little pennon hanging to it, about
two feet in length. The sling and the bow were their missile
weapons. The helmets worn by the archers were mostly
without a nose-piece. The best kind of latticed, or chequered,
hauberk was made of several layers of stuff with wadding
between each, quilted and kept together by pieces of leather
placed so as to form diamond shaped spaces, a ring or nail-
head being sewed in each space, and also on every inter-
secting angle. The coats of scale armour, usually called
jazerans [Iwrazims), are very rare at this period ; in fact,
we may venture to say there were probably none. The
earliest one that I can trace in the manuscripts of the
middle ages is a kind of shirt of mail worn by a knight in
the Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall, written in the ninth century.
Nevertheless we must not fail to make a distinction between
these _/aze)'ans and those of a later date, for in the museum
at Dresden there is a genuine specimen of the latter kind that
King Sobieski wore before Vienna, in the year 1629. It
of Ancient Arms. 41
seems that hauberks made of scale armour were not at all
uncommon in the north, for they are to be seen on many of
the coins of Magdeburg from 1150 to 1160, as well as
several other German coins of the same date.
AU these coats of mail above mentioned may be divided
into four sorts of ringed coats, made of flat rings sewed on
side by side ; coats made of oval rings, each one placed so as
to overlap haK the next, coats made of lozenge-shaped pieces
of metal, and coats with scales.
The real coat of mail, which is erroneously thought to have
been brought from the East after the crusades, was already
in use in the centre and in the north of Europe some time
before the eleventh century. Some pieces in the shape of rings,
about a quarter of an inch in diameter, have been found at
Tiefenau ; they are of perfect workmanship and date, certainly
some hundreds of years before the crusades. The epic poem
of Gudrun relates how Herwig took off his hauberk and placed
it upon his shield and a
; little farther on, how his clothes
were covered with the rust of his hauberk. The " Enigma
of Aldhelm," a work written in the eleventh century, mentions
this " lorica as being made entirely of metal, having no tissue,"
a passage which certainly describes the original coat of mail.
It is also spoken of in the Boman de Bou, written after
the Norman conquest. It must be about this species of
coat that the Byzantine Prinoesse Anna Comnena (1083-1148)
speaks of in her memoirs, when she says " that it was made
entirely of steel rings riveted together, that it was unknown
at Byzantium, and was only worn by the inhabitants of
the north of Europe." The coat of mail is also mentioned
by a monk of Mairemontiers, who lived in the time of
Louis VII. (1137-1180), who has given a detailed description
of the armoiir of Geoffrey of Normandy.
The lattice-worked coat, as well the hauberk covered with
chains or rings, although proof against arrows, were of no
avail against heavier weapons, such as lances in addition to

this, they were found to be too heavy and cumbersome, and so

were given up by degrees, so that we find, at the beginning
of the thirteenth century, coats of mail very generally worn
by the richer knights— a defence which, like the former,
was of no avail against rude shocks, but which the art of
wire-drawing, invented in 1306 by Eodolf of Nuremberg,
42 Abridged History
brought within the reach of the poorest knights. The in-ought-
iron rings had been previously made one by one, and then
riveted together, so that on this account coats of mail were far
too expensive to be used by the poorer knights or by the simple
man-at-arms. At the battle of Bouvines in 1214, the armour
of the men was in a very perfect condition. They had ankle
and knee-pieces, coats, a kind of shirt called oamail, arm-
guards, all made of mail, and so closely worked that thoy
were proof at every point against the dagger, the detestable'
misericorde and the Panzerbrecher, so that in order to kill an
unhorsed antagonist one was forced to beat him to death.
During the whole of the reign of St. Louis (1226-1270)
the whole suit of mail was in general use amongst people of
means in France and Italy. It was alike on both sides, with-
out any seam, and was slipped on like a shirt ; over it was
worn a garment of quilted stuff or leather, called a gamboison
or gambeson ; for a long time this latter garment was the only
species of defensive armour worn by the foot soldiers in
Prance. In that country the armour of the common horse-
men during the middle ages was very imperfect, for the
French towns, not being nearly as rich or as influential
as the large German, Flemish, and Italian cities, were unable
to organise regular bodies of townsmen properly armed. The
gamboison of the sixteenth century was made of linen embroi-
dered with eyelet-holes. Plate armour, made at first of leather,
and later on of steel, was in use at a much earlier period in
Germany than in Italy, for some German MSS. of the thk-
teenth century represent knights in this new sort of armour
with the lieaume complete, whilst in Italy we do not find
any trace of it till the fourteenth century.
Over the coat of mail the knights commonly wore a sort of
loose frock made without sleeves it was of a light material,

and was called in German Waffenrock. It reached as far as

the knee, and on it were embroidered the armorial bearings'
of its owner. This coat was generally the work of the Cas-
tellan's lady. The large hauberk, sometimes called the white
hauberk (die ganze Briinne), was made entirely of mail, and
in France the knights alone had the right of wearing it. It
weighed from twenty-five to thirty pounds (French), and was
composed of a long tunic, with the hood, sleeves, and stockings.
Subsequently the hands were covered with mittens of mail,
of Ancient Arms. 43
the thumb alone Laving a separate division. Under this coat
was worn a large plate of iron, which covered the whole of the
chest. At this time such was the usual armour of the Trench
cavalry. The small winglets that were attached to the shoulder-
pieces of the earlier coats of leather and of horn, were sorts
of escutcheons, which varied in shape the oval form heiug

usually preferred, like those on the statue of Eudolph of

Hierstein in the cathedral at Basle. These winglets, as well
as the shield, had the arms of the owner blazoned on them.
They were, however, in use for about fifty years only.
The small bassinet (called in Celtic bac) must not be con-
founded with the larger bassinet or casque that was in use
from the thirteenth to the beginning of the fifteenth century.
It was worn as often under as over the camail, and between it
and the head was a cap of quilted stuff, sometimes fastened by
strings to the bassinet. Over this was worn, during tourna-
ments or in battle, the heaume (derived from the German
lielrn), an enormous helmet, which, at first, had no crest,

usually carried at the saddle of the knight when riding.

The long shield, rounded at the top and pointed at the
bottom, completed the equipment. Subsequently the large
bassinet was worn underneath the lieaume, which became
in consequence even larger than before. The habergeon,
a species of small hauberk, was worn only by the shield-
bearers, archers, men-at-arms, and such like. It was after-
wards called a jaque, and came again into fashion in the six-
teenth century. It is very difficult to fix the exact date of
each separate kind of coat, for all the coats of mail were made
in the same way that is, in small links, called a grains d'orge,

from their resemblance to barleycorns. Still we may gene-

rally take it for granted that the thicker and heavier the link
the more ancient is the coat. Chambly on the Oise was cele-
brated for the manufacture of a double tissue of links, which,
according to the authors of the period, was made with four
rings joined on to one ; still I very much doubt if such a coat
were ever really made. Many of the coats of mail that one
sees now-a-days are counterfeit, and can easily be detected by
an amateur from the fact of their not being riveted.
The Persian coats of mail, however, are still as often made
with riveted as unriveted rings. Briganiines, which were so
often confounded with the Tcorazins, and even with the hauberks,
4-1 Abridged History
are not to be found earlier than the fifteenth century, at which
time they began to be in general use, particularly in Italy.
They were worn by the archers on horseback, and by knights
of moderate means. Some of these were made of thin plates
covered with silk velvet, and were worn by nobles in Italy
instead of the quilted doublet, as a protection against bandits.
Charles le Temeraire used to wear one. The brigantine was
generally made of thin rectangular plates of metal, each one
being riveted on to the lining, and overlapping half the other.
In several museums these hrigantines have been exhibited on
the wrong side, with the scales on the outer side ; this is evi-
dently an error, for we can see by the curved scales that they
were meant to line the brigantine, which was worn over the
ordinary doublet.
Their principal weapons were the lance and the sword, the
hilt of which during all this time had remained unaltered as
to the straight guard for the hand.
Towards the end of the thirteenth century the hauberk
began to be shortened, and, arm-guards and leg-pieces made
of prepared leather or steel being added, a radical change
soon began.
In the fourteenth century we see German armour, made of
plates of steel, and called plate armour [Schienenriisiung),
gradually gaining ground. This armour, particularly when
of good workmanship and well jointed may, when found in the
north of Europe, be assigned to a much earlier period than
in Italy and France in these countries the transition period

lasted till the reign of Philip YI. (1340), at which time

even complete suits of plate armour did not yet exist.
In the German MS. of Tristan and Isolde, written in the
thirteenth century, knights are represented clad in plate
armour, wearing helms, and their horses completely clad in
armour, though the illuminations of a Burgundian MS. in
the " Bibliotheque de 1' Arsenal " at Paris, a work supposed
to have been written by the Duke of Burgundy, Jean Sans-
Peur (1404 to 1419), but apparently of the fifteenth century,
show Burgundian armour in a far less advanced state.
These illuminations satisfy me on a point which I had already
noticed in the Swiss arsenals that is, that black armour was

more extensively used among the Burgundian and Sardinian

nations, and bright steel ar mour jjBgfig the Austrians.
of Ancient Arms. 45
Whilethis new kind of armour had been substituted for
the hauberk of mail, the under-garments had also undergone
a change. Doublets without sleeves, but with hose attached
to them, were worn, very like in appearance to the common
dress of little boys at the present day.
This doublet was made entirely of linen, slightly quilted,
and having rings of mail under the breast-plate and under
the knees and arms, so as to protect the body wherever the
armoiu: was weakest, and wherever an opening might occur
for the sword or small three-sided poniard (called in German
The only specimen of this dress that has been handed down
to us at the present day is to be seen complete and in capital
preservation in the museum at Munich.
It will not be amiss here to correct an erroneous idea,
which has sprung up that the men of the days of chivalry
were taller and broader than the men of the present day the ;

fact being that, with very few exceptions, they must have
been of smaller make, for the armour from the fourteenth to
the sixteenth century is too narrow for any one of average
proportions now-a-days to wear. I made several experiments
in the arsenals of Germany which strengthened the opinion I
had already formed by inspecting other collections. It is in
the shape of the leg and calf that the superiority of the pre
sent race may be seen ; for it is almost impossible for any
one of the present day to make a leg-piece of the middle
ages or of the Eenaissance period meet round the calf.
During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the form of
plate armour underwent a great many changes, which varied
according to the country and the period.
The influence of the changes in ordinary costumes, and the
alteration in the manner of fighting through the invention of
firearms, may be traced in the altered form of the armour.
During the greater part of the fifteenth century the armour
was usually Gothic in style. The shapes of the swords and
breast-plates of that time are very tasteful, some of them being
among the most beautiful ever made.
Towards the end of the fifteenth and beginningof the six-
teenth century the breast-plate was often rounded in shape,
the passe-gardes had increased to an extravagant size, the
tassettes of jointed work were made even more curved than

46 Abridged Histortj

before,and the whole armour be^an to lose its beauty and

simplicity as well asits severe and formidable character.
The fluted armour, which was invented in Germany, and
was indiiferently called Milanese or Maximilian, marks the
period of the decay of chivalry ; for the cuirass of the time of
Henri II., which is very like a close-fitting coat in shape, as
well as the breast-plate, which resembles the deformed figure
of Punch, have lost all manly character.
Very shortly armour assumed a most grotesque appearance.
The breast-plate was made smaller and flattened, whilst the
long cuissarts, that had taken the places of tasseis as thigh
coverings, were brought round behind so as to cover the
loins— all these alterations making the wearer look like a
lobster. We soon find top-boots taking the place of greaves,
so that as early as the time of Henry IV., and still more so
in the reign of Louis XIV., armour had almost disappeared
in losing its massive character it had become of very little
use, and in a very short time tanned leather took its place.
In Germany as well as in France during the Thirty Years'
War, the huffletin with its high stock took the place of the
cuirass ; the latter was worn only on special occasions.
We are able to distinguish and classify armour through ob-
serving the characteristics of its period, which are as easily
recognisable as in the civil costumes of the same dates.
For instance, the conical casque, called in France Norman,
so often represented on monuments of the tenth century ; the
heaume, made according to the English pattern with nose-piece,
or according to the German pattern with vizor, belonging to
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ; the crested helm, from
the thirteenth to the fifteenth century the small bassinet or

cerveliere, which used to be worn under the heaume ; the

larger bassinet belonging to the thirteenth and fourteenth
centuries ; the salade of the fifteenth century ; the metal head-
coverings and saucepan helmets, tho earliest specimens of
which are to be seen in the manuscripts of the tenth and
eleventh centuries ; the different sorts of burgonets in the
sixteenth the armet or helmet of the sixteenth and seventeenth

centuries (the last technical name applied in the trade

to a headgear) ;
the morion and the cabasset, both of which,
being lighter sorts of helmets, were worn only by the in-

fantry all these different pieces of armour help us, by their
of Ancient Arms. 47
stape and general characteristics, to fir the date of their
make with tolerable accuracy.
The importance of the buckler among the northern nations,
and particularly among the German race, gave rise to an art
which was quite original in its way. We shall see shortly
that the shield was a much more important portion of the
armour in mediseval than in ancient times. It is on the Ger-
manic shield that the feudal spirit is first to be traced,
as on its surface may be seen the origin of armorial bearings.
When Tacitus, writing in the first century of our era, stated
in his " De Germania " that the Germans were in the habit of
painting their shields with all sorts of gay colours and devices,
he was ignorant that these devices were a sort of hierogly-
phic denoting the most famous deeds achieved by the owner
of the shield. This custom was so general among the Germans
that the words for painter (^Sdiilder) and the verb to paint
(ScMldern) in old German are derived from Schild, a buckler.
These records of deeds achieved, whether they were re-
presentations of the weapon by the aid of which they had been
accomplished, or of the enemy or monster overcome, remained

during the warrior's life as his distinctive badge a custom
which proves that, at the outset, armorial bearings were not
hereditary; for as the son could gain no credit in any way
from the deeds of his father, he was obliged to conquer in
his turn so as to be able to have his shield painted — a fact
to which Virgil refers when he says " Parma inglorius
From the beginning of the tenth century tournaments
became so frequent in Germany that in a short time armorial
bearings were considered common to the whole family, then
to their descendants, and in a short time strictly hereditary.
It was about the beginning of this century, and some time
before the crusades, that, in order to facilitate the recog-
nition of the new nobility, a knight, when he arrived at the
barrier of the tournament, used to deposit there his shield
and his helmet, which was a sign to the heralds (derived
from the German Herald, noble crier) that the bearer of
these arms had the right to engage in the tourney.
In the eleventh century, at the time of the first crusades,
almost all Europe had adopted these distinctive marks, and
from that time armorial bearings and the art of heraldry have

48 Abridged History

existed amongst Cliristiaii nations, and even amongst the

Moors in Spain.
It was not long after this that the nobles took to adding
to their names the name of their castles or of their lands —
custom which gave rise to the fashion of differences in
family arms.
The Normans as well as Franks introduced into
France custom of wearing armorial
at a very early period the
bearings. The shields of the Norman knights were all
painted with representations of fantastic animals, which were
clearly their personal arms.
The shield has varied in shape more than any other part of
defensive armour. The Keltic, the German, the Scandinavian,

and British shields all furnished with a boss the square—
Germanic shield of the anti-Merovingian period the buckler

of the Merovingians, Carlovingians, and the Anglo-Saxons

the long painted shield of the tenth and eleventh centuries,
generally called the Norman shield the triangular shield of

the same epoch ; the small shield of the thirteenth and

fourteenth centuries ; the German shield called pavois ; the
manteau d'armes ; the round shield of the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries ; the buckler and the target —
had all their
distinctive features and names, and open a large field for
The shape and make of the gauntlet also helps us in most
cages to the date of the armour vdth tolerable accuracy.
The first kind, which was used in the twelfth and thir-
teenth centuries, was only a sort of bag made of mail, formed
from the end of the sleeve of the hauberk. In the fourteenth
century the regular gauntlet, with separate fingers to it,
came into fashion, which again in the iifteenth century was
superseded by the mitten. The mitten was made of thin
plates of steel, with joints, to enable the hand to move freely,
and it is to be found in the armour of the Pucelle d'Orleans.
It is also of this mitten that Bayard speaks when he says,
" Ce quo gantelet gagne, gorgerin le mange." Towards the
middle of the sixteenth century gauntlets were again mad©
with divisions for the fingers, the invention of pistols and
firearms having rendered this necessary.
About the fourteenth century coverings for the feet, mado
of thin plates of steel or iron, called solerets or pedieuse,
of Ancient Arms. 49
xvore universally adopted ; and in the north, as early as the
tweKth and thirteenth centuries, when also the lower part of
the mailed hose was superseded by tumelieres, or plates of
armour. The form of the soleret is a safe indicator of its
date; it originally terminated in an ogival point; which
gradually began to grow longer, till at last it assumed a very
extravagant length, like the chaussures a la poulaine.
From 1420 to 1470 these shoes were worn in a fashion
called I'ogive tiers point ; from 1470 to 1550, sabot et le
pied d'ours; after 1570, hea de eanne ; but it is difficult
to fix the precise date when the changes took place. At the
end of the seventeenth century top-boots had taken the place
of solerets and greaves. The shape of the shoes called
a la poulaine is only useful in helping to fix the date of a
suit of armour when one is certain of the country to which
they belong, for they were adopted at different times in
different countries. This kind of shoe called a la poulaine
was in fashion in France from 1360 to 1420, while, on the
other hand, as early as at the battle of Morgarten (1315) the
Austrian knights are said to have cut off the long points of
their shoes on dismounting from horseback ; and still earlier
(1154-1189), Henry II., of England, wore shoes a la poulaine
for the purpose of hiding a deformity on one of his feet.
The fashion, however, first originated in Hungary.
The defensive armour worn by horses has imdergone
changes of fashion as well as that worn by men, for the
fluted armour was used as a protection for the breast, the
nose, the sides, and the hind-quarters of the horse; the
oldest representation of this kind of armour that I have been
able to find is on a coin of the time of Henry the Lion of
Germany (1195), where the horse belonging to the duke is
covered with a trellis-work, with heads of nails riveted into
the squares, the same as those represented in the German
.ffineid of the thirteenth century of Henry of Waldeck, now
in the library of Berlin.
The spur in use till the eleventh century had a straight
point, but no rowel. After that time the point was made so
as to slope upwards slightly, while in the thirteenth century
it was made with a bend or crook in the shank, but the

rowel does not appear to have been used till the fourteenth
century, when it generally had eight points. Dtiring the

50 Abridged Histori/
fifteentli and shank bscame longer and
sixteentli centuries the
longer, till at last was transformed, through the fancy of
the artist, into a mere toy. The saddle varied much in
shape, particularly those used in tournaments. The cele-
brated wooden saddle made in Germany, and constructed
so as to prevent the tilter remaining seated, is the rarest.
The list of swords is very long, and comprises the rapier,

a duelling and fencing sword a weapon which cannot be
traced earlier than the first half of the sixteenth century,
about which time, in the reign of Chai-les V., the art of

fencing was first introduced tlie ancient claymore, which had
not a basket hilt, as is generally supposed the scimitar the
; ;

sabre already employed among the Daoians in the time of

Trajan ; the yatagan, the cangiar, the flissat, the koukris, have
as many varieties as the dagger, the poiguard, the stiletto, the
khouttar, and the cris. The lance, the pike, the mace, the
morgenstern, the scythe and the sickle, the boar-spear, the
hammer, the flail, the hatchet, the halberd, the corsesea —

kind of spear the roncone, the partisan, the spontoon, the
war-fork, and the bayonet, furnish as many subjects for
study and research as do the sling, the fustibale, the bow,
the cross-bow, and the sarbaoane, or blow-pipe.
All those machines formerly used in war, such as the
balista, the catapult, the trehuchet, the battering-ram, and
many others, had been adopted by the Christians of the
middle ages, who added a large number of their own inven-
tion — a fact which we gather from the manuscripts of that
period, and of the Eenaissauoe.
Nevertheless, we must not put implicit faith in the
supposed existence of all the machines described and re-
presented in these MSS. very few really existed, the greater

number being merely designed by the inventors. But it is

quite as certain that fire-barrels and incendiary arrows
were hurled by means of these engines, as that pots of
unslaked lime were shot into a besieged town to blind
the eyes of the defenders. Leonard Fronsperg has described
the way in which they were used in his work, Kriegahucli,
published in 1573 and in the museum at Zurich are

exhibited some specimens which were found under the ruins

of an old castle.
It is worth while observing, that from the fourteenth
of Ancient Anns. 51
century until end of the fifteenth, knights, par-
ticularly in Prance, had adopted a habit common likewise
in England, Germany, and Italy, of dismounting and fight-

ing on foot a practice adopted, as our readers will re-
member, at the battle of Crecy (1346). It is to this sacri-
ficeof old traditional dignity that may probably be ascribed
the change in construction of armour which took place in the
reign of Charles VII. (1445).
The Musee Imperiale d'Artillerie possesses two of the finest
new kind of ai-mour, which were originally in the
suits of this
Ambras collection but it appears to me that they must have

been useless for all practical purposes. I do not belieye it

to be possible for a man to move in this double-jointed
armour. It would be very interesting if the directors of this
museum were to cause some experiments to be made for
the purpose of deciding this question.
At the end of the twelfth century, when toui'naments
became a regular practice, the want was felt of some
better protection for the head against the formidable thrusts
of the heavy lance, not unlike the trunk of a tree in size and
cumbersomeness, and which later on was fixed to the cuirass
as in a vice, by means of a hook called faiicre, or rest. The
heaume, that enormous helmet that covered the camail and
the hassinet, the earliest existing specimens of which are of
English origin, was soon added, and was fastened to the rest
of the armour by means of screws and chains.
introduction into tournaments of the laws of chivalry
is thought to date from about the twelfth century, although
tournaments, conducted on a certain method, but not i-egu-
lated by any fixed laws, date much earlier. Some tourna-
ments are known to have taken place in Germany as far back
as the ninth century, which accounts for the great perfection
to which the manufacture of armour had been carried in that
country. According to the registers existing in difforent towns,
no fewer tban a hundred and eighty regular tournaments
must have taken place at different times, not including a
large number of smaller " passages of arms." The most im-
portant, starting from the ninth century to the end of the
twelfth, were almost all of them held in Germany, and are, at
Barcelona in 811, on the occasion of the coronation of Count
Linofre ; at Strasburg in 842, in the reign of Charles the

62 Abridged History
Bald; Eatisbon in 925, under Henry tlie Fowler; at
Magdeburg in 932, under the same ; at Spires, under Otho I.,
in 938 ; at Eothenburg in 942, under Conrade of Tran-
conia; at Constance in 948, under Lewis the Swabian; at
Merscburg, on the Saale, in 968 at Brunswick in 996
; ;

at Treves in 1019, under Conrad I., and another also at

Treves in 1029 ; at Halle in 1042, under Henry III.
at Augsburg in 1080, under Hermann of Swabia; at
Gottingen in 1118, and again in 1119; at Liege in 1148,
under Theodore of Holland, in which took part fourteen
princes and dukes, ninety-one counts, eighty-four barons,
one hundred and thirty-three knights, and three hundred
nobles; at Zurich in 1165, under Duke Guelph of Bavaria;
at Beaucaire in 1174, under Henry II. of England; at
Corbie in Picardy in 1234, where Floris IV. count of
Holland was slain.
These tournaments often occasioned much bloodshedding,
at one time as many as sixty people being killed in one
passage at arms. Notwithstanding the anathema launched
by Pope Eugenius, in the ninth century, against these
barbarous sports, they increased more and more, so that after
the return of the first Crusaders, when hereditary arms were
universally adopted, it was found necessary to institute a
regular heraldic code, which, though very complicated, still,
by its strict regulations, gave to this military exercise a
chivalrous bearing, which in Provence assumed almost the
character of romance. It is a fact that in these tourna-
ments, which took place of course in time of peace, as
many, if not more, titles of knighthood were conferred than
in battle ; and it was on these grand occasions that noble
alliances were generally formed. As the young country
squire passed most of his time in hunting in the vicinity of
his castle, placed on the top of high rocks, or in the midst of
thick forests, he had no other opportunity of meeting the
daughters of nobles but at tournaments, at which places
they displayed their charms, being dressed out in finery
and stuffs of. such brilliant colours, that the rude en-
closures and galleries seemed to contain nothing but perfect
baskets of flowers. Whilst the most beautiful lady, who was
usually the queen of the day, was distributing the prizes to
the winners, all the ladies remained standing, and the knights
of Ancient Arms. 53
nsed to look round and select their partners for dancing, and
not unfrequently also for life. It was for these very fetes
that many nobles ruined themselves in the desire to eclipse
their rivals in the richness of their armour and accoutre-
ments, a step which often reduced them to a state of depend-
ence on the Hebrew usurer.
These tournaments are generally divided into three sorts,
the German Bennen or tilt, the German Stechen or passage at
arms, and the German Fausstournier ; three sorts, which in
Germany became subdivided into eighteen. These divisions
and limitations were too strict and precise for the middle
ages, for in the fetes of that time these arrangements and
restrictions were set at naught far more than is supposed by
the authors of the sixteenth century, whose imagination is as
fertile on this subject as on that of war machines.
The armour usually worn for tilting is supposed by some
authors to have been lighter than that used in war, but this
is an error, as it was really a great deal heavier. It is clearly
impossible for a man to have borne the weight of one of those
polished steel suits of armour so well known by the beauty
of their design, their massive character and enormous weight,
for more than an hour at a time. The passage at arms
was, however, often mixed up with the 'joust (the latter

being always practised on horseback), for the combat was

very often continued on foot with the same armour after one
of the combatants had been unhorsed. Suits of armour made
specially for foot combats are very rare, and in the designs
of fifteenth-century date, preserved in the Maximilian
Museum at Augsburg, we see that in tournaments the wooden
mace (hoTbenturnier) was not the only weapon employed, for in
the melee knights are represented as wearing the heaume, and
carrying swords attached to their breastplates by means of
small chains, whilst others are using that less dangerous
weapon the wooden mace mentioned above.
'i'he Gothic armour which originated first in Germany
spread rapidly wherever the spirit of chivalry had shown
itself It is to be found in England, France, Spain, and even
on the classic soil of Italy, but in all these places it has under-
gone certain modifications, according to the customs and tastes
of the nation. In Italy armour has always been marked by
an incompleteness of style, though the designs and execution
54 Abridged History
of the ornaments are usually very artistic. The artists of
that country were too much influenced by a natural prejudice
in favour of classic traditions to be able to abandon the
Pagan for the new style, which was characterized by great
simplicity of treatment and by a complete change from that
of the past age. They also seemed to forget that the
changes introduced into the manner of lighting required a
corresponding change in the armour.
The Arab invasion in Spain acted rather as an impulse for
improvement in the making of armour than for its decadence,
as some authors would have us believe, for the decline in
the manufacture of armour did not take place till after the
expulsion of the Moors from Granada in 1492 ; and although
after this the Spanish artists had recourse again to the Gothic
style it was only for a short time, for the decay of this art
was complete in the reign of Charles V., on account of the
influence of the Italian school. The art of painting alone
freed itself at length from this unhealthy foreign influence,
and some of the finest master-pieces conspicuous by their
originality and beauty date from this era. As to the oriental
arms of the present day, they are almost identical in make
to those that the eastern nations manufactured hundreds
of years ago. We see particularly in the illustrated copy of
the Schah-Nameh, or Eoyal Book, that is in the library at
Munich, a poem written by the poet Ferdusi in the reign
of Mahmoud, the founder of the Ghaznavides, 999 years
after Christ, that Persian equipment was in the sixteenth
century exactly the same as it is at the present day.
We find very little change in Chinese and Japanese armour,
for although a slight alteration can be traced in costume
throughout these various epochs, separated by hundreds of
years, the form of arms has remained stationary. The
sabres, iron-forks, pikes, swords, and even cuirasses and
helmets exhibited in the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris, used in
the last war, are identical with those dating centuries back,
that may seen in the Tower of London and elsewhere.
War machines, the artillery of ancient times, were adopted
by the middle ages with very slight modifications from those
used by the Romans, for we see from the illustrations of the
period that their construction was almost identical. We can
have no doubt of these machines having really existed, new
of Ancient Anns. 55
proof liaving been afforded to us by tlie remains of balistas
found under the ruins of the castle of Itussikon in Switzer-
land, wbicb was destroyed by fire in the thirteenth century.
These remains, together with a large number of broad arrow
heads, are preserved in the cabinet of antiquities at Zurich.
In some illustrations by Zeitblom in a manuscript of the
fifteenth century belonging to the library of Prince Wald-
burg Wolfegg, we have a representation of the catapult or
tormentum of the ancient Eomans, known in French imder
a slightly different form by the name of ' onagre,' and very
like one in the " Eecueil d'anciens pcetes frangais " in the
Imperial library at Paris. The records of Mons also make
mention of these catapults, but we can nowhere find any
traces of the pohjspasie. Besides these machines for hurling
missiles used in the middle ages, many others were invented
for the defence of camps and of besieged towns, such as arc
seen in the water coloux drawings, executed by Nicolaus
Glockenthon in 1505, of the arms and armour collected to-
gether in the three arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian. Two
collections of drawings dating about the beginning of the
fifteenth century, which are as well as the above in the
" Ambras collection," represent a species of diving-dress not
at all unlike the modern ones. Still, as we have already said,
too much faith must not be put in the real existence of all the
machines which are represented in the MSS. of the middle ages
and of the Eenaissanoe, for in those times the minds of men
were as fertile in constructing machines for the destruction
of human life as they are now, and these drawings may at
times represent projected ideas rather than accomplished
facts. Passing on to hand weapons, we find at this time, as
at all periods, the sling, the fusiibal, and the bow everywhere
The crossbow which M. Eodios supposes to have been
identical with the dostrafeies of the Greeks, seems to me to
have been an invention of central Europe, and to date no
farther back than the tenth century at earliest for if it

had been known elsewhere, the Princess Anna Comnena

(1083-1148) could scarcely have been ignorant of it,
inasmuch as M. Eodios gathers his information frcm
Byzantine MSS. The princess states, however, " the tzagara
is. a bow unknown among us."
56 Abridged Historij

The sling and tbe CwHch was only a sling witli a

handle fastened to were used as late as the sixteenth

century for hurling fireballs and grenades, as may be seen

in the paintings by Glockenthon, mentioned above.
The bow was used by the Germanic races for hunting
only for the Franks, Saxons, AUemanni, Burgundians,

Angli, Catti, Cherusci, Marcomanni, and many others,

scorned it for warlike purposes, considering it too childish
and treacherous a weapon, and preferring to it even the battle-
axe or the anjon for missile purposes.
In the Bayeux tapestry Normans and Anglo-Saxons are
alike armed with bows, and it must be admitted that at
the battle of Hastings both sides made good use of tliem. But
the Germans continued to make very little use of missile
weapons until the invention of the crossbow. The Norman
bow was small, being only about a metre in length, while
the bow used by the English archers, who were so celebrated
for their skill in archery about the thirteenth century,
measured two yards in length, and varied according to the
height of the person who used it. The rule was that the
bow should measure the exact width between the two middle
fingers when the arms were outstretched. The English
archers were so expert, that they were able to discharge as
many as twelve arrows in a minute, which rarely, if ever,
missed their mark.
The Italian bow, generally made of steel, was about a
yard and a half in length, like the German bow. The
English arrow was a yard in length.
In the twelfth century, an archer usually carried two
cases, one of which was tlie quiver (called couin, in old
French in German, Flitz) ; this held tBe arrows, which,

according to the records of Saint Denis, were then called

'pilles and sayettes the other case held the bow.
; The points
of the arrows were of various shapes, some of them being
square, like the crossbow bolts, with two, three, or four
points, whilst others were barbed like ancient arrows. There
were also some of cork-screw shape, others petal-pointed,
and even crescent-shaped, for hamstringing men and horses.
The crossbow mentioned by the name of tzagara by Anna
Comnena is also spoken of by William of Tyre in tht?
year 1098, about the time of the first Crusade. In the reiga
of Ancient Arms. 57
of Louis VI., surnamedle Gros (1108-1137), this crossbow was
in general use in France, and a law was passed at the Lateran
council held in 1139 forbidding its employment amongst
Christian nations, though, strange to say, it authorised the
use for the purpose of slaying infidels and miscreants. In
England, however, Eichard CcBur de Lion (1189-1199) al-
lowed crossbowmen to form part of his army, notwith-
standing the pastoral letter of Pope Innocent III. PhiHp
Augustus (1180-1233) organised in France some bodies of
crossbowmen on foot and on horseback ; soon these regi-
ments became so important that their commander took the
title of grand master of crossbowmen, a high post in the
army, and next in rank to that of marshal of France, and
it was not tUl 1515 that this of&ce was united with that of
grand master of artillery.
In the charter of Theobald, Count of Champagne, about the
year 1220, it is said, " Chacun de la commune de Vitre aura
XX livres, aura aubeleste en son ostel et guairiaux, etc."
Crossbowmen are also mentioned in the chronicle of Saint
Denis. The first paintings representing crossbowmen are in
an Anglo-Saxon MS. of the eleventh century, now in the
British Museum, also in some frescoes in the cathedral at
Brunswick, painted in the reign of Henry the Lion, who
died in 1195, and in the chapel of Saint John at Ghent, in
paintings done in the thirteenth century. It is well known
that Boleslaus, Duke of Schweidnitz, introduced amongst
his subjects the practice of shooting with the crossbow in the
year 1286, and a little later it was introduced at Nurem-
berg and Augsburg. Charles VII. had caused to be planted
in all the cemeteries in Normandy yew-trees for the manu-
facture of crossbows ;in point of fact, throughout France
this weapon had entirely superseded the long bow, which
however continued to be used in England till the end of
the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603), at which time
all archers were armed with open casques and brigantine
coats. The bow used by the English was much superior
to the French crossbow, for the crossbowman couM with
difficulty shoot three bolts to the bowman's twelve arrows.
Moreover, the rain often slackened the string of the cross-
bow, while the bow-string could easily be protected. The
loss of the battle of Creoy (1346) was in great part owing
58 Abridged History

to this circumstance, wliicli rendered it almost impossible for

the French to return the unerring shots of the English archers.
In 1356, after the defeat at Poitiers, the inferiority of the
crossbow became so evident, that in France corps of archers
were organised, who soon became so expert that the nobility
grew fearful of their power, and had them disbanded. In
the year 1627, at the siege of La Koohelle, there were some
English archers in the pay of Eichelieu who distinguished
themselves at the attack on the Island of Ee.
-The crossbow had also become a favourite weapon amongst
the Germans, who had improved it in various ways. In
France it fell out of use in the seventeenth century, when the
corps of crossbowmen was finally given up. The crossbows
of the cavalry were lighter than those of the infantry, and
the string was stretched by means of a simple lever, called a
goat's foot. This species of windlass was called cranequin,
and the foot-soldiers who used it were surnamed Graneque-
niers ; Monstrelet, however (1390-1543), calls iheui Petau-
diers and Sibaudiers.
There are seven different sorts of this weapon.
The Goat's foot crossbow, used by the cavalry.
The Windlass crossbow, generally called cranequin crossbow,
which, as mentioned above, caused the infantry to be called
Latch crossbow, also called a tour and de passot,
speciallyadapted for sieges and for shooting at a mark.
This was the weapon used by the Genoese at Agincourt
The German crossbow, having the wheel attached to the
The crossbow a galet, or pebble crossbow of the sixteenth
century, so called from the round pebbles, leaden bullets, and
earthenware balls that were shot from it instead of bolts.
The Germans called it Balestre, from its being somewhat
large in size.
The ramrod-crossbow, a heavy and comparatively useless
weapon of the time of Louis XIV.
The Chinese crossbow, fitted with a case which turned on
the stock by means of a lever moved by the wrist, and which
furnished twenty arrows in succession, just like our modern
of Ancieni Arms. 59
Theprojectiles carried by these crossbows, with tlie ex-
ception of the bullets mentioned above, were called carrels or
carreaiix, from the square shape of the head. The viretmi
was a bolt furnished with feathers, or thin pieces of wood or
iron, which were arranged in a curved direction round the
shaft, BO as to impart a rotary motion to the bolt. Another
bolt called matras had a round disk or head, which killed
without piercing whatever object it struck; it was, however,
oftener used for the chase than in war. It was especially
useful in bringing down such beasts as the hunter might
wish to preserve with the skin uninjured.
We now come to fire-arms, the use of which in Europe
cannot be traced back earlier than the fourteenth century,
and on this subject our researches are attended with many
The Chinese knew of gunpowder for several centuries
before its use was general among us. It was believed
for a long time to have been the invention of two monkS;
Constantino Amalzen or Schwarz (1280-1320), belonging
to the convent of Friburg in Breisgau, but it is now
supposed to have been known to the Kelts and to all the
ancients. In the Palafittes, or lake- dwellings of Switzerland,
which, thanks to Dr. Keller, have been, so to speak, restored,
have sometimes been found fire-bullets, which were filled
with a composition which might very likely have been
gunpowder. The words Shet a gene (centueur) and
agenasler (fire-arms ?) found in the sacred Indian books, as
well as the machines with which, according to Dion Cassius,
Caligula used to imitate thunder and lightning, seem to
strengthen our belief in the existence of an explosive
powder for the purposes of war. Vossius, in his Liber obser-
vationum, inclines to the same opinion, from a description by
Julius Afi'icanus, who lived in ihe year 215 A. d.
The Falarica of the Komans, which was also used in the
middle ages, and probably identical with the incendiary
arrow, assigned by Gregory of Tours to a Keltic origin, was
most likely covered with a preparation of similar materials
to those used now in the manufacture of gunpowder.
Callinicus, a Greek, had learnt from the Arabs how to
make three different kinds of Greek fire, and this secret he
communicated to Constantine Pogouatus during the siege of
60 Abridged Sistory
Constantinople. One of these compositions bore a strong re-
semblance to gunpowder. The fire-arms which were used
by Hagiacus and the Arabs in 690, at the siege of Mecca,
would' lead one to conclude that Mohamedanism was propa-
gated not only by means of the sword, but also by gun-
powder. The secret of gunpowder most likely came over
from India, for the Arabs call saltpetre Thely Sini, which
means Indian or Chinese snow, and the Persians call it
Nemek-Tschini, that is, Indian or Chinese salt. The em-
brasures for cannon constructed in the great wall of China,
built about 200 B.C., furnish additional proof that the
Chinese used artillery at this epoch.
The MS. (Liber ignium ad comburendos hostes) written
by Marcus GrEecus, 846 a.d., contains a receipt for making
gunpowder, and also proves that the author was acquainted
with a composition called raquette. This receipt includes,
besides other things, six parts of saltpetre, two of sulphur, and
two of charcoal. We have proof that in 1232 the Chinese
and the Tartars employed gunpowder regulaily in war, and
it was also used at the siege of Seville (12i7), and the receipt
for this powder and for that called raquette, given in the De
Mirahilibus Mundi, a work written by the Bishop Albertus
Magnus of Eatisbon in 1280, enables one to assign distinct
dates on this question.
Till the commencement of the fourteenth century in Europe,
what were called fire-arms were only engines which threw fire
into besieged places for the purpose of destroying the
buildings and machines of the enemy and it is not until the

end of the fourteenth century that weapons which carried

leaden or stone bullets were invented, and that the history
of artillery and fire-arms really begins. Before gunpowder
was used, victory in battle resulted as much from the mus-
cular strength of the soldiers as from the strategic skill of
their leaders or fury of the combatants, for notwithstanding
the manoeuvres of their captains, it always resolved itself at
the last into a hand-to-hand struggle of the most exciting
and deadly kind, which has no parallel in our modern
v/arfare, though our appliances for the destruction of life are
much more formidable.
As soon as artillery began to be used battles changed
entirely in character. The combatants did not rush on each
of Ancient Arms. 61
other after sliooting off a few arrows or bolts, but used to
station themselves at a distance, and ply destruction among
each other's ranks with their pieces of artillery, and it was
not till the end of the action that a hand-to-hand struggle
for some important locality was needed to decide the day.
Gimpowder, the process of corning which was known in
1452, has helped, as well as the art of priutiug, to protect
modern civilisation against the chance of agaia vanishing.
In order to proceed systematically in this matter, we must
divide fire-arms into two categories, one comprising all large

and heavy pieces of ordnance such as cannons, etc. the —
other, all portable arms.
We are quite justified in believing the traditional story
that the idea of making use of gunpowder to shoot balls
through an iron tube accidentally occurred to the inventor.
While pounding a mixture of sulphur, charcoal, and saltpetre
together in a mortar, the composition suddenly exj)loded, and
the man was knocked down this proves that it must have

been from a common domestic mortar that the first idea of

a cannon was conceived; a touch-hole was added for the
purpose of firing it without danger. The mortar ought,
therefore, to be considered as the first European fire-arm.
Not long after the invention of this weapon several guns or
mortars were made of pieces or bars of wrought-iron, like
the staves of a barrel joined one to the other by hoops. The
largest one is in the arsenal at Vienna, and is three feet
seven inches in diameter, and eight feet two inches in
length. The first cannon (a name derived from the German
Eanne, a drinking-vessel), generally called lombarde, was
made of wrought-iron, and this was a mortar, though open at
both ends. The charge was inserted at the lower extremity,
which was then stopped up with wedges of metal or wood,
sometimes one whole piece, sometimes several hammered in
with a mallet.
This, the most ancient form of cannon, is found in
Germany as early as the sixteenth century, but of an im-
proved shape. It was followed by the charge a la hoite mobile,
called veuglaire, from the German Vogler, fowler, in which
the chamber and tube were formed of separate pieces, and
finally, by the muzzle-loading gun.
In examining the MSS. and the designs, more or less
62 Alridged Sistory
fantastic, of the and sixteontli centuries, it appears
as if the cannon called bombarde, that was open at both ends,
were more modern than the veuglaire ; but from the pieces
that still exist, whose origin and date of manufacture is
known, the veuglaire is proved to be the more modern
Cast-iron cannons succeeded those of wrought-iron.

The first mention of the use of fire-arms perhaps powder-

arms would have been a better title which for a very long
time did not entirely supplant the old-fashioned machines, as
these, particularly for siege opei-ations, are to be found in
use throughout the whole of the middle ages, dates as far
back as the year 1301, when the town of Amberg in Germany
had constructed a large cannon, and Brescia succumbed
under a volley of arquebusses (?). In 1313 the town of
Ghent had stone-throwing guns and it was probably from

Flanders that Edward III. brought over these new weapons

for use against the Scots in 1227.
In the year 1325, the Eepublic of Florence granted to the
priors, the gonfaloniers, and to the twelve municipal magis-
trates, the right of nominating two oflicers, charged with the
construction of iron bullets and metal cannons, for the
defence of the castles and villages belonging to the republic.
A few years later, in 1328, the Teutonic nations through-
out the north of Europe made use of large cannons in then-
wars in Prussia and Lithuania. It was also about this time
that all the free towns of Germany began to provide them-
selves with artillery.
It is stated in authentic history, that at the sieges of Puy-
Guillern and of Cambrai by Edward III., cannons were
already in use (1339), and there exist representations of the
cannons used by the English at the battle of Crecy in 1346.
On referring to a passage in De remediis utriusque fortunae,
by Petrarch (1382), it is clear that wooden cannons existed
at that date in Italy. But I doubt if the small wooden
cannons made of thick staves covered with leather that are to
be found in the arsenal at Genoa are of as early a date, and
may not rather be contemporary with the leather cannons
used by the Swedes in the Thirty Tears' War.
In 1428 the English made use of fifteen mortars that were
loaded from the breech, at the siege of Orleans.
of Ancient Arms. 63
When manner of loading was changed from loading
the at
the breech to insertion at the muzzle, the charge was at
first enclosed in a small copper case, such as is repre-
sented in the work of Fronsberg, written in the sixteenth
century, and similar to one exhibited in the arsenal at
Soleure. Between the ball (which was at first made of
stone, and called stone, simply) and the charge of powder was
placed a wooden wad. The charge was at first fired by
means of a live coal or a red-hot iron, and it was not till
some time later that a slow match fastened to the end of a
stick was used. The mantlets or wooden blinds which used
to be dra\vn down during the time of loading the cannons,
were for the purpose of sheltering the gunner and his man.
It was in 1346, at Toumay, that a man named Piers made
the first experiment with the long-pointed projectiles, which
may be regarded as the precursors of the conical bullets
actually used at the present day. According to the Thu-
ringian chronicles of Eothe, it was the artillery of the Duke
of Brunswick in 1346 who were the first to use a new kind
of projectiles, viz., leaden bullets. Not long after this
some German manufacturers sent over to the Venetians a
great many iron cannons and balls, that were used with great
success in the siege of Claudia-Fossa.
About the year 1400, iron balls superseded those of lead.
A MS. of the fifteenth century, in the Ambras collection at
Vienna, contains designs where the gunners are represented
loading their guns from the breech with red-hot iron cannon-
balls. This same MS., as well as another in the Hauslaub
collection, Vienna, shows us also how they used the small
incendiary barrels in sieges about this time.
In Switzerland fire-arms were not introduced till a later
date ; at Basle the first cannons were cast in 1371, at Berne
in 1413.
In 1372, at the battle of Ehodes, some of the French ships
fired carronades.
With regard to the use of bronze in casting of cannons,
and of hollow iron and leaden shot, these are mentioned for
the first time in the casting of thirty guns at Augsburg ia
1378, by a founder called Aarau.
In Italy bronze cannon were not cast earlier than 1470.
The trunnions that support the cannon, keep it evenly
S4 Abridged Hisiortj

balanced, and prevent its recoil oif the carriage, appear in

<jermany as early as the fifteenth century, but it is not
known who was the first person to introduce this improve-
ment, the discovery of which was of great importance, as it
enabled the cannon to move easily in a vertical direction.
The artillery of Charles the Bold had no trunnions, as
is generally supposed ;the idea being taken from MSS. that,
cannot be relied on. The cannons taken at Morat in 1476,
now in the Museum of Artillery at Paris, and in the Gym-
nasium at Morat, as well as those taken at Grandson and at
Nancy, at present in the Museums of Lausanne and Neuville,
jbave no trunnions.
Cannons were introduced into Eussia in 1389 and the;

Taborites, the avengers of Huss, used howitzers in 1434.

At first mortars were usually placed on blocks of wood or
in sorts of sockets {affuts fixes) later on (1492) they were

placed on movable carriages that enabled the shot to be

directed on any side. The scala lihrorum, or measure
for the bore, was invented by Hartmann of Nuremberg in
1440, and it was brought into use throughout Germany
by the celebrated smelter of Charles V., George Lofler of
Augsburg, who also instituted a standard of the four sizes
(which were 6, 12, 24, and 40). It was at this period that
cast shot was invented, which was destined to effect a great
change in artillery.
As to the powder mines, which were preceded in the middle
ages by firebrand mines, it is generally admitted that they
were first used, in 1503, at Naples, when it was besieged by
the Spanish general Gonzalvo of Cordova, though Vannoccio
Biringuccio attributes the invention to the Italian Francisco
-di Giorgio.
The cannons that at first were fixed on wooden blocks and
cases were soon placed on gun carriages with wheels, and
shortly after fore-carriages and gear were also used. Towards
the fourteenth century, chariots bristling with spears, formerly
used by the ancient nations, were adopted for the defence of
camps, having small cannons fixed on the framework of the
car. These were called Bibaudequins, from Bibaud, an
assistant gunner, and were also used as a cheek against a
cavalry charge. These cannons were usually placed on two-
wheeled carriages, and are still to be seen in the designs
of Ancient Arms. 65
of Nicolaus Glockenthon, executed about the year 1505,
after the camions then existing in the arsenals of the
Emperor Maximilian.
It is very difficult, in fact, almost impossible, to classify
exactly, according to the names then in use, all the different
species of cannons, for very often the same piece was named
differently in each large city. There were serj>entines (in
German Hothschlangen'), culverins (FeldscMangen), demi-
culverins, falcons, and falconettes. There were also mortars
(^Moerser, or Boeller, or Boiler) that were moved from place to
place on chariots. In France the names passevolants, basilics,
spirales, bombardes, veuglaires and pierriers, were used to
designate various pieces of ordnance. L'orgue a serpentins,
which was a machine composed of a great nimaber of guns
of small bore, loaded either from the muzzle or at the
breech, had each separate chamber encased as far as the
muzzle in wood or metal these chambers were fired in

succession or all at once.

In Germany they were called Todtenorgel (death-organ).
Weigel, writing in 1698, says that in the arsenal at
Nuremberg there were organs with thirty-three pipes to
them; and that death might be said to play dance music
on them. One of the earliest of these machines is in the
Museimi at Sigmaringen ;it was made at the beginning
of the fifteenth century. It is loaded from the muzzle, and
is composed of small wrought-iron cannons rudely mounted
on what looks like the trunk of a tree, and moves on two
round disks of wood for wheels. Another of these machines,
termed orgue de danse Macabre, copied in 1505 by Nicolaus
Glockenthon from one in the arsenals of the Emperor Maxi-
milian, is composed of forty square-shaped tubes fiarmly
joined together and mounted on a stand with large wheels
somewhat similar to the carriage of a field-piece. A
one, of the seventeenth century, consisting of forty-two
barrels, mounted so as to form a triangular block, and to
fire six successive volleys, is now in the Museum at Soleure.
From the " fitudes sur rArtiUerie," by Napoleon III., pub-
lished in 1846, it will be seen that there were some of these
machines which could fire a hundred and forty shots at
once. With regard to hand grenades, they appear for the
first time in 1536, while petards, which are supposed to
66 Abridged History
have been invented by the Hungarians, do not appear till

The Swedes had in the Thirty Tears' War cannons of
leather lined with a tubing of brass or yellow copper.
These cannons, specimens of which may be seen in the
Arsenals of Berlin and Hamburg, in the Museum of Artil-
lery in Paris, and the collection of the king of Sweden, were
about three feet seven inches in length. The centre barrel was
of thin copper, and wound round it was a stout cord that
separated the leathern casing from the metal tube. These guns
were not very strong, and the charge was only about a quarter
of what would be used at the present day. They were given
up after the battle of Leipsig, for on that occasion they be-
came so hot that they discharged themselves spontane-
ously. They were superseded by a species of ordnance
called Swedish guns, which diifered very much from those
used by the Imperial Austrian army, and which had been pro-
posed by the Count of Hamilton. In the arsenal at Zurich
there is another kind of cannon very like the leather cannons
of the Swedes. Like those mentioned above, these cannons
were made of a tube of yellow copper, but between it and
the exterior leather tube there was a thick layer of lime, and
round them were also several rings of wrought iron. This
gun was very useful because of its light weight in a moun-
tainous country like Switzerland, for a man could carry it
on his shoulders ; it also had trunnions like the Suedoise, and
a covering plate on hinges for the touch-hole. The length
was about seven feet.
The rifling of hand fire-arms was invented in Germany
towards the end of the fifteenth century, and a little later it
was applied to large cannons, as may be seen from the rifled
cannon of the sixteenth century in the Museum at the Hague.
The iron cannon in the arsenal at Berlin has thirteen grooves
to it, and is dated a.d. 1661 ; and at Nuremberg there is a
wrought-iron cannon of the year 1694 which has eight
grooves. Not much attention had been paid to the rifling of
large guns till after Benjamin Eobins, a member of the
Eoyal Society of London, born in 1707, had treated the sub-
ject mathematically. Modern artillery has been greatly
altered through the improvements made by Paixhans, pub-
lished in 1822 ; by those of Armstrong, and by the wonderful
of Ancient Arms. 67
progress that M. Krupp has made in the manufacture of
cast-steel cannons ; one of which, a breech-loader, exhibited
by him in 1867, weighed 49 tons 2 cwt. ; the shot was also
of cast steel, and was 10 cwt. 3 qrs. in weight.
Portable fire-arms were often confovmded with heavy ar-
tillery in Europe in the days when gunpowder was first em-
ployed. The first trace of hand fire-arms is towards the
middle of the fourteenth century; and it appears that the
Flemings used them some time before other nations. The
town of Liege had made several experiments in the manu-
facture of small liand cannons, portable firearms, called by
the Germans KnallbiiscTien ; they were adopted at Perugia
in 1364, at Padua in 1386, and in Switzerland in 1392.
These cannons were used also at the battle of Eosebecque
iu 1382, at the siege of Trosky in Lithuania in 1383 and ;

in the records of Bologna of 1399 they are called sclopo,

from which word is derived sclopetto and escopelte.
At Arras in 1414 this small hand cannon was used for
projecting leaden bullets ; at the siege of Bonifacio in Corsica
in 1420 these bullets even penetrated the armour. In 1429
and 1430 this new kind of weapon was used for firing at a
mark both at Augsburg and Nuremberg. At the close of the
fifteenth century its use had extended to the cavalry, as may
be concluded from the expression JEques scoppetarius, used
by Paulus Sanctinus.
The continual alterations that have been made in the
different sorts of portable arms that have been invented since
the adoption of hand cannon have given birth to more nume-
rous names than even those of large firearms. By classifying
them carefully according to their mechanism, we may divide
them into thirteen distinct kinds, viz., the Jiand cannon of the
middle of the fourteenth century, a rudely-made weapon in
wrought iron, fastened to a piece of rough wood, so that it could
not be brought to the shoulder ; the touch-hole was at first made
on the top of the cannon, and had a covering plate on a pivot
or on hinges, to preserve it from damp. A little later the
touch-hole was placed to the right of the cannon. This
primitive weapon is represented in the water-coloxir drawings
of Glockenthon, executed in 1505, and mentioned above as
having been copied from some canncns in the arsenal of the
Emperor Maximilian. Four small tannons are represented
68 Abridged History
and a gunner is firing them
fixed to the four corners of a board,
with a match. This hand cannon was often served by two men.
When of a small size, and intended for the use of cavalry, this
hand cannon was called in Trance petronel, from the old
Spanish word pedernal, a fire-arm ; or perhaps (foitrinal)
from the fact of its being rested against the cuirass.
The hand cannon, which could be fired from the shoulder,
termed in French Le canon a main a epauler, belonging to
the end of the fourteenth century, is distinguished from the
former by having a rudely-fashioned stock. The touch-hole
is generally on the right side. All these weapons were
fired with a separate match.
Two other sorts of hand cannons, a serpentin, or a dragon,
without trigger or tumbler, were invented about the year
1424. The match was fastened to the weapon itself, and was
held by the serpentin, a sort of small linstock. When this
weapon was better made it was called a hand culverin,
petrinal, or poitrinal, from the shape of the stock, which was
often rested on the cuirass.
The hand cannon, with match-holder, without spring, but
with a trigger, that could be fired with a surer aim when
rested on the shoulder.
The Harquebus (from the German word Sack-Buss, or
cannon with catch), with match-holder, trigger, and tumbler,
made about the latter half of the fifteenth century. It is a
weapon very perfect in make, and the prototype of our guns
of the present day the barrel was about three feet three

inches in length.
The double Harquebus (from the German Doppelhacher), a
firearm with a double catch or match-holder. It was mostly
used for defending ramparts; the length being from three
to seven feet. The lock is distinguished from that of the
simple Harquebus, in having two match-holders working in
opposite directions. It was often supported by a stand
resting on iron spikes or wheels that was called fourquine.
The wheeled or German Harquebus {Badschlosbiiclise in
German) was invented in 1515 at Nuremberg. Its dif-
ference consists in having a wheel-lock, usually made of ten
separate pieces. It is not, like all earlier arms, fired with a
match, this being superseded by the sulphurous pyrites, called
also marcassite, which is found in cubes of a brilliant golden
of Ancient Arms. 69
yellow. This is that combination of sulphur and metal
that the Eoman patrols took care never to be without, so
as to procure a light as quickly as possible. The pyrites,
when struck by this cogged wheel, ignited and fired the
This new weapon, however, was never able to replace
entirely the harquebus with the match, whose mechanism
was more simple, solid, and much more sure, for when used
the sulphurous pyrites, which was extremely brittle, broke
very easily.
The Museum of Dresden possesses a smaU hand cannon
eleven inches long and four inches and three quarters in
diameter, of the beginning of the sixteenth century, which
appears to have preceded the invention of the wheel-lock and
given the first idea A rasp by grating against the sul-
phurous pyrites showers sparks upon it as soon as it is
removed from the screw-plate. This piece has been for a
long time ignorantly considered as the first fire-arm invented
by Berthold Schwarz (a.d. 1290-1320), a German monk, to
whom also was attributed the invention of gunpowder. The
flock of compilers still continue to call this little hand-
cannon " Moenchsbiichse," or monk's arquebus, and to point
it out as the first fire-arm.
The musket, whose construction and mechanism is the
same as that of the arquebus, is used either with a wheel lock
or match ; it differs from the arquebus only in diameter,
the charge and bullet being double in size. Being much
heavier, it necessitated the use of a rest or carriage like that
of the double arquebus. The French musket in 1694 was
generally, according to Saint-Eemy, of the calibre of twenty
leaden bullets to the pound ; it was three feet eight inches
long in the barrel, and including the stock was five feet
The arquebus or musket with rifle barrel, with balls driven
home by a mallet.
The rifled barrel invented in Germany, according to
some authorities at Leipsig in 1498, according to others at
Vienna by Gaspar Zollner, was not adopted by the French
army until 1793 ; it was the carbine of Versailles.
The arquebus or musket with the " chenappan," a name
70 Abridged History
corrupted from the German " Solmapphahn," a cock pecking,
indicates the time of its invention, which was the latter half
of the sixteenth century, for mention is made of moneys paid
in 1588 by the chamberlain of Norwich to a gunsmith,
Henry Eadoc, who changed the wheel-lock of a pistol to a
" snaphaunce." The name " Chenappan" was soon given in
France to robbers who used this new weapon, and the
Spanish bandits of the Pyrenees who were em-olled under
Louis XIII. were also called " chenappan ;" as were
also the Barbets of the Alps, the last remnants of the
imhappy Vaudois, who were forced by religious intolerance
to become marauders and bandits. The "snaphaunce"
method, which was worked by means of the sulphurous
pyrites, may be looked upon as the forerunner of the French
flint-look, which is derived from it. Nearly all the Oriental
arms, and particularly the Turkish guns, subsequent to
this date were snaphaunces.
The flint-lock gun was in all probability invented in
France about 1640. This gun was also uaxaeAfusilr-mousquel,
as it had a bayonet with a socket, an invention wrongly at-
tributed to the Scottish General Maokay, in 1691, but really
introduced into the French army by Vauban. The socket
allowed the marksman to shoot, and still keep his bayonet
on the gun-barrel. The handled or " plug " bayonet was
obliged to be fixed into the gun-barrel at the moment of
charging, which was very inconvenient.
Some few Italian authors have wished to attribute to their
country the invention of the musket, because its name
"focile" is derived from the Latin "focus," fire, but as the
name "fusil" already appears in France in the orders of
hunting in the year 1515, that is to say, a hundred and fifty
years before the replacing of the wheel-lock by the flint
process, it must be admitted that the name of " fusil " was
then applied to arquebuses of the old fashion. It has been
already mentioned that the invention of the socketed bayonet
is wrongly attributed to the Scottish General Mackay, in
1691. M. Culemann at Hanover possesses an arquebus with
a wheeled lock of the end of the sixteenth century, where a
long bayonet, whose blade at the same time serves as a barrel
cleaner, is fastened by a socket.
The change which the lock of the fire-arm underwent
of Ancient Arms. 71
by the invention of the flint battery was important, but
neither immediate nor radical, because it was preceded by the
snaphaunce lock, in which we already meet with the dog-
head or hammer. In the French guns, the pyrites was
replaced by flint, which was strongly held in the grip of the
dog-head and sharply struck against the steel hammer, as
soon as the finger pressing on the trigger loosed the spring,
and the shower of sparks set light to the powder in a pan
communicating with the touch-hole.
Vauban also invented a gun with a double firelock, after
the manner of the arquebus with wheel and screw, so that,
supposing the gun were to flash in the pan, a screw-match
would set fire to the priming. The old match-lock was not
entirely replaced by the new gun with the hammer until
Prince Leopold I., of Anhalt Dessau, the organiser of
Prussian infantry, introduced in 1698 the iron ramrod among
his soldiers, and this amelioration of the gun contributed to
their victory at the battle of Mollwitz in 1730.
The cartridge, that is to say, the complete charge of the
fire-arm wrapped in one packet, appears to have been used for
the first time in Spain about 1569 ; it was not adopted in
Prance until 1644, along with the cartridge-box invented
by Gustavus Adolphus in 1630.
The carbine is a fire-arm with a rifled barrel, generally
short and used by cavalry ; but war and hunting fire-arms
with rifled barrels are also called carbines.
The blunderbuss [mmisquet tonnerre, French ; donderbus,
Dutch; " Streubiichse," German) had a wide trumpet-shaped
barrel, and discharged ten or twelve balls at once.
The pistol, the diminutive of the arquebus and fusil, whose
name was probably derived from "pistallo," a pommel,
rather than from "Pistoia," the city of that name, appears
to have come originally from Perugia, where as early as
1364 they constructed " hand-cannons " only the length
of a " palma," about nine inches.
The German " Tercerole " was a small pocket pistol,
probably of Italian origin.
The percussion-capped gun, whose invention is wrongly
attributed to the English Captain Fergusson, commanding a
Hessian regiment in the American war (1775-1783), dates
72 Abridged History

back no further than 1807, when the real inventor, a Scottish

armourer of the name of Forsyth, took out a patent for the
percussion gun. The first chemical researches concerning
the composition of detonating materials,* appear due to
Pierre Bouldure, iu 1699. Nicholas Lemery continued
these researches in 1712. Bayon, army surgeon under Louis
XV., appears to have made known in 1764 the fulminate of

mercury a salt composed of carbon, azote, oxygen and

mercury an invention erroneously attributed to Howard,
who in 1800 composed the iirst explosive powder of ful-
minate of mercury and saltpetre, a preparation fitted to re-
place the priming powder in fire-arms. Liebig and Gay-
Lussac in 1824 analysed these fulminates and it is to

Fourcroy, Vauquelin, and Berthollet, that the discoveries

(between 1785 and 1787) of the fulminating salts of gold,
silver, and platinum, as well as the muriated oxygen of
chlorate of potash, are due.
In 1808 the armourer Pauly, who had modified Forsyth's
gun, introduced it into France. The percussion gun of
Joseph Egg may also be cited as having led this gunsmith
to the invention of the priming capsule, a small copper
cylinder open at one side and filled with fulminate.
In 1826 M. Delvigne found out a method of forcing the
bullet into the rifled barrel of the carbine without the use of
the hammer, and in a manner to avoid the inconveniences of
the systems hitherto tried.
The " Stecher," or hair-trigger, erroneously called in
French " double detente," an ingenious piece of mechanism
to render almost insensible the concussion produced by the
loosing of the ordinary trigger, invented by a gunsmith of
Munich in 1543, is not a new system, but merely an amelio-
ration which may be adapted to most carbines, and with
vrhich all the ancient German fire-arms of the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries are provided.
We have seen that the wheel-lock has been in all ages
very little used in warfare, but it was universally adopted
for hunting and parade weapons, and has given way only to
The arquebus and the musket, whether match or wheel-
* Ammoniwes fulminantes, which must not be confounded with
of Ancient Arms. 73
lock, were not two dijfferent systems, but only two kinds of
tlie same system ; they differed neither in form nor mechanism,
but only in calibre they were the usual arms of the regular

troops. The arquebusiers were provided with large powder-

flasks, a horn for the priming, several yards of match, and a
bag of buUets. The musketeers had in addition to the
sword and cushion a baldrick with wooden powder-tubes,
called Pulvermassen in German, a priming horn, a bag of
bullets, some matches and a match-case, a copper utensil
invented by the Dutch, and nearly identical with the match-
case of the grenadiers of the eighteenth century.
The origin of portable breech-loading fire-arms, of guns
with more than one barrel, and even of revolvers, dates
from the beginning of the sixteenth, or even the end of the
fifteenth century ; these appear to be all of German inven-
tion. The Mus^e d'ArtiUerie at Paris possesses a German
wheel-lock arquebus of the sixteenth century, which was
loaded at the breech, and another, also of the sixteenth
century, with an opening in the barrel, receiving the charge
either in a metallic envelope, or in a movable chamber,
a system which has been brought forward again in modern
The " amussette " or plaything of Marshal Saxe, at the
Mus^e d'ArtUlerie at Paris, is also a breech-loader. There
are specimens of these weapons at the Tower of London, at the
Museums of Sigmaringen, Dresden, and the Imperial Arsenal
of Vienna. The Museum of Sigmaringen possesses a German
arquebus of the sixteenth century, which is a revolver with
seven barrels, and a German gun of the eighteenth century, with
four barrels. The Musee d'ArtiUerie at Paris also exhibits
one of these weapons still retaining the old match-lock. In
modem times in France, Pauly in 1808, Leroy in 1813, and
more recently Lepage, Gastine-Eenette, and Lefaucheux,
have invented different systems of percussion breech-loading
guns; but that of M. Lefaucheux alone has remained in
favour for sporting weapons, after Grevelot had introduced a
great amelioration in the manufacture of percussion caps.
The repeating but not revolving fusil, that is to say, a
weapon the barrel of which receives various charges in a
groove which can be discharged successively, is likewise not
a modem invention ; the Museum of Sigmaringen possesses
74 Abridged History of Ancient Arms.
an ancient gim of tHs character; it is grooved, and fires
successively six shots.
Since America has begun to manufacture metallic cartridges
the revolving fusil has reappeared in that country, where
Spencer and Winchester have invented different processes.
The revolving pistol, revived at Paris by the gunsmith
Lenormand in 1815, who constructed one with five barrels,
was soon followed by the Devisme revolver with seven
barrels, and by the Hermann revolver at Liege, by the
Mariette pistol with twenty-four shots, and lastly by the
Colt revolver in 1835, the best of all, and which is most
generally in use.
After the mention of these different descriptions of fire-
arms we have only to speak of the celebrated breech-
loading needle-gun. The inventor, Jean Nicolas Dreyse,
was born in 1798, at Soemmerda, near Erfurth; he con-
structed the first needle-gun in 1827, after seventeen years
of study, and took out a patent in 1828, for eight years, for
his spring needle and fulminating cartridge. This gun, the
first perfect model of which was adopted in Prussia about
1841, has since undergone many changes, for it was only in
1836 that breech-loading was applied to the manu-
facture of this gun. Since that time every nation has pro-
duced its needle-gun, and attempted to manufacture a weapon
superior to that which produced such terrible results in the
late war. It is difficxilt to ascertain which of the new modi-
fications deserves the palm.
The results of the experiments made on September 5th, at
the shooting-gallery of Spandau, with the models of the needle-
gun uSed by different nations, are, according to oflicial re-
port, as follow: — The Prussian needle-gun discharges 12
shots per minute, the Chassepot 11, the Snider (England) 10,
the Peabody (Switzerland) 13, the Woenzl (Austria) lo'
the Eomington (Denmark) 14, the Werndl (Austria) 12, and
the revolver of Henry Winchester (North America) 19. In
respect of accuracy, however, the last-mentioned weapon
takes the lowest rank, only eleven of the nineteen shots
being on the target.





is certain, as we tave already

observed, tliat earth, wood,
IT tlie skins of wild beasts, and, above all, stone scattered
over the earth, must of necessity have been the first materials
which man employed for the manufacture of his tools and
weapons; and it is with these primitive products that a
universal history of the weapons of all people shoidd begin.
It would be superfluous to reiterate here what has been said
on this subject in the first pages of the preceding chapter ; it
has been shown that weapons of chipped stone have every-
where preceded those of polished stone, the manufacture of
which required less primitive processes. There exist also
some of these weapons which are neither in the first rough
state, nor in the fine polished state of the second ; smoothed
but not polished, they belong to epochs of transition, the
dates of which naturally vary according to their different
countries. In France it has been attempted to divide these
productions into three distinct classes ; that of their first
appearance, that of the existence of the reindeer in France,
and that of the dolmens ; but as epochs in the progressive
march of civilisation sometimes differ greatly even among
people of the same origin and race, this classification is not
altogether satisfactory.
The stone weapons found in the Perigord along with bones
in a cavern, some of which are engraved with the image of
the mastodon, might indeed add a few proofs of the existence
of man during the third geological epoch, but it would be
necessary to submit these engravings to a microscopic obser-
76 Chipped Flint
vation, so as to assure ourselves of the absence ofany decep-
tion. enough that these bones and weapons should
It is not
be gathered up in alluvial-diluvial deposits, which may have
undergone disturbances, as is shown by the different
"movable deposits," so called because they are com-
posed of objects belonging to different epochs. The
Alpine diluvium, when undisturbed, contains no organic
matter in the state of ossine, a substance which is peculiar to
unfossilised bone, so that aU alluvial soil containing the
least bone, with ossine, is later than the great terrestrial
disturbance which we call the Deluge.
Many weapons and tools of manufactured flints betoken
surely that they are not antediluvian they are formed out of

pebbles which, although found in the interior soils of our

continent, have clearly been rolled together before being
worked by hand. The manufacture of flint without metallic
tools or corrosive acids can be explained only by the facility
with which the flint, when freshly quarried, and before it
has undergone the influence of the atmosphere, can be
divided by splintering.
Weapons. 77
1. Babylonian flint arrow-head ; reign
of Nimrod, the founder of Babylon

(2J inches).
Museum of Berlin,
2. Egyptian flint knife (4 inches).
Museum of Berlin,

3. Egyptian flint knife (6 inches).

Museum of Berlin,

i, Egyptian flint lance-head (6 inches).

A quantity of chips in flint, in-
tended to be made into tools and
weapons, has also been found at
Sarabut El Khaden.

5. German hatchet in basalt (7 inches),

found near Lintz (Austria).
Museum of Sigmaringen.

6. Wedge of serpentine (6J inches),

found near Lintz, in Austria.
Museum of Sigmaringen,

7. German flint lance-head (or chisel)

(7i inches), found at Balingen.
Museum of Sigmaringen,

8. German flint hatchet (5 inches),

found at Eugen, an island in the
Museum of Berlin,
9. German flint knife (5 inches).
Museum of Berlin.

10. Point of German lance.

11. Doubled-headed hatchet of smooth

stone ; a transitory link between
the chipped and polished stones.
It is 5 J inches long, and was found
at Lunehurg.
Museum of the City of Hanover,
78 Chipped Flint

12. Kelto-Gallio yellow flint hatcliet

called " Pain de benrre." It

is10 inches long, and found at

Pressigny-le-Grand (ludre et
Loire). See the " Moniteur"
of France, IS May, 1865.
Author's Collection.
13. Kelto-Gallic yellow flint knife
of 5 inches : found as above.
Author's Collection.
H 14. Kelto-Galho yellow flint knife
(3 inches) found as aboTe.

Author's Collection,
15. Helvetian dagger of 5
inches length found near

Stavaye', in the lake of Neu-

Museum of Fribourg.
16. British flint arrow-head of 2|
inches length. It may data
from a time preceding the
arrival of the Phoenicians.
Llewellyn Meyrieh Collection,
17. Irish barbed arrow-head, whitish
flint, of 5J inches.
Christy Collection. London.
IS, British wedge or hatchet in
whitish flint, of SJ inches:
found at Cisburg Camp {sic)

in Sussex.
Christy Collection. London.
19, Iberian or Spanish flint dagger
of Si inches ; found at Gib-
Christy Collection. London.
20. Bohemian flint knife (5 J inches).
Museum of Prague,
21. Danish hatchet (11 inches)

(called in Danish, Kiler of

Museum of Copenhagen.
Weapons. 79

22. Danishflint hatchet of superior

shape (5§ inches), (in Danish
KUer of Flint).
Museum of Copenhagen.

23. Danish flint lance-head (7J ^3

inches). This weapon (Lanse-
spits of Flint) is as sharp as
any steel weapon.
Museum of Copenhagen.

24. Danish flint lance-head (9

inches), less sharp, but show-
ing equally skilful work with
the preceding one.
Museum of Copenhagen.
25. Danish ilint dagger (8 inches),
worked in an admirable man-
ner. (Dolk of Fliut).
Mtiseum of Copenhagen,

26. Danish flint dagger with rounded
handle (13J inches). A marvel
of workmanship.
Museum, of Copenhagen.

27. Danish fliat hatchet-sabre (15J

inches). Very fine work.
Museum of Copeiihageti.

28. Two Danish barbed flint arrow-

heads (IJ inch) (Pilespidser
of Flint in Danish).
Museum of Copenhagen.

29. Long arrow-head, unbarbed.

Danish flint (34 inches).
Miisemn of Copenhagen.


When we see that Denmark produced these beautiful
weapons in chipped the fineness of whose workmanship
generally surpasses that of the polished flints of the second
epoch of other countries, it must necessarily be admitted that
the phases of Danish civilisation do not tally with those of the
Germanic and Gallic nations, and that the Danes continued
to work in flints at a time when many of their neighbours
were already acquainted with bronze weapons. The alluvial
soils in which great quantities of these beautiful weapons
have been found (in the so-called Kiokkenmoedinge or
kitchen-refuse heaps), appear to show that their manufacture
is later than that of the weapons from the lake dwellings
in Switzerland, Savoy, and Baden, which have yielded us no
bronze weapons, and that the Danish flints are probably not
of earlier origin than the lake dwellings of ISToveto, Castiana,
and Peschiera, which date from the bronze age.
Even when taking note of the more or less rapid march of
civilisation in each country, it is difficult to fix the priority
of one people over another in the construction of these
primitive weapons ; where everything is plunged in ob-
scurity, and when new excavations from time to time over-
throw what preceding ones have established, we can only
argue from hypothesis. In England, likewise, these weapons
have always been found in alluvial soils but the hatchets

in chipped or rough flint of the Christy collection of London,

mentioned in the preceding chapter, may possibly date farther
back than the fourth geological epoch. As the modern
weapons of savage nations do not enter into the scheme of
this work, the flint ones likewise must of necessity be passed
over, even when ancient, for the modern construction of
savage nations is just what it was in the bygone centuries.
The author has nevertheless made an exception in favour of
Mexico, because the Mexican arms which have been here
represented are no longer made.
It is very difficult to establish exact demarcations between
the times when nations made use of rough flint weapons,
and the times when these weapons were in polished flint or
bronze, for two of these products, and even all three,
have been found mingled together.
Weapons in Polished Flint. 81

The excavations made in the cemetery of Hallstatt have

in fact furnished proof that iron was not unknown in
Germany, even when flint and bronze were still the usual
materials for cutting weapons. In the chapter which treats
of the products of the so-called iron age will be seen some
representations of dagger-points in iron, found in the tombs
of HaUstatt along with weapons in bronze and flint.
82 Weapons m
30 German wedge, amulet, or talis-
man in serpentine (1 inch).
Author's Collection.
31. German hatchet in serpentine
31 (9 inches), found at Gensen-
heim, near Mayence.
Christy Collection. London.
32. German double hatchet, of
greenish touchstone (6
inches), found at Hildesheim.
Christy Collection. London.
33. German hammer - hatchet, in

granite (6 inches), found at

Christy Collection. London.
34. German hammer - hatchet, in
serpentine (6 inches), found
at Kaufbeuren.
National Museum of Bavaria at
35. German hatchet, serpentine (6
inches), found at Enus, near
Lintz, with bronze and iron
Museum Francisco-Cardlinvm at
36. Fragment of German hatchet,
serpentine (8 inches), found
with bronze and iron weapons
in the tombs of Hallstatt.
Museum of Antiquities at Vienna.
37. British double-headed hatchet,
basalt {il inches).
Christy Collection. London.
38. Large Kelto-Galho hatchet,
jade (16 inches).
Museum of Vanrm.
39. Small Kelto-GalHo hatchet, in-

serpentine granite (3i inches), '

39 found in the Nivernais.

Author's Colteetian
Polished Flint. 83

40. Kelto-Swiss hatchet, serpentine,

fixed into a stag's horn, and
with a wooden handle, found
in a Swiss lacustrine dwelling.
Museum of Zurich.

41. Kelto-Swiss hatchet, serpentine,

with long wooden handle,
found at Botenhausen.
Mitseum of Zurich.
42. Danish hatchet, basalt (5^
Museum of Copenhagen.

43. War hammer, Danish basalt (5

Museum of Copenhagen.

44. Danish double-edged hatchet,

basalt (8j incbes).
Museum of Copenhagen.

45. Double-edged Danish hatchet,

basalt (5 inches).
Museum of Copenhagen.

46. Double-edged Danish hatchet,

basalt (8 J inches).
Museum of Copenhagen.
47. Danish single hatchet, called
Niolner, in basalt (9 inches),
found in a tomb on the coast
of Scotland. The Niolner is

an attribute of the Scandi-

navian god Thor, and is often
mentioned in the Sagas.
Meyrich CoUecHon.
48. Iberian or Spanish hatchet in
basalt (7i inches).
Christy CoUeetion. London.
84 Weapons in Polished Flint.

49. Fragment of a Hungarian hatchet,

in basalt (7i inches).
Christy Collection. London,

50. Russian -war-hamnier in black stone

(llj inches). Museum of St.

Petersburg. There is a cast of it

at the Museum of St. Germain.

51. Mexican sword of the 15th century,

of iron wood, with ten blades,
fixed into the wood, of black
obsidian.* This weapon is 25
inches long.

.",2. Mexican sword of 1 metre, 8 inches

long, in iron wood and black
Museum of Berlin,

53. Mexican spear-head of the 15th

century, black obsidian, fixed in a
wooden handle.

* Obsidian is a volcanic production,

of a greenish black, with an enamelled-
looking surface, and capable of taking
a high polish. The Peruvian Incaa
employed it for min-ors, and the priests
of HuitzUopoohtli for ornaments. It is
not the only stone made use of by the
ancient inhabitants of America for their
weapons; they used also flmt, chaloe-
dony, and serpentine.




THEthisctanges in the weapons of the ancients, including in

term the great Assyrian monarchies, who
appear rather to have given the model of their arms to the
Egyptians and Greeks than to have borrowed from them,
have been explained in the historical chapter, pages 17
to 74. We have seen that even in times of the greatest
antiquity iron and bronze were employed indistinctively for
the manufacture of offensive and defensive weapons, so that
the establishment of a veritable Age of Bronze and Age of Iron
is inadmissible. If these terms have been preserved in the
chapter which speaks of the weapons of northern nations, it
is from fear of creating confusion of ideas by a new, though
more correct, method of classification ; but the author has
only acted thus after having entered his protest, and ex-
plained in what manner the conventional denominations were
to be understood.
Few arms and weapons and few docmnents of the Hindoo,
American, Assyrian, Persian, and Egyptian nations have
reached us, and it has been found necessary to study the
military equipment of these countries almost entirely from
their monuments. Our museums are much richer in Greek
and Eoman arms, which enable us to follow the changes of
armour on classic soil during a number of centuries.
The American weapons have been placed after those of
India, for everything tends to show that the lost civilisations
of America have even preceded those of a great part ci India^
86 Weapons of
and probably those of the countries we have been in the habit
of calling classic.
The Keramic wares of the heroic age of America, among
which may be counted some products of Palenque and Mitla,
show, even in their state of artistic decline, to what height the
worship of pure outline and ornament, so visible in EgyptiajQ,
Assyrian, and Greek art, had been carried by a people whose
very shadow has disappeared from the field of history.
The Louvre possesses one of these ancient pieces of
Transatlantic pottery, the design of which recalls the decora-
tion of ancient Etruscan vases, and classic mythology it is;

a Hercules defeating his antagonist ; and many specimens of

American keramic ware are known, the classic ornaments of
which show an equally incontestable priority. The moiie
remote the date of these antique products, the more their
workmanship resembles Greek art, insomuch that the least
ancient are always the least artistic a fact which authorises

us to draw the conclusion of an ancient American civilisation

since declined, but whose most flourishing epoch was two
and even three thousand years before Jesus Christ.
See the historical chapter.
Nothing has been found to throw any light on the arms of
the ancient civilisation of this country, whose history goes
back to B.C. 3000. The figures here represented indicate that
Hindoo armour has varied but little in the matter of ofiensive
weapons, and that the helmet alone betokens a decided
change, which appears to have manifested itself from the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries of this present era, as will
be seen in the chapter which treats of Western weapons of
the Christian Middle Ages.
Bronze an I Iro

1. Hiiidoo warriors, from granite me-

morial stones of Beenjanugar.
of which the Kensington Mu-
seum possesses photographs.
The date of these monxunenta
corresponds with our Middle
It will be seen that the sword
is placed on the right side of
the warrior. The Assyrians and
all modem nations wore it on
the while the Greeks and

Eomans wore it on the right.

The engraving of this has-relief
is reversed, so that the com-
batants appear to hold their
spears in their left hands, and
their shields in their right.

2. Hindoo hatchet, from an Indian

piece of sculpture in the city
of Saitron in Eajpootana. (A.r.
Kensington Museum.

3. Hindoo aahre from a bas-relief of

Beenjanugar and the Husso-
man monument.
4. Javanese sword, from the statue
of the Goddess of War at the
Museum of Berlin.


It has been observed in the historical chapter that the

people of America never employed either bronze or iron in
the construction of their offensive weapons, and that the
European conquerors found only pure stone in request for
all cutting weapons. In regard to those of defence, they
were manufactured in bronze, gold, mother-of-pearl, horn,
wood, and leather ; and traces have been found of different
arms, the origin of which is lost in antiquity. Such is the
helmet engraved further on, from a stucco bas-relief in the
ruins of Palanque, or city of Culhuacan,* the circumference of
which was about eighteen miles. This city was situated in the
state of Chiapa, in the northern part of Central America, where
the cradle of the most ancient American civilisation, now
extinct, was placed — a civilisation which may easily have
been contemporaneous with, if not anterior to, that of India.
The helmet of the bas-relief of Hoohicalco, though less
ancient, still belongs to a remote period, when the horse, in-
troduced by European navigators, was as yet unknovm. As
the American weapons of the period corresponding to the
Christian Middle Ages are few and insignificant, they have
been placed at the end of the chapter which treats of
polished stone weapons, and not in the place where the
weapons of a time prior to the Merovingian epoch are
mentioned. These American arms, as we have seen, are
generally of wood edged with obsidian.

* Palanqui, or Culhuaoan, or Huehuetlapatl'aa, was discovered only

in 1787, by Antonio del Eio, and Jose Alonzo Calderon.
American Weap^<OHg 89

1. American helmet, drawn from a

bas-relief of Palauque. The
figure in this bas-relief, which
is mentioned in M. de Waldeck's
work, is represented sitting with
the left leg folded under the
body, similar to the statues of
the god Boodha, or the Chinese
god Fo.

2. Mexican helmet drawn from a

bas-relief of great antiquity at
Hoohicaloo, in the province of
QuMnaraca, Mexico.

Two Mexican helmets drawn from

a Mexican manuscript of the be-
ginning of the fifteenth century,
the property of M. de Waldeck,
in which is described the con-
quest of Ascapuaala.

Mexican helmet in solid gold,

ornamented with feathers, of
the fifteenth century. It was
part of a royal suit, destroyed in
Mexico by fire.
90 American Weapons.

5. Mexican helmet in leather, wood,

leopaid alrin, and feathers, o^
the fifteenth century.
From a Manusaript.

6. Mexican helmet in wood, leather

and feathers, fifteenth centmy.
From a Manuscript.

7. Mexican corsletofscalesofmothei
of pearl (Jazeran or Koiazin) ol
(he fifteenth century. This finG
piece of defensive armour was
part of a royal suit, mentioned
on the preceding page at fig. 4,
as having been destroyed m
Mexico by fire.

8. Buckler or small round Mexican

shield, 25 inches in diameter, of
gold and silver, and ornamented
with feathers. It was part of
the same suit of the fifteenth
century, which was burnt. The
hieroglyphic ornaments have
not hitherto been explained.
American Weapons. 91

9. Bnckler or romid Mexican shield, 25

inches in diameter, composed entirely
of leather, and ornamented by the
hieroglyphic sign which among the
Mexicans stood for a hundred, and
which here indicates that the shield
belonged to a centurion or captain
over a hundred men.

10. Ensign or Mexican standard in gold,

surmounted bya grasshopper, or locust,
12i inches long, fifteenth century.

11. Mexican ensign in gold, surmounted

by an eagle's head, life size, fifteenth

Eor American offensive weapons in wood and obsidian, see

the end of the chapter on polidied stone weapons.


The history of the weapons of the five great monarchies,

to the whole of which the name Assyrian has been commonly
allotted, has been given at pages 22 to 26. It has been seen that
iron as well as bronze was already used in these countries in
the eleventh century, b.o. as is proved by the ingots of this
metal, and the few iron utensils in the Louvre, as also by the
fragment of a steel coat of mail in the British Museum.
Assyrian Weapons. 93

1. AsByrio-Babylonian archer with war

coat, leggings, and fillet instead of
a helmet. Bas-relief, e.g. 700.
Museum of the Louvre.

8. Foot soldier of the Assyrian army,

armed with the coat, helmet and
oresi^ target and lance. We also
notice the greaves or leggings. Bas-
reliefe of Nineyeh of Saidanapalns V.
B.O. 700.

soldier without leggings,

hnnting game. Bas-relief of Khorsar
bad, of the reign of Sargon.
British Museum.
94 Assyrian Weapons.

i. Foot soldier of the army of Sennacherib

(B.C. 712—707), from a bas-relief in the

British Museum. The shape of the conical

helmet approaches that of the Samnite
one (see the chapter on Eoman and Sam-
nite armour) the coat and leggings appear

to be of mail the shield is round, large,


and very convex.

5. Persian archer, from a bas-relief of Perse-

polis, the ancient capital of Persia and of
aU the Persian monarchy (b.o. 560). The
long coat, probably of leather, descends
to the ankle. The headdress has nothing
of the helmet, but nevertheless indicates
workmanship in metal. The archer carries
the sword on the left side, while the
Greeks and Komans wore it on the right.

6. Persian warrior from a bas-rehef of Perse-

poUs, a cast of which is found in the
British Museum. The shield, high enough
to rest on, is exceedingly convex, almost
hemispherical; the helmet, with ear and
neck coverings in one single piece, differs
entirely from the other Assyrian helmets
known to us from different bas-reliefs.
Assyrian Weapons. 95
Aasyrian hatchet in bronze (8
inches), found at Babylon.
British Mtiseam.
ABsyrian double hatchet, probably
in iron, from a bas-relief.
, Assyrian single hatchet, probably
in iron, from a bas-relief.

10. Assyrian single hatchet, to

which the quivers of the war-
riors fighting on chariots were
often fastened. From the cast
of a bas-relief in the Louvre.
11. Babylonian dagger in bronze.
British Museum.
12. Assyrian dagger in bronze.
Museums of the Lmivre and, of Berlin.
13. Assyrian poignard with head of
hippopotamus, probably in
bronze, &om the bas-relief of
Nimrod. b.o. 1000.
Museum of the Louvre.
14. Assyrian dagger in bronze.
Museum of Berlin.
15. Assyrian sword in bronze, from
the bas-reliefs of Khorsabad,
of the reign of king Sargon.
B.C. 1300.
16. Assyrian sword, bas-rehef from
a palace in Nineveh, of the
reign of Sardanapalus. B.o.
Museums of Berlin and of the Louvre.
17 and 18. Persian sword and sheath
from an antique group, Mithras
sacrificing a bull* (M. Eom.
by Do la Chausaee). It is
very like the ancient " Aki-

* Mithras, the son of the mountain

Ulbordi, a Persian mythologio hero,
of whom the "Zend-Avesta" frag-
ments of the Works of Zoroaster give
details. The time of the birth of Zo-
roaster, the founder of Magianism. or
more correctly the reformer of j?ar-
eeeism, floats between B.C. 1300 and
1100. The Mithras, from whom these
arms have been copied, belongs to the
period when the ancient Parsees still
spoke the Zend language, which is
now extinct, bat in which the Paraee
or Grueber priests still repeat prayers,
the sense of which they do not understand.
Assyrian Weapons.

19. Persian sword. Cast from a bas-
relief of Persepolis.
Museum and

British Louvre.

20. Assyrian spear-head. Bas-relief

from a Palace of Nineveh, of
the reign of Sardanapalus V.
B.O. 700.
British Musevm and, Louvre.

21. Assyrian lance. The shaft ia

the height of a man, and has
a coimter-weight at the end.
From a baa-relief.

22. Assyrian siclde-shaped weapon

&om a bas-rehef. A
weapon in iron has been found
at PsBstum in Lucania. It is
preserved in the Mus^e d'Ar-
tillerie at Paris. See Boman

23. Median bow, bas-relief.

24. Median quiver, bas-relief.

Assyrian Weapons.

85. Assyrian brouze helmet, the authen-

ticity of which is established. The
conical shape of this helmet is to be
found in the Christian Middle Ages,
especially among the Nor.ians. See
also the chapter on Roman arms, and
the Simmitp helmet.
British Museum.

26. Assyrian helmet in iron, said to be from
Kouyunjik. This piece of armour,
valuable for history, indicates the use
of iron in the time which is called the
Age of Bronze of the ancients. A
similar helmet, but in bronze and
attributed to Germany, forms part of
the Klemm collection at Dresden.
British Museum.

27. Helmet, probably in bronze, of Assyrian

horseman, drawn from a bas-relief of
Nineveh of the time of Sardanapa-
lus V. This helmet is on
account of its cheek-plates. B.C. 700.
Museum of the Louvre.

28. Ilehnet, probably in bronze, of an

Assyrian foot-soldier, from a bas-relief
of Nineveh, of the time of Sardana-
palus V. B.O. 700.
Museum of the Lo'tvre.
98 Assyrian Weapons.
'2'J. Fillet, with cliiii-strap, or cheek-
plates, probably in metal, or
leather mounted with metal.
Headdress of Assyrian archer,
which protected the top of
the head, and recalls the head-
dress of the Frank warriors.
From bas-reliefs in the British,
Louvre, and Berlin Museums.

30. Helmet without chin-strap, pro-

bably in bronze, worn by the
Assyrian aichers and auxi-
haries. From a bas-relief,

B.C. 1000.
Museum of the Louvre.

31. Two Assyrian helmets, probably

in bronze, from bas-reliefs.
The one with a double-pointed
crest hasbeen imitated by the
Greeks, and appears to come
from the ancicut civilisation
of America.

32. Bronze crest of Assyrian helmet.

British Museum.

33. Persian helmet from a group

representing Mithras sacrific-

ing a bull. CSee note to page

Assyrian Weapons.

84. Helmet or war headdi-ess of Persian

chief, from a bas-relief now in tlie
Britisli Museum. This headdress,
which appears to be of metal, has
probably been used in war.

35. Helmet or headdress of Persian archer,

from a bas-relief of Persepolis, a oast
of which Is in the British Museum.
Same observations as for the preceding
one. (B.C. 560.)

36. Persian helmet with movable plates,

probably in bronze, from a Persian
bas-relief,a cast of which is in the
British Museum. This piece of
armour is interesting, inasmuch as it
prefigures the European Renaissance
helmet of the sixteenth century, (b.o.

37. Persian helmet with cheek-plates and

neck-covering, from a bas-relief, casts
of which are at the Louvre and
British Museum. Same observations
as the preceding one.

38. Persian helmet of the reign of the

dynasty of the Sassanides (A.D. 226-
652). This bronze helmet is in the
British Museum,
100 Assyrian Weapons.

39. Babylonian buckler of the

height of a man's shoulder,
probably in bionze.
British Museum.

Assyrian buckler, from a baa-

relief. It appears to be of a
convex form, like the preceding

41. Persian buckler with vizor or

sight-holes. Bas-relief.

Pei-sian buckler from the mosaic

of Pompeii, which represents
the battle between Alexander
and Darius.
Museum of Naples,

43. Assyrian shield, or Pavois, of

the height of a man's shoulder.
Bas-relief of the second Assy-
rian Empire, reign of Saxdana-
palus V. B.C. 700.
Museum of the Louvre,

44. Assyrian Pavois, breast-high.

From a bas-relief representing
the siege of a city by Asshur-
British Museum.

Coat of arms of Assyrian horse-

man, probably of plates of
metal sewed on leather. It
covers the loins, and is copied
from bas-reliefs in the British
Museum, in which is also to
be found a fragment of a veri-
table Assyrian coat of mail, in
tempered steel, said to come
from Babylon.


Notwithstanding the knowledge that we have of the history

of Egypt, which goes back to the commencement of twenty-
sis dynasties, that is to say, to the reign of Menes, the first
king (b.c. 2450), a time when this country formed, as under
the eighteenth dynasty, several distinct states, each under an
independent prince, documentary evidence as to the arms of
the soldiery fails us almost entirely. The first seventeen
dynasties, beginning from Menes to MoBris (2450 —
which comprised in all three hundred and thirty kings,
who reigned simultaneously in Thebes, This, Elephantine,
Heraclea, Diospolis, Xois, and Tanis, as well as those of the
eighteenth dynasty, known as the reign of the Pharaohs
(Moeris, Uchoreus the founder of Memphis, Osymandias,
Eamses, Amenophis, Ac), have left us no other evidence
than a few bas-reKefe.
It has already been observed in the historical chapter,
that the civil and funereal monuments of Egypt, on account
of its being a country where the genius of the nation was
bent more towards science and agriculture than to war, offer
fewer military subjects than Assyxiaij monuments. We have
seen that Denon, in his " Voyages dans la haute et basse
Egypte," has left a few drawings of offensive and defensive
weapons but they are too slight, even when added to the

Theban bas-reKefs, to be able to give an exact idea of the

complete equipment of Egyptian soldiery.
The few Egyptian tools and weapons in iron, exhibited in
the museums of London, the Louvre, and Berlin, which
assuredly belong to most ancient times, can leave no doubts
as to this metal being used in Egypt as well as in Assyria
contemporaneously with bronze. All that has been found of
offensive weapons dating from the age of stone consists, as may
be seen in the chapter in which these weapons are mentioned,
of a few arrow-heads, knives, and lance-heads in flint chipped
by splintering, preserved in the museums of London and
Berlm. The arrow-blades were found in Babylon itself,
and cannot date farther back than iho foimdation of this
city. In addition to this there are in the British Museum a
102 Egyptian Weapons.
few flint cMps, destined to the manufacture of starp-bladed
weapons, found at Sarabut-el-Khadon.
The most valuable piece, for the reconstituting Egyptian
armour, is the imbricated coat of mail which M. Prisse
d' Avenues has represented in his work, for the Biblical in-
scription engraved on one of the bronze scales enables us to
fix its date.Several of the ofiensive weapons drawn by this
same archseologist are of such peculiar shape that it is im-
possible to explain their use.
Egijptian Weajoons. 103

1. Egyptians flglitiaj, from mural

paintiags of Thebes. The head-
dresses ai'e of a strange form,
and the offensive weapons con-
sist of only lances and arrows.

Egyptian soldiers, from Theban

has-reliefs. In addition to the
shield with sight-holes these
men appear to be all armed
with the " shop " or " khop "
(see farther ou, No. 19),

3. Egyptian coat of mail, from

Denon's work. Among tlie

designs of M. Prisse d'A\ ennes

may be remarked an Egyptian
coat of mail, in scales of bronze,
each scale being an 'inch and a
half in length by three-fourths
of an inch in breadth. Among
the scales the one which bears
the Biblical inscription fixes the nsjUihyj

date of the manufacture to the

Pharaonic dj nasty.

4. Egyptian coat in crocodile's skin.

Egyptian Museum of the Belvedere,

5. Egyptian buckler with sight-hole,

from Denon's work. The bas-
relief of Thebes, ah-eady men-
tioned, shows a similar buckler,
but of oval shape.
104 Egyptian Weapons.

6. Sword-breaker, from Denon'-swork.

7. Egyptian quivers, id.

I>= S. Egyptian hatchet, id.

sword, id.
' '

scimitar, id.

11 11. „ dart, id.

sling id.

13. Unknown weapon, id.

14. Unknown weapon, id.

15. Hatchet, from bas-reliefs of

16. Scorpion or whip-goad, id.

The weapons could

size of these
not be given, but they appear
to be from 25 to 27 inches long.
They were probably in bronze
and iron.

Egyftian Weapons. lOS

17. Egyptian wedge or hatehet, bronze 17

(4 inches).
Egyptian knife or lance-head, Iron
of Berlin. ^=3
(6 inches).
Museum of Berlin,

19. Shop or khop, an Egyptian iron

weapon (6 inches). Museum of
Berlin. It may be seen, a little
enlarged, on the gr.jup of Seti-
Menephthah vanquishing Tahen-
nub, of the I8th dynasty (b.o.

1990), at the British Museum.

20. Egyptian lance-head, bronze (lOJ

21. Egyptian poignard, bronze. The

handle is iixed upon a wooden

22. Egyptian hatchet, bronze, of I

inches, bound with thongs to a

wooden handle of ISJ inches.
British Museum.
23. Egyptian hatchet, bronze (4J
inches), fixed intoawoodeu handle
of 16| inches.

24. Bronze dagger (14 inches). This

weapon has, however, a Greek

25. Egyptian poignard, bronze (11

inches), found at and
drawn in M. Prisse d'Avennes'
work. The handle is in horn.

26. Egyptian poignard and sheath,

broiize, 1 foot in length. The
handle is of ivory, ornamented
with studs in gilded bronze.
Mvxeum of Berlin,

To chapter will contain a summary

facilitate research, tliis
of what has already been said in the historical chapter on
Greek and Etruscan armour.
The offensive and defensive weapons of Greece in the time
of Homer (b.o. 1000) were for the most part in bronze, a
few for purposes of defence being in leather, though iron was
as well known in Greece as in Egypt and Assyria. Defen-
sive armour was composed of a cuirass or corslet (with
breast and back plates, each made of a single piece or shell),
of the helmet, of the large round conves shield, and the
KvrjixiSes, greaves or defensive leggings.*
The offensive weapons were the cut-and-thrust sword,
straight-bladed, more or less long, double-edged, with a
slender point and square sheath, which was worn on the right
side. The lance was from eleven to fifteen feet long, with a
broad, long, and pointed head, rounded towards the socket,
and with a cross-piece bevelled, and strongest towards the
centre. This weapon served either for thrusting or throwing.
The javelin with its amentum (a strap fixed to the centre of
gravity of the javelin) was a kind of long arrow or dart, which
the warrior threw from his hand, and which we find amongst
the Germans and Eomans ; and lastly, the bow and arrows.
The Greeks had at first no cavalry, nor had they even a
term to indicate the action of mounting on horseback, for
which, even in French, a proper verb does not exist, for the
expression " chevaucher " means rather to stroll (Jidner) on
* The different coverings for the feet among the Greeks were, the
sandal, worn by the men the persica, worn by tlie women, particularly

by the hetairie; the crepida, the iron-shod shoe of tlie philosophers and
soldiers, which did not cover the whole of the foot ; and the garhatinc,
belonging to the peasant. There were also the cothurnus, and the buskin.
The first was the foot covering of the tragic actors, to appear taller
when they acted heroes. Ligatures, fastened to the sole, which was
generally of cork, became narrower, as in the modern skate, and passed
between the first and second toe. It was also worn by kings and people
of the higher classes. The buskin was particularly suited to comic
actors; it was a kind of boot laced up the front, and generally coming
up Ijigher than the ankle. An antir[U6 statue of Diana in the Museo
Pio-Clementino, and many other statues, wear the buskin.
t This assertion seems hardly admissible, in the face of the words
iirt^e^rjKiia, mounted [ec. on horseback), and 'nrireiai/, to rido.—
Teanslatok's Note.
Greek and Etruscan Armour. 107
Later, about b.o. 400, bodies of slingers and horsemen
were added to their armies.
As to the Etruscan arms, they may be divided into three
categories those constructed when Phoenician influences pre-

vailed (Asiatic weapons), and which appear anterior even to

Greek civilisation ;those of the epoch of the end of the
Trojan war, and which are perfectly identical with Greek
weapons and lastly those of the Latin time, a little while

before the conquest of Etruria by the Eomans.

Greek weapons have necessarily been classed with Etruscan
ones, of which few or none of the first period exist ; to class
them separately would have been impracticable.
Greelc and Etrusean Armour.

1. Greek combatants, horn a painted

vase in the Louvre. The war-
riors are armed with casques,
breastplates, and bucklers, but
wear no leggings. The lance
and sword constitute the ofleu-
sive weapons.

2. Greek casque called "kataityx,"

probably in leather, of the 8th
century B.a, copied from a
bronze statuette of Diomed.
This casque has no crest, but
has a chin strap, and appears to
indicate well the primitive form
of casques.

Etruscan casque in bronze, said

to belong to tlie first period,
C. 1, " Muse'e d'Artillerie de
Paris." A similar casque has,
however, been found in the
German cemetery of Hallstatt,
whose tombs do not date farther
than the Christian era.

Etruscan casque in bronze, pre-

served in the Louvre. This
one is also attributed to archaic
times. Similar examples are
to be found in the " Muse'e
d'Artillerie de Paris" (C. 2),
in tlie Museums of Berlin,
Turin (No. 310), of Mayenoe
(No. 380), and in the Tower
of London Q).
Greek and Etruscan Armour.
Bronze casque from tlie Museum
of St. Germain, attributed to
the XJmbrians* One similar
liasbeen found in the German
tombs of Hallatatt, and ex-
liibited in the Cabinet of Anti-
quities at Vienna, and another
found at Steingaden, in Ba-
varia, is in the museum at
Etruscan casque in bronze with
long antennee. Fac-similes to
be seen in the Artillery Museum,
Paris (0. 12.), in the Museum
at Mayence, and in the Cabinet
of Medals at Paris. The Louvre
possesses a similar specimen,
but in gold. The antennse
(from the Latin "ante," before,
and " fixus," fixed) are so called
from their shape, which resem-
bles the yards of ships.

Archaic Etruscan bronze casque.

A figured vizor may be re-
marked, which calls to mind
the movable vizors of the
Christian Middle Ages.
British Museum.

8. Greek casques in bronze, with

inscriptions. 8
British Museum.

* The XJmbrians or Umbri were'

of the Gallic race, and were allies of
the Etruscans, B.C. 311 —307. Con-
trary to the opinion of some modem
liistorians, I believe that this people
was a less ancient one than the
Etruscan race.

110 Oreelc and Etruscan Armour.

9. Greek casque of a "hoplites,'' or
heavy-armed foot-soldier, in bronze,
copied from a statue of that time.
Similar examples are to be seen in
the armouries of Turin (341), Ber-
lin, Mayence, Goodrich Court, and
the Artillery Museum, Paris. A
similar object, in the British
Muteum, is engra-ped with a Greek
inscription. The Venetian salades
of the fifteenth century resemble in
style this helmet. One hke it in
every respect has been found at
Steingaden, near Hohenschwanga,
in Bavaria it is now in the

Augsburg Museum.

10. Greek casque in bronze. No. 342,

Arsenal of Turin.

11. Greek casque in bronze. No. 3176,

Museum of Mayence. It is an
admirable piece of workmanship,
the reliefs representing a combat
of two bulls it has antennse, and

is sui'mounted with a crest-holder.

12. Greek casque from a painted vase,

said to be Etruscan, in the Louvre.
This is the perfect Greek classic
casque, which we see in so many
sculptures : not a single specimen,
however, lias descended to us.*

* Singularly enough, two New

Zealand casques of twisted vegetable
fibre, in the Meyrick Collection, now
exhibiting at South Kensington, are ot
this pure Greek type. Teanslatok's
GreeJc and Etruscan Armour. Ill

13. Greek casque from the paintings

on a vase said to be Etruscan,
in the Louvre Museum it is ;

of a rare and artistic shape.

The crest holder, which re-
presents a kind of eagle, ap-
pears to he ornamented witli

14. Greek casque from an antique

statue the crest is ornamented

with horsehair out short, and

the head-piece shows fine em-
bossed workmanship..

J 3. Crest of a Greek casque in

bronze, found in a tomb.
0. 13, Museum of Artillery,
Paris. Observe the likeness
to Assyrian crest, No. 32, page

16. Greek casque with neck cover-

ing, in bronze. 0. 6, Museum
of Artillery, This
helmet appears to have be-
longed to a horseman of the
decadence period.

17. Greek casque with chin-strap

in bronze. C. 8, Mussum of
Artillery, Paris.
112 Greeh and Etrusoan Armour.

18. Greek helmet with neck-cover-

ing and plume-holder, belong-
ing to a horseman. C. 1,
Museum of Artillery, Paris;
this helmet belongs to the
period of decadence.

19. Etrusoan breastplate in bronze,

made in one shell, and showing
in relief the human shape.
It comes from an Etruscan
tomb,and is now in the
Museum of Carlsruhe. The
Museum of Artillery at Paris
possesses a cast of it. 0. 17.

Greek composed of two

pieces,back and breast plate,
in bronze, found in the en-
virons of Naples. C. 13, Mu-
seum of Artillery, Paris.

Greek arm-guard in bronze.

Collection of M. Bonstellen,
near Berne, Switzerland.

22. Greek belt in bronze, belonging

to a soldier or gladiator (1 foot
in length), furnished with
hooks. 0. 15, Museum or
Artillery, Paris, and No. 372,
Museum of Mayence.
Greek, and Etrus an Ay lie

23. Etruscan buckler, 3 feet in

diameter found in a tomb.

The hammered and chased

work which fills the circles
is of a remarkable character ;

the style is Asiatic-Piioenician,

and indicates that the article
belonged to the first Etruscan
period. This shield belongs
to the British Museum, and
a cast is to be seen in the
Museum of Artillery, Paris.
No. C. 9.

24, Etruscan buckler, in bronze, 17

inches iii~3iametcr. The en-
graving is of the interior of
the shield. It was discovered
in a tomb, and is now in the
Museum of Mayence. The
Museum of Artillery at Paris
possesses a cast of it. No. C. 10.

25. Boss of Greek shield.* It mea-

sures 10 J inches, and was found
in the environs of Mayence,
in which city it is exhibited.
The Museum of Artillery at
Paris possesses a cast of it.

No. C. 22.

* The Greek buckler had two

handles, one in the centre, through
which the arm passed, and one at
the edge for the hand. In addition
to this there was a leathern strap
to hang the shield round the neck.
1 4 Qreeh and Etruscan Armour.

26. Greave of Greek horseman,

bronze (ISJ inclies). Museum
of Artillery at Paris, C. 22.
The back of the leg is not

27. Greave of Etruscan horseman,

bronze (21 inches). It was
found in a tomb. Museum of
Carlsruhe. The Museum of
Mayence possesses a similar
one, and the Museum of Ar-
tillery at Paris a oast. No. C.
16. The knee-cap represents
the head of a lion. The back
of the leg ia not protected.

2S. Etruscan poitrinal ''barde," in

bronze, to protect the horse's
breast. Museums of Carlsruhe,
Mayence, and a cast, No. C.
15, Museum of Artilleiy, Paris.

29. Etruscan chamfront, or frontal

plate for a horse's head, in
bronze. The numbers 27, 28,
and appear to have be-
longed to the same suit of
horseman's armour. Museums
of Carlsruhe, Mayence, and a
cast, No. C. 18, Musemn of
Artillery, Paris.
Greeh and Etruscan Armour. 115
30. Greek sword, in bronze (19J
No. 348, Mmeum of Mayence.

31. Greek sword, in bronze (82

C. 18, Mmeum of Artillery, Paris.
32. Greek sword, called Gallo-
Greek (25 inches), with
itssheath, both in bronze,
found in the department
of TJze's.

B. 19, Museum, of Artillery, Paris.

33. Bronze lance-head, probably 1 ?

Greek, found in a peat moss
near Abbeville (Somme).
B. 23, Museum of Artillery,
Paris. The Museum of
Mayence possesses a simi-
lar lance-head. No. 349.

34. Antique dagger, in bronze, 1

called parazonium," com-


mon to the Greeks and

Eomans. 16| inches long.
Museum of Artillery, Paris.

35. Greek (?) hatchet, in bronze.

Museum of Berlin.

36. Greek Etruscan mace-

head, covered with points,
found in the ancient king-
dom of Naples.
Museums of Berlin, Saint Ger-
main, and Artillery, Paris.

37. Greek spur, in bronze, found

in the ancient kingdom of
Museum of Artillery, Paris.

38. Antique spur, in bronze,

probably Greek.
Museum of Artillery, Paris.
116 Greek, and Etruscan Armour.

1. "Hoplites." regular soldier,

armed with the trefoil-shaped
buckler, from the treatise
ofM. Roflios.
Athens, 1868.
This soldier is interesting
on account of the helmet
of Etruscan shape, and the
shield like a thiee-lobed

2. Coat of mail. It will be seen

that the sword is worn on
the right side.

3. Leaden bolt of Greek cata-

pult, engraved with the word
AEHAI, receive.

4. Hand arbalest, or halista, a

weapon much like the cross-
bow of the Middle Ages,
copied from the work of
M. Eodios, who constructed
it after a Byzantine test.
It is doubtful, however,
whether such a portable
balisf a, or arbalest, was really
used in ancient Greece,

5. Battering ram with protecting

cover, on wheels, called a
" tortoise," from M. Eodios'


As in the preceding chapter we have treated of the Greek

equipment, in the present we have given a summary of Eoman
equipment, which in the earliest epochs was most probably
the same as that of Etruria, a country where it had been
established by the combined influence of the Phoenicians
and Greeks.
Polybius, who was born in the year 552 after the founda-
tion of Eome, or 202 b.o. (nearly three hundred years after
the conquest of Etruria by the Eomans), and who is the
earliest author who has aescribed the offensive and defensive
arms of the Eomans, speaks only of those of his own time.
The description given by this contemporary of Scipio
Africanus, added to some slight information afforded us by
sculptures on or in tombs on the borders of the Ehine in
Germany, and by the columns of Trajan and Antoninus, is
nearly all that is known on this subject.
But from the works ascribed to Homer we have much
fuller information concerning the arms used by the Greeks
in the tenth and even in the thirteenth century, B.C., the
epoch of the siege of Troy, than concerning those by the
aid of which the mighty Eoman people conquered the
It is very probable that the Eomans, in common with the
Greeks and Etruscans, at first used only bronze for their
weapons, but in the time of Polybius this metal was
restricted to helmets, breastplates, and other portions of
their armour; all offensive weapons, such as bows, swords,
and lances, were always either made entirely of or tipped
with iron, while the Gauls at that time still employed bronze.
The Eoman army was composed of three divisions of
soldiers : the velites, or foot-soldiers, who were lightly
armed ; hastarii, or legionary foot soldiers, and cavalry.
The first were armed with seven light javelins, the shaft
of which was about three feet in length, and the iron head
about nine inches, with a sword, and a small round or
oval shield, called parma,'^ about three feet in circumference.
* This was the class of shield worn by gladiators.
118 Roman, Samnite,
The helmet, which was usually made with cheek-pieces,
had neither crest nor horsehair, though it was sometimes
ornamented with wolf's skin.
The hastarius, or legionary soldier, was protected by an
iron or leathern helmet, ornamented with three scarlet and
black feathers, by greaves or leggings (ocreos),* and by a
breastplate or cuirass, composed of a corslet and shoulder-
pieces, the whole made of bronze. He also had a largo
shield called a scutum, of a rectangular and convex shape,
made of wood, skin, and iron, about four feet long by two and
a half feet broad, and covered with plates of iron. For offensive
weapons he carried an iron Iberian sword, which was always
worn on the right side, as in Greece though the Assyrians,

the Hindoos, the ancient Americans, the Persians, and the

Egyptians always wore it on the left side, as at the present
day. The hastarius, besides the above weapon, had two
javelins, one of which was the famous legionary pilum, which
we find later in use among the Franks. The Eoman
slinger was armed with a sling similar to the one used by
the Achseans.
The Koman cavalry in the time of Polybius were equipped
like the Greek. Before that time they had no defence
except a round, oval, or hexagonal shield made of ox-hide;
but subsequently the armour was changed and made stronger
and better fitted to resist the attacks of barbarians. In
the time of Trajan and of Septimius Severus, the horseman
wore a flexible cuirass or squamata, made of scales of iron or
bronze sewed on linen or leather or a Jiamata, made of metal

chains, being in fact a sort of mail-coat. On the column

of Trajan are represented many soldiers wearing cuirasses
made neither of scales nor of chain mail, but of long pieces of
metal similar to the armour of the Middle Ages and the

bas-reliefs on this monument show that there was as much

variety in the equipment of their different bodies of troops at
that time as there is now-a-days.
The armour of the centurion was more elaborate than that
* The foot-coverings of the Romans, like those of the Greeks, were
various. Tlje soUa, or sandal, a sole of wood or leather attached by
straps the calceus, or shoe of civil life
; ;the ocress mentioned in the
text, and the soUa lignna, the wooden shoe of the poor. The boot,
derived from the Keltic hot (foot), was unknowu to all ancient peoples.
and Dacian Arms. 119
of the simple hastarius : his corslet had shoulder-pieces
fixed to it, and was loiig enough to cover his thighs. It was
very often ornamented with silver phalerse, which served as
marks of distinction and military rewards at that time. Some
of these are represented on page 120.
and Dacian Arms. 121
1 A Roman soldier, a veles, or auxiliary soldier,
from a tombstone found
in the Rhine, and now in the Jlusieum at Mayenee a cast of it is

in the Museum of Artillery at Paris. Tiiis soldier is armed with

two long javelins about the same height as liimself, witli a sword
•worn on the right side, and with a parazonium or dagger on the
left. The only defensive armour he has is a small apron made of
straps of leather studded with pieces of metal.

2. A Eoman legionary soldier (hastarius), back view. This figure is

taken from the bas-reliefs on the Tiajan column, erected by Trajan
three years before his death, 114 a.d. On it are represented in
particular his exploits in the wars against the Dacians (103-104),
wars which were ended by the conquest of Dacia Trajana (now
Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania, and the north-east of Hungary).
The cuirass is made of thin plates of metal.
3. The same, front view.

4. Eoman horseman, from the Trajan column. He wears the squamata,

or shirt, made of metal chain armour, a species of coat of mail an ;

oval shield, a helmet with a ring and chin strap, and a sword on
the right side.
5. Bust of a Eoman legionary soldier, from the Trajan column. He
wears a crested helmet.
6. Head of a hastarius belonging to another legion, from the Trajan
7. Head of a hastarius of another legion, from the Trajan column.

8. Head of a hastarius belonging to another legion, from the Trajan

9. Cuirass of a Eoman centurion, about 22 inchrs in length. It is
ornamented with nine silver plialejse, or military distinctions, and is
in the possession of King William I. of Prussia. There is a cast of
it in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. A centurion belonging
to the legion ofVarus (who was defeated by the Germans, a.d. 9),
represented on a tombstone that is now in the Museum at Mayenee,
has the same kind of cuii ass.
10. Bronze scales of a squamata, or Eoman cuirass. They are copied
from those found at Avenche, the ancient Aventicum, cipital of
Eoman Switzerland, which was known of in the time of Julius
Csesar, and was subsequently very much improved by Vespasian.
Some of its remains are in the Museum at Avenche. The author
has in his own collection several other fragments of Eoman arms
in bronze, from the ruins of Aventicum.
11. Eoman helmet, in bronze. It was dug up in the field where the
battle of Cannae took place, B.C. 216, and given by the Superior of
an Augustine Convent to Pope Ganganelli. This helmet is now
in the Castle d'Erbach in Hesse-Darmstadt, but it is not known
how it came there. No. 379, in the Museum at Mayenee, and
No. D. ] in the Museum of Artillery at Paris, are helmets similar

to the above.
122 Boman, Samnite,
12. Samnite helmet, iu bronze,
found at Isemia, in an-
cient Samnium. Tliia
helmet is in the Erbaeh
collection, and dates as
early as the second Samnite
war (B.C. 327-324). A
gilded Japanese helmet of
similar shape is in the
Museum of Artillery at

18 and 14. Two Eoman helmets,

from the Trajan column.
No. 14 resembles a helmet
copied from the Theodo-
sian column, spoken of
later, in the chapter on
the iron age.

15. Eoman helmet, in iron, about

1 foot in height. It is orna-
mented with bronze, and
dates from the time of the
decline of the empire. It
is one of the most curious
of that age. The face is
almost entirely covered by
a sort of mask. It is in
the Museum of Artillery
in Paris. D. 29.

and Dacian Arms. 123
17. Eoman telmet, found at
Pompeii. Museum of
Artillery in Paris.
18. Dacian sword, from the
Trajan column, erected by
Trajan three years before
liis death, in the year 114.
The Dacians were the
people who inhabited
Moldavia, Wallachia, and
Trausylvania, and the
north - east of Hungary.
They fought bareheaded,
and had only a shield for
defensive armom-.
19. Eoman war-hatchet, in iron.
From the Collegia Romano
at Rome.
20. 21. Eoman sword of iron
worn with belt, called
parazonium, 10 inches in
length ; and its sheath
made of bronze. A
of this wi apon (which was
found in Germany ) is now
in the Museum of ArtiUery
in Paris. D. 20.
22. Iron head of Roman javelin,
6 inches long. From the
Museum at Mayence.
23. Iron head of Eoman (?) jave-
lin, 1 1 inches long. From
the Museum at Mayence.
236is. IronheiidofEoman;pj7um.
24. Roman (?) bill, in bronze,
found iu Ireland.
^ Tower of London.
25. Roman bill, in from
the ruins of Psestum, on
the coast of Lucania. 0. 2,
Museum of Artillery iu
Paris. This weapon, which
is also found on Assyrian
sculpture, is not the harpe
(apiTTi) or scimetar of the
Greeks, which was a sort
of sword, with a sharp hook
projecting from the cutting

edge of th e weapon a wea-
pon with whicli Mercury is
represented killing Argus,
Perseus, when cutting off
Medusa's head, and which
the gladiators often used.
Roman, Samnite,
26. Roman sword, in iron, 26 inches in
*5 length. Tlie hilt is ornamented
with bronze.* It was found at
Colleetion of Ihe Burgomaster Sollen.
27. Eoman sword, in iron, 23 inches
in length.
Sollen Collection,

28. Eoman sword, in iron, 25 inches in

length. The armourer's mark is

Sabini. A cast of it is in the

Museum of Artillery, Paris. D. 13.

29. Eoman sword, in iron, 22 inches in

length, found at Bingen.
Sollen Collection.

30. Eoman sword-blade, in iron, 19

inches in length, found at May-
D. 14, Museum of Artillery, Paris,
31. Eoman spur, in bronze, found at
Salburg, near Homburg, by the
Keeper of the Archives, Habel.
32. Eoman spur, in iron.
D. 43, Museum of Artillery, Paris,
33. Eoman caltrop of iron (Itameus
ferreus) : it is pointed at both
Museum of Artillery, Paris,
34. Eoman horse-shoe, that was fastened
to the hook of the horse by means
of a strap passed through the ring
of the shoe. D. 12, Museum of
Artillery, Paris; Museums at
Avenche (Aventicum). These
horse-shoes have been found in
Switzerland, and at Lintz, in

* A scabbard dug up at Mayence,

now Museum, bears a
in the British
Augustus, and a group o(
portrait of
Thibenius offering to the emperor a
statue of Victory.
and Baeiafi Arms. 125

35. Signum, or badge, of Roraac

cohort, in bronze, found in
Asia Minor. This is a most
beautiful piece of w irk, and
must have been designed
by a Greek artist.
D. 3, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

36. Poniard, or short sword, in

bronze, found in a lake
dwelling at Pesohiera.
Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna.

37. Plain war-hatchet, in bronze,

found in the old kingdom
of Naples. Its shape shows
thatit was a weapon, and

not an implement of hus-

bandly or carpentry.
B. 36, Museum of Artillery in

38. Plain war-hatchet, in bronze,

found at Naples. These
two last weapons may very
likely have been of an
earher date.
B. 37, Mmeum of Artillery, Paris,
126 Roman, Samnite, and Dacian Arms.
With regard to the machines of war that have been already
mentioned in a former chapter, there is not one existing in
its original shape
; and the balistas and catapults which have
been restored from drawings ought not to figure in a work
which is devoted exclusively to the history of such arms as
are based upon authentic documentary evidence.



THE Keltic who occupied most probably a large

portion of Central Europe, and also some of the northern
districts,have left weapons that are not easily distinguished
from those of contemporary and later races.
The names of Galatian and Gaul are often confounded
with that of Kelt, and even of German. Where everything
is involved in obscurity it is hazardous to attempt to
establish exact limits and periods for the weapons of the
bronze age it is safer to treat of them under one category,

as we are often obliged to do when dealing with matters be-

longing to pre-historio times.
We should never be able to classify satisfactorily the so-
called Keltic productions ; the Scandinavian, Germanic, and
Gallic elements are manifest everywhere, and those who
have wished to assign the tombs discovered in these different
countries to races of well-distinguished origin have constantly
had their arguments disproved by fresh discoveries.
The author has been careful to separate only the weapons
coming from different places, and to classify them into
countries according to the languages there spoken, so that
weapons of bronze, possibly Keltico-Gallic, Keltico-Germanic,
Keltico-Britannic, Scandinavian, &c., which are so often
confounded with the bronze weapons of our era down to what
is called the age of iron, have been included under one head
and described seriatim. The iron celt in the national
Museum at Munich, the stone hatchets and the long iron
lance-heads similar to the celts found, together with a
quantity of weapons and of bronze and gold ornaments, in
the cemetery at HaUstatt, show that it is not possible to
discriminate exactly between the bronze, stone, and iron
ages. The excavations that have been made in this cemetery
not only show that stone was used at the same time as bronze
128 Weapons of the Bronze A(/e.

and iron, but even that iron was used for the sword-blades
and bronze for hilts, just as at the present day. Uallstatt
is situatednear Ischl, in Austria. The cabinet of antiquities
in Vienna possesses a large quantity of utensils, weapons, and
ornaments that have been found amongst the ruins of the said
cemetery and M. Az, at Linz, has some very remarkable

objects from the same place. As these ruins have been per-
fectly described by M. de Sacken in his Grdbfeld von Mallstatt,
written in 1868, it would be useless to describe them again.
There does not exist a single piece of sculpture that
represents a Germanic warrior thoroughly equipped, but it is
well known that his equipment varied in different countries.
The shield used by the Germans of the north was very large,
covered with thin plates of copper, and without a boss, though
in the Frankish tombs belonging to the end of the iron age
(Merovingian) small round shields with projecting bosses were
discovered. And what is even more remarkable is that these
same kind of shields were used by the Danes during the
bronze age, and perhaps also by other Scandinavian nations,
and by the Britons. Bronze was used in the manufacture of
weapons by the Scandinavians and the Britons at the same
time as by the Germans and the Gauls. It will be seen in
the following chapter, which treats of the weapons of the
iron age, that the shape of the battle-axes of the Franks
differed from that adopted by the Saxons.

Germanic Arms m Bronze. 129

1. German helmet in bronze, Ibimd

iu one of the tomlis at Hallstatt,
in Austria. This double-
crested helmet is very like one
in the Museum at St. Germain,
which is to he either
Etruscan or Umbriau.
Cabinet of Antiquities in Vienna.

2. German helmet in bronze, which

was found in Hallstatt
cemetery. Cabinet of Anti-
quities in Vienna. These two
helmets may veiy likely have
been made in Italy, though
found iu Germany, for their
shape is Etruscan.

3. German helmet in bronze, about

three andahalf inches inhcight
found at Britsch, near Pforton,
Saxony, and now in tlie Klemrii
collection at Dresden. It is an
unique specimen, and the shape
is similar to that of the Assyrian

helmets in the British Museum.

4. Gci-man arm-guard in bronze,

found at Winnsbach, near
Lintz, in Austria; now in the
Museum at Lintz. Similar
arm-guards have been found iu
Denmark. (See No. 261, Mu-
seum of Copenhagen.)
5. German arm-guard in bronze,
found in the principality of
Hohenzollern, and preserved
in the Museum at Sigmaringcn.
A similar specimen in the
jMaximilian Museum at Augs-
130 Germanic Arms in Bronze.
6. Fragment of a large square Ger-
man shield in wood covered
with bronze. Found in a
tomb at Waldhausen, and
published by M. C. Eath at
Tubingen. In the Museum at
Munich there are fragments of
a German cuirass, ornamented
in the same way, with copper,
as this shield.

7. German shield. Same as above*

8. Celt, German, 51 inches long;

found in the cemetery, Hall-

M. Az' Collection at Liniz.

0. Celt, German (said to be Keltic)

found at Stade.
Museum at Hanover.

JO. Celt, German, 4 inches long.

Found in the principality of
HohenzoUern, and preserved
iu the Museum of Sigma-

11. Celt, German, 6 inches long.

Museum of Sigmariiigen.

12. Celt, German, CJ inches long.

Museum of Sigmaringen.

13. Seven German arrow-licads.

Museum of Sigmaringen.

" The size and shape of these

shields indiciite a period .
to the Eoman influence, which
inalces itself felt in the circular
Prankish bucklers of the Mero-
vingian epoch.

Germanic Arms in Bronze. 131

14. German hatchet in bronze, lOJ
inches long. Found in the
Palatinate,and preseryed in
National Museum of Munich.

15. Celt, German, in bronze, 8^

inches long. The Abyssiniau
lances at the present day are
omarclented witli these chisel-
edged blades (see chapter on
Museum of Cassel.

16. Celt, German.

Museums of Cassel and ErJiach.

17. German hatchet in bronze, 12

inches long. Found in the
Hallstatt cemetery. This
weapon resembles in its orna-
ment those of Denmark.
Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna.

18. German war-hammer in bronze

(about 18 inches), found at
Thuringen. The handle ia
ornamented with 9 rings,
formed of 6 Unes each. The
ornament of this weapon is ^^
also like Danish work.
Klemm Collection at Dresden, '

19 to 22. Four German daggers or

Musef.m at Sigmaringen.
132 Germanic Arms in Bronze.

23. German sword in bionze, 22

iuclies long. The pomrael is

ornamented with an eagle's

head. This sword is made
entirely of metal.
Museum of Casael.

24. German sword, 27 inches long,

found near Augsburg. The
flat part of the hilt is pierced
with holes, which shows that
the handle must have been
mounted in either wood, bone,
horn, or metal.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

25. German swords in bronze, 31

inches long. Tlie pommels and
hilts are of bone and bronze,
some entirely of bone. Found
in tlio tombs at Hallstatt. The
points are not sharp.
Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna.

2(;. Short German sword in bronze.

The shape of these swords
differs essentially from that of
the Greek parazoniuvi.
Museum of Hanover.

27. Head of German lance iu bronze.

Found at Hallstatt.
Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna.



It lias already been observed tliat it is not possible to

classify distinctly thebronze weapons that have been found
in France. Even the celt, that point of a lance so weU
known by the rings fastened to it, has been found every-
where, even in Eussia. As to the Gallic weapons of the
time of Csesar, they were almost all in bronze.
It has already been said elsewhere that if one wishes to be
accurate, and to classify chronologically the western weapons
of pre-historic times, when the productions of different nations
were more nearly alike than at any other epoch, and where
periods of transition, although frequent, are less distinctly in-
dicated, it is necessary to study the construction and con-
tents of the various tombs. The high hillocks surrounded
and surmounted by stones of a more or less colossal size
(dolmens'), and the caves generally closed with flag-stones,
containing imburnt bones, and stone weapons, may be con-
sidered as very ancient tombs. The second category is
usually signalised by smaller hillocks, by the absence of
large blocks of stone, by a cave or tomb formed of small
rough stones built up ^vith little art, and by the urn, which
indicates the burning of the corpse. These latter sepulchres
generally contain bronze weapons, which will be described.
in this chapter.

134 GaUic Arms.

1. Bronze helmet, 11 iuches in
height, ascribed iu France
to the Gauls. Museum of
Eouen. A
similar one has
been found at Posen, and
another in Bavaria, in the
river Inn. This last iigures
in the National Museum of
"Munich, under the title of
a Hungarian or Avario

2. Twobronzehelmeta, attributed
by the Museum of Saint
Germain to tlie Gauls. The
shape is the same as that
of tlie Assyrian helmets, and
of a German helmet found
at Britsch, and preserved
in tho Kleram collection, at

3 G allic cuirass in bronze, found

ill a field near Grenoble.
B. 16, Museum of Artillery,
Paris. The Museums of the
Lon^Te, and of Saint Ger-
main, possess similar speci-

i. Framework of boss in bronze :

the shape is not unlike the

iron bosses of the Fraukish
sliields, but it is difiScult to
explain why the iion bar
passes under, instead of over,
the boss.*
Museum of Sand Germain.
* The bar, if fixed at both ex-
tremities to the circumference of
the buckler, might act as a sword-
breaker. Tkanslatok's Note.
Gallic Arms. 135

5. GaUic shield, from a sculpture

on the sarcophagus foiiud in
the Vigna Ammendola,

6. Gallic shield, from a bas-relief

on the Arch of Orange.

7. Siijnum or Gallic standard, from

a bas-relief on the Arch (if

Prange. A
similar stiindard,
5k inches high, has been found
in Bohemia, and is preserved
iu the National Museum of

8. Gallic sword, from a bas-relief

fitted into the pedestal of the
Melpomene of the Louvre.

9. Gallic sword in bronze. 18J inches

long, found in the Seine at
B. 7. Museum of Artillery, Paris.

10. Kelto-GalUo lance, found in the

Museum of Artillery, Paris.

11. Lance head, found in the Seine.

Museum of Artillery, Paris.

12. Hatchet.

13. Arrow head.


11. Lance head, called ceZi, 3 5 inches

Auilior's Collection.

is. Lance head, called cdt, 6 inches

B. 20. Museum of Artillery, Paris.

Ifi. Hatchet, 5J inches long.

B. 34. Museum of Artillery, Paris.

17. Lance blade.

Louvre Museum.


These weapons are rare, and it is difficult to fix accurately

their age and origin. Several specimens, preserved in
museums in England and described as British, are doubtful.
The horned helmet, for example, and the buckler by the side
of it, in the British Museum, and the long shield in the
Meyrick collection, may very likely have been Danish.*
The epoch of the bronze age in England, which the
British Commission on the history of labour for the Uni-
versal Exhibition in Paris in 1867 has described as " second
epoch, anterior to the Eoman invasion," cannot be limited in
this manner, because the use of bronze weapons, at first
general, did not cease under the Eoman dominion, and even
continued partially till the time of the Saxon invasion in the
fifth, and the Danish in the sixth centuries.
If we compare the Danish shields, the horns, and even the
swords, the heads of lances, and of hatchets in bronze which
are in the Museum at Copenhagen with the antiquities of
the same sort exhibited in England amongst British produc-
tions, we shall find amongst most of them a similarity in
taste and manufacture which cannot have been produced by
chance or imitation alone. It is very probable that the
greater part of these weapons were made in Scandinavia
itself, or in the northern part of North Germany, and that
they were brought into tho British Isles by the Norman
corsairs (Nordmannen, or Nordmaenner, or Men of the North),
who did not cease to ravage that country till it had been
quite conquered by their descendants in a.d. 106G.
' It will be observed in the introduction to the chapter wliich treats
of Gerraiinic arms that the author considers the use of bronze foi
weapons in Scandinavia to correspond witli tliat of ircin in Gi rniany.
British Weapons in Bronze. 137

Bronze helmet, found in the

Thames, and preserved in the
British Museum. It is in beaten
work, and is ornamented with
incrustations in coloured cement,
which resembles enamel.

Framework of helmet found at

Leckhampton Hill.
British Mineum,

3. Bronze shield.
Meyrick Collectimi.

i. Plating in gilt bronze and beaten

work, belonging to a British
shield called Ysgioyd, similar
in shape to the Koman Scutum.
It was found in the river
Meyrick Collection.

See in the preceding page the

observations respecting the great
similarity in these weapons to those
found in Denmark, and exhibited
in the Copenhagen Museum. In
that part nf the Introduction which
refers to German bronze weapons,
mention was made of the fact that
the use of metal in the manufacture
of weapons began at a later date in
Scandinavia than in either Gaul or
138 British Weapons in Bronze.

5. Bronze swonl. It is very like Ger-

man and Scandinavian weapons,
and may easily Lave been Danish.
Tower of London, g'j. Several simi-
lar ones are in the British Mu-

6. Sword blade in bronze ; called

Meyrich Collection.

7. Sword blade in bronze, found in

Meyrich Collection.

8. "War horn, Irish, called Sluic.

Meyrich Collection.

9. Bronze hatchet.
British Museum.

10, Blade of " franie'e" called a celt, in

bronze, with a double ring; to it.

British Museum.
Scandinavian Weapons in Bronze. 139
In the London Museums there are a large quantity of
celts, hatchets, swords, daggers, and lance and arrow-
heads, whose shape does not vary in the least from that
of Continental weapons of the same epoch. This fact has
made me hesitate to class them amongst British weapons.
(See ohservations on this question in the introduction to this


The bronze arms of Continental Scandinavia (Denmark)

are, as well as the stone weapons of this country, superior to
those of other so-called barbaric nations, and very little
inferior to those of the Greeks and Eomans ; a fact explicable
to those who adopt the author's suggestion that the use of
bronze in Denmark was later than in other countries, and
coincided with the iron age in Germany and Gaul. (See
observations on German bronze weapons, in the introduction
to this chapter.) The specimens exhibited in the Museum
at Copenhagen, which will be found represented farther on,
show with what a degree of art they worked in this metal.
The defensive armour of a Scandinavian warrior seems to
have consisted in the round or long shield, in the cuirass,
and in the helmet, though not one single complete or per-
fect helmet exists in the Copenhagen Museum,* and their
circles of hair may lead us to suppose that the helmet was
only worn by the chiefs, as amongst the Franks. In the
preceding article, which treats of British arms, a horned
helmet is mentioned that may very probably have been
The use of stone and bronze weapons seems to have been
continued much longer in Scandinavia than in the rest of
Europe ; since M. Worsaae has been obliged in his illus-
trated catalogue of the Copenhagen Museum to class amongst
the products of the iron age objects belonging to the middle
ages, and even to a late period of the middle ages, for he
introduces even swords of the thirteenth and fourteenth

* See following page, the crest that is supposed to have belonged to

a helmet.
140 Scandinavian Arms in Bronze.

1. Crest of helmet (?) Danish, in

bronze, 9 inches high {Sjelm-
prydeUe in Danish), preserved
in the Copenhagen Museum.
This singular crest is in the
shape of a candlestick.

2. Head hand, a sort of helmet, .5

iuclies high, engraved and ham-

Copenhagen Museum.

Bound Danish shield in bronze

(Bronees-Kjold in Danisli) 23 ;

inches in length, with centi'al

boss, and three surrounding
Copenltagen Museum.

i. Oval Danish shield in bronze, 26

inches long, inside view, the boss
serves to receive the handle.
Copenhagen Museum,

Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. 141

5. Covering of round Danish sljield

in bronze, ISinelies in diameter
it is richly ornamented, and

has a pointed boss.

Copenhagen Museum.

6. Bound Danish shield in bronze,

22 inches in diameter, orna-
mented with n;iil heads, and
with round boss.
Copenhagen Museum.

Danish spring arm guard in

bronze, 12J inclies long. Copen-
hagen Museum. (See this same
Mit of arm-guard in the chapter
on German arms in bronze.)

8. Danish arm-guard in bronze, G

inches long.
Copenhagen Museum.

S. Danish arm-guard in bronze, 7^

inches long. It is ornamented
with medals.
Copenhagen Museum.

142 Scandinavian Arms in Bronze.

10. Danish celt, 3J inolies long.

Copenhagen Museum.

11 Danish arrow-head iu bronze,

21 inches long.
Copenliagen Museum.

12. Danish arrow-head in bronze,

G inches long.
Copenliagen Museum.

13. Danish hatchet iu bronze,

6J inches long.
Copenhagen Museum.

14. Danish hatchet iu bronze,

10 inches long.

15. Danish hatchet iu bronze,

18 inches long.
Copenhagen Museum.

16. Danish knife iu bronze, 6i

inches long.

17. Celt, 11 inches in leugtli,

and a part of the staff re-
Cvpenhagen Museum.

18. Head of lance, Danish, iu

bronze, 12J inches Icjng.

Copenhagen Museum
ISa. Same as above.

19. Danish dngger in bronze, 14|

inches iu lengtli.
Copenhagsn Museum.

20. Danish dagger in bronze, SJ

inches in length.
Copenhagen Museum.

21. Danish poniard in 1 ronze,

4 inches long.
Copenhagen Museum.
Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. 143

22. Danish sword in bronze, 37

inches in length. The work-
manship is very remarkable,
and similar to that found in
German tombs.
Copenhagen Museum.

23. Danish sword in bronze, 35

inches in length.
Copenhagen Museum.

24. War horn in bronze, Danish,

4 feet 4 inches in length.
Copenhagen Museum.

The Museum at Copenliagen pos-

sessesmore than two hundred re-
markable objects belonging to the
age of bronze, amongst which, be-
sides those here represented, should
be mentioned a sword with its
leathern slieath, poniards and knives
of unusual shapes, rings of hair
worn as head-dresses, and some
keramic ware, amongst which are
domestic urns of great value in fixing
their respective epochs, according
to the methods of interment or of


1. Bronze ce?i, found in Switzerland,

and preserved in tlie Museum
of Geneva.

2. Bronze celt, found in Switzerland,

and preserved in the Museum
of Geneva.

3. Swiss hatchet in bronze.

Museum of Geneva.
i. Hatchet or lance iiead in bronze,
7 inches long.
MuseuTn of Lausanne.
5. Bronze hatchet found at Lieli
near Oberwyl, not far from
Bremgarten in Switzerland.
Preserved in the Zurich Mu-

C. Bronze hatchet, found in Russia.

A cast of it is in the Museum
of Saint Germain.

7. Knife with ram's head, in bronze,

10 inches long, found in Siberia.
Klemm Collection, Dresden.
8 and 9. Two hatchets in bronze,
called celts, found in Eussia.
Casts of them in the Saint
Germain Museum.
Oziersky Collection.

Excavations made in the pro-

vinces of Minsk and Vladimir, and
also in Siberia, have brought to light
a largo quantity of arms and tools
of tlie stone age, some rough, and
Some pohshed, or rather smoothed.
Many of the specimens are preserved
in tiie Oziersky collection at St.

10. Bronze axe, found in Hungary. A cast of the same is in the

Museum of Saint Germain.
11. Head of lance, in bronze, GJ inches loug, found in Bohemia.
National Museum of Prague.
epoch in England called the iron age, which the British
for the history of labour at the Universal
Exhibition of 1867, in Paris, has designated as the " third

epoch- that of the Eoman reign," — does not begin till a
hundred years before the Saxon invasion for the knowledge

of iron weapons does not imply their prevalence. The use of

bronze for offensive weapons was continued much longer in.
the British Isles than on the Continent, to which fact was
mainly due the easy subjugation of the country at that epoch.
The iron weapons of the Eomans, the Saxons, the Franks^
the Burgundians, and also of other German tribes, had con-
tributed greatly to their victories over people whose cutting
weapons were still formed of copper. The badly armed
Gauls were entirely conquered by the Eomans, though the
latter were never able to subdue Germany, where their
legions constantly met with reverses.
The periods that it has been decided to include under the
title of the iron age ought logically to terminate at the end
of the fifth century, that is, after the decline of the Eastern
Empire ; they have, however, been brought down to a much
later date, even to the end of the Carlovingian race (987), a
system which though not correct had better be accepted in
part, for fear of bringing disorder among chronologic classifi-
cation, and thus aggravating the difficulty of researches, as so-
many museums have classed a large quantity of arms belonging
to the middle ages amongst the products of the iron age.
We have seen in the introduction that iron was known
everywhere and in all ages, but that its universal employment
for the fabrication of offensive and defensive weapons was-
preceded by that of bronze. The Eomans very soon found'
out the superiority of iron for offensive weapons to bronze,,
which metal was thenceforth restricted by them to defensive
armour. In the year 202 B.C. the Eoman soldier had no
longer any offensive weapon of bronze, and it may be admitted
that in the second Punic war the iron arms contributed greatly
146 Arms of the Iron Age
to the Roman victories over tlie Carthaginians. The few iron
weapons that have heen found in the Gallic tomhs, where they
were mingled with those of bronze, such as the specimens that
are preserved in the Museum of Saint Germain, and those found
in the Gallic cemetery of Catalaunum (in the department of
Marne), seem to be of German origin, because they resemble
greatly the swords found at Tiefenau and at ISTeufchatel in
Switzerland, which will be found represented farther on, and
which I attribute to the Burgundians, who were so celebrated
for working in iron. Helvetia, which in the year 450 was almost
depopulated by the systematic massacres of the Eomans, was
repeopled about 550 by the Burgundians, bands of which people
had possessed themselves of the west by the Almains, who

occupied all the districts where German is now spoken and ;

by the Ostrogoths, who established themselves in the south,

where the French, Italian, and Eomansch tongues now prevail.
The Burgundians were a strong and tall race, and from
the large hilts of their swords must have had very large
hands. The axe and two lance-heads in iron that were
found near the village of Onswala in Switzerland (see illus-
tration farther on) show by their different shape that they
must have belonged to a nation which was not Frank, and
was probably Burgundian.
The swords of the Britons at a later period were of a very great
length, longer even than those of the Kimbri and Marcomanni.
The form and character of the greater part of the Danish
or Scandinavian arms classed in the Copenhagen Museum
amongst those of the so-called age of iron show that they
belonged to the middle ages, and there is nothing to authorise
their being carried back to the iron age, which ought to termi-
nate at the end of the fifth century, after the fall of the Eastern
Empire. As in England, so in Denmark, the use of iron began
but a little while before the middle ages, the eminently Germanic
character of which was stamped on their arms and monuments.
The equipment of the warriors varied but slightly amongst
the numerous branches of the great German race. Every-
where the Saxe (Sacks) or Scramasax,* a sort of Eoman
Gladius with a grooved blade, sharp only on one side, and
the long sword, spata, or ensis, that was so formidable, ac-
cording to Guglielmus Apuliensis and Nicetas Choniates,
in the Teutonic hand,| were their favourite offensive
* See the etymology of this Vford, p. 35.
t The swords foimd in Germany measui-e generally 36 to 3S inches in
Belonging to Northern Nations. 147
weapons. The long swori, renowned for its temper, and
tearing often the name of its owner engraved in Eunic
letters, played an important part in the lives of these people,
and was frequently known by a proper name. Such were
the Mimung of Wieland, the Bcdmung of Sigfried, the
Burndart or Dumadal of Eoland, the poisoned Hrunting of
Beowulf, the Damleif of Hagen the father of Gudrun, the
Tryfing, the weapon of Svafrlamis, the Mistehtein, that ex-
terminated two thousand four hundred men, the Skeop
lAusingi and Swittingi of Danish history, written by Saxo
Grammaticus, the Joiuse of Charlemagne, the Almace of
Turpin, the Alteclre of Olivier, the Ghlaritel of Englir, the
Preciosa of King Poligan, the Sahoyeuse of Orange, the Mai
of Eother, the Caltbarn of King Artus, and the English
Querstewheis of Hakon, which, as its name shows, by a
single stroke split in two an enormous mill-stone.
It is curious to remark that among Northern races the sword
is everywhere recognized as male ; in the South, as female.
It is with this weapon (much shorter among the Mero-
vingians than in the days of knighthood) that Clotaire II.
according to history committed the dreadful crime of mas-
sacring all the Saxons that he had vanquished, men, women,
and children, that were taller than his sword. The sara-
masax, though bearing a Saxon name, is rarely met with in
Saxon tombs, nor in those of Northern Germany. It is by
the Burgundian, the Almain, and the Frank branches that
the weapon was familiarly used.
The axes, which varied in form according to the races to
which they belonged, and amongst which the francisque of
the latest conquerors of Gaul was one of the most celebrated,
were, however, the most characteristic weapon of the German
nation these battle-axes are found in Scandinavia as well as

in Great Britain, into which country they had been brought

by the Saxons and the Danes. For the study of the equip-
ment of these so-called barbarian peoples, there exist very
few documents, and these few relating only to the Franks.
All that remaiu in the way of arms belonging to the end of
the Merovingian reigns, are the sword and the francisque of
Childeric I., preserved in the Louvre. The sword and spurs
attributed to Charlemagne constitute probably the sole re-

leugth, witli a rounded blade, whilst the Frank swords found ia Gaul
are 28 to 30 inches long, and have tlie blade more pointed.
148 Amis of the Iron Age.
maining arms of the commencement of the Carlovingian
epoch. For written and painted documents in this matter
we must have recourse to the Bible of Charles le Chauve

(840 877), though the miniatures seem not very exact, and
are certainly influenced by the imagination of the artist, for
in them the king is represented seated on his throne smrounded
by guards, whose costumes may be considered Roman, the
leathern fringes and other portions of the dress seeming almost
prsetorian. The Codex Aureus of St. Gall, the cover of the
Antiphonarium of St. Gregory, the Leges Longobardorum of the
Stuttgart Library, the Wessobrunn of a.d. 810, in the Munich
Library, the bas-relief of the Church of St. Julien at Brioude (?)
and other documents all contradict the illustrator of this Bible
of Charles le Chauve.
After this there is no other historical nor archasological
trace for a hundred years, when, in the Mnrtyrologiiiiu of the
tenth century, a manuscript preserved in the Library of
Stuttgart, are represented, as likewise in the bas-relief of the
reliquary of the treasury of St. Moritz of the ninth century,
warriors already armed in the same manner as in the Bayeus
tapestry of the end of the eleventh century.
Thanks to the descriptions given by several authors
(Sidonius ApoUinarius, writing in a.d. 450 ; Prooopius
Agathios, Gregory of Tours, and others), and to the exca-
vations made in the Merovingian cemeteries, we are able to
reconstruct nearly the whole of the equipment of the last
conquerors of Gaul. As with most other Germanic races,
the defensive armour of the Frank consisted only in the
smaU round convex shield, 20 inches in diameter, made of
wood covered with skin. As yet no casques nor cuirasses
have been found, but we have written evidence that the chiefs
wore them. The common soldier had part of his head
shaved like a Chinese, the remainder of the hair was dyed
a bright red, plaited and matted together on the front part
of the head, which was a kind of protection, to serve as
a casque, and was usually confined by a leathern band.
His offensive armour consisted in the angon or Tpilum, barbed
at the point, the lance (framee), with a long blade of iron, the
battle-axe, single-edged and called francisqiie, the swcrd and
the scramasax, a long dagger or rather cutlass with r. single
edge. The bow and arrosv he used only in hunting, for the
angon, and even the francisque, served him occasionally as
missiles. See pp. 35 to 39.

Chrmanio Jjwi Weapons. 149

I. Blade of Germauio lance in iron,
cnlled celt, 74 iiiohos lonj?.
National Museum of Munich.
-. Blndo of Geimanio liuice in iron,
with n socket, llj inches long;
nnd ft portion of tlio stnfl" iv-
niniuiiig, about 6 inches in
U'ngth. Found in one of the
tombs of the Hallst»tt cemetery,
iu Austria.
CiiUicdon of M. Ai, at LinI:.
3. Germanic liuicc-bUnio in iron, 11
inches loui;.
CoHeotioii of M. A:, at Lint:
4. Gormiiuio lanco-blade iu iron, 11
iuolies long,
iitem. similar A
s[^mon in the Cubinet of
Antiquities iu Vienna, and a
thiiil, found at Lfiueburg, in
the Jluseum nt Hanover.
5. Germanic lance - blade, with
six;ket in iron. Length 11
inches. Found iu the Hallstiitt
Colltiction of M. A:, Lint:.
6. Germojiio livnce-blade in iron,
with socket, and a ring similar
to the rings on the lances calle>l
eellf. It mensxires lo inclies,
and wos found in the Hallstatt
Cabiiut if AMquitifS in Vicnnn
7. Small Germauio sword, length
ItJJ inches. The blade is iron,
tl>o hilt bronze. Found in the
oemeterv at Hallstatt.
Cabinet of AiUiquUies, Virtin.i.

8. Germanic poniard iu iron, lengtli

1 5 inches. Found iu a tomb in
Musfuin of Sigmaringcn.
9. GcTmonio war - knife in iron,
length 14 inches. Found ot
Jlfu«f utn of Sigmaringii).
10. Germanic war -knife iu imn,
length 11 J inches.
Aii<ii'iiii/ Museum of Munirl.
Germanie Iron Wea^pons.
11. Dagger or gemispata in iron
13 (Frankish), called a scramasax.
It has a single edge, and several
gi'ooves ou the back of the blade.
Its length, including the haft,
is about 24 inches it was found

near Chalons. N. E. 19, Museum

of Artillery, Paris.
Tlie great length of the hafts of the
sciumasaxes found in Switzerland (they
vaiy between 6 and 10 inches) 1ms led
Dr. Keller of Zurich to suppose that
they were not weapons, but hatchets
intended to be used with both hands
for cleaving wood. I believe tliera,
liowevcr, to be the scramasax of the
Franks, and of other Germanic nations,
for they are often found in the tombs
of warriors side by side with their long
12. Scramasax in iron, length 18 inches,
found in Switzerland. Autlior's
Collection. One of these scrama-
saxcs found at Mannheim is in
the Tower of London (^l^). The
Museum at Geneva also has one
(if these weapons that was found

in a tomb at Bellecan (Canton of

Vaud). The Museum at Lausanne
possesses others, whose hilts are
about 6 inches in length, and
whicli seem have belonged to
tlieBurgundians. A scramasax
in the Avenches Museum, found
in that town, may date as far
back as the third century, for it
was in 264 that the AUemanni
jjenetrated that country, and de-
stroyed Aventicum entirely. One
of these weapons has also been
found at Gruningen, Windisoh.
It is preserved in the Zuricli
Museum; the haft measures
about 8J inches. There is also
one in the Sigmaringeu Museum,'
which was found at HohenzoUern.
The liandle, which is about 10
inches in length, is of copper,
mounted \nih. a wooden casing, which is covered with linen and
leather thongs. The blade is about IG inches in length, the
whole weapon therefore measuring about 26 inches.
Scramasax in ii-on, length of blade, 15 inches, and of haft, 8 inches;
Germanic Iron Weajpons. 151
found at Wulflingen and pre-
servfid in the Museum of 8ig-
inaringen. weapon is
distinct from others of its kind
by liaving a small kiiife at-
tached on the outsid* of the
14. Germanic sword in iron, length
37 inches. The point of the
blade is rounded; found at
Langeneslingen. Sigmaringen
Museum. Similar swords
have been found of more than
a mebe in length, at the ceme-
tery of Selzen, near Nierstein,
where by excavating 28 tombs
have been discovered, all con-
taining skeletons, several of
which have these long swords
and battle-axes of the Saxon
and Frankish shape by their
We recognise the same sort
of sword in the illuminations
of the Codex Aureus of Saint
Gall, written in the eighth
century, as well as iu tliose of
many other Anglo-Saxon MSS.
of the ninth and eleventh cen-
15. Frankish sword of the Mero-
vingian epoch, about 30 inches
in length, with a sharp point.
Found at Moselle. E. 14,
Museum of Artillery, Paris.
Similar swords have been
found in touibs at Fronstet^
16. Sword with sheath, found in the
tomb of Childeric I. (457-481),
preserved in the Museum of
the Louvre, Paris. There is
an eiTor in the mounting of
this sword. The armourer
who was intrusted to restore
it has placed the pommel close
to the blade, and not at the
end of the hilt, as represented
in thfi illustration (No. 17)
and in the MSS. The same
mistake has been made with
regard to a Frankish spata.
152 Germanic Iron Weapons.
la the Cabinet de Medailles, in Paris, there is the cast of a similar
sword to the above, most probably of the same date; it is about
36 inches in length, and was found on the battle-field of Pouau,
department of Aube. The guard of this sword scarcely projects
beyond the blade, which is wide and pointed.
17. Haft of Merovingian sword, after MSS.
18. Ponnncl of sword, attributed to Childeric.
19. Haft of Germanic sword, found at Pelting in Bavaria.
20. Germanic or Slavonic sword, square at the point, belonging to tlie
sixth century. Copied from the bas-relief of a diptych that is in the
treasury of the Cathedral of Halberstadt. The great length of
the handle resembles the Burgundian swords found in Switzerland
(see No. 21, later on).

I must repeat here what I have already observed in the

historical chapter about the etymology of the word Scrama-
sax. Sax means knife, and Scrama may be derived from tha
word scamata, a line traced on the sand between two Greek
combatants; or from scaran to shear, from which the
German Schere, scissors, is derived. The scramasax is thus a
weapon used in duels or a cutting knife.
Germanic Iron Weajpons, 153
21. BurgunJian sword in iron,
about 3 feet 3 inches in
length, including the haft,
which is very long, and
proves that it must have been
used by a robust and large-
handed race. The Museum of
Artillery in Paris possesses
oasts of the 11 swords found at
Tiefenau in Switzerland, on a
field of battle. They have
been alluded to in a work of
Troyon, but in it they should
not have been placed amongst
lacustrine arms. The Museum
of St. Germain possesses simi-
lar swords that were found in
the lake of Neucliatel.

22. Germanic dagger of the Mero-

vingian epoch, length 17
inches. Found in a tomb at
Hettingen, and preserved in
the Siginaringen Museum.

23. Germanic dagger of the Mero-

vingian epoch, found at
Botlienlachen, and preserved
in the Museum of Sigmarin-
gen. Length 8^ inches. This
shape was used for more than
800 years, for it is tobe found
in the fifteenth century.

24. Germanic sword in iron, 34

inches in length. Found in a
tombiu the Hallstaltcemeterj'.
Cabinet of Antiquities, Vienna
(forshape of blade, see bronze

25. Germanic dagger-knife (length

13 J inches) of the Merovingian
epoch, found in a tomb near
Sigmaringen, in the museum
of which city it is preserved.
It is a rare specimen, on ac-
count of its shape; there is
a similar one in the National
Museum of Munich.
154 G-ermanic Iron Weapons.
26. Six Germanic arrow-heads of
different shapes, belonging to
the Merovingian epocli.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
Two poisoned arrow - heads,
actual size.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
Two heads of darts, Germanio
origin, found in the princi-
pality of Hohenzollern, and
preserved in the Museum of
29. Blade of Frankish anjon or dart
(Merovingian epoch). E. 23,
Museum of Artillery, Paris.
Hi ad of frame'e (a kind of lanee,
in German P/riem), length 15
inches. Found in tlie Mero-
vingian cemetery of Londi-
nieres. E. 7, Museum of
Artillery, Paris.
Head of framee, 16 inches in
length, found at Selzen
(Hesse) in a tomb.
Head of Burgundian spear,
length 14 inches, found in the
village of Onswala (Bara
Schonen) in Switzerland, and
preserved in the Museum of
Lund in Sweden. A similar
one,but somewhat shorter, has
been found in the tomb of
Childeric I. (457—487), and is
in the Louvre.
33. Fragment of Germanic bow
(Almaiu wood, found in a^
?) of
lake dwelling in Switzerland.
This piece measures 3 feet 5
inches, which would make the
bow 7 feet 6 inches.
34. Germanio bow of Merovingian
reign, found in a tomb near
Lupfen. It is of oak, and 6
feet in length.

Germanic Iron Weajpons. 155

83*, Gennanio battle - axe of the
Saxon shape, found in the
Franldsh cemetery of Selzen .

(Hesse). M. Lindenschmidt
in 1848 visited 28 tomhs, and I

has published the result of his

Museum of Mayence.
34*. Germanic battle - axe of the
Saxon shape (6 J inches), found
in the department of the
Moselle. E. 5, Museum of
Artillery, Paris.
35. Grermanic battle - axe, Saxon
shape, 91 inches.
Museums of St. Germain and Sig-
36. Almarn battle - axe, Saxon
shape ; found in Switzerland.
Cabinet of Antiquities, Zurich.
37.Anglo-Saxon battle-axe, found
in the Thames.
Tow^ of London.
38 and 39. Germanic battle-axes,
belonging to the end of the
Merovingian epoch.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
40. Germanic battle-axe (6 J inches).
Museum, of Munich.
41. Germanic battle-axe found at
Sclieben, in Saxony.
Klemm Collection, Dresden.
42. Battle - aze, probably British
(pole - axe). Found in the

^ Tower of London.
43. axe (9 inches),
found at Onswala (Bara
Schonen) in Switzerland.
Museum at Lund, Sweden.
44. Frank hatchet (called francis-
que), found at Enversmen,
near Augsburg. Museum of
Artillery in Paris; Museum
of Augsburg. Another, found
at Selzen, in Hesse, is in the
Museum of Mayence ; another,
at HohenzoHem, in the Mu-
seum of Sigmaringen. One of
these axes is in the Tower of London, and is there called Taper axe.
The Louvre Museum possesses the francisque of Childerie I.
156 Germanic Iron Weapons.
45. Frame-work of the iron bosa of
a Frank sliield, found at Ton-
dinieres, and described by the
Abbe Cochet. Similar frame-
works, wliich have been ex-
cavated in the principality of
Hohenzollern, aie preserved iu
the Museum of Sigmiiringen.

Frankish shield, convex and

round, 21 inches in diameter,
of wood covered with leather,
with iron boss, 7 inches in
diameter. Designed from the
shield reconstructed for the
Museum of Artillery in Paris.

Boss of Anglo-Saxon shield,

found in Lincolnshire, and
preserved in the Meyrick Col-
lection subsequently. The
shape of these bosses was
changed to a spherio;il form
eudhig in a point.

48. Germanic boss (Frankish) iu

iron, found at Selzen (Hesse).

41) iiud 50. Germanic bosses in iron

found in Bavari;i, and preserved
in the Maximilian Museum at
Augsburg. Severiil bosses
fimilar to the above have been
found in tombs of as early a
date as the sixth century, and
are now in the Bavarian Mu-
seum at Munich.
Germanic Iron Weapons 157
50*. Boss in iron, belonging to an so'
Anglo-Saxon shield.

51. Boss in iron, belonging to a

Germanic sliield, found at
Grosclinowitz (Oppeln), and
preserved in the Museum of
Berlin. A similar boss, found
at Liineburg, is in the
Hanover Museum. No. 492
iu the Museum of Copenhageu
is also a similar boss.

52. Germanic bosses in iron, pre-

served in the Museum of Sig-

53. Fragment of cuirass, found in

Switzerland, probably made by
the Allemauni who invaded
Switzerland in the fourth cen-
tury. Cabinet of Antiquities,
Zurich. This valuable speci-
men is made of long plates
of iron riveted to eacli

54. Germanic spur of the Mero-

vingian epoch.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
55. Gernianicbit(Tre7»8einGermau)
iu iron, of Meroviugiau epoch.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

56. Germanic bit in iron, of the

Merovingian epoch.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
158 Scandinavian Iron Arms.
1. Danish sword in iron, one-edged,
k-ngtli 3 feet. The shape is
very like that of the scramasax.
496,' Museum of Copenhagen.
2. Danish sword, iron, one-edged,
length 44 inches. The handle
in the shape of the hilt and
pommel resembles the Prankish
swords of the Merovingian
epoch. No. 493, Museum of
3. Danish two-edged sword, length
43| inches. The blade is deeply
grooved, and is not pointed, in
fact, almost as rounded as the
Germanic swords. 494, Mu-
seum of Copenhagen.
4. Danish sword in iron, length 43J
iuches. The handle is three-
lobed, like tlie swords in the
Anglo-Saxon MSS. of Aelfric,
written in the eleventh century,
now in the British Museum.
In the collection of M. Nieu-
werkerke there is a similar
one. When the handle is five-
lobed and not three-lobed, and
when the two extremities of the
guard are slightly bent towards
the blade, it belongs to the
thirteenth century. (See the
one in the Munich Museum in
the chapter on swords of the
Middle Ages.) The sword in
the Nieuwerkerke Collection is
flve-lobed, but the ends of the
guard are not bent.
5. Danish spur in bronze.
Museum of CopenJmgen.
Ci. Danish stirrup in bronze (Si-
Museum of Copenliagen.
7. Danish stirrap in bronze, inlaid
with silver (12 inches).
Museum of Copenhagen.
8. Danish stirrup in bronze (15J
Museum of Copenhagen.
P.S. Almost all these obiects be-
long to the Christian Middle Ages,
but have been classed erroneously,
in the museum and in M. Worsaae's
catalogue, as belonging to flie iron age.
Scandinavian Iron Arms. 159

9. Casque and coat of arms, pro-

bably in leather and iron, copied
fi'om the colunm of Theodosiua
at Constantinople.* As these
arms display no Eoman cha-
racteristics, we may suppose
that they belonged to allies or
to barbarian mercenaries.
This coat has nothing of the
ancient classic character, and
its singular shape makes one
hesitate about ita origin.

* Constantinople, already the

residence of the Emperor Constan-
tine, became in 330, on the partition
of the Eoman Empire, the capital of
the East. In the year 557 the city
suffered from an earthquake, and in
1207 it was taken by the Turks.
The Emperor Theodosius was bom
in 346, and died in 398.




IMLEi historical introduction has shown the gradual pro-

gress that was made in the improvement of p.rms from
the earliest ages and though the description of tlie equip-

ment of the ancients and even of pre-historic nations has

been sometimes based on supposition, the liistory of the
two later stages of the Christian middle ages may be
established from existing specimens. Starting from the
tenth century, we are already able to follow step by step the
gradual change in defensive armour, the alterations in which
are always more apparent than those of offensive weapons,
whether missile or for close combat. The mail-shirt re-
mained in use for more than iive hundred years, and was
replaced by complete plate armour only after a transition
period in xvliich coats of mail, partly composed of plates of
iron or of leather, were used. This chapter, after having
passed in review the complete equipment of the different
epochs, will give a separate history of each weapon, accom-
panied by illustrations of the objects, however small, which,
it is hoped, will greatly facilitate the comprehension of the
text. As to the more general historical development, the
reader is referred to the chapter on the abridged history of
cnoient arms, pages 37 to 59.
Complete Equipments of the Middle Ages. 161

Combatants from the ivory cover of the Antiphonary of Saint Gregory,

a manuscript of the eighth century, preserved in the library of Saini
Gall, in Switzerland. This sculpture has much of the Soman and even
Byzantine character about it it may very likely have come from a.

diptych. The shape of the shields, however, is not Eoman, and the
sort of Moses-like horns on the heads of the warriors remind one of
the defensive head-gear of the northern nations. The two combatants
do not wear beards, and their only weapon of defence is the shield,
which shows a single loop for the arm.
162 Gompleie Equipments

Merovingian knight, from a church of Saint Julian at

bas-relief in the
Rri oude (Haute Loire), attributed to the eighth century.
This warrior is
equipped in the short hauberk or jacket of scales called Jazerans or
Korazins (see explanation in the chapter on mail coats and cuirasses),
without hose or leggings, but with sleeves that reached to the \vrist.
The conical casque resembles those of the eleventh century, called in
France Norman, though without nose-guard. The chin-piece seems to
be made by p portion of the hood that appears from under the casque.
The general character of this equipment indicates rather the tenth or
eleventh century, on which account the author hesitates about giving it
this place
of the Middle Ages. 163

, Grennan man-at-arms, of the beguming of the niath century, ^om

a miniature in Wessobrunn MSS. (810), preserved in the Munich
library. It is worthy of notice that this warrior wears no beard,
and that he carries a round shield with boss, and has a rounded
Lombard Mng from Legea Jjongdbardorum, of the ninth century, in
the Stuttgart library. This miniature is interesting on accotmt of
the elongated square and convex shape of the shield ; which is
also seen in the long targe of Germany, of the fourteenth century.
The king wears his beard, but with the chin bare.
164 Complete Equipments

3. Horseman and foot-soldiersfrom the miniatui-ea of the Codes Aureus,

of the eighth or ninth century, now at St. Gall. The horseman
and one of the foot-soldiers wears the beard and moustache.
of the Mid'dle Ages. 165

1. German warrior of the tenth century, with conical-

shaped helmet and nose-piece, and hauberk of
mail, remarkable by its long sleeves. From the
" Martyrologie," a manuscript of the tenth cen-
tury, in the library of Stuttgard.
2. Warrior in large hauberk of mail, with short sleeves
and hood, but without casque from the bas-reliefs

of a reliquary in beaten silver, of the end of the

ninth century. Treasury of the Convent of Saint
Maurice, in the Canton of the Valais, Switzerland.
The warriors have no beards.
3. Man-at-arms of the tenth century, from a statuette
on a cover of yellow leather, of that time in the ;

collection of M. the Count of Nieuwerkerke. This

valuable example is 3 inches high. The conical
helmet is remarkable by the shape of the nose-piece, which is very broad
at the base. The sword i^ pointed. The coat of mail is long, but has not
the close-fitting leggings of the Norman armour of the eleventh cen-
tury. The shield is long, pointed, and with a boss.
166 Com^leie Equipments

1. Anglo-Saxon men-at-arma; from the Prudentius Psychomacliia,

etc., Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the tenth century, in the library

of the British Museum. The whole of the defensive armour con-

sists of the round shield with boss, and the casque with rounded

shell, which may be seen on the seal of Kiohard Cceur-de-Lion

2. Warrior of the tenth (?) century from a manuscript of that time,

the Biblia Sacra, in the Imperial Library of Paris. This minia-

ture is remarkable on account of the shape of the sword-handle,
which is trilobed, as in the Aelfric, an Anglo-Saxon manuscript, in
the library of the British Museum, and by the small buckler,

which was used hkewise in the reign of Saint Louis (1226 1270).
The same kind of saddle is found on the Bayeux tapestries of the
snd of the eleventh centui)'.

of the Middle Ages. 167

1. The Duke. BoTirekhard of Swabia (965) ; BasUioa

bas-relief in the
of Zurich, Switzerland, which was towards the end of the

eleventh century, in place of the chnrch burnt in 1078. Helmet

and sword recalling those of the tenth century, in the Martyrology
(already mentioned), ia the Library of Stuttgard.
8. Anglo-Saxon man-at-arms, from the miniatures of an Anglo-Saxon
manuscript, the Adfric, of the end of the eleventh century, ia the
library of the British Museum. The shield has no resemblance to
the Norman shield, which was long and very pointed at the base
the helmet, also, differs entirely &om those we are acquainted
with. The sword-handle and the
is trilobed, or trefoil-shaped,
hauberk with long sleeves does not resemble the Norman hauberks.
These men-at-arms are both represented without beards.
168 Complete Equipments

1. Anglo-Saxon wan-ior frona the Aelfric manuscript, of the beginning

of the eleventh century, mentioned on preceding page. Same
kind of trilobed sword-haudle, same round shield, but the hauberk
here is ringed, without leggings, but -with olose-iitting breeches. It
may be noticed that the Anglo-Saxon is represented with a beard.
2. French warrior, from a bas-relief in the cloister of Saint Aubin at
Angers. He wears the conical helmet with nose-piece, the heart-
shaped buckler, the Germanic "framee" (lance), and the large
hauberk of trellised maU, with long sleeves and hood. The shield
is adorned with paintings, which probably represent personal
armorial bearings.
of the Middle Ages. 169

1. Gennan equipment of the eleventh century, from the statue of one

of the founders of the Cathedral of Naumburg. Thecasque issimilar
to that in the Codex Aureus of Saint GaU. Strangely enough, the
right leg is without armour. A beard is seen on the chin.
2, German warrior of the eleventh century, ina hauberk with long
sleeves, hood, and breeches and leggings in mail. From the
Jeremias Apocalypgis, in the library at Darmstadt.
170 Complete Equipments

1. German man-at-arms of the end of the twelfth eentury, from the

embroideries on the mitre in the Convent of Seligenthal at Lands-
hut, in Bavaria, on which are represented the martyrdoms of Saint
Etienne (997), and of the Archbishop Thomas Becket of Canter-
bury (Saint Thomas died a.d. 1170).
National Museum of Munich.

2. German warrior from a stone sculpture of the twelfth century, at


the gate of Heimburg, in Austria. The hauberk, with long tight

sleeves and hood, appears to he of thongs covered with iron, and of
a kind unknown. The rounded shell of the helmet shows the
radical difference which existed between this piece of German
defensive armour and that of the Normans. The
arm-guards, with
shoulder-pieces and elbows, to protect the back of the arms, are
also very characteristic of the time. The sword-blade appears to
be broken in the hands of the statue, so that the shape of it cannot
be rightly conjectured, but it resembles that of the Daoian sabie.
of the Middle Ages. 171


I. Norman warrior of the eleventh century, in large ringed or trellised

hauterk, with sleeves, close-fitting breeches, and hood. The legs
are bound round with thongs. The conical helmet has a nose-
piece, and the shield reaches to the height of a man's shoxilder.

2. Anglo-Saxon warrior, recognisable by his round shield with boss,

and whose defensive armour does not differ in other things &om
the !Iforman. The sword is veiy long in the blade, emd has a
simple pommel.
Bayeux Tapestry,
172 Gomjplete Equipments

1. Norman warrior of the eleventh century in large ringed or trellised

hauberk, with sleeves, breeches, and leggings, and hood in one
piece. This figure is probably meant for William the Conqueror,
because it alone has the legs armed like the rest of the body. The
conical casque with nose-piece does not differ from that of the
other warriors.
Bayeux Tapestry.
2. Norman warrior lighting without helmet, and wearing the hood
alone. The defensive armour is the same, but this warrior is in-

teresting on account of the form of his saddle, bridle, and the pen-
nant on his lance.
Bayeux Tapestry.
of the Middle Ages. 173

1. Scandinavian warrior; end of the eleventli or beginning of the

twelfth century, from a sculpture in wood on the door of a church
in Iceland, preserved in the Museum of Copenhagen. The equip-
ment is remarkable by the conical casque with nose-piece and
neck-covering, and by the curved sword or glaive which the warrior
bears along with the buckler on his right shoulder.
2. Count of Barcelona, Don Eamon Berenger IV. (1140) from an en-

graved seal. The conical helmet has a nose-piece, and the rest of
the armour seems to consist of a hauberk with hood, and breeches
and leggings of mail, all in one piece. The long shield hag a coat
of aims on one of his seals, and stripes en the other. The lance
has a pennant.
174 Complete Equipments

1. —
Louis VII. the young (1137 1180), from his seal. The coat of mail
has a hood, cloae-fitting sleeves, breeches, and leggings. The
helmet has a rounded shell without a nose-piece, a cross as a crest,
and the buckler differs greatly from the Norman one.
of the Middle Ages. 175

2. Qennan warrior from the mural paintings on the cathedral of Bnma-

wick, executed in the reign of Henry the Lion, who died iu 1195.
The equipment is interesting on account of the coat of scale-

armoui, which resembles the Boman squamata, the large shield,

the pommel of the sword, which is double-lobed, and the metal
rings which encircle the knees.
(See at page 180 the equipment of Eichard Ooeur-de-Lion (1189—
1199), which, according to chronological order, should follow here.)
1,76 Complete Equipments
of (he Middle Ages. Ill

The engraving on the preceding page represents Bohemian or Ger-

man warriors, from the manuscript of Volenlav of Bohemia, in the thir-
teenth century; preserved in the library of Prince Lobkowitz, at
Baudnitz, in Bohemia.
The second group on the page is headed by a chieftain whose equip-
ment no respect from that of the other warriors, many of
differs in
whom already wear the large bassinet, generally si^pposed to belong to
the fourteenth century, and which, worn with the hood, reaches to the
The hauberks with long, close-fitting sleeves, and breeches with
leggings, are evidently of the kind called " ringed" (see the explanation
in the chapter on corslets and coats).
The bassinets do not appear to be made of a single shell, judging
from the line riveted with nail-heads, which divides the pointed shell
of the helmet into two halves.
The swords are not yet pointed, but the saddles have raised cantles,
while the chiefs wear beards and have sharp-pointed shoes a la povZaine,
The most remarkable feature in this elaborate illumination, as far as the
history of defensive armour is concerned, is the broad-brimmed iron hat
with pointed crown like that of the bassinet. There is no existing
specimen of this kind of hat, for the iron hats of the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries, which are sometimes to be met with in ooUectious
of armour, have not the crown thus pointed.
It may be remarked that only the two chiefs wear beards, and that
the shields with armorial devices resemble in shape the shield of Louis
Vn. (1137—1180), represented on page 174.
178 Complete Equipments


of the Middle Ages. 179

Grennan armourer forging a helm, copied from a miniature of the

German ^neid of Henry of Waldeck, thirteenth century, preserved
in the library of Berlin. The coat of mail at the foot of the anvil,
inaccurately copied, appears, in the original design, to be treUised
and studded with nail-heads, if it be not ringed. The helm
{Topfhelm in German, and Tieawme in French) which the armourer
is forging has a fixed vizor and is flat-crowned.

German warrior, from the same manuscript. The helm has a crest
the buckler heart-shaped, like the small shield which was uni-

versally worn in the time of Saint Louis. The armour already

appears to be in plates, probably of leather, judging from the arm-
guards, the cuisses, leggings, and pointed shoes, which are all
evidently laminated. The armour of the horse, which is completely
trellised, and studded with heads of nails, or ringed like the coat
lying at the foot of the anvil in the first engraving, shows a great
progress in equipment. The " Waffenrock " or frock which the
warrior wears above his armour is grotesque enough with its long
skirts like the overcoats of the present day ; it is also to be seen on
the Dutch statue of the same period, represented at page 181.
180 Complete Equipments

Eiohard I. Cceur-de-Lion (1189—1199),* from a seal. The coat of

mail has tight-fittiDg sleeves, and hood, but without hose. The '' jamhs"
or leggings are also of mail, reaching to the knee, while the buckler
seems to be the forerunner of the small shield of the thirteenth century.
The helmet with rounded top of Northern Germanic origin has re-
placed the Franco-Norman conical helmet its shape is much higher,

and recalls the helmets of the embroideries of Seligenthal, which

also belong to the second half of the twelfth ceatury.

* This woodcut, which, according to the chronologic order followed

in this book, should have been placed to follow p. 17i, has been obliged
to be inserted on this page for typographical reasons.
of the Middle Ages. 181

1, German warriora, wearing plate-armonr, arm-guarda, "jambs " or

leggings of plate armour, and plated ahoea a la povilaine. They
wear helms (Stechhelm in German, heavmes de joute in
French), and the Waffenrook or suicoat above their armour. From
a German manuscript, Tristan and Isolde, written in the thirteenth
century by Godfrey of Strasburg, and preserved in the library of
2. Equestrian statue in bronze, of the end of the thirteenth century,
front and back view ; in the collection of M. Six at Amsterdam.
The Dutch warrior in coat of mail with tight-fitting sleeves, the
hose jambs in probably of leather, has a grotesque appear-
ance, on account of the long-sMrted coat worn over the armonr,
and the singularly disproportiouate size of the crest of his helm.
182 Complete Equipments

French warrior of the thir-

teenth century, from a
champlevd' enamel on cop-
per, in high relief, 4
inches in height, in the
collection of M. le Comte
de Nieuwerkerke. It is
alternately enamelled in
bine and gilt, in shades of
citron and orange, and dates
from the thhteenth century.
The sword-guard has the
two ends turned towards'
the point of the eword, the
helm is crested, the armour
covered with the Waffen-
rock, or frock with long
skirts, and the horse is

2. French warrior of the thir-

teenth century, from a
champUve' enamel candle-
stick of that period, in the
collection of M. le Comte
de Nieuwerkerke.

3. French warrior of the four-

teenth century, from the
ornaments on a stamped
and engraved leathern coffer
of that period in the collec-
tion of M. le Comte de Nieu-
werkerke. The French in-
scriptions in Gothic letters
indicate a time posterior to
1360. Above the figure
are the words, Chaeles le
Grand. The armour is all
plate, the shoes are a la
poulaine, and the gauntlets
have separate fingers.
of tlie Middle Ages. 183

Italian warriors of the fourteenth centniy, from a canvas printed by

hand by means of engraved wood blocks in oil colours,* red and
black, belonging to M. Odet, at Sitten. The chiefswear helms, while
the other warriors have the fluted bassinet of which no specimen is
now known. All wear the fluted " jambs," but their body armour is
still the hauberk, which had fallen into disuse in Germany.

* Dr. Keller, who has published the fao-simile, confounds this manner
of hand-printing, already known among the Mexicans, with the real
wood-engiaving, which necessitates the use of the printing-press.
184 Complete Equipments

Italian warriors of the fourteenth

century, from the same canvas as
plain bassinet is noticeable, on account
the preceding engraving. The
resembles the shade or peak on
of the frontlet, a kind of vizor which
of the peak on the
modern caps, and which seems to be the precursor
capitals in use from
burgonet of the fifteenth century. The Gothic
date later than the four-
1200 to 1360 show that the canvas cannot
teenth century.
of the Middle Ages. 185

Danish warrior of the fourteenth century, whose armour is curious

because of the hracormiere or apron and loinguards in trellised work
which partly cover the mailed hauberk. The helm is still of the shape
of the " Topfhehn " of the Germans, thirteenth century. From an
ecclesiastical bowl in the Museum of Copenhagen.
186 Com^plete Equipments

German warrior beginning of the fourteenth century he is already

; ;

armed with plated jambs and mailed shoes a la poulaine. The helm
has a plume, and the shield is larger than the buckler of the thirteenth
oentu^. Manuscript 2576 of the Imperial library at Vienna Sistoria

sacra et pro/ana, etc.

of the Middle Ages. 187

1, Knight of Neufchatel of the year 1372. This is the date of the

completion of the funereal monument in the Upper Chuieh of
Nexifchatel. It represents Eodolph II., who died in 1196.

2. Armour of a Neufchatel knight. This armour is drawn from on

exact fao-simile of the monument to the Count of Berthold, who
died in 1258, at the time when this sculpture was carved. We
notice the greaves orjamis of plate-armour, but the buckler is still

188 Complete Equipments

^^a |]J:i;gfl^'^*p^ -

i. ^< 'i -^

Spanish warrior end of the fourteenth or heginning of the fifteenth


century, but armed with the hooded hauberk, without helmet

Alhambra. This bas-reUef is
&om a fragment of sculpture in the
were not
gnrrounded with an inscription in small Gothic letters, which
used earlier than 1360.
of the Middle Ages. 189

1. Buigraidiaii warrior, from the illtmiinations of a manuscript in the

Library of the Arsenal at Paris, a Eoman history, which appears to
have been written for the Dnke of Bnrgnndy, " Jean sans penr "

(1404 1419). It will be seen that the armonr still consists of the
mailed hanberk, and the salads Mnd of helmet. The small
bnckler, also of the thirteenth centory, is seen on the back of the

2, Uan-at-arms firing a small hand-cannon, from a manuscript of the

fifteenth centniy.
190 Complete Equipments
of the Middle Ages. 191

Spanish men-at-arms ; from a mural paintinp; dating about the end

of the fourteenth century, in the Cathedral of Mondoneda, representing
the massacre of the Innocents.
The soldiers carry swords with the " pas d'toe "* guard, and wear
faellised coats, partly covered by a breastplate.
The inscription on the large pavois of one of the soldiers is in Gothic
while that underneath the engraving
capitals, is in small letters, which
were not in use anterior to 1360.
The legs of the soldiers, as well as the lower part of their arms, are
without protection. The coats are very short, and do not even reach to
the knee ; the feet also are without solerets or armed shoes.
All the armour of these warriors is on the whole very defective, con-

sidering the time (second half or end of the fourteenth centuryj, and
inferior to English, French, and German equipments of the same

* " Pas d'ane " is the name of the ring-shaped sword-guard below the
cross-piece, on each side of the blade it is not generally met with until

the second half of the sixteenth century.

192 Complete Equipments
1. Italiaa armonr of the

/K end -of the fourteenth

cetitury, from the
tomb of Jacopo Ca-
valli at Venice, who
died in 138i, the
sculpture of whose
tomb was executed
by Paolo di Jaco-
mello of Massegna.

2. Italian armour of the

end of the fifteenth
century, &om the
equestrian statue of
Bartolommeo Col-
leoni, at Venice,
executed in 1496 by
Andrea Verrocchio
and Alessandro Leo-
pard!. This war
harness is interesting
on account of Its
enormous shoulder-
pieces, which are
not fastened either to
the arm-guards, to
the back, or to the
breastplate, for be-
tween them may be
seen a large surface
of coat of mail. The
body armour, as well
as the salade without
a Tizor, forms a very
insufficient- protec-
tion, and is much
inferior to the Eng-
lish,French, and
German equipment*
of that period.

q/" tlw Middle Ages. 193

Dutcli annour, front and back view, of the fifteenth century, from a
bronze statuette of William "VI. (1404 —1417), formerly on the balustrade
of the old Townhall of Amsterdam, where the tribunal sat, and now

preserved in the collection of antiquities of this city. The armour is

Wijthy of notice on account of its enoimous knee-pieces, " genouilli^rcs,''
and of the back-plate, composed of two pieces,
194 Complete Uquipnents

Gothic armour of jioliahed

steel, of the fifteenth century,
the casque, a kind of heaume,
has a rounded crown, and
hinged vizor it is attributed

to Frederick I., Count Pala-

tine of the Ehine, who died
in 1476.
Amhras CoUection, Vienna.
A similar suit, in the same
collection, is attributed to
Frederick tlie Catholic.
This war harness, as is

obvious at first sight, be-

longs to the middle of the
fifteenth century, from the
singular form of the tassetsi
the gauntlets, and the ends
of the solerets, one of
which is represented in full,

by the side of the left leg.

The casque already partakes
of the character of the armet,
and seems to be more modem
than the rest of the armour.
of tlie Middle Ages. 195

1. German Gothic armour of the fifteenth century, attributed to Sigis-

mund of Tyrol.
Amhras Collection at Vienna.
This suit of armoTir with its salade is incomplete, as the tassets are

2. Fine Gothic armour of the first half of the fifteenth century, in

polished ateeL It forms a part of the collection in the Museum of
Sigmaringen, and is erroneously attributed to the Count of Hohen-
zollem-Eitel, Frederick I., of the thirteenth century. The suit of
armour of the Ambras collection (drawn above), attributed to Sigis-
mund of Tyrol, is almost the same as this one of the Sigmaringen
196 Complete Equipments of the Middle Ages.

Armour of man and horse, attributed to Maximilian I., bom in 1459,

died in 1519. The cuisses, greaves, solerets, and arm-guarda, do not
properly belong to the suit, but are of the sixteenth century.
s(dade has a movable vizor, and a -laminated chin piece.
CoUeotion. M. the Count of Nieuwerktrlfe. possesses a similar suit of
MmouT for a warrior and horse, purchased in Nuremberg.
Equipments of the leginning of the Renaissance. 197

German Gothic armour of the second half of the fifteenth

century, in polished steel. It is remarkable on account of the large size
of the palettes, the tilting large, and tlie heaume. Ambras Collection
at Vienna. The Emperor Napoleon III. possesses three similar suits of
armour, and M. le Comte de Nieuwerlcerke has one. No. G. 115 in the
Musfe d'Artillerie is another suit of armour of the same kind, of tha
first years of the sixteenth century.
.98 Equipments of the heginning

German tilting armour of the end of the fifteenth, or beginning of

the sixteenth century, in polished steel, and weighing 82 lbs. (French). It
is worthy of note on account of the beautiful salade, the flutings of which

indicate the end of the fifteenth century, its large placcate or tilting
guard, with chin piece, and the huge lance rest. Ambras Collection.
The laminated tassets are long, and joined to the breastplate. N. G.
116, Muse'e d'Artillerie, Paris, is a similar suit of armour.
qfilie lienaissanee. 199

German Gothic tilting ar-

mour of the second half of
the fifteenth century, in po-
lished steel. The most notice-
able features are the heanme,
the gauntleted arm-guard of
the left hand, and the leg-
guard ; this last was to pre-
vent the left foot from being
crushed against the barrier.
The suit, which is attributed
to Maximilian I., who died
in 1493, was made at Augs-
burg, and is to be found
in the Imperial Arsenal of
The elbow pieces have a
distinct Gothic
abont them, and the large
tassets are surmounted by a
plated breastplate, partly
This is a fine and elegant
8nit of armour, belonging to
the best period.
200 Equipments of the leginmng

Fine Gothic armour of the second half of the fifteenth century, back
view; the front view is engraved on the following page; here the
tilting heaume is seen fixed to the back-plate by a strong hinga The
lance rest and shoulder pieces are very large, but the loin guard is
defective, and rendered a coat of mail an indispensable addition.
of {he Henaissanee. 201

German armour, end of tlie

fifteenth, or beginning of the
sixteenth century, with "vo-
two large
L-mt " piece, tassets,
and the breastplate of the
cuirass with a tapvl, or ridge.
The sword is of the middle
of the sixteenth century. The
crested helmet with movable
•rizor, lowered by means of
a piTOt on the top of the
crown, is not yet the proper
"armet," but a transition
helmet between it and the
The armed shoes, "bee de
cane" shaped, the elbow and
knee-pieces being of a small
size, the shape of the shoulder
pieces and gauntlets, indicate
exactly the time of the con-
struction of this suit of

Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.

202 Coynplete Equipments

German fluted armour,

called " Maximilienne " and
" Milanaise," of the begin-
ning of the sixteenth century
{Oeri'pte Bustung in Ger-
man). The cuirass is round-
ed, the breastplate does not
possess the central ridge or
" tapul," and the shoulder-
pieces large, and with passe
gardes {Mdnder in Ger-
man). The cuishes and upper
arm pieces are fluted like the
rest of the armour, but the
lower arm pieces and the
greaves are plain. The sole-
rets, or armed shoes, paw-
shaped, indicate the time to
which this armour belongs,
the sixteenth century.
Asimilar suit in the
author's collection, the shape
of whose soleret indicates the
second half of the fifteenth
century, has a helmet, where
the vizor, not following the
lines of the human face,
allows the wearer to see and
breathe througli eleven small
holes. The gauntlet is ar-
ticulated only for the first
division of the hand.
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.
of tlie Renaissance. 203

Gennan armoui' in po-

lished steel, cut in facets,
for fighting on foot, of
1515, the date of the coro-
nation of Francis I., which

is engraved on the right

The catalogue (G. 117),
mentions it as coming
from the gallery of Sedan,
whDe at Vienna it is sup-
posed to have belonged
to the Ambras Collection.
Musee d'Artillerie de
Paris. The "bouillonee,"
or puffed suit of armour
(see next page), of the
Ambras Collection, orna-
mented with the same
facet cutting, was pro-
bably wrought by the
same artist.
This harness covers the
whole body, leaving no
part unprotected; it is

everywhere laminated,
and thus does not need
the coat of mail to protect
weaknesses which do not
exist it is also worthy
of note on account of the
shape of the " brayette,"
which resembles the one
engraved at No. 16, p. 229.
204 Complete Equipmetits

German puffed armour, in steel cut in facets, of the first half of the
sixteenth century. It belonged to 'William of Eogendorf, one of the
captains who defended Vienna against the Turks in 1529, and who died
In 1541. This war harness, with the exception of the cuishes and
greaves, indicates a suit to be worn for fighting on foot it also shows

that it proceeds from the same hand which constructed the suit in the
Museirai of Artillery in Paris, the engraving of which is found on tlic
preceding page. Ambras Collection. There is a similar suit in the
Tower of London.
of the Renaissance. 205

Back view of the suit of armour deacribed ou the preceding page.

It willbe seen that the plated loin guard is exactly similar to the one
belonging to the suit of armour erroneously called Italian, the en-
graving of which is given at page 203.
Ambrai Collection,
206 Complete Equipments

German armour in steel,

polished and facetted, of
1526. The cuirass is

rather rounded in shape,

and bears in the cenU'e
of it the initials S. L. as
amonogram. Thetassets
and waist-piece are join-
ed, and the shoulder
pieces have passe-gardes.
The armet is very pecu-

liar, having a double

movable vizor. The sole-
rets are club or paw-
shaped, and the greaves
not being ornamented,
may possibly have be-
longed to another suit.
The deficiency between
the waist-piece and the
tasseta is here supplied
by a piece of mail which
reaches to the loin-guard.
Imperial Arsenal of
of the Renaissance. 207

Italian armour of the first half of the sixteenth century, m the style
of the brigantine jacket, which was -worn in Italy during the fifteenth
century. It is attributed to the Duke of Urbino (1538).
Amhrae Collection at Vienna.
208 Complete Equipments

RicLly damascened or inlaid nrmour (tanchirt in German), of the

second half of the sixteenth century it is of Nuremberg workmanBhip,

and is now in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. The armet being joined
to tlie cuirass by the gorget and collar, formed one solid piece, which,
closing hermetically, left no hold for the enemy's swoxd.
of the Renaissance. 209

Eichly inlaid armour, manufactured at Nuremberg in the second half

of the sixteenth century. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. The left arm
is provided with an arm-guard called large tilting guard; the armet

closing everywher hermetically, and being joined io the cuirass by the

gorget and coUar, offered no place of vantage for the point of the
enemy's sword.
210 Complete Equipments

German suit of steel ar-

mour, richly ornamented
with engraving and in-
laying, of the second half
of the sixteenth century.
The cuirass is already
lengthening, and the tas-
sets are,on that account,
becoming smaller. The
volant-piece {Vorhelm in
German) has " passe-
gardes," and is screwed
on to the hreastplate,
which is tabulated, or
gradually rising towards
the centre until it termi-
nates in a ridge. The
gauntlets are entirely ar-
ticulated, and the elbow-
pieces small.
The tassets and cuishes
are very short, and the
absence of a waist in plate
armour necessitates the
use of one in mail, to
protect the waist and
Imperial Arsenal 0/
of Uie Renaissance. 211

German skirted
armour, of the
second half of the
sixteenth century,
attributed to the
Archduke Ferdi-
nand, Count of
Tyrol. The small
engraved orna-
ments represent
eagles. This ar-
mour was intended
to be worn when
fighting on foot,
but the skirt was
divisible so as to
allow it to be worn
on horseback. The
armet, the ridge
on the cuirass, its
gi'eat length, the
large palettes, and
the bear's-foot so-
lerets, indicate ex-
actly the period of
ATiibraa Collection.
212 Compltte Equipmenis

Suit of armour, Augsburg manufacture, of the second half of the

sixteenth century. It is entirely covered with rich " repouss^," or em-
bossed ornament, which recalls the designs by the paiaters Schwarz
Van Aohen, Brockberger, and Milich, in the Cabinet of Engravings
at Munich.
, Museum of Imperial Artillery at Vienna.
of the Renaissance, 213

German plate armour in polished steel ; second half of the sixteenth

centmry. On the breastplate is the name of the knight to whom it
belonged, Adam (JaU, who died in 1574.
Imperial Arsenal qf Viernia.
This kind of armour was worn in Spain more generally than in
Germany, The profusion of buttons, and tlie absence of the lance-rest,
cause it to resemble the war harness of the seventeenth century, when
the tassets were joined with the cuishes, forming wliat viaa called the
211 Complete Equipments of

Spanish plate armour, attributed to the Duke of Alva, the stem ruler
of the Low Countries (1508—1582). The armet, a kind of burgonet,
is deficient, as it leaves too large a space between the chin-piece and
eye-shade of the helmet. On the breastplate is engraved a knight in
prayer before a crucifix. Ambras Collection. Same observation as for
the armour on the preceding page.
ihe End of the Henaissance, 215

Italian armour in steel, inlaid with silver, end of the sixteenth cen-
tnry, and which is believed to have belonged to Alessandro Famese.
This suit is of splendid workmanship, as well as of great fineness. The
breastplate rises into a ridge, and lias a lance-rest. The space between
the tassets, and the absence of the large brayette, necessitate the use ol
Imperial Artenal of Vienna.
Complete Equipments of the

Cfennan armour of the

end of the sixteenth
century, richly emtossed
{Oetrieben in German),
and whose work indicates
the school of Munich or
Augsburg. It is con-
sidered to have belonged
to the Emperor Eodolph
II. (1572—1612). The
sword indicates by the
shape of the hilt and the
" pas d'ane " the begin-
ning of the seventeenth
century. The large
shoulder and elbow
pieces, the shape of the
armet, the "bee de
cane " solerets, and the
absence of the large
brayette, as well as the
shape of the breastplate
without lance-rest, point
out the time of the manu-
facture of this fine ar-
Anibras Collection at
End of the Sixteenth Century. . 217

Complete equipment of Persian horseman. The man wears a cjat ot

mail, and the horse is covered with an armour composed of plates of
iron joined together with small chain links. From a manuscript in the
library of Munich, illustrated with 215 beautiful miniatures, illuminated
about the year 1580 to 1600. It is a copy of the Schah Nameh or Royal
Book, a poem composed hy Ferdusi, in the reign of Mahmoud the
Saznevide (999).
218 Gorriflete Equipments

Dutch warrior; time of the "War of Independence," during the

Stadtholdership of Henry Frederick (1C25— 1B47), from a. pictuij of
that time, painted on earthenware, by Ter tlimpelen of Delft, and whicli
represents the celebrated battle before Bols le Due, on the heath of
Lekkerbeetze, between the Dutch, under the Norman captain, Breautc,
and the Spaniards, under the command of Lieutenant Abrahami. Tie
armour is still an entire covering, and the loin-guard is worn, and,
what ifl somewhat remarkable, we find already flint-lock guns and
pistols. Author's Collection. For fuller detail, see p. 631, 3rd edition,
of the " Encyclopedic cernmique m->nogrammique," of the author.
of the Seventeenth Oentmry. 219

German armour of the

Beventeenth century, at-
tributed to the Arch-
duke Leopold, who be-
came Emperor in 1658,
and died in 1705. Am-
bras Collection at Vienna.
A similar suit in the
Louvre is attributed to
Louis Xin. (.1610—
1643), and several other
suits in the Artillery
Museum at Paris are
said to be of the reign of
Louis XIV. (1643—
1715). The date of the
construction of these in-
ferior suits of harness
may he seen, by the huge
shoulder-pieces, the di-
minution of the breast-
plate, and the long " lob-
ster - tails," which re-
placed the waist -piece
and the tassets.
220 Complete Eqiiipmenis

Hungarian armour, ef

the end of the sixteenth

or beginning of the seven-
teenth century, composed
of chain and plate. The
round shield is orna-
mented with a painting
representing a cross-bow.
The whole equipment
has an oriental character
about it, especially the
cuishesand knee-pieces,
composed of plates joined
by rings, such as are
used in Persia. The
casque is made with a
low crown, and covered
with a mail hood, the
front part of which pro-
tects the forehead and
The whole appears
graceful, and very pic-
Imperial Arsenal o]
of the Seventeenth Century. 221

Hungarian war - har-

ness, in steel, richly
damascened, of German
manufactnre of the
seventeenth century. It is

characterised by the pe-

culiar form of the casque
and The mace
in the righthand of the
man is a weapon of the
sixteenth century, and
was not in nse at the
time to which this ar-
mour belongs. It ap-
pears that this half-suit
was worn over the buiF
coat, similar to tliose of
the Swedes in the Thirty
Years' War. The sabre
is of Eastern shape.
Imperial Arsenal of
222 Armour of the Eigliteeath Century.

Cuirass with ridged breastplate, and

helmet with nose-piece, cheek and
neck guards, a kind of burgonet.
Arms of the end of the seventeenth or
beginning of the eighteenth century,
riolily damascened and engraved.
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.



We have seen in the historical chapter, and in the intro-

duction to the present one, in what wa.j a soldier's equipment
underwent continual changes from the commencement of the
Middle Ages. The perfected plate armour, which will here
be described in detail, belongs to the end of the fifteenth or
beginning of the sixteenth century. It comprises, besides
the casque (which at this time was always considered a thing
apart), the following pieces :

The neck collar {Halsberge in German), which supported

the whole of the rest of the harness, must not be confounded
ivith the gorget {Kelilstiiek, Ger.), underneath which it was
placed, and which, like it, was formed of several plates.
The cuirass {Kiirass in German) was composed of the
breastplate [Brust platte), which protected the chest and was
often made with a salient ridge called iaptd dovm the
centre (Graete), and of the back plate (Jtiickenplatie).
Armour in Detail. 223
The lanoe rest (Busthacken), which was placed on the right
of the breastplate, and was used to fix the lance.
The small plates (Eleine Sehienea), to protect the armpits.
The shoulder-plates (Achsdstiicke), with or without passe-
gardes {Bander).
The palettes {AchselhoMscTieiben), which protected the
armpits, and whose use does not date farther back than the
middle of the fifteenth century, and disappears at the end of
the sixteenth.
The large brayette (VorderscMrz), that part of the armour
which covered the abdomen. It was composed of steel plates,
and ended in the tassets.
The small brayette, which English taste has eliminated
from the armour preserved in the Tower of London.
The tassets, or tuiles (Krebse), destined to protect the
upper part of the thighs, and strapped with thongs on to the
large brayette or waist-piece. Some German authors, how-
ever, give the name "Krebs" to a complete suit of armour
composed of imbricated plates, and " halber Krebs " to the
lower part of the armour in plates and the long cuishes of
the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth
centuries. Fouchet also, who wrote about the end of the
sixteenth century, says that armour entirely composed of
imbricated plates was called " ecrevisses " in France, and
" a suit of splints " in England.
The loin guard [HinierscMrz) was composed of imbricated
plates, like the waist-piece.
The arm guards (Armzeug and ArmscMenen), composed of
front and back pieces (vor and Mnter Armzeug), joined
together by the elbow-pieces (Meuseln or Ellemhogen
The cuishes (Dielinge, DicMinge, or SchenhelscMenen), which
before 1500 protected only the front of the thigh.
The knee-plates (Kniestuche).
The greaves, or double leggings with hinges (Beinschiemn),
which before 1500 generally covered only the front of the
The armed shoes, or solerets {Bust- or Eisenschuhe). The
many varieties of foot-armour being designated by French
titlesto which no recognised English synonyms exist, it
has been thought better to give in this instance the terms

224 Armour in Detail.

employed by M. Demmin rather than attempt to translate

them. Fii'st, Solerets o crochet, in the eleventh century
a la poulaine, from early twelfth to middle fourteenth
century; ogivale lancette, or demi-poulaine, from 1350 to
1470, and return to a la poulaine in the iifteenth century
arcs tiers-points from 1440 to 1470 a demi-sabots, or demi-

pieds d'ours, about 1485 a sabots, or pieds d'ours, from 1490


to 1560 and a bee de cane about 1585.


The gauntlets (Kampfhandscluihe) had in the fourteenth

century articulated fingers (Fingerhandschuhe, or Gefingerte
Tatze) ; in the fifteenth century they were without joints
and in the sixteenth century they were again made with
separate fingers. The gauntlets of the seventeenth cen-
tury, in doeskin and armed with plated scales, were called
in German SchappenJiandschuhe.
The large shoulder-guard (Kleines BrusiscJiild) was used
from the end of the fifteenth century.
The shoulder-plate with passe-garde {SchulterscTiild mit
The large tilting breast-shield (^Grosses Brustsehild and
ScJiarfrenntartsche) was sometimes simple
sometimes with the

or without sight-holes; with volant-piece,

chin-piece, with
or with the arm-guard, but all these were used only for
The large tilting cuishes (Turnier Lendenplatte).
The vam-plate {Schweber Scheibe).
The different pieces belonging to the helmet, which will
all be found in the following chapter, were :

The volant-piece (^Vorhelm).

The movable chin-piece, or half mentonniere (Kinnlielm).
The great mentonniere (Kinnlielm').
The armour of the sixteenth century is remarkable by its
beautiful flutings such was the armour called
; Maxi- '

milian " or "Milanaise:" that of the second half of this

same century is adorned with artistic engravings, done with
the tool and with aquafortis.
When, towards the end of the sixteenth century, armour
had attained its highest degree of perfection, but notwith-
standing could no longer offer a sufficient protection against
fire- arms, it declined, and ended by disappearing entirely in

the second half of the seventeenth century. After the

Armour in Detail. 225
tassets had been replaced by the ungraceful cuishes, annour
was reduced to its latest change, in which there were neither
greaves nor cuishes, and very soon no more arm-guards the ;

cuirass alone being worn to the end, and even this only as a
special arm by the cuirassiers. The buff coat or jerkin
(Koller), on which was worn a light collar, then took the
place of armour, while greaves and solerets were discarded for
the heavy riding boots of Louis XIV. and WiUiam III.
Before the introduction of half armour ungraceful breast-
plates, imitating the fashion of doublets, had already been the
precursors of decadence in armour these breastplates, which

resembled the Punch's hump of the reign of Henry III.,

and afterwards the flat forms of costume imder Louis XIII.,
were followed, lastly, by the long lobster-taUs of Louis XTV.'s
Eespecting armours ornamented with aquafortis engraving,
a style of art probably invented by Wohlgemuth (1434—
1519), if not by his pupil Diirer (1471—1528), these are
very rare in the fifteenth century as for the supposition

that engraving by aquafortis was in use among the Arabs

from the eleventh century, it has not been confirmed by any
existing object. Engraving by the tool was used for the
ornamenting of swords from the second half of the Christian
Middle Ages, but everything which dat-es farther back than
the fifteenth century is very unartistic.
226 Detached Pieces

]. Neck collar (flofafterge). This piece

Bupported the whole of the harness.

lA. Ditto, ditto.

2. Breastplate {Brustplatte), or &ont

part of the cuirass. The saUent
ridge in the centre is sometimes
called tapul {Graeie). The lance-
rest seen on the right of the
breastplate (BmtJiacken).

3. Back-plate of the cuirass {BSeken-

Anihras Collection.

i. Shonlder-plate, or pauldron (Ached-

of a fluted suit of armour ;

second half of the fifteenth cen-

Author's CoUeetion.

of Flaie Armour,

5. Palette (^Aeliselhohlseheibe) of a
fluted suit ; end of the fiftoouth.

6. Palette of a Gothic suit ; fifteenth


7. Palette, larger than the piecedrng

ones, of a suit belonging to the
middle of the sixteenth cen-

8, Palette, 10 inches in diameter,

studded with copper nail-heads
belonging to a suit of the end of
the sixteenth century, in the
Ambras Collection. A few
suits of tilting armour of the
end of the fifteenth and begin-
ning of the sixteenth century
have, nevertheless, similarly
large palettes.

Gorget with pauldrons attached

end of the sixteenth century.
In England a piece of armour
so composed was called •' aUe-
cret." A similar gorget and
shoulder-piece may be seen in
No. G. 256, Museum of Artil-
lery, Paris.
228 Detached Pieces
10. Waist-piece, or great brayette (yor-
derschmrz), belonging to a Gtothio
suit of the fifteenth century, in
the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.
This waist-piece was always com-
pleted by the two large tassete, or
tuiles, which protected the ouishes.

11. Waist-piece of an engraved and

embossed suit, end of the fifteenth
or beginning of the sixteenth
century, for fighting on foot. Its
shape renders the tassets unneces-

12. Tasaot* {Kreht), tuile-shaped, of a

fifteenth-century suit.
Museum of Artillery, Paris.

13. Small taaset, in plates, end of the

fifteenth century ; used also in the
sixteenth century.

* During the fifteenth centuiy the

tassets were generally composed of one
piece, like No. 12. After that they
assumed a rounded shape, and were for
the most part smaller, during the six-
teenth century, and with movable plates.
of Plate Armour. 229

14. Tasset and waist-piece in one,

of an unusual size, and almost
entirely covering the cuishes,
like a Freemason's apron; it
is part of a suit attributed to
Francis I. (died in 1547).

15. Small brayette (GliedscMrm) of

a sixteentli-centuiy suit.

16. Small brayette, sirfeenth cen-

No. G. 119, Museum of ArtiUery,

17. Loin -guard, or gaide -reins

{BiiOerschmz), of a suit be-
longing to the end of the
fifteenth century.
230 Detached Pieces

18. Garde-reins, or loin-guard, of a

Gothic suit of armour, one of
tiie most graceful pieces of
fifteenth-century work known.

19. Garde-reins of a fluted suit

called " Maximilienne ;" end

of the fifteenth or beginning
of the sixteenth century.

20. Two garde-reins of the seven-

teenth century. The smaller
one belongs to a suit of tht
reign of Louis XIV., preserved
in the Museum of Artillery,

21. Complete arm -guard {Games

Armzemg). It is composed of
an upper and lower arm-plate,
called vambrace and rear-
brace {Vor- and Sinterarm),
and these two pieces are joined
together by the elbow-piece
(Meusel, or Mletibogen-
kachel). The shape of the
elbow - piece varies greatly.
Sometimes it is more rounded,
as at the end of the fifteeu'Ji
century ; sometimes with
jointed plates and during the

sixteenth century it was of

small dimensions.

of Plate Armouy. 231

22. Guish (Dieling or Schenkel-

ichiene), or thigh-plate, with
knee - cap (^KmestSclt), and
greave (^Beiiachieae). It is
double or hinged, which shows
its manufacture to be later

than 1500.

23. Greave with soleret

echuhe). The
soleret is of the
shape called "beo de cane;"
end of the sixteenth century.

24 Gauntlet {Kampfhandschuhe or
gejingerte Handtatze), with
separately articulated fingers,
belonging to a Gothic suit
middle of the fifteenth century.

25. Shoulder-plate, or grand guard

{kleines SchuUersehUd), used in
tilting towards the end of the
fifteenth century.

26. Pauldron with passe-garde {Schiller-

gchild mit Band).

27. Great tilting ahoulder-guaid {Turmer


27 bit. Blbow-pieoe belonging to a left arm-

guard; German, beginning of the
sixteenth century.
G. 10, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

28. Tilting breastplate, in iron, richly

engraved German work on a tilting

suit, beginning of the sixteenth cen-

tury. This piece of armour is called in
German Grosses Bmstechild, and also

29. Tilting breastplate with mentonniere

{BrustsehUd mit Schimbart), from the
" Book of Tom-neys " of Duke Wil-
liam IV. of Bavaria (1510—1545).
of Plate Armour. 233

30. Tilting breastplate with mentonnifere and

helmet, same description as No. 29.

31. Ditto, ditto.


32. Tilting breastplate with mentonuifere,

belonging to a suit of the beginning of
the sixteenth century. It is composed of
thick wood, and covered with canvas,
painted black.
Ambraa Collection.

83. Tilting breastplate with mentonniere 35

and sight-holes. This protection to tUt-
ing armour, which covers nearly the
whole of the helmet, and forms a sort of
vizor, is older than the preceding tUting
shields, and has been copied &om the
engraving of the "Triumph of Maxi-
milian," executed about 1517.
234 Detached Pieces

34. Largo German tilting guard, with

volant-piece and a screw lance-
rest. The helmet, already pro-
tected hy the chin-guard, to which
it is screwed, is also fastened tn
the back-plate of the cuirass by
the crest or comb, called in
GermaD Bennhuischraube. The
screw lance-rest was used to keep
in its place and support the tilting

shield, to hold the prizes won at

tournaments, and to rest the
lance. It is also believed that
the kniglit sometimes placed a
ball there to serve as a target for
his adversary.
Museum of Dresden. G. 124, facsimile,
Museum of Artillery, Paris.

35. Ditto, ditto, but without the hel-

met and crest fastened to the


36. Large tilting cuishe (Tuiiiier-

Lendenplatte), belonging to a
suit armour called Maxi-
milienne ; beginning of the six-
teenth century.
G. Hi, Musewm of Artillery, Varit.
of Plate Armour. 235

37. I«rge euisse, or thigh-piece, for

tilting, of Maximilian armour, of
the beguming of the sixteenth
G. 115, Museum of Artillery, Farts.

German leg-piece, for toumamenta.

End of the iifteenth century.
This was worn over the greaves of
the armour, so as to shield the
leg from collision with the bar-

39. Large cuisse for tilting ; beguming

of the sixteenth century.
Collection of M. le Comte de Nieuwer-

40. Vamplate of lance (^Schwebetcke^e

in German ..

Museum of Artillery, Paris,

236 Detached Pieces
41. Vamplate of lance of the six-

teenth century.
Musema of Dresden,

42. Vamplate of lance of the six- ,

teenth century.
Meyrick Collection.

43. Vamplate of lance of the six-

teenth century.
MeyricTi Collection.

44. Lance-rest (Biisthaeken in Ger-

man) of the middle of the
fiixteenth century.
Mueeum of Dresden.

45. Two sorts of lance-rests of the

end of the sixteenth century.
Mtiseum of Dresden,
of Plate Armour. 237

46. Or&te-^chelle (BennhuUchratibe in

Museum of Dresden, see No. 34.

47. Screwed lance-rest.

Museum of Dresden, Bee No. 34,

48. High placcate, or volant - piece

{Vorhdm in German).
Museum of Dresden.

49. Volant-piece with placcate, paul-

drons, and elbow-pieces, from a
set of tilting armour belonging to
the end of the fifteenth centmy.
Benn^ CoUection at Constance.

50. Great chin-gnard (Grosse Barthaiibe

in German).
NieuwerTserke CoUedion.
238 Detached of Plate Armour.
51. Volant-piece.
Meyrick Collection.

52. Plated chin-guard and gor-

get {Oeschobene Barthavie
in German) of German
workmanship. Used in
the end of the fifteenth
century, when it was worn
with the salade.
Nieawerkerlte Collection,

53. Half chin-guard (HaZieJBart-

haube in German) of the
end of the fifteenth cen-

54. Ailette, or plate, used dur-

ing the transition period,
and worn between the coat
and the leathern annonx.
It was in use for about 30
years. One is to be seen
on the statue of Rodolph
de Hierstein (who died in
1318) at Bahl.

55. Breastplate of tilting armour,

German, of the first part of
the sixteenth century.
This is of very peculiar
make, and there exist oiJy
two specimens (one in the
Ambras Collection, and
one in the Museum of
Artillery in Paris). When
the centre part of the
breastplate was touched by
the lance, the whole opened
with a spring. The place
to be touched was marked
by a pierced heart.


The word casque (German, Selm) is derived from the

Keltic words cos, box or sheath, and hed, from cead, head.
We have seen what were the shapes of the ancient casques,
and of those worn by such people as were called barbarians
during the iron and bronze ages. Only two sorts exist the :

horned casque, attributed by the British Museum to the

Britons, but which appears to have been more probably
Scandinavian, and the conical casques, similar to the As-
syrian ones of the earliest times in the Museums of Eouen

and Saint Germain they are attributed to the Gauls, and in

the Munich Museum to the Avars. The casques of the
chiefe of the Germanic races, though not a single specimen
has been found as yet, were most probably of the same
conical shape amongst the people of Southern Germany,
inasmuch as the Franco-Norman casque of the eleventh
century still preserved that shape unchanged.
This last has a fixed nose-piece (Naseriberge or ScJidribart
in German), several inches in width, which was fixed to the
helmet and came just beyond the nose, so as to protect it.
This casque was worn over the hood (Binghavbe in German),
which was usually of small chains or mail, and was often a
continuation of the hauberk, or mail-shirt.
The casque of the people of Northern Germany had
also a fixed nose-piece, and, according to MS8. of the time,
a round crown, and later on, movable earplates and neck-
guard, as represented in page 248, No. 20, from the specimen
in the Museum of Artillery in Paris ; this casque some-
times was of a disproportionate height, as may be seen in the
SeKgenthal embroidery, represented in page 170.
The first helms appear towards the end of the twelfth
century. (In German they are called Topfformhelm.) The
Museum of Artillery in Paris possesses a specimen marked
No. H. 1, which is represented in page 250. This is really
a casque of the transition period which has preserved its
The real helm (Topfhelm) dates no earlier than the end of
the thirteenth or the beginning of the fourteenth century,
and the crested helm is of about the same period, for in the
240 The Casque.
<jerinan ^neid of Henry of Waldeck several knights are re-
presented witli crested helms of fantastic shapes. This
helm (word derived from the German Selm, helmet) was
the large flat-crowned helmet usually fastened to the saddle,
and seldom worn except at tilting matches, and during
A canvas, printed by hand and not by wood blocks, of the
middle of the fourteenth century, belonging to M. Odet at
Sitten, shows that in Italy the helm was used in battle as
well as at tournaments. It was worn over the mail hood,
which in its turn was worn over the quilted cap. Sometimes
also the small bassinet (from the Keltic word hac, boat, and the
Latin hacinalum) was worn over the cap above mentioned.
Sometimes the mail capuchin or the bassinet alone was
used, but generally the two were both worn under the huge
helm. The small bassinet, which was a pointed helmet of
an oriental shape, close-fitting like a skull cap, must not be
confounded with the large bassinet of the fourteenth century,
which was of a similar shape, but which covered the cheeks
and neck as well, and often had a movable vizor, that was
hinged at the left side and fastened at the point of the
helmet. In a MS. of the thirteenth century knights are
represented as wearing the large bassinet. In the fourteenth
century the great tilting helmet (Stechtopfhelm in German)
was more used in tournaments than in battle it weighed

between twenty and twenty-three pounds, while the one used

in battle weighed from six and a half to nine pounds, and
the great bassinet, under which the mail capuchin was often
worn, was also adopted. This headgear (Grosse Kesselhauhe),
as we have already mentioned, was ovoid and pointed. At
the beginning of the fifteenth century the great bassinet
went out of fashion, and the salade came into use the latter

was of German origin, as its name implies ;the ancient

German authors called it Schallern, from the word schale, a
bowl. This salade, which some authors think is derived from
the Spanish celada, hidden, had a neck-guard to it, and was
at first made with fixed vizor, but subsequently movable
vizors were adopted. These, however, were so short that
they came no lower than the end of the nose, and necessitated
the employment of the heaver, to protect the chin, neck, and

The Casque. 241

iron hat (Eisenhut in German), a helmet without vizor
or neck-guard, but with a rim to it, and the skull-cap
(Eisenkappe in German), are first seen in the twelfth, and
remained in use until the seventeenth century.
The Oriental and Russian helmets of these times, like
those of modern times, varied very little, and preserved the
oval form, with movable nose-pieces.
The burgonet {Burgunder Helm) is a helmet that dates
from the end of the fifteenth century. It has a rounded
crown with a crest, and is distinguished by a shade over
the eyes, cheek-pieces, and a neck-guard. The president
Faucher, who wrote about the end of the sixteenth century,
confounds the burgonet with the armet when he says, " Ces
heaumes ont mieux represents la teste d'un homme, ils
furent nommes bourguinotes, possible a cause des Bourguig-
nons inventeurs." {Gloch, in German, is crown Kamm, crest

Augenschirm, helmet-shade ; WangenMappen, cheek-pieces

Nackenschutz, neck-guard.)
The armet, helmet {Visierhelm in German), which the
president Faucher mistakes for the burgonet, is the most per-
fect helmet ; it dates only from the second half of the fifteenth
century, and was still in use in the middle of the seventeenth.
All the front part of this helmet was called meznil. The
crown (timbre) was rounded; the vizor (Visier in German),
the nose-piece, and the ventail (fan), were all movable, and
could be raised up to the crest by means of a pivot.
The mentonniere, chin-piece, or beaver {Kinnstuck in
German), and the gorget (Halsberge in German), both of
which protected the lower part of the face, were made of
thin plates of metal and were fastened to the helmet.
Besides the above helmets, that were in use almost every-
where, and may be said to be types of the diflferent epochs of
chivalry, there existed many others used by archers and
foot-soldiers, some of which are here described.
The morion (Morian m German) was originally a Spanish
iielmet, and the word is derived from the Spanish word
morro, round. It had neither vizor, nose-piece, gorget, nor
neck-guard, but was surmounted by a high crest sometimes
half the height of the helmet ; and its edge turned up in a
point in front and behind, so as to form a crescent when seen
in profile
242 The Casque.
The eabasset, or pear helmet (Birnhelm in German), derived
its name from the gourd-like or calabash form, was without
vizor, gorget, neck -guard, or crest, but was pointed like a
pear, of which the stalk made a little crest. This helmet,
like the morion, was worn by both horse and foot soldiers,
particularly in France and Italy, till about the middle of the
seventeenth century. The morion, ornamented with an
enormous embossed fleur-de-lys, is to be seen in many
arsenals of Germany, especially those of Austria and
Bavaria, where it was part of the municipal equipment in
the middle ages. This fleur-de-lys has nothing to do with
the arms of the kings of France, being simply the emblem
of the Virgin, whose image many bodies of crossbowmen
and halberdiers had adopted for the sign of their civic
The ordinary burgonet (PickelhauJie in German) was
widely spread throughout Germany, and was the usual
helmet of Knappen, or men-at-arms of the feudal castellans,
and sometimes of the lansquenets, or lightly armed
The iron hat (Msenhutli in German), which dates as far back
as the thirteenth century, as may be seen from the Bohemian
manuscript Voleslav in the library of Prince Lobkowitz at
Eaudnitz, had neither vizor nor crest. There were some in
the seventeenth century resembling in form a cap with a
vizor, and sometimes with a movable nose-piece : the iron
hat, twenty pounds in weight (No. 101), worn in battle by

Augustus the Strong (1670 1733), which is to be seen
in the Museum at Dresden, is of this kind ; but the iron
hat, weighing twenty-five pounds (No. 100), worn by the
Elector at the battle of Fehrbellin in 1677, has a rounded
crown and wide brim, like a shepherd's hat. The helmet
worn by the foot-soldiers of the household of King Louis XIV.

(1643 1743) was flat-crowned, and with a movable nose-
piece (No. 114).
The real pot-helmet (Eisenhappe in German), a sort of
skull-cap of thick iron, and very heavy, was used, particularly
in sieges, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (see No. 97).
The word pot-helmet is also used for iron hats much lighter
in weight, that were worn by Cromwell's foot-soldiers.
The calottes, or caps, and iron frameworks of the seven-
The Casque. 243
teenth and eighteentli centuries were only used inside other
hats. In the Historical Museum of the Monbijou Palace at
Berlin there is a triangular framework that must have served
as lining to a three-cornered hat (No. 111.)
As to the casques of ancient shapes of the sixteenth
century, mostly of Italian, German, and Spanish workman-
ship, which enrich the collections of amateurs, they are
principally helmets for pride and pomp rather than for war
or tournaments. They are of no archreological value, as they
are all of the Eenaissance period, and are only reminiscences
of ancient days, which do not reflect the habits and customs
of their time.
244 Different Casques hefore the

1. Germanic casque, eitlier of iron or

bronze, belonging to the eighth and
ninth centuries, from the Codex
Aureus, a MS. of that time pre-
served in the Saint Gall Library.

Carlovingian casque, either in bronze

or iron, of the ninth century, from
the Ademari-Cronicon in the Im-
perial Library of Paris.

Carlovingian casque of the ninth

century, either in bronze or iron,
&om the Bible of Charles the Bald
in the Louvre.

4. German casque in iron, of the tenth

century, from the Fsalterium, a
MS. in the Stuttgaidt lihrai-y.

(See this shape among the Greek

and Japanese casquea)

5. German casque, half conical, and

with nazal, called in France Nor-
man casque, from the Martyrdh-
giwm, a MS. of the tenth century,
in the library at Stuttgaidt.
Introduction of the Seaume. 245

6. Conical casque, with uose-pieoe

broader at the bottom, from a
statuette of the tenth century.
Collection, of the Count of Nieawerkerke.

7. (jasque of ancient form, with crest

and cheek-pieces, ftom a bust in
in embossed work of
silver, life size,
the tenth century.
Convent of Saint Mawrice, Canton
Valais, Smtzerland.

8. Casque in iron, inlaid with silver,

with fixed nose-piece, belonging to
Saiut WenceslauB, who died in 935.
Cathedral of Prague.

9. German casque with rounded crown

in iron, from an illumination in the
BiUia Sacra of the tenth century,
in the Imperial Library of Paris,
and also copied from the Fmdentiits
of thesame date in the Britisli
246 Different Casques before the

German casque in iron, with fixed nose-

piece, from a MS. of the eleventh century,
belonging to M. de Hefner-Alteneck.
This same Mnd of casque is represented
in some Ulmninations in the Jeremias
MS. of the same century, in the library
at Darmstadt.

11, Anglo-Saxon casque with neck-guard, from

the Aelfric MS. of the eleventh century
in the library of the British Museum.

12. Conic Norman casque with nose-piece and

neck-guard. WiUiam the Conqueror is
represented in the Bayeux tapestry wear-
ing one. This shape is also to be seen
in the Aelfric MS. already mentioned.

13. German conic casque with nose-piece, from

a bronze bas-relief in the baptistery of
the Cathedral at Hildesheim the work ;

of Saint Bernard in the eleventh century.

This same sort of casque is also to be
seen in the mural paintings in the
Cathedral of Brunswick, executed in the
reign of Henry the Lion, who died in
Introduction of the Heaume. 247
14. Anglo-Saxon casque with nose-pi.%ee, of
the end of the twelfth century. From
an illumination in the Harleian MS.
in the library of the British Museum
15. Eussian casque with small nose-piece and
long neck-guard, made of iron imbri-
cated or curved scales. Attributed in
Saint Petersburg to the eleventh cen-

16. Small conic casque iu ircn, with fixed

nose-piece, of the eleventh century, found
in Moravia.
Ambras Collection.

17. German casque with neck guard, of the

eleventh century, from the embroidery
on the mitre belonging to the convent of
Seligenthal. National Museum of Munich.
Louis VII. (1137-1180), and Eichard
Cceur de Lion (1157-1183), are repre-
sented on their seals with this sort of

17 'bis. Casque in iron of the twelfth century,

attributed to Henry the Lion, Duke of
Brunswick, who died in 1195. The crown
is of iron, ornamented with a crest and

sis bands in gilt and engraved copper,

and with an embossed band in fiont of
the same material, the principal orna-
ment of which is a lion, such as is repre-
sented in the duke's aims. CoUeotion of
the Baron de Zu-Bhein at Wurzhurg,
and previously in that of the Duchesse
de Berry. ^: _ ,
^^ ^

' ;--i,V' \
248 Different Casques before the

18. Casque in red copper of the eleventh

century, with Greek cross and three
pierced holes. It was found in the
Saone, and is now in the Museum
of Artillery in Paris.

IS. German casque with neck-guard, of the

twelfth century. From a mural paints
ing in the Cathedral of Brunswick,
executed in the reign of Henry the
Lion, who died in 1195.

German casque with movable neck-

guard and cheek-plates, but with the
nose-piece fixed. It is of the twelfth
century, and was found in the Somme.
Museum of Artillery, Paris,

Bronze casque with neck-guard, of either

the tenth or twelfth century more ;

probably the latter; for it was dis-

covered in the river Lech, near the
field of battle where Saint Ulrich,
at the head of his flock, contributed
to the defeat of Attila.
Maximilian Museum af Augsburg,
Introduction of the Heaume. 249

22. German casque with ohin-pieoe and

gorget affixed, and with open mezail,
of the thirteenth century, from the
German MS. of Tristan and Isolde,
by Gottfried of Strasburg.
Library of Miimioh.

23. Small cap of mail riveted a grains

d'orge, of the thirteenth century, found
in a tomb at Epemelle (Cote d'Or).
H. 7, Mitseum of Artillery, Paris.

24. SmaU German bassinet, or skull-cap,

of the thirteenth century. It was
worn over the camail and under the

2d. Small bassinet, probably French, of the

thirteenth century. It has a neck-
guard of mail, and a fixed nose-piece,
which has been broken, and which
appears to be the last trace of the
Tiasal of the tenth and eleventh
H. 18, Museum of Artillery, Paris.
250 Heaumes without Crests.

26. German heaume {Toppielm in German)

of the twelfth century. From the
mural paintings in the Cathedral at
Brunswick, executed in the reign of
Henri le Lion, who died in 1195.


27. Id. as above. These are, so far as the

author knows, the earliest specimens
of lieaumes, casques of German origin,
intended to be worn above the bas-

28. Primitive English heaume, with nose-

piece, of the end of the twelfth century.
It is of blackened iron, about seventeen
inches in height.
H. 1, Mugeum of Artillery, Paris.


29. Early English heaume, also with nose-

piece, of the end of the twelfth century

5 Tower of London.
Heaumes without Crests. 251

30. Heaume worn by arcners on foot and

on horseback, of the thirteenth cen-
tury, from the Grnnicon Colma/rieriae,
of 1298.

31. English heanme of the thirteenth cen-

tury. This is probably the new sort
of helmet spoken of by the writers
contemporary with the battle of Bou-
vines (1214). The German heaume,
however, of the same date, represented
on the frescoes in the Cathedral of
Brunswick, is a much more perfect
piece of armour.
Musewm of Artillery, Paris.

32. Enghsh heaume, or high helmet, marked

in the Parham Collection as belonging
to the twelfth century. But the author
believes it to be a counterfeit, as not

a single one of the same shape is to

he found in any manuscript

33. Germauheaumeof thebegumingof the

thirteenth century, from the Tristan
and Isolde MS. in the library of
Heaumes without Crests.

34. Heaume of the thirteenth century, in

iron, decorated with polychrome de-
Nieuwerkerke Collection.

German heaume of the end of the

thirteenth century, from an illumina-
tion in the JKare&ssi's manuscript, pre-
served in the Imperial Library of
Paris, which represents the death of
Albert of Heigerlocb, tlie Minne-
singer of the lineage of HobenzoUern,
in 1298.

Heaume, preserved in the Museum of

Prague, said to be of the thirteenth
century. But the helmet is altogether
so light that it looks like a counter-

German heaume of the fourteenth cen-

tury. It was found, together with
some bassinets, represented farther
on, under the ruins of the Castle of
Tannenburg, which was destroyed in
the fourteenth century. The helmet
marked No. 570 in the Museum of
Copenhagen is very like this one, and
another in the Museum Francisco-
Oarolinum at Lintz also closely re-
sembles it.

Heaumes with Crests.


38 English heaume with hinged flap

beginning of the fourteenth cen-

^ Tmoer of London.

39. German heaume ; ena oi the four-

teenth century.
H. 5, Mitseum of Artillery. Paris.


40. German heaume with crest, of the

tliirteenth century. From t^
German iEneid of Henry of Wal-

tl. Same as above. These two are

the earliest crested helmets which
the author has been able to find.
Till lately it was believed that
the crest had been added to the
heaumes about the middle of the
fourteenth century, and that the
earliest defences of this character
could not date sooner than the
end of the thirteenth century.
But the Nos. 26 and 27, copied
from the frescoes in the Cathedra]
of Brunswick, and the ones here
represented, appear to militate
against this opinion.
254 Heaumes with Crests.

42. Large heaume with crest, from the

cenotaph of the King of the Eomans,
Gunther of Schwarzburg, who was
poisoned at Franlifort in 1349. The
monument is of red stone, and was
erected in the Cathedral of Frank-
tort in 1352.

43. Large heaume {ex tilting, in polishea

iron, and with the remains of a crest,
of the fourteenth century. The
lower part of the crest is of plates of
metal imbricated or curved, and the
mezail is fixed. It is probable that
the crest is not complete, and that
there was a heraldic badge or some
other emblem on the top.
H. 3, Museu/m of Artillery, Paris.

44. Large tilting heaume, EngUsh, in

black iron, with crest, of the begin-
ning of the fifteenth century. Tho
crestis of wood, and seems to bo

H. 4, Miiseum of Artillery, Farig.
Tilting Heaumes. 255

45. Large tUting heaume of the fifteentli

eentniy, either English or German.
It has a hinged flap or ventilator, and
a small collar, that was meant to be
riveted on to the cuirass.


46. Laige tilting helmet, English, of the

end of the fifteenth century. It is of
polished iron, and has a small coUar.
Ibwer of London,

47. Large Grerman tilting heamne ; end of

the fifteenth century. It is in polished
iron, and with a small collar, similai
to the one in the Munich Museum.
H. 6, Musefwm of Artillery, Paris.

48. Large tilting heaume, supposed to have

belonged to Maximilian I., who died
in 1519. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.
A similar helm, found at Klingen-
berg in Bohemia, is in the Prague
Museum, and another in the Arsenal
at Berlin. This shape continued in
fashion, though somewhat modified,
tiU the middle of the sixteenth cen-
256 War and Tilting Heaumes.

Heaume for war in polished iron.

It has a round crown and
hinged vizor the gorget and

collar are fixed. It is part of

a complete suit of armour in
the Arsenal of Berlin.

German heaume used in tourna-

ments with massettes* (Kol-
hentournier in German), of the
fifteenth century. It is twenty
inches in height, and the fi:ame-
work is of wrought iron, while
the back part is covered over
with linen, on which can be
distinguished the painted arms
of the barons of Spaeth part ;

of the gilding still remains.

Museum at Sigmaringen,

German heaume, used in tourna-

ments with maces, of the fif-

teenth century. It belonged

to the Count of Esendorf, who
was killed at Biberach.
Sceter Collection in the Maxi-
milian Museum at Augsburg,

* The mace, massette, and sword

were equally used in military exer-
cises and in tournaments.

Large Bassinets without Vizors. 257

52. Bohemian bassinet, from the Voleslav

MS. of the thirteenth century, in the
library of Prince Lobkowitz at Eaud-
njtz, in Bohemia.

53. German bassinet of the thirteenth cen-

tury. It is eleven by eight and a
half inches, and is in the Museum at

54. German bassinet, of the end of the

thirteenth found amongst
the ruins of the Castle of Tannenburg,
which was burnt in the fourteenth
century. It has been copied and
described by M. de Hefner-Alteneck.

55. Bassinet, either French or Italian,* of

the fourteenth century, ornamented
with twelve large screw-rings, with
square holes for holding the rod on
which the piece of mail was strung.
This helmet was in the collection of
the Count of Thun, at Val di Non
M. Spengel, of Munich, has since dis-
posed of it to the Count de Nieuwer-

The great bassinet appears in the

second half of the thirteenth century.
It was of an oval-pointed shape, at
first without either nose-piece or
but with buttons, to which the
mail shirt, used for a neck-guard,
was fastened.

More likely Italian, for the neck-guard

is like that of the Venetian celata of the
fifteenth century.
258 Large Bassinets with hinged Vizors.

flt. Largfi German bassinet of the

fourteenth century, m black
iron, with movable mezail;
the upper part of the vizor
lifts up by means of a hinge.
The 20 large screw - rings,
which fitted into the square
holes shown in the engraving,
held the rod on which the
piece of mail used as a neck-
guard was strung.
Collection of M. de Befner-Alteneck,

57. Large English bassinet of the

middle of the fourteenth cen-
tury. The vizor lifts up by
means of a pivot, like those of
the armeis of the sixteenth
century. There is still a
piece of the mail gorget left,
which is fastened to the coUai.
Warwick Castle.

58. Large bassinet with hinged

vizor. Tower of London,
Museum of Artillery, Paris,
and in the collection of M. le
Comte de Nieuwerkerke.
These helmets are of polished
steel, the crown is of pointed
oval shape, and in one piece.
The vizor comes very forward,
so as to leave a large spaoa
for the wearer to breathe
Bassinets with Vizors and Neck-guards. 259
59. Large English bassinet of tlie

middle of the fourteenth cen-

tury, with hinged vizor and
fixed collar. Tower of Lon-
don,and collection of M. de
Benne at Constance. This
helmet ie in some respects
very like the preceding one.
The salades (in German
Schale, Schdllem, and Sche-
lerri), which took the place of
the bassinets in the fifteenth
century, were distinguished
particularly by their neck-
guards, and by other cha-
racteristics in which they are
not imlike the iron hats. The
salade was generally worn
with the chin-piece, that was
usually part of the high
collar. It was worn sideways,
so that the slit for the sight
came before the eyes.

60. German salade-heaume of the

fourteenth century, used in
tournaments. It had a fixed
vizoi, aod was worn straight.
Miteeum of Artillery, Paris.

61. German salade of the fifteenth

century in a single piece, and
with a chin-piece.
Collection of the King of Sweden,
Charles XV.

2. German salade with nose-piece,

of the fifteenth century.
Collection of M. de Benne at
63. Gennan salade in blackened
iron, with movable vizor on a
pivot, of the end of the fif-
teenth century.It comes
from the Chateaux d'Ort in
Bavaria, and must have been
worn sideways and with a
chin-piece. Tower of London.
A similar one in the Spengel
Collection at Munich, that was
originally in the coUectiou of
the Comte de Thun at Val di

Salade with sight-piece in shape

of a shell, with chin-piece of a
peculiar form, and witli a high
collar. Of the fifteenth cen-

Salade of the fifteenth century,

with vizor and neck-guard it ;

must have been worn sideways

like the preceding one. The
neck-guard is of the same
piece, and is small.
Museum at Prague.

66. Salade with crest, of the fif-

teenth century, from the Isle

of Ehodes. This helmet has
an ornamented vizor, and the
neck-guard is of the same
piece as the helmet. It did
not protect and
the face,
formed but an imperfect de-
fence. The workmaiiship
looks like early Italian.
67. German salade to be used
in battle, copied from the
statue of Duke William
the younger, of Brunswick,
a work completed in 1494.
It has a iixed vizor, but
movable chin-plate and
Munden-Sanoverien, near Cassel.

68. German salade to be used

in battle, of the fifteenth
century. The crown is
pointed, a very uncommon
and perhaps unique shape.
The vizor is hinged, and
the neck-guard in plates of
metal. The small print
gives a front view.
Mus^e historique of the Monbijou
Falace at Berlin.

69. Same as above, but with

elongated mentonniere or
chin-piece, which forms a
sort of gorgetor high

70. Fluted salade with front

brim, which, according to
the author, is of the six-
teenth century, and comes
from the Isle of Rhodes.
Museum of Artillery in
Paris, where it is said to
be of the fifteenth century.
The shape of the brim and
the fluting would fix it in
the first half of the six-
teenth century, when
these sorts of vizor were
very generally in use.
(See No. 125, Burgonet.)

71. English salade, from the Tower of London,

where it is marked as being of fifteenth-
century date; but from the singular
shape I believe be counterfeit.
it to

72. Venetian salade (celata Veneziana) and

nose-piece, of the first half of the fif-

teenth century.
Meyrick Renng' Collection at Con-

stance,Nieuwerkerke Collection in Paris, and

in the Tower of London.

73. Venetian salade with crest, but without

nose-piece, of the second half of the
fifteenth century.* The neck-guard of
this helmet is larger than that of the
preceding one.
Meyrick Collection.

74. Venetian salade for archers, with crest,

but without nose-piece. The neck-guard

is smaller than that of the preceding one.

H. 22, Museum of Artillery in Paris, and also

in (he Tower of London.

74 the second half of the

A. Italian salade of
from the bas-reliefs in
fifteenth century,
white marble on the triumphal arch of
Alphonso v.. King of Arragon, at
•^i , Naples, which represent his triumphal
entry into that city in 1443.

74 B. Italian salade with vizor, same aa


* This
helmet is not unlike the Greek
.r,hoplite casque (see No. 9, page 110), but it
has a neck-guard, which the other had not
The point in the front forms a nose-piece,
which is also to be seen in the celata Vene-
ziana of the second half of the fifteenth cen-
Skull-caps and War-hats. 268
75. War-hat in iron (EUmhut in
German) of the twelfth century,
from the frescoes in the Cathedral
of Brunswick, done in the reign of
Henry the Lion, who died in

76. War-hat in iron, from the Bohemian

MS. Voleslav, of the thirteenth

77. Skull-cap {Eiserikappe in German),

from the German Mneid of Henry
of Waldeok, a MS. of the thir-
teenth century, in the library of

78. War-hat, from an illumination in

the MaTKSsis manuscript, of the
end of the thirteenth century,
which represents the death of
Albrecht of Heigerloch, the Min-
nesinger of the race of Hoheuzol-
Imperial Library, Paris.

79. War-hat in iron of the end of the

fourteenth century, from a paint-
ing at Saint-Michel in Schwae-
bisoh Hall, copied by M. de Hefaer-

80. Same as above.

264 War-hats.

81. War-hat of the end of the four-

teenth century, from a painting
at Saint-Michel, at Sehwae-
bisch Hall.

82. War-hat in iron, from a MB. at

Constance, date li35, preserved
in the Library of Prague.

83. War-hat in iron, of the fifteenth

Museum of Copenhagen and Collec-
tion of M. de Hefner-AUenecli at

84. War-hat in iron, of the fifteenth

century. From a MS. in the
collection of M. le Chevalier
von Hauslaub at Vienna.

85. Skull-cap of the fourteenth and

fifteenth centuries ; slightly
oval shape, with chin-piece.
From a MS. in the collection of
M. Chevalier von Hauslaub
at Vienna, and from frescoes
in the Cathedral of Mondo-
neda, in Spain. The under
view of these helmets, as seen
in the pictures, leads one to
suppose that the back part was
rendered movable by means of
a hinge or pivot, so as to allow
the head to be inserted.
ShuU-eajps and War-hats. 265
86. Skull-cap (Msenkappe in Ger-
man) witli ear-plates, from a
manuscript of the fifteenth
century in the collection of M.
le Chevalier von Hauslaub at

87. War-hat with vizor, from the

water - colour paintings of
Glockenthon of the year 1505,
which represent the arms in
the Arsenals of Maximilian I.
Anibras Collection.

88. Same as ahove.

89. Frame-work of pot-helmet. This

helmet was used most probably
in sieges, and was worn, like
the heaume, over the ordinary

90. Wax-hat, German, of the end of

the fifteenth century, from a
cast in the Germanic Museum
at Nuremberg. Its shape is

almost identical with that of

the iron hat, No. 83, copied
from one in the collection of
M. de Hefiier - Alteneck at
Munich. Like it, the crown
is made in a single piece.
266 War-hais and Pot-hdmets.
92. War-hat belonging to the Reformer
Zwinglius, who was killed at the
battle of Capel in 1531.
Arsenal of Zurich,
"y 93. War-hat of the end of the fifteenth
— centmy. The principal ornament
is in the shape of the Burgundy

cross, and made of pierced copper.

Eenne Collection at Constance.
A similar one, with the exception
of the cross, is in the Spengel
94. War-hat from the Theuerdanck,
published at Augsburg at the
commeucement of the sixteenth
'X>. German war-hat of the sixteenth
centmy, surmounted by three
large twisted ridges, and with
movable ear-plates. This helmet
is covered with red velvet, and
was used principally for hunting.
From the Spengel and Hefoer-
Alteneok Collections at Munich.
In the Arsenal of that city there
is a similar casque, covered with

black and yellow cloth, which

are the colours of Munich. There
are others in the Ambras Collec-
tion, and in the castle of Laxem-
burg. One in the Mazis Collec-
tion, in the Museum of Artillery
at Paris, is attributed to Henri IV.
(1559 — 1610), whose initials it

bears. The twists are richly orna-

mented with trophies and other
subjects, engraved and embossed.
96. Pot-helmet with ear-plates, of the
sixteenth century.
Arsenal of Munich.
97. Pot-helmet used in sieges, of the
seventeenth century.
H. 154, Musevm of Artillery, Pari*.
SMI-caps and War-hats. 267

War-hat in iron, belonging to

Charles I. ofEngland (1625—
1649). It bears the mark of

the armourer ]
A. B. O. I

Warwick Caetle.

99. War-hat in iron, of the seven-

teenth century.
Az Collection at Lintz.

100. War-hat in with a socket

for plume. weighs about
27 lbs., and measures 12
inches by 16, and belonged
to the Great Elector of Bran-
denburg, who wore it at the
battle of Fehrbellin in 1677.
Berlin Museum.

101. Iron skull-cap with vizor. The

outer part is perforated, and
weighs 20 lbs. It belonged
to Augustus the Strong
Museum of Dresden.

102. German skull-cap in iron, with

vizor and nose-piece, of the
seventeenth century. The
neck-guard is of mail, and is
covered on the outside with
grey linen.
Dresden Museum
268 Iron ShuU-cajps.
103. Skull-cap of the seventeenth
century in thict iron, and
the upper part open-work.
Berlin Arsenal,

J04. Skull-cap of imbricated scales,

from a drawing by Holbein
of the sixteenth century.
Industrial Museum of Vienna.

105. Skull-cap of imbricated scales,

in polished steel, with mova-
ble nose-piece, cheek-plates,
and neck-guard. The socket
for the feather and several
other parts are in gilt copper.
It was worn by John Sobieski,
King of Poland, before
Vienna, in 1683.
Museura of Dresden.

106. Frame-work of skull-cap in

iron, of the seventeenth cen-
Museum of Prague.

107. Same as above.

108. Frame-work of skull-cap in

iron, worn by French carabi
neers inside their war-hats in
Mu.seum of Artillery, Paris.

109. Frame-work of skull-cap in

iron, for lining the interior of
the war-hats.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
All these perforated or open-
work skull-caps belong to
the time when the helmet
had been superseded by the
war-hat, the latter forming
an outer covering.
Iron SkuU-eajas and War liafs.

110. German skull-cap iu iron, in-

tended to be worn inside the
iron hats, of the seventeenth
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.

111. Frame - work for lining the

three-cornered hat of the
eighteenth century.
Historical Museum of the Monbijou
Falace at Berlin.

112. War-hat, probably Italian, of

the seventeenth century. It
is in iron, has a chin-strap,
and is studded with nail-
heads in copper.
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.

113. German war-hat, which, ac-

cording to the description
given in Arsenal of Vienna,
where it is preserved, was
used in besieging castles and
towns. The large brim pro-
tected the face from the
boiling Hquids that the be-
sieged used in defence. The
author, however, thinks that
this sort of hat was only used
at ceremonies, entries of
princes, etc.

114. Iron hat with nose-piece, worn

by the household foot-soldiers
of King Louis XIV. (1643—
H. 152, Museum of Artillery, Paris.
270 Burgonets.
115. Buigonet (Burgander helm
in German) of the six-
teenth century. This
sort of helmet is known
by the crest, shade, cheek-
pieces, and neck-guard.

116. Burgonet of the sixteenth

century, with gorget and
menk>nni€re,or chin-piece,
which make it very like
the " armet." (See later.)
H. 53, Museum of Artillery,

117. Burgonet of the end of the

sixteenth century. (Same
remarks as for the pre-
ceding one.)
Arsenal of Soleure.

118. Burgonet of the sixteenth

century, formerly in the
collection of the Castle of
Imperial Arsenal, Vienna.

119. Burgonet of the sixteenth

century, with gorget,
merdonniere, and movable
vizor,which make it re-
semble the armet. The
workmanship is German,
in engraved iron, and
very beautiful.
Ambras Collection.

121. German burgonet, from the

" JDescriptions des Noces
PriTieieres," etc., of Wir-
zig, a work printed in
Vienna in 1571.
Industrial Museum of Vienna.

122. German burgonet-bassinet

of the sixteenth century.
It is chiefly noticeable on
account of its pointed
shape, and being without
a crest.
An Collection at Lintt,
Burgonets. 271

120. Burgonet, splendid Italian work, in beaten iron, of the sixteenth

century. In the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna, formerly in the
Castle of LazembuTg. It is the finest specimen that exists of
this sort, and has been satisfactorily photographed at the
Industrial Museum of Vienna.
272 Burgonets.

123. Burgonet of the seventeenth

Tower of London.

J 24. Burgonet-cabasset of the be-

ginning of the seventeenth
century, in blackened iron.

It has a peak, cheek-pieces,

neck-guard, but no crest.
The crown is pointed, like
that of the cabasset.
Arsenal of Geneva,

125. Burgonet used at sieges, of the

end of the seventeenth cen-
tury. very thick iron,
It is of
and has a flat neck - guard
and peak.
H. 76, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

126. Burgonet-skull-cap, German,

of the beginning of the seven-
teenth century. It is covered
with red velvet.
Gudf Museum at Banover.

126 his. Burgonet-skull-cap of the

seventeenth century. sort A
of vizor, in the shape of a
trident, is fastened on to the
peak, and the neck-guard is
of metal plates.
Tower of Londwi.
127. BnTgonetskuU-capof the seven-
teenth centuiy, mth nose-
piece, Polish.These casques,
on account of the kind of fan
on each side of the crown,
resemble those of the winged
cavalry (Jazala ShrzycUaid)
of Sobieski.
Mvseiim of Dresden.

128. Burgonet skuU-cap in iron, with

movable nose-piece and plated
nedk-guaid, called zticchetto.

It is of Hungarian origin, and

was called dschycJcso.
No. 366, Boyal Arsenal of Turin.

129. Burgonet skuU-cap, with cheek-

pieces, nasal-vizoT, and plated
neok-gnard, of the middle of
the seventeenth century. This
helmet, which is in the Ar-
senal of Soleure, is wrongly
said to have belonged to
Vengi (1540). It is in en-
graved iron, and studded with
copper nail-heads.

130. Burgonet skull-cap, with cheek-

pieces, and long plated neck-
guaid. It is said to have
belonged to Charles de Tyrol,
who died in 1662.
ATribras CdUection.
274 Bwffonets.

131. German burgonet of the seven-

teenth century. It has a
fixed nose-piece, and the front
part is like that of the aimets.
H. 56, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

132. Buigonet of the seventeenth

century, with plated neck-
guard, in the Meyiick CoUec-
leotion, where it is said to he
of the fifteenth century. The
and back of this speci-
men have been engraved, in
order to show the double line
of ornaments on the back,
resembling flutings.

133. English burgonet of the seven-

teenth century,in the Dresden
Museum, where it is errone-
ously attributed to Edward
IV. (1461-1483). According
to common tradition it was

originally in the collection of

the Tower of London, and
was given by William III,
to John George I. The peak,
the plated neck-guard riveted
with gilt nail-heads, as well
as the tinsel ornaments of the
crestand the plume-clasp,
show at first sight that we
must assign this piece of
workmanship to the latter
half of the seventeenth cen-
134. Morion {Morian in German).
This ia an Italian casque for
a foot-soldier of the sixteenth
century, from the Arsenal of
Geneva, and formerly be-
longed to the Savoyard cap-
tain ChaffardiQ Branaulien,
who was killed before the
walls of Geneva, during a
night attack. It is richly
engraved in a very artistic
Autlior's Collection.

135. French morion of foot-soldier,

of the end of the sixteenth
century. It is also engraved.
Tower of London.
136. German morion of the end of
the sixteenth century. The
fleur-de-lys inembossed work
on the front of the helmet
was the badge of the civic
regiment of the city of Munich,
and is the symbol of the
Virgin, having nothing to do
with the arms of the kings of
Arsenal of the town of Municli, and
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.

137. German morion, from the "De-

scriptions des Noces Prin-
cieres" of Wirzig, published
at Vienna in 1571.
Industrial Museum of Vienna.
The morion of the suit attri-
buted in the Louvre to King
Henry IV. of France (1559-
1610). It is rather higher, and
the rims narrower and van-
dycked. (See p. 266, No. 95).

137 A. Same as above.

276 Morions and Oalassets.

138. German morion of the sixteenth

century. This shape is rare.

Arsenal of Munich.

139. German morion of the end of

the sixteenth century. In the
National Museum of Bruns-
wick, where it is described as
being of the twelfth century.
The large screw on the top
distinguishes it &om the
usual morions.

140. Cabasset, or pear-shaped casque

(JBimenir'helm in German), of
the sixteenth century ; richly
engraved iron, with socket
for plume.
Collection of M, le Comte de Nieur

141, German cabasset with cheek-

engraved iron, of the
pieces, in
sixteenth century.This same
shape, but with a slightly
different rim, was very much
in use in France and Italy.
Ariemal of Mimidk,
142. Italian cabasset for foot-soldier,
of the sixteenth century, in
iron, beaten, chased, and da-
mascened in gold. The sub-
ject represents Perseus and
Andromeda. It isa very fine
H. 100, Museum of Artillery, Fans.

143. Italian cabasset for foot-soldier,

of the sixteenth century. It is

richly engraved, and pointed.

Tower of London,

144. German cabasset ia blackened

iron, with socket for plume,
of the sixteenth century. The
only ornaments on this helmet
are copper nail-heads.
Collection of M. le Gomte de Nieu-

145. Italian cabasset in embossed

iron, of the sixteenth century.
It is a very beautiful specimen
of workmanship.
278 Armets.

146. Aimet (Visier-helm* in Ger-

man) of the second half of the
fifteenth century. The armet
is the most perfect form of
helmet. It is composed of
the crown with crest, the
vizor, nose-piece and ventoyle
(these latter three forming
altogether the mezaiV), and
the gorget.
H. 28, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

147. Armet of the sixteenth century,

in iron, with real ram's horns.
It formed part of the armour
of the jester of Heniy VIII.
Tower of London,

148. Armet with small plumes, of

the sixteenth century, from
the Weisskmdg.

149. Armet of the sixteenth century,

in tooled leather. The
lower part of the mezail is
wanting, as also the vizor.
Arsenal of Geneva. It is the
only helmet of this kind
known to the author.

* From this word the English

helmet is presumably derived.
Armets. 279
150. Aimet with fluted crown, and
vrith Tizor moving on a pivot,
part of a suit of Maximiiian's
time, of German workman-
ship, of the first half of the
sixteenth century. Imperial
Arsenal of Vienna. A similar
one is in the author's col-

151. German armet of the sixteenth

century, from the Triomphe
de MaximMien, by Burck-
mayer, lq 1517. The vizor
turns on a pivot, and the
lower part the shape of
is in
an eagle's beak.

152. Aimet with vizor on pivot, and

high mentonniere (Sarthaube).
German work of the second
half of the sixteenth century.
It is richly engraved and
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.

153. Armet with vizor on pivot, and

high mentonniere. German
work of the second half of
the sixteenth century. This
helmet is richly engraved.
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.
280 Armets and

154. Arinet of the end of the six-

teenth century. The dome is

in embossed work, and repre-

sents a maritime subject, and
the vizor is latticed.
Boyal Armoury at Mad/rid.

155. Italian armet of the end of the

sixteenth century. It is richly

chased in all parts.

Museum of ArtUlery, Paris.

156. Italian casque, copied from tho

antique, called caschetto, of tho
sixteenth century, in iron
beaten work, chased and
damascened. It is a splendid
H. 131, Mmewn of Artillery, Paris.

157. Italian casque, of a shape called

antique, but much resembling
the burgonets of the middle
of the sixteenth century. For-
merly in the Imperial Library,
now in the Museum of Ar-
tillery, Paris, marked H, 129.
Antique Casques.

158, Casque, called antique Eussian, /si

but whose workmansliip appears
thorougbly Italian.
Museum of Tsarskoe-Selo at St. Peters-

159. Swiss armet, of the beginning of

the seventeenth century, in po-
lished iron, belonging to the
cavalry regiment of the city of
Geneva. fj)
Arsenal of Geneva.

160. German armet of the first half of

the sixteenth century. The vizor
represents a man's face with
moustaches. '60
Meyrich CoUeotion.

161 . Turkish casque with movable nose-

piece, in iron damascened with
gold, of the fifteenth century.
It belonged to Bajazet II. m
H. 173, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

162. Turkish casque of the fifteenth

century, found at Ehodes.
H. 180, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

163. Albanian casque, attributed to

Prince George Castriota (Scan-
derbeg), who died in 1467. The
goat'shead and the other orna-
ments are in copper.

282 Different Casques.

164. Turkish casque oi

X uiii.iaii utiaque ni« sixteenth
of the isi- century,
*^" Seraskier
formerly belonging to the
golilpfiTi TTiia hplnn
This helmet has a nose-
le, cheek-pieces,
piece, and neck-guard.
Meyrick CoUecHon.

165. Iron casque with copper studs, worn by

Jean Ziska * (1420), in a picture now iu
the library of Geneva. It is uncertain
whether the painter copied this helmet
from one of the time, or drew it from

166. Persian casque, from a MS. of about

1600, a copy of the SchahNameh, or
Eoyal Book, a poem composed by Per-
dusi, in the reign of Mahmoud (999-

1 67. Mongolian casque, probably of the fifteenth

G. 138, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

168. Indian casque from Delhi. The nose-

piece movable, and the neck-guard

is composed of small metal plates.

* Ziska (one-eyed), the chief of the Hussites,

or Taborites,was born in 1360, died in 1424
he lost his remaining eye in 1421. The
hinged plate on the side concealed the cavity
of the left eye, which he had already lost
before the death of Huss.
Bifferent Casques. 283
169. Mongolian casque in iron, damascened
with gold, with movable nose-piece and V
neck-guard. Fomid in tlie battle-field
of Koulikowo (1380).
Tsarskoe-Selo Mueeum at St. Peterebu/rg.

170. Eussian casque with movable nose-piece

and neck-guard, of the fifteenth century,
richly ornamented in gilt copper.
H. 176, Musewn of AriiUery, Paris.

171. Eussian casque with cheek-pieces and "'

movable nose-piece, and large neck-
Tsarskoe-Selo Musenim at St. Petersburg.

172. Hungarian casque of the sixteenth cen-

tury, with cheek-pieces, neok-guard, and in
nose-piece. This helmet belonged to
the hero Nicolao Zrinyi, who was buried
under the ruins of Sigeth, in 1566.
Ambras Collection.

173. Italian casque, or burgonet, belonging

formerly to Asoanier Sforza Pallavicino,
who took an important part in the naval
battle of Lepanto, in 1571.*
Tsarskoe-Selo Museiim at St. Peterebwrg.

174. Pot-helmet with cheek-pieces, neck-guard,

and movable nose-piece, in thick iron,
engraved, and ornamented with
shell-likemoimtings and gilt studs. It
belongs to the seventeenth century, and
the screw of the nose-piece is in the
shape of a fleur-de-lis.
Arsenal of Soleure.

* There is a celebrated tragedy on this subject

by the German, Komer. /J^

Different Casques.
175. Savoyard armet in blackened iion, 0/
the beginning of the seventeenth
century. It was taken from the
troop of Branauhen Chaifardin, who
was killed in 1602 before the walls
of Geneva, which city he attempted
to surprise.
Arsenal of Soleure, and Author's Collection.

176. PoUsh casque, with winglets, of the

seventeenth century, worn by the
troops under Sobieski, who were
called winged cavalry (Jazala
Skrzydlata). (See No. 127 in pre-
ceding pages.)
Taarskoe-Selo Museum at St. Petersburg.

177. Casque of French soldier under Henri

IV., known as a Spider helmet. It
has a peak or flat vizor, with iron
strips or ribbons all round.
Tower of London,

178. German tilting casque of the begin-

ning of the seventeenth century.
This helmet has a crest and neck-
guard, and is provided with a screw
for festening to the placcate in &ont.
It is rather like the salade of the
fifteenth century.
H. 135, Museum of Artillery, Parit.

179. Armet of the beginning of the seven-

teenth century. This helmet is veiy
Hke the Savoyard helmet, STo. 175.
Tower of London,,
Different Casques. 285

180. Indian casque with neck - guard,

cheek-pieces, and movable nose-
piece. It is ornamented with pre-
cious stones, and the work is very
Tsarskoe-Selo Mttseum at St. Petersburg.

181. Polygar casque of Central India, with

fixed nose-piece, cheek-pieces, and
very long neck-guard, or mail hood.
Meyrick Collection.


182. Mahratta casque (Indian). Thi6

helmet has a long movable nose-
piece of a singular shape, a large
mail hood, which protects all the
head, and a neck-guard like a tail,

which descends to the loins.

Meyrick Collection.

183. Mongolian casque, with peak crest

and socket for plume. It is very
beautiful, and richly ornamented
with damascened work.
Tsarshoe-Selo Museum at St, Peterslurg.
286 Different Casques.

184. Japanese casque with neok-guard;

from the Imperial Library, now in
Museum of Artillery, Paris, No. 183.
A bronze Samnite helmet in the
Museum of Erbach is very like it in
(See p. 122.)

185. Japanese helmet in lacquered iron, of

a shape actually in use at the pre-
sent day. It has a fixed nose-piece
and neck-guard the mask protects

the entire face.

G. 140, Museum of Artillery, Paris.*

m 186. Conical Chinese helmet with peak.

Tower of LoncUm.

187. Casque in gold and precious stones.

Itbelonged to the Emperor of China,
and was taken at Peldn in 1860.
G. 142, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

* A similar object of modern date is in

the South Kensington Museum.
The Shield. 287
It should be remarked that the Chinese and Japanese
hehnets have remained unchanged during several centuries,
so that these arms have not the same interest as attaches to
European arms of different historical periods.


This portion of the armour, which derives its name from
the old German word Buckel, boss, and leder, leather, and not
from the Celtic word bwa, to cover, an etymology often as-
signed to it, was origiually called seilt in German, but at
the present day scMld.
We have already noticed what were the shapes of the
ancient bucklers, and we have seen that they underwent very
little variation.
The most ancient shields of the nations of the Germanic
race (Franks, Saxons, Alemanni, and Burgundians) were
large, square-shaped, and made sometimes of wood, but more
often of osier branches covered with bronze plates. During
the iron age the bucklers were circular, and usually with
a boss in the centre, called ia French ombilie d'uTribo, in
Gterman schildnahel or schildbucJcel.
The cover of the Antiphonary of Saint Gregory, which was
made iu the eighth century and is preserved at Saint Gall,
represents combatants armed with small square shields with
pointed bosses but the character of this piece of carving ia

certainly of earlier date ; it is probably taken fcom a dip-

The Leges Longobardorum, a MS. of the ninth century,
represents the king carrying a long German targe, which we
meet with again in the fourteenth century ; whilst the Codex
Awreus Evangelicus of the ninth century, as also the Wesso-
brunn MS. of the same date, show us the rondache with a
boss to it, a shield that is also to be seen in the Prudenthis
and Psalterium MSS. of the tenth century, in the Libraries
of London and Stuttgardt, as likewise in the Bayeux tapestry
of the eleventh century, where the pear-shaped buckler,
slightly tapering towards the base, and sometimes as high as
a man, seems to have been the shield of the Norman, and the
rondache, or round buckler, that of the Anglo-Saxon warrior.
One may also see in the Prudentms PsycliomacMa, a MS. of
288 The Shield.

the tenth century, in the Library of the British Museum,

Anglo-Saxon warriors armed with circular bossed targets;
but a knight in the Biblia Sacra, of the tenth century, carries
already a small targe, a shield that was not in general use
till the reign of St. Louis (1226-1270V
The Duke of Bom-chard of Swabia (965) is represented in
the basilica of Zurich with a shield not unlike the Norman
ones in the Bayeux tapestry mentioned above ; and this same
sort of shield is borne by a horseman in a bas-relief in the
cloister of Saint Aubin at Angers, and by one of the foimders
of the Cathedral of Naumbourg of the eleventh century.
The Count of Barcelona, Don Eamon Berenger IV. (1140),
is represented on his seal bearing the same sort of shield
that is to be seen in the frescoes in the Cathedral of Bruns-
wick, painted in the reign of Henry the Lion, who died in
1195. These large shields always had two armlets (Hand-
griffe in German), whilst the ancient shields, and more
especially the Greek, had only one. The long shields had
besides a guige, or strap {Hanghand in German), by which to
suspend them from the left shoulder, the point of the shield
towards the rear.
The earliest Germanic shields were large and square,
but not a single uninjured specimen has reached us. They
appear to have been padded inside ; the framework was usually
made of wood covered with leather, and painted with gro-
tesque figm-es, while the whole shield was bound round with
iron. These shields gave rise to the use of the first armorial
bearings, as we have seen in pages 47 and 48 of the his-
torical chapter. Several remains of these shields are repre-
sented in the chapter on arms of the iron age, and also the
little round buckler of the Franks. The small targe or
triangular buckler seldom appears before the thirteenth
century in France ; that is to say, before the reign of Saint
Louis this shield was as wide as it was long. The buckler

used in Germany at this period was larger, as may be seen

on the statue of Henri II. on his funereal monument in the
Church of Saint Vincent at Breslau. The English buckler
of the fourteenth century was very like the small targe, and
was only two feet in length. After this the small rondelle,
or round shield, appears ; it was only a foot and a quarter in
length, and remained in use till the sixteenth century.
The Shield. 289
The BtLrgundian shields of the heginning of the fifteenth
century (see p. 291, No. 13) were usually triangular, and
reached to the shoulder. The pavois, of German origin, in
which may be recognised the primitive form of the most ancient
Germanic shields, was slightly rounded at the top and square
at the bottom, and appears about the fourteenth century.
The long targe,* in wood and skin, of the same epoch, is
easily distinguished from the little targe of the fifteenth
century, which was hollowed out at the edge.
In the sixteenth century, when in Germany, as well as
elsewhere, the shield was almost out of use, may be seen
some heart-shaped, but with three points at the top. It was
also about this same time, that is, about the end of the
fifteenth century, that the placcates, the rondaches, the
rondelles, and iargettes with a hook, were used. Many of
these were finished with great care, and bear evidence of
master hands having been employed on them. The greater
part of the Italian rondaches that were chased and orna-
mented in embossed work were not meant to be used in com-
bat, but were rather part of the pride, pomp, and circumstance
of war.
* Targe is derived from the Arab word dardy and tarcha. At the
present day, at Toulon and MaraeilleB, the shield that the saUora use in
naval sports is called a targe.

290 Different Shields.

1. Shield, Oriental, (?;* from the

Theodosian column erected to
the Emperor Theodosius, sur-
named the Great, born in 346,
died in 396, the year of the
commencement of the Eastern
2. Square and convex shield with
boss, from the Antiphonarivm
of Saint-Gall of the eighth

3. Shield or rondache with boss, in

use from the eighth to the
eleventh centuries, represented
in the MSS. of Wessoh-unn, a.d.
810 the Aureus Evangelicus of

St. Emeran, 870; the Codex

Aureus, ninth century the Pru- ;

dentius Psycliomachia of tlie

tenth century the Aelfric and

the Bayeux tapestry, etc.

4. Lombard-German targe of the

ninth centiory, from the Leges
5. Buckler of the tenth century,
called in France " Norman
buckler, from a statuette in
the collection of M. le Comte de
6. German shield of the eleventh
century, from the Jeremiaa

1. Norman shield, from the Bayeux


8. Norman shield, back view, show-

ing the armlets and the strap,
used for suspending it from the
left shoulder.

* The crescents do not prove that

this shield is of Mussulman origin,
for Mahomet was not bom
till AX.
Different Shields. 291.

9. Small German targe of the

twelfth century, 18 inches long,
from a coin of the time of
Henry the Lion, who died in

10. German convex shield, about

32 inches in length, from the
frescoes in the Cathedral of
Brunswick, painted in the
Henry the Lion, who
reign of

11. German shield, about 2 feet in

length, from the frescoes in
the Cathedral of Brunswick.

12. Shield of the twelfth century,

about 21 inches by 30, from a
tombstone found in the con-
vent of Steinbach, now in the
chapel of the Castle of Erbach.

13. Triangular shield, from the MS.

of Tristan and Isolde of the
thirteenth century. It was
also used in the Burgundian
equipment of the fifteenth
century, as will be seen on
reference to the MS. in the
library of the Arsenal of Paris.

14. Small targe used in the reign

of Saint Louis (1226-1270).

15. Semi - cylindrical targe with

round boss, of the thirteentli
century, from an illumination
of the period in the British
Museum. A similar targe,
but without the boss, existed
in the equipment of the
fifteenth century, as a speci-
men in the same museum
proves. (See also No. 4, Lom-
bard targe of the ninth cen-
tury, preceding page.)
292 Different Shields.

15 E. German targe with sight-

holes, of the end of the foii>
teenth century, from a picture
in the cliurch of Saint-Michel
at SehwaebiBoh-Hall.

16. German targe with sight-holea,

of the end of the fourteenth
CaihedraZ of Bamberg.

17. Same as above.

18. Spanish targe of the end of

the fourteenth century, from a
mural painting in the Cathe-
dral of Mondoneda, represent-
ing the massacre of the Inno-

19. German shield, about the height

of a man, from the picture of
a single combat called the
Judgment of God in the Codex
of the maitre d'armes of
Tolhofer, of the fifteenth cen-

20. Spanish shield, from an illumi-

nation of 1480.

23. Shield from a woodcut of the

fifteenth century.
Cabinet of Engravings at Munich.

22, Hispano-Mussulman shield of

the fifteenth century. The
Museum of Artillery in Paris
possesses a similar targe in
leather. (See p. 296, No. 45.;
Shields (Pavois). 29&

23. German shield, from the Tlieur-

danck published at the com-
mencement of the sixteenth
century at Augsburg.

24. Shield in steel of the sixteenth

century, about 2 feet high,
ornamented with two coats of
arms engraved, and studded all
romid with large screw-heads.
Historical Mmeum of the Palace
of Monbijou at Berlin.

25. German shield, termed pavoie

d'assaut (SetzscMld or Sturm-
wand in German), 51 inches
by 76, of the fifteenth century.
It is of wood covered over with
leather, painted red and yellow.
The points and the inside
mountings are of ii'on.
Mmeum of Sigmaringen.

26. German pavois d'assaut of the

44 inches by
fifteenth century,
72, of wood covered over with
leather. The painting, which
is in black and white, repre-

sents the arms of the city of

Arsenal of Berlin.

27. German pavois d'assaut of the

fifteenth century.
Museum of Artillery, Paris.
294 Shields and Targes.

28. Swiss pavois d'assaut. 72 inches

in height, of the end of the
fifteenth century.
Arsenal of Berne.

29 and 30. German pavois d'assaut,

26 inches by 45 inches, of the
fifteenth century, from the
ancient arsenal of Ens, in
Austria. The painting is a
representation of St. George.
Az Collection at Lintz. It is
a valuable specimen on account
of the beauty of the painting,
and its capital preservation.

31. Swiss or German targe (rorfeo/ie

in German), 19 inches by 40,
of wood covered over with
leather. than the
It is smaller
pavois d'assaut, rounded at

the bottom, and has only one

iron point. It was probably
the buckler of an archer.
Arsenal of Berlin.

32, German targe, with three longi-

tudinal bosses of wood, covered
with hide.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
Shields and Targes. 295

33. German tilting targe of the end

of the fifteenth century ; side,
rear, and &out views. It is of
wood and skin, and orna-
mented with painted decora-
tions, and belonged to the

Ijandgrave of Thuringia.
CatJiaiTtdrSj' Marbwg.

34. German targe of the fifteenth

century, in wood and iron,
ornamented with painted de-
Tmoer of London.

35. German fluted targe of the

fifteenth century, 26 iuches in
length, in wood and leather.
Museum of Artillery, Fans.

36. German tilting targe of the

fifteenth century, wood and
leather, 14 inches by 16.
Museum of Artillery, Paris.

37. German tilting targe of the

fifteenth century, in wood and
with an inscription,
and painted in polychrome,
with the representation of a
tournament, which is very re-
markable in an archseological
point of view, on account of
the helmets worn by the
Museum of ArtMery, Paris.


38. German targe in wood and

leather, painted and silvered

copied from the water-colour

drawings painted by Gloek-
enthon in the first part of
the sixteenth century, illus-

the arms and suits

trative of
of armour in the Arsenals of
Maximilian I.

Ambras Collection, Vienna.

39. Targe, silvered.

Am^as Collection, Vienna.

40. Targe, painted and silvered.

Amhras Collection, Vienna.

41. Targe, painted and gUt.

Ambras Collection, Vienna.

42. Small targe, convex, of the six-

teenth century probably

Armerial of Madrid.

43. German targe of the sixteenth

century, 32 inches by 36. It
is of wood and cloth, decorated
with painted designs.
Museum of Cluny.

44. Moorish targe.

Armerial of Madrid.

45. Spanish-Moorish targe (adarga),

of the end of the sixteenth
century, entirely of supple
leather,30 inches by 38. (See
No. 22, preceding pp.)
Museum of Artillery, Paris.

46. Gierman target, termed Rondache,

with gauntlet and lantern, of the
fifteenth century. It was used for
night comhats. I. 35, Museum of
Artillery, Paris.In the Arsenal
at Hamburg there is a similar
target, with a lantern but no
gauntlet. (See also at page 301,
No. 61.)

47. Italian target of the fifteenth cen-

tury, in wood and leather, orna-
mented with polychrome paintings.
The Arsenal of Lucerne possesses
twenty-one of these shields, taken
by Frischhaus Thelig of Lucerne,
in the battle of Jornico (Gomis),
in 1478. On it are painted the
arms of the Duke of Milan,

Giovanni GaleazzoTisconti, whose

initials, surmounted by a crown,
are visible.

48. German target of the end of the

fifteenth century, from the water-
colour drawings of Glockenthon,
mentioned aboye.
Ambraa Collection,

49. English iarget of the beginning of

the sixteenth century. In the
centre of this shield there is a
small hand-caunon, with sliding
chamber and match, something
like a veugkdre. The Tower of
London possesses twenty-five of
these targets, mention of which
is made in the inventory made in
the reign of Edward VI. (1547).
298 Targes.

SO. Small target with sword-breaker

and arm-guard, in one piece of
Mueeam of Artillery, Paris, and
Imperial Araenal of Vienna.

51. Italian target of the sixteenth

century; it seems only for
show. It is in high-relief
embossed work, and in one
single piece.
Museum of Turin.

52. Target of foot - soldier in

blackened steel, size 2 feet by
li, of the seventeenth century.
This shield, which weighs
12 lbs., has a sight-hole and a
slit for the sword.
Meyrick Collection.

[Engraved in reverse.]
Shields and Targes.

53, Italian ehield of the sixteenth

century, 28 inches in length,
with a sword, 20 inches in
length. The engraving re-
presents the back view.
Museum of Dresden,

54. German shield of the sixteenth

century in blackened iron,
about 20 by 24 inches. It is
in the shape of a heart, the
centre part curving inwards.
CoUedion of the Caatle of Lowenberg
or WilhelmshBhe, near Cassd.

55. Small round German hand

shield of the fifteenth century,
from engravings of the time.
Cabinet of Engravings at Munich.
300 Small Shields.

56. Small hand shield of the middle of

the fourteenth century, called
pamidenne, from a carving on a
comb made at that time. 1 foot
J inch in diameter.


57. Small German hand shield, about a

foot in diameter, of the end of the
fifteenth century.
Arsenal of Munich.

58. Small hand

shield with hook for
sword breaking
- it; measures
about 11 inches diameter, and is
of the end of the fifteenth cen-
Meyrich Collection.

59. Small hand target in steel of the

about 10 inches
fifteenth century,
in diameter. have
It is said to
belonged to the Earl of Eich-
mond (Henry VII. of England,
J. 5, Museum of Artillery, Paris,
Small Shields.

60. Turkish small hand shield of iron, of

the sixteenth century. The word
Allah (God) engraved on it. Many

arms coming from the Arsenal of

Mabmoud II. are similarly marked.
Historical Museum of the Palace of
Monbijou at Berlin. A
similar ob-
ject exists in the Erbaoh Museum.

61. Iron hand shield, Grerman, about 14

inches in diameter. It has a dart
and a lantern, which shows that it
was used at night. Museum of the
Guelphs at Hanover. See page 297,
No. 46, for targets with lanterns.

62. Small German hand shield of the six-

teenth century, from the Triumph of
Maximilian, by Burckmayer (1517).

63. Small hand target made of the elk's

horn, with an iron escutcheon; be-
longing to the second half of the fif-
teenth century.
L ^ Mttsewm of Artillery, Paris.
302 Small Targes.
64. Small German target with
gauntlet, of the first half of
the sixteenth century. It be-
longed Count of Heuue-
to the
berg, and is now at Meiningen
in Germany.

65. German target with gauntlet, of

the sixteenth century,
Musewm of Turin.

66. German target with gauntlet

and hook for breaking the
adversary's sword ; of the six-
teenth century.
Historical Museum in the Palace of
Monhijou at Berlin.

67. Small German hand target with

a hook for breaking a sword,
about 8i inches in size.

Meyrick Collection. The

engraving represents both
sides. A similar one exists in
the Collection of M. le Comte
de Nieuwerkerke.

68. Small German hand target of

the end of the fifteenth cen-
tury. (Exterior view.)
Historical Museum
of the Palace of
Monhijou at Berlin.

69. SmaU German hand shield with

hook for breaking the adver-
sary's sword, of the end of the
fifteenth century.
Museum at Erhach.
Fagecmt Shields. 303

70. German pageant shield of the sixteenth century, made at Augsburg.

It is ornamented with medallions and trophies in embossed work,
very beautifully executed. The fringe all round is fastened with
screws and is quilted at the back.
Ambras Collection, Vienna,
304 Pageant Shields.

71. German pageant shield of the sixteenth century, probably made at

Augsburg. The ornaments on this shield, which are very beautiful,
indicate by their workmanship that the shield was made at the
end of the sixteenth century or beginning of the seventeenth.
The trophies are like the work of the French artists of the reign
of Henri IV.
Amhras Collection, Vienna.
306 Pageant Shieldi^.

Pageant Shields. 307

German pageant shield in embossed iron, of the sixteenth century

it belonged to Charles V. This piece of defensive aimour, which is
one of the most perfect specimens of this style of German art, has been
several times counterfeitedand sold at a high price to purchasers who
have not seen the original. One of these imitations was brought into
France and purchased by the late Baron o£ Mazis, to whom it had been
represented as a first-rate Italian work of art. The real shield, which
is in the Ambras however, characterized by a beauty
Collection, is,

of design and a delicacy of workmanship which disheartens even the

cleverest imitators. The subjoined sketch gives but a very imperfect
idea of the beauty of this artistic work.
has been already stated that these sorts of arms were not iutended
as instruments of warfare, but only to be worn on gala days, when the
nobles rivalled one another in the magnificence and artistic richness of
their equipments.
Italy was especially famous for this kind of work during the whole
period of the Eenaissance, and her most favoured and celebrated
artistsfurnished designs, and often themselves manufactured these
splendid arms, which now embellish collections by their beauty of
design and exquisite finish, but which hardly answer the purpose for
which weapons are generally made.
308 Pageant Shields.

German pageant shield in embossed iron, of the sixteenth century.

Its execution is of the most finished nature, and the design may be taken
as a characteristic type of a master engraver's composition in Germany
at tliat period.
Ambras Collection at Vienna,



The history of the changes in armour during the Middle

Ages, the Eenaissance, and the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries has been already treated of in the second chapter
of this work, but the different kinds of armour have yet to
be described.
The coat of mail (from the German Kutte), which preceded
the armour composed of plates, either of leather or steel, was
called hauberk (from the the German Halsberge), neck-pro-
tector ; it was also called Briinne, Brunica, and Panzerhemd.
The small hauberk, which afterwards became the dress of the
squire or of the poorer class of gentlemen, was in the eighth
century worn by all knights, as the Godex Aureus of Saint
Gall bears evidence. This hauberk was a kind of jacket in
scales, which did not descend much lower than the hips, the
sleeves of which were rather loose, and ended before reaching
the elbow. The large hauberk, in the shape of a frock, and
with the " camail " or hood, at first reached just to the knee,
and the sleeves or loose arm-guards a little below the elbow,
like the hauberk represented in the Martyrology, a manu-
script of the tenth century in the Library of Stuttgard, and
also in the Aelfric, an Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the
eleventh century in the Library of the British Museum.
As for the equipment of the German knight in the " Jeremias
Apocalypsis" of the eleventh century, in the Library of
Darmstadt, it is a hundred and fifty years in advance of
what we know to have been worn at that time ; for according
to the embroidery on the mitre of Seligenthal and the Bayeux
tapestry, which are both of the eleventh century, the large
hauberk, which the " Jeremias " represents as having already
long sleeves, with hose and leggings in separate pieces, was
stUl worn in all other countries perfectly close-fitting, the
leggings in one piece with the hauberk, and the sleeves
short. The defensive armour of this German knight in the
" Jeremias " of the eleventh century does not appear either
in England, France, or Spain, until the twelfth, when similar
310 Coats and Cuirasses.

costumes may be seen on the seals of Eichard I., Cceur de

Lion (1157-1173), of Louis VII. the younger (1137-1180),
and of the Count of Barcelona, Don Eamon Berenger IV.
The hauberk, before the use of mail became universal, was
made in many different ways. The most ancient was
probably the ringed hauberk [Beringt), in which the defence
consisted of rings of metal sewed flatly, side by side, on
coarse leather, or padded stuff. The "rustred" hauberk
(Bekettet) was protected by oval flattened rings, overlapping
each other half way.
The " macled " coat (BescMldet) was composed of small
lozenge-shaped plates of metal.
The trellised coat (Benagelt) was made of leathern thongs
trellised in and out over the stuff or skin of which the coat
was composed ; each interstice was strengthened with a
riveted nail-head.
The "jazeran," or "korazin,"* was the large imbricated
hauberk, that is to say, covered with overlapping (Oeschuppt)
plates, like the small hauberk of the eighth century, of
which we have already spoken.
The coat of mail, or chain mail hauberk (Keiten, or
MaschenpanzerJiemd), was composed entirely of mail, gene-
rally in iron, without a lining of leather or stuff, and with-
out either a right or wrong side ; it thus formed a complete
tissue of iron which might be put on like a shirt, the rings of
which were riveted piece by piece, and were called grains d'orge.
There are two kinds of this work, the single and double
mail Chambly (Oise) was celebrated for the manufacture

of the latter. The double mail, like the single, always

shows us each ring joined to four others.
The coat of mail in France dates much farther back than
the time of the Crusades, to which date most compilers con-
sider it incumbent on them to assign it. It was not the
Crusaders who, on their return from Jerusalem, were the first
to introduce it into their country ; the coat of mail was well
known before the eleventh century. The Byzantine prin-
cess Anna Conmena was acquainted with it only from
seeing it worn by northern warriors. (See her Memoirs.)
* The name is probably derived from Khorassan, a country in tlia
Empire of Persia,

Coats and Cuirasses. 311

The coat of mail is still worn by the Indians, Persians,
Chinese, Japanese, Mongols, Mahrattas, Poly gars, Cir-
cassians, and other people whose civilisation is still rather
backward. These coats are often without rivets, like the
counterfeit Parisian coats, but there are also riveted coats of
Persian and Circassian manufacture all this, however, has

no interest in an archseologioal point of view.

The "jacket" was a kind of small hauberk, not descending
farther than the hips, and made in various ways, like the
large hauberk.
The " brigantine " was a jacket composed of small plates
of metal, somewhat in the style of the macled coats, and im-
bricated ; these plates were riveted underneath the stuff, so
that the outside, generally made of velvet, lined with linen,
shows a quantity of small rivets, like copper-headed nails
thus the armour is next the body. The brigantine jacket
(Italianische Panzerjacke) was most generally worn in Italy
during the fifteenth century. It was the favourite coat of
Charles the Bold.
By the gamboison, or gambeson, was meant the doublet of
leather or linen cloth without sleeves, and quilted so that it
was entirely covered with stitches. The high gamboison,
with cuishes and leggings, which ia the fourteenth century
was worn under the earliest suits of plate armour, and the
only specimen of which is at present in the Museum of
Munich, was also in leather or linen lightly quilted, and was
worn with the breastplate, waist-piece, and the sides of the knee-
plates armed with mail, so as to compensate for the defects of
the armour. The bishop's mantle, or mailed cape, was often
worn over the cuirass, particidarly in Italy during the
fifteenth century.
The cuirass (Kiirass), from the Italian word corazza, de-
rived from the Latin corium, probably on account of the first
Roman cuirasses having been made of leather, was composed
of two pieces the breastplate (JBrustplMte), to protect the

chest ; and the back-plate (Suchenplatte), to protect the back.

The line down the centre of the breastplate is called tapul
(Graete), centre-ridge, or salient ridge.
The breast- and back-plate are generally fastened together
by leather straps passing over the shoulder and gorget.
The shape of the cuirass, as also of the other pieces

312 Ooais and Cuirasses.

of a suit, always enable us to fix its date and place of

manufacture with tolerable certainty. The Gothic breast-
plates, as well as those of the beginning of the sixteenth
century, are sometimes pointed, and sometimes more or less
rounded, but generally imitate the peaceful costume of their
respective times.
The reader will find fuller information respecting ths
various changes undergone by the cuirass in the historical
chapter, as well as in that one which treats of armour in
general, while the engravings in the present chapter repre-
sent in their order of date all the diiferent sorts of cuirasses
in use up to the time of their being superseded (from about

1620 1660) by buff coats or jerkins (German, Koller
French, huffletin), an article of costume made generally of
deer-slan, and furnished with a metal gorget.
Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 313

1. Specimen of the ringed coat

{Beringf), composed of flat
rings sewed side by side on
quilted linen or leather.
This kind of coat is very
difiBcult, if not impossible, to
distinguish from the macled
coat, in the illuminations of
different manuscripts. (See
plate No. 4.)
^- ^- -^ .. i

2. Specimen of rustred coat

{Bekettet). Here the flat rings
are oval, and overlap each other
half wp.y.
This sort of coat, in which
the rings do not really interlace,
is represented in illuminations

as actual chain armour.

S. Specimen of macled coat (Bs-

schiidef). This is composed of
small lozenge-shaped plates of
metal, sewed on a foundation
of cloth or leather, and some-
times overlapping each other
half way.
314 Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages.

Specimen of trellised coat ( Oegit-

tert and also Benagelf). Thia
coat is made both of quilted
linen and skin, strengthened
with straps of thick leather,
each square
placed trellis-wise ;

is armed with a riveted nail-

head. It is difficult, in the

illuminations on manuscripts,
to distinguish the trellised from
the ringed coat.

Specimen of sealed or imhricated

coat (^Gesclmppf). It is also
called jazeran and Tiorazin.
The armour consists of scales
sewed by rows, so as to
of metal
overlap each other, on quilted
linen or on leather.

Specimen of coat of mail in

riveted rings, called grains
d'orge {Genietetes Ketten or
Maschengewebe). Being entirely
formed of metal rings, the coat
of mail has neither wrong side
nor lining.
Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 315
Small hauberk or jacket * of the 7
eighth centuiy (Kleinea Panzer-
liemd) in overlapping scales of
metal, a kind of armour which
is known under the name of
name pro-
jazeraii or korazin, a
bably derived from Khorassan,
a country in the Persian Em-
pire. Codes Aureus of Saint '

Gall, eighth century.

8. Great hauberk (Brunne or Ganzes

Fanzerliemd), ringed. From
the Martyrologium, a manu-
script of the tenth century, in
the library at Stuttgard. It
has the camail and close-fitting
short sleeves.

9. Great Norman trellised hauberk

of the eleventh centiuy. It has
a movable camail and short
Bayeux Tapestry.

* Some coins of Magdeburg,

dating about 1150 — 1160, as well as
some older coins of Germany, have
representations of coats engraved
them, on which we can easily re-
cognize the imbricated or cuiTed
scales of far larger dimensions
which formed the material of the
hauberks of the knights painted
on the walls of the Cathedral of
Brunswick in the eleventh century.
I'he earliest instance of an imbri-
cated hauberk is one in the Codex
Aureus of Saint Gall, about the
eighth or ninth century, represented
316 Goats of Arms of the Middle Ages.

11. German hauberk of the eleventh

century, with fixed hood,
cnisses, and leggings, from the

III Jeretnias Apocalypsis,

served in the library at Darm-


12. Gamboison, or gambeson

(^Oeolirter leinener Unter-
panzer). A sort of coat or
jacket of the sixteenth century,
made of linen quilted and
embroidered. The gamboiaon
was generally worn under the
Cluny Museum, and Benn^ Collection
at Constance.

]3. Gamboison of the fourteenth

century, vrith fllxed cuisses
and legging. It is of quilted
linen, fitted with mail at the
breast, waist and knees.
The only known specimen,
fi'om which this di'awing has
been taken, is in the Museum
of Munich.

14. Venetian mail cape, called

bishop's mantle (Bischofi
Mantel), with which the Doges
were armed ; it was also worn
in Germany during the fif-

teenth and sixteenth centuries.

Eenne Collection at Constance,
but supposed to have come
from the Dresden Museum.
Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 317

15. Gorget wiih sleeves in chain

mail, of the fifteenth centuiy.
Dresden Museum.

16. Brigantine jacket (ItaUanisclie

Panzerjache) of the fifteenth
century. The trilobed scales.
No. stamped with the
17, are
fleur-de-lys, and riveted, over-
lapping each other on the
velvet doublet of which they
form a metal lining.
Museum of Darmstadt.

17. Trilobed scale of armour be-

longing to the above described
brigantine, nearly the actual

18. Scales of a brigantine, stamped

with hons (probably the ar-
mourer's mart), in the au-
thor's collection. Many
museums and collections have
exhibited this piece of defen-
sive armour on the wrong
side. The error arises from
presuming that the stuif,
whether velvet or linen, should
be worn next the body. The
curve of the scales, however,
shows on which side the brig-
antine was worn. This mis-
take is found in the Museums
of Dresden, Cluny, the Ambras
Collection, etc.
318 Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages.

19. Breastplate of brigantine, fif-

teenth century, composed of

small plates of steel. It is

exhibited in the Cluny Mu-

seum on the reverse side, as it

is here drawn.

20. Brigantine of the fifteenth cen-

tury, composed of small steel
plates, exhibited on the reverse
side at the Muse'e d'Artillerie,
Paris. No. 127. Similar
specimens may be seen in the
Museums of Sigmaringen and

21. Brigantine of the fifteenth cen-

tury, composed of trefoil-
shaped imbricated scales.
This specimen is remarkable
on account of its waist-piece,
which protects the thighs be-
low the hips. Dresden Mu-
seum. The Ambras Collection
a similar brigan-
also possesses
tine,and both museums have
exhibited it on the reverse

Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 319


22. Jacket in imbricated plates of

steel, with collar and arm-

guards in chaia mail, fifteenth

century. The scales of this
armour are not riveted on to
any material, like the brigan-
tine, but riveted to one
another, with lining of stuff or
skin, so that it resembles a
coat of mail.
Erbaoh OoUeoMon.

'^-' '-^
23. Scales of the preceding jacket,
—& —Nj
' '->

drawn half their actual size, I

—y ^
y -^ IU-,

Coat of mail of Jean Ziska (died

1424), from an old picture,
probably painted &om a draw-
ing of that time, and preserved
in the library at Geneva. The
coat and breastplate are in
mail of the gorget
iron, but the
and the surrounding rims are
of copper.
320 Different Goats of Arms.
25. Coat in steel plates, &om a
Persian manuscript of about
1600. This copy of the
Schah Nameh, or Boyal Book,
a poem composed by Ferdusi
in the reign of Mahommed
the Gaznevide (999), is orna-
mented with 215 beautiful
illuminations, and is exhibited
in the library at Mimich.

26. Persian hauberk in chain mail,

with sleeves, cuisses, and leg-
gings, from the same manu-

27. Polished steel plate or scale,

rather smaller than the actual
size, from the jazeran or im-
bricated jacket of Sobieski
(1648 to 1696), exhibited in
the Dresden Museum. Many
of these scales are ornamented
with crosses in gilded copper,
which are riveted on. See in
the chapter on helmets the
pot-helm belonging to this
same suit.

28. Mongolian coat of steel plate

armour. Early part of the
eighteenth century. The
links are without rivets.
G. 138, Museum of Artillery, Paris.
Different Coais of A rms. 321

29. Polygar coat of mail. Meyrick

Collection. This armovir is
remai'kable on account of tlie
points round the collar de-
scending on to the shoulders.


30. Indian coat. Meyrick Collection.

The straight coUar appears to '.sgpcsi
indicate a comparatively
modern origin. |0"pDBi3|i!

31. Indian coat in rhinoceros hide.*

This armour, which is orna-
mented with inlaid plates, has lODaSpf.
a very modem, and far &om
graceful character about it.

The Musee d'Aitillerie at

Paris possesses a few similar
Eastern coats.
Meyrick Collection.

* According to Meyrick
Catalogue, kind of armour
is manufactured at Mundavien, in

the GuH of Cutoh, in Western India.

The coats, like the round bucklers,
are made with rhinoceros and buflalo
hides, boiled in oil.
322 Coats of Arms and Cuirasses.

32. Saracenic coat of mail; sixteenth

century; back view. It is
doubled at the back mth a
plain and pointed hood, whicli
serves both as a protection to
the shoulders and also as a
" camail," or hood. This coat,
exhibited in the Mus^e d'Ar-
tillerie, Paris, is short, reaching
only a little below the hips.

33. Gothic cuirass with salient ridge

(Graete) and lance rest; fif-

teenth century. Ambras Col-

lection. This is the most ele-
gant form of cuirass.

34. Gothic cuirass, fifteenth century,

without lance rest, with scaled
back plate and waist-piece.
Arsenal of Zurich.

85. Cuirass with salient ridge, fif-

teenth century, in iron, and

very heavy, covered with red
and studded with iron-
headed nails.
National Museum of Bavaria, at

36. Gothic cuirass without salient ridge,

very rounded, and believed to belong
to a German suit, end of the fifteenth
century. Arsenals of lyraYimiHaTi I.,
from drawings by Glockenthon in
Ambras Collection.

37. Semi-rounded cuirass without topid,

or saUeni lidge, of a Grerman suit,
in embossed iron end of the fifteenth

Meyrich CoUecHotu

88. Semi-rounded cuirass without fopuZ,

but with lance rest, of a German
fluted suit; end of the fifteenth century.
It is called " Maximilienne " and
Milanese the shape is very beautiful,

the waist-piece large, and does not

end with the tassets, as is tisnally the
case, the tassets in this instance being
joined to the rest of the suit.

Arsenai of Vienna.

39. Semi-rounded cuirass without tapvl,

part of a German suit ; end of the
fifteenth and beginning of the six-
teenth century.
6. 6, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris, and also in
the Collection of the Count of Nieuwerkerlce.
324 Cuirasses.

40. Semi-roimded cuirass with taptil

and waist-piece ; first half of the
sixteenth century ;
part of a Ger-
man armour belonging to
suit of
the Landgrave Philip the Mag-
nanimous (died 1567).

41. Semi-rounded cuirass with tofpul

and lanee rest ; first half of the
sixteenth century ; part of a suit
belonging to a knight of the ord»
of St. George.
Meyrick Collection.

42. Cuirass with lance rest, but without

tapvl; pait of a German suit;
middle of the sixteenth century.
Coimt of Nieuwerkerke's Collec-
tion. In the arsenal of the city,
Vienna, there are many similar
suits, which formerly belonged to
the civic troops of this town, and
all bear the date 1546.

43. Cuirass withiopoZ; part of a Nu-

remberg suit, of the year 1570.
Imperial Arsenal of ViemtM.

Cuirasses. 325

a. Italian engraved cnirass with iapul

end of the sixteenth century.
Arribras CoUeotion.*

45. Onirass in plates, and with Uqml,

peascod-shaped, or like a Punch's
hump (Gdnseiauch) ; end of tlie

reign of Henry lU. (1589).

46. Peascod-shaped cuirass with tapul,
and long lobster - shell cuissL-s
instead of tassets. Eeign of
Louis Xm. (1610-1643).

47. Italian cuirass with buttons and

peascod-shaped tapul.
Count of Nieiiwerkerhe's Collection, and
M. Sbter's Collection at Augsburg.

* The cuirass of the suit of armour

in the Louvre, attributed to Henry IV.
of Prance, is of a similar shape ; the
waist-piece is composed of three large
metal plates.

Cuirasses and Buff Coats.

48. Half armour in engraved iron,

ornamented with gilt nails;
latter lialf of the seventeenth
century; preserved at the
Arsenal of Soleure, where it is
wrongly attributed to Vengli

49. Cuirass in plates belonging to a

German Beiter ; middle of the
seventeenth century. Some
German authors have called
these suits of plate or scaled
armour Krehse, or crabs.

50. Buif coat (Kollerr, German

huffletin, French), of deer-
skin time of the Thirty Years'

War, and reign of Louis XIII.

of France (1618 1640). —
G. 162, Muse'e d'ArtiUerie,
Paris. The Imperial Arsenal
of Vienna possesses the buff
coatwhich Gustavus Adolphus
wore when killed at the battle
of Lutzen.

51. OoUar in russet steel belonging

to the buff coat No. 50.

52. Cuirassier's buff coat with

sleeves, of 1650.
Cuirasses. 327

.'.3. Persian leather cuirass, probably

of the sixteenth or seventeenth
century. This piece of armour,
which is inlaid and quilted,
resembles very much the
cuirasses of the janissaries,
mentioned below.
MeyricTc CoUection.

54. Janissary's* cuirass; sixteenth

century. G. ISi, Muse'e
d'ArtUlerie, Palis.This piece
of armour is stamped with a
mark, which is drawn near
plate 53. Tliis is the mono-
gram or device by which the
Turks represent the name of
Allah (God). See the obser-
vation concerning this mai'k
in the chapter on shields.

55. Janissary's cuu'ass; seventeenth llUUllum;

century. G. 133, Muse'e

d'Artillerie, Paris. Same ob-
servations as the preceding

* The janissaries (a name derived

from the two Turkish words, ieni
Icheri, signifying new soldiers) com-

posed the infantry of the Ttrrkish

militia. They were organised in
1362 by Amnrath I , and almost all

mass.-.cred in 1826.

The arm-guard, properly so called (German, Armschiene ;
French, hrassard), did not form any essential part of ancient
armour; but it has been ascertained to have been in some
instances used by the ancient nations as well as by bar-
barians during the brazen age it was then in the form of a

screw, as already shown above.

During that part of the Middle Ages when plate armour was
not yet invented, the coat of mail often had sleeves which
formed a protection for the arm. These terminated in the
chain mail mitten, or gauntlet without fingers, and were
superseded at first by boiled leather plates, and later by
steel ones. There were both single and double arm-guards,
and also the arm-guard complete, which protected the upper
and lower portion of the arm, and was joined together
by the elbow-piece. The large tilting arm-guards of the
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were used only for the left
arm, and had often a fixed gauntlet without joints ; they were
generally worn instead of the manteau d'armes. The shape,
and size of the elbow and shoulder pieces are always a help
towards recognising the date of a complete arm-guard, which
was generally hinged, and protected the arm entirely.
Arm-guards. 329
Arm-guard with mitten (^Arm-
schutz mit Maschen-Fausthand-
schuli) of a coat of mail.

"2. Complete Gothic arm-guard with

elbow, upper arm-piece, and
gauntlet, jfrom a monument of
1460 in Oxfordshire. The
elbow-pieces are very large.

Gothic arm-guard with elbow

and upper arm-piece, to protect
the upper and lower part of the
arm; middle of the fifteenth

4. Id., id.

,5. Complete arm-guard, protecting,

like the preceding ones, the
upper and lower part of the
arm. It is ornamented with
bands of embossed work, which,
as well as the shape of the
elbow-piece, indicate the end of
the fifteenth century or the
beginning of the sixteenth, for
these kinds of armour were
contemporaneous with the
fluted suits called Maximilian
and Milanese armour.

330 Arm-guards.

Arm-guard, with elbow and

upper arm-piece part of a fluted,

or Maximilian, suit of armour

end of the fifteenth, or begin-
ning of the sixteenth century.

7. Ann-guard, with elbow and upper

arm-piece end of the sixteenth


8. Lower-arm guard : the inner

arm-plate is pierced with eight
square holes.
Spenfjel Collection at Munich,

9. German tilting arm-guard, with

mitten, for the left hand end
; oJ
the fifteenth century.

10. German tilting arm-guard, with

mitten, for the left hand ; be-
ginning of the sixteenth cen-
tury. All these guards protect
the upper and lower arm.


The shape of the gauntlet or armed glovo (Kampfhandgchuk

or Gefingerte Handtatze in. German), which covered not only
the hand, but part of the arm, is, as well as the soleret or
shoe, a great help towards the classification of a suit of
armour, for hoth one and the other have undergone great
changes. It appears to be tolerably certain that the use of
the gauntlet proper does not date farther back than the end
of the thirteenth century. The Martyrologium, the Pruden-
tius Psychomachia, the Biblia Sacra, the Aelfric, the Jere-
mias Apocalypsis, the embroidery on the mitre of Seligenthal,.
and the Bayeux tapestry, authorities which have already
been cited, and which date from the ninth to the end of
the eleventh century, always represent the warrior with bare
hands, but the seal of Eichard Coeur de Lion (1157-1173)
shows the hand of the king already protected by a sort of
continuation of the chain mail sleeve, forming a bag or
mitten, in which the thumb alone has a separate place. A
warrior in the illustrations of the German .^Ineid of Henry
of Waldeck, thirteenth century, with a crested heaume, and
riding a horse covered with ringed or trellised armour, has
the hand covered with a mail mitten, or with a continuation
of the sleeve of the coat, which seems to be trellised if not
already plated.
The first real gauntlet had separate fingers, and was
covered with scales, plates, or some other overlapping plates
of iron; the back of the hand was protected by a plate of
metal or leather, such as is represented on the tombstone
of the King of the Eomans, Giinther of Schwarzburg, carved
in 1352, in the Cathedral of Frankfort, where this prince
was poisoned in 1349. We recognise this kind of gauntlet
in an Italian painting of the fourteenth century, in the pos-
session of M. Odet at Sitten. The illuminations in a manu-
script of Eoman history preserved in the Library of the
Arsenal at Paris, probably executed at the beginning of the
fifteenth century for the Duke of Burgundy, still represent
all the men-at-aims with their hands protected only by
the mitten, made by a continuation of the mail sleeve, which'

332 The Gauntlet.

shows how far the Burgundian equipment was behind that of
other nations.
The mitten (Fausthandsclmh'), a kind of gauntlet in which
the fingers were not separated, and with plates of steel placed
so as to move with the principal movements of the hand,
makes its appearance in the fifteenth century. The armour
of Joan of Arc, in the catalogue of Dezest, the bronze
statuette of William VI. (1404-1417) at Amsterdam, and
the armour of Frederick I., Palatine of the Ehine, preserved
in the Ambras Collection at Vienna, show that the mitten
was everywhere used during the first half of the fifteenth
century, but it is to the articulated gauntlet that Bayard's
favourite proverb applies, " Co que gantelet gagne, gorgerin
le mange," also the terms of " throwing the gauntlet
and " raising the gauntlet," which in the fifteenth centui'y
occur in the French language.
There are, however, some German suits of armour where
the gauntlets have already separate spaces for the iingers,
like those in the Museum of Sigmaringen, and a largo
number of suits of the second half of the fifteenth and be-
ginning of the sixteenth century, more especially tilting suits,
are provided with mittens. See the harness of Maximilian I.
(1459-1519) in the Ambras Collection and in the Imperial
Arsenal of Vienna.
The articulated gauntlet came into general use towards the
end of the fifteenth, and not in the middle of the sixteenth
century, at the time when the pistol made its appearance, as
compilers insist nevertheless almost all the fluted suits of

armour have the inarticulated gauntlet. The gauntlet with

separate fingers in which the fore-finger has fifteen, the
ring finger sixteen, and the middle finger has twenty-two
small plates or scales, while the reverse or outside of the

glove is composed only of three or four plates was in use
contemporaneously with the mitten, but after a little while
this latter fell into disuse and disappeared. Several of these
gauntlets were provided with a screw ring on a pivot, by
which means the closed hand might be fixed on to the sword
or handle of the hammer, like the curious specimen which
the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna possesses, and which forms
.part of a suit of armour attributed to Charles V.
Several of these iron gauntlets are studded with nail-heads

Tlie GamdU. 333

placed on the outside of the glove, and in inverted positions,
but the reason of these excrescences is not known to us.*
The tilting gauntlet arm-guaid, for the left arm, was a
piece of defensive armour which belonged to the latter half
of the fifteenth century. About a hundred years later were
worn the " gauntlet tilting shield," the " sword gauntlet,"
and the " gauntlet for bear-hunting." The last articulated
gauntlet was soon afterwards replaced by the glove with
deerskin gauntlet, such as was worn during the Thirty
Years' War.
In England, however, during part of the seventeenth
century, gloves armed with scales were worn ; a specimen of
which is to be found in the Meyrick Collection.
* They served probably to inoreaee the power of a blow from the fist,
being analogous to the cestus of classic, or " knuckle-duster " of modem
times. Tkai^slatoe.
334 Gauntlets.

1. Gauntlet witli Beparately articu-

lated fingers (Gefingerter
Kampfhandschuhf or GejiTir
gerte IMze), fiom the monu-
ment of the Koman king, Giin-
ther of Schwarzburg, erected in
1352, in the Cathedral of

2. Mitten (FaustliandsAuk), fif-

teenth century the ; thumb alone

is separate.

yv <ZZ^ 2- Mitten gauntlet, in which the

fingers are indicated latter hall
^^^^^I-'oTT^ ;

of the fifteenth century.

4. Mitten gauntlet.

5. Id,, id.

Collection of Baron des Mcais,

Museum of Artillery, Paris.

6. German gauntlet; first half ol

the fifteenth century.

Gauntlets. 335

Articulated gauntlet, sixteenth

century, -whioh closes by means
of a screw-ring and pivot. It
belongs to a suit of armour in
the Imperial Ai-senal at Vienna.

8. German articulated gauntlet

middle of the fifteenth century.

9. Mitten gauntlet of a fluted

" Maximilian " armour ; latter
lialf of the fifteenth century.*
Author's Collection.

10. Articulated gauntlet of a fluted

"Maximilian" armour; begin-
ning of the sixteen til centmy.

11. Gauntlet of a German Reiter

beginning of the seventeenth

12. English gauntlet in deerskin

covered with scales; seven- 1i
teenth century.

• The fluted ai-mour of the be-

ginning of the sixteenth century
has generally ai-ticulated gauntltts,
and the beax's paw-shaped soleret.
(See Nos. 11 and 13 in the chapter
on Solerets.)
336 Gauntlets,

13. Gauntlet of the sixteenth century, inj

iron, for the left hand, used in bear-
hunting. It is armed with darts, and
two daggers sharpened like a saw.
The weapon is more fanciful than
useful, and most probably extremely
local, as it is very seldom met with.

Amhras Collection.

14. German gauntlet, in iron, for the left

hand, with a large arm-guard, or small
buckler, and a sword fastened to it.
This gauntlet, of the sixteenth century,
appears also to have been intended for
bear-hunting. These pieces of armour
are very rare they must have been

very little known, and probably only

in the North.


All the marrasoripts of the eighth to the tenth century
show the warrior without either leggings or greaves (Bein-
schienen and Kettensiriimpfe), and if he be not represented
without any protection whatever on the legs, he has them
bound only with thongs of leather. Even in the Bayeux
tapestries, which nevertheless do not date farther back than
the end of the eleventh century, William the Conc[ueror
alone has the lower part of the legs protected, while
none of his warriors wear leggings, either of mail or other
materials. Dating from the eleventh century, cuishes and
leggings with foot-soles of one piece are almost invariably
nmde of iron chain-mail.
Towards the end of the thirteenth century the first plated
greaves appeared in France (Beinschienen in German, and
tumdieres or greves in French), the buckled knee-caps {Knie-
stiicke), and the cuishes (JD^ing. or Schenhelschienen) : they
were at first made in boiled leather, and afterwards in iron
or steel. In Grermany, greaves and solerets had already
appeared at the close of the eleventh century, as the monu-
ment at Merseburg shows.
At first only the front of the leg was protected by the
plaite, which was fastened by thongs on the chain-mail
legging. The tombstone of Sir Hugh Hastings, erected in
1347, seems to prove that the English knight of that
period still wore the leggings and greaves in mail, while the
monument of Merseburg, of the eleventh century; the
miniatures on a manuscript in the Library of Berlin, of the
thirteenth century; and the "Lancelot of the Lake," 1360,
already depict the plate armour which Germany and Switzer-
land appear to have been the first to adopt ; for after the
Merseburg monument and the thirteenth-century manuscript
at Berlin, the tomb of Berthold, who died in 1258, offers the
most ancient evidence, on which this novel kind of armour
is represented.
The solerets (EisenschuTi) were articulated plates or cover-
ings for the feet in iron; liey do not appear to date farther
338 Leggings.

than the beginning of the fourteenth century. The shoes

which Eodolph the Swabian wears on a monument of 1080 in
the Cathedral of Merseburg do not show any plates. The
first known soleret is pointed, like the soleret " a la pou-
laine " (so called from poulaine, the prow of a galley), and
which is wrongly considered to belong only to the fifteenth
An incontrovertible proof that this fashion already existed
in the twelfth century is found in the memoirs of the
Byzantine princess Anna Conmena (1080-1148), where the
authoress says, " the Frank is terrible when on horseback,
but should he fall, the knight scarcely appears the same
person, so weighted is he by his shield, and the long-pointed
shoes, which prevent his walking, and render him an easy
prisoner." The German manuscript of the thirteenth
century, " Tristan and Isolde," also depicts the knights with
shoes a la poulaine, a fashion which came originally from
Hungary, where it universally prevailed during the twelfth
century. It is, however, also attributed to Falco TV., Count
of Anjou (1087), and to Henry II. (1154-1189) of England,
who adopted it to hide a deformity, which gave him the
name of Oornadu or Oornatus. At the battle of Sempach
(1386)the knights after dismounting from horseback cut off the
long ends of their solerets. The shoe "a la poulaine," which had
disappeared towards the middle of the fourteenth century, to
make way for the " demi-poulaine " or " ogivale de lancette,"
reappears towards the end of this century, and reigns anew
during the fourteenth, in which century, however, from 1440
to 1470, was worn also the shape "arc tiers point," and
towards 1485 the "demi-sabot" or the " demi pied d'ours."
The " sabot " or " pied d'ours," a style belonging to the
fluted armour, was worn from 1490 to 1560, and was followed
by the " bee de cane." This last soleret was replaced by
the boot and top-boot. The knowledge of the differently
shaped foot-coverings adopted by the Christians in Europe
during the different periods of the Middle Ages and Ee-
naissance are highly important for the classification of
sculptures, miniatures, and arms, for military equipment has
always been subject to the influences of fashion which governs
civil costumes.
Leggings, Thonged and Mailed. 339

1. Legging bound with thongs, in

use before the eleventh century.

2. lion mail legging, which belongs

to the beginning of the eleventh
century, and disappears partly
at the beginning of the thir-
teenth, when it is replaced by
the greaved soleret.

3. First greaved soleret known, from

the tomb of Eodolph the
Swabian, 1080, in the Cathedral
of Merseburg.

i. Soleret "k la poulaiue," of the

twelfth, thirteenth, and first

half of the fourteenth century.

5. Soleret " demi-poulaine " or ogi-

vale lancette ; end of the four-
teenth century.

6 and 7. Solerefa "k la poulaine;

tfteenth century.
Greaves and Solerets.

8. Soleret "arc tiers point," w^ra

from 1450 to 1485.

9. Soleret, middle of the fifteenth

century, from bas - reliefs in
marble on the triumphal arch
of Alphonso v.. King of Arra-
gon, at Naples, erected on hia
entry there, in 1443. This same
shape of iron shoe may be seen
also on a piece of earthenware
of Nuremberg which forms part
of the author's collection, and
the subject of which represents

10. Grca¥e with soleret " demi-

sabot," in use about 1480 and
1485 : it forms part of a German
fluted suit, called " Maximi-
lian," in the author's collection.
The mitten gauntlets of this
suit, as well as the shape of
the soleret, indicate the end
of the fifteenth, and slightly
the beginning of the sixteenth

11. " Sabot," or bear's piw-shaped

soleret, sixteenth century
Museum of Artillery, Paris.

12. Persian greave, from a manu-

script of the sixteenth century ;

a copy of the Schah Nameli.

Library of Munich,
Greaves and Top-loots. 341

13. G reavewitli soleret shaped like

a bear's paw, from a suit of
Maximilian or MUanese ar-
mour, in use &om 1490 to

14. Greave with soleret hoc de cane,

from a suit of armour in use
about 1560. This kind of
soleret must not be confovmded
with those called ogivale tiers
point of the fifteenth century.

15. Top-boot of carabineer of 1680.

16. French top-boot in leather of

the reign of Louis XV.
—1774). They are in the
shape of gaiters laced up one
side, the tops being furnished
with three buttons. They are
square-toed and high-heeled;
the spurs belong to the end of
the reign of Louis XTV., and
are very like those of Mexico.
A. 325, MMsewm of Artillery, Farts.

The from the Italian sjierone, wliicli in the Middia
Ages was called carcaire, from the the Latin calcar (German,
Sporn), is composed of the shank (German, Biigel), the
spur-neck (Hals in German), and the prick or rowel [Staehel
or Mad in German).
The spm- seems to have been first used by the Eomans,
who introduced it most probably among the Gauls. Neither
the horsemen on Assyrian bas-reliefs, nor those on Persian
or Egyptian monuments, have spurs, while the Greeks of
the Heroic Ages, who had neither cavalry nor even a verb
in their language to express mounting on horseback, were
also ignorant of this appliance.
The most ancient spurs were those made with a single
jioint of a conical shape,which was very thick and riveted on
at right angles to the shank. About the tenth century the
spur began to show a slighter and sharper point, towards
the eleventh century it became longer, and in the twelfth
century was curved upwards. The rowel we find in the
thirteenth century. This wheel, by the number and lengtli
of its points, indicates quite as well as the shank and point,
the epoch to which the spur belongs. English heraldry con-
siders the mullet or heraldic star to be derived from the five-
pointed rowel of the spur, though most of these rowels belong
to the seventeenth century, and in England the six-pointed
rowel was unknown before the reign of Henry VI. (1422);
but some are to be seen in the illmninations of the Hisioire
Bomaine, a Burgundian MS. of the fifteenth century, at
present in the Library of the Arsenal of Paris.
In Germany as early as the fourteenth century the eight-
pointed rowel was used, a fact proved by the spurs of that
time that are in the National Museum of Munich, which
belonged to the knights of Heideck and the Duke Albrecht II.
of Bavaria.
These spurs all show a wonderful degree of finish in their
make, considering the early period at which they were manu-
factured, and are also noticeable on account of the shape
of their shank, which indicates that they were worn over
an iron greave, of which the part covering the tendon
The Spur. 343
fonned an acnte angle. Before the time of greaves or plates,
as also later, in the seventeenth century, when top-boots
had difiplaced greaves, the branches of the spur were rounded.
The spur-neck, which in the time when tournaments were
most in fashion, about the fifteenth century, was extrava-
gantly long, became shorter again in the sixteenth century,
at which time spurs had often rowels of twelve, fifteen, and
even eighteen points.
The spur of the time of Louis XIII. was small and some-
times embellished with perforations, whilst in the reign of
Louis XIV. it was in the Mexican shape, with a large spur-
neck cut in open-work and with very large rowels, generally
of nine points. After the fifteenth century the number of
the points cannot be taken always as a guide, as they varied
according to the time and the coimtry. Of all accoutrements
the spur is the most diMcult to classify in correct chrono-
logic order.
344 Spi/rs.

1 B and 2. German spurs in iron, of

the eighth century, found at
Grosohnowitz, near Oppeln.
Museum of Berlin.
1 A. Gold spur belonging to Char-
Musewm of the Louvre, Paris.
3. Danish spur in bronze, of the
eighth century, with an ii-ou
Museum of Copenhagen.
4. German spuria iron, of the eighth
century, found at Gnevikon in
Museum of Berlin.
5. German spur in iron, of the tenth
century, found at Brandenburg.
Author's Collection,
6. Anglo-Saxon or Norman spur of
the eleventh century.
Tower of London.
7. German spur of the tenth cen-
tury, found at Constance.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
8. German spur in ii-on, of the
eleventh century.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
9. German spuriron, of the
twelfth century, copied from
the frescoes in the Cathedral at
Brunswick, painted in the reign
of Henry the Lion, who died in
10. English spur, found at Cheater-
ford ; twelfth century.
Neioille Musewm at Audley End,

11. Spur copied from a reliquary of

the twelfth century, in the
collection of the late King of
12. Spur in iron, of the thirteenth
Hanover Musewm,
13. Swiss spur in iron, of the thir-
teenth century, found in the lake of Morat.
Gymnasium Collection ai Morat,
Spurs. 34&
14. German spur in iron, of the commenoement of the fourteenth
century, found at Brandenburg.
Author's CoUeclion.
15. German spur of the end of the fourteenth century, with eight-
pointed rowel, found in the tomb of a knight of Heideok.
Museum of Munich.
16. German spur of the end of the fourteenth century, with a twelve^
pointed rowel. It belonged to Duke Albrecht II. of Bavaria.
Mneeum of Munich^
,346 Sfurs.

17. Italian spur in iron, of the four-

teenth century.
Musemm of Sigmaringen.
18. German spur in iron, of the
fourteenth century, found at
Museum of Sigmaringen.

19. Spin in copper, of the foiuteenth

Meyrick Collection.

20. Spur in iron with a double

neck, of the fourteenth cen-
tury, found at Mayence.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
21. Spur in iron, of the fifteenth
century, with six - pointed
Widter Collection at Vienna.
22. German spur in iron, of the
fifteenth century, with eight-
pointed rowel, found in the
isle of Rijgen.
Museum of Berlin.
23. Spur in iron, of the end of the
fifteenth century.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

24. Moorish spur of the fifteenth

century. Museum of Artil-
lery, Palis. Similar ones in
the Amhras Collection are
said to be of Polish origin, and
of the sixteenth century.

25. Spur with stirrup attached, in

gilt copper, of the fifteenth
century. It belonged to Duke
Christopher of Bavaria, and is
now in the Museum of
S;purs. 347
S6. German spur in copper, about
10 inches long, of the end of
the fifteenth century.
Soter and Ambras CoUedions.

27. EngKsh spur in copper, about 5

inches loug, of the end of the
fifteenth century.
Meyrick Collection.

28. Spuringiltiron, of the sixteenth

Museum of Artillery, Paris.

29. Spur in iron, of tlie seven-

teenth century, with rounded
Mitseum of Sigmaringen.
30. EngUsh spur in steel of the six-
teenth century.
Meyrick Collection.

31. German spur in iron, of the

sixteenth century.
Mnsewm of Sigmaringen.
32 A. English spur in gilt iron. It
belonged to Ealph Sadler in
the reign ofEdward VI. (1547
Meyrick Collection.

32 B. German spur, copied from

one on a suit of armour for a
man on horseback.

33. German spur, said to be of six-

teenth-century date. It has
three rowels, and is of a very
rare shape. The author be-
lieves it to be of the seven-
teenth century on account of
the rounded branchea

34. Large spur in blackened iron,

the branches of which are
hollow, and served as a recep-
tacle for concealed despatches.
TheTieel of the shank, which
imscrewed, formed the mouth.
35. German spur of the sixteenth
Museum of Dresden.
348 Spurs.
36. English spur of the sixteenth or
seventeenth century. In the
Meyrick Collection it is said
to be of the fifteenth ; but the
shape of the hent branch ren-
ders this unlikely.

37. Spanish spur of the middle of

the seventeenth centm-y,
copied from a work by a
Spaniard, in "which it is said
to have belonged to Alphonso
Perez de Guzman, who was
bom in 1278, died in 1320 ;

but at that time the rowel was

much smaller, and had, in
fact, barely come into use.
The branches are rounded.

38. English spur of the sixteenth

Meyrick Colleciimi.

39. Spur in gilt copper, of the six-

teenth centuiy, wrongly attri-
buted to Louis XIV. (1643—
Museum of the Lmivre.
40. Spm- in iron of the reign of
Louis XIV. (1643—1715). It
resembles the Mexican spurs.
Author's Gollection.

41. German spur in iron of the

seventeenth century.
Museum of Sigmaringen,
42. English spur of the end of the
seventeenth century, caUed
gaiter spur.
Meyrich Collection.

43. Polish spur of the seventeenth

Museums of Prague and Sig'
Spurs. 349
a German spur of the sixteenth
Museum of Berlin.

45 A. Persian spur of the fifteenth

Atdhor'i Collection,.

46 B. German spur of the seven-

teenth ceutuiy. The width
and shape of the branches
show that this spur belongs
to a time when greaves were
no longer worn. For the
branches of the spurs which
were worn over greaves formed
an acute angle, and could not
possibly be arched or curved,

46. Ancient African spur in iron.

This same kind is in use at
the present day.

47. Arab spur, in use at the present \S


48. Brazilian spur, in use at the

present day.

The horse-armour and tournaments {Panzerdecke
for battle
in German) vsrongly termed caparisons (deriTed from
is often
the Spanish word cape), a word which properly means only
the rich coverings or housings spread over the back of the
spare horse (destrier, from the Latin dextra), which was led
along on the right hand by the squire. Horse-armour during
the Middle Ages had not attained the same degree of perfec-
tion as armour for men; it was not until the middle
of the fifteenth century that it assimied the form of a com-
plete equipment, which consisted of the chanfrein (German,
Mosstirne), the part which covers the forehead of the horse
(and which was either open or shut, i.e., with or without
" blinkers," to prevent the horse from shying) ; the testiere.
350 Horse-armour.

or head-piece (German, Kopfstiick), a name whicli was given

to the plate whicli covered the juncture of the chanfrein,
neck-armour, and jaw-plates, and was also sometimes applied
to the whole head-armour of the steed the mane-armour

(Mdhnewpanzer or Kammhappe in German French, harde de ;

criniere) ; the poitrail (Brustpanzer or Vordergebiige in German),

or breastplate, fitted either with hinges or like a flounce ; the
crupper and thigh-pieces (German, Krupp und Lendenpanzer or
Hintergebiige), which were either formed in one piece, which
came all round like a flounce, or else in two pieces, that is
to say, separated under the tail ; the rear-protector (German
Schwanzriempanzer) ; the side pieces or flanchards (Flanhen-
panzer or Seiienhlatter in German), which joined the front
plate or breast-piece to the thigh-pieces and croupiere; the
saddle with stirrups ; the bridle and bit the snafile bridle and

bossettes* and the nose-band or horse-muzzle, which latter

article was very much in vogue in Germany during the
sixteenth century, and, according to the Diversarum gentium
armatura equestris, a MS. of about 1617, was used by all the
German cavalry.
This assertion appears
be supported by doubtful
authority ; for which was placed over the
the muzzle,
nostrils, was only an ornament, and could be of no use
in war; most probably it was only used at festivals to
heighten the beauty of the caparison, as proved by the
drawings of Jobst Ammon in his Traite d'equitation civile.
The German armourers had brought horse-armour to such a
degree of perfection, that a picture of the year 1480,
preserved in the Arsenal of Vienna, represents Master
Albrecht, armourer to the Archduke Maximilian, mounted
on a horse furnished with articulated greaves.
At the commencement of the fourteenth century horse-
armour was of mail, as in many countries that of man still
was but it was covered over with a caparison of cloth. The

chanfrein was known to the Greeks, but was not used in

Europe tUl the end of the fourteenth or beginning of the
fifteenth century, for before this date the head- stall of the
horse is always represented as being made of mail, or of
plates of boiled leather.
* Bessettes these are ornaments on the side of the bit. The name

applied to the piece oi leather, or blinker, which covers the eyes

is also
of the mule.
JTorse-atnumr. 351

1. Head-stall (Kopfstuck) &om a

MS. of the foniteentli ceutuiy.

Head-stall of the fifteenth cen-


3. Openchamfron(5oss-siirae)oftlie
middle of the fifteenth century.

i. Complete head-piece with open


5. Closed chamfron, sixteenth cen-


6. Open chamfron, sixteenth cen-

tury, richly embossed. It
is part a set of horse-
armour of the Imperial Arsenal
of Vienna. The Meyriok and
the Ambras Collections, the
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna,
the Armoury of Madrid, the
Tower of London, the Mnseimi
)f Artillery, the Collection of
M. le Comte de Nieuwer-
kerke, etc., all possess good
specimens of this piece of the
horse-armour, on which the
makers of that day so delighted
to exercise their inventive and
decorative taste.

7. Crinet or mane-guard (^Mashnero-

panzer or Kammkappe) of thf
end of the fifteenth or beginning
of the sixteenth century.

8. Crinet and gorget of the end of

the fifteenth century, said to
have belonged toMajdmilian I.
It is alternately in mail and
plate armour. Ambras Collec-
tion. A similar one in the
Nieuwerkerke Collection.

9. Poiti'el (JBrustpanzer or Vorge-

buge) of the middle of the fif-
teenth century.

10. Poitrel a jupe, or in the shape

of a flounce, of the sixteenth

11. Poitrel of the end of the fif-

teenth century. It is part

of a set of horse-armour said
to have belonged to Maxi-
milian I.

Amhras Collection.

!2 FJanehard (Flankenpanzer) of
the middle of the fifteenth
Eorse-armour. 353

IS. Flanchaid from a suit of armour

called ajupe, in the shape of a

14. Croupiere or hind-piece mth

cuissards {Krupp und Lenden-
panzer or Mintergebiige), from
a suit of horse-armour of the
end of the fifteenth century,
said to have belonged to
Maximilian I.
Ambras Collection,

15, Croupiere or hind-piece a jupe,

of the sixteenth centurv.

16. Croupiere or hind-pieoe a jwpe

and trellised, of the second
half of the fifteenth or begin-
ning of the sixteenth century.
Ambras Collection.

17. Tail-guard (Schwamriem-

Meyrick Collection.

354 Horse-armcur.

18. Leg-guard of German horse-

armour; copied from a paint-
ing of 1480 in the Arsenal of
Vienna, representing the horse
of Master Albreoht, the ar-
mourer of the Archduke

19. Horse-muzzle (MauVcorb or

Nasenband). The Museum
of Sigmaringen, Tower of
London, Arsenal of Turin,
Museum of Artillery, at Paris,
Ambras and Meyriok Col
lections, allhave similar ones

20. Front piece of horse-armour,

comprising head-stall, poitrel,
neck-guard, with a saddle used
at tournaments that protected
the legs and chest of the rider
from an engraving in the
Tmimierbuch (hook on tourna-
ments) of the commencement
of the sixteenth century.

The saddle (from the Latin sella) seems to have been un-
known in ancient times before the Christian era. The
Assyrian bas-reliefs show neither saddles nor stirrups, and
on the Egyptian monuments the horse is invariably harnessed
to the chariot. Tho Greeks, who had no cavalry, nor even a
word in their language to express the action of riding, could
not have known much about an article which even the Bomans
did not possess till the fourth century after Christ. Zonoras,
an author of that time, is the first to describe a saddle,
properly so called, in giving the account of a combat fought
in the year 340 between Constans and his brother Con-
The use of tho saddle in Scandinavia dates as far back as
the iron age, that is, to a time perhaps anterior to the sixth
century, judging from the bronze pommels and stirrups that
are preserved in the Copenhagen Museum ; and the Codex
Aureus of the eighth or ninth centtuy represents the German
courser with a saddle and stirrups. In France there is a
bas-relief of this date (?) at Saint-Julien de Brioude (Haute
Loire), on which, as also in the Bayeux tapestry, saddles
and stirrups are represented.
The saddle used in battle was almost exactly the same
shape at first as it was at the end of the Middle Ages, with
the exception of the cantle, which was much lower. The
saddle used at tournaments in the thirteenth and fourteenth
centuries had two sorts of sheaths or guards, which covered
entirely the legs, the thighs, the hips, and even came as high
as the chest these were originally made of wood, but sub-

seq[uently of iron.
The five specimens of these curious saddles that have come
down to us are to be foimd at Eegensburg, at Constance, at
Schaffhausen, at the Tower of London, and at the Grermanic
Museum at Nuremberg.
856 War-saddles.

1. German war-s£iddle of the eighth or

ninth century.
Codex Aureus of Saint Oall.

2. Norman war-saddle of the eleventh

Bayeux Tapestry.

3. Bohemian war-saddle of the thirteenth

MS. of Soleslav in the Library of

4. German war-saddle of the thirteenth

MS. of Tristan and Isolde in the Munich

5. German war-saddle of the thirteenth

MS. of the German ^neid in the
Library at Berlin.
War-saddles. 357

War-saddle from an ivory of the

6 m
ftrarteenth century.

7. Italian war-saddle, copied from a

piece of printed cloth of the four-
teenth century.
Odet Collection ai Sitten.

8. Italian war-saddle of the second half

of the fifteenth century. Copied
from an equestrian statue of Bar-
tolomeo CoUeoni at Venice.

9. German war-saddle of the fifteenth

Museum of Artillery, Paris.

10. German war-saddle of the com-

mencement of the sixteenth cou-
tury, found at Strasburg.
Museum of Artillery, Paris

11. Persian war-saddle, from a copy

of the Schah Nameh, written
about 1600.
Museum of Munich,
358 Titting-saddles.
Tilting-saMles. 359

12. Tilting-eaddle, either German or Swiss, of the fourteenth century.

It isfrom the Arsenal of Schaffhausen, and it is said to have been
nsed in the tournament held in that town in 1392. It is of wood
covered over with pig-skin, and is not very unhke the saddles that
are in the Tower of London and in the Museum of Eatisbon,
excepting that the horseman is meant to sit down instead of

standing, as he must have done in those mentioned. It measures

about 3 feet 8 inches in height, but the part meant to protect the
stomach and chest is only 22 inches, whilst in the other saddles it
is about 26 inches high.
Museum of the Sistorical Society of Schaffhausen, and also in the Menni
Collection at Constance.

18. German tilting-saddle of the end of the fourteenth, or beginning

of the fifteenth century, originally ia the Penker Collection at
Berhn. It is about 5 feet 6 inches in height, 4 feet in length, and
protected entirely the legs and chest of the rider, who stood up in
the stirrups.
Tower of London.

14. Saddle, similar to the preceding belonged to the Paulstorfer

one ; it

family, which became extinct in 1622. It bears the colours of

that family. The height is only 3 feet 4 inches, and it appears to
have belonged to the second half of the fifteenth century. It was
hung up in the Chapel of the Minorites at Katisbon, where the
vaults of the Paulstorfer are, but is now in the Museum of
Eatisbon. M. Hans Weiningen has kindly copied it for me. In
the Germanic Museum there is a HimilaT one, which belonged to
the same family.
360 Saddles.

15. German saddle in ivory, of the

end of the fifteenth centmy.
Meyrick, Ambras, and Nieu-
werkerke Oollectiona, and
also those in the Mnsenms of
Monbijou at Berlin, and Bruns-
wick. This last belonged to
Duke Magnus, who was killed
at the battle of Liefenhausen.
The saddle in the Tower of
London has the following in-
scription :

" /eft hoffdeapesten

Hilf Got ical auf Sand Jorger Nam."
1 hope for the hest, if God help me in the
name of Saint George.

16. German tilting-saddle of the

sixteenth century, from the
Tournierbuch. It is like Nos.
12, 13, and 14, but it differs
from these saddles of the four-
teenth, in being much lower,
and that it does not entirely

cover the legs and chest.

These five specimens, which may

be found at Schaffhausen, Constance,
Nuremberg, and Loudon, are the
only ones that the author has been
able to find in European collections.


The stirrup, a word deriYed from the Latin gtrivarium or

straperium (Stdgbugel in German), is composed of the flat
piece where the foot rests, and the ring through which the
strap that fastens it to the saddle passes.
As the saddle was unknown to the ancients before the
Christian era, the stimip was not used before the fourteenth
century ; at which time the author Zonoras Hved, who is the
first who mentions a saddle, in his description of the combat
in 340 A.D. between Constans and his brother Constantiue.
The shape of the stirrup has varied very much, according
to the time and people. At first it was only a strap, * to
which was subsequently added a flat piece of wood or metal,
and afterwards it was of a triangular shape, as may be seen
in the frescoes of the Cathedral of Brunswick.
The pyrophore stirrup had a lantern to it, which gave
light and warmed the feet of the rider, but not a single
specimen is to be found in any museum. The stirrups,
used by women, as well as those used in battle of the
fifteenth century, which took the place of the soleret, are
closed at one end, so as to prevent the passage of the foot.
* See the knight on the bas-relief of Brioude.
862 Stirrups.

1. Mussulman-Spanish stirrup of the

twelfth century. This specimen
is about 18 inches high, and 13
inches wide. It belonged to
the Emperor Maximilian I.,

who sent it, not long before

his death, to Austria, where it

is now in the Ambras Collection.

This valuable stirrup in iron,
judging from the work, belongs
to the Eomanic period, and
was most likely taken over to
America by the Spaniards, who
had captured it from the
Moors. Similar stirrups are in
the collection of M. Oule-
mann at Hanover, in the Mu-
seum Lyons, and in the
possession of an antiquary at

2. German stirrup of the twelfth

century, from the frescoes in
the Cathedral of Brunswick.

3. German stirrup in iron, of the

thirteenth century.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

i. Spanish stirrup in iron, of the

end of the fourteenth century,
but attributed in the Armoury
of Madrid, where it is preserved,
to King James the Conqueror,
who died in 1276.
Stirrups. 363

5. Arab stixrup in iron, of the com-

mencement of the fifteenth cen-
tury. It is richly engraved
with gold and silver.
Author's Collection.

6. English soleret stirrup in iron, of

the fifteenth century.
Warwick Castle.

7. English soleret stirrup in iron : it

is meant for the right loot.

(Query meant for female ust- ?)

Ma/rick Collection'

8. Iron stirrup of the end of the fif-

teenth century. It belongs to

a carved ivory saddle in tni,-
Historical Museum of ]Mon-
bijou at Berlin.

9. Iron stirrup of the end of the

fifteenth century.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

10. Tilting (or, query, ladies') stirrup

of the sixteenth century. It is
ornamented with armorial
bearings, and the work is per-
6. 361, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

11. Large iron stirrup, 8 inches

wide, 6^- inches high, belong-
ing to the sixteenth century.
National Museum of Prague.

12. Stirrup from a set of armour for

man and horse, of the sixteenth
Arsenal of Berlin.
364 Stirrwps.

13. Large Saracen stirrup in iron, of

the beginning of the tixteenth
G. 130, Musemn of Artillery, Paris,

14. Polish stirrup in iron, perforated

work, of the oonunencement of the
sixteenth century.
Amhras GoUeotion.

15. Small stirrup to be used with a

soleret of the hec de cane shape

16. Stirrup in chased iron, probably for

a mule. It belonged to the six-
teenth century.
Author's Collection.

17. Id.

18. Id. id.

°" 19. Stirrup in embossed and perforated

Tower of London,
idbia. Id. _ id.
stirrups 365

20. Htmgarian stirrup of the six-

teeath century. It is covered
over with silver filigree work,
and ornamented with gilt
rosettes and precious stones.
Ambras Collection.

21. Persian stirrup from a MS. of

the sixteenth century.

2. Arab stirrup in perforated iron.

Mwewn of ArtiUery, Paris.

23. Stirrup in yellow copper of the

end of the seventeenth cen-

24. German stirrup in iron of the

seventeenth century, found at
Mvsewm of Sigmaringen.

25. German stirrup in iron of the

seventeenth century.
Museum at CasseL

26. Iron stirrup used in the north of



Tib bridle, a word derived from the Celtic brid {^um in

German), consists of the head-stall with frontal, of the bit,
and of the reins.
The bit is usually either solid or with branches.
The name snaffle (French, bridon ; German, Trense) is some-
times applied to a jointed bit with branches, and sometimes
to a light bridle with reins and bit. There are also bridles
with double reins.
The bridle is to be found in the earliest times in fact, it

is not possible to determine the exact date when it came first

into use; but bits with branches do not appear to have
been used before the beginning of the Middle Ages, for the
MSS. of the ninth and tenth centuries only represent bits
without branches or cross-pieces. The snaffles or jointed bits
with branches in the Copenhagen Museum, and attributed
there to the iron age, se'em to belong to the Middle Ages,
for the Eoman solid bit in the Meyrick Collection has neither
branches nor cross-pieces.
Bridles. 367

Danish tridle, copied from the door of a

church, carved in the tenth or eleventh
century, now in the Museum of Copen-

2. Danish bridle, copied from an agua-

manile of the twelfth century, now in
the Copenhagen Museum. The head-
stalls of these two specimens have no
and the second one seems
to be held on by the band that goes
round the ears. The first has no

it// S
3. Bridle from a bas-relief in the church of
Brioude, carved in the ninth cen-
tury (?).

i. Norman bridle of the eleventh or twelfth

century, copied from the Bayeux
Bits and Bridles.

5. Roman solid bit.

Meyrick Collection.
6. Jointed bit, also called snafBe,
without cross-piece, copied
from MSS. of ninth and tenth

7. Bit without joint, Norman, end

of the eleventh century.
Bayenx Tapestry.

8. Bridon, snaffle, or jointed bit,

with branches, belonging to the

Iron Age or commencement of
the Middle Ages.
Museum of Copenhagen.
9. German bit without joint or
branches, from a set of harness
in the Dresden Museum.

10. German bit without joint, and

with long branches and cross-

piece, of the first part of the

sixteenth century.
G. 62, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

11. Branch or cross-piece of a bit in

perforated iron, of the six-
teenth century.
Musewm of Artillery, Paris.

12. Bit with chains belonging to an

Arab bridle.
Museum of Artillery, Paris.


The sword (spatha in Latin, spada in Italian, espada in
Spamsh, Schwert or Degen in German) is one of the most
ancient of weapons, and it is found amongst all nations.
By the Greeks and Romans it was used in battle only, but
the Persians, the Germans, the Scandinavians, and the Gauls
wore it at all times. The Germans still retain the name Glaive
(Schwert) for the sword, when applied to the weapon used in
the days of knighthood, or to that used for executions.
The sword is composed of two principal parts the blade

(Klinge in German), the extremity of which is called the

point {Spitze, or Ort in German) ; the " tang," which fits into
the handle ; the edge and the hilt, which includes the pommel

'^Knauf in German) the handle (Milse in German), generally


of wood or horn, wound round with iron or copper wire, which

is an outer case to the tang the guard {Parirstangen or Stich-

hlaiter in German) ; the counter-guard, which is opposite the

guard, and which protects the back of the hand and the
wrist; the pas d'dne, a species of guard only used in the
sixteenth century, which came partly over the edge of the
blade ;| the quillons, which crossed horizontally between the

tang and blade all these are comprised in the one word
hilt. The flat piece of metal which is sometimes affixed to
the bottom of the hilt is called a shield (Korh in German)
and the term shell is applied to the semicircular hilts, such
as the Spanish rapiers have, which protected one side of
the hand; the grooved blades, introduced so as to lighten
the weight, must likewise be mentioned.
The espadon, from the Italian word spadone, implied at
first a long sword, used with both hands, but later the
word was applied to all double-edged weapons.
The estoc, from the German word Stock, or the Celtic stoc,
was the long narrow sword intended for thrusting rather
than cutting. Therefore the expression frapper d'estoc et de
taille can only apply to the long broad-bladed sword, inas-

* For swords famed in history, see the iatroduotory chapter, which

arms of the iron age.
treats of the
t See the illustratioc, page 190, of the end of the fourteenth, oi
beginning of the fifteenth century, where the men on horseback are
holding this sort of sword.
2 B
370 The Sword.
much as tie blade of the rapier and pointed sword, which was
straight, thin, and either three or four sided, was siiitable
only for thrusts.
The rapiers of the estoo shape were not in use before the
reign of Charles V., in whose time the modern art of fencing
seems to have originated. The blades of the estoc rapiers
were made at Toledo, Seville, and Solingen, and they are very
celebrated. The rapier has a basket hilt, either solid or of
perforated work, and a long straight handle. The coliche-
marde rapier, or Konigsmark sword, is known by its large
hilt, and by the blade being cut or engraved into little
squares. It was used only in the reign of Louis XIV., and
then only in duels. The word coliehemarde is only a corrup-
tion of Konigsmark.
The scimitar (in Persian cMmchir or chimicMr, in German
Scymitar) was the acinace of the Eomans, and most probably
gave rise to the sabre. It was used only by Oriental
nations in ancient times, and afterwards by the Moors in
Spain, by Saracens, and by the Turks. The handle of this
sword has no guard, the blade is single-edged, short, and
curved it is slightly wider towards the end.

The sabre (from the German Sabel or Sdhel, or from the

Sclavonic sahla) is the weapon that is most like the scimitar.
It was unknown to the Greeks and also for some time to the
Eomans, but most probably it was known to the Persians
and the inhabitants of Iberia before the conquest of this
country by the Visigoths and Arabs. The sabre was also
the principal weapon of the Dacians in the time of Trajan
(a.d. 101 to 106), as may be seen by the bas-reliefs on the
Trajan column, which represent the campaigns of that
emperor. Dacia was bordered on the south by the Danube,
on the north-east by the Carpathian mountains, and on the
north by the Dniester, and corresponds to Moldavia, Wal-
lachia, Transylvania, and also a portion of Hungary. The
sabre first appears in Germany about the fourteenth century,
and was universally employed in Europe at the time of the
first crusade.
This weapon, which Meyer, in his book on fencing, pub-
lished in 1570, wrongly calls a dusach* and which is often
* The diisack was a Bohemian sabre of a peculiar shape, without
» handle or hilt. It was wielded with a gauntlet protecting the hand.

The Sword. 371

represented in the engravings of Hans Burgmeier, was
the favourite weapon of the Mussulmans, who used to give
special names to their sabres. Mohammed, the founder of
Islamism, had nine, which were named respectively, Mahur,
Al-AdKb, Daulfakar, Ali-Kola (after the city of Kola,
where there were at that time many manufactories of
arms), Al-Ballar, Al-Hatif, Al-MedJiam, Al-Bosul, and Al-
The real Scotch claymore had a plain cross-guard, without
the basket hilt which protected the whole of the hand
swords and sabres with these hilts are often wrongly called
claymores, but they were used only by the Venetians, and
were called schiavone, being the weapon used by the Doge's
guards in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as may be
seen in pictures of that time ; in Scotland they were not
known tiU the eighteenth century.
The yatagan, the hhandjar, the flissa, the horikri, the
Icampah, etc., etc., are all different sorts of hatchet sabres,
generally without hilts or cross-guards. These Oriental
weapons are all so like each other, and they have varied so
little during many centuries, that they do not afford a subject
for study, nor can they be classed chronologically, on which
account the sword of the Christian Middle Ages is more
valuable to the antiquary. This weapon in the eighth, ninth,
tenth, and eleventh centuries was large, long, two-edged, with
a rounded point, and only useful for cutting or slashing.
The handle was straight, and formed with the blade a Latin
cross. The pommel was usually rounded or flattened, and
had sometimes two or three lobes in the eleventh and
twelfth centuries. The guards are always straight, but in
the thirteenth century their points were curved slightly
towards the blade, which at that time was sharp-pointed, and
about three feet in length.
In Germany the sword was a very formidable weapon as
early as the thirteenth century. The one of the knight

Koniad Schenok de "Winterstetten (1209 1240), that is pre-
served in the Museum of Dresden, has a straight guard, free
from any curve. The pommel is about four inches in
diameter, the handle six, and the hilt about ten inches in
length ; but these dimensions are unusually great.
The sword of the fourteenth century is even longer than
that of the preceding ages ; it was generally about forty-five
872 The Sword.
or fifty inches in length. The handles are always in the
shape of a cross.
The sword of the fifteenth century had a longer haft than
those of earlier times ; those of the sixteenth century are
more complicated in the arrangements of the hilt, from which
the simple cross-guard now disappears. After this time the
pas-d'dne form began to be used.
IBraquemart, malchus, coustil a croc, epee de passot, are all
names that were used to describe the short sword of Italian
origin, which had a blade very broad at the top, but gradually
tapering towards the end till it came into a point like a
tongue, which form seems to have been copied from the
ancient parazonium. This kind of sword belongs to the
fifteenth century, and in England was coiomonly known as
an anelace.
Theflamherg, or Swiss flame-sword, must not be mis-
taken for the flame-sword intended to be used with both
hands, which was a weapon in use in the sixteenth century.
The two-handed sword (Zweihander), or real espadon, is no
earlier than the fifteenth century. It was the ordinary
weapon of the foot-soldier in Switzerland ; in Germany its
use was confined mainly to the defence of besieged towns.
The lansquenette of the sixteenth century was short, wide,
two-edged, and pointed. The handle was like a trmicated
cone, and flattened at the end, which formed the pommel.
The verdun was a long narrow weapon, which took its
name from the town where it was made.
The handle of the seventeenth-century sword was even
more complicated than that of the sixteenth. Many of the
handles have quite a profusion of guards, counter-guards,
pas-d'ane guards, etc. Their shape indicates a decline in
taste, from the want of simplicity and severity of design.
Several swords of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
have rings intended to be slipped over the thumb so as to
protect it. The Germans call them Degen mit Daumringe.
For swords of the epoch called the iron age, see the chapter
in which the arms of this period are described. In it will be
found the names of the celebrated swords of the heroic
times, described in " sagas " and in poems.
Swords of the Middle Ages. 373

I. Sword belonging to Charlemagne

(771-814-), 3 feet in length.
The handle is in embossed work,
the blade is very wide, and with
a blunted end.
In the Louvre.

2. Sword in sheath, of the ninth

century, from the illustrations
in the Bible of Charles II. le
ChauTO (840-877). It will be
noticed that the pommel is in
the shape of a cross.
In the Lowvre.

3. Sword in sheath, of the eighth or

ninth century, copied from the
Codex Aureus of Saint Gall.
It measures about 4 feet 3
inches in length, and has a
rounded end.

4. Anglo-Saxon sword of the tenth

century, about 2 feet in length,
found in Hertfordshire.
British Museum.

5. Anglo-Saxon sword of the

eleventh century, from a MS.
in the British Museum. It
measTU'es about 35 inches in
length. It will be observed
that Anglo-Saxon swords are
shorter than those of Germany.
374 Swords of the Middle Ages.

6. Sword of the end of the eleventh

century, about 38 inches in length,
of tempered iron, with the exception
of the pommel, -which ia of copper.

I. 1, Museum of Artillery, Paris.

This sword has a sharp point, and
isthe same as those carried by the
knights in the Bayeux tapestry.

7. Mussulman sword of the eleventh

century. Its length is about .34


8. German or French sword, either of

the eleventh or twelfth century,
found at Saint Agata dei Goti, in
the kingdom of Naples. 3 feet in
Museum of Erhacli.

9. German sword of the twelfth cen-

tury, copied from the frescoes on
the dome of the cathedral at Bruns-
wick, which were painted in the
reign of Herny the Lion, who died
in 1195. This sword is not very
sharp, and it has a pommel with
six lobes.

10. German sword, either of the eleventh

or twelfth century, about 38 inches
in length, with a five-lobed pom-
mel. Museum of Munich. M. le
Comte de Nieuwerkerke has a
similar sword, but with straight
hilt. There is also another in the
Copenhagen Museum with a three-
lobed pommel.
— :

Sivords of the Middle Ages. 375

H. Indian sabre, probably of tbe

twelfth century. The handle
of the weapon is richly inlaid
with silver ; it was excavated
at Neumai'k, in Bavaria, and
most likely brought over by
the crusaders.
National Bavarian Museum at
12. German sword of the thirteenth
century formerly belonged

to the knight Konrad Schenck

de Winsterstetteu (1209—
1240). It is very large, the
length being about 8 feet 2
inches, and the width 4 inches.
The pommel is 4 inches in
diameter, the haft 6J inches,
and the hilt 10 inches in
length. On the blade the
following inscription is en-
graved :

" Konrad viel werther Schenck,

Hierbei du meln gedenck
Von Winsterstetteu hochgemuth,
Lass ganz kelnen Eisenhut."

(Conrad, be mindful of me.

May brave Winsterstetteu
leave no helmet unscathed.)
13. Fi-agment of a sword of the
thirteenth century.
M. te Comte de Nieuwerkerhe's
14. Sword of the thirteenth century,
found in a tomb in Livonia.
British Museum. It dates
from the time when the
knighthood of the Glaive
(^Schwert-Ritter), which was
eventually conquered by the
Lithuanians, was founded in
the Teutonic order. The two
ends of the guard are curved
towards the blade, a fact which
indicates it to be of thirteenth-
century date.
15. British sword in iron, about 30
inches in lengtli, of the thir-
teenth century, as is indicated by the ends of the hUt, which are
curved towards the point. This weapon is called Anglo-Saxon.
Tower of London t4>.
376 Swords of the Middle Ages.
16. English sword, thirteenth cen-
tury ; the handle is only
2| inclies long. This weapon,
liie the preceding one, has
been wrongly attributed to
the Anglo-Saxon period.
No. f^, Tower of London.
17. Sword in its sheath, probably of
the thirteenth centm-y, but if
not, of a still earlier date.
This weapon, preserved at
Jerusalem, is said to have
belonged to Godfrey of Bouil-
lon (eleventh century).
18. Sword of the thirteenth century,
39 inches long. The blade
is ridged, and not grooved
in the centre. The slight
inclination of the qu,iUon»
towards the point of the sword
denotes the time of its manu-
J. 2, Muse'e d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

19. Sword, end of the thirteenth or

beginning of the fourteenth
century! It is 41 inches
in length. The inscription
which the flattened pommel
of the sword bears, MAEIA,
in Gothic capitals, leads
us to conclude that it must
be prior to 1350, and not
of the fifteenth century, a" the
catalogue of the Muse'e d'Artil-
lerie affirms, where it is ex-
hibited under No. J. 10. This
handsome sword was found in
the Bois de Satory.
20. German sword in iron, with
copper pommel, 38 inches
long, end of the fourteenth
century. Found near Bruimen,
in the lake of Lucerne.
Collection of M. Smhholzer, curator
of the Arsenal of Berlin.

Swords of the Middle Ages. 377

21. German sword of the fourteenth H

century, 33 inches long,
and with a thumb ring. If
the ornaments and the armorial
bearings did not point out its

origin, it miglitbe reasonably

supposed that this weapon was
of Eastern manufacture.
National Museum of Mwiidi,

22 and 25. EngTavings on the blade

of the preceding object

23. Arab sword, fourteenth centniy

the handle silver - gi.'t and
richly engrayed. The quiUom
are double and curved towards
the point. This weapon bears
the date 1323 engraved in
Arabic numerals, and re-
sembles in shape the Moorish
swords. Speugel Collection,
Munich, but now in the Nieu-
werkerke Collection.

24. Executioner's sword of the fif-

teenth century, 27 inches in

length the hilt and handle re-

semble the lansquend swords

of the sixteenth century. The
blade has a gallows engraved
on it, and the date 1407.
378 Swords of the Middle Ages.

2o. Sword of the fifteentli century,

andace, with broad, short,
double - edged blade,* 26
inches long witliout a groove,

but with a ridge in the centre.

The quillons are very much
curved towards the point of
the blade.
J. 13, Musee d'ArtiUerie.

27. Italian sword, anelace, fifteenth

century blade broad, short,

and double-edged, 26 inches

in length.

28. Italian sword, anelace, fifteenth

century; the blade about 4
inches broad by 26 inches
long, double-edged, and fluted
ivory handle. The guard
bears the word "SoUa."
Ambras Collection. Similar
specimens may be seen in the
collections of the Count of
Nieuwerkerke, of M. Soter,
at Augsburg, and in the
Museum of Munich.
29. Sword, like the preceding
one, 25 inches long, but
broader in the blade, some-
times called "langue de
Arsenal of Prince LobTiowitz at

30. Sword, like the preceding one,

about 22 incljes long.
J. 476, Musee dArtilhrie de Paris.

* These kinds of swords, called

"pistos"and "anelaces," represent
the weapon known in France under
the names of " braquemart, malchus,
coustil h. croc " and " e'pe'e de passot."
f This is the parazonium or small
sword of the ancient Greeks and
Bomans, which they carried on the
left side.
Swords of the Middle 379
SI. Bohemian sword, fifteenth cen-
tury, called Diisack or Tesack,
39 inches long, composed
entirely of iron. The wearer
had his sword hand protected
by an iron or deer - skin
gauntlet, which reached to
tlie elbow.

32. Iron sword in one piece, fif-

This weapon,
teenth century.
38 or 39 inches long, and
used in Germany, resembles
the Bohemian Diisack.
Dresden Museum.

33. Scimitar, 32 or 38 inches

long, from a painting on a
table of the fifteenth century,
at Augsburg.
Indmtrial Museum, Vienna.

34. Claymore * or Scottish sword of

the fifteenth century, 3 feet
Warioick Castle.

35. German sword, fifteenth century,

3 feet 2 inches long.
Museum of Mwnich.

* The name claymore has been

incorrectly applied to those six-
teenth-century swords which have
iron basket-work hilts. These are
iu/realityVenetian swords, and were
originally called scMavona. {Vide
No. 69.) The long-bladed swords
with similar handles belong to the
end of the seventeenth and begin-
ning of the eighteenth centuries.
They were used among all nations
as cavalry swords.
380 Swords of the Middle Ages.

36. German sword, fifteenth century

38 inches long; the pommel
in crystal.
Musema of Munich.

87. German sword, fifteenth century,

4 feet in length the pommel

and handle are of copper.

Museiim of Munich.

38. Cutlass sabre, fifteenth century,

extremely large, about 3 feet
10 ruches in length; from
an engraving.
Cabinet of Engravings, Mimiclt.

39. German sword, fifteenth century,

3 feet 10 inches long, belong-
ing to a knight of St. George.
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna,

40. Sword, Swiss, end of the fif-

teenth century, with broad

blade and quiUon hilt, pas
cCdne," and counter guard.
The whole length is 3 feet.

Author's Collection,

* This is the most ancient sword

with a ^os d'&ne which the author
ha8 ever met with. Some frescoes
of the end of the fourteenth or be-
ginning of the fifteenth century, on
the walls of the church of Mon-
doneda, represent warriors armed
with swords with pas d'ane hilts.
Swords of the Sixteenth Centwy. 381

4-0 -A- 4-1

40 A. Sword, end of the fifteenth or

beginning of the sixteenth
century, restored according to
a description in the manu-
scripts, " The Arsenals of the
Emperor Maximilian," three
volumes of polychrome water-
colour drawings, executed in
1505, on an order of the Em-
peror,by Nicholas Glocken-
thon, and containing all the
remarkable arms which were
then preserved in the three
Imperial Arsenals.
AmlTos GoVection.

41. Same period and same source,

42. Ditto, ditto.

43. Ditto, ditto.

44. Ditto, ditto.

45. Ditto, ditto.

382 Swords of the Sixteenth Century.

46. Same period and eaiiie sourca

47. Ditto, ditto.

48. Sword, mth handle and guard

in gilded copper. A calendar
for the 1506 is very
elaborately engraved on the
blade, thus rendering it a
curious piece of workmanship.
Arsenal of Berlin.
Swords of the Sixteenth Centwry. 383

BO. Sword, German, sixteenth cen-

pas d'dne,
tury, witli quillmis,
and counter-guard with five
branches. 3 feet 10 inches
J. 52, Mue^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

51. Sword, Swiss, all of iron; the

blade is 2 feet 7 inches long,
and the handle about 9 inches
long. It belonged to the
reformer Zwinglius, who died
in the battle of Cappel (1531).
Arsenal of Zurich.

52. Sword, German, beginning of

the BLxteenth centui'y, 3
feet 8 inches long. The
blade is ornamented with a
crucifix in high relief, which
renders it unsuited for being
Museum of Sigmaringen.

53. Sword, Dutch, with long and

broad blade. It belonged to
Wilham the SOent, who was
murdered in 1584.
Arserial of Berlirt.
384 Swords of the Sixteenth Century.

54. Sword, German, belonging to a

lansqueTiet. of the sixteenth
century. Plain pattern, with
counter - guard. The total
length is 2 feet 11 inches the

blade measuring 29 inches in

length and 2 in breadth.
Muaewm of Sigmaringen.

55. Sword, Spanish, with Moorish

orniimeuts, sixteenth century,
belonging to the collection of
the Marquis of Villaseca, and
attributed by him to Boabdil,
the last Moorish king of
Granada, who was dethroned
in 1492. This sword is very
like one preserved in the
Armeria Real, at Madrid, and
attributed to Don John of
Austria, who died in 1578.
Two similar swords are to be
seen, one in the Cabinet de
MedaiUes, at Paris, and one
in the possession of Don
Fernando Nuilez. The sword
in the Cabinet de Me'dailles,
No. 876, bears the inscription,
"II n'y a de vainqueur que

56. Sword, German, sixteenth cen-

tury, manufactured at Augs-
burg. It is 4 feet 3 inches
in length, and the pommel
and guiUons are engraved.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

57. Sword, German, belonging to a

lansquenet, sixteenth century,
2J feet long. The double
guard, hilt, and pommel are
of iron, with copper mount-
Museum of Garlxrulhe.
Swords of the Sixteenth Century. 385

58. Sword, out and thrust, French,

3 feet 9 inches long, -with
a slender blade, in the style
of the Spanish rapier blades.
The quitlons are curved: it
has a pas d'dne and an open-
work pommel, and bears on
the guard the initial letter H.
This sword either belonged
to Henri 11. of France him-
self or to one of his courtieTs.
The ornaments on the pom-
mel consist of H's interlaced,
and the ornament on the
scutcheon is formed by an H
interlaced with a heart.
Author's Collection.
59. Sword, German, sixteenth cen-
tury. The blade has a double
edge, narrow, and with a
ridge ; the handle is of black
iron. The quillons are cm-ved
towards the point. Gnard
and pas d'dne.
J. 27, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris.

60. Sword, cut and thrust, German,

beginning of the sixteenth
century. The blade has three
ridges. Two guards and a
counter-guard. The guillom
are straight. The handle of
shagreen. Fas d'dne.
J. 47, Miis€e d' AHilhrie, Paris.

61. Sword, beginning of the six-

teenth century, with Spanish
blade, bearing the mark of the
armourer, Alonzo de Sahagon
of Toledo.
J. 50, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris.

62. Tilting sword, sixteenth cen-

tury, from a picture of that
period in the collection of the
Count of Bngenberg.
63. Sword, German, sixteenth cen-
tury. It is 3 feet 6 inches
ia length; tJie pas d'dne

386 Swords of the Sixteenth Century.
hilt* is richly inlaid with silver allegoric figures representing the
Danube, Ehine, etc. The blade bears the inscription, PETER.
. . .

Museum of Sigmaringm.

• We may it was by this name that the small guard

again remark
on the blade was called.was not until the latter half of the sixteenth
century that the pas d'dne was generally adopted, but it may be seen a)
page 380, both in the text (No. 40) and in the foot-note, that the pag
d'dne dates back even to the fifteenth century. See also the ex-
planation of the word pas d'dne in the introduction to this chapter, and
«lso at No. 63.
Swords of Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 387

64. Sword, Gernian, sixteenth cen-

tury, from the descriptions of
the " Noces princiferes," by
Industrial Mmeum of Vienna.

Sword or Spanish rapier, end of

the sixteenth century. Basket
hilt and straight quiUone.
J. 85, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

66. Sword, German, inlaid with

gold and enamelled, beginning
of the seventeenth oentm-y ;

with quiUom and pas d'dne.

Museum of Sigmaringen.

67. Sword, or rapier.

J, 102, MJuseum of Paris.

Outline of a sword, German,

beginning of the seventeenth
century, with pas d'dne and a
German inscription, " leh
halte Jems und Maria." It is
preserved in the Armaria of
Madrid, where it is attributed
Ferdinand (1200—1232).
to St.
There is thus a difference of
400 years between the date of
the manufacture and the date
assigned to the sword.
388 Swords of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.
69. Sword, Venetian, 2 feet 9 inches
long, beginning of the seven-
teenth century, called " schia-
Tcna." * This sword and the
Bcy tiled sword were the offen-
sive weapons of the Sohiavoni
or Doge's guards. In almost
all collections it is described
as a claymore, which is the
Scottish sword with a plain
cross hUt. Museum of Sig-
maringen and FaUly Collec-
tion. In this last-named col-
lection there is a scMavona
stamped with the winged Uou
of Venice.

70. Same as above. J. 119, Mus&

d'Artillerie de Paris, where it
is erroneously described as a

71. Cavalry sword, end of the

seventeenth century.
J. 96, Musee d'Artillerie, Farie.

72. Scottish cavalry sword, eigh-

teenth century, erroneously
called claymore.
J. 118, Mtis^e d'Artillerie, Pari^.

* The pictures of Pietro deHa

Vecchia often represent people
armed with this kind of sword.
Swords of Seventeenth and MgMeentJi 389

73. Savoyard sword, beginning of

the seventeentli century. It
belonged to Captain Branaa-
lieu-Chaffardin, who was killed
under the walls of Geneva in
Arsenal of Geneva.

74. German sword, beginning of the

seventeenth century. It is

grooved and measures 7 feet

2 inches in length. With
quiUons and pas d'dne.
Museum of Munich.

75. Sword of the latter years of

the seventeenth or beginning
of the eighteenth century. It
is 5 feet 4 inches in length.
J. 135, Musee d'Artillerie, Paris,
and the Imperial Arsenal of '&>

76. Cutlass or mariner's sword,

seventeenth century; quUlone
and counter-guard.
Museum of Erbach.

77. Sword of the seventeenth cen- U 77

tury, with guard covering the
back of the hand, and quillons,
the ends of which are curved
in opposite directions.
890 Swords of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.

7S. Court sword of the time of Louia

XV. (1715—1774), in polished
iron or steel cut in facets.
MerviUe Collection.

Court sword of the time of Louis

XV. (1715—1774), in steel,

with gilt ornament, and with

a pas d'dne of a peculiar
Merville Collection,

80. Court sword of the time of Louia

XVI. (1778—1793), in steel.
Merville Collection. A large
quantity of these kinds of
swords have been made whose
shapes vary but little. Some
of them have in the eyes of
the amateur a great artistic
value, especially when the
date of their manufacture is

shown by the stamp.

Eastern Sabres. 391

78*. Indian sword called "Eunda

de Rajah," * sixteenth century,
3 feet 3 inches long, and en-
tirelymade of iron. The blade
is damascened, the handle,
guard, and hilt are beautifully
ornamented with embossed
and engraved work.
Author's Collection.

79*. Indian sword called " Johur de

Mnjdh," beginning of the
seventeenth century.
Mueewm of Tsarshoe-Selo.

80*. Nepanl sword, called " Konkri

3. 453, Musee d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

81. Hindoo-Mussulman sword in

Khorassan damascened work.
The diSerence between the
Indian and purely Turkish
taste may be seen in the
handle of this sword. The
damascening of the blade is of
a yellowish tint, which Is the
most esteemed.
J. 407, Mvsie d'Artillerie, Paris.

* At the Museum of Tsarskoe-

Selo, and at the Musee d'Artillerie,
Paris, there are similar swords.
392 Eastern Sahres.

82. Persian sword from a manuaoripl

of 1600, an illustrated copy of
the " Sdhah Nameh," a poem
by Ferdusi, composed In the
reign of Mahmoud, a.d. 999.
Library of Munich.

83. Albanian or Arnaut* sword,

recognisable by the peculiar
shape of the handle, which in
other specimens is often omar

mented with small chains.

The handle and sheath of this
weapon is inlaid with bright
embossed silver, and the da-
mascened blade is almost
straight in shape.
Musee d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

84 Turkish sabre with black damas

cened blade, of ancient mamn-
fecture of Constantinople.
J. 390, Mus^e d'Artillerie Paris.

85. Turkish sabre, seventeenth cen-

Dresden Museum,

* The Turks caU tlie Alljiiniana


Scimitars. 393

85 B. SeimitaT, from a German St. B

manoscript, beginnmg of the
fifteenth century.

86. Turkish scimitar, which differs

greatly from the scimitars of
the West in the shape of its
guards, the ends of which
curre towards the point of the
sabre. Tliis guard is in the
shape of a heart, like almost
all Eastern sabres.

87. Chinese scimitar, a weajwu

easily known, like almost all
Chinese sabres, by the absence
of quiHons, counter-guard, pas
d'dne, and basket hilt, by the
handle being corded, and by
the pommel, which resembles
the Chinese head-dress.

87 A. Large cutlass or mariner's

sword. Blade 1 foot 4 inches
Museum of Sigmaringen.

87 B. Matador's sword with which

the toreador on foot fights
and kills the bull. The
handle of this weapon is

'oound with a piece of red

woollen biaid.
G. Aroea Collection at Par.'*.

C '^
394 Scimitars and Yataglmns.

. Japanese yataghan with damas-

cened blade, and rhinoceros
horn handle, studded with
dice-shaped ornaments.
J. 439, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Parie.

, Japanese sabre with curved

point ; the handle is of carved
wood, mounted with silver.
J. 414, Musge d'Artillerie, Paris.

90. Japanese sabre called 'Sio-


91. Chinese sabre.

Tower of London.

92. Modern Chinese sabre ; the

handle is of white wood. It
was part of the spoil taken
from Pekin, and is exhibited
in the Musee d'Artillerie,

93. Chinese sabre-knife, given to

condemned ciiminals to kill
themselves with.
Museum of Berlin,
Yataghans, etc. S95

94. Turkish yataghan with blade

damasi:!ened in gold. Taken
from the Turks before Vienna
in 1683.

95. Albanian yataghan. The handle,

like the sheath, is plated with
bright silver, embossed and
engraved. The blade is
Mue^e d'Ariillene, Paris.

96. Kabyle flissa, with handle

ornamented in copper. It
will be noticed that the flissa

and yataghan resemble one


97. Turlrishkandgiar. Horn handle,

studded with copper damas- ;

cened blade. J. 427, Musee

d'ArtiUerie, Paris. It may be
noticed that yataghans, flissas,

and kandgiars are very like

each other, which renders
their classification difficult.
The yataghan, as well as the
and kandgiar, are gene-
rally single-edgedand with-
out guards they are m:i9

Like sabres than swords.

African Suords.

98. Arab sword, exhibited mider

No. G. 413, Muse'e d'Aitillerie,
Paris, where it is described aa
an Indian weapon. Tlie quil-
lons are curved towards the
blade, which is indented.

99. Sword from Morocco with

rhinoceros horn handle. The
guard iscomposed of three
quillons, all curved towards
the blade ; there is also a

100. Zanguebar sword (Eastern

Africa), 1 foot 10 inches long.
The blade is single-edged,
but has three grooves. The
sheath and handle are in
embossed or engraved copper,
ornamented with precious
Chritty Collection, London.

101. Large Zanguebar sword with

crimped leather sheath. The
haft, tapering towards the
end and twisted, forma a
handle, which is without
either guard or quillons. As
the sword is very long, it is

difficult tounderstand Low

this singular weapon could
be wielded.
Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris.

African Yataghans. 397

102. Zanguebar sword.*

Musee d'AHiUerie, Paris.

103. Scythed yataghan of Tonariif

Mus^e cHArtillerie, Paris.

104. Hatchet yataghan of Tonarik

Musie d'ArtHlerie, Paris,

* The Zanguebar is a
coast of
large Eastern Africa,
district of
which borders on the Indian Ocean
it comprises many states, among
which may be named those of Mago-
doxo, Melinda, Zanzibar, and Qoiloa,
The inhabitants speak the Caf&e
tongue, and many of them are
t The Tonarik tribes inhabit part
of the Sahara.
398 Two-handed Swords.

105. Two-handed Grerman sword

{Zweihdnder in German),
fifteenth century. J. 148,
Museum of Paris. The British
Museum possesses a similar
weapon, 5 feet 8 inches
in length. It was the
statesword of Edward V.
(1475—1483). The sheath
and handle are enriched with
polyehiome enamels.

106. Swiss or German two-handed

sword of the sixteenth cen-
tury, with wavy blade and
hooks. J. 151, Mus^e d'Ar-
tillerie, Paris. A similar
sword is in the Az Collection
at Lintz, and bears the date
1590, and the German in-
scription " Weich nit von

mir, treuer Gott!" " Forsake

me not, oh true God !"

107. Swiss two-handed sword, be-

ginning of the seventeenth
Two handed Swords. 399

108. Two-handed sword, end of the

sixteenth or beginning of the
seventeenth century, as the
curvature of the quillons
towards the handle and the
ring for the thumb seem to
J. 169, Muaee d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

109. Swiss two-handed sword, with

curved and saw-edged blade,
fifteenth century, about 4 feet
in length, the handle being
18 inches in length the ;

quiUons are curved towards

the blade.
Arsenal of Berne.

110. Two-handed German sword

(_Zweihandiges Siebmesser),
end of the fifteenth century.
This singular weapon, which
is cutlass -shaped, is not
straight ; the blade and
handle incline in opposite
Arsenal of Vienna.

111. Two-lianded German sword

with cushions QFaustkapperi),
sixteenth century.
Dresden Musevm.



This kind of weapon, the diminutive of the sword the —

war-knife, in fact has been in use among all people and
during all epochs. The shades of difference between the
poniard (from the Latin pungere, to prick, or pugnus, a fist,
and called in German Dolch) and the dagger* (from the Celtic
dag, point; in German, Grosser Dolch or Dolckmesser) are
often so slight that the two weapons are continually con-
founded one with the other. The poniard, properly so called,
is smaller and shorter in the blade than the dagger, which
was identical with the ancient broad and short sword of the
early nations.
It has been seen that the poniard was in use during the
ages of flint, whether chipped or polished, a time at which
the Danish weapons were the most finished and most artistic.
During the bronze period the poniard equally maintained
its sway, it was the parazonium of the ancients, and was worn
on the left side, while amongst the Greeks and Eomans the
sword always hung from the right side ; among the Assyrians
and Egyptians, on the contrary, it hving on the left.
The dagger of the Germans was the scramasax (see under
this name), a species of single-edged cutlass with a very
long haft. The guards of the poniard and dagger, as well
as those of the sword, are a great help towards fixing the
date of their manufacture, and it has been remarked that
during the thirteenth century the ends of the quillons were
slightly curved towards the point of the blade.
The misericorde was a poniard which received its name
from being used to give the last or finishing stroke (coup de
grace) to an adversary its triangular blade rendered it

serviceable for thrusting through the points of the armour, on

which account it was called in German PanzerhrecTier (cuirass-
breaker). The French misericorde of the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries was nevertheless larger than the German
Panzerbrecher, and it was also used in England for planting
in the ground and tethering the horse to during the reign
of James I. (1603).
* In venery or huntiag terms, " dague " is the name given to the
horn which grows on the head of the young stag in his second year
hence the name "dagnet" given in France to the young stag before he
is thi'ee years old.
The Bagger. 401
The dagger' with thumb-ring {Bolch mit Baumring), the
ase of which dates from 1410,
is the long Spanish poniard, the
guard of which, placed above the quUlons, has a large ring
fastened to it in which the thumb was placed. Towards the
end of the fifteenth century it was worn on the right side,
and also on the loins. During the sixteenth century it had
a double thumb-ring, and was placed on the end of the pike
to resist cayalry.
The anelace, so called because it
was worn fastened to a ring
(^annulus), is distinguishedby the size of the blade, the shape
of which, broad above and pointed below, resembles an ox-
tongue. Hence its French name "langue de boeuf." The
small knife often seen on the sheath of this weapon, and
which was generally made at Verona, is called " bastardeau."
The lansquenet dagger, end of the fifteenth and beginning
of the sixteenth century, was somewhat long, and worn below
the girdle, as the pictures of that time show. The Swiss
lansquenet dagger was shorter, and more like a poniard with
a steel sheath.
The Frankish archers, the foot archers, and almost all the
foot-soldiers of the Middle Ages, were armed with daggers.
The main gauche, end of the fifteenth and beginning of the
sixteenth century, believed to be of Spanish origin, and from
thence brought into Italy and France, was more properly a
duelling weapon. It was held in the left hand to ward off
blows, while the right was armed with the long rapier. The
Italian main gauche preserved in the Musee d'Artillerie at
Paris, No. J. 485, and engraved further on (see No. 28),
represents one of these weapons called " pennated," with three
blades expanding by means of a spring when a button was
pressed in the handle, and forming a guard of great length
and breadth, in which the adversary's sword might be caught
and snapped.
This dagger, however, is neither of Spanish nor of Italian
origin, as compilers have always repeated ; it was already

known in Germany during the fifteenth century, when it was

used in the secret sittings of the Free Judges, at the taking
of the oath vowed in the name of the Holy Trinity, which
was represented by the three divisions of the weapon, with
which all the Schoeffen were provided.
The stiletto (Spitzdoleh) wa,s a small poi JtJwhich eamii
2 D
402 The Dagger.
into use during the Middle Ages, and which is well known
even at this day.
The " creese," sometimes written hrees, which the Diction-
naire de rAcad^mie Frangaise erroneously spells " crid," is
a Javanese dagger, generally with a wavy or " flaming " blade,
which the Malay teibes render still more fatal by dipping
into poison.
The " khouttar," a Hindoo weapon, has a large blade like
the Italian an dace, fixed on to a square handle, into which
the hand is slipped, and thus protected as far as the wrist by
this kind of guard or gauntlet. There are hhmttars in which
the blade is divided into two points, but they are not common,
and are called serpent-tongued.
The " wag-nuk " is not a poniard, properly so called, but
a weapon meant for striking with as a tiger strikes with his
claws. It was invented in 1659 by Sevaja, the chief of a
secret society, and was used by bandits in assassinations.
The wounds inflicted by this weapon resembled those made
by a tiger, and thus diverted suspicion from the real authors
of the crime.
The Italian daggers are celebrated for their fine workman-
ship in wrought iron, being often incrusted and damascened
with silver ; the blades are frequently of pierced work.
Ancient Italian and German daggers and poniards have
been known to fetch at the public sales in Paris the high
price of a thousand francs.
In more modern times the names of knife-swords and
bayonet-poniards were given to the knives, swords, and
bayonets in the shape of poniards, that is, with a pointed
blade sharpened on both sides.
404 Daggers and Poniards.
Baggers an^ Poniards. 405

1. British cutlass, tenth century. It bears on the blade the namea

" Edwardus ," and " prins agile." It is attributed to Edward U.
Maehd Manuscript
2. Iron dagger, about a foot long, thirteenth century.
Museum of the Canton, Lausanne
3. Iron dagger, thirteenth century, the blade of which measures about
12, and the haft about 5 inches,
Mv,semn of the Canton, Lausamte.
4. Iron poniard, probably Scottish, fourteenth century.
Collection of Prince Charles of Prussia (see No. 13, next page).
5. Same as above.

6. Poniard, beginning of the fourteenth _oentury.

7. Iron dagger, about 14 inches in length, beginning of the fourteenth

century. The haft is very long.
Museum of the Canton, Lausanne.
8. Iron dagger, about 19J inches long, end of the fourteenth century.
Tower of London,
9. Iron dagger, 14j inches in length, end of the fourteenth century.
It was found in the lake of Morat, and the handle is of carved
bone. Arsenal of Geneva. Poniards of this shape were manu-
factured until the sixteenth century, for the
' Feldbuch,'
at that time by Egge at Prankfort-ou-the-Main, and preserved
in the cabinet of engravings at Munich, contains simila,r illus-

10. Iron dagger, end of the fojirteenth, or beginning of the fifteenth

century. Collection of the Count of Nieuwerkerke. Similar
weapons (found in the Thames) may be seen in the British
Museum, and in the Museum of Sigmaringen, found in Hohen-
zoUern. A
manuscript of the fifteenth century, illuminated by
Zeitblom for the Prince of Waldburg, also shows this same fciud
of poniard.
11. Poniard, end of the fourteenth century.
406 Baggers and Poniards.

Baggers and Poniards. 407

12. Dagger, fifteenth century, of a shape belonging also to the fourteenth

Arsenal of Vienna,

13. Scottish dagger, about 14i inches long, the handle is of wood
fifteenth century. See the observations on the claymores, and the
dagger. No. i.
Caimt of Nieiiwerkerk^s Collection.

14. Dagger with single thumb ring, about 16 inches long, fifteenth
Author'i Collection.

15. Dagger with double thimib The two rings

ring, sixteenth century.
were placed there to fix the dagger on a shaft, or at the end of
a lance, to resist cavalry.
16. Dagger, anelace, or Verona dagger, fifteenth century.
Mum d'ArtiUerie, Paris.
17. Dagger, anelace, fifteenth century.
18. Dagger, fifteenth century.
Musee cPArtitterie, Paris.

19. Dagger of a German lansquenet, sixteenth century, about 14 inches

long. Sheath in polished steel.
Mm^e d'Artillerie, Paris,

20. Dagger of German lansquenet, sixteenth century.

SSter CoUecticm, Maximilian Museum, Augdmrg.
408 Daggers and Poniards

J7 _. ^

Baggers and Poniards. 409

21. Poniard, German, sixteenth contury.

22. Stiletto {Spitzdolch), about 12 inches long, end of the sixteenth
century. In Germany these weapons were also called Panzer-
breclier, or cuirass-breaker.

23. Dagger, Swiss, sixteenth century, from the Soltikoff Collection.

Similar weapons, belonging to M. Buohholzer of Lucerne, and
the Count of Nieuwerkerke at Paris, have in embossed work on the
sheaths, instead of the usual hunting subjects, representations
of the Dance of Death. These daggers are often provided with
small knives, which served to cut the thongs of the armour, to
pierce holes, and for various purposes during the campaign.

24. Dagger, German, sixteenth century.

Ancient Soltikoff Collection.
25. Poniard, German, with wavy blade, very short and broad.
'Arsenal of the City of Vienna,

26. Poniard, German, sixteenth century. The guard has four quillons.
Collection of Charles XV., King of Sweden.
27. Main gauche, sixteenth century.
Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

28. Main gauche, German, sixteenth century. Musee d'Artillerie,

Paris, and also in the museums of Prague and Sigmaiingen. See
the arms of the Free Judges.
410 Daggers and Poniards.


rj A r\ nn
is Pi n
Daggers and Poniards. 411

29. 3fam gauche, German, about 20 inches long, sixteenth oentniy.

The handle is richly engraved.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
80. Main gauche, Spanish, with the insoriptiou " Viva Felipe V.," which
shows that this weapon was in use in the year 1701.
Meyrick Collection.

31. Main gaache, Grerman, with indented blade for breaking swords,
sixteenth century.
Count of Nieuwerkerke'e Collection.

32. Main gauche, German, with indented blade for breaking the enemy's
sword; thnmb ring, and qniUons curved in inverse directions;
sixteenth century.
Muieum of Dresden Collection.

33. Indented blade of No. 31.

34. Large German hrise-ip^e, sixteenth oeutuiy.

Meytiek CoUeetion,
33. Indented blade of the preceding objeot.
412 Daggers and Poniards.

36. Large main gauche, German,

•with indented quillons, and
grated guard as sword-breaker,
seventeenth century. It mea-
sures about 25 by 10 inches.
National Museum of Munich,

37. Stiletto, German, called Pan-

zerbreeher, or cuirass-breaker,
about 12 inches long, sixteenth
Museum of Sigmaringen.

38. Poniard, Geiman, called Pan-

zerbrecher. The numbers on
the blade serving probably
for measuring the bore of
Museum of Sigmaringen,

39. Pouiai'd, about 10 inches long,

richly studded with precious
stones. This weapon belonged
to SobiesM.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

40. Poniard, Persian.

J. 533, Musg'e d'ArtiUerie, Paris,

Daggers and Poniards. 413

41. Wag-nuk, or tiger's claw, two

and a halt feet in length
this was an Indian weapon
belonging to a secret society,
and was invented about 1659
by Sewaja, a Hindoo. It was
used for purposes of murder,
and as it counterfeited the
wounds of a tiger's claw, di-
verted suspicion fiom the
Meyrick Collection.

42. Persian poniard, with damas-

cened blade and ivory handle.

43. Hindoo khouttar with blade,

called " langue de boeuf."
Mus^e d'ArtilUrie, Paris.

44. Hindoo khouttar with forked

RTuseum of Tsarskoe-Selo.

45. Turkish kandjar dagger.

46. Javanese krees.

47. Javanese dagger, but of Indian

or Persian workmanship, 17
inches long. The blade is

grooved, and the handle of a

. massive piece of ivory, orna-
mented with nail-heads in
damascened iron. The sheath
of shagreen is partly covered
by plaques of niello-work.
Author's Collection.


The lance (from the barbarous Latin lancea, in German
Speer, and also Spiess) was in use at a very remote period of
antiquity, and was common among the Assyrians as well as
among the Egyptians. Prom the eighth to the thirteenth
century after Christ the lance remained much the same in
shape, a simple cylindrical shaft of smooth wood, about twelve
feet long, with the lance-head fixed by a socket on to the
The tilting lance, which did not appear until the thirteenth
century, and was soon utilised in warfare, had a handle ; it
was thicker at that place, and gradually tapered towards the
head and base. In France the use of the lance was forbidden
during the reign of Henry IV. in 1605. The lances of the
tenth and eleventh centuries are conspicuous by the pennons
fastened below the socket of the lance-head. The lances of
the mercenaries known under the name of lansquenets had
generally small blades, whose sockets were strengthened by
long stems branching down the shaft, to which they were
fixed by means of screws ; these lances were sometimes
twenty-four or even twenty-seven feet in length. The lances
of the Swiss foot-soldiers were not often more than sixteen
feet long, for the Swiss method consisted in forming their
soldiers into four close rows.
The spear was a weapon used in hunting the wild boar.
* In the Bayeux tapestry, and in miniatuies of the same period,
pennons are attached to the lances.
Lances. 415

1. German lance, from the Codex

aureus of Saint Gall, of tUe -===rr3jTQii!}i;:lP23=s=^
eighth or ninth century.

2. German lajice, beginning of the
ninth eentnry, and afterwards cd^ i'TTTlIilidb
called Knebelspiees, copied from
the WessobruQ manuscript in
the Munich Library. «\

3. Norman * lance, eleventh century,

from the Bayeux tapestries.

4. The same, with pennon.

5. The same.

* The lance, as also the sword,

were among the Normans the wea-
pons of free men, for in the laws of
William the Conqueror on the sub-
ject of freeing a serf, it is said,
Tradidit illi arma libera, sciUoet
lanceam et gladium.
416 Lances.

6. Anglo-Saxon lance from a minia

tare in the Ael/ric manuscript,
of the eleventh century, in the
British Museum.
7. Large spear-head, damascened
with gold, of the fifteenth cen-
tury, fifteen inches in length,
the Ijlade measuring ten and a
half, and the haft, four and a
half inches.
Benne' Collection at Constance.
8. Large spear-head, fifteenth cen-
tury, with a long shaft.
Arsenal of Zurich.

9. Lanceofalansquenet(Xang-8pie«8
in German), end of the fif-
teenth century. The sliaft is
about twenty-four feet long,
^^^^^ and is one inch and a half in
diameter. The Museum of Salz-
burg, possessing several similar
lances, presented some of th em to
^q.A the Emperor Napoleon III., who
gave them to the Musee d'Ar-
tillorie at Paris. Monsieur Az
at Lintz has also a few lances
of this kind in his collection.
10 A and 10 B. Lances of Austrian
•=^C_^:^;«((^ foot-soldiers, end of the fifteenth
century. Weapons lite these
are to be seen in the drawings
made by Nicholas Glockentbon
?7.4 in 1505, from the Arsenals of the
Emperor Maximilian.
Anfibras Collection.

11 A. Lance of Swiss foot-soldiers,

of the fifteenth and sixteenth
Jf-$ centuries.
Arsenals of Soleure and Lucerne.
11 B. The same.
12. Slender lance, called Assagai,
from the Arsenal of Ehode.s,
and belonging formerly to the
knights of St. John of Jeru-
salem (1522).
F. 43, Mue^e d'Artillerie Paris.
Laimes. 417

13 A. Long slender lance, begin-

ning of the sixteenth century.
The lance-head is nearly a foot
and a half in length. From
drawings already mentioned,
executed in 1505 by Glocken-
thon, and which are to be found
in the Ambras Collection.

13 B. The same.

11. War lance of the fifteenth cen-

tury, from a piece of tapestry,
said to have been found in the
tent of Charles the Bold.

15. TUting lance, with vamplate,

sixteenth century.
Meyrick Collection.

16. War lance of the sixteenth cen-

tury, profusely ornamented
with red eagles on a white
ground, the arms of the city
of Innspruck.
Meyrick Collection.

17. Tilting and war lance, from the

above - mentioned iUnstrated
manuscript of Glockenthon,

18. The same.

All these lances have an indented

place in the shaft for the hand to
obtain a firm grip. This fashion
does not date farther back than the
end of the thirteenth century, at
which time the tournaments were
frequent, and well regulated.
418 Lances.

19. German lanoe, called Knehel-

spiess, from Glookentliou'a
manuscript, 1505, in tlie Am-
bras Collection.

20. German hunting javeUn, six-

teenth century.
Dresden Museum.

21. Point of a German war and

tilting lanoe, of the sixteenth
century ; it is 7 inches in
Dresden Musewm.

22. The same. 8 inches in length.

Arsenal of Berlin.

23. The same. SJ inches in

Arsenal of Berlin.

Lance for tilting at the ring.

A lance on this model "will be
found in the " Traite d'Equita-
tion," by PlurLnel, of the reign
of Louis XIII. (1610—1643).
K. 262, Mus(fe d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

German hunting spear, six-

teenth century {San, or Bdren-
fanger, and also Schweins-
feder in German). It was
used more especially for boar-

, Hunting spear of the sixteenth

century, with three wheel-lock
pistols, and two " hallebarde
hooks: this weapon was part
of the Soltikoflf Collection.
Lances. 419

27. Lance of the seventeenth cen-


28. Double-headed Persian lances,

&om a very late sixteenth-
century manuscript copy of
Ferdusi's Sclidh-Nameh of the
year 999.

W. Arrow-shaped javelin for throw-

ing (Wurfpfeil in German),
used for boar-hunting.
Arsenal of Berlin.

30. Abyssinian lance, conspicuous

on account of its broad, iron,
shovel-shaped base. The
broad point recalls exactly the
bronze and iron heads of the
"fcamees," belonging to the
bronze and iron ages. One
lance of this Mnd has a ring
fastened to it, and is known
imder the name of " celt."
Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Farie.

31. The same.

32. Chinese lance.



The mace (from the Latin massa, Streitholben in German)

is a "weapon heavy at one end, not made either for piercing
or cutting, but only for stunning an enemy it was much

used by the cavalry, and there are several representations of

it in the Bayeux tapestries, end of the eleventh century.

1. Iron mace, end of the eleventh


<nT^ Bayeux, Tapestries.

2. The same.

3. The Bame.

4. Mace, from the "Gennan

jEneid " of Heniy of Waldeck,
thirteenth century.
Library of Berlin.

5. Burgnndian mace, beginning of

the fifteenth eentm-y, from a
manuscript believed to have
belonged to the Duke of Bur-
Library of the Arsenal, Paris.

The Mace. 421

, 6, English mace, in wood and iron,

reign of Henry V. (1413
Meyrick Collection.

7. English mace, in iron, middle of
the fifteenth centmry.

8. German mace, fifteenth century,

engraved iron ; it is ahout 22
inches in length, and has the
handle wired.
Arsenal of I/ucerne,

9. Turkish mace, u'on, fifteenth

century; an architectural rose
is damascened in the top.
d'Artillerie, Paris.

10 A. Mace, from a manuscript of

the end of the fifteenth cen-
tury,being a copy, illustrated
with numerous miniatures, of
the Schali - Nameh or royal
boot, composed by the poet
Ferdusi in the reign of Mah-
moud (999).
lAbrary of Munich.

30 B. The same.

11. French mace, sixteenth century.



This mace had generally a long handle, and its head
wooden or iron points it was common among
bristled with ;

the ancients, for many museums possess several fragments

of these weapons belonging to the age of bronze.
The morning-star was well known and much used in
Germany and in Switzerland it received its name from the

ominous jest of wishing the enemy good-morning with the

morning-star when they had been surprised in camp or city.
This weapon became very popular on account of the
facility and quickness with which it could be manufactured.
The peasant made it easily with the trunk of a small shrub
and a handful of large nails it was also in great request

during the wars of the peasantry which have devastated

Germany at different times, and the Swiss arsenals possess
great numbers of them.
Momiug-stars were also made for horsemen they were

short in the handle like hammers, and generally better manu-

factured than the long-shafted ones used by the foot-soldiers.
A few of these little maces, studded with iron points, have
even been supplemented with hand cannons. When so
provided they are called in German Schiessprugel. See No. 8.

Morning-Star. 423
I and Maces, which should be
classed among the -vf eapons of
the iron age, for they are copietl
from the column of Theodosius
at Constantinople, which dates
from the fourth century.
3. Swiss morning-star of the fif-

teenth centm-y on a long shaft.

The length of the iron, which is
armed with fom- blades and a
spike, is IS inches.
Gymnasium of Moral.
i. Swiss morning-star of the fif-
teenth century, with a wooden
ball studded with iron spikes
and a, long shaft.
Mueeum of Berne.
5. Hand moming-star, probably a
horseman's. It is of engraved
iron, 26 inches in length, and
has a dart or spike which starts
from the handle by means of a
Museum of Sigmaringen.
e. Moming-star and partisan on a
long shaft with iron bands.
Az Collection, Lintz.

7. Moming-star of 11 feet 4 inches

in length, studded with spear-
heads end of the fifteenth cen-

Arsenal of (he City of Vienna.

6. Moming-star with hand cannon,

called in German SchiessprOgel
end of the fourteenth or begin-
ning of the fifteenth century.
Collection of Prince Charles, at Ber-
lin; Ambras and Meyrick Collec-
tions ; and Museum of Sigmarin-



The flail, or holy-water sprinkler* (from the Latin flagellum

and the German Flegel), is a weapon whose name indicates
its shape it was also called holy-water sprinkler from the

shape, and from the drops of blood which started from those
upon whom it was used. It was composed of the shaft and
the whips, the latter either with or without iron points or ;

else of the shaft, to which was fastened a chain ending in an

iron ball, or a wooden one studded with iron.
The invention of this weapon does not appear to be of
ancient date, for the first mention of it is found in the manu-
scripts of the beginning of the eleventh century.
statue of this epoch in the Cathedral of Naumburg in
Germany, representing one of the founders, is armed with a
flail, and so is the statue of the Palatine Oliver, in the
Cathedral of Verona.
The flail, which was very well known in Switzerland and
Germany during the fifteenth century, was also used in
England since the period of the Norman conquest (eleventh
century), and existed during the reign of Henry VIII. (1509
1547), though then but little used, and only in the trenches
and on board ships. The military flail with a short handle
belonged more particularly to Eussia and Japan.
The armed whip, or scorpion (also called Scorpion in
Gerinan), was a kind of hand-flail or knout, with three, four,
or six chains.

* Some authors erroneously give this name k t>>» mnrajng.gfaj;

Military Flails. 42&

1. German holy - -water sprinkler

{Flegel in German) of the
eleventh century, with chain
and ball without spikes, from
tlie statue of one of the founders
of Naumburg Cathedral.

2. Iron hammer of flail, -without

points, on a long shaft, probably
of the fourteenth century.
K. 83, Musde d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

3. Flail with chain and spiked ball

on long shaft, probably of the
fourteenth century.
K. 81, Muse'e d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

Scorpion, or flail, with four chains

without balls (called Scorpion
in German), a Hussite weapon
of the fifteenth century.
National Museum of Prague.

5. English flaU -with chain and

spiked ball on long shaft ; reign
of Henry VH. (1485—1509).
Meyrick Collection.

6. Swiss flail with iron hammer on

long shaft.
Arsenal of Geneva

7. Short -handled flail, 2 feet

7 inches in length.
National Museum Munich.
42(3 Military Flails.

8. German flail of the fifteenth

century on a very long shaft.

It has an iron hammer with
twelve spikes.

9. Swiss flail of the fifteenth cen-

tury with a squared iron
hammer without spikes, on a
long shaft.

10. Ancient Eussian knout,* with a

short handle.
Dresden Museum.

11. Japanese flail. The handle is

only 26 inches in length,
and the end of the
ball at the
chain is studded with very
sharp spikes.

* The knout actually employed

in Russia punishments differs
but slightly from the ancient instru-
ment, painful as it is to us to believe
in the existence of such a thing in
the present state of civilisation.


The icar-scythe (from tlie Latin falx, Kriegssense in German)

is notMng but the agricultural scythe slightly straightened ;

the blade a line with the haft ;* it is single-edged, the

is in
.point slightly curved towards the shay edge, while the scythe-
knife, also single-edged, has the point curving from the edge
to the back ; the blade of the gisarme, or glaive-gisarme, is,
^s the name glaive indicates, double-edged, like the cut and
thrust sword.

.1. Unstraiglitened war-scythe, be-

ginning of the ninth century.
From the manuscript o£ Wesso-
brunn, year 810, in the library
of Munich.

2. Bohemian crescent-shaped war-

scythe, thirteenth century.
From the manusc ript of Voles-
lav in Prince Lobkowitz's
library, at Eaudnitz.

.3. War-scythe, fourteenth century.

K. 145, Mmee d'ArUllerie, Paris.

-i. Swiss war-scythes of the four-

teenth and fifteenth centuries.
Arsenals of Zurich and, Soleure.

War-scythes of colossal di-

mensions (4 feet to 4 feet 6
inches in the length of the
blade) were used by the
Tschaikists of Austria to mow
down the crews of their enemies'
boats. The Austrian troops so-
called derived their name from
the river Tschaike.
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.

» In Austria, during the Jacquerie or peasants' war, all smithg

detected in turning agricultural implements into weapons were punished
•with death.


Tte scythe-knife, and another very like it, often con-

founded with the gisarme, but in reality a breach Icnife, is,,
like the war-scythe, single-edged, being in fact a modified
form of the war-scythe, but, as has been before stated, the
blade of the glaive curves from the edge, and the blade of
the scythe towards it. The point is double-edged, and at
the base of the blade there is a hook or spur. The glaive
was greatly used in France during the fourteenth century,
which is proved by the especial mention of it in the poem of
the " Trente."

1. Burgimdian glaive, fifteenth ceri>-

tury. From a manuscript in

the library of the Arsenal at

2. Swiss glaive : at the base are

hallebarde blades.
Museum of Sigmaringeiu

3. German glaive, sixteenth century,

with wheel-lock pistol. It is
richly inlaid.
National Museum of Munickt
tVar Scythes.

4. Glaive called Cracoiuse, seven-

teenth century.
Klemm Collection^ Dresden,
5. German glaive,* ornamented
with the armorial bearings of
King Ferdinand, the Order of
the Golden Fleece, and the
letter F.
Meyrick Collection.
6. German glaive, very large size,
sixteenth century. It bears the
date 1580, and the Bavarian
K. 156, Mustfe d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

7. Scythe trident, or "Eanseui-,"

for charging {Sturmsense in
German), of the seventeenth
century. A German weapon
of enormous dimensions, being
5 feet by 4.
Imperial Arsenal of Venice.

* This kind of weapon is also

called breach-knife {Brechmesser in

German). It was especially common
in Austria and in other parts of
Germany, and was used as late as
the eighteenth century, hut in reahty
itwas nothing but a scythe-knife.

The gisarme, or glaive-gisarme [Gleefe, and also Boss-
schinder * in German), which almost all British authors con-
found with the halberd, is simply a glaive fixed on a shaft.
The gisarme is quite different from the war-scythe and
breach-knife, as it is double-edged and armed with hooks.
The origin of the glaive-gisarme dates from the age of
bronze among the Keltic and Germanic nations, at which
time many tribes were in the habit of fastening glaives or
.soramasax swords to long shafts. The Welsh called them
llawmavn; a name derived from cleddyr or gleddyr. In some
parts of Germany the name of Gleefe has given place to the
more modern one of Sensen mil Spitzen. The French name of
guisarme is apparently derived from the guisards or followers
of the house of Guise, who were armed with them. Olivier
de la Marche, a chronicler, born in 1426, maintains that the
name of gisarme is of great antiquity, and believes this
weapon to originate in the habit of fastening a dagger to the
Made of a battle-axe.
* Boss-scMnder : this name waa given to tlie foot-soldiers who were in
the habit of using this weapon to hamstring the knights' horses.
1. English gisarme {Oleefe and
Boss-schinder in German), of
which mention is made in the
twelfth-century manuscripts of
Westminster. The Chinese use
this weapon at the present day,
as may be seen from the
specimens in the Musee d'Ar-
tUlerie, at Paris.

2. Swiss gisarme, thirteenth cen-

Troyon Collection in the Museum of
Oie Canton, at Lausanne.

3. Swiss gisarme "bill," fifteenth

Arsenal of Sdleme.

4. Swiss gisarme "bill," end of the

fifteenth century.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

5. English gisarme "bill," end of

the fifteenth century.

6. Swiss gisarme, end of the fifteenth

Arsenal of Zurich and Wittmann
Collection at Geisenheim.
432 Gisarmes.

7. Italian gisarme " glaiye," riclily

engraved, end of the fifteentli

Meyrick Collection.

8. Gisarme on long shaft, bound

with iron. The blade about

2J feet in length, «,nd bears the

inscription X. IVANI. X.
Az Collection, Lintz.

9. Swiss gisarme " bill," inlaid,

sixteenth centm-y.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

10. Italian gisarme " glaive," be-

longing to the Doge's guards :

they were armed with this

weapon, and with the basket-
hilted sword, called Schiarona.
which in almost all coUectiout
has been erroneously cata-
logued as a claymore, but the
Scottish sword has a simple
guard without either a pas
d'dne or basket hilt.


Though very rarely met with now, this weapon was one of
the most ancient among the Swiss, and also much sought
after in France during the fifteenth century, at which time
there existed a regiment of infantry called voulgiers, who
were armed with this broad-bladed and long-hafted weapon.
A large number of archers also carried them. Some few
authors wrongly give the name of voulge to the boar-spear,
the shape of which bears not the least resemblance to the
voulge of ancient warfare.

Sv,'iss voulge, about 16 inches in

length, found on the battle-
field of Morgarten (1319).
Arsenal of Lucerne.

2. Swiss Toulge with hook, four-

teenth century.

3. Swiss voulge, fourteenth century.

Arsenal of Zurich.

A representation of this
voulge may be seen in a fif-

teenth-century manuscript of
the Hauslaub Collection.
434 Voulgea.

i. Swiss voulge, end of the fonr-

teenth century.
Meyer Biermann Collection
at Lucerne.

5. German voulge, end of the fif-

teenth century.
Az Collection, lAntz.

6. Saxon voulge, taken at the battle

of Miihlberg (1547).
Imperial Arsenal of Venice.

Austrian voulge, about 2 feet in

length. It is of the time of
the Jacquerie or peasants' war.
(1620-1 625), when it was forged
out of a ploughshare.
Az Collection, liiittz.



Fixed on a long shaft, the pole-hammer has been known

in Germany and Switzerland under the name of Luzerner
Rammer, as it was a favourite arm of the people of Lucerne.
It is called pole-hammer in English from the fact of having
the spiked hammer placed at the end of a long shaft or pole.
The foot-soldiers' war-hammer is of great antiquity, as we
may see in the hammers of the so-called stone and bronze
ages and Charles Martel (715
; —
741) owes his name to this
formidable weapon, which became general during the four-
teenth century. The French poem of the Combats des Trente
mentions the war-hammer and its weight
" Oil combattait d'un mail qui pesoit bien le quart
De cent livres d'aoier, si Dieu en moi part."
This war-hammer, of twenty-five pounds' weight, belonged to
Tommelin Belefort. They were
also used in the passages of
arms, as Olivier de la Marche, born in 1426, remarks in his
" Memoirs," where he also makes mention of the passage of
arms of the " sire Hautbourdin et de Delalain."
The short-handled horseman's hammer {BeiterJiammer in
German) which the knights carried, like the mace, at their
saddle-bow, is almost as ancient as the pole-hammer. Some
antique bas-reliefs at the Louvre represent Amazons at-
tackmg their enemies with short-handled double-edged pole-
axes (?), one of which is, in armourer's phraseology, falcon or
parrot-beak shaped, a term used however when the hammer
was long-handled.
436 War Hammers for Foot-soldiers.

1. steel war-hammer on long shafts

fourteentli century (iMzemer
Hammer in German).
li. 84, Musee d'AHUlerie, Paris,

2. Steel war-hammer on long shaft,

fifteenth century.

3. Swiss steel war-hammer on long

shaft, fifteenth century. This
weapon, of which there are a
great number id the Arsenal of
Lucerne, is a fair type of the
Luzerner Hammer, or hammer
of Lucerne.
Meyer Biermann Collection and
Museum of Sigmaringen.

i. war-hammer on long shaft,

end of the fifteenth, or begin-
ning of the sixteenth century.
The sword which forms the
apex of the whole is more than
3 feet in length.
K. 88, Musee d'ArtUlerie, Paris

5. Swiss steel war-hammer on long

shaft, from a drawing of Hans
Holbein >
1-145-] 554), represent-
ing the combat of Theibaut
Industrial Museum of Vienna.

6. Hammer-pike. This long-shafted

weapon was carried by the
subalterns in charge of the flag
under the First Empire (1804-
K. 275, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris.
Horsemen's War Hammers. 437

7. Horseman's war-hammer {Beiter-

hammer in German), 2 feet ill
length ironhandlestuddedwith

copper ornaments of Gothic

character, denoting the end of
the fifteenth century.

8. War-hammer, 3 feet 4 inches in

length, belonging to a Hussite
chief of the fifteenth century,
serving at once the purposes of
a weapon and a rod of office.
The handle, about 16 inches in
length, is covered with red
velvet. A
dart 2J feet long
springs Irom the hammer on
pressing a button near the
Museum of Sigmaringen.
9. Horseman's parrot-beaked war-
hammer, end of the fifteenth
Meyrick Collection.

10. Horseman's parrot-beaked war-

hammer in chiselled iron, or-
namented with fleurs-de-lys ;

22J inches in length, sixteenth

Arsenal of Berne.

11. Horseman's parrot-heaked war-

hammer, sixteenth century.
K. 69, Musee d'ArtiUerie, Paris.
12. Scaling war-hammer, taken from
the Savoyards under the com-
mand of Branaulieu Chaffai-
din in 1602, under the walls
of Geneva, in an nnsuccessfnl
night attack.
Arsetud of Geneva.

13. Horseman's war hammer with

very long spike of iron and
copper. The shaft is wood,
the handle ivory; sixteenth
Dresden Museum.


The battle-axe (from the German Sachen, and not from

the Latin ascia) was generally called Streitaxt in German,
but when the handle was greatly lengthened and used by
ibot-soldiers it became a pole-axe, and was called Fuss-
Slreitaxt. This cuneiform weapon, like the common hatchet,
from which it is modified, is one of the most ancient and
best known during the so-called ages of stone and bronze,
and was the favourite weapon of all Germanic nations.
The Frank hatchet, the well-known francisque, was short-
handled, while that of the Saxons was fixed on so long a
shaft that among the Anglo-Saxons it was named pole-axe.
At the battle of Hastings (1066), where Harold was
defeated by William the Conqueror, the Saxons at first
repelled with success the repeated attacks of their Norman
foes, whom they overthrew in large numbers with their long
battle-axes, etc., a weapon which among them was generally
about five feet in length. In the Bayeux tapestries are
many representations of battle-axes without either point or
hook, in this resembling the domestic hatchet and the
The foot-soldier's battle-axe of the fourteenth century
differs considerably from the weapon of an earlier date.
Though on one side an axe, it becomes on the other a war-
hammer, either with a saw edge or a sharp point, but
generally large and curved, called falcon-heaked ; whilst the
term parrot-heakecl was applied when the weapon was short
in the handle and belonged to a horseman.
The battle-axe sometimes was provided with a long dart
or sword fixed at the top.
The short-handled horseman's axe (Beiterajxt and Bartke
in German) is found to have sometimes a gun-barrel encased
in the handle, either the primitive hand-cannon or the wheel-
lock pistol.
The short-handled battle-axe as well as the war-hammer
appears to have been known to the ancients. It is some-
times seen in engravings of Assyrian war-chariots and ia
sculpture which represents Amazons.
Foot-soldiers' Pole-axes. 439

1 and 2. Poot-soldier's long-shafted

pole-axes {i uss-Streitaxt in
German), end of the eleventh
Bayeux Tapestry,

3. German foot-soldier's pole-axe,

end of the fourteenth century.
K. 93, Musee d'ArtiUerie, Fans.

4. German foot-soldier's pole-axe,

fifteenth century. From a wood
Cabinet of Engravings, Munich.

5. German foot-soldier's pole-axe,

fifteenth century.
Museum of Munich, Collection of
Charles XV. of Sweden, and Mey-
rick Collection.

6. Swiss foot-soldier's pole-axe, fif-

teenth century.
Arsenal of iMceme.
440 Foot-soldiers^ Pole-axes.

7 A. German foot- soldier's pole-axe,

fifteenth century.
Cabinet of Engravings, Munich.

7 B. The aame.
8. Kussian foot- soldier's pole-axe,
called Bardiche.
K. 95, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

9 Russian* foot-soldier's pole-axe,

with which the StreKfes or Stre-
litzen were armed.
Museum of Tsarskoe-Selo.

10. Venetian pole-axe with saw-

edged hammer, sixteenth
Meyrieh Collection.

11. Swiss pole-axe with saw-edged

hammer, sixteenth century.
Arse7ial of Berne.

12. Swiss pole-axe, with hammer

and dart
Arsenal of Berne.

l:-i. Long-shafted Scottish Lochabcr

axe, the national weapon of
Collection of Prince Charles at

li. German pole-axe, iifteenth cen-

tury, f
Historical Museum of Monhijou at

* The modern battle-axes of the

inhabitants of the Caucasus are of
this same shape : this may be seen
from the weapon of Schaniyl, also
in the Museum of Tsarskoe-Selo,
and in German fifteenth-century
engravings in the Cabinet of En-
gravings at Munich.
t Nos. 9 and 14 might be classed
among the voulges.
Horsemen's Battle-axes. 141

15 English foot-soldier's Jedburgli

axe, sixteenth century.
Meyrich Collection.

10. Scottish or English foot-soldier's

K. 96, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris.

17. German horseman's short-hand-

led battle-axe {Beiteraxt and
Barthe in German), end of the
fifteenth century.
Dresden Museum.

iJ8. Turkish horseman's battle-axe,

end of the iifteenth century;
it belonged to tlie Sultan
Mahomed Ben Kaitbai, who
reigned from 1495 to 1499.
An inscription in open-work
letters says, " The Sultan, tlie

victorious king, the father of

fortune, Mahomed Ben Kait-
bai, may the servant of God
be glorified in him." Tljere
is also in Cufic characters the
name of God five times re-
Ambras Collection.

•19. Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe.

From a diuwing by Albert

20. Horseman's iron battle-axe, be-

ginning of the sixteenth cen-

21. English horseman's battle-axe,

beginning of Queen Eliza-
beth's reign (1558).
. :

442 Horsemen s Battle-axes

22. Austrian battle-axe the handle

is about a yard in length, and

bears the date 1623 and a
wheel, a sign for gathering-
themselves together adopted
by the peasants in the Jacque-
rie rebellion, to conquer which
the aid of the Bavarian horse-
men were called in.
Az Collection, Lintz.

23. Short -handled Polish battle-

axe, bound with strips of
leather, beginning of the
seventeenth century.
Meyrich Collection..

24. English executioner's axe, end

of the sixteenth century, with
which the Earl of Essex was
beheaded in the reign of Eliza-
beth (1558-1603).
Tower of London.
25. Saxony miner's axe, for show,
called Bergharthe, with the
dale 1685; the handle is in-
laid with ivory, and the blade
pierced in open work. These
arms are only intended for
the festival day processions of
miners' corporations, and not
for actual use.
26. Horseman's battle - axe, with
small hand cannon, fifteenth
27. Battle-axe with small band
cannon, 31 inches in length
it belonged to the reformer
Zwingli, who died in the battle
of Cappel in 1531.
Arsenal of Zurich.
28. German battle-axe with wheel
lock pistol, inlaid with ivory
and silver, end of the fifteenth
Szolcau Museum {Hungary), and
Museuffh of Sigmaringen.
29. Battle-axe with flint-lock pistol,
end of the seventeenth cen-

SO and 31. Chinese battle-axes.

Mvs(fe d'Artillerie, Paris',

The halbard may be deriyed from the German Salbe-Barihe,,

half battle-axe or from Helm, casque, and BartTie, battle-axe ;

or from Alte Barthe, old battle-axe in Germany and Scandi-


navia it dates from the earliest centuries of the present era,

though it was not known in France until the Swiss intro-
duced it in 1420. The president Fouchet, whose writings
are about the end of the sixteenth century, attributes the
introduction of the halbard to Louis XI. (1461 — 1483),
" This prince," he writes, " ordered at Anglers and other
good cities some new war-blades called halberds." This
assertion is confirmed by miniatures of the fifteenth century
in which the halbard is represented, though the shape varied'
greatly according to the time and country.

1, 2, and 3. Three kinds of halbards,

somewhat like the ranseurs,
eleventh century. From the
Psalterium, a manuscript in the
Stuttgard Library.

i. Swiss halbard, fourteenth century.

6, 7, and 8. Four German hal-

bards of the fourteenth centui-y.
National Museum of Munich.
444 Halbards.

9. Swiss halbard, beginning of the

fifteenth centui-y.
Author s Collection.

10. Swiss halbard, end of the fif-

teentli century.
Arsenal of Berne.

11. Swiss halbard with three-

pronged hammer, end of the
fifteenth century.
Arsenal of Berne.

12. German halbard with three-

pronged hammer, beginning of
the sixteenth century.
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna.

13. Swiss halbard, middle of the

sixteenth century.
Author's Collection.

14. German halbard, sixteenth cen-

tury, engraved and gilt, a very
handsome weapon.
Museum of Sigmaringen.

15. German halbard, sixteenth cen-

1 ? Soler Collection- in the Maximilian
Museum at Augsburg.

16. Venetian halbard, end of the

sixteen til century.
Meyrich Collection.



Tte ranseur is a kind of partizan, but coming originally

from Corsica it has been called in France corgeque, and also by
some authors roncone; the weapon was well known in Germany
during the fifteenth century. The ancient Ceremonial Frangais
says that it was a long and broad javelin with two barbs.

1 Burgundian ranseur, or roncone,

from miniatures in a fifteentli-

century manuscript.
Library of the Arsenal, Paris.
2. Ranseur, end of the fifteenth
K. 98, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris.

3. German ranseur, beginning of

the sixteenth century. Prom
the Glockenthon manuscript.
Amhras Collection.

4. German ranseur, sixteenth cen-

NiewwerherTte Collection.

5. Italian ranseur, sixteenth cen-


6. Eanseur, seventeenth century.

Arsenal of Perlin.

7. Four-sided ranseur. The point

is above yard in length.
Arsenal of the city of Vienna.
This same ranseur is found in
drawings made in 1505 by
Glockenthon, who made fac-
similes of the arms in the
arsenals of Maximilian I.

8. Eanseui-, beginning of the seven-

teenth century.
Museum of Sigmaringen,

The partizan is derived from the Spanish partesana, ot
ffrom pertuis, opening, on account of the large wounds made
by it, or perhaps simply from the French partisan; in
German called Partisane, and also Bolimischer OJirloffel;
and is a species of halbard. The iron is long, broad, and
double-edged there is no axe, but barbs in the style of the

ranseur. The partizan was known in Prance since the time

of Louis XI. (1461) until the end of the seventeenth
century, but its invention is not earlier than 1400. Pietro
Monti, in his Exercitiorum atque Ariis MiUtaris Collectanea,
Milan, 1509, who has particularly wished to describe this
weapon, with which the guards of Francis I. and his succes-
fiors were armed, has confoimded the partizan with ranseurs
and halbards, an error which has been committed in our
days in the catalogue of the celebrated Meyrick Collection at
Goodrich Court, where even spontoons and langue-de-hceuf
bayonets have been placed in the category of partizans.
Partizans. 447

German partizan (Partisane or

Bohmischer Ohrloffel in Ger-
man), whose iron measures I4J
inches. It dates probably from
the early years of the fifteenth
National Museum of Munich.

2. Swiss partizan with armourer's

mark, fifteenth century.
Meyer Biermann Collection at

3. Swiss partizan with armourer's

mark, fifteenth century.
Meyer Biermann Collection at

4. French engraved partizan, reign

of Francis I., sixteenth century.
K. 166, Musee d'Artillerie, Faris.

German partizan, richly engraved,

and bearing the date 1615 and
the order of the Golden Fleece.
It belonged to the guards of
the Palatine of the Rhine.
Meyrich Collection.


Nearly all authors of encyclopsedias and dictionaries, from

the habit of copying one another, have repeated that the
bayonet (Bajonnet in German) was invented and manufac-
tured at Bayonne by Puysegur, who died in 1682. Never-
theless this sort of dagger or sword has not been carried at
the end of a fusil only, it had been already adapted to the
arquebus, and even perhaps to the earliest portable iirearms.
The bayonet was already known ia France about 1570, but
was not universally adopted until about 1640, when it re-
placed the pike in certain regiments. At the present day
the bayonet is composed of the blade and socket with collar,
which latter invention has been wrongly attributed in England
to Mackay, in 1691, and in France to Vauban ; but it was at
first a simple handle in wood, iron, or horn, intended to fix
into the barrel. Subsequently the bayonet was fixed at the
end of the gun by means of the socket, which was sloped so
as to turn on the collar. This was the side-arm joined to
the firearm, called musket-gun ov fusil-musket, and attributed
to Vauban, which Oouhorn, his rival, introduced among the
Dutch infantry about 1680.
A wheel-lock musket, made towards the end of the six-
teenth century, and preserved in the Culman Collection at
Hanover, weakens, however, the supposition that Vauban was
the inventor of the socketed bayonet, for this firearm pos-
sesses a long bayonet with socket and collar, whose blade
serves at the same time for a screw to draw the charge.
There are Zang'tte-de-tosjt/ bayonets, Spanish knife bayonets,
triangular bayonets, Bohemia^n soytlie-bayoneis, hayonei-sabres,
etc., etc.
: :

Bayonets. 449

1. Genuiui bayonet with socketed

collar, sixteenth century.
Cvlmann Collection, Hanover.

2. Bayonet-poniard with handle and

sword-breaker, end of the six-
teenth century ; about 15
inches in length.
Sliter Collection at Augsburg.

3. Wooden - handled triangular -

bladed bayonet-poniaid total ;

length 14 inches; seventeenth

Soter Collection at Augsburg, and in
Swiss Arsenals.

English lengue-de-boeuf plug-

bayonet {Fflug Bajonnet in Ger-
man), end of the seventeenth
century. Tower of London.
A similar one in the same
museum bears the inscription
" God save King James the 2d."

Spanish wooden-handled knife-

bayonet, seventeenth century.
It bears the inscription
" No me saches sin rason
Ne me embainez sin honor."
(Unsheath me not without
reason, nor sheath me without
Mefyrick Collection.

2 G

450 Bayonets.

G. French spring-handled bayonet,

seventeenth centnvy.

7. Swiss handle - bayonet, seven-

teenth century.

8. French socketed bayonet, used

in 1717.

9. French grooved bayonet, used in


10. Bohemian socketed scythe

bayonet, beginning of the
eighteenth century.
Prince Ldbhyimtz's Collection ai

11. The same.

The pontoon (from tlte Italian spunione, pointed ; Sponton
in German) was the half pike carried by infantry officers from
the end of the seventeenth to the end of the eighteenth century.
The imgraceful and grotesque shape of the weapon points
out very accurately the time of its invention the period —
of wigs and three-cornered hats. The last spontoons known
in France were those carried by the French guards in 1789,
models of which may be seen in the Mus^e d'ArtUlerie, at

1. Austrian ofBcer's spontoon, eud '

of the seventeenth century.

2. Officer's spontoon, from one of

the small German principali-
ties; end of the seventeenth

3. Prussian spontoon; reign of

Frederic II. (1740—1786).

i. Spontoon with wheel, seven-

teenth century.
Museum of Sigmaringtn.


This weapon (Stiirmgabel in German) began to appear
towards the end of the fifteenth century. The Arsenal of
Geneva possesses several Italian scaling-ladder forks taken
from the Savoyards in 1602. The military fork is also
mentioned in the accounts of the siege of Mons, in 1691,
where the grenadiers of the elder Dauphin's regiment, under
the command of Vauban, assaulted a breastwork and carried
away the Austrian forks. To recompense their bravery
Louis XIV. gave the sergeants of that regiment the right of
carrying a fork in place of the halbard.
Military Forhs. 453

1. Military fork, fifteenth century.

From the original collection in
the Cabinet of Engravings,

2. Gterman military fork, beginning

of the sixteenth century. Prom
a drawing of
Glockenthon's, made in 1505
&om the arsenals of Maxi-
milian I.

3. Italian scaling-ladder fork taken

&om the Savoyard troops under
the walls of Geneva in 1602.
Arsenal of Geneva.

4. Scaling-ladder fork &om the

second siege of Vienna in 1683.

5. Double military fork, seven-

teenth century.

6. Simple military fork, seven-

teenth century.
Arsenal of Genena.

Three-pronged military fork,

seventeenth century.
Az Collection, Lirdz.

454 Arms and Utensils of War and the Chase.

1 Articulated iron hand, sixteenth

century attributed to Gotz of

Berliohingen. Museum of Sig-

maringen. In the National
Museum of Munich there is a
similar hand.

2. Long-shafted hook used by the

besieged in a town to tear
away burning arrows, from the
Walturius of 1472 and a manu-
script of the beginning of the
fifteenth century in the Haus-
laub Collection at Vienna.
(See the chapter on war-

3. German catolipole (Fangeisen in

German), fifteenth and six-
teenth centuries it is 14 inches

in length, and fixed on to a

long shaft. This terrible wea-
pon was intended to catch the
knight by the throat and un-
liorse him.
Museum of Sigfnarwgen^ Toioer of
Londcm, and Imperial Arsenal of
4. German double catchpole, six-
teenth century.
Dresden Museum.
5. Hunting spear with a spring-
blade on either side, inlaid,
sixteenth century. It is about
2 feet in height.
Dresden Museum.
6. Hunting spear with spring and
double knife, sixteenth cen-
tury, bearing the name Bar-
tolam Biella.
Dresden Museum.
7. Battle-hook, sixteenth century,
found among the ruins of the
fortified castle of Erperath, near
Neus and Diisseldorf, which
«a3 destroyed by Swedes.
Museum of Sigmaringen.
War Engines and Besieging Weapons. 455
8. Hunting sword with cross-piece near the point of the blade, sixteenth
J. 171, Mus^e d!ArtiUerie, Paris.

9. Small Turkish drums covered with human sMn, taken hy General

Eauchhaupt, who commanded, during the grand electoi^s reign, a
Brandenburg brigade at the battle of St. Gotthard in Hungary.
Arsenal of Berlin and Autlwr'i Collection.


The war engines (^ArUwerc in German) which were em-

ployed during the Middle Ages, and before the time of large-
calibred firearms, have been copied from those of the
ancients. (See Introduction, pp. 29, 30, 31, 54 and 55.)
We recognise the lalista, intended to shoot large airows ; the
catapaU or tormentum of the Latins, and the onagre in old
French, which shot forth stones and pieces of rock; the
battering ram, and a modification of it called in French
irebuchet, and the ancient tolleno or see-saw with two baskets,
which deposited the combatants within besieged places.
In Germany were also used different sorts of engines with
the names of Manges, Blindes, Tribocs, Patrarias, Tanten,
Igel (hedgehog), Katzen (cat), and a variety of other names,
to designate different kinds of maohines whose names and
shapes were modified according to their respective provinces.
The miniatures in the Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall, ninth
century, represent inflammatory machines in the shape of
fish carried on the points of lances. The Musee d'Artillerie
at Paris possesses two bows of baHstas from the castle of
Damascus, probably made in the time of the Crusaders, and
the Cabinet of Antiquities at Zurich several iron rods of
balista arrows, found with many broken bits of these machines
in the ruins of the Castle of Eussikon, which was destroyed
towards the end of the thirteenth century.
The archives of Mons, in the year 1406, make mention of
war engines, drawings of which are met with in all the
manuscripts of that time, particularly in the fifteenth-century
drawings of Zeitblom, in Prince Waldburg Wolfegg's
456 War Engines of the Middle Ages.
The inventors of war engines were at ttat time particu-
larly occupied in discovering new methods of setting fire to
besieged places, and even went so far as to devise portable
fire machines indented to be fastened to dogs, cats, and even
birds. The cock himself, the beloved and living time-
piece of the lansquenets, who never quitted them in their
campaigns, was transformed into an incendiary torch by
these terrible inventors.


Two hand torches. Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall, niath oentm-y. The

engine which the horseman carries at his lance's point is shaped like a
fish. As the manuscript represents it as vomiting fire before the
besiegers have arrived at the place, the fiery torches are probably not
made with gunpowder or other explosive material, but simply of resin.
War Engines of the Middle Ages. 457

War engine to shoot large stones, balls, or pieces of rook (this was
the catapult or tormentum of the ancients, the French onagre, and the
German Bleydenn), from the drawings of Zeithlom, fifteenth century, in
the library of Prince Waldbnrg Wolfegg. Authors of the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries have drawn a large number of these machines, but
BO varied in their construction as to appear productions of fancy rather
than copies from actual objects.

Machine for shooting stones and makiug a breach, called treJmchet,

from Zeitblom's drawings, fifteenth century. Library of Prince Wald-
bnrg Wolfegg. At that time there were double trebwiliets, which shot
stones by the backward and forward motion of the beam called rod
(verge), or arrow (fleohe), one end of which was always loaded while
the other returned. The simple trebuchet was put in motion by means
of a rope pulled by four men. The trebuchet with a sling was con-
structed in much tbe same manner as the simple trebuchet, with this
difference, that, at a given moment, a hook fastened to the long end of
the beam let fiy one of the ropes, and the stone was shot forth from the
tangent of the circle described.
458 War Enginea of the Middle Ages.

War engine for shooting arrows (the halista of the ancients, and the
Belagerungshalester of the Germans), copied from the Walturius printed
at Verona in 1472. Hauslaub Library at Vienna. This machine
shoots off the arrow by means of a very strong piece of wood, which,
being drawn down by ropes wound round posts, springs back against
the beam as soon as the ropes are loosed, and thus propels the arrow.
War Enginei of the Middle Ages. 459

Engine with gear, for battering in breach (from the German Brechen,
break, or from the Keltic brech, hreca, opening), which must have been
fai more efficacious than the battering ram, whose blows could only
have made a hole in the wall, while the impetus of this machine must
have often broken down the entire side This drawing is copied from

those in the Pyrotechnie de VAncelot Lorrain ; the same engine is also

drawn in the Walturius of the Hauslaub Library at Vienna.
460 War Engines of the Middle Ages.

Slinging engine witli backward and forward motion, from a manu-

script, Recueild'Andens Poetes, in the Imperial Library at Paria. This
is one of the simplest engines ; the end of the beam, freed from the
holder, rises with rapidity as the other end is weighed down, and
giving impetus to the sling, diaohaiges the projectile.

Four-wheeled balista {Balista guadrirofa), from the Notitia Utraque

turn Orientis turn Occidentis, etc. BS,le, 1552. The author of this
Notitia, who has copied notes of the administration of the Roman armies
in the East and West, has added drawings of balistas which he copied
from machines or pictures of his time.
War Engines of the Middle Ages. 46J

War engine from the Notitia Utraque cum Orientis tvm Ocddentis,
etc. Bale, 1552, where it is called ialista fulminatrix. This engine is

interesting on account of the men inside wheels who form its motive
power. In the same work may be seen a wheeled boat called by the
aathor Libowma, in wiiich the wheels are moved by cxen.
462 War Enffines of the Middle Ages.

10. Iron of a balista arrow, 5 J inches

long, found under the ruins of
the castle of Russikon, in the
Zurich Canton, which was
destroyed towards the end of
the thirteenth century.

10 B. Iron of a balista arrow, from

the Kriegsbuch of Frons-
perger, 1573.

1 1. Bow of a balista, from the castle

of Damascus. It is of palm,
wood, covered with small pieces
of horn.
Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris.

12. The same.

13. Besieging or miner's basket,

wicker, from a fifteenth- cen-
tury manuscript in the Haus-
laub Collection, Vienna,

fimi' Diver's dress from a fifteenth-

illustration the figures
in the
In the
quite black, probably intended
to imitate leather.

War Engines of the Middle Ages. 463

15. Aimed dog carrying a torch to
set fire to a camp.
Hauslaub Collection, Vienna.

16. Cat with torch to set fire to a

besieged place.

17. Bird. The same.

18. Jug in baked earth without a

cover, and filled with quick-
lime, which the besieged used
against the besiegers. It was
found in the Ketzerthurm.
Cabinet of Antiquities at
Zurich. Leonard Fronsperger
explains the use of this seem-
ingly chQdish projectile in his
Kriegshuch (War book), pub-
lished at Frankfort in 1573
"Soil man fiiUen ein Theil
mit Asohen unt ungeloeschten
Kalk der Klein ist wie Mehl,
dervea unter die Feiad gewor-
fen mit Krafften dass die
Hafen zerbreehen und unter
sie streun gleioh wie man das
Weihwasser giebtkommt dann
in denn Mundt, etc., etc."
(These jugs should be filled
with ashes and powdered
quicklime, and thrown with
strength against the enemy;
when broken they scatter
their contents and sprinkle
the enemy as with holy water,
and enter into his mouth, &c.)

18 his. Incendiary barrel used by

the besiegers in the Middle
Ages. From a manuscript,
beginning of the fifteenth cen-
Hauslavh Library, Vienna.

19. Chariot of intrenchment, used

in the seventeenth century in
the war against the Turks.
464 War Engines of the Middle Ages.

20. Iron scaling-ladder {Sturmleitel

in German), from a German
manuscript, beginning of the
fifteenth century.
Hauslaub Library, Vienna.

21. Danish iron scaling-ladder,

with joints and articulations
(Stormstige in Danish).
Mtiseum of Copenhagen,

22. German iron scaling - ladder

with joints and articulations.
Dating from the war against
the Turks, seventeenth cen-
Dresden Mueeum.

23. German scaling-ladder, with

scythe-knife, beginning of the
seventeenth century. This
ingenious instrument, pre-
served in the Museum of
Munich, is fixed on a long
shaft having at the lower end
a furrow or channel which
screws on to other shafts, and
may be lengthened at plea-
sure, so as to touch the top of
the walls of besieged places, to
which hooks by means of

the teeth in the moveable