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Univerlal Hiftoiy, 


Earlieft A c c o u t of Time. 


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••• • • 

* • • •. • • 

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Univerfiil Hiftory, 


Earlieft AccoyNTof Time. 

Compiled from 

Original Writers. 

By the Authors of the An tie nt Part. 


Printed for T. O s b o R N E, C. H i t c h, A. M i l l a r, 
John RiviNCTCNy^, S. Cr9WJ>er, B. Law and 

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Modem Hiftory: 

fe EING A 



Univeiial Hiftory. 


Of the kingdom of Denmark: 

S E C T. 1. 

Containijjg the Geography of Denmark ; the Laii% 
Religion;, Manners^ and oth& Particulars j which 
charaSierize the prefent State of that Kingdom. 

IT is agreed upon all liands,, that the kingdom of Den- 
mark is one of the moft ahtient monarchies in Europ^^ 
as a'fcries of kings, either fabulous or true^ maybe 
traced in the Dantjh hiftorians ifrom the year one thou- 
Fand and thirty-eight before the birth of our Saviour ; that is, 
for the fpace of two thoufand feven hundred and ninety-nine 

How this part of Scandinavia j formerly called Cimbrita ^ y 
tlherfonefus^ acquired the name oi" Denmark^ is a point greatly ^^'^ ^« 
difputed amoi^g antiquarians, and ftill as doubtful as the ety- "^^^ 
mology of moft other names. Some believe the Danes to be 
the progeny of the antient Danai ; and many of their kings 
haveboafted of their having fprung in a direft line from )/«- 
tenor. Others affirm, that they are the defendants of the 
Mod. Hist. Vol. XXXII. B antient 

5 ' The Hifivry if Denmark. 

anticnt Dahl^ a people of Scythiaj who, by an cafy cornipdon, 
I came in progrefs of time to be called Dam^ and the country 
Dani-mark^ or the land of the Dani ; Marc^ or Mark^ fig- 
nifying a country in feveral of the dtaleds of th6 Teutonic* 
But the moft probable opinion tS that of Saxo Grammaticus^ 
the .moft aniient and beft Danijh hiftorian. According to him 
the Danes are fo called from Dan^ the &i> of HunMe^ the 
firft founder of the Danijh monarchy ; and Denmark^ com- 
pounded of Dan and Marc^ that is, the country of Dan • ; 
which etymology we ihall retain, without entering upon an 
ocean of criticifm and conjefture, in which, perchance, wc 
might overwhelm ourfelves and our readers ( AJ. 
Geovrathi^ BEFORE we enter upon the hiftory of Denmark^ we (hall 
^^^^/^- firft give a defcription of the country ; the genius and cha- 
iion of rafter of the people ; the nature of the foil, and produce of 
Denmark the countries under the dominion of the king of Dmmark \ 
tfWNor- the forces and revenues of the kingdom ; "the laws, govern- 
way, ment, religion, and manners of the country, with every 
other particular that relates to the prefent ftate of the people. 
If we confidcr only the extent of dominion, the king «f Den-- 
mark may juftly be reputed one of the greateft princes of Eit- 
ropey his title being that of king of Denmark and Norway^ of 
the Goths and Fandalsj duke of Slejivickj Holfleiny StormaryZnd 
Dithmarft}^ earl of Oldenburg and Delmenhorjl ; aU which coun- 
tries he aftually pofleffes, except a moiety of the dutchy of Slef- 
wUky belonging to the duke of Hol/iein-Goitorp. Denmarij 
including Holjiein^ in which the king has an undivided moiefy,' 
is bounded by the fea called Categate, towards the North ; by 
the Baltic on the Eaft ; by the river Elhe, which Separates it 
from Bremen^ on the South ; and by the dutchy of Saxe-Lawen- 
hurg towards the South-Eaft ; extending from 54 degrees 40 
minuses, to 58 degrees 20 minutes North latitude. 

Besides which, the kingdom of Norway^ feparated firom 
Denmark by the Categatey includes a fpace of about j i de- 
grees in length ; that is, from 59 to near 71 de'grees North 
• latitude, being bounded by the ocean towards the North and 
Weft i by the kingdom of Sweden and Swedijh Lapland on the 

* Saxo Gram. Hid. Dan; p.' i. Vell. apud Pontan. p. 6^y, 
PoLYDOR ViRG. ibid. PoNTAN. p. 939. cuiH multis aliis. Jo. 
SuAKiNG. Ripen. Prolegom. p. lo. 

(A) Such of our readers, their appetite by confulting J 
however, as have a tafte for the learned Jahji Ifaac Pontanus \ 
this fpecics of critical know- in his Cborogrdphka Daniie De* i 
ledge, may thoroughly indulge fcriptio^ page 639. I 

Eaft; \ 

tlbe fJifioty (/Denmark.' J 

Kail ; and \^y the Categate Tea to the South. It is a loiig h^r* 
row country, enclofed on the one fide by the ocean, and oti 
the other by the high barren mountains called D^frine^ which 
divide it from Sweden ; mod geographers reckoning it about 
eight hundred miles in length, and one hundred in breadth ^. 
' I'rhvious to the war with Sweden^ which ended in the 

iear 1660, the provinces of Schonm^ Haltand^ and Bleking^ 
elonged to the crown of Denmark.- They wfere wreftea 
from it by the famous Charles Guftavus^ and could never fince^ 
notwithftandlng frequent attempts, be recovered, though the 
ricbeft provinces belonging to his Danijh majefty. Thus Den^ 
marif at prefent, is on every fide circumfcribed by the fea, 
except a neck of land about three Danijh miles over, by which 
it pins to Hol/iein. 

The dominions of the king of Denmark are generally di- thegehe^ 
vided into fix grand diftriSs or provinces, viz. Denmark^ pro- ral dM' 
perly fo called, comprehending under it the iflands okZea-fionof 
tmdy Funeny Langland^ L'aaland^ Faljiria^ Mona^ Samfoe^ Denmark 
Jrroey Bornholm^ Anhout^ LeJJaWy and that part of the con- i^^^pro* 
tinent called North Jutland, ^dly, The dutchy of Slefwick^ '^"'^^^•' 
i or South Jutland. 3dly, The dutchy of Holjiein. 4thly, 
The earldoms of Oldenburg and Delmenhorjl. '5thly, The 
kingdom of Norway: and, 6thly, Iceland^ with the iflands 
lying in the northern feas. Of this large traft, Jutland^ iti 
extent and fertility, is the moft confiderable divifion, though 
the iflands have the advantage in point of fituation, and efpe- 
cially Zealand, io which ftands Copenhagen^ the capital of the 
Danijh dominions, and the refidence of the princes. 

This ifland is nearly of a circular form, meafuring about tjlandof 
fixty leagues in circumference. The channel called the Zealand* 
Sounds divides it from Schonen ; the ftrait called the Great Belty 
from the ifland ofFunen ; and from the iflands Mona^ Faljiria^ 
and Laalandy it is feparated by a narrow channel to the foutb- 
Ivard. Its fertility is not extraordinary, though it produces 
a fufficient quantity of rye for the confumption of the inha- 
>itants, but no other foYt of grain. The face of the country 
8 prettily diverfified with little hills, woods, and lakes 5 but 
n all "Zealand there i^ not one river, and only a very few 
>rooks fufficient to turn a mill. With hardly any meadows, 
t produces great abundance of hay ; all the grafs fpringing 

Fp on the borders of corn fields, and banks of lakes and 
boks, (hort, but fweet and noutifllihg. The lakes are 
^ell flocked with fifh \ the cattle nunierous, fmall, and gene- 

^ 1%. PoNTAM. Chorogr. p. 648. Gordon's Geog. Gram. • 
lnloL.Es worth's Account of Denmark, p. 3. 

B 2t rallj^ 

4 ' The fJiftory of Dtnmzrk. 

rally lean, owing to the necefSty of keeping them withia 
door for at leaft eight months in the year. In general the cli- 
mate is but indifferent, efpecially near the capital, where, 
from the low fituation, the air is rendered unwholefome by 
thick fogs ; however, a gentleman who long fefided at Copen^ 
hagen, in quality of envoy from his BritannU majefty, ob- 
ferves, that he feldom faw any of the natives affiled with 
colds of the lungs, owing, as he imagines, to the atmofphere's 
being/purified by the great confumption of beech wood in firings 
the only fort of timber found in any quantity in Ziohmd, 
Here, as weH as in almoft all the other parts of Denmark^ are 
only two feafons of the year, winter and fummer ; for from 
the extremity of cold, the air immediately changes to an al- 
moft iniuppoTtable heat, and fuffocating ^rofs warm atmo- 
fphere, by which myriads of flies and vermin are generated \ 
Copenha- COPENHAGEN^ the capital of Denmark^ is fituatcd in 
gen, the the latitude of 56 degrees two minutes North latitude, and 12 
capital. degrees 53 minutes longitude, reckoning from the meridian 
of London, This city is neither very large nor antient, though 
the precife date of its foundation is difputed (A). In extent 
it approaches the neareft to Br j/ioly fays Mole/worthy of any of 
our Englijh cities. The walls inclofe a great deal more ground 
than is occupied by houfes ; however, as they were daily en- 
creafing in his time, and t(iat Denmark has not been fince ex- 
haufted by any confiderable wars, it is probable the city has re- 
ceived great improvements and additions. Its advantageoui 
fituation for trade, and the excellency of its harbour, are not 
to be furpaiTed ; and were Copenhagen a free port, there is no 
doubt but it would foon become the emporium of the com- 
merce into the Baltic. The harbour is furrounded by the for- 
tifications of the town, and the entrance fo narrow^ that only 
one (hip can enter at a time ; befides which, it is (hut up in th^ 
night by a flrong boom laid acrofs, defended on the one did 
by the cannon of the citadel, and on the other by a ftrong 
blockhoufe, well mounted with heavy artillery. The whofl 

^ Is.PoNTAN. Cliorogr. Dan, p 725, 724. Pompon. Mbla^ 
c. vi. Crantzii Deicrip. Man. Bait. p. 124. Vid. PontaI 
Alb hoc An. jMoiesworth ubi fupra. 

( A) A caftle was firft built on fituation, and the fecurity whi 

this fpot in the year 1168, by the caftle afforded, indqcedl 

arch-bifhop^/V/^asa proteftion number of the inhabitants 

againft the pirates, which at the ifland to refort thither, 

that time fwarmed in the Bal- which means it in time becai 

/;V. The conveniency of the a fine city and the capital. 

2 havQ 

The Hiftcty ^Denmark; 

kaven, containing five hundred fail of large (hips, is enclofed 
by a wooden gallery, clofe to which every (hip has her ap- 
pointed ftation ; a circumftance that adds greatly to the^beauty 
and conveniency of the fcene, than which nothing can more be 
rich and regular, when a number of (hipping happen to He in 
port. The city i$ ftrong, both by nature and art ; the fitua- 
tion being marmy, deep canals cut all round, and the fortifi- 
cations executed agreeable to the beft modern improvements; 
yet the works are chiefly compofed of turf and earth. Expe- ' 
rience has (hewn its ftrength, it having fuftained two remark* 
ahle fieges againft a fine Swedijh army, flu(hed with vi(^ory, 
and headed by the moft magnanimous princes of their age. It is 
probable indeed, from this inftance, that an enemy may carry 
an their approaches more eafily in the winter than in the fum* 
,mer^ the dykes being then covered over with ice, upon which 
the Swedijh army marched. Its fecurity, however, in this 
particular, confifts in the impofiibility of an army's keeping the 
field long, araidft the rigorous winters of all northem countries. 
As to the buildings of the town, they are in general mean and 
defpicable; even the king's palace is furpafled by the houfes of 
private gentlemen in other countries^ There are, notwith-^ 
ftanding, a few good public buildings, fuch a$ the change, 
arfenal, and obfervatory, eredted by order of that excellent 
prince Chriftian IV. to whom almofl: all the decorations of 
Copenhagen are owing* To compenfate, in fome meafure, 
the meanne(s of the royal palace, the king has at the other 
end of the jtown, a handfome pleafure-houfe, fineftables, and 
a beautiful garden, to which, in the fummer he frequently 
retires. What adds greatly to the conveniency of the cky, 
is the contiguity of the little ifland of Finacky or rather Amack^ 
joined to it by a bridge : hence, the markets of Copenhagen are 
plentifully fupplied with fowl, beef, mutton, vcnifon,' corn, 
and culinary vegetables, all of which Amack produces in the 
uttnbft abundance ^. 

The other towns and fortrefles of Zealand^ or as otheri 
I call it, Sea^landy are Elfinore^ or Helfingor^ about fifteen 
miles to the northward of the capital, (landing on the nar* 
roweft part of the Sound, 

. CROiJENBURGy a very ftrong caftle, fituated about a 
quarter of mile from the former. 

. FREDERICSBURGy twelve miles Weft of El/mre, a 
, caAIe and royal palace, much admired by the Danes^ it being 
built in the middle of a fine lake. 


I * PoNTAN. ibid. Moles WORTH ubi fupra. 

B 3 RQSi 


^ht Hipry /jf fitrimark; 

ROSCHILDj antiently the metropoliiof Denmark^ fituatcfl 
at the bottom of a gulph, twenty miles to the weflward 6F 
Copenhagen. Here is a fine, large, and very antient cathedral^ 
filled with the tombs of the Danijh monarchs, fome of whicl| 
are very magnificent. As to the town, it has declined ip pro- 
portion as Copenhagen increafed, and is now reduced to an in-; 
fonfiderable and ruinous monument of its former grandeur. 

HOLBECK (lands ^t the bottom of ^ bay, eighteen miles 
Wcftof Rofchild. 

PRESTuEi a port, and town of fome trade, on the Zear 
land coaft, oppoiite to the ifland Mona. 

KALLENBURG^ faid alfo to have fome trade, Ctuated oq 
the fea-coaft, fifty miles weflward of Copenhagen. 

KOGEy a fmall town on the Zealand fide of the Sounds 
about twenty miles South of Copenhagen, 

KERSORf ftanding on a promontory oppofite to Funeny 
which forms a good harbour on the north fide of it, 
which, with the, towns of Skelfor znd UTarienburgy make in 
all aboiit eleven cities, towns, and fortreiTes i beildes whict^ 
Zftf/^/i^ is computed to contain about three hundred villages. 

N£};t in confideration and fiiuation flands Funetty an ifland 
bounded by Samfoe on the North, the Baltic on the South» the 
Great Belt, a ilraic of about twenty miles over, that feparate$ 
jt from Zealand on the Eaft, and, on the Weft by a (trait, 
which divides it from Jutland. This ifland, formerly called 
fionia^ is about fifty miles in length, forty in breadth, abounds 
in lakes, woods, corn fields, hogs, and borfes ; the ~1aft be- 
jng the only commodity the inhabitants export. Its capital 
is called Odenfee^ and was former^ a flourifbing town, but 
now on the decline : beiides which, Funen has three other 
towns, and no Icfs than two hundred and $fty village8'{A). 

LAALANDy or Latand^ is a fmall but plentiful ifland, 
having Zealand on the North, Faljlria on the Eaft, the Batiic 
on the South, and Langland on the Weft, meafuring about 
thirty miles in length, and twenty in breadth. Grain and 
>j^heat in particular, is the chief produ£lion of the foil j and 
with this the inhabitants fupply the markets of C?/)^^^^^, and 
other towns of Zealand^ and the reft of fienmark. The 
Dutch ufed likewife to buy up a confiderable quantify of c6rn 
here ; but whether that trade be fiill continued, is what We 
cannot affirm. Molefworih calls this likewife a Jlifts-dmpt^ - 
which has feveral of the neighbouring lefter iflands under its 

(A) The ifland of Funen is a principal government called Stifts- 
ampt ; a term we fhall explain when we come to treat of the na- 
turej of the government. 


The Hiftifry vf Dtnmark. 7^ 

LANGLAND borrows its name from the figure of the Langland. 
ifland;.its length being upwards of thirty miles, and the 
breadth fearce eight. Here is a pretty market town caUed 
Rudkoping^ and about fixteen large villages. 

FALSTRIA is feparated from ^Zealand by a narrow ftrait Falftria. 
, on the North. It i$ about twtnty miles long, and fixteen 
broad, and has two confiderable towns, Nykopping and Syd- 

Next ftand& Monaj a fmall illknd, not exceeding fifteen Mona. 
miles in length, and five in breadth, feparated on the South- 
Weft (romFalJlriahy a narrow ftrait (B). 

ARROE .and A/fen are two fmall iflands at no great dif- Arroe and 
tance from the former, which produce large crops of anifeeds, Alf§n. 
a carminative much ufed in feafoning the food, and mixing 
with the bread, over all the Dani/h dominions. 

BORNHOLM is an ifland of moreconfideration, both on Borriiolm 
account of its extent, and the frequent contentions it has oc- 
cafioned between the crowns of Denmark and Sweden. The 
length of Bornholm is twenty-one miles, and the breadth above 
thirteen. It has three confiderable towns, Rottum^ Stndwick^ 
and Nexia^ a great number of villages, feveral extraor<linary 
privileges, and is fertile and populous. To thefe iflands may 
be added the fmall iflands of Lejfawy Samfoe^ Anhouty with a 
variety of others of lefs confideration, with which this part 
of the northern fea abounds*. But we (hall leave thefe petty 
divifions of the potent kingdom of Denmark^ to give a de- 
fcription of North JuHand^ one of the moft valuable and an- 
ticnt provinces of the Dani/h monarchy. 

JUTLAHD^ the country of the antient JuUs^ called Cim- Jutland. 
hrt by.thc Romans ; and their country, including SUfwick and 
Holflein, Ctmhrica Cherfonefus^ is bounded by the German ocean 
.on the Weft and North, by the Baltic on the Eaft, and by- 
thedutchyof S/eJwickoti the South. This large country is 
divided into the provinces of Aalburg^ JViburg^ Arhufen^ and Prcrjince ■ 
Ripen 'j the firft of which- is fometimes called Burglaw\ of rizl- 
Adburg \% fituated in the moft northern part of Jutland, and burg, 
comprehends a fpacefrom the North-Eaft to the South- Weft 
of about one hundred and fifty miles ; fome writers fay one 

• Vid. PoNTAN. Chorogr. ubi fupra. Mole 9 worth ibid. 
PuPFENDdRFF Hift. Univerf. t. iv. ' Vid. Pontakus 

Chorogr. p. 359. 

(B) Molefmofth calls this ifland Mune^ though we conftantly *" 

find it in all Latin writers fpfecified by the appellation of Mona^ 
which we have therefore retained. 

B 4 hundred 


The Hiftory of Denmark.' 


hundred and thirty, and forty miles in breadth. It eontakit 
thirteen bailiwics, one. hundj;ed and iixty parifbes, and fivo- 
very confiderablc towns, called Aalkurg^ Nyiopfing, ^yP^d^ 
Seehy^ and Schagen, * . ^ 

The province of Wiburg^ bounded on the North by Aal- 
hurg^ is of a circular form, al)out forty miles in diameter. It 
is divided in^o fixtee|i bailiwics, and two hundred pariibes^. 
containing the towns of IVlburgy Nybye^ Harkierj and fome 
others of lefs note. The country is beautifully watered by 
three lakes, among which orie is called Otbo^ itom the empe- 
ror of that name, who threw his javelin into it when he madm- 
an incurfion into this country^ 

Next in order comes the province of Arhufin^ bounded oa ^ 
the North by the former, about fixty miles in length, an4. 
Arhufen. thirty in breadth. Arhufen contains above three hundr^ vil-?. 
lages, two capital cities, called Aarhus and Rander^ befides fe- 
veral market-towns of lefs confederation. 

Lastly comes RipeUy the fourth province of Jutland. 
Within this diftric^ ftand the cities and town^ of Riptn^ Kotd-. 
i^gi Fredfricfodde^ JVcily Jf^arde^ and Ringkopping. Ripen i$ 
fituated on the river Ntpfick^ which, feparating into three 
branches, runs through the city, and divides it into as many 
parts. This is a place of fome trade, was formerly a bifhop's 
. fee, had an univerfity, has ftill a fine magnificent cathedral^ a 
great number of good private buildings, and a large afiembly 
of the nobility and gentry of the province. 

The dutchy of Slefwick^ or South Jutlandy is the joint*pro- 
perty of the king of Denmark and dufce of Hol/lein. It isi 
above fixty miles in length, forty-five in breadth, and con- 
tains the towns of Slefwick^ Gattorp^ Ekrenford^ or Rkt^ord^ 
Fredericjiadty Tonningen^ Hufum^ Flenfburgy Gluckjburg^ Ha^ 
derjlehm^ Tonderen^ . Lhom-Clofter^ Sunderhurg^ and Nordburg^ 
whence the duke of HolJlein-NordburgXaks:^ hrs title. In mod 
tbwns and bailiages, both princes have a feparate and di(iin£k 
authority and jurifdi(£lion, partipilarly in the bailiages of Ha^ 
der^ Slebeny Ripen^ FUnJburg^ the' territory of Chrijiianprisj 
the iflands of Roam and MandoQy and the we(l fide of the 
ifland of Foer^ all which are fubjeft, withoiit pjirticipation, tq 
the king of Denmark ; whereas the bailiages of Gottorp, Jftr- 
ffimt Tonderen^ &c. belong exclufiyely to the duke of Holjiein. 
Li Gottorp ftands the noble pelage of the duke of Holjieiny fi-r 
tuated in the middle of a lake to fhe weftward of the city of 
Slefwick, This is efleemed by all good judges, one of the 
fined buildings of the North, and has the advantage of a large 
well laid-out garden, adorned with fountains, cafcades, and 
f very thing tbaf C^ render the abode delightf^lt The duk« 

puUhy of 

Palace pf 

ne Hift^ry of Tknmzfk. ^ 9 

kas likewife here a 6ne library, and valuable coUe^lion of 
books and curiofities, both natural and artificial, particularly a 
copper globe, ten feet and an half diameter, with a fphere. 
Slewing the fun's courf& in the ecliptic, and the motion of all 
the celeftial bodies, by means of wheels turned by a ftream 
that falls from a neighbouring mountain (A). 

As to the diitchy of Holftein^ it is divided in the fame man- Dutthyof 
ner as Slefv^cK between the king of Denmark and the duke HoUleia* 
of Hofftein. It is a fief of the empire, and the king of Den~ 
jnark is, for that reafon, claffed among the German princes ; 
whereas, 5&/ii;/Vi ia abfolvitely a fief of the crown of Denmark^ 
This dutchy extends about an hundred miles in length from 
£aft to Weft, and nearly half as much from North to South, 
including Ditbmatjh within thefe limits, and even JVagerland 
gnd 5<tfr/Btfr, though the country, propeirly Q?\\td Hoiflein^ 
Gonfifts chiefly of the inland parts, lying between Jutland and 
Stormar. The chief towns ,incl>ided within this diffricS are, 
ift, Kiel Chilonum^ a place of ponfiderable trade, a good har- • 
i)our, and flrong citadel, rich) and populous fbr this country, 
An wpiverfity was founded here in 1669 ; zn^ here alfo is held 
the gnpual aflembly of the flates of Holftein. 2dly, Remburg^ 
Qt ReinQlsburgj efteemed the ftrongeft fortreis in the whole 
dutchy, being almoft wholly enclofed by the river Eyder. 3dly, 
fflljierj a neat well-built town. 4thly, Itzehoa^ fituated on the 
river Stoor j and 5thly, Newmupjier^ at the mouth of the fame 
yiver. Some years fmce there arofe a difpute between the 
king of Great Britain^ as eleilor of Hanover^ and the king of 
Denmark^ ^as likewife a prince of the empire, about the lord- 
ftip oi'Steinhorfi. The former infifted, that it belonged to. 
bis dutchy of Lawenhurg 5 and the latter, that it formed a 
part of the Panijh flolftein. Without entering upon th^ me- 
rits of this altercation, it will be fyfiicient to obferve, that the 
difference iwas amicably compromifed, his Danijh majefty re- 
linquifhing all right to the faid lordfliip, on receiving from th^ 
king of Great Britain the fum of feventy thoufand crowns, as 
an equivalent. There were alfo fome other points, chiefly re- 
garding precedency, adjufted in this treaty. 

(A) The palace of Gottorp other dominions ; which, how- 

fulFered greatly in the year ever, our nation and fome other 

1688, from the barb^ity of the powers that interefted them- 

DaneSf who, without any right, felves in the duke's quarrel, 

or even plaulible pretence, obliged them to reftore in the 

feized upon it, together with year 1689.' Fid. Molf/kvort/ys 

the duke'? perfon, and all his, ^^coftnt ofDenmarkt ibid, 





^t Hifiory ^Denmark; 

' The province ofDhhmarJh lies between Holfliin Prtper ttA 
the German ocean. It has two confiderable towns, viz. Mtl- 
dorp and Lunden^ both carrying on (bme trade. 

As for the province of Stormar^ or Stormajbj it is very 
confiderable on account of its trade, and the great care wira 
which the country is cultivated, which greatly refembles Hoi' 
landy being like it, low in the fituation, and proteded againft 
the fea by ftrong dykes and banks. The vicinity of the Elbe^ 
and of Hamburgh gives it great advantages in commerce, info- 
much that AlUna once became tBe rival of that opulent bans- 
town ; a circumflknce which, fome think, brought on jts 
ruin, it being burnt to the ground by the SwediSy at the infti- 
gation of thofe jealous merchants. No hiftorian has, how- 
e\'er, ftated this fa£l: in a clear light; and Voltaire^ with all 
his profefied candour, has left it in as great obfcurity as he 
found it. Since then it has been rebuilt, and appears with 
more fplendor than ever, but with lels folid weakh and power. 
Befides AUenay the province of Stormar has three other con- 
fiderable cities, v/z. KrempCy or Cremptny Permyburgy and 
Gluckjlai : the laft is a fmall city, placed on the Elbe^ about 
thirty miles from Hamburgh and faid to be ftrongly fortified. 
The king of Denmark had once formed a projed of obliging 
all (hips, going or returning from Hamburgh to pay a toll here ; 
but the execution was found imprafticable, as fo many pow- 
ers, and particularly the two great maritime powers, were fo 
particularly interefted, in oppofing a fcheme which would lay 
their commerce under refiridlions, and fubjeft it to the ca- 
price of the Danes. 

The laft provinces which we fhall defcribe for the pre- 
fent, are TVageren^ Oldenburg^ and Delmenhorji. The firft of 
thefe, bounded by Holjiein Troper on the Weft, is about fifty 
miles in length from North to South, and thirty in breadth. , 
The country had its name from the fVagrtiy a people of 5^^- 
vonia^ by whom it was fubdued. The chief towns are Sage- 
burgj Oldcflochy Ploeny and Oldenburg^ formerly a town of 
great trade, though now on the decline. We fliall defer the 
defcription of Norway y Icelandy and the other dominions of 
the king of Denmarky as we propofe affigning to each of thefe 
a feparate feflion, on account of their extent, and their hay-- 
ing once been diftin6l kingdoms. 

In dominions fo far extended and divided by feas, as thofe 
of Denmarky the nature of the foil muft be various. At leaft . 
a fourth part of the ifland of Zealand is laid-out in royal f6- 
refts, filled with flags, wild boars, and other game, referved 
intirely for the king's ufe, it being criminal in a peafant to 
kill one, tho' he finds them in large flocks devouring his corn. 


The ffijicfy of Dcnmzrk: ;tf 

, 'The Ifland pf Funen produces corn and wood fufRcient for 
the purpofes of the natives ; however, the only article for ex- 
portation it affords, confifts of a few horfes. On the contra- 
ly, Laalani is a fine grain country, plentiful efpecially in 
wheat, with which it fupplies mofb part of the Danijh d6mi- 
fiions in fxnall quantities ; for this is a kind of bread but little 
ufed by the Danes, 

The iflands of Faljiria^ Langland^ and Mona^ all afford 
torn fufficient for the confumption of the natives. Jutland 
abounds in cattle, and is hot deficient in corn. The horfes 
and hogs of the country are. excellent, and fo npurifliing the 
pafture, that it is incredible how fheep and black cattlfe fatten 
iipon the bareft fpotsof ground, though it is indeed a general 
praftice, to tranfport lean cattle from thence to Holland^ a fort 
of trade in which the Dutch find their account. The dutchy 
€^Slefwick is fo abundant in corn, cattle, and horfes, that the 
inhabitants difpofe of a confiderable quantity of horfes to their 
neighbours. Holjiein likewife, is a pleafant fruitful country, 
which has been conopare4 to England in its variety of woods, 
hills, rivers, meadows, and corn fields. Oldenburg abounds in a 
breed of horfes, much efteemed for their beautiful cream co- 
lour. *In a word, the dominions of his Danijh majefty afford 
the inhabitants moft of the conveniencies of life, though they 
furnifli but few articks of luxury or commerce. 

As to the perfons of the Danet^ they are in general tall, Ferfins 
robuft, and well mad6 ; their features and complexion good, ^nddrefs 
and their hair of a flaxen, yellow, or red colour, in curling °f^^' 
J^nd adorning which they take infinite pains. Another writer, ^*'*^* 
however, affures us, that the Danes are for the moft part 
grofs, like the Dutchy in theii* (hape, and their mien rather 
forbidding. This remark is, in particular, applicable to the 
women, who cannot be furpaffed by their fex in clumfinefs of 
fhape, and aukwardnefs of addrefs. Both men and women, 
however, affefl: to imitate the French drefs in the fummer, tho* 
in winter, like the other northern nations, they wrap thera- 
felves up in furs and wool, keeping themfelves always neat in 
their linen, fhifting often, and -affeaing a genteel appear- 
ance. «; 

The vulgar live chiefly on rye bread, lean falt-fifh, ftock- Manner tf 
fifli, rgots, and bad cheefe ; but the tables of perfons of con- U<ving. 
dition are plentifully covered with a vsfriety of difhes. Glut- 
tony and drunkennefs are, indeed, the vices to which a Dane • 
is moft addi£led. The coldnefs of the climate firft intro- 
duced the drinking of firong fpirits, and cuftom has carried it ' 
into excefs. The men, fays Mr. Molefworthj are fond of 
firong liquors, and the women do not refufe them.. A friend, 
.' . whether 

[li TbeHiftoryofDtnmztk: 

whether male or female, no fooner enters a houfe than brandy 
is prefented, and the fame cordial goes liberally round at ta- 
ble. The women, indeed^ retire foon after dinner ; but the 
men generally fit till they have conferred the compliment of 
depriving each other of all fenfe and motion. 
. It is a general obfervation, that Denmark has produced but 
few great geniufes, either in the arts or fciences ; that they 
neither excel in imitation or invention ; are neither good me- 
chanics, or deeply (killed in fpeculative learning : yet there 
have prodigies in every fpecies of knowledge appeared in Den-' 
mark. It has produced one remarkable aftronomer, more 
than one profound critic, and feveral very valuable hiftorians, 
however low the tafte for polite learning may have funk at 
Learning p^refent. Philofophers have endeavoured to explain the rea- 
and genius {^^^^ ^hy fhining talents are feldom conspicuous in northern 
£^ ^^ c61d climates ; anrf to the phyfical caufes we may probably 
Panes. ^jj ^^^^ political ones, which would feem to have a great in- 
fluence over Danijh genius. Their excefles in eating and drink- 
ins muft neceflfarily blunt the faculties of the mind. Fancy, 
judgment, and memory, are all weakened or deftroyed ; and 
thefe caufes, greatly corroborated by the defpotifm of the pre- 
fent government, and the little encouragement given to literary 
merit. It is true, the vulgar in general read and write ; the 
clergy ufually talk impure Latiny and the gentry cannot be 
called illiterate ^ but this mediocrity is the fummit of their 
ambition, a glorious contention and rivalry for excellence 
being utterly unknown in Denmark *. 
Qbara^er. The characfter of the people ekaftly tallies with their eru- 
dition ; they are no more emulous of excelling in virtue 
than in knowledge. Molefworth obferves, that the common 
people are a poor mean-fpirited daftardly race, totally degene- 
rated from the warlike difpofition of their anceftors ; equally 
addi£led to fraud themfelves, and fufpicious of it in others. 
Puffendorf fays of the npbility and gentry, " that they have 
** loft much of their antient glory ; at prefent they feek ra- 
** ther to ^njoy their revenues in eafe and luxury, than to toil 
*' for military fame^ ;" and it is even the intereft of the court, 
that the nobility fliould negleft the exercife of arms, which 
once rendered them fo formidable to their kings, and (he na- 
tion fo refpecSed by all her neighbours. If once their mili-r 
tary fpirit was roufcd, it would probably be' attended with 
efforts for the recovery of their liberties. 

* MOLESWORTH, C. vij, ^ PiTFFENDORFP Hlft. XJniv^ 

t iv, p. 180, . 


ftbeHiftory of bcnm^rk: ij 

fiktoRE thegovernmeiu was made hereditary, and abiblute 
in the prefent royal family, by that fiatal meafure in the year 
1660, the nobility or gentry lived in great fplendor and afflu- 
ence. Their country feats were magnificent, and their hof- 
pitality unbounded, becaufe the means of fupporting it was 
adequate : they fpent moft of their time about their eftates, 
iand of their revenues among their neighbours and tenants, by 
whom they were confidered as (6 many princes. When the 
ftatcs were annually convened, they itiet their fovereign vi^ith re- 
tinues as numerous and brilliant as his own ; they frequently eat 
at the fame table with him 5 their fuffrages were of the greateft 
weight in all public debates; for the commons were generally 
direifted by thenV, becaufe upon them was their dependance* 
Now they are fallen from that height of infolence and power, 
their condition is low, and they diminifh daily in number and 
credit. Molefuoorth affirms, <' that their eftates fcarce pay 
•* the taxes impofed on them, which obliges them to grind 
•* the faces of their poor tenants, to get an overplus for their 
*^ own fubfiftence. I have been aflured, (fays the noble wri- 
*' ter) by fome gentlemen of good repute, who formerly 
** were mailers of great eftates, that they have offered to 
** make an abfolute furrender to the king of large pofTeffions 
*^ in the ifland of Zealand^ rather than pay the taxes ; which 
** offer, though prefTed with eameftnefs, would by no means 
" be accepted. Upon my enquiry into the rcafon of it, I have Condition 
•' been informed, that eftates belonging to thofe gentlemen, ofthena* 
** lying in other places which had the good fortune to be tax- bility^ 
" ed lefs than the full value of their income, were liable to pay 
** the taxes of any other eftate appertaining to the fame gen* 
***tleman, in cafe that other eflate were not able ; fo that 
*^ fome have been feen, with a great deal of joy, declaring^ 
*' that the king had been fo gracious as to accept of their ef- 
** tates." . What a pifturethis of the moft abject and deplo- 
rable flavery ! and how ftriking a contraft to their once happy 
condition, when their eftates were rated for the public fup- 
port, juft as inclination and public fpirit dire<3:ed the pof* 
feflbrs ! » 

These, and feveral other caufes equally oppreflive, have 
efFe<5led the fall of the antient Danijh families, and the ruin 
of thofe noble feats, refembling palaces, where they lived 
with the magnificence of princes. Now they retreat into 
fome.obfcure corner, as if to conceal the difgrace they h?.ve 
brought upon themfelves, by the want of firmnefs in the de- 
fence of their privileges. They ate all ambitious of pio* 

* Lord MoLEswoRTA's Accour.t of Denmark, c. vliL 


^^ 7 he f^ifiory of Vtnm^vk, 

curing employments, civil or military, at court; this ind^eii 
being neceflary to fecure to their families a competent fubfiC* 
tence, and skreen their eftat^s from the exorbitant exaSiohs 
of the public collectors. Few of them, however, can expecSi 
to be provided for in this manner, as civil employments arc 
neither numerous nor valuable, and as ftrangers are generally 
chofen into public offices in preference to the natives ; the 
court imagining itfelf, that they can be more aflured of 
the fidelity of foreigners^ on whom they beftow fortunes, 
than on the pofterity of thofe whofe fortunes and liberties 
they have ruined. To this we may perhaps add another col- 
lateral reafon for the unnatural condud of the court, which 
poffibly finds the courage and fpirit of the nobility dwin^ 
The policy ^^^^ ^^^Y ^^^^ ^^^^^ freedom and property. ' It is farther re- 
^ fig markable, that in the difpofal of pofts and offices, fuch as are 
ctfurt in tbe^^ ordinary birth and fortunes are always preferred to the 
^fpofal more antient and wealthy nobility. Here the mod lucrative 
of offices, and honourable pofts, are filled by men of the loweft ftatiop 
and education ; not that they have afcended to them by dint 
of merit, but that they are found the beft executors of the 
will of abfolute^ power and defpotifm. Another advantage 
which the court finds in the promotion of fuch perfons, '\%^ 
that if they have grown wealthy by extortiort, and clampura 
are raifed loud againft them, they can eafily be reduced to 
their primitive condition, and the revenue encreafed by it, 
without creating difconients among the nobility, on account 
of kindred, alliance, or frlendfhip. Thus, in fome refpefls, 
4he policy of the court of Denmark refembles the arbitrary 
ineafures of the Porte ; they both permit their officers to op? 
prefs the people, in order to fatten on the fpoils of the»nation, 
without incurring the odium of being the immediate inilru- 
ments of the public mifery ''. , 

Our fenfible author is of opinion, that the difficulty of 
promifing a comfortable fubfiftence, and the little fecurity 
there is of property, when attained by toil and induftry, is 
the occafion of that prodigality obfervable am.ong all degrees 
of people in Denmark. Expences in equipages, retinues, and 
fine cloaths, amount no where to" fuch a pitch of extrava- 
gance, in proportion to the income, as in Copenhagen *^. No- 
thing can be more true, than that parfimony is not only the 
caufe but the effect of riches ; for, in general, the more 
wealth a man has, the more does he labour to acquire. But 
in Denmark the courtier never thinks of realizing his money ; 

^ PUFFENDORFF, t. IV. ibid. MoLESWORTH. iDld. * Id# 



The Hiftory of DoxmvLTk^ 15 

jn(lead of buying eftates, he remits his cafh to the bank's of 
Jmfterdam and Hamburg. The gentleman fpetids in ^is plea- 
fores the fortune which might becoaie dangerous, by gaining 
him the reputation of riches. The merchant and burgher 
live upon credit, there being few of either worth one hun- 
dred thoufand rixdoUars (A). As to the peafant, he no fooner 
finds himfelf in poffeflion of a rixdollar, than he fquanders it 
upon brandy, tp prevent his landlord's feizing upon it. In 
9 word, oppreffion and arbitrary fway, beget diftruft and 
doubts about the feeurity of property : doubts beget profufion, 
men chufing to fquander on their pleafures, what they appre- 
hend may excite the rapacioufnefs of their fuperiors ; and this 
profufion is the legitiipate parent of that univerfai indolence^ 

' jx)verty, and defpondence, which fo ftrongly charadlerize the 
fniferable inhabitants of Denmark. We (peak of what the 
country was in the beginning of the laft reign, in confe- 
quence of the itature of their government ; for though the 
excellent difpofition, and mild adminiftration of Chrijliern 
VI. and Frederic V. alleviated the miferies of the people, 
they by mo means altered the fundamental principles of the 

I prcfent conftitution. Before their time, the trading towns 
and villages, C^enhagen excepted, were falling into ruin and 
decay ; boroughs, which had lent their king confiderable fums 
of money upon emergencies, were, in lord Molejworth^t 
days, uhable to raife an hundred rixdollars (B). 

To fet this affedling piflure, which is the beft lefTon to a 
people as yet bl^ed with their h'berties^ in the ftrpngeft 
point of view, we (hall beg leave to fet before the reader a 

(A) This 18 thp ' account of aafpices, which enabled him to 

Jord MoUfwerih, who ieems to fupport the government, after 

have made very accaritc obfcr- he had abolifhed fome of the 

"vatipDS on the then ftate of Den- mcft 'Opprefiive taxes. 
mark I but we have'reafon to (B) This nobleman relates, 

believe that the wife and politic that when Jie refided in Den- 

condu^l of his prefent Danijb mark, the collc£tors of the poU- 

majefty, and his royal father tax were forced to accept of old 

Chrijliern VI, has efFcdled a feather-beds, brafs and pewter 

change greatly to the advanta^ pans, and houfnold furniture, 

of the country. The latter in inftcad of money, froi^n the once 

particular, was the great pro- wealthy inhabitants of Kiog^ 

moter of the Dahijh commerce though this little town fupplied 

to the Eaft-Ittdies, which, on Chrijiiern IV. with the fum of 

his acceffion to the throne, was two hundred thoufand rixdol- 

funk to a very languid condi- lars, upon a' notice fo fhort as 

tion. Every branch of trade twenty-four hours. FU. c. viii. 
and induftry revived under his; 


i€ TheilfptyofDtnmsirU: 

The pea- ^^^ "^0^^ obfervations from the fame author. In iealand^ ni , 
fnnts fold informs us, the peafants are as abfolute flaves as the negroes of 
nviih the Our colonies in the IVeJi Indies^ with this difference, that theyj' 
lanJsy an J are worfe fed. They and their ppfterilj; are unalterabi/ 
transfer- fixed to the land in which they Were born j the landholders 
able like eftimating their wealth by their ftock of boors. If an eftate 
flock. ije fojd^ ^)^g peafants are likcwife transferred with it, like 
wood, houfes, and cattle* Yeomanry, the bulwark of hap- 
py England^ is a date unheard of in Denmark \ inftead of 
which the pitiable drudges, after labouring hard io raife the 
king's taxes, mufl pay the overplus of the profits of lands^ 
and their own toil, to the greedy ;atld neceffitous landlord* 
Should any of them prove of a more diligent and inventive 
turn than his companions, fo as to live better, repair his farm-^ 
s houfe, and put forth the appearance of a degree of happinefs and 
eafe, fuperior to the others, it is probable he ihay be removed 
from a neat, plea fan t, and commodious houfe, to a naked and 
uncomfortable habitation, that the landlord may increafe his 
rent, by letting the improved farm to another. 
The hard- The quartering and paying the king's troops, is another 
jhips they grievance no Icfs oppreffive than the former, to which the mi- 
underj^o ferable peafant is fubjecSt. The late experience of our own 
from hav' innkeepers, and their complai^its to parliament in the year 
mg the 1-58, may give us an idea of the condition of the Danijh 
^quartered P^^^^"^^, oppreffed with the load of thofe infolcnt inmates^ 
upon them ^^^ "^'"^ ^^ whereyer they are privileged byrthe conftitution. 
Another grievance to which they are liable, is the obligation 
they are under of furnifliing the king, the royal family, their 
attendants, baggage, and furniture, with horfes and travelling 
waggons, whenever they undertake a progrefs to Jutland^ ot 
Holjieiny or even through Zealand^ to any of the royal coun* 
from flip- tryhoufes. On fuch occafions, all the peafants lying on the 
flying the ^oad, are fummoned to attend with their horfes and waggon?, 
king and at their own expence, no regard being had to the harveft, 
court nuith which is the ufual feafon for the royal family, to travel. Th6 
horfes and infolences committed by the petulant and worthlefs lac- 
^waggons queys, and other. fervants of the court, our author fays, have 
m thetr excited his compaffign for the unhappy boors, whom he had 
frcgrefet. ^^^^ beaten and treated upon a footing with their cattle^ 
However, this ufage would be tolerable, were they fubjefled 
' to it only when the king makes a progrefs ; but born to be 
^ flaves, the peafants are forced to attOKl, in the fame manner, 
every creature of the court, who has obtained his naajefty's 
order, a favour feldom denied to any man of the leaft weight 
and influence. 

Ti^ Hijiofy of Denmark. >gj 

; PitOM all thef^ circumftances it is obfervable, that altho* 
penmark has a tendency to be exceeding populous, as appears 
from the fwarms of northern nations, which, in former ages, ' 
over-ran, all Europe ; yet poverty, oppreffion, aiid poor diet, 
great;ly ol>ftru£k procreation, and prevent the cncreafe of the The great 
people. Before the fatal revolution in 1660, there was hardly change in 
a family in Denmark that was not in pbiTeffion of a piece oithe condi^ 
plate, l^iides fllvcr fpoons, gold rings, and other convenien- ^^ ^/^^ 
ciesand ornaments, of which they arc flill fond: at prefent/*^^^* 
there is nothing of value to be feen in the houfe of a peafant, 
all being {bid to pay the king's taxes, and gratify the rapacious 
avarice of the colleftors. 

Another confequence which our authof deduces from Difgafig 
their poverty, is the frequency of apoplexies and epileptic dif- ^Qn/equent 
orders, among the common people. " One, fays he, lhall/^/^i> 
'^ hardly pafs through a, fireet iii Copenhagen^ without k^xng Jituatioam 
•^ one or two of thofe poor cjeatures groveling oii the ground 
*^ jn a iit, and foaming at the niouth with a circle of gazerii 
" anjd affiftants about them.'* Whether thefe diforders be the 
genuine reiult of the caufes he afcribes, and the nature of 
their diet» which is compofed of lean fait meats, ftock-fiOi, 
i^c. we cannot pretend to decide, without entering upon a dif- 
quifition foreign to our purpofe ; fufficient it is, that the rea-*- 
der has a view of the deplorable condition of the Damjh pea* 
peafant, who wanted nothing befides this dreadful dileafe to 
crown his mifery. There is one difeafe they tzWJlacht^ which' • 
may be deemed endemial, on account of its Univerfality 
here among all degreies of people. Mole/worth fay3 it is a 
kirid of apoplexy, arifmg from difcontent and trouble of 
mind ; but how truly the reader is left to judge. 

FokM£Ri«Y valour and wealth were the only titles to nd- Hggreet if 
bility, the nobles and gentry having ho real diftindlion. No nobility in 
degrees oiF rank, or patents of honour, were dependent on the. Denmark* 
crown 5 of late years, however, to coin pen fate the lofs of fo- 
lid privileges, the court confers a few imaginary honours, fuch 
as the dignities of count and baron^ to the favourites of the 
king. 'Thefe, inftead of becon^ing more independent, arc^ 
in confequence of their empty, titles, the real flaves and 
tools /of th^ crown, and ufed accordingly as the inftrumencs 
of legal DppreiSon. One exclufive right indeed they enjoy ; 
it is that of difpofing of their eftates coutrary to the courfe of 
law, by will or teftament, provided that fuch will be figned 
iind approved by the king during the life of the teftator. 

Theke are befides two orders of knighthood in Denmark^ 
that of the Elephant and Datie-Broge^ of which the tirft is the 
moft bonourablej and conferred only on perfons of the higbeft 
diftinction and merit. This order was initituted by Chrijliern I. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. XXtlL C at 

¥9 tbetiiftory eftitnmzrk: 

flt his fon's wedding, the badge being an elephant With ^ 
cafile on its back, fet with diamonds, and hung on a watered 
fky-coloured ribband. As to the Dane-Broge^ it is the re- 
ward of inferior diftinftion ; the badge being a white rib- 
band with red, edges, having a fmall crofs of diamonds fuf- 
pended to it, and an embroidered ftar on the breaft of the 
coat, with this motto, PietaU et juftitia. 
Form nf Thk antient form of government in Denmark was ikni- 
gwern- lar to that which the Goths and Vandals^ eftabliflbed in ahnoft 
ment. ill countries where their arms were viflorious. To thefe bar- 
barians do we owe the model of a conftitution far excelling 
all others, in a juft mixture of liberty and fubordrnation. TiH 
the people refigned their rights in the year 1660, the king of 
Denmark was eleded by his fubjefts of all degrees, divided 
i^tocfifferent clafles.(A), called States. Thefe being con- 
vened, were to chufe for their prince a man,' whofepcrfon 
was unexceptionable, who was valiant, juft^ merciful, affa- 
ble, prudent, a maintainer of the laws, a lover of the peo- 
ple, an encourager of merit, in a word, adorned with all the 
accomplifhments and virtues necefiary for the execution of fi> 
important 1 truft. Due regard for the royal line was always 
preferved, and the people thought themfclves happy, if they 
found in the late king'^s fanoily virtues and abilities adequate 
to the great and weighty duty of a monarch* When they 
.bappened to be miftaken in their choice^ and, inftead of 
the patriot,, the warrior, and the ftatefman, they had pro- 
moted a cruel^ vicious, and profligate tyrant, they 'always aT- 
Jumed the right of depofing, bani(hing, and even putting to 
<Jeath their king; and this either by cpen trial before the 
ftates, or, if he was thought too powerful to be brought to 
public juftice, by fecret confpiracies. In his room they eleded 
the next of kin, if he had merit, or the hero who had ha«- 
zarded his life for the public, by undertaking the exj^fion or 
the death of the tyrant. 

Frequent conventions of the different ftates of the king* 
dom was^ a fundamental article of the Danijh conftitution. 
Here all matters relative, to government were tranfaifted-^ 

(A) This faft has the tefti- « we have from God, dor 

mony of all hillorians, and is " kingdom from our fubjedlsv 

farther confirmed by that me- • *• our wealth from our ptfrents». 

Hiorable anfwer made by Wal- « and our religion from the 

dmar III. to the pope's nun- " church of RoTttef which laft 

cio, who affumed great autho- *^ we are willing to renounce, 

rity in the kingdom. " Our " if you envy us th« felicity it 

^* nature, fays the monarch, *« brings (x). 

(i )' Pcntan, Htft, f, 32^, 

• I wholo- 

ii^holefome laws 9na£led, peace or war determined, marriages 
for the royal family projected, taxes impbfed, promotions to 
the great offices made; in a word, every thing that concerned 
file Iqiiflative power. It was a principle of government, that 
no comlant tribute ihould be paid, or any taxes levied on the 
people, but by the confent of all the ftates, and for the fup- 
poft of a necdTary and juft war, or payment of a marriage* 
portion. The king's ordinary revenue arofe from the crown- 
Jands and demefhes, his herds and cattle, forefts and fervi- 
tudes. Thus he Uved, like a fubjed, on the produce of his 
6wn eftate, and «oc as now by the fweat of the peafant's 

Ai the kgiflative power was veiled in ;the ftates, fo the 
king was poliefled of the exek:utive : he was to fee a due and 
impartial adminiftration of JMftice ; nay, often to prefide in 
perfon j feduloufly to watch for the welfare of his people ^ 
to command their armies ; to cberiOi induftry, religion, arts, 
and fcieace ; to keep tipon terms of friendfliip with the no- 
bility, and to protest the common^ from their iniblence and 

In this iitualbn, with no other alteration than the en- 
Cfieafing power of the nobles, did the confiitution remain until 
the levoltttion in 1660, which produced a change equally 
afloniihiiig in itfelf, and fatal to the liberties of ^e people. 
As this new-modelling of the government ivas eSc&ed at a 
perk)d very difaftrous to the nation ; aft^r the king had left 
a great part of his dominions jn the War with Sweden ; when 
the treafury was exhaufted ; the public fpirit low -, without 
Woqdflied ; without force; and in the fpace of two days, it 
fiaay jufily be deemed one of the moft remarkable events in 
hiftory : however, we Ihall only touch upon it in this place, 
that the reader may have a view of the prefent fiate of the . 
Danifi government. 

Immsdiatel Y after a peace was concluded with Swederiy a y^^ ^^.^^ 
diet of the iftatcs affembled to eonfider of the means to re-efta- rendered 
\Mi Che public af&irt, and enable the pjBople, almoft undone ab/olute 
by the misfortunes attending a tedious and bloody war, to re- and here^ 
cJbver their lofles. As the difficulties which would occur ditary. 
were obvious, the king forefaw the difputes which muft ne- 
ceflkriiy arife. He therefore had it artfylly infmuated to the 
clergy, and the prefident of Copenhagen^' fpeakcr of the com* 
mons, that the public tranquility might be eafily reftored, if 
all the members of the ftate would bear their proportion of. 
the expence. The commons, in confequence, laid before 
the nobility the deplorable fituation of the people, and the 
impoffibility of raifing money for the current fervice, unlefs 

C z they 

StO ThiMiJiofyofiytnmzTki 

thcv cohfetttcd to pay their fliare, which was the more rca* 
fonable as they were thie greateft gainers, and the only mo- 
nied men in the kingdom. The nobih'ty, who were nurne^ 
rous, infolent, and powerful, not at all apprifed of the col« 
lufioh betweeti the king and cohitnonS) dealt very roundly 
with the latter, telling theth it was the higheft prefumption 
to enquire into their privileges, and the grofleft ignorance in 
them to didlate to their mafters ; for yaflfals they were, and 
ihould remain. Fired with this haughty anfwer, the fpeaker 
of the commons replied, that fmce they would not ufe the 
means to preferve their privileges, they were unworthy of 
them *; that their anfwer to the commons was equally infolent 
and cruel ; and that, though the commons cOuld not make 
themfelves noble, yet they would {hew them it was in their 
power to make the weight of fubjeAion fall upon others as 
heavy, as till now it had lain lipon themfelves. After this 
fpirited ' reply, this fpeaker retired, and was followed by the 
clergy and commons to a man, to*a hall provided at feme 
tltftance for that purpofe. Here they came to the fudden and 
fatal refolution of devolving their own authority upon the king. 
Several private meflfages pafTed betweenthem and the court in 
the evening, and next morning they attended his majefty in a 
body, and were admitted to an audience. They fet forth^ 
that as the prefent conftitution did not, in their opinion, an- 
fwer the end of government, they were refolved to put the 
' adminiftratidn wholly in his majefty's bands, becaufe they 
were fenfible of his prudence, virtue, and public fpirit, as 
well as his great love for his people. His majefty at firft pre- 
tended to havb fome fcruples about accepting an arbitrary 
power ; but, on the commons infifting upon their requeft, he 
told them how much he was obliged to them for their juft 
fentiments of his afFedlion ; but that the confent of the nobi- 
lity was neceflfary to render any public ad, of the nature they 
propofed, valid and of efFedl. At the fame time he ordered the 
city gates to be (hut, under the fpecious pretext of fecuring it 
againft danger from the ferment arifen in the diet; and having 
the army intirely in his power, it was impoffible for any of 
the nobility to retire to their eftates, without his leave, which 
brought his intrigues to afpeedy iflue. Now the nobility dif* 
covered their error] but it was too late and irreparable : fome 
part of their privileges they determined therefore to refign, in ^ 
order to fecure the reft, Witli this view they made his ma* 
jefty an offer to advance his prerogative connderably, and to 
fettle the fucceflion in the male line of his iflue; but they 
were given to underftand, that thJs would neither anfwer his 
majefty's purpofe, nor fatisfy the clergy and commons. At 


The Hiftory ^/ Dfiniparkf ^ %^ 

laft they were forced to furrender all, and to render his mi- 
jetty arbitrary, and the crown hereditary in his ifliie, whether 
male ' or female. A fesv days after the king, queen, and 
royal family, appeared on a kind of theatre ere(9[ed for the oc« 
caiion ; and being feated in chaii^ of ftate, under canopies of 
velvet, received the homage of the nobility, clergy, and peo- 
ple, in fight of the army. Thus the ftates of Denmark^ 
without cqmpuKloQ, almoft without intrigue, divefted them^ 
felves 1^ a certain fatality of thofe privileges, which had coft 
their anceftors fo much blood and treafure. In this condition 
does the conftitution now remain, the government being an 
abfolute and defpotic monarchy, the rigour of which has, 
however, been foftened by the mild and juft adminiftration 
of the excellent princes who have fmce reigned. 

Although the king of Denniari profeiles to iquare his. 
C0Qdii6t» by the antlent and fundamental laws of the king- 
dom, yet thefe he takes the liberty of new-mqdelling, or 
repealing, as he fees proper. He is the guardian of orpbai^, 
and afliinies to himfelf the difpofal of heirs and heirefles in 
marriage. As he is intitled to a third of the money arifing 
upon the fale of lands, no edates can be fold without his per- 
miOion. except of thpfe who are raifed to the dignity of counts 
or barony. ' 

The king, in bis council, determines ^11 public affairs;' 
deliberate^ on war and peace, alliances and treaties; and 
of tsgces, fortifications, trade, (5fr. without any other affift- 
ance than that of the fecretaries of flate, wha are eileemed, 
nQtwithftaoding, rather as minifteria) ofHcers th^ counfellors 
of flate. Qt tbefe great officers there are four, who direA 
bufinefs in their feparate departments. The firfl is fecre- ' 
tary for „ the affairs of Denmark ; the fecond, for thofe of 
Norway ; th^ third, for foreign affairs ; and the fourth, is fe- 
cretary at war. 

One felicity flill remains to Denmark \ it is the brevity and laws in 
perfpicuity of the laws, juftice being no where obtained with Denmark; 
lefs expence, or greater expedition. The whole, body of Da- their hre* 
nijh laws is contained in a moderately fuxd quarto volume, ^vity. 
written in the vernacular tougue, and fo plainly, fimply, 
and intelligibly, as fcarce ever to require a comment. As 
they are grounded upon equity rendered familiar to the meanefl 
under ftanding, every man capable of reading, may foon be- 
come acquainted with his own cafe, and even able to plead 
it, without the affiftance of thqfe pefts of focietyj attorn ies, 
folicitors, and the pettyfoggers of the law. Here is none of 
that chicane and myftery of the law, which raifes and de- 
flroys fo many cilates in other countries \ a few advocates are 

C 3 fufiicient 

ff« The Hifiory of DcnmarK. 

i^ifficient to conduft the pleadings of all the Ktigjous per* 
fons in the nation % and as their fees are fmaU, and all {nk% 
necefiarily determined within a year and a natonth after tfaetr 
commencment, they are feldom burthenfomc to tfce par- 

In Denmark are three courb of juftrce, each of wkich hj^ 
power to give a definitive fetitence, and muft acquit or candenui, 
though there lies an appeal fr6m one to another, hut without 
the formality and expence of again paffing throu^ the whole 
oris. Themoft circumfcribed court is the Hirreiifiugdsy^Senuln. 
in nature to our leet-court. It is a tribunal appointed for the 
difpatch of bufinpfs in the country, to which the Byfbgds couit 
correiponds in towns and cities. From thefe there lies an ap- 
peal to the Landjfagy or general head court for the province 5 
and from thence to the Higt-Right court at CGpnthagm^ com- 
pofed of the fifft nobility, and often prefidcd by the king's 
majefty in perfon, the whole charge not exceeding ten or 
tffelve pounds fterling. The Byfogds court of Copenhagen 
has this peculiar privilege ; that its verdi£b, inftead of pafiing 
through the Landftag^ is revifed by the burgomafter and cort- 
nion-coancil of the city, proceeding immediately from them 
to the HiguRigbt court. Should the matter in debate bap- 
pen not to be pofitively fpecified in the written law, ^vhicb 
{ feldom happens, the verdiS is then in the king*s breaft, or in 
that of his reprefentative, who may be called keeper of the 
royal cbnfcience. The fentcnces pafled in the inferior courts 
are feldom panial, the judges dreading the revifal of the high 
court, where ftrift jiiftice is adminiftered between one fubjefl; 
and another. The misfortune however is, that the firft arti- 
(c!e of the law referv.cs to the king the privilege of altering or 
explaining it at pleafure; whence it is, that in all caufes 
wherein his majefty or his favourites are interefted, the fubje<5 
can expeft but little juftice, efpecially if money be the point 
in litigation. 

In the inferior courts, the reafons upon which every verdiS 
is founded are fpecified ; but in the fupreme court, no reafoi) 
is expreflcd for the fentence ; and the judges of the lower 
courts, are not only puniflied for mifdemeanors committed 
in the execution of their ofHce, but obliged alfo to render 
fatisfaftion to the party injured by an unjuft fentence. 

In Denmark are no public focieties of lawyers, or inns of 
court. Every man takes up the profeflion at pleafure, as it 
requires but little learning to become acquainted with laws 
fo concife and intelligible; and indeed, the profits are fo 
(m^l, that few are induced to aflume the long robe, who caR 
^pply themfelves to any other profeflion. One excellent re- 

. gulation 

The Hijlory <?/ Denmark, - %i 

gulatlon we muft not omit; it is, that all clerks and regiSers 
are obliged to bring the whole procefs of trial within a li^- 
mited number of Iheets, including the allegations, proofs, 
and fentencc. A certain price is affixed to each fteet ; and 
thus the parties have a certainty of the utipoft expence of a 
proceeding. How happy would it be for this nation, which 
boafis of the freedom of its conftitution, could fome check bee 
given to the rapacioufnefs of the interpreters of thofe one? 
limply but now embarralRd laws ! 

The falaries of the judges are paid out of the exchequer ; 
and fo trifling are they, that a judge of the lower court hatb 
not above twenty -five ^unds per annum^ and others propor- 
tionably, which would be a ftrong temptation to pervert juf- 
tice, were they not awed by the fupreme court. By the 
king's order, the magiftrat^s of towns provide pleaders for 
the poor, and thofe who are unable to defend their own 
caufe ; an inftitution founded upon humanity, which we could 
wifli to fee followed in countries more applauded for liberty 
.and generous fcntiments. 

In criminal cafes the feverity of the law is extraordinary ; 
and to this many writers have attributed the good order and 
ftriS difcipline of the people. The crimes of murder, rob- 
bery, boufe-breaking, high-treafon, or even faditious dif- 
courfes^ are feldom heard of : fo fixed is the government 
now on the taGs of defpotifm, that the mpft turbulent fpirit$ 
are awed into implicit obedience. The moft frequent crimes ^ 
are manflaughter and thieving, and the punifliment is behead- 
ing, which is done by one ftrolcc oif a fword (A). 

In Copenhagen there is a magiftrate of police, who prefides. j^^-^^, 
over the .morals of the people, quiets difturbances, cpmpofes thns re- 
diiFerences J^mong the merchants, examines whether their goring 
goods be marketable, k^eps every profeffion within its proper /r/?, and 
bounds, caufes the ftreets, bridges, and caufeways, to bp kept good order ^ 

(A) The executioner or j^^/i^ houfes clean and fweet, with 
warty as he is called, though in- feveral other neceflary employ- 
famous by his profeffion, com- mcnts, in « which np Danijh 
penfates the want of reputation fervant will, upon any coofi- 
oy folid profits, arifmg from deration, engage ( i ). For 
other employments annexed to this purpofe he has under hin^i 
his office. Hii bufinefs it is to a great number of fervants call- 
l^eepthe finks and offices in or- ed Rackersy and as he charges 
der, remove all rubbifh and his own price, foon rai fes a fbr- 
every thing ofFenfive out of the tune fuperior to that of feme 
Sheets, keep ftables and out- of the chief nobility. 

[i) Molejkuorth, cbaf, p(, 

C 4 . in 

(I4 ^ TbeHiJlory ofDtnmzt\i. / 

in repair, fees the markets properly fupplied with bread at 9 
reafbnable price, feizes prohibited goods, adifts with a proper 
^ody of men to extinguiih fires, with every thing elfe whicS 
regards the good order, the fafety, and the conveniency 
pf the city (B). 

Chimney I'weepers are bound jo keep an ^xzR, rcgiftcr^ 
vpon path) of all the chimnies they fweep, that, in cafe of 
accidents, thofe by whofe avarice or negled they have hap^ 
pened, may repair the damage at their private expence. 
Torches aijd flambeaux are prohibited in the ftreets ; inftea^ 
of which, perfons of the firft diftinifiion ufe large clofe Ian- 
thorns fixed upon a pole ; a neceflary precaution in a town 
where fo many houfes are built of fir tiniber. The polity* 
fnqfter^ as he is called, regulates likewife the price of travelling 
in open waggons, snd kverelv puniflies all impofitions on 
paffengers, He imprifons all who travel on the kihg's particu- 
--^ larroad, without perm iffion ; all poachers and (bortfmen, who 
appear with guns, dogs, or game: laftly, he fupprelTes riots 
among the foldiers, who are prohibited to be feen in the 
ftreets after the fignal for retiring is made by beat of 
JteguJa- Of all the regulations in Denmark^ perhaps that of th^ ' 
tiims of apothecaries is the nioft ufeful and falutary. No man is per- 
^tpoibeca- mitted to excrcife that profeffion, until he paffes the examina- 
r/</. ^ion of the college of phyficians, and is allowed unani- 

moufly to be (killed in his fundibn. In lord Molefworthh time 
only two apothecaries were permitted to open fhops in Copen\ 
hageity and one only, in each of the other towns. Their 
jibops and medicines are carefiilly infpe£ted every quarter by 
the magiftrates and phyficians, and all the bad clrugs thrown 
aiway. The price is affixed to every article, and the apothe- 
caries are obliged to keep regifters of all the medicines they 
felFor make up, with the. names of the patients, and the 
proper dates ; fo that they are never at a lofs upon whom to 
charge any unfortunate accident. 

(B) One excellent cuftom is left jindc|- pfetcnce pf hplpjng 

ftridily o|)fcrved in Co^enbagen^ x\\t unfortunate," they Ihoul^ 

and enfqrced by a law, of which feizc the opportunity of plun- 

the magillrate of police is judge, dering them : a law this which 

Here are feleft companies of not only prevents lofTes and 

nen paid by the public, whofe frauds, but greatly contributes 

Jolc bofinefs it is 10 watch and to tapprefiing fires, by the or- 

cxtinguifh fir^, no others dar- der and regularity obferved oil 

}ng, on pain 'of death, to ap- thefe occaficns (i). ,' 

pro^ch within a certain diftance, 

y The Hijl&ry of Denmark. 25 

In the country the government is conduced by dividing It Stifts* 
Into certain diftridts, called Stifu-Ampts^ of which there zxzAmfts^ 
ieven ; four in Jutland^ and three in the iflands. Everyy?/^j- 
ampt is fubdivided into a leffer jurifdidiion, called Jmpt, A 
peribn of quality is generally chofen Jiifts-amplfman^ a poft 
fsquivalent to Jord-lieutenant in England^ or intendant in 
France^ to which laft it approaches the neareft.. Amptfman, or 
under- governor of an ampu is generally a perfon of inferior 
rank, who refides in the principal town of his diftridt, and is 
cntrufted with all matters relating to the public ; the quarter* 
ing of foldiers, providing for their march, collefting the 
king's taxes, direfling the peafants erpployed in public works, 
or when the king travels : thefe employments are for life, and 
given as reward^ to thofe wjio have faithfully ferved the court. 
Perfons who have refided at foreign courts in quality of am- 
bafladors, are ufually preferred \o Jllfts-ampu on their return, 
if theircOnduft has received the approbation of his majefty. 
His falary is a thoufand crowns, and that of the amprfman 
four hundred ; but the chief advantages arifing from their ^ 
polls, are the intereft they in cpnfequence have at ^ourt, by 
which they Ihift ofF the moft grievous taxes from their eftat^s ; 
and the great power and authority which it gives them within 
their jurifdiiftion, where' they are confidered as petty prin- 
ces *. 

" The king's revenue arlfes either from the duties paid by Revtmiu 
his own fubjedis, from the cuftoms paid by foreigners, or from 
the crown lands, fines, and confifcations. -The taxes upon 
his own fubje<Sls are either fixed or variable ; we mean, 
that the prince in fome cafes chufes to follow a rule, efta« 
^lifhed by himfelf, which, however, hie may alter if he finds 
it heceflary. Of the firft fort are the duties upon imports 
and 'exports, and formerly the excife .upon the necef&ries 
of life, now aboliflied. There are alfo duties upon mar- 
riage licences, upon ftamp paper, on bargains, contra£h^ 
grants, and proceedings at law. That is, the duty, is laid 
ppon the paper, and all the proceedings neceflarily written 
on ftamp paper, the duty on which after amounts to fe- 
yerai rixdollars each fheet. Formerly an excife was laid 
on brewing, malt, and corn tliat was grinded in mills ; but 
we are told fhat this duty is either intirely abolifhed, or at 
ieaft greatly lowerefl. Such were the fixed duties, which 
feldom received any alteration. The variable duties are, the % 

land-tax, affefled not by the acre, but by the annual value of ' 
|he farm of eftate j the poll-tax^ impofed upon every fub- 

' • yid. Mole 8 worth's Account of Denmtrlc, ubi fupra. 


^6 Tie Hfficty of Denmark. 

je£t according to his wealth ; money levied for repa!ring4hc 
old fortifications, or ereding new \ an occafional tax laid on 
the marriage of a princefs for the payment of her portion ; a tax 
laid upon tradcfmen, for the liberty of cxercifing their feveral 
occupations ; the ground- rents in all cities and towns, taxed 
according to the value of the houfe, or the ability of the te- 
nant. In Holjlein the lands are taxed by the plough, each 
|)lougb paying a certain fum of money monthly. About the 
year 1690, a valuation was made of all the houfes in the ci- 
ties and towns within the king's dominions, and the lands in 
the country were meafured, the more eaiily to ^^{% them, 
and determine their real value. The ground-rent in towni 
and cities was fixed at four per cent, of the real value of the 
ground", fuppofing it were put up to fale. As to the poll-tax,, 
ibe moft moderate adefsment is in the following proportion. 
A citizei) worth eight or ten thoufand rixdoUars, pays four 
for himielf, four for his wife, two for each childt one for 
each fervant, and as much for every horfe. A publican pays 
one rixdollar for himfelf, another for his wife, twenty-four 
ftivers for every child, and fixteen for every fervant. The tax 
levied for crcfting and repairing the fortifications is ufually 
laid high. A merchant worth fix or eight thoufand dollars, 
.Ihall often pay fixty-eight dollars j an ordinary citizen eight 
pr ten, and others in proportion; but the reader is to obferve^ 
that we have no late accounts of the ftate of the revenue, 
V^hich is probably raifed in a manner infimt^ly lefs oppreifivc 
than it was^fter a long and ruinous war* 

In Norway the revenue arif^ps from a certain proportion of 
;.the timber, tar, fifli, and oil, that is exported, and alfo cer- 
tain duties upon thefe. To this may be added a fmall profit 
arifing from mines ; but the lad and mol^ confiderable branch 
Js drawn from the crown lands ?nd confifcations. However, 
the king frequently becomes the poorer fqr tjie addition to 
)iis demefnes by confifcations ; for he no fooner becomes the 
proprietor, than labour ceafes, improvements are negled^ed, 
^nd the whole is often converted intoforefts for his diverfion; 
a moft impolitic and deftruQiye pr^ftice, happily abolilhed in 
pur own country. 

Upon the whole, the king'^ revenue is very confiderable; 
.and lord Mokfworth has computed them as follows : Tht 
^oU of the Sound worth fixty-five thoufand rixdollars, per an- 
num ; the reft of the toll of D^w^r^, farming ait one hiui- 
^red and fixty-five thoufand rixdollars ; the excife of Copen- 
hagen farmed at onehimdred and forty thoufand rixdollars ; the 
fxcife of the reft of his majefty's dominions at one hundred 
and forty thcufandri^doUars ; the fmaller taxes of the king- 

^be^ Htfiory ef Dcrmiark* ^j 

4oin ^ one hundred thoufand rixdoUars ; the whole revenue 
pf Norway at fevcn hundred thoufand rixdoUars ; the crown 
lands, confifcations, ^c» at two hundred thoufand rixdoUars ; 
the revenue of Iceland^ farmed at twenty-feven thoufand rix- 
doUars ; Oldmburg and Delmenborji at eight thpufand ; and 
the toU upon the IFtfer^ at five thoufand : the whole amount- 
ifMg to two tpiUions fix hundred and twenty-two thoufand rix- 
ck)llai$, from which a deduction of four hundred thoufand rix- 
floUars ought to be made, as the pole and fortification taxes 
were never levied in thb fame year. The fenfible author of 
the Prefent State of ^ur$pe^ eftimates the revenue at nearly 
the fame fttmt though we are apt to believe hey has been led 
inrto this miftake by lord Mole/worthy who wrote ia the year 
1690, without reflediing upon the great increafe of induftiy 
and commerce, and the extraordinary addition to the reve- 
nue from thele, as well as from foreign fubfidies, which 
aimount to above a million of rixdoUars from France alone* 
Certain it is, that the exportation of beef, butter, tar, tim- 
ber, ^c, has greatly encreafed of late years, and has propoc- 
fionably enriched the exchequer, and the private trader, tho' 
it would be difficult to afcertain the exad value of this in- 
creafe (A). 

It is allowed on all hands, that fpecie is fcarce in Deit'^^ 
piark^ few perfons having any ready cafli lying by them i 
iu)d the traders through whofe hand$ it paflfes, havbg fmall 

(A) That the readw may have fliilUngs and nine-pence half- 
a clearer idea of the above re- penny, and the (liver at nearly 
Vjcnues, as weU as of other par- a penny farthing. Their weights 
ticalars mentioned in the pre- are the great and fmall hun- 
ceding pages, it may be necef- dred, the iirft one hundred and 
fary to give him a fhort account twenty, and the latter one hun- 
pf the Danijh coins, weights, dred and twelve pounds : they 
and mcafures. A rofc noble is have alfo their lifpoand, equi- 
eighteen (hillings ^^/. a ducat valent to our (lone, and their 
nine (hillings, a rixdollar four (hippand^ which makes twenty 
(hillings and iix-pence, a (let lifpounds. An hundred weight . 
dollar three (hillings, a rix- ^xr^Z^ hardly amounts to ninety* 
mark eleven-pence, a (let-marls two Danijb pounds. A Daniftf 
iune<.pence, a (liver one penny; ell is about one-third lefs than 
befides which, there is a variety an EngUJh ; but of their liquid 
of fmaller copper coins. It meafure we find no exaft ac- 
would appear, however, that count, nor indeed any thing (b 
the rixdollar and (liver have no accurate as we could wi(h con- 
fixed valuation, as feveral wri- cerning their weights or dry 
ters reckon the former at four meafure (i). 

(1) Vid, 4rlth. Qmm. Buejch, p, 16. 


^^ The Hiftcry of Denmark. 

capitals and large debts in Holland and Hamburgj no ft^on^r 
receive money than they pay it away again. Another cir* 
cumftance which greatly contributes to the draining Denmark 
pf its fpecie, is the payment of the troops, as at leaft half the 
officers are foreigners, who place whatever they accumulate 
in foreign banks ; a pradice too frequent among the offi- 
cers of ilate liicewife. Formerly the balance of tnde againft 
Denmark ufed to carry ofF large fums ; for it was eflimate<l 
that foreign imports for the confumption of the country, ex- 
ceeded the exported produce by near a fifth * : but how they 
were for fuch a number of vears able^to fupport lb lofing 
a trade, is what we are unable to comprehend. At preient 
we believe the balance is in favour of the Danes ^ with refped 
to moil countries where they trade, labour being incredi(>ly 
cheap. The moft plentiful coin, even now, is copper^ 
whence if a man has a large dim to receive, he is forced to 
employ wheel-barrows to carry it ofFj and we have heard 
merchants declare, that in their accounts they have charged 
a certain fum for that purpofe ; a prefumption this of the 
fcarcicv of money, notwithftanding we fee the bafer coin^ 
prevail in rich countries, though for diflerent reafons. 
P of the '^^ ^^ EngUJbman unacquainted with the value of moneys 
^tu ^ northern countries, it would be incredible what an army 
• * the king of Denmark fupports at a lefs expence than this na- 
tion can maintain ei^ht regiments of horfe and foot. It is com- 
puted, that Denmark and the German dominions maintain an 
army of fixteen thoufand foot, four thoufand horfe, and two 
thoufand dragoons, in profound peaces and Norway thirteen 
thoufand foot, and near three thouf2i>nd horfe and dragoons; to- 
gether with three thoufand feamen, who are employed In the 
king's dock-yards^ when they are not wanted for the equipment 
of a fquadron *• From comparing this proportion of troops with 
^ the revenue, we may eafily conclude how fmall their foldiers 
pay mud be ; but the kfs the treafury is drained by the pay- 
ment of troops, the more does the poor peafant fufFer upoiv 
whom he is quartered. All the navy-officers are in conftant 
pay in peace, as well as in war ; whence it is, that the king 
of Denmark is able to equip a fleet of thirty fail of men of 
war upon almoft the ihorteft notice (B). Thus we fee that 

• Moles WORTH, ibid, 

(B) It will not be di (agree- which is as follows : a captain 
able to the more curious reader of foot is paid twenty rixdollars 
to fee an account of the pay of per month, a lieutenant eleven, 
the feveral officers and foldkrs, and an enfign ten. A ferjeant's 


?fe Hijlory (?/ Denmark; S9 

an army of between thirty and forty thoufand men, and t^rce 
thoufand feamen, the charges of the civil lift, the mainte- 
nance of the courts, king's childrjcn, public minifters, officers 
of juftice^ fcfr* are fupported upon a revenufe not greater than 
the civil lift of Great Britain ; whence we may judge of the 
oeconomy of the government, the fcarclty of fpccie, and the 
eheapnefs of provifions in Denmark. 

It is" time we (hould now come to treat of the religion, jigUaiony 
marriages, and funerals of Denmark^ with which we ftiall marriagts^ 
dofe this feclion, and our account of the prefent ftate of the ^.c. 
kingdom ; adding only a few refledions upon the true poli- 
tical intereft of that nation, with refped tp the powers with 
whom flic is conncfted, cither by commerce, treaties, or fi- 

In Denmark the people were pagans till the year 826, when 
5/. AugariuSy bifliop of Hamburg and Bremen^ firft introduced 
Chriftianityintherqign of Harold Clackius, the firft ChViftian 
Danijh monarch ^ About the year 1537, the dodrine of 
Luther was firft propagated in this northern kingdom, by Bu^ 
genbagey a Pomeranian divine, who met with a ftrong patron 
in Frederic I. Since Proteftantifm was eftabli(hed, no 
other religion, and particularly that of the church of Rome^ 
has ever been admitted into the kingdom, or, indeed, per- 
mitted worfliip in it, till of late years. Perhaps no Catholic 
country in Europe requires a ftriSer conformity than Den^ ^ 
marij people being prohibited to talk with freedom on the 
points in difpute, or to abfent themfelves from the churches 
upon any pretence. The clergy are the tools of the govern- 
ment, their do<9rine being a blind and implicit obedience to 
fuperiors j in return for which they are protefted by the court, 

^ SvANiNG. Chron.Dan. p. 65. Meursii Hift. & Pontait. 
fttb hoc regno. 


ay amounts only to fix rixdol- tain, amounts to fifty rixdollars 
ars, a drummer's to three rix- monthly, a lieutenant-coloners 
dollars and «ight ftivcrs, and a thirty, and a -major's twenty. 
corporal's to about four rixdoU Ofiicers of horfe ha\^ in peace 
lars a month. A common fol- the lame pay with the foot, his 
dier. receives no more than fe- horfes being wholly maintained 
venteen ilivers weekly, the rell by the peafants on whom he is^ 
of his pay being applied for quartered. In Norway, we are . 
bread, cloathing, and other told, that little money is ex- 
things. As to the pay of the pended in the payment of the 
fuperior officers, we have no troops, the private foldiers be- 
certain information : we are ing wholly fubfiflcd by the 
told, however, that .a colonel's, boors, 
including his^ pay as a cap- 


^o ^he Hifiory of Denmark. 

Tte/ are highly refpcfled by the people, becaufe the^ fie 
them regarded by the adminiftration ; and this makes their 
precepts be received with more weight. They intermeddle in 
no civil affairs, nor are they retained at'court, or the houfes 
of the nobility, in quality of chiaplains \ this office being dl« 
ways performed by a lacquey. 

In the pulpit the clergy afltime the authority (tf the mini- 
fiers of Chrtftj and reprove with great freedom (inners of qua- 
lity, who have pra(3ifed public vices ; nor are any liberties 
confident with the ,duties of their fundion taken arhifs, pro- 
vided they never intermeddle with politics. The commcMi 
people adore them for the fpirit With which they reprehend 
their fuperiors $ for nothing is fo grateful to mankind, as to 
iee thofe raifed by fortune above them brought down to their 
own level. Their benevolelKes to the clergy are in propor- 
tion to the degree of fatisfadion they receive in this ttfpcG: ;' 
whence it is, that a minifier of courage caii. raife his ftipend 
to double the value. Another circumftance tbal^greatly con- 
tributes to keep up the authority of the cleiigy, is their re- 
taining confeffion, without which, perfons of the higheft qita-* 
lity are denied the facrament. 

The Danes have conftituted fuperintdndants in tb^room 
of bifhpps and archbiihops, who are deprived of the audiort tjr 
as well as the name of right worfliipful ; however, they take 
it kindly to be addreiled by thofe titles, after which they have 
a hankering. Within the Danijh dominions are ten of thofe 
fuperintendants, vi%. one in Zealand^ ont \n Fuum^ four in 
yutland^ and four in Norway, They have no tentporalities, 
hold no ecclefiaftical courts, have no cathedrals with deans 
and chapters, but are chiefly employed in animadverting cm 
the doftrines and manners of the, clergy and people. The 
fuperintendant of Copenhagen has a kind of fuperior authority, 
and a ftipend proportionable, which is fixed at two thoufand 
rixdollars yearly. Each of the other Danijh fuperintendants 
have fifteen hundred, and thofe of Norway one thoufand rix- 
dollars each ; hardly the value of a moderate Englijh living. 
They preach without book, and ufe abundance ci af^ion* 
They obferve holidays with the fame rigid devotion as Sun* 
day^ the gates of Copenhagen being ihut during divine fervice, 
and the people very conftant in their, attendance ; but the 
fervice being ended, they relax their fpirits with all kinds of 
paftimes and diverfions. It is even common to fit down with 
a clergyman at cards immediately after he has quitted the pul- 
pit, where he has preached fo feelingly as to drown his con- 
gregation in tears. The clerical habit is a plaited black gown, 


The Hift&ry of Deomark. ^i 

with Aort wide fleeves, a large ftifF ruff, and a rouiri &X 
cap, refembling our univerfity matriculating-cap. 

P£NAKCEs tmpofed by the confeiibr, arc readily performed 
by the people ; nor do they refrain coming tochurdi, tho* they 
- are condemned to ftand like criminals at the door for whol9 
months. To conclude, there is no country in the world 
' where the minds of the clergy and people are more upon a 
level than in Denmark. If you meet with few of excraordi- 
nary talents and qualifications, as few are feen who merit the 
appellation of madmen, fools, or enthufiafts. A certain 
equality reigns among them, every one keeping the common 
beaten road of fenfe, without addition or diminution. 

As to the marriage ceremonies in Denmark^ they differ but MoT' 
little from our own. What chiefly deferves notice is, that riageti 
the parties are often contrafted for years before marriage is 
folemnized in church, and as intimate before as after thece-^ 
remony. It is fufficient that it be performed before the wo- 
man brings forth her firft child ; this is no ofience in the eye 
of the people, nor is it animadverted upon by the clergy. 
The efpoufals, however, are extremely folemn before friends ; 
and the panics are then, and not before, deprived of the li- 
berty of marrying elfewhere : yet we are told by fome writers^ 
that the firft contraft is valid in law, the marriage ceremony 
being efteeiiled only a public declaration of their engage- 
taents. ' . 

The Danes bury their dead with the utmoft funeral pomp \ FwiermU* 
and it is not uncommon to keep a corpfe for years, in order 
to make preparations for the mofl magnificent interments 
The poor indeed have their remains laid in the ground widl 
lefs ceremony j though even among them it is ufual to have 
a band of hired mourners, employed by the parifh to attend 
the body to the grave *. 

With refpeft to the intereft of Denmark^ it may be col- 
leSed from what we have faid of its prefcnt flate. The ra- 
pid progrefs of the Ruffians^ to ^ civilized, warlike, and po- 
tent nation, renders it indifpenfibly necefTary, that the crownft 
of Denmark and Sweden live in flriift harmony, to fecure the 
independence of both. As the maritime powers ar^ how* 
€ver, the ftrongeft barriers againft the encroachments of that 
vaft empire, it is above all things neceflary, th^Lt Denmark ^ 
cultivate their friendfhip ; and this is equally important to the 
fecurity of his majefly*s trade and dominions. How far the 
prefentdifturijances in Germany ought to induce his majefty to 
break off his connexions with France^ and fupport his Pruf- 

* MoLEswo&THi ibid. Pre&nt State of Europe, ibid. 


j2^ ^e Hijioty of Denmark* 

^fian majefty, and thePcoteftaiic intereft, at the hazard f4 
breaking with RuJJia and Sweden^ though with refped ta the 
laft he has little to fear, amidft the' civil commotions of the 
nation^ it requires no great depth of fagacity to penetrate; 
But.wa have already exceeded our limits, and muftnow enter 
. upon the Danijh hiftory,- where we find fuch a long feries of 
kingS) as will render it impofiihie for us to enter upon a mi- 
nute recital of ail the important events, without fwelling our 
work to an enormous fize. However, as we believe no com- 

{»Iete hiftory of this nation has ever appeared in any modern 
anguage, we doubt not but the bare annals of fo antient and 
famous a people will be acceptable to the curious reader. 


Containing the Hijlory of the Swedilh Mmarcbs td 
the fifteenth Teat of the Cbrillian Mra. 


Daii, lyf A L MOST all hiftorians agree, that 2><^^ the fon of 

king of JTjl Humble^ a native of Zealand^ was the founder and firft 

Denmark king of the country called Denmark^ from bis name. His 

AateCbrL poi&ffions and influence were very cdnfiderable, not only in 

1058. Zealand but in the iflands of Langland and Ahria \ It was his 

/courage, however, and fkill in the art of war, that raifed hith 

Co the crown of Denmarky and induced the inhabitants to 

cbufe him for their kitig. He governed Zealand for his aged 

father, when the Saxons made an irruption into Jutland. The 

people, in defpair, implored his afliftance, promifing him the 

fovereignty of the country, if he drove out the enemy. DaHy 

iired with ambition, immediately raifed an army, marched 

againft the Saxons^ obtained a complete vidory, and reaped 

the promifed reward. Soon after his father died, leaving him 

fovereign of Jutland^ Zealand^ Langland^ and Mondi^ about 

one thoufand and thirty-eight years before the birth of 

Chriji * (A). To llrengthca his intereft, and fecure his 


* SuANiNG. Ripen. Chron. Dan. p. 25.. PoNtAN. Hift. Din*, 
p. 12. Saxo Gram. Hill. Dan. p. 5. Mexjrsii Hifl. Dail^ 
p. I. 

(A) .Some writers deny that antient as GrammatUus, and the 
the kingdom of Dc7im&rk is lb other authors we quc^te in the 


i'ife tiift^y of Germany. 23 

^fieffiofta, he determined upon a flridl alliance with the Sax- 
ons % andfor thi6 pur^ofie married (SHihoy^ kdy of great con- 
fideration among them, by whom he had two fens. After 
'feigning forty years with the utmoft juftice anii reputation, h« 
^died greatly lacoented by his fiibjeds. , 


This excdlcht prince was fucceedfedby his eldeft fon Hum- Hgmblc, 
i/f, who was elefled by the unanimous voice of the peo- zd king, 
pie (B), His reign was (hort, according to fome hiftorians **j A. C. N. 
and all agree that it was unfortunate ; for he was depofed by 99^' 
Ills brother, and reduced to a private flation> feven years after 
lie had been raifed to the throne. 

L r H & k. 

LOTHER now ufurped the crown of his unfortunate bro^ Lother, 
ther, who fupported his misfortunes with a conftancy and liking. 
tn^nanknity which declared him worthy of a better fate. 
iTh* ufurper governed the Dams with the utmoft rigour and 
feverity $ be banilhed, or put to death, all the nobility whofe 
Ipower rendered them dangerous, or wealth excited his ava- 
rice. Saipjcion, luft, and cruelty, made him at length into- 
lerable to a people, whofe fpirit was not yet extingyiflied by 
oppreiSon. .They revolted, and Lother loft his life, on ae- 
count of thofe v^ry vices by which he obtained his crown ^ 

8 k I L D O. 
By the vencs of Ac people, his fon SkiMo^ then a boy, SkloUoi 
Was appointed tofucceed Lother. The fweetncfs of his dif- ^^fi"^' 

• Svanin'g. p. z6i ^ Saxo Gram. p. i. Pontan. 5>oo. 

tnargiii aflert. Ga^ in parti- gular and clear genealogy and 
cular affirms, that Dan lived chronology of thoie princes, pat 
C^nly four hundred and ninety it beyond all doubt, that Den- 
years before Chrifi ;^ but we mark is one of the moft antient 
tSLufk either fuppofe, that the monarchies in Europe, 
reigns of the Dtf*^ princes were (B) We are told by Saxo 
tmconunonly ffaort, dt that their GrammaiietUf and the mod an- 
hiflorians have given lives of ie- tient Danijh hiftorians, that the 
tend kings who never exifled ; eleiftors flood upon long flones 
but Gajfar does not take it upon which they raifed upon one end 
him to afibrt the latter \ and the on the ground, and by their fla- 
abfiirdity of the former fuppo- bility,progno(licated the felicity 
ifition is too evident to require of the future reign. Gram. /. i, 
^anyrcfutadon. Indeed, the re- 
Mop. Hist. Vol. XXXIL D pofition. 

^4 T'i^ Hifierj of Denmark/. 

pofition, his bodily firengtbi atid his coiiirage, diftioguilbcd 
even at that age, had determined the ftates not to punifk the 
fon for the crimes of the father ; and the virtues which 
Skioido difplayed in the courfe of a long and profperoiu 
reign, amply rewarded thejuftice of their choice (C). An 
extraordinary inftance of his (Irength and intrepiditv^ hap- 
pened at the age of fifteen. Being, on a party of hunting, he 
(eized upon a wild boar, of a monftrous fi^e, and held the 
furious beaft with his girdle until he was ailifted by his compa« 
nions ; t fpecimen of his valour that rendered him more 
dear to his fubjeds, by whom he was already beloved. Soon 
after his reputation received additional luftre, by his engaging 
in fingle combat with the two moil celebrated wreftlers and 
boxers of thofe times, whom he defeated. He married jfvilda^ 
a Saxon lady, who had been addrefTed by her king : this 
drew upon him a war with the Saxons^ which terminated ia 
the death of their prince, and the redudion of the country 
by Skioldo. . However, his lenity was no lefs confpicuous 
than his courage; he permitted the Conquered Saxons to 
chufe another king, contenting himfelf With a moderate tri« 
bute to reimburfe his people for the expences cf the waf. 
After this he applied his mind to the arts of peace ; fae re« 
warded virtue, punifhed vice, and encouraged indufiry. It 
was _his conftaht faying^ ' That the true grandeur of a 
^ prince confifts rather in making his fubjeds happy, dian 
^ ill oppreffing his neighboi^rs, with a view to extend his b* 
• vercignty **.' , He was the patron of the poor, the protedor 
of the injured, and the fuccou^r of the diftreiTed. ' In a word, 
his virtues were fo extraordinary, and his people fo fefiSUe 
of thebleffings they enjoyed during hjs long reign, that all 
good kings were, for a feries of ages, firnamed after him. Sink* 
ing at laft under old age and infirmity, the nobles propofed 
that he (hould raife his fon Gram to a partqerChip with him 
in the throne, in order to eafe him of the weight of govern-- 
, ment, and inftrufl: the young prince in the art of reigning. 

This pfopofition was vehemently oppofed by RingOj sl noble- 
man of the firft diftih(Stion in Zealand^ vyho was ambitioos 
of fixing the crown upon his own head. Skioldo immediately 
raifed .fome troops^ attacked the rebels defeated and killed 

^ Gram. p. z, 

(C) yo, SuaHingius^ in his his conjcdlurc confirm^ by Ac 
Clifronology of the Danijh kings, - authority of no Damp hilioriaJ^' 

plstces Bogi^io, the fon of Hum* Uid p. 26. 
ik^ bcYore ^kiM ; bat yf^ find 


TBe Hijiofy of Denmark. 3^ 

hifn, ^tA after firmly eftablifliing bis ion in the throne, ex- 
fired, univerially beloved a^id lamented. To this day the 
place where his palace flood is called Skioldene^ ^ 

6 R A M. 

GRAM inherited the virtues as well as the crown of his ^raoi, 
fathcn His whole reign was a feries of victories and con- S'^ ^'^-Cv 
qucfts, arifiiig lefs from his ambition than the turbulence of '^ jSg 
his neighbours! Sidfrugy king of Sweden^ ^^'^'li advantage •^'v 
of the .youth of Gram^ made an irruption into Jutland with 
a pomrerful army ; bi^t he was attacked and flain by the young 
monarch of Denmifkj who foon after annexed Sweden to his own 
crown. GrarH difcovferirig that Swan\ viceroy of Gothland^ 
was confpiring againfl his life^ in order to raife himfelf to the 
tbrOne of Sweden, challenged him to fingle combat, and flew 
him. Scarce had he finifhed this gallant action, when ho-* 
iKHir called him to Norway, to revenge the difgrace of his 
fifter, raviihed by SuibdageVy who had depofcd her husband, 
and ufurped the crown of Norway, After a courfe of vic- 
tories gained over t\iQ Norwegians, zt length he fell by the . 
hnd o( Siti^dager, and died with the reputation of a great 
pince, whofe character was foiled with no other* blemifh - 
than inconftancy aind infidelity to his wives. He left behifid 
him two fons, Guthorm, by Groa, his firft wife ; and Had^ 
itngy by Signe, his fecond, after repudiating the former. 

S V I B D A G E R. 

i SUIBDjfiGER, purfuing his viflory^ united the crown of Soibda- 
penmark and Sweden to that of Norway, to neither of which ger, (>tb 
he had any natural right. . Moved by the prayers of Groa, king. 
the divorced wife of Gram^ he replaced Guthrm in the A. C. N« 
throne of his father, on conditioa tYi^x Denmark fhould be ^5^* 
tributary to him, gdLve Sweden to ills own (on J/mond, rc- 
fen^ingonly Norway to himfelf; after which he was defeated 
and flam by Hadding^ the fecond fbn of Gram, in a fea-fight 
off the coafl of Sweden. 

G V r H R M. 

GUTHORM enjoyed the crown of Denmark but a fhort Guthont^ 
time : he found himfelf^ defpifed by the nobility, and hated 'jtb ki»g. 
hy the common people, for flooping to hold a tributary 
crown. His father's virtues rofe in their memory 5 they up- 
braided the , fon with them, which funk fo deeply into his 

* PoKTAW. MiiuiLS, Si Saxo Gra^at. ubi fupra. 

D 2 mind^ 

^$ Tjbe Hifiory of Denmark; 

mind, that he fell fick and died of grief, being ^Lceededli^ 
the brave Hadding^ the avenger of his father'^ dcath^ aaii 
conqueror pf the ufurper Suibdag^r. 

H A D D I N G: 

Hadding, NumB£RL£S9 are the exploits related of this hem, nACvh 
Sthiiftg, favour fo much of Rdion, that we will not venture to pK 
A. C. N. theni a place in our hiftory. During his e^ile he traveried 
^.k^' almoft all the northern kingdoms, attended by JHarpinga, a 
Danljh^ lady, who fupported all die fatigues and bardflupi 
they underwent, with a more than xnafculine conftancyaoi 
intrepidity. She ihared all his misfod^nes, conquered hf 
his fide, alleviated bis di^refs, applied balfam to his wouodsi 
and vvas at length the companion of his profperity, after fuF 
mounting incredible difSculties. He w^ no iooner j^usel 
on the throne of Denmark^ than Afmond king of SweJa, 
thirfting to revenge his .father's death, attacked htm with fl 
numerous army ; but he was fo well fupported by his faidifiii 
fyhj^QS) that he flew with his own hand in ba!ttle ffuuf 
prings of Swedeui and afterwards the king his father, wbo^ 
body he pierced with his lance. In this engagement /fiii- 
ding received a wound in his foot, of which he was I^me aB 
his life after. Returni|)g from this war, he found the trot* 
fury robbed in his abfence, and immeoiately ordered Glameff 
to whom he had committed the charge pf his money aod 
jewels, to be hanged upon a gibbet ; an example that ftrod 
fuch terror as induced :his accomplices to replace their ttim 
of the fpoils. ' 

Whh.e Hadding was hufied in framing laws, and eftsK 
biHhing good order and tranquility in his kingdom, he w^ 
ftjddenly attacked by Ufforiy the fecond fon of Afmond^ whQ 
after his father's death had fucceeded to the throne of Swedoh 
Vffon^ aware af the valour and power of Haddingy would M 
venture upon an open war ; but colJefting a great fleet m 
army, he made a defcent upon the coafts of Denmark^ Vk 
fi e to the towns, carried off the inhabitants, and after laying 
a great part of the country wafle, retreated to "his owa 
kingdom, whither he was clofely purfued by the Dane^ after 
he had firft fecure^ his frontiers by ftrong guards and ^arii- 
, fons. What he wanted in courage Vffon fully fupplied in cun- 

ning; he declined battle, and fo harraired.i^^'ir^ with 
marches and countermarches, cutting off his provifions, hy- 
ing wafte the countries through which he muft pafs, and at- 
taqking his out-parties, that, reduced to the laft extremity, 
he determined to hazard all tocometo^an engagement. As 
this Danei were by this time worn , out. wkh fatigue, and 


Tbe Hificryof Denmark; 3^ 

^ireakened b^ famine, the Swedei found it no difficult mtiXtt- 
to refift their moft ftremious efforts i upon whicb Hadding- 
retired with prodigious lofs, firft to Heljingia^ a northern* 
province of Sweden^ and from thence to Norway^ where he 
applied to Hacquin the king for alBftance. While the rein- 
forcement was levying, he fell in love with Hacquln's daugh* 
tdr, marriW to a deformed nobleman o(' Norway y whom he" 
challenged to fight. After having flain the hus»bahd, he ob- 
timed the daughter »in marriage, with the conftnt of her fa- 
ther, herftlf making no fcruple about efpoufmg a king, tho* ' 
the murderer of her husband. Th^ au^ciliaries being ready to 
siyarch, Hadding a fecond time led his alrmy into Sweden^ 
>diich fo terrified Uffon^ that he determined to efFed by afTaf-. ^ 
fins, what be had not the courage to attempt by a fair and * 
open war. Promifing his daughter, a beautiful young lady 
with a large portion, to whoever would bring him the king 
.p{\Denmark\ hfead, Thumming^ a nobleman dlSweden^ under* 
tAok' the inglorious exploit ; biit finding all his attempts fruf- 
tftted, he had reconrfe to dife Siarmisj a people at that time' 
;inhabiting iht retnotet parts of Finland ^ Still he'waS urifuc- 
cefifal ; but that nothing might be wanting to gain fo noble 
[a prize as the king's daughter, he applied himfelf to magic: 
hftre likewife all hl^ arts were foiled by ari old magician in 
I}addinfsc2impy whb'^countermined' all his plots and contri- 
^vances. At laft, mad with def^air, he made an aflault upon* 
thfe Panijh c^mp, and was repulfed with great lofs. ' Hidding 
I purfuing his viflbry, refolved to put an end to the war, by 
befieging Vffon in Upfat^ then the capital of Sweden. Ufforiy to 
iward off the impending blow, fent ambafl&dors to the Daney 
iwlth terms of accommodation, and gave fome of his nobi*' 
lity as hoftages: upon which Hadding^ yi\\o fufpefted no 
. treachery, entered XJpfal^ and was fplendidly entertained. The 
ihoufe was filled with af&ffins, Who were ready to execute 
I their bafenefs on a fignal given, before which they were for- 
f tunately difcovered by fome of Hadd'ing*^ guard, and imme- 
diately put to death. To revenge the perfidy, Hadding pur- 
> fued the war againfl Vffon^ attacked, defeated, and killed him 
in the field ; but with a generofity becoming a conqueror, 
gave the kingdoni to Hunding^ Vffon\ brother, and buried 
the royal corpfe With funeral honours, which the villainous 
treachery of his life little merited. After numberiefs exploits 
performed in Jutland^ Courland^ Saxony^ and Britain^ he laid 
violent hands on himfelf, probably in difguft at the unnatural 
conduft of his favourite daughter Uvilda^ who had made re- 
peated attempts upon her father's life. Thus he fulfilled a 
prophecy well known ampng the Danes* SwedeSy and Saxonsy ' 
D 3 - * That 

jS ne Hijlory of DcnmaVk.' 

« That Haiding would cfcapc all the foares of his enemies, 
« and the treachery of his own blood, only to lay violent 
« bands on himfclf* (A). 

F R O r H O I. 

Frotho L HADDING left two children by RagniUoy a daughter of 
Gtbking. Hugh king of RuJJia. Frotho the fon fucceeded to the crown 
A' C. N. of Denmark^ znd Suanhuiday the daughter, to the fovereignty 
761. of Sweden. Frotho, from his excellent qualities, was fur- 
named Giffmildy or Generous^ inheriting all the virtues of his 
father, with his throne. On his accellion he found the trea- 
fury fo exhaufled, that he was unable to advance the fbldiers 
their arrears. To remedy this evil, without laying frefh taxes 
upon the people, he attacked a dragon, as tradition reports, 
or rather DrdcQj a famqus pirate, who had laid up prodigious 
wealth in reipote caves, which he defended by a ftrong body of 
defperate ruffians. Draco wa^ flain, and all his treafures fell 
into the hands of the conqueror, who was enabled thereby to 
enter upon the mighty defigns which he had formed in bis 
mind. In a word, he conquered Britain^ Scotland^ (for at 
that time the country fouth of the T%veed went by the name 
of Britain) Slefwicky RuJJia^ Pomeranian. Holfteiut and other 
countries. He feized upon Lmdon^ the capital of Britaiih 
by an ingenious' ftratagem ; for cauiing it to ^e rumoured that 
be died in the camp, leave was afked of th^ Britijh governor 
to bury the royal corpfe in a certain temple in the city, and a 
treaty concluded for this piirppfe. The governor fufpeding 
no treachery, admitted a corpfe, attended by a numerous pro- 
ceffion of fuppofed mourner^, who had concealed arms under 
their cloaths. Others dropped in afterwards ; and when Fro- 
tho thought his ftrengtb fufficient, the lignal was made for his 
men to fall upon the Britons^ which they obeyed with inac- 
dible fury, flaying all before them till they got pofleffion of 
the city, in fpite of the defperate defence of the inhabitants. 
Returning thence to Denmark^ he entered upon a frefh war 
with the king of Svfedcn^ who bad married bis ^(ler, and pe- 

« Saxo Grammat. a p. 10 ad p. 20. Pontan. Hift, p. 15. 
Meurs. Hill. p. 4, 5, ^ SuANiNo. Chron. Dan. p. 29, 30. 

(A) We find in feme hillo- ingVAn^of Snveden, celebrating 

rianfy thiit Haddingy after his his funeral rites, was drowned 

return from Britain^ hanged in a caldron of wort. Haddinf^ 

himfelf in prefence of his whole death is attributed to his ^lei 

f:ourt. it was reported that he for this misfortune (1). 
di^il ia that iiland, and Hund- 

(0 Suanitig, f. 3Q, . 

f • rifted 

The Hiftsry of Denmark. ^^ 

l^ed in battle, not by the hands of the enemy, but opprefled 
and born down by the weight of his own arniour, leaving be* 
faind htm three Tons, Haldan^ Rfie^ and Scal^ and the repu- 
tation of a great warrior **• 

H A L D A N. 

HALDAN^ the eldeft, an ambitiouSy cruel, and unnatu- Haldan, 
ral prince, fucceeded to his father's crown, which he endea- lo/^^ king. 
voured to render fecure by the death of his two brothers, in a A. C. N, 
manner equally brutal and infidious. It is indeed fuppofed by 6S5« 
hiftorians, that they both afpired to the throne ; the only cir- 
cumftance that can at all palliate the king's cruelty, who, not 
Contented With polluting his hands with the blood of his bre- 
thren, fleeped them in that of his moft faithful fubjefb of all 
ranks; notwithftanding which he lived to an oldf age, the 
dread and deteflation of his people. He left behind him two 
ions. Roe and Helgo^ the fuccefiors of his throne, but not of 
hb vices, 

R E and H E L G 0. ^ 

By right of feniority, as well as by the voice of the pco- j^^^ ^^ ' 
pie. Roe might have reigned alone ; but he abfolutely refufed Helgo. 
the crowp upoi) any other conditions than (baring his power 
^\i\i Helgo : 4n irncomipon inftance of afFeflion, founded 
upon kindred and affinity, ^oe was of a ftature cqntemptibly 
fq^all and n^ean ; l;ut this external defect be more than com- 
pcnfatpd by the greatnefsof his foul, his courage, generofity, 
an4 other manly virtues. He w^s a ftri6l obfcrvcr of juftice, 
and the firft prince wbp' reduced the cuftoms of the people, 
founded upon long tradition, to a written (yftem of laws. Be- 
fore his time, hiftprians reliate, that ciiftom was the only rule 
of aftion. Murder, robbery, and theft, were puniflied, not as 
infraflioq? of the law, but of the natural rights of mankind ; 
Roe was the firft who fpecified the punifliments consequent on 
certain criipes, and reduced the law imprinted by nature on 
the human mind, to a ipore fixed and definite meaning and 
fyftcm. He was the founder of the city Rofchi/d, which exifts 
to this day ; and whi)e he wa$ bufied in civilizing his fubjeSs, 
framing certain rule? for government, and decoratirtg the 
country with churches and buildings, bis attention was divert- 
ed from the arts of peace, which he cultivated, fo diligently, 
to engage in a war with the Wing of Sweden. Froiho I. had 
given that kingdom in truft to Reigerer^ the late king, who 

** PoNTAN. p. 16. 1. i. Meurs. Hift. 1. i. p. 8. Saxo 
GttAM. 1. ii, p. 20. SuANiNG. Chron, Interval 1. iii. p. 32. 

D 4 , . con- 

conftafitly paid the promifed tribute ; but he dying, tn4 hit 
fan Hvibr<fd fucceeding to the thfope, the young monarch was 
' ambitious of throwing pfF the yoke, and holding his. crown 
independent of JXenmarL With this view hQ refufedrtoupajE 
the ufual homage and tribute, which gave birth to the pie- 
ient war, that ended* with the life of ^K^^, who fell in battle* 
bewailed by his fubjeds, hut moft hyr Hejtggy ^i& Urojih^r ao4 
fucceffor ^, 

H E L G O. 

jlelgp, HELGO vi^os a prince more ad4i<5led to war than his ex- 

izih king, ceDent brother. Whib h^ (bared tb^ throne with Roe^ be- 

A. C. N. greatly enlarged the Dunijb dominipps by the conqueft of % 

5^5^ number of northern fia^es ; and now the iirft a(5i of bisprowr' 

' efl, fince hii reigning alone, W!as the em^aging in iSngle comr 

bat with -feTwWm^ prince of &axcny^ flim he flew in the 

field, and of. cortfequence annexed Saxony to his^ow^ndomi* 

nions, as had been previoufly agreed. Returning, thence tq 

^ Jutlandy he drove out a body of Saxons who had- taken ppfc 

feiTion in his Sibfence. After this he engaged the king of the 

Vandals, by fea, and coming oflF vidlorious, he (Ippped.for re- 

frefhment at a little ifland in the Baltic^ where he became ena-? 

moured of a gill of mean ftation, by whom he had a daughr 

ter, that afterwards became the mother of Relfo^ who fuc- 

ceeded his father in the throne j an abominable "inceft, which 

obfcures all the former glory of his reign. 

Scarce had Helgo finiflicd the Vandal vnSy when refblving 
to avenge his biother's death, he marched againft Hotbrod oi 
S'weden^ whom he flew in thq field of battle, reducing the 
whole kingdom to obedience. The more fully to fatiate hi^ 
revenge, he eft^blifhed a cruel law, by which a Dane might, 
on any provocation, put a Swede to death with impunity. 
Placing the crown on the K^ad of jitljlay . fon of Hotbopd^ who 
had engaged to pay the tribute difcontinued by his father, he 
returned to Denmark, and, either from a difguft to public af- 
fairs, or, as other writers more probably fuggeft, from recol- 
leding the horrid impiety he committed in debauching hJs own 
daughtef, he laid violent hands on himfelf, and died a martyr 
for his cryTiCs. He was, indeed, a prince in whom the nobleft . 
virtues and groffeft crimes were blended : his military ability, 
and attachment to his brother, would have rendereid his fame 
immortal, were not thofe virtues niore than b^U^nced by his 
unnatural lufl:, and Shocking cruelty ^ 

* PoNT^ANus, 1. i. p. 17, SaxpGrammat. 1. ii., p. 17, 

t Su^NijfjQ. Chrcn, p. 33. 


R O L F O. 
Tub virtues of iZ«^ foon obliterated the memofy of his R(^fo 
flifgincefiil birtb. The graces of bis perfoa.equaUed tbofe ot/urnamed < 
>hi& auod). and hift flature "and ftrenglh were fo extraordinary, Rhrage, 
that he wa$ fumamed Rhragej. 2i Da^/h word^ expreffivv tknyh king^ 
thefe qualities. Hifr valour* and martial fpirit did not» bow- A. C. N, 
ever,^ interrupt the peac^le felicity of his-fubjeds ; for tho' S^^* 
h^ wilhed for an opportunity of fignaliaung his prowefs, yet 
h^ fupprdTed hi$ inclinations ta war fromjuft view« of policy^, 
and: a faiitaerly regaxd to the intexeft of his people. He was^ at . 
length drawn into a vnx with bis own ilep*tather). the Icing 
i^f Swedm^Ao ^vkTAih his inhuman u&ge of the queen, who- 
was wa^^m^h^ to Rolfo^ The king of Sweden was killed ia^ 
battle^ and Ra^o^, foon after perifb.ed by the treachery of a Da^ 
n\{k noblemaii, whom he had diftinguiibed by numberleisn 
i^fiai^ces :of his- favour ; and, among others, by marrying hii^« 
tp his fifter. No prince had ever more ftrongly engaged the/ 
afFe£tipns of bis people than Rolf9<^ though $imbition ba4> 
pu(hed:on:bis brother-in-law to this (hocking parricide. His 
virtues were fplendid : magnificence, generofity, and valour, 
v^ere united in his perfon. Juftice, clemency, and ailri^ 
regard to his promifes» had fet him far above all the former 
kin^ of Dtnmariy in reput^^tion. In a word, hiftorians are 
fo full of hi$ praifesy. that we might fufpe£t them of paintings 
with the pencil of fancy^ if their portraits were nof. amply- 
ftteftefi by fads fuperior to all expreffion ^ 

H T H E R. 

ROLFO dying without children, , the ftates immediately Hother^ 
aflembled for the elq£);ion of a new king, and chofe in his ij^thkitig^ 
ropm Hother, grandfon by.his daughter to Haddingy the father 
oi*Froiha L This }^uog prince had been fent in his infancy 
to Norway^ and educated at the court of that monarch with 
ibe greateft care and indulgence. Upon notice of the death* 
of Rolfo^ he v^^ advifed ! by the king of Ngrwaf^ to oiFer 
bjm&lf a candidate for the crown, who promifed to affift him^ 
with all his intereft and force. While preparations were 
making to execute this plan, a meilenger arrived from Den^ 
pari, acquainting him of the eledlion of the ftates, upon 
which he immediately fet oHt for that kingdom. In gratitude 
to the king of Norway j he efpoufed his daughter, whom be 
raifed to the throne of Denmark. By this marriage be in- 
volved himfelf in a war with Balder^ a northern prince, who ' 

4% The Hijhry (f l^nnizrl^ 

bad paid hit addrefles to the princeft, before Hrthsr had 
n^ade any propofals to her. Several furious battles were 
fought between the rivals, when at length BaLkr was defeated 
and flain in a fea-fight, which gave name to that ftrait called 
to this day Palderfound. This glorious viftory brought on the 
death of Mother i for Balder^s father, refolving to avenge his 
fon, fummoned all his nobles, and, in a pathetic fpeech, re- 
commended it to their care to wipe oflF their laee difgrace, by 
fome fignal exertion of their courage. Upon which Boo^ hii 
fon-in-law, undertook to fini(h the quarrel with Hother^ and 
accordingly challenged him to fingle combat. The kirig 
of Denmark accepting his propofals, called his council, and, 
as if he had fohie foreboding of his fate, he prefled the ftates 
to declare his fon Rorick the fucceflbr : he told them, that 
the event of war was doubtful, but the civil divifions which 
would happen in his kingdom certain, Ihould it pleafe the 
cods to deprive him of life before the fucceffion was fettled. 
Were his kingdom once fecured againft the calamities he 
forefaw, then would he chearfully devote his life to glory, and 
the good of Denmark. The king's fpeech had fuch an effed, 
that Rorick was unanimoufly ele£ted heir-apparent to the 
throne, though then but a child ; after which thther went to 
meet his antagonift, by whofe hands he fell (A). 

Notwithstanding Rorick was appointed by the people 
to fucceed to his father, the vidorious B$o found means to 
lay afide this election, and fix himfelf in the throne ; but how 
long he reigned, whether he died a natural death, or was de- 
. pofed, hiftory is filent ; and, indeed, fome of the moft accu- 
rate Danijb hiftorians, omit him intirely in ^he catalogue of 

* J. SuANiHc. Chron. Dan, ibid. Pontan. i^^ 

(A) It merits obfervation, £gned hy Gaffar and others is 

that fome antiqaiarians fuppofe too ihort. This prince is en- 

\ Dan, the founder of the Danijh rircly omitted by Saxo Gramma- 

monarchy, reigned about the //V«/, Meurjius^ and Pontanus ; 

tkne ' that ^axo GramMatuus, bat we have ventured to infert 

Meurfiusj and Pontanus place him upon the authority of the 

Hathefj the 14th king, that is accurate Suantfigius, and the 

the year before C^i^ 490- It learned Ljjchandsry who makes 

nuift, indeed, be acknowledged, him the i6th king itomDan^ 

that the period allotted by thefe the founder of the Danifo mo- 

hiftorians for a king's reign, is narchy (1). 
as much too long, as that af- 

(i) Vid, Suaning. Cbrom Dan» Lyjcb, Cen, Dan. fub vocih, 

5 MEUR' 

Tbt Hijiory of Denmzrk: 43 

MEURSIUS and Saxo^ Grttmmetlcus alone affirm, that he 
never mounted the throne ^. We (hall therefore continue the 
feriesof princes from Mother to his fon, without interruption, 
as the point is difputed, and at this difiance of time cannot 
po^ly be determined with certainty. 


Before Rorickj or, as fome writers call him, RddericJt Sfyn^ Rorick 
gibondy had fully arrived at the years of maturity, he found it Slyngi- 
neceflary to head his own armies, and oppofe a formidable bond ly 
league which threatened deftruSion to Denmark The young i i;tlf king; 
monarch ufed the utmoft diligence in levying forces, and A/C. N.^ 
equipping a fleet, and his endeavours were feconded by the 4^3r 
atteSion's .of his fubjeds, who negleded nothing which might 
contribute to the glory of their king, on which refted their 
own fectirity. It had been ftipulated in a treaty ofiendve and 
defenfive, made between the Swedes^ Courlandersy and fome 
other northern powers tributary to Denmark^ that they (hou]d< 
unanimoufly throw off their fubmiiSon to this crown, refufe . 
all tribute and homage, and defend each other with all their 
forces, in order to reduce the pride and power of Denmark. 
This refolution was taken with fpirit, .but foon broke through 
by the fuperior fortune and valour of the Danesj who. headed 
by their king, defeated the allies by fea and land, forcmg them 
to pay a heavier tribute than before. Soon afterwards the vie* 
torious Rorick fell by accident into the fea, and was. drowned, 
leaving behind him the reputation of a juft and warlike prince, 
emulous of nothing fo much as the aiFedions of his people, 
ai)d national honour. Other writers alledge, that the caufe of 
bis death, as well as the duration of his reign are very doubt- 
ful i but all agree in giving him the higheft charafler (A), 

^ Saxq Gram. 1. 3. p. 46. Mevrs* I* i. p- ip^ 

J A) At this time Hariuendil death, feigned madnefs, the ' 

^^gZ^* or Fogo^ two bro- better to conceal his purpofe 

thersy reigned in Jutland^ and of revenging hia father's mur- 

plud homage and tribute to the der, in which he at length fuc- 

CTOwn of Denmark. The former ceeded, having ftabbed Feggv 

had married, fays Meurjius^ the with his own hand at a public 

daughter of Rmck^ by which feftival, while he was furrounded 

m^ans he fuccceded to his by all his nobility. Many of 

crcmn, ibon after which he was the circam (lances related by 

treacheroufly murdered by his Saxo Grammaticttsy are exaflly 

brother Feggp, Hamlet his fon, copied by our great dramatic 

fufpeifting that his uncle's am- writer in the tragedy called 

bitipn pccafioned his father's Hamlet, The event, however. 

^4, The Hiftory cfDQiiTMLxk: 

One.ckcumftaace» bowe\r6r> ^ems to prove, that his rei^ 
was not fo (horc as Gmmmaticus alledges ; for he left a ion 
who'fucceeded to his throne, and a daughter whom^ he mar^ 
ried to Harwendil prince of 'Jutland ; yet they fey- he engaged 
-in the Swedljh war when he was (carce of age, and died focyi. 
after it was finiQied : confequently this war muft have been of* 
long doration, at^Rorich muft hate furvived it for a great 
number of years, as the reader will find by coafulting tbd 

V T G L E T. 

Viglet, VlGLETy fon to the preceding king, did not fuccced to the ? 

I W ^>^. throne without a bloady competition, -ia which .he JW his 
r\\z\ &mlft of Jutlaud. This was the only aft of valourhe 
performed in thecourfe of a long life. His whole reign was 
more. indolent and pacific than that of any of Im predeceflbrs. 
The mildnefs of his di^ofition drew on him the contempt of 
the warlike Danes ; yet nothing cpuld alter his resolution to 
prpferve the tranquility of the kingdom. 

G U I T L A C H, 

Ouitlach, Afteh a reign of ferty-^ght yeifcrs he died, and wa»-ffic* 
l7tk king, ceeded by Guitkih^ wbomfomii writers call his ibn "" ; though^ 
others aie of opinion be fucceededin prwudfce tothe right-of 
Vi^tfHund^ the avowed' foil ofFigkt. We find Uothirtg re- 
' corded of this prinee, Wt that ho rcigmtd thirty-twa yt^as^ 
leaving the* thromc' vacant, and to be filTed by the ftates^ wha 
alTembleddurin^g bis M iHnef3 to appoint afocteifer "*• 

^ Mevrs. Ibid, 

Pont. DanicNAotiquit. p. 15 

is different; for according to 
the hiftorian, H4mUi enj<jyed^ 
his uncle's crown for a great 
jittiftber of years, and ,diijd with' 
the reputation o£ one of the 
beft princes that had ever filled 
the throne^ However, all the 
beft critics are of opinion that 
neither Harzvenciilt Feggo, or 
Hamlet, ever reigned in D^n- 
Viarky affirming that .^^/V^ was 
immediately fucceeded by Viglcty 
^\iQ killed ^Hamlet prince of 

^ LrscHANnfia Gen; Dan. p. 28C 

Jutland m battle, as he was en-, 
d«avouring/by. force td fbcceed 
to the crown of his grandfather 
RorifL Fontanus and Suituihgiifs 
poiltively affirm, that neither 
of thefe Jutidnd princes ever 
mounted ^}^tDaniJh throne, th(^ 
they admit the truth of all the 
other circumHances related by 
Meurfius : indeed, Saxo Gram- 
maiicus himfelf does not plac^ 
them among the Damjh mo* 
narchs j(i). 

(?) rid.Suarj. f, 37, Ptnt. /. i. f. uq. 


The Hifidfy of Denmark: 4^ 

r- £ R M U N D. 

Virmun^i the fon of Vigku nexf fucqecded, who was no Vennund^ 
lefs rcmarkahle than fais father, /for a mild, pacific, indolent i^th'king. 
diipoiltion j but there? were not wanting the feeds of courage, ^' ^' ^-^ 
Ibo' ciroimftances never (o fell out as to afford, him an oppor- 35^* 
tuaity pf difplaying the valour of his anccftoigs. After a long ^be extra^ 
ipgn be at length became the joyful father of a fon, who, to ordinary 
appearances hoi^ever, promifed him no great felicity as he hiftory of 
grew up. He arrived at the age of manhood before be was^Ufibn tbi 
ever heard to utter a fyllable ; apd many of his actions be- king^fin. 
4^)ke a weak intellect, bordering upon ideotifm.* The old 
kilig was greatly aiFe<^ed, and to add to bis misfortunes^ was 
afflided with lois of fight» in coniequence of old age, and a 
ipalady that h^d feized him fome years before. Under thefe 
<;ircumftances the aged and yenicxdblcFermund was infulted hy 
the prince pf Saxpny^ who offered himfelf a candidate for a 
tfaronCi which he faid the fpirit of the Danes ought never to 
piermit beii)g filled by a blind dotard, or a natural fool ; for 
^is was the purport of an infolent harangue, pronounced by 
his ambaflador ajt a full diet of the ftates of Denmark. Vfr" 
mun4, ftung with reproach, forgetful of hjs old age and blind- 
neis, an^ eag^r to vindicate his majefty, replied, that tb^ re* 
l^pach thrown ijp«n him was truly worthy of a Saxon ; that 
a man of fpirit would contend for the honour of defending a 
prince, funk under age and infiritiity, inAead of endeavouring 
to aggravate his misfortunes, by defpoiltng him of his juft 
eights .; and, finally, that notwithftanding blindnefs and de- 
crepitude, he doubted not but the gods would give him fiill 
fircngth fufiicient to repel all the attempts of fo vain-glorious 
a bpafter, in confequence of which hope he was willing to 
reft the fate of his crown upon the iffuc of a fmgle combat 
between them. Aftoniftved with the courage of the old 
prince, the Saxon ambaflador declined the ch^Uenge, faying it 
was unworthy of his matter to contend with a blind man, who 
had a fon able to fupport his quarrel. The ftates were filent ' 
* at this reply, which Uffon^ princ&of D€nmari, obferving, rofe 
up in a fury, and told the ambaflador, that the king had a 
ion, and Denmark a prince, able and willing to defend theit 
rights and the honour of the nation. ". Tell your infolent. 
V mafter, iays he, that Uffin, whom he fuppofcs unworthy of 
*^ fiicceeding to the crown, will not only accept of his chal- 
*^ lenge, but fight iingly againft him and any other ^<tf^0» he 
^ will make choice of." Surpri^d at this intrepid reply from 
a prince who had never fpok^before, or ever given the. 
flighteft proofs of fpirit or underftanding, the ftates joyfully 


46 TheHiJicryofDtnmzrk. 

appointed the time a/id place for deciding the quarrel. The^ 
however reprefented to Uffon the raihnefs of engaging with 
two antagonifls, each of them probably of equal ftrei^h 
with himfelf ; but he was fixed in his refolution. Accorci- 
ingly the parties met, and the old king ordered himfelf to be 
conduced to a precipice that hung over the fea, near the 
field of battle, refolving to put ah end to his life, (hould hi« 
fon be worfted, and the kingdom of Denmark difgraced. The 
conibatants engaged with the utmoft fury; Uffbn,, like the 
brave HoratiuSy on whom depended the fate of Ro^he, gra* 
dually retreated and defended himfelf^ until he had feparated 
the enemy, and exhaufted their ftrength ; after which he at- 
tacked the weakeft with fuch intrepidity and ftrength, tha^ he 
Ufibn Je- foon laid him dead at his feet. Now the two princes fought 
fiats the hand to hand, and Uffon perceiving his fuperiori^, generoufly 
frince of offered to grant \he, Saxon his life, if he would fubmit to pay 
Saxony, him homage, and a tribute; which the other refuting, he 
laid him dead at one ftroke, and wa^' carried triumphant oS 
the field on the ihoulders of the Danijh nobility, who were 
oveijoyed to find valour, ftrength, and underftanding, united 
in the perfon of a prince, they had till then beheld with pity 
and contempt. Vermuni did not long furvive this glorious at<- 
chievement of his fon ; excefs of joy put an end to his life, 
and JJffon was raifed by the unanimous voice of the people, to 
the dignity which he had fo feafonably vindicated *• 

L A V S I. 

Olaus I. SoOK after his acceflion he changed his name to diat of 

tgt^ iing. Olaus^ and was furnamed the Merciful^ from the generous 

A. C. N. propofal he had made to the Saxon prince, as well as from his 

^9^' natural good difpofltion. His reign was an uninterrupted fe* 

lies of felicity to his fubje£ts, and victories over his enemies; 

but hiftory relates no particulars. He married a lady of noble 

birth in SUfwick^ 'hy whom he had a fon, who was raifed to 

the throne upon the death of Olaus ^. 

D J ^ 11 

Dan II. The. young king was <:allcd Dan^ the fecond monarch of 
zoth kmg. ^^^ name who had fwayed the Danijh fceptre. No prince 
was ever more beloved during the firft years of hb reign/ 
I ' His military capacity had greatly enlarged his dominions, and 

<! the tributes paid by foreign princes augmented the power, 

I wealth, and glory of the ftatc. . But, flufhed with fucceis, hs 

* Gram. 1. 4.* * M>vri. 1. i. p. 15. 


fhe Hificrycf Dcmnark., 47 

tecanrfe infolent, cruel, and prodigal of hts wealth and fame, 
dyiiijg at an advanced age, as much decefted for his vices s|s . 
before he was efteemed for his virtue ^ 

H U G L E T H. 

HUGLETH W2is next tle&cd king ; but whether he was the Haglcth, 
/on of the preceding monarch we have no account* All that 2Jji king^ 
hiftory relates of him is, that he cohquered in a fea-fight Ho- 
metb and Hogrin^ two of the chief perfons in Sweden^ who had 
long exercifed piracy in the Baltic^ and fcoured all the coafts 
with a powerful fleet. He like wife kept the king of Sweden in 
awe, though he had, raifed a powerful army to (upport a reib* 
lution he had formed of difcontinuing the tribute, and ihaking 
off the Danijh yoke. It would appear that his reign was iin- 
comnionly long, as from the year 225 before the birth of 
Cbrtjiy to the year 172, we find no other king mentioned ; 
and indeed, fome hiftorians call him by the nam^ of Hugliib , 
the Little^ fecond fon to Dan \ 

F R O T H O II. 

After the death of Huglethy Frotho^ the fecond of that Frotho It. 
name^ furnamed the Vigorous^ was raifed to the throne, f^' ^'«^- 
There never was a prince endued with nobler qualities of mind ^^ ^' ^* 
and body ; more courteous, generous, and brave ; he foon be- '7*« 
came the darling of his people, and the terror of his rebellious 
neighbours, moft of whom were tributary to his crown. He 
fubdued Norway^ after killing the king in fingle combat, and 
annexed it, with fome iflands in the Baltic before unconquered, 
to his dominions. Having reigned thirty years he breathqd 
his laft, leaving the crown, with the confent of the people, to 
his fon Dauy who became the third monarch of that naoie ^« 


In the very beginning of Dan^s reign, the Saxons were fo Dan III. 
infolent, as not only to refufe payment of the tribute due t6 i^d king, 
the fovereign of Denmark^ but to infifl: on Dan*s rcimburfing 
them all t[;je money txtorted from them by his father, by Hug* 
lethy Dan II. and by Olaus and Uffhn ; a demand which foon 
produced a war, in which they were forced to fubmit to their - 

former condition. • This prince engaged likewife in a war 
with Sweden^ concerning the event of which hiftory is iUent* 

* PONTAN. 1. i. p. 21. SaXO, p. 65, * JO. SUANfNQ. 

Chron. Dan. p. j\2. Saxo Gram. t. iv. p. 66, ^ Pont. 

Saxo, &q. ibid* 


^ the tiifii^ of fjcnmirk; 

All We know is, that he was wounded in a fingle eoaibat % 
^e Swedijh monarch. We are told, ijndeed, that after this be 
conquered all tbofe ftates inhabitmg the countries on each fide 
the Elbe^ to whom the Danes gave the general paoie of Saxons ; 
after which he was feized with an aeutjefeveir^ that carried biflt 
off* in the prime and vigour of life ^. 

F R i D L E P J^. 

f ridlcff '^^ **'™ fucceeded Fridleffy furnamcd the Swift^ m^ab iflH 
24/^ iJng. tnediatetyy on his acceffion, entered into a clofe arid intimate 
correfpondence with the king of Hallmd\ foi* at this time 
Holland was a feparate and independent fovcreignty. The 
intention of this league was to fecure and prote(!% each other*4- 
dominions againft all enemies, to clear the feas of pirates, 
and thoroughly to reduce the Swedes and Norwegians^ who 
' wanted only a fit opportunity to ffaake off the galling yoke of 
Denmari. This treaty, like mofb other compads between 
princes, was broke as foon as either party imagined be coald 
take an advantage of the other. The monarch of Ualland 
was the firft aggreflbr ; he raifed an army, and made a deicent 
•on Denmark^ at a time when fecufity had rendered Fridleff 
totaUy unprepared to receive him ; but the vigour of this 
pcifice made him foon repent his treachery. Fridkff aflem'- 
bled a powerful army, and defeated HuirviUxn a pitched bat- 
tle, making great llaughter of his troops. In the purfiiit 
Huirvlll was killed, and Friileff not only eafed of the war^ 
but fully revenged upon his infidious enemy» whofe kingdom 
be annexed to his own dominions. After this we are told be 
jcai^ried his arms into Ireland^ and having over*run a great 
part of the country, made himfelf mafter of Dublin^ the ca- 
pital. The fame attempt he made an^Britainy from whence 
I after fuftaining a fignal defeat, he fcarce efcaped with life; 
Chagrined with this repulfe, he determined applying his 
mind to domefliic affairs, and fludied rather to make his old 
fubje£(s happy, than to acquire new, in which laVdable un** 
dertaking he died, at an extreme old age ^« 

' F R T H O IIL 

FrothoIIL Such was the reputation -Fr/Vi?^ acquired with the{)eopte 

z^th king, during the laft years of his reign, that they unanimoufly 

A. C. N, agreed to raife his fon Frothoj then a child, to the weighty 

37. charge of governing a powerful kingdom. Guardians were 

.immediately appointed him, and the affairs of the nation 

^ Mavas. ibid. ' Suaning. Chron. p. 4{. Gram, l.r*? 
3 com. 

Tie Hiftory of Denmark. ' 4p 

committed to a feleft council of the nobility, ^ith thFs re- 
Tcrve, that all their detre^s Were to be (ubmitteB tb a general 
diet of the ftates, arid there confirmed or rejpealed as the peo- 
ple thought proper. In this fitUation things remained for the 
fpace of fourteen years, when the king took the government 
upon himfelf. The firft ye^ifs bf his reign pafled in indolence 
and inafiivity, whence he gairted the name oi Fretho thePad^' 
fie ; but the corruptions that had crept \iiXo th6 adminiftratrbiii 
waked hinv at length out of this lethargy, to an exertion of 
thofe extraordinary abih'ties, which, in a little time, acquired 
him the appellation of Greats and the reputation of. the moft 
Valiant prince of hi$ age. He carried on nine Wars with the 
moft powerful northern nations, and came off victorious iii 
all. At length poifon accompliibed what neither the courage^ 
the numbers, or the animofity of his enemies could effed; 
A variety of fabulous circumftances relating to this event, arc 
i-ecorded by all the Danijh writers'; but we have omitted them 
as favouring too ftrongly of the ignorance and prejudices oi^ 
thofe times^ to be read with pleafure in a more enlightened 

S E C T. III. 

X^mpr^hends the Hiftory <?/ Denmark, to the Tear 9S1 , 
after the Birth of Chrift. 

H I A R N^ 

J^kOTHO dying without male iffue, the diet tobk the Hiani 
*^ extraordinary re^Iution of makibg him king, who fliould ^^tbkingi 
write thebeft verfes on the mempry of the late monarch ; and ^* ^? -A 
iTw)! being adjudged thebeft poet, was accordingly raifed to °^^" ^ 
the throne, in reward of his fuperibr genius. He was of that '* 
tlafs of people called Scialdres in Denmark^ and Bards in othet 
countries, whofe bufinefs it was to rove about the country, re- 
titing their produdlions at ^thc houfcs of the great, and en- 
tertained by them as the repofitories of the wit and Ifcarning of . 
the times, all hiftory, and the atchievements of their anceP- 
tors being contained in thofe long tales and narratives com-^ 
pofed by the ingenious bard, Tlje poet did not long enjoy 
his exaltation, being depofed by Fridieff^ a relation to the late 
king, who had fpent the greater part of bis life in foreign fer* 
vice, and was now returned upon the news of hisumajefty'i 
death, to lay claim to his crown. This he obtained by killing ~ 
the poor bard in fingle cpmbat, and convincing the ftates, by 
^ Mod. Hist. Vol.. :^XXil. E a re- 

50 . The Hiftory of Penmark. - 

^ a relation of his conduS in the fervices in which he had been 

engaged, that his valour merited the higheft diftinSions. 
Pontanm indeed relates from Grammaticus^ that Hiarn^ after 
feveral battles by (ea and land, which he maintained Avith 
great obftinacy, was at length flain by his rival, in a fea-figbt 
on the coafl of Jutland^ the ifland Hiam^ fituated on that 
fhore, taking its name from his unhappy end *. 

F R I D L E F F II. \ 

FidlefF II. No fooner was Fridkff feated in the throne, than he fent 
zftb king, ambaffadors \o Norway to demand Forgertha^ daughter to thai 
A. D. i\, king, in marriage. The infolent refufal of the Norwegian 
monarch produced a war between the two kingdoms, which 
terminated in the death of Amand king of Norway^ and in 
the efpoufals of Fridleff with his daughter. We are told of 
a number of miraculous battles this courageous prince fought 
with certain giants of Norway^ during a glorious reign of 
twelve years > at which period he died, greatly efteemed by 
his fubjeds, and refpedied by all the neighbouring ftatcs "*. 

F R O T H IV: 

Frotho FROTHO IV. his fon, theabut twelve years of age, was 

IV, 2^tb proclaimed his fucccflbr. This prince began to give very early 
^^^i' proofs of his virtue and generofity : infomuch that before 
he arrived at maturity, he qualhed a dangerous rebellion 
that had been raifed by a combination of the principal nobi- 
lity, to dethrone him, merely by the prudence of his conduct 
and fleadinefs of his meafures, without fpilling a drop of 
blood. He obtained the furname of Generous jfiom the bene- 
ficence and humanity of his difpofition, which • was never b 
amply gratified as with the opportunity of beftowing favours 
, on deferving obje<9s. His courage was likewife difplayed in 
fevei al battles he fought with Swerting and Harif^ two Saxm 
lords, who had raifed great armies in defence of their liber- 
ties, and with a view to throw off their fubjeftion to Deft- 
mark, Swerting perceiving that Frotho was invincible in the 
field, had recourfe to treachery, pretended ^ pcrfe£t reconci- 
liation, and invited the Danijh monarch to a feftival, at which 
he propofed deftroying him by letting fire to the houie. The 
good fortune of Frotho favcd him, however, from this dange- 
rous fnare, and his valour turned ""the due punifliment upon 
the infidious Saxon^ whom he attacked fword in hand, and 
foon laitl dead at his feet : but he- died himfelf not long after, 

* Meurs. 1. ii. ^ Id ib, Pontan. p. 24. 1. i. 

2 of 

Tbe Hifiory of Dtnmztk. ^t 

ot a wound he had received from a poifoned weapon in the 
contel} with Siverting *=. 

I N G E L L. 

The ftates immediately aflembled and chofe his fon Ingell^ Ingell, 
or IngU^ to fucceed his father. This prince at firft aban- z^tb king, 
doned himfelf to a life of indolence and debauchery, into 
which he was artfully' drawn by fome of the nobility, who ^ 

formed defigns upon- his crown, intending by this means to 
alienate from him the affeftions of his people. The forcfight 
and natural good fenfe of the young monarch penetrated 
into their machinations, and recovered him at a time when he 
was plunged in a life of diflblution and pleafure. All of a 
fudden he difcarded his old companions, and, lilce our Henry^ 
aiTumed at once a behaviour and dignity worthy of majefty. 
This difmiifion of the firft nobility of the realm occafioned 
murmurings among them, which foon broke out into open 
Rebellion. Here it was that Ingell diftingaiflied his valour, 
his prudence, and his clemency. He firft defeated ^is ene- 
mies, obliged them to fubmit to his terms, and th^ not only 
pardoned them, but took them again into favour, which he 
ffteemed the true method of gaining their affe<5lions, and fe- 
curing their allegiance; but he firft infifted upon a total re- 
formation of their manners, and enforced this by his own ex- 
ample **. We find indeed a different charader of this prince 
in Meurfms^ who relates, that after the fuppreflion of this re- 
Mlion, he fell again into his old courfes, and ended his 
reign in the fame ingloopus manner in which he began ^. 

O L A U S 11. 

Upon his death his fbn Olaus 11. mounted the throne, in- OlausII. 
heriting all the vices of his father, without one of his vir- lotb king. 
tues. His whole reign, which happily did not exceed tenA. D.ioz* 
years, was a feries of luxury, profufion, and the moft fcan- ^ 
dalous luft and debauchery. He died however feemingly pe- 
nitent, as appears by the fpcech he made to his fens oi} his 
death-bed, in which he exhorts them to retrieve by their 
condud the national honour, which hsld greatly fuffered by 
his weak and dilTolute meafures (A). 


/ Saxo Gram. 1. yi. et Auft. citat. ^ Saxo Gram. 1. vi. 
Svannin. p. 47. * Meurs. 1. ii. p. 24. 

(A) Saxo" Grammatieus and the firft, altho* it appears, upon 
Pwanus call this prince Olaus undoubted authority, and indeed 

£ 2 upon 


Tie Hijlory of Denmark, 


FrothoV. FROTHO V. znd Harofd^h fons to the late monarch, 
anJ.H^' were both raifed to the throne, fharing the fovereigmy bc- 
rold I. tween them ; the one prcfiding over naval affairs, and the 
other taking it upon him to direft whatever belonged lo the 
armies and latid -forces of the kingdom. Frotho^ as the 
cideft, chofe the former province ; a prefumption that ma- 
fine employments were held more honourable and important 
, than the land-fcfvice (A). Frotho. entered firft upon a(ftion, 
and made an unfuccefsful defcent upon fomeof the neighbour- 
ing coafts, his foldiers, moft of whom were married, refufing 
to enter upon any dangerous enterprize, by which their families 
might be brought to ruin ; and Meurfms exprefly affirms, that 
the influence which Froihd's queen had over him, occafiopcd 
his difgrace. The particulars, however,- of this aiFair are bot 
recorded, and we only know that he quitted his employment 
in difguft to Harold, who immediately eftablifhed a maxim, 
Harold that no married man (hould be inlifted into the fea or land; 
re/u/es to fervice ; a meafure that was attended with the happieft con 
tnlij^ mar- fequences. The foldiers, emulous of glory, and free from 
riedmen. domeftic cares, braved all dangers, and obtained numberlci 
vi<aories under the conduct of the brave Harold -^ after whiA 
they were permitted to return home, to fettle and enjoy th^ 
fruits and glory of their toil and courage. Frotho was ftung 
with envy at the fuccefs of his brother's arms, whofe^valom 
had fo much eclipfed his own a6)ions ; and unable to fuppoii 
the fight of a perfon, whofe victories reminded him of his 
own defeat, and whofe public charafler he deemed a tacit 
reproach, took the bafe refolution of having him murdered 
His refentment had fortified his heart againft the dilates 
honour, brotherly love, and humanity : he employed an affaffiw 
He is mur- accompljlhed his, end, and then murdered the tool of his vil- 
iered by lainy, the better to conceal it*. But parricide is a cricie, 
biibrotbtr. againft which the Almighty feems, in a particular manner, to 

* Saxo Gram. 1. vi. Mburs, 

p. 24. 

upon their own, that Vffo had 
changed iiis name to Olaus^ who 
is, for this reafon, properly dif- 
tinguilhed by the appellation of 
O/^/// the firft ( I). 

(A) The Danijb writers are 
divided in their opinions con- 

(1) Suan.^p. 4»1 

cerning the departments tjp! 
princes agreed upon. Pon^ 
fays, that maritime afFaifSV 
committed to Harold i thougli 
this probably happened after the 
roifcarriage of his brother (2). 

(2) Pman. /. i. /, 17. 


Tie Hiftory of Denmark. v g^ 

have pointed his vengeance. Frotho^s own confcience was a 
fufficfent accufer, and gave fuch evidence again him, as con- 
vinced the whole world that Harold met wkh his death from 
the hand of his own brother. All his meafures were didated by 
{direnzy and defpair, which became vifible in his countenance. 
He imagined he could not be fecure while the children of 
Harold lived, and took meafures to quiet his mind, by en- 
creaftng the number of his crimes, and fuperadding the mur- 
der of his nejphews to that of his only brother. His defigns, 
however, were fruftrated by the vigilance of a nobleman, to 
whom the education of the young princes was committed* 
After concealing his pupils in a cave, the faithful guardian 
returned to court, and implored bis majefty that he would 
abftain from fliedding his own blood, and not deprive his in- 
nocent nephews of life, after robbing them of a royal and 
brave patent. Frotho^ pretending to be moved by the intrea- 
ties of this honed nobleman, had nearly accomptifhed by 
diffimulation what he could not cfFefl by force. A few years 
after, he got the young gentlemen into his hands, and was 
going tp have them aflaflinatcd, when their own addrefs faved^ 
them :' they pretended to quarrel, and defired leave to decide 
their difpute by the fword, which the king readily granted, 
iji expe<Station that their warmth, courage, and animoiity, 
might eiFedi his purpofes, without dipping his own hands in 
their blood. He was eveti cruel enough to be a fpecStator of p|.otj,o 
the fight, and thus his punilhment was brought about by the /^^^^ ^^ 
inviffl>le operations of Providence ; for the princes, upon ay^;,^^fja- 
fignal agreed, turned upon their uncle, and in an inftant laidrold. 
him dead on the ground with their fwords. Thus perifhed the 
treacherous and bloody /Vi/A«, by the hands of' his own ne- 
y pbews, after a reign rendered infamous to all pofterity, by 
\ the barbarous murder of a brother, who was the greateft or- 
nament of his family and kingdom, as well as the mod valo-» 
lous prince of his age ^. 


Fj^OTHO was fucceeded by the two fons of Haro\dy the Haldanc 
oldeft named Haldnne^ and the youngeft called after his father, jj^ ^„j 
Haldane immediately engaged in a war with Siward king of Harold II.. 
^Stvedeny for reafons with which we are unacquainted; -after ' 

giving him frequent and fignal defeats, he a( lisn^tb (lew him 
in battle with his own hand.^ Erici^ the^ fon and fucccflbr of 
Siward, to revenge his. father's death, made a fudden defcent 

*» PONTAN. I i. p. Zy. SUAlf INC. p^ 47. 

E 3 on 

54 The Hifiory of Denmark; 

oh Denmark^ with a powerful armament, while Haldam^^i 
'^r J ^^^^" ^ '" deciding a difpute with fome Saxon lords. Ha- 
^ f^. fold immediately afl'embled an army, and gave the Swedes 
btUkin ^^"'^i ^"^ ^^ fuccefs was not agreeable to his courage 
ATSwedc?.^"^ the juftice of his caufe; for after an obftinate engagc- 
'ment he was flain in the arms of victory, which now inune- 
Haldane diately declared for Erich Upon this Haldane immediately 
reignsalone returned to Denmark^ drove Erick out of his dominions, pur- 
and de- fued him into Sweden^ defeated him, and terminated the 
feats the quarrel by the death of his enemy, whom he engaged in 
Swedes, fmgle combat^. After this glorious trantaftion, he fitted 
out a powerful fleet againll the pirates who infefted his coafts, 
and was no lefs fuccefsful in this than he had been in all 
his former wars. Towards the clofe of his life, and in a 
very advanced age, he married the princefs of Norway^ and 
by her had a fon born on the very day in which he died, 
of a lingering difeafe contrafled in corifequence of the 
fatigue and cold he fuftained in his laft campaigns. Such 
were the adions of the glorious Haldane^ commonly called* 
the fon oiThor^ [2l Danifl) 6t.ny) from his invincible courajge 
and thofe generous qualities which feemed to efevate him 
above the rank of mortals. His name had fpread itfelf over 
all the northern kingdoms, and in Sweden particularly hijr 
memory was no lefs refpedled than in his own proper domi- 
nions \ fuch was the clemency, affability, and engaging 
manners of this celebrated warrior **. 

U N G U I Ny or H J G U I N. 

" Unguln, The diet of the ftates eleded in the room of Haldant 

j^rHaguin, his coufia, nephew, or as fome hiftorians alledge, hi^natu- 

SSd^ittg. ral brother^ U«^«/«, or Haguin^ king of the Goths. Some 

writers call this prince the fonrin-law of the late king, tho* 

Meurfius and Pontanm aflfirm, that Haldane\ daughter ha4 

been given in marriage to Ehho^ a northern prince, in her 

father's life -time. All we know bf thjs reign is, that it was 

•fhort and bloody, the crown being obftinately, difputed by 

Regnaldo king of Sweden^ by whom Unguin was flain. 

S I TV A L D. 

Siwald, REGNALDO did not, however, fucceed in his defigns, 

^i^h king, for the ftates immediately elected Siwald In the room of his 

deceafed father. The war ftill continued with Sweden^ fome 

fay, from RegnaWs continuing his cl^im, while others af- 

* ? Sajco, ibid, ^ Gram. p. ixp, & feq. 

The Hijlcry of Denmark. ^^ 

firm, that Siwatd renewed it with intention to avenge his 
father's death. Ponianus^ indeed, fpeaks of the Swedijh war 
as if it had happened towards the clofe of Siwald's reign, and 
attributes the manv quarrels in which he was 'at firft engaged 
to the beauty of his daughter, who raifetl contentions among 
all the northern princes, fome of them endeavouring to 
force Srwald to comply with their propofals. Indeed,' the 
tranfaSions of his reign are fo varioufly related, that we can 
affirm nothing of this monarch more than, that he did not dege- . 
nerate from the heroic fpirit which had diftinguiflied almoft 
all the preceding kings of Denmark. His death is as varioufly 
' related as his life, fome writers aflerting, that he died in his 
kingdom; while others affirm, that he ended his days a mjfer- 
able exile in Scotland \ whither he had been driven by Haco^ 
the (on of Hamundj who had defeated him in a fea-enguge- 
ment ; a circumftance which Saxo GrammaticuSy Meurfiusy - 
and other hiftorians lf^^x.^Qf StwaldH. (A), 

S I G J R. 

SnVALD left behind him three fons, Sigar^ Alfo^ and Sigar, 
Alger^ the former of whom, by right of primogeniture, fuc- -^^th king. 
ceeded to his crown. We fay by right of primogeniture ; for A. D. 
thoogb the J5tf«« kept in their own hands the power of i77« 
deding their monarchs, yet th^y feldom fet afide the royal 
iffue, and particularly the cldeft fon, unlefs incapacity or fome 
Qther reafon rendered it ncceflary. This prince, being of an 
indolent tame difpofition, committed the care of government 
to his brother, a prince of a very different caft, and equally 
refpeaable for the qualities of his body and mind. The firft 
a<ft ofAlfo^ adminiftration, was the fending ambaffadors to 
demand in marriage AviUa^ daughter to the king of Goth-, 
land', a lady who, at this time, contrary to the manners and 
difpofition of her fex, exerctfed the profeffion of piracy, and 
was fcouring the feas with a powerful fleet, while a foreign 

b Mburs. k SuANiNG. ibid. 

(A) Suaningius relates, that fmgle combat, forty Sivedijb 
Siwald gave his daughter in wairiors, and concluded his 
marriage to U6ho Otbaro^ in warlike' atchievements by the 
preference to all the other ri- death of Sterchateerj a Swede of 
vals ; and that, affifted by his the greateft ftrength and cour- 
fon -in-law, he attacked Regi- age of any perfon of his 
nald and flew him in battle : times .(i). 
'that tfterwards he killed in 

(i) Ibid, p. 49* 

E 4 -prince 

^6 The Hifiory of Denmark. 

Alfo dif- prince was offering facrifices to her beauty at the (hrine q^ 
putestbe Jove, jllfo^ perceiving that this mafculine lady was not to, 
heart of be gaineci by the ufual arts' of lovers, took the extraordinary 
/i^^/TMrr^refoIution of addreffing her in a method more agreeable to 
tf/Goth- her humour. He fitted out a fleet, went in quefl of her, 
land fy and engaged her in a furious battle, which continued two 
armsy an^ddys without remiffion ; thus gaining poffcffion of a heart to 
after con- ^^ conquered only by valour S After this conqueft of the 
^*^'*'"<S^^^ brave amazon, jII/o turned his arms againft other pirates who 
**^'^'" 'had infcfted the coafts of Denmark, In thi» expedition he 
^* f^ll \n with a fleet commanded by the three fons of Hamutidy . 
king of Ir^landt and immediately entered upon adlion. Af- 
ter continuing the whole day an engagement, which was 
fought with equal obftinacy on both {ides, night feparated 
the combatants, and next morning propofals were made for 
an accommodation, which were accepted by the parties. 
They each of them had fufficient proofs of the courage of 
their ahtagonifls ; ax^d a$ neither harboured any perfonal 
jrefentipcpt, they parted with hearty profefllions of fmcere 
efleem and friendfhip. Notwithftanding this treaty, jfl/h 
ajgain renewed the war againft the Hibernian princes, at the 
inftigation of an old crafty Danifh nobleman, who pcr- 
fuaded him that his honour was engaged in obtaining a com- 
plete viiSlory over thofe boyifli commanders. In confequencc 
he fitted out a fleet, engaged them a fecond time, and after 
killing HehAn and Hamund^ the two eldeft of the brothers, 
was himfelf flain by the hand of Hagabert the youngeft. The 
viftorious Hagabert^ hearing of the extraordinary beauty 
of the king of Denmark's fitter, dreflfed himfelf in women's 
apparel, and found means to infinuate himfelf in quality of 
maid of honour to the princefs, to whom he foon made a 
declaration of his fex and quality, and the motives which had 
compelled ^hi'm to fo extraordinary a proceeding. His youths 
beauty, and fove, foon wrought upon the afle(^ions of Signa^ 
for that was the princefs's name, and the confequence was 
ithc lofs of her virtue, and of Hagaberfs life ; for the in- 
trigue coming tp Sigar's eats, he ordered him to be hanged 
upon a gibbet without form of trial. This was fo cruel a 
ftroke to. the fond Si^>ja, tli^t in defpair fhe fet fire to the 
palace, and afterwards ftrangled herfelf, putting an end to 
a life which would be infupportable to her, after the igno- 
minious cataftrophe'of her lover. Sigar was incqnfolable 
at the unhappy end of a fifter and brother he lovcS with 
H tender 2iSc&'ion; and his mbfortune wasi aggravated 


^<5ram. 1. 17. 


9 be Hifiory i/ Denmark. 57 

by the melancholy fituation of his kingdom^ now jri« 
vaded by a powcfful army from Ireland^ commanded by 
Haca^ the king's fourth fon, who was come to revenge the 
(dejUh of his brethren. Sigar's grief did not, however, 
jHrevent his taking every poflible meafure for the fecurity' 
of his kingdom. He placed guards on the coafts, and 
took poileffion of all the ftrong pods through which Haco 
mufl pafs to Rofchild and Letbra^ then the refidence of the 
Dantfl) monarch ; but all thefc precautions were eluded by 
the art and conduS of Haco : he ordered his men to cue 
down boughs and green branches of trees, which they held 
in their left hands, marching with their drawn fwords in the 
right. So extraordinary a phaenomenon as a moving forcft, 
lerrified the Danijh out-guards, and made them abandon 
ihcir pofts without the leaft refiftance ; fo that flaco met with 
noobftrudtion until he arrived with his 3rmy at LetHroy where 
^igar was'encamped with a body of forces. A battle enfued, 
and the Danijh monarch fell, while he was exerting a cour- 
age fiiperior to what it was ever imagined he poifefied ^ 

S I W A L D II. 

In his room was elefled Siwald II. his fon, by the unani- Slwald II. 
{nous voice of the people. So eager was the young king to 36/^6 king. 
expel Haco^ or Hacquin, as Ponianus calls him, and to re- 
yenge his father's death, that he aflembled an army, com- 
pofed of both fexes, and gave battle to the Irijh, after Haco 
had. embarked near half his army. The fight continued for 
near three d^ys without viftory's dedaring herfelf, till Haca 
fell towards the clofe, of the third day ; upon which a panic 
immediately feized his troops, who were flaughtered without 
mercy by ihtDanes^ until they were fatiated with blood. Such 
was the carnage made on the field, that to this day it goes 
by the n^me of Valbranay a word expreffive of the horrible 
'flaugbter**; though A/(f«r/;«x alledges, that this appellation 
was given to the field in which Sigar was defeated and killed. 
Jt is, indeed, the general opinion, that both princes periCbed 
in'thi^ engagement; and the male line of the royal family 
being extinfl, ' the government of the kingdom was commit- 
ted to five of the nobility, who divided the authority. Zea- 
land was given to Hunding^ Schonen to OJimar^ Funen to Ha* 
noy and Ror.id and Hother were chofen to prefide over Jut- 
land^ which countries would feem to have conftituted the 
whole of the Danijh dominions at that period. In this fitua- 
tion was Denrriart governed for the fpace of forty-one years, 

? Saxo, ibid. Pontan. 1. i. p. 33. ^ Meurs. 1. il. 


58 The Hiflory of Denmark. 

till Haldane^ who bad efpoufed Gurith^ daughter to Situaldj^ 
was raifed by her means to the throne. 

H J L D A N E in. 

Haldzne This prince, the third of that name, was inferior to none 
UI. ^pb of his t>redece{rors in valour, and the other qualities of a 
^g* gi"^^^ ^i"g V bu^ ^^^ Orength was fo remarlcable as to procure 
bim the fiimame of Strong, The manner in which be gained 
tbe co^fcnt of Gurith his^queen to addrefs her, was an extra- 
ordinary inftance of his prowefs ; for he flew with his own 
Angle arm, twelve guards, the boldeft men who could be 
feund, placed round her perfon to deny acceis to all fuitors ; 
a precaution which fome attribute to her chafti^, and others, 
to the policy of the regents, who were fenfible they nuift fur- 
Dender their authority as ibon as ihe was married. Some 
years after his acccilion to the throne, be engaged in a war 
with Vifet (A), .a prince. who had been his rival in the afiec- 
tions o^ Gurith* Several defperate battles were fought be- 
tween them, in .the laft of vfYMti . Haldane was killed^ 
yielding to the good fortune of his enemy, and rival in gloiy 
and in love *^. 


III x%th After his death the ftates met for the eledion of a new 
y*^ king, and their choipe fell upon Harold, the fon of Haldane. 
Harold began his reign with an attempt to complete the mea- 
furcs entered upon by his father, the reduSion of the regents, 
who bad refufed to furrcnder their authority to Haidane^ 
though duly eleded by the ftates. In this he was more fuc- 
cefsful, having' obliged all the provinces to fubmit to the 
crown in the fpace of a few years. He begun his operations 
with declaring war againft Vifet, who had killed his father : 
him he deftroyed at a feftival, which Ftfet gave to his friends 
at the celebration of his nuptials with a lady of Schonen. He 
next direfted his arms againft the governor of Southern Jut- 
land, and foon reduced that country, by the death of the go- 
vernor, whom he flew in the field of battle. His next ex- 
pedition was againft the regents or governors of Northern 

« Ibid, etiam Saxo & Pont an. ibid. 

(A) Fi/ef v/zs {on to Hundi»g, flon of Haldane to the throne, 

viceroy or regent of Zealand. Probable it is, that his refuial 

He fucceeded his father in that to furrender it was one of tlie 

ofBce, and kept his authoritv chief caufes of the war. 

for feveral years after the accel- 


^e Hiftory of Denmark. 59 

Jutland^ in which he met with the fame fucceis. Zealand 
and Ftmen followed the fortune of the other provinces ; and 
thus the kingdom of Denmark was again reunited, and all 
thofe^ petty tyrants fubdued and deilroyed in the fpace of two 
years, by the vigorous and intrepid condud of HaroUy who 
was now a fecond^time proclaimed king of all Denmark.- Af- 
ter this he reftored by force to his throne asd dominions Af- 
mmd king of Norway^ from whence he had been driven by 
a ftrong party that had declared in ^vour of his ftfter. Dur- 
ing hts refidence in Nonvay^ Ahar king of Sweden breathed 
his laft, leaving three fons, Ingo^ Okus^ and Ingell. Jngo^ the 
eldeft fucceeded to his throne \ but, not fatisfied with his 
paternal dominions* he and his brothers, fupported by a power- 
ful army, made a defcent on Denmark. Aieurfius relates, 
that the brothers only meditated an invafion, the news of 
which coming to Harold^ he immediately entered Sweden^ 
attacked the forces commanded by Ingo and Olausy whom he » 
flew in the field, after entirely routing their army. This 
defeat obliged Ingell to fue for peace, and accept of the terms 
which Harold thought fit to impofe. The Danijh monarch, 
equally generous in profperity and firm in ad verfityp granted 
fuch conditions as Ingell ought to have been fatisfied with ; he 
feemed to acquiefce, expecting foon to find an occafion of ' 
wiping off the late difgrace. Accordingly he invaded Schonen^ 
while //^r^i^ was lulled in profound fecurity, and carried off by 
violence the fifter of the Danifi) monarch, whom he efpoufed. 
Hence the war was renewed, profecuted with various fuccefs, 
and at length happily terminated, Harold^ as juft as brave, 
preferring an indifferent peace ^to the moft fuccefsful war, 
which muft necefTarily be attended with the blood and ruin 
of many of his fubjedls. He was fcarce returned from Swe- 
den before the infolence of Ubbo^ lord of Embden^ or one of 
.thofe flates which now compofe the circle of JVeJiphalia^ 
called him again into the field. It was not long before Vbbo Hi con- - 
found caufe to repent his temerity; for he was defeated and y»fr/ CJb- 
taken prifoner,* but afterwards fet at liberty by the clemency bo, lerdof 
of the conqueror. Nor was this all ; Harold married him to^mbden. 
his daughter, fecured his friendfhip, and by his means 
ftrengthenedhis own intereft upon the continent: but hjs 
fuccefs v^s not limited to thefe conquefts *; he reduced fe- 
v^ral nations upon the Rhine^ took the Vandals^ a people in- - 
habiting that Country on the Baltic^ fituated between the 
Vijlula and the Elbe^ into his proteflion, over-run Jquitain, 
9nd a part of Britain^ which, fays Grammaticus^ had with- 

» Saxo, I. vii. 


6(y The Hifiory of Denmark. 

drawn its allegiance from Denmark (ince the death of FrO" 
tho IIL But what fets the equity of this monarch in the moft 
confpicuous view, is that, a^er raifmg an army to punifli the 
perfidy of Ingell king of Sweden^ he not only defifled from 
the enterprize on the death of that prince, but appointed 
Harold/ guardians to his infant Ton, though the faireft occafion of- 
cbarmer. ^^j ^^^ annexing Swiden to his own dominions ; a rare in- 
ftance of moderation, which deferves being recorded in ho- 
nour of fovereignty. The young Swidijh king, unmindful of 
his obligations, no fooner arrived at the age of maturitv, 
than he declared war againft his generous benefador Harold^ 
the event of which was the death of this great prince, ad- 
mired even by his enemies for the elevation of his fpirit, his 
valour, generofity, and above all, for his juftice. We find 
by the preparations made fotr the war, to what a prodigious 
height of power this monarch had raifed the kingdom of 
Denmark* Saxo Grammaticus relates, that his fleet was fo 
numerous as to extend like a bridge acrofs the Sounds Sepa- 
rating Zealand from Schonen ; and that, beildes common foU 
diers, he niuftered thirty thoufand nobitity in his army. His 
death occafioned the defeat of this otherwife invincible 
power, and obliged the Danes to patch up a peace at the 
price of ochonm^ which was ceded to the vi(Storious RSnga^^. 

q L Oj 0r O L J U S. 

OIo, or The glorious Harold was fucceeded by his fitter's fon, a 
Olaus, prince of a very oppofitCv charadler to his uncle (A). His 
38/^6 king, name was 0&, and firft he was appointed to the government 
oVSchonen by RingOy who likewife obliged the D^nes to'fub- 
mit to the authority of Hetha^ a woman of a mafculine fpi- 
rit. Upon their remonftrances, however, he retailed her, 

^ Meurs. 1. ii. p. 30. 

(A) Pentanus fpeaks diffe- ror into his enemies; a con- 

tently of this prince, though jedlure which we find fupported 

I we know not upon what autho- by a fail. One of the Danijb 

rity. According to him, Olo nobility having rcfolved to fiab 

, poiieiTed the noblcft qualities of him, when he was undreffing 

mind and perfon, having this to enter the bath, the grim and 

remarkable circomftance about fierce countenance of O/o madf 

him, that his eyes killed like him drop the poignard jult zi 

thofe of the bafilisk ; mtaning, he had rai&d it to give tl;ie fa- 

perhaps, the fternnefs of his tal blow (i). * 
countenance, which ftruck ter- 

(i) Meurf, /. ii. |». 30. 

' 5 I and 

The Hiftory of Denmark. ^c 

and compenfated her with the fovereignty of that country 
now called Slejwickj where (he built the city of that name. 
Olo he ful^ituted ii) her place, whence it appears that Den^ 
mark was. In cqnfequence of Ringo*s vi<ftory, little more than 
a province to Swiden^ though all the Danijh writers omit 
Ringo^s name in the lift of their kings. Whether it was, 
that the Danes were uneafy under the adminiftration of a 
prince impofed upon them by their inveterate enemies the ^ 
Swedes^ or whether their difa(Fe£tion arofe from his own 
cruelty, as fome writers affirm, is a point difputed by bifto- 
rians : certain, however, it is, that he was taken off by a 
confpiracy, formed againft him by many of the chief nobility 
of the kingdom, and his fon Omund elefled king : a pre- 
fumption that Ulo^z misfortune arofe from peribnal pique and 
maUadminiftratioD, more than from the refentmeoc of his 
fubjeds againft the Swedes ^. . 


OMUND^ fays MeurfiuSy was elefted, not out of regaird Omund, 
to his father's memory^ but from the expeflation which fo 39'^ ^'*?. 
promifing a youth afforded, of his refembling in virtue his A- ^* 
great uncle /for^i/. When arrived at age, his nobility ad- 33** 
vifed him to think of encreaHng the royal family by marriage. 
This made him turn his thoughts to the daughter oiRingo, • 
whom he had feen and admired when he vifited the court of 
that monarch in his youth : but to the accomplifliment of 
bis wiflies ther^ was an obftacle which he determined to fur- 
mount. Ringo had publicly declared, that he never woiild 
receive for his fon- in- law a prince who had not iignalized 
his valour. To render himfelf worthy of this honour^ 
Omund entered upon a war with the king of ATtfrow^F, who 
had lately refufed to pay the ufual homage to the crown of 
Denmark^ and a powerful fleet was equipped for the occafion. 
In his way he was joined by Oddo^ a prince who had received 
fome caufe of difguft to the Swedijh monarch. Ringo was at 
this time cruifing with a fleet off the coaft of Ireland^ and 
Oddo perfuaded his new ally, that now was the opportunity 
for recovering the liberty of Denmnrky curbing 'the power of 
Sweden^ and accomplifhing his wifties with refpe<ft to Ringo\ 
daughter. Perfuaded with thefe arguments, Omund com- 
plied with Oddd*% propofal of making a defcent on Sweden^ 
which was accordingly executed. Intelligence being fcnt to 
RingOy he returned inftantly for the prote£lion of his doipi- 
nions, and a furipus engagement enfued, in which both par- 

* Aut. citat. ibid. 


6i The Hiflory of Denmzvk. 

ties claimed a viSory. To render things more declfiv?, 
they recruited their forces by mutual agreement, and fought 
a fecond battle more bloody than the former, at the clofe 
of Which Ringo was mortally wounded. Upon this he fent 
for Omund^ aitH told him, that now he had given proofs 
. fuffictent of his valour to merit the daughter of a warrior, 
and therefore he ihould contentedly refign himfelf into the 
• arms of death, as he had the happine& to fee his family 
ftrengthened by the alliance of fuch a fon-in-law ; after 
which words he expired. Omund's next exploits were againft 
Rufla^ a warlike virgin, who ufurped the (overeignty of fome 
provinces of Norway^ and endeavoured to extend her power 
over Denmark likewife. Her he defeated in a fea-fight, but 
not fo decifively but (he foon recruited her forces, and was 
again ready to enter upon action. Omund not caring to 
hazard a defeat from a woman, determined to ufe policy, and 
by dint of gold weaned from her the allegiance of the Nor- 
wegians^ who deferred her, and afterwards delivered her into 
the hands of her brother, whom flie had dethroned, in re- 
venge for which he put her to death, and was mean enough 
to pay homage to Omundy ir. acknowledgment of his fer- 
vices. Having honourably concluded fome. other wars in 
which he was neceiTarily engaged* Omund preferved his do- 
minions in profound peace for a number of years, and theft 
died fincerely regretted and eflecmed by his people, who im- 
mediately chofe his elded fon to fucceed him. He was, 
indeed,' a prince equally (killed in the arts of war and of 
peace, who had obliterated by the p]:udence and fuccefs of 
bis adminifiration, all memory pf his father's cruelty '. 

S I JF A R D.. 

Siwafd, SWJRDf on his acceflTion to the throne, was compli- 
AQfji, i/W. mented by an ambafiy from the king of Sweden^ who de- 
manded his fifter in marriage. Imagining that this alliance 
might affift in uniting kingdoms always .at variance, and. 
prove advantageous to both, A'zt;jr^ complied, and the treaty 
was concluded. ' Hallandv/2LS the place fixed upon for the 
celebration of the nuptials ; but the Swedijh monarch being 
befet by ruffians on the road thither, broke ofF .the treaty 
and prepared for war, from a notion that the aflaflins had 
. been hired by Siward to murder him. Both kings having 
raifed forces, they met on- the confines of the fpot ap- 
pointed for a more friendly intercourfe, and a battle enfuing, 

• Meurs. p. 31. 


The'^ Hfftory of Denmark. g; 

the Sivedtjh monarch was flain, and his armj totally de- Deftat$ 
feated (A). ij»^i£& 

The war with Sweden in which Siward was engaged, fur- in haule 
niflied fomc tributary princes on the continent with an qp- the Ungtf 
portunity of revolting. They raifed an army, obtained aSwcd^ 
viftorj, and reduced their fovereign to great ftreights. Such 
was their fuccefs, and the ill fortune of Siward^ that he loft 
all his dominions except TLeuland and a few inconfiderablc 
ifland^. His fpirit, howjcver, was not broke ; he raifed frefli 
forces, and determined either to perifh by their hands, or to ^ 

reduce to obedience his rebellious fubjedls. Accordingly, t^ - «, 
he engaged the rebel army, commanded by one Svnon^ aad - ^t^!i^ 
juft as vidtory began to declare for him, died of a Wound he u^mni iht 
received by the hand o{ the rebel general, after he had given rSg//; 
a mortal blow tQ his antagonift, both falling dead upon each 
other. Such was the end of this brave but unfoi^tunatc 
; prince, who had become odious to many of his fubje<2s^ 
rather from a fpirit of rebellion in them, than any fault in 
him. He left two fons \ but they being carried off" and kept 
prifoners by the rebels, his brother was eleded king in his 
room ^. 

^B A T: H V L. 

BATHUL was raifed to the throne lefe upon account of Batlj-rf, 
his own merit, which was but inconfiderable, than from a4i/iwu 
regard the people had for the blood royal^ and refpciSt fot 
the memory of Siward. The ftatc of Dtnmark was now trtdy 
deplorable ; her dominions rent in pieces by rebellion, her 
power and credit funk, and a king elected, the moft uofk 
in the world to retrieve her af&irs, by courage or condtu9:. 
There remiined, of all the potent kingdom c^ Denmark ^ but y^^^fejft&r- 
Zealandy Funen^ and thofe little iflands, called h'y \i\e Dakes ^&^ £Ott^ 
Smallands ; Jutlandj Norway^ Schonetiy Slejivkk^ Embden^ and ''^ tf 
other countries t)n the continent, as well as feveral iflands virerc J^eamadk. 
difmembered from the crown. In this fituation it would pro- 
bably have remained, had not Jamtercii the fon of Skuard^ 

^ Saxo, I. viii. 

(A) The event of this battle people who had revolted from 
is variotijQy related, Meurfius in his authority, and purfued to 
paticala» affirming, that 5/- the iiland of Fuaen ; upbm 
luW was defeated, and forced which he made peace with ^^f- 
to retreat precipitately to Jut" den, by ceding Schawm to that 
^andy where he was a fecond crown (i). 
<iiae routed by the Scia'Uh a 

(l) Miurf, H^, /, ii. /j,|i, 




4^h king, 

His coft' 
quefis re- 
trie<ue the 
face of 


Jpput to 
death hy 
his 0'Wn 

Tbe Hiftoty of Denmark; 

fallen upon the means of recorering his liberty, returning 
into Zealand^ and of afierting the dignity of his anceftors, 
which was funk during the weak and timid reign of his unde 
Bathuly who now willingly refigned the burthen of fove- 
X reignty, to which he found hi9 own ftrength unequal. 

y A R M E R C L 

The firft endeavours of this heroic prince were to recover 
-the revolted provinces, and reduce them to their former obe- 
dience. He begun ^ith Swed^riy that had led the way and 
encouraged his fubjefts in their rebellion, by which G^thar 
the king got poffeifion of Sr^<7/»^«, Jutland^ and fome other 
Dantjh provinces. Hef faifed a great army, entered Sweden^ 
defeated and killed Gcihar^ and of confequence recovered all 
that the Swedes had taken from his father and ancle : thence 
he marched into Slejwick and Holfiein^ and foon reduced 
theni : from Slefwick he marched into Pomeraniai and thence 
to Silefid^ laying all that coutitry under contribution!, and ex* 
aSing an oath from the nobles,- that they would pay homage 
and a yearly tribute to the crowrr of Denmark^ In a word< 
he not only recovered in a fliort time all fhe countries his 
anceftors had ever poflefled, btit greatly enlarged the bounda- 
ries of the Danijh fovereignty. All this profperity was not 
unattended with a mixture of adverfity and domeflic misfor^ 
tunes, which more than counterbalanced the power and 
grandeur o^ Jarmerci. He had difcovered an intrigue that 
was carrying on between a beautiful young lady he had taken 
for his fccond wife, and Broder^ a fon he had by his former. 
Enraged at a crime fo unnatural, he gave orders they fhould both 
be inftantly put to death, a fentencc which was executed ac- 
cordingly upon the queen ; but his fon found meaiis, thro' 
the favour of his keepers, to efcape, and raifc civil commo- 
tions, which ended only with the life of his father, whom 
he befieged, took, and put to death, in a firong caftle which 
Jartiurci had built as a retreat in cafe of any unforefeen 
change of fortune. It is true, that both the que^jfi and Bro* 
der were innocent of the crime laid to their charge^ thd 
whole being a contrivance of Btcco'sy 9 nobleman of greai 
power and ambition, who, out of refentment or envy to 
Jarmerd^ wanted to diftraft his councils. Such was thi? 
man's art and addrefs, that he fomented the quarrel htva^^n 
the father and fon to fuch a height, that notwithftanding 
filial duty on the one fide, and paternal aiFedtion on the 
other, ftrpngly urged them to a reconciliation, they were 
both made to believe that their fecOrity could only be cffefied 
by chd death of the other. Thus ended the glorious reign of 

TteHiftoryofDenmuki €^ 

Ji&mlrci^ a monarch inferior to none in valour and greatnefs 
of foul ; but unhappily credulous in his teipper, and eafily 
iiirrou|ht on by thefe diabolical inftruments, who never fail 
to innouate themfelves in ail courts, and create divtiions 
with a view of raifing themfelves '• 

B R b E R. 

BRODER fucceeded to his father's throne i>y the una- Broder, 
iiimous voice of the people, who foon had reafon to repent 4i>? ^Vs^^ 
their choice. The indolence and weaknefs of his reign 
encouraged feveral of the provinces recovered by his father, 
again to revolt ; and the Swedes in particular took poflef- 
fion of Schonifi. This i^ all we know of him^ hiftory being 
filent' concerning the manner of hi$ death, and of moft of 
the particulars of his life ^; 

S I TV A L D m. 

Me wa^ fucceeded by Siwald III. a prince who had arrived gj^^Id 
to a great age before he was raifed to the throne. The tranf- jjj .^j 
^adions of his reign are no lefs obfcure than thofe of bisy^/^l^ 
predeceflbr ; . not do we know any thing of the circumftances 
[of the kingdom, until his fon Snio was joined with him in the 
, St WA L D III. and S N t 0. 

t Now Denmari bcgzn to refume her wonted vigour, aridg' ^j 
immediately entered upon the recovery of Schonen^ and the jj| * 
gtvolted provinces, which were foon obliged to fubmit, and Snio, 
Turrender the ringleaders of the rebellion. Snio in the next 
fplace refolved to fecure the crown in his family by marri- 
pge, and accordingly fent ambafladors to demand the daugh- 
ter of the king of Swedijh Gothland^ who were all put to 
SJcaih by this favage prince, under pretence of their being 
^ies. Irritated at this indignity, Snio raifed a powerful ar* 
fey» entered Gdthkndj laying the country wafte with fire and 
Wrd. Gothoy for that was the king of Gothland's name, 
perceiving that his forces were unable to refift ^hc r^pid pro- 
grclsofthejDflTi^Xj challenged S«w to fmgle combat, a pro- 
ipofal which he accepted, on condition that the kingdom of 
the vanquiQicd fliould fubmit to the conqueror. Upon this 
potho declined the combat, fent his daughter into Sweden^ 
&d fought a battle, in which his army was defeated, and 
Imfelf forced to fubmit to- the terms impofed by the vl£lo^ 

* SaxOj 1. viii. PoNTAN.. p. 34. ^ MfiVRs. ]* ii* 

: Iw'oD. Hist. Vol. XXXII. F rious 

€6 ' The Hifiory ^/Denmark; 

nous Snio, The king of Sweden married his warrf, an^ white 

he was enjoying all the pleafures of love, was fuddenly dc- 

^ .fpoiled of his wife and treafure> by a rapid defcem made m 

his kingdom by Snhy who carried beroff in triumph. This 

. ^ rape gave occafion to a long and bloody war, which was tcr- 

-^.^"^•'^'minated by a greater misfortune. Both kings having levied 

^^Isin' *'' *^'^ fubjei^s, hardly any pcrfons were left to cultivate the 

E^nmark,^*"^^; the confisqaence of which was a cruel famine, that 

tf»/«crtf^' carried ofF iacrecUbte numbers of the people. This gave 

^tfwtf^^r- birth to a law, prohibi.iDg, on pain of death, that 3 finglc 

harous pro'gxuti of corn (bouki be converted into malt, or ufed in aoy 

po/ah Other manner than bread, of which the rich were in equal 

nubich want with the poor ; but this edi£l not haying the defired 

ga've hirth^g^^ it was propofed by Aggo and Ebb^ two nobleajen of 

10 the firft Jutland^ or of fome other of the Danijb provinces, that all 

*?^^* the old merf and children fliould either be put to death, or 

of a ^^«7^Qnjpgiied x,o feck for new habitations in foreign countries. 

c^m^ " Intelligence of this execrable fchcroe coming to the ears of 

T^^JY)^ Camboray or as other writers call her Magga, the king's ma* 

3J3/ ther, a woman of an heroic fpirit, Ihe immediately entered 

the council chamber, and in a very pathetic fpecch, reprc- 

feoted the inhumanity of facrificing their aged parents and 

innocent babes, who were unable to fecure themfelves po[* 

I feflions in foreign countries. It would better become, fhe 

obferved, the piety and valour of the Danes to fend forth 

theii' young men upon expeditions, which reqmred ftrength^ 

vigour, and health, and thus fupply the wants of the infiri]% 

weak^ and aged, by leaving them their (bare of the public 

ftock of provifions. This, the faid, would anfwer the bm 

purpoTe as barbarouily fecrificing with their own hands, tho^ 

^ beings who gave them Hfe» and thofe innocent tender babes| 

whofe fupport depended on their parental fondnefs. Shi 

propofed, that if the enterprize appeared fo daoigerous «i 

to terrify any of the nobility from taking the command a 

this large colony, to lead it in perfon, and bani(h herfdi 

from her native foil, for the fake of her country, hf, 

the fake of humanity, and every principle the moft dear 

and valoable to a true-born Z>ane. Snio immediately aiB^ 

ceded to her propofal, and aflembled the nobility and cooit 

mons to fettle the plan of migration. In this^ aflembJi 

it was agreed, that every ninth man in Dmmark m 

the provinces, able to carry arms, (hould compofe the cof 

lony ; that it fliould be conduced by Jggo and Ebbo i aol 

that the place of rendezvous fliould be that province lyiflgl 

between the Elbe and the Oder *, and wafhed by the Bedtic^ th^i 

* Saxo, ibid. 'Pontan. & Mbuiu». lib. cita$* Swan. p. 53 

- aptieflft 


7keHlJhryrfDcnm%vkJ €y 

fioticnt name of wbicb i$ no^ determined (A). By this cbaraaer 
ineaps plenty was introduced in Denmark^ and SnU lived in anddeath 
pcfce tP a good old age, after having by prudence and con- tfSmo. 
dud reftored his kingdom to \t^ ancient fplendor, and with- 
out a Angle blemifii upon bis reputation, except his carrying 
off by force the q^ieen of Sv^den^ which may be looked 
upon as the caufe of all the dreadful misfortunes which after- 
wards attended him by a cruel and ruinous war, and a ftill 
more deilru^bive, fomine. We are not informed by any hif- 
tori^, whether Siwald his fiither refigned the throne to Snioy 
or whether he died foon after he had taken him a partner in 
the throne. 

B I R N O. 

BfORNO his fon fucceeded 5«iV; a prince of little merit Biomo, 
according to Sax9 Grammaticus and Atturjius^ though Lyfchan* ^b king* 
derj Pontanus, and Suaningius aflirm, that the male royal line 
was extin£l in Snio. AH writer? indeed agree, that here is a 
chafm of two hundred and ninety-eight years in the Danijh 
biftory, Bierno alone ftanding in the fpace between Snio and 
Gormo ; that is, from the year 401 after the birth of Chriji^ 
;to the year 699 of that aera; a period this the moft bufy^^ diffi* 
hue obfeurc in antient biftory, during which all thofe very ^'dtia con^ 
J extraordinary migrations were made from the northern coun- ^T'^% ^^' 
^ tries, which deftroyed the Roman empire, and wholly changed '^^**«^'^* 
the face of affairs in Europe. Pont^nus and others, to fill up 
this cbaioiy relate the expedition of the Wan4ali% Lofigotards^ 

I (A) Various are the conjeq- and country adjacent, till the 

i turcs of hiftorians and critics year 4.84^ when they removed ' 

concerning the time of this mi- themfelves into PaTtnonia, and 

[gration, the place where the other provinces of the Roman 

rcolony eftabliihed itfelf, and empire. As to their name» 

^ the derivation of their name, fome derive it from their beards, 

! all agreeing that they were Longo Barh ; others from their 

■• called Lomhards after their de- weapons called Bardens^ or Lott" \ 

parture, and Wiwrndi^ or Wimli^ go-Bardens ; but the curious 

before. The Danifi writers to reader will find a fatisfadory 

a man affirm, that the famine account of this people, whether 

l^hich occafioned the migration Lombards or Longohards (for we 

Wpptoed in Snio^t reign ; tho* make a diftinftion) in the ninc- 

roabi Diaconus, and other wri- teenth volume of our Antient 

make it later. FroJ}er, a Hifiory, p. 12. 497. ^ yi- 

iWriter of credit, ailerts, that ^timt (1). 
f fetded in the ifle of Rugett 

(1) Vid, ar Cet, ^ntttg. Hift.Got, p. 53. & Foiumt, Hift, Dan, I, iii, p, 39. 

^ t n* lUdhec 'Atahnt, t, i. 

F 2 Lorn- 


Tbe Hiftory (?/l)enmark. 

Lombards^ and other northern nations, giving at the fame 
time a long lift of Saxon and Swedijh kings ; but as theft 
matters relate nothing to our hiftory, we think it more ft- 
tisfaftory inttrely to pafs over this period, and refume our 
narrative with Gormon^ who was ele^ed to the throne in the 
year 699 or 700 after the binh of our Saviour (B) ^ 

G O R M O N I. 

Gormonl. According to Lyfchander^ Gormon was the fiftieth and 
^2^i/w/fecond monarch who wielded the Danijh fcepter fromZ)fl», 
and a printe the moft extraordinary of his age, not for the 
ufual qualities of a king, but his profound Hcill in magic, 
and deep penetration into the fecrets of nature. We mull 
refer the reader to the wonderful tales he will find related of 
his magic (kill, hy Saxoy who afcribes them all to a ftri^ 
correfpondence he maintained with the parent of deceit; 
they might pafs for truth in the age of that entertaining wri* 
ter, but they will fcarce furnifli amufement in thefe en- 
lightened times, where even fiSion itfelf requires the affift* 
ance of probability^ Wc know only for certain of this prince, 
that he lived to an advanced age without engaging in any 
wars with his neighbours, and was fucceeded by his fon Gotrtciy 
furnamed the Generous ^. 

G O T R I C K. 

Gotrick, . SoME writers call this prince Guitlach^ and others GW* 
Slaking. fred\ but WC chufe to follow, the authority of Grtf/wwtf/iVw 
and Pontanus. In the firft y^r of his government the Saxom 
rebelled, and he raifed a powerful army to fupprefs theiii) 
which he fooii effeSed, by giving them a fignal overthrow, 
and obliging them, upon the birth of a Danijh prince, to 
fend a prefent to the king of an hundred milk white horfes, 
in token of their fubmifiion and vaiTalage to the crown of 
Denmark, Immediately after, he married the princefs of 
Norway^ fending at the fame time an ambaiTador Into Swe- 

, •> Meurs. p. 36. 

• (B) To fupply the chafm, 
Lyfcbander in his Genealogy of 
the Danijh kings, and Suanin- 
gius in his Chronicon Danicwftj 
give the following table of 
Kings; 'viz. Rorik II, S'lvanl. 
Guulnch li. Harold IIL (accord- 
in*^ to I hem j) Erci^ll, Ver^ 

^ Saxo, 1. 84 

nwnd II. Otmnd II. to whom 
fucceeded Biorno "his fon, whom 
we have made the fon and fuc- 
.cefTor of Snio, Of thefe princes 
they give no account, nor have 
they even quoted tlieir autho- 
rity for inferting them, 


The Hiftcry of Denmark. 69 

den, to appeafe certain tumults which broke out at the ge- 
neral diet of that kingdom : but the ambaflador's authority 
was defpifed, and himfelf killed by a large done thrown at 
him in the mob ; an infult whifh Gotrick thought it his duty 
to punilh ^. In confequence he invaded Sweden^ defeated Hefuhdues 
the Swedifl) army, fubdued the whole country, and punifhed Sweden, 
the perfons concerned in the murder of his ambaflador with 
a heavy fine. Scarce had he returned from Sweden before 
Siixony was over- run by Charlemagne's army, while Vitichond 
lord of the country, unable to reiift fo potent a force, im- 
plored the ailiflance of Gotrick^ whofe fifter he had married ; 
and the Damjb monarch readily promifed him fpeedy fuccour, Saxony 
becaufe he faw the neceffity of checking the growing power ^^l"" 
of Charlemagne^ who like an impetuous torrent, threatened to ^ ^^^^'^ 
fwallow up all Europe in one univerfal monarchy. Charle- ^^^^^^ * 
magnets retreat to pppofe the Saracens prevented a battle at ^^^' 
this time with the main . army ; but fome pofts which he 
maintained were forced, and his troops driven quite out of 
Saxony. When Charlemagne returned from Spain^ Gotrick 
fent ambaflfadors to remonftrate to him, that Saxony was a 
fiti oi Denmark^ which he thought himfelf bound to proteft. 
He therefore requefted him not to difturb the peace of that 
country, which would neceflarily reduce the Danes to the 
neceffity of oppofing him with all their power, a meafure 
that would not at all be agreeable to a people who enter- 
tained the higheft refpe<Sl for his majefiy. As Charlemagne 
gave no explicit anfwer to this remonftrance, Gotrick re^ 
folved to enforce it by arms, and accordingly fent a power- 
ful reinforcement to Viticbondy which enabled him to drive 
the French out of the barrier towns, and garrifon them with 
Danes and Saxons. Charlemagne, ofFendea at this prefump^ ' 

tion, fent an army under Conrade to reduce all Saxony to 
his obedience ; but this general was defeated, and his army 
difperfed. Enraged at the indignity, Charlemagne entered 
Saxony at the head of an army, and by forced marches had 
nearly furprifcd Vitichond, who fled precipitately and took 
fhelter with Gotrick beyond the Elbe. His army being defti- 
tute of a commander, became an eafy prey to the French 
monarch, who determining to ftrike terror in the inhabitants, 
ordered above four thoufand Saxons to be executed, after 
which he retired with his army, leaving ftrong garrifons in all 
the towns *. 

^ MfivRSf & Gram. ibid. * Pontan. 1. iii. Msurs. 



Gotiick GOTRICK no fooncr had advice of tbis defeat, than he 
rtcovers led his army into that deplorable country, expelled all tht 
Saxony a French garrifons, and reduced it to its former obedience. 
Jkcondtime. Upon his return to Denmark^Jl^^ heard that Charlemagne pro- 
pofed fending his fop Pepin whh a mighty army, to invade 
the Dant/h provinces upon the continent, and rdblved to op- 
pofe him v^ith an equal force. He levied a prodigious army, 
and equipped a fleet of above three hundred large ihips, with 
which he propofed making a defcent on the coaft of France^ 
and by this means to weaken Pepinh army. In a word, fuch 
was the valour, the conduft, and the mighty force of Go- 
tricky that Charlemagne's empire was never more endangered 
. than from this formidable enemy, had not an unforefeen acci^ 
dent, and his ufual good fortune, faved that powerful monarch. 
After Gotrick had over-run EaJI Friefiand^ and fome other pro- 
vinces belonging to the enemy, leading iiis army ft rait to 
Aix-la'ChapelUy at that time the capital of Charlemagne'*^ em- 
// if cache- pire ; he was ftabbed in his tent by a centinel, bribed, as fome 
ri»^ jwirr- writers imagine, by Pepin^ to remove this dangerous rival to 
dired. his father's glory. Other writers imagine, that this unworthy 
a£iion was committed by his own fon, in revenge for his hav- 
ing repudiated his mother, and taken another wife. Be this 
as it will, certain it is that the great Gotrick fell by the hands 
of an aflaiEn, at a time when he was about to difpute the 
empire of Europe with the greateft monarch of the world, 
Gotrick'/ leaving behind him the reputation of ajuft, brave, merciful, 
chare^er. 2x\A munificent prince, poflcfled of every qualitv which could 
gain the love of his own fubjc6b, and the efteem and ref- 
peft of all other nations. That he was the dread of his 
mighty competitor, appears from the cxcefRve and indecent 
joy which Charlemagne exprcfled on the news of his death K 
The cxaft time of this event is difputcd ; but Suaningius^ and 
fome of the beft writers, place it in the year 80 1 after ChriJ, 

6 L A U S IIL 

Olaqs III. GOTRICK being killed, his eldeft fon Olaus, the third of 
55^6 ^/»^. that name, was elected king of Denmark. This prince is en- 
tirely omitted by ipany hiftorians, and others place him after 
Hemmiftg^ though Sa:(o Gra^hrtiaUcus and Meurjius exprefly 
fay, that he was the fon and immediate fuccefibr of Gcirick, 
Olaus^ while he was endeavouring to bring to juilice the 
inurdcrersof his father, had the misfortune to involve him- 

(elf in a civil war, in which we have reafoh to believe he 

r ' ' 

*> SvA^'iivo. p. 62. 


The f0ory^ of Dtnmzrk. ji 

']>en&ed^ though we do not find this circumftance mentioned 
by any writer bcfidcs £r/V of Pomerania. 


AccoRij^NG to the fame author, he was fuccccdcd byHem- 
Jiemmingi his only child. The firft a£t of this prince's admini- ming, 
/^ration Was to conclude a treatv with lawis the Pious^ fettling ^6tb iww. 
the limits of their refpedive dominions, which was cflfe6led 
^o the fatisfadlion of both parties, without any encroach- 
ment on the boundaries of Denmark^ now comprehending 
great part of the German continent. After feigning for two 
years, with great applaufe, this excellent monarch yielded up 
his laft breath, and left hi;? kingdom to his two coufinj^ 
fSitvard znd Ringo^. 

S I TV A R D find R I N G 0. 

DENMARK was divided between them, and a conftant cj^^jyjl 
jealoufy arnj perpetual >i^ars enfued, by wjiich this potent ^^^ 
kingdom began to dwindle, and lofe the rerpe(^ it had fo Ringo. 
long connnanded from the furrounding ftates. At laft the 
condition of the Danes became deplorable. Siward*$ fubje£ls 
depofed him, and raifed his infant fon Regner to iht throne, 
"which furniflied his rival Ringo with a fair occaflon of invad- 
ing Zealand and Schonen^ where he met with little Fcfiftance, 
Immediately on his arrival he threatened with the mod cruel C/W 
and ignominious death, all the inhabitants who refufed to wars in 
acknowledge him for their king. In this critical fituation, Denmark, 
the people defired he would permit them to deliberate upon 
his propofal, which being granted, they afl'embled to debate 
on the meafures which they ought to purfue* On the one 
hand their affedJion, and the oath they had fworn to Regner^ 
inclined many of the inhabitants to remain firm in their duty; 
on the other, the power and dreadful menaces of Ringo 
terrified them. Various meafures were propofed, and all 
were attended with a thoufand difSculties ; in confequence 
of which the aflembly was teady to break up without coming 
to any conclufion, when Regner^ though then but twelve 
yfcars of age, fppke in the following nmanner. ** To what Regner'/ 
** purpofc is it, my f;^ithful friends, to irritate a pov/etful/peecb to 
V enemy, by an obftinate attachment to an unhappy prince, hisfriends^ 
" whom you have, not ftrength fuAcient to defend? As 
*' deferting your king, and flying from your colours with- 
** out urgent neccffity, would dc a crime of the moft 

^ Scrlptor. citat. ibid. 

F 4 heinous 

yi ne Hiftory of DenmarkV 

"^ <^ heinous nature, fo, adhering to them at the hazard of 
<< your own lives, when you are fenfible you cannot better 
<< the caufe in vyhich you are engaged, is downright folly, 
^' and a trefpafs againft the iiril principles of nature. Deceit 
^' in fome cafes is allowable ; can it ever be praftifed in a 
^* naore juft caufe than the prefent, or with more probabi- 
^' lity of fuccefs ? You niuft deceive the enemy you arc 
^^ unable to combat ; you muft counterfeit fubmiffion, until 
*' an occafion offers of refuming your principles, recalling 
^' your king, and throwing ofF the yoke of the oppreffor. 
^* Adverfe fortune is never fo eafily furmounted as by yield- 
*' ing to it." This fenfible oration from a child, determined 
^hem to follow his advice, as foon as they had conveyed hini 
fafe into Norway. They accordingly fubmitted to RingOy and 
immediately gave notice of their intention to Siwardj who 
without hefitation ftruck his tent$ and marched ^o give bat- 
tie to his rival, equally defirous of coming to a decifivc 
Peatbof a^cjjQj^ ^'j^g armies met and engaged with unrelenting fury, 
g/"^^ until jR/wg^o was killed and viflory had declared in favour of 
bis adverfary, who had likewife received a mortal wound, of 
which he died the next day ; and happy had it beea for !)/»- 
fnark had this event happened earlier,, though each was de* 
ferving enough of the crown, had he enjoyed it without a 
competitor. It was their rivalOiip and ambition that reduced 
the kingdom to its melancholy Ittuation, and the continuance 
of their wars would probably have made way for its total 
ponqueft by fome foreign power*. 

R E G N E R. 

Regner, Both thefe princes being removed by death, Rsgnerw2$ 
0th king, jrecalled from Norway^ and replaced in the throne (A). As 
foon as this prince had fettled the domeftic oeconomy of his 
kingdom, which he found intirely ruined and confounded by 
the late civil difcords, he marched into Norway againft Fm^ 
king of Sweden^ who had invaded that kingdom, imagining 
that he could eafily reduce it before the fituation oixh^Danei 
would admit of their fending forces to its relief. Froe ha4j 
indeed, defeated Siward king of Norway^ and made prifoners 
of his wife and daughters, before the arrival of Regmr* HjS 

^ Saxq, L ix. Mevrs. 1. ii. p. 38. 

i < 

(A) Authors' difFer confider- not a few Ragni/rid. We havp 

ably in the orthography of this adhered to the orthography of 

priiice's namej fome calling him Grammaficwy Meurfius^ and/'^*- 

)^egtfery others Reginfrid^ and tanus. 


tBfi.Mift^ ^f Denmark. yj 

bad expbfed tbem,'and air the virgins who had fallen Into his 

hands, to the mdl cruel' indignities *Sind infults, which maife 

them receive iS^^8)fr as their deliverer.. The indignation of 

this prince was fo highly inflamed hy th^it piteous relations, 

that be marched inftamly againft the barharous conqueror, and Brcevert 

gave him battle ; but with a very dubious event, until Ltktb" of [.ach« 

gartha^ a virgin of an heroic difpofttipn, who had been ra- gartha, « 

vifhed by the brutal Frot^ entered the ranks, and with incve^ young latf; 

dible valour, drove tho^Swedts every where before her, till (be of^oT" 

opened a way to their king^ whom (he pierced through the ^^y* 

body before he was prepared to guard .againft her furious a^? 

tack ^. The war being iiniOied bf thi& d^cifive action, Reg- 

ntr was fo captivated with the bravery of the virago, that he R^g^cr 

fought her of her relations in marriage, and obtained het with ^'^^^ 

little difficulty. . ^'^• 

During the king's refldence in Narwof^ the provinces of 
Schsnen and Jutland revolted, and fome commotions were ex- 
cited in Zealand ; his prefence foon reduced affairs to their 
former fituation, but not till he had given battle, and defeated 
thq rebels, all of whom he generoufly pardoned, excepting a 
few of the ringleaders, who were referved for an exemplary 
punifliment. Another revolt foon however broke out, and 
was fuppreiled with the fame expedition and vigour; to this 
fooceeded a third, and to that a fourth, which obliged him to 
treat thefe obftinate delinquents with more feverity, and to put 
it out of their power to difturb the courfe of government by 
their rebellious and reftlefs difpofition* 

REGNER's marriage with the valorous Lathgartha was 
unfortunate ; for (he was fuppofed to afpire at the crown in- 
dependent of, her hu(band, againft whofe life (he was unjuftly ^^ ^.^ - 
thought to harbour defigns ; upon the difcovery of which he ^^^J " . 
repudiated heTf and demanded in marriage the daughter of /£?- Lathgar* 
roth king of Sweden. Before he could qbtain this lady, it was tha. 
neceiTary he (hould fight the two greateft bullies in Denmark. 
This he performed with fuccefs, having killed* them, and, in 
confequence, gained the prize, which had been contended 
for by all the furrounding young princes, inflamed either 
with love or ambition. By this lady he had feven fons, Rath- 
herty Dun^ Vortb^ Siward^ Biarno^ Agner^ and Ivar. In Harold 
the mean time the Cimbri threw off the Danijh yoke, and proclaimed 
chofc a king, whom they called Harold Klang ; upon which ^'»? hjb^ 
Regner raifed an army in Denmarky and reinforced himtelt by Cimbri, 
a ftrong body of auxiliaries iiov^Nonvay^ which wa^s a XRx-^^dde- 
wards ftrengthened by a fleet of one hundred and twenty ihips ^J^^^ h 

^ SaXO, p. 1 7 1-2. 

of : 

74 ^^ Hift^ry of Penipar^c. 

of war, which Lathgartha had equipped for fats itVi\o!tj idj 

7be fidelity commanded in perfon. Rigner wa$ aftociifted at this inftance 

and cour- ^ Yict affedion ; but (he fraiikly xoHA faiiti, that no mconftanqr 

T^'h ^^ ^'^ '^^^ could wean her from her duty, or oUige htr to re- 

1^ S^' volt from the allegiance (he owed, both as^his fobjed and hit 

. A wife. <^ If, iays flie, the charms of my perfon be faded in 

your eyes, it ia requiilte that I (bouU . endeavour to fupply 

that lofs by other qualities, more comhicive to your glory an4 

the good of thefe kingdoms*/' Such wa) the generous re^ 

venge which this noble lady took on the infufolity of h<^r 

fpoufe. He marched with his army dirediy againft the rebek 

and begun an a<5tion, which continued with great warmth anj 

fpirit without appearance of advantage to either fide, all &- 

watd^ the fon of R*gmr^ was. killed, which occafioned great 

confufion in the wing of the Danijh army he commanded, 

Rigner hearing of his fon's misfortune, flew like lightning 

along the lines, e?<horting his men not to add to his calamity 

by their mifcondtiiS^, and rallying them with amazing fpirit 

and refolution, while Lathgartha led on the wing the kinghal 

left, and pufhed the en toy with (iich irrefifitble valour, that 

they were broke and totally defeated, - 

Having fettled the affairs of this country, rewardedy tt)4 

refreflied his foldiers, he led them without delay into Snxm/^ 

which he refolved to puniih for its frequent revolt to the ett- 

Hejuhduts peror. Arriving here with a fleet of tvm hundred fail, ke 

Saxony, landed his men with fuch expedition, that xYit Saxmsmttt 

fubdued almoft as foon as they had intelligence of his arrival. 

Regner The emperor Loiharius^ then encamfped with a large army 

defeats the on the Eibe^ gave battle to Regner, and was defeated ; \m 

emferor |he Danijb monarch was prevented from ^urfuing his viSoiy, 

Lotharius.by difturbances that were raifed in Sweden after the death of 

their king Haroth, whofe children the nobles bad driven oui 

. of the kingdom, raifmg one of their own number to the 

throne. Regner fent his Tons with an army to rekiftate the 

royal family, which they foon eifeded by a fignal defeat, 

given the ufurper. Sffrlus^ fo the ufurper was called, 

finding himfelf unable, to combat the forces of the king 

of Denmark, fent a herald to dcfire that the iflue might be 

decided by (e]e£iing a certain number of combatants out of 

each army ; a propofal that was accepted. S^rks chofe one 

Scardoy- the moft famous fwordfrnan in Sweden, and hk^ fevcn 

fons for his fecond«; and on the fide of the Danes, the three 

princes Biome, Fridlejf, and Rathbert oStrtd themfclves. 

l^he combat began in fight of both armies, and S^arde te* 

» Saxo^ ibid. Mevhs. p. 4a 


?i6tf Hiftory 0/ Denmark. jry 

ing killed, S^rlusznA his children, unable to ftand ^g^\t\^ j comkai 
Hie fury of the Danijh princes, were fbon forced to M\ov^fougbt bi^ 
his fate. This conqueft being obtained, the Danijb army fween 
attacked the Swedes^ and obtaiped an eafy and decifive Regner*/ 
viftory ^, * three fom^ 

It would appear, that Regmr went in pcrfon to Sweden j «»^ '^ 
for we are told, that here he carried on an intrigue with a/'"'"^'' ^f 
perfon of falhion, by whom he had a fon called Uhbo^ who,^^^'^^* 
born under an unhappy planet, fays Meurfiuiy afterwards con* 
trived to dethrone the parent that begot him. 

The death ofThora^ his beloved wife, fo grievoufly af* 
Hided RegneTy that he found it ncceffary to divert his mind 
by engaging in fome foreign war. Accordingly he pubiifhed 
an edi<5l, ordering all his fubjecb who were harrafled either 
with idle children or fervants, to fend them to him for 
s employment. As foon as he had raifed a fufficient force, 
he put the affairs of his kingdom in the beft order, and com* 
mittcd them to the care of a council, compofed of twelve of 
the moft prudent and weighty men in Denmark. After which 
he embarked his troops, and made fo fuccefsful ft delcent on 
Britain^ that in a fliort lime he reduced the ifland, not even 
the Orkneys efcaping his arms. In his return to Denmark, he 
appeafed fome commotions, fet on foot iti Norway by the 
pride and. ambition of feveral of the nobility, who afpired at 
the crown. He was not long in Denmark before he married 
a third wife, by name Suankge^ and had by her three fons, 
Reynold^ ff^dfercy and Erick, 

T»E next exploits of this conqueror were performed in the He defeats 
IMiJpQnt^ againft 'Dh king of that country, anciently called Dio king 
Myfia^ who refufed to pay certain duties which had always ofyiyta. 
been claimed by the anceftors of Regner. This war ended as 
[ foccefsfully as the former; upon which he turned his arms againft 
the Ruffiansy who had lent confiderable affiftance to />/>, 
* by which he was enabled to prolong the war. We are told 
by the Danijh hiftorians, that this rude people confided more 
in the power of incantations, charms, and their fkill in ma- 
gic, than in arms ; that they raifed fuch ftorms of Jharl and . 
fnow, as reduced the Danes to the laft extremity, and had al- 
tatoft conquered hirtj by famine, who had always proved in- 
vincible in arms. Regnfr^ after lofing nesfr half his army, 
was forced to retreat into Couriand^ where he was kindly wel- 
^nled and furniflied with every neceflary which the country 
afforded, tncenfed at his late difgrace, he again entered Ruf* 
fay with a refolution to bring the favage monarch to adiion, 

[ ^ Jbid. ctiam Pc nrMU h 'v. 

5 The 

yg The H^ory of Denmark. 

The king of RuJJia^ for fo he is called, forefeeing Regfur'i 
return, had procured a ftrong body of auxiliaries from the 
king of Finland^ wbofe troops were exceeding expert in 
throwing the lance. Relying upon thefe fuccours, he ventured 
to attack the Danesy unable, oiT account of the mountains of 
ice and fnow, to extend their wings, or draw out in ord^r <ii 
battle. Regner^ for this reafon, kept in his camp, and watch- 
ed the opportunity of finding the enemy unguarded. Next 
night prefented the happy , occafion he wiibed for; upoa 
which he led his army with the utmoft expedition and (iience 
in the middle of the night, and broke into their camp, while 
they w^e felicitating themfelves with the notion of ftarving 
the J)ane$ into fubmiffion. In this diforder he obtained an eafy 
viSory ; and after taking fufiicient revenge, withdrew his ar- 
my out of this inhofpitable country. 
Ubbo, his The long abfence of Regner^ furnilhed his baftard fon Vl* 
hafiard ^^ ^i^ith an opportunity of difplaying his ambition, and unna- 
finy re- tural defire pf depodng his own father, and feizing upon a 
W/i, A»i crown to which he had no kind of right. In this wild pro- 
is €on^ je£l he was affifted by his grandfather Efbern^ a man of great 
^uered, power in Swedijh Gothland^ where he raifed a numerous army 
in fupport of TJhbo. But EJbern was defeated by Biorno^ who 
was left praefe£t of Gothland by his father i and Uhbo meeting 
with a check from Ivar^ the other fon of Regner^ went into 
voluntary bani(hment. Soon after, by the affidance of hia 
grandfather, he equipped a large fleet, with intention to fur- 
prize his father at fea in his return from RxiJJia. He met with 
bim accordingly, but was forced to yield to the fuperior va- 
lour and juftice of the parent. In this adion EJhern was flain 
among the firft, and his head fixed on the prow of Regntr'i 
galley, which fo terrified UbU^ that be made all the fail he 
could towards Zeakndy where, once more, making trial of 
his fortune, he was defeated, made prifoner, and flain by bis 
keepers, for having attempted to make his efcape. 

REGNER, who was born to fliine as the firfl of heroes in 

^^"^^ the Danijh annals, had no fooner fupprefled this domeftic foe, 

^^^l^'^^^than he was attacked by a more formidable foreign enemy; 

j6»*/bio.*"^ this was no other than Daxoy the fon of £)w, king of the 

* Hellefponty whom he ' had lately overcome in feveral battles. 

The peace which Dio had concluded, was by no means fm- 

cere, and patched up only with intention of feizing the firft 

opportunity of revenge. He fubmitted from necemty to the . 

terms of the conqueror^ and permitted his dominions to he 

governed by Pfldfercj Regner*% fon, who was left in quality of 

lieutenant, Daxo retaining nothing more than the name and 

pageaotry of majelty. Daxo embraced the opportunity of a 


The Hifiory of Denmark. 77 

fair that w^is held in the city, to perpetrate his bafe defign of Daxo 
maflacring JVidferc. Accordingly he invited that prince to a murders 
feaft, and had concealed a number of ^rmed aiTaffins ; but the bra/ve 
this icheme being fruftrated by fome bufineis, which had pre- Widferc^ 
vented the lieutenant's attendance, he v^ent early in the morn-y^^ to 
ing to his houfe, attended with th^ aflkffins, drefied like pea- ^^er, 
fants, and finding admittance, was forcing his way to Wid-- 
fer^% chamber, when the prince, alarmed with the noife, 
leaped out of bed, and placed himfelf, fword in hand, in the 
entrance. Here he bravely defended himfelf till he received 
a wound, was overpowed with numbers, and taken prifoner. ' 

His valour had fuch an e6Fe£t upon the treacherous Daxo^ that 
he offered to fliare the kingdom withinm^-and<o give him his ' 
iifter in marriage, provided he would promife never to revenge 
this attack. But the generous Widftrc preferring death to ow- 
ing an obligation to his perfidious foe« refolutely replied, 
^^ That he defired no greater favour of his hands, than his 
^' imbruing them in blood that would not fail of drawing 
^^ upon the infidious Daxo the vengeance of Regner.*^ In- 
cenfed at this haughty repulfe, the cruel i>/7A'9 ordered him, 
with all his attendants^ to be bound and thrown into a large 
fire lighted for the occafion, there feafiing his eyes with the 
! unhappy cataftrophe of the valorous and noble-fpirited IVid- 
^ fire. Advice of this barbarous afiion coming to the ears of 
Regnevy it gave fuch a fhock to his conftitucion, as had near 
unfettled his underflanding. He ran about the palace like a 
maniac, tore his hair, rent his cloaths, and committed all 
the other actions of phrenzy and defpair. This paroxyfm of 
madneis was fucceeded by a fit of dpfpondency and fullennefs, 
which it was feared would intirely deflroy his reafon^, but the 
good fenfe of the queen Suanloge^ got the better of his grief, 
and roufed him to a fenfe of his own condition, the fituadon 
of the kingdom^ and the folly of lamenting, like a woman, 
what ought to be avenged with all the fury of an injured king - 
and father. Convinced, with the many forcible arguments Regner 
this lady advanced, he levied an army, marched into Daxo\ rcjenges 
tountry, defeated his army, took him priibner, and, like a ^/> death \ 
truly generous prince, again fet him at liberty : " Enjoy that ^^^ g^'^- 
" life, faid he, which would only be an unworthy atonement to ^^^Jb 
" the manes of my brave fon ; and let thy own confcience be^^^^ *^ 
** thy punifher." However, to add to his mortification, he ^ ^^ 
ordered that he fbould pay an annual tribute, and come in ^^^* 
perfon, once a year, attended by twelve noblemen, all bare- 
tooted, in. token of his fubjedion. After this, leaving his fon 
^nV his lieutenant over the conquered countries, he returned 
to Norway^ where fome new commotions began to difturb the 
2 " public 

78 ^bi Hi^&ry of Denmark; 

public tranquility. Thefe he foon fuppreficd, and fettling tlie 
affairs of that kingdom, left his fon Biorn$ to prefide over 

Before his return to Dinmarij his queen SuanIog£ died, a 
circuoiftance which threw his» into a fit of deep melancholj, 
that could only be fubdued by the din of arms ; and now 
the occafion offered : for England and Scotland both re« 
Regner fufed to pay the ufual homage. This obliged Rtgmr to raife 
in<vades a prodigious armament by fea and iand^ which he tran^xMted 
Scotland, \^xo Scotlandy and there fought a dreadful battle, which bfied 
and defeats jy^^^ j^y^^ ^^^ ^^^j ;„ ^^ j^f^^ ^f jj,c ScotSy and dealb of 
«»?• tjjej,. j^ing^ The vi6lory, however, was not cheaply, bought { 
for Regner loft his foes Dan and Rathbert^ with a prodigious 
^ > , number bf o£ficers and foldiers in the engagement. Faffing 
England ^^^^ hence into England^ he fought there with equal fiicxefi, 
^ * %id fubjeded the whole kingdom to his obedience, after d> 
feating HtUa^ the fon of Haum^ who was affifted by a pow* 
erful reinforcement from France, Nor did Irelcmd cfcstpc Ac 
terror of his name, and the weight of his arm ; for transport- 
ing his army to that kingdom, he flew Moihricy the Irijit ge- 
neral, in battle, routed his army, and madehimfelf oiafterof 
. Dublin, the capita], which he gave to be plundered by bis fol- 

V^^ diers. Before he returned to Denmark^ his fubjcfis there bad 
»a Deib-"' broke out into open rebellion, and recalkd Harold^ who had 
mark before been fet up as king in Jutland. This prince refleSing 
upon the power and valour of Regner, refolved to make ufe of 
every precaution to withftand him, and fecure the pofieffiofl 
Cbriftia' of his new-acquired authority. Accordingly he ibught the 
nity intro' alliance of the emperor, which he obtained conditionally, 
dmed into ^h^t he would embrace theChriftian religion, and propagate it 
DcDinark, ^jjj^ ^H his power through his dominions. Harold^ the better 
to fecure the emperor's friend(hip ; without any religion, im- 
mediately became a convert to Chriftianity ; without faith, 
abjured infidelity, deftroyed all the pagan idols, and ereded a 
church in Slefivick^ where the do£^rii>e of Jefus Was publicly 
preached. Regner arriving in Denmark^ as thefe new fchemes 
of religion and politics were carrying on, attacked Hardd 
without delay, overthrew him, and forced him a fecond time 
to feck fheltcr in Germany, Then he deftroyed the Chriftiafl 
temple ereftcd in Slefwick, and reftored the worfhip of the 
pagan gods ; a circumflance which derogated by no meam 
from his reputation, as he had yet received no convrdion of 
the truth of the gofpcl, and had he embraced it, muft hafe 
proved a convert from political motives : a reflexion, which 
we thought neccfiary, in arifwcr to the ridiculous defamation 
of Chriftian wiitcn. This laft ad, fay they, was evidently 


tbi iSftory of Denmark. 79 

f)6f)i(Ked by the Almighty ; for Htllaiy king of Englandf r&» 
Volting a fecond tim^, had feduced Ireland to. fecoad his view$ 
of indep^ideocy. TbisoDce more drew the aged Rtgmr into Regner // 
the field, where his ufual good fortune, but not his valour, defeated 
deferting him, he was defeated and made prifoner. His cruel ^^ cruelly 
enemies^ vi(^ldUmt regarding the character of the hero, HaxtvfP'^^^deatk 
him boi^nd, into a dungeon filled with fnakes^ vipers, and poi- h Hella 
knsQyj^ animals, th^s ingloiloufiy putting an end to a life grown ^^ ^^ . 
old in glory ^nd viftory. A proverbial fayirxg of this grc^^ *ingiand, 
Jdqg's ui pcijToOy if^^mioed Helk to fct him at liberty V hut T ^^^1 ^^ 
too laie, he bad breathed his lafi: before the order came to the j^i^^ 
js^qr (AJ. Othor writers have given a different account qf 
the d^atb qf tbe great R$gn$r » but we arf of .opinion, tha( 
the autborvcy of Damjb writers ou^ht, in fa<Sts refped^ing 
^eir own country^ to. weigh againfl the tellimony of foreign- 
^fSi : wc hav/C thferefore related it as we find it aiTerted by Grant" 
maticHs^ P^ntmtiSy a^d Mtwrfius^ who correfpond dire£tly in fTucha' 
all the <:tfcumftsiDcef of his reign. His whole life was zura^er. 
UAinterjrupted cq^rfe of gloripus vidlories, wife meafures, and 
noble generous aflions. His repudiating his wife Laihgartha^ 
a woman 6£ fo fublime and elevated afoul, may be imputed 
to hiia as a weakaefs, if we fiippofe it proceeded from the 
inconftancy of hid nature. But this does not appear ; on the 
GOBtrary, Meurfiui and Grammaticus affirm, that this lady's 
chaftity was publicty taxed ; and it was unworthy of Rigner to 
eohabit with a wife, who had even been fufpedied of inconti- 
nence* Thus we fee the errors of thof^ writers, who place 
the CQQverfion of the Danijh kings in the reign of this o^o- 
©arch*. It is true*, Harold was a Chriftian, if we may give 
that afipeltation to a man who profefled this religion only to 
fcrve tetnporary views \ but he never was king of Denmark^ 
he was only an ufurper, who, by means of a fadion, was ratfed 
bur months to the throne, during the abfence of the lawful 
prince, by whom he was driven into his primitive obfcu- 

It is now difficult to fix with certwnty the fucceflbr of Reg^ 
ner^ and continue the feries of Danift) kings. The difputcs 
and differences on this head, among writers, are numberlefe j , 

' SuANiNG. Chron. Dan. p. 63. ^ PiojMa vid. Gram. 

Meurs. Pontan. ibid. & Suaning, p. 64. 

(A) Suaningtus fays, that other writers, that the conque- 
^xgner was defeated by Hella^ ror of the brave Danijh monarch 
in Irdand^ exprefly affirming, was king of that country. /*. 63* 
contrary to the (eftimoay of all 


«0 ne Hifiofy of Deftm'afk* 

and it would be a vain endeavour to reconcile them : w^ 
Ihall therefore adhere to thofe who have kept the neareft to a 
natural chronology, though all, indeed, have greatly failed in 
this particular (A). 

I V A R. 

lyar, 57/^ According to the beft authorities, Ivar^zs raifed to the. 
^H*' throne of his deceafed father, and began his reign with re- 
A.D.836, venging the unworthy death of that famous warrior. He 
Or 641. ^3j proclaimed immediately after Regners death, which hap- 
pened, according to Meurjmsj in the year of Chrift 836 \ 
Ivar n- ^nd if we credit Pontanus and Suaningws^ five years after. He 
Ir^il!^ ^'^ raifed an army, equipped a fleet, and, without hefitation, in* 
fitif^ s ^^jgjj England ; but finding Hella too ftrong for him, he fent j 
^ ' to his brothers for fuccours. Their arrival with a powerful ' 
reinforcement, foon turned the fcale in favour of Ivar^ who ' 
defeated Hella, znd took ample vengeance on him for the 
Cruel death of his father. Some writers affirm, that he took 
bim prifoner, and ordered him to be hanged on a gibbet be* 
fore the camp ; but Grammaticuiy with more probability re* 
lates, that Hella fell in battle (B). 

The better to fecure the country, and gain the affec* 
tionsof the people, he remained two years in England i du- 
ring which time the Danes revolting, raifed his brother's 
Siward and Eric to the throne. This news alarmed Ivar^ 
and obliged him to have recourfe to the affiftance of the 
Englijh^ of whom he embarked a large body, and failed with 
them direftly to Holjiein. At length he met with the Domjh 
army, engaged and defeated it near SlefwUk^ after a very 
bloody and obftinate conteft, in which the rebels loft twelve 
thoufand men. He now refolved to keep the Danes in awe 
by his prefertce, and therefore fent his brother Jgner to go- 
vern in England. Here jfgner refided but a {hort time before 
the EngUJhj uneafy under a foreign yoke, raifed an army, and 

(A) Suaningius and Pontanus felves excufable in adhering to 

intirely omit l*var in their lift the authority of that elegant 

of kings, though it is certain hiilorian. 
that i^^^ff^r had a fon of that (B) Mi^ryikraffir sis, that jfi&Zfj 

name, of whom we have made conquering tvar^s father, by 

frequent meatton ; and as thefe the aifidanceof the^0M<2»forceS| 

writers have chiefly made ufc whofe itandard was an eagle, 

of the authority of Saxo Gram-, he ordered an iiiipreffion of this 

maticus^ we are at a lofs to con- to be feared on Hellah back, his 

jedure upon what teftimony body to be flead, and (ppinkled 

they excluded this prince. As with fait, until he died in the 

they have given no r^afon for mo^ agonizing torture. P. 44. 
this proceeding*, we think our- 


WM on the point .of reducing him to extremity^ when St^ 
HJoardj hisbrother^ arrived ^with a body of forces to his relief; 
by which he was enabled to reduce them to their former obe- 
dience; and i6 prevent another infurre^SUdn, he cruelly maflk- 
tred Che pious king Edmund^ with all the nobility of the 

While thefe horrid HanfaAIons were carrying 6n iti Eng^ 
hnd^ a rebellion wad raifed in Sweden by means Of one OfteH^ a 
man of a turbulent afpiriog difpofition. Thither Jgner flew 
with an army of Englijh^ and engaging the eilemy with tod 
great impetuofity, was flain in the heat of the eng^ement ; 
but We are not told which of the parties obtained the viftory^ 
Iikir outlived his brother but a ihort time ; for he was carried 
dfF by a fever in the fifth year of his reign ; but not until he 
bad acquired and merited the reputation of a great and war-^ 
like prince. 


[ To Ivor fuccecded Siward, furnamed Snake-Eye^ hisbrot^er. Siwar^ 
Ifl his youth this prince had diftingui(hed himfelf by many Snake- 
extrabrdinary feats of valour in the field ; but now having ac- *y®» S^'* 
Vtired the crown, he. turned his inclinations to the arts of ^'^<i^* 

rce, endeavoured to reftore induftry, and promote the pub* 
tranquility, that had fo long been difturbcd by a feries of 
gn and domeftic wars. Godj {^)^ Meurjius^ feqonded 
pious intention* and enabled him to complete a reigii afr 
pregnant with real felicity and true glory^ as any which the 
|nnals of Dettmark can produce. He died and left an infant 
m, chofen by the ftates tofucceed him in the throne **« 


i The liaiiic of this young priiice ^z&Erlcj furhamed Bem^ Eric, jp/d 
pr, a& the Scotch to this day pronounce it, Bearri or Child, king^ 
Ibhisminortty he was depofed by J?nV, brother to the Ha- 
itildwe have fo frequently mentioned in the reign of Regner^ 
pho took the reins of governmertt into his own hands, af- 
^med the fupreme authority, and by meaiis of a fadion, ob^ 
Nned 'the title of king: a revolution that happened, accord- . 
mg to Meurfius^ in the year 847, though, more probably^ 
jdft ten years laten • ^ 

. ERtC the VitJRPEk, |2;*J, 

I Mindful that his brother was depofed foon after he em- iioth kingi 
Ikraccd the Chxiftian religion, he took the ftrongeft averfion A.D.857^ 

I ^ Mevrs. 1. iii. fab. init. ^ Saxo & Mevrs, nbi, citat. 
' Mod. Hist- Vot.XXXIL Q to 

S'2 The Hiftoryof Denmark*' ' 

to the doftrine of Jefus^ put all the miniftcrs of the gofpd 
in Denmark to death, and every where reftored the pagan re- 
ligion ; from which we, may infer, that Chriftianity had now 
begun to take root in this kingdom. As Saxony and England 
had now begun to fbew their uneaiinefs under the Dmfi^ 
yoke, and to raife armies for the recovery of their libcr^, 
Eric (truck up a league and ftri£l alliance with the kings of 
Sweden and Norwajj obtained large fupplies of land and fea. 
forces from them, raifed himfelf a powerful army, and with 
an hundred thoufand fighting men, and a proportionable fleeti 
entered upon the redudion oi England and SaxQtiy^ dividing 
his forces, that he might attack both together, and' prevent 
their mutually affifting each other. Spreading terror wheire- 
ever he went, the fame pf his power was fuificient to reduce 
the revolters to obedience, and fubmit to the terms he 
thought fit to impofe, before he had fet foot in either, 
A. D. « It was after his return from this expedition that we may 
858. date the sera of Chriftianity in Denmark ; for Eric was again 
brought back to embrace the truth of the gofpel, in whictf 
The ufur^ both he and his brother Harold had been educated. Anji^\ 
fsr ent" fius bifliop o^ Bremen, was the happy inftrument of this con- 
^acei and vex£ion ; in confequence of which Eric abolilhed the idol* 
propagates he had but lately reftored, and publiftied an edid of tolcra- 
Chrijiia^ tion, permitting all. his fubjedJs to follow the doflrinc of 
*^^* Chrijl with impunity. Such was the force of truth, or fuch, 

perhaps, the inconftancy of human nature, always eager af- 
ter novelty, that Chriftianity fpread with amazing rapidityi 
and was greatly aided in its progrefs by the zeal and piety ol 
the king, who, notwithftandjng his devotion, never oncd 
thought of reftoring the crown to the right owner : but the 
invifible hand of Providence brought about juftice in a way^ 
which the ufurper little expefted, amidft the tranquility ia 
which he had hitherto poffefled the throne. Guthormy hit 
brother's fon, became his rival, and connected his own caufe 
with that of young £r/V, the (on of Siward^ and the lawful 
king of Deninqrk. Violent were the diflfentions raifed amon( 
all degrees of men by this oppofition. Such of the nobilitj 
as had taken part with Haro Id ^againfi Regner^ or held place|i 
under the ufurper, remained his faft friends; the reft of the 
' nation in general, thofe who remembered the glQrious\R^^/rj 

• and retained any fenfe of juftice, gratitude, and compaffion, took 
the fide o^Guthorm^ and declared in favour of the youngprince. 
A biciody battle was fought, in which almoft ail the fiobiiicy' 
of Denmark were flain, and the numerous progeny of Re gner 
entirely extinguiflicd, except the fon of Siward, the laft hope i 

2 of 

Tie HifiUfy ,0/ DfeHriiarlcr. 8j 

of this iIIu(lrio\is family *. Thfe ufurper too was flairi, and ^^a;,^ Erie 
by this means made way for the young jFr/^ once more xo is reftored. 
mount the throne of his ancejlors. At firft he (Irenuoufly 
oppofed the growth of the Chriftian faith : nay, took the 
moft vigorous meafures to fupprefs and root it out of his 
dominions. He put feveral of the moft devout and zealous 
Chriftians to death, who had refufed to abjure their religion ; 
others be forced or bribed into a compliance with his will. 
He levelled all the churches even with the ground, and fent 
an army to ravage Saxony^ chiefly becaufe the people of that 
country had received the light of the gofpcl. Not long af- a t> gg. ^ 
ter, however, he not only withdrew his refentment, which " t.' 
had grievdufly oppreffed the Chriftiahs, but pubiiChed an in- 
tire liberty of confcience, and embraced himfelf the true 
faidi, by means of the eloquent and prudent Anfgarius^ to 
whom this as well as the former converiion is wholly to be' 
afcribed. He ereded, at his own expence, a magnificent 
church at Ripen^ 4ordered the Pagan temples to be razed, 
and now became as bigptted a Chriftian, as a little before he 
had been a Heathen ; thus a£ting in extremes, and - proba-* 
biy in neither, from convidion, but from fuperftition and' 
prejudice. At the perfuafion of -<^»^tfr/«j, he appointed per-jy/^^^* 
ions properly qualified to teach the gofpel in every corner roQtr. 
iii the kingdom, allovved tRem 'handfome falaries, and took 
An^arius for his direfior, not only in fpirituals but in tem- 
porals likewife ; an office for which the good biihop was ' 
but indifferently qualified. Having thus afforded a remark- 
ibleinftance of the weaknefs of the human underftahding, t 

#hich at difFerent tinaes, and without any particular convic- 
tion, can maintain opinions diametrically oppofite, he -diedi 
the profelyt* and chief fupport of that religion, which, but a 
few years before, he had perfecuted with fuch cruelty and 

CANUTE the L I r r L E. 

i iSR/C left an only fon called Canute^ and afterwards fur- q^^^^^ 
iMtned the Little^ or, according to fome writers, '*^ -Wlj/ry. ^j^^ Lj^^l^ 
As his infancy perfuaded the ftates that a long minority might 5^^ ^^- / 
prove dangerous to the kingdom, they refolved to ele6t one 
of their own body, who Ihould govern with the title and 
authority of a king during his life, the crown then to revert 
to Canute or his children. Accordingly Ennignup^ a noble- 

, • Saxo, I#ix. Meurs. I. iii. Pontam. L iv. * Aut. 

|»ox dut, * 

I G z man 

84 ihe Hifiory of Denmark; 

man of great wifdom and valour, was choreii by public eon-* 
fenc ; but he was fcarce feared o» the throne, before Olom 
king of Sv;eden entered the kingdom, feized upon the crown, 
maintained it till his death, and then tranfmitted it to hn ; 
fon SiwarJy who was flain fome yean afterwards by an is- 
furre£tton of the Darns^ in favour of Canute^ now arrived a 
.years of maturity. , 

4fe€ond In the very beginning of Ca»tt//s reign, a large colony of 
migrathu Dams went forth to look for new habitations (though for 
oftbi in-* what reafon'we are not told) and fettled themfelvcs in Pmfficiy 
habitants the es^ern parts oi Courlandy add mCarelia. Now it was 
tfOtn- that Norway entirely Ihoke off the yoke of Denmark^ under 
^**'^* the aufpices of Harold^ furnamed Tellcnv-hatr (A), which k 
the only circumftance of any note we find mentioned under 
this reign. This prince differed greatly from hjs father with 
TcfyeA to his religious difpbfition j for Eric was either ft 
zealous Pagan or bigotted Chriftian ; whereas Canute wa 
perfedly indiffetcnt to both, and regarded the priefts of all 
religions little better than pious impoftors, whom it was ne- 
ceiury to proted on account of the veneration in which duf 
were held by the peqple ; a way of thinking that brought 
great fcandal upon his memory ^ 

F R O r H O VI. 

FrothoVI. PROTHO VI. the fon oi Canute^ fucceeded him; bu 
6id king. ' ^^^ yc^ of ^^^ fucceflion to the throne is difputed. He wi 
the grcateft warrior that wielded the Danijh fcepter fince Rtf 
ner. He reduced England^ which had rebelled during tiri 
indolent reign of his predeceffor, and firft planted the ChfiJ 
tian religion there, if we may credit the Dani/h hxftoiim 
The better to propagate the faith in Denmark^ he was p« 
paring an ambafly to pope Sergius III. to acknowledge t 
Supremacy in fpirituals, and to requeA that he would fe« 
fome perfons pcrfc£tly qualified to teach the gofpel in Da 
mariy when death put an end to all his projefls, and deprifi 
his people of an excellent prince. He was married to Emm 
daughter to the ki^g of England, by wbom he had a fd 
named Gormo^ who fucceeded to his crown ^. 


a'^'^^ft GORMO was furnamed AngU^ or the Englijbnumy becau 
Angle II.jj0 yff^ bprn \^ England^ where he likewife received the fa 

* MEua. p. 46. Saxo, 1. ix. p. 178. ^ Ibid. 

(A) Pontanns calls this prince Harold^ Haarfaar or Fatr-Hmr* 
I pidi 

The Wfiory of Denmark. . %g 

nicliments of bis education. Upon advice of his father*8 death, 
h€ immediately caibarkcd for Dtnmarky and there received 
the crown, by the unanimous confent of the people. In 
his abfcnce, the Englijb again took the opportunity of re- 
covering thei^: liberty ; nor did he make any attempts to de- 
prive them of it, whether Crom indolence, or from a rectitude 
of opinion, a ftri£l regard to jufticf , and afFeftion for the 
county of his birth and education, is uncertain. Gramma'^ 
ileus indeed fays, that his nature was mild, modeft, and mo- 
derate ; that he was contented with the government of one 
kingdom, and thought it impoflible for a prince to do that 
juftice to the fubje£ts of two different and diftant kingdoms, 
which his duty required; an opinion that refleds great 
honour on his memory. After a peaceful reign of four years 
he died, and left the crown to Harold V ^. 

H J R O L D V. 

The peaceable reputation which Gormo acquired, and the HaroldV. 
tranquility which his fubjeils enjoyed, was not loft or dif- 6/^b king^ 
tufbcd by Harold^ who was a prince of much the fame difpo- 
'rion. He adled upon his father's principles, preferred eafe , 
[and tranquility to every other advantage, prcferved the king- 
idom in juft the fituation he found it, and handed down the 
1 crown without additional luftre or ftain to his fon •*. ^ 


\ GORMO III. furnamed theOld^ from the extraordinary Gormo 
I age to which he lived, was a weak and timid prince. III. 65/* 
.though father to two very warlike princes by his wife,4/«^. 
idaughter to the Vmgoi EngUmd. He was a bitter enemy to 
the Chriftians, whom he perfecuted in every quarter, demo- 
iifliing their churchjs, and banifliing their clergy. Among 
•other facred buildings, he totally deftroyed and razed the fa- 
Mnous cathedral in Skfwick^ and ordered the Pagan idols to 
^be creaed wherever they had formerly ftood. 
\ GORM(y% fons were both men of great ability in war, Theex^ 
twins by birth, and rivals in glory. Their firft exploits v^tre fjoitf c/^ 
direSed againft the Vandals^ whom they fubducd : next, Gormo s 
they carried their arms againft the Englijhy who bad (qt/o^* 
ifometinie enjoyed their liberty, and conquered them; but 
without dethroning their uncle, who at that time wielded 
the fccptre of this country : however, they obliged him tq 

^ Jbid. * PONTAN^ 1-iv. SVAMING, f. 65, 

I G 3 fign 

is ThiHiftoryofDtnTnztk: 

fign an inftrument, whereby he cortveyed the crown to them 
at his deceafe. From England they p^^iTed into Jreland^ and 
laid fiegc to Dubl'vit where Canute received the wound of 
which he died a few. days after ; upon which Harold ^uSkd 
the fiege, took the city, fettled the affairs of the country, 
and returned into Denmark. • 

While his fons vyere gathering laurels abroad, GortM 
'took arms againft the Saxons^ with a view to oblige 'them to 
renounce tlie ChrifUan religion. Having reinforced his ar- 
my, by a large body of auxiliary Fandah^ be deftroyed the 
country before him with fire and fword, fpariog neither fex 
nor age that did not abjure the faith. The emperor Henry 
the Fowler fooh came to the relief of the Saxons, defeated 
Gormoj and drove him ouioi Saxony ^ Purfuing his vidory, 
he entered Holflein^ pafled into Slejwick^ took the city of that 
name, then a town flburifhing in trade, and gave it to bis 
foldiers to be plundered. At a fmall diftance from thence he 
built another town, tranfmitting thereby to pofterity^ that here 
he fixed the boundaries of his empire. He then granted peace 
to Gormo^ on condition that he would ceafe to perfecutc his 
Chriftian fubjefts, and pefmit liberty of confcience to all. 
Gormo was. not acquainted with his fon Canute^s death for fome 
time after his return from Saxony. When it came to his 
knowledge, it affeded him fo ftrongly, that he fiekened wiA 
grief, 2^nd died ^. 


Harold HAROLD his fon was immediately elefted king ; but he 

VI. /ur» refufed to accept the crown, until he had firft performed his 

^^d father's laft obfequies with alLthe magnificence becomiDghis 

^^^^i' ^^^ ^^^^ ^"^ quality* He was no fboner crowned than he 

^- ^'^i^' had to difpute the throne of England with Haquin^ king of 

Norway, His claim to this was indeed indifputable, both on 

' account of his affinity, and' by the will of Ethelredy who 

\ had bequeathed him his dominions, in exclufion of his own 

fon J though, from motives of equity, Harold avoided dif- 

puting the crown with this laft prince, and permitted him to 

wear it unmolefted to his death. As Adeljian died without 

liTue, he now thought he might fairly afTert his claim, and 

accordingly made preparations for that purpofe. Haguin 

in the mean time ihvSLdQd England ; befides which, HaraUhdA 

'Other reafons for engaging in a war with him* But this alone 

was fufficient i a conduct that was owing to refped for bis 

» Saxo,.I. ix. 


The Hiftory of Denmark. 8 '^ 

VJicIe and coufih, the late kings o^ England^ might not now be 
conftrued into indolence or cowardice, he therefore pafTed with 
a fleet mio England \ and fent another to fupport the claim of 
Harold^ a prince of the Norwegian blood, who had craved 
his aififtance. The king o{ Norway ^ hearing that his domi- Hefucceed$ 
nions were invaded by a pretender to the throne, returned to the 
•thither before Harold of Denmark's arrival in England. On crouun of 
the coaft of Norway he engaged the Dani/h fleet, commanded England. 
hy Hovind znd Carofio : but finding himfelf inferior in fliips, 
he landed his men, and drew the enemy into a land-engage-' 
ihent, in which be defeated them ; but did not live to enjoy 
his vidory ; for he was killed in the purfuit : by which means 
Harold^ the pretender to this crown, fucceeded him, and paid 
the promifed tribute and homage to Harold of Denmark, in 
return for the generous aid he had lent him. Thus Norway^ 
once more, became a province to Denmark ^, 

After Harold had fettled the affairs of England^ Tie Tailed 
againfl the Vandals^ who committed horrid depredations on 
all the coafts of the Bahic : nor had fcarce rid his hands of 
this war, when his aid and proteftion were folicited by &a- 
biern king of Sweden^ who was driven out of his own domi- 
nions by Eric. To enforce his requeft, Stubiern had brought 
along with him Gyntha his fifter, a lady of admirable beauty 
fin's accompliihments. The ftratageni had the propofed eN 
fed': Harold became enamoured of her, married her, and 
promifed the brother all the afliftancc in his power to reinftate 
him. Raifing an army, he led it into Holjiein ; and march- 
ing from thence into Slefwicky he took by ftorm the new-built 
city of Henry the emperor, put the commanding oflficer to 
death, and made prifoners of the- garrifon, leaving a fufficient 
number of his own men in their ftead. . He reftored to this 
city the ancient name of Slefivici^ and annexed it again to 
the dominions of Denmark. While he refided here, the Fan- 
dais refumed their piracies ; and Harold again attacked them 
With fuch vigour, that he reduced and plundered all their ftrong 
holds, and, among the reft, the rich and important city of 
I fFolliny built-in an ifland of the fame name, which is formed 
by two branches of the I'lver Oder. This city he prefented to 
Stubiern, who became extremely dear to him, on account of 
the brave exploits he had feen him perform in the courfe of \ 

\ this war. He now therefore fefolved to turn his arms againfl 
I. ^^ic^ and to reinflate ,his brother-in-law, before he under- ' 
took any other aflairs. Recruiting his army with the utmofl 
expedition, he led his forces through Halland againft Eric. 

* Id. 1. X. p. 182. 
I G 4 ' In 

OtMs ex- ^^ ^^ tnean time advice was received, that Oth I. had car 
peditim ^^'^ Jutland with a powerful army, and penetrated to the 
into Jut- ycry^hcart of the country, to revenge the indignity offered 
land. the empire by the attack on SUfwick. Otho^ indeed, gave 
other reafons for his condud. He pretended to be the pro- 
testor of Chriftianity, which Harold perfecuted ; to be tKe 
ally of tl|c Vandahy whom Harold conquered j and the law- 
iful poflefjbr of Slefwick^ which the Dane took and plundered. 
The enip^ror found Jutland an eafy prey, all the inhabitants 
lit to bear arms being inlifted by Harold to ferve in the Swe- 
fijh war. Some affert, that he proceeded to DoMTack^ and 
thence travelling along the coaft, flung a fpear into the fea, 
marking that ftrait as the boundary of his empire, Crim<- 
%/f/j affirms, that he pafled into the ifland of Funen^ and there 
built a city called after his own name : but this we find denied 
by all the Danijh writers ; for the city which refembles his 
name was built, fay they, by Othin^ many years before the 
birth of Otho, What the event of this war was, we know 
liot. Some German writers alTert, that Harold* colIecSiing all 
jiis force, pitched his camp on the narrow neck of land lat 
^lejwick, to intercept Otho^ which he did, and was 4^fe^ted. 
On the contrary, Grammaticus writes, that Othoy hearing of 
Harohts march againft him, retreatjcd with the utmoft preci? 
pitation, leaving behind many neceflaries of his camp, whkh 
becahic fo many trophies to the Danijh monarch *. All agree, 
that the princes having adjufted the preliminaries of a per- 
fonal conference, met 3 and Harold* overcome by the ar- 
guments of Othp^ and the clergy about him, embraced the 
Chriftian religion, folemnly and publicly abjuring Paganifm. 
On this occafipn he received baptifm, Otho^ the emperor, 
being fponfor ; and the fame ceremony was performed on bis 
queen* and all his children. During this congrefs 5/wW^r» 
was defeated by £r;V, who, in coniequence of his vifiory, 
ftized upon Halland and Bleking^ two provinces of Schornn^ 
belonging to Harold. This occafioned the latter to provide 
againft all future irruptions, by creeling that ftrong wall 
acrofs the ifthmus of Slefwick^ which he called Danemarck^ or 
the work of the Dan^s, Some writers afcribe this wall to the 
emperor 0/^p, thpugb for vvh^t reaforj.we are at a lofs to con- 
jeflure : the very name fufliciently indicates the authors. 

Amidst thefe tranfa<ftions, Harold king of Norv/ay died, 
^nd his fon Haquin fucceeding, refufed the homage and tri- 
J)ute which his father conflantly paid to Denmark, This be 
l^cli^vecl Yfzs a feafonable opportunity for claiming his indcr 

» Saxo, ibid, M^vrs, 1. iii. p, 48. 



The Hiftory of DenmkrkJ 89 

pender)cy, when Harold was engaged in quarrels with t 
iuch powerful monarchs, as the emperor Otho, and Ef'^c 
king of Sweden. It fell out, however, otherwife than he 
imagined ^ for Harold immediately demanded the ufual ho- 
mage, and levied an army to enforce his demand. Haquin 
jrefufing to comply, he fpnt a fleet and army thither, under 
thcconduA of fome of bis generals, while himfcif marched Defiats 
^gainft Eric^ whom he defeated, and obliging him to fue ^^ ^'^ 
for peace upon fuch conditions as were propofed by the^^^^' 
conqueror. In the mean while his army was defeated in ^* 
Norway by Haquin^ and this was only the prelude to his fu- 
ture misfortunes ; for his own fon Swen^ fpurred on by ambi- 
lion, and the intreaties of the Sambi and Cimhriy two powerful 
provinces, who were ready to revolt, afpired at his father's 
)crown (A). Swen was accordingly crowned king at Wiiburgj 
and a great force raifed to fupport his claim ; and indeed, fuch His fin r^u 
was bis influence, that the feeds of difaiFe£Uon began to fpring Ms and 
upyi every part of Denmark. Harold^ however, Atttxmmed Ji/futes tb§ 
not to be wanting in his duty, raifed an army, and gave battle crown 
tohisfon^ but was defeated on account of the treachery of his fuitblnm. 
pfficcrs, many of whom went over with whole troops to wor- 
ihip the rifing fun« He next equipped a fleet ; nor was his 
fortune more favourable, for he was a fecond time defeated, 
find obliged to take (belter in Zealand^ where he found means 
%o refit bis (hips, with which he determined once more to ha- 
zard an engagement. The event was no lefs unfuccefiful than 
the former, upon which he fled into Normandy^ and obtained 
large fupplies of meii and fhips from the duke. With this 
reinforcement he returned to Zealand^ and once more gave 
battle to his fon. Both were fenfible that they now fought . 
fpr the laft flake, and the battle continued for two days with 

(A) Grammaticusrehtts^ that Harold feeing a iftonc of prodi- 

Harold, after defeating £nV, was gious weight raifed by the work- 

buiied in ere^ng a magnificent men, asked his jefter, whether 

tomb to the memory ot his be- he had ever feen fo prodigious 

loved queen Gyntha, and that a weight raifed by human 

he employed all the inhabitantt ftrength ? ** Yes, replied the 

of the provinces in bringing ** jettcr, I have feen your {on » 

materials to the workmen. ** Swen run away with a whole 

This fervile occupation thofe " kingdom,;'* intimating the 

proud and warhke people could deflgn of fetting him upon the 

|iot fupport without indigna- throne, which was the firft no^ 

tion, and this it was that ahen- tice Harold had of the rebel- 

^te4 theif minds from Harold, lion (i), 

(i) Saxc, Ixi 

Ao ^he Hiftcry of Dentnark. 

the utmoA ohftinacy. Great numbers were killed and i^undeil 
on both fides j but neither could tefolve upon yielding the 
vidory, and of confequehce the crown. A treaty therefore 
was fet on foot by fome of the mor^ moderate and prudent men 
in either army ; to which the father and fon affenting, a truce 
rwas fettled, and next day appointed for a congrefs to adjuft 
the particulars of the cnfuing treaty. In the mean time Ha- 
raid was killed by the hands of a common foldier, while he 
was walking in a. grove near his camp, to relax his mind after 
the fatigue of the day, by which the, crown defcended to 
His unfor- Swen without difpute or litigation. Thus died Harold^ a 
timate ^W prince of very fliining qualities, and equally veHbd in. the 
andcha- ^f^g of war and of peace. His piety was, no lefs remaikable 
racier. than his other virtues. Under him the Chriftian religion had 
made great progrefe, and three biflioprics wfere- endowed inhis 
dominions ^. He built many churches, founded monafteries, 
convents, and other religious houfes : but what renders his 
memory refpeftable is, that he governed with equity, was a 
. juft king, a kind mafter, a tender hufband, and an aflec- 
tionate father, though he met with ungrateful returns from 
his fon and fubje^s. His body was buried with great 
funeral pomp, his fon paying thofe honours to his memory, 
which his ambition prevented his performing while he lived ; 
and now only it was, that his fubjedls became fenfiWe of his 
.merit, and their own folly, when it was too late to remedy 
Ibeir fault. 

^ SECT. IV. 

In which is contained all the material Occurrences un-, 
til the Tear n^y. 

S IV E N. . 

A.p. 98 1. A S Swenw^s the fifft D^w^ monarch who had been bred 
Sweni 2\^ fy^y^ his ^youth, and publicly baptized in his infancy 
"^^^ according to the Chriftian faith, we may date the perfefl 
jj^^ cftablifliment of the gofpel in Denmark in his reign. He 
was called Swen-Otho, in compliment to his godfather the 
emperor, and furnamed Split- beard, from fome peculiarity 
obferved about his beard. He was fcarcely eftablifhed in ftie 
throne, when it was perceivable that the minds of the nobi- 
lity began to relapfe into the idolatry of Paganifm, and recur 

* Saxo, 1. X. Meurs. 1. jii. Pontan. 1. 5. 


The Hifiory of DcntDark. ' -pi 

to th^ir old fuperftition. Sav», willing to (hew his gratitude Swer, tM 
to jtbofe men who had forfeited their fidelity, and hazarded educated a 
tbeir lives to procure him a crown, ordered the l^athen C^^/Viy, 
idols agairi to be ereded in compliment to them. He ty^n perjecutes 
went further, and persecuted -the clergy, though he never P'^''5/?/tf- 
publicly abjured the doiSirine of Chrifiy or fequeflered thofe ''{y* 
Lnds which his father had annexed to the church. . Next 
be took up arms againft the inhabitants of ff^ollin on 
the Oder 9 for having ainHed his father in the late rebel- 
lion ; but here he wiis thrice defeated by thofe brave and 
loyal iflanders, and in the I ail engagement taken prifoner, „ . 
and fet at liberty on paying a ranibm of twice his own ^Jy /* 
weight, when full armed, in pure gold. This ranfom was fl^^y^ ^ 
fettled at three payments ; but the king's pei^(bn was confined dais, 
till the laft payment was made, which was raifed by the genero- 
fity of the Danijh ladies, who fold their jewels for this purpofe, 
the treafury being quite exhauded, and the country oppredtd 
by heavy taxes for the payment of the two former divifions 
of the ranfom. Upon his return he made fome laws favour- 
able to the women ; and among others ordained, that they 
(hould inherit a third of the eAates real and perfonal. More- 
over, h€ tedeemed with all poffible expedition, all the jewels 
diey had fold for his liberty, and returned them to the pro-, 
per owners. 

His aiisfortunes did not, however, reclaim him, fays 
Grammaticus; he fiill purfued his idolatrous courfes, and 
perfecutcd the faith, which drew down upon him the ven- 
geance of the Almighty with nK>rc weight. Eric of Sweden^ jjg y^ j^^ 
contrafting- an alliance with the king of Poland and the tm-feaud and 
^xoTpthOi and befides, holding 5w^ in the utmoft ^oix- lanijbed by 
tempt, after the frequent defeats he had received from a Eric king 
handful of Vandal iflanders, raifed a great army and invaded e/'Swe- 
Schsnen- Swen marched again ft him ; but was defeated in den. 
the firft engagement, and driven out of his kingdom. Thence 
he wandered 'an exile into Norway^ went to the court of 
Olausy who had fucceeded his brother Haquin, reminded 
him of the obligations his father Harold owed to the king 
of Denmark for placing him in his throne'; but Was an^ 
fwered, that no ingratitude could eqiial his, who had robr 
bed his father of his crown and his life. Finding no 
hopes of fuccefs by further applications to this monarch, he 
went to England^ and there met with a reception equally ^'^^'''^'^ 
cold and mortifying. Not thinking himfelf fecure here, he^' ^^^'^^S^ 
retreated into Scotland^ ahd was kindly received by the king, 7 j 'l^ 
and maintained handlbaiely at the public expcncc, for the r^f^^edto 

A>acc fhg throne^ 

The Htftprj of Denmark. 

fpace of fourteen years \ Eric now dying,- and misfortane 
opening the eyes, and foftening the heart of Swen^ he be* 
gan to perceive the folly he had Committed in perfecutkig 
the faith in which he had been tnftrudied. He attributed his 
paft calamities to the hand of God, who had thus juftly pu* 
niihed his impiety, and returned with redoubled fervour and 
zeal to the profei&on of Chriftianity. H^ reftoration ibon 
followed, through the mediation of the king of Scothnd^ who 
exerted himfelf warmly in behalf of the unfortunate prince. 
AD A. ^" ^'' return he recalled ,all the clergy he had banifiied, 
•994' f^ jit liberty, and compenfated in the beft manner he was 
able, the fufFerings of thofe he had confined ; and laftly con- 
voked a diet of the itates, to whom he related the circum- 
ftances of his banifliment, by which he became the fport of 
his enemies, and the objed of compaffion of his friends. He 
bad loft his crown and reputation, dearer than life itfelf, by 
the hands of a man who had' been defeated, and driven out of 
Scbmen^ by his mother; whence it was vifible that the h^d 
of God had interpofed, and made ufe of Eric as the inftru- 
ment of his vengeance, in order to render his punifhment 
and defeat the more difgracefuL As he could not now avoid 
acknowledging the juftice and wtfdom of that invifible Power 
whom he had impioufly abjured, he requeued his people, as 
they valued their prcfeiu and future happinefs, to be warned 
by his example, to receive the light of theGofpel, and leave 
that falfe and profane religion, which God might permit lor a 
time, but would not fail to puniih and deftroy in the end. His 
propofal did not meet with the reception he expected, and he 
therefore refolved upon other means of accomplifhing his wifli. 
Tie CM/' and re-eftablKhing Chriftianity. This was foon effcded by 
tian reli- the arrival of Peppo^ a German divine of great piety and elo- 
giott n- quence, who, by dint of example and perftiafion, brought 
j^<//» about what the king's authority could not. Several miracles 
DenmATk. ^^^ related of this prelate ; and indeed he was pofleffed of the 
happy talent of impreffing the people with whatever notions 
he thought fit to infpire, in which perhaps confifted his 
fupernatural powers. All the clergy were recalled, lands and 
houfes appropriated to their maintenance and refidence, and a 
fee given to PoppOy appointed to prefide over the reft of the 
Danijh clergy ; but at the fame time a fuftragan of Adihgh 
biihop of Bremen \ 

While Swm was thus employed in promoting piety and 
the Chriftian religion, Olaus king of Norway was taking mea- 

^ Vid. ant. citat. ibid. ^ Saxo Gram. 1. x. 


The Hijiory of DcnmarkJ gj 

fufes for difturbing the public tranquility. Apprehenfive- 
that Swen^ after fettling the internal oeconomy of his king- 
dom^ might refume his claim to a fupremacy over Norway^' 
he determined to anticipate his meafures by levying a power- 
ful army, and entering into (triSt league with Sweden. Swen^ 
receiving'advice of thcfe intrigues, found means to counter- 
mine the machinations of OlauSy by marrying the queen- 
mother of S2(;^i^;z, by which he fecured the friendfliipof king 
Erici infomuch that they executed a treaty for the defence 
and propagation of Chriflianity, and the mutual fecurity of i* 
their kingdoms. Olatts was now enraged with difappoint- 
ment, and, determined at all events upon revenge, he de- . 
clared war. The fleets of Denmark and Norway met : they Inmades 
fought with inveteracy, and the latter was totally defeated and England* 
difperfed. Olaus efcaped out of the battle with a few fhips ^ 
but was fd clofely purfued, that, to avoid the difgrace of being 
. taken, and in the power of his enemy, he leaped into the fea, 
and was drowned. In confequence of this vidory, Norway 
was again annexed to the crown of Denmark^ and Swen m^ 
mediately publiihed an edi£l: there in favour of the Chriftian 
religion ^. Having fettled the affairs oi Norway^ he prepared 
to invade England, which had for fome years thrown oflF its 
fubjeftion to the crown of Denmark (A). Eihelred II. held. 
at this time the fuprertie authority in that kingdom, the parti* 
cular condition of which fhall be related in its proper place. 
Here the Dani/h and Englijh hiilorians differ confiderably in 
many important circumAances, and we (hall have occaHon to 
mention their feverai relations in our Hiftory oi England, the 
proper place for fuch a difquifitioh. Sufficient it is for our / 
prefent occafion, that a peace between Ethelred?xA Swen ,was 
concluded, after the latter had over-run great part of the 

^ Ibid, etiam Pontan. 1. 5. 

(A) We mud obferve, that forcj their invafions were fud- 

although Danijh writers aflert in den, theirravages barbarous, and 

ijeneral terms, that jE»^/fl»^ was their retreats quick. Thcypro* 

ubjeded'to the kings of Den- bably extorted a promife of ho- 

iftarky near three hundred years mage from the conquered ; but 

before Canute the Great y it is never reflded long enough in 

probable they never conquered the country to enforce it by au- 

above one or two divifions of thority and power before C4- 

tihe Saxon heptarchy. In thefe mat*s reigTi, who firft took the 

«arly times they were juilfuch title of \ing of Denmark, Eng-^ 

a people as the Saxons had been landy Norway^ ^c. &c 
about five hundred years be- 


94 ^k^ Hijiory of Denmark. 

His death kingdom, and obliged the former to acknowledge his (R) H* 

andcha^ vereignty *=. In this ifland he breathed his laft, much re* 

rader. gretted for the exemplary piety, ftridl juftice, and remarkail^e 

proofs of military genius and valour which he had difplayed 

towards the clofe of life. There could not, indeed, be a 

ftronger fatire on the manners of his youfti, than that total 

change of condu£t he put on in his old age. The fame man 

who, with the moft criminal ambition, had fought a father's 

life, for the fake of a crown^ was now contented with the bare 

homage of a prince, always efteem^d a vaiTal by the kings of 

' Denmark ; permitting him to enjoy all the power, authority, 

and honours belonging to a king '^. « 

It is not very certain who was the immediate fucceilbr of* 

^wen^ though almoft all. hiftorians allow that he had two 

fons, Harold and Canute. Saxo Grammaticus and Pontanui 

take no farther notice of the former, than by mentioning him 

as the Ton of Swen r afBrming that the latter, though young-. 

eft, was raifed to the throne in preference to his brother. 

. Harold, 

He is de- 


On the contrary, Meurjius and Lyfchander number Harold 
among the kings, aflerting, that he fucceeded Swen by rig^ht of 
prinfogeniture ; this being an invariable majcini with the ftatcs, 
where fome very extraordinary circumftanots and reafons for* 
laying afide the elder brother did not occur.* Upon their au- 
thority we {hall venture to infert Harold in the lift of kings, how=- 
ever unworthy of that dignity he afterwards proved. His effe- 
minacy, lewdncfs, profligacy, and in tire' contempt of decency, 
virtue, and morality, rendered him fo odious to a people alv^ys 
. brave, and now perfedly civilized by the beautiful fyffem of 
religion and morals introduced among them, that he enjoyed 
but a fhort time the honour he fo little merited. He was de- 
pofed with every poi&ble mark of difgrace and infamy, and his 

* Meurs. 1. 111. p. 52. * Saxo Gram. I. x. p. \<j\t 

PoNTAN. p. 145. Meurs. Hift. p. 5 j. 

(B) ^axo Grammaticus relates, 
that the following proclamation 
was made by ^T>y^« ; viz. that 
he had taken up arms with no 
intention of ruining the people 
o^ England, but of reducing them 
to that obedience they had fo 
often promifed after repeated 
defeats. He wai willing, he 

declared, to allow Etbelred the 
name and power of king of 
EngUndy pl*ovided only that he 
acknowledged the fovcreignty 
of Denmark ; a propofal which 
was accepted by Etkelred^ as he 
had not forces or a fleet fuffi- 
cient to difpute it» 


7 be Hifiory of Dtnmzxki ; 55 

brother raifed to the throne; of which he likewife had like te 
have been deprived, on account of his conHant eng.agements 
in foreign wars, the D/nnes neither. bearing with temper a per- 
kO. indolence, nor too great adivity in their princes ^« 


CANUTE, defervedly furnamed the Great, began his reign Canute 
with the invafion o{ England and Norway, both thefe kingdoms ^^^ Great, 
having thrown off the fubjedion they had promifed to his father 7\fi ^^^« 
Swm*. The talents of Canute for the cabinet and the field' ^' ^" 
were greatly fuperior to his father's, and indeed equal to thofe '^'^* 
of any prince who had wore the Danifi) diadem. The Etig^ 
BJb recalled Etheked their king, who had abdicated the 
throne ; and as their affe<5tions were ever in extremes, Camsti 
perceived that this event would-be attended with an attempt ^ 
to render him ipdependent of the crown of Denmark, and -took 
his meafures accordingly. But that he might not be opprefied 
with fuch a multitude of foreign wars, as he found he muft 
neceflarily be engaged in,- he temporized with the Vandals^ 
and other northern nations, who claimed the fame indepen** 
dency with England arid Norway, in order to A'litQL his whole 
force againft the two laft kingdoms. England was his maitr 
objed; and to p^e^^ent its receiving fuccours from Ncr-- 
way, he artfully drew Claud the king's brother into his views, 
by perfuadfng him to lay claim to the crown. After thi§ 
he failed for England 5 and in his way met, fay the DaniJJj hif- 
torians, with the Engitjb fleet, commanded by king Edivard in 
perfon, whom he defeated after a (harp engagement (A). At 
firff, fay they, vidtory, which was difputed with great obfti- 
nacy, feemed to incline to the Englijh, when Thymon^ a no- 
bleman of Zealand, arriving with a reinforcement, foon. • ' 
obliged her to declare in favour of Canute •*. Numberlefsdlf^: 
ficuicies, indeed, occur in this period of our hiftory, and the) 

• CaANTZius apud Meurs. 1. iii. >p. 53. Poktajt. i.v, 
p«I47. i> SaxoGram. i. X. ^fscTRS. 1. iii. Pont; 1. y. 

(A) Thefe were the exprefs relying upon -the dilatory dif- 

words of Meurfeut and Pontanus, pofition of the Englijh monar<jh, . 

which are dian^etrically oppo- imagined he fhould carry .all, 

fiteto the relations of all j&»^- with little trouble} but naif-' 

lijh hiftorians. According to fortunes had rendered Etbelred, 

thefe laft, Ethelred ' reigned in more prudent, and his vigorous 

England at this time, Canute meafures obliged Canute to re-/, 

landed without oppofitfon ; and, imbai k for Denmark ( i ); 

(il Guthrie, p* 267, 


06 tie fSJicty of Denmark.' 

CcHtratUc" ^rongeil contrariety of fentiments in theEHgliJb and Dani^ kif- 
Hon of tie torians ; but we fhall leave them to be difcufied in our Hiftory 
Engfifh of Sngldndj that being the theatre of the war, and the prbpef 
ofuiDtL' place for entering upon fach difquiiitionsy which very little 
niih hijic- aflFea the Hiftory of Dinmark. 

Hans. CANUTE had other motives than the power of Etbilrei 

for returning to Denmark. His abfence had furniflied Olaus 
Qf Norway with an opportunity of invading hb kingdom; but 
his return, and the vigour with which he attacked* the Nor- 
wegians^ obliged that monarch to embark not only With great 
lofs, but alfo to feek ihelter in RuJJia^ whither he was pur' 
fued by Canute'^ fon, who ravaged a great part of that coun-* 
try, and totally fubdued EJibonsaf a province of Livonia^ at 
that time fubje^ to the Mufcvuites^ obliging the inhabitants to 
pay tribute to the crown o( Denmark *• ^ 

In the mean time Canute^ after holding a perfonal confe- 
rence with the king of Sweden^ to adjuft fome difputes which 
threatened to difiurb the public tranquillity, and fettling the 
affairs of Denmark,, was preparing to embark again for Eng* 
landf where he inuigined his prefence would be advantageous 
to his affairs, upon the death of £rA^/rA/. But the old king 
of Sweden dying before the fleet intended for Englartd was 
ready to put to fea, his intention was deferred, upon receiving 
advice that Omund^ the young king of Sweden^ was taking 
Kieafures to reinftate Olaus of Norway in his throne and domi- 
Canute nions. Omund^ in fa£l, not only granted Olaus a pailage to 
enters ufou Norway through his dominions, but affifted him with a power-^ 
a ivar ful body of troops, -by which the exiled prince was foon in a 
•uvVi& Swe- condition to appear at the head of a formidable army, and to 
den asui fortify all the pofts againft Canute. Not contented with this^ 
Norway* it was agreed between him and the king of ftt^/if^, that the 
former £ould invade Zealand^ and the other Damjb iflands in 
the Baltic^ while the latter (hould make a defcent on Jutland t 
they bad moreover endeavoured to ftir up an infurre^on in 
England, where the malcontents were to declare themfdves 
at the very time when he (hould be mod engaged in the de-* 
fence of his own dominions. By this extended ^an, and fuch 
a variety of attacks in different places, they hoped to con- 
found his councils, to weaken and divide his forces infiich a 
manner as would render vi£l:or3r certain, and clip the wings 
of this foaring and ambitious king. But his policy, his pe- 
netration^ courage, and fteadinefs, fruftrated all their defigns^ 
and turned their intrigues againft themfelves. He procured 
ibme of the moft faithful noblemen of Zealand to carry on i 

< Aoft. citat. ibid* 


ttcrct correfpondcnce with Olaus, and to promife that they < 

would talce up arms, with all their valTals, as foon as his fleet 
appeared. Several other defigns they formed ; and appea'red' 
ib earneft and (iricere^ that Olaus^ having no fufpicion of 
treachery, had nearly beeh furrounded by Canute's fleet, while 
he was waiting the eflPefls of the promifed ih(urre<5)ion. Thus 
were all the meafiires of Olaus overturned, without the lofs of 
a man, and hirtifelf forced to retreat with fuch precipitation^ 
a& equalled the difgrace of a defeat. As foon as Cartate had 
refreflied his troops, he paflied with fuch celerity to Schonerii . 
that he furprifed^ defeated, and flew in battle the. king of 
Sweden \ 

Having now rid his dominions of foreign enemies, hii 
next meafure was to raife fuch civil commotions in Norway f . 
as would render it irhpollible for Olaus to diflurb the peace of 
Dinmarki ' With this view he artfully diftributed large fums Thefuceefi 
of money among the leading men of that kingdom, encou- ^Ga- 
raged Harold the king's brother to renew his claim to the nutc'sfa* 
crown, and, in a word, took fuch effeftual and politic ftcps, /f'cy. 
as not only anfwered his purpofe, but ended in the death of' 
Olaus^ who, as fome affirm, had been niurdered, by a confpi* 
racy formed by his brother Harold; and, according to the 
relation of others, was depofed and put to death by hiS own ' 
nobility^ influenced by the gold and intrigues of the court of 
Denmark ^, 

C J NUT E wzi now the moft formidable potentate per-jyy^^^^. 
haps, in Europe. Denmark^ Sweden^ Norway ^ and England, were^^,^^ ^^ 
tributary to him : his alliance was courted by the greateft JeafJ^^ 
monarchs ; and even the emperor Conrade fought his daughter 
in marriage, and voluntarily renounced all claim to Holjlein, 
When Conrade was afterwards depofed, he reaped the fruits • 

oi Canute\ friendfliip ; for, by means of his intereft and 
power, he was again reftored to the imperial dignity. After 
this he embarked for England, in which country he fpent the 
remainder of his life. Poinding the e)ttent of his dominions^ 
and the government of fo many diftant kingdoms, too great a 
Weight for any fingle pcrfon, he refolved to divide the autho- 
rity ; an^ accordingly gave the croWn of Denmark to his fd- 
cond fon Haf-di- Canute; 16 Harold, the eldeft, according to 
the Danljh hiftorians, he gave the crown o^ England; and to 
Swen, the yourigeft^ he afligned Norway (A). As we fhall 


* Saxo, 1. X. Meurs. l.iii. p^SS- ^ Vid. Aut. citat. ibid. 

(A) Our EngUjh hiftorians in .concerning the iflue of this mo- 
general labour Under a miflakc liarch. They call Swen king 
Mod. Kist. Vol. XXXIL ' H of 

^8 9"£>tf Hiftory of Denmark. 

\ have occafion to enlarge upon the military adions of this great 

prince in our Hiftory of England^ to avoid repetition, we (hall 
only fubjoin in this place, that he died a natural death in 
' England^ after he had reigned with great applaufe for the 
fpace of twenty-five years over that kingdom, and is deferved- 
ly enrolled with the greateft princes who ever wore the dia« 
dem. His early age i^as rendered famous by conquefts, glo- 
rious victories, and the moft refined policy : the lail years of 
his life were amiable by temperance, a ftrid regard to jus- 
tice, affability, clemency, and every other virtue that could 
render him beloved and refpeifted by his fubje&s. But this is 
not the place to expatiate on his charaSer, of which we cxily 
trace the outlines (B). 


This prince, the fecond fon of Canute^ obtained the ap- 

Hardi- pellation of Hardi-Canutej or Hardi-Knute^ from the diffi- 

Canute, culties he combated, and the valorous aSions he performed 

'jzdking, m Ruffiay when his father had fen t him thither in purfuit of 

Olaus king of Norway, He was preparing to invade England^ 

thep governed by his brother Harold^ when fome infurre£lions 

among the Norwegians^ who were defirous of recalling the 

O/flWJ family, rendered his prefence in that country neceffary. 

His tranfaftions in Norway are varioufly related. Some af- 

„ firm that he fent an army thither, which was defeated by 

Magnus^ the fon of Olaus^ the eleded king of Norway. 

Others are of opinion, that, in order to profecute his voyage 

to England^ Hardi-Canute entered into a treaty with Magnus^ 

and yielded to him the crown, of which his brother Swen was 

I of ATorw^zy the eldeft fon ofC^- referved the fentence and pu- 

nute, and affirm that he was nifliment to his own pleafure. 

bora before his father became He had before rated the price 

kiirg of England, which is an. of murder at a certain pecuniary 

afTertion dire^ly oppofite to the muld, a third of which went 

relationsof Z>fl«{y^hiftorians (i). to the king, a third to the rela- 

(B) The Danijh writers relate tions of the deceafed, and a 

an anecdote of this prince, which third (fay the Danijh writers) 

we do not find mentioned by to the army. He now decreed, , 

VLnyEngliJb hiftorian. ^Having that himfelf fhoold pay nine 

in his cups killed one of his times the value of the ufual 

foldiers, he immediately affem- fine; and to remove difficulties 

bled the people, and infilled about his own third, he or- 

upon his being tried by a jury, dered it fhould be given to the 

who brought him in guilty, but clergy (2). 

(i) Fid. Meurf. Hifi. A iii. .^. 54. (2) Meurf. J. iii. 


7be Hificry of Denmark. 99 

unworthy ; but ftill obliged him to acknowledge himfelf a 
vaflal of the crown of Denmark. Be this as it will, certain 
it is that Hardi^Canuie equipped a great fleet, and failed to 
Bruges in the Low Countries^ at that time the refidence of his ^ 
mother Emma^ by whom he was made acquainted with the 
death of Harold. Here it was that he was met by the Eng^ 
lijh ambafTadors, fent to invite him to accept of the crqwn* 
As from henceforward he may be looked upon as an Englijh 
king, we 0iall leave the particulars of his reign to be related 
in the hiftory of that country. Sufficient for our purpofe it 
is, that he reigned king of i>^«;«^r^ from the year 1035, one 
year before his father's death, to the year 1041 \ and died with 
the reputation of a prince whofe charader was compounded 
of the moft deteftable vices and the noblefl; virtues. His 
valour and generofity were in the number of the latter \ his 
cruelty, ferocity, intemperance, and debauchery, compofed 

M A G. N V S. 

PONTJNUS relates, that, after the death of Hards- 
Canute^ Mffgnus^ the fon of Olausj king of Narwayy fuc- Magnus, 
ceeded to the throne of Denmark^ in confequence of ^ll^^^i' 
compact between 4)im and Hardi-Canute^ that the furvivor • 
ihould inherit both kingdoms ; but we find no mention of 
this treaty in any other hiftorian, nor was it in the power 
of Hardi'Canute to bequeath his crown, without the con- 
fent of his people. On the contrary, Meurjius affirms, 
that Magnus invaded Denmark with a powerful fleet and 
army, immediately on the death of Hardi- Canute. It was 
the dread of his power that induced the flates to eled him, 
in order to avoid the neceffity of being compelled intp that 
Qieafure. Immediately he received the allegiance and homage ^ 

of the nobility, and was publicly proclaimed king of Denmark 
and Norway \ for by this time the Englijh had renounced the 
Danijh blood, and raifed Edwardy furnamed the Confejfor^ to the 
throne. His cledion was uncontefted ; but Swen^ the ne Swen, ne* 
phew of Canute the Greats by his fitter, foon after the accef- Pj^^^ '^ 

fion of Magnus, put in his claim to ^he throne, imagining he ^a°"'^» 

crofwn of 

fliould be ftrongly fupported by England^ in confequence of a "^'^^ '^^ 

promife he had received from Edward^ and fotne^ other fteps ngumark. 
he had taken in that country. This Swen is fpoken of as if 
he had been king of England after Hardi-Canute's death ; for 
Grammaticus and Meurftus both fay, that he left the^afFairs of 
the kingdom in .the hands of Harold^ Godwin* s fon, who be- 
trayed him, and was the great inflrument of expelling the 

' Crantz. apttdMEURs. 1. iii. Saxo,'1. x. 

H 2 Danes 

lOO . Tb^ Iliftory 6f Denmark: 

Danes out of that ifland. Relying upon this fiipport it was 
that he difputed the crown of Denmark with Magnus^ intend- 
ing to ufe force, fhould his application to the ftates prove in- 
effe£iual. Both his defipns were now fruftrated, and the 
Danes driven out of England^ which they could never after- 
wards recover. 
Swen de- NOTWITHSTANDING thefe unfortunate occurrences, Swen 
feated. determined not to relinquifli his claim : he had the addrefs to 
gain over a great number of the Danijh nobility to hisintereft, 
^nd by their means equipped a fleet in Jutland^ with which 
he gave battle to Magnus, and was routed, being forced to 
take Ihelter in the ifland of Funen, Here he refitted, apd ven- 
tured upon another engagement, which terminated as unfuc- 
cefsfuUy ias the former. His whole fleet was taken or dif- 
perfed, himfelf efcaping with a fmgle (hip to Zealand^ whither 
the conqueror purfued him, and obliged him to retire to Come 
of the remoter provinces of Sweden **. 
Magnus This war being ended, Magnus rcfumed his operations 
tyver- againft the Vandals^ with whom it feems he was at war before 
throijjs the Swen occafioned the late commotions. He had flain their 
Vandals ^x'lxsct Rat iborius^ who left behind him eight fons, all fworn 
in a bloody enemies to Magnus, and men of great valour, who refolved 
battle, Q^ revenging their father's death. Accordingly they over- 
run with a multitude of troops the coafts of Jutland, laying 
wade all the country through which they pafTed, with all 
the cruelty of inc'enfed barbarians. Fired with rcfentmcnt, 
and the deplorable condition to which his unhappy fubjeds 
were reduced, Magnus raifed an army, feized the ftrait or 
narrow pafs at Slejwtck to intercept the enemy, and there 
gave them battle, with fuch advantage as fully avenged his 
' fubje6ls, and puniflied thofe barbarians for their favage cruel- 

ty. Some hiftorians relate, that forty thoufand of the Vandals 
were left dead on the field, and thofe that remained com- 
pelled to lay down their arms, and furrender at difcretion; 
but Meurfius reduces the number of flain to fifteen thoufand, 
affirming, however, that the^ prifoners greatly exceeded this 
number *=. 
. This vidory, and his clemency to the prifoners, acquired 

aX'^^^ the furname of Good; and fo endeared him to all his 
Gooid people, that on his return they met him in crowds, loading 
him with bleflings, abjuring Swen, and offering their lives 
and fortunes for the extirpation of that pretender to his crowfl, 
and the defence of his majefty's perfon and dignity. It was 
not long after the defeat of the Vandals that Magnus died by 

^ PoNTAN. L V. p. 178. c Meurs, 1. iii. p. 58. 

Tie Hijlory of Dtntnzvk: loi 

a All from his horfe, which took fright at a hare's croffing ffir y^/rtA 
tbe road before him, and threw his rider upon (lakes fixed in anJ cha- 
the ground, or fome trunks of trees that had juft been cut ra^er. 
down. Other writers alledge, that he was drowned in the 
BaltiCf in paffing from one fliip to another' in a fmall boat»' 
Certain it is, th^t his death was greatly and defervedly la* 
mented by his people, who enjoyed under him all the felicities 
which it was in the power of a wife and brave monarch to 
communicate to afFe£):ionate and faithful fubje£ls, in fo ihort 
' a reign as eight years, or, as fome writers imagine, of no 
more than three years \ 


After the death of Magnus^ Swen^ who had ever fince s^en III. 
his defeat been an exile in Swedeny was called without oppo* ^^^ king., 
fition to the throne, to which he was the neareft heir by 
blood. From his mother, who was fifter to Canute the Great ^ 
he took the furname of Eftrith ; but notwithdanding his al- 
liance to this great prince, necefilty, rather than afFefbign, 
made the Danes elevate him to the dignity of their king, the 
whole blood royal being extind in Hardi-Canute, A great Reafins 
part of the nation, and indeed the bulk of the nobility and iv^Swtn 
people, who had fided with Magnus againft him, would have nuiuekQed 
been glad to fee any other perfon upon the throne, as they^/^^* 
dreaded the refentn^ent of a prince whofe pretenfions they had 
foftrenuoufly oppofed. Another circumftance befldcs the ne- 
ceflity from kindred, contributed greatly to Swsn's promotion. 
The late defeat of the Vandals had greatly weakened that peo- 
ple ; but then it increafed their animofity to the Danes, in the 
feme proportion it diminiflied their ftrength, They im- 
patiently watched the opportunity for revenge ; and a better 
could never offer, than when Denmark was embroiled in a ci- 
vil war, which would inevitably happen, had any oppoficion 
been made to Swent elevation. This the prudent men fore- 
faw, and chofe therefore to run the hazard of his refentment, 
for having taken part with Magnus againft him, than to ex- ' 
pofe the kingdom to certain de(tru(9ion, from the incurfions of 
fo barbarous, cruel, and incenfed a foe, as the Vandals^. 

SfFENhcg2in his reign by making fome reg^latiorfs \n the A. D. 
church, and fettling the jurifdi6lion of the feveral bifhops, 1056, or 
concerning which fome difputes had arifen among the clergy. i049« 
While he was bufied in this manner, the Norwegians recalled 
Haroldy the brother of their king Olausy and placed ftim oa 

* Aut. fupra. citat. ibid. ** Pontan. 1. v. p. 182. 

Saxo Gram. 1. xi. p. 204, 

H 3 the 

;i 2 ^he Hijiory of Denmark. 

the throne, after he hadiived a great number of years an ex- 
ile. Harold knowing that Swen was eleded king of Denmark^ 
and finding that his power was infuffigent to difpute with that 
monarch, fcrupled not to hold his kingdom as a fief oi Den- 
. markj until a fit occafion (hould offer for his claiming its inde- 

Haroid C^ pendency, and throwing off fo fhameful a vafTalage. He 
Y^^^ feized the opportunity of Swen^s being engaged in a war with 

«^(7«Swen. *^ Vandals^ and levied powerful forces, with which he had 
' the prefumption to invade a part of the Danijh dominions. In- 
telligence of his proceedings foon recalled Swen^ who gave 
him battle, and with prodigious lofs. A great part of his 
fleet was taken without a fmgle man on board, the feamen 
plunging themfelves into the fea to avoid the difgrace of fall- 
ing into the hands of an enemy they had been taught to 
hold in contempt, in confequence^of the repeated victories 
gained over them. Miurjius relates, that Swen having firft 
gained a complete viftory, but generoufly fetting the captives 
at liberty, Harold immediately renewed the fight, while the 
Danijh monarch was wrapped in fecurity, and cafily defeated 
him. Swen being thus conquered, took refuge with the re- 
mainder of his fleet in the f mall iflands, from whence he 
went over to Schonen and Zealand to recruit his forces, and 
endeavour to retrieve the lois fuflained from his too great 
humanity. As foon as he had completed his levies, and 
repaired his fleet; he again fought the enemy in the Baltic^ 
To prevent his fhips deferting him, he had them chained to^ 
gethe?, and though greatly inferior in force, bravely nrain- 
tained the engagement till night, and would probably haveob* 
tained a victory, had not Harold received a reinforcement, 
which greatly difpirited the Danes^ or rather a number of (?/r- 
mans who ierved in the fleeti and now feparated themfelves in 
the night, to prevent the confequences of a defeat, and their 

Swen de^ falling into the enemy's hands. Swen^ whofe courage was 

feated, invincible, renewed the battle next morning, notwithflanding 
a third part of his fleet had withdrawn, and hoping to make 
up by refolution what he wanted in flrength, fought with the 
utmoft fury, and moft obflinate valour, until he was at length 
overpowered by numbers, and forced to yield to his ill fortune *. 
HAROLD^ not fatisfied with two vidories obtained over 
the DaneSy landed his forces, and laid wafle all the coafh of 
the iflands and Danijh continent, burning, deflroying, and ra- 
vaging many villages and cities, and among the reft Slejivici, 
Swen was forced to content himfelf with harraifing Harold in 
bis march^ not being able to raife a force fufficient to give him 

^ McvRs. 1, iii. p, c. i. 

' -battle i ' 

The Hiftory of Denmark, '. 1O3 

battle ; but wben he had leaft reafon to expe3 it, Pfovidence 
wrought a happy change ii> his fituation. The civil divifions 
ih England had raifed HaroWs ambition to extend his con- 
quefls and influence,^ which he thought he might probably do 
by taking part with Godwin's children againft their fovereign. 
The low condition to which he had reduced Swen^ gave hipi 
no difturbance about the eonfequences of his abfence from 
Norway; he therefore refolved upon an expedition to Eng- 
land^ where he was killed ; , by which means Swen recovered Harold 
the peaceable pofieffion of all his dominions' HaroId*s fons^'^^^^^*^ 
Olaus and Magnus^ ihared their father's dominions, and en- ^C/^^'<?^/» 
tered into a treaty and alliance with Swen, which was con- '^^Z^^^^' 
firmed by thfe marriage of Olaus with the daughter of Swen *. 

The death of Harold 11, king of England, flain in a bat- 
tle fought with fFilliam of Normandy, called the Conque- ! 
ror, furniflied Swen with an opportunity of putting in his claim 
to the crown of England, as the only remaining defcendant of 
Canute the Great. He had kindly received the two fons and 
daughter of Harold, who took refuge with hini upon their fa- 
ther's defeat ; and the latter he married to the prince of Ruffia. 
He accordingly equipped a fleet of two hundred fail, and put 
on board a large body of land-forces, under the command of 
his (ons Harold Sitid Canute^ On their arrival in the mouth of 
the Humber, they were fuddenly joined by a great body of mal- 
contents, who were refolved at any race to throw off the un- 
fupportable tyrannical "^oke of fVilliam. After a feries of^^^^^nes 
tranfadions, which will be recited in the Englijh hiftory, they depart from 
retired, at the perfuafion of Oibern, brother to Swen, who^^S^*^*^* 
had been corrupted by the gold of Normandy. The king his 
brother was fo incenfed at this meanly venal adion, that on 
the return of the fleet, he immediately Ordered Oj^^rw into ' . 
perpetual banifhment ^. 

A FEW years before Swen\ death, the Vandals again re- 
volted, from their diflike to the Chriftian religion, which they 
had been forced to embrace, after the great defeat they laft 
received from Harold. After overturning and ruining all the The Van- 
Chriftiaa churches among them, fetting up their pagan idols, dais (nfer^ 
and putting to death a oifhop and feveral Chriftian prelates,r«»Hol- 
they entered Hol/lein with fire and fword, and made the coun- ftein. 
try an entire delart. They moreover pillaged the city of Slef- 
Vfick, levelled the churches with the ground, and in derifion , 
broke the crucifixes which miftaken piety had ere£led in dif- 
ferent quarters of the towR. But the greateft infult upon 
Swen was, the manner in which they treated his fitter Syrith^ 

* Meurs. Hift. ibid. ^ Saxo Gram. I, xi. 

H 4 ' whom 

'td4' ^be Hiftoty $f Denmark; 

whorn they ftripped naked, and in that condition fcnt ioDen^ 
mark. With fuch celerity did they execute all thefe barbari* 
ties, that they had over-run the provinces of Slefwick and HqU 
Jiein^ before Swen had intelligence of the irruption. He im- 
^nediately raifed an army to revenge thefe injuries, but foon 
dropped his refolution, and wafted his time in unfeafonable 
afts of devotion at Rofchild. Superftition had now weakened 
^11 his faculties ; prielts became his privy-counfellors, and all 
. the duties of a king, and of a man were abforbed in a narrow 
zeal and criminal bigotry to the pageantry of religion. His 
fubjefts were oppreffed with taxes to fupport the luxury and 
pomp of the clfergy, to purchafe plate, and other church or- 
Swctt*' naments, and to endow religious foundations. Hence it is 
iieath and jj^^j ^j^g clergy alone have extolled the character of this prince, 
ilf^mer. ^g ^^ j^qJ^ munificent, pious, and merciful prince that 
ever filled the throne of Denmark \ notwithftanding his 
incontinence was fo great, that of fifteen fons he left be- 
hind him, not one was legitimate ; and He had polluted the 
houfe of God by the cruel murther of fevergl of his nobility : 
an offence which he fufficiently expiated by his munificence 
and generofity to tbofe who aflumed the power of granting 
abfolution for the moft heinous crimes *=. 

This prince died of an acute fever in Juiland^ while his 

fon Canute was quellfng a rebellion which appeared in Efl- 

honia'f that province of Livonia which the Danes prefer ved 

froni the time that Hardiknute conquered it. When Swen 

perceived that his diffolution was approaching, he afleonbled 

Jiis five all the nobility about him, and obliged theni to promife that 

Jonsfucceedi\ity would chufe his eldeft fdn for their king, and after him 

him in /^«the next furviving brother ; in confequence of which oWiga- 

throne fuc* tion, five of hjs children fuccefEvely arrived at that dignity ; 

^^ffi"^^b' an inftance that cannot perhaps be equalled in the hiftory pf 

the world. As to the charafter of this prince, his unfortunate 

biattles with Harold of Norway prove him a great warrior ; for 

rnilitary talents are not always to be eftimated by the event. 

His exceflive indulgence to the clergy at the expence of his 

people, who were aloioft ruined by his pious donations, prove 

him either to be naturally weak, or at leaft emafculatcd by fu- 

perftition. The number of his illegitimate children demonftrate 

him to have been libidinous ; and his maffacring a number of 

his nobility as they were offering their devotions in church, is 

a teftimony of his cruelty and impiety, however he might 

throw a veil of grimace over rtie latter ; but his conduft in 

ihe Norwegian war are fufEcient proofs that his natural difpo- 

fition was brave, liberal, and generous to a degree of weak- 


^ SaxOGram. Po^iTTAN. & Meurs. ibid. 

Whs Hificry of Pcnmark; ipj 


HAROLD^ the oldeft Ion of Swen^ was clefted in the Harold 
Toom of his father, after warm difputes about the fuccefBon. the Sim- 
The noble qualities of Canute^ a younger fon, had raifed a pie, 75/^ 
firong party in his favour ; but the promife made to the late kh^^ 
king, and Harold's gold, at length prevailed : upon which Ca- 
nute went over to Schonen, there to carry on the war againft 
the Vandalsi that had been left unfinifhed by his father. This 
was a kind of honourable voluntary banifliment, into which he 
entered to avoid exciting his brother's jealoufy, dr difturbing 
the tranquility of the kingdom. So prudent and moderate a 
conduiSt in a young prince of known ambition wrought fuch 
an efFeft on Harold^ furnamed the Simple^ that he gave him 
the kindeft invitations to return, and offered to receive him as 
his colleague in the throne ; but Canute adhered to his firfl re- 
folutron, either forefeeing that a divided authority would be 
attended with inconvenience, or difdaining to (bare the fu- 
prcme power, with a brother whofe capacity he defpifed *. 

Some writers plaqe an inter-regnum of four years aboyt this 
time 5 but whether after the de^th of Swen, or of Harold^ we 
cannot affirm ; nor do the bed hiftorians make any mention 
at all of fuch a chafm in the regal government : for Harold 
was eleSqd by the (irft diet that affembled after the death of 
his father ; and Canute^ who then refided in Jutlandy was im- 
mediately recalled on the dej^th of his brother ^., 

Before Harold mounted the throne, he made the largeft 
promifes to the people of framing new laws, fuch as would re- 
flrefs all the grievances confequent on thofe at that time in 
force, and of governing them with the moil fcrupulous re- 
gard to juftice, and the public good 5 but the firft part of his 
engagement he never fulfilled, except in one Tnltance. This^/^^ 
was a law by which criminals, where pofitive evidence wzsmai^e by 
wanting, fliould be allowed to clear themfelves by an oath, Harold. 
and, without paifing the ordeal, or trial by fire, as was ufual 
in Denmark^ and all the other kingdoms in Europe. The law 
was received with univerfal approbation : after which Harold^ 
as if he had fufficiently eftablifhed his reputation, refigned 
himfelf to the moft fhameful indolence and floth, negledted 
to enforce the laws already made, and fufFered the whole king- 
dom to be polluted by the mofl fcandalous corruption, licen- 
tioufnefs, and« venality ; in which fituation Canute found it at 
ihe death of his brother, who furvived his elevation but :wo 

. * Sajto Gram. 1. xi. ^ Suaning. Chron.Dan. p. 72. 


io6 ^be Hijlory of Denmark, 

yeirs, according to Grammaticus and Meurjius^y though the 
latter acquaints us, that feme writers have prolonged his reiga 
. to upwards of fix years (A). 

Canute CANUTE was recalled by the dates on the death of his 

the Pious l''*o^^€''> ^^^ appointed his fucceflbr. Grammaticus fays, that 
\ybth king, ^^*s prince accepted of the crown merely with a view to ex- 
tend the Chriftian religion, and not from, motives of ambi- 
tion. Th# war he had carried on in his brother's life- time 
againft the Vandals was for the fake of religion ; and he now 
renewed it, when his power enabled him to punifhihe im- 
piety of thofe infidels with more fuccefs and feverity. Nor 
His con- did he ever relax in this defign until he'had accompIi(hed it, 
fueftsl by obliging feveral idolatrous nations lying on the frontiers of 
Livonia and Mufcovyy to receive the truths of the gofpel. 
Haying hatppily finifhed this war, he married Ethla^ daughter 
to the earl of Flanders^ and then applied himfelf -to curb the 
licentioufnefs, immorality, and corruption which had crept into 
public offices, and among all degrees of men, during the inac- 
tive reign o{ Harold, But fenfible that example would operate 
more powerfully on the minds of the people than the moll 
rigid laws, he began a reformation, by the ftrideft obfervance 
of every moral and religious virtue, by enforcing the laws al- 
ready made, and by (hewing his own compliance to them, in 
His vir- the fame manner he required of the meaneft fubjeft. The 
tues. eflFed anfwered his moft' fanguine expedation. tvery man 

was ambitious of emulating his fovereign ; merit and virtue 
were t;he only recommendations to court-favour; and this ^ 
rendered them univerfally fought after. In a word, Canute'^ 
reign may be called the reign of religion, virtue, and true 
wdrth in Denmark^ in which temperance, chaftity, liberality, 
juftice, and all the heroic and focial virtues were cultivated 
from flie king to the peafant : an aftonifiiing inflance to 

® Meurs. 1. iii. p. 62. 

(A) Here frefti chronologi- contrary, whofe induftry and 

cal difficulties occur, fome wri- erudition cannot be called in 

ters affirming, that Harold the queftion, places Harold 1079 

Simple began his reign in the and 1081, if we fuppofe him to 

year 1085, on which year S^en have reigned but two years ; or 

died, according to them ; and if we rather fuppofe him to 

among thefe is the judicious have reigned fix, between 1075 

Pontanus. Smningius^ on the and 1 080-1. 


7be ' Hiftory of Denmark. 107 

what a pitch of piety and virtue a nation niay be brougKt by 
the example and pracSiice of a difcerning monarch'^ ! 

After civil affairs had undergone a thorough alteration, 
Canute next applied himfelf to ecclefiaftical matters, in which 
he made feveral ufeful regulations. The firft was to detach 
the body of the clergy intirely from the civil government, afid 
confine their authority wholly to the affairs of the church ; 
fach as infpedting into the lives, manners, and doftrine of the 
inferior clergy ; prefcribing the forms of public worihip, &c. 
The power of the bifhops, however, was greatly augmented, for 
they Were raifed to the dignity of dukes and princes, and took 
place of the fenators and nobility of the higheft quality. Such 
was his regard for the bt(hops, that he even invefted them 
with the civil fword, and permitted them to go to war with 
all the power of independent monarchs ; an inftituiion which 
plainly (hews, that all the good fenfe of Canute was not proof 
againft the craft of fuperflition and priefthood ; as nothing could 
be more abfurd than this authority committed into the hands 
of eight prelates (for that was the nurtiber of bifhops in Den- 
mark) while all the reft of the clergy were wholly cut off 
from c\vil connexions, and deprived of that weight which 
alone could give influence to their do£lrine, or declare them 
of the fame funflion with thofe dignified prelates *. 
But it was not the leafl glory of Canute^ that he paid the Canute*/ 
\ utmoftrefped to men of learning, and promoted the Aniy o( regar^i for 

arts and fciences by his owri^rivate bet^evolence, as well as learning. 
\ by public rewards, and certain literary foundations, which he 
' annexed to the ecclefiaftical government. It is certain, how- 
:. ever, that a prince may carry his regard to religion and learn- 
' ing, to' a pitch dangerous to himfelf and oppreflive of the 
I people. Canute^s bounty to the clergy and learned men had 
no bounds ; befides the numberlefs inftitutions he made in 
their favour, he granted them the tythes, which occafioned an 
; univerfal difaffe^ion, and at leiigth brought on his ruin. 
I Large fums of money were expended in erecting churches and 
: pious foundations, which were raifed from the fweat of the la- 
' bourer, and the oppreffion of the ufeful husbandman and me- 
chanic**. * 

In this fituation were the affairs of Denmari^ when Canute^ fjg ^^^/^ 
laying afide civil and ecclefiaftical affairs, refolved once more /^^^j ^^^ 
to embark in war, and attempt the tqcov try of England. Utreduaiot^ 
communicated his intentions firft to his brother Oiaus^ who ofEng-, 

^ PoMTAN. 1. V. p. 198. Gram. I. xi. p. 215, Mburs* 
1. iv. * Gram. 1. xi. Pontan. ubi fqpra, ^^ Meurs. 



iqB The Hiftory of Denmark; 

greatly approved of it from private views, and afterwards to 
the fenate, who did not difcourage the proje£l. Upon this 
Canute equipped a fleet, and raifed an army with all poffihle 
expedition. The earl of Flanders, and a great number of 
Engltjh exiles refiding at that nobleman's court, rejoiced at the 
occafion that was likely to refiore them to their own country, 
whence they were driven by William^s feverity and partiality 
His hro' to the Normans. While the fleet and army were waiting a| 
ther C9n' the appointed rendezvous, until Canute had finifhed fome pub- 
/fires lie buflnefs, and appointed regents to govern the kingdom in 
againji his abfence, he difcovered that his brother Okus had been 
tim. fecretly endeavouring to deprive him of the crown : upon 

which he immediately fet out with a few troops for Slef-^ 
wick^ of which his brother was governor, to fecure his per- 
fon, and bring him to public juftice. Olaus had, however, 
fo gained upon the aiFe£lions of the foldiers, that they refufed 
to obey the king's orders to feize him : upon which Eric^ bro- 
ther both to Olaus and the king, broke into his apartment, 
and brought him bound in chains to his majefty. Canute^ not 
caring to pollute his hands with a brother's blood, fent him to 
his father-in-law the earl of Flanders^ with directions that he 
feould be treated in a manner fuited to his rank, but fo nar- 
Tbe army jowly watched'as to prevent his return to Denmark. In the 
^'^^^^^ mean time, the tools of Olaus had fo wrought upon the minds 
of the foldiers by their artful infinuations, that they dbbanded 
themfelves before the king's return, which obliged him to 
poftpone his expedition to England^ and convoke another 4iet» 
before he could raife an army *. 
The king This diet he opened with a fpeech, reminding the people 
calls a diet, of the glory acquired by his anccftors, by the faithful attach- 
ment of their fubjeds ; of their conquefts in the different 
parts of Europe^ and particularly in England^ which country 
they held for two hundred years in fubjedion, and now loft 
from the indolence and pufillanimity which laid hold of the 
once intrepid Danes. He reprefented to them the (hame of 
defertin^y their monarch, who was in full purfuit of glory, 
conquefl:, and dominion ; and of fo fcandaloudy abandoning 
a caufe* which required no more than their prefence ip termi- 
nate happily. He laid before them the advantages which would 
refult to Denmark^ a poor, rocky, cold, and unfertile country, 
/ from the conqueft of an ifland abounding with all the conve- 
niencies and luxuries of life : in a word, he omitted no argur 
menis that could feducc or impel them to their duty; but in vain. 
The emifiaries of Olaus were indefatigable, and the mindsiof ihc 

c Aut, citat. ibid. 


T'be Hijioty df Denmark* lO^ 

people wholly alienated from their fovcreign from the time he 
had granted the tenths to the clergy. They infifted upon the 
revocation of this decree, and Canute was unhappily obflinatc 
to confirm it. The people rofe" in arms in different quar-rj- -^ / 
tcrs, and he was forced to feek flielter in the ifland of Funen^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 
where be foon after periihed through the treachery of a noble- ^^^/^^ 
man, in whofc fidelity he placed his greateft confidence. He ^ieatb. 
died by the hands of a people he loved ; and but for a few er- 
rors in his condud, and the ambition of his brother Olaus^ 
would have governed happily. His valour, juftice, generofity. 
and piety, were univerfally acknowledged ; but a certain eafi- 
nefs of temper, and tindure of enthufiadic devotion, betrayed 
him into weaknefles that were the original caufes of his unfor* 
tunate end. In a word, the reader cannot but perceive a 
flriking analogy between his character and melancholy cata- 
ftrophe, and that of our Charles I. Both were princes, who, 
but for the peculiar circumftances of the times, would have 
reigned equally beloved by their fubje£ls, and efieemed by fo- 
reigners ; both fell the facrifices of amiable foibles, dangerous 
indeed in monarchs, but greatly admired in private lite \ 

O L A U S^ furnamed the Hungry^ or Fatftijhed, 

CJNUTE*s death was no fooner known, than the friends oiaus 
of Olaus fet every fpring at work to procure his liberty, znd/umamed 
raife him to the throne. They doubted not but they {hould tJ!;e Hun- 
cnjoy his chief confidence and favour, as they were the in- gry or 
ftruments of his promotion. Accordingly a fum of money Famifhcd, 
was raifed for his ranfom, and his brother Nicholas fent to the 77^^ ^'"S* 
carl of Flanders to condudl Olaus to Denmark (A). On his 
arrival his brother Ertc, who had feized him in Slefwick^ re- 
tired with his family into Sweden^ not doubting but the young 
king would deeply refent an aftion which had (jccafioned his 
long imprifonment. 

The firft aft of Olaus's government was the (hewing his 

gratitude to his brother Nicholas, then confined in Flanders, 

. and fending thither a large fum of money for his redemption. 

He next proceeded to feveral popular regulations, in order to 

* Saxo Gram. 1. xii. Pontan. I. v. 

(A) In the conduft o£ Nicho- offered himfelf a prifoner in his 

las we find a remarkable in- room, was accepted, and vo- 

ftance of brotherly affedlion ; luntarily pat on the chains 

for the earl of Flanders refuCing' which his brother had ju ft laid 

to fee Olaus at liberty, Nicholas afidc ( i ). 

(0 Saxo Cram, I, xii. ' Pcntan, /. v. />. 200. Meur[^ T, iv. 


no ft>^ Hijlory ^/Denmark. 

fecure the affe<aions of the people, as he knew that a great 
part of the nation dreaded his refentment, on account of their 
efpouTing the caufe of Canute : but be was interrupted in the 
^^^^[ . roidft of this laudable condud by a terrible misfortune, which 
Mr"fy '« he could neither forefee nor prevent. A dreadful famine, m 
i>enmar . ^^j^^^^^^^^^q qP a bad harveft, prevailed {o much, that the 
richeft people in Denmark were fofced to fupply the want of 
•• bread with roots, and other vegetables j while the poor, who 
were unable to procure even thefe, perifhed in the itreets and 
highways. Nor was this all : the heat of the preceding fum- 
mec, and the deluges of rain which had fallen in the autumn, 
occafioned fuch a corruption in the air, and alteration in the 
human fr^me, as was attended with the moft deplorable pefti- 
lence that had ever been known in any northern country. 
Both thefe terrible calamities, of famine and peftilence, /eemed 
to conten/i which ihould mod zSixSt the miferable Danes. 
Thoufands of fouls were fwept ofF by each, and public fail- 
ings and prayers appointed in all the churches, to befeech 
God to remove fo in fuppor table a fcourge, which they now 
looked upon as the juft punifhment of their late rebellion 
againft the beft of monarchs, Sweyn^ bifhop of Rofchiid^ un- 
dertook a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, thereby to appeafe 
the Almighty, and atone for the crimes of the people. At 
length it pleafed God to put a ftop to the plague, and to fcnd 
a plentiful harveft^ which removed the wants of the people ; 
but not during the life- time of Ola us ^ who, oppref&d with 
grief at the miferies of the nation, died fuddenly, and, as 
fome affirm, upon the following occafion. It had long been 
TIfe eaufe cuftomary for the nobility to dine with the king on Chri/imas- 
cfthe day^ and they were accordingly invited by Olaus. When dinner 
'd^ath of was ferved up, the king called for bread ; but was told, there 
Olaus. was not a bit in the kingdom : a reply that ftruck him with 
fuch horror, that he put up a prayer to God, befeeching him 
to accept of his life as an atonement for his crimes, and the 
fins of the nation. His prayer was heard ; for he inftantly 
expired, and the famine ceafcd. We muft however obferve, 
that this anecdote is not very confident with the account given 
by the beft writers, and even by GrammatUus himfelf, though* 
he relates this ftory ; for they all affertj that the famine was 
removed by the enfuing plentiful autumn. Some writers al- 
ledge, that Olaus reigned only feven years ; but Melnothus, a 
- contemporary hiftprian,. affirms, that he wore the crown for 
eight years and nine months ^. 

* Apud. MfiURS. 1. iv. Gram, ibid, 


7'be Hijiory of Denmark. ' 1 1 1 


^OLAUS dying fuddenly, the ftates immediately affem- £j.j^. jjj^ 
bled to cleft a fucccffor, and it was unanimoufl'y agreed, that ^g^^ j^' 
a<leputation (hould be fcnt to Eric^ then an exile in Sweden^ 
to invite him* to the -throne. Under this excellent prince, 
who was poilefied of many heroic and amiable virtues, Den^ 
mark began to retrieve her ancient charaSer and power. }n 
the beginning of his reign he entered upon a war with the 
Vandah^ who had protedcd two notorious pirates, bani(hed 
out of Schonen for their crimes ; and, under their condud, 
committed the moft impudent depredations and robberies on 
the high feas, as well as on the coafts of Denmark, Fitting 
out a fleet, he inverted their capital in the ifle of Rugen ; and, 
after a briflc fiege, took it by aflault. Then, to deprive thofe 
pirates of this ftrong hold, he ordered the fortifications to be 
razed, and the town fo thoroughly difmantled, that for a great 
number of years it did not recover its iancient ilrength and 
fplendor. fie next purfued the pirates into all the different 
ports of the Bahicy and punifhed feverely thofe who fell into , ^ 

his hands, in order to terrify others by thefe examples^ Eric's 
nature was mild, and prone to rnercy ; but he fa^^ ehie fecurity 
of Denmark depended on the extirpation of this neft of thieves. 
After having wholly fubdued the Vandals^ as he imagined, he 
returned to his capital, where he was received with the accla- 
mations of a joyful people, who had penetration enough foon 
to difcover the true character of t^eir fovereign. His rtffi- 
dence here was but fliort, when the Vandals made fhift, not- 
withftanding their lace redufiion, to enter Denmark^ fpread- 
ing terror and defolation wherever they went, in revenge for 
the deftruftion of their city ; but making fo fhort a ftay as 
rendered it impoiSble for Eric to attack and punifh. them, 
before they quitted his dominions. Enraged with this in- „ a^^^^ 
fult, he raiied a body of troops, and, entering their country, ^ ihafii&s 
fo feverely chaftifed them^that during his life they never again the pirates* 
attempted giving the leaft moleftation *. 

On his return he fent a deputation to Rome^ fetting forth Qltains^ 
the virtues and piety of his brother Canute^ who periflied a Ua^vefrcm 
martyr to religion by the hands of an enraged mob, and re- the pope 
quefting that his name might be enrolled in the calendar oUo canonixe 
faints, which petition vj^as honourably received and granted Canute. 
by his holinefs, who had too much policy and breeding to 
refiife a requeft from fo potent a monarch, Which at the fame 
time implied a compliment to his own authority. Npt long 

* PONTAK, 1. V. . ~ 


1 1 2 fhe Hijiory of Denmark/ 

after the pope, Pafchalll, found an opportunity of difplajf^ 
ii)^ his power more amply to the Danes ; for a difpute, con- 
cerning feme temporalities, . arifing between Erk arid the 
bifhop of Bremen^ that prelate went in perfon to Romsy and; 
laying the cafe before his holinefs, obtained a verdi(5l^ though 
' Eric refufed for fome time to ftand by this award ; but was 

afterwards forced to yield to the clamours of his own clergy, 
and the thundering menaces of the conclave. It is even af- 
firmed, that he was forced to go in perfon to Rome to fuppli- 
cate the pope's pardon, and make up the breach between him 
and iht holy fee, by the moft refpeitful fubmiffion and deepeft 
contrition : the account, however, of this event, is very ob- 
fcurely related by all the, Danijh hiftorians •*. 
, After Erics return from Rome it was, that a mudcian 

boafting to him of his (kill on the harp, afierted, that his 
power over the faculties extended fo far, that he could at any 
time deprive his hearers of their underflanding, and render 
them frantic by force of harmony. Ericy who greatly doubt- 
ed the , truth of the muiician's afleveration, ordered him to 
. giv^ a fpecimen of his fkill, and was himfelf the firft inflance 

,f^ ^' of the tri^th of what he aflerted ; for his paflions were fo 
/^^^ wound upi, that in an extafy of madnefs he, flew like a maniac 
pvwer of ''ound the apartment, and in his tranfport killed fourfoldiers 
mujic. of the guard, which the mufician obfcrving, immediately 
changed his cadence to a foothing drain, and foon aiTwaged 
the violent tranfports he had excited. Grieved at what he 
bad done, Eric rewarded the mufician, and after making all 
poffible recompence to the relations of the deceafed, vowed a 
pilgrimage to the Holy Land, in order to do penance, and 
expiate thereby the horrid crime be had committed. For 
fome time he concealed his intention from the ftates ; but all 
things being ready for his journey, he made public declaration 
of his vow. They unanimoufly remonftrated againft his de- 
fign, which muft inevitably involve the kingdom in number-^ 
EricV piU lefs calamities. They embraced his feet, and bathed them 
grimage /d>with their tears, befeeching that he would not- expofe to dan*. 
the Holy ger a life upon which depended the felicity of a whole king- 
Land. 3om ; but Eric was inflexible. He accordingly purfued hisjour-^ 
ney, and pafling through Greece ^ yN^s honourably and magni-^ 
ficently entertained by the emperor Alexius^ From Conjianti'- 
Dies at nople he took (hip for Cyprus^ and there ended his days a ihort 
Cyprus, time after his arrival. His death fo afflided Bathilda his 
queen, and faithful cortcipanion of his pilgrimage, that fliefur- 
vived him but a few hours, and was buried with him in the 

* Meurs. L IV. p. 68. 
5 / fame 

7'be Hijlory ^Denmark; ii^ 

lime tomb. T|?is event fell out^ accprding to Grammatlcui 
and Suaningiusj in the year iioi after the birth of Chrijiy 
although an author qiipted by Meurjius^ places it four years 
earlier ; and xh\i% Denmark was deprived of an excellent king, 
tbrough a falfe. and q;iiftaken devotion. Eric was furnamed , 
theGood^ from an exceifive , benevolence in his difpofitibn, " 

which rendered him the fure friend and patron of thediftreffed ^^^""^ 
and unfortunate. His afFability was fo great, that he con* 
verfed with his meaneft fubjei^s, received their complaints, 
and relieved them, either hy his authority, or out of his own 
private purfe : yet had he the addrefs of blending the dignity 
of a king with the humility of a fubjed j for he was equally 
beloved by his nobility and commons, and rerpe£led by all the 
neighbouring powers; We are told that his eloquence was 
fo greats that his wa^ never under the neceffity of exerting his 
authority in the fenate : the irrefiftible perfuafion that hung 
upon his tongue carried all before it ; and if. he was ever op- 
pofed, it was only that his people might have the facisfadion 
of yielding to the fweetnefs of his oratory. However abfurd his 
piety may appear in thefe more enlightened days, his implicit 
faith in the pope*s infallibility was the fault of the times : in 
other refpeds he pra6lifed the rigid precepts of morality^ 
which are ever infeparable from true religion j and the laffi 
ad of his reign (hewed his ftrid regard to his vows, though it 
Jnay be condemned by fuch as are of opinion, that a proper 
regard to the public good might have fufficiently abfolved him 
from an obligation rafhly entered upon *. 

When Eric departed for the Holy Land, he left his fon 
Harold regent of the kingdom ; but the ftates being made ac- 
quainted with his death, recalled Nicholas^ paid his ranfom to 
the earl of Flanders^ and placed him upon the throne, out of 
refpeft to the promife they had made to his father on his 
death-bed. They were urged the more to this by the feverity 
of HarolcFs manners, which they forefaw would render them 
unhappy, if they raifed him to the throne, Belore the arrival 
of Nicholas^ Swejiy relying upon his intereft with the diet of 
IViburgj put in his claim to the crown as the elder brother^ 
and was haftening thither when he was feized by a fever, of 
which he died in a few^ays. Uhboy the next in age^ wanted 
not a party of the nobility to efpoufe his caufe ; but he de- 
clined the crown out of re(pe£t to his younger brother, whofe 
capacity, he modeftly declared, was more adequate to the 
Weight of governing j a rare -inftance of felf-denial arid bro- 
therly love* 

* Aut. citat. ibid; 
Mod. Hist. Vol. XXXII. t NjCHO- 


114 theHift^ryofiytnxMxki 


Nicholas, Thus Ae ktfkre was pat kifo *« lw«d§ rf MdJailJii 

7Yd^w*»'« firit wielckd k ^ith gt« ip^baft} fcw Mll^ 

110^' *^*'^ *^ '^^ chrtrafieri i^ 4«fge!W»rttiflg ffdtti the vifttMB tf 

^* hb ancd^rs^ aM fi^om his oWh, he Mt inftd the itii^i>ft cdft- 

tttapt (A)) Md invoWed hitftfdf HiAd hi« |^«of»te hi a varf«rf 

of ttiiisfortui^es. Ttfft br«^ch of At j^Hc trftM^ilHty M 

its iirft rife from J^ry, (on to G^ck^M^ pr'me «tf Ih« ^iML 

4iMf. This |^n6?« ^fttt the deftVufdion Of his c^umrjr in tkt 

laft rtig})| lived ^ivaMy for feme yeM iA D^ifM^k^^ b«ft^ «l 

frig's fetting 6ut fbf the Holy LaAdv foaAd dfeft^ CO rM^m. 

his hereditary doftikiione. He #aS fttfAttW to Nkick^, a^ 

hard he^jattitij bfdbught hiiH to rti{6re D^ Hi6t\m*s fi^mkOty 

bttC had always met With a harft refalkL This frtiuif«4 ikt 

young prince, and deta^mined hiM to bAve ^e^oiirfis to ariM 

Emering mto an aHiance wkh lh« N9tdMi»gu & [IMpte df 

^^;„^ w* Lo'iOirS€ix(mfi €t ^o^ty the M^ljkir$^si he focM fiiMtted afl; 

lif Danifh that coMfry tyfnfg beCv^en the E4be atod Shffi&kk. Tb^MMf l»i 

frtnjinces made futh tef /iMe itV^flKcM^ iAlO dh^ dutehy. ^rf* SkfUfkJt, that 

y^z/W <uitf/^ Nichcks^ Wh6 at thsft time fefided ?n the capital^ was foltfd f6« 

h ^kf doable hi» gtf»rds, and provide i^t the feetlriff of the ei^. 

Yaxidals. Fot this pufrpofe h>e feat to tfse fei^al ^x\% of hk deirrfni#«^ 

for cro6p^, smi aftfortuAately coiM^ed thalt ffaft to £ii¥^i\ 

a noble^afr, who hfeM a clailrfeftine eori^^cymfcAce Witli j^jbt** 

/7, and ftipulat^d with hii¥i tfo betray his rdyal maflfer, WMll 

this view he ufed all ^offlbU dela'^ '*k nftafchiAg the tfbC^ i 

SMvd, to cover his treachery^ was e^tS^r^iaHy fending elK^rt^s: 

to Nlchhs^ r^e^refenti^g ihe d(5eafion Of hils dihffOrtrifel^ »d 

raifing (bufie riew drffi)ci»lty. At kn%gth thto ikhmtf iHifimB^^ 

imd with theih NiiMau M iS/iw's plcrfea&o^y dettfrmiMd &j 

gWe battre to Henty. The event Ml Otit «» the fmHof ftiMf^l 

few : Henry' ^ hbrfe bfrfiifce and p« lA cOnftifioii l^ bstkij^ ill- 

. fantry ; sfAd now, when k was loo late» th» pttfii^^&&^ 

was difcovered. Nkhohs was deffia«e(fj and fofeei to mrMr 

with preclpittftion mto D^^«9)ki>i ; wtosre he ih> fooMfr ssprived. 

thaA he dhrelted ^he ti«adh«rOifS Eim of aH his eMfiofttMAMI^ ^ 

and confifeateki his eftate, betievtifkg that^ and lA fieedTai^ cdA** ' 

feq^iente, povM^» (o be a fMi^ feveif^ptfnifiimetft tbtfii death 


^ Mitral. 1. \<f, 

(A) Here woald feem to be period, hdd die office of ie* 

^ an inter-regnam of fix years, as gent ; and fo indeed wd find k 

Eric died in the year 1 70i» and afierted by Suamnnus^ thbugli 

Nicholas was not placed in .the this h& is omitt^ by all tM 

throne uiuil the year nog. It is other biftorians. Vid, p. 74. 
probable, that^tfr9///^duribg this Iv. 

9ie i0afy if Beitimtfk; 115 

lir tKe meta Wh9e /£»ryj, ^owci bold by bis viflbtyj maS^ 
fifiore <treadKjl i^Curfiohii rato ^e Damfo territorfeSy and» ky* 
kig ^H^ide all the fisa-coalfs, made an attenlpt on Shfwick ; 
bat #as repulfed with I06; Canute^ the ibn of Erie the late (;Janute, 
ktflfg, and nephew to NiMatj perceiving the nriiiery to which fji,e/on pf 
kim fine durtchy of Siefwick vrU reduced by the cnrelty of the Eric, oh^ 
Fdtnimlt^ reqoefled the government of a country which had been fains the 
iftfufed, on account of the danger, by m^ny of the hobi^ity. govern^ 
Wii^ a great derf^ of mtreaty and intereft^ he at length th-^^^^f- 
luined it, and hnmedtatety fet out to perform the duties, of his Siefwick, 
empJbyment. His firft meafurfe was to offer propofate oV^^ohUget 
l^cc to Heriry^ which he aflii>cd htm he wouW wilhngly en-^*[.^*°' ^ 
lertmdi without any other conditions than his indemnifying^ ^*;^^ 
the dmcfty oi Sbfmdt for her teflesi And the king of Dammrlt^^ 
tor th)e ejcpk^nces he had been at m the war. Thefe wera • 

to^s which he was feifffiUe the haughty fpirit of Hey&y^ now 
tendered more infoient and untradsMe by profperity, would 
i^/hOt^f and therefore prdvidiBd accordihgly» by raifinga body ' 
W tiMps wtth the utmoft eitpedition and fecrecy. With them 
^ marehied in the middle of the nighty with all poffible iilence^ 
dirie6Uy to a caftle on the frontiers of Sl^ick^ where Henry 
fctpt his head-quarter^, and waft fortiTnate enough to iurround 
^t placb before the vahdd prince received any intimation of 
his marcfi; In thb iituation, Htnry^ perceiving that refiftance ^ 

insKsSA be fruidtfs, inounted his horfe, and by a fecret^ath 
ihade hts efcape, leaving the cafile to be plundered by the 
t^mjh foMieri^ Who did not f4il to retdtate the many injuries 
ttfcy Jkad received from him *. ♦ 

, HEffRlTs efcape occafioned a prolongation of the war : he 
levied a ftrong body of troops, with which he had frequent 
fitirmiflies withC^tif^, without ever venturing upofi a general 
Engagement. At length the Dane, tired out with the tediouf* 
hdfs of a war which bept him in perpetual apprehcnfion, de* 
termihed'tofinifli it by one decifive ftfoke. He augmented C^ute 
Hs army, entered tUc ttitmfs country, laid it wafte, and^^' 
flJlin defeAicd Henry, who had hazarded a battle. The™"^ 
*»nfeqnence was, that Hinry fued for peace in the moft f^P-^^^*Van* 
pleating and abjeft terms, promifing to fubmit to *«y ^crms^^^ 
which the conqueror would think fit to impofe. His fubmif- 
ficm Was immediately accepted by the magnanimous G7»tf/^, 
l^ho, fays Grammaticus, after Virgil, wasfatisficd with humbling 
« haughty foe, and delighted with extending his clemency 
to the conquered. He immediately took horfe, attended only 
^ an eirort of twenty peribns, and entering Hmrf% domU 

* Saxo Grjim* 1. xiii. 

I 2 mont • ^ 

1 1 6 Tbi Hifiory df Denmark;' ' 

nions with more valour than difcretion, fent a meflenger ta 
his caftle to acquaint him with his arrival. The Damjh mef-« 
fenger entered the caAle juft as Henry was fitting down to 
dinner ; upon which he inftantly feized his arms, and ordered 
all his people to ftand on their defence; but being told that 
Canute was come to conclude a peace, he went out to receive 
d^ - ^^""' ^^^^^ brave princes embraced each other with tears, 
rv enter ' %"^^ * peace, and entered into the ftridleft friendfhip, which 
JJ^^^y^y.^-^ continued inviolable for the remainder of their lives. Such 
friendjhtp, was the efteem which Henry conceived for Canutty that on his 
death-bed he appointed him the guardian of his infant- chil* 
dren, and put the government of his kingdom wholly into his 
hands ; nay, he had taken fuch precautions and meaiures with 
Canute'/ the emperor, that, after his death, Canu/^ found himfelf railed 
nvife polity ^X ^** means to be duke oi Aiecklemburg, Thus the valour 
hy 'which ' and generofity of Canute not only fecured the dutchy of SUf- 
he's made f^ick to the crown of Denmarky but ftrengthened the intcreft 
king of the of that kingdom, by attaching to it a brave people, ever be- 
Vandals, fore in a fiate of hoftility with i\i^ DaneSy and procured to 
bimfelf the dignity of a duke and prince of the empire, with- 
out art, intrigue, or ambition. Soon after the emperor in- 
vefted him with the title of king of the Vandals^ for which 
purpofe he vifited the imperial court **. 

This prince reigned fome years with the utmoft reputa- 
tion, eiteemed, beloved, and refpeded by all good men ; but 
* his reign was at length difturbed by contentions, which arofc 

betweervhis fons. Ambition had fired the breads of theft 
young men, and had like to have proved fatal to the dutchy 
r){ Siefwick ; but as thefe tranfaSions have no immediate re- 
lation with the Hiftory oi Denmark^ it will be fuiiicient to add, 
that the prudence of Ctf/itf/^ triumphed over the headftrong 
ambition of his children, whom he reconciled with a parental 
authority, as well as by the eftecm and awe with which bis 
charadier imprefled their minds ^. 

In the mean timq, the king of Sweden dying, the Oftrf' 
goths. chofe another king in his room ; but the Swedes^ be- 
lieving that the right of election belonged only to themfelves, 
put to death the OJirogoth king, and chofe Magnus^ the fon of 
Denmark, Nicholas king of Denmark, This prince marrying a daughter 
Sweden, ^f (j^g \i\ti^ o( Poland, w^s by that means involved in a war 
andVO' ^jjjj VratiJlauSy prince of Sdavonia^ into which he likewife 
land imtte ^^^^ j^j^ father Nicholas^ not as an auxiliary, but a principal 
jFrv -^^^'" the quarrel. Denmark^ Poland, and Sweden, being com- 
n^a^r* '^"^^^ againft Vratijkus^ he. found himfelf under the neccifiiy 

^ PoNTAN. 1. V. Meurs. 1. IV. « Qram.' ibid. 

The Hijiory of Denmark. 117 

of making prc>pofals of peace extremely .advantageous to the 
alfics ; but Nicholas would admit of no overtures unxil he had ^ 
fubdued the greater pTLVt of Sclavonia : after which he irtfifted 
iipon the conquered prince's making his fubmifHon in peffon ; 
and was weak and perfidious enough to break the parole of 
honour he had given for the fecurity of Vratijlaus^ and retain 
him prifoner, until the remonftrances of Canuiey king of the 
Fandahy obtained his liberty. Nicholas afterwards thanked 
the generous Canute for this interpofition, which, he faid, had 
faved his and the national reputation, which muft ha\^e re- 
ceived an indelible ftajn fromfo notorious a breach of public 
faith. He then vented his indignation againft the advifers of 
, fuch unworthy and diflionourable meafures ; yet, after all, his 
generofity proved the ruin of the noble-minded Canuu, His His^vir- 
enemies incrcafcd in proportion to his virtue, and they were tues ra^ 
overwhelmed with fhame and confufion at his fuperiority of him a cloud 
charafler: far, however, from endeavouring to imitate \i\%of tnmies. 
example, they laboured to remove this mirrour of true honour, 
that only ferved to refleift with redoubled force their own dif- 
grace. They found means of infmuating into the head of the 
credulous Nicholas^ that ambition was the bafis and fpring of 
all Canutes aftions ; that, far from being fatisfied with the ' 
crown he wore, and with the clutchies of Slefwick and Hot^ ^ 
fieini he afpired at a ftill higher dignity ; and that his popula- 
fity was paving an eafy way for his afcending the throne of 
Denmark. As his own children were in the number of ac- 
cufers, the weak Nicholas the more readily credited thefe 
flanders, equally falfe and infidious, and only now watched 
k fair opportunity of robbing Denmark of its greateft orna- 
pent and fupport. 

In the mean time, Nicholas prepared to celebrate the nup- 
tials of his fon with a princefs of Poland ;. for which purpofe 
the nohility and vaflals of Denmark appeared with all pof« 
fiblfe magnificence at Ripen^ and among the reft Canute^ ^^^ J couAU 
cclijjfcd them all in fplendor and pomp^ as much as he did in ^^^ ^. ' 
merit. This circumftance addeid fuel to the fire that waS^^/^ ^iV 
foon to confume him. The king of Denmark was now con- Hfi. 
vinced of the truth of all thofe treacherous infinuations that 
were daily whifpered in his eat ; whi\c Canute^ guarded only 
by his innocence, and Unacquainted with the machinations 
carried on againft him, gained the cfteem and affeiStion of all 
worthy mert/ The plot was ready to* break out againft him, 
when a fudden revolt in Pomerania called hini to his own 
country, and for a time poftponed his fate. Here he quickly 
fubdued the rebels, and afterwards returned to Denmark to re- 
• ?pive his foverelgu's applaufe ; but how was he tbunderftruck 

I 3 9X 

xi8 Tbil£i/icfycflkixaittk^ 

9t the coM reception, nay, iht ftem ^peA of tbe Siij Ma^ 
/i75, on His 3ppraj»cihing (bat throne, tp .which he fidde^ ^^ fwA 
luftre. Inftjindy he bc^eeched his ms^efty, to ac^Mtiim |^ 
y ith the caufe oif a con4u& fo dif ereac fro(n ^¥bat ^ ibtlei;^ 
himfelf with ; hfi offejoed tp Aihrnit h^is a^ic^is ito ^ q»o# id!- 
rtute fcrijtiny } he brcatii^d ^olihing b«^ loyaky Jind duty, ^ 
e^prefied hlmielf with (o noble bfttt i;eipe^ful firm^» of aiiad;i 
Dh^t qgeen MwrgarfU Z wopian q( great pflMktQQe ^d yirtij^ 
cfpoufed his caufe, and, d^riDg h?r W* iryft^iied ^ the ^' 
, tempts of his enemies. TJws epcc/jllent prif^oe^, l\<^vf^y,p[^ 
T/fd^M(en J fViUing into a dangerQHS inaUdy, h^ (otm lofi i^bfit ;^fy of U; 
Cd^m ^^^^ ^^^ patronefe of merit. On i\er de^tb-bed ^t fcnt % 
^ J C^njdte^ and tpld him, " th^t his grc^cft jsneoiVQS wcr/B t^^ 
*^ whom nature and duty Qugbt the mo|l firmly to bii\^ ^ ^his 
^^ intereft. She recommpnde^ to him to eftabli^Pi) bV9K3^ anj 
f < tranquility at home ; to gain th^s loye ^i con^dcpcp pf i»i| 
^^ own children, which would be a cfsrtain barrier agair# fd) 
M ^e ir^uationjof other enemies. They h^,&e f^id, tb$ 
*^ king'5 ear, who allowed great weight to jthe allegat^ns^ 
^^ thoie who were f^pppfed b^ft acquaiiued with i^e privailf) 
^' dcfi^ns pf their own father. 5he was now departjUig ooj 
f* of life, and woijld die con^nted in the tbQM^ts^ ,th^ 
<* this intelligence, the goodneg of the AIp?ig^yt thp juiU^ 
i' of Canutit caufe, and his pwn integrity, prudence, and 
« virt«*e wouW furmpunt all difficulties^ pr^erye Denmai^ 
«' from thp calamity of a civil w^r, and enable hind t^ tri- 
f umph oyer all bis adverfaries *". With which words tbiff 
pious and noble-nninded prijaqef? icefigwed hex laft breathl ^ 
nuti was moved no lefs with tti^ death pf fo generous a Iriei^ 
than wi^h the particulars of her dying wprds. He w«^ 
ihocke^ at the vnnatur^ condu^ of hisown chi|di?en, gnd 
I^f Wt greatly per^xcd in what mumner tp e^ccuAe tbie fn^^^foai^ 
mtesrene^ adviqe pf his queen. Bcfci^e he h^ fettled ^y p^an <i/i opcr. 
tpe^rat' ration, bis.eopmies, tajtjng adyaj|»t^epf her gDaiefty'sdei^th, 
f^^*i* prevailed i^pon .|be king Xo bavje ihim fpl^iiiQiy pM heSf» ^ 
general diet pf the ftates, where hp w^s accufejl pf heinpii^ 
criuKs, and particularly pf ^ defigp uppp the cjf^mn of P<«- 
wM ; bwt fuch was thjp elo^upnpepf Cmute^ inipircd by cpn- 
fcious 4nnof enc^e. that evpn now ^ baffled all bis fp^s, aiui 
fully cpnyince^ Nicholas of -his honpu rand joy^liyX 

iNoT w iTja^TANi)||Jp this vi^f>ry, it yr^ not Ipng i|ei^ 
^nalice foupfl means to ret^}f/ the attack jwith redoubled vigour^ 
after having drwp thp ypiwig qucjcn ifito their parjty, j^ 
foon wrought a change upon the mind of NUM^^ s^ni per- . 

» Saxo^ 1. xiii. Poi»Yan. iWd. Me^rs. 1. iy. !> Act. 

fHat. ibid. * - 


AhkM bicB that ht. oouM not cxpcA AfagmtSy Us fi>n» fhould 
ever fuc^eed to kis cravn, while QmtUd t^oytd fuch a fliare 
cf popiilari^ as cyca ai]^ed Kimfelf, aod made him totter ia 
|hethi^n«. Ad a/ccideatadd#dftrengikioker Aiggeftions; for 
iRMfu goiag to $b^m€ky the governnEMint of Catmu^ both 
luogs had ocqafion to appear with thflii royal badges at Some 
INnblie afiemhly, whfn Mtholoi ^ntf ring firft, feated bimfelf 
An his throne at one end of the hall, and was ibon followetl by 
Canmi^ who did the fame in the oppofite end, without remem* 
hering to pay the ezpeded compliments at his firft entrance. 
As foon as be recolleifi^ed himielF, he leaped- down in the ut* 
moft con&tioB to apologise for the ooaiffion ; hut Nicholas 
eopftrued t|t ipto pride, and the queen» with her party, wrefted 
it iiifio the moft invidious fenfe. In eoiofei|iien£e thie king af-> ^* ^^'^ ^ 
femUed, with d^ utmoft privacy, the leading men of the hc'/^^^'^ 
tion, and, after haying hound them to feprecy^ by an oath, J^y ^^^ 
dbclared his wifli, that fo dangeroi^ a patbxk as Canufi might ^^^^'^^ 
he taken off, in fuch a manner as wteuld not excite the cla^ ^'' 
ttQur$ of the people, whofe idol he was (A). The manner 
Hf the oaih was unufual) in order to render it more folemn 3 
for it was taken neither in a kneeling, fitting, or (landing 
pofture, 6ut with their faces proftrated on the ground. After 
this the manner of ex^uting their defign was committed to 
Magnus, who poiTefled the art of diffimulation in the gre^te^ 
pepfedion. ^his perfon invited, according to the annual cuf- 
tpm, all tbtf nobiUty of the kingdom to an entertainment on 
lh» ChriftrnaS'Evf. CanuSi was not forgot, and he, defirous of 
wiping off the late omiffion, did oof fail to obey the iiun«- 
iw»S, thpt \^^ might (hew his )^ti^ for his fovereign. He ^^ ''"^ 
Vas treated fay Jdagiuis with the moft extraordinary inftances Cv^ ^ 
ffi efteemi T^e perfidious friend told him, that the gcnero* Magnus. 
fty of hjs c^ndi^^, and ftcady adherence to virtue, had blotted 
ftttt all fu(pici(^ in the king's mind, and united the whole 
klngdoqa in one chorus of applauie* and admiration of his. 

Eat jt(aalities. He faid, tl|at intending a pilgrimage to the 
ly Land, he would requeft it of CauuU^ as a prpof of his 
frlendihip, that be would charge himfelf with the guardianfhip > 
pf bis childsen, and fuperint^ndeocy pf his a^aira during his 

{k\ qraninuuhus ^y%i thas the y^ung queen, that pre- 

hwas not the king, who could fided at this clandeftine meet- ^ 

l^st be broagkt to co|ifent to the lug ( i). Other hiftoriaas men* 

death of Cannt^, but his fon tion the king aQ if perfonally 

?%9«J, won over by the art ^ere (a), 
^a intreaties of his ftepn^othee 

(1) OrJfm, /. xil, (%) M€¥rff Hift. Dae, /. \y, 

I 4 abfence, 

1 20 ^he Hift^ of Denmark; 

abfence, as there was hot a perfon of whofe capacitor and iii^ 
tegrity he entertained fo high notions. In a word, he faid 
every thing which could flatter, cajole^ and confirm Canute ia 
his opinion, thathe was perfectly reconciled^ becaufe he rpok« 
truth, the' it was for the bafeft and moft perfidious purpofes. 
After he had fufliciently lulled Canute's fufpicions, he formed his 
plan, and hearing that he propofed vifiting a fiftec in the coun- 
try, whither he would carry but few attendants, fixed upon 
* this as the proper occafion for his deflru<S^ion. The day ar* 

rived, and Canute:^ who had no fufpitrion of treachery, tho* 
his wife hiid lent a meirenger from SUfwhck to acquaint him of 
the coriipiracy, fet out with no more than four attendants (B). 
Canute He was attacked in a little wood by Magnus^ fupported by a 
falls a fa- large body of confpirators, and flain before he fcarce had any 
crifice to fufpicion o» the treachery of this artful friend, and with fuch cir- 
ihe amhi' cumftances of deep diiHmulation and favage cmelty, as render 
Hon and (his ttory one of the moft pathetic in hiftory, though our plan 
P^My 9f will not permit us to dwell upon particulars. Thus fell the 
,'^^^ generous, the great Ctf;ja/^, the ornament of Z>/»/wfljrif, and 
^^ ,y^ the greateft hero of his age. ^His virtues, Which had laifed 
^ten^' him from a private ftatian to a throne, were nowthecaufe 
' of his deat^, by the hands of wicked confpirators, who could 

not fee, without envy, themfelves eclipfed in the-eyes of the 
people by fuch fuperlative merit ^. 

The news of his death feon reached Rofchild^ the then re- 

fidence of the court, and the king himfelf coUld not help 

ihedding tears at the lofs of this great man, thb' he was privy 

ne *whoh to the plot. The people were inconfolable, they poured out 

kingdom in imprecations agaiiift the murderers, and nothing prevented 

<3 tumult,^ j^„ univerfal infurrecftion befides the confideration, that now all 

their endeavours would only augment the public calamity, 

without being able to recal him to, life. His friends folicited 

the king for leaye to bury him with the pomp becoming his 

quality and merit, in Rofchiid\ but this he prudently declined, 

from an apprehenfion of the con fequences that might flow from 

fo aSe^iing a fight as his mangled corpfe being expofed to the 

^ SaxoGram...U xiii» M^uas. 1. iv* Pontah. 1. v. 

(B) His wife Ingeburga re-: mitrd, flighted the intelligence 

ceiving fome intelligence of the as the effe^s of her love apd 

plot, fent a trufty meflenger fear, faying, that it was impof* 

vvith the iitn>Qft expedition to fible Magnus could be fudi % 

inform him of his danger ; but villain, and fo mean a hypo^ 

QanutCy like a truly generous crite (j). 

. (i) Af«r/. /,iv. 

^beHiftdry of DtnmzrV: t2f 

people. He was therefore privately interred at Rlngftad^ with- 
out any other monument than what he h^d eftabliihed in the 
hearts 6f the affedionate Danes^ who to this day adore his 

MJg NUSj after this infamous exploit, returned to Rof- 
(hild; but could with difficulty efcape the vengeance of an 
enraged populace. His party however was fo ftrong, that he 
foon quelled all oppofition, and began publicly to boaft of 
what he had performed. He now looked upon himfelf 
as the immediate and fure fucceffor to the throne, afTum- 
ing, in all rcfpefts, the importance of the heir- apparent; 
but he could little forefee how jufl and infcrutable are the 
w^ys of Providence, which, fooner or later, never fails to pu- ^ 

jiifh the wicked and unjuft. Ingeburgq^ the wife of Canute^ Camite'i 
was delivered of a fon about eight days after his murder : the <w(/e tkfi*^ 
infant became dear to the public, from the love they bore to *v€rtdef4 
his father. Harold znd Eric^ his uncles, were appointed hisy2/r, and 
guardians, and joined with the brave fons of Scialmond^ his guardiams 
coufihs, to vindicate the caufe of opprefled innocence, de- ^ppointc^,. 
^ermining, at leaft, that he (hould fucceed to the crown of **"*• 
the Vandals^ the dukedom of Holftein^ and the government of 
Slefwick (A). They held an aflembly of their friends at 
Ringjiad^ where they pathetically lamented the fate of the 
deceafed, enumerated his qualities, and, in the manner of 
Marc Anthony^ expofed his rent and bloody cloaths to the 
view of the populace, craving their aid and affiftance to avenge *' • 

his memory, and fupport his infant fon. All were fired with 
the afFeding fight ; they cried out for arms, and defired to be 
inftantly led againft the barbarous and perfidious murderer, 
phuftng Eric for their general •*. 

The king foon had intelligence of this tranfa£Hon, and jj^ i^figf^ 
immediately confulted Afcer the primate, in whofe fidelity and reSionof 
prudence he greatly confided, what rteps (hould betaken 'xnfbepeopU 
fo dangerous a conjun£hire. After many propofals it was de- h revenge 
termined, that Magnus fhould be concealed, and that iht the death of 
king fhould immediately. proceed to Ringjf ad, and there con-Canute^ 
yoke the peoplp. His edi<ft was publiflied, and when the day 
grrived, Eric niade'a fpeech, adapted to inflame the minds of 

* MoLEswQRTH, c. vi. - ^ Saxo Gram. 1. xiii. 

(A) The reader has fcen that people thought them among 

Canute had other fons ; but hif- the number of the confpirators* 

tory takes no notice of them in and therefore unworthy to fuc-* 

the prefont cafe, probably be- cced to their father's aown. 

jcaofe EriCf Harold^ . iand : ti^e 


tint pftfmlacc; wbijch bsid a violept eflnbd| umi) ti)e pHmall 

Uppc^red, ^nd l)y his fvioDing manner ^,v4 perfMf^Gve «lf^ 

^i^encc fippc^red the tunaujf, ^nd 4euripippfi f)v? Pft^pip t9 ifr 

ceive their fovereign with becoming refpedL Whjie the prb- 

m^itc w|M gpne tQ ifitrodiice the l^iyig, Erk^ failing the oppoN 

t^^icy, oiade a flioft fpeech) which (bpn rPtifed thefn toc);^ 

fcirB)^r feotiraent^, 9i)d cc^firoaei) tbegi in their reljoJutions ^ 

rcvpngp. Op the king'? arny^J he w?« received ^jth a fHlkp 

^urmvrifig, which ran tbroi^g|i the whole a^einbly.; m^ 

)frhich ^rif again loGC) apd tpid him, that thp friepfds of Qo- 

.^^4, an4 the natioif jn general, demanded that jqfiice flioiilji 

Manos ^ «^ccuied on the inurdcrers of (hat great n^^q. tje W9I 

iamjhedio ^WPP*^^^*^ '^Y ^'^^ whole aflcmUy ^ and the king fgund it nff 

JL^;^ ^^ $:effary to his own fafety that he (bouW propaife that 4^ 

ftt^ ^f^ Q2o^ld immediately be fept into perppti^^I eyile, i^hiqi 

^^^ H^aa 911 he CQu]d obtain in hjs behalf froRi fhP people^ whp 

^pi^ght they ba4 ilbewD great lenity in fp^rii^g fo unworthy |( 

Thilm ^^ compliance with his oath, Nichoia^ fcnt Magnns (9 

recals Oftf^^g^tb^ where, by his influence, he was crfatea kmg} » 

Magnus, \^^^^^^ ®f patcrn^il affeaion agaipft whiph the people Qiewpj 

which oc- po rf fentfncpt : but, unhappily, h^ wm p^rfM^^ed fooii aftcf, 

fofitffu an hy ^hofe who had been epgagpd with MagPKs in the cqufpi- 

pfen rthel- r^cy, tp rccal hiin to J)enmari^ fis h^s heir ^pp^ffcn^ Tbif 

Hon,, head' r^ifed a fprfpent in the l^ingdona, 9f]d ^bligpd £rK an<J /fcratf 

^iy Eric ifn^^^i^tcly to conwenp the peoplp at RingJ^d^ Here thq^ 

^t forth thp king's perficjy and breach pf vows, whi^h, tbci 

^ffirmiedt .rendered hiin uqwprthy of thf prpwn h^ wore \ apd 

pbt^jpcfj a refolution of the aflcmbly, \h^t both he and vl&|^ 

i7V^ Aould b^ perfecuted as enemies \q thp patipfi : the aifon? 

h)y fjifther infifte^i upon Eric's accepting the crov^n. which 

p^| pf poljcy h^ refufedy until he ihouid meri( it hy hi^ (^f? 

vjciEs, and forpp fignal afl^ pf valour. An army,, however, 

W?s in(l4Ptly r^ifpd, with which £riV marched dire^ly tpji^ 

laiad, where Nicholas at that Mqf^c w^f» 9Pd WP"W imm?diaUl| 

h^ve ipade him prifoner, h^d ppt the policy of Trto*^., bifti^f 

pf P^ip^n^ diverted bis intentiop. This pelate ip^d^ ufe pf 

fqcb fpecioi|s argurppnt§ in 4efenpp of the King'i cqad»*dj 

which he urged arofc from neceflity, rather than afiedion for 

MagffHS i he related fp ivany plaufifale fchemes, whipb h^ dc- 

fcrmined to execute as foon as opportunity offered, thzt Eric's 

impetuofuy was checlped ; 4nd h^ cRc^mpfd in the Bl:^^ he 

then w^s, with a view IP receive pfopofals frpni NLcktiiqi. H'f 

tfpops were fufiered 10 forage, and wander round (h^ ^puntry, 

?. Ibid, etiam Pomtav. 1. t« 

^ ;:eputadojti ijf grpet picxy. Tj^is w^ the opppaunity Eric A- 
jfrj^h i^^/Vi^tf/^ Wj^t^d, ai¥l he ii^prQve;<) it to fuch zAs^n-fiatid^ 
pgt^ tl)at att^cjLijQg ^/^^ uQ^pr^p^ed^ )^e totally difperfed hi; 
jtfW, ^ter b»vipg7n^4c gie^t flagjgjatcr jp his cfiipp. Erif'% 
fj^y at this ire(b lpil?ACie of his perfidy, wais iocour 
feimhie ; ^d, ipdee^dj the ilfy^eHion gt the nation ro(f 

J)ov^ t^ fuel) a height^ as not ^ be iaci^iied yiritb l^s tban th^ 
fves zp4 Cfp'^n pi ^ichoki 9nd fidagnuf. ^i^otber aflembly 
jp^s held, saii^ ^nV i^ow accepted the foeptre wbjch he beforf 
fjeffiied : an arxay iiArai;^ railed with ^1 expedition, apd ambfiQ^* 
i^s wmic^tQ p|ive the aflifi^oice of the ^mftioi f^othariut^ 
jp rcvefiging the cauTe of Canuffj for whqn^ be bad alwayp . ^ 
Lrpfeiief) the i^o^geii f/iendihip. f^otharim promifed every 
puDg to thp fiaibailkdor^ : he bad^ in fa^, no other view than 
|be e;ftepiripn of the en^pire, which he thought might eaiUv 
|]e effe^Sed by fe^^og upon the D(inifi prpvinces, bordering 
pn bi3 dopiinions, during the heats pf a civil war,* For tbij) 
fi^pofe he levied an ^ripy \ ^ marching into H^lfttiny hf 
l^nd ^Uh^las encapped with a ftrong bpdy of forces behind 
the wall oCpanetf^ar^* Here, inftead of giving him battle. 
)^e entered upon a treaty, created Magnus a prince oT 
|he epipire, ^nd thep drew pjBF his ari»y. ErU^ who b^ 
fom^ to Sl(/ivifi ^ith a fleet to fuppori the emperor, wa$ 
^os^Q^e^ 9t hi« treachery -, and, upbraiding him with perr 
|dy ajdd iCowardice, told him, th?t ii/f7^j?ttx, he doused noC^ 
yirpuJd return bif flavours with the fame ingratitude he had df»r>^ 
thofeof CtfTW^^; a prognoftic that was fooi) verified by th^ 
pftt^i fox Jltagnys^ muMy deaf to tbe dj^^ites of honour Tie smit^ 
jffA confcience, fell Mppn the rear of the Imperialifts, cuHitudeof 
fjierp offj^ and obliged Adolphui^ who led tH^p. p^rt of the army, Magnus 
t9 ^ue his life by iwimming *. ^« ^ «|? 

Jn the mean yvhile, f^ric^ baying |io hopes pf affiftancf/^ror* 
ftom the 4pp?pjBror, retyrrjed to Zealand^ and there received 
^fnbalfedors from the ^ing of tlorpj^y^ who demjmded the in- 
fant (oft of ConuU in m»rf i^e for his daMgbtei'. Pleafed vith 
|he bpp^s of jTo ppiverful an ;»l}y, fis tbi9 connexion woul4 
produce* l)$ ^fiured tbe .ambajf&dors, that he was ready to 
^Rter uppp a frejity witl^ tbc'f ^'og. ^nd would with pleafure 
embr^Ae ev^ry opportupuy of cultivating his friendfhip by the 
ftrpogeft (ies ; tp tefiify which, he immediiuely offered the 
king bis Diec:e in {Dwiage, i^nd gity^ pledges for the faith of 
Ifv^ nephew. • 

SoTij pgrt,ie§ iviw prepared for nvar ; and Nicbfiks drew ta 
^is fide all the biihops oi Jutland^ and feveral of the principal 
f Meuks, l.iv. 
3 .nobjlitj 


fhe Hiftory of Denmark? 

Eric de- 

nobility of the kingdom, befides the confpiratorS) who ^ 
all ftrongly attached to his intereft. In Ericas army were hit 
brother Harold^ with his two fons, who could not help 
efpouHng his honeft caufe, though they were difpleafed at hit 
elevation in preference to Harold the elder brother, the bifhop 
of Rofchild^ and Chrijiiern^ a nobleman of great influence and 
perfonal valour, to whom he gave the command of the forcd 
intended to oppofe the king in Jutland^ while himfelf with 
the fleet fhould attack Magnus. He foon came up with his 
^]i/iMag- *"^^go">ft> and, after a briflc aSion, totally dcftroyed and 
•^03. took his fleet, Magnus making his efcape in a boat. Bat this 

good fortune was counterballanced by a vidory which thd 
king gained over Chrijliern by land, who was made prifoner, 
Nicholas and carried to Slejwick. Before Eric received advice of his 
defeats the general's defeat, he was fo elated with his own good fortune, 
landarmjf U^at he entered the gut o( Jlberg^ with intention of landing 
^Eric. his forces, joining Chrijliern^ and gaining an eafy viiftory over 
the king. * This rendered him Icfs rigid in point of difcipline, 
fo that he permitted the fpldicrs to relax themfelves after their 
confinement on board by ftroUing round the country ; an im- 
prudence which the king did not fail of turning to advantage. 
Me attacked Eric in this fituation, and defeated a great part 
of his army. Nor was this all his lofs ; for Harold, bis bro- 
ther, envious of his dignity, and perceiving the king's caufe 
bore a better afpeS, defertcd him, and carried over a ftrong 
reinforcement to the king's army. Happily however for Eric^ 
the winter came on, and prevented the king purfuing his 
advantage, or even keeping the field **, 

Before the next campaign Sweden revolted, and created 
Licercoj a nobleman of high rank, fovereign. He imme- 
diately afliimed his independency by a very extraordinary ad, 
which was no other than debauching Uvildoy wife to king 
Nicholas^ whom, for the more fecurity, he had fent into 
Sweden, Early in the fpring Nicholas took the field, and 
joined battle with Eric^ greatly inferior to him in ftrengtb, 
and obtained fo complete a victory, that Eric was forced to 
fly into Norway, accompanied only by his wife, his natural 
fon Swen, and a few attendants. Here he was at firft kindly 
received, until Nicholas bribed the Norwegian king to put him 
to death, or deliver him into his hands ; but Eric efcaped this, 
danger by means of the queen his niece, who privately fent 
hi n notice of what was tranfadling. Upon this he inftantly 
wote to his friends in Langland^ to fend a (hip to Norway to 
f a-ry him off. The (hip arriving, he artfully contrived to 

de/erts to 
the king. 

Eric de- 
feated by 
fbe kino. 

jnio Nor- 

^ S^xo Ck\k* 1. xiii. Pont AN. U iv; 


The Hifiory of Denmark; 115 

dbpc frofti Ac caftie,' where he was confined under pretence 
bf being fecure againft the machinations of Nicholas^ by ine- 
briating the guard. As the ihip's crew were determined to 
hazard all for their king, he foon found himfelf as fafe as 
fb flend^ a force could make him, and wafted into the midft 
of his friends in Langland. As they coafted along the (horey 
they found feveral of Magnus*^ fhips intirely deferted by the 
crews, who were making merry on ihore ; and to prevent 
their being again ferviceable, they bored them through the 
bottoms, and funk or deftroyed them, with ail pofTible filence 
and expedition. The report foon fpread that Eric was 
efcapcd \ but Magnus was in no condition to purfue him, his 
fleet being wholly deftroyed *. * 

ERIC^ having now got among his friends, refolved toEric«wii«t 
make one more attempt to revenge Canutes caufe, punifh thc^^*^* 
i^xMxoMS Magnus^ and eftablifh himfelf on the throne, to which ^''^ '*'*'• 
he was elcScd by the people. His firft ftep was to hang up ^^^^ '^ 
IMoy whom Nicholas had made governor of Langland -, zn '^^ 
ignominious death he juftly merited, as one of the principal 
confpirators againft the life of Canute, After this he made a 
defcent with a fmall fleet on Schonen^ which he foon reduced, 
by means of the friends he had among the inhabitants, who 
only wanted an opportunity of declaring themfelves diffatisfied 
with their prefent government. Early in the fpring king 
Nicholas entered upon meafures to ftop the progrefs of his 
rival. He raifed an army, equipped a fleet, aflembled the 
bifliops and his moft warlike vaflais, and fent a number of 
fcouts abroad to examine into the fituation, number, and con- 
dition of Eric'6 force. It was not long before advice was re- 
ceived, that Eric was boldly marching to attack the king, 
though fupported but with a handful of men. The fcouts, 
who had probably been corrupted by Eric^ further declared, 
that be appeared like fomething fupernatural, riding upon a 
white horfe that raifed him into the clouds, and cut the air 
with incriediblc velocity. Nicholas perceived, that either fear 
or treachery had occafioned this phaenomenon 5 but his fol- 
diers judged otherwife, and fled with great precipitation to 
the (hips, from which they could hardly be prevailed upon to 
return. In this confufion ^riV attacked the king, and after Eric ^z- 
makiag great flaughter of his troops, intirely defeated him^/eats tbi 
having flain Magnus in the field, who in this laft adl played /^/«^. 
the hero, chufmg rather to die honourably than efcape by an 
ignominious flight ^ 

* MsuRs. 1. iv. Gram. 1. 13. * Aut. citat. ibid. 


it5 Tbi HiJiefyoft>ttimsir)L 

T^His news, reaching Norway j the klpgMagfgus wsB ia iijk 

cenfed at bis wife tor the information (he had given' Erie, bf 

Nicholas which he e(c9pc6, that be fent her back to Denmark. Aa ti 

Melons king N'tchdhs^ he elcaped with Harold into Jutland^ whtre b^ 

Harold AfiaiTembled a council of the nobles, am) declared j&r^ M 

bcctfir.^ fuccefibr of his fon Magnus^ not from any pergonal regard }Em 

had for him, bat to render it bis intereft to oppofe. his btoche^ 

trie with all pollible virulence and anicioftty. His next f^ 

^as to go m perfon to S^efwick^ in ordet to reconcile the Wf. 

fiabitants to him, who were greatly inoenfed at the murder of 

Canute their governor; His friends had done M in theif 

power to difluade biip from thb meaAire i but he was obffi* 

nately bent on it. There had always been aA annual feflivv 

held at Slefwicky aU the members of which weie obliged, pre« 

vTous to their adrhiflxon, to vow reven^ againft who^vef 

i!bouId injure any individual of the (beiety. CanM^ lurhile hd 

lived, ba4 been conftantly prefident of this focial club, as4 

by his affabiKty, kindnefs, and generofHy, bftl iiitirely WcA 

their aSefiions. C)t\ the king's arrival they inftantfy new td 

^rms ; amd in the fjpace of a few mifMitefi the city-gate^ Utao 

fiiut, the walls furrounded with armed nteo, evdry thing ill 

torn motion^ and all means of efcape cut off from NieMmi 

^ho now, when it was too late, perceived his error^ but de^ 

tdrmined to fupport the oonfequenpet with the < intfepUity eif 

an hero. His friends advifed hinn to take famSiMry in St*Fi^ 

fer*s church ; but this he refund, that he mig^t fM polhtt^ 

^e holy altar with his blood, and by that meaii^ aggrn^ 

Nicholas ^^ <^"nie of his infatuated people. However^ he end^avouveil 

pttttodeaib^^ f<^ize upon the ciudel ; but was flacn in the tumult thataiblii 

^/^Slef. between his guards and the citizens, after ht had litgtkA fvr 

wickers. ^^^ fp*ce of thirty- flVe years, according to Sax9 GrdnahaiimM 

and Meurjius ; though Pdntanus and Suaningim place hbdeiidi 

in the year 113$^ } and aH \yriter8 agree, that he aibfenddl 

ttit throne in 11 07* When his friends reprefented to Ma 

<he danger pf his going perfonally to a city fb tttwif^y ai» 

tached to Canute^ he told them, that majefty had mkhing t^ 

fear from (hoemakers and taylors ; yet did he Ml by the tends 

6f thofe very citizens he aSeded to defpife, leaving this iift«> 

ful leiTon to his fuctefibrs, that moderatbn, afiitbilityi and 

clemency, are the fureft guardians of the cro#n ; and popudit 

. hatred the mxA dangerous enemy in a itet conftitittidn (A). 

* PdNTAll. 1. r. SUAN. p. 76. 

(A) Wifh Ntcht^as ended agrttfsiWe to thepitrtrflfe heTiad 
Che reign of Swen'^ Afth fon, on his death. bed exacted from 


fie Wficrj of Dcrtmark. tejr 

E R I C Vf. 

ki ftTiri ^ the burghcrt had executed their deligri u[)ofi the Eric Vf. 
ktAg, they Marched in a tit>op to the prifbn, in which ChriJ' j^h iu^, 
fhn had be«nr tohftned fince hi^ defi^at, and (et him at Hberty. 
Their next ftep was to t)roclaiin Eric king, agreeable to a 
fehifer eleftidti in a full afiecnbty of the nobility and com* 
ttiohs of ttuUnd ztiA Scbomn. Eric having as yet no intelli- 
^eftice df What had be^n tranfa£ied in SUJhvick^ was makinj 
pfet)anrtiona fof^ finifhing the i^ar. Accordingly he pailed 
tMf #ith his fleet to Jutland, and here was firft made ac- 
^ittetf ^ith the death of Nicholas. Though he greatly re^ 
j6ietd at thid e^eht, yet believing that neither his own autho- 
i^, 6r th6 public tranquility, could be fufficientfy eftablifiied 
White his hfother liarold lived, and claimed the enfigns of 
fi^ertfgrtiy, h^ rtfolvcd to march againft him. Harold^ oh Harold 
the othW hahd, hearing of the king's. death, and £ri?s ap-^^'^W^- 
]^badi, wate greatly perplexed how to afll. His force was very ^^' 
unequal td hi$ brother's ; and hazarding a battle would Aere- 
bttt bi expofii^ him to the moft imminent danger : yet ht 
had no oth6r alternative than flyihg into banifliment. His two 
ddeft fond continued faithful to £r/V, and were now in bis - 
tatiij^ : liafold however perfuading bimfelf, that probably 
they #er6 not deftitute of filial aSe£tion, though honour 
Miged them to remain firm to their engagements, refolved to 
colifuh them fecifdtly in what manner he mould a^ in fo dan- 
gtirdos a conjtiASufe. A trufty friend had accefs to them, and 
Hity, without hefitafto^, requefled that he would efcape with He fi>s 
tS\ expedition to the king of Norway^ afTuring him, that if^^ Nor< 
ri(king a. battle would be attended with certain ruin. Thus way. 
they acquitted thdmfelves like faithful adherents to Eric^ and 
likedutifcrt children to Harold; but the former, having fome 
ifttifiiation of this fecret correfpondence, had them feized ^ 
tM, after a (boVt iiffprifonment, ordered them, at the inftiga- 
tion tXCbriftierfi^ to be drowned in the river Siey^ into which 
they were plunged headlong ». 

As foon ai Eric had fettled the ftate of affairs in Jutland 
MxASUfwicky he returned to Zealand^ where he found Harold 
fupported by a ftrong body of Norwegian auxiliaricSi and pro- 

• M£URS. 1. ir. 

hisiioble^; a ci/cuihltance ra- fively with fbme uncommon ix|is- 
tiier glofiottS to his itiediory , fortunes, Which the reader muft 
than fortonate in the iflue, as have obferved in the perufal of 
each reign was affiidkd fuccef- the preceding pages. 

^ ^ claimed 

J2S ^TA^ Hifioty of Denmark; 

Harold r^- claimed king oi Denmark at a diet held in that iflanc). Oil 
turns iviib this intelligence Eric fpeedily returned to Jutland^ and br- 
Aii tfr/»)r» dered five of the fix remaining fons of Harold to be put to 
««/£ric ' death, without remorfe or pity, for their innocence anil 
ibas bis fix affinity to himfelf. As for the youngeft fori Olaw^ he made 
fins put to his cfcape in a peafant's drefs to Sweden ^ 


Eric fuh- 




An infur- 
reSiion in 

In the mean while the Vandals^ ehcouragecJ by the intet 
tine divifions in Denmark,^ made a fudden irruption into HoU 
Jiein^ and laid wafte with terrible defblatlon every place 
through which they pafled. To reprefs their infolence, Eric 
got together a fleet'of eleveii hundred fail, embarking in eacfi 
veflel four horfemen, with their proper accoutrements, befideg 
foot ; with which armament he paflfed over into their country^ 
and fpon reduced it. From thence he went to the ifle of Ra* 
gen to punifli the inhabitants, who had not only aflifted th^ 
Vandahy but renounced Chriftianity, exercifed the moft abo» 
minable and prophane. pagan fuperftitlon, and, what more 
immediately concerned the ftate of Denmark^ the moft defpe-^ 
rate piracy on the high feas. Having fubdued them, he com- 
pelled the whole ifland to banilh idolatry, to eftablifh funds 
for the refidence of a bifhop to inftru£l them in the duties of 
theChriftian religion, and to fwear allegiance to the crown of 
Denmar'k, However, they did not long continue their fub- 
miffion ; for Eric was fcarce returned to Denmark before they 
reftored their idols, and baniflbed the Chriftian prelate. He 
was preparing to punifti them with more feverity, when the 
return of Harotdy as we have mentioned above, diverted his 
intention. Hiftory relates, that he foon removed this rival 
brother by aflailination ; but we no .where find the particular 
circumftances mentioned *=. 

During Eric*s refidence in Denmark^ fome difturbanccs 
arofe in Norway^ that terminated in the ruin of \i\ngAfagnuSi 
Harold^ who claimed the crown in confequence of his affini- 
ty to the late royal family, had fo engaged the hearts of the 
irijhy aniong whom he lived for a great number of yean, 
that they fent him to Norway^ attended with a confiderabJc 
body of troops. An infurredtion of the people immediately 
appeared in his favour ; and they ihfifted, that Magnus fhould 
receive him as his colleague. This he refufed, gave battle to 
the rebels and auxiliary Irijh^ and defeated Harold^ who took 
(helter in Denmark^ where he was kindly received by Eric. 
The truth was, revenge and policy, not humanity to the 
diftrefled, were the motives of Ericas conduct. He confidered 
t))is as a favourable occafion of puniihing Magnus for bis 

* Gram. 1. xiv. 

' PONTAN. I. V. 


Thi TSjidry if TjitnmsLTk. yj§ 

treach^rotrs attempts upon Ki^ life, in contempt df all the, 
bwi of holfjitality. HarM folichcd hh aid, airf Eric made 
IK) fcniple of promifing it as focn as he had put an end to the 
affiir, rn whi<;h the revolt of Rugen now involved him, 
A^nft tbefe iflanders he fet out a fccond time, and (b totally 
fubjefied therxi, that he apprehended ho other rebellion for (bme 
years ; after vt^rch he apJplied himfclf to the performance of hb 
obligatiorfts to Harold \ he augmented his land and fea-forces, 
and pajRed over to Norway with a very formidable army, at- 
ieMfed by Harold. Here He took (bme fea-port towns ; but 
Mi^us detlining battle;, he returned to winter in Denmark^ 
WWvhig to rcfume hb operations eatly in the ^ring •. 

Next year he returned whh a fuperior force, and coming to Eric'/ em* 
a decrfive a£fcion with Magnnsy defeated his army, and iookelty to 
Vtoi prifoner. Hb vt<£lory he difgraced by his cruelty ; for, to Ma^us, 
prevent all attempts to reinftate the unfortunate king, he put ^'*^ ^f* 
out both his eyes, deprived him of his virility, and after this^^'^V* 
Barbarous cailration, enclofed him for life in a monafteiy, 
iraiiing Harold to the throne. 

. Havin6 finiihed the war in Nsrway^ he returned to fettle ^ 
ifhe domeftic oeconomy of Denmark^ which had fillen ill 
great cbnftifron during nie long fertes of civil and foreign wars, 
in \rtiich the nation was for feveral years engaged. While The hijhop 
Itismii^d was thus ufefully employed, an unfortunate difpute^Rof- 
ardfe among the bifliops, about the archbilhopric of Lmdeny child 
thbnvabant. EfchiU bifhop ofRofchild^ fupported by the people, raifis an 
and Rico^ biAiop of Slefwick^ for whom the king entertained ^«^ 
i perfonal friendftip, on account of his attachment during the ^^nfl 
tivil war, were* the candidates. Efchil raifed an army, and . "^»*J*' 
oHigedthfe king and Rico to retire to JuOand. Here they le- " ^ 
Vied forcrfs, returned to Zealand^ gave battle to the haughty ^^^*^' 
' prchtie, and took him prifoner, keeping him in clofe confinc- 
tnent, until he was releafed at an exorbitant ranfom, and the 
ftrong interceffion of the mbft powerful of the nobility. 

This difpute being for a time laid afide, the king refumed 
his attention to rcdreft the grievances of his fubjeds, in which 
he met with numberlefs difficulties ; for, in eafmg the burthen 
of taxfes laid on the commons, he offended the nobility, and, 
in granting new honours and privileges to the latter, he only 
rivctted the chains of the former. This foon raifed a fer- 
toent in the riation, which could be cbmpofed only by his 
dtMh ; an event that was treacheroufly brought about, while 
he Was publicly adminiftring jufticc in full court), near Ripen. 
where he was ftabbed by one Plogus, furnamed Bladi a no- 

, * Saxo Gram. ibid. 
Mod. Hist. Vol. XXXII. K blcman 

,1^0 5T6^ Hijicryof Dcmnark; 

Eric mur- bleman of great fli(Hn£lion in Jutland. Thus died £m, af- 
ilired by ter a reign of icarce four years, refignipg with his laft breatk 
Plogus. a crown which he obtained by many valorous exploits, and dig- 
nified by fuch adis of popularity and juftice, as long endeared 
his memory to the commons of Denmark, He obtained, fays 
Pontanus^ the furname of Emundy from his courage and the 
dangers he had furmounted ; and of Harefooij from his agility 
and fwiftnefs, according to Meurftus and other writers ^. 

The royal family being almoft extind in the male-line, 
great difputes arofe in the diet about the fucceffion. Some 
propofed Swen^ the natural fon of the late king ; others again 
fupported the claim of Canute^ fon to Magnus^ and grandfoa 
to Eric ; while a third party, headed by Chrijliern^ of whom 
we have made mention in the late civil war, efpoufed the 
' caufeof Valdemar^ the fon of Canute king of the Vandals^ by 
his wife Ingeburga. There were many reafonable objedions 
ftarted againft all the three candidates : the firft was a baftard 
fon to a prince, who wa$ himfelf the fruit of an illegitimate 
embrace : the fecond was a minor, and the fon of a prince 
detefted by the people, on account of the murder of their fa- 
vourite Canute^ and banifhed the kingdom by a folemn decree 
of the diet : and laftly, the third was fo young, that dreadful 
confequences were apprehended from fo long a minority as 
muft eniue from his eledlion. However, the influence and 
addrcfs of Chrijiiern furmounted this laft difficulty, as the peo- 
ple were greatly difpofed to favour the offspring of a perfoa 
they had perfeflly adored. He fent privately for Ingeburga^ 
and introduced her and her infant fon to the.people, with a 
pathetic fpeech, reminding them of the noble virtues of hisfa- 
" * ther. The efFeft was fudden, and the diet, with one voicci 
proclaimed him king -, but Ingeburga^ aware of the dangers to 
which the child mull be expofed by this exaltation, vtrould by 
no perfuafions confent to his elefiion, until a regent fhouldbe 
appointed. She farther infifted, that the regent fhould adu- 
ally enjoy the badges and authority of majefly during his na- 
tural life; that his ambition might be gratified, and all caufe 
for confpiring againfl the life of her fon, removed. Thii 
was a wife precaution fuggefted by maternal tenderaefi, chat 
probably fecured the crown afterwards to Valdemar. So ftrc- 
nuoufly did flie maintain this point, that Eric^ furnamed the 
Lamby from the mildnefi of his difpofition, was chofen regent, 
or rather colleague to Valdemar^ and fole king daring the 
jroung prince's minority. He was the fon of Hacquin, who 

^ Ibid, etiam Pontan. & Msurs. Ioc. dtat. 


thi Hijiory of Denmark; 131 

iiad mtitted the late king's daughter^ and related to Eric the 
Goody by the Inarriage of his Ton Harold (A). 

It was his temper which gave rife to his elevation ; for his 
known moderation, aiid extreme love of peace and tranquility, 
caufed no jealoufy, left ambition might tempt him to uiilurb 
the public quiet \ 

ERIC V- furnaniid thi LAM S. 

ERIC V. had fcarce afcended the throne, when the divifions Erie V. 
among the clergy broke out afrefli with redoubled ^'xgout./urttdmed 
Efcbil^ bi(hop of Rofcbild^ as foon as death had removed Erie, theLamb^ 
who was the greateft obfiacle to his afpiring views, went over So//' king* 
to Sdmen^ and by the confent, and even at the perfuafion of the A. D. 
inhabitants, afiumed the title and authority of primate, with- > '39* 
out obtaining, or indeed afking the permiffion of the new king. 
The people were enamoured of the late archbifliop ; and as Ecclefia/li^ 
EfcbilwTiS his relation j they ftrenuoufly infifted that the dig- celdifputu 
nity fliould be kept in the family. This induced £nV, fur- renewed. 
named the Lamb^ to maintain the pretentions of Rico^ bilhop 
of SleJwicJtj patronized by the late king, and likewife to curb 
the ambition and infolence of EfehiL Obferving, however^ 
theobftinacy with which the whole province of Schonen ef* 
poufed his caufe, and that degrading hi^ would neceilarily 
be attended with a civil war, he dropped the defign rather 
than difturb the tranquility of the kingdom. The difpute 
about this archbifhopric of Lunden was the firft occafion the 
kingi of Denmark had to repent their having invefted their 
turbulent prelates with temporal authority, and elevated them 
to fuch a pitch 6f graqdeur, as rendered them haughty, info* 
lent, and even dangerous to their fovereigns. In fome mea- 
iure to gratify Rico for his difappointment, £r/V made him 
jthancellor of Denmark^ and gave him the bifbopric of Rof^ 
Aildj vacant by the removal of Efihil ^. 

Amidst thefe tranfadions, Olaus^ the fon of Harold^ who 
efcaped the mallacre in which his brothers perilhed, by order of 
the late king, now returned to Sweden^ and publicly demanded 
bis father's eftate that had been confifcated. This the king 
lefufed, pleading a law pafTed in the reign of Frotbo tbe Great^ 

• Saxo, 1. XIV. * Saxo, ibid. Pont an. I. v. . 

(k)Grammaticus9pmianuSyZTidi the alliaoce arofe by the mar* 

Mturfius, make ufi; of the word riage of Ericas fbn, and not by 

con/anguineus, to cxprefs this any mixture of blood with Eric 

affinity, though improperly, as himfelf (i). 

(l) yid, Auff, citat, ikid^ 

K 2 fcy 

132 ^te Hiftory ^ Denmark. 

by which the cftatcs of all pcrfons who had taken up arro 

againft their king aitd country, were forfeited to the crown. 

Olam finding that he could not avail himfeff of intreaty, Kiw, 

Attempts Qr force, had recourfe to plots and confpirstcies. He endca- 

A^ *^^ rr ^^"''^^ *^"^ t{\^\ to affafBnate the king in his bed-chamber; 

ktng^siife, jjm ^^ prevented by the guards, from whom he rfcaped with 

difficulty, and fled a fecond time into Swiden. Returning 

thence into Schonen^ he levied forces, alTumed thrfegal dignity, 

Efchil and prepared to invade the whole kingdom. Efcbil^ notwith- 

raifies ftanding his quarrel with the king, raifed forces to oppofe 

forces for jjjp^^ ^^^^ performed the part of a loyal fuhjedl, but unfucoft- 

the king, ^^jjy . ^^j. being defeated in the field, he retreated to Lunitu^ 

and was there befieged by Olaus* After defending the citf, 

which was fecured by no walls, with great bravery^ he was at 

length, frorti the fcarcity of* provifions,. ibrced to furrenderit 

upon honourable terms. Some writers fay that he was tad^en 

prifoner, and difmilTedt after fwearmg allegtance to Ohun^ 

which oath he broke as foon as £nVs army came hear enodgh 

to proted him. He offered his fervices to this prince, and 

took it upon him to croffa the rebellion, provided his mqeflf 

would ftirnifh him with a fuitable army, whioh was readily 

granted. As foon as the prelate found himfelf at die head 

of a formidable body of men, he went in feilrch of the ene^ 

my^ who did not decline battle. Here he was a fecond time 

vanquifhed, and returned to the king with apologias that wer6 

eafily admitted, as his misfonunes could not be attributed to 

want of loyalty, but to unfkilfulnefs in- a profeiBon no wi^ 

appertaining to the charaAerof a dignified prelate ^ 

OLAUS, elated with his two vi£b>rfes, began now to it 
fume the king in reality. He plundered all the efFe£b belong^' 
ing to Eric and Efehil; depofed the latter from his archbiihop^ 
ric, and placed another in his room ; revoked all the decrtitt 
made in this and the laft feign ; and laftiy, fending hb aroiy 
into winter-quarters, making Lunden the repofitoty of Aclr 
arms, he went over to Schonen with only a few attendants, M 
if the war had been wholly ended, and himfelf in quiet pot 
feffion of the throne. This imprudent fecority Vl^oatd ha* 
wrought his dedru^fion, had not fortune rnterpofed foffck 
fafety; for Eric receiving intelligence of his total negleflrf 
military duty, colleded a fmall body of forces, and paffii{ 
over in the night, attacked the enemy jufl as their campwaJ 
V V de- ^^^^Y ^^ break up, and while every thing was in the uttnoft 
feats c;onfufion and diforder. The confcquence was a complete 

Glaus. vidlory, having taking four of Olaus*s generate, di^erfcd bis 

« Meurs. 1. iv. 


Tke Hifiary^of Denmark. i^j 

whole arin]% pillaged his camp, reduced Lunden^ feized his 
arms and magazines, and put to death the neyir bifhop, ap« 
pointed by Olaus in the room of Efch'tU or, as others imagine, 
£/rW/ himfclf, for having traiteroufly fuffered himfelf to be 
twice defeated in the field ». 

Olaus efcaped to Sweden^ from whence he foon returned ' 
with another army, and gave battle to Ericy in which be was 
a fecond time defeated at Glimftorp, Nor did this deftroy his ^ 
hopes, or any ways difpirit him ; for we are told, that in the 
fame campaign he fought no lefs than twelve obftinate battles 
with £r/V, in all of which he was unfuccefsful. He had indeed 
an admirable talent at accommodating himfelf t9 circumftances, 
sind retrieving the (ituation of afFairs, after they had been given 
over as loft by all other men ; but he never ftuck at the 
means, whether honourable or not : his whole obje(St was fuc^ 
ccfe in whatever manner it was obtained. Finding therefore Olaus a 
that all atteippts in Schonen would be vain, he paffedover (ud- /ecotui time 
dcnly into Zealand, and was here defeated by Ricoy bifbop q( defeated, 
Rofchild. Determining however to have his revenge, he gave 
out that he had quitted the ifland, and concealed himfelf with 
J^ftrong party of defperadoes in a wood adjacent to Raco*s pa- 
lace. 1 his he attacked furioufly in the night ; but finding 
the doors too ftrong to be forced, he called out for fire to con- 
fame the building. Rico upon this demanded a parley, which 
being granted, he was going to remonftrate with Olaus, when 
he was treac.heroufly flain by hb order, before he had well 
pafTed through his own gate. 

After this infamous afiion Olaus returned to Schonen be- 
Sore Rico^% death could be known there i but £riV.took his 
'ineafures fo well, that he had almoft put an end to the war by 
a fudden attack on the enemy, in which Olaus narrowly ef- 
icaped being made prifoner. This was only a (hort refpite ^^f *»• 
from the fate which impended; for he was foon after de-^^** 
feated and ilain in a bloody battle fought juft as he was upon 
the point of quitting Schonen ^, 

This dangerous" rival being removed, Eric applied his at- 
tention to compofing the ftate of the kingdom, greatly dif- 
turbed by this tedious war. He married the fifter of the bi- 
Ihop of Bremen, remunerated the nobles with fome beneficial f^*<^j^ 
grants of eft^jes forfeited in the late war, for the :^al and ^^ *^ 
fidelity with which they had fcrved him, and ^^^^^%^^^^ fiamefid 
bimfelf by many ads oif piety, juftice, and popularity, until f^adres* 
^t length he fell into an inaftivity and indt)lencc, that greatly 
impaired his reputation. To redeem his charader he fitted 

' Saxo GraMc r. xiv. ^ MfiURS. 1. iv. 

K 3 out 

134 ^^^ Hijiory cf Denmark. ^ 

out a fleet againfl; tl>e Vandah^ who refumed their piracies i 
but a lazy humour had now io ftrongly ppiTeiTed him, tha| 
loitering on the coa{l of Zealand without keeping proper 
watch, he was furprifed by the enemy, and very nearly t^keq 
prifoner. It is fuppofed that bis fpndnefs for his young que^n 
nad totally emafculated bi^ mind, and rendered him ipdiffis? 
rent to every confideration but domeftic felicity, which he icr 
dulged to an excefs pf wealcnefs. He now r^tgrned homi; 
after hi$ Ihameful flight, without again attempting to wipe off 
the difgrace, or reprcfs the infolence of thofe barbarians. Ncxf 
year he wasfeized with a fever, of whiph he died, leaving th(; 
reputation of a prince endued with excellent natyral qualities, 
were they not corrupted, and ^t lai^ obliterate^ by ^i Oiameful 
indolence, the confequence of too uxorious a difpofition. On hi? 
death-bed he was weak enough to put on a ri^onk'^ habit, look- 
ing upon that as a fure paflport to the manfipn^ of blifs \ an<i 
in this apparel ^fiembled his nobility round him, delivering to 
them his fccpter. Yet though he refigned the badges of au- 
thority, he could not bear to have ^ fucceflbr meptionedj 
tor when that vj^as prppofed by one of the nobility, in prdet 
to put a flop to the incurfions of the Vandak^ he turned roun4 
in wrath, and expired with fcntiment§ of refentment ^ (A)f 

f Hel^. phron. Sl^v. 1. i. c. Ixv^i. 

(A) If dcfcrvcs police that not Lamb (i) ; though it 15 

Jlelmo^e affirms this prinpp's probable he might have re- 

iurname was 5^/?^ (intimating ceivcd the former appellation 

an authority fomewhat inferior after the death of Eric^ an<I th<i 

p the badges of majefty) and other before. 

(i) Helm. Cbrpn, Slav, /, i. f. l^CvUi, 

S E C T. Y, 

Wh^rpn the Hijigry is brought down to the Acctffiifi, 
of Canute yi. in th( !^ear 1 182, 

^ SWENIV. and GANUr B V. 

^wcn IV. C\ ^ ^^? death of Eric V. the kingdom was diyidec| 
"iiWCa- " V-r ^nipn^ three perfons, each enjoying a fovereign ancj 
jute V. equal authority. Thefe are the ^^ords of the Danijh writers^ 
though it appears in faft, that Valdemar was ftill in his mino- 
rity, and ^njoyed nq part of the fupfeme authority. The 
Zealand^rs^ at the perfuafion of ^uno, a perfon pf great influ-: 
" ^ ' ' ^ - • - ^„^^^ 

fie Hijhry of Denmark. i^ 

tnoe, efpoufed the caufe of &weh^ fon to Eric Emund^ and 
cbofe him for their king. The yutlandirsy however, favoured 
Canute^ theibn of Magnus^ and accordingly ele&ed him for their 
foVereign, until Valdemar fliould arrive at the age of maturity. 
Whether he was them to (hare the authority with the young 
prince, or intirely to refign it to him, is not clearly determined 
by hiftorians ; but certain it is from this, that l^aldemar had 
no certain divifion of the kingdom appropriated to him during 
his minority ; nor did he at all enjoy either the enfigns or au- 
thority of a monarch. He was educated indeed as the prince 
apparent and immediate fuccefibr to the crown, bad a houfe* 
hold and liberal appointments, but bore no fway in the ad* 
miniftration *. 

The confequence of this partition of power was an imme- A 'war 
diate rupture between the rivals &wtn and Canute^ that again Breaks eta 
involved the nation in a civil war. The latter taking advan- heMvam 
tage oF Sivsns abfence in Schomny where he was levying an Swen and 
army, invaded Ztahndy reduced it, and drew Efchil^ the arch^- Canute, 
biihop, into his intereft ; whence it appears, that this pre- 
late was not put to death in the former reign, as forne hifto- v 
yians alledge. Endeavouring to join Canute in Zealand^ the 
primate was taken, and, by order of Swtn^ inclofed in a cage, 
and fufpended in the fteeple of his own cathedral, expofed to 
the derifioh o£ the populace, afterwards imprifoned, and at 
length difmifled at the requeft of the pope, who interceded 
for his fon. 

As foon as Sunn had completed his levies, he' embarked his 
army for Zealand^ determined to drive the enemy out of the 
ifland. Both armies willingly came to an engagement, fought 
with the utmoft obftinacy, and made terrible flaughter, until 
vidory, long hovering in fufpence, at laft embraced the caufe 
^ of Swen^ and brought him fuch an advantage, that his rival 
was compelled to retire to Jutland. 

Pope Eugenius this year publiihed an edi<ft, ftri£Hy enjoin- ^ j^ 
ing all Chriftian princes to combine againft the infidels, which j ' g! 
brought about a temporary reconciliation between Swen and 
Canute^ that ended in a confederacy and jundioa of forces Swen and 
againft the Vandals^ who fiill adhered to their pagan idolatry. Canute 
Scarce bad the allies arrived on the enemy's coa(>, when they reconciled^ 
were joined by the SaxanSy and now the Aeet was divided into and march 
three fquadrons, who were to make their feveral 2Xtzc)Rsi againfl the 
SwenvfSiS unfortunate ; for the inhabitants of the ifle of Ru- Vandals. 
|«ff, in alliance with the Vandals^ deftroyed a great part of his 
fl^et by a fudden fatly. Terrified with this lois the Danes re- 

• SvANiNo, p. 77, 

K 4 imbarked^ 

136 Tbf Biftory of Dewnairk. 

imbarkeds suH^) wtfhput ?Dy farther attempt, leturaedhpmrs 
upon which the civil difcord was agata revived berweeD the 
The -civil rival prince. Swn^ by bi9 late defeat, was now inferior in 
nvar agatntttengi^ to his eoemy ; which deficiency he deteiqiiiied ft> 
treakt 0«/. compenfate by ^H the precautions fuggefted by the artof war. 
He fi*t about fortifying J^^fcbiii in the flrongeft oBaoner, and 
Canut) refolved to iofipcde the work as much as poffible, and 
maintain kis fuperiority. Accordingly he pailed into Zeakmi^ 
attacked the city, took the gpvQrnor, who commanded a fally 
of the befieged, and, after putting out his eyes, and plunder- 
ing the. city, he reimbarked for Jutland^ to recruit, his msj 
and prepare for giving battle to Swm ^. 

In a fhort time he returned, and meeting his ri:va] at 72r«- 
^er^ a bloody battle was fought, that termrnated to the ad- 
Canpte vantage of Smtn. Now Canuttwzs not only forced to aban- 
dtfaaied* don Zealand^ but before his return to Jutland^ was deferted by 
two of the chief nobility, v^hofe weight and valour^ proved of di^ 
utmpft importaiKe to his antagonift. To this lois was added 
the influence of young Valdemar^ now of age, who, out of 
hatred to the fon of his father'^ murderer, decjsured m favour 
of Swm<» and accepted from hin^ the government of SUfroick^ 
Valdemar that hgd formerly belonged to his noble father. Young V<b' 
declares fir dmar^s natural vigour, the influence he poJieiTed in confequence 
, Swen. cjf the people's a&dion for his parent, and the forces he difw 
together, enabled Swen to retaliate upon fais.rival, and, in fab 
turn, to project the invafion of his dominions ^. Valdinutr 
v^a^ accordingly provided with a fleet, and ordered to make a 
defcent on Jutland \ the firft expedition he had ever under- 
taken. His courage and ardour to fignalize himfel£ foon in- 
fufed a fpirit of intrepidity in his troops, that made them as 
deftrous of battle as their young leader. The opportunity of- 
fered, and Valdfmar embraced it with a chearfiilnefs that pr(^-» 
Canute noAicated a happy event. Canute was totally defeated ; Ms 
again de^' whole army taken, killed, or difperfed, and bimfetf obliged 
fiatfd. to fly for fhclter to his ftepfather, Suerco king of Sweden. 

Sff^ENf being thus freed from all appreheniions about his 
rival, refumed the war agatnft the Vondals^ who had become 
more infolent by the late, repulfe they had given the Danei^ 
and by the civil diicord that rent this miferable people. Im- 
petuofity and fixe, mixed with a certain diffipation of mind and 
inconftancy, diftinguifhed the charac^r of Swen. This ren- 
dered the war in general unfuccefsful, though he focceeded 
in all his atucks upon the barbarians. As he never followed 

•I 'y. ^ Saxo Gram. 1. xiv. Mburs. 1. iv. « Pontak. Lv. 


bjui firoMt ^7 alwsiy^ again made h^, and were as iniblent 
ac the end of Sw^etf$ hoi^ile operations as before *. - 

During tbefe tranfac^iona, Canute^ leaving the court of 
Sweden^ went to Poland to foJicit aiSj[bince» and from thenc^ 
to&uwi^} at bod^ wbich places he met with fair promifes, 
the uiijal coniplatbn of the unfortunate ; and at length to 
the archbi^op of Bnminy ^bo received him into his pro* 
te&ion* This prelate, having been deprived of fome privi- 
leges which he claimed in P^nmarkj vo^yed revenge, and 
^flifted CatfuU with all hi3. power* H/e likewifei fent trufiy 

SCjri^ns to found the inclination^ of the Jifthndersy who aU 
eclf red they would take arn)s in f;^vojur of their prince, the 
moipept he appeared witb a prpper forpe to prote^ theroi 
whiljs they were forming their levies. 7'hey did not deceive 
jbim with falfe hopes ) fpr the momiei^t he arrived^ incredi* 
))]e numbers flocked to ^is fiandard ; and ^fi;^, finding tim-» 
felf inferior in the fi^ld, took all neceflary precautions for 
(landing a fiege in fVilurg* Ca9f$fie pitched his camp before Canute 
(he city, laid clofe fiege to it, and in time reduced the garri* again fv* 
ion to great freights for wsfnt of proviftons. StviH refolved, <uaJes 
10 this emergency, tp rif<]Me every thing, rather than fall into Denmark, 
the hands of his ruraj. A/ccordingly, attendied by young Fal- and ht'* 
demoTj he fallied out in the pigbt upon ihe enemy's camp,/^/^' 
when a brilk adion enfued. The befieged fought with the ^.f* ^ 
dcfpair of perfons who had all at ftakc, and the befiegers deter- Wihurg. 
mined not to be difgraced by a handful of men. Both Swm, 
and VqU^mar performed miracles of valour ; but efpecially 
the young prince, who was prefent wherever danger and glory 
' called. Fortune feconded their brave efforts ; Canut$U army 
was intirely defeated, his camp pillaged, the fiege raifed, and 
himfelf forced to fly yt^itli a few attendants into Saxony^. 

In the mean time, the Vandals had invaded Funen^ burn* The Van- 
ing and deftroying the country with all the fiiry of incenfed dais dg- 
b^^rians; but Sweri^ marching againft them, drove thtmfiated^ and 
out of the ifland, after defeating them in a pitched battle. ^ ^^'^ 
To prevent their future "depredations, he granted, with the P'ifid iu 
confent of the nobility, the power of making reprifals to allA?'*'*'' ^ 
his fubjcSs, who' h^d fuftained lofles by their defcents and^"*^^'^"^* 
piracies, Thefe privateers at flrft c^mpo/ed but a fmall fqua- 
dron ; but their fucce(s fo encouraged, others, that in a fhort 
time they became a formidable armament, under the condu^ 
of one Plihemar. Their power rendered them no lefs a 
grievance to Denmark than the Vandals themfelves; for where- 
ever they met with a fhip fit for their purpofe, they thought 

* Mevrs. 1. iv. ^ Saxo Gr4m. L xiv. 


138 ' 57?^ Hijiorj^ of Denmark. 

fhemfdvcs fufficiently juftified in fcizJng upon her, if they firft 
paid dojvft her Value to the owner. Other abufes had like- 
wife crept in, which rendered it neceflary for Swen to compile 
a certain fet of laws to regulate their conduit. What thcfc 
were, hiftory does not infgrm us : we are only told, that they 
proved extremely beneficial and falutaryj notwithftanding 
which it was long before the fea-port towns refumcd their 
ancient fplendor, and trade recovered itsvironted vigour*^. 
4 third CATSiUTE in the mean time was not idle: after ufing 
mtempt 4f every art to induce the Saxom to fupport him, he went to 
Canute. Emhden^ where he met with fome. encouragement, from the 
eager defirc with which he fdund the people poflefl'ed of reco- 
vering their ufual liberty, as they imagined they Ihould, in 
reward of the fervices thev propofed doing Canute^ Ihould he 
be fo happy as to be reinttated in the throne. A fmall army 
was foon raifed ; but there wanted a fleet to tranfport it into 
Slefwick. A few (hips were therefore obtained from that 
dutchy, and every thing threatened the nation with a new 
civil war. Nor was SxiOen lefs diligent in taking the proper 
meafures to fupprefs this infurredion. He levied troops widi 
fuch expedition, and marched them, with Valdemar at their 
head, with fo much celerity, that Canute was attacked, and 
the rebellion fupprefled, before it was believed that Swen could 
have intelligence of the rifing ; and thus the unhappy prince 
Canute was once more driven into exile. After Swen had puniflied 
$ncemore ^jth death the ringleaders, impofed a fine upon the reft, and 
dri<vtniuto felled the good order of the countrv, he returned to* Den- 
^'^'' mrk- ■ ' '• 

CANUTE refolved upon one more effort; and accord- 
„ ' ingljr went to the court of the emperor Frederic Barharofla^ 

/^^^^f^^ cravmg his affiftancc, and promifing, if he fucceeded, to hold 
in his J^T ^^"^^^i 2* * fief of the empire : an argument which weighed 
qffce. ^ f^ powerfully with Barharoffi, that he cited Swen to appear 
before him. Meurjius fays, that he fent a polite compliment, 
defiring that the king of Denmark would favour him with a 
meeting at Stadtherg^ then called Marberg^ in order to renew 
the ancient amity between their predeccffors ; afliiring him, at 
thfe fame time, that ortly affairs of importance prevented him 
from going more than half way. This ambafly was extremely 
agreeable to Swm, as it flattered his pride, and raifed his felf- 
tmportance. Without hefitation he embraced the propofal, 
and fet out on the journey, attended by J^aldemar^ contrary to 
the advice of the fenate and moft prudent perfonac^es o^ the 
p«^tipn, On his arrival at Stadtherg he was magnifi'cently re- 

« MhURS, ibid, P0^'TAN. 1. V. 


The inftGfy of Dtnmztk. Ijj 

reived at the firft congrefs ; but, in the fecond meeting, Fre-^ 
ieric began to accufe him of having driven the lawful heir to 
the crown o^ Denmark out of the kingdom, and ufurped his 
|:hroi>e. Then the emperor propofed, that he fliould hold his 
crown upon the fame terms offered by Canute^ or run the 
bayard of hi? vengeance. He told him, that. If he' accepted 
the firft» it (hould be his endeavour to prevail on Canute to lay 
down his afms, and renounce ai^l pretenfions, accepting pf 
^eaknd as an equivalent, which he fhould hold for his life i, 
on the contrary, (hould he prove refra<ftory, he threatened to^ j^ 
diveft him {Swen) immediately of the fovereignty, and confer ^^^^^ 
Itonhis rival. Swen perceiving now, when too late, the^ - '*' 
fnare into v^rbich he had fallen, defired that the matter might '^'^^ 
be debated before the aulic council, or a diet of the princes 
of the empire, each of the parties chufing an advocate, upon 
whom he fhould reft his caufe. This proportion feemed fo 
(equitable, that fiarharoffa^ afhamed to refufc it, defired he 
would fix upon his advocate. Accordingly Swen chofc Henry 
LeOy duke of Saxony ; ^nd Canute made choice of the arch- 
l>i(hop pf Bremen, The caufe was debated with great warmth^ 
and Lea was near carrying the point for his client, when 
Barbaroffa pyt an end to the argument, by decreeing, that 
they (hould hold an equal (hare of the fovereignty, as cok'^f «y* 
leagues ; a determination with which Sw0n was forced to ap- p^^ ^^ 
pear fatisiie^, though the injuftice of it was flagrant and no- fween 
toriousi to all the world. In confequence, he was permitted Swen a$id 
to return to Denmark ; but had no fooner arrived at thecapi- Canute r^<r 
tal, than, aiTembling his nobles, he wrote a letter to the tm^- /erred to a 
l^r> by their ^dyice ; in which he upbraided him for his per- diet of tb$ 
fidyj aqd violation of the laws of nations and pubKc faith. «"^'*^' ; 
He told him, that his confent to his unjuft verdi6l being ex- ^^'^^^ 
\ torted, he was determined not to abide by a fentence fo partial !?^'/* 
, ^nd iniquitous 5 and that as he had not only obtained the-^"^ ^ 
^rown by the election and free choice of His faithful people, ^;^/ 2 
but likewife hpld it by right of conquefl:, it was his refo- ^a 
lutioh not to participate his authority with the man he ba4 
fo frequently vanqui(hed ; and either to live 9 king, or die 
jn maintaining his right and crown K 

After this he entered upon a treaty of marriage with the 
houfe pf Saxony^ in order the more ftrongly to unite families 
already linked together by friendJhip, neighbourhood, and 
mutual good oflkc$ ; but this connexion, fays Grammaticits^ 
was the bane of his reputation, and the ruin of the kingdom* 
^jn began to emulate the luxurious and exp^nfwe manners 

f Y«l' Auft. ciut. ibia. 

140 ^^ Hifiory of Penroark. 

of ^e Sax$ns. The fimpfle hoiofsly co^rfi^ drefs of Dimnarl^ 

V(^% cbai^ged for tb^ ipore fuperb aj^d coftly orosinients of the 

npigbbouring courury* The mipds of the DobiHty were eouf- 

c)ii^ted with foppery, tbeir efl;aC(es ruinied with poonp anj 

c^Htep^ipn, and the public ue;|fury es^bai^fted by frivplpos 

£^ev{r ;^ia^ mere, gai^dy. external grandeMr. With drefe^ aod 

cqv^S^g^} ^very pther article of Hvii^g w^ changed fpr ^ osore 

e^peo&ve oiethod ; aad the mauly rufiicjty of tbeir ancefton 

laid aA4e for ^ refined delicacy, better becoming woimea 

t));iQ a nation refpefied only for its valour, hardinefs, aod 

lOfigb boldnefs. Sa^n^ was in thofe days to Denmark what 

ajm)^hq: lyation, celebrated for the politeneis of its mannei^ 

19 a^ p^e&nt to our own. The low conditipn of the trea- 

fliry introduced a train of b^re-faced corruptions. Hqnours and 

preJEi^f in^ts were beftowed, for a certain price, on the meaa 

* ^d ynwortby. Merit w^s efiimated by wealth, and court" 

fayo|jr beflo>|i^ed only lypon thofe who' cpuld adminifter for a 

time to its prodigality. Religion fell into difcredit, with this 

decline of the pradtice of morality : apd it is indeed obfervable, 

that t)iey are ever in&parahle, whatever ftrefs feme enthufiafl^ 

tfi^y jay upon th^ merits pf an implicit fai^h, in which, acr- 

Gording to them, confifts true religipii \ 

I^ this cpnditipp ilpod the kii^gdon^i. on the fveof a war 
wkti SiJ^detii from wM^^h the pope's nMncio did all in bis 
ppwer tp divert Sw4n. The motives for it were, a erofs af« 
^ frofU p|it pn th? n^tio!^ by th? brutal condu<ft of John the 
fofk pf S^if^^o l^jng of Siwe4en> This yoi|Dg prince had vio- 
lently carried pff the wi% of the duke of Halland^ raviflied 
her in the mpft fav^ge ipapner, and thep difmiiTgd^her with ^1 
ppip^Ie marks pf ^prniny* What the rea(uns were for ib 
brutal ^ cpndM^^ W^ ^re not told ; but certain it i^, that 
f^e whole kingdpip of Penm^k was fired with the defijre q( 
*lfY^^giog ft> bf ref^c^ an injury \ for however corrupted ttie 
rBiin4« Qf the nphitity n^ight be, the pation in gpner^l V|i.as 
D^t loft to a fenfe pf public honour. 
Swen in- In di^ beginning of the winter Swen led his army into 
'vades fipl^i^ wheife it ^f^, fuppli^d with all neceflai^ies by.the vp- 
Sweden, luntary contribution of the inhabit^n^, who chearfully of- 
fered a part of their fub^anceto a^yoid heipg plundered of 
|he whole, ^d h^ve their country laid in ailxes by the fuiy 
§f |he D^nifi foldiers. Crpffing the gulph he made a defcent 
pi[V the cp^si of Swf^ \ ^nd the inhabitants flying for ihei- 
\^ into the tnonnt^i^s, were fopn . reduced by the pinching 
f^4 ^ hungfr to tl^^d a battle, in which they were de* 

* SA|:0y Lxiv* ^fiuf^* !• iv. 



9 be WJtory of Denm^Tk, . 14*; 

feated ; affer which they fubmittdt at difcittiori. ' Stidi irts 
the confternatipn into which his arrivd had t^ioWti tWe 
whole kingdom, that he would have fcond St an cafjr con- 
qvicfft, but that the inclemency of the weather i^rideYid it 
ifiipoffible for him to keep the field, and tl^e teidA^f^ of ffeb 
madS, that up by the hard frofts, prevented his p^nfeteralth^g 
iuto the country to any diftance firom the fct-coaft, 

S0^EN was fcarce rttarwed to Denmark with his arrtiy, 
t^^hen an infutre<5lioTi rh Schnen required his prefettce. Ndt 
dtufmg to exert force where gentfc m^afiires might ftfovfc 
equally efficatious, be demanded a ceffatibti of hofttltiesv and 
a rruce urftil he eould hear the ^rrSiriwlce. As foori ^ thfe Swcno/. 
proper fecuritfe^ Were pafled, the king, arttettded with a k^ ^ moftmur* 
his offlc5ers, wfcnt over to the rebels, arid harahgtred to very ^^^ ^ 
Kttfe effeft ; fcflp rhey grew more infolent by his lenity, at- an infitr^ 
tribcrtirtg to fe* what wa^ really thfe reftilt 0k his indtiJgence rA!?«?« y 
and clemency. Prefently he faw himfelf furrounded by arrtiefl '^^ pea- 
tKttij arid his life in imminent danger; but finding that aliy^^'« , 
attfe'iftpts to efcape Would be vain, he again Waved hishitrid,^c°owrt 
as a fighal that he Wanted to be heard : but before he had 
fpioke, afyll^le, they began pelting him with ffories ; upoh 
^hich Tocho^ a man of quality in his train, called oirt to t^e^ 
to forbear; for he himfelf Would take it upon him to redrefc 
chelt grievances, arid, if the king jfcould oppofe it, ^oiild Ifc 
tlife fifft man to l^d th'enfl on to Ms deftruaion- PerfefSIJ' 
fttisfi^d With this afllirarice, the tumult ceafed, the rto'b W- 
perffed, and every man rfe'fumed peUceaHy to his dWft hdort*, 
t(i thfe infir^ite faiisfaftion of the king, who was brofilght iAt<i 
v^Yy critltal circumftanc^s bv thefe headftroi^ peafants *• 
' As foon as the king was iet free, be fliewcd^hisrefentnieiit 
<>f this impudent attack ttpon his life, by deftrOying the vi^blfe 
,t(J(iftttJ', Which he burnt to the grotmd, reducing the unhii^3j>^ 
natives to the rtioft e^cti'eme mifery. He permitted tJite fbf- 
diefs to indulge therhfd<res in every kind of excels, and tb 
conitnit the mod Oiockirig barbarities : a condtiA riot tb bfe 
juftifed, evfe'rt by the caufe of his refentm'ent. But his ufa^ ^ . . . 
of Tocho^ Who had been the immediate in^hnment of his fkfe- • ^^Jf^ 
ty, adihit§ of no apology ot palliation : it was the baftft in-^*^****' 
gratitude, and what alone fufficiehtly ftigmatizes hft mc- ' , 
mo'ry^tb the latfeft fk)ftferily. This borfeff ccmrtier, niovrf 
, wiih the diftreffes of the deplorable fofferers, and with feeing 
innocence involved ihdifcriminately in the rCrin of the gtiilty, 
>^ntured to intercede for them ; a piece of humanity wlhfidi 
tfie king conftraed Into treachery, for which ht ordered him 

. * PONTAN. 1. v. > ^ 


i4t ^ ?**^ Hiftory of Denmark^ 

to lie put to death* as a perfon who had connived at an^ 
. fomented the rebellion *. 

valdemw This laft a£Hon was fo unpopular, that all men began td 

g/poufistbe f^cfve from their afFedlion, and even Valdemar himfelt pub- 

^^ 2g '^c'y efpoufed the caufc of Canuiei rather than fee a wrong* 

°" * beaded tyrant fporting with the lives and felicity of hisfub- 

je£ls. Canutt'^ the more ftrongly to attach a prince of fuch 

qualities to his intereft, prevailed on Sturco kiiig of ^wtiM 

to give him his daughter Sophia to wife, who was likewife 

fifler by the fame venter to Canute, As Valdemar did oot 

feem very inclinable to the match, as the lady poflefled uO 

dowry in Denmark^ Canute willingly made over to him a third 

of all he fhould acquire, if fortune proved favourablei The 

terms were accepted, and the marriage concluded, by means 

of which thefe two princes were conne£bed in the fame caufc, 

by treaty, affinity, and intereft, the moft powerful of all 

ties ^. 

This afFfiir being concluded, they both returned to tta- 
land\ and Canute^ leaving Valdemar to make preparatioos 
there, went himfelf to Jutland. S'vOeny having intelligence of 
thefe proceedings, tried every meafure to recal to his intereft 
young Valdemar^ to whofe courage, prudence, and popula- 
rity, he was no ftranger. For this purpofe he went to him 
at Rin^adty and exppftulated with him on his breach of 
truft, and the perfidy of uniting himfelf with Suerio^ the 
avowed enemy of Denmark, He then produced a forged 
anonymous letter wrote to him, with a view of difTuading 
Valdemar from engagements replete with diffimulation and 
villainy, contrived for his ruin. Valdemar^s apprehenfion was 
quick, and immediately penetrated into the artifice of the 
king. Upon which he gently upbraided him for contriving 
fo mean a piece of cunning, vindicated his owncondud^ 
and lamented the meafures which had forced him for the 
public good to relinquifh his engagements to his n^^ajeiiy, 
concluding with a (hort recapitulation of his own fervices and 
the return they met with. Stutn, full of refentment at the 
young prince's freedom of fpeech, ordered him to be fur- 
rounded by the foldiers, and carried ofF prifoner ; but this 
they refufed out of refpe<5l to Valdemar ; upon which the 
king returned in a fury to RofchUd^ and the prince joined 
his aflbciate in Jutland, 

His relation of this tranfa£lion to Canute^ had fuch an tSkSt 
on ihe JutlanderSy that they all called out for arms to revenge 
the in(fignity ; but Valdemar^ whofe courage was equalled 

They in- 




* Mburs. ibid. 

* PONTAN. l.T. 

Ti&^ Hiftory of Denmark. 1 4,3 

by his ^sradence and patriotifoit' endeavoured to afluaje their Vaide. 
paffions, by reprefenting the horrors of a civil war, in terms mar'jigsf* 
Sq pathetic, that they left the<:ondu£k o( their affairs v^holiy denaioM^ 
to him. It was his intention to compromife their d^Stx- and apar- 
ences, and » procure a partition of the fovereignty without ////i>ff m^ 
{bedding the blood of the fubjedt. Accordingly he m^tof the 
Svitn a fecond titne^ each being attended with a number of '^'*,?**«* 
troops, and the iiTue was,, that Dtimark fhould be divided' 
(>etween 5w^ff, Canute^ 2xA Valdemar \ but we are not ac* 
quarnted with the provinces afligned to each, only that the 
jutlanders and Slefwickers infilled upon being governed by 
Taldemar ^. 

Public tranquility being eftablifhed upon this footing. Vandals 
Swen attacked the Vandab^ who during the late troubles had invade 
made a defcent on Zealandy and penetrated to the gates of Denmark, 
Rofchild. They had alfo invaded Fumn^ Faljiria^ Laaiaad^ andde- 
and the fmaHer iflands, which they entirely reduced, z^xi^-ff'^^h 
ing ofF a prodigious booty. There was no fecurity of pro- ^w^"* 
perty on any of the coafts of Denmark^ while thefe freebooters 
roved about the fea at pleafure, and carried terror and defola^ 
Hon wherever they came. Swen checked them for a time, by 
a flight defeat they met with ; but finding every part of his 
doa)inions infulted, he called in Henry heoy duke of Saxony^ to 
bis affiflance, promifmg him a fubfidy of fifteen hundred 
pounds of pure gold, if he would co-operate in fuppre/ling 
the barbarians. Henry firft demanded the money, which being 
paid with great difficulty, he intirely negleded his engage- 
ments, and applied himfelf wholly to promote pomp, luxury, 
and pleafure at his court, at that time the mof); brilliant in 
Europe. The people were fo enraged at Swen^ that they 
wifhed for the opportunity of depofing him. Theyjexclaimed 
that he had difbonoured the nation, by purchafing with im- 
menfe fums of gold that tranquillity their anceflors ufed to de- 
mand by arms <^. 

SWENy imagining that the difaffedlion of his fubjefts 
was fomented by Valdemar and Canute^ nealeded the Vandal 
war, in order to have his revenge on them. He could have 
but little dependence upon the force of arms, arid therefore 
chofe to have recourfe to diffimulation and treachery, as the 
Icafl dangerous method. Intending a vifit to Conrade^ his u^ j^g ^ 
father-in-law, who refided in Saxony, he propofed to VaU trap for 
demar to accompany him as far as Slefwick^ the government Valdc- 
cf which he had obtained. Valdemar^ though he knew the mar. 
treachery of his difpofiiion, yet generoufly accepted the pro- 

* SaxoGram. Lxiv. * Mburs. 1. iv. 


144 516^ Hift9ry of Denmark. 

f»o/al, believing that no mafrW^tikM be fo drfbdiiauralile as to 
be guilty of fo^flagrimt a breaxrh of bofjjStafity artd feidi. On 
their arrival at Sfadi^ Siven fcftt to Coftrade to give him Abtfe 
of his purpofe, and dfiffiriftg ht^virould take meafui*cs t6 fdture 
^ the perfon of Valdemar^ but Curtrade hAndun^ly declined ftc 

y^^^^^^f bufiaefs, faying, that he had father HmftTf, his fort-xn-liW, 
$jcafes the ^^ daughter, (houM faffer the itidft igii'oirthibus and arcirr- 
■'*^^* ciating death, than commit an aSton virbich wbuM render 
them unwor^y to Kve. Valdemar^ cfcaping through the U(- 
tegffty of Cmrade^ vC^cnt immediately to Canute in yutioiii 
and, finding there vfM no rcliaricc on the promifcs of SwA^ 
began to levy forces. It was now that he firft afTOhied ^ 
badges of majefly, and not onti! he was fotred io ifc m fHt 
defence. Swen^ hearing of their preparations, begah to ftT- 
ter upon meafures to fubdue them^ by force : perceivirtg, boni- 
ever, that the affe6Hons of the people w^rt whoHy aiienatd, 
he retired firft virith his wife and fon to PdJJrey and thcfl A) 
Sa^ony^ contrary to the advice of all his fWerids *. 
Swen tf^- CANUTE and Valdemar^ who were yet unacquainted 
dicaies the ^'^^ ^^^ king's flight, tranfported theif *rrny fnto Zeidaint^ 
throne. where, meeting with no refiftartce, they aflumed the faftid 
fovercignty they had done in Jutland^ and received the alle- 
giance of the people. In the fame manner they obtained pdE 
feflion of the reft of the kingdom, while Swen lived an exitt 
with his father-in-law in Saxony ; afte^ whofe death he went 
to the court of duke Henry^ and made him the «noft Kbeiiil 
offers, if he would affift to re-eftablifti him in his throne. 
Endea- Jjj this manner three years elapfed from his firft abdicattortj^ 

'vourstore- 1,^ ^^^ Henry ^ excited either by his large promifes, or ciiitt- 
eover it by j^^g ^f ^^^ honour of reftoring an unhappy exile, gave otit^^ 
means of ^^ ^^ Vandals^ who obeyed his authority, to equip a prodi*i 
te ^^^'^Sg^Qys fleet, and invade Denmark \ him&lf determining tlD^ 
march at the head of a Saxon army, and body of au^iliaridi 
fent by the archbifliop of Bremen^ by land. Hdthwick like-; 
wife, in hopes of recovering a paternal eftate which he claimed. 
in Denmark, joined him in perfon, attended by a confiacrabte 
body of troops. Swen v*ras to pay him a fum of money wheii 
the army fliould advance to Danewark^ the ftrong wall raifed ; 
acrofs the neck of land that feparates Siefwitk from Denmark • 
Proper. Accordingly Henry marthed through Hol/hin^ with- * 
out offering any injury to tne inhabitants. On his arrival it 
Danewark he found it ftrongly garrifbned, and the officer de- 
termined to difpute his progrefsj but, imagining that money 
would cffeS what force could not, he offered rheDm^ 

^ Gra^t. ibrd. 


The liipry dfX>ctimztk. 145 

i)ribe lod coAliclersibte to be refifted^ and was rufferod tb paft ; 
yet, his bufinefs bekig done^ he refufed the traitor his re- 
ward, and even had him ignominioufly put to deaths (hew- 
ing (hereby his contempt of perfidy, and deteftation of trea^ 
fotiy however convenient a tool the traitor might be. Thence The Sax^ 
he marched to Sliftvick^ and took it by capitulation, after the onsioAe 
city had flood a (lege of Ibme weeks, at length furrender* Slefwick. 
log for want of provifion. His fuccefs heie e/iaUed Swm 
to perform his engagements to Hepry^ and pay the foldiers 
their arrears \ for, feizing upon all the merchandize in the 
harbour, the booty was prodigious. The city, indeed, was 
ruined hy it, and the credit of a pprt which had been the 
emporium of the Baltic trade, and frequented by ihips of all 
nations, who never again returned after this violence done to 
commerce ^. 

In the mean time a rebellion appeared in Sweden^ which 
bad fome influence on the aiFairs of ^Dtnmark. Magnusy a 
nobleman of diAin£tion, afpiring at fovereignty,. procured the 
aflaffination of Suerco by^ one of the gendemea of his bed- 
chamber; then taking arms againft bis fon Charley was de- 
feated and flain by him in battle. Canute was called thither by 
the qjueen his mother-in-law ; upon which he devolved the 
vli(Je care of the Danifi} monarchy on VMemary who pre- 
pared with all fpeed to put a flop to the progrefe of the Sax$m^ 
His march was fo rapid, that the Sa9C9n army was feised wilih 
a panic, and even Henry himfelf with certain emotions of 
terror, which dietermined him* to retreat with more predpi- , 
tation than he had^ advanced. His excufe was, that Lent now 
Approaching the army might be fbraitened for provifions, fince 
it would not be poifible to fitpply flich a number of foldiers 
^th tie qiiaotity of fifh that would nece^ily be confumed^ 
^H diey were confined to this diiet ; yet it iq^^ared that 
fear was the chirf motive of Us flight, for fiich it might truly 
be called, coAlidering die vaft quantities of baggage and pro* 
nfiom he left behind. Cenatn it is, that he marched back the ^^ §^^ 
iiime fpaee in two days that had enq>loyed the army for fif- ^^ ^^. 
teeen in their pcogrefi to Denmark ; a ciKumftanee that irri- fffoi. 
tated Swen beyond all meafure, as he had now advanced the 
iiUidy. However, to fatisfy him, if^nryjoined the ^tfii^ 
ieet with a fhnong fquadron, gave the command of the whole 
to an ej^perienced officer, and direded him to land Swen in 
DetuKarky and fupport him by every poifible method. This Swen 
BK^thod promifed more fuccefs; for the fugitive king \)t\n^ fnakesafe- 
landed in Funeni all the inhabitants fubmitted without refiil* cond at- 

^ f ONTAN. 1. V. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. XXXII. L ance. 

14.6 7be Hijiory of Denmark. 

ance, and acknowledged him their fovereign. Immedisitely IM 
went to the city Otho^ where he was received with the utmoft 
J^Y' pcrfons of both (exes flocking to him in crouds, and 6f- 
% ' fering their lives and fortunes for, his fervice. 

VaLDEMAR fent to Canute^ then in Sweden^ and bodi 
princes marched with an army to give battle to Swen ; but Vtd- 
demar^ defirous to avoid the fpillingof Dtfn//^ blood, propofed 
a ceflation of arms, and a congrefs, juft as the armies were ready 
to engage. Slvin embraced the propofals with an tnfidioas 
view, and the appointment was made in LaaiUmi^ where the 
nobility df the kingdom were to attend. Numberleis were 
the attempts which Swen made upon the lives of his rivals, 
previous to this meeting ; but they were all fruftrated, the 
A new congrefs fat, and the following terms were aflented co by aH 
partition o/?^^^^^^ I ft. That Swen fhould enjoy the title and aathoritf 
tJbg Danifli of a king : idly. That an a£l of oblivion fliould be pafled : 
Commons. 3dly« That Swen Ihould be fole fovereign of Schonen^ HaUani^ 
and Bleking : 4thly, That Jutland fhould be the property of 
VaUemar : and, 5thly, That Zealand^ Funen^ and the neigh- 
bouring illands (hould form the dominions oi Canute ; both the 
latter princes enjoying the badges and authority of monardis 
within their feveral jurifdiclions. This, in fad, appears t» 
be the partition which fome writers affirm was made imme^ 
diately after the death of Eric, It was ratified by the dic^ 
and each prince bound himfblf by an oath folemnly to obferre 
it I A). 

It was not long before fw^n (hewed his diflike to this par- 
tition $ being upbraided it feems by his wife for accepting 
Swen'/fl/- third of the fovereignty, which he ought to enjoy alone. 1 
*^5 order to recover it he employed the moft infamous me 
V?H ^^^c'^ ^^^ "o other than aflai&nating his colleagues by 
mar**/y ^^^^^ ^ defperatc ruffians, while they were entertaining 
' ^^' with the utmoft hofpitality. His ftrength and valour bit 
Valdemar^ who made his efcape after he had killed two of Al 
ruffians who attacked him ; but Canute fell by their hand| 
This- event happened, zccording to Eric of Pomerania, inf**^ 
year 1156, in the month of AuguJI-, hut Albert M)Ot 

(A) There arc writers who ^us, Thcfe writers (ay, that 

alledge, that Valdemar left S'wen kingdom was thus divided, ~ 

to chufe what province he the experience the two 

thought proper, which feems princes had of Swen^s treacheiyi 

ibot only improbable, but con- in order they might always Ui 

trary to the exprefs teHimony at hand to lend matoal a£^ 

of Saxo Grammaticus znd Meur- ance (i). 

(i) Saxo, ilfid, MiurJ, U v. 

The HifioYy of Dettmark; i^f 

Siait places it on the faiiic month in the, year following. A. D* 
He was a prince df a charadef very oppofite to his fathfer's, 1157* 
^nd would have filled the throne with great reputation^ and 
feJicity to his fdbi'e£ls, but foir the unhappy civil wars whicti 
heceillarily Attended fuch a number of claimants ■'. 

VJLvEMJR got in a (mall boat to Jutland^ and imme- 
diately on his arrival affembled a diet of the ftates at Wiburg^ 
relating before the vvhole people the late trkrifadion at Rof- 
child: he fliewed them the wound he received in the thigh, 
while'he was ftruggling with the villain 'Thitleff'y who had def- 
cended from the rank of a nobleman to the charafter of an 
aflaffiu. At fight of the Wbufad the wfiole aflfembly cried out 
witS One voice for revenge, and offered their lives and for- 
tufaes to bring to condign punifhment Swen^ the moft perfidi- 
ous of all m^n 1 upon which Valdemar thanked them fdt 
their attachment, and afTuring them that he would take up 
arms, not fo much with a defire to avenge his own private in^ 
jury, as the public infult, difmiifed the diet ^ 

Now Denmark was again thrown into the utmofl confu- Amhir 
lion, before the people had wdl breathed from the hardfhips civil ivar 
of the late civil war. Nothing was to be feen but the tumult breaks oui, 
of war, or heatd bu!t the din of arms. Vatdemar ivell knew 
that Siven would not flop with this abortive attempt upon his 
life ; he therefore made all poilible preparations to oppofe 
hitn. On the othethaiid, Siven dfed ill his endeavours to xt'^ 
^ixccZeahnd^ and the* other dominions of the deceafed da- 
nutiy which he fuddenly befieged with hib fleet, cutting ofF all 
inieftourfe between the iflands, in hopes of obliging them to 
furreiider up Valdemar^ who, he doubted not, lay concealed 
in fome of the remote skirts of the iflands. The more efFec- 
tually to prevent his efcapci he ordered all the boats and vef* 
k\% on the cbafts to be perforated at the bottom and funk. 
Afterwards he had all the fens, woods, and caves, diligently 
fearched, but without meeting with Valdemar^ who was how 
at theh'ead of a powerful artny, ready to march and puniih his 
perfidy* Swm had even the prefumption to order proclama- 
tion to be made, that Canute And F'aldemary in defiance to all 
the rights of hbfpitalky, had laid a fnare for his life j but this 
palpable and notorious falfity ferved only to render him more 
odious to the people, already too well acquainted with his 
«hara£ler '^. 

Finding that Valdemar had efcaped to Jutland^ he made a 
defcent on that coaft, but found it fo well defended that he was 
forced to retreat. Next year he was invaded in his turn ; 

* Meurs. h iv. »> PoKTAN. L V. « Saxo Gram. 

1. »iv. 

L 2 firfl 


148 ^eHiJioryofDmmzck. 

Swen <//-' firft his fleet was defeated, afterwards Futun taken* and tbes 
/eated Wthe two armies coining to a general adion, he was defeated 
Jain. and flain in the purfuit, endeavouring to conceal himfilf 
amidft the rulhes which bordered a lake near Grantbead, the 
place where this vi£i:ory was obtained. Among the prifonen 
was ThitUffj who could not efcape the foldiers vengeance, and 
was executed upon the fpot ; a puniihment too flight for Ae 
villainy of his attempt bafely. to murder two princes of fub- 
lime merit. 

Thus ended all the plots and machinations of Stvirif in ik 
month of OSfoberm the year 11579 by means of which Vd' 
demar came to the fole pofleffion of the crown of Denaaii 
after the kingdom had been continually involved in civil wm 
for upwards of ten years. It would be unneceflTary to fum up 
the charader of Swen after what has .been related. Sufficient 
it.is, that he was poflefled of talents which might have perpe- 
tuated felicity to himfelf, had he known how to apply then. 
A fickle difpofition, a falfe heart, and a head bent on con- 
trivances and fecret plots, in which he employed the moft in- 
famous tools, chara!<Slerize hiijn from every other prince who 
had fat on the throne of Denmark^ and tranfmit his memoiy 
to pofterity with fuch indelible fiains of dishonour as iM, 
can never efface (A). 


Valde- VALDEMAR^ now afcending the throne of all Dmrni^ 

mar I. began his reign with feveral a£b of clemency to hb enemies 

%2d king, and among them Magnm^ natural fon to the late king Ent% 

one of the ftrongeft adherents of Swen. Thofe only he po- 

niflied who committed a&ions worthy of death, had th^ 

Vald ^^^ ^^ friends. He blamed no man for a£Ung according \i^ 

irannan^ principle and inclination, provided he fought like a gencrow 

fuiuuflj.^ enemy i it was vice, without regard to party, that feltthe^ 

. fcourge of his difpleafure *. 

He next turned his attention to the barbarians, who bad 
acver ceafed, from the firft rife of the civil war, to barra&the 

• Saxo Gram. l.xv. Fontan. I. vi. 

(A) Meurfius relates, that his been careful to avoid it in b»- 

«ame was held in fach detefla- tizing their childrei^ (i).. 67^ 

tion, that die diet came to a his wife ^^/6mV&/ daughter of 

reiblution never to eled a king Conrad^ he left a fon, an onlf 

of his name, and all future child; whoie name we are d(^ 

kings have, for that reafon, told (2). 

(0 iM«w/. /, V. f. 97. (a) Stttu^ iM 


The Hificfry of Denmzrk^ 149 

eoafts and ihipping of Denmark. He prq>ared a fleet to 
iovade the Vandah $ but the expedition was laid afide by the 
advice of the fenate, and on account of the fcarcityof provifions. 

In this as in the former reigns fliarp difputes arofe among 
the dergy about the fee of Rojcbild^ now vacant by the death 
of Sjco^ whom Meurjius falfely calls Aper. Thefe feuds 
caufed an infurre£tion of the burghers, who defpifing the king's 
authority, infolently attacked and beat his procurator. The 
incenfed VaUimar entered the city, at the head of a body of 
troops, and would have feverely puni(hed their temerity, had 
they not made their fubmiffion, and voluntarily mul£ied them- 
felves in a large fum of money. After this he ordered four of 
the principal clergy, the moil celebrated for learning and 
piety, to be chofen candidates, among whom was Ahfahn^ his 
old friend and fchool- fellow. One of thefe was to lie elefied 
by ballot ; and upon a fcrutiny it appeared, to the great fatis- 
bBiXQXi of Valdemar^ that Ahfahn was raifed by liniverfal af* 
fent to this high dignity. 

- Having thus, by his prudence, terminated the ecclefiaftical ^^e Van- 
difputes which had often, particularly in the former reign, dais /«- 
been carried to an open rupture, he refumed his intention of ^^^ '^ 
punifliing the Vandak, Juft as he was preparing to ^nvade-^f^ 
them, they anticipated him, by making a defcent on the fmal-^ 
ler Danijh iflands, from whence they were quickly driven. 
After this tbey fpread themfelves over the eoafts of Jutland^ 
'0sA over-fun the ifland Falfter^ before a proper number of 
tfoops could be got together to oppofe them. At length a 
fieet of light (hips was fent out under the condu£): of Abfalon^ 
hxtbo^ofRofcbildi or, Viccoxixng io Grammaticusy under the 
king in perfon, who reconnoitred the enemy in the harbour of 
Lunderiy and found their armament greatly fuperior to his own» 
and confiding of two hundred and fix^ ftout (hips. This 
: made him defer fighting until a reinforcement arrived, before 
which time his fleet was difperfed by a ftorm. The fame mif- 
fortune happened to the fecond fleet he equipped, FaUemar 
verv narrowly efcaping the fury of the waves. Towards the 
cna of the year, however, he came to a battlie with the enemy-^ 
and totally defeated them, being greatly aflifted by Pert^ove^ 
fon to NicateSt prince of the Fandals^ who embracing Chril- 
tianity, fought refuge with Valdemary and was by him made 
governor of th^ fmall ifles *. This viftory was obtained oflFVahdals 
^en^ which ifland the king plundered and deftroyed (B). defeatei. 


' ' * Meurs. 1. v. 

(B) This ifland is fltuated in merania^ and at prefent does 
tbe Bekk^ oa the cpaft of Fq* not exceed nine leagues in 

L 3 length. 

j^o Th( H0ory of TlitnmTLTli. 

A. D. RetvRNIng home laden with fpoils, in order to repaid Uft 

Ii6i. fleet and renew the war, he was followed by the Vandal am- 

baifadors, who fupplicated peace with fuch fubmiffion^ that the 

'good king, laying afide his juft refentment, granted their requefi. 

Their unbridled infolence, however, drew down upon theni 

that vengeance next year from which their fervile obedience 

faved them at this time. It would appear that only a cella- 

tion of arms was granted by Valdemar ; for Grammaticus fays, 

that the Vandah fent back DomborQy their former ambafiador, 

%Q conclude the treaty, and demand hoftage3 for its |>erform- 

ance ; bis diredions being befides, to accept of no terpis but 

fuch as were honourable. Domhoro firft applied himfelf to. Ab- 

faloriy who he knew had the king's ear, and told him, that 

the firft article of his inftru£li6ns was to demand hoftages ; to 

which Ahfalon replied, that the Darui were not accuftomed 

to grant fuch terms to their inferiors whom they had van- 

quiCbed. He then acquainted the king with the purport of 

the embaHy, with which he was fo offended, that he ordered 

Domborp to quit bis domiiijpns, without giving him any an- 

fwer. # ' 

j^^ jy^ Immediately he prepared for war ; but his fleqt was fo. 

1162. lo^S wind bound, that, fearing the confequences of along 

delay, he endeavoured to prevail on Henry of Saxony^ to 

chaftif^ the Vandals, Induced by a large fubfidy, and the 

hopes of extending his dominions, ii?«ry accepted the pro- 

pofal, and agreed to attack the enemy by land, while the 

ne kinz ^'"S ftowl^ diftrefs them by ffea. In confequence the Vandak 

ofibeyzTi'' were reduced to great extremities, having loft a battle which 

i^sjlain. they hazarded with the S^^ow, and their king, who was /lain 

fighting with great intrepidity, amidft heaps of his flaughtered 

enemies, and difdaining to turn his back, though he was de- 

ferted by all his army befides a few faithful guards. His head 

was fixed on a pole by the Saxon foldiers, parried triumphantly 

'Unnaiwr(il tptheir dvike, and fent by him to the king juft at the time 

€ondiuiof ^j^gj^ j^^ ^-^ ^^ fupper with Perijlove^ the fon of the decpifed. 

btsjon. 'pj^at prince, after he had paid the tribute due to* nature, and 

fhed tears over the head of his parent, faid with more than 

ftoical hardiiefs, " that he thanked God for thus piinifhing 

impiety,'* difclaiincd the brave Nicloifs fpr his fi^iher, and dif' 

length, though it is confidently ar^ofthefea. It formerly liai 

aflcrted, that its dimenfions the ftrong town of Arcona for 

wiere formerly larger, being its capital, rained in the year 

ioined with the litde ifland of 1168 by Valdemar^ as we ihall 

Ruden^ now feparated by an fee (i). 

(1) Vidt Bauirand Vpc. 


Tie Hiftory of Denmark; . j^l 

ttiigoiflied bitnfelf la true barbarian by hi$ want of £lia] afFec* 
tion, a principle (o flrongly and wifely implanted in the hu-. 
man breaft. f^aldemar hirnfelf feemed difpieafed at this over- 
ftrained Chrifiianity» gently rebuked the young prince for his 
impeuiofity and want of natural feeling, and ordered the 
bead to be buried with the honours due to the valour of the 
deceafed *. 

Notwithstanding the death of their king, the Vandals 
ventured to engage the Danijh fleet, which they furroiinded in 
a (hallow creek, whither they had been driven by a ftorm* 
Here the Danifthu^t to great difadvantage, their large (hips 
being jotirely uTelefs ; but, animated by the prefence of their 
kit^gt and, encouraged by his example, they not only repulfed 
the enemy, but obtained a complete vifiory. This, with Vandals 
t^o other defeats they fuftained, compelled them to fue ioxf'^^fi^ 
peace in the fame abjefl manner they had done before j to^'^'* 
vhich the king acceded upon the terms he thought fit to im- 
pofe, in order that his prefence in Denmark might appeafe 
fome tumults occaGoned by Efchily archbifliop of Lunden, 

During the conteft between Alexander and ViSior^ about 
the papal dignity, the biihop of Slejwick dying, one O^^^wa^ 
ijibftitulied by ViSlort with Valdemar^s approbation, in his room. 
Tl^is promotion was difagreeable to the archbifhop Efchilj who 
efpoufed the caufe of Alexander^ ^nd declared the ele£tion void, 
prohibiting Occo from the ufeoffire and water, after having firft 
excommunicated him. What incrcafed the prelate's fury was^^ ... 
the lofs of a large fum of money fent to him from France^t t ^^\ 
which he imagined had been feized by the king's order at the^^^ kinp^ 
inftigation of Occo. This made him fend a haughty meflage • 

to Abfakn^ defiring him to acquaint Valdemary either to re- 
turn the treafure or prepare for war. Abfakn was (hocked . . . 
with the infolence of this meflage, and declined informing the 
\ king of the exprefs terms uf<M by the proud prieft, though he 
told him enough to raife his indignation, and make him, 
threaten to puni(h the archbifhop. Sfihih upon reconfideting 
the matter, began to opprehend the efFeds of the royal ven- 
geance, and fought an apportpnity of appeafing it, without 
diminiihing his own dignity. With this view he withdrew to 
a remote part of the country, from whence he propofed to ac-, 
commodate the breach : but Valdemar colle6ling a body of 
troops, laid fiege to Lethra^ a ftrongly fortified city which Ef- 
'Whadbuilt*in the midft of a mora fs. The fiege was te- 
dious, but at length the city was forced to furrender for wan J 
^[ provifions, but chiefly by a ftratagem which Valdemar <:q<> 

*Saxo, I.xv. Meurs. 1,v. Pontan. 

L 4 trived. 

% ji , The Hijhry^ of Dcnhiark. 

trived* Gerhard^ the governor, had before demanded a paiky, 
and promifed to furrender the place within a limited tune, if 
Efcbil did not come to its relief, and, as a pledge of his fa^ 
he put the archbifliop's grandfon into the king's hand, and im- 
fnediately acquainted Efchil of what he had done. The pre- 
late's anfwer was to defend the town to the iaft extremity, for 
he valued it far above the life of his grandfon. Upon dm 
hbftilities recommenced, and the king forged a letter, in 
which he makes Efchil retraA his former fentiments, expncft 
great concern for his grandchild, and order Gerhard to ddi?cr ' 
^ up the city rather than let his life run any hazards. The 
more ftrongly to enforce this letter which Faldmar pretended 
to have intercepted, he ordered a gibbet to be ere^ed bdbre 
the walk, in which he threatened to hang up the hoftageif 
the keys were not fent to him within ao hour ; and the go- 
vernor finding him peremptory, and his matter's orders ex- 
prefs, complied. Here he left a garrifon, and pafied over to 
&^(7»^, reducing all the ftrong holds within thediocefeof 
Lunden ^. 
Efchil'j The king's rapid progrefs obliged the proud Efchtl to ask 
fubmiffion. peace in the raoft fubmimve terms ; but upon this mortifying 
condition, that the archbifhpp fliould reftore to his maje% 
all the donations of former kings to the fee of Lunden: 
thus the primate fooliflily incurred the difpleafure of a princfi 
who always exprefled a high regard for the clergy; lefieoed 
his own dignity ; loft the bafts of his power, his nrong-hold^ 
and involved his diocefe in calamities, which, during his life, 
it never recovered, and for which he was blamed by aU de- 
?"^v i^^^g^^^^ ^^ "^^"' Still, however, the prelate continued his ma- 
•^'' ** • chinations againft pope FiSfor^ nor could he be drawn from 
^^- his attachment to Alexander^ though he had like to involve 
the nation in fre(h commotions, ^and fubjefl: his fovereign to 
the difgrace of being kept a priioner at the court of the em- 
peror, who had laid a fcheme for that purpofe. 

VALDEMAR^ having by his vigour and penetration 
efcaped all the fnares placed for htm, determined more ftrong- 
^ )y to fortify his dominions on the German fide» and to build 

fione baftions at Danewarkj which before conilfled intirely of 
wood. While he was thus employed an ambafly came from 
Norway^ offering him that crown, provided he would drive 
out Erlingy who had invaded the kingdom. Valdemar^ that 
he might not raOily embark In' a foreign war, took care to 
found the fentiments of the people before he made any reply; 
and finding they were flrongly affeded to him, promifed 

rbe Hijhry (f Denmark, . 15 J 

tftniy afiftanoe. Crc^ng over with an army, he was joy- T'^^Nor- 
fiilly received ; and traveitag the country to Tdnfberg^ viras in wegians 
that citycrowned king of iVmc/^^, in a foil afTetnbly of the£^i^ 
ftates ; tkougfa it was obfervable, that not a Tingle bifliop ortbe €rvwM, 
private clergyman was prefent, notwithftanding their great 
iiiAicncc in N^rtvay. A fcarcity of provifions, however, 
obliged him to return to Denmark^ attended with a great 
number of ^^ Norwegian nobility, who chofe to live in exile, 
rather than M>jed tlMsmfelves to the indignation of Erling^ 
This prince ftUi continued with a fmall army in Norway ; 
and now, taking advantage of the king's retreat, made a 
Mom, on Jutlandj and ruined and deftroyed the Danijh fleet 
that rode at anchor on the coaft, returning laden with fpoils 
to Denmark, It was, indeed, a great overfight in Faldemar, 
thai he did not make it his btiiinefs, while he was in Norway^ 
to endeavour to drive tiut Erling^ inftead of fpending hb time 
m calling afiemblies of the ftate, which muft ever be fubjeA 
to the ftrongeft military power *. 

ERLING was married to Chrijiinay coufin to Valdemar^ a A. D. 
kdy of prudence and valour fuperior to her fex. She, finding 1 163. 
that, if the war was protrafied, her hufband muft neceiTarily 
fink under the weight of Valdemar's power, took the refolu- 
tion (rf* going in perfon tq the king, and endeavouring to 
affisA a reconciliation. Having provided herfcif with a paff.^^8 
port, (he cno^d the feas, and was kindly received by Valde'V^^^-^ 
nun-f who was plcafed with her good fcnfe and fpirit, and ^^^^V 
honoured her with a great many audiences. When Aie^^^^ 
believed (he had foftened his refolution, (he detached a mef- niark, W 
fengcr to Erlingy who fuddenly joined her, and prefentedyj^/zj /# 
himfeif before the king, telling him, <' See, Valdemar^ theValdemar 
*' confidence I place in your generofity, thus to put myfelf 
** into your hands, even without your word for my fecurity : 
*' but I know the greatnefs of your foul, and though your 
*^- enemy, have no apprehenfion of being treated as fuch 
** while I am your gueft." To this Valdemar replied, *< You 
^ may fafely confide in me : it is not my cuftom to abufe the 
" confidence repofed in my hofpitality." Upon which Er^ 
lingy approaching refpeflfully, kifled the king's hand, and 
obtained peace, upon condition that he (hould himfelf remain . 
a hoftage in Denmark y and EJbem be fent to govern the king- 
dom of Norway in quality of viceroy for Valdemat ; who, in 
return, confened ^upon Erling feveral dignities and lands of 
«:Qnfidcrafele value for his fupport *>. - • 

• jPOHTAN, 1. Vi. * SaXQ GaAM* I. Vfi 


1^4 ^^^ Hiftory ^f Deilmark. 

No Iboner was the tranquillity of Norway e^abUflied Am 
^ new infults from-the Vandals occafioned a renovation of the 
J. ^ war; and th^t it might be carried on with. vigour, Valdmar 
I '6a entered into a frefli alliance with the duke of Saxony ; and the 
Alliance °^^^e firmly to cement their friendfiiip, a contra£t of marriage 
hetmfeen ^^^ executed between Canute^ prince of Denmark^ and Ger- 
Denmark trude^ an infant, the daughter of Henry Leo^ the duke. The 
and Saxo- pl^n of operations was fettled, and Henry fent a body of hqjrfe 
ny. into the enemy's country, while himfelf followed with flower 

marches at the head of the infantry ; the king blocking up 
the fea-ports, and oppofing the Vandal navy. An ambufli was 
laid for the Saxon horfe, by which they were at firft defeated, 
till GunceUny a Saxon general, rallied theo^ and renewed the 
fight with fuch intrepidity, that the enemy, intent upon pliu* 
dering, were driven out of the field, and victory wrejled out 
of their hands. Notwithftanding this, Henry was (b much 
incenfed at the repulfe his troops had met with,* that^ enter- 
ing Pomeraniay he carried tenor afid defolation wherever be 

On the other hand^ VaUemar finding the Vandals had drawa 
their forces from the fleet, the better to oppofe the Saxom^ 
landed his troops, and marched to the city of Vohga/i, or 
Wolgaftt the capital of Swtdijh Pomeraniay then the countrf 
^ of the Vandals J which he found 3eferte4 by the inhabitants. 

fi^iits to '^^^y» however, dreaded that he would fet fire to the city, 
Valdemar*"^ fent ambafladora to afTure him of their allegiance, pr<v 
vided he would reftrain his foldiers from plundering and de« 
ftroying their hour<». The propofal was accepted, on condi- 
tion that Rugen (hoiild pay a tribute, and give hofiages that the 
inhabitants would ihut up the mouth of the river Pene^ which 
was a neft for pirates ; tfiat, dividing the city into three parts, 
they would ol^ey Tolijlaw, Cajimir^ and Priflaw^ as governors, 
anfwerable for their condu<Si to the king of Denmark \ and, 
lafily, that the duke of Saxony ibould remain in pofleiSon of 
all his coriquefls in Pomerania ^. 

This treaty of peace did not hold long; for next year the 
' citizens of Wolgaft^ difliking the adminiftration of Cafmiu 

entered into a fecret alliance with the people of Rugen i in 
which, indeed, Henry of Saxony^ the good ally of Valdem&r% 
' was a party, and began new depredations, upon Denmark, 
Valdemar was incenfed more at the perfidy of Henry than the 
inconftancy of the Vandals. Without delay he invaded Ru- 
gen I and by the conduft of the faithful Abfalon^ who, though, 
a biihop, {hewed the capacity and courage of a foldier, re- 

^ Meurs. 1. 5. 



The Hiftory of Denmark. 155 

duced many of the moft important places ; after which he 
returned to his own dominions, to refreih his foldiers. After 
j| (holt ftay he again came back, and laid fiege to the flrong 
ci^ty of Arcona^ well fortified by nature and art. Such were 
the difficulties he met with from the fituation of the place, 
and valour of the beiieged, that, breaking up his camp, he 
marched to the interior part of the country, which he laid 
i;] afhes. The Vandals^ terrified at the defolation he made» 
applied to Henry Leo for the promifed aid ; but being put off* 
i|nder various pretences, they once more received the yoke, 
purcbafed a peace at a heavy price, and gave hoftages for 
the fecurity of payment. They likewife agreed to abjure 
idolatry, and ehabrace the Chriftian religion, which Valdemar 
made a preliminary article to the treaty. 

About this time it was that Valdemar laid the foundation Dantzlc 
of the city of Dantzic^ (o famed for its opulence and freedom. luiU. 
At firft it was compofed of the huts of pOor fifliermen; but A. D. 
Valdemar conferring certain privileges and immunities, it 1165. 
foon became a flourifliing place of trade, and not the leaft 
ornament of that glorious reign. Some writers indeed affirm^ 
that this city owes its origin to Sobtjlaw^ prince of Pomerania ; 
but the Danijb hiftorians, and the accurate Crantzius, with 
one voice attribute the honour to Valdemar ^. 

On the king's return from this expedition, the diet taking 
into confideration the danger to which the kingdom would be 
expofed, (hould any misfortune befal him in the wars in which 
he was conftantly engaged, humbly propofed, that his fon 
Canute^ then but four years of age, mould be taken as his 
aiTociate, and confequently his fucceiTor in the throne. The 
king, who was by no means difpleafed with their requeft, 
willingly complied, and Canute was accordingly proclaimed 
king of Denmark^ conjointly with his father, by univerfal 
confent ; without we except BurifiuSj young Canute's kinf- 
man, who had himfelf fome defigns upon the crown,- and 
therefore refufed his vote at the eledion. Valdemar put up 
with the affront for a time, but did not forget it : he faw 
through the views of Burijius^ and refolved not only to fruftrate 
them, but to puqilb the author, as foon as aficoccafion ihould 
offer (A). 

« L. ii. Hift. Saxon. 

(A) We muft obferve, that in the government. He affirms, 
fr/> of Pomerania is the only on the contrary, that in the 
writer who denies that Canute year 1177, °^ twelve years af- 
was this year made an affociate terwards, when he was fourteen 


1^6 ^be Htft&rj ffiytTimzxk. 

Next year great preparations were fet on foot for givtfig 
fuch a blow to the Vandal *powcr, as (hould for a while ina- 
jiacitate them to difturb the peace of Denmarki if not totally de- 
ftroy the ftate. Almofl ail the inhabitants ofSchmen^ Zeakmij 
and Fiinen^ fit to bear arms, went forth under the condudojf 
Abfahn^ Magnus^ foh to Eric Lamhy and Chriftopberj natural 
fon to the prefent king. They entered the enemy's country, 
»id without mercy fet the whole in a flame ; but did not come 
to any adion with their main army. Next year the expedi- 
tion, was repeated, in which the Danes had the good fortune to 
deftroy part ofArcona^ the capital, and ftrongeft hold in Rugetu 
Jconfp' While VqUtmor was gathering laurels againft foreign 
racf form^ enemies, he received a letter from Henry duke of Saxony, ac- 
V^d quainting hrm with the impending danger from dpmeftic foes. 
*"^ Burifiusy his brother Ormos, and Erling of Norway ^ had fc- 
cretly confpired againft his life, and concerted a plan far 
making themfelves tnafters of Jutland^ which was proved hj 
an intercepted letter from Norway. They had engaged feveral 
of the nobility in the plot, and had taken their meafures lb 
well, that nodiing but this early intelligence could have feved 
• Valdemar. The king immediately feized upon iiich of the 

traitors as were within his reach, and fent Abfalon with a fleet 
to intercept Erling and Ormos in their return for Norway. 
Abfalon obeyed his orders, and defeated their fleet ; but had 
A. D. '^^ ^^^ S^^ fortune to take ErKngy who efcaped under fa- 
1 1 67.* ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ night. Burijitts was already a prifoner; and 
authors differ about the nature of his punifhment. Saxi 
Grhmmatictts fays, that he was confined for life in prifon^ 
Eric of Pomeraniaj that his eyes were put out ; Altera abbot 
of Siadty that he was ftrangled ; and others, that he was 
imothered under a feather-bed *. Nor are they lels divided 
about his name, the former writers calling him Burijius, but 
the abbot, Borcius, placing it among the tranfa6i:ions of tbe 
year 1173, ^ough on what authority we are left to conja- 

About this time it was, that Abfahn built the caftle of 
StegeUfurg^ afterwards called Exelhufia, then Hafnica^ and wvt 
the celebrated port and city of Copenhagen. The intention of 

* VId. apud PoNTAN. Not? i^d Hiil:. 

years of age, he was made load of fo extenflve a kisf^ 
king of Haiumd w^id ScboneXf in dom (i). 
©rder to cafe his father of the 

(i) Pid, ErictPm, a^udMenrf. /, v, p, 105. 


The Hijkry of Denmark: 157 

^his caftle was to awe the pirates, and aflFord a fafe protefiioti 
to the Danijb (hips of commerce, and fleets. 

Next year was ufhered in with preparations for attacking A. D« 
ErUngi but from this Valdemar was retrained by certain ad* 11 68. 
vice, that Henry Lio duke of Saxorr^ bad entered into a firi£t Henry 
alliance with Bogiflaus prince of the Vandals^ who had fought ^ ^^^ 
bis protedion againft the D^ n/j, and received the ftrongeft^"^'- 
aflurances of fupport. There could be nothing more abfurdly ^^^* 
inccMnfhint than the condufi of Henry : fometimes forming 
alliances with Viddemarj cementing them with the ties of 
blood, and proving his friendihip by difcovering to him the 
machinations of his enemies, at other times, and perhaps 
within the fpace of a few months, contracting alliances with 
his inveterate enemies, contriving fchemes with them for 
Valdemar^s deftrufibn, and fhifting diametrically oppoHte to 
the fenttments he had lately efpoufed. The truth is^ Henry % 
profafion and magnificence always rendered him neceffitous, 
and every tie of honour and affinity yielded to his wants* 
Money was the aduating fpring of air his condud, and the 
}aft and largeft (Jibfidv confirmed his friendfliip. Valdemar 
was not ignorant of tnis difpofition ; but he difdained pur* 
cha&ng alliances at the expence of his people, except whea 
emergencies required it. The prefent occafion might well be Denmark 
reclK>ned fuch j for Denmark was hardly ever in a more criticaly^r^a^^y 
'fituation, or befet with more enemies. On the one fide were ^th ene- 
the Vandah and Saxans ; on the other, Erling and the Nor- nues. 
wegians ; fo that Valdemar bad reaibn to dread a defcent from 
one while he was a^ng againft the other, unlefs his ftrength 
were fufficient to guard againft both at the fame time. His 
firft^care, therefore, was to fortify the coaft of Zealand^ the 
fuperintendance of which he committed to EJiurn Snare^ who 
built a number of ftrong caftles and towns in the moft com- 
modlous places. He next employed Gondefcaly a man ef high ' 
diftinfUon, that had pafied the firft years of his life among 
the Fandalsy and had acquired a perfed knowledge of their 
manners and language, to break the. league between them 
and Hmry of Saxony ; which bufinefs he chearfully undertook* 
and efte^ed with fiich confummate addrefs, that the Vandak 
taking arms, drove all the Saxons out of their garrifons and 
country \ 

HENRT W2S terrified with this very extraordinary and 
fudden change in their councils, for which he could affign no 
caufc, the Danijb agent having come over with fuch privacy, 
that not a fyllable tranfpired to the public. Dreading left 

^ MsuRi. l.v. Gram. 1. xvi. Fontam. 1. v. 

J 58 The Hijlory (/.Denmark. 

Henry VaUemar Ihould feize this opportunity of punjfhing his treacte* 
Ij^o/uis ry and ficklenefs, he fent ambaiTadors to hiiti to apologize for 
far peace, his condud):, and promife meafures more fteady and con/iftent 
for the future. As his eldeft daughter, betrothed to ^oung 
Canute^ was dead, he offered the younger fifter in marriage 
upon the fame terms ; requeuing, at the fame time^ an in- 
terview at Bremen with the Danijh monarch, in order to pat 
the lad hand to the propofed treaty. 
AnewaU 'Xyi^ princes met, and it was agreed they fliould join forces 
kance be- agaj^fl. jfjg VandaU^ Henry marching to Deminy and Valdemar 
'^ndV l^ ^^ ff^olgajl. The devafiation they made was terrible, and 
demar ' tinbecoming Chriftian princes, were it not abfolutely necef&iy 
apainff the ^^ reprefs thofe barbarians by cruel methods, that ought not 
Vandals. ^^ ^^ "^^^ againfl: a people more civilised, and 'who fought bj^ 
regulated laws of war. This condufl: had the efFefl; for the 
Vandatsy perceiving nothing but deftruftion before their eyes, 
from fo fuperior a foe, purchafed peace with a large fum of 
money, and gave hoftages for the kcurity of the payment. 

Having finiflied matters on the fide of the Vandals^ Vol* 
demar turned his arms againfl Norway ; but after many 
fruitlefs attempts to bring Erling to a batde, he returned 
home with his fleet. T)ie foldiers had begun to complain 
of long confinement on board, in fearch of a fugitive, who 
eluded all their endeavours ; a fcarcity of provifions began to 
prevail in the fleets and the winter was now approaching, 
when he would be in danger of being frozen up. Another 
circumftance which contributed to his return, before he had 
^ done any thing decifive, was intelligence, that the Rugians 
had again revolted, notwithftanding the low eftate to which 
he had lately- reduced them. He now determined fully to eXf 
tirpate this, perfidious and obflinate people, and for that pur* 
, pofe formed an alliance with Bogijlaus^ prince of Pomeranicu 
After ravaging different parts of the ifland, he fat down before 
Arcona Arcona^ the fuburbsof which had been deflroyed in thfe former 
hefieged War. Nature never, perhaps, formed a ftronger fituation 
and taken, than this place, itfelf ftanding on a high promontory, widi 
the eaft, north, and fouth fides defended by fleep and lofty 
precipices, inacceffible to men ; and the wefl by a wall fifty 
feet high, proportionably thick, and fecured by a deep and 
broad ditch. Undifmayed by the difficulty, he fet about be- 
fieging it, and carried on his operations with fuch (kill and 
perfeverance, that the garrifon was forced to furrender upoa 
the conditions he thought fit to impofe^ One m particular 
was, that the Rugtans fliould deftroy a teniple they had erefied 
to St. Fitisy and deliver up the vaft treafure of this tutelary 
god, which he had -amafTed by a tax on the confciences of his 
5 votaries. 

The Hifiory of Denmark, ijp 

votaries. They likcwife agreed to embrace Chriftianity ; to Vandals 
reftore the Danijh prifoners without ranfom ; to pay forty reduced. 
filvcr yokes for oxen, by way- of yearly tribute ; and to enter 
as foldiers in the fervice oiDenmark^ when called upon, in the 
fame manner as the other fubje£i8 of the crown ^. 

The princes of Pomerania were of opinion, thit Tetijlaw^ * 

prince of Rugeriy ought to have ^ been divefted of his fove- 
reignty, and that authority tranflated to themfelves, in reward 
of their fervices. They were difgufted at Valdemar\ mode- 
ration, which they deemed an injury done to them, and there- 
fore refolved to withdraw from his alliance : a meafure which 
gave no difturbance to the Danijh monarch, who had now ac- 
compliihed his bufmefs. 

The beginning of this year was employed in a^s of piety A. D« 
to his father's men\ory. He fent an ambaflador to RoTne^ to 1169* ^ 
have him canonized ; and on the day of , his return, with the 
pope's afient, he convoked the people ztRin^ad^ and folemnly 
proclaimed his fon Canute an aflbciate in the throne, and his 
fucceflbr : an event which has greatly perplexed hifiorians, 
^ith refped td the chronology, as we have already feen. His 
next care was the firm e(labli(hment of Chriftianity in Rugen^ 
to which place a number of the clergy was fent, to inftrudi 
thofe rude barbarians in the truths of the gofpel ; and the fu- 
perfntendency of the whole was committed to Jbfalon^ his fa- 
vourite prelate **. 

These a6b of piety were confiderably difturbcd by the^^^Coor- 
piracies of the EJiboniam and Courlanders^ againft whom he landers 
fent a fleet under the condud of Abfalon^ ftridlly enjoiningy»^^«^/. 
him to beware of their fnares and ambufhes. Ahfalon how- 
ever was entrapped, and a great part of his army, which he 
had difcmbarked, cut oiF. This lofs he foon retaliated upon 
the enemy, whom he blocked up in port; and at length, 
bringing them to an adion, totally vanquifhed. 

Soon after this tranfa£lion, thefucceflion was {^rengthened 
by the tMrth of a fecohd prince, whom the king called after 
his own name ; and, to augment the general joy, ambafiadors 
arrived from Erling to fue for peace, and obtain leave that he 
might come to Denmark^ and have an interview with Valde- 
mar. His petition was granted, j^^rw fent in his room to 
Norway J and Erling admitted to a conference with the king. 
At firft he was received fo coldly, that he began to defpair of 
obtaining his ends. Next day, however, renewing the con- 
fcrence, his majefty changed bis behaviour, and gracioufly re- 
ceived him again into favour on thefe conditions, which may 

* SaXOG&AM. l.Xvi. ^ POMTAN. 1.^1. MeURS. 1. V. 


jSo ^^^ Hifiaj ^ Denmark. 

A. D. ^^^<^ ^>^^* i^« That FaUimaTj the ntw-bom pnm^ 

1170. youngeft (on to VaUimar^ (hould be educated atlhe espenoE 

Conditions of Norway^ and enjoy the title of duke of that coantryt 

rf the 2dly, That this young prince ihould fucceed to the throne of 

iruujf. Norway^ provided that he {ErUng) aad hi^ fon AUigmiSy did 

without male iflue. 3dly, That Erlhtg (hould, feme in Vei* 

' demar'% wars as a vaflal of Dtnamrk^ and have fixtjr fliip$ 

ready to put to fea on the firft notice. 4thly^ and iaftly. The 

not only Erling^ but all the nobility of Norway^ flk>old laaff 

and confirm thefe conditions by oath^and a vnritte» iiiflnsBieBt» 

figned with their hands, and fealed with the great feal of the 

kingdom, as well as the private feals of individiiak {A^^ 

Peace being concluded in this quarter, the kiog foojidit 
necefiary to repel fome frefh infults, committed by the reft- 
lefs and barbarous Vandaky who could neither fupport war nef 
^^^ , peace. While the king and his general Ahfalm were takiif 
/tl V ^^^^ towns, and ravaging their country, a defign was concert- 
dal ^^ ^^ Caftmiry Henry Leo^ and BogUkms, for giving a dedfiie 

mgai a ^'^^ ^^ ^^ Danijb power, by iurrounding the king, and 
y^ J^jj^ obli^bg him to furrender with his whole, army at difcrctkn. 
Their diefign was difcovered and frufirated by VMemar^ 1^ 
lution, and the prudence of Jbfakm^ who had raifed VmUi 
a luuober of enemies, by the mare he poflb&d of the royal 
confidence. They now accufed this brave prelate of havu; 
betrayed theqfi to the enemy ; but the king knew his merir, 
and^ was too difcernitig not to penetrate through the thin veil' 
of patriotic diffimulation. Committing, therefore, the iriioie 
care of extricating the Ikmis out of this difficult to tihe U'^ 
fhopk, the event amwered his hopes. Mfahm took fiich pre* 
cautions, and made fo good a di^fition* that d^nir fnind 
f]6^ Van- bimfelf reduced to the neceiSty of retreating or figltting upon 
dais ie- uneoual terms. He chofe the former ; the Dams wete ddi- 
featid. vereo, and the charader of ^^i<0n^ raifed above envy, ba 
word, fo glorious was this expedition, that the power of Cafi- 
mar and Bogiflcods was intirely broke ; the defims of the fickfe 
but ambitious Henry Leo fruurated ; moft of the towna in Pt- 
- meraria obliged to give hoflages for their future quiet beha- 
viour ; and the Vandal princes fo exhaufted and rec^uced, as 10 
oblige them to feek protection in Saxony. 

(A) It is difEcutt to afcertain acknowledges, that his acoomU 

with exadinefs the date of this u taken from an old chnnu^i^ 

tranfadion. Pontanus in one which places it in the year 1176, 

place feems to refer it to the or four years after the M at- 

year 1172; bat he afterwards tempt (i). 

, (0 Pw/. A vi. f, «sl, 
2 AdVXC£ 

The tiificry of Denmark* , 6i 

AoviCfi of this being received in Denmark^ Valiemar made p^^ i>^ 

another defcent on Pomtrania^ and laid fiege to Siitin^ then \\nz. 

the beft fortified city in all that country. With fuch vigour 
did he cariy on bis attack, that Wratifiaus^ the governor and 
kinfman to C^fimir and BugiflauSy wa3 driven to ex;^emitiest 

and forced to capitulajte (A). 

. A corBJMPO&ARY writer, cited by modern hiftorians, fays, 
tfaajt. Valdimar made but little progrefs in his approaches, 
,and muft bave raifed the fiege» had not the garrifon been dif- 
trefled bv &mine. Thi^ produced a conference between the 
king and Wratljlam \ they were ftruck with each other's qua- 
lities, and eittered into a ftrid friendfliip, after which the king 
h44 beftowed the city upon the governor as his own property, 
and be, in return, promifed fealty to*the crown of Denmark. 

VALDEMjk was wbollv employed in fettling the affairs A. D. 
of PomeKania^ and the ^»^/ country, till the year 1177, ^^77* 
which produced a conference between him and /^^;7ry Z^^, 
^uke of Saxany^ for adjufiing their mutual rights and claims* 
Authors however are not agreed about the nature or end of 
this congrefi : we are only told, that in confequence of it, 
another expedition was undertaken againft the Vandals^ in 
which i/i^/Mi gathered frelh huvtlsy PaUemar great addition 
of glory, and the whole kingdom of Denmark an increafe of 
Wesdth, by the prodigious quantity of rich booty, brought 
bome. Buf we know not, whether this expedition was enter- 
^ upon in confequence of an agreement between Vqldemar 
and ilmry^ or Whether the latter bore any part in it. Certain 
k is, that neyt year they afled as enemies ; the guardians of 
the young duke of H^Jlitn levying foldiers in Saxony^ in order 
to make war upon Denmark. His ufual good fortune attended 
Mfiil^n ;. the enemy were defeated,, and the Danes again per* 
nutted to enjoy the fruits of diis victory. 

. BvT the repofe confequent on thefe advantages were foon Dtfiur- 
agaii^dtftuiiiqd by frelh commotions in the dutchy of Bremen^ ^an^fs in 
and other parts of the circle of Lower Saxony. The Saxons *^^ Lower 
highly refented the late difgrace of their countrymen, and. Saxony, 
fired with the defire of revenge, aflembled in a tumultuous 
manner in'order to march againft Abfahn ; but being met by , 
the fugitives, who efcaped from the late defeat, their courage 


(A) As our only guides thro' reader to the lail book o(Saxo 

the period of the Damfi hiftory, Grammaticusy the fixth. feventh, 

fubfequent to VaMemaf^% reign, and eighth books oTPontanus, 

Me Pontanuj and Mturfiuty who and the third book of the fecond 

is here a mere copier, it may part of Meurfiusy without quot- 

bc fufficicnt that we refer the mg every particular page. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. XXXIL M was 

1^ The Hiftory ef Denmark. 

was femewhat reprefled by the relation, they received of the 

extraordinary prowefs of Ahfabtfs ariAy, and the gdod coa« 

du£t of the general. Olimdr^ a f^Awb/ prince, on #hom the 

command was bellowed, finding that all his endeavours wouM 

only fcrve to haften his owa ruin, went over to Faldemar^ and 

obtained peace from that generous conqueror. 

A. D. Next year was introduced by a new confererice between 

1 178. Valdemar and Hemy Leo^ now elated by his cdnquefts in £h 

Conference ^aria. Henry propofed this meeting, in order to fettle the 

^/wf» differences between them, and thereby fecure hfs fromicrt 

^^^^ againft the incurfions of the Danes^ during his -necrffary at- 

«/'S onv *^"^^"^^ *' ^^ ^^^ *"^ *^ emperor's court. The banks of 

^ ^^ ^' the Eyder, a river emptying itfelf into- the BaAky between tke 

dutchies of Slefwick and Hoijiein^ was the place fixed oa for the 

congrefs ; but fuch was Henrfs pride, that he refufed croffing 

the bridge, or going to the oppofite fide where the king wv. 

Valdemar only fmiled at the ridiculous dignity, and went half 

way over the bridge to meet this haughty fovereign prince. 

Here matters were adjufted to their mutual fatisfadion, Valih 

mar yielding points of no confequence in order to obtain othen 

of real benefit, condu£ltnghimielf through6ut the whole coih 

grefs with the ability of a ftatefinan, and the moderation of I 

great king and conqueror. 

Subsequent to this treaty concluded httv^ttti Dmimi 
and Saxony y were a variety of incurfions, tumults, and rebel* 
lions, among the fickle, unfteady, affd predatory VaMi^ 
who were neither able to oppofe thepowerof VM^tmr^ ortti 
reft fatisfied under his dominion, though he txetted the rightt 
of conqueft with all poflible mildnefs and lenity^ The recital 
however of fuch unimportant and uninterefting events wooU 
be tedious to the reader. Suffice it, that they wereconilantif 
defeated, conftantly fuing for peace, and no lefs conftam is 
taking up arms again upon every Opportunhy . In a word, no- 
thing feemed capable of fecurin^ Denmark on this fide, but 
the total extirpation of fo perfidious, barbarous, and warlike 
a people. This fcheme had often been refolved upon by W- 
demar, at the Inftigation of his faithful counfdlor Ahfabn ; he 
' had frequently, made large ftrides towards its final execution; 
butfomefreih difficulties intervened, or the clemency of his 
difpofition was always wrought on by the fupplications of the 
J con/pi' During the Vandal war, a confpiracy fet on foot by i/fl/- 
ta€y dif" ^^^9 ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ *^^ Lamby was happily difcovered. This 
covered, young prince had fided with Swen ; and being made prifo- 
ner in the laft battle, vm fet at liberty and kindly pardoned 
^y Valdemar '^ at a time Wnen he expeded the moft feverepu' 


nifrmenf. Unmindful of this inftanceof goDdtidS^, he pined 
with CanuU and Charles^ nephews to E/cbi/^ in a plot to de- 
ftroy the king. Some of the confpiratora^ who were gone to 
ibyttin upon bufinefs, chanced ta lodge an evening in the hut 
of an old hermit, by whom they were kindly accommodated. 
After they were in bed they b^an to talk upon the important 
(ifbjefi in hand, exprcflSuig among other things their aftohifli- 
ment, that the king (hould, for fo long a time, efcape the 
machinations of Canutiy CbarUsj Magnus^ and other confpi- 
ntors, who had vowed bis deftrudion. The hermit, fepa« 
lated from the Grangers only by a wicker partition, overheard 
their difcourfe, and next morning communicated it to the 
abbot, with his requeft that it mig^t be inftandy tranfmitied 
to jRfalm. . By means of thb accident, VaUemar was in- 
formed of his danger, and by fuch unaccountable and trivial 
circamflances are the moft important difcoveries (and haoAT- 
dons defigns, frequently, laid open through the wiidom of Pro- 
vidence, who purfues her great fcheme in a manner infcruta- 
bie to men. VaUemar immediately confulted with Ahfalon the 
means of avoiding the impending ftorm ; and for this pur- - 
pore it was agreed, that the guard fhould be doubled with as 
much expedition and privacy aspoffiUe,' and every other mea- 
luce taken that could enforce the king's fecurity ; yet, without 
Curbing the public tranquility, or ufing violence upon the 
confpirators, until more ample proofs could be procured* 1% 
Was not long before fome letters wrote by Magnus were inter* 
eepted. In ihefe a full account of the confpiracy was con- 
tained ; and Valdmat openly producihj^ them in dieaflembly 
of the ftates, confronted him with his own band and feah At 
firfl he pretended to deny the hand- writing, affirming it to be • 
an ttnpinlent forgery ; but fuch circumftantial proofs appeared^ 
that in the utmofl confufion he fell upon his knees before the 
king, confefled the whole, excufed himfelf by faying that he 
had been led away by the fubtile policy and ambition of Charles 
and Canute^ and concluded with the ftropgeft affiirances of 
loyalty and fidelity, if his majefly would be pleafed gracioufly 
to pardon this paft offence. The gdod and merciful king, 
, moved with his repentance, granted bis requefl, and imp(^od 
; no other punifhment on his ingratitude ^nd treachery, than 
foibidding him the court for a certain time. CbriJUem^ foa to 
Sv/rn, wholikewife ^nlifled himfelf with the conipirators, 
was pardoned, on condition that he would immediately leave 
the kingdom. ' / "^ 

Wh£n the afTembly broke lip, Efd^^fn^A the relatioB|«of 

Canute and (S^ksj msKie all poffible intereft with the king to 

pafs an a£t of oblivion, in which all the confpirators, without 

i ' ^ M z excepi^ 


164 ^^ mftory (?/ Denmark,^ 

The enJea- excqniofi, (bould be included. Tbey had even found meam 
*vours of to engage Abfakn in this requeft } but Valdtmar was kiexon* 
the Mbihty ble, thinking it neceflary to make feme examples, and be* 
to get an Iteving very juftly, that too much lenity and indulgence would 
aa of am- only tempt them to a repetition of their crime, efpecially a 
nefyfajfed.^^ faw themfelves fapported by fe powerful an intcreli 
Efchilsm&io chagrined with bis dtGippointmeht, that he r^ 
figned his mitre, and retired toaprivate.conVentin />«». 
The event proved the wifdom and prudence of the kbg's opi* 
Magnus nion. Magnus was no (boner at liberty than be begaq a fe- 
makes frejh ^^^^ correfpondence with CharUt and Canute^ jn order to mtb 
attempts. ^ fecond attempt on VaUemar^s life. The mefleng^ betvftea 
them was taken up, the plot difcovered, and Magma feidl 
and clofely imprifoned : but before his trial a ,freflx war broke 
out with the Vandak. 
A. D. ^£ ^c ^^^ ^^^ ^he occalion of this war was their feizidg 
1 179. upon the portion of a daughter of Denmark^ which was feot 
by the ambafladors of Hmry Leo into Saxony* From hence it 
would appear, that a treaty of marriage had been executed 
between the fanfilies of Denmark and Saxpnjy though we ate 
informed exprefly of no fuch marriage. On the contrary, ill 
the Danijh writers we have feen mention, that a daughter «f 
Valdemars had married towards theclofebf the year 1 3 789 a 
, prince, whofe name is not known, which feems- the moreex* 
iraordinary, as Grammaticut wrote hb.hiftoly either in this or 
the folbwing reign, and'fnight,on that account, be (uppofal 
Jn aUi' pcrfeSly informed of (b public a tranfadion. Be that ask 
ance be- ^j]]^ Valdemar entered into an alliance with Saxony again* the 
/w^«f Sax- yaniah. The inhabitants of Rugen were, on this occafioo, 
Dwimark ^^^^""^^ **^ ^*^® "P ^^^^% ^^i* their fervicb^ it was thought 
azcdnfi tbe^^^^ greatly promote the defigns of the allies, from tbeif 
Vandals. P^^fed knowledge of the country. ' As foon as the troops 
* could be aflembled, and tranfports got ready, the VoMAb 
were afiailed on one fide by the king, who deftroyed the ftroog 
fortrefs in Wollin ; and by Henrj Leoy who attacked Denm* 
The fiege of this place he carried on with great affiduity, but 
little progrefs, and at laft was forced totally to abandon it. 
The king, on his fide, was more fuccefsfiil ; for after deftrojr* 
ing Wollin he laid fiege to Co/coa^ and having reduced ittocsp- 
tremities, burnt the town to afties. Then laying the furrouwl* 
ing country under heavy contributions, he puflied bis march 
t6 Wolgafty which he befieged (b vigoroufly, that the inhabi- 
tants' werp glad to be relieved from the diftrefs to which be 
reduced them, by paying a large fum of money, and refioring 
to him prodigious magazines of plunder, that bad beeadepo* 
fited there by the pirates. 
', '. V . Afte* 

The Hifiory cf Denmark. 165 

After thefe exploits Vatdenidr returned to Dtnmark j but 
having received fome frefh infults, he determined to punith the 
Vandals with ftilh more feverity, and accordingly fent a fleet 
and army againft them, under the conduct of his fon Canute^ 
AhjiiMy and Frederic bilhop of Slejwick, The young prince, y» ^ 
for the firfl! time, appeared in the held to be initiated in the art **«^ f* 
i)t V9^t by the prudent and fucccfsful Abfahm. Frfderic pe-^^^^^^J^ 
rilhed in a ftorm before he had any opportunity of ferving his ^^j ^^ 
mafier, or exercifing his prowefe: but notwithftanding this /^^~^ 
lofs, Canute and Abfabri purfued their courfe with fuch aiS- 
duity and diligence, that they furprifed many of the enemy in 
Aeir houfes, who expelled not fo fudden a vifit. They laid 
wafte the country, fet fire to a number of towns and villages, 
hefeged Wolgaji^ and forced the brothers Cajimir and Bugif* 
JaiiSf to (lie for peace, and purchafe k upon terms very advan- 
tageous to Denmark. Befides repaying the marriage portion of 
which the ambafladors had been robbed, they agreed to lay 
down in money, the fum of two thoufand talents, together with 
prefents of an hundred pounds of filver, to Canute aiid Jhfa^ 
Ion. Having thus fihifhed the war in one campaign, the ge- 
nerals returned to Denmark^ and were gracioufly received by 
Valdemary with very extraordinary marks of approbation and 

They refided but a few days at court, enjoying their re- 
pofe, when the aifairs of the ftate again called them into the 
' field. The rebels Canute and Charles, who had fled to the 
governor of {jothland, had by his means, and their intereft 
with the people, got together a cpnfiderable body of troops, 
with which they invaded Holland. Here they expeded to be 
joined by crowds of the peafants ; but finding themielves dif- 
appointed, and the whole country firm in its allegiance to 
the king, they retired to a large wood that forms a ^ontier to 
Gothland and Holland. Here they hazarded a battle, in which 7*^^ reikis 
they were defeated, and the rebel army totally ruined, fufFer- defeated. 
ing the juft punifhment inflided by heaven upon confpirators, 
ib tenacious of treafonable principles, a vicious ambitidn, and 
difafiedion to oi^eof thebeftbf princes: 

Next year Henry Leo, who was put under the ban of the 
empire by Frederic harharojfo, took (helter with Valdematy 
and was treated with the diftin£lion due to his rank. His 
pride was now humbled^ and he readily crofled the bridge over 
the Eyder, which, but two years befpre, he had refufed to do 
out of punflilio and a fcrupulous regard to, his dignity, VoU 
demary to whofe generous difpofition misfortune wasthefurefl 
recommendation, promifed him all the affiftance in his power, 
without abfoluiely breaking with the emperor \ but the re- 
• M 3 quefts 

x£$ The ISJiory ^/Denmark. 

quefts tA Henry were of fo extraordinary a nature, that he 
found it impoffible to comply with them, without being uojuft 
to the people and clergy, whom he governed and wis bound 
to protcdt. 
Arevdt in WHILE this tranfadUon was on the carpet, a revolt appeand 
Schonen. in Scbonen ; to appeafe which the king immediately difpatchcd 
' Jhfalm* The people of Schonm were tumultuous and inex- 

orable 5 they believed themfelves oppreiled, and would hear of 
no terms but a pofitive compliance with their remonfirances, 
and redrefs of their grievances ; upon which Abfakn returned 
to Zeahmdy and laid their complaints before the king and le* 
nate, or rather council of the nobility. Although Jtjala 
was perhaps the moft concerned of any other, yet with i 
noble fpirit of difinterefiednefi, he pleaded ftronefy, that die 
firft article of their remonfbrance (hould he redsefled. Fo- 
reigners, and among the reft himfelf, had long enjoyed the 
lucrative pofts and places belonging to this province, while die 
natives were excluded, and the principal nobility of Sdma 
forced to live in indolence on their eftates, without any Ibare 
in the ^dminiftration. This was a grievance infupportableto 
a free fpirited people, and fimilar to fome complaints we have 
lately heard from a neighbouring countrv. Meurjim indeed 
affirms, contrary to GrammatUuSj that Abfakn ftickled hard 
for the royal prerogative of chuiing whatever officers the king 
thought nt, knowing that thereby he was promoting his own 
intereft; But the nrft opmion is not only more confiftent 
with the chara£ter of this patriot minifter, and with the 
event, but is attefied by the beft cotemporary writers oiDa* 
ntjh affairs. AhJalorC^ fentiments were, however, over-ruled 
■by a majority, and, inftead of redreffing the grievances of die 
difafFe£ted, a letter filled with promifes, foothing, and ca- 
jolings, on theone hand, and dreadful menaces on the other, 
was fent to the malcontents. This more and more incenfed 
a people already irritated, and inflamed them to fuch a degree 
that they broke out into open a& of rebellion. They refufed 
to pay the ufual taxes, and particularly the hi(bop*s tytbea^ 
and reftored to the inferior clergy their antient privilege of 
marriage* The ftroke was levelled at the biChops, and par- 
ticularly at Abfalany the primate of all Scbonen. They in- 
fifled.tbat the fuperior clergy were only an unneceilary load 
upon trie people, fattening upon the fpoik of the land, «^ 
their flocks were left to find heaven in their own way^ 
or by the affiflance of the inferior clergy, who were not re- 
warded in proportion to their fervices, or, in fuch a manner 
as to render their fituation eafy ^d independent. 


Tbt Hs/icfji cf Denmark; , 1^7 

Fbrciiving they were not to be vurought on by gentle 
meaofli, Faldemar refolved upon ufing force. The troops wercf 
a/Iembled at Htlfenhurgh^ the van led by the king in perfon, 
and the rear by Jbfalon. In their march the latter was grody 
infulted by a mob of iifbermen, who flocked together m a 
tumultaous manner, and prefumptuoufly flung nones at the 
good prdate, even while he commanded a firong body of 
troop$. His majefliy was enraged at fo bold an infult, and 
determined to puniib the offenders with the utnioft feverity ; 
but was perfuaded by tbe moderate and prudent Ahjahn^, to let 
it pafs as an. ebullition of that noble ijpirit which characterized 
this people. He then again exerted all his influence with the 
king to iiften to their complaints. He infifted, that people 
ib tenacious of their freedom» muft be bold and intrepid, and 
of confetiuence the beft fupports of the regal authority duly 
adminiftered : in a word, he ufed fuch prevailing arguments, 
that Valdemar determined to avoid .bloodflied. All thofe per- 
fons who were obnoxious to the malcontents were removed 
from their places; Abfalm refigned his biOiopric, and ac- 
cepted of one greaitly inferior in power and profit, and the 
province was in a fair way to be fettled, when fome of the 
oaore turbulent, who found thein own interefl in the public 
difturbance, fpirited up the people flill to refufe payment 
of the bifhop's tythes, or, in other words, infifted upon the 
abolition of this order of ecclefiailics. Abfalon himfelf now 
Wft all patience, and, with the king's leave, laid the infur- 
gents under Heverc interdidion. For a while they perfifted 
m their obftinacy, but were at length tired out by the firm 
conduit oijbfakny and the clergy, whom he had gained over 
jtohisintereft. The infurreSion was not, however, termi- . 

[nated without blood. Two battles were fought, in both of J^^'*^*J* 
which the malcontents were defeated, and at length reduced-^*^'*^^^* 
to the neceiEty of obeying^ upon the king's terms, which 
Were more reafpnable and mild than they could expeA. 

About this time Frederic BarbaroJ/by refolving to deprive 
Henry duke of Saxony of, every friend capable of fupporting 
his caiife,. endeavoured to tlraw off Faldemar from his attach- 
ment to him, by /ome propofals equally honourable and ad- 
vantageous to Denmark. Thefe were a double allia,nce by 
marriage j propofmg that the king's two daughters ihould 
be matched with his tvw> fons» one of whom was to fucceed to 
the imperial diadem, the pther being already duke of Suabia. 
T^^tDaniJh nobility eafiJy perceived, that thefe overtures were 
made rather from eninity to the duke of Saxony ^ than friend - 
f^j^ (ot Faldemar ; and the king, joining with them in opi- 
l^ion, profefled 00. great eag^rpejs for the alliance: but his 

M 4 queen 

queen ioterfered, and ufed all hei- tnflaence to pfevaS <m btm 
to accede to propoTals which might reinder her daughter queeof 
of the Romans and emprefs of Gemunif^. In compliance 
with her humour a grand fleet was equipped, zh&yaUemat 
went to meet Barbaroffa at Luke, He was met on the banb 
of the Trove by a great body of the German nobility, w!x> 
conduced him with all imaginable pomp to the imperial quar* 
Conference tcrs. Here be was treated by Barharoffa with every poffibfc 
between mark of refpe£l : his perfon and addrefs were the adniiratjoa 
ihe empe- of the Germanic who could not avoid making public compa- 
rer ^t;?^ rifons between the monarchs, no way to the advantage of 
Valdemar Barbarojfa^ whofe appearance and afped were naean. After 
vifits had pafled, bufinefs at length was bronght on the carpeti 
wheiv Barbarejfa'% demands in point of fortune appeared fo \ 
extravagant, that Valdemar and the Danes began to quefiioft 
his Sincerity. The king pofitively refufed the portion he 
afked for his eldeft fon ; but at length confented to what wai 
, demanded for the duke of SuaUa :' upon which the treaty was 
concluded, fworn to, and guarantied by ,Bela IIL king of 

Matters being thus finifhed, the king went on board 
the fleet that waited for him, with intention to fail tbefirft 
wind ; but next morning he was furprifed by a viftt from tte 
emperor in perfon,. efcorted only by a few of the nobility. 
Immediately the two princes retired from company, and Bar* 
barojfa earneftly requefted the king, that he would permit him 
to .beftow the dignity of dukes of Pomerama on Cajimr and 
Bugijlaus^ in order the more eafily to reduce Henry Leo to bir 
obedience. Valdemar did not deny this favour ; and accord- 
ingly thofe two princes were inftalled in the vfual manner, 
the king affifting at the ceremony. Before the king oiDert' 
7nark\ departure his eldeft daughter was betrothed, with the 
^ , emperor's approbation, to Sigefredy landgrave of Thuringiai 
apd foon after the nuptials were celebrated at Slejwick (A). 
Valdemar Q^ this occafipn it was, that Barharoffa inveftea Valdemr 
iwvefted with the tijtle of duke of Holftewj and annexed the country is 
ijuith the perpetuity to the crown of Denmark. 
4uuhy of In the beginning of the following fpring Valdemar receiving 
Holilein. advi(:e, that the Vandals began to fortify fome places that m 

' ( A) Tburingia U a country it is ^divided among a great 

in the circle of the Upper Saxp- number of different fbverdgnJ 

njf eredled in the year 1130 and princes, as the houfes ci 

into a landgraviate by the em- Sa^ny^ Bavaria, He^^ Saxf 

peror Lotharius 11. At prefent JFeymar, Menfsc, &C. (i). 

Jl) ytd, Baudrand fitb wee* f* 947. 


Tie Hijlory of Dtnmzrk. , . i5f 

been dirmantkd at the laft peace, ordered Jbfahn and his 
fon Canute to levy an army, and proceed againft thmn ; but 
iltitjutlanders leixxleA to iniift themfelves under fuA generals^ 
deipifing the prince on account of his youth, and hating the 
minifler, for nd other reafon dian that the king loved him, 
and that his influence was great; though he flttdied popula-^ ' 
iitjy and was conftantly the mediator between the king and 
the people. Valdemar was incenfed at their refufa! 5 and dc-^ 
termincd, notwithftanding hi» ill ftate of health, to command 
the expedition iaperfon. The ill ufage of his fulijeds in«*y.*|, 
crcafcd his diftemper, and in a few days confined him to his X//r jM^ 
bed ; yet would he liot relinquifli his dcfi'gh. At length, by' ^*^ 
the tears and intreaties of his nobility, he was prevailed on to 
commit the war to his generals, and his own perfon to the 
care of his phyficians at Wortenhurg, 

While the fleet was detained in port by contrary winds, 
^tjuihmden began to mutiny, to complain of the fcarcity 
of provifions, and infifted upon a releafe from the fervice. 
Horner^ bi(hop of i!/^n, a man greatly efteemed for his cha- 
rader and eloquence, harangued them for a long time to 
little purpofe ; and at length ordered one of the ringleaders to 
be feized and bound. Indead of quieting, this increafed the 
tamult to fuch a degree, that the officers were conftrained to 
difmifs the foldiers, and permit them to return home. VaUt^ 
«5r obferved them from his window difperfed over, the fields, 
judged the caufe^ and was fo afllidled, that his diftemper in** 
creafed, and his life was defpaired of. The art of all his phy^ 
^ficians was foiled ; upon which the nobility prevailed on him 
to call in the afliflance of a certain abbot, an empiric, whofe 
impudence and boafting had railed him to a high degree of . . 
credit. His fatal noflrum was adminiftered^ andthe king 
breathed his laft, white he was left alone to take that repofe . 
which the quack infifted would. reftore his health. 

Thus died Valdemar^ a prince rcfpefled more than any of jjy^ ^^jj 
his predcceflbrs for the qualities of his mind and perfon, at thc^,^^^ 
age of forty-eight, and in the twenty-fifth year of his reign, ^^^^ 
from the death of his afibciate. His piety, juflice, pru-^ 
dence, and clemency, rendered him no le(s the idol, than his 
bravery, condud, and fuccefs, the admiratiofk of his people 
and of neighbouring ftates. His difpofition was equally fitted 
for war and peace \ but the latter he cbofe to cultivate, and 
never entered upon the former but to fupport the honour and 
dignity of his crown. His conquefts were lefs brilliant, but more 
iifeful and necefl'ary than thofe of former kings. . He fubdued 
iJw^w, annexed it to his crown, z-nd cor^firmed the iflanders in 
the tjue principles of religion, the Chriflian faith. He over- 

1^0 ^^ Hiftcry of Denmark. 

came WrdilJIoHSy duke of Sutin^ and made him a vaflal of 
Denmark. Hmry Li$^ duke of Sax0^^ a powerful, fierce, 
, 9nd fickle prince, he thrice obliged to fue for peace in the 

aioft abjeft manner* Twice he defeated Erling and the.^«r^ 
ytegians^ and often overthrew the Vemdals : but his behaviour 
to the conquered added more to his fame than all the great 
talents by which he became a conqueror. In a word, he is 
extolled by all cotemporary and fubfequent writers as die 

freateft, the wifeft» and the beft monarch, who had hitherto 
Ucd the Danijb throne *. 

^ Saxo Gram. L xv. Mipnt. \, v. p. iii8. 


Containing all the public TranfaSions until the Rsiffi ' 
of Eric V. fumamcd Plog*Penning. 

C Jt N U T E VL 

A. D. A ^ '^^ ^ ^^^ remains of Faldemar were honourably in- 
1182! *^^ terred, Canute^ his fon and fuccefibr, repaired to Jut^ 
Canute* lonJ to hold an afTembly of the ftates, in order to redrefs thofe 
YL grievances which occahoned the late tumults. In his Other's 

life-time he had been declared the immediate heir with all 
the folemnities of a coronation, fo that he now entered upon 
the prerogatives of majefty without form or ceren^ony. 
J ne^M ri' '^HE province of Scbonen ftill perfifted in its difaffedion, 
wolt in dnd was now on the king's death grown more infolent and 
Schonen. licentious. The malcontents were fpirited up to freih at- 
tempts by fome artfiil perfons, who encouraged them to wipe 
oiF the aifgrace of the late defeats they had fuftained* Ahh* 
hfiy the faithfiil mtnifter of Faldemar 9 applied all the remedies 
in his power to bring them to a fenfe of their duty ; but in 
vain. Nothing is more blindly obftinate and provokingly in- 
" folent than a mob, and this the bifhop found ; for his good 
offices were returned with abufe» and the grofleft infults. On 
pretence of defending their liberties, they moved the aiJemUy 
to another place, and met all in arms, as if they were march- 
ing againft an enemy. Jbfalon retired to Zealand ; and now 
the fadion, having no one to reftrain them whofe authority 
. they dreaded, or \^hofe charaSer they refpeftcd, broke out 
into the moft ungovernable and riotous behaviour. They fet 
fire to the houfes of the nobility, feized upon all the place- 

Tfefltl^rjr^ Denmark. 171 

men and afficert of the couiN and cofomicted the mofl daring , 
and open afls of rebellion. Obferving that their fadion pre- 7-^^ ^^^^ 
fcrved no order^ and could have no fiability without laws of cbufia 
futx)rdination, they eleded one Harold their general ; a man king^ 
whO) though defcen4ed from the royal fiem, was deficient in 
every quality of a king and kaden Elated with his new 
digpity,^ Harold aiTumed the title of king, fet up the royal 
itaodard, and had crouds of peafants daily £oeking to him. 

Notwithstanding this rage of difaflFedion/whicb had 
feizcd the a>inds of the common people, the nobility, gentry, 
and placemen remained fteady in their loyalty, and by their 
vigorous endeavours drew together a body of forces to oppoie 
the malcontents. The ardour eTqprefled by both fides to come 
to an engagement is inconceivable* Paffion and prejudice, 
void of all reafon and principle, actuated both ; and the 
clofer their connedtons of neighbourhood and friendibip were 
^before, the more violent was their animofity now. A battle 
va9 fought with fuqh blind fury, as deprived them of the 
.power of dellroying each other \ and after half a day fpent in 
the moft tumultuous and irregular fight ever known, where 
hurts and bruifes were given inftead of mortal wounds, HarM f^ rtlA 
was defeated, the rebels difperfed, and the ro3faiifts left maf-^^^>^- 
ters of the field, with the glory of a bloodlels vidory. 

But the naalcontents foon recovered their fpirits after this 

repulfe, and begap a fecond time to make head, though de- 

ferted by HaroU^ who, in a cowardly manner, had fled into 

^mdm. The approach however of Abfalon^ with a bodv of 

forces, foon reduced them to order : upon which he called an 

laiTembly, revived feveral laws that had fallen into negled, 

I obliged the peafants publicly to abjure Harold^ whom they 

'proclaimed king,* and reftored the former tranquillity of the 

province. The malcontents would indeed have been more 

feverely handled by CanuU^ who now entered the province, 

and propofed giving the difiriQ of Froflhernt to be plundered . 

' by the foldiers, had not Ahfakn interpofed in their favour. 

Next, year Canute received a folemn ambafly from the ena* ^' ^• 
peror frtdiric Barbarojfa^ complimenting him upon his ac- * '?3- 
ccffion, and defiring the conlinuance of that alliance which j '^^ 
fubfiftcd during his fathcr^s reign between the Imperial andT*^^?*' 
Danijh courts. The intention, however, of all thefe fpecious^^^^j^!- 
, profcffions of friendfhip, was no other than to obtain fomCyQ^' 
conceffions in favour of the Kandalsy and to perfuade Canute 
to attend the aulic council in perfon, as a vafial of the em- 
pue. His majefly, penetrating into Barbarojfif^ views, re- 
turned a modeft refufal to thefe requefb : upon which the 
emperor fent a reply filled with menaces, and commanding 


i,y% 7'he Hiftcry of Denmark. 

him') in a haughty ftrain of authority, to obey. His thrtatf 
having no tSkSty he itatSigifredj and his wife* who nat 
CaHutiu fifier, to RofcUld^ in order to move htm by their in* 
fiuence; h\xtCatmU<f by Jhjabn'9 wivice^ remained firminhit 
refolation to preferve the independency of his crown. T<i 
'Sv^'" *^^ ^'* revenge, Barbtiroja fpirited up£»gijlaus, now Me 
ij&r Van- prfncc of the J^nd^/r, Cnce the death of Cajimirj to begin 
'0 ^ 2 ^3j^ ^^(li Hgnmark^ promiGng him liberal fupplies of men 
C^ute money* Bat the Vandal prince, dreading die coQfe<* 

quences of an open war with fo potent a Jcingdom, and un- 
willing to difobey the emptor, began firft to tamper vidi 
Jarintar bis uncle, then governor of Rugen^ and the vailal d 
Canute^ Difappointed in this attempt, he fought an occaSoc 
to quarrel with him* Jarimar immediately difpatched an 
baflador to acquaint the king with thefe tranfadions ; and & 
gijlausy pretending that nothing could be more agreeable 
him than fubmitting the difpute to the decifion cX Canute an 
a general diet, fent ambafladors to court to plead his caufi 
While he was amufuig CanuU with negotiations, he privatel 
raifed a great army, and equipped fo powerful a fleet, that fa 
fent to acquaint Barbarojfa^ that now he had it in bis powi 
to oblige Canute to fubmit to the terms his imperial majef 
Ihould think fit to prefcribe. But his treachery and boaftin 
foon received the juft punifliment, through the vigilance 
Jbfalen^ that (kilful and hardened veteran. No fooner 
the minifter made acquainted with Bugijlauf% proceediflj 
than he publiflied an edid, obliging all men withta the uS^ 
nijh iflands, who had attained a certain age, to afiemUe under 
arms at an appointed rendezvous. The king was abfent in 
Jutiandy and the emergency of the occafion would not admit 
of the delay which would necefiarily attend waiting for his 
inftrudtions. A fleet was equipped with amazing expedition, 
the troops were embarked, and under fail in queft of the enemy, 
before Bugijkus imagined that his intention was difcovered. 
Abfalon Ahjakn had difperfed direSibns among the officers of the fleet, 
dtfeais the regulating the manner of engaging, and exhorting them to 
Vandal pierform their duty, and maintain the reputation of their coun- 
jpnVwf. jry, by defeating once more thofe barbarians they bad fo often 
vanquiflied. His inftrudionfli were obeyed; he came upon 
Bugijlaus while be lay at anchor, at fome diftance from Rmt 
genj feafiing, caroufing, and waiting for the emperor's ordcis 
in what manner to difpofe of Denmark. He dreamt not of 
jfbfaM% approach, and was attacked, defeated, and difperfed 
before he had time to recoiled himfelf, to iflue out one 
fingle order, or nuke the fmalleft ihew of refinance. 


Tbe Hiftory (f Denmark. tf$ 

. . BIRBAROSSA was (6 diiappoimed in his high expeaa-^ 
lions, that he gave up all thoughts of reducing Canuti to the 
peceffity of ftoopmg to his will, and receiving the inveftiture 
of bb kingdom from the hands of the emperor ; for this P$n^ 
tarns mentions as the principal objedit which Barharojfa had 
iQfiew. Nor did ^^^/oZon content himfelf with this vi£loiy : 
hepuQxed his good fortune, attacked and took Wolgajiy IvoU 
iff, and feveral other towns and cities, which he gave up to 
be4>lundered by his loldiers. 

Next year the king in perfon marched into the Vandal f^^ jy^ 
Country, traverfed and laid wafte feveral provinces, without 1185] 
making any refiftance ; the people indulging themfelves in 
{luttony and drunkennefs, as if in the mid^ of profound 
peace, the laft refouices of defpair. , Inflamed with the defire 
of jrich plunder, the troops defired to be led from Grotzwin 
into Pffmeraniay difregarding all the difficulties of a march 
through a barbarous and mountainous country, while iatiating. 
their avarice was the obje^. But provifions failing, and the ^^ '»»»• 
infantry being quite fpent with fatigue, the king brought back 17 ^'f* * 
the army to WMn^ where, in a brilk.flcirmiihj he ^^efeated^??^ 
Bupfiausy and had near taken him prifoner, at the very timc*'*^'*^* 
hewaslayingin;unhuihfor the Dams. This adion, accord-* 
\jixf^to Pontatimi happened near the city Camin in the Uppgr . 
iaxpnflfyin confequence of which Canute \^i fiege to it, but 
was prevented from purfuing it, by the intreaties and fupplica-v 
^ions of the priefts and other religious perfons, who had come 
out of the city to deprecate his wrath. 

. iSl7G/£iLyfL/S perceiving. nothing but ruin and defirudion Bugiilaas 
around him, went in perfon to Jarimar and Ahfakn^ to begy«<x^ 
theirinter^d&on with the king to procure him a peace ;but/''^* 
/i^A^;; imagining, bis. profeflK>n8 were not fincere^ replied, 
'TOt the foldiers wpre not yet (ufficiently rewarded with 
plunder for the fatigues they h^d undergone, npr the Vandals 
pumflied enough for their perfidy. This anfwer determined 
BugiJJam to obtain peace upon any terms, which at length was 
granted, on condition tha the would pay a prodigious fum of 
money fpecified, as a fine for his ill conduct, attd indemnifica- 
tiomfor the expences of the war ; and that he Would hold his 
tide of duke at the hands of the king of Denmark^ and ac* 
biowledge himfelf a vaflal of that crown. This treaty he 
confirmed by hofhiges ; after which he was fumptuoufly en« 
fcTtained by Abfalon. Before his departure he performed ho- 
mage tcf the king, and proftfated himfelf before him on the 
ground; protefting, that he held all his dominions by the 
bounty and clemency of Canute^ and was willing to furrender 
them at his pleafure. This was a voluntary a^ of humilia* 


174 ^be Hfftory of Denmark, 

A. D* i\itm at'his pleafure. This was a voluntary aft of humilia^ 

%%Z6, tion, which Ctinutey from a fpirit of generofity, endeavoured 

to prevent, but in vain. Bugijhus was as mean in adverfity as 

infplent in profpcrity, and the king equally merciful and mo* 

derate to the vanquifhed. Thus the Vandalsy who had coft 

VaUemar fo much toil, treafure, and Wood, were at jengtli 

' totally fubdued by his fon, and their country annexed as a firf 

to the crown of Dmmark. Bugtflausy during his life, remained 

firm to his engagements, and on his death-bed ftrongly recom* 

mended it to the guardians of his children, to be inthrcly di« 

' rcfted by Canute^ in. the partition of his dominions* 

A*D« ■ Before the king returned to Rofchildj Jhfal/m iptrmnng 

1187. a great afflux of clergy from all parts of Europe to this partrf 
A fit form Germany^ with the king's confent, convoked a general fynod, 
of ^worjhip 2XiA among other ordinations paffcd one decree, that the 
•fahUpxd fatne fo„n of divine fervice fliould be ufcd in all the parilh 
n/^ churches within the Danijh dominions, the fame pfalmody and 
^^^ chantings performed; and for this purpofe certain forms of 
*^^ * prayer and public worfliip were drawn up, in which Abfalm 

^as aflifted by a great number of other learned bifliops and 
divrhes (A). 
A. D. About the beginning of the following yt^i'BugiJlaus dieif; 

1188. and his dukedom was divided between his Ions CaJimirziA 
Bugijlaus. A frefh conteft likewife arofe between Canute zcA 
fhc emperor Frederic Barbaraffa. The emperor fent an am-* 
bafly to invite the king to the celebration of the nuptials of 
his fifter and the duke of Sudbia^ and to demand the remainder 
of hei* portion which Faldsmar had proraifed, but hitherto rc- 
itoatined unpaid. Canute fufpeSing fpme treachery, andre- 
colle£fing the fnares laid by Barbarojfafox his father, the late 
enemy. he had raifed by his intrigues againft himfelf, andhd' 
fevefe tonduft to thie duke of Saxony^ anfwered the ambafla^ 
dors, that as to what related to the nuptials, he {hould be glad 
they were celebrated with allpoffible pomp ; but that he muff 
not go upon fuch an occafion out of his own dominions. As 
to the portion, ic was uAufual, he faid, to pay the whole be- 

(A) Saxo Grammattcus^ a tni- bles, and the very genias of the 

, ly cl&ffical, eloqaent, and en- times, in Kis beautiful tranils- 

tertaining hiftorian, concludes tions o'^ the fongs and narra«» 

his hiftory with the trania£lions tives- of the Danijh bards (the 

of Ais year. No writer. has fo only hiftorians of the eariter 

ftrongly charaderized the an- ages) and the martial atchieve* 

tient manners of this people, as ments of thoie glorious barba- 

SaxQ^ who has carefully pre- rians, who were the conquerors 

ferved. all their traditions, fa- of a great part of £«rtf/^, 


The Hiftory of Denmark. 175 

fore €onfumtmtion ; and he therefore hoped the emperor 
would excufe his not complying with a demand fo extraordi- 
nary and unreafonable. Barbarojfa was enraged at this con- 
tempt of his authority, and fent back the priocefs^ Qmuie'^ 
(ifter, with her portion and virginity, attended however with ■ 
a (^endid retinue, after (he haul lived feven years at the im- 
perial court. 

Next year the crufade was preached up in Germany, and A. D. 
the emperor, feized with the fpirit of holy atchievements, de- . 1 189. 
termined upon an expedition to the Holy Land, in order to 
recover Pale/Une out of the hands of Saladin and the infidels. ^ 
To prevent any difturbances during his abfence, he found it 
nocefl^ry to reconcile the diferences between him and the 
courts of. DiBmark and Saxmf. Henry Leo was recalled from Henry 
Imnifliment, and reftored to a part of his dominions ; but we Leo recall 
ido not find any accoiuit of the negotiations between hind znd^f^/f^^ 
(Janute; only it is faid in general terms, that the emperor and ^^ifi- 
king terminated all their differences. ^^^" 

From, henceforward until the end of the year 1192, 2>^«. 
mark enjoyed profound peace, notwithftanding the diftur.- 
bances raifed by the ambition-^ of Henry Leo, in Holjiein, and 
; the neighbouring cdntinenf. Now at length the public repofe ^ - 
\im broke by the cont^(^s between Faldemar^ bifliop of Slef-' ilgzl 
'^mci^ ^nd the king». This prelate was the fon of Canute, Di/putes 
^ilaiaby Swen at thffpul)lic entertainment he made for him and tefwe^n 
the late king Valdmar, at RofcbileL - He now claimed not /^^/«^ 
^only his patrimony^ but a fluirein the regal authority, as the and the 
,fon of Canute, the grandfpn of Magnus, and great grandfon.^^^^^y* 
iof king Nkbolas* Perceiving that all his arguments werovaini^^^^wkk; 
I unleis backed with power, he applied for affiftance t!f>jtdoU " 
^fhu earl of Holftein, Bernard duicofSaxmy, and Otho mar-. 
; quis of Brandenburg,, all of whom agreed to attack Canute by- 
\ land, while the bi&op invaded his coafts by means of a fleet.. 
i To render his meafures more fecure, the prelate went in per- 
i fcm to Norway^ and with magnificent promifes engaged the 
[ king) or,' as others affirm, his fon Hacquin in hia caufe, ob- 
I taining from him thirty (hips of war, well equipped, and 
^ every way fitted to put to fea. 

Before VaUemar entered upon a£tion, he was told it^ 
would be for his intereft to make an overture of referring his 
caufe to the king, and a general diet of the dates. Hence it 
was not doubted but rather than hazard the lofs of all his domi- 
nions, Canute would confent to a partition of his kingdom ; 
or, at leaft, agree to give the bi(hop fome honourable ani 
lucrative government. Thefe monitors, befides, hinted the 
inconfiftency of his being at the fame time a king and a 

ij6 ' TBeHificry of VtnmsLrk.^ 

bifliop; Faldemar impradently lent an ear to their adtnoni- 
z-ijUA ^^^^> referred his caufe to the diet, and was in the mean 
Z^^^ tkne feized and imprifoned, where he continued for, the fpace 
"^^^^ of fourteen years, until he was difcharged in the next rciga 
J^**^" by king VaUemar II. Thus ended tfab twrible ftorm, thai 
•^^^ threatened deftru£tion to Cmuit ; though fome writers, if we 
may credit Pontanus^ relate, that the bifhop was . taken pri- 
foner in a fea fight off the coaft of Norway; His allies, igno- 
rant of the prelate's fate, marched in a boftile manner to the 
frontiers o£ Denmark -, and, pitching their camp on the banb 
of the river Eydgr^ waited the arrival of Canute^ fays Pom- 
nusi though we rather imagine they here ^expeded to confer 
on the operations with the biihop. After they had waited kx 
feveraldays^ forage and provifions growing fcarce, theydc* 
'« termined to return home ; all befidies Jdolphus^ .who entered 

the Danijh territories, and laid the country wafie as far as 
SliJivuL- But the news that his allies had aSually retreated, 
that the bifliop was made prifoner, and, above all, a repulfe, 
he rhet with from the king's forces, obliged him to purcbafe 
peace, at a great expence, to prevent their catting off his re* 
A. D. This year PbiMp II. of France^ fent ambalTadors to Qmuttf 
^'93t to. demand in marnage his beautiful G&tr Ingeburga^ called 
j^tttc*/ {^y Pj^^j^Ij liters GMgrga. The ptopofals were accepted, 
'^Y^' four thoufand marks in pure (ilver paid down for her portion, 
' ^^ If and a fleet equipped to condufi her with all poffible pomp 
j^gj^j^ itito Frame^ where the nuptials, were celebrated, and Ir^i' 
ktrga proclaimed queen, in the year 1194; or» as other 
^Af«r ^ writers relate, in 1 195. This princefs the king divorced the 
following year, under a variety of pretenqes. which it would be 
unneceflary to recite in.this place ; and, among others, 00 ac- 
count of a foetid breathy which he pleaded, from fome of the 
Byzintine writers, was a fufficient caufe; Her brother Camtt 
applied to the pope, infifttng, that Philip (hould part with the 
wife he had married 6nce. his feparation from his fifter, and 
take back the injured and repudiated Ingcburga^ who was 
confined in a .(Irong caftle (A). But the Danift) hi{lorian$ 
mention nothing concerning the event of this applicatioo to 
hfsholinefs. . 

. (A) One rea(bn given by flie was at leaft ten fteps re- 
Philip for repudiating Ingehurga^ moved ; and befides, that thejt 
was , their near confanguinity, had been a breach in the right 
though by the genealogical ta- line, about three generations 
bie of Pontanus it appears, that before ( i ). 

i (0 Pontan, /, vi. /». 289, 

i%e Hijioty of bcnmaxk; tyj 

^Hii year CahuU ordered a muftcr to be made oF all the A. D. 
^o fit to bear arms in his dominions, ^nd each province to 1195. 
fit out its proportion of (hipping, every way equipped to put T^e power 
to fea, and enter upon aflion. The whole force of the Danijh o/Dcn- 
Biarine appears, from the eftimate given by Pontanus, to have mark. 
iDonfifted of fix hundred and fevency (hips of war, befides the 
Squadrons fupplied by vaiTals* tributary ftates, and allies. Whea 
this powerful armament was ready to put to fea, then Canufb 
declared bis intention of attacking once more the Vandals and 
Pri^nsy who had abjured Chriftianity, and - reftored their 
Jdolsand falfe gods, after having fo long received the light of ^ 

the gofpel* Wolgaji^ Stetin^ and. other towns and cities, 
.^ned their gates to a force they found themfelves unable to 
idift ; and thus the^nemy vi^ere reduced to obedience as foon 
^ Canuti appeared. ■ 

• Next year he made ah expedition to Livonia^ with a view A. D; 
to eftablifli Chriftianity among thefe northern barbarians, who 1 196^ 
AS yet remained in the ignorance and obfcurity of paganifm. 
.Some attempts to effe<9 this had been made by Valdemar and 
xdiersof his predecefibrs ; but for want of proper regulations 
-among the tniiHonaries, they all proved abortive. This is the 
Jteafon affigned by the Danijh writers for this expedition ; tho^ 
we think it prol^ble i\i^t Canute had in view the putting a 
flop to the conquefts of the TVu/^mV knights (an order efta« 
Uifted a few years before) who had aimoft fubdu^d the whole 
40untry3 without regard to the right which the kings of Den* 
jnark claimed over feveral of the more northern provinces. 
Concerning the event of this aSair^ the Danijh hiflorians are 

ABouTthejtear 1 198, 0/i« marquis of J?rtf»Aii*»r^ made ^ ^^ 
lanincurGon into Pomeranufy and feized upon feveral caftles ^'^' 
and fortrefles, which he claimed as his property. Canute^ on Og^arrel'ie^ 
the contrary, believed them to be his right, and accordingly "J^^^-Qh. 
.determine to regain them by force of arms. Other reafons n^te and 
^ewife concurred in fighting' up this war, and among the otho e^ 
reft agrudge,- which Ctfwttf^ tore the. marquis on account gfBranden- 
the late afEftance he had given., to Valdemar^ bilbop of Slef- burg. 
twVi. A fleet was equipped, and the command given to /V* 
i» bifhpp of RofMU, and his brother Torbern*- They were 
ordered to enter the river fVarnow^ while the.king took up 
his refidence in the ifland of Mona^ to obferve their opera- 
tions, and wait the event. • Here they were Joined by the ./*«- 
meraniansy Vandalsj and Meeilenburgers^ the fubje£ts or allies 
.of Canute; notwithftandtng which the bilhop was defeated, 
made prifoner, and ^the Dani^ aiwby obliged to fly v(ritb precin 
pitotion to their fliips. 7ir4rr« was killed in the battle, aod 
* Mod. Hx«t. Voj.. XX^L N the 

1 78 f be Hiftory cfDenmirk. 

the bifitop kept for two years a clofe prifoncr, cfcaping at \A 
by the connivance of the marquis, who was unwilling to be 
at the expencc of maintaining a captive of fuch diftinaion. 

Grown more bold by his good fortune, the marqub en- 
tering into an alliance with Jdolphus earl of Holfteifiy made 
incurnons into Pemerania, Mecklenburg^ s^nd the country of 
the VandaU, He laid wafte a great part of the government of 
yarmarU^ and propofed entering the territories of Rugen^ a&d 
invading the ifland of that name, had not the approaching 
winter flopped his progrefs. 
Canute In the enfping fpring Canute commanded his army in per- 
Mges ibe (oviy and entering Holjlem^ laid the territories of Jde^ 
enemy to wafte. He was too fecurely encamped for the enemy to vcn- 
hegfeace. ture qpon attacking him ; and without paffing beyond the If 
der^ he obliged Adolphus to fuc for peace. After this the king 
returned to Denmarky to be prefent at th& laft obfequies of hit 
^ ' queen's mother, who died in his abfence. 
A. D. The fpring of the year 1 199, was ufliered in by a bread 
1 199. of the late peace, jldolphus^ difliking the conditions impoU 
upon him, had again recourfe to arms, and the king con* 
^"^? mitted the care of the war to his brother Valdemar. ThI 
defeT^^^ young hero now firft appeared at the head of an army, and bi 
Adolphus ^^^ condud gave ftrong prognoflics of his future greatnci 
undtpakes* ^'* inferior forces he met Adolphus, engaged and dcfcatt 
a fucce/s^ bim, with a dreadful flaughter of the enemy, Adolphus him 
fid cam" felf very narrowly efcaping out of the fi<cld. Almoft all th( 
faign. Holfteiners were either killed, wounded^ or taken prifoneri 
Adolphus took (belter in i&jiR^i/r^^, which was ,immediatelj| 
inveiled by the conqueror, and taken, the unfortunate dukii 
efcaping at a poftern gate. VaUemar purfued his vi£lory, aoi 
in a Khort time made himfelf mafter of all the fortified town 
vciHolJiein, over- ran and totally fubdued the principality o 
Sweriny took Luhecy after a brisk itege, and, in a word, aiH 
nexed a great part of the German continent to the dominioflf 
of Denmark, without meeting with one repulfe during A» 
glorious courfe of the two campaigns. 

While Valdemar wa»traverfing thefe countries, Adelfkn 
found means to repofiefs himfelf of Hamburgh ; upon which 
the Danijh prince immediately crofled the Elbe, and a fecoo4 
time laid fiege to this city, which had not then attained to 
that height of power and opulence to which it afterwalds ar^ 
rived. The fiege wa« carried on with fuch vigour^ that tte 
citizens, diilrei&d for provifions, were obliged to capitulate. 
This brought on a conference between Valdemar and Mslfhut^ 
' who waited on the prince in hi^ camp. As ibon as the mba- 
bitims gf Dithmar/h^ then fcnring under Pal^mar^ were in- 

, .. . formed 

fie tSJiory of Denmark; 179 

foUned that Adolphus was in the camp, they rulhed forord id 
liand to his tent, in order to revenge the ravages he had com- 
niitted in their country. Their fury was Rich, that Valdema¥ 
^nd the guards could hardly reftraih them from putting him 
inftantly tx> death. At this meeting it was agreed, that the 
citadeb of Hamburgh and Laiveriburg fliould receive Danijb 
garrifons, ahd b^ put wholly into the hands of Faldemar^ he 
flipulatihg on his part, that the citizens fhould remain in the 
fullpofleffiori of all their liberties, immunities, slnd \ftoptrVf. 
fiut Adolphus foon attempt^ to br^ak hi$ engagements, lipoii 
Mich he Utras feiz($d and coifimttted td thd fbrtrefs of Seburg^ 
where bifliop Valdmar was kept a prifohen 

This year died the bnlve, the hbneft, and the pioils jttfa^ A. D« 
&«, archbilhdpof Lunden^ the faithful ferv'arit 6f the trown, laoi. 
and patron Of the people ; the fcourge of his cotintry^S foes. Death and 
fee proteftor of letters, the encourager of lesttned men, xht^haraagr 
fewardcr of merit, and, in a word, the greateft ornamiSnt bf J^Abfa- 
Dtnmari, Pofterity owes to him this peculiar obligation^*^'^* 
that be firft perfiiaded SaxB Grammaticus to undertake his hif- 
ioiy, and generoufly countenanced and fupported him while 
iie was ehgagcd in that Work^ whith will ttaUfmit the me- 
mory of both with honour to the moft diftant ages. Andreas 
£w/», chancellor of HefimaT^i^ (uccttdcd him in thearchbi* 
piopric. According to fome authors, Sdxo Granimaticus died 
hlx>ut diis tiiiie, and a few months after hb patroii ; though^ 
pom the manner in which he fpeaks of Fuldemarh in his pre- 
pice, addreflfed t6 the new archbiOiOp, we have reafon to 
Ibink he lived only a few years after that prince's acceffion 
)to the throne ^ 

f' VALDEMAR havirtg gteatly enlarged .the jbardjb boun- A. D. 
•"^rics by the total rediifticin Of Holftein^ Smmar^ the diftrids iaoi. 
Lubec and Hamburgh j the country properly and antiently 
lied Norddlbingiay but now included under the general natne 
H^lftiin^ and within the limits of that dutchv, together . 
^ith feveral other principalities, dutchies, and earldoms, was 
pdvifed to ftrengthen his alliances and the royal line by mar<> 
Nage. He chofe IngebUrgdj fiftcr to Otho duke of Brunfwick ; 
^ the nuptials were celebrated at Hamburgh with great 
Magnificence, king Canute attehding in perfon, andprefiding 
*t the entertainment. Valdemdir had, for fome years, enjoyed 
^ government of Slefwkk i atld now his power was confide- 
'ably encreafed by his conquefts, all which Canute annexed to 
Ac dutchy <jf Slejwici. The king returned to Denmark^ and 

* Piwfat. ad Hift, p. a. 

N 2 fc^n 

*i 86 The Hijlory of Denmark. 

Deaib and^QOXi after was feizcd with a malady which carried him off m 
c 'r a fe\v days, and fo fuddenly, that ibme perfons fufpeiled he 
^Canute, yjras poifoned, though by whofe means remains a profound 
fecret. He U celebrated as a prince of great piety and mode- 
ration, extremely chafte and temperate, but no great war- 
rior. The conquefts made during his reign are folely to be 
attributed to Abfalon and Valdemar ;* but we cannot but com- 
mend the judgment of Canute^ in chufing fuch minifters and 
generals, and .placing fo entire a confidence in them, not- 
withftanding thp obloquy and detradion of their numerous 
and powerful enemies. Canute is faid to have paffed fomc 
very wholefome and neceffary laws during his reign, particu- 
larly one with refpefl: to murder, by which it was ordained, 
that only the perfonal effefls of the murderer fhould be confif- 
cated, his real .eftate defcending to his heirs and relations, that 
the innocent might not be involved in the puni&meot of Che 
■ guilty. 


Valdc-' Immediately on the death of Canute bis brother, Val 

Biar II. demar was iiivefted with all the badges of regal authority,.anJ 

A. D. uhanimoufly chofen to fucceed to the i\ixoxi^ o{ Denmark, 

1203. U()on the firft advice of the king's illnefs he fet out for iJtf/- 

child^ and arrived there before he breathed his laft, though hq 

was then fpeechlefs. Valdemar was received by the nobilitj 

^nd commons with the utmoft jov. , He was the fbn andvei] 

image of their. favourite king, Valdemar I. His military c* 

ploits had gained him great reputation, and augmented the 

wealth and power of his country ; and his private conduct ha( 

fecured to him the efteem and affcdions of all to whom be 

was perfonally known. 

With thcfe advantages Ffl^?^;7z^r entered upon the govern- 
ment of a kingdom, to prefide over which he was equally en- 
titled by birth and merit. The ufual oath of allegiance waJ 
.taken by the whole kingdom, with uncommon alacrity j not 
excepting the newly -conquered provinces. He began his rciga 
^ ?*" with enafting, by the confent of a general affembly, a variety 
fajfesfome ^^ f^iutary laws, which the reader will find fpecified in ?«»• 

'"ta'llZ] ^''"''' "^^^ ^^^ ^^'''" Chronicle. 

ary ums. j^jg^^ he entered upon a treaty with Jdolphus duke ofHJf 

Jlein^ then his prifoner, by which it was ftipulated, that Adir 

^hm fhould be fet at liberty, provided he renounced all clai« 

^ to the dutchy of Holjiein and the citadels of Htntburgh ani 

♦ Lavjenburg ; for we find that this laft iliU remained in the 

Jiands of his adhc^nts. By what means they got poffcffioft 


7beHiftoiyofDtnm2irk. i8i 

ofltj after it received a Danift> garrifon, we are not informed ; 

the faft, however, is aflerted by Pontanus *. 

, VALDEMAR paffing then into Schonen^ held a diet, and 

framed a number of laws for the good regulation of the 


This year it was that bifliop Valdemar was rekafed-, after A. D. 
910 imprifonment of fourteen years, on condition that be would 1206. ' 
never fet foot again in any p^rt of the Danijh dominions ; a ^he hijhep 
bard fentence, which was foon mitigated at the interceffion of S^SlcP- 
thequeen^ the bifliops, and feveral of the nobility. He even wickr#* 
obtained, through the influence of his friends,* the means of ^^*^* 
being chofen bifhop of Bremen^ in the room of Hartwic^ 
lately decelafed. This election caufed great difturbanccs in 
jSremefij Hamburgh^ and wherever the jurifdi<9ion of this fee 
extended ^ but the fteady prudence of Valdemar furmounted 
all difficulties, annulled the eledion, and got Bucher chofen 

This year produced infurreflions and tumults among that ^* ^* 
people called SujonSj inhabiting part of.Gothlandy Sweden '*°^* 
Proper^ and Bothnia^ which communicated the flames of war 
not only to Denmark^ but almoft to all the kingdoms of the 
. North. Swercher, at prefent, fwayed that fcepter in confe- 
quence of an agreement, that the pofterity of the kings £ric 
and Charles fliould alternately reign. But Charles's iflTue get JJjl;orf 
^ ting pofleflion, they either profcribed or flew all the children «i//>w ef 
. of Canute, fon to Eric, except jEr/c the youngeft, called after /i^^^^ifv 
V his grandfather. This pjince fled into ^<?rtt;^7y, and there £/^Swe- 
' concealed himfelf during the perfecution carried on againft den. 
L his family \ but making ftrong friends among the nobility and 
[ people, he now returned home, and laid claim to the crown. 
L He fucceeded fo happily in alienating the affe6lions of the 
people from Swereher, that he was already at the head of a 
^ ftrong party. Swercher perceiving the danger, left no ftone 
I vnturned to draw Valdemar into his quarrel. He made large , . 
^ promifes, uftd fupplications, fent prefents, and at length pre- 
I vailed fo far, that Valdemar fent a ftrong body of Danes and 
^. Bohemians to his aififtance (A), under the conduct of Peter^ 
I fornamed the Elder, biihop of Rofchildi who had been unfor- > 

* L. vi. p. 297, 

■ » 
(A) His firft queen /»^^^ar^« mia* The nuptials were cele- 
dying without iflue, Valdemar brated at£«^^f in theycar 1205, 
foon after married Dagrnari By this means he became con- 
^ — ^tertg the king of Bobe" nefted with J5^«f?wi- (i). 
;• (1) PontUn, /. vi, 

N 3 tunate 


i8t fbe Hijtory of Denmark. 

tunate in a battle againft the Vandals. Joining forceB w!t|| 

l^wercher^ they gave battle to Ertc^ and after an obftioate 

conflid were totally defeated, with prodigious (laughter. Th( 

number of officers and foldicrs which the Dams loft was fo 

ereat, that this was the moft complete vidory and fnemorable 

Q-i -n Dattle which had ever been known in the(e partjiw 

»ift^««- StVERCHER cojlcding his fcattered troops, ipa4t hca4 

iiarUi de- ^^^ ^^^^ '*"^^ ?g?inft ^he vj6torious £nV, and at length came 

fesUid. y^ ? depifiye engagement near Gifilebrcwj more unfortunate 

^han the former ; for here his army was overthrown, and him- 

felf killed. Upon this Eric aiTumed the regal authority, and 

Valdimar did not chule to difpute it, imagining that he had 

already been Sufficiently punilhed for maintaining the unjoft 

caufe of an yfurper 9nd murderer. In this war it was fup« 

pofed, that not lefs than fifteen thoufand Danes^ hf^&AtsB^- 

A. D. ^i<*^^^ periflied. 

1209* VALDEMAR applied himfclf now to the fortifying his 
frontiers on the continent, and improving the new- acquired 
dominions on that fide. He demplilhed Witunburgy and 
greatly enlarged Hamburgh ^ after which he threw ^ fine 
tubcc bridge from north to fouth over the Elbe. But, in the midft 
Surnt to ^f jggfg ernployments, i«*^r was intirely burnt down by an 
fpegrQuna. accident, only fiye hpufes efcaping the flames \ and this part 
of the tp\vn went, in the days of l^ontanus^ by tl^e name of 
the Five Houfes. 
A. D. Next year Valdemar went upon an expedition agsunft fom^ 
}?^9* psgan n^tiops, inhabiting the banks 6i the Vifiula^ with % 
view to pftabliih theChriftian religipn in thofe barbarous partSf 
What fuccefs he ipet with we kpow not ; but he was foon 
recalled, to be prefent at the birth of his eldeft (bn Faldemar^ 
who was born this year, aiud at tl^e nuptials of his lifter widi 
king Ericy whom but a little before he held as an enemy to 
the Jciiigdom. 
f]^ About this time was lai4 the foundatipq of the city of 
' A 1^ ff/rtf^«i in Pemerania Royaly oppofjte to the ifle of RugeiL 
izxi f^^J^^^^ jntpnded it both as a fprtrcfs and commercial town : 
^ ' * nor were Jijs cxpediations difappointed ; for it became fo frer 
quented by tl^e Saxons, and other nations, that it foon rok tq 
eminence. An attempt was made ti\e following year by Ca* 
fimir znd JSogiJJaus to deftroy it ; but they were repulfcd bf 
Jarimc^r and tljc inhabitants of Rugeuy affifted by a body of 
ii^nes. This year xhP queen, after being delivered of another 
princ^ named Canute^ died, loudly lamented and fincerely re- 
gretted, both |)y the king and people. In men^pry of her 
{he caftle of Dr^mngholn^ was built. 0at name importing 

rt?^f««v^, - • ^ 

Tie Hiftory of Denmark. 1 8 j» 

I^f the year 1213, Valdemar determined upon an expedition A. D. 
againft the Pomeranians ; and with that view arrived in Demin^ 1213. 
the citadel of which he rebuilt^ and fortified in the ilrongeft Valdemar 
manner. goesinpir^ 

About this time Valdemar fent ambafladors to congratulate-^* againjt 
the new emperor Frederic II. on his acceffion, and procure f^^^' 
his invefticure of the countries he had lately conquered io Ger- "°**'^'* 
many. This was a compliment which Valdemar prudently 
chofe to pay, rather than have bis right difputed, though it 
was what his father fo pofitively refufed to BarbaroJJa. His 
lequeft was granted ; a formal inftrument, confirming him in 
his right, was made out ; and the ambafladors difmified, after 
many dtftin£lions conferred on them. 

Iv the mean time the Danijh forces and fleist were making 
Ibme progrefe on the coaft of Pomerania* After laying wafte 
a great part of the country, Stetin was befieged in form, and 
taken, together with a number of other cities, towns, and 
fiMTtrefles. Upon this occafion the earl ofSwerin paid homage 
to Valdemar^ and took an oath, that, when the king required 
it, he (hould always have a body of forces r^ady to march at 
his command. 

BURGHER archbifhop of Bremen dying this year, G/r- A. D. 
hard Ofiiaburgh vf^ put in by the pope in his room. This 1^14. 
deflion being difagreeable to the people, they fent to bifliop Di/putes 
Valdemar to afiure him, that, if he could procure a proper ^'^'^een 
and fufScient foriie to fupport him, they were ready to receive ^^^^^ 
him as their arcbbilhop, and would even join him with all ^^^^^^t 
the power they could raife, to exptlGerhard, Immediately^. ^ " 
on this notice the bilhop applied himfelf to Othoy marquis of^^^^-v 
I Brandenburg^ then highly offended with king Valdemar^ be- 
caufe his fleet had lately taken fome forts which he claimed as 
I his right. In confequence of this he lent bi0iop Valdemar a 
numerous corps of auxiliaries. He was likewife afiiAed by 
I Qtbpy depofed from the imperial throne by the pope, and de- 
firous pf feeking his revenge in this oppofition. Henry Pala* 
I tine joined in the confederacy, and was the chief inftrument 
f of fixing Valdemar in the fee of Bremen^ and depofing Ger-^ 

The pope and king Valdemar were fired with rcfentment 
at this tranfikdion. The one anathematized, and the other 
refolvcd to punilh Valdemar and the confederates by more ef- 
fe^ual means. JHquipping a fleet with all pofiible expedition, 
be entered the E&ey and laid fiege to Stade\ the citizens 
having, contrary to their oath of allegiance, received bii^op 
Valdemar. Henry Palatinej brother to the emperor Otho^ lay 
^ fome diftance with a confiderablq corps, with which he 

N 4 annoyed 

1 8 4 ^he Hifiory of Denmaffe 

annoyed the befiegers, and relieved by all poffibic mean$ ^ 
A. 1^.- OTHO^ the depofcd emperor ,, belicying that now a pro? 
'■**f* per opportunity offered of invading Denmark^ forgetting aM 
his obligations to king Vddemar^ raifed an arpiy, and marched 
^ . to Hamburgh^ to which he laid fiege, in cpnjundion with 
his brother iifwry. Prefled bard with the vigour of the bc^ 
iiegers, the garrifon capitulated, notwithilanding fpeedy relief 
was expeded from the approach of king Valdemar and die 
emperor Frederic^ the formfjr haying with him an army of 
iixty, or, as others relate^ of forty thoufand men. Qih^ 
leaving a ftrong garrifon in Hamburgh^ quitted it with his army 
in a precipitate manner, not chufing to come to an adioii 
ynx\i Valdemar I and perceiving h I'm lei f defer ted bytheff/r- 
man princes, relinquiflied his claim to the imperial diadem, 
^ and retired into a private ftatiop, in which he died aboiii 
three years after. 
A. D. The winter came on before Valdemar b^d made any great 
121 6. pTOgrefs in thp war ; only Stad^ receiyed his troops : but ear- 
Valdemar jy in the fpring he invaded'the Lowtr Saxony^ and fubdued all 
tn'vades th^ country belonging to Henry Palatine, Next he marched 
the Lower gggj^fl. Hamburgh^ which he clofely jnvefted, while thegarri- 
5a^ony. ^^^ refolved upon* making a vigorous refiflance. New wprkf 
were raifed to annoy the befiegers ; but the courage and ob-' 
ftinacy of the garrifon and burghers were at length fubdued 
by the perfeverance of Valdemar^ and the confequent famine, 
which obliged them to furrender at difcretion, after the lofs of 
all their principal officers, and incredible hard{hip& faftained. 
A. D. Returning then to i)<?;7^^7r;f, he held a general diet in 
f?l7' the ifland of Samfoe^ at which his (oti Vulde^hat was unak 
nimoufly chofen fucceffor tothe throne, ' Thence he palled 
ipto yutland^ where the general diet was no lefs unanimous in 
granting him whatever he required j and, to crown the feli- 
city of the year, "his third queen Berengaria brought hiffl 4 
young fon, whom they bapti7.ed by the name of JEr|f 
A. D. 'The following year this youpjg prince was crowned and 
y^^^' proclainied kini^, by the name of k^ldemar 111.- to obviate all 
difputes about the fucceflion. The coronation was performeq 
at Slefvfick^ in prefence of an infinity of people of all ranks, 
who flocked from every quarter of the kingdom to beboU ^^ 
Vide About thi? txxn^ Valdemar received advjce, that the ZA' 

mzT^s'tX' '^^^'^^^^'i ^^^rt^d by the Mufcoviies^ Lithuanians^ and other 
petition to J^o^^her'n barbarous nations, had driven from their habitations 
Ljvonia, *'^ thpfe who had embraced Chriftianity, and taken lan oadi 
' ' ' ' of allegiance to the crown of Denmark. Fitting out a power- 

kk tkictyhe immediately fet fail for that country, with ^ re« 
folution to puniflv this infraction of the treaty fubfifiing be- 
jtvireen the two nations. He was no fooner landed in Livonia 
fikzn hb troopswere feized with a panic, at the fight of fuch 
it powerful army of favages as they faw aflerobled on the ^ 

inountainB. It isfaid that the king himfelf was fomewhat. 
jiifmayed, at founufual and horrible a fped»cle as a prodtgiouf 
armv cloatl^ed in (kins^ and more refembling wild beafts than 
file numan fpecies ; but, encotlraged by the bifliops of Lunden 
and ArbuffHy who afllired hjm of vi<^ory while he was Aghtf 
}ng the caufe of Chrifi^ he made a ibort fpeech to the foldiers, 
ordered pul?lic prayers to be read between the ranks, and 
Ihen marched with intrepidity againft the enemy. After ^ 
warm ponflKft tWe Danl/h ftandard was loft ; a circumftance 
Ihat difpirited the troops, and made them give way ; until 
lieaven, fays PonUmm, was pleafed to fend down another 
fiandard. Upon this they rallied, attacked the confederate He dtfiati 
barbarians with aftontfliing refolution, and, notwithftanding/^^^Maf- 
.their prodigious numbers, overthrew them with incredible covites 
flaughter. The hiftbrians of thefe times, and after them and tbtif 
PontanuSj recite a variety of marvellous circumftances which ^^'^^t i 
attended this battle. Among others, they relate, th^t Jndrno 
Ufllop of Lunden r^ired during the action to an adjacent hill, 
where, with uplifted hands, he poured forth prayers to the 
Ahnighty for Faldemar's fuccefs. While his hands were held 
up to heaven, and the fervency of prayer continued, the ene- 
my conftantly gave way; bat on the leaft remiffion of the 
bithop's devotion, they in their turn pufbed the Danes \ both 
••armies fluduating backward and forward, like the waves, 
&y8 our htftorian, on the fea-ihore, according to the prelate's 
fervour and zeal in petitioning the Supreme Being ^ 

This fignal vidory was obtained near the fortreis of VaU' 
dimarj fo called from f^aidemoTj in memory of this glorious 
pent, by which the gofpel was once^ more reftored among 
(this rude and ignorant people (A). 

Ho)y potent and flouriftiing the kingdom of Denmark waf ^ 

fit this time, appears from a kind of eftimate of the revenue^ 
vifing itoTfi the tributary provinces, or thof^ countries con- 

'^ PoNTAN. 1. vi. p. 309. 

(A) We will not fpend time traditions of ignorance, an^ 

fviUi Ppntapuj it) examining, into pious frauds of the churchmen^ 

the troth of the celcftial ftan- which it would be unneceffary 

^^d, and the efiedts of the to,expofe in thjs more enligh- 

pifhop'i prayers ; thcf^ arj the tened age,, 


ii6 ^he HiJUry cf Denmark; 

J ^. quered by VaJdemar^ and of the ftanding forces of the ii^ob 

JLeofthe ^^^^^^^' This curious account Pontanus extraded from 

re-uitnte ^t^fM^ » writer of thefe days, who copied it exadly from a 

and force P^i^chment regifter kept by Nicholas Bilde^ a fort of fteward tt 

i^Den- Valdemar* From the provinces were daily fent in twenty-four 

mark. lafts of oats, twenty-four lads of rye, and half the quantity 

of wheat ; together with thirteen talents of cheefeand butteri 

nioe of honey, twenty-four oxen, three hundred (heep, two 

hundred hogs, and fix hundred marks of coined money. Ths 

was the certain revenue ; to which was added near an equal 

fum from adventitious circumftances ; fuch as fines, forfeitures, 

taxes on law-fuits and pleadings, with a variety of other con* 

tingencies; the whole amounting to an hundred thoufaod 

marks a day, or twenty-three millions fcven hundred and 

thirty thoufand pounds per ann. a fum fcarce credible in thefe 

days, and which obliges us to think, that we have eidiet 

taken the mark at too high a value, or that WitfilJC^ regifter 

greatly exaggerates the account ^. 

With this revenue were kept for cor.ftant fcrvice foi^rteen 
hundred great and fmall (hips for the king's ufe, each of 
which, at a medium, carried one hundred and twenty-one 
ibidiers, making the total of ftanding forces, befides garrifora, 
amount to one hundred and fixty-nine thoufand four hundred 
fighting menr Such was the prodigious wealth and potency 
of this kingdom in the reign of VaUemar II* if we are to cre^ 
dit the accounts of cotemporary writers ; and yet we muft ob* 
ferve, that at this time it was greatly fallen from its former 
fplendor, when the crowns of England^ S%vedgn^ and Norwcj^ 
were annexed to that of Denmark (B). 
A. D. From the year 1218 to the prefent year, nothing me* 
1^23, morable happened, befides a remarkable comet, which our 
. author calls a malignant ftar, that foreboded many calamities 
to. the North, in which quarter it appeared. The rife of theft 
is varioufly related : Crantziu$ fays, that Henry earl of Swerk^ 
whom we have called Henry Palatine^ defirous of efFe&ing a 
perfeA reconciliation with Valdemar^^ obtained a pailpoft, and 
went to wait on the king at Rofchild ; xhit Faldenutr granting 
terms which he deemed too hard and unreafonable, he took 
the refolution of putting him to death, or fpiriting him off, 
/or which purpofe he had kept a v^i{el, ready to hoift fail at a 

f PoKTAN. 1. yi^ p. 306, 

(B) This eflimate was made plicit faith in it, though we 
in the year 1221, and is of fo think it (o curious as to deferve 

extraordinary a nature, that we a place in our hiflory. 
(f|i)not e^|>e£t ^e reader's in^* 


ne Hijiory iff Denmark* i j^ 

mioute^^ warning; that his majefty, being Okie day huntings ^ «, 
was met on his return hy Henry, whom he invited to his tent, Y l!^ 
pitched in the fields, for a rural refrcfhment, which opportu- ^^^^L 
nity the treacherous gucft feized of carrying hioi away, gagged ritdin§9 * 
and bound, putting him on board (hip, and failing ftrait to capUnnH* 
Gtrmany : and laftly, that, after iirft expofing this great prinpe 
to public derifioui h^ (hut him up a prtfoner in the caftle o( 

WITFELD affigns a different caufe for Henrfs refentr 
tnent. He fays, that Henry^ going on a pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land, left his beautiful wife and children under the pror 
teAion and care of f^akkman The king, now a widower* 
was ftruck with the perfonal qualities of /^r^'s wife, and ac- 
cordingly debauched her t however, Pcnianus affigns a variety 
of reafons why. greater credit is due to the former relation* 
In this confinement the great Valdemar continued for. three 
years, according to the moft authentic documents of tbefe 
^mes ; though, from a monody quoted by Pontaniis^ his im« . 
prifoiunent would feem to have lafted for upwards of eight 
years. All this time Denmark was in the moil diftradled fitu^* 
tion. Valdemar was equally beloved and efleemed by his 
iubje£b, who would have releafed him by force, did they not 
apprehend the cruelty of Henry ^ fliould fuch^ meafures be fo|« 
lowed. ' The highcft ranfoms were offered for his liberty % 
but that treacherous prince was inexorable. At length th^ 
bi(hop6, nobility» and people, joined with one voice in peti« 
tioning the interceffion of tb? emperor Frederick 11. A diet 
of the imperial flates met of confequence ; and Valdemar mighf 
have been fet at liberty, if he could have been brought to rer 
linquifh his lau: conquefls. But to this he would give no ear : 
bb life, he faid, was only valuable while it was ufeful to his 
people ; and fhould he confent to part with conquefts which 
had coft fo much blood and treafure, his fubjed^s would have 
little reafon to wifh for his libetty at the price of fuch an 
indignity to the crown of Denmark* At length, however, 
this noble obflinacy was overcome by the in treaties of his fuh* 
3^ and children, who reprefented the calamitous ftate of this 
Ungdom ; the opportunities offered to ambition and treafon ; 
tbe loiies confequen( on the vacancy of the throne, infinitely 
tnore pernicious to the people than the feverefl terms the ene- 
my could impofe ; with a variety of other arguments, which 
operated on the mind of this great princ^^ becapfe they had 
the appearance of' public good. The terms were hard, but^. ^j. 
they were the befl that could be procured. Valdemar was fet /y^„/^??^ 
at liberty for a prpdigious ranfom in money, for rclinquifhing^^/"^j 
l^^«??> Sw$rin^ hamburgh, and thf Qth^r tpwp* and for- ^^* 


1 8( ^b^ Hiftcry of Denmark, • 

trefles on either fide the £&e ; and laftly, for fwearing Ch 
lemnljr to maintain this compuliive /con£ra<Sy and never to 
enter on any meafures to punifh Hemy^ or any of the othef 
A. J>n . princes who had fo treacheroufly combined againft him. The 
^z%6. treaty was figned on the twenty-fifth of March, I22d> accord- 
ing to Pontanus \ after which ^the king returned home difcon* 
folate, enraged, but more tban ever beloved by his fubje^^s, 
who now became better acquainted with the fublimity of hi) 
-vinues, by this trial of adverfity. 

Previous to the king's releafe, the.lordsof thofediftriSs 
which he had conquered before and fince the late king's deatfa,^ 
were bufied in recovering their rights, which they bad com- 
pletely .effected before they ventured to fet kim at. liberty^ 
JUert earl of Orlemund^ Valdinmr\ lieutenam in thefe parts, 
endeavoured to of^pofe them, and for that purpofe rai£;d i 
number o^ forces, with which he gave battle to the enemy, 
hut with a fortune no way proportioned to his zeal and fide- 
lity. After this vidpry they eafily recovered the whole coim'^ 
try they had lofl, ^nd obtained an oath of allegiance from the 
iiihi»bitant9. **• 

* Such was the fituati^n of the Danijh provinces in Ger.nmi 
at this time ; but ValdeTJiar^s misfortunes were not yet at an 
?^ fify of'tn^. The Lubeckers, fired with the imaginary freedom which 
Lnbec re-,^ neighbouring ftates had recovered, entered upon a fccrct 
^^' ^negotiation with the emperor FrefUrick, about throwing off the 
Danijb yoke. Their meafures were taken, fo prudently* thai 
'the citadel was feized, and the Danijh garrifon made prifonen, 
before they had the lead intimation of the intention of the 
citizens, who afl'embled under pretence of chufmg new ma- 
f^iftrates on the ufual day. In order to proteft them againft 
the confcquences of this revolt, they had fir ft figned a treaty 
of alliance with JJbert of Saxony, and all the neighbouriog 
princes, who engaged in this confederacy at the inftance of 
the emperor, then upon bad terms with Faldamar, and eager 
•to extend the influence of the imperial crown. All thefe cir- 
cumflances, together with the difputed election of Nicklas 
-Stigoth, chofen bifhop of Rofchild, much Z'gixn^^ Valdemar^^ 
inclination, determined him to look about for means todif- 
engage himfclf from thefe ties and incumbrances, fo iritfome 
to a prince of his fpirit. The method jn which he had beenfpi- 
rited away into captivity was infamous \ the conditions upon 
which he was releafed, oppreffive ; the oath he had taken not 
%o feek revenge, altogether compulfivc ; the revolt of the Lw 
^eckersy a frefli provocation ; and this elediion of the bifliop 
pf Rofchild^ a flagrant indignity and open defiance of his au- 
thority. Withput hsLving recourfe to what was thought the 


The tiiftory of Denmark. iSjf 

fupfcifte power, inveftcd by the Almighty' in tfce pop^, id 
abfolve from oaths and engagements, it would be no difficult 
matter to acquit Valdemar upon the principles of reafon, for a 
breach of a contract fo iniquitous and (hameful. This atleaft 
tttay be faid, that if ever prince was excufable for an infrac- 
tion of a iblemn treaty, confirmed by oath, ^<2i^;72^r's con- 
dud may certainly admit of fbme palliation. He applied '. 
to the pope, was abfolved.from his engagements, raifed a great 
army, and jentered Holjteln with all the refentment of a prince 
highly injured. Seizing upon Idjhoa^ and other places in this 
dutcby, he gave them up to be plundered by the foldiers, and 
then laid theni in aihes. Leading his arilny back to Bomholm^ 
he was met by the bifhop of Lubecy the archbifliop of Bre* 
meriy Albert duke of Saxony^ the duke of Holftein^ the earia 
of Sweritiy Oldenburg^ and Mecklenburg^ with feveral other 
German princes, at the ho^d of a prodigious army. A battle 
was fodght with incredible fury, and with fuch terrible llaugh* 
ter on both fides, that the fliields and helmets of the (bldiers', 
to ufe an expreffion of our author, floated in bloody The Valdemar 
event was long doubtful, until /^tfAi?/n<7r unhappily received ^isdefeateJ. 
Wound in the eye, which forced him to leave the field. H)3 
troops difpirited,' without the prefence of their monarch, gave 
way, and at laft a total rout enfued, chiefly owing to ?t flrong 
reinforcement of frefli troops, which the Lubeciers brought 
up to fupport the enemy. • 

In this unfortunate engagement Valdemar loft an eye ; his 
beft troops were deftroyed, and his moft experienced .generals 
killed or taken prifoners ; but he was not difmayed. On the 
contrary, he returned to Denmark^ coUcfted his fcatt^red army^ 
and began making new levies with fo much vigour, that by 
next fpring.he took the field with a more .formidable power 
than before. Both armies encamped on the oppofite fides ol 
the Elbe ; but the remembrance of the laft battle made theai 
equally dread a frefli trial of courage. Valdemar hid fiege 
again to Idjhoa ; but the enemy's approach obliged him to 
rellnquifli it. He then entered the country of Diihmarjh^ 
which he laid wafte, and rendered a perfect defart. Return- 
ing then through the Northern Holftiin^ he fet fire to the 
whole country, and retired to Denmark^ with intention to 
^augment his power, and end the war by fome decifive ftroke. 
. Dys^iNQ his abfence, jllbert of Saxony feized upon Ratz- Lawen- 
burg and Mdna^ and laid fiege to Lawenburg^ which the gar^ hvag/ur* 
dfifon defended . with fuch obftinacy, that duke 4lbert was renders t§ 
forced to enter, upon a negotiation with them. He propofed,/^' enemf, 
therefore, fetting Albert ciarl of, Orlemund at liberty, who was 
ijbr many i years detained aprifoner ia Swcrin, provided they 


l^o The t^Ji&ry of berimark 

Would furrehder the town ; but the brave garrifon woiil^ ^^ 

ccrpt of no terms without the confent of their king ; and for 

that purpofc ferit to Valdemar for inftru£^ions. The king wai 

^ager to procure the releafe of earl Albert ; he was likewife 

Ipprehenfive that the garri(bri could not hold out until he was 

in a condition to relieve them : it was therefore his advice} 

. ^ that they Oiould capitulate on the b^ft terms in their power. 

^l^g' Accordingly Laweiiburg V92ls furrendered, the garrifon marchci 

• out with military honours, arid Albert of Orlemund was fct at 

liberty, after a long imprifonment, iii which be ws» treated 

with the moft cruel feverity (A). 

After this tranfa£tion Faldemdr would (eem to fia<redropt 

all intention of purfuihg revenge. For the two fiicceeding 

years, we find no warlike preparations going on ; nor yet wu 

Bisfim there any treaty fet on foot for a general peace. It is pof^ 

Vatdraiar fibje that the unfortunate death of his fon Valdemar^ Aot ac- 

^^^ ^ cidentally at a party of hunting, might have Broke bisrefblu- 

^ tions ; and, indeed, this is the caufe afcribed by hiftorianJ 

for his indolence, though it did not happen until tbe year 1231. 

As foon as the public grief was in fome meafure fubudei 

for the death of a prince fo amiable as the young J^aUemdr^ i 

diet aflembled for fixing the fucceflion. Eric accordingly, tlie 

fecond (on, Was chofen by unanimous confent ; and his cd« 

ronation perforihed with the fame folemnities obferved id 

that of his brother. Immediately upon this provifion was 

made for all the other male children, by affigning tbem 

certain governments, with si kind of fupreme authority^ 

Abel^ the fecond fon. Was created duke of Soutbim Jut" 

land^ and Canute^ the third fon, held Bteking with the iame 

titles and authority. No fooner was Abel invelled with the 

tnfigns of his place, than he began affiduoufly to cultivate 

the friendfhip of Adclpbus duke of tioljlein^ by marrying 

\i\i daughter, without any regard to the injuries be had 

done his father, and the quarrel fubfifting between them. 

Ambition M^as th6 nfiotive for this alliance : he refente^ 

the preference given to bis brother Eric^ ihd reiblved to 

(A) T6 this AlheH it was VAxrtf, thbiigli with little rca- 

that the king had given the ^6-^ foiH, as HamiSrgb has fince been 

vcrnment of Hamburg, which forced tor acknowledge the (o- 

city he fold to tlie inhabitants verdgnty of the dukes of Hal' 

when he found himfelfdeferted flein. Befides, it may be urged, 

by the Daneif and hard prelied that Albert had no right to dif» 

by the duke of Holjiein. This ppfe of a city of whkh he wfli 

event they call the %ra of their only governor (i). 
(i) Pwt, /. vi* 


The tRftifty of Denmark. 19 1 

Arcngthcn his own inUreft^ with a view to claim th« crown at 
bi$ father's dcceafe. Eric and his friends w«re aware of his 
defigns, and, in order to counterad them, propofals of mar- 
riage were made to a daughter of ihc duke of Saxony ^ to whom 
ErH was married in the year 1237 (A). Ekher naarriagc was 
difplctfing to VaUemar^ the fathers of both ladies having 
ioog been hisbittereft enemies ; and he prognofticated the ef« 
ie&s which muft neceflarily attend ^alliances (b unnatural. 
Hatred; however, to the Lubeckers made him enter into a 
treaty with JMphus^ who had quarrelled with them. The Lubcc 
king not only reinforced him with a ftrong body of land- ^gfi^^J. 
forces, but likewife fent a fleet up the Travis blocked up the 
mouth of the river with ftrong chains and booms to prevent 
any fuccours being fent into the city, and engaged Jdofphui to 
lay dofe fiege to it by land, while his fleet invefted it on the 
fide of the river. The particulars of this fiege we know not, 
only that the LubickerSy finding themfelves bard preflTed for 
want of provifions, were bufied in altering the channel of the 
river, when a large fleet of their merchantmen arriving fea* 
fonably with a fair wind, broke the chains* fupplied the gar- 
rifon, and was probably the oc^afion of raifing the fiege; al* 
though the Danijh hiftorians afcribe it to fome other views, 
upon which Valdemar and Adolpbm retired. What thefe de- 
figns were we are not told \ though we are left room to con- 
jedure, that a war which happened between Dtnmark and 
Norway^ about this time, was the occafion of FaUemar*6 
withdrawing his forces. But of this war we neither know the 
caufe, the particulars, or the event. 

Kino Eric^ in his Annals of D/iw«i»ri, takes notice of a a. D. 
great war carried on by Valdemar this year in Livonia^ ia 1239,. 
which a prodigious army of Mufcovitti was defeated, a number 
of towns taken, and almpft the whole country fiibdued under 
the dominion of the crown of Dgnmark. The royal writer is, 
however, fo concife in his relations, that we know little more 
than that there was a war, which terminated fortunately to . 

Having put an end to thefe foreign tumults, which had . 

fo drained the kingdom of men and money, the king now ap- 
plied himfelf to the fi:aming of laws, encouraging induftry, 

(A) The abbot oiStadeaS[% king Erii^s Chranide, which 
this lady a daughter of the lliuft be deemed the moil un- 
^Kkt oi Anbalt. Some other doubted authority, aiTerts that 
writers fiiy« flie was daughter flie was daughter to Albert of 
lothednkc ofi»««i**f2:$ but^ Sascoty (i)» 

(l) Fantan. f, 318. 

i^i fbe Hipiy of t)ehmaricV 

and eafing ttiefubjed from the weight of the heavy taKifsijIl 
ceiTarily impofed to fupport the honour of the crown, and the 
Anew indignities" put on the whole kingdom. For thispurpofea 
body of general diet was held at Verdenburg^ and a new body tA\vm 
tmvs f<»»- framed out of the iinperial, civil,- and canon laws, each of 
ftlea^ which had before been ufed in different parts of the kingdom. 
Upon this occafion were fettled the rights of the prince and 
people, and all ctrcumflances criminal, civil, and ecclefiafti- 
cal; fo that from this time we may date the origin of thit 
conftitution, which fubiifled until the great revolution in the 
^year 1665. It. muft be efteemed very extraordinary, confi- 
dering the importance of this body of laws, that no writer 
has preferved a copy of them, or even refated their contents 
in a fummary way ; and that they (hould have fatisfied-thein- 
ielvcs with acquainting pofterity that they were wife, wfaole- 
fome, and a greyer ornament to Valdemar than all the noble 
tranfa£fcions of his reign. Such is the manner in which tbef 
Ikim over the moft remarkable and important events in the 
annals of this country, probably for no ochei' reafon than the 
trouble which would attend confulting the original archives.' 
- p VALDEMAK had rtow'»arttained an advanced age. He 
1 240.* h^d feen his kingdom raifed io the higheft pitch of gTory and 
Valde-* power, through his own merit ; he had feen it fink into the 
mar'/ deepeft diftrefs, from an accident which only affefted his pci^ 
death and fon ; but that fully demoriftrated of what importance bis viti* 
tharaSer. tues were to the good of the nation ; and now he faw it again 
reftored to peace, tranqaillity, good ofder, and felicity, by 
means of his prudence, difcretion, and moderation. Thus 
fatiated with .efteem, glory, and worldly grandeur, this great 
pirice refigned his laft breath in the month 6i Aprilr l^4l» 
leaving his unhappy people ^ prey to the ambitious and un- 
natural contentions of his children. 


Containing ^ the TrdnfaSlions' of Denmark down tf 
' . the Tear 1337* ] 

r ERIC V. furnamid P LOG-P ENNING: 

Eric V. TVT^ fooner were the laft obfequics paid to the memory rf 
fttrnamid xN the late gjorious monarch, than his fon £r/4*, fome years 
Flog* Pen- before chofen his fucceflbri^ mounted the throne at the ^d 
i^Dg. twenty-five. Canute^„bk brother by, the fame father, was at 
v.i 3 ' *^ 


i%e Hiftory t^f Denmark. ip j 

this time governor and duke of ^Uking : he foon poffefled The origin 
Laaland^ and in time acquired the power and title of dukt of of the dvij 
Pai/lria, , Jhei, his full brother, was duke of Slefwick and all divifions , 
South Jutland^ and Chrlfiopber of Faljlre. Befides thefe pro- '« Den- 
viflceiSi each of the brothers had their feparate fortunes af- li^ark* 
figped them, independent of each other ; a regulation the 
moft erroneous of Valdemar^ reign, though intended for. th6 
mutual good of all his children, among whom he endeavoured 
tafliare his af{e<Stion equally. Each poiTeffing a fbvereign in- 
dependency, a rivalihlp enfued; It made room for intrigue^ 
aiid all the engines of ambition, which foon fupprefled every 
emotion of brotherly loVe. AbeU even in his fathei's life- 
time, wholly eftranged himfelf from his family, and united 
dofely with his wife's friendsi the moft inveterate foes of his 
own blood. 

What firft gave occafioii for at! open rupture was a de- ^^ ^^^. 
Bgn Erie fct on foot to recover all that country north of the menced. 
Mi, fo unjuftly extorted from his father in exchange for his A. l3. 
liberty, fiol/iein was comprehended in this diflriS; and 1142. 
AM, being not only the fohtin-law of Jdolphus IV. of HoU 
Jieitij but the guardian 6f his children, fince that prince's re- 
treat into a monaftery, thought himfelf obliged^ iii honour 
and intereft, to defend their rights. With this view he (Iruck 
up an alliance with the archbifliop of Bremen, and other an- 
cient foes to his father. He refufed all the equitable propofals 
tofiered by Eric j and, by the fpring of the year 1242, brought 
matters to fuch a crifis, that they were ripe for an open rup- 
ture. CrantTuus, indeed, contrary to the teftimony of all 
other writers, feeois to lay the blame op Eric ; for he afcribes 
the fubfequent war to the violence ufed againft the Lubeckers^ 
who were fiftiing on the coafts of Zealand, whither they were 
carried prifooers, and detained. To revenge this infult, he 
relates, that Jbel fitted out a fquadron. With Which he at- 
tacked liaffnia (now Cspenhagen):, and, after demollftiing it, 
retired with a great booty. Pontanus, however, with more 
reafon) attributes the Whole to the ambition of Abel^ and the 
inl^igatioh olT his wife's friends : an account perfedly con- 
fident with the charai^ers of both priiiees ; for nothing could 
be more moderate^ juft, and ptudent, than the whole cdn- 
iidof J&r/Vj or more the rcverfe of this thatt the meafures 
oif the hot-headed AbeL 

MktC, finding his brother deaf to all his remonftrances, 
xaifed an army, equipped a fleet, and landed his men near 
the promontory of Eldenez, Nor was Abel lefs vigilant ; for 
We he niet him with a power not inferior. Both armies 
#ere ready to eome to an adion, had not fome mutual friends 
Mod. Hist.Vol. XXXIL Q inter- ' ' 


154 ^*^ Hifiory of Denmark. 

A peace intcrpofcd, and by their good offices happily cffeflcd acom- 
concluded promife fpr that time, on this condition, that the young 
between , princes of Holjletn (hould be brought home from jPjw, and 
Eric and the management of their own anairs committed to them. 
AbeL ' All the allies on either fide were comprehended in this treaty, 
and the fore, which had for years diftinircd the diftrent parts 
of Valdemar*s kingdom, was fuddenly ikinned over by the art 
of ftate-cmpirics, who had neither honefty nor ability to probe it 
to the bottom, and remove the original caufe of the diforder. 
The young princes of HolJIein being now returned home, 
to the great joy of their fubje&s, the guardianfliip was taken 
out of Abel*s hands ; yet, though this bone of contention be- 
tween him and Eric was taken away, there occurred another 
A. 1>. handle of difpute. Eric demanded homage for the dutchy of 
1244. Slefwickj which -/ft^/ pofitively refufed, claiming it as anin- 
War re- dependent fovereignty. Hoftilities commenced upon this, and 
nenjoedie- perpetual incurflons were rtiade into each other's territories. 
tween the Slefwick was invaded by the elder brother, and the younger 
brothers, retaliated by making defcents on the Danijh iflands : but 
before the end of the year this irregular and piratical war was 
terminated by the interpofition of feme mediators, who were 
well difpofed to both parties. 

It was about the clofeof the year 1246, that ^r/V refolvcd 
to revenge the infults which the lubeckers had committed 
againft his father and himfelf. As they were not compre- 
hended in the late treaty between him and Abel^ he made no 
formal declaration of his intention ; but ordered their (hips to 
be feized wherever they were found, and fent a (quadron up 
the trave to block u^ the city, and ruin their commerce. 
fhe Lu- Thefe merchants, in their turn, made defcents on the coalb 
beckers of Denmark ; and having Ibe addrefs to engage the princes of 
make de- Hol/hin and archbifliop of Bremen in their qaarrel, brought 
Jce?jis on £^i^ {Q (jjjj^j^ Qf a peace before any decifive blow was ftruct, 
x;enmark, ^j^^^ ^jg. monarch not chufuig to involve himfelf in another 
quarrel with the German princes. 

No fooner had he terminated this quirrel than thediljjutc 
with Jbel was renewed. Canute and Chriflopher^ the two 
younger brethren, joined with Mel in refufing homage to 
Eric J and he, in bis turn, infifling upon it, both fides had re- 
courie to arms. Jbel firll commenced hoftilities by making a 
defcent in Fionia^ burning Othoniay the capital of the iflanrfi 
and fcizing upon Saneburgy which he claimed as his right, 
A. JJ. and accordingly garrifoned with a Itrongbody of troops. Eric 
'*47^ arriving foon after with his army before the place, took \U 
laying the whole in allies. Afterwards making a defcent in 
ruijir'ia^ and the dominions of Chrijlophcr^ he obliged him to 


The HifloryofbthmaLTki ip5 

Acknowledge his foverejgnty» This advantage was fucceeded 
by another ; for he took Canute prifoner, and confined him in 
the caftle of Stigen^ from whence he was delivered by the 
Lubeck fleet, which took and deftroyed the fortrefs. 

ABEL and his aflbctates carried on the war by Tea with 
great vigour ; while the king, calliilg in the Vandah as auxi- 
fiaries, entered Holftein^ took Oldenfloa^ and obtained a vaft 
booty. Canute and Chrlftopher feized upon all South Jutland % 
and then ihvefling the city of Ripm<^ foon became mailers 
both of it and the citadel, making Efchil the bifbop with all 
his children prifoners. Eric^ on the other hand, got pofieP 
Tion of Laaland^ Falftria^ and all the other territories oi Chrif" 
topher^ who broke his engagements with the king ; to which 
be added Bleking and Canute^s dutchy of Sch'onen^ annexing 
them all to his aown. Thus the war 'was purfued with great 
animofity, but without any decifive blow, for the whole year; 
At the clofe of thexampaign a truce was agreed upon, and fome A« D; 
mutual overtures were made towards an accomniodation; but 1248^ 
the truce was {hort, and all endeavours to work a reconcilia- 
tion ineffedual. The young princes had alienated the affec- 
tions of a great part of the nobility, clergy, and people from 
the king. This made them the more indifferent to a peace^ 
and added new fuel to the flames of war ; fo that, early In the 
next fpring, it was renewed with redoubled vigour. Denmark 
was rent with civil divifions and external enemies. The Lu^ 
leciers harraiTed the coafts with their ihipping ; and Efic had 
his revenge by means of the Vandals^ who ravaged Holflein^ 
until they were defeated by Abel, However, the moft fignal , 
advantage was gained by the king in perfon, who gave battle ^*f«^. 
to his brother Canute^ defeated, and made him prifoner. After- ^^|^^ 
wards he fuddenly attacked Flenjburg^ at that time a very opu- 
lent mart, fet fire to the town, and laid it and all the neigh- 
bouring country in aflies. He had, now got two of his bro-^ 
tTicfs in confinement; a fuccefs which only increaled the 
number of his eriemies, and irritated the nobility againd him. 
This determined him to fet Chrijiopher at liberty, on no other 
condition than that he fliould pay him homage, and acknow- 
ledge hi^ fovereignty. ' Chrijiopher readily accepted the terms, 
wasjeleafed, and became his brother's vafTal. He even at- 
tended him in a fudden irruption he made into Holftetn^ 
while the diet of that dutchy fat ; from whence, after burning 
the town, he carried a great number of the nobility prifoners 
\vXo henmarky 7Xi oi whom were ranfomed at a high price* 

Next he defeated the Lubec&eet in the Sounds after taking Tbe'Lnhcc 
four of their (hips, and deftroying an equal number. At this^^^/ de- 
time he had given inftruftions.to Henry Meldorpy governor /eated. 

O a of 

19^ T^<? Hiftory of Denmark, 

of RenJefburg^ to feizc the firft opportunity of Abih abfcnce 
to make an irruption into Slefwick. His orders were puAdual* 
ly executed, and fome of the chief cities and fo'rtreffcs taken 
by furprize. Efchil^ the bifliop, was likewife punifhed by 
the lofs of fome valuable efFe£ls, for having changed fides, 
and taken part with y/W, through the influence of the arch- 
bifhop o^ Bremen. In a word, all Slefwlck was fubducd, al- 
mod as foon as entered, by means of the aftive and vigilant 
Henry ^ reputed one of the bcft officers in the fervicc olDtn* 

This feries of good fortune did not long continue. AbtU 
the two princes of Holjfeiriy and the archbifhop of Bre^m^ 
took vigorous meafures for the recovery of Slefwick. A nu- 
merous army was raifed, the Danes driven out, and almoll 
all Jutland laid wafte ; however, the enemy were forced to 
retreat with precipitation, on advice thlat Eric was marching 
with an army of Zealanders to attack ihem. 

In the mean time Gerhard^ the archbifhop of Bremen^ died, 
and in his room was chofen ///7^/f^^/^, a prelate who did not 
fo fanguinly embrace the caufe of MeL There were not 
wanting fome friendly mediators among the German, princes 
conneded by marriage to the rival brothers, who wifhed to 
fee this unnatural war, fo ruinous to the fubjecft, ended in 
an amicable a manner. John marquis of Brandenburg^ mar- 
ried to Sophia the king's iifter, the duke of Lunenburg^ and 
Jllbert of Saxony interefted themfelves in a particular manner; 
but Eric was obftinatc in demanding homage, and Ahtl no 
kfs pofitive in refufing it, fo that the war went on in fpitc 
of all endeavours to terminate it by the moft friendly re- 

At length Sophia^ the marchionefi of Brandenburg^ at that 
time far advanced in her pregnancy, undertook a journey to 
Denmark^ hoping by her prefence to work on the minds of her 
brothers : but (he was taken with the pains of labour at 
Flenjburg^ wherfe (he mifcarried and died in a few days. This 
, circumttance, with the wife conduft of the bilhop of Lunim% 
at laft terminated their differences upon the following terms. 
treaty of -'^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ independent, but paid homage for 
peace con- ^^"^^ Jutland. Canute was reftored to hk dominions, which 
eluded. he was to hold upon a feodal tenure. Each fide was to in- 
demnify the lolTes fuflained by the other. All the allies of 
either fide were comprehended in this treaty ; and laftly, the 
king and Abel ratified it npt only by a written agreement, a 
folemn oath, but by twenty hoftages mutually exchanged. 
Moreover it was ftipulated,' that whatever party (hould be 
guilty of fhc (lighteft infraction of fo folemn a convention, 


The Hijiory of Dtnmzrk. ip^ 

the hoftages {hould have the free liberty of joining themfelves 
to the o(^flce fide. Towards the clofe of the year the treaty 
was folemnly figned, fealed, and executed; jjpon which all 
Denmark rung with joy, and the moft riotous expreffions of 
public fatisfadion took place of the mifery and wretchednefi 
that every where prevailed^. 

Next year a diet was held ztRofchlld^ in which the king, j^ -q 
in a laboured harangue, exprcfled his eager defire of'propa- 124.0/ 
gating the Chriftian faith among the barbarous nations of the 
North, and the expediency of reclaimipg all the former pof- 
felfions of Denmark in Livonia^ and along the frontiers of. 
J^uJJiay which had been loft amidft the late civil commotions. OHgin of 
The diet giving their aflent to his propofal of undertaking znplog-pen- 
expedition thither, he then laid before them the exhaufted «»? or 
condition of the treafury, and the neceffity there was for xza{' plough taxi 
ing the proper fupplies by an additional tax. This was a 
certain fum to be paid by each plough, under the name of 
Plofchat^ or, as Eric the hiftorian calls it, Ploch^ or Plog- 
Penning^ by which term the king was afterwards furnamed. 

When the king's inftruftions for colledling this unufual 
tax in Schonen arrived, all the people murmured, and threat- 
eaed to take up arms if any violence was offered in levying a 
tax lyhich they thought oppreflive and iniquitous. Matters 
nn fo high, that Eru believing his prefence was neceflary, 
went thither, and began to harangue the people in the mildeft 
terms ; but their indignation run fo high, that he was forced 
to withdravir himfelf precipitately to Helfenburg, Thither the „-, . , 
malcontents purfued him, laid fiege to the citadel, and would t,^ ^^ ^* 
hav^ taken, their king prifoner, had he not prudently efcaped Schonen 
in th^ night atapoftern-gate. As foon as the king returned ^^^^^^ 
to Zealand the tumult fubfided, but ftill the tax was unpaid, 
Erk enraged, not only at their fefufai in the prefent emergency, 
of the ftate, but at the late infult offered to his perfon* raifed 
an army, and marched to Schanen. Nor were the malcon- 
tents backward in their warlike preparations; for they met 
him in the field, gave battle to their king, and were over* 
thrown, and forced to pay the tax, they had fo obftinately re- 

Having fettled ihe affairs of the kingdom, and made the . 
neceflary preparations, Eric fet fail for Livoniay where he 
was extremely fuccefsfuL in all his operations, though we find 
no particular account of them. We are told he was fuddenly 
called back by fome difputes which had arifen concerning the - 
execution of the late treaty with AbeU The dukes of Hoi* 
Jim demanded the town of Renjlurg^ agreeable to the arti- 
cle, that all parties Ibould enjoy their.former rights. This| 
O 3 - ' town 

198 ^he Hijlory of Denmark. 

ffar he- ^^^^ ^^^ fituated in their dominions ; but Erh claimed it in 
/iv^f/s Eric right of conqueft and pofleiiion, prior t6 this laft war. All 
and the the negotiations fet on foot were fruitlefs \ and the Halfteinen 
frlnceiof united themfelves to the bifliops of Bremen and Paderborn^ dc- 
Hojftcm. termihed to maintain their caufe by force of arms. Meldorp 
commanded the garrifon for the king, the enemy n^arched to 
lay fiege to it, .and Eric raifed forces to relieve, with all ex<? 
pedition, this brave ofificer. On his arrival at Danewark^ 
that ftrong frontier, he bethought him of a vifit to his brother 
Jbel^ who had taken no part in this quarrel, in order to pre- 
vail on him to ufe his influence with the allies to come to a 
reafonable compofition, telling him that he was quite weary 
of war, and (Hocked at the late efFufion of Chrifliaa blood, 
The king was well received, yfMpromifcd his utmoft endea- 
vours fhoutd not be wanting ; but the demon of ambition had 
Abel irea- 8^^ poffeflion of his heart. He had laid a plan for the dc- 
tberoufly ' Itruftion oi his brother, who was fpirited off in a boat, mur- 
murders thered at fea, and his body thrown overboard, 9 prey to the 
^he king ravenous fifhes. This horrible a£l was perpetrated by thq 
its brofber.hands^ and originally fchemed by the villainous heart of Gudi 
mund, a prelate baniflied Denmark on account of his vices j 
but nothing can palliate the conduft of- yfbelj whofe ungo-r 
vernable ambition had (limulated him to a breach of the firft 
duties of humanity, and urged him to the moft ungenerous 
violation of the rights of hofpitality, as well as the cruel an4 
ihocking crime of fratricide, 
A« D« ^N thfs maaner died jEt/V, a prince whofe failings were to- 
1^50. tally obfcured by his excellent qualities both of the head and 
Death andhezTt, He had the greateft probity of foul, as well as the 
fharaaer trueft piety, without any tindlure of the fuperftition of the 
ij/^Eric. tiipes. His reign would have been happy to his people, and 
glorious to himfelf, but for that fingle error in the great 
Faldemafs conduft, which enabled the younger brothers to 
claim an independency on the elder. Without great military 
talents his courage and good fenfe gained him the reputation 
of an able general. His politics were found, but clear ; th^y 
were di£tated by hotiefty and found judgment, without any 
of thofe dark windings, and that unfathomable myfterioufne&| 
wKjch have falfely acquired the reputation of deep policy, for no 
other reafon thari th^t they equally confound and perplex the 
contriver and the wor|d. Iri a word, £ric was generous, fin- 
frere, brave, ^nd liberal, ftrenuous to maintain the dignity of 
(lis crown, but unambitious of extending his prerogative be<r 
yond the meafures of eqyity a^d prudence. This however 
inay be denied by thofe who afcribe to ambition the defire he 
b?4 ^f feducing bis tff^threii \jnder his fovcfeignty, We 

The Hiftory of Denmark. 19^ 

thbt otherwife. The provinces affigned to them had always 
been dependent on the ctown,: it is probable that Valdemar 
meant they (hould ftill continue fo; if not, certain it is, that 
he had no power to make this partition without the confenc 
of the ftates \ and yet we find it confirmed by no other au- 
thority than his laft will. 

ABEL endeavoured to fcreen his own guilt by promulgating 
a report, that Eric had periOied at fea by the veffers founder- 
ing. For a time this ftory met with credit, although there 
were not wanting perfons who rufpe^led his treachery.. In a 
fliort time, all was difcovered by the mangled body of the 
king, which was thrown by the waves on the (bore, taken up 
by fome monks, and privately depofited in the monaftery of 
St, Laurence, Before his death Gudmund had extorted from 
him a confeflion of the place where be bad depofited his 
private treafure ; but, on examination, nothing befides a few 
jewels aad rich garments were found. 

. J B E L. 

ERIC ^ying without ifiue male, the ftates afiembled for Abel ^i^<?- 
the eledion of a fbvereign, and though they detefted Abel on '^^1^9 
^ccolmc of the unnatural crime he had committed, yet they ^^ w 
chofe him king for conveniency, and to avoid the civil wars ^''^' ^^^ " 
whicl^ would ncceffarily cnfue from fctting him afide. By*^^-^'* 
tiiis means they indifputably reunited the dutchy of Slefwick to ^ •^''^ 
the crown; they run no hazards from the power of Jbel^ '^ 
who would probably have joined himfelf to his late allies, 
had his claim been overlooked j they annexed Swenehurg and 
Schelfifcore^ the hereditary patrimony of Abel^ to the Danijh 
dominions, and gained many other advantages, all of which, 
in our opinion, were more than counterbalanced by the crimes 
yf the new monarch ; but the diet thought othferwife. As yet 
indeed the murder was not clearly proved upon him ; for th« 
loyal body had not appeared till after the eledion. He had, by 
ambaiTadors, modeftly pleaded his right, and defended his own 
Charader with fuch arguments as weighed with a majority : he 
declared, that the veflel had been overfet by the great number of 
people which had entered her in a tumultuous manner, with a 
view of doing the king honour by a fplendid retinue ; but this 
relation was not only contradidlory to the report he had or-? 
d^red to be publifhed, but inconfi^ent with itfejf, as the king 
alone, of all the pajflfengers, was miffing. However, he 
granted extraordinary immunities, and diftributed prefents 
ainong the bifliops and inferioi^ clergy, by whofe influence 
cbiefly he gained his point. In a word, he was crowned in 
lp& thv^tWQ mgntbs after his brother'? death, having firft 
P4 (Ql^mnly 

20Q ^te Hiftory of Denmark. 

folemnly fvtrorn that he had no concern in it ; but diat f W< 
was killed by fome foidiers at the inftigation of private ene- 
niies. It is firange that fo refpedable and wife an afTembly 
fhould ht capable of putting themfelves under the authority of 
aperfon^ whofe equivocation and diflFerent accounts were die 
ftrongeft proofs of his guilt, and who, to the unnatural crime 
of parricide, fuperadded that of peijury and fubomation; 
for he had procured twenty nobleman to join with him in di^ 
Abel // ABEL had not long enjoyed the diadem, before his coo- 
flung ly fciepce began to torment him. In examining Erif'^ will, he 
>/V own found that the deceafed prince had refolved uppn abdicating 
^ confcUnce. th^ prown and retiring to a monaftery ; and that he bad ap- 
pointed him his fucceilbr, provided the confent of the diet 
could be obtained. He likewife found a legacy to himfelf, aa 
intire forgivenefs of all that was paft, and the mod a^Fe^onate 
expreflions of regaird for all his brothers, and Atel in par- 
ticular. Thefe circumftances pierced his breaft like daggers, 
called to his remembrance the virtues of his brother, and ren- 
dered him, though the greateft, yet the moft miferable perftn 
in Denmark^ becaufe he was the mod guilty, 

Befork his acceifion to the throne he had fent his eMeft 

{onValdemar to be educated in France ; he now recalled him 

to inveft him in the dutchy of Slejwicky though his bfotber 

Chrijiopher had applied for that dignity. In paffing through 

the biihopric of Cologn^ the young prince was feized by order 

of that prelate,- and detained for four years in prifon. For 

this z6t of violence we find no caufe afcribed, befidcs the de- 

' teftation in which the bifliop held the whole family, fince 

the murder of Eric. 

^. p. The Polijb writers relate a war that happened this yen 

125 1 . between BoUJlatv king of Poland and AbeL Peter Dotvitfy fon 

to U^iliiam^ who was private treafurer to Eric^ had fled fioin 

Denmark upon that prince's death, witH all the treafure, to 

prevent its falling into the hands of the parricide. /V//r 

was a man of fingular talents, infmuating, polite, eloquent, 

and virtuous ; he had fo ingratiated himfelf with BolefifVh 

War hr that he attained very high honours in Poland^ and became 

fiMiin Po- the favourite of the king and court. He had learned die 

land and language, was fo winning in his addrefs, and had fo Ihaped 

'Pcpfl^a'l^-himTclf to the manners of the country, that all men rejoiced 

at his elevation, though a foreigner. When he found hiA 

influence cftablifhed, he related the caufe of his flight to 

Boleflaw ^he king, and artfully led on that generous pri«* 

to a war which might at the fame time punifh the crimes 

%(A^el, and extend dbe limits pf tiis own dominions. A^ 


^be Hijiory of Denmark; aoi , 

eordingly a powerful armameat was equipped, with which 
pokflaw^ accompanied 6y Peter and Eric*s treafure, failed 
into Denmark^ where he was joyfully received by all ranks 
of people, as his proclamation aflured them his fple inten- 
tion was to avenge the murder of Brie. After all, however, 
he performed nbu)ing ; for having put the treafure into the 
bands of the diet, he returned to roland^ leaving the Dan$t 
to the free choice of a king. This (lory is related by Cro^ 
wer and Herhut^ two Polijh hiftorians ; but wholly omitted 
by the Danijh writers, apd probably with good reafon, as it 
feems A^ught with abfmdity and anachronifm^ as appears 
by comparing the years when Bolejlaw and Abel reigned. 

Towards the clofe of this year a diet was held, in whicli 
it was enabled, that Canute and Chri/iopher 'fliould remain in 
the full pofleifion of the dominions left them by VaUemar ; 
that a general tax fliould be raifed for the payment of the 
crown debts contraded in the laft war, and for redeeming the 
cafiles and forts, pledged to neighbouring princes, in order to 
raife money, 

DuRiNG the late wars between Eric and JbeU fdme dlf- ^ etngrefi 
putes arofe between Denmark^ Sweden^' afld Norway^ about/^^^^*'^ 
certain frontiers, whiah the circumftances of the ftate would '^'i^*' 
not then permit Eric to adjuft. Now a congrefs of pleni- ^'"^^ 
potentiari^s of th^ three nations was fixed, to fettle the mat- ^®"™^"^ 
ter in an amicable manner, and inftrudiions were given ^o^hie^^ij^ • 
Dftnijh ambaiTadors by the diet, and not by the king, a thing y^^J 
not ufual ; whence we may conclude, that the general af-« ^'' 
fembly of the ftates aflumed to themfelves more power in this 
fhan they had done in former reigns ^ and that the hatred of 
the people to Abel laid hini under certain reflridlions un* 
known te his predecefTors. 

It was at this diet that Abel^ finding the treafury quite ex* 
kauQedy affigned lands to Henry Meldorp^ in lieu of a large funi 
of money due upon arrears. This tranfa<^ion occafionied fome / 
difputes between them which terminated in blood ; although - 
the circumftances that attended it are very obfcurely rc-» 
latcd by all the writers we have feen. Crantzius * afflgns a dif- 
ferent caufe for this quarrel, affirming that the Embdeners^ and 
the inhabitants of Rend/burg^ Frederickftadt^ Tonmngen^ and 
tihofe towns and countries fituated be^een Slefwick and /£?/• 
jliin^ refufing to pay the new laid tax, fo irritated the king, 
that levying an army he engaged and defeated them ; but the AM ekt 
Kbels making head the next day, attacked the king in Yiisfeated and 
f^inp^ ainl ^t^r an obftinate conflict routed his army, mAJ^n. 

# Page lOii 

(If W " 

His cha- 

aoi 5rA^ Btfi^ry of Denmark. 

|lew bim, determined not to he conquered io the field, oq 
\u Piter'^'Day^ in the year 1252. It was fome dajr$ before 
his body could be found among the prodigious caroagQ that 
Yras made, to which his fingle ^rm greatly cwitribated. Ai 
foon as known, the royal cprpfe was taken up and cjgrried tp 
Slefv^icky where it was buried with the magnifiqence Autablc 
rather to his birth thari to his virtues, Jbely it ^uift be ac- 
knowledged, \jfzs brave, and poQeiTed many of thepth^r qua- 
iitios of a great nnonarch ; but ^mbitipn w^s the pr^v^iliog 
pfEon of his heart. This had fupjxrefTed all the dlc^a^^ el 
humanity, and the ftronge/l natural ajBT^ions ; (b th^t fac 
i}reathed his lafi glorioufly, left hia piemory ftaioed with th^ 
horrid, crimes of fratricide, perjury, and fubori>a(iQ49ft ^nd 
died admired for his virtues, detefted for his vices, dreaded 
for his power, but unlameme,d by all vi^ho had any regiurd foi 
honour, humanity, and truth. 


Chrifio- ABEL left two fons, the eldeft of whpm, Valdfmar by 

pherl. ^anie, was ftill a prifoner at Cologne, Matilda^ his mother, 

, ^ * and now queen-dowager, ufed all her ej^deavours to have him 

elected, though a captive, and ihe made a very cpnfiderable 

pj^rty in the diet in his favour. However, it was refblved by 

a majority to beflow the crown on Chrijiopher^ brother to thi 

late king, in order to avoid the didurbances which bis power 

fi&fn?«y&w"^ig^t Probably occafion. In a word, the fame reafons in- 

fwhich^in- flucnced them in the prefent election, which had prevailed ia 

fiuenced the former, without the objeSions that lay againft w^if^/, as 

fbe Met to Chriftopher^s charafter was unftained by any crimes of a doep 

0(e3 Chri- dye. Indeed, the people were fomewhat prejudiced, tbougb 

gopher, uojuftly, againft the innocent Valdimar^ on account of the 

euilt of his father. They looked upon him as a branch of 

the fame ftem, which confequently mu^ inherit its qualities. 

V Before his accefSon Chrijiopher had married Margretta Sa* 
Vtria^ daughter to the duke of Pomeran'ta^ H^ began bis 
reign with granting all its wonted privileges and immunities to 
the^ diocefe of Lunden^ though we are no where told how it 
came to be deprived of them ; and ordained befides^ that noiiQ 
of the fuffragans of this fee (hould pay taxes to the crown, or 
be obliged to quarter foldiers. 
, In the beginning of the following year he took upon bim 

the gtiardianmip of ^^^/'s children, and demanded an oath of 
, allegiance from Henry Meldorp^ who held the towns oiSweNe" 
burg and Scbflfifcorej part of the patrimony of Abel They 
i)^g h?pq pledged %o fienr^^ and being a man of great fpint 



Tbe Hijlory of Dtnm^Ltk. 203 

uid warlike abilities, he infifted upon holding them in his own 
right, until they (hould be* redeemed by the payment of the ^orhe» 
money he had lent upon them. This difpute terminated in *^^^^n 
blows, Chriftopher was defeated,* and many of his nobility t^" ^ 
lain. Rendered more bold by his vidory, Henry laid all the ^e^™^ 
idjacent country under contribution ; but hearing that Chri- ^* 

9ofher was marching towards him with a very powerful army, q-y^ kintris 
to which he could only oppofe a handful of men, he took fliip ^^^^^^ 
ind retired out of the kingdom. Chrtfiopher laid fiege to the 
(wo cities in difpute, took and razed them to the ground, after 
putting the garrifons to the fword. 

This tranfa£tion was foon followed by a quarrel with the 
princes of Holjiein, Chriftophir went over to South Jutland 
to receive an oath from the people, as the guardian of his 
nephews. The Holfteiners^ believing he had fome other de- 
iign, requefted, by ambafladors, that he would reftore their 
patrimony to his nephews, who were now of age to manage 
their own affairs, and put the dutchy of Shfwick into the hands 
of fome diftnterefted perfon, in truft for the lawfu> heir, l^his 
the king refufed, affirming that it was a fief of the crown, 
|ind was always conferred on one of the king's children. 
They pcrfifled, and he was obf^inate. At length matters War com" 
jcame to a crifis, and the fword mufl determine the contefl 5 mences b^r 
I for fuch is the method princes have ever chofcn to decide tnue$n 
poinis of equity. ChriJlo- 

: Before hoftilities commenced Chrt/fopher called a diet, P^^"" f'*' 
(and had the addrefs to procure a decree, whereby vfWs chil- ^^^^'^^^ 
l^rcn were excluded the fucceflion, and the crown fettled upon Y • 
jbisown tflue male, provided he left any behind him.' Im- 
linediately he equipped a fleet, and attacked Sander burg ^ the 
walls and fortifications of which he demolifhed. In the mean 
time Hac'quin^ king of Norway^ whether in alliance with the y^''*'.. 
[princes ot Holjlein^ or whether he fcized this opportunity of ^"'^ - 
! revenging fome injury received from Chriftopher^ we are ^'^^ 
I pot told; but he < invaded Holland with a great fleet, lai4 
I the country wafte, and committed tcrrjble ravages wherever 
ke went, leaving at laft his life in the country as an atonement 
i to the unhappy people, for the IpiTes they fuftained by his 
[cruelty. • 

All this while Chriftopher oppofed, in perfon, the Holftein-s 
trs^ joined by the Brandenburgers^ Lubeckers^ feveral fandal 
cities, and plenty Meldorp^ who was greatly inftrumental in 
forming this confederapy. The allies made their firfl attacl; 
on Slifwicky whence they carried off the bifhop and a number 
pf the nobility. The (hores of Schonen fwamied, and were 
fpminually harried y^ith (he l^ub^ and ^^w^^/pir^tes^ vfhercj^ 


ao4 , The Hijlory of Denmark. 

A. D. 3t laft, .they met with a fquadron of the king's {hips, anj 

1253. fought a bloody and drawn battle. Meldorp invaded Zealad\ 

he attacked the idand of Moruiy and there foVced the ftrong 

caftle Stega. Faffing from thence into Falftria^ he fubdued 

Nicoping. Nothing could be more vigorous and adive than 

the operations of the confederates during this campaign. Not 

was Chrijtopher idle ; but he was diftra<9ed amidft the variety 

of his enemies, and unable to oppofe himfelf to them alL 

Seafonably for him fome of the German princes offered thek 

mediation, and a peace was concluded on thefe terms, vi& 

That Chrtftopher (hould reftore to his nephews the dutcbyof 

Slefwck at a certain time appointed, and put them in immC' 

diate pofleffion of their patrimony in Denmark : That they 

ibouM fign the decree pafled at the diet of Neoburg, whereby 

they were excluded the fucceffion, refigning all their right to 

^^^' Chri/iopherznd his iffue : That C^r^<7/A^r Ihould indemnify 

'^54- them for their lofles by the war. Other articles were added, 

p to which both parties fubfcribed ; the duke of Pomeraniaii^ 

tluded^^' ^^ y<^^^^ princes being appointed guarantees of the perform* 

ance of the treaty, 
Jimuu CHRISTOPHER had fcarcc breathed after this war, b 
hevweln ^°^^ ^^ ^'^^ engaged in. another quarrel. The archbifiiopof 
Chriflo- ^^^^^ ^yii^g* Erland bilhop of Rofchild was chofen to fac* 
-phtr and c^ed him, without the king's confent or knowledge. Itwai 
the hijhop ^^^ cuftomary, that no biihop could be removed from hit 
ofhvif^- fee, or any way promoted, without fuch cleflion was ratiW 
den. by the king. They were likewife obliged to ferve in the wau, 

except the contrary was permitted through the fpecial grace 
of the fovereign. Erland^ however, fecure of the pope's pro- 
tcftion, not only difregarded thefe forms, but totally changed 
the ecclefiaflical laws and ftatutes of Schonen for new ones of 
his own. ChrUiopher was fo incenfed at this haughty coflt 
Jdetail0fA\x&y that^he fitted out a fleet againft him, entered tbcriver 
ibis quar- Siey, invefted Gafenburgy and demoliflied its fortifications, 
^'l L^^^ > Finding hisfchemes thwarted by Matilda^ the queenrdowager, 
thebijhop^s}^^ determined to fecure her intereft, by fettling 8mth Jutm. 
coTidu^. upon her; but this Erland prevented, by manying her tptbe 
duke of Swedelandj though (he was a^ually betrothed to tbt 
bifliop of Othon. 
A jy^ We hear no more of the quarrel between the king and Ac 
l^cc, archbifcop ; for Valdemar being now fet at liberty, by the in- 
terceflion of bis uncle John^ required all Chrijiopherh attcfl* 
tion to adjuft matters between them. This waseffeSed by 
refigning to him the dutchy of Slefwick^ which was done by 
the king's delivering him a ftandard in the ufual form, and 
receiving from him ^n path of allegiance, and the ceremonies 

^be Hiftoryof Denmark.' . 205 

This year ChriJI^pher fent ambaffadors to Rome^ t6 €on- ^ j}^ 
gratulate pope Alexander on his acceiEon to the papal digftity> 1256.* 
and to procure from him a confirmation of the fovereignty. 
of the Vandal country, granted to his father Valdemar by the 
emperor Frederick. His requeft was granted ; but the clergy, 
excited by Erland^ inftigatcd the common people, and they 
Irfufed to admit his authority. They went farther, and even 
committed outrages on the Danijh frontiers, feizing towns, 
dcmolifliing forts, and burning villages. The incenfed king 
g^e them battle, and defeated theni with great flaughter \ 
but was prevented from puniQiing them as they deferved, by 
the menaces of the archbi(hop o( Lunden and bifhop of Rof- 
(biUj who applied to the pope to retrad the grant he had 
lately made, in cafe the king refufed to make up matters with 
the infurgents. 

ERLjtND^ archbifliop of Lunden^ exerted more than a 
papal authority in Schonen, He abrogated laws, formed ila- 
tutes, and pafled decrees at pleafure, to the great difcontent 
of the king and people. Chrtftopher having fummoned a diet" 
of the people at Neohurgy Erland, as a mark of difrefpe£l;« 
convoked at the fame time a fynod of the clergy, t^ prevent 
the bilhops fr6m attending the king's fummons. He had even 
the prefumption to defire the king would adjourp the diet un- , 
til the bufinefs of the fynod was firft ended. Chrj/lopher re- 
ceived this meflTage with difdain ; and perfifting in his defign 
of holding a diet, Erland pafied a decree in deBance of his 
authority, which fet the clerical funftion above fovereignty 
itfelf, and (hewed how necefiary it was to clip the wings of 
that facerdotal pride and ambition, which rendered the minif- 
ters of Chriji the pefts of fociety, and the difiurbers of the 
public tranquillity. 
i CHRISTOPHER^ determining to humble this headftrong 
I" prelate, aflembled another diet at Vartenburgy at which were 
j^refeht the dukes of Pomeranian Rugen^ and other great vaf- 
i fals of the crown, ' prevented by the hard froft from attending 
the laft diet. Here he drew up an ,indi£l:ment againft Erland^ 
containing the following charges, ift. That without "^be qjjj.jj^ 
royal affent, or even knowledge, he had ufurped the arch- pher'/ " 
biftopric, and even prefumed to ordain other bifliops by ^\^charze 
own fole authority. 2d, That after fwearing allegiance to ^j^ib;^ 
himfelf and fon, he refufed to crown either, and interdided Erland,; 
thofe perfons who had performed the duty. 3d, That he had 
forbid the bifliops, under pain of excommunication, from 
ferving In the wars at the ting's exprefs command ; though, 
fcy the laws 6f the land, they were bound to do this as well 
as the laity. 4th, That by unfcafonably convoking a fynod, 



^06 ^^^ Hiftofy of t)enmark<' . 

in contempt of the royal authority, he had occ^fioned great 
lofe to the nation by procraftinating public bufinefs. 5th, Thai 
in this fynod he had pafled certain decrees, which he got rati- 
fied by the pope, diametrically oppoHte to the laws of the 
kingdom, and extremely deftrudive of the public weal. To 
thefe articles of indictment were added feveral other heads, 
Equally grievous. The haughty prelate was now forced to 
fioop and bend his proud neck to fovereignty. He petitioned 
the prince of Pomerania to intercede with the king^ but 
Chrtjiopher was deaf to all extenuations of crimes fo heinous. 
He infifted on the archbilhop's anfwering to every feparatc 
article of the charge : however, time was granted, and the 
prelate refpited until the next diet. 
^ jy^ ' Next year the quarrel was dropt, without any apparent 
izcj. reafon, juft as the diet had met; and foon after refumed, 
Upon accoiint of the archbiihop's excommunicating a certain 
lady of quality, 'without afligning juft reafon fpr fuch a con- 
dud. After folemnly citing Erland before his tribunal, the 
end of this difpute was depriving the archbifhopric of Lundtn 
of all the extraordinary privileges and immunities conferred 
on it by former kings of Denmark j arid reducing it to Ac 
Condition of other diocefes, over which it was raifed by the 
king's favour to Efchil^ the former bifhop. 

Nor was the prelate enough humbled with this inflignity. 
He had brought over to efpoufe his quarrel the bifbops of 
Othon^ Rofchildy and Ripen, with other dignified perfonages 
^f the church, as well as the duke of Pomerania. Relying 
tipon their povirerful intefeft, he grew more infolent, de- 
manded feveral privileges which former archbKhbps had neve? 
claimed, and was juft oh the brink of renewing the cootcff 
with redoubled warmth, when Valdemar of .Slefwick^s death 
for a time diverted the king's attentipn to other obje£ts. 
^i^irrel ^^ the letters patent, by which Valdemar held Slefwiek^ no 

heiiveen mention was made of his heirs : his brother Eric demanded 
Eric and it, however, as his right; and the king claimed it as his* 
Chriilo- faying, that the letters patent certainly intended it (hould fall 
phcr. back to the crown, by their making no pfovifion for the na- 
tural heirs. Thus a frefh war was kindled : Eric raifed forces j 
but the king marched againft him with ah army fo powerfuJt 
as forced him to reiinquifli the defence ofSlefwick, which fell 
an eafy prey to the king. Having placed garrifons in all the 
' Caftles, he returned to Denmark \ and calling gfn affenil)ly at 
Othdn, had his fon £V/V not only declared his fucceffor, but 
Crowned with all the ufual folernnities. This rather was the 
intention of Chrijlopher and the aflembly ; but the archbi(bop 
of Lunden not only refufed to perform the f<jleninity, but pro- 

The HiJioYy (^/Denmark. 107 

nlbited A\ th^ other bifhops of the kingdom, under pain of 
imcrdifibfi frotii fire and water, as well as from adminiftring ^^ ^* 
Ae facrathent. Upon this the diet was removed to Haff'nia^ iz^^* 
jrfiere Eric v^as crowned by the nobility, and confecrated by 
Ic hinds of a private clergyman, who defpifed the menaces ^^ /'^'^ 
ofth6 archbilhop, when it interfered with the duties which 2^ ^'^^*''^^* 
he owed to his king and country. 

This folemnity being over, the king informed the diet, 
that he had certain advice of the ill offices doing him at 
Rome by the archbiihop of Lundeny who had perfuaded the 
p6pe, that AbeFs children were excluded contrary to the ge- 
neral fenfe of the people, and by the king's fmgle authority : 
that Erland had entered into a written engagement with the 
bifhops and AbeFs children, that he would fupport them 
a^ainA all the king's force in maintaining their right to the 
qown : that he had reprefented the king as an enemy to the 
ecckfiaftical order, who h^d embraced all opportunities of 
oppreffing them : finally,/ that Erland had compelled the 
dowager Matilda to give her hand to the duke of Swedeland^ 
after me was betrothed to the bifhop of Othori. Upon maturely 
weighing all the particulars of this charge, it appeared to the 
diet, that, there was no fecurity for the fafety of the king's 
perfon and government, unlefs the archbifhop and fome other 
faccrdotal incendiaries were taken into cuftody. Accordingly 
the archbifliop, his archdeacon, and the bifliop of Ripen^ were 
feized; the bifhops of Othon and Rofchild efcaping upon the 
firft alarm. Immediately the whole kingdom was interdicted, 
agreeable to thfe refolutiori of the laft fynod, in cafe violence 
was offered to a bifliop. The king wrote to the pope, repre- -, ,. 
fenting to him the haughty conduft of the archbilhop, the in- ^^y^^^*^. 
juftice and abfurdity of a prelate's afliiming to himfelf a {hare ^^^ ^^^^ 
in the royal prerogative, and the hardfliip that he fiiould have 
it in his power to interdi£{ a whole people on account of his 
fefenttiledt to one man. 

These remonftrances were no fooner difpatched to Rome^ 
thin he ordered all prlefts within the kingdom, and perfons' 
exercifirtg the facerdotal function, to adminifter the commu- 
liion, under the penalty of lofing their tythes and ftipends. Iri 
the mean time' the bifliops of Rofchild znd Othon were bufied 
in levying forces, having engaged in their alliance the duke 
of PoMefania^ the princes of Hgljleiny and Jatmerci prince cf 
Rugen. Chrijiopher made preparations to weather this florm, 
by cptcring into a treaty with Hacquin king of Norway^ and 
Btrgcr duke of Swedeland^ married to the dowager Matilda, 
Matters were drawing faft to a crifis ; and open hoftilities 
muft havcfoon commenced, had not Chrijlopbcr'% death, and 


468 . Ths tlijiory of Dcnmlrfe* 

the [iru^cnt conduS of Margareiia^ his widow, put an enj 

tih P ^ to the warlike proceedings. With rcfped to the caufe of this 

^^^' ^^ pririte's death, there are varidus relations. Some think he 

tbaraaer. ^^^^ * natural but fuddeil death ; while others, with more 

probability, infinuate that he was murdered by the c6fitrivanc<i 

of Arnefaji^ bilhop of Arpiui^ and promoted to that fee by 

Erland againft the king's will. Others attribute the actiod 

to the fame bi(hop ; but render the means ftili more infamous^ 

affirming, that he poifoned thfe bread which he adiminiftcrd 

A. D, ^^ ^^ ^*"8 ^" perfofming the eucharift : a villainy fo cnor- 

i^rcQ.* i"^"^ ^s ^^ merit little credit, did not hiftdry produce otfaif 

inftances of the fanie nature. 

As to Chriftophery he was father a defetviftg than a happy 
prince. He found the treafuiy e^chaiifted on his acceffion^ 
the people violently incenfed againft the late king, yet a 
ilrong fa£)ion in favour of his children \ and it was his mif- 
fbrturte to involve himfelf further, though unavoidably, by 
entering into difputes with the clergy. At his death he left 
things in mUch the fame (ituation he found them ; the trea- 
fury exhaafted, and the hatlon fplit into two powerful fac« 


EHcVn, CHAlSTOPtiER's death made room for his cldeft (()ri 

Enc, As the young king had net yet attained at full age, his 

M 9^rct ^^^^^^ Margaret^ a lady of prudence, virtue, and piety, took 

re eiof ' ^^^^ ^^^ hands the reins of government. Her adminiftration 

Denmark, ^^g^n with troubles, occafioned by the pope's letters to far- 

merely prince of Rugen^ inviting him to attempt releafing ttel 

archbifhop of Lunden. Notwithftanding yarrherci wis a vaf- 

fa] of the crown, at the pope's defire he made a fuddeh def- 

cent on Zealand^ and was met there by a tumultuous arrays 

• which Margaret had raifed of a fudden to oppofe him. A 

battle enfued, and the Danes vf^xQ defeated, leaving ten thou- 

^arrels f*"^ n^ien dead on the field. The bifliop of Rofchild renewti 

between the interdidlion, and forbid Chriftian burial to thofe brave 

the crown fellows, who had lofl: their lives in the caufe of their young 

ttndibe king. All the country was laid wafie, and Jiajffhia taken 

f^^gyf and plundered. Not content with laying Zealand wzRt^ Jar- 

merci paffed to Bornhobity and inverting the ilrong came of 

Hammehufey took it, put the garrifon to the fword, and fiib- 

dued the whole iflandr 

In the mean time Margaret^ with her fon Erk^ tooklhcltcf 
in Fionia^ where, and in North Jutland.^ levies were making 
to renew the war with all poflible diligence. Happily for them 
the fierce Jannerci was flaiA while he was plundering a nio* 

' ' naftcfyj 

Tie Hi^ofy ^/Denmark; i50| 

mftefyt sin incenfed nun having ftabfaed him in the gfoin 
with a knife. Being rid of this enemy, Margaret fettled the 
diflFerence about his wife's fortune with the marquis of ^ran* 
' denburg^ and by this means gained him over to her interf ft« 

Towards the beginning of this year Eric was a (c* . -^ 
eond time trowned at a puMic diet, having npw attained the j^^q* 
age of eleven years. It was the opinion of the diet that the * 

archbifbop fhould be fet at liberty, and reinftated in his dio- 
cefe ; but this the refra£bry prelate refufed, infixing that all - 
fiiQuld be laid before the pope. However, being now at liber- 
ty, he went into Sweden^ from whence he fent the mod viru- 
lent letters againft the king to Rome* Margaret and Eric^ de- 
firous of a reconciliation with the church, replaced all the 
other bifliops in their refpe£):ive fees ; but, incenfed at Erkndy 
they were no lefs obftinate than the archbifhop. ' At the fame 
time pope Alexander dying, Urban IV. was elected in his room ; 
to gain favour with whom ambafiadors were fent by Eric to > 
congratulate his acceffion, and obviate all the accufations 
which probably would be laid againft him by his rebellious 

Before thefe difputes were terminated, Matilda^ widow 2^9i»gp^ Eric 
of Abel^ and wife to the duke of Swedeland^ inftigated her la^s claim 
fon Eric to claim the dutchy of Slefwicky to which he was the /« Slef* 
neareft heir, his brother ^a/zfirm^r dying without iflTue. The wick, 
inhabitants, were well difpofed towards him, the princes of 
Holftein .preferred him as a neighbour to the powerful king of 
Denmark^ and determined to fupport him \ other princes like- 
wife countenanced and lent him forces, which, with thofe he 
had raifed, compofed a confiderable army; King Eric and his 
mother Margaretta led an army againft him, Findan-Ivan ^* ^* 
cooimanding under them. A battle was fought near Lopeid i^'^t • 
with great fury, a prodigious number was flain on both fides, 
and the Holfteiners yftt^ beginning to fall back in diforder, Tbeking 
^vhen Findan-Ivan^ won by the enemy's gold, treacheroufly and queen 
drew ofF the Danijh troops, fuffered himfelf to be taken» and ^^f '^^ 
bi» king defeated and made prifoner with his mother. prifinefs. ^ 

After this Eric took poffeiEon of Slefwick without refift- 
ance, the king was fent prifoner to t/^^w, the queen and the 
bilhop of Sh/wicky who likewife fell into the enemy's hands, 
were cJofely confined at Hamburgh^ and the latter loaded 
with chains by order of Erlandy archbifliop of Lunden, Thb 
prelate, upon the news of Margaretta^ ^"tthzx^ returned from 
Siveden^ and now^rew infolent without controul. The found 
policy of Margaretta rendered her confinement (hort : (he 
wrought matters fo with Albert oi Brunf wick y that he intercfted 
Mud, Hist; Vol. XXXII. P him. 

a I a S^heHiftoryifflitnmzxk. 

Tbef are bimfelf in her releafe \ and ihe no fooner obtained her liber^ 

reUafed. than file diligently applied for the liing*s and the bifhop's.en* 

largement, which was, in a fliort tiaie, effi:£led by means of 

a high ranfom^. and z ppomife to matry hi» fifler to AWtrt of 

Brandtnburgy z» foon as flie arrived at a proper age. 

The king and Margaretia were now at liberty to revenge 

the injuries Erland had done them during .their confinement. 

^ They accordingly drew up a heaivy charge ^g^inft htro^ which 

they fent to pope Urban^ befeeching, that, to eftablifb fb«r 

tranquility of the kingdom, he would withdraw bun from the 

diocefeof Lundin. Urban granted their requeft, amd wrote a* 

fevere letter to that purpofe ta Erland; but his hoUnefs died 

before his orders took place; and iti order to ingratiate himfelf 

A. D. with Clment VI. the fuccseding pope,, the archbi&io{> pnv 

1265. pofed making a tomr to Rome. Soon after the pope feat bis 

legate to Denmark: he was graciouily received by king Erk^ 

promifed fair, but in a (hort time took part with the archbi* 

fhop ; fif mmon^ the king and queea^mother to appear before 

him ztSIi/wuky which they refuting, he. fet out fox Luboi^ 

and was followed thither by all the bifhops of Denmark. 

Thepopis From £«^r this fpiritoa] tyrant thundered out his impotent 

legatt ex^ anathemas, interdi£bng the king and queen-mother, together 

eommanr- ^j^j^ ^\ ^ nobility of the court ; after which he departed for 

cotes the ji^^^ attended by Erland. How this difpute with i?riij«/ 

i»g and ^^j ^^ pope's legate terminates), we know not, as we find 

"^^* no fanher mentioa made of it during £riVs reign (A). 

From this time Denmark enjoyal a profbond peace, until 

the year 1270. Eric was bufiea in framing new laws, giving 

, dtredions for the ttnSt execution of the old, replenifliiBg his 

exhaufted treafury, and recruiting by every {xyffible ffle»is 

A. D. the . aknoft wafted conflitution and Ipent ftrength of the 

1270. kingdom, when the Mufiovitesy Lithuanians^ and Semigal' 

Eric /urdf lians^ made a fudden irruption into the province of EJI$niay 

anarmf to or that part of Livonia fubjed to the crown of Denmark^ and 

Livonia, conquered by the predcccflbrs of £r/d. They had over-run 

^iftf^T^ great part cf the country, and reduced the inhabitants to 

rtans. ^^j Fontanus indeed obfervcs, of Zyww, in the year J 274, died 

that Eric^ in order to make up at Rugen^ and thus rid the king 
matters with the holy fee, made of his grcateil enemy : and 
fome conceffions to the arch- laftly, that after this the inter- 
bifhop, and paid him*beiides diflion wa^ taken oiF» thbpope. 
a fum of money : that the pre- being defirous of purfuing the 
late returning from the council war againft the Saracens (i). 
(1) Po»/. /. vii. f. 366, 


^he Hifi$ry of Denthartt; " wt 

jHcat ftdrefs, before Matthias with ^tX)/miJh fleet'cainetip. 
On his arrival he hnded his troops, fought and defeated the 
enemy ; but purfuing them with too great eagemefs, he was 
(lain in the chace; a loft that greatly damped the joy of the 

To this traiifa£lion fucceeded a war with Eric of SUfwicky War he- 
occafnoned by a vafriety of circumftances. The king could /w^«r /^i^ 
not digeft the manner in which that dutchy had been wrefted^''»g' ^ni 
from him, tho' in hSi it was but a poor equivalent for the ^*^' ^f 
cnmh of Dentnark. He had received complaints from the^^^^^**^ 
inhabitants of feveral grievances which ^nV refiifed to redreft; 
This prince had likewife refufed to appear before (he king's 
tribiinal when <^ited as a vaflai ; and a difpute arofe between 
them abo0t jfl/en and other neighbouring iflands in the Bal-* 
tic, Erie commenced hoftilities, by entering tht dutchy with 
a povrerful ^my, and feizing upon the fortre& ofTunder,' 
which he razed. Thence he marched to Handerfiaw and 
Flenjburg^- making himfelf matter of both cities, and indeed 
of almoft the whole dutchy, without .any confiderable oppo- 

ERIC and his wife dying about this time, the king took 
upon himfelf the guardian&ip of his three fons, Jbel^ Eric^ 
and ValdemaTy all minors, and confiituted John Witting go* 
vemor of SUfwick. This was caufe of frefli troubles ; for 
the princes oi Hol/fein^ coufins to the deceafed^r/V, believing . 
this charge ought by right to devolve upon them, refolved to 
claim it by force of arms. They croffed the Eyder with an 
army to attack the king, who, unwilling to enter upon an« 
other war, gave the government of the dutchy to the eldeft 
fon of Ericy and thus compromifed matters. 

This year Eric entered into an alliance with Magnus duke A. D- 
of Nicopingy who had fled from Sweden to crave his affiftance >277« 
vgm^ Valdemar. This prince had" ufurped the whole do--^^^^^'/^ 
minion, allowing nothing to the younger brother, Magnus Sweden, 
hflftened back with the Danijh reinforcement, and fooii com- 
pelled Valdethar to reft fatisfied with an equal fcaie of domi- 
nion : but a quarrel foon arofe between the king and Mag- 
nus, who having now gained his ends, refufed to pay the 
fum ftipulated for the affiftance afforded by Eric, Nay more, 
he began to commence hoftilities; and entered Schonen with 
an army, after he had publicly broke off the late treaty. Here 
\it laid waftc a great part of the country ; but was at length 
flopped in his cruel and ungrateful progrefs by Uffa^ whom* 
the king had fent to oppofe him. A battle enlued, Mag^ 
nus was repulfed^ and forced to cjuit the province with dif- 

P 2 grace. 

tit the Hijtory cf Dcnmirk^ 

gricc. Farther to revenue ^the infuU, Eric fent privately to 
yaldemar^ that if he would hold his crown of Denmarky he 
would reilore him to the full dominion of his kingdom. His 
' propofals were readily accepted, Valdemar raifed aa army, 

and was joined by a ftrong body of Danei ; but both were 
defeated, a prodigious number flain, and Valdemar ^ efcaping 
with difficulty out of the field, was forced ta feek«Oieiter in 
I>tnmarL This viflory was o{)tained by Charles Vff»^ gene*- 
ral to Magnus^ and one of the beil officers of Sweden, 

VALDEMAR made but a fliort ftay in Denmark ; for as 
foon as forces were raifed he entered G^/^A?;?//, 'plundering and 
laying wade all before him, as if he had been in an enemy's 
country; nor did Magnus oppofe him, as he intended to 
procure a peace by refigning this province to Valdemar. With 
this view he fent to Eric^ to acquaint him that he was ready 
to pay the promifed fubfidy, provided he withdrew his troops ; 
which Eric accepting, a peace was concluded. 
A. D. About the beginning of this year a war broke out be- 
1278. tween Denmark and Norway^ owing to Ericas withholding 
J rupture the portion oi Ingeburga^ daughter to Eric VI. and wife to 
het'ween Magnus king of Norway, Magnus arriving with a great fleet 
Denmark \^ Schonen^ landed his troops at Scanora^ where he was met 
emd Nor- ^j^^ defeated, by the Danijh army, leaving five thoufand of 
^*y* his men dead on the field of battle. Thus repulfed, he re- 
turned with all expedition to Norway^ and Eric hearing that 
the fons of the king of Sweden had ferved in the army of 
Magnus^ led his troops to wade Gothland^ which he plun- 
dered and laid defolate in revenge. Magnus of Sweden^ un« 
willing to break the peace, which had fo lately been con- 
cluded, propofed an interview with Ericy in order to adjuft 
the difference between them. They met on the frontiers of 
Gothland^ and Eric agreed to indetpnify the lofs which Swe^ 
den had fuflained from this invafion, by remitting half the 
fubfidy to be, paid b^ Magnus. On the other hand, the caf- 
iXq of Lodojia was pledged to him in fecurity of the pay- 
ment of the remaining moiety ; and thus the two princes 
weie again reconciled, to the great joy of both kingdoms. 
A. D. Having now fome little refpite fr6m foreign wars^ he 
12S0. held a diet at Neoburgh^ in order to redrefe fome grievances 
uf^f//i/7^of which the people loudly complained. Of thefe we know 
the ivar. nothing more than that a decree was pafled on this occafion, 
which formed a fupplemental part of the laws of Zealand. 
The controverfy between him and Valdemar of Sle/wick about 
AJfen^ and the other fmall iflands Ocuated round it in the 
jSj/r/V, wasiubmitted to the determination of a board of de- 

7'be Hificify of Dcnmztk^ 213 

cemvirs, chofen by both fides. Their verdift was, that Fal-- 
demar fliould bold^thefe iilands of the king, paying him 3 
certain yearly revenue in acknowledgment. 

Th£ year 1282 was ufhered in by a peftilential difear^*, 
by which great numbers of men and cattle were fwept ofF, . 
and this was preceded, fays our author, by a ftrange appear- 
ance in the air of two dragons fighting ; the infallible prog-> 
noftic of dreadful calamities. Terrible fires ^happened in 
different parts of the kingdom, ,«fpecially in Lundm^ which 
deftroyed a multitude of hotrfes and churches. To crown the jyeath and 
misfortunes of theyeai^ Margaretta^ the king's mother, died, cbaraaer 
deeply regretted by all degrees of people, arter having, with e^Marga- 
great difcretion and policy, governed the kingdom and her retta. 
ion for the ipace of twenty-three years. 

Th£ death of this excellent princefs raifed many enemies 
to Ericy whom her prudence had long reprefled. Valdemar 
duke of SUfwick laid claim to his patrimony, and determin- 
ing to fuppoft his demand by force, united himfelf to the earl 
0^ Holland, znd Stigoi, tribune of the £>i7n/^ knights, as we 
find him termed by our authors, though they do not ex- 
plain the nature of this office. The earl had infleed the ^ 
fame reafons for beginning a war ; and £r/r, to avoid one, 
ceded Sautb Jutland to Valdemar^ and Holland to the earl, re-, 
ferving only his own fovereignty : but this did not fatisfy 
them ; they flill perftfted in their refolution to break with the 
king, to which th^y were incited by Hacquin of Norway's 
refolution to renew the war which his father Magnus had 
dropt after his repulie in Schonen^ Hacquin began with ravag- ^ p 
ing the coafls of Denmark^ burning Scaga^ a town in Nortl> 1284,* 
Jutland^ and grievoufly diftreifing the inhabitants of the fea- - 
fhore. Valdemar at the fame time was raifing a florm in the 
South ; and refolving to fettle. a plan of operations with Hac* 
fwn, fet fail for Norioay, and was taken on his way by a 
I>anifo fquadron, and carried prifoner to Eljinore. Here he 
was detained, clofely confined for fome months, and then. fet 
at liberty, at the interceffion of fome. princes, on figning; 
an acknowledgment of his errors, and giving up all his pre- 
tenfions to ^en^ and the other places he had claimed a$ 
his right; This inftrument was guarantied by the princei 
who procured his liberty, all of whom took an oath, to de- 
clare againft him, fhould he infringe any fingle article of the 
deed he had now folemnly figned and fealed. 

£i^/C, having finilhed this tranfaftion, and patched up a A. D. 
peace with the king oi J^orway, comforted himfelf with the i286» 
plealing hope of enjoying the remainder of bis .life in tran- 

P 3 quility; 

f 14 The Hiftery of Denmark; 

Eric <war- fl^^'^^V ^ ^>w^hc wa$ treacheroufly murdered a few weeks af- 
^ V ' |cr by a baud of confpirators, the chief nobility of the king- 
dom, among whom was yanus earl of Holland, The cabal 
ppnfiiled of nine perfons, each of them baviRg tKeir parti- 
f vlar gmdge againft the king, whom they accufed of incon- 
tinence and avarice, the weak apcJogies of treachery and re- 
bellion. They perpetrated their defign as the king was 
leaking a progrefs to North Jutland to suiminifter juftice, an«{ 
fettle the ftate of the prt)viiice9 loading him with fiftf 
wounds., while he lay faft aQeep in his chamber at an inn in 
W^rhiprgy where he had ukea the diverfton of hunting for 
^ few days* The murderers were a long tinae unknown, and 
might perhaps have ever lain conceaM* had not their con* 
fciences rifen in judgment againft them. Imagining therq 
was no fec\irity for them in Denmark^ they fled to Nor- 
uf^9 by which means the whole plpt was difcoveped, and 
their names tfanfmitted with ignominy to the lateft po- 
^jr eha- Thus died Eric VII. in the flower of his age, and w«th 
h><?fr. the reputation of feveral virtues, which he obfcured by luft 
and avarice. He had debauched the wives and daughters of 
feveral of the nobility, which drew upon him their indigna- 
tion : and the large fums amaffed by his rapacioufnefs had 
filled his private coiFers, while the public tr^afury was empty^ 
^nd the people oppreflfed with poverty. Thefe vices were, 
l^oweveVt niiore than fufiiciently puniflied by the nature of hi$ 
death ; and it is probable, if he had lived longer, that expe- 
rience would have in fome meafure corre£ted them, on per-' 
€ciyi(ig how odious they were to his fuhjeSs. 

EHJC V\IL furnamed the P lOVS. 

^BrJcVUI. ERIC the PhuSy furnamed likewife Minvedy fMCceede4 
j^n^med to the crown of his father Eric Vll. A9 he was yet a mi- 
«the Pious. x\ox<, his mother and the fenate governed the kingdom ; and 
Tfaldemar oi SUfwick was appointed his guardian. The firft 
aft df fr/V's authority was holding a diet at Schelfifcore^ where 
lie propofed means to the diet for revenging his father's death, 
and puni(hing the murderers. The confpirators wanted not 
friends, who give them jnimediate intelligence of the refolu-^ 
tions of the aflembly : upon which they planned a fcheme for 
feizjing the king's perfon, and taking the fupreme government 
jhtp their own hands. Secret as this plot was kept, Faldemar 
feot fome iptimation of it ; and having firft removed the king 
out of ganger, he doubled the guards roiyid the city, and 
^^- ■•/- V ; • ; • • : - ' ' ^ •• '■ topk 

TbeHiftory <jf Denmark J a^^ 

tocSc fijch tlkStoA meafiifes as fruftrated the «on(piracf , and 
obliged the confpirators to flyjthe kiogdoon. 

Thols y^r likewife a ftraoge prodigy, at leaft tvbat ^inas 
thought (b in thofe dark ages, appeared in the heavens. Thiee 
iixnsy as cef^Hendexit as the meridian fun, ifvere feen altogether, 
each incitded by a beautiful irainbows but this is.a^^ixao- 
ffleoion.eafily iuzcountied for by ev^y perfon who;h^ madena* 
jtural pbilofophy his ftudy. it was then efieemed <the har- 
binger of dreadful calamities.. 

. A SECOND diet ^was held at Ntohurgx and rhene a refolu- ^ p. 
tiosi was takem that the care of making an inquiry into this 1287.' 
.^onid plot fhould be cpmtnitted to Otho of Brandenburg^ Inquiry ' 
Wkijlaw of Rugen, the princes of Haljiein^ and others of the /^/^ tke 
Diomfi) jnobilky^ to the nuniber of twenty- feven perfons. The (on/firacy, 
committee, upon eicamining proper evidence, cited James ^arl 
4>f Holland^ -Canute .MgaU Nicholas Halanffar^ .PMer Porfe^ 
Peter James^ Nicholas Canute^ Ago CacciuSy Ranno Jona^ and 
Oruid Benediif^ before them ; pronounced them guilty of par^* 
skide and high treafoo, the enemies of the king and icing- 
dom, outlawed by tiie laws of the land, and their eAaits The conj^i- 
confiscated to the cr^own. rotors are 

Tn£ confpixators, failing in .their laft attempt, had taken outla^wed. 
- refuge a fecond time in Norway^ where they fwore allegiance 
to thie king^ at that time on bad terms with Penmarky and 
leceived. from him the caftle of Congele^ ftrong by art and . 
nature. They likcwife refdlycd to fortify, in the ftrongeft 
«ianner« Huneljhrals, ff^arbwrg^ and other places belonging to 
..the earl of HaUandj againft all the attempts of the Danes \ 
and thus a war was again commenced between Denmark and TTar nxfitb 
Norway^ which comimied for the fpace of uine years, almoft Norway, 
to the utter ruin and deftrudion of both kingdoms. 

In the beginning of the year 1288, Hac^uin proclaimed A. D. 
war, upon the fame pretences which both he and his father i288, 
had ufed in the preceding contefts. . He likewife fkceened the ^ 
injuftice of his caufie under the fpccious pretext of revenging 
the injury done to fome of the firft nobility in Denmark^ by 
robbing them of their eftates, and banifhing them the king- 
dom, without form of trial, or proof of their guilt. How^ 
ever falfe this laft pretext might be, 'it gave a better afpe6l to 
hisGaufe, and made i\k^ Norwegians ^ as w^ell as neighbourina; 
nations^ lefs acquainted with the true (late of affairs, applaud his 
motives. Little was done for this year befides making vigorous 
preparation*; ; but in the fpringof the following year /I.icquin 
attacked Elfmore^ and burnt it down to the ground. He 
fleered thence xoHaffnia\ but not venturing to land,^ he 
turned his courfc to the iflands Amagria and Mona^ which he 

P 4 laid 

4i5 The Hiftory of Denmark. 

laid wafie. After this he fcnt Cmtorius Outer with a fqua- 
dron of light frigates to make an attempt on Scanora ; hut this 
officer returned with the fofs of two thirds of bis whole 
' fleet. 
Hetailof In the mean time the outlawed confpirators ravaged thcf 
the 'War. coafts ; and StigoU after deftroying Brafmgburg^ made a defccnt 
bn Samfoi^ whence he carried ofF fome plunder. He next 
went to Tormburg^ where king Eric ufed frequently to pafs a 
few days, and this place he burnt. From hence he fteersd 
to Falftria^ and, after laying dcfolatc the city Nicbpingy he in- 
Vefted the citadel. The Norwegians^ thinking to make an 
tafy prey of a fquadron of Danifl} (hips lying off the illand 
Ldaland^ were themfelves defeated with great lois. This 
obliged Siigot to raife the fiege, and retire with all poffible ex- 
pedition to Hacquifff then at Amagria. Here joining forcei, 
they failed to Strebecopia, burnt it, and then returned to Ner- 

£RICy willing to fpare innocent blood, fent axnbafladors 
with propofals of peace. He offered to pay to Hacquin his 
mother's portion, provided he would feparate himfelf from 
the parricides, 'and quit the defence of a caufe which a good 
prince ought to bluih for having ever engaged in : but liac' 
quin infifted upon terms for the confpirators, which broke off 
the negociatjon. The queen now brought on a trtzty of 
marriage between the king and Ingeburga, princeis of Sweden^ 
and daughter to \C\ti^ Magnus, As foon as the termdwere 
fettled the parties were betrothed ; and, to conne£l the fami- 
lies more firmly, ihe contra£led her daughter with the fon of 
Magnus^ both crowns foliciting for a difpenfation at Rome. 
A. D. In the fummer of this year Hacquin and the exiles again 
1^289. put to fea, plundered and burnt the towns of Alburg and 
Swenburg in Jutland and Fionia^ ravaged part of Laaland^ and 
then returned unmolefted to Norway. But the exiles re- 
mained with part of the fleet in the Baltic^ and fortified Sprea 
and Hielm^ from whence they propofed harrafling the coaflfi 
• of Denmark. Nor did Hacquin remain long in indolence* 
Next year he returned, and made an unfuccefsful attempt 
on Corfora. Again he turned his arms againft Holhen and 
Nicoping^ both which cities he burnt and deftroyed. All this 
while the exiles were ravaging Af/Vt//?/'flr^/, and other places 
of lefs confideration. Stigot^ their admiral, had by this time 
/ fo fortified Hielmy that it became a place of great ftrength^ 

%tiA a i2i(z retreat ; for though the ifland be fmall, yet its lofty 
and cra^^gy fuuatioa renders it extremely difficult Cif accefs. 
Stigot'i Until the year 1293 we find nothing material recorded, 
«4^/iv bcfides the rebuilding of Haffnia^ and the death of %«^ 

wboreligned his laft breath with a heroifm which would have 

rcfleded honour on a better life, and in the true Raman fpirit. 

.^flembling his friends round him, he fpoke to them in the 

. following manner : *' You fee, my friends, what our fitua* 

, " tion is. We have weathered every ftorm, by means of the 

" (harmony fubfifiing among us : we have fujcceeded in every 

*' encerprize from the fame caufe. Now that I am about to 

^' part with you for ever, obferve this my laft requeft, that 

" you ftiil preferve the fame unanimity, and God will profper 

<< your undertakings. Cbufe another leader in my room i 

. ^' obey him as you have done me ; and let not the ambition 

'' of any individual ruin the confederacy, and deftroy the 

" column of honour we have been fo long ere6)ing. In this 

" confifts your whole firength : like this bundle of twigs, 

" while you cleave together, you are incapable of being 

**^ broken ; apart, you are weak, and may be turned, twifted, 

, ^^ and fnapped at pieafure." With thefe words he yielded up 

tbeghofl, and delivered Eric from one of the moil formidable 

I of his enemies. 

r Towards the clofe of this year a congrefe was fettled, j^, j), 
idt which Eric and Hacquin were to prefide in perfon, for the 1293. 
Jttijufiing of their differences. The princes met j but parting 
without having come to any conclufion, Hacquin equipped a 
( Jeet, and recommenced hoftilities, making a fourth defcent 
^^^Denmark^ to the great lofs and terror of the inhabitants, 
^great numbers of whom were ruined by it. He took the 
,&ips of Denmark at fea ; fome he plundered, others he de- 
bftroyed; but in general he fent them into his ports, imme- 
i^ilatdy coniifcating both ihips and cargoes. 
; Not long /after Ranno jona^ another of the confpiralors, 
rWas taken in RofchiU^ and broke upon the wheel ; and the 
iarcfabiihop of Lunden was, by the king's order, thrown into 
fprifon, together with his archdeacon. This latter efcaping, 
went to Rome^ and, by his manner of relating things, incenfed 
his holinefs violently againft the king. 

Immediately on the back of this, a difpute arofe be- a. D. 
tweenjEr/V and Valdemar duke of Holflein^ concerning fome 1298, 
frontier towns, to which both claimed a right ; and the king 
of Nvnvay^ believing this a feafonable opportunity for purfuing 
ibe war, entered into a league with Valdemar^ and renev/ed 
his depredations on the Danijh coafts. 

While thefe tranfiwSlions were going forward, ttie bifliop7^? iififdp 
t^ l^unden t{fc&iT)g his cfcape from Se^urg-cajile, went fir ft ^Lunden 
to Burnhalm^ and trom thence to Rome^ where he added frtlhe/capes eta 
fuel to the fire already kindled by his archdeacon. In confe- tfprifim^ 
^uence the whole kingdom was Lid under a new interdiction, 



Eric and 



Tnatf . 
nvitb Lu- 


The Hifii^ cf Dcnmaik; 

and the* king nuilfted to pa^ th« arcfabifliop an iamienfeiuB 
of money, to indepmify his lofles and ^ik'grace. ErU lud 
fent bis brother Omftopher and his high chancelior toiS«», 
to plead his caufe : he now loft it, and blamed hb brother, » 
either corrupt or indolent, which produced a quarrd betwedi 
them. Whether the aiFront put upon the king ztCaOiAm 
was an eflFed of this-dtfference, or the caufe of it, weiuot 
not : hiftory only relates, that Chriftopbir*^ garrtfim in that i 
place fhut the gates upon Eric^ juft as he was preparing to 
enter the city. Highly incenfed at the indignity, iiistDqefly 
returned with a body of forces, in order to punifli the ofendeit 
-Chriftopbtr was penitent, or rather he.prb&fled his ignoranct^ 
of the whole ; but nothing lefs than the death of the pitncipt 
officers in the town could fatisfy the king. 

The next year was fpent ia a feries of akercadon widi fh 
pope's legate and the bifliop of Lunden. The legate had es 
tered wholly into the intereft of the latter, infifting «pq 
terms which the king determined not to grant. He b«i iiin 
wife refufed to pay the fine impofed on him by his holinefe 
and imagining the pope had been deceived by a falie rcpre 
fentation of the nature of the difpute, he remitted txk-Rsmti 
frefti appeal, and heavy complainu both of the legate afl 

In this fituation ftood things between his majefty and A 
pope, when ambafladors arrived at JUfcbUd from LtAe^t foB 
iciting Eric to take upon him the pnotedion of this commenxi 
city, greatly dtftrefled by a nuniber of furronodiog eneina^ 
who envied her rapid progress, and caft ao eye c? deGreiN 
the immenfe wealth (he had treafuced up. Eric accepted di 
propofais, and a treaty was agreed on, whereby he undertool 
to defend the Luheckers againft all their enemies, in confidi 
ration of a fubfidy of feven hundred and iiity marks- io fil«i 
yearly. On the other hand, they were to ad as vaffids <| 
the king ; and to have in pay a certain Mimber of forces, ani 
a fleet ready to be put in motion at the king's call. TbeZ/tf* 
beckers were in the mean time to trade freely to all the porti, 
of Denmark^ as long as this treaty remained in force, and the 
time was limited to the term of eleven year*. 

This year a hegociaiion for a peace between thecnww 
of Denmark and Norway was fet on foot by the duke rf 
Langlandf who offered his mediation, and renewed the very 
terms which had been propofed feme years before, when ibc 
convention was broke off on account of the confpirators» 
whom the king refufed to include. With this view he pa/Ted 
over to Norway^ and obtained from Hacquin a proniife that 
he would meet Eric at Co^fora^ each attended by a few nobi- 

The Hiftory rf Denmark. 219 

fity, «iicl fubrait their difFcrenccs to the aibitration of any fix - 
pcrfons to be chofen, three by each party, jprovided that Erics 
confcnt could be gained. Eric cafdy aflented to a propo- 
fA fo equitable, and immediately granted paOports to Hacquin 
and his retinue ; but he forbid the regicides to be of the nujn- ^ ^ 
her. After the commiffioners had taken a folemn oath ^^^^ J^^t 
'firayed by no private or national motives^ they entered ^"f^i^cuJen^^ 
bufuiefs ; but could come to n.o determination, and thus the Denmark 
congrefs broke up without the happy fruits expefied from it, tf^^/Nor- ' 

A DIFFERENCE vfhich arofc between the knights of the way. 
ftutmc order and the bilhop pf iJ^^, had aUioft involvrf 
' the king in a war with that warlike a{S)ciation 5 but the pope's 
•inteipofition prevented the efFufion of Chriftian blood *. 

In the year 1302, the king ftnt the moft plaintive and fup- 
|!icating letters to the pope, intreating, that be would be 
|leafed to remove his heavy cyrfe, under which the kingdom 
4ft^ laboured for fome years paft^ ahd receive himfelf and 
'fcljcils again into die bofom of the church, allowing thenj 
^Ihc tee ufe of the holy communion, from which they had fo 
ffcngbeen interdidled. His holinefs, moved with his fupplica^ ^hefopt 
^tjons, granted his requefti the interdiSion was taken off, and ^^y^^ 
Ac whole kingdom rung with joy, as if fome very fignal ad- 'fy."^^'^" 
vantage had been obtained. Such was the afcendency lhi3 / '*"' 
'fditic and truly artful fpiritual fovereignty had obtained oveJC 
She minds of princes, rather ignorant than devout, rathejc 
i^fcpcrftitious than pipus. 

^ This year the war between Norway, and Denmark waa 
Igain renewed. Nothing, indeed, could be more irregular 
'•than the operations of botli kingdoms ; for, although no peace 
4ad been concluded, hoftilities frequently ceafed for a year 
* or two, and then were refumtjd by making a defcent on each 
^ether's coafts* Hacquin fitted out a fleet, and ravaged the War re» 
DaniJh'iRsLnis ; while Eric laid fiege to Hunelflrah^ Warburg^ ne^ed 
and other place$ on the fea-coaft j yet at the fame time a'w/Vi^Nor- 
convention was fitting for fettling a peace. It would fccm way. 
thaty^www car! oi Hauand had attempted the relief of thefe 

Srrifons ; but failing in his attempt, he furrendered all North 
, alland to Hacquin^ and made it over to him in perpetuity,, 
putting himfelf and children under that monarch's protection j 
and making no other terms, than if it fliould, happen that 
Hacquin^ by any favourable turn, Ihould ever procure a con- 
firmation of this deed by Eric, he would then appoint his eld* 
cftfon governor of the country. 

• Pro his vid. Pontak. 1. vii. Miurs. I. iii. 


t20 y^fr^ Hiftory cf Denmark. 

NfXT year nothing remarkable happened, befides that tlie 
king publi(hed another proclamation^ citing the regicidrs t»' 
take their trial according to law. We have already feen thilJ 
they were convicted, and. their eftates confifcated : to wlua 
purpofe, then» this new proclamation was ifiiied, we knon 
not. Certain It is, that none of the confpirators obeyed t)M 
fummons, and we hear of no new fentence pailed upoa 
/ In the year 1306, Eric raifed an army ta fupport AV^dR 
Eric/* A- king of 5tt;^rf-f«, his brother-in-law, who was driven out « 
UxtsbK ^^ kingdom by his brothers. He led his troops to flie &otf 
^^her-inr ^^^^ ^^ ^^fi Goihlandy where he was met by the enemy. Bott 
&m^Bir- ^I'fnies encamped within fight for fome days ; and at length 
gci<(ii^^tiuce, for one year, was agreed to hy ErU and the Sm^ 
&iifedeBu pritices. Notwichilanding this, VaUemar duke of Finlm 
one of the brothers, pafled into Germany^ where, levying! 
body of horfi?, he made a defcent on Schonen^ ravaged tb 
country^ and carried off Cbri/lppherj king Ericas brother. / 
the fame time the Norwegians landed at Tormhurgy wh'« 
place they inveded ; but were repulfed, and driven to 

The following year Eric refolved to return the infult 

fcred by the duke of Finland, in contempt of the late ti 

For this purpofe he raifed an army, took with him Fald 

of Slefwick and his brother Eric^ marched into the enem] 

country, and came within fight of their army ; yet, after a 

mo battle enfuei. The rigour of the winter was fo gM 

that the foldiers could not handle their arms : hefides, th 

Swedes on his approach fent to demand equitable terms i 

peace, to which they declared they would chearfully fubfcribe 

Accordingly a ceflation of arras was agreed upon, and preB 

minaries to a peace fettled, which were never kept. It wsi 

the lame with refpedl: to a truce eftabliflied with Norvnay^ afid 

a very tedious negociation. In truth, Eric wanted vigour; h< 

was eafily amufed with any pretext that could keep him frod 

/ entering upon action ; his enemies perceived his weaknefs, arrf 

converted it to their own purpofes. 

A. TX Tw^o years after the preceding truce, Eric again renewei' 

*3!Q^ the war with Swedan, in behalf of his brother-in-law, who' 

^ihtmn^ had all this time lived an exile in Denmark^ His armycon- 

f^wot^tf fifted of fixty thoufand righting men, commanded by himfelf 

"^ ^' in perfon, and under him the chief nobility of the kingdom. 

Five thoufand horfe were levied in Germany^ and with thefc 

forces he entered JVefl Gothland^ and laid fiege to Nit^h- 

The enemy, commanded by d'jke Eric^ finding themfel»es 

ifcnable to raife the fiege by venturing a battle, were extremely 


Th^ Hi/iory ef Denmark, ^21 

Bigent and alert in difireffing the king, by cutting off all 

lis convoys and forage. For three months Eric lay before 

he city ; but carried on his operations flowly. His generals Eric nJk^ 

lid quarrelled, military duty was relaxed, and difgrace ^nA<idtegr4M 

jib approaching by large flrides ; when his majefty, defpair-i^/vMr/. 

1^ of fuccefs, broke up the fiege, and entered upon a nego- 

.iarion for a peace. Terms were fettled, the treaty figned^ 

lod the care of the Danijh army committed toChri/igpher^xhc, 

|^g*s brother, who was to condu£l it into Denmark. In his 

iarch he fet fire to a great number of villages, and commit* 

fd many other diforders, contrary to the truce the king had 

fft figned ; upon which the Swedes lodged a complaint 

f ainft him, and he was deprived of his commiifion, and 

Zewife of the dutchy of Halland^ which the king had be- 

fiwed on him a little before. Chrijiopher immediately quit- » .. 

|d the army, and joined himfelf to the kings enemies. ^^^^ J^^^^^ 

rw up a charge againft him, which he prefented to the ^^^^the^atn 
the ftates ; and Chrijiopher pux in hisanfwer fo clearly to^^y, ^^ 
lery article of the impeachment, that the diet intereftcd/^^Chrit 
pemfdves in his behalf, befeeched the king that he would topher. 
^ftore him to his favour, and at length procured not only 
|l leave to return, but the dutchy of Halland^ upon the fame 
Irms he had held it before. Before this diet broke up, Bir^ 
Wi fo long exiled from his own kingdom, was lilcewife reftored, 
M a peace concluded between him and his brothers. A remon* 
Jfance was lodged againft king Ericy by Hacquin king oi Nor^ 

f', complaining that he had often refufed the moft equita- 
terms of accommodation, and broke ofF all conventions 
when matters were on the point of being adjufted. But 
this Eric replied, that no terms could be equitable, or in- 
1 honourable to him, that included a pardon for the mur- 
irs of his predecefTor. However, what this remonftrance 
id not efFedi was brought about by a difference which 
JjNjfe between Hacquin^ and Eric duke of Swedeland. Hac- 
iNin demanded the reftitution of CwgeU JVarhurg^ and other 
|vrifons, committed in truft to duke Eric^ which he refufed, 
to being difappointed in his cxpedation of marrying the king 
rf A/irw^'s daughter. Eric oi Denmark thought this the^ ^ 
Wreft opportunity for eftablifliing a firm and folid peace be- ^^^^'yv 
Ween the courts of Demnark and Norway. Accordingly he '^/^j 
propofed a treaty of niarriage between Magnus^ fon to Birger^ bet-ween 
wngof Sweden^ and Ingeburga^ daughter to Hacquin, *T^^^the/on of 
terms were accepted, the marriage folemnized in Haffhia^ In- Birgerand 
tthuxga declared queen of Norway in failure of the male line, daughter 
*na a folid peace concluded between the three northern ^Hac- 
Wwers, all brought imp a ftfi6l union by tiiis alliance. quin. 



41 i ' ^eH^dfyefjyenmttki 

A. D. NEXt year Eric likewife fp^ntin giv?rfg ^esct t6t&^fi6^ 
1310' ^ursj and tranquility (o his owrt Uibj^s. Thil princes l^ 
Holjiein were reconciled to D^ertfrnttky and d certain conm* 
verfy with fFratifiau, prince of Rugen^ an^^ably tertiniifiaM 
Games and tonrnaments were fdfiituted sit R^dfifck^ to cM 
b^ate this happy event ; and Denmark^ perhaps, never fail 
more joyful o^qjjfion *. 
A. D. But this calm, fo neceliary and feafonable to a country ei^ 
1311. hauftcd with the continual f^orm of war, wa5 not of longdii 
ration. The duke of Mtckkftburg wai^ defirous of Mtmiiak 
bis nuptials at Rofiock ; but the citizens bad denied himil 
' mittance. Incenfed at this indignity^ he conftplained to hk 

who vwote a petemptory order to the citizens to do honoorl 
the duke ; bat they pcrfifting in therr refufal, he equipptf 
Roftock fleet, and failed to the coafts of Lovotr Sa^cor^. Towards i 
hefiezed by land the city wacs invefied by the duke of Mecklettburg^ Vik 
the king, jf^^f q{ BfandthbttTg^ and the neighbouring princes, whited 
king's fleet blocked it up on the fide of th^ gulph or nioirti 
the river IVarnow. Here be funk (hips, laid booms acrt 
and raifed works on each, to gtiar^ which he \th a fledd 
garrifon, and returned home ; but he was fcai*Ce gone wh 
<he befieged made a brilk fally, defiroyed all his works, U 
opened the paffage, building ftroiig towei^ oii each fidei 
prevent his entering with the faihe eafe a fecond tiiiie. H 
Mediately srfter this they entered into a league wkh fort 
neighbouring ftates, srnd, equipping a fleet, invaded Deiaiiiii 
burning Scmora^ Falperboe^ Amagria^ ElfiMfe^ ^d a&tii 
. ties, after carrying ofF a very rich BeK>ty. 

This was an infult which Eric thirfted to revenge. ' i 
\ failed dn-eflly for the JVafnow^ attacked the towers they h 

! buHt in his abfence, and, after feveral briflt attacks, which <^ 

1 tiriucd for three days, took them by aflault. He next drf 

! lines round the city, blocked it up by fea, and, through dM 

! of perfeverancc, reduced the inhabitants to fuch diftreS, tWJ 

they turned their refentment againft the fcnate, and broke ow 
into an open revolt. They affirmed, that their liberties W 
fold to the king, and that the mouth of the river was Hocttf 
up by their connivance. Enragfed at this notion, they flew litf 
maniacs round the ftreets, feized and put to death fcv^ral ffr 
nators of the firft diftin&ion, tortured others, arnd-ft Fengffi, 
tired with (laughter and barbarity, fent to king Erie td (Jcprc- 
cate his wrath, afk pardon for their rebellioii, and futf, in the 
moft fubmiflive terms, for peace. The king, whofe teflip^^ 
was prone to mercy, heard their fupplicaiions, and piticcltbctf 

* Vid. Attft eitat ibidi . ^ 



Ths fSJfmy iff Denmark. j a 3 

condition; ^tltth^ zSmts of bis kingdom re(]uiring hisimme^ 
idiate anendance, he referred the burgheris to the duke of 
MeckMurg^ to whom he recommended the mildeft treat<^ 
mokt. A cefiation of hoftftities was granted, and commif-' 
goners were appointed to fettle the preliminaries for a thorough 
j^lFConenr. The treatyr was to be negociated without the 
ilalls, but the diike determined otherwiie ; and being impla** 
liable againft the citizenfs, he found mesons to convey a party 
^ choice foldiers, itl two covered waggons, that were enters 
iing the city. Thefe feizcd upon- the gates, and fet them * 

i^a. The duk^ with his whole army ruOied in, and an ^he city 
l^ftinatc battle emfued in the market-place, when the dukcf^^^^^* 
Ej^ceivittg matters like to prove too hard for him, proclaimed 
phe king's orders, thatjullicefiiould be adminiftered by law, 
prithout having tecourfe to the fword ; and that his only mo- 
Jliye for feizing the city was to provide his trodps with better 
artcrs during a negotiation that might prove tedious. The 
lizens no fooner heard this declaration than they drew ofF, 
' permitted the duke to quarter his troops without molefta- 
. They were molded to pay, at three infiallments, the 
jiimof fourteen thoufand marks in filver, or that value in fcar-^ 
jbt dothy'an^ other merchandize, to indemnify the king, the 
fWcc, and the marquis of Brandenburg^ for the expences of 
Ihewar*. 1 

feTI^» year a confpiracy formed againft the king*s life was A. D. 
covered by Eric of Langlanis wife, after his death. She 1312. 
., d fouAd a letter in his cabinet, cont^ining^ an account of the Con/piracy 
plot and the n^mies of all the cdnfpirators^ and plainly ihew- difciroertd. 
feig that her hufband was deeply engaged in this villainous de- 
fip. Weighing her duty to the king againft the regard fhe 
jOught to prefcrve fof the memory of het husband, at length 
Redetermined to reveal the whole, which fee did, by pre- 
senting the letter to king Eric. The affair was kept a pro- 
Aund fecret, until the diet Was affembled, and then the king 
wdcred the paper, figned and fealed by the Confpirators, to be 
produced. As foon as the aftonifhment of the people ceafed, 
they requefted that the confpirators might be feized and pir* 
'*fced. Immediately Andrew Hoj^by and Nicholas Ranno 
yi'cre put in irons, and broke on the wheel, ending thofe lives 
n* oiifery which they had fpent in planning the moft vil- 
lainous and horrid defigns. All the others, among whom 
^ere fcveral bifhops, particularly thofe of Rofchildy Othan,^ 
Wihurg^ and SUfijoick^ were pardoned, on account of Ertc*s 
gircat regard for their facred fundbn, which it would 

* Vid.PowTAN, 1. vH. 
5 f^cm 

t2^ Tk Bifi&ry of Denmark. 

ftcm was a prote^k>n for treafon.and the moft nthiym 
cdrries ; only 9 new oath of allegiance was re<iuired of tbeoi^ 
which they weje at liberty to break as they had done the for. 
meri fince they were tied down by no pledges or other fecti- 
rity for their good conduct **. 

Tow A,Rps the clofe of this year a new congrefs was fettled, 
at which Errcy Hacquiriy BirgeVy duke Chri/iophery Valtlmar 
and Ericy duke^s of Swedelan(ly with feveral other priiu^, 
< prefided in perfon. Here it was propofed to efiabliih the 
late peace, concluded between thefe princes, upon a more 
folid bafis, as difficulties occurred which had then been pa&d 
over unabferved, The congrefs fat for near a twelvemonth, 
9.nd at laft all particulars were adjufted to the fatisfa&ion(^ 
every individual. 
A jy This year an infurreflion appeared in North Jutlandy ex- 
J • ' cited by fome of the nobility, who indigated the peof^- 
Jkinfur- againft the government, and made them refufe payment 
te^on in. ^he taxes impofed by the king and diet. They foon broke c 
Jutland, into a£)s of violence, murdering the fie ward of the houfliol 
whom the king had fent to appeafe them. UponthiatI 
king put the army in niotion, and was marching againft tbe%| 
when the infurgents thought it advifeable to fubmit, ani 
throw themfclves upon his clemency. Eric pardoned themvi 
but impofed a new tax, by way of fine, which was continuei 
for a long time under the name of Galdecorn ; and to awo^ 
them for the future, be erected four ftrong caftles in the pro^ 
vince, in which he placed numerous garrifons : but the no*^ 
bility did not efcape with the fame favour. Four were pro-f 
fcribed and banilhed, and Pe^r Porftm pardoned, on condii 
tion that he took an oath at the high altar, to break off. all 
correfpendence with bis late friends, the enemies of hiscoun^ 
try, and to remove with bis whole hoqihold into Zealm^ 
within the year. \ 

^^ P^ About the beginning of this year a difpute arofe betweciM 
' I J 14. ^r/Vand the maiquis of Brandenburg^ 2\Ki\xi Stralfunde^ th« 
Pfjputde- irihabitants of which had made feveral incurfions into theter^: 
Hueen ritoriesof the prince of Rugen, the king's vafTal. Thefe the 
Senniark prince retaliated, and was Supported by the king, while the 
etfd Bran^ city oC Stralfunde was protected by the marquis. Thing* 
denburg. vvere likely to terminate in an open rupture between the two 
courts, when the marquis, apprehenfive of the confequencfs, 
made overtures which were accepted. The city 6f Straljundt 
was forced to break off the alliance with Brandenburg : it was 
obliged, to relinquifii the forts built, and encroachments made 

^ Meurs. 1. iii. 


ttt Afc ierrif&tf, of Rugen ; to- acknowledge the fovefctgnty 
(^ pdnct f^tfi/heu ; to rcAotc aH the prifoners, and to in- 
iertflify hite in the expence . of the war.. But the next year 
<he ciiiteni of Stral/und^ broke the firft article of this treafy, 
by joining themfelves to the marquis ; and foon after they 
fliewed ho\M little they regarded ill the others, by marching irt 
an hoftile manner into the territory of Rugen^ plundering and 
Ifeftroying the country as they went. fVwfiaiU) difp^tched 
tii account Of this tranft<ftion to Eric^ who, without delay, 
fent OlanSy a noUevftBtt of difttfidion, to the marquis of Braft^, 
Anturg^ wtrh remonftradces againft his condud, and infifting 
ttpon the executioii of the (ate treaty; but OIohs returned 
with nothing more fattsfiidkory than that the matqub had riot at- 
tempted any thing againft the crown of Denmark, tyiti/Mu 
imi m the ihean time preffing ^tit a reinforcement, that he 
Ifoighf be able to take the field againft the enemy, whkh! the 
^Vm% fent with aH the expedition poffible ; bat before the 
\Sktntt anivtd a peace was fettled upon much the fame terms 
tii the former. 

• i?J?/(C? ftudicd peaec, and was laying the foandatlort of t 
iteftfor pafllng the reft of his Hfc in tranquility, when Efger 
Julius^ archbifliop of Lnnden^ dlfturbed his fepofe. What 
Hfce moeives for this quarrel were, we arc not informed^ . The 
^difirence was referred to the pope, and decided, (Contrary to 
^the efuat euflom, againft the prejate, who wa» mulded to pay 
4he king fiire thoufand marks of filver in the fpace of ten years, 
land rigoroufly enjoined by his holtne(s, to attempt nothing 
Either is hts diocefe or eifewhere^ contrary to the will of h» 

AoAiM the war broke out bctjween Dinmark and Branden" j/^^ ^^. 
hrg^ Chrijlophtty the king's brother, and feveral of the no- t^een 
WBfy, adhcrmg to the latter. The allies fitted out a fleet at Denmark 
ttratjundej ai%d mrade a defcent on Fiania^ where they took and Braa« 
ifcyafairft the axy Swenburgy zvAAtftdXt^Fkppy governor of denburg. 
'Ac Mand, wha had- coWt&eA a tumultuary army to oppofe 
them. ErUy on the firft notice, fent Harmany earl of Glicay 
I'with feven thoufand men^ to lay fiege to Stralfundey and rcM>a 
jtfter reinforced him with a ftrong body of Swedes ^ which 
^trgerhzS fcnt to his affiftarrce. On his arrival in Germany^ 
tiarman wa< joined by a great number of princes and noble* 
men, vaffals to the crown of Denmark. The duke o( Saxt 
Lawehburg had, in particular, exerted himfelf to diffinguifti 
his Iciyaky, in which be was unfortunate ^ for encamping 
with bis own troops near StraUundey before the Danes arrived, 
he ^as attacked by a body of'^the enemy, who fallied out of 
the town, defeated, and taken prifoner. In a few days the 

Mod. HisY. Vol. XXXII. Q. reft 

2 z6 The Hiftcry of Denmark. 

reft of tbe army cailie up and invefied the town. The fiegi 
was carried on with very little progrefs for feveral weeks, and 
finding that the king did not arrive as was expeSed with an 
army, Harmqn and the princes agreed to break up their camp. 
Eric^ indeed, averfe to war, refolved, if it could be effededjta 
accommodate matters. This difpofition in him indued t 
number of the neighbouring German princes to offer their m^ 
diation. Accordingly a peace was concluded, and all tbe 
places which' the marquis of Brandenburg and bis allies bad 
jeized, were reftored. Tbe marquis was tied down to a ftrifi 
obfervance of the articles of the preceding treaty, and tooku 
oath not only to abftain from all attempts againft the diftriSoC 
Rugen^ but to repel, with his whole ppwer, any attempts that 
ihould be ipade by any other prince whatfoever« In a woid, 
Eric acquitted himfelf fo well in this negociation, that not- 
withftanding the advantages the enemy gained in tbe war, 
through his ihadivity, he had a peace upoB th^ fame ternosbe 
might have expeded from the mofl vigorous and fuccefsM 
operations in the field. We have in our own time feen id 
lar inftances ; and perhaps the trtacieis of Utrecht and Mx-k 
Chapelle will be tranfmitted to pofterity as proofs of the fupe* 
rior utility of minifterial to military talents. 

CHRISTOPHER, the king's brother, couW not howw 

obtain the terms he expe(3:ed \ and for that reafon went <mt 

A. D. to Sweden, where be lived in exile until the year 1318. Wba 

1318. the king was taken ill with that diforder which put an eai 

Eric dies, to his life, he exprefled his defire of being reconciled to hiO| 
and accordingly granted him a it^e pardon, without fiipulatiq 
any terms ; foon after which he died, appointing Cbrifioph 
his fucceflbr, and earneftly recommending ic to thenobilii 
round him to fupport his claim (A) *. 

„. , ^ ERIC is greatly extolled for. his piety, found policy, 

juftice. None of the wars in which he was engaged wcrcll 
important as to gain him the reputation of a great warrior! 
yet notwithAanding his paci&c difpofition, he feemed by M 

» Cramtz. p. 309. 

(A) Pontanus and Jiieurfius this opinion of him. But we 

both alledge, that he exhorted are inclined to believe from 

them not to eJed his brother the free pardon he granted hiffli 

king, knowing well how unfit, and upon the authority of Clr^i^- 

he was to govern a great king- zius^ that he aftually n»ncd 

dom ; and indeed Ciniftopber^s him to the fucceffion (i). 
conduft would leem to juftify 

(i) Pofttaf!, /, vii. Aieurf, /. ii, 



'Hi Hifidty of Denmark; 127 

JQEieaos wanting in valour and niilitary talents. Thi^ at leaft 
we may affirm, that whatever his.fuccefs was in the field, he 
always. came off with honour and advantage in every peace 
Which he made. He left behind him no children, though he 
bad fourteen by his queen Ingeburga^ This was the greater ^ 
onisfortune, as na part of £r/Vs charadler was more remarka* 
Ue thto his paternal affedlion ^. 

^ Pontan; & MkuRs. ibid. 


tontaimn^ the Reigns i/ Chriftophier IL Eric IX. and 
VaWemar of Slefwick ; the Expulfion and ReJH- 
- tuiion ^/ Chriftc^her, Csfr. to the Tear 1337; 

C H R I S T O P H,£ R U. ^ 

J^RIC was dead before Chriftnpher received advice oif his Chriilo- 

^ pardon. Immediately he haftened to Denmark^ and find- pfaei- II. 

ing the throne vacant, he fuppltcated in themoft abje£l man- 
hner, not only the nobility and clergy, but the very dregs and 
: i^fufe of the people, for their intereft at the enfuing eledion. 

He diftributed prefents, and difperfed promifes among them 
:|iirith great liberality ; in a word, he was the firft king o£ DeH- 
tmartwe find mentioned in hiftory, who obtained his crown 
|by bribery, corruption, and arts unworthy of a prince. His . ^ 
^liaif-brother ydm earl of IVagria^ canvaffed for votes in much * 

>Ae fame mannei*, but with lefs fucceis ; for though the prin- qjJj^aq^ 

cipal perfons in the kingdom were difpofed to eleS Eric duke j^^^ ^^3 

^f Slifwi^k^ in order to unite that dutchy to the crown, yet ^^-^^ ^y^ 
ic vulgar, and Chriflophtr's party, prevailed. He was ^c- crown Ify 
^Gordingiy feated- upon the throne, after a warmly contefted corruptiw* 
pidedion, towards the beginning of the year 2320, about two 
: years after the late king^s deceafe. It would feem that a par- 
ticular oath was adminiftered to him, and different in fome 
itfpefl to that taken by his predeceiTors ; for we find it recited 
at large by Pontanusy containing in fubftance, 
^ That the bifhops, clergy^ and religious focieties, of all The oat% 

* wders, fliould be preferred in the full pofleffion of all their adrntnif- 

* liberties and immunities : that the facerdotal fundion tered to 

* Ihould be beftowed or permitted, to none but perfons duly^hrifto- 
*. ordained according to the canorts of the church : that fo- phcr. 

* teigners, and thofe who were unacquainted with the verna* 

* cular language, (hould be excluded from 9II preferments m 

CL2 the 

%ii ^h$ Hiji^ry $f Denmark/ 

the church : that a clergyman fiiould, oa no aceeiifi^ 
betrimi in a eivU court, and fiibje£l only to the iaws of the 
fpiritual court: that the clergy pay no taxes: that dk)- 
naileries fliouM be under. no obitgatton to maintain borfei 
and dogs for the king's yfe : that Knights and nobleme» 
have the privilegeof ac<^ltting; their vai&Is accufedaiidcmi* 
vided of crimes, on their paying a fine not exCMdiog.foor 
marks : that batons be not obliged to ferve in the wars be* 
yond the frontiers of the kingdom : that (hould they be 
taken prifcners, the king (hall redeem them within the 
fpace of one year, otherwife they {hall be exempted from 
ferving a fecond time \ nor (hall it derogate from their ho- 
nour, that they refufe their fervlce : that the king ihallnei* 
ther proclaim war, nor conclude peace, without the ewi* 
fe(>t of ihe biSiopa and nobility : that no Qermam^ or other 
foreigner, hoU the govern tneot or comn^md of ai^caftlct 
citadel, city, town, or other fortrefs within the kingdom; 
nor occ«»py any po(^ o^ places of anjr kind or denomini- 
tion : that all the garri(bns of t^orth yutland^ except the 
fortre&6 of QMn^ny ScahtMnrg^ «i^ Ripmw be <5ein(^ 
lifted % that a free pardoa- ffaall be granted to aU outlaws,! 
and their hetra: that no peftfon be pctfeoiited on accouotci 
his attachment to the. lat^ king \ ortthe coflitraryy ^ kii)| 
&al}, at his own cgA> fupporft ail c^ufes for the defea(hmca^ 
r4ed Qn upon that account : that the kii»g fxeit hm utmel 
endeavQu«s to. quiet aad he^ up all diSerenccs and parties 
aoipng bii (ubjeSs : that menchants be ftoe of aH duties 
and entriea in the pom of the kingdoon : that oo. confiraioti 
€xr auihoritys not permitted by law, be l-aid upoD the pes«H 
fanxsby the icing's qficers : d^atan smnual diet be held at 
Necburg : that all the laws paiied by- FaUgfn^ be prefenelf 
in their full fbroe^ aed thdx defe^ fiipplied onljr. meitk ajN 
probation of. the diet : that i»o.peiri<M;i be &immooe4 to tto 
Ising-s court, before Ui qaiife has fit ft pafledi ^j:ough an iJK 
ierikMf court : that no peribn be CGmdemned to death, w 
have bis goods confifcated, but by public fe^itence. and tnat: 
that all taxes impoCcd itnce the deitth of Valismar^ andpar*^ 
ticiklagly the flog-pefming he aboiifiied : that alt caufe ke 
firft tried in the court of the particular diocefb where iha 
parties Eefde^ next in the prqyincial court* afterwaods in the 
king's, council, and laft^., before the diet, pecwided fiicb 
appeaihs be requifite, and tike patties not oUigeiA to coaieout 
of (heir own provinces: that all places beloogiog to the 
crown., pledged to the nobility» ihaU refynin. in t^k \aakj 
unlefs. redeemed at the ftated price : that the king^ fammdn 
no fubjed t^ appear at any couft bejsond the U|paks af hi? 

The Hijlory of Denmark* 229 

' own provinoe : that he be liable to all the late king's 
^ ^thts : that he make not the leaft alteration in any of the 
* ]a«vs or copftitutjons of the kingdom/ To thefe articles fe- 
veral others of le(s conitderation were annexed, all of which 
the king iblemnly figned and fealed, a great number of the 
chief clergy and nobility fttbfcribing to it as witneiFes *. 

From this oath, or rather infirument, to which the king 
affented by oath, it appears how limited the regal authority 
was at this eai ly period ; yet it is probabte, from many cir- 
cumftances, that formerly the prerogative was more extend- 
ed. The diet had fcruples about the cnarafler of Chri/iopher; 
and this induced the people to lay him under reftridions for- 
merly unknown ; and perhaps his own method of applying 
For their votes had given them the Mi intimation of this fit 
opportunity of ftretching the privilege of the fubjedl. It is 
probable too tl>at the clergy had a confiderable (hare in Chri'' 
\Jlopher''s eledion, as we fee their immunities fecured in a very 
I ^rticular manner. 

L Immediately the fortreffes in North Jutland were demo- 
> liihed, agreeaUe to the oath, the people pretending that they 
ferved as ftrong holds for the fadious, though in fa£^ they 
'Jooked upon them as the means whereby the crown retrenched 
^their own licentious fpirit. 

\ This year the Swedes rebelled againft Magnus^ fon to Bir* A. D. 
^fifi and drove the latter out of the kingdom, together with 132©. 
^his queen Margaret, The old monarch fought proteiSlion 
Kh Denmark^ and was received indeed by Chriftopber^ tho' with 
*le6 warmth ^nd cordiality than he had formerly been by ErU^ 
'who had a foul capable of feeling the misfortunes of others. 
? In the year 132Z the king called a diet, in order to fettle 
(the fucceffion, as his health was extremely infirm. He had 
Mntcreft enough to have the crown fettled in this his own 
»/ami]y, and his fon Eric declared prefumptive heir, the part- ' 
H)er of his authority, and aflbciate In the throne; at the fame 
[ time he had him crowned by the biftop of Lunden* 
f * . 

I CH R I SrO P HE R 11 and E R IC IX. 

I It was not before the year 1 3Z3, that the public tranquility Eric IX. 
I legtn to be diQurbed, by the king's negleA of the folemn en-eieaedau 
I gagement he had entered into at his accedion. His brother's afociati in 
, debts he re&ifed to pay ; at leaft he prevaricated in fuch a the thr»ne> 
manner, that many of the creditors became bankrupt, on 
account of the large fums due to them from the crown, 
ttbici^ obliged tbem to (top payment. BeAde«, he demanded 

I » Pont AW. I. vii, Msirns. 1. iv. 

0,3 Ja^g« 

2^o The Hijlory ^Denmark. 

Chrifio- large fums from the clergy, and took back by violence ikf 

pher/rf/^ places he had given jn fecurity for the payment of crowi^ 

pajfesupon dtbts. This inflamed the nobility, who immediately flew to 

his corona^ arms, and among the firft Nicholas OlajuSf formerly tribuucof! 

gjon oath, the knights, wd Canute PorJmSy lately created duke of Ifc/- 

land. To thefe the archbi(nop of* Lunden\d\Ti^ii his intercft, 

The people together with that pf feveral of the firft nobility in Schmn^ 

u'volt, with all their friends and vajTals, Barnevifty a duke and man 

pf diftinfiHon in the Vandal country, aflfembled a number rf 

adherents ; in a word, a powerful confederacy was forme^ 

againft Chrjiiopber* 

BJRNEVIN firfl entered upon hoftilities, by majdcga 

flefccnt on Schonen, and paffing from thence into Zealani^ 

where he deftroyed all before him by fire ^nd fword. The 

king raifed a force to oppofe ' him with all expedition ; bu 

Barnevin had made himfelf m after of the flrong citadel o 

llameren near Bomholniy which be garrifoned, and thenrc: 

treated in good order, befgre , the king ^ould come up. I 

was not polfibl(t for Chrijlopher to purfue him, for the winia 

came on with fo rigorous a frofl, that the Baltic was froM 

over for forty days, and paflTengers walked from Denma 

upon the ice to the neighbouring kingdoms, as if it had bee 

iBrm land. He yi^^s eager, however, to regain the citadel ( 

Itiameren^ and prdered Peter Weiidell to inveft it with a bod 

of troops, fyendell oh^ytA bis mailer's orders, carrying 

his operations with fo much vigour, that the garrifon fiU 

rendered prifoners of war in the ^ace of a few days, in fpil 

of all the endeavours of the arcbbifhop of Limden^ whole 

no meafiires untried for its defence *. 

A. D. ' This year the king married his daughter, with a portifl 

13.24- of twelve thoufandmaiks in filver, to Lewis Brandenburgtb 

Lewis 0/ 'q{ Lewis of Bavarioy and gave in fecurity for the payment( 

Branden- \}^^ money, certain crovyn lands in Livonia. By this rocaJ 

^urg ;w^r- he Jjoped to ftrengthen bis intereft, and gain allies whomig) 

r^^h r*" 1^^ ufefui in fupporting him againft his refradlory valTals. 

^dduphter. ^^^ fipHowipg year dic^.the dgkq of Stejwic^^ Ifavingbe 

^ ■■* hind a young fdn called Valdemar, The king believing thi 

Duke of the guardiapfliip of this minpr belonged by right to biro, en 

Slefwick ^^^^^ thedutchy with an army, and feized upon all thcrf 

dies. " ' t»^?> towns, and fortreflis, except Gottorp^ which he iu- 

" ; y^fted : Qerbard earl of Randjhurg^ uncle t6 the young dute 

afTuming his right to- the guardianfhip, was provoked i 

Chriflopber^s condu<S. He accordingly r'aifed a body 01 

forces in Holjieiny gave battle to the king before G(itt(i^\ <!*! 

* Aifft. citat, ibid. 

The Hijlory ij/" Denmark. 231 

feated him, and nlifed the fiege. To this was added frefli 
troubles, owing to the death ^ Witijhw^ prince of Rugin, 
who held this tehritory and Stralfimde as fiefs of the crown of 
Denmark. He was however no fooner dead, than the coun- 
try was over-run by the neighbouring Vandal princes, whom 
tiie king determined to expel by force. In order to fupport 
the expences of fuch a war, he levied a tax upon his fubje£b, 
by renewing the f log-penning^ contrary to his oath. Next he 
nifed an army, fubdued the furrounding country, then in- 
vaded the ifland, foon reduced it, and. puniflied thofe who 
had been inftrumental in inyjting the Vandal princes. 

Th£ renewal oi phg-penning had a bad eStOt : it made the The flog' 
dlfcontent more general; when a tax equally oppreilive, hut pemdng 
Jevicd in a different manner, and under any other name, woMXdtaxreniW" 
have been tolerated. To this was added another piece of ^^« 
i mifcondiid, which enraged the clergy, the mofl dangerous 
enemies tcsi a prince, by reafon of their influence ,with the 
I people. Some alterations which he made in Cnarderopi mo« 
naftery in Zealand^ without confulting the bifbops, was con- 
^ ftrued into a contempt of the whole order : the biihops began 
^ to fulminate, axid the inferior clergy to preach againft the go- 
vernment. Chriftopher was accufcd of perjury, of a dcfign to 
^ (extirpate thie facred function, and trample on the neck of 
1 liberty. The biftops cried out, that their privileges were 
^ Jgrofly infiinged ; the nobles exclaimed, that he aimed at ab- 
^ folate power, the ruin of the nobility, by refufing-to pay his 
^ brother's debts, and recovermg by force the pledges they held 
I infecurity of payment. The people murmured at the weight 
of taxes, and efpocially at plog-penningy the mpfl grievous of 
. all taxes, becaufe it fell wholly on the poor labourer. Rebel- 
^ lion talked aloud, difcontent appeared in every quarter, and 
^ foon a confederacy was formed to depofe Chrijiopher and his 
fon Eric. The duke of Halland, Canute Porfius^ the arch- 
blDbop of Lunden^ Laurence Jonea^ Lewis Everjlein^ and a 
great number of nobility, puolifhed a proclamation, inviting 
> all the friends of liberty to throw off the yoke, and oppofc 
L. the rapid progrefe of tyranny and oppreflion. They declared 
1 the government of Chrijiopher was no longer tolerable ; they 
; therefore retblved to withdraw their allegiance, and yfe their 
], utmofl: endeavours to depofe him. 

^ CHRISTOPHER lefided in the cattle of Wartemburg when 
i this proclamation appeared : he faw Jutland^ Schonen^ Zea* 
J! W, and Fionia^ united againft him 5 but, inftead of apply^ 
' rog lenitives, he ufed force, and fent his. {on:Eric againft th^ 
I rebels, propofing to follow him dire<9ily with a flrong rein* 
[ forcemeat. I^e advifed him indeed to terminate matters, if 
I Q.+ poffiblc, , 

23a Jlfs Hiftofy^lhtitnaTk. i 

poffible, in an amicable mamier, rather than basardabatdsi | 

Dut it. was now too late to heal, the womid, which noibiiig i 

jfsfs {han extirpation could cure. ^rU marched XQ^nniAwg^ 

and was there furrounded by the malconten($, who befisgoci 

him on every fide, and in lefs than a Wjtek ni^de him andhi% 

^ ChrJllo- whole army prifoners. The news of this defeat (bon reacbr: 

pher ahdi' ing Chrtftopher : he found himfeif unequal in ftreogtb to fait 

cates the fubjeds, feized on his treaftire, and fled with it to Germanf^ 

pro'wn, accompanied by his {om Viikkmar and Otbp. Here he hi^ 

• bis circumftances before the Vandal princes, and his foii>iii« ' 

law l,ewis Birandsnburg^ craving their affiftance in t^orij^ 

hi^^P his throne. 

In the mean time the malcontent^, perceiving that tht 
crowniwas abdicated, entered into a ftriiSl league with VaU§» 
rnar duke of Slejwick, then twelve years of age \ whereby ^uff 
engaged to ft^nd by each other, and oppo% aU Chrifi9pM% 
attempts to recover his throoct and the guardi^fbip of Sl^^ 
wick. Nor was this. league without grounds ; U>t Chrijidphtr^ 
GoJki^ing together a fleet, by flaeans of his fon-in-law and tb^ 
A. D. Fandah^ xQtvLxntd to Denmark^ and made feveral u^fucc^ftf 
l}?^* attempts to rpcoyer thecrowfi he had lo^ by his own in* 

VALD£MAIt rf/S IE ^ fV I C K. i 

VaWemar Thp nobility, and principal perfons concerned in tfa^ 

of Slef- league refplved novy to cut h»ni off frpm all hopes of evc| 

mckeleSJt' returning. With this view they affembled at Necburgy an'' 

id' king, with the confent qf the people *, publicly eleflcd Valdemar^^ 

' ^ Slefwtck kine (A). In ordt-r to bind the clergy ftrongly to 

his interpft, h^ began his reign by conferring favours on thei% 

He confirmed the dipcefe of Slefmck, and all the churcbeS| 

fees, anfi monafteries of the kingdom, in all the privilegflf 

jind icpmunities w^ich they ever enjoyed. The fame he dij 

with refpeft to a number of cities and corporations. Hj 

majile oyer $outh Jutland to his uncle Gerhard of Rendjhur[^ 

% Mfuas.. 1. ^v. p.iii. p. 7o, Post AN. J. vii. 

(A) tV^e iTiuft obferve that a/Tcmbly of the nobiility, wfiljf 

jnany objefljbn^ were raifed but onCe mentioning a general 

againft the legality of this elec- diet, of the votes of thediffe- 

tion. The kin^ alone had power rent flares. The event (hew5 

^ to conyoke a diet ; bet here ^he what the general opinion v<ms> 

league stflMmcd fo themfelves a for Faldemar eojoyed his new- 

^egai aathorify« Panianus fays, ac<)uired dignity bvt a ihoit 

^hat Valdmar. was elefted by |ui l^wf , . 




S'h Hifi^fj 9f Denmark. aj j 

im^ Ws fcetrs9 to be held as a Eef 49f the crown; He graoCed 
feyeral 'other privileges to the aobllity and peopley the more 
£rsily to attach them to hh intereft 9 yet, after ;|U, bis reign 
vasibihort, that ha-fcarce deferves to be ranked among the 
);iogs. f^aldemoK bad raited his warmeft friends to fo high a 
pitch of authority, as drew iipon then* the envy of others, 
who thought their fervices oierited the fame regard. Hibj^-^"^^ 
youth gave room for cabal and faction : each ftrove who (hould ff"?^ '^ 
gpvem the youo^ monarch, af>d of confeqvence the whole j^^^^' 
kiflgdom. Urifortunately no regent was sppointed ; but that 
power was lodged id the hands <kf the body of nobility, or rather 
in tbofe of the king's chief favourites <A}. The public re** 
pofe was firfi difturbed by a diffepence between Uffo and the 
arcbbifl^op of Lunden, Next ErU^ fon of FaUemar king of 
Swfdeiif arrived \tt Dtnmiri to lay claim to his mother's for- 
fuse. Several difconl^nts appeared in S^htnen^ Fimiay Zea* 
/W, Jutland, and other parts of the kingdom. But what 
{uroiihed the firft opportunity for open rebellion was^a tax im- 
pofed on the Zeaianden^ \n order to redeem fome of the 
prown-iands. The peopde refufed to pay the tax : they took 
arm^ to fupport their refu(al ; but were ibon crufbed by the 
fudden arrival of a party, of the king'« troops. To this was 
?dded a conteft between, the duke of Mecklenburg and the 
cbiMrea of Vitiflaw^ prince of Rugen^ about the diftri^ fur* 
rounding the ifland. The latter had recourfe to king Valde* 
mry or rather tp his uncle Gerhard^ who fent a body of horfe ^ 

to their aftftance, defeated the duke's ttoops, and then con- 
' eluded a treaty with him, which was toon broke, after the de^ 
parotfe of the Danpi. 

All this while Chrtflopber was bufied in forming a plan for .^ p^ 
the recovery of his crown. He wfote to fevera! of the biihope j * g* 
?n() nobility, who, he knew, were di&tisfied with the little Chnfto^ 
Ihare they had in the government of affairs. He ufed eveiy pher tiJtts 
poSble endeavour to draw o{F his brother the earl of IVagrig meafierts 
from his allegiance to the king : he engaged the bifliop of Co- fir ri" 
hgn^ by a iubfidy of twenty thoufand marks in ftlver, to affift covenng 
mm with all bis force in depofing Valdemar \ he folicited the bis crown^ 
princes of the empire, and even d^e emperor himfelf, for fuc* 
poun In thefe applications his foo-in>]aw of Brandenburg 
exerted himfelf, having made a vifit in perfon to.the emperor 
ft) plead Ac fai^fe oi Cirj/icfher. He difperfed declarations 

(A) ISeurfius affirms, tiiat tloned in any of the public aiflf 
Otrhmrd^ the king's uncle> had On the cootraryy they are all. 
all the authority of regent; yet figned by a great nomber of 
fv^ 4^ fiot fij^d h|f n^i^e v^xlt di^erent |)erlptts. 


a34 7be Hijlary of Denmark* 

thrbugh every part of Denmark^ promifing to rdrcfe all 
grievances, and never to undertake any public affair without 
confuhing and obtaining the confent of a general diet* 

While Ghrtflopher was employed in this manner, thetnaN 
^uis of Brandenburg took his fon Valdemar to his own court, 
in order to have him inftruded in thofe arts becoming a 
prince. He obtained letters from the emperor, addrefied to 
Gerhard and the other nobility of Denmark^ recommending 
^ to them to chufe umpires, who fliould equitably adjuft the 
idifFcrences between Chriftopher and his fubjefb, and the claim! 
of the prefent and the late king. But the only anfwer re- 
turned to thefe letters was, that VaUemar poflefi^d the crown 
by a regular and lawful eleftion ; therefore the ptopofed urn- 
pires were altogether unneceflarjf. 

CHRISTOPHER could obtain nothing more than tWe 

letters of requeft from the emperor: however, he procured 

promifesfrom the archbiihop of Lunden^ the biihops xA Ar- 

hufen and Ripm^ together with a number of the nobility, that 

their fervices (hould not be wanting, provided he appeared in 

Demnark with a proper force to fupport their rifing. 

, 1^ About this time it was that Canute Porjius infolcntlf 

1220' ^^'^^^ '^me efFefts, the property of the inhabitants of Werh^ 

Several ^^^ ^^^ always been the faft friends of Chrijidpher: They 

princes ^^^ *^^^ ^^ Opportunity of ferving him, under the maft of 

take arms defending their own rights ; and for this purpofe they formed 

«>Chriflo- an alliance with Magnus^ king of Sweden. Then Chriftopher^ 

pher'/ he- affifted by their forces, and Tikewife the troops of Meckkn- 

kajf- l^rgf together with a body of forces raifed by the earl of Fa- 

griay and fome other noblemen in his mtereft, pafled with 1 

•fleet to Laaland and Talfire^ laying, fiege to the city Nuopin^t 

which he took. Proceeding from thence to Wartemhurgy he 

defeated a large body of peafants, aflemblcd to : oppofe bim. 

He then pubtifbed a proclamation, promifing a htt pardon to 

all thofe who would, before a certain day, return to theirduty 

and allegiance. 

fh D nes The Danes were now tired of their new government: 

Joulhta ^^^y ^^^ ^^^^ *" places of truft and profit were pofTefled by 

ilfanp-e in Germans^ and felt all the inconveniences and oppreffion in the 

iJ^e go- minority of Valdemary which they dreaded from Chrsftopber* 

^fernment. They began to refled on the condu<9: of both reigns, and 

concluded in favour of the bani(hed king. In effe^'ng this 

change in thejr fentiments the bifhops were greatly inftro- 

mentah Every fault in the adminiftratton of Valdemair was 

ckaggerated, and all the errors of the former reign varniftcd 

over and forgot. The inhabitants of Zealand^ Palftrey and 

f^aalandy f^ft openly efpoqfed the king, together witi the 

, : ' ■ ' arch- 


7he Hijtory of Dtnmzrk. ijj 

f^rchblfhop of Lunden^ the bifliops of Ripen and Arhufm^ as 
wll as a great body of the nobility of Schonen. Their firft^"J''^ 
^anfa£lion was to make a fudden attack on Haderflcrue^ where "J^^ ^^^f 
Eric was confined, and, after refcuing him, to di/patch a body^'^^*" 
of troops under his command to favour the motions in Zea^ 
land*. ' ' 

After this a diet was held at Rofchildy where they were 
jigain taken into favour by ChriJIopheri the king promifing a 
full pardon on the one hand, and they the moft faithful fer- 
yices on the other. 


HAEFIT14 was now furrender^d by Inquar Hiort to thcchrifto- 
king; but fome jealoufies arofe between him and the eartof pher r/^ 
JVagria^VfK\Q\i hac} pearly blighted all his hopes, and deftroyed^«r^i/. 
his caufe in this its ppominng fituation. From fome expref- . 
lions, as weir as the haughty cond.u<^ .of the earl's officers, 
0)riflopher apprehended that hp fecr^tly.afpired at the crown-; 

511 the fteps he had feetpingly taken in his favour being only 
. linds to throw a (hade over fome deeper (Jefign. Filled with 
(his idea, he fuddenly dropped his pperatipn^ againft Valde-^ 
fnar^ and was contriving the means of co^nterfnining the earl, 
when the bifiiops and nobility, forefeeing the confequences of 
fuch a divifion, applied all their endeavours to clofip the breach. 
They fucceeded : the parties met, and Chrijlopher qigde over 
Zealand^ Laaland, Fat/in^ and Schonen^ as pledges for thp 
payment of the expences he had been at in his fervice. 

Unhappily, this reunion could not be eiFeSed on the 
conditions (lipulated, without depriving others of the kingVi 
beft and moft powerful friends of their rights. Almoft, all 
Schofien had been mortgaged to Lewis Everflein ; other lands 
h^d already been given to others of the nobility, and in par- 
ticular, both the Hallands to Canute Porjius. It was necef- 
fary thenj that a new treaty (hould be framed, without the 
inconveniences which attended the prefent. Accordingly it 
was ftipulated, that Canute ihould enjoy Halland; but give up 
tlorth AJbaen^ CalUwhurgy and Samfoe^ to the IFerle family, 
to which they belonged by a previous contrail : \Yi?x EverJIein^ 
his heirs, and brother Albert^ (hould reflgn all claim to mjim-- 
Ifurgj which was immediately to be put in the king's hands. 
Several lefler exchanges and alterations were made, which it 
?»ould be unnecefTary to recite, as they noways affeded the fu- 
fure tranfaflions. Sufficient it is, that Chrljiopher^s party was 
^gajn united > and that he publi(hed a declaration^ ih^t all dif- 

« PONTAN. I. vj;. » 


2 j5 5"^ Hifiory ^ Denmark* 

Cwdith /centres between bitn and the earl diWiigria were rtmovcd; 
mts, h^ ^&t Femeren was given to the earl^ to be held as a fief; that 
^tifbicb dd- Lixfilani and the ^rtrefs of Jlh$Im were pledged to hioi, ai 
aB^^iZTrArfecurity for two thouiand marks of fih^er lent Co the king; 
crtrwn that he held Scbtmm and Zealand^ until other loans to the 
/oWi t^ere crown were paid oflF; befides the city of CaUemhurgy which 
iB»rtgagcd, jjj^ Y\Vi^ held only in truft for him, and for the. prefect con- 
veniency of aiFairs : that all thole places fpeciiied in the treaty 
{bould belong to the duke of Mecklenburg^ Canute Porjsusy thf 
archbilhop o\ Lunden^ and the other perfons there mentionedi 
on the terms ftipulated ; and laftly, that the flighteft infrac- 
tion (hould be punifhed with die fines^ forfeitures, and other 
penalties agreed upon. 

.Thus Fenuren came into the hands of the earl of Wagrta^ 
who was at the fame time declared potentate and fuperiorof 
NormeTy Holfieiriy Laaland^ Falftre^ Schonen^ and governor of 
Zealand^ z\\ thefejurifdi£tions being held under the crown. 

FALDEMAk. and his uncle Gerhard were now reduced 
to great neceffities, their chief proteftion confifting in the 
fevcrc and rigid condufl of Ciir j/?#pi^,whofe>haughtyarperity 
Tendered him every day lefs popular. This infatuated prince 
was dated wiih the fudden revolution in his favour ; he forgot 
Chrifto- all the confequences of his pall mifeonduiSl ; propofed no- 
pherVfflr^ thing befides the extenfton of the prerogative, and feemed 
umaM^'. intirely ignorant how delicate, how capricious are the humours 
and difpofition of a free people, who enjoy the privilege <rf 
cle£Hng and depofing at pleafure. He confidered himfelf as 
the king, not the fervant of the public; and, into;cicated with 
this notion, treated with contempt, nay punifhed, his be/l 
friends, for having the ^iFefliion and integrity to point out his 
errors, and sdvife him to difFerent meafures. An inftance of 
this occurred in the cafe of the bi&iop of Borgland, an honcft 
prelate, who took the king roundly to taik, and was rewarderf 
for his wholfome advice by imprifonment ; from whence he 
efcaped, fled to Rotrif, and proved a thorn ever after in Cbrif' 
topher's fide, who he faw was incapable of reformation. On the 
bifhop's firft^ arrival in Rome^ the whole kingdom feJt the 
weight of his refentment ; for it wjis immediately laid und^r 
l^n interdidion, which continued for the fpace of fevcn years, 
in fpite of all endeavours to have it removed. 

CHRISTOPHER having engaged the nobility of Jutland 
TipAn^ Vddemarj he doubted not but they alone would he 
able to reduce him and his uncle Gerhard^ while himfelf 
might enjoy the fruits of this fudden and unlooked-for profpc- 
rity in rcpofe- Accordingly they laid fiege to Gottorp, where 
Y^!4^mqr I'^fided j but were, forced to break up camp with great 


5^ Wfi$iy rf Dtivmark. i^y 

prcci|Kt»tion» upon hearing that Girhard advanced to giver 

Aftbr this tranfadion it was that the earl of Wagria kt Valdemar 
acseity.cxi feet for a geseval peaccw He bm that Dinmavk refigns tig 
would never be happy under two kings of oppofite intereftftcrroqMr.' 
hefore&w the \Amomxi zmi civil wan that oiuft en^ ficom 
fittb a rivjdfbip, and ucmaftufid pMPtictoA. He thepefore pro* 
pofod to VaUemar^ whofe powef was now in the wain^ to- ac- 
cept of a cettatn yearly rovenue^ and reiign his whole right to> 
Gmfiafhtr : but thisf couM not be dcme wtihotit fattsfying 
Sirbard^ who dakned SiefwUk as an kereditdry- fief* in ex* 
dnisgo for this hQ received the ifland fhtuoy on the iame 
tsnns, with, tbiacoadicien only, that he ihould fupplyCbrif^ 
. tsfhir in all hk waft with five hnndted horfit, at his own pri- 
vate exptfice* ViMemar hid afide the royal badges, accepted 
, Ike annuity, and retired to his own dutchy of SlefixfkJt. In 
ordtr to draw the khot of union the ha^rder, Eru, Chriflophet't 
fon, married G^r^^rif » fifter, widow of the elder Erk^ amd 
. thtu Ckrifippb^f was. fuUy reftored to the crown and foveteigntif 
^^iDmnmrk^ of which his cendud fliewed him altogether un- 
. worthy. 

; TuM^jcf that fttccoedei this happy end to civil feuds vra& ^ ^^ 
allayed by the death of queen Euphemia^ a daughter of the ^^^^ 
. houfe of Br4Mdenburg^ and a princeiiof excellent qualities. ^^i!JLj^ 
^ She left ajfijiipher fix children^ two of whom afterwards fuc-^.**^^"*^ 
\ ceeded to hie throne. ^ p 

T«is year a dwitroverfy' arofe between John earl of Wagria ' . j ; 
'I and Gewband. earl of Fionk^y the caufe of which is not related. 
, It is however of confequence, as it involved Chrijiophtr in a 
\ «mr, and oUiged him to take the fidd in defence of Jobn^ 
to whom he owed his crown and kingdom. Gorifiopher ^f\i, 
] Eric were bufied in levying forces, yokn determined to join 
/-them near OSftaw. It was of the greateit importance to 
, Qtthard to prevent this junAion, as the combined forces would Chrillo- 
\ be teo fbong for him^ and he exerted bis endeavours with an pher tmi^ 
\ applicatien proportioned to the emergency. He fent to the Gerhard 
, diocefe ^fBrtmeny to Wtftfhalia^ and to the earls of Brsek- ^Hol- 
^ i«^, his kinfmen, to meet him with certain auxiliaries at ^^^ V^" 
\ RiJidsbut^^ giving them at the fame time fofiicient intima- ''^* 
' tioQ. of his deiign. After aflfembling his whole army, he 
^ marched towards GoUorp^ met Chrijhpher and John on the 
j road, and engaged them. The battle continued for the whole 
I diy with unparalleled obftinacy and fury : Gerhard was like^ 

tobe worded; but finding means to difperfe money among ^^ .i^ 
Chriftopber\ troops, he foon retrieved his affairs, and gained a ^~^ 
complete vidory, the king and ErU efcaping out of the field y^j 
3 with' • 





t38 Sr*^ Hiftorj tf Dfcnmark; 

with great difficulty;. Otbo^ .Chrtft9pbir% fecond foh, witiil| 

great number of nobility and private officers, were made pri-j 

fooers ; but Gerhard hitnfelf was wounded, and near beiDgj 

trampled to deaths when be was thrown from hi< borfe, icdm 

heat of the a&ion. i 

GERHARD^ on this vifiory, entered into an alliance wid 

bis nephew Valdemary the late king, who now began tp harbou 

Maw of Noughts of remounting the throne. Several of the ^bief no^ 

the nobility ^^^^^7 already declared for htm ; fo ready are men, upog al 

declare for occafions, to embrace the fironger party, and pay their cour 

Valdemar. to profperity. Even Stigot^ a nobleman but lately favourei 

with confiderable donations by Cbriftophery now feU off from 

his friendfliip and gratitude. His inclinations altered wid 

that prince's fortune, as if nothing was due to a king win 

had nothing more to beilow. His views were however dil 

appointed ; for the earl of IVagria perfuaded Chrijiopher td 

make peace on the terms of the conqueror, which were mo 

derate beyond expectation, no attempts having been madeK 

deprive him of his crown \ It would be endlefs, and indeo 

ufelefs to the reader, to recite the articles which copapofed thi 

treaty of peace, as they confided in the diftribution and divl 

fion of certain places and territorites, no ways interefting a 

this diftance of time. 

CHRISTOPHER was fcarce arrived in Zealand^ whcnh 
had advice of the death of his fon £r/r> from a bruife b 
received in the late battle. He ordered the corps to be brougfa 
to Rofchildy where it was interned , with great funeral pomp 
and depoiited among the remains of feveral kings of Dai 
mark (A). . 

About this time great drfturbances arofe in Schoneti, Th 
inhabitants complained loudly of the oppceffion of the foreigi 
governors fet over them ; . and particularly remonftrated ti 
earl John againft the conduct of Eyger Brodtorp, govcrno 
of Helfenburg. They took arms, aifembled in a large body 
and ranging the country in a riotous manner, put the Hoi 
Jieiners to death wherever they found them. The Hoifteinersi 
who were the foreigners fo odious, to the people, were confult* 
ing mealures in the cathedral of Lunden for. appealing the tw 
mult, when the dlfcontented populace broke in and flew threl 
hundred of them. Afterwards, when they perceived that j 

* MeURS. 1. iv. PoNTAN. 1. vii. I 

(A) Foiiianus relates, that the at Sora^ in the ground allottci 
body was embalmed in the for the kings of Denmark {i)* 
Egyptian manner, and buried 

(I) Ponf. /. vik ^ 45^, 


hances in 

The Hifiorf t^f Denmark. 239 

ftielr r^fiftance only ferved to add weight to their voke» ChTif" 
topbir's late defeat rendering him unable to affift theoiy they 
made an ofier of the country to Magnus king of Sweden^ 
This princei glad of an opportunity of extending his domi- ^^' 
[)ioos, gracipiSly received their propofals, and met them at?^^^^' 
Calmar to adjuft the conditions of this furrender. Here were^^'* ^^^ ^^' 
prefent feveral of the xiobility, who chearjfully ceded the fove- ^ * 
reignty to the king, provided he would proted them in all 
their liberties, which he readily promifed. / 

This news no fooner reached the Holfteiners than defpair-^ 
ing.of beij^ able to. maintain pofieffion of the country by. 
force, they quietly evacuated it \ and earl John himfelf yield* 
iog to neceffity, and the power oi Sweden^ ceded almoft all the 
other places pledged to him, for the fum of feventy thoufand 
marks, which Magnus agreed^ to pay againft a ceitain time. 
Thus the Danijh dominions were divided and fold to a foreign 
power, in confequence of that weak and ill-judged partition 
made at the reftoration of Chrtftopher. 

Next year proved fatal to the liberty and life of Chrijlo- A. D. 
pberi for going to Laaland with a fmall retinue, he was 1333. 
feized by Hennick Bred and John Ellemofi^ f^^vourites of Ger- Chrifto- 
hardy and carried prifoner to the cz&Woi AUhobn. As thispher«tfip 
a&ion however was done without consulting. Gerhard^ aind/^'i^^''* 
only on a prefumption that it would be agreeable to him, he 
ordered the king immediately to be fet at liberty, after apolo* 
sizing in the beft manner he could for the indignUy offered to 
Bis royal peribn : but he did not live long^to enjoy his free- 
dom. The (hock he received with this fudden fall from the 
pinnacle of grandeur fo much aiFeSed his conftitution, that 
he fell ill and died in a few days at Nicoping^ and was buried, 
with his queen at Sora. 

' CHRISTOPHER left the reputation of a fickle, but head- „. , . 
ftrong prince, violent, but unfteady in all his purfuits. His j ? 
pride, however, was what chiefly afFeSed his intereft. The^^^ *' 
arrogance with which he governed, loft him a crown he ac- 

Suired by a fervile humility. Twice driven from his throne, 
e died at laft of grief, contraded rather from difappointed 
^mbition, than contrition for the mifcondu£l that occa-^ 
fioned his lofs. Since his reftoration he poilefled none of the 
hereditary dominions of Denmark^ befides Scanderburg of Jut^ 
hni, and Neoburg of Fionia^ all the reft being given as 
pledges of his gratitude to the inftruments of his remounting 
the throne (A). Halland^ Holbecy CaUmburg^ and Satnfoi^ 


(A) Ptnfanus fays, that be memory was ftigmatised with ' 
' ^s fo much hated, that his very hitler lampoons, which 
/ were 

j^0 fbe Hifiory of Denmark. 

mttt held tijr Canute Perfius ; Schonen^ Ljfire^ aftdl B&felf, 
W Magnm king of Stuedeni to whom they were htdy fold ; 
jfahrt earl of fragria^ had the jliriftRdions of Zralaid^ td- 
Jtre^ Laalani^ and Femerm ; G&rharA of ^utbmd and P/owtf^ 
and Lawrence yoneet of Langland and i^^i j the king onfy 
prcferving the fbvereignty, together with a few inconfidferabK 
ifiands^ and the cities we have mentioned. 

were pablidy recited roond the chufing to infef^ them^ 6ttt df 
. country. He fpeaks as if he lefpedfc to the high digaity cf 
had feea feme of diefe^ without this mfonaiiate ptme (i). 
(i) fomm, /• vH. / 


In which the Hifiory is dedu£i4 ^^ thi. Reign of Erie X« 
m the Tear 141 a. 


Stiite of T J P O N the death of CMfi&pher an inteiregninn for ferctf 

Denmark ^ years enfued. The corrrfrcion in whtch he left the kmg* 

during tkedoot was tmty rfepteraWe, parcelled out under dtffcrcnf 

interrig' princes, who had 7^\ (eparate intereft^, def^nr upon c«l 

*»«• other, and no fcis jealous of encroachments on their o«rtf 

rights, than amhkioiis of extending them to the prejudicfeof 

the others. For the (pace of three years Denma^k^ howe*trft 

cvijoyed a profound peace ; and the ptibHc repofe wasfirft dH^ 

turfoed in a manner very little expeded, confiderihg the pre* 

fent itttration of aifiiirs. 

A. D. It was about the be^nmng of the year 1337, that Od»i 

1337. fecond fon to the late kmg, made a generous and noble at^ 

tempt to recover the throrte of his anceffors. He imd 

forces in Laedand^ and the neighbcmrmg corrtiminf, tn bopti 

that could he drive Gtrhard out of JuHandi he would eaiJf 

make his way to the crown : but th« veteran foMieraftd po- 

Ktician, was not to be taken in the fnares laid by* a youth. Bt 

difecivered Otln*^ intentiom> fiiritmnded hwn ztjemptfandjjaA 

carried Wnv prifoner to Stdgharg cafHe, where he was fcept'* 

dofe confinement untrF his brother Fatdemnr releafed hhn^ obI 

his accefliorrto the throne. 

MAGNUS king of Sweden having unexpectedly come 
» the poflfeffion of Sahcnekj thkOed' ardently after all tHe 
Itft of Denmark. He wrpte to pope BenediM Xlii, befi^ 


hg bi$ holiaels to confirm ibis province to him and his (uC'TJ^tAwg 
cdTors, and pe^rmit him at the fame time to fubdue tHbreft ^Swe^ 
of the kingdom, now ufurped and rendered miferable by the den'j dg* 
tvfanny of a fet of petty princes, vwho, unaccuftomed to 9M-JignMom 
tnority, knew not how to govern. To influence pope £#ir^^'^^€nmark* 
the more powerfully, he promifed to hold his conquefis of 
the holy fee, and to pay him the ufual tax c(^le£ted for the 
church. Benedict however, was fo prudent and juft as not 
to grant his requeft. 

Nor Were there wanting other candidates for the crown. VaHemar 
t^aldemdr of Slifiviciy who had long laid afide all thoughts of ^ Slef- 
remounting the throne to which he was onde eleiSed,. now wick re^ 
refumed ambitious views at the inftigattoh of his uncle Gir-Jumes 
hard. Several of the nobility caft th^ir eyes towards young thoughts tf 
Valdmar^ Chrifiopher^ fon, now at the emperox''s co^irt. ^^"^^^sng 
They fent hl£n letters afluring him of their fidelity, and Qi^^f^Mfon 
the afiedion of the people iti general, who were eager ta'^^ throne. 
be united under one prince, and earneftly exhorted him to 
make ufe of his intereft in Gtrmanf to procure a fufficient 
force to cover their infurredion in his favour. While each of 7*^^ mifirj^ 
thefe princes were laying projeds, and concerting the fit means aiU ctrndi-^ 
of executing their defigns^ the unhappy i7d«^i were miferably /ia» of thi 
opprefled with exorbitant taxes, famine, and peftilence ; thec0«ff/f>. 
^two latter in confequbnceof the former. The peafants neg-* 
;Ieded to cultivate lands which they held uppn fo precarious » 
.tenure ; this be^t poverty, which co-operating with the pe« 
xuliar difpofition of the air, and the unwholefome diet oa 
.Which they were forced to live, produced a direful plague, that 
!more than half depopulated^the face of the whole coumry. 
The poor dropped down dead in the ftreets with difeafe and 
.hunger, the gentry themfelves were reduced to a ftate of ^ 

Wretchednefs ; the whole kingdom was tumbling into ruin* 
and yet aiiptbition, treafon, plots and contrivances, employed 
the great, as if none of thefe obje^s wete before theijr 
,^cs. ^ • , 

\ GERHARD propofed to his nephew tp c9(chaQge the 
dutchy of SUfwUk for North JtUland^ which province hebe- 
Keyed Would more commodioufly affift Faldemar*s defigns upon . 
the CToWn. A treaty for this purpofe was drawn up and 
figoed ; but the inhabitants fo highlv refented their hieing dif* 
pofed of like cattle, from one mafter to another, that they 
tcfufed to pay the ufual taxes. G^ri^rrf refolved to compel ^i///^«, , 
them to their duty, and led ten thoufand men, which he defigns of 
levied in Qermanj^ into the midft of the province. Provi- Gerhard, 
dence interpofed in favour of the poor inhabitants, and raifed 
up an enemy to this tyrant, who determined to facrxfice hts 

Mod. Hist. Vol. XXXIL R life 

142 5*^^^ Hiji&ry 6f Denmarkr 

ThtmMi life, or refcue his country. Nicholas Norevi^ a man in great 
Memftf o/ette^m for his public fptrit, his courage, prudence, and learn- 
Nicholas ing, beheld with forrow the condition to which Dermarl 
Norcvi. was reduced. He had long meditated a variety of projeds 
for its relief; but circumftances were unfavourable, and his 
own intereft and fortune too flender to eiFed fucb great de- 
figns. Thuigs were at lall in fuch a train, that he believed 
the whole. depended on his fingle arm. Young Faldmar, 
Chrijlophers fon, had a number of powcfrful adherents in the 
kingdom } his moft dangerous enemy was Ger hardy and could 
he be removed, the greateft difficulty of uniting the kingdom 
would be furmounted, at leaft the yutlanders would be re* 
Keved from the oppreiliot^ of a tyrant, who was now preparing 
fpr them the keeneft fcourge of oppreffion. Nicholas revolved 
this over inhi»mind, and, ' after mature deliberation on the 
means, took the refolution to difpatch him, perfuading him- 
felf that no method of ridding a whole kingdom from mife- 
ry, could juftly detrafl: from the charafter of the deliverer. 
Could his purpofe be effefled by fingle combat, or open war, 
be would have chofen either, as the moft fair and honourable; 
but thcfe being imprafticable, he had recourfe to darker 
means. Collecting a body of forty chofen horfe, he marched 
in >the night to Ra^der/hufen^ where Gerhard had fixed his 
head- quarters, feized upon the centinels, and po&ed on tft| 
Gerhard's lodging, which he forced open* Gerhard was 
awaked with the noife, and feeing Nicholas e»ter with a partf^* 
of armed men, began to fupplicate him in the moft pathetic 
terms to fave his life, offering to fubfcribe to any .terms he 
thought fit to impofe; but Nmholas was determined. He 
thought the life of the tyrant a juft attonement of the injuri^ 
the people had fuffered ; he confidered^ that his death aiond 
could deliver them from the fchemes and artifices of a msflj 
who had a head to contrive, and a hand to e^^ecute the mol 
Gerhard daring and ambitious defigns. This, therefore, v^ithout far- 
JtiHed. ther deliberation he executed, by plunging his fword into hil 
breaft, and then making his retreat with all poffible expedi- 
tion, after giving the alarm to the whole army, by foufldifl? 
horns and beating drums. Nicholas was purlued and over- 
taken by a party of Gerhard^s army, through which hefc^ug^^ 
his way and efcaped, after having encountered the greateft 
dangers; aftd Gerhard*s fons hearing of his death, rctirw 
precipitately into Holjieirty leaving the army, chiefly com- 
pofed of Hol/ieinersj to be cut in pieces by the enraged pea- 
i^n^, who fell upon them from every quarter. 

Still, however, the Holjleiners keptpoffeffion of thecltt- 

dclsand fortified pi aces,, from which jV/V^^/tfi rcfolved to dii- 

^ ' • • . lodge 

i^he hijiory of Denmark. 24 j 

Wge them* He accordingly raifed a body of forces/ at- 
tacked and txyck LahJefij ^ cafile fituated on the river Scheme ; 
after which he laid iiege to Aiberg ; but the garrifon makiog 
an obfiinate defence, he turned the fiege into a blockade, 
by which be reduced them to great extremity. The go-i> 
vernor ieot an cxprefs to the fons of Gerhard^ acquainting ' 
them with his condition, and the impoflibility of holding out 
but a few days longer, which determined them to march with 
the utmqft expedition to the relief pf a place fo important. 
They came, up "wii)! Nicholas juft as the governor was ready 
to furrender, gave hiip battle, and were defeated, though 
Nichoki was unfortunately killed before he refiped the fruits of 
his gallantry, and his country enjoyed that liberty to which he 
had fo bravely led the way *. ' 

JinLAND having by this means recovered its freedom, A. D. 
all the reft of Demnarx v/2s fired with the fame views. Zea- I340« 
land firft openly declared itfelf and took arms : here Henry 
Gerhard's fon maintained feveral garrifons and cities, which ^ 

he refolved to defend in fpite of all the power of the inha- 
bitants. For this purpofe he drew together an army ; but 
in the mean time a tumult arofe among the peafants on ac- 
count of a Danijh nobleman flain by the Holjiemers^ which 
ib irritated the people that they fell upon the Holjleiners 
^(word in hand ; and, after flaying three hundred of them, 
drove th? reft out of the ifland, and elefled Valdemar^ Chrif- 
'topher's fon^ for their fovereign. 


; To this prince's elevation the emperor Lewis greatly Valde- 
^Oontributed, at whofe court Valdemar was bred He fum- ^^ ^* 
•IBoned a congrefs at Spandow^ in the March oi Brandenburg -yfi*^^^"^ 
fk which were prefent Lewis of Brandenburgj Eamim oi^^}^^^^^ 
;Pomerania, Henry ^ ^ohn^ and Nicholas^ fons of Gerhardy^f-^^^^^ 
with feveral other princes and nobleman. With the three '^f throne^ 
Jatter princes^ and Valdemar of Slefwick^ the marquis exe- 
cuted a treaty, that Oiho, Chrijicpher^s fon, (hould be fet at 
liberty, provided he would refign his right to the crown to 
his brother Valdemar \ that he (hould be put into the hancfs of 
the king his brother, or of the marquis ; that king Valdemar 
fcould marry the duke of Slefwick^s fifter, and receive for her 
portion eighty thoufand marks, to be dedudted from the fum 
I for which Fionia and Jutland were pledged ; that Valdemar 
ihould not prote£l the murderers oi Gerhard^ but openly de- 
clare, againft whoever fliould efpoufe them. A variety of o^r 

* Vid, Pont. Meurs. &Crantz. ibid. 'V 

R 2 par- 

244 ^^ Hiftory ef Dcqmvk. 

particulars were included; but what occafiQQed thegfesttCft 
iiiilicultie$, and took up the moft time, was the redemption 
of the lands/ pledged by the late king to thofe princes who 
had contributed to his reftoration : but even this was fettled 
in a fatisfadory mannef, both to the king and people ; though 
not altogether fo to the peifOns, who' held thofe lands, and 
)¥ere in hopes it would be out of the pofwer of the <!rown to 
redeem them, 
Valdemar The firft z8t of Valiemar*^ reign was to confirm the no- 
€9nfirmtbe\A!ts^ clergy, and people, in the full ufe and pofieffion of ill 
privileges ^ir rights, privileges, and innhunities, which had bea 
^/^^ greatly retrenched during the interregnum. An ad of obli- 
/^^" vion was likewjfe paffed, and the remembrance of all fudi 
^' adioiis as wQuM ferve only totlifturb the public tranquillity, 
^5'* cancelled. He next eiitered into a compaft with Nmjm 
fficlwlas^ fons to Gerhard^ concerning Fionia. Here it ms 
ftipulated, that, provided the king died without ifltie, the 
jfland ihould remain unalienably their property; otherwife it 
Ihould mum to his family, Whenever they found it coDv^ 
suent to redeem this and the neighbouring iflands. It was fur- 
ther agreed, that if the brothers committed any infrzStmi o( 
breach of the conventions of Luke and Halfenbuxg^ that Iffi 
fnajefly (hould, in that cafe, have power to feize the royal 
garrifons in Zealand^ and I'fkewife the caftles of JNetburg^ Or- 
hkij and Hinnifguhe,^ We fee how favourable all thefe 
treaties .were to Valdemar^ who feemed determined to make 
ufe of the firft opportunity of reclaiming all the crown-laods, 
fo iniquitoufly fold by the late king, or ^ther fei^ upon by 
' thofe pretended friend^ who exalted him to an empty title» 

/)n]y to eqjoy fblid profits for ^henifelyes. 

In the next plaqe, theJLing <ur|i€>d iiis tbougfatSLtp die re^ 

€rant tf <lemption of the remainjng fortr^fles in tbe:haiids of the Hd- 

fife xkrg^^i!^^^ 9 ^^^ ^ enable bhn tp tStSt lhi«, ^he.clexgy granted 

-him a filver cup from each churc^h, which, was melted dowa 

. and coined, though never applied to the purpofe intended. 

Long arrears were d^e to the army ; they b^n to murouir) 

and it was thought expedient to pay them- 

The following year ,a war was lighted ,up, oil the follot- 

ing account. Valdemar infiAed, that Ct^ttemburg and Se9^ 

could not be ceded by his father to CamUe Pfirfius^ as a fonner 

grant had been made of them to £nV, duke of Swedehmi^ tf 

the time he married iMgeburga. Eric w^raUve when this lift 

grant was made, confequently it could not be valid ; bat as 

^at with he was now dead, thefe places reverted .to.the crown as fiefs. 

the earl of On the contrary, the earl of fVagria m?intaiO€d his right to 

Wagria, Callemburg^ which had been made ovpr to him hyCgmuPt^' 

" fah 

T^f Bifiory of Denmark. -- '"" ^ --r^" 

fia^ ta conftdt^ration of zn equivalent. VaUemar iqveiled^ 
the place, and John leried troops cq relieve it, forming like* 
wife an alliance witb hgeburgay the earl of H^l/fein^ and the 
Fandal cities, who fent him ftrong reiqfprcements. Ife. 
marched fo fuddenly upon the kipg, 9i}4 waa fo feaibnably> 
fupportcfd by a briflc (ally froi^ the town^ that the king was^ ^ 
defeated, and obliged to raife the fiege. Upon thia a treaty Congtefs 
was fet on foot, and it was agreed, that the difpute fliould ht for efta- 
]ef( to the arbitration of four perfons on each fide^ of probity f^Hfin^g a 
and underftanding, vjrho iboiild mppt at RofcbHd^ and deter- ^^^^f 
mine either according to, the rigour of the law, or by ftriking 
up fuch an accoounodation as |hey faw would be for the ipu- 
tual interefl of the parties. It was fj^ther ftipulated, that if 
ehher party refufed to accede to the verdict of the commif- 
fioners, thefe latter ihould be obliged to make oath they had 
decided according>to the beft of their judgment : but in cafe 
itihould happen that the commilHoners could come to no 
agreement, that then the archbiihbp of Lunden fliould take. 
: cognizance of the affair. As for other difputes between the 
king and the duke, they were fubmitted to the arbitration of 
i 8Q equal number of judges, in order to remove all caufe of 
: diflention betvveen the two princes. We hear nothing more 
of the principal quarrel, and ar^ oiily told that the king and 
Ingeburga amicably agre^, that the fort^fs of CaUemburg 
fl^uld remain in his hands, and (he, in return, to hold during 
I her life North Halland as an equivalent ; which l^ft clai^fe was 
^ never executed, as we ihall fee in the fequel. 

J TkE Danes now began to refume their ancient cpurage, '^^ ^* 
•on feeing" a legitimate prince featedon the throne, an4 the '^^^* 
hamjh dominions, fo lately divided among a number of petty 
f tyrants, united into pne fovercigpty. Xheyn^reand more 
breathed put their refentment ^eaioft all foretgperff, who fat- 
: teoed upon the fpoils of the iand, and enjoyed the chief placea 
\ of truft and profit. For a number of years Denmark was the 
I theatre of continual domeftic and foreign wars, which filled 
• every place with confufioij and difmay. One of the moft * 
; powerful kingdoms on earth, after giving law to fuch a num- 
ber of other nations, fell at length under the dominion of 
fotne infignificant vafials, who laid defolate her faireft pro- 
' vincesj^ ruined and opprefled her inhabitants. Now flie began . 
again to tafte the fweets of liberty, and to refume her wonted 
freedom. Jealoufy foon brought them to blows with thofe ha- Thepeopk 
tec] forei|ner8 ; and the fon of that iVirVWtf/ who had fliewn the /»r^;^^ 
firftdawnof liberty, by putting count Gfl'A^4? to death, novf againjl th 
led the way, fays Pontanus^ to the full exertion of its natural Holilein- 
rights. This author relates; contrary to the teftimony of ers. 

R 3 fome 

Z^6 Thf Htjlory of Deqm^rk. 

fomc other hiftorians, that this patriot affcmbh'ng ^ fmall.body 
6i JutldnderSy the' inveterate enemies of the houfe of Halfiein^ 
marched to Lundenefs^ where he razed a fort which Henry of 
Holjiein had built on the river Scerne. Henry flew to the pro- 
tection of this place; a battle was fought, and the brave Ni- 
cholas died vidorious, with his arms in his hands, after per- 
forming a3fons of aftonlfhing valour ■. 

Another remarkable battle was fought, on this occafion, 
|:>etween Frederick Laahen^ grand marechal of Denmark^ and 
Marchardy lord of Scandia^ and governor of the fortreis of 
Wardenburg. The adion was obftinate and bloody ; but vic- 
tory at length declared for the marechal. With this, civil 
conterttion for a time fubfided, on the king's promife to fuffet 
the duke of Holjiein to remain in poffeffion of all the ftrong 
A. D. holds ftipulated in the laft convention. 
|,4^-^ ' The year following Zealand was ravaged, both by fo- 
reigners and the inhabitants of the ifland. Coge^ one pf the 
' fineft cities in the kingdom, was reduced to afh'es, and feveral 
^ere mifcrably pillaged. It would feem that new difputes 
had arifen between the Danes and Holfleiners; for they fought 
a bloody battle, near Fla/molly in which the Danes were ae- 
jfeated, and Boic Folk, one of their generals, and the king's 
prime favourite, was taken prifoner. The difgrace was fcn- 
fiWy felt by the Danes, and they omitted no opportunity of 
revenging It. Wherever they met the Hol/feiners they fell 
upon them^ and maflacred them without pity, or diftinflion of 
fige or fex. In a word, the tumult wa» not appeafed before 
they had fatiated their revenge with the blood of three hun- 
dred of thefe foreigners. 
Vald^^iar But if Valdemar glowed with impatience to fee Jutland in 
f»r^ the hands of the^Holfteiners, he was ftill more incenfed that 
fcbemesfor Schonen fhould have become a Swedijh province, and the in- 
redeet^Kg habitants daily more attached to their new fovereign, on ac- 
™^''^'^* cohnt of the privileges and immunities he liberally and poli- 
iands, fw^iciy heaped upon them. Yet was it impoffible for him, in 
r^ontertng ^^ pr^fent unfettlcd ftate of affairs, to attempt the recovery 
pcnpncn. ^f ^jjij valuable province by arms: he thought it more adf- 
vifeable to fmothcr his refentment until he was more firmly 
eflabliflied on the throne. Accordingly a treaty was* fignea 
between the two crowns, or rather the preliminaries to a treaty, 
in which it was ftipubted, that the utmoft endeavours of both 
parties (hould be exerted to terminate all differences between 
the king and the fubjeSs of each, and to cut off all caufe of 
(future diffenfions. Such was the fubftance 'of thp whole j 





7l>e Hiftory of Denmark. 2 4.7 

nothing' more than vague and general promifes of friendfliip 
^peared^ without any othermeaning probably, on either fide, 
than to deceive and lull each other into fecurity. 

About this ttmc Swin bifhop of Arhusy jand Paul dea- ^, p^ 
'j>n of kofcbild^ wtre arretted by the king's orders in the i^±^', 
>ublic fireets, and conduced prifoners to Padiborn^ a fortrefs The Biflfop 
n Ziaknd. We arc not informed of Valdemar^ reafoQS for ofhrhsxs 
:ommitting fuch violence on the perfons of two prelates of ^n^/^/* 
iiftindion ; it is however agreed by all hiftorians» that a 
:ouncil of the clergy met at IVedd^ and laid the whole king- 
torn under, a fevere interdiction on account of this adlion. 
Nq bcKiy of men on earth are more jealous of their rights 
than the fcle/gy pf A\ nations s nor is there a more dange- 
rous enemy whejre theijr ipflnjcnce is confiderable, and the peo- 
ple ignorant. It does not app^r that Faldemar was greatly 
difconcerted with this proceeding of /the JbiOiops ; for we fee 
him beflowing the iame attentjion to the recovery of the here- 
ditary domains of the crb^n^ f^fid t^e ^/land of Fi^Ifire, and 
city of Nicfping^ adually iv^refted gujt pi the hands of the 
carl of fFagria^ to whoqi they had be^en pledged by Chrijio' 
pber. ' 

TpwARPS the beginning of next year, F^lJemar*s queen A. D. 
Hedwigg ^was deliver^ of a prince, whofe binh ;»nnulled the (544* 
ceflion that was made of Fionia in favour of the hpufe pf HoU'^f^"^ 
ftiiiL A new treaty was concluded therefore between the tvfofp^^ 
courts, in which Faldemar revoked the claufe refpcAipg Fio* ^^'^* 
ma\ they mutually promifed adiftance agajnft all enemies 
whatfoever, the king only ex(;epting the king of Sweden and 
the duke of Stetip^ with whom he^as in ftrict alliance ; and 
it wa$ agreed, that if any unforefeen difference fliould arife^ 
it might be referred to. the arbitration of Faldemar duke of 

No feoner was this treaty figned, than Faldemar emploved 
Nicholas pf Limbec^ whom he had juft created marefchai of 
Denmark^ to negotiate with the princes of Holjiein concern- 
ing the redemption of Seburg, The ranfom was paid, and the 
two prelates of 4'^hui and R^fibild were fet at liberty ; upon 
ivhlch the biihops took off ^e interdiction, about which Fal- 
demar had given himfelf but little trouble, though the people 
began to exprefs great uneaiincfs. 

CALLpNBURQ W9Si in the meanwhile, furrendered ^o q^i^^^^^ 
the king by Ingeburgay widow of Canute Porjius^ agreeable to ^^^^ a^. 
the late convention ; but the king of Sweden kept her out of ^^»^rj to 
poflifliori of Hallandy under pretence that this province was $he king^ 
annexed to his crown by the fame title as Schmen. This how- 
ever was a mere pretext in order to cover more fecrct defigns ; 

R 4 ' ior . 


248 fh Hijlery efDtntMtk. 

^ it is certain, that tiaBand had never been engaged to tbe 
carl of iVagria^ having only been given under the name of a 

fovernment to J?r/V, father to the prefent king of Sweden, 
^aldemar was incenfed at this condu£^, but he found it con- 
venient ftill to fupprefs his refentment, while />»^/^»r^tf re- 
mained alone the fufferer, being equally deprived of Calknhrg 
and /ftf/i^n^, its equivalent*. 
^k^ ¥nf About the clofe of the year si general diet Was \ieU at Wl- 
^^^!^i hurg^ from whence the kiifig marched diredtty againft the Tfiuj- 
F^'^'fl A ^^^^r ^^^ *^*^ refufed, for a feries 6f years, tt pay a certain 
^ne and- tribute impcfed on them. Heentered their country in an hof- 
tj}^ manner, and found no gre&t diflicuky in r^chicing theo^ 
to obedience. Having iinimed this expedition, he made 
another to the ifland of Xealand^ and laid fiege to 4 newfor- 
trefs the Hotftein^rs had built near Nejiwedy eontmry to the 
late treaty. Valdenkar infift^, that either it fliould be deli- 
. vered up to him^ or difmantled ; and the princes of Ha^m 
were ftrenuous in having the price it had coft in building paid 
tothem, and liberty to carry off aH their eflPedsj both which 
the icing refufed. 1 he Hege was accordingly formed ; ^ but be* 
fore any great prpgrefs was made, a negotiation was fet on 
/ - foot, and the affair amicably adj a Aedi /U)0ut this time ^^A 
demar likewife confented, that Narva^ a city in Efthma^ 
which had been the oc^afioii 6f numberlefs diiputes, ihouM' 
remain in' the hands of the 7<wrdiriV knights forthefpaceof 
one year, they t>fomifing to defend \% againft 9II the attempts 
of the barbarians. 
"^^ P* As the princes 6f Ifo^iin were the moft formidable ene- 
^'3/f5* niies of V^ldemar^ iecaufe they poflefled ftr«mg hold$ in al- 
y^y^^^rooft every province of his dominions, he made, it the chief 
mar'jL. ^bjeft of bis policy to rid- himfelf of fuch irkfome neigh- 
litics. hours, by detaching the duke of Skfwick from their alliance, 
in which ht fucceededi A treaty was concluded between the 
« two Faldmors^ the duke did homage to the king, and the lat- 
ter, in cafe he Chould be the furvivor, obliged himfelf to pro- 
ted^ the dulce's heirs and dutchv againft all enemies. It 
was likewift offenfive and defennve ; for they engaged mu- 
tually to defend each other with all their forces, and to de- 
clare the enemies of either to be the enemies of both powers. 
Such a proceeding could not fail of giving umbrage to the 
Holftetn princes Henry and Nicholas^ They formed a plan of 
revenge, which could never meet with countenance, except in 
the breafts of the bafe and difhonourable. They invited the 
duke to vifit them in Fionia : one day, propoling a hunting- 

» Vid^PoNTAN. 1. viii. Mst^Rs. 1. ivt 


^bi tBfi^ry ^cf Denmark ; j:^ 

j^rty, they fazed oa t^ duke's perfon, and kept him prtfoii(er« 
ufider a pretence that the tteaty be figoed with the lung' wa» 
omtrary ta his engagements with tKem. Nor did they ftep 
here: they made ineurfions inta Ziakmd, and pillaged the 
city Ringjhdt. On the other hand, the Dmies made them- 
felve^ mafters of tf^lm$d^ Gumlirjkbhlm^ and the citadel of 

VALDEMAR laboured bard to re-onite with thecrown^ A. D, 
federal other places that had been pledged ia the laft unhappy 1346^ 
reign. After redeeming iirom the princes Hinry and- Nichglasy 
the fortreffes of Korfen and Pitnburg^ he dedared. %o thtm hia 
incKnaiien to pay into their hands the price of the government 
of Laakmd. His propofal was rgeSed, and he gav« orders 
to the grand marefehal to pafs witb an umy into that ifland» 
and lay fi^e to all the places that contained foreign garrifbAs. 
The princes haftened to the relief of the ifland, and daiiy^ 
ftimHftes pafied between the two armies* No decifive acv 
ttoO) however, happe;ned when the Swidijb monarch offered 
bis mediation, and effeded an accommodation on no other 
conditions than, that Laaland ihould be delivered up to 
tke king, on bia paying the fum of eight thoufand marks in 
fiver (A). 

FftoM this ^Ttf^Valdimar'htgzn to make profeffiona of a Valde- 
piety more rigorous and kvtxt than prudence or policy die- mar'i>^ 
tated. While his dominions were pledged to flrangers, no- paftiiim^ 
tiling could bo more wifeafonable than expeditions againft the 
infidels, and holy pilgrimages, dilated only by blind zeal and 
pious phrenzy. He pafled to Efthonia^ a province of Sweden^ 
90^ the North of Lfivmia^ where be made feveral regotations 
in ^ church. He founded feveral pious inftitutions, and built 
chapels at Reveh in which d^ily prs^ers were to be put up for 
himfelf and queen. He took the dean and canons of the 
catbedr&l under his immediate protei^ion, and publifhed di<- 
vers ediSs in their favour. In the end he returned to Den-^ 
mrk, anfl prepared for another expedition againfl the pagans 
of Pruffia^ with intention to oblige them to embrace the true 
religion : fuch was the devotion of princes in thofe ages of 
ignorance and barbarity. Valdemar was accompanied in this 
expedition by his brother Otton^ whom he had forced into the 
7iutQnic>ox^tT^ that his prefence in D^wm^^ might occafion 

(A) According to PcnfamtSf that the whole ifland was ceded 

tke city of Wardenhurg alone by the princes on the^above con* 

coftthe kingthia^fun^ (i); but dition. * 

MmrfiussinaCrantziuj (2) agree» 

(1) Pe«rf. /. viii. (i) Mturf. A yl Cn^t, p, 14*. 


2ZO ^^^ Hiftory pf Denmark. 

J16 troubles. JEric duke of SaxonyWkfffnk attended him, iIk 
princes baving met at Lubec ; but before his arrival in Pruffia^ 
the barbarians had concluded a truce with the Teutonic Wights* 
This rendered his prefence in the country unneceiTary; he 
. therefore returned to Lsvoma^ and. fold the province of £/• 
b&nia to the Teutonic knights, for the fum of eighteen thou- 
fand .marks in filver, contrary to the formal difpofuion made 
by his father* whereby this province was unalienably annexed 
to the crown. One remarkable circumftance attended this 
fale i it was» that only one of the fenators, Andrew Stiist^ 
iigned the agreement ; nor did a copy of it ever appear until 
the Polijh ambailador produced one at the congrefs of Stetin in 
the year 1570. One moiety of the money was paid to the 
marquis of Brandenbtirg^ married to FaUemar^s. fifter. This 
Wi^ her portion, for the payment of which the king had 
pledged half the province of Ejihonia. In return the mar- 
quis put into the king's hands an infirument, whereby he re- 
leafed him from the fubfidy he had engaged for the defence of 
the marquifate. 
^ jy^ Be^qkb the king quitted Livonia^ be had fent orders to fe- 
1346. veiai -P<si^(/& lords to meet him in Brandmhurg^ all of whom 
were arrelled on the road by thp earl of JVagria j an a<9:of 
• prefujpption that greatly incenfed Valdefndr ; y^t did he enter 
upon no new meafures for revenging, the iofult, or enlarging 
the prifoners. Inftead of this he made, all poflible prepara-* 
tioiis for a romantic expedition to the Holy Land, which be 
had long meditated. Accordingly he fdt out, attended by 
Ericoi^t^axony^ and a great number of the firft nobility of his 
Valdcmar king4o0i. On his arrival at Jerufaletn he vifited all (he holy 
vtakes a places, j and entered himfelf in the fraternity of the knighte- 
//i^i/8/z^^ templars i an example that was followed by Ericy and the 
reft of the lords of his court : for folly from the throne flows 
rapidly among the people as from its natural and moft vigo- 
rous fourpQ. The Courtiers of Alexander diftorted themfelves 
into the unhappy figure of that hero. 

Not todu^ell on the encomiums paffed by crafty prieftson 

thefe, inftances. of royal piety, the people began to murmur 

at the difpofal of the fair province of EJihonia^ without their 

confent, or indeed their knowledge \ and the grievance was 

7*-^ Danes aggravated by the application of the money, one moiety of 

murmur.' which went to the marquis of Brandenburg^ and the other 10 

defray the expeflces of a (i^nxote expedition to Palejiine* 1 bat 

piety which they beheld with reverence in former/ monarchs, 

began to be looked on as a fnadnels in Valdemar» 

A.D. ^^ ^^^ y^^^ 1347 the queen was delivered of a princefe, 

1347* nan^cd hgehurga ; and thi k'ujg, who was returned to hist^t>- 


T^be Hifiery of Denmark. . 251 

minions, paid ofF.the mortgage upon the chy of- Rendfburgi 
He recfeemed likewife a number of other mortgages, and . ^ 

among thefe the ifland of Zealand^ city of Nicopingy Steke in 
the ifland of Monq^ and a variety, of places in Jutland. 
After this he figned a freih treaty with jthe princes of jFfo/- 
Jfein^ in which it was ftipulated, that Neoburg an4 part 
. of the ifland of Fionia (bould be ceded to the king; in ex- 
change for which they were to receive Steke^ wjth a fum of 
money equivalent to the remainder of the purchafe, > 

It was not before this year that duke Valdemar of SlefwUk A. D.* 
^pbtained his liberty, and then only upon 'condition, that he 1348* 
: renounced the alliance he had formed with the king, contrary 
to the exprefs letter of a prior treaty with the Hpljiein princes* 
Ix would feem that numberlefs difficulties attended the 
' redemption of the crown-lands ; for, fubfequent to the tre^lty 
\ of which we have Juft fpoken,. we ftnd the king laying fiege 
'. to Skioldenefs in Xcfdand. Neither Pontanusy Meurfim^ or 
Kranizius^ give any account of the occafion of thefe hoftili- 
ties, contenting themfelves with obferyiqg, that the opera- 
. tions. were no fooner begun than th?y wer^ laropt, ,by reafon of 
', a plague that laid defolate the greater pact of all ffunpe, ^ndJ'^^g^^ '^ 
'raged with particular violence \n Denmarh Hercr whole ^^"^^^•. 
, towns were deferted, the country Iqft walje for want pf la-, 
^bourers; all commerce totally ftagnated ;, .even tte-jGr^^^rf/j^i 
, trade, which a few years before begap to be afliduoufly puf-j 
! fued, was now negleSed ; and nothing but terror, and de^air 
1 reigned in this miferable country, . , 

To thefe unhappy circumflances were added others equally . 
' oppreflive and unavoidable. The great : number, of crown- 
) lands that were mortgaged rendered a heavy tax neceflary ; the. 
"'^ more grievous to the people,- becau(e the means of paymeot : 
'; had failed, in confequence of the ceflacion of induftry, Fql' Valdemar 
^ demar determined by all means to gain the affeftions of \\\% gains the 
fubjefls, the,more eafily to effeft his pu^rpofe^ AflTembling z confidence 
* die't at Ringjladt^ he fet forth, in prefence of an infinity.of^^^'j ^^- 

nobles, clergy, and commons, that he had redeemed o^ut pfy^^-f' 
' the hands of the mortgagees a great number of cities, towns, ^^ ^* 
and caftles, at the expencq of three hundred thoufand marks, *349' 
levied upon the people ; and that now there remained a faving 
■ of ten thoufand marks of filver, which he requefl:ed the 
people would difpofe of as they faw proper, as it originally 
belonged to them. Such condefcenfion in the monarch was 
truly politic : it intircly gained the affetSlion of his fubjedis, as 
well as their confidence: they fubmitted every thing to him, 
and affured him of their readinefs to lay down their lives and 
fpNunes at his feet. 


2g2 5^*^ tSJf^ of Denmark. 

Neg^n^i" VALDEMAR^ having fuccccded in this important point, 
tmi*mth Puffed over to Uallaniy atid demanded an, interview with 
M?i%nQ&ofMhg^ \mgof Swidin^ froni whom be was defirous ofic. 
Sweden, deeming Schonen. He offered Magnus the Aim for which it 
was^firft mortgaged to the earl of iVagria^ and reprefented to 
him, that the e^rt had no right to difppfe of a province bdd' 
upon fuch a teniird. Unanfwerable as thefe arguments were, 
Mapim refufed to furrender it ; and the congrefe broke up 
with menaces from VaUemar^ that He would claim his right 
by force of arms: menaces which were not attended widi the 
propofcd eflFefl, the troubles arifing vBiOermany having, pre- 
vented Valdemar from purftfifig his defign. As this extraordi- 
nary afFair is ftrongly conneSed with our hidory, we flail 
' relate- it wkh' all poffible brevity from the difFufe and perplexed 
account of Pontanus •. 
Animfof' h^ impoftor, by name Mutter Mainekeny ap^ared about 
tor lays iilils time in* Brandenburg^ afluming the name of the late 
claim to margrave Valdi^ar,, and claiming^ his dominions, which he 
the mar- fjy nvere ufurped, in prejudice of his right, by Lewis of Bm- 
B ^ A«*w'|'. Iti his perfon he exaflly refembled Valdemar^ and 
l^****^**' he found no difficulty in imitating his voice and manner,^bav- 
^' ing befen many years gentleman ufher to the mar^ave. He. 
affirmed, th^t the margrave was not dead as had been long 
reported, but had made a pilgrimage to Jerufaleni. Now on 
his return, he expefted Lewis of Bavaria would reftore thofe 
dominions to their natural lord. Bold and Impudent alTer- 
tions never fail to. meet with credit from the vulgar. H*t« 
htimanity andjqfticefeemed to call aloud for their affiftance^ 
which combined with the novelty^ of the fcene, foon gpiocd 
Mtdler a great number of adherents. With thefe rifiany of 
th(g neighbouring, princes, interefted in ft^ppoi'ti^g the impoT- 
ture, joined. Among thefe were the dukes of SaxeAnhnk 
stnd Mecklenburg', and Oa;7/zif/ J affirms, that the emperor 
Charles IV. not only cfpoufed, but firft excited Mullerio tto 
bold attempt. By thefe he was fuppbrted with all the dig- i 
nity of a prince, he kept a court, and even eclipfed in pprop 
the real margrave. 

Kino Valdemar^ who fihcerely loved ^is brother-in-laff 
Liwisy heard this news with concern. He pitied his fifler, 
forefaw the diftra&ion that would enfue, and determined to 
ufe all his power to fupport his brother-in-law, and puniih 
the prefumptuous Muller. A diet was convoked at Rofchildy 
and fufiicient fupplies were granted t9 enable him to equip* 
'flectjwitto which he invaded Mecklenburg^ deftroying the countrj[ 

, * Po!fT. Uyiii. 


The Hiftofy.tf Dentnark. 25J 

before.him.with fire and fword. The duke of MeckUnburg 
raifed forces to oppofe the king, whom he reduced to great 
danger, having hefieged him in Sturgart. Valdemar foon 
perceived the error of i;vhich he had been guilty, in enclofing 
himfelf in a city fo eafily forced ; but his endeavours to ex«- ' 

tricate him(^lf would have been fruitlefs, had not Romulus^ 
brother to Lewis of Brandenburg, arrived feafonably to his 
relief. Immediately the duke raifed the fiege, took a compafs, 
and attacked Hamulus in the rear. The battle was bloody and 
obfttn«|ei the duke Ti£tonous, and near four hundred Bran^ 
denburgers were made prifoners ; but ftill Romulus had the ho- 
nour of raifing the fiege, relieving the king, and of faving 
himfelf by his bravery from falling into the enemy's hands. 

VAL'tyEMAR was no fooner at liberty than he marched 

out of the city, which had almoft proved fatal to him, and 

. made fre(h jncurfions into the duke's territories, where he laM 

r fiege to feveral towns, that made but a faint refinance. At 

. length, reinforced with a body of troops from Ponurania^ he 

\ invefted Berltnt which city had declared in favour of the im- ^ 

pdfton , The dukehaftened to the relief oT the befieged ; and 

the king drew out his army to give him battle. Things 

were coming to a crifis, and both parties waiting for the fighal 

, to engagj?, when fome of the more moderate nobility in each 

, arpiy, dreading the effufion of Chriftian blood, propofed an 

accommodation. A conference was held, in which it was 

\ deternuned to fubmit the affair to the arbitration of his 5i&^)- 

\ difi majefly. Accordingly it was determined by this monarch, 

I that Romulus^ brother to Lewis of Brandenburg^' (hould fet all 

! his prifoners at liberty ; that, as an equivalent, he fhould re- 

[ ceive an oath of allegiance from certain cities in the dutchy of 

^ Mecklenburg^ to which he claimrf a right; and, laftly, that 

he (hould efpoufe the daughter of the duke. King Valdemar 

\ likcwife effeSed a reconciliation between his brother-in-law 

the margrave and the duke of Stetin ; alfo between the dukes 

of Mecklenburg and Saxony. 

These troubles in Germany being thus appeafed, Valdemar 
was Qn the brink of entering into another difpute of more ^' • •" 
confequence, if the emperpr's affairs had not prevented him *35°- 
from purfuing the dilates of his * refentment. His imperial 
majefty was extremely enraged at Faldemar^s marching foreign 
troops into the empire, and making his dominions the theatre 
of a war. , He was ffill more incenfed at his checking the 
progrefs of the pretendfd margrave, as it was notorious that 
the en?peror had an intereff in the fuccefs pf this impoftor, 
o^t of pique to the margrave Lewis ^ it being a main object 
of his policy to diftrefs the affairs of the houfe of Bavaria. 
I How- 

2^' The Hijiory of Denmark^ 

However, whether out of ihame» or dread of pufhing matters 
to an excefs, he diflembled his refentment, and granted a 
paflport to the king and feveral princes of the North, to at- 
tend a diet which he convoked at Sprenberg^ in order to de- 
cide the claim of the impoftor Muller. The king carried 
with him Eric duke of Saxony^ and Romulus^ now become 
tmrgrsLVC 6f Bran^lenburg^ which his brother ceded to him, 
referving to himfelf only the dominions of the houfe of Ba- 
HMria. At this congrefs (for it was not properly a diet of the 
empire) the northern princes complained loudly of ' the em- 
peror's endeavours to fupplant thp natural heir of the houfe of 
Brandenburg^ by forcing in his room an impoftor, who had 
long been a menial in the family. To this charge the em- 
peror replied, that he had done nothing of which he could 
repent* Neither temerity, prejudice, or paffion, had excited 
him againft the houfe of Bavaria^ or at all influenced his 
conduS ; juflice alone was the motive of his anions : that if 
he was at all blameable, it was for giving credit to the aflu- 
ranees of the arcbbiflaop oiMagdehurg^ Rudolph of Saxony^ 
the duke of 'Mecklenburg^ and the prince of Jnhalt^ all of 
x^hom.had folemnly made oath, that he was the true Valde- 
mar^ t^e lawful heir of the houfe of Brandenburg. Upon 
this the king flood up, and fpoke in the name of the other 
princes : " We too are ready to fwear, but with more truth, 
•* .that thisperfon is an impoftor; and we oblige ourfelves to 
«* convict of perjury whoever has fworn to the contrary : wc 
•^ therefore befeech . your imperial majefty to revoke the de- 
** cree you have paflTed in favour of a man, who has no other 
•* pretenfions to his prefent dignity than what he derives from 
«< an unparalleled impudence, diftimulation, and talents to 
^* impofe on your imperial majefty.** Not caring to urge 
matters to extremities, Charles 2X length openly acknowledged 
Ibmulus the legitimate heir and pofleflbr oi Brandenburg^ and 
publiflied an imperial decree to this purpofe. From hence-^ 
forth the impoftor was abandoned by all his adherents, and 
for(^ed to retreat into Jnhalt^ vihcrc he pafied the remainder 
of his days in that obfcurity to which he was born * ; and thus 
ended an affair which had fpread the flames of war in feveral 
parts of Germany f almoft proved fatal' to the liberty and life of 
Valdefnar^ and made a great noife in every corner of Europe. 
It properly belongs to another part of our hiftory ; but from 
the fhare which Kaldemar had in it, we could not avoid men- 
tioning it here. 

The congrefs having broke up^ the princes returned each 
to his own dominions, except Valdemary who laboured hard 

* Crantz. p. 203. 
S to 

The Hiflcry of Denmark." 255 

to fet the affair he Juft concluded upon a folid footing, before 
he went back to Ventnark, After having eftabli(hed repofe 
and tranquillity, he fpent ibme days at Lubec in mirth and 
feftivity, and then pafTed over to his own dominions, 
where he was received with great dcmonftrations of joy, the 
people being highly fatisfied with the refult of this laft ntgd% 

Soon after this he concluded a treaty with Cafmir^ king* 
of Poland^ by which that prince engaged to fupply him with- 
one hundred lances, provided they were not to be employed 
againft any power fpecified in the treaty. Before the end of 
the year the public joy received cpnfiderable augmentation 
from the birth of a fecond Ton ; it was however of ihort du- 
ration ; for the young prince lived but a few days. By the 
death of the two.fons of Canute Porjius^ the title of dukes o^- 
Holland became extindV, and the king did not think proper 
to confer it on a collateral branch of the family, thinking iv 
more advifeable to annex the dutchy to the crowo. / ,, 

In the year 1351 a quarrel, the grounds for which are. A. D. 
unknown, arofe between Valdemfr and his grand- marechal 1351. 
Limbeck, It was carried fo high, that bis majefty \it{\t^^^ A revob (of 
him in the caftle of /)^r»/;fg:. The princes of Holftein^ the ibe king's 
nobility of Jutland^ and ^he maritime towns, all took arms 2i/ubje3s* 
the fame time. The princes pretended an infraction of 
the treaty fubfifting between them and the king, while 
the nobility and maritime towns complained of fome tref- 
pafies upon their rights and privileges. On the firft rumour 
of thefe comnootions, the king put garrifons in all the places 
he thought necefiary, and fent a flrong body of forces for the 
prote£lion of the diltchy of Slefwick'^ agreeable to the late 
treaty. This lad meafure proved fruitlefs ; for the duke had 
fided with the princes of Holftein^ and the auxiliaries were 
conftrained to return. At the fame time, the Swedes having 
depofed Magnus for his debaucheries, which had rendered 
him odious to the people, raifed his fon Eric to the throne, 
jMagnuSj retiring to Schonen^ alTembled the fiates of the pro- 
vince, to deliberate on the neceiTary meafures in this de« 
plorable fituation of his affairs. From hence he folicited VaU 
demars afliilance to reftore him ; but met with a repulfe, be- 
caufe he had refufed to cede that province. Again the negotia- 
tion was refumed ; but the unwiilingnefs which Magnus ex- 
prefled to furrender Schonen^ rendered it fruitlefs. 

All this while Valdemar was not unemployed on the other 7^ tf^,>^ 
fide. He invited the nobility of North Jutland to a confe- ©/Jutland. 
rence, with a view to detach them from the alliance of Hal- 
Jlein ^ and one Bugaus was fent to Callenburg, to treat with 


2c6 5^^ Hijfory of Denmark* 

the king in their name. Nothing was concluded at this in- 
terview^ and Bugaus with the other deputies were hardly re- 
turned to Jutlandy when the nobility, forming a new alliance 
' with the priij&ss of Holftein^ feized upon feveral of his ma- 
jefly's garrifons ^n thofe parts. The king dreaded the horrois 
of a civil war, and laboured a(Sduoufly to remove thecaufeof 

S|terrible an evil. He offered to fubmit the difference to the 
^ifion of the earl of lVagria\ yet becaufe he furpeSedthat 
nobleman partial in favour of the princes of Ho^eJn, theiffuc 
of his determination was procraftinated. In the mean while 
be levied troops, which, after pafliog in review at Stqdi 
ht embdxked for Fionia ; but contrary winds prevented the 
traniports from failing. This afforded him an opportuolty of 
holding a conference with Magnus of Sweden; but this inter- 
view. Tike all the other negotiations between them, broke off 
Without concluding any thing. 

As foon as the wind permitted, VaUemar put to fea ; and 
was fnet on hb landing by numbers of the nobility of Fiom^ 
who affured him of dieir fidelity, and made offer of their fer* 
' vices. By their advice it was that umpires were chofen to 

determine all differences between him, the princes of Hd* 
Jinn^ and the Jutland nobility. At the fame time the ^mk 
held an affembly at Helfenburg^ to negotiate an accommoda- 
tion between the two crowns ; but as nothing was deter- 
tnined, it produced a particular interview between F^/if^usr , 
and Magnus J at which their differences were amicably ad- 
jufted^ after repeated fruitlefi negotiations had been fet on 
A. D. In the fpriiig of the year frefh conf«-cnces were held ofl 
iJS^' the fubjeS of the difputc between his majefty and the princes 
of Holjfein and nobility of Jutland ; but evety propofal from 
ekher fide wasrejeaed, as if they both had met to decide juft 
nothing at all. But the unfettled ftate of his own affairs did 
not prevent Valdemar*^ affifting the duke of Mecklenburg againft ' 
the duke of Stetirty who had declared war agaiinft hrm; and^ 
indeed,, it feems to be one of the fhiniog parts of this princes 
charader, that he adhered ftridlly to his engagements, and 
never deferted his allies, but on the mod preffing emergencies, 
and for the ftrongeft reafons : and hov^ever politics may in 
thefe times be altered, firmnefs and fidelity are no lefs refpefl- 
able qualities in a monarch than in a private citizen. On this 
occafion he refolved to' go in perfon to Germany^ which he cfi4 
after appointing a regency to govern the kingdom in his ab- 
fence. He was no fooner arrived than he fet negotiations ofl 
foot for reuniting the belligerent powers ; and accordingly pro- 
duced a treaty of peace, and even of alliance, between the 
^ *^ date 

Sluices of Mf^^lfntftrgy S^stmy^ stnd PomraplcL Having fome 
caureofdi^on^nt againft the prlnce9 of S.clavia and WirU^ 
b^ na Um^^ eoiied the negotiations ths^ be entered their 
oouotry ii;it a ^oftile manner^ carrying defolation wherevei; 
ijema^t^ anjp| defiroyiii^ .every thing profane and facred 
before l^iin. H^ jU .reproacHed on this occaiioxi with betray- 
ing a ci^uel and i^aj^biaroiis (jifpoiiti^n, in orderiiig the noie^ 
Tm. eai^ 9^ the ^rilon^rs to be cut ofF in cool blood, and 
Qtberwife npap^ing their bodies in a manner little coniiftent 
with a religious pilgrimage to the Holy Land. This eacpe^ ' , 

ditioa eiidi^ the ca^fe^ of whi^h are ur^known, he fpent 
fome tiipe z\f Wtfdfinburg in feafts and diverfions. 

Th^ ye^r I3;5^ w^s uQiered in, and diftinguiflieil in thc>rw<^i 
^.nnals tiOj^nm^^ by thiB birtl^ pf the glorioms princcfs Mfir- Margareff 
y^m, w^iq fiipcee^ed tp tHc crowns of Denmarky SvJcdfn^ and>»r«. 
Nor^.^ after the dwth of het uthcr Vdimkr^ and mcritc4 
by her piudepc? . ^d manly courage*, the title of Sef^itr^mis 
^ihNori}* The Mng had for fo^ie ye^rs paft fliut up his 
^uccq in th<p caftle of Sieburgy upon fome fufpiciori of her iii- 
cwilioenca €!hancc l«;d him one day thither as he returned 
ftoqi hunt^f^^ ^nd proppfing to fper^d th^. night with one 
irf th^ ^eQ^$ \^ompn, he was c^rriecl tiy the addrefs of that 
I^y into thi? arnxs ojF his lawful wife Hed^egy where he en^ 
Joyed all ij^ofc olefl^gs annej^ed to ifl;oleix love, and wbiclj the 
d^pravctl ipp^iit^ finds in iriUigu^f, without difcovcring bis, 
iniftake before the inprt^ihg. The queen conceived in con- 
i^uence bf tl^e erabiaces of this night, and in the fpace of 
lune inonti^s yifs^doliver^4 of princeis MargareU the fruit of 
l|>is legit^g^axc. awur. 

This year likewife it was, that freih meafures were taken Ccmen^.. 
to t^nnifi^t^ .^|l differences with the prih^es of Holftetnitiontmti 
which wef^ fuhmitted to the arbitiration of the duke of Sofic- the priuM 
f^ipd tbi^efU-lofJ^'O) by. whdfe aw^rd all parties agreed e/^ Hoi- ^ 
io fand. It w^ farther ftipulstted, (hat bofiilities fhouldAeih. 
cciafevhile ||)js i^^atr was in agitation. The kin^ and the 
tirinces pfodliCed t^eii: pretenfions, and 4ajd bpeh their griev- 
Sinces to the ii|i>pireif. Tirft it was agreed, that for the fuoi 
of two thbufaiid marks pf lilver^ the king {houtd redeem 
ty^t of the h^n^s otf the duke of Saxot^ the ^ortrefs of Fif^' 
i^rder^ to b^ given in trufi to the earl of If^agria till pay- 
iiieotof the frid fuii) which muft be niade, within tK^ fpacq 
bf three years, certain revenues in i^/Viz/a being mortgaged, 
ibr fecuHty of the intereft. On the other hand, the earl waj 
to yield up to the king ail his mother's portion (n Denmarki 
^ceptihgonly thbfe lands ibid l)y his father tQ Gerhard. 

ttofi. Histi Vot. XiCKli: i tViTil 

t5t fbe Hiftory of Denmark. • 

With rcfpcft to the Hdfietn princes, the king publiflicd 
a declaration, whereby he acknowledged, in confideration of 
the ceffion made by the princes of a moiety of Fionia^ and 
of fifteen hundred marks in (ilver, that he gave up all other 
pretentions, and fet all the prifoners at liberty which he had 
taken fiiice the beginning of the war. In a word, the te- 
dious difputes and quarrels between the king, the fons of Ger- 
bardj and the duke of SUJivsck^ were at length terminated 
amicably; chough they were again renewed a fhort time 
after. '\ • 

During thefe tranfaflions it was, thzt JHfagnus kitig (S 
i A. D. Sweden gave the inveftiturc of Halland zniSchonen to a Swi- 
'^53' difi lord, called Bennet Algothj his favpurite', with the title of 
duke ; and fome hiftorians relate, that not fatisfied with be* 
flowing thefe marks of diftindlion, he made him abfoloti 
mader of his whole kingdom. This inveftiture gave urn 
brage to Valdemar \ but his refentment was jdiforbed in a& 
of devotion he was now meditating. . Some conftitutions aie 
naturally difpofed to fuperfticioh ; fuch was that of Valdimar, 
His piety confifted in exterior afls and expences, the load of 
which fell entirely upon his fubjeds ; antl indeed this is a 
fpecies of immoral piety, that favours more of vain-giorf 
than of warm fentiments of true religion and the diSm 
of a good heart. In no other view can we regard the pf- 
grimage he made this year to Avignon^ to vifit Innocent VI. 
which cod the people an immenfe fum of money (A). 

On his return from Avignon^ he made an expedition to 

Frifeland^ to extinguifh fome fparks of fedition that had broke 

out in that country \ but the . inhabitants having recourfe to 

fupplications, he contented himfelf with punifhing a fewof 

the ringleaders, by fining them in certain funis of mooef 

and carrying ofF hofhges. 

J general Next he called a general afTembly of the flates at M»v 

dUt ajfem- hurg^ at which affifted the duke and biflxop of Skjwick. Here* 

^^«. he publicly declared a general pardon to all his fubjefls guilff' 

of treafon, or other offences againft the crown, and drew up^ 

an inftrument to this purpofe, which the bifhop of Rifenieii 

(A) Pontanut^ led by fome therefore, that Innocent VI. wa* 

fall'e authority, fays, that this then at the head of the churdii 

vifit was made to Urbak V. if it be trae, as all theDe^P 

The year is the fame, and yet hiftorians aiTert, that this pii- 

Urban was not raifed to the grimage was madt io the ^ 

dignity of pope till .eight years . 1554(1), 
after. It follows neceiTarily, 

(i) Fid, Fm, /, vUi, /. 483, . 



thetlijlory oftitnmzxk: ig^ 

alouc) in the diet. It contained in fub'ftapce^ that his people 
ifaould henceforward enjoy the full exertion of all the privi* 
ledges and immunities conferred on them by his anceAors, . 
and particularly by Valdemar II. that a general amnelly (hould 
be granted of what was pafied;. that his majefty fliould take 
care to protect them againft all their enemies ; that all thofe 
guil^ of capital crimes, fuch as niurder, theft, ^c. Ihould 
obtam pardon, on making fatbfaSidn to the injured, at leaft ' 
as far as lay in their power, in the maimer mod agreeable 
to the laws of the country ; that no fubje£t, whether layman 
or ecclefiaftic, (hould be conftrained to part with his goods 
and chattels to religious purpofes ; that no one be fulered 
to feize on the effeds of an ecclefiiaftic who has. died with- 
out heirs, but that they be left to the king*s difpofal, or to 
the fociety to which they belptiged ; laftly, that a general 
' diet be fummoned yearly, according to the antient cullom 
of the realm, at Neoburgj about the kQv42\o^St,John. 
\ Thcfe regulations were plaufible. and; pleafiiig ; but we {ball 
. ice in the fequel how they were obferved. , 

This diet .was Succeeded by an interview between the kings •^»''?»^'>w 
. of Denmark and Sweden at Helfinburg. Pontanus indeed xt-^^'^'f^ 
■ lates, that It was only a congtefs compofed of deputies, three '^f^'^f-f 
^ I>i£hops being Tent with an archbifhop from each fide to end °f^^' 
:;thc differences between the two crowns. The firft point S^*^^ /* • 

handled was the reftitbtion oiSchonen^ upon which the Danijb ^^ ^^' 
^ deputies had infirudlions to infift. It was urged, that the 
^carI of fVagrla had no right to difpofe of a province, of which 
t he was only the fimple mortgagee.^ and that the inhabitants 
\0f Scbonen were guilty of rebellion, in acknowledging the 
jfcvereignty of Magnus. They then proved, that neither 
North nor Sauth Holland had ever been mortgaged j but only . 
iinade .over, during pleafure^ under the title of a government. 
. Thefe two importai^ points occafioned fo many difficulties, 
^..whfch unavoidaWy rofe from the nature of the fubjedl, that 
\ his Sijoedijh majefty requefted Valdemar to come in perfon to 
^ Helftnhurg. He accordingly went, and now it was that the 
^ kings met; but without the propofed effe£l : for, after feveral 
waraa debates, the congrefs broke up, leaving all the diffe- 
\ rences juft as they found them. 

Another conference was appointed about the fame time, 
\ to which were invited the German princes, to regulate certain 
; cooimeTcial aiEiirs. The princes and fea-ports (en t deputies;' 
but Valdemar propofed attending in perfon, and was preparing 
for his journey to Luhecy when he was given k) underftand, by 
the diet, that no more than an efcorte of an hundred perfons 
would be allowed him. Valdemar loved pomp, and thinking 

S 2 fuch 

^6q fhi Hiflffy of Denmark; 

fuch a retinue .infufHcie|)t to appear with regal xx^gnificenct^ 

he poftponed his journey, and appointed deputies. 

A. D« Laying afidc for a time the care of foreign affairs, Vdii" 

_* 355' m^r applied himfelf to the adminiftration of juftiqc. He pre- 

t^'^ fided in perfon at the tribunals, and puniflied a great number 

^f ^ of ufurpers, who had violently poffeficd themfelves of cftates, 

m^c ^^-juring the civil wars immediately preceding bis acecffion. 

Thelc lands be returned to the legitimate owners; or, if np 

lawful heirs could be found, annexed them to the crown. He 

fiimmooed before him one Nicholas Rond^ of the order of 

knights, accufed of feditious expreffions againft the gpvern- 

tnent^ and difreipeiftful language towards the king's perfpo. 

Rond difobeyed the fummon^, and made lb ftout a refiffance^ 

that thbfc who were fent to bring Ifim by fgrce, were con- 

ftrained to put him to death *• 

The king held this bead-court at Ripen ; whence he pafled 
to Helfrtburgy where Magnus of Sweden demanded anotber 
interview. From thence he proceeded to fVrangJIerfi^ ^ 
which place he held a diet, and pafTed an edia, whereby^ 
fines on criminal anions were doubled. At length b; ^ 
turned to Rofchild^ ^here be received advice that the du^ ^ 
Shfwick and Beimet Aldfeldt bad determined to decide tb^ 
quarrel by arms* Valdemary out of refentment to the 4^ 
for bis late conduft, fent fupplies to Aldfeld^^ by means flf 
which be became mafter of the fortrefs of Trankiar^ an J ra- 
vaged a ereat part of the du)ce*s country, particularly th^ iiis^^ 
of LangUind. The duke Hew to the relief of his people : te 
landed a ftrong body of troops ; but was forced to abandop 
the ifland, on finding the kbg in perfon at the bead of ^ 
army to oppofe him. Thus Vmdem^r became mafter pf X^- 
land\ but w again ceded it to th^ duke, in confecjuence of I. 
negotiation fet on foot. 
An amhaf- This year arrived from Frame a magnificent eipW^' 
Jyfrom John II. propofed a double marriage between the children of ; 
Franqe. the two kings, and Valdemar inftantly difpatched ambai&dojl 
to France with fimilar inftrudlions ; but John being at ^ 
time made prifooer by the Englijhy and conduced tp Z^/9^» 
the treaty was brought to no conclufion. To thi^ fuccep^ 
advices from Sweden, which gave the king uneafincfe. Al' 
though the civil wars in that country were terminate^ \f 
the partition of power made between Magnus and hi? bo 
Eric; ytt Bookal Folk, a Danijh lord, fent by Valdernor^^ 
Schonen^ with certain ^inftrudiions for Magnus, w^^ arrcflci 
90 the road.by£r/V6 order. Joannes Goibus^ ^Swf0^^^ 

* The Hiftory of DehmarV;? j5i 

terian, tfligAs the following motfves for Ertc*s conduft. 
^^en Blancbiy wife to Magnus^ was no left foml of Bennet 
jflgoih than her husband. He was the prime favourite of 
Ijoth j and the queen defpairing to fee Magnus reinftatcd iri 
(he throne, neglefled nothing to prefcrve the fortune of thi^ 
minion. She oiade a fecret offer to king Valdemar of the 
province of Sch&nen., provided he would confirm to Algoth the 
hte inveftiture and title granted hy Magnus ; ^nd the king, 
eager to reunite fo fine a province to his crown, liflened to 
her overtures. £r/c had intelligence of this fecret correfpon- 
dence, anrd gave infhnSions for arrefting FoU. 

ACCORDING to the Z>j»(^ hiflorians, FaldemarwTA fo en- A. D. 
raged at the infult committed on his agent, that he inftantly 1356. 
ifegafi to levy foldiers. He was prevented however from pur* 
Ibiiig his revenge, by the rigour of the approaching winter, 
Md by a revolt that broke out in Jutland. His whole atten- 
tion was required to appeafe this ftimult. Great diligence 
V9ts ufed, and it fucceeded ; certain lords having engaged 
tb prevail on the king to fummon a di«t at CalUnburgy for 
fte redrefs of the people's grievances. This accordbgly was A. D. 
Jt5fne on the twenty-fifth Of Mar<h following. 1 357. ] 

But the facility With ^hich Vaidemar had hitherto quaffied 
^ feeds of rebellion, made him the more carelefs about re« 
flioviirg the caufe. This appeared from his behaviour im- 
mediately after the above diet ; for he hnpofed a h^avy tax 
ilponall the inhabitants of ^<rt/if«i without diflin£lion, pro- 
bsfbly as a punifhment for their late offence. It was to the 
htft degree unfeafonable and impolitic, thus to irritate the 
ninds of the people fo lately in rebellion. The duke of 
Shgfimck and princes of Holfttin joined in the clamours 
iLgainft diis conduft, and ftimulated the nobility of Jutlmd 
to take up arms. Yet after afl, this was only a collateral Jutland 
inducement to the people to revolt ; the principal and origi- '*^*«'. 
nal catife df their conduS being founded on a particular 
quarrel between certain natives of HolJieTn and the family of 
liimnihn'Liifibei^ whom Cunigunde, widow to Eric duke of 
^Itfcvick^ proteScd. The princes of Holfttin took part with 
Cheir own fubjcdb, entered the dmchy of SUfJwick^ and made 
themfelves mafters of the cities of Tunderen and Haderjlaben* 
Both fides folicited the Jutland nobility for afHftance, and the 
princes prevailed ; but king Taldemar^ whofe intereft it was 
that thefe towns fhould not remain in the bands of the princes, 
levied troops and drove them out of the dutchy. Thus the 
yutldnders were engaged againft their own fovercrgn, and by 
their endeavours the Holjieimrs again got pofitfiion of their 
conquefts in the dutchy. Valdmwr faw Randerfin befieged 

S 3 ' and 


mar*/ pre- 

The Jut- 



A. D. 

'tht Hipfry of Denmark. 

and taken within view of his army, without being able to 
relieve the .garrifon. He 'afterwards gave battle to the eno* 
my, and was defeated. Fluihed with vidory, they pafled 
over to Fionia, where they took by aflault the ftrong towQ 
of Odenfee^ and laid ftege to Gamberg^ another firong hol4 
in its neighbourhood. 

VALDEMAR was not difcouraged by thefc diigraccs; 
' he rather exerted all his ability to wipe them off. Troopi 
were levied, and feveral fufpefled lords put under an aricft. 
Among others, Peter LaureniiuSj his brother %A«, Jamti 
Oulofsoriy and his brother Olaus were fecured. Some he re- 
leafed at a high, ranfom, after depriving them of the means 
of injuring him ; but thefe four were not only imprifoned, 
but their eftates confifcated, and places given to perfonsof 
approved aiFedion and fidelity. Though the feafon was far 
advanced, he marched boldly to the relief of Gamberg. On 
bis arrival he created a great number of nobility, the more 
ftrongly.to engage their a(Fe£tion, and draw forth their coa- 
rage on fo important an occafion. As foon as he perceived 
his officers eager to engage, he gave the fignal, and M lui 
army on with fuch fury, that the Haljieiners and malcontents, 
unable to refill his impetuofity, broke up the fiege and re- 
tired precipitately with great lofs- All their officers of difc 
tindion were killed or taken. John of Holjiein was left dead 
on the field '^ and his brother Nicholas^ after lofing an eye,. 
f^II into the hands of the Danes^ who were bringing bim 
prifoner to the king, when his brother Henry flew to his re- 
lief, attacked the party, and procured his liberty. In confe- < 
quence of this important vi^iory^ all the garrifons belonging 
to the princes in Fionia^ furrendered to the king, and he im- 
mediately gave orders for razing G amber g to the ground, iq 
order to reinforce his army with the garrifon K 

From hence he paffcd into Zealand^ laden with plunder: . 
and here he received advice from his emifTaries, tbat a gi^'^ 
number of the -H?^^/« nobility were invited to attend tte.- 
laft obfequies of JBennet Jid/eldt^s wife, who died in F/Wf 
Thither he pafled fo fecretly and fiiddenly, that he feize^ 
upon many perfons of the firft rank, whom he ca/ried pri- 
foners into Zealand. 

This year was ufhered in with a rumour that the kiflft 
of Sweden and duke of Mecklenburg were preparing to declare 
war againft Denmark. Though no certain advices had been 
received of their intentions, Faldemar ordercid his army iflto 
the field, in the depth of winter. He alfo fent orders tP ^U 

» Mont. J. iv. Pontan. I. viii. 


. The Hijicry of Denmark. 263 

thegovfernors of towns and caftles, to put the fortifications 
, and garrifons in the beft ftate of defence. Next he reviewed 
his troops at Stagel^ and augmented them confiderably, takr 
ing every precaution that was neceflfary to guard againft an 
invafion. It is remarkable, however, that a maritime power 
like Denmark fliould not have confided more in a Arong 
fleet, and committed the c^re of her coafts to a well ap- 
pointed navy ; yet we hear of no other naval preparations made 
on this occafion, than taking up a few tranfports, on board 
of which he embarked a part of his army for Langland. Here 
he took the important fortrefs of TrOniiarj and in a ihort 
time fubdued all tl^.e other pkces on the ifland that had not 
acknowledged his fovereignty. From hence he fet fail with ' 
intention to befiegc Hetngavel\ but mbft oif his Heet being ^ 
difperfed, and feparated from him ii\ a thick fog, he reJin- 
quiihed the defign. 

- Strengthened before the fpring with frefh levies, he Valde- 
again put to fea, and attempted the reduction of Jlfen. mar'/ opt' 
Hordhurg had already furrendered,- after a fiege of three days ^ ^^iom. 
Sonderherg was likely to make but a faint refiftance ; in a 
word, the whole ifland n^uft have - funk under the weight of 
his vi£lorious arm, had not Rigitz dutchefs of Slefwick taken 
the prudent refolution of fuing to her fovereign for peace. 
She came in perfon to (lis majeny, who was fo charmed with 
her eloquence and addrefs, that he freely granted her all his 
conqueils in Jlfiny on condition that me would harbour or 
countenance none of his ^nemies, and that the duke her huf- 
band Ibould come attended by no more than twenty fervants, 
and ftay no longer than three days at his court. 

VALDEMaK^ liberality was certainly the caufe of the 
duke's vifit a Ihort time after. That prince delired permif* 
Hon to wait on his majefly, which was granted. He made 
fi^veral overtures for accommodating all their differences; 
|>ut they were rejected at the perfuauon of certain courtic;rs, 
who were violently prqudiced againft the duke. After his de« 
parture the king fet fail for the ifland of Femenny where the 
inhabitants were well provided to receive him, having had 
fome previous intimation of his defign. ^They .endeavoured 
to oppofe his landing ; but were repulfed' and forced to give 
way to fuperior force. After lofmg a great number of their 
men in feveral (kirmiihes, they fubmitted to^ pay a tribute of 
four thoufand marks in filver. On his return Valdernar cx- 
afted contributions on Several cities of Slefwick^ and laid wafle f 

all the country round, that had refufed to comply with his 
demand. Some of his (hips bad orders to plunder the neigh-, 
bourhood offVifmar^ which the feamcn executed with great 

S 4 alacrity 

'i^g4 fjJ^^^^wy ^DentnarK; 

Valdc- ulacrity and fuccefs j but beihg detained ih port by advttft 

:pat*<r winds, the peafants aifemblcfd and attacked tte crews wift 

JfuairoH great fury. Perceiving that all their ehdeavodrs were foilci 

taken at by the courage of the Danes^ they filled fi^veral fmall boats 

"^ifnjar. y^Ith combuftiWc^^ which they fcnt with a fait wind into ih4 

middle of the king's fqu^dcoft." The terrm* and dread oF 

fire cfFeSed what all the power of l^fmar cpotd not; for 

^ the Teamen inimcdiatcly threw down their iriiis, and fufFerci 

%bemfelves to be conducted pnfpners to th^ City, and among 

them their admiral Jernjkeg^' the g^ea^^ favorite of Vd' 


ThTis expedition being ended the king .pa$[eil vnto Z/fl- 
hndy where he lived but a (hort time at his eafe, when adviq 
Was received that the duke of Jlf^^i(Z?;ai»r^ meditated to invadi 
the ifland. The report Was true ; but the dukfe hearing tba} 
YaUemar was provided with a numerous fquadron, and tfrcll- 
appointed garrifons, relinquifired bis deflgn, and folicited ibe 
diikc of Stetin to mediate a peace between hitn and his alii* 
the princes of Holfiein and the king. Bornim of Stttin un- 
^ettook the bufinefs and Succeeded. He prevailed on W^ 
mar tq come to Siralftmdy in order the more comm*odiou11y 
to negotiate the peace. Here the parties met, - each accoifr 
^nred by numerous trains of nobility, who greatly alTifted id 
toncluding their diflferendes. It was ilipullated, that thelci^ 
fliooM henceforward live in peace with the allied prince^ 
who engaged a mutual friendfliip among themfel ves ; and th^ 
the prifopcrs on all fides ftiauld be fct at liberty. They like- 
wife took undfef cdnfideracion th« dJftuibairces of Juthni 
^nd It was agreed, that the tiobility and cominans. ftoul 
fcnd deputies to the king at Neoburgy to finJlh theitdife- 
ences aijfricably. 

fipt at A PEACE being figned, and writs ifftied for convoking t!< 
eoburg. ^'i*^^ ^ majefty put t<> fea ; but inftead df proceeding tt 
Nedburg ifiie fteer'ed fdr Zealand^ contfentitrg biAifelf With fend- 
ing bis; ion and certain^ fen ators to treat with the Jutldndit- 
putics at the diet, a|id rdfervihg to himfelf the ultimate decifion 
dfthat=aflfa}^' This induced tfhe depiitiels todetnand aM 
c6ti&\xSi!to attend the -kirtg ^t Stagely but the terms on wbich 
the paflpor^s Wei*e granted, appeared fo 'infoleYit, and couchrf 
hi Words fo imperious, that nothing was'cbnclu^fed, and Acf 
departed mbfe ihdeiYfed than ever againft ValdemHr. S6(^ 
after, however, ^ trilc? Was granted, ^fid 'thie negotiatibn re- 

' iFltOM Stagelibt kin^ \f&nt to S^ofchild, Pfhefe he expeflw 
fo have met the king Jrncl quefen ok Sweden^ to put the laft 
Iratrf to the affair of Schoniiu On his frivol he fotind iH 

"-■ . 5 ■• ^ • ' ' •^" " ■• '^ ■■ ■ ^'^ 

STJV ^Jlcry of Denmark, 2^5 

tiaSJetitah apology, j^^niuj having always exprefied great 
(ihwillingnefs to part with that province. 

It was about tliis time that three of tbQ JutlanJ nobility, TJbree Ju(« 
inen of the fSrft Quality, were alTafTinated on their return land no- 
Kome. The furpicidn lay upon the kin?, as if it bad htcn Memen 4^ 
done by hisorder; yet was it never clearly proved, and mzK^f^ffinaHtd^ 
feafons concurred to render it probable that this horrid adion 
Was committed by (bme fecret enemy to them, or at leaft to 
the king, who fell upon this method of rendering him odious. 

Aboxjt the beginning of the enfuing year, the brothers A. D. 
^arttirims and Wrattjlaus obtained the inveftiture of Rugen '359- 
from the king, for Which they did homage, promifing him 
likewife the moft conftant Edelity, and certain auxiliary * ^ 

troops and fuccours againft sSl; his enemies. This renders 
it probable, * that Chrtjlepher had not mortgaged the ifland of 
Kugen^ but only that part of Pomerania called Pomeranian 

It was this year that queen £A77/c£f prevailed on Magnus 
to vifit Valdemar at Copenhagen (A), the iffue of which inter- 
view was the ceremony of betrothing the princefs Margaret^ 
^ird daughter to Vdldemar^ to the king of rforway. On this 
: ^ pccafiph 'the affair of Schonen was again brought on the car- 
'). pet; for this was one of the circumftanccs which produced 
: \ f^^Qi qiiarrel between Magnus and his fon Eric. The pre- 
text which they publifhed was in h&. too trivial to occafioh a 
War { for it appeared that Magnus complained of the inha- 
bitants of ^,chonen\ expreffing a ftronger attachment to their ' 
I duke than tP him, who was their king. In fad, this ap- Schonen 
\ proaching rupture was one great motive for his vifit to Den- gi<ven Mf 
r inark^' 'whtvt he folicited Vqldemar*% affifiance againft his fon, 4^ Mag- 

promifing him in return the full reftitution of tielfinhurg andnus. 
\ Schonen. It was an overture which ^/esSf/^jAr could not reftft; 
f he had long panted after this province, and now found it 
voluntarily offered. Not to lofe the favourable minute, he 
paffed fuddenly with an army into Schonen^ feized upon feve- 
. lal fortrelTes, and among other places made himfelf mafter 
' of SolKczjburg ; but provifions failing he returned to Zealand^ , 
parrying along With him prifoner a nobleman of rank called 

[A) Meurjius is certainly mif- not obtain the other name till 

laken in giving this city the many year? after, as we have 

i^p^fil^tition x>f Copenhagen at fo remarked in the general account 

early a period ; for at this time of Denmark 

It was cafled Hajkia, and did 


i 66 Tie Hijiory of Denmark. 

VALDEMAR\ progrefs in Scbmen^ and above all, the 
reproaches of his people for tamely fuffering a fair province, 
which for fome years they looked upon as a dependence on 
the crownty to be wrefted out of his hands, made an extraor- 
dinary change in the councils of Magnus* Suddenly he com- 
promifed matters with his fon, and both agreed to drive the 
Danes out of Schonen^ which they found no difficult talk in 
Magnus Valdemar^^ abfence. In the treaty between the father and 
re^ohi hts ^^^^ Magnus not. ot\^ revoked the promife hp gave to the 
V^ '^ *^»"S ^^ Denmark, refpeaing the reftitution of Schonen^ but 
^'"^'^'likcwife renounced his alliance and the contra£l of marriage 
made between the prihcefe Margaret and the king of Nor- 
way. Nay, they farther agreed to marry the Norwegian mo- 
^ narch to the princefs Eh'zabeib, fitter to the dukes ot Holbein. 
It was added, that if king Magnus (bould violate the condi- 
tions of this treaty, his fubgedls (hould be abfolvedfrom their 
allegiance. However, the dfealh of Ericy which intervened, 
wrought a total alteration in thefe meafures« 

In the mean time a variety of crofs circumftances concur- 
red to prevent Faldemars return to Scbonen. The afllaffina- 
tion of the three deputies made a great noife ; the fuipicion 
lay upon him : it rendered his chara£ler defpicable, and he 
found it abfolutely neceiTary to vindicate his innocence, and 
bring the whole affair to light. His enemies were already 
numerous among his own fubjefts, and this greatly aug- 
Valdemar mented the number of difafFeSed in Jutland. His fixft ftep 
purges ^as to affirm publicly, on oath, before Canute^ fon to one 
htmfelfby Qf the murdered deputies, that the crime was committed with - 
oath of an ^^^ his orders, confent, and knowledge. He next vowed 
acci^atton ^^ ^^^ ^ poffible endeavours to difcover the criminals, and 
pj muraer^ ^^^^^ them with all the rigour that injured majefty, as 
well as the heinoufnefs of the ofFence, recjuired or would al- 
low. Duke Chrijiopher likewife engaged to regard Canute 
as his brother, and every poffible means was ufed to oblite-' 
rate his refentment, and remove all fufpicion from the king. 
Gained over by thefe aflurances, Canute promifed, on his 
part, to ufe all his endeavours to bring the nobility and 
people of Jutland to a right fenfe of their duty and obedience 
to the king. 

VALDEMAR found it more difficult to perfuadethefathef 
afU^on Stigoty another of the affaffinated deputies, of his 
innocence. This nobleman had other caufes of difcontent, 
and ufed this pretext to purfue the di(Jlates of his refentment, 
and fpirit up the Jutlanders to revolt. Finding him inexor- 
able, the king took different meafure$. He confifcated bis 
eftate in Zealand^ and annexed it to the crown, reducing 


The Hijicry of Denmark. ali jr 

&i|0/ to the necdSty of living upon the fmall fortune be 
pouifled in Jutland. 

Thus begun the troubles m Jutland, which diverted the^^i**5^ 
ling from purfuing the conqueft of Schcwn. Under pre- ^^ ""^»^^' 
tencc of public feSival3» the Jutlandtrs covered fecret con-'^J'* "• 
ferences they held with feveral neighbouring princes, whoni 
they engaged to fupport them : among thefe were the princes 
oiHolftein and the duke of Mecklenburg. The latter equip- 
ped a fquadron, embarked fome land forces, and failed for 
Fionia^ on which be made a defcent. His fucceis was equal 
to the terror which fo fudden an invafion occalloned ; for af- 
ter taking a number of towns, and ruining almoft all the 
villages, he returned accompanied by a variety of prifoneiv 
ofdiftinSion, whom be kept as hofiages to fecure thefub* 
mii&on of the inhabitants. 

Nor was Jutland in more tranquility. The king and '' 

, many of the inhabitants were difpofed to pacific meafures; 

but a number of courtiers reprefented to his majefty, that it 

would redound more to his. glory if he reduced the malcon- 

\ tents by force of arms : b^hdes, this was the lead punifii* 

!inent the nature of their offence merited. On the other 

hand, there were not wanting a number of feditious perfons 

in Jutland^ Mrho reprefented to the people their deplorable 

Ticuation, exaggerated every falfe meafure of the court, and 

! encouraged them to hazard all rather than furrender their 

I liberties. 

In this manner it was that both fides were determined ta 
decide their diiFerences by the fword. Valdemar detached be- 
fore him a body of troops, who without watting for a rein* 
for<^ement began the fiege of Randerfen ; but it was not lon^ 
before they fufFered the reward of their temerity. The be- 
fieged made fo brifk a fally, that after great flaughter they 
put the whole body of Danes to flight: however, as they 
were fodn joined by a fre(h fuppfy of troops from the king, 
they found themfelves in a condition to atteniipt feveral other 
fortrefles, fome of which they carried fword in hand« 

Ti?|s was the iflue of the Jutland expedition, the ill 
fuccefs of which it pleafed Providence to augment by 
other unexpeded misfortunes. Peter Jernjkeg^ made prifoncr 
by tb^ inhabitants t^Wifmar, had indeed recovered his liberty, 
to the great joy of Valdemar ; a circumftance which the king 
valued above the conqueft of the whole province. He was 
truly an experienced officer and faithful fubje^, and his 
majefty much wanted the good offices of fuch a fervant, as 
new revolts every day appeared in different quarters of his do- 
minions ; but CalffErlahd^ goveriipr oiRipen^ bad furrendered 
3 that 

^6i The Hiftory ^ Denmark. 

that city to the princes of lioijleihj receiving frbm than iis tlift 
price of bis fidelity, the inveftiture of tWo |oV^fnm^ntli 
Moreover, the inhabitants no fooner perteivM the kihg's 
troops embarked for iLealand^ than they d)r6Vfe his gamfottt 
out of the towns he pofleflcd. To this Vlras fubjohltd iirolhet 
misfortune ; his fleet was ovei-takfcn in a ftorm, in which (jut 
of the (hips with her whole crew perifhed*. 

VALDEMAky on his return to Zealand^ fays P^rtaJw, 
created his fon ChriJIopher^ duke of Laalahd^ : hencfe It^ 
pears that the king made this e^edition ih peribn, though tt 
hiftorian direSly affirms it. The y6ung prrrtcc, on takiti^ 
pofleffion of his new dignity, cortferrfed feveral ptivilegCsS 
the dergv, the better to gain their ifftaions, the ftrbngdl 
tye by which he cfould bind the biclinations of the people. 
-. . . After this he accompanied his father, who paiied With a pot* 
Valdcmar ^^j-^j ^^^^ ^^ Schoneriy with a refoldtion tt> effea the filial ton- 
&:honta ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ province : a meafure that muft appear ttciraor- 
dinary, if we reflcS on the fituation ift ^ich he left %• 
land. Helfmburg was clofely befieged, and the attack p&A 
with fuch vigour, that Magnus^ who came to its rclifef, # 
ipairing of fuccefs, embraced that opportunity of recondfiflt 
bimfelt to Valdemar. He offered not only to put him in prf 
feffion of Helfmburg^ but to rcftore ihfe rell: of the provihd^ 
on condition that the ancient treatv (hould be renewed; tU^ 
the two crowns fhould mutually affift each Other itptjn all occi' 
fions J and that the contraS between the princefs Marprt 
, and the king of Norway ihould agarti be figned. Hb propo 
ials were accepted ; and both parlies having confirmed tk 
agreement by oath, Valdemar made his public entry into ^ 
finbnrgy and received the allegiance of the inhabitants, ft 
next proceeded to reduce all the towns and caftles In ^fcJSSsA 
of the nobility of the province, Who refufed to acknov^ltJgt 
his fovereignty ; and at length fucceed(^ by threats, prooiS^ 
iand force. 

This expedition was followed by a peace* The dukferf 
Meckknburgy and cities of FomerOnia^ made peace feparitely 
with VaUemar^ to which 2III who ha* iiny differences \frirh 
the king, were invited to accede. ErUmd taljF accepted tte 
invitation, made his peace With the king, and brou^t over 
with him not only the towh df Ripin^ but the two prefeflura 
given him by the princes of tioljiiin ; Updn Which the king 
pleafantly obferved, that thfe furnime Caff ftiould ntiii be 
given to the prince of Hoifleiri, for ftiftferinghrrtifeff tobe 
thus outwitted. He like wife told the peffoii who firft \xm^ 

* L. viii. 


The Hiftory q/ Denmark; 26§ 

[m Ac news, ** Ay, niy ^^^ was ftrayod, but my fw U re- 
" turne4, and that cow has produced two calves j" a joko, 
(b;^t is wholly loft in the tranflation, and indeed but very 
lodiSerent in the original, 

• It wa§ fpecified ifi the king's writd that this diet was to ^ jj 
picet ^ Ne^hurg : how it came to he tranflatcd to CalUnkurg^ ^ '^* 
mlcpownot} but here the king, met the dukes^of Z^^«/0»^^ 
I^Tii/ici, and the deputies Qf Ifolftm, It was unanimoufly 
l^rmined, that the laws and con(li\utj^ns of the realm, aH 
modelled by Valdemar II. fhould be reftored to their fqrmef 
ttgour. That the duke of SUfwick^ bis children, heirs, and 
.|j^ecj3, (hould cnjpy the fame rights and privileges as their 
apceftors. That the rights pf the clergy fhould be put on th« 
fptientfopting^ and preibrYed in their full extent. That the 
a\>(isnt biihops ihould be obliged to fubfcriU: to thefe articles, 

a order to be entitled to the benefit of the laws. That 
the fubjefb of Denm^k^ prote£led by her laws, &ould 
,4bfcribe to fupport them. . That the knights, gentlemen^ 
.liMrgbers, and peafants, Oipuld be maintained in ail their privi- 
\ l^ges. Tha( the diet of the ftates, which, according to law* 
I ought to be held at Neciwg^ fhould, for the three following 
! y^rsy be held at CalMurg ; after which time it ihould bo 

|r^p{lated toNiohurg. Laftly, that wbpever (hould prefume to 
l|£l otberwiCe than he i$ direfUd by the laws, fhould be punifh* 
; f(| witl> their utmpft rigour^ and fqffer aU the penalties ex« 
] |irpfled in them* 

It was foon after this diet, that bis majefly was pleafed 
'; U> exempt the citizens of Lundm and MalrnQgen^ from all du-^ 

t^ and impofts in all the ports of I)^nmari. After this he 
; endeavoured, with the confent of Magnus^ to gain the intire 
'^ gofleffion of Sfhonen and Bkking. He had reftored to him the 
, original contraft with the earl oifVagrtay and the aft whereby 

U^ inhabitants put tbcmfelves itnder the Swe£Jh govern- 


Q^ the other hand the Swioes murpured at their king's 
ppceedings, and the facility with which he furrendered fo fine' 
sj prpvin^e. In deriifion they gave him the furname o(Smeei^ 
becaufe he laid himfelf fo open (o the fmooth adalation 
of VoUemar^ who knew how to make his advantage of thiji 
<jirpoftt)Qn, It muft be owned, that inftsmces of fuch mode< 
ration are uncommon, Pripces are generally moft tenacious 
of poffeffions they have unjuftly ufqrped, and (tw there are 
but would chufe rather to extend theif dominions than their 
reputation, m a}l their virtues are weighed in the^* fcale <tf 

' • MfitTRS. 1. iv, 


'^yo ^^ Hijlory of Denmark. 

power. Magnus did no more than ^txQ. juftice required ; and 
were the Swedijh hifibrians impartial, chey would have ex- 
claimed with leG violence agatnft the eafy temper of their 
king. When firft he promifed reflitution of ScboneHy it was 
to engage the alliance of Valdemar againft his fbn ; and whea 
he performed his promife, it was only furrendering volunta* 
lily what he found he could not maintain by arms. Thus, 
on whatever fide we view the tranfadion, the refiitiitioo of 
Sehonen feemed to be neceilary, and it certainly was equi- 
A. D. Notwithstanding the harmony between Valdemar and 
1361! Magnasy it was not long before the two kingdoms came to a 
Rupture rupture. Magnus had refolved to punifli his fubj.e£ls for rai- 
heirwun fing his fon Ex'tc to the throne ; and'likewife to put it out of 
Denmark their power again to divide the fovereign authority. For thb 
i^i^Swe- purpofe.he ftudied to render himfelf abfolute, by abolifhiog 
^'^^ the fenate. His fubje6ls, jealous of their liberties, watched 

all his motions, and prepared to fap his projeds ; particularly 
the inhabitants of the iflands of Gothland and Oeland^ who, 
puiFed up with riches, defpifed the empty title of king. In 
this perplexity Magnus engaged his ally, the kingof jD^;w«ari, 
to take arms to chaftife his infolent fubjeds. This was the 
real caufe of the rupture, which made Sweden^ for a number of 
^ years, the theatre of blood, tumult, and all the horrors of a 
domeflic and foreign war \ though fome writers fcruple not to 
affirm, it had its birth from delaying the marriage between 
the prince fs Margaret and the king of Norway. 

VALDEMAR begun his operations by ravaging the ifle of 
Oeland^ where he cut in pieces fifteen hundred of the inhabi- 
tants who oppofed him. Thence he ihade a defcent on the 
liland of Gothland^ and engaged the enemy in three difierent 
battles, which cod them the lives of near two thoufand 
fficn. l^hefe advantages having rendered him mafter of the 
open country, he approached ^he fortified towns^ and particu- 
larly ^yS;^, capital of the ifiand, with intention to inveft it^ 
but the inhabitants, intimidated by the prefence of an army> 
fluflied with repeated vi<iii^ory, opened their gates, and offered 
honourable propofals. Valdemar giving no ear to them, or* 
Wifbv dered a part of the walls to be demolifhed, made his army en* 
plundered. ^^^ ^y ^^® breach, pillaged the immenfe wealth of the city, and 
embarked with the richeft booty, that had for many years been 
brought into Denmark. One of his ihips, laden with gold 
and lilver vefiels, and all the rich ornaments of the cathedra), 
was fliipwrecked on the ifland of Carlfen. Pontanus relates, 
that before Valdemar* s departure from PViJby^ he entered into 
aa alliancswicii (he inhabitants, whom he confirmed in all 


) _ 

^be Hifiary cf Dmm2Lrk. 271 

l^eir privileges; but this probably /elates to ahorber voyage 
which he made thither. Among other immunities he grant-' 
ed them the fame freedom of trade in hia^ ports as the fub- 
ie£ts of Denmark^ fuiFering them like wife to coin money, a 
A-iviiege which had been denied them by their natural fove* 

As fome of the merchants of thofe maritime to\^ns, which 7-^^ ^^^a 
low began to t^ke the appellation of han/k, had been treated to<wns ^- 
frilh the fame rigoiir as the citizens of ff^i/iyt they determined c/are war 
iai feek their revenge. Their firft ftep was to fcize upon all on Valdc- 
he Danijh (hips in their ports, and to confifcate the eiFeds of mar, 
iie Dtfff/^ merchants ; after which' they declared open war 
pen the kings. Such was their policy, that they drew into 
heir alliance the king of Norway^ the dukes of Mecklenburg 
and Hol/feirij with feveral other princes, to whom they gave 
the command of their fquadrons. The regency of Luhec 
* armed a fquadron at its own ex pence, of which John Witten^ 
' burg their conful was appointed admiral. 

Matters being thus difpofed, the allies put to fea, at«> 
tacked Haffnia^ took the citadel, and plundered the city. 
: Thence they (leered for Hxlfmhurg^ which they befieged with 
' great vigour ; but while the land-forces were employed in > 
' carrying on their approaches, Valdemar attacked the fquadron 
,cf Lubec^ took fix (hips, burnt feveral others, and forced the 
enemy to raife the^iege. Crantzius alledges, that the Danijh 
fleet was commanded by Chri/lopherj who received a wound 
' in tbe engagement, while the king his father put himfelf at 
the head of a numerous land-army (A). The regency of £«- A. D. 
hec were fo incenfed at this defeat, that, accufmg the admiral 1362, 
of negle^ of duty, they ordered his head to be ftruck off. 

HENRT of Holftein^ to wipe olF the difgrace his troops 
fuftained before Heljinburgy l^id fiege to Wardenburg ; but with 
no better fuccefs ; for the garrifon made (b furious a fally, that 
he was compelled to break up the fiege» with prodigious lofs. 
This he did on condition that the governor would fet his pri- 
foners at liberty 5 but receiving a reinforcement, he broke thc^ 
capitulation, returned to the fiege, and pu(hed it with re- 
doubled vigour. His condud irritated the governor £> muchf ^ 
that he determined on his revenge. Feigning that be was 

(A) To the confequence of writer takes any notice of his 
iKii wound Cffintztuf afcribes ' wound ; and all affirm, that he 
the death of Qhriftopher^ which died two years after at Haffhia^ 
happened according to . him of an ardent fever (i). 
about this time : yet no Danijb 

{i) Meurf, /» iVt Ptntan,' I, ym, 


roiacti U> the laft extremity be dbfvcd tho duka ^w\i 
iome ofiiceB, into whofe hinds be tnight put t)ie W^ q| 
town he CQuld nd tonger defeii^*, ^ Jv^wrj, fallii^ in(9ij 
fnare, fent feveral of his {iBiiklpial cwcef$» ^j/iHom tb^ 
n^r cpmixiiu^d to prUbn« sifter having iirfi <iff)iifeffxl thi 
to them^ to avoid forfeiting his word. Stung with the 
Tit; (^ this rebuke of bia own pterfidjr* ^iifj brc^ n^ 
fidg^ a ffCQUd time^ ai^d ietited. , 
hi^e ccn- ' Not long after pt ace was conckwfed ; tiut w^ ,^^e Q^il 
«/2^<i(: informed of the circiiniftances nor eojiditions* VVni^ri ' 
relate, that the king of D^Hrnvrii ^ duk«e of ^ 
and his thren fpfls, Hnarjr, Mir^ itod 4^«B^» b^^^ 4^ 
view ; at which the jciog undert<iQk tQ pay a tboMCand 
in filver, which he had pix)mi(e4 Coir tb'e porlion of liis daiy)^ 
ter hg^urga ; to ]Fefloi» tbe i{Ie of BwkoM to the ^r5^ 
biOiop of Z«(«d^» QA QohditioA that th^ pr^lat^ would eo|er 
. into nQ ei^gageoients contrary to the intereft of tbe i^Pmi 
and would piit the ifland at)d all its fortreiles in|o the kap^ 
, of r^Wfw^r, or bis fooceflqrs, whenever it (hould Ue t^pagbt 

convenient for the fcfcurity ^iUmtnc^k \ 

About the fame time a treaty w^is conclMdf4 between tbi 
yng and the hanfertowns ; to wit, LuHc^ Stralfuj^y Gri^ 
t^ufldf and tiamburg. Qihers fay \% was only a truce* wfe«<?- 
by the prifoners on each iid^ VKc;re fef ^t liberty, an4 the as^^ 
chants oj eilbet party aliovi^ed mutually to irade for a c^rtsft 
tprm of years, without njcjleftation. 
Tie king of We have feen that the king of N^rvm was coitraflird ^ 
l^orway the princefs Margaret ; yet tp oblige the Sw^fi nation, w^ 
ireaksbii infiited on bis renouncing the alliance wuh JDieHm^i^ hecoo- 
^gage- fented to denriand in marriage the princef^ i?//gE4^/^ of J?^ 
ifftents to flein* Every circumftapce feemcd favourable to tbp cniidJJ- 
tbeprincejsf^ot^ pf this alliance, as both ihe Swfd^s and Hojft^crs ^m^ 
Margai-et. equally defirous of it. Already Hprmaifi thq S%Pfdifi> ambafi : 
fadcH-, had efpQufed the prince^ in the name qf his msfief^ 
She had been publicly declared the wife of H^cquittf an^ i^? . 
^ j)^ luted queen qf N^rtuay. She was notr eipbarkcd on tfcs 
I*5j] TrtfT/iJ tp pafi over to S^ifedtni but heaven difpofcd^ evcnft 
otfeerwife, ahd prevented the effefls of sdl thcfc la)wured ii- 
trigues. A viqlent ftorm drove the fljip on the «oaft of Df- 
mark : Valdeihar received the princefs with all the honours 
due to ber rank ; liut ftiH he kept her under a geotle m-, 
ftraint, until the nuptials of his daughter Margaret wkk tii6 
king of Sweden were celebrated, which happened 6fi the iA 
Sunday after Rogaiion-dayy in the year 1365-6, 

*' PoiiTAir. 1. vii}. 


^be Hiftory of fienibarfc; %j^ 

HE publk joy copfequent on this tran(a£lion was inter- 
d by the death of Chrijiophtr^ and his mother the queen, 
poflefled of the afFedtions of the people ; and the former 
ice of great and pronrifing expeSation. 
Awards the end of this year a treaty was concluded be^ 
i Denmfxrk and the cities of Vandalia^ the particulars of 
are not very material to the defign of our hiftory. Fo- » 
;H authors likewife take notice of a journey to Ghent which 
'mar performed this year^ though we are not told what 
his motives. Here^ it is faid, he was met by Lujignan 
of Cyprus^ who came to fqlicit hfs aid againft the Sara- 
It is remarkable that no Danijh hiftorian takes any no* 
of this circumftance, though they all relate an interview 
'4iad the following year with the emperor Charles IV. at 

ShTLt John of Wagria dying this year, Valdemar concluded ^* ^* 
a ti^^ with his fon AMphus^ to whom he ceded the ifland '3^4* 
Fefkttpiy on the fame conditions his father had held it. A few 
claufts however were added, prohibiting Adolphus from inter- 
fering in the difpute between Denmariy Holjiein^ Sweden^ 
and Norway^ about the marriage of the princefs Margaret. 
It was likewife fubjoined, that the king (hould a£l in quality 
of umpire, fhould any diiFerences arife between the dukes of 
faxony^ Mecklenburg, Stetin, and bifhop Canute^ who, in their 
turn, flipuld decide any future difputes between the king and 
the earl. 

This, treaty was fucceeded by a renewal of the truce with Refiluti^ 
he cities of Vandalia ; for thefe cities being in league with of the 
he hanfe- towns oi Germany , complained, like them, of iYit han/e'citiei 
jolence committed on the hanfe-merchants at fViJby. They to declare 
ilfo fent deputies to the general aflembly held by thefe towns '^^ •« 
It Cologne, to provide far the fecurity of their commerce. Valdenaar. 
Phe ftnai determination of this aflembly, at which the deput- 
ies of above eighty cities attended, was to declare war upon 
'Denmark, At firft Valdemar defpifed fuch enemies, imagin- 
ng he had nothing to fear from the confederacy of fo many 
ities removed at fo great a diftance from each other, and 
^ayed by particular and contrary Intereils ; yet the event pre-, 
ented his remaining long in his error, and proved to what a 
eight of power induftry and commerce are capable of raiflng 
le moft infignificant corporations. The formidable fleet 
ley equipped at Campeny[ and the ftrong fquadron fitted out 
t the fame time by the Vandal cities, evinced him of the dan- 
:r that impended, opened his eyes to their drength, and in« 
need Jbim to apply to the duke oiStetin to negotiate a peace, 
lid jrii^e the firft overtures. 


Hist. Vol. XXXII. T BAR- 


$74 ^i Hificryof Denmark.' 

Valdemar BARNIM*s endcavoan were not fniitlefi. He roana^ 
obtains matters with fuch addrefs, that a truce was concluded ^\ 
peace. the cities of Lubtc^ RoftBck^ Wifmarj Stralfund^ Griphclk 
Colhergj Stetin^ Anclamy and KUl^ beginning with the ti^if 
St, John this year, and continuing for. the fpace of three yeanf 
during which time the merchants on each fide ihould tak 
freely ; purfue the herring and other fiiheries ; cultinli 
every branch of commerce as ufual on the high feas, and i| 
each other's ports ; nuitually fend judges to Sch&nen^ lodei 
cide all .differences which (hould happen to ariie between # 
fiibje£ls of each, excepting capital crimes. It was likenl 
ftipulated, that the prifoners on both fides fiiould be feti 
liberty ; and that if any of the cities included in thb tM| 
fliould in the mean time take part with the enemies of ifa^ 
mark^ the reft (hould fend the ftipulated fuccours to thekj^i 
otherwife the truce ihould be void, and this contrail of mi* 
fed. A number of princes were named as guaranties of Adi 
truce, all of whom folemnly fealed it, fwearing to theobfa*! 
vance of the feveral articles. 

During this negotiation It was that Valdemar went ti 

Prague^ whither the emperor invited him, to honour by hi 

prefence his nuptials with Elizahith^ daughter to the duke if 

Pomeranta ^. While he refided at this court, the imiptioi 

tjiilti^ BankxriaHt into Nuremberg and Siiria^ fumiflied iui 

with an opportunity of performing fignal fervices to the ci 

pi re; in acknowledgment of which Charles ordered tbeU 

of fixteen thoufand filver marks to be paid to the king of Ai 

mari, and the ufiial tribute levied on the city of LuteCi toll 

mortgaged to him until the complete payment of the aM 

fum. This, indeed, was no more than a confirmation of^ 

deed made by Eric of Saxenf fourteen years before, wheoli 

received the inveftiture of Brandenburg from hii brother. I 

A. D. VALX>EMAK% fir(l bufinefs, on retucning from Gmm^ 

J 365. was to ratify the truce concluded with the Vandei cities by i 

mediation of the duke of Steiin^ fiut as the truce finally^ 

teriiiined nothing, and the parties were at liberty t9 rtcott! 

mence hoftilities at the end of three years, it was refoivdti' 

convert it into a folid and durable peace, wbiebwascM 

without lofs of time< 

Maenos VALDEMAK% abfence proved fatal to Magnus ; for wl* 

«/^ Sweden ^^ was amufing himfelf at the emperor's couct, AtSffffJf 

depofed. naonarch loft his.crown; the people having ele&ed iA lii> 

room Albert^ fecond fon tothedukeof j^fi/r»&«r^, and n^ 

phew to Magnus^ iti prejudice of the rights of Hmifd^ » 

^ Hift. Ecclcf. 1. xcvi. c viii. 



f" ■ 

Tbi Hiftory cf Denmark, > 475 

Notw^^ ztiA Henry^ the elder brother of Albert • Magnus t 
faovirever, was ftill acknowledged king in a part of his domi- 
nions : feveral lords of the &rft quality followed his fortune^ 
and he r efolved to make vigorous efforts for the recovery of his 
throne* With this View be foHcited fuccour from Valdemar^ Valdemaf 
and his (on Hacqmn king of Norway. The former fent him affifts 
a body of auxiliaries, <and the latter marched at the head of Magnus, 
an army to his father's affiftance. Magnus took the field, 
eave battle, was defeated, and conducted prifoner to Stock-' 
hdnsy where he was confined for the fpace of feven years, and 
at length delivered By his fon Hacquin* 

ALBERT^ dreading left Valdemar (hould engage as a prin- 
cipal in this quarrel, and join his forces to Hacquin*s to procure 
the old king's liberty, fet every engine at work to effefi a peace 
between the two crowns. He propofed, with the confent of Valdemar 
the fenate, to yield in perpetuity to Valdemar the ifland of ^^'^ 
Gatblani^ with the city of ^j^f, Verandia\ Windovia^ Mar^^^&^^^» 
da^ the fortrcfs of Elburgy a moiety of Heljingia^ with the . °^' 
territory of Heljinburg^ excepting onJy Laddehus. This cef- s^honen 
fion was made on condition that Valdemar would leave Albert ^, ^ ^^^^^ 
in the quiet poliemon of the crown, and renounce all preten- p^^^^ 
lions to the dutchy of Mecklenburg^ the county of Schwerin^ A. D* 
and the lordihip oiRoftocky which were to remain whole and 1366. 
intire, iinalienably in the family of Mecklenburg. By the fame 
treaty king M>erty the duke his father, and his brothers, con- 
fented that the fortrefs of IVardberg fhould infeparably be an* 
nexed to the crown of Dmmark, and the province of Hallandp 
pron^fing never to give the Danes any difturbance on that ac- 
oooht. They befides obliged themfelvcs not to fet Magnus at 
liberty, until he had ratified what they had here contra£led ; 
nor to make peace with Hacquin until he acceded to the grant9 
fpectfied in the above treaty, and gave fecurity for performing 
hisr agreement. A&ert moreover bound himfelfybpth iq his 
own and in the fenate and people of Swedet^s name, to remain 
in perpetual amity with Valdemar and his heirs, fubmltting all 
dt^nences, which in courfe of time might arife, to the arbi* 
ftratian of a certain number of the nobility of both kingdoms^ 
Xhus we tec Valdemar^ like a true politician, profiting by the 
misfortune of a neighbouring king, the injuries done to his 
fbn*in-law, and the violences committed againft faith, the 
laws of nature and of nations. For the addition of fonie ia« 
confiderable territories to bis doiiiimons, he falfified his eiH , 
^gements to Magnus^ relmquiflied the rights of his fon-ia« 
law, contraOed a ftrifi friendihtp with an ufurper, and coun« 
tenaneed a whole nation in the horrid crime of rebellion: but 
what will not ambicioiii iuid the luft of power, effe£fc ! 

T a Ik 

%y6 7 be Hiftory of Denmark. 

A. D. In confequencc of this treaty, Denmark paflecl (he follow- 
1367. ing year in profound tranquillity. Neither the people not 
neighbouring ftates murmured, and Valdemar refigncd his 
whole attention to the regulation of domeftic aiFairs. But 
ITAf Jut- ^j^jg ^jjjj^ ^^ Qf j,^ j^pg duration. In the year 1668, the 
landers r^- ^^jjijity ^f J^fiand revolted, and feduced a great part of the 
T ' ^tw- P^^P'^ ^^ ^^^^ intereft. This would, however, have given W» 
irfuled' ^'w^'' hut little trouble, had not the princes of Holfleiny ia 
liancis. ^^^'^^ "'"^' manner, taken up arms in behalf of the rebels, 
Their example was followed by the Vandal cities, and a fa» 
mid able league formed, before Valdemar was fcarce apprtzel; 
of the infurredion. They had mutually contradied to ai!bfi 
the duke of Slefwtck all manner of affiftance, and that none 
of the powers fliould make peace with Denmark y but by the 
joint confent of all. In the next place, the princes of Hi*. 
Jiein engaged to the duke of Slefwick to labour with all thei{| 
power to re-efiablifh the nobiKty of Jutland in all the prifi* 
leges 'which they ever enjoyed, and to maintain in full force 
the' laws pafied by Valdemar IL 
J/ormid' Insensibly all the enemies of Valdemar acceded to thij 
alle league treaty. This old duke of Mecklenburg^ and his fons Haai 
againji and MagnuSy under pretence of fever^ infradions of, the iati 
Denmark, treaty, formed a league oflFenfive and defenfive with thepowes 
already named, on the fame conditions Ve have mentiond 
promifmg likewife to draw Albert king of Sweden into tbedi 
liance. In eiFe£t, that prince readily embraced their p4 
pofals ; and it was fiipulated, that the conquefts which mi^ 
be made in courfe of the war, (hould be divided in the loao 
A. D. ner following : King Albert was to pofiefs all the conquefts I 
^ 3^9- Schtmen^ and the ifland of Gothland, Zealand^ and the iflandc 
Faljlrey were deftined to the duke of Mecklenburg, Jutlm 
Fioniay and Langlandy were to be divided between the prince 
ofHolJieiny with this provifo, that they (hould make no chaoj 
in the laws and cuftoms of the people^ I'o fuch excefs in 
thefe princes and cities carried their perfidy, as to renouBH 
the oaths they had fo lately taken to preferve perpetual amit 
with Denmark ; and fuch was Valdemar*^ reward for that an 
natural treaty he had formed with Albert. 
For the more certain execution^of their projed, the allifll 
, concluded a treaty of peace with Hartwick of Ravendfdorfu 
whereby they granted him free leave to trade wherever i0 
thought fit, provided he would obftrud none of the conquefir 
they meditated. The treaty being iigned, each prepared Kf 
aft his part; The Vandal cities infefted Valdemar^s coafe 
with a eonfiderable fleet. King Albert entered Schohen with 
an army, and reduced jyiedy Ealfterboy Scanor^ and fome other 


Tbellifiofy of Denmzrk. 277 

places. The princes of Holftiin^ affiftcd by thtyutlanJ nobi- 
lity, attacked the king's garrifons in North Jutland. 

At the fight of a league fo formidable, f^aldemar's courage Valde- 
and prefence of mind forfook him. Finding himfelf unable to mar'/ cou» 
refift fuch a cloud of enemies, he determined to abandon all, ragedeferts 
and make a journey to Rome^ under pretence of a vow he had himj^and 

. takei). He flattered himfelf, that his abfence would abate the t>efliei the 
fury of his enemies ; and that his fenate, on which he con- ^^Z^^^- 
fcrred full powers to tranfaft a peace on any terms, would find 
means to accommodate matters. His refolution was weak and 
pufillanimous ; but it anfwered his expedlations. Hemming 
Pcdejberejh^ grand marechal of Denmark^ engaged the Vandal 
cities to fend deputies to Stralfundy to deliberate, in conjunct 
tion with certain Danijh nbblemen, on the means of ending a 
deftru6live war, to their mutual advantage. A treaty of peace A. D. 
ivas accordingly concluded, on condition that the Vandal ci- 1370. 
ties fhould, for the term of fifteen years, hold the towns of 
Heljinburgy Melmogen, Scanor^ znd Fai/ierloi but that the P'/''^^*'^ . 
(iibjedis of Denmark fliould have free liberty of trade into thefc ^^^^''' 
ports during this period. This treaty the Dam;fh deputies en- 

'' g^g^^l (o ^^ve ratified by the king within thV fpace of fix 
months. / 

5 VJLDEMAR m the mean time refided at the emperor's 
court. Here he ftopt in his way to Rome^ and fo pathetically 

' reprefented to his imperial majefty the deplorable condition to, 
which he was reduced by the revolt of his fubjedls, and the 

> powerful league formed againft him, that this prince, moved 

'with his diftrefs, -wrote to his uncles the margraves oiMifnioy 

ithe dukeof5/^/m, zn6 Adolphus oi Holftein^ to arm all their 

'forces \t\ his defence, and to aid and aflift him by all poffible 

-mieans in reducing his rebellious fubjeds. 

Whether Vaidemar's fears had quite blinded his under- 
ftanding, or whether he placed but little confidence in thefe 
fuccours, or, laftly, whether he chofe to unite policy with 

: force, certain it is that he purfued his intention of engaging 
the pope's intcreft. For this purpofe he , fent an ambafly, 
laden with rich prefents, to Gregory XI. befeeching him to 
interpofe his authority to quiet the difturbances in his domi* 
ntons. He laid afide the tlfbughts of going in perfon thither, 
and he foon had reafon to congratulate himfelf on this refolu- „ 
tion 5 for his ambaffadors found this father of the faithful hux. ^^f"^' 
little difpofed to aas of compaflion. In a word, Gregory xt-*^ ^^^ ^^f'* 
fufcd to intermeddle, under pretence of- being able to form no^/ ^^' . ^ 
judgment from the relation of only one party. He ofiered,*^^^^^^y ' 
however, to give his opinion as foon as he flhould be ac» /^ ^^^ ^ 

T 3 quainied^„y^ 

lyS ^tfe Hijtoty cf Denmark. 

qaatntcd with what the king's fuljeds^ and the united powen, 
had to advance in their own vindication. 

The Jutland nobility were no fooner informed of the 
pope's anfwer, than they difpatched proper perfons to explain 
the nature of their grievances, and the motives for their con- 
dud, both to the emperor and his holinefs. Th^ com- 
plained to the p6pc of the heavy taxes which he owinatdy 
impofed on ali his fubje£ls, and of the frequent wars which 
his turbulent difpofition drew upon him with the neighbouring 
fiates. In (hort, th^ deputies found means to make the pope 
comprehend'the full weight of their reafoning, in confequcnce 
of which he wrote to Valdemary exhorting him to akcr hij 
turbulence into tranquillity, and violence into gentle inea' 
fures, threatening to excommunicate him if he did not imme- 
diately obey. The king was naturally paiSonate, and too 
lively to contain his temper within the bounds of moderation. 
Without a moment's reflcfbion he fat down, and anfweredtiic 
pope's letter in the following terms : • 
Valdc- ' VALDEMARy king, Wr . to the pope of Rome^ fends heal*. 

mar*/ ^/- * Our life we owe to God, our kingdom to our fubjeds; 
r/W an- * wealth we inherit from our parents, and our faith from your 
/iver to the * anceflors, which we return to you by thefe prefents, fliouU 
fop€. < you think the obligation too confiderable.' 

An anfwer that is related of Faidemarh and more fuitabb 
to the greatnefs of his foul (A). Imperious and difrefjpedfol 
as it was, it did not furprife his holinefs. He knew that VM' 
TMr had received his education at the court of the empeiot 
Lewisy who was eternally involved in difputes with theHoIf 
See. He was well acquainted with the haughtinels and in 
petuofity of the king's difpofition : it was therefore judgo 
not advifeable to employ his fpiritual thunder againft a prince 
* who refpeded his authority fo little, that its terror, foundefl 
in fuperftitious reverence, would be loft. Vet was ValitfMf 
bigotted in a high degree : we have feen him make unfesfao- 
able pilgrimages. and expeditions from motives of rcligiopi 
but his piety was by iits» and, like all his other paffions, vio* 
lent. Lately he had been immerfed in a fea of politics ani 
intrigue, which afforded no leifure for devotion ; and his l^ 
fytO. for the head of the church Vanifhed with his religion. 

(A) Saxo Grammaiicus relates third's reign, centuries after Mi 
the fame ftory of Faidemar I. death ? Pontanui mentio&s it ifl 
and it is probably true of him both reigns, without taking no- 
only ; for how (hould the hifto- tice of the repetition j and ^ 
rian come to the knowledge of is copied by Mmrfiui andodjtf 
what happened in Vddemar the writei^. 


i'bi Hifiay of Dcnmztk: a 7^ 

The peace which the grand marefchal conduded with the 
- f^andal citicsj was a deciflve blow to the league. It was no 
looiier peroeiyed that they detached themfelves from the alii* 
suicey than the reft of the parties diftrufiing each other^ and 
perhaps intimidated by the emperor's menaces, left Dutmark 
in tranquillity, and Valdimar leave to return. Immediately 
iie confirmed the treaty of Stralfund^ and procured an inftru* 
ment from the hanfe-towns, whereby they promifed reftitution 
of the places put into their hands for the term of fifteen years. 
'Phtis ended this formidable war, which had driven Valdemar 
sftomr his own dominions, and marked his character with an 
indelible ftain. 

SoMK writers take notice of a body of auxiliaries he lent 
Hacquin to attempt the recovery of his father's liberty, and of 
a kind of war which he carried on in Friifeland ; but the par* 
ticylars we find no where related. What we know for certain 
iSy that Valdimar^ terrified with the remembrance of the late 
combination, f^udied to pais the remainder of his days in 
tranquillity. He dreaded lofing a, crown in his old age, which 
be had acquired and maintained with b> much toil and labour. 
Some years before, he had built a beautiful country-feat in the 
neighbourhood^ of Hiljinburgy called Gurrea; here it was that A. t}* 
he breathed his laft, after a tedious illnefs, in the thirty -fifth 137^. 
, jrear of his reign. From the time of his return from the em- Valde- 
peror's court, he was conflantly affliSed with the gout ; re- maP/ 
courfe was had to a variety of medicines, without eiFe6i. Atdfatb ond 
laft an empiric offered his infalhble fpecific, the dofe was ad- charaS^* 
, miniftered, the king left to his repofe, and found dead in his 
.bed a few hours after (B). Thus ended the life of Valdemar^ 
a prince greatly celebrated by the Dantjh hiftorians, as the 
renorer of their monarchy, which had fo long been, divided 
among a number of petty ufurpers and tyrants. He attempted 
the re-union of his dominions, and purfued it with a perieve- 
rance that infured fuccefs ; but more by the juftice of his 
fchemes-, by his vigilance and conflancy, than by force of 
arms. In this alone indeed was he confident, all the reft of 
bis condud betrayed an unfteady, flighty, and warm imagi* 
nation, ftrong paiSons, and violent prejudices, which ab- 
forbed every ray bf judgment and underftanding. He was at 
the fame time a ftrange medley of impiety and religious en- 
thufiafm, of incontinence with refpe^^ to women, and tem- 
perance in what regarded his palate ; in a word, his vices 

. (B) It is remarkable that the p urpofely confounded the ac« 
very fame ctrcumftance is related tions of thefe two princes. 
of Valdemarl^ as if hifkoriaas 

T 4 were 

aSo Tie Hijlery of Denmark. 

were extraordinary ; they poceedcd from caprice : bis trirtuet 
were noble, and the genuine offspring of his mind. His fpi^ 
rited an(wer to Gregory drew upon him the malice of the wri- 
ters of his-days ; in ours it will be deemed noble, firm, loifi* 
, We, and the moft ftriking circumftance in his character *. - 

Q I A U S V. 

Olaus V. VJLDEMAR left no male iffqe. Two fons, and the fame 
number of daughters died before him. Ingehurga^ the eldeft 
furviving daughter, married the duke of Mecklenburg^ and 
Margarety the younger, was queen-dowager of Norway^ the 
king her hufband having refigned his laft breath the year be- 
• fore. The diet met for the cledlion of a fucceflbr, and were 
perplexe4 in their choice. One party declared for Olaus kiiig 
ef Norway y and grandfdn to Vuldemar. He was the fon of 
the younger daughter, and confequently his right very doubt-r 
ful J but being already in poffeffion of Norway^ and having 
claims on the crown of Sweden^ as the younger fon of Mag^ 
nusy the ftates. were in hopes of one day feeing the two crowns 
united on the fame head. Another party urged, on the con- 
trary, that it was (hameful for Denmark to receive a king from 
The rea- Norway : that it was abfurd to unite two kingdoms, oppo- 
/ons fwhich flte in many of their laws and cuftoms, the one being eledive, 
fwayedtbe and the other hereditary. There were nobles in the kingdom 
» <*>^««/^tf/ worthy of the throne ; and the exertion of the privilege to 
eleSkn. c!e£l out of their own number, was a duty incumbent on 
the ftates. A third fafiion fixed their eyes on AU>ert of Meck^ 
Unburgy fon of Ingeburga, the eldeft daughter of Faldemar^ 
Hii right was uncontefted ; but this was a point not very ma-, 
tcrial in the Danifi form of government, though it was al- 
ways regarded as a collateral inducement in the choice of \ 
king. Difputes run high, and the diet broke up without cofti- 
jng to any determination. Qne remarkable a<a however paf- 
fed ; it was the reftitution of certain lands to the widow of 
Peter-Widy from whom it was feid Valdemar had unjuftly ex-? 
torted them. The reafon given for this decree was, that VaU 
demar^^ foul might not be torniente4 in the next world for an 
^Gt of injuftice and oppreffion .committed in this. 

The diet broke up without accomplifliing the intention of 
their meeting; it was not long, however, before that import 
tant* affair was determined. The bifliops, nobility, and com- 
mons of Jutland^ led the way ; they refolved to place Olaus 
. -m the throne; and, as if ail the reft of the kingdom had 

» VId.PQNTAj^. Meuhs. Crantz, ibid. 


. The Hificry of Denmark, aSi 

'vwitchcd the fignal from them, faftion was dropt, and the dif* 
ferent ifiands» provinces, and diftri£ts of Denmark ^ unani- 
mous in approving their choice. The terms in which the^in- 
babitants of Schonen couched thefr aiTent, may be feen in Pm* 
tanust and 'will ferve as a fpecimen of the form ufed on this 
occafion *• This elc<ftion was eftcemed the work of queen 
Margaret^ and the firft ftroke of her mafterly genius for the 
cabinet^ and link of that chain of intrigue, which founded 
the reputation of this great princcfs. y. 

OLAUS was but eleven years of age on his acceffion to ^ ^^ 
the throne ; Margaret therefore afiembled the ftates to ratify ^.g^g^ 
publicly what had only received the concurresce of the feve- ^ 
ral provinces, and to declare her regent during the minority 
of her fon.' Here he was again protlaimed, and folemnly 
crowned, Margaret likewife obtaining her end of holding the 
reins of authority until he arrived at age. Before this ailembly 
broke up, the king fwore to obferve the laws of Faldeniarlh 
in their full force, and made feveral additions to them, 
whereby the liberties of the. people in general, and particularly 
of the clergy, were enlarged. 

Immediately after the ceremony of the coronation was 
performed, Bugijlaus duke of Stetin and Pomerania^ and th^ 
prince oiRugen^ did homage to the young king. The latter 
acknowledged that he held his dominions as a fief of the 
crown of Denmark^ and folemnly engaged to ferve the king, 
whenever he was called upon againfl all his enemies. 

Scarce was Olaus firmly feated on the throne, before jtU ^^^ 
hirt the old duke of Mecklenburg made great preparations* Swedes 
zffXn&, Denmark^ to vindicate the right of his grandfoii to'*'*'^. ^ 
the crown. His Swedijh majefty took arms likewife in behalf 5^^^"^ . 
of his nephew, and a terrible ftorm threatened Olaus on^J^^J^' 
every fide. Providence however interpofed ; the Swedijh ^^^ ^^ j^a 
fleet viras difperfed and (battered in a hard gale ; the king"^ aflorm. 
was difcouraged from purfuing his defigns, and y//^^r/ finding 
himfelf alone too weak to combat with the whole force of 
JOenmark^ liftened,to terms of accommodation. A treaty was 
concluded, in which due regard was ihewn to the rights of 
both princes, and the people of Denmark confirmed in the 
full privilege of elefiion. Thus Olaus was continued king,', 
in.confequence of the people's choice, without injuring^/." 
berV% birthright. 

This year the i^^wit?/ cities demanded a renewal of the A. D.- 
treaty concluded with Valdemar ; their example- was followed/ \'in^^ 
by all th^ banfe-towns ; and the queen -regent granted theis 

» P0NTA19. I. vlii. p. 50;. 
. , requefl:, 

%Zz TbeHiJioryofDznmztk: 

requeft, not cbufing to engage in difputes with a body of 
^ merchaoU fo formidable for their wealth and alliances. 
A* 1^« N'EXT year was uihered in by the convocation of a giefieral 
'377 * diet, at which the king and queen-regent renewed their oalha 
to maintain the laws, and preferve the privileges of each par- 
ticular order of the people. To this oath the nobility ac- 
ceded, fwearing to hold as enemies to their country whoever 
Ihould violate it. All thefe proteftatbns were taken by the 
bifliops, who profited by the favourable conjundure for aug* 
CW>ff ^menting their own privileges and influence. Thearchbifiiop 
tii €kirgy. of Lunden was not forgetful of his particular intereft and the 
' good of the church. He procured a grant of the fourth 

part of the revenues of Lundtn^ under pretence that one of 
his anceftors had enjoyed it. The popes were the firft in 
' fiimulating the bi(hop8 not to labour in the vineyard of 

Chrift^ but to preferve as the apple of the eye all thofe ad* 
vanuges which the difturbed condition of the kingdom threw 
^ in their way. Their votes w^re numerous, their influence 
cxtenfive ; they were therefore advifcd to fell both to the 
higheft bidder, and put their own price on their favour. 
- Thus corruption flowed from the fountain of religion ; and 
th^fe who ohght to reform the manners of the people, led the 
way to venality, the fource of every diibcder and vice in a 
nation. The clergy were exhorted to bring within the pale 
of the church all the fubjefb of Dtnmark, and rather to re- 
fign them ovev to Satan, than yield the leaft tittle of their 
privileges. Such was the fubftance of Gregory the fecond's let- 
ters to the archbiihop Nicholas^ and fuch indeed' the purport 
of all the bulls of the holy fee. It was not poflible but that 
fuch conduft in the clergy would excite diflPerences between 
them and the court. In fa£l it did fo, and on the following 
occafton. Queen Margartt held her court at Lindhobn-y 
and the chapter of Lunden po^fefTed fome lands there. The 
fubjefis oft the chapter complained of fome oppreflions con- 
fequent on the vicinity of the court, and the archbiihop and 
chapter took part in their complaints. The affair became 
fierious $ but Margant^ to avoid difputes which might be at- 
tended with fatal confequences, ordered a redrefs of their 
grievances, punifhed the offenders, and took meafures for 
preventing the fubjeda of the chapter from fuffering for the 
future ahy inconvenience from the court (A). 

(A) The Danijh hiftorians of the year 1378, alihoughi'r- 
make the iirll mention of gun- frold Lindehurgh (i) fays, that it 
powder, among the tranfafiions was known and manufadlured 
(i) Pagi i©4. 


The Hijtory of Denmark; 28} 

' AfJRG//RET was queen-regent of Denmark and J^^^r- A. P. 
vjay^ feme writers alledging that Hacquin her husband died 1379^ 
before Valdemar ; while others relate with the . fame confi- Marga* 
^ence, that he was greatly inflrumental in raifmg his fon toretV/0%. 
tife crown of Dinmark. Be that as it will, {he had now die 
fupreme authority in both kingdoms, and begun planning die 
outlines of that great fcheme fhe afterwards efFefled, of 
. uniting the three northern crowns* It was necefiary firft to 
unite Denmark and Nprway^ with the mutual confent of 
both kingdoms. She fpoke of it to the principal noblemen^ 
and enlarged on the advantages that would neceflarily refult 
from fuch an union, with fo much eloquence and refine- 
ment, that they feemed to reViIix the propofal, though it was 
not put in execution till five years after» when the three 
crowns were united by the celebrated treaty of Caiman 

Whil£ Olaus was bufy in magnificent preparations for ^ ^* 
the funeral obfequies of his father in Norway^ the king of 13^^* 
Sweden embraced that opportunity of making an trniption 
into Schwen ; a circumftance which proves that Hacquin died 
later than the asra related by the Danijb hiflortans in general* 
Notwithftanding a truce which he figned with the archbifho|> 
of Lundgn, the governor, and principal nihility, be attacked 
and forced the refidence of 7%iy«« Gatien the governor. Yet 
we cainnot pofitively affirm whether thefe hoftilities proceeded 
originally from the Swedes^ or were the confequence of do- 
meflip h&\0Ti* Certain we are, that at the expiration of the 
truce, Albert entered the (;ouDtry openly with a powerful ar- 
my, took by aflault the fprtrefs of Laboboy and retreated on 
the approach of Margaret and the grand-marefchal, who de* 
termined to give him battle. 

In the year 1385, Olaus pafled fxoai Norway ta Scbcnen^ A. D. 
attended with a numerous retinue of the nobility of both king- 1385. 
doms. Here he received the allegiance of all die inhabitants Olaus sr^ 
of the province ; a ceremony that was thought necci&ry, as^w ^ 
the term for which feveral of the cities had been pledged iofi^^ff* 
the Vandals was now expired. The only tranfadion of im- 
portance in this reign was, however, of a nature that greatly 
derogates from the king's chaiader, who was nowof age» 

twenty years before at Lubect buftible in the Norths and 
where a powder-mill took fire quotes AcbilUs Gajfar^ an acco- 
and greatly damaged the city, rate hiftorian, in proof that the 
Pmttanus (2) has accurately in- Danes knew the nfe of powder 
quired into the firlt difcovery and cannon as early as tiie year 
and ofe of this dreadfiil com- 1354. 
{%) Pmam I, viii. 


f84 ^^ Hiftory ^/Denmark. 

and appears extremely inconfiftent with the known prudence 
and policy of Margaret, Henry duke of Slefwhk dying with- 
out ifllje> the dutchy reverted in full right to the crown of 
Denmark, Yet did Olaus^ with his mother's approbation and 
theconfentof the fiates, grant the inveftiture of it to G^- 
hardy fon to Henry of HolJUin^ the inveterate enemy of his 
crown and family. His generofity could never be (hewn 
more unfeafonably, or conferred on a more improper objed ; 
for by this grant the keys of Jutland were put into the hands 
of his enemy, and a road opened into his dominions, tea 
power he ought the moft cautioufly to exclude. Perhaps he 
wanted to gain over the Holjiein princes by fuch an ad of li- 
berality; but furely the hazard was great, and the means be 
took impolitic in itfelf, and injurious to his people. The 
gratitude of princes feldom extends beyond the advantages re- 
fulting from this emotion of the foul.; with them all the ge- 
nerous paffions are fubje&ed to intereft and felfiih conii- 
derations. . 
7be toUes ^'^ *^ *''^^ ^^ Neohurg^ the two archbifliops of Lunden ani 
cfthe Drontheimy and the bUhops of Ripen, Jlhurg, Wiburgy and 
Daniih Slefwick, granted a multitude of indulgences to thofe who 
bijheps. ibould found . monaileries, or any ways endow the church. 
The king ordained public prayers for the profperity of the 
kingdom, the prefeivation of his owl^ and the queen's healih, 
and a happy ifTtie to all their nndertakings^. Her majeily 
in particular engaged to leave at her death, to the cathedral 
of Luriden^ the fortrefs of Thuflrapfee, which (he had pur- 
chafed of 7T)uon Gotten-^ but on condition that the walls and 
fortifications fliould be deftroyed, if the king thought proper. 
0\2XL%iUes. Soon zhtr Olaus died, at the- age of twenty-two years,' 
He was a prince of excellent qualities of the heart, of great 
lib6lrality and devotion ; what his underRanding was, we may 
form fome judgment from the afFair oi Slefwkk, Age and 
experience might however have ripened his vintellefl; nor 
would it be candid to lay on him the whole blame of a tranf- 
adion in which the queen and the diet were equally con- 
cerned, Olaus died at Falfierho, A. D. 1 387 ; his bowels were 
buried in the church, of St, Laurence in Lunden^ and his body 
depofucd in a private manner in the monaftery of S^^r^r 

M J R G A R E T. 

Margaret With Olaus the male line of the three northern crowni 

^uee«\ was extinct, and cuftom bad not yet auchorifed the election 

of a female. Sweden had chofen a king from Germany , and 

the public waited imp.«icntly for the determination of ti^ 


I Tie Hifiory of Denmark. 285 

fiates pf Dinmark and Norway. Margaret j who to the na- jj^ oemus 
tqral ambition of her fcx, joined a depth of und^rflanding, ^forpbliticu 
firmnefs and penetration feidom met with in the fairer part 
bf the creation, omitted nothing that could forward her pre* 
tenfions. Her competitor was Henry of Mecklenburg^ brother 
to the king of Sweden. fJenry flattered himfelf that by his 
perfonal qualities, and the advantage of being foo-in-law to 
Valdemar^ he (hould eafily carry the crown from a wpman ; . 
but Margaret^ genius for intrigue, her MfcH placed liberality^ 
won over the biQiops and clergy, which in efFe£t Was gaining 
the greater part of the ,p«ople. The ele£lion was not made 
in a general diet, but in an aflTembly of the provincial ilates, 
as had before been done at the eledion of Olaus.. On this 
occafion the inhabitants of Jutland gzve the fignal, by de- 
claring Margaret queen of Denmark^ protefting that they 
would acknowledge no other fovereign. All the other pro- 
vinces acceded to their choice. A declaration was drawn up 
at Lundeny figned by the archbiftop, P^J^///?/^ the grand \ : 
marefchal, a great number of bifhops, and of the principal 
nobility* The ftates of Zealand aflembled at Ringjiadt^ and 
Solemnly declared Margaret, fovereign of Denmark j thofe of 
Jutland^ FUnia^ apd other iilands and provinces .did the ^ 

MARGARET received the crown at the folicitation of 
the clergy, who flattered themfelves that now their reign 
was come, under the government of a woman,^ who would 
probably be dire<5led in every thing by her council. As they 
had the keeping of her confcience, they doubted not but they 
would find opportunities of influencing, and even of di<5tating 
all her meafures. The fenfible queen faw their defign, and 
artfully flattered their hopes, while (he ftood in want of their 

But Margiirefs ambition was not fatisfied with the crown ^^^ g^-f^ 
of Denmark alone ; (he grafped at Norway ; fent deputies to l^orway 
foHcit the ftates of that kingdom, and by her policy fuc- to Dcn- 
cecded. The chief perfons in the government were gained mark, 
over by- money J (he found means to. render herfelf miltrefs 
of the army and garriibns; fo that had the nation in general' 
been otherwife difpdfed, (he could not fail of carrying her 
point* Thus from regent (he became queen of Norway, with 
the fame facility (he had acquired the crown of Denmark. 

The Norwegians, perceiving that the fucceffion was again 
in danger of being extind, entreated their queen to fecure 
it by an advantageous marriage, which might at the fame 
time augment her power and dominions; but (he received 
the propofal coldly. Jealous of her fovereign authority, (he 


286 fbe ISftofy cfDenmztk: 

could not think of fharing it with a huiband : however, to 
latisfy the earneft defire of her fubjeds, ibe confented to ap- 
point a fuccefTor ; but made choice of one fo young as td 
allow herfelf full time to fatiate her ambition before he fhouM 
be of age to talce any (hare in the government ; at the fame 
time (he contrived matters In fuch a manner^ *that this choice 
Itemed to proceed more from the ftates than from her im^* 
nation* Having opened the diet, (he demanded to kno# 
the neareft heir of blood to the crown, and whether his etc* 
^ vation to the fucceffion woCild be agreeable to the dates* 

. ^^ Being anfwered, that the children of Wratijlaus VIL aixf 
i^eef^ jtfory of Mecklenburg,, daughter to Henry of MeckUnBurg airf: 
* Ingeburga of Denmetrky were the neareft a-kin, and per/eflif 
agreeable to the people, (he immediately fixed the fucceffioo 
in this family, and named the young Henry frpoi that timr; 
called Ericy the prefumptive heir to the crown *. 
j^^ p^ Matters being thus adjufted, it was imagined thepul^* 
I *gg[ lie tranquillity might receive fome difturbance from ,the pr^ 
fenfions of one Hacquin^ who deduced his pedigree from the 
kings oi Norway y and had acquired immenfe wealth and in* 
flqence in Sweden. The fears of the people'were, however, 
quieted in a (hort time by the prudence of their queen. She 
had found means to prevail on Hacquin publicly to renounce 
his pretenfions, which he did by an inftrument lodged in (Ik 
, bands of the archbifiiop of Drontheim^ fwearing at the fame 
time before the fenate, that henceforward lie claimed /nx. 
right to the throne. 
Prepwra^ HENRY of Mecklenburg could not fcc Margaret dcvntei 
tiens/or |q ^y^^ throne, in prejudice to her elder fitter Ingeburga^ with- 
'^'^ ^'^ out exprefling emotions of envy. The acceffion of the crovm 
^'7 oi Norway added fuel to his jcaloufy ; and the thoughts of hcf 
Wben* °°^ ^^y uniting the three northern crowns^ was altogether in- 
in^yjy * fupportable. Albert of Sweden was no Icfs emulous of her fuc- 
cefs ; he formed an alliance with his brother Henry^ rcfolved 
on declaring war againft Mar gar et^ and aflumed to himieif the 
arms of Sweden^ Denmark^ and Norway. He fpoke of Marion 
ret in the moft contemptuous and difrefpe^ul terms; called 
her ^ a king without breeches' ; ' pafled fome grofs pleafan* 
tries on her regard for the clergy, and particular afticb* 
ment to a certain abbot of Soora^ who was her fpiritusl &* 
redor. It is indeed true, that her intimacy with this mftn ffB9B 
room for fufpicion that all her privacies with him wM flo^ 
employed about the care of her foul. 

• Pont. 1. ix. Mevrs. 1. v. 


fbe Ktfiory tf Denxnaiic. ttf^ 

JUBEST made great preparations $ befides the Swi£/k 
tmy, be relied opon powerful fuccours from Hatry jmd other 
yraan princes in his alliance. Margant was not more 
ckward in her own defence ; and befides the troops of Dem^ 
iri, Nonoay^ and thofe furniibed hj the duke of Pomiramia^ 
i was fure of a confiderable party in her favour in Swiditu 
\\ thofe noblemen who had fupported the election of her 
ind HacquiHy in oppofttion to Albert^ were her ftrenuout 
s. The nation was like wife filled with difaffeded per-> 
Albert had difpofed of all places of tnift to foreigners s 
impofed taxes without coqfulting the fenate ; he obliged 
} widows and daughters of the firft nobility to efpoufe up« 
t foreigners, to give weight to the latter by fuch connect- 
in a word, he became unpopular, and even odious to 
half of his fubjeds, by his pride, infolence, and fron& 
eii rivetted diflike to foreigners. In particular, the clergy 
were incenfed againft him, for having fequeftered many oif 
the church lands, and annexed to the crown a number of 
firong holds they had held for time immemorial. Margaret 
prudently fomented thefe divifions, and rendered herfelf nO 
leis beloved than yllbert was detefted. The Srvfdes only 
waited /or the fignal to revolt ; they had fixed their eyes on 
Margant for their queen, and refolved to drive j/Uurt out of 
the kingdom. They perceived her good fenfe would fet 
bounds to her ambition, and prevent her infringing the rightf 
•f the people ; fhould fhe attempt it, the ftates of the three 
kingdoms would mutually oppofe her, and receive additional 
ftrength and fecurity from a ftrid union of interefts. ^ 

The firft meafure taken by the Swedijb malcontents was The crwvm 
fecretly to depute certain lords of the firft rank, to xxi^\L<t offend f 
Margaret an offer of the crown. She received the propofi- Margaret 
tion with joy, and promifed to defend the people in all their 
rights and prhrileges : however, (he demanded that the 
crown fliould be made hereditary, with a view for ever to 
unite the three kingdoms. She met with fome difficulties in 
gaining this point ; at laft (he furmounted them, and ob* 
Uined all (he required *. 

While thefe matters were in agitation^ the governor of 
the fortreiles of Oherflein and Orejittn furrendered thofe placet 
to the queen ; (he immediately took pofleffion, and continued 
him in the fame command. It was fpecified in his commif* 
fion, that he held his authority of Margaret queen of &we^ 
den and Ncrway^ and the legitimate fovereign of Denmark. 
A great number of lords followed the example Qi Algeth M^g^ 

* PONTAN. 1. iX, 

X ' ^ uus. 

t8J • Tbe Hifi^ 9f Denmark. 

nttSy for that was the governor's name. All acknoVEledgcJ 
Margant for their queen ; an inftrument was drawn upi 
wherehy they renounced their oath of alTegiance to Albert ^ de- 
clared they would never more acknowledge him, and hence* 
forward" attempt nothing but with the confent and by the or* 
der of Margaret. They likewife added, that her heirs fliould 
be their fovereign, and that they would never accept of anjf 
other at her death» but fuch a fucceflbr as (he ihould think 
fit to appoint. Among other ftrong holds, the fortrefles of 
Abo^ FaveJIy Razeburg^ Cajleholm^ Cryizburg^ all Heljingia^ 
P fl i* together with the copper and iron mines of Dakcarlia^ weif 
taktth^'^^^^^ into the Queen's hands. In a word, the DaUcarlians had 
theiy^c. po'i^vely acknowledged her fovereign ty by an aft pafled thii 
carlians" y®^''» *^ which they confented, in the name of the whole 
kingdom of Sweden^ that the revenues of the copper mines 
ihould be put into her hands, although they were mortgaged ' 
to the princes of Holjiein *• 

On ' the Wednefday preceding PenUcoft^ the Swedijb fenate 
wrote to the queen a ratification of the treaty (he had con- 
eluded with the deputies, and accordingly acknowledged her 
' " queen of Denmark^ Sweden^ and Norway^ This o^h of the j 

{enate was like a thunder-bolt to Albert, He perceived that j 
he could no longer depend on the Swedijb army, and there* j 
fore caft about for foreign fuccours. Among his firm allies 
he reckoned the duke'of Mecklenburg^ the princes of Hol/lein^ ^ 
the duke of Sturgard^ and for a fum of money he engaged 
Conrad Jungingen^ grand-mafier of the Teutonic order, and 
the ifland of Gothland, By means of thefe allies, he foon 
made up a confiderable army, with which he was preparing 
to take the field. 

MARGARET marched an army to the affiftance of the* 
malcontents, undicr the condudl of four generals, EricLucke^ 
Henry Parow^ Winchen Norby^ and Lothario Cabolt. They 
joined the difafFecied Swedes^ and both together marched 
againft Albert, Coming up with him at Falkoping^ a furious 
' battle was fought, in which vidory for a long while ftood in 

fufpence. The fate of a kingdom depended on the event, 
and both fides behaved with that courage and perfeverance 
which an affair of fo much imp()rtance merited ; but Mar-- 
Albert is garet^s good fortune prevailed : Albert was routed, and his 
defeated' army cut in pieces. He was afterwards taken prifoner in 
the purfuit, together with his fon Eric^ Gerhard prince of 
^ Holjiein^ and a great number of lords of the firfl diftindion. 
Albert and his (on were condu£^ed firfl to Bahus^ a fortrels 

» Mevr«. 1. v. 

m ftrfU'efi bti tte confines df Norway and Jfeft^Gothkmdi and 
fmoi, thence to Sa^olm^ wher^ they were confined for the 
fpace of fevefi yean. As to the other prifoners,. they were 
imprifbned of infeveral parts' of the kingdom^: 

*F£^ tiflnrieflr had ever been fo produ<9:ivc of glory to the a.' IX 
Dtiri^s t& this laft; for befides the royal prifoneis^ no lefs iVSq**- 
than mi^etten general oncers were left dead, on the fietd ' ^' 

hj the vanquifl^d. .On Marganfs fide the lofs was incon- 
flderabie, except that Henry Parow died ofr his* wounds^ 
•fireatly- regretted. Yet though the battle was d'ccifive, th^ 
SiwediS were iiill undetermined with refpe£t td.tha conduct 
they wete to obfervc; Margaret's coronation was deferred, ** ^ 
bcckufe ft great part of the nation thought it difhonourable 
to dif^fe of' the crotvn while their king was a:.4urironer.i As 
tte people were divided, :they now looked upon tfaeuDfiTirj a» 
iforelgfleWV'and^grudgedthcih-a'vi(^x)rfy ovec.the.Stu^$?/^iA ../.,/. 
itt {iidCMifg^tit had on kerfide>tAie greater number ioi 8w9^ 
'£Jh foitH. -The Garz/fiiw prkiccs accufcd thai'zl'dfrfd* of ipcr-i 
Ifidy and ebw3irdice, attributing the defea.t and»» ioDprifonaienr 
- of Alhift €<^ their pufLllaaimbus conduct. ' On the othct;lnnd): 
i tliey juill^d themfeives, by retorting on. the 6^mrii;if, who: 
•they affirmed were the oaufe' of the war, and the.klngV 

^ DuRiiiiG thefe 'ieblites and tnuHual recriminations^ the prin^es-^^^^y^ 
>of the houfeof Mickiinburg^^M the towns of iJf/&rit. and. /iK/^ly.^^j/^^/^ 
:i*Ar begin to raife freih ieviira, in favour of thie anfortonateiGermany 
-jitbert. His friends in Sweden likewife^ became matters ofi/0 fupfxni 
^UcJkMMy apd fevera) fordhed places, and Jttn of JldecUeMiurg^ Albert. 
i^putto fea at the head of a well - appointed fquadron:, .which was. 
difpeffed by a florm. Margaret^s forces were^ lathe meaii' 
awhile, laying fiege to Stockholm ; and John^ after collefting' 
;:hi8 iquadrof), dbterininedlto relieve it. Accordingly he landed -' - 
his forces^ drove the befiegers frbm their works, arid after fup* ^ ' 

implying the city with ammunition and p^ovifion, again fee 
:£iiL Afterwards, making descents on different parts of the 
ooaft, he put all to fire and fwotti^ which fo enraged the 
iipeafants, chat afTembting tumultuouily, they attacked him. 
c near Titiing^ and wei^ cut in ipieces, having no officer of abi« 
r lity to )ea^ them on and direct their fury. ^ 

Tut Germant werotiot fatisficd with the ravages commit* 

I ted by this fquadron j a (hoal of privateers wiere licenfed. by 

the duke oi Mecklenburg ; the fea was covered with pirates, and 

the moft terrible diforders were committed on thejocean and 

the fea coafls. ^ome of them ventured an attack on the ifland 

* Vid. fopra ibid. *> MfiURs. L.v, . .. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. XXXII. U of " 


«5? tie Hijhry of Denmark." 

7be Me of iii Gothland^ took it, and made it the repolitory of their ptaa^ 

Mecklen- ()er, and the rendezvous for the whole piratical fleet. Not- 

burghV withftandhig all this, the caufe of Ali?ert was but little for- 

fri<vatetrs warded, and his opponent every day gained ground. Among 

^f^n^ *^ many other places of confideration, the important' city ot 

^^ Cls/m^rr declared for the queen, and furrendered it with its 

Uothland. appendages into her hands. Bugijlausj prince of Sutiji (A), 

likewife declared in her favour, and his example was fol* 

lowed by the prince of Rugen^ both attending her majeftyat 

Faljierbdy where they did homage to her as their fovcrcign^ 

-A* ^' . MARGARET fpent the two following ycais io Norwaj and 

M9i^ SweeUn. In the former (he renewed tlw a<ft by which young 

'a^ll^l .^''^^^^^ declared the fucccflbr to her crown ; and in tbe 

"Jin fi ^^^^^ ^^ laboured to appeafe the civil divtfions by whidi 

J(hverei nty ^ kiog^o*" was reduced to the moft deplorable ftatc if 

oftbefhree ^^^1* Foreigners and natives feemed to unite their endca- 

kingdom. ^^^^ "^^ ruining the country, and in this alone were the^ 

' confiftent. Even in Stockholm faSion reigned^ and the Gw* 

xmxrgariifon, who apprehended the citizens were inclined (Oi 

fide with the queen, lived in a continual (late of h<^ility witk> 

the civil magiftrates, which every day produced murder aoi 

hloodflied.. At length an union of interefts was agreed upoaji 

but this was no more than a ftratagem formed bytbcGifi 

mans to be revenged on the burghers. Under cover of tlttl, 

falfe reconciliatfoQ they feized upon th)e principal citizen^ 

put many of them to the torture, and conveyed them in tkn 

.. .night to the iiland of ChepUng, where, after putting them ta th^ 

... . rood excruciating torments,under pretence that they carried oi 

a clandeftine carrefpondence with the queen, they endofef 

them 'in ;a. large, houfe. fit led with wood, to which theyfel 


A. I>. Her majefty meeting with little fucceis in her cndeavoufl 

' 39^' to heal the intefitne commotions in Sweden^ determined 10 

return to Denmark^ and- change her meafures. She now ^ 

boured to e(Fei^ a peace with the duke of SUJwici and M 

princes of H&lfiein. At length (he compafied her defign, anA 

paved -the.waji to a general accommodation. The peace be«^ 

tween thefe priocea was a fatal blow to the pirates, whoi 

immediately abandoned the Bcdtic^ and launched forth in tboJ 

ocean, to make one laft effort. The town of Bergtu^ one j 

of tbe richeft ports in the North, felt the firft effeds ail 

^ PoNTAN. ibid. j 

(A) Bugifiatu was uncle to Eric of Pomerania^ declared fucccf- * 
for 10 the thrones oi Denmark and Norviajj as we have feen. ] 


The Hiffory of Denmark. 29 1 

their defperate rage. It was taken and miferably pillaged^ 

bat not without impunity ; for fome of their (hips fell into 

the hands of the Danes^ who ordered the crews to be hanged 

upon gibbets, without form of trial. This feverity \\zA'id\\x» The pirates 

taiy confequences; it broke the confederacy, ftruck X^moxfipfreffed^ 

Into the ^hole, and obliged fome to renounce the profeilion^ 

others to incorporate with the queen's feamen, and others 

more obftinate to retire to Friefeland and live in remote 

creeks, from whencQ they (allied out on the commercial 

fleets of the Flemings^ Englijh, French^ and Spaniards. 

Nothing remarkable occurs this year befides the dona- ^- ^* 
tion the queen made of a moiety of the fortrefs and prefec- '393* 
ture of friburg to the cathedral of that name, for which (he . 
.was tecompenfcd by the daily prayers of the bi(hop and pre- 

Thb following year (he became more general in her 
bounties to the clergy, by confirming the privileges and im- 
inunlties of the cathedral of Lunden and other churches and 
biflioprics. She refided for fome time at Heljinburg^ and 
there received deputies from feveral Vandal cities, exhaufted 
by a tedious war, and defirous of coming to terms with re- 
iped to Alberfs liberty, who had now been prifoner for near 
fa years. Juft as a treaty was on the point of execution, 
•n accident broke oiF the negotiation, which was refumed 
ftc fucceeding year with a happier event. One of the depu-- 
tics was' (lain in a tumult that happened in the city, and the 
Othera, imagining their lives were in danger, fled with the 

£3ofl precipitation, leaving matters juft as unfettled as they 
nd them. Margaret foon convinced their conftituents, 
ftat the murder was iiot premeditated, by bringing all the 
Winquents to (trift jufticc. To this contributed the little 
fccccfe they met with in their military operations. A fecond Peace con* 
Aiie the Vandal deputies waited on the queen ; and it was eluded 
Jl length agreed, il^zt Albert and his fon £r/V fliould be xt^wtbtbe 
Rfed, on condition that he paid Margaret the fum of fixty Vandal 
^oufand filver marks, renounced all bis pretenfions to the ^'''''* 
^idijh crown, withdrew his garrifon from Stockholm^ and all ^' ^* 
wc other fortreflfes, and engaged the Vandal cities to gua- '394» 
'^ntee the treaty. ' 

As foon as the two princes were delivered to the deputies, A. D* 
fccyfolemnly fwore to a ftrift obfervance of every - article 1395. 
fcpulated. Bamim of PMierania^ John "of Mecklenburg^ and 
feveral other princes, joijied themfelves to the Vandal cities 
'^ guarantees ; and this addition was made to the treaty, that 
^iher part (hould-for the term of three years ercS^any new 
defies, but that liberty (hould be granted mutually to re- 

U 2 pair 

2^ Th Hift4ry af Denmark. 

pair the old ; ^d with r^fped t'O the ifland of Gothhrid, it 
was agreed that each pi^rty (bould retain what they at prefent 

This treaty rcftorcd tranquillity to the three kingdoms; 
and Margaret^ imagining (he would beft prove her gratitude 
to heaven, by pouring her favours on its minifters, made fe- 
veral confiderable donaticms tO' the fees of Lundin^ RrfcUUy 
and Odenfee. Stijl ihe f9und thct ferviccs- of the clergy ne» 
ceiTary, and fb^ negleded no opportunity of binding tbem 
Margaret ^^ ^^^ intereft. Towards the clofe of the year. Ihe paffed 
crowned ^^^^ ^^ Sw^d^n^ and was there folcmnly crowned queen, with 
^^^^2 g all the fplemnities obferved cm her acceffioa to tbe thrones of 
kingdoms. -D^w/w^ri and Norway \ « 

'^ ' Immediately after thb. ceremony flie obferved, diata 
{he was confiderably advanced in years, it would be a great 
Her policy facisfaflroH to her to- fee the fucccffioiji confiroie^; flic 
in appoint' hinted her grand-nephew as a proper pcrfon, and roetwiti 
ing afuc' ^\ ^^g obedience (he coukl require from her ful^jeSs, who 
^C^'"' immediately palled an aft to that purpofe* Pfcafedwiththdf 
complaifance, her majcfty ftudied to gain the. ageftions of 
her new fubjefts, by applying proper remedies to all the evib 
occafioned by the late tumult«.> and eftabliihing matters on 
the. beft footing. Wi(h this view it was that flie convoked I 
diet of the ftates at Nkoptng-y. at which wete prefent tM 
archbifliop of UpjaU and all the bifliops and fenators of tb 
kingdom. Here it was agreed, that all t>io crown lands an 
fortreffes alienated by Aikert^ fhould be forthwith redeemed 
that the riew fortifies erc^d during the civil, wars fcoul 
be dirmaniled ; t|i3Lt aU'thafe enjoying the privileges oi SiOt 
dljh iubjefts, and the benefit of the laws, immediately ttk 
an oath of dllegjanc^ lo tbe queen and her iuccefibr Efie\ 
that the fovereig^n reftqr^ to ail the vaflals of the crown wh»t<' 
ever ^hey poflefkd before the civil war, and loft by their 
herence to Albtrt : tb?t the lawful proprietors enter into 
feffioii of. all that bad b^en uiurped by others during the 
commotioafi j that the ftatea ihould aflemble ac the plea 
of the queen and young king> wherever the;? raajefties (he 
appoint, in ojder to deliberate with the ftates of Deimm 
ana Norway for the joint intereft of the three kingdoinSi 
and in particular'to declare Erie fovercign of Denmark^ Ntr- 
way, and Sweden, To thcfc were added fome particular K^ 
gulations ; after which the queen and youn^ kine departrf 
for Denmark, ' .^ . ; 

Hkr majefty's principal care was now to vifit the difiertaj 
provinces, to adminiftcr jtiftice, and ledrefo grievances »■ 

- ' every 

The- Hilary ^/ Dcnrhark. ip3f 

every ria<:t>re» which (he did with admirable prudence. While Thequeen^s 
fee wasinjKtk^ aU the exiJes were furomoned to appear, care in ad" 
and take their trial according to law. All men were forbid, miniftring 
ujider fevere penalties, to flcreen criminals ; bnt if they {uh-jufttce^ and 
ijjitted to juftice, her majefty always inclined to mercy. Here enforcing 
Pie enafted, that no new fortrefles (hould be rakfed ; that '^^ ^^^^'^ 
thofe belonging to the crown Ihoiild be reftored if ufurped, 
and i^eemed if mortgs^ed,^ and that all thofe who had not 
fiirorn allegiance to' king Eric^ Ihould perform that duty within 
Ibe fpace of fourteen days, . . 

Among other falutary regulations, the afFairs of commerce 
li^renot forgot. It was decreed, that all ports lately opened 
to the prejudice of eftabliflied marts, fhould be (but up ; that 
BO duties {hould be exaded but where they were impofed 
bylaw;- that all manner of affiftance (hould be given to fo- 
reign merchants and failors, particularly in cafe'of fliipwreck 
and misfortune, without cxpe6Jation of reward, except what 
Mras provided for by law : in a word, that every circumftance 
enjoined by huitianity and found policy (hould be flridtly ob- 
ierved with refped to ftrangers. Such was the wife condu£t of 
this glorious princefs. P^fi/ait^i relates, that the antient laws 
Begleded during the late commotions were renewed in their 
Wl force ; that pirates were treated with great rigour, in or- 
der to deter them from that diflionourable profeifion ; and 
ftat a prcfed and fovercign judge were appointed in Jutland^ 
'fer the more eafy and effedtual execution of the laws. The 
^me writer relates, that (he likewife reiSified an abufe which 
bad immediately before her acc^ffion crept into the Swedijh 
gOTermhent. Several of the gentlemen of that country had 
fcized the opportunity of extending their power, and of ex- 
empting their lands from all taxes. Many of them ac- 
knowledged no fealty to the orown, and claimed an abfolute 
jurifdifiion within their own eftates. This was an abufe 
that greatly diminiflied the .power of the fovereien and 
(bcngth of the government j Margaret therefore, with the 
oonieiit of the fenate, ordnined that all jurifdiftions (hould 
be put on the antiem footing* and every man contribute his 
proportion towards the itipportetf.that government by which 
he was protedJed*. 

But while we are enlarging «ipon the many excellent re- 
gulations made hy Marpiret^'/w^ mu(t riot *orget that (he 
was not infalUblei Notwitbftahding her prudence, policy, 
and other (hining virtues, >er government was not without 
error." D^iring the reign : of Oij«i, (he had confented that 

* Vid. PoNTAN." & Meujls^ in locis citat. 

U 3 ^ ^ Gerhard 

«^4 ^e Hifiory ^ Dcnmilrk. 

Gerhard of Holfletn {bould be invefted for life in the dutcby 
of SUfwick ; the war in Sweden had proved the weaknefsof 
that meafure, and yet (he now granted the perpetuity of 
Stefwick to the princes of that houfe, on no other conditida 
than that they acknowledged the Ipvereignty of Denmarh 
Happily, indeed, thefc princes preferred a pecuniary fubfidj, 
as appears by an aft pafied in //W<y, whither Afargartt con- 
voked the Holjiein princes ; but this we arc not to afcribc to 
her policy, but«co their neceffity. It is true, her conduft ad- 
mits of lome palliation, if we confider that the chief aim o( 
all her pretenfions was to unite the three crowns, every oh- 
ftruSion to which fhc refolved to remove at all events. The 
Holjiein princes were the great fticklers for Albert^ and againft 
this union ; and their friendfliip (he endeavoured to win by 
fo important a grant. At prefent the three northern crowJM 
were afiually united upon her head ; but file laboured to 
render this aft perpetual. Betides the advantages which (be 
propofed drawing from the joint ftrength of thefe kingdoriBi 
a variety of other reafons occurred to induce her to wi(h thit 
a fundamental law was.eftabliflied for the perpetual union of 
the three crowns. Such a law would tranfmit her name 
with admiration and glory to ppfterity, would render her ab- 
folute miftrefs of the North, and one of the greateft fov^ 
reigns in Europe. She therefore laboured to gain a fufScieflt 
party in each kingdom to anfwer h^r purpofe ; and when fte 
believed {he had accomplilhed this, flie convoked the ftito* 
general of each kingdom to meet at Cahnar^ and forty depu- 

„ r r "cs from each attended the aflcmbly S 

A /: HfR-majefty opened the congrefe, by introducing tta 

A V young king Eric to the deputies one by one, whom flie r«- 
jm J. qucfled to confirm his eleftion to the fucceffion. She then 
reprefentcd to them, with abundance of addrefs and eloquenceji 
the advantages that would neceflarily refult from their having 
but one monarch, which would intircly abolifli the caufeof 
all thofe wars that had fo often been fatal to each of the 
kingdoms ; render them entire naafters of the commerce of 
the Baltic ; keep in awe the hanfe towns, grown powerful bf 
the divifions of her people ; ^nd, in a word, confolidate theffl 
into one nation, with all the conveniencies which flow from * 
perfcft uniformity of cuftoms, laws, and interefts. The ma* 
jefty of the queen's perfon, the ftrength of her argunfientSi 
and the fweetnefs of her eloquence, together with the ap- 
plaufes beftowed by Jier creatures, gained over the deputies; 
They approved and confirmed th^ deftion of ^rxV, andcfU- 

• M|I7||,8, X. v. 

th Hificry of Denmark,' ij^ 

bliflied a fundamental law, which* was received by the three A. D. 
kihgdoiBS, and Solemnly €on(inned by oath. This. was the 1397. 
bW fo celebrated in the North, under the name of the UmonTbe union 
/* Calmafj and which afterwards gave birth to wars that ^f Calmar 
aftedfor an age between Sweden and Denmark, It cohfifted ^^'"^^^^^'r 
)f three principal articles, which were eftabliflied for the fe- 
:urity of each nation. I'he firft impoYted, that the three 
ungdoms, which were in a manner elective, (hould hence- 
forward have but one and the fame king, who (hould be 
:hofen fucceffivdy by each of the kingdoms, and then ap- 
proved bj a general aflembly of the whole. The /econd ar- 
ticle coniifted in the obligation upon the fovereign to divide 
liis time equally tn the three kingdoms, and to fpend in each 
the revenues arifing to him from each crown, without being 
ible to apply the favings but for tl^e good of that particular 
kingdom. Xhe third and mofl important was, that each 
kingdom ihould retain its own laws, cuftoms, fenate, and 
privileges of every kind; and that the garrifons of every 
Ungdom ihould be maititaiped at the expence of that parti- 
cular ftate, and defended by its forces ; and that the fubje<5l9 
of one kingdpm ihould not be raifed to pofts of profit and 
power in the other, but (hould be reputed foreigners, except 
in their own native country. 

While the congrefs fat at Calmar^ Alberfs fon Eric died ; Albert re- 
a melancholy accident that made fucb an impreifion on t\\ej^i^^ oil 
unhappy king, as to make him give up all hopes of remount* ^^i^*\ tf 
ing the throne of Sweden ; for notwitbftanding the condi- ^^^<^^^S 
tions on which he obtained his liberty, he never defpaired till ^^"^^^ 
BOW of recovering his crown. Stockholm was not given up 
agreeable to the treaty ; bu^ he now wrote to bis garrifon to 
yield to the neceiiity of the times, and furrender tbemfelves 
to Margaret. The example of Stockholm was followed by all 
ihe other ftrong holds, pofTeiTed by Albert in Sweden ; but 
ftill the queen could not recover Gothland^ this ifland being re- 
tained by the grand-mafler of the Teutonic order, who pretended 
to hold it by right of conqueil, as he had driven the pirates 
from thence. Firft it was mortgaged to him by Albert for a 
^tn of money ; but he refuted to deliver it to that prince, 
when he offered to redeem it, Margaret determined to re- 
cover it by force of arms. She fcnt an army thither, under 
tbefe experienced ofRcers, Algoib Magnus and Abraham Broder. 
^ifiytht capital was immediately befieged, the i^^Tv^i pufhed 
the attack with ardour, and the knights defended the. city 
with intrepidity, when the emperor interpofed, in quality of 
protector of the Teutonic order, and offered his mediation to 
accommodate all differences. He called a Congrefs at Helfm- ^^ p^ 

•) " U 4 burg^ ,398* 

hmg^ wkithcr' be invited tbe queen's .deputies. Here it ^irai 

at, length iiigulated, that the ifiand- fliould be furrendered to 

Margarety ion bes paying a certain fum of money to the 

knights : but as the money was not paid for foine time, 

the knights kept potfeffion^ which howevef did "not prevem 

the queen from renewing her old alliance with them ^. 

Ai D. The. followiog year deputies from the Vandal cities, wfakb 

^399* had eterclied. piracies during the late4ifturbances, came to 

Nicaping in the ifland of Fal/ire. A treaty was a>Dcliidd 

between her majefty on the one parr, and the deputies on 

the othe^ in which jt was ilipulated, that a general pardoo 

ihould he granted for all diforders committed during tbe 

lafte troubles,, and that the preceding treaties between d» 

eontra&ing parties ihould iubfift in full force ; paniculaily 

that treaty byv which the Fandal cities engaged to guarantee 

^e promif^. made by Aibtrt in obtaining hts liberty. 

. Fob.: tbfi fpur fucoeeding years the three kirtgdoins eqjoyel 

profound .tranquillity, and Margaret apfJied her miod la 

vMorM ^ piety, or rather of policy. She was well acquaint^ 

with the natural difpofKion of her people : aceufiomed to an 

extreme of liberty, (he knew they would with difficulty bear 

the reAraint of authority, wJiich,. however, was neceflaiy to 

carry on government,' and fupprefe perpetual linittcrediom* 

Marga- Tq eftabl'Si hcrfelf firmly, (he gained over, by af&bility d 

ret^i </^ liberality, the principal perfons in each kingdom \ made them 

ffm.Uu h^r creatures, and oppofcd tl«ir influence ,to all fafliow 

^****f ^or°^€^ againft the court .The. clergy were e^>ccially effcntial 

njMrJAe j^ i^gj. views,, on account of. their wealth* their power, and 

' ^'^-^' their credit with the people. In thefe days all devotion cxuh 

itAed In donations to the church, f and piety was eftimated bf 

the will and. ability tio enrich the dergy. Atargaret was aware 

of this: (he founded monafteries, endowed ciiurches, itug' 

mented the power and privileges of the bt(hops, admitteo 

them. to a great (hare in the admin iftraiiony and intirely wod 

their hearts by her largeffes. Filled with gratitude iot tbe 

numberlefs marks of favour and di(liQ<5Uon Qiewn tbem, the 

bifhops fell into all her views, and were followed by the 

iolerion order of the clergy, who found their intereft confiW 

in coiaciding with the fentiments of their fuperiors, both on 

account of their dependence on them, and. becaufe the pro* 

te&ion.of the court, and the queen's recommendation, were 

the fun^ft means of obtaining biOiopricks; and other (iig* 


The nobility and gentry, already jealous of the high po«^ 
and credit of the ohurch, behqld with chagrin this ad(titio0 

.' * ^ « PONTAN. i. ix. ' 


t6 tlic authority of tke biftops : they, however, durft not ex- The mbt- 
pr^fs their refentment. Equally politic and powerful. Mar- lityand 
garet had her creaturH concealed among the difcontented, ^^«'*7 yV*- 
whogave heriiotice of all their proceedings, broke and dif- ^rf tbe 
concerted their meafures. ^^^gy» 

One remarkable occurrence is mentioned by htftorians to 
have fallen out about this time. A ffeport prevailed that 
OlauSy the queen's fon, was not dead i it was propagated' b)*' 
many 'of the nobility, and fappofed to be^firft fet oft foot by 
Ihcm, in order to puni(h Margaret for her liberality to the 
clergy. The impoftor laboured to pafs for the king, and erery ^^ 'fj; 
day gained credit,' by making difcoveries which could poffibly ^T ^ "" 
have been known only to Olaus and his mother. Mdrgaret^ o/' Den- 
however, was too many for him : (he proved him to be fon ^ark. 
to the nurfe of OlauSy and to have got thefe fecrets frorfi his 
mother, whom fee had made her confidanf . She next proved* 
•that Giam had a large wart between his flioulders, which mark 
did not appear On the impoftor. Laftly, fhe farther proved, 
by a cloud pf witneffes, that the king aftually died upon a 
certain day, and was buried at 5(?«rtf. In fine, the impoftor 
was feized, put to the torture, -and publicly burnt at a place 
between Fal/ierbd and Scanora *. 

MARO/tRET was not happy enough to rid herfelf h ^' ^^ 
cafily of the. continual* inquietudes excited by the hoiife 'of « ^t^JV 
Holflein. All her munificence to this family could not 'ex- ^ 'If -Jl 
tmguim antient animonty, or engage fheir gratitude. ^^^ti,e home of 
could riot depend on treaties concluded with thefh, though HoUlcin, 
folemnly fworn to, ndr'in their fealty, nor fidelity. In one 
^rd, (he feverdy felt Ihe imprudence of that aft, whereby ^ 
•file confirmed ftrangers in the pofleffion of a dutchv foim.-* ^ 
portant to her dominions as Siejivic^. ' Ct)unt Gerhard of lIoU 
ftnn fell in a battle fought with fnme of his neighbours in the 
year 1404, leaving a widow and three young children ; Hen- 
ry^ the oldeft of whom, was no more than feven years of 
age; Adolphus^ the fecond, but three; and Gerhard^ the 
youngeft, then in the cradle. Several guardians were ap- 
poitited in his will ; but Henry ^ biftop of Ofnahurg^ uncle to 
the young princes, excited great troubles, by claiming a right 
to the adminiftration of Slefwick^ till his nephews arrived at a 
proper* age. He found means to raife a faftion, by means 
of Segeburg and Rendfburg. 

On the other hand, Margaret beheld with uneaftnefs thofe 
commotions excited in a dutchy which had been a fief of Din-- 
mark. With a vic# to apply healing remedies, as well asta- 

-. . ; ■ . '^^ •-■'*' --* - -^ 

* POKTAN. 1. ix. 



A. n. 


4 dearth 

€ind fifti' 
knee in 

^bt Uifimj <jf Denmark. 

profic^ by the prefent fituation of aiEdrs^ (he tampered wtdi 
the widow Elizabeth^ who (he knew was in want of money. 
Thus (he obtained poiTeffion of certain fortreiTes in Hffljlem^ 
and likewife ,of the ftrong citadel of Oppenrade^ by marrying 
. .Elizabeth^ widow of count Nicholas^ who pofleiled this place, 
to Eric duke of Saxot^^ paying her portion, and keeping in 
her own hands the fortrefs* She likewife, by a firoke of po« 
llcy, got Grotijbach into her bands \ but this (he difmantled, 
and prefcnted to the cathedral of SUfwuk. In a word, (he at 
length difpofed of every thing in the dutchy according to hq; 
own pleafure. The oldeft of duke Gerhart^ fons was car- 
ried to Denmark^ and had three of the principal nobility ap* 
pointed his guardians : Adolphus^ his fecond . brother, lived 
with his uncle, who conceived a drong afFefiion for the boy, 
and bad him at length raifed to a high place at the emperor's 
court (A). Some writers allege, that the dutchefs Elizabeth^ 
and all the great lords ofSIefwici, put themfelves voluntarily 
undqr the queen's protefiion, acknowledged her (overeignty, 
and did homage to her as fuperior of the dutchy. They add, 
that (he divided between the dutchefs, the young duke*s guar- 
dians, and the chief nobility, all places of honour and profit 
in the dutchy, with certain yearly falaries, with which they 
became in a (hort time diflatisiied. What however is cer- 
tain, and agreed upon by all hiftorians, is, that peace was at 
this time proclaimed between Denmark and SUfwick ; and that 
neither tbe queen nor king pretended to any other rights vi^itbin 
the dutchy, befides thofe of fuperior and fovercigns' merely 
nominal, without power to rnadl laws, or impofe taxes* 

In the fcdlowing year Margaret annexed feveral places to 
the crown, which h^d either been mortgaged or ufurped 
during the laft reign. This Year had almoft proved fatal to 
Denmark. The fummer, ana efpecially the autumn feafon, 
had been fo rainy, that (he fruits of the earth were deftroyed, 
and the air corrupted, infomuch that above a tenth of the in- 
habitants of Denmark periihed of famine and peftilence. Yet, 

(A) Cranixdus relates a cir- 
cumftance of this young prince 
that merits notice. Margaret j 
when he was an infant, gave 
him a mark of her friendfhip, 
by adorning his cap with a 
(bring of fine pearls, which the 
child rqjefting, (he oiFered to 
tietkfin rpunid his arm^ :but to 
this he was equally averfe ; fhe 

then attempted to fafpend the 
pearls round his neck; but 
Adolphui (truggled fo hard, that 
the jewels were broke agalnft 
the wall. Hence, fays our au- 
thor, the fage Margaret drew an 
omen that the young prince 
would one day prove a bitter 
enemy to Denmark (1). 


STfe Hifiofy of Denmark. 299} 

amidft thefe affli£Hons; there occurred two events which a^ 
forded fome confolsition to the court and people. Albert of 
MeciUnburg^ formerly king of £u;^^^ff, publiflied a writing, 
whereby he renounced all claim to the crown of Sweden^ and 
engaged never to take arms againft Eric^ or bis fucceflbrs ; 
but to live upon a footing of the flrideft amity with them. 
The next circumftance was the marriage of king Eric with 
the daughter of JH!f»ry IV. \:\ngo^ England^ which was cele- 
brated zx, Lunden on the twenty-fifth oi O^obir this year. A. P. 
This princefs, if we may credit tYicDaniJh hiftorians, brought iAtiS» 
the king an immenfe fortune. 

Notwithstanding peace had been proclaimed between 
Denmark and Slefwicky the Dams and H^lfteiriers were conti- 
nually in armS) and committing perpetual ravages upon each 
other's frontiers. Wearied with ibefe diforders, king Eric 
refolved to apply efFe£iual remedies. He invited Henrys bilhop 
olOfnaburgy the chief author of thefe difturbances, amicably 
to terminate them by an interview at Kfilding \ but this con* 
ference breaking ofF abruptly, a fecond interview was ap*^ 
pointed in Fionia. Here it was agreed, that eleven thoufand p^^^g ^^^ 
marks in filver fliould be paid to Denmark^ to indemnify the tiveen 
loffes fuftained by the infults of the Holjieiners ; that the Holftcin 
Xowmoi Flensburg zni Menbus be put into the king's haiids^ zuy^ Dea* 
until payment of the above fgm ; or, at lead, until the bifliop mark, 
proved that the Holjieiners had been equal fufferers by the in- 
curfions of the Danes. Some writers indeed alledge, that 
Elizabeth^ dutchefs dowager of Holjiein^ put thefe towns into 
fnV's hands, without ftipulating any conditions. 

Some differences arofe this year between the queen and the A.D. 
dutchef§ dowager. Women feldom agree long, where they 1409. 
arc rivals in beauty or power. MargareU imagining that the 
dutchefs wanted to prevaricate about the promife of furren- Differences 
i^nngGotiotpj advanced to take pofle (Hon of that city ; but ^^/.^^^ 
whether it was that (he dreaded a body of armed men, re- Margaret 
ported to have. been lodged in a certain tower, or sippx^- and tbe 
heqded fome fecret defigns upon her perfon» certain it is that dutchefs 
file immediately abandoned the town, and threw out fome donuageref 
fevere reflexions upon the dutchefs. A mifunderftanding fo Slefwict 
flight foon broke out into a war, ind the pretext was, that 
^r\c by fortifying Fltmburg^ lately put into his hands, gave 
fufpicions of having defigns upon the whole dutchy. Nor 
did the condud of foi^r Holfiein gentlemen, in the queen's 
fervice, contribute a little towards accelerating the rupture* 
Thefe officer^, withdrawing themfelves fuddenly, perfuaded 
Henry bifhop of Ofnaburg that the dutchy of SUfivick would 
f|>eedily be artnexed to thf crown of Ifenmark^ if proper mea-. 


|jSd The Hijiorj ijf Denmark. 

fiii<es were not taken to fubvert the Jeligiis of MergantTxA 
Eric. Elizabeth foiegan her operations by a ftroke of policy, 
which mAy well be deemed treacherous* She found means 
to "draw the confuts of Flensburg into her power, and then 
detained them prifoners, till they engaged th^ citizens to put 
the town into the hands of the H^^nen. Her fchemc 
fiicceeded ; the gates wefre opened to her forces, and every 
inhabitant revoked the oath of allegiance fworn tb Eric* 
... Hoftilitics Were now commenced, feveral places w^re? fur- 
pril^d, and among others the fortrefs of Swc^efiede^ atld the 
^ citadel belonging to the bifhop of Slffwick^ the ufual place of 

His refidence ^ , 

No fooner had Erk notice of -thefe tranfa£Hon^, than he 
jcfolved to make reprifals. Accordingly he invaded the 
iflands of Arrohe and Alfm^ of both which he foon became 
mafter. Next he concluded a treaty, offenfive and deften- 
five, with the inhabitants of Dithmarfi^ and immediately fent 
a body of troops againft the Frifsns^ under the condud of 
^general Monk^ who had for lieutenants three very experienced 
officers, yohn Scarpenberg^ Nicholas ^uon^ and Henry Cab^k* 
This corps, amounting t6 eight thoufand men, without ca- 
valry, had orders to march to Tunderen^ Eric being defirots 
W^Danes ^^ f"bduing the country round. They came loaded with Jbooty 
defeated h^ the neighbourhood of Hufum znd-Bred^edt^ where they 
Adolphus ^cre foddenly attacked by Adolphus of Sehawemhurg^ and cut 
A. D. in pieces. Monk the general, and Nicholas Thuony were left 
1410. <Jcad on the field, together with fourteen' hundred inferior of- 
ficers and private men. Scarpenberg was taken prifoner, and 
dt length obtained his liberty at a ranfom of eight thoufand 
marks in frlver. It was reckoned that this unfortunate ex- 
pedition had cofl^r/V two hundred thoufand marks, befides 
the lofs of fo many brave foldiers (A). 

* Me^trs. 1. v. 

(A) Cranixius ^lifers confi- Bremen and Wejiphalia* He 

. dcrably from the Danijh hillo- adds, that about this time£r/V 

rians in his relation of this ac- Crummedick farprifed/*Zp»^ar^; 

tion. According to him the that the king's troops, however, 

/)^7»^j amounted to fifteen hun- defended the citadel ;■'. and that 

dred cavaliers ; but no mention the Danijh fleet laid iiege to the 

is hiade of the number of foot town, but were not able to 

foldiers. Schaivemburg^s army force the garrifon, which, in 

did not exceed eight hundred fpite of »aU hardflups, remauKd 

jhen, railed in a hurry about firm 'to ilie young duke (ij* 

JfUneniurg^ in the diocefe of 

(i>^^;^, 129. 



Thi MJhry of Denmark. 301 

' After this defeat J?w, followed the advice of his fenate, •: 

and made overtures to accommodate differences with the ' 
Hal/i'iin princes^ ' His ^ropofals were embraced by the Sut- 
ch^ft E/iza^etJ^y who confcnted to refer the matter to irbii /; .. • 
nation. A certain number were appointed by each "fide, but 
BO conclufion was forined till two years after. 
, 'Tkk tttfnuk of arms gave place for fome time to puWitiT'^^*^/;!^ 
'YC}oiclng6 and'flfftivalson account of the marriage of the r^/r So- 
princefs Sophia^ or according to fome writers Ct/f/^^rw, fifter phia of 
to Ertc^ to j^hn d^ike of Bavaria and Newbu^g^ fon to th'tf Denmark 
cmpqror Rupert,- The marriage was celebrated ztRipen\ carries 
and forty thoufand florins given for the princefs's fortarte; J^^" ^f 
P»>vided^ ft« fuFvived her hufband ^ a jointure of an equal Bavaria, 
fum was fettled on her; four weeks wcr* altowcd her before 
jConfuftiitiation) afid in the mean tlm^ her fortune was to^b^ 
^id into the hands of her hufband. ■ ■ • '^ '■:/. 

Nt>TWiTHSTANDiNG thfe propofitions for peace, and the A. D. 
/ccftifoenoes held for terminating tbe differences betweeo i4^'» 
Demnark atid the hotife of Hol/lein^ both fides did not fail to 
c^mit numberlefs hoftilitits. It was neither perfed peace 
nor declared war, yet each fide bore the mpft inveterate ha- 
■ tred to the other. Some gentlemen of Hofj/ieirtj to whoni 
the Aing had committed certain towfts in truft, upon thVir 
taking an oathof fidelity to him, perfidioudy furrendered them 
' fb^the diifchefs, and took all opportunities of infulting the 
kifig^s garrifons in thefe parts. Enraged with thefe diforders, 
' Eritw^s forced to come to the laft extremity,- and declare to 
the dutchefs, thfft, unlefi they were fpeedily redreflfed, he would 
^ rifff^oy all the' force of Denmark to reunite the dutchy of 
' BlepJoick to the ctown. His menaces had the defired effeS : 
the dutchefs and princes declared puWicly, that they would 
cnJ€&vour alt lA their power to accommodate matters to hisi 
fatisfa&i6h ; for which purpofe a new congrefs was held at 
KdieSkgj where a trace for five years was concluded, during 
which time the umpires were to give their verdift, and final 
iecifiOD, refpeSlng the fortreffes raifcd or taken by either 
party, as well ds all other grievances. Immediately {evctdUtruei 
treaties, of little confequeOce, were concluded between quccncoacliuied ' 
Margaret and the dutchefs. They ferved, however j to diftin-^''*«««» 
guilh the atnlity, the moderation, the folid judgment, and^^"™-^ 
aftive difpofition of Margaret. All the Damjh hiftorians zxt^^*^^ 
fiill of her praifts upon this occafion ; but they negleft the re-^^^^/^ 
kiion of thofe cirCumlftances which alone could form our * 

judgment of her conduft. It was foon after thefe tranfac- 
tions that flie was carried off by a fiidden death, in the fifty- 
, 3t " ninth 

^oi Tie Hiftcry of Denmark. 

^ ninth year of her age, and thirty-fixth of her rdgn, if we^ 

t^^" f include the time of her regency. 
tmJ chit- ' ^^^ cbaraders drawn by the Damjh and Swedijh biftorians, 
raagr. ^^^. V^^X different. Acxu>rding to the firfi, Margaret was {x)f- 
iefled of every virtue belonging to a fovereign : fteady, pene- 
trating, aflive, and bold, &e gained the love of ber fubjed^ 
^ . commanded the refpe<3 of her neighbours, and was the tenor 
of ^er enemies. According to the latter, (he was (b ambitious 
as to endeavour the extenfiooof her power at the expence! 
of public liberty. She was pious from policy^ moderate from 
intereft, affable and familiar only with her creatures^ proud 
to all befides ; rigid and indexible in the adminiftration of pri-i 
vate juftice \ but regardlefs of oaths and treaties, when placed! 
in competition with her intereft or ambition. In a word, a 
woman of great ability, but little integrity ; of a found head, 
but a corrupted heart. It is probable, that too much preju- 
dice prevails in both thefe chara£lers. The Swtdts flattered 
themfelves, that the union of Calmar would have extended 
their liberties, and they found them retrenched by Margarets 
She was too ambitious, too powerful, to reft fatisfied with a 
limited authority. No. fooner was ihe declared queen of Swi- 
den^ than flie formed fchemes for extending the prerogative: 
£he recovered, by degrees, the chief fortreiles out of the hands 
of the gentry, by feafonable grants to them of another na* 
ture, which did not render them independent on the court. 
Moft of the Swedijh governments ihe difpofed of to the 
Danijh nobilicy, contrary to the exprefs words of the treaty of 
Calmar \ removing, infenfibly, the native nobility from all 
places of truft and profit. Abraham Brod^rfin was the only 
tavourite among all the Swida. He was a young nobleman 
lof fine addreis and bandfome peribn ; but otherwife of little 
confideration, either in influence or ability. On him (he be« 
{lowed the government of Hallandy honoured him with a 
great iliare of her confidence, and heaped favoiu-s upon his 
family \ a condud that increafed the difcontent of the ftcws^x, 
and gave room for fufpicion, that her majefly regarded only 
the perfonal attractions of Broderfon. It furni&ed them with 
frefh caufes of complaint againft the queen, and additional 
reafons for lamenting the union, which occaiioned thelofsof 
their liberties, at leaft of their own weight and influence 
in the fcale of government. They prefented themfelves in 
a body to her majelly, with a remonllrance of their rights, | 
and a copy of the treaty of Calmar j the infradion of which 
was the fubje£l: of their complaints. AH the anfwer they re« 
ceived was, that they might guard thofe rights with the fame 



Tie Hifiory of Dennoark. ^p^ 

diligence Ihe would maintain the fortreflfes of the kingdom. 
Thus the ambitious and haughty princefs reigned with 9n al- 
mo& defpotic authority in Sweden. She impofed taxes before 
unheard-of in that country, and ftrengthened her own power 
by removing the nobility from public affairs, and reducing 
the people to fo low a condition, as deprived them of the abi« 
lity of redreffing themfelveSi or feeking a change in the go* 

MARGAREt has likewife been reproached with exening 
esueffive cruelty againft certain Danijh lords, whom (he per- 
iiecuted out of refentment, until fhe took away their lives in 
a manner the moft ignominious and excruciating. But thefe 
are the malicipus fuggedions of envy and calumny. The three 
lords were juftly put to death for crimes of the worft com- 
plexion : ihe even would have interpofed her clemency ; but 
juftice, and the public good, required that they fliould fuffer • 
In a word, if Margaret was inferior in fome of the qualities 
I of the heart, which gained a few of her predeceilbrs the glo- 
' rious title of Father of their People, Ihe was exceeded by 
' none in prudence, in policy, juftice, and true magnanimity \ 
'. qualities which diftinguiihed themfelves fo early in this prin- 
■ cefs, that her father Valdemar faid on a cetain occafion, 
' ** That Nature had erred in producing her a woman, lihce 
I " flie was originally intended for a man *." 

• PONTAN. I. ix. MbURS. 1. v. JOHN GOTH. p. 109. 

S E e T. X, 

- Containing the public TranfaSfions until the Reign of 
Chriftopher IIL 

^ E R I C X. 

'^ T) ^ NM/tRK loft a great princefi at the death of Mar- Eric X. 

* '^^ garet ; but it was generally believed that this lofs, ^<z2Xfumamed 

^ as it was, would be happily repaired in the perfon of JnV, £/^ Pome- 
formed to reign by the counfels and example of a miftrefs fo rania. 

f ikflled in the art of government. No prince ever afcended the 
throne with greater applaufe and expeditions from the people 
than Eric. The Danes flattered themfelves they fliould ex- 
perience in him the fame qualities they admired in the queen : 
the Swedes arid Norwegians^ efpecially the former, hoped for 
the recovery of thole privileges, the lofs of which had occa- 


304 y**^. t^ftory of Dcmiiiwl:. 

fidhccl all the murmurinjys in the prccotHrfg reign. Efic fag* 
ccbded to the crown and dominions of Margarrt ; but he in* 
h^riced neither her power n6r policy. -Fiffrbm recovering thci^ 
fcbefties the 'Swedes- found the yoke "of oppreffioq rendered tttorc 
grievous. He did riot, howeveir, riiii' Itiimedi^tdy into exctfsj 
btif fuffcred himfelf to glide gently into th.6''meafures of^cl^ 
' fpstWhi and 'tyranny; 

On his. acceffion we fee hiai.prooji/ing.to CQnfqrm to dl 
ihe treartics made with Margaret^ to confirm he^ donations to 
the church and clergy, to preferve the people in thdiritghtt^ 
iiid.td fee all wills duly executed agteeaole to the intention el 
■ the Jeceafed. We fee him aggrandizing the city SeHj'inScbo* 
nin:^ and endowing it with th^ fame." privileges and immtmities 
as Lunden and Malmpg^n, In a vvofdf, We behold bini putfttiitg 
the fteps marked but by his predec^flbr <if glorious mempiyf 
the intereft of his people, and the true conduftof a politic 
j^fince. At this time Eric refided at Stockholm'^ and tirt 
dipedes^ fenfible of the advantages refulting to them from the 
pf'efence of the court, ftrove to givd him new probft of thri^ 
attachment. Jealous however of their fiherties, th^ <|id not 
omit' feizing the favourable opportunity of cbrtfirming thettw 
The nobility, bifiiops, and fenate, all endeavoured to obtaitf 
a general diet of the ftates 5 but in v^in : for Eric appre- 
hended left meafures contrary to his defigns might here be 
concerted. He therefore returned to Denmark^ without gr^* 
ing (his ardent requeft of the whole nation *:. ' \ 

Conzre/s ERIC found full employment in this kingdom. The truce | 
for efta- between Margaret and the houfe of Hoijiein had fot a time j 

hUJhing a fufpended hoftilities ; but yet the ^aufe of their mutual am- I 
folid peace mofity fubfifted. The umpires were to give judgment within 1 

wi/-6 Hoi- five years after the date, of the truce, and now. there wa§ na \ 

ftein. lime to lofe. Accordingly Wraiifiam duke of Ponuranid 
and Stetin appeared for Sric^ and Henry duke of, Brunfwickr | 
Lunenburgy on the part oi the dutchefs Elizabeth, They met \ 
to give final fentencc at FUmburg^ and the firfl thing deter- 
mined was mutually to releafe all prifoners n^ade ilnce t^^ 
. , peace mediated by Ulric pf Mtcklenburg, This far was pe^' 

fediy confiftcnt with the meafures taken in the life-time of 
Margaret i but the pofture of affairs was greatly altered, f^ 
king was no longer in the humour to compromife prctcn- 
fions which he was in a condition to' enforce by arms. He 
iikewife held it di£honourable to treat and negotiate widi vaf* 
iais, nay, with rebels, who had taken arms againft him, ne- 
gledled theit oath, and, contrary to the refpeft due to their 

• PoNTAN. 1. ix* 

' fovereign> 

Tie Hifiory of Denmark^ 505 

svereign, had prefumed to demand, within the fpace of a 
ear, the invert iture of Slefwicky vacant by the death of G/r- 
ard* Such were this prince's notions of the royal preroga- 
ve. Thus, inftead of fubmitting the difference to umpires, 
Iric took a method totally different ; but agreeable, as he 
n^ined, to his dignity. He cited the duke of Lunenburg^ 
ic dutchefs Elizabeth^ and the princes of Hoiftein^ Henrys , 
fdolphusy and Gerhardy to appear at the next diet to be af- 
imbled at Neoburg^ in order to terminate matters before 
lat high tribunal. 

The panics met on the day appointed, attended by thfc Eric*/ cdH' 
likes of Pomeraaiaj Mecklerdmrgy Stetin, Saxony^ znd Brunf- duSi at th 
lick ; this laft taking an oath in quality of uncle and guar- coHgrefs» 
ian to Gerhard^ the deceafed duke of SUfwick. He reprc- 
:nted, that Gerhard received the inveftiture of the dutchy 
s a voluntary bounty of the king and kingdom, and that his 
hildren now claimed ^tbe fame favour. .To this Eric replied j 
liat Margaret had indeed formerly granted that dutchy to 
lie houfe of Holjlein^ as a fief of the crown ; but that the 
rinces had refufed to accept it under that title. Henry denied 
lis in fad ; and the king made anfwer, that it was to no 
urpofe to deny fafts that could be proved by authentic docu* 
lents. It was notorious, he faid, that the duke had pre- 
rrred the fun(5lion of a foldier during the wars, to the pof^ 
iffion of Slifwick as a fief. He then ordered the proofs to 
e produced ; to which Henry having nothing to oppofe, be 
ad recourfe to intreaties and prayers, that the affair might 
e fubmitted tor arbitrators, promifing folemnly to ftand by 
iieir award, or by the articles of the laft treaty, whereby it 
fas agreed, that ail conquefts made on either fide ihould be 
Sftofed, and matters put on the antient footing. 

As this propofal was not agreeable to Eric^ he again cited 
tfore the diet all the princes of the houfe of Holftein, They 
ppcarcd, and the king from his throne opened the allembly 
nth a full explication of the circumftances of the difpute. 
Vhen he had finifhed his fpeech, he ordered the archbifliop 
fRofchild, chznctWoT oi Denmark, to deliver his fentiments^ 
nd what the laws of the kingdom required. The archbifliop 
nade a laboured harangue, in which he infifted chiefly on 
hat ftatQte which ordains, that all fubjciSs of the crown, 
'ho have connetSted themfelves with foreigners and joined 
gainft their fovereign, made incurfions into the country, or 
therwife difturbed or inffi'nj^ed the laws, Ihould be puniflied 
'itK the lofe of their cffedts and eftates, and be deemed 
;uilty of high treafon. He? then pronounced the following 
tntence, as prefident of the diet 1 that the princefs Eliza^ 

Mop. HijiT. Vol. XXXII. X beth 

3o6 The Hiftory of DenmarkJ 

The fen- ^^^ *"^ ^"^^ Hinry of Bmnfwickj as tutors and counfdloB 

fence pajfed^^ Eric's children, had forfeited all right to the dutchyof 

wtb re- Slefwick^ in confequence of having taken arms againft ihdr 

fpeB to lawful foveretgn ; that all expences occafioned by the late 

Slefwick. tumults (hould be indemnified to the crown by the houle 

* ofHoI/ieifii and laftly, that the dutchy in queflion reveitd 

in full right, and (hould hereby be annexed to the aowo 

of Denmark ■. 

Scarce had the chancellor pronounced fentence, wbei 

the youn^. i/<p;7r^ threw himfelf at the king's feet, and be* 

fought him to grant the invefiiture of the dutchy as a fief] 

but the kiog only replied, that he muft iirft gain pot 

feffion, that he might then have full power to grant i( 

upon the terms he might think proper. As this method ol 

beftowing fiefs was new- to the German princes, it appeani 

unjuft, and confirmed them all ftrenuous defenden oftb 

Holftein family. An alliance was formed between BdHat^ 

■' prince of Fandalia^ Henry of Brunfijuicky the uncles and pw* 

dians of the young princes, and Albert of MeckUnburg^ whoD 

ravifhed with the opportunity of revenging on the periboi 

her fucceflbr the affront put on him by Margaret j in drivil 

him out of the throne of Sweden, On the other hand, h 

Cronandeck, Otton Sifted^ and feveral other nobility ofm 

•and power, deferted the //!9^?Wii family, and went over ^ 

Eric. This was a confidcrable lofc ; but not fufficient m 

vert their intention of ferioufly preparing for war. 

A, D. This year the celebrated council oi Cot^ance bi, i^ 

1414. which time the emperor Sigjfinund wrote to Eric^ requeflj 

hiin to employ all his intereft and power to induce the cte 

Lubec to re- eftablifli their fenate, which they badaboliS 

about feven years before. To oblige the emperor, Eric 

all his endeavours to reftore the fenate; but finding the 

Beckers obilinate, he declined ufing force, not chufing to 

creafe the number of iiis enemies. He contented bii 

. with fending Sigifmund an account of his proceedings, 

requefting that he would not proteffc the houfe of £^ 

Pleafed with Ericas compliance, the emperor confinncd \ 

fentence paffed againft the Holjiein princes, declaring, til 

all the proceedings of the diet were perfe£Uy regular, 4 

A D. confiftent with equity and law. This letter bears date ll 

1*415! fourteenth of Jttw, 141s* 

Eric enters SuRE of Siglfmund's countenance, Eric did not longddiW 

Slefwick rate in what method he was to ad. Immediately he took tt 

^ithan field, and entered the iyxtchy oi Slefwick with a flumciW 


« Mevrs, &P0NTAN. Ibid. 

The Hijiory ^Denmark; ^of 

ftrmjr. Perceiving that all the Holftein forces were aficmbled 
round the cities of SlefwUk and Gottorp^ while the reft of the 
country was left defencelefe, he haftily erefted two fortrefles 
at the mouth of the Sley^ the one called Sleymand, and the 
other Conigsburg, The fame he did on the weftern fide of 
the dutchy, where the fortreffes of Frefenberg and Wildfpang 
were built on the banks of the Trte^ a method which be took 
to poiTefs himfelf the more eafiiy of the dutchy. 

Having taken thefe precautions, he again applied to the 
Lubeckeri in favour of the fenate. It is probable, ^hat Sigif- 
mund renewed his inftances upon this head ; for we find Eric 
now entering upon more vigorous meafures^ He ordered all 
their fifliermen in Scbonen to be feized, and their efFe£is cons* 
fifcated ; giving at the fame time dire£i:ions to the governor 
oiBergue to feize all the cfFe£b belonging to the merchants of 
LubtCi within his jurifdl£lion, Thunder-ftruck with this fud- 
den bloW) the Lubickers x^czWci the fenate i and thus the king 
laid an obligation on the emperor, while he ^t the fame in« 
ftant ftrengthened his own intereft by the fa(i friendfhip of 
the. fenate, ViYio owed their liberty and prefent felicity to 

In the meati while the affairs o^ the Holjiein family were Awe^ 
upon the decline. Henry of Br unjivick^ uncle to the young ?/"^^^ «/^ 
prjnces, held the towns of Gottorpy Phen^ Hohraw^ Sindf^^^^f 
Hajfeldop^ in fecurity of a fum of money which he had lent Holflciit* 
the princes ; and as he now wanted money, and they were 
tinabletoredeem the towns, he offered them to Eric ofi the 
lame conditions : but the king rejeStcd his propofal, by 
the advice of Crommedicbj who perfuaded him that he woul4 
bon reduce them by force, as they were every way unpro- 
vided for a long defence. Befides this, all the cities of Vari' 
iolia, Hamburg excepted, were in alliance with the king, 
ind of confequence enemies to the princes of Holjiein, The * 

luke of Saxony^ on account of a private quarrel, marched 
it* the head of an army to burn Odeftoe^ ^nd pillage the ad - 
acent country. The dukes yohn and Albert demanded pay- . ^ x 
ncnt of the marriage portion of their niece Ann : in a word^ 
svery thing feeihed confpirinE; to ctTeit the downfal of this 
^ily. Nothing indeed could be more unequal than the 
sonteft between Eric and the young princes. On the one 
Sde was a powerful monarch, matter of three great king- 
loms, and in alliance with the greater number of his neigh- 
bours : on the other, a greater number of princes it is true, 
>ut fovereigns only of petty ftates, at variance with each 
)ther, and now united rather out of pique to Eric^ than at- 
achment to each other, or any well-digeiled fcheme of po- 

X 2 licy. 

jol The Hifiory of Denmark; 

licy. Still j however, the Holjleinen maintVuied a good coon- 
tenance, and determined to make vigorous efforts in thek 
own defence *. . . 

^, D. Early this year the king a fecond time entered the dot- 
1416.' chyof Slefwicii and immediately befieged the cities ofSt/- 
wick and Gottorp ; and to cut off all communication between 
them, he crefted a fortrefs called Halherjburg^ in the inter- 
mediate fpace. All his endeavours proved abortive; for 
thefe places being well provided with every ncreflary of de- 
fence, made feveral briflc and fuccefsful Tallies, which obliged 
Erk*/ the king to withdraw his army. Nor was this the only 
hjfes in difappointment he fuftained. On the one fide Albert of Med- 
Slcfivick. ienburg^ and Balthafar of Vandalia^ were marching at the 
head of an army to the affiftance of the Holjleiners. On the 
other, the trifom^ induced by Hiwry of Ojnahurg to take 
arms againft the king, were making a diverfion. The for- 
mer beneged and took Frejenburg^ and the latter formed the 
iiege offondererij and foon got poifefSon of a place too weak 
to make any long defence. 

Incens£d with thefe lodes, J?nV' decamped frombefot 
Gotiorpy rcfolving to lay the country of the Frifons in albes} 
and this reafon the Danijh hiftorians aflign for raiiing the fi^ 
of that city. When the king was preparing to crofs xhttf 
der^ he difcovered Henry of Ofnaburg polled in fuch a mano! 
as to obftruft his paflage. This prince had narrowly watchei 
the motions of the Danijh army, and feemed determined t9 
• make a ftand, which obliged Eric to relinquifli his defign and 
plan of revenge uppn the Frifons. Inftead of entering thek 
country, he attacked Henr/t army, and was received withfl, 
much unexpeded refolution as quite difconcerted him, vA 
forced him to return to his fleet, and embark for Dennurii 
fully determined, however, to revenge the following year aB 
the difgraces he enC6untered. 
Eric r^ His retreat encouraged the Holjletn princes to enter upon 
pul/ed. aftion. They firft made a defcent on the ifland Femrtn^ aB 
which they reduced, except the fortrefs of Glambecky which 
Ivar BrujRy the governor, bravely defended. They had ifl- 
vefted this place for the fpace of two months, and finding aB 
their endeavours to take it by the regular method of fiege, frut 
trated, they determined to ftarve the garrifon. Brujk wasob- 
ftinate, and his fold iers reduced to the laft extremity, when fac 
^ received advice that a Danijh fquadron was hovering along tM 
coaft. Immediately he took boat, efcapcd the befiegers, an|| 
prefentcd himfelf before the king, from vvhom he obtained fe» 


« Vid. Po»T. I.ix. p. 578. 



Tie Hifiory of Denmark. 309 

yeral (hips laden with men, provifion^ and ammunition. On 
bis return he found %11 the paflages to the fortrefs clofely 
blocked, the princes who had got notice of this motion giv- 
ing directions to that purpofe. He tried every means to force 
his way ; but being conftantly difappointed, the garrifon al- 
moR fiarved to death, at length capitulated, upon no other 
condition than that their lives and liberty (hould be granted. 
During the winter the king was bufied in preparations for the a. D. 
enfuing campaign, which herefolved to piifh with the utmoft 1417*. 
vigour. His fleet was formidable, and his army fo numerous, 
that it amounted to an hundred thoufand fighting men ; but 
as he knew that the enemy confifled of foreigners who could 
not be long maintained, he contented himfelf with annoying 
thepi by fea. This would have been admirable policy,, if the * 
princes had no other refources than what Ericas heated imagi* 
nation prefented to him. But as foon as they difcovered his 
defign, they cantoned their army in the dxitchy of Slefwick^ 
where th^y were plentifully fupplied with every neceflary. 
Finding this project difconcerted, Eric landed his armyj^ which 
he divided into .two bodies, forming the fiege of Slefwkk with 
the one, and of Gottorp with the other, The firft of thefe 
cities capitulated on the 17th of July ; duke Albert of Meek* 
ienburg^ ^\ko Commanded the garrifon, making a particular 
treaty with the king. It was faid, that he had liberty to re* 
tire wherever he pleafed, on condition that he never ihould 
carry arms againft Denmark. 

As foon as thebiihopof Ofnahurg was informed, that Slef- £ric/«« 
wick and Gottorp were invefted, he pofted to Hamburgh^ and <vefls the 
reprefented to the magiftrates, that if thefe two cities were cities Slcf- 
taken, the Damjh forces would aver-ruo all Holjlewj and the wick and 
city o£ Hamburgh would then- have eveiy thing to fear from Gottorp. 
iuch neighbours ; but not being able to obtain any more than 
•51 promife of a fumof money, he harangued the people in the - 
inarket-place with fo much eloquence, and energy of di&ion, 
fhat they inftantly refolved to declare war againft Ericy and , 
raifc forces* The refolution of the Hamburghers^ the army Hamburg 
they were preparing to macch into the field, and the operations /<?/»/ in 
«f the Hffiflein family to attack htni as foon afi they were re- the confer 
inforced, made a ftrong impreifion on Erics fpirit, and de- ^eraiy 
terrnined bim, without hcfitation^ to raife the fiege of Got- ^g^^^ft 
forP', which he had now twice unfuccefsfuHy invefted. His ^"^» 
reputation was greatly affedcd by this meafure, the confe- 
quences of which became more vifible every day ; for the 
enemy's courage encrcafed in proportion as they obferved him 
{eized with fear. They now took the field with an army of 
thirty thoufand men, befides cavalry, marched ftreight to 
X 3 Halleuiburgi 

^iQ Tbi Hijiory of Denmark; 

Hatteushurg^ and took it fword in hand. Thence they marched 
to SUfiuicij and met with equal fuccefs. They likewife forced 
Conigiburg^ and feveral caftles in the diocefe of SUfwickyvAsLV^ 
they pillaged and deftroyed. . ^ 
Propofah In the autumn fome overtures were made for eftaUiibing i 
forafeace.ftzce, Dtdman^ bifliopoF Lubec^ wa^ charged with acorn* 
miffion from the pope, to mediate a reconciliation hetweea 
the houfes of Denmark and Hol/iein, He waited for this pur- 
poi'e on Ericf and found him difpofed to liften to terms of ac< 
eommodation ; nor were the princes at all averfe to reafonao 
ble propofitions. A truce was ligned till the month of S^ 
tember in the following year, in which time ieveral center 
rences were held between the two powers. At laft the afiair 
was fubmitted to the arbitration of two German princes, and 
the deputies of four of the banfe-towns 3 but on condition that 
if they could not come to any decifion, the final deterroinatroo 
ihould be left to the dukes Bernard oi Bmnfmck^ and Bu^j* 
laus of Pomerania, It was alfo agreed, that, during tbie triice« 
both fides (hould actually lay down their arms, as if in the 
midft of profound peace ; that no annoyance (hould be gives 
to commerce, or the fubje£ls of either power, and that no oeir 
fortreffes (hould be ereded. 

The appointed day being come, the king's deputies did 

not appear \ they were driven to fea by a ftorm, and detiiined 

a day beyond the time propofed. Pleafed with an opportunitf 

of breaking off the conference, the Holfiein princes took in- 

ilruments of their having appeared to the day, and departed. 

Thus all the endeavours of the biihop of Lubec to eftablifll' 

peace were rendered abortive, by an accident on the one^^* 

and from w^ntof inclination on the other (A). 

Treaty The Holjieiners did not remain long inactive, after thil 

ircke off ^pg„ declaration of their intentions. They did not, however, I 

M 'm • *" ^^^*^ ^^" perfons commence the firft hoflilities ; that would i 

Jlolftem jjg j^ palpable a violation of the truce 5 it was fufficient for 

frtnces. ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Frifons^ their allies, made incurfions into the 

king's territories. An attempt was made tpfurprife Swabjtiih 

(A) It was about this time though this prince was ilroitgif 

that Eric received Martin the inclined to patronize learsfsg 

^fth's decree for founding an and fcience, the continual wan 

pnivcrfity \xk his doininionS| in which he was engaged, pre- 

with the fame privileges as that vented the execution of bis proi 

pf ?iw/i, excepting only theo- jeft^, until Cbriftianl. pot th^ 

logy, which the Danes were re- fifiifliing ftroke to them (i). 
nuired to flady at Rome. But 

(1) fw^, I'vfi^ 

Tbs Hifi&ry of Denmark. gxi 

a fbftrefs belonging to the archbilhop of Skfwid^ who had 
joined with £r/V, but it proved unfuccersful. 

His majefty, irritated with the prince's obftinacy^ again took A. D.'. 
arms, and made an attempt to recover Femeren\ but finding 141 9. 
that the inhabitants joined with the Holjieiners to oppofe his 
landing, he relinquiihed thedefign, landed his troops at Hel^ 
ligerhoven, and H^ade terrible incurfions into the country 
round Oldenburg and Wolftadt ; after pillaging thofe two ci- 
ties, encouraged by the large booty, he renewed his attempt . 
on Fenuren^ but was repulfed, and infolently treated by the 
icoffs of the inhabitants. This treatment wrought the king 
up to the higheft pitch of rage ; he exhorted his foldiers ei- 
ther to revenge the affront, or perifli in the attempt. Another 
on(et was made with fuch defperate fury, that a landing was 
efFedted, and the inhabitants driven from the Chore with great 
flaughter ; which advantage was immediately fucceeded by the 
redu(^ion of the whole ifland, and the fevere puniOiment of 
feveral of the leading perfons among thq inhabitants. The 
country was pillaged, the villages (et on fire, cbnrches de- 
firoyed, married women and virgins given up to the lufl: of the 
ibldiers, and every diforder committed, that rage and the 
power of revenge could di(£iate. The citadel of Ghmbuk alone 
remained unconquered ; aiid it was attacked with fo much vi- 
gour, that the garrifon furrendered prifoners of war in lefs than 
two days. 

PONTANUS makes mention of a treaty Concluded this 'treaty he- 
year, between Eric and Vitoldy king of Poland and duke of ^J^'^^ ' 
Lithuania *. In this they engaged mutually to defend each ^^J^^k 
other againft all enemies, efpecially the knights of the Ti?tt/^- andYQ- 
vie order. It was alfo ftipulat^d, that when either king in- *^ ' 
fringed the treaty, their fubjeits fliould be abfolved from their 
allegiance; that neither fisould declare war, or conclude 
peace, without the confent of the othen Th^t all conquefls 
(hould remain with thofe Ao whom they belonged ; that is, 
with the party who could produce the moft authentic docu- 
ments of right J that the booty fliould be divided equally be- 
tween both nations ; and that*neither party fliould claim to be 
reimburfed for the expences of marching to the afSflance of 
the. other. 

On the other hand, Eric publiflied a writing that furniflied 
room for fpecularion. It regarded the dowry of his queen, 
but is not material to our defign, farther than that it created a 
fufpicion in the minds of the people, that he was defirous 
pf extending his prerogative, and rendering himfelf indepen- 
dent on the diet of the ftates. 

» L. ii. 
X 4 All 

|if TbeHipryoflkhmzTk: 

A. D. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ *^ Holjietners were in arms, tnd Aeling 
14.20I ^^^ meditating how to come to a dccHivc a£(ion with them. 
Eric de- This he atiemptfed near Immerfwed^ and was defeated with 
featedhy great lofs, infomuch that his Bight became a proverb, At Im- 
t^e Hoi- merfwcl ihe Ddnes were driven to the devil ^. Although tim 
•^ fteiners* defeat did not terminate the war, it occafioned a fufpenfionof 
hofiilities, and produced a truce, in order to fettle prelimina- 
ries for a peace. Umpires were chofcn, and the whole tifiir 
of the dutchy of Slefwick again ca'nvaflcd. The emperor 
bad confirmed the fentence pafled by the archbifhop of hj- 
fbildj at the diet ; It was indeed agreeable to law, but a very 
4ifputable point In equity. However, the princes had urged 
no unanfwerable arguments why it fhould be repeated, and 
they now rather chofe to decide the diflerence by the fwai 
They had confented to a truce, only to prevent incrcafing tkc 
number of their enemies by their obftinacy ; but they enj« 
braced all occafions of fruftrating the intention of It Em 
perceived this, and accordingly equipped a fleet with dcSga 
to invade the ifland of Jlfen. Here he met with little fuccei 
or honour ; the troops were repulfed in attempting to land 5 
. Ivar BrusJty admiral of the fquadron, died on fliipboard, and 
at laft a ftorm difperfed and fhattered the whole fleet. Not' 
was Eric more happy in an attempt on the herring fiflicrsoa 
the coaft of Schonen ; for the Vandal cities, apprized of hi* 
defign, fent powerful fuccours to their countrymen : at the 
feme time a fquadron from Hamburgh ravaged the coafts of 
Nofth-Jutlandy and took three of the king's (hips. 
•*• ^' It muft be owned, that Eric had a betrer turn for civil po- 
'4.^^' licy than for military operations : in the latter he wasfeldom 
fuccefsful, but almoft always in the former. Sundry whoic- 
fome regulations were made in feveral cities of Denmark^ ^ 
the police 6f Copenhagen^ irt particular, placed 6n the bdf 
footing. One law was paflfed prohibiting mechanics to be 
faifed to the dignity of confuls or fenatots ; another, dcpm- 
ing the populace of the right they aflumed of depofing tbof 
magiftrates ; and a third, whereby the city was endowedwitb 
all the privileges granted to Lunden and Malmogen. BcC^ 
fhefe, feveral private regulations for the good order of thcci^ 
were made, but though excellent in thenifelves, thcyfcarce 
merit 'attention in a general hiftory. ^ 

As to arms, every new attempt of £rzVs produced frnfl 
difgraces. Tondnen was long befieged by his troops, without 
foaking any confiderable progrefs in its reduflion. Crsnoif^' 
Ific^ who commanded the Danes, wearied out with the lenp 

* MfVRs. l.v. parrii. p. 108, , 

The ISJiifrf of Dcniriark. j i^ 

of the iiefi^t refolved upon fcaltng the walls in different * 
places. No annoyance was given by the beheged, while he ^ 

was fixing the ladders ; but as foon as they perceived the 
trenciies filled, and the ladders crowded with jbldiers, they 
poured fuch quantities of burning pitch, and heaps of large 
ftones upon them; as kill^ and wounded great, numbers, oc- 
cdioned the utmoft oonfufion among the Danes^ and gave an 
opportunity to the befieged to make terrible deftru£tion with 
their arrows, without ^ny danger to themfelves. In a word» 
lite fiege was raifed, after it bad coft Crommedic near half his 

The Danes were alfo obliged to raife the fiege of Doming^ 
on hearing that Henry of Brunfwick had thrown in fupplies of 
men, ammunition, and provifion. They likewife loft Hader^ 
jS^fff, taken by the fame prince. Eric was every where dif- 
comfited and difgraced ; he endeavoured therefore to repair his 
lofles by forming powerful alliances. The firft he concluded 
was with the cities of Vandalia, With thefe he firuck up a 
treaty ofieiifive and defenfive, intended to be perpetual, as the 
king included all his fucceflbrs, and the magiftrates of the 
towns, with all their defcendants. The cities engaged in this 
alliance were Lub£c^ JVifmar^ Rojlock^ Stralfund^ Lunenburg^ 
Gripjwald^ and Anclam ; all of which ftipulated, that inde- 
pendent of this treaty, they {hould have liberty to perform all 
prior engagements to other princes and ftates. 

In the next place Eric fent complaints to the pope, the em- A. D. 
peror, and neighbouring princes, of theobftinacycf the/ft/- 1423. 
fiein family, which refufed all terms of accommodation, and 
violently retained the dutchy of Slefwick^ though legally an- 
nexed to the crown of Denmark. His remonftrances gained 
him the friendfliip of almoft all the princes and cities to whom 
. he had wrote ; Hamburgh alone continuing firm to her en- 
'gagements, to the Holfteiners. Among others, the duke of 
Lunenburg publiibed an edi£l) prohibiting all hisfubjeds, under 
heavy peilahie?, to inlift in the H9ljlein fervice, or any way 
to affift them againft the crown of Denmark. The regency 
of Lubic went farther. They wrote to jhe Holjiein princes, 
acquainting them, tbat his Danijh majefiy had laid before 
them pertain complaints, which they muft fubmit to arbitra- 
tration, or fiand the confequence of their joining the whole 
power of the hanfe- towns to the king's forces, to procure re- 
drefs of grievances, now become infupportable, through their 
cJafttnacy. To this they were anfwered by the Holjiein nobi- 
lity, that although it was notorious their lords were in pofief- 
fion of Slefwkk^ duke Gerhard having obtained the inveiticure 
of that dutchy from king Okus ^ yet there fecmed no necef- 


314 The Hiftory of Dtnm^k: 

^ty for fubmitting to arbitration an affair which admitted of 
no difiiculty. 

On the other hand, the inhabitants of Dithmarjh exhorted 
the princes to reftore Slefwick, and threatened, in cafe of refu- 
fai, to declare in favour of Eric. They received the fame 
anfwer as the Lubeckers^ and feemed perplexed in what man- 
ner to adi, as the point in qlieftion was a cafe of right, which 
they could not pretend to decide;. 

JOHN J archbifliop of LubeCj armed with the pope's au- 
thority, purfued the fteps of his predeceilbr, and endeavoured 
to negotiate a peace ; but with as little fuccefs as fuch an at* 
tempt had hitherto met with. At laft the emperor, zi Erk\ 
reqiieft, fent Rumpold^ duke of Sikjia^ to take cognizance of. 
the affair in his name. Rumpold pafied through Luhec to 
Flenfiurg. While he refided at this laft place, the Holjieinen 
attacked the .town, forced open the gates, .and foon became 
mafters of the garrifon. The German deputy was not dif- 
concerted with this violence. He went up to the princes, aod 
told thetn, that he was come by the emperor's orders in qua- 
]ity of a mediator ; that his inftrudlions were firft to vifit the 
king, of whofe good intentions, and pacific difpofitipn, he 
was'fatisfied ; fo that he had no doubts of effe£iing an accom* 
modation advantageous and acceptable to both parties. He 
exhorted the princes heartily to embrace the fame fentiments, 
and to labour in bringing over the nobility and princes of 
their houfe to terms of peace, fo falutary and neceilary. His 
eloquence wrought fuch an effe£t, that the princes yielded to 
the force of his arguments, and confented he (hould puxfMt 
bis journey to the king. Rumpeldj and the biihop of Luhec^ 
prevailed ori Eric to grant an interview to Henry of Holftein i 
and things.were in an excellent train, when the deatli of the 
Qerman deputy put a ftop to the negotiation : for though the 
emperor immediately fupplied his place by another, inttf 
whofe hands the king put all the papers and proofs relative to 
the dutchy in queflion, yet the princes of Holftein refufed to 
produce their titles, and in effedi broke off the treaty. 
A j)^ In- the year 1424, the kiiig made a progrefs through Pmi" 
1424.* rania to eliablifl) forpe regulations, and conclude cenain trca^ 
^ ' ties with the princes and cities of that country. From thence 
he went to Buda^ by the emperor's invitation, to be prefent at 
the decifion of the difpute concerning Slefwick* According 
to Crantzius^ Eric cited Henry and his brothers to attend at 
this judgment. On the contrary, the Danijb hiftorians al- 
ledge, that Henry went thither, contrary to the advice of Ws 
council, who were of opinion that, as a prince of the em« 
pitc, be cowld PQt bp cited out of the bounds of the empire^ 

3 ^' 

' .^hHiftary 0f Denmark* m^ 

nor culpable for refufiog to comply with fuch a fummonst 
Beiides, they looked upon his imperial majedy as a partial, 
judge, and therefore advifed Henry to fubmit his caufe to the 
pope. Be that as it will* Sigifmund pronounced fentence on 
the twenty-eighth day of June^ in the following manner ; 
That ail South jHtland^ containing the cities of Sl^wick^ Got» 
/flr^, and others, together with this Danijh foreft, thq ifland 
of J/fffig and the province vulgarly called Frifeheiden^ with all 
their rights and dependencies, (hould henceforward beannexed 
in full right to the crown of Denmark :^ that the king be put 
in immediate. pofTeffion of the faid dutchy and dependencies ; 
and the Hol/iein princes, Henry^ Adulphm^ and Ger^ard^ nei- 
ther have nor lay claim to any right over any part of the 
iaid' dutchy. The Holftein annals add, that, after pairing this 
fentence, the emperor offered, in the king's name, in order 
to facilitate an accommodation, to cede to them the ifland of 
Laaknd^ together with a fum of three hundred tbouland 
marks ; but the princes rejefled thepropofitidn ^ 

Here it was that £ric refolved upon a pilgrimage to Pakf" 
iiney which he only deferred to attend the coronation of queen 
Sophia. ' This religious progrefs. had almpft coft him dear ; 
for he was led into a fnare by an artful Syrian^ and forced to 
extricate himfelf by the immediate payment of a large fum of 
money. . Nor was this the only bad confequence of this un-, 
fcafonable journey. The abfence of princes is generally in- 
jurious to their fubje^s, and it proved To to t\it Danes. He 
had appointed the queen regent of the kingdom, and advan- 
tages were taken of a female government. On the one fide, 
the bi(hop of Arhus claimed jurifdiSion over certain l^nds, 
which the king had committed in truft to his predece^Ibr. 
This difpute, however, was amicably terminated by certain 
mutual conceflions. On the other fide, the Holftein princes 
were diiTatisfied with the emperor's award, although they pro- 
mifed tq ftand by it. They complained loudly, and fent am« 
bafladoss to pope Martin V, of whom they obtained an order 
for the biihop of Cologn^ and a certain cardinal, whofe name 
is not mentioned, to take cognizance afrefli of the difpute, 
and revife the fentence pafled by Sigifmund^ 

In thi^fituation of affairs 'jE'r/c returned to his dominions, .<-^ 
and immediately confcnted to an interview with the princes • 

at Fienjburg^ where each party fliould^ be^ attended by four ^^^' 
affiftants, two ecclefiaftics, and as many laics, who fhouljl 
^xert all their endeavours' to bring this tedious aifair to an 
imicable and definitive ifiue. Nothing, however, refulte4 

.1 (rants, p. 135. 


J I ^ . ' The Hiftory of Denmark. 

from the coogrefs. The king refufed to grant the imrefikuif 
o£ the dutcby, but as a perfond fief ; and the princes infifld 
upon having it hereditary/ Such was th^ confequence of that 
imprudent grant c^OlaUs^ that imailed an expenfive and mia- 
ous war on his fuccefibrs. . Both fides were obftinate, and it- 
^ourfe was had again to the fword, the final refort of 
princes. Eric railed a powerful army, without declaring iti 
deftination, or indeed intimating where the ftorm would fall; 
^ut the princes, rightly judging that his preparations were jo- 
tended againft them, took meafures for ftanding in their ows 
defence. Not contented with reinforcing the garrifons of 
SUjwick and Gottorp^ they new-modelled the fortifications of 
the former, and drew a deep ditch around. To give an ap- 
pearancjc of juftice to their caufe» they publi(hed manifeftoeS) 
fetting forth their willingnefs to end the difpute by arbitration, 
as was plain from the letters obtained from ^is holinefs, aj^ 
pointing the bifhop of Cologne umpire. After giving this glo& 
to their own condud, they folicited ttkt Vandal cities to arm 
in their favour ; and found means to perfuade them that juf- 
tice was wholly on their fide : for what could be more extra* 
ordinary, faid they, than that ao emperor of G/r/w^wf, where 
mil fiefs are hereditary, fhould judge that SUfwick alone vm 
peribnal. Yet ^11 their reafoning would have made butt 
(light impreffion, had not the HarrAurgersy conftant in their 
attachment to the houfe of Holjiein^ reprefented to them the 
injury that would arife to their commerce from the oppr^ffion 
of the prii\ces, and the increafed power of the king; de- 
Rionfirating, that the only method of terminating a deftrue^ 
tive war was to hold the ballance equal, by which means bodv 
parties would foon tire of military operations, and return 
with cagcrnefs to trade, agriculture, and whatever copld re- 
pair the lofles and poverty confequent on the war. An al- 
ilance with Holjlein was ftruck up ; but before they declared 
War, they fent deputies to the king, in the name of all tbc^ 
harts towns, exhorting him to conclude peace.. £r/!: teplied, 
that he was ready to ftand by the emperor's decifion : the de- 
. A TV putter returned with this anfwer, and their return was afiga^ 

1^26* ^^ ^^^ ciixts ffer declaring war. ^ 
Eric, enters ^^ ^^^ mz2in time Eric entered Slefwick with a powerful 
Slefwick army, with which he hoped foon to reduce the princes to rea« 
a third fon. Immediately he inverted Slefwick and Gottorpy kniiteW 
time, and lines, which fecured him againft the attacks cf the Holfdn 
/^^'/jf^^tf/^ army without. Both fieges were pufhed with great, vig«wr>\ 
the cities and the cities would probably have been forced to furrender, i»' 
Slefwick fight of their army, had not Eric fuddenly broke up his camp, 
and Got^ on receiving menacing letters- from the Fandal utks. in which 
imp. . -. ° ° they 


7 he mficry of Denmark; i^if 

they told him, that, finding all their remonltrances to him 
defpiled, they detennined to join wtch his enemies, and oblige 
him by 'forte to hearken to reafonable terms of accommoda- 
tion. It was in vain that Eric wrote circular letters to tte 
bans-towns in his own vindication : thefe had no^ other eiFe& 
than exciting popular tumults in the .cities, which ended in 
the deftrudion of one or two of their magiftrates -, but pro- 
duced no falutary eiFefts to Eric \ 

Early in the fpring the Vandal cities fcnt a ftrong fleet to ^^ jy^ 
fca, which committed dreadful ravages on the coafts o( Den^ 1422.* 
marA. Gerhard of Hol/iein commanded this fleet, and his 7";^^ Van- 
brother Hmry was at the head of an army, with which he laid dal citus 
fiege to Flensburg^ where* he was killed with the ihot of znarmin fa* 
arrow ; a blow which had almoft proved fatal- to his family. w»r^ 
Immediately his army was feized with the utmofl; conftema- Holfteio. 
tion ; the foldiers difbanded themfelves, notwithftanding all 
the promifes and intreaties of Adolphus^ who put himfelf at 
thtir bead. On this occaflon might be feen what had fre- 
quently bef6re been obferved, theSeftiny of the general de- 
teraiining the fate of a whole army. A general rout began; 
and the* auxiliary troops of Hamburg and Lubecj who the mo- 
ment before had fhewn inconceivable ardour, were now the 
firft to lead the flight. 

ERIC^ in the mean time, gained fome confiderable advan- 
tages at fea. His fleet defeated a fquadron of Vandal (hips : 
i after which fuccefs x\it Danes attacked thirty JLv^^^i merchant- 
men, all of whom they took or deflroyed, after an obftinate 
' engagement ; yet was he no lefs defirous than before of. ac- 
commodating matters with the hans-towns. He knew their 
> power, and the difficulty he would have in reducing the houfe 
of Hoi/ieinj fupported by fuch an alliance. Even his yiSones 
'afforded no fatisfaSion, fince they more firmly rivetfird the 
faans-towns to Holjiein. He therefore not only wrote himfelf, 
but induced the emperor Sigifmund to exert all his influence 
and autfkority with thofe cities, in bringing them to a right 
underftanding with Denmark \ but neither arguments, in- 
fluence, nor the imperial authority, could prevail. Sigtfmund*% 
menaces ferved only to inflame them the more, and made them, 
write (harp letters to Ericj that breathed nothing'but war and 
vengeance •*. - 

The iKmpefor, who thought his honour was engaged in 
concluding this affair, and who was particularly incenfed at a - ^ \ 

War undertaken to fruftrate the effeds of his fcntence, now } 

reiblvcd to go through with the work he had begun. Accord- ! 

* l^SDtRS. l.V. ** PONTAN. 1. i^. 



'"giE ^s Hifiory cf Deilttoark.' 

ingly he fent Nicolas Stocky one of Che lords of hb bedchaiil* 
The em- \^^^ ^5 negotiate a peace. The ambaflador fet out ka i«* 
f^oK me* j^g^^ where he declared to the fenate his imperial majefty*^ ifi^ 
Jiates a fyf^Q\o^^, Hc fet forth, that his mafter was cjQtrcmely exit 
f^^^^ perated at the war declared againft Denmark^ to the great pre- 
judice of all Chriftendom : that he was aftoniOied the ful^eds 
of the empire fhould, without his confent or knowledge, take 
arms to prevent the execution of an imperial decree^ contraiy 
to the laws and confiitution of the enapire. He exhorted 
them to recal their fleets^ disband their armies, and confent 
to a truce for {1% months, during which a general peace migix 
be negotiated on an amicable footing. Stod concluded untk 
l^prefenting to the fenate, that it was their intereft in parti- 
' cular not to offend againft the laws of the empire, or to iocor 
" the difpleafure of his imperial majefty, from whom they it- 
duced fo many advantages. He next went to the Holjlat 
princes,' and urged the fame arguments to tbem ) but witbouC 
eiFedb. He then returned to Luhc^ and demanded the fenate's 
final refolution. This however they declined, under pretence 
of its being requiftte to know the king's difpofition before tbcj 
gave their anfwer. Stocky who was indefatigable in executiog 
his commiHion, fet out for Denmark^ and found Eric in the 
very fentiments he could wifli. That prince deilred nothing 
{<> much as peace : be granted full powers to Stock to appoint 
a congrefs for adjufting preliminaries. Accordingly the am' 
4>airador iixed upon Flensburg'\ but this the Holfteiners haughti* 
*)y rejef^ed, demanding that the congrefs might fit ziKic9f^ 
t;;^, which was granted.. A truce was agreed upon, and every 
ihing feemed to confpire in bringing about the much wiAed^ 
for reconciliation. 
Treaty This, however, proved otherwife. Without regarding 

broke off, the fufpenfion of hoftilities, the Vandal and Hol/fein fleets 
commitred the moft terrible diforders, burning and plunder- 
ing the Z>/{«//& coafts and (hipping, giving quarter neither to 
men, women, nor children. £rw was Ihockcd with«this per- 
fidy ; but he refolved to fupprefs his refentment, and wait the 
effe^ of Stock's negotiation. A fafe convoy was dcmawfcJ i 
for the deputies ; but, far from attending to the iffue of the 
congress, or the articles of the truce, the confederates feflt 
another fleet to fea, with twelve thoufand fighting men, b©- 
fides fcamen, on board. Their defign was to lay fiegc to 
'Copenhagen ; ^but the coails were fo well guarded by thcking'f 
fhips, that the enemy found a defcent impradicable. Infteai 
of lofing courage and prefence of Jhind at the fight of fo for- 
midable an armament, all the inhabitants of Zealand, and the 
other iilands, were afiembled^ arm3 put into the bands of all 


Itbe Hiftory of Denmark; 315 

thofe who were able to ufe them,, and rewards promifed to all 
thofe who ihould acquit themfeives fatisfa£lorily in the de- 
fence of their country. By this animated conduct, all the 
enemy's attempts WQie baffled, and not a (ingle Vandal or 
Holfieiner landed on the iflands '• AH 

The pirates were more fuccefsful in Schonen and Norway \ , * g* 
for after having pillaged and reduced Land/croon to aflies, th^y py^^^/^/ 
got poflfeffion of Btrg^i^ and then retired with an immenfe commtud 
booty to Wifmar^ Their lawlefs conduct, indeed, began to a, the 
raife appreheniions in the Holftein princes and Vandal cities, Vandal 
that the emperor would put them under the ban of the tm-JUets. 
pire. In order to appeafe his wrath, they had recourfe to in^ 
treaties and fupplications, it being impoffible toexcufe or pal- 
liate adions fo contrary to the law of nature and nations. 
They publiihed a manifefto, fetting forth, that their view ia 
declaring war againft Denmark was only to preferve their own 
rights and liberties, without intending to countenance the 
dodrine of the Huffiiesj or proted pirates, whom they beheld 
as the pefts of fociety, and the enemies of mankind in ge- 
neral. They farther declared their readinefs to obey the fee 
ofRomi, his imperial majefty, and to affiil againfi the here- 
tiqks of Bohemia, They affirmed, that contrary winds, and ' 
.not inclination, had prev.ented their deputies from attending 
the appointed congrefs at Faljierbo: that they were now ready lp>ropofaU 
to attend wherever his imperial majefty (hould command ; nuule ly 
but they intreated him to confider, that, being the kinfman oitbeHoU 
his Danijh majefty, he was an improper judge of their dif- ftein 
putes, fince it would be impoffible to avoid fome partiality xnprinces^ 
favQur of thofe with whom we are conneded. They there- ' 
fore intreated him to name fome other German prince for 
umpire, or to leave the decifion of the whole difpute to his 
holinefs. Finally, they requefted the bifliop of Ratzburg to 
forward their requeft to the imperial throne. 

In confequence of this manifefto the emperor publiflied a 
decree, refufing to acknowledge the authority of the pope, or 
any other power fpiritual or temporal, over civil affairs, withifi 
bis jurifdi£lion. He forbid ecclefiaftics from at ail med- 
dling with the difference between Denmark and Holftein^ it 
being a -cafe purely civil; and commanded the princes of 
firandenburg and Lunenburg to affift Eric with all their forces, 
and by every way poffible oblige the houfe of Holftein to fub- 
mit to the imperial decree. Sigifmund*$ proceedings induced 
the pope to withdraw the commiffion he had granted the 
. bifhop of Cologne : flill, however, the Hol/ieiners continued 

• Meuhs. 1. V. 


210 ^^^ tiifiory of Dennwlc. 

Rei ^edh ^'^^^^ claim ; but to flbcw thcfr defire of complying wkh ^ 
the em-' i^fi^^^^^ commands, they confented to the conference ap* 
peroTi pointed at Nicoping^ and attended there in perfon ; but raifed 
{o many obftrudions, that nothing waajdetermined, the king 
leaving the final dccifion to the emperor^ and the princes lo 
the pope * (A). 
. ^ About this time tlie queen, encouraged by her fucceb in 
' ' defence of Copenhogen^ and protedion of the iflands, rcfolvtjl 
^ ^' to avenge the affront. She equipped a fquadron, on board 
which (he embarked fourteen hundred land-forces, orderiog 
them ^ to pillage and deftroy all the country round Siralfuaii 
Cpurage is not always attended with fuccefs. The emer*. 
prize was attempted with fpirit, and the Stralfund fleet wii. 
7heT)z.' vigoroufly attacked by the Danes \ but receiving ftrong and 
niflti fleet i^afonable reinforcements, they becaitie fuperior in forces 
defeated, made three hundred of the king's troops prifoners, and de« 
ftroyed fome of his ihips, the reft efcaping under favour of 
the night. This mifcarriage aiHided the king in a very fen- 
fible manner. He blamed the queen for it, which fhe took 
fo much to heart; that it is juftly reputed the caufe of her. 
death, which happened foon after. No princels.was evec^ 
more regretted by her fubjeds, or admired by all for the m»>. 
deration, fweetnefs, and true magnanimity of her temper;, 
but it was when too late that Eric began to entertain aduti 
fenfe of her merit. 
- A. Dr In' the beginning of the following year the cities of &trA*\ 
'430- fund2LV\A Rojiocky wearied out with a tedious war, concluded a. 
Stralfund feparate peace with Denmark^ which they promifed to keep 
emd Rof- inviolably. Negotiations were fct on foot for accommcxiating 
tock make ij^^tters with the other cities ; but they proved abortive, and 
^'^^' **'''^ hoflilitics continued as ufual. A Swedijh admiral attacked 
^ four Lubec merchant-fhips, richly laden, three of which be 
_. took, the fourth efcaping with difficulty into the Trave, 
[A. D. This year an ambafiy arrived from Henry VI. of Enghni^ 
'^3^' demanding a renewal of the ancient alliance between thenwo 
crowns. The ambaflador was charged in particular with io- 

^ • PoNtAN. 1. ix. 

(A) Pc«/iaf«Kj relates, that £r/V knowledge, to procure a new^ 

this year incurred the ill will of coinage that compenfatcd the 

his fubjcdts, by coining large bafcnefs of the former. Other 

funis of money greatly below writers place this event three or 

the flandard. The queen obfcrv- four years earlier : butwcchufe 

ing the cfFcfts this produced on to follow the authority of the 

the minds of the people, found elaborate and learned Po/r/<MW* 
means,, without the king's 
' flrufliofli 

Tk tSJiory of Denmark.- ^i% 

llm£tio»8 rcfpefiing fome injuries done to the Englijh mer* 
chants by the fleets of Norway. Eric's anfwcr to the Englijb 
monarch's remonftrance was fpirited and fenfible.. He vindi-' 
cated the honour of his crown, without derogating from the v 
refpe£^ due to Henry .' in a word, the alliai^e was renewed ; 
but the grievances complkincd of remained unredrefled, be- 
caufe they required the pujtifliment of certain fubje^ of the 
crown of Norway. 

The advantages of fuch an aUiance were rather imaginary.-^ '^^^fl' 
than real, and, had they been mote beneficial, would be more ^f^^^^^i 
than compenfated by the loflcs on the other fide. Fknfburg ^f^*^'"* . 
^was furprifed by tht Hol^einers^ and the cit;%del clofely in-^yi°^ 
vefted, when jEri found means to throw in feafonable fup^^r^*"' 
plies. Notwithftanding this, the princes, now in poflTeffiot^ 
of the city, obftinately perfifled in befieging the fortrefs ; and 
at length the garrifon was forced to furrender, after fubfiding 
for weeks upon the fle(h of dogs and horfes. 

It was now expe£ied that the flames of war would have a. D. 
blazed out with redoubled vigour ', but it happened other.w|(e«' 143a. 
The Hollanders, profiting by the difturbances in the North, The banfe^ 
and ever watchful of every opportunity of extending %\i€\x .tatfrm of- 
commerce^ had eftabliflied a footing in the Baltic. All of ^ fir peace* . 
fudden theirtrade became fo confiderable, that they trafl|cked to ' 
all the ports of ^tf/c^, Livonia^ ^nd Pruffta} a branch of 
trade formerly engroiled by the.banfe-towns. It was thi$ that 
firft opened the eyes of the Vandal cities, and made them now 
demand peace more eagerly than ever they had fought, war. 
Their deputies were immediately fent to Horjen^ where they 
concluded a truce for five years, during which proper mea* 
fiires ihould be concerted for eftabliihing a folid and firin 
peace. A congrefs was appointed to meet for thia purpofe at 
Swinbttrg^ and liberty of trade was in the mean time mutually 

PONTJNUS rehtcs, thzt Eric appointed commiffioners, 
towards the clofe of tbb year, to terminate the difFeretice be* 
tween the crowns of England and Denmark*, They met the 
Englijb ambafiiidors at Callenburg \ and here it was agreed^ 
that the Englijb and Norwegians (hould give mutual /atisfac*^ 
tion, and indemnify the lo&$ to each other :- that all prifoners 
fiiould be mutually releafed : that perfons, of- either nation^ 
trading contrary to law, ihould be puniflied by death : finally, 
that perpetual amity ihould fubfifl between the nations, and 
mutual affiftance be giyeni when required. This was the firft 
treaty concluded between England and Denmark fince the 

• PONTAN. l.ix. 

Mon.Hi&T.VoL.XXXII. . Y ' Danes . 

Jit 7be Hiftory e?/Dcnmark. 

Dams were driven out of 'England -, at leaft, it is the firft ex* 
prefly mentioned by the Danijh or Englijb hi&oiiztiSy although 
commerce had been carried on long before between the two 
nations. It might poflibly have been too inconfiderable to 
. P merit a particular- treaty. 
* * Next year the congrcfs fat at Swinburg ; but nothing wai 
Con^efs <^ncl«ded. Both parties were too much inflamed with paf- 
at Swin-. ^*°" ^^ reafon coolly on their intereft : accordingly it was prp- 
burg. rogucd, and fixed for the following year, when it was hoped 
their mutual refentments would fubfide. It appeared, hjEriii 
anfwer to the deputies from Stralfund^ that he had not forgot 
the hoftiiities committed on his coafls, and the injuries dooe 
to his fubjefls by the troops' of that city. - They now de- 
manded the liberty of trading with Denmark on the fame 
footing as before the war ; and to this the king replied, that 
they ought to refleS how latejy they had put forty Dam^ 
death in cool blood, whofe relations and friends now brcathctl 
vengeance ; that for the reft, provided they would run the. 
hazard, he had no objection to their trading in his ports^ 
but he thought this notice due to his own reputation, as he 
' could not anfwer for the confequences. 
Cofnplaints ABOUT this time certain difturbances appeared in Sfwd5?», 
againji which at firft gave the king but little uneafinefs, as th^ 
Eric in ^ere only the murmurs of a few individuals never to be fc 
Sweden, ii^f^^i^ This at laft was the view in which the cburt f cpici 
fen ted it, though in faS the whole nation complained loudlf 
of the extortions of the governors appointed by the kingj 
while the court, contrary to the treaty of Cabnary rcfjcW 
conftantly in Denmark. They treatfed the people like flavcs, 
amd conduced themfelves like petty tyrants, defpotic in pio» 
portion to the duration and limits of their authority* £veif 
day the evil increafed, new taxes were arbitrarily impofed am 
rigidly levied. The people carried their complaints to tte 
thronic, particularly againft on^ JeJfanJfdali but they were 
imprudently rgeAed, with marks of contempt, altogether 
infupportable tp the fpirit of that free and warlike natioftr 
Engelbertgphe Daifcarliidns broke out into open inve6Hves, and Engd' 
^^' vances *^^' * nobleman of rank, influence,' and courage, undertook 
^^^^^" to go over to Z)f wwtfr^ and plead their catife. He intrepidlf 
j^{„ accufed Jejfon before the king, and offered to ftake his hcaJ 

if he didf not undeniably prove every material circurtiftanceof 
the charge. This bold remonftmnce Was not altogether 
without cffeift. Eric wrote to the fenate to fend proper per* 
ions to inquire into yeJjinS condud, but ivithout difplacing 
him before he was found guil^ by the court, and a /peciai 
jiommiffion iflucd fyr that purpofe. The deputies went to Dtfi- 


The Hiftory of Denmark. Jl^ 

Uirtia^ and yejjon was found guilty of divers a£b of violence 
and oppreffion ; upon which Engelbert fet out with the infor- 
tnation to court, and to folipit his x^moydX and punifhment. 
This he did with fiich ardour and freedoin of fpeech, that 
t,he king forbid him his prefence, and ordered him to leave 
Denmark. ** That I. will, replied Engelbert^ but to return iii 
• a difiirent manner.'* ... 

.Th£ DaUcarliansy ever watchful of their libert!e$t and P^'^car* 
:he avowed enemies of oppreflion, were no fooncr informed ^'*"® !'^'' • 
if £flf^4/Ifrtfr/'s reception, than they defpaiired of redrefs without *^'2. * 
i change of gover/iment. It was therefore refolved (o throw off g *^il : 
i yoke become infupportable, and rathec to die like free m6a ^^^ 
Kfith their arms in th^ir hands, .than to live like (laves under 
jie ladi of tyranny, They aflfembled in great mimbers^ chof^ 
Engdbirt for. their leader, entered Weftmania^ and determined 
:o exterminate all xk^Uams. Immediately the fenate was ' 
farmed at their proceedings; they went in perfon to pre- 
/ail on the DaUcdrfians to , return to their duty, but could 
irevail only on condition, that they ihould be exempted froni 
ill taxes, and obedience to Jeffon. 

; However formidable fuch ^n infurre£lion might appear 
p others, certain it is, it gave the king no greait difturbance. 
Nothing calls more loudly for the attention of a prince tbaii 
iie juft complaints of an injured people.; but £r;f^ was 
wrapt up in n/qgotiations,. s^pd wholly neglected Sweden for 
jlje intereft of I)^wnar^. Infteaddf redreffing the grievances 
i& ikt palecarlian$, he was wafting his time in ufeleisf de^ 
iat^ With the Holftein and foaid/ deputies; ufelefs becaufe 
paiEon and prejudice^ (wayed beyond reafon and intereft. 
. Tni conditions on which .the malcontents laid doWn theif palecar- 
irms, were fo injurious to Jeffoity that, relying on the pro- ^^^°^ ^'r 
^ion of the court, he exerted all the nieans of^ vengeance '^^^^/^r* 
iitWs power. He coptriyed newvtaxes, and made it capital ^^^^^^^^* 
io i'efufe payment on a certain day, vvithout regard to the 
jbility of the delinquent. This was the caufe of a new in- 
tirrediion ; but ftiU the influence of ^he fenate prevailed ort 
Jicm to lay down their arms^ on J'Jfon'^ being removed 
70f& the governoient, an<;l a .promife made that every de^ , 
psand conftftent with law (hould be granted "*• . . 
J Tranquility feemed to be re-eftabliflied, whfen a re- 
port prevailed tbat-tTie king was prc;paring to punifli the rcn 
Wlion of the DaUcarlians. Immediately they flew a tWrck 
time to arms, fwearing they would never Jay them down, until 
|hey rid ^jierofelves of the Danijh yoke. Engelbert was always 

* PoNtAN. k Meur&. ibid. ^, 

• •' Y 2 it 

'3»4 TheHiftcryo/Dtnixyztk.^ 

at their head : he led them into the neighbouring provincel, 

and reduced a great number of places, which fuccefies drew 

whole flocks of peafants to his ftandard* The nobSlty o( 

JVeftmania joined him ; he marched into Uplandia^ ani in a 

ihort time reduced the whole <Sountry. His cohdod induced 

other provinces to revolt^ or rather his promifes to abolilh 

. taxes, and difmantle all the fortrefies erected hy this idng and 

his predeceflors, to fecure their authority. In a word, the 

whole kingdom was in a ferment, and nothing, but die o; 

^ « of liberty was heard over all Sweden. By the king's order die 

bert*Vrt»- ^^^^^^ aflembled at Wadeftent^ to deliberate upon 3ie means of 

^Uia* fuppreffing a tumult dangerous to government. EngtM 

informed of this, marched fecretly at the head of a body of 

troops, entered the aflembly, and publicly declared, that he 

was determined to deliver the nation from the yoke under 

which it had groaned for fome years pafled. He fatd, that 6(n 

the days of Magnus the fubje<^ had been wantonly oppreU 

with taxes, and expofed to all the injuftice and Severity of 

ufage that petty tyrants could fuggeft. He added, thatk 

was aftoniihing the fenate, which fliould be firft in TedreSn{ 

thefe grievances, ihould remain ina<%ve, and fafier others (o 

gather thbfe laurels which muft neceiTarily refult even froij 

the attempt to refcue one*8 country from flavery. To d»| 

the* fenate anfwered, that they could not conceive the honotfl 

p I confequent on withdrawing their allegiance from a prince tt{ 

jj|.^. " whom they were bound by folemn oaths. ** The king, ff*j 

fpeecb to " P**®^ Engelbert (harply, has made promifes by his coroM^ 

the fenate. ** ^*^" oz^^ which he makes no fcruple of breaking. Yddfi 

*^ oath iS founded on the performance of his; you ptoioi 

** allegiance, provided he governs according to law. H* 

•* he done fo ? Are thefe governors the inftruments of latJ 

^' ful authority f Has he fulfilled by his refidence amoif 

«* us, the chief article of the treaty of union? Are hot od 

'* revenues fquandered in Denmark^ and ourfelvcs enfla?«l 

*• by Danes f Obferve how well he has kept his oath, and 

♦♦ yet you are denied equalliberty*" 

Still the fenate perfifted in their obedience, and ttfij 
many arguments to (hew how dangerous it was in the leafto 
violate an oath. They faid that the breach of one articte did 
, not abfolve the fubjeSs from their duty, fince in that cafc 
dierrf would be an end to all government, it being iropoffl* 
to find a king who would adhere in every particular to his pro* 
mifes. In a word, they flood up for the divine right of krngSr 
their independency, and the bad confequences of fobjcfling 
their condud to the judgment of their .people. Enraged at 
their difcourfe and arguments in &vour of defpotifai> the ge- 
^ ^ ^ * . nerous 

The Hijicry <?/ Denmark; » 325 

sierous Ef^eUfrtctied out in a funf, << 'Tis well ! hencefor* 
«^ ward I will treat as the tools ot tyranny, all whorefufe to 
'' fuccour their opprefled country; my poighard (hall be 
*' plunged into the breaft of the firft man who oppofes pub- 
** lie liberty." Terrified with his vehemence, the fenate 
pafled an ad, whereby they renounced their allegiance to 
king J?fiV*. 

ENGELBERT wanted neither forefight nor valour. Ut He forces 
knew he muft make the beft ufe of the prefent temper of the the finau 
people. Accordingly he feized upon a number of the king's into bis 
gartifons, penetrated to the province of Halhndy and reduced i^/i/l^r«/. 
JVardbergy Holmftadu smd Falkenburg, The inhabitants of 
Schenen alcHie had refolution . enough to oppofe themfelves 
againft the general torrent of rebellion. They took arms, and 
determined to difpute the paflage of the malcontents into this 
province. EngMert drew up his army within fight of them, 
and both parties were feparated onlv by a fmall river. Every 
bour it was expeded would produce a bloody adion ; but 
fiMne of the nobility from each army having held a confe- 
rence, a treaty of peace was concluded, whereby the Swedes A. D« 
9pd Schsneners agreed to live in amity and friendfhip ; and that, 1434^ 
if either of them renounced this alliance, they ihould give 
timely intimation of their defign. 

On Engelberfs return he aflembled the ftates general of the 
icingdom, and here CrcpeJin^ governor of Stockholm^ attended 
in the king's name. The great point debated at the diet wa& 
the utility of the king's fortreflfes, which Engelbert promifed 
to demolifli. It broke up in difputes, without other iflue than 
encreafing the mutual animofity between the king and his 
people* In fupporting the royal prerogative, the ofiicers of 
the crown only regarded their own intereft, perceiving that 
any retrenchment of the former Would of courfe invalidate 
tbp latier, and reduce their authority, unfupported by a mili- 
tary force, to a mere ibadow of power. 

All this while the king was flattering faimfelf, that this 
fudden tumult, which arofe from a guft of paflion, would of 
itfelf fubfide into the wi(hed-for tranquillity ; but when he 
ivas informed that the diet was broke up, without determining 
upon meafures for eftablifhing peace, and that the malcon- 
tents were ftill in anhs, he determined to ufe force, and com.- 
pel them to their duty. He fteered for Stockholm with a for- 
midably fquadron ; but heaven would feem to have taken part 
with the friends of liberty. His fleet was feparated in a tern- £^j^»^ jj^g^ 
pc£t^ and the greater part fwallowe^ up by the waves. With ,> deftroyei 
^ PoKTAN. l.ix. PuFFEif. t. iv. 1. V. in a ftomu 

Y 3 a fingle 

3 2 S The Hiftory of Denmark. 

a fingle Ihip Eric with dififculty made the pert of Stockholm^ 
where he was inniiiediately inveftcd by Engelberfs arnrvy. Not 
cfifconcerted by this' unfortunate accident, he propofed ob* 
taining by perfuafion what he found was not to be* gained by 
cbmpuiribn!. He demanded an interview with th^ fenators 
and chief nobility of the realm; and having ^this requeft 
granted, he intreated them to acquaint him what motives 
could induce the^m to take arms agaihfl; him, and renounce 
the allegiance they had fworn. With one voice, the diet made 
anfwcr, that their intention was not to throw off their allc- 
jgiance, but defend their liberty and the privileges which b« 
had folemnly fworn to maintain at his corbnatioh. They in- 
fifted that what they had done was agreeable to the laws of 
liature and nations, in teftimony of which they took all free 
nations to witnefs. His majcfty's reply was by no means fa- 
tisfadoryi however, a truce for one year, or, as Meurjm 
alledges, until the following fprln^, was concluded ^ aftcj 
which Eric returned to Denmark, 
A, D. No fboner was his majefty departed than a new diet wat 
1*435. ^^'^ ^^ ^^^* ^"^ Engelbert declared prince of all Sweden, 
' * Cropelin ftruck with this unexpefted refolution, difpatched let- 
ters to the afTembly, acquainting them that he had affairs d 
the lad confequence to lay before them. A meeting was ap^ 
pointed at Sigtun^ ^nd hfther Cropelin came attended by the 
grand raafter of the Teutonic orcfer. Ip their turns they ha- 
rangued the affcmbly with {6 much eloquence and energy of 
argument,' that they obtained a decree ifbr accoftimodatitig 
matters amickbly with the king. A bill of grievances was 
drawn up and prefented to Eric\ upon whicH he aflembledthe 
-^ ^Danijh diet zx, Holmftadt^ to deliberate upon meafures foe 

Myaten grij^ging ^5 ^n ifflie this now ferious difput*. The affemblf 
^atedTuith ^^^ *^^'^ ^" ^^ 4-^^ ^^^ of A&y, and the king went before fhe 
tbeienate. ^^^ ^^ J^^^ ^^ Stockholm^ where, in the pfefcnce of twelve 
' ' ' fenators, he redreffed the public grievances, received a pro* 
^ife, <hat all the fortrefles taken from him (hould b^ reftbrcd j 
that he fhould be acknowledged king.df StiieJen oil the tcrm^ 
of his coroiiatibn oath • and that 'he (hould fwear afrcfli ne- 
ver again to violate the laws, 6r attempt to'ericroarch on the 
privileges of the people.- 'With refpeft to Engelbert^ thcaf- 
fertor of* Sivedijh' liberty, it was fiipulated, that for lift b« 
(hould poffefi the city Ortbro^ which was to revert totM 
crown at bis death (A). '' ' ' ' "" * "^ '* ?EACt 

(A) Poniams^ relates, that before tlie twenty-fifth oWS^'. 
Eric did not jarrive in S^nveden ber ^1). He wap no boii.^, 

(1) PQtiU A ix. f' 559« 

7he Hijlory of Denmark. 327 

Peace was thus r,eftorecl to Sweden ; but the arbitrary fpi- 
r!t of Eric made it of ihorf duration. UDmindfuI pf what 
was pad, he thought of nothing but eftabliihing his preroga- 
tive above law. Profnifes and oaths could not bind him, as they 
were things of. courfe, intended only to anfwer cenainpur-p . 
pofes. Immediately be turned out the Swedijb governors ap- "f ^g^^f* 
pointed in the different provinces> and committed thefe im-!^'^^^' 
portant trufts to foreigners, on whofe attachment he could f,fQ^\^ 
rt\y. So fudden a violation of a folemn contrail alarmed all^af^ 
Sweden ; they fent a deputation to the king of ten of the 

f)rincFpal Igrds of the realm, to befeecb him to perform his ob- 
igations, and not deftroy in a moment a compad, the refult 
of much labour ^nd blood(hed. They intreated him to ob>- 
ferve, that the Swedes were perfedly difpofed to comply with 
the late treaty ; but they would hazard every thing rather than 
fupport the lo(s of liberty. At firft Eric received them with 
indifference, and on their afluming an air of auflerity, replied, 
that he was refolved not to be governed by his fubje£b. He 
knew the machinations of Engelbert^ who had excited 
the nobility to thefe remonftrations, and would take-care of 

From hence it was obvious to the deputies,' that Eri^ had 
Formed a plan for governing defpotically, and that he breathed 
nothing but vengeance for what was pad. His turning Crope- 
S», to whom he owed his re-eftabli(hment in Sweden^ put of 
the government of Stockholniy only becaufe his conduA was 
moderate and agreeable to the people ; his placing a Danijb 
Gentleman of a different difpofition in his place, together with 
\ thoufand other circuq:iflances, all concurred to convince the 
leputies, that Sweden could never enjoy happinefs under Eric. 
iut what moft irritated the Swedijb nation happened fubfer 
luent to their deputation ; for the king immediately reinr 
brced the garrifon at Stockholm^ and foon after went in perfon 
i^ith a ftrong fjeet to depofc all the Swedijh governors. Not 
:ontented with this infraction of the late peace, he committed 
he mod notorious enormities, in pillaging and ravaging the ^ 

lountry, and deftroying a great number of tqwns and vil* 

Heaven and the Swedes would not fuffer fuch perfidy to «-, 
JO unpuniflied. A furious temped deftroyed the greater part Swedes 
»f Eric's fleet \ and the inhabitants of the coafts flocked in y^^//, 
rowds to Engelbert to complain of the injuries done to them 

omc to Stockholm^ than the bill little more than we have ha^ 
f grievances was prefented to occaiion to recite la our account 
ii^> containing 11^ fubflance - of the caufes of the reyol^ 

Y4 by 

22f8 5% Hificrf of Denmark. 

by the king, declaring folemnly they wcfiild never more a^ 
knowledge his fovcreignty *. 

On Erics return to Denmark^ he begwi ferioufly to rcflcfl 
on his fituation. He doubted not but« revolt would imme- 
diately fucceed what had happened in Sweden : he confideied 
that Denmark had been for the fpacc of twenty-nine years at 
war with the houfe of Holftetn^ and upwards of nine yean 
with the cities of Vandallaj without gaining any eonfideraUe 
advantage, to counterbalance the inunenfe confumptioQ of 
blood and treafure. He confidered, that (hould he be attacked 
Ue ^'^^^^on thefe three fides, it would not be poffible for him to make 
'^^Iftein. ^^^^ againft fuch a number of enemies : he therefore deter- 
mined to make peace with thcHol/iein princes ; and camefoon 
to an agreement with that family, that Jdolpfius fhould enjoy, 
^ during his life, that part of the dutchy oVSUJivicky of whidi 

he was now in pofleiOion, together with the ifland Femeren^ 
and the Lejir Friefland^ which his heirs (hould likewife enjoy 
for two years after bis deceafe ; but that after this time the 
king of Denmark^ and the houfe of Holftein^ (hould reconiider 
their feveral claims to the dutchy of Siefwick^ and adjudge to 
each their rights. Other claufes were annexed to this treaty, 
refpe£tcng the homage to be paid by Jdolphusy and the re-efo 
blilhment of trade. Upon the whole, it was apparent, tbt 
£nV wanted only^to fufpend this war, leaving full room 6r 
commencing hoftilities as foon as he found it nece(&ry. 

It was next thought necefiary to accommodate matters wi(i 

the northern hanfe-towns ; nor were the cities of Hamburg 

Lubecy Lunenburg^ and fVifmar^ backward in making tbdl 

fubiniflion^ having feeling experience of the importance of th^ 

Danijh trade to their well-being. They entreated the kingto 

pardon the fault they committed in breaking with him, and ti 

leftore them to their former privileges of commerce. Thi 

was juft what Eric defired ; yet he artfully made fomc difr 

culty about granting their requeft, with which he at length 

complied, on their promife . of paying him a yearly fum of 

money, by. way of reparation for the damages fuftained bj 


He quar- HiTHERTO Eric had lived in perfeS harmony with te 

rels nvith Danijh fubje£b ;* but the plan he concerted for fettling th 

bis Danifti fucceffion, made his beft friends fall off. , It was at a dietaf* 

jfubje.as by fembled at Wardenburgj that he firft broke the propo(al« Hfl 

nominating {QifofxYi^ that he was now advancing in years, after fuf^port- 

a /uccejor. jng for forty years the weight of a triple crown, to which i« 

became unequal. That for this reafon he befought the diet 

* Meurs. 1. V. 

The Hijicry ^/Denmark. 329 

Id permit bim to appoint his nepheinr Bugijlaus, duke of Po- Hefropofii 
miraniay for his fucceilbr ; in the fame manner they allowed the duke of 
Margaret to fettle the fucceffion on him. He added, that this Pomera- . 
prince was in the flower of his age, better able to dired the nia to ^* 
reins of authority than he Was, and merited the diftinguifliing <^^^ *o ^b* 
regard of Denmark^ as he had ever (hewn the moft inviolable ^^*"'** 
attachment to the intereft of the kingdom in general, and 
even of individuals, Although the diet was not furprifed at *^ ^^ 
tlfis propofition, having before had frequent intimationyof the^^^^'* 
king's intention, yet they exprefTed themfelves diflatisfied with 
it. They told his majefty^ that their iirft prayer to heaven 
would be to prcfcrve his majefty's life, during which they had 
no thoughts of chufing another fovereign ) but that if it 
pleafed his majefty to abdicate, contrary to the earned defire 
of his fubjeds, the right of eledion then devolved upon them, 
and they would never permit a fundamental law of their confti* 
tution to be reverfed, by making the right of fucceffion heredi* ' 
tary in the crown. An anfwer fo explicit convinced Erk^ that 
it would be fruitlefs to infift upon his reqtieft ; he therefore wav- 
ed it for* a new propofition. This was that they would allow 
hinvto chufe fome perfon to afSft him in the government of th6 
kingdom. To this the diet replied, that he certainly had a 
right to appoint a coadjutor, provided the perfon fixed upon 
Ihould derive from thence no claim to tlte crown. They 
likewifc declared, that the king was at liberty- to commit the 
government of the ftrong holds and garrifons of the kingdom 
to fuch perfons as he thought proper*. 

Without infifting further on thefe particulars, Eric Hit with* 
withdrew fuddenly into Pruffiay without giving the leaft in* ^ra<ws 
timation to the fenate, as if he intended to abdicate the ^f^ ^ ^^ 
throne. Upon the firft notice of his retreat, the fenate fent a ^'*,ff^«"*| 
deputation, intreating him not to expofe the kingdom to frefli > 
troubles by his abfence, and reprefenting to him that it would 
be more expedient to proceed with diligence to Jbo, where * 
the Swedes had convoked a general diet. Although Eric took 
but little concern in the intereftof his people, yet he was pre- 
vailed on to return to Denmark, Probably his ambition was ^ 
not yet wholly extinguilhed, though, for a time, obfcured by ^^ j)^^^ 
a fit of difguft. On his return he made feveral promotions : mark and 
to the duke of Pomerania he committed in charge the for- rai/esfo- 
txcfks of Neoburgy HadenfcoWy and Hend/gavel; to duke Bar- reigners ta 
nimy that of Anholm ; count EberfietHy he made governor ofall pofts of 
Trankiary and to duke Wratijlaus he gave the government of honour and 
Raven/burg ; a preference of foreigners no way pleafing to^ruft. 
the Danes ''. ' 

* PoNTAN. 1. ix. ^ MiURs. 1. ▼• ctiam Poktan. ibid. 


330 The Hiflory of Denmark. 

AD ^^ ^^ meaa time a very full 4iet of th^e ^weJis ailembled at 
14^6.' -'^^^ *"^ refolved upon firft trying gentle methods. With this 
Jn ^ce'unt^^^^ * l&xi^t to the kiqg ^(aj drawn up, reminding 1iim of the 
e/the o^^l^ l^c 1^^ taken, and intimating the refolution of the diet 
^liwedifh ^o renounce their allegiance, if be perfifted in violating it. 
fffairs. What his majefty's anfwer was we are not informed ; hifio- 
rians only relate, that be foon after went to StoMobn witii 
his nephew Bugijlaus^ and perfifted in rendering himfelf more 
unpopular. Here it was that he refolved to refign bis crowo 
I ^o Bugijlausy the governor of Stockholm having already fwoqi 
allegiance to that prince. This news was received with equal 
iatisfadlion by the Dams and Swedis ; both began to vk 
meafures for fecuring their liberties, but the Swedes firft began 
their operations. Engelbert was* again applied to by the po- 
pulace ; he raifed forces, and marched with the fenate to 
Stodbolmjf the gates of which were (hut againft him by the 
governor. The fenate demanded entrance, and were refufei 
They n^xt demanded to fpeak with the confuls of the city, 
svho were fent to them, and confined. After this they de* 
ynanded to know by what authority fuch an affront was put oa 
the fenate, and were anfwered by order of the court. Thii 
|vas a fignal for hofiilities» and immediately the city was in- 
yefted by fingelbert^ Scarce h^d the fiege began, when the ci- 
tiz^i)s, impatient at the confinement of their magiftrates, took 
up arms, feis^ed upon the gates, and opened them to Engd- 
pertj who, marching in with the feiiate and his forces, erefle^ 
his ftandard in the market- place, inviting all the friends of 
liberty ^nd their country to range themfelves under it. The 
greater part of the inhabitants flocked eagerly to him, feized 
upon all the advantageous polls, and drove the governor into 
the citadel. 

CHARLES CANUTSON^ grand- marechal of Swidtn, 
w^ ravifhed with the profpedt of his countries being delivered 
from the Danjjh yoke. He joined himfelf to the fenate, and 
entered into all their meafures ; but this acceifion of power | 
bad almoft ruined the caufe of liberty. A rivalfhip com- j 
menced between Cqnutfon and Engelbert ; each w^§ for com- j 
nianding, and eac)i had his faction.. Both were fired with the j 
glorious emulation of being, the delivprers of their country. 
The firft was fupported by the fenate and nob.ility ; the lat-r 
ter by the gentlemen and peafants. At length the affair wa? 
cqmpromifed by a partition of power. The grand marecba| 
was to continue the fiege of the citadel, while Engelbert was 
tp attenipt the redi^fliqn of the king*s g^rfifons^^ and the depo? 
fition of the Damp) governor^. 

^be Hifiory i?/. Denmark. 331 

ENGELBERT in particular was (extremely fucceftful, andy^^^ ^r^wfr 
hings were in a fair train, when he was murdered by the artifice EngeJlbert 
>f his rival ^ between whom and Eric Pache a new difp^te murdered. 
trofe, that once more reflored the king's affairs. It would be 
mnecefiiary to enlarge on ^11 the particulars of this revolution, 
IS we ihall have occaiion to relate them particularly ia the 
liftory of Stveden. Sufficient it is for our purpofe, that the 
renate, apprehending a civil war might enfue from the warmth- 
and paiHon of thefe rivals, fummoned a general diet at Cabnar^ 
aind invited the king to appear there in perfon. £ric em- 
braced the invitation, and went thither, attended by a crowd 
of German and Danijb nobility. Here it was (lipulated, tha( 
all fortreiles and garrifons (hould be put into the hands of na- 
tive Swedes ; that the king (hould takie a freih oath to pre-: 
ferve the privileges arid imniunities of the people ; and that 
he would never prefer to places of truft and profit any foreign* 
crs whatever, within the limits of the Swedijh monarchy. 
Upon his confenting tq thefe conditions, he was again dfe- 
iClar^d king of Sw^den^ and other dilEcul ties left undecided un« 
til the next diet, appointed to be held on the firft of September 
-(oUowine: at Sundercoping \ 

ERIC was now once more reftored to the throne of Swe* 
4m ; but numberlefs obftrudtions occurred in eflablilhing the . 
] tranquility of that kingdom. Thefe we (hall relate in their -<^ genfrai 
< proper place, and proceed here to the general diet of the three ^''' ^ tkA 
I kingdoms fummoned at Calmar. The firft ad pafled by this *^^* ^'"i*" 
; diet, was a confirmation of the treaty of union made in the *J!J?'^ 
I laft reign. To that antient treaty were fubjpined a number^ 
of new claufes, the principal of which were, that the king"*^' 
ihould frame no new laws but what received the fan£);ion of 
. the diet of that kingdom for which they were made: That 
,' the three kingdoms fliould fwear tp live in perpetual peace and 
: amity: That the grand bailiff" of each kingdom, (hould pre- 
J fide at all caufes carried before the king : That in the king's ab- 
I fence, this magiftrate (hpuld reprefent his perfon in each kuig-* 
; dom : That the grand marechaJ (hould be his coadjutor, and 
: prefide over the executive, as the grand bailiff" did over the le- 
: giftative authority : That only perfons learned in ^he laws an4 
conftitution, (hould be chofen mafters of the houfhold, or 
i chancellors in either kingdom : That the king (hou)d vifit 
and refide at leaft three months every year in each kingdom : 
That he (hould. always be affifted by a council of three fena- 
t^iiof each nation, and judge in perfon the difputes of par- 
ticulars : That when he is threatened with a foreign, war, 

? JoHAN. Goth. p. iij[. 

J32 ^i^ IRftory of Dchmark; • ' 

the forces of the three kingdoms fhall unite in htt defence 
That at the eledion of a new king, betides the archbif 
two biihops, grand bailiffs, and grand marechal of 
kingdom, there (ball likewife attend at leaft twenty-fix 
fi>ns from each fenate to give their votes : That provi 
the deceafed king (hall leave a legitimate fbn thought cap 
of reigning, he (hall be chofen to fucceed hims but if 
fliould leave more fons than one, the ftates ihall chufe l 
whom they believe moft deferving of the crown, without 
gard to feniority : That in cafe the male line became extind, 
fliould be in the power of the fenators, and great officers abovi 
mentioned, to eleft a ftranger or native of the country 
That (hould a native of the country be fixed upon, they mi^ 
proceed to eledion in the manner following ; firll, tb 
names of the three kingdoms fliould be written on as man 
pieces of paper, and placed before an infant of twelve moDti 
old, and the electors proceed to chufe a king out of th 
kingdom whofe name ,has been taken up by the infant 
That if the electors differed among tbemfelves, they (hou 
chufe four perfohs from each kingdom, two ecclefiaftics, ai 
two laymen, to meet in a certain place, after fwearii 
they are ignorant of the bufinefs they are fent upon, and tbi 
perfon' fliould be king whom they have unanimoufly fixed upo 
of after reafoning the cafe, agreed upon*. Such was tl 
new treaty of union concluded at Calmar^ between the thr 
northern crowns, at which it is probable £r/V did not preiii 
in perfon ; for we are told that he foon after let out fro 
Ditmark for the ifland of Gothland^ in order to be neare 
the enfuing Swtdifli diet. It is remarkable, that he carried 
a large body of troops with him, all the jewels of the aowOi 
the immenfe wealth treafured up by his anceftors, and beapi 
of manufcripts and deeds; nor did he forget his miftrdf 
Cecilia^ of whom he was paffionately enamoured ^« 
The Swc- The Swedijh diet met at Calmar^ but were not favoured 
diiK Met with the king's prefence ; upon which they deputed a number 
ajjmbks. of bifliops, and great officers of the kingdom* to intreat the 
fenate of Denmark to labour, in conjun£kion with then)} ia 
prevailing on his majefty to come to oiueden. But there wa$ 
an equal mifunderflanding between his majefiy and bis Danifi 
fubje^ls, who complained, that he was making continual ef- 
forts to place his nephew oi Pomerania on the throne i that 
he gave away all pofts of profit and power to Germans ; in * 
word, that he infringed, in divers particulars, his coronation- 
' oath^ a;id treaty of union at Caiman 

^ PoNTAN. 1. ix. p»6o5* ^ Idem. p. 6o6. 


The Hifiery of Denmark; 33 j 

f IKDING Denmark in the fame lituation with Sweden^ 
;he deputies addrefled themfelves diredly to his majefly, and 
eceived a (harp and farcafiic anfwer, which fent them back 
rftatly difiatisfied. However, their voyage was not -without 
ts advantages ; for if they could obtain nothing from the king, 
liey at leaft conneded themfelves more ftrongly with the Da* 
v(/^ nobility. Their mutual difcontents were of a nature fo 
fimilar, as became hazardous to the king ; and it id affirmed, 
that on this occaflon the firft plan for Deftowing the crown 
on Chrtjiopher oi Bavaria was concerted between the two 

This year the cleigy of Denmark and Norwaf fent letters a n» 
to the council of Bafily complaining, that in Denmark there i'a^^I 
was a Norwegian bifiiop, and in Norway a native of Denmark ^ 
raifed to the fame dignity, both chofen canonically ^ but the 
people refufed to obey them. They therefore beibught the 
fathers of the council to grant them powers to make an ex* 
change, for the repofe of both kingdoms, which was accord* 
ingly granted. 

' The year following Eric difinembered th6 ifle of Bjigm ^ p^ 
from the crown by a grant of it, which he made to his ne* \kx%. 

f>hew Bugijlauu This increafed the difcontent of his D^nijb Erjc 
iibjeds, and occafioned the meeting of a new diet, at vehicYk grams the 
hisxonduft was canvafled with great freedom. The chief ^ ^Ru* 
grievance, for which they fought redrefs, was his introducing gen to the 
foreign foldieis into all the gar^ifons of the kingdom, in ot- duke of 
der to pave the way for his nephew Bugijlaus to afcend the^pn^era- 
throne, and raife a civil war in the kingdom* Eri^s deputies "*•• 
removed this difficulty by a folemn promife, in his name, that 
all foreign foldiers fliould be removed out of the kingdom 
within two months ; a promife that was never performed, 
and indeed intirely forgot, among other difturbances that fol- 

These commotions had their firft rife in the province of 
WtenfyJfeU and from a circumftance ,fingular enough.. The 
peafants refufed to pay the ufual tithes to the clergy,, alledg* 
ing, that they were informed the pope had aflembled a coun- 
cil at Baftl to reform the abufes of the clergy, arifmg from 
their enormous wealth : they were defirous, theyjaid, of co- 
operating with the pious intention of his holinefs, and would 
therefore not make any addition to the wealth of ecclefiaftics* * 
But this was no more than the harbinger of greater difn 
turbances.' In Jutland the peafants revolted againft jthe no- * ' • ' *• 
bility, whom they accufed of tyranny and oppreffion not un- W^i^f^' 
jtiftly ;and the defeftion was fo general in this part of Den-^^l^^ '* . 
f^ri^ las not to be fuppreflcd either by gentle methods, or by ^^°**'^'^ 


334 ^^^ Hifi^ry ^/Denmark. 

force. It was fufpeacd the king was at the bottom of this 
affair ; but he laboured to juftiTy himfclf, and, indeed, ij 
would be difScult to aifign reafons for fuch a conduft. In 
fliort, matters were pulhed tp fuc& extremities, that the no^ 
bility were forced to take flieltcr with the Hotftein princes 
againft the fury of the peafants ; and to put the city of Hader 
Jleben^ and ifle of Arroe^ among other places^ into the hlnQ 
6i Jdolphus, 
Jvinvof SIVEDEN was in a ffate flill lefe tranquil. Canutfon\xdx 
tBe affairs ^hg dire^SJion of public affairs, by means of which he grc^ 
•f^^^' fich,infolent, and detefted by the pe9ple. THe grand hai- 
•^*** MNilforij and feveral of the $rfl: nobility, fociTfied* a le^c 

agdinft him, arid engaged the DalicarUiini and Wiertfutandiam 
to take arms. But Canutfon W2ls not long in revenging him- 
felf. After defeating the DaUcarlianSj he furprifed the gnuK 
bailiff in his bed, aiid conduced him prifoner to OrebrOj 
M^hcfe demanding of him whether he would furrendcr the gar; 
rifons in his hands, fear made Nil/on reply, that he iiot onlj 
^ould do that, but like wife ferve the iharechal in any thinj 
clfe he defired. Many other commotions appeared in ^tvedm 
The archbllhop Olaus was poiforied by order of Canut/hn 
and things tended fa({ to anarchy and iiriiverfal confufioa 
. This, however, is not the place to dwell oq the affairs o 
Sweden^ v^ith which we have nothing to do, But as they an 
connefled with thofc of D^/wtfri. -. . . 

The Swedtjh diet met, at which attended tfee Ddnifli depu 
ties, to reprefent the king. Their inftrufiions were to infif 
iipon having the three principal fortrefles.in the kinjgdoih pi 
into his majefty*s hands : this they demanded, and the di< 
obftinately refufed ; upon which it broke up^ without doin] 
any bufinefs. All this while Eric kept clofe in the iftand o 
Gothland with his treafure, paying no regard to the invita- 
tions of Yiih'Dani/h (ubje£h to return. He would either feen 
to be infatuated, or at leaft his intelkds impaired by years ] 
for, amidfi all the troubles and confufions in Hinmark and 
Swederiy he lived perfeflily at eafe, regarding with indiiFerence, 
and e^en contempt, all the rerhonftrances made to hini bjT 
Tiir Danes the fubjefls of both nations. This it was that induced the 
inviH . Danijh fenate to fend an ambafly to Chrijlopher of Bavaria^ ttf 
^k^"^r" ^^^^^^ ^^^ acceptance of the crown, and intfeat him to take 
J^^' V immediate pofTcfEon of the throne. A letter was drawn up 
t!t^^ to this prince, in which they complained 9f the king'a re^ 
^f^"?..- - peated attempts to fettle the fucceffion on Bupijiaus oi Pome-*, 
rama^ which they as repeatedly oppofed ; of his putting all 
the fortrefTes Into the hands of foreigners, in order to ftncngthcii 
the intereil of Bugijlaus y of their permitting him to appoint 


The Hiftory of Dtnm^Ltk: J35 

iugijhus his affiftant in the government, but without derhrlng 
roni thence any claim to the crown, a grant which both Erk 
md his nephew abufed by every poffible method ; of his m a* 
lefty's putting into Bugijlaus*s hands the garrifons of Neoburg^ 
Henfgawly and HaderykoWy contrary to the laws of the realm, 
uid exprefs treaties with his people ; of his aflembling the in* 
habitants of Zealand^ and exprefly enjoining them to obey the 
orders of the duke in every particular as their fovereign ; of 
bis majefij^s retreating Xo Gothland^ at the very time the ftates 
of the three kingdoms afTemhled to meet him at Calmarj and 
continuing there from that time, to the great prejudice of his 
Aibjeds; of his carrying thither the jewels and treafure 
amaiTed by his predeceflbrs, to fupport the honour of the Da^ 
ni/b crown. They in the next place fet forth, that, ever iince 
his retreat, the kingdom had been torn with fadions and fe- 
4ition ; the people rifen in arms againft the clergy and nobi* 
^ity ; no regard paid to the laws, but every thing tending ta 
.confufion and anarchy. The fituation of affairs, they Siid^ 
;Was fuch, that they every moment expeded a rupture with 
^Ae houfe of Holftein^ which mud: be of dangerous confe* 
[^qoence at tl^is jun£kure. What had they not to apprehend in 
;fuch an event, from the number of foreign governors and 
^troops in the kingdom ? Befides, they were not quite eafy 

with refpe£l $o Sweden^ as the king had refufed to fulfil his 
treaties with that king4om ; and the three kingdoms, fo lately 
united for their mutual good, were now feparated and divided 
^by mal-adminiflration. For thefe reafons, and becaufe^nc 
^had in e(ie& abdicated the throne, they intreated his excel* 
'kncy, as the prince nearefl allied by blood, to protedl the 
^kingdoip in this extremity, by accepting a crown to which he 
'bad the beft right, as it was offered with the hearts and hands- 
' of all his faithful fubje£b« But if bis highnefs £hould not 
[ 4ink proper to accept this offer, they requefted he would give. 
' their deputies an explicit anfwer, that they might fix their 

choice on fome other, who might think the crown. of Z)^«-» 

mark an objeS worthy his regard \ This letter bore date the 

twenty-eighth of October j 1438 (A). 

* Meurs. & PoNTAN. in i|c. citat - 

(A) It df ferves notice, that power above the royal preroga- 

thc ftates now infifled, for the tive, and the other flatcs of 

firft time, upon making elec- the kingdom, which they at laft 

fions abfolu^ely free and inde- effected, when the royal line 

pendent of the will of the fo- was extinft in Chrtftopher III. 

vcrdgn* This was the firft ftep and the houfe of OUenburgh 

Ac iiobili^ took to raife their afcended the throne. We^have 


g 36 The Hifiory of Denmark. 

^ . y . Ik the mean time Erk removed from the ifle otG^Ohi 
tK s con- ^ SteJteberg ; from whence he fcnt to the grand maiechal 
CanutfoHy intreating him to come in perfon, to deliberate oa 
the proper meafures to be taken in the prefent unhappy pot 
ture of affairs ; but as thofe perfons are ever the moft fufpi- 
cious, who make themfelves no fcruple of breaking oadis aol 
' engagements, fo C0ii«//^ii dreaded putting himfelf in the king's 
power. Eric waited fome time in expedation ; but finding 
the grand marechal had no intention of coming to Sukdmi 
be returned to Gothland. 

It was about this time that he recehred a writing from tk 
fenate of Denmarky acquainting him, that they had renounced 
their allegiance^ and fpecifying their reafons for fuch a pro- 
ceeding, and for ele&ing a new king) who, thejr bcfied) 
would be more r^rdful df his oaths, watchful over the goo< 
of his people, and more agreeable to all the fubjeds of die 
three crowns. It was dated at Lubic the twenty^-niatb of 

Hi cm- By ^ije twenty-fifth of the following month Eric returned 
^^^V *" anfwer to the fenate, expreffing his aftoniflmiait at the in» 
* V^^ dignity done him, in not prefenting their accufation in perib% 
frMK^Ls ^"^ ^^ eleding, without his knowledge, his nephew Cbri^ 
Juhjeas. P^^* ^^ ^^'"' ^^^ ^^ deferved not fuch u(a^ ; and took 
God to witnefs, that he was ready to anfwer every artickof 
their charge^ either before the fenate, or comm^Kien ap* 
poftited for that purpofe, without paffion or refentment. Hr 
promifed to conform to whatever they could reaiixiably de- 
mand ; concluding with a prayer, diat bis nephew Cbrifiifk 
might be better advifed, and the fenate deliberate on mon 
£dutary meafures, than depriving their king of a crown te 
enjoyed fo long,^ and fo legitimately* He wrote the iamedaf 
to the inhabitants of Schonen and Fima, fending them like- 
wife a copy of the writing he received from the fenate, ani 
demanding to know if they afiented to their unlawful pro* 
ceedings. In a wordj he st^ated them toufe all their in* 
fluence to prevent the fenate from wrefting from him a crown 
which he held of the Almighty. AH this, according to A*- 
fanus, happened during Ericas refidence at Stekeberg^ and be- 
fore his return Co Gotmknd. 

He no fooner arrived at his old retreat in this ifland, tbao 
he wrote an expoftulatory letter to ChriJIophery in mocli die 

feen, ,in the fhort iketch given brought about anoUicr rcvplo- 
of the prefent ftatfe of Denmark^ tion, deilruftive 10 the fiber? 
to what an exorbitant height of the people, 
this power had rifeif, until it 



!ame terms as the two former to the fenate and infiabifants of 
Schofufiy and to as little purpofe* To this he added ,a long 
uftiBcation.of his condud, containing eleven articles, and a 
iire£k anfwer to the accufation of the fenate ; if the denial of 
~3£ls, evident to the whole worlds can be called an anfwer. 
Phis he fent to the Fionians^ who had always efp6ufed the 
raufe of £f/^/^»i, defuing they would tranfmit it to the fe- 
late, &nd fupport it with all their weight and influence. To 
conclude, he fuoimed up his intreaties and remonftrances, iti 
'equefting, that the diiFerenoe between hirh and the fenate 
night be fubmitted to the «arbitration of the neighbouring 
princes, of the nobility, or of deputies from the cities, pro- 
vided they were difpaffionate and unprejudiced. In cafe this 
itift fequcft was rcfufed him, he protefted that he would fiift 
demand juftice of God, next of the pope, the emperor, the 
kings and princes of the univerfe ; not doubting but he would 
find /bme powers zealous enough in the caufe of equity to re- 
dre/s his grievances, and punifli the injuries and infultsput on 
bnajefty and God*s ailointed^ 

DVt all his remonftrances and menaces, unfupported by £nc ^« 
power, were difregarded. He was formally depofed, and hispo/ed^ 
nephew Chriftopher crowned king, according to the forms 
required by law ; after which Eric fpent the ten following 
^ears (hut up in the ifle of Gothland^ from whence he fent 
forth piratical fquadrons to annoy the Swedijh commerce. At 
the expiratioh of ten years, he paffed into Pomerania^ where 
he lived in the fame retirement, and about the fame number 
of years, here ending his days unlamented. Never did prince 
experience a greater variety of fortune, or pafs through more 
oppofite characters. On his acceffion he was univerfally be- 
loved and efteemcd by the people. Bred under the eye of a 
queen perfeftly miftrefs of the art of governing, he joined 
experience to- natural talents and a quick difcernment. Soon 
after the death of -Mi/r^^r// his ambition increafed, and his 
prudence vaniflied proportionably. It was not the laudable 
ambition of raiting his fubjefts above other nations in.wealtb, 
power, and* felicity ; but of elevating himfelf above their laws 
an^ liberties. His behaviour and pride engaged him in a te- His cha* 
dious war with the Holjiein family and northern hanfe-towns, r^^<r« 
^during which he was uhfuccefsful in almoft all his enterprizes, 
from a variety of caufes. His own irrefolution, the difafFec- 
tionof his fubjedis, his dependence on foreigners, his diffipa- 
tion of the public treafure, and innumerable other circum- 
fiances, concurred in fpinning the war out to a period of 
twenty-nine years, and in rendering every negotiation, every 
'fiege, battle, and operation;^ whether in the cabinet or the 
Mod* Hist. Vol. XXXII. ^ field, 

338 ^^ Hifiepy of Denmaifc; 

' field, fnitdefe ; circumftanoes that in tbc end deprivd Man 
of his crown, which he mieht have enjoyed for an uncominw 
courfe of years in eafe and tranquillity, with reputatioo ts 
jiim&lf and his fabje^ \ But we ihall have occafion |o i^- 
lace fome tranfa&ions in the foUowing reign, which will more 
diftin&ly mark the.cbafa£)er of this unfortunate prince. 

« Vid. Aot. citat. PvpraifD* lnw4* a VHUk. Gcacr^ ik 
p. 208. &feg. 


S E C f . XI. 

/ftr^ (hf Affairs of Pen mark are mit/i^ 4^^ f9 /*f 
Tc/iT 148 1 » wkiM John was eU^id. to0 ibe T'W 


Chrifto- j^HRISXOPHER 6uke of Bavaria^ (bnofy^fad* 

phcr III. V of Bimrii^y t>y*i« wife S^pbta^ fifter to Eric king of/Jfl- 

muri, bejiing elc&ed lung in the room of jt)^e df^ofed bn^ 

reign, and iovited to ulce poilcffioi? of the throne, camefii 

that intention to Luhu^ wnere he was met by the (en^, ^d 

9 great nufnbe'r of nobility, whp immediately topk ^he ^ 

From thence he went to Denmarlty and was thefe loviefid 

with the authority of frpte(9or of the kjngdpa^^ £«ytf«irf aoi 

Norway \ but the ftates declined giving jiim the f^ppeilatiofKi 

lining, o^ the badges pf foyereignty. 

Decree of Immi^diately on bis arrival in D^jn^i the koa^f^ 

the fenJat ' ^*^^^ ^ decree, ^yhcrcby all thofe wer^ declared* coeoijef » 

^-^/;,y^ their country who fhould vifit Eric^g court, of obey aiyrot^ 

Eric'/ n/- fovereign than Cbrijiophfr \ an aft chiefly levelled againji £« 

i*rr»//, gjlh^^y Barn'm^ and Wrf^tfimi^ |hc kin^eif .s^d allies of 

i?r/V. Accordingly they retired out of the ki^dom theio^ 

ftant of its public^ion. After this an ainjbaj^ w^ ^ ^ 

the grand bailiff', grand marecbal, and feo^ 9f Sweki^ ^ 

■ negotiate with them about the union of the cro|vpia, aod ^ 

efl^Uihmeot oi Gkrtflopher \n the iavc'reignfy of ^ Jkjflg* 

dpm. Comr];^4ffion^is !yere s^ppointed to trffit with tbeptfr 

nljh apnbafiadors, and a cpfigjrefs fixed ?U Jffiifiipffigf . Hfrn k 

was agreed^ that, previpu^ to all other pyfiJi^i^t t^ it^* 

tioDS 9f the general diet at Calmar^ ip t)ie yf^r f 43^ Apu" 

be ey9£lly followed ; except that article ^bic^ Oj^fl^^y ^ 

d.uring Eri^^ natural life no otfier fovq-ejg^ Qi^U 1^ l^r 

^nowledgpd. It was next determined, thai |b^ jE^aifs of tkf 

thrpe i^ng^vqis (hould aiTemble on tbc Iwep^y-ffHIflb P^^f^ 

fb)1ov^ing it (ialmarj to deliberate concerning the fecurity of 
the rights, privileges, and itnaiUnities of the people *. . 

• Scot? after thi$ a manifefto was pubKQied by the fenate of Fre/3^^» 
J}efsnkfiri^ cpotaining fre{h article3 of accufation againft Ertc ^ tides of ae^ 
i^hich weft affixed on the gates of all the northern hznk-cu/afion 
towns. Amohg Qther charges was that of maintaining a de- ^i^^'»fi 
Qm£tivQ war agalrtft the Hoi/lm family, and the northern ^"c. 
hdn(e-tQwn$9 many years after' honourable and advantageous 
t^irms of accommodation were offered. This, in fad, was 
falfe; (qv Eric had dobe all in his power, for the eight laft 
years of his reign, to cotnpromife their differences, which the 
floffiein princes always declined, in confequence of fome new 
advantage they had gained over th,e king's forces. That he 
Was pften intrrated> after tne death of his queen, to ftrengtbeh 
Ihj; 6iccefl|on by another marriage \ but he chofe to pa^ hif 
^fe wit|i a concubine) rather than gratify the ardent wilh of 
jhilpedple: that he had made feveral attempts to break the 
mpion of the three crowns, and raife difturbances in the 
kingdoai, t^ favour the defign of placing Bugtjlaus on the ^ 
throne: that, notwithftanding notice had been given him by ^ 
the arcbbiih^ of Lunden^ in the^iame of the fenate, to with- 
draw out of the hands of foreigners the ftrong-holds of the 
kingdom, and the iflands of Fionia^ Langlandy Laaland^ and 
Mana ; yet he defpifed their advice, contrary to the dilates 
of rkligion, contrary to bis folemn oath, and againft the fun- 
damental laws of the kingdom. Even the menaces of the 
fenate, that they would depofe him, could not induce Eric to 
gratify them in this particular ; from whence it was obvious, 
laid they^ that h^ muR have formed fome deep and dangerous 
defigns : that he had alienated the ifle of Rugen from the 
crown : that h^ made no fcruple about giving the government 
f>t Fionia to Bugiftaus^ nptwithftaiiding the preiSng ihftances / 
pf the Tenatc to the contrary : and that, after configning all 
die important trufts in the kingdom to foreigners, he then re- 
treated to the ifland of G^thknd^ abftraSing Jiimfelf from all 
cares of government: that he h^d alTumed a defpotic autho- 
rity, ^jr treating the clergy of the three kingdoms with the utf 
moft rigour, conteoipt, and violence : that it was notorious 
he had one day ftruck and disfigured the face of all ecclefiaflic, 
for no other'reafbn than bi5 innocently prefentingietters. from 
}li< holineis, which happened not t6 pleafe him : that he ag- 
gravalod the affront, by endeavouring to oblige, the ecclefiaflic 
to<|r|n^iip the blocxl \^hich ilTuedYrom his