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The Catholic Encyclopedia 


Simony— Tournely 













Wew Hort 

Nihil Obstat, July 1, 191 li 





Copyright, 1912 
By Robert Appleton Company 

Copyright, 1913 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in thin work have been written specially for The Catholic 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved. 


Contributors to the Fourteenth Volume 

AHERNE, CORNELIUS, Rector, PRorsssoR of 
Nbw Tbstamsnt Exboesib, St. Josbph's Coi/- 
LBQE, Mill Hill, London: Son of God; Son of 
Man; Timothy and Titus, Epistles to. 

ALBERS, p., SJ., Maastricbt, Holland: Thijm. 
Joseph Albert Alberdingk; Thijm, Pet«r Paul 
Mana Alberdingk. 

ALDXsY, ANTAL, Ph.D., Archivist of the Li- 
brary OF THB National Museum, Budapest 
Sinnium, Diocese of; Steinamanger, Diocese of 
Stuhlweissenburg, Diocese of; Siint6, Stepban 
SsatmiLr, Diocese of; Ssentiv^nyi, Martin. 

ALLARD, PAUL. Editor, "Revue deb Qubstionb 
HiSTOBiQUEs", Paris: Slavery. 

ALSTON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B., London: Solesmes, 
Abbey of. 

LEOB OF St. Ignatius, Sarria, Barcelona: 
Spain; TarazoniL Diocese of; Tarragona, Arch- 
diocese of; Teruel, Diocese of. 

ARMFELT, carl GUSTAF baron, Stock- 
HOLii, Swbden: Stockholm. 

AYME. EDWARD L., M.D., New York: Toribio, 
Alfonso Mogrovejo, St. 

tory, BiRMiNQHAM^ ENGI..AND: Sophronius; 
Symraachus the Ebioaite; Synesius ox Qvrene; 
Theodoric Lector; Theonas; Theophilus^ Bishop 
of Antioch; Three Chapters; Titus, Bishop of 

S.T.D., Rome: Statistics, Ecclesiastical. 

BAUR, CHRYSOSTOM, O.S.B., Ph.D. (Louvain), 
CoLLBoio Di San Anbelmo, Rome: Theodore, 
Bishop d Mopsuestia; Theodoret; Theophilus, 
Patriiffch of Afexandria. 

BECHTEL, FLORENTINE, S.J., Professor of 
Hebrew and Sacred Scripture, St. Louib 
Univebbity, St. Louib: Susa; Tostado, Alonso. 

BENIGNI, MGR. UMBERTO, Prothonotary 
ApoflTOiJC Pabtbcipantb, Professor of Ec- 


DEI NoBiLi EccLBBiABTici^ Rome: SinigagUa, 
Diocese of; Solim6es Supenore^ Sorrento, Arch- 
diocese of; Sovana and Pitighano, Diocese of; 
Spedalieri, Nioola: Spoleto, Archdiocese of; Squil- 
lace. Diocese of; ouourbicarian Dioceses; Susa, 

racina, Seue, and Pipemo, Diocese of; TivoU, 
Diocese of; Todi, Diocese of; Tortona, Diocese of. 

BERTREUX, EPHREM M., 8.M., Pbbfbct Apob- 
Touo OF*THB SouTB SoLOMON Iblandb: Solomon 
Islands, Prefecture Apostolic of the Southern. 

BERTRIN, GEORGES, Litt.D., Fellow of the 
University, Pbofesbob of French Litera- 
TX7RE, Institut Cathouque, Parib: Swetchine, 
Sophie-Jeanne-Soymonof ; Tassin, Ren^Prosper; 
TiUemont, Louis-Sebastian Le Nain de. 

BESSE, J. M., O.S.B., Director, ''Revue Mabil- 
lon", Chbvetognb, Belgium: Thebaid. 

BOLLAND, JOSEPH, S.J., Stonyhurst College, 
Blackbxtrn, England: Soul; Spirit; Spiritualism. 

BOSMANS, H., S.J., College Saint Michel, 
Bbubbelb: Stevin, Simon. 

D.C.L., Director. "Canoniste Contemporain", 
Professor of Canon Law, Institut Cath« 
OLiQUE, Parib: Synods, National. 

BRANTS, VICTOR. J.C.D., Membeb of the Royal 
Academy of Belgium, Louvain: Thonissen, 
Jean Joseph. 

BRAUN, JOSEPH, S.J., St. Ignatius College, 
Valkenbubg, Holland: Stole; Surplice; Taber- 
nacle; Throne; Tiara. 

BR^HIER, EMILE, Litt.D., Renneb, France: 
Stoics and Stoic Philosophy; Tancred. 

TON Castle. Perthshire, Scotland: Thomas 
Abel, Blessed (sub-title Blessed Edward Powell). 

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F.R. Hier. Soc., Vice- 
President, St. Edmund's College, Ware, 
England: Simpson, Richard; Smith, Richuxl. 
Bishop of Chalcedon; Smith, Richard; Sodor ana 
Man, Ancient Diocese of; Spencer. The Hon. 
George; .Stanyhurst, [Richard; Stapleton, Theo- 
bald j Stapleton, Thomas; Stuart^ Henry Benedict 
Mana Clement; Sutton, Sir Richard; Tatwin, 
Saint; Taxster, John de; Theobald, Archbishop 
of Canterbury; Thomas of Beckington; Thomas 
of Bradwardine; Thomas of Herefora, Saint: 
Thomas Percy, Blessed; Thompson, Edwara 
Healy; Thompson, Harriet Diana; Tiehborae, 
Thomas, Venerable; Tiemey, Mark Aloysius; 

Tootell, Hugh; Touchet, George Anselm. 


Abbey, Bath, England: Sixtus IV, Pope. 

CABROL, FERNAND, O.S.B., Abbot of St. 
Michael's, Fabnborough, England: Terce. 

CALLAN, CHARLES J., O.P., S.T.L., Professor 
of Philosophy, Dominican House of Studieb, 
Washington: Slotanus, John; Soto, Dominic; 
Spina, Bartolommeo; Stephen of Bourbon. 

THE-FossE, Bath, England: Socialism. 

CARDAUN8, HERMANN, BONN: Spee, Friedrioh 


CABANOVA, GERTRUDE, O.8.B.. Stanbbook Ab- DELAUNAY, JOHN B., C.8.C., Rous: 8ynt»gma 

BEY, WoBCEBTER, ENGLAND: Tnecla, Saint. ^ 


CEDILLO^ THE CONDE DE, Madrid: Toledo, 
Archdiocese of. 


DESMOND, DANIEL F., Hubon, South Dakota: 
Sioux Falls, Diocese of. 

CHABOT, JEAN-BAPTISTE, S.T.D., Directob ot DEVINE, ARTHUR, C.P., St. Saviour's Retreat, 

— ^ urs «a ry « n^, WORCESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND: State or Way, 

Purgative, Illuminative, Unitive. 

S.T.D., President of Villanova Colijbgb, Vil- 
LANOVA, Pennsylvania: Thomas of Villanova, 

CHILTON, CARROLL B., London: Thompson, DOYLE, JOHN P. M., T.O.R., M.A., S.T.D., Rec- 

THE "Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Ori- 
entauum", Paris: Syriac Hymnody; Syriac 
Language and Literature. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Ab- 
BAYE DB St. BbnoIt, Maredsous, Namur, Bel- 
gixtm: Tertullian. 


LL.B.. Halifax: Thompson, Right Honourable 
Sir John Sparrow David. 

CLEARY, GREGORY, O.F.M., J.C.D., J. Civ.D,, 
S.T.L.. SOMETIME Professor op Canon Law 
AND Moral Theology, St. Isidore's College, 
Rome: Syndic, Apostolic. 

COLEMAN, CARYL, B.A., Pelham Manor, New 
York: Spire; Stained Glass; Tapestry. 

CORDIER, HENRI, Professor at the School for 
Oriental Living Languages, Pabis: Taoism; 

COSSIO, ALUIGI, S.T.D., S.S.D,, J.U.D., Bacca- 
laureus and Licentiatus op the University 
OF Padua, Rome: Titulus. 

TOR OF St. Francis College, Professor of" 
Moral Theology, Lorbtto, Pennsylvania: 
Third Order of St. Francis, Province of the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., S.T.D., New Rochelle, 
New York: Stoning in Scripture; Terrestrial 
Paradise; Theocracy. 

DRISCOLL, JOHN JOSEPH, S.J., Superior, Wis- 
consin: Superior, Diocese of. 

Fonda, New York: Summer Schools, Catholic; 
Theosophy; Totemism. 

DRUM, WALTER, S.J., Professor of Hebrew 
AND Sacred Scripture, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Solomon, Psakns of; Synagogue; 
Temple, Liturgr of the; Theolo^, Pastoral; 
Thessalonians, Epistles to the; Tobias. 

COTTER, A C.. S.J., WooDBTOcK College, Majry- dUBRAY, CA., S.M., S.T.B., Ph.D., Professor of 

. land: Stattler, Benedict; Tambunni Michel- Philosophy, Mawst College, Washington: 

angelo; Tanner, Adam; lanner, Matthias. Species; Teleology; Telepathy. 

C0YLE,M0IRAK., New York: Sti^ber, Hermann. i^^.g^AN, THOMAS, Editor, "Cathouc Tran- 

CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS, S.J., Professor op Phil- 
osophy and History, Instituto Cientifico de 

script", Hartford, Connecticut: Tabb, John 

of; Tepic, Diocese of; Tlaxcala. 

CUMMINGS, THOMAS F., S.T.D., Holyoke. DUNIN-BORKOWSK I, Stanislaus, S.J., Bonn, 
Massachusetts: Springfield, Diocese of. Germany: Spinoza, Benedict. 

CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM M., Chancellor of DURAND, ALFRED, S.J., Professor op Scrip- 

thb Diocese op Southwark, England: South- 
wark, Diocese of. 


TCRE AND Eastern Languages, Ore Place, 
Hastings, England: Testament, The New. 

^HBERT father, O.S.F.C,, St. Anseij^'b eNGELHARDT, ZEPHYRIN, O.F.M., Santa 
House, Oxford: Theqdosius Florentini; Third Raprara. Caopornia: Sit ar. Buenaventura: 

Order of St. Francis in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Barbara, California: Sit jar, Buenaventura; 
Tapis, Esteban. 



^Y, PAUL S.J., Litt.L., Enghien, Bel- FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Propesbor of 
: Spu-itual Exercises of Samt Ignatius. Church History and C.^ 

Canon Law, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis: Societies, Catholic; So- 
cieties, Secret^ Solicitation; Subdeacon; Suspen- 
sion; S>Tiod; Tarquini, Camilhis; Tenure, Eccle- 
siastical; Tithes; Tonsure. 

DEGERT, ANTOINE, Litt.D., Editor of "La 

Revue de la Gascoigne", Professor of Latin 

Literature, Institut Catholique, Toulouse: 

Sulpitius; Sylvius, Francis; Terrasson, Andr6; 

Tourn6Iy, Honor<«. FAULHABER, MICHAEL, S.T.D., Bishop of 

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N.. Ph.D., Instructor in^ Speyer, Germany: Sophonias. 

French, College of the Cm* of New York: ^, .,.,«« r, r„ t^ t^ o 

Thibautde Champagne. FENLON, JOHN F., S.S., S.T.D., PrasiDENT, St. 

Austin's College, Washington; Profbssob of 
PELANY, JOSEPH F., S.T.D., New York: Slander, Sacred Scripture, St. Mary's Seminary, Bal- 

Sloth; Temperance; Temptation; Theft. timorb: Sulpicians m the United States. . . 



^FEREHl, p. canon, SAOiT^hLAXjBxtab, FBimos: 

FLADGATE, GERALDINE, London: Stone, Mary 

FLAHERTY, MATTHEW J., M.A. (Habvard), 
CoNOORD, Massachubettb: Stoddaidy Charles 

FORD, JEREMIAH D. M., M.A., Ph.D., Pro- 
fb880r of french and spanish languages, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 
chubettb: Spanish Language and Literature; 
Spanish-American Literature; Tassoni^ Ajes- 
sandro; Tebaldeo, Antonio; Tiraboeohi, Giro- 

F0RTE8CUE. ADRIAN, Ph.D., S.T.D., Lbtch- 
woRTH, Hertfordshire^ EngLand: Suidas; 
Synaxarion; Synaxis; S3man Rite, West; Theo- 
doaius I; Ticonius. 

FOX, JAMES J., S.T.D., Professor of Philosopht, 
St. Thomas's College, Washington: Slavery, 
Ethical Aspect of. 

FOX, JOHN M., S.J.^ Woodstock College. Mary- 
land: Tamburim, Thomas; Tongiorgi, Salvator. 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.Sc., M,E., Associate Pro- 
fessor OF Physics, College of the City of 
New York: Toiricelli, Evangelista. 

FUENTES, VENTURA, B,A., M.D., Instructor, 
College of the City of New York: T^llez, 
Gabriel; Torres Naharro, Bartolom^ de. 

GALLAVRESI, GIUSEPPE, Professor of Mod- 
ern History, Royal Academy or Milan, 

Milan: Tasso, Torquato; Tosti, Luigi. 

• «^ 

GANSS, HENRY G., Mus-D., Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania: Tetzel, Johann. 

GARRIGAN, PHILIP J.^ .S.T.D., Bishop of Sioux 
City, Iowa: Sioux City, Diocese of. 

GAUTHEROT, GUSTAVE, Lrrr.D., Paris: Talley- 
rand-P4rigord, Charles-Maurice de. 

TrruLAR OF Barungs, Tongerloo Abbey, 
Westbrloo, Belgium: Tongerlooy Abbey of. 

Jacques Auguste de; Thou, Nicholas de: Tooque- 
ville. Charleis Alexis - Henri -Maurioe-Clerel de; 
Toulouse, Archdiocese of; Tours, Archdiocese of. 

GRATTAN-FLOOD, W. H., M.R.I.A., Mus.D., 
Rosemount, EnniscorthYj Ireland: Spontini, 
Ga^aro Luira Pacifico; Sullivan, Alexander Mai^ 
tin; TaUis, Thomas; Tassach, Saint; Tavemer, 
John; Teman, Saint; Thomas, Charles L. A.; 
Tigris, Saint. 

GRISON, GABRIEL EMILE, Titular Bishop of 
Sagalasse, Vicar Apostouc of Stanley Falls, 
Belgian Congo, Africa: Stanley Falls, Vicari- 
ate Apostolic of. 

HAAG, ANTHONY, S.J., &r. Ignatius College, 
Valksnburg, Holland: Syllabus. 

HAGEN, JOHN G., S.J., Vatican Observatory, 
Rome: Tempel, Wilhelm. 

HANSEN, NIELS, M.A., Charlottenlund, Den- 
mark: Steno, Nicolaus. 

HARTIGAN, J. A., S.J., Lrrr.D.„0RE Place, Hast- 
ings, England: Tiberias, See of. 

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Pro- 
FESsoR OF Church BiisTORY, Cathouc Uni- 
versity OF America, Washington: Socrates; 
Sozomen, Salamanius Hermias; Tatian. 

seph's College, Callicoon, New York: Ter- 
tiaries; Third Order Secular of the Order of Our 
Lady of Mount Carmel; Third Order Regular of 
St. Dominic in the United States: Third Order 
Regular of St. Francis in the Unitea States: Third 
Order Secular of St. Francis; Thomas of Celano. 

HENRY, H. T;. Litt.D., LL.D^ Rector of Roman 
Cathouc High School for Boys, Philadelphia ; 
Professor of English Literature anp Gre- 
gorian Chant, St. Charles's Seminary, Over- 
brook, Pennsylvania: Stabat Mater; Tantum 
Ergo; Te Deum; Te Luois ante Terminum. 

Litt. D., K.S.G., Professor of Latin Language 
AND Literature, College of the City of New 
York: Th6baud, Augustus. 

HILGERS, JOSEPH, SJ., Rome: Sodality. 

GEYER, FRANCIS XAVIER, Titular Bishop of HOLWECK, FREDERIC G., St. Louis, Missoxnu: 

Trocmadjs. Vicar-Apostolic of the Sudan, 
Egypt: Sudan, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

GIETMANN, GERHARD, S.J., Teacher of 
Classical Languages and iEsTHETics, St. 
Ignatius College, Valkenburg, HoLLAi<n>: 
Stalls; Steinle, Eduard von. 

GIGOT, FRANCIS E., S.T.D., Professor of Sa- 
, cred Scripture, St. Joseph's Seminary, Dun- 
^ wooDiB, New York: Synoptics; Temptation of 

GILLET, LOUIS, Paris: Tisio da Garafalo, Ben- 
venuto; Titian. 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor, "Revue 
DES Dextx Mondes'', Paris: Soissons, Diocese 
of; Tarbes, Diocese of; Tarentaise. Diocese of; 
Tellier, Michel Le; Thiers, Louis-Aaolphe; Tliou, 

♦ DecPSBPd. 

Sorrows of the Blessed Virdn Mary, Feasts of the 
Seven; Thorns, Feast of the Crown of. 

side Abbey, Bath, England: St^hen Harding, 
Saint; Thomas More, Blessed. 

HUDSON, DANIEL E., C.S.C., LL.D., Edppor, 
''The Ave Maria," Notre Dame, Indiana: 
Sorin, Edward. . 

HUNTER-BLAIR, SIR D. O., Bart., 0,8.B., M.A., 
Fort Augustus Abbey, Scotland: Smith, 
James; Strain, John; Syon Monastery; Tarkin, 
Saint; Tavistock Abbey; Tewkesbury Abbey; 
Theodore, seventh Archbishop of Canterbury; 
Thomey Abbey; Tintem Abbey. 

HUONDER, ANTHONY, S.J., St. Ignatius Coir 
LEGS, Valkenbxtrg, Holland: Tieffentaller, 


conthibutors to the tourteenth volume 

HUSSLEIN. JOSEPH, 8. J., Absociatb Editor KRIEHN, GEORGE, A.B., Ph.D., New York: 

"Amb&ica", New York: Syndicalisin. 


INGOLD, A. M. P., Director "Revue d'Albacb", KR08E, HERMANN A., 8.J., Editor-in-Chibf, 

CoiiUAR, Germany: Thotnassin, Louis. 

IRWIN, FRANCIS, S.J., Stonyhurst College, 
Blaokburn, England: Stonyhurst College. 

JARRETT, BEDE, O.P., B.A. (Oxon.), S.T.L., &r. 
Dominic's Priory, London: Third Orders, 
General; Third Order of St. Dominic. 

Maryland: Tincker, Mary Agnes. 

JENNER, HENRY, F.8.A., Late of the British 
Museum, London; Cornwall, England: Syrian 
Rite, East. 

JOHNSON, WILLIAM T., Kansas City, Missouri: 
Test-Oath, Missouri. 

JOUVE, ODORIC M., O.F.M., Candiac, Canada: 
Thu-d Order of St. Francis in Canada. 

Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", and "Kirch- 


"Dbutschland", St. Ignatius College, Val- 
KENRURO, Holland: Statistics, Ecclesiastical, in 
Germany; Statistics of Religions. 

LAUCHERT, FRIEDRICH, Ph.D., Aachen: Stapf, 
Joseph Ambrose; Staudenmaier, Flrans Anton; 
Stdckl, Albert; Stolz, Alban Isidor. 

LAUNAY, ADRIEN, ARCHnnar of the Society for 
Foreign Missions, Paris: Society of Foreign 
Missions of Paris. 

Place, Hastings, England: Terrien, Jean- 

LECLERCQ, HENRI, O.S.B., London: Station 

KAMPERS. FRANZ. Ph.D.. Pbokk««.k op Med«. ^-EHMKUHL. AUGUSTINUS S.J . St. Ionatjcs 

VAL AND Modern Chxtrch History, Univer- 
sity OF Breslait: Theodoric the Great. 

College, Valkendurg, Holland: Theology, 

KEATING, JOSEPH IGNATIUS PATRICK, S. J., ^^^^^\}^R2f!^RuU^'^?' ^'^'' ^^®™- 
B.A., AssiOTANT Editor, "The Month", Lon- ^^' Austria, blavs, Ihe. 

don: Temperance Movements, Great Britain and 

KEILEY, JARVIS, M.A., Grantwood, New Jer- 
sey: South Carolina. 

KELLEY, FRANCIS C, S.T.E)^ LL.D., President, 
The Cathouc Church Extension Society, 
Chicago, Illinois: Society, The Catholic Church 
Extension, in the United mates. 

KBLLY^ BLANCHE M., New York: Tabernacle 
Societies; Tegakwitha, Catherine. 

Ada: TorontcT, Archdiocese of. 

LE ROY, ALEXANDER A., C.SS.P., Bishop of 
Alinda, Superior^eneral of the Congre- 
gation OF THE Holy Ghost, Paris: SomaUland. 

LETELLIER, A., S.S.S., Superior, Fathers of the 
Blessed Sacrament, New York: Society of the 
Blessed Sacrament, The. 

Germany: Temperance Movements. 

Editor-in-Chief, "La NouveLlb France", 
Quebec: Tach4, Etienne-Pascal; Talon, Jean; 
Talon, Pierre; Tanguay, Cyprien; Tass^, Joseph. 

KEMPF, CONSTANTINE, S.J., Professor of LINEHAN, PAUL H., B.A., Instructor College 

Philosophy and Pedagogy, St. Ignatius Col- 
lege, Valkenburg, Holland: Theodicy. 

OF the City of >fEW York: Tartaglia, Niool6; 
Tomibia, Jos^. 

KENNEDY, DANIEL J., O.P., S.T.M., Professor lINS, JOSEPH, Dorsten, Westphalia, Germany: 
OF Sacramental Theology, Catholic Uni- Sion, Diocese of ; Strasburg, Diocese of ; Tiraspol, 


Aquinas, Saint; Thomism. 

Diocese of. 


s^T;,^ .t;i P^^^^^ ?2^L^J assistant director of the Imperial Colleo 

rS^^^ r^. ^-^"^^""^ ^V^^'^'J^^r^^ TiON OF Coins and Medals, Vienna: Streber, 

OF Sociology, Catholic University of Ame- - - _ . _ » ^ . » 

RICA, Washington: Sociology. 

Frans Ignaa von; Streber, Franz Seraph. 

KIR9CH, MGR. JOHANN P., S.T.D., Professor LOFFLER, KLEMENS, Ph.D., ^ Librarian, Uni- 

op Pathology and Christian Arch.«ology, 
University of Fbibourg, -Switzerland: Sim- 
plicius, Saint, Pope; Siricius, Saint, Pope; Stod- 
mgers; Surius, Laurentius; Switzerland; Syl- 
vester I, Saint, Pope; Sylvester II, Pope; Sym- 
machufl, Saint, Pope; Tarachus, Probus, and 
AndronicuB, Saints; Tarasius, Saint; Tarsicius, 
Saint; Telesphorus, Saint, Pope; Theela, Saints; 
Theodorus and Theophanes. 

VERsmr OF minster: Simplicius, Faust inus, and 
Beatrice; Speyer, Diocese of; Staphylus, FVie4- 
rich; Staupits, Johann von; Stolberg, Joseph; 
Strossmayer, Joseph Georg; Studion; Syncre- 
tism; Tauler, John; Tepl; Tewdrig: Thalhofer, 
Valentin, Thdner, Augustin; Theobald, Saint; 
Theodard, Saint; Theixlore of Studium, Saint; 
Theodulf: Thryfius, Hermann; Tiberius; Titus, 
Roman Emperor. 


j, Veit; Temple; Tissot, James oow, Scotland: Stradivari, Antonio; Stradivari 

many: Solari; Stoss, 
Joseph; Tomb. 

Family, The. 



GoNVBNT or 8. Salvator, Jsbusalbm : Temple 
of Jerusalem; Thabor, Mount; Tomb of the 
Blessed Virsin Mary. 

MERK, AUGUST, S.J., Profbsbob or ApoLoavncs, 


Testament, The Old. 

rBSsoR or Moral THSOLOcnr, Canon Law, and 
Liturgy, St. John's Coludob, Collegbyille, 
Minnbsota; Solemnity; Stanislaus of Cracow, 
Saint; Stephen of Autun; Subiaco; Supper, The 
Last; Tanner, Conrad; Thais, Saint; Theodore of 
Amasea, Saint; Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint; 
Theophanes, Saint. 

MOELLER, CH., PBorEssoR or Gbnebal History, 
Uniybbsity or Louyain: Swan, Order of the; 
Templars, Knights, The; Teutonic Order. 

ABY Aroerouc. New Yobk: Sse-ch wan. East- 
em, Vicariate Apostolic of; Sse-ch'wan, North- 
western, Vicariate Apostolic of; SzcH^'wan, 
Southern, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

MOONEY, JAMES, Unitbd States Ethnologist, 
BuBEAU or American Ethnology, Washing- 
ton: Sioux Indians; Sipibo Indians; Sobaipura 
Indians; Son^ish Indians j Sookan Indians; 
Squamish Indians; Swinomish Indians: Tacana 
Indians; Taensa Indians: Tait Indians; Tamanac 
Indians; Taos Pueblo; Tliompson River Indians; 
Ticuna Indians; Timucua Indians; Toba Indians; 
Tonica Indians; Tonkawa Indians; Totonac In- 

Abchbishop or Sydney, Pbiuatb or Austba- 
ua: Talbot, Peter. 

"Pan-Amebican Union", Washington: So- 
corro, Diocese of; Spirito Santo, Diocese of; 
Taubat^, Diocese of. 

MORICE, A. C, B.A., O.M.I., Lectubeb in An- 


Winnipeg, Manitoba. Canada: Slaves; Tach^, 
AloEandre-Antonin; Takkali. 

MULLALYj CHARLES, S.J., Tobtoba, Spain: Toi> 
tosa, Diocese of. 

MUNNYNCK, MARK P. de, S.T.D., PBonsssoB or 
Philosophy, Univebsity or Fbiboubg: Space; 

Seminaby, Fbeibitbg, Baden, Gebmany: The- 
ology, Asoetical. 

NYS, DfiSIRfi, S.T.B., Ph.D., Pbesidbnt S4mi- 
N aibb LioN XIII, Univebsity or Lottvain, Bel- 
gium: Time. 

O'CONNELL, JOHN T., LL.D., Toledo, Ohio: 

Toledo. Diocese of. 

MEEHAN, THOMAS F., New Yobk: SuUivan, ' ^^ 

PeterJohn; Tenney, William Jewett ; Thanksgiv- O'CONNOR, JOHN B., O.P., St. Louis Bbbtband's 

mg Day; Thayer, John. Conyent, Louibyillb, Kentucky: Thomas of 


MEIER, GABRIEL, O.S.B., Einbixdeln, SwmBB- 

land: Tiburtius and Susanna, Sts.; Timotheua O'DONOVAN^ LOUIS, S.T.L., BALmiOBE: Spald- 

and Symphorian, Sts. ing, Martm John. 


Utica, New Yobk: Syracuse, Diocese of. 

MAAS, A. J., S.J.. Rbctob. Woodstock College, 
Mabyland: Tneology, Dogmatic, sub-title Chris- 

MaoERLEAN^ ANDREW A.. LL.B. (Fobdham), 
New Yobk: Societies, Catholic, American Fed- 
eration of; Solsona, Diocese of; Stanislawow, 
Diocese of; Suitbert, Saint: Sumatra, Prefecture 
Apostolic of; Tinin, See of. 

McGOVERN, JAMES J., Lockpobt, Illinois: Starr, 
Eliza Allen. 

MACKSEY, CHARLES, S.J., Pbofessob op Ethics 
AND Natubal Right, Gbbgobian Univebsity, 
Romb: Society, State and Church; Taparelli, 
Aloysius; Tolomei, John Baptist. 

McNEAL, J. PRESTON, A.B., LL.B., Baiaimobe: 
Tan^, Roger Brooke. 

McNeill, CHARLES, Dxtbun: Tanner, Edmund. 

MacPHERSON, EWAN, New Yobk: Thalbeis, 

MAGNIER, JOHN, C JSS.R., St. Maby's, Clapham, 
London: Sportelli, Ceesar, Venerable. 

MAHER, MICHAEL, S.J., Lrrr.D., M.A. (Lon- 
don), DiBECTOB OF Studies and Pbofessob of 
Pedagogics, Stonyhubst College. Black* 
bubn, England: Soul; Spirit; Spiritualism. 

MANN, HORACE K., Hbadmastbb, St. Cuth- 
bebt's Gbammab School, Nbwcastlb-on-Tyne, 
England: Sisinnius, Pope; Stephen I, Saint, 
Pope; Stephen II, Pope; Stephen (II) III, Pope; 
Stephen (III) IV, Pope; Stephen (IV) V, Pope; 
Stephen (V) VI, Pope: Stephen (VI)VII, Pope; 
Stephen (VII) VIII, Pope; Stephen (VIII) DC, 
Pope; Stephen (IX) X, Pope; Theodore I; Theo- 
dore II. 

MARCHAND, UBALD canon, J.U.D., Chan- 


Pbovincb of Quebec, Canada: Three Rivers, 

MARY AGNES, SISTER, Mount St. Joseph, 
Cteo: Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

MARY PATRICK, MOTHER, Chicago, Illinois: 
Sisters of the Little Company of Mary. 

MEDLEYCOTT, A. E., S.T.D., Titulab Bishop of 
Tbicoboa, Calcutta, India: Thomas dJhristians, 

MEEHAN, ANDREW B., S.T.D., J.U.D., Pbo- 
FE8SOB OF Canon Law and Litubgy, St. Beb- 
nabd's Seminaby, Rochesteb, New Yobk: 
Stipend; Subreption; Subsidies, Episcopal; Su- 
premi discipUns; Tametsi; Taxa Innocent iana. 


CGORMAN, JOHN R., 8.T.L., J.C.D., Haiubt* 
BtiRT, Ontamo. Canada: Temiskapaing, Vicari- 
. ate Apostolic of. 

O'HARAN, MGR. DENIS F., S.T.D., Sydney, Aus- 
tralia: Sydney, Archdiocese oT." 

OLIGER, LIVARIUS, O.F.M., St. Bonavbnturb's 
College, Rome: Somaschi; Spirituals; Sporer, 
Patritius; Taigi, Anna Maria Gesualda Antonia; 
Tarabotti, Helena; Third Order of St. Francis 
(Regular and Secular; Male and Female). 

cessor OF Theology, Dominican Hottse of 
Studies, Washington: Sin. 

Texas, State of. 

Society of Jesus; Spenser, John; Stevenson, 
Joseph; Stone, Marmaduke. 

POPE, HUGH, O.P., S.T.L., Doctor of Sacred 
Scripture, Professor of New Testament 
Exegesis, Collegio Angelico, Rome: Socin- 

POTAMIAN, brother, P.S.C., D.Sc. (LoND.), 
Professor op Physics, Manhattan College, 
New York: Toaldo, Giuseppe. 

POULAIN, AUGUSTIN, S.J., Paris: Stipnata, 
Mystical; Surin, Jean- Joseph; Theology, Mysti- 

perior-General op the Theatine Order, 
Rome: Theatines; Theatine Nuns. 

Teacher of Philosophy and Church History, 
St. John's College, Brooklyn, New York: 
Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine. 

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of the 
History of Philosophy, St. John's College, 
College viLLE, Minnesota: Sixtus 1, Saint, 
Pope; Sixtus 11, Saint, Pope; Sixtus V, Pope; 
Smaradgus, Ardo; Spinoht, Christopher Royas 
de; Spondanus^ Henri; Stadler, John Evangelist; 

Stefaneschi, Giacomo Gaetani; Stephen, Saint; T»t:,*^AXT t» xtt/^w/^t ao /-\ t? t^* r^^ a 

StephenofToumai;Steuco,Ako8tino:Sympho^ REAGAN, P. NICHOLAS O.F.M. Collegio S. 
rosa, Saint; Syncelli; Telesphorus of Ciosenza; Antonio, Rome: Smai; Sodom and Gomorrha. 

Tencin, Pierre-Gudrin de; Theophanes, Kera- 
meus; Thundering Legion; Torquemada, Tom^ 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Sis- 
tine Choir; Song, Religious; Tartini, Giuseppe. 

OUSSANI, GABRIEL, Ph.D., Professor, Eccle- 
siastical History, Early Christian Litera- 
ture, AND Biblical Archaeology, St. Joseph's 
Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York: Solomon; 

PACE, EDWARD A,, Ph.D., S.T.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Catholic Univeivsity op Ame- 
rica, Washington: Spiritism. 


New Rochelle, New York: Test em Benevo- 

z6n y Fe", Madrid: Suarez, Francisco, Doctor 
Eximius; Toledo, Francisco; Torres, Francisco. 

♦P^TRIDfes, SOPHRONE, A.A., Professor, 
Greek Catholic Seminary of Kadi-Keui, 
Constantinople: Sinis; Sion; Sitifis; Soli; Sora; 
Sozopoiis; Stratonicea; Sufetula; Sura; Syene; 
Synaus; Synnada; Tabse; Tabbora; Tacapae; Tar 
dama; Ta^narum; Tamassus; Tanagra; Tavium; 
Telmessus; Temnus; Teuchira; Thabraca; Thacia 
Montana; Thsenae; Thagaste;Thagor4; Thapsus; 
Thaumaci; Themisonium; Therm® Basilicse; 
Thibaris; Thignica; Thmuis; Thuburbo; Tiberi- 
opohs; Timbrias; Tingis; TI03; Torone. 

PHILLIPS, EDWARD C, S.J., Ph.D., Woodstock 
College, Maryland: Spagni, Andrea; Stansel, 
Valentin; Stephens, Henry Robert; Terill, An- 

POHLE, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.C.L., Pro- 
fessor OF Dogmatic Theology, Unxversity op 
Breslau: Theology, Dogmatic; Toleration, Re- 

REILLY, THOMAS A K., O.P., S.T.D., S.S.L., Pro- 
fessor OF Sacred Scripture, Dominican 
House of Studies, Washington: Tongues, Gift 

Rhetoric and Sacred Eloquence, St. Stan- 
islaus College, Macon, Georgia: Taion, 
Nicolas; Tomielli, Girolamo Francesco. 

ROBINSON, DOANE, Secretary, South Dakota 
Department op History, Pierre, South Da- 
kota: South Dakota. 

Spina, Alfonso de. 

Teneriffe, Canary islands: Teneriffe, Diocese 

Matutina College, Feldkirch, Austria: 
Toumefort, Joseph Pitton de. 

RYAN, JOHN A., S.T.D., Professor of Moral 
Theology, St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Min- 
nesota: Socialistic Communities. 


RYAN, PATRICK, S.J^ London: Thomas Alfield, 
Venerable; Thomas Cot t am. Blessed. 

SACHER, HERMANN, Ph.D., Editor of the 
^'Konversationslexikon", Assistant Editor, 
"Staatslexikon" of the G5rresgesell- 
schaft, Freiburg-im-Brbisgau, Germany: Sty- 
ria; Thuringia. 

Christian Puranna"; Professor of English, 
St. Aloyhius College, Mangalore, India: 
Stephens, Thomas. 

op the Legion of Honour; Ex-Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 
the United States to Guatemala; Member: 


OF THE Am. Soc. International Law; Am. SORTAIS, GASTON, S.J.« AoBocwot. Smtob* 
AcADBMT Political and Social Sciencb and "Etudbs", Paris: Tintoretto, H. 

THB Mexican Soc. of Geography and Statis- 
tics, New York: Tahiti, Vicariate Apostolic of. SOUVAY, CHARLES L» CM., S.T.D., Ph.D., 

S.S.D., Professor, Sacred Scripturb, He- 
RREW AND LrruRGT, Kenrick Sbminart, St. 
Louis: Stephen, Saint; Stones, Precious, in the 
Bible; Tabernacle in Scripture; Tabeomacles, 
Feast of. 

SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Mattttina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria: SpiUmann, Joseph; Stifter, 


St. Ludwig's College, Dalheim, Germant: SPAHN, MARTIN, Ph.D., Professor of Modern 
Sonnius, Franciscus; Thangmar; Thegan of History, University of Strasburo: Thirty 

Treves; Thunnayr, Johannes. Years War, The; Tilly, Johannes Tsercltes, 

Count of. 

SCHMID, ULRICH, Ph.D., Editor, "Walhalla", 

Munich: Tegernsee, SPILLANE, EDWARD P., S.J., Associate Editor, 

"America", New York: Thimelby, Richard. 

SCHNURER, GUSTAV, Ph.D., Professor of Me- 
dieval AND Modern History. University of STEELE, FRANCESCA M., Stroud, Gloucester- 
Fribourg: Statues of the Churcn. shire, England: Taylor, Frances Margaret; 

Temple, Sisters of the. - 

SCHUHLEIN, FRANZ X., Professor in the Gym- 
nasium of Frbisino, Bavaria, Germany: Tal- STEICHEN, MICHAEL, Missionary Apostouc, 
mud; Targum; Torah; Tosephta. Tokio, Japan: Tokio, Archdiocese of. 

Catholic High School, Philadelphia, Pen^- tina College, Feldkirch, Austria: Tosca- 

sylvania: Steinmeyer, Ferdinand. nelli, Paolo dal Pozko. 

SCULLY, JOHN, S.J., New York: Squiers, Herbert STUART, JANET, R.S.H., Superior Vicar, Con- 


Cornwall, England: Thomas k Kempis; 
Thomas of Jesus. 

SENFELDER, LEOPOLD, M.D., Teacher of the 
History of Medicine, University of Vienna: 
Skoda, Josef; Sorbait, Paul de. 


London: Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, 

dent, Imperial Academy op Sciences, Pro- 
fessor, Polish Literature, University of 
Cracow: Skarga, Peter; Sobieski, John; Staro- 
wolski, Simon; Szujski, Joseph; Szymonowicz, 


Rector of the Catholic University of Amb- TAVERNIER, EUGENE, Paris: Soloviev, Via* 
RICA, Washington: Thomas Abel, Blessed. dimir. 

SHANLEY, WALTER J., LL.D., Danrury, Con- TETU, MGR HENRI, Quebec, Canada: Tasche- 
nbcticut: Temperance Movements in the United reau, Elz^ar-Alexandre. 

States and Canada. 

York: Slavonic Language and Liturgy; Slavs in 

SILVA COTAPOS, CARLOS, Canon of the Cath- 
edral OF SANTiAGO, Chile: Tarapac^, Vicariate 
Apostolic of. 

SINKMAJER, JOS., East Islip, New York: 
Strahov, Abrey of. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Francis Xavier's College, 
Liverpool, England: Speculation; Sunday; 

New York: Th^nard, Louis-Jacques, Baron. 

SMITH, IGNATIUS, O.P., Dominican House of 
Studies, Washington: Thomas of Jorz. 

P.), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Smith, 
Thomas Kilby. 

THURSTON, HERBERT, 8. J., London: Southwell, 
Robert, Venerable; Stone, Comer or Founda- 
tion; Stylites; Symbolism; Tenebrae; Thanksgiv- 
ing before and after Meals; Theatre, The; 
Thomas, Saint, the Apostle; Thomas Becket, 
Saint; Toleration, History of. 

B.A., Stratton-on-thb-Fobse, Bath, England: 

TURNER, MGR. JAMES P., S.T.D., Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania: Tabernacle Society. 

TURNER, WILLIAM, B.A., S.T.D., Professor of 
Logic and the History of Philosophy, Cath- 
olic University of America, Washington: 
Socrates; Sophists; Summse: Sylvester, Bernard; 
Telesio, Bernardino; Theodore of Gaza; Theo- 
doric of Chartres; Thomas of Strasburg. 

TYNE, THOMAS JAMES, Nashville, Tennessee : 

VACCON. A., Amiens, France: Tarisel, Pierre. 

SOLLIER, JOSEPH FRANCIS, S.M., 8.T.D., Pro- VAILHlfi, SIMl^ON, A.A., Member of the Rus- 


ctety of Mart, Washington: Supernatural tinoplb, Rome: Sinope; Siunia; Smyrna, Latin 

Order; Theophilanthropists. Archdiocese of; Sophene;Sozu8a; Sparta ;Staurop- 


6&b; S^ra, Diocese of; Tanis: Tarsus; Tenedos; 
Tentyris: Teos; Terenuthis; Tennessus; Thasos; 
Thel>e8 (Achaia Secunda); Thebes (Thebais Se- 
eunda); Tbelepte; Themiscyra; Thennesus; 
Theodosiopolis; Thera, Diocese of; Thennopjrhe; 
TheBsalonica; Tbeveste; Thugga; Thyatira; 
Thynias; Tiberias; Ticelia; Tinos and Mykonos; 
Tipasa; Titopolis; Tius; Tomi. . 

tain), Professor of Moral Thbologt and 
LIBRARIAN, Grande SAiunairb, Bruges, Bei/- 
gium: Suicide. 

VAN ORTROY, FRANCIS, S.J., Brussels: Stanis- 
las Kostka, Saint. 

VASCHALDE, A.A., C.S.B., Cathouc Univbrsitt 
OF America, Washington: Tell el-Amama 
Tablets, The. 

(OxoN.), London: Sl3rthurst, Thomas; Snow, 
Peter, Venerable; Somerset, Thomas: South- 
erne, William, Venerable; Southwortn, John, 
Venerable; Speed, John, Venerable; Spenser, Wil- 
liam, Venerable; Sprott, Thomas, Venerable; 
Stonnes, James; Stransham, Edward. Venerable; 
Sugar, John, Venerable; Sutton, Robert, Vener- 
able; Talbot^ John; Taylor, Hugh, Venerable; 
Teilo, Saint; Teresian Martvrs of Compile, The 
Sixteen Blessed; Thomas Ford. Blessed; Thomas 
Johnson, Blessed; Thomas oi Dover; Thomas 
Woodhouse, Blessed; ThoTQe. Robert, Venerable; 
Thulis, John, Venerable; Tichbome, Nicholas, 

ifANT:Speyer. . 
heim, Konraa. 

if ant: Speyer, Johann and Wendelin von; Sweyn- 

WALSH, JAMES A^ Missionart Apostolic, Di- 
rector OF THE Cathouc Foreign Missionary 
Society of America, Hawthorne, New York: 
Thtophane V^nard, Blessed. 

WALSH, JAMES J., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc., 
Dean of the Medical School, Fordham Uni- 
versity, New York: Spallanzani, Lassaro. 

WALTER^ ALOYSIUS, C.SS.R., Rome: Steffani, 

WARD, MGR. BERNARD, Canon of West- 
MiNBTBR, F. R. Hist. Soc., President, St. 
Edmttnd's College, Ware, England: Talbot, 
James; Taunton, Ethelred. 

WARICHEZ, JOSEPH, Docteur en scienceb mo- 

CE8B OF ToiTRNAi, BELGIUM: Toumai, Diooeee of. 

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.D., Professor of Cbxtrch 
History, Maribt College, Washington: Si- 
mony; Sirleto, Guglielmo; Sirmond^ Jacques; 
Sixtus HI, Saint, Pope; Smalkaldic Leaigue; 
Sophronius, Saint; Sueer, Abbot of St. Denis; 
Sully, Maurice de; Stupicius Severus; Sweden- 

WEBSTER, D. RAYMOND, O.S.B., M.A. (Oxon.). 
Downside Abbey^ Bath, England: Stephen of 
Muret, Saint; Swithin, Saint; Sylvester Gozso- 
lini. Saint; Sylvestrines. 

O.S.B., Stanbrook, England: Stanbrook Ab- 

OscoTT College, Birmingham, England: 
Sykes, Edmund; Talbot. Thomas Joseph; 
Tnomas Sherwood, Blessea; Thwing, Thomas, 

WILHELM, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., Aachen, Ger- 
many: Superstition. 

London: Sodoma; Stanfield, William Clarkson; 
Teniers, David; Theotocopuli^ Domenico; Ti- 
baldij Pellegrino; Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista; 
Torbido, Francesco. 

WITTMANN, PIUS, Archiviot for the Princes 
AND Counts of the House of Yssnburg- 
Bt^DiNGEN; Royal Bavarian Archivist. Bt}- 
dingen, Germany: Snorri Sturluson; Stolberg, 
Friedrich Leopold, Count zu; Sweden. 

Spalato-Macarsca, Diocese of; Tamow, Diocese 
ot; Thugut, Johann Amadeus; Frans de Paula; 
Thun Hohenstein, Count Leo. 

Innsbruck, Austria: Speckbacher, Josef. 

Priory, Wincanton, Somersetshire, Eng- 
land: Teresa of Jesus, Saint; Third Order of Our 
Lady of Mount Carmel; Thomas k Jesu. 

ZUPAN, CYRIL, O.S.B., Pueblo, Colorado: Slom- 
sek, Anton Martin. 


Tables of Abbreviations 

The following tables and notes are intended to guide readers of Ths Cathouo Enotclopsdia in 
tnteipieting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- 
quently used in the work. For more general information see the article AsBRKViATiONa, EcaLBBiAsncAX*. 

I. — General Abbreviations. 

a. article. 

ad an. at the year (Lat. ad annum). 

an., ann the year, the years (Lat. amitM, 


ap in (Lat. apud), 

art article. 

Assyr. Assyrian. 

A. 8 Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V. Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible auth<»ised for use in the 
Anglican Church — ^the so-oalled 
"King James", or "Phytestant 


b. bom. 

Bk. Book. 

BL Blessed. 

C, e. about (Lat. circa); canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie, 

can canon. 

cap chapter (Lat. caput — used only 

in Latin context). 

cf. compare (Lat. confer). 

coo« ••• *•••■•.. .oociez. 

col column. 

ooncL conclusion. 

const., constit. . . .Lat. conMutio, 

cuiA. by the industry of. 

d died. 

diet. dictionary (Fr. didumnaire), 

diq>. Lat. dispukUio. 

diss. Lat. dMserUUio, 

dist Lat. distinetio, 

D. V. Douay Version. 

ed., edit edited, edition, editor. 

£p.« £pp letter, letters (Lat. epUtola). 

Fr. French. 

gen. • • genus. 

Gr. Greek. 

H. £., Hist. EccL .Ecclesiastical History. 

Heb.9 Hebr. Hebrew. 

ib., iUd. in the same place (Lat. ibidem). 

Id. the same person, or author (Lat. 


inf. below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

L c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 


Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. Hber). 

long longitude. 

Hon. Lat. Monumienia. 

MS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts. 

n., no number. 

N. T New Testament. 

Nat National. 

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere 


Ord Order. 

O. T Old Testament. 

p., pp pagOy pages, or (in Latin ref- 
erences) pare (part). 

par.....: paragraph. 

paeeim in various places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarteriy (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarteriy". 

Q*y QQ-» qu»8t. . . .question, questions (Lat. quaetio). 

q. V which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

R. S Rolls Series. 

R. V Revised Version. 

S., SS. Lat. Sanehie, Sancti, "Saint", 

"Saints" — used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context. 

Sept. Septuagint. 

Sees Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

sq., sqq following pagb, or pages (Lat. 


St., Sts Saint, Saints. 

sup Above (Lat. eupra). 

8. V. Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. eub voce). 

tom volume (Lat. tomue). 



tr. translation w translated. By it- 
self it means "English transla- 
tion", or "translated into Eng- 
lish by "• Where a trani^tion 
is into any other language, the 
language is stated. 

tr.y tract tractate. 

V. see (Lat. vtcfe). 

Yen Venerable. 

VoL .Volume. 

II. — ^Abbrbviatxcnb of Titles. 

Acta SS Ada, Sanctorum (Bollandists). 

Aim. pont. cath Battandier, Annuaire pontifical 


Bibl. Diet. Eng. Gath.G]llow, Bibliographical Diction- 
ary of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq.. .Smith and Cheetham (ed.). 

Dictionary of Christian An- 

Diet. Christ. Biog. . . Smith and Wace (ed.), Diotion- 

ary of Christian Biography. 

Diet, d'arch. chr6t.. .Cabrol (ed.), Dictionnain rfVir- 

ch4ologie chr&ienne et de Hfur- 

Diet, de th66L cath. . Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 

Dictionnaire de th^oloffie 

Diet. Nat. Biog. .... Stephen and Lee (ed.), Diction- 
ary of National Biography. 

Hsst., Diet, of the 

Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of 

the Bible. 

Kiroheolex. Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexi- 


P. G Migne (ed.), Patrea Grcsd. 

P. L Migne (ed.), Patrea Latini. 

Vig ,Dict. de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire d$ 

la Bible, 

NoTB I. — ^Laige Roman numerals etanding alone Indicate volumes. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate 
chapters. Arabic numerals .standing alone indicate pages. In other cases the divisions are explicitly stated. Thus ** Rashdall, 
Universities of Europe. I, ix" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first volume of that work; "I, p. ix" would indicate the 
ninth page of the preface of the same volume. 

Note II. — Whwe St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the reference is always to 
"Summa Theologioa" (not to **Summa Philosophiie"). The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a ss^stem which 
may best be understood by the following example: "I-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 2 urn" refers the reader to the seventh article of the 
sixth question in the first part of the second part, in the response to the second objection. 

Note III. — ^The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Ecclesiasticus is indicated by 
Bedus., to distinguish it from Ecclesiastes {Ecdes.), It should also be noted that I and II Kings in D. V. correspond to I and II 
Samuel in A. V. ; and I and II Par. to I and II (Chronicles. Where, in the speUing of a propter name, there is a marked difference 
between the D. V. and the A. V., the form found in the latter is added, in parenthesea 

Full Page Illustrations in Volume XIV 

Frontispiece in Colour page 

Interior of the Church of the Gesd, Rome 84 

Sorrento — Road from Sorrento to Positano, etc 150 

Spain — A Chapel in the Cathedral of Sigtienza, etc 170 

East End of the Cathedral, Segovia 176 

Spain — The Alcald Gate, Madrid, etc 190 

Spalato — Interior of the Cathedral, etc 206 

The Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres 220 

Stalls — ^Church of the Frari, Venice, etc 242 

Stonyiiurst College 308 

Subiaco — Church of St. Scholastica, etc 322 

The Last Supper— E. von Gebhardt 340 

The Cathedral of San Lorenzo, Lugano 360 

Constantine Holding the Bridle of St, Sylvester's Horse 370 

Tasso's Cell in the Convent of S. Onofrio, Rome 464 

Theodoric's Tomb, Ravenna 576 

Burial of the Conde D'Orgaz — Theotocopuli 628 

St. Thomas Aquinas among the Doctors of the Church — Zurbaran 670 

Blessed Thomas More — Rubens 692 

Episcopal Throne, Church of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, Rome 708 

Tintem Abbey, Monmouth 736 

Titian — ^A Knight of Malta, etc 744 

Tivoli — Medieval Castle, etc 746 

Alcantara Bridge, Toledo 758 

Altar-tomb of the Emperor Maximilian I 772 


Spain and Portugal 200 

States of the Church 266 

Switzerland and Liechtenstein 364 


Simony (from Simon MaguB; Acts, viii, 18-24) is 
usually defined "a deliberate intention of buying or 
selling for a temporal price such things as are npirit- 
ual or annexed unto spirituals". While this defi- 
nition only speaks of purchase and sale, any ex- 
change of spiritual for temporal things is simoniacal. 
Nor la the giving of the temporal as the price ot the 
spiritual requir^ for the existence of simony; ac- 
cording to a proposition condemned by Innocent XI 
(Denzmger-Bannwart, no. 1195) it suffices that the 
determining motive of the action of one party be 
the obtaining of compensation from the other. The 
various temporal advantages which may be offered 
for a spiritual favour are. after Gregory the Great, 
usually divided into tnree classes. These arc: 

(1) the munua a manu (material advantage), which 
comprises money, all movable and immovable prop- 
erty, and flJQ rignts appreciable in pecuniarv value; 

(2) the muntLS a lingva (oral advantage) which in- 
cludes oral commendation, public expressions of ap- 
proval, moral support in.high places; (3) the munvs ab 
obsequio (homage) which consists in subserviency, the 
rendering of undue services, etc. The spiritual ob- 
ject includes whatever is conducive to the eternal 
weHare of the soul, i. e. all supernatural things: 
sanctifying grace, the sacraments, sacramentals, etc. 
While according to the natural and Divine laws the 
term simony is applicable only to the exchange of 
supernatural treasures for temporal advantages, 
its meaning has been further extended through ec- 
clesiastical legislation. In order to preclude all dan- 

§er of simony the Church has forbidden certain 
ealings which did not f^ under Divine prohibition. 
It is thus unlawful to exchange ecclesiastical benefices 
by private authority, to accept any payment what- 
ever for holy oils, to sell blessed rosaries or crucifixes. 
Such objects lose, if sold, all the indulgences pre- 
viously attached to them (S. Cone, of InduJg., 12 July, 
1847). Simony of ecclesiastical law isj of course, 
a variable element) since the prohibitions of the 
Church may be abrogated or fall into disuse. Simony 
whether it be of ecclesiastical or Divine law, may be 
divided into mental, conventional, and real (siTnonia 
merUalis, convenlUmalis, etrealis). In mental simony 
there is lacking the outward manifestation, or, ac- 
cording to others, the approval on the part of the per<- 
aon to whom a proposal is made. In conventional 
simony an expressed or tacit agreement is entered 
upon. It is subdivided into merely conventional, 
wnen neither party hatf fulfilled any of the terms of 
the agreement, ana mixed conventional, when one of 
the parties has at least partly complied with the as- 
sumed obligations. To the latter subdivision may be 
referred what has been aptly termed '^ confidential 
simony^', in which an ecclesiastical benefice is pro- 
cured for a certain person with the tmderstanding 
that I&ter he will eitoer resign in favour of the one 
through whom he obtained the position or divide 
with him the revenues. Simony m caUed real when 

the stipulations of the mutual agreement have been 
either partly or completely carried out by both 

To estimate accurately the gravity of simony, 
which some medieval ecclesiastical writers denounced 
as the most abominable of crimes, a distinction must 
be made between the violations of the Divine law, 
and the dealing contrary to ecclesiastical legislation. 
Any transgression of the law of God in this matter is, 
objectively considered, grievous in everv instance 
(mortalia ex toto genere 9Vo). For this kincf of simony 
places on a par things supeniatural and things nat- 
ural, things eternal and tilings temporal, and con- 
stitutes a sacrilegious depreciation of Divine treas-^ 
ures. The sin can become venial only through the 
absence of the subjective dispositions required for the 
commission of a grievous offense. The merely ec- 
clesiastical prohibitions, however, do not all and under 
all circumstances impose a grave obligation. The 
presumption is that the church authority, which, 
m this connexion, sometimes prohibits actions in 
themselves indifferent, did not mtend the law to be 
grievously binding in minor details. As he who 
preaches the gospel '^ should live by the gospel'* 
(I Cor., ix, 14) but should also avoid evefi the ap- 
pearance of receiving temporal payment for spiritual 
services, difficulties may arise concerning the pro- 
priety or sinfulness of remuneration in certain cir^ 
cumstaiices. The ecclesiastic may certainly re- 
ceive what is offered to him on the occasion of spiritual 
ministrations, but he cannot accept any payment for 
the same. The celebration of Mass for money would, 
consequently, be sinful; but it is perfectly legitimate 
to accept a stipend offered on such occasion for the 
support of the celebrant. The amount of the sti- 
pend, varying for different times and countries, is 
usually fixed by ecclesiastical authority (see Stipend). 
It is allowed to accept it even should the priest be 
otherwise well-to-do; for he has a right to uve from 
the altar and sliould avoid becoming obnoxious to 
other members of the clergy. It is simoniacal to ac- 
cept payment for the exercise of ecclesiastical juria^ 
diction^ e. g., the granting of dispensations; but there 
is nothing improper in demanding from the applicants 
for matrimonial dispensations a contribution intended 
partly as a chanceiy fee and partly as a salutary fine 
calculated to prevent the too frequent recurrence of 
such requests. It is likewise simony to accept tem- 
poral compensation for admission into a religious or- 
der; but contributions made by candidates to defray 
the expenses of their novitiate as well as the dowry 
required by some female orders are not included in 
this prohibition. 

In regard to the parish clergy, the poorer the 
church, the more urgent is the obligation incumbent 
upon tne faithful to support them. In the fulfilment 
ot this duty local law and custom ought to be ob- 
served. The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore 
htLB framed the foUowing decrees for the United 


SIMPLE 2 sniPLicros 

States: (1) The priest may accept what is freely offered SimpUciUfl, Saint, Pope (46S-4S3), date of birtli 

after the administration of baptism or matrimony, unknown; d. 10 March. 483. According to the 

but should refrain from asking anything (no. 221). "Liber Pontificalis'^Ced. Duchesne^ 1,249) Simplicius 

(2) The confessor is never allowed to apply to hjs was the son of a citizen of Tivoh named Castinus: 

own use pecuniary penances, nor may he ask or ac- and after the death of Pope Hilarius in 468 was elected 

cept anything from the penitent in compensation of to succeed the latter. Tne elevation of the new pope 

his services. Even voluntary gifts must be refused, was not attended with any difficulties. During his 

and the offering of Mass stipends in the sacred tri- pontificate the Western Kmpire came to an end. 

bunal cannot be permitted (no. 289). (3) The poor Since the murder of Valentinian III (455) there had 

who cannot be buried at their own expense should re- been a rapid succession of insignificant emperors 

ceive free burial (no. 393). The Second and Third in the Western Roman Empire, who were constantly 

Plenary Councils of Baltimore also prohibited the ex- threatened by war and revolution. Following other 

action of a compulsory contribution at the church en- German tribes the Heruli entered Italy, and their 

trance from the faithful who wish to hear Mass on ruler Odoacer put an end to the Western Empire by 

Sundays and Holy Days (Ck>nc. Plen. Bait. II, no. deposing the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, and 

397; Uonc. Plen. Bait. Ill, no. 288). As this prac- assuming himself the title of King of Italy. Al- 

tice continued in existence in manv churches until though an Arian, Odoacer treated the Catholic 

very recently, a circular letter addressed 29 Sept., Church with much respect; he also retained the |preater 

1911, by the Apostolic Delegate to the archbishops part of the former administrative organization, so 

and oii^ops of the United States, a^ain condemns the that the change produced no great differences at 

custom and requests the ordinanes to suppress it Rome. Diuing the Monophysite controversy, that 

wherever found in existence. was still carriea on in the Eastern Empire, Simplicius 

To uproot the evil of simony so prevalent during vigorously defended the independence of the Church 

the Middle Ages^ the Church decreed the severest against the Cssaropapism of the Byzantine rulers and 

penalties against its perpetrators. Pope Julius II de- the authority of the Apostolic See in questions of 

olared simoniacal papal elections invalid, an enact- faith. The twenty-eighth canon of the Council of 

ment which has since been rescinded, however, by Chaloedon (451) granted the See of Constantinople 

Pope Pius X (Constitution ** Vacante Sede '*, 25 Dec., the same privileges of honour that were enjoyed by me 

1904, tit. IL cap. vi, in ^'Canoniste Contemp.'', Bishop of Old Rome, although the primacy and the 

XXXII, 1909, 291). The collation of a benefice is highest rank of honoiu* were due to the latter. The 

void if, in obtaining it, the appointee either committed papal legates protested against this elevation of the 

simony himself, or at least tacitly approved of its Byzantine Patriarch, ana Pope Leo confirmed only 

commission by a third party. Should he have taken the dogmatic decrees of the council. However, the 

possession, he is bound to resign and restore all the Patriarch of Constantinople sought to bring the canon 

revenues received during his tenure. Excommunica- into force, and the Emperor Leo II desired to obtain 

tion SLmi>ly reserved to the Apostolic See is pro- its confirmation by Simplicius. The latter, however, 

nounced in the Constitution Apostolicse Sedis'' rejected the request of the emperor and opposed the 

(12 Oct., 1869) : (1) against persons guilty of real si- carrying out of the canon, that moreover nmited the 

inony in any benefices and against their accomplices; ri^ts of the old Oriental patriarchates. 

(2) against any persons, whatsoever their dignity. The rebellion of Basiliscus, who in 476 drove the 

guilty of confidential simony in any benefices; (3) Emperor Zeno into exile and seized the Byzantine 

against such as are guilty of simony by purchasing or throne, intensified the Monophysite dispute. Basilis- 

selling admission into a religious order; (4) against all cus looked for support to the Monophvsites, and 

persons inferior to the bishops, who derive gain {quces^ he ^tmted permission to the deposed Monophysite 

ium faderUes) from indulgences and other spiritual patriarchs, Timotheus Ailurus of Alexandria and Feter 

eraces; (5) against those who, collecting stipends for Fullo of Antioch, to return to their sees. At the same 

Masses, realize a profit on them by having the Masses time he issued a religious edict (Enkyklikon) addressed 

celebrated in places where smaller stipends are usu- to Ailurus, which commanded that only the first 

ally given. The last-mentioned provision was sup- three oecumenical synods were to be accepted, and 

plemented by subsequent decrees of the Sacred Con- rejected the Synod of Chalcedon and the Letter of 

ffregation of the Council. The Decree " Vigilanti" Pope Leo. All bishops were to sign the edict. The 

(25 May, 1893) forbade the practice indulged in by Bishop of Constantinople, Acacius (from 471), wa- 

some booksellers of receivin^^ stipends and offering vered and was about to proclaim this edict. But the 

exclusively books and subscriptions to periodicals to firm stand taken by the populace, influenced by the 

the celebrant of the Masses. The Decree "Ut De- monks who were rigidly Catholic in their opinions, 

bita" (11 May, 1904) condemned the arrangements moved the bishop to oppose the emperor and to d»- 

acoordiiig to which the guardians of shrines some- fend the threatened faith. The abbots and priests 

times devoted the offerings originally intended for of Constantinople united with Pope Simplicius, who 

Masses partly to other pious purposes. The offend- made every effort to maintain the Catholic dogma and 

ers agaiiust the two decrees just mentioned incur bus- the definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. The 

pension ipso facto from their functions if they are in pope exhorted to loyal adherence to the true faith in 

sacred orders; inability to receive higher orders if they letters to Acacius, to' the priests and abbots, as well 

are clerics inferi(»' to the priests; excommunication of as to the usurper Basiliscus himself. In a letter to 

pronounced sentence {IoUb aerUerUiai) if they belong to Basiliscus of 10 Jan., 476, Simplicius says of the See 

the laity. of Peter at Rome: "This same norm of Apostolic doc- 

io^^^SS^r^^^^*^* ^^ T**.**^?. a^'^ ^JJ^^* trine is firmly maintained by his [Peter's] successors, 

}l?Sl;T^^V-iS^?"!r^or^lTi^^^ of him to wLm the Lord eptru^ed the care of the 

Bn»BelB. 1909), 237-44; Slatsb, Mantuii of Moral Theotogy, I entire flock of sheep, to whom He promised not to 

^^J^/, New. York, 1909). 231-36; CanruB Jwt» CananiH leave him until the end of time" (Thiel, "Rom. 

D€crtt% Orat%an%, pans Ila, caiiBa I; Dtcret, Greg., lib. V, t»t. 3, •o^-^i. » 100^ T*i *»»a aovn^ ..r^.r ti^ 4>«v^li. «i«^ «*:«^k 

De Simonia; Extfat. commun., lib. V. tit. 1. De Simonia; Santi- V^*- » ^82). In the same Way he tOOk up With 

Lkitnbr, Frceleetionea Juria Canoniei (4th ed.. Ratiabon. 190M. '^ne emperor the Cause of the Cathoho Patriarch of 

^liv^li^^*' TSJif^oV^^^f** ^*^)l? "S^ ^""f^^: ^ Alexandria, Timotheus Salophakiolus, who had been 

[^)fBln1[?:il^SJ^^^ 8upe«eded by Ailurus. \^en the 'Emperor Zeno 

iMnt in BecUnatHctd tUwiew, XXXIX (1908). 234>45; Webbb, m 477 drove away the Usurper and again gained the 

A Hi*u>ryofSimonuintheChnd»anChurch^^mon, 1909). supremacy, he sent the pope a completely Catholic 

N. A. Weber. confession of faith, whereupon Simplicius (9 Oct., 

simple (SzMPLBx) . See FmABtB, EocLBsrABncAL. 477) congratulated him on his restoration to power and 

SIMPUCXU8 3 smpucivs 

oliorted him to ascribe. the victory to God, who Santa Maria Maagiore was f^iven to the Roman 

willed in this way to restore libert]^ to the Church. Church and tumeoDy Simplicius into a church ded- 

Zeno recalled the edicts of Bauliscus, banishe'? icated to St. Andrew by the addition of an apse 

Peter Fullo from Antioch, and reinstated Timotheus adorned with mosaics; it is no longer in existence 

SalophakioluB at Alexandria. He did not disturb (cf. de Rossi^ ''Bull, di archeol. crist.^', 1871^ 1H54). 

Ailurus on account of the latter^s great age, and as a The pope built a church dedicated to the first mar^, 

matter of fact the latter soon died. The Mono- St. Stephen, behind the memorial church of Suk 

nhysites of Akxancbia now put forward Peter Lorenzo in Agro Verano; this church is no longer 

Mongu^ the former archdeacon of Ailurus, as his standing. He had a fourth church built in the city 

BucoesBor, Urged by the pope and the Eastern in honour of St. Balbina, ''juxta palatium Licinia- 

GaUK>lic& Zeno commanded the banishment of Peter num'V where her grave was; this church still remains. 

Monsus, out the latter was able to hide in Alexandria, In order to make sure of the regular holding of church 

and fear of tiie Monbphysites prevented the use of services, of the administration of baptism, and of the 

force. In a moment of weakness Salophakiolus discipline of penance in the great churches of the 

himself had permitted the placing of the name of the catacombs outside the city wails, namely the church 

Mooophysite patriarch Dioscurus in the diptychs to of St. Peter (in the Vatican), of St. Paul on the Via 

be lead at the church services. On 13 March, 478, Ostiensis, and of St. Lawrence on the Via Tiburtina. 

8ia4)licius wrote to Acacius of Constantinople that Simplicius ordained that the clergy of three designated 

Salophakiolus should be urged to wipe out the dis- sections of the city should, in an established order, 

grace that he had brought upon himself. The latter have charge of the reli^ous functions at these churches 

sent legates and letters to Rome to give satisfaction of the catacombs. SimpliciuQ was buried in St. Pe- 

to the pope. At the request of Acacius, who was still ter's on the Vatican, liie ''Liber Pontificalis" gives 

active against the Monophysites, the pope condemned 2 March as the day of burial (VI non.); prob- 

by name the heretics Mongus,FuUo, Paul of Epheseus, ably 10 March (VI id.)' should be read. Mter his 

and John of Apamea, and delegated the Patriarch death King Odoacer desired to influence the filling 

o£ Constantinople to be in this his representative, of the papal see. The prefect of the city^ Basilius. 

When the Monophysites at Antioch raised a revolt assertea that before death Pope Simphcius had 

in 407 against the patriarch Stephen U. and killed begged to issue the order that no one should be con- 

him, Aeaoiufl conseerated Stephen III. ana afterwards secrated Roman bishop without his consent (cf. con- 

Kalendion as Stet^en's successors. SimpUcius made cemmg the regulation Thiel, "Epist. Rom. Pont.'', 

an energetic demand upon the emperor to punish 686-88). The Roman clergy opposed this edict that 

the murderers of the patriarch, and also reproved limited their right of election. They maintained the 

Aoaoius for exceeding his comi)etence in performing force of the edict, issued by the Emperor Honorius 

this consecration; at the same time, though, the pope at the instance of Pope Boniface I, that only that 

ffanted him the necessary dispensation. After the person should be regarded as the rightful Bishop of 

death of Salophakiolus, the Monophysites of Alcxan- Kome who was elected according to canonical form with 

drta again elected Pet^ Mongus patriarch, while the Divine approval and univers^ consent. Simplicius 

Cathoucs chose Johannes Talaia. Both Acacius and was venerated as a saint; his feast is on 2 or 3 March. 

the emperor, whom he influenced, wa^ opposed to „^*^p<^»^««/*«'.<^-, ^^l^j^'^'S- l- 24^261; jArrA^Reputa 

laiaia, ana^ Siaea Wltn MongUS. MongUS went (Brunswick. 18«8), 174 sq.; Libbbaius. Brenar, carua Nttior., 

to Constantmople to advance his cause. Acacius xvi oq.; Evaorivs, Hist, ecd„ ill, 4 aq.; UxROBNii&Tan 

and he agreed upon a formula of union between Ph^uim, hiii-22i Gjoakr, Geschictue Rom* utuider p^ 

tne CatnoUCS ana tne MOnopnySltes tnat was ap- (Uonn, 1885), 126 aqq.; Wuhm. Die PapntwaJd (Cologne, 1902). 

proved by the Emperor Zeno m 482 (HenoHkon), j, p, Kibbch. 
Talaia had sent ambassadors to Pope Simplicius 

to notify the pope of his election. However, at Simplicius, Faustintjs. and Beatbice, martyrs 

the same time, the pope received a letter from the at Rome during the Diocletian persecution (302 or 

emperor in which Talaia was accused of perjury 303). The brothers Simplicius and Faustinus were 

ana hnbeiy and a demand was made for the recogm- cruelly tortured on account of their Christian faiths 

tion of Mongus. Simplicius, therefore, delayed to beaten with clubs, and finally beheaded; their bodies 

recognise TaUia, but protested energetically against were thrown into the Tiber. According to another 

the elevation of Mongus to the Patriarchate of version of the legend a stone wss tied to them and 

Alexandria. Acaoius, however, maintained his alii- they were drowned. Their sister Beatrice had the 

anoe with Mongus and sought to prevail upon the bodies drawn out of the water and buried. Then 

Eastern bishops to enter intoChurchcommumon with for seven months she lived with a pious matron 

him. For a long time Acacius sent no information named Lucina, and with her aid Beatrice succoured 

€i any kind to the pope, so that the latter in a Ltter the persecuted Christians by day and night, finally 

blamed him severely for this. When finally Talaia she was discovered and arrested. Her accuser was 

came to Rome in 483 Simplicius was already dead, her neighbour Lucretius who desired to obtain 

Simplicius exercised a sealous pastoral care in possession of her lands. She courageously asserted 

western Europe also notwithstanding the trying cir- before the judge that she would never sacrifice to 

eumstanoeB of the Church during the disorders of the demons, because she was a Christian. As punish- 

Migrations. He iasued decisions in ecclesiastical ment she was strangled in prison. Her friend Lucina 

questions, appoint^ Bishop Zeno of Seville papal buried her by her brothers in the cemetery ad 

vicar in Spam, so that the prerogatives of the papal Ursum Pilealum on the road to Porto. Soon after this 

see oould oe exercised in the country itself for the i^ivine punishment overtook the accuser Lucretius. 

benefit of the eoclesiastical administration. When When Lucretius at a feast was making merry over 

Bi^iop John of Ravenna in 482 claimed Mutina as a the folly of the martyrs, an infant wno had been 

diocesectf his metropolitan see, and without brought to the entertainment by his mother, cried 

naofe ado consecrated Bishop George for this diocese, out, '^Thou hast committed murder and hast taken 

fiHmpliciufl vJSMOudy opposed him and defended the unjust possession of land. Thou art a slave of the 

rights of the papal .see« SimpUcius established four devil''. And the devil at once took possession of 

new churches in Rome itseff. A lar^e hall built him and tortured him three hours and di^w him down 

in the form of a rotunda on the CsDUan HiU was turned into the bottomless pit. The terror of those present 

Into a ohurdi and dedicated to St. Stephen; the main was so great that they became Christians. This is 

part of tfaJs building still exists as the Church of Sau the story of the legend. Trustworthy Acts concern* 

StefMio Rotondo. A fine hall near the Church at ing the history of the two brothers and sister areno 


longer in exiateiice. Pope Leo 11 (682-683) trans- adverse to the well-being of the subiect. as pain and 

lated their relics to a church which he had built at suffering. Moral evil is found only in inteUunent 

Rome in honour of St. Paul. Later the greater part beings; it deprives them of some moral good. Hew 

of the rclica of the mju-tyrs wevo taken to the Church of we have to deal with moral evil only. This may be 

Santa Maria Maggiore. St. Simplieius is represented defined as a privation of conformity to right reason 

with a pennant, on the shield of which are three lilies and to the law of God. Since the morality of a hu- 

called the crest of Simplieius; the lilies are a symbol man act consists in its agreement or non-agreement 

of purity of heart, St. Beatrice has a cord m her with ri^ht reason and the etemsJ law, an act ia good 

hand, because she was strangled. The feast of the or evil m the moral order according as it involves this 

three saints is on 29 July. agreement or non-agreement. VHien the intelligent 

Ada jS5.. July, VII, 3j-37i BiUiaiheca haowarapkiea latina creature, knowing God and His law, deliberatehr re- 

CBru-el.. 189^1900), 1127-28. f ^ ^^ey^ ^^^, ^^, ^,^ 

KLBMBNB LOffler. gj^ j^ nothing else than a morally bad act (St. 

Simpson, Richard, b. 1820; d. near Rome, 5 AprU, Thomafl, " De malo" Q. yii, a. 3), an act not in ae- 

1876. He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford, ^^^^ with reaaon informed by the Divine law. God 

and took his B.A. degree, 9 Feb., 1843. Being or- '^f^ endowed us with reason and free-will, and a sense 

dained an Anglican clergyman, he was appointed ^' responsibility; He has made us subject to Hie law, 

vicar of Mitcham in Surrey, but resigned this in ^^"ch is known to us by the dictates of conscience, 

1845 to become a Catholic. After some years spent ^O" ^"^ ^^ ™^^ conform with these dictates, other- 

on the continent, during which time he became w*?^ w® «*" (Rom., xiv, 23). In every sinful act two 

remarkably proficient as a linguist, he returned to t^hings must be considered, the substance of the act 

England and became editor of "The Rambler", and the want of rectitude or conformity (St. Thomas, 

When this ceased in 1862 he, with Sir John Acton, WI. .Q- '^"» *v,l)- The act is something positive, 

began the "Home and Foreign Review", which was The sinner intends here and now to act m some deter- 

opposed by ecclesiastical authority as unsound and niined matter, inordinately electing that particulat 

was discontinued in 1864. Afterwards Simpson de- ^^^^ »» defiance of God's law and the dictates of 

voted himself to the study of Shakespeare and to "K*^* reason. The deformity is not directly intended, 

music. His works are: "Invocation of Saints proved ?w i? i^ involved in the act so far as this is physical, 

from the Bible alone" (1849); "The Lady Falkhuid: but m the act as coming from the will which has 

her life" (1861): "Edmund Campion" (1867), the P<>wer over its acts and is capable of choosing this or 

most valuable of his works; "Introduction to the that particular good contained within the sccme of ite 

Philosophy of Shakespeare's Sonnets" (1868); "The adequate object, i. e. universal good (St. Thomae, 

School of Shakespeare" (1872); and "Sonnets of ^e malo" Q. in, a. 2, ad 2um). God, the fiwt 

Shakespeare selected from a complete setting, and ^^^^^e of all realitv, is the cause of the physical act as 

miscellaneous sonjgs" (1878). Though he remained such, the fre^willof the deformity (St. Thomas, I-II, 

a practical Catholic his opinions were very Uberal and Q- Ixxxix, a. 2; De malo , Q. in, a. 2). The evil act 

he assisted Mr. Gladstone in writing his pamphlet adequately considered has for its cause the free;;Will 

on "Vaticanism". His papers in '^The Rambler" defectively electing some mutable good m place of the 

on the English martyrs deserve attention. eternal goo<i, God, and thus deviating from its true 

CoonsB in Did. Nat. Bioa., s. v.; Gillow, BiU. Did. Bng. last end. 

9^:il;J' J?^A">' ^« «]»« ^»'~» ^^S.^}^ Witeman (Lon- In everv sin a privation of due order or conformity 

don. 1897); Gabquw. Lard Adanarui H«C»rc^ (London 1906). ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^ j^^ j^ ^^^^^^ y^^^ gi„ -^ ^^,^ ^ p^^^ ^^ 

JLDwiN 15URT0N. ^^^^^ privation Of all moral good (St. Thomas, "De 
Bin. — ^The subject is treated under these heads: malo", Q. ii, a. 9; I-II, Q. Ixxiii, a. 2). There is a 
I. Nature of Sin; II . Division; III. Mortal Sin; twofold privation; one entire which leaves nothing of 
rV. Venial Sin; v. Permission and Remedies; VI. its opposite, as for instance, darkness which leaves no 
The Sense of Sin. light; another, not entire, which leaves something of 
I. Nature of Sin. — Since sin is a moral evil it is the good to which it is opposed, as for instance, disease 
necessary in the first place to determine what is meant which does not entirely destroy the even balance of the 
by evil, and in particular by moral evil. Evil is de- bodily functions necessary for health. A pure or en- 
fined by St. Thomas (De malo, Q. ii, a. 2) as a priva- tire privation of good could occur in a moral act only 
tion of form or order or due measure. In the physi- on the supposition that the will could incline to evil 
cal order a thing is good in proportion as it possesses as such for an object. This is impossible because 
being. God alone is essentially being, and He alone evil as such is not contained within the scope of the 
is essentially and perfectly good. Everything else adequate object of the will, which is good. The sin* 
possesses but a limited being, and, in so far as it pos- ner's intention terminates at some object in which 
sesses being, it is good. When it has its due propor- there is a participation of God's goodness, and this 
tion of form and order and measure it is, in its own object is directly intended by him. The privation of 
order and degree, good. (See Good.) Evil implies a due order, or the deformity, is not directly intended, 
deficiency in perfection, hence it cannot exist in GoH but is accepted in as much as the sinner's desire tends 
who is essentially and by nature good; it is found only to an object in which this want of conformity is in* 
in finite beings which, because of their origin from volved, so that sin is not a pure privation, but a 
nothing, are subject to the privation of form or order human act deprived of its due rectitude. From the 
or measure due them, ancl, through the opposition defect arises the evil of the act, from the fact that it is 
they encounter, are liable to an increase or decrease voluntary, its imputability. 

of the perfection they have: "for evil, in a large II. Division of Sin.— As re^^ards the principle 
sense, may be described as the sum of opposition, from which it proceeds sin is original or actual. The 
which experience shows to exist in the universe, to the will of Adam acting as head of tiie human race for the 
desires and needs of individuals; whence arises, among conservation or loss of original justice is the cause and 
human beings at least, the suffering in which life source of original sin (q. v.). Actual sin is committed 
abounds" (see Evil). by a free personal act of the individual will. It is 
According to the nature of the perfection which it divided into sins of commission and omission. A-sin 
limits, evil is metaphysical, physical, or moral. Meta^ of commission is a positive act contrary to some pro- 
physical evil is not evil properly so called; it is but the hibitory precept; a sin of omission is a failure to do 
negation of a greater good, or the limitation of finite what is commanded. A sin of omission, however^ 
bemgs by other finite beings. Physical evil deprives requires a positive act whereby one wills to omit the 
the subject affected by it of some natural good, and ia fumlling of a precept, or at least wiUs something in- 


oompatibla with its fulfillment (I*-II, <). hadi, a.^ 5). 
As regards their malioe, nizis are diBtinguiahed into 
sins <M ignorance, paasion or infirmity, and malice; as 
regards the activities involved, into sins of thought, 
word, or deed (cordis, oris, aperis); as regards their 
eravity, into mortal and venial. This last named 
division is indeed the most important of all and it 
calls for special treatment. But before taking up the 
details, it will be useful to indicate some further dis- 
tinctions which occur in theology or in general usage. 

MaUtial and Formal Sin. — ^This distinction is based 
upon the difference between the objective elements 
(object ita^, circumstances) and the subjective (ad- 
vertence to the sinfulness of the act). An action 
which, as a matter of fact, is contrary to the Divine 
law but is not known to be such by the agent con- 
stitutes a material sin; whereas fonnal sin is com- 
mitted when the a^ent freely transgresses the law 
as shown him by his conscience, whether such law 
really exists or is only thought to exist by him who 
acts. Thus, a person who takes the property of an- 
other while believing it to be his own conunits a mate- 
rial sin; but the sin would be formal if he took the 
pn^rty in the belief that it belonged to another, 
whether his belief were correct or not. 

Iniemal 5iiis.^-That sin may be committed not 
only by outward deeds but also by the inner activity 
of the mind apart from any external manifestation, is 
pliJn from the precept of the Decaloffuo: "Thou shalt 
not covet", and from Christ's rebuke of the scribes 
and Pharisees whom he likens to "whited sepulchres 
. . . fuU of all filthiness'' (Matt., xxiii, 27). Hence 
the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. v), in declaring 
that all mortal sins must be confessed, makes special 
mention of those that are. most secret and that vio- 
late only the last two precepts of the Decalogue, add- 
ing that th^ ''sometimes more grievously wouzui the 
soul and are more dangerous than sins which are 
openlv committed '*. Three kinds of internal sin are 
usually distinguished: deUctatio marosay i. e. the pleas- 
ure taken in a sinful thought ox imagination even 
without desiring it; goMidium, i. e. dwelling with com- 
placency on sins already committed; and desiderium, 
1. e. the desire for what is sinfql. An ejicacious desire, 
L e. one that includes the deliberate intention to 
realise or gratify the desire, has the same maUce, 
mortal or venial, as the action which it has in view. 
An inefficacious desire is one that carries a condition, 
in such a way that the will is prepared to perform 
the action in case the condition were verified. When 
the condition is such as to eliminate all sinfulness 
from the action, the desire involves no sin: e. g. I 
would gladljT eat meat on Friday, if I had a dispen- 
aation; and in general this is the case whenever the 
action is forbidden by positive law only. When the 
action is contrary to natural law and yet is permis- 
sible m given circumstances or in a particular state of 
life, the desire, if it include those circumstances or 
that state as conditions, is not in itself sinful: e. g. I 
would kill so-and-so if I had to do it in self-defence. 
Usually, however, such desires are dangerous and 
tiierefore to be repressed. If, on the other hand, the 
condition does not remove the sinfulness of the action, 
the desire is also sinful. This is clearly the case where 
the action is intrinsicall^r and absolutely evil, e. g. 
blasphemy: one cannot without committing sin, have 
the desire — I would blaspheme Ciod if it were not 
wrong; the condition is an impossible one and there- 
fore does not affect the desire itself. The pleasure 
taken in a unful thought {delectatio, gaudium) is, gen- 
erally speaking, a sin of the same kind and gravity 
as tiie action which Is thought of. Much, however. 
dageodtk on Uie motive for which one thinks of sinful 
actions. The pleasure, e. g. which one may experi- 
enoe in studying the nature of murder or any other 
crime, in getung dear ideas on the subject, tracing its 
, determining the guilt etc., is not a sin; on the. 

contrary, it is often both necessary and useful. The 
case is omerent of course where the pleasure means 
pxstification in the sinful object or action itself. And 
it is evidently a sin when one boasts of his evil deedsi, 
the more so because of the scandal that is given. 

The CapUal Sins or Vices, — ^Accordiiig to St. 
Thomas (II-II, Q. cliii. a. 4) "a capital vice is that 
which has an exceedingly desirable end so that in his . 
desire for it a man goes on to the commission of many 
sins all of which are said to originate in that vice as 
their chief source". It is not then the gravity of the 
vice in itself that makes it coital but rather the fact , 
that it gives rise to many other sins. These are 
enumerated by St. Thomas (I-II, Q. Ixxxiv, a. 4) as 
vainglory (pride), avarice, gluttony, lust, sloth, envy, 
anger. St. Bonaventure (Brevil., Ill, ix) gives the 
same enumeration. Earlier writers had distinguished 
eight capital sins: so St. Cyprian (De mort., iv); Cas- 
sian (De instit. ccenob., v, coll. 5, de octo principali- 
bus vitiki); Columbanus ("Instr. de octo vitiis 
princip.'^ in "Bibl. max. vet. patr.'^ XII, 23); Alcuin 
(De virtut. et vitiis, xxvii sqq.). The number seven, 
however, had been given by St. Grep>ry the Great 
(Lib. mor. in .Job. XXXI, xvii). and it was retained 
by the foremost theologians of the Middle Ages. 

It is to be noted that "sin" is not predicated uni vo- 
cally of all kinds of sin. "The division of sin into 
vernal and mortal is not a division of genus into 
species which participate equally the natvu'C of the 
genus, but the division of an analogue into thin^ of 
which it is predicated primarily and secondarily" 
(St. Thomas, I-II, Q. Uxxviii, a. 1, ad lum). "Sin is 
not predicated univocuUy of all kinds of sin, but 
primarily of actual mortal sin . . . and therefore it is 
not necessary that the definition of sin in i^eneral 
should be verified except in that sin in which the 
nature of the genus is found perfectly. The definition 
of sin may be verified in other sins m a certain sense " 
(St. Thomas, II, d. 33, Q. 1, a. 2, ad 2um). Actual 
sin primarily consists in a volimtary act repugnant to 
the order of right reason. The act piusses, out the 
soul of the sinner remains stained, deprived of grace, 
in a state of sin, imtil the disturbance of order has 
been restored by penance. This state is called hab- 
itual sin, macula peccaii, realus culpa (I-II, Q. Ixxxvii, 
a. 6). 

The division of sin into original and actual, mortal 
and venial, is not a division of genus into species be- 
cause sin has not the same signification when applied 
to original and personal sin, mortal and venial. 
Mortalsin cuts us off entirely from our true last end : 
venial sin only impedes us in its attainment. Actual 
personal sin is voluntary by a proper act of the wilL 
Original sin is voluntary not by a personal voluntary 
act of ours, but by an act of the will of Adam. Orig- 
inal and actual sin are distinguished by the manner 
in which they are voluntary (6x pprU actus); jnortal 
and venial sm by the way in which they affect our 
relation to God (ex parte deordinalionis). Since a vol- 
untary act and its aLsordei are of the essence of sin, it 
is impossible that sin should be a generic term in 
respect to original and actual, mortal and venial sin. 
The true nature of sin is found perfectly only in a 
person^ mortal sin, in other sins imperfectly, so that 
sin is predicated primarily of actual sin, onl^ second- 
arily of the others. Therefore we shall consider: first, 
personal mortal sin; second, venial sin. 

III. Mortal Sin. — Mortal sin is defined by St. 
Augustine (Contra Faustum, XXII, xxvii) as Die-, 
turn vel factum vel concupitum contra legem seter- 
nam", i. e. something said, done or desired .contrary . 
to the eternal law. or a thought, word, or deed con- 
trary to the eternal law. This is a definition of sin as 
it is a voluntary act. As it is a defect or privation it 
mav be defined as an aversion from God, our true last^ 
ena, by reason of the preference given to some mutable 
good. The definition of St. Augustine is accepted 



generally by theolog^aoa and is primarily a definition 
of actual morttJ sin. It explains well the material 

- and formal elements of sin. The words "dictum vel 
factum vel concupitum'' denote the material element 
of sin. a human act: "contra legem seternam", the 
formal element. The act is bad because it trans- 

. gresses the Divine law. St. Ambrose (De paradiso, 
viii) defines sin as a "prevarication of the Divine 
law". The definition ot St. Augustine strictly con- 
sidered, i. e. as sin averts us from our true ultimate 
end, does not comprehend venial sin, but in as much 
as venial sin is in a manner contrary to the Divine 
law, fiJthough not averting us from our last end, it may 
be said to be included in the definition as it stands. 
While primarily a definition of sins of commission, 
sins of omission may be included in the definition be- 
cause thev presuppose some positive act (St. Thomas, 
I-II, 6. Ixxi, a. 5) and negation and affirmation are 
reducea to the same genus. Sins that violate the 
human or the natur^ law are also included, for what 
is contrary to the human or natural law is also con- 
trary to the Divine law, in as much as everjr just 
human law is deriv^ from the Divine law, and is not 
just unless it is in conformity with the Divine law. 

BUdiad Description of Sin, — In the Old Testament 
sin is set forth as an act of disobedience (Gen., ii, 
1^17: iii, ll;Is.,i^ 2-4; Jer., ii, 32)j as an insult to 
God (Num., xxvii, 14); as something detested and 
punished by God (Gen., iii, 14-19, Gen., iv, 9-16): 
as injurious to the smner (Tob., xii, 10) ; to be expiated 
bv penance (Ps. I, 19). In the New Testament it is 
clearly tai^t in St. Paul that sin is a transgression of 
the law (Rom., ii, 23; v, 12-20); a servitude from 
which we are liberated by grace (Rom., vi. 16-18); a 
disobedience (Heb.. ii, 2) punished by Goa (Heb., x, 
26-31). St. John aescribes sin as an offence to God, a 
disorder of the will (John, xii, 43), an iniquity (I 
John, iii, 4-10). Christ in many of his utterances 
teaches the nature and extent of sin. He came to 
promulgate a new law more perfect than the old, 
which would extend to the ordering not only of ex- 
ternal but also of internal acts to a degree unknown 
before, and, in His Sermon on the Mount, he con- 
demns as sinful many acts which were judged honest 
and righteous by the doctors and teachers of the Old 
Law. He denounces in a special manner hypocrisy 
and scandal, infidelity and the sin against the Holy 
Ghost. In particular he teaches that sins come from 
the heart (Matt., xv, 19-20). 

Systems which Deny Sin or Distort its True Notion. — 
All systems, religious and ethical, which either deny, 
on the one hand, the existence of a personal creator 
and lawgiver distinct from and superior to his crea- 
tion, or, on the other, the existence of free will and 
responsibility in man, distort or destroy the true 
biblico-theological notion of sin. In the beginning of 
the Christian era the Gnostics, although their doc- 
trines varied in details, denied the existence of a per- 
sonal creator. The idea of sin in the Catholic sense 
is not contained in their system. There is no sin for 
them, unless it be the sin of ignorance, no necessity 
for an atonement; Jesus is not (jrwl (see Gxobticism). 
Manichaeism (q. v.) with its twc eternal principles, 
good and evil, at perpetual war with each other, is 
also destructive of the true notion of sin. All evil, 
and consequently sin, is from the principle of evil. 
The Christian concept of God as a lawgiver is de- 
stroyed. Sin is not a conscious voluntary act of dis- 
obedience to the Divine will. Pantheistic systems 
which deny the distinction between .God and His 
creation make sin impossible. If man and God are 
one, man is not responsible to anyone for his acts, 
morality is destroyed. If he is his own rule of action, 
he cannot deviate from right as St. Thomas teaches 
(I, Q. Ixiii, a. 1). The identification of God and the 
world by Pantheism (q. v.) leaves no place for ain. 
There must be some law to which man ia subjecti 

Buperior to and distinct from him, wbioh cm be 
obeyed and transgressed, before sin ean enter into fak 
acts. This law must be the mandate of a superior, 
because the notions of superiority and subjection an 
correlative. This superior can be only God, ^o 
alone is the author and lord of man. Materialism^ 
denying as it does the spirituality and the immor- 
tality of the soul, the existence of any spirit whatso* 
ever, and consequently of God, does not admit sin. 
Theie is no free will, everything is determined br 
the inflexible laws of motion. "Virtue" and "vice" 
are meaningless quaUfications of action. Pomtivism 
places man's last end in some sensible good. His 
supreme law of action is to seek the maximum of 
pleasure. Egotism or altruism is the supreme norm 
and criterion of the Positivistic systems, not the 
eternal law of God as revealed by lum, and dictated 
by conscience. For the materialistic evolutionistt 
man is but a highly-developed animal, conscience a 
product of evolution. Evolution has revolutioniBed 
morality^ sin is no more. 

Kant m his "Critique of Pure Reason" having re- 
jected all the essential notions of true moruityi 
namely, hberty, the soul, God and a future life, at- 
tempted in his "Critique of the Practical Reason" to 
restore them in the measure in which they are neces- 
sary for morality. The practical reason, he tells us, 
imposes on us the idea oi law and duty. The fundar 
mental principle of the morality of Kant is "duty for 
duty's sake", not God and His law. Duty cannot be 
conceived of alone as an independent thing. It cai^ 
ries with it certain postulates, the first <x which is 
liberty. "I ought, therefore I can", is his doctrine. 
Man by virtue ot his practical reason has a con- 
sciousness of moral obligation (categorical imper»- 
tive). This consciousness supposes tm-ee things: free 
will, the immortality of the soul, the existence of Ood, 
otherwise man would not be capable of fulfilling his 
obligations, there would be no sufficient sanction for 
the Divine law, no reward or punishment in a future 
life. Kant's moral S3rstem labours in obscurities and 
contradictions and is destructive of much that per* 
tains to the teaching of Christ. Personal dignity is 
the supreme rule of man's actions. The notion of sin 
as opposed to God is suppressed. According to tiie 
teacfimg of materialistic Monism, now so widespread, 
there is, and can be, no free will. According to this 
doctrine but one thing exists and this one being pro- 
duces all phenomena, thouf^ht included; we are but 
puppets in its hands, earned hither and thither as 
it wills, and finally are cast back into nothingness. 
There is no place for good and evil^ a free observance 
or a wilful transgression of law, m such a system. 
Sin m the true sense is impossible. Without law and 
liberty and a personal God there is no «n. 

That God exists and can be known from His visible 
creation, that He has revealed the decrees of His 
eternal will to man, and is (fistinct from His crea- 
tion (Denssinger-Bannwart. "Enchiridion", nn. 1782, 
1785, 1701), are matters of Catholic faith and teach- 
ing. Man is a created being endowed with free will 
(ibid, 793), which fact can ^ proved from Scripture 
and reason (ibid., 1041-1660). The Council of Trent 
declares in Sess. VI, c. i (ibid., 793) that man by reason 
of the prevarication oT Adam has lost his primeval 
innocence, and that while free will remains, its powers 
are lessened (see Original Sin). 

Protestant Errors, — ^Luther and Calvin taught as 
their fundamental error that no free will properly so 
called remained in man after the fall of our first 
parents; that the fulfillment of God's precepts is im- 
possible even with the assistance of grace, and that 
man in all his actions sins. Grace is not an interior 
pSt, but something external. To some sin is not 
imputed, because they are covered as with a cloak by 
the merits of Christ. Faith alone saves, there is no 
necessity for good works. Sin in L^iUier's ^toetrine 



cannot be a deliberate tranBgresmon of the Divine 
law. JanBenius, in his "Augustinua", taught that 
according to the present powers of man some of God's 
precepti are impossible of fulfilment, even to the 
just who strive to fulfil them, and he further taught 
that grace by means of which the fulfilment becomes 
possible is wanting even to the just. His funda- 
mental error consists in teaching that the will is not 
free but is necessarily drawn either by concupiscence 
or grace. Internal hberty is not reoun^ for merit or 
demerit. Liberty from coercion suffices. Christ did 
not die for all men. Baius taught a semi-Lutheran 
doctrine. Liberty is not entirely destroyed, but is so 
weakened that without grace it can do nothing but 
sin. True liberty is not required for sin. A bad 
act committed involuntarily renders man responsible 
(propositions 50-51 in Denzinger-Bannwart, *'En- 
^indion", nn. 10S6-1). All acts done without 
diarity are mortal sins and merit damnation becaur« 
they proceed from concupiscence. This doctrine de- 
nies tnat sin is a voluntaiy transgression of Divine 
law. If man is not free, a precept is meaningless as 
far as he is concerned. 

PkUaaophieal Sin, — ^Thoee who would construct 
a mcmil ^tem independent of God and his kw difv 
tmnush between theological and philosophical sin. 
Fhuosophical sin is a morally bad act which violates 
the natural order of reason, not the Divine law. 
Theological sin is a transgression of the eternal law. 
Those who are of atheistic tendencies and contend for 
this distinction, either deny the existence of God or 
maintain that He exercises no providence in regard to 
human acta. This position is destructive of sin in the 
theological sense, as God and His law, reward and 
punishment, are done away with. Those who admit 
the existence of God. His law, human liberty and 
responsibility, and still contend for a distinction be- 
tween philosophical and theological sin, maintain that 
in tiie present order of God's providence there are 
morally bad acts, which, while violating the order of 
reason, are not offensive to God, and they base their 
contention on this that the sinner can be ignorant of 
the existence of God, or not actually think of Him and 
His law when he acts. Without the knowlcdp;e of 
God and consideration of Him, it is impossible to 
offend Him. Thb doctrine was censured as scanda- 
lous, temerarious, and erroneous by Alexander VIII 
(24 Aug., 1690) in his condemnation of the following 
proposition: "Philosophical or moral sin is a human 
act not in agreement with rational nature and right 
reason, theological and mortal sin is a free transgres- 
sion of the Divine law. However grievous it may be. 
philosophical sin in one who is either ignorant of Goa 
or does not actually think of God, is indeed a grievous 
sin, but not an offense to God, nor a mortal sin dis- 
solving friendship with God, nor worthy of eternal 
punishment" {Denzinger-Bannwart, 1290). 

This proposition is condemned because it does not 
distinguish between vincible and invincible igno- 
rance, and further supposes invincible ignorance of 
God to be sufficiently common, instead oif only meta- 
physically possible, and because in the present dis- 
pensation of God's providence we are clearly taught 
m Scripture that Gcd will pimish all evil coming from 
Uie free will of man (Rom., ii, 5-11). There is no 
morally bad act that does not include a transgression 
of Divme law. From the fact that an action is con- 
ceived of as morally evil it is conceived of as pro- 
hibited. A prohibition is unintelligible without the 
notion of some one prohibiting. The one prohibiting 
in this case and binding ^e conscience of man can be 
onhr God, Who alone has power over man's free will 
and aetknis, so that from the fact that any act is per- 
ceived to be morally bad and prohibited by conscience. 
God and Hia law are perceived at least confusedly, ana 
a wilfal transgression of the dictate of conscience is 
neceasairily also a transgression of God's law. Car- 

dinal de Lugo (De incamat., disp. 5, lect. 8) admits 
the possibility of philosophical sin in those who are 
incutpably ignorant of God, but he holds that it does 
not actually occur, because in the present order of 
God's providence there cannot be invincible igno- 
ranr 3 of God and His law. This teaching does not- 
nec&jsarily fall under the condemnation of Alexander 
VIII, but it is commonly rejected by theologians for 
the reason that a dictate of conscience necessarily in- 
volves a knowledge of the Divine law as a principle of 

Con hf form of Mortal Sin: Knowledge, Free WiUj 
Grtwe Mailer. — Contrary to the teaching of Baius 
(prop. 40, Denzinper-Bannwart, 1046) and the Re- 
formers, a si.i must be a voluntary act. Those ac- 
tions alone are properly called human or moral actions 
which proceed from the human will dehberately acting 
with knowledge of the end for which it acts. Man 
differs from all irrational creatures in this precisely 
that he is master of his actions by virtue of his reason. 
and free will (MI, Q. i, a. 1). Since sin is a human 
act wanting in due rectitude, it must have, in so far as*, 
it is a human act, the essential constituents of a 
human act. The intellect must perceive and nidge 
of the morality of the act, and the will must freely 
dect. For a deliberate mortal sin there must be full 
advertence on the part of the intellect and full con- 
sent on the part of the will in a grave matter. An 
involuntary transgression of the law even in a grave 
matter is not a formal but a material sin. The 
gravity of the matter is judged from the teaching of 
Scripture, the definitions of councils and popee, and 
also from reason. Those sins are judged to be mortal 
which contain in themselves some grave disorder in 
regard to God, our neighbour, ourselves, or society. 
Scmie sins admit of no lightness of matter, as for ex- 
ample, blasphemy, hatred of God: they are alwas^s. 
mortal (ex toto genere suo), unless rendered venial by ' 
want of full advertence on the part of the intellect or- 
fuU consent on the part of the will. Other sins admit 
lightness of matter: they are iprave sins Ux genero stio) 
in as much as their matter in itself is sufficient to oon» 
stitute a grave sin without the addition of any oth^ 
matter, but is of such a nature that in a given case, 
owing to its smallness, the sin may be venial, e. g. • 

Fmpiitability. -^ThAt the act of the sinner ma^ be 
imputcil to him it is not necessary that the object 
whicli terminates and specifies his act should be dft* 
rectly willed as an end or means. It suffices that it be'> 
willed indirectly or in its cause, i. e. if the sinner 
foresees, at least confusedly, that it will follow from 
the act which he freely performs or from his omission 
of an act. When the cause produces a twofold effect, 
one of which is directly willed, the other indirectly, 
the effect which follows indirectly is morallsr imput* 
able to the sinner when these three conditions are 
verified: first, the sinner must foresee at least con- 
fusedly the evil effects which follow on the cause he 
places; second, he must be able to refrain from placing 
the cause; third, he must be under the obligation <n 
preventing the evil effect. Error and ignorance in 
regard to the object or circumstances of the aet to be 
place<i, affect the judgment of the intellect and consei- 
guently the morality and imputability of the act. 
Invincible ignorance excuses entirely from sin. Vin- 
cible ignorance does not, although it renders the act 
less free (see Ignorance). The passions, while they 
disturb the iudgment of the intellect, more directly 
affect the will. Antecedent passion increases the in- 
tensity of the act, the object is more intensely desired, 
although less freely, and the disturbance caused by 
the passions may be so great as to render a free jndg* 
ment impossible^ the agent being for the moment 
beside himself (i-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 3um). Conse- 
quent passion, which arises from a command of the 
will, does not lessen liberty, but is rather a sign of an 



intense act of Yolition. Fear, violence, heredity, 
temperament and pathological states, in so far as they 
acfect free volition, affect the mahce and imputa- 
biliW of sin. From the condemnation of the errors 
of BaiuB and Jansenius (Denz.-Bann., 1046, 1066, 
1094, 1291-2) it is clear that for an actual personal sin 
a knowledge of the law and a personal voluntary act, 
free from coercion and necessity, are required. No 
mortal sin is committed in a state of invincible igno- 
rance or in a half-conscious state. Actual advertence 
to the sinfulness of the act is not required, virtual 
advertence suffices. It is not necessary that the ex- 
plicit intention to offend God and break his law be 
present, the full and free consent of the will to an evil 
act suffices. 

Malice, — ^The true malice of mortal sin consists in a 
conscious and voluntary transgression of the eternal 
law, and implies a contempt of the Divine will, a com- 
plete tumine away from God, our true last end, and a 
preferring of some created tiling to which we subject 
ourselves. It is an offence offered to God, and an in- 
jury done Him; not that it effects any change in God, 
who is immutable bv nature, but that the sinner by 
his act deprives God of the reverence and honor due 
Him: it is not any lack of malice on the sinner's part, 
but God's immutability that prevents Him from 
suffering. As an offence offered to God mortal sin is 
in a way infinite in its malice, since it is directed 
against an infinite being, and the gravity of the 
(mence is measured by the dignity of the one offended 
fSt. Thomas, III, Q. i, a. 2, ad 2imi). As an act sin is 
nnite, the will of man not being capable of infinite 
malice.' Sin is an offence against Christ Who has 
redeemed man (Phil., iii, 18) ; againust the Holy Ghost 
Who sanctifies us (Heb., x, 29), an injury to man 
himself, causing the spiritual death of the soul, and 
finLVing man the servant of 4he devil. The first and 
primary malice of sin is derived from the object to 
which the will inordinately tends^ and from the ob- 
ject considered morally, not physically. The end for 
which the sinner acts and the circumstances which 
surround the act are also determining factors of its 
morality. An act which, objectively considered, is 
morally indifferent, may be rendered good or evil by 
circumstances, or by the intention of the sinner. An 
act that is good objectivel}^ may be rendered bad, or a 
new species of good or evil may be added, or a new 
degree. Circumstances can change the character of a 
sin to such a degree that it becomes specifically dif- 
ferent from what it is objectively considered; or they 
may merely aggravate the sin while not changing its 
specific character; or they mav lessen its gravity. 
That they may exercise this determining influence 
two things are necessary: they must contain in them« 
selves some good or evil, and must be apprehended, at 
least confus^y, in their moral aspect. The external 
act, in so far as it is a mere execution of a voluntary 
efficacious internal act, does not, according to the 
common Thomistic opinion, add any essential good- 
ness or mahce to the mtemal sin. 

Gravity, — ^Wlule every mortal sin averts us from 
out true last end, all mortal sins are not equally 

Save, as is clear from Scripture (John, xix, 11; 
att., xi, 22: Luke, vi), and also from reason. Sins 
are specifically distinguished by their objects, which 
do not all equally avert man from his last end. Then 
again, since sin is not a pure privation, but a mixed 
one, all sins do not equaUy destroy the order of reason 
Spiritual sins, other things being equal, are graver 
than carnal sins (St. Thomas, "De malo", Q. ii, 
a. 9; I-II, Q. bcxiii, a. 5). 

8j>eci^ and numeric diBtinction of Sin, — Sins are 
distmguished specifically b^ their formally diverse 
objects; or from their opposition to different virtues, 
or to morally different precepts of ^e same virtue. 
Sins that are specifically distmct are also numeric^y 
distinct. Sins within the same speeieB are distin- 

guished numerically according to the number of com- 
plete acts of the will in regard to total' objects. A 
total object is one which, either in itself or by the 
intention of the sinner, forms a complete whole 
and is not referred to another action as a part of 
the whole. When the completed acts of the will 
relate to the same object there are as many sins, 
as there are morally interrupted acts. 

SvibjeU causes of Sin. — Since sin is a volimtary act 
lacking in due rectitude, sin is found, as in a subject, 
principally in the wiH. But, since not only acts 
elicited by the will are voluntary, but also tho&e 
that are elicited by other faculties at the command 
of the will, sin may be found in these faculties in 
so far as they are subject in their actions to the 
command of the will, and are instruments of the will, 
and move under its guidance (I-II, Q. Ixxiv). 

The external members of the body cannot be 
effective principles of sin (I^II, Q. Ixxiv, a. 2 ad 3um). 
They are mere organs which are set in activity by 
the soul; thev do not initiate action. The appetitive 
powers on the contrary can be effective prmciples 
of sin, for they possess, through their immediate 
conjunction wiUi the will and their subordination 
to it, a certain though imperfect Uberty (I-U, Q. Ivi, 
a. 4, ad 3um). The sensual appetites have their 
own proper sensible objects to which they naturally. 
incUne, and since original sin has broken the bond 
which held them in complete subjection to the will, 
they may antecede the will in their actions and tena 
to their own proper objects inordinately. Hence 
they may be proximate principles of sin when they 
move inordinately contrary to the dictates of right 

It is the right of reason to rule the lower facul- 
ties, and when the disturbance arises in the sen- 
sual part the reason may do one of two things: 
it may either consent to the sensible delectation 
or it may repress and reject it. If it consent6» the 
sin is no longer one of the sensual part of man, 
but of the intellect and will, and consequently, 
if the matter is grave, mortal. If rejected, no sm 
can be imputedl There can be no sin in the sensual 
part of man independently of the will. The in- 
ordinate motions of the sensual appetite which precede 
the advertence of reason, or which are suffered 
unwillingly, are not even venial sins. The temp- 
tations of the flesh not consented to are not sins. 
Concupiscence, which remains after the ^ilt of 
original sin is remitted in baptism, is not sinful so 
long as consent is not given to it (Coim. of Trent., 
sess. V, can. v). The sensual appetite of itself 
cannot be the subject of mortal sin, for the reason 
that it can neither grasp the notion of God as an 
ultimate end, nor avert us from Him, without which 
aversion there cannot be mortal sin. The superior 
reason, whose office it is to occupy itaelf with Divine 
things, may be the proximate principle of sin both 
in regard to its own proper act, to know truth, and 
as it is directive of the inferior faculties: in regard 
to its own proper act, in so far as it voluntarily 
neglects to know what it can and ouglit to know; 
in regard to the act by which it directs the inferior 
faculties, to the extent that it commands inordinate 
acts or fails to repress them (I«-II, Q. Ixxiv, a. 7, 
ad 2um). 

The will never consents to a sin that is not at the 
same time a sin of the superior reason as directing 
badly, by either actually deliberating and commanding 
the consent, or by failing to deliberate and impede 
the consent of the will when it could and should do 
so. The superior reason is the ultimate judge of hu- 
man acts and has an obligation of deliberating and 
deciding whether the act to be performed is according 
to the law of God. Venial sin may also be found 
in the superior reason when it deliberately oooaenta 
to ains that are venial in their nature, or whjsa there 



IB not a full consent in the case of a sin that is mortal 
considered objectively. 

Causes of Sin. — Under this head, it is needful 
to distingnish between the efficient cause, i.e. the 
agent performing the sinful action, and those other 
agencies, influences or circumstances, which incite 
to sin and consequently involve a dangor, more or 
less grave, for one who is exposed to them. These 
inciting causes are explained in special articles on 
Occasions o^ Sin and Tbmffation. Here we have 
- to consider only the efficient cause or causes of sin. 
These are interior and exterior. The complete and 
sufficient cause of sin is the will, which is regulated 
in its actions by fhe reason, and acted upon by the 
sensitive appetites. The principal interior causes of 
sin are ignorance, infirmity or passion, and malice. 
Ignorance on the part of the reason, infirmity and 
passion on the part of the sensitive appetite, and 
malice on the part of the will. A sin is from certain 
malice when the will sins of its own accord and not 
under the influence of ignorance or passion. 

The exterior causes of sin are the devil and man, 
who move to sin by means of suggestion, persuasion, 
temptation, and bad example. God is not the cause 
of sm (Counc. of Trent.,, sess. VI, can. Vi, in Dens.- 
Bann., 816). He directs all things to Himself and is 
the end of aU His actions, and could not be the cause 
'of evil without self-contradiction. Of whatever 
entity there is in sin as an action. He is the cause. 
The evil will is the cause of the disorder (I-II, Q. 
Ixxix, a. 2). One sin may be the cause of another 
inasmuch as one sin may be ordained to another as 
an end. The seven capital sins, so called, may be 
considered as the source from which other sins 
proceed. They are sinful propensities which reveal 
themselves in particular sinful acts. Original sm 
bv reason of its dire effects is the cause and source 
of wn in so far as by reason of it our natures are left 
wounded and inclined to evil. Ignorance, infirmity, 
malice, and concupiscence are the consequences of 
original sin. 

Effects of Sin. — ^The first effect of mortal sin in man 
is to avert him from his true last end, and deprive 
his soul of sanctifying grace. The sinful act passes, 
and the sinner is left in a state of habitual aversion 
from God. The sinful state is voluntary and imput- 
able to the sinner, because it necessarily follows from 
the act of sin he freely placed, and it remains until 
satisfaction is made (see Penance). This state of 
sin is called by theolo^ans habitual sin, not in the 
sense that habitual sin implies a vicious habit, but 
in the sense that it signifies a state of aversion from 
God dg)ending on the preceding actual sin, con- 
sequent!^ voluntary and imputable. This state 
of aversion carries with it necessarily in the present 
order of God's providence the privation of grace 
and charity by means of which man is ordered to 
his supernatural end. The privation of grace is the 
"macula peccati" (St. Thomas I-II, Q. Ixxxvi), 
the stain of sin spoken of in Scripture (Joe., xxii, 17; 
Isaias, iv, 4; 1 Cor., vi, 11). It is not anything 
positive, a quality or disposition, an obligation to 
suffer, an extrinsic denomination coming from sin, 
but is solely the privation of sanctifying grace. 
There is not a real but only a conceptual distinction 
between habitual sin (rMus eidpce) and the stain of 
sin {nutcula peccati). One and the same privation 
eonstdered as destroying the due order of man to 
God is habitual sin, considered as depriving the 
soul of the beauty of grace is the stain or "macula'^ 
of sin. 

The .second effect of sin is to entail the penrity of 
undergoing suffering (reatus poenm). Sin (reaJtxis 
adpce) is the cause of this obligation (reatus pceme). 
The suffering may be inflicted in this life through the 
medium of medicinal punishments, calamities, sick- 
ness, temporal evils, which tend to withdraw from 

sin; or it may be inflicted in the life io oodm by tbe 
justioe of Gkxl as vindictive punishment. The 
punishments of the future life are propoitioned 
to the sin committed, and it is the ^ligation of 
underling this punishment for unrepented sin that ' 
is signified by the ''reatus poens" of the theolo^ans. 
The penalty to be undergone in the future life la 
divided into the pain of loss {pcsna damni) and the 
pain of sense {pama sensus). The pain of loss is 
the privation of the beatific vision of God in punish- 
ment of turning away from Him. The pain of sense 
is suffering in punishment of the conversion to some 
created thing in place of God. This two-fold pain 
in punishment of mortal sin is eternal (I Cor., vi, 9; 
Matt., XXV, 41; Mark, ix, 45). One mortal sin 
suffices to incur punishment. (See Hell.) Other 
effects of sins are: remorse of conscience (Wisdom, 
V, 2-13); an inclination towards evil, as habits are 
formed by a repetition of similar acts; a daricenmg 
of the intelligence, a hardening of the will (Matt., xii^ 
14-15; Rom., xi, 8); a general vitiating of nature, 
which does not however totally destroy the substanoe 
and faculties of the soul but merely weakens llie 
right exercise of its faculties. 

IV. Venial Sin. — Venial sin is essentially differ- 
ent from mortal sin. It does not avert us from 
our true last end, it does not destroy charity, the 
principle of union with God, nor deprive the soul 
of sanctifying grace, and it is intrinMcally reparable. 
It is called venial precisel3r because, consiaered in 
its own proper nature, it is pardonable; in itsdf 
meriting, not eternal, but temjioral punishment. 
It is distinguished from mortal sin on the part of 
the disorder. By mortal sin man is entirely averted 
from Ciod, his true last end, and, at least impUcithr, 
he places his last end in some created thing. By 
venial sin he is not averted from God, neither does 
he place his last end in creatures. He remains 
united with God by charity, but does not tend towards 
Him as he ought. The true nature of sin as it is 
contrary to the eternal law, repugnant namely to 
the primary end of the law, is found only in mortal 
sin. Venial sin is only in an imperfect wa3' contrary 
to the law, since it is not contrary to the primary 
end of the law, nor does it avert man from the end 
intended by the law (St. Thomas, I-II, Q. Ixxxviii, 
a. 1 : and Cajetan, I-II, Q. Ixxxviii, a. I, for the sense 
of tne prcBter legem and contra legem of St. Thomas). 

Definition. — Since a voluntary act and its disorder 
are of the essence of sin, venial sin as it is a voluntary 
act may be defined as a thought, word, or deed at 
variance with the law of God. It retards man in 
the attainment of his last end while not averting 
him from it. Its disorder consists either in the not 
fully deliberate choosing of some object prohibited 
by the law of God, or in the deliberate adhesion 
to some created object not as an ultimate end but 
as a medium, which object does not avert the sinner 
from God, but is not, however, referable to Him 
as an end. Man cannot be averted from God 
except by deliberately placing his last end in some 
created thing, and in venial sin he does not adhere 
to any temporal good, enjoying it as a last end, but as 
a medium referring it to God not actually but habit- 
ually inasmuch as he himself is ordered to God by 
charity. "Ille qui peccat venialiter, inhseret bono 
temporal! non ut fruens, quia non constituit in eo 
finem, sed ut utens, referens in Deum non actu sed 
habitu" (I-II, Q. Ixxxviii, a. 1, ad 3). For a mortal 
sin, some created good must be adhered to as a last 
end at least implicitly. This adherence cannot be 
accomplished by a semi-deliberate act. By adherins 
to an object that is at variance with the law of God 
and yet not destructive of the primary end of the 
Divine law, a true opposition is not set up between 
God and that object. The created good is not 
desired as an end. The sinner is not placed in ihe 




position of ohooBing between God and creature 
as ultimate ends that are opposed, but is in such a 
condition of mind that if the object to which he 
adheres were prohibited as contrary to his true last end 
he would not adliere to it, but would prefer to keep 
friendship with God. An example may be had in 
human friendship. A friend will refrain from doing 
an3rthin^ that of itself will tend directly to dissolve 
friendship while allowing himself at times to do what 
. is displeaamg to his inends without destroying 

ThQ oistinction between mortal and venial sin 
is set forth in Scripture. From St. John (I John. 
V, 16-17) it is clear there are some sins ''unto death 
and some sins not "unto death'', i. e. mortal and 
venial. The classic text for the distinction of mortal 
and venial sin is that of St. Paul (I Cor., iii, 8^15), 
where he explains in detail the distinction between 
mortal and venial sin. ''For other foundation no 
man can lay, but that which is laid; which is Christ 
Jesus. Now if an^ man build upon this foundation 
gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble: 
every man's work shall be manifest; for the day of 
the Lord shall declare it; because it shall be revealed 
in fire; and the fire shall try everv man's work, of 
what sort it is. If any man's work abide, which he 
hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If 
any man's work bum, he shall suffer loss; but he 
himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire." By wood, 
hay, and stubble are signified venial sins (St. 
Thomas, I-II, Q. Ixxxix, a. 2) which, built on the 
foundation of a living faith in Christ, do not destroy 
charity, and from their very nature do not merit 
eternal but temporal punishment. "Just as", 
says St. Thomas, [wood, hay, and stubble] "are 
gathered together in a house and do not ])ertain to 
the substance of the edifice, so also venial sins are 
multiplied in man, the spiritual edifice remaining, 
and for these he suiTers either the fire of temporal 
tribulations in this life, or of purgatory after this 
life and nevertheless obtains eternal salvation." 

The suitableness of the division into wood, hay, 
and stubble is explained by St. Thomas (iv, dist. 
21. Q. i, a. 2). Some venial sins are graver than 
otners and less pardonable, and this difference is 
well signified by the difference in the inflammabil- 
ity of wood, hay, and stubble. That there is a dis- 
tinction between mortal and venial sins is of faith 
(Counc. of Trent) sess. VI, c. xi and canons 2^25; 
sess. XIV, de poenit., c. v). This distinction is 
commonly rejected by all heretics ancient and 
modem. In the fourth century Jovinian asserted 
that all sins are equal in guilt and deserving of the 
same punishment (St. Aug., "Ep. 167", ii, n. 4); 
Pelagius (q. v.), that every sin deprives man of 
justice and therefore is mortal; Wyclif, that there is 
no warrant in Scripture for differentiating mortal 
from venial sin, and that the ^avity of sin depends 
not on the quality of the action but on the decree 
of predestuiation or reprobation so that the worst 
crime of the predestined is infinitely less than the 
slightest fault of the reprobate; Hus, that all the 
actions of the vicious are mortal sins, while all the 
acts of the good are virtuous (Dena.-Bann., 642); 
Luther, that all sins of unbelievers are mortal and 
all sins of the regenerate, with the exception of 
infidelity, are venial; Calvin, Uke Wyclif, bases the 
difference between mortal sin and venial sin on 
predestination, but adds that a sin is venial because 
of the faith of the sinner. The twentieth among 
the condemned i)ropositions of Baius reads: "There 
is no sin venial in its nature, but every sin merits 
eternal punishment" (Denz.-Bann., 1020). Hirscher 
in more recent times taught that all sins which are 
fully deliberate are morUd, thus denying the dis- 
tinction of sins by reason of their objects and making 

the distinction rest on the imperfection of the act 
(Kleutgen, 2nd ed., II, 284, etc.). 

Malice ofVenialSin, — The dififerencein the maliee of 
mortal and venial sin consists in this : that mortal sin is 
contrary to the primary end of the eternal law, that it 
attacks the very substance of the law which commands 
that no created thing should be preferred to God as 
an end, or equalled to Him, while venial sin is on^ 
at variance with the law, not in contrary opposition 
to it, not attacking its substance. The substance 
of the law remaining^ its perfect accomplishment is 
prevented by venial sin. 

Conditions. — Venial sin is committed when the 
matter of the sin is light, even though the advertence 
of the intellect and consent of the will are full and 
deliberate, and when, even though the matter of 
the sin be grave, there is not full advertence on the 
part of the intellect and full consent on the part 
of the will. A precept obliges svb gravi when it has 
for its object an important end to be attained, and 
its transgression is prohibited under penalty of 
losing God's friendship. A precept obliges sub levi 
when it is not so directly imposed. 

Effects. — ^Venial sin does not deprive the soul of 
sanctifying grace, or diminish it. It does not produce 
a macula, or stain, as does mortal sin, but it lessens 
the lustre of virtue — "In anima duplex est nitor, 
unus quiden habitualis, ex gratia sanctificante, alter 
actual IS ex actibus virtutum, jamvero peccatum 
veniale impedit quidem fulgorem qui ex actibus 
virtutum oritur, non autem habitualem nitorem. 
quia non excluait nee minuit hiJ^itum charitatis" 
(I-II, 9* bo«ix, a. 1). Frequent and deliberate 
venial sin lessens the fervour of charity, disposes to 
mortal sin (I-II, Q. Ixxxviii, a. 3), and hinders the 
reception of graces God would otherwise give. It 
displeases God (Apoc., ii, 4-5) and obliges the sinner 
to temporal punishment either in this life or in 
Purgatory. We cannot avoid all venial sin in this 
life. "Although the most just and holy occasion- 
ally during this life fall into some slight and daily 
sins, known as venial, thev cease not on that account 
to be just" (Counc. of Trent, sess. VI, c. xi). And 
canon xxiii says: "If any one declare that a man 
once justified cannot sin again, or that he can avoid 
for the rest of his life every sin, even venial, let him 
be anathema", but according to the common opinion 
we can avoid all such as are fully deliberate. Venial 
sin may coexist with mortal sin in those who are 
averted, from God by mortal sin. This fact does 
not change its nature or intrinsic reparabiUty, and 
the fact that it is not coexistent with chanty is not 
the result of venial sin, but of mortal sin. It ib 
per acddenSf for an extrinsic reason, that venial sin 
in this case is irreparable, and is punished in helL 
That venial sin may appear in its true nature as 
essentially different from mortal sin it is considered 
as de facto coexisting with charity (I Cor., iii, 8-15). 
Venial sins do not need the grace of absolution. 
They can be remitted by prayer, contrition, fervent 
communion, and other pious works. Nevertheless 
it is laudable to confess them (Denn.-Bann., 153&). 

V. Permission op Sin and Reb<edies. — Since it is 
of faith that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and 
all gooHi it is difficult to account for sin in His creation. 
The existence of evil is the underiying problem in 
all theology. Various explanations to account for 
its existence have been offered, dififering according 
to the philosophical principles and religious tenets 
of their autliors. Any Catholic explanation must 
take into account the defined truths of the omnipo- 
tence) omniscience, and goodness of God; free will 
on the part of man; and the fact that suffering is 
the penalty of sin. Of metaphysical evil, the negation 
of a greater good, God is the cause inasmuch as he 
has created beings with limited forms. Of physical 
evil {malum poena) He is also the cause. Physical 




evily considered aa it i>roceeds from God and is inflicted 
in punishment of sin in accordance with the decrees of 
Divine justice, is good^ compensating for the violation 
of order by sin. It is only in the subject afTected 
by it that it is evil. 

Of moral evil (malum cvlpce) God is not the cause 
(Counc. of Trent, sess. VI, can. vi), either directly 
or inc^ectly. Sin is a violation of order, and God 
orders all things to Himself, as an ultimate end, 
consequentlv He cannot be the direct cause of sin. 
God's withdrawal ofgrace which would prevent the 
sin does not make Euan the indirect cause of sin in- 
asmuch as this withdrawal is affected according 
to the decrees of His Divine wisdom and iustice 
in punishment of previous sin. He is imder no 
obligation of impedinfi; the sin, consequently it 
cannot be imputed to Him aa a cause (I~Il, Q. Ixxix, 
a. 1). When we read in Scripture and the Fathers 
that God inclines men to sin tne sense is, either that 
in His just judgment He permits men to fall into 
sin by a punitive permission, exercising His justice 
in punishment of past din; or that He directly causes, 
not sin, but certain exterior works, good in themselves, 
which are so abused by; the evil wills of men that here 
and now th^ commitjevil; or that He gives them 
the power of accomp^lishing their evil designs. Of 
the physical act in sin God is the cause inasmuch 
as it is an entity and good. Of the malice of sin 
man's evil will is the sufficient cause. God could 
not be impeded in the creation of man by the fact 
that He foresaw his falL This would mean the 
limiting of His omnipotence by a creature, and would 
be destructive of Him, He was free to create man 
even thou^ He foresaw his fall, and He created 
him, endowed him with free will, and gave him 
sufficient means of persevering in good had he so willed. 
We must sum up our ignorance of the permission 
of evil by saying in ^e words of St. Augustine, 
that God would not have permitted evil had He not 
been powerftd enough to bring good out of evil. 
God's end in creating this universe is Himself, not 
ihe good of man, and somehow or other good 
and evil serve His ends, and there shall finally be 
a restoration of violated order by Divine iustice. 
No sin shall be without its punisnment. The evil 
men do must be atoned for either in this world by 
penance (see Penaxce) or in the world to come 
m purgatory or hell, according as the sin that stains 
the soul, and is not repented of, is mortal or venial, 
and merits eternal or temporal punishment. (See 
Evil.) God has provided a remedy for sin and 
manifested His love and goodness m the face of 
man's ingratitude by the Incarnation of His Divine 
Son (see Incarnation}; by the institution of His 
Qiurch to ^de men and interpret to them His law, 
and admnuster to them the sacraments, seven 
channels of grace, which, rightly used, furnish an 
adequate remedy mr sin and a means to union with 
God in heaven, which is the end of His law. 

Sense of Sin. — ^The understanding of sin. as far 
as it can be understood by our finite intelligence, 
serves to unite man more closely to God. It impresses 
him with a salutary fear, a fear of his own powers, 
a fear, if left to hhnself, of falling from ^ace; with 
the necessity he lies under of seeking God's help 
and grace to stand firm in the fear and love of Crod, 
and make progress in the spiritual life. Without 
the acknowledgment that the present moral state 
of man is not tnat in which God created him, that 
his powers are weakened; that he has a supernatural 
end to attain, which is impossible of attainment 
by his own unaided efforts, without grace there being 
no proportion between the end and the means; 
that the world, the flesh, and the devil are in reality 
active agents fighting against him and leading him 
to serve tiiem instead of God. sin cannot be under- 
stood. The evolutionary hypotnesis would have it that 

physical evolution accounts for the physical origjii 
of man, that science knows no condition of man in 
which man exhibited the characteristics of the state 
of origmal justice, no state of sinlessness. The fall 
of man in this hypothesis is in reality a rise to a 
higher grade o[ being. "A fall it might seem, just 
as a vicious man sometimes seems degraded oelow 
the beasts, but in promise and potency, a rise it 
really was*^ (Sir O. Lodge, "life and Matter", p. 79). 
This teaching is destructive of the notion of sin as 
taught by the Catholic Church. Sin is not a phase 
of an upward struggle, it is rather a deliberate, 
wilful reiusal to struggle. If there has been no fall 
from a hi^er to a lower state, then the teaching of 
Scripture m regard to Redemption and the necessity 
of a baptismal regeneration is uAintelligible. The 
Catholic teaching is the one that places sin in its 
true light, that justifies the condemnation of sin we 
find in Scripture. 

The Church strives continually to impress her 
children with a sense of the awfulness of sin that they 
may fear it and avoid it. We are fallen creatures, 
and our spiritual life on earth is a warfare. Sin is 
our enemy, and while of our own strength we cannot 
avoid sin, with God's grace we can. If we but place 
no obstacle to the workings of grace we can avoid 
all deliberate sin. If we have the misfortune to sin, 
and seek God's grace and pardon with a contrite 
and humble heart. He will not repel us. Sin has its 
remedy in grace, which is given us by God, through 
the merits of His only-be^tten Son, Who has re* 
deemed us, restoring by His passion and death the 
order violated by the sin of our first parents, and mak- 
ing us once apain children of God and heirs of heaven. 
Where sin is looked on as a necessary and un- 
avoidable condition of things human, where inability 
to avoid sin is conceived as necessary, discouragement 
naturally follows. Where the Cathohc doctrine 
of the creation of man in a superior state, his fall 
by a wilful transgression, the effects of which fall 
are by Divine decree transmitted to his posterity, 
destroying the balance of the human faculties 
and leaving man inclined to evil; where the dogmas 
of redemption and grace in reparation of sin are Kept 
in mmd, there is no discouragement. Left to our- 
selves we fall, by keeping close to God and continudly 
seeking His nelp we csm stand and struggle against 
sin, and if faithful in the battle we must wage shall 
be crowned by God in heaven. (See Conscience; 
Justification; Scandal.) 

DooMATic WoBKs: St. Thomas. SummatKeol., l-Tl, QQ. Ixxi* 
Ixxzix; losM , Contra fftnUa, tr. Rickabt, OfGod Ofui Hu Creaturet 
(London, 1905): Idbm, QueuL dUpuUUa: D^maioin Opera omnia 
(Parb, 1875): Billvabt, D« pecoolM (Paris. 1867-72); Suabh, 
Depecc in Opera Ttnnia (Paris, 1878); SAUCANncmfaBs, JOe peec 
in Cun. theof, (P^iis, 1877); Qonxt, Clypetu theoi. tkotn, (Venioe. 
1772) ; Jomr or 3t, Tromab, Do poec, in Cwo. thool. (Paris, 1886); 
STLTroB,X>e t)«ec.(Antweri>, 1698) ; CeUet^iomuo fiomanuf, tr.DoM^H 
YAN, Caieehiam ot tit Council o/Trent (Dublin. 1829): ScHKkBBN,, 
Handbuch d. kath. Oogmatik (Freiburg, 1873-87) ; Wilbbui and 
ScAJRfBLL, MantuL: c/ CathoUc TheSoov, II (London, 1908); 
Manning, Sin ant iu Coneeguoneoo (New York, 1904) ; Sbabpe, 
Principles of Christianity (London, 190i) ; Idem, Evil, ita Nairn 
and Caute (LondcMi. 1906) * Billot. De not. et rtU. peeeaH poroonalio 
(Rome. 1900); TANQ(UBB**r, Spnopaio theol., I (New York, 1907). 

Cf. foUowiiiff on moral theology: — Lehmkuhl, Theol. monUi» 
(Freiburg, 1910); Oopfebt. MoraUheolooie, I (PnAerbom, 1899); 
Mabc, Intit. mor. alpnonair ? (Rome, 1002); Noldin, Summa 
tneal. mor, (Innsbmck. 1906); Genxcot, Thoai. mar. tnst., I 
(Loavam. 1905) ; Sabbtti-Bariibtt, Compend. thool. mor. (Ratis- 
bon, 1906) : Schieler-Heusbb. Theory and Practice of the Con- 
feaeumal (New York, 1906); Slatbb, Manual of Moral Theology 
(New York, 1906); KocB, Morallfmlogio (Srded., Freiburg, 1910). 

A. C. O'Nbil. 

Sii^i i^^^'Ot S^i'a, Sinai and Sina), the mountain 
on which the Mosaic Law was given. Horeb and 
Sinai were thought synonymous by St. Jerome ("De 
situ et nom. Hcbr.'', m P. L., XXIU, 889)) W. 
Gesenius O^^D 2"in), and, more recently, G. Ebem 
^. 381). Ewald, Delitzsch, Ed. Robinson, E. H. 
Palmer, and others think Horeb denoted the whole 
moimtdnous region about Sinai (Ex., xvii, 6). The 




otiglD of the name Sinai in disputed. It iMnia to be Jabal MA«t, which hu been knows since Ihe ninth 
an adjective (torn ;-C, "the desert" (Ewald and century as Bt. Catherine's. Its small library con- 
Ebers) or "the moon-god" (E. Schroder and others), tains about 600 volumes of valuable manuscnpta hi 
Themount was caJled Sinai, or "the mount of God" Greek, Arabic, Syriac, Ethiopii;, etc. It waa here 

Snibably before the time of Moeee (Josephua, " Antiq, that Tischendorf, during hia resiiairhes in 1844, 1S53, 
ud.", II, xii.) The name is now given to the tn- and 1850, found a very ancient Greek MS. (dnoe 
angularpeninsulalyingbetweenthodesertof Southern known as the "Codex Sinaiticiis") containing most 
Palestine, the Red Ses, and the gulfs of Akabah and of the Septuagint, all the new Testament, the '^^istle 
Suez, with an area of about 10,000 sq. miles, which of Barnabas'^ and the first part of the "Shepherd" 
was the scene of the forty years' wandering of the of Hermas. Forty-three MS. pages found by nim an 
Israelites after the Eiodua from Egypt. preserved at the University of Leipiig and known as 

The principal topographical features are two. the "Codex Friderico-Au^ustanus". In 1892 Mrs, 
North of the Jabal et-Tih (3200 to 3950 feet) stretches Smith Lewis found at Sinai a fourth-century palimp- 
an arid plateau, the desert of Tlh, marked by numer- seat Syriac text of St. Luke's Gospel. Sinai is rich m 
ous Wadis, notably El-Arish, the "River of E^ypt", valuable inscriptions. M. de VogUS gives 3200 
which formwl the southern boundary of the Promised Egyptian and Semitic inscriptions found in the W4di 
Land (Gen., XV, 18; Num., joodv, 5). South of Jabal Mukattob, the ruins of the temple of Ischta, or 
masB of granite streaked Astaroth-Carmain, and the iron and turquoise mines 
o three principal groups; and granite and marble quarries, which were ex- 
tensively woriced uQ- 
dcr the twelfth and 
eighteenth B^g^tian 

The present popu- 
lation of Sinai is 4000 
to 6000 eemi- 
nomadic Arabs, Mo- 
hammedans, gov* 
eroed by their tribal 
Bh«khs and imme- 
diately subject to 
the commandant of 
the garrison at Qa[' 
at un-Nakhl, under 
the Intelligence Do- 
partment of the 
Egyptian War Office 
at C^ro. 

j Ordtiaittt Survva/tSt 
' br tbe I^dtiUbb Erplor. 

i Huh 

IdiDtifisd by St. JetoD 

Mount S 

I athcn with the Kul at tb« BibI* 

with porphyry, dividing 
t^" western, Jabal 
KcrbftI (0750 feet); 
t!;e central, Jabal 
Mflsa (7380 feet), 
Jabal Catherine 
(8560 fe<-t), and Ja- 
bal Urn Schomet 
(8470 feet); the esEt- 
em, Jabal Thebt 
(7909 feet) and Ja- 
bal Tarfa, which 
terminates in Raa 
Mohammed. It is 
among these moun- 
buns that Jewish and 
Christian tradition 
places the Sinai of 
the Bible, but the 
precise location is 
unoertsin. It is Ja- 
bal M{|Ha, according 
to a tradition trace- 
able b^k to the 
fourth century, when 
St. Silvia of" Aqui- 

talne was there. Jabal MOsa is defended by 
E. H. and H. 8. Palmer, Vigouraux, Lagrange, and 
others. However, the ditTiculty of applying Ex., 
xix, 12, to Jabal Kldsa and the inscriptions found near 
Jabal Serbal have led some to favour Serbal. This 
was the opinion of St. Jerome (P. L., XXIII, 916, 
933) and CoBraaa (P. G., LXXXVIII, 217). and more 
reoently of Burkhard and X/;psius, and it nas of late 
been very strongly defended by 0. Ebers, not to 
mention Beke, Gressmann, and others, who consider 
the whole story about Sinai (Ex., xix) only a mythical 
interpretation of some volcanic eruption. The more 
Uberal critics, while agreeing generally that the Jewish 
traditions represented by the "Priest-codex" and 
"Elohistic documents" place Sinai among the moun- uui*ius, i 
tains in the south-centra! part of the peninsula, yet pubhc of Mi 
disagree as to its location by the older "JahvisUc" Durango. '' 

tradition(Ex„ii. 15, 16, 21;xviii, 1,5). A. von Gall, 

whose opinion Welhausen thinks the best sustained, 
oontenda that Meribar (D. V. Temptati " 
xvii, 7) is identical with Cades (Num., xxxm, ao; 
xxvii, 14), that the Israelites never went so far south 
as Jabal Mllsa, and hence that Sinai must be looked 
for in Madian on the east coast of Akabar. Others 
(cf. Winckler, II, p. 29; Smend p. 35. n, 2; and WcUl, 
onn. cit. infra in bibliography) Took for Sinai in the 
leighbourhoodof CSdea (AynQfldis) in Southern 


CeJ. c,i : 

--.-----, Ion. 1891); 

.SiHf (LwdoD, laoe): D( VooOt. C^mtpla 
rcnJiu di iAeaa. an loKrialimt (Puis, 10U7I; MiisTEUitiiH, 
CiJi du m au /ourdnin (Psria. 1909); Commf,il,iru-M an St. 
>ii. I •no. by Hdmheladbi (Piria. ISOT). Dii.uitN (Lcipiif, 
tS9.),>Bil<iIhen>: Piuiia. n^Omr>a/(AtEi»iHi(CiUBbni)cs, 
1S71); SAnuENTOH-GjtucaaN. Sinai lia'an. PUra (Pari), t9(M), 
l-l-t.S; GARUUHHiKr, S. SUwia Afuihina PertsriiuUU (Romt, 
ISKS): Len in, Rtiv »» TMvn tuick . . . Binai (Berlin. IB4S}; 
Wi.-<CKi.Bn. QiiA. fir. (Ldpiii:. ISBS): voNGti-i. AUitr. Kutif 
KOUm (Giinn. ISBS): tJHKHD, Lthrb. do- AtUal. ReliBionJiadi. 
(Froibutg iin Br„ 1890): Welbacskn. Prof, air Ouch. It. 
(Bptlin, lOOS): WeiLt.. Lt ifjoar ((» /irollitn au- dttiri « b 
Siimf <P(ria, 1909)1 VlooDROCI, DhK. dt la Biblt. i. v. Sintli 
LAaH.iNniE, Le Siaal bMupu. in Set. Bibliqu' (1S9S). 309-89. 

Nicholas Reagan. 
SinftltlcuB Codsz. See Codex Sikaiticus, 
Slnaloa, Diocese op (Sinaloenbis), in the Re- 

■ ■ ■ Slexic ~ 

Its a 

27,.^.')2"sq. mUes, and its popuUtion (1910) 323,499.' 

, Culiacan, the capital of the state and residence of the 

■Ex., bishop and governor, counts a population (1910) of 
13,578. The present territory of Sinaloa was dis- 
covered in 1530 by the ill~reputbd D. Nuflo de GuimoD 
who founded the city of San Miguel de Culiacan. A 
few Spaniards estabushed a colony there. The prov- 
ince of Culiacan was soon obligea to face the terrors 
of war brought upon it by the barbarous cruelties 
„ ,--j- T, , of Nufio and his favourite, Diego Hcrnandes de Pro- 
Palestine, alio. So frightened was Nufio oy the terrible iwrur- 
Sinai was the refuge of many Christian anchorit<>3 rection that he removed Proaflo, placing in his stead 
during the third-century persecutions of the Church. Criat<5bal de Tapia, whose humanitarian measures 
There are traces of a fourth-ccntuty monastery near slowly restored confidence. Although colonised from 
Mount Serbal. In 527 the Emperor Justinian built the beginning of the sixteenth century, most of the 
the famotis con^-ent of Mt, Slow on the north foot of territory, excepting a few strong places, «~° <"i-»«<*~' 

a tnh^fted 


bjr fieroB {Mgui tribee, for whoae oonvanion th« 
Jtsoits laboiued early in the seventeenth century. 
After having subdued and evangelixed the IndianH of 
. the mission of Piaxtla in a comparatively short time, 
and after having turned over to the Bishop of Durango 
the settlements under their control, the Jesuits ex- 
tended their doniiiiation over the Indians living in 
the northern part of the actual state and at the time 
of their expulsion (by decree of Charles III) they fruit- 
fully 'adnunistered the nussiona of Chinipae and 
Sinaloa. In Chinipas they had residences at Guaao* 
rapes, Santa Ana, Sccora, Moris, Barbaroco, Santa 
Ines, Serocagui, Tubares, Sateb6, Baborigame. 
Nabogame, and San Andrea; in Sinaloa (misj&i del 
Fuert«) they had residences at Mocorito, Nio, 
Guaaave, Clucorato, Mochirave, Batacosa, Conicuri, 
Tehueoo, Ocoroni, and Bacubirito, It is notable 
that the towns of the niLii6n del Rio Yaqui, wlu<;h 
now belong to the Dioceae of Sonora^ were the 
eluded in the mission ( ' "' ' " 

Durango was founded . 

then had belonged tc 
the Diocese of Gua- 
dalajara, became 
part of it; on the 
Tonndation (I7S0) of 

n of Sinaloa. W^en the Sec of 
1 1620, Sinaloa, which until 

the Di< 


a port <rf the latter. 

da>ceof the bishop, 
after having been 
Buccessivcly at Aris- 
peand Alamo, pawed 
to Culiaoau, eapilai 
when Leo XIll 
founded the Diocem 
ofSinalihV whiclihad 
formed part of the 
ecclesiastical i)rov- 
ince of Guadalajara, 
and the Bishop of 
Sonora removed to 

Hennosillo. In 1891, Tb» Ca«i 

when the new archi- 

epificopal Sec of Durango was created, Sinaloa be- 
came one of its suffragans. 

The diocese has 1 seminary with 18 students; 10 
parochial acbools; 3 collceei with 077 studcnU. 

artinialakUtanadilaC.dt J.tn JVuesr JTiinAii (t>ueblii. IHSS). 

Camillus Critelli. 

Blnglston, HroB. See Srrewhburv, Diocese or. 

UniCkcUA (Sknioalua), Diucgse or (Senoqai.- 
U&NBIS), in the Province of Ancona in the Marches 
(Central Italy). The city is situated on the Adriatic 
at the mouth of the Misa, which divides it into two 
parts. Maritime commerce, the cultivation and manu- 
facture of Bilk, agriculture, nnd cattlo-raising form the 
means of support of the population. The fortifica- 
tions constructed by the dukes of Urbino and by the 
popes stitl remun in part. Among the churches, 
besides the cathedral, that of Santa Maria delle 
Grane (1491) without the city walls deserves ineii- 
iioD; it possesses a Madonna with six saints by Peru- 
eipo, ana another Madonna by Piero della Francesca. 
The name Senigallia records the Senones, a tribe of 
Qaub who poMcssed this city before its conquest 
by the Romans. The latter founded a colony here 
«aUed Sena Hadria, but later the name most cnni- 
monly used was Senogallia or Senigallia. In the 
<5»il War (b.c. 82) it was sacked by Pompey, then 
«ne <rf Solla's generals. It was pilla^ a second time 
bf Aloric, A.D. 408. Under the Byzantine rale it 
belonged to the so-called Pentapolis. Several times 
in the sixth and eighth centuries the Lombards 


attempted to capture it, and, in fact, shortly bebos 
the city wu bestowed upon the Holy See it was tha 
seat of a Duke Arioldo, who in 772 owed alle^tuiM 
to King Desiderius. It afterwards shared the viciss- 
tudes of the March of Ancon^ and at the end of the 
twelfth century was the seat of a count. In the won 
between the popes and Frederick II it belonged few 
the moat part to the party of the Guelphs, tor which 
reason it sustained many sieges, and was in 1264 
sacked by Percivalo Doria, captain of King Manfred. 
Hardly recovered from this calamity, it fell into the 
power of Guido di Monteteltro (1280). In 1306 it 
was captured by Poudolfo Malatesta of Pesaro and 
remained in his family, notwithstanding that they 
were expelled by Cardinal Bertraudo du Poyet and 
kter by Cardinal Albornoi (13.>5). In 1416 Ludo* 
vico MigUorati of Ferrao and the cities of Ancona 
and Comerino formed a Icngue against Galeotto 
Malatesta, and captured Siiiiguglio, out they after- 
wards restored it. Id 144i'> it was taken by Sigis- 
moudo Malatesta of Rimini, who aLM secured the 
investiture from 
Eugenius IV and 
fortified the city. 

After various 
vicissitudes Sini^^- 
liawas (1474^ given 
in ficT to Giovanni 
della Rovere, a n^di- 
cw of Sixtiis IV. 
Ue married the last 
heiress of the duc^ 
of L'rbino, of whida. 
the city thus be- 
came a part (1508). 
In December, 1502, 
Sinigaglia, which had 
thrown open its 
to Catsar 
_ jTgia, WB8 tbesoene 
of the oeld>rated 
treachery by which 
Boi^a rid himself 
, the 


it came imder 

popes. In 1683 Turkish pirates d , 

plundered the city. Smlgoglia was the birth' 
place of Plus IX and B. Gherardo di Serra (four- 
teenth century). The patron saint of Sni^glia 
is St. Paulinua, whose body is preserved in the 
cathedral (aa is attested for the first time in 1397). 
He ia, therefore, not identical with St. Pauhnus 
□f Nola, nor is it known to what epoch he be- 
longs. Tlie first bishop of certain date waa Vonantius 
(502). About 662 the bishop was St. Bonifaoius, 
who at the time of the I«mbard invasion was mar- 
tyred by the Ariana. Under Bishop Si^smundua 
(c, GOO) the relics of St. Gaudentius, Bishopof Rimini 
and martyr, were transported to Sinigaglia. Other 
biahops of the diocese are: Robertus and Theodonus 
(1057), frienda of St. Peter Domionus; Jacopo (123»- 
1270), who rebuilt the cathedral which had been d^ 
atniyedin 1264 by the Saracen troops of King Man- 
fred; Francesco Mellini (1428), an Auguetinian, Trt»o 
died at Rome, auifocated by the crowd at a conaiatory 
of EgeniuH IV. Under Bishop Antonio C^lombella 
(1438), an Augustinian, Sigiamondo M^testa, lord 
of Sinigaglia, angerod by his resistance to the destruo- 
tion of certain houses, caused the cathedral and iJta 
epiacopal palace to be demohshed. The precious 
matenaJB were tranaportcd to Rimini and were used 
in the construction of S. Francesco {tempio Malaita- 
tiano). Vader Bisliop Marco Vigerio della Rotov 
(1513) the new cathedral was begun in 1540; it was 
oonaeerated in IWJ by Pietro Ridolfi (1591), a Ifiapied 




writer. Other bmhope were Cardinal Antonio Bar- 
berini, a Capuchin brother of Urban VIII; Cardinal 
Domenioo Poracciani (1714); Annibale della Genga 
(1816)| who afterwards became Pope Leo XII. 
The diocese is suffragan of Urbino; it has 48 parishes 
with 114 secular and 78 regular clergy; 92,000 souls; 
16 monasteries for men; 19 convents for women; 
and 3 institutes for female education. 

Cappbllbttx, Le ehieae d" Italia (Venice, 1857): Costbixi, H 
poMoto « Vanenire di SenioaUia (Aacoli, 1890); MAiuii]m« 
Saeurnone artiatiea per 8enig<MUia (Florence, 1886). 

U. Beniqni. 

8inl8y a titular see in Armenia Secunda, suffragan 
of Melitene. The catalogue of titular bishoprics 
of the Roman Curia formerly contained a see of 
Sinita, in Armenia. When the list was revised in 
1884, this name was replaced by Sinis, mentioned da 
belon^g to Armenia oecunda, with Melitene, now 
Malatia, as its metropolis. Ptolemy. V. 7, 5, mentions 
a town called Siniscolon in Cappaaocia at Melitene, 
near the Euphrates. Muller in his ''Notes k 
Ptolemy" ed. Didot, I (Paris, 1901), 887, identifies 
tins with Sinekli, a village near the Euphrates, ''ab 
Argovan versus ortum hibemum", about nineteen 
miks north of Malatia in the vilayet of Mamouret 
ul-Ariz. But it seems certain that Siniscolon is a 
mis-reading for ''Sinis Colonia", a form found in 
several MSS. Ramsay^ "Asia Minor", 71, 272, 314, 
reads Sinis for Pisonos m "Itinerar. Anton." and es- 
pecially for Sinispora in the "Tabula Peutingeriana" 
(Sinis, Erpa), and places Sinb Colonia twenty-two 
Roman miles west of Melitene, on the road to 
Csesarea. There is no mention of this town in the 
Greek "Notitise episcopatuum" amon^ the suffragans 
of Melitene, and none of its bishops is known, so it 
seems never to have been a bishopric. 

S. P^TRiDiss. 

Sinna. See Sehna, Diogbse of. 

Sinope, a titular see in Asia minor, suffragan of 
Amasea in Helenopontus. It is a Greek colony, 
situated on a peninsula on the coast of Paphlagonia, 
of very early origin, some attributing its foundation 
to the Argonaut Autolycus, a companion of Hercules. 
Later it received a colony from Miletus which seems to 
have been expelled or conquered by the Cimmerians 
(Herodotus, IV, 12); but in 632 B.C. the Greeks 
succeeded again in capturing it. Henceforth Sinope 
aijoyed great prosperity and founded several colonies, 
among them being Cerasus, Cotyora, and Trapezus. 
The town took part in the Peloponnesian War, sup- 
porting Athens. Xenophon stopped there with his 
forces on the retreat of the Ten Thousand (Anab. 
V. V, 3; Diodor. Sicul., XIV. 30, 32; Ammien 
Marcel., XXII, 8). Fruitlessly besieged in 220 b.c. 
by Mithridates IV, King of Pontus, Sinope was taken 
by Phamaces in 183 b.c, and became the capital 
and residence of the kings of Pontus. It was the 
birthplace of Mithridates the Great, who adorned it 
with magnificent monuments and constructed lar^e 
arsenals there for his fleet. Lucullus captured it 
and gave it back its autonomy. Caesar also estab- 
lished the Colonia Julia Csesarea there in 45 b.c. 
when his supremacy began. Sinope was also the 
birthplace of the C3mic philosopher, Diogenes, Di- 
philus, the comic poet, and Aquila, the Jew, who 
translated the Old Testament into Greek in the second 
century a.d. A Christian community existed there 
in the first half of the second century, with a bishop, 
the father of the celebrated heretic Mansion, whom he 
expelled from his diocese. Among its other bishops 
may be mentioned St. Phocas, venerated on 22 
September, with St. Phocas, the sardener of the same 
town, who is possibly to be identified with him; 
Proheresios, present at the Councils of Gangres and 
Philipropolis m 343 and 344; Antiochus at the Coun- 
oO of Qiaksedon, 451 ; Sergius at the Sixth (Ecumenical 

C>6\mci!, 681; Zeno, who was exiled in 712 for oppba* 
ing Monothdiitism; Gregory, present at the Seventh 
Council in 787, beheadedf in 793 for revolting gainst 
the emperor J etc. A little before 1315 the Bishop 
of Sinope, driven out of his see by the Turks, received 
in compensation the metropoles of Sida and Sylseos 
(Miklosich and MUller, ''Acta patriarchatus Con- 
stantinopolitani", I, 34) ; the diocese must have been 
suppressed upon his death, as it is not mentioned in 
the ''Notitise episcopatuum" of the fifteenth century. 
In 1401 a Greek merchant who visited Sinope found 
everjrthinff in disorder sa a result of the Turkish 
inroads (W&chter, "Der Verfall des Griechentums 
in Kleinasien im AlV. Jahrhundert", 20); however, 
the town, which had belonged to the Empire of Tra- 
pezus from 1204 was not captured till 1470 by 
Mahomet II. In November, 1853, the Turkish 
fleet was destroyed by the Russians in the port of 
Sinope. Sinope is now the chief town of a sanjak 
of the vilayet of Castamouni, containing 15.000 in- 
habitants, about one half of whom are Ureek schis- 

Smith, Did. of Greek and Roman Geog. (London, 1870), s. v.; 
Robinson, Ancient Sinope (Baltimore, 1906) ; Lb Qcibn, Orient 
ehristianua (Paris, 1740). I, 537-40; VailrA. Lee Mouee 4e 
Sinope in Befuys d^Orienl, XI. 210^12; CuxNST. La Turquie 
d'Aaie (Paris, 1891). IV. 574-82. 

S. VAihoA. 

Sins agaixiBt the Holy Ohost, See Holt Ghobt, 
subtitle VIII. 

Sinuessa, Synod op. See MARCELLmus, Saint, 

Sion. See Jerusalem. 

Sion, a titular see in Asia Minor, suffragan of 
Ephesus. No civil document mentions it. It is 
numbered among the suffragans of Ephesus in the 
Greek "Notitise episcopatuum", from the seventh to 
the thirteenth- century. [See Gelzer in "Abhand- 
lunger der k. bayer. Akademie der Wiss.", I. CI. 
XXI Bd. Ill Abth. (Munich, 1900), 536, 662; Idem, 
**Georgii Cypri' descriptio orbis romani" (Leipzig^ 
1890), 8, 62: Parthey, "Hierocles Synecdemus e 
Notit. gr. episcopat. (Berlin, 1866), 61, 103, 165. 
167, 203, 245.] The names of only three bishops of 
Sion are known: Nestorius, present at thie Council 
of Ephec;^:-^ 431; John, at the Council in Trullo, 
692; Philif represented at Nica?a, 787, by the priest 
Theognis (Ic Quien, "Oriens christianus", I, 721). 
Tliis author asks if Basil, Bishop irAXewf 'Atraltar rep- 
resented au Chalcedon, 461, by his metropolitan 
does not belong to Sion; it is more likely that he was 
Bishop of Assus. Ramsay C'Asia Minor", 105) 
thinks that Sion is probably the same town as 
Tianae, or Tiarae mentioned by Pliny, V, 33, 3, &nd 
Hierocles, 661, 8, and Attaca, mentioned by Strabo, 
XIII, 607: but this is very doubtful. In any case 
the site of Sion is unknown. 

8. P^TRints. 

Sion, Diocese of (Sedttnbnsis), a Swiss bishopric 
depending directly on the Holy See. 

History. — ^The Diocese of Sion is the oldest in Swit- 
zerland and one of the oldest north of the Alps. At 
first its see was at Ootodorum, now called Martinaeb^ 
or Martigny. According to tradition there was a 
Bishop of Octodorum, named Oggerius, as early as 
A. D. 300. However, the first authenticated bishop 
is St. Theodore (d. 391), who was present at the 
Council of Aquileia in 381. On the spot where the 
Abbey of Saint-Maurice now stands he built a chureh 
in honour of St. Mauritius, martyred here about 3001 
He also induced the hermits of the vicinity to unite 
in a common life, thus b^^inning the Abbey of SainV 
Maurice, the oldest north of the Alps. Theodore 
rebuilt the church at Sion, which had been destroyed 
by Emperor Maximianus at the beginning of the 

8I0N 15 SIGN 

fourth oentuiy. At first the diocese was a suffra^^an mto the canton from Berne, Zurich, and Basle. In 
of Vienne; later it became suffragan of Tarentaise. 1529 Bishop Adrian I of Riedmatten (1529-48), the 
In 580 the bishop, St. Heliodonis, transferred the see cathedral chapter, and the sieben Z^rUen formed an 
to Sion, as Octoaorum was frequently endangered by alliance with the Catholic cantons of the Confedera- 
the inundations of the Rhone and the Drance. tion, the purpose of which was to maintain and pio^ 
There were frequent disputes with the monks of the tect the CatnoUc Faith in ^1 the territories of the 
Abbey of Saint-Maurice, who were jealously watch- allied cantons against the efforts of the Reformed can- 
ful that the bishops should not extend their jurisdic- tons. On account of this alliance Valais aided in gain- 
tion over the abbey. Several of the bishops united ing the victory of the Catholics over the followeis ol 
both offices, as: Wilcharius (764-^), previously Zwingli at Cappel in 1531 ; this victoiy saved the pos- 
Archbishop of Vienne, from which he had been driven sessions of the Catholic Church in Switzerland. The 
by the Saracens; St. Alteus, who received from the abbots of Saint-Maurice opposed all reli^ous innova- 
pope a Bull of exemption ia favour of the monastery tions as enexvetically as did Bi^ops Adrian I of Ried- 
(780); Aimo II, son of Count Hubert of Savoy, who matten, Hildebrand of Riedmatten (1565-1604), and 
entertained Leo DC at Saint-Maurice in 1049. Adrian II of Riedmatten (1604-13), so that the whole 
The last king of Upper Burgundy, Rudolph III, of Valais remained Catholic. Both Adrian II and his 
granted the Countship of Valais to Bishop Hugo successor Hildebrand Jost (1613-38) were sgain in-^ 
(998-1017); this union of the spiritual and secular volved in disputes with the sie&en ZeAnlen in regard to 
powers made the bishop the most powerful ruler in the exercise of the rights of secular supremacy. In 
the valley of the Upper Rhone. Taking this donation order to put an end to these quarrels and not to en- 
as a basis, the bishops of Sion extendMl their secular danger the Catholic Faith he relinquished in 1630 the 
power, and the religious metropolis of the valley became greater psui; of his rights as secular suzerain, and the 
also the political centre. However, the union of the power of the bishop was thereafter limited almost en- 
two powers was the cause of violent disputes in the tirdv to the spiritual sphere, 
following centuries. For, while the spiritual juris* Tne secular power of the bishops was brought to an 
diction of the bishop extended over the whole valley end by the French Revolution. In 1798 Valais, after an 
of the Rhone above Lake Geneva, the Couiltship of heroic stru^e against the supremacy of France, was 
Valais included only the upper part of the valley, incorporated into the Helvetian Repuolic, and Bishop 
reaching to the confluence of the Trient and the John Anthony Blatter (1790-1817) retired to Novara. 
Rhone. The attempts of the bishops of Sion to During the sway of Napoleon Valais was separated 
carry their secular power farther down the Rhone from Switzerland in 1802 as the Rhodanic Republic, 
were bitterly and successfully opposed by the abbots and in 1810 was united with France. Most of the 
of Saint-Maurice, who had obtained large possessions monasteries were suppressed. In 1814 Valais threw off 
in Lower Valais. The bishops were also oppoBed by French supremacy, when the Allies entered the ter- 
the patrons of the abbey, the counts of Savoy, ritory; in 1815 it joined Switzerland as one of the can- 
who used this position to increase their suzerainty tons. As partial compensation for the loss of his sec- 
over Lower Vamis. The medieval bishops of Sion ular power the bishop received a post of honour in the 
belonged generally to noble families of Savoy and Diet of the canton and the right to four votes. Dis- 
Vah^ and were often drawn into the feuds of these putes often arose as the Constitution of 1815 of the 
fiuaiUies. Moreover the bishops were vigorously canton gave Upper Valais political predominance in 
opposed by the petty feudal nobles of Vakus, who, the cantonal government, notwithstanding the fact that 
trusting to their fortified castles on rocky heights, its population was smaller than that of Lower Vc^bMs. 
sought to evade the supremacy of the bishop who was This led in 1840 to a civil war with Lower Valais, 
at the same time count and prefect of the Holy Roman where the '' Young Swiss " party, hostile to the Church, 
Empire. Other opponents of the bishops were the were in control. The partv friendly to the Church con- 
flourishing peasant communities of Upper Valais, quered, it is true, and the influence of the Church 
which were c^ed later the aieben ZekrUen (seven- over teaching was, at first, preserved, but on ao- 
tenths). Their struggles with Savoy forced the count of the defeat of the Sonderbund, with which 
bifidiops to grant continually increasing political rights Valais had united, a radical Government gained con- 
to the peasant communities. Thus Bishop William trol in 1847. The new administration at once showed 
IV of Rtfon (1437-57) was obliged to relinquish itself unfriendly to the Church, secularized many 
dvil and criminal jurisdiction over the irieben Zehnten church landed properties, and wrung large sums of 
bjr the Treaty of Naters in 1446, while a revolt of money from the bishop and monasteries. Whte in 
his subjects compelled Bishop Jost of Silinen (1482- 1856 the moderate party gained the cantonal election, 
96) to flee from the diocese. Walter II of Supersax negotiations were begun with Bishop Peter Joseph 
(1457-^2) took part in the battles of the Swiss against von Freux (1843-75), and friendly relations were re- 
Charles the Bold of Burgundy and his confederate, stored between the diocese and the canton. In 1880 
the Duke of Savoy, and in 1475 drove the House of the two powers came to an agreement as to the lands 
Savoy from Lower Vdais. The most important taken from the Church in 1848; these, so far as they 
bishop of this era was Matthew Schinner (1499^1522), had not been sold, were |;iven back for their original 
a hignl^ cultivated Humanist. Bishop Schinner, uses. Since then the bishop and the Government 
fearing that PVench supremacy would endanger the have been on friendly terms. The new Constitution 
freedom of the Swiss, placed the military force of the of 1907 declares the Catholic religion to be the re» 
diocese at the disposal of the pope and in 1510 brought ligion of the canton, and forbids any union of spiritual 
about an alliance for five years between the Swiss and secular functions. The ordinances reflating the 
Confederaev and the Roman Church. In return election of a bishop which have been in existence from 
for this Julius II made the bishop a cardinal. In early times, at least, contradict this (see below). The 
1513 the biriiop had succeeded in having his diocese present bishop is Julius Mauritius Abbet, b. 12 Sept., 
separated from the Archdiocese of Tarentaise and 1845, appointed auxiliary bishop cum jure ntccessioniB 

S laced directly under the control of the pope. The 1 Oct., 1895, succeeded to the see 26 Feb., 1901. 

efeat of the Swiss in 1515 at the battle of Marignano, SlatUtics. — The boundaries of the Diocese of Valais 

at which Schinner himself fought, weakened his posi- have hardly been changed since it was founded; the 

tion in the diocese, and the arbitrary rule of his diocese includes the Upper Rhone Valley, that is, the 

brothers led to a revolt of his subjects; in 1518 he was Canton of Valais, with exception of the exempt Ab- 

obliged to teave the diocese. bey of Saint-Maurice, and of the Catholic inhabitants 

The new doctrines of the Reformation found little of Saint-Gin^lph, who belong to the French Diocese 

aoo^tanoe in Valais, althouc^ preacfa^ni were sent of Annecy; it also includes the parishsff of Bex and 




Aigle that belong to the Canton of Vaud. In 1911 
the diocese had 11 deaneries, 125 parishes, 70 ohap- 
lainciesi 208 secular priests, 135 regular priests and 
professed, about 120,000 Catholics. Nearly 30 per 
cent of the population of the diocese speak German, 
and nearly 65 per cent French; the langua^ of the 
rest of the population is Italian. The bishop is elected 
by the denominationally mixed Great Council from a 
list of four candidates pres^ited by the cathedral chap- 
ter, and the election is laid before the pope for con- 
firmation. The cathedral chapter consists of ten 
canons; in addition five rectors are included among 
the cathedral clergy. The clergy are trained at a 
seminary for priests at Sion that has six ecclesiastical 
professors and twelve resident students; there are also 
six theological students studying at the University of 
Innsbruck. The religious orders of men in the dio- 
cese are: Augustinian Canons, with houses on the 
Great St. Bernard, the Simplon, and at Martisny, 
containing altogether 45 priests, 6 professed and 7 lay- 
brothers; Capuchins, at Sion and Saint-Maurice, 
numbering 22 priests, 6 students of theolo^, and 9 lay- 
brothers. The exempt abbey of Augustinian Canons 
at Saint-Maurice contains 46 priests, 9 professed and 
lay-brothers. The orders and congregations of nuns 
in the diocese are: Bemardinea at Colombay : Hospital 
Sisters at Sion; Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul at Saint- 
Maurice; Franciscan Nuns, at the same place; Sisters 
of Charity of the Holy Cross at Sion, Leuk, and Leu- 
kerbad; Ursuline Nuns at Sion and Brieg. 

Briguvt, VaUena ehrisl. aeu duee. Sedunennt hUt. aacra (Sion, 
1744); BoccABD, Hiai. du Valais (Geneva, 1844); Burgbner, 
IHe HtHioen de» %oaUi$€r Landea (Einsiedeln, 1857); Gbbmauo, 
Cataloffu^ dea Mqwa de Sion (Lauaanne. 1854); Idbu, Doc 
rdtUifa d Vhist. du Valaia (Lausanne. 1875-84); Gat. Hiat. du 
VoiatA (Geneva, 1888-89); Idem, Milangea d*hiat, talaiaanne 
(petKtvtk, 189n; Rameau, Le Vaiaia hiat. (Sion, 1801); BOcBt, 
Dm kath. Kircha der Schweit (Munich, 1002) ; Boubbon, L'arch* 
evAjue a. VuUchaira (Fribourg, 1900) ; Milangea d'hiat. et d*archSol, 
da la aoc. halvitique de Saint- Maurice (1901); Gbenat. Hiat, 
modeme du Valaia J6S6-1816 (Geneva, 1904); Bbsbon. Raeherehea 
aur lea orig. dea iticMa de Genive, Lauaanntj, Sion, etc. (JParis, 
1900); Statua venerabilia- cleri diatc. Sedunen. (Sion, 1911); BUUler 
aw« der unUiaer Geach. (Sion, 1899 — ). 

Joseph Lins. 
Sionita. See Gabriel Sionita. • 

Sioux City, Diocese of (Siopoutan.), erected 15 
Jan., 1902, by Leo XIII. The establishment of this 
diocese was provided for in the Bull appointing Most 
Rev. John J. Keane, D.D., to' the Archbishopric of 
Dubuque on 24 Jul}', 1900. This provision was made 
on the occasion of that appointment for the reason 
that the new diocese was taken entirely from the 
Archdiocese of Dubuque. It comprises twenty-four 
counties in north-western Iowa, including a territory 
of 14;518 square miles. Sioux City is on the extreme 
Hmit of the western boundary of Iowa, situated on 
the east bank of the Missouri River, about one hun- 
dred miles north of Omaha. With the exception of 
Des Moines, the capital, it is the largest and most en- 
terprising municipality in the State of Iowa, oontain- 
in^ a population of between fifty and sixty thousand. 
It IS in the midst of a large and rich agricultural coun- 
tnr^ and relies chiefly on the products of the soil, of 
which the staple article is com; consequently grain- 
packing is the chief industry of Sioux City. The 
Cathobc population of the diocese is almost sixty 
thousand. It has 138 churches, including missions, 
122 priests, of whom 6 are religious (4 Fnars Minor 
and 2 Fathers of the Sacred Heart); 53 parochial 
schools, with 4 hospitals; 4 academies; 2 schools of 
domestic science; an orphanage, a Good Shepherd 
home, an infant asylum, a home for the aged, and a 
working girls' home. There are 7327 children in the 
parish schools, and nearly 8000 under Catholic care. 
The composition of the Catholic population of the 
diocese is English-speaking and German. These form 
the principal elements of the Church's membership 
here, and are almost equally divided in numbers. 
A characteristic fe^iture of western Catholicism is 

maoileBt here as In other western diooeees, that ia the 
ardent deedre of the people for paroohial schoola 
wherever it is possible. Out of the 10,000 children 
of school age U- e. under seventeen years) in the 
diocese, three-fourths are in parochial schools, The 
following orders conduct schools and charitable institu- 
tions in Uie dyiocese: Sisters of Charity B.V.M., Sisters 
of Christian Charity, Sisters of St. Dominic, Sisters of 
St. I^ancis (Dubuque, Iowa), Franciscan Sisters (Clinr 
ton, Iowa), Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, 
School Sisters of St. Francis, Presentation Nuns, Ser- 
vants of Mary, Sisters of St. Benedict, Sisters of 
Mercy, Sisters of the Good Shepherd. 

Since its establishment nine years ago, the diocese 
is thoroughly organised and has been constantly 
esroanding by the erection of churches, schools, and 
other institutions. The present bishop, the Right 
Reverend Philip J. Garrigan, D.D., first bishop of 
the diocese, was bom in Ireland in the early forties, 
came to this country with his parents, and received his 
elementary education in the public schools of Lowell, 
Mass. He pursued his classical course at St. Charles's 
College, Ellicott City, Maryland, and course^ of 
philosophv and theology » at the Provincial Seminary 
of New York at Troy, where he was ordained on 11 
June, 1870. After a short term as curate of St. 
John's Church, Worcester, Massachusetts, he was 
i^pointed director of the Troy seminary for three 
years; and was for fourteen years afterwards pastor 
of St. Bernard's Church, Fitchburg, Massachusetts. 
In the fall of 1888 he was appointed first vice-rector of 
the Catholic University at Washington, D. C, which 
position he also held for fourteen vears. He was 
named Bishop of Sioux Citv on 21 March, 1902, and 
consecrated at the see of his home diocese, Springfield, 
Massachusetts, on 25 May of the same year, by the 
Right Rev. T. D. Beaven, and on 18 June following 
took possession of his see. 

Philip J. Garrigan. 

Sioux Falls, Diocese of (Siouxormsnsis), suf » 
fragan of St. Paul, comprises all that part of the State 
of South Dakota east of the Missouri River, an area 
of 34,861 square miles. The western portion of the 
state, forming the present Diocese of Lead, was d^ 
tached from the Diocese of Sioux Falls, 8 Ausust, 
1902. The early history of religion in South Dakota 
(until 1879) must be sought for in the histories re- 
spectively of St. Paul, Dubuque, and Nebraska. The 
first Mass celebrated in South Dakota was in 1842, 
in Brown County, by the late Monsignor Ravoux of 
St. Paul on his first visit to the Sioux Indians; and the 
first church erected was in 1867, by the late Father 
Pierre Boucher, who was sent by Bishop Grace of St. 
Paul to Jefiferson, Union County, to attend the 
Catholics scattered about that centre. In August, 
1879, the Vicariate Apostolic of Dakota, whose bound- 
aries corresponded with the then existing civil boimd- 
aries of the newly formed Territory of Dakota, was 
established, and the Right Reverend Martin Marty, 
Abbot of St. Meinrad's Benedictine Abbey, Indiana, 
nominated Bishop of Tiberias and vicar Apostolic of 
the now district. Bishop Marty was consecrated in 
the Church of St. IVroinand, Ferdinand, Indiana, 
1 Feb., 1880, by the Right Reverend Francis Silas 
Chatard, the present Bishop of Indianapolis. The 
vicariate was an immense district to govern (149,112 
square miles) with scarcely any mode of travelling, 
except by the primitive ox or mule teams. A few 
miles of railroad existed from Sioux City to Yajikton. 
The new vicar Apostolic went directly to Yankton, 
where he took up his residence. He found 12 priests 
administering to a scattered Catholic population of 
less than 14,000 souls and 20 churches. Manjr and 
heroic were the hardships endured by both bishop 
and priests. At the close of 1881 Uie number of 
priests increased to 37, the number of churches to 41 

withSSstatioDS. ThcK were 8 ooDvanU, 3 aoadenuM tbe Bioux an virtually all within Uie United EKaM 
fcffjroung ladies, 4 parochial schools for the white and and up to a comparatively recent period kept up 
i swoola for the Indian children, while the Catholic dose connexion among the varioua bands. 
population, including 700 Indiuia, numbered 15,800 N&ub and Afpiliation.— ^The name Sioux (pro- 
aoula. The decade be^nuing with 1880, witnessed a nounced Su) is an abbreviation of the Frencji qidliag 
wonderful development and the population increased of the name by which tbey were anciently known to 
from 135,180 to 250,000. The statistics at the end their eastern Algonq^uian neighbours and enemiee, 
of 1883 ^w 46 priestfl, 82 churches, 67 stations^ 4 vis. NadouMsioux, signifying "little snakes", i. e. 
convents, 4 acadenue^ 12 parochial gohools, 6 Indian little, or secondary enemies, as distinguished from 
Bcbools and a Catholic population, tnclutUng 1,600 the eastern t^adowe, or enemies, the Iroquois. Tlua 
Indians, of 25,600 souls. The Territory trf Dakota ancient name is now obsolete, having been superseded 
was divided by -^ct of Congress, 22 Februaiy, 1889, by the modem Ojibwa term Buatuig, of uncertain 
and the two atatea, North and South Dakota, were etymology. They 
admitted to the Union, 2 November, 1889. Tliesame call themHelvea 
month witnessed the eccle^astical division of the Dakota, Nakota, 
vicaiiate, and two new dioceses were formed, Sioux orLakota, accord- 
Falls (South Dakota) ndth Bisliop Marty '\ta first ing to dialect, 
bishop; and Jamestown (North Dakota), now Fai^, meaning "alUes". 
with Bishop Shaoley (d. July, 1909) its first inoum- From the forms 
bent. In ISM Bishop Marty was transfi^rrcd to the Dakota, Lakota, 
Moce«eot St. Cloud,Minne!tota, where hediedlflSep- and Sioux are dfr- 
tember, 1896. rived numerous 
The efforts of Bishop Marty were crownnd with place-names with- 
marvellous success. He devoted himself especially to m their ancient 
tiie Indian race. He spoke their language and trans- area, including 
lated hymns and prayers into their tongiie. The eocond those of two great 
and present (1911) Bishop of Sioux Falls, the Right states. Linguisti- 
Rev. Thomas O'Gorman, wau bum at Boston, Msssa- cally the Sioux are 
chusetts, 1 May, 1843, he moved with his parents to St. of the great Siuuan 
Paul, and was one of the first two students selected stock, to which i 
for tiie priesthood by Bishop Cretin, the other was they have given | 
Archbishop Ireland. Having pursued liia ecclesiastical name and of which i 
studies in France, he returned to St. Paul, where he they themselves ' 

was ordained priest, 6 November, 1865. He was now constitute Snnwi Boll 

pastor in turn of Itochwter a!id Faribault, Minn., and nearly three- *^""" ' Fhotflgrmpn 

ni^ preadent and professor of dogmatic theology at fourths. Other cognate tribes are the Assiniboin, 

8t, Thomas' College, St. Paul. In 1890 he was ap- Crow, Hidatsa, or Minitari, Mandan, Winnebago. 

Cted Professor of Church History in the Cathofic Iowa, Omaha, Ponoa, Oto, Missouri, Kaw, Osage, aoa 

'ersity, Washington, D. C, was con!«crated in Ouapaw, all excepting the Winneba.^o Uving westtrf 

St. Patriclt's Cbureh, Washington D. C. (19 April, the Misaissip^ji; together with a number of tribes for^ 

■ by Cardinal SatoUi, then Apostolic del^ate merlyoccupyinK t^rritoriesinMissiaiippiand thecen- 

to this country, and on 2 May, 1896, was in- tral regions of tie Caroliciaji and VirBijua,aJI: ._ 

stalled in the pro-cathedral of his episcopal see. tuallyextinct.exceptingahaQdfulofCalawbainSoutii 

The statistics of the diocese then showed 51 secular Carolina. Linguistic and traditionary evidence indi- 

and 14. regular priests, 50 churches with resident cat£ this eastern region as the original home of thuB 

priests, 61 missions with churches, 100 stations, 10 stock, although the period and causes of the westward 

ohapelB, 14 paruohial schools, 61 Indian schools, 2 migration remain a matter of conjecture. The Sioux 

orphanages, and 1 hospital. liThere vf^ve 3 communi- language is spoken in three principal dialects, vii. 

ties of men and 6 of women, wliile the Cathohc popu- Sant«e (pronounced Sahntee), or eastern; Yankton, 

lati<m, whit« and Indian, was cstii^ted at 30,000 or middle; and Teton, or western, differing chiefly 

■Olds. Bishop O'Gorman infused new life into the in the inC<Tchange of d, n, and I, as indicatal in the 

diooeae. The population increased so rapidly that in various forma of the tribal name. The Asaimlxiin 

1902 the Diocese of Load was erected. The statistics are a seceded branch of the Yankton division, having 

of tho diocese (1911) are in prie^, secular 102, weparated from the parent tribe at some time earlier 

regular 13;studentslO;churcheswithre^dentpriestB, than 1640. 

91; missions with churehes, 70; stations, 23; chapels, HiaToar. — When and why the Sioux removed from 

13; parochial schools, 23 with 2r5CX) children in at- their original- home in the East, or by what route 

tendance; hospitals, 4. There are 3 communities of they reached the upper Mississippi country, are 

mfm; Benedictines, Eudists, and the Clerics of St. unknown. When first noticed in history, about 

Viateur. The communities of women are: Dominican 1650, they centered about MlUe Lac and Leech Lake, 

SieteiB; Presentation Nuns; Benedictine Sisters; Sis- toward the heads of the Mississippi, Ju central Minne- 

tera of the Third Order of St. Francis; School Sistera sota, having their e8sl«ra frontier within a day's 

of St, Francis, and the Sisters of Charity of St. Louis, march of Lake Superior, From this position tbey 

Columbus College at Chamberlain, in charge of the were gradually driven b^ the pressure, from the 

Clerics of St. Viateur is an institution of great promise, east, of the advancing Ojibwa, who were earlier in 

The Cathohc peculation, including 500 Indians, is obtaining firearms, until nearly tiie whole nation had 

60,000. In the vicariate Apostolic of tliirty-one years removed to the Minnesota and upper Red River, in 

MO, where there were only 1 bishop and 12 priests, turn driving before them the Cheyenne, Omaha, 

there ore now. (1911) 4 biaaops and 284 priests, and other tribes. On reaching the buffalo plains and 

DiiKttait AnMf; CalholU Dirtrtentw; pcneiul reoollBclion*. procuring horscs, HUppJemeiil*d soon thereafter by 

Daiiiei. F, Desmond. firearms, they rapidly overran the county to the west 

and south-west, crossing the Missouri perhaps about 

BIooz IndUiu, the lai^t and most important 1750, and contmuing on to the Black Hills aud the 

Indian tribe north of Mexico, with Ihe single excep- Platte until checked oy the Pawnee, Crow, and other 

tion of the Ojibwa (Chippewa), who, however, lack tribes. At the beginninR of treaty relations in 1805 

tbe aoKdarity of the Sioux, being widely scattered they were the acknowledged owners of most of the 

on both ndes of the international boundary, while twrilory extending from cenlrul Wi.^con8in, across 
XIV.— 2 




the MissiBBippi and Missouri, to beyond the Blftck 
Hills, and from the Canada boundaiy to the North 
Platte, including all of Southern Minnesota, with 
considerable portions of Wisconsin and Iowa, most 
of both Didcotas, Northern Nebraska, and much of 
Montana and Wyoming. The boundaries of all 
that portion Ijring east of the Dakotas were defined 
by the great inter-tribal treaty of Prairie du Chien in 
1825 and a supplemental treaty at the same place in 
1830. At this period the Minnesota region was 
held by the various Santee bands; Eastern Dakota 
and a small part of Iowa were claimed by the Yankton 
and their cousins the Yanktonai; while all the Sioux 
territory west of the Missouri was held by bands of 
the great Teton division, constituting three-fifths 
of the whole nation. 

Under the name of Naduesiu the Sioux are first 
mentioned by Father Paul le Jeune in the Jesuit 
Relation of 1640, apparently on the information of 
that pioneer western explorer, Jean Nicolet, the first 
white man known to nave set foot in Wisconsin, 
probably in 1634—5. In 1655-6 two other famous 
French explorers, Radisson and Groseilliers, spent 
some time with them in their own countr^r, about 
the western border of Wisconsin. At that time the 
Sioux were giving shelter to a band of refugee Hurons 
fleeing before the Iroquois. They were rated as 
possessing thirty villages, and were the terror of all 
the surrounding tribes 03^ reason of their number and 
prowess, although admittedly less cruel. Fathers 
Allouez and Marquette, from their mission of St. 
Esprit, established at Lapointe (now Bayfield, Wis.) 
on Lake Superior in 1665, entered into friendly rela- 
tions with the Sioux, which continued until 1671, 
when the latter, provoked bv insults from the eastern 
tribes, retumea Marquette s presents, declared war 
against their hereditary foes, and compelled the 
abandonment of the mission. In 1674 they sent a 
delegation to Sault Ste. Marie to arrange peace 
throu^ the good offices of the resident Jesuit mission- 
ary, Father Gabriel DruiUettes, who already had 
several of the tribe under instruction in his house, 
but the negotiations were brought to an abrupt end 
by a treacherous attack made upon the Sioux while 
seated in council in the mission church, resulting in 
the massacre of the ambassadors after a desperate 
encounter, and the burning of the church, which was 
fired over their heads by the Ojibwa to dislodge 

The tribal war went on, but the Sioux kept friend- 
ship with the French traders, who by this time had 
reached the Mississippi. In 1680 one of their war 
parties, descending tne Mississippi against the Illi- 
nois, captured the Recollect Father Louis Hennepin 
with two companions and brought them to their 
villages at the head of the river, where they held 
them, more as guests than prisoners, until released 
on the arrival of the trader. Du Luth, in the fall. 
While thus in custody Fatner Hennepin observed 
their customs, made some study of the language, 
baptized a child and attempted some religious instruc- 
tion, explored a part of Minnesota, and discovered 
and named St. Anthony's Falls. In 1683 Nicholas 
Perrot established a post at the mouth of the Wis- 
consin. In 1689 he established Fort Perrot near the 
lower end of Lake Pepin, on the Minnesota side, the 
first post within the Sioux territory, and took formal 
possession of their country for France. The Jesuit 
Father Joseph Marest, officially designated "Mis- 
sionary to the Nadouesioux", was oneof the witnesses 
at the ceremony and was again with the tribe some 
twelve years later. Another post was built by Pierre 
LeSueur, near the present Red Wing about 1693. 
and in 1695 a principal chief of the tribe accompanied 
him to Montreal to meet the governor, Frontenac. 
By this time the Sioux had a number of guns and were 
beginning to wage aggressive warfare toward the 

west, driving the Cheyenne, Omaha, and Oto down 
upon the Missouri and pushing out into the buffalo 
pmins. During Frontenac's administration mission 
work languished owine to his bitter hostility to mis- 
sionaries, especially the Jesuits. 

About the year 1698, through injudiciously aasist- 
ing the Sioux against the Foxes, the French became 
involved in a tedious forty-years' war with the latter 
tribe which completely paralysed trade on the upper 
Mississippi and ultimately ruined the Foxes. Boore 
its end the Sioux themselves turned against the 
French and gave refuge to the defeated Foxes. In 
1700 LeSueur had buUt Fort L'Huillier on the Blue 
Earth River near the present Maukato, Minn. 
In 1727, an ineffective peace ha'Ving bera made, the 
Jesuit Fathers, Ignatius Guignas and Nicolas de 
Gonnor, again took up work among the Sioux at the 
new Fort Beauharaais on Lake Pepin. Although 
driven out for a time by the Foxes, they returned 
and continued with the work some ten years, until 
the Sioux themselves became hostile. In 1736 the 
Sioux massacred an entire exploring party of twenty* 
one persons under command of the yoimger Veren- 
dryeat the Lake of the Woods, just beyond the north- 
ern (international) Minnesota boundary. Among 
those killed was the Jesuit father, Jean-Pierre AuE 
neau. In 1745-6, the Foxes having been finaUv 
crushed, De Lusignan again arranged peace with 
the Sioux, and between them and Uie Ojibwa, and 
four Sioux chiefs returned with him to Montreal. 
On the faU of Canada the Sioux, in 1763, sent dele- 
gates to the English post at Green Bay with proffers 
of friendship and a request for traders. They were 
described as "certainly the greatest nation of In- 
dians ever yet found'', holding all other Indians as 
"their slaves or dogs''. Two thousand of their war- 
riors now had guns, while the other and larger portion 
still depended upon the bow, in the use of which, and 
in dancing, they excelled the other tribes. 

In the winter of 1766-7 the American traveller, 
Jonathan Carver, spent several months with the San- 
tee visiting their burial-eround and sacred cave near 
the present St. Paul^ ana witnessing men and women 
gashing themselves m frenzied grief at their bereave- 
ment. Soon after this period the eastern Sioux defin- 
itively abandoned the MiUe Lac and Leech Lake 
country to their enemies the Ojibwa, with whom the 
hereditary war still kept up. Tlie final engagement 
in this upper region occurred in 1768 when a great 
canoe fleet of Sioux, numbering perhaps five hundred 
warriors, while descendinp[ tne Mississippi from a 
successful raid upon the Ojibwa, was ambushed near 
the junction of Crow Wing River and entirely defeated 
by a much smaller force of the latter tribe. In 1776 
peace was again made between the two tribes through 
the efforts of the English officials in order to secure 
their alliance in the coming Revolutionary struggle. 
The peace lasted until the close of the Revolutionary 
War, in which both tribes furnished conting^ts 
against the American frontier, after which the warriors 
returned to their homes, and the old feud was resumed. 
In the meantime the Teton Sioux, pressing westward, 
were gradually pushing the Arikara (Ree) up the 
Missouri, and by acquu^g horses from the plains 
tribes had become metamorphosed from canoe men 
and gatherers of wild rice into an equestrian race of 
nom^ buffalo hunters. 

Some years after the close of the Revolution, per^ 
haps about 1796, French traders in the Anaencan 
interest ascended the Missouri from St. Louis and 
established posts among the Yankton and Teton. 
In 1804 the first American exploring expedition, 
under Captains Lewis and Clark, ascended the river, 
holding councils and securing the allegiance of the 
Sioux and other tribes, and then crossing the moun- 
tains and descending the Columbia to the Pacific, 
returning over nearly the same route in 1806. * Ac a 

mult of this aoquuntaace die Gist Sionx (Yankton) of ah Indian mother, he had been taken to Canada. 
dtJegation visited Waehin^toa in Ihn latter year, when a small boy, by his French father, a noted 
At the some time, 1806-fi,Xieat«nant Zebulon Pike trader, and placed under the care of a Catholic 
■Bcwded the Missiseippi on a similar errand to the ^ieet, from vhom he acquired eome knowledge of 
Sautee Sioui and other tribes of tiiat region. In this Frraich and of the Christian reli^on. The death of 
be was succtWul and on 23 September, 1805, nego- his father a few years later and his cooiequent return 
tiated the firat treaty of the Siouz with the United to the Sioux country put an end to his educational 
States, by which they ceded lands in the vidnity of opportunity, but the early impression thus made was 
the present St. Paul for the eetabliehment of military never effaced. On coming to manhood and suoeeed- 
posbi, at the same time ^ving up their Engiiah flags ing to bis father's business he sent across tiie ooeon, 
ftnd medals and acceptmg American one«. Up to probably through Dickson, the British tnder, tot a 
thJB period and for some years later the rapidly French Bible (which, when it came, was Proteatant) 
diverging bands of the east and west still held an and tben hired a cLerk who could read it to him. On 
annusJ reunion east of the lower Jamea River in the establi^ment 
eaHtam Bouth Dakota. In 1S07 Manuel Lisa, founder of the poet at 
rf the AmericanFurCompany, "the most activeand Prairie du Chien 
indefatigable trader that St. Louis ever produced'.' he brought down 
(Chittenden), established head(]uarters amon^ the his Indian wife 
Bioux, at Cedar Island, below the present Pierre, and had her regu- 
S. D.. later moving down to about the present larly married to 
Chamberlain. Lisa was a Spaniard, and like hie him by a Catholic 
PrMich associates, Chouteau, M^ard, and Trudeau, priest, he himself 
was a Catholic. At his seversJ trading posts among having previously 
the Teton and Yankton Sioux, and the Omaha lower instructed her in 
down the river, he showed the Indians how to plant religion as well as 
gardens and care for cattle and hogs, beBidee setting he could. When 
up blacksmith shops for their benefit, without charge, the Congregation- 
and caring for their aged and helpless, so that it was atists arrived he 
said that he was better loved by the Sioux than any welcomed them as 
other white man of his time. Being intensely Amer- bringing Chrie- 
icsn in feeling, he was appointed first government tianity, even 
agent for the upper Missouri River tribes, and by his .thou^ not of the 
great inSuence with them held them steady for the form of bia child- 
United States throughout the War of 1812, notwith- hood teacher. He 
standing that most of the eastern, or Santce, Sioux, died in 1846. 
through the efforts of Tecumtha and a resident Brit- In 1841 Father 
ish trader, Robert Dickson, declared for England and Augustine Ravoux 

furnished a contingent against Fort Meigs. Lisa began work among the Santee in the neidlhouHiood 
died in 1820. At the close of the war, by a series of of Fort Snelling, near which Father Galtier had just 
five similar treaties made 15 July, 1815, at Portage built a log chapel of St. Paul, around which grew the 
des Sioux, above St. Louis, the various Sioux bands modem city. Applying himself to tie study of the 
made then peace with the United States and finally language, in which he soon became proficient. Father 
acknowledged its sovereignty. Other late hostile R&vouxin 1843repairedtoPrairicdu Chien, and there 
tribes made peace at the same time. This great with his own hands printed a small devotional work, 
treaty gathering, the most important ever held with "Katolik Wocekiye Wowapi Kin", which is stQl 
the tribes of the Middle West, marks the beginning used as a mission manual. He continued with the 
of their modem history. In 1820 Fort Snelling was tribe for several years, extending his ministrations 
built at the present Minneapolis to control the Santee also to the Yankton, until recalled to parish work. 
Sioux and Ojibwa, an agency being also established As carlv at least as 1840 the greatJesuitapostleof the 
at the same time. In 1825 another peat treaty North-West, Father P. J. De Smet, had visited the 
uttherio^ was convened at Prairie du Chien tor the bands along the Missouri River, where Father Chris- 
delimitation of tribal boundaries to put an end to tian Hoecken had preceded him in 1837, instructing 
inter-tribal wars, and clear the way for future land adults and baptizing children. Father De Smet 
cessions. At this po'iod, and for years after, the made several other brief stops later on his way to and 
Sioux led bU other tribes in the volume of their fur from the Rocky Mountain mirarions, and in the mun- 
trade, consisting chiefly of buffalo robes and beaver mer of 1848 spent several months in the camps of the 
Ains. BrulS and Ogalala, whom he found well disposed to 
With the establishment of permanent government Christianity. In 1850 Father Hoecken was again 
relations regular mission work be^on. In 1834 the with the Yankton and Teton, but the design to cetab- 
brothers Samuel and Gideon Pond, for the Congre- lish a permanent mission was frustrated by hia 

Etionaliats, located among the Santee at Lake Cal- untimely death from cholera, 19 June, 1851. In the 

un, near the present St. Paul, Minn, In 1835 the same summer Father Dc Smet attended the great 

same denomination established other missions at inter-tribal gathering at Fort Laramie, where for 

Lake Harriet and I.r.c-qui-I'arle, Minn,, under Rev, several weeks he preached daily to the Sioux and other 

J. D. Stevens and Thimas Williamson respectively, tribes, bap tiling over fifteen hundred chiMren. From 

In 1837 Williamson wan joined by Rev, Stepnen Ri^ that period until his death in 1872 a large portion 

and his son Alfred, In 1^.12 the two last-named mis- of hia time was given to the western Sioux, among 

aom were removed to th* upper Minnesota in con- whom his influence was so great that he was several 

sequence of a treaty cession. All of these workers times called in by the Government to assist in treaty 

are known for their linguistic contributions as well negotiations, notably in the great peace treaty n 

as (or thoir missionary service. In 1837 a. Lutheran 1888. 

missian was eat^lished at Red Wing and continued In 1837 the Sioux sold all of their rcmainmg terri- 

for some years. Theeuccessfulestablishment of these tory east of the Mississippi. In the winter of 1837-8 

_.._! - - g jyg (jijefly to the encouragement and smallpox, introduced from a passing steamer, swept 

tTorded by Joseph Renville, a remaricable over all the tribes of the upper Missouri River, killing 

rhostoodbighintherespect and affection perhaps 30,000 Indians, of whom a large proportion 

m Sioux. Burn in the wildemees in 1779 were Sktux. About the same time the war with the 




Ojibwa on the eastfirn frontier broke out again with 
greater fury than ever. In a battle near the present 
Stillwater, Minn., in June, 1839| some 60 Oiibwawere 
slain and shortly afterward a Sioux raidins party 
surprised an Ojibwa camp in the absence of the war- 
riors and brought away 91 scidps. In 1851 the var- 
ious Santee bands sold all their remaining hnds in 
Minnesota and Iowa, excepting a twenty-mile strip 
along the upper Minnesota River. Although there 
were then four missions among the Santee, the major- 
ity of the Indians were reported to have "an invete- 
rate hatred" of Christianity. In March. 1857, on 
some trifling provocation, a small band of renegade 
Santee, under an outlawed chief, Inkpaduta, ''scar- 
let Point,'' attacked the scattered settlements about 

risons and the general unrest consequent upon the 
Civil War also encouraged to revolt. The trouble 
began 2 August with &n attack upon the agency store- 
house at R»iwood, where five thousand Indians were 
awaiting the distribution of the delayed annuity 
supplies. The troops were overpowered and the 
commissary goods seized, but no other damage 
attempted. On 17 Aug. a small ^arty of hunters, 
being refused food at a settler's cabin, massacred the 
family and fled with the news to the camp of Little 
Crow, where a general massacre of all the whites and 
Christian Indians was at once resolved upon. Within 
a week almost cver^ farm cabin and small settle- 
ment in Southern Mmnesota and along the adjoining 
border was wiped out of existence and most of the 

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As defined by Treaties In 1825, 

vttli Moug BcMnratloDi ■• Cxbtliiff !■ ISM 

gl^ Sioux Territory V7^ Qfihtoa Territory 

i r ■■■1 Terrttorv conquered from the Sioujiby 
[>■ -■ I the Ojibtrn ttithtn the hlstoHe period 

Spirit Lake, on the Iowa-Minnesota border, burning 
houses, massacring about fifty persons, and carrying 
off several women, two of whom were killed later, 
the others being rescued by the Christian Indians. 
Inkpaduta escaped to take an active part in all the 
Sioux troubles for twenty years thereafter. In 
1868 the Yankton Sioux sold all their lands in South 
Dakota, excepting the present Yankton reservation. 
The famous pipestone quarry in south-western Minne- 
sota, whence the Sioux for ages had procured the red 
stone from which their pipes were carved, was also 
permanently reserved to this Indian purik>se. In 
1860 the first Episcopalian work was begim 
among the (Santee) Sioux by Rev. Samuel D. Hin- 

In 1862 occurred the great ''Minnesota outbreak" 
and massacre, involving nearly all the Santee bands, 
brought about by dissatisfaction at the confiscation 
of a large proportion of the treaty funds to satisfy 
traders' claims, and aggravated by a long delay in 
the annuity issue. The weakening of the local gar- 

inhabitants massacred, in many cases with devilish 
barbarities, excepting such as could escape to Fort 
Ridgely at the lower end of the reservation. The mis- 
sionaries were saved by the faithful heroism of the 
Christian Indians, who, as in 1857, stood loyally by 
the Government. I>etermined attacks were made 
under Little Crow upon Fort Ridgely (20-21 Ausust) 
and New Ulm (22 August), the latter defended by a 
strong volunteer force under Judge Charles Flandrau. 
Both attacks were finally repulsed. On 2 Sept. a 
force of 1500 regulars and volunteers under Cobnel 
(afterwards General) H. H. Sibley defeated the hoe- 
tiles at Birch Coulee and again on 23 September at 
Wood Lake. Most of the hostiles now surrendered, 
the rest fleeing in small bands beyond the reach 01 
pursuit. Three hundred prisoners were condemned 
te death by court martial, but the number was cut 
down by President Lincoln to thirty-eight, who were 
hanged at Mankato, 26 December, 1862. They were 
attended by Revs. Rigi^ and Williamson and by 
Father Ravoux, but although the other missionariea 


21 noux 

had been tnenty-five years st&tioned with th« trib? 
and spoke the languEige fluently, thirty-three of the 
whole number elected to die in the C&tholic Church, 
two of the remaining five rejecting all Chriati&n 
ministration. Three years later Father Ravoux 
again stood on the scaffold with two condemned 
warriors of the tribe. 

Two months afKr the outbreak Congress declared 
the Santee treaties abrogated and the Minnesota 
reservations forfeited. One part of the fugitive 
trying to escape to the Yanktonai waa overtaken 
and defeated with great loss by Sibley near Big 

declared hostile, and Gen. W. 8. Usmey was bbqI 
against them. On 3 September, with 1200 men, he 
came upon their camp at Ash Hollow, Western 
Nebraska, and, while pretending to parley on tbeir 
proffer of surrender, suddenly attacked them, kHling 
136 Indians and destroying the entire camp outfit. 

Late in 1863 the Ogalala and Brul€ under their 
chi^s, Red Cloud {MakJipiya-lula) and Spotted Tail 
(Shinli-ifaleihka) respectively, became actively biM- 
tile, inflamed by reports of the Santee outbreak and 
the Civil War in the South. They were joined by 
the Cheyenne and for two years all travel across tlu 

_ . T l«ok refuge 

_i Canada, where they are still domiciled. On 3 
Sept. General Sully struck the main hostile camp 
under Inkpaduta at Whitestonp Hdl, west of Ellen- 
dale, N. D., killing 300 and capturing nearlv as many 
more. On 28 July, 1864, General 8u!!y delivered the 
final blow to the combined hostile force, consisting 
of Santee, Yanktonai, and some northern Teton, 
at Kildeer Mountain on the Little Missouri. The 
prisoners and others of the late hostile bands were 
finally settled on two reservations established for the 
purpose, viz. the (Lower) Yanktonai at Crow Creek, 
S. D., and the Santee at Santee, north-eastern Nebras- 
ka. Here they still remain, being now well advanced 
in civilisation and Christianity, and fairly prosperotis. 
The outbreak ha<) cost the lives of nearly 1000 whiles, 
of whom nearly 700 perished in the first few days of 
the massacre. The Indian Iosh was about double, 
falling abnost entirely upon the Banlee. Panana- 
papi (Strike-the-Rec), head chief of Ihe 3000 Yankton, 
and a Catholic, had steadily held hi.t people loyal and 
the great Bnjl*5 and Ogalala bands of the Teton, 
13,000 strong, had remained neutral. In October. 
1865, at old Fort Sully (near Pierre), 8. D., a general 
treaty of peace was made with the Sioux, and one 
Teton band, the Lower Bruli^, agreeH to come upon a 
reservation. The majority of ihe great Teton divi- 
sion, however, comprising the whole sli'ength of 
the nation west of the Missouri, refused to take part. 

In tike meantime serious trouble had been brewing 
in the West. With the discovery of gold in California 
in 1849 and the consectuent opening of an emigrant 
trail ^ng the North Platte and across the Rocky 
Mountains, the Indians became alarmed at the dis- 
turbance to their buffalo herds, upon which they 
depended for their entire subsistence. The principal 
complainants were the Brul£ and Ogalala Sioux. 
For. the protection of the emigrants in 1849 the Oov- 
emment bought and garrisoned the Ametican Fur 
Company poet of Fort Laramie on the upper North 
Platte, in Wyoming, later making it also an agency 
headquarters. In September, 1851, a great gathering 
of nearly all the tribes and bands of the Northern 
Plains was held at Fort Laramie, and a treaty was 
a^otiated bjf which the^ came to an agreement in 
r^ard to tbeir rival tcrntorial claims, pledged peace 
among themselves and with the whites, and promi!«ed 
not to disturb the trail on consideration of a certain 
annual payment. Father De Smet attended through- 
out the council, leaching and baptizing, and gives 
an interesting account of the gathering, the largest 
ever held wiln the Plains Indian.^. The treaty was 
not ratified and had no permanent effect. On 
17 August, 1854, while the Indians were camped 
about the post awaiting the distribution of the 
annuity goods, occurred the "Fort Laramie Maf*<a- 
cre", by which Lieutenant Grattan and an entire 
detachment of 29 soldiers lost their livee while trying 
to arreat some Bridies who had killed and eaten an 
emigrant's cow. From all the evidence the conflict 
was provoked by the officer's own indiscretion. The 
Indiana then .took forcible possession of the annuity 
goods and left without maldng any attempt upon 
Uu fort or garrison. Tba BraM Sioux were now 

plains wan virtually suspended, in March, 186S, 
they were roused to desperation by the proclamatioQ 
of two new roads to be opened through their beet 
hunting grounds to reach the new gold fields of Mon- 
tana. Under Red Cloud's leadership they notified 
the Go\-emment that they would allow no new roads 
or garrison posts l« be established in their country, 
&nd carried on the war on this basis with such deter- 
mination that by treaty at Fort Ijarainie through a 
peace commission in April-May, 180S, the Govern- 
ment actually agreed to close the "Monlana road" 
that had been opened north from Laramie, and to 
abandon the three posts that had been established 
to protect it. Red Cloud himself refused to fflgn 
untd after ihe troops had been withdrawn. The 
treaty left the territory south of Ihe North Platte 
open to road building, recognized all north of the 
North Platte and east of the Bighorn Mountains » 
uneedi>d Indian twritory, and established Ihe "Great 
Sioux Reservation", nearly equivalent to ai\ of South 
Dakota west of the Missoun. Provision was made 
for an agenej-on the Missouri River and the inaugural 
tion of regular governmental civilizing work. In 
consideration of thus givinif up their old freedom the 
Indians were promised, besides the free aid of black- 
smiths, doctors, a saw mill, etc., a complete suit of 
clothins yearly t<>r thirty yean to svery individoal 
of tba Muida gooeariMd, nuad oo tto aotoal ynrty 

32 8I0UZ 

ceDBUfl. Among the official witnesses were Rev. • 1878 at Pine Ridiee and Rosehudi 8. D., respectively. 

Hinman, the Episcopalian missionary, aad Father This date may be considered to mark the bmnning 

De Smet. This treaty broiight the whole of the of civilization in these two powerful bands. In 1881 

Sioux nation under agency restriction, and with its all the late hostiles in Canada, came in and surren- 

ratification in February, 1869, the five years' war dered. Sitting Bull and his immediate followers, 

came to a close. after being held in confinement for two years, were 

In this war Red Cloud had been the i)rincipal allowed to return to their homes on Standing Rock 

leader, Spotted Tail having been won to.friendsnip reservation. On 5 August, 1881, Spotted Tall was 

earlier through the kindness extended by the officers killed by a rival chief. On 29 July, 1888, Strlke-the- 

at Fort Laramie on the occasion of the death of his Ree. the famous Catholic chief of the Yankton, died 

dau^ter, who was buried there with Christian rites at tne age of 84. 

at her own request. The Cheyenne and Northern In the allotment of Indian agencies to the manage- 
Arapaho also acted with the Sioux. The chief fight- ment of the various religious denominations, in 
ing centered around Fort Kearney, Wyoming, which accord with President Grant's "peace policy" in 
Red Cloud himself held under repeated siege, and 1870, only two of the eleven Sioux agencies were 
near which on 21 December, 1866, occurred the" Fet- assigned to the Catholics, namely. Standing Rock 
terman Massacre", when an entire detachment of and Devil's Lake, notwitnstanding that, with the 
80 men under Captain Fetterman was exterminated exception of a portion of the Santee and a few of the 
by an overwhelmmg force of Indians. Bv treaties Yankton, the only missionaries the tribe had ever 
in 1867 reservations had been established at Lake known from Allouez to De Smet had been Catholic, 
Inverse, S. D. and at Fort Totten, N. D., for the and most of the resident whites and mixed-bloods 
Sisseton and Wahpeton Santee and the Cuthead ware of CathcUc ancestry. Santee. Flandreau, and 
Yanktonai, most of whom had been concerned in the Sisseton (Lake Traverse) agencies ot the Santee divi- 
Minnesota outbreak. In 1870 a part of the Christian sion were assigned to the Presbyterians, who had 
Santee separated from their kinsmen in Nebraska already been continuously at work among them for 
and removed to Flandreau, S. D., and became citi- more than a generation. Yankton Reservation bad 
zens. In 1871, despite the protest of Red Cloud and been occupied jointly by Ptesbyterians and Epifico- 
other leading chiefs, the Northern Pacific railway palians in 1869, as was Chevenne River reservation 
was constructed along the south bank of the Yellow- in 1873. Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Lower Brul4 and 
stone and several new posts built for its protection, Crow Creek reservations, comprising nearlv one-half 
and war was on again with the Teton Sioux, Chey- the tribe, were given to the Episcopalians, who erected 
enne, and part of the Arapaho. Several skirmishes buildings between 1872 (Crow Creek) and 1877 (Pine 
occurred, and in 1873 General G. A. Custer was or- Ridge). At Devil's Lake an industrial boarding 
dered to Dakota. In the next year, while hostilities school was completed and opened in 1874 in charge 
were still in progress. Custer made an exploration of of Benedictine Fathers ana Grey Nun Sisters of 
the Black Hills, S. D., and reported gold. Despite Charity. At Standing Rock a similar school was 
the treaty and the military, there was at once a great opened in 1877 in charge of Benedictine priests and 
rush of miners and others into the HiUs. The Sisters. Thus by 1878 regular mission plants were 
Indians refusing to sell on any terms offered, the in operation on every Sioux reservation. Other 
military patrol was withdniwn, and mining towns at Catholic foundations were begun at Crow Creek and 
once sprang up all through the mountains. Indians Rosebud in 1886, at Pine Ridge in 1887, and at Che^- 
hunting by aeents' permission in the disputed tern- enne River in 1892. In 1887 the noted secular nus- 
tory were ordered to report at their agencies by 31 sionary priest, Father Francis M. J. Craft, opened 
January, 1876, or be considered hostile, but even the school at Standing Rock and later succeeded in 
runners who carried the message were unable to organizing in the tribe an Indian sisterhood which, 
return, by reason of the severity of the winter, until however, was refused full ecclesiastical recognition, 
after war had been actually declared. This is com- In 1891 he removed with his community to the Fort 
monly known as the "Custer War" from its central Berthold reservation, N. D., where for some years 
event, 25 June, 1876, the massacre of General Custer the Sioux Indian Sisters proved valuable auxiliaries, 
and every man of a detachment of the Seventh particularly in instructing the women and nursing 
Cavalry, numbering 204 in all, in an attack upon the the sick of the confederated Grosventres, Arikara, 
main camp of the hostile Sioux and Cheyenne, on and Maijdan. Later on several of them won eom- 
the Little Bi^om River in south-eafltern Montana, mendation as volunteer nurses in Cuba during the 
On that day and the next, in the same vicinitv. other Spanish War. This zealous sisterhood is no longer 
detachments under Reno and Benteen sustained aesper- in existence. In 1889, after long and persistent 
ate conflicts with the Indians, with the loss of some opposition by the older chiefs, the "Great Sioux 
sixty more killed. The Indians, probably numbering Reservation" was cut in two and reduc^ by 
at least 2500 warriors with their mnilies, finally with- about one half by a treaty cea^ion which inchided 
drew on the approach of Generals Terry and Gibbons almost all territory between White and Cheyenne 
from the norfia. TTie principal Sioux commanders Rivers, S. D., and all north of Cheyenne River west 
were Crazy Horse and Gall, although SiUing Bull of 102°. The ceded lands were thrown open to 
was also present. Red Cloud and Spotted Tail had settlement by proclamation in the next spring, and 
remained at their agencies. were at once occupied by the whites. In the mean- 
Several minor engagements later in the year resulted time pajrment for the lands was delayed, the annuity 
in the surrender and return of most of the hostiles to goods failed to arrive until the winter was nearhr over, 
the reservation, while Sitting BuU and Gall and their the crops had failed through attendance of the Indians 
immediate following escaped into Canada (June, at the treaty councils in the preceding spring, epi- 
1877). By a series of treaties negotiated 23 Sept.- demic diseases were raging in the camps, and as the 
27 Oct., 1876^ the Sioux surrendered the whole of final straw Congress, despite previous promise, cut 
the Black Hills oountiy and the western outlet, down the beef ration by over four million pounds 
On 7 Sept, 1877, Crazy Horse, who had come in with on the ground of the stipulated money payment, 
lus band some months before, was Idlled in a conflict which, however, had not arrived, 
with the guard at Fort Robinson, Neb. In the same A year before rumours had come to the Sioux of a 
month tl^ last hostiles surrendered. Soon after the new Indian Messiah arisen beyond the moimtains 
treaty a large del^^ation visited Washington, following to restore the old-time Indian life, together with their 
which event the Red Cloud (Ogabla) and Spotted dei)arted friends, in a new earth from which the 
Tail (Biul6) agencies were ponaw^ently established in whites should be excluded. Several tribes, including 




the Siouzy sent delegates to the home of the Messiah, 
in Western Nevada, to investigate the rumour. The 
first delegation, as well as a second^ confirmed the 
truth of the report, and in the sprmg of 1890 the 
ceremonial ''Gnost Dance," intended to hasten the 
fulfilment of the prophecy, was inaugurated at Pine 
Ridge. Because of its strong appeal to the Indians 
under the existing conditions, the Dance soon spread 
among other Teton reservations until the Indians were 
in a frensy of reli^ous excitement. The newly- 
appointed agent at Pme Ridge became frightened and 
cafied for troops, thus precipitating the outbreak of 
1890. By 1 December 3000 troops were disposed in the 
neidibourhood of the western Sioux reservations the 
und^ orders of General Nelson Miles. Leading 
events of the outbreak were: the killing of Sitting 
Bidl, his son, and six others on 15 December, at his 
camp on Grand River, Standing Rock reservation, 
while resisting arrest by the Indian police, six of whom 
were killed in the encounter; the flight of Sitting Bull's 
followers and others of Standing Rock and Cheyenne 
River reservations into the Bad Lands of western 
South Dakota where they ioined other refugee 
''hostiles" from Pine Ridge ana Rosebud; the fight at 
Wounded Knee Creek, twenty miles north-east of 
Fine Ridge agency, 29 December, 1890, between a 
band of surrenderea hostiles under Big Foot and a 
detachment of the Seventh Cavalry under Colonel 
Forsyth. On 16 Jait,1891, the hostiles surrendered to 
General Miles at Pine Ridge, and die outbreak was at 
an end. With the restoration oi peace, grievances were 
adjusted and the work of civilisation resumed. 
Under provision of the general allotment law of 1887 
negotiations were concluded from time to time with 
the various bands by which the size of the reserva- 
tions was still further curtailed, and lands allotted 
in severalty^ until now almost au of the Sioux Indi- 
ans are individual owners and well on the way to 
full citLsenship. Indian dress and adornment are 
nearly obsolete, together with the tipi and aboriginal 
ceremonial, and the great majoritv are clothed in 
citizen's dress, living in comfortable small houses 
with modem furniture, and engaged in farming and 
stock raising. The death of the old chief, Red Cloud, 
at Pine Ri&e in 1909, removed almost the last link 
binding the Sioux to their Indian past. 

Rbuoioub Status. — in 1909 nearly 10,000 of the 
25,000 Sioux within the United States were officially 
reported as Christians. The proportion is now 
probably at least one-half, of whom about half are 
Catholic, the others being chiefly Episcopalian and 
Pr^byterian. The Catholic missions are: Our 
Lady of Sorrows, Fort Totten, N. D. (Devil's Lake 
Res.), Benedictine; St. Elizabeth, Cannonball, N. D. 

?ltandinK Rock Res.), Benedictine; St. Peter, Fort 
ates, N. D. (Standing Rock Res.), Benedictine; 
St. James, Poroupine (Shields P. O.), N. D. (Stand- 
mg Rock Res.), Benedictine; St. Benedict, Stand- 
mg Rock Agency, S. D. (Standing Rock Res.), Bene- 
dictine; St. Alovsius, Standing Rook Agency, S. D., 
(Standing Rock Res.), Benedictine; St. Edward, 
Standing Rock Agency, S. D., (Standmg Rock Res.)» 
Benedictine: St. Bede, Standing Rock Agency, S. D. 
^tanding Rock Res.), Benedictine; Immaculate 
Conception, Stephan, S. D. (Oow Creek Res.). 
Benedictine; St. Matthew, Veblen Co. (Britten P. O.J 
8. D. (former Sisseton Res.), secular; (Jorpus Christ i, 
Chevenne River Agency. S. D. (CUhey. R. Res.), 
secular; St. Francis, Rosebud^ S. D. (Rosebud Res.), 
Jesuit; Holy Rosary, Pine Rid^e, S. D. (Pine Ridge 
Res.). Jesuit. The two Jesuit missions maintain 
boarding-schools, and aro assisted by Franciscan 
Sisters.^ The Immaculate Conception mission also 
maintains a boarding-school, with Benedictine Sis- 
ters. At the Fort Totten mission a monthly paper, 
"Sma Sapa Wocekiye Taeyanpaha" (Black-gown 
Prayer Herald), entirely in the Sioux language, is 

published under the editorship of Father -Jerome 
Hunt, who has been, with the mission from its foun- 
dation. Notable events in the religious life of the 
tribe are the Catholic Sioux congresses held in the 
summer of each year, one in North and one in South 
Dakota, which are attended by many high church 
dignitaries and mission workers and several thousands 
of Catholic Indians. Of some 470 Christian Sioux 
in Canada about one-fourth are Catholic, chiefly at 
Standing Buffalo Reservation, Saak., where they are 
served from the Oblate mission school at Qu'AppeUe. 

Organization and Culture. — ^The Sioux were 
not a compact nation with centralized government 
and supreme head chief, but were a confederacy of 
seven allied sub-tribes speaking a common lanyiaae. 
each with a recognized head chief and each subdivixfsa 
into bands or viUages governed by subordinate chiefs. 
The seven sub-tribes, from east to west, were: (1) 
Mdewakantonwan (Mde-wakanton) Village (people) 
of the ^irit Lake (i.e. Mille Lac); (2) Wakhpekute 
''I^al Shooters''; (3) Wakhpetonwan (Wahpeton), 
''Village in the Leaves'': (4) Sisitonwan (Sisseton), 
''Village of the Marsh"; (5) Ihanktonwan (Yankton), 
"Village at the End"; (6) Ihanktonwanna (Yank- 
tonai), "Little Yanktcm"; (7) Titonwan (Teton), 
"Villako of the Prairie". Of these, the finst four, 
origintJlv holding the heads of the Mississippi, con- 
stitute the Isanti (Santee) or eastern, dialectic group : 
The Yankton and Yanktonai, about the lower ana 
upper courses of the James River respectively, 
together with the Assiniboin tribe constitute the 
central dialectic group. The great Teton division, 
west of the Missouri and comprising three-fifths oi 
the whole nation, constitutes a third dialectic group. 
The Toton are divided into seven principal bands, 
commonly known as Ogalala (at Pine Ridge); Brul!§ 
(at Rosebud and Lower Brul6); Hunkpapa (at 
Standing Rock); Blackf(X)t (at Standing Rock and 
Cheyenne River); Minlconjii, Sans-Arc, and Two 
Kettle (Cheyenne River). Among the more seden- 
tary eastern bands chiefship seems to have been 
hereditarv in the male line, but with the roving west- 
em banas it depended usually upon pre-eminent 
ability. In their original home about the heads of 
the Mississippi the Sioux subsisted chiefly upon wild 
rice, fishy and small game, and were expert canoe 
men, but as they drifted west into the plains and 
obtained possession of the horse their whole manner 
of life was changed, and they became a race of equefr- 
trian nomads, subsisting almost entirely upon the 
buffalo. They seem never to have been agncultural 
to anv great extent. Their dwelling was the birch- 
bark todxfi in the east and the biiffalo-skin tipi on the 
plain. Their dead were sometimes deposited in a 
coffin upon the surface of the ground, but more often 
laid upon a scaffolding or in the tree-tops. Food and 
valuables were left with the corpse, and relatives gashed 
their bodies with knives and cut off their hair in token 
of grief. Besides the knife, bow, and hatchet of the 
forest warrior, they carried also on the plains the lance 
and shield oi the horseman. Polygamy was recog- 
nized. There was no clan system. 

To the Sioux the earth was a great island plain 
surrounded by an ocean far to the west of which was 
the spirit world. There were two souls — some said 
four — one of which remained near the grave after 
death, while the other travelled on to the spirit 
world, or in certain cases became a wandering and 
dangerous ghost. In the west also, in a magic house 
up)on the top of a high mountain and guarded by 
four sentinel animals at the four doorways, lived the 
Wakinyan. or thunders, the greatest of the gods, 
and mortal enemies of the subterranean earth spirits 
and the water spirits. The sun also was a great 
god. There was no supreme "Great Spirit'-, as 
supposed by the whites, no ethical code to their 
superoaturalism, and no heaven or hell in their 




spirit world. Among animals the buffalo waa natu* 
raUy held in highest veneration. Fairies and strange 
monsters, both good and bad, were everywhere, 
usually mvisible, but sometimes revealing them- 
selves in warning portent. Dreams w»« held as 
direct revelations of the supernatural. Taboos, 
fastins, and sacrifices, including voluntary torture, 
were frequent. Among the great ceremonials the 
annual sun dance was the most important, on which 
occasion the principal performers danced at short 
intervals for four days and nights, without food, 
drink, or sleef), undergoing at the same time painful 
bodily laceration, either as a propitiation or in ful- 
filment of a thanksgiving vow. The several warrior 
orders and various secret societies each had their 
special dance, and for young girls there was a puberty 
ceremony. (For cults and home life see works of 
Dorsey and Eastman quoted in bibliography below.) 
In physique, intellect, morality, and general manli- 
ness the Sioux rated among the finest of the Plains 
tribes. Under the newer conditions the majority 
are now fairly industrious and successful farmers and 

Language and Literature. — ^The Sioux language 
is euphonious, sonorous, and flexible, and possesses a 
more abundant native literature than that of any 
other tribe within the United State8,with the possible 
exception of, the Cherokee.. By means of an al[)habet 
system devised bv the early Presbyterian mission- 
aries, nearly all of the men can read and write their 
own language. The printed literature includes 
religious wonts, school textbooks, grammars, and 
dictionaries, miscellaneous publications, and three 
current mission journals. Catholic, as already noted, 
Presb3rterian, and Episcopal^ all three entirelv in 
Sioux. The earliest publication was a spelling-book 
by Rev. J. D. Stevens in 1836. In linguistics the 
principal is the '^Grammar and Dictionary of the 
Dakota Language", by Rev. S. R. Riggs, published 
by the Smitfa^nian Institution, Washington, in 1852, 
and republished in part, with editing by Dorsey, by 
the Bureau of Am. Ethnology , Washington, in 1892-4. 

Population. — Contrary to the usual rule with 
Indian tribes, the Sioux have not only held their 
own since the advent of the whites, but have appar- 
ently slightly increased. This increase, however, is due 
largely to incorporation of captives and intermarriage 
of whites. We have no reliable estimates for the 
whole tribe before 1849, when Governor Ramsoj' 
gave them "not over 20,000", while admitting that 
some resident authorities gave them 40,000 or more. 
Ri^ in 1861 gives them about 25,000, but under- 
estimates the western (Teton) bands. By official 
census of 1910 they number altogether 28,618 souls, 
including all mixed-bloods, distributed as follows: 
Minnesota, scattered, about 929: Nebraska, Santee 
agency. 1155; North Dakota, Devil's Lake (Fort 
Totten) agency l986: Standing Rock agency, 3454; 
South Dakota, Flanareau agency, 275, Lower Brul6, 
469, Crow Creek, 997, Yankton, 1753, Sisseton, 
1994, Cheyenne River, 2590, Rosebud, 5096, Pine 
Ridge, 6758 . Canada : Birdtail, Oak Lake, Oak River, 
Turtle Mountain, Portage La Prairie (Manitoba), 
613; Wahspaton, Standing Buffalo, Moosej aw, Moose 
Woods (Sask.). 455. Those in Canada are chiefly 
descendants of refugees from the United States 
in 1862 and 1876. 

Bbtant ako MtmcH, Bist. of the Oreat Massacre hy the Sioxtx 
indiana (St. Peter, 1872); Bureau Cath. Ind. Misaions, Annual 
Reports of the Director (Washington) ; Annual Reports of the Dept. 
of Ind. Affairs (Ottawa, Canada); Carvkr, Traeda through 
the Interior Parts of AT. Am. (1766-8) (London, 1778, and later 
editions); Catun, Manners, Customs arui Condition of the y. Am, 
Inds. (London, 1841, and later editions) ; Chxttxkdbn. Am. Fur 
Trade (New York, 1902) ; CHnrrBNOBN and Richardson, Life, 
Letters and Travels of Fr. Pierre- Jean De Smet, (New York. 1906); 
CoioassiONCR OF lm>. Aftairs. Annual Reports (Washington) ; 
CondiHon of ths Indian Tribes, Report of Joint Special Committer 

g^MhiagtoD, 1867)2 DqsaxT, Study of Siottan CuU$, in lith 
ejK. Bur, Am. Eih, (Washington. 1894); KAVtuxn, Indian 

Boyhood (New York. 1002); Idkm, Wigwam Kvening§ {BotMa, 
1909): Vutwmn, Warpaik and Biaouat (Chicago. 1890)$ JSxt- 
VKH, Conts. to the Sthnography and Pkilolooy cf the /no. Tritm 
of the Misaotari VaUey in Tnme. Am, Philos. Soe., n. s., XII (Phtt- 
adelpbaa, 1862); Hxnnbpxn, Dieoription de la Louisiane (Paris, 
1683). tr. Sbka (New York, 1880) : HxNiuar and Wslab. /eumot 
of the Rev, S, D. Hinman (Philadelphia, 1869): Jesuit Relatione, 
ed. Thwaites, 73 vols., especially Ottaira and Illinois, Ir—lXXl 
(Cleveland, 1896-1901); Indian Affaire: Laws and Treaties, 
ed. Kaffjlbb. (Washington. 1903-4); Kxaumo, Expedition 
iLono's) to the Sources of St, Peter's River (Philadelphia, 1824. 
and later editions) ; Lswis and Clark, Original Journals of the 
Expedition of J 804-0, ed. Tbwaitbb,8 vols. (New York, 1904-6, 
numerous other editions more or lees ooxnplete, the fir^ offioia) 
report being contained in the Message from the President, Waidir 
ington, 18()6) ; McGee. Siouan Indians In I6th Rept, Bur, Am. 
Euinologv (Washington, 1897); McKbnnxt and Hall, Hiet. 
Ind. Tribes of North Am. (Philadelphia, 1854. and other ed>> 
tiona); McLauohlin, My Friend the Indian (Boston, 1910); 
Mallert, Ptctographs of the AT. Am. Indians In 4th Rept. Bur. 
Am. Ethnology (Washington, 1886); Idkm, Picture Writing eg 
the Am. Inds. in JOth Rept, Bur, Am^ Ethnology {Wasfaingtoiw 
1893); Margrt. Dieouvertes et Hablieeements des Frantaie 
(6 vols., Paris, 1879-86) ; Maxzmillan, Phincb or Wied, Travels 
in the Interior of N. Am. (London, 1843; original German ed. 
2 vols., Oiblens, 1839-41); Milxb, Personal ReeoUedione (Cfa»> 
casp. 1896); Minnesota Hist. Soc* Colls. (187^1905); MooNsr* 
Siouan Tribes of the East, Bull. Si, Bureau Am. Ethndogy (Wasl^ 
ington, 1895; Idem, The Ghost Dance Religion and Sioux Out- 
break of 1800 in 14th Rept. Bur. Am. Ethnology, II (Washington. 
1896): Neill. Hist, of Minnesota (Philadelphia, 1858); New 
York, DocumtrUe Relating to the Colonial Hist, of (15 vols., 
Albany, 1853-87)Nicollet„ Report on . . . Upper Missiesivpi 
(Senate Doc.) (Washington, 1843); North Dakota Hist. Soe. 
CoUa. (2 vols., Bismarck, 1906-8) ; Parkman. Oregon Trail (New 
York, 1849, and later editions); Perrin du hAC, Voyages dans 
les deux Louisianes, 1801^ (Paris and Lyons, 1805): nxB, Expe- 
dition to the Sources of tl^ Mississippi (Philadelphia, 1810); 
PiLUXO, Bibl. of the Siouan Languages, Bull. 5, Bur, Am. EthnoU 
ogy (Washington, 1887); Poole. Among the Sioux of Dakota 
(Now York, 1881); Ramset, Report on Sioux in Rept. Comener. 
Ind. Affairs for 1849 (Washington, 1850); Ravoux. Reminie' 
cences. Memoirs and Lectures (St. Paul, 1890); Riooa, The Dakota 
Language in Colls. Minn. Hist. Soe., I (St. Paul, 1851, reprint 
St. Paul, 1872) ; Idem, Grammar and Diet, of the Dakota Lan- 
guage: Smithsonian Contributions, IV (Washington, 1852); Idrm, 
Tahkoo Wahkan. or the Gospel among the Dakotas (BoeUm, 1869); 
Idem, Mary and I: Forty Years with the Sioux (Chicago. 1880); 
Robinson, Hist, of the Sioux Indians in CotU. South Dakota 
Hist. Soe., II (Aberdeen. &.D., 1904): RorcE and TaoMAa; 
Indian Land Cessions in 18th Rept. Bur. Am. Ethnology, II (Wash- 
ington, 1899); Schoolcraft, Travels . . . to the Sources 
of the Mississippi (Albany, 1821); Idem, Hist. Condition and 
Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the U. S. (6 vols., Philadel- 
phia. 1851-7); Sheridan (in charm). Record of Engagements urith 
Hostile Indians, etc., 1868-1882 (Washin^on, 1882) ; Shea, HisL 
of the Catholic Missions among the Indian Tribes of the V. 8. 
(New York, 1865): Idem, Disc, and Expl. of the Miseiseippi Val- 
ley (New York, 1852; and Albany. 1903); Dx Smbt, Oregon 
Missions (New York, 1847; Fr. editk>n, Ghent. 1848); 
Idem, Western Missione and Missionaries (New York. 1863); 
(see also CHrmmms and Richardson), South Dakota Hiet. 
Soe. Colls. (3 vols., Aberdeen, 8. D.. 1902-6); Wall, ReeoUee- 
tions of the Siotix Massacre (1862) (Lake City, Minn., 1909); 
Warhen. Explorations in the Dakota Country, 1865, Senate 
Doc. (Washington. 1856); Waiuien. Hist, of the Ojibstays in 
Minn. Hist. Soe. Colls., V (St. Paul, 1885): Whipple, lAghU 
and Shadours of a lAtng Episcopate (New York, 1899) ; Wiseonein 
Hist. Soe Colls. (16 vols., Madison. 1855-1902). 

Jamxs Moonet. 

Sipibo IndianSp a numerous tribe of Panoan lin- 
guistic stock, formerly centring about the Pisqui and 
Aguailia tributaries oT the upper Ucayali River, Prov- 
ince of Loreto. north-eastern Peru, and now found as 
boatmen or labourers along the wnole course of that 
stream. They speak the same language aa the 
Conibo, Pano, ana Setebo, whom they resemble in 
habit and ceremonial. 

The Sipibo became known about the same time as 
their cognate tribes early in the seventeenth century^ 
but opposed a determined resistance to the entrance 
of lx)th gold-hunters and missionaries (1657), for a 
long time frustrating all Christianizing efforts in th« 
Ucayali region by their constant raids upon the mis- 
sion settlements, particularly of the Setebo. In 1670, 
in common with other tribes of that region, they were 
greatly wasted bv smallpox. In 1736 thev broke the 
power of the Setelx) in a bloody battle, but in 1764 the 
Franciscan Father Juan de Frezneda entered their 
country and so far won their good will that he suc- 
ceeded in making peace between the two tribes and 
in the next year (1765) established the first misBion 
among the Sipibo under the title of Santo Domingo 

81PIB0 2 

de Piaqui. This waa Bborttf faUotrad hj the fouading 
of S&nta Barbarft de Arcaani and Santa Ciui de 
Aguaitia in the same tribe, together with » resum[>- 
tioQ of work among the Conibo, first undertaken in 
168G. Among other labourers in the Sipibo field at 


this period waa.Father Jos* Amich, author of a history 
of the ITcayaU missions. Suddenly and without wam- 
ios in the summer of 1766 nil the river tribes attnckcd 
the missions (iimultaneously, slsughtered nine of the 
misaionaries together with their neophytes, and com- 
pletely destroyed all that had been accomplished by 
years of persevering sacrifice. Rungalo, a Sctebo 
chief, who had profesaeil the greiiteat friendship for 
the missionaries, appears to have benn the leader. 
The reason of the outbreak was never known. It may 
have been jealousy of authority, impatience of re- 
strant, covetousncBs of the mission propeity, some 
unrecorded outrage by the Spaniards on the frontier, 
some dream, or supLTstitious panic such as arc of so 
frequent occurrence among savages. A sraall relief 
expedition sent out in charge oF three Franciscans the 
next year Icampil the details of the massacre, and wa« 
forced to turn back, but was permitted to retire with- 
out molestation. 

This la.st rising of the wild tribes of the middle 
Ucayah was in some measure an echo of a similar 



u bdD« pnwed oul. 

rising of the wild Campa tribes on the upper branohes 
of the same atream in 1742, led by Juan Santos, an 
apostate Quiehua IndlMi, who assumed the title of the 
InCA Atahualpa (we QmcarA), and resulting in the 


deBtruotion of all the missiona of that Kgion and the 
slaughter of nearly eighty Fraooiscan missionaries. 
Of this rising of the Campa, Herndon says: "It is 
quite evident that no distaste for the Cathoho reli^oa 
induced this rebeUioa; for in ihe year 1750, eight 
years afterward, the Marquis of Miu»-henQOsa, 
marching into this country for the punishment of the 
rebels, found the churclt at Quimisi in perfect order, 
with caudles buminK before tne images, lie burned 
the town and church, and six years after this, when 
another entrance into this country was made by Gen- 
eral Bustamentc, he found the town rebuilt and a 
large cross erected in the ihiddlo of the placa. I have 
had occasion myself to notice the respect and rev- 
erence of these Indian.'^ for their pastors, and their 
deUght in participating in the ceremonial and sense- 
strikii^ worship of the Roman Church." A similar 
instance is recorded of the revolted Pueblos (q. v.), 
aa also of the unconverted Set^bo. Following oloae 
upon the massacre of 1706 came the expulsion of the 
Jesuits by royal decree in the following year, and the 
Ucayali region was ^iveu over to bartiariBm until 
1791, when by direction of the superior of the FYan- 
ciHcan college of Ocopa, Father Narciso Girbal with 
two companions once more braved the wildemess 
dangers and made " ' 

successful founda- 
tion at Sarayacu 
(q. V.) inti which 
mission and its 
branches most of 
the wandering 
river Indians were 
finally gathered. 

A description 
of the Sipibo will 
answer m most, 
of its details for 
all the tribes of 
the Ucayali and 
Huallaga region, 
within the former 
sphere of influence 
of the Francisotui 
misBionaries, with 
the addition that 
certain tribes, 

partieulorly the ^ Sinso Trn 

Coshibo, were 

noted for their CMinibslism. There was verv little tribal 
solidarity, each so-called tribe being broken up into 
petty bands ruled by local chiefs, and seldom acting 
together even Mainst a common enemy. They sub- 
aiiSed chiefly on fish, game, turtlet^gs, bananas, yuccas, 
and a little com, iwriculture, however, being but 
feebly developed. The root of the yucca was roasted 
ai) bread, ground between stones for flour, boiled or 
fried, while from the juice, fermented with saliva, 
was prepared the intoxicating maisato or chietui, which 
was in requisition at all family or tribal festivals. 
Salt was seldom used, but clay-eating was common 
and sometimes of fatal consequence. Their houses, 
seattered simply at intervals along the streams, were 
of open framework thatched with palm leaves. 
The arrow poison, usually known as evrari, was pre- 
;>ared from the |uice of certain lianas or tree vmes 
and was an article of inlertribal trade over a great 
extent of territory. They either went entirely 
naked or wore a short skirt or sleeveless shirt 
woven of cotton or bark fibre. Head flattening and 
the wearing of nose and ear pendants and labrets 
were common. They blackened their teeth with 
a vegetable dye. The modem dvilised Indians 
dress in light peon fashion. 

Although most of the tribes oould oount no hi^er 
than five, their general mentality wns high, - 
prop^Msed rapidly in oinliwd arts. Theii 

_ -igh, and they 
Their rdigion 




was animism, dominated by the ytUumi or priests, but 
with few great ceremonies. As among all savages, 
disease and death were commonly ascribed to evil 
spirits or witchcraft. Polygamy was universal, the 
women being frequently obtained by raids upon other 
tribes. Among their oarbarous customs were the 
eating of prisoners of war, and sometimes of deceased 
parents, the killing of the helpless and of deformed 
children and twins, and a sort of circumcision of 
young girls at about the age of twelve years. A part 
of the Sipibo still roam the forests, but the majority 
are now civilized and employed as boatmen, rubber- 
gatherers, or labourers along the river. In common 
with all the tribes of the region their numbers are 
steadily decreasing. See also Setebo Indians. 

Cknmult particularly: Raimonoi. Bl Pent, II and III. Hitt, dt la 
040ffra/la dd Peni, bka. i and ii (Lima. 1876-79). Raimondi de- 
rives much of Mb information from a MS. history of the Fran- 
ciscan missions, by Fernando Rodrigues, 1774, preserved in the 
convent at Lima; Ideii« Provineia LUonU de Lordo (Lima, 1862), 
condensed tr. by BobLamr in AfUhropological Heview (Lon- 
don, May, 1863); Brinton, ilfiMrioan Race (New York, 1891); 
Castblnau, BxoSdition dan* le9 partiet centralet de VAmirique 
du Bud, IV (Paru, 1891) ; Ebebhabot, Indians of Peru in Smttk- 
•on. MiteeL CoiU., quarterly issue. V (Washington, 1900), 2; 
HsBNDON. Bxploration of the Amaton (Washington. 1854) ; Ofi- 
DIMAIRE, Lee Sauvaoee du Ptrou in Revue d'Bthnographie, VI 
(Paris, 1887) ; Smtth and Lowe, Jnwmey from lAma to Pard (Lon- 
don. 1836). 

James Moonet. 
Sirach. See EccLEsiASTicns. 

SIrieius. Saint, Pope (384-99), b. about 334; d. 
26 November, 399.' Siricius was a native of Rome; 
his father's name was Tiburtius. Siricius entered the 
service of the Church at an early age and, according 
to the testimony of the inscription on his grave, was 
lector and then deacon of the Roman Church during 
the pontiftcate of Liberius (352-66). After the death 
of iJamasus, Siricius was unanimously elected his 
successor (December, 384) and consecrated bishop 
probably on 17 December. Ursinus, who had been 
a rival to Damasus (366), was alive and still main- 
tained his claims. However, the Emperor Valentinian 
III, in a letter to Pinian (23 Feb.. 385), gave his 
consent to the election that had been neld and praised 
the piety of the newly-elected bishop; consequently 
no oifficulties arose. Immediately upon his eleva* 
tion Siricius had occasion to assert his primacy over 
the universal Church. A letter, in which questions 
were asked on fifteen different points concerning bap- 
tism, penance, church discipUne, and the celibacy of 
the clergy, came to Rome addressed to Pope Dar 
masus by Bishop Himerius of Tarragona, Spain. Siri- 
citB answered this letter on 10 February, 385, and 
gave the decisions as to the matters in question, ex- 
ercising with full consciousness his supreme power 
of authority in the Church (Constant, ^'Epist. Rom. 
Pont.'^ 625 sq.). Tliis letter of Siricius is of special 
importance because it is the oldest completely pre- 
served papal decretal (edict for the authoritative de- 
cision of questions of discipUne and canon law). It is, 
however, certain that before this earlier popes had also 
issued such decretals, for Siricius himself in his let- 
ter mentions ^'general decrees" of Liberius that the 
latter had sent to the provinces; but these earUer ones 
have not been preserved. At the same time the pope 
directed Himerius to make known his decrees to the 
neighbouring provinces, so that they should also be 
observed there. This pope had very much at heart 
the maintenance of Church discipUne and the obser- 
vance of canons by the clergy and laity. A Roman 
synod of 6 January. 386, at which eighty bishops were 
present, reaffirmed in nine canons the laws of the 
Church on various points of discipline (consecration 
of bishops, celibacy, etc.). The decisions of the coun- 
cil were communicated bv the pope to the bishops of 
North Africa and probably in the same manner to 
others who had not attended the synod, with the com- 
mand to act in accordance with them. Another letter 
which was sent to various churches dealt with the eleo* 

tion of worthy bishops and priests. A miodal letter 
to the Galilean bishops^ ascribed by Coustant and 
others to Siricius, is assi^ed to Pope Innocent I b;y 
other historians (P. L., AlII, 1179 sq.). In all his 
decrees the pope speaks with the consciousness of his 
supreme ecclesiastical authority and of his pastoral 
care over all the churches. 

Siricius was also obliged to take a stand against 
heretical movements. A Roman monk Jovinian came 
forward as an opponent of fasts, good works, and the 
higher merit of^ celibate life. He found some ad- 
herents among the monks and nuns of Rome. About 
390-392 the pope held a synod at Rome, at which 
Jovinian and eight of his followers were condemned 
and excluded from communion with the Church. 
The decision was sent to St. Ambrose, the great 
Bishop of Milan and a friend of Siricius. Ambrose 
now held a synod of the bishops of upper Italy 
which, as the letter says, in agreement witn his de- 
cision also condemned the heretics. Other heretics 
including Bishop Bonosus of Sardica (390), who was 
also accused of errors in the dogma of the Trinity, 
maintained the false doctrine that Mary was not 
always a virgin. Siricius and Ambrose opposed 
Bonosus and his adherents and refuted their false 
views. The pope then left further proceedings 
against Bonosus to the Bishop of Thessalonica and 
the other lU^ian bishops. Like his predecessor 
Damasus, Siricius also took part in the Priscillian 
controversy; he sharply condemned the episcopal 
accusers of Priscillian, who had brought the matter 
before the secular court and had prevailed upon the 
usurper Maximus to condemn to death and execute 
Priscillian and some of his followers. Maximus 
sought to justify his action by sending to the pope the 
proceedings in the case. Siricius, however, excom- 
municated Bishop Felix of Trier who supported 
Ithacius, the accuser of PrisciUian, and in whose city 
the execution had taken place. The pope addressed 
a letter to the Spanish bishops in which ne stated the 
conditions under which the converted Priscilliana were 
to be restored to communion with the Church. 

According to the life in the "Liber Pontificalis'' 
(ed. Duchesne, I, 216), Siricius also took severe 
measures against the Manichsans at Rome. How- 
ever, as Duchesne remarks (loc. cit., notes) it can- 
not be assumed from the writings of the converted 
Augustine, who was a Manichsan when he went to 
Rome (383), that Siricius took any particular steps 
against them, yet Augustine woidd certainly have 
commented on this if such had been the case. The 
mention in the ''Liber Pontificalia'' belongs properly 
to the life of Pope Leo I. Neither is it probable, 
as Langen thinks (Gesch. der rdm. Kirche, I, 633), 
that Priscillians are to be understood by this mention 
of ManichsDans, although probably PnscilUans were 
at times called Manichseans in the writings of that 
age. The western emperors, including Honorius 
and Valentinian III, issued laws against the Mani- 
chseons, whom they declared to be poUtical offenders, 
and took severe action against the members of this 
sect (Codex Theodosian, XVI, V, various laws). In 
the East Siricius interposed to settle the Meletian 
schism at Antioch; this schism had continued not* 
withstanding the death in 381 of Meletius at the 
Council of Constantinople. The followers of Mele- 
tius elected Flavian as bis successor, while the ad- 
herents of Bishop PauUnus, after the death of this 
bishop (388), elected Evagrius. Evagrius died in 
392 and through Flavian's management no successor 
was elected. By the mediation of St. John Chrysos- 
tom and Theophilus of Alexandria an embaeqr, led 
by Bishop Acacius of Beroca, was sent to Rome to 
persuade Siricius to recognize Flavian and to re^ 
admit him to communion with the Church. 

At Rome the name of Siricius is particularly con- 
nected with the basiUca over the ipnve of St. Paul 


on t&e Via OstienBia which was rebuilt by the emperor self crested cardinal in 1S05, became Biriiop of San 

aa a baolioa of five aMta duriiig the pontificate of Marco in Calabria in 1566, and of SqiiiOace in IMS. 

SiriciuB and was dedicated by the pope in 390. An order of the papal secretary of stat«, however, en- 

liie name of Siricius is still to be found on one of the joined his residence at Rome, where be was named, in 

pillars that whs not destroyed in the fire of 1823, 1570, librarian of the Vatican Libmy, His iofluenoe 

and which now stands in toe vestibule of the side was paramount in the execution of the aeientific un- 

entrance to the transept. Two of his aontempora- dertakines decreed by the Coimcil of Trent, He ool- 

lies describe the character of Siricius dispara^ngly. laboratcd in the pubucation of the Roman Catechism, 

Paulinns of Nola, who on his viRt to Rome m 39fi presided over the Commissions for the reform of the 

was treated in a guarded manner by the pope, speaks BomBS Breviary and Missal, and directed the work of 

of the ur6tct papm sMperha diterttio, the haughty the new edition of the Roman Martyrology. Highly 

policy of the Rtmian bishop (Epist., V, 14). This appreciative of Greek culture, he entertained very 

action of the pope is, however, explained by the fact fnendly relations with the Elast and encouraged aU 

that there hod been irregularities m the election and efforts tending to ecclesiastical reunion. He was at- 

oonsecration of Paulinus (Buse, "Paulin von Nola", tended in his last illness bjr St. Philip Neri and was 

I, 193). Jerome, for his part, speaks of the "lack buried in the presence of Sixtus V. 

of judgment" of Siricius (Epiat.. cxxvii, 9) on ac- h,?HSS;^r"m^rf^i;Li^.'^ii ^?^'^\h^\^,'- 

oount of the ktter'a treatment d Rufinus of Aqui- S^S^ 

leia, to whom the pope had given a letter when [^ x Webxb 
Rufinus left Rome m 39^, which showed that he 

was in oommunian with the Church. The reason, _ Sfimium (Szer£u), Diocesb of (Sirhibnbib), 

however, does not justify the judgment which Jerome situated near the modem town of Mitrovits in 

expressed against the pope; moreover, Jerome in his Slavonia; its church is said to have been founded by 

polemi«il writings often exceeds the limits of pro- St. Peter. The district of Szer^m was subject to 

I»iety. All that is known of the labours of Sincius the Archbishop of Kalocaa after the Christiam ration 

refutes the criticism of the caustic hermit of Bethle- of Hungary. In 1228, the archbishop petitioned the 

hem. "the "l^bex Pontificalis" gives on incorrect Holy Sec, m consideration of the large extent of his 

date for his death; he was bnried in the txemelerium diocese, to found a new bishopric, and in 1220 

of Priscilla on the Via Salaria. The text of the in- Gregory IX established the See of SzenSm, the juris- 

BCription on his grave is known (De Rossi, "Id- diction of which covered almost exclusively the coun- 

aeriptiones ehrist. urbis Ronue", II, 102^ 138). try on the right bank of the Sava River. The see 

His feast ia odebrated on 26 November. His name was under the Turkish Government in 1526. It had 

was insoled in the Roman Martyrology by Bene- no bishop from 1537 to 1578, and was held by a 

diet XIV. titular bishop after 1624. In 1709 the see was r»- 

Libr Pnar., td. Docamt, h xvi-i'I: Cornxrr. BpM. estabhshed with some changes in its territory. 

g3!S!^£^«'j»^-ij5?ir»;^iBoii;^N^«.^; element XIV united it with Wiia and Diakovftr 

dtrrtat. JC^e**, KBona. 1881), 611 wiq.; Rauscheh. Jahrt. dir m 1773. 

tkriilL Kinlu (Frcibuif, IBST): OuuB. CucA. RtMu u. drr SrtBixTT. Vinditia SfrminuM (Buds, 174fl); Piai^n. 

nWi(*,I,puMm:HamAXMUtk(>W«cA., II, 2iid«d., tS-4S.5t. nivricuH toowa, VU, 440-811; Put, Sptcmm HiarardUaa 

J. P. KlBSCH. Bunma, II, SSZ-BS; A btUtilau Mtnarara^ (BudHpeM, 

8lri«to, GTrauzLHO, cardinal and scholar, b. at A. XlsIbt. 
Guardavalle near Stilo in Calabria, 1S14; d. at Rome, 

6 October, 1685. The son of a plqrsician, he received SlrmotuI, Jacques, one of the greatest scholars of 

an excellent edu- the seventeenth century, b. at Hit ■ ■• -» 

cation^ made the ment of Puy-de-Ddme, France, ( 

acquaintance of Paris, 7 Oct., 16S1. 

distinguished He entered the 

Bcholara at Rome, Society of Jesus 

and became an in- in 1576 and was 

timate friend of appointed in 1581 

Cardinal Marcelk) professor of clas- 

C e r V i n o , later sical languages in 

Pope Marcellus Paris, where he 

II. He prepared numbered St, 

tor Cervino, who Francis de Sales 

was President of atnonE his pupils. 

the Council of Called to Rome 

Trent in ito initial in 1590, he was 

period, extensive for sixteen yean 

reports on all the private secretary 

important que«- Xo the Jesuit su- 

tions presenled for perior general, ' 

discussion. After Aquaviva, devot- 

his appointment as ing his leisure mo- 
custodian of the ments during the 

Vatican Library, same period to 

Sirkto drew up a the study of the 

complete descrip- literary and historical treasures of antiquity. Hn 

nve catalogue of its Greek manuscripts and pre- entertained intimate relations with several learned 

pond a new edition of the Vulgate. Paul IV named men then present at Rome, among them Bellaimina 

nim prothoootary and tutor to two of his neph- and particularly Baronius, to whom he was helpful 

ew«. After this pope's death he taught Greek in the composition of the "Annalea". In 1608 he 

and H^rew at Rom^ numbering St. Charles Bor- returned to Pari.), and in 1637 became confeeoor to 

Rnaeo amot^ his students. During the concluding King Louis XIII. His first literary production ap- 

perio d of the Council of Trent he was, although he peared in 1610, and from that date until the end of 

Mntinned to reside at Rome, the constfuit and most his life almost everyvear witnessed the pubhcation 

bteded adviser of the cardinal-l^at«8. He was him- of some new work. The results of his literary labours 



are chiefly repreaented by edHiona of Greek and Latin 
Christian writing. Theodoret of Cyrus, Ennodius, 
Idatius of QaUicia^ Sidonius Apollinaris, Theodulph 
of Orleans, Paschasius Radbertus, Flodoard, and Hino- 
mar of Rheims are among the writers whose works 
he edited, eitlier completdy or in part. Of great im- 
portance were his editions of the capitularies of Charles 
the Bald and successors and of the ancient councils 
of France: '^Karoli Calvi et sucoessorum aliquot 
fVanci» r^rum Capitula" (Paris, 1623); "Concilia 
antiqua GaUis'' (Paris, 1629). His collected works, 
a complete list of which wUl be found in de Backer- 
Sonmiervogel (VII, 1237-^), were published in 
Paris in 1696 and again at Venice in 1728. 

Dk Backsb-Souubrtogel^ Bibl, de la com p. de Jims, VII 
(Brussels, 1896), 1237-«1: CoLOMifcs, Vie du Pkre Sxrmand (La 
Rochelle, 1671) ; Chalmers, Biog. Diet. (London. 181G). s. v. 

N. A. Weber. . 
Sis. See Flavias. 

SlBinniuB, Pope, date of birth unknown; d. 4 Feb.. 
70S. Successor of John VII, he was consecrated 
probably 15 Jan., 708, and died af ter a briefpontificate 
of about three weeks: he was buried in St. Peter's. 
He was a Syrian by oirth and the son of one John. 
Although he was so afflicted with gout that he was 
unable even to feed himself, he is nevertheless said 
to have been a man of strong character, and to have 
been able to take thought for the good of the city. 
He gave orders to prepare lime to repair the walls 
of Eome, and before he died consecrated a bishop for 

Liber PontiAealia, I, 338; Mann, Thf Lives of the Popes in the 
garlv Middle Ages, I. pt.>ii (St. Louis and London. 1902). 124. 

Horace K. Mann. 

Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio. — 

On 27 October, 1829, at the request of Bishop 
Fenwick of Cincinnati, several sisters from Mother 
Seton's community at Emmitsburg, Maryland, 
opened an orphanage, parochial school, and academy 
on Sycamore Street opposite the old cathedral, then 
occupying the present site of St. Xavier's Church and 
college. When Bi^op Purcell built the new cathe- 
dral on Eighth and Plum Ste., the sistens moved to 
Third and Plum Ste., and later the academy was 
transferred to George St., near John. When Father 
Etienne, superior of the Daughters of Charity of 
France, in December, 1850, effected the affiliation of 
the sisterhood at Emmitsburg with the Daughters 
of Charity of France^ Sister Margaret George was 
superior in Cincinnati. She had entered the com- 
munity at Emmitsburg early in 1812, and had filled 
the office of treasurer and secretary of the community, 
teaching in the academy during most of Mother 
Seton's life. She wrote the early records of the 
American Dau^ters of Charity, heard all the dis- 
cussions regarding rules and constitutions, and left 
to her community in Cincinnati letters from the first 
bishops and clergy of the United States, Mother 
Scton's original Journal written in 1803 and some 
of her letters, and valuable writings of her own. She 
upheld Motner Seton's rules, constitutions, tradi- 
tions, and costume, confirmed by Archbishop Carroll 
17 Jan., 1812, objecting with Archbishop Carroll 
and Mother Seton to the French rule in its fulness, 
in that it limited the exercise of charity to females 
in the orphanages and did not permit the teaching 
of boyB in the schools: The sisters in New York 
had separated from Emmitsburg in December, 1846, 
because they were to be withdrawn from the boys 
orphanage. When it was finally decided that the 
community at Emmitsburg was to affiliate with the 
French Daughters of Charity, the sisters in Cin- 
cinnati laid before Archbishop Purcell their desire 
to preserve the original rule of Mother Seton's 
foundation. He confirmed the ^ters in their de- 
sire and notified the superior of the French Daughters 
of Charity that he would take under bis protection 

the foUowers of Mother Seton. ArchbiAhop PuroeD 
became ecclesiastical superior and was succeeded 
by Archbishop Elder ana Archbishop Moeller. 

The novitiate in Cincinnati was opened in 1852^ 
During that year twenty postulants were received. 
The finst Catholic hospital was opened by the sister? 
in November, 1852. In Februarv, 1853, the sisteni 
took charge of the Maiy and Martha Society, ti 
charitable organization established for the benefit 
of the poor of the city. On 15 August, 1853, the 
sisters purchased their first property on the comet 
of Sixth and Parks Sts., and opened there in Septem^ 
ber a boarding and select day-school. The following 
July they bought a stone house on Mt. Harrison near 
Mt. St. Mary Seminary of the West, and called it 
Mt. St. Vincent. The community was incorporated 
under the laws of Ohio in 1854 as ''The Sisters of 
Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio^'. Mother Margaret 
George, Sister Sophia Gillmeyer, Mother Josephine 
Harvey, Sister Anthony O'Connell, Mother K^pna 
Mattingly, Sister Antonio McCaffrey, and Sister 
Gonzalva Dou^erty were the incorporators. In 
1856 Mt. St. Vincent Academy was transferred to. 
the ''Cedars", the former home of Judge Alderson. 
It remained the mother-house until 29 Sept., 1869^ 
and the boarding-school until July, 1906. . It is now 
a day academy and a residence for the sisters teach- 
ing adjacent parochial .schools. In 1857 Bishop 
Bayle^ of New Jersey sent five postulants to Mt. 
St. Vincent, Cedar Grove, Cincinnati, to be trained 
by Mother Margaret George. At the conclusion 
oi their novitiate. Mother Margaret and Sister 
Anthony were to have gone with them to Newark, 
New Jersey, to remain until the little community 
would be well established, but affairs proving too 
urgent. Mother Margaret interceded with the New 
York community, and Sisters Xavier and Catherine 
were appointed superiors over the little baiid. In 
July, 1859, Mother Margaret George having held 
the office of mother for the two terms allowed by the 
constitution, was succeeded by Mother Josephine 
Harvey. During the Civil War many of the sisters 
served in the hospitals. Between 1852 and 1865 the 
sisters had taken charge of ten parochial schools. 
Archbishop Lamy of New Mexico, and Bishop 
MacheJ^ipeuf of Colorado, both pioneer priests of 
Ohio, in 1S65 petitioned Archbishop Purcell for a 
colony of Sisters of Charity to open a hospital and 
oxphanage in the West. Accordingly four sisters 
left Cincinnati 21 August, 1865, amving at Santa 
F^, 13 S<;pt., 1865. The archbishop gave them his 
own residence which had been used also as a seminary. 
There were twenty-five orphans to be cared for and 
some sick to be nursed. On 15 August, 1866, Jo- 
seph C. Butler and Lewis Worthington presented 
Sister Anthony O'ConncU with the Good Samaritan 
Hospital, a building erected by the Government for 
a Marine Hospital at a cost of $.300,000. Deeply 
impressed by the charity done in "old St. Johns" 
during the war, these non-Catholic gentlemen bought 
the Government hospital for $90,000 and placed the 
deeds in the hands of Sister Anthony, Butler suggests 
ing the name "Good Samaritan". Early in 1870 
Bishop Domenec of Pittsburg, desiring a diocesan 
branch of Mother Seton*s community, ^ sent four 
postulants to be trained in the Cincinnati novitiate. 
On their return they were accompanied by five of 
the Cincionati sisters who were to remain with them 
for a Umited time, and to be withdrawn one by one» 
Finally all were recalled but Mother Aloysia Lowe 
and Sister Ann Regina Ennis, the former besLog 
superior and the latter mistress of novices. Mother 
Aloysia governed the community firmly but tenderly, 
and before her death (1889) had the satisfaction -of 
seeing the sisters in their new motlier-house at Seton 
Hill, Greensburg, Pa., the academy having been 
blessed, and the ciiapel dedicated, 3 May, iSSSk 




Mother Alovsift's term of office had expired ]0 July, 
1889, and we was succeeded by Sister Ann Regina 
(d. 16 May, 1894). The community at Greensburs, 
Pa., at present nimiber more than three hundred. 
Their St. Joseph Academy at the mother-^ouse is 
flouriBhing; they teach about thirty parochial schools 
in the Dioceses of Altoona cmd Pittsburg and conduct 
the F1ttiA>urg Hospital and Roselia Foundling Asylum 
in Pittsburg. 

From 1^ to 1880 the sisters in Cincinnati 
opened thirty-three branch houses, one of these being 
the St. Joseph Foundling and Maternity Hospital, 
a gift to Sister Anthony from Joseph Butler. In 
1869 a site for a mother-house, five miles from Cedar 
Grove, was purchased. The first Mass was offered 
in the novitiate chapel, 24 October, 1869> by Rev. 
Thos. S. Byrne, the chaplain, the present Bishop of 
Nashville, Tennessee, in 1882 the building of the 
new mother-house began under his direction. Before 
its completion MoUier Regina Mattingly died (4 
June, 1883). Mother Josephine Harvey again as- 
sumed the office. In 1885 the new St. Joseph 
was burned to ^e ground. The present mother- 
house was begun at once under the superintendence 
of Rev. T. 8. Byrne. Mt. St. Mary Seminary. 
closed since tiie financial troubles, was now used 
for the sisters' novitiate. In July, 1886, the sisters 
took possesion of the west wing of the mother-house, 
and the foUowing year the seminaiv reopened. 
Mother Josephine Harvey resigned the office of 
mother in 18&, and was succeeded by Mother Mary 
Paul Hayes, who filled Mother Josephine's unexpired 
term and was re-elected in July, 1890, dying the fol- 
lowing April. Mother Mary Blanche Davis was ap* 
pointed to the office of mother, and held it until 
July, 1899. During her incumbency the Seton Hos- 

gital, the Glockner Sanitarium at Colorado Springs, 
t. Joseph Sanitarium, Mt. Clemens, Mich., ana 
Santa Maria Institute for Italians were begun; 
additions were made to the mother-house. During 
the administration of Mother Sebastian Shea were 
built: the St. Joseph Sanitarium, Pueblo; the San 
Rafael Hospital, Tnnidad; the St. Vincent Hospital, 
&mta F6, New Mexico; the St. Vincent Academy, Al- 
buquerque; azui the Good Samaritan Annex in Clifton. 
Mother Mary Blanche resumed the duties of office 
in 1905, and was re-elected in 1908. During these 
terms a very large addition was built to the Glockner 
Sanitaiium and to the St. Mary Sanitarium, Pueb- 
lo; the Hospital Antonio in Kenton, Ohio; a large 
boarding school for boys at Fayetteville, Ohio; the 
new Seton Hospital was bought; the new Good Sa- 
maritan Hospit^ was begun. Many parochial schools 
were opened, among them a school for coloured chil- 
dren in Memphis, Tennessee. 

The community numbers: about 800 members; 
74 branch houses; 5 academies; 2 orphan asylums; 
1 foundling asylum; 1 Italian institute; 11 hospitals 
or sanitariums: 1 Old Ladies' Home: 53 parochial 
schools throughout Michigan, Ohio, Texmessee, Col- 
orado, and New Mexico. 

Sister Mart Aqnes. 

SIstan of the Little Company of Mary, a 
congregation fotmded in 1877 in England to honour 
in a particular manner the maternal Heart of the 
Blessed Virgin, especially in the mystery of Calvary. 
The sisters make an entire consecration of them- 
selves to her, and aim at imitating her virtues. They 
devote themselyes to the sick and dying, which is 
thdr {irincipal exterior work. The3r nurse the sick 
in their own homes, and also receive them in the 
hospitids and mining-homes attached to their con- 
vents. Th^ make no distinction of class, national- 
ity, or creed, and exact no charge for their services, 
but acoept any offering which may be made them. 
Besides tne perBonal attendance on the sick, they are 

bound to pray continually for the dying, and in the 
novitiate watch before the Blessed Sacrament, both 
by day and night, pra3ring for the dying. When 
circumstances require it, the sisters may engage in 
various forms of mission work, especially in poor 
districts. The rules received final approbation from 
Leo XIII in 1893. The order conducts houses in: 
Italy (1 in Rome, 1 at Florence, 1 at Fiesole): Eng- 
land (3 in London, 1 at Nottin^am); Ireland (1 at 
Limerick, 1 in Fermoy); Malta (1); United States 
(Chicago); Australia (2 at Sydney, 1 at Adelaide); 
South Africa (Port Elizabeui). The sisters when 
in the convent wear a black habit and blue veil, 
with a white cloak in the chaoel; when nursing, the 
habit is of white linen, with a olue veil. 

An association of pious women, known as **Pie 
Donne*' or "Affiliated", ai^ aggregated to the order, 
and share in its prayers and good works, 'some re- 
siding in their own homes, others living in the con- 
vent, though in part separated from the community. 
A confraternity is attached to the order, calletd the 
Calvaiy Confraternity, the members of which assist 
those in their last agony by their prayers and, if 
possible, by personal attendance. 

Mother M. Patrick. 

Sistine Choir. — Although it is known that the 
Church, from her earliest days, employed music in 
her cult, it was not until the time of her emergence 
from the catacombs that she began freely to display 
her beauty and splendour in sacred song. As early 
as in the pontificate of Sylvester I (314-35) we 
find a regularly-constituted company of singers, under 
the name of achola cantorum. living together in a 
building devoted to their exclusive use. The word 
sckola 'WBA in those days the lepal designation of an 
association of equals in any callmg or profession and 
did not primarily denote, as in our time, a school. 
It had more the nature of a guild, a characteristic 
which clung to the oapal choir for many centuries. 
Hilary II (461-8) oraained that the pontifical singers 
live in community, while Gregory the Great (590- 
604) not only made permanent the existing institu- 
tion attachea to St. John Lateran and including at 
that time in its membership monks, secular clergy, 
and boys, but established a second and similar one m 
connexion ^vith the Basilica of St. Peter. The latter 
is supposed to have served as a sort of pi'cparatory 
school for the former. For several centuries the 
papal schola cantorum retained the same general 
character. Its heiad, arckicantor or primicerius, was 
always a clergyman of high rank and often a 
bishop. While it was his duty to intone the various 
chants to be followed by the rest of the singers, he 
was by no means their master in the modem techni- 
cal sense. 

It is at the time of the transfer of the papal see 
from Rome to Avignon in the thirteenth century that 
a marked change takes place in the institution. 
Innocent IV did not take his schola cantorum with 
him to his new abode^ but provided for its continu- 
ance in Rome by turmng over to it properties, tithes, 
and other revenues. Community life among the 
singers seems to have come to an end at this period. 
Clement V (180.'>-14) formed a new choir at Avignon, 
consisting for the most part of French singers, who 
showed a decided preference for the new devc^lopments 
in church music — the (Uchant and falsibordonif 
which had in the meantime gained great vogue in 
France. When Gregory XI (1370-^) returned to 
Rome, he took his singers with him and amalgamated 
them with the still-existing, at least in name, ancient 
gehola cantorum. Before the sojourn of the papal 
Court at Avignon, it had been the duty of the schola 
to accompany the pope to the church where he held 
station, but after the return to Rome, the custom 
established at Avignon of celehratine all pontifical 

aiTZnS 80 8ITJAB 

functions in the papal church or cha|iel was con- never took hold for any length of time. The use 

tinued and has existed ever since. The primicerius of instruments, even of the organ, has ever been ex* 

of former times is now no longer mentioned but is eluded. The choir's ideal has always been the 

replaced by the magisier capeUcB, which title, however, purely vocal stvle. Since the accession of the present 

continues to be more an honoraiy one held by a bishop pope, and under its present conductor,^ the falsetto 

or prelate than an indication of technical leadership, voices have been succeeded by boys' voices, and the 

as may be gathered from the relative positions as- artistic level of the institute has been raised to a 

ugned to various dignitaries, their prerogatives, etc. hi^er point than it had occupied for the previous 

Thus the magiMer capeUm came immediately after thirty or forty years, 

the cardinals, followed, in the order given, by the ^Rj^maiyBau^ne for MunkgadiUhu, ill. J^ 

Wlth the building by SlXtUS IV (1471-i84) of the tehuU »» Rom (Leipalc. 1872); Kimnls, CKoraiadiuU (Fraiburc. 

church for the celebration of all papal functions since iJfW); Baini. Memorie Horico-cHHehe d^^jita e delU opere di 

known as the Sistine Chapel, the original schola ^*^'*'^* '^*^'"'^* "^ PaUMr^na (Rome. 18^)- 
earUorum' and subsequent capeUa porUificia or vtite . 

oap^ papaie, which still retains more or less of the gltiflg, Titulab See op (Sitifbnsib), in Mauretania 

guild character, becomes the capella sishna, or Sis- Sitifensis. Sitifis, situated in Mauretania Oesaren- 

tme Choir, whose golden era takes ite bmnning. g^^ on the road from Carthage to Cirta, was of no im- 

Up to this time the number of singers had varied portance under the Numidian kings and became 

considerably, there being sometimes as few as nme prominent only when Nerva estabfished a colony 

men ^d six boys. By a BuU dated November, of veterans there. When Mauretania Sitifensis was 

1483, Sixtus IV fixed the number at twenty-four, created, at the close of the third century, Sitifis be- 

nx for each part. After the year 1441 the records came its capital. Under the Vandals it was the chief 

no longer mention the presence of bo^s m the choir, town of a district called Zaba. It was still the capital 

the high voices, sopiuno and alto, being thenceforth of a province under Byzantine rule and was then a 

wing by natui^ (and occasionaUy unnatiinil) soT^^ place of strategic importance. Captured by the 

faUatt and high tenors respectively. Membership Arabs in the seventh century, it was almost ruined 

in the papal choir became the great desideratum of at the time of the French occupation (1838). It ia 

siMCTs, contrapuntist^ and composers of every land, now Setif, the chief town of an arrtmdistement in the 

which accounU for the presence m Rome, at least Department of Constantine, Algeria. It contains 

for a tune, of most of the great names of that period. 15^000 inhabitants, of whom 3700 are Europeans 

The desire to re-estabhsh a sort of preparatory school and 1600 Jews; it has a trade in cattle, cereals, 

for the papal choir, on the plan of the ancient schola, leather, and cloths. Interesting Christian mscrip- 

and mcidentaUy to become independent of the ultra- tions are to be found there, one of 452 mentioning 

montane, or foreign, singera, led Julius II (1503-13) the relics of St. Lawrence, another naming two 

to iMue, on 19 February, 1512, a Bull founding the martyrs of Sitifis, Justus and Decurius; there are 

capctta Ji^ia, which to thjs day performs all the chou- a museum and the ruins of a Byzantine fortress, 

duties at St. Peter s. It became indeed, and has ever st. Augustine, who had frequent relations with 

mnce been, a nursery for and stcpmp-stone^^ Sitifis, rnforms us that in his time it cont^ned a 

bership m the Sistme Choir. The high artkstic aims monastery- and an episcopal school, and that it suf- 

of Its founder have, however, but rarely been at- fered from a violent earthquake, on which occasion 

tamed, OTOig to the rarity of truly great choir- 2OOO persons, through fear of death, received baptism 

masters. Leo X (1513-21), himself a musician, by (Ep ixxxiv; Serm., xix). Five bishops of this see 

choosing as head of the organization a real musician, are known: Severus, in 409, mentioned m a letter of 

urespective of hm clerical rank, took a step which w^^ St. Augustine; Novatus, present at the CouncU of 

of the greatest importance for the future. It had the Carthage (411), where he opposed the Donatist 

efifect of transforming a group of vocal virtuon on Marcian, present at the Council of Carthage (419), 

equal footing into a compact vocal body, whose m- dying in 440, mentioned in St. Augustine's letters 

t«pretation of the peat^t works of polyphony Lawrence, in 452; Donatus, present at the Council 

which we possess, Mid which were then coming into of Carthage (484), and exiled by Huneric; Optatus, 

existence, became the model for the rest of the world, at the Council of Carthage (525) . 

not only then but for all time. Leo's step was some- smith, Diet. 0/ Greek and Roman Geog., n. V. SUi/i; MOLbBH, 

what counteracted by Sixtus V (1585-90). who ordered ^ote» d PtoUmu, ed. Didot, 1, 6i2; Toulotpe. Giog. de CA/rique 

the singers to elect their leader annually from their ^/VJviS.'li-. iif'ljjr^,"^^^ ^^^» ^™^ 

own number. Paul II (1534r^9) on 17 November, ^ "^^"^ ^"^"^"^ ^^'^' ^^^^' '^'^' g^ P«trid4» 
1545, published a Bull approving a new constitution 

of the choir, which has been in lorce ever since, and Sitjar, Buenaventura, b. at Porrera, Island of 
according to which the choir-master proposes the Majorca, 9 Dec, 1739; d. at San Antonio, Cal., 3 
candidates for membership, who are then examined Sept., 1808. In April, 1768, he received the hahit 
by the whole company of singers. Since that time of St. Francis. After his ordination he joined the 
the state of Ufe of the candidate has not been a College of San Fernando^ Mexico. In 1770 he was 
^^mf^i « assigned to Cahfomia, arriving at San Diego, 21 May, 
While the Sistme Choir has, since its incipiency. 1771. He was present at the founding of the Mis- 
undergone many vicissitudes, its artistic and moral sion of San Antonio, and was appointed first miasion- 
level fluctuating, Uke all thmgs human, with the ary by Father Junipero Serra. He toiled there until 
mutations of the times, it has ever had for its purpose his death, up to which time 3400 Indians had be«i 
and object to hold up, at the seat of ecclesiastical baptiaed. Father Sitjar mastered the Telame lan- 

-™ ^^^^^ ^w« t,x*«w o^v KMc 0M>uumu iwi tiic ui wuras 18 noi> as long as Arroyo oe la ^ues^a s oio- 

rest of Uinstendom, both as regards the purity of tionary of 2884 words and sentences in the Mutoun 

Uxe melodies and theu: rendition. After these melo- idiom of Miasion San Juan Bautista, Sitjar's gives 

S^. *iad blossomed into pol3T)hony, it was in the the pronunciation and fuller explanations. He also 

Sistme Chapel that it received adequate mterpreta- left a journal of an expiring expedition which he 

twn. Here the artistic degeneration, which church accompanied in 1795. wa body was interred in the 

musio suffered in different periods in many countries, sanctuary of the church. 


*r Mim™ 0/ *mKo Bar*oni; it«mdi -tf Miitim Sen martyr. Hia feast is cclobrat«d on 6 April, He was 

m'^^risoi?' eJ^^^^'S'l^Ji^ari^ buried in the Vatican, beside the tomb of St, Peter, 

^.^ IHuborSpruiM.ise7): BAMCBorr.Cal^onivi.II (awi Hifi reUca are Said to have been tranaferred to Atatri 

FrEncBoo, 1886). In 1 132, though O, Jozzi ("II corpo di S, Siato I., papa 

Zephtrin Enoklhaiiot. ^ martire rivendicato alia baaihca Vaticaiia"j Room, 

Sittoa. See Sign Diocxsb of I90li) contenda Uiat they ore atill in the Vatican B(^ 

' ailica. Butler (Ltvee of the Saints, 6 April) stateethat 

Siunu, a titular see, suffragan of Sebastia in Clement X gave some of his relics to Cardinal de 

Armenia Prima, Siunia is not a town, but a province Rats, who placed them in the Abbey of St, MichaeJ in 

situated between Gof^teha, Araxa, and Aichovania, Lorraine. The Xystus who ia commemorated in th« 

in the present Russian diatricta of Chamakha, or Canon of the Maea is Xyatua II, not Xystus I. 
Baku, and Eliaavetpol. The real name should be Ada 5^,, Aptil, I. S3i~i; Liber Ponii/Uatii, nd, Dncsuix, 

Siaacan, the Persian form, for Siunia got ita name 1 <P™' '*»«'■ '??,; "*"'''■ ,,<^*?"',,''!™L. P?'"'"'? si's" ^■ 

from Siac, the son of Gegham the fittii. Armenian f^J^^'B^^IJIlS^ iTISSS T^^. ISL^aT^.^; 

sovereign. Ita firat rulers, vaasala of the kings of Ar- latitmt dtiu mi nliguit da Runia «x,, mmuru (Alaui, ISM}; 

menia or the shahs of Perala, date back to the fourth Babubi m Dia. Chrui. Bioa.. i. v. fliiiw (2) I. „ 

century of our era: about 1046 it became an inde- Michael Ott. 

pendent kingdom, but only till 1166, The Church Bixtus n (XraTtJs), Saint, Popb, elect«d 31 Aug., 

of Siunia was esUbliahed in the fifth century or per- 257, martyred at Rome, 6 Aug., 258. His origin ia 

hapa a little earlier. It soon became a metropolia unknown. The "Liber Pontificalia" a^vthathewas 

Bubjeet to the Catholicos of Armenia, and, as we see a Greek by birth, but this is probably a mistake, ori*. 

in a letter of the patriarch Ter Sargia in 1006, it inating from the false aasumption that he was identi- 

counted twelve crosiera, which must signify twelve cal with a Greek 

suffragan aeea. The archdiocese contained 1400 philosopher of the 

villages and 28 monasteriea. In the ninth cen- same name who 

tury the metropolitan see was fixed in the convent was the autWof 

of Tatheo, situated between Omenta and Migri, the so-called 

sixty-two miles south-east of Lake Gokcha. Sep- "Sentences" of 

arated for a brief interval from Noravank, the See of Xystus. During 

Siunia was reunited to it, but was definitively sep- the pontificate o( 

arated again in the thirteenth century. In 1837 the hja predecessor. 

Diocese of Siunia was, by order ol the Synod of gt. ^phen, a 

Etchmiadzin, suppressed and subjected directly to gtiarp dispute' had 

the catholicos under tlie aupervision of the Biahop arisen between 

of Eriv&n, who had a vicar at Tatheo. The complete Rome and the 

list of the bishops and metropolitans of Siunia, from African and Aai- 

Uie fifth century till the nineteenth century, ia known; atic Churches 

amongat them we may mention Petroa, a writer at concerning there^ 

the beginning of the airth centurv, and Stetjhanoa baptism of here- 

Orbelian, the historian of his Church. It is not tics, which had 

known why the Roman Curia introduced this epiacopal threatened to end 

title, which does not appear in any Greek or Latin jj^ ^^ complete 

"Notitia episcopatuum , and was never a suffragan rupture between 

of Sebastia. .„,.,. „ Rome and the 

LMu dtrmuitgiq^ ia pri^ua elda nttropoKU, dt Siounii m (,'liurcheBO! Africa H«» OF 8r. BirPBi 11 

BalUiitdirAcaJtmUdttSrieric—dtSainl-PUtrtb^iiri.lV (Ifii'i). and Asia Mioor DeUul fiom tbB Sistine Muloouk 

4S7--GSS1 9TMrmAiiom OimmUAM, Hittoirt di la Simaiit, tt, Bao^ tgee CtpRIAN OF Rapbul 

ur (Bunt-PBUttibuti, 18M), a v =* Carthaob, Saint). Sixtua II, whom Pontius (Vita 

B. VAII.BK. Cypriani, cap, itiv) styles a good and peaceful priest 

Utm. See Sebastia, Armeniak Cathouc Dio- (mmtu et padficu* aiuxrdot), was more conciliatory 

RERE nr. than St. Stephen and restored friendly relations with 
these ChurohBB, though, Uke his predeceaaor, he up- 
held the Roman usage of not rebaptizing heretics. 

BlxtUI I, Saint, Pope (in the oldest documents. Shortly before the pontificate of Sixtua II the Em- 

Xtbtds is the apelUng uaed for the fiist three popes of peror Valerian issued hia first edict of persecution, 

thatname),succeededSt. Alexander and was lollowed which made it binding upon the Christiana to partici- 

by St. Telesphonis, According to the "Liberian pate in the national cult of the pagan gods and for- 

Qitalogue" of popea, he ruled the CSiurch during the bode them to assemble in the cemeteries, threatening 

leign of Adrian "aconaulatu Nigri et Aproniani usque with exile or death whomsoever was found to disobey 

Vero III et Ambibolo" that is from 117 to 128. the order. In some way or other, Sixtus II man- 

Eusebius, who in hia "Chronicon mode use of a cat^ aged to perform his functions as chief pastor of the 

alogue of popes difTermt from the one he Used in his Oiristians without being molested by those who were 

"Historia Eccleeiastica", states in his "Chronicon" ohareed with the execution of the imperial edict, 

that Sixtus I was pope from 114 to 124, while in his But during the first days of August, 25S, the emperor 

"History" he makes him rule from 119 to 128. All issued a new and far more cruel edict against the 

autitoriticB agree that he reigned about ten years. Christians, the import of which has been preserved in 

" IS a Roman by birth, and his father's name was a letter of St. Cyprian to Successus, the Bishop of Ab- 

81z Dafi' Work, The. See Hkxaeueron. 

Pastor. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed, bir Germaniciana (Ep. Ixxx). It ordered bishops, 

Duchesne, I, 128), he passed the following three or- priests, and deacons to be summarily put to death 

dinaocea: (1) that none but aacred ministera are al- ("epiacopi et presbyteri et diaconcs incontinent! aoi- 

towed to touch the sacred vessels; (2) that bishops maavertantur ). Sixtus II was one of the firat to 

who have been summoned to the Holy See shall, upon fall's viotim to this imperial enactment ("Xiatum in 

their return, not be received by their diocese except on oim.terio an:modversum sciatis VIII, id, August! et 

presentbg Apostolic letters; (3) that after the Pref- cum eo diaccrcs quattuor" — C>-prian, Ep, Ixxx). In 

ace in the Maes the' priest shall recite the Sanctus order to escape t.e vigilance of the imperial officera he 

with the people. The "Felician Catalogue" of popes assembled hia .1-ck on 6 August at one of the leas- 

and the rarioua martyrologies give him the title of known cemeteries, that of Pretextatus, on the left aide 





of the Appian Way, nearly opposite the cemetery of 
8t. Callistus. While seated on his chair in the act of 
addressing his flock he was suddenly apprehended by a 
band of soldiers. There is soiae doubt whether he 
was beheaded forthwith, or was first brought before 
a tribunal to receive his sentence and then led back 
to the cemetery for execution. The latter opinion 
seems to be the more probable. 

The inscription which Pope Damasus (366-84) 
placed on his tomb in the cemetery of St. Callistus 
may be interpreted in either sense. The entire in- 
scnption is to be found in the works of St. Damasus 
(P. li., XIII, 383-4, where it is wrongly supposed to 
be an epitaph for Pope Stephen I), and a few frag- 
ments of it were discovered at the tomb itself by de 
Rossi (Inscr. Christ., II, 108). The "Liber Pontifi- 
calis'' mentions that he was led away to offer sacri- 
fice to the gods ("ductus ut sacrificaret demoniis'' — I, 
155). St. Cypnan states in the above-named letter, 
which was written at the latest one month after the 
martjrrdom of Sixtus, that "the prefects of the City 
were daily urging the persecution m order that, if any 
were brought before them, they might be punished 
and their property confiscated " . The pathetic meeting 
between St. Sixtus II and St. Lawrence, as the former 
was being led to execution, of which mention is made 
in the unauthentic "Acts of St. Lawrence'' as well as 
by St. Ambrose (Ofiiciorum, lib. I, c. xli, and lib. II, 
c.xxviii) and the poet Prudentius (Peristephanon, II), 
b probably a mere legend. Entirely contrary to 
truth is the statement of Prudentias (ibid., lines 
23-26) that Sixtus II suffered martjTdom on the 
cross, unless by an unnatural trope the poet uses the 
Specific word cross ("Jam Xystus adfixus cruci") for 
inartyrdom in general, as Duchesne and Allard (see 
jelow) suggest. Four deacons, Januarius, Vincen- 
iius, Magnus, and Stephanus, were apprehended with 
Sixtus and beheaded with him at the same ceme- 
tery. Two other deacons, Felicissimus and Agapi- 
tus, suffer^ martyrdom on the same day. The feast 
6f bt. Sixtus II and these six deacons is celebrated on 
6 August, the day of their martyrdom. The remains 
p{ Sixtus were transferred by the Christians to the 
papal crypt in the neighbouring cemetery of St. Callis- 
tus. Behind his tomb was enshrined the blood- 
stained chair on which he had been beheaded. An 
oratory (Qratorium Xysli) was erected above the 
cemetery of St. Praetextatus, at the spot where he was 
martyred, and was still visited by pilgrims of the 
seventh and the eighth century. 

For some time Sixtus II was believed to be the au- 
thor of the so-called "Sentences", or "Ring of Six- 
tus", originally written by a Pythagorean philosopher 
and in the second century revised by a Christian. 
This error arose because in his introduction to a Latin 
translation of these "Sentences" Rufinus ascribes 
them to Sixtus of Rome, bishop and martjT. It is 
certain that Pope Sixtus II is not their author (see 
Conybeare, "The Ring of Pope Xystus now first ren- 
dered into English, with an historical and critical com- 
mentary", London, 1910). Hamack (Tcxte und 
Untersuchuni^en zur altchrist. Literatur, XIII, XX) 
ascribes to him the treatise "Ad Novatianum " but 
his opinion has been generallv rejected (see Kom- 
bold m "Theol. Quartalschrift", LXXII, Ttibinpon, 
1900). Some of his letters are printed in P. Tk, V, 
79-100. A newly discovered letter was published 
by Conybeare in "English Hist. Re\new", London, 

Ada SS., Aug., 11, 124-42: Duchesne, lAher Pontifimlv', I, 
155-6; Barmby in Did. Christ. Bioff., s. v. Xystun; RoHArM' ok 
Fleurt. Let SainU de la messe. III (PariB, 18a3): HxALY.TAe 
VcUerian Persecution (Boston and New York, 1905). 176-9; Ai^ 
LARD, Le9 derniirM persiculions du troi»iime itikcU (Paris. 1907), 
80-02,343-349; db Kobai. Roma Sotteranea. II (Rome, 1864-77), 
87-97; WiLPBRT, Die Paptlgraber und die Cacilienamfi in der 
Katakombe dee hi. Callielu*^ supplement to dk Koeai'ift Roma 
Stiieranea (FTeiburg im Br.. 1909^ 

Mtcbaet. Ott 

SiztUB nZ (Xtbtus), Saint, Popib, consecrated 
31 July, 432; a. 440. Previous to his accession he 
was prominent among the Roman clergy and in cor- 
respondence with St. Aujgustine. He reigned during 
the Nestorian and Pelagian controversies^ and it was 
probably owing to his conciliatory disposition that he 
was falsely accused of leanings towards these heresies. 
As pope he approved the Acts of the Council of 
Ephesus and endeavoured to restore peace between 
C^il of Alexandria and John of Antioch. In the 
Pelagian controversy he frustrated the attempt of 
Juhan of Eclanum to be readmitted to conmiunion 
with the Cathohc Church. He defended the pope's 
right of supremacy over Illvricum against the local 
bishops and the ambitious d-esigns of Proclus of Con- 
stantmople. At Rome he restored the Basilica of 
Liberius, now known as St. Mary Major, enlarged the 
Basilica of St. Lawrence-Without-the-Walls, and ob- 
tained precious gifts from the Emperor Valentinian 
III for St. Peter's and the Lateran Basilica. The 
work which asserts that the consul Bassus accused 
him of crime is a forgery. He is the author of eight 
letters (in P. L., L, 583 sqq.), but he did not write the 
works ''On Riches", "On False Teachers", and "On 
Chastity" ("De divitiis". "De malis doctoribus", 
"De castitate") attribute to him. His feast is kept 
on 28 March. 

Duchesne (ed.). Lib. Pont., I (Paris, 1886), 126-27, 232-37; 
Barubt in Did. Christ. Biog., a. v. Sixtiu (3); Gbisar. History 
of Rome and the Popes, tr. Cappadblta. I (St. Louis, 1911), 
DOS. 54, 135, 140, 144. 154. 

N. A. Weber. 

Siztua IV (Francesco della Rovbre), Pope, b. 
near Abisola, 21 July, 1414; d. 12 Aug., 1484. His 
parents were poor, and while still a child he was 
destined for the Franciscan Order. Later he studied 
philosophy and theology with great success at the 
University of Pa via, and lectured 
at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, 
and Florence, having amongst other 
eminent disciples the famous Car- 
dinal Bessarion. After fillins the 
post of procurator of his order in 
Rome and Provincial of Liguria, 
he was in 1467 created Cardinal 
of S. Pietro in Vincoli by Paul U. 
WTiat^ver leisiu-e he now had was 
devoted to theolo^', and in 1470 he Armb of 

published a treatise on the Precious bdctcs i v 
Blood and a work on the Immaculate Conception, 
in which latter he endeavoured to prove that Aquinas 
and Scotus, though differing in words, were reallv 
of one mind upon the question. The conclave which 
assembled on the death of Paul II elected him pope, 
and he ascended the chair of St. Peter as Sixtus I v. 

His first thought was the prosecution of the war 
against the Turks, and Wates were appointed for 
France, Spain, Germany, Hungary, and Poland, with 
the hope of enkindling enthusiasm in these countries. 
The crusade, however, achieved little beyond the 
bringing back to Rome of twenty-live Turkish pris- 
oners, who were paraded in triiunph through tlie 
streets of the city. Sixtus continued the policy of 
his predecessor Paul II with regard to France, and 
denounced Louis XI for insisting on the roval con- 
sent being given before papal decrees could oe pub- 
lished in his kingdom. He also made an effort like 
his predeces.^or for the reunion of the Russian Church 
\^nth Rome, but his nepjotiations were without result. 
He now turned his attention almost exclusively to 
Italian politics, and fell more and more under his 
dominating passion of nepotism^ heaping riches and 
favours on nis unworthy relations. In 1478 took 

Elacc the famous conspiracy of the Pazzi, planned 
y the pope's nephew — Cardinal Rafael Riario — ^to 
overthrow the Medici and bring Florence imder the 
Riarii ThP vnxv* wna eofcnizant of the plot, though 

sQcnn 3 

nrobctblf not of tbe intention to rmtrnwrinittft, and evea 
bid FkvencQ imdar interdict because it nwe in tury 
ARiuiut the' oonspintots and brutal murderen of 
wulittno de' Medici. Re now entered upon & two 
JMI^ war with Florence, and encouraged the Vene- 
tians to attack 

Eroole d'E8t«, at- 
tacked by Venice, 
found alUes in al- 
tnoHt every Italian 
state, and Ludo- 
vico Sfona, upon 
whom the pope 
rehed for support, 
did nothing to 
help him. The 

forced Sixtus to 
make peace, and 
the chaKfiD which 
this caused him ia 
said to have hast- 
tiDcA hie death. 

Henceforth, un- 
til the Reforma- 
tion, the secular 
interests of the 
p^acy were of 
paramount im- 
portance. The at- 
titude of Sixtus 
towards the con- 
spiracy of the 
Pazzi, hia wars 
and treachery, hia 
promotion to the 
highest ollicea in 
the Church of 
such men as Pietro 

rV, Re- 

ObraiHi Portnit of Siil __ . . 
nwin AlkvinBAl fiauic o( Gonatancy 
iUi Oh IJDS Inun Vi^l. £iidd. VI, S53 
To «pufl Uu mbouHava and cruiih th( 
-"■■•'' -lUi Ibe^ sdtied worts: -Thoi 

and Git 


Nmrertbelese, there is a praiseworthy side to his 
pontificate. Be took measures to suppress abuses 
m the Inquisition, viRorously opposeii the Wal- 
densee, and annulled the decrees of the Council 
ot Co^tance. He was a patron of arts and letters, 
building the famous Sistine Chapel, the Sistine 
Bridge across the Tiber, and beeominR the second 
founder ot the Vatican Library, llniier him Itome 
onoe more became habitable, and he did much to ira- 

Kve the sanitary conditions of the city. He brought 
m water from the Quirinal to the Fountain of 
Trevi, and b«^n a transformation of the city which 
death alone hmdered him from completiuE. In hia 
private life Sixtus IV was blameless. The gross 
accusations brou^t agaiiut him by his enemy 
Infesbura have no foundation; his wont vice was 
nqx>tiam, and his greatest misfortune was that he 
was destined to be placed at the head of the States 
of the Qiureh at a time when Italy was emerging 
from the era of the republics, and territorial prince* 
Kke the pope were forced to do battle with the great 

Favtoi. ffiitorv 0/ At Pupa, IV (LondoB, 1894); Grboo- 
MmM. JI«u in NU iAUk Xeu. Vt I (Looikiii, 1002) : CBiioaTOH. 
Hut. o/CWi^iva^. IV<L(HKku, 1901); Buubahot, CuchicUi 
itr JbnaiHana in ifoUn (19M): Fkanti. Siilui IV und A. 
JKDuWt Floroa ([UtiMxni. 1S80). 

R. Urban BuiXBit. 

Sbtiu ▼, PoR (Feucii PBttKTTi), b. at Qiotta- 
mare near Montalto, 13 December, 1521; elected 24 
April, 1685; crowned 1 May, lASS; d. in the Quirinal, 
XIV.— 3 

27 August. 1690. He behmged to a Dabnatian faouh 
which m tne middle of the preceding century had flea 
to Italy from the Turks who were deyastatinK lUyiia 
and tlu«ateaed to invade Dalmatia. His father was 
a gardener and it is said of FeUoe that, when a boy, he 
was a swineherd. At Uie age of nine he came to the 
Minorite convent at Montalta, where his uncle, Tli. 
Salvatore, was a friar. Here he became a novice at 
the age of twelve. He was educated at Montalto, 
Ferrara, and Bologna and was ordained at Siena 
in 1547. The talented young priest gained a high 
reputation as a preacher. At Rome, where in 1 562 he 
preached the Lenlen sermons in the Church of Santi 
Apostoli, his successful preaching gained for him the 
fnendshtp of very influential men, such as Cardinal 
Carpi, theprotectorof his order; the Cardinals Caraffa 
and Ghislieri, both of whom became popes; St. 
Philip Neri and St. Ignatius. He was Hucceasively 
appomted rector of his convent at Siena in 1550, of San 
Lorenso at Naples in 1553, and of the convent of the 
Fran at Venice in 1566. A year later Pius IV ap- 
pointed him also oounseiktr to the Inquisition at 
Venice. - His seal and severity in the capacity of in- 

Juisitor displeased the Venetian Oovomment, which 
emanded and obtained his recall in 1560. Having 
returned to Rome he was made counsellor to the Ho^ 
Office, professor at the Sapienia, and general procu- 
rator and vicar Apostolic of his order. In 1565 Pius 
IV designated him to accompany to Spain Cardinal 
Buoneompagni (aftarwarda Ort^^ry XiII),who was 
to investigate a charge of heresy against ^^hbisbop 
Carransa of Toledo. From this time dates the antip- 
athy between Peretti and Buoneompagni, which de- 
clared itself more openly during the latter's pontificate 
(1572^15). Upon his return to I^me in 1566 Piua V 
created him Bishop of Sant' AEata dei Goti in the 
Kingdom of Naples and later uioso him as his ooor 
fossor. On 17 May, 1570^ the same pope created him 
cturlinal-priest with the titular Church of S. Simeons, 
which he aft^^arda exchanged for that of S. Girotamo 
dei Schiavoni. In 1671 he was transferred to the Seo 
ofFermo. He was 
popularly known 
as the Cardinal di 
Montalto. Dur- • 
ing the pontificate 
ot Gregory XIII 
he withdrew from 
public affaks. de- 
voting himself to 
study and to the 
collection ot works 
of art, as far as 
his scanty means 
permitlad. Dur- 
mg this time he 
edited the worits 
ot St. Ambrose 
(Rome, 157&- 
1685) and erected 
a villa (now Villa 
Maaeimi) on the 
Esq ui line. 

Or^ory XIII 
died on 10 April, 
1585, and after a 

conclave of tour 

days Peretti was Mohdmikt □* SimnB V — Fonwu 
elected pope by B«iIioa of St, Muy Mais 

"adoration on 

24 April, 1.5S5. He took the name Sixtus V in 
memory of SiMus IV, who liad also been a Minor- 
ite. The legend that he entered tho conclave 
on crutches, feigning the infirmities of old age, and 
upon his election exultantly Uuuat aaide his crutches 
and appeared full of life and vigour has long been ex- 
ploded; it may, however, have been invented as a 




jmnbol of hiB forced inactivity during the rejici of 
Gregory XIII and the remarkable energy whion he 
diisplayed during the five jrears of his pontificate. He 
was a bom ruler and especially suited to stem the tide 
of disorder and lawlessness which had broken out 
towards the end of the reign of Gregory XIII. Hav- 
ing obtained the oo-operation of the neighbouring 
states, he exterminated) often with excessive cruelty, 
the system of briganda^ which had reached inunense 
proportions and terrorised the whole of Italy. The 
number of bandits in and about Rome at the death of 
Gregory XIII has been variously estimated at from 
twelve to twentynseven thousand, and in little more 
than two years after the accession of Sixtus V the 
Papal States had become the most secure country in 

Of ahnost equal importance with the extermination 
of the bandits was, in the opinion of Sixtus V, the rear- 
rangement of the papal finances. At his accession the 
papal exchequer was empty. Acting on his favourite 
pnnciple that riches as well as seventy are necessary 
for good government, he used every available means 
to replenish the state treasury. So successful was he 
in the accumulation of money that, despite his enor- 
mous ex[)enditures for public buildinm, he had shortly 
before his death deposited in the Castello di Sant' 
Angelo three million aciuii in gold and one million six 
hundred thousand in silver. He did not consider that 
in the long run so much dead capital withdrawn from 
circulation was certain to impoverish the coimtry and 
deal the death-blow to commerce and industry. To 
obtain such vast sums he economised everywhere, 
except in works of architeeture; increased the number 
of salable public offices; imposed more taxes and ex- 
tended the montif or public loans, that had been insti- 
tuted by Clement VII. Though extremely econom- 
ical in other ways, Sixtus V spent immense sums in 
erection of public works. He built the Lateran Palace ; 
completed the Quirinal; restored the Church of Santa 
Sabma on the Aventine; rebuilt the Church and Hos- 
pice of San Girolamo dei Schiavoni; enlarsed and im- 
proved the Sapienza; founded the hospice for the poor 
near the Ponte Sisto; built and richly ornamented the 
Qiapel of the Cradle in the BasiUca of Santa Maria 
Magsiore: completed the cupola of St. Peter's; raised 
the obelisks of the Vatican, of Santa Maria Maggiore, 
of the Lateran, and of Santa Maria del Popolo; re- 
stored the columns of Trajan and of Antoninus Pius, 
placing the statue of St. Peter on the former and that 
of St. Paul on the latter; erected the Vatican Library 
with its adjoining printing-office and that wing of the 
Vatican Palace. which is inhabited by the pope; built 
many magnificent streets; erected various monas- 
teries; ana supplied Rome with water, the ''Acqua 
Felice", which he brought to the city over a distance 
of twenty miles, partly imder ground, partly on elevated 
aaueducts. At Bologna he founded the Collegio Mon- 
talto for fifty students from the March of Ancona. 

Far-reaching were the reforms which Sixtus V in- 
troduced in the management of ecclesiastical affairs. 
On 3 Dec., 1586, he issued the Bull "Postquam verus", 
fixing; the number of cardinals at seventy, namdy, six 
cardmal-bishops, fifty cardinal-priests, and fourteen 
cardinal-deacons. Before his pontificate, ecclesiasti- 
cal business was generally discharged by the pope in 
consistory with the cardinals. There were, indeed, a 
few permanent cardinalitial congregations, but the 

Sphere of their competency was very limited. In his 
ull "Immensa setemi Dei'', of 11 February, 1588, he 
established fifteen permanent congregations, some of 
which were concerned with spiritual, others with tem- 
poral affairs. They were the Congregations : ( 1 ) of the 
Inquisition; (2) of the Segnatura; (3) for the Eistab- 
hahment of Qiurohes; (4) of Rites and Ceremonies; 
(5) of the Index of Forbidden Books; (6) of the Coun- 
cil of Trent: (7) of the Regulars; (8) of the Bishops; 
(9) of the Vatican Press; (10) of the Annona, for uie 

provimoning of Rome and the provinces; (11) of the 
Navy; (12) of the Public Welfare; (13) of the Sapi- 
ensa; (14) of Roads, Bridges, and Waters; (15) of 
State Consultations. These congregations lessened 
the work of the pope, without in any way limiting his 
authority. The fimal decision belonged to the pope. 
In the creation of cardinals Sixtus V was, as a rule, 
guided by their good qualities. The only suspicion oi 
nepotism with mich he might be reproached was giv- 
ing the purple to his fourteen-y^hr-old grand-nephew 
Alessandro, who, however, did honour to the Sacred 
College and never wielded an undue influence. 

In 1588 he issued from the Vatican Press an edi- 
tion of the Septuagint revised according to a Vatican 
MS. His edition of the Vulgate, printed shortly be- 
fore his death, was withdrawn from circulation on 
account of its many errors, corrected, and reissued in 
1592 (see Bbllarminb, Robert Francis RoifiTLiTB, 
Venerable). Though a friend of the Jesuits, he ob- 
jected to some of their rules and especially to the title 
" Sodetv of Jesus ". He was on the point of changing 
these when death overtook him. A statue which haa 
been erected in his honour on the Capitol during his 
lifetime was torn down by the rabble immediately 
upon his death. (For his relations with the various 
temporal rulers and his attempts to stem the tide of 
Ph)testantism, see Counter-Reformation, The.) 

Von H0BNKB, Sixte^iuini (Paris, 1870), tr. JxBmNaHAM 
(London. 1872) ; Balxani, JSohm under Sixtut V in Cambr%do§ 
Modem HiUtrry, III (London, 1905), 422-^5; Robaroi, SiiH 
V getta quituptennaUa (Romo, 1590); Lan, Vita di Sitto V 
n^AMMina, 1669), tr. Farnbwobth (London, 1754). unreliable; 
TufPB8TX, Storia ddLa wita e guU di Si$to V (Rome, 1755): 
Cbsabb, Vita di Sisto V (Naples. 1755); Lorbntb. Sixttu V 
vnd teine Ztit (Mains, 1852); Dumbsnil. Hiat. de Sixte-Quini 
(Paris, 1869); Capbakica, Papa Siato, ttoria del 9. XVI (MUan. 
1884); Grasxani. Sitdo V e la rioTganitaaxione ddla «. Sede 
(Rome, 1910) ; GoszAomi. Giovanni Pepoii e Si^o V (Bologna. 
1879); Sbgbbtaxn. SiioihQuint el Henn IV (Paris, 1861); 
CuoNONi, Memorie autoffnje di Papa Sieto V in Arehivio detia 
Soc. Romana di ttoria patria (Rome, 1882); Bbnadduci, Sieto 
V. Dodiei lettere inediU (Tolentino. 1888); Dalla Sakta. Un 
doeumento inedito per la eloria di Siato V (Venioe. 1896) ; Roesi- 
ScoTTX, PompiUo Buaebi da Perugia e Sieto papa V (Perugia* 
1893); Paou. Sieto V oi banditi (Sassari. 1902); Harfbb in 
Amer, Cath, Quarterly Review, III (Pliiladelphia. 1878), 498-521. 

Michael Ott. 

Skargs, Peter, theologian and missionary, b. at 
Grojec, 1536: d. at Cracow, 27 Sept., 1612. He 
began his education in his native town in 1552; 
he went to study in Cracow and afterwards in War- 
satv. In 1557 he was in Vienna as tutor to the young 
Ofiuitellan, Teciynski; returning thence in 156^ 
he received Holy orders, and later was nominated 
canon of Lemberg Cathedral. Here he began to 
preach his famous sermons, and to convert Protes- 
tants. In 1568 he entered the Society of Jesus and 
went to Rome, where he became penitentiiury for the 
PoU^ lan^^age at St. Peter's. Returning to Poland, 
he worked in Uie Jesuit colleges of Pultusk and Wilna, 
where he converted a multitude of Protestants, 
Calvinism being at the time prevalent in those parts. 
To this end he first published some works of contro- 
versy: and in 1576. m order to convince the numer- 
ous schismatics in Poland, he issued his great treatise 
"On the Unity of the Church of God^', which did 
much good then, and is even now held in great es- 
teem. It powerfullv promoted the cause of the Union. 
King Stephen Bdthori prized Skarga greatly, often 
profited by his aid and advice, took him on one of his 
expeditions, and made him rector of the Academy 
of Wilna, founded in 1578. In 1584 he was sent 
to Cracow as superior, and founded there the Brother^ 
hood of Mercy and tne ''Mons pietatis", meanwhile 
effecting numerous conversions. He was appointed 
court preacher by Simsmund III in 1588, and for 
twenty-four years filled this post to the great advan- ' 
tage of the Church and the nation. In 1596 the 
Ruthenian Qiurch was united with Rome, largely 
throuf^ his efforts. When the nobles, headed tgr 
SSebnfydowski, revolted against Sigismund Ill| 

BS0A4 35 tLAimtt 

fikarga was M&t on fi tnistion of oondliatioii to the to the ward for the insane, as it was daimed that the 

rebels, which, however, proved fruitless. Besides patients were annoved by his investigations, espe- 

the ocmtroversial works mentioned, Skaica published ciaily by the method, of percussion. His first publica- 

a'^Historyof the Church", and ''Lives ofthe Saints" tion, "Uber die Perkussion" in the "Medisinisohe 

SiTilna, 1679; 25th ed., Lembers, 188a*-84), possibly JahrbQcher des k.k. dsterreichen Kaiserstaates", IX 

e most widely read book in Poluid. But most im- (1836), attracted but little attention. This paper was 

g>rtant of all are his "Sermons for Sundays and followed by: " Uber den Hersstoss und die durch d^e 

oiidays" (Craoow, 1505) and "Sermons on the Henbewegungen verursachten Tdne und Ober die 

Seven Sacraments" (Craoow, 1600), which, besides^ Anwendung der Perkussion bei Untersuchung der 

their glowing eloouenoe, are profound and instructive/ Organe des Unterleibes", in the same periodical. 

In addition to these are "Sermons on Various Oo vols. XIII, XIV (1837); "Vber Abdonunaltyphus 

casionB" and the "Sermons Preached to the Diet", und dessen Behandlung mit Alumen crudum", also 

These last for inspiration and feeling are the finest in the same periodical, vol. XV (1838): "Untersuoh- 

nroducticms in the literature of Poland before the imgsmethode sur Bestimmung des ^ustandes dee 

Partitions. Nowhere are there found such style, elo- Herzens", vol. XVIII (1839); "Uber Pericarditis 

quenoe, and patriottsm, with the deepest religious in pathologisch-anatomischer und diagnostischer 

conviction. Skargn occupies a high place in the Beziehung", XIX (1839): "tJber Piorrys Semiotik' 

literature and the lustory of Poland. His efforts to und Diagnostik", vol. XVIII (1839); "Uber die 

oonvert heretics, to restore schismatics to unity, to Diagnose der Hersklappenfehler", vol. XXI (1840). 

prevent corruption, and to stem the tide of public and His small but up to now imsurpassed chief work, 

political license, tendmg even then towards anarchy, "Abhandlung Uber die Perkussion und Auskulta- 

were indeed as to this last point unsuccessful; but tion" (Vienna, 1839), has been repeatedly published 

that was the nation's fault, not his. and translated into foreign languages. It established 

Rrtmouna, Ptut 8haroa and hu a0«(UmUis. 1852); Pol- hig universal renown as a diagnostician. In 1841, 

SOwsxi. Wed/ Peter Skarga (Cracow, 1884); BoBRSTBiaKi, Ser- ^^ iniirnflv fnr rtwktanh tn Puria htk msiAtk a Mnl 

mmatoOuDiH (Cracow, 1876); Chrsanowmi, Preface to Sermont ^^J a JOUrney Xor reswcn tO fans, ne maoe a Sep- 

totkt Diet (ind ed.. Waxsaw. 1897); Tarnowsxx, Sehooibook of arate division m his department for skin diseases 

PM^ Literature QMnalbm and thus gave the first impulse towards the reor- 

i«r». I (Crao«m.id03)-^irmPoaah. T.pv^wairr gBjiization of dermatology by Ferdinand Hebra. 

o. lARNowsKi. j^ jg^ ^^ ^^^ request of the ministry of education 

8koda(ScHKODA),JoBBr, celebrated clinical lecturer he drew up a memorial on the reorganization of the 

and diagnostician and. with Rokitansky, founder of study of medicine, and encouraged later b^ his advice 

iitd modem medical s^ool of Vienna, b. at Pilaen in the rounding of tne present hi^er administration of 

Bohemia, 10 December, 1805; d. at Vienna, 13 June, the medical school of Vienna. As regards therapeu* 

1881. Skoda was the son of a locksmith. lie at- tics the accusation was often made against him that 

tended ^e gymnasium at Pilsen, entered the Univer- he held to the "Nihilism" of the Vienna School, 

sity of Vienna in 1825, and received the degree of As a matter of fact his therapeutics were exceedindy 

Doctor of Medicine on 10 Julv, 1831. He first served simple in contrast to the great variety of remedial 

in Bohemia as physician during the outbreak of agents used at that time, which he regarded as usdess, 

cholenL was assistant physician in the general hos- as in his experience manv ailments were cured with- 

pital ot Vienna, 1832-38, in 1839 city physician of out medicines, merely by suitable medical supeiv 

Vienna for the poor, and on 13 Februarv, 1840, vision and proper diet. His high sense of duty as a 

on the recommendation of Dr. Ludwig, Freiherr von teacher, the large amount of work he performed as a 

TQrkheim, chairman of the imperial committee of physician, and the early appearance of organic hearts 

education, was appointed to the unpaid position qf trouble are probablv the reasons that from 1848 

chief physician of the department for consumptives he published less and less. The few papers which he 

just opened in the general hospital. In 1846. tnanks wrote from 1850 are to be found in the transactions 

to the energetic measures of Karl Rokitansky, pro- of the Academy of Sciences and the periodical of the 

feasor of pauiological anatomy, he was apiwinted pro- Society of Physicians of Vienna of which he was the 

feasor of the mediraU clinic against the wishes of the honorary president, 

rest of the medical faculty. In 1848 he began to Diuschb, Skoda (Vienna, 1881). . 

lecture in German instead of Latin, being the first Leopold Sbnfkldbr. 

profesBOT to adopt this course. On 17 July. 1848, he glade, John, Venerable See Bodey, John, Vbn- 

was elected an active member of the mathematico- arable 
physical section of the Academy of Sciences. Early 

m 1871 he retired from his professorship, and the oo- Slander is the attributing to another of a fault 

easion was oelebrated by the students and the popula- of which one knows him to be innocent. It contains 

tion of Vienna by a great torchlight procession in his a twofold malice, that which grows out of damage 

honour. RokitadudEy calls him " a lignt for those who unjustly done to our neighbour's good name and that 

study, a model for those who strive, and a rock for of lying as well. Theologians say that this latter 

those who despair". Skoda 's benevolent disposi- guilt considered in itself, in so far as it is an offence 

tion is best shown bvthe fact that, notwithstanding his against veracity, may not be grievous, but that nevei^ 

large income and known simplicitv of life, he left a theless it will frequently be advisable to mention 

eo^tilMiratively small fortune, and in his will bequeathed it in confession, in order that the extent and method 

lef^Mies to a number of benevolent institutions. of reparation may be settled. The important thing 

Skoda's great merit lies in his development of the to note of slander is that it is a lesion of our neigh- 
methods of physical investigation. The discovery hour's right to his reputation. Hence moralists hold 
of the method of percussion diagnosis made in 1761 that it is not specifically distinct from mere detrao- 
by the Viennese physician, Leopold Auenbrugger tion. For the purpose of determining the species 
(1722-1809), had been forgotten, and the knowledge of this sin, the manner in which the injury is done is 
of it was first revived in 1808 by Corvisart (1765- negligible. There is, however, this difference be- 
1821), oourt-physician to Napoleon I. Laennee tween slander and detraction: that, whereas there 
(1787-1826) ima his pupils Piorry and Bouillaud are circumstances in which we may lawfully expose 
added auscultation to tnis method. Skoda began his the misdeeds which another has actually committed, 
clinical studies in close connexion with patholo^cal we are never allowed to blacken his name by charging 
anatomy while assistant physician of the hospital, him with what he has not done. A Ue is intrinsicall!' 
bat his superion failed to understand hk course, evil and can never be iustified by any cause or in any 
•ad in 1837, hy way of punishment, transferred him oircumstanoes. Shmder involves a violation of com- 




mutative justice and therefore impofles on its per- 
petrator the obligation of restitution. First of all, 
ne must undo the injury of the defamation itself. 
There seems in general to be only one adequate way 
to do this: he must simply retract his false state- 
ment. Moralists sav that & he can make full atone- 
ment by declaring that he has made a mistake, this 
will be sufficient; otherwise he must unequivocally 
take back his untruth, even at the expense of ex- 
hibiting himself a liar. In addition he is bo\md to 
make compensation to his victim for whatever losses 
may have oeen sustained as a result of his malicious 
imputation. It is supposed that the damage which 
ensues has been in some measure foreseen by the 

BuLTBB, MamuU of Moral Tkwlon (New York, 1008) ; Bal- 
lutua. Op. tKeoL mor, (Pmto, 1899); d'Annibalb, Summula 
theol. mor. (Rome, 1908); Gbnicot, TMol. moral, t/wtti. (Lou- 
vain, 1898). 

Joseph F. Dblant. 

Slavery. — Bovr numerous the plavcs were in 
Roman society when Christianity made its appeaiv 
ance, how haid was their lot. and now the competition 
of slave labour crushed free labour is notorious. It is 
the scope of this article to show what Chrbtianity has 
done for daves and against slaverer, first in the Ro- 
man world, next in that society which was the result 
of the barbarian invasions, and lastly in the modem 

I. Thb Chubch and Roman Slavery.— ^The 
first missionaries of the Gospel, men of Jewish orifdn, 
came from a country where slavery existed. But 
it existed in Judea under a form very different from 
the Roman form. The Mosaic Law was merciful 
to the slave (Ex., xxi; Lev., xxv; Deut., xv, xvi, xxi) 
and carefully secured his fair wa^e to the labourer 
(Deut., xxiv, 15). In Jewish society the slave was 
not an object of contempt, because labour was not 
despised as it was daewnere. No man thought it 
beneath him to plv a manual trade. These ideas 
and habits of life the Apostles brought into the new 
society which so rapidly grew up as the effect of 
their preaching. As this society mcluded, from the 
first, mthful of all conditions — ^rich and poor, slaves 
and freemen — ^the Apostles were obliged to utter 
their beUefs as to the social inequalities which so 
profoundly divided the Roman world. ** For as many 
of you as have been baptized in Christ, have put on 
Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek: there is 
neither bond nor free: there is neither male nor female. 
For you are all one in Christ Jesus" (Gal., iii, 27-28; 
cf . I Cor., xii, 13). From this principle St. Paul draws 
no political conclusions. It was not his wish, as it 
was not in his power, to realize Christian equality 
either by force or by revolt. Such revolutions are not 
effected of a sudden. Christianity accepts society as 
it is, influencing it for its transformation through, and 
only through, mdividual souls. What it demands in 
the first place from masters and from slaves is, to live 
as brethren — commanding with equity, without 
threatening, remembering that God is the master of 
all — obeying with fear, out without servile flattery, 
in simphcity of heart, as they would obey Christ (cf . 
Eph., vi, 9; Col., iii, 22-4; iv, 1). 

Hiis language was understood by masters and by 
slaves who became converts to Christianity. But 
many slaves who were Christians had pagan masters 
to whom this sentiment of fraternity was unknown, 
and who sometimes exhibited that cruelty of which 
moralists and poets so often speak. To such slaves 
St. Peter points out their duty: to be submissive 
"not only to the good and gentle, but also to the fro- 
ward", not with a mere inert resignation, but to give a 
good example and to imitate Christ, Who also suffered 
unjustly (I Peter, ii, 18, 23-24). In the eyes of the 
Apostles, the slave's condition, peculiarly wretched, 
peculiarly exposed to temptations, bears all the more 

efficacious testimony to the new religion. St. FmiI 
recommends slaves to seek in all things to please their 
masters, not to contradict them, to do them no wxongi 
to honour them, to be loyal to them, so as to make the 
teaching of God Our Saviour shine forth before the 
eyes of all, and to prevent that name and teaching 
from being blasphemed (cf. I Tim., vi, 1; Tit., ii, 9, 
10). The Apostohc writmgs show how large a place 
slaves occupied in the Church. Nearly all the names 
of the Christians whom St. Paul salutes in his Epistle 
to the Romans are servile cogTiomina: the two groups 
whom he calls 'Hhoee of the household of Aristobulus'' 
and ''those of the household of Narcissus" indicate 
Christian servitors of those two contemporaries of 
Nero. His Epistle, written from Rome, to the 
Philippians (iv, 22) bears them greeting from the 
saints of Csesar's household, i. e. converted slaves of 
the imperial palace. 

One fact which, in the Church, relieved the con* 
dition of the slave was the absence amongChristians 
of the ancient scorn of labour (Cicero, "De off,", I, 
xlii; "Pro Flacco", xviii; "Pro domo", xxxiii; Sueto- 
nius, "Claudius", xxii; Seneca, "De beneficiis", xviii; 
Valerius Maximus, V, ii, 10). Converts to the new 
religion knew that Jesus had been a carpenter; 
ther^ saw St. Paul exercise the occupation of a tent- 
maker (Acts, xviii, 3; I Cor., iv, 12). "Neither did 
we eat any man's bread", said the Apostle, "for 
nothing, but in labour and in toil we worked nignt and 
day, lest we should be chargeable to any en you" 
(II Thess., iii, 8; cf. Acts, xx, 33. 34). Such an ex- 
ample, given at a time when those who laboured 
were accounted "the dregs of the city", and those 
who did not labour hved on the public bounty, 
constituted a very efficacious form of preaching. 
A new sentiment was thereby introduced into the 
Roman world, while at the same time a formal 
discipline was being established in the Church. 
It would have none of those who made a narade of 
their leisurely curiosity in the Greek and Raman 
cities (II Thess., iii, 11). It declared tiiat those who 
do net labour do not deserve to be fed (ibid., 10). 
A Christian was not permitted to live without an 
occupation (Didache, xii). 

Rehgious . equalitv was the negation of slavery 
as it was practised by pagan society. It must have 
been an exaggeration, no doubt, to say, as one author 
of the first century said, that "slaves had no reli^on, 
or had only foreign religions ' ' (Tacitus, "Annals" , Al V, 
xliv) : many were membera of funerary collegia under 
the invocation of Roman divinities (Statutes of the 
College of Lanuvium, " Corp. Inscr. lat.", XIV, 2112). 
But in many circumstances this haughty and formalist 
religion excluded slaves from its functions, which, 
it was held, their presence would have defiled (Cicero, 
"Octavius", xxiv). Absolute religious equalityf 
as proclaimed by Christianity, was therelore a 
novelty. The Church made no account of the social 
condition of the faithful. Bond and free received 
the same sacraments. Clerics of servile origin 
were numerous (St. Jerome, Ep. Ixxxii). The veiy 
Chair of St. Peter was occupied by men who had 
been slaves — ^Pius in the second century. Callistua 
in the third. So complete — one might aimost say^, 
so levelling — ^was this Christian equality that St. 
Paul (I Tim., vi, 2), and, later, St. Ignatius (Polyc, 
iv), are obliged to admonish the slave and the hand- 
maid not to contemn their masters, "believers like 
them and sharing in the same bendlts". In givins 
them a place in religious society, the Church restored 
to slaves the family and marriage. In Roman law, 
neither legitimate marriage, nor r^;ular patMnity. 
nor even any impediment to the most unnatural 
unions had existed for the slave (Digest, XXXVIII. 
viii, i, § 2; x, 10, § 5). That slaves often endeavoured 
to override this abominable position is touchinc^y 
proved by innumerable mortuary inscriptions; biU 

numunr 87 ilayibt 

ibe nanie of ttopor, whioh the bUto wotnaa tabv in 000. Bitt PaUftdtut wrote befora 406, which was long 

these iDaoriptioiifly is very precariouai for no law before Melania had ocmpleitefy exhausted her im^ 

nroteetfi her nonour, and with her there la no adultery mense f<vtune in acts of Uberahty of all kinds (Ram- 

(Difleat, XLVIII, v, 6; Cod. Justin., IX, ix, 23). poUa^ **8, Melania Giumoie", 1905, p. 221). 
In ike Church the marnage of slaves is a sacrament; Pnmitive Christianity did not attadk slavery 

it possesses ''the soliditjr' of one (St. Basil, Ep. directly: but it acted as thoufdi slaveiv did not 

cxcix, ^). The Apostolic Constitutions impose exist. B^ inspiring the best m its children with 

upon the master the outy of making his slave contract this heroic charity, examples of which have been 
''a legitimate marriage'' (III, iv; VIIL xxxii). • given above, it remote^ prepared the way for the 

St. John Chrysostom declares that slaves have the abolition of slavery. To r^roach the Church of 

marital power over their wives and the paternal the first ages with not havmg condemned slavery 

over their children ("In £p.ad£^he8.",Hom.xxii, 2). in principle, and with having tolerated it in fact, 

He says that "he who has immoral relations with the is to blame it for not having let loose a frightful 

wife dt a slave is as culpable as he who has the hke revolution, in which, perhaps, all civilization would 

relations with the wife of the prince: botii are aduV- have perished with Koman society. But to say, 

In the (Jhristiaa cemeteries there is no difference there should be no slavery, to sav that the Father. 

between the tombs of slaves and those of the free, of the Church did not feel "the horror of slavery", 

The inscriptions on pagan sepulchres — ^whether the is to display either strange ignorance or singular 

columbarium common to all the servants of one unfairness. In St. Gregory of Nyssa (In Ecclesiastem, 

household, or the burial plot of a funerary collegium hom. iv) the most energetic and absolute reprobation 

of slaves or freedmen^ or isolated tombs— always indi- of slavery may be found; and again in numerous 

cate the servile condition. In Christian epitaphs it is passages of St. John Chrysostom's discourses we 

hardly ever to be seen ("Bull, di archeol. Christiana'', nave the picture of a society without slaves — a 

1866, p. 24), though slaves formed a considerable part societ^r composed only of free workers, an ideal 

of the d^ristian population. Sometimes we find a portrait of which he traces with the most eloauent 

slave honoured with a more pretentious sepulchre msistence (see the texts cited in AUard, "Lesesclaves 

than others of the faithful, like that of Amp^atus chr^tiens'', pp. 416-23). 

in the cemetery of Domitilia ("Bull, diarcheol. Christ.", II. Thb Church and Slavery after the 

1881,pp. 57-74, andpl. Ill, IV). This is particularly Barbarian Invasions. — It is beyond the scope of 

so in tiie case of slaves who were martyrs: the ashes this article to discuss the legislative movement 

of two slaves, Protus and Hyacinthus, burned alive which took place during the same period in regard 

in the Valerian persecution, had been wrapped in a to slaves. From Augustus to Constantine statutes 

winding-sheet of gold tissue (ibid., 1894, p. 23). and jurisprudence tended to afford them greater 

Martyrdom eloquenthr manifests the religious protection against ill-treatment and to facilitate 

equidity of the slave: he displays as much firmness enfranchisement. Under the Christian emperors 

before the menaces of the persecutor as does the this tendeziey, in spite of relapses at certain points, 

free man. Sometimes it is not for the Faith alone became daily more marked, and ended, in the sixth 

that a slave woman dies, but for the faith and chastity century, in Justinian's very Uberal legislation (see 

equally threatened — "pro fide et castitate occisa Wallon, "Hist, de Fesclava^e dans rantiauit^'', III, 

e3t" ("Acta S. Duke" in Acta SS., Ill March, p. 652). ii and x). Although the civil law on slavery still 

Beautiful assertions of this moral freedom are found lagged behind the demands of Christianity ("The laws 

in the accounts of the martyrdoms of the slaves of Csesar are one thing, the laws of Chnst another", 

Ariadne, Blandina, Evelpistus, Potamienna, Felicitas, St. Jerome writes in "Ep. Ixxvii"), nevertheless very 

Sabina, Vitalis, Porphyrus, and many others (see g^eat proflTOBS had been made. It continued in the 

AUard, "Dix lecons sur le martyre", 4th ed., pp. Eastern Empire (laws of Basil the Macedonian, 

155-64). The Church made the enfranchisement of Leo the wise, of Constantine Poiphvzogenitus), 

of the slave an act of disinterested charit^r. Pagan but in the. West it was abruptly checked by the 

mastars usually sold him his liberty for his market barbarian invasions. Those invasions were calam- 

vakre, on receipt of his painfully amassed savings itous for the slaves, increasing their numbers which 

(Cicero, "Philipp. VIII", xi;S«ieca,"Ep.lxxx"); true had bep^un to dimmish, and subjecting them to 

Christians gave it to him as an alms. Sometimes legislation and to customs much harder than those 

the Church redeemed slaves out of its common whieh obtained under the Roman law of the period 

resources (St. Ignatius, "Polyc", 4; Apos. Const., (see Alhtfd, "Les origines du servage" in "Rev, des 

IV, iii). Heroic Christians are known to have sold questions historiques^', April, 1911). Here again the 

themselves into slavery to deliver slaves (St. Clement, Church intervened. It did so in three ways: redeem- 

"Cor.", 4; "Vita S. Joannis Eleemosymurii " in Acta ing slaves; legislating for their benefit in its councils; 

SS., Jan., II, p. 506). Many enfranchised all the setting an example of kind treatment. Documents 

daves they had. In pagan antiquity wholesale en- of the fifth to the seventh century are fuU of instances 

franchisements are frequent, but they never include of ci4)tives carried off from conquered cities by the 

all the owner's slaves, and tnev are always by testar barbarians and doomed to slavery, whom bishops. 

effectually despoiling themselves of a considerable France'', 1910, pp. 357-69). 

part of their fortime (see Allard. "Les esclaves chr^ The Churches of Gaul, Spam, Britain, and Italy 

tiens", 4th ed., p. 338). At the oeginning of the fif th were incessantly busy, in numerous councils, with 

eentury, a Roman millionaire. Si. Melania, gratui- the affairs of the slaves; protection of the maltreated 

tously granted liberty to so many thousand of slaves slave who has taken refuge in a church (Councils 

that her biographer declares himself unable to give of Orleans, 511, 538, 649; Council of Epone, 517): 

tiieir exact number (Vita S. Melani^e, xxxiv). Pallsr protection of freedmen, not only those manumitted 

dius mentions eight thousand slaves freed (Hist, in ecdesiis, but also those freed by any other process 

Laiisiaea, exix). which, taking the average price of a (Council of Aries, 452; of Agde, 606: of Orleans, 649; 

•lave as about $100, would represent a value of $800,- of MAcou, 586; of Toledo, 689, 633; of Paris, 616); 




vtfidity of marriageB contraoted with full knowl* 
edge of the ciroumstanoes between free penona and 
slaves (Councils of Verberie, 752; of Compidgne. 769): 
rest for slaves on Sundays and fea^t days (Council 
of Auxerre, 578 or 585; of ChAlon-sur-Sa6ne, middle 
of the seventh century; of Rouen. 650; of Wessex, 
691; of Ber^amsted, 697); prohibition of Jews to 
possess Christian slaves (Council of Orleans, 541; 
of M&con, 581; of CUch}% 625; of Toledo, 589, 633, 
656); suppression of tramc in slaves by forbidding 
theh" sale outside of the kingdom (Council of ChAIon- 
sur-SaAne, between 644 and 650) ; prohibition against 
reducing a free man to slavery (Council of Clichy, 
625). Less liberal in this respect than Justinian 
(Novella cxxiii, 17), who made tacit consent a 
sufficient condition, the Western discipline does not 
permit a slave to be raised to the priesthood without 
the formal consent of his master; nevertheless the 
councils held at Orleans in 511, 538, 549, while im- 
posing canonical penalties upon the bishop who ex- 
ceeded his authority in this matter, declare such an 
ordination to be valid. A council held at Rome in 
695 under the presidency of St. Gregory the Great 
permits the slave to become a monk without any 
consent, express or tacit, of his master. 

At this period the Church found itself becoming 
a great proprietor. Barbarian converts endowed it 
largely with reskl property. As these estates were 
furnished with sens attached to the cultivation of 
the soil, the Church became by force of circumstances 
a proprietor of human beings, for whom, in these 
troublous times, the relation was a great 'blessing. 
The laws of the barbarians, amended through 
Christian influence, gave ecclesiastical serfs a priv- 
ileged position: their rents were fixed; ordinarily, 
they were bound to give the proprietor half of their 
labour or half of its products, the remainder being 
left to them (Lex Alemannorum, xxii; Lex Baju va- 
riorum, I, xiv, 6). A council of the sixth century 
(Eauzc, 551) enjoins upon bishopts that they must 
exact of their serfs a lighter service than that per- 
formed by the serfs of lay proprietors, and must 
remit to them one-fourth of their rents. Another 
advantage of ecclesiastical serfs was the permanency 
of their position. A Roman law of the middle of 
the fourth centuiy (Cod. Just., XI, xlvii, 2) had 
forbidden rural slaves to be removed from the lands 
to which they belonged: this was the origin of serfdom, 
a much better condition than slavery properly so 
called. But the barbarians virtually suppressed this 
beneficent law (Gregory of Tours, "Hist. Franc", 
VI, 45) ; it was even formally abrogated among the 
Goths of Italy by the edict of Theodoric (§ 142). 
Nevertheless, as an exceptional privilege, it remained 
in force for the serfs of the Church, who. like the 
Church itself, remained under Roman law (Lex 
Burgondionum, LVIII, i; Louis I, "Add. ad legem 
Langobard.", Ill, i). They shared besides, the 
inalienability of oil ecclesiastical property which had 
been established by councils (Rome, 502; Orleans, 
511, 533; Epone, 517; Clichy, 625; Toledo, 589): 
they were sheltered from the exactions of the royal 
officers by the immunity granted to almost all church 
lands (Kroell, "L'immunit6 franque", 1910); thus 
their position was generally envied (Flodoard, "Hist, 
eccl. Kemensis", I. xiv), and when the royal liberality 
assigned to a church a portion of land out of the state 
property, the serfs who cultivated were loud in their 
expressions of joy (Vita S. Eligii, I, xv). 

It has been asserted that the ecclesiastical serfs 
were less fortunately situated because the inalien- 
abihty of church property prevented their being 
enfranchised. But this is inexact. St. Gregory the 
Great enfranchised serfs of the Roman Church 
(Ep. vi, 12), and there is frequent discussion in the 
councils in regard to ecclesiastical freedmen. The 
Council of Agde (506) gives the bishop the right to 

enfraaehifle those eerfs "who shall have deserved if 
and to leave them a small patrimony. A Ccmnoil 
of Orleans (641) declares that even if the bishop 
has dissipated the property of his church, the serfs 
whom he has freed in reasonable numbor (numero 
campelenH) are to remain free. A Merovingiaa 
formula shows a bishop enfranchising one-tenUi of 
his serfs (Formula Biturigenses, viii). The Spanish 
councils imposed greater restrictions, reoognizinjs 
the. ri^t of a bishop to enfranchise the serfs of his 
church on condition of his indenmifying it out of his 
own private property (Council of Seville, 590; of 
Toledo, 633; of Merida, 666). But they made it 
obhgatory to enfranchise the serf in whom a serious 
vocation to the priesthood was discerned {Council 
of Saragoesa, 593). An English council (Celohyte, 
816) orders that at the death of a bishop all the other 
bishops «and all the abbots shall enfranchise three 
slaves each for the repose of his soul. This last 
clause shows again the mistake of saying that the 
monks had not the right of manumission. The 
panon of the Council of Epone (517) which forbids 
abbots to enfranchise their serfs was enacted in 
order that the monks might not be left to work with- 
out assistance and has been taken too literally. It 
is inspired not only by agricultural prudence, but 
also by the consideration that the serfs belonp^ to 
the community of monks, and not to the abbot indi- 
vidually. Moreover, the rule of St. Ferr^ol (sixth 
century) permits the abbot to free serfs with the 
consent of the monks or without their consent, 
if, in the latter case, he replaces at his own expense 
those he has enfranchised. The statement that 
ecclesiastical freedmen were not as free as the freed- 
men of lay proprietors will not bear examination 
in the light of facts, which shows the situation of the 
two classes to have been identical, except that the 
freedman of the Church carried a higher werghM, 
than a lay freedman, and therefore his hfe was 
better protected. The "Polyptych of Irminon'*, 
a detailed description of the abbey lands of Saint- 
Germain-des-Pr6s, shows that in the ninth century 
the serfs of that domain were not numerous and led 
in every way the life of free peasants. 

III. The Church and Modern Slavery. — 
In the Middle Ages, slavery, properly so called, no 
longer existed in Christian countries; it had been 
replaced by serfdom, an intermediate condition in 
which a man enjoyed all his personal rights except 
the right to leave the land he cultivated and the tiffit 
to freely dispose of his property. Serfdom soon 
disappeared m Catholic countries, to last longer 
only where the Protestant Reformation prevailed. 
But while serfdom was becoming extinct, me course 
of events was bringing to pass a temporary revival 
of slavery. As a consequence of the wars against 
the Mussulmans and the commerce maintainedf with 
the East, the European countries bordering on the 
Mediterranean, particularly Spain and Italy, once 
more had slaves — Tiu'kish prisoners and also, 
unfortunately, captives imported by conscienceless 
traders. Though these slaves were generally well 
treated, and set at liberty if they asked for bi4>tism, 
this revival of slavery, lasting until the seventeenth 
century, is a blot on Christian civilization. But 
the number of these slaves was always veiy small 
in comparison with that of the Christian captives 
reduced to slaveiy in Mussulman countries, partio- 
ulorly in the Barba^ states from Tripoli to the 
Atlantic coast of Morocco. These captives were 
cruelly treated and were in constant dan^ of losing 
their faith. Many actually did deny their faith, or. 
at least, were driven by despair to abandon all 
religion and all morality. Religious orders were 
founded to succour and redeem them. 

The Trinitarians, founded in 1198 by St John 
of Matha and St. Felix of Valois, established hospitals 

BLkYMKf 30 8L4V1BT 

for slaves at Algiers and Tunis in the sixteenth * region of the Great Lakes, ledeeming slaves and 

and seventeenth centuries; and from its foundation establishing '^liberty viUages/' At the head of 

until the year 1787 it redeemed 900,000 slaves, this movement appear two men: Cardinal Lavigeiie, 

The Order of Our Lady of Ransom (Mercedarians), who in 1888 founded the SocUU AniiesdavaoitU 

founded in the thirteenth century bv St. Peter and in 1880 promoted the Brussels conference: 

Nolasoo, and established more especially in France Leo XIII, who encouraged Lavigerie in all his projects 

and Spain, redeemed 490,736 slaves between the and, in 1890, by an Encyclical once more condemning 

vears 1218 and 1632. To^the three regular vows its the slave-traders and ' ' the accursed pest of servitude , 

rounder had added a fourth, ''To become a hostage ordered an annual collection to be made in all 

in the hands of the infidels, if that is necessary for Cathohc churches for the benefit of the antinslavery 

the deliverance of Christ's faithful." Many Mer- work. Some modem writers, mostly of the Socialist 

*(Dedarians kept this vow even to martyrdom. An- School — Karl Marx, Engel, Cicootti, and, in a meas* 

other order undertook not only to redeem captives, ure, Seligman — attribute the now ahnost complete 

but also to give them spiritual and material assistance, disappearance of slaveiy to the evolution of interests 

St. Vincent of Paul had been a slave at Algiers in and to economic causes only. The foregoing exposi- 
1605. and had witnessed the sufferings and perils tion of the subject is an answer to their materiaUstic 

at Algiers. From 1642 to 1660 they redeemed about ^^^^i-^i^' ^«'«^- <^ VetdataM dan» Vantiquiu (Paris. 1879): 

1200 slaves at an expense of about 1,200,000 livres, 5*^* hi!±!S^^J^ !? ^*iS «* *•, ''•"'/"^.iSj™. 18«7) ; 

But their greatest achievements were in teaching £:.^c(«15"cX?^rrS^^'L1SS.T^/^^^^ 

the Catechism and convertmg thousands, and m ^~ ^' * ^ •— ^ .. .« . 

preparing many of the captives to suffer the mpst 

cruel mart^xiom rather than deny the Faith. As 

a Protestant historian has recently said, none of the 

expeditions sent against the Barbary States by the 

Powers of Europe, or even America, equalled "the 

moral effect produced by the ministry of consolation, j^^ -...^ — . ^ .....».^«. ^.»«». x^^,, o«»wi«iiuw, 

peace and abnegation, going even to the sacrifice of v^^Jf^foSx^fe**^ ^^ Serfdom in Europe (London and New 

KSy .md wJVhich WM^er^ by the humble JSS' 4*^.^Sr^'ix^i '$^{^^,::^, ^^ 

sons of St. John of Matha, St. Peter Nolasco, and SehiavU^ e del Sertaggio (Milan, 1868) ; Ciccotti. /I tnnumto 

St. Vincent of Paul'^ (Bonet-Maury, "France, ^-^f^iS^.Si?*^' ^W-T^i^m^^ 

«1.»:«*;.«:«i^A A* /.Ur;i:o«i*;/^n" IOAT «> lio\ oa^rylciele a%d0Uor%9cola»iie% (Rome, l90R);BitAVDi, n Papato 

ChnstianJSme et civilisation , 1907. p. 142). .fa ScMavit^ (Rome. 1903): hwuMDm/Vordre dee TrSZ 

jcond J - • • ■ - - - 


1492. _ . ^. _ ^ 

the limits of this article. It will be sufficient to l* cwrdinkL UurigerU'et ^umSree 

recall the efforts of Las Casas in behalf of the abor- Paul Allabd. 

igines of America and the protestations of popes 

both against the enslavement of those aborigines Slavery, Ethical AspscTr of. — In Greek and Ro- 
and the traffic in n^ro slaves. England, Fruice, man civilization slavery on an extensive scale formed 
Portug^, and Spain, all participated in this nefarious ftn essential element of the social structure; and con- 
traffic. England only made amends for its trans- sequentlv the ethical speculators, no less than the 
gressions when, in 1815, it took the initiative in the practical statesmen, regarded it as a just and indis- 
suppression of the slav&-trade. In 1871 a writer pensable institution. The Greek, however, assumed 
hsd the temerity to assert that the Papacy had not that the slave population should be recruited nor- 
yet been able ''to make up its mind to condemn mally only from the barbarian or lower races. The 
slavery'' (Ernest Havet, "Le christianisme et ses Roman laws, in the heyday of the empire, treated the 
origines'', I, p. xzi). He forgot that, in 1462. Pius II slave as a mere chattel. The master possessed over 
declared slavery to be ''a great crime" (magnum him the power of hfe and death; the slave could not 
soB^tiA); that, in 1537, Paul III forbade the enslavement contract a legal marriage, or an}^ other kind of con- 
of the Indians; that Urban VIII forbade it in 1639* tract; in fact ne possessed no civil rights; in the eyes 
and Benedict AlV in 1741; that Pius VII demanded of the law he was not a ''person''. Nevertheless the 
of the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, the suppression settlement of natural justice asserted itself sufficiently 
of the slav&-trade, and Gregory XVI condemned it in to condemn, or at least to disapprove, the conduct of 
1839; that, in the Bull of Canonisation of the Jesuit masters who treated their slaves with signal in- 
Peter Claver, one of the most illustrious adversaries humanity. 

of slavery, Pius IX branded the "supreme villainy" Christianity found slavery in 'possession throughout 
(avmmum nefas) of the slave-traders. Eveiyone the Roman world; and when Christianity obtained 
knows of the beautiful letter which Leo XIII, in power it could not and did not attempt summar- 
1888, addressed >to the Brasilian bishops, exhorting ily to aboUsh the institution. From the be^in- 
them to banish from their country the remnants mng, however, as is shown elsewhere in this article, 
of slavery — a letter to which the bishops responded the Church exerted a steady powerful pressure for the 
wiUi their most energetic efforts, and some generous immediate amelioration of the condition of the in- 
slave-owners by freeing their slaves in a body, as dividual slave, and for the ultimate abolition of a sys- 
in the first ages of the Churdi. tem which, even in its mildest form, could with diffi- 
In our own times the slave-trade still continued culty be reconciled with the spirit of the Gospel and 
to devastate Africa, no longer for the profit of the doctrine that all men are brothers in that Divine 
Christian states, from which all slavery nad dis- sonship which knows no distinction of bond and free. 
smeared, but for the use of Mussulman countries. From the beginning the Christian moralist did not 
But as Euroi)ean penetration progresses in Africa, condemn slavery as in 8e, or essentially, against the 
the missionariesL who are always its precursors — natural law or natural justice. The fact that slavery, 
Fathers of the Holy Ghost, Oblates, White Fathers, tempered with many humane restrictions, was per- 
iiVanciscans, Jesuits, Priests of the Mission of Lyon^^ mitted under the Mosaic law would have sufficed to 
kfaour in the Sudan, Guinea, on the Gabun, in the prevent the institution from being condemned by 


Qirifltian teachers as absolutehr Immoral. They, fol- * that oonoerns his external life: that he should be oom^ 

lowing the example of St. Paul, implicithr accept pelled to spend his entire labour for the benefit of 

slavery as not in itself incompatible with the CHiris- another and receive in return only a bare subsistence, 

tian Law. The apostle counsels slaves to obey their This condition of degradation is aggravated by the 

masters, and to bear with their condition patiently, fact that the slave is, generally, deprived of all means 

This estimate of slavery continued to prevail till it of intellectual development for himyself or for fa» chiL- 

became fixed in the systematized ethical teaching of dren. This life almost inevitiEd[>ly leads to the de» 

the schools; and so it remained without any con- struction of a proper sense of self-respect, blunts the 

spicuous modification till towards the end of the inteUectual faculties, weiJcens the sense of responsi* 

eighteenth century. We mav take as representative bility, and results in a degraded moral standard. On 

de Lugo's statement of the chief argument offered in the other hand, the exercise of the slave-master's 

proof of the thesis that slavery, apart from all abuses, power, too seldom sufficiently restrained by a sense of* 

IS not in itself contrary to the natural law. ''Slavery justice or Christian feeling, tends to develop arro- 

consists in this, that a man is obliged, for his whole gance, pride, and a tsrrannical disposition, which in 

life, to devote his labour and services to a master, the long run comes to treat the slave as a being with 

Now as anybody may justlv bind himself, for the sake no rights at all. Besides, as history amplv proves, 

of some anticipated rewara, to give his entire services the presence of a slave population breecis a vast 

to a master for a year, and he would in justice be amount of sexual immorality among the slave-own- 

bound to fulfil this contract, why may not he bind ing class, and, to borrow a phrase ofLecky, tends to 

himself in like manner for a longer period, even for his cast a stigma on all labour and to degrade and im- 

entire lifetime, an obligation which would constitute poverish the free poor, 
slavery?'* ^De Justitia et Jure. disp. VI, sec. 2. no. 14.) Even granting that slavery, when attended with a 

It must be observed that the defence of what may due re^d for the rights of tne slave, is not in itsdtf 
be termed theoretical slavery was by no means in- intrinsically wrong, there still remains the important 
tended to be a justification of slavery as it existed question of the titles by which a master can justly 
historically, with all its attendant, and almost own a slave. The least debatable one, voluntary ao- 
inevitably attendant, abuses, disregarding the natural ceptance of slavery, we have already noticed. An*- 
rights of the slave and entailing pernicious conse- other one that was looked upon as legitimate was 
quences on the character of the slave-holding class, as purchase. Although it is against natural justice to 
well as on society in general. Concurrently with the treat a person as a mere commodity or thing of conn 
affirmation that slavery is not against the natural law, merce, nevertheless the labour of a man for his whole 
tiie moralists specify what are the natural inviolable lifetime is something that may be lawfully bought and 
rights of th6 slave, and the corresponding duties of sold. Owing to the exalted notion that prevailed in 
the owner. The rast of this teachmg is summarized earlier times about the vcUria potestaSf a father was 
byCardiiialGerdiT(1718-18Q2): ''Slavery is not to be granted the right to sell his son into slavery^ if he 
understood as conferring on one man the same power could not otherwise relieve his own dire oistress. 
over another that men have over cattle. Wherefore But the theologians held that if he should afterwards 
they erred who in former times refused to include be able to do so, the father was bound to redeem the 
slaves among persons; and believed that however slave, and the master was bound to set him free if 
barbarously the master treated his slave he did not anyfbody offered to repay him the price he had paid, 
violate any right of the eJave. For slavery does not To sell old or worn-out slaves to anybody who was 
aboUsh the natural equality of men: hence t>y slavery likely to prove a cruel master, to separate by sale 
one man is understood to oecome subject to the do- husband and wife, or a mother and her little chudr^i, 
minion of another to the extent that the master has a was looked upon as wrong and forbidden. Another 
perpetual right to all those services which one man title was war. If a man forfeited his life so that he 
may justly perform for another; and subject to the could be justly put to death, this punishment might 
condition that the master shall take due care of his be commuted mto the mitigated penalty of slavery, or 
slave and treat him humanely" (Comp. Instit. Civil., penal servitude for life. On the same principle that 
L, vii). The master was judged to sin against justice slavery is a lesser evil than death, captives taken in 
if he treated Jus slave cruelly, if he overloaded him war, who, according to the ethical iaeas of the jus 
with labour, deprived him of adeauate food and cloth- gentium, might lawfully be put to death by the vic- 
ing, or if ne separated husband from wife, or the tors, were instead reduced to slavery . Whatever justi« 
mother from her jroung children. It may be said that fication this practice may have had in the jus gentium 
the approved ethical view of slavery was that while, of former ages, none could be found for it now. 
reli^ously speaking, it could not be condemned as When slavery prevailed as part of the social organ- 
against the natural law, and had on its side the jus ization and the slaves were ranked as property, it 
gentiumf it was looked upon with [disfavour as at seemed not unreasonable that the old juridical maxim, 
best merely tolerable, and when judged by its conse- l^artue sequitur ventrem, should be accepted as peremp- 
quences, a positive evil. torily settling the status of children bom in slavery. 

The later moralists, that is to say, broadly speak- But it would be difficult to find any justification for 

ing. those who have written since the end of the this title in the natural law, except on the theory that 

eighteenth century, though in fundamental agreement the institution of slavery was, in certain conditions, 

with their predecessors, have somewhat shifted the necessary to the permanence of the social organiza- 

perspective. In possession of the bad historical tion. An insufficient reason frequently offered in 

record of slavery and familiar with a Christian struc- defence of it was that the master acquired a right to 

ture of society from which slavery had been elimi- the children as compensation for the expense be 

nated, these later moralists emphasize more than did incurred in their support, which could not be provided 

the older ones the reasons for condemning slaveiy; by the mother who possessed nothing of her own. 

and thev lay less stress on those in its favour. While In or is there much cogency in the other plea, i.e. that 

they admit that it is not, theoretically speaking at a person bom in slavery was presumed to consent 

least, contrary to the natural law, they hold that it is tacitly to remaining in that condition, as there was no 

hardly compatible with the dignity of personality, way open to him to enter any other. It is unnece&> 

and is to be condemned as immoral on account of the sary to observe that the practice of capturing savages 

evil cons€Kiuences it almost inevitably leads to. It is or barbarians for the purpose of making slaves of 

but little in keeping with human dignity that one man them has always been condemned as a heinous offence 

should so far be deprived of his liberty as to be per- against justice, and no Just title could be created by 

petually subject to the will of a master in everything this procedure. Was it lawful for owners to MtaiD 




in slavery the descendants of those who had been 
made slaves in this unjust way? The last conspicu- 
ous Catholic moralist who posed this question when it 
was not merely a theoretical one, Kenrick, resolves it 
in the affirmative on the ground that lapse oi time 
remedies the original defect in titles when the stabil- 
ity of society ana the avoidance of grave disturbances 
demand it. 

8t. Tbomas, I~II. Q. zdy, a. 5, ad 3«»; II-II. Q. Ivii. a. 3. ad 
2«", and a. 4, ad 2""; de L0OO, De juU. etiure, disp. 3, 5, 2; Puvr- 
■ifoosr. Droit de la Nature et de* GeiUt I- VL ch. iii« a. 7; Gbo- 
TITS, De Jure BeUi ac P<xci*, 1. ii, c. v, s. 27; Ksmbick. Theologia 
Morali»f tract. V, c. vi; Meter, Tn3t%tuii(me» Juris NaturaJia, 
par. ii, n. ii, c. xiit art. 2; Catrhbin, Moralphilosopkie (4th ed., 
Freiburg, 1904). 

Jambs J. Fox. 

Slaves (D^n^ "Mes")^ a tribe of the great D^nS 
family of Americfui Indians, so called apparently 
from the fact that the Crees drove it bacx to its 
original northern haunts. Its present habitat is the 
forests that lie to the west of Great Slave Lake, from 
Hay River inclusive. The Slaves are divided into 
five main bands: those of Hay River, Trout Lake, 
Horn Mountain^ the forks of the Mackenzie, and Fort 
Norman. Theu: total population is about 1100. 
They are for the most part a people of unprepossessing 
appearance. Their morals were not formerly of the 
best, but since the advent of Catholic missionaries 
they have considerably improved. Many of them 
have discarded the te^es ofold for more or less com- 
fortable log houses. Yet the religious instinct is not 
80 strongly developed in them as with most of their 
congeners in the North. They were not so eager 
to receive the Catholic missionaries, and- when me 
first Protestant ministers arrived among them, the 
liberalities of the strangers had more effect on them 
than on the other northern Ddn6s. To-day perhaps 
one-twelfth of the whole tribe has embraced Protest- 
antism, the remainder being Catholics. The spiritual 
wants of the latter are attended to from the missions 
of St. Joseph on Great Slave Lake, Ste. Anne, Hay 
River, and Providence, Mackenzie. 

Mackenzie, Voifoqe through the Continent of North America 
(licmdon, 1801); McLean, NUee of a Twentfffi^ Years' Service 
m the Hudeon'e Bay Terrttery (Loadoa, 1849) ; PsTrror, Mono- 
maj^kiedee DinS-DindjH; Idem, Autour du Grand Lac dee Enclaves 
(Paris, 1891) ; Mobice, The Great D6n6 Race (Vienna, in course of 
pubUoatioa, 1911). 


fflavonlc Languagre and Liturgy.— Although the 
Latin holds the chief place among the htursical Ian- 
gu^ee in which the Mass is celebrated and the praise 
5 God recited in the Divine Offices, yet the Slavonic 
language comes next to it among the languages widely 
usea throughout the world in the liturgy of the 
Church. Unlike the Greek or the Latin languages, 
each of which may be said to be representative of a 
single rite, it is dedicated to both the Greek and the 
Roman Rites. Its use, howev^, is far better known 
throu^out Europe as an expression of the Greek Rite; 
for it IS used amongst the various Slavic nationalities 
of the Byzantine Rite, whether Catholic or Orthodox, 
and in that form is spread among 115,000,000 people; 
but it is also used in the Roman Kite along the-eastem 
diores of the Adriatic Sea in Dalmatia and in the 
lower part of Croatia among about 100,000 Catholics 
there. Whilst the Greek language is the norm and the 
original of the Byzantine or Greek Rite, its actual use 
as a church language is limited to a comparatively 
small number, reckoning by population. The liturgy 
and offices of the Byzantine Cihurch were translated 
from the Greek into what is now Old Slavonic (or 
Church Slavonic) by Sts. Cyril and Methodius about 
the year 866 and the period immediately following. 
St. C3rril is credited with having invented or adapted a 
special alphabet which now bears his name (CyriDic) 
in order to express the sounds of the Slavonic lan- 
guage, as spoken by the Bulbars and Mora\ians of 
his day. (See Cyril and Methodius, Saints.) 

Later on St. Methodius translated the entire Bible 
into Slavonic and his disciples afterwards added other 
works of the Greek saints and the canon law. These 
two brother saints always celebrated Mass and ad- 
ministered the sacraments in the Slavonic language. 
News of their successful nussionary work among uie 
pa^an Slavs was carried to Rome along with com- 
plaints against them for celebrating the rites of the 
Church in the heathen vernacular. In 868 Saints 
Cyril and Methodius were summoned to Rome by 
Nicholas I, but arriving there after his death they 
were heartily received b>r his successor Adrian II, who 
approved of their Slavonic version of the Uturg^. St. 
Cyril died in Rome in 869 and is buried in the Uhurch 
of San Clemen te. St. Methodius was afterwards con- 
secrated Archbishoi) of Moravia and Pannonia and re- 
turned thither to his missionary work. Later on he 
was again accused of using the heathen Slavonic lan- 
guage in the celebration of the Mass and in the sac- 
raments. It was a popular idea then, that as there 
had been three languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, 
inscribed over our Lorof on the cross, it would be sacri* 
legions to use any other language in the service of the 
Church. St. Methodius appealed to the pope and in 
879 he was again summoned to Rome, before John 
VIII, who after hearing the matter sanctioned the 
use of the Slavonic lan|;uage in the Mass and the 
offices of the Church, saying among other things: " We 
rightly praise the Slavonic letters invented by Cyril, 
in which praises to God are set forth, and we order 
that the glories and deeds of Christ our Lord be told in 
that same language. Nor is it in anywise opposed to 
wholesome doctrine and faith to s^ Mass in that 
same Slavonic language (Nee sanaB ndei vel doctrinse 
aliquid obstat missam in eadem slavonica lingua ca- 
nere), or to chant the holy gospels or divine lessons 
from the Old and New Testaments duly translated 
and interpreted therein, or the other parts of the di- 
vine office: for He who created the three principal lan- 
guages, Hebrew, Greek, and lAtin. also made the 
others for His praise and glory'' (Boczek, Codex, 
tom. I, pp. 43-44). From that time onward the Sla- 
vonic tongue was firmly fixed as a titurgical language 
of the Church, and was used wherever the Slavic 
tribes were converted to Christianity under the influ- 
ence of monks and missionaries of the Greek Rite. 
The Cyrillic letters used in writing it are adaptations 
of the uncial Greek alphabet, with the addition of a 
number of new letters to express sounds not found in 
the Greek language. All Church books in Russia, Ser- 
via, Bulgaria, or Austro-Hungary (whether used in the 
Greek Catholic or the Greek Orthodox Churches) are 
printed in the old C>Tillic alphabet and in the ancient 
Slavonic tongue. 

But even before St. Cyril invented his alphabet for 
the Slavonic language there existed certain runes or 
native characters in which the southern dialect of the 
language was committed to writing. There is a tra- 
dition, alluded to by Innocent XI, that they were in- 
vented by St. Jerome as early as the fourth century; 
Jagid however thinks that they were really the orig- 
inal letters invented by St. Cyril and afterwards aban- 
doned in favour of an imitation of Greek characters 
by his disciples and successors. This older alphabet, 
which still survives, is called the Glagolitic (from gla^ 
golati, to speak, because the rude tribesmen imagined 
that the letters spoke to the reader and told him what 
to say), and was used by the southern Slavic tribes 
and now exists along the Adriatic highlands. (See 
Glagolitic.) The Slavonic which is written in the 
Glagolitic characters is also the ancient language, but 
it differs considerably from the Slavonic written in the 
Cyrillic letters. In fact it may be roughly compared 
to the difference between the GaeUc of Ireland and the 
Gaehc of Scotland. The Roman Mass was trans- 
lated into this Slavonic shortly after the Greek Hturgy 
had been translated by Sts. Cyril and Methodius, sc 




that in the course of time among the Slavic peoples 
the southern Slavonic written in Glagolitic letters be- 
came the language of the Roman Rite, while the 
northern Slavonic written in Cjrrillic letters was the 
lan^age of the Greek Rite. The prevailing use of the 
Latm language and the adoption of the Roman alpha- 
bet by many Slavic nationalities caused the use of the 
Glagolitic to diminish «nd Latin to gradually take its 
place. The northern Slavic peoples, like the Bohe- 
mianS| Poles, and Slovaks, who were converted by 
Latin missionaries, used the Latin in their rite from 
the very first. At present the Glagolitic is only used 
in Dalmatia and Croatia. Urban v III in 1631 defi- 
nitively settled the use of the Glagolitic-Slavonic 
missal and office-books in the Roman Rite, and laid 
down rules where the clergy of each language came 
in contact with each other in regard to church ser- 
vices. Leo XIII published two editions of the Gla- 
golitic Missal, from one of which the illustration 
on page 45 is taken. 

The liturgy used in the Slavonic langua^^ whether of 
Greek or Roman Rite, offers no peculianties differing 
from the original Greek or Latin sources. The Ruth- 
enians have introduced an occasional minor modifi- 
cation (see RuTHENiAN Ritb), but the Orthodox Rus- 
sians, Bulgarians, and Servians substantially follow 
the Byzantine liturjjy and offices in the Slavonic ver- 
sion. The Glagolitic Missal, Breviary, and ritual fol- 
low closely the Roman liturgical books, and the latest 
editions contain the new offices authorized by the Ro- 
man congregations. The casual , observer could not 
distinguish the Slavonic priest from the Latin priest 
when celebrating Mass or other services, except by 
hearing the lanKuage as pronounced aloud. 

QiNZSL, Oeschichte der Slav»navo$Ul CyriU u. Method, u. dtt 
tiavUehen LUurgie (Vienna, 1861); Harasibwics, AnnaUt Rur 
therue (Lemberg» 1862); Golubinakt, Istoria Rusakoi Taerkvi, I 
(Moscow, 1904). n, 326-42; Tatlor, Ud>er den Ursprunpdes gta- 
golititehen Alphabet (Berlin, 1881); Zbillbr, Les originea chri- 
tUnnea dana la province de Dalmatie (Paris, 1906) ; Nilljs, Kalen- 
darium ManttaU, I (Innsbruck, 1896); Bchoa d'Orient, VIII 
(Paris, 1905). 

Andrew J. Shipman. 

Slavs, The. — I. Name. — A. Slavs. — At present 
the customary name for all the Slavonic races is Slav. 
This name did not appear in histonr until a late period, 
but it has superseded all others . Tne general opmion is 
that it appeared for the first time in written documents 
in the sixth century of the Christian era. However, 
before this the Alexandrian scholar Ptolemy (about 
A.D. 100-178) mentioned in his work, **Tttaypaf/>iKii 
i>^^7iy(rtf", a tribe called Stavani (Sravarol), which 
was said to live in European Sannatia between the 
Lithuanian tribes of the GalindsB and the Sudeni 
and the Sarmatic tribe of the Alans. He also men- 
tioned another tribe, Soubenoi (SovjSewf), which he as- 
sicned to Asiatic Sarmatia on the other side of the 
Alani. According to Safafik these two statements 
refer to the same Slavonic people. Ptolemy got his 
information from two sources; tne orthography of the 
copies he had was poor and consequently he believed 
there were two tribes to which it was necessary to as- 
sign separate localities. In reality the second name 
refers very probably to the ancestors of the present 
Slavs, as does the first name also though with less 
certainty. The Slavonic combination of consonants 
al was changed in Greek orthography into stl, sthl, or 
ski. This theory was accepted by many scholars 
before Safafik, as Lomonosov, Schlozer, Tatistcheff, J. 
Thunmann, who in 1774 published a dissertation on 
the subject. It was first advanced probably in 1679 
by Hartknoch who was supported in modem times 
by many scholars. Apart from the mention by 
Ptolemy, the expression Slavs is not found until the 
sixth century. The opinion once held by some Ger- 
man and many Slavonic scholars that the names Siievi 
and Slav were the same and that these two peoples 
were identical, although the Suevi were a branch of 

l^e Germans and the ancestors of the present Swa- 
bians, must be absolutely rejected. Scatter^ names 
found in old inscriptions and old charters that are 
similar in sound to the word Slav must also be ex- 
cluded in this investigation. 

After the reference by Ptolemy the Slavs are first 
spoken of by Pseudo-Caesarios of Nazianzum, whose 
work appeared at the beginning of the sixth century; 
in the middle of the sixth century Jordanis and Pto- 
copius gave fuUer accounts of them. Even in the 
earliest sources the name appears in two forms. The 
old Slavonic authorities give: Slov^ (plural from the 
singular SlovSnin), the country is callea SlavHskOj the 
language slaoSnesk jazyk, the people slovHisk narod. 
The Greeks wrote Soubenoi (in Ptolemy Sov/SevoQ, 
but the writers of the sixth century used the terms: 
Sklabenoi (SieXa/Siyw)!), Sklauenoi (ZjtXawyw/), Skldbir 
not (ZcXo/JTwt), Sklauinoi (ZicXawiKot). The Romans 
used the terms: Sdaueni, Sdauini^ Sdaueniaf Sclau^ 
inia. Later authors employ the expressions Sthla- 
benoi (Z^Xo^i^koQ, Sihlabinoi (Z0\aptpoi JiSXapiPol), 
while the Romans wrot«: Sthlaueni, Sthlauini. In 
the "Life of St. Clement" the expression S^a/Sewl 
occurs; later writers use such terms as Esklabinoi 
(BcTJcXa/Kwc), Asklabinoi (AtrjcXa/Stw), Sklabinioi (ZjcXo- 
plpioi\ Sklauenioi (ZKXav^jptoi). The adjectives are 
sdaviniscus, sdavaniscuSf sclavinicuSj sdauanicus. At 
the same time shorter forms are also to be found, 
as: sklaboi (ZKXapol), sthlaboi (Ze\i^)^8clavi, schiavi, 
scUwania^ later also slavi. In addition appear as 
scattered forms: Sdauanif Sclauones (SkKo^Qpoi, E^- 
ffkaprifftapolj X0\apoy€P€[s) . The Armenian Moises of 
Choren was acquainted with the term Skktvajin: the 
chronicler Michael the S3rrian used the expression 
Sglau or Sglou; the Arabians adopted the expression 
SclaVj but because it could not be brought into har- 
mony with their phonetical laws they changed it into 
Saklabf Sakdlibe, and later also to SUxvije^ Slavijun, 
The anonymous Persian geography of the tenth cen- 
tury uses the term Seljabe. 

Various e>i))lanations of the name have been sug- 
gested, the theory depending; upon whether the longer 
or shorter form has been taEen as the basis and upon 
the acceptance of the vowel o or a as the original 
root vowel. From the thirteenth century until Safafik 
the shorter form Slav was always regarded as the 
original expression, and the name of the Slavs was 
traced from the word Slava (honour, fame), con- 
sequently it signified the same as gloriosi (eUperoC). 
However, as early as the fourteenth century and later 
the name Slav was at times referred to the longer form 
Sloven in with o as the root vowel, and this longer form 
was traced to the word Slovo (word, speech), Slava 
signifying, consequently, "the talking ones", verbosi, 
veraces, dtx^Xorroi. Dobrowsky maintained this ex- 
planation and bafafik inclined to it, consequently it 
nas been the accepted theory up to the present time. 
Other elucidations of the name Slav, as aovek (man), 
skala (rock), seld (colony), slati (to send), soloviH 
(nightingale) , scarcely merit mention. There is much 
more reason in another objection that Slavonic philol- 
ogists have made to the derivation of the word SUw 
from slovo (word). The ending en or an of the form 
SlovSnin indicates derivation from a topographical 
designation . Dobrowsky perceived this difficulty and 
therefore invented the topographical name Slovy, 
which wjw to be derived from slwo. With some res- 
ervation SafaMk also gave a geographical interpreta- 
tion. He did not, however, accept the purely imag- 
inary locality Slouy but connected the word Slovinin 
with the Lithuanian Satava, Lettish Sola, from which 
is derived the Polish hj^vxi, signifying island, a dry 
spot in a swampy region. According to this inter- 
pretation the word Slavs would mean the inhabitants 
of an island, or inhabitants of a marshy region. The 
German scholar Grimm maintained the identity of the 
Slavs with the Suevi and derived the name from sMa, 




99oba (freedom). The most probable explanation is 
tbat deriving the name from 9I090 (word) ; this is sup- 
ported by the Slavonic name for the Germans Nemci 
(the dumb). The Slavs called themselves Slowmif 
that is, " the speaking; ones *\ those who know words, 
while they" called their neighbours the Germans, ''the 
dumb'', that is, those who do not know words. 

During the long period of war between the Germans 
and Slavs, which lasted until the tenth century, the 

only a single tribe. Ptolemy called the Slavs as a 
whole the Venedai and nys they are ''the great- 
est nation'' {fuyiffrw iBwot), Tlie Bysantines of the 
sixth century thought only of the southern Slavs and 
incidentally also of the Russians, who lived on the 
boundaries of the Eastern Empire. With them the ex- 
pression Slavs meant only the southern Slavs: they 
called the Russians Anta, and distinguished sharply 
between the two groups of tribes. In one place (Get., 





CO., II.T. 

Slavonic territories in the north and south-east fur- 
nifdied the Germans lar^e numbers of slaves. The 
Venetian and other Italian cities on the coast took 
numeroiis Slavonic captives from the opposite side 
of the Adriatic whom tne^ resold to other places. The 
Slavs frequently shared in the seizure and export of 
their coimtrymen as slaves. The Naretani. a pirati- 
cal Slavonic tribe living in the present aistrict of 
Southern Dalmatia, were especially notorious for their 
slave-trade. Russian princes exported large numbers 
of slaves from their country. The result is that the 
name Slav has given the word slave to the peoples of 
Western Europe. 

The question still remains to be answered whether 
the expression Slavs indicated originally all Slavonic 
tribes or only one or a few of them. The reference 
to them in Ptolemy shows that the word then meant 

34, 35) Jordanis divides all Slavs into three groups: 
Venetif Slavs, And Anta; this would correspond to the 
present division of western, southern, and eastern 
Slavs. However, this mention appears to be an ar- 
bitrary combination. In another passage he desig- 
nates the eastern Slavs by the name Veneti. Ftod- 
ablv he had found the expression Veneti in old writers 
and had learned personally the names Slavs and Antes; 
in this way arose his triple division. All the seventh- 
century authorities call all Slavonic tribes, both 
southern Slavs and western Slavs, that belonged to 
the kingdom of Prince Samo, simply Slavs; Samo is 
called the ''ruler of the Slavs", but his peoples are 
called "the Slavs named Vindi" {ScUwi cognomento 
Winadi). In the eighth and ninth centuries the 
Csechs and Slavs of the Elbe were generally called 
Slavs, but also at times Wends, by the Geiman and 

tun 44 sum 

Roman efaroniclers. In t'he same way all authoritiefl sixth oentury under the name of Slavs. The name 

of the era of the Apostles to the Slavs, Cyril and Wend, however, was never completely forgotten. 

MethodiuSi give the name Slav without any distino- The German chroniclers used both names constantly 

tion both to the southern Slavs, to which branch without distinction, the former almost oftener than 

both missionaries belonged, and to the western Slavs, the latter. Even now the Sorbs of Lusatia are called 

among whom they laboured. As regards the eastern by the Germans Wends, while the Slovenes are fre- 

Slavs or Russians, leaving out the mention of Ptolemy quently called Winds and their language is called 

already referred to, Jordanis sa3rs that at the begin- Windish. 

ning of the era of the migrations the Goths had car- Those who maintain the theory that theoriginal home 
ried on war with the "nation of Slavs'': this nation of the Slavs was in the countries along the Danube 
must have lived in what is now Southern Russia. The have tried to refute the opinion that these references 
earliest Russian chronicle, erroneously ascribed to the relate to the ancestors of the present Slavs, but their 
monk Nestor, always calls the Slavs as a whole arguments are inconclusive. Besides these definite 
"Slavs". When it begins to narrate the history of notices there are several others that are neither clear 
Russia it speaks indeed of the Russians to whom it nor certain. The Wends or Slavs have had con- 
never applies the designation Slav, but it also often nected with them as old tribal confederates of the 
tells of the Slavs of Northern Russia, the Slavs of present Slavs the Budinoi mentioned by Herodotus, 
Novgorod. Those tribes that were already thor- and also the Island of Banoma mentioned by PUny 
ougmy incorporated in the Russian kingdom are (IV, d4), further the Venetse, the original inhabitants 
simply called Russian tribes, while the Slavs in Nor- of the present Province of Venice, as well as the 
them Russia, who maintained a certain independence, Homeric Venetoi, Cssar's Veneti in Gaul and Anglia, 
were designated by the general egression Slavs. Con- etc. In all probability, the Adriatic Veneti were an 
sequently, the opinion advocated by Miklo&i6, namely, lUyrian tribe related to the present Albanians, but 
that the name Slav was originally applied only to one nothing is known of them. With more reason can the 
Slavonic tribe, is unfounded, though it has been sup- old story that the Greeks obtained amber from the 
ported by other scholars like Krek, Potldlnski, Czer- River Eridanos in the country of the Enetoi be I4>- 
mak, and Pasternek. plied to the Wends or Slavs; from which it may be 

From at least the sixth century the expression Slav concluded that the Slavs were already living on the 

was, therefore, the general designation of iJl Slavonic shores of the Baltic in the fourth century before 

tribes. Wherever a Slavonic tribe rose to greater Christ. 

political importance and founded an independent Most probably the name Wend was of foreign orion 

kingdom of its own, the name of the tribe came to the and the race was known by this name only among the 

front and pushed aside the general designation Slav, foroign tribes, while they called themselves Slavs. It 

Where, however, the Slavs attained no political power is possible that the Slavs were originally named Wends 

but fell.under the sway of foroign rulers they remained by the early Gauls, because the root Wend, or Wind, is 

known by the general name of Slavs. Among the found especially in the districts once occupied by the 

successful tribes who brought an entire district under Gauls. The word was apparently a designation that 

their sway and gave it their name were the Russians, was first applied to various Gallic or Celtic tribes^ and 

Poles, Czechs, Croats, and the Tursuiian tribe of the then given by the Celts to the Wendic tribes hving 

Bidgars. The old general name has been retained to north of them. The explanation of the meaning of 

the present time by the Slovenes of Southern Austria the word is also to be sought from this point of view, 

on tne Adriatic coast, the Slovaks of Northern Hun- The endeavour was made at one time to derive the 

^kry, the province Slavonia between Croatia and word from the Teutonic dialects, as Danish tMznd, 

Hunpaiy and its inhabitants the Slavonians, and the Old Norwegian vatn^ Latin unda, meaning water. 

Slovinci of ft-ussia on the North Sea. Up to recent Thus Wends would signify watermen, people living 

times the name was customary among the inhabitants about the water, people living by the sea, as proposea 

of the most southern point of Dalmatia, which was by Jordan, Adelung, and others. A derivation from 

formerly the celebrated RepubUc of Dubrovnik (Ra- the German wenden (to tmti) has also been suggested, 

gusa). Until late in the Middle Ages it was retained thus the Wends are the people wandering iUix>ut; or 

by the Slavs of Novgorod in Northern Russia and by from the Gothic vinjay related to the German weiden, 

the Slavs in Macedonia and Albania. These peoples, pasture^ hence Wends, those who pasture, the ehep- 

however, have also retained their specific national and nerds: finally the word has been traced to the old root 

tribal names. ven, oelonging togel^her. Wends would, therefore, 

B. Wend8. — ^A much older designation in the his- mean the allied. Pogodin traced the name from the 

torical authorities than Slav is the name Wend. It is Celtic, taking it from the early Celtic root vindo8, 

under this designation that the Slavs first appear in whlte^ by which CTroression the dark Celts designated 

history. The first certain -references to the present the hght Slavs. Naturally an explanation of the 

Slavs date from the first and second centuries. They term was also sought in the Slavonic language; thus, 

were made by the Roman writers PUny and Tacitus Kollar derived it from the Old Slavonic word Un, 

and the Alexandrian already mentioned Ptolemy. Sassinek from Slo-vartf Perwolf from the OW Slavonic 

Pliny (d. a.d. 79} says (Nat. hist., IV, 97) that among root vfd, still retained in the O. Slav, comparative 

the peoples hving on the other side of the Vistula be- vestij meaning large and brought it into connexion 

sides the Sarmatians and others are also the Wends with the Russian Anti and VjatiH; Hilferding even 

(Vensdi). Tacitus (G., 46) says the same. He de- derived it from the old East Indian designation of the 

scribes the Wends somewhat more in detail but can- Aryans Vanila, and Safaflk connected tne word with 

not make up his mind whether he ought to include the East Indians, a confusion that is also to be found 

them among the Germans or the Sarmatians; still in the early writers. 

they seem to him to be more closely connected with H. Original Home and Migrations. — There are 

the first named than with the latter. Ptolemy (d. two theories in regard to the original home of the 

about 178) in his TetaypaimHi (HI^ .5, 7) calls the Venedi Slavs, and these theories are in sharp opposition to 

the greatest nation hving on the Wendic Gulf. How- each other. One considers the region of tne Danube 

ever, he says later (III, 5, 8) that they hve on the as the original home of the Slavs, whence they spread 

Vistula; he also speaks of the Venedic mountains (HI. north-east over the Carpathians as far as the Volga 

5, 6). In the centuries immediately succeeding the River, Lake Ilmen, and the Caspian Sea. The other 

Wends are mentioned very rarely. The miffrations theory regards the districts between the Vistula and 

that had now begun had brought other peoples into the Dneiper as their original home, whence thev 

the foreground until the V^enedl again appear in th« spread ■outh^'weat ow the Carpathians to the Bat- 




kanB and into the Alps, and towards the west aorosa 
the Oder and the Elbe. 

The ancient Kieff chronicle, erroneously ascribed 
to the monk Nestor, is the earliest authority Quoted 
for the theory that the original home of the Slavs is 
to be sought in the. region of the Danube. Here in 
detail is rdated for the first time how the Slavs spread 

not commit himself to this view. The southern Slavs 
have held this theory from the earliest period up to 
the present time with the evident intention to base 
on it their claims to the Church Slavonic in the Lit- 
urgy. At an early period, in the letter of Pope John X 
(914-20) to the Croatian Ban Tomislav and the 
Sachlumian ruler Mihael, there is a reference to the 


AibA (HA d&arsAA 8 faoiASiiiB 


fioasiD9rTP. Pfi. •uA* dlbrA 

tkwmm SHuaibi. ou. fiirsooa raoas au 
ffioiia&Aadbi nAcAirr sttiBODT wuatn* 
tB8 mnaas. ifidbdli., Adlidb. oafc.Ps.*0D9* 
PnsAi oaAon %Ki paiMVT rar aon- 
inA%i: 8 auDT fisarA tBAaniBfDa oaa. 

Pa fiaohoiaab. maaia|Da«T Adbdliadb., a 
ia8BAaib.H&.KnrB; OlMbauni. Ps.>uA* 
fia odAu eAAiiafidbaoMBiT sa ooTsAtT 
mStatoMMj eaaa aa fcafiioaibA. dbk. DbA 
eAAftafidhaoBaaiT laa %SSr amr fisarA: 
a 0kA sOauwa eAAftAa aaissadliBiiidbA 
MTfia ffttra AadoaiDA anaaaiia. odk. 8 
ibA a0Duiua aira aaraooi muaAi : 
fliau f A StaUkadba. 

ODt ootaina iqAaAaoDTP. mamaiDafiinn 
fioaaiBanr. a aai maaoM aa &iira : Mh 
Aadtoa, AdUb. un. P*. 'aiv- Pandba 
BtAmr IbaaiDaflbT isaivaai aimi afBiamA* 
ki: B aoDT fiakffA tBAeonaioa una, Ad^ 

OBK. Pa. •fcih'jB* i!!!dliA»aeiniaiiDa ooAei 
^apaabi anm 9aaFA, adiia aianaba 
raea a OdmmRud, AAidbadli. 
^^ PaadtoobaMAf 88 eoo. aonArnira- 
^E? diaa aom iftAoDAa. 
AAoD. -tov* 
ni)1 afa Bouoia: PuaoD»(D8ina « 
^UT Basisa pAuaAat8axBiuil«Ba3«r 
a UI&A«adbjDW9: ifiwa obaeoDaBoiiT adba- 
QDA«a iDaaooaoDS dliara aiio80 |D8.b8i<« 
aAiaa ooara? Bdba airaoAwAaoi, haaa 
8«i : £A80Da mis aidbs, au efODDa&smis 
itei iB&tooA aAaooaiA, inaiRiA a (IDafa 
aiBBDau a? s una: fia^a bAoiiB aesaA- 
08800! adttaooatr aooTvA s fflAonaKT, t 
|DUdba|D80oi aa dtaf» eooaas, s esoha- 
ooA aeA oiT indbTooi asbora. ODainTdlla 
IPdlia ff»eoDA imaflA, n aoharA iDdbTOBT. 
3dli3 aea iSfsibr aiaaooA, adnooa^f obA 
ra fcAtodbmiAaooT. 

Pupsai. Pa. 'iir« £A na aingDAAi, 
%GS8, baAi: DDs aes li:a%i maB: ooi 
wuB DODaaiD oauMiarA maA. 


inf&um, fflidhaniT ooa %&t, obAsr taA 
JUL aooaoDB OoAun d&araoooB iDKsra- 
aafv: 8 OhadbA aviadlia aao ttSDuaoBaAi 
esBba aoouBooadliT. %K3inT rAuianiT. 
3 &3<T IflBraa pAoit, sskas laMtfUoba 
radba (aaaooT: BftusrAooB ra, madbsniT ooa 
luaioaou a lo&aa., aooaa taw eooBArA 
3pi8eoDailb8a (bbAma dfI^rs^s a Fama- 
aooa rA uAaraibT pi&aohT adbimiAtailiT, 
%AA%adbaoDT ODbiAa aio piafiAaob. Aa- 

PsfflaAsfflT aa. AadblonoA. 
lT\8AaaoB80Di isaobs, ftiSs, madba- 
^IC raami rAuisinT, s aaoDAoodbspsami 
■0088011, aoisdika bAaiDdbaAobsn i udlia- 
ooAMfetA^a' uoiiA seoo&SBAt aaa , 
edhAiiT iDumhTaoodira : ohA adba, una- 
eaio oooafiTvafliT, aTOonaiodbAaiiDT aa, 
ooaeajo loamAiiAoQadlraoii , aTAsApaooT 
aa. %aapiaBbamT. 

PafiaAsfflT aa. AadbBOOoA. 

EJdba, Bdba BodbAaootDi asAs aooBOa 
ofliaA BOOT pBttaaoAa eTooosudtr 
•aaa: sAa aaoouBooi ootbaAt onoAus 
toAttsAA, aAsooa^B pia aeuliODa ea- 
dbaiD eiflooauPB, onaiia &Aob8 pa^AOo- 
AaaiPBfli puoiavi dbapseTtoTObAAT aaa, 
ObA AapiaUmB ouaAaaa aooi omlbT- 
aiaa idAtoob ihiAAt es pAaaAa, aaa 
ata oAa 8001 aobBpAiM a^aobrpa tsBaooT 
aianoAaoBoas, PBcaiiBbA laaabaeipa pa- 
eB cisAa fcAdDABaooDs: l!!aAa, aAa 
ooaAi QoaeatsmT oDABPTeoooBami ea- 
lB&aAiP8a auui^BfodbaPoa saooaosBAT 
3B8, OhA eKAttTpamT ODAoaaaoaniT Ai&b- 
aooA 8 ^fci«taoa bbAbpb pttaobiaieub- 
ikiBdfn e*B: I^BAa, sniTAa AapA msAa 
BTUbbBAAaAi aa, u BbbaAieA aoi*|Ofci- 
ooaa aaA&aapA, ooamf eAA^aadb*- 
Dadbapsami pAobA^AgaoT aa, aAa aovopi 
pa «AtoP8io BBODaarpAvia auAA, pa |oa- 
ooaiOTPBoiT saaAobapaaon oooTanB.eo- 
aom: pkbIdu maAaaoDaasa pA aaio 
bAea aooaiOt aAa aTODTtafOBooa Aama- 
aa aa loBAipaaia louobbaAapaio, Aa- 

Glaooutic Mibsal of the Roman Ritb 
A page from the Misaa pro Bponfio et Spofisa, containing the Graduitl, Tract, Gospel 
^Mait. xiz), and Speeial Prayw over the Bride and Groom 

from the lower Danube to all the countries occupied 
later by them. The Noricans and Illyrians are de- 
clared to be Slavs, and Andronikos and the Apostle 
Paul are called Apostles to the Slavs because they 
laboured in Illyria and Pannonia. This view was 
maintained l^ the later chroniclers and historical 
wtiters of all Slavonic peoples, as the Pole Kadlubek, 
"Chronikapol." (1206), Boguchwal (d. 1253), Dlugos, 
Mate] Miechowa, Decius, and others. Among the 
Cseohs this theory was supported by Kozmaz (d. 
1125), DaUmhr (d. 1324), Johann Marignola (135&- 
13C2), Pribik Pulkava (1374), and V. Hajek (1641). 
The Kussians also developed their theories from the 
statements of their first chronicler, while the Greek 
LaoDikos Harkondilos of the fifteenth century did 

§revalent tradition that St. Jerome invented the 
lavonic alphabet. This tradition maintained itself 
through the succeeding centuries, finding supporters 
even outside these countries, and was current at Rome 
itself. CJonsequently if we were to follow strictly the 
written historical authorities, of which a numl)er are 
very trustworthy, we would be obliged to support the 
thwry that the original home of the Slavs is in the 
countries along the Danube and on the Adriatic coast. 
However, the contrary is the case; the original home 
of the Slavs and the region from which their migra- 
tions began is to be sought in the basin of the Dnieper 
and in the region extending to the Carpathians and 
the Vistula. It is e^sv to explain the origin of the 
above-mentioned widely beheved opinion. At the 




-beginning of the Old Slavonic literature in the ancient 
Kingdom of the Bulgars the Byzantine chronicles of 
Hamartolos and MaLda, which were besides of very 
little value, were translated into Slavonic. These 
chronicles give an account of the migrations of the 
nations from the region of Senaar after the Dehiee. 
According to this account the Europeans are the de- 

do not correspond to facts are often adopted in his- 
torical writings. Among the Slavonic historians and* 
philologists supporting this theory are: Kopitar, 
August Schlotzer, Safifik, N. Arcybafief, Fr. Radki, 
Bidowski, M. Drinov, L. Stur, Ivan P. Filevifi, Dm. 
Samokvasov, M. Leopardov, N. Zakoski, and J. Pic. 
We have here an interesting proof that a tradition 




BH, NO Tf K-£ CT^mnoM^i Er^. Tki of clo fidKo 
CNAH^no KotrwTRAo CKOfH noTpfEi: n^^K^rc- 

IffHrnik CHAAMH^ n^TfUieCTft^fOltlHrnTk Cn^Tflfflf- 
tTKt$H, NfA$rt$fCqflA HCqidH, Splf'lJO A^UlIk H 

' Ed^rOAilTIIO, H l|lf ApOT^^H, H "tMOftiKOdrOEI- 

iM\ eAnNopdAN^rw Gn^ Tsofrw, c% KH^n^i 

Cd^rOt/IOftlN-k 6CH, Ck npfcfkf^% H gAAVHAil^ 
H »vHKpTKOpAl(JH^-k TftOHmik Ap^'k, Nkwk 

|6PM| cMms T/Abmw a^MW mtuihAttk, f ttcrsaAm Waw m a**"9<* ct^mA ctAa t^mIsm* 
mmaA a* *n itfM«T*ircA HnifAii m cMmb TiAiuMt, tViRMBiivi afprrM oi«li* M«i af#r(i#tAt* 
HMNM iucItw* &ii«t% «r«rrirw T-Caa X^i^ti, <M#b m *, A aim aHNttlAm lu c^f aI" critA t^a 
■law, mAmw iiMUJM&iTt* cf64is TMiMMm. n* c<M« #(111% A O"*!! rcfi MSiiln, ^r. n^ 

niirii M A mAtm, mAmtta cb iMiAitiiMM rrii. .jJ^^J 

OHMH Tin \m XfTt Em nam-k^ w era- 

Vw !KH<1HI|I<1 TSOtrui, H W RpTOdtf CdffKU 
IfpTKf A TKOfrW, H npiHAH SO ^TKt OtTHTH MVk, 
HTKf rop-fi CO Oqf'H'k ciAAH, H 3A'£ HfMfk Hf- 

Tfiof 10 pbKoio npinoA<fTH mai'k npnmTOf Tido 

TKOi, H 1 KTHblO KpOKk, H MMH KC&Hl <1IOAf<H'k. 

TiM ^A'^Am wUtu r#teA^ r^^stUAi 

Ctbxluc M188A.L OF Grbek Rite 
A page from the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, containing the Prayers of Adoration 

just before Communion 

scendants of Japhet, who journeyed from Senaar by 
way of Asia Minor to the Balkans; there they divided 
into various nations and spread in various directions. 
Conseouently the Slavonic reader of these chronicles 
would believe that the starting point of the migrations 
of the Slavs also was the Balkans and the region of 
the lower Danube. Because the historical authorities 
place the ancient tribe of the Illyrians in this region, 
It was necessary to make this tribe also Slavonic. In 
the later battles of the Slavs for the maintenance of 
their language in the Liturgy this opinion was very 
convenient, as appeal could be made for the Slavonic 
claims to the authority of St. Jerome and even of St. 
Paul. Opinions which are widely current yet which 

deeplv rooted and extending over many centuries and 
found in nearly all of the early native historical au- 
thorities does not agree with historical fact. 

At present most scholars are of the opinion that the 
original home of the Slavs in South-eastern Europe 
must be sought between the Vistula and the Dneiper. 
The reasons for this belief are: the testimony of the 
oldest accounts of the Slavs, given as alreadv men- 
tioned by Pliny, Tacitus, and Ptolemy: further the 
close relationship between the Slavs ana the Lettish 
tribes, pointing to the fact that originally the Slavs 
lived close to the Letts and Lithuanians; tnen variou? 
indications proving that the Slavs must have been 
originally neighbours of the Finnish and Turaniav 

8L4V8 47 SLAVS 

Iriboi. Historical iDvestigation has shown that the Bohemian, Lusatian Sorb, and Polish. In his 

Thraoo-lllyrian tribes are not the forefathers of the "Slavonic Ethnology" (1842) Pavel SafaHk enumer- 

SlavB. but form an independent family group between ated six languages with thirteen dialects: Russian, 

the Greeks and the Latms. There is no certain proof Bolgarish, lUyrian, Lechish, Bohemian, Lusatian. 

in the Balkan territory and in the region along the The great Russian scholar J. Sreznejevskij held that 

Danube of the presence of the Slavs there before the there were eight Slavonic languages: Great Russian, 

first century. On the other hand in the redon of Little Russian, Serbo-Croat, ICorotanish, Polish, Lu- 

the Dneiper excavations and arohsological finds show satian, Bohemian, Slovak. In 1865 A. Schleicher 

traces only of the Slavs. Li addition the direction of enumerated eight Slavonic languages: Polish, Lusa- 

the general march in the migrations of the nations was tian, Bohemian, Great Russian, little Russian, Serb, 

always from the north-east towards the south-west, Bulgarian, ana Slovene. Frsnc Miklo§i6 counted 

but never in the opposite direction. Those who main- nine: Slovene, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croat, Great Ru»- 

tain the theory that the Slavs came from the region of sian. Little Russian, Bohemian, Poli^, Upper Lu- 

the Danube souj^ht to strengthen their views by satian, Lower Lusatian. In 1907 Dm. Florinsklj 

the names of various places to oe fo\md in these dis- enumerated nine: Riusian, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croat, 

tricts that indicate Slavonic origin. The etymology of Slovene, BohemianoMoravian, Slovak, Lusatian, 

these names, howeiier, is not entirely certain; there Polish, and Kafiube. In 1898 V. Jagid held that 

are other names that appear only in the later author- there were eight: Polish, Lusatian, Bohemian, Great 

ities of the first centunes after Christ. Some again Russian, Little Russian, Slovene, Serbo-Croat, Bul- 

|Ht>ve nothing, as the^ could have arisen without the garian. Thus^ it is seen that the greatest represen- 

occupation of these districts by the Slavs. tatives of Slavonic linguistics are not in accord upon 

It can therefore be said almost positively that the the question of the number of Slavonic langua^. 

original home of the Slavs was in the territory along The case is the same from the purely philological 

the Dnieper, and farther to the north-west as far as point of view. I^actically the matter is even more 

the Vistula. From these regions they spread to the complicated because other factors, which often i>lay 

west and south-west. This much only can be con- an important part, have to be considered, as religion, 

ceded to the other view, that the migration probablv politics etc. 

took place much earlier than is generally supposed. At the present time some eleven to fourteen lan- 
Probably it took place slowly and by degrees. One guages, not including the extinct ones, can be enu- 
tribe would push another ahead of it like a wave, and merated which lay claim to be reckoned as distinct 
they all spiead out in the wide territory from the tongues. The cause of the uncertainty is that it is 
North Sea to the Adriatic and .£gean Seas. Here and impossible to state definitively of several branches of 
there some disorder was caused in the Slavonic migra- the Slavonic family whether they form an independent 
tion by the incursions of Asiatic peoples, as Scythians, nation or only the dialect and subdivision of another 
Sarmatians, Avars, Bulgars^ and Magyars, as well as Slavonic nation, and further because often it is im- 
by the German miipration from north-west to south- possible to draw the line between one Slavonic people 
east. These incursions separated kindred tribes from and another. The Great Russians, Poles, Bohemians, 
one another or introduced foreign elements among and Bulgarians are universally admitted to be dis- 
them. Taken altogether, however, the natural ar- tinctive Slavonic peoples with distinctive languages. 
rangement was not much disturbed, kindred tribes The Little Russians and the White Russians are trv- 
joumeyed together and settled near one another in ing to develop into separate nationalities, indeed the 
the new land, so that even toKiay the entire Slavonic former have now to be recognized as a distinct people, 
race presents a regular succession of tribes. As earl^ at least this is true of the Ruthenians in Austria- 
as the first century of our era individual Slavomc Hungary. The Moravians must be included in the 
tribes might have crossed the boundaries of the orig- Bohemian nation, because they hold this themselves 
inal home and have settled at times among strangers and no philological, political, or ethnographical rea- 
at a considerable distance from the native country, son opposes. The Slovaks of Moravia also consider 
At times again these outposts would be driven back that they are of Bohemian nationality. About sixty 
and obliged to retire to the main body, but at the years ago the Slovaks of Hungary began to develop 
first opportunity thev would advance again. Central as a separate nation with a separate literary language 
Europe must have been largely popumted by Slavs and must now be r^arded as a distinct people. The 
as early as the era of the Hunnisn ruler Attila, or of Lusatian Sorbs also are generally looked upon as a 
the migrations of the German tribes of the Goths, separate people with a distinct language. A division 
Lombards. Gepidie, Heruli. Rugians etc. These last- of this little nationality into Upper and Lowor Lusa- 
mentionea peoples and tribes formed warlike castes tians has been made on account of hnguistic, reli- 
and militaiy organisations which became consoicu- gious, and political differences; this distinction is also 
ous in history by their battles and therefore nave evident in the literary language, consequently some 
l^t more traces m the old historical writings. The scholars regard the Lusatians as two different oeoples. 
Slavs, however, formed the lower strata of the popula- The remains of the languages of the former Slavonic 
tion of Central Europe; all the migrations of the other inhabitants of Pomerania, the Sloventzi, or Ka£ubes, 
tribes passed over thcan, and when the times grew are generally regarded at present as dialects of Polish, 
more peaceful the Slavs reappeared on the sunace. though some distingtiipned Polish scholars main- 
It is only in this way that the appearance of the Slavs tain the independence of the Kadube language. The 
in great numbers in these countries directly after conditions in the south are even more complicated. 
the dose of the migrations can be explained without Without doubt the Bulgarians are a separate na- 
there^being any record in history of wnen and whence tionalitv, but it is difficiut to draw the line between 
they came and without their original home being the Bulgarian and the Servian peoples, especially 
depioFpulated. in Macedonia. Philologically the Croats and Serbs 

ill. Classification of the Slavonic Peoples. — must be regarded as one nation; politically, however, 

The auestion as to the classification and number of and ethnographically thev are distinct peoples. The 

the Slavonic peoples is a complicated one. Scien- population of Southern Dalmatia. the Monammedui 

tific investigation does not support the common population of Bosnia, and probaoly also the inhabi- 

belief, and in addition scholars oo not agree in their tants of some parts of Southern Hungary, and of 

opinions on this question. L[i 1822 the father of Croatia cannot easily be assigned to a definite group. 

filavonie philology, Joseph Dobrovsky, recognised Again, the nationality and extent of the Slovenes 

nine Slavonic peoplee and languages: Russian, II- living in the eastern Alps and on the Adriatic coast 

lyrian or Serb, Croat, BkfveDe, Korotaaish, Slovak, cannot be settled without further investigation. 


From a philolo^cal point of view the following eequently in 1900 the total number of Rusaans could 

fundamentiu principles must be tskken for guidance, be reckoned at about 93 million pensKms. This does 

The Slavonic work! in its entire extent presents not include the Russian colonists in other ootmtries; 

philologically a homogeneous whole without sharply moreover, the numbers given bv the official statistics 

defined transitions or gradations. When the Slavs of Austria-Hungary may be far below reality. Classi- 

settled in the locsJities at present occupied by them fied by religion the Russian Slavs are divided as 

they were a mass of tribes of closely allied tongues follows: in Russia Orthodox Greeks, 95.48 per 

that chanced slightly from tribe to tribe. Later cent; Old Believers, 2.59 per cent; Catholics, 1.78 

historical development, the appearance of Slavonic per cent; Protestants, .06 per cent; Jews, .08 per 

kingdoms, the ^wth of literary languages, and var- cent; Mohammedans, .01 per cent; in Austria- 

ious civilizing influences from without have aided Hungary Uniat Greeks, 90.6 per cent, the OrUiodpx 

in bringing about the result that sharper distinctions Greeks, 8 per cent. In the Russian Empire, excluding 

have been drawn in certain places, and that distinct Finland and Poland, 77.01 per cent are illiterates; in 

nationalities have developed in difTerent localities. Poland, 69.5 per cent; Finland and the Baltic prov- 

Where these factors did not appear in sufficient number inces with the large German cities show a higher 

the boundaries are not settled even now, or have been grade of literacy. 

drawn only of late. The Slavonic peoples can be The Russians are divided ntto Great Russians. 
8e()arated into the following groups on the basis of Little Russians or inhabitants of the Ukraine, ana 
philological differences: (1) "nie eastern or Russian White Russians. In 1900 the relative numbers of 
group; in the south this groupapproaches the Bui- these three divisions were approximately: Great Rufl- 
garian; in the north-west the White Russian dialects sians^ 59,000,000; White Russians, 6,200,000; Little 
show an affinity to Polish. The eastern group is Russians, 23,700,000. In addition there are 3,800,- 
subdivide d into Great Russian, that is, the prevail- OOu Little Russians in AustriarHun^ary, and 500^000 
ing Russian nationality, then Little Russian, and in America. The Russian official statistics are 
White Russian. (2) The north-western group. This naturally entirely too unfavourable to the White 
is subdivided into the I^echish langua^ and into Russians and the Little Russians; private computa- 
Slovak, Bohemian, and Sorb tongues. The first sub- tions of Little Russian scholars give much higher m- 
division includes the Poles, Ka§ubes, and Slovintzi, suits. Hrusevskij found that the Little Russians 
also the extinct languages of the Slavs who formerly taken altogether numbered 34,000,000; Kaiskij cal- 
extended across the Oder and the Elbe throughout culated that the White Russians numbered 8,000,000. 
. the present Northern Germany. The second sub- A thousand years of historical development, different 
division includes the Bohemians, Slovaks, and the influences or civilization, different reli^ous oonfes- 
Lusatian Sorbs. The Slavs in the Balkans and in the sions, and probably also the ori^nal philological dif- 
southem districts of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy ferentiation have caused the Little Russians to de- 
are divided philologically into Bulgarians; Stokauans. velop as a separate nation, and to-day this fact must 
who include all Serbs, the Slavonic Mohammedans of be taken as a fixed factor. Among the White Rus- 
Bosnia, and also a large part of the population of sians the differentiation has not developed to so ad- 
Croatia; the Cakauans, who live partly in Dalmatia, vanced a stage, but the tendency exists, in olassify- 
Istria, and on the coast of Croatia; the Kajkauans, to ing the Little Russians three mfferent types can be 
whom must be assigned three Croatian countries and s^ain distinguished: the Ukrainian, the Podohan-GaU- 
all Slovene dif^ricts. According to the common cian, andthePodlachian.' Ethno^aphicallv interest- 
opinion that is based upon a comoination of philolo- ing are the Little Russian or Ruthenian tribes in the 
gical, political, and religious reasons the Slavs are Carpathians, the Lemci,Boici, and Hueuli(Qou20uM). 
divided into tne following nations: Rusgian, Polish, The White Russians are divided into two groups; 
Bohemian-Slovak, Slovenes, Serbs, Croats, Bui- ethnographically the eastern group is related to the 
garians. Great Russians: the western to the Poles. 

IV. Present Condition — A. Russians. — ^TheRus- B. Poles. — ^Tne Poles represent the north-western 
sians live in Russia and the north-eastern part of branch of the Slavonic race. From the very earUeet 
Austria-Hungary. They form a compact body only times they have Uved in their ancestral regions be- 
in the south-western i>aSrt of the Russian Empire, as tween the Carpathians, the Oder, and the North Sea. 
in the north and east they are largely mixed with A thousand years ago Boleslaw the Brave united all 
Finnish and Tatar populations. In Austria the Little the Slavonic tribes living in these territories into a 
Russians inhabit Eastern Galicia and the northern Polish kingdom. This kingdom, which reached its 
part of Biikowina; in Hungary they live in the eastern highest prosperity at the close of the Middle A^, 
part on the slopes of the Carpathians. Scattered then gradually declined and. at the close of the ei^- 
colonies of Little Russians or Ruthenians are also to teenth century, was divided by the surrounding 
be found in Slavonia and Bosnia among the southern powers — Russia, Prussia, and Austria. In Austria the 
Slavs, in Bul^^a, and in the Dobrudja. In Asia Poles form the population of Western Galicia and are 
Western Siberia is Russian, Central Siberia has num- in a large minority throughout Eastern GaUciaj in 
erous Russian colonies, while Eastern Siberia is Eastern Galicia the population of the cities particu- 
chiefly occupied by native tribes. There are Rus- larly is preponderantly Polish, as is also a large part 
sians, however, living in the region of the Amur of the population of a section of Austrian Silesia, the 
River, and on the Pacific as well as on the Island of district of Teschin. The Poles are largely represented 
Saghalien. Turkestan and the Kirghiz steppes have in the County of Zips in Hungary' and less larcely in 
native populations with Russian colonies in tne cities, other Hungarian counties which border on M^tem 
There are large numbers of Russian emigrants, Galicia. There is a small Polish population in Bu- 
mostly members of sects, in Canada and elsewhere in kowina. In Prussia the Poles live in Upper Silesia, 
America. Brazil, Argentina, and the United States form a la^e majority of the inhabitants of the Prov- 
have many Little Russian immip-ants. There are ince of Posen, and also inhabit the districts of 
small Russian colonies in Asia Minor and lately the Dantzic and Marienwerder in West Prussia, and the 
emigration has also extended to Africa. According southern parts of East Prussia. In Russia the Poles 
to the Russian census of 1897 there were in the Rus- form 71.95 per cent of the population in the nine 
sian Empire 83,933,567 Russians, that is, 67 per cent provinces formed from the Polish Idngdom. In addi- 
of the entire population of the empire. Allowing for tion they live in the neighbouring district of the 
•>«\tural increase, at the present (1911) time there are Province of Grodno and form a relatively large mi- 
t 89 millions. In 1900 there were in Austria nority in Lithuania and in the provinces of White and 
576 Ruthenians, in Hungary 429,447. Con- Little Russiit, where they are mainly owners of laargo 

SLAVS 49 8L478 

tfUitai and reshk&tB of dties. Aooordb» to the cen- as far as Lake Flatten, where they oame into contact 

BUB of 1900 the Poles in Russia numbered about with the Slovenes who belonged to the soathem Sla- 

8.400,000; in Austria, 4,250,150; in Gennany, in- vonic group. Probably, however, they did not for- 

ciuding the Kasubes and Macurians^ 3,450,200; m the merly extend as far towards the east as now, and the 

rest of Europe about 55,000; and m America about Slovaks in the eastern portion of Slovakia aie really 

1,500,000; consequently altogether, 17,664,350. Cter- Ruthenians who were Siovakanised in the late Middle 

kawski reckonea the total number of Poles to be A^. Directly after their settlement in these ooun- 

21,111,374; Straszewics held that they numbered tries the Bohemians fell i^Mtft into a great number of 

from 18 to 19,000,000. As regards religion the Poles tribes. One tribe, which settled in the central part of 

0^ Russia are almost entirely CSitholic; in Austria 83.4 the present Bohemia, bore the name of Csechs. It 

per cent are Catholics, 14.7 per cent are Jews, and 1.8 gradually brought all the other tribes under its WDr 

per cent are Protestants; in Gennany they are also trol and gave them its name, so that since then the en- 

almost entirely Catholics, only the Mazurians in East tire people have been called Csechs. Along with this 

Prussia and a small portion of the Kasubes are name, however, the name Bohemians has also been i«- 

Protestant. tained; it comes from ^e old Celtic people, the Boii, 

fithnographically the Polish nation is divided into who once lived in these regions. Soon, however, Ger- . 

three groups: the Gneat Poles live in Poeen, Silesia, man colonies sprang up among the Bohemians or 

and Pnissia; the Little Poles on the upper Vistula as Csechs. The colonists settled fdong the Danube on 

far as the San River and in the region of the Tatra the southern border of Bohemia and also farther on in 

mountains; the Masovians east of the Vistula and the Pannonian plain. However, these settlements dis- 

aJong the Narva and the Bug. The Kasubes could appeared during- the storm of the Magyar inclusion. 

be called a fourth group. All these groups can be The Bohemians did not suffer from it as they did from 

subdivided again into a large number ofbranches, but the later immigrations of German colonists who were 

the distinctions are not so striking as in Russia and brou^t into the country by the Bohemian rulers of 

historical tradition keeps all these peoples fiimly the native Premsyhdian dynasty. These colonists 

united. The Kasubes five on the left bank of the lived through the mountains which encircle Bohemia 

Vistula from Dantzic to the boundary of Pomerania and large numbers of them settle also in the interior 

and to the sea. According to government statistics of the country. fVom the thirteenth century the lan- 

in 1900 there were in Germany 100,213 Kasubes guages of Bohemia and Moravia became distinct 

The very exact statistics of the scholar Ramuh gives tongues. 

174,831 Kasubes for the territory where they live in The Bohemians have emigrated to various countries 

large bodies, and 200,000 for a total including those outside of BohemiarMoravia. In America there are 

scattered through Germany, to which should be added about 800,000 Bohemians; there are large Bohemian 

a further 130,000 in America. According to the colonies in Russia in ^e province of Volhynia, also 

latest investi^tion the Kasubes are what remains of in the Crimea, in Poland, and in what is called New 

the Slavs ofPcxnerania who are, otherwise, k>ng Russia, altogether numb^ing 50,385. In Bulgaria 

extinct. there are Bohemian colonies in Wojewodovo and near 

C. Luaaiian Sorbs. — ^The Lusatian Sorbs are the Plevna; there is also a Bohemian colony in New Zea- 
residue of the Slavs of the Elbe who once spread land. Nearly 400,000 Bohemians live at Vienna^ and 
acrofls the Od&r and Elbe, inhabiting the whole of the there are large numbers of Bohemians in the cities of 
present Northern Germany. During centuries of lins, Pesth, Berlin, Ih-esden, Leipzig, Triest; there 
combat with the Germans their numbers gradually are smafler, well-or|^u3ised Bohemian colonies in 
decreased. They are divided into three main nearly all Austrian cities, besides large Bohemian col- 
ETOUps: the Obotrites who inhabited the preseftt onies in Hungary and Slavonia. In the last-men- 
Mecfdenburg, LQnebiu^, and Holstein whence they tioned country there are 31,581 Bohemians. These 
extended into the Old Mark; the Lutici or Veltce, who settlements are modem. The Slovaks occupy the 
lived between the Oder and Elbe, the Baltic and south-eastern part of Moravia and the north-eastern 
the Varna; the Sorbs, who tived on the middle course part of Hungary from the Carpathians almost to the 
of the Elbe between the Riven Havel and Bober. The Danube. But there are scattered settlements of Slo- 
I^tici died out on the Island of Riigen at the begin- vaks far into the Hungarian plain and even in South- 
ning of the fifteenth century. In the middle of the em Hungary, besides colonies of Slovaks in Slavonia. 
siz^nth century there were still large numbers of Onaccountof the barrenness of the soil of their native 
Slavs in LQneburg and in the northern part of the Old land many SlovsJcs emigrate to America. According 
Mark, while their numbers were less in Mecklenburg to the Austrian census of 1000 there were 5,955,207 
and in Brandenburg. However, even in Liineburg Bohemians in Austria. The number may be de- 
the last Slavs dkappeared between 1750-60. Only cidedly high^. In Geraiany there were 115,000 
the Lusatian Sorbs who lived nearer the bordere of Bohemians; in Hungary 2,019,641 Slovaks and 50,000 
Bohemia have been able to maintain themselves in de- Bohemians; in America there are at least 800,000 Bo- 
clining numbers until the present time. The reason hemians; in Russia 55,000; in the rest of Europe 
probably is that for some time their territorv belonged 20,000. Consequently taking all Bohemians and 
to Bohemia. At present the Lusatian Sorbs number Slovaks together there are probably over 9,000,000. 
about 150,000 persons on the upper course of the If, as is justifiable, the figures for America, Vienna, 
Spree. The^y are divided into two groups, which Moravia, Silesia, and Hungary are considered entirely 
differ so decidedly from each other in speech and cus- too low, a maximum of about 10,000,000 may be ac- 
toms that some regard them as two peoples; thev also cepted. As to religion 96.5 per cent of the Bohe- 
have two separate literatures. They are rapidly be- mians are Catholics, and 2.4 per cent are Protestants; 
coming Gminanized, especially in Ix>wer Lusatia. 70.2 per cent of the Slovaks are Catholics, 5.3 per cent 
The Lusatian Sorbs are Cath<olics with exception of are Uniat Greeks, and 23 per cent are Protestants. 
15^000 in Upper Lusatia. E. Slovenes. —The Slovenes bek)ng, together with 

D, Bohemians and Slovaks. — The Bohemians and the Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians, to the southem 
Slovaks also belong to the north-western branch of the group of nlavs. The Slovenes have the position 
Slavonic peoples. They entered the region now con- farthest to the west in the Alps and on the Adriatic, 
stitutin^ Bohemia from the north and then spread They first appeared in this region after the departure 
farther mto what is now Moravia and Northern Hun- of the Lombards for Italy and the first date m their 
finry, and into the present Lower Austria as far as the history is 595, when they fought an unsuccessful 
Danube. The settlements of the 6k>vaks in Hungary battle with the Bavarian Duke Tassilo on the field 
must have extended far towards the south, perhaps of Toblaeh. They occupied at first a much larger 

XIV.— i 

8LAV8 50 8L4V8 

territory than at present. Thejr extended along the Krashovanians, Serbo-Croatian tribes in Hunmiy, 
Drave as far as the Tyrol, reaching the vaUeys of the who were not included with these in the census. Con- 
Rivera Rienx and Eisack; they also occupied the larger sequentlv the number ot this bipartite people may be 
part of what is now Upper Austria, Lower Austria as reckoned approximately as 8,700,000 persons. Ao- 
far as the Danube, and from the district of the Lun- cording to Servian computation there are about 

§au in Southern SaUburg through Carinthia, Camiola, 2,300,000 Croats in Austria-Hungary; the (>oats 
tyria, the crownland of GorzAradiska, and a large reckon their number as over 2,7(X),000. The con- 
part of Friuli. Under German supremacv the terri- troveny results from the uncertainty as to the croup 
tory occupied by them has grown considerably less to which the Bosnian Mohammedans and the above- 
in the course of the centuries. They still mamtain mentioned Schokzians, Bui^jevsians, and Krashovi^ 
themselves only in Camiola, in the northern part of nians, as well as the population of Southern Dalmatia, 
Istria, about Gdrs. and in the vicinity of Triest, in belong. As to religion the Serbs are i^ost exclu- 
the mountainous districts north of Udine in Italy, sively Orthodox Gr^, the Croats Catholic, the great 
in the southern part of Carinthia and Styria, and m majority of the inhabitants of Southern Dahnatia are 
the Hungarian coimtries bordering on the farther Catholic, but many consider themselves as bc^nging 
side of the Mur River. Carinthia is becoming to the Servian nation. The branches in Hunf;ary 
rapidly Germanized, and the absorption of the other mentioned above are Catholic; it is still undecided 
races in Hungary oy the Magyan constantly ad- whether to include them among the Croats or 8&ha. 
vances. According to the census of 1900 there were G. Bulgarians. — ^The Slavonic tribes living in 
then 1,192,780 Slovenes in Austria, 94,993 in Hun- ancient Roman Mcesia and Thrace south of the Danube 
gaiy, 20,987 in Croatia and Slavonia, probably and south-east of the Serbs as far as the Black Sea 
37,000 in Italy, in America 100,000, and 20,000 in came under the sway of the Turanian tribe of the 
other countries. There are, taking them alto- Bulgars, which established the old Kingdom of Bul- 
gether, probi^ly about 1,500,000 Slovenes in the garia in this region as early as the second half of the 
world; 99 per cent of them are Catholics. seventh century. The conquerors soon bc^gan to 

F. Croats and Serbs. — In speech the Croats and adopt the language and customs of the subjugated 
Serbs are one people: they have the same literary people, and from this intermixture arose the Bul- 
language, but use different characters. The Croats ganan people. The historical development was not 
writo with the Latin characters and the Serbs with a quiet and uniform one; there were continual mi- 
the Cyrillic. They have been separated into two gnitions and remigrations, conquests and inter- 
peoples by religion^ political development, and dif- mingling. When the Slavs first entered the Balkan 
ferent forms of civilization; the Croats came under peninsula they spread far beyond their present 
the influence of Latin civilization, the Serbs under boimdaries and even covered Greece and the Pdo- 
that of the Byzantines. Aftor the migrations the ponnesus, which seemed i^ut to become Slavonic, 
warlike tribe of the Croats gained the mastery over However, thanks to their higher civilization and supe- 
the Slavonic tribes then'livmg in the tenritory be- rior tactics, the Greeks drove back the Slavs. SuU. 
tween the Kulpa and the Drave, the Adriatic and the Slavonic settlements continued to exist in Greece ana 
River Cetina, m Southern Dalmatia. They founded the Peloponnesus until the lato Middle Ages. The 
the Croat Kingdom on the remains of Latin civiliza- Gredks were aided by the Turkish conquest, and tlM 
tion and with Roman Catholicism as their religion. Slavs were forced to withdraw to the limit that is still 
Thus the Croat nation appeared. It was not until a maintained. The Turks then b«san to force back 
later dato that the tribes living to the south and east the Slavonic population in Maceoonia and Bulgaria 
began to unito politically under the old Slavonic name and to plant colonies of their own people in obtain 
of Serbs, and m this region the Servian nation de- districts. The chief aim of the Turldsh colonization 
veloped. Decided movements of the population was always to obtain strategic points and to secure 
came about later, bein^ caused especially by the the passes over the Balkans. The Slavonic popula- 
Turkish wars. The Servian settlements, which origi- tion also began to withdraw from the plains along the 
nally followed only a south-eastern course, now Danube where naturally great battles were often 
turned in an entirely opposite direction to the north- fought, and which were often traversed by the Turk- 
east. The original home of the Serbs was abandoned isharmy. A part emigrated to Hungary, where a con- 
largely to the Albanians and Turks; the Serbs emi- siderable number of Bulgarian settlements stiU exist; 
grated to Bosnia and across Bosnia to Dalmatia and others journeyed to Brasarabia and South Russia, 
even to Italy, where Slavonic settlements still exist After the liberation of Bulj^aria the emigrants b^gan 
in Abruzzi. Others crossed the boundaries of the to return and the population moved again from the 
Croat Kingdom and settled in large numbers in Servia mountains into the valleys, while laige numbers of 
and Slavonia, also in Southern Hungary, where the Turks and Circassians went back fiom lib^iited 
Austrian Government granted them religious and Bulgaria to Turkey. 

national autonomy and a patriaroh of their own. On the other hand the emigration from Macedonia 
Some of the Serbs settled here went to Southern is still large. Owing to these uncertun conditions, 
Russia and founded there what is called the New and especially on account of the sli^t investigation 
Servia in the Government of Kherson. Consequently, of the subject in Macedonia, it is difficult to ^ve the 
the difference between the Croats and the Serbs size of the Bulgarian population even approximately, 
consists not in the langua^^ but mainly in the re- In approximate figures tne Bulgarians number: in the 
Ugion, also in the civilization, history, and in the Kingdom of Bulgaria, 2,864, 7&; Macedonia, 1,200,- 
form of handwriting. But aU these characteristic 000; Asia Minor, 600,000; Russia, 180,000; Rumania, 
differences are not very mariced^ and thus there are 90,000; in other countries, 50,000, hence there are 
districts and sections of population which cannot be altogether perhaps over 5,000,000. In Bulgaria there 
easily assinied to one or the other nation, and which are besides the Bulgarian population, 20.644 Pomak^ 
both peoples are justified in claiming. that is Mohammedans who speak Bulgarian, 1516 

Taking Serbs and Croats together there are: in Serbs, 531,217 Turks, 9862 Gagauzi (Bulgarians who 
Austria, 711,382; in Hungary and Croatia, 2,839,016; speak Turkish), 18,874 Tatars, 66,702 Greeks in 
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, probably 1,700,000; in cities along the coast, 89,563 Gypsies, and 71,023 
Montenegro, 350,000; in Servia, 2,298.551; Old Servia Rumanians. The kingdom, therefore, is not an 
and Macedonia, 350,000; Albania ana the vilayet of absolutely homogeneous nationality. In religion the 
Scutari, about 100.000; Italy, 5000; Russia, 2000; Bulgarians are Orthodox Greeks with exception of the 
America and elsewnere, 300,000. In addition there Pomaks, already mentioned, and of the Paulicians who 
are about 108,000 Schokzians, Bunjernans, and are Catholics. The Bulgariaoa are divided into a num- 




het of branohes aad dialects; it is often doubtful 
whether some of these subdivisions should not be in- 
cluded among the Serbs. This is especially the case 
in Macedonia, consequently all enumerations of the 
population differ extremely from one another. 

If, on the basis of earlier results, the natural annual 
iprowth of the Slavonic populations is taken as 1 . 4 
per cent, it may be claimed that there were about 
156-157 million Slavs in the year 1910. In 1900 all 
Slavs taken together numbered approximately 
136,500,000 persons, divided thus: Russians, 94,000,- 
000; Poles, 17,500,000; Lusatian Serbs, 150,000; 
Bohemians and Slovaks, 9,800,000; Sk>venes, 1,500,- 
000; SerboOroats, 8,550,000; Bulgarians, 5,000,000. 

Leopold L^abd. 

SUrTB in Americ*. — ^The Slavic races have sent 
large numbers of their people to the United States and 
Canada, and this immigration is coming ev^ year 
in increasing numbers. The earliest immig^tion 
began before the war of the States, but within the 
past thirty years it has become so great as quite to 
overshadow the Irish and German immigration of 
the earlier decades. For two-thirds of that period 
no accurate figures of tongues and nationalities were 
kept,' the immigrants being merely credited to the 
political governments or countries from which they 
came, but within the past twelve years more accurate 
data have been preserved. During these years 
(1899-1910) the total immigration into the United 
States has been about 10,000,000 in round nimibers, 
and of these the Slavs have formed about 22 per cent, 
(actually 2,117,240), to say nothing of the increase 
ol native-bom Slavs in tnis country during that 
period, as well as the numbers of the earlier arrivals. 
Keliable estimates compiled from the various racial 
sources show that there are from five and a. half to 
six millions of Slavs in the United States, including 
the native-bom of Slavic parents. We are generMlly 
unaware of these facts, because the Slavs are less 
conspicuous among us than the Italians, Germans, or 
Jews; their languages and their histoiy are unfainiliar 
and remote, besides they are not so massed in the 
great cities of this country. 

I. Bohemians {Cech; adjective, ieski, Bohemian). 
These people ought really be called Chekh (Czech), 
but are named Bohemians after the aboriginal tribe 
of the Boii, who dwelt in Bohemia in Roman times. 
By a curious i>erver8ion of language, on account of 
various gypsies who about two centuries ago travelled 
westward across Bohemia and thereby came to be 
known in France as '* Bohemians'', the word Bohe- 
mian came into use to designate one who lived an 
^isy, careless life, unhampered by serious responsibili- 
ties. Such a meaning is, however, the very antithe- 
sis of the serious conservative Chekh character. The 
names of a few Bohemians are found in the early his- 
toryof the United States. August^ Hefman (1692) 
of Bohemia Manor, Maryland, and Bedf ich Filip 
(Frederick Philipse, 1702) of Philipse Manor, Yonk- 
ers, New York, are the earliest. In 1848 the revolu- 
tionary uprisings in Austria sent many Bohemians to 
this country. In the eighteenth century the Mora- 
vian Bretmren (Bohemian Brethren) had come in 
large numbers. The finding of gold in California 
in 1849-50 attracted many more, especially as serfdom 
and labour dues were abolished in Bohemia at the 
end of 1848, which left the peasant and workman 
free to travel. In 1869 and the succeeding years 
immigration was stimulated by the labour strikes 
in Bohemia, and on one occasion all the women work- 
ers of sevend cisar factories came over and settled 
in New York. About 60 per cent of the Bohemians 
and Moravians who have settled here are Catholics^ 
and their churches have been fairly maintained. 
Their immigration during the past ten years has been 
08»100, and in 1910 the number of Bonemiaos in the 

United States, immigrants and native bom, waa 
reckoned at 55(1,000. They have some 140 Bohe> 
mian Catholic churches and about 250 Bohemian 
priests; their societies, schools, and general institu- 
tions are active and flourishing. 

II. Bulgarians (BiUgar; adjective b&lgarski, 
Bulgarian) .-^This part of the Slavic race iimabits 
the present Kingdom of Bulj^aria, and the Turkish 

Srovmces of Eastern Rumelia, representing ancient 
lacedonia. Thus it happens that the Bulgarians 
are almost equaUy divided between Turkey and 
Bulgaria. Their ancestors were the Bolgars or 

tongue is in many respects the nearest to the Church 
Slavonic, and it was the ancient Bulgarian which 
Sts. Cynl and Methodius are said to have learned in 
order to evangelise the pagan Slavs. The modem 
Bulgarian lansua^, written with Russian characters 
and a few additions^ differs from the other Slavic 
languages in that it, like Engliah, has lost nearly every 
inflexion, and, like Rumanian, has the peculiarity of 
attaching the article to the end of the word, wnile 
the other Slavic tongues have no article at all. The 
Bulgarians who have gained their freedom from Turk- 
ish supremacy in the present Kingdom of Bulgaria 
are fau-ly contented; but those in Macedonia mafe 
bitterly against Turkish rule and form a large portion 
of those who emigrate to America. The Bulgarians 
are nearly all of the Greek Orthodox Church; there 
are some twenty thousand Greek Catholics, mostly 
in Macedonia, and about 50,000 Roman Catholics. 
The Greek Patriarch of Constantinople has always 
claimed jurisdiction over the Bulgarian Orthodox 
Church, and he enforced his jurisdiction until 1872, 
when the Bulgarian exarch was appointed to exercise 
supreme jurisdiction. Since that tune the Bulg^ans 
have been in a state of schism to the patriarch. 
They are ruled in Bulgaria by a Holy Synoa of their 
own, whilst the Bulganan exarch, resident in (Constan- 
tinople, is the head of the entire Bulgarian Church. 
He is recognised by the Russian Church, but is 
considered excommunicate by the Greek Patriarch, 
who however retained his authority over the Gredc- 
speaking churches of Macedonia and Bulgaria. 

Bulgarians came to the United States as early as 
1890; but there were then only a few of them as 
students, mostly from Macedonia, brou^t hither by 
mission bodies to studv for the Ftotestant ministiy. 
The real immigration began in 1905, when it seems 
that the Bulgarians discovered America as a land of 
opportunity, stimulated probably by the Turkish 
and Greek persecutions tnen raging in Macedonia 
against them. The railroads and steel works in 
the West needed men, and several enterprising steam* 
ship agents brought over Macedonians anaBulii^ 
rians in large numbers. Before 1906 there were 
scarcely 500 to 600 Bulgarians in the ooimtr^, and 
th^se chiefly in St. Louis, Missouri. Since then 
they have been coming at the rate of from 8000 to 
10,000 a year, imtil now (1911) there are from 
80,000 to 90,000 Bulgarians scattered throughout the 
United States and Canada. The majority of them 
are employed in factories, railroads, mines, and sugar 
works. Granite City, Madison, and Cmcaco. Illi- 
nois: St. Louis, Missouri; Indianapolis, Cidiana; 
Steelton, Pennsylvania; Portland, Oregon, and New 
York City all have a considerable Bulgarian popula- 
tion. They also take to fanning and are scattered 
throughout the north-west. They now (1911) have 
three Greek Orthodox churches in the United States, 
at Granite City and Madison, Illinois, and at Steelton, 
Pennsylvania, as well as several mission stations. 
Their dergv consist of one monk and two secular 
priests; azid they also have a church at Toronto, 
Canada. There ar9 ao Bulgarian Qatholios^ either 




of the Greek or Ronuui Rite, saffioient to fonn a 
church here. The Bulgarians, unlike the other 
Slavs, have no chin-ch or benefit societies or brother- 
hoods in America. Thev publish five Bulgarian 
papers, of which the "Naroden Glas" of Granite 
City is the most important. 

III. Croatians (Hrvat; adjective, hriHitskiy Croa- 
tian). — ^These are the inhabitants of the autonomous 
or home-rule province of Croatia-Slavonia, in the 
south-western part of the Kingdom of Hungary where 
it reaches down to the Adriatic Sea. It includes not 
onlv them but also the Slavic inhabitants of Istria and 
Dalmatia, in Austria, and those of Bosnia and Herzo- 
govina who are Catholic and use the Roman alphabet. 
In blood and speech the Croatians and Servians are 
practically one; but reli«on and politics divide them. 
The former are Roman Catholics and use the Roman 
letters; the latter are Greek Orthodox and use modi- 
fied Russian letters. In many of the places on. the 
border-line school-children have to learn both alpht^ 
bets. The English word "cravat " is derived from their 
name, it being the Croatian neckpiece which the south 
Austrian troops wore. Croatia-Slavonia itself has a 
population of nearly 2,500,000 and is about one-third 
the size of the State of New York. Croatia in the west 
is mountainous and somewhat poor, while Slavonia in 
the east is level, fertile, and productive. Many Dal- 
matian Croats from seaport towns came herefrom 1850 
to 1870. The original emigration from Croatia-Sla- 
vonia began in 1873, upon the completion of the new 
railway connexions to the seaport of Fiume, when 
some of the more adventurous Croatians came to the 
United States. From the earlv eighties the Lipa- 
Krbava district furnished much of the emigration. 
The first Croatian settlements were made in Calu- 
met, Michigan, while many of them became lumber^ 
men in Michigan and stave-cutters along the Missis- 
sippi. Around Agram (Zdgrdb, the Croatian capital) 
the grape disease caused large destruction of vine- 
yards and the conseouent emigration of thousands. 
Later on emigration be^an from Varasdin and from 
Slavonia also, and now immigrants arrive from every 
coimty in Croatia-Slavonia. In 1899 the figures for 
Croatia-Slavonia were 2923, and by 1907 the annual 
immigration had risen to 22,828, the largest number 
coming from Agram and Varasdin Counties. Since 
then it has fallen off, and at the present time (1911) 
it is not quite 20,000. Unfortunately the govern- 
mental statistics do not separate the Sloveniaus 
from the Croatians in giving the arrivals of Austro- 
Hungarian immigrants, but the Hungarian figures 
of departures serve as checks. 

The number of Croatians in the United States at 
present, including the native-born, is about 280,000, 
divided according to their origin as follows: from 
Croatia-Slavonia, 160,000; Dahnatia, 80,000; Bosnia, 
20,000; Herzegovina, 15,000; and the remainder 
from various parts of Hungary and Servia. The 
largest group of them is in Pennsylvania, chiefly 
in the neighbourhood of Pittsburg, and they number 
probably from 80,000 to 100,000. Illinois has about 
45^000, chiefly in Chicago. Ohio has about 35,000, 
principally in Cleveland and the vicinity. Other 
considerable colonies are in New York, »^an Fran- 
cisco, St. Louis, Kansas City, and New Orleans. 
They are also in Montana, Colorado, and Michigan. 
The Dalmatians are chiefly engaged in business and 
grape culture; the other Croatians are mostly labour- 
ers employed in mining, railroad work, steel mills, 
stockyards^ and stone quarries. Nearly all of these 
are Catholics, and they now have one Greek Catholic 
and 16 Roman Catholic churches in the United States. 
The Greek Catholics are almost wholly from the 
Diocese of Kriieva^ (Crisium), and iare chiefly settled 
at Chicago and Cleveland. They have some 250 
societies devoted to church and patriotic purposes, 
and in some cases to Socialism, but as yet they have 

no very hur|e central onanization, the Natioiial 
Croatian Union with 29,247 members being the 
largest. Tliey publish ten newspapers, among them 
two dailies, of which "Zajednicar'' the organ of 
Narodne Hrvatske Zajedmce (National Croatian 
Union) is the best known. 

IV. Poles (Polak, a Pole; adjective polski, Polish). 
— ^The Poles came to the United States quite early 
in its history. Aside from some few early settlers, 
the American Revolution attracted such noted men 
as Kosciuszko and Pulaski, together with many 
of their fellow-countr3rmen. The Polish Revolution 
of 1830 brought numbers of Poles to the United States. 
In 1851 a Polish colony settled in Texas, and called 
their settlement Panna Marya (Our Lady Mary). 
In 1860 they settled at Parisville, Michigan, and 
Polonia, Wisconsin. Many distinguished Poles served 
in the (jivil War (1861-65) upon both sides. After 
1873 the Polish immigration b^an to grow apace, 
chiefly from Prussian Poland. Tnen the tide turned 
and came from Austria, and later from Russian 
Poland. In 1890 they began to come in the giBatest 
numbers from Austnan and Russian Polana, until 
the flow from German Poland has largely diminished. 
The immigration within the past ten years has been 
as follows: from Russia, 53 per cent; from Austria 
about 43 per cent; and only a fraction over 4 per cent 
from the Prussian or German portion. It is esti- 
mated that there are at present about 3,000,000 
Poles in the United States, counting the native-born. 
It may be said that they are almost solidly Catholic; 
the dissident and distiirbing elements among them 
being but comparatively small, while there is no 
purely Protestant element at all. They have one 
Polish bishop, about 750 priests, and some 520 
churches ana chapels, besides 335 schools. There 
are large numbers, both men and women, who are 
members of the various religious communities. The 
Poles publish some 70 newspapers, amount them 
nine dailies. 20 of which are purely Catholic publi- 
cations. Tneir religious and national societies are 
large and flourishing; and altogether the Polish ele- 
ment is active and progressive. 

V. Russians (Rossiyanin; adjective roswisAit, Rus- 
sian). — ^The Russian Empire is the largest nation in 
Europe, and its Slavic inhabitants (exclusive of Poles) 
are composed of Great Russians or Northern Russians, 
White Russians or Western Russians, and the Little 
Russians (Ruthenians) or Southern Kussians. The 
Great Russians dwell in the central and northern 
parts of the empire around Moscow and St. Peters- 
burg, and are so called in allusion to their stature and 
peat predominance in number, government, and 
language. The White Russians are so called from 
the prevailing colour of the clothing of the peasantry, 
and inhabit the provinces lying on the borders of 
Poland — Vitebsk, Mohilefif, Minsk, Vilna, and Grodno. 
Their lan|^age differs but slightly from Great Rus- 
sian, inclining towards Polish and Old Slavonic. 
The Little Russians (so called from their low stature) 
differ considerably from the Great Russians in lan- 
guage and customs, and they inhabit the Provinces of 
Kieff, Kharkoff, Tchemigoff, Poltava, Podolia, and 
Volhynia, and they are also found outside the Empire 
of Russia in Galicia, Bukovina, and Hunjjary (see 
below, VI. RuTHKNiANs). The Great Russians may 
be regarded as the norm of the Russian people. Their 
language became the language of the court and of 
literature, just as High German and Tuscan Italian 
did, and they form the overwhelming majority of the 
inhabitants of the Russian Empire. They are prac- 
tically all Greek Orthodox, the Catholics in Russia 
being Poles or Germans where they are of the Roman 
Rite, and Little Russians (Ruthenians) where they 
are of the Greek Rite. 

The Russians have long been settled in America, 
for Alaska was Russian territory before it was pur- 

8If*¥a 53 SLAVS 

ohaaed by the United States in 1867. The Riuaian tvo Vsaimopomoehchi" (Eiudan Orthodox Mutual. 
Greek Orthodox church has been on American soil AidSociety) for men, founded in 1S95, now (1911) hav- 
for over a century. The immigration from Russia ing 199 councils and 7072 members, and the women's 
is however composed of very lew Russians. * It is division of the same, founded in 1907, with 32 councils 
principally made up bf Jews (Russian and Polish), and 690 members. They publish two church papers, 
Pedes, and Lithuanians. Out of an average emigra- "American Orthodox liOessenger", and ''Svit''; 
lion of from 250,000 to 260,000 annually from the although there are some nine other Russian papers 
Russian Empire to the United States, 65 per cent have published by Jews and Socialists. 
been Jews and only from three to five per cent actual VI. Rutegbmiaks (RuMn; adjective n4««iby, Ruthe- 
Russians. Nevertheless the Russian peasant and nian). — ^These are the southern branch of Uie Rus- 
working class are active emiflpnuits. ana the exodus sian family, extending from the middle of Austria* 
from European Russia is reLatively large. But it Hungary across the southern part of Russia. The -use 
18 djieoted eastward instead of to the west, for Russia of the adjective russky by both the Ruthenians and 
is intent upon settling up her vast prairie lands in the Russians permits it to be translated into English 
Siberia. Hindrances are placed in the way of those by the word ''Ruthenian'' or ''Russian". They 
Russians (except the Jews) who would leave for are also called Little Russians {Malorossiam) in the 
Amaica or the west of Europe, while inducements Empire of Russia, and sometimes Rusaniaki in Hun- 
ukd advantages are offered for settlers in Siberia, ffary. The appellations "Little Russians'' and 
For the past five years about 500,000 Russians have ^Ruthenians'' nave come to have almost a technicid 
annuaUv migrated to Siberia, a number equal to meaning, the former indicating subjects of the Ru&-' 
one-half the immigrants yearly received by the sian Empire who are of the Greek Orthodox Church. 
United States from all sources. They ko in great and the latter those who are in Austria-Hungary ana 
eolonies and are aided by the Russian (jrovemment are Catholics of the Greek Rite. Those who are 
b;y grants of land, loans of money, and low transporta- active in the Panslavic movement and are Russo- 
tion. New towns and cities have sprung up all over philes are very anxious to have them called "Rus- 
Siberia, which are not even <m our maps, thus rivalling sians", no matter whence they come. The Ruthe- 
theAmeriean settlement of the Dakotas and the North- nians are of the original Russo-Slavic race, and 
Weet. Many Russian religious colonists, other than gave their name to the peoples making up the present 
the Jews, have come to America; but often they are Russian Empire. They are spread alTover the south- 
not wholly of Slavic blood or are Little Russians em part of Russia, in the provmces of Kieff , Kharkoff, 
(Ruthenians). It therefore happens that there are Tchemigoff, Poltava, Podolia. and Volhynia (see 
y&rv few Russians in the United States as compared above, V. Russians), but by force of governmental. 
with other nationalities. There are, according to the pressure and restrictive laws are being slowly made 
latest eeiimates, about 75,000, chiefly in Pennsylvania mto Great Russians. Only within the past five 
and the Middle West. There has been a Kussian years has the use of their own form of language and 
GQk>ny in San fVancisco for sixty years, and they are their own newspapers and press been allowed by law 
numerous in and around New Ycn-k City. in Russia. Nearly ever^r Ruthenian author in the 

The Russian Orthodox Church is well established empire has written his chief works in Great Russian, 

here. About a third oC the Russians in the United because denied the use of his own language. They 

States are opposed to it, being of the anti-govem- are also spread throughout the Provinces of Lubliji, 

ment, semi-revolutionary type of immigrant. But in Poland; Galicia andf Bukovina, in Austria j and the 

the others are en^usiastic in support of their Church (bounties of Szepes, Saros, Abauj, Zemplin, Ung. 

andiheirnationalcustoms, yet their Church includes Marmos, and Bereg. in Hungarv. They have had 

not only them but the Little Russians of Bukovina an opp<^unity to develop in Austria and also in 

and a very large number of Greek Catholics of Gali- Hungar^r. In the latter country they are closely 

eia and Hungary whom they have induced to leave allied with the Slovaks, and many of them speak 

the Catholic and enter the Orthodox Church. The the Slovak language. They are all of the Greek 

Russian Qiurch in the United States is endowed by Rite, and with the exception of those in Russia and 

the tsar and the Holy Governing Synod, besides Bukovina are Catholics. They use the Russian 

having the support of Russian missionary societies alphabet for their language, ana in Bukovina and a 

at home, and is upon a flourishing financial basis portion of Galicia have a phonetic spelling, thus dif- 

in the United States. It now (1911) has 83 churches tering largely from Great Kussian, even in words that 

and chapels in the United States, 15 in Alaska, and are common to both. 

18 in Canada, making a total of 126 places of wor- Their immigration to America commenced in 1880 
ship, beside a ^eolofldcal seminary at Minneapolis as labourers in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and 
ana a monastery at South Canaan, Pennsylvania. Ohio, and has steadily increased ever since. Although 
Their present clergy is composed of cme archbishop, they were the poorest class of peasants and labourers, 
one bishop^ 6 proto-priests, 89 secular priests, 2 illiterate for the most part and unable to grasp the 
ardiimanantes, 2 hegumens, and 18 monastic priests, English language or American customs when they ar* 
yn^lrmg a total of 119, while they also exercise iuri&- riv^, they have rapidly risen in the scale of prosperity 
dicticm over t^e Servian and Syrian Orthodox clergy and are now rivalling the other nationalities in pro- 
be^es. Lately they took over a Greek Catholic gress. Greek Ruthenian churches and institutions are 
sisterhood, and now have four Basilian nuns. The being established upon a substantial basis, and their 
United States is now divided up into the following clergy and schools are steadily advancing. They are 
ax districts of the Russian Church, intended to be scattered all over the United States, and there are now 
the toritory for future dioceses: New York and the (1911) between 480,000 and 500,000 of them, count- 
New England States; Pennsylvania and the Atlantic ing immigrants and native bom. Their immigration 
elates; Pittsburg and the Middle West; Western for the past five years has been as follows: 1907, 
Pacific States; Canada; and Alaska. Their statis- 24,081; 1908, .12^61; 1909, 15,808; 1910, 27,907; 
tic8 of church population have not been published 1911, 17,724; being an average of 20.000 a year. 
hAety in their year-books, and much of their growth Th^ have chiefly settled in the State of Pennsylvania, 
has been of late years by additions gained from the over half of them bein^ there: but Ohio, New York, 
Gieek Catholic Ruthenians of Galicia and Hungary, New Jersey, and Illinois have large numbers of them^ 
snd is due largely to the active and energetic work The Greek Rite in the Slavonic language is firmly 
and financial support of the Russian church authori- established through them in the United States, but 
tlet at St. PeteKBDurg and Moscow. they suffer greatly from Russian Orthodox endeavours 

Theyhia^«Uid"Bu8dfioy9PriivoBlavnoy«Ob6hdie»r to tead tfaem from the Catholic Church, as well aa 




from frequent internal disaenuonfi (cbieflv of an old- 
world political nature) among themselves. Thev 
have 152 Greek Catholic churches, with a Greek 
clergy consisting of a Greek Catholic bishop who has 
his seat at Philsuielphia, but without diocesan powers 
as yet, and 127 priests, of whom 9 are Basilian monks. 
Diuing 1911 Ruthenian Greek Catholic nuns of the 
Order of St. Basil were introduce. The Ruthenians 
have flourishing relisious mutual benefit societies, 
which also assist in me building of Greek churches. 
The ''Soyedineniya Greko-Katolicheskikh Bratstv'' 
(Greek Catholic Union) in its senior division has 509 
brotherhoods or councils and 30,255 members, 
while the junior division has 226 brotherhoods ana 
15,200 members; the ^'Russky Narodny Soyus'' 
(Ruthenian National Union) has 301 brotherhoods 
and 15.200 members; while the "Obshchestvo Rus- 
skikh Bratstv" (Societv of Russian Brotherhood) has 
129 brotherhoods and. 7350 members. There are 
also many Ruthenians who belong to Slovak organiza- 
tions. The Ruthenians publish some ten papers, 
of which the "Amerikanskv Russky Viestnik", 
"Svoboda", and " Dushpastjrr" are the principal ones. 
VII. Servians {Srhin; adjective srvski, Ser- 
vian). — ^This designation applies not only to the 
inhabitants of the Kingdom of Servia, but includes 
the people of the following countries forming a geo- 

gapnical althou^ not a political whole: southern 
ungary, the Kmgdoms of Servia and Montenegro, 
the Turkish Provinces of Kossovo, Western Mace- 
donia and Novi-Bazar, and the annexed Austrian 
provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The last 
two provinces may be said to furnish the shadowy 
boundary line between the Croatians and the Ser- 
vians. The two peoples are ethnologically the same, 
and the Servian ana Croatian languages are merely 
two dialects of the same Slavic tongue. Servians are 
sometimes called the Shtokcmski^ oecause the Ser- 
vian word for "what" is shio, while the Croats use 
the word cha for "what", and Croatians are called 
Chakavski. The Croatians are Roman Catholics 
and use the Roman alphabet (latinica), whilst the 
Servians are Greek Orthodox and use the Cyrillo- 
Russian alphabet (jcirilica)^ with additional signs to 
express special sounds not foimd in the Russian. 
Servians who happen to be Roman Catholics are 
called Bunjevaci (disturbers, dissenters). 

Servian unmigration to the United States did not 
commence until about 1892, when several hundred 
Montenegrins and Servians came with the Dalma- 
tians and settled in California. It began to increase 
largely in 1903 and was at its hi^est in 1907. Hiey 
are largely settled in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois. 
There are no governmental statistics showing how 
many Servians come from Servia and how many 
from the surrounding provinces. The Servian Gov- 
ernment has establisned a special consular office in 
New York City to look after Servian immigration. 
There are now (1911) about 150,000 Servians in the 
United States. They are located as follows: New 
England States, 25,000: Middle Atlantic States. 
50,000; Middle Western States, 25,000; Western and 
Pacific States, 25,000; and the remainder throughout 
the Southern States and Alaska. They have brought 
with them their Orthodox clergy, and are at present 
affiliated with the Russian Ortnodox Church here 
although they expect shortly to have their own na- 
tional Bishop. Iiiey now (1911) have in the United 
States 20 churches (of which five are in Pennsylvania) 
and 14 clerry. of whom 8 are monks and 6 seculars. 
They publish eight newspapers in Servian, of which 
"Amerikanski Srbobran" of Pittsburg, "Srbobran" 
of New York, and "Srpski Glasnik" of San Francisco 
are the most important. They have a lai^ number 
of church and patriotic societies, of which the Serb 
Federation "Sloga" (Concord) with 131 dnOtva or 
councils and over 10,000 members and ''Prosvjeta" 

(Progress), composed, of Servians from Bosnia and 
Herz^ovina, are the most prominent. 

VIII. Slovaks (Slovak; adjective dovenskjf, Slo> 
vak).— These occupy the noi^h-westem portion of 
the Kingdom of Hungary upon the southern slopes 
of the Carpathian mountains, ranging over a territory 
comprising the Counties of Possony, Nyitra, Bars, 
Hont, Zolyom, Trencs^n, Turocz, An^a, Lipt6. 
Szepes, S^B, Zcmplin, Ung, Abauj, Gomdr, and 
N6^ad. A well-defined ethnical line is all that 
divides the Slovaks from the Ruthenians and the 
Magyars. Their language is almost the same as the 
Bohemian, for they received their literature and their 
mode of writing it from the Bohemians^ and even 
now nearly all the Protestant Slovak kterature is 
from Bohemian sources. It must be remembered 
however that the Bohemians and Moravians dwell 
on the northern side of the Carpathian mountains 
in Austria, whilst the Slovaks are on the south of 
the Carpatnians and are wholly in Hungary. Between 
the Moravians and the Slovaks, dweUing so near to 
one another, the relationship was especially dose. 
The SlovfJc and Moravian people were among those 
who first' heard the story of Cm'ist from the SUvonic 
apQfitles Sts. Cyril and Methodius, and at one time 
their tribes must have extended down to ^e Danube 
and the southern Slavs. The Magyars (Hungarians) 
came in from Asia and the East, and like a wedge 
divided this group of northern Slavs from those on 
the south. 

The Slovaks have had no independent history and 
have endured successively Polish rule, Magyar oon- 
quest, Tatar invasions, German invading colonisa- 
tion, Hussite raids from Bohemia, and the dynastic 
wars of Hungary. In 1848-49, when revolution 
and rebellion were in the air, the Hungarians began 
their war against Austria; the Slovaks in turn rose 
against the Himgarians for their language and national 
customs, but on the conclusion of peace they were 
again incorporated as part of Hungary without any 
of their rights recognized . Later they were ruthlessly- 
put down when the3r refused to carry out the Hunr- 
garian decrees, particularly as they had rallied to 
the support of the Austrian throne. In 1861 the 
Slovaks presented their famous Memorandum to 
the Imperial Throne of Austria, praying for a bill 
of rights and for their autonomous nationality. 
Stephen Moyses, the distinguished Slovak Cathouo 
bishop, besought the emperor to grant national 
and language rights to them. The whole movement 
awoke popular enthusiasm, Catholics and Protectants 
working together for the common good. In 1862 
high scnools were opened for Slovaks; the famous 
^'Slovenska Matica' , to publish Slovak books and 
works of art and to foster the study of the Slovak 
history and language, was founded; and in 1870 the 
Catholics also founded the "Society of St. Voytech", 
which became a powerful helper. Slovak newspapers 
sprang into existence and 150 reading dura and 
libraries were established. After the oefeat of the 
Austrian arms at Sadowa in 1866, pressure was re- 
sumed to split the empire into two parts, Austrian 
and Hungarian, each of which was practically inde- 
pendent. The Slovaks thenceforth came wholly 
under Hungarian rule. Then the Law of Nationah- 
ties was passed which recognized the predominant 
position of the Magyars, but (^ave some small recog- 
nition to the other minor nationalities, such as tfie 
Slovaks, by allowing them to have churches and 
schools conducted in their own languai^ 

In 1878 the active Magyarization of Hungary waa 
undertaken. The doctrine was mooted that a native 
of the Kingdom of Hungary could not be a patriot 
unless he spoke, thought, and felt as a Magyar. A 
Slovak of eaucation who remained true to his ancestry 
(and it must be remembered that the Slovaks were 
there long before the Hungarians came) was considered 




deficit in patriotion. The most advanced political 
view was tnat a compromise with the Slovaks was 
impossible; that there was but one expedient, to wipe 
th^ out as far as possible by assimilation with tne 
Magyars. Slovak schools and institutions were 
ordered to be closed, the charter of the ^^Matica" 
was annulled, and itsjibrary and rich historical and 
artistic collections, as well as its funds, were conJB»» 
cated. Inequalities of every kind before the law 
were devisea for the undoing of tJie Slovaks and turn- 
ing them into Hungarians; so much so that one of 
their authors likened them to the Irish in their 
troubles. The Hungarian authorities in their en- 
deavour to suppress the Slovak nationality went 
even to the extent of taking awav Slovak children 
to be brought up as Magyars, and forbade them to 
use their language in school and church. The 
2,00CM)00^ Catholic Slovaks climg to their language 
and Slavic customs, but the cler^ were educate 
in their seminaries through the medium of the Magyar 
tongue and required in their parishes to conform to 
the state idea. Among the 750,000 Protestant Slovaks 
the Government went even further by taking control 
df their synods and bishops. Even Slovak family 
names were changed to Hungarian ones, and prefer- 
ment was only through Hungarian channels. Natu- 
rally, religion decayed under the stress and strain of 
repressed nationahty. Slovak priests did not per- 
form their duties with ardour or diligence, but con- 
fined themselves to the mere routine of canonical 
obligation. There are no monks or religious orders 
among the Slovaks and no provision is made for any 
kind of community life. Catechetical instruction 
is at a minimum ana is required to be given whenever 
possible through the medium of the Hungarian lan- 
guage. There is no lack of priests in the Slovak 
countrsr^ yet the practice of solemnizing the reception 
of the nnt communion by the children is unknown 
and many other forms of Catholic devotion are 
omitted. Even the Holy Rosary Society was 
dissolved, because its devotions and proceedings were 
conducted in Slovak. The result of governmental 
restriction of any national expression has been a 
complete lack of mitiiative on tne part of the Slovak 
priesthood, and it is needless to speak of the result 
upon their flocks. In the eastern part of the Slovak 
t^ritory where there were Slovak-speaking Greek 
Catholics, they fared slightly better in regard to 
the attempts to make them Hungarians. There the 
liturgy was Slavonic and the clergy who used the 
Magyar tongue still were in close touch with their 
people through the offices of the Church. All this 
pressure on the part of the authorities tended to 
produce an active Slovak emigration to America, 
while bad harvests and taxation also contributed. 
A few immigrants came to America in 1864 and 
their success brought others. In the late seventies 
the Slovak exodus was well marked, and by 18S2 it 
was sufficiently important to be investigated by the 
Hungarian Minister of the Interior and directions 
given to repress it. The American immigration 
figures indicate the first important Slovak influx 
in 1873 when 1300 immigrants came from Hungary, 
which rose to 4000 in 1880 and to nearly 15,000 m 
1^4, most of than settling in the mining and indus- 
trial regions of Pennsylvania. At first they came 
from the Counties of Zemplin, Saros, Szepes, and 
Ung, where there were also many Ruthenians. They 
were called "Huns" or "Hunkies", and were used 
at first to fill the places left vacant by strikers. They 
were very poor and willing to work for little when 
they arrived, and were according^r hated by the 
members of the various unions. Tlie Slovak girls, 
like the Irish, mostly went into service, and because 
they had ahnoet no expense for living managed to 
aam more than the men. To-day the Slovaks of 
Ammim are beginning to possess a national culture 

and organization, which presents a strikinjs oontnrt 
to the cramped development of their kinsmen in 
Hungary. Their immigration of late years has ranged 
annually from 52,368 in 1905 to 83,416 in 1910. 
Altogether it is estimated that there are now some 
560^000 Slovaks in the United States, includmg the 
native bom. They are spread throughout the coun- 
try, chiefly in the following states: Pennsylvania, 270,- 
000; Ohio. 75,000; Illinois, 50,000; New Jersey, 50^000; 
New York, 35,000; Connecticut, 20,000; Indiana, 
15,000; Missouri, 10,000; whilst they range from 5000 
to a few himdreds in the other states. About 450,000 
of them are Roman Catholics, 10,000 Greek Catholics 
and 95,000 Protestants. 

The first Slovak Catholic church in the United 
States was founded by Rev. Joseph Kossalko at 
Streator, Illinois, and was dedicated 8 Dec, 1883. 
Following this he also built St. Joseph's Church at 
Hasleton, Pennenrlvania, in 1884. In 1889 Rev. 
Stephen Furdek founded the Church of St. Ladislas 
at Cleveland, Ohio, together with a fine parochial 
school, both of which were dedicated by Bishop Gil- 
mour. The American bishops were anxious to get 
Slovak priests for the increasing immigration, and 
Bishop Gilmour sent Father Furdek to Himgary for 
that purpose. The Huiigarian bishops were unwilling 
to send Slovak priests at first, but as immigration 
increased they acceded to the request. At present 
(1911) the Catholic Slovaks have a clergy consisting 
of one bishop (Rt. Rev. J. M. Koudelka) and 104 
priests, and nave 134 churches situated as follows: 
m Pennsylvania, 81 (Dioceses of Altoona, 10; Erie, 4: 
Harrisburg, 3; Philadelphia, 15; Pittsburg, 35; ana 
Scranton, 14) ; in Ohio, 14 (in the Diocese of Cleveland, 
12, and Columbus, 2); in Illinois, 10 (in the Arch- 
diocese of Chicago, 7; and Peoria, 3); in New Jersey, 
11 (in the Diocese of Newark, 7; and Trenton, 4); 
in New York, 6; and in the States of Connecticut, 3; 
Indiana, 2; Wisconsin, 2; and Minnesota, Michigan, 
Missouri, Alabama, ana West Virginia, one each. 
Some of the Slovak church buildings are very fine 
specimens of church architecture. There are also 
36 Slovak parochial schools, that of Our Lady Mary 
in Cleveland having 750 pupils. They have also 
introduced an American order of Slovak nuns, the 
Sisters of Saints Cyril and Methodius, who are 
established under the direction of Bishop Hoban in 
the Diocese of Scranton, where they have four schools. 

The Ptotestant Slovaks followed the example of 
the Catholics and established their first church at 
Streator, Illinois, in 1885, and later founded a church 
at Minneapolis in 1888, and from 1890 to 1894 three 
churches in Pennsylvania. They now have in the 
United States 60 Slovak churches and congre{;ations 
(of which 28 are in Pennsylvania), with 34 ministers 
(not including some 5 Presbyterian clergymen), who 
are organized under the name of ''The Slovak Evan- 

felical Lutheran Sjrnod of America". The Slovaks 
ave a large number of organizations. The principal 
Catholic ones are: Prva KatoHcka Slovenskd Jednota 
(First Slovak Catholic Union), for men, 33,000 
members; Pennsylvdnska Slovendcd Rimeko a 
Gr^cko KatoHcka Jednota (Pennsylvania Slovak 
Roman and Greek Catholic Union), 7500 members; 
Prva KatoHcka Slovcnskd ZemkA Jednota (First 
Catholic Slovak Women's Union), 12,000 members; 
Pennsylvdnska Slovenskd Zcnskd Jednota (Pennsyl- 
vania Slovak Women's Union), 3500 members; 
Zivena (Women's League), 6000 members. There 
are also: Ndrodn;(' Slovensk^ Spolok (National 
Slovak Society), which takes m all Slovaks except 
Jews, 28,000 members; Evanjelicka Slovenskd Jed- 
nota (Evangelical Lutheran Slovak Union), 8000 
members: Kalvinskd Slovenskd Jednota (Presby- 
terian Slovak Union), 1000 members; Neodvislj' 
Ndrodny Slovenskd Spolok (Independent Nationu 
Slovak Society), 2000 members. They also have a 




large and euterprisin^ Press, publishing some four- 
teen papers. Ine chief ones are: ''Slovens!^ Den« 
nlk'' (Slovak Journal), a daily, of Pittabui^; ''Slovak 
V Amerike" (Slovak in America), of New York: 
''Narodne Noviny" (National News), a weekly^ of 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, with 38,000 circulation; 
'^Jednota'' (The Union), also a weekly, of Middle- 
town, Pennsylvania, with 35,000 circulation; and 
'"Bratstvo" (Brotherhood) of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsyl^ 
vania. There are also Protestant and Socialistic 
Slovak journals, whose circulation is small. Among 
the distingubhed Slovaks in the United States may 
be mentioned Hev. Joseph Murgas of Wilkes-Barre, 
who, in addition to his work among his people, has 
perfected several inventions in wireless telegraphy 
and is favourably known in other scientific matters. 

IX. Slovskes (Slovenec; adjective dovemkij Slove- 
nian). — ^These come chiefly from south-western 
Austria, from the Provinces of Camiola (Kranj$ko; 
(jer,, Krain)^ Carinthia {Koroiko; Ger., Kdmten), 
and Stvria (Stajerako; Ger., Sleiermark); as well as 
from Kesia {Re$ja) and Udlne (Videm) in north- 
eastern Italy, and the Coast Lands {Primorako) 
of Austria-Hungary. Their neighbours on the south- 
west are Italians; on the west and north, Germans; 
on the east. Gerxnans and Ms^yars; and towards the 
south, Italians and their Slavic neighbours the 
Croatians. Most of them are bilingual, speaking 
not only the Slovenian but also the German language. 
For this reason they are not so readUv distinguishable 
in America as the other Slavs, and have less trouble 
in assimilatini; themselves. At home the main 
centres of their language and literature have been 
Laibach (Ljubljana), Rlagenfurt (Celovec)^ Graz 
(Gradec)^ and Gdrz (Crorica)^ the latter city bemg also 
largely Italian. In America they are sometimes 
known as Austrians, but are more often known as 
"Krainer'', that being the German adjective of 
Krain (Camiola), from whence the lar^r number of 
them come to the United States: sometimes the word 
has even been mispronouncea and set down as 
"Griner'\ The Slovenes became known somewhat 
early in the history of the United States. Father 
Frederic Baraga was amone the first of them to come 
here in 1830, and began his missionary work as a 
priest among the Indians of Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota, and finally became the first Bishop 
of Marquette, Michigan. He studied the Indian 
langua^ and wrote their grammars and history in 
his vanous English, German, and Slovenian works. 
He also published several catechisms and religious 
works in Slovenian, and brought over several other 
Slovenian priests. 

In Calumet, Michigan, the Slovd[ies settled as 
early as 18^; they first appeared in Chicago and in 
Iowa about 1863, and in 1866 they founded their 
chief farming colony in Brockway, Minnesota. 
Here they stm preserve their own language and all 
their minute local peculiarities. They came to 
Omaha in 1868, and in 1873 their present large colony 
in Joliet, Illinois, was founded. Their earliest 
settlement in New York was towards the end of 
1878, and graduidly their numbers have increased 
until they have churches in Haverstraw and Rockland 
Lake, where their language is used. They have also 
established farm settlements in lowa^ South Dakota, 
Idaho, Washington, and in additional places in 
Minnesota. Their very active immigration began 
in 1892, and has been (1000-1910) at the rate of 
from 6000 to 9000 annually, but has lately fallen 
off. The official government statistics class them 
along with the Croatians. There are now (1911) 
in the United States a little over 120,000 Slovenes; 
practically all of them are Catholics, and with no 
great differences or factions among them. There is 
a leaning towards Socialism in the large mining and 
manufaoturing osntret. In Peongylvania there art 

about 30,000: in Ohio, 15,000; in Illinois, 12,000; 
in Michinw, 8(XX); in Minnesota, 12,000; in Colorado* 
10,000; m Washington, 10,000; in Montana. 5000; 
in Califomia, 6000; and in fact there are Slovenes 
reported in almost every state and territory except 
Georgia. Their immigration was caused by the 
poverty of the people at home, especially aa Cfuniola 
is a rocky and mountainous district without much 
fertility, and n^ected even from the times of the 
Turkish wars. Latterly the institution of Ra£feisen 
banks, debt-paying and mutual aid associaticMis, 
introduced among the people by the Catholio party 
(Slovenska Ljud^a Stranka), has diminished immi* 
.gration and enabled them to live more comfortably 
at home. 

The Slovenes are noted for their adaptability, 
and have given many prominent missionary leadens 
to the Church in the United States. Among them 
are Bishops Baraga, Mrak, and Vertin (of Marquette), 
Stariha (of Lead), and Trobec (of St. Ck>ud); Mon* 
signori Stibil, Buh, and Plut; Abbot Bernard Loc- 
nika, O.S.B.; and many others. There are some 92 
Slovenian priests in the United States, and twenty- 
five Sloveman churches. Many of their churches are 
quite fine, especially St. Joseph's, Joliet, Illinois: 
St. Joseph's, (Jalumet, Michigan; and Sts. Cyril and 
Methodius, Sheboygan, Wisconsin. There are also 
mixed parishes where the Slovenes are \inited with 
other nationalities, usually with Bohemians, Slovaks, 
or Germans. There are no exclusively Slovenian 
religious communities. At St. John's, Minnesotai 
there are six Slovenian Benedictines, and at Rock- 
land Lake, New York, three Slovenian Franciscans, 
who are undertaking to establish a Slovenian ana 
Croatian community. From them much of the 
information herein has been obtained. The Francis- 
can nuns at Joliet, Illinois, have many Slovenian 
sisters; at Kansas City, Kansas, there are several 
Slovenian sisters enga^d in school work; and there 
are some Slovenians among the Notre Dame Sisters 
of Cleveland, Ohio. Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul, 
Minnesota, sent to Austria for Slovenian seminarians 
to finish tJieir education here, and also i^Mpointed 
three Slovenian priests as professors in his diooesaa 
seminary, thus providing a Slovenian-American 
dergy for their parishes in his province. 

There are several church and benevolent organiza- 
tions among the Slovenians in America. The princi-* 
pal ones are: Kranjsko Slovenska KatoliSka Jednota 
(Krainer Slovenian Catholic Union), organised in 
April, 1894, now having 100 coimcils and a member- 
ship of 12,000; Jugoslovenska Katoli&ka Jednota 
(South Slovenian Catholic Union), organised in 
Jan., 1901, having 90 councils and 8000 members; 
besides these there are also Slovenska Zapadna 
Zveza (Slovenian Weston Union), with 30 coimcils 
and about 3000 members, Dru§tva Sv. Barbara 
(St. Barbara Society), with 80 councils, chiefly 
among miners, and tne semi-socialistic Delvaaka 
Podpoma Zveza (Workingmen's Benevolent Union), 
with 25 councils and a considerable member* 
ship. There are also Sv. Rafaelova Drulba (St. 
Raphael's Society), to assist Slovenian immigrants 
founded by Father Kasimir, O.F.M., and the Society 
of Sts. Cyril and Methodius to assistSlovexLian schools, 
as well as numerous singing and gymnastic (H^anisfk 
tions. The Slovenians publish ten newspapers in 
the United States. The oldest is the Catholio weekly 
^'Amerikanski Slovenec" (American Slovene), ea^ 
tablished in 1891 at Joliet, and it is the organ of ,the 
Krainer Slovenian Catholic Union. '^Glaa Naroda" 
(Voice of the People), established in .1892 in New 
York City, is a daily paper somewhat liberal in its 
views, but it is the official organ of the South Skrvonic 
Catholic Union and the St. Barbara Society. ''Are 
Maria" is a reUgious monthly published by tbe 
Franoifoanfl d Rockkad Lake, New York. *^G)«^ 


nUc'' (The Herald) is a weekly of Calumet; Mldd* by great meo of other nations, and his kindnesB and 

ttn; as are also ^'Bdinost" (Unity), of Pittsburg, taot eliminated all bitterness from the controvendes 

Fennsylvania: "Clevelandska Amenka". of Cleve- in which he was forced to engage. Patriotism, the 

land, Ohio; ''Narodni Vestnik'' (People's Messenger), education of his people, their temporal and spiritual 

of Duluth, Minnesota; and ''Slovenski Narod" welfare, were his inspiring motives, as the non« 

(Slovenian People), of Pueblo, Colorado. There are Catholic Makusev remarks: '* Education, based on 

also two purely Socialistic weeklies in Chicago: religion and nationality, was his lofty aim". Hu« 

"Proletarec" (Proletarian) and "Glas Svobode" mility and childlike simplicity marked his life. His 

(Voice of Freedom). A very fine work. "Amerika priests, sincerely devoted to him, frequently heard him 

in Amerikanci" (America and the Americans), repeat the words: ''When I was bom^ my mother 

descriptive of all the United States and Slovenian laid me on a bed of straw, and I desire no better 

life and development here, has been published by pallet when I die, asking only to be in the state of 

Father J. M. Trunk at Klagenfurt, Austria. grace and worthy of salvation ''. 

Balch, Our Slane Fdlof CUUent (New York, 1910); HouiT. GuAwmsAvrmR, HiM, of Shunian LiUnturt (18S2). 

Amtriet^eh (St. Louia. 1890) ; Kohlbbck. The Catholic Bohemian* „, ^ _ *.>.>»*« ui-a«. 

^ tkiUniUd StaUa in Champlain Sduoator. (New York. Jan.- SlotanUS (ScBLOTTANTTS, VAN DEB SlOOTIN), 

M»r.. 1906) ;jav. 35-54; lUijw;. JCl"**^ (Madw 1911); Jqhn (John Gbfpen), polemical writer: b. at Geffen, 

fS^\it.'lfJS:^''K^^ci^ Bmbantj.d. at GologS^ 9 July, 1666. He Joined 

Kbumkjl, Hittorua Pohka vo Amttyce (Milwaukee, 1905-09); the Dommican order at Cologne about 1525. For 

ij^t^lMdnoU Poutn w Amervif {UmhiafLiw^^^^ #*^r2S?» many years he ably defended the Faith against the 

ThM PoUb in the Untted StaUe ol Amenoa (Philadelphia, 1907): u««»*;^ K,, .^.^Ai^kir^** ^r^A <»«.;«;».* T ^^JTIxm^ 4ciii»K4^ 

fraeodoMUf KaUndar (New York, 1900-12) : AmenkoMH neretics by preaching and writing. Ijater he taught 

RusMki Mienateoeht (Homestead. 1907-12); Fubock, Zivoi sacred letters at Cologne, and m 1554 was made a 

Sonhn9 Amerike in TatmruUtto, HI (Rawmbwok, 1890); doctor of theology. About this same time he became 

^JT^cXic'^^SrtS^J^^ irnlj prior of his convent at (^loene and as suc^.exereis^ 

Capbk, The Slovake of Hungary (New York, 1906) ; Stead, the offices of censor of the faith and papal mqmsitor 

SerM by the Serviane (London. 1W9); Dumam, 'T^rouqh the throughout the Archdioccse of Cologne and the Rhine 

ft^;1iSlKt'^^^^£?^\^^^ 50unt^.^ In the discharge of these responsible 

Rojakom Sloveneem (Joliet. 1903); Trunk, Amenka in Ameri- duties SlotanUS Came mto Conflict With the learned 

band (Klapjirfurt. i9ii-i2)j««porto of the Commienoner of Justus Velsius, who in 1556, on account of heretical 

/»mH^u» (Waahincton. i9«>-ii^ Shipman teachings, was obliged to leave Cologne. The vehe- 

ANDREW J. OHiPMAN. ^^^^ writinm which Velsius afterwards published 

81omiok| Anton Mabtin, Bishop of Lavant, in against the Cologne theologians moved Slotanus to 

Maribor, Styria. Austria, noted Slovenian educator, write two works in which nearly all the heretical 

b. 1800; d. 24 Sept., 1862. The dawn of the nine- doctrines of his time are discussed with admirable 

teenth century foimd the Slovenian schools in a pre* skHl. 

carious condition; their numb^ was pitifully small. Among his various works those most worthy of men« 

and the courses they offered were inadequate and un- tion are: ''Disputationum ad versus hfiereUcos Uber 

satisfactory. This deplorable state was due to the unus" (Cologne, 1558); '^De retinenda fide o> 

fact that the Austrian officials endeavoured to sup- thodoxa et catholica adversus hsereses et sectas" 

press the national language, and, to compass this (Cologne, 1560); "De barbaris nationibus eon* 

end, introduced foreign teachers thoroughly dis- vertendis ad Christum" (Cologne, 1559). In the 

tasteful to the people, whom in turn they despised, last-named work Slotanus witnesses to the ardent 

Moreover, books, magazines, papers, and other missionary zeal which fired the religious men of his 

edueational influences were lacking, not because they time, 

would not have been gladly welcomed, but because , Ecbax>, Script. Chrd. Prod., n, iTj; HuiaiBR, Nommuiat«r: 

thAv oroM frkfKifl/lAn Kv thA r^vommATif in ifji iaar nf Mbubbb, Zur Geeehtchte der KOlner Theoiogen m 10. Jahrh. in 

tney were tWDlttOen py tne UOVemment m its lear Ot ^^^ ZnUchr. fikr Wieeenechaft und Kunst, U (Cologne. 1845), 

Panslavism. This situation Bishop Slomsek was com- 79 sq.; PaClus. Kolner DominicanerachriftateUer a.d. 16. Jahrh. 

petted to face. A man of initiative and discernment, in Kathoiik 11 (1897'> 238 sq. 

the dianges he wrought in a short time were wonder- Chas. J. Callan. 
fol. . In the O)nstitution of 1848, granting national Sloth, one of the seven capital sins. In general it 
T^ts long denied, he found his instrument. Follow- means disinclination to labour or exertion. As a capi- 
in^ this measure, thouf^ only after manv futile at- tal or deadly vice St. Thomas (II-H, Q. xxxv) calls it 
tempts, he received official sanction to undertake the sadness in the face of some spiritual good which one 
reform of the schools. The first fruits of his labours has to achieve {irialiiia de hmo spirituali). Father 
were a series of excellent text-books, many from his Rickaby aptly translates its Latin equivalent acedia 
own pen, which proved powerful factors in the growth (Gr. dicrjSta) by saying that it means the don't-care 
and development of religious as well as national feeling. A man appr^ends the practice of virtue to 
education. The founding of the weekly, "Drob- be beset with difficulties and chafes under the re- 
tinice" (Crumbs), was his next step. Essays and straints imposed by the service of God. The narrow 
books on a great variety of subjects, embracing prao- way stretches wearily before him and his soul grows 
tically every question on which his countrymen stood sluggish and torpid at the thought of the painful life 
in need ol enlightenment, were published in quick journey. The idea of right living inspires not joy 
succession, and his vigorous and incbive style, well but disgust, because of its laboriousness. This is the 
adapted to the intelligence of his readers, though not notion commonly obtaining, and in this sense sloth 
lacking scholarly refinement, made his works ex- is not a specific vice accorc&ng to the teaching of St. 
ceectingly popular. His pastorals and sermons con- Thomas, out rather a circumstance of all vices. Or- 
stitute a literature of lasting value. In 1841 he sought dinarilv it will not have the malice of mortal sin im* 
to reaiize a dream of veais — ^the establishment of a less, of course, we conceive it to be so utter that be- 
society for the spread of Catholic literature. Un- cause of it one is willing to bid defiance to some serious 
fortunatelv, the movement was branded as Pansla- obligation. St. Thomas completes his definition of 
vistic, and failed at the time; but ten years later this sloth by saying that it is torpor in the presence of 
organization was effected, and Druima sv. Mohora spiritual good which is Divine good. In other words. 
began sending a few instructive books to Catholic a man is then formally distressed at the prospect of 
homes. To-oay, a million educational volumes have what he must do for God to bring about or keep in- 
been distributed among a million and a half of i>eople. tact his friendship with God. In this sense sloth is 
Although, Slomfiek was ardent and active in the directly opposed to charity. It is then a mortal sin 
interests of his own race, yet he was admired and loved unless the act be lacking in entire advertence er full 



oonaent of the will. The trouble attached to main- 
tenanoe of the inhabiting of God by charity arouses 
tedium in such a person. He violates, therefore, ex- 
pressly the first and the greatest of the command- 
ments: ''Thou shalt love the Lord thv God with thy 
whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy 
whole mind, and with thy whole strength. " (Mark, 
zii, 30). 

RiCKABT, Moral TMchinij of St. Thotiuu (U>ndoii, 1896); 
Slatxb, Manual of Moral Theoloqy (New York, 1908); St. 
Thomaa, Summa, II-II. Q. sxxv; Balubrxni, Ojnu thetAogieum 
moraU (Prato, 1898). 

Joseph F. Delany. 

Slythunt, Thomas, English confessor, b. in Berk- 
shire; d. in the Tower of London, 1560. He was 
B.A. Oxon, 1530; M.A., 1534; B.D., 1543; and sup- 
plicated for the degree of D.D., 1554-5, but never 
took it. He was rector of Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks, 
from 1545 to 1555, canon of Windsor. 1554, rector ot 
Chalfont St. Giles, Bucks, 1555, ana first President 
of Trinity College, Oxford. He was deprived of these 
three preferments in 1559. On 11 Nov., 1556, he was 
appointed with others by Convocation to regulate the 
exercises in theology on the election of Cardinal Pole 
to the chcmcellorship. 

Wartok, Life of Sir Thomat Pope (London. 1772). 359; Cath- 
olie Record SoeiHy Publieaiione, 1 (Lon-lon, 1905 — ), 118; Fox. 
Acta and Monuments, VIII (London, 1813-9). 636. 

John B. Wainewriqht. 

Smalkaldio League, a politico-religious alliance 
formally concluded on 27 Feb., 1531, at Smalkalden 
in Hesse^Nassau, among German Protestant princes 
and cities for their mutual defence. The compact 
was entered into for six years, and stipulated that any 
military attack made upon any one of the confede- 
rates on account of religion or under uny other pretext 
was to be considered as directed against them all and 
resisted in common. The parties to it were : the Land- 
grave Philip of Hesse; the Elector John of Saxony and 
his son John Frederick ; the dukes Philip of Brunswick- 
Grubenhagen and Otto, Ernest, and Francis of Bruns- 
wick-LUn^urg: Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt; the 
counts Gebhard and Albrecht of Mansfeld and the 
towns of Strasburg, Ulm, Constance, Reutlingen, 
Memmingen, Lindau, Biberach, Isn^, Magdeburg, 
and Bremen. The city of LUbeck jomed the league 
on 3 May, and Bavaria on 24 Oct., 1531. The acces- 
sion of foreign powers, notably England and France, 
was solicited, and the alliance of the latter nation se- 
cured in 1532. The princes of Saxony and Hesse 
were appointed military commanders of the confed- 
eration, and its military strength fixed at lO.OCX) infan- 
try and 2000 cavalry. At a meeting hela at Smal- 
kalden in Dec., 1535, the alliance was renewed for ten 
years, and the maintenance of the former military 
strength decreed, with the stipulation that it sliould be 
doubled in case of emergencv. In April, 1536, Dukes 
Ulrich of Wiirtemberg and Barnim and Philip of 
Pomerania, the cities of Frankfort, Augsburg, Ham- 
burg, and Hanover joined the league with several 
other new confederates. An alliance was concluded 
with Denmark in 1538, while the usual accession 
of the German Estates which accepted the Refor- 
mation continued to strengthen the organization. 
Confident of its support, the Protestant princes intro- 
duced the new religion in numerous districts, sup- 
p»res8ed bishoprics, confiscated church property, re- 
sisted imperial ordinances to the extent of refusing 
help against the Turks, and disregarded the decisions 
of uie Imperial Court of Justice. 

In self-aefence against the treasonable machinations 
of the confederation, a Catholic League was formed 
in 1538 at Nuremberg under the leadership of the 
emperor. Both sides now actively prepared for an 
armed conflict, which seemed imminent. But negotia- 
tions carried on at the Diet of Frankfort in 1539 re- 
sulted, partly owing to the illness of the Landgrave of 

Hesse, in the patching up of a temporary peace. The 
emperor during this respite renewed his earnest but 
fruitless efforts to effect a religious settlement, while 
the Smaikaldio confederates continued their violent 
proceedings against the Catholics, particularly in the 
territory of Brunswick- WolfenbUttel, where Duke 
Henry was unjustly expelled, and the new religion in- 
troduced (1542). It became more and more evident 
as time went on that a conflict was unavoidable. 
When, in 1546, the emperor adopted stem measures 
against some of the confederates, the War of &nal- 
kalden ensued. Althou^ it was mainly a religious 
conflict between Cathohcs and Protestants, the de- 
nominational lines were not sharply drawn. With 
Pope Paul III, who promised financial and military 
assistance, several Protestant princes, the principsJ 
among whom was Duke Maurice of Saxony, aefenaed 
the imperial and Catholic cause. The beginning of 
hostilities was marked nevertheless by the success of 
the Smalkaldic allies; but division and irresoluteness 
soon weakened them and caused their ruin in South- 
em Germany, where princes and cities submitted in 
rapid succession. The battle of Miihlberg (24 April, 
1547) decided the issue in favour of the emperor in 
the north. The Elector John Frederick of Saxony 
was captured, and shortly after the I^mdgrave Philip 
of Ilesse was also forced to submit. The conditions 
of peace included the transfer of the electoral dignity 
from the former to his cousin Maurice, the reinstate- 
ment of Duke Henry of Wolfenbiittel in his domin- 
ions, the restoration of Bishop Julius von Pflug to his 
See of Naumburg-Zeitz, and a promise demanded of 
the vanquished to recognize and attend the Council 
of Trent. The dissolution of the Smalkaldic League 
followed; the imperial success was complete, but tem- 
porary. A few years later another conflict broke out 
and ended with the triumph of Protestantism. 

WiNCKELMANN. Dcr Schmolkald. Bund {tSSO-Sf^ u. der iViBrn- 
herger Rdigionafriede (Strasburg, 1892) ; HAaBNCixvBB. Die 
Politik der Schmalkaldener vor Aushruch dee Sdimalkald. Krieget 
(Berlin, 1901); Idkm, Die Polilik Kaiser Karle V u. Landgraf 
Philippe von Heaeen vor Auebruch dee Schmolkald. Kriegte (Mar- 
burg. 1903) ; Berentblq, Der Sehmalkald. Krieg in NorddetUeck' 
land (Monster, 1908) ; Janbsen, Hiet, of the German People, tr. 
Christie, V (St. Louis, 1903), passim; Pastob, Hietory of tke 

Popes, tr. Kerb, X (St. Louis, 1 





SmaragduB, Anno, hagiographer, d. at the Ben- 
edictine monastery of Aniane, Herault, in Southern 
France, March, 843. He entered this monastery 
when still a boy and was brought up under the direc- 
tion of Abbot St. Benedict of Aniane. On account of 
his piety and talents he was ordidned and put at the 
head of the school at his monastery. In 794 he ac- 
companied his abbot to the Council of Frankfort and 
in 814 was made abbot in place of Benedict, who on 
the invitation of Louis-le-Debonnaire had taken up 
his abode at the imperial Court at Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Smaragdus was honoured as a saint in his monastery. 
He is the author of a life of St. Benedict of Aniane 
which he wrote at the reauest of the monks of Cor* 
nelimdnster near Aix-la-Cnapelle, where Abbot Ben- 
edict had died. It was written in 822,and is one of 
the most reliable hagiolo^cal productions of that 
period. Mabillon edited it in his ''Acta SS. of the 
Benedictine Order" (sajculum IV, 1, 192-217), whence 
it was reprinted in P. L., Clll, 353-84. It was 
also edited by Waits in "Mon. Germ. Script.", 
XV, I, 200-29. 

Hisloire LU.dela Prance, V. 31-5; Cuujbr, Hittoire ghUraU 
dee auteure eaer4s et eeclSsiastuiues, XII (Paris, 1862), 394; Ma- 
BiLLOx, Ada SS. Ord. S. Ben. mm. IV, I. 589; Ebbrt, AUg^" 
meine Geseh. der Literalur dee MiUOaUers, II (Leipsic, 1880). 

Michael Ott. 
Smithi Gborgb. See Abqtll and tbx IbxaBi 


Smith, Jambs, journalist, b. at SkoUaad, ui the 
Shetland Isles, about 1790; d. Jan., 1866. Ue spent 


boyhood at SkoUaad, a small place belongioig to and in 1631 he withdrew to Paris, where he lived with 

his mother f who was a member <k a branch of the Richelieu till the cardinal's death in 1642; then he 

Bruoe family which had settled in Shetland in the retired to the convent of the Kngliah Augustinian 

sixteenth century. He sUidied law in Edinburgh, nuns, where he died. 

became a solicitor to the Supreme Court there, ana He wrote: "An answer to T. Bel's late Challenge" 

married a Catholic lady (a cousin of Bii^op MlBcdon- (1605); ''The Prudentiall Ballance of Religion", 

dl of the Glenmrv cW), the result being his own (1609): "Vita Domims Magdaleme Montis-Acuti" 

conversion to Catholicism. Naturall>r hampered in i. e., viscountess Montagu (1609): "De auctore et 

his career, at that period, by his profession of Catholi- essentia Protestanticffi Keli£^onis" (1619), English 

cism, he turned his attention to hterature, and became translation, 1621; "Collatio doctrinse Catholicorum 

the pioneer of CaUioUc journalism in Scotland. In et Protestantium" (1622), tr. (1631); "Of the dis- 

1832 he originated and emted the " Ekiinburgh Catho- tinction of fundamental and not fundamental points 

lie Maeasine", which appcf^ed somewhat inter- of faith" (1645); "Monita ^uiedam utilia pro Sacer- 

mittentJ^ in Scotland until April, 1838, at which date dotibus, Seminaristis, Missionariis Anglise" (1647); 

Mr. &mth went to reside in London, and the word "A Treatise of the best kinde of Confessors" (1651): 

"Edinburgh" was dropped from the title of the "Of the all-sufficient Eternal Proposer of Matters of 

magazine, the publication of which was continued for Faith" (1653) \ "Florum Historise EcclesiasticsB gentis 

some yeara in London. Mr. Smith, on settling in Anglorum libn septem" (1654). Many unpublished 

London, inaugurated the "Catholic Directory" for documents relating to his troubled episcopate (an 

England, in succession to the old " Laity's Directory", impartial history of which 3ret remains to be written) 

and edited it for many years: and he was also for a are preserved in the Westminster Diocesan Archives. 

abort time editor of the "Dublin Review", in 1837. Dodd. Chtwch History, III (Brussels «er« Wolverhampton. 

Possessed of considerable gifts both as a speaker and 1737-1742) the account from which moat sulwequcnt biographies 

«- « »«:4.»« I,*. «raa Aiw.»<r«ao^«f> 4^ *>!«« 4kAm of fkA were derived. See also Tiemey s edition of Dodd for further 

as a wnter, he waa always ready to put them at the dooumenU; Bbbinotok. Memoirt of Panmni (London, 1793): 

service of the Cathohc cause: and during the years of CaUndar Stau Paper*: Dom., lete-iesi; Butlbr. Hutoriad 

aidtation immediately preceding Catholic Emancipa- Memoirs ofBnqli^Ccuholics (London, 1819) ; Sbbokant, Ac- 

*3r« «<. ^^u <>o tt4^ a \ai^C^T^wA,^A V,^ woo nna rJ ♦li*» mrurf- <o»*«* ofthe SnQUsk Chapter (London, 1853) ; Fullbbtom, Life of 

tlOn, as well as at a later period, he was one of the most ^^ ^ CarZjal (Lon^. 1873) ; FolbV. Reeorde Bng. Proi, 

active champions of the Church m England and s.J., VI (London. 1880); Bbadt. BpUoopal Succesnon, III 

Scotland. He made a brilliant defence in public of (Rome, 1877), a confused and self-contradictory account with 

CathoUc doctrine when it was violently, attacl^ by f- ^Ir^^^Coil^ai ^Si^SS; ^A^Zi/^*"'^ 

certain prominent membere of the EBtabushed Chiirch n>aiu, i89i) : TMrd Douay Diary, c. R. s. PMieatimw, X (Lon- 

of Sootund, and pubUdied in this oonnenon, in 1831, aon, i9ii). 

hia " Dialocuea on the Catholic and Protestant Rulee Edwin Bubtom 

of Faith", Ween a member of the Protestiint Ref- g^^^ Richabd. b. in Worcesterehire, 1500; d. at 

!!?^"?i^K!Sl-r'?^S.«MJ^2T^ n^t)w2 Douai, 9 July, 1663. He was educate<i at nkerton 

?fe***^J^M?^ '^'**^^"«J5 fe^ln^ ^K CoUeiPs. Oxfold; and, having taken hia M.A. degree 

"Papist Miarepresjaited and RepwBM^ witt j,^ j^ ^^ j^^^ re^trarSf the university in 1632. 

«q«ou8note8. Mn Smi^was f ather rf tte Most j^ ^53^ g yjy ^^^^ y^, fi^ r^u, pro- 

?S;jr*S!ri?iS^S!;t. wf^h- JS^^?.S«.lv ^ <«or of diviity, anef fc toolc hia docton^ in that 

Andrews and Edinburgh m tiie rwtored hierarchy of ^. ^ ^^ j^ j^^^' j^ ^ ^^^ H^ subsequently 

^ ^ 4 « « A ^ reader at Magdalen College. Under Edward VI he 

Smith, James A. See Saint Andbews and Edin- jg ggid by his opponents to have abjured the pope's 

BtJBQH, Aechdiocbsb OF. authority at St. Paul's Cross (15 May, 1547) and at 

Bmithi Richard, 
Viear Apostolic of Ei _ , 

5^. 7«'m^I. ^?MS^*H™^^15 T^l'i^ professorship, being succi^ed b^ Peter Martyr, with 

1^^'}^^^At\^^.\S^J^,!cl^,. W^ whom he heid a pul)Uc disputatfon in 1549. Shortly 

£?ii^^ l'« fe^lh^vSl^^m^ in ?5? afterwards he w5s arresteS, but was soon Uberatei 

w. 2^,V r^ ™^iril^ rte^ S; rS^nr?h» »t the change of roUgion unlr Elizabeth, and after a 

5^^L!lJtu^^^; *^^rX^S^L^ 8l»ort impriionment in Parker's house he escaped to 

£ft^?S.n^ wt^?.^T^P^^XiSi Douai. where he was appointed by PhiUp II <fean of 

he went to Rome, whM« he OTjposed Persons, who said st. Peter's church. There is no foundation for the 

1^'Z Surto^S '^LW'" "Z %7Z n4-us story sp,^ by the Ref^e« to ac^ 

Sa'T^^o&^fal'^^iSaTht' S^Ste^^rro?nantetg2,h?^1S 

^^t^W^^^ft ^p^ S^n-orks, .e ^^ J J ^: ^Assertiojia.d 

Sf^^^^ Kll ?vi \l«^V JT^wUnTfl^ "Defence of the Sacrifice of the Mass" (1547) 

5^1 !rfth« «™» ^; ^HwTn iJ^HM^d,,^ "Defensio coelibatus sacerdotum" (1550): "Diatriba 

Dec^ 1027) that he was nqt an ordmwy. In 1^ voira^ AluUi Oxoni^i^, IV Toxford. 1891) ; Pm.. D« <ll«i- 

tbe Govenunent issued a proclamation for his arrest, trUnu An^im SeHpiorHtue (Pacte. leio); umih Chmrck Bidtnh 



n CBmm6k wen WotrorhasBpton. l787Hint QAnbimB, UUtn 
imaPapan of Bmry VIll; Coopbb, I>iet, Nat, Bio^ %. r. 

Edwin Bxtbton. 

Smithy Thomas Kilbt, b. at Boston, Mass., 23 
Sept., 1820; d. at New York, 14 Deo., 1887; eldest son 
of Captain George Smith and Eliza Bioker Walter. 
Both his paternal and maternal forefathers were 
active and prominent in the professional life and in 
the government of New England. His parents moved 
to Cincinnati in his early childhood, where he was 
educated in a military school under O. M. Mitdiel, 
the astronomer, and studied law in the office of Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase. In 1853 he was appointed 
special agent in the Post Office Department at 
Washington, and later marshal for the Southern Dis- 
trict of Ohio and deputy clerk of Hamilton County. 
He entered the Union Army, 9 September, 1861, 
as lieutenant-colonel, and was conspicuous in the 
Battle of Shiloh, 6 and 7 April, 1862, assuming com- 
mand of Stuart's Brigade, Sherman's Division, during 
tlie second day. As commander of brigade in the 
15th and 17th Army Corps, he participated in all the 
campaigns of the Army of the Tennessee, being also 
for some months on staff duty with General Grant. 

Commissioned Brigadier-General of Volunteers, 11 
August, 1863. he was assigned on 7 March, 1864, to 
the command of the detached division of the 17th 
Army Corps and rendered distinguished service during 
the Red River Expedition, protecting Admiral 
Porter's fleet after the disaster of the main army. 
After the fall of Mobile, he assumed the command of 
the Department of Southern Alabama and Florida, 
and then of the Post and District of Maine. He was 
brevetted Major-General for gallant and meritorious 
service. In 1866 President Johnson appointed him 
United States Consul at Panama. After the war 
he removed to Toiresdale, Philadelphia. At the 
time of his death he was engaged in joinnalism in 
New York. On 2 May, 1848, he married Elizabeth 
Budd, daughter of Dr. William Budd McCuUou^ 
and Arab& Sanders Piatt, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
She was a gifted and devout woman, and through her 
influence and that of the venerEd>le Archbishop 
Purcell he became a Catholic some years before his 
death. He was remarkable for his facility of 
expression, distinguished personal appearance, and 
courtly bearing. He left five sons and three dau^ters. 

Smxtb. Lif* and Lettert of Thamat Kilby Smith (New York. 

Walter Gborqb Smith. 

Smymai Latin Archdiocese of (Smtrnensis), 
in Asia Minor. The city of Smyrna rises like an 
amphitheatre on the gulf which bears its name. It 
is tne capital of the vilayet of Aidin and the starting- 
point of several railways; it has a population of at 
least 300,000, of whom 150,000 are Gfreeks. There 
are also numerous Jews and Armenians and almost 
10,000 European Catholics. It was founded more 
than 1000 years b. c. by colonists from Lesbos who 
had expelled the Leleges, at a place now called 
Boumaoat, about an hour's distance from the pres- 
ent Smyrna. Shortly before 688 b. c. it was captured 
by the lonians, under whose rule it became a very 
nch and powerful city (Herodotus, I, 150). About 
580 B. c. it was destroyed by Alyattes, King of Lydia. 
Nearly 300 years afterwards Antigonus (323-301 
B. c), and then Lysimachus, undertook to rebuild it 
on its present site. Subsequently comprised in the 
Kingdom of Pergamus, it was ceded in 133 b. c. to 
the Romans. These built there a judiciary converUua 
and a mint. Smyrna had a celebrated school of rhet- 
oric, was one of the cities which had the title of metrop- 
olis, and in which the cancUium festivum of Asia was 
celebrated. Demolished by an earthquake in a. d. 
178 and 180, it was rebuilt by Marcus Aurelius. In 
673 it was captured by a fleet of Arab Muasulmana. 

Under the faispiration of Clement VI the Latfas m^ 
tured it from the Mussulmans in 1344 and held it 
until 1402^ when Tamerlane destroved it after slayinff 
the inhabitants. In 1424 the Turks captured it and, 
save for a brief occupation by the Venetians in 1472, 
it has since belonged to them. 

Christianity was preached to the inhabitants at an 
early date. As earty as the year ^, there existed a 
Christian community directed by a bishop for 
whom St. John in the Apocalypse (i, 11; ii, 8-11) has 
only words of praise, xhere are extant two letters 
written early in the second century from Troas by St. 
Ignatius of Antioch to those of Smyrna and to Poly- 
carp, their bishop. Through these letters and those 
of the Christians of Smvrna to the city of Philome- 
lium, we know of two uuiies of high rank who be- 
k>nged to the Church of Smyrna. There were other. 
Chnstians in the vicinity of the dty and dependent on 
it to whom St. Polycarp wrote letters (Eusebius, 
"Hist, eccl.", V, xxiv). When Polycarp was mar- 
tyred (23 Feb.), the Church of Smyrna sent an 
encyclical concerning his death to the Church of Phi- 
lomelium and others. The "Vita Polycarpi" attrib- 
uted to St. Pionius, a priest of Smyrna martyred in 
250, contains a list of the first bishops: Strataes; 
Bucolus; Polycarpj Papirius; Camerius; Eudsemon 
(250), who apostatised during the persecution of De- 
cius; Thraseas of Eumenia. miartyr, who was buried at 
Smjrrna. Noctos, a Mooalist heretic of the seeond 
century, was a native of the city as were also Sts. 
Pothinus and Irensus of Lyons. Mention should also 
be made of another martyr, St. Dioscorides, vene- 
rated on 21 May. Amon^ the Greek bishops, a list of 
whom appears in Le Quien, (Oriens Christ., I, 737- 
46), was Metrophanes, the great opponent of Photius, 
who laboured in the reviaon of the "Oetoekos", a 
Greek liturgical book. 

The Latin See of Smyrna was created by Clement 
VI in 13^ and had an uninterrupted succesaian 
of titulars until the seventeenth century. This 
was the beginning of the Vicariate Apostolic 
of Asia Minor, or of Smyrna, of vast extent. 
In 1818 Pius VII established the Archdiocese of 
Smyrna^ at the same time retaining the vicariate 
Apostohc, the jurisdiction of which was wider. Its 
limits were those of the vicariates Apostolic of Meso- 
potamia. S3n-ia, and Constantinople. The archdio- 
cese had 17,000 Latin Catholics, some Greek Mel- 
chites, calied Alepi, and Armenians under special 
(H^anization. There are: 19 secular priests; 55 regu- 
lar ; 8 parishes, of which 4 are in Smyrna^* 14 churches 
with resident priests and 12 without pnests; 25 pri- 
mary schools with 2500 pupils, 8 colleges or academies 
with 800 pupils; 2 hospitals; and 4 orphanages. The 
religious men in the archdiocese or the vicanate A|)08- 
tolic are Franciscans, Capuchins, Lazorists, Domini- 
cans; Salesians of Don Bosco, Assumptionists (at 
Komah), Brothers of the Christian Schools, and 
MarLst brothers (at Metellin). Religious communi- 
ties of women are the Carmelites, Sisters of Charity 
(13 houses with more than 100 sisters), Sisters of Sion, 
Dominicans of Ivr^, Sisters of St. Joseph, and Ob- 
lates of the Assumption. 

Smitb, Diet, of Qroek and Roman Qeogr., s. v.; Hauiltov. Ra- 
•earchet in Asia Minor, I (London, 1842), 44-95; Tbxibr, AH€ 
Mineure (Paris, 1862), 802-08; Schebi*5b, Smyrna (Vienna, 
1873) : Ramsay. Tk9 Uuera to the Seven Ohvrches of Aaia (Lon- 
don, 1004), 251-57; Georgi Aots, iSmyme (Paris, 1885);Ronoov, 
Smyme (Paris, 1892); Lb Camus, Le9 tept (gliaea de VAvoealvpte 
(Paris, 1896); Filuow in Via., Did. de la BiMe, s. v.; Mietionet 
Catkoliea (Rome, 1907), 155-^7; LAMPAKis. The Seten Sion of 
the Apoealyvee (Athens, 1909), in Greek; Jban-Baptists db Sacvt- 
LoRENEO, Saird Pohfcarpe et 9on iombeau ntr le Pague. Notice euT 

U tiUe de Smyme ((>>n8tantinople, 1911). 

S. VailhA. 

Snoiri Sturluson. historian, b. at Hvammr, 
1178; d. 1241. Snom, who was the son of Sturla 
Tfaortsson (d. 1182); was the most important Ice- 
landic historian of Un Middle Ages. In him were 

bmir 61 BOBiEsti 

united the experienced Btateeman and the many- visiting stations. The miHions Hhored the misfnr- 

dded scholar. As a child he went to the school of tunefl attending those of the Pima and P&pago, but 

Saonimd the Wise at Oddi, of which, at that time, oontinued to exist until a few years after tne eicpnl- 

Saemund'sgrandsonJ^tnLoptssOn was the head. On sion of the Jesuits in 1767. Before the end of ihe 

his father's side J6n was related to the moot dis- century the tribe itself had disappeared, and in later 

tinguished families of Iceland, while by hia mother years San Xavier appears as a F&pago settlement. 

Thora he was connected with the royal famiiy of According to tradition the tribe was destroyed about 

Norway. Under this skilful teacher Snorri was thor- the year 1790 by the attacks of the wild Apaebe, by 

oughly trained in many branches of knowledge, but whom a part were carried off, while the others were 
he learned especially the old northern belief in the forced to incorporate with the Pipago and Pima 

^AKCBon. Hitl. North i 
Sui Frmciwo, lg8fl-9); In 
[Sui FnuiciMo. 1889): Di^ 
CoiTia (2 vdI>., Nd» York 1' 

_, the saga concerning Odin, and Scandinavian (q, v.). 
history. By a rich altiaDceSnomobtainedthemoney <^*^™'^",'t^"''', "^f'w" ,*5^,^ 'J^ 'V 
to take a leading part in politics, but his political 13^,^^'^"'" """ " """^ n„ ™ - 

whom King Haakon of Sorway was the most power- in^iant, (3 part*. WmbinBion, i907-im-, bwo ™oi» . 

fuJ, and he was finally murdered at the kiM's m- Augusline, 18631. ir. Gott*kw in ««. A<n. CoM. Hut. Sot 

stigation. Snom s importance rests on his literary (PhUiHEiphia, laM). 

works of which "Heimskringta" (the world) is the Jahesb Moonkt. 

most important, since it is the chief authority for the 

early hi^ry of Iceland and Scandinavia. However, Sobieskl, John, b. at Olesko in 1620; d. at Wil- 

it does not contain reliable statements until the anow, 1696; son of James, Castellan of Cracow and 

history, which extends to 1177, reaches a late period, descended by his mother from the heroic ZcJkiewski, 

while the descriptions of the primitive era are largely who died in battle at Cecora. His elder brother Mark 

va^uB narrations of sagas. The Sturlunza-Saga, was his com- 

which shows more of the local colouring of Iceland, panion in arms 

was probably only partly the work of Snorri. On the from the time of 

other hand he is probably the author of the Younger the great Cossack 

Edda called "Snorra-Edda", which was intended as rebellion {1648), 

a textbook of the art of poetry. Its first part "Gyl- and fouriit at 

faginning" relates the mythology of the North in an Zbaraf , Bereste- 

interesting, pictorial manner, and is a compilation of cxko, and lastly 

thesongsof the early scalds, the songs of the common at Batoh where, 

people, ssgas, and probably his own poetic ideas. after being taken 

StoBif, Snorra Slurlaiaoiu lliilarimtknming (Copenhigen, nriBoner. ne waS 

1873); BAUiio*im..«, JVoi-di*:*. FahrUn. I (Freiburg. 188B>. in,,-!.,-^ hv the 

302 Km.: SchOci, S«n»* LitenUvhulBria, I (Btoekhotm. 1890); muraefea DV uie 

LnHDBOBa. Itlandt ilaaltrtclUlidf SIdlang Km drr FrealaiUiieit I atarS, JOhO, 

W<invM«T*rafl«<Bn!in. 1908), 17-18; OBiut. Nardudia Oat- the last of all the 

nied Czonueeki 

Saaw, Pbtbh, Vbneeablb, English martyr, auf- ^*n5?!!^''^ 

fered at York, 15 June, 1598. ^ was born at or Jken u^ dcr 

near Ripon and arrived at the EngUsh College, q ' J^^,^^^. 

Reuse, 17 Aprd, 1689, receivmg the first tonsure _., iJt, („„Xt .iT- 

and minor orders 18 August, 1690, the subdiaconate Muh co vltes at J Bo 

at Leon on 22Sept., and the diaconate and priesthood ?J j „„ t,,»^ iwi™. ... „.,.i^^~,^'^^!fi.,>h.T.^_ 

atSoisson8on30Md31Man!h,1591. Hel^tforEng- Sr»J?.^^ Fn>« u. mu.piedportr.umto.Uu™, 

landonthefollowingl5May. He was arrested about Pj^.^ f^fiuf,,, ,„ ,i,„ i„-„„ fi„i,„ r..i„M 

1 May, 1598, when on his way to York witb Vonei- \f "T^^J^!Sl^ ^.iawI^JTLa^^' 

LI b i_u <-■_:_ . _ t xT'ji D .u 1. .1 became successively rield netman, urana Mar- 

't^*^^^T1?''^J^f dt=„^?i,^n^«^^i«^ shal, and-after ftevera Potocki's death-Gi*nd 

after condemned Snow of tocason as being a priMt Hitman, or Commander-in-chief. Hia first ex- 

nnd Gmnston of felony, for having aided and assisted „,„■, ' if ,„ „ ™,„ ,■„ d^lTiT l™. i, -^^ 

him, and, it is aaid, halw attempted to prevent his P'"'* "^ Hitman was in Podhajce, where beBie™J 

annrehMsion """'^ itiwuiiiL™ «- ^ " by an army of Cossacks and Tatars, he at his 

'eiuLLONm.. jfiwonorv Prtnc. I. no. 112: ICsox, Counir o'™ expense raised 8000 men and stored the phu* 

Diariit (LoDdoo, 1878). with wheat, baffling the foe so completely that they 

John B. Wainewbiobt. retired with p-eat loss. When, in 1672, under Michael 

WiSniowiecki's reign, the Turks seized Kamicniec, 

I important tribe Sobieski beat them again and again, till at the 

_. .. _. ._. „_.kt Shoshonean hn- crowiiiii;^ victory of Chocim they lost 20,000 men and 

miatio stock, occupying the territory (rf the Santa a great many guns. This gave Poland breathing- 
Crtix and San Pedro Rivers, in south-eastern Arizona space, and Sobieski became the national hero, SO 
and adjacent portion of Sonora, Mexico.' In dialect that, King Mi<!liael dying at that time, he was unan- 
snd general custom they seem to have closely re- imouxly elected king in 167-1. Before liis coronation 
sembted the PApago, by whom and by the closely he was forced to drive back the Turkish hordes, that 
ot^Euate Pima most of them were finally alMorbed. hail once more invaded the country; he beat them at 
Their principal centre was Bac or Vaaki, later San Lemberg in 1675, arriving in lime to raise the sif^ of 
Xavier del Bac, on Santa Cruz River, nine miles south Trembowla, and to save Chrinnowski and his heroic 
from the present Tucson, Arizona. Here they were wife, its defendem. Scarcely crowned, he hastened to 
visited in 1692 by the pioneCT Jesuit explorer of the fight in the Rutlienjan provincpM. Having too few 
■outh-west, Father Eusebio Kino, who in 1699 began soldiers (20,000) to attack the Turks, who were ten 
the church from which the mission took its came, to one, he wore them out, entrenching himself at 
Other Jesuit mission foundations in the same tribe Zurawno, letting the enemy hem him in for a fort- 
were (Santa Maria de) Suamca, just inside the Sonora night, extricating himself with marvellous skill and 
Une.establishedalsobyKinoaboutthesame time, and coiu-age, and fintdly jeguining by treaty a good part 
San Mignel de Ouevavi, founded in 1732 near the of the Ukraine. 

present NogaJes, Arizona, all three missions being For some time there was peace: the Turks had 

upon tiieSi^ta Crui River. There were also aev^w ' " 

learned to dread the "Unvanquished Noithem 




Lion "f and Poland, too, was exhausted. But soon the 
Snltan turned his arms against Austria. Passing 
through Hungary, a great part of which had for one 
hundred and fifty years been in Tiu*kish hands, an 
enormous army, reckoned at from 210.000 to 300,000 
men (the latter figures are Sobieski's) marched for- 
ward. The Emperor Leopold fled from Vienna, and 
begged Sobieski s aid^ which the papal nuncio also 
immored. Though dissuaded by Louis XIV. whose 
poucv was always hostile to Austria, Sobieski hesi- 
tated not an instant. Meanwhile (July^ 1683) the 
Grand Vizier Kara Mustapha, had arrived before 
Vienna, and laid siege to tne city, defended bjr the 
valiant Imperial General Count Stahremberg, with a 
garrison of only 15,000 men. exposed to the horrors 
of disease and fire, as well as to hostile attacks. 
Sobieski started to the rescue in August, taking his 
son James with him; passing by Our I^ys sanctuary 
nt Czenstochowa, the troops pra^^ed for a blessing 
on their arms: and in the beginning of September, 
having crossed the panube and joined forces with 
the German armies under John George, Elector of 
Saxony, and Prince Charles of Lorrame, they ap- 

Eroached Vienna. On 11 Sept., Sobieski was on the 
eights of Kahlenberg, near the city, and the next 
day he gave battle in the plain below, with an army 
of not more than 76^000 men, the Germans forming 
the left wing and the roles under Hetmans Jahonowski 
and Sieniawski, with General Katski in command of 
the aj^illery, forming tiie right. The hussars charged 
with their usual impetuosity, but the dense masses 
of the foe were impenetrable. Hieir retreat was taken 
for flight by the 'Turks, who^ rushed forward in pursuit; 
the hussars turned upon them with reinforcements 
and charged again, when their shouts made known 
that the ''Noxlhem Lion" was on the field and the 
Turks fled, panic-stricken, with Sobieski's horsemen 
still in pursmt. Still the battle raged for a tibie along all 
the line; both sides fought bravely, and the king was 
everywhere commanding, fighting, encouraging his 
men and urging them forward. He was the first to ^rm 
the camp: Kara Mustapha had escaped with his life, 
but he received the bow-«tring in 'Belg^rade some 
' months later. The Turks were routed, Vienna and 
Christendom saved, and the news sent to the pope 
along with the Standard of the Prophet, taken oy 
Sobieski, who himself had heard Mass in the 

Prostrate with outstretched arms, he declared that 
it was God's cause he was fighting for, and ascribed 
the victory (Veni, vidi. Deus vicit—his letter to 
Innocent Al) to nim alone. Next day he entered 
Vienna, acclaimed by the people as their saviour. 
'Leopold, displeased that the Polish king should have 
all the glory, condescended to visit and thank him, 
but treated his son James and the Polish hetmans 
with extreme and haughty coldness. Sobieski, though 
deeplv offended, pursuea the Turks into Hungary, 
attacked and took Ostrzyhom after a second battle, 
and returned to winter in Polan<Lwith immense spoils 
taken in the Turkish camp. These and the glory 
shed upon the nation were all the immediate ad- 
vantages of the great victory. The Ottoman danger 
had vanished forever. The war still went on: step 
by step the foe was driven back, and sixteen years 
later Kamieniec and the whole of Podolia were 
restored to Poland. But Sobieski did not live to see 
this triumph. In vain had he again and again at- 
tempted to retake Kamieniec, and even had built a 
Btronghold to destroy its strategic value; this fortress 
enabled the Tatars to raid the Ruthenian provinces 
upon several occasions, even to the gates of Lember^. 
He was also forced by treaty to give up Kieff to Russia 
in 1686; nor did he succeed in securing the crown for 
his son James. His last days were spent in the bosom 
of his family, at his castle of Wilanow, where he died 
in 1096, broken down by political strife as much as 

by illness. His wife, a Frenchwoman, the widow of 
John Zamoyski, Marie-Casimire, though not worthy 
of so great a hero, was tenderly beloved by him, aa 
his letters show: she influenced him greatly and not 
always wisely. His family is now extinct. Charles 
Edward, the Young Pretender, was his g^:«at-grand- 
son — ^his son James' daughter, Clementine, having 
married James Stuart in 1719. 

IdHy Jana III, Krdla poUlneoo, do kroloioa^Kanmieray (Sobie- 
ski's letters to his wife), publiabed by A. L. Bblbel, 1857. Two 
volumes of "Acta Hi9tonea*\ pubushed by the Academie der 
Wissensohaften. Tatham, John 8ol»U»ki (Oxford. 1881); Dn- 
roNT. MhnoirM pour aervirdVkittoire de Sohiuki (Warsaw. 1885); 
RiBDBR, JoKann III, KOnig von Pcten (Vienna, 1883). 

S. Tarnowski. 

Socialismi a svstem of social and economic organi- 
zation that would substitute state monopoly for pri- 
vate ownership of the sources of production and means 
of distribution, and would concentrate under the con- 
trol of the secular governing authority the chief 
activities of human life. The term is often used 
vaguely to indicate any increase of collective control 
over individual action, or even any revolt of the dis- 

e>ssessed against the rule of the possessing classes, 
ut these are undue extensions of tne term, leading to 
much confusion of thought. State control and even 
state ownership are not necessarily Socialism: they 
become so only when they result in or tend towards the 
prohibition of private ownership not only of '* natural 
monopolies", out also of all the sources of wealth. 
Nor is mere revolt against economic inequality So- 
cialism: it may be Anarchism (see Anarchy); it may 
be mere Utopianism (see Communism); it may be a 
just resistance to oppression. Nor is it merely a pro- 
posal to make sucn economic changes in the social 
structure as would bimish poverty. Socialism is this 
(see Collectivism) and much more. It is also a 
philosophy of social life and action, regarding all hu- 
man activities from a definite economic standpoint. 
Moreover modem Socialism is not a mere arbitrary 
exercise at state-building, but a deliberate attempt to 
relieve, on explicit principles, the existing social con- 
ditions, which are regarded as intolerable. The great 
inequalities of human life and opportunity, produced 
bv the excessive concentration of wealth in tne hands 
of a comparatively small section of the community, 
have been the cause and still are the stimulus of what 
is called the Socialistic movement. But, in order 
to understand fully what Socialism is and what it 
implies, it is necessary first to glance at the history of 
the movement, then to examine its philosophical and 
religious tendencies, and finally to consider how far 
these mav be, and actually have proved to be, in- 
compatible with Christian thought and life. The 
first requirement is to understand the origin and 
growth of the movement. 

It has been customary among writers of the So- 
cialist movement to begin with references to Utopian 
theories of the classical and Renaissance periods, to 
Plato's "Republic", Plutarch's "Life of Lycurgus", 
More's "Utopia". Campanella's "City of the Sun", 
Hall's ' * Munaus alter et idem ' ' , and the like. Thence 
the line of thought is traced through the French 
writers of the ei^teenth century, Meslier Montes- 
quieu, d'Argenson, Morelly, Rousseau, M.ably, till, 
with Linguet and Necker, the eve of the Revolution 
is reached. In a sense, the modern movement has its 
roots in the ideas of these creators of ideal common- 
wealths. Yet there is~a gulf fixed between the mod- 
em Socialists and the older Utopists. Their schemee 
were mainly directed towards the establishment of 
Communism, or rather. Communism was the idea 
that gave life to their fancied states (see Communism). 
But tne Collectivist idea, which is the economic basis 
of modem Socialism (see Collectivism), really 
emerges only with "Gracchus" Babeuf and hi; 
paper, "The Tribune of the People ", in 1794. In the 




manifesto issued by him and his feUow-oonspiratorS) 
"Lea Egaux"j is to be fouxul a clear vision of the col- 
lective organusatbn of society, such as would be 
largely accepted by most modem Socialists. Babeuf 
was guillotined by the Directory, and his party sup- 
pressed. Meanwhile, in 1793, Uodwin in Enshmd 
Iiad published his "Enauiry Concerning Political Jus- 
tice , a work which, though inculcatmg Anarchist- 
Communism (see Anabcht) rather than Collectivism. 
had much influence on Robert Owen and the school of 
Determinist Socialists who succeedorl him. But a 
small group of English writers in the early vears of the 
nineteenth century had really more to oo with the 
development of Socialist thought than had either 
Owen's attempts to found ideal communities, at 
New Lanark and elsewhere, or the contemporary 
theories and practice of Saint-Simon and Fourier in 

These English writers, the earliest of whom, Dr. 
Charles Hall, first put forward that idea of a dominant 
industrial and social ' ' system ", which is the pervadinjg 
conception of modem Socialism, worked out the vari- 
ous basic principles of Socialism, which Marx after- 
wards appropriated and combined. Robert Thomp- 
son, Qgirvie, Hodgkin, Gray, above all William 
Caipenter, daborat^ the theories of '' surplus value'', 
of "production for profit", of "clas&-war", of the ever- 
increasing exploitation of the poor by the rich, which 
are the stuff of Marx's "Das Kapital", that "old 
dothes-ehop of ideas culled from Berlin, Paris, and 
London". For indeed, this famous work is really 
nothing more than a dexterous combination of Hege- 
lian Evolutionism, of French Revolutionism, and of 
the economic theories elaborated bv Ricardo, on the 
one lumd, and this group of English theorists on the 
other. Yet the services of Kfurl Marx and of his 
friend and brother-Hebrew, Friedrich Engels, to the 
cause of Socialism must not be underrated. These 
two writers came upon the scene just when the So- 
cialist movement was at its lowest ebb. In England 
the work of Robert Owen had been overlaid bv the 
Chartist movement and its apparent failure, while the 
writings of the economists mentioned above had had 
but little immediate influence. In France the Saint- 
Simonians and the Fourierists had disgusted everyone 
by the moral collapse of their svstems. In Germany 
Lassalle had so far devoted his briUiant energies 
merely to Republicanism and philosophy. But in 
1848 Marx and Engeb published the "Communist 
Manifesto", and, mere rnetoric as it was, this docu- 
ment was the beginning of modem "scientific So- 
cialism". The influence of Proudhon'and of the 
Revolutionary spirit of the times pervades the whole 
manifesto: the economic analysis of society was to be 
grafted on later. But already there appear the ideas 
of "the materialistic conception of history", of "the 
bourgeoisie " and " the proletariat ", and of " class-war ". 

After 1848, in his exile in London, Marx studied, 
and wrote, and organized with two results: first, the 
foundation of "The International Workingmen's As- 
sociation", in 1864; second, the publication of the 
first voluiie of "Das Kapital", in 1867. It is not 
esmy to judge which has had the more lasting effect 
upon the Socialist movement. "The Intematiomd" 
gave to the movement its world-wide character; 
"Daa Kapital" elaborated and systematized the 
philosophic and economic doctrine which is still the 
creed of the immense majority of Socialists. "Pro- 
letarians of all lands, unite I" the sentence with which 
the Communist Manifesto of 1848 concludes, became 
a reality with the foundation of the International. 
For the first time since the disruption of Christendom 
an onsaniaation took shape which had for its object 
the union of tfa» major portion of alt nations upon a 
oommon basis. It was not so widely supported as 
both its Qpholdera believed and the frightened mon- 
tiytd interests imagined. Nor had this first organiza- 

tion any promise of stabiUty. From the outset the 
influence of Marx steadily ^w, but it was confronted 
by the opposition of Bakunm ana the Anarchist school. 
By 1876 the International was even formally at an 
end. But it had done its work: the organized work- 
ing classes of all Europe had realized the international 
nature both of their own grievances and of capitalism, 
and when, in 1889, the firat International Congress oi 
Socialist and Trade-Union delegates met at Paris, a 
"New International" came into being which exists 
with unimpaired or, rather, with oihanced energy to 
the present day. Since that first meeting seven 
others have been held at intervals of three or four 
years, at which there has been a steady growth in the 
number of delegates present, the variety of nationali- 
ties represented, and the extent of the Socialistic in- 
fluence over its deliberations. 

In 1900, an International Socialist Bureau was ea- 
tablished at Brussels, with the purpose of solidifying 
and strengthening the international character of the 
movement. Since 1904, an Inter-Parliamentary So- 
cialist Committee has given further support to liie 
work of the bureau. To-day the international nature 
of the Socialistic movement is an axiom both within 
and without its ranks; an axiom that must n^t be for- 
gotten in the estimation both of the strength and of 
the trend of the movement. To the IntemationsA, 
then, modem Socialism owes much of its present 
power. To "Das Kapital" it owes such intellectual 
coherence as it still possesses. The success of this 
book was immediate and considerable. It has been 
translated into many languages, epitomized by many 
hands, criticized, cuscueBed, and eulogized. Thou- 
sands who would style themselves Marxians and 
would refer to "Das Kapital" as "the Bible of So- 
cialism", and the irrefragable basis of their creed, 
have very probabl^r never seen the original work, nor 
have even read it in translation. Marx himself pub- 
lished only the firet volume; the second was published 
under Engels' editorship in 1885, two years after the 
death of Marx; a third was elaborated by Engels from 
Marx's notes in 1895; a fourth was projected but never 
accomplished. But the influence of this torso has 
been immense. With consununate skill Marx gath- 
ered together and worked up the ideas and evidence 
that had originated with others, or were the floating 
notions of the movement; with tne result that the new 
international organization had ready to hand a body 
of doctrine to promulgate, the various national S^ 
cialist parties a conunon theory and programme for 
which to work. And promulgated it was, with a do- 
votion and at times a childlike faith that had no 
slight resemblance to reUgious propaganda. It hap 
been severely and destructively criticized by econo- 
mists of many schools, many of its leading doctrinea 
have been explicitly abandoned by the Socialist lead- 
ers in different countries, some are now hardly de- 
fended even by those leaders who label themsdvea 
" Marxian " . Yet the influence of the book persists. The 
main doctrines of Marxism are still the stuff of popular 
Socialist belief in all countries, are still put forward 
in scarcely modified form in the copious literature 
produced for popular consumption, are still enun- 
ciated or implied in popular addresses even by some 
of the very leaders who have abandoned them in serious 
controversy. In spite of the growth of Revisionism in 
Germany, of S3mdicalism in France, and of Fabian 
Expertism in England, it is still accurate to maintain 
that the vast majority of Socialists, the rank and file of 
the niovement in all countries, are adherents of the 
Marxian doctrine, with alt its materialistic philosophy, 
its evolutionarv immorality, its disruptive politieal 
and social analysis, its daas-conscious economics. 

In Socialism, to-day, as in most departments of 
human thoudit, the leading writers display a marked 
ehyness of fundamental uialysis: "Tne domain df 
Socialiat thought", aayv LagardeUe, has become "an 


intellectual desert." Its protagonLits are largely pression, with the usual result of consolidating acd 
occupied, either in elaborating schemes of social re- strengthening the movement. In 1875 was heki the 
form, which not infrequently present no exclusively celebrated congress at Gotha, at which was drawn up 
socialist characteristics, or else in apologizing for the programme that formed the basis of the party, 
and disavowing inconvenient applications by earlier Three years later an attempt upon the emperor's me 
leaders, of socialist philosophy to the domain of was made the excuse for renewed repression. But it 
reUgion and ethics. Nevertheless, in so far as the was in vain. In spite of alternate persecution aaad 
International movement remains definitelv Socialist essays in state Socialism, on the part of Bismarck, the 
at all, the formulae of its propaganda and the creed of movement progressed steadUy. Bismarck fell from 
its popular adherents are predominantly the reflection power in 1890 and since then the party has grown rap- 
of those put forward in "Das Kapital'' in 1867. id]y,andisnowthestrongestpolit]calbodyinGermany. 
Moreover, during all this period of growth of the In 1899 Edward Bernstein, who had come under the 
modern Socialist movement, two other parallel move- influence of the Fabians in England since 1888,'started 
ments in all countries have at once supplemented and the "Revisionist'' movement, which, while attempt- 
counterpoised it. These are trade-umonism and co- ing to concentrate the energies of the party ooore 
operation. There is no inherent reason why either ot definitely upon specific reforms and "revising" to 
these movements should lead towards Socialism: extinction many of the most cherished doctrines of 
properly conducted and developed, both should ren- Marxism, has yet been subordinated to the practical 
der unnecessaiy anything that can correctlv be stvled exigencies of politics. To all appearance the Socialist 
"SocifiJism". But, as a matter of fact, both these Party is stronger to-day than ever. The elections of 
excellent movements, owing to unwise opposition by 1907 brought out 3,258,968 votes in its favour; those 
the dominant capitalism, on the one hand, and in- of January, 1912, gave it 110 seats out of a total of 397 
difference in the Churches on the other, are menaced in the Reichstag — ^a gain of more than 100 per cent 
by Socialism, and may eventually be captured by the over its last previous representation (53 seats). The 
more intelligent and energetic Socialists and turned . Marxian "Erfurt Programme", adopted in 1891, is 
to serve the ends of Socialism. The training in still the official creed of the Party. But the "Re- 
mutual aid and interdependence, as well as in self- visionist" policy is obviously gaining ground and, if 
government and business habits, which the leaders the Stuttgart Congress of 1907 be any indication, is 
Df the wage-earners have received in both trade- rapidly transforming the revolutionary Marxist party 
unionism and the co-operative movements, while it into an opportunist body devoted to specific social 
might be of incalculable benefit in the formation of reforms. 

the needed Christian democracy, has so far been In France the progress of Socialism has.been upon 
effective largely in demonstratmg the power that is different lines. After the collapse of Saint-Simonism 
given by organization and numbers. And the leaders and Fourierism, came the agitation of Louis Blanc in 
of Socialism have not been slow to emphasize the les- 1848, with his doctrine of "The Right to Work", 
son and to extend the argument, with sufficient plausi- But this was side-tracked by the triumphant poli- 
bility, towards state monopoly and the absolutism of ticians into the scandalous "National Workshops", 
the majority. The logic of their argument has, it is which were probably deliberately established on 
true, been challenged, in recent years, in Europe by wrong lines in order to bring ridicule upon the agita- 
the rise of the great Catholic trade-union and co- tion. Blanc was driven into exile, and French So- 
operative organizations. But in English-speaking cialism lay dormant till the ruin of Imperi^sm in 
nations this is yet to come, and both co-operation and 1870 and the outbreak of the Commune in 1871. This 
trade-unionism are allowed to drift into the grip of rising was suppressed with a ferocity that far sur- 
the Socialist movement, with the result that what passed the wildest excesses of the Communards; 
might become a most effective alternative for Col- 20,000 men are said to have been shot in cold blood, 
lectivism remains to-day its nursery and its support, many of whom were certainly innocent, while not a 
Parallel with the International movement has run few were thrown alive into the common burial jpits. 
the local propaganda in various countries, in each of But this savagery, though it temporarily quelled the 
which the movement has taken its colour from the revolution, did nothing to obviate the Socialist 
national characteristics; a process which has con-^ movement. At first many of the scattered leaders 
tinned, until to-day it is sometimes difficult to realize declared for Anarchism, but soon most of them 
that the different bodies who are represented in the abandoned it as impracticable and threw their en- 
International Congresses form part of the same agitar ergies into the propfi^gation of Marxian Socialism. In 
tion. In Germany, the fatherland of dogmatic So- 1879 the amnesty permitted Jules Gucsde, Brousse, 
cialism, the movement first took shape in 1862. In Malon, and other leaders to return. In 1881, after 
that year Ferdinand Lassalle, the brilliant and the Anarchist-Communist group under Kropotkin 
wealthy young Jewish lawyer, delivered a lecture to and R^lus had seceded, two parties came into exist- 
an artisans' association at Berlin. Lassalle was fined ence, the opportunist Alliance Socialiste R^publi- 
by the authorities for his temerity, but "The Work- caine, and the Marxian Parti Ouvrier Socialiste k4vo- 
ing Men's Programme", as the lecture was styled, re- lutionaire de France. But these parties soon split up 
suited in The Universal German Working Men's into others. Guesde led, and still leads, the Irre- 
Association, which was founded at Leipzig under his concilables; Jaur^ and Millerand have been the 
influence the following year. Lassalle commenced a leaders of the Parliamentarians; Brousse, Blanqui, 
stormy progress throughout German>r, lecturing, oi^ and others have formed their several communistic 
sanizing, writing. The movement did not prow at groups. In 1906, however, largely owing to the in- 
first with the rapidity he had expected, and he him- fluence of Jaur^, the less extreme parties united 
self was killed in a duel in 1864. But his tragic death again to form Le Parti Socialiste Unifi^. This body 
aroused interest, and The Working Men's Association is but loosely formed of various irreconcilable groups 
grew steadily till, in 1869, reinfor<^ by the adhesion and includes Anarchists like Herv6, Marxists ; like 
of the various organizations which had fprown out of Guesde, Syndicalists like Lagardelle, Opportunists 
Marx's propaganda, it became, at Eisenach, the Uke Millerand, all of whom Jaurds endeavours, with 
Socialist Democratic Working Men's Party. Lieb- but slight success, to maintain in harmony. For 
knecht, Bebel, and Singer, all Marxians, were its chief right across the Marxian doctrinairianism and the 
leaders. The two former were imprisoned for treason opportunism of the parliamentary group has driven 
in 1870; but in 1874 ten members of the party, includ- the recent Revolutionary Syndicalist movement, 
ing the two leaders, were returned to the Reichstag This, which is really Anarchisl-Commuuiam workias 
by 460,000 votes. The Government attempted re- through trade-union imn, is a mav^ment distrustfiil cff 




parliamentary syBtems, favourable to violence, tend- 
ing towards destructive revolution. The Conf^dra- 
tion G^ndrale du Travail is rapidly absorbing the So- 
cialist movement in France, or at least robbing it of 
the ardent element that gives it life. 

In the British Isles the Socialist movement has had 
a less stormy career. After the collapse of Owenism 
and the Chartist movement, the practical genius of 
the nation directed its chief reform 'tnergies towards 
the consolidation of the trade unions and the building 
up of the great co-operative enterprise. Steadily, for 
some forty years, tne trade-union leaders worked at 
the strengthening of their respective organizations, 
which, with their dual character of friendly societies 
and professional associations, had no small part in 
trainmg the working classes in habits of combmation 
for common ends. And this lesson was emphasized 
and enlarged by the Co-operative movement, which, 
springing from the tiny efforts of the Rochdale Pio- 
neers, spread throughout the country, till it is now 
one of the mightiest business organizations in the 
world. In this movement many a labour leader 
learnt habits of business and of successful committee 
work that enabled him later on to de»al on equal^ or 
even on advantageous, terms with the representatives 
of the owning classes. But during all this period of 
traming the Socialist movement proper lay dormant. 
It was not until 18S4, with the foundation of the 
strictly Marxian SocisJ Democratic Federation bv 
H. M. Hyndman, that the Socialist propaganda took 
active form in England. It did not achieve any great 
immediate success, nor has it ever since shown signs 
of appealing widely to the English temperament. 
But it was a beginnin^j, and it was followed bv other, 
more inclusive, organizations. A few months after 
its foundation the Socialist League, led by William 
Morris, seceded from it and had a brief and stormy 
existence. In 1893, at Bradford, the ''Independent 
Labour Party" was formed under the leadership of 
J. Keir Hardie, with the direct purpose of carrying 
Socialism into politics. Attached to it were two 
weekly papers^ The Clarion" and "The Labour 
Leader ; the former of which, by its sale of over a 
million copies of an able little manual, ''Merrie 
England", had no small part in the diffusion of 

gopular Socialism. All these three bodies were 
iarxian in doctrine and largely working class in 

But, as early as 1883, a group of middle-class stu- 
dents had joined together as The Fabian Society. 
This body, while callmg itself Socialist, rejected the 
Marxian in favour of jevonsian economics, and de- 
voted itself to the social education of the public by 
means of lectures, pamphlets and books, and to the 
spread of Collectivist iaeas by the "permeation" of 
public bodies and political parties. Immense as have 
been its achievements in this direction, its constant 
preoccupation with practical measures of reform and 
Its contact with organized partv politics have led it 
rather in the direction of the "Servile State" than of 
the Socialist Commonwealth. But the united efforts 
of the various Socialist bodies, in concert with trade 
unionism, resulted, in 1899, in the formation of the 
Labour Representation Committee which, seven years 
later, had developed into the Labour Party, with 
about thirty representatives in the House of Commons. 
Already, however, a few years' practical acquaint- 
ance with party colitics hais diminished the Socialist 
orthodoxy of theXabour Part^r. and it shows signs of 
becoming absorbed in the details of party contention. 
Significant commentaries appeared m the summer of 
1911 and in the spring of^l912; industrial disturb- 
ances, singularly reseznbling French Syndicalimn, oc- 
curred spontaneously in most commercial and min- 
ing centres, and the whole Labour movement in the 
British Isles has reverted to the Revolutionary type 
that iMt appeared in 1880. 

In every European nation the Socialist movement 
has followed, more or less faithfully, one of the three 
preceding types. In Belgium, Switzerland, Denmark, 
and Italy it is predominantly parliamentary: in Rus- 
sia, Spam, ana Portugal it displays a more bitterly 
revolutionary character. But everywhere the two 
tendencies, parliamentary and revolutionary, struggle 
for the upper hand; now one, now the other becoming 
predominant.' Nor is the movement in the United 
States any exception to the rule. It began about 
1849, purely as a movement among the German and 
other immigrants and, in spite of the migration of the 
old International to New York in 1872, had but little 
effect upon the native population tiU the Henry Georg^ 
movement of 1886. jSven then jealousies and divi- 
sions restricted its action, till the reorganization of 
the Socialist Labour Party at Chicago in 1889. 
Since then the movement has spread rapidly. In 
1897 appeared the Social Democracy of America, 
which, imiting with the majority of the Socialist La- 
bour Party in 1901, formed the present rapidly grow- 
ing Sociahst Party. In the Umted States the move- 
ment is still strongly Marxian in character, though a 
Revisionist school is growing up, somewhat on the 
lines of the English Fabian movement, under the in- 
fluence of writers like Edmond KeUv, Morris Hillquit, 
and Professors Ely and Zueblin. ant the main body 
is still crudely Revolutionary, and is likely to remain 
so until the Dolitical democracy of the nation is more 
perfectly renected in its economic conditions. 

These main points in the history of Socialism lead 
Up to an examination of its spirit and intention. The 
best idealism of earlier times was fixed upon the 
soul rather than upon the body: exactly the opposite 
is the case with Socialism. Social questions are 
almost entirely questions of the body — ^public health, 
sanitation, housing, factory conditions, infant mor- 
tality, employment of women, hours of work, rates of 
wages, accidents, unemployment, pauperism, old-age 
pensions, sickness, infirmity, lunacy, feeble-minded- 
ness, intemperance, prostitution, physical deteriora- 
tion. All these are excellent ends for activity in 
themselves, but all of them are mainly concerned with 
the care or cure of the body. To use a Catholic 
phrase, they are opportunities for corporal works of 
mercy, which may lack the spiritual mtention that 
would make them Christian. The material may be 
made a means to the spiritual^ but is not to be con- 
sidered an end in itself. This world is a place of 
probation, and the time is short. Man is here for a 
definite purpose, a purpose which transcends the 
limits of this mortal life, and his first business is to 
realize this purpose and carry it out with whatever 
help and guidance he may find. The purpose is a 
spiritual one, but he is free to choose or refuse the end 
for which he was created; he is free to neglect or to 
co-operate with the Divine assistance, which will dve 
his hf e the stability and perfection of a spiritual ratner 
than of a material nature. This bein^ so, there must 
be a certain order in the nature of his development. 
He is not wholly spiritual nor wholly material; he has 
a doul, a mind, and a body; but the interests of the 
soul must be supreme, anci the interests of mind and 
body must be brought into proper subservience to it. 
His movement towards perfection is by way of ascent: 
it is not easy; it requires continual exercise of the will, 
continual discipline, continual training — ^it is a war- 
fare and a pilgrimage, and in it are two elements, the 
spiritual and the material, which are one in the unity 
of his daily life. As St. Paul pointed out, there must 
be a continual struggle between these two elements. 
If the individual life is to be a success, the spiritual 
desire must triumph, the material one must be sub- 
ordinate, and when this is so the whole individual life 
is lived with proper economy, spiritual thin^ being 
sought after as an end, while material thmgs are 
used merely as a means to that end. 


The point, then, to be observed is that the spiritual rately and selfishly efficient; a member is cut off 

life is really the economic life. From the Christian from its body only as a last resource to prevent or- 

point of view material necessities are to be kept at a ganic poisoning. The business of the State is rather 

minimum, and material superfluities as far as possible that of helping the Family to a healthy, co-operaiive, 

to be dispensed with altogether. The Christian is a and productive unitv. The State was never meant to 

soldier and a pilgrim who requires material things only appropriate to itself the main parental duties, it was 

as a means to fitness and nothing more. In this he rather meant to provide the parents, especiallv poor 

has the example of Christ Himself, Who came to earth parents, with a wider, freer, healthier family sphere in 

with a minimum of material advantagea.and persisted which to be properl^r parental. Socialism, then, both 

thus even to the Cross. The Christian, then, not in Church and Family^ is impersonal and determinis- 

only from the individual but cdso from the social tic:it deprives the individual of both his religious and 

standpoint, has chosen the better part. He does not his domestic freedom. And it is exactly the same with 

despise this life, but, just because nis material desires the institution of private property., 
are subordinate to his spiritual ones, he lives it much The Christian doctrine of property can best be 

more reasonabl^r, much more unselnshly, much more stated in the words of St. Thomas Aquinas: "In re- 

beneficially to his neighbours. The point, too, which (;ard to an external thing man has two powers: one 

he makes against the Socialist is this. The Socialist is the power of managing and controlling it, and as to 

wishes to distribute material goods in such a way as this it is lawful for a man to possess private property, 

tb establish a substantial equauty, and in order to do It is, moreover, necessary for human life for three rea- 

this he requires the State to make and keep this dis- sons. First, because everyone is more zealous in 

tribution compulsory. The Christian replies to him: looking after a thing that belongs to him than a thing 

''You cannot maintain this widespread distribution, that is the common property of all or of many; be- 

for the simple reason that you have no machinery for cause each person, trying to escape labour, leaves to 

indudingi^g^ to desire it. On the contrary, you do another what is everybody's business, as happens 

all you can to increase the selfish and accumulative where there are many servants. Secondly, because 

desires of men: you centre and concentrate all their there is more order in the management of men's 

interest on material accumulation, and then expect affairs if each has his own work of looking after defi- 

them to distribute their goods." This ultimate dif- nite things; whereas there would be confusion if every- 

ference between Christian and Socialist teaching must one managed everything indiscriminately. Thirdly, 

be clearly understood. Socialism appropriates all hu- because in this way the relations of men are kept more 

man desires and centres them on the here-and-now, peaceful, since everyone is satisfied with his own pos- 

on material benefit and material prosperity. But session, whence we see that quarrels are commoner 

material goods are so Umited in quality, in quantity, between those who jointly own a thing as a whole, 

and in duration that they are incapable of satisfying The other power which man has over external things 

human desires, which will ever covet more and more is the using of them; and as to this man must not hold 

and never feel satisfaction. In this Socialism and external tmngs as his own property, but as everyone's; 

Capitalism are at one. for their only quarrel is over the so as to make no difficulty, I mean, in sharing when 

bone upon which is the meat that perisheth. Social- others are in need'' (Summa theologica, II-II, Q. Ixvi. 

ism, of itself and by itself, can do nothing to diminish a. 2). If man, then, has the right to own, control, and 

or discipline the immediate and materialistic lust of use private property, the State cannot give him this 

men, because Socialism is itself the most exaggerated right or take it away; it can only protect it. Here, of 

and universalized expression of this lust yet known to course, we are at issue with Socialism, for, according 

history. Christianity, on the other liand, teaches to it; the State is the supreme power from which all 

and practises unselfisn distribution of material ^oods, human rights are derived; it acknowledges no inde- 

both according to the law of justice and accordmg to pendent spiritual, domestic, or individual power what- 

the law of charity. ever. In nothing is the bad economy of Socialism 

Again, ethically speakinjo;, Socialism is committed more evident than in its derogation or denial of all the 

to the doctrine of determinism. Holding that society truly personal and self-directive powers of human 

mcJces the individuals of which it is composed^ and not nature, and its misuse of such human qualities as it 

vice versa, it has quite lost touch with the invigorating does not despise or deny is a plain confession of its 

Christian doctrine of free will. This fact may be il- material ana deterministic limitations. It is true 

lustrated by its attitude towards the three great insti- that the institutions of religion, of the family, and 

tutions which have hitherto most strongly exemplified of private ownership are liable to great abuses, 

and protected that doctrine — the Church, the Family, but the perfection of human effort and character de- 

and private ownership. Socialism, with its essentially mands a freedom of choice between good and evil as 

materialistic nature, can admit no raison d'etre for a their first necessary condition. This area of free 

spiritual power, as complementary and superior to the choice is provided, on the material side, by private 

secular power of the State. Man, as the creature of ownership; on the spiritual and material, by the 

a material environment, and as the subject of a mate- Christian Family; and on the purely spiritual by re- 

power which claims to appropriate and discipline his only of material but also of mtellectual vi 

interior life, and which affords him sanctions that rather constitute itself as their defender, 

transcend all evolutionary and scientific determinism, In apparent contradiction, however, to much of the 

must necessarily incur Socialist opposition. So, too, foregoing argument are the considerations put for- 

with the Family. According to the prevalent Socialist ward by numerous schools of "Christian Socialism**, 

teaching, the child stands between two authorities, both Cfatholic and non-Catholic. It will be urged 

that of its parents and that of the State, and of these that there cannot really be the opposition between 

the State is certainly the higher. The State therefore Socialism and Christianity that is here suggested, for, 

is endowed with the higher authority and with all as a matter of fact, many excellent and intelligent per- 

powers of interference to be used at its own discretion, sons in all countries are at once convinced Christians 

Contrast this with the Christian notion of the Family and ardent Socialists. Now, before it is poasible to 

— an organic thing with an organic life of its own. estimate correctly how far this undoubtM fact can 

The State, it is true, must ensure a proper basis for alter the conclusions arrived at above, certain premises 

its economic life, but beyond that it snould not inter- must be noted. First, it is not practically possible to 

fere: its business is not to detach the members of the consider Socialism solely as an economic or social doo- 

f aznily from their body in order to make them sepa- trine. It has long passed the stage of pure theory and 




the proportions of a movement : it 10 to-day a 
doetrine embooied in programmes, a system c^ 
thou^t and belief that is put forward as the vivifying 
principle of an active propaganda, a thing organically 
connected with the intellectual and moral activities 
of the millions who are its adherents. Next, the views 
of small and scattered bodies of men and women, who 
profess to reconcile the two doctrines, must be allowed 
no more thaa their due weight when contrasted with 
the expressed beliefs of not only the majority of the 
leading exiwnents of Socialism, past and present, but 
idso of the immense majority ot the rank and file m all 
nations. Thirdly, for Catholics, the declarations of 
supremepontiffs, of the Catholic hierarchy, and of the 
leading Catholic sociologists and economists have an 
important bearins on the question, an evidential force 
not to be tightly dismissed. Lastly, the real meaning 
attached to the terms ''Christianity'' and ''Social- 
ism", by those who profess to reconcile these doc- 
trines, must alwavs be eUcited before it is possible to 
estimate either what doctrines are being reconciled or 
how far that reconciliation is of any pracbical ade- 

If it be found on examination that the general 
trend of the Socialist movement, the predominant 
opinion of the Socialists, the authoritative pronounce- 
ments of ecclesiastical and expert Catholic authority 
all tend to emphasize the philosophical cleavage indi- 
cated above, it is probably safe to conclude that those 
who profess to reconcile the two doctrines are mis- 
taken: either their grasp of the doctrines of Christi- 
anity or of Socialism will be found to be imperfect, or 
else their mental habits will appear to be so lacking in 
discipline that they are content with the profession of a 
belief in incompatible principles. Now, if Socialism 
be first considered as embodied in the Socialist move- 
ment and Socialist activity, it is notorious that every- 
where it is antagonistic to Christianity. This is above 
all clear in Catholic eountrieSj where the Socialist or- 
ganizations are markedly anti-Christian both in pn> 
feasion and practice. It is true that of late years there 
has appeared among Socialists some impatience of 
remaimng mere catipaws of the powerful Masonic 
anti-clerical societies, but this is rather because these 
secret societies are largely engineered by the wealthy 
in the interests of capitalism than from any affection 
for Catholicism. The European Socialist remains 
anti-clerical, even when he revolts against Masonic 
manipulation. Nor is this really less true of non- 
Catholic countries. In Germany, in Holland, in Den- 
mark, in the United States, even in Great Britain, 
organized Socialism is ever prompt to express (in its 
practical programme, if not in its formulated creed) its 
contempt for and inherent anta^nism to revealed 
Christianity. What, in public, is not infrequently 
deprecated is clearly enough implied in projects of 
legislation, as well as in the mental attitude that is 
usual in Socialist circles. 

Nor are the published views of the Socialist leaders 
and writers less explicit. ''Scientific Socitdism'' be- 
g^ as an economic exposition of evolutionary mate- 
rialism; it never lost that character. Its German 
founders^ Marx, Enrols, Lassalle, were notoriouslv 
anti-Christian both m temper and in acquired phil- 
osophy. So have been its more modem exponents in 
Gennany, Bebel, Liebknecht, Kautsky, Dietzgen, 
Bemsteixi, Singer, as well as the popular papers — the 
"Sozial Demokrat", the "Vorw&rts", the "Zim- 
merer", the "Neue 25eit" — ^which reflect, while ex- 
pounding, the view of the rank and file; and the 
Uotha and Erfurt programmes, which express the 
practical aims of the movement. In France and the 
Netherlands the former and present leaders of the 
various Sociah'st sections are at one on the ouestion 
of Christianity — Lafargue, Herv6, Boudin, Guesde, 
Jaurte, Viviam, Sorel, Briand, Griffuelhes, Lsurgardelle, 
T^, Benard, Nieuweohuis, yaiidervekie^-«ll are 

anti-ChriBtian, as are the popular newspapers, like 
"La Guerre Sociale", "L'Humanit^", ^'Le Social- 
iste", the "Petite R^publique". the "Recht voor 
Allen'', "Le P^uple''. In Italy, Austria, Spain, Rus- 
sia, and Switzerland it is the same: Socialism soes 
hand in hand with the attack on Christianitv. Only 
in the EngUsh-speaking countries is the rule appar- 
ently void. Yet, even there, but slight acouaintance 
with the leading personalities of the Socialist move^ 
ment and the habits of thought current among them, 
is sufficient to dispel the illusion. In Great Britain 
certain prominent names at once occur as plainly 
anti-Christian — Aveling, Hyndman, Pearson, Blatch- 
ford, Bax, Quelch, Leatham, Morris, Standring — 
many of them pioneers and prophets of the movement 
in England. The Fabians, Shaw, Pease, Webb, 
Guest; independents, like Wells, or Orage, or Car- 
penter; popular periodicals like "The Clarion", 
"The Socialist Review", "Justice" are all markedly 
non-Christian in spirit, thou^ some of them do pro- 
tect against any necessary mcompatibility between 
their doctrines and the Christian. It is true that the 
political leaders, like Macdonald and Hardie, and a 
fair proportion of the present Labour Party might 
insist that "Socialism is only Christianity in terms of 
modem economics", but the very measures they ad- 
vocate or support not unfrequently are anti-Chnstian 
in principle or tendencv. Aiid in the United States it 
is the same. Those who have studied the writings or 
speeches of well-known Socialists, such as Bellamy, 
Gronlund. Spargo, Hunter, Debs, Herron, Abbott, 
Brown, Del Mar, Hillquit, Kerr, or Sinmions, or 
periodicals like the "New York Volkszeitunff", "The 
People", "The Comrade", or "The Worker", are 
aware 01 the bitterly anti-Christian tone that per- 
vades them and is inherent in their propaganda. 

The trend of the Socialist movement, then, and the 
deliberate pronouncements and habitual thought of 
leaders and followers alike, are almost universally 
found to be antagonistic to Christianity. Moreover, 
the other side of the question is but a confirmation 
of this antagonism. For all three popes who have 
come into contact with modem Socialism, Pius IX, 
Leo XIII, and Pius X, have formally condemned it, 
both as ajgeneral doctrine and with regard to specific 
points. The bishops and clergy, the lay expd-ts on 
social and economic questions, the philosophers, the 
theologians, and practically the whole body of the 
faithful are unanimous in their acceptance of the con- 
demnation. It is of little purpose to point out that 
the Socialism condenmed is Marxism, and not Fa- 
bianism or its analogues in various countries. For, in 
the first place^ the main principles common to all 
schools of Socialism have been explicitly condemned 
in Encyclicals like the "Rerum novarum" or the 
"Graves de comnmni"; and, in addition, as haa been 
shown above, the main current of Socialism is still 
Marxist, and no adhesion to a movement professedly 
international can be acquitted of the guilt of lending 
support to the condenmed doctrines. The Church, 
the Socialists, the very tendency of the movement do 
but confirm the antagonism of principle, indicated 
above, between Socialism and Christianity. The 
"Christian Socialists" of all coimtries, indeed, fall 
readily, upon examination, into one of three cate- 
gories. Either they are very imperfectly Christian, 
as the Lutheran followers of Stocker and Naumann in 
Germany, or the Calvinist Socialists in France, or the 
numerous vaguely-doctrinal "Free-Church" Social- 
ists in England and America; or, secondly, they are 
but very inaccurately styled "Socialist"; as were the 
group led by Kingsley, Maurice and Hughes in Eng- 
land, or "Catholic Democrats" like Ketteler, Man- 
ning, Descurtins, the "Sillonists"; or, thirdly, where 
there is an acceptance of the main Christian aoctrine, 
side by side with th& advocacy of Revolutionary Sck 
cialism, as is tl^e case with the English "Guild of St 




Matthew" or the New York Church Association for 
the Advancement of the Interests of Labour, it can 
only be ascribed to that mental facility in holding at 
the same time incompatible doctrines, which is every- 
where the mark of the '^ Catholic but not Roman" 
school. Christianity and Socialism are hopelessly in- 
compatible, and the logic of events makes this ever 
clearer. It is true that, before the publication of the 
Encyclical "Rerum novarum", it was not unusual to 
apply the term "Christian Socialism" to the social 
reforms put forward throughout Europe by those 
Catholics who are earnestly endeavouring to restore 
the social philosophy of Catholicism to the position it 
occupied in the ages of Faith. But, under the guid- 
ance of Pope Leo XIII, that crusade against the social 
and economic iniquities of the present ase is now more 
correctly styled "Christian Democracy , and no really 
instructed, loyal, and clear-thinking Catholic would 
now claim or accept the stvle of Christian Socialist. 

To sum up, in the words of a capable anonymous 
writer in "Tlie Quarterly Review", Socialism has for 
"its philosophical basis, pure materialism; its re- 
ligious basis is pure negation | its ethical basis the 
theory that society makes the mdividuals of which it 
is composed, not the individuals society, and that 
therefore the structure of society determines indi- 
vidual conduct, which involves moral irresponsibility; 
its economic basis is the theory that labour is the sole 

Producer, and that capital is the surplus value over 
are subsistence produced by labour and stolen by 
capitalists; its juristic basis is the rig^t of labour to 
the whole product; its historical basis is the industrial 
revolution, that is the change from small and handi- 
craft methods of production to large and mechanical 
ones, and the wanare of classes; its political basis is 
democracy. ... It may be noted that some of these 
[bases] have already been abandoned and are in ruins, 
others are beginning to shake; and as this process 
advances the defenders are compelled to retreat and 
take up fresh positions. Thus the form of the doc- 
trine changes and undergoes modification, though 
all cling still to the central principle, which is the 
substitution of public for private ownership." 

I. History of the SocUlist Movement: (1) General: — Cnrr, Lea 
BocialUiet alUmand* (Paris, 1907); Ds Skilbac, Le* eongria 
ouwriera en France (Reims, 1908) ; HiuxiniT, Hiatory of Socialiam 
in the United StaUa (New York, 1902); Kibkup, Hiatory of So- 
cialiam (London, 1909); Lscocq, La queation aocieUe au xviii 
t»2ele (Paris, 190&); Loma, Hiatoire du motnement ayndical en 
Prance (Paris, 1907) ; Pblloutxbb, Hiatoire dea Bouraea de Travail 
CParis, 1902); Rae, Contemporary Socialiam (London, 1908); 
BoMBiiitT, Socialiam and the Socialiat Movement (London, 1909); 
Stoddakt. The New Socialiam (London, 1909); Tuoan-Babo- 
NOwsKT, Modem SoeitUiam in ita Hialorical Devdopment (London, 
1910); ViLUBBS, The aoeialiat Movement in England (London, 
1910); WiNTEBBB, Le atfcialiame contemporain (Paris, 1895). 
(2) Utopian and Revolutionanr Attempts. — 'BtJONABom, Baheufa 
Conapiracy for EqttalUy (London, 1836) ; Ctrx.usN, Adven- 
iurea in Socialiam (London. 1910); Hindb, American Cornmu- 
nitiea (Chicago, 1902) ; LiasAOABAT. Hiatory of the Commune of 
187 1 (London, 1886) ; Malix>ck, A Century of Socialiatic Bxperi- 
menta in The Dublin Review (July, 1909) ; Mabch, Hiatory of the 
Paria Commune (London, 1895); Nobohoff, Communiatie So- 
cietiea in the United Statea (London, 1875); Notbs, Hiatory 
of American Socialiama (Philadelphia, 1870). (3) Biographies 
of Socialist Leaders. ^ Bbbnstsin, Ferdinand Laaaalle aa a 
Social B^ormer (London, 1893) ; Booth, Saint'Simon and Saint- 
Simoniam (London, 1871); Geobob, Life of Henry Oeorge (Lon* 
don, 1900): GiBsms, Engliah Social Reformera (London, 1907); 
Jackson, Bernard Shaw, a monograph (London, 1909); Jonbs, 
The Life, Timea and Laboura of Robert OtomliLondoUt 1900); Mao- 
Kail, Life of William Morria (2 vols., London, 1899) ; Spaboo, 
Karl Marx, hia Life and Work (New York, 1910); Tatlob, 
Leadera of Socialiam (London, 1908). 

II. History of Movements Innuenoing Socialiam: (1) Co- 
•operation. — Fay, Co-operation at Home and Abroad (London, 

1908) ; HoLTOAKB, Hiatory of Co-operation (2 vols., London, 1008) ; 
Lavbboxb, Le rigime eooptratif (Paris, 1910) ; Pottbb, Co-overa- 
live movement in Oreat Britain Q^ondon, 1899). (2) Combina- 
tions of Labour and Capital. — Db Sbilhac. Lea grhea (Paris, 
1909) ; DiuoBifT. Lea ortentationa ayndicalea (Paris, 1909) ; Elt. 
Monopoliea and Truata (New York, 1900); Hibst, Monopoliea, 
Truata, and Kartella (London. 1905); Howell, Trade Unioniam 
(Md and New (London, 1907) ; Kibkbbidb and SrsBBrrr, The 
Modem Truat Comoany (New York, 1906) ; MACBoarr. The Truat 
Movement in Brituh Induairy (London^ 1907); Wbbb, Hiatory 
of Trade- Unioniam (London, 1001); Iobm, Induatrial Demoe* 
racy (London, 1901). (8) Legislation.— Oukninobam amd Mao- 

AMHUB. (htUinea of Sngliah rnduatriai Hittory (CambridM. 
1804) : HuTCHiMa and Habrison. Hiatory of Factory LegiaUahon 
(London, 1010) ; Niohollb and Maokat, Hiatory of the Kngliah 
Poor Law (3 vols., London, 1910); Wbbb. Bn^iah Poor Law 
Policy (London, 1909); Idbm, Oranta in Aid (London, 1011): 
IDBM. The State and the Doctor (London, 1010). (4) Munieipal 
and Administrative Aotivities. — Dabwin, Municipal Ownerwip 
(London. 1907) ; Jolt, La Suiaae politique et aoeiale (Paris, 1909) : 
iDUf, L Ilalie eontemporaine (Paris, 1911); Mbtbb. MunidwU 
Owner^ip in Oreat Britain (London, 1906) ; Rbbvbs. StaU Bx" 
perimenta in Auatralia and New Zealand (2 vols., London, 1902); 
SHAW, Municipal Oovemment in Oreat Britain (London, 1895); 
Idem, Municipal Oovemment in Continental Europe (London, 
1896) : Wbbbbb, The Orowth of Citiea in the Nineteenth Century 

?iOnaon, 1899) ; Zubbun, American Municipal Bnterpriae (New 
ork, 1902). 

III. Socialism as Expounded by Socialists. (1) Marxism.-- 
Bax. Eaaaya in Socialiam New emd Old (London, 1905); B latch* 
TOBD, Merrie England (London, 1895); EnqblSj SocuUiam Uto* 
pian and Scientific (London, 1892); Febbi, Socialiam and Poai- 
tive Science (London, 1905); Gbonluicd. The Co-operative Com- 
monweaUh (London, 1896): Hunteb. SoeiaUaU aJt Work (New 
York, 1908): Htnduan, The Bconomica of Socialiam (London., 
1896); JAUBis, Studiea in Socialiam (London. 1906); Mabx, 
CapUal (3 vols., London, 1888, 1907, 1909); Mobbib and Bax, 
Socialiam iu Orowth and Outcome (London, 1897); Spabgo. So- 
cuUiam, a Summary and Interpretation (New York, 1906): Idbm, 
The Subatance of Socialiam (New York, 1910). (2) Revisionism, 
Revolutionary Syndicalism, Fabian Expertism. — ^Bbbnstbin. 
Evolutionary Sodaliam (London, 1909); Clat, Syndicaliam and 
Labour (London, 1911) ; EsaoR, Modem Socialiam aa Set Forth by 
Socialiata (New York. 1910); Fabian Eaaaya in Socialiam (Lon- 
don, 1909); Fabian TraeU. Noa. 1-100 (London. 1884-1911); 
Gbifpublhxb, L'action ayndicaliate (Paris, 1908) ; Idem, Voyagea 
rivolutionairea (Paris, 1910); Hillquit, Socialiam in Theory 
and Practice (New York, 1009); Kbllt, Twentieth Century 
Socialiam (London, 1910); Laoaboblub. Le aocitUiame ouvrier 
(Paris, 1911); MacdonaU). Socialiem and Society (London, 
1905); Iobm, The SociaUat Movement (London, 1911); Meb- 
MBix, Le aocialiame (Paris, 1907) ; Idem, Le ayndiealiame centre 
le aocialiame (Paris, 1906) ; Pataud and Pougbt, Comment noua 
ferona la rHelution (Pans, 1909); Pbbssolini, La teoria eindi- 
caliata (Naples, 1909); Vandbbvelde. CoUeetiviam and Induatrial 
Revolutton (London, 1907) ; Webb, The Prevention of Deatitution 
(London, lOll); Wells, New Worlda for Old (London, 1006). 

IV. Catholic Criticism of Socialism. — ^Amtoinb. Coura d'Seoni>' 
mie aoeiale (Paris, 1988), 523-^: Abdant, Le aocialiame eontenk- 
porain et la propriM (Paris, 1905) ; Brochurea jaunea de F Action 
Populaire, Noa, $6, t8, 49, 07, 100, IBS. 174, 199 (Reims. 1904> 
11); Cavfblbin, Le aocialiame et le droit de propriM (Bnusela); 
Cathbbzn, Socialiem, ita theoretical baaia and practical applica- 
tion (New York, 1904) ; Cocbin, Calichiame d'iconomie eoc, et p<dit. 
(Paris, 1907); Db Sbilhac, Uutopie aocial. (Paris, 1907); Dbvab. 
Political Economy (London, 1907), 514-26; Kbllbhxb, PrivaU 
ownerahip: ite baaia and equitable conditiona (Dublin, 1911); Lb 
bot-Bbauubu, CoUediviam, a Study of Some of the Leading i^uea- 
Oona of the Day (London, 1908) ; Pbsch, Liberaliamua, Socialia- 
muaChriaU. OeaeUachaJlaord. (Freiburg, 1896); PBaaaa, The Fun- 
damental Fallacy of Socialiam (St. Louis. 1908) ; Savatxbb, Lee 
variationa du aocialiame in Le mouvement eoc. (Paris, May, 1911); 
Schbijvbbs, Handbook of PraOioal Econonomica (London, 1010), 
25-48; ToaaBAiNT, Cotlectitieme et oommunisffu (Paris, 1907); 
WiNTEBBB, Le aocialiame aUemand et aea dernih^ea ivalutione 
(Paris. 1907). 

V. Non-Catholic Criticism of SociaUsm.— Gutot. SoddUaiie 
Fallaciea (London, 1910); Fxjnt, Socialiam (London, 1908); 
HoBBON, The Induatrial Syatem (London, 1909); Idem, The 
Science of xoealth (London, 1911); Kibkitp, An Efwuiry Into So- 

- eialiam (London, 1908) ; Mallock, A Critical Examination of 
Socialiam (London, 19(18); Nichozbon, Hietorical Progreaa and 
Ideal Socialiam (London, 1894) ; Schabfflb, The Quinteaaenee of 
Socialism (London, 1899) ; Skblton, Socialiam, a critical analyaie 
U»ndon, 1911); Socialiam, Ita Meaning and Origin; ita Preaent 
Poaition and Future Proaipeeta in Quarterly Review (April, July, 
London. 1910) { TheCaae Againat Socialiam (London, 1909). 

VI. 'Christian Socialism *'.--CaMolici«m and Socialiam in 
Catholic Truth Society Pamphlete (2 vols., London. 1908, 1910); 
Cdnninoham, Socialiem and Chriatianity (London, 1909); Qat* 
baud, Un CathoUque peut^U Ure aocialiaUt jVanB, 1907); Qold- 
btein, Socialiem, the Nation of Fatherleaa Children (New York, 
1908); Headlam, Deabmbb. Cuffobd, and Woolman, SocuU- 
iam and Religion in Fabian Sodali^ Seriea, no. 1 (London, 1006); 
Lamt, Catholiquea et SociaUatea (Paris, 1010) ; MiNO, The Char- 
acteriatica and the Religion of Modem Socialiam (New York, 1008) ; 
Idem. The Morality of Modem Socialiam (New York, 1900); 
Nrm, Catholic Soeialtem (London, 1895); Nobl, SociaUam %n 
Churcii Hiatory (London, 1910); Sbbtillangbb, Sodaliame et 
Chriatianiame (Paris, 1909) ; Sodebini, Socialiam and CathoHciam 
(London, 1896); Stano, Socialiam and Chriatianity (New York, 
1905); WoBOSWOBTB, Chietian Sodaliam in Eni^nd (London, 

VII. C^hristian Democracy. — Annie aoeiale intemationale. It 
III (Reims, 1910-12): Cauppb, Vattitude aoeiale dea eathoHmiee 
Frangaia au XIX* aUtde (Paris, 1010) ; Idbm, Lea tendencea aoeuUea 
dea catholiquea libiraux (Paris, 1011); Catholic Social Guild 
Pamphleta (2 vols., London, 1010-12); Cbawpobd, SwiUerland 
To-day (London, 1011); Dbvab, Social Que^iona and the Duty of 
Cathdica (London, 1007); Idbm, The Key to the WorUTa Progreaa 
(London, 1006): QABBiairBT, T*Ae Social Value of the Ooapel (Lon> 
don, 1011); Ouute Social, I-VI (Reims, 1004-00); Logan, L*en- 
aeignement aocial de Jiaua (Paris, 1007) ; Naudbt, Le chriatian- 
iame Sodal (Parte, 1008); Pabsumon i^), DeeUhation and 
Suggeafd Rem^diea (London, 1011) ; Platu, Cathelic Social Wgrk 




in Germany (Bt. Louis, 1010} : Ryan, A Living Wage, tte Bthicalqnd 
Semwmie Atp^ets (Sew York, 1910): The Catholie Chtirek and 
Labour in CatKolie Truth Society PampkUU (London, 1006); The 
Pope and the PeopU (New Yo^, 1900) ; Tubmanv, Le diveloppO' 
ment du eathoiicteme social depuie VeneyeKque Rerwn Novarum 
(Paris, 1909): Wright (ed.). Sweated Lahour and the Trade 
Baarde Act (London, 1911). 

Lbslis a. St. L. Tokb. 
W. £. Campbell. 

Socialiatic Coinmunities.— This title compre- 
hends those societieB which maintain common owner- 
ship of the means of production and distribution, 
e. g., land, factories, ana stores, and also those which 
furaier extend liie practice of common ownership 
to consumable goods, e. g., houses and food. While 
the majority of the groups treated in the present 
article are, strictly speaking, communistic rather than 
socialistic, they are frequently designated by the 
latter term. The most impcnrtant of them have 
already been described under Communism. Below 
a more nearly complete list is given, together with 
brief notices of those societies that have not been 
discussed in the former articles. At the time of the 
Protestant Reformation certain socialistic experi- 
ments were made by several heretical sects, including 
the Anabaptists, the Libertines, and the Fanulists; 
but these sects did not convert their beliefs along this 
line into practice with sufficient thoroughness or for 
a sufficient length of time to give their attempts any 
considerable value or interest (see Kautsky, "Com- 
munism in Central Europe at the Time of the Ref- 
ormation'', London, 1897). 

The Labadists, a religious sect with conununistic 
features, founded a community, in Westphalia, in 
1672, under the leadership of Jean de la Badie, an 
«4>O0tate priest. A few years later about one hundred 
members of the sect established a colony in Northern 
Maryland, but within half a century both communi- 
ties ceased to exist. 

The Ephrata (Pennsylvania) Community was 
founded in 1732, and contained at one time 300 mem- 
hm. but in 1900 numbered only 17. 

Tne Shakers adopted a socialistic form of or- 
ganization at Watervliet, New York, in 1776. At 
their most prosperous period their various societies 
comprised about 6000 persons; to-day (1911) they 
do not exceed 1000. 

The Harmonists, or Rapi>i8ts, were established in 
Pouisylvania in 1805. Their maximum membership 
was 1000; in 1900 th^ numbered 9. Connected with 
this society is the Bethel Community, which was 
founded (1844) in Missouri by a group which in- 
cluded some seoeders from Harmony. In 1855 the 
Bethel leader, Dr. Keil, ^anized another coimnunity 
at Aurora, Oregon. The combined membership 
of the two settlements never exceeded 1000 persons. 
Bethel dissolved in 1880 and Aurora in 1881. 

The Separatists of Zoar (Ohio) were organized 
as a sociaustio community in 1818, and dissolved in 
1898. At one time they had 500 members. 

The New Harmony Community, the greatest at- 
tempt ever made in this form of social organization, 
was founded in Indiana in 1824 by Robert Owen. 
Its maximum number of members was 900 and its 
length of life two years. Eighteen other communi- 
ties formed by seceders from the New Harmonv 
society were ehoxst equally short-lived. Other social- 
istic settlements that owed their foundation to the 
teachings of Owen were set up at Yellow Springs, 
Ohio; Nashoba, Tennessee (composed mostly of 
negroes); Haverstraw, New York; and Kendal, 
Oregon. None of them lasted more than two years. 

The Hopedale (Massachusetts) Community was 
organised m 1842 by the Rev. Adin BaUou; it never 
had more than 175 memb^v, and it came to an end 
in 1867. 

The Brook Farm (Massachusetts) Community was 
in 1842 by the Transcendentalist group 

of scholars and writers. In 1844 it was converted 
into a Fourierist phalanx; this, however, was dis- 
solved in 1846. 

Of the Fourieristic phalanges two had a very brief 
existence in France, and dbout thirty were organized 
in the United States between 1840 and 1850. Their 
aggregate membership was about 4500, and their 
longevity varied from a few months to twelve years. 
Aside from the one at Brook Farm, the most note- 
worthy were: the North American phalanx, founded 
in 1843 in New Jersey under the direction of Greeley, 
Brisbane, Channing, and other gifted men, and dis- 
solved in 1855; the Wisconsin, or (>e6co, phalanx, 
organized in 1844, and dispersed in 1850; and the 
Sylvania Association of Pennsylvania, which has the 
distinction of being the earliest Fourieristic experi- 
ment in the Unit^ States, though it lasted only 
eighteen months. 

• The Oneida (New York) Community, the mem- 
bers of which called themselves Perfectionists because 
thev believed that all who followed their way of life 
could become perfect, became a communistic or- 
ganization in 1848, and was converted into a joint- 
stock corporation in 1881. Its largest numlKar of 
members was 300. 

The first Icarian community was set up in Texas 
in 1848, and the last came to an end in 1895 in Iowa. 
Their most prosperous settlement, at Nauvoo, num- 
bered more than 500 souls. 

The Amana Community was organized on social- 
istic lines in 1843 near Buffalo, New York, but moved 
to Amana, Iowa, in 1845. It is the one communistic 
settlement that has increased steadily, though not 
rapidly, in wealth and numbers. Its members rightly 
attribute this fact to its religious character and 
motive. The community embraces about 1800 

A unique community is the Woman's Common- 
wealth, established about 1875 near Belton^ Texas, 
and transferred to Mount Pleasant, D. C.^ m 1898. 
It was organized by women who from motives of re- 
ligion and conscience had separated themselves from 
their husbands. As the members number less than 
thirty and are mostly those who instituted the com- 
munity more than thirty-five years ago, the experi- 
ment cannot last many years longer. 

The most important of recently founded com- 
munities was the Ruskin Co-operative Colony, or- 
ganized in 1894 in Tennessee by J. A. Wayland, 
editor of the socialist paper, ''The Coming Nation". 
While the capital of the community was collectively 
owned, its products were distributed among the 
members in the form of wages. Owing to dissen- 
sions and withdrawals, the colony was reorganized 
on a new site in 1896, but it also was soon dissolved. 
About 250 of the colonists moved to Georgia, and set 
up another community, but this in a few years 
ceased to exist. 

A number of other communities have been formed 
within recent years, most of which permit private 
ownership of consumption-goods and private family 
life. As none of them has become strong either in 
numbers or in wealth, and as all of them seem des- 
tined to an early death, they will receive only the 
briefest mention here. Those worthy of any notice 
are: The Christian CJommon wealth of (xeorsia, or- 
ganized in 1896, and dissolved in 1900; tne Co- 
operative Brotherhood, of Burley, Washington; the 
Straight Edge Industrial Settlement, of New York 
City; the Home Colony in the State of Washington, 
which has the distinction of being the only anarchist 
colony; the Mutual Home Association, located in the 
same state; the Topolambo Colony in Mexico, which 
lasted but a few months; and the Fairhope (Alabama) 
Single-Tax Corporation, which has had a fair measure 
of success, but which is neither socialistic nor com- 
munistic iu the proper sense. 


Reviewing the history of socialistic experiments, tion of their corporate rights. Societies of this nature 

we perceive that only those that were avowedly and have an existence independent of the individual mem^ 

strongly religious, ado[)ting a socialistic organization bers and can be dissolved onlv by ecclesiastical de- 

as incidental to their religious purposes, have cree. Catholic societies which are not church cor- 

achieved even temporary and partial success. Prac- porations may be founded and dissolved at the will of 

tically speaking, only two of these religious com- their members. Sometimes they are approved, or 

munities remain; of these the Shakers are growing technically praised, by ecclesiastical authority, but 

steadily weaker, while the Amana Society is almost they are also frequently formed without any interven- 

stationary, and, besides, is oblieed to carry on tion of the hierarchy. In general, it may be said that 

some of its industries with the aid of outside hired Catholic societies of any description are very deeir- 

labor. able. 

8«e bibliography under Commtdwbm. Hixxjuij. Hilary of The Church has always Watched with singular care 

Sockatam %n the Umted Statea (Now York, 1903); Kent in «„a« ♦!,/» •►«-:^,,o ««„««U„4.;yv-»« /«.«w.a^ *..► i.tL ^-.r^vr i 

BuUeUn No. 36 of the Department of Lobar; Mallock, A Century over the vanous orgamzations formed -by the faithful 

ofSoci<diat%cExj>eHmenuisLTheDvMinRenewjJ\AyA^'^\'^o\jrr, for the promotion of any good work, and the popes 

SpcialuMe Communiaminthe United States in The American Ccuho- have enriched them With indulgences. No hard and 

^ 2S5^1S gS' '^L^:^^'7d^!l: l^f,^:^ ""^ fast rules have been made, however, as to the method 

John A. Ryan. ^' government. Some societies, e. g. the Propaga^ 

tion of the Faith and the Holy Childhood, are geii- 
Societles, Catholic. — Catholic societies are very eral in their scope; others, e. g. the Church Extension 
numerous throughout the world; some are inter- Society of the United States, are peculiar to one 
national in scope, some are national; some diocesan country. It sometimes happens that an association 
and others parochial. These are treated in particu- formecl for one country penetrates into another, e. g. 
lar under their respective titles throughout the En- the Piusverein, the Society of Christian Mothers, etc. 
cycloi>edia, or else under the countries or the dioceses There are also societies instituted to provide for some 
in which they exist. This article is concerned only special need, as an altar or tabernacle society, or for 
with Catholic societies in general. The right of asso- the furthering of some special devotion, as the Holy 
ciation is one of the natural rights of man. It is not Name Society. For societies which are general in 
surprising, therefore, that from earliest antiquity their scope, the Holy See frequently appoints a car- 
societies of the most diverse kinds should have been dinal protector and reserves the choice of the presi- 
formed. In pagan Rome the Church was able to dent to itself. This is likewise done as a mark of 
carry on its work and elude the persecuting laws, special favour t-o some societies which are only na- 
only imder the guise of a private corporation or so- tional, as the Church Extension Society of the United 
ciety. When it became free it encouraged the associ- States (Brief of Pius'X, 9 June, 1910). In general, it 
ation of its children in various guilds and fraternities, may be affirmed that it is the special duty of the 
that they might more easily, while remaining subject bishop and the parish priest to found or promote such 
to the general supervision of ecclesiastical authority, societies as the faithful of their districts may be in 
obtain some special good for their souls or bodies or need of. Utility and necessity often vary with the 
both simultaneously. By a society we imderstand circumstances of time and country. In scmie lands it 
the voluntary and durable association of a number of has been found possible and advisable for the Church 
persons who pledge themselves to work together to authorities to form Catholic societies of workingmen. 
obtain some special end. Of such societies there is a These are trades-unions under ecclesiastical au[n>ioe8 
great variety in the Church both for la3rmen and and recall the old Catholic guilds of the Middle AfgBB. 
clerics, the most perfect species of the latter being tKe Zealous bishops and priests have made the promotion 
regular orders and religious congregations bound by of such societies, as in Germany and BeJjnum, a 
perpetual vows. As to societies of laymen, we may special work, in the hope of preventing Catholic 
distinguish broadly three classes: (a) confraternities, workingmen irom bein^ allured by tempore gain into 
which are associations of the faithful canonicaUy atheistic societies in which the foundations of civil and 
erected by the proper ecclesiastical superior to pro- religious institutions are attacked. In these unions a 
mote a Christian method of life by special works of priest appointed by the bishop gives religious instruo- 
piety towards God, e. g. the splendour of divine wor- tions wnich are particularly directed against the im- 
ship, or towards one's neighbour, e. g. the spiritual pious arguments of those who seek to destroy the 
or corporal works of mercy (see Confraternity); morals and faith of the workingman. Methods are 

(b) pious associations, whose objects are generally pointed out for regulating the family life according 
the same as those of confraternities, but which are not to the laws of God: temperance, frugality, and submis- 
canonically erected (see Associations, Pious); and sion to lawful autnority are urged, and frequentation 

(c) societies whose members are Catholics, but of the sacraments insisted on. These unions also pro- 
which are not in the strict sense of the word religious vide innocent amusements for their members, ^ch 
societies. Some of these associations are ecclesiasti- societies at times add confraternity and sodality fear^ 
cal corporations in the strict acceptation of the term, tures to their organization. 

while others are merely subordinate and dependent There are a number of societies formed by Catholics 
parts of the parish or diocesan organization, or oidy which are not in a strict sense Catiiohc societies, 
remotely connected with it. Church corporations. Nevertheless, as the individual faithful are subject 
inasmuch as they are moral or legal persons, have the to the authority of the bishop they remain subject to 
right, according to canon law, of making by-laws for the same authority even as members of an organizar 
their association by the suffrage of the members, of tion. It is true that the bishop may not, in eonse- 
electing their own officers, of controlling their prop- quence of his ecclesiastical jurisdiction, rule sudi 
erty within the limits of the canons, and of making societies in the same sense as he does confraternities 
provision, according to their own judgment, for their and pious associations, yet he retains the inidienable 
preservation and growth. They have, consequently, right and even the obligation of preventing the faith- 
certain defined rights, both original or those derived f ul from being led into spiritual ruin through societies 
from their constitution, and adventitious or what of whatsoever name or purpose. He can, therefore, 
they have acquired by privilege or concession, if convinced that an organization is hannful, forbid it 
Among original rights of all ecclesiastical corporations to assist at church services in its regalia, and, when no 
are the right of exclusion or the expelling of members; emendation results^ warn individuals against entering 
of selection or the adoption of new members; of con- it or remaining members of it. Finally, there are so- 
vention or meeting for debate and counsel; of assist- cieties which are entirely secular, whose sole purpose 
ance or aiding their associates who suffer from a viola- is to promote or obtain some commercial, domestic, 




or political advantage, such as the ordinary trades- 
unions. In such organizations men of every variety 
of religious belief combine together, and many Catho- 
lics are found among the members. There can be no 
objection to such societies as long as the end intended 
and the means employed are licit and honourable. 
It remains, however, the duty of the bishops to see 
that members of their flock suffer no diminution of 
faith or contamination of morals from such organisa- 
tions. Experience has proved that secular societies, 
while perfectly unobjectionable in their avowed ends, 
may cause grave spu'itual danger to their members. 

avowedly Catholic. If they 
did otherwise, they would be false to their duty to- 
wards their flock. It may be well to quote here the 
weighty words of an Instruction of the Holv Office 
(10 May, 1884): "Concerning artisans and laboiirers, 
among whom various societies are esoecially desirous 
of securing members that they may destroy the very 
foundations of religion and society, let the bishops 
place before their eyes the ancient guilds of working- 
men, which, under the protection of some patron 
saint, were an ornament of the commonwealth and an 
aid to the higher and lower arts. They will again 
found such societies for men of commercial and liter- 
ary pursuits, in which the exercises of religion will go 
hsoia in hand with the benevolent aims that seek to 
assuage the ills of sickness, old age, or poverty. Those 
who preside over such societies should see that the 
members commend themselves by the probity of their 
morals, the excellence of their work, tne docility and 
assiduity of their labours, so that they mav more 
securely provide for their sustenance. Let the bishops 
themselves not refuse to watch over such societies, sug- 
gest or approve by-laws, conciliate employers, and give 
ev^ assistance and patronage that lie in their power." 
There are many societies of Catholics or societies 
of which Catholics are members that employ methods 
which seem imitations derived from various organiza- 
tions prohibited by the Church. It may be well, 
therefore, to state that no Catholic is allowed, as a 
member of any societv whatever, to take an oath of 
blind and unlimited obedience; or promise secrecy of 
such a nature that, if circumstances require it, he 
may not revesd certain thing^ to the lawful ecclesiasti- 
cal or civil authorities; or join in a ritual which would 
be equivalent to sectarian worship (see Societies, 
Secret). Even when a societv is founded by Cath- 
lics or is constituted principally of Catholics, it is 
possible for it to degenerate into a harmful organi- 
zation and call for the intervention of the authority 
of the Church. Such was the fate of the once bril- 
liant and meritorious French society "Le Sillon", 
which was condemned by Pius X (25 Aug., 1910). 
It is often expedient for Catholic societies to be in- 
corporate by the civil authority as private corpora^ 
tions. In fact, this is necessary u they wish to possess 
property or receive bequests in their own name. In 
some coimtries, as Russia, such incorporation is 
almost impossible; in others, as Germany and France, 
the Government makes many restrictions; but in 
English-speaking countries there is no difficulty. In 
England societies may be incorporated not only by 
special legal act. but also by common law or by pre- 
scription. In tne United States a body corporate 
may be formed only by following the plan proposed 
by a law of Congress or a statute of a state legisla- 
ture. The procedure varies slij^tly in difrerent 
states, but as a rule incorporation is effected by filing 
a paper in the office of the secretary of state or with a 
circuit judge, stating the object and methods of the 
society. Toree incorporators are sufficient, and the 
petition will always be granted if the purposes 
of the association are not inconsistent with the laws of 
thtt United States or of the particular state in question. 

LAtntBNTitrB, InstilvHonet jurit eedenaatici (Frlbourg. 190^; 
WKRNf , Jut deattaliumt III (Rcune, 1901) ; Azcbnsr, Compm' 
dium jurit eccknaUici (Brizen, 1895); BKBXNaBR, Die ANdMi 
(13th ed., Paderbom. 1911; French tr., 1905); Tatlob, The Law 
of Brivate Corporatume (New York, 1902) ; Handbook of Catholic 
CharilabU and Social Worke (London, 1912). 

William H. W. Fanning. 

Soeieties, Catholic, American Federation of. 
an organization of the Catholic laity, parishes, ana 
societies under the guidance of the tderarchy, to 
protect and advance their religious, civil, and social 
mterests. It does not destroy the autonomy of any 
society or interfere with its activities, but seeks to 
unite all of them for purposes of co-operation and 
economy of forces. It is not a political organization, 
neither does it ask any privileges or favours for Cath- 
olics. The principal object of the Federation is to 
encourage (1) the Christian education of youth; (2) 
the correction of error and exposure of falsehood and 
injustice; the destruction of bigotry; the placing of 
Catholics and the Church in their true light, thus re- 
moving the obstacles that have hitherto impeded their 
progress; (3) the infusion of Christian principles into 
public and socisd life, by combatting the errors threat- 
ening to imdermine the foundations of civil society, 
notably socialism, c^vorce, dishonesty in business, ana 
corruption in pKolitics and positions of public trust. 
TTie first organization to inaugurate the movement 
for a conceited action of the societies of Catholic 
laymen was the Knights of St. John. At their annual 
meeting held at Cleveland in 1899 they resolved to 
unite the efforts of their local commanderies. In 1900 
at Philadelphia they discussed the question of a fed- 
eration of all the Catholic societies. As a result a 
convention was held on 10 Dec., 1901^ at Cincinnati, 
under the presidency of Mr. H. J. Fries. Two hun- 
dred and. fifty delegates were present under the guid* 
ance of Bishop McFaul of Trenton^ Bishop Messmer of 
Green Bay^ now Archbishop of Milwaukee, the princi- 

Eal factors m the organization of the movement, Arch^ 
ishop Elder of Cincinnati, Bishop Horstmann of 
Cleveland, and Bishop Maes of Covington. A char- 
ter bond was framed and the Federation formally 
established, with Mr. T. B. Minahan as ita first presi- 
dent. Since then annual conventions have been 
held. The Federation represents close to two million 
Catholics. It has been approved by Popes Leo XIII 
and Pius X, and practically all the hierarchy of the 
country. The fruits of the labours of the organiza- 
tion have been manifold; among other things it has 
helped to obtain a fair settlement of the disputes con- 
cerning the church property in the Philippines, per- 
mission for the celebration m Mass in the navy-yards, 
prisons, reform schools; assistance for the Catholic 
Indian schools and negro missions; the withdrawal 
and prohibition of indecent plays and post-cards. It 
has prevented the enactment of laws inimical to 
Catholic interests in several state legislatures. One 
of its chief works has been the uniting of the Catholic^ 
of different nationalities, and luumonizing their 
efforts for self-protection and improvement. It pub- 
lishes a monthly Bulletin, whicn contains valuable 
social studies. The national secretary is Mr. Anthony 
Matr6, Victoria Building, St. Louis, Missouri. 

MatriA, Hist, of (he Feder. of Cath. Soe. in The Catholic Colum* 
Wan (Cdumbufl, Ohio, 18 Aug., 1911); McFaul, The Amer. Feder. 
e/Cath. Soc. (C^noixmati. 1911). 

A. A. MacEblean. 

Societies, Secret, a designation of which the exact 
meaning has varied at different times. 1. Defini- 
tion.— B^ a secret society was formerly meant a 
society which was known to exist, but whose members 
and places of meetings were not publicly known. 
To-day, we understand by a secret society, a society 
with secrets, having a ritual demanding an oath of 
allegiance and secrecy, prescribing ceremonies of a 
religious character, sucn as the use of the Bible, either 




by extracts therefrom, or by its bemg placed on an 
altar within a lodge-room, by the use of prayers, of 
hymns, of religious signs and symbols, special funeral 
services, etc.'" (Rosen, ''The Catholic Church and 
Secret Societies", p. 2). Raich gives a more elabo- 
rate description: ''Secret societies are those organiza- 
tions which completely conceal their rules, corporate 
activity, the names of their membcors, their signs, pass- 
vrords and usages from outsiders or the 'profane'. 
As a rule, the membersxof these societies are bound to 
the strictest secrecy concerning all the business of the 
association by oath or promise or word of honour, and 
often under the threat of severe punishment in case of 
its violation. If such secret society has higher and 
lower degrees, the members of the higher degree must 
be equaUy cax-eful to conceal their secrets fiom their 
brethren of a lower degree. In certain secret societies, 
the members are not allowed to know even the names 
of their highest officers. Secret societies were 
founded to promote certain ideal aims, to be obtained 
not by violent but by moral measures. By this, they 
are (ustingushed from conspiracies and secret plots 
which are formed to attain a particular object through 
violent means. Secret societies may be religious, 
scientific, political or social" (Kirchenlex., Y, p. 
510). Narrowing the definition still more to the 
technical meaninjg of secret societies (socieiates dan- 
destiruB) in ecclesiastical documents. Archbishop Kat- 
zer in a Pastoral (20 Jan., 1895) says: "The Catholic 
Church has declared that she consiaers those societies 
illicit and forbidden which (1) unite their members 
for the purpose of conspiring against the State or 
Church; (2) demand the observance of secrecy to such 
an extent that it must be maintained even before the 
rightful ecclesiastical authority; (3) exact an oath 
from their members or a promise of blind and abso- 
lute ob^ence; (4) make use of a ritual and cere- 
monies that constitute them sects. " 

II. Origin. — ^Though secret societies, in the mod- 
em and technical sense, did not exist in antiquity, yet 
there were various organizations which boasted an 
esoteric doctrine known only to their members, and 
carefully concealed from the ptofane. Some date 
societies of this kind back to r3rthagoras (582-507 
B.C.). The Eleusinian Mysteries, the secret teach- 
ings of Egyptian and Druid hierarchies, the esoteric 
doctrines of the Magian and Mithraic worshippers 
furnished material for such secret organizations. In 
Christian times, such heresies as the Gnostic and 
Manichsan also claimed to possess a knowledge 
known only to the illuminated and not to be shared 
with the vulgar. Likewise, the enemies of the 
religious order of Knights Templars maintained that 
the brothers of the Temple, while externally professing 
Christianity, were in reality pagans who veiled their 
impiety under orthodox terms to which an entirely 
different meaning was given by the initiated. Orig- 
inally, the various guilds of the Middle Ages were m 
no sense secret societies in the modern acceptation of 
the term, though some have supposed that symbolic 
Freemasonry was gradually develoi)ed in those or- 
ganizations. The fantastic Rosicrucians are credited 
with something of the nature of a modem secret so- 
ciety, but the association, if such it was, can scarcely 
be said to have emerged into the clear light of histoiy. 

III. MoDBRN Organizations. — Secret societies in 
the true sense began with symbolic Freemasonry 
about the year 1717 in London (see Masonry). This 
widespread oath-bound association soon became the 
exemplar or the parent of numerous other fraternities, 
nearly all of which have some connexion with Free- 
masonry, and in almost every instance were founded 
by Masons. Among these may be mentioned the 
Ifiuminati, the Carbonari, the Odd-Fellows, the 
Knights of Pythias, the Sons of Temperance and 
aimilEU' societies whose number is legion. Based on 
the same principles as the secret order to which they 

are affiliated are the women-auxfiiary k)dge8, of 
which almost every secret society has at least one. 
These secret societies for women have also their 
rituals, their oaths, and their d^rees. Institutions of 
learning are also infected with the glamour of secret or- 
ganizations and the "Eleusis" of Chi Omega (Fayette- 
ville. Ark.) of 1 June, 1900, states that liiere are twenty- 
four Greek letter societies with seven hundred and 
sixty-eight branches for male students, and eight sim- 
ilar societies with one hundred and twenty branches for 
female students, and a total membership of 1^,456 in 
the higher institutions of learning in the United states. 


The judgment of the Church on secret oath-bound 
associations has been made abundantly clear by papal 
documents. Freemasonry was condenmed by Clem- 
ent XII in a Constitution, dated 28 April, 1738. The 
pope insists on the objectionable character of societies 
that commit men of all or no religion to a system of 
mere natural righteousness, that seek their end by 
binding their votaries to secret pacts by strict oaths, 
often under penalties of the severest character, ana 
that ^t against the tranquillity of the State. Ben- 
edict AlV renewed the condemnation of his predeces- 
sor on 18 May, 1751. The Carbonari were declared 
a prohibited society by Pius VII in a Constitution 
dated 13 Sept., 18^1, and he made it manifest that 
organizations similar to Freemasonry involve an 
equal condemnation. The Apost^olic Constitution 
"Quo Graviora" of Leo XII (18 March, 1825) put 
together the acts and decrees of former pontiffs on the 
subject of secret societies and ratified and confinned 
them. The dangerous character and tendencies of 
secret organizations among students did not escape 
the vigilance of the Holy S^, and Pius VIII (24 May, 
1829) raised his warning voice concerning those m 
colleges and academies, as his predecessor, Leo XII, 
had done in the matter of universities. The suc- 
ceeding popes, Gregory XVI (15 Aug., 1832) and 
Pius IX (9 Nov., 1846; 20 Apr., 1849; 9 Dec, 1854; 
8 Dec., 1864; 25 Sept., 1865), continued to warn the 
faithful against secret societies and to renew the ban 
of the Church on their designs and members. On 
20 Apr., 1884. appeared the famous Encyclical of 
Leo AlII, ''Mumanum Genus". In it the pontiff 
says: ''As soon as the constitution and spirit of the 
masonic sect were clearly discovered by manifest si^ns 
of its action, by cases investigated, by the publication 
of its laws and of its rites and commentaries, with the 
addition often of the personal testimony of those who 
were in the secret, tne Apostolic See denounced the 
sect of the Freemasons and publicly declared its con- 
stitution, as contrary to law and right, to be perni- 
cious no less to Christendom than to the State; and it 
forbade anyone to enter the society, under the penal- 
ties which the Church is wont to inflict upon excep- 
tionally guilty persons. The sectaries, indignant at 
this, thinkine to elude or to weaken the force of these 
decrees, partly by contempt of them and partly by 
calumny, accused the Sovereign Pontiffs who had 
uttered them, either of exceeding the bounds of mod- 
eration or of decreeing what was not just. This was 
the manner in which they endeavoured to dude the 
authority and weight of the Apostolic Constitutions 
of Clement XII and Benedict XIV, as well as of 
Pius VIII and Pius IX. Yet in the very society itself, 
there were found men who unwillingly acknowledged 
that the Roman Pontiffs had acted within their ri^t, 
according to the Catholic doctrine and discipline. 
The pontiffs received the same assent, and in strong 
terms, from many princes and heads of governments, 
who made it their business either to delate the 
masonic society to the Holy See, or of their own accord 
by special enactments to brand it as pernicious, as for 
example in Holland, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, 
Bavaria, Savoy and other parts of Italy. But, what 
is of the highest importance, the course of events has 




demonstrated Ihe prudence of our predecessors''. 
Leo XIII makes it clear that it is not only the society 
explicitly caJled Masonic that is objectionable: ''There 
are sever^ organised bodies which, though they differ 
in name, in ceremonial, in form and ongm, are never- 
theless so bound together by oommumty of purpose 
and b^ the similarity of their main opinions as to 
make in fact one thing with the sect of the FVee- 
masons, which is a kind of centre whence thev all go 
forth and whither they all return. Now, these no 
lon^ show a desire to remain concealed; for they hold 
their meetings in the daylight and before the public 
eye, and publish their own newspaper organs; and yet, 
when thoroughly understood, they are found still to 
retain the nature and the habits of secret societies. '' 
The pope is not unmindful of the professed benevo- 
lent aims of these societies: ''They speak of their zeal 
for a more cultured refinement ana of their love of 
the poor; and they declare their one wish to be the 
ameuoration of the condition of the masses, and to 
diiare with the largest possible number all the benefits 
of civil life. Even were these purposes aimed at in 
real truth, vet they are by no means the whole of their 
object. Moreover, to be enrolled, it is necessary that 
candidates promise and undertake to be thencefor- 
ward strictly obedient to their leaders and masters 
with the utmost submission and fidelity, and to be in 
readiness to do their bidding upon the slightest expres- 
sion of their will." The pontiff then points out the 
dire consequences which result from the fact that these 
societies substitute Naturalism for the Church of 
Christ and inculcate, at the very least, indiffercntism 
in matters of religion. Other papal utterances on 
secret societies are: "Ad Apostolici", 15 Oct., 1890; 
"Praeclara", 20 June, 1894; "Annum Ingressi", 18 
Mar., 1902. 

V. The Societies Fobbidden. — The extension of 
the decrees of the Apostolic See in regard to societies 
hitherto forbidden under censure is summed up in 
the well-known Constitution "Apostolic® Sedis^' of 
Pius DC, where excommunication is pronounced 
aeainst those "who give their names to the sect of the 
Masons or C'U'bonari or any other sects of the same 
nature, which conspire against the Church or lawfully 
constituted Governments, either openly or covertly, 
as well as those wll6 favor in any manner these sects 
or who do not denounce their leaders and chiefs". 
The condemnea societies here described are associa- 
tions formed to antagonize the Church or the lawful 
civil power. A society to be of the same kind as the 
Masonic, must also be a secret organization. It is oif 
no cons^uence whether the society demand an oath 
to observe its secrets or not. It is plain also that pub- 
lic and avowed attacks on Church or State are quite 
compatible with a secret organization. It must not 
be supposed, however, that only societies which fall 
directly imder the formal censiire of the Church are 
prohibited. The Congregation of the Holy Office 
issued an instruction on 10 May, 1884, in which it 
says: "That there may be no possibilitv of error when 
there is question of judging which of these pernicious 
societies fall under censure or mere prohibition, it is 
certain, in the first place, that the Masonic and other 
sects of the same nature are excommunicated, whether 
t^ey exact or do not exact an oath from their mem- 
t^ to observe secrecy. Besides these, there are 
other prohibited societies, to be avoided under grave 
sin, among which are e^cially to be noted those 
which, under oath, communicate a secret to their 
members to be concealed from everybody eke, and 
which demand absolute obedience to unknown lead- 
ers". To the secret societies condemned by name, 
the Congregation of the Holy Office, on 20 Aug^ 1894. 
in a Decree addressed to the hierarchy of the Ilnitea 
States, added the Odd-Fellows, the Sons of Tem- 
perance, and the Knights of Pythias. 

VT. Recently CoypgaoigD S buicwE S.*-^^ otd^ 

of Odd-Fellows was formed in England in 1812 as a 
completed orj^nization, though some lodges date back 
to 1/45: and it was introducea into America in 1819. 
In the ''Odd-Fellows' Improved Pocket Manual'' the 
author writes: "Our institution has instinctively^ as it 
were, copied after all secret associations of rehgious 
and moral character". The "North-West Odd-Fel- 
low Review" (May, 1895) declares: "No home can be 
an ideal one unless the principles of our ^ood and 
^orious Order are represented therein, and its teach- 
mgs made the rule of life". In the "New Odd-Fel- 
lows' Manual" (N. Y., 1895) the author says: "The 
written as well as the unwritten secret work of the 
Order^ I have sacredly kept unrevealed", though the 
book IS dedicated "to all inquirers who desire to know 
what Odd-Fellowship really is". This book tells us 
"Odd-Fellowship was founded on great religious prin- 
ciples" (p. 348); "we use forms of worship" (p. 364); 
"Judaism, ChriBtianity, Mohammedanism recosxdse 
the only living and true God" (p. 297). The Odd- 
Fellows have chaplains, altars, nigh-priests, ritual, 
order of worship, and funeral ceremonies. Tne order 
of the Sons of Temperance was founded in New York 
in 1842 and introduced into England in 1846. The 
"Cyclopaedia of Fraternities" says (p. 409): "The 
Sons of Temperance took the lead m England in 
demonstrating the propriety and practicability of 
both men and women mingling in secret society 
lodges". That the object of this order and its kin* 
dr^ societies is not confined to temperance "is evi- 
denced by its mode of initiation, the torm of the obli- 
gation and the manner of religious worship" (Rosen, 
p. 162). The order of the Knights of I^thias was 
founded in 1864 by prominent Freemasons (Cyclop, 
of Fraternities, p. 263). In number, its membership 
is second only to that of the Odd-Fellows. Rosen 
(The Catholic Church and Secret Societies) says: 
"The principal objectionable features, on accoimt of 
which the Catholic Church has forbidaen its members 
to join the Knights of Pythias, and demanded a with- 
drawal of those who joined it, are: First, the oath of 
secrecy by which the member binds himself to keep 
secret whatever concerns the doings of the Order, even 
from those in Church and State who have a right to 
know, under certain conditions, what their subjects 
are doing. Secondly, this oath binds the member to 
blind obedience, which is symbolized by a test. Such 
an obedience is against the law of man's nature, and 
against all divine and human law. Thirdly, Chnst is 
not the teacher and model in the rule of life, but the 
pagan Pythagoras and the pagans Damon, Pythias 
and Dionvsius" (p. 160). The "Ritual for the sub- 
ordinate Lodges of the Knights of Pythias" (Chicago, 
1906) shows tnat this organization has oaths, degrees, 
prelates, and a ritual that contains religious worship. 
The decree of the Holy Office concerning the Odd- 
Fellows, Sons of Temperance, and Knights of Pythias, 
though not declaring them to be condemned under 
censure, says: "The bishops must endeavour by all 
means to keep the faithful from joining all and each 
of the three aforesaid societies; and warn the faithful 
against them^ and if, after proper monition, thev still 
determine to be members of these societies, or do not 
effectualljr separate themselves from them, they are 
to be forbidden the reception of the sacraments. A 
decree of 18 Jan., 1896, allows a nominal membership in 
these three societies, if in the judgment of the Apos- 
tolic delegate, four conditions are fulfilled: that the 
society was entered in good faith, that there be no 
scandal, that grave temporal injury would result from 
withdrawal, and that tnere be no danger of perver- 
sion. The delegate^ in granting a dispensation, usu- 
ally requires a promise that the person will not attend 
any meetings or frequent the lodge-rooms, that the 
dues be sent in by mail or by a third party, and that in 
ease of death the Bodety will have nothing to do with 
th'e fOfieraL 

80GIBT7 74 60CIET7 

VII. Orders of Woicen. — ^In regard to female bodies the historical concept as definiUsed by cogent 
secret aocietieSy the Apostolic delegation at Washing- reasoning. Under such reasoning it has become the 
ton, 2 Au^.y 1907, declared (Ans. no. 15,352-C): ''If e^ntial idea of society and remains so still, not- 
these societies are affiliated to societies already withstanding the perversion of philosophical terms 
nominally condemned by the Church, they fall under consequent upon later confusion of man with beast, 
the same condenmation, for they form, as it were, a stock, and stone. It is a priori only as far as chas- 
branch of such societies. As regards other female tened by restrictions put upon it by the necessities of 
secret societies which may not be affiliated with socie- known truth, and is a departure from the inductive 
ties condemned expressly bv the Church, the confessor method in vogue to-day only so far as to exclude 
must, in cases of members belonging to such societies, rigidly the aberrations of uncivilized tribes and de- 
apply the principles of moral theology which treat of gen^ate races from the requirements of reason and 
secret societies in general. ** The document adds that basic truth. Historical induction taken alone, while 
members of female secret societies affiliated to the investigating efficient causes of society, may yet miss 
three societies condemned in 1894 will be dealt with its essential idea, and is in peril of including irrational 
by the Apostolic delegate in the same manner as male abuse with rational action and development, 
members when the necessary conditions are fulfillet'. The first obvious requisite in all society is authority. 

VIII. Trades Unions. — ^The Third Council of Without this there can be no secure co-ordination of 
Baltimore (no. 253) declares: " We see no reason why effort nor permanency of co-operation. No secure 
the prohibition of the Church against the Masonic co-ordination, for men's judgment will differ on the 
and other secret societies should be extended to organ- relative value of means for the common purpose, men's 
usations of workingmen, which have no other object choice will vary on means of like value; and unless 
in view than mutual protection and aid for their there is some headship, confusion will result. No 
members in the practice oi their trades. Care must permanence of co-operation, for the best of men relax 
be taken, however, that Dothine be admitted under m their initial resolutions, and to hold them at a co- 
any pretext whicn favors condemned societies; or ordinate task, a tightxein and a steady spur is needed, 
that the workingm^i who belong to these organiza- In fact, reluctant though man is to surrender the 
tions be induced, by the cunning arts of wicked men, smallest tittle of independence and submit in the 
to withhold, contrary to the laws of justice, the labor slightest his freedom to the bidding of another, there 
due from them, or m any other manner violate the never has been in the history of the world a successful, 
rights of their employers. Those associations are nor even a serious attempt at co-operative effort with- 
also entirely illicit, in which the members are so out authoritative guidance (see Authority, Civil). 
bound for mutual defense that danger of riots and Starting with this definition and requirement, philos- 
murders is the outcome. " ^ ophy finds itself confronted with two kinds of society, 

IX. Method of Condemnation. — ^Finally, in re- the artificial or conventional, and the natural; and on 
gard to the condemnation of individual societies in pursuing the subject, finds the latter differentiating 
the United States, the coimcil says (no. 255) : "To itself into domestic society, or the family, civil society, 
avoid confusion of discipline which ensues^ to the or the State, and religious society, or the Chiirch. 
great scandal of the faithful and the detrmiient of Each of these has a special treatment imder other 
ecclesiastical authority, when the same society is headings (see Family; State and Church). Here, 
condemned in one diocese and tolerated in another, however, we shall state the philosophic' basis of each, 
we desire that no society be condemned by name as and add thereto the theories which have had a vogue 
falling under one of the classes [of forbidden societies] for the last three centuries, though breaking down 
before the Ordinary has brought the matter before a now under the strain of modem problems before the 
commission which we now constitute for judging such bar of calm judgment. 

cases, and which will consist of all the archbishops Conventional Societies. — ^The plurality of per- 

of these provinces. If it be not plain to all that a sons, the community of aim, the stability of bond, 

society is to be condemned, recourse must be had authority, and some co-operation of effort being ele- 

to the Holy See in order that a definite judgment be ments common to every form of society, the difteren- 

obtained and that uniform discipline may be pre- tiation must come from differences in the character 

served in these provinces". of the purpose, in the nature of the bond. Qualifica- 

STBV1BK8, The Ci/ciopadM of FraiemiHea (New YcM-k, 1907) ; tions of authority as well as modifications in details 

Cook, Retiaed KnighU of Pythuu lUtutrated—RUual for Svbord*- _^ -omiJoi+o />/w^rCoi<af I'nn win fnllnw nn nhanawi in iht* 

note Lodgea of the Knighta of Pyihiaa Adored bu the Supreme <>' requisite CO-operatlon JVlJl tOllOW on Changes in tftC 

Lodge (Chicago, 1906) ; Idem. Retfiaed Odd-FeUowahtp lOuatraiad^ purpose and the extent of the bond. As many, then. 

The Complete Reviaed RUw^ (ChicMo, 1906); c^rnahan, Pvth- ^s there are objects of human desh-e attainable by 

^^i.WwiSTr'^iii'^^dZ-.'wh (Sith^^-^L^tt common effort (and their. name is l^on, trout the 

(New Orleans, 1899); Dallman, Odd-Fdiowahip Weighed— makmg of money, which IS perhaps the commonest 

Wanting (PittaburRh. 1906); Gerber, Der Odd-FeUow Orden, to-dav, tO the rendering of publlC Worship tO OUr 

tt. Daa pecret vom 1894 (Berlin. 1896) ; MacDill and Blanchard, Motor vnhinh \a rupaIv f ho mnQf sflPTW^^ nn mn.nifn1H 

Secret Soctetiea (ChicaKO. 1891); Dallmann, Opiniona on Secret ^0^^ WHICH 18 SUTCly tne mOSl Sacreo;, SO manuOlQ 

Soeietiea (Pittoburgh. 1906); H. C. s., Ttoo Diacouraea Againat are the co-operative associations of men. Ihe char- 

^et Oaih'Bound Soctetiea or Lodgea (Columbua. o., s. dO; acter, as wefl as the existence of most of them, is left 

^^k^CK^'JrsJTs::S^'^.l^l' ^r^^l -^ ^l freedom to human choice. These may be de- 

Idem, Reply to my Critica of the Calh. Church and Secret SoeieHea nommated conventional BOCietieS. Man 18 Under no 

(Dubuque, 1903). See alao the extended bibliography appended precept tO establish th-^m, nor in universal need of 

,0 .rude M*«o.v.T. fc_^f ^^n^'rjJ^*1.n!iT ^V^if.^fcfn 

1 hey serve a pasemg purpose, and m settmg tnem up 

Society implies fellowship, company, and has al- men give them the exact character which they judge 

ways been conceived as signifying a human relation, at present suitable for their i)urpose, determining as 

and not a herding of sheep, a hiving of bees, or a mat- they see fit the limits of authority, the choice of means, 

ing of wild animals. The accepted definition of a the extent of the bond holding them together, as well 

society is a stable union of a plurality of persons co- as their own individual reservations. Everything 

^>erating for a common purpose of benefit to all. about such a society is of free election, barring the 

The. fulness of co-operation involved naturally ex- fact that the essential requisites of a society must be 

tends to all the activities of the mind, will, and there. We find this type exemplified in a reading 

external faculties, commensurate with the common circle, a bMsiness partnership, or a private charitable 

purpose and the bond of union: this alone presents organization. Of course, in establishing such a society 

an adequate^ human working-together. men are under the Natural Law of right and wrong, 

This definition is as old as the Schoolmen, and cm- and there can be no moral bond, for example, where 




the oommon ptiipoee is immoral. They also fall un- 
der the restrictioDs of the civil law, when the existence 
or action of such aa organization comes to have a 
bearing, whether of promise or of menace, upon the 
common weal. In such case the State lays aown its 
eflsential requirements for the formation of such 
bodiee, and so we come to have what is known as a 
1^^ society, a society, namely, freely established 
under the sanction and according to the requirements 
of the civil law. Such are mercantile corporations 
and beneficial organizations with civil charter. . 

Natueal So^Bniis. — Standing apart from the 
foregoing in a class by themselves tare the family, the 
State, aiNi the Church. That these differ from all 
other societies in purpose and means, is clear and 
universally admitted. That they have a general ap- 
plication to the whole human race, histoQr declares. 
That there is a difference between the bond holding 
them in existence and the bond of union in every other 
society, has been disputed — with more enthusiasm 
and imafpnation, however, than logical force. The 
logical view of the matter orings us to the concept o£ 
a natural society, a society, that is to say, which men 
are in general nadec a mandate of the natural law to 
establish, a society bv consequence whose essential 
requisites are finmy fixed by the same natural law 
To get at this is simple enough, if the philosophical 
poblems are taken up in due order. Ethics may not 
be divided from psycholo^ and theodicy, any more 
than from deductive logic. With the proper pro 
misals then from one and the other here aasumecL we 
say that the Creator could not have given man a fixed 
nature, as He has^ without willing man to work out 
the purpose for which that nature is framed. He can- 
not act idly and without purpose, cannot form His 
creature discordantly with the purpose of His will. 
He cannot multiply men on the face of the earth with- 
out a plan for working out the destiny of mankind 
at large. This plan must contain all the elements 
necessary to His purpose, and these necessary details 
He must have wuled man freely to accomplish, that 
is to say. He must have put upon man a strict obliga- 
tion thereunto. Other details may be alternatives, 
or helpful but not neoessarv, and these He has left 
to man's free choice; though where one of these ele- 
ments would of its* nature be far more helpful than 
another, God's counsel to man will be in favour of the 
former. God's will directing man through his nature 
to his share in the full purpose of the cosmic plan, we 
know as the natural law, containing precept, permis- 
sion, and counsel, aocoitling to the necessity, help- 
fulness, or extraordinary vSue of an action to the 
achievement of the Divine purpose. We recognize 
these in the concrete by a rational study of the essen- 
tial characteristics of human nature and its relations 
with the rest of the universe. If we find a natural 
aptitude in man for an action, not at variance with 
the general purpose of things, we recognize also the 
lioaioe of the natural law to that action. If we find 
a more urgent natural propensity to it, we recognize 
further the counsel of the law. If we nnd the use of 
a natiural faculty, the following ui) of a natural pro- 
pensitjr, inseparahle from the rational fulfilment of 
the ultimate destiny of the individual or of the human 
race, we know that thereon Ues a mandate of the 
natural law, obliging the conscience of man. We 
must not, however, miss the difference, that if the 
need of the action or effort is for the individual natural 
destiny, the mandate lies on each human being sever- 
ally: but if the need be for the natural destinv of the 
raoc^ the precept does not descend to this or that par- 
ticular individluaL so long as the necessary bull of 
men accomplish tne detailso intended in the plan for 
the natural destiny of the race. This Is abstract rea- 
soning, but necessary for the understanding of a 
natural society in the fulness of its idea. 

A Soavrr Natural bt MAin)ATK. — A society, 

then, is natural by mandate, when the law of nature 
sets the precept upon mankind to estabUsh that 
society. The precept is recognized by the natural 
aptitude, propensity, and need in men for the estab- 
lishment of such a union. IVom this point of view 
the gift of speech alone is sufiicient to show man's 
aptitude for fellowship with his kind. It is empha- 
sized bv his manifold perfectibility through contact 
with others and through their permanent companion- 
ship. Furthermore hiiB normal shrinking from soli- 
tude, from working out the problems oT life alone, 
is evidence of a social propensity to which mankind 
has always yielded. If again we consider his depen- 
dence for existence and comfort on the multiplied 
products of co-ordinate human effort; and his de- 
pendence for the development of his physical, intel- 
lectual, and moral perfectibility on complex intercourse 
with others, we see a need, in view of man's ultimate 
destiny, that makes the actualization of man's ca^ 
pacity of or^^ized social co-operation a stringent law 
upon monkmd. Taking then the kinds of social 
organization universally existent among men, it is 
plain not only that they are the result of natural 
propensities, but that, as analysis shows, they are a 
human need and hence are prescribed in the code of 
the Natural Law. 

A Society Natural in Essbi^tials. — ^Further- 
more, as we understand a legal contract to be one 
which, because of its abutment on common interests, 
the civil law hedges round with restrictions and reser- 
vations for their protection, similarly on examination 
we sluJl find that all agreements by which men enter 
into stable social union are fenced m with limitations 
set by the natural law guarding the essential interests 
of the good of mankind. When, moreover, we come 
to social unions prescribed for mankind by mandate 
of that law. we expect to find the purpose of the union 
set by the law (otherwise the law would not have pre- 
scribed the union), all the details morally necessary 
for the rational attainment of that purpose fixed by 
the law, and all obstacles threatening sure defeat to 
that purpose, proscribed by the same. A natural 
society, then, besides being natural by mandate, will 
also be natural in all its essentials, for as much as these 
too shall be determined and ordained by the law. 

The Family a Natural Society. — Working along 
these lines upon the data given by ejmerience, per- 
sonal as welt as through the proxy of history, the 
philosopher finds in man's nature, considered physio- 
logically and psychologically, the aptitude, propensity, 
and, both as a general thing and for mankind at large, 
the need of the matrimonial relation. Seeine the 
natural and needful purpose to which this relation 
shapes itself to be in full tne mutually perfecting com- 
pensation of common life between man and woman, 
as well as the procreation and education of the child, 
and keeping in mind that Nature's Lawgiver has in 
view the rational development of the race (or human 
nature at large) as well as of the individual, we con- 
clude not only to abiding rational love as its distin- 
guishing characteristic, out to monogamy and a 
stability that is exclusive of absolute divorce. This 
gives ^us the essential requisites of domestic society, 
a stable union of man and wife bound together to 
work for a fixed common good to themsdves and 
humanity. When this com])any is filled out with 
children and its incidental complement of houschojvl 
servants, we have domestic society in its fullness. It 
is created under mandate of the natural law, for 
thou^ this or that individual may safely eschew 
matrunony for some good purpose, mankind may not. 
The individual in exception need not be concerned 
about the purpose of the Lawgiver, as human nature 
is so constituted that mankind will not fail of its ful- 
filment. The efficient cause of this domestic union 
in the concrete instance is the free consent of the 
initial couple, but the character of the juridical bond 




which they thuH freely accept is dct-ermined for them 
by the natural law according to Nature's full purpose. 
Husband and wife may see to their personal benefit 
in choosing to establish a domestic conmiunity, but 
the interests of the child and of the future race are 
safegucutled by the law. The essential purpose of 
this society we have stated above. The essential 
requisite of authority takes on a divided character 
of partnership, because of the separate functions of 
husband and wife requiring authority as well sua call- 
ing for harmonious a^eement upon details of conunon 
interest: but the headship of final decision is put by 
the law, as a matter of ordinary course, in the man, 
as is snown by his natural characteristics marking 
him for the preference. The essential limitations 
forbid plural marriage, race-suicide, Ghexual excess, 
unnecessary separation, and absolute divorce. 

The State a Natural Society. — On the same 
principle of human aptitude, propensitv, and need for 
"he individual and the race, we find the larger social 
unit of civil society manifested to us as pivt of the 
Divine set purpose with regard to human nature, and 
«y) under i)rece])t of the natural law. Again, the ex- 
«)eptional individual may take to solitude tor some 
« ennobling purpose; but ne is an exception, and the 
bulk of mankmd will not hesitate to fulfil Nature's 
bidding and accomplish Nature's purpose. In the 
(Concrete instance civil 80ciet}r, though morally in- 
(3umbent on man to establish, still comes into existence 
by the exercise of his free activity. We have seen 
the same of domestic society, which begins by the 
mutual free consent of man and woman to the accept- 
ance of the bond involving all the natural rights and 
duties of the permanent matrimonial relation. The 
beginning of civil society as an historical fact has taken 
on divers colours, far different at dififerent times and 
places. It has arisen bv peaceful expansion oL a 
family into a widespreaa kmdred eventually linked 
togetner in a civil union. It has sprung mm the 
multiplication of independent families in tne coloniz- 
ing of undeveloped lands. It has come into being 
under the strong hand of conquest enforcing law, 
order, and civil organization, not always justly, upon 
a people. There have been rare instances of its birth 
through the tutoring efforts of the gentler type of 
civilizers, who came to spread the Gospel. But the 
juridical origin is not obviously identical with this. 
History alone exhibits only the manifold confluent 
causes which moved men into an organized civil unit. 
The juridical cause is quite another matter. This is 
the cause which of its character under the natural law 
puts the actual moral bond of civil union upon the 
many in the concrete, imposes the concrete obligation 
involving all the rights, duties, and powers native to 
a State, even as the mutual consent of the contracting 
parties creates the mutual bond of initial domestic 
society. This determinant has been under dispute 
among Catholic teachers. 

^The common view of Scholastic philosophy, so ably 
developed by Francis Suarez, S.J., sets it in the con- 
sent of the constituent members, whether given ex- 
plicitly in the acceptance of a constitution, or tacitly 
by submitting to an organization of another's making, 
even if this consent be not given by immediate sur- 
render, but by gradual process of slow and often reluc- 
tant acquiescence in the stability of a common union 
for the essential civil purpose. In the earlv fifties of 
the nineteenth centuiy Luigi Taparelli, S. J., borrow- 
ing an idea from C. de Haller of Berne, brilliantly 
developed a theory of the juridical origin of civd 
government, whicn has dominated in the Italian 
Catholic schools even to the present day, as well as 
in Catholic schools in Europe^ whose professors of 
ethics have been of Italian training. In this theory 
oivil society has grown into being from the natural 
multiplication of cognate families, and the sraduoj 
extension of parentalpower. The patriarohiu State 

is the primitive form, the normal type, though by 
accident of circumstance States may begin here or 
there from occupation of the same wide territory un- 
der feudal ownership; by organisation consequent 
upon conquest; or in rarer instances by the common 
consent ot independent colonial freebolderB. These 
two Catholic views part company also in declaring 
the primitive juridical determinant of the concrete 
subject of supreme authority (see Axtthoritt, Civil). 
To-day the Catholic schools are divided between these 
two positions. We shall subjoin below other theories 
of the juridical origin of the State, which have no 
place in Catholic thought for the simple reason that 
they exclude the naturad character of civil society and 
throw to the winds the principles logically inseparable 
from the existing natural law. 

With regard to the essential elements in civil so- 
ciety fixed by the natural law, it is first to be noted 
that the normal unit is the family: for not only has 
the family come historicidly before tiie common- 
wealth, but the natural needs of man lead him first to 
that social combination, in pursuit of a natural result 
only to be obtained thereby; and it is logically only 
subsequent that the purpose ci civil society oomes into 
human life. Of course this does not mean that incli- 
viduals actually outside of the surrounding of family 
life cannot be constituent members of civil society 
with full civic rights and duties, but they are not th6 
primary unit; they are in the nature of things the ex- 
ception, however numerous they may be. and beyond 
the family limit of perfectibility it is in the interest of 
comfAementary development that civil activity is 
exercised. The State cannot eliminate the fanuly; 
neither can it rob it of its inalienable rights, nor bar 
the fulfilment of its inseparable duties, though it may 
restrict the exercise of certain family activities so as to 
co-ordinate them to the benefit of the body politic. 

Secondly, the natural object pursued by man in his 
ultimate social activity is perfect temporal happiness, 
the satisfacton, to wit, of his natural faculties to the 
full power of their development within his c«>acity, 
on his way, of course, to eternal felicity beyond earth. 
Man's happiness cannot be handed over to him, or 
thrust upon him by another here on earth; for his na- 
ture supposes that his possession of it, and so too in 
large measure his achievement of it, shall be by the 
exercise of his native faculties. Hence, civil society 
is destined by the natural law to give him his opportu- 
nity, i. e. to give it to all who share its citizenship. 
This shows the proximate natural purpose of the 
State to be: first, to establish and preserve sodal or- 
der, a condition, namely, wherein every man, as far as 
may be^ is secured in the possession and free exercise 
of all his rights, natural and legal, and is held up to 
the fulfilment of his duties as far as they bear upon 
the common weal; secondly, to put within reasonable 
reach of all citizens a fair allowance of the means of 
temporal happiness. This is what is known as external 
peace and prosperity, prosperity being also denomi- 
nated the relatively perfect sufiioiency of life. There 
are misconceptions enough about the generic purpose 
native to all civil society. De Haller thought that 
there is none such; that civil purposes are all specific, 
peculiar to each specific State. Kant limited it to 
external peace. Tne Manchester School did the same, 
leaving tne citizen to work out his subsistence and de- 
velopment as best he may. The Evolutionist con- 
sistently makes it the survival of the fittest, on the 
way to developing a better type. The modem peril is 
to treat the citizen merely as an industrial unit^ mis- 
taking national material progress for the goal ot civic 
energy; or as a military unit, lookins to self-preserva- 
tion as the nation's furst if not only aim. Neither 
material progress nor martial power, nor merely in- 
tellectual civilization, can fill tne requirements of ex- 
isting and expanding human nature. The State, 
while protecting a man's rights, must put him in the 




way of opportuziiiy for deveiopiog hi* •olm nAMiro, 
phyaieal. mental, and moral. 

Tliirdiy, the accomplishment of this calls for an 
authority which the Lawgiver of Nature, because he 
has ordained this society, has put within tiie compe- 
tency of the State, and which, because of its reach, ex- 
tendmg as it does to life and death, to reluctant sub- 
jects and to the postaity of its citizenship, surpasses 
the capacity of its citizenship to create out of any 
mere conventional surrender of natural rip^ts. The 
question of the origin of civil power and its concen- 
tration in this or that subject is like the origin oi 
society itself, a topic of debate. Catholic phikieophy 
is agreed that it is conferred by Nature's Lawgiver 
directly upon the social depositary thereof, as par- 
ental supremacy is upon the father of a family. But 
the determination of the depodtary is another matter. 
The doctrine of Suaree makes the community itself 
the depositaiv, immecfiately and naturally consequent 
upon its establishment of civil society, to be disposed 
oi then by their consent, overt or tacit, at once or by 
degrees, according as th^ determine for themselves a 
form of government. This is the only true philo- 
8cq>hical sense of the dictum that '' governments de- 
rive their just powers from the consent of the gov- 
erned''. The Taparelli school makes the primitive 
determinant out of an existing prior right ojf another 
character, which passes naturally into this power. 
Primitivdy this is parental supremacy grown to pa- 
triarchal dimenHions and resulting at the last in su- 
preme civil power. Secondarily, it may arise from 
other rights, showing natural aptitude preferentially 
in one subject or another, as that of feudal ownership 
of the territory of the^community , capacity to extricate 
order out of chaos in moments of civic confusion, mili- 
tary ability and success in case of just conquest, and, 
finally, in remote instances by uie consent of the 

Finally, the means by which the commonwealth will 
work toward its ideal condition of the largest measure 
of peace and prosperity attainable are embraced in 
the just exercise, imder direction of civil authority, of 
the physieal, mental^ and moral activities of the mem- 
bers of the commumty: and here the field of human 
endeavour is wide and expansive. However, the calls 
upon the individual by the governmental power are 
necessarily limit^ by uie scope of the natural purpose 
of the State and by the inalienable prior rights and 
inseparable duties conferred or imposed upon the in- 
dividual by the Natural Law. 

REuoiotiB SocnBTY de facto a Supernatural So- 
cnsTT. — ^If we analyse the moral development of man, 
we find looming laifse his obligation to worship his 
Creator, not on^ pnvately, but publicly, not only as 
an individual, but m social union. This opens up an- 
other kind ot sodety ordered by the natural law, to 
wit, religbus society. An examination of this in the 
natural order and by force of reason alone would seem 
to show that man, though morally obhged to social 
worship, was morally free to establish a parallel organ- 
ization for such worship or to merge its functions 
with those of the State, giving a (v>uble character 
to the enlarged society, namely, civil andretimous. 
Historically, among those who knew not Divine 
revelation, men would seem to have been inclined 
more to the latter; but not always so. Of course, the 
purpose and means of this relnpous social duty are so 
related to those of a merely civu society that consider- 
able care would have to be exercised m adjusting the 
balance of intersecting ri|^ts and duties, to define the 
rdative domains of rdigious and civil authority, and, 
finally, to adjudicate supremacy in case of direct ap- 
parent conflict. The development of all this has 
been givoi an entirely different turn through the in- 
tervention of the Creator in His creation by positive 
law revealed to man, changing the natural status into a 
higher one, eliminating natural religious society, and 

at the last esliablishing through the mission of our 
Lord Jesus Cnrlst an universal and unfailing relispous 
society in the Church. This is a supematunu re- 
ligious society. (See Church.) 

Non-Cathoug Theories. — ^Thomas Hobbes, start- 
ing from the assumption which Calvin had propagated 
that human nature is itself perverse and man essen- 
tially inept for consorting with his fellows, made 
the natural state of man to be one of universal and 
continuous warfare. This, of course, excludes the 
Maker of man from having destined him originally to 
society, since he would in Hobbes's view have ^ven 
him a nature exactly the reverse of a proportioned 
means. Hobbes thought that he found m man such 
selfish rivaliy, weak cowardice, and greed of self- 

gorification as to make him naturally prey upon his 
llows and subdue them, if he coula, to bis wants, 
making might to be the only source of right. How- 
ever, fiid^ Ufe intolerable (if not impossible) under 
such conditions, he resorted to a social pact with other 
men for the establi^ment of peace, and, as that was a 
prudent thing to do, man, adds Hobbes, was thus fol- 
lowing the dictates of reason and in that sense the law 
of nature. On this basis Hobbes could and did make 
civil authority consist in nothing more than the sum 
of the physical might of the people massed in a 
chosen centre of force. This theory was developed 
in the ^'Leviathan'' of Hobbes to account for the ex- 
istence of civil authority and civil society, but its 
author left bis reader to apply the sam^ perversity of 
nature and exercise of physical force for the taking of a 
wife or wives and establishing domestic society. 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, though borrowing largely 
from Hobbes cmd fearlessly carrying some of nis prin- 
ciples to their most extreme issue, had a view in part 
his own. As for the family, he was content to leave it 
as>a natural institution, with a stability, however, 
commensurate only with the need of putting the off- 
spring within reach of self-preservation. Not so for 
the State. Man naturally, he contended, was sylvan 
and solitary, a fine tj^pe of indolent animal, mating 
with his like and Uving in the pleasant ease of shady 
retreats by running waters. Me was virtuous, sum- 
cient to himself for his own needs, essentially free, 
leaving others alone in their freedom, and desirous of 
beingieft s^one in his. His life was not to be dis- 
turbed by the fever of ambitious desires, the burden of 
ideas, or the restriction of moral laws. Unfortu- 
natdy, he had a capacity and an itch for self-improve- 
ment, and his inventive genius, creating new conveni- 
ences, staji^ new deeds, ana, to meet these more 
readily, he entered into transitory agreements with 
other men. Then came differences, fraud, and quar- 
rels, and so ended the tranquil ease and innocence of 
his native condition. Throudi sheer necessity of 
self-defence, as in the theory of Hobbes, he took to the 
establishment of civil society. To do so without loss 
of personal freedom, there was but one way, namely, 
that all the members should ajpree to merge all their 
rights, wills, and personalities m a unit moral person 
and will, leaving the subject member the satisfaction 
that he was obeying but ms own will thus merged, and 
so in possession stiU of full Uberty in every act. Thus 
civil authority was but the merger of all rights and 
wills in the one supreme right and will of the com- 
munity. The merging agreement was Rousseau's 
" Social Contract ". Unfortunately for its author, aa 
he himself confessed, the condition of perfect, sielf- 
sufficient, lawless man was never seen on land or sea; 
and his social contract had no precedent in ail the 
centuries of the history of man. His dream ignored 
man's inalienable rights, took no account of ooercinff 
wills that would not agree, nor of the unauthorized 
merdng of the wills of posterity, and drained all the 
vitauty as well out of authority as out of obedience. 
He left authority a power shorn of the requisites es- 
sential for the purpose of civil security. 




The evolutionist, who has left the twisted turn of all 
his theories in much of the common language of the 
day, even after the theories themselves have died to all 
serious scientific acceptance, wished to make ethics a 
department of materialistic oiology . and have the ag- 
gregate of human entities assemble oy the same physi- 
cal laws that mass cells into a living being. Man's 
native tendency to persist, pure egoism, made him 
shrink from the danger of destruction or injury at the 
hands of other individuals, and this timidity became a 
moving force driving him to compoimd witn his peers 
into a unit source ofstrength without which he could 
not persist. From common life in this unit man's ego- 
ism began to take on a bit of altruism, and men ac- 
quired at the last a sense of the common good, which 
replaced their original timidity as the spring of merg- 
ing activity. Later mutual sympathy put forth its 
tendrils, a sense of unity sprang up, and man had a 
civil society. Herein was latent the capacity for ex- 
pressing the general will, which when developed be- 
came civil authority. This evolutionary process is 
still in motion towairl the last stand foreseen by the 
theorist, a universal democracy clad in a federation 
of the world. All this has been seriously and solemnly 
presented to our consideration with a naive absence of 
all sense of humour, with no suspicion that the human 
mind naturally refuses to confound the unchanging 
action of material attraction and repulsion with hu- 
man choice; or to mistake the fruit of intellectual 
Elanning and. execution for the fortuitous results of 
hnd force. We are not cowards all, and have not 
fled to society from the sole promptings of fear, but 
from the natural desire we have of human develop- 
ment. Authority for mankind is not viewed as the 
necessary resultant of the necessary influx of all men's 
wills to one goal, but is recognized to be a power to 
loose and to bind in a moral sense the wiUs of in- 
numerable freemen! 

The neo-pagan theory, renewing the error of Plato 
and in a measure of Anstotle also, has made the in- 
dividual and the family mere creatures and chattels oi 
the State, and, pushing the error further, wishes to 
orientate all moral good and evil, all right and duty 
from the authority of the State^ whose good as a na- 
tional unit is paramount. This theory sets up the 
State as an idol for human worship and eventually, if 
the theory were acted upon, though its authors 
dream it not, for human destruction. 

The historical school, mistaking what men have 
done for what men should do and, while often missing 
the full induction of the past, scornfully rejecting as 
empty apriorism deductive reasoning from the naS^ire 
of man, presents a materialistic, evolutionary, and 
positivistic view of human society, which in no way 
appeals to sane reason. No more does the theory of 
Kant, as applied to society in the Hegelian develop- 
ment of it; though, owing to its intellectual character 
and appearance of ultimate analysis, it has found 
favour with those who seek philosophic principles from 
sources of so-called pure metaphysics. It would be 
idle to present here with Kant an analysis of the as- 
sumption of the development of all human right from 
the conditions of the use of liberty consistent with the 
general law of universal liberty, and the creation of 
civil government as an embiodiment of universal 
liberty in the unified will of all the constituents of the 

SuABEE, De Opere Sex Dierum, V, vii; Idem, Defmaio Fidti, 
III, ii, Ui: Idem, De Legibus, III, ii, iii, iv; Costa-Rosbtti, Phil- 
owphia Moralis (Inzusbruck, 1886); de Haller. RMlauralion de la 
Science Politique; TapaRBlu, DriUo Naiurale (Rome, 1865); 
Mbteb, InaOtutionee Juris Natnralia (Frnburg, 1900); Hobbbs, 
Z«0vwtfftan (Cambridge Uoivenuty Preas) ; Rocjssbau, Du Contrat 
Social (Paris, 1896>. The Social Conirad.tT. Tozer (London, 
1909) ; Spencer. The Study of Soeioloov (London) ; Comtb, Let 
Principe* du Poeiiitisme; ScfiAPFLS, Strudum etta Viedu Corpe 
Social; Bluntochu, The Theory of the State (Oxford translation, 
Clarendon Press, 1901) ; Stbrbbtt, The Bthice of Hegel (Boston, 
1893) ; Woodbow Wzlbon, The StaU (Boston. 1909). 

Cbabxas Mackbbt. 

8oei«t7, The Catholic Chttrob Extbnsion. — 
In the United States. — ^The first active agitation 
for a church extension or home mission society for the 
Catholic Church in North America was begun in 1004 
by an article of the,pres^it writer, published in the 
'^ American Ecclesiastical Review" (Philadelphia). 
This article was followed by a discussion in the same 
review, participated in by several priests, and then by 
a second article of the writer's. On 18 October, 1905, 
the discussion which these articles aroused took form, 
and, under the leadership of the Most Reverend James 
Edward Quigley, Archbishop of Chicago, a new so- 
cietv, called The Catholic Church Extension Society 
of the United States of America, was organised at a 
meeting held in the archbishop's residence at Chicago. 
The fouowing were present at that meeting and bo- 
came the first board of governors of the society : The 
Archbishoos of Chicago and Santa Fe, the Bishop of 
Wichita, tne present Bishop of Rodrford, Reverends 
Francis C. Kelley, G. P. Jennings, E. P. Graham, E. 
A. Kelhr, J. T. Roche, B. X. O'Rially, F. J. Van Ant- 
werp, F. A. O'Brien: Messrs. M. A. Fanning, Anthony 
A. Hirst, William r. Breen, C. A. Plamondon, J. A. 
Roc, and S. A. Baldus. All these are still (1911) con- 
nected with the church extension movement, except 
Archbishop Bouivade of Santa F6, who has since died, 
Reverends E. P. Graham and F, A. O'Brien, and Mr. 
C. A. Plamondon, who for one reason or another have 
found it impossible to continue in the work. The 
Archbishop of Chica^ was made chairman of the 
board, the present writer was elected president, and 
Mr. William P. Breen, tL.D., of Fort Wayne, Indi- 
ana, treasurer. Temporary headquarters were estab- 
lished at Lapeer, Michigan. The seoond meeting waa 
held in December of the same year, when the consti- 
tution was adopted and the work formally launched. 
A charter was granted on 25 December, 1905, by the 
State of Michigan to the new society, whose objects 
were set forth as follows: '*To develop the mission- 
ary spirit in the clergy and people of the Catholic 
Church in the United States. To assist in the erec- 
tion of parish buildings for poor and needy places. 
To support priests for neglected or proverty-stricken 
districts. To send the comfort of religion to pioneer 
localities. In a word, to preserve the faith of Jesus 
Christ to thousands of scattered Catholics in every 
portion of our own land, especially in the country dis- 
tricts and among immigrants." In January, 1907, 
tile headquarters of the society were moved to Chi- 
cago, and the president was transferred to that ardi- 
diocese. In April, 1906, the society began the publi- 
cation of a quarterly bulletin caUed "Extension". 
In May, 1907, this quarterly was enlarged and 
changed into a monthly; its circulation has steadily 
increased, and at the present time (1911) it has over 
one hundred thousand paid subscribers. On 7 June, 
1907, the society received its first papal approval by 
an Apostolic Letter of Pius X addressed to the Ardir 
bishop of Chicago. In this letter His Holiness gave 
imqnalified praise to the young organisation and be- 
stowed on its supporters and members many spiritual 
favours. On 9 June, 1910, the pope issued a spedal 
Brief by which the society was raised to the dignity 
of a canonical institution, directly under his own 
guidance and protection. . By the terms of this Brief, 
the Archbishop of Chicago is always to be dianoeUor 
of the Society. The president must be appointed by 
the Holy Father himself. His term of office is not 
more than five years." The board of governors has the 
right to propose three names to the Holy See for this 
office, and to elect, according to th^ laws^ all other 
officers of the society. The Brief also provided for a 
cardinal protector, living in Rome. His Holiness 
named Cardinal Sebastian Martinelli for this office, 
and later on appointed the present writer the first 
president under the new regulations. The Brief 
nmits the society's aotivitiea to the United States 




4tua tt8 possessions. A similiar Brief was issued to 
the Qiurch Extension Society in Canada. 

Since the organization of the church extension 
movement, the American society has expended over 
half a minion dollars in missionary work. It has 
made about seven hundred gifts and loans to poor mis- 
sions, and has had about five hundred and fifty 
chapels built in places where no Catholic Church or 
chapel exist(;d previously and the scattered people 
could attend Mass only with great difficulty. Both 
societies have been educating many students for the 
missions, and both have circulated much good Catho- 
lic literature. The American society operates a 
"chapel car" (donated by one of its members, Am- 
brose Petry, K. C. S. G.)i which carries a missionary 
into the remote districts along railroad lines, preach- 
ing missions and encouraging scattered Catholics to 
form centres with their own little chapels as be^nlngs 
of future parishes. The Holy Father has particularly 
blessed tnis chapel car work, and has pven a gold 
medal to the donor of the car and to the society in 
recognition of its usefulness. Another chapel car, 
muchl^er and better equipped, is now about to be 
built. T^e society has interested itself very greatly 
in the missionary work of Porto Rico and the Philip- 
pine Islands, and has achieved substantial results. 
The Canadian society has been very active in saving 
the Ruthenian Catholics of the Canadian North-West 
to the Faith^ against which an active war has been 
waged, especially by the Presbyterians. It was prin- 
cipally through the publicity given to this activity by 
the Canadian Society that the situation was brought 
to the attention of the bishops in Canada, who at the 
ftret Plenary Coimcil decided to raise $100,000 for this 
work. The American society's first quinquennial re- 
port shows splendid progress, and the present situsr 
tion of both societies gives promise of great things to 
come. A remarksJ>le thing about the church exten- 
sion movement is the ready response of the wealthier 
class of Catholics in the Unitea States to its appeals, 
^me very large donations have been given. The 
Ancient Order of Hibernians is raising a fund of 
150,000 for chapel building, and the Women's 
Catholic Order of Foresters $26,000. The directors 
intend to erect a college for the American mission. 

The church extension movement, as it exists in the 
United States and Canada, has no close parallels in 
other countries, but is not unlike the Boniface Associa- 
tion in Germany or the CEuvre of St. Francis de Sales hi 
France. Membership is divided into founders ($5000). 
life members ($1000), fifteen-year members ($100), and 
Annual Members ($10) . There is a Women's Auxiliary 
in both societies which now begins to flourish. The 
American society has also a branch for children called 
the * 'Child Apostles' ' . From the pennies of the children, 
chapels are to be built and each one called the "Holy 
Innocents"; the children have just completed (1911) 
the amoimt needed for their first chapel. ^ The present 
officers of the American society are: His Eminence, 
Sebastian Cardinal Martinelli, Cardinal Protector; 
Most Rev. James E. Quigley, D.D., Chancellor; 
Most Rev. S. G. M(^mcr, D.D., Vice-Chancellor; 
Very Rev. Francis C. Kelley, D.D., LL.D., Presi- 
dent; Rev. E. B. Ledvina, Vice-President and General 
Secretary; Rev. E. L. Roe, Director of the Women's 
Auxiliary and Vice-President; Rev. W. D. O'Brien, 
Director of the (IJhild Apostles and Vice-President; 
Mr. Leo Doyle, General Counsel and Vice-President; 
Mr. John A. Lynch, Treasurer. 'The members of the 
executive committee are: Most Rev. James E. Quig- 
ley, D.D.; Very Rev. Francis C. Kelley, D.D., LL.D., 
Rev. Edward A. Kelly, LL.D.; Messrs. Ambrose 
Petry, K. C. S. G^ Richmond Dean, Warren A. Cart- 
ier, and Edward F. Carry. On the board of govern- 
ors are the Archbishops of Chicago, San Francisco, 
Milwaukee, Boston, New Orleans, Santa F<5, Oregon 
City, with the bishops of Covington, Detroit, Wichita, 

Duluth, Brooklyn, Trenton, Mobile, Rockford, Kan- 
sas City, Pittsburgh and Helena, and distingiuished 
priests and laymen. 

In Canada. — The church extension movement was 
organized in Canada as an independent society (bear- 
ing the name of "The Catholic Church Extension 
Society of Canada") by the Most Reverend Donatus 
Sbarretti, Delegate Apostolic of that country. Most 
Rev. Fergus Patrick McEvay, D.D., Archbisnop of 
Toronto, Rev. Dr. A. E. Burke of the Diocese of 
Charlottetown, Very Rev. Monsignor A. A. Sinnott, 
secretaiy of the Apostolic Delegation, the Rev. Dr. 
J. T. Kidd, chancellor of Toronto, the Right Honour- 
able Sir CJharles Fitzpatrick, K. C. M. G., Chief Jus- 
tice of Canada, and the present writer. The Canct- 
dian society at once purchased the ''Catholic Regis- 
ter", a weekly paper, enlarged it, and tmned it into 
the official organ of the work. The drculation of this 
paper has increased marvellously. The new society in 
Canada received a Brief, similar to that granted the 
American society, establishing it canonically. The 
same cardinal protector waa appointed for both organ- 
izations. The Archbishop of Toronto was made 
chancellor of the Canadian society, and Very Rev. 
Dr. A. E. Burke was appointed president for the full 
term of five years. The officers of the Canadian 
society are: His Eminence Cardinal Martinelli, Pro- 
tector; The Archbishop of Toronto (see vacant), 
Chancellor; Very Rev. A. E. Burke, D.D., LL.D., 
President; Rev. J. T. Kidd, D.D., Secretstfy : Rev. 
Hugh J. Canning, Diocesan ^Director; The Archbishop 
of Toronto; Right Hon. Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, 
K. C. M. G., and the President, Executive Com- 

Francis C. Kellet. 

Sodetj for Promoting Christian Knowiedlge. 

See Chbsstiak Knowledob, Socebtt fob Pbomoiv 

Society of Foreign Missions of Paris.— The So- 
ciety of Foreign Missions was established 1658^-63, its 
chief founders being Mgr Pallu, Bishop of Heliopolis, 
Vicar Apostolic of Tonkins, and Mgr Lambert de la 
Motte, Bishop of Bertyus, Vicar ApostoUc of Cochin- 
China. Both bishops left France (1660-62) to go to 
their respective missions and as true travellers of 
Christ they crossed Persia and India on foot. The 
object of the new society was and still is the evangeli- 
zation of infidel countnes, by founding churches and 
training up a native clergy under the jurisdiction of 
the bishops. In order that the society might recruit 
members and administer its property, a house was es- 
tablished in 1663 by the priests whom the vicars 
Apostolic had appomted their agents. This house, 
wnose directors were to form young priests to the 
apostolic Ufe and transmit to the bishops the offer- 
ings made by charity, was and is still situated at Paris 
in the Rue du Bac. Known from the beginning as the 
Seminary of Foreign Missions, it secured the approval 
of Alexander VII, and the legal recognition, still in 
force, of the French Government. 

The nature and organization of the society deserve 
special mention. It is not a religious order but a con- 
gregation, a society of secular priests, united aa 
members of the same body, not by vows but by 
the rule approved by the Holy See, by community 
of object, and the Seminary of Foreign Missions, 
which is the centre of the society and the common 
basis which sustains the other parts. On enter- 
ing the society the missionaries promise to devote 
themselves until death to the service of the missions, 
while the society assures them in return, besides the 
means of sanctification and perseverance, all neces- 
sary temporal support and assistance. There is no 
superior peneral; the bishops, vicars Apostolic, su- 
periors of missions, and board of directors of the sem- 
mary are the superiors of the society. The directow 




of the seminary are choeen from among the missbn- 
aries and each group of missions is represented by 
a director. The biwops and vicars Apostolic are 
appointed by the pope^ after nomination by the mis- 
sionaries, and presentation by the directors of the semi- 
nary. In their missions they depend only on Propa- 
ganda and through it on the pope. No subject aged 
more than thirty-five may be admitted to the semi- 
nary nor may anyone become a member of the society 
before having spent three years in the mission field. 
Several points of this rule were determined from the 
earliest years of the society's existence, others were 
established by degrees and as experience pointed 
out their usefulness. By this rule the society has 
lived and according to it its history has been out- 

This history is difficult, for owing to the length of 
the journeys, the infrequent communications, and the 
poverty of resources the missions have developed with 
difficulty. The chief events of the first period (1658- 
1700) are: the publication of the book '^ Institutions 
apostoliques'', which contains the germ of the prin- 
ciples of the rule, the foundation of the general sem- 
inanr at Juthia (Siam), the evanpelization of Tonking, 
Cochin China^ Cambodia, and Siam, where more than 
40,000 Christians were baptized, the creation of an 
institute of Annamite nuns -known as *^ Lovers of the 
Cross'', the establishment of rules amone catechists, 
the ormnation of thirty native priests. Beside these 
events of purely rehgious interest there were others in 
the poUtical order which emphasized the patriotism 
of these evuigelical labourers: through their initiative 
a more active trade was establish^ between Indo- 
China, ihe Indies, and France; embassies were sent 
from place to place; treaties were signed; a French ex- 
I>e)dition to Siam took possession of Baz^kok, Mer- 
gin, and Jonselang, and France was on l£e verge of 
poflseasing an Indo-Chinese empire when the blun- 
dering of subalterns ruined an undertaking the failure 
of wMch had an unfortunate influence on the mis- 
sions. But the most important work of the vicars 
Apostolic and the society is the application of the 
fruitful principle of the organization of churches by 
native priests and bishops. Thenceforth the aposto- 
late in its progress has followed this plan in eveiy part 
of the world with scrupulous fidelity and increasing 
success. In the'second half of the eighteenth century 
it was charged ^th the missions which the Jesuits had 
possessed in India prior to their suppression in Portu- 
gal. Many of the Jesuits remains there. The mis- 
sions thereupon assumed new life, especially at Se- 
tchoan, where remarkable bishops, Mgr Pettier and 
Mgr Dufresse, gave a strong impulse to evangelical 
work) and in Cochin China, where Mgr Pigneau de 
Behame performed signal service for the king of that 
coimtry as his agent m making with France a treaty, 
which was the firet step towards the present splendia 
situation of France in Indo-China. At the end of the 
eighteenth century the French Revolution halted the 
growUi of the society, which had previously been very 
rapid. At that time it had six bishops, a score of 
missionaries, assisted by 135 native priests; in the 
various missions there were nine seminaries with 250 
students, and 300,000 Christians. Each year the 
number of adult baptisms rose on an average of 3000 
to 3500; that of infant baptisms in artiado nwrtis was 
more Uian 100,000. 

In the nineteenth century the development of the 
society and its missions was rapid and considerable. 
Several causes contributed to this; chie^ the charity 
of the Propagation of the Faith and the Society of the 
Holy Childhood; each bishop receives annually 1200 
francs, each missionary 600 francs, each mission has 
its general needs and works allowance, which varies 
according to its importance and may amount to from 
10,000 to 30,000 francs. The second cause was per- 
secution. Fifteen missionaries died in prison or were 

breaded during t^e seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies and the beginning of the ninete^th century, 
but after that the mari^rrs among the missionaries 
were very numerous. The best known are Mgr Du- 
fresse, Vicar ApostoUc of Se-tchoan, beheaded in 1815; 
Gagelin, Marchand, Jaccard, Comay, and Dumouhn- 
Borie from 1833 to 1838; and from 1850 to 1862 
Schoeffler. V^nard, BonnarcL, N^ron, Chapdelaine, N^, 
Cuenot, Vicar Apostolic of Eastern Cochin China. If, 
besides these, mention were made of the native priests, 
catechists, and nuns, in short of all who died for 
Christ, we should have a record of one of the bloodiest 
holocausts in history. These persecutions were de- 
scribed in Europe by books, pamphlets, annals, and 
journals, arousing the pity of some and the anger of 
others and inspinng numerous young men either with 
the desire of martyrdom or that of evangeUzation. 
They moved European nations, especially France and 
England, to intervene in Indo-China and China and 
open up in these countries an era of liberty and pro- 
tection till then unknown. Another cause of the 
progress of the missionaries was the ease and fre- 
quency of communication in consequence of the in- 
vention of steam and the opening; of the Suez Canal. 
A voyage could be made safely m one month which 
had formerly required from eight to ten months amid 
many dangers. 

The following statistics of the missions confided to 
the Society wiU show this development at a glance: 
Missions of Japan and Korea. — Tokio, Nagasaki, 
Osaka, Hakodate, Korea, total number of Catholics, 
138,624; churches or chapels, 238; bishops and mis- 
sionaries, 166; native priests, 48; catechists, 517; sem- 
inaries, 4; seminarists, 81; communities of men and 
women, 44, containing 399 persons; schools, 161, with 
9024 pupils; orphanages and work-rooms 38, with 988 
children; pharmacies, dispensaries, and ho^itals, 19. 
Missions of China and Tthet, — Western, Eastern, and 
Southern Se-tchoan, Yun-nan, Kouy-tcheou, Kou- 
ang-ton, Kouang-si, Southern Manchuria, Northern 
Manchuria.— Catholics, 272, 792; churches or chapels, 
1392; bishops and missionaries, 408; native priests, 
191; catechists, 998; seminaries, 19; seminarists, 661; 
communities of men and women, 23, with 222 members; 
schools, 1879, with 31,971 pupils; orphanages and 
work-rooms, 132, with 4134 children; pharmacies, dis- 
pensaries, and hospitals, 364. Missions of Eastern 
Indo-China. — ^Tongking, Cochin China, Cambodia.^ 
Catholic population, 632,830; churches or chapels, 
2609; bishops and missionaries, 365; native priests, 
491; catechists, 1153; seminaries, 14; seminarists, 
1271; communities of men and women^ 91, with 2583 
persons; schools, 1859, with 58,434 pupils; orphanages 
and work-rooms, 106, with 7217 children; pharmacies, 
dispensaries, hospitals. 107. Missions of Western 
IncUhChina. — Siam, Malacca, Laos, Southern Bur- 
ma, Northern Burma. — Catholics, 132,226; churches 
or chapels, 451; bishops and missionaries, 199; na- 
tive priests, 42; catechiste, 242; seminaries, 3; semi- 
narists, 81 ; communities of men and women, 47, with 
629 members; schools, 320, with 21,306 pupils: or- 
phanages and work-rooms, 132, with 3757 cniloren; 
pharmacies, dispensaries, hospitals, 86. Missions of 
India. — Pondicherry, Mysore, Coimbatore, Kumbako- 
nam. — Catholics^ 324,050; churches or chapels, 1048; 
bishops and missionaries, 207; native priests, 67; cate- 
chists, 274; seminaries, 4; seminarists, 80; conununi- 
ties of men and women, 64, with 787 members: 
schools, 315, with 18,693 pupils; orphanagres and 
work-rooms, 57, with 2046 children; pharmacies, dis- 
pensaries, and hospitals, 41. 

In addition to these missionaries actively engaged 
in mission work, there are some occupied in the es- 
tablishments called common, because they are used 
by the whole society. Indeed the development of the 
society necessitated undertakings which were not 
needed in the past. Hence a sanatorium for sick 




miflBionaries has been establisbed at HoDg^Kong on 
the coast of China; another in India among the 
Nilgiri mountains, of radiant appearanoe and in- 
vigorating cHmate, and a third in Franee. In think- 
ing <^ the welfare of the body, that of the soul was 
not lost sight of, and a house of spiritual retreat was 
founded at Hong-Kong, whither all the priests of the 
society may repair to renew their priestly and apos- 
tolic fervour. To this house was added a printing 
establishment, whence issue the most beautiful works 
of the Far East, dictionaries, g^rammars, books of 
theology, piety, Christian doctrine, and pedagogy. 
Houses of correspondence, or agencies, were estab- 
lished in the Far East at Shan^ai, Hong-Kong, 
Saigon, Singapore, and one at Mmeilles, France. 
The Seminary of the Foreign Missions wnich long 
had only one section, has for twenty years had two. 

Btrar^iru (Paris. 1842) ; Launat, Hitt, giniraU de la SociM dm 
MiMumt-BtranghreB (Paris, 1894) : Docum. hiaL aurlaSoci. daaMia- 
aiona-Etranohaa (Paris. 1904); Htat, daa miaaiona da VInda (Paris, 
1898): Hiat. de la miaaion du Thibat (Paris. 1903); HiaL dea mia- 
awna da China 8 (Paris, 1903-8); LovvsT, La Cochinchine tdi- 
Qieuaa fPftris, 1885); Dallbt. Hiat, da VSglise da CorSa (Paris. 
1874) ; Marnas, La religion da JUua raaauaeiU au Japan (Paris. 

A. Laxjnat. 

Sociaty of Jasui (Company of Jesus, Jesxhts), 
a religious order founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola 
(q. V.) . D^gnated by him " The Company of Jesus" 
to indicate its true leader and its soldier spirit, the 
title was latinised into ''Societas Jesu" in the Bull of 
Paul III aiiproving Its formation and the first formula 
of its Institute C'Regimini militantis ecdesiffi'', 27 
Sept., 1540). The term "Jesuit" (of fifteenth-cen- 
tury origin, meaning one who used too freely or appro- 
priated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the 
Society in reproach (1644-52), and was never, em- 
ployed by its founder, though members and friends 
of the Society in time accepted the name in its good 
sense. Th& Society ranks among religious institutes 
as a mendicant order of clerks re^lar, that is, a body 
of priests organized for apostohc work, following a 
religious rule, and reljring on ahns for their support 
[BuUs of Pius V, "Dum indefess»", 7 July, 1671; 
Gregory XIII, "Ascendente Domino" (q. v.), 26 
May, 15841. 

Aj9 has been explained under the title "Ignatius 
Loyola", the founder began his self-reform, and the 
enustment of followers, entirely prepossessed with the 
idea of the imitation of Christ, and without any plan 
for a religious order or purpose of attending to the 
needs of the days. Unesmeotedly prevented from 
carrying out this original idea, he offered his services 
and those df his followers to the pope, "Christ upon 
E^arth", who at once employed them in such works 
as were most pressing at the moment. It was only 
after this and just before the first companions broke 
up to go at the pope's command to vanous countries, 
that the resolution to found an order was taken, ana 
that Ignatius was commissioned to draw up Constitu- 
tions. This he did slowly and methodically; first 
introducing rules and customs, and seeins how they 
worked. He did not codify them for tne first six 

£»rs. Then three years were given to formulating 
ws, the wisdom of which had been proved by experi- 
ment. In the last six years of the samt's life the Con- 
stitutions so composed were finally revised and put 
into practice everywhere. This sequence of events 
explams at once how the Society, though devoted to 
the following of Christ, as thou^ there were nothing 
else in the world to care fpr, is also so excellently 
adapted to the needs of the day. It began to attend 
to them before it bef^an to le^slate; and its legisla- 
tion was the codification of those measures which had 
been proved by experience to be apt to preserve 
its preliminary religious principle among men actu- 
ally devoted to the requirements of the Church in 
days not unlike our own. 


The Society was not foimded with the avowed 
intention of opposing Protestantism. Neither the 
papal letters of approbation, nor the Constitutions of 
the order mention this as the object of the new founda- 
tion. When Ignatius began to devote himself to the 
service of the (Jnurch, he had probably not heard even 
the names of the Protestant Reformers. His early 
plan was rather the conversion of Mohammedans, an 
idea which^ a few decades after the final triumpn of 
the Christians over the Moors in Spain, must have 
strongly appealed to the chivalrous Spaniard. Th6 
name ' Societas Jesu" had been borne by a military 
order approved and recommended by Pius II in 1459, 
the purpose of which was to fi^t against the Turks 
and aid in spreading the Christian taith. The early 
Jesuits were sent by Ignatius first to pa^an lands or to 
Catholic countries: to Protestant countries only at the 
special reauest of the pope, and to Germany, the 
cradle-lana of the Reformation, at the urgent solici- 
tation of the imperial ambassador. From the very 
beginning the missionary labours of Jesuits amons the 

gagans of India, Japan, China, Canada, Centrafand 
outh America were as important as their activity 
in Christian countries. As the object of the Society 
was the propagation and strengthening of the Catholfo 
Faith everywhere, the Jesuits naturally endeavoured 
to counteract the spread of Protestantism.' They 
became the main instruments of the Counter-Refor- 
mation; the reconquest of southern and western 
Germany and Austna for the Church, and the pres- 
ervation of the Catholic faith in France and other 
countries were due chiefly to their exertions. 

Institute, Constitutions, Legislation. — ^The 
official publication which comprises all the regula- 
tions of the Society^ its codex legum, is entitled ''Insti- 
tutum Societatis Jesu", of which the latest edition 
was issued at Rome and Florence, 186^91 (for full 
bibliography see Sommervogel, V, 75-116; IX, 609- 
611 ; for commentators see X, 705-710) . The Institute 
contains: (1) The special Bulls and other pontifical 
documents approving the Society and canonically 
determining or regulating its various works, and 
its ecclesiastical standing and relations. — Besides 
those already mentioned^ other important BuUs are 
those of; Paul III, "Injunctum nobis", 14 March, 
1643; Julius III, "Exposcit debitum", 21 July, 1560; 
Pius y, "iEiquum reputamus", 17 January, 1666; 
Pius Vll, ''Sollicitudo omnium ecclesianim", 7 Au- 
gust, 1814; Leo XIII, "Dolemus inter alia", 13 July, 
1880. (2) The Examen Generale and Ck)nstitu- 
tions. — ^The Examen contains subjects to be ex- 
phumed to^postulants and points on which thev are 
to be exammed. The Constitutions are divided into 
ten parts: (a) admission; (b) dismissal; (c) novitiate; 
(d) scholastic training; (e) profession and other grades 
of membership; (f) religious vows and other obliga- 
tions as observed in the Society; (g) missions and 
other ministries; (h) congregations, local and general 
assemblies ss a means of union and uniformity: 
(i) the general and chief superiors; (j) preservation of 
tile spirit of the Society. Thus lar in the Institute 
aU is oy St. I^piatius, who h^s also added "Declara- 
tions" of vanous obscure parts. Then come; (3) 
Decrees of General Congregations, which have equal 
authoritv with the Constitutions; (4) Rules, gen- 
eral ana particular, etc.j (6) Formula or order of 
business for the congregations; (6) Ordinations of gen- 
erals; which have the same authority as the rules; 

(7) Instructions, some for superiors, others for those 
engaged in the missions or other works of the Society; 

(8) nidustri®, or special counsels for superiors; (9) 
llie Book ctf the Spiritual Exercises; and (10) the Ratio 
Studiorum (q[. v.), which have directive force only. 

The Constitutions as drafted by Ignatius and 
adopted finally by the first congregation of the Society, 
166§, have never been altered. Ill-informed writers 
have stated that Lainez, the second general, made 


oonsiderable changes in the saint's conception of the tionate relations of members with superiors and with 

orderj but Ignatius's own last recension of the Con- one another, by the manifestation of conscience, moro 

stitutions, lately reproduced in facsimile (Rome, or less practised in every religious order, and by mutual 

1908), exactly agrees with the text of the Constitu- correction when this may be necessary. It also applies 

tions now in force, and contains no word by Lainez, to the methods employed to ascertain the qualifica- 

not even in the Declarations, or glosses adcfed to the tions of members for various offices or ministries, 
text, which are all the work of Ignatius. The text iif The chief authority is vested in the general oongre- 

use in the Sodetv is a Latin version prepared imder gation, which elects the general, and coUld, for certain 

the direction of the third congregation, and subjected grave causes, depose him. This body could also 

to a minute comparison with the Spanish original (though there has never yet been an occasion for so 

preserved in the Society's archives, during the fourth doing) add new Constitutions, and abrogate old 

conflp'egation (1581). ones. Usually this congregation is convened on the 

These Constitutions were written after lon^ delib- occasion of the death of a general, in order to elect 

eration between Ignatius and his compamons in has successor, and to make provisions for the govem- 

founding the Society ^ as at first it seemed to them ment and welfare of the Society. It may also be 

that they might contmue their work without the aid called at other times for grave reasons. It consists 

of a special llule. They were the fruit of long expe- of the general, when alive, and his assistants, the 

rienceandofseriousmeditation and prayer. Through- provincials, and two deputies from each province or 

out they are inspired bv an exaltea spirit of charity territorial oivision of the societv elected by the supe- 

and of zeal for souls. They contain nothing unreason- riors and older professed memoerB. Thus authority 

able. To appreciate them, however, requires a knowl- in the Society eventually rests on a democratic basis, 

"^dge of canon law as applied to monastic life and But as there is no definite time for calling the general 


also of their history in the light of the times for congregation, which in fact rarely oocurs except to 

which they were framed. Usually those who find elect a new general, the exercise of authority is 

fault with them either have never read them or else usually in the hands of the general, in whom is vested 

have misinterpreted them. Monod, for instance, the fullness of administrative power, and of spiritual 

in his introduction to Bohmer's essay on the Jesuits authority. He can do anything within the scooe of 

pear that they require obedience even to the comm&- number at present, one each for Italy, France, Spain 

sion of sin. as if the text were ohligatio ad peccandunif and countries of Spanish origin, one for Germany, 

whej^as the obvious meaning and purpose of the Austria, Poland, Belgium, Hungary, Holland, and one 

text is precisely to show that the transgression of the for Englishnspeaking coimtries — ^England. Ireland, 

rules is not in itself sinful. Monod enumerates such United States, Canada, and British colonies {except 

men as Amauld, Wolf, Lange, Ranke in the first India). These usually hold office until the death of 

edition of his "History", Hausser and Droysen, the general. Should the general through a«e or 

Philippson and CharbonneL as having repeated the infirmity become incapacitated for governing the 

same error, although it had been refuted frequently Society, a vicar is chosen by a general congregation to 

since 1824^ particularly by Gieseler, and corrected act for him. At his death he names one so to 

by Ranke m nis second edition. Whenever the Con- act until the congregation can meet and elect his 

stitutions enjoin what is already a serious moral successor. 

obhgation, or superiors, by virtue of their authority. Next to him in order of authority come the pro- 
impose a grave obligation, transgression is sinful; vincials, the heads of the Society, whether for an 
but this is true of such transgressions not only in the entire country, as England, Ireland, Canada, Bel- 
Society but out of it. Moreover such commands gium, Mexico, or, where these units are too large or 
are rarely given by the superiors and only when the too small to make convenient provinces, they may 
good <rf the individual member or the common good be subdivided or jomed together. Thus there are 
imperatively demands it. The rule throughout is now four provinces in the Ihiited States: California, 
one of love inspired by wisdom, and it must be inter- Maryland-New York, Missouri, New Orleans. In 
preted in the spirit of charity which animates it. all there are now twenty-seven provinces. The 
This is especially true of its provisions for the aflFec- provincial is appointed by the geneJal with ample 


administrative faculties. He too has a coundl of rienoed fathers. They question him about the age, 

'^consultors" and an ''admonitor", appointed by healthy position, occupation of his parents, their rdi- 

the general. Under the provincial come the local gion and good character, their dependence on his 

superiors. Of these, rectors- of colleges, provosts services; about his own healthy obhgation& such as 

of professed houses, and masters of novices are debts, or other contractual relations; his 8tu<iie8,quali- 

appointed bv the general; the rest by the provincial, fications, moral character, personal motives as well as 

To enable the general to make and control so many the external influences that may have led him to seek 

appointments, a free and ample correspondence is admission. The results of their questioning and of 

kept up, and everyone has the right of private com- their^ own observation they report severally to the 

munication with him. No superior, except the proyinciid^ who wei^ their opinions carefully before 

genend, is named for Hfe. Usually provincials and deciding for or against the applicant. Any notable 

rectors of colleges hold office for three years. bodily or mental defect in the candidate, serious 

Members of the Society fall into four classes: indebtedness or other obligation, previous member- 

(1) Novices (whether received as lav brothers for the ship in another religious order even for a day, indi- 

aomestic and temporal services of the order, or as catmg instability of vocation, unqualifies for admi»- 

aspirants to the priesthood), who are trained in the sion. Undue influence, particularly if exercised by 

spmt and disciplme of the order, prior to making the members of the order, would occasion stricter scrutiny 

reli^ous vows. (2) At the end of two years the than usual into the personal motives of the applicant, 

novices make simple but perpetual vows, and, if Candidates mav enter at any time, but usually 

aspirants to the priesthood, become Jcrmed seholas- there is a fixed day each year for their admission, 

Hcs; they remain m this grade as a rule from two to towards the close of the summer holidays, in order 

fifteen ^ears, in which time they will have completed that all may begin their training, or probation, to^ 

all their studies, pass (generally) a certain penod in gether. They spend the first ten days considering 

teaching, receive the priesthood, and go through a the manner of life they are to adopt and its difliculties, 

third year of novitiate or probation (the tertian^op).' the rules of the order, the obedience required of its 

According to the degree of discipline and virtue, and members. They then make a brief retreat, meditat- 

to the talents they display (the latter are normally ing on what they have learned about the Society and 

tested by the examination for the Degree of Doctor examining closely their own motives and hopes of per- 

of Theofof^), they may now become formed coadju- severance in the new mode of life. I£ all be satisfac- 

tors or professed members of the order. (3) Formed tory to them and the superior or director who has 

eoadjiUors, whether formed lay brotJiers or priests, charge of them, they are aomitted as novices, wear the 

make .vows, which,^ though not solemn^ are perpetual clerical costume (as there is no special Jesuit habit), 

on their part ; while the Society, on its side, bmds itself and be^ in earnest the life of members of the Society, 

to them, unless they should commit some grave They rise early, make a brief visit to the chapel, a 

offence. (4) The professed are all priests, who meditation on some subject selected the night before, 

make, besides the three usual solenm vows of religion, assist at Mass, review their meditation, breakfast, 

a fourth, of special obedience to the pope in the matter and then prepare for the day's routine. This con- 

of missions, undertaking to go wherever they are sists of manual labour, in or out of doors, reading 

sent, without even requiring money for the journey, books on spiritual topics, ecclesiastical histoiy, biog- 

They also make certain additionid, but non-essential, raphy, particularly of men or women distinguish^ 

simple vows, in the matter of poverty, and the refusal for seal and enterprise in missionarv or educational 

of external honours. The professed of the four vows fields. There is a daily conference by the master of 

constitute the kernel of the Society; the other grades novices on some detiul of the Institute, notes of 

are r^;arded as preparatory or as subsidiary to this, which all are required to make, so as to be ready, 

The chief offices can be held by the professed alone; when asked, to repeat the salient points, 

and Uiough they may be dismiased, yet they must be Wherever it is possible some are submitted to 

received back, if willing to comply with the conditions certain tests of their vocation and usefulness: to 

that may be prescribed. Otherwise they enjoy no teaching catechism in the village churches; to att^id- 

privfleges, ana many posts of importance, such as ance on the sick in hospitals; to going about on a 

the government of colleges, may be held by members pilgrimage or missionary journey without money 

of other grades. For special reasons some are or other provision. As soon as possible all make the 

occamonally professed of three vows and they have spiritual exercises for thirty days. This is really the 

certain but not all the privileges of the other pro- chief test of a vocation, as it is also in epitome the 

fessed. All live in community alike as remrds food, main work of the two years of the novitiate and for 

apparel, lodging, recreation, and all are luike boima that matter of the entire life of a Jesuit. On these 

by the rules of the Society. exercises the Constitutions, the life, and activity 

There are no secret Jesuits. Like other orders the <^ the Society are bttsed, so that they are really 

Society can, if it will, make its friends participators the chief factor in forming the character of a Jesuit. 

in its prayers and in the merits of its good works; In accordance with the ideals set forth in these 

but it cannot make them members of the order, un- exercises, of disinterested conformity with God's 

they live the life of the order. There is indeed the will, and of personal love of Jesus Chnst, the novice 

case of St. Francis Borna, who made some of the is trained aili^ently in a meditative study of the 

probations in an unusual way, outside the houRcs of truths of religion, in the habit of self-knowledge, 

the order. But this was in order that he might be in a constant scrutiny of his motives and of the 

free to conclude certain business matters and other actions inspired by them^ in the correction of every 

affairs of state, and thus appear the sooner in public as form of self-deceit, iUusion, plausible pretext, and 

a Jesuit, not that he might remain permanently out- in the education of his will, particularly in making 

side the common life. choice of what seems best after careful deliberation 

Novitiate and Training. — Candidates for admission and without self-seeking. Deeds, not words, are 

come not only from the colleges conducted by the insisted upon as proof of genuine service, and a me- 

Sodety, but from other schools. Freouently post- chanical, emotional, or fanciful piety is not tolerated, 

graduate or professional students, ana those who As the novice gradually thus becomes master of his 

have already begun their career in business or profes- judgment and will, he grows more and more capable 

Bjonal life, or even in the priesthood, apply for admis- of (mering to God the reasonable service enjoined by 

■ion. Usually the candidate applies in person to the St. Paul, and seeks to follow the Divine will, as mani- 

provincial, and if he considers him a likely subject he fested b^ Jesus Christ, by His vicar on earth, by the 

tefen him for examination to four of the more expe- bishops appointed to rule His Church, by his more 

80CXET7 84 80CIBT7 

immediate or religious superiora, and by tji^ civil hftnayw h^ mjut inteiiuet and determine ita applica- 

powers rightfull}^ exercising authority. This is what tion. In this fact and in its consequences, the Society 

IS meant by Jesuit obedience, the characteristic virtue differs from every religious order antecendent to its 

of the order, such a sincere respect for authority as foundation; to this iirincipally it owes its life, activity, 

to accept its decisions and comply with them, not and power to adapt its Institute to modem conditions 

merely by outward performance but in all sincerity without need of change in that instrument or of 

with the conviction that compliance is best^ and that reform in the body itself. 

the command expresses for the time the will of God, The storjr of the foimdation of the Society is told 

as nearly as it can be ascertained. in the article Ignatius Loyola. Briefly, after 

The noviceship lasts two years. On its completion haying inspired his companions Peter Faber, Francis 

the novice makes the usual vows of religion, the Xiivier, James Lainez, Alonso Salmer6n, Nicolas 

simple vow of chastity in the Society having the Bobadiila, Simon Rodriguez, Claude Le Jay, Jean 

force of a diriment impediment to matrimony. Codure, and Paschase Brouet with a desire to dwell 

During the noviceship but a brief time daily is devoted in the Holy Land imitating the life of Christ, they 

to reviewing previous studies. The noviceship over, first made vows of poverty and chastity at Mont- 

the scholastic members, i. e. those who are to become martre. Paris, on 15 August, 1534, adding a vow to 

priests in the Society^ follow a special course in go to tne Holy Land after two years. When this was 

classics and mathematics lasting two years, usually found to be impracticable, after waiting another 

in the same house with the novices. Then, in another year, they offered their services to the pope, Paul III. 

house and neighbourhood, three years are given to Fully another year was passed by some m university 

the study of philosophy, about five years to teadiing towns in Italy, by the others at Rome, where, after 

•in one or other of tne public colleges of the Society, encountering much opposition and slander, au met 

four years to the study of theology, priestly orders tc^ether to agree on a mode of life by which they 

being conferred after the third, and, finally, one year mig^t advance in evangelical perfection and help 

more to another probation or noviceship, mtendd to others in the same task. The first formula of the 

help the young priest to renew his spirit of piety and Institute was submitted to the pope and approved of 

to leam how to utilize to the best of hb ability all viva voce, 3 September, 1539, and formally, 27 Sep- 

the learning and experience he has acquired. In tember, 1540. 

exceptional ci^es, as in that of a priest who has CoNsrmmoNs.— Corpu* vutUutorum SocUtatU Jen (Ani- 

finished his studies before entering the order,. allow- werp. Pra^e. R^me, 16W. I7ce. 1706, 1707. 1709,. 1869-70; 

AnnP is maAi^ unH thp trAininir nprirvl TipeH not Ijwt. P*™» partial edition, 1827-38) ; Gaguardi, De eognUiorM trutt- 

ance is maae, ana ine u-ammg penoa neea noi lasi, ^^. (ig^i). lancicixtb, De prcuumiia tnetit. Soe. Jem <1W4); 

over ten years, a good part of which is spent m active Nadal. Scholia in coMtOuHonee (1883); Suarbs. Tract, de reii- 

ministry. 0*<»^ Soc. Jeeu (1625): Humphrbt, The Rdtgiotu State (Londoiit 

The object of the o«ler is not limited to practising i^-i^rll^^^^^ttfe'^iSSSilibSS^ 

any one class of good works, however laudable (as the Society of Jetue (Washington, 1839; London, 1863). 

preaching, chanting office, doing penance, etc.) but 

to study, in the manner of the Spiritual Exercises, Generals Pbior to the Suppression of the 

what Christ would have done, if He were living in our Society. — (1) St. Ignatius Loyola (q. v.), 19 April, 

circumstances, and to carry out that ideal. Hence 1541-^1 July, 1556. The Society spread rapidly 

elevation and largeness of aim. Hence the motto and at the time of St. I^atius's death had twelve 

of the Society: "AdMajoremDeiGloriam". Hence provinces: Italy, Sicily, rortugaJ, Aragon, Castile, 

the selection of the virtue of obedience as the charao- Andalusia, Upper German3r. Lower Germany, France, 

teristic of the order, to be ready for any call and to India (including Japan), Brazil, and Ethiopia, the 

keep unity in every variety of work. Hence, by last-mentioned province lasting but a short time, 

easy sequence^ the omission of office in choir, of a It met with opposition at the university of Paris; 

specially distinctive habit, of unusual penances, while in Spain it was severely attacked by Melchior 

Where the Protestant Reformers aimed at reor^aniz- Cano. 

ing the Church at large according to their particular (2) James Lainez (q. v.), 2 July, 1558^-19 January, 
conceptions, Ignatius began with mterior self-reform; 1565. Lainez servea two years as vicar-general, 
and alter that had been thoroughly established, then and was chosen general in the first general con^rega- 
the earnest preaching of self-retorm to others. That tion, retiutled till 1558 (19 June-10 Sept.), owing to 
done, the (Jhurch would not, and did not, fail to the unfortunate war between Paul IV and Philip II. 
reform herself. Manv religious distinguished them- Paul IV gave orders that the Divine Office should be 
selves as educators before the Jesuits; but the Society recited in choir, and also that the generalate should 
was the first order which enjoined by its very Consti- only last for three years. The pope died on 18 Au- 
tutions devotion to the cause of education. It was, gust, 1559, and his orders were not renewed by his sue- 
in this sense, the first ''teaching order''. cessor^ Pius IV; indeed he refused Father Lainez leave 
The ministry of the Society consists chiefly in to resign when his first triennium closed. Through 
preaching; teaching catechism, especially to children; Pius's nephew, St. Charles Borromeo, the Society 
administering the sacraments, ^ipecially penance nowreceivedmany privilege and openings, and prog- 
and the Eucharist: conducting missions m parishes rees was rapid. Father Lainez himself was sent to 
on the lines of the Spiritual Exercises; directing those the ''C!olloquy of Poissy'', and to the Council of 
who wish to follow tnese exercises in houses of retreat, Trent (156^), Saint Francis Borgia being left in 
seminaries, or convents; taking care of parishes or Rome as his vicar-general. At the death of Lainez 
of collegiate churches; organizing picas confraternities, the Society numbered 35(X) members in 18 provinces 
sodalities, unions of orayer, Bona Mors associations and 130 houses. 

in their own and in otner parishes; teaching in schools (3) St. Francis Borgia (q. v.), 2 July, 1565-1 Octo- 

of every grade — academic, seminary, university; ber, 1572. One of the most delicate tasks of his 

writing books, pamphlets, periodical u*tic]es; going government was to negotiate with Po[)e St. Pius V, 

on foreign missions among imcivilized peoples. In who desired to reintroduce the singing of Office, 

liturgicalf unctions the Roman Rite is followed. The This was in fact begun in May, 1569, out only in 

E roper exercise of all these fimctions is provided for professed houses, and it was not to interfere with 
y rules carefully framed by the general congregations other work. Pius also ordained (Christmas, 1566) 
or the generals. All these regumtions command the that no candidate of any religious order for the priest- 
greatest respect on the part of every member. In hood should be ordained until after his profession; 
practice the superior for the time being is the living and this indirectly caused much trouble to the Society, 
rule — ^not that ne can alter or iU>rogate any rule, but with its distinct grades of professed and non-pro- 




fessed priests. AH had therefore to be professed of 
three vows, until Gregory XIII (Deoember, 1572) 
allowed the original practice to be restored. Under 
his administration the foreign missionary work of the 
order greatly increased and prospered. New mis- 
sions were opened by the Society in Florida, Mexico, 
and Peru. 

(4) Everetrd Mercvrian^ Belgian, 23 April, 1573-1 
August, 1580. Fr. Mercurian was bom in 1514 in the 
vilmge of Marcour (Luxemburg), whence his name, 
which he signed Everard de Marcour. He became 
the first non-Spanish general of the Society. Pope 
Gregor^r XIII, without conunandine, had expressed 
his desire for this change. This, however, caused 
great dissatisfaction and opposition among a number 
of Spanish and Portuguese members, which came to 
a crisis durine the generalate of Father Mercurian's 
successor, Father Claudius Acquaviva. Father Tolet 
was entrusted with the task of obtaining the submis- 
sion of Michael Baius to the decision of the Holy See; 
he succeeded, but his success served later to draw on 
the Society the hatred of the Jansenists. Father Mer- 
curian, when general, brought the Rules to their final 
form, compiling the "SimMnary of the Constitutions" 
from the manuscripts of St. Ignatius, and drawing up 
the "Common Rules" of the Society, and the particu- 
lar rules for each office. He was greatly interested in 
the foreign missions and establishai the Maronite and 
English missions, and sent to the latter Blessed Ed- 
mund Campion and Father Robert Persons. Father 
Everard Mercurian passed thirty-two years- in the 
Society, and died at the age of sixtvHsix. At that 
time the Society numbered 5000 members in eighteen 

(5) Claudius Acauavivaf or Aquaviva (q. v.), 
Neapolitan, 19 February, 1581-31 January, 1615 
(for the disputations on ^ce, see Congregatio 
D£ AuxiLiis). After Ignatius, Acquaviva was per- 
haps the ablest ruler of the Society. As a legislator 
he reduced to its present form the final parts of the 
Institute, and the Ratio Studiorum (q. v.). He had 
also to contend with extraordinary obstacles both 
from without and within. The Society was banished 
from France and from Venicej there were grave differ- 
ences with the King of Spam, with Sixtus Y, with 
the Dominican theologians j and within the Society 
the rivalry between Spaniard and Italian led to 
unusual complications and to the calling of two 
extraordinary general congregations (fifth and sixth). 
The origin of these troubles is perhaps eventuallv 
to be sought in the long wars of religion, which grad,- 
ually died down after the canonical absolution of 
Henry IV, 1595 (in which Fathers Georges/Toledo, 
and rossevinus played important parts). The fifth 
congregation in 1593 supported Acquaviva steadily 
against the opposing parties, and the sixth, in 16()8. 
completed the union of opinions. Paul V had in 1606 
re-confirmed the Institute, which from now onwards 
may be considered to have won a stable position in 
the Church at large, until the epoch of the Suppres- 
sion and the Revolution. Missions were established 
in Canada, dThile, Paraguay, the Philippine Islands, and 
China. At Father Acquaviva's death the Society num- 
bered 13^112 members in 32 provinces and 559 houses. 

(6) Muiius VUeUeschi (q. v.), Roman, 15 Novem- 
ber, 1615-9 February^ 1645. His generalate was 
one of the most pacific and progressive, especially 
in France and Spain; but the Thirty Years' War 
worked havoc in Germany. The canonization of Sts. 
Ignatius and Francis Xavier (1622) and the first 
centenary of the Society (1640) were celebrated with 
Kreat rejoicings. The great mission of Paraguay 
began, that of Jiman was stamped out in bkod. 
England was raised in 1619 to the rank of a province 
of the order, haying been a mission until then. Mis- 
dons were established in TIbot (1024); Tonkin (10SI7); 
and the Maranhflo (1640). 

(7) Vincent Caraffa (q. v.), Neapolitan, 7 January, 
1646-8 June, 1649. A few days before Father Car 
raffa's election as general^ Pope innocent X published 
a brief "Prospero felicique statui", in which he 
ordered a general congregation of the Society to be 
held every nine years; it was ordained also that no 
office in the Society except the position of master of 
novices should be held for more than three years. 
The latter regulation was revoked by Innocent^ suo- 
cesBor, Alexander VII, on 1 January, 1658; and the 
former by Benedict XIV in 1746 by the Bull "Devo- 
tam", many dispensations having been granted in 
the meantime. 

(8) Francis Piccolominif of Siena, 21 December, 
1649-17 June, 1651 ; before his election as general he 
had been professor of philosophy at the Roman 
College: he died at the age of sixty-nine, having 
passed nfty-three years in the Society. 

(9) Aloysiua GoUifredif Roman, 21 Januaxy, 1652- 
12 March, 1652; Father Gottifredi died at the house 
of the professed Fathers, Rome, within two months 
after his election, and before the Fathers assembled 
for the election and congregation had concluded their 
labour. He had been a professor of theology and 
rector of the Roman 'College, and later secretary of 
the Society under Father Mutius Vitelleschi. 

(10) Gosurin Nickel, German, b. at Jiilich in 1582; 
17 March, 1652-31 July, 1664. During; these years 
the struggle with Jansenism was growing more and 
more heated. The great controvert on the Chinese 
Rites (1645) was continued (see Ricci, Matteo). 
Owing to his great age Father Nickel obtained from 
the eleventh congregation the appointment of Father 
John Paul Oliva as vicar-general (on 7 June, 1661), 
with the approval of Alexander VII. 

(11) John Paul Oliva, Genoese (elected vicar cum 
jure succeseionis on 7 June, 1661), 31 July, 1664-26 
November. 1681. During his generalate the Society 
established a mission in Persia, which at first met with 
great success, four hundred thousand converts being 
made within twenty-five years; in 1736, however, the 
mission was destroyed by violent persecution. 
Father Oliva's genersuate occurred during one of the 
most difficult periods in the history of the Society, 
as the controversies on Jansenism, tne droit de rigcie, 
and moral theology were being carried on by the 
opponents of the Society with the greatest acrimony 
and violence. Father John Paul OUva laboured 
earnestly to keep up the Society's high reputation for 
learning, and in a circular letter sent to all the houses 
of study urged the cultivation of the oriental lan- 

a2) Charles de NoyeUe, Beleian, 5 July, 1682-12 
December, 1686. Father de Noyelle was bom at 
Brussels on 28 July, 1615; so great was his reputation 
for virtue and prudence that at his election he received 
unanimous vote of the congregation. He had been 
assistant for the Germanic provinces during more 
than twenty years; he died at the age of seventy, after 
fifty years spent in the Society. Just about the time 
of nis election, the dispute between Louis XIV of 
France and Pope Innocent XI had culminated in the 
publication of the "Declaration du clerg4 de France" 
(19 March, 1682). This placed the Society in a diffi- 
cidt position in France, as its spirit of devotion to the 
p^acy was not in harmony with the spirit of the 
"Declaration". It required all the ingenuity and 
ability of Pdre La Chaise and Father de Noyelle to 
avert a disaster. Innocent XI was dissatisfied with 
the position the Society adopted, and threatened to 
suppress the order, proceeding even so far as to for- 
bid the reception of novices. 

(13) Thyrsus Gomdlez (q. v.), Spaniard, 6 July, 
1687-27 (5ct., 1705. He interfered in the contro- 
versy between Probabilism (q. v.) and Probabilior- 
ism. attacking the former doctrine with energy in a 
book published at Dillingen in 1691. As Probabilism 




was on the whole in iavour m the Societyj this 
caused discussions, which were not quieted until the 
fourteenth congregation, 1696, when, with the pope's 
approval, liberty was left to both sides. Father 
uonzdlez in his earlier days had laboured witii great 
fruit as a missionary, and after his election as general 
encouraged the work of popular home missions. His 
treatise '^De infaUibilitate Romani pontificis in defi- 
niendis fidei et morum controversiis" which was a 
vigorous attack on the doctrines laid down in the 
''D<5claration du clerg^ de France'', was published at 
Rome in 1689 by order of Pope Innocent XI; how- 
ever. Innocent's successor, Alexander VII, caused the 
work to be withdrawn, as its effect had been to ren- 
der the relations between France and the Holy See 
more difficult. Father Gonzdlez laboured earnestly 
to spread devotion to the saints of the Societ^r; he 
died at the age of eighty-four, having passed sixty- 
three years in the order, during nineteen of which he 
was gener^. 

(14) Michelangelo Tamburinif of Modena, 31 Jan- 
uarjr, 1706-28 February, 1730. The long reign of 
Louis XIV, so favourable to the Jesuits in many re- 
spects, saw the beginning of those hostile movements 
which were to lead to the Suppression. The king's 
autocratic powers, his Gallicamsm, his insistence on 
the repression of the Jansenists by force, the way he 
compelled the Society to take his part in the quarrel 
with Rome about the rigale (168l~8), led to a false 
situation in which the parts might be reversed, when 
the all-powerful sovereign might turn against them, 
ur by standing neutral leave them the prey of others. 
This was seen at his death, 1715, when tne regent 
banished the once influential father confessor Le 
Tellier, while the gallicanizing Archbishop of Paris, 
Cardinal de Noailles, laid them imder an interdict 
(1716-29). Father Tamburini before his election 
as general had taught philosophy and theology for 
twelve years and had been chosen by Cardinal 
Renaud d'Este as his theologian; he had also been 
provincial of Venice, secretary-general of the Society, 
and vicar-gencral. During the disputes concerning 
the Chinese Rites (q. v.), tne Society was accused at 
resisting the orders of the Holy See. Father Tam- 
burini protested energetically against this calumny, 
and when in 1711 the prociurators of all the provinces 
of the Society were assembled at Rome, he nad them 
sim a protest which he dedicated to Pope Clement 
XI. Tne destruction of Port-Royal and the con- 
demnation of the errors of Quesnel by the Bull 
"Unigenitus" (1711) testified to the accuracy of 
the opinions adopted by the Society in these disputes. 
Father Tamburini procured the canonization of 
Saints Aloysius (jonzaga and Stanislaus Kosfka, 
and the beatification of St. John Francis R^gis. 
During his generalate the mission of Paraguay 
reached its highest degree of success; in one year no 
fewer than seventy-seven missionaries left for it; 
the missionary labours of St. Francis de Geronimo 
and Blessed Anthony Baldinucci in Italy, and Vener- 
able Manuel Padial m Spain, enhanced the reputation 
of the Society. Father Tamburini died at the age 
of eighty-two, having spent sixty-five years in religion. 
At the time of his death the Society contained 37 
provinces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 612 colleges, 
59 novitiates, 340 residences, 200 mission stations; 
in addition one hundred and fifty-seven seminaries 
were directed by the Jesuits. 

(15) Francis RetZf Austrian (bom At Prague, in 
1673), 7 March, 1730-19 November, 1750. [Father 
Retz was elected general unanimously, his able 
administration contributed much to the welfare of 
the Society^ he obtained the canonization of St. 
John Francis R6gis. Father Retz's generalate was 
perhaps the quietest in the history of the order. At 
the time of his death the Society contained 39 prov- 
inces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 669 colleges^ 

61 novitiates, 335 residences, 273 mission stations. 
176 seminaries, and 22,589 members, of whom 11,293 
were priests. 

(16) Ignatius Visconti, Milanese, 4 July, 1751- 
4 May, 1755. It was during this generalate that the 
accusations of trading were first made agamst Father 
Antoine de La Valette, who was recalled from Mar- 
tinique in 1753 to justily his conduct. Shortly before 
djrin^, Father Visconti allowed him to return to his 
mission, where the failure of his commercial opera- 
tions, somewhat later, gave an opportunity to the 
enemies of the Society in France to begin a warfare 
that ended only with the Suppression (see below). 
Trouble with Pombal also began at this time. Father 
Visconti died at the age of seventy-three. 

(17) Ahysiiis Centurionif Genoese, 30 November, 
1755--2 October, 1757. During his brief generalate 
the most noteworthy facts were the persecution by 
Pombal of the Portuguese Jesuits and the troubles 
caused by Father de La Valette's commercial activities 
and disasters. Father dkmturioni died at Castel 
Gandolfo, at the age of seventy-two. 

(18) Lorenzo Ricci (q. v.), Florentine, 21 May» 
1758, till the Suppression in 1773. In 1759 the Soci- 
ety contained 41 provinces, 270 mission posts, and 
171 seminaries. Father Ricci founded the Bavarian 
province of the order in 1770. His generalate saw 
the slow death a^ny of the Society; within two years 
the Portuguese, Brazilian, and East Indian provinces 
and missions were destroyed by Pombal; close to^ two 
thousand members of the Socict>[ were cast destitute 
on the shores of Italy and imprisoned in fetid dun- 
geons in Portugal France, Spain, and the Two 
Sicilies followed in the footsteps of PombaL The 
Bull "Apostolicum" of, Clement XIII in favour of 
the Society produced no fruit. Clement XIV at 
last yielded to the demand for the extinction of the 
Society. Father Ricci was seized, and cast a prisoner 
into the Castel San Angelo, where he was treated as 
a criminal till death ended his sufferings on 24 Novem- 
ber, 1775. In 1770 the Society contained 42 prov- 
inces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 669 colleges, 
61 novitiates, 335 residences, 273 mission stations, 
and about 23,000 members. 

HisTOBY. Italy, — ^The history of the Jesuits in 
Italy was in general very peaceful. The only serious 
disturbances were those arising from the occasional 
quarrels of the civil governments with the ecclesiaj»- 
tical powers. Ignatius's first followers were imme- 
diately in great request to instruct the faithful, and 
to reform the clergy, monasteries, and convents. 
Though there was little organized or deep-seated mis- 
chief, the amount of lesser evils was immense; the 
possibility here and there of a catastrophe was evi- 
dent. While the preachers and missionaries evange- 
lized the country, colleges were established at Padua, 
Venice, Naples, Bologna, Florence, Parma, and other 
cities. On 20 April, 1555, the University of Ferrara 
addressed to the Sorbonne a most remarkable testi- 
mony in favour of the order. St. Charles Borromeo 
was, after the popes, perhaps the most generous of 
all their patrons, and they freely put their Lest talents 
at his disposal. (For the difficulties about his semi- 
nary and with Fr. Guilio Mazarino, see Sylvain, "Hist, 
de S. Charles'*, iii, 53.) Juan de Vega, ambassador of 
Charles V at Kome, had learnt to Know and esteem 
I^atius' there, and when he was appointed Viceroy of 
Sicily he brought Jesuits with him. A college was 
opened at Messina; success was marked, and its rules 
and methods were afterwards copied in other colleges. 
After fifty years the Society counted in Italy 86 
houses and 2550 members. The chief trouble in 
Italy occurred at Venice in 1606, when Paul V laid 
the city imder interdict for serious breaches of eccle- 
siastical immunities. The Jesuits and some other 
religious retired from the city, and the Senate, in- 
spired by Paolo Sarpi, the disaffected friar, passed 


a decree of perpetual banishmeat agiuDHt them. In 500 vocationB to religiotu orders tA Salamitnca la 

effect, though peace was made ere long with the pope, the year 1564, about fifty of them to the Society, 

it was fifty years before the Society could return. There were 300 Spanish Jesuits at the death of Igna- 

Italy during tho first two centuries of the Society tiua in 1556; and 1200 at the close of Borgia's genei^ 

was still the most cultured country of Europe, and the alate in 1572. Under the non-Spanish generals who 

Italian Jesuits enjoyed a. high reputation for Icam- fdlowed there was an unpleasant recrudescence o£ 

ing and letters. The elder Segneri is considered the the national iatic spirit. CoDsiderine the quarrels 

first of Italian preachera, and there are a number of which daily aroae t>etwe«n Spain ana other nations, 

others of the first class. Maffei, Torsellino, Strada, there can be no wonder at such ebullitions. As has 

Panaviciito,Midfiartoli(q.v.) have left historical works been explained under Acquaviva, Philip of Spain lent 

which are siill highly prized. Between BellArmine bis aid to the discontented parties, of whom the vir- 

(d- 1621) and Zaccharia (d. 1705) Italian Jesuits of tuous Joa^ de Acoata was the spokesman, Fathers 

note in theolosy, controversy, and subsidiary sciences Hem&ndei, DioDvsiua Vdaquez, Henriquea, and Mari- 

&re reckoned Fv the score. They also elaitn a lar^e ana the reid leaders. Their ulterior object was to 

proportion of tne saints/martyrs, generals, and mis- ^ocure a separate conunissaiy-gencral for Spain. 

eionariee. (See also Bbllecids; Bologni; Qosco- This trouble was not quieted till the fifth congrega- 

ticb: Pobbevinus; Scabawelli; Viva.) Italy was tion, 1593, after which ensued the great debates de 

divided into Eve provinces, with the following hgures auxiliis with the Dominicans, the protagonists on 

for the year 1749 (shortly before the beginning of (he both sides being Spaniards, (See Congrzoatio de 

morement for the Suppression of the Society): Rome, Auxiuis; Gsace, Contboversies ok.) 

848; Naples, 667; Sicily, 775; Venice. 707; Milan, Serious as these troubles were in their own sphere, 

625; total, 3622 memb^, about one-naif of whom they must not be allowed to obscure the fact ttat in 

woe priests, with 178 houses. the Societ}', as in all Catholic organizations of that 

Spain. — Though the majority of Ignatius'H com- day, Spaniards played the greate^ rAlea. When we 

pamons were Span- enumerate their 

lards, he did not great men and their 

^tberthemtt^ether great works, they 

inSfmiD, and tM first defy all comparison. 

Jesuits paid only This consideration 

paaedng visita there. gains further force 

Id 1544, however, when we remember 

Father Araox, cousin that the success oi 

of St. Ignatius and the Jesuits in Flan- 

a very eloquent ders and in the parts 

preacher, came with of Italy then united 

with the 

ompanions, and with the Spanisb 

then their succeffi crown was laraely 

was rapid. On 1 due to Spanish Jes- 

Septemoer, 1647,Ig- uits; and the same 



■sinr^icuiud, lu-if , Ag- uih, nuu utD Same 

natius established is true of the Jesuits 

the province of Spain in Portu^, which 

with seven houses country with its far- 

&nd about forty re- stretching colonies 

bgious; St, Francis was also under the 

BMipa joined in Spanish Crown from 

1548; in 1650 Lainei 1581 to 1640, though 

accompanied the neithertheorganiza- 

ih troops in tion of the Fortu- 

African cam- The Gzet. Rout gueseJesuitanorthe 

paign. With rapid civil government of 
successcame unexpected opposition. Melchoir Cano, thecoimtryitselfwasamalgamatedwiththoseofSpain. 
O.P., a theologian of European reputation, attacked But it was in the more abstract sciences that the 
the young order, which could make no elective reply, Spanish genius shone with its greatest lustre; Toledo 
nor could anyone get the professor to keep the peace, (d. 1506), Molina (1000). de Valentia (1603), V^quez 
But, very unpleasant as the trial was, it evenluaU^ (1604) SuArea (I617),Ripalda (1648), de Lugo (1G60) 
brou^t advantage to the order, as it advertized it (qq.v.) — these form a group of uniurpassed brilliance, 
well m university circles, and moreover drew out de- and there are quite anumber of others almost equally 
fenders of unexpected efficiency, as Juan de la PeQa of remarkable. In moral theology, Sinchei (1610), Azor 
the Dominicans, and even their geneml, Fra Fran- (1603), Balas (1612), Castro Palao (1633), Torxea 
Cisco Romeo. The Jesuits continued to prosper, (Tumanus, 1635), Escobar y Mendoza (1669), In 
and Ignatius subdivided (29 September, 1554) the Scripture, Maldonado (1583), Salmer6n (15S5), Fran- 
existing province into three, containing twelve houses Cisco Ribera (1591). Prado (1595), Perciro (1610), 
and 139 religious. Yet there were internal troubles Sancio (1628), Pineda (1637). In secular literature 
both here and in Portugal under Simon Rodriguez, mention may be made especial^ of de Isla (q. v.), 
which gave the founder anxieties. In both countries and Baltasar Gracidn (15S4-105S), author of the 
the first houses had been eatabliahed before the Con- "Art of Worldly Wisdom" (El orficulo) and "El 
stitutions and rules were committed to writing. It criticon", which seema to have suggested the idea 
waa inevitable therefore that the discipline intro- of "Robinson Crusoe" to Defoe, 
duced by Araoz and Rodriguei should have differed Following the almost universal custom of the later 
somewhat from that which was being introduced by sevenieenth century, the kin^ of Spain generally 
Ignatius at Rome. In Spain, the good offices of had Jesuit confessors; but their altempla at reform 
Bo^ia and the visits of Father Nadal did mueb to were loo often rendered ineffective by court in- 
effect a gradual unificatiou of system, thouEth not trigues. This was especially the case with the 
without difficulty. These troubles, however, Mccted Austrian, Father, later Cardinal, Everard Nidhard 
the higher officials of the order rather than the rank (confeeaor of Maria Anna of Austria), and P^ 
and file, who were animated by the hi^est motives. Daubentoa, confessor of Philip V. After the era of 
The great preacher Ramirez is caid to have attracted Uie great writers, the chief glory of the Spanish 


JeeuitH in to h<^ found in their large and flourishing Parkment ot Paria and the Sorbonno reaiat«d vehe- 
foreign miaaiuns in Peru, Chile, New Granada, the mentlv the lef)«ns pat«Tii, which Henry II and, after 

Philippines, Paracuay, QuitOjWhich will be noticed him, FranciB II and Charles IX, had granted with 

under "Missions, beiow. Th^ were served by Mtlle difficulty. Meantime the eame Bishop ot Cler- 

2171 Jetntita at the time of the Suppression. Scam mont had founded a second college at Billom in his 

itself in 1749 was divided into five provinces: Toledo own dioeeae, which waa opened on 26 July, 1556, be- 

with 659 memberB, Castile, 718; Aragon, 604; Seville, fore the first generaJ cone^regation. Colleges at Mau- 

662; Sardinia, 300; total, 2943 members (1342 priests) riao and Pamiers soon followed, and between 1565 

in 158 houses. and 1575 others at Avi^on, Cnanib^ry, Toulouse, 

Portugal. — At the time when Ignatius founded his Rodei. Verdun, Nevera, Bordeaux, Pont-A-Mousson; 

order Portugal was in her heroic a^. Her rulers while Fathers Coudret, Auger, Roger, and Pelletier 

were men afenterpriBe, her univemltiea were full of distinguished themselves by their apostolic labours, 

life, her trade routes extended over the then known The utility of the order waa aJao shown in the Collo- 

world. The Jesuits were welcomed wiih enthual- quies at Poissy (1561) and 8t-Gennain-en-L^e by 

nam and made good use of their opport unit lea. Fathers Lainei and Possevinus, and again by Father 

St. Francis Xavier, traversing Portuguese colonies Brouet, who, with two companiooa, gave his life in the 

and settlements, proceeded to mnke hLi aplendid service of the plague-atricken at Paris in 1562; while 

miiiaionary conquests. These were continued by his Father Maldonudo lectured with striking effect both 

confr^resmauchdistant landaas Aby!>sinia,theQ>ngo, at Paris and Bourges. 

South Africa, China, and Japan, by Fathers Nunhes, Meantime serious trouble waa growing up with 
Silveira, Aeoata, Fcmandes, and others. At Coim- the Univeraity of Paris due to a number of petty 
bra, and afterwards at Evora, the Society made the causes. Jealousy of ^e new teachers, rivalry with 


moat surprising progress under such professors as Spain, Gallican resentment at the enthusiastic devo- 
Pedro de Fonacea (d. 1509), Luis Molina (d. 1600), tion of the Jeauits to Rome, with perhaps a spice of 
ChristovSo Gil, Se- Calvinism. A law- 
baati&o de Abreu, suit for the closing 
etc., and from here of Clermont College 
also comee the firat was inatitutedhefore 
comprehensive series the Parltment, and 
of pnilosophical and Estienne Pasquier, 
theological text- counsel for the uni- 
books for students veraity, deUvered a 
(see CoNiuBRi- celebrated ptaidoj/er 
cENSEa). With the against the Jesuits. 
advent of Spanish The Parlement, 
monarchy, 1581, the though then favour- 
Portuguese Jeauits able to the order, 
sulTered no less than was anxious not to 
the rest of their irritate the univer- 
country. Luis Car- aity, and came to an 
valho joined the indeciaive aettle- 
Spaniah opponents ment (5 April, 1565). 
"' Father Acqua- The Jcsuita, m spite 
viva, and when the of the royal license, 
Apoatolic collector, were not to be in- 
Ottavio Accoram- corporated in the 
boni^ launched an in' univeraity, but the^ 
terdict agalnat the might continue their 
Government of Lis- FAf*DK or thb Rohah Collkob lectures. Unsatisfied 
bon, the Jesuits, es- with this, the uni- 
peciaJly Diego de Areda, became involved in the versity retaliated by preventing the Jesuit scholars 
undignified strife. On the other band ihey played from obtaining degrees; and later (1573-6), a feud waa 
an honourable part in the restoration of Portu^l's maintained against Father Maldonado (q, v.), which 
liberty in 1640; and on ita auccess the difficulty was eventually closed by the intervention of Gregory 
was to restrain King Jo6o IV from giving Father XIII, who had also in 1572 raised the College of 
Manuel Femandea a seat in the Cortea, and employ- Pont-i-Mousaon to the dignity of a university. 
ing othera in diplomatic missions. Amongst these But meantime the more or leaa incessant wars of 
Fathers was Antonio Vieira, one of Portugal's moat religion were devastating the land, and from time to 
eloquent orators. Up to the Suppression Portugal time several Jesuits, especially Auger and Manare, 
and her colonists supported the following missions, of were acting as army chaplains. T^ey had no eon- 
which further notices will be found elsewhere, Goa nexion with the Massacre of St. Barlholomew (1572); 
(originally India), Malabar, Japan, China, Brazil, but Maldonado was afterwards deputed to receive 
MoranhBo. The Portugueae province in 1749 num- Henry of Navarre (afterwords Henry IV) into the 
bered 861 members (384 priesta) in 49 houses. Church, and in many places the Fathers were able 
(See also Vieira. Antonio; Malagrida, Ga- U> shelter fugitives in their houses; and by remon- 
BRiEL.) strance and intercession they aa\'ed many lives. 

Prance. — The first Jeauits, though almost all Span- Immediately after his coronation (1575) Henry III 

iards, were trained and made their first vows in ehose Father Auger for his confessor, and for exactly 

France, and the fortunes of the Society in France two hundred years the Jesuit court confessor became 

have always been of exceptional importance for the an inatitution in France; and, aa French fashions were 

body at laife. In early years its young men were then influential, every Catholic Court in time fol- 

sent to Paris to he educated there as Ignatius had lowed the precedent. Considering; the difficulty of 

been. They were hospitably received by Guillaume any sort of control over autocratic sovereigns, the 

du Prat, Bishop of Clermonl, whose h6lel ktcw into institution of a court confessor was well adapted to 

the Coll^ de Clermont (1550), afterwards Known as the circumstances. The occasional abuses of the 

Louis-le-Grand. Padre Viola was the firat rector, office which ooouired ar« chiefly to be attributed 

but the public classes did not begin till 1504. Tha to th* wror bl fnt pow»rs vested in the autocrat. 


which no human guidanoe oould >ava from peripcbi g^t CaUe» of La Fteche, enoouraged its misaions 
of decline and degradation. But this was more at home, in Normandy and B^am, and the commence- 
clearly seen later on, A crieis for French Catholi- mentoftheforeignmtasionsinCaiiadaandthelievant. 
ciam was near when, after the death of Franjois, The Society immediately b^jan to increase rapidly, 
Duke of Aniou, 1584, Henri de Navarre, now an apos- and counted thirty-nine coileges, besides other housM, 
tate, stood heir to the throne, which the feeble Henry and 1135 religious before the kmg fell under Ravail- 
III could not possibly retain for long. Sides were lac'a dagger (1610). This was made the occasion 
taken with enthusiaflm, and La sairtU lime was formed for new aasaulta by the Parlenent, who availed them- 
for the defence of the Church (see League, The; selves of Mariana's book "De rege" to attack the 
GuiBB, HoDEE or; France). It was hardly to be ex- Society as d^enders of tyrannicide. Suaroi's "De- 
pected that the fensio fidei" was burnt m 1614. The young king, 
Jesuits to a man Louib XIII, was too weak to curb the parUmen- 
should have re- laires, but both he and the people of France favoured 
mained cool, when the Society ao effectively that at the time of his 
the whole popu- death in 1643 their numbers had trebled. They now 
lace was in a ler- had five provinces, and that at Paris alone counted 
ment of eStcite- over 13,000 scholars in its colleges. The confessors 
ment. It was during this reign were changed not unfrequently by 
morally impos- the manceuvrcs of Richelieu, and include Pftrea 
sible^ to keep tlic AraouK de SIguiron, Suffren, Caussin (q. v.), Sirmond, 
Jesuit friends of Dinet. RicheUeu'a policy of supporting the Ger- 
theexaiUsonboth man Protestants against Cathohc Austria (which 
sides from partic- Cauaain resisted) proved the occasion for angry po- 
ipating in their lemics. TheGerman Jesuit JacobKellerwas believed' 
extreme measures, (though proof of authorship is altogether wanting) 
Auger and Claude to have written two strong pamphlets, "Mystena 
Matthieuwere pohtica" and "Admonitio ad Ludovicum XIII", 
respectively in against France. The books were burned by the 
the confidence of hangman, as in 1626 was a work of Father Santarelli, 
the two contend- which touched awkwardly on the pope's power to 
ing parties, the pronounce against princes. 

Court and the The politioo-religioua history of the Society under 

'Jonf PiblOut KimnTK Okhoull I**?"^- Father Louis XIV centres round Jansenism (see Janbbnitib 

' n?^. ai-iirt'o. i».™ iT iRHi Acouaviva sue- and Jansenism) and the lives of the king's confeaaoiB, 

OF T«. swciOTT OF ju<7«. o. iBsi ^^^ ^ ^.^^ Especially Pfa-ea Annat (1646-60). Ferrier (1660-74), 

drawingbothfromFrancc, though with great difficulty La Chwse (q. v.) (1674-1709), and Michel Le TeUier, 

and conaidernble loss of favour on either side, Oneor (q. v.), (1709-15). 

twohecouldnotcontrolfor some time, andofthesetbe On 24 May. 1656, 

most remarkable was Henri Samerie, who had been BlaiaeFaBcal(q.v.) 

chaplain to Mary Stuart, and became later army published the first 

chaplain in Flanders. For a year he passed as diplo- of his "Provin- 

matic agent from one prince of the League to another, dales". The five 

evading, by their means and the favour of Sixtua V, propositions of 

all Acquaviva's efforta to get him back to regular life. Jansenius having 

But in the end discipline prevailed; and Acquaviva's been condemned 

orders to respect the consciences of both sides by papal author- 

■ enabled the Society to keep friends with all. ity, Pascal could 

Henry IV made much use of the Jesuits (especially no longer defend 

Toledo, Fossevinus, and Commolet), although they them openly, and 

had favoured the League, to obtain canonical absolu- found the most 

tion and the conclusion of peacej and in time (1604) effective method of 

took PSre Coton (q. v.) as his confessor. This, retaliation was sat- 

howevcr, is an anticipation. After the attempt on ire, raillery, and 

Henry's life by Jean Chastel (27 December, 1594), countercharge 

the ParUtnenl of Paris tcok the opportunity of attack- against the Society, 

ini^ the Society with fury, perhaps in order to dis- He concluded with 

guii^e the fact that they had been among the most the usual evasion 

extreme of the leaguers, while the Society was among that Jansenius did 

the more moderate. It was pretended that the not write in the 

Society was responsible for Chastel's crime, because sense attributed to 

he had once been their student; though in truth he hicn by the pope, 

was then at the university. "The librarian of the Thc"Provii>ciale«" 

Jesuit College, Jean Guignard, was hanged, 7 Janu- were the first not»- 

ary, 1595, because an old book against tne king was worthy example in 

foimd in a cupboard of his room. Antoine Amauld, the French Ian- j, 

Uie elder, brought into his piotdoaer before the Parle- guage of satire 

ment every possible calumny against the Society, and written in studiously polite and moderate terms; and 

the Jesuits were ordered to leave Paris in three days their great literary merit appealed powerfully to the 

and France in a fortnight. TTie decree was executed French love of cleverness. Too light to be effectively 

in the districts subject to the PorUment of Paris, answered by refutation, they were at the same time 

but not elsewhere. The king, not being yet canoni- sufficiently envenomed to do great and lasting hum; 

tally absolved, did not then interfere. But the pope, although they have frequently been proved to mis- 

and many others, pleaded earnestly for the revocation represent the teaching of the Jesuits by omissions, 

of the cfecree against the order. The matter was alterations, interpolations, and false contexts, notably 

warmly debated, and eventually Henry himself gave by Dr, KarlWeiss, of Gratz, "P. Antonio de Escobar 

the pcrmissian for its readmission, on 1 Sept., llMB, y Mendosui als Moral theologe in r;vf!i]s Bekuehtung 

Henowmadegreat usc<^thcSodety,foundedtorit the und iiii Lichic dcr Wahrhiil", 

Cuimiua Accvk 

. Fifth G 

or TBI Socirrr 



From an eDsrivinit 







The cause of the Jesuits was also compromised bv 
the various quarrels of Louis XIV with Innocent XI, 
especially oonoeming the regale and the Gallican articles 
of 1682. (See Louis XIV and Innocent XI, The 
different standpoints of these articles may help to 
illustrate the differences of view prevalent within 
the order on this subject.) At first there was a 
tendency on both sides to spare the French Jesuits. 
They were not at that time asked to subscribe to 
the Gallican articles^ while Innocent overlooked their 
adherence to the kmg, in hopes that their modera- 
tion might bring about peace. But it was hardly 
possible that they should escape all troubles under a 
domination so pressing. Louis conceived the idea 
of uniting all the French Jesuits under a vicar, inde- 
pendent of the general in Rome. Before making 
this known, he recalled all his Jesuit subjects, and all, 
even the assistant, P^re Fontaine, returned to 
France. Then he proposed the separation, which 
TTiyrsus Gonzdlez nrnuy refused. The provincials 
of the five French Jesuit provinces implored the king 
to desist, which he eventuaUv did. It has been 
Alleged that a papal decree forbidding the reception 
of novices between 1684-6 was issued in punishment 
of the French Jesuits giving support to Louis (Crd- 
tineau^oly). The matter is alluded to in the Brief 
of Suppression; but it is still obscure, and would 
seem rather to be connected with the Chinese rites 
than with the difficulties in France. Except for the 
interdict on their schools in Paris, 1716-29, by Car- 
dinal de Noailles, the fortunes of the order were 
ver>r calm and prosperous during the ensuini^ gen- 
eration. In 1749 the French Jesuits were divided 
into five provinces with members as follows: France, 
891; Aquitaine, 437; Lyons, 773; Toulouse, 655; 
Champagne, 594; total, 3350 (1763 priests) in 158 

Oermany. — ^The first Jesuit to labour here was Bl. 
Peter Faber (q. v.), who won to their ranks Bl. Peter 
Canisius (q. v.), to whose lifelong diligence and emi- 
nent holiness the rise and prosperity of the German 
provinces are especially due. In 1556 there were two 
provinces, South Germanv (Germania Superior^ up to 
and including Mainz) and North Germany {Rhenanaf 
or Germania Inferior^ including Flanders). The first 
residence of the Society was at Cologne (1544), the 
first college at Vienna (1552). The Jesuit colleges 
were soon so popular that they were demanded on 
every side, faster than they could be supplied, and the 

? 'eater groups of these became fredii provinces, 
ustria branched off in 1563, Bohemia in 1623, 
Flanders had become two separate provinces by 1612, 
and Rhineland also two provinces in 1626. At that 
time the five German-speaking provinces numbered 
over 100 colleges and academies. But meanwhile 
all Germany was in turmoil with the Thirty Years 
War, which had so far gone, generally, in favour of 
the Catholicpowers. In 1629 came the Restitutions^ 
edikt (see douNTBB-RBPORMATioN), by which the 
emperor redistributed with papal sanction the old 
clMirch property, which had been recovered from the 
usurpation of the Protestants. The Society received 
large grants, but was not much benefited thereby. 
Some bitter controversies ensued with the ancient 
holders of the properties, who were often Benedic- 
tines; and many of the acquisitions were lost again 
during the next period of the war. 

The sufferings of the order during the second period 
were grievous. Even before the war they had been 
systematically persecuted and driven into exile by 
the Protestant princes, whenever these had the oppor- 
tunity. In 1618 they were banished from Bohemia, 
Moravia, and Silesia; and after the advent of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus the violence to which they were 
liable was increased. The fanatical proposal of 
banishing them for evor from Germany was made by 
him in 1031, and again at Frankfort in 1033; and 

this counsel of hatred acquired a hold which it still 
exercises over the German Protestant mind. The 
initial successes of the Catholics of course excited 
further antipathies, especially as the great generals 
Tilly, Wallenstein, ana Piccolomini had been Jesuit 
pupils. During the siege of Prague, 1648. Father 
Plachy successfully trained a corps of stuaents for 
the defence of the town, and was awarded the mural 
crown for his services. The province of Upper 
Rhine alone lost seventy-seven Fathers in the nSd- 
hospitals or during the fighting. After the Peace 
of Westphalia, 1648, the tide of the Counter-Refor- 
mation had more or less spent itself. The foundation 
period had passed, and there are few external events 
to chronicle. The last notable conversion was that 
of Prince Frederick Augustus of Saxony (1697). 
afterwards King of Poland. Fathers Vota ana 
Salerno (afterwards a cardinal) were intimately con- 
nected with his conversion. Within the walls of Uieir 
colleges and in the churches throughout the country 
the work of teaching, writing, and preaching contin- 
ued unabated, while the storms of controversy rose 
and fell, and the distant missions, especially China and 
the Spanish missions of South America, claimed 
scores of the noblest and most high-spirited. To this 
period belong Philipp Jenigen (d. 1704) and Frans 
Hunolt (d. 1740), perhaps the greatest German 
Jesuit preachers; Tschupick, Joseph Schneller, and 
Ignatius Wurz acquired an almost equally great 
reputation in Austria. In 1749 the German prov- 
inces counted as follows: Germania Superior, 
1060; Lower Rhine, 772; Upper Rhine, 497; Austria, 
1772; Bohemia. 1239; total, 5340 members (2558 
priests) in 307 nouses. (See also the Index volume 
under title "Society of Jesus", and such names as 
Becan, Byasen, Brouwer, Drechsel, Lohner. etc.) 

Hungry was included in the province or Austria. 
The chief patron of the order was Cardinal PAz- 
mdny (q. v.). The conversion of Sweden was several 
times attempted by German Jesuits, but they were 
not allowed to stay In the country. Kin^ John III, 
however, who had married a Po.hsh pnncess, was 
actually converted (1578) through various missions 
by Fathers Warsiewicz and Poesevinus. the latter 
accompanied by the English Father William Good; 
but the kin^ had not the courage to persevere. 
Queen Christina (q. v.) in 1654 was Drought into the 
Church, largely through the ministration of Fathers 
Macedo and Casati, having given up her throne for 
this purpose. The Austrian Fathers maintained 
a small residence at Moscow from 1684 to 1718, 
which had been opened by Father Vota. (See 


Poland. — Bl. Peter Canisius, who visited Poland in 
the train of the legate Mantuato in 1558, succeeded 
in animating King Sigismund to energetic defence of 
Catholicism, and Bishop Hosius of Ermland founded 
the college of Braunsberg in 1584, which with that 
of Vilna tl569) became centres of Catholic activity 
in north-eastern Europe. King Stephen Bathory, an 
earnest patron of the order, rounded a Ruthenian 
College at Vilna in 1575. Prom 1588 Father Peter 
Skarga (d. 1612) made a great impression by his 
preaching. Tliere were violent attacks against the 
Society in the revolution of 1607, but after the vic- 
tory oiF Sigismund III the Jesuits more than recovered 
tho ground lost; and in 1608 the province could be 
subdivided into Lithuania and Poland. The animus 
against the Jesuits however vented itself at Cracow 
in 1612, through the scurrilous satire entitled "Mo- 
nita socreta" (q. v.). King Casimir, who had once 
boon a Jesuit, favoured the Society not a little; so too 
did Sobieski, and his campaign to relieve Vienna from 
the Turks (1683) was due in part to the exhortations 
of Father Vota, his confes.<?or. Among the great 
Polifih missionaries are numbered Benedict Herbst 
(<i. ir)03) and Bl. Andrew Bobola (q. v.). In 1766 


the Polish provinces were readjusted into four:— in 30 houaeB: Gallo-Belgian, 471 (266 priests) in 25 

Greato' Poland; Lesser Poland; Lithuania; Massovia, houses. 

counting in all 2359 religious. The Polish Jesuits, Engtand. — Founded at Rome after the English 

besides their own nussions, had others in Stockholm, Schism had commenced, the Society had great diffi- 

RussiaL the Crimea, Constantinople, and Persia, cultj in finding an entrance into England, though 

(See Cracow, Unitbrsitt of.) Ignatius and Ribadeneira visited the country in 

Bei^/iian. — The first settlement was at Louvain in 1531 and 1558, and prayers for its conversion have 

1542, whither the students in Paris retired on the been recited throughout the order from 1553 to the 

declaration of war between France and Spain. In present day (now under the common designation 

1556 Ribadeneira obtained legal authorization for the of "Northern Nations"). Other early Jesuits exert«d 

Society from Philip II, and in 1564 Flanders became themselves on behalf of the English seminary at 

& separate province. Tta beginnings, however, were Douai and of the refugees at Louvain. The «Sect 

Pacification of Ghent (1576) the Jesuits were offered 
an oath against the rulers of the Netherlands, which 
they firmly refused, and were driven from their nouses. 
But this at last won for them Philip's favour, and 
under Alexander Famese fortune turned completely 
in their favour. Father Oliver Manare became a 
leader fitted for the occasion, whom Acquiviva him- 
self greeted as "Pater Provincite". In a few years 
A number of wdl-established colleges had been 
founded, and in 1612 the province bad to be sub- 
divided. The FlandTO-Bdgica counted .sixteen coUegea 
and the Galh-Bel^fica eighteen. All but two were day- 
schools, with no preparatory classes for small boys. 
They were worked with comparatively small staifs 
of five or six, sometimes only three profpssors, though 
their scholars might comit as many hundreds. Teach- 
ing was gratuitous, but a sufiicient foundat ion for the 
support of the teachers was a noccwiiry preliminary. 
Though preparatory and elementary edu cat ion was not 
yet in fashion, the care taken in teaching catechism 
was most elaborate. The classes were regular, and 
at intervalsenlivened with muaic, ceremonies, mystery- 
plays, and processions. These were often attended * ^^^E.*^"^^^^" ^"^i- "*** 

Ijy tie whole magistracy in robes of state, whUe ' From « <»nMmiK>r«y prmt 

(be bishop himself would attend at the distribution scores of young men entered the Society, several of 
of honours. A special congregation was formed at these volunteered for foreign missions, and thus it 
Antwerp in 1628, to organize ladies and gentlemen, came about that the forerunner of those legions of 
nobles and bourgeois, into Sunday-school teachers, Engli^men who go into India to e^rve out careers 
and in that year their classes counted in all 3000 was the English Jesuit missionary, Thomas Stephens. 
children. Similar organizations existed all over the John Yate (oJHU Vincent, b. 1550; d. after 1603) 
country. The first communion classes formed an and John Meade (see Auieida) were pioneers of the 
extension of the catechisms. In Bruges, Brussels, mission to Brazil. The most noteworthy of the first 
and Antwerp between 600 and 1600 attended the recruits were Thomas Dorbishire and William Good, 
communion classes. followed in time by Blessed Edmund Campion (q.v.) 
Jesuit congregations of the Blessed Virgin were and Robert Persons. The latter was the first to con- 
first instituted at Rome by a Belgian Jesuit, Jean ccive and elaborate the idea of the English mission, 
Leunis, in 1563. His native country soon look them which, at I^. Allen's request, was undertaken in 
Up with enthusiasm. Each college had normally December, 1578. 

four; — (I) for scholars (more often two, one for older. Before this the Society had undertaken the care of 

one for younger); (2) tor young men on leaving; (3) the English College, Rome (see English Collbo^, 

for grown-up men (more often several) — forworiting- by the pope's command, 19 March, 1578. But diffi- 

men, for tradesmen, professional classes, nobles, cuhies ensued, owing to the miseries inherent in the 

Eriests, doctors, etc., etc. ; (4) for small boys. In days estate of the religious refugees. Many came ^1 the 

efore hospitals, workhouses, and elementary educa- way to Rome eitpecting pensions, or scliolarahips from 

tion were regularly organized, and supported by the the rector, who at first cicame, in spite of himself, the 

~ ' ■■ "iBpenser of Pope Gregory's alms. But the alms 

)on failed, and several scnolars had to be dismissed 
I unworthy. Hence disappointments and storms 

tions, in Comely lasnion oernaps, Dut gratuitously, of grumbling, the records of which read sadly by 

bringing together all ranks for the relief of indi- the side of the consoling accounts of the martyr- 

gence. Some of theae congregations were exceedingly doms of men like Campion, Cottam, SouthweU, 

popular, and their roisters still show the names M Walpole, Page, and others, and the labours of a 

the first artists and savants of the time (Teniera, Van Heywood, Weston, or Gerard. Persons and Crichton 

Dyck, Rubens, Lipsius, etc.). Archdukes and kings too, falling in with the idea, so common abroad, that 

and even four emperors are found among the sodalists a counter-revolution in favour of Mary Stuart would 

of Iiouvain. Pr<rt)ably the first permanent corps of not be difficult, made two or three politick missions 

army chaplains was that established by Famese in to Rome and Madrid (1582-84) before reafizing that 

1687. It consisted of ten to twenty-five chaplains their schemes were not feasible (see Persons). 

and was styled the "Missio castrensis," and lasted After the Armada (q. v.). Persons induced Philip to 

as an institution till 1660. 'The "Missio navalis" establish more seminaries, and hence the foundations 

WBR a kindred institution for the navy. TheFlandro- at Valladolid, St-Omer, and Seville (1589, 1592, 

Bdgian province numbered 543 in 1749 (232 priests) 1593), all put in chiirci- of the English Jesuits. On the 




other hand they suffered a setbaok in the ao-oftUed 
Appellant controversy (1598-1602), which French 
diplomacy in Rome eventually made into an oppor- 
tunity for operating against Spain. (See Blackwell; 
Garnet.) The assistance of France and the influence 
of the French Counter-Reformation were now on the 
whole hi^y beneficial. But many who took refuge 
at Paris became accustomed to a Gallican atmosphere, 
and hence perhaps some of the regalist views about 
the Oath of Allegiance and some of the excite- 
ment in the debate over the jurisdiction of the Bish- 
ops of Chalcedon, of which more below. The feeling 
ot tension continued until the missions of Pazam, 
Conn, and Rosetti, 1635-41. Though the first of 
these was somewhat hostile, he was recalled in 1637, 
and his successors brought about a peace, too soon 
to be interrupted by the Civil War, 1641-60. 

Before 1606 the English Jesuits had founded houses 
for others, but neither they nor any other Engjish 
order had yet erected houses for themselves. But 
during the so-caUed "Foundation Movement", due 
to many causes but especially perhaps to the stimu- 
lus of the Counter-Reformation (q. v.) in France, 
a full equipment of institutions was established in 
Flanders. The novitiate, begun at Louvain in 1606, 
was moved to Lidge in 1614, and in 1622 to Watten. 
The house at Li^ge was continued as the scholasticate, 
and the house of third probation was at Ghent 1620. 
The "mission" was made in 1619 a vice-province, 
and on 21 January, 1623, a province, with Fr. Rich- 
ard Bloimt as first provincial) and in 1634 it was able 
to undertake the foreign mission of Maryland (see 
below) in the old Society. The English Jesuits at 
this period also reached their greatest numbers. In 
1621 they were 211, in 1636, 374. In the latter year 
their total revenue amounted to 45,086 acudi (almost 
£11,000). After the Civil War both members and 
revenue fell off very considerably. In 1649 there were 
only 264 members, and 23,055 scudi revenue (about 
£5760); in 1645 the revenue was only 17,405 scudi 
(about £4350). 

Since Elizabeth's time the martyrs had been few — 
one only, the Yen. Edmund Arrowsmith (q. v.), 
in the reign of Charles I. On 26 October, 1623, 
had occurred "the Doleful Even-flong". A congre- 
gation had gathered for venders in the garrets of 
the French embassy in Blackfriars. when the floor 
gave way. Fathers Drury and Kediate with 61 
(perhaps 100) of the congregation were killed. On 
14 March, 1628, seven Jesuits were seized at St. 
John's, Clerkenwell, with a laree number of papers. 
These troubles, however, were Tight, compared with 
the sufferings during the Commonwealth, when the 
list of martyrs and confessors went up to ten. As the 
Jesuits depended so much on the country families, 
they were sure to suffer severely by the war, and the 
college at Stumer was nearly beggared. The old 
trouble about the Oath of AUegiance was revived 
by the Oath of Abjuration, and "the three questions" 
proposed by Fairfax, 1 August, 1647 (see White. 
Thomas). The representatives of the secular ana 
regular clergy, amongst them Father Henry More, 
were called upon at short notice to subscribe to them. 
They did so, More thinking he mi^t, "considering 
the reasons of the preamble", which qualified the 
words of the oath considerably. But the provin- 
cial, Fr. Silesdon, recalled him from England, and 
he was kept out of office for over a year; a punish- 
ment which, even if drastic for his offence, cannot be 
regretted, as it providentially led to his writing the 
history oi the English Jesuits down to the year 1635 
("Hist, missionis angUcante Soc. Jesu, ab anno salutis 
MDLXXX", St-Omer, 1660). 

With the Restoration, 1660, came a period of 
fireater calm, followed by the worst tempest of all, 
Oates's plot (a. v.), when the Jesuits lost eight on 
the scaffold ana thirteen in prison in five years, 1678- 

88. Th^ ikm period of gireatest prosperity under 
King James II (1685-8). He gave them a college, 
and a public chi^l in Somerset House, made Father 
Petre nis almoner, and on 11 November, 1687. a 
member of his Privy Coimcil. He also chose Father 
Warner as his confessor, and encouraged the preach- 
ing and controversies which were carried on with no 
little fruit. But this spell of prosperity lasted only a 
few months; with the Revolution of 1688 the Fathers 
regained their patrimony of persecution. The last 
Jesuits to die m prison were Fathers Poulton and 
Aylworth (1690-1692). William Ill's repressive 
legislation did not have the intended effect of exter- 
mmating the CathoUcs, but it did reduce them to a 
proscribed and ostracized body. Thenceforward 
the annals of the English Jesuits show httle that 
is new or striking, though their number and works 
of charity were well maintained. Most of the Fathers 
in England were chaplains to gentlemen's families, 
of which posts they held nearly a hundred during the 
eighteenth century. 

The church law under which the English Jesuits 
worked was to some extent special. At first indeed 
all was undefined, seculars ana regulars living in true 
happy-family style. As, however, organization devel- 
oped, friction between parts could not always be 
avoided^ and legislation became necessary. By 
the institution of the archpriest (7 March, 1598), and 
by the subsequent modifications of that institution 
(6 April, 1599; 17 August, 1601; and 5 October, 1602), 
various occasions for friction were removed, and prin- 
ciples of stable government were introciuced. As 
soon as Queen Henrietta Maria seemed able to pro- 
tect a bishop in England, bishops of Chalcedon in 
partibus infidelium were sent, m 1623 and 1625. 
The second of these, Dr. Richard Smith, endeavoured, 
without having the necessary faculty from Rome, to 
introduce the episcopal approbation of confessors. 
This led to the Brief ''^Britannia", 9 May, 1631, which 
left the faculties of regular missionaries in their pre- 
vious immediate dependence on the Holy See. But 
after the institution of vicars Apostolic in 1685, by 
a Decree of 9 October. 1695, regulars were obliged 
to obtain approbation from the bishop. There were 
of course many other matters that needed settlement, 
but the difficulties of the position in England and the 
distance from Rome made legislation slow and dififi- 
cult. In 1745 and 1748 Decrees were obtained, 
against which appeals were lodged; and it was not 
tm 31 May, 1753, that the '* Repulse missionis" were 
laid down by Benedict XIV in the Constitution 
"ApostoUcum ministerium " . which regulated eccle- 
siastical administration until the issue of the Consti- 
tution ^'Romanos Pontifices" in 1881. In the year 
of the Suppression, 1773, the English Jesuits num- 
bered 274. (See Coffin, Edward; Creswbll; Eng- 
lish Confessors and Martyrs; More, Henrt; 
Penal Laws; Persons, Robert; Petre, Sir Ed- 
ward; Pi>owdbn: Sabran, Louis db; SounrwELL; 
Spenser, John; Stephens, Thomas; Redford.) 

Ireland.—One of the first commissions which the 
popes entrusted to the Society was that of acting as 
envoys to Ireland. Fathers Salmer6n and Brouet 
managed to reach Ulster during the Lent of 1542; 
but the immense difficulties of the situation after 
Henry VIIFs successes of 1541 made it impossible 
for them to live there in safety, much less to discharge 
the functions or to commence the reforms which the 

Sope had entrusted to them. Under Queen Mary the 
esuits would have returned had there been men ready. 
There were indeed fdready a few Irish novices, and of 
these David Woulfe returned to Ireland on 20 Janu- 
uary, 1561. with ample Apostolic faculties. He pro- 
cured candidates for the sees emptied by Elizabeth, 
kept open a grammar school for some years^ and sent 
several novices to the order; but he was finally im- 
prisoned, and bad to withdraw to the Continent. A 


little later the "Iriab mission" was re^arjy ot^Aniied SooSand. — Father Nidiolas dc Gouda was seat to 

under Irish superiors, beginning with Ft. Richard visit Mary Queen of Scots in 1562 to invite her to 

Fleming (d. 1590), professor at Clermont College, aend bishops to the Council of Trent. The power of 

and then Chancellor of the University of Pont-&- the Protestants made it impossible to achieve this 

MouBson, In 1609 the mission numbered seventy- object, but de Gouda conferred with the queen and 

two, forty of whom were priests, and eighteen were brought back with him six young Scots, who were to 

at work in Ireland. By 1617 this latter number had prove the founders of the mission. Of these Edmund 

increased to thirty-eight; the rest were for the most Hay soon rose txt prominence and was rector of Cler- 

part in training among their French and Spanish moot College, Paris. In 15S4 Crichton returned 

confreres. The foundation of collides abroad, at witli Father James Gordon, uncle to the Earl of 

Salamanca, Santiago, Seville, and Lisbon, for the Huntly, to Scotland; the former was captured, but 

education of the clergy, was chiefly due t>o Father the latter was extraordinarilv successful, and the 

Thomas White (d. 1K2). They were consolidated Scottish mission proper may be said to have begun 

and long managed by Fr. James Archer of Kilkenny, with bim, and Father Edmund Hay and John Driuy, 

afterwanls missionary in Ulster and chaplain to who came in 1585. 

Hugh O'Neill. The Irish College at Poitiers was also The Earl of Huntly 

under Irish Jesuit direction, as was that of Rome became the Catho- 

for some time (see Irish Cou^GB, in Roue). lie leader, and the 

The greatest extension in Ireland was naturally fortunes of his 
during the dominance of the Confederation (J642-54), party passed 
with which Father Matthew O'Hartigan was in great through many a 
favour. Jesuit colleges, schools, and residences then strange turn. But 
amounted to thirteen, with a novitiate at Kilkonn_y. the Catholic vie- 
During the Puritan domination the number of Jesuits tory of Glenlivet, 
felt again to eighteen; but in 1685, under James II, in 1594, arouHed 
there were twenty-eight with seven residences. After the temper of the 
the Revolution their numbers fell again to six, then Kirktosuchapitch 
rose to seventeen in 1717, and to twenty-eight in that James, though 
1755. The Fathera sprang mostly from the old averse to severity, 
Anglo-Norman families, but almost all the mission- was forced to ad- 
aries spoke Irish, and missionary labour was the chief vance against the 
occupation of the Irish Jesuits. Fr. Robert Roch- Catholic lords and 
ford set up a school at Youghal as early as 1575; eventually Huntly 
university education was given in Dublin in the reign was constrained to 
of Charles I, until the buildings were seized and leave the country 
handed over to Trinity College; and Father John and, then return- 
Austin kept a flourishing school in Dublin for twenty- ing, he submitted ^A»ua o» MoriLLK.TwtLrra 
two yeara before the Suppression. to the Kirkin 1597. °'»^'' "' '^■,^'" "' '"""^ 

Some account of the work of Jesuits in Ireland will This put a term to 

be found in the articles on Fathers Christopher the spread of Catholicism: Father James Gordon had 

Holywood and Heniy Fitisimon; but it was abroad, to leave in 1595, but Father Abercromby succeeded 

from the nature of t£e case, that Irish genius of that in reconciling Anne of Denmark, who, however, 

day found its widest recognition. Stephen White, did not prove a very courageous convert. Meantime 

Liike Wadding, cousin of his famous Franciscan name- the Jesuits had been given the management of the 

sake, at Madrid; Ambrose and Peter Wadding at Scots College foundea by Mary Stuart in Paris, 

Dillingen and Gratz respectively; J. B. Duiggin and which was successively removed to Pont-Jt-Mousson 

John Lombard at Ypres and Antwerp; Thomas Com- and to Douai. In 1600 another college was founded 

erford at Compostella; Paul SherlocK at Salamanca; at Rome and put under them, and tEere was also a 

Richard Lynch (1611-76) at ValtadoUd and Sala- small one at Madrid. 

manes; James Kelly at Poitiers and Paris; Peter After reaching the English tlirone James was bent 

Plunkett at Le^om. Among the distinguished on introducing episcopacy into Scotland, and to 

writers were WiUJam Bathe, whose "Janua lingua- reconcile the Presbyterians to this he allowed them 

rum" (Salamanca, 1611) was the basis of the work of to persecute the Catholics to their hearts' content. 

ConuneniuB. Bernard Routh (b. at Kilkenny, 1695) By their barfjaroue "excommunication", the suffer- 

was a writer in the "Mimoires de Tr6voux (1734- ing they inflicted was incredible. The soul of the 

43), and assisted Montesquieu on his death-bed. In resistance to this cruelty was Father James Anderson, 

the field of forpign missiona O'Fihily was one of the who, however, becoming the object of special searches, 

first apostles of Paraguay, and Thomas Lynch was had to be withdrawn in 1611. In 1614 Fathers 

provinciaiof Brazil at the time of the Suppression. At John Ogilvie (q.v.) and James Mofi'at were sent in, 

this time also Roger Magloire was working in Marti- the former suffering martyrdom at Gla^ow,10Mareh, 

ni(]ue, and Philip O'Reilly in Guiana. But it was the 1615. In 1620 Father Patrick Anderson (q.v.) was 

mission-field in Ireland it«elf of which the Irif^ Jesuits tried, but eventually banished. After this, a short 

thought most, to which all else in one way or other led period of peace, 1625-7, ensued, followed by another 

up. Theirlabourswcreprincipallyspentin thewalled persecution 1629-30, and another period of peace 

cities of the old English Pale. Here they kept the before the rising of the Covenanters and the civil 

faith vigorous, in spite of persecutions, which, if wars, 1638-45. There were about six Fathers in the 

sometimes intermitted, were nevertheless long tfnd mission at this time, some chaplains with the Catho- 

severe. The first Irish Jesuit martyr was Edmund lie gentry, some living the then wild lite of the 

O'Donnell, who suffered at Cork in 1575. Others on Hignlanders. especially during Montrose's campaigns, 

that list of honour are: Dominic Collins, a lay brother. But after Philiphaugh (1645) the fortunes of the 

You^ial, 1602; William Boyton, Cashcl, 1647; royalists and the Catholics undtTwcnl a sad change. 

Fathers Netterville and Bathe, at the fall of Dro- Among those who fell into the hands of the enemy 

gheda, 1649. Fr. David Galway worked among the was Father Andrew l/cslic, who has left a lively 

scattered and persecuted Gaels of the Scottish leles account of his prolonged sufTeringB in various prisons. 

and Highlands, until his death in 1643. (See also After the Restoration (1660) there was a new period 

FnzaiuoN; Malonk; O'Donnell; Talbot, Pbtxr; of peace in which the Jesuit missionaries reaped a 

Ibisb Conitosors and Marttrb.) considerable harvest, but during the disturbances 

S0CIET7 94 80GI1TT 

caused by the Covenanters (q.v.) the persecution of of St. 'Francis Xavier (q. v.), so far as its geographical 

Catholics was renewed. James II favoured them as direction and limits were concerned, was laraely 

far as he could, appointing Fathers James Forbes determined bv the Portuffuese settlements in the East 

and Thomas Patterson chaplains at Holyrood, where and the traoe routes followed by Portuguese mer- 

a school was also opened. After the Revolution the chants. Arriving at Groa in 1542, he evaneelised 

Fathers were scattered, but returned, though with first the western coast and Ceylon, in 1545 he was 

diminishing numbers. in Malacca, in 1549 in Japan. At the same time he 

HmoBT.— A. General.-- Jfon. hi$tonea 3oe. Jmu. ed. Rodsum pushed forward his few assistants and catechists into 

(Madrid, 1894. in progressj ; Obi^ndini (continufid in turn other centres; and in 1552 set out for China, but died 

%l^^^. '^r^ie^a^'^SSi^: /S\tf^)flSd1tJ: at the year's end on an island off the cojT Xavier's 

pUmeru (Rome. 1859); Babtou. DeU^ iHoria delta camp, di work was Carried on, With Goa as headquarters, 

OuU (6 vols. foj. Rome. 1663-73) ; Cb<tineau-Joi.t. J^iaj. dela and Father BaTMBUs as successor. Father Antonio 

r/^>^,;SSJn^a^^i^°a^^^ P"^.^n^' ^¥^A°^7" ^ ^^? Society, had suffered 

6e$ch, der QeteOtchafi Jetu (MOnster, 1876); Cabbbe, aOcu geo- m 1549, and Father Mendez followed m 1552. In 

graphicus Soe. Jmu (Paris. 1900) ; Hbimbuchbb. i>ie Ordenund 1579 Blessed Rudolph Acquaviva visited the Court 

^^^n'SSstne^SSiaTbb^o^^^^^^ of Akbar the Great, but without permanent effect. 

reiigieux de la comp. dt jisua (Utrecht, 1741). Non-Catholic:— The great impulse of conversions came after Yen. 

STKIZ-Z6CKLBB mReaUncyd. fUr prot. Tfuol.,fi. v. Jetuiunorden; Robert de Nobili (q. V.) declared himself a Brahmin 

Si?S?s^^5. .?:?iiJ:'(zScS:r6?9)^'^"^°^' '''^^'' ^°" ^fanj^-^, and hVed the life of the Brahmins (1606). 

' B. Particular Ck>untrie6.— italy.—TAccHi-VaMTUBi, Storia At lanjore and elsewhere he now made immense 

delta comp. di O, in itaiia (Rome, 1910, in progress); ScHiNoaz numbers of converts, who were allowed to keep the 

r^!^*(N^ifm6!^:TS^?£f'l2r1plte distinctions of their castes, with many religious cus- 

1702); Aquilbba. Provincia Sictda Soc. Jeeu re* geata (Palermo* toms; which, however, were eventually (after much 

1737-40); CKFnLLxrm. I aeeuitie^ r«nena (Ven- controversy) condemned by Benedict XIV in 1744. 

1877). • "*"' ^^ ' '^^' ^ ""' This condemnation produced a depressing effect on 

Spain.— AftTRAiN, Hitt. de la comp, de J, en la atietenda de the mission, though at the very time Fathers Lopez 

EepafUi (Madrid. 1902, 3 vols., in proip^Bs) ; Ai^aiab Cfro»o- and Acosta with singular heroism devoted them- 

^ri?^^r/f-J*ii^^^Fa3^ sdvesforlifetothese^ceofthePaxiahs. The Sup- 

Portuffil.— Tellbz. GArontoa de la comp, de J. na prtnineia de pression of the Society, whlch followed SOOn after, 

Portugal (Cpimbra, 1645-7); Fbanco, Synop. annai. Soe. Jeeu in completed the desolation of a once prolific missionary 

LuiUanta ah anno 1640 ad 1785 (Augsburg, 1726); Tbxxeiba. c^ij /a„^ TV/Tat *«»« T>.mn« ^ T?»tv^ n^o ♦^v^ «t^.V> 

Docum. para a hiH. doe Jeeuitae em PolZgal(Coimhk, 1899). h^ld- . (See MALABAR KITES.) From Goa toO were 

France. — Fouqubbay, Hiei. de la comp. de J. en France (Paris. Organized missions on the east coast of Africa. The 

l^^9^''pJ^I2^\^^^^r^^*^'?^^'7^?^^^"'P:^J'^^\'SiS^* Abyssinian mission under Fathers Nunhes, Oviedo, 

^Tt: Xi^'Sl^r'frlSST^. "bI^*^. te '^Si ana Paes lasted with varied fortunes for over a cen- 

Hecherchee kiet. aur la ^mp. de J. en Prance du tempe du P. CoUm, tury, 1555-1690 (see AbtSBINIA, I, 76). The miS- 

iWri6^e (Lyons. 1876); iDfiu^MoMonatetVunivfreUf de Parte gion on the Zambesi under Fathers Silveira, Acosta, 

{^T P?f2iir.''^'r*JS?^'^S^1^S^J2 ^niSnSj^;^ and Fernandez was but short-Uved; «^ to? was the 

(Leaden. 1893) ; C^oasAT. Lee jieuUee et leure mivree d Axignon work of Father Govea m Angola. In the seventeenth 

(Avignon. 1896). , .. j ^ «. v^ x century the missionaries penetrated into Tibet, 

nSf^^'s^^l^i oi^ii'^JS^ "Zm^i) (s"^: Father Desideri and Fre;^ reaching Lhasa Others 

Augsburg and Munich, 1727-54); Hansbn, Rhein. Akim twr pushed out m the Persian mission from Ormus as 

ge»cA. rfM JeeuttenordeiM i545-j»* (I896)j^^^ far as Ispahan. About 1700 the Persian missions 

r^^t* Sn'iSSr: &"^ counted 400,000 Catholics The southern and 

KBOEas, Gesch. der b6hmiechen prov, der Q, J. (Vienna. 1910); eastern coasts of India, With Ceylon, Were oompnsed 

Medzbeb, Ann^ Ir^lauuiienaie aeadem. (ingoUtadt, 1782); after 1610 in the separate province of Malabar, with 

REirrBNBBBO, Htst. Soc. Jesu ad Rhenum tnfertorem (Cologne, „„ :*^a^^^^a^^4^ 'C\.«.««»k ^:««;^«« «♦ r>^.«^;»U«..^r 

1764); Abobnto. De rdfue Soe. Jeeu in regno PoUmia (Cra«>w. ^n indepen<lent French mission at PondichOTy. 

1620) ; PoLLABn, The Jeeuite in Poland (Oxford, 1882) ; Zalenskz, Malabar numbered fortyHseven missionaries (Por- 

Hiet.oftheSoc^f Jenie in Poland imPoii^ tuguese) before the Suppression, while the French 

The JeeuUe %n Wh%U Rue9%a (m Polish, 1874; Fr. tr., Pans, 1886); J^„:^' «^,,.^#«^ oo /^^ xi . ™t «^,.«t \ 

PiEBUNa.AntonuPoMmm>»M»omo»c(m<i(»(i883):BoflTow8H. nuasions Counted 22. (bee Hanxleden.) 

Hist. Soc Jeeu Lithuanicarum vrovindaUum (Wilna, 1766); Japan, — ^The Japanese miSSlOn (see JAPAN, YlII, 

?S?^¥n^ ^^- ^' J^ ^^' A^^*^^^^^7^^^^Jl!^f^^ 306) gradually developed into a province, but the 

1747-59); Sochbb, Htei. prov, AuetncB Soc. Jeeu, 1640-1690 ««^:„t1,, „«j „««i. «* „i,,^^«,««i. «™«:««j Ix TUf«««^ 

(Vienna, 1740) ; Stbinhubbb, Qeech. dee CoiL Germanieum-Hun' semmaxy and seat of government remamed at Macao. 

garieum (Freiburg, 1895). By 1582 the number of Christians was estimated at 

Belgium.— MANABE,De r^ See. ^^ ^^^"^^^f^ 200,000 with 250 churches and 59 missionaries, of 

Delplacb (Florence, 1886); Waloack, Htei. prot. Flandro-bda^ 1.00 • x j no t 1. j u j 

ca Soc. Jeeii anni 16S8 (Ghent. 1867). ^^ whom 23 were pnests, and 26 Japanese had been ad- 
England, Ireland. Scotland. — Foley. Recorde of the EngUeh mitted to the Society. But 15S7 saw the beginnings 
,^'; ''Q^ ^^•yj'^^''!^.'*S!i"^w. ^^^^ p??^fcwife''?2?i of persecution, and about the same period began the 

lB^l);^vi\AMKSV,DveenglxechenMariyrerunterEltxab€thbtet68S •„„! -^ ^t ««*;««« ««^ ^t ««.«««+i«« ««^««r T"!.,* 

(Freiburg. 1888); Fobbbb-Lbith. Narr. of Seouieh Cathoiice "valries ol nations and of competmg orders, liie 

(Edinburgh. 1885); Idem. Mem. of Scot. Cath, (London, 1909): Portuguese crown had been assumed by Spam, and 

HoGAN. Ibarnia matiana (Dublin. 1880) ; Idem. DieHr^iehed Spanish merchants introduced Spanish Dominicans 

Iriehmm of the XVI cenhiry (London, 1894); Mbtbb, England *^t^"^ J^y^^*^^'^^''^^^^)^ ^'^^'^tr— /VV^T^vT^ 

und die kath. Kirche unter Elieabeth (Rome. 1910); Mobb, Hiai. ^^d Franciscans. Gregory XIII at first forbade this 

prov. Anglioana (St-Omer, 1660); Pbb80N8, Memoire, ed. Poi^ (28 Jan., 1585), but Clement VIII and Paul V (12 

^JiiS.%.''^^X^iSr^l£^TAl,'M=^SSS: December 1600; llJune, 1608) re}axed and repealed 

1902-^); Taunton. The Jeniile in England (London, 1901). ^^ prohibition; and the persecution Of lalco-sama 

quenched in blood whatever discontent might have 

Missions.— No sphere of religious activity is held arisen in consequence. The first great slaujghter of 
in greater esteem among the Jesuits than that of 26 missionaries at Nagasaki took place on 5 Feb., 
the foreign missions; and from the beginning men of 1597. Then came fifteen years of comparative peace, 
the highest gifts, like St. Francis Xavier^ have been and gradually the number of Christians rose to about 
devoted to this work. Hence perhaps it is that a 1,800,000 and the Jesuit missionaries to 140 (63 
better idea may be formed of the Jesuit missions by priests). In 1612 the persecution broke out again, 
reading the lives of its great missionaries, which will mcreasing in severity till 1622, when over 120 mar- 
be found under their respective names (see Index tyrs suffered. The "great martyrdom" took place 
vol.), than from the foUowmg notice, in which atten- on 20 September, when Bless^ Charles Spmola 
tion has to be confined to general topics. . (q. v.) suffered with representatives of the Dominicans 

iTidia. — ^When the Societv began, the great colon- and the Franciscans. For the twenty ensuing years 

izing powers were Portugal ana Spain. 'Pie career the maaaacre continued without mercyi all JeiuiU 


who landed being at once executed. In 1G44 Father 1692 succeeded iii Beixing the government, and in 
Gantar de Amual was (bowned in attempting to enacting penal lows against the Catholics, and par- 
land, and his death brought to a close the century of ticularly against their Jesuit priests, which kept 
miteionary efTorts which the Jesuits had made to growing more and more intolerable until the colony 
bring the Faith to Jap&n. The name at the Japan- Eecame the State of Maryland in November, 1776. 
ese province was retamed, and it counted 57 subjects During the 140 years between their arrival in 
in 1760; but themissionwasreally confined to Tonkin Maryland and the Suppression of the Society, the 
and Cochin-China, whence stations were established mission arics, averaging four in number the firttt forty 
in Annam, Siam, etc. (see iNno-CaiHA, VII, 774-5; years and then gradually increasing to twelve and 
Mabttbs, Jafanese). nnoUy to about twenty, continued to work among the 

China. — A detailed account of this mission from Indians and the settlers in spit* of every vexation 

1552 to 1773 will be found under China (IU, G72-4) snd dLsability, though prevented from increasing in 

and MAaTTRB IN China, and in lives of the missionariea number and extending their labours during the dis- 

Bouvet, Brancati, Cameiro, Cibot, Fridelli, Gaubil, pute tt-jth Cecil Calvert over retaining the tract of 

Gerbillon, Herdtrich, Hindcrer, Mailla, Martini, land, Matlapany, given to them by the Indians, ralief 

Matteo Ricci, Schall von Bell.and Verbiest (qq.v.). from taxation on 

From 15S1, when tlie mission woe organized, it con- lands devo1«d to 

sisted erf Portuguese Fathers. They eetabliahed four religioufl or cbari- 

coll^^es, one semmary, and some forty stations tabic purposes. 

under a vice-pro vinciJ, who resided frequently in and the usual 

Pekin; at the supfH^saion there were 54 Fathers, ecclesiastical im- 

From 1687 there was a special mission of the French munity for thein- 

Jesuita to Pekin, imder their own superior; at the selves and their 

Suppression they numbered 23. houatholds. The 

Central and South Ameriea.— The missions of controversy ended 
Central and Southern America were divided between "^ I he cession ct 
Portugal and Spain (see America, I, 414). In 1649 we Mattapany 
Father Nombrega and five companions, Portuguese, tract, the mission- 
went to Brazil. Progress was slow at first, but when fies ri-taminH the 
the lanpiagea had been learnt, and the confidence of ^^." '^'^y had ac- 
the natives acquired, progress became rapid. Blessed quirw by tnccon- 
Ignacio de Aievedo and his thirty-nine companions ditions of planta- 
were mart,vred on their way thither in 1570. The "<">■ Prior to the 
miflajons, nowever, prospered steadily under such Suppression they 
le«ders as JosiS Anchieta and John Almeida (qq. v.) "^li estabrished 
(Meade). In 1630 there were 70,000 converts, miasiona m Mwy- 
Before the Suppression the whole country had been J^ " " • * ^—P.* ■ 
divided into missions, served by 445 Jesuits in Brazil, ii'°'^' „ ^^^'l* 
and 146 in the vice-province of MaranhAo. Uarsh St. Ini- ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ p«„n.M 

Paraifuay. — Of the Spanish missions, the most B*''^°i ^^, f.njnv the Collaie of PRqaj^nil* 

noteworthy is Paraguay (see GuAHAtd Indians; ^°'^> ^J: ('3") 

AniTONia; AaoENTiNE Repdbuc: Reductions oi^ HP<*?r the care of Jesuits and also at Deer Creek, 

Paraodat). The province contained 564 members Frederick, and St. Josephs Bohemia Manor, brides 

(of whom 386 were priests) before the Suppression, *•«■■ i^any less permwient slationa among the Indians 

with 113,716 Indians under their charge. ^ Pennsylvania, Phdadelphia, Con ewago, Lancaster, 

M«t«..— Even larger than Paraguay was the Goshenhoppen, and excursion BtatiOM (« tar ^ New 

missionary province of Mexico, (Siicl. included ^ wk where two of Uiwr number. Fathers Harvey 

California, ^th 572 Jesuits an<f 122,000 Indians. ^""^ Harrison, assisted for a time by Father Gage. 

(See also California MisstONs; Mexico, pp. 258, had under Gox-ernorDongan mmister^ as ehaplams 

266, etc; ARAEix); CLATiQEno; DtAz; DucAtli^; etc. '^/'^.^'** ""'' T^^ "'", Kr^ ««'^'«i *i"<' 

The 001^ as U. jurisdiction (1641?) with jJan de fiI^P,*^^«a'"T'*^H^''' *° '^f"'*'^,* ^rxl ^^ 

Palafox y Mendosa (q.v.), Bishop of I^ Puebta, led tweenl 68^^89, when they were forced to ret u* by an 

to an appeal to Rome wkich wks decided byTnno- "^t^attobc adnnnistration ,._,.. i-». 

cent X ml648, but afterwards became ^ eaU OR. ,/^ Suppr^on of the Soeie y altered but little 

fcrs. The oth.i- Danish missions. New Gmnada the status of the Jesuits mMayhmd As they were 

(Colombia), Chile, Pera, Quito F^ador), were the only priests u the miss on, they .Idlremamed at 

administered by 193, 242, 526^ and 309 Jesuiterespeo their post^ most of Ihem, the nine English members, 

tiveiy (se« AlLkb ARiuCAkiANs; AaAWAKsrSL^ Tt^ f'^'f'' *" contmumg to labour ""dcr Fath^ 

= .-,.- M-.^^ T.^,.L,\ J™n Lewis, who after the Suppreiwion had received 

'^^'.r?^.^^/- . , ™... , , J the powers ot vicar-general from Bishop Challoner 

(/nKrf State^.-Father Andrew White (q.v.) and of thVLondon District. Only two of them smrived 

four other Jcsiuta from the English mission arrived untiltherestorationof the Society— Robert Molyncux 

in territory now comprised m the State of Maryland, and John Bolton. Many of those who were abroad, 

25 March, 1634, with the erpedition of Cecil Calvert InbouringinEnglandor studying in Belgium, returned 

(g.v.) For tenyearsthey miniateredto theCatholics, to work in the mission. As a corporate boilv they 

of the colony, converted many of its Protestant pio- still retained the properties from which they (ferived 

neers, and conducted missions among the Indians support for their religious niinisi rations. As their 

along Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac Ri^er, the numbers decreased some of the missions were aban- 

Patuxents, Anacootans, and Piscataways, which lu^t doncd, or sen'ed for a time by other priests but miun- 

were especially friendly. In 1644 the colony was tained by the revenues ot the Jesuit pronerlics even 

invaded by the Puritans from the neighbouring settle- after the Restoration of the Society. Tuoiigh these 

mcnt of Virginia, and Father White was sent in properties were regarded as reverting to it through 

chains to England, tried for being a Catholic, and on its former members organized as the Corporation of 

his release took refuge in Belgium. Although the Roman Catholic Clergymen, a yeiu-ly allowanee from 

Catholic colonists soon refrained control, they were the revenues made over to Archbishop Carroll becan<e 

constantly menaced by their Puritan neiKhbours and during Bishop Man''ehal's adminL-stratian (1817-31) 

by malcontents in the colony itself, who finally in tbe b^is of u claim for such a payment in perpetuity 

80CI8TT 96 80CI8TT 

and the disputr thu» occasioned was not settled until "Litfrnc anniue Societatis Jesu ad patres et fratres 

1838, under ArchbiBhop Eccleston. ejusdem Societatis". The rule forbade the communi- 

French Missiofu. — ^The French missions had as cation of these letters to persons not members of the 

bases the French colonies in Canada, the Antilles^ order, as is indicated by the title. The publication of 

Guiana, and India; while French influence in the the annual letters began in 1581, was interrupted from 

Mediterranean led to the missions of the Levant, in 1614 to 1649, and came to an end in 1654, though the 

Syria, amon|; the Maronites (q. v.), etc. (See also provinces and missions continued to send such let- 

Guiana; Haiti; Martiniqxte; China. Ill, 673.) ters to the father-general. The third class of letters, 

The Canadian mission is described under Canada, or "Relations" properlv so called^ were written for 

and Missions, Cathouc Indian, of Canada. (See the public and intended for printmg. Gf this class 

also the accounts of the mission given in the articles were the famous "Relations ae la Nouvelle-Franoe", 

on Indian tribes like the Abeiuuds. Apaches, Cree, b^gun in 1616 by Father Biard. The series for 1626 

Hurons, Iroquois, Gttawas; and in tne biographies of was written by Father Charles Lalemant. Forty-one 

the missionaries BaiUoquet, Br^beuf, Casot, Cha- volumes constitute the series of 1632-72, thirty-nine 

banel, Chastellain, Chaumonot, Cholonec, C^pieul, of which bear the title "Relations", and two (1645-55 

Dablon, Druillettes, Gamier, Cioupil, Jogues, La£tau, and 1658-59) "Lettres de la Nouvelle-France". 

Lagren^, Jacques- P. Lallemant, LamberviUe, Lauzon. The cessation of these publications was the indirect 

Le Moyne, RSAe, etc.) In 1611 Fathers Biard ana outcome of the controversy concerning Chinese Rites, 

Mass^ arrived as missionaries at Port Royal, Acadia, as Clement X forbade (16 April, 1673) missionaries to 

Taken prisoners by the English from Virginia, they publish books or writings concerning the missionE 

were sent back to France in 1614. In 1625 Fathers without the written consent of Propaganda. 

Mass6. Brdbeuf, and Charles Lalemant came to work Letters from the mlainona were instituted by Saint Ignatius, 

in ana about Quebec, until 1629, when they were At first they ctreuUted in MS. and contained home as well as 

forced to return to. France i^ter the EngUah captured {^^ jg^ti^ '^ tS^^SS^nL:'^^^^}^^ SSl^ 

Quebec. Back agam in 1632 they began the most he- annua, in yeariy or triennial volumes (1581 to 1614) at Rome, 

roic missionary period in the annals of America. They Fkxeoce, ete., index with last vol. Second Series (1650-54) 

opened a coUe«e at Quebec m Ift^, with a staff of '^^^^^^fS^., ^.i^-^^L^r'^^'^SS^ 

most accompbshed professors from France. For forty was to leave home news in Ma for the future historian, and to 

years men quite as accomplished, labouring under publish the more interesting reports from abroad. Hence numy 

inrrAHihlf> fifirHfifiirM nnpn^H mifisinnH jminnfr fli*» early issues of Awiw and Litt«ra, etc., from India, China, Japan, 

mCTeaiDie narosmps, open^ missions among ine ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ celebrated ReUUums of the French Canadian 

Xnaians on tne coast, along tne ot. Lawrence and the missions (Paris, 1634 — ). From these ever-growing printed 

Saguenay, and on Hudson Bay; among the Iroquois, »nd MS. sources were drawn up the collections — Lettret *«- 

NpiitrA.1 KfLtinn Ppfnna TTnrnna Off aurfls anrl lat^r Mntea ti curieu$eM icriiea par qudque* miuionairet de Ui eomjh 

Weutrai r^aUOn, reiuns^ nurons, Utiawas, ana laier ^^ j^^^ (p^^s, 1702; frequently reprinted with different matter. 

among the MiamiS^ lUmOlS, and amone^the tribes in 4 to 34 volumes. The original title was L^Urea de queique9 

east of the Mississippi as far south as the Gulf of mianonairee); Der New-WeUbcU mUaUerkand NaehridtUn dtren 

?^?iss- .J^*" •^'^* ''^r"^ f ^"^^ poe«»ion ^^sqr- o^./t?^; tssjois: ^^^^^ "A 

in 1763, these missions could no longer be SUStamed. aionOre (Freiburg, 1809). For literature of particular missions 

though many of them, especially those that formed see those Utles. LwjiJBiwQu^/Vmisrdo^i^^ 

part of parochial ««ttiement8,!fead gradually b^ 5iT'feS:S"i^'oV'Z)JAS^''(l5X^^ 

taken over by secular pnestS. The college at Quebec Bourns, Spain in America (New York, 1904); PAUEMAif, The 

was closed in 1768. At the time of the Suppression /««*»*• »». North Anmxi (Boston.* 1868); RocMiioinra. Let 

there were but twenty^ne Jesuite in. CMiada, the {'^Btt'',^t:^'Z!^i:^:iri^i7t^}^i,Sfii:&^^ 

last of whom. Rev. John J. Casot^ died m 1800. The Siog. Sketch of Father Andrew White and hie CommMnione, the 

mission has become famous for its martyrs, eight of fi^'t Mieeionariea of Maridand in the Metropolitan CaUidie Alma- 

whom, BhSbeuf, Gabriel Lalemant, Dank Garnier T-iSSl^arS; '^'iiSf Sfe^ (tlS^lS^^^ 

Chabanel, Jogues and his lay companions Goupil and 8 Jan.. 1846); Johnson, The Foundation of Maryland in Mary 

Lalande, were declared venerable on 27 Feb., 1912. ^^ ^««'- Soe., Fund Pubiicatione, no. 18; Kip, Early JeauU Mie- 

It haa ak, become noted for ita.Uterary.remaU, es- S?^" JS2Sl?!SJSUTi5:;''^;l'!ll'^^ 

pecially for the works of the missionanes m the Indian ed. THWAma (73 vols., Cleveland. 1895-1901) ; Shba. Jeeuite, 

tongues, for their explorations, especially that of RecolUcU, and Indiane in Winsor, Narrative and critical Hiat. c/ 

Marquette and for ite "Relation8'»r i}^A,^ST<iJ^Si'a^rj:fIiPi<>ii\^^^ 

Jesuit Relations, — ^The collections known as the Hiet. of the Calh, Chur<Ji within the HmiU of the United atatea 

'' Jesuit Relations'' consist of letters written from (New York, 1886-92); Schall. Hiet. relatio de ortu et proffTtseu 

membera of the Society in the foreign mission fields to ^-^^l T^SJSS l^i^d^^ifT^- ""^^ ^"^' 
their superiors and brethren m Europe, and contam 

accounts of the development of the missions, the Soppression. 1750-73. — We now approach the 
labours of the missionanes, and the obstacles which most difficult part of the history of the Society, 
they encoimtered in their work. In March, 1549, Having enjoyed very high favour among Cathohc 
when St. Francis Xavier confided the mission of Or- peoples, kmgs, prelates, and popes for two and a 
mus to Father Caspar Barzseus, he included among his nau centuries, it suddenly becomes an object of 
instructions the commission to write from time to time frenzied hostility, is overwhelmed with obloquy, and 
to the college at Goa, giving; an account of what was overthrown with dramatic rapidity. Every work 
being done in Ormus. His letter to Joam Bcira of the Jesuits — their vast missions, their noble ool- 
(Malacca, 20 June, 1540) recommends similar accounts leges, their churches— all is taken from them or de- 
being sent to' St. Ignatius at Rome and to Father stroyed. They are banished, and their order sup- 
Simon Rodriguez at Lisbon and is very explicit con- pressed, with harsh and denunciatory words even from 
ceming both the contents and the tone of these the pope. What makes the contrast more striking 
accounts. These instructions were the guide for the is that their protectors for the moment are former 
future "Relations" sent from all the foreign missions enemies — the Russians and Frederick of Prussia, 
of the order. The "Relations" were of three kinds: Like many intricate problems^ its solution is best 
Intimate and personal accounts sent to the father- found by beginning with what is easy to understand, 
general, to a relative, a friend, or a superior, which We look forward a generation and we see tliat every 
were not meant for publication at that time, if ever, one of the thrones, the pope's not excluded, which 
There were also annual letters, intended only for had been active in the Suppression, is overwhelmed, 
members of the order, manuscript copies of which France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy become, indeed 
were sent from house to house. Extracts and analy- still are, a prey to the extravagances of the Revolu- 
of thess letters were compiled in a volume entitled : tionaiy movement. The Suppression of the Society 


was due to the same causee which in further develop- and oould not trade, that is, buy cheap to sell dear, 

ment brought about the French Revolution. These any more than any other rdigious. But they dia 

causes vaned somewhat in different coimtries. In sell the products of their great mission farms, in 

fVanoe many influences combined, as we shall see, which many natives were employed, and this was 

from Jansenism and Free-thought to the then prev- allowed, partly to provide for the current expenses 

aknt impatience with the dd order of things (see of the mission, partly in order to protect the simple, 

Francs, VI, 172). Some have thought that the childlike natives from the common league of dishonest 

Suppression was primarily due to these curroits of intermediaries. Pdre Antoine La Valette, superior of 

thoui^t. Others attribute it chiefly to the absolu- the Martinique mission, managed these transactions 

tism of the Bourbons. For, though in France the king with no little success, and success encoiva^^ed hhn to 

was averse to the Suppression, the destructive forcesao" go too far. He began to borrow money m order to 

quired their power because he was too indolent to exer^ work the large undeveloped resources of the colony, 

eisecontrol, which at that time he alone possessed. Out- and a strong; letter from the governor of the islana 

side France it is plain that autocracy, acting through dated 1753 is extant in praise of his enterprise. But 

high-handed ministers, was the determining cause. on the outbreak of war, ships conveying goods of 

Portugal, — ^In 1750 Joseph I of Portugal appointed the estimated value of 2,000,000 livre8 were captured 

Sebastian Joseph Carvalho, afterwards Marquis of and he suddenly became a bankrupt for a very large 

Pombal(q.v.)^ as his first minister. Carvalho's quarrel sum.' His creaitors were egged on to demand pay- 

with the Jesuits began over an exchange of territory ment from the procurator en the Paris province: but 

with Spain. San Sacramento was exchanged for the he, relying on what certainly was the letter oi the 

seven Keductions of Paraguav, which were under law, refused responsibility for the debts of an inde- 

Spain. The Society's wonderml missions there were pendent mission, though offering to negotiate for a 

coveted by the Portuguese, who believed that the settlemoit, of which he held out assured nopes. The 

Jesuits were mining gold. So the Indians were creditors went to the courts, and an order was made 

CMrdered to quit their ooimtry, and the Jesuits endeav- (1760) obli|png the Society to pay, and giving leave 

oured to leauH them quietlv to the distant land allotted to distrain in case of non-payment, 
to them. Butowingtotbeharsh conditions imposed, The Fathers, on the advice of their lawyers, 

the Indians rose in arms against the transfer, and the appealed to the Ohmd'chemibre of the ParlemerU of 

so-called war of Paraguay ensued, which, of course, Paris. This turned out to be an imprudent step. For 

was disastrous to the Indians. Then step by step not only did the ParlemefU support the lower court^ 8 

the quarrel with the Jesuits was pushed to extremi- May, 1761, but, having once got the case into its 

ties. The weak king was persuaded to remove them hands, the Society's enemies in that assembly deter- 

from (Dourt; a war of pamphlets a«^unst him was mined to strike a great blow at ihe order. £nemies 

commenced; the Fathers were first forbidden to under- of every sort combined. The Jansenists were nu- 

take the temporal administration of the missions, and merous among the geru^-^robef and at that moment 

then they were deported from America. were especially keen to be revenged on the orthodox 

(}n 1 April, 1758, a Brief was obtained from the partv. The Soifoonnists, too, the university rivals 

aged pope, Benedict XIV (q. v.), i4>ix>inting Cardinal of the great teaching order, ioined in the attack. 

Saldsjiha to investigate the idlegations against the So did the Gallicans, the Philo8ophe8f and Encydo* 

Jesuits, which had been raised in the King of Portu- pSdistes, Louis XV was weak^ and the influence 

sal's name. But it does not follow that the pope had of his Court divided; while his wife and childr^i were 

lorejudxed the case against the order. On the con* earnestly in favour of the Jesuits, his able first minis- 

trary, if we take into view all the letters and instruc- ter, the Due de Choiseui (q. v.)i played into the hands 

tions sent to the cardinal, we see that the pope was of the Parlementf and the royal mistress, Madame de 

distinctly sceptical as to the ^vity of the alleged Pompadour, to whom the Jesuits had refused absolu- 

abuaes. He ordered a minute inquiry, but one con^ tion, was a bitter opponent. The determination of 

ducted so as to safeguard the reputation of the Soci- the ParUmerU of Pans in time bore down all oppo- 

ety. All matters of serious importance were to be sitmn. The attack on the Jesuits, as such, was opened 

rdfened bade to himself. The pope died five weeks by the Jansenistic Abb^ Chauvelin, 17 April, 1762, 

later on 3 May. On 15 May, Saldanha, having mio denounced the Constitutions of the Jesuits as 

received the Brief only a fortni^t before, omittins the cause of the alleged defalcations of the order, 

the. thorough, house-to-house visitation which had This was followed by the compte^endu on the Consti*^ 

been ordered, and pronouncing on the issues which tutions, ^7 July, 1762, fuU of misconceptions, but 

the pope haa reserved to himself, declared that the not yet extravagant in hostility. Next day Chauve-^ 

Jesuits were guilty of having exercised illicit, public, lin oescended to a vulgar but efficacious means of 

aud scandalous commerce both in Portugal and in its exciting odium by denouncing the Jesuits' teaching 

colonies. Three weeks later, at Pombal's instigja* and morals, especially on the matter of tyrannicide. 
tion, all faculties were withdrawn from the Jesuits In the ParlemerU the Jesuits' case was now deepe- 

thnMighout the Patriarchate of LiaboD. Before Cle- rate. After a long conflict with the Crown, in which 

ment XIII (q v.) had become pope (6 July, 1758) the the indolent minister-ridden sovereign failed to 

woric of the Society had been destroyed, and in 1759 assert his will to any purpose, the PariemeTit issued 

it was civilly suppressed. The last step was taken its well-known **Exirait8 dks asseriiona*^ a bliie4>ook, 

in consequence of a plot against the chamberlain as we mi|(ht say. containing a congeries of passages 

Texoras, but suspected to have been aimed at the from Jesuit theologians and canonists, in which they 

J, and of this the Jesuits were supposed to have were alleged to teach every sort of immorality and 

appitived. But the grounds of suspicion were never error, from tyrannicide, magic, and Arianism to 

cfearly stated, mucn less proved. The height of treason, Socinianism. and Lutheranism. On 

Pombal's persecution was reached with the buminjs August, 1762, the final arr^ was issued condemning 

(1761) of the saintly Father Malagrida (q. v.) ostensi- the Society to extinction, but the king's intervention 

bly for heresy; while the other Fathers, who had been brought eight months' delay. In favour of the Jes- 

crowded into prisons, were left to perish by the score, uits there had been some striking testimonies, espe- 

Interoouise between the Qiurch of Portugal and cially from the French clergy in the two convocations 

Rome was broken off till 1770. summoned on 30 November, 1761, and 1 May, 1762. 

France, — ^The suppression in France was occasioned But the series of letters and addresses published 

bv the injuries inflicted by the En^li^ navy on by Clement XIII afford a truly irrefragable attests* 

F^ioh commerce in 1755. The Jesuit missionaries tion in favour of the order. Nothing, however; 

held a heavy stake in Martinique. They did not availed to stay the ParlgmerU, The king's counter- 




edict delayed indeed the execution of its arrU, and 
meantime a compromise was suggested by the Court. 
If the French Jesuits would stand apart from the 
order, under a French vicar, with French customs, 
the Crown would still protect them. In spite of the 
dangers of refusal, the Jesuits woidd not consent: 
and upon considting the pope, he (not lUcci) used 
the since famous phrase, Sitd vJL vunt^ %tU rum tsini 
(de Ravignan, ''CldmentXlII'', I. 105, ./he ivordsiure 
attributed to Ricci alao) . Louis s intervention hin- 
dered the execution of the arrit against the Jesuits 
until 1 April, 1763. The colleges were then closed, 
and by a further arrit of 9 March, 1764, the Jesuits 
were required to renounce their vows under pain of 
banishment. Only three priests and a few scholastics 
accepted the conditions. At the end of November, 
1764, the king unwillingly signed an edict dissolving 
the Society tfu'oughout his dominions, for they were 
still protected by some provincial parlements. as 
Franche-Ck>mt^, Alsace, and Artois. But in the draft 
of the edict he cancelled numerous clauses, which 
implied that the Society was guilty; and, writing to 
Choiseul, he concluded with the weak but significant 
words: '*If I adopt the advice of others for the peace 
of my realm, you must make the changes I propose, 
or I will do nothing. I say no more, lest I should say 
too much''. 

iSfpatn, Naples, and Parma. — ^Ilie Suppression in 
Spam and its quasi-dependencies, Naples and Parma, 
and in the Spanish colonies was carried through by 
autocratic kinms and ministers. Their deliberations 
were conducted in secrecy, and they purposely kept 
their reasons to themselves. It is omy of late years 
that a clue has been traced back to Bernardo Tan- 
ucci, the anti-<;lerical minister of Naples, who acquired 
a great influence over Charles III betore that king 
passed from the throne of Naples to that of Spain. 
In this minister's correspondence are found all the 
ideas which from time to time guided the Spanish 
policy. Charles, a man of good moral character, had 
entrusted his Government to the Count Aranda and 
other followers of Voltaire; and he had brought from 
Itfidy a finance minister, whose nationality made the 
government unpopular, while his exactions led in 
1766 to rioting and to the publication of various 
squflM, lampoons, and attacks upon the adminis- 
tration. An extraordinary council was appointed 
to investigate the matter, as it was declared that 
people BO simple as the rioters could never have pro- 
duced the political pamphlets. They proceeded to 
take secret informations, the tenor of which is no 
longer known; but records remain to show that in 
September the council had resolved to incriminate 
the Society, and that by 29 January, 1767, its ex- 
pulsion was settled. Secret orders^ which were to 
be opened at midnight between the first and second 
of April, 1767, were sent to the magistrates of every 
town where a Jesuit resided. The plan worked 
smoothly. That morning 6000 Jesuits were march- 
ing like convicts to the coast, where they were deported 
first to the Papal States, and ultimately to Corsica. 

Tanucci pursued a similar policy in Naples. On 
3 November the religious, again without trial, 
and this time without even an accusation, were 
marched across the frontier into the Papal States. 
and threatened with death if they returned. It will 
be noticed that in these expulsions the smaller the 
state the greater the contempt of the ministers for 
any forms of law. The Duchy of Parma was the 
smallest of the so-called Bourbon Courts, and so 
affgressive in its anti-clericalism that Clement XIII 
aodressed to it (30 January, 1768) a monitorium, 
or warning, that its excesses were punishable with 
ecclesiastical censures. At this all parties to the 
Bourbon '^ Family Compact" turned m fury against 
the Holy See, and demanded the entire destruction 
of the Society. As a preliminary Parma at once 

drove the Jesuits out of its territories, confiscating 
as usual all their possessions. 

ClemerU XIV.— From this time till his death (2 
February, 1769) Clement XIII was harassed with 
the utmost rudeness and violence. Portions of his 
States were seized by force, he was insulted to his 
face by the Bourbon r^resentatives, and it was made 
clear that, unless he gave way, a great schism would 
ensue, such as Portugal had already commenced. 
The conclave which followed lasted from 15 Feb. to 
May, 1769. The Bourbon Courts, through the so- 
called ''crown caidmals", succeeded in excluding any 
of the party, nicknamed ZeUmti, who would have 
taken a firm position in defence of the order, and fi- 
nally elected Lorenzo Ganganelli, who took thename of 
Clement XIV. It has been stat>ed by Cr^tineau-Joly 
(Clement XIV. p. 260) that Ganganelli, before his elec- 
tion, engaged mmself to the crown cardinals by some 
sort of stipulation that he would suppress the »3ciety, 
which would have involved an infraction of the con- 
clave oath. This is now disproved by the statement 
of the Spanish acent Azpuru, who was specially 
deputed to act with the crown cardinals. He wrote 
on 18 May, just before the election, ''None of the 
cardinals has gone so far as to propose to anyone that 
the Suppression should be secured by a written or 
epoken promise"; and just after 25 May he wrote, 
'Ganganelli neither made a promise, nor refused it". 
On the other hand it seems he did write words, whi(*h 
were taken by the crown cardinals as an indication 
that the Bourbons would get their way with him 
(de Bemis's letters of 28 July and 20 November, 

No sooner was Clement on the throne than the 
Spanish Court, backed by the other members of 
the "Family Compact", renewed their overpower- 
ing pressure. On 2 August, 1769, Choiseul wrote a 
strong letter demanding the Suppression within two 
months; and the pope now made his first written 
promise that he would grant the n^easure, but he 
declared that he must have more time. Then began 
a series of transactions, which some have not unnatu- 
rally interpreted as devices to escape bv delays from 
the terrible act of destruction, towards which Cle- 
ment was being pushed. He passed more than two 
years in treating with the Courts of Turin, Tuscanv, 
Milan, Genoa, Bavana, etc., which would not easily 
consent to the Bourbon projects. The same ulterior 
object may perhaps be detected in some of the minor 
annoyances now inflicted on the Society. From 
several colleges, as those of Frascati, Ferrara, Bologna, 
and the Irish Colle^ at Rome, the Jesuits were, after 
a prolonged examination, ejected with much show 
of hostility. And there were moments, as for in- 
stance after the fall of Choiseul, when it really seemed 
as though the Society misht have escaped; but event- 
ually the obstinacy of Charles III always prevailed. 

In the middle of 1772 Charles sent a ncfw ambassa- 
dor to Rome, Don Joseph Mofiino, afterwards Count 
Florida Blanca. a strong^ hard man, "full of artifice, 
sagacity, and dissimulation, and no one more set on 
the suppression of the Jesuits". Heretofore the 
negotiations had been in the hands of the clever, diplo- 
matic Cardinal de Bemis, French ambassador to the 
popew Mofiino now took the lead, de Bemis coming 
m afterwards as a friend to urge the acceptance (h 
his advice. At last^ on 6 Sept., Mofiino gave in a 

gaper suggesting a hue for the pope to follow, which 
e did in part adopt, in drawing up the Brief of Sup- 
pression. By November the end was coming in 
sight, and in December Clement put Mofiino into 
communication with a secretary; and they drafted 
the instrument together, the minut« being ready by 4 
January, 1773. By 6 February Mofiino had got it 
back from the pope in a form to be conveyed to the 
Bourbon Courts, and by 8 June, their modifioationB 
having been taken account of, the minute was thrown 

80CI1TY 09 800XBTT 

into its final form and signed. Still the pope delayed, Bishop Massalski in White Russia, 19 September, 

until Mofiino constrained him to get copies printed: 1773, therefore ordered the Jesuit superiors to con- 

and as these were dated, no delay was possible beyond tinue to exercise jurisdiction till further notice. On 

that date, which was 16 August, 1773. A second 2 February, 1780, with the approbation of Bishop 

Brief was issued to determine tne manner in which the Siestrzencewics's Apostolic visitor^ a novitiate was 

Suppression was to be carried out. To secure secrecy opened. To obtain higher sanction for what had 

one rei^ulation was introduced which led, in forei^ been done, the envoy Benislaski was sent by Cathe- 

countries, to some unexpected results. The Brief rine to Rome. But it must be remembered that the 

was not to be published Vrbi el Orbi, but only to animus of the Bourbon Courts against the Society 

each college or place by the local bishop. At Rome, was still unchecked; and in some countries, as in 

the father-general was confined first in the English Austria under Joseph II, the situation was worse than 

College, then in Castel S. Angelo, with his assistants, before. There were many in the Roman Curia who 

The papers of the Society were handed over to a had worked their way up by their activity against 

special commission, together with its title deeds and the order, or held pensions created out of former 

store of money, 40,000 acudi (about $50,000), which Jesuit property. Pius VI declined to meet Cathe- 

belonged almost entirely to definite charitiee. An rine's requests. AH he could do was to express an 

investigation of the papers was b^gui^y hut never indefinite assent by word of mouth, without issuing 

brought to any issue. any written documents, or observing the usual for- 

In the Bridf of Suppression the most striking fea- malities; and he ordered that strict secrecy should be 

ture is the long list of allegations against the Society, observed about the whole 'mission. Benislaski 

with no mention of what is favourable; the tone received these messages on 12 March, 1783, and later 

of the Brief is very adverse. On the other hand save the Russian Jesuits an attestation of them (24 

the charges are recited categorically; th^ are not Juhr, 1785). 

definitely stated to have been proved. The object On the other hand, it can cause no wonder that 
is to represent the order as having occasioned per- the enemies of the Jesuits should from the first have 
petual strife, contradiction, and trouble. For watched the survival in White Russia with jealousy, 
the sake of peace the Society must be suppressed, and have brought pressure to bear upon the pope to 
A full explanation of these and other anomalous ensure their suppression. He was constraincMd to 
features cannot yet be given with certainty. The declare that he had not revoked the Brief of Sup- 
chief reason for them no (&ubt is that the Suppression pression, and that he regarded as an abuse anything 
was an administrative measure, not a judicial sen- done against it, but that the Empress Catherine 
tenoe based on judicial inquiry. We see that the would not allow him to act freely (29 June, 1783). 
course chosen avoided many difficulties, especially These utterances were not in real conflict with the 
the open contradiction of preceding popes, who had answer given to Benislaski, which only amounted to 
so often praised or confirmed the Society. Again, the assertion that the escape from the Brief by the 
such statements were less liable to be controverted; Jesuits in Russia was not schismatical, and that 
and there were different ways of interpreting the Brief, the pope approved of their continuing as they were 
which commended themselves to Zelanti and Boi^ doing. Their existence therefore was legitimate. 
bwiici respectively. The last word on the subject or at least not illegitimate, though positive approval 
is doubtless that of St. Alphonsus di liguori — "Poor in legal form did not come till Pius Vll's Bri^ ''^Cath- 
Pope! What could he do in the circumstances in olic® Fidei" (7 March, 1801). Meantime the same 
which he was placed, with all the sovereigns oonspir- or similar causes to those which brought about the 
ing to demand this Suppression? As for ourselves. Suppression of the Society were leading to the dis- 
we must keep silence, respect the secret judgment of ruption of the whole civil order. The Jrench Revo- 
God, and hoW ourselves in peace''. lution (1789) was overthrowmg every throne that 

CBinifXAu-JoLT. Clement XIV el lu jUuitei (Paria, 1847); had combined against the Jesuits, and in the anguish 

Dakvilla y Collado. Reinado de Cariot IT/ (Ma&id. 1893J: of that trial many were the cries for the re-establish- 

Dblplacb, La tuppret&um det jisuties m Studet (Pans, 5-20 ^^„x ^f xu« ^«J1« -d,,* «^;j ♦!»«> 4^,,«,»»:i ^f ♦l*^ 

July. 1908); Fbbbbb dbl Rxo. Hiat^d^ ninado de Carioe III nient oi the Order. But amid the tunnoa of the 

(Madrid, 1856); db Rayionan, cumetu XIII et cUmeru XIV Napoleonio wars, durmg the prolonged captivities 

(Paris 1854); RoaanAXT, Ri^ne de Charlee III d'BspagneJPBi^ of Pius VI (1798-1800) and of PiusVII (1809-14), 

don.i903-3);TMWEB,Oe**.d«aP(m/iiAau*ci«iMn<X/F(Paria. Buch a consummation was impossible. The i^^ish 

1853; Freneh tr., Bruwela, 1853); Koblbr, Dm Aufhebwig der Jesmts, however (whose academy at Liege, driven 

GeeeUechaft /gm (Lin*. 1873); W.l^ Suvpreu^of Oie Socof over to England by the French invasion of 1794, 

fe"/SJ2; SrS5ri22£"1S' Wris^irk, ^t?.:TS: had}^^l?^yed\ a Brief in 1796) succe^eyi 

1886); Caratom, Le pkre Ricci et la, euppreeeion de la eomn, de m obtaining onJ permission from FlUS VII for their 

f^.^^NiP^^^^JLIiSJ^^' .«w''w^^j^"± apregation to the Russian Jesuits, 27 May, 1803. 

(^iliSl^867). ^^^ ir»ed«rAer.<*«t.ny ^ permission was to be kept secret, and was not 

even communicated by the pope to Propaganda. 
The Interim (1773-1814),— The execution of the Next winter, its i)refect. Cardinal Borgia, wrote a 
Brief of Suppression having been largely left to the hostile letter, not indeed cancelling the vows taken, 
]ocal bishops, there was room for a good deal of variety or blaming what had been done, but forbidding the 
in the treatment which the Jesuits might receive in bish<»>8 "to recognize the Jesuits , or ''to admit their 
different places. In Austria and Germany they were privileges''^ until they obtained permission from the 
generally allowed to teach (but with secular clergy Congre^tion of Propaganda, 
as superiors); often they became men of mark as Considering the extreme difficulties of the times, 
preachers, Iflce Beauregard, Muzzarelli, and Alexan- we cannot wonder at orders being given from Rome 
dre Lanfant (b. at Lyons, 6 Sept., 1726, and massacred which were not always quite consistent. Broadly 
in Paris, 3 Sept., 1793) and writers like Fran^ois-X. speaking, however, we see that the popes worked 
de FeUer (q. v.), Zaccharia, Ximenes. The first tneir way towards a restoration of the order bv 
to receive open official approbation of their new works degrees. First, by approving communi^ life, which 
were probably the English Jesuits, who in 1778 iiad been specifically forbidden by the Brief of Sup- 
obtained a Bnef approving their well-known Academy pression (this was done for England in 1778) . Second, 
of U^ (now at Stonyhurst). But in Russia, and oy permitting vows (for England in 1803). Third, by 
until 1780 in Prussia, the Empress Catherine and restoring the full privileges of a religious order (these 
King Frederick II desired to maintain the Society were not recognised in England until 1829). TheSoci- 
as a teaching body. They forbade the local bishops <ety was extended by Brief from Russia to the Kingdom 
to promulgate the JBriedT until their p2<ice< was obtained, of Naples^ 30 July, 1804; but on the invasion of th^ 




French in ld06| all houBes were dissolved, except 
those in Sicily. The superior in Italy duri^ these 
changes was the Venerable Giuseppe M. Pignatelli 
(q. v.). In their zeal for the re-establishment of the 
Society some of the ex-Jesuits united themselves into 
congregations, which might, while avoiding the now 
unpopular name of Jesuits, preserve some of its 
essential features. Thus arose the Fathers of the 
Faith (Plo^s de la Foi), founded with papal sanction 
by Nicolas Paccanari in 1797. A somewhat similar 
congregation, called the ''Fathers of the Saored 
Heart , had been commenced in 1794 in Belgium, 
under P^re Charles de Broglie, who was succeeded by 
P^re Joseph Varin as superior. By wish of Pius VI, 
the two congregations amal^unated. and were gen- 
erally known as the Paccanarists. They soon spread 
into many lands; Paccanari, however, did not prove a 
good superior, and seemed to be working aipunst a 
reunion with the Jesuits still existing in Russia; this 
caused P^re Varin and others to leave him. Some of 
them entered the Society in Russia at once; and at 
the Restoration the others joined en maue. (See 
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the.) 

The Restored Societt. — Pius VII had resolved 
to i^store the Society during his captivity in France; 
and after his return to Rome did so with little delay, 
7 August, 1814, by the Bull "Sollicitudo omnium 
ecclesiarum," and therewith the general in Russia, 
Thaddfleus Brzozowski, a<^uired universal jurisdic- 
tion. After the permission to continue given by 
Pius VI, the first Russian congregation had elected 
as vicar-general Stanislaus Csemiewicz (17 Oct.. 
1782-7 July, 1785), who was succeeded by Gabriel 
Lenkiewics (27 Sept., 1785-10 Nov., 1798) and 
Francis Kareu (1 Feb., 1799-20 July, 1802). On 
the receipt of the Brief "(Datholics Fidei'\ of 7 
March, 1801, his title was changed from vicar-general 
to general. Gabriel Gruber succeeded (10 Oct., 
1802-26 March, 1805), and was followed by Thad- 
dseus Brzozowski (2 Sept.. 1805). Almost simul- 
taneously with the death ot the latter, 5 Feb., 1820, 
the Russians, who had banished the Jesuits from St. 
Petersburg in 1815, expelled them from the whole 
country. It seems a remarkable providence that 
Russia, contrary to all precedent, snould have pro- 
tected the Jesuits just at the time when all other 
nations turned against them, and reverted to her 
normal hostility when the Jesuits began to find toler- 
ation elsewhere. Upon the decease of Brzozowski, 
Father Petrucci, the vicar, fell under the influence 
of the stiU powerful anti-Jesuit party at Rome, and 
proposed to alter some points in the Institute. The 
twentieth general congregation took a severe view 
of his proposals, expellea him from the order, and 
elected Father Aloysius Fortis (18 Oct., 1820-27 
Jan., 1829) (q. v.); John Roothaan succeeded (9 July, 
1829-8 May, 1853); and was followed by Peter 
Beckx (q.v.) (2 July, 1853-^ March, 1887). Anton 
Maria Anderledy, vicar-general on 11 May. 1884. 
became general on Fr. Beckx's death and died on 18 
Jan., 1892; Luis Martin (2 Oct., 1892-18 Ajjr., 1906). 
Father Martin commenced a new series of histmies of 
the Society, to be based on the increased materials 
now available, and to deal with many problems about 
which older annalists, Orlandini and his successors, 
were not curious. Volumes by Astrain, Duhr, Fou- 
querav, Hughes, Kroess, Tacchi-Venturi have ap- 
pearea. The present general, Francis Xavier Wotiz, 
was elected on 8 Sept., 1906. 

Though the Jesuits of the nineteenth century can- 
not show a mart3rr-roll as brilliant as that of their pre- 
decessors, the persecuting laws passed against them 
surpass in number, extent, ana continuance those 
endured by previous generations. The practical 
exclusion from university teaching, the obligation of 
military service in many countries, the wholesde 
confiscations of religious property, and the dispersion 

of twelve of its oldest and once most flourishing prov- 
inces are very serious hindrances to religious voca- 
tions. On a teaching order such blows fall very 
heavily. The cause of trouble has generally been 
due to that propaganda of irreligion which was 
developed during the Revolution and is still active 
througn Freemasonry in those lands in which the 
Revolution took root. 

France, — ^This is plainly seen in ¥Vance. In that 
oountnr the Society began after 1815 with the direo- 
tion of some 'fetUs Bhrvinaires and oongrc«ations, and 
by giving missions. They were attacked by the 
Liberals, especially by the (I!omte de Montloder in 
1823 and their schools, one of which, St-Acheul, 
alreadv contained 8(X) students, were closed in 1£|;29. 
The Revolution of July (1830) brought them no 
immediate rdief; but in the visitation of cholera in 
1832 the Fathers pressed to the fore, and so beean 
to recover influence. In 1845 th^e was another 
attack by Thiers, which drew out the answer of de 
Ravignan (q. v.). The Revolution of 1848 at first 
sent them again into exile, but the liberal measures 
which succeeded, especially the freedom of teadiing, 
enabled them to return and to open many scIkkms 
(1850). In the later days of tlMs Empiro greater 
difficulties wero raised, but with tiie advent of the 
Third Republic (1870) these restrictions were removed 
and progress continued, until, after threat«iing meas- 
ures in 1878, came the decree of 29 March. 1880, 
issued by M. Jules Ferry. This brought about a 
new dispersion and the substitution of staffs of 
non-religious teachers in the Jesuit coUeges. But 
the FVench (jovemment did not press their enact- 
ments, and the Fathers roturaed by degrees; and 
before the end of the century their houses and schools 
in France were as prosperous as ever. Then came 
the overwhelming Associations laws of M. Waldeck- 
Rousseau, leading to renewed though not complete 
dispersions and to the reintroduction of non-reh- 

fious staffs in the colleges. The right of the order to 
old property was also violently suppressed; and. b^ a 
refinement of cruelty, any property suspected of oemg 
held by a congregation may now be confiscated, unless 
it is proved no£ to be so held. Other clauses of this 
law penalize any meeting of the members of a con- 
gr^ation. The order is under an iron hand from 
which no escape is, humanly speaking, possible. For 
the moment nevertheless public opimon disapproves 
of its rigid execution, and thus far, in spite of all 
sufferings, of the dispersal of all houses, the confisca- 
tion of churches, and the loss of practically all prop- 
erty and schools, the numbers of the order have been 
maintained, nay slightly increased, and so too have 
the opportunities for work, especially in literaturo 
and theology, etc. (See also Carayon; Descbamps; 
Dt7 Lac; (Juvaint; Raviqnan.) 

Spain. — In Spain the course of events has been 
simuar. Recalled by Ferdinand VII in 1815, the 
Society was attacked by the Revolution of 1820; and 
twenty-five Jesuits were slain at Madrid in 1822. 
The Fathers, however, returned after 1823 and took 
part in the management of the military school and the 
College of Nobles at Madrid (1827). But in 1834 
they were again attacked at Madrid, fourteen were 
killed, and the whole order was banished on 4 July, 
1835, by a Liberal ministry. After 1848 they besan 
to return and were re-settled after the Conooraat, 
26 Nov., 1852. At the Revolution of 1868 they were 
again banished (12 Oct.), but after a few years they 
were allowed to come back, and have smce ma<fe 
great progress. At the present time, however, another 
expulsion is threatened (1912). In Portugal the Jesuits 
were recalled in 1829, dispersed again in 1834; but 
afterwards returned. Though they wero not formally 
sanctioned by law they had a larse college and several 
churohes, from which, however^ they were- driven out 
in October, 1910, with great violence and cruelty. 

Boomr 101 iooutt 

/(oly. — In luly they wen expelled from Naplv padon (••• Roman Gaibouc Rauw Bu-l), wbicdb re- 

(1820-21); but in 1836 they were kdmitted to Lom- muned in doubt for so many yeus, Eventai^ly 

bardy. Driven out by the Revolution of 1848 from Leo XII on 1 Jan., 1829, declared the Bull at reetora- 

almost the whole peninsula, they were able to return tioo to have force in England. Aflw thia the Society 

\nhexi peace was restored, eioept to Turin. Then grew, slowly at fiiet, but more rapidly afterwards, 

with the gradu^ growth of United Italy they were It had 73 members in 1815, 729 in 1910. The prind- 

Btep by Btq> suppressed again by law everywhere, pal colleges an Stonyburst (St. Omers, 1692, migrat^l 

and finally at Rome after 1871. But though for- to Bn^ee, 1762, to Liige, 1773, to Stonyburst, 17&4) ; 

mally suppreesed and unabk to keep schoola, exeqit Moimt St. Mail's (1842); Livopool (1843); Beau- 

on a vexy small soale, the law is so warded that it doea mont (1861); Glasgow (1S7D); Wimblcdwi, Lan> 

not press at every point, nor is it often oiforced with don (1S87); Stamfcvd Hill, London (1894); Leeda 

acrimony. Numbers do not fall off, and activities (IQOS). In 1910 the province had in England and 

increase. In Rome they have chor^ tnler alia Scotland, besidw the usual novitiate and hotuee 

at the Gregorian Univeraity, the "Institutum Bibli* of atuav, two - - — 

cum", and the German and Latin-American Colleges, houses lor re- 

Oermanic Protinea. — Of the Germanic Provinces, treats, 50 churches 

that of Austria m^ be said to have been reoom- or chapelB, at^ 

menoed by the immigration of many Polish Fathers tended by 148 

from Russia to Galicia in 1820; and oollegee were priests. The 

founded at Tomopol, Lemberg, lins (1837), and oongreKations 

Innsbruck in 1838, in which tiiey were assigned the amounted to 97,- 

theokwical faculty in 1856. The German province 641; baptisms, 

properly so called coold at fint make foundatxma '3746; confessions, i 

only in Switierland at Brieg (1814) and Fraibura 844,079; Easter : 

(1818). But after the Sondenuitd they were obliged cfmfesBiona, 81,- 

to leave, being then 384 in number (111 jKieots). 066; Communions, 

They wore now able to op^ several faouMS in the " """ ""■ 

! iwovinoes, etc., m^dng stoMly progress till verts, 725;extreme 
. wen ejected during Bismarck's Kutturkamr^ unctions, 1698; 
(1872), when they ntimbered 756 membera (351 marriages, 782; 

priesta). They now count 1150 (with 574 priests) children 

and are known throughout the world by their many mentary schools, 

ciceUeQt publicatioDs. (SeeANiT>inEwica;I>XBABBa; 18,328. llieGui' 

HassiiAcber; Pksch; Rob; Sfiluiakn.) ana mission (19 

Bdfiam. — "nte Belgian Jesuits were unable to priesta) has charge 

return to their coimt^ till Belgium was separated of about 45,000 

from Holland in 1830. Since then they have pros- souls; tlie Zam- 

pered exoeedii^y. In 1832, when they became a besi mission (86 oiJemu 

separate province they numbered 1()5; at their prieets), 4679 aotils. (See also the articles MoBUS ; 

seventy-five years jubilee, in 1907, they numbered Pi,owDiiM;PoiniBR;STEVKNBON;CoLEiut>aK: Harper.) 
lias. In 1833, two collies with 167 students: m Ireland.— There were 24 ex-Jesuits in Ireland in 

1907, 15 coUecea with 74B5 students. Congr«ationa 1776, but by 1S03 only two. Of these Father O'Cal- 

ot the Blessed! Virgin, originallv founded by a Belgian lafjlian renewed bis vows at Stonyhurst in 1803, and 

Jesuit, still Sound). In Belgium 2629 such con- be uid Father Betajj^h, who was eventually the last 

pegations have been aggregated to the Prima survivor, succeeded m finding some excellent postu- 

Pritnorut at Rome, and of these 156 are under Jesuit lants who made tbeir novitiate in Stonyhorst, their 

direction. To say nothing of missions and of retreats studies at Palermo, and rctomed between 1812 and 

to conTsnts, dioceKs, etc., the province bad mx 1814, Father Betagh, who bad bec(»ne Vicar-Gen- 

hoasea of retreats, in which 245 retreats were given eral of Dublin, havina survived to the year 1811. 

to 9840 posons. Belgium supplies the foreJEm Father Peter Kenny (d. 1841) was the firet superior 

mission of Eaet«ii Bengal and the Dioc«ee of GaDe of tbe new mission, a man t^ remarkable eloquence, 

■ I Ceylon. In the bush^xmnt^ of Chota Nagpur ^rtio when visitor of the Society in America (1830- 

here began, in 1887, a wondnful movement of the 1833) preached by invitation before Congreas. From 

■^ — -TBS (KAles and Ouraons) towards the Cburdi, 1812-13 he was vice-preeident of Maynooth College 

_3 Catltolics in 1907 numbered 137,120 (i.e under Dr. Murray, then coadjutor Bishop of Dublm. 

,_, baptiaed and 74,736 catechumens). Over TTie CoUege of Clonprwee Wood was begun in 1813; 

35,000 conversions had been made in 1906, owing to Tullabeg m 1818 (now a house of both probations); 

the penetration of Christianity into the district (rf Dublin (1841); Mungret (Apostolic School, 1883). 

Jashpur. Besides this there are excellent coUeeee In 1883, too, thelridibiBhopsentruBtedtotheSociety 

at Darjeeling and at Kurseong; at Kandy in Ceylon the University College, Dublin, in connexioa with the 

the Jesuits have charge of the great pontifical sem- late Royal University of Ireland. The marked supe- 

tnary for educating native clargy for the whole of riority of this college to the richly endowed Queen's 

India. In all they have 442 churches, chapels, or Colleges of Belfast Ckiric, and Galwav oontnbuted 

stations, 479 schoids, 14,467 scholars, with about much to establish the claim of the Irish Catholics to 

167,000 Catholics, uid 262 Jesuits, of whom 150 are adequate univerfiity education. When this claim 

priests. The Belgian Fathers have also a flouridiing had been met by the present National Univemity, the 

misaioo <xi the Conso, in the districts of Kwango UniversityCollegewssretumed tothe Bishops. Five 

and Stanley Pool, which was begun in 1893; in 1907 Fathers now hold teaching poets in the new university, 

the convots already numbered 31,402. and a hostel for students is being provided. Under 

Bnglattd. — Nowhere did tbe Jesuits get through the the Act of Catholic Emancipation (q. v.) 58 Jesuits 

troublee inevitable to the Interim more easily than in were registered in Ireland in 1830. In 1910 there 

conservative England, The college at Li^ge con- were 367 in the province, of whom 100 are in Au»- 

tinoed to train ueir students in tne old traditions, tratia, where they have 4 colleges at and near Met- 

irtiile tbe Ei^iBh bishops permitted the ex-Jesuits bourne and Sydney, and missionB in South Australia. 
to maintun thdr missions and a sort of corporate Vn^td Stattt (/ilmeriea.— Under tbe direction of 

diBcqibne. But there were difficulties in recognising Bishop Carroll the members of the Corporation of 

"^ ~ ' 1 order, kat this itaonld impede emancf Roman Oatbohc Clergymen in Maryland w«e the- 


chief factoiB in foiinding and maintaining George- &lo])g the ooaat of Florida, where Father Maitfnes 

town CoUege (q. v.) from 17Q1 to 1805, when they was massacred near St. Augustine in 1566. They 

resumed their relations with the Society still existing penetrated into Vii|;inia, where eight of their numbo* 

in Russia, and were so strongly reinforced by other were massacred by Indians at a station named Axaca, 

members of the order from Europe that they could supposed to be on the Rappahannock River. Later, 

assume full charge of the institution, which they Jesuits from Canada, taking as their share of the 

have since retained. On the Restoration of the Louisiana territory the Illinois countrv and afterwards 

Society in 1814 these nineteen fathers constituted from the Ohio River to the gulf east of the MisaisBippi, 

the mission of the United States. For a time (1808 worked among the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natcnea. 

to 1817) some of them were employed in the Diocese and Yazoo. Two of their number were murdered 

of New York just erected, Father Anthony Kohl- by the Natchez and one bv the Chickasaw. Their 

mann (q. v.) administering the diocese temporarilv, expulsion in 1763 is the subject of a monogniph by 

the others engaging in school and parish work. Carayon, '^ Documents in^dits", XIV. OriginaUy 

In 1816 Gonzaga (Allege, Washington^ D. C, was evaneelized by Jesuits from the Lyons province, 

founded. In 1^ the mission of the United States the New Orleans mission became a province in 1907, 

became a province under the title of Maryland, having 7 colleges and four residences. It has now 

Since then the histoi^ of the province is a record of 255 members workinjg in the territory north of the 

development proportionate with the growth of Cath- Quif of Mexico to Missouri as far east as Virginia, 

olicity in the vanous fields specially cultivated by the California. — In 1907 a province was formed in 

Societv. The colleges of the Holy Cross, Worcester CaUfomia comprising the missions of California, the 

(founded in 1843), Loyola College, Baltimore (1852), Rocky Mountains, and Alaska (United States). 
Boston College (1863) have educated great numbers ^ The history of these missions is narrated under 
of young men for the ministxy and liberal professions. * Caufobnia Missions; Missions, Catholic Indian, 

Up to 1879 members of the Society had been labour^ of the United States; Alaska; Idaho; Sioux 

ing in New York as part of the New York-<}anada Indians. 

mission. In that year they became affiliated with New Mexico. — ^In the mission of New Mexico 

the first American province imder the title of Mary- ninety-three Jesuits are occupied in the coUege at 

land-New York. This was added to the old province, Denver, Colorado, and in various missions in that 

besides several residences and parishes, the colleges state, Arizona, ana New Mexico; the mission depends 

of St. Francis Xavier and St. John (now Fordham on the Italian province of Naples. 

University), New York City, and St. Peter's College, In all the provinces in the United States there are 

Jersey City, New Jersey. St. Joseph's College, Phil- 6 professional schools, with 4363 students; 26 colleges 

adelphia, was chartered in 1852 and the Brooklyn with full courses, with 2417^ and 34 preparatory and 

College opened in 1908. In the same year Canisius high schools with 8735 pupils. 

College, and two parishes in Buffalo, and one parish Canada. — Jesuits returned to Canada from St. 

in Boston for German Catholics, with 88 members Marsr's College, Kentucky, which had been taken 

of the German province were affiliated with this prov- over, in 1834, oy members of the province of France, 

ince, which has now (1912) 863 members with 12 col- When St. Mary s was given up in 1846 the staff came 

leges and 13 parishes, 1 house of higher studies for the to take charge of St. John's Coll^, Fordham, New 

members of the Society, 1 novitiate, in the New £ng- York, thus forming with their fellows in Montreal 

land and Middle States, and in the Vireinias, witn the New York-Canada mission. Tiiis misnon lasted 

the Mission of Jamaica, British West Indies. until 1879, the Canadian division having by that year 

The Missouri province began as a mission from 1 college, 2 residences, 1 novitiate, 3 Indian missions 

Maryland in 1823. Father Charles Van Quicken- with 131 members. In 1888 the mission received 

borne, a Belgian, led several young men of his own $160,000 as its part of the sum paid by the Province 

nationality who were eager to work among the of Quebec in compensation for the Jesuit estates 

Indians, among them De Smet (q. v.). Van ABSche, appropriated under George III by imperial authority, 

and Verhaegen. As a rule the tribes were too nomad- and transferred to the authorities of the former Prov- 

ic to evangelize, and the Indian schools attracted ince of Canada, all parties agreeing that Uie full 

only a very small number of pupils. The missions amount. $400,000, thus allowed was far short of the 

amcmg the Osage and Pottawatomie were more per- value of the estates, estimated at $2,000,000. The 

manent and fruitful. It was with experience gathered settlement was ratified by the pope and the Legisla- 

in these fields that Father De Smet started nis mis- ture of the Province of Quebec, and the balance was 

sion in the Rocky Moimtains in 1840. A college, now divided among the archdioceses of Quebec, Montreal, 

St. Louis University, was opened in 1829. For ten and other dioceses, the Laval University besides 

years, 1838-48, a college was maintained at Grand receiving, in Montreed, $40,000 and, ia Quebec, $100,* 

Coteau, Louisiana; in 1840 St. Xavier's was opened 000. 

at Cincinnati. With the aid of seventy-eight Jesuits, In 1907 the mission was constituted a province, 

who came from Italy and Switaeerland in the years It has now 2 colleges in Montreal, one at St. Boniface 

of revolution 1847-^, two colleges were maintained, with 263 students in the collegiate and 722 in the 

St. Joseph's, Bardstown, 1848 until 1861, another at preparatory classes, 2 residences and churches in 

Louisville, Kentucky, 1849-57. In this last year a Quebec, one at Guelph, Indian missions, and missions 

college was opened at Chicago. The mission became in Alaska, and 309 members. 

a province in 1863, and since then colleges have been Mexico. — In Mexico (New Spain) Jesuit mission* 

opec^ at Detroit, Omaha, Milwaukee^ St. Mary's aries began their work in 1571 and prior to their 

(Kansas). By the accession of part of the Buffalo expulsion, in 1767, they numbered 678 members, of 

mission when it was separated from the German whom 468 were natives. Thev had over 40 oolites 

province in 1907, the Missouri province acauired an or seminaries, 5 residences, and 6 missionary districts, 

additional 180 members, and colleges at Cleveland, with 99 missions. The mission included Cuba, Lower 

Toledo, and Prairie du Chien. besides several resi- California, and as far south as Nicaragua. Three 

dences and missions. Its members work in the tern- members of the suppressed society who were in Mexico 

tory west of the Alleghanies as far as Kansas and at the time of the Restoration formed a nucleus for 

Omaha, and from the Lakes to the northern line of its re^establicdmient there in 1816. In lK20thm«were 

Tennessee and Oklahoma, and also in the Mission of 32, of whom 15 were priests sAd 3 scholastics, in care 

British Honduras (q. v.). of 4 colleges and 3 seminaries. They were dispersed 

New Orleans.— For five years, 1666-1571, members in 1821. Althou^ invited back in 1843, they could 

of the Peruvian province laboured among the Indians not agree to the limitations put on their activities by 




General Santa Anna, nor was the prospect favourable 
in the revolutionary condition of the country. Four 
of their number returning in 1854, the miaaion proe- 
pered, and in spite of two dispersions, 1859 and 1873, 
it has continued to increase in number and activity. 
In August, 1907, it was reconstituted a province. It 
has now 326 members with 4 colleges, 12 residences, 
6 mission stations among the Tarahumara, and a 
novitiate (see also Mexico; Pious Fund of thb 

OnuBD, SttmyhwH CwnUnary B^cord (Belfast, 1894); Coa- 
CORAM, CUmoowu Centmary Reoord (Dublin. 1912); Woodaiodt 
LeUert (Woodstock Coilese, Maryland, 1872—); QtorgHovm 
Vnivenity (Waahinston. 1891); TAc Firti Half CtrUury of SL 
/ffvurtttM Church and Collage (San Frandsoo, 1905); Duhb, AkUn. 
tw GeMch, der Juuit-miMsionen in DmiKhland, ISl^-TB (1903); 
BotRO, latoria dMa vita dd R, P. FiQnatdli (Rome. 1857); 
PONCSLRT. La eomp. de Jitu* tn Bdoiqu* (Bnusels, 1907); Zara« 
DOXA, HUt. de la extinci&n y reaiabUcimiento de la camp, de Jleue 
(Afadrid, 1890); Nippold, JetuiUnordtn ton eeiner Wiederher- 
etdluno (Mannheim, 1867). 

OiNRiUL Statistiob OF THi SocmT OP Jisos fOR iHi BMomma or 1911. 




































^ Total 












Fteoch (dispccsed) . . . . . . 















Portugal (dis- 













u^^ua^Hj ..••••.--iij-j.. 








f Eni^land 
Calif oraia 

New OrteaDS 


















1280 745 


Grand TouU 16,545 

Apologetic. — ^The accusations brought against 
the Society have been exceptional for their frequency 
and fierceness. Many uufeed would be too absurd 
to deserve mention, were they not credited even by cul- 
tured and literary peo|)le. Such for instance are the 
charges that^ the Society was responsible for the 
Franco-Prussian war, the affaire Dreyfus, the Panama 
scandal, the assassination of popes, kings, princes, 
ete. — statements found in b(X)ks and periociicals of 
some pretence. Such likewise is the so-called Jesuit 
Oath, the clumsy fabrication of the forger Robert Ware, 
exposed by Bndeett in "Blunders and Forgeries". 
The fallacy of such accusations may often be detected 
by general principles. A. Jesuits are faUibUy and 
may have given some occasion to the accuser. The 
clutfges laid against them would never have been 
brought against angels, but they are not in the least 
inconsistent with im Society being a body of good 

but fallible men. Sweeping denials here and an 
injured tone would be miaplaoed <and liable to mi»- 
conception. As an instance of Jesuit fallibility, 
one may mention that writings of nearly one hundrecl 
Jesuits have been placed on the Roman ''Index". 
Since this involves a reflection upon the Jesuit book- 
censors as well, it might appear to be an instance of 
failure in an important matter. But when we 
remember that the number of Jesuit writers exceeds 
120,000, the proportion of those who have missed 

MasioiB or ns Soctm or Jisus » 1912. 






Bwodsn ••••. 

Byra and Tinas (Qraece). 



Bevaa O>iigo 

Uppsr Zambese 

Lower Zamb«n 

Madagascar, Reunion, and 

Mauritius ,.. 

Betsileo (Madagascar) . . . . 



Bombay (India) 

Mangalore (India) 

Bengal (India) 

Galle (Oorlon 

Trincomafee (Oylon).. 

Madura (India) 

GoA (India) 

Nankin (China) 

8. E. Tcheu-ll (China). 

Philippine Islands 

Flores. Java, and Sumatra. 
8. ana E. Australia 

North America 
Indian Missions (Canada) 
North Alaska (U. 8. A.) 
South Alaska (U. 8. A.). 
New Mexico, Cokmdo, and 


Tkrafattmam (Mex.) 



SouUi Amerioa 


Brit. Guiana 

N. and Ont. Brasil... 

8. BrasU 

8. BrasU 



Ctiile and Argentina. . . 






















Canada - 



New York 























































































































































204 t 




Total 3531 

1 Note.— Figures for 1911— those for 1912 not available. 

the mark cannot be considered extraordinary; the 
censure inflicted moreover has never been of the 
graver kind. Many critics of the order, who do not 
consider the Index censures discreditable, cannot 
pardon so readily the exaggerated esprit de corps in 
which Jesuits of limited experience occasionally 
indulge, especially in controversies or while eulogizing 
their own confr^es; nor can they overlook the 
narrowness or bias with which some Jesuit writers 
have criticijied men of other lands, institutions, educa* 
tion, though it is unfair to hola up the faults of a 
few as characteristic of the entire body. 

B. Tlie Accusers, — (1) In an oft-recited passage 
about the martyrs St. Ambrose tells us: "Vere 
frustra impugnatur qui apud inipios et infidos im- 
pictatis arccssitur cum fidei sit magist<T" (lie in 
truth, is iinpugneii in vain who is accused of impiety 
by the impious and the faithless, though be is a 




teacher of the faith). The personal equation of the 
accuser is a correction of great moment; nevertheless 
it is to be a{>plied with equally great caution; on no 
ot^er point is an aocusea person so liable to make 
mistakes. Undoubtedly, however, when we find 
a learned man like Harnack declaring roundly (but 
without proofs) that Jesuits are not historians, we 
may place this statement of his beside another of 
his professorial dicta^ that the Bible is not history. 
If tne same principles underlie both propositions, 
the accusation against the order will carry little 
weight. When an infidel government, about to 
saaSl the liberties of the Church, begins dv expelling 
the Jesuits, on the allegation that they destroy the 
love of freedom in then- scholars, we can only say 
that no words of theirs can counterbalance the logic 
of their acts. Early in this century the French 
Government urged as one of their reasons for sup- 
pressing all the religious orders in France, among 
them' tne Society, that the regulars were crowding 
the secular clerKy out of their proper spheres of activity 
and influence. No sooner were the religious suppressed 
than the law separating Church and State was passed 
to cripple and enslave the biahops and secular der^. 

(2) Again it is perhaps little wonder that heretics 
in general, and those in particular who impugn 
church liberties and the authority of the Holy See, 
should be ever ready to assail the Jesuits, who are 
especially bound to the defence of that see. It 
seems stranger that the opponents of the Society 
should sometimes be within the Church. Yet it is 
almost inevitable that such opposition should at 
times occur. No matter how adequately the canon 
law regulating the relations of regulars with the 
hierarchy and cler^ g^enerally may provide for their 
peaceful co-operation m missionary, educational, and 
charitable enterprises, there will necessarily be 
occasion for differences of opinion, disputes over 
jurisdiction, methods, and similar vital pomts, which 
m the heat of controversy often embitter and even 
estrange the parties at variance. Such unfortunate 
controversies arise between other religious orders and 
the hierarchy and secular clergy; they are neither 
common nor permanent, not the rule but the excep- 
tion, so that they do not warrant the sinister judg- 
ment that is sometimes formed of the Society in 
particular as unable or unwilling to work with others, 
jealous of its own influence. Sometimes, especially 
when troubles of this kind have afif ected broad questions 
of doctrine and discipline, the agitation has reached 
immense proportions ana bitterness has remained 
for years. The controversies De attxilvU led to 
violent explosions of temper, to intri^e, and to furious 
language which was simply astonishing; and there 
were others, in England for instance about the 
faculties of the archpriest, in France about GsJli- 
canism. which were almost equally memorable for 
fire and fury. Odium theologicum is sure at all times 
to call forth excitement of unusual keenness; but we 
may make allowance for the early disputants, because 
of the pugnacious character of the times. When the 
age quite approved of gentlemen killing each other 
in duels on very slight provocation, there can be 
little wonder tnat clerics, when aroused, should 
forget propriety and self-restraint, sharpen their 
pens like da^ers, and, dipping them in gall, strike 
at any sensitive point of their adversaries which they 
could injure. Charges put about by such excited 
advocates must be received with the greatest caution. 

(3) The most embittered and the most untrust- 
worthy enemies of the Society (they are fortunately 
not very numerous) have ever been deserters from its 
own ranks. We know with what malice and venom 
some unfaithful priests are wont to assail the Church, 
which they once believed to be EKvine, and not dis- 
similar has been the hatred of some Jesuits who have 
^*een untrue to their calling. 

C. What ia tohe expededf The Sodety has cer- 
tainly had some share in the beatitude of suflfcring 
for persecution's sake; though it is not true, how- 
ever, to say that the Society is the object of univenal 
deteHoHan. Prominent politicians, whose acts affect 
the interests of millions, are mu<m more hotiy and 
violently criticised, noore freely denounced, carioa- 
turecL and condenmed in the course of a month than 
the Jesuits singly or collectively in a year. When 
once the politician is overthrown, the world turns 
its fire upon the new holder of power, and it for^ts 
the man that is fallen. But the light attacks against 
the Society never cease for long, and their cumulative 
effect appears more serious than it should, because 
people overlook the long spans of years whirh in 
its case intervene between the different signal assaults; 
Another principle to ranember is that the enemies 
of the Church would never assail the Society at all, 
were it not that it is conspicuously popular with large 
dasses of the Catholic community, pfeither univer- 
sal odium therefore nor freedom from all assault 
should be expected^ but charges which, by e3aiggera- 
tion, inversion, satire, or irony, somehow correspond 
with the place of the Society in the Church. 

Not being contemplatives like the monks of old, 
Jesuits are not decried as lazy and useless. Not bc^ig 
called to fill posts of high authority or to rule, like 
popes and bisnops, Jesuits are not seriously denounced 
as tyrants, or maligned for nepotism and similar 
misdeeds. Ignatius described his order as a flying 
souadron ready for service anywhere, especially as 
educators and missionaries. The principal charges 
against the Society are misrepresentations €d tihese 
qualities. If they are ready for service in any part 
of the world, they are called busybodies, miscnidT- 
makers, politicians with no attacmnent to country. 
If they do not rule, at least they must be grasping, 
ambitious, scheming, and wont to lower stanaards 
of morality, in order to gain control of consciences. 
If they are good disciplinarians, it will be said it is 
by espionage and suppresfflon of individuality and 
independence. If they are popular schoolmasters, the 
adversary will say they are good for children, cood 
perhaps as crammers, but bad educators, without 
influence. If they are favourite confessors, their 
success is ascribed to their lax moral doctrines, to 
their casuistry, and above tdl to their use of the maxim 
which is supposed to justify any and every evil act: 
''the end justifies the means'\ This perhaps is the 
most salient instance of the ignorance or ill-will of 
their accusers. Their books are open to all the world. 
Time and again those who impute to them as a body, 
or to any of their publications, the use of this maxim 
to justify evil of any sort have been asked to cite 
one instance of such usage, but all to no purpose. 
The signal failure of Hoensbroech to estsl)lisn before 
the civil courts of Trier and Cologne (30 July, 1905) 
any such example of Jesuit teaching should sUenoe 
this and similar accusations forever. 

D. The Jesuit Legend. — It is curious that at the 
present day even literary men have next to no 
mterest in the objective facts concerning the Society, 
not even m those supposed to be to itsoisadvantage. 
All attention is fixed on the Jesuit legend: encyclope- 
dia articles and general histories hardly concern 
themselves with anything else. The legend, though 
it reached its present form in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, began at a much earlier period. The 
early persecutions of the Society (which counted 
some 100 martyrs in Europe during its first century) 
were backed up by fiery, loud, unscrupulous writers 
such as Hasenmtkller and Hospinian, who diligently 
collected and defended all the cnarges brought against 
the Jesuits. The rude, criminous ideal which these 
writers set forth received subtler traits of deceitful- 
ness and double-dealing throudi Zahorowski's "Mon- 
Ita secreta Societatis Jesu" (5acow, 1614), a satire 

80CIXT7 105 socnrr 

misopraNOtiag the rules of the order, which ia WBa to train tha will a _ 

freely believed to be genuine by creduloiu adversoriea might after a ahort time be able U . . . ___ 

(seeMoNtTA Secbeta). The current veraion of the (a most difficult thing) from laxity to thoraughnesa, 

legend is late French, evolved during tha long revo- without themselves bSng drawn down (a most easy 

lutionary fermeot wtuch preceded the Third Empire, thing), even though they lived outside cloisters, 

It begao with the denimciationa of Montlosier with no external support for their discipline. The 

(1824-27), and grew strong (1833-45) in the Univet^ wonderful achievement of staying and rolling back 

aity cd Paris, wtuch affected to consider itself as the the tide of the Reformation, in so for as it was 

represeotative of the GoUican Sorbonne, of Port- due to the Jesuits, was the result of the increased 

Royal, and of the Bna/chpidie. The occasion for will-power given tii previoualy irresolute Catholics 

literary hostilities was onered by attempts at univer- by the Ignatian methods. 

aity r^orm, which, so the Liberals affected to beheve, As to "blind" obedience, we should note that all 

were instigated by Jesuits. Hereupon the "Pro- obedience must be blind to some extent — "Theirsnot 

vinciales" were given a place in the univereity cur- to reason why, Theirs but to do and die." Ignatius 

riculum, and Vulemoin, Thiers, Cousin, Michelet, borrowed from 

Quinet. Ijibri, Mignet, and other respectable scholars earlier ascetic wri- 

BUcceeded by their writings and denunciations in tera the strong 

giving to anti-Jesuitism a sort of literary vogue, metaphors of the 

not dways witli scrupulous observance of accuracy "blindman","the , 

or faimeee. More harmful still to the order were the corpse", " the old 

Slays, the etmp, the popular novels asainst them, man's staff", to ' 

f these the most celMirated was Eugene Sue's illuirtrate the na- I 

"Juif errant" (Wandering Jew) (1844), which soon ture of obedience : 

became the most popular antr-Jeamt book ever in a vivid way; but 

printed, and has done more than any thing else to he does not want | 

give final form to the Jesuit le^nd. those metaphors to | 

The special character of this fable is that it has be run to death. 

hardly anything to do with the order at all, its traita Not only does he 

being simply copied from mosonrv. The previous want the subject 

Jesuit bogey was at least one which naunted churches to bring both head 

and colleges, and worked through the confessional and heart to the 

and the pulpit. But this creation of modem fiction execution of the 

has lost all connexion with reality. He (or even she) command, but, 

is a penoD, not necessarily a pnest, under the com- knowing human 

mond of a black pope, who lives in an imaginan' nature and its 

world of back stairs, doeets, and dark passages. He foibles, he recog- „^ G.bk«l Obubeb 

is busy with plotting and scheming, m^eSking the nizesttat cases wSl T-,niy-««.»d O^^^ot ih. Bodrty 

weak and oomipting the honest, occufiations diversi- arise when the su- 

fied by secret crimes or melodramatic attempts at perior'sordermayappearimpracticable.unreaaonable, 
crime of everv sort. This ideal we see is taken over or unrighteous to afreesubjectand may posaiblyreally 
bodDy from the real, or rather the supposed, method be so. In such cases it is the aclmowledged duty of 
(rf life of the Contmentol mason. Yet this is the the subject to appeal, and his judgment as well as his 
sort erf nonsense about which special correspondents conscience, even when it may happen to be ili-formed, 
■end telegnms to their papers, about which revolu- is to be respected; provision is made in the Conptitu- 
tiouary agitators and crolty politicians make long tions for the clearing up of such troubles by discus- 
inflammatory speeches, wlucn standard works <h eionandarbitration,aprovision which would be incoo- 
reference discuss quite gravely, which none <rf our ceivable, unless a mind and a free will, independent 
popular writers dares to expose as an imposture (see of and possibly opposed t« that of the superior, were 
Brou, op. cit. infra, II, 199-247). recognized and respected. Ignatius wishes his sub- 

E. Some Modem Olyeetiotu. — (1) Without having jects to be "dead" or "blind" only inreapectof sloth, 

given up the old historical objections (for the study of passion, of self-interest, and self-indulttence, which 

oi which the historical sections ot this article may be would impede the ready execution of orders. So far 

consulted}, the anti^Jesuits of t^^y arraign the is he from desiring a mechanical performance that he 

Society as out of touch with the modem Zeitgeiii, explicitly disparages "obedience, which executes in 

as hostile to Uberty and culture, and ss being a failure, work only ", as " unworthy of the name of virtue" and 

Liberty, next to intell^nce (and some people put warmly urges that "bendii^ to, with all forces of head 

it brfore), is the' noblest of man's endowments. Its and heart, we should cany out the commands 

enemies are the enemies of the human race. Yet it is quickly and completely" (liCtter on Obedience, 

said that Ignatius's system, by aiming at "blind" i 5, 14). 

obedience, paralyses the judgment and by coase- Further illustrations of Ignation love of hbcrty 

quence scoops out the will, inserting the will of the su- may be found in the Spiritual Exercises and in the 

perior in its place, as a watchmaker might r^lace one ch^acter of certain theological doctrines, as Proba- 

mainqning by another (cf. Encyc. Brit., 1911, XV, bilism and Moliniam (with its subsequent modifico- 

342); permU ae cadoMr. "like a corpse", again "simi- tions) which are commonly taught in the Society's 

hr to an (rid man's staff"— therefore dead and listless, schools. Thus, Mohnism "is above all determined 

mere machines, incapable of individual distinction to throw a wall of security round free will" (see 

(Bdhnier-Monod, op. cit. infra, p, Ixxvi). Gracs, Controvehsies on), and Probabilism (q. v.) 

Ite elevraneea of this objection lies in its bold teaches that liberty may not be restrained^ unless the 

inversitHi of obtain plain truths. In reolity no one restraining force rests on a basis of certainty. The 

loved Iflwrty bettw or provided for it more carefully characteristic ot both theories is to emphasize the 

than Ignatius. But he upheld the deeper principle sacredness of free will somewhat more than is done 

that true freedom ties in obeying reason, all other in other systems. The Spiritual Exercises, the secret 

cfaoioe being licence. Those who hold themselves of Ignatius's success, are a series of considerations 

bee t© disobey even the hiws ot God, who declare arranged, as he tells the exercitant from the first, to 

aU rule in the Church a tyranny, and who aim at so- enable him to make a choice or election on the highest 

called fi«e- love, free divorce, and tree thought — they, prinoiifles and without fear of consequences. Again 

of Goune, reject bis theory. In practice his custom the priest, who explains the meditations, is warned 


to be most careful not to incline the exercitant more which the Jesuits of previous times succeeded in 

to one object of choice than to another (An not. 15). founding and endowing. It is not to be questioned 

It is notoriously impossible to expect that anti- that the sum total of learned institutions in the hands 
Jesuit writers of our day should face their subject in of non-Catholics is now greater than those in the 
a common-sense or scientific manner. If they did, hands of our co-religionists, but the love of culture 
one wotdd point out that the only rational manner surely is not extinguished in' the exiled French, 
of inquiring into the subject would be to approach the German, or Portuguese Jesuit, who, robbed perhaps 
persons under discussion (who are after all very of all he possesses, at once settles down aj^ain to his 
approachable) and to see whether they are character- task of study, of writing, or of education. Very 
less, as they are reported to be. Another easy test rare are the cases where Jesuits, living among enter- 
would be to turn to the lives of their great missionaries prising people, have acquiesced in educational 
Br^beuf, Marquette, Silveira, etc. Any men more mferiority. For superiority to others, even in sacred 
unlike "mere machines'' it would be impossible to learning, the Society does not and should not contend, 
conceive. The Society's successes in education con- Li their own lincj that is in Catholic theology, philos- 
finn the same conclusion. It is true that lately, ophy, and exegesis, they would hope that they are not 
as a preparatory measure to closing its schools by inferior to the level of their generation, and that, far 
violence, the PVench anti-Jesuits asserted both in from acquiescing in intellectual inferiority, they aim 
print and in the Chamber that Jesuit education pro- at making their schools as good as circumstances 
duoed mere pawns, spiritless, unenterprising nonen- allow them. They may also claim to have trained 
tities. But the real reason was notoriously that the many good scholars in almost every science, 
pupils of the Jesuit schools were exceptionally sue- The objection that Jesuit teachers do not influence 
ce^td at the examinations for entrance as officers masses of mankind, while men like Descartes and 
into the army, and proved themselves the bravest Voltaire, after breaking with Jesuit education, have 
and most vigorous men of the nation. In a contro- done so. derives its force from passing over the main 
verted matter like this, the most obvi6us proof that work of the Jesuits, which is the salvation of souls, 
the Society's education fits its pupils for the battle of and any lawful means that helps to this end, as, for 
life is found in the constant readiness of parents to instance, the maintenance of orthodox}\ It is easy 
entrust their children to the Jesuits even when, from to overlook this, and those who object will peiiiaps 
a merely worldly point of view, there seemed to be despise it, even if they recognize it. The work is not 
many reasons for holding back. (A discussion of showy, whereas that of the satirist, the iconoclast, 
this matter, from a French standpoint, will be and free-lance compels attention. Avoiding cx>mpari- 
found in Brou^ op. cit. infra, II, ^59: Tampe in sons, it is safe to say that the Jesuits have done much 
"Etudes", Pans. 1900, pp. 77. 749.) It is hardly to maintain the teaching of orthodoxy, and that the 
necessary to add that methoos of school discipline orthodox far outnumber the followers of men like 
will naturally differ greatly in different countries. Voltaire and Descartes. 

The Society would certainly prefer to observe mutatis It would be impossible, from the nature of the case. 

mvUandiB its well-tried "Ratio Studiorum**j but it to devise any satisfactory test to diow what love oi 

is far from thinking that local customs (as for instance culture, especially of intellectual culture, there was 

those which regard surveillance) and external dis- in a body so diversified and scattered as the Society, 

cipline should everywhere be uniform. Many might be applied, and one of the most telling 

(2) Another objection akin to the supposed hostility is the regularity with which e\'ery test reveals refine- 
to freedom is the alleged Kulturfeindlichkeit, hostility ment and studiousness somewhere in its ranks, even 
to what is cultured and intellectual. This cry has in poor and distant foreign missions. To some it 
been chiefly raised by those who scornfully reject will seem significant that the pope, when searching 
Catholic theology as dogmatism, who scoff at Catho- for theologians and consultors for various Roman 
lie philosophy as Scholastic, and at the Church's colleges and congregations, should so frequently 
insistence on Biblical inspiration as retrograde and select Jesuits, a relatively small body, some thirty 
unscholarly. Such men make little account of work or forty per cent of whose members are employed in 
for the ignorant and the poor, whether at home or on foreign missions or among the poor of our great towns, 
the missions, they speak of evangelical poverty, of The periodicals edited by the Jesuits, of which a list 
practices of penance and of mortification, as if they is given below, afford another indication of culture, 
were debasii^ and retrograde. They compare their and a favourable one, though it is to be remembered 
numerous ana richly endowed universities with the that these publications are written chiefly with a 
few and relatively poor seminaries of the Catholic view of popularizing knowledge. The more serious 
and the Jesuit, and their advances in a multitude of and leamea books must be studied separatelv. The 
physical sciences with the intellectual timidity (as most striking test of all is that offered by the great 
they think it) of those whose highest ambition it is Jesuit bibliography of Father Sommervogel, showing 
not to go beyond the limits of theological orthodoxy, over 120,000 writers, and an almost endless list oi 
The Jesuits, they say, are the leaders of the Kidtur- books, pamphlets, and editions. There is no other 
feindliche; their great object is to bolster up anti- body in the world which can point to such a monu- 
quated traditions. They have produced no geniuses, ment. Cavillers may say that the brand-mark is 
while men whom they trained, and who broke loose "respectable mediocnty": even so, the value of the 
from their teaching Pascal. Descartes. Voltaire, have whole will be very remarkable, and we may be sure 
powerfully affected the philosophical and religious that less prejudiced and therefore better judges will 
beliefs of large masses of mankind; but respectable form a higher appreciation. Masterpieces, ioOy in 
mediocrity is the brand on the long lists of the Jesuit every field of ecclesiastical learning and in several 
names in the catalogues of Alegambe and de Backer, secular branches are not rare. 
Under Bismarck ana M.WaldecK-Rousseau arguments The statement that the Society has produced few 
of this sort were accompanied by decrees of banish- geniuses is not impressive in the mouths of those who 
ment and confiscation of goods. ^ have not studied, or are unable to study or to judge, 

This objection springs chiefly from prejudice — the writers under discussion. Again the objection- 

religious, worldly, or national. The Catholic will whatever its worth, confuses two ideals. Educational 

think rather better than worse of men who are decried bodies must necessarily train by classes and schools 

and persecuted on grounds which apply to the whole and produce men formed on definite lines. Genius 

Church. It is true the modem Jesuit's school is on the other hand is independent of training and does 

often smaller and poorer than the establishment of not conform to type. It is unreasonable to reproach 

hifl rival, who at times is ensconced in the academy a missionary or educational system for not possessing 


advantages which no system can offer. Then it Jesuit oommunities have been forced to break up 

is well to bear in mind tmit genius is not restricted to within the huSt thirty years, others have had a cor- 

wnters or schohurs alone. 'Diere is a genius of organ- porate existence of two or three centuries. Stony- 

ization, exploration, enterprise, diplomacy, evangeli- hurst College, for instance, has been 01^^ 116 years 

sation^ ana instances of it, in one or other of these in its present site, but its cor{)orate life is 202 years 

directions^ are common enough in the Society. older still; yet the most glorious pages of its his- 

Men will vary of course in their estimates as to tory are those of its persecutions, when it lost, 
whether the amount of Jesuit genius is great or not three times over, everything it possessed and. barely 
according to the esteem they make of those studies escaping by flighty renewed a life even more honour- 
in which the Society is strongest. But whether the able and distinguished than that which preceded, a 
amount is great or little, it is not stunted by Ignatius's fortune probably without its equal in the history of 
strivings for uniformity. The objection taken to pedagogy. Again the BoUandists (o. v.) and the 
the words of the rule '^Let all say the same thing as CoUegio Romano may be cited as well-known exam- 
much as possible" is not convincing. This is a pies of institutions which, though once smitt^i to 
clipped quotation, for Ignatius goes on to add ^'juxta the ground, have afterwards revived and flourished 
Apostolum", an evident reference to St. Paul to the as much as before if not more. One might instance, 
PnilippianS; iii, 15, 16, beyond whom he does not go. too, the German province, which, though driven 
In truth Ignatius's object is the practical one of into exile by Bismarck, has there more than doubled 
preventing aealous i)rofesBors from wasting their its p^revious numbers. The Christianity which the 
lecture tim^ in disputing small points on which they Jesuits planted in Paraguay survived in a wonderful 
may differ from their colleagues. The Society's way, after they were gone, and the rediscovery of the 
writers and teachers are surely never compelled to Church in Japan affords a glorious testimony to the 
the same rigid acceptation of the views of another thoroughness of the old missionary methods. 
as is often the case elsewhere, e. g. in politics, diplo- (b) Turning to the point of decadence after 
macy, or journalism. Members of a staff of leader- Acquaviva's time, we may freely concede that no sub- 
writers have constantly to personate convictions not seciuent generation contained so many great person- 
really their own, at the bidding of the editor; whereas alities as the first. The first fifty years saw nearly all 
Jesuit writers and teachers write and speak almost in- the Society's saints and a large proportion of its 
variably in their own names, and with a variety of great writers and missk)naries. But the same phe- 
treatment and a freedom of mind which compare not nomenon is to be observed in almost all orders, indeed 
unfavoimibly with other exponents of the same sub- in most other human institutions whether sacred or 
jects. profane. As for internal dissensions after Acoua- 

(3) Failure. — ^The Society never became "relaxed" viva's death, the truth is that the severe trouoles 
or needed a "reform" in tne technical sense in which occurred before, not after, it. The reason for this is 
these terms are applied to religious orders. The easily understood. Internal troubles came chiefly 
constant intercourse which is maintained between all with that conflict of views which was inevitable while 
parts enables the general to find out very soon when the Constitutions, the rules, and general traditions 
anything goes wrong, and his large power of appoint* of the body were beinjg moulded. This took till 
ing new officials has always sufficed to maintain a near the end of Acquaviva's generalate. The worst 
hi^ standard both of discipline and of religious troubles came first, under Ignatius himself in regard 
virtue. Of course tibere have arisen critics, who have to Portugal, as has been explained elsewhere (see 
inverted this generally acknowledged fact. It has Ignahtts Lotola). The troubles of Acquaviva with 
been said that: (a) failure has become a note of Spain come next in seriousness. 
Jesuit enterprises. Other religious and learned (c) After Acouaviva's time we find indeed some 
institutions endure for century after century. The warm theological disputations on Probabilism and 
Society has hardly a house that is a hundred years other points; but in truth this trouble and the debates 
oM, very few that are not quite modem. Its great on tyrannicide and equivocation had much more to do 
missionary glories, Japan, Paraguay, China, etc., with outside controversies than with internal division, 
passed like smc^eandeven now, in countries predomi- After they had been fully argued and resolved by 
nantly Catholic, it is banished and its works ruined, papal authority, the settlement was accepted through- 
while other Catholics escape and endure. Again, out the Society without any trouble, 
that (b), after Acquaviva's time, a period of decay (d) The alleKation that the Jesuits were ever im- 
ensued; (c) disputes about Probabilism, t3n'annicide, mensely rich is demonstrably a fable. It would seem 
equivocation, etc., caused a strong and steady decline to have arisen from the vulgar prepossession that all 
in the order; (d) the Society after Acquaviva's time those who live in sreat houses or churches must be 
began to acquire enormous wealth, and the professed very rich. The allegation was exploited as early as 
lived in luxmry; (e) religious energy was enervated by 1694 by Antoine Arnaidd, who declared that the 
political schemii^ and by internal dissensions. French Jesuits had a revenue of 200,000 livres 

(a) The word "failmre" is here taken in two differ- (£50,000^ which might be multiplied by six to get 

ent wa3r8 — failure from internal decay and failure the relative buying power of that day). The Jesuits 

from external violence. The former is discreditable, answered that their twenty-five churches and ool- 

the latter may be glorious, if the cause is good, leges, having a staff of 500 to 600 persons, had in all 

Whether the failures of die Society, at its Suppres- only 60,000 Iwres (£16,000). The exact annual 

sion and in the violent ejections from various lands revenues of the English raovince for some 120 years 

even in our own time, were discreditable failures is a are published by Foley (Records S. J., VII, Introd., 

historical question treated elsewhere. If they were, 139). Duhr (Jesuitenfabeln, 1904, 606, etc.) gives 

then we must say that such failures tend to the credit many figures of the same kind. We can, therefore, 

of the order, that they are rather apparent than real, tell now that the college revenues were, for their pur- 

and Qod's Providence will, in His own way, make poses, very moderate. The rumours of immense 

good the loss. In dTect we see the Society frequently wealth acquired still further vogue through two occux^ 

Society has suffered have been so tors of the f orei^ 

great and continuous as to be irreconcilable with the produce of their own mission farms the produce of 

usual course of Providence, which is wont to temper their native converts, who were generally still too 

trial with rdief, to make endurance possible (I Cor., rude and ehildish to make bargains for themselves, 

z, 13). Thus, while it may be truly said that maxrf ThB iiMetMdmsBriiM, as has been already explained 

800IITT 108 Bocnrr 

(see above: Germany) ^ led to no permanent results, they do noi infringe on the rights and functions of 

but the sale of the mission produce came oonspicu- the parish priests. (4) What restriction can be 

ously before the notice of the public at the time of the placed on the authority of the General of the Jesuits, 

Suppression, by the failure of Father La Valette (see, so far as it is exercised in France. For diciting the 

in article above, Supprbssion, France), In neith^ jud^ent of the ecclesiastics of the kingdom on the 

cas^ did the money transactions, such as they were, action of the ParlemerUt no questions could be more 

affect the standard of living in the Society itself, suitable, and the bishops convoked (three cardinals, 

which alwa^rs remained that of the honetti sacer^ nine archbishops, and thirty-nine bishops, that is 

dotes of their time (see Duhr, op. cit. infra, pp. fifty-one in all) met together to consider them on 30 

582-652). November. They appointed a commission consisting 

During the closing months of 1761 many other of twelve oi their number, who were ^ven a month 
prelates wrote to the king, to the chancellor, M. de for their task and reported duly on 30 December. 
Lamoignon, protesting sgainst the arrit of the Of these fifty-one bishops, forty-four addressed a 
ParlemerU of 6 August. 1761, and testifying to their letter to the king, dated 30 December, 1761, answer- 
sense of the iniuBtice oi the accusations made against ing all the four questions in a sense favourable to the 
the Jesuits and of the loss which their dioceses would Society and giving under each head a dear statement 
sustain by their suppression. De Ravignan gives of their reasons. 

the names of twenty-seven such bishops. Of the To the first Question the bishops repl^ that the 

niinority five out of the six rendered a collective "Institute of Uie Jesuits ... is conspicuously 

answer, approving of the conduct and teaching of consecrated to the eood of religion and the profit of 

the Jesuits. These five bishops, the Cardinal de the State '\ They oegin by noting how a succession 

Choiseul, brother of the statesman, Mgr de La Roche- of popes, St. Charles Borromeo, and the ambassadors 

foucauld. Archbishop of Rouen, and Mgrs Quiseau oi pnnces, who with him were present at the Council 

of Nevers, Choiseul-JBeaupr^ of ChAlons, and Cham- of Trent, together with the Fathers of that Council 

pion deCice of Auxerre, declared that ''the confidence in their collective Ci^acity, had pronounced in favour 

reposed in the Jesuits by the bishops of the kinjsdom, of the Society after an experience of the services it 

alTof whom approve them in their diocese, is evidence could render: how, thou^ in the first instance there 

that they are found useful in France", and that in was a prejuoice against it in France, on account of 

consequence they, the writers, ''supplicate the king certam novelties in its constitutions, the sovereign, 

to grant his royal protection, and keep for the ChurcG bishops, clergy, and people had, on coming to know it, 

of France a society commendable for the service it become firm^ attached to it, as was witnessed by the 

renders to the Chiurch and State and which the vigi- demand of the States-General in 1614 and 1615 and 

lance of the bishops may be trusted to preserve free of the Assembly of the Clergy in 1617, both of which 

from the evils which it is feared might come to affect bodies wished for Jesuit colleges in Paris and the 

it". To the second and third of the kine's questions provinces as "the best means adapted to plant 

they answer that occasionally individual Jesuits religion and faith in the hearts of the people". They 

have taught blameworthy doctrines or invaded the refer also to the language of many letters-patent by 

jurisdiction of the bishops, but that neither fault which the kings of France had authorised the various 

nas been general enough to a^ffect the body as a whole. Jesuit colleges, in particular that of Clermont, at 

To the fourth question they answer that ''the author- Paris, which Louis XTV had wished should bear his 

ity of the general, as it is wont to be and shoidd be own nsme, and which had come to be known as the 

exercised in France, appears to need no modification; College ot Louis-le-Grand. Then, coming to their 

nor do they see anything objectionable in the Jesuit own personal experience, they bear witness that "the 

vows". In fact, the only point on which they differ Jesuits are very useful for our diocese^ for preaching, 

from the majority is in the suggestion that "to take for the guidance of souls, for implantmg, preserving, 

away all difficulties for the future it would be well to and renewing faith ana piety, by their missions, 

solicit the' Holy See to issue a Brief fixing precisely congregations, retreats, which they carry on with our 

those limits to the exercise of the eeneral's authority approbation, and under our authority". Whence 

in France which the maxims of the kingdom require, they conclude that "it would be difficult to r^laoe 

Testimonies lUce these might be multiplied indef- them without a loss, especially in the proymcia2 

initely. Among them one of the most significant towns, where there is no university", 
is that of Clement XIII, dated 7 January, 1765, which To the second question the bishops reply that, 

specially mentions the cordial relations of the Society if there were any reality in the acdusation that the 

with bishops throughout the world, precisely when Jesuit teaching was a menace to the lives of sovereigns, 

enemies were plotting for the suppression of the order, the bishops would long since have taken measures 

In his books on Clement XIII and Clement XIV de to restrain it, instead of entrusting the Society with 

Ravignan records the acts and letters of many bishops the most important functions of the sacred ministry, 

in favour of the Jesuits, enumerating the names of They also indicate the source from which this and 

nearly 200 bii^ops in every part of the world. From similar accusations against the Society had their 

a secular source the most noteworthy testimony is origin. "The Calvinists", they say, "tried their 

that of the French bishops when hostility to the utmost to destroy in its cradle a Society whose 

Society was rampant in high places. On 15 Novem- principal object was to combat their errors . . . 

ber, 1761, the Comte de Florentin, the minister of the and disseminated many publications in which they 

royal household, bade Cardinal de Luynes, the Arch- singled out the Jesuits as professing a doctrine whida 

bishop of Sens, convoke the bishops then at Paris menaced the lives of sovereigns, because to accuse 

to investigate the following points: (1) The use which them of a crime so capital was the surest means to 

the Jesuits can be in France, and the advantages or destroy them; and the prejudices against them thus 

evils which may be expected to attend their di»- aroused had ever since been seized upon greedily 

chance of the different ftmctions committed to them, by all who had had asiy interested motives for object- 

(2) The manner -in which in their teaching and ing to the Society's existence (in the country)." 

practice the Jesuits conduct themselves in r^ard to The bishops add that the charges against the Jesuits 

opinions dangerous to the personal safety of soyer- which were being made at that time in so mauy 

eigns, to the doctrine of the French clergy contained writings with which the country was flooded were but 

in the Dechuration of 1782, and in re^rd to the Ultrar rehashes of what had been spoken and written against 

montane opinions generally. (3) The conduct of them throughout the preceding century and a naif, 
the Jesuits in re^d to the subordination due to To the tmrd question they reply that- the Jesuits 

bishops and ecclesiastical superiors, and as to whether have no doubt received numerous jirivileges from the 

soonrr 109 societt 

Holy See, manv of wliioli, however, and those the tion [Uxfaaa VIII. 6 August, 1603] that afi AhnigbW 

most extensive, nave accrued to them by oonununica- God raised up otner holy men for other times, so He 

tion with the other orders to which they had been has raised up St. Ignatius and the Society established 

primarily granted: but that the Sooietv has been by him to oppose Luther and the heretics of his day: 

accustomed to use its privileges with moderation and and the rehgious sons of this Society, following the 

prudence. luminous way of so great a parent, continue to give 

The fourth and last of the questions is not per- an unfailing example of the religious virtues and a dis- 
tinent here, and we omit the answer. The Arch- tinguished proficiency in every idnd of learning, more 
bishop of raris, who was one of the assembled especially in sacred, so that, as their co-operation is a 
bishops, bdt on some groupd of precedent preferred fpreat service in the successful conduct of the most 
not to sign the majority statement, endorsed it in a uaportant affairs of the Catholic Chiu-ch, in the res- 
separate letter which he addressed to the king. torationof morality, and in the liberal culture of young 

(e) It is not to be denied that, as the Society men, th^ merit new proofs of Apostohc favour." In 

jeal- further on he says: 

ousies were inevitable, and some losses of friend- every branch of learning." On 27 Septembo', 1748, 
ship; there was danger too of the faults of the Court he commended the General of the Society and its 
communicating themselves to those who frequented members for their ''strenuous and faithful labours in 
it. But it is equally clear that the Societv was keenly sowing and propagating throughout the whole world 
on its guard in this matter, and it would seem that Cathoiie faith ana umty, as well as Christian doc- 
its precautions were succeasful. Religious observ- trine and piety, in all their integrity and sanctity". 
anoe did not suffer to any appreciable extent. But On 15 July. 1749, he speaks of the members of the 
few people of the seventeenth century, if any, Society as "men who-by their assiduous labour strive 
noticed ue grave dangers which were coming from to instruct and form' all the faithful of both sexes in 
absolute government, the decay of enerc^, the dim- every virtue, and in zeal for Christian piety and doo- 
inished desire for progress. TImb Societylike the rest trine". ''The Society of Jesus", he wrote on 29 
of Europe suffered under these influaaces, but they March, 1753, "adhering closely to the splendid lessons 
were pkunly external, not internal. In France tlie and examples set them l)y their founder, St. Ignatius, 
injurious influence of Gallicanism must also be admit- devote themselves to this pious work [spiritual exer- 
ted (see above, Franes). But even in this dull period eises] with so much ardour, seal, charity, attention, 
we find the French Jesuits in the new.mission-neld of vifllanoe, labour . . .", etc. 

Canada showing a fervour worthy of the highest tra- „ For tiie evW eontrovenies bm the articlea AntuU, CemMi, 

Ai^ifxna nf i\ux nrAof TIia finol unA mriAi Annvinnintf rcrer, GreUtr^ Orou, and Retffmiberg in SoifMEBVooEL and the 

ditums o{ tne order, me nnai ma most convincing ^^j, jj^^ ©f Jesuit apologies, itnd., x. I50i. 

proof that there was nothing senously wrong m the BdHicBB-MoNOD, Le$ jtauitet (Paris. 19 lO); Giobsbti, n 

poverty or in the discipline of the Society up to the ^jumtamo^jwiUmsaat, i%i&) \QK.mv<3xn,Hi9i, of the Jetuiu 

time of ita Supm«rioB. » offered by the iMfcility of ^^\^^' ^^^'^^^^rSlTpi^M-AT^^^^ 

Its enemies to substantiate their charges, when, after Qunaer, Dm iituiUM (Paris, 1843); Muller. Let origins de la 

the Suppression, all the accounts and the papers of •f^P; * :?««». (?«i»t^i?^Ii R«ubch, BeiMge nor Qttch, der 

the Sodety p«eed bodavinto the jjdvwBarieB' po««.. ^^3 (te?'ii*i!^' ktl^'bJ.'L iJ^Um 

SKm. What an unrivalled opportunity for jprovmg d'idveoHon Mdia. (Fr. tr., 0>han, Pans, 1840); Discussions of 

to the world those allegations which were hitherto the above and of other hoetile writers will be found in the Jesuit 

iiTunmnnrtAclt Y«f aftj^r a rjtrpful flAnitiTtv nf tlw* periodicals dted above; see also Pilatus (Viktor Naumann), 

UnSUpporteai XeC, ai^ a CareiUl Sautmy Ol tne Kr /«*ut<t«nus (Ratisbon, 1906), 862-569, a fine criticism, by a 

papers, no SUCn attempt was made, rne conclusion Protestant writer, of anti-Jesuitical literature; BRiiRE, Vapolo- 

IS evident. No serious fault could be proved. ^«tgu«d« Awopi d fa inor<^ (Paris, 1911).Brou, Lui^nh 

Kf»itKpr Ai th«» midHln rrf *Jia AiffhtAcmth rpnfnrv »<«« d« « «ff«»d« (Pans, 1906) ; Concerning Jwutis (London, 1902) ; 

XNeitner a( uie iniaoie oi «ie eignieentn century u^j^r, Je»ui««n->a5«/n (Freiburg, 1904); Du Lac. JimiUee (Paria, 

nor at any previous time was there any mtemal decline I9OI) ; Matnard, The StudUt and Teaching of the Society of Jenu 

of the Society: there was no loss of numbers, but on (L«ad©B, 1855) ;Ihm PhmncioiMd leM-r^/ufaium (Pa^ 

thfk Anntrorv A otAOilv irrowtli • f hAtn waji no f Alliniy nflf ^* Ravionan, De resneteneedde Finetttui deeiUwiee (Pans, 1844), 

tne contrary a StOiay growtn, tn^e was no taumg oa t, Sraowi (London, 1844) ; Wiaae, Anianio de Secobar y Mendom 

m learning, morahty, or seal. From 1000 members (Freiburg. 1911); Rbuscb. Der index der rtrbotenen Baeher; D6Xr 

in 12 provmces in 1556, it had grown to 13,112 in 27 "W0B» amp Rtosch. Oeeeh. der MoraUtreitiokeaen:pABRmuA 

nmvinf-oa in lAlft* ir% 17 AAA in lAfiH 7ftQn /vT vtrVinm VtnduxUum of St, J(nuUtU9 from Phonahctam, and of the JeauUm 

provmces m lOlO, to 17,005 m IbSO, 78aO of whom p-om the Calumnies laid to their charge (London, 1688); HuoHEe. 

were priests, m 35 provmces with 48 novitiates, 28 Loyola and the Bducai. Syetem of the Jeeuita (New York. 1892); 

professed houses, 88 seminaries, 678 colleges, 160 fJt^^fZ^SS^ *^*^ Studiarum in JIfon. Qerm, padagogiea 

««dea<«^ and 106 tonmi inj«8><»»; and, in spite of gSS&i^'Li^'SrjJSi^'atS^lSS'?^ 

every obstacle, persecution, esroulsion, and supprea- i905).i 

sion during the seventeenth an<i eighteenth centuries, DismNouiBBSD Mbmbers. — Saints: Ignatius Loy- 

in 1749 it numbered 22,589 members, of whom 11,208 ola; Francis Xavier; Francis Borgia; Stanislaus 

were priests, in 41 provinces, with 61 novitiates, 24 Kostka; Aloysius Gonzaga; Alphonsus Rodriguez; 

professed houses, l76 seminaries, 669 colleges, 335 John Berohmans; John Francis Regis; Peter Claver; 

residences, 1542 churches, and 273 foreign missions. Frands de Geraiimo, and Paul Miki, John Goto, 

That there was no falling off in lesminff, morality, James Kisai, Japanese martyrs (1597). 

or zeal historians generally, whether hostile or friend- Blessed. — ^The blessed number 91 : among them sre 

far to the Society, attest (see Maynaid, "The Jesuits, Peter Faber; Peter Canisius; Antnony Baldmuoci; 

their Studies and their Teaching^'). the martyrs Andrew Bobola; John de Britto (qq. v.): 

On this point the testimony of Benedict XIV will Bernardino Reahnl; Ignatius de Asevedo (q. v.) and 

surelv be acoM>ted as incontrovertible. In a letter companions (known as the Forty Martyrs of Brazil), 

dated 24 April, 1748, he says that the Society is one viz. Didacus de Andrada (priest); Antonio Suares; 

''whose religious are evervwhere reputed to be in the Beoediotus a Castro; Francisco Magalh&es; Jo&o Fer- 

good odour of Christ, chiefly because, in order to nandes: Luis Correa;ManoelRodriguee: Simon Lopes; 

advance the young men who frequent their churches Manoel Femandes; Alvaro Mendes; Pedro Nunhes; 

and schools in the pursuit of liberal knowled{;e» learn- Andi^ C^n^alves; Juan a S. Martino (scholastics); 

ioft, and culture, as well as in deeds and habits c^ the Gonzslvo Henriques; Didaco Pires; Feidinand San- 

umvenal coovictioa confirmed by pontifical declara- res; Francisco Alvares; Domingos Femandes; Caspar 

SOCIETY 110 soczm 

Alvares; Amarus V&z; Juan de Majorga; Atfonao de 1879. During the Franoo^erman War he served 

Vaena; Antonio Femandes; Stefano Zuriare: Pedro as chaplain in Faidherbe's army, and was dec(Mrated 

Fontoura; Gregorio Scrivano: Juan de Zafra; Juan de in 1871 with a bronze medal for his self-sacrifice.. 
Baeza; Blasio Ribeiro; Jo&o Femandes; Simon Aooeta P. de Backer in the revised edition of his ^'Biblio- 

Sky brothers); the Japanese mart3rrs: John Baptist th^ue" (186&-76) gave Sommarvogel's name as 

achadoi 1617; Sebastian Chimura, 1622; CamiUo co-authori and deservedly, for the vast improvement 

Costanzoy 1622; Charles Spinola, 1622; Paul Navarro, in the work was in no small measure due to the 

1622; Jerome de Angelis, 1623; Didacus Carvalho. latter^s contributions. From 1880 till 1882 P. 

1624; Michael Carvalho, 1624; Francisco Pacheco ana Sonmiervogel was assistant to his father provincial, 

his companions Baltasar de Torres and Giovanni Before 1882 he had never had any special opportunity 

Battista Zola, 1626; Thomas Tzugi, 1627; Anthony of piu*suing his favourite study; all his bibliographical 

Ixida, 1632 (priests); Augustine Ota, 1622; Gonzalvus work had been done in his spare moments. In 1884 

Fusai and his companions, Anthony Chiimi, Peter he published his '' Diotionnaire des ouvrages ano- 

Samp6, Michael Ximipd, Louis Cavara, John Chin- nymes et pseudonvmes publics par des religieux de 

focu, Thomas Acafoxi, 1622; Denis F^gixima and la Compagnie de J6sus'\ In 1885 he was appointed 
'eter Onizuchi (companions of Bl. Paul Navarro), successor to the PP. de Backer and went to Lou vain. 
1622; Simon Jempo (companion of Bl. Jerome ae He determined to recast and enlarge their work and 
Angelis), 1623; Vmcent Caun and his companions: after five years issued the first volume of the first 
Peter Rmxei, Paul Chinsuche, John Chinsaco; Mich- part (Brussels and Paris, 1890); by 1900 the ninth 
ad Toz6, 1626; Michael Nacaxima, 1628 (scholastics); volume had appeared; the tenth^ an index of the 
Leonard Chimiura, 1619; Ambrosio Femandes, 1620; first nine, which comprised the bibliographicid part 
Gaspcur Sandamatzu (companion of Bl. Francis of the ^'Bibliothdque was unfinished at the time of 
Pacheco, 1626). lay brothers; the English martyrs: his death but has since been completed by P. Bliard, 
Thomas Woodnouse, 1573; and John Nelson, Ed'- with a bio^aphical notice by P. Brucker, from which 
mund Campion, Alexander Briant (qq. v.) ; Thomas these details had been drawn. P. Sommervogel had 
Cottam.l582(priest3);themartyrBofCuncolim(q. v.): intended to compile a second, or historicid. part of 
Rudolpn Acquaviva: Alfonso Pacheco; Pietro Bemo; his work, which was to be a revision of Carayon's 
Antomo Francisco (priests); and Francisco Aranha, *' Bibliographic historique". He was a man of 
1583 (lay brother); the Hungarian martyrs: Melchior exempl^y virtue, giving freely to all the fruit of his 
Grodecz and Stephen Pongracz, 7 Sept., 1619. devoted labours and content to lead for years a hus;y 
Venerables. — ^"fhe venerables number fifty and obscure life to which duty called him, until his 
include, besides those whose biographies have been superiors directed him to devote himself to his favour- 
given separately (see Index vol.), Claude de La Col- ite study during the last fifteen years of his life, 
ombi^re (1641--82), Apostle of the devotion to the He re-ecuted a number of works by old writers of the 
Sacred Heart; Nicholas Lancicius (1574-1653). author Society and. in addition to his articles in the '' Etudes", 
of '^ Gloria Ig:natiana" and many spiritual works, and, wrote : '* Taole m^thodique des M^moires de Tr§voux '' 
with Orlandmi, of ''Historia Societatis Jesu"; Julien (3 vols., Paris, 1864-5); ^'Bibliotheca Mariana de la 
Maunoir (1606r-83)^ Apostle of Brittany. Comp. de Jdsus" (Paris, 1885): "Moniteur biblio- 
Though the Jesuits, in accordance with their rules, graphique de la Comp. de Jesus'' (Paris, 1894-1901). 
do not accept ecclesiastical dimities, the popes MBMOLooxn, Bioorafbibb.— Alboambb. Umtn iUu$tre9 «t 

at times have raised some of their numbers to the 9**^ wrum de Soe, Jem qui *» odium fidd necati 9%mt (Rome. 

DaiUSta DaienM> UO/JJ-l/zy;, createa l/uy, Anorcas lammimUatrix (IWae, 1694); Idem, Soe. Jeau u»qwi ad moHem 

Stemhuber (1825-1907), created 1893; and Louis m7iton« (Prague, 1676) ; Thoblen, Jifenot. <2er 4fffuf«A<n Orii^ 

Billot (b. 1846), created 27 Nov., 1911. protinz (Roermond, 1901). BibUomphie* of particujar pewona. 

Aft rofpr^nnp 14 muAi\ in mftnf nf thp arfiVlM nn on ft larger sode than can be »ven here, will be found under the 

AS reierence is maae m most OI tne articles on geparate articles devoted to them. (See also Index volume.) 

members of the Society to Sommervogel S menu- The beet-azranged historleal bibliography is that of Cabaton, 

mental "Bibliothdque de la Compagnie de J^SUS" a Bibliographiod^Ja compagnieda J6me (CPans. l^). See also 

KriAf AOPntinf of its nnflior ia iriv^ >ia»« Porloa SouTHWEix, fit W. scnptorum Soe. Je»w« (Rome, 1676) ; DB BaCBBB, 

priel account Ol its author is given nwe. Carlos, siMioiMque de» ieriv. de la comp, de Jima (ii*ge. 1863); 8oM- 

fourth son of Mane-Maximihen-Joseph Sommer- mervooeu BiU. det tons, de la oomp. <ie /<«« (lo vols., Brussela, 

vogel and Hortense Blanchard, was bom on 8 mo-i9ioy,niJBTm^ NomendatorUienr^^ 

T«« iftQA o^ Q^»aciKii«.<» A\a^,t^ M^^A Ai^»A i^ Pa«.i*o Delplacb, jlcto 5. Ssdis tn oousa coc. /€«* (Florence. 1887-95); 

Jan., 1834, at btrasburg, AJsace, and dwd m Paris ^^^^ Jcinaffmphie de la comp. de Jeeue (Paris. 1875); iDiai. 

on 4 May, 1902. After Stud3rmg at the lycSe of Oalerie iUuatrU de la amp, de /. (8 vols.. Paris, 1893); db Ubi- 

Strasburg, Carlos entered the Jesuit novitiate at abtb, f «*^ r«y<«^Lff <*«" , , . de autoree de la comp, 

Issenheim Alswe, 2 Feb., 1853, and was sent lat«r ^ f;^^^'^^^rl^L.Mimoiree de Trhoux (Trevoux and 

to Saint-Acheul, Amiens, to complete his literary Paris, 1701-67, 266 vols.). Table mithodique, by Souiibbvogbl 

studies. In 1856 he was appointed assistant prefect & vols., Paris, 1864-65) ; Civm autolica (Rome, 18W) ; Biudee 

of discipline and sub-libraxi^ in the Coll^ of the ^'1^^^^^^^^ 

Immaculate Conception, Rue Vaugirard, Paris, hittoriquee (Brussels. 1852), TbMec, 18et-7t (Brussels, 1894). 

Here he discovered his literary vocation. The '^^^^'^\°^f^f}^^^if*y^^^\J^f¥^,S^^^ 

" Bibliothique " of PP. Augufltin and Aloys de B«dc«r }|?1 • £^ Ti^'i^l^1^r"^^t^"'^^^ 

was then.m course of pubucation. and Sommervogel, issued a series of Bfg&nnmgekefie, AlaoReoieUr 1, 1871-^6; Reg* 


years later P. Aug. de Backer, seeing his list of adden- (Madrid.*. 1901). ' Besides the above, whieh deal with topics of all 

da and errata, a MS. of 800 pages containing over *^^ **»•". »^.» *»«»* <>( minor periodicals devoted to special 

m nnO ontrifta nhtjunwl Iaava tnnmlrA iiaa nf if Smn- Bubjeots; scientific, liturgical, social, ooltege. jDolBwon, and paro- 

1U,UUU enines, pownea l^VC JO make use OI ll.^ pom- ^bial maasinee are more numerous still. The- Meesenoer of the 

mervogel continued at ^Rue Vaugirard till 1865,. V^ ^Saerwd ifcorl has editions for manv eountries and in numerous 

viewinir his course of nhilnaonhv TnAanwhilA. Hi» ihtm Jaocuaaes. It is the ortan of the Apostleskipof Prayer; most ol 

viewmg his course of philosophy meanwhile. He ihOk »»«««?•, '* *• the pr»n of the ApostlwAipof Prayer; most ol 

studieltheolosr at Amiens whe« he w«» onWned ig ^^t"flS55.'1^ ^'"i^^.^iSST^Iiui!!^, 

oept., Isoo. rrom loo7 till 1879 he was on the staff rwwhatb: fipnrrrTA f- y^yfr^ *** r^twr T«»»ATtiT«; tiwia^>m». ) 
of the" Etudes"| being managing editor from 1871 tin J. H. Pqllbr. .. 


8oei0^ of tbe Bleued Sacrament, The, a con- especially to apDroaoh the Holy Table frequently, 

gre^tion of priests founded by Venerable Pierre- ''TheSocietyotl^I'octumal Adoration", the members 

Julien Eymard (q. v.) in Paris, 1 June, 1856. His of which for an entire night keep watch before the 

aim was to create a society whose members should Host, reciting the Office of the Blessed Sacrament, 

devote themselves exclusively to the worship of the and offering various acts of reparative homage; ''The 

Holy Eucharist. Pius IX approved the society by Work of Fu^t Communion for Adults '\ The apos- 

Briefs of 1856 and 1858 ana by a Decree of 3 June, tolate of the press is a prominent feature in the 

1863, approved the rule ad decennium. On 8 May, labours of these religious. In the United States, they 

1890, Leo XIII approved it in psrpeiuum. The first publish ''Enmianucr', the organ of ''The Pnestr 

to jom the founder was P^re de CuerSj whose example Eucharistic League '\ and "The Sentinel of the 

was soon followed by P^e Champion. The com- Blessed Sacrament". 

munity prospered, and in 1862 Pdre Eymard opened For bibUography see Etmabd, Pibbrb-Juuiin, Vbkbbabub. 
a novitiate, whicn was to consist of priests and lay *^' Lbtblueb. 

brothers. The former recite the Divine Office in chou* #*.« jtt 

and perform all the other duties of the clergy; the Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Thb. 

latter shue in the principal end of the society— an mstitution of religious women, takmg perpetual 

Eerpetual adoration, and attend to the various house- vows and devoted to the work of education, founded 

old empk>yments peculiar to their state. The 21 Nov., 1800, by Madeleine-Sophie Barat (q. v.). 

Blessed Sacrament is always exposed for adoration, One of the signs of returning vigour in the Church 

and the sanctuary never without adorers in surplice, i^ France after 1792 was the revival of the religious 

and if a priest, the stole. Every hour at the sound of We. Religious orders had been suppressed by the 

the signal bell, all the religious kneel and recite a laws of 18 August, 1702, but within a few years a 

prayer in honour of the Blessed Sacrament and of reaction set in; the restoration of some orders and the 

Our Lady. Since 1856, the following houses have been foundations of new congregations ushered in "the 

established: France— Paris (1856), Marseilles (1859), second spring". One of the first was the Society of 

Angers, (1861), Saint Maurice (1866), Trevoux (1895), Jesus. Under the provisional title of " Fathers of the 

Sarcellee (1898); Belgium— Brussels (1866), Or- Sacred Heart" and "Fathers of the Faith", some 

meignies (1898), Oostduinkerke (1902), Bassenge devoted priests banded themselves together and in 

(1902), Baron vine (1910), Baekn Post Eupen on the due time returned from their exile or emigration to 

Belgian frontier for Germans (1909); Italy — Rome devote themselves to the spiritual welfare of their 

(1882), Turin (1901), Castel-Vecchio (1905); Aus- country. Father IA)nor De Toum61y was amone 

tria — Botzen (1896); Holland — Baarle-Nassau, now tlie founders of the Fathers of the Sacred Heart, and 

Nijmegen (1902); Spain — Tolosa (1907); Argentina — the first to whom it occurred that an institute of 

Buenofr-Ayres (1903); Chile — Santiago (1908); Can- women bearing the same name and devoting them- 

ada — Montreal (1890), Terrebonne (1902); United selves to the education of girls, would be one of the 

States— New York (1900); Suffem, N. Y. (1907). most efficacious means of restoring the practice of 

All the houses in France were closed by the Govern- religion in France. Though many difficulties in- 

mait in 1900, but Perpetual Adoration is still tervened, two attempts were made. Princess Louise 

held in their chapel in Paris, which is in charge de Bourbon Cond6, before the Revolution a Bene- 

of the secular cler^, by the members of "The dictine abbess, and the Archduchess Mary Anne of 

People's Eucharistic League". The first foundation Austria both tried to form an institute according to 

in tte United States took place in 1900, under the his idea; but neither succeeded, and he died before 

leadership of P^re Estevenon, the present superior- anything could be accomplished. He had confided 

general, m New York City, where the Fathers were his views to Father Varin who succeeded him as 

received in the Canadian parish of Saint-Jean- superior of the Fathers of the Sacred Heart. A 

Baptiste, 185 East 76th Street. A new church is short time afterwards Father Varin found in Made- 

under construction. In September, 1904, the Fathers leine-Sophie Barat, sister of Father Louis Barat, the 

of the Blessed Sacrament opened a preparatory sem- instrument to execute his plans. The first members 

inary at Suflfem, Rockland Co., N. Y, Here young of the new society began their community life ill 

boys who give evidence. of a vocation are trained to Paris, under the guidance of Father Varm. The 

the religious life, while pursuing a course of secular first convent was opened at Amiens in 1801, under 

study. From the seminary the youths pass to ihe Mademoiselle Loquet. A school which had already 

novitiate, where, after two years, Uiey make the three existed there was made over to the new institute, 

every . 

Sacrament emanates a scries of Eucharistic works, society had assumed^ as that of the "Society of 

all instituted by their founder. They are: "The the Sacred Heart" might be supposed to indicate 

Eucharistic Weeks, or. Lights and Flowers ", a society a connexion with the royalist party of La Vcnd6e. As 

whose members devote themselves to the propter Mile. Loquet, who had been acting as superior, 

adornment of the altar; "The People's Eucharis- lacked the recpisite qualities, by the advice of Father 

tic League", which numbers over. 500,000; "The Varin and with the assent of the community Sophie 

Priests*. Eucnaristic League", with a membership of Barat was named superior By education and tem- 

100,000{ "The Priests' (Communion League", an perament, the new superior was especially fitted for 

association of priests under the title of "Sacerdotal the work of foundation. In 1804 a second house 

Eucharistic League", establi^ed at Rome in the was opened and a new member, Philippine Duchesne, 

church of San Claudio, July, 1906, and at once raised received, who was destined to carry the work of the 

by Pius X to tibe dienity of an archconfraternity. society beyond the limits of France. Formerlv a novice 

Its object is to spreaothe practice of freouent and of the Visitation convent at Ste. Marie d en Haut, 

daily Communion, in conformity with the Decree of near Grenoble, Mile. -Duchesne found it impossible to 

the Sacred Congre^tion of the Council, "De auo- reconstruct the religious life of the Visitation in the 

tidiana SS. "Eucharistiai sumptione" (20 December, convent which slie purchased after the Revolution. 

1905). TJie means there, hignly re.c.Qmmended refer Father Varin made her acquaintance and reported to 

to the following lioints; .(IJ-To mstnict, refute objcc- Mother Barat that the* liouse- was oflferea to her, 

tiohSr spread, writings favouring daily Commumoh; and that she coitkl find there some who wished to 

(2) To ^coura^e assistance at Holy Mass; (3) To join her. • • ^ * . ' . 

prbcnote^Uchaiistictrlduums; (4) To induce children 7%e first plan .of .the institute .w^ dmwu up by 




Fathers Roger and Varin, and with a memorial com- 
posed by Mothers Barat and Duchesne was presented 
to the Bishop of Grenoble and approved by him. 
This plan and memorial set forth the end of the as- 
sociation, which was the perfection of its members 
and the salvation of souls; the spirit aimed at de- 
tachment from the world, purity of intention for the 
gdory bf the Sacred Heart, gentleness, zeal, and obe- 
dience; the means, for the religious^ the training of 
the novitiate, and spiritual exercises, for others, 
boarding schools for the upper classes, free schools 
for the poor, and spiritual retreats. The rule in this 
preliminary stage was simple; the houses were to be 
under one superior-general, everything was to be in 
common, the office of the Blessed Virgin was to be 
recited, the time appointed for mental prayer was 
si>ecifieid. The manner of life was to be simple 
without the prescribed austerities of the older orders, 
which would be incompatible with the work of educa- 
tion. On Mother Barat's return to Amiens in 1806 
the first general con^egation was assembled for the 
election of the superior-general, and she was chosen 
for the office. Father Varin then withdrew from the 
position he had held as superior of the new institute 
which was now regularly constituted, but he con- 
tinued for years to help the young superior-general 
with his advice and support. The first serious 
trouble which arose nearly wrecked the whole imder- 
taking;. At the end of 1808 the ''Dames de la Foi'' 
had SIX houses; Amiens, Grenoble, Poitiers, Niort, 
Ghent, and Cuigniers. The first house at Amiens 
was governed at tliis time bv Mother Baudemont, 
who ^11 imder the influence of a priest of the Diocese 
of Amiens, Abb6 de St-Estdve, who took that house 
under his control and even drew up a set of rules 
drawn from those of the monastic oraers and entirely 
foreign to the spirit of Father Varin and the foimdress. 
The devotion to the Sacred Heart which was to be 
its very life scarcely appeared in the new rules and 
they were in consequence not acceptable to any of 
the houses outside Amiens. Ahh6 ae St-Est^ve was 
determined to force the matter. He went to Rome 
and from thence sent orders, ostensibly from the Holy 
See. The name of the Societv of the Sacred Heart 
was to be abandoned for that of "Apostolines'', 
and he wrote vehement letters condemning Father 
Varin and the superior-p^eneral and her work. The 
most important letter m the case proved to be a 
forgery. The institute recovered its balance, but 
the house at Ghent had been already lost to the 

The second general congregation (1815) examined 
the constitutions which haa been elaborated by 
Father Varin and Mother Barat (they were an ex- 
pansion of the first plan presented to the Bishop of 
Grenoble) and they were accepted by all the houses 
of the society. It was decicfed to have a general 
novitiate in Paris. The third general congregation 
(1820) drew up the first uniform plan of studies 
which has been developed and modified from time 
to time to bring it into harmony with present needs, 
without losing the featiires which have characterized 
it from the beginning. In 1820 the societv obtained 
the formal approbation of Leo XII and the first 
cardinal protector was appointed, in place of an 
ecclesiastical superior whose authority would have 
depended too much upon local conditions. The 
sixth general congresation was anxious to bring the 
constitutions into closer conformity with those of 
the Society of Jesus. Mother Barat foresaw that 
the proposed changes were unsuitable for a congre- 
gation of women, but permitted an experimental 
trial of them for three VBaiB. Finally the whole 
affair was submitted to Gregory, XVI, who decided 
that the society should return m all points to the 
constitution approved by Leo XII. The last changes 
m tbc (^QstitutiOQ/^ w)M xo^e io 1851 witSi the sano* 

tion of the Holy See. Superiors-vioar were named 
to help the superior-general in the government of the 
society by takmg the immediate supervision of a oer^ 
tain number of houses forming a vicariate. The 
superiors-vicar assembled with the mother general 
and the assistants general, form the general oon^-e- 

fation of the society. In 1818 Mo^er Philippine 
>uchesne introduced the society into the United 
States and the first houses were U)imde(l in Missouri 
and Louisiana. The society under the guidance of 
Mother Mary Aloysia Hardey (q. v.) spread rapidly, 
and in 1910 counted twenty-seven houses and more 
than eleven hundred members The extension in 
Europe was confined to France until 1827 when a 
school was opened at the Trinity dei Monti, Rome. 
Houses were founded in Belgium (Jette), 1836; 
England (Berrymead, now Roehampton) and Ire- 
land (Roscrea), both in 1841; Canada (Montreal), 
1842; Austria (Lemberg). 1843; Spain (Sarria, near 
Bsu*celona), 1846. Mother du Kousier was the 

Sioneer in South America (Santiago de Chile in 1854). 
^ther fotmdations were made in the West Indies 
(1858); New Zealand (1880); Australia (1882)* 
Egypt (1903): Japan (1908). The Revolution of 
1830 disturbed the nouse in Paris but did not destroy 
it; the novitiate was removed elsewhere. In 186 
the house in Switzerland had to be abandoned; the 
religious were expelled from Genoa, Turin, ^uxxo. 
ana Pi^erol while the houses in Rome were searched 
and pillaged. In 1860 Loreto, St. Elpidio, and 
Perugia were suppressed. The German houses were 
closed by the May Laws of 1873. Between 1903 
and 1909 fortv-seven houses in France were closed 
and many of them confiscated by the French Govern- 
ment. The mother-house was transferred to Brus- 
sels in 1909. This wholesale destruction increased the 
extension in foreign countries; for almost every house 
that has been closed another has been opened else- 
where. At present the society counts 139 houses 
and about 6.500 religious. 

The society aims at a twofold spirit — contemplative 
and active. II is composed of choir rdigious and lay 
fflsters. Enclosure is observed in a manner adapted 
to the works^ the Oflice of the Blessed Virgm is 
recited in choir. The choice of subjects is guided by 
the qualifications laid down in the consititutions. 
In addition to the indication of a true religious voca- 
tion there is required respectable parentage, unblem- 
ished reputation, a good or at least sufllcient education 
with some aptitude for completing it^ a sound judg- 
ment, and above all a generous detennmation to make 
an entire surrender of self to the service of God 
through the hands of superiors. The candidate is 
not allowed to make any conditions as to place of 
residence or employment, but must be ready to be 
sent by obedience to any part of the world, even the 
privilege of going on foreign missions is not definitely 
promised in the oeg^inning to those who aspire to it. 
rostulants are admitted to a preliminary probation 
of three months, at the end of which they may take 
the religious haoit and begin their novitiate of two 
years, which are spent in studving the spirit and the 
rules of the society, exercising tneinselves in its manner 
of living, and in the virtues which they will be called 
upon to practice; the second year is devoted to a 
course of study which is to prepare them for their 
educational work. To each novitiate there is at- 
tached a teaching and training department where the 
first course of studies may be taken, and when it is 
possible the young religious pass a year in this, after 
their vowis, l>efore they are sent to teach in the schools. 
The first vows, simple perpetual vows of poverty, 
chastity and obedience, are taken at the end of two 
years of noviceship, alt^ which follow five years 
spent in study, teaching, or other duties. At the end 
of this period foUows for those who have special 
aptitude for the woik of teaching; another short 


ootiree of study, and for all a period of second novi- poor ^ris and peasant women. Retreats for First 

tiate or probation lasting six monthsi at the end of Communion in Rome, and retreats for Indian wcHnen 

whidi, tnat is to say, seven ^ears after their ad- in Mexico are special varieties of this work. (4) The 

mission to the society, Uie a8pu*ants take their final congregations oi Children of Mary living in the world 

vows and are received as professed religious. The which have their own rules and organisation (see 

vow of stability, that is, of perseverance in the Chiu>ren of Mabt of thb Sacred Hbart, Thb). 

society, is then added, and for the choir religious See bibliogmphiM to Barat. Madblbxhb-Sophib, BugeesD; 

a vow to consecrate themsdves to education of youth; Hjlsdbt, Mabt Alotbia; Duckbbkb, Pmuppms-RouB. 

provisbn is made, iK^wever, that this vow may be Janbt Stuabt. 
accomplished even if obedience should prescribe other 

duties than those of direct teaching, and may be Boeiitiaillam, the bod^^ of doctrine held by one of 
fulfilled by concurrence in any way in the work of the the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which Uie Ref- 
sodety. The vow of stabilitv binds the societv to the ormation gave birth. The Socinians derive their 
proferaed until death, as well as the professed to the name from two natives of Siena^ Lelio Sozzini (1525- 
society; this bond can only be broken by the Hoh* 62) and his nephew Fausto Sozzmi (159^1604). The 
See. The society is governed by a superior general, surname is variously given, but its Latin form, So- 
elected for life by the assistants general and superiors cinus, is that currently used. It is to Fausto. or 
vicar. The assbtants general are elected for six^ears. Faustus Socinus, that the sect owes its individuality, 
the superiors vicar and local superiors are nommatea but it arose before he came into contact with it. In 
by the mother general, and may be changed at her 1546 a secret society held meetings at Vioenza in the 
discretion; their usual period of government is three Diocese of Venice to discuss, among.other points, the 
years, but it may beprolonged or shortened according doctrine of the Trinity. Among the members of this 
to circumstances. The superior general assembles the socic^ were Blandrata, a well-known physician, Alcia- 
superiors vicar in a general congregation eveiy six tus, Gentilis, and Lelio, or Lelius Socinus. The last- 
years, and with the nelp of the assistants f^eneral named, a priest of Siena, was the intimate friend of 
transacts with them all business connected with the Bullinger, Calvin, and Melancbthon. The object of 
general government of the society. These periodical the society was the advocacy not precisely of what 
assemblies, the occasional visits of the superior were afterwards known as Socinian principles, but of 
general to the houses in different countries, the r^ular Antitrinitarianism. The Nominalists, represented 
reports and accounts sent in from every vicariate, by Abelard, were the real progenitors of the Anti- 
thefreeaccessofaU to the mother general by writing, trinitarians of the Reformation period, but while 
and in j3articular the organization of the house of last many of the Nominalists ultimately became Trithe- 
probation, which as far as possible brin^ the young ists, the term Antitrinitarian means expressly one who 
rdigious for six months into touch with the first denies the distinction of persons in the Godhead, 
superiors of the society — all tend to unity. Its union The Antitrinitarians are thus the later representatives 
is what is most valued, and if it had been possible to of the Sabellians, Macedonians, and Arians of an 
define it sufficiently it is said that a fourai vow of earlier period. The secret society which met at 
charity would have been added to the obligations of Vioenza was broken up. and most of its members fied 
the members. to Poland. Lselius, indeed, seems to have lived most 
Four principal works ^ve scope to the activities of at Zurich, but he was the mainspring of the society, 
the society. (1) Education of the upper classes in which continued to hold meetings at Cracow for the 
the boardmg schools and of late years in day schools, discussion of relic[ious questions. He died in 1562 
Originally the plan of studies was more or less uni- and a stormy period began for the m^nbers of the 
form in all the houses, but it has become necessary party. 

to modify it according to the needs and educational The inevitable effect of the principles of the R^or- 
ideals of different countries and the kind of life for mation was soon felt, and schism made its appearance 
which the pupils have to be prepared. The character in the ranks of the Antitrinitarians — for so we must 
of the education of the Sacrea Heart, however, ro- call them all indiscriminately at this time. In 1570 
mains the same, based on t^e study of religion and of the Socinians separated, and, through the influence 
Christian philosophy and laying particular stress on of the Antitrinitarian John Sigismund, established 
history, literature, essay-writing, modem languages, themselves at Racow. Meanwhile Faustus Socinus 
and such knowledge of household management as had obtained possession of his uncle's papers and in 
can be taugjit at school. (2) Free or parochial 1579 came to Poland. He found the various bodies of 
schools. In some countries, as in England, these are the sect divided, and he was at first refused admission 
aided by the State, and follow the regulations laid because he refiised to submit to a second baptism, 
down for other public elementaxy schools; in others In 1574 the Socinians had issued a "Catechism of the 
they are voluntary and adapt their teaching to Uie Unitarians'', in which, while much was said about the 
needs and circumstances of the children. Between nature and perfections of the Godhead, silence was 
these two classes of schools have arisen in England observed re^krdinj; those Divine attributes which are 
secondary schools, aided by the StatCi whidi are mysterious. Chnst was the Promised Man; He was 
principally feeding schools for the two training the Mediator of Creation, i. e. of Regeneration. It 
coDeges in London and Newcastle, where Catholic was shortly after the appearance of this catechism 
teachers are prepared for the certificates entitling that Faustus arrived on the scene and, in spite of 
them to teach in elementaiy state-supported schools, initial opposition, he sucoeeded in attaching all parties 
This work is of wider importance than the teaching to himself and thus securing for them a dcttree of 
of single elementaiy schools, and is valued as a means unity which they had not hitherto en jo3red. Once in 
of reaching indir»;tly a far grea^r number of children possession of power, his action was high-handed. He 
than those with whom the relkious themselves can nad been invited to Siebenbur^ in order to counter^ 
come into contact. It likewise leavens the teaching act the influence of the Antitrimtarian bishop Francis 
profesrion with minds trainedTm Catholic doctrine David (1510-79). David j having refused to accept 
and practice. This work for Ci&thollc teachers sdso tiie peoulLarly Socinian tenet that Christ, though not 
esdsts at lima in a flourishing condition. (3) A work God,is to be adored, was thrown into prison, where he 
which is takixig rapid development is that of spiritual died. Budnaus, who adhered to David's views, was 
retreats for alTcIasses of persons. The spiritual exer- degraded and eixcommunicated in 1584. The old 
cises are pven to considerable "numbers of ladies who catechism was now suppressed and a new one pub- 
spend a lew days within the (tonvents of i;he Sacred lished under the title of the "Catechism of Racow". 
Beart; in other cases the exercises aire adapted for Though di^wn up by Socinus, it waa not published 
XIV.— 8. 


until 1605, a year after his death; it first Speared in simple; but distinction of persons is destructive of 
Polish, then in Latin in 1609. such sunplicity^ therefore, they concluded, the doc- 
Mean while the Socinians had flourished; they had trine of the Trmity is unsound. Further, there can 
established colleges, they held synods, and they had a be no proportion between the finite and the infinite, 
printing press whence they issued an immense amount hence there can be no incarnation of the Deity, since 
of religious literature in support of their views; this that would demand some such proportion. But if, 
was collected, under the title " Bibliotheca Antitrini- by an impossibility, there were custinction of persons 
tarianorum", by Sandius. In 1638 the Catholics in in the Deity, no Divine person could be united to a 
Poland insisted on the banishment of the Socinians, human person, since there can be no unity between 
who were in consequence dispersed. It is evident two individualities. These arguments are of course 
from the pages of Bayle that the sect was dreaded puerile and nothing but ignorance of Catholic teach- 
in Europe; many of the princes were said to favour ing can explain the hold which such views obtained 
it secretly, and it was predicted that Socinian- in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. As 
ism would overrun Europe. Bayle, however, en- against the first argument, see St. Thomas, Summa, 
deavours to dispel these fears by dwelling upon the I, Q. xii, a. 1, ad 4^^', for the solution of the others 
vigorous measures taken to prevent its spread in Hoi- see Petavius. But tho Socinians did not become 
land. Thus, in 1639, at the suggestion of the British Arians, as did Can^panus and Gentilis. The latter 
Ambassador. aU the states of Holland were advised was one of the orij;inal society which held its meet- 
of the probable arrival of the Socinians after their ex- ings at Vicenza; he was beheaded at Berne in 1566. 
pulsion from Poland ;whilo in 16o3 very stringent de- They did not become Tritheists, as Gentilis himself 
crees were passed against them. The sect never had a was supposed by some to be (cf. ^' A Short History of 
great vogue in England; it was distasteful to Prot- Valentius Gentilis the Tritheist'\ London, 1696). 
estants who, less logical, perhaps, but more conserva- Nor did they become Unitarians, as might have been 
tive in their views, were not prepared to go to the expected. Socinus had indeed many afiSnities with 
lengths of the Continental Reformers. In 1612 we Paul of Samosata and Sabellius; with them he re- 
find the names of Leggatt and Wightman mentioned garded the Holy Spirit as merely an operation of God, 
as condemned to death for denying the Divinity of a power for sanctincation. But his teaching ccmcem- 
Christ. Under the Commonwelath, John Biddle was ing the person of Christ differed in some respects from 
prominent as an upholder of Socinian principles; theirs. For Socinus, Christ was the Logos, but he 
Cromwell banished him to the Scilly Isles, out he re- denied His pre-existence; He was the Word of God as 
turned under a writ of habeas corpus and became being His interpreter [interpres divince voluntatis). 
Dorfniater of an Independent church in London. Alter The passages from St. John which present the Word 
the Restoration, however, Biddle was cast again into as the medium of creation were explained by Socinus 
prison, where he died in 1662. The Unitarians are of regeneration only. At the same time Cnrist was 
frequently identified with the Socinians, but there are miraculously begotten: He was a perfect man. He 
fundamental differences between their doctrines (for was the appointed mediator; but He was not God, 
which see next section). onlv deified man. In this sense He was to be adored; 
Fundamental Doctrines. — These may be ^ath- and it is here precisely that we have the dividing line 
ered from the "Catechism of Racow", mentioned between Socimanism and Unitarianism, for the latter 
above and from the writings of Socinus himself, which system denied the miraculous birth of Christ and re- 
are collected in the "Bibliotheca Fratrum Polon- fused Him adoration. It must be confessed that, on 
orum''. The basis was, of course, private judgment; their principles, the Unitarians were much more 
the Socinians rejected authority and insisted on the loracal. 

free use of reason, but they did not reject revelation. Redemption and Sacraments. — Socinus's views 
Socinus, in his work "De Auctoritate Scripturse regarding the person of Christ necessarily affected 
Sacrse'', went so far as to reject all purely natural re- his teaching on the office of Christ as Redeemer, and 
ligion. Thus for him the Bible was everything, but consequently on the efficacv of the sacraments, 
it had to be interpreted by the light of reason. Hence Being purely man, Christ did. not work out our re- 
he and his followers thrust aside all mvsteries; as the demption in the sense of satisfying for our sins; and 
Socinian John Crell (d. 1G33) says in his '^De Deo et consequently we cannot regard the sacraments as 
ejus Attributis'^ "Mysteries are indeed exalted instruments whereby the fruits of that redemption 
above reason, but they do not overturn it; thcv by no are applied to man. Hence Socinus taught that the 
means extin^ish its light, but only perfect it . This Passion of Christ was merely an example to us and a 
would be quite true for a Catholic, but in the mouth pledge of our forgiveness. AU this teaching is syn- 
of Socinian it meant that only those mysteries w^hich cretized in the Socinian doctrine regarding the Last 
reason can grasp are to be accepted. Thus' both in Supper; it was not even commemorative of Chris t*s 
the Racovian Catechism and in Socinus's "Institu- Passion, it was rather an act of thanksgiving for it. 
tiones lleligionis Christiana)", only the unity, eter- The Church and Socinianism. — Needless to say, 
nity, omnipotence, justice, and wisdom of God are the tenets of the Socinians have been repeatedly con- 
insisted on, since we could be convinced of these; His demned by the Church. As Antitrinitarianists, they 
immensity , infinity, and omnipresence are regarded as are opposed to the ex-press teaching of the first six 
beyond human comprehem^ion, and therefore unnecea- councils; their view of the person of Christ is in con- 
sary for salvation. Original justice meant for So- tradiction to the same councils, especially that of 
cinus merely that Adam was free from sin as a fact, Chalcedon and the famous "Tome (Ep. xxviii) of 
not that he was endowed with iwciiliar gifts; hciice St. Leo the Great (cf. Denzinger, no. 143). For its 
Socinus denied the doctrine of original sin entirely, peculiar views regarding the swioration of Christ, cf. 
Since, too, faith was for him but trast in God, he was can. ix. of the fifth (Ecumenical Synod (Denis., 231). 
obliged to deny the doctrine of justification in the It is opposed, too, to the various creeds, more espe- 
Catholio sense; it was nothing but a judicial act on the cially to that'ol St. Athanasius. It has also many 
part of God. There w^ere only two mcraments, and, [Affinities with the AdbptionLst heresy condcirned in 
as these were held to be mere locontives to faith, they the Plenary^ Coiincil of Frankfort, in 794, and in the 
had no intrinsic efficacy, liif ant baptism jwas'oif ^^cond letter- of Pope Hadrian I ti> the bisjipps'of 
course rejected. T'nere was -no^hejl"; the wicked to SpainV(cf*. Denz., 309^314). Its denial of the Aionc- 
annihilatert.^ :^1 • . ,y • . ^ .' ment* is in dppositrohtp' the decrees a^ 
- CHRisTOLOcjy. — ^This point was parficularly inter- chaHc promulgate inVS49 (cf. Denz., 319), and also in 
esting, as on It the whole of Socinianism turns." God, the dBtmitfen of- the Fourth Ltiteran Council a^^nt-t 
the oocinian's maintained, and jightly^ is absoTiileljr Ithe Albij^nsians (X>en2«, [428; cf. also Cone. Trld.. 


Seas, xxii., cap. i. de Sacrifioio Miass, in Denz., 938). It h the aim of economic science to investigate the 
The condemned propositions of Abelard (1140) might forms, relations, and processes that ooeur among 
equally well stand for those of the Socinians (cf. Dens., men in their associated efforts to make immediate or 
368 sqq.)- The same must be said of the Waldensian mediate provision for their physical wants. The 
heresy: the Profession of Faith drawn up against science deals with the phenomena resulting from the 
them by Innocent III might be taken as a summary production, distribution, and consumption of wealth, 
of Socinian errors.' The formal condemnation of So- The science of poUtics is concerned with the stable 
cinianism appeiu^ first in the Constitution of social relations resulting; from the efforts of sovereign 
PiMil IV, ''Cumquorundam'', 1555 (Dems^OOS); this social units to maintam themselves in integrity in 
was confirmed in 1603 by Clement VIII, or '^Do- their internal and external relations and to promote 
minici gregis", but it is to oe noted that both of these human progress. The state is the institution m which 
condemnations appeared before the publication of the these activities centre. Hence, the forms in which 
'^ Catechism of Raoow" in 1605, hence th^ do not sovereignty is clothed, the processes of change which 
adequately reflect the formal doctrines of Socinian- occur among them, and the varying functions of gov- 
ism. At the same time it is to be remarked, that ac- emment are central problems in this field of investi- 
cording to many, this catechism itself does not reflect gation. The science of reU(j[ions aims at describing 
the doctrines really held by the leaders of the party; the stable social relations which occur when men col- 
it was intended for the laity alone. From the decree lectively endeavour to understand the law of their 
it would appear that in 1555 and ag^ .iu 1603 the relation to a Supreme Being and to adjust their wot- 
Socinians held (a) that there was no Trinity, (b) that ship and conduct to His supreme will. The science of 
Christ was not consubstantial with the Father and law is concerned with those principles, relations, and 
the Holy Spirit, (c) that He was not conceived of the institutions through whidi tne more important rds^ 
Holy Spirit, but begotten by St. Joseph, (d) that His tions between the one and the many are defined, di- 
Death and Passion were not undergone to bring rected, and sanctioned by the sovereign state. The 
about our redemption, (e) that finally the Blessed science of ethics aims at expounding the principles and 
Virgin was not the Mother of God, neither did she sanctions by which all human conduct, both indi- 
retain her virginity. It would seem from the Cate- vidual and social, is adjusted to the supreme end of 
chism that the Socinians of 1605 held that Christ was man; or, in the Christian acpae of the term, to the wiH 
at least miraculously conceived, though in what sense of God. The science of history, which assumes the 
they held this is not clear. law of continuity in human society, endeavours to 

BMiatheoa Fratrum Pi)lonorum (Amsterdam, 1656); Bock, look OUt OVer its whole surface, to discover soxd de- 

Sodnianitmua in der GeMmmtentineklung des CkrUt. (Kiel. 1845) ; OCCUTred in SOCial relations of Whatsoever kmd. £ach 

BoNET^MApBT. Early Sources of Vie Bngiigh Unitarian Church of these social scienccs is analytical or descnptivo, but 

^884), ix; MosHKiM, H%tt. Cent., XVI, lect. ni, pt. u. 4, 7; Crell :_ -^ nnmnlpf^ Hovplonmfvnf. if nhniilH liav^ a. rmrmA*. 

(Socinian. d. 1633), De Deo et ejus attributis: Orcipovius (or J? *» complete Qeveiopment 11 snouio nave a normar 

PMipcovnyB), vna Paueti Soeini (1618, 1636); Toumiw, Afem- tive or du^ctive Side. To use the technical phrase, It 

oin of the Life, Character and Writings of F. Soeinus (London, ig tdeological. The Complete function of eftch of 

'^Sl^^^^^ JS:?SSSl ^2: i^Y-'ft)fjrr^ii! «»«= "^o^ indude the netting forth of a purpose for 

History of Christian Dogmas, II. 626-700 (a very good account of human OOnduct and should offcr du^ction tOWar^S ik 

tfie Socinian teneto); Blunt, DiciUmary of Stxts, Heresies, Se- which is modified by the relations in whioh eadft 

desiasttcal Parties and Schools of Thought, Religious Thvughl -f anrln +^» f»»A rtfl>oiM 

(1891);P»TAViU8, De<fteoi<v*«« dogmatibus, Ub. XVI, cap. i. «««» tO ine OLners. . , 'x .i. • i 

(wber« a foil treatment of the Socinian dogmas will be found); Some sociologists endeavour tO locate their SCienoe 

&zitscB-HBiKiBNB6THSB, Handbuch der aUgemeinen Kirehen- as logically antecedent to all of these. According to 

geschtchu. III, 333-38. HnoH Popk *^ ^^^ sociology should occupy itself with genenJ 

ropK. phases of the processes of human association and 
should furnish an introduction to the special social 

Sociology. — The claims of sociology (aociua^ comr- sciences. Others endeavour to locate sociology as the 

panion; X67or, science) to a place in the hierarchy of philosophical s^rtthesis of the results of the special 

sciences are subjected to varied controversy. It has social sciences, 'm which view it res^nbles somewhat 

been held that Uiere is no distinct problem for a sci- the philosophy of history. Giddings includes both 

ence of sociology, no feature of human society not functions in his description of the science. He says 

akeady provided for in the accepted social sciences, m his "Principles of sociology": "While Sociology in 

Again it has been claimed that while the future may the broadest sense of the word is the comprehensive 

hold out prospects for a science such as sociology, its science of society, coextensive with the entire field of 

present condition leaves much to be desired. Fur- the special social sciences, in a narrower sense and 

thermore, among sociologists themselves discussion for the purposes of univeraity study and of Keneral 

and disagreement abound concerning aims, problems, exposition it may be defined as the science of social 

and methods of the science. B&)rond this confusion elements and first principles. * . . Its far-reaching 

in scientific circles, misunderstanding results from the principles are the postulates of special sciences and as 

popular habit of confounding sociology with phil- such they co'orclinate the whole lx>dy of social general- 

anthropy, ethics^ charity, and relief, social reform, izations and bind them together in a large scientific 

statistics, municipal problems, socialism, sanitation, whole '^ (p. 33). 

criminology, and pohtics. It is hardly to be expected There is a general tendency towards the establish- 
that differences of opinion would not occur when ment of a single dominant interest in social groups, 
scholars endeavour to describe in sunple terms the Periods of unstable equilibrium tend to be followed 
complex social processes; to pack a vast array of hi9- by constructive epochs in which some one social 
toric^ and contemporaneous facts in rigid logical interest tends to dominate. This is the case when 
classes, and to matk off for research purposes sec- social groups are i^rimitive and isolated as well as 
tions of reality which in fact overlap at a hundred when they are highly organiaed and progressive. It 
points. Nevertheless, efforts to create a science of may be the food interest, the maintenance of the 
Bociolo^ have led to notable results. Minds ojt.a groui> against invasion> the thirst for conquer incar- 
very high order have been attracted to the work I nate ip a leader, or th^ establishment of the Kingdom 
abundant literature of great excellence hao been pro- of God. on earth that iserves as the baais of social 
duced; neighbouring sciences have been .deeply unity. In any r&a^,. the tendency .of social groups 
affectedby the new point of view which Sociology has towards up.ity .is practloallj' umvOTsal. In earlier 
losterecl ; and the teaching of the science has attained to stages Of civilisation the process is relatively simply 
undisputed recognition in the universitieQ of the worlds but to-day^ yfh^^ 4i9f I'ifK^ <^ climate^ raee, enyiro^ 


ment, type,r and place are overcome by progr cm in lution, pollticBl parties, oentralication of wealth, coa* 
transportation, travel, oommunication, and induBtiy, flicte among social classes, the sociologjst will ea- 
the process is highly complex. Political institutions, deavour to discover their wider bearings and their 
lan^ages, and race traditions no longer bound the place in the social processes of which they are part, 
honson of the thinker. To-day all states are sub- The method employed in sociology is primarily in- 
mer^^ed in the laiiger view of humanity. All cultures, ductive. At times ethnological and biological 
civihzations, centuries, all wars, and armaments, all methods have predominated but their sway has been 
nations and customs are before the social student, diminished in recent years. Sociology suffers greatly 
Origins heretofore hidden are exposed to his con- from its failure to establish as yet a satisfactory basis 
fus^ gase. Interpretations, venerable with age and of classification for social phencnnena. Although 
powernil from heretofore unquestioning acceptance, much attention has been given to this problem the 
are sw^t away and those that are newer are substi- results achieved still leave much to be desired. The 
tuted. Dozens of social sciences flow with torrential general point of view held in sociology, as distinct 
impatience, hurling their discoveries at the feet of the urom the particular point of view hdd m the special 
student. Thousands of minds are busy day and social sciences, r«iders this problem of classification 
night gathering facts, offering interpretations, and particularly difficult and causes the science to suffer 
seddng relations. The social sciences have become from the very mass of indiscriminate material which 
BO overburdened with facts and so confused by vary- its scholarship has brouj^t to view. Hence, the 
ing interpretations that they tend to split into sepa- process of observation and interpretation has been 
rate subsidiary sciences in the hope that the mind somewhat uncertain and results have been subjected 
may thus escape its own limitations and find help in to vehement discussion. The fundamental problem 
its power of generalization. Economic factors and for sociology is to discover and to interpret coexist- 
processes are studied more industriously than ever ences and sec^uences among social phenomena. In its 
before, but they are found to have in themselves vital study of origins and of historical development of so- 
bearing other than economic. Political, religious, cial forms, sociology necessarily makes use of ethno- 
educational, and social facts are found saturated with logical methods. It resorts extensively to comparative 
heretofore unsuspected meanings, which in each par- methods in its endeavour to correlate phenomena re- 
ticular case the science itself is unable to handle. lated to the same social process as tney appear in 

In this situation three general lines of work present diff^'ent times and places. The statistical method is 
themselves. (1) There is the need of careful study of the highest importance in determining quantities 
of commonplace social facts from a point of view among social phenomena, whUeUie prevailing tendoicy 
wider than that fostered in each particular social to look upon society from a psychological point of 
science. (2) The results obtained within the differ- view has led to the general method of psychological 
ent social sciences and among them should be brou^^t analysis. The efforts to develop a ^stematic sod- 
tofjpther in general interpretations. (3) A social ologv deductively have not yet led to anv undisputed 
philosophy is needed which will endeavour to take the results although the evolutionary hypothesis prevails 
established results of these sciences and put them to- widely. The range of methods to be found among 
gether through the cohesive power of metaphysics and sociologists might be fairly well illustrated among 
philosophy into an attempted interpretation of the American writers by a comparison of the works cuf 
indole course of human society itself . Prof essor Small Morgan, Ward, Giddings, BtJdwin, Cooley, Roes, 
thus describes the situation: ''We need a genetic, Sumner, Mayo-Smith, and Small, 
static, and teleological account of associated numan In as far as modem sociology has been developed 
life; a statement which can be relied upon as the basis on the philosophical side it has naturally been unable 
of a philosophy of conduct. In order to derive such to remain free of metaph3r8ics. It shows a marked 
a statement it would be necessary to complete a pro- tendency towards Agnosticism, Materialism, and 
gramme of analyzing and synthesizing the social pro- Determinism. " He would be a bold man '\ says Pro- 
cess in all of its phases. " fessor Giddings, addressing the Amer. Economic Asso- 

On the whole the sociological treatment of social ciationin 1003^ "who to-day after a thorou^ training 

facts is much wider than that found in the other social in the best historical sdbolarship diould venture to 

sciences and its interpretations are consequently put forth a philosophy of histoiy in terms of the 

broader. An aideavour is made in following out the divine ideas or to trace the plan of an Almighty in the 

social point of view to study social facts in the full sequence of human events. On the other hand^ those 

complement of their organic relations. Thus, for in- interpretations that are characterized as materudistic 

stance, if the sociologist studies the question of woman . . . are daily winning serious respect. " Even when 

suffrage, it appears as a phase in a world-movement, the science has been confined to the humbler r61e of 

He goes back through the available history of all. observation and interpretation of particular socid 

times and civilizations endeavouring to trace the facts and processes, its devotees have been unable to 

changing place of woman in industry, in the home, refrain from assumptions which are offensive to the 

education, and before the law. Bv looking outward CSiristian outlook on life. TheoreticaUy, social facts 

to the horizon and backwards to the vanishing point may be observed as such^ rej^irdless of philosophy, 

of the perspective of history, the sociologist endeav- But social observation which ignores the moral and 

ours. to discover all of the relations of the suffrage social interpretation of social hcts and processes is 

movement which confronts us to-day and tries to in- necessarily incomplete. One must have some prin- 

tm)ret its relation to the progress of the race. He cipleof interpretation when one intrnvets, ana one 

will discover that the manrisj^ rate, the birth rate, the amays tends towards interpretation. Thus it is that 

movement for higher education, th^demand for politi* even descriptive sociology tends to become directive 

cal and social equality are not unrelated facts but are or to offer interpretations, and in so doing it often 

organically connected in thejraocesses that centre on takes on a tone with which the Christian cannot 

woman in human society. The student of econom- agree. 

ics, politics, ethics, or law will be directly interested If^ for instance, the sociologist proposes a standard 

in particular phases of the process. But the sodolo- family of a limited number of children in the name of 

g^ will aim at reaching an all-xnclusive view in order human promss, by implication he assumes an atti- 

to interpret the entire movement in its organic rela- tude towaids the natural and Divine law which ii 

tions to historical and actual social processes. Like- quite repugnant to Catholic theology. Again, ^i^iea 

wise, whether the problem be that of democracy, lib- he interprets divorce in its relation to supposea sodal 

erty, equality, war, armaments and arbitration, progress alone and finds little if any fault with it, he 

tanffs €4* inventions, the oi^ganizatioo of labour, revo" lays aside for the moment the law of mairiage given 


by Christ. When, too, the sociolont etudies the re- social valuations by which social con^ot should 

latioQ of Uie State to the family and the individual or begovemed. 

the relations of the Church and the State he comes Elconomics as it developed under Christian influ- 
into direct contact with the fundamental principles ences related largely to the search for justice in prop- 
of Catholic social philosophy. When he studies the erty