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L O N D o m^ 

Pmted Ihr A. Strahan; T. CA»i|rti « the Strand; 

and J.Balfour^ at £dinhurgh« 






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i. 3H[^atte At f iwjuter : 



' [fint AppointmcDt— In N. Y. SUt«— to that nnk, 
■il, M. F. r ■ " 

MArrsR OP Amrs, Columbia College, of New York, IS78. 

TiiB TowKBHiP OP Rbd Hook, mkab TtVOLI P. O., DccB>S8 Co., N. Y. 

September, 1874. 

'^ JoDOB Adtocatb, with tbe nnk of Majob, 1845. 
COLONBL N. Y. S. I. 1846; auiirned for " MtrUarimu Condma,'* 
BBiQADiBBrGBHBBAL for " Important Sertiet" [tint appointmeDt— In ~' 
hitherto electlre] 1851, M. F. S. N. Y. 
Aojdtant-Gbmbbal, S. N. Y. 18M. 
BBsrcT Majob-Gbnbbal, S. N. Y., for t* Mtritorimu Servieei.** 
[fint and only general officer receiving taeh an honor (the hiffhut) from S. N. Y.,] and the only 
officer THi;8 brevetted (M^or-General) in the UDit«d States.] 
by " Special Aet," or •« Cb»i«trr«a JtitoiutioH," A'ew York 8taU Ltgitlatwty April, 1866. 
■— ^ 
LAWS OF NEW YORK, Vol. }.— 89th Seielon, 18«6, Pagfe «14«. 
Cbii««rTeiil RttaivtivH rtqituting tk* Governor to confer upon Sriffaditr-Gtntrat J. WAITS 
DB PUYSTER [rfe PeytUrl tk4 hrn^t rank of Major* [Cewero/] tn tkt National Gvard 
of Nevi York. 
RBaoLVBD, (if tbe Senate concur,) That it being a grateful duty to acknowledge in a tnltable 
manner the urvicet of a diitinguithed citizen of thii Sute, rendered to the National Guard and 
to the United Statet prior to and during the Rebellion, the Governor be and be ii hereby author- 
ised and requested to confer upon Brigadier-General J. WATTS DE PUYSTER [de Peyster] 
the brevet rank of majvr-General in the National Guard of New York, for meritorioua tenricet, 
which mark of honor shall be ttated in the Commiuion conferred. 

Statb op Nkw York, in AttnMy, April 9th, 1866. 
The foregoing Retolotlon was duly pasted. By ordtfr of tht Auemi»iy. 

J. B. CcsHMAB, Clerk. 

Statb op Nbw Yobk, in SenaU, April SOth, ^Stt. 

The foregoing Resolatloa was duly passed. By order ofth* SenaU, 

*S0 in original. ^^^^^^^ * "" 

Jak. Tbbwilliobb, Clerk. 


Jy 4GENT. S. N. Y., (In Europe,) 1851-'8. 
asM, oLtb^Mit.i««0r^K»BS of the Loyal Lsaion of the U. S. 
e/lBXB iriAd jArmt «f«Ue Potomac) Corps Union. 
Mbhbbs— lOtft J«ift, )[H1f,^BB^B— a^«h*fiBTTT^i9io^ArrLBPiBLb Mbmorial AaaociATioy 
MEMBER OP TMK NsfHsftLAi^MBiieLrHRABY Absociatiom 



Ac, for a 

of a 

M Lk 1 1 -I r V h I of r«pti y ti^i^n h 

'* KJlirl^sr.J^i^ini^Te ihij MU i 

V- »i--'-'-V-*- '^-'*"^-nJ«] at Leyden, HoU»nd. 

^zu-rP V' <jai* ' f . Oscar. King of Sweden and Norway, 

- *■"' *^- leow. Field Marshal, Generalissimo; 

HUKT, Gorernor S. N. Y., for 
I of New York," Ac. Ac, 
lartment with Steam 

of a Gold Mi'i4f1\-\ /-:SJffliirtl tis«^>iiLv Im. *t*pp OpncBBS of his Command, 9th 

Brig., 8 Div ., N . ■» . t:. Tn.r.iR *" rnleftElmi«>jv ' heir Esteem and Anpreciatioo of his 

Effurth Lo-uinU ttj<^ EtlRliJis^mrEilc^r tti; i Hi eiit Militia,'' Ac: lu 1870, of 

a M u^» I Hi: i i^pit II A iKiiijJll Kit4^ and LI '.SPH voted at the Annual ^ 

M^etinsorihe Tlilrd C^irpa lArh>y of the Potomac) 
Union, held at Boston, Mass.. Thursday, 
May Mh, 1870, when 
A Resolution was adopted to present a Gold Medal of the valne of $600, to Gen. J. Watts db 
Pbyhtbb, of New York, as a testimonial of the appreciation by the Corps of his eminent 
tervicee in placing upon record the true history of its achievements, ana in defending its 
commanders and their men from written abuse and misrepresentation ;'' 
and of sereral other Badges, Medals, Ac, for services in connection with the military scrrice 

of the Sute of New York. 

HONORARY MEMBER of the Nxw Jbrsxy and of the MiiiifBSOTA HisxoRiCAt Socibtibb, 

and of the Phbknokobmian Socibty of PsKNarLVANiA Collkgx, Gettyabnrg ; 

of thePHiLusoruiAN Socibty, Miuionary Institute, Selin'e Grove, 

and of the Ectbrpban Socikty, Muklenbera OAltge, Allentoum, Fentuylvania, 

and of the Gasman Litbrary Socibty, of Xebraika Coilegt, yebraika City. 

HONORARY MEMBER of the N. Y. BuRxe Club. 

(BuRwa was a member of the Dumfries Volunteer; of which Col. Arbxt Schcylkr db Pbtbtbb, 

8th or King's Foot B. A., was Colonel, to whom the " National Bard of Scotland " addressed, 

just before his death, In 1796, his •< POEM ON LIFE,") 

and LiFB Mbmbbr of the St. Nicholas Socirty of Nbw York, 

(of which dty Juhannbs or Pbyhtbb, ^rj< of the name in tie JVew World, was Seirpen, 16fiS, 

^Mrmuiis, 1666, Burgomatler, 1678, Deputy Mayor, 1677. Mayoralty offered and refuted.) 

of the Nbw York, of the Rhodr Islawd (Newport) and of the Prnnbtltawia Histobical 

SoctBTiBS, of the Military AaaociATioN op thb Statb op Nbw York, 

and of the Cbntvry Club. New York Citv. 


of the HivroBicAL Socibty of Michiqan. 

of the Nbw York Oallbry op Ftit* Arts, and Director of the N. Y. IwRmvTiOB for the 


and of the Nuuihmatio and AscHiBOLooiCAL Socibty of Nbw Yobk. 

LIFE MEMBER or FELLOW of the Ahkbican Obo<ibaphical Socibty; Patboh of the 

AmociATio.v for the Bbmbpft op Colorbd Orphans, and of the Nbw Yobx 

Dispbnsaby; Lipb Dirkctob of the Ambrican Tract, and Lipb 

Mbmbbr of the Ahbbican Biblb Socibty, N. Y. 


of the Statb Historical Socirtiks of Mainb, of Vrbmokt, of Rhodb Tslawd, (ProTidcBoe,) 

of Connbcticut, and of Wisconsik ; of the Lona Islaxd and of the Bufpalo 

Historical Socibties; of tbe Nbw England Histobio-Gb5Balo«ical 

Socibty ; of the Qubbbc LrtBHABv A Hibtobical Socibtt ; 

of the Numismatic and Antiqcabian Socibtt 

of Philadblpria, Pennsylpanla ; 

etc. etc. etc 



H I S T O R Y 


R E I G N 



B O O K V. 

THE accourit of the cruel manner in 
•which the Pope had been treated, filled 
all Europe with aftonifhment or horror. ^ »s*7'. 

. -*' General in* 

To fee a Chriftian Emperor, who, by pofleffing dign.tioii 
that dignity, ought to have been tljg proteflor g![[iftth« 
and advocate of the holy fee, lnvvioleat hands on ^"p***'* 
him who reprefented Chrift on eirth, and detain 
his facred perfon in a rigorous captivity, was 
cbnfidered as an impiety that merited the fevereft 
vengeance, and which called for the immediate 
interpofition of every dutiful fon of the church. 
Francis and Henry, alarmed at the progrefs of 
the Imperial arms in Italy, had, even before the 
taking of Rome^ entered ii^to a clofer alliance; 
Vol. IIL B and. 


B o^o K and, in order to give fome check to the Empe- 
Wi->^ — ^ ror's ambition, had a^eed to nnake a vigorous 
'^*7* diverfion in the Loyr Countries. The force of 
every motive,^ which had influenced them at that 
time, was now increafed ; and to thefe wem 
added the defire of refcuing the Pope out of the 
Emperor's hands, a meafure no lefs politic, than 
it appeared to be pious^ This, however, ren- 
Bered it neceflary to abandon^ their defigns on the 
Low Countries, and to make Italy the feat of war^ 
as it was by vigorous operations in that country 
they might contribute moft effectually towards de- 
livering. Romc> and fctting Clement at liberty'. 
Francis being now fenfible, that, in his fyftem with 
regard to the affairs of Italy, the Ipirit of refine- 
ment had carried him too far ; and that, by ar> 
cxcefs of remifCiefs, he had allowed Charles ta 
attam advantages which he might eafily have pre- 
vented, was eager to make reparation for an error,, 
of which he was not often guilty, by arf activity 
more fuitabic to his temper. Henry thought 
his interpofition neceffary, in order to hinder the 
Emperor from becoming matter of all Italy, and 
acquiring by that means fuch luperiority of power, 

* as woiild enable him, for the future, to didtate 

• without xontroiil to the other princes of Europe. 
Wolfey, whom Francis had taken care to fecure 
by flattery and prefents, the certain methods of 
gaining, his favour, neglefted nothing that could 
incenfe his mafler againft the Emperor. Befides- 
all thefe public confiderations, Henry was in- 
fluenced by one o£ a jnofe private nature 5 having 



begun, about this time, to form his great fcheme of ^ 9^^ ^ 
divorcing Catherine of Aragon, towards the ex- ^. — .^-^ 
edition of which he knew that the fanftion of '^*^* 
papal authority would be neceflary, he was de- 
firous to acquire as much merit as poflible with 
Clement, by appearing to be the chief inftrumcnt ^ 

c^his deliverance. 

The negbciation^ between princes thus dif- conMericj 
pofed, was not tedious. Wolfey himfelf con- juiyn. 
dufted it, on the part of his fovereign, with un- 
bounded powers. Francis treated with him in 
perfon at Amiens, where the Cardinal appeared, 
and was received with royal magnificence. A 
marriage between the duke of Orleans and the 
princefs Mary was agreed to as the bafis of the 
confederacy -, it was rcfolved that Italy Ihould be 
the theatre of war i the ftrength of the army which 
ihould take the field, as well as the contingent of 
troops or of money, which each prince fhould 
furnifh, were fetded ; and if the Emperor did not 
accept of the propofals they were joindy to make 
him, they bound themfelves immediately to de- 
clare war, and to begin hoftilities. Henry, who Auj. i«- 
took every refolution with impetuofity, entered fo 
eagerly into this new alliance, that, in order to 
give Francis the ftrongeft proof of his friendlhip 
and refpedt, he formally renounced the ancient claim 
of the Englifti monarchs to the crown of France, 
which had long been the pride and ruin of 
the nation; as a foil compcnfation for which 
he accepted a penfion of fifty .thoufand crowns, 

B 2 to 


B o^o K (o be paid annually to himfelf and his fuccef-' 
v,,.,^,i fors*. 


In^u^^co!!' The Pope, being unable to fulfil the- condi- 
fteu^m' ^^'^^ ^ ^^^ capitulation, ftill remained a prifoner 
under the fevere cuftody of Alarcon. The Floren- 
tines no fooner heard of what had happened at 
,Rome, than they ran to arms in a tuaiultuous 
manner; expelled the Cardinal di Cortona, who 
governed their city in the Pope's name ; defaced 
the arms of the Medici ; broke in pieces the 
ftatues of Leo and Clement ; and, declaring them'^ 
felves a free ftate^ re-eftablifhed their ancient po- 
pular government. The Venetians, taking ad- 
vantage of the calamity of their ally the Pope, 
feized Ravenna, and other places belonging to the 
church, under pretext of keeping them in de- 
pofite. The dukes of Urbino and Ferrara laid 
hold likewife on part of the Ipoils of the unfbrtu^ 
nate Pontiff, whom they confidered as irretrievably 
ruined ^. 

Theirrpc La N NOV, On the other handi laboured to de- 
inaaive. rive feme folid benefit from that unforefeen evenf, 
which gave fuch fplendour and fuperiority to his 
mafter's arms. For this purpofe he marched t6 
Rome, togetlier with Moncada, and the mar- 
quis del Guafto, at the head of all th^tfoops 

which they could aflemble in the kingBm oC 

• Herbert, 83, &c. Rym. Feed. xiv. 203* 
^ Guic. 1. xviii. 453. 



Naples. The arrival of this reinforcement * %^J^ 
brought new calannities on the unhappy citizens u, >■»- m^ 
of Rome ; for the foldiers envying the wealth of '^*^* 
their companions, imitated their licence, and with 
the iirmoft rapacity gathered the gleanings, which 
had efcaped the avarice of the Spaniards and Ger^ 
mans. There was not now any army in' Italy 
capable of making head againftthe Imperialifts-j 
and nothing more was requifite to reduce Bologna, 
and the other towns in the ecclefiaftical ftate, than 
to have appeared before them. But the foldiers 
having been fo long accuftomed, under Bourbon, 
to an entire relaxation of difcipline, and having 
tafted the Iweets of living at difcretion in a great 
city, almoft without the controul of a fuperior, 
were *becom.e fo impatient of military fubordina- 
tion, and fo averfe to fervice, that they refiifed 
to leave Romt, unlefs all their arrears were paid j 
a condition which they knew to be impoflible. 
At the fame time, they declared, that they woul4 
not obey any other perfon than thq prinqe ojf 
Orange, whom the army had chofen general. 
Lannoy, finding that it was no longer fafe for him 
to .remain among licentious troops, who defpifed 
his dignity, and hated his perfon, returned tp 
Naples ; foon after the marquis del Guafto an(i 
Moncada thought it prudent to quit Rome for the 
fame rea^. The prince, of Orange, a general 
pnly in name, and by the moft precarious of all 
tenures, the good-will of foldiers, whom fuccels 
and licence had gendered capricious, was obliged 

B 3 tQ 


B 0^0 K to pay more attention to their humours, than 
c — ^-— ' they did to his commands, '."hus the Emperor^ 
'^*^' inftead of reaping any of the advantages which 
he might have expedted from the redudtion of 
Rome, had the mortification to fee the moft 
formidable body of troops that he had ever 
brought into the field, continue in a ftate of in- 
aftivity fi-om which it was impoflibl^ to roul? 

TheFfCDch ^Pjjjs g^yg the King of France and the Vene- 
niarchet tians Icifure to form new fchemes, and to enter 
^' into new engagements for delivering the Pope, 
and preferving the liberties of Italy. The newly- 
' reftored republic of Florence very imprudendy 

joined with them, and Lautrec, of whofe abi- 
lities the Italians entertained a much more fa- 
vourable opinion than his own mafter, was, jiri 
order to gratify them, appointed generaliffimo of 
the league. It was with the utmoft reluftance 
he undertook that office, being unwilling to ex- 
pofe himfelf a fecond time to the difficula» 
and difgraces, which the negligence of the Ki^ 
-or the malice of his favourites, might bring 
upon him. The beft troops in France marched 
under his command ; and the King of England^ 
though he had not yet declared war againft the 
Emperor, advanced a confiderable fum towards 
carrying on the expedition, Lautrec's firft op^ 

^ Guic. 1. XTiii, 454, 

^- ^ rations 


rations were prudent, vigorous, and fuccefsful. * ^^ ^ 
* By the afliftance of Andrew Doria, the ableft fea- u**v,j 
officer of that age, he rendered himfelf nnafter Hi»\^pJrm. 
of Genoa, and re-eftablifhed in that republic the "^"•* 
faftion of the Fregofi, together with the domi- 
nion of France. He obliged Alexandria to fur- 
render after a fliort fiege, and reduced all the 
country on that fide of the Tefino. He took 
Pavia, which had fo long refifted the arms of his 
Ibvcreign, by aflault, and plundered it with {hat 
cruelty, which the memory of the fatal difafter 
that had befellen the French .nation before its 
wails naturally infpired All the Milanefe, which 
Antonio de Leyva defended with a fmall body 
of troops, kept together, and fupported by his 
own addrefs and induftry, muft have foon fub- 
mitted to his power, if he had continued to bend 
the force of his arms againft that country. But 
Lautrec durft not complete a conqueft which would 
have been fo honourable to himfelf and of fuch 
advantage to the league. Francis knew his con- 
^federates to be more defirous of circumfcribing 
the Imperial power in Italy, than of acquiring new 
territories for him ; and was afraid, that if Sforza 
yicrt once re-eftabliftied in Milan, they would fc- 
cond but coldly the attack which he intended to 
make on the kingdom of Naples. For this reafon 
he inftrufted Lautrec not to pufh his operations 
with too much vigour in Lombardyj and happily 
the importunities of the Pope, and the folicita- 
tions of the Florentines, the one for relief^ and 
the other for proteftion, .were fo urgent as to 
B 4 furnifli 


B o^o K furnilh him with a decent pretext for marching 
forward, without yielding to the intreaties of the 
Venetians and Sforza, who infifted op his laying 
ficge to Milan ^ 


ror*f«r?hc 'While Lautrec advanced flowly towards Rome, 
UberV the Emperor had time to deliberate concernmg 
the difpofal of the Pope's perfon, who ftill re- 
mained a prifoner in the cattle of St. Angelo. 
Notwithftanding the fpecious veil of religion, 
with which he ufiially endeavoured to cover his 
aftions, Charles^ in many inftances, appears to 
have been but litde under the influence of reli- 
gious confiderations, and had frequently, on this 
occafion, expreffed an inclination to tranfport the 
Pope into Spain, that he might indulge his am- 
bition with the fpeftacle of the two rnoft illuftri- 
ous perfonages in Europe fucceflively prifoners 
in his court. But the fear of giving new offence 
to all Chriftendom, and of filling his own fub- 
jefts with horror, obliged him to forego that fa- 
tisfaftion'. The progrefs of the confederates 
made it now neceflfary, either to fet the Pope at 
liberty, or to remove him to fome pWft of con- 
finement more fecure than the caftle of St. An- 
gelo. Many confiderations induced him to pre- ft^ 
fer the former, particularly his want of the mo- 
ney, requifite as well for recruiting his army, 
as for paying off the vaft arrears due to it. In 

* Guic. l.'xviii. 461. -^Bcllay, 107, tec. Manroc. Hift. 
Vcnct. lib. iii. 238. • Guic. 1. xviii. 457. 



<)rder to obtain this, he had aflembled the Cortes 
of Caftile at Valkdolid about the beginning of the 
year, and having laid before them the ftate of his '5*7- 
affairs, and reprefented the neceffity of making ^^^' "* 
great preparations to refift the enemies, whom 
envy at the fuccefs which had crowned his arms 
urould unite againft him, he demanded a laige fup- 
ply in the moft prefling terms j but the Cortes, as 
the nation was already exhaufted by extraordinary 
donatives, refufed to load it with any new burden, 
and in Ipite of all his endeavours to gain or to inti- 
mid^e the members, perfifted in this refolution ^ 
No rcfource, therefore, remained, but the extorting 
fixHTi Clement, by way of ranfom, a fum fufficient 
for difcharging what was due to his troops, without 
which it was vain to mention to them their leaving 

Nor was the Pope inaftive on his part, or his 
intrigues unfuccefsful towards hafteryng fuch a 
treaty. By flattery, and the appearance of un- 
bounded confidence, he difarmed the refentment 
of Cardinal Cqlonna, and wrought upon his va- 
nity, which made him defirous of fliewing th{ 
world, that as his power had at firft deprefled 
*the Pope, it could now raife him to his former 
dignity. By favours and promifes he gained 
Morone, who, by one of thofe whimfical revo- 

' ^ Saniov. i. p. 814. 



B o^o K lutions which occur fo often in his life, and which 
w^ - .. — -* fo ftrongly difplay his charafter, had now recover- 
'^*^' ed his credit and authority with the Imperiaiifts. 
The addrefs and influence of two fuch men eafily 
renioved all the obftacles which retarded an ac- 
commodation, and brought the treaty for Clement's 
liberty to a conclufion, upon conditions hard in- 
deed, but not more fevere than a prince in his 
fituation had reafon to expeft. He was obliged to 
advance, in ready money, an hundred thoufand 
crowns for the ufe of the army; to pay the fame 
fum at the diftance of a fortnight; and, at the end 
of three months, an hundred and fifty thoufand 
more. He engaged not to take part in the war 
againft Charles, either in Lombardy or in Naples; 
he granted him a bull of cruzado, and the tenth of 
ecclefiaftical revenues in Spain ; and he not only 
gave hoftages, but put the Emperor in pofleflion 
of feveral towns, as a fecurity for the performance 
of thefe articles ^. Having raifed the firft moiety 
by a faie of ecclefiaftical dignities and benefices, • 
and other expedients equally uncanonical, a day 
was fixed for delivering him from imprifonment. 
pec. 6, 8ut Clement, impatient to be free, after a tedious 
confinement of fix months, as well as filll of the 
fufpicion and diftruft natural to the unfortunate, 
was fo much afraid that the Imperiaiifts might 
ftill throw in obftacles to put ofF his deliverance, 
that he difguifed himfelf^ on the night preceding 

« Guic, 1. xviii. 467, &c. 





the day when he was to be fet free, in the habit of a ^ ^^^ ^ 
rrferchant, and Alarcon having remitted fomewhat ^ - v ■■■■> 
of his vigilance upon the conckifion of the treaty, '^*'* 
he made his efcape undifcovered. He arrived be- 
fore next morning at Orvieto, without any attend- 
ants but a fingle officer; and from thence wrote a 
letter of thanks to Lautrec, as the chief inftrument 
of procuring him liberty ^. 

During thefe tranfaftions, the ambaffadors of Ortrturetot 
France and England repaired to Spain, in confe- to%n^^ 
quence of the treaty which Wolfey had concluded ^'^^^'^^ 
with the French King. The Emperor, unwilling 
to draw on himfelf the united forces of the two 
monarchs, difcovered an inclination to relax fome- 
what the rigour of the treaty of Madrid, to which, 
hitherto, he had adhered inflexibly. He offered to 
accept of the two millions of crowns, which Ffan- 
cis had propofed to pay as an equivalent for the 
dutchy of Burgundy, and to fet his fons at liberty, 
on condition that he would recall his army out of 
Italy, and reftore Genoa, together with the other 
conquefts which he had made in that country. 
With regard to Sforza, he infilled that hi^ fate 
fliould be determined by the judges appointed to 
inquire into his crimes. Thefe propofitions being 
made to Henry, he tranfmiCted them to his ally 
the French King, whom it more nearly concerned 

* Guic. I. xviii. 467, &c. Jov. Vit. Colon. 169. Mauroc, 
tlift. Venct, lib, iii. z^t^ 



B o o K to examine and to aniwer thtm ; and if Francis 
V— vX^ had been fincere'ly folicitous, either to conclude 
'^*^' peace, or preferve confiftency in his own conduft, 
he ought inftantly to have clofed with overtures 
which differed but little from the propofitions 
which he himfelf had formerly made ^ But his 
vjews were now much changed j his alliance with 
Henry, Lautrec's progrefs in Italy, and the fupe- 
riority of his army there above that of the Empe- 
ror, hardly left him room to doubt of the fupcefs 
' ' of his enterprize againft Naples. Full of thofe 
. fanguine hopes, he was at no lofs to find pretexts 
for rejeding or evading what the Emperor had 
propofed. Under the appearance of fympathy with 
Sforza, for whofe interefts he had not hitherto dif- 
covered much folicitude, he again demanded the 
fiill and unconditional re-cftablifhment of that un- 
fortunate prince in his dominions. Under colour 
of its being imprudent to rely on the Emperor's 
finccrity, he infilled that his foris fhould be fet at 
liberty before the French troops left Italy, or fur- 
rendered Genoa. The unreafonablenefs of thefe 
demands, as well as the reproachful irifinuation with 
which they were accompanied, irritated Charle3 to 
fuch a degree, that he could hardly liften to them 
with patience; and repenting of his moderation, 
which had made fo little impreflion on his ene- 
mies, declared that he would not depart in the 
fmalleft article. from the conditions which he hacl 

* Recueil dcs Traitez, ii. 249. 



now ofiered- Upon this the French and Englifh ^ o o K 
ambafTadors (for Henry had been drawn unac- c-*^'-^ 
countably to concur with Francis in thefe ftrange '^*^' 
propofitions) denianded and obtained their audi- 
ence of leave ^. 

Next day, two heralds, who had accompanied istt* 
the ambaffadors of purpofe, though they had hi- J*""*'^*** 
therto concealed their charafter, having aflumed 
the cnfigns of their office, appeared in the Empe- 
ror's court, and being admitted into his prefence, 
they, in the name of their refpeftive matters, and 
with all the folemnities cvlftomary on fuch occa- 
fioiis, denounced war againft him. Charles re-^ They de- 
ceived both with a dignity fuitable to his own rank, aga^n^ JII^ 
but Ipoke to each in a tone adapted to the fenti- Emperw. 
meats which he entertained of their fovereigns. 
He accepted the defiance of the Englilh monarch 
with a firmnefs tempered by fome degree of de- 
cency and refpeft. His reply to the French King 
abounded with that acrimony of exprefTion, which 
pcrfonal rivallhip, exafperated by the memory of 
many injuries inflifted as well as fufFered, naturally 
fu^efts. He defired the French herald to ac- 
quaint his fovereign, that he would henceforth con- 
fider him not only as a bafe violator of public faith, 
but as a ftranger to the honour and integrity be-* 
coming a gentleman. Francis, too high-fpirited 
to bear fuch an imputation, had reeourfe to an 

^ Rym. adv. 200. Herbert, 85. ' Cuic. h xviii. 471.. 



H THE RElGhf OF T'H fe 

uncommon expedient in oxder to vindicate his cha- 
rader. He inftantly fent back the herald with a 
Frtnbs^' tfar/^/ of defiance, in which he gave the Emperor 
cbaiiengei ^^ \\q i^ fofm. Challenged him to firigle combat, 

the Emperor . . , . *^, . - •^, ^ , 

to fingie requiring hinfi to name the time and place of the 
encounter, and the weapons with which he chofe to 
fight. Charles, as he was not inferior to his rival 
in fpirit or bravery, readily accepted the challenge j 
but, after leveral meffages concerning the arrange- 
ment of all the circumftances relative to the com- 
bat, accompanied with mutual reproaches, border- 
ing on the molt indecent fcurrility, all thoughts of 
this duel, more becoming the heroes of romance 
than the two greateft monarchs of their age, were 
entirely laid alide \ 

l-heeffeft Thb cxamplc of two pcrfonages fo illuftrious 
^lomo'ing drew fuch general attention^ and carried with k fo 
l» duefr, ^^^^ authority, that it had confiderable influence 
in producing an important change in manners all 
over Europe. Duels, as has aheady been obferv- 
ed, had long been permitted by the laws of all the 
Eurbpean nations, and forming a part of their jurif- 
prudence, were authorized by the magiftrate, on 
many occafions, as the moft proper method of ter- 
minating queftions witli regard to property, or of 
deciding thofe which refpefted crimes. But fingle 
^ combats being confidercd as folemn appeals to the 

» Recueil des Traiicz, 2, Mem. dc BcIIay, loj. Sec. San- 
dov. Hift. i. 837. 



omnifcience and juftice of the Supreme Being> 
they were allowed only in public caufesi according 
to the prcfcription of law, and carried on in a ju- 
dicial form. Men accuftomed to this manner of 
decifion in courts of juftice, were naturally led to 
apply it to perfonal and private quarrels. Duels, 
which at firft could be appointed by the civil judge 
alone, were fought without the interpofition of his 
authority, and in cafes to which the laws did not 
extend. The tranfadtion between Charles and 
Francis ftrongly countenanced this praftice- Upon 
every affront, or injury which feemed to touch his 
honour, a gentleman thought himfelf entided to 
draw his fword, and to call on his adverfary to give 
him fatisfadtion. Such an opinion becoming pre- 
valent among men of fierce ciourage, of high fpirit, 
and of rude manners, when offence was often given, 
and revenge was always prompt, produced moft 
fatal confcqucnces. Much of the beft blood in 
Chriftendom was Ihcdj many ufefiil lives were fa- 
crificed; and, at fome periods, war itfelf hath hardly 
been more deftrudive than thefe private contefts of 
honour. So powerfi>l, however, is the dominion 
of falhion, that neither the terror of penal laws, 
nor reverence for religion, have been able entirely 
to abolifh a ptaclice unknown among the ancients, 
and not juftifiable by any principle of reafon; 
though at the fame time it mutt be admitted, that, 
to this abfurd cuftom, we muft afcribe in fome de- 
gree the extraordinary gentlenefs and complaifance 
of modern manners, and that refpcdtful attention of 
one man to another, which, at prefent, render the 



to o^o k focial intercourfes of life far more agreeable ahd 
v..-^, — » decent, than among the moft civilized nations off 
*5»^ antiquity* 

Retreat of WHILE the two moriarchs feenied fb eaijer to ter- 
*i»uft«from mmate their quarrel by a perfonal combat, tautrec 
l^^. continued his operations^ which promifed to bfe- 
nK)re decifive. His army, which was now increaf- 
cd to thirty-five thoufand men, advanced by great 
nlarches towards Naples. The terror of their ap- 
proach, as well as the remonftrances and the en- 
treaties of the prince of Orange, prevailed at laft oA 
the Imperial troops, though with difficulty, to quit 
I Rome, of which they had kept pofleffion during 

^ ten months. But of diat flourifhing army which 

had entered the city, fcarcely one half remain- 
. edj the reft, cut off by the plague, or wafted 
by difeafes, the effeds of their inaftivitys intem- 
perance, and debauchery, fell viftims to their own 
crimes ". Lautrec made the greateft efforts to at- 
tack them in,their retreat towards the"" Neapolitan 
territories, which would have finilhed the war at 
one blow. But the prudence of their leaders dif- 
appointed all bis meafures, and conduced them with 
iitde lofs to Naples. The people of that kingdom, 
extremely impatient to fhake off the Spanifh yoke, 
received the French with open arms wherever 
they appeared to talce pofleffion; and Gaeta and 
Naples excepted, hardly any place of importance 

" Gaic. 1. xviii. 478. 



remained in the hands of the Impeiialifts. The * ^^^ * 
prcfervation of the former was, owing to the ^.^ J -^mi 
ftrength of its fortifications, that of the latter to '***' 
the prefencc of the Imperial army. Lautrec, French be- 
however, fat down before Naples ; but finding it ^'8«^«i^'«'* 
vain to think of reducing a city by force while 
defended by a whole armyj he was obliged to em- 
ploy the flower, but Icfs dangerous method of 
blockade ; and having taken meafures which ap* 
peared to him effeftual, he confidently allured his 
mailer, that famine would foon compel the be- 
fie^d to capitulate. Thefe hopes were ftrongly 
confirmed by the defeat of a vigorous attempt 
made by the enemy in order to recover the com- 
mand of the fea. The gallies of Andrew Doria^ 
under the command of his nephew Philippino, 
guarded the mouth of the harbour. Mbncada, 
who had liiccceded Lanoy in the vice-royalty, rig- 
ged out a number of gallies fuperior to Doria's> 
manned them with a chofen body of Spanifh ve- 
terans, and going on board himielf, together with 
the marquis del Guafto, attacked Philippino be- 
fore the arrival of the Venetian and French fleets. 
But the Genoefe admiral, by his fuperior flcill in 
naval operations, eafily triumphed over the va- 
lour and number of the Spaniards. The viceroy 
was kiHed, moil of his fleet deftroyed, and Guafto, 
with many officers of diflinftion, being taken pri- 
foners, were put on board the captive gallies, and 
fcnt by Philippino as trophies of his viftory to 
his uncle ". • 

» Guic. 1. xiJT. 487. P. H«uter. lib. x. c. t. p. 231. 
Vol. III. C 


B 0^0 K NoTWiTHSTANpiNG this flattering profpeft of 
V— -v— ' fiiccefs, many circumftances concurred to froffcratc 
circum-' Lautrec's expedtations. Cleaient, though he al- 
^"i^h re. ^^^^ acknowledged his being indebted to Francis for 
tardtbe thc recovcfy of • his liberty, and often complained 
^^ogre I o ^^ ^^^ ^^^j treatment which he had met with 

from the Emperor, was not influenced at this 
junfture by principles of gratitude, nor, which is 
. more extraordinary, was he fwayed by the defire 
of revenge. His paft misfi>rtunes rendered him 
more cautious than ever, and his recoUedbion of 
the errors ii^rhich he had committed, increafed the 
natural irrefolution of his mind. While he amufed 
Francis with promifes, he fecretly negociated with 
Charles ; and being folicitous, above all things, 
to re-efl:ablifh his family in Florence with their 
ancient authority, which he could not exped: from 
Francis, who had entered into flxict alliance with 
the new republic, he leaned rather to the fide of 
"his enemy than to that of his benefaftor, and gave 
Lautrec no afliftance towards carrying on his ope- 
rations. The Venetians, viewing with jealoufy 
the progrefs of the French arms, were intent only 
upon recovering fuch maritime towns in the Nea- 
politan dominions as were to be pofleflfed by their 
republic, while they were altogether carelefs 
about the reduftion of Naples, on which the luc- 
cefs of the common caufe depended *". The King 
of England, infl:ead of being able, as had been 
projefted, to cmbarrafs the Emperor by attack- 

* Gaic. I. XIX. 491. 


ing his territories in the InOW-Countrics, found ^ ^^^ ^ 
his (libjefts fo averfe to an unneceflary war, u--/-^J 
which would have ruined the trade of the nation, '^*'' 
that in order to filence tlieir clamours, and put a 
ftop to the infurreftions ready to break out among 
them, he was compelled to conclude a truce for 
eight months with the governefs of the Nether- 
lands >". Francis himfelf, with the fame unpar-. 
donable inattention of which he had formerly been 
guilty, and for which he had fufFered fo feverely, 
negleded to make proper remittances to Lautrec 
for the fupport of his army ^. 

These unexpefted events retarded the progrefs ^^^^yf 
of the French, difcouraging both the general and ooria from 
his troops ; but the revolt of Andrew Doria '***"* 
proved a fatal blow to all their meafures. That 
gallant officer, the citizen of a republic, and 
trained up from his infancy in the fea-fervice, 
retained the fpirit of independence natural to the 
former, together with the plain liberal manners 
peculiar to the latter. A ftranger to the arts 
of fubmiflion or flattery necefTary in courts, but 
confcious at the fame time of his, own merit and 
importance, he always offered his advice with 
freedom, and often preferred his complaints and 
remonftrances with boldnefs. The French mi- 
niilers, unaccyftomed to fuch liberties, deter- 
mined to ruin a man who treated them with fo 

p Herbert, 90. Rymer, 14. 25S. 
^ Guic. ]. xviii. 478. 

C 2 little 


B o^o K Uiitie deference t and though Francis himfelf had 
s^^^^m^ a juft fenfe of Doria*s fervices, as well as an 
'^*^* high efteem for his character, the courtiers, by 
continually reprefenting him as a -man haughty, 
intraftable, and more folicitous to aggrandize 
himfelfi than to promote the intereft of France, 
gradually undermined the foundations of his cre- 
dit, and filled the King's mind with fufpicion 
and diftruft. From thence proceeded feveral af^ 
fronts and indignities put upon Doria. His ap- 
pointments were not regularly paid; his advice, 
even in naval affairs, was often flighted j an at- 
tempt was made to feize the prifoners taken by his 
nephew in the fea-fight off Naples; all which 
he bore with abundance of ill-humour. But an 
injury offered to his country, tranfported him 
beyond all bounds of patience. The French be- 
gan to fortify Savona, to clear its harbour, and, 
removing thither fomc branches of trade carried 
on at Genoa, pljjinly (hewed that they intended to 
render that town, which had been long the obje6b 
of jealoufy and hatred to the Genoefe, their rival 
in wealth and commerce. Doria, animated with a 
patriotic zeal for the honour and interefl of his 
country, remonftrated againft this in the higheft 
tone, not without threats, if the meafure were not 
inftantly abandoned. This - bold adion, aggra- 
vated by the malice of the courtiers, and placed 
in the mofl odious light, irritated 'Francis to fuch 
a degree, that he commanded Barbefieux, whom 
he appointed admiral of the Levant, to fail direftly 
to Genoa with the French fleet, to arreft Doria, 



and to feize his gallies. This raih order, die ^ 
execudon of which could have been fecured only 
by die moft profound fecrecy, was concealed with 
fo litde care, that Doria got dmely intelligence 
of it, and redred with, all his gallies to a place 
of fiifety. Guafto, his prifoncr, who had long 
obfcrvcd and fomented his growing difcontent, 
and had often allured him by magnificent pro- 
mifes to enter into the Emperor's fervice, laid 
hold on this favourable opportunity^^ While his 
indignation and refentment were at their height, 
he prevailed on him to difpatch one ofhis officers 
to the Imperial court with his overtures and de- 
mands. The negociation was not long ; Charles, 
folly feniible of the importance of fuch an ac- 
quifidon, granted him whatever terms he re- 
quired. Doria fent , back his comhiiflion, to- 
gether with the collar of St. Michael, to Francis, 
and hoifting the Imperial colours, failed with 
all his gallies towards Naples, not to block up 
the harbour of that unhappy city, as he had 
formerly engaged, but to bring them prote6tion 
and deliverance. 

His arrival opened the communication with wretched 
the fea, and reftored plenty in Naples, which ihc French 
was now reduced to- the laft extremity j and the JjipLi*^'* 
French, having loft their fuperiority at fea, were 
foon reduced to great ftraits for want of provi- 
fions* The prince of Orange, who fucceeded the 
viceroy in the command of the Imperial army, 

C 3 fhewed 


^ ^^^ ^ fhewed himfelf by his prudent conduft worthy of 
u— v^-i^ tliat honour which his good fortune and the death 
*^*** of his generals had twice acquired him. Beloved 
by the troops, who remembering the profperity 
which they had enjoyed under his command, 
ferved him with the' utmoft alacrity, he let flip 
no opportunity of haraffing the enemy, and by 
continual alarms or fallies fatigued and weakened 
them'. As an addition to all thefe misfortunes, 
the difeafes common irt that country during the 
fultry months, began to break out among the 
French troops. The prifoners communicated to 
them the peftilence which the Imperial army had 
brought to Naples from Rome, and it raged with 
fuch violence, that few, either officers or foldiers, 
efcaped the infeftion. Of the whole arrny, not 
four thoufand men, a number hardly fufficient to 
defend the camp, were capable of doing duty * ; 
and being now befieged in their turn, they fufFered 
all the miferies from which the Imperi^ifts were 
delivered. Lautrec, after ftruggling long with fb 
many difappointments and calamities, which preyed 
on his mind at the fame time that the peftilence 
Aog. 15. wafted his body, died, lamenting the negligence of 
his fovereign, and the infidelity of his allies, to 
which fo niany brave men had fallen vi(5tims\ 
By his death, and the indifpofition of the other 

' Jovii Hift. lib. xxxvi. p. 3 1, &c. Sigonli Vita Dorix, 
p. 1139. Bellay, 114, &c. 

• Bellay, 117, Sec, 

* P. Heuier. Rerum Auftr. lib. x. c. z, 231. 



generals, the command devolved on the marquis ^ ^^ ^ 
de Saluces, an oiSicer altogether unequal to fuch a — v^^-^ 
trull. He, with troops no lefs difpirited than re- Rai'fihe 
duced, retreated in difbrder to Averfaj which ^^*** 
town being invefted by the prince of Orange, 
Saluces was under the neceffity of confenting, that 
he himfelf Ihould remain a prifoner of war, that 
his troops Ihould lay down their arms and <:olours, 
give up their baggage, and march undjer a guard 
to the frontiers of France. By this ignominious 
capitulation, the wretched remains of the French 
army were faved -, and the Emperor, by his own 
perfeverance and the good conduit of his ge- 
nerals, acquired once more the fuperibrity in 


coveri itt 

The lofs of Genoa followed immediately upon Ocnw 
the ruin of the army in Naples. To deliver his liberty.' 
country from the dominion of foreigners was Do- 
rians higheft ambition, and had been his prin- 
cipal inducement to quit the fervice of France, 
and enter into that of the Emperor. A moft 
favourable opportunity for executing this honour- 
able enterprife now prefented itfelf. The city of 
Genoa, afflifted by the peftilence, was almoft de- 
fcrtcd by its inhabitants; the French garrifon 
being neither regularly paid nor recruited, was 
reduced to an inconfiderable number; Doria's 
emiffaries found that fuch of the citizens as re- 
mained, being weary alike of the French and 

V Bcllay, 1 179 $cc. Jovii Hlil. lib. xxv, xxfI. 

C 4 Imperial 


B o^o K Imperial, yoke, the rigour of whicli they had al- 
*-^'--— ' ternately felt, were ready to welcome him as their 
deliverer, and to fecond all his mealurcs^ Things 
wearing this prpmifing afpeft, he failed towards 
the coaft of Genoa j on his approach the French 
gallies retired ; a fmall body of men which he 
landed, furprized one of the gates of Genoa in 
the night-time i Trivulci, the French governor, 
with his feeble garrifon, ftiut himfelf up in the 
Iv^J*- citadel, and Doria took poffeffion of the town 
without bloodfhed or refiftance. Want of pro- 
vifions quickly obliged Trivulci to capitulate; 
the people, eager to abolifli fuch an odious monu- 
ment of their fervitude, ran together with a tunriul- 
tuous violence, and levelled the citadel with the 

Si^^^r'a* ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ Doria's power tp have rendered 
rfDorii. himfelf the fovereign of his counti^, which he 
had fo happily delivered from oppreflion. The 
feme pf his former aftions, the fuccefs of his pre- 
fent attempt, the attachment of his friends, the 
gratitude of his countrymen, together with the 
lupport of the Emperor, all confpired to facilitate 
his attaining the fupreme authority, and invited 
him to lay hold of it. But with a mj;gnanimity 
of which there are few examples, he fecrificed all 
thoughts of aggrandizing himfelf to the virtuous 
fatisfaftion of eftablifhing liberty in his country, 
the higheft objeft at which ambition can aim. 
Having affembled the whole body of the people 
In the court before his palace^ he aiTurod (hem, 



that the happinefs of feeing them once more in 
pofleillon of freedom, was to him a full reward for 
allhisfervicesi that, more delighted with the name 
of citizen than of fovereign, he claimed no pre- 
eminence or power above his equals ; but remitted 
entirely to them the right of fettling what form of 
government they would nowchufe to be eftablifhed 
among them. The people liftened to him with tears 
of admiration and of joy. Twelve perfons were 
eledted to new-model the conftitution of the repub- 
lic. The influence of Doria's virtue and example 
communicated itfclf to his countrymen j die faftions 
which had long torn and ruined the ftate, feemcd 
to be forgotten; prudent precautions were taken to 
prevent their reviving ; and the fame form of go- 
vernment which has fubfifted with litde variation 
fincc that time in Genoa, was eftablifhed with uni- 
verial applaufe. Doria lived to a great age, be- 
loved, refpeflcd, and honoured by his country- 
men ; and adhering uniformly to his profeflions of 
moderation, without arrogating any thing unbe- - 
coming a private citizen, he preferved a great af- 
cendant over the councils of the republic, which 
owed its being to his generpfity. The authority 
which he pofTefled was more flattering, as well as 
more fatisf^ory, than that derived from fove- 
rrigntyj a dominion founded in love and in gra- 
titude ; and upheld by veneration for his virtues, 
not by the dread of his power. His memory is 
ftill reverenced by the Genoefc, and he is diftin- 
^[uilhed in ^heir public mpnuments, and c«lebr^ted 



Ac works of their hiftorians, by the moft honour- 
able of aU appeUations3 THE FATHER OF 

1519. Francis, in order to recover the reputation of 

^^"^Mi* his arms, difcredited by fo many lofles, made new 
^•^'* efforts in the Milanefe. But the count of St. Pol, 
a raih and unexperienced officer, to whom he gavg 
the cpmmand, was no match for Antonio de Ley- 
va, the ableft of the Imperial generals. He, by 
his fuperior (kill in war, checked, with a handful of 
men, the brilk but ill-concerted motions of the 
French ; and though fo infirm himfelf that he was 
carried conflantly in a litter, he furpaflfed them, 
when occafion required, no lefs. in aftivity than in 
prudence. By an xmexpefted march he furprizcd, 
defeated, and took prifoner the count of St. Pol, 
ruining the French army in the Milanefe as entirely 
as the Prince of Orange had ruined that which be- 
fieged Naples ^. 

Negncia. Amidst thefe vigorous operations in the field, 

t'w"Jn ^' each party difcovered an impatient defire of peace, 

^Jilcis.*"^ and continual negociations were carried on for rfiat 

purpofe. The French King difcouraged, and al- 

« Guic. 1. xix. p. 498. SigODii Vita Doriae, p. 1146. 
Jovii Hill, lib xxvi. p. 36, &c. 

r Guic. I. xix. 520. P Hcuter. Rcr, Auflr. lib. x. c, 3. 
p. 233. Mem. de Bellay, ui. 



moft exhaufted by fo many unfuccefsftil enterprizcs, book 
was reduced now to think of obtaining the releafc ^-^.r^w 
of his fons by conceffions, not by the terror of his '**^ 
arms. The Pope hoped to recover by a treaty 
whatever he had loft in the war. The Emperor, 
notwithftanding the advantages which he had gain- 
ed, had many reafons to make him wifli for an ac- 
commodation. Solyman, having over-run Hun- 
gary, was ready to break in upon the Apftrian ter- 
ritories with the whole force of the Eaft. The Re- 
formation gaining ground daily in Germany, the 
princes who favoured it had entered into a confede- 
racy which Charles thought dangerous to the tran- 
quillity of the Empire. The Spaniards murmured 
at a war of fuch unufual length, the weight of which 
reftcd chiefly on them. The variety and extent of 
the Emperor's operations far exceeded what his re- 
venues could fupport : his fuccefs hitherto had been 
owing chiefly to his own good fortune and to the 
abilities of his generals, nor could he flatter himfelf 
that they, with troops deftitute of every thing ne- 
ceflary, would always triumph over enemies fl:ill in 
a condition to renew their attacks. AH parties, 
however, were at equal pains to conceal or to dif- 
, femble their real fentiments. The Emperor, that 
his inability to carry on the war might ndt be fuf- 
pcdled, infifted on high terms in the tone of a con- 
queror. The Pope, folicitbus not to lofe his pre- 
fent allies before he came to any agreement with 
Charles, continued to make. a thoufand protefta- 
dons of fidelity to the former, while he privately 



^%^^ negotiated widi the latter.. Francis, afraid that 

^ ' . -^ his confederates might prevent him by treating for 

'^**' . themfdves with the Emperor, had recourfe to 

many difhbnourable artifices, in order to turn their 

attention froni the meafures which he was taking to 

adjuft all differences with his rival. 

IiJ this fituation of affairs, when all the contend- 
ing powers wiflied for peace, but durft not venture 
too haftily on the fteps neceffary for attaining it, 
two ladies undertook to procure this bleffing fo 
May. much defired by all Europe. Thcfe were Margaret 
of Auftria, dutchefs dowager of Savoy, the Empe- 
ror's^aunt, and Louife, Francis's mother. They 
agreed on an interview at Cambray, and being 
lodged in two adjoining houfes, between which a 
communication was opened, met together without 
ceremony or obfervation, and held daily confer- 
ences, to which no perfon whatever was admitted. 
As both were profoundly (killed in bufinefs, tho- 
roughly acquainted with the fecrets of their refpec- 
tive courts, and poffeffed with perfeft confidence in 
each other, theyibon made great progrefs towards 
a find accommodation; and the ambaffadors of all 
the confederates waited in anxious fufpenfe to know 
their fate, the determination of which was intirely 
in the hands of thofe illuftrious negociators *. 

• P. Hcoier. Rcr. Auftr. lib. x. c. 3.* 13 j. Mem. de 
Bdhy, p. l^2. , 



) o 


But whatever diligence they ufed to haften for- * o o it 

ward a general peace^ the Pope had the addrefs and 
induftry to get the ftart of his allies, by concluding st^tlu 
at Barcelona a particular treaty for himfelf. The J^^^'J ^ 
Emperor, impatient to vifit Italy in his way to Ger* p«p« ■«<* 
many; anddefirousof re-eftablifhing tranquillity in Jvmi^ 
die one country, before he attempted to compbfe 
the diibrders which abounded in the other, found it 
neceffary to iecure at leaft one alliance among the 
Italian ftates, on which he might depend. That 
with Clement, who courted it with unwearied im- 
portunity, feemed more proper than any other. 
Charles, being extremely felicitous to make fomc 
reparation for theinfults which he had ofiereil to 
the &cred charaAer of the Pope, and to redeem pad 
offences by new merit, granted Clement, notwith- 
ftanding all his misfortunes, terms more favourable 
than he could have expeded after a condnued feries 
of fijccefe. Among other articles, he engaged to 
reftore all the territories belonging to the ;ecclefiaf- 
tical ftate ; to re-eftablifli the dominion of the Me- 
dici in Florence ; to give his natural daughter in 
marriage to Alexander the head of that family; 
and to put it in the Pope's power to decide con- 
cerning the fate of Sforza, and the poflcflion of the 
Milanefe. In return for thefe ample conceffions, 
Clement gave the Emperor the inveftiture of Naples 
'without the referve of any tribute, but the prefent 
of a white fteed, in acknowledgment of his fovc- 
reignty; abfolved all who had been concerned in 
aflauldng and plundering Rome, and permitted 
Charles and his brother Ferdinand to levy the fourth 



of the ecclefiaftical revenues throughout their do-* 

minions *. 
J 529, 

^m^uft 5. The account of this tranfaAion quickened the 
carabray ncgociations at Cambray, and brought Margaret 
chrrkTand ^^^ Louifc to an immediate a^eement. The 
Francis. treaty of Madrid ferved as the bafis of that which 
they concluded j the latter being intended to miti- 
gate the rigour of the former. The chief articles 
were. That the Emperor Ihould not, for the pre- 
fent, demand the rcftitution of Burgundy, rcferv- 
ing, however, in full force, his rights and preten- 
fions to that dutchy ; That Francis Ihould pay two 
millions of crowns as the ranfom of his fons, and, 
before they were fct at liberty, fhould reftore fuch 
towns as he ftill held in the Milanefe; That he Ihould 
ftfign his pretenfions to the fovereignty of Flanders 
and of Artois ; That he Ihould renounce all his 
pretenfions to Naples, Milan, Genoa, and every 
other place beyond the Alps ; That he fhould im- 
mediately confummate the marriage concluded be- 
tween liim and the Emperor's fitter Eleanora **. 

/dvantagf- Th US Francis, chiefly from his impatience to 

EmpefVr.* procure liberty to his fons, facrificed every thing 

which had at firft prompted him to take arms, 

or which had induced him, by continuing hof- 

tilities during nine fucceflive campaigns, to 

* Guic. 1. xix. 5^2. 

^ P. Heuter. Rer. Auftr. lib. x. c. j, p. 234. Saadov. 
Hift. dell Emper^ Car. V. ii. 28. 

7 . ' protradt 



protract the war to a length hardly known in 
Europe before the eftablifhment of ftanding ar- 
niies^ and the impofition of exorbitant taxes, be- 
came univerfaL The Ennperor, by this treaty, 
was rendered fole arbiter of the fate of Italy j 
he delivered his territories in the Netherlands 
from an unpleafant badge of fubjeftion; and 
after having baffled his rival in the field, he pre- 
fcribcd to him the conditions of peace. The dif- 
ferent condu6t and fpirit with which die two mo- 
narchs carried on the operations of war, led na- 
turally to fuch an iflue of it. Charles, inclined 
by temper, as well as obliged by his fituation, con- 
certed all his fchemes with caution, purfued them 
with 'perfeverance, and obferving circumftances 
and events with attention, let none efcape that 
could be improved to advantage. Francis, more 
cntcrprizing than fteady, undertook great defigns 
with warmth, but often executed them with re* 
miflhels ; and diverted by his pleafures, or de- 
ceived by his favourites, he loft on feveral occa- 
fions the moft promifing opportunities of fuc- 
cefs. Nor had the charafter of the two rivals 
themfelves greater influence on the operations of 
war, than the dppofite qualities of the generals 
whom they employed* Among the Imperialifts, 
valour tempered with prudence ; fertility of in- 
vention aided by experience 5 difcernment to pe- 
netrate the defigns of their enemies ; a provident 
fagacity in conducing their own meafures ; in a 
word, all the talents, which form great com- 
manders and enfure viftory, were confpicuous. 


54 Trt£ RiEIGN OF THE 

^ ^^ ^ Among the French, thefe qualities Wire either 
w ^^p-i^i wanting, or the very reverfe of them abounded; 
^^*^* nor cx>uld they boaft of one man (unlefs wc ex- 
cept Lautrec, who was always unfortunate) that 
equalled the merit of Pefcara, Leyva, Guafto^ 
the prince of Orange, and other leaders, whom 
Charles had to fet in oppofidon to diem. Bour- 
bon, Morone, Doria, who by their abilities and 
conduft might have been capable of balancing 
the fuperiority which the Imperialifts had ac- 
quired, were induced to abandon the fervice of 
France, by the careleflhefs of the King, and the 
malice or injuftice of his counfellors ; and the moft 
fatal blows given to France during the progrefs 
of the war, proceeded from the de^air and refent- 
ment of thefe three perfons. 

SicT"* '^"^ ^^ conditions, to which Francis was 
FfaAcif. obliged to fubmit were not the moft affliding 
circumftances to him in the treaty of Cambray. 
He loft his reputation and the confidence of all 
Europe, by abandoning his allies to his rival. 
Unwilling to enter into the details neceflary for 
adjufting dieir intcrefts, or afraid that whatever 
he claimed for them muft have been purchafed 
by farther conceffions on his own part, he gave 
them up in a body j and without the leaft pro- 
vifion in their behalf, left the Venetians, the 
Florentines, the duke of Ferrara, together with 
fuch of the Neapolitan barons as had joined his 
army, to the mercy of the Emperor. They ex- 
claimed loudly againft this bafe and perfidious 




adkin, of which Fraiicis himfelf was to much 
aihained> that, in order to avoid the pain of hear- 
ing from their ambafTadors the reproaches which 
he jtiilly merited, it was fome time before he would 
conlent to allow them an audience^ Charles, on 
the other hand, was attentive to the intereft of every 
perfon who had adhered to him i the rights of fome 
of his FlemijBi fii)>j(e£ts, who had eftates or pittcn- 
fions in France, were feCured j one article was in* 
ferted, obliging Francis to reftore the blood and 
memory of the Conftable Bourbon ; and to grant 
his heirs the poOfeflion of his lands which had been 
forfeited; another, by which indemnification was 
ftipulated for thofe French gentlemen who had ac'^ 
companied Bourbon in his exile *. This conduft^ 
laudable in itfelf, and placed in the moft ftriking 
light by a comparifon with that of Francis, gained 
Charles as much efteem as the fuccefs of his arms 
had acquired him glory. 

Frakcis did not treat the king of England with JlcfceJui 
the fame negled as his other allies. He £ommu- ''' 
Dicated to him all the fteps of his negociation at 
Cambray, and luckily found that monarch in a fitu* 
ation which left him no choice, but to ^prove im* 
plicidy of his meafures^ and to concur with themi 

of bcioK di 
vQTCed froo 

Henry had been foliciting the Pope for fome time> J?Li»VS!! 
in order to obtain a divorce from Catharine of Ara^ I?!*^ 

< Guic. I. xix. p. 525. P. Heuter. Rer. AoOr. lib. x. c. 4. 

Vol. IIL 1> gon 


^ %^ ^ gon Tiis (Jueen. Several motives combined in 
^ — ^ — ' promptirig the King to ilrgc his fuit. As he tras 
*^*^* powerfully influenced at Ibme fejafons by religi- 
ous confiderations, he entertained many fcruples 
concerning the -legitimacy of his marr?a^ with 
his brother*s widow; his afFeftiohs Had long 
been eftranged from the Queen, who Was older than 
himfelf, and had loft all the charms Which Ihe pof- 
lefled in the earlier part 6f her Kfe ; he was paflion- 
ately defirous of havirig male iflbe -, Wolley artfully 
fortified his fcruples, and encouraged his h'opes> 
that he might widen tlie brcfach between him atid 
the Emperor, Catharine's nephew j and, whatVas 
more forcible perhaps in its opei'ation than aU' riiefe 
united, the King had conceived a violent loVe' for 
the celebrated Ahne feoJeyn, a younjg Isidy of great 
beauty, and of greater accbmplUhments, Wtforti, as 
he found it irtipodible to gain hfer dn '6ther tei*ms, 
he determined to raife to the thrCffte. The' Papal 
authority had often been interpofed to grant divor- 
ces for realbns lefs fpecious than thofe which Henry 
' produced. When the matter was firft prbpofed 
to Clenient, during his imprifbnmcnt in the caftle 
of St. Arigelo, as his hopes of recoveririg liberty 
depended entirely 6n the King of En^and, and his 
ally of France, he expreflTed the warftieft inclination 
to gratify iiim. But no fooner was he fet free, than 
he difcovcred other fentimehts. Charles, who ef- 
poufcd the prote6lioh of his aunt with zeal inflam- 
ed by refentmcrit, alarmed the Pope on the one 
hand with threats, which made a deep impref&on 



oh histknid ofkuhd; and allured him on the other ^ 9^^ ^ 
ynth thofe promiies in favour jo£ his ^unily^ which i,^-w ^ 
he afterwards accomplilhed. Upon the proipeft of '^^' 
thcfe, Clement not only fiM-got all his obligations 
to Hemy, but ventured to endanger the intereft 
of the Romiih religion in England^ and to 
run the rifque of alienating that kingdomfor ever 
from the obedience of the Papal fee. After amuf- 
"ing Henry during two years^ with all the fubtktics 
and chicane which the court of Rome can fo dex- 
troufly emplpy to protraft or defeat any caufe 5 ^cr 
displaying the whole extent of his ambiguous and 
deceitfiil policy, the intricacies of which the Englifh 
hiftorians> to whom it properly belongs, have fqund 
it no cafy matter to trace and unravel ; he, at laft, 
re<;?Jled the^ powers of tjbe delegates, whom he had 
appointed to judge* in the. point, avoCated the caufe 
to Rome, .kaving the .King no other hope of ob- 
, taining a divorce, but from the perlbnal .decifipn of 
the Pqpe himfelf. As Clement was aow in ftrijft 
alliance. with- the. Emperor, who had purchafpd his 
friendH^p by the exorbitant conceffioois which have 
been .mentioned, Henry -dcipaircd of. prpcuriag 
any fentence from the (orxt^r but what was diftatcd 
by the latter. . His honour, however, andpalfions 
concurred in preventing him from relinquilhing his 
fcheme of a divorce, which he determined to ac- 
complifli by other means, and at any rate -, and the 
continuance of Francis'sfricndihip being neceflfary 
to counterbalance the Emperor's power, he, in 
i) 2 order 



B o^o K order to Tecure that, not only offered no remon- 
ftrances againll the total negleft of their allies, in 
the treaty of Cambray, but made Francis the pre- 
fent of a large fum, as a brotherly contribution to- 
wards the payment of the ranfom for his fons ^. 

An !»• Meanwhile the Emperor landed in Italy with a 

The Enim* • > 

f»r wfiu numerous train of the Spanifh nobility, and a con- 
'***'• fiderable body of troops. He left the government 
of Spain during his abfence, to the Emprels Ifa- 
bella. By his long refidence in that country, he had 
acquired fuch thorough knowledge of the charaftcr 
of the people, that he could perfcftly accommodate 
the maxims of his government to their genius. He 
could even affume, upon fome occafions, fuch po- 
pular manners, as gained wonderfully upon the Spa- 
. niards. A fl^iking inflance of his cUfpolition to 
gratify them had occurred a few days before he em- 
barked for Italy : He was to make his public entry 
into the city of Barcelona; and fbme doubts hav- 
ing arifen among the inhabitants, whether they 
fhould receive him as Emperor, or as Count of 
Barcelona ; Charles inflantly decided in favour of 
the latter, declaring that he was more proud of that 
ancient title, than of his Imperial crown. Soothed 
with this flattering expreffion of his regard, the ci- 
tizens welcomed him with acclamations of joy, and 
the flates of the province Iwore allegiance to his fon 

^ Herbert. Mem. deBellay, p. 122. 



Philip, as heir of the county of Barcelona. A " ^^^ ^ 
limilar oath had been taken in all the kingdoms of ^— v^ii^ 
Spain, with equal fatisfadion % *^*^' 

The Emperor appeared in Italy with the pomp 
and power of- a conqueror. Ambaffadors from all 
the princes and dates of that country attended his 
court, waiting to receive his decifion with regard to 
their fete. At Genoa, where he firft landed, he was 
received with* the acclamations due to the protestor 
of their liberties. Having honoured Doria with 
many marks of diftinftion, and beftowed on the re- 
public feveral new pr'^vileges, he proceeded to Bo- 
logna, the place fixed upon for his interview with 
the Pope. He afFefted to unite in his public entry Nov. $. 
into that city the ftate and majefty that fuited an 
Emperor, with the humility becoming an obedient 
fon of the church ; and while at the head of twenty 
thouland veteran foldiers, able to give law to all 
Italy, he kneeled down to kifs the feet of that very 
Pope whom he had fo lately detained a prifoner. 
The Italians, after fufFering fo much from the fe- 
rocity and licentioufnefs of his armies, and after hav-^ 
ing been long accuftomed to form in their imagi- 
nation a pi6ture of Charles, which bore fome re- 
femblance to that of the barbarous monarch? of the 
Goths or Huns, who had fi)rmerly afflided their 
country with like calamines, were furprifed to fee a 

« Saodov. ii. p. 50. Ferrer, Ix. u6. 

D 3 ' prince 


prince of a grttcefid appearance, afiabld and eotjff*- 
teous rn his deportment, of regular nianners, and of 
'^*^* exemplary attention to all the offices of religion ^. 
They were ftiU more aftoniflied when h? fettled all 
the concerns of the princes and ftates which now 
depended on him, with a degree of mod^atioa 
and equity mirch beyond what they h^d ex-- 

Wtmoae- Charles himfelf, when he fet out from Spain, 
the moa? et far from intending to give any luch extraordinary 
^ *■• proof of his felf-denial, feems to have been refobr- 

ed to avail himfelf to the utmoft of the fuperiority 
which he had acquired in Italy. But various cir- 
cumjflances concurred in pointing out the neceffity 
of purfuing a very different courfe. The progrefs 
of the Turkifh Sultan, who, after over-running 
Scpui3, Hungary, had penetrated into Auftria, and laid 
iiege to Vienna widi an army of an hundred and 
fifty thoufand men, loudly, called upon him to col- 
left his whole force to oppofe that torrent; and 
though tfie valour bf the Germans, the prudent 
ca« ^5. condiift of Ferdinand, together with the treachery 
of the Vizier, foon obHged Solyman to abandon 
that enterprize with'difgrace and lofs, the religious 
diforders ftill growing in Germany rendered the 
prefence of the Emperor highly AeceflTary there ^ : 
The Florentines, initead of giving thdr confcnt to 

^ Sandov. Hift. del Emp. Carl. V» ii. 50, 5^, &c. 
s Sleidan, 121. Guic. 2. zx. 550. / 



Ac rc-cftal>Klhmept of the Medici, wbiclj, by die ^ \^ ^ 
treaty of Barcelona, the Emperor had bounds himr ^-^^-^ 
felf to procure, were preparing to defend their li- '^*'* 
bcrqr by force of arms ; the preparations for his 
journey had involved him in unufual expenccs; 
and on this, as well as nriany other occafions, the 
mulriplicitjr of his affairs, together with the narrow- 
nefe of his revenues, obliged him to contraft the 
fchemes which his boundlefs ambition was apt tq 
forixi, and to forego prefent and certain advantages, 
that he might guard againft more remote but un- 
avoidable dangers. Charles, from all thefe confi- 
der^tiops, finding it necclTary to aflume an air of 
modeiiatioo, afted his part with a good* grace. He 
admitted Sforza into his prefcnce, and not only gave 
hiip a full pardon of all pad offences, but granted 
hin[i the inveftiture pf the dutchy, together with 
his niece, the King of Denmark's daughter, in 
marriage. He allowed the duke of perrara to keep 
poffcffion of 4U his dominions, adjufting the points 
in difputc between him and the Pope with an im- 
partiality not very agreeable to the latter. He 
came to a final accommodation with the Venetians, 
upon the reafonable condition of their reftoring 
whatever they had ufurped during the late war, 
either in the Neapolitan or Papal territories. In 
return fiy fo many concelTions, he exafted confider- 
abje fuips from each of the pow;ers with whom he 
treated, which they paid without reluctance, and 
which afforded him the means of proceeding on hi^ 
D 4 journey 


• %^ ^ journey towards Germany with a magnificeiKe fiut^ 
%^' J^«j al^le to his digpicy ^. 

Re'til!* These trcades, which rcftored tranquillity tCf 
bHfliet the Italy after a tedious war, the calamities of which 
ihl Mt7id had chiefly afFefted that country, were publilhed at 
in Fiareocc, gpiogna widi great folemnityon die flrft day of the 
year one thoufand five hundred and thirty, amidft 
the univerfal acclamations of the people, applaud- 
ing the Emperor, to whofe moderation and gene- 
rofity they afcribed the bleflings of peace which 
they had {6 long defired. The Florentines alone 
did not partake of this general joy. Animated with 
a zeal for liberty more laudable than prudent,' they 
determined to oppofe the reftoration of the Medici, 
i The Imperial army had already entered their ter- 
ritories, and formed the fiege of their capital. 
But though deferred by all their allies, and left 
without any hope of fuccour, they defended theni- 
felves many months with an obftinate valotft* wor^ 
thy of better fuccefs ; and even when they furren- 
dered, they obtained a capitulation which gave them 
hopes of fecuring fome remains of their liberty. 
But the Emperor, from his defire to gratify the 
Pope, fruftrated all their expeftations, and abolifh- 
ing their ancient form of government, railed Alex- 
ander di Medici to the fame abfolute dominion 
over that ftate, which his family have retained to 
the prefent times, Philibert de Chalons, prince 

* Ssndor. ii. 55, «6C, 


and 24* 


of Orange, the Imperial general, was killed during ■ ^^o k 
this fiege. His eftate and tides defcended to his < — v<I— » 
filler Claude de Chalons, who was married to '^^ 
Rene, count of Naflau, and fhe tranfmitted to her 
pofterityof the houfe of Naflau the title of Princes 
of Orange, which, by their fuperior talents and 
valonr, they have rendered fo illuftrious *• 

After the publication of the peace at Bologna, snt»ofifr 
and the ceremony of his coronation as King of 4w^ Jei.j.i- 
Lombardy and Emperor of the Romans, which m/ny"^*'* 
the Pope performed with the accuftomed formali- ^*^ ** 
ties, nothing detained Charles in Italy''; and he 
began to prepare for his journey to Germany, 
His prefence became every day more necellkiy in 
that country, and was folicited with equal impor- 
tunity by die catholicks and by the* favourers of 
the new dodtrines. During that long intei*val of 
tranquillity, which the abfence of the Emperor, 
the contefts between him and the Pope, and his 
attention to the war with France, afforded them, 
the latter had gained much ground. Mod: of the 
princes who had embraced Luther's opinions, 
had not only eftablifhed in their territories that 
form of worfhip which he approved, but had en* 
tirciy fupprefled the rites of the Romilh church. 
Many of the free cities h^ imitated their condu£b. 
Almoft one hjjlf tfic Germanjck body had revolted 

^ Goic. I, XX. p. 34.1, &c. p. Heuter* Rer. Aufir. lib. 
Vi. c. 4. p. 336. 

k H, Cornel. A^rippa de doplici coronatione Car« V. ap* 
Scard. ii. 266. 



• %.^ * frongi the Papal fee, and its authority, even in 
w— J- — thofe provinces, which had npt hitherto ihakei) 
^S3^ off the yokei was confiderably weaken/cd, panly 
by the example of revolt in the neighbouring 
ftates, partly by the fecret progrefe of the re- 
jbrmed doftrinc eyen in thofe countries whgre i% 
was not openly embraced. Whatever latisfiu3aon 
the Emperor, while he was at open enmity with 
the fee of Rome, might have felt in thofe events 
that tended to mortify and ennbarrafs the Pope, 
he could not help perceiving now, that the rc- 
tigious divifions in Germany wou^, in the end, 
prove extremely hurtful to the Imperial authority. 
The weaknefs of former Emperors had fuffered 
the great vailals of the empire to make fuch 
fuccefsful encroachments upon their power and 
prerogative, •that during the whole courfe of a 
war, which had often required the exertion of his 
utmoft fbength, Charles hardly drew ^y effec- 
tual aid from Germany, and found that magni- 
ficent titles or obfolete pretentions were almoft the 
only advantages which he had gained by fwaying 
the Imperial fceptre. He became fully fenfible, 
that if he did not recover in fome degree the pre- 
rogatives which his predeceilbrs had loft, and 
acquire the authority, as well as poffefs the name> 
of head of the Empire, his high dignity would 
contribute more to obftruft than to promote his 
ambitious fchemes, Nothing, he faw, was more 
eflcntial towards attaining this, than to fupprels 
,opi|iio^ which naight f9rui new boncj3 of .cgn- 
federacy among the princes of the £o\pJxe, and 



vtate tbem by ties iibxmgjsr and- inor« facred * * <>^ ** 

than any! poticicai conneflion, No^ifig feemed 
to lead more certainly to the acconipliftimcnt **^ 
of his dafigft, than to employ zeal for the e&ablijQied 
rdigion, of whkh he was the natural proteAor^ 
as the inftrumenfx c{ extendii^ Iw civU au-* 

Accordingly^ a profpefk no fooner opened of Pwceedmn 

1 • • . I T^ of the Diet 

coming to an accommodation with the Fope^ atSpiro, 
than, by the Emperor's ^pointment, a diet of ^^^^ *^ 
the Empire was held at Spires, in order to take 
into confideration the ftate of religion. The de- 
cree of the diet ai&mbled there in the year one 
^ufand five hundred and twenty-fix, which 
was almc^ equivalent to a toleration of Luther's 
opinions^ had given great oflfence to the reft of 
Chriftendom. The greateft delicacy of addrefs^ 
however, was requifite in proceeding to any dc- 
cifion more rigorous. The minds of men kept 
in perpetud agitation by a controverfy carried 
on, during twelve years, without intermifiion of 
debate, or abatement of zeal, were now inBamed 
to an high degree They were accuftomed to 
innovations, and faw the boldeft of them fuc- 
celsfuL Having not only abolilhed old rights^ 
but fubfiituted new forms in their place^ they 
wpre infloenGed as much by attachment to the 
fyftem which they liad embraced, as by averfion to 
that which they had abandoned. Luther him- 
fel^ of a Ipirit not to be worn out by the 
length and obftinacy of the combat, or to be- 


B o^o K qonfie remifs upon fuccefs, continued the attack 
^-'--S^mj with as niuch vigour as he had begun it. His 
'^^ difciples, of whom many equalled him in zeal, 
and fome furpaflfed him in learning, were no lefs 
capable than their mafter to conduft the con- 
troverfy in the propereft manner. Many of the 
laity, fome even of the princes, trained up amidft 
thcfe inceffant difputations, and in the habit of 
liftening to the arguments of the contending 
parties, who alternately appealed to them as 
judges, came to be profoundly Ikilled in all the 
queftions which were agitated, and, upon occa- 
fion, could fhew themfelves not inexpert in any 
of the arts with which thefe theological en- 
counters were managed. It was obvious fit>m 
all thefe circumftances, that any violent decifion 
of the diet muft have immediately precipitated 
matters into confufion, and have kindled in Ger- 
many the flames of a religious war. All, there- 
fore, that the Archduke, and the other commif- 
fioners appointed by the Emperor, demanded of 
the diet, was, to enjoin thofe ftates of the Empire 
which had hitherto obeyed the decree iffued againft 
Luther at Worms in the year one thoufand five 
hundred and twenty-four, to perfcvere in the ob- 
fervation of it, and to prohibit the other ftates from 
attempting any farther innovation in religion, par- 
ticularly from abolifhing the Mafs, before die 
meeting of a general council. After much dif- 
pute, a decree to that effect was approved of by a 
majority of voices '. 

» Slcid, Hid, 117. 



The Eledor of Saxony^ the marquis of Bran- ^ ^^ ^ 
denburgh^ the Landgrave of Hefle^ the dukes of u-.»L.^ 
Luncnburgh, the prince of Anhalt, together with xhi foiiiw. 
the deputies of fourteen Imperial or free cities "> f^w ^i^Ji^, 
entered a folemn proteft aKainft this decree^ as un- •f«inft 
juft and impious. On that account they were April 19. 
diftinguilhed by die name of PROTESTANTS', 
an appellation which hath fince become better 
known, and more honourable, by its being applied 
indiicrimin^ely to all the fefts, X)f whatever de- 
nomination, which have revolted from the Roman 
fee. Not fatisfied with this declaration of their 
diflcnt from the decree of the diet, the Proteflants 
fent ambaiTadors into Italy, to lay their grievances 
before the Emperor, fix)m whom they met with 
the moft difcouraging reception. Charles was at DeKbcm- 
that dme in dofe union with the Pope, and Ibli- po4 ud * 
citous to attach him inviolably to his intereft. ^"p*^- 
During their long refidenpp at Bologna, they held 
many condiltations concerning the moft efiefhi^l 
means of extirpating the herefies which had iprung 
up in Germany. • Clement, whole cautious and 
timid mind the propofal of a general council filled 
with horror, even beyond what Popes, the con- 
ftant enemies of fuch aflemblies, ufually feel, em« 
ployed every argument to diffuadc the Emperor 
from confenting to that meafure. He repre- 

^ The foorteen cities were Straiburgh, NHrembergh, Uliti» 
Conftaoce, Reutlingen, Windiheim^ Metaengen, Lindaw» 
Kempteii, Hailbron, Ifna, WeiiTcfflbQrgb, NonUiages, and 
St. Gal. 

* Sleid. Hift« 1 19. F« PaoL Hift. p. 45. Scckeiid. ii. 117. 


4« TttE ^R^EI^GN '6P Tti£ 

BOOK fented ^nerd 'councils ^ famous, lingovern- 
^^^'-^ able, prefumptuous, femnidabk *to civfl authority, 
'^^o* and too flow in their operations toremcdy diforders 
whi<th 'required -an imnaediatje cure* -Experience, 
he feidj had now taught both the 'Emperor and 
himfelf, that forbearance and. lenity, inftead of 
foothing the fpirit of innovation, had renckrcd it 
more enfferprizing and' prefumptuous; it was ne- 
cefiary, therefore, to have recourfeto the rigorous 
methods which fuch a delperate cafe required; 
•Leo's fentence of excommunication, together with 
the decree of the diet ^t Worms, (hould be car- 
ried into execution, and it was incumbent on the 
^Emperor to employ his whole power, in order to 
overawe thofe, on whom* the^ reverence due cither 
to cccteflaftical or civil authority had no longer 
any influence. XhaHes, Whofe views were very 
different from 'the -Pope's, and who became daily 

• more fenfible how ol^nate and deep-rooted the 
»cVil was, thought of recontiKng the Proteftants 
•try means elefs violent, and confldered die con- 
vocation of aootmcil as no improper expedient for 

: that purpofe ; ifeut promifed, if gender arts • foiled 

• of ^uccefs, that thcw he would exert himfelf with 

. idgQur to reduce, to die obedience 'Of the holy fee . 
thbfe ftubborn enemies of tho Catholic- faith "". 

tm^oT Such were the fentiments with which the Em- 
ihcDjnof peror fet out for Germany, having alreSidy ap- 
U^full, ' pointed a diet of the Empire to be held at Augf- 

^ F. Paal, xlvii. Setk. 1. ii, 142. Hift. de CpafelT. d'Aox- 
bourgh, par I>k Chyoeus, 410, Antw. 1572, p. 6. 



Burg. In his jodrriey towards that city, he ha^ * ^^ ^ 

miany opportunities of obferying 'the difjpofition w^ ' *-;i 

of the Germans with regard to the points in coh- ^^^^* 

troverfy, ind found their nAinds efirj *whiit fo 

mudi irritated and inflamed, is'cttttvinded Kihi, 

diat* nothing 'tending to fivierity or rigour otight 

to be attempted, until all other meafures proved 

incffcftual. He niacfe his ptibfic entry into Augf- J»m ij. 

tiifg^ with extraordinary pomp ; ind found there 

fiich a fiill aflembly of the mcnlbers of the Act, 

as Was fuitable both to the importarifee of the 

^iBairs which were to tonic under their con- 

fiderktk>n, and to the honour of an Emperor, who, 

after a long abfence, retuhied to them trdvMied 

/With reputation arid ' fticcefs* His pfcftri^e fetotis 

to have cottimunicated to all parties oh ttonrfual 

fpirit of mbdcraa:ion and deftf e 6f pebdc. The 

Eleftor 6f Saxony would not pei-irnt Luther - to 

accompany liiih to the diet, left he fhoifld -CfliAd 

the Emperor by bringing into his^r^fenwa per- 

fon excommunicated by the Pope, and who had 

been the author of all thofe diflenfions which 

it now appeared fo cfifficult to compbfe. - Ac the 

Empcror^s defire, dl the Proteftant princes for- 

T>ad ?he ^f^iifes who accompanied diem, to -preach 

in'pubKc during their refidence at Aug(burg* 

For the lanrie realbri they employed Melan6)th6nj 

the man of the greateft learning, as Well as of 

ihc ' nioft 'pacific and gehde ' fpirit amohg the 

Reformers, to diraw'tp a cohfeflibn of their faith, 

expreffed in terms as litde offenfive to the Roman \ 

a Catholics^ 


•B o o K CathoKcs, as a regard for truth would permilu 
^ J «* Melan&hon^ who leldom fuffered the rancour 
Till Von*. ^^ controverfy to envenom his flyle, even in writ- 
M<« of iugs purely polemical; executed a tafk fo agreeable 
to his natural di^ofition with great moderation 
and addrefs. The Creed which he compofed, 
known by the name of the ConfeJJion of Augjburg^ 
from the place where it was prefented, was read 
publicly in the diet. Some Popifti divines were 
appointed to examine it; they brought in their 
animadverfions J a dilpute enfued between them 
and Melanfthon, feconded by fome of his brethren i 
but though Melanfthon foftened fome articles, 
made conceifions with regard to others, and put 
' the leaft exceptionable fenfe upon all ; though the 
Emperor himfelf laboured with great earneilnefs to 
reconcile the contending parties ; fb many marks 
of diftincbion were now eftabliihed, and fuch in- 
fuperable barriers placed between the two churches, 
that all hopes of bringing about a coalition feemed 
utterly delperate'. 

From the divines^ among whom his endea^ 
vours had been fo unfuccefsful, Charles turned 
to the princes their patrons. Nor did he find 
them, how defirous foever of accommodation, 
or willing to pblige the Emperor, more diipded 

P Seckend. lib. ii. 159, &c. Abr. Scolteti Anfiales Evan* 
felfci ap. Herm. Von dcr Hard. Hid. Liter. Reform, Lipf« 
^717. fol.p. 159. 


Emperor charles v. 49 

than the former to renounce their opinions.- At * ^^ ^ 
that time, zeal for religion took poffelfion of the ^^^'-^mj 
minds of men, to a degree which can fcarcely bc '^^*** 
conceived by thofe who live in an' age when thfc 
paffions excited by the firft manifeftation of truth, 
and the firft recovery of liberty, have in a great 
meaflire ceaied to operate, This zeal was then 
of fuch ftrength as to overcotne attachntent to 
their political intereft, which is commonly the 
predominant motive among princes. The Elec- 
tor of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hefle, ahd Othdr 
chiefs of the Proteftants, though folicited fepa- 
r^ely by the Emperor, and allured by the prd- 
mife or profpeit of thofe advantages which it was 
known they were moft felicitous to attain^ re- 
fiifed, with a fortitude highly worthy of imita- 
tion, to abandon what they deemed the caufe of 
God^ for the fake of any earthly acquifition^ 

Every fcheme in order to gain br difunite thfe severe de. 
Proteftant party proving abortive, nothing now ti^pS!"^ 
remained for the Emperor but to take fome vi- t***^"* 
gorous meafures towards aflerting the doftrines 
and authority of the eftablilhed church. Thele, 
Campeggiot the papal nuncio, had always re- 
commended as the only proper and effedhiil 
courfe of dealing with fuch obftinate heretics. 
In compliance with his opinions and remon- No>. io, 
ilrances, the diet iflbed a decree; condemning 
moft of the peculiar tenets held by the Protcft- 

^ Sleid. 132. Scaltet. Annal« 15^4 

Vol. III. E Antsj 


^ ^^^ ^ ants ; forbidding any perfon to proceft or tolerate 
i^mjmmj fuch as taught them ; enjoining a Arid: ob&rv- 
<53o» j^ncc of the eftabliflied rites j and prohilnting any 
further innovation under fevere penalties. All 
oixlers of men were required to aflOft with their 
peribns and fortunes in carrying this decree into 
execution ; and iuch as* refuied to obey it, were 
declared incapat^ of a£ting as judges, or of ap- 
pearing as parties in the Imperial chamber, die 
fiipreme court of judicature in the Empire. To 
all which was fubjoined a promife, that an appli- 
cation fhould be made to the Pope, requiring him 
to call a general council within fix months, in 
order to terminate all controverfies by its fovereign 
decifions '• 

They enter fHE fcveritv of this dccrcc, which was con- 

- intoaleague ^ , . , . - n • t r 

at smai. fidercd as a prelude to the moll violent perfecu- 
tion, alarmed the Proteftants, and convinced 
them that the Emperor was refid ved on their de- 
ftruftion. The dread of thofe calamities which 
were ready to fall x)n the church, opprefled the 
feebk ipirit of Melan6thon j and, as if the caufe 
had already been de^rate, he gave himfelf up 
to melancholy and lamentation. But Luther, 
who during the meeting of the diet had endea- 
voured to confirm and animate his party by feve- 
ral treatifes which he addreffed to them, was not 
difconcerted or difmayed at the profpedt of this 
new danger. He comforted Mclandhon and his 

» Slcid. 139. 




other tlelponding difciples, and exhorted lite * ^^o 't 
prinoes not to abandon thoft truths which they i^^J^^^ 
had kftdy ^iftrted with ftich laudable boidaefs*. **3^- 
His exhortations itiade the deeper impreffion upon 
them, as they were greatly alarmed at Aat time 
by the account of a combination among the Po- 
pilh princes of the Empire for the maintenance of 
the dRi^liflied Religion, to which Charles himfdlf 
had acceded*. This convinced them diatit was 
necel&y to ftand <mi their guard ; aatd that their 
own fafety, as wdl as the fuccefs of their caufe, 
depended on union* Filled with this ^Jread of the 
advcrfc party, and with thefe fentimcnts concern- 
ing the condud proper for themfdves, tiey aflem- 
bled at Smalkalde. There they concluded a league Decern. %t\ 
of mutual defence againft all aggreflbrs ", by which 
they formed the Proteftant *ftates of the Empire 
into one regular body, and beginning ahtady to 
confider themfelves as foch, they refolved to apply 
to the Kings of France and England, and to im- 
plore them to patronize and aflift their new con- 

An affair not conneded with religion fumiihed '^^^ ^»p?' 

*^ , ror propoiet 

them with a pretence for courting the aid of fo- to bare hu 
reign princes* Charles, whole ambitious views elck^King 
enlai^ed in proportion to the increafe of his power 
and grandeur, had formed a fcheme of continuing 
the Imperial crown in his family, by procuring 

• Seek. 11. iSo. Sleid. 140. * Seek. 11. 200. iii. il» 

• Skid. Hift. 142. 

E 2 his 

of the Ro« 


* ^y^ ^ his brother Ferdinand to be elcdtcd King of the 
u. >-y ' -— ; Romans. The prcfcnt jun6turc was favourably 
'^^®' for the execution of that defign. The Emperor's 
arms had been every where vidtorious; he had 
given law to all Europe at the late peaces no 
rival now remained in a condition to balance or 
to controul him ; and the Electors, dazzled with 
the fplendour of his fuccefs, or overawed by the 
greatnels of his power, durfl: fcarcely diipute the 
will of a prince, whofe folicitations carried with 
them the authority of commands. Nor did he 
want plaufible reafons to enforce the meafure. 
The affairs of his other kingdoms, he faid, 
obliged him to be often abfent from Germany ; 
the growing diforders occafioned by the contro- 
verfies about religion, as well as the formidable 
neighbourhood of the Turks, who continually 
threatened to break in with their defolating armies 
into the heart of the Empire, required the con- 
ftant prefence of a prince endowed with prudence 
capable of compofing the former, and with power 
as well as valour fuflicient to repel the latter. His 
brother Ferdinand poffefled thefe qualities in an 
eminent degree; by refiding long in Germany, 
he had acquired a thorough knowledge of its 
conftitution and manners ; having been prefent 
almoft from the firft rife of die religious diflen- 
fions, he knew what remedies were moft proper, 
what the Germans could bear, and how to apply 
them; as his own dominions lay on the Turk- 
ifh frontier, he was the natural defender of Ger- 
many againft the invafions of the Infidels, bding 



prompted by intereft no lefs than he would be ^ ^ ^ '^ 

bound in duty to oppofe them. <- ^J^ ^ 


These arguments made little impreflion on the TbeProtrft. 
Proteftants. Experience taught them, that no- !o?t.'^"* 
thing had contributed more to the undifturbed 
progrels of their opinions, than the interregnum 
after Maximilian's death, the long abfence of 
Charles, and die flacknefs of the reins of govern- 
ment which thefe occafioned j after deriving fuch 
advantages from a ftate of anarchy, they were 
extremely unwilling to give themfelves a new and 
a fixed mailer. They perceived clearly the ex- 
tent of Charles's ambition, that he aimed at ren- 
dering the Imperial crown hereditary in his fa- 
mily, and would of courfe eftablifh in the Empire 
an abfolute dominion, to which eleftive princes 
could not have alpired with equal facility. They 
determined therefore to oppofe the eleftion of 
Ferdinand with the utmoft vigour, and to roufc 
their countrymen, by their example and exhorta- 
tions, to withftand this encroachment on their 
liberties. The Eledlor of Saxony, accordingly, »53»' 
not only refufcd to be prefent at the eleftoral col- 
lege, which the Emperor fummoned to meet at 
Cologne, but inftrufted his eldeft fon to appear • 
there, and to proteft againft the eleftion as in- 
formal, illegal, contrary to the articles of the golden 
bull, and fubverlive of the liberties of the Empire. 
But the other Eleftors, whom Charles had been at HtUtbokn 
great pains to gain, without regarding either his 
abfence or proteft, chofe ' Ferdinand King of the 
E 3 Romans J 


B o^o K Romans ; who a few day& afier was crowned at 


Aix-la-Chapclle ' 

Ncgoci*. When the Protcftants, who were afliembled a 

tioos of tb* . . ^ 

Proteftanis fccond time at Smalkalde, received an accoum of 
rancc. ^.^ tranfaftioH, and heard> at the &me time, that 
profecutions were commenced, in the Imperial 
chamber, j^ainft fome of their number, cm account 
of their religious principks, they thought it nc- 
cefl&ry, not only to renew their former confe- 
deracy, but immediately to difpatch their ambat 

rcb. 29. fadors into France and England. Francis had 
obferved, with all the jcalowfy of a rivals the re- 
putation which the Emperor had acquired by his 
feeming difintereiftednefs and moderation in fet- 
tling the affiiirs of Italy ; and beheld with great 
concern the luccefsful ftep which he had taken . 
towards perpetuating and extending his authority 
in Germany by the eleftion of a King of the Ro- 
mans. Nothing, however, would have been more 
impolitic than to precipitate his kingdom into a 
new war when exhaufted by extraordinary ef- 
forts and difcouraged by ill fuccds, before it 
had got time to recruit its ftrength, or to forget 
pall: misfortunes. As no provocation had been 
. given by the Emperor, and hardly a pretext for a 
rupture had been afforded him, he could not violate 
a treaty of peace which he himfelf had fo lately 
foKcited, without forfeiting the efteem of all Eu- 
rope, and being detefted as a prince void of probity 


^ SUid. 14a. Seek. lil. i. P. Heucer. Rer. Auftr. lib. 

X. c. 6. p. 240. 



and honour* He obierved^ with great joy^ power- 
ful BuSdons beginning to form in the Empire^ he 
liftcned with the utmoft eagernefs to the com- '"'' 
plaints of the Proteftant princes; and without 
feeming to countenance their religioys opinions, 
determined fecredy to chcrifh thofe Iparks of po- 
litical difcord which might be afterwards kincUed 
into a flame. For this purpofe, he fent WiUiam 
de Bellay> one of the ablell negociators in France, 
into Germany, who vifiting the courts of the 
malcontent princes, and heightening their ill- 
humour by various arts, concluded an alliance 
between them and his mafter^, which though 
concealed at that dme, and produftive of no im- 
mediate effects, laid the inundation of an union 
fatal on many occafions to Charles's ambitious 
proje&s ', and fhewed the difcontented princes of 
Germany, where, for the future, they might find 
a prote6h>r no lefs able than willing to undertake 
their defence agsdnft the encroachments of the; 

Thb King of England, highly incenfed againft with Eag. 
Charles, in complaifance to whom, the Pope had ^^\ 
long retarded, and now openly oppofed his di- 
vorce, was no lefs difpofed than Francis to 
ihengthen a league which might be rendered fb 
formidable to the Emperor. But his favourite 
projeft of die divorce led him into fuch a laby-. 
rinth of fchemes and negociations, and hp .was, 

y Bellay, 129, a. 130/ b. Sec. iii. 14. 

E 4 ' at 


at the fame time^ fo intent on abolifhing the papal 
jurifdiiStion in England, that he had no Icifure for 
^^ ' foreign affairs. This obliged him to reft fatif- 
fied with giving general promifes, together with 
a finall fupply in money to the confederates of 
Smalkaldc *t . 

charie* Meanwhile, many circumftances convinced 

Pioteftanu. Gharks that this was not a junfture when the 
extirpation of herefy was to be attempted by vio- 
lence and rigour 5 that, in compliance with the 
Pope's inclinations, he had abready proceeded 
with imprtident precipitation ; and that it was 
more his intereft to confolidate Gernnany into one 
united and vigorous body, than to divide and 
enfeeble it by a civil war. The Proteftants, who 
were confiderable as well by their numbers as 
by their zeal, had acquired additional weight and 
importance by their joining in that confederacy 
into which the ralh fteps taken at Augfburg had 
forced thetn. Having now difcovered their own 
ftrength, they defpiled the decifions of the Impe- 
rial chamber i and being fecure of foreign pro- 
teftion, were ready to fet the head of the Empire 
at defiance. At the fame ti^np the peace with 
France was precarious, the friendfhip of an irrc- 
folute and intcrefted pontiff was not to be relied 
on i and Solyman, in order to repair the difcredit 
and lofs which his arms had fuftained in the for- 
mer campaign, was preparing to enter Auftria" 

» Herbert, 152. 154. 



with more numerous forces. On all thefe accounts, ^ ^^ ^ 
efpecially the laft,* a fpeedy accommodation with c.^yl,^ 
the malcontent princes became neceflary, not only *53«- 
for the accomplifhment of his future fchcmes, but 
for enfuring his prefent fafety. Negociations werCj 
accordingly, carried on by his direftion with the 
Eleftor of Saxony and his affociates ; after many 
delays, occafioned by their jealoufy of the Emperor^ 
and of each other, after innumerable difficulties 
arifing froni the inflexible nature of religious te- 
nets, which cannot admit of being altered, modifi- 
ed, or relinquiflied in the fame manner as points of 
political intereft, terms of pacification were agreed Grants 

upon at Nuremberg, and ratified fokmnly in the ter^!* 
diet at Ratifbon. In this treaty it was ftipulated, lUll^]^ 
That univerfal peace be eftablilhed in Germany, 
until the meeting of a general council, the con- 
vocation of which within fix months the Emperor 
fliall endeavour to procure ; That no perfon (hall 
be molefted on account of religion j That a ftop . 
ihall be put to all procefles begun by the Imperial 
chamber againft Proteftants, and the fentences al- 
ready paflTed to their detriment ftiall be declared ^ 
voiA On their part, the Proteftants engaged to 
aflift the Emperor with all their forces in refifting 
the invafion of the Turks *. Thus by their firm- 
nefs in adhering to their principles, by the unani- 
mity with which they urged all their claims, and 
by their dexterity in availing themfelves of the 

* Dn Mont Corps Diplomatique, torn, iw, part ii. 87. 89. 




Emperor's fituation, the Proteftants obtained term^ 
which amounted aknoft to a toleration of their re- 
'5^** Ugion ; all the conceflions were made by Charles, 
^ none by them i even the favourite point of their 
approving his brother's eledtbn was not mentioned; 
and the Proteftants of Germany, who had hitherto 
been viewed only as a religious feft, came hence- 
forth to be confidered as a political body of no finall 
confeq\ience **. 

ctmpvign The intelligence which Charles received of So- 
» «»g*'y- lyuian's having entered Hungary at the head of 
three hundred thoufand men, brought the delibe- 
rations of the diet at Ra]tift>Qn to a period; the 
contingent both of troops and money, which each 
prince was to furnifh towards the defence of the 
Empire, having been already fettled . The Pro- 
teftants, as a teflimony of their gratitude to the 
Emperor, exerted themfelves with extraordinary 
zeal, and brought into the field forces which ex- 
ceeded in number the quota impofed on them; the 
Catholics imitating their example, one of the 
greateft and beft appointed armies that had ever 
been levied in Germany, aflembled near Vienna. 
Being joined by a body of Spanifh and Italian ve- 
terans under the marquis del Gqafto; by fome 
heavy-armed ^cavalry from the Low-Countries ; 
and by the troops which Ferdinand had raifed in 
Bohemia, Auftria^ and his other territories, it 
amounted in all to ninety thoufand difciplined 

^Slcid, 149, tec. Seck.iii. 19. 
3 foot. 


foot, and thirty thbu^nd horfe, bcfides a prodi- ^ ^^^ ^ 
gious ^varm erf irregulars. Of thU vaft army, ^-^ — ^-^ 
worthy the firft prince in Chriftendom, the Em- '"** 
peror took dve command in perfonj and man- 
kind waited in fufpenfe the iflRic of a decifivc 
battle between the two greateft monarchs in the 
world. But each of them dreading the other's 
power and good fortuae> they both conduced 
their operations with fuch excefTive caution> that 
a campaign, for which fuch immenfe preparations 
had been made, ended without any memorable 
event Solynnan, finding it impoflible to gain SeptenWr 
ground upon an enemy always attentive and on •^.^^^•^«» 
his guard, marched back to Conftantinople to- 
wards the end of autumn ^ It is remarkable, 
that in fuch a martial age, when every gendeman 
was a foldier, and every prince a general, this 
was the firft time that Charles, who had already 
carried on fuch extenfive wars, and gained fo 
many yidlories, appeared at the head of his troops* 
In this firft effay of his arms, to have oppofed 
fuch a leader as Solyman, was no fmall honour; 
to have obliged him to retreat, merited very con- 
liderable praife. 

About the beginning of this campaign, the Angufti^. 
Eleftor of Saxony died, and was fucceeded by his 
fon John Frederick. The Reformation rather 
gained than loft by that event ; the new Eleftor, 

c Jovii Hill, lib, xxx. p. lOo, &c. Barrc Hill, dc TEm- 
pirc, i. 8. 347. 




B o o K no lefs attached than his predeceflfors to the opi- 

%- ^', .» nions of Luther, occupied the ftation which they 

'^i** had held at the head of the Proteftant party, and 

defended, with the boldnefs and zeal of youth, that 

caufe which they had foftered and reared with the 

caution of more advanced age. 

The Empe- 
for'« inter- 
view with 
the Pope in 
kit way to 

t/ons c Ti- 
ceuiing a 

Immediately after the retreat of the Turks, 
Charles, impatient to revifit Spain, fet out on 
his way thither, for Italy. As he was extremely 
defirous of an interview with the Pope, they met 
a fecond time at Bologna, with the fame external 
demonftrations of refpecl and friendfhip, but with 
little of that confidence which had fubfifted be- 
tween them during their late negociations there. 
Clement was much diflatisfied with the Emperor's 
proceedings at Augfburg j his conceflions with re- 
gard to the fpecdy convocation of a council, hav- 
ing more than cancelled all the merit of the fevere 
decree againft the doftrincs of the Reformers. The 
toleration granted to the Protefiants at Ratifbon, 
and the m.ore explicit prcmife concerning a. coun- 
cil, with which it was accompanied, had irritated 
him ftill farther. Charles however, partly from 
conviftion that the meeting of a council would be 
attended with falutary cffefts, and partly from his 
defire to pleafe the Germ.ans, having folicited the 
Pope by his cimbaffadors to call that aflembly with- 
out delay, and nov/ urging the fame thing in per- 
fon, Clement was greatly embarrafied what reply 
he ff.ould make to a rcqueft which it was indecent 



to rcfole, and dangerous to grant. He'en<Jea- * <>^o K 
vourcd at firft to divert Charles from the meafurei y ^ ^^ 
but, finding him inflexible, he had recourfe to ar- '^^*' 
tificcs which he knew would delay> if not entirely 
defeat, the calling of that aflembly. Under the 
plaufibk pretext of its being previoufly neceflfary 
to fettle, with all parties concerned, the place of 
the council's meeting ; the manner of its proceed- 
ings ; the right of the perfons who fliould be ad- 
mitted to vote 5 and the authority of their deci- 
fions ; he difpatched a nuncio, accompanied by an 
ambaflador from the Emperor, to the Eledor of 
Saxony as head of the Proteftants. With regard 
to each of thefe articles, inextricable difficulties 
and contefts arofe. The Proteftants demanded a 
council to be held in Germany; the Pope infifted 
that it Ihould meet in Italy: they contended, that 
all points in difpute fliould be determined by the 
words of holy fcripture alone ; he confidered not 
only the decrees of the church, but the opinions 
of fathers, and doftors, as of equal authority: 
tliey required a free council, in which the di- 
vines, commilTioned by different churches, fjiould 
be allowed a voice; he aimed at modelling the 
council in fuch a manner as would render it en- 
tirely dependant on his pleafure. Above aU, the 
Proteflants thought it unreafonable, that they 
ihould bind thcmfelves to fubmit to the decrees 
of a council, before they knew on what principles' 
thefe decrees v/ere to be founded, by what perfons 
they were to be pronounced, and what forms of 



B ^yO K proceeding they would obferve- The Pope main- 
h J mj tained it td be altogether vttmicocdary to cs^ a 
*53*' council, if thofc who demanded it <tid not pre- 
vioufly declare their reftJution to' acquiefce in it6 
decree*. In order to adjuft fech a variety of 
points, many expedients were propofed, sind the 
negociations Ipun out to fuch a length, as effec- 
tually anfwered Clement's purpofe of potting off 
the meeting of a council, without drawing on him- 
felf the whole infamy of ohftru6ting a meafurc 
which all Europe deemed fo efl«ntial to the good 
of the church ^ 

•Dj for pre- TOGETHER with diis nftgocktJofl about calling 
fcrfingihc a council, the Emperor carried on another, which 

tranquillity , i , i, .11 1 #• *• • 1 

•I Italy, he had rail more at heart, for fecunng the peace 
eftablifhed in Italy. As Francis had renounced 
his pretenfions in that country with great reluc- 
tance, Charles made no doubt but that he would 
lay hold on the firft pretext afforded him, or em- 
brace the firft opportunity which prefented itfelf^ 
of recovering what he had loft. It became ne- 
ceflary, on this account, to take meafures for af- 
fembligg an army able to oppofe him. As his 
treafury, drained by a long war, could not fupply 
the fums requifite for keeping fuch a body con- 
ftantly on foot, he attempted to throw that burden 
on his ^lies, and to provide for the fafety of his 
own dominibns at their expeace, by propofing that 

•» F. Paul Hift. 6i. Scckcnd. Ui. 73. 



the- Italian ftatcs Ihould enter into a league of ife'- * "^^ ^ 
fence againft all invaders ; that^ on the firft ^p*- s^^y^m j 
pearanc'e ^f danger> m army Ihould be raifed ani *^'*' 
maintained at the eommon charge s and that An^- 
tonio de Leyva Ihould be appointed the gener^if^ 
fimo. Nor was the propofal unacceptable tx> Cle^ 
nient^ diough for a rcafon very different from that 
which induced the Emperor to make it. Ht i53Sf 
hopedj by this expedient^ to deliver Italy from the 
German and Spanifh veterans^ which had fo long 
filkd all the powers in that country with terror, 
and ftiU kept them in fubje6lion to the Imperial 
yoke* A league was accordingly concluded 5 all reJ»- : j 
the Italian ftates, the Venetians excepted, acceded 
CO it s the fum which each of the contra£ting par- 
ties ihould furnilh towards maintaining the army 
was fixed i the Emperor agreed to withdraw the 
troops which gave fo much umbrage to his allies^ 
and which he was unable any longer to fupport. 
Having dift>anded part of them, arid removed the 
fe& to Sicily and Spain, he embarked on board 
Doria's gallies, and arrived at Barcelona ®. April is. 

Notwithstanding all his precautions for fe- Dcfignfind 
curing the peace of Germany, and maintaining o?^^^"* 
that fyftem which he had eftablifhed in Italy, Kin"*?«inft 
the Emperor became every day more and more theEmpc- 
apprehcnfive that both would be foon difturbed "^* 
by the intrigues or arms of the French King* 

f (3ttic. L XX. 551. Feritras, ix. 149. 



^ 9y^ ^ His apprehenfions were well fbumied, as nothing 
«i-*-N/'— -^ but the deiperate fituation of his affairs could have 
^^"* brought Francis to give his confent tcy a tteaty fa 
difhonourable and difadvantagpous as that of Cam^ 
bray : he, at the very time of ratifying it, had 
formed a refolution to obferve it no longer than 
neceflity compelled him> and took a folcmn pro- 
teft, though with the moft profound fecrecy, ag^nft 
feveral articles in the treaty, particularly that 
whereby he renounced all pretenfions to the dutchy 
of Milan, as unjuft, injurious to his heirs, and 
invalid. One of the crown lawyers, by his com- 
\^ i mand, entered a proteft to the fame purpofe, and 
with the like fecrecy, when the ratification of the 
treaty was regiftered in the parliament, of Paris'. 
Francis feems to have thought that, by employing 
an artifice unworthy of a King, deftrudive of pub- 
lic faith, and of the mutual confidence on which 
all tranfaftions between nations are founded, he was 
tekafed from any obligation to perform the moft 
folemn promifes, or to adhere to the moft facred 
engagements. From the moment he concluded 
the peace of Cambray, he wifhed and watched for 
an opportunity of violating it with fafety. He 
endeavoured for that reafon to ftrengthen his 
alliance with the King of England, whofe friend- 
Clip he cultivated with the greateft affiduity. He 
put the military force of his own kingdom on a 
better and more reipedtablc footing tlian ever. 

^ Da Moat Corps Diplom. torn. iv» part 2. p. 52^ 



He artfiiDy fomented 3ie jcaloufy and difcontent ■ ^^ ^ 
of the German princes. «..^^j««^ 


But above all> Francis laboured to break the ptrdcvtuijr 
ftrift confederacy which fubfifted between Charles ?l^ * 
and Clement; and he had fbon the fatisfadion to 
obferve appearances of difguft and alienation arif- 
ing in the mind of that fufpicious and interefted 
PondflF, which gave him hopes that their union 
would not be lafting. As the Emperor's dec^ifion 
in favour of the duke of Ferrara had greatly irri- 
tated the Pope, Francis aggravated the injuftice 
of thjit proceeding, and flattered Clcnv^nt that the 
papal fee would find in him a more impartial and 
no left powerful protedtor. As the importunity 
with which Charles demanded a council was ex- 
tremely offenfive to the Pope, Francis artfully cre- 
ated obftacles to prevent it, and attempted to di- 
vert the German princes, his allies, from infifling 
fb obftinately on that point '. As the Emperor 
had gained fuch an ^cendant oyer Clement by 
contributing to aggrandize his family, Francis en- 
deavoured to allure him by the fame irrefiftible 
bait, propofing a marriage between his fecond fbn, 
Henry duke of Orleans, and Catharine, the daugh- 
ter of the Pope's coufm Laurence di Medici, On 
the firft overture of this match, the Emperor 
could not perfuade himfelf that Francis really in- 
tended to debafe the royal blood of France by an 

t Bellay^ 141, &c. Seek. iii. 48. F. Paul, 63. 

VouIII. F alliance 


* ^y^ ^ aOiaact with Catharine, wAofe anccftors had been 
d-^— J fo lately private citizens and merchants in Flo- 
'^^' rence,, and belifeved that he meant only to flatter 
or amufe the ambitious Pontiff. He thought it 
lacccffary, however, to efface the impreflion which 
fuch a dazzling offer might have made, by pro- 
mifing to break off the marriage which had been 
agreed on between his own niece the King of 
penmark's daughter, and the Duke of Milan, 
luid to fubftitute Cadiarine in her place. But the 
French ambaflador producing unexpeftedly fiiU 
poifiTrs to conclude the marriage treaty with the 
duke of Orleans, this expedient had no eflfeft, 
Clement was fo highly {leafed with an honour 
which added fuch luftre and dignity to the houfe of 
Medici, that he offered to grant Catharine the in- 
veftiture of confiderable territories in Italy, by 
. way of portion ; he (eemed ready to fupport Fran- 
cis in proiecuting his ancient claims in that coun-^ 
try, and confented to a perfonal interview with* 
that Mpnarch K 

fntenricw Charles was at the utmoft pains to prevent a 
pjpetad meeting, in which nothing was likely to pafs but 
'*^°*^*' what would be of detriment to him; nor could 
he bear, after he had twice condefcended to vifit 
the Pope in his own territories, that Clement 
Ihould beftow fuch a mark of diftinftion on his 
rival, as to venture on a voyage by fea, at an un- 

s Guic* 1. XX. 55s -SSI. Sellay, 138* 



favourable {caibn, in order to pay court to Francis ^ ^^^ ^ 
in* the French dominions. But the Pope's eager- <i--,^.j 
ficfe to accompliih the match overcame all the *^'^* 
icruples of pride, or fear, or jealoufy, which would 
probably have influenced him on any other occafiion* 
The interview, notwithftanding feveral artifices of oaobtr« 
the Emperor to prevent it, took place at Marfeilles 
with extraordinary pomp, and demondrations of 
^confidence on both (ides; and the marriage, which 
the ambition and abilities of Catharine rendered in 
the fequel as pernicious to France, as it was then 
tboyght diihonourable, was confummated. But 
whatever fchemes may have been fecretly concert- 
ed by the Pope and Francis in favour of the duke ^ 
of Orleans, to whom his father propofed to make 
over all his rights in Italy, fo careful were they to 
avoid giving any caufe of offence to the Emperor, 
that no treaty was concluded between them ^ -, and 
even in the marriage-articles, Catharine renounced 
all claims and pretentions in Italy, except to the 
dutchy of Urbino *. 

But at the very time when he was carrying on Jjgf'^iX* 
thefe negociations, and forming this connexion wg«r<toth« 
with Francis, which gave fo great umbrage to the EogkA^^t 
Emperor, fuch was the artifice and duplicity of ^^"^'^^^ 
Clement's chara6ter, that he fuffered the latter to 
diredk all his proceedings with regard to the King 
of England, and was no lefs attentive to gratify. 

*» Coic. 1. XX. 555. 

^ Da Mont Corps Diplom* if« p« ii* ler. 

F 2 *him 


^ ^^^ ^ him in that particular, than if the moft cardial 
» J j: mf union had ftill fubfifted between them. Henry's 
'^^^* fait for a divorce had now continued near fix years; 
during all which period the Pope negociated, pro- 
mifed, retraced, and concluded nothing. After 
bearing repeated delays and difappointments longer 
than could have been expefted from a prince of 
fuch a chcdcric and impetuous temper, th^patience 
of Henry was at laft fb much cxhaufted, that he 
applied to another tribunal for that decree which he 
had fohcited in vain at Rome. Cranmer, arch- 
bilhop of Canterbury, by a fentencc founded on the 
authority of Univerfities, Doftors, and Rabbies, 
who had been confidted with refpcft to the point, 
annulled the King's marriage with Catharines her 
daughter was declared illegitimate j and Anne 
Boleyne acknowledged as Queen of England. 
At the fame time Henry began not only to negleft 
and to threaten the Pope, whom he had hitherto 
courted, but to make innovations in the church, 
of which he had formerly been fuch a zealous de- 
fender. Clement, who had already feen fo many 
provinces and kingdoms revolt from the Holy See, 
became apprehenfive at laft that England miglit 
imitate their example, and pardy from his folici- 
tude to prevent that fatal blow^ partly in compU- 
ance with the French King's folicitations, deter- 
mined to give Henry fuch fatisfaftion as might ftill 
1534. retain him within the bofom of the church. But 
MiTcb 13. the violence of the Cardinals, devoted to the Em- 
peror, did not allow the Pope kifure for execut- 


ing this prudent refolurion, and hurried him, with ^ ^^ ^ 
a precipitation fatal to the Roman See, to ifTue a Ui-^-yl^^ 
bull refcinding Cranmcr's fentcnce, confirming '^^^ 
Henry's marriage with Catharine^ and declaring 
him excommunicated, if, within a time (pecificd, 
he did not abandon the wife he had taken, and re- 
turn to her whom he had dcferted. Enraged at this 
unezpe&ed decree, Henry kept no longer any 
meafurcs with the court of Rome; his fubje6ls Piptiaa. 
feconded his refcntment and indignation i an aft liJhcd^in***' 
of Parliament was paflcd, abolifhing the papal ^"i*"** 
power and jurifdiftion in England; by another, 
the King was declared fupreme head of the church, 
and all the authority of which the Popes were de- 
prived was vcfted in him. That vaft fabric of 
eccleliailical dominion which had been railed with 
fuch art, and of v/hich the foundations feemed to 
have been laid fo deep, being no longer fupportcd 
by the veneration of the people, was overturned 
in a moment. Henry himfelf, with the caprice 
peculiar to his character, continued to defend the 
doftrines of the Romifh church as fiercely as he 
attacked its jurifdi6tion. He alternately perfecuted 
the Proteftants for rejefting the former, and the 
Catholics for acknowledging the latter. But his 
fubjcfts, being once permitted to enter into new 
padis, did not chufe to Hop Ihort at the precife 
point prefcribcd by him. Having been encou- 
raged by his example to break fome of their fetters, 
they were fo impatient to ftiake oiF what ftiU re- 
mained', that, in the following reign, with the ap- 

^ Herbert. Born. Hill, of Reform. 

F 3 plaufc 


B o^o K plaufe of the greater pari of the nation, a total fe- 
v^.^l,^/ paration was made from the church of Rome in 
'5^^ articles of doftrine, as well as in mattery of dif- 
cipline arid jurifcii£tion. 

DMtbof A SHORT delay might have favcd die See of 
vi"**** Rome from all the unhappy confequences of Ck- 
itient's raflinefs. Sobn after his fentcnce againft 
Henry, he fell into a languifhing diftemper, which 
gradually wafting his oonftitution, put an end to 
Sept. %$. his Pontificate, the moft unfortunate^ both during 
ks continuance, and by its effedb, that the church 
Eieaion of had known for many ages. The very day on i^ch 
oal 13, tJ^c cardinals entered the conclave, they raifed to 
the papal throne Alexander Farnefe, dean of the 
iacred college, and the oldeft member of that body, 
who aflumed the name of Paul III. The account 
of his promotion was received with extraordinary 
acclamations of joy by the people of Rome, highly 
pleafed, after an interval of more than an hundred 
years, to fee the crown of St* Peter placed on the 
head of a Roman citizen. Perfons more capable 
of judging, formed a favourable prefage of his ad- 
miniftration, from the experience which he had ac- 
quired under four Pontificates, as well as the cha- 
rafter of prudence and moderation which he had 
uniformly maintained in a ftation of great emi- 
nence, and during an aftive period that required 
both talents and addrefs K 

Europe, it is probable, owed the continuance 
of its peace to the death of Clement j for although 

* Guic. 1. XX, 556. F, Paul, 64, 



no traces remaun in hiftory of any league conclud* 
cd between him and Francis^ k is fcarcely to be 
doubted but that he would have feconded the ope- '^^ 
radons of the French arms in Italy^ that he might 
liave gratified his ambition by feeing one of his 
£miily pofieffed of the feprane power in Florence, 
and another in Milan* But upon the eledtion c^ 
Paul III. who had hitherto adhered imiformly to 
the Imperial intereft> Francis found it neceflary to 
fufpeod his operations for fbme timcj and to put off 
the commencement of hoftilities againft the Em- 
peror, oa which, before the death of Clement^ he 
had been fully determined. 

While Francis waited £br an opgportunity to infurreaion 
renew a war which had hitherto proved Co fatal to baptifts in 
himfclf and his fobjcdb, a tranfaftion of a very 
fingular nature was carried on in Germany. 
Among many beneficial and falutary effefls of 
which the Reformation was the immediate caufe, 
it was attended, as muft be the cafe in all aftions 
and events wherein men are concerned, with fbme 
confequenees of an oppofite nature. When the 
human mind is roufed by grand objeAs, and agi- 
tated by ftrong^aflions, its operations acquire fuch 
force, that they are apt to become irregular and 
extravagant. Upon any great revolution in rcli- 
gion> fuch irregularities abound moft* at that par- 
ticular period, when men, having thrown off the 
authority of their ancient principles, do not yet 
fiiUy comprehend the nature, or feel the obligation 

F 4 ^ 


» %9 ^ of thofe new tenets which they have embraced. 

J The mind> in that fituation, puftiing forward with 
the boldnefs which prompted it to rejeft eftabHlh- 
ed opinions, and not guided by a clear knowledge 
of the fyftem fubftituted in their place, difdains all 
reftraint, and runs into wild notions, which often 
lead to fcandalous or immoral conduft. Thus, 
in the firft ages of the Chriftian church, many of 
the new converts, having renounced their ancient 
fyftems of religious feidi, and being but imper- 
fedUy acquainted with the dodrincs and precepts of 
Chriftianity, broached the moft extravagant opi- 
nions, equaUy fubverfiye of piety and virtue ; all 
which errors difappeared or Were exploded when the 
knowledge of religion increafcd, and came to be 
more generally diffiifed. In like manner, foon af- 
ter Luther's appearance, the ralhnefs or ignorance 
of fome of his difciples led them to publiih tenets 
.no lefs abfurd than pernicious, which being pro- 
po/cd to men extremely illiterate, but fond of no- 
velty, and at a time when their minds were turned 
wholly towards religious fpeculations, gained too 
eafy credit and audiority among them. To thefe 
caufes muft be imputed the extravagances of Mun- 
cefy ia the, year one thoufand five hundred and 

..tjventy4five, as weU as the rapid progrefs which 
they made among the peafants ; but though the in- 
furreaion excited by that fanatic was foon fup- 
preffed, feveraj of his followers lurked in different 
places, and endeavoured privately to propagate his 
opinions, ^ 



In thofe provinces of Upper Germanyi which ^ ^^ ^ 
had already been fo cruelly wafted by their en- i„-,J— j 
thufiaftic rage, the magiftrates watched their mo-.origintnd 
dons with fuch fevere attention, that many of J*^«!^ 
them found it neceflary to retire into other coun- 
tries, fome were puniihed, others driven into exile, 
and their errors were entirely rooted out. But 
in the Netherlands and Weftphalia, where the 
pernicious tendency of their opinions was more 
unknown, and guarded ^ againft with lefs care, 
they got admittance into feveral towns, and Ipread 
the infedtion of their principles. The moft re- 
markable of their religious tenets related to the 
Sacrament of Baptifm, which, as they contended, 
ought to be adminiftered only to perfons grown 
up p years of underftanding, and ftiould be per- 
formed not by fprinkling them with water, but 
by dipping them in it : for this reafon they con- 
demned the baptifm of infants, and rebaptifing 
all whpnx they admitted into their fociety, the 
fedl came to be 'diftinguilhed by the name of 
Anabaptifts. To this peculiar notion concern- 
ing baptifm, which has the appearance of being 
founded on the practice of the diurch in the apo- 
ftolic age, and contains n9thing inconfiftent with 
tlie peace and order of human fociety, they add- 
ed other principles of a moft enthufiaftic as 
well as dangerous nature. They maintained that, 
aniong Chriftians who had the precepts of the 
gofpel to direct, and the fpirit of God to guide 
them, the office of magiftracy was not only un- 
neceflary, but an unlawful encroachment on their 




fpiritual liberty; that the diitindioiis occafioned 
by birth> or rank, or wealth, being contrary to 
**^** the fpirit of the go(pel, which confiders all men 
as equal, Ihould be entirely aboliftied; that all 
Chriftians, throwing their poffeflions into one 
common ftock, Ihould live together in that ftate 
of equality which becomes members of the fame 
family; that as neither the laws of nature, nor 
the precepts of the New Tcftament, had impofed 
any refltraints upon men with regard to the number 
of wives which they might marry, they ihould ufe 
that liberty which God himfelf had granted to the. 

settu m Such opinions, propagated and maint^ned with 

enthufiaftic zeal and boldnefs, were not long with- 
out producing the violent efFcAs natural to them. 
Two Anabaptift prophets, John Matthias, a baker 
of Haerlem, and John Boccold, or Beiikcls, a 
journeyman taylor of Leyden, poflcfled with the 
rage of making profelytes, fixed their rcfidencc at 
Munfter, an Imperial city in Wtftphalia, of the 
firft rank, under the fovereignty of its biihop, 
but governed by its own fenatc and confuls. As 
neither of thefe fanatics wanted the talents rc- 
quifite in deiperate enterprifes, great relbludon, 
the appearance of fanftity, bold pretenfions to in- 
fpiration, and a confident and plaufible manner of 
difcourfmg, they foon gained many converts. 
Among thefe were Rothman, who had feft preached 
tlte Proteftant dodrine in Munfter, and Cnipper- 
doling, a citizcrf of good birth ar^d confiderabic 



eminence. Emboldened by the countenance of ■ ^^ ^ 
foch difciples, they openly taught their opinions $ ^,-/-,_f 
and not fatisfied with that liberty, they nradc '^^ 
feveral attempts, thou^ without" fuccefi, to be- 
come m«fters of the town, in order to get their 
tenets eftabliflied by public authority. At laft, Bwwie 
having fecretly called in their aifi>ciates from the ^dty. 
neighbouring country, they luddenly took pof- 
feffion of the arienal and fenate-houfe in the night- 
time, and running through the llreets with drawn 
fwords, and horrible howlings, cried out alter- 
nately, '^ Repent, and be baptifed," and " Depart 
ye ungodly/' The lenators, die canons, the uhmtf. 
nobility, together with the more fober citizens^ 
whether Papifts or Proteftants, terrified af their 
threats and outcries, fled in confufion, and left the 
city under the dommion of a frantic multitude, 
confifting chiefly of ftrangers. Nothing now re- 
maining to overawe or controul them, they fet 
about modelling the government according to their 
own wild ideas ; and though at firft they ihowed EftaViiA » 
fo much reverence fer the ancient conflitution, ll7trm^ 
as to eleft fenators of their own fed, and to "'"*' 
appoint Cnipperdoling and another profclyte con- 
fuk) this was nothing more than form ; for aU 
their proceedings were directed by Matthias, who, 
in the flyle, and with the authority of a prophet, 
uttered his commands, which it was inftant death 
to difobey. Having begun with encouraging the 
multitude to pillage the churches, and deface their 
ornaments 5 he enjoined them to deftroy all books 
except i^e Bible^ as ufele& or impious ; he ordered 



te o o K the eftates of fuch as fled, to be confifcatcd, and 
i,,^^,-^ fold to the inhabitants of the adjacent country ; 
*5^ he commanded every man to bring forth his gold> 
filver, and other precious efFe6ts, and to lay them 
at his feet; the wealth amafled by thefe means> 
he depofited in a public treafury, and named 
deacons to difpenfe it for the common ufe of all. 
The members of this commonwealth being thus 
brought to a perfeft equality, he conpmanded all 
of them to eat at tables prepared in pubKc, and 
even prefcribed the difhes which were to be ferved 
up each day.. Having finiflied his plan of re- 
formation, his next care was to provide for the 
defence of the city ; and he took meafures for that 
purpofe with a prudence which favoured nothing 
of fanaticifm. He coUefted large magazines of 
every kind ; kt repaired and extended the forti- 
- fications, obliging every perfon without diftinftion 
to work in his turn; he formed fuch as were 
capable of bearing arms into regular bodies, and 
endeavoured to add the ftabiyty of difcipline to 
the impetuofity of enthufiafm. He fent emiflaries 
to die Anabaptifts in the Low-pountries, inviting 
them to aflcipble at Munfter, which he dignified 
with the name of Mount-Sion, that from thence 
they might fet out to reduce all the nations of the 
earth under their dominion. He himfelf was un- 
wearied in attending to every thing neceflary for 
the fecurity or increafe of the fedt ; animating his 
difciples by his own example to decline no labour, 
as well as to fubmit to every hardfliip j and their 
cnthufiallic paffions being kept from fubfiding 



bf a perpetual fucceffi6n of exhortations, revela- ® ®^^ ^ 
tions, and prophecies, they feemed ready to un- ^-i^ - .-^ 
dcrtake or to fiiflfer any thing in maintenance of *^^ 
their opinions. - 

While they were thus employed, the bifhop of '^^^^^ J;j*? 
Munfter having affembled a confiderable army, takesarmt 
advanced to befiege the town. On his approach, 2tm! 
Matthias fallied out at the head of fome chofen 
troops, attacked one quarter of his camp, forced 
it, and after great flaughter returned to the city 
loaded with glory and fpoil. Intoxicated with 
this fuccefs, he appeared next day brandifhing 
afpear, and declared, that, in imitation of Gideon, 
he would go forth with a handful of men and fmite 
the hoft of the ungodly. Thirty perfons, whom May. 
he named, followed him without hefitation in this 
wild enterprize, and, rufliing on the enemy with 
a t^tic courage, were cut off to a man. The 
death of their prophet occafioned at firft great 
confternation among his difciples ; but Boccqld, 
by the fame gifts and pretenlions which had 
gained Matthias credit, foon revived their Ipirits /<*« ^^ 
and hopes to fuch a degree, that he fuc<:eeded the quires greac 
deceafed prophet in the fame abfolute direftion !monrfL 
of all their affairs. As he did not poflcfs that Awbaptif.s. 
cnterprizing courage which diftinguifhed his pre- 
deccffor, he fatisfied himfelf v/ith carrying on a 
defenfive war; and, without attempting to annoy 
tht enemy by fallies, he waited for the fuccours he 
expelled from the Low-Countries, the arri^'-al of 
which was often foretold and proniifed by their 
. . prophets^ 


• ^v? '^ F^P^^s. But diot^h Ids daring in aftion than 
•i--»-'*-' Matthias^ he was a wilder enthufiaft, and of more 
unbounded ambition. Soon after the death of 
his predeceflbr, having, by obfcure vifions and 
prophecies, prepared the multitude for fome ex- 
traordinary event, he ftripped himfelf naked, 
.and, marching through the ftreets, proclaimed 
with a loud voice, ^^ That the kingdom of Sion 
was at hand ; that whatever was hi^eft on earth 
fhould be brought low, and whatever was loweft 
fliould be exalted/* In order to fulfil this, he 
commanded the churches, as the ihoft lofty 
buildings in the city, to be levelled with the 
ground ; he degraded , the fenators chofen by 
Matthias, and depriving Cnipperdoling of the 
confuUhip, the higheft ofSce in the common- 
wealth, appointed him to execute the loweft 
and moft infamous, that of common hangman, 
to which ftrange tranfition the other agreed, not 
only without murmuring, but with the utmoft 
joy; and fuch was the deipotic rigour of Boc- 
cold's adminiftration, that he was called almoft 
every day to perform fome duty or other of his 
wretched funftion. In place of the depoled fe- 
nators, he named twelve judges, according to the 
number of tribes in Ifrael, to prefide in all af- 
fairs ; retaining to himfelf the fame authority, 
which Mofes anciently poffeflcd as legiflator of 
* that people. 

Eieftr4 NoT fatisficd, howevcT, with power or titles 

*"** which were not fupreme, a prophet, whom he 




had gained and tutored, having called the mul- ^ ^^ ^ 
titude together, declared it to be the will of Si^*-w'^ 
God, that John Boccoki fhoxild be King of Sion, ^^^^ 
and fit on the throne of David. John kneeling jttMS4* 
down, accepted of the heavenly call, which he 
iblemnly protefbed had been revealed likewife to 
himfelf, and was immediately acknowledged as 
Monarch by the deluded multitude. From that 
moment he afiumed all the ftate and pomp of 
royalty. He wore a crown of gtJd, and was 
clad in the richcft iand moft fumptuous garments^ 
A Bible was carried on his one hand, a naked 
fw(»d on the other. A great body of gu«*ds 
accompamed him when he appeared in public. 
He coined money ftamped with his own image, 
and appointed the great officers of his houfhold 
and kingdom, among whom Cnipperdoling was 
nominated governor of the city, as a reward for his 
former fubmiffion. 

Hating now attained the hei^t of power, HiiKce«. 
Boccoki began to difcovcr paffions, which he ^^"cJXa. 
had hitherto reilrained or indulged pnly in fe- 
cret. As die exceiles of enthufiafm have been 
obfcrved in every age to lead to fenfual gratifi- 
cations, the fame conilitution that is fuiceptible 
of the former^ being remarkably prone to the 
latter, he infbufted the prophets and teachers to 
harangue the peq)le for feveral days concern- 
ing the lawfulnefs, and even neccffity of taking 
more wives than one, which they affcrted to be 
one of the privileges granted by God to the 
1 1 faints. 


B o^o K faints. When their cars were once accuftomed 
%^^ J ' - to this licentious doftrine^ and their paffions in- 
^534- flamed with the profp^ft of fuch unbounded in- 
dulgence, he himfelf fet them an example of 
ufing what he called their Chriilian liberty, by 
marrying at once three wives, among which the 
widow of Matthias, a woman of Angular beauty, 
was one. As he was allured by beauty, or the 
love of variety, he gradually added to the num- 
ber of his wives, until they amounted to fourteen, 
though the widow of Matthias was the only one 
dignified with the title of Queen, or who fhared 
with him the Iplendour and ornaments of royalty. 
After the example of their prophet, the multi- 
tude gave thcmfclvcs up to the moft licentious 
and uncontrouled gr?itification of their defu*es. 
No man remained fatisfied with a fingle wife. 
Not to ufe their Chriftian liberty, was deemed a 
crime. Perfons were appointed to fearch the 
houfcs for young women grown up to maturity, 
whom they inftandy compelled to marry. To- 
gether with polygamy, freedom of divorce, its 
infeparable attendant, was introduced, and be- 
came a new fource of corruption. Every excels 
was committed, of which the paflions of men arie 
capable, when reftrained neither by the authority 
of laws nor the fenfe of decency "j and by a 


^ Propkeue Sc coDdonatorom autoritate jaxta et exemplo^ 
totl orbe gd rapiendas pulcherrimas quafque fxminas diC- 
Cttrfum eA. Nee intra paucos diet» ia tanta homiouai 
turba fere ulla reperta eft fupra aonum decimum quartum 
qns ilapnim paiik non fuerit. Lamb. Hortenf. p. 305. 



nonftrous and almoft incredible conjundion^ vo- ^ ^^ * 
kpniouiiieis was engrafted on religion^ and dif- * ^w^>^# » 
£>lute riat accompanied the aufterities of fanatical '^^^ 

Meanwhile the German princes were highly Aconftdt- 
ofiended at the infult' offered to their dignity by [^a^ 
Boccold's prefumptuous ufurpatioa of royal ho« '^^^^ 
nours $ and the profligate manners of his followers, 
which were a reproach to the Chriilian name, 
filled men of all profefllons with horror. Luther, 
who had tellified againfl this fanatical fpirit on its 
iirft q>pearance, now deeply lamented its progrefs, 
and having expofed the delufion with great ' 
ftrength of argument, as wqll as acrirnony of 
ftyle, called loudly oh all the ftates of Germany to 
put a ftop to a phrenzy no lefs pernicious to fo- : 
ciety, than fatal to religion. The Emperor, oc- 
cupied with odier cares and projefts, had not 
Icifure to attend to fuch a diftant objcft ; but the 
princes of the Empire, aifembled by the King of 
the Romans, voted a fupply of men and money 
to the bifliop of Munfter, who being unable to 
keep a fufficient army on foot, had converted the 

Vulg5 vlris quinas elTe uxores, pluribas fenas, nonnullis 
fept«nas ic ofiooas. Paellas fapra duod«cimum actatis annum 
ftadm amare. Id. 505. Nemo uni oooteatus fuit, neqoe 
coiquam extra eifsetai & vlris immatiuras contioentx dSt liciut« 
Id. J07. Tacebo hic» ut fit fuos honor auribus, quanta 
barbarie et malitii uii funt in puellis vltiandis nondum aptis 
matrlmonio, id quod mihi neqoe ex vano, neque ex vulgt 
(ersionibus hauftum eil, M ex elL vetuli, c«i cara fie v^tiata« 
rom demaitdau foiti aoditam. Joh. CorviaiUj 316* 

Vol. III. ' G Iicg<; 


B o^o K fjgge of the town into a blockade. The forces 
^ ^ V > railed in confequcncc of this refolution^ were put 
BeflcgVihe under the command of an officer of eiqperiencc, 
*•*"*• who approaching the town towards the- end of 
Spring, in the year one thoufand five hundred 
arid thirty-five, prefled it more clofely than 
formerly; but found the fortifications fo ftrong, 
and fo diligehdy guarded, that he durft not at- 
tempt an aflSult. It was now above fifteen 
months fince the Anabaptrfts had eftabliflied their 
dominion in Munfter; they had during that time 
undergone prodigious fatigue in working on the 
fortifications, and performing military duty. 
^Seftand Notwithftanding the prudent attention of their 
fanaticifm King to providc for their fubfiftence, and his 

•f tbc be- ^ ^ • * . 

ficgcd. frugal as well as regular oeconomy :n their ptib- 
lic meals, they began to feel the approach of 
famine. Several fmall bodies of their brethren, 
who were advancing to their afliftance from the 
Low-Countries, had been intercepted and cut 
to pieces; and, while all Germany was ready 
to combine againft them, they had no prolpeft 
of fuccour. But fuch was the afcendant which 
Boccold had acquired over the multitude, and fo 
powerful the fafcination of enthufiafm, that their 
hopes were as fangqine as ever, and they heark- 
ened with implicit credulity to the vifions and 
predi6lions of their prophets, who affured Aem, 
that the Almighty would fpeedily int^Kpofe, in 
order to deliver the city. The feith, however, 
of fomc few, Ihaken by the violence and length 
of their fufFerings, began to fail; but being luf- 



pcSted of an inclination to furrender to the ene- * ^^^ * 
my, they wcr^ punifhed with iitimediate death, ^ — J-^ 
as guilty of impiety in diltruijting the power of **^** 
God. . One of the King's wives, having uttered 
cert^n' words which implied fbme doubt con- 
cerning his divine miflion, he inftantly called 
the whole xiumber together, and commanding 
the blalphcmer^ as he called her, to kneel down, 
cut off her head with his own hands ; and ib far 
>Beic the reft from exprefling any horror at this 
cruel deed, that they joined him in dancing with 
a frantic joy arounid the bleedijig body of tiheir 

By this time, the befieged endured the litmoft thedqr 
rigour o£ famine ; but they choic rather to fuffer juae u 
hardfhips, the recital of ^hich is fliocking to 
humanity, than to liften to the terms of capitu^ 
l^on ofi^ered them by the bifhqp« At laft, a de^ 
ferter, whom they had taken Into their fervice, 
being either lefs intoxicated with the fumes of 
enthufiafm, or unable any longer to bear fuch 
diftrcfs, made his efcape to the enemy. He in- 
formed their genei^ of a weak part in the forti- 
fications which he had obferyed, and afluring 
him that the befieged, exhaufted with hunger 
and fatigue, kept watch there with little carc> 
he. offered to lead a party thither in the night. 
The propofal was accepted, and a chofcn body 
of troops appointed for the fervice 5 who, fcal- 
iiig the walls unperceived, feized one of the 
gatc5, and admitted the reft of t^ army. Thig 
. G a Ana^ 



* ^^ ^ Anabaptifts, though furprifed, defended them- 
^-^*— ^ fclves in the market-place with valour, height- 
junV^! cncd by delpair; but being overpowered by 
numbers, and furrounded on every hand, moft 
of them were flain, and the remainder taken' 
prifoners. Among the laft were the King and 
^"th?Kir Cnipperdoling. The King, loaded with chains, 
aodbisaflb. was Carried from city to city as a ^e£tacle to 
gratify the curiofity of the people, and was ex- 
pofed to all their infults. His Ipirit, however, 
was not broken or humbled by this fad fcverfe 
of his condition ; and he adhered with unfhaken 
firmnefs to the diftinguiihing tenets of his fe£t. 
After this, he was brought back to Munfter, 
the fcene of his royalty and crimes, and put to 
death with the moft exquifite as well as lingering 
tortures, all which he bore with aftoniftiing for- 
titude. This extraordinary maq, who had been 
able to acquire fuch amazing dominion over the 
minds of his followers, and to excite commotions 
fo dangerous to fbciety, was only twenty-fix years 
of age ". 


^J*V'^^ Together with its Monarch, the kingdom of 
iince th«c thc Anabaptifts came to an end. Their prm- 
ciples having taken deep root in the Low-Coun- 

. '^ Sleid. igOt Sec, Tumultaam Anabaptiftarum Liber 
I1D09* Ant. Lamberto Hortenfio audore ap. ScardioiOy vol. 
ii. p. 298, &c. De Miferabili Monafteiienfiam Obfidione, 
&c. libellas Antonii Corvini ap. Scar. 313. Annaics Ana- 
baptiftici a Joh. Henrico Ottio, 410. Baiileae, 2672.' Cor. 
Heerfbachitts Hift. Anab. edit* 1637, p. 140. 




tries, the party ftill fubfifts there, iinder the ' ^^^ ^ 
name of Mcnnonites j but by a very fingular re- ^-^^ 
volution^ this fed, fo mutinous and fangumary '^^^' 
at its firii: origin, hath become altogether inno- 
cent and pacific. Holding it unlawful to wage 
war, or to accept of civil offices, they devote 
themielves entirely to the duties of private citi- 
zens, and by their induflry and charity endea- 
vour to make reparation to human fociety for 
the violence committed by their founders**, A 
fmall number of this fed which is fetded in 
England, retain its * peculiar tenets concerning 
baptifin, but. without any dangerous mixture of 

The mutiny of the Anabaptifts, though it drew J"^^"? 
general attention, did not fo entirely cngrofs nty ©f the 
the princes of Germany, as not to allow leifure snuikaUc 
for other tranfadlions. The alliance between the 
French King and the confederates at Smalkalde, 
began about this time to produce great efFeds,, 
Utic, Duke of Wurtemberg, having been 
expelled his dominions in the year one thoufand 
five hundred and nineteen, on account of his 
violent and oppreffive adminiflration, the houfe 
of ^Aufbia had got pofTefTion of his dutchy. 
That prince having how by a long exile atoned 
for the errors in his conduft, which were the 
efFeft rather of inexperience than of a tyrannical 
difpofirion, was become the objeft of general 
compaflion. The Landgrave of HefTe, in parti- 

•• Baylc DiAion. art* Anahaptifttt. 

G 3 cular. 


^ 9y9 ^ cular, his near relation, warmly cfpoufed his in- 
w — ^ tercft, and ufed many efibrts to recover for him 
'^^^' his ancient inheritance. But the King of the 
Romans obftinately refiifed to relinquifh a valuable 
acquifition which his family had made with fo 
much eafe. The Landgrave, unable to compel 
him, applied to the King of France his new illy. 
Francis, eager to embrace any opportunity of 
diftrelTmg the houfe of Auftria, and defirous of 
wrefting from it a territory, which gave it footing 
and influence . in a part of Germany at a diflance 
from its other dominions, encouraged the Land- 
grave to take arms, and fecretly fuppUed hini 
with a large fum of money. This he employed 
to raife troops; and marching with great ex- 
pedition towards Wurtemberg, attacked, defeated* 
and dilperfed a confiderable body of Auftrians, 
cntrufted with the defence of the country. All 
the Duke's fubjefts haftened, with emulation, to 
receive their native Prince, and re-rnvefted Kim 
with that authority which is ftill enjoyed by his 
defendants. At the fame time the exercife of 
the Proteftant religion was eftablifhed in his do- 
minions ^. 

The King Ferdinand, how fenfiWc foever of this*un- 
*cour'ti expefted blow, not daring to attack a Prince 

*•"*• ^ whom all the Proteftant powers in Germany were 
ready to fupport, judged it expedient to conclude 
a treaty with him, by which, in the moft ample 

'? Slcii. 172. Bcllay, 159, &c. 



fcrm, he recognized his tide to the dutchy. The • \f ^ 
furreCs fif the J^andgrave'^ operatiQns> in behalf of Ui-^ — -» 
the Duke of Wurtembcig, having convinced *^^^' 
Ferdinand thu a rupture with a league^ fo formi* 
daUe as chat of Smaikalde, was to be avoided 
widi the utmoil care^ he entered likewife into a 
negpciacion with the Elector of Saxony, the head 
of that union, and by fome concelfions in favour 
of the Proteftant religion, and others of advan- 
tage tos the Eledor himfel^ he prevailed on 
him» together with his confederates, to acknow- 
ledge his tiUe as Kii>g of the Romans. At the 
AfldC time^ in order to prevent any fuch precipi- 
tate or irregular eleftion in times to come, it was 
agreed that no perfon ibould hereafter be pro- 
moted to that dignity without the unanimous con- 
fcnt of the-Ejleftors i and the Emperor foon after 
cooiiraied this ftipulation ^. 

Thjese afts of indulgence towards the Pro- ^"|"';. 
tcftants, and the clofe union into which the King »«"» cooo. 
of the Romans feemed to be entering with the atManto?; 
Princes of that party, gave great offence at 
Rome. Paul IIL though he had departed from 
^ rcfolution of his predeceiTor, never to confent to 
the calling of a general council, and had pro- 
mifed, in the firft confiftory held ^ftcr his elefti'on, 
that he would convoke that.affembly fo much de- 
fired by all Chriftendom, was no lefs eru-aged 
than Clement at the innovations in Germany, 

f Sleid. 173. Corps piplom. torn. Iv. p. 2. 119. 

G 4 and 


• ^^ ^ and no Ids averfe to any fchcme for reforming 
*-^-n;=^— ' cither the dodrines of the church, jor the abufes 
'^^^' in the court of Rome : But having been a witncfs 
of the univerfal cenfure which Cleaient had in- 
curred by his obitinacy with regard to thefe points, 
he hoped to avoid the fame reproach by the fecm- 
ing alacrity with which he propofed a councils 
flftttering himfelf, however, that fuch difficulties 
would arife concerning the time and place" of meet- 
ing, the pcrfons who had a right to be prefent, 
and the order of their proceedings, as would effec- 
tually defeat the intention of thofe who demanded 
that aflembly, without expofing himfelf to any 
imputation for refufing to call it. With this view 
he difpatched nuncios to the feveral courts, in or- 
der to make known his intention, and that he had 
iixed on Mantua' as a proper place in which to 
hold the council. Such difficulties as the Pope 
had forefeen, immediately prefcnted themfelves 
in great number. The French King did not ap- 
prove of the place which Paul had chofen, as the 
Papal and Imperial influence would neceflarily be 
I too great in a town fituated in that part of Italy. 
The King of England not only, concurred with 
Francis in urging that objcftion, but refofed, be- 
fides, to acknowledge any council called in the 
' name ancj by the authority of the Pope. The 
D«c. 1%, German Proteftants having met together at Smal- 
kalde, infifted on their original demand of a 
council to be held in Germany, and pleading the 
Emperor's promife, as well as the agreement at 
Ratifbon to that cffeft, declared that they would 



fiot conikkr an aflembly held at Mantua as a le-- ^ ^^^ ^ 
gal or free rcprcfentativc of the church. By this *^— v^— ^ 
divcrfity of fentimencs and views, fuch a field fo^ '^'^' 
intrigue and negociation opened, as made iteafyfor 
the Pope to aflume the nnierit of being eager to af- 
femble a council, while at the fame time he could 
put off its meeting at pleafure. The Proteftants, 
on the other hand, fufpe£ting his defigns, and fen* 
fiblc of the importance which they derived from 
their union, renewed for ten years the league of 
Smalkaldcj which now became ftronger and more 
formidable by the acceflion of feveraL new mem- 
bers ', 

During thefe tranfaftions in Germany, the TheEmpe- 
Emperor undertook his famous enterprife againft 5i'iiJ "p*" 
the piratical ftates in Africa, That part of the ^lll^*;^^^ 
African continent lying along the coafl: of the c««a«nr* 
Mediterranean fea, which anciently formed the 
kingdoms of Mauritania and Maflylia^ together 

' TUs leagae was concluded December^ one thoufand Bvt 
hundred and thirty-five, bat not extended or figned In form 
till September in the followiog year. The Princes who ac* 
ceded to it were John EieAor of Saxony, £meft Duke of 
Bninfwicky Philip Landgrave of HeiTe, Ulric Duke of Wur- 
tcmberg, Barnim and Philip Dakes of Pomerania^ John, 
George, and Joachim, Princes of Anhalc, Gebhard and Al* 
.bert Counts of Mansfield, William Count of NafTau. The 
diies, Straifaurg, Nuremburg, Conftance, Ulm, Magdeburg, 
Bremen, Reutlingen, Hailbron, Memmengen, Lindaw, Cam- 
pen, Ifna, fiibrac, Windiheim, Augfborg, Francfort, Efling, 
Brunfwick, Goflar, Hanover, Gottingcn, Eimbeck, Ham- 
burg, Mindeo. v 

^ wim 


BOOK ^ith tht rq>ubUc of Carthage, and whidi is 
ft»^-J-««rf known by the general name of Barbarjr, had un* 
'55J* dergone many rev<rfutions. Siibdued by the Ro- 
mans> it became a province of their empire. When 
it was conquered afterwards by die Vandals, they 
erected a kingdom there. That being overturned 
by Belifarius, the country became fubjcft to die 
Greek Emperors, and continued to be lb until it 
was over-run towards the end of due feventh cen- 
tury, by the rapid and irrefifldble arms of the Ara- 
bians. It remained for fome time a part of that 
vaft empire which the Caliphs governed With abfo- 
lute authority. Its immcnfe diftance, however, 
from the feat of government, encouraged the de- 
fcendants of thofe leaders, who had fubdued the 
country, or the chiefs of the Moors, its ancient in- 
habitants, to throw off the yoke, and to afftrt their 
independence. The Caliphs, who derived their au- 
diority from a fpirit of enthufiafm, more fitted for 
making conquefts than for prefcrving them, were 
obliged to connive at adb of rebellion which they 
could not prevent ; and Barbary was divided into 
jeveral kingdoms, of which Morocco, A^ers, and 
Tunis were the ,moft confidcnd)le. The inhabitants 
of thefe kingdoms were a mixed race, Arabs, Ne- 
.groes j&om the Ibuthern provinces, and Moors, ei- 
-thcr natives of Africa, or who had been expelled 
out of Spain ; all zealous profeflbrs of the Maho- 
metan religion, and inflamed againft Chriftianity 
widi a bigoted hatred proportional to their igno- 
rance and barbarous manners. 



A.MOKG thcfe people, no lefs daring, inconftant, ■ ^^ "^ 
and treacherous, than«the ancient inhabitants of. the x^^mj- 
fame ooundy defcribed by the Roman hiftorians. Rife ol^uie 
frequent fedidons broke out, and many changes in ^^1^ 
government took place. Thefe, as they afli^dlied 
only the internal ftate of ^ country extremely bar* 
baiDus, are but little known, and deferve to be fo: 
But about the banning of the fixteenth century a 
fudden revolution happened, which, by renderit\g 
the ftates of Barbary formidable to the Europeans, 
hath made their hiftory worthy of more attention. 
This revolution was brought about by perlbns born 
in a rank of life which entitled them to a& no fuch 
illuftrious J)ait. Home and Hayfadin, the fons of «ni oi Uw ' 
a potoer in the Ittt of Lefbos, prompted by a reft- ^"^^^^^ 
Icfs and enterprizing fpirit,* forfook their feAer's 
trade, ran to fea, and joined a crew of pirates^ ^ 
They fekm "diftinguilhed themfelvcs by their valour 
and aftivfcy, and becdming mafters of a fmall bri^ 
gantine, carried on dieir in&mous trade with fvich 
condud and fuccefs, that they aflembled a fleet of 
tivelve galleys, befides many vefleh of fmaller force. 
Of this fleet H'oruc, the elder brother, called Bar- 
barofla from the red colour of his beard, was ^ 
miral, and Hayradin fecond in comnuuid, but with 
almoft equal authority. They called themfelyes 
the friends of the fea, and the enemies of all 
who fail upon it^ and their names ibon became 
terrible from the Straite of the Dardanels to thofe 
of Gibraltar. Together with their fame and polver, 
their ambitious views extended, and while ading 
as Corfairs, they adopted the ideas, and acquired 



BOOK the talents of conquerors. They often carried the 
V -^- J' prizes which they took on the coafts of Spain and 
'*^^* Italy into the ports of Barbary, and enrichmg the 
inhabitants by the fale of their booty, and the 
thoughtlefs prodigality of their crews, were wel- 
come guefts in every place at which they touched. 
The convenient fituation of thefe harbours, lying 
fo near the greatcft commercial ftates at that time 
in Chriftendom, made the brothers wifh ifor an 
eftablifhment in that country. An opportunity of 
^ccomplifhing this quickly prefented itfelf, which 
they did not fufFer to pafs unimproved. Eutemi, 
King of Algiers, having attempted ieveral times, 
without fuccefs, to take a fort which the Spanilh 
jgovernors of Oran had built not far from his ca- 
pital, was fo ill advifed as to apply for aid to Bar-- 
barofTa, whofe valour the Africans confidered as 
1516. irrefiftible. The adive Corfair gladly accepted of 
thr! invitation, and leaving his brother Hayradin 
with the fleet, marched at the head of five thou&nd 
men to Algiers, where he was received as their de- 
liverer. Such a force gave him the command of 
the town; and as he perceived that the Moors nei- 
' ther (uipeAed him of any bad intention, nor were 
capable with their light-armed troops of oppofing 
Hofiic, Ae his difciplined veterans, he fecretly murdered the 
fhtr'bcV Monarch whom he had come to aflift, and pro^ 
mo^Au' <^laimed himfelf King of Algiers in his Head, 
gicri. xhe authority which he had thus boldly ufurped, 
; he endeavoured to eftablilh by arts fuited to the 



genius of the people whom he had tq govern ; by * ^^ ^ 
liberality vnthout bounds to thofeiiirho favoured his < J ^ 
promotion, and by cruelty no lefi unbounded to- '*^^* 
wards all whom he had any reafon to diftrul^. Not 
fadsfied with the throne which he had acquired^ 
he attacked the neighbouring King of Tremccen, 
and having vanquifhed him in battle, added his do* 
minions to thofe of A^iers., At the fame time, 
he continued to infeft the coaft of Spain and Italy 
with fleets which reiembled the armaments of a 
great monarch, rather than the light fquadrons of 
a Coriair. Their frequent and cruel devaftati6ns 
obliged Charles, about the beginning of his reign, 151^. 
to fumiih the marquis de Comares, governor of 
Oran> with troops fufficient to attack him. That 
officer, affifted by the dethroned King of Tre- 
mecen, executed the commiflion with fuch Ipirit, 
that Barbarofla's troops being beat in feveral en« 
counters, he hiirifelf was fhut up in Tremecen, 
After defending it to the laft extremity, he was 
overtaken in attempting to make his cfcape, and 
flain while he fought with an obftinate valour, 
worthy of his former fame and exploits. 

His brother Hayradii\, known likewife by the The pn. 
name of Barbarofla, aflumed the fc^ptre of Algiers Hlyndin, 
widi the fame ambition and abilities, but with bet- {JJottoT* 
ter fortune. His reign being undifturbed by the 
arms of the Spaniards, which had foil occupation 
in the wars among the European powers, he regu- 
lated with admirable prudence the interior police of 



B Q^o K ii^ klngdoni^ carried oa his naval operations rndt 
km^^^'^mj grett vigour, and extended his conquefts on the 
*^^^ contineiy: of Afripa. But perceiving du^t the 
Moors and Aff^U fubmitted to his governmeai: 
tmh the utmoft rejiuftaace^ and being afrfud that 
his oondnu^l depredations would, one day, draw 
Pott hit do- xipon him the arin$ of the Chriftians, l^e put his 
»nSc ji<Hninians wader the protcftion of the. Grand 
SrthfsX Seignior, md reoeivied from him a body of TurkiOi 
t*»* foUiers fufficient for his fecurity againft hi^ domef- 

tic as well as his foreign enemies. At lafi;, the fame 
pf his ex{^t^ daily iacreafing, Solym^n o^ered him 
tlie command of the Turkifti fleet, as the only pcr- 
Ibn whole valour and fkiU in naval affairs entitled 
him to comnoand againft Andrew Dona, the great- 
eft fea-officer of that age. Proud of this diftinc- 
tion, Barbarofik jrepaired to. Conftantinople, and 
with a wonderfol verfatility of mind, mingling the 
arts of a courtier with the boldnefs of a Corfair, 
gained the entire confidence both of the Sultan and 
his Vizier. To them he conununicated a fcheme 
which he had formed of making himfelf mailer of 
Tunis, the mcft flourifhing kingdom, at that time, 
on the coaft of Africa j and this being approved 
of by them, he obtained whatever he demanded 
for carrying it into execution. 

Hitfcbemc His hopcs of fuccefs in this undertaking were 

U| Tunur founded on the intefline divifions in the kingdom 

^ of Tunis. Mahmed, the lafl King of that coua* 

try, having thittyrfour fons by different wives, 



appointed Muky-Hafcen^ one of the youngeft b 0^0 J^ 
among them, to be his fucxeflbr. That weak w^»^^-*^ 
Prince, who owed this preference, not to his own *^**' 
merit, but to the afcendant which his mother had 
acquired over a Monarch doating with age, firft 
poifbned Mahmed his father in order to prercnt 
him from altering his deftination with relped to 
the fucceffionj and then, with the barbarous policy 
which prevails wherever polygamy is permitted, 
and the right of fucccffion is not precifely fixed, he 
put to death all his brothers whom he could get 
into his power. Alrafchid, one of the ddeft, was 
fo fortunate as to efcape his rage ; and finding a re- 
treat among the wandering Arabs, made fevcral at- 
tempts, by the affiftance of fome of their chiefs, to 
recover the throne, which of right belonged to him. 
But thefe proving unfuccefsful, and die Arabs, from 
their natural levity, being ready to deliver him up 
to his mercilefs brother, he fled to Algiers, the 
only place of refuge remaining, and implored the 
proteftion of Barbaroffa j who, difcerning at once 
all the advantages whicTi might be gained by fup- 
porting his title, received him with every poflible 
dcmonftration of friendlhlp and refpeft. Being 
ready, at that time, to fet fail for Conftantinople, 
he eafily perfuaded Alrafchid, whofc eagernefs to 
obtain a crown difpofed him to believe or under- 
take any thing, to accompany him thither, pro- 
mifing him effeftual affiftance from Solyman, whom 
he rcprefented to be the moft generous, as well as 
moft powerful Monarch in the world. But no 
fooncr were they arrived at Conftantinople, than 
3 t^« 


BOOR the treacherous Corlair, rcgardlcfs of all his pro- 
Ui-v-iiji miles to him^ opened to the Sultan a plan for con- 
'53S- quering Tunis, and annexing it to the Turkifli 
empire, by making ule of the name of this exiled 
Prince, and co-operating with the party in the 
kingdom which was ready to declare in hif ^pur. 
Solfman approved, with too much facility, oTtbis 
perfidious propofal, extremely fuitable to the cha- 
radker of its author, but altogether unworthy of a 
great Prince. A powerful fleet and numerous army 
were loon aflembled; at the fight of which the cre- 
dulous Alrafchid flattered himfelf that he fhould 
ibon enter his capital in triumph. 

Its fttcccfi. But juft as this unhappy Prince was going to 
embark, he was arrefted by order of the Sultan, 
fliut up in the feraglio, and was never heard of 
more. Barbarofla failed with a fleet of two hun- 
dred and fifty veflels towards Africa. Afi:er ra- 
vaging the coafts of Italy, and fpreading terror 
through every part of that country, he appeared 
before Tunis; and landing his men, gave out 
that he came to aflert the right of Alrafchid, 
whom he pretended to have left fick aboard 
the admiral galley. The fort of Goletta, which 
commands the bay, foon fell into his hands, partly 
by his own addrefs, partly by the treachery of its 
commander ; and the inhabitants of Tunis, weary 
of Muley-Hafcen's government, took arms, and 
declared for Akafchid with fuch zeal and unani- 
mity, as obliged the former to fly fo precipitately, 
that he left all his treafures behind him. The 



gates were immediately fet open to Barbaroffa, as ^ ^^^ '^ 
tlic rcftorer of their lawful fovcrcign. But when *^ — ^-^^ 
Alrafchid himfclf did not appear, and when in- '^^*' 
ftcad of his name, tliat of Solyman alone was heard 
among'-JChe acclamations of the Turkifh foldiers 
marcfu^ into the town, the people of Tunis began 
CD fufped the Corfair's treachery. Their fulpicions 
-being foon converted into certainty, they ran to 
arms with the utmoft fury, and furrounded the 
citadel, into which Barbaro0a had led his troops. 
But having forefeen fuch a revolution, he was not 
unprepared for it ; he immediately turned againfl 
them the artillery on the ramparts, and by one 
briflc difcharge, difperfed the numeious but un- 
diredted aflailants, and forced them to acknowledge 
Solyman as their fovereign, and tofubmit to him- 
fclf as his viceroy. 

His firfl care was to put the kingdom, of f^/^fr^fu" 
which he had thus got pofTefTion, in a proper po^cr. 
pofhire of defence. He ftrengthened the citadel 
which commands the town; and fortifying the 
Goletta in a regular manner, at vaft cxpence, 
made it the principal ftation for his fleet, and his 
great arfenal for military as weD as naval (bores. 
Being now pofTcflTed of fuch extenfivc territories, 
he carried on his depredations againft the Chrift- 
ian States to a greater extent, and with morc^ 
ddtruftive violence than ever, Daily complaints 
of the outrages committed by his cruizers were 
brought to the Emperor by his fpbjefts, both in 

VoL.IIL H . Spate 


9 o^o K Spain and Italy. All Chriftendom fecmed to 
W---J — ^ expe6t from hini> as its greateft and n:K>ft fortunate 
»535- Prince, that he would put an end to this new and 
The exiled odious fpecics of oppreflion. At the fame time 
Tuo.iirto. Muley-Hafcen, the exiled King of Tunis, find* 
Em'p'lJw'* ing none of the Mahometan Princes in Africa 
A^ri!"aii y^ilKng or able to affid him in recovering his 
'535- throne, applied to Charles as the only perfbn who 
pould aflfert his rights in oppofition Co fu^h a for- 
midable ufurper. The Emperor, equally defirous 
of delivering his dominions from the dangerous 
neighbourhood of BarbaroiTa j of appearing as the 
proteftor of an unfortunate Prince j and of ac- 
quiring the glory annexed in that age, to every 
expedition againft the Mahometans, readily con- 
cluded a treaty with Muley-Hafcen, and began 
to prepare for invading Tunis. Having made 
trial of his own abilities for war in the late cam- 
paign in Hungary, he was now beccMhe fb fond 
of the military charafter, that he determined to 
His prf para- command on this occafion in perfon. The united 
«7««i«i«n* ftrength of his dominions was called out upoa an 
enterprize in which the Emperor was about to 
hazard ^his glory, and which drew the attention 
^ of all l^urope. A^Flemifh fleet carried from the 
ports of the L#ow-Country a body of German in- 
fantry ' ; the gallies of Naples and Sicily took on 
board the veteran bands of Italians and Spa- 
niards, which. had diflinguilhed themfelves by fo 
many vidories over the French ^ the Emperor 

• • Harxi Annales Brabant, i. 599* 



Kimfelf embarked at Barcelona with the flower of ^ ^^^ ^ 
the Spanifli nobility, and was joined by a con- ^^ ^ '*^ 
fiderable ftjuadron from Portugal, under the *^^^* 
command of the Infant Don Lewis, the Emprefs's 
brother; Andrew Doria conducted his own gal- 
lies, the beft appointed at that time in Europe, 
and commanded by the moft Ikilful officers : the 
Pope furniflied all the afliftance in his power to- 
wards fuch a pious enterprize -, and the order of 
Malta, the perpetual enemies of the Infidels, 
equipped a fquadron, which, though fmall, was 
formidable by the valour of the knights who ferved 
on board it. The port of Cagliari in Sardinia was . 
the general place of rendezvous. Doria was ap- 
pointed High- Admiral of the fleet; the command 
of the land-forces under the Emperor was given to 
the marquis de Guafto. 

On the fixteenth of July, the fleet, confifldng tMidifii 
of n«u- five hundred veflels, having on board ^^'^^ 
above thirty thoufand regular troops, fet fail from 
Cagliari, and after a profperous navigation landed 
within fight of Tunis. Barbaroffa having received 
early intelligence of the Emperor's immenfe ar- 
mament, and fuipeding its defl:ination, prepared 
with equal prudence and vigour for the defence of 
his new conqueft. He called in all his corfairs 
fi-om their different ftations; he drew fi-om Al- 
giers what forces could be Ipared ; he dilpatched 
tneflengers to all the African Princes, Moors as 
well as Arabs, and by reprefenting Muley-Hafcen 
as an infamous apoftate, prompted by ambition 
H 2 and 

6 61 (3 9 7 


and revenge, not only to become the vaffal of a 
Chriftian Prince, but to confpire with him to ex- 
'535 tirpate the Mahommedan faith, he inflamed thofe 
ignorant and bigoted chiefs to fuch a degree, that 
they took arms as in a common caufe. Twenty 
thoufand horfe, together with a great body of foot, 
foon affembled at Tunis ; and by a proper diftri- 
bution of prefents among them from time to time, 
Barbaroflfa kept the ardour which had brought 
them together from fubfiding. But as he was too 
well acquainted 'vtdth the enemy whom he had to 
oppofe, to think that thefe light troops could re- 
fill the heavy-armed cavalry and veteran infantry 
which compofed the Imperial army, his chief 
confidence was in the ftrength of the Goletta, 
and in his body of Turkifti foldiers who were 
armed and difciplined after the European Miion. 
Six thoufand of thefe, under the command of 
Sinan, a renegado Jew, the braveft and moft expe- 
rienced of all his corfairs, he threw into that fort, 

Layificgc which the Emperor immediately invcfted. As 
Charles had the command of the fea, his camp 
was fo plentifully fupplied not only with the nc- 
cefTaries, but with all the luxuries of life, that 

' Muley-Hafcen, who had not been accuftomed to 

fee war carried on with fuch order and magnifi- 
cence, was filled with admiration of the Empe- 
ror's power. His troops, animated by his prc- 
fence, and confidering it as meritorious to (bed 
their blood in fuch a pious caufe, contended w^th 
each other for the pofts of honour and danger. 
Three feparat.* attacks were conceited, arid the 

, Germans, 


Germans, Spaniards, and Italians, having one 
of thcfe committed to each of them, pufhed them 
forward with the eager courage which national '^*^' 
emulation infpires. Sinan dilplayed refolution 
and flcill becoming the confidence wliich his 
mafter had put in him; the garrifon performed 
the hard fervice on which they were ordered with 
great fortitude. But diough he inten^upted the 
bcfiegers by frequent fallies, though the Pvloors 
and Arabs alarmed the camp with their con- 
tinual incurfions; the breaches fbon become fo 
confiderable towards the land, while the fleet bat- 
tered thofe parts of die fortifications which it could 
approach with no lefs fury and fuccefs, that an 
aflault beiner given on all fides at once, the place Tikeihbf 
was taken by ftorm, Sinan, with the remains of July 15, 
his garrifon, retired, after an obftinate rcfiftance, 
over a fhallow part of the bay towards the city. - 
By the reduftion of the Goletta, the Emperor be- 
came mafter of Baibaroflfa's fleet, confifting of 
eighty-feven gailles and galliots, together with 
his arfenal, and diree hundred cannon, mofdy 
brafs, which were planted on the ramparts; a 
prodigious number in that age, and a remarkable 
proof of the ftrength of the fort, as well as of the 
grcatncfs of the corfair's pov/er. The Emperor 
marched into the Goletta through the breach, and 
turning to Muley-Hafcen who attended him, 
" Here," fays he, " is a gate open to you, by 
which you fhall return to take poflTcflion of your 
dominions." , 

H 2 BAR3A-. 



Barbarossa, though, he felt the full weight of 
the blow which he had received, did not, how- 
'^'^*' ever, lofe courage, or abandon the defence of 
Tunis. But as the walls were of great extent, 
and extremely weak ; as he could not depend on 
the fidelity of the inhabitants, nor hope that the 
Moors and Arabs would liiftain'the hardlhips of 
a fiege, he boldly deterniined to advance with his 
army, which amounted to fifty thoufand men % 
towards the Irppcrial camp, and to decide the fate 
of his kingdom by the ifTiie of a batde. This re- 
folution he communicated to his principal officers, 
and reprefcnting to them the fatal confequences 
which might follow, if ten thoufand Chriftian 
(laves, whom he had fhut up in the citadel, (hould 
attempt to mutiny during the abfencc of the 
army, he propofed as • a necefTary precaution for 
the public fecurity, to maflacre them without 
mercy before he began his march. They all 
approved vTarmly of his intention to fight; but 
inured as they were, in their piratical depreda- 
tions, to fcenes of bloodftied and cruelty, the bar- 
barity of his propofal concerning the flaves, filled 
them with horror; and BarbaroflTa, rather frgm 
the dread of irritating them, than fwayed by mo- 
tives of humanity, confented to fpare the lives of 
the flaves. 

Defeat! ^ By this timc the Emperor had begun to ad- 
%rliyT * ' yance towards Tunis ; and thpugh His troops fuf- 

^ Epidres de Princes, par Ralcelli, p. 119, 2rc, 



fercd inconceivable hardlhips in their march, ■ ^^° ^ 
over burning fands, deftitute of water, and ex- s^ ^ ^-m^ 
pofcd to the intolerable heat of the fun, they foon '^^^' 
came up with the enemy. The Moors and Arabs, 
emboldened by their vaft fuperiority in number, 
immediately rulhed on to the attack with loud 
ihouts, but their undifciplined courage could not 
long ftand the Ihock of regular battalions ; and 
though Barbaroffa, with admirable prefence of 
mind, and by expofing his own perfon to the 
greatefl: dangers, endeavoured to rally them, the 
rout became fb general, that he himfelf was hur- 
ried along with them in their flight back to the 
city. There he found every thing in the utmoft 
confufion -, fome of the inhabitants flying with 
their families and effefts; others ready to fet 
open their gates to the conqueror; the Turkifh 
foldiers preparing to retreat; and the citadel, 
which in fuch circumftances might have aflforded 
him fome refuge, alieady in the ppflfeflion of 
the Chriflian captives. Thefe unhappy men, 
rendered defperate by their fituation, had laid 
hold on the opportunity which Barbaroflk 
dreaded. As foon as his army was at fome dif- 
tance from the town, they gained two of their 
keepers, by whofe afliftance, , knocking oflf their 
fetters, and burfting open their prifons, they 
overpowered the Turkifh garrifon, and turned 
the artillery of the fort againft their former mailers. 
Barbarofia, difappointed and enraged, exclaiming 
Ibmetimes againft the falfe compafllon of his 
Qf^cers, and fometimes condemning his own im- 
H 4 ^ prudent 


B o^o K prudent compliance with their opinion, fled prcci- 
^^ — - ~ pitately to Bona. 



Tunii fur- Meanwhile Charles, fatisfied with the eafy and 
almoft bloodlefs viftory which he had gained, and 
advancing flowJy with- the precaution neceffary in 
an enemy's country, did not yet know the whole 
extent of his own good fortune. But at laft, a 
meffenger difpatched by the flaves acquainted him 
with the fuccefs of their noble effort for the reco- 
very of their liberty; and at the fame time deputies 
arrived from the town, in order to prefent him the 
keys of their gates, and to implore his proteftion 
from military violence. While he was deliberating 
concerning the proper meafures for this purpofe, 
the foldiers, fearing that they fhould be deprived of 
the booty which they had expected, rulhed fuddenly, 
and without orders, into the town, and began to 
kill and plunder without diftinftion. It was then 
too late to reftrain their cruelty, their avarice, or li- 
centioufnefs. All the outrages of which foldiers 
are capable in the fury of a ftorm, all the excefles 
of which men can be guilty when their paffions are 
heightened by the contempt and hatred which dif- 
ference in manners and reUgion inlpire, were 
committed. Above thirty thoufand of the inno- 
cent inhabitants perilhed on that unhappy day, 
and ten thoufand were carried away as flaves. 
Muley-Hafcen took pofiTefilon of a tlirone fur- 
rounded with cai'nage, abhorred by his fubjedts 
ofi whom he had brought fuch calamities, and 



pitied even by thofe whofe ralhnefs had been the ® ^^^ ^ 
occafion of them. The Emperor lamented the v^-^-..,^ 
fatal accident which had ftained the kiftre of his vie- *^'^' 
tory J and amidft fuch a fcene of horror there was ' • 
but one fpedacle that afforded him any fatisfaftion. 
Ten thoufand Chriftian flaves, among whom were 
fcvcral peribns of diftinftion, met him as he enter- 
ed the town ; and falling on their knees, thanked 
and bleflcd him as their deliverer. 

At the fame time that Charles accomplilhed his i^eftorwthe 

promife to the Moorifh King, of rcreftablifhing him to bh 

in his dominions, he did not negledt what was ne- 

ccffary for bridling the power of the African cor- 

fairs, for the lecurity of his own fubjefts, and for 

the intereft of the Spanifh crown: in order to gain 

thefe ends, he concluded a treaty with Muley- 

Hafcen on the following conditions 5 that he ftiould 

hold the kingdom of Tunis in fee of the crown of 

Spain, and do homage to the Emperor as his liege 

lord i that all the Chriftian flaves now within 

his dominions^ of whatever nation, ftiould be fet 

at hberty without ranfom ; that no fubjeft of the 

Emperor's ftiould for the future be detained in fer- 

vitudci that no Turkifti corfair ftkould be admitted 

into the ports of his dominions ; that free trade, to - 

gether with the public exercife of the Chriftian re- 

ligion, ftiould be allowed to all the Emperor's 

fubjeds 5 that the Emperor ftiould not only retain 

Lhe Goletta, but that all the other fea-ports in the 

kingdom which were fortified ftiould be put into 

his hands 3 that Muley-Hafcen Ihould pay annu- 



BOOK ally twelve thoufand crowns for the (ubfiftence of 
u— J— -» the Spanifli garrifori in the Golettaj that he 
'53S' Ihould enter into no alliance with any of the Em- 
peror's enemies^ and fhould prefent to hina every 
year as an acknowledgment of his vaffalagc, fix 
Moorifh horfes, and a$ many hawks ". Having 
thus fettled the affairs of Africa i chaftifed the in- 
folence of the corfairs j fecured a lafe retreat for the 
fhips of his fubjefts, and a proper ft^tion to his 
own fleets, on that coaft from which he was moft 
Ah^ 17- infefted by piratical depredations; Charles embark- 
ed again for Europe, the tempeftuous weather, and 
fickneft among his troops, not permitting him to 
purfue Barbaroffa *. 

The glory By this expcdition, the merit of which fecms to 
Etoperor* ii2i^^ t>cen cftimatcd in diat age, rather by the ap- 
•cquired. parent gcncrofity o[ the undertaking, the magni- 
ficence wlwrewith it was condufted, and the fiiccefs 
which crowned it, than by the importance of the 
confequences that attended it, the Emperor attain- 
ed a greater height of glory than at any other pe- 
riod of his reign. Twenty thoufand flaves whom 
he freed from bondage, either by his arms, or by 

• Dtt Mont Corps Diplomat, ii. 128. Summonte Hift. di 
Napoli, iv. 89. 

» Joh. Etropii Diarium Expedition. Tunetanae, ap. Scard, 
V. ii. p. 320, &c. Jovii Hiftor. lib. xxxiv. 153, &c. Sandov. 
ii. 154, &c. Vertot Hift. de Cheval. de Malthe. Epiftrcs 
dcs Princes, par Rufcelli, iraduites par Bellcforcft, p. 119, 
lao, &c» Anton. Pontii Confcniini Hift. Belli ftdv, Barbar. 
^p. Matthsei Analeda. 



his treaty with Muley-Hafcen ^^ each of whom he ^ ^^ ^ 
clothed and flirnilhed with the means of returning u,-yl,^ 
to their refpedlive countries, fpread all oyer Europe '^^^' 
the fame of their benefaftor's munificence, extol- 
ling his power and abilities with the exaggeration 
flowing from gratitude and admiration. In com- 
parifon with him, the other Monarchs of Europe 
made an inconliderable figure. They fcemed to 
be folicitQus about nothing but their private and 
particular interefts ; while Charles, with an eleva- 
pon of fentiment which became the chief Prince in 
Chriftendom, appeared to be concerned for the 
honour of the Chriftiayi name, and ^ttei^tive to the 
public fecurity and welfare. 

J Sominonte Hill« d< Nap. to), ir. p. 103. 



of THE 




B O O K VI. 

UNFORTUNATELY for the reputation of 
Francis I. ^mong his contemporaries, his 
15^5* conduft, at this junfture, appeared a perfedt con- 
of a new traft tp that of his rival, as he laid hold on the 
iwVpoVhe opportunity afforded him, by the Emperor's 
i^FirTnai* ^^^ing tumcd his whole force againfl: the com- 
mon enemy of Chriftendom, to revive his pre- 
tenfions in Italy, and to plunge Europe into a 
new war. The treaty of Cambray, as has been 
obferved, did not remove the caufes of enmity 
between the two contending Princes; it cover- 
ed up, but did not extinguifh the flames of dif- 
cord^ Francis in particular, who waited with im- 
patience for a proper occafion of recovering the 
reputation as well as the territories which he had 
loft, continued to carry on his negociations in dif- 

THE REIGN, &c. lo^ 

fercnt courts againft the Emperor, taking the ut- ^ ^^^ ^ 
moft pains to heighten the jealoufy which many ^^^^^ 
Princes entertained of his power or defigns, and to '^^^' 
infpire the reft with the fame fufpicion and fear : 
among others, he applied to Francis Sforza, who, 
though indebted to Charles for the pofleflion of the 
dutchy of Milan, had received it on fuch hard con- 
ditions, as rendered him not only a vaiTal of the 
Empire, but a tributary dependant upon the Em- 
peror. The honour of having married the Empe- 
ror's niece, did not reconcile him to this ignomi- 
nious ftate of fubjedion, which became fo intole- 
rable even to Sforza, though a weak and poor-lpirited 
Prince, that he liftened with eagernefs to the firft 
propofals Francis made of refcuing him from the 
yoke. Thefe propofals were conveyed to him by 
Maraviglia, or Merveille, as he is called by the 
French hiftorians, a Milanefe gentleman refiding 
at Paris ; and foon after, in order to carry on tl;c \ 

negociation with greater advantage, Merveille was 
fcnt CO Milan, on pretence of vifiting his rela- 
dons, but with fecret credentials from Francis as 
his envoy. In this charafter he was received by . 
Sforza. But notwithftanding his care to keep that 
circumftance concealed, Charles fufpefting, or hav- 
ing received information of it, remonftrated and 
threatened in fu^h an high tone, that the Duke and 
his ininifters, equally intimidated,, gave the world 
immediately a moft infamous proof of their fervile 
fear of offending the Emperor. As Merveille had 
neither the prudence nor the temper which the func- 
tion wherein he was employed required, they art- 

no tHE ^EIGN OP tHE 

fully decoyed him into a quarrel, in which he hap'- 
pcned to kill his antagonift, one of the Ehikc's do- 
i>w? 1533. ncieftics, and having inftandy feizcd him, they or- 
dered him to be tried for that crime, and to be be- 
headed. Francis, no lefs aftoniflied at this viola- 
tion of a character held facrcd among the moft un- 
civilized nations, than enraged at the infult offered 
to the dignity of his crown, threatened Sforza with 
the efFeds of his indignation, and complained to 
the Emperor, whom he confidered as the real au- 
thor pf that unexampled outrage. But meeting 
with no fatisfaftion from either, he appealed to all 
the Princes of Europe, and thought himfclf now 
entided to take vengeance for an injury, which it 
would have been indecent and pufillanimous to let 
pafs with impunity. 

Francifde. Being thus fomiflied with a pretext for begin- 
|Ji^"|^ ^ ning a war, on which he had already refolved, he 
multiplied his efforts in order to draw in other 
Princes to take part in the quarrel. But all. his 
meaflires for this purpofe were difconcerted by un- 
forefeen events. After having faCrifked the honour 
of the royal family of France by the marriage of 
his fon with Catharine of Medici, in order to gain 
Clement, the death of that Pontiff had deprived 
him of aU the advantages which he expefted to de- 
rive from his friendlhip. Paul, his fucceflTor, 
though attached by inclination to the Imperial in- 
tercft, feemed determined to maintain the neutra- 
lity fultable to his charader as the common father 
of the contending Princes. The King of England, 
S occupied 


occupied with domeftic cares and projefts, declin- 
ed, for once, engaging in the affairs of the conti- 
nent, and reflifed tof affift Francis, unlefs he would '^^^' 
imitate his example, in throwing off the Papal fu- 
premacy. Thefe difappointments led him to foli- Hiinegoc?- 
cit, with greater eameftnefs, the aid of the Pro- Jhc ceTmJ'fi 
teftant Princes aflbciated by the league of Smal- P^oteftanii. 
kalde. That he might the more eafily acquire their 
confidence, he endeavoured to accommodate him- 
felf to their predominant paffion, zeal for their re- 
ligious tenets. He affefted a wonderful modera- 
tion widi regard to the points in difpute ; he per- 
mitted Bellay, his envoy in Germany, to explain 
his fentiments concerning fome of the moft import- 
ant articles, in terms not far different from thofe 
ufedby the Proteftants'j he even condefcended to 
invite M elan£thon, whofe gentle manners and pa- 
cific Ipirit diftbguiihed him among the Reformers, 
to vifit Paris, that by his affiftance he might con- 
cert the moft proper measures for reconciling the 
contending fefts which fo unhappily divided the 
church **. Thefe conceflions muft be confidered ra- 
ther as arts of policy, than the refult of conviftion j 
for whatever impreffion the new opinions in religion 
had made on his fifters, the Queen of Navarre 
and Dutchefs of Ferrara, the gaiety of Francis's 
own temper, and his love of pleafure, allowed 

• Freheri Script. Rcr. German, iii. 354, Sec, Sleid. Hift. 
178. 183. Seckend. lib. iii. 103. 

** Camcrarii. Vita Ph, Melan^honi*, li**. Hag. 1655. 
p. 12. 



* %P ^ ^^^ ^^^^ leifure to examine theological contro- 
w— sxl^ verfies. 


irritttei But foon after he loft all the fruits of this dif- 

ingenuous artifice, by a ftep very inconfiftent with 
his declarations to the German Prince^. This 
ftep, however, the prejudices of the age, and the 
religious fentiments of his own fubjefts, rendered 
it neceflary for him to take. His clofe union with 
the King of England, an excommunicated heretic; 
his frequent negociations with the German Proteft- 
ants; but^above all, his giving public audience to 
an envoy from Sultan Solyman, h^d excited violent 
fufpicions concerning the fincerity of his attachment 
to religion. To have attacked the Emperor, who, 
on all occaftons, made high pretentions to zeal in 
defence of the Catholic faith, and at the very junc 
ture when he was preparing for his expedition againft 
Barbarofla, which was then confidered as a pious 
cnterprife, could not have failed to confirm fuch 
unfavourable fentiments with regard to Francis, and 
called on him to vindicate himfelf by fome extra- 
ordinary demonftration of his reverence for the efta- 
bliftied do6h-ines of the church. The indifcreet zeal 
of fome of his fubjcfts, who had imbibed the Pro- 
teftant opinions, furnifhed him with fuch an oc- 
cafion as he defired. They had affi^^ed to the 
. gates of die Louvre, and other public places, 
papers containing indecent refledlions on the doc- 
trines and rites of the Popifh church. Six of the 
perfpns concerned in this raih action were difco- 



rcred and ieized. The King, in order to avert the 
judgments which it was fuppofed their blafphemies 
niight draw down upon the nation, appointed a fo- '5JS» 
Icnm proceffion. The holy facrament was carried 
through the city in great pomp j Francis walked un- • 
covered before it, bearing a torch in hk hand^ the 
princes of the blood fupported the canopy over it; *• 

the nobles marched in order behind. In the pre^ 
fence of this numerous affembly, the King, accuf- 
tomed to exprefs himfclf on every fubjedt in ftrong 
and animated language, declared that if one of his 
hands were infeded with herefy, he would cut it 
off with the other, and would not Ipare even his 
own children, if found guUty of that crime. As a 
drcadfijl proof of his being in earneft, the fix un- 
happy perlbns were publicly burnt before the pro- 
ceffion was finished, with circumftances of the moft 
{hocking barbarity attending their execution ^ 

The Princes of the league of Smalkalde, filled They reir„fe 
with refentment and indignation at the cruelty with ''^ ^^*" 
which their brethren were treated, could not con- 
ceive Francis to be fincere, when he offered to pro- 
tect in Germany thofe very tenets, which he perfe- 
cutcd with fuch rigour in his own ^dominions; fo 
that all Bellay's art arid eloquence in vindicating 
his mafter, or apologifing for his conduft, made 
but litde impreffion upon them. They confidcred 

« Belcarii Comment Rer. Gallic. 64.6. Slcid. Hid. 175, 

Vol. III. I like- 


B o^ o K likcwife, that the Emperor, ^ho hitherto had never 

\ >^,^ employed violence agaii^ the doctrines of the Re- 

^535' formers, nor even given them much moleftation 
in their progrefs, was now bound by the agree- 
ment at Ratifbon, not to difturb Aich as had cm- 
braced die new opinions j and the Proteflants wifely 
regarded this as a more certain and immediate fe- 
curity, than the precarious and diftant hopes with 
which Francis endeavoured to allure them. Be- 
fides, the manner in which he had behaved to his 
allies at the peace of Cambray, was too recent to 
be forgotten, and did not encourage others to rely 
much on his friendftiip or generofity. tfpon all 
thele accounts, the Proteftant Princes refufed to aflift 
the French King in any hoftile attempt againft the 
Emperor. The Eieflor of Saxony, the moft zeal- 
ous among them, in order to avoid giving any 
umbrage to Charles, would not permit Mdanfthon 
to vifit the court of France, although that Re- 
former, flattered perhaps by the invitation of fo great 
a Monarch, or hoping that his prefence there 
might be of fignal advantage to the Proteftant 
caufe, difcovered a ftrong inclination to undertake 
the journey **. 

ThcFrerch BuT though nonc of the many Princes wjio 
rafl«fto. envied or dreaded the power of Charles, would 
vardsitiiy. fecond Francis's cfForts in order to reduce and 

<» Camerarii Vita Melan. 142, &c. 415. Scckcnd. lib. iii. 



dfcuaifcribc it, he, ncverthdefe, commanded his ^ ^^ ^^ 
army to advance towards th^ frontiers of Italy. As u— v^ 
his fole pretext for taking arms was that he might *^^^' 
diaftiie the Duke of Milan for his infolent and cruel 
breach of the law of nations, it might have been 
expeded that the whole weight of his vengeance was 
to have fatlen on his territories. But on a fudden, 
and at their very commencement, the operations of 
war took another direftion. Charles Duke of Sa- 
voy, one of the leaft aftive and able Princes of the 
line from which he dcfcended, had married Beatrix 
of Portugal, the lifter of the Emprefs* By her 
great taients, Ihe foon acquired an ^bfolute afcend- 
ant over her hufband : and proud of her affinity to 
the Emperor, or allured by the magnificent pro- 
miles with which he flattered her ambition, Ihe 
formed an union between the Duke and the ImpCr 
rial court, extremely iaconfiftent with that neutra- 
lity, which wife policy as well as the fituation of his 
dominions had hitherto induced him to obfcrve in 
all the quarrels between the contending Monarchs. 
Francis was abundantly fenfible of the diftrefs to 
which he might be expofed, if, when he entered 
Itaifj he fliould leave behind him the territories of 
a Prince, devoted fo obfequioufly to the Emperor, ^ 
that he had fent his eldeft fon to be educated in the 
court of Spain, as a kind of hoftage for his fidelity. 
Clement the Seventh, who had reprefented this 
danger in a ftrong light during his interview with 
Francis at Marfeilles, fnggefted to him, at the 
fame rime, the proper method of guarding againft 

I 2 it, 


^ %^ ^ it, having advifed him to begin his operations 
t-i-yl^ againft the Milanefe, by taking poffeflion of Savoy 
'^^5* and Piedmoi^t, as the only certain way of fecuring 
Takei pof- a communication ^ith his own dominions. Fran- 
fhe'iTokcof cis, highly irritated at the Duke on many accounts, 
mbioos^^' particularly for having fupplied the Conftable Bour- 
bon with the money that enabled him to levy the 
body of troops which ruined the French army in 
the fatal battle of Pavia, was not unwilling to let 
him now feel both how deeply he refented, and how 
feverely he could punilh thefe injuries. Nor did 
he want leveral pretexts which gave fome colour of 
equity to the violence that he intended. The ter- 
ritories of France and Savoy lying contiguous to 
each other, and intermingled in many places, va- 
rious difputes, unavoidable in fuch a fituation, llib- 
fifted between the two fovereigns concerning the 
limits of their refpeftive property; and befides, 
Francis, in right of his mother Louife of Savoy, 
had large. claims upon the Duke her brother, for j 
her Ihare in their father's fucccffion. Being un- 
willing, however, to begin hoftilities without fome 
caufe of quarrel more fpecious than thefe prctcn- 
fions, many of which were obfolete, and others 
dubious, he demanded permiffion to march through 
Piedmont in his way to the Milanefe, hoping that 
the Duke, from an excefs of attachment to the 
Imperial intereft, might refufe this requeft, and 
thus give a greater appearance of juftice to all his 
operations againft him. But, if we may believe 
. the hiftorians of Savoy, who appear to be better 
informed with regard to this particular than thofe 



of Francci the Duke readily, and with a good ^ ^^^ ^ 
grate, granted what it was not in his power to \u.^y— .j 
deny, promifing free paffage to the French troops as *^^^' 
was deiired ; (o that Francis, as the only method 
now left of juftifying the meafures which he deter- 
mined to take, lyas obliged to infift for full fatif- 
faflion with regard to every thing that either the 
crown of France or his mother Louife could de- 
mand of the houfe of Savoy *• Such an evafive 
anfwcr, as might have been expefted, being made 
to this requifition, the French army under the ad- 
miral Brion poured at once into the Duke's terri- 
tories at different places. The countries of Brefle 
and Bugey, united at that time to Savoy, were 
over-run in a moment. Moft of the towns in the 
dutchy of Savoy opened their gates at the approach 
of die enemy; a few which attempted to make re- 
fiftancc were eafily forced ; and before the end of 
the campaign, the Duke faw himfelf ftripped of 
all his dominions, but the province of Piedmont, 
in which there were not many places in a condition 
to be defended. 

To complete the Duke's misfortunes, the city xhecUyof 
of Geneva, the fovereignty of which he claimed, ^,*"ri * "' 
and in fome degree poffefled, threw off his yoke, *''**"^y' 
and its revolt drew along with it the lofs of the ad- 
jacent territories. Geneva ,was, at that time, an 

* Hlftoire Genealogiqae de Savoye, par Gaichendn, 2 toiDt 
folp Lyon. 1660. i. 639, Sec. 

I 3 Imperial 


Imperial city; and though under die direft donni- 
nion of its own bifliops, and the remote fovercignty 
'^3^* of the Dukes of Savoy, the form of its internal 
conjftitution was purely repub^can, being governed 
by fyndics and a council chofen by the citizens. 
From thefe diftindt and often clafhrng jurifdiftions, 
two oppofite parties took their rife, and had long 
fubfifted in the ftate ; the one cprnpofed of ^e ad- 
vocates for the privileges of the coijnmunity, af- 
fumed the name of Eignoiz, or confederates in de- 
fence of liberty i and branded the other, which 
fupported the epifcopal or ducal prei-ogatives, with 
the name of.Mammelukes or flaves. At length, the 
»S3*- Proteftant opinions beginning to Iprcad among the 
citizensi infpired fuch as embraced them with that 
bold enterprifing fpirit which always accompanied 
or was naturally produced by them in their firft 
operations. As both the Duke and Bifliopwere 
from intereft, from prejudice, and from political 
confiderations, violent enemies of the Reformation, 
all the new converts joined with warmth the p^uty 
of the Eignotz ; and zeal for religion, mingling with 
the love of liberty, added ftrength to that generous 
paffion. The rage and animofity of two fadions, 
Ihut up within the fame walls, occafioned frequent 
infurredlions, which terminating moftly to the ad- 
vantage of the friends of liberty, they daily became 
more powerful. 

The Duke and Bifhop, forgetting their ancient 
contefts about jurifdidtion, had united againft their 



common enehiies, and each attacked thenn with his ^ ^^ ^ 
proper weapons. ' The Biftiop excommunicated ^ — — # 
the people of Geneva as gyilty of a double crime; '^'^' 
of impiety, in apoftatifing from the eftablilhed re- 
ligion ; and of facrilege, in invading the rights of 
his fee. The Duke attacked them as rebels againft 
their lawful Prince, and attempted to render him- 
fclf Hiaftcr of the city, firft by furprife, and then 
by open force. The citizens, defpifing the thun- 1534. 
der of the Bilhop's cenfures, boldly aflerted their 
independence againft the Duke -, and pardy by their 
own valour, partly by the powerful affiftance which 
they received from the canton of Berne, • together 
with fonae Ihiall fupplies both of men and money, 
fccretly fiirnifhed by the King of France, they de- 
feated all his attempts. Not fatisfied with having 
repulfed him, or with remaining always upon the 
defenfive themfelves, they no\y took advantage of 
the. Duke's inability to refift them, while over- 
whelmed by the armie? of France, and feiz«d fe- 
veral cafUes and places of ftrength which he pof- 
feffed in the neighbourhood of Geneva ; thus dcr 
liveriiig the city from thofe odious monuments of 
its former fubjeftion, and rendering the public li- 
berty more fecure for the future. At the fame 
time the canton of Berne invaded and conquered 
the Pays de Vaud, to which it had fome preten-. 
fions. The canton of Friburgh, though zealoufly 
attached ux the Catholic religion, and having no 
fubjcft of conteft with the Duke, laid hold on part 
of the fpoils of that unfortqnate Priqce, A great 
I 4 portion 




^ ^n? ^ portion of thefe conquefts or ufurpations being ftiD 
retained by the two cantons, add confiderably to 
their power> and have become the moft valuable 
part of their territories, Geneva, notwithftanding 
many fchemes and enterprizes of the Dukes of 
Savoy to re-eftablifh their dominion over it, ftill 
keeps poffeflion of its independence 5 and in con- 
fequence of that blefling, has attained a degree of 
confideration, wealth, and elegance, which it could 
not otherwife have reached ^ 

The Empc- Amidst fuch z fucceffion of difaftrous events, 

to^fliitthe the Duke of Savoy had no other refouree but the 

^^j^^ Emperor's proteftion, which, upon his return 

from Ttinis, he demanded with the mofl: earneft 

importunity i and as his misfortunes were occa- 

fioned chiefly by his attachment to the Imperial 

intereft, he had a juft title to immediate aflift- 

ance. Charles, however, was not in a condition 

to fupport him with that vigour and difpatch 

which the exigency of his affairs called for. Moft 

of the troops employed in the African expedition, 

having been raifed for that fervice alone, were 

difbanded as'foon as it was finifhedj the veteran 

^ forces under Antonio de Leyva were hardly fuf- 

ficient for die defence of the Milanefe^ and the 

' Hift, dc la Villc de Geneve, par Spon, 12®, Utr. 1685, 
p. 99. Hift. de la Reformation de Saifie, par Rouchat. Gen. 
1728, tom. iv. p. 294„ &c; torn. v. p. 216, &c. Mem. de 
BciUy, 181. 


or s 


Emperor's treafury was, entirely drained by his ex- b o^ o k 
traordinary efforts againft the Infidels. ^ -/ ,^ 

But the death of Francis Sforza, occafioned, oa. 14. 
according to fome hiftorians, by the terror of a sfoiwDukt 
French invafion, which had twice been fatal to *'^^*'**'*^ 
his &mily3 afforded the Emperor full leifure to 
prepare for action. By this unexpefted event, the 
nature of the war, and the c^ufes of difcord, were 
totally changed. Francis's firft pretext for taking 
arms, in order to chaftife Sforza for the infult of- 
fered to the dignity of his crown, was at once cut 
off; but as that Prince died without iffue, all 
Francis's rights to the dutchy of Milan, which 
he had yielded only to Sforza and his pofterity^ 
returned back to him in full' force. As the re- 
covery of the Milanefe was the favourite objeft of 
that Monarch, he inftahtly renewed his claim to 
it; and if he had fupported his pretenfions by 
ordering the powerful army quartered in Savoy to 
advance without lofing a moment towards Milan, 
he could hardly have failed to fecure the important 
point of poffeffion. But Francis, who became 
lefs enterprifing as he advanced in years, and 
who was overawed at fome times into an ex- 
cefs of caution by the remembrance of his pafl: 
misfortunes, endeavoured to eftablifh his rights 
by ncgociation, not by arms ; and from a timid ttmcUU 
moderation, fatal in all great affairs, neglefted tothu^ 
to improve the favourable opportunity which pre- ****''**y- 
fented itfelf. Charles was more decifive in hi^ 
operations^ and in quality of fovereign, took 



B o^o K pofifeflion of the dufchy, as a vacant fief of the 
u — ,^1— ^ Empire. While Francis endeavoured to explain 
'^3^\ and aflcrt his title to it, by argunients and me- 
morials, or employed various arts in order to re- 
concile the Italian powers to the thoughts of his 
regaining footing in Italy, his rival was filently 
taking effeftual fteps to prevent it. The Empe- 
ror, however, was very careful not to difcover 
too early any intention of this kind ; but feeming 
to admit the equity of Francis's claim, he appeared 
folicitous only about giviftg him pofleffion in foch 
a manner as might not difturb the peace of Eu- 
rope, or overturn the balance of power in Italy, 
which the politicians of that country were fo de- 
firous of preferving. By .this artifice he deceived 
Francis, and gained fo much confidence i*ith the 
reft of Europe, that, almoft without incurrirtg any 
fulpicion, he involved the affair in new diificultiesj 
and protrafted the negociations at pleafure. Some- 
times he propofed to gr^t the inveftiture of Milan 
to the Duke of Orleans, Francis's fecond fen, 
fometimes to the Duke of Angouleme, his thitd 
fon ; as the views and inclinations of the French 
court varied, he transferred his cholte alternately 
fi-om the one to the other, with fuch profound 
and well-condudted diffimulation, that neither 
Francis nor his minifters feem to have penetrated 
his real intention j and all military operaticfns 
were entirely fiilpended, as if nothing had remained 
but to enter quietly into poffeffiori of what they 



DxTRiNo the interval of leiftire gained in this ^ ^^ ^ 
manner, Charles, on his return from Tunis, affcm- \ — —• 
bled die dates both of Sicily and' Naples, and as chJrUs> 
they thought themfelves gready honoured by the [J^^j;/,*"*"' 
prefence of their Ibvereign, and were no lefs pkafed 
with the apparent difintcreftcdncfs of his expedi- 
tion into Africa, than dazzled. by the fuccefs which 
had attended his arms, prevailed on them to vote 
him luch liberal fubfidies as were feldom granted 
in that age. This enabled hrm to recruit his ve- 
teran troops, to levy a body of Germans, and to 
taike every other proper precaution for execudng 
or fupporting the meafurep on which he had de- 
tiSFTiiined. Bellay, the Frejnch envoy in Gi^rmany, 
h'&ving difcovcred the intention of raifing troops 
in that country, notwithfljanding all the pretexts 
employed in order to coniteal it, firft alafmed his 
mB&cr with this evident jproof of the Emperor's 
infincerity*. But Francisj was fo pofiefied at that 
ditie with the rage of ncgjociation, in all the arti- 
fices and refinements of which his rival far forpafled 
him, that injftead of beginning his military opera- 
tions, and pwfhing them with vigour, or feizing 
the Milanefe before the Imperial army was aflcm- 
Mcd, he fatisficd himfelf with making new offers 
to the Emperor, in order to procure the inveftiture 
by his voluntary deed. His offers were, indeed, 
fo liberal and advantageous, that if ever Charles had 
intended to grant his demand, he could not have 
r^efted them with decency. He dcxteroufly 

t M«m. dc BcIIay. 192. 




eluded them by declaring that until he confulted 
the Pope in perfon, he could not take his filial 
refolution with regard to a point which fb nearly 
concerned the peace of Italy. By this evafion he 
gained fome farther time for ripening the fchcmes 
which he had in view*.- - 

^be Empc Xhe Empcror at laft advanced towards Rome, 
tiomc. and made his publjic eptry into that city with ex- 
'^^" * traordinary pomp i but it being found neceflary 
to remove the ruins of an ancient temple of Peace, 
in order to widen one of the ftreets, through 
which the cavalcade ha<^ to pafs, all the hiftorians 
take notice of this trivial circumftance, and they 
are fond to interpret it as an omen of the bloody 
war that followed. Charles, it is certain, had by 
this time baniflied all thoughts of peace; and 
at laft threw off the liiafk, with which he had 
fo long covered his defigns fi"om the court of 
France, by a declaration of his fentiment^ no lels 
Angular than explicit. The French ambafiadors 
having in their matter's name demanded a defi- 
nitive reply to his proportions concerning the in- - 
veftiture of Milan, Charles promifed to give it 
next day in prefence of the Pope and Cardinals 
f?ipuWic affembled in full confiftory. Thefe being ac- 
jlfnfk** cordingly met, and all the foreign ambafiadors 
invited to attend, the Emperor ftood up, and ad- 
drefiing himfelf to the Pc^e, expatiated for fome 
time on die fincerity of his own wiflies for the 
peace of Chriftendom, as well as his abhorrence 
of war, the miferies of which he enumerated at 





great length, with ftudied and elaborate oratory; ® ^^ ^ 
he complained that all his endeavours to preferve W i^ ^ -i^j 
the tranquillity of Europe had hitherto been de- '*^^ 
feated by the reftlefs and unjuft ambition of the 
French King; that even during his minority he 
had proofs of the unfriendly and hoftile intentions 
of that Monarch j that afterwards, he had openly 
attempted to wreft from him the Imperial crown 
which belonged to him by a title no lefs juft than 
natural; that he had next invaded his kingdom 
of Navarre ; that not fatisficd with this, he had 
attacked his territories as well as thofe of his allies 
both in Italy and the Low- Countries ; that when 
the valour of the Imperial troops, rendered* irre- 
fiftible by the proteftion of the Almighty, had 
checked his progrefs, ruined his armies, and 
feized his perfon, he continued to purfue by de- 
ceit what he had undertaken with injuftice ; that 
he had violated every article in the treaty of Ma- 
drid to which he owed his libertv, and as foon as 
he returned to his dominions took meafures for 
rekindling the war which that pacification had 
happily extinguifhed ; that when new misfortunes 
compelled him to fue again for peace at Cambray, 
he concluded and obferved it with equal infincerity ; 
that foon after he had formed dangerous connexions 
with the heretical Princes in Germany, and incited 
them to. difturb the tranquillity of the Empire ; 
that now /he had driven the Duke of Savoy, a 
Prince married to a fifter of the Emprefs, and 
joined in clofe alliance with Spain, out of the greater 
.part of his territories ; that after injuries fo often 




repeated, mi amidft Ifi many &moc& pf difconi, all 
hppc of amity or concord t^ecame deiperate -, and 
«<53<* though he himfelf was ftill i«^illing to grant (he in-* 
veftiture of Milan to one of the Piincies of Fraace, 
there was little probability of that event's taking 
place, as Francis, on the one hand, would not coo- 
fent to what was neceffaiy for fecuriDg the tran* 
quillity of Europe, nor on the other, could he think 
it reafonable or fafe to give a rival the uncon- 
ditional pofleflion pf all that he demanded. " Ld 
us not, however, added he, continue wantonly to 
rb.iiengcs fhed the blood of our innocent fubjefts ; let ua 
fmgiecom. decide the quarrel man to man, with what arms 
he pkafes to chufe, in our Ihirts, on an ifland, a 
fridge, or aboard a galley moored in a river ; let 
the dutchy of Burgundy be put in depofit on his 
part, and that of Milan on mioe ; thefe Ihall be 
jthe prize of the conqueror; and afi^r that, let 
the united forces of Germany, Spain, and France, 
be employed to humble the power of the Turk, 
and to extirpate herefy out of Chriftendom* But 
if he, by declining this method of terminating 
our differences, renders war inevitable, nothing 
fhall divert me from profecuting it to fuch extre- 
mity, as jGhall reduce one of us to be the poorcft 
gentleman in his own dominions. Nor do I fear 
that it will be on me this misfortune fhall fall j I 
enter upon aftion with the faireft profpedt of fuc- 
cefs ; the juftice of my caufe, the union of my 
fubjeds, the number and valour of my troopsj 
the experience and fidelity of my generals, all 
combine to enfure it. Of all thefe advantages, 
2 . the 


the King of France is deftitute 5 and were my re- ^ ^^^ * 
fources no more certain, and my hopes of vidory c— ./^-^ 
no better founded than his, I would inftantly throw '^^ * 
myfelf at his feet, and with folded hands, and a 
rope about my neck, implore his mercy **." 

This long harangue the Erpperor delivered 
with an elevated voice, a haughty tone, and the 
greateft vehemence of expreffion and gefture. The 
French ambafladors, who did not fully compre- 
hend his meaning, as he Ipake in the Spanifh 
tongue, were totally difconcerted, and at a lofs how 
they fliould anfwer fuch an unexpefted inveftive ; 
when one of them began to vindicate his matter's 
conduft, Charles interpofed abruptly, and would 
nof permit him to proceed. The Pope, without 
entering into any particular detail, fatisfied himfelf 
with afliort but pathetic recommendation of peace, 
together with an offer of employing his finqere 
endeavours in order to procure that blefling to 
Chriilendom; and the aficmbly broke up in the 
greatdt aftonifhment at the extraordinary fcene 
which had been exhibited. In no part of his 
conduft, indeed, did Charles ever deviate {0 Thcmnti»« 
widely from his general charafter. Inflead of meifJr«," 
that prudent recoUedion,, that compofed and re- 
gular deportment fo ftriftly attentive to decorum, 
and fo admirably adapted to conceal his own paf- 
ik>DS, for which he was at all other times conlpicu- 
ous, he appears on this occafion before one of the 

^ Bellay, 199. Sandov. Hlftor. del Emper. ii. 2z6. 



^ P ^ ^ moft auguft aflemblics in Europe, boafting of his 
^— -v^^^i^ own jpower and exploits with infolence ; inveighing 
'^^ * againft his enemy with indecency ; and challenging 
him to combat with an oftentatious valour, more 
becoming a champion in romance, than the firft 
Monarch in Chriftendqm. But the well-known 
and powerful operation of continued profperity, 
as well as of exaggerated praife, even upon the 
firmeft minds, fufficiently account for this feeming 
inconfiftency. After having compelled Solyman 
to retreat, and having ftripped Barbarofla of a 
kingdom, Charles began to confider his arms as 
invincible. He had been entertained, ever fince 
his return from Africa, with repeated fcenes of 
triumphs and public rejoicings; the orators and 
poets of Italy, the moft elegant at that time in 
Europe, had exhaufted their genius in panegyric 
on his conduft and merit, to v/hich the aftrologers 
added magnificent promifes of a more Iplendid for- 
tune ftill in ftore. Intoxicated with all thefe, he 
forgot his ufual referve and moderation, and was 
unable to reftrain this extravagant fally of vanity, 
wliich became the more remarkable, by being 
bodi fo uncommon and fo public. 

He himfelf feems to have been immediately 
fenfible of the impropriety of his behaviour, and 
when the French ambaffadors demanded next day 
a more clear explanation of what he had faid con- 
c::;:ng the combat, he told them that they were 
not to confider his propofal as a formal challenge 
^ t ) tJieir mafter, but as an expedient for preventing 

bloodihed i 


bloodfhed ; he endeavoured to" foften other expref- 
fions in his difcourfe ; and fpoke in terms full of 
refpeft towards Francis. But though this flight 
apology was far from being fufficient to remove the 
ofiencc which had been given, Francis, by an un- 
accountable infatuation, continued to negociate, as 
if it had flill been pofTible to bring their differences 
to a period by an amicable compofition. Charles, 
finding him fo eager to run into the fnare, favoured 
the deception, and, by feeming to Men to his pro* 
pofalsj gained farther time to prepare for the execu- 
tion of his own defigns K 

At laft, the Imperial army aflembled on the chiriw 
frontiers of the Milanefe, to the amount of forty fTancV 
thouland foot and ten thoufand horfr, while that 
of France encamped near Vercelli in Piedmont, 
^^g greatly inferior in number, and weakened 
by the departure of a body of Swifs, whom Charles 
artfully perfuaded the popifh cantons to recal, that 
they might not lerve againft the Duke of Savoy, 
their ancient ally. The French general, not dar- 
ing to rifque a battle, retired as foon as the Impe- 
rialifls advanced. The Emperor put himfelf at the Miy«i 
head of his forces, which the Marquis del Guafto, 
the Duke of Alva, and Ferdinand de Gonzaga 
commanded under him, though the fupreme di* 
rcftion of the whole was committed to Antonio dc 
Lcyva, whofe abilities and experience juftly enti- 
tled him to that diftindion. Charles foon difco- 

* Mem. ic Bellay, 205, &c. 

Vol, III. K rcrc4 


i o OK vered his intention not to confine his operations to 
^.— xAi^ the recovery of Piedmont and Savoy, but to pulh 
'^^^' forward and invade the fbuthern provinces of France. 
This fcheme he had long meditated, and had long 
been taking meafures for executing it with *luch 
vigour as might enfure fuccefs. He had remitted 
large fums to his filler, the governefs of the Low- 
Countries, and to his brother, the King of the 
Romans, inftrufting them to levy all the forces in 
their power, in order to form two fcparate bodies, 
the one to enter France on the fide of Picardy, 
. the other on the fide of Champagne ; while he, with 
the main army, fell upon the oppofite frontier of 
the kingdom. Trufting to thefe vaft preparations, 
he thought it impoflible that Francis could refift 
fo many uhexpcfted attacks, on luch different 
quarters ; and began his cnterprize with fuch con- 
fidence of its happy iflue, that he defired Jovius 
the hiftorian, to make a large provifion of paper 
fufficient to record the vidtories which he was go- 
ing to obtain. 

His minifters and generals, inftead of entertain- 
ing the fame fanguine hopes, reprefented to him 
in the- fl:rongeft terms the danger of leading his 
troops fo far from his own territories, to fuch a 
diftance from his magazines, and into provinces 
which did not yield fufficient fubfifl:ence for their 
own inhabitants. They entreated him to confider 
the inexhauftible refources of France in maintain- 
ing a defcnfivc war, and tlie active zeal with which 

a gallant 


& gallant nobility would ferve a Prince whom '^ ^j^ '^ 
they loved, in repelling the enemies of thtir coiln- ^ — ^^'-p-^ 
try; they recalled to his remembrance the fatal 
mifcarriage of Bourbon and Pefcara, • when they 
ventured upon the fame enterprize under circum- 
ftances which feemed as certain to promife fuccefs ; 
the Marquis del Guafto, in particular, fell on his 
knees, and conjured him to abandon the undertak- 
ing as delperate. But many circumftances com- 
bined in leading Charles to difregard all their re- 
monftrances. He could feldom be brought, on 
any occafion, to depart from a refolution which he 
had once taken ; he was too apt to under-rate and 
delpife the talents of his rival the King of France, 
jbecaufe they differed fo widely from his own; he 
was blinded by the prefumption which accompanies 
profperity; and relied, perhaps, in fome degree, 
on the prophecies which predidted the increafe of 
his own grandeur. He not only adhered bbfti- 
nately to his own plan, but determined to advance 
towards France without waiting for the reduftion 
of any part of Piedmont, except fuch towns as were 
abfblutely necef&ry for preferving his communi- 
cation with the Milanefe. 

Thi Marquis de Saluccs, to whom Francis had ^^ofen 
tntrullcd the command of a fmall body of troops Ouke of . 
left fot the. defence of Piedmont, rendered this ''**'^' *" 
more cafy than Charles had any reafon to expeft. 
That nobleman, educated in the court of France, 
fiflinguifhcd by continual marks of the King's fa- 

K 2 vour> 


BOOK vour, and honoured fo lately wth a charge of fuch 
i.,-.vi^ importance, fuddenly, and without any provo- 
*536- ckion or pretext of difguft, revolted from his be- 
nefaftor. His motives to this treacherous aftion 
ivere as childifh as the deed itfelf was bafe. Being 
ftrongly poffeffed with a fuperftitious faith in divi- 
nation and aftrology, he believed with full aflur- 
ance, that the fatal period of the French nation 
was at hand ; that on its ruins the Emperor would 
cftablifh an uniyerfal monarchy; that therefore he 
ought to follow the diftates of prudence^ in attach- 
ing himfelf to his rifing fortune, and could incur 
ho blame fcft* deferting a Prince whom Heaven had 
devoted to deftruftion ^. . His treafon became ftill 
more odious, by his employing that very authority 
with which Francis had invcfted him, in order to 
open the kingdom to his enemies. Whatever 
meafures were propofed or undertaken by the of- 
ficers under his command for the defence of their 
conquefts, he rejefted or defeated. Whatever pro- 
perly belonged to himfelf^ as commander in chiefi 
to provide or perform for that purpofe, he totally 
neglefted. In this manner, he rendered, towns 
even of the greateft confequencc untenable, by 
leaving them deftitute either of provifions, or am- 
' munition, or artillery, or aflifiicient garriibn^ and 
the Imperialifts muft have reduced Piedmont in as 
Ihort a time as was neccffary to march through it, 
if Montpezat, the governor of Foffano, had not, by 

^ BelUy, lit, tu S46, b. 


an extraordinary effort of courage and military con- B a o ic 
duft, detained them almoft a month before that ^--^^^ 
inconfiderable place, '^^ * 

By this meritorious and fealbhable fervice, he Frtacii»i 
gained his mailer Ibificient time for affembling his d/fencTof ^ 
forces, and for concerting a fyftem of defence " *"•* 

agsunft a danger which he now faw to be inevi- 
table. . Francis fixed upon the only proper and ef- 
fe&ual plan for defeating the invafion of a power- 
ful enemy s and his prudence in chufing this plan, 
as well as his perfeverance in executing it, deiervc 
the greater praife, as it was equally contrary to his 
own 'natural temper, and to the genius of the 
French nation. He determined to remain altoge- 
ther upon the defenfive ; never to hazard a battle^ 
or even a great Ikirmifh, without certainty of fuc- 
cefss to fortify his camps in a regular manner i to 
throw garrifons only into towns of great ftrength; 
to deprive the enemy of fubfiftence, by laying waftc 
the country before them ; and to fave the whole 
kingdom, by facrificing one of its provinces. The j^^ruH 
execution of this plan he committed entirely to the rency with 
marechal Montmorency, who was the author of it; d«a9f iu* 
a man wonderfully fitted by nature for fuch a trufl. 
Haughty, firverc, confident in his own abilities, and 
defpifmg thofe of other men j incapable of being 
diverted fit)m any refolution by remonftrances or 
entreaties; and, in profecuting any fcheme, regard- 
kis alike of love or of pity. 

K 3 Mont- 


p o o K Montmorency made choice of a ftrong camp 
t- — ^-— ' under -the walls of Avignon, at the confluence of 
He'hLmps the Rhone and the Durance, one of which plenti- 
**' ^"^"°°' fully fupplied hi? troops with all neceffaries from 
the inland provinces, and the other covered his 
canap on that fide where it was moft probable thq 
enemy would approach. He laboured with un- 
wearied induftry to render the fortifications of this 
camp impregnable, and afiembled there a confider- 
iible army, though greatly inferior to that of the 
^nemy J while th? King with another body of troops 
encamped at Valence higher up the Rhone. Mar- 
feilles and Aries were the only towns he thought it 
neceflary to defend; the. former, in order to retain 
the command of the fea; the latter, as the harrier 
of the province of Langiiedoc^ and each -of thefe 
he furnifhed with numerous garrifons of his beft 
troops, commanded by officers on whole fidelity 
and valour he could rely. The inhabitants of the 
other towns, as well as of the open country, were 
compelled to abandon their houfes, and were con- 
duced to the mountains, to the camp. at Avignon, 
or to the inland provinces. The fortifications of 
fuch places as might have afforded fhelter prile- 
fence to the enemy, were thrown down. Corn, 
forage, and provifions of every kind, were carried 
away or deftroyed ; all the mills ^id ovens were 
ruined, and the wells filled up or rendered ufelcfs, 
The deyaftation extended from the Alps to Mar- 
feillf s^ and from die Jfca to the confines of Dau- 

phinc i 


phkie ; nor docs hiftory afFord any inftance among ^ ^ <> ^ 
civilized nations, in which this cruel expedient for \ ■ '^^mj 
the public fafety was employed with the fame *^^^' 

Meanwhile, the Emperor arrived with the van^charieitaw 
of his army on the frontiers of Provence, and was ^*" '^ 
ftill fo poffefled with confidence of fuccefs, that 
during a few days, when he was obliged to halt 
until the reft of his troops came up, he began to 
divide his future conquefts among his officers; and 
as a new incitement to ferve Tiim with zeaJ, gave 
them liberal promifes of offices, lands, and ho- 
nours in France \ The face of defolation, how- 
ever, which prefented itfelf to him, when he en* 
tered the country, began to damp his hopes j and 
convinced him that a Monarch, who, in order to 
difh^fs an enemy, had voluntarily ruined one of 
his richeft provinces, would defend the reft witl^ 
defpcrate obflinacy. Nor was it long before he 
became fenfible that Francis's plan of defence wa3 
as prudent as it appeared to be extraordinary* 
His fleet, on which Charles chiefly depended for 
fublifteace, was prevented for fbme time by con-, 
trary winds> and other accidents to which naval 
operations are fubjeft, from approaching the 
French coaft; even after its arrival, it afforded 
at beft a precarious and fcanty fupply to fuch a 
numerous body of troops"; nothing was to be 
found in the country itfelf for their fupport 5 nor 

' Bellay, 266, a. ^ Sandov. ii. 231, 

K 4 could 




could they draw any confiderable aid from the do- 
minions of the Duke of Savoy, exhaufted already 
by maintaining two great armies. The Emperor 
was no lefs embarrafled how to employ, than how 
to fubfift his forces ; for though he was now in pof- 
fcflion of almoft an entire province, he could not 
be faid to have the command of it, while he held 
only defencekfs towns ; and while the French, be- 
fides their camp at Avignon, continued mafters of 
Marfeilles and Aries. At firft he thought of at- 
tacking the camp, and of terminating the war by 
one decifive blow 5 but flcilful ofEcers, who were 
appointed to view it^ declared tJie attempt to be 
Bffffftei utterly imprafticable. fie then gave orders to in- 
vefl: Marfeilles and Aries, hoping that the French 
would quit their advantageous poft in order to re- 
lieve them i but Montmorency adhering firmly to 
his plan, remained immoveable at Avignon, and 
the Imperialifts met with fuch a warm reception 
from the garrifons of both towns, that they relin- 
quilhed their enterprizes witli lofs and dilgrace. 
As a lafl: effort, the Emperor advanced once more 
towards Avignon, though with an army harafled by 
the perpetual incurfions of fmall parties of the 
French light troops, weakened by difeafes, and 
difpirited by difafters, which feemed the more in- 
tolerable, becaufe they were unexpefted, 

Mofitmn. During thefe operations, Montmorency found 

titydein himfclf cxpoled to greater danger from his own 

bispVao^of troops than from die enemy i and their inconfi^ 

^"*^ 4eraw 


derate valour went near to liave precipitated the '^ ^ ^ * 

kingdom into thofe c^amities, which he with / -# 

fuch induftry and caution had endeavoured to' '^^^ 
avoid. Unaccuftomed to behold an enemy ra- 
vaging their country almoft without controul; 
impatient of fuch long inaftion; unacquainted 
with the flow and remote, but certain effefts of 
Montmorency's fyftem of defence; the French 
wilhed for a battle with no lefs ardour than the 
Impcrialifts. They confidered the condudt of 
their general as a difgrace to their courttry. His 
caution they imputed to timidity; his circum- 
fpeftion to want of ipirit ; and the conftancy with 
which he purfued his plan, to obftinacy or pride. 
Thefc refledtions, whifpered at firft among the 
foldiers and fubalterns, were adopted, by degrees, 
by officers of higher rank ; and as many of them 
envied Montmorency's favour with the King, and 
more were diffatisfied with his harih difgufting 
manner, the difcontent foon became great in his 
camp, which was filled with general murmurings, 
and almoft open complaints againft his meafures* 
Montmorency, on whom the fentiments of his 
own troops made as little impreflion as the infults 
of the enemy, adhered fteadily to his fyftem; 
though, in order to reconcile the army to his 
maxims, no lefs contrary to the genius of the na- 
tion, than IQ the ideas of war among undifciplined 
troops, he afllimed an unufual affability in his 
deportment, and often explained, with great con- 
ddcenfion, the motives of his conduit, the advan- 
cages which h^d already refulted firom itj and the 

certain • 


5 ^^ ^ certain fuccefs with which it would be attended. 

^-^s.^^ At laft Francis joined his army at Avignon, 
'^^^' which having received feveral reinforcennents, he 
* now confidered as of ftrength fufEcient to face the 
enemy. As he had put no fmall conftraint upon 
himfelf, in confenting that his troops Ihould re- 
main fo long upon the defenfive, it can hardly be 
doubted but that his fondnefs for what was daring 
and fplendid, added to the impatience both of 
-officers and foldiers, would at laft have over-ruled 
Montmorency's falutary caution "• 

Mdw'Jlith- Happily the retreat of the enemy delivered the 
^condiiion kingdom from the danger which any rafh.refb- 
miarroy. lution might havc occafioned. The Emperor, 
after (pending two inglorious months in Provence, 
without having performed any thing fuitable to 
Jiis vaft preparations, or that could juftify the 
.confidence with which he had boafted of his own 
power, found that, befides Antonio de Leyva, 
and other officers of diftinftion, he had loft one 
^aif of his troops by difeafes, or by famine j and 
that the reft were in no condition to ftru^le any 
Jonger with calamities, by which fo many of their 
companions had perifhed. Neceffity, therefore, 
extorted from him orders to retire; and though 
he was fbme time in motion before the French 
fufpecled his intention, a body of light troops, 
affifted by crov/ds of peafants, eager to be re- 
venged on thofe who had brought fuch defblatioa 

* Mem. de Bcllay^ 269, ^c. 512, &c* 



on their country, hung upon the rear of the Im- ■ ^^^ ^ 
perialifts, and by feizing every favourable oppor- »•.— >'--^ 
tunity of attacking them, threw theni often into *^^ 
confufipn. The road by which they fled, for they 
purfued their march with fuch difordcr and pre- 
cipitation, that it fcarcely deferves the name of ^ 
retreat, was ftrewed with arms or baggage, which 
in their hurry and trepidation they had abandoned, 
and covered with the fick, the wounded, and the 
dead; infomuch that Martin Bellay, an eye- 
witnefs of their calamities, endeavours to give his 
readers fbme idea of it, by comparing their mi- 
fcries to thofe which the Jews fufFered from the 
yiftorious and deftruftive arms of the Romans •. 
If Montmorency, at this critical moment, had ad- 
vanced with all his forces, nothing could have 
faved the whole Imperial ^rmy from jutter ruin. 
But that general, by Handing fo long and fo ob- 
ftinately on the defenfive, had become cautious 
to excefs ; his mind, tenacious of any beiit it had 
once taken, could not afliime a contrary one as 
fuddcnly as the change of circumftances required ; 
and he ftill continued to repeat his favourite 
maxims, that it was more prudent to allow the 
lion to efcape, than to drive him to defpair, and 
that a bridge of gold fliould be made for a retreat- 
ing enemy. 

The Emperor having condiifted the (battered 
remains of his troops to the frontiers of Milan, 

f Mcip, dc Bellay, 316. Sandov. Hift. del Ecnper. ii. 232. 

an4 - 


B o o K and appointed the marquis del Guafto to luccced 

4 i. i-w-1 — ; Leyva in the government of the dutchy, fet out for 

'^^^ Genoa. As he could not bear to expofe himfelf 

to the fcorn of the Italians, after fuch a fad reverie 

of fortune ; and did not chufe, under his prefent 

circumftances, to levifit thofe cities through which 

he hadfo lately pafled in triumph for one conqueft, 

Wmmbcr. and in certjin expedarion of another i he embarked 

direfUy for Spain p. 

Ci^HoM j^oi^ ^as the progrels of his arms on the oppo- 
fite frontier of France fuch as to alleviate, in any 
degree, the lofles which he had fuftained in Prp- 
vcnce. Bellay, by his addrefs and intrigues, had 
prevailed on fo many of the German Princes to 
withdraw the contingent of troops which they had 
fiirnilhed to the King of the Romans, that he 
was obliged to lay aiide all thoughts of his in- 
tended irruption into Champagne. Though a 
poweiful army levied in the Low-Countries en-^ 
tered Picardy, which they found but feebly guard- 
cd> while the ftrength of the kingdom was drawn 
towards the fouth; yet the nobility taking arms 
with their ufual alacrity, fupplied by their Ipirit 
the defefts of the King's preparations, and de- 
fended Peronne, and other towns which were at- 
tacked, with fuch vigour, as oblige^ the enemy 
to retire, without making any conqueft of ira^ 

P Jovii Hiftor. lib. xxxv. p. 17^^, &c« 
9 Mem. dc Bdlay, 318, &c, 



Thus Fr^cis, by the prudence of his own * %p ^ . 
meaiures, and by die union and valour of his fnK- » - ' _f 
jcfts, rendered abortive thofe vaft efforts in which **^^ 
his rival had almoft exhaufted his whole force. 
As this humbled the Emperor's arrogance no lefi 
than it checked his power, he was mortified more 
fenfibly on this occafion than on any other, during 
the courfe of the long contefts between him and 
the French Monarch. 

One circumftance alone embittered the joy P***^|2l!^ 
widi which the fuccefs of the campaign infpired "** 
Francis. That was the death of the ' Dauphin, 
his eldcft fon, a Prince of great hopes, and ex- 
tremely beloved by the people on account of his 
refemblance to his father. This happening fud- ^mrtu^ 
denly, was imputed to poifon, not only by thc^**^ 
vulgar, fond of afcribing the death of illuftrious 
perfonages to extraordinary caufes, but by the 
King and his minifters. The count de Monte- 
cuculi, an Italian nobleman, cup-bearer to the 
Dauphin being feized on fufpicion and put to 
the torture, openly charged the Imperial gene-» 
rals, Gonzaga and Lcyva, with having inftigated 
him to the commiffion of that crime: he even 
threw out fome indireft and obfcure accufations 
againft the Emperor himfelf At a time when 
all France was exafperated to the utmoft againft 
Charles, this uncertain and extorted charge wa$ 
confidered as an inconteftible proof of gujlti 
while the confidence with which both he and hij 
Q&csn aflerted their own innocence^ together 


*4a THE REIGK OF Ttt.e 

BOOK -^th the indignation, as well as horror, which' thejf 
^iw-^.- .^ exprefled on their being fuppofed capable of fuch 
'^^^* a deteftable aftion, were little attended fo, and 
lefs regarded'. It is evident, however, that the 
Emperor could have no inducement to perpetrate 
llich a crime, as Francis was ftill in the vigour 
of life himfelf, and had two fons, befide the Dau- 
phin, grown up almoft to the age of manhood. 
That fingle confideration, without nientioning the 
Emperor's general charafter, unblemilhed by the 
imputation of any deed refembling this in atrocity, 
is more than fufficient to counterbalance the weight 
of a dubious teftimony uttered during the anguifli 
of torture *. According to the moft unprejudiced 
hiftorians, the Dauphin's death was occafioned by 
his having drunk too freely of cold water after 
over-heating himfelf at tennis j and this account, 
as it is the moft fimple, is likewife the moft cre- 
dible. But if his days were cut ftiort by poifon, 
it is not improbable that the Emperor conjec- 
tured rightly, when he affirmed that it had been 
adminiftered by the cireftion of Cadiarinc of Me- 
dici, in order to fecure the crown to the Duke of 
Orleans, her huft>and'. The advantages rcfult- 
ing to her by the Dauphin's death, were obvious 
as well as great -, nor did her boundlefs and daring 
ambition ever recoil from any adion neceffary to- 
wards attaining the objeds which ihe had in view. 

' Mezn. de Bellay, 289. 

• Sandov. HifL del Einper. ii. 231. 

« Vcj» y Zaniga Vida de Carlcr V. p. 75. 


Next year opened with a tranfaftion very un- ^ © o k 
common^ but fo incapable of producing any v ,,' j 
cfFeA, that it would not deferve to be mentioned, d^ '"^V 
if it were not a ftriking proof of the perfonal J|,'*„f J|**" 
animofity which mingled itfeif in all the hoftili- Pansagain«r 

'' ^ theEinpc- 

ties between Charles and Francis, and which often ror, 
betrayed them into fuch indecencies towards each 
other, as leffened the dignity of both. Francis, 
accompanied by the peers and princes of the 
blood, having taken his feat in the parliament of 
Paris with the ufual folemnities, the advocate- 
general appeared ; and* after accufing Charles of 
Auftria (for fo he affedted to call the Emperor) 
of having violated the treaty of Cambray, by 
which he was abfolved from the homage due to 
the crown of France for the counties of Artois and 
Flanders ; infifted that this treaty being now void, 
he was ftill to be confidered as a vafTal of the 
crown, and by confequence, had been guilty of 
rebellion in taking arms againft his fovereign; 
and therefore he demanded that Charles fliould 
be iummoned to appear in p^rfon, or by hi» 
counfel, before the parliament of Paris, his legal 
judges, to anfwer for this crime. The requeft was 
granted > a herald repaired to the frontiers of Pi- 
cardy, and fummoned him with the accuftomed 
formalities to appear againft a day prefixed. That 
term being expired, and no perfon appearing in 
his name, .the parliament gave judgment, " That . 
Charles of Auftria had forfeited by rebellion and 
contumacy thofe fiefs j declared Flanders and 
Artois to be rc-unitcd ta the crown of France j*' 
8 zfid 


B o o K and ordered their decree for diis purpofe to be 
%^ — J— ^ publilhed by found of trumpet on the frontiers of 
'*^^* thefe provinces "4 

Ctnpiifii Sooi^ after this vain diiplay of" his refentmenf, 
thrLow. rather than of his power, Francis marched to- 
coufitriei. ^ards the Low-Countries, as if* he had intended^ 
**««^ to execute the fentence which his parliament had 
pronounced, and to feize thofe territories which 
it had awarded to him. As the Queen of Hun- 
gary, to whom hex' brother the Emperor had 
committed the government of that part of his 
dominions, was not prepared for fo early a cam- 
paign, he at firft made fome progrefs, and took 
leveral towns of importance. But being obliged 
fooft to leave his army, in order to fuperintend 
the other operations of war, the Flemings having 
affembled a numerous army, not only recovered 
mod of the places which they had loft, but. began 
to make conquefts in their turn. At laft they 
invefted Terouenrie, and the Duke of Orleans, 
now Dauphin, by the death of his brother, and 
Montmorency, whom Francis had honoured with 
the conftable's fword, as the reward of his great 
fervices during the former campaign, determined 
A fiifpen. to hazard a batde in order to relieve it. While 
they were advancing for this purpofe, and within 
a few miles of the enemy, they were ftopt ftiort 
by the arrival of an herald from the Qijcen of 

* Lectres «t Memoirei d'Eut, pav Ribier^ z torn. Blois^ 
i666. torn. i. p. i. 


<ofi of arms 


'Hungary, Jicqufdqtijig him that a fMfpenfipn ci" ® ^^^ "^ 
arms was now agri?ed uppn, ^-^ — >^— «* 

This uncxpcfted eyieint was x)wmg to the zeal- 
ous ippdcavoprs pf the two .fitters, the Queens of. 
France and of Hungary, wjio had long laboured 
to reconcile the cop^:ending Monarchs. The war 
in the NetherUij4^ ^d laid w^ t!t\p frontier 
prov)nc^ of ^xoth cpiJn^ries, without any i:cal ad- 
vantage^ to , either. The Friench ,arj4 FtTOngs 
equally r^grcft^d the inteicniptipn of thf^ir com- 
raerce, wh^h w^ , benefici^ to both. Charles 
4s w^ as Fr^cis, who had each drained to the 
utmoft, in order to fupport the v^ operations of 
the former campaign, found that they could not 
now k^ep armies on foot in this quarter, without 
weakening their operations in Piedmont, where 
both wiibed to pulh the war with the greatcft 
rigour. All thefe circumftances facilitated the J«ir3o» 
ncgpciatiQas of the two Queens ; a truce was con- 
cluded, to continue in force for ten months^ but 
it extended na farther than the Low-Countries *. 

Ik Piedmont the war was ftill profecuted with "ti^t, 
great animofity ; and though neither Charles nor 
Francis could make the powerful efforts to which 
this animofity prompted them, they continued to 
exert themfdves like combatants, whofe rancour 
remains afiacr their ftrength is exhaulted. Towns 
were altematdy loft and retaken 5 Ikirmiflies were 

^ Memoire» de Ribier, ^6. 
Vol. hi. L fought 


^^j^*^ fought every day; and much blocxi was fhcd, 
Vi—v^ without any decifive aftion, that gave a decided 
'^^^' fuperiority to either fide. At laft the two Queens, 
determining not to leave unfinilhed the good work 
which they had begun, prevailed, by their im- 
portunate folicitations, the one on her brother, 
the other on her hufband, to confent alfo to a 
truce in Piedmont for three months. The con- 
ditions of it were, that each fhould keep poffef- 
fion of what was in his hands, and after leaving 
garrifons in the towns, fhould withdraw his army 
out of the province; and that plenipotentiaries 
fhould be appointed to adjuil all matters in diipute 
by a final treaty''. 

Modfcsof The powerfiil motives which inclined both 
Princes to this accommodation, have been often 
mentioned. The expences of the war had far 
exceeded the fums which their revenues were 
capable of fupplying, nor durft they venture 
upon any great addition to the impofitions then 
eftabliflied, as fubjedts had not yet learnt to bear 
with patience the immenfe burdens to which 
they have become accuftomed in modern times. 
The Emperor in particular, though he had con- 
trafted debts which in that age appeared prodi- 
gious *, had it not in his power to pay the large 
arrears long due to his army. At the fame time 
he had no prolped of deriving any aid in money 
or men either fi-om the Pope or Venetians, though 

f Mcmoires de Ribier, 62. f Ribier, i. 294. 



he had employed promifes and threats, alternately, ^ ^^^ ^ 
in order to procure, it. But he found the former v-^y ^ 
not only fixed in his refolution of adhering fteadily ''^^^' 
to the neutrality which he had always declared 
to be fuitable to . his charader, but paffiqnately 
defirous of brining about a peace. He per- 
ceived that the latter were ftill intent on their an- 
cient objedt of holding the balance even between 
the rivals, and folicitous not to throw too great a 
weight into either fcale. 

What nnade a deeper impreflion on Charles or which, 
than all thefe, was the dread of the Turkiih arms, liancc with 
wliich, by his league with Solyman, Francis had Emperorthe 
drawn upon him. Though Francis, without the ^bh."^' 
afliflance of a fiogle all}r, had a war to maintain 
againil an enemy greatly fuperior in power to 
himfelf, yet fo great was the horror of Chriftians, 
in that age, at any union with Infidels, which 
they confidered not only as dilhonourable but 
profane, that it was long before he could be 
brought to avail himfelf of the obvious advan- 
tages refulting fi-ojn fuch a confederacy. Neceflity 
at laft furmounted his delicacy and fcruples. To- 
wards the clofe of the preceding year. La Foreft, 
a fecret agent at the Ottoman Porte, had con- 
cluded a treaty with the Sultan, whereby Soly- 
man engaged to invade the kingdom of Naples, 
during the next campaign, and to attack the King 
of the Romans in Hungary with a powerful army, 
while Francis undertook to enter the Milanefe at . 
the fame time with a proper force. Solyman had 

L 2 punftually 


• <^o K pxinftually perftnro^ ^?vhat was monnbent on 
^■ ^^^ him. BarbarolGi with a great fleet ap^ared on 
*^^^' the coaft of Napks, filled that kingdom, from 
which all the troc^s had been drawn towards 
Piedmont, with confternation, landed wkhout 
refiftance near Tarantb, obliged Caftro, a place 
of fomc ftrength, to furrender, }dundered the ad- 
jacent country, and was taking meafures for fe- 
curing and extending his conquefts, when the 
unexpefted arrival of Doria, together with the 
Pope's gallies, and a fquadron of the Venetian 
fleet, made .it prudent for him to retire. In 
Hungary the progrefs of the Turfcs was more for- 
midable. Mahmct, their general, after 'gmning 
feveral fmall advantages, defeated the Germans 
in a great batde at Eflek on the Drave ■. Hap- 
pily for Chriftendom, it was not in Francis's 
power to execute with equal exaftnels what he 
had ftipulated ; nbr could he aSfembie at diis junc- 
ture an army ftrong enough to pehetrate iilto die 
Milanefe. ^y this he failed in recovering polfef- 
fion of that dutchy ; and Italy was not only faved 
from the csflamities of a new war, but from feel- 
ing the defolating rage of the Turkifli arms, as 
an addition to all that it had fuflfered\ As the 
Emperor knew that he could n<*t 4ong refill the 
efforts of two fiich powerfol confederates, nor 
could expeft that the fame fortunate accidents 
would concur a iecond time to deliver Naples, 

■ Iftuanhdfi HiftHttOg. lib. xiii. p«'l39« 
^ Jovii Hift. lib. xxxv. p. 183. 



and to preferve the Milanefe : as he forefaw that ' y? * 
the Italian ftates would not only tax him loudly i.«-v-i«i 
with infatiable anibition> but might even turn *^^^ 
their arms againft him, if he fhould be fo re- 
gardlefs of their danger as obftinately to protraft 
the -war, he thought it neceflary, both for his fafety 
and reputation, to give his content to a truce. 
Nor was Francis willing to fuftdn all the blame of 
obftrufting the re-eftabli(hment of tranquillity, or ' 

to expofe himfelf on that account to the danger 
of being deferted by the Swifs and other fo- 
reigners in his fervice. He even began to appre- 
hend that his own fubjefts would ferve him coldly, 
if by contributing to aggrandize the power of the 
Infidels^ which it was his duty, and had been the 
ambition of his ^ceftors to deprcfs, he continued 
to a& in direft oppofifion to all the principles 
which ought p influence a Monarch diflinguifhed 
by the tide pf Moft Chriftian King. He chofe, 
for all thejfe reafons, rather to run the rifk of cjif- 
obliging his new ally the Sultan^ than, by ap un- 
*feaibnable adherence to the treaty with him, tp 
forfeit i^h^t ^as of ^eater ponfecjuence. 

But though both parties confented to a truce, NegocU. 
the plenipotentiaries found infuperable difficul- |^^ace\V- 
ties in fettling the articles of a 4efinitive treaty, JJ^*J*^^ ^^^ 
Each of the Monarchs, with thf arrogance of a F^ancit. 
conqueror, aimed at giving la\y to the other ; and 
neither would fo far acknowledge his inferiority, 
as to facrifice any point of honour, or fo relinquilh 
any matter of right; fo that die plenipotentiaries 

L 3 fpent 


* %? ^ ^P^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ "^^S ^^^ fruidefs ncgociations, 
n^oj^mj and feparated after agreeing to prolong the truce 
'53^' fof a few months. 

The Pope The Pope, howcvcr, did not delpair of accom- 
thdc"in*per- plifliing a point in which the plenipotentiaries 
^^"* had failed, and took upon himfelf the ible burden 

of negociating a peace. To form a confederacy 
capable of defending Chriftendom from the for- 
midable inroads of the Turkifh arms, and to con- 
cert effeftual meafures for the extirpation of the 
Lutheran herefy, were two great objedts which 
Paul had much at heart, and he confidered the 
union of the Emperor with the King of France as 
an effential preliminary to both. To be the 
inftrument of reconciling thefe contending Mo- 
narchs, whom his predeceffors by their interefted 
and indecent intrigues had fo often embroiled, 
was a circumftance which could not fail of throw- 
ing diftinguifhed luftre on his charafter and ad- 
miniftration. Nor was he without hopes that, 
while lie purfued this laudable end, he might 
fecure advantages to his own family, the aggran* 
dizing of which he did not negledt, thou^ he 
aimed at it with a lefs audacious ambition than 
was common among the Popes of that century. 
Influenced by thefe confiderations, he propoied 
an interview between the two Monarchs at Nice, 
and offered to repair thither in perfon, that he 
might a6t as mediator in compofing all their dif- 
ferences. When a Pontiff of a venerable charac- 
ter, and of a very advanced age, was willing, 



from his zeal frr peace, to undergo the fatigues book 
of fo long a journey, neither Charles nor Francis v— ^.-w 
could with' decency decline the interview. But '^3^' 
though both came to the place of rendezvous, fo 
great was the di^iculty of adjufting the ceremonial, 
or fuch the remains of diftruft and rancour on 
each fide, diat they refijfed to fee one another, 
and every thing was tranfa&ed by the interven- 
tion of the Pope, who vifited them alternately. 
With all his zeal and ingenuity he could not find 
out a method of removing the obftacles which 
prevented a final accommodation, particularly thofe 
arifing from the pofleffion of the Milanefe ; nor 
was all the weight of his authority fufficient to 
overcome the obflinate perfcverance of either 
Monarch in afierting his own claims. At laft, Atmcefor 
that he might not feem to have laboured altogether ^^Jmu 
widiout efFed, he prevailed on them to fign a j„Jj!7i. 
truce for ten years, upon the fame condition 
with the former, that each fhould retain what was 
now in his pofleffion, and in the mean time fhould 
fend ambafladors to Rome, to difcufs their preten- 
&ons at leifure "^^ 

Thus ended a war of no long continuance, but 
YCTy extenfive in its operations, and in which both 
parties exerted their utmoft ftrength. Though 
Francis failed in the objed that he had princi- 

* Recueil desTraitez, 11. 210. Relatione del Nicolo Tiepolo 
de rAbocamento di Nlzza, chez Du Mont Corps Diplomat, 
par. ii. p. 174., 

L 4 pally 

iS2 . THE REi,GN Of THE 

B y? ^ pally in view, the recovery of the Milaricfe, he 
v--^ " ^ acquired, neVcrthelcfs, greait reputation by the 
''5*** wifdom of his meafures as ^ell as the fiicccfs of 
his arms in repelling a fornnidable invafion j and 
by keeping p6fleflion of one half of the Duke of 
Sivdy's dominions, he added no ihconfiderable 
accel&on of ftrength to his kingdom: Whereas 
Charles, repulfed and baffled, after having boafted 
fo arrogantly of vidtory, purchafed an ingtorious 
truce, by facrificing an dly who had rafhly confided 
too much in his friendfliip ahd power. The un- 
fortunate Duke murmured, complained, and re- 
• monftrated againft a treaty fo much to his dif- 
advantage, but in vain; he had no itieans of 
redrefs, and was obliged to fubmit. Of all his 
dominions, Nice, with its dependencies, was the 
only corner of ^hich he himfclf kept poffeffion. 
He faw the reft divided between a powerful in- 
vader and the ally to whofe proteftion he had trufted, 
while he remained a fad monument of the impru- 
dence of weak princes, who, by taking part in the 
quarrel of nnighty neighbours, between whom they 
happen to be fituated^ are cruflied and over- 
whelmed in the fhock. 

Interview A FEW days aftcT figning the treaty of truce, 
ciirricrand thd Empcror fet fail for Barcelona, but was driven 
A^gurii-" ^y contrary winds to the ifland St. Margaret 
on the coaft of Provence. When Francis, who 
happened to be not far diftant, heard of this, he 
coniidered it as an office of civility to invite him 
to take Ihelter in his dominions, and propoled a 




pcrfbnal intern^ with him it AigUfts^mofte^s. • ^^ "^ 
The Emperor, vifho would not be outdone by hi^ w -v' ^ 
rival in c6mplaifance, inftantly repaired, thithef . *^^*' 
As foon as he taft anthor in the road, Frafttis, ^ 

without waiting to fettle any point of ceremony, 
but relying impficitlyoii the ErtipcftiPs honour 
for his fecurity, rifited him on bo^d hii gflBey^ 
and was received and entertiuned with thfe warmeft 
dcmonftratioils of eftetm and affcftion. Next day 
the £mpeH)r i-epaid the confidence which the King 
had placed in him. He landed at Aiguea-mortes 
with ns little precautioh, and ttlet with a reccptioit 
equally cohdial. He rettiained on fliore during 
die night, and in bbth vifits the two Mohafchs vied 
widi each other in expreflions of f efpcft and friend* 
(hip ^. After twenty years of open hoftilities, or 
of fecrfet enmity j after fo mahy injuries tecipro* 
catty inflifted or endured j ifter having formally 
given the lie and challenged one another to fingle 
combat; aftfer die Emperor had inveighed fo pub- 
licly againft t'rincis as a Prince void of honour or 
integrity; and after iFrancis had accufed him of 
being acce^kry to the murder of his eldeft fon, 
fiich ah interview appears aJtbgether Angular and 
cveh unnatural. But die hiftory of tfiefe Monarchs 
abounds v^ith fuch iurprifing tranfmons. Ifrom 
implacable hatred they appeared to pafs, in a 
mortient, t6 the rtioft corcBal reconcilement j from 

^ SaiidoV. Hift. vol. ii. 238. Relation dc rantrevnc de 
jChari. V. & Fran. I. par M. tie fa Ahbirtr Hifr. de Laitgncd. 
pkf D. D. De Vic & Vaifetle, torn, v* Pi4euves, p. 93. 



BOOK fuipicion and diftruft to pcrfe£t confidence; and 
^^,.,.1.^ from pradifing all the dark arts of a deceitful po- 
'SJ** licy, they could alTume, of a fudden, the liberal 
and open nianners of two gallant gendeaien. 

The Pope, befides the glory of having rcftored 
peace to Europe^ gained^ according to his expe6b- 
ationj a point of great confequence to his family^ 
by prevailing on the Emperor to betroth Margaret 
of Auftria, his natural daughter, formerly the wife 
of Alexander di Medici, to his grandfon 0£l:avio 
Farnefe, and in confideration of this marriage, to 
beftow feveral honours and territories upon his fii- 
The iffiiffi. ture fbn-in-law. A very tragical event, which hap- 
Aienoder pcncd about the beginning of the year one thou- 
^Medid. ji^d fiyg hundred and thirty-feven, had deprived 
Margaret of her firft huflband That young Prince, 
whom the Emperor's partiality had raifed to the 
fuprcme power in Florence, upon the ruins of the 
public liberty, negleded entirely the cares of go- 
vernment, and abandoned himfelf to the moft dif- 
folute debauchery. Lorenzo di Medici his neareft 
kinfman was not only the companion but diredx>r 
of his pleafures, and employing all the powers of a 
cultivated and inventive genius in this diihonouF- 
able miniftry, added fuch elegance as well as va- 
riety to vice, as gained him an abfolute afcendanc 
over the mind of Alexander. But while Lorenzo 
feemed to be funk in luxury, and affefted fuch an 
appearance of indolence and effeminacy, that he 
would not wear a fword, and trembled at the fight 



of blood, he concealed under that difguife, a dark, ^ ^^ ^ 
defigning, audacious ipirit. Prompted either by -^ -,-.^ 
the love of liberty, or allured by the hope of at- '^^** 
taining the fiipreme power, he detemiined to ailaf^ 
fmate Alexander his benefador and friend. Though 
he long revolved this defign in his mind, his re- 
ierved and fuipicious temper prevented him from 
communicating it to any perfbn whatever ; and 
continuing to live with Alexander in their ufual &- 
mifiarity, he, one night, under pretence of having 
fecured him an aflignation with a lady of high 
rank whom he had often fblicited, drew that 
unwary Prince into a fecret apartment of his 
houie, and there ftabbed him, while he lay care- 
lefsly on a couch expecting the arrival of the 
lady whofe company he had been, promifed. 
But no fooner was the deed done, than Hand- 
ing aftooiihed, and ftruck with horror at its 
atrocity, he forgot, in a moment, all the motives 
which had induced hina to commit it. Inftead of 
roufing the people to recover their liberty by pub- 
liftiing the death of the tyrant, inftead of taldng 
any ftep towards opening his own way to the dig. 
nity now vacant, he lodked the door of the apart- 
ment, and, like a man bereaved of reaibn and pre* 
fence of mind, fled with the utmoft precipitation 
out of the Florentine territories. It was late next 
morning before the fate of the unfortunate Prince 
was known, as his attendants, accuftomed to his 
irregularities, never entered his apartment early. 
Immediately the chief perfons in the ftate aflembled* 
Being induced pardy by the zeal of cardinal Cibo 



n o (\,ic. fyf the hoo& of Mecfici, to which he was nearly 
t_ ^w relaeedy partty by the authoritf of Francis Guicci- 
CotoiJdi ^^^y ^"^ pccalled to their racmory, and rtprc* 
^i«><«^ fenced in ftriking colours the caprice as well as tur- 
fhVbeaiior buknce of their ancient popular government^ they 
ti^fr^tT' agreed to jdace Cofmo di Mecfici, a youth of eigh- 
teen, the only male heir of that illuftrious houfe> 
ftt the head of the government; though at the fame 
time liich was their love of liberty, that they cfta- 
bliihed feveral regulations in order to circumicribe 
and moderate his power. 

His gorern- Mbakwhilb Loreuzo having reached a place of 
».nt oppof. f^fy^^ j^^ known what he had done, to PhiKp 
FiorentiAe StToizi and dic Other Florentines who had been 
driven into exile, or who had voluntarily retired, 
when the republican form of government was abo- 
liihed> in order to make way for the dominion of 
the Medici. By them, the deed was extolled with 
extravagant praiies, and the virtue of Lorenzo 
was compared with that of the elder Brutus, who 
difiegarded die ties of blood, or with that of the 
younger, who forgot the fiieodihip and fevours 
of the ^rant, that they might preferve or reco- 
ver die liberty of their country *. Nor did they 
reft fatisfied widi empty panegyrics; they im- 
mediately quitted their diflfercnt places of re- 
treat, aflcmblcd forces, animated dieh- vaflafa and 
partizans to take amis, and to fcize this opportu- 
laity of re-eftahfifhing the puMic Uberty on. its an- 

^ Lettere*di Pxisdpiy torn. iiL p. 52. 



ciMt Ibundadon. Being Ape&ly affiftod ibf the ''%^*^' 
Fimch ambsifiador ftt Rotne^ and ftcretly ^noou*- 1 ■>. ii^ 
raged by the Pope, who bore no^ood-^ivyi totfae '^ 
hoole of Medici^ they entered the f^ktentine do- 
mkuoos with a confxierable bec^ of men. Bui 
the perfoQs who had eleded Coiino :p(ifle0ed aoc 
only the ixieans of ftipportiiig hi&igovetfinaent> hot 
. abilities to employ them in the moft proper man-^ 
ner. Tiiey leviedo i^th the gr^teft lex^idoQ, a 
good number of troops ^ >they ««ndeavoured by 
every lut to gain the citizens of great^ authority^ 
and to render the adminiftration of die young 
Prince agreeable t9 the people. Abo^^ all, they 
coorted the Emperor's prctt0£tioaj.as the only firm 
foundationofCofmo'sd^nky and power. <Iharles» 
knowing the jn*<;3)enfity of the {Florentines to the 
friendfiiip c^ fxance, and howxnuch all the parti* 
zans of a republican government detefled him m 
the^preflbriof their liberties, faw.it to be greedy 
for his intereft to prevent 4:he je^tcftahMfcrneitt of 
the ancient conflitutiDn in :Florence. For ibis 
reaibn, he not only aduiowledged Cofmo as head 
of the Florentine ftate, and conferred onihim 41 
the titles of honour with which Alexander had been 
il^gnified^ but ei^aged to defend him to the i^t- 
xno&i and as a:pfe(%e of this> ordered the com- 
manders of fuch of his troop3 as were ^ftationed oq 
the &ontiers of Tufcany, to fypport *him agabft 
all aggreflbrs. .. By their aid^ Cofnao obtained an 
eaiy vi^ry over the ^exaks, whoie troops he fur- 
priJE^l in the night-time^ and took moft of the 
9 chiefs 


* %P ^ chicfi prifoners: an event which broke all their 
c^Jw meafures^ and fully eftablifhed his own authority. 
■53^* But though he was extremely defirous of the addi- 
tional honour of marrying the Emperor's daughter^ 
the widow of his. predcceffor, Charles, fecure al- 
ready of his attachment, chofe rather to gratify the 
Pope, by befltowing her on his nephew ^ 

Tbeffknd. During the war between the Emperor and 
Frandt*Md Francis, an event had happened which abated in 
Te^nlto^'* fomc degree the warmth and cordiality of friend- 
Abau. fi^ip which had long fubfifted between the latter 
and the Kmg of England. James the Fifth of 
Scotland, an enterprizing young P^nce, having 
heard of the Emperor's intention to invade Pro- 
vence, was fo fond of fhewing that he did not yield 
to any of his anceftors in the fincerityof his attach- 
ment to-the French crown, and fo eager to diftin- 
guilh himfelf by Ibme military exploit, that he le- 
vied a body of troops with an intention of leading 
them in perfon to the afliftance of the King of 
France. Though fome unfortunate accidents pre- 
vented his carrying any troops into France, nothing 
could divert' him from going thither in pcrlbn. 
Immediately upon his landing, he haftencd to Pro- 
vence, but had been detained fo long in his voy- 
age, that he came too late to have any fhare in the 
military operations, and met the King on his return 

' Jovii Hift. c. xcviii. p, ai^ Sec. Belcarii CommeBt. I. 
3cxii. p. 696. Iftoria dc fiii Tempi di Giov. Bat. Adriani. 
Yen, 1587. p. 10. 



after the retreat of the Impcrialifts. But Francis was ^ ^^^ '^ 
fo greatly plcafcd with his zeal, and no lefe with u-^^.^^j 
his manners and converfation, that he could not '^* * 
refufe him his daughter Magdalen, whom he de- Jtn. u 
manded in marriage. It mortified Henry ex- '^^^* 
tremcly to fee a Prince of whom he was immode- 
rately jealous, form an alliance, from which he 
derived fuch an acceflion of reputation as well as 
fccurity*. He could not, however, with decency, 
oppofe Francis's beftowing his daughter upon a 
Monarch defccnded from a race of Princes, the 
moil ancient and &ithful allies of the French crown. 
But when James, upon the fudden death of Mag- 
dalen, demanded as his fecondwife Maryof Guife, 
he wannly folicited Francis to deny his fuit, and 
in order to difappoint him, afked that lady in mar^ 
riage for himfelf. When Francis preferred the 
Scottifh King's fincere courtfhip to his artflil and 
malevolent propofal, he difcovered much di0atii^ 
ia£tion. The pacification agreed upon at Nice, 
and the fantiiliar interview of the two rivals at 
Aigues-mortes, filled Henry's mind with new 
fufpicions, as if Francis had altogether renounced' 
his friendfhip fc^ the fake of new connexions 
with the Emperor. Charles, thoroughly ac- The 
quainted with the temper of the Englifh King, SwyJ 
and watchfiil to obferve all the fhifrings and ca* 
pric^ of his pallions, thought this a favourable 
opportunity of renewing his negotiations with 

« Hift« of Scodaad, vol. i. p. 77. 



* %j * fcs^* ^whiqh h^d bcjcn ^qng broken off. By the 
^€^ (^ Q^qen Cadwine^ whqfe intereft the Em- 
peror coMld '<iot with .c^ecency haiyt ^bando^cidj the 
chief caufe of jjheir dUcord was remoyed ; fo diat 
j»«Hhout tQUChing uppn ihe ^qate queition of her 
ciivprce, he 9)ight now ,t|ikc what nu^^fures he 
ihoiight nwft <}fFc<S^Wftl,for reg^ning Heivy's gpod- 
(wiU. For thi? puq>ofe, he beg^Jji with propqfwg 
;feyer9l «nari;iflge-tre^tt€s .to the King. IJe offered 
fhi^ niQc^ a (kwght»r of the King of Denmark, to 
•Hcmy himfelf > he demanded the princeis Mary 
ibrone of the Princes of Portugal, and was even 
willing to receive her as the King's illegitimate 
^daughter ^. Though none of theie ^oje&ed alii- 
:ances ever took place, or perhaps were ever feri- 
oufly intended, they occafioned fuch fiequent in- 
^tercourfe between the courts, and fo many red- 
iprocal profeffKJtns of civility and eAeem^ as confi- 
derably abated the edge of Henry's raincour. againft 
<the Emperor, and paved the w^y for that union 
between them .which afterwards proved So diiad- 
.vantageous' tD the French King. 

Progteftof Tjhe ambddous ichemes in which the Emperor 
had been engaged, and the wars he had been car- 
rying on for icMnc years, proved, as ufiial, ex- 
tremely favourable to the progrefs of the Reform- 
ation in Gcniiany. While Charles was abfcjac 
upon his African expedition, or intent on his 
projcfts againft France, his chief objeft in Gci- 

^ Mem. de Ribier, t. i. 496* 



many was to prevent the diflenfions about religion * 
from difturbing the public tranquillity, by grant- 

o o fC- 


ing fuch indulgence to the Proteftant Princes as *^^^' 
might induce them to concur with his meafures, 
or at leaft hinder them from taking part with his 
rival. For this rcafpn, he was careful to fccure to 
the Protcftants the pofleffion of alj the advantages, 
which they had gained by the articles of pacifj- 
catiofi at Nuremberg, in the year one thoufand 
five hundred and thirty-two * ; and except fome 
flight trouble from the proceedings of the Impe- 
rial chamber, they met with nothing to difturb 
them in the exercife of their religion, or to inter- 
rupt the futfcefsflil zeal with which they propagated 
their opinions. Meanwhile the Pope continued N>ror?f. 
his ncgociations for. convoking a general council ; ^{^[ViiZt 
and though the Proteftants had cxprefTcd great l'[^^Jlll^ 
diffatisfadlion with his intention to fix upon Man- c^'""«'i- 
tua as the place of meeting, he adhered obftinately 
to his choice, iffued a bull on the fecond of June, 
one thoufand five hundred and thirty-fix, appoint- 
ing it to afiemble in that . city on the twenty-third 
of May the year following j he nominated three 
cardinals to prefide in his namej enjoined all 
Chriftian Princes to countenance it by their au- 
thority, and invited the Prelates of every nation 
to attend in perfon. This fummons of a council, 
.an affembly which from its nature and intention 
demanded quiet times, as well as pacific difpofi- 
tions, at the very junfture when the Emperor was 

* Du Mont Corps Diplom. torn. iv. part 2. p. ij?. 

Vol. III. M on 


on his march towards France^ and ready to involTe 
a great part of Europe in the confufions of war, 
'53*« appeared to every perfon extremely unieafonable. 
It was intimated^ howevef, to all the different 
> courts by nuncios difpatched of purpofe *. With 
an intention to gratify the Germans, the Emperor, 
during his refidence in Rome, had warmly Iblicit- 
ed the Pope to call a council ; but being at the 
fame time wiUing to try every art in order to pcr- 
luade Paul to depart from die neutrality which he 
preferved between him and Francis> he lent Heldo 
his vice-cl^anccllor into Germany, along with a 
nuncio difpatched thither> infbudting him to fe- 
cond all the nuncio's reprefentations, and to en- 
force them with the whole weight of the Imperial 
Feb. 15, authority. The Proteftants gave them audience 
'537* at SmaJkalde, where they had afTembled in a body, 
in order to receive them. But after weighing all 
their arguments they unanimoufly refiifed to ac- 
knowledge a council fummoned in the name and 
by the authority of the Pope alone j in which he 
aflumed the fole right of prefiding^ which was 
to be held in a city not only far diftant from Ger- 
many, b^t fubjedl to a Prince, who was a flranger 
to them, and clofely connected with the court of 
Rome ; and to which their divines could not repair 
with fafety, efpecially after their doftrines had been 
ftigmatized in the very bull of convocation with 
the name of herefy, Thefe and many other ob- 

k Pallavic. Hill. Cone. Trid. 113. 



jeftions againft the council, which appeared to thein book 
imanfwerable, they enumerated in a large mani- i_ -/-^ 
fefto, which they publiihed in vindication of their '^^*' 
condudk '. 

Against this the court of Rome exclaimed as 
a flagrant ppoof of their obftinacy and prefump- 
rion, and the Pope ftill perfifted in his refolution 
to hold the council at the time and in the place 
appointed. But fome unexpe6ted difficulties be- ^ 

ing ftarted by the Duke of Mantua, both about 
the right of jurifdidion over the perfons who re- 
forted to the council, and the fecurity of his ca- 
pital amidft fuch a concourfe of ftrangers, the 
Pope, after fruitlefs endeavour^ to adjuft thefe, oaob.g, 
firft prorogued the council for fome months, and '^^ ' 
afterwards transferring the place of meeting to Vi- 
cenza in the Venetian territories, appointed it to 
aflcmble on the firft of May in the following year. 
As neither the Emperor, nor the French King, 
who had not then come to any accommodation, 
would permit their fubjedls to repair thither, not a 
fingle prelate appeared on the day prefixed, and tlie 
Pope, that his authority might not become alto- 
gether contemptible by fo many inefFedual ef- 
forts to convoke that aflembly, put off the meet- 
ing by an indefinite prorogation ". 

' Sleidan, 1. xii. IS3, &c» Seckend. Com. lib. iii. p. 
" F. Paul, 117. Pallavic. 117. 

M 2 But, 


* ^^^ ^ But, tliat he might ^ot fcem to have turned 
^ '^^wm j his whole attention towards a reformation which 
A partial he was DOt able to accompliih, while he negleded 
of ab^fcsTy that which was in his own powen he d^uted a 
the Pope, certain number of cardinals and Bithops, widi 
full authority to inquire into the abufes and cor- 
ruptions of the Roman court ; and to propofe the 
moft efFeftual method of removing them. This 
fcrutiny, undertaken with reluftance, 'was carried 
on flowly and with remiffnefs. All defe6ts were 
touched with a gentle hand, afraid of probing too 
deep, or of difcovering too much. But even by 
this partial examination, many irregularities were 
detefted, and many enormities expofed to light, 
while the remedies which they fuggefted as moft 
proper, were either inadequate, or were never ap- 
plied. The report and refolutiq^* of thefe depu- 
ties, though intended to be Tcept fecret, were 
tranfmitted by fome accident into Germany, and 
being immediately made public, afforded ample 
matter for refleftion and triumph to the Pro- 
teftants ". On the one hand they demonftrated 
the neceflTity of a reformation in the head as well 
as the members of the church, and even pointed 
out many of the corruptions againft which Luther 
and his followers had remonftrated with the great- 
eft vehemence. Theyftiewed, on the other hand, 
that it was vain to expeft this reformation from 
ccclefiaftics themfelves, who, as Luther ftrongly 

■ Sleidan, 233. 



cxprcfled it, piddled at curing warts, while they ^ ^.^ '^ 

overlooked or confirmed ulcers **. c -•^'•^mj 


The earneftnefs with which the Emperor feem- a league 
ed, at firft, to prefs their acquiefcing in the Pope's oppofitjon 
fcheme of holding a council in Italy, alarmed the L"* '*!?'!'/ 
Protcftant Princes fo much, that they thought it 
prudent to ftrengthen their confederacy, by admit- 
ting feveral new members who folicited that pri- , , 
vilege, particularly the King of Denmark. Heldo, 
who, during his refidence in Germany, had ob- 
ferved ail the advantages which they derived from 
that union, endeavoured to counterbalance its ef- 
fefts by an alliance among the Catholic powers of 
the Empire. This league, diftinguilhed by the 
name of Hcly, was merely defcnfive j and though 
concluded by- Heldo in the Emperor's name, was 
afterwards difowncd by him^ and fubfcribed by 
very few Princes *", 

The Proteftants foon got intelligence of this Alarms the 
aflbciation, notwithftanding all the* endeavours of ^'"'^"^•* 
the contrafting parties to conceal it j and their 
zeal, always apt to fiifpeft and to dread, even to 
cxcefs, every thing that feemed to threaten reli- 
gion, inftantly took the alarm, as if the Emperor 
had been juft ready to enter upon the execution 
of fome formidable plan for the extirpation of 
their opinions. In order to difappoint this, they 

* Seek. 1. Hi. 164. 1^ Seek. 1. Hi. J71. Recueil 

dc Traitcz. 

M 3 held 


BOOK held frequent confultations, they courted the Kings 
\.^..'>^'^^ of France and England with great afliduity, and 
is:9* even began to think of raifing the refpedivc con- 
tingents both in men and money which they were 
obliged to furnifh by the treaty of Smalkalde. 
But it was not long before they were convinced 
that thefe apprehenfions were without foundation, 
and that the Emperor, to whom repofe was ablb- 
lutely necefifary after efforts (o much beyond his 
ftrength in the war Jwith France, had no thoughts 
of difturbing the tranquillity of Germany. As a 
April 19. proof of this, at an interview with the Proteftant 
Princes in Francfort, his ambafladors agreed that 
all conceffions in their favour, particularly thofe 
contained in the pacification of Nuremberg, fhould 
continue in force for fifteen months ; that during ^ 
this period all proceedings of the Imperial chamber 
againft them fhould be fufpended ; that a confer- 
ence fhould be held by a few divines of each party, 
in order to difcufs the points in controverfy, and 
to propofe articles of accommodation which fhould 
be laid before the next Diet. Though the Empe- 
ror, that he might not irritate the Pope, who re- 
monftrated againft the firfl part of diis agreement 
as impolitic, and againft the latter as an impious 
enci-oachment upon his prerogative, never formally 
ratified this convention, it was obferved with con- 
fiderable exaftnefs, and greatly ftrengthened the 
bafis of that ecclefiaflical liberty, for which the 
Protellants contended ^. 

9 F. Paul, 82. Slcid. 247. Scck.'l. iii. aoo, 



A FEW days after the convention at Francfort, ^ ^^^ ^ 
Geoige Duke of Saxony died, and his death was \^m,^immj 
an event of great advantage to the Reformation. a^.^I^, 
That Prince, the head of the Albertine, or younger J| *f ^^t' 
branch of the Saxon family, poffeflied, as marquis bJi<hc<* »« 
of Mifnia and Thuringia, extenfive territories, ofSixony. 
comprehending Drefden, Leipfic, and other cities 
now the moft confiderable in the eleftorate. From 
the firft dawn of the Reformation, he had been its 
enemy as avowedly as the eledtoral Princes were 
its proteftors, and had carried on his oppofition 
not Only with all the zeal flowing from religious 
prejudices, but with a virulence infpired'by peribnal 
antipathy to Luther, and imbittered by the domef- 
tic aaimofity fublifting between him and the other 
branch of his family. By his death without iffue, 
his fucceffion fell to* his brother Henry, whofe at- 
tachment to the Proteftant religion furpafled, if 
poffible, that of his predeceflbr to popery. Henry 
no fooner took poflefTion of his new dominions, 
than, difregarding a claufe in George's wiU, dic- 
tated by his bigotry, whereby he bequeathed all his 
territories to the Emperor and King of the Ro- 
mans, if his brother ftiould attempt to make any 
innovation in religion, he invited fome Proteftant 
divines, and among them Luther himfcif, to Leipfic. 
By their advice and alliftance, he overturned in a 
few weeks the whole fyftem of ancient rites, efta- 
biilhing the foil exercife of the reformed religion, 
with the univerfal applaufe of his fubjefts, who 
had long wifhed for this change, which the au- 
M 4 thority 


^ %^ ^ thority of their Duke alone had hitherto prevent- 
^-^,L^ ed'. This revolution delivered the Proteftants 
'^^'' from the danger to which they were expofed by 
having an inveterate enemy fituated in the middle 
of their territories j and the territories of the prin- 
ces and cities attached to their caufe, now extended 
in one great and almoft unbroken line from the 
fhore of the Baltic to the banks of the Rhine. 

-A mutiny of SooN after thc conclufion of the truce at Nice, 
ifoops. an event happened, which fatisfied all Europe that 
Charles had profecuted the war to the utmoft ex- 
tremity that the ftate of his affairs, would permit 
Vaft arrears were due to his troops, whom he had 
long amufed with vain hopes and promifes. As 
they now forcfaw what little attention would be 
, paid to their demands, when by the re-eftablifh- 
ment of peace their fervices became of lefs im- 
portance, they loft all patience, broke out into 
an open mutiny, and declared that they thought 
themfelves entided to feize by violence what was 
detained from diem contrary to all juftice^ Nor 
was this Ipirit of fedition confined to one part of 
the Emperor's dominions ; the mutiny was almoft 
as general as the grievance which gave rife to it. 
The foldiers in the Milanefe plundered the open 
country without controul, and filled the capital 
itfelf with confternation. * Thofe in garrifon at 
Goletta threatened to give up that important 
fortrefs to Barbarofla. In Sicily the troops pro- 

' Sleidant 249. 



ceeded to ftill greater exceflcs ;^ having driven * 
away their officers, they elefted others in their 
(lead, defeated a body of men whom the viceroy *^^^' 
fent againft them, took and pillaged feveral cities, 
conducing themfelvts all the while in fuch a 
manner, that their \ operations refembled rather 
the regular proceedings of a concerted rebellion, 
than the rafhnefs and violence of a military mu- 
tiny. But by the addrefs and prudence of the 
generals, who partly by borrowing money in dieir 
own name, or in that of their m'after, partly by 
extorting large fums from the cities in their re- 
fpeftive provinces, raifed what was fufficient to 
difcharge the arrears of the Ibldiers, thefe infur- 
reftions were quelled. The greater part of the \ 
troops were difbanded, fuch a number only being 
kq)t in pay as was necefTary for garrifoning the 
principal towns, and protefting the fea-coafts from 
the infults of the Turks '. 

It was happy for the Emperor that the abilities ^*2"?^* 
of his generals extricated him out of thefe diffi- at Toledo, 
cultics, which it exceeded his own power to have 
removed. He had depended,^ as his chief re- 
fource for difcharging the arrears due to his fol-. 
diers, upon the fiibfidies which he expefted from 
his Caftilian fubjedts. For thi^ purpofe, he af- 
fembled the Cortes of Caftile at Toledo, and 
having reprefented to them the extraordinary ex- . 
pence of his military operations, together with the 

' JoYii Hiflor. 1. xxxvii. 203. c. Sandov. Ferreras, ix. 




BOOK great debts in which thefe had neccffarily involved 
%, ^' f him, he propofed to levy fuch fupplics as the prc- 
"^^^' fent exigency of his affairs demanded, by a general 
The com- excifc QH commoditics. But die Spaniards al- 
Si^tlflc. ready felt themfelyes opprefled with a load of taxes 
X^Wjn" unknown to their anceftors. They had often com- 
plained that their country was drained not only of 
its wealth but of its inhabitants, in order to prp- 
£scute quarrels in which it was not interefted, and 
to fight battles from which it could reap no bene- 
fit, and they detenriined not to add voluntarily to 
their own burdens, or to fiirnifti the Emperor 
with the means of engaging in new enterprizes no 
leis ruinous to" the kingdom than moft of tho& 
which he had hitherto carried on. The nobles, 
in particular, inveighed with great vehemence 
againfi: the impofition propo&d, as an encroach- 
ment upon the valuable and diftinguiihing privi- 
lege of their order, that of being exempted, from 
the payment of any tax. They demanded a con- 
ference with the reprefentatives of the cities con- 
cerning the ft^te ci the nation. They contended 
that if Charles would imitate the example of his 
predcceflbrs, who had refided conftandy in Spain, 
and would avoid entangling himfelf in a muld- 
plicity of tranfaftions foreign to the concerns of 
his Spanifli dominions, the ftated revenues o£ the 
crown *ould be fully fuificient to defray the ne- 
ceffary expences of government. TJiey reprc- 
feated to him, that it would be unjuft to lay new 
burdens upon the people, while this prudent and 
cfFeftual method of re-eftablilhing public credit, 
9 and 


and fecuring national opulence^ was totally neg- 
kfted'. Charles, after employing arguments, 
entreaties, and promiies, but without fuccefs, in '^5^* 
order to overcome their obftinacy, difmifled the 
alTembly with great indignation. From thatpe- rhetaotst 
riod neither the nobles nor the prelates have been orthc clU! 
called to thefe aflemblies, on pretence that fuch i*^' 
as pay no part of the public taxes, Ihould not 
claim any vote in laying them on. None have 
been admitted to the Cortes but the procurators 
or reprcfentatives of eighteen cities. Thefe, to 
the number o[ thirty-fix, being two from each 
community, form an aflbmbly which bears no re-- 
femblancc cither in power or dignity or independ- 
ence to the ancient Cortes, and are abfolutely at 
the devotion of the court in all their determina- 
tions '. Thus the imprudent zeal with which the 
Caftilian nobles had fupported the regal preroga- 
tive, in oppofition to the claims of the commons 
during the commotions in the year one thoufand 
live hundred ajid twenty-one, proved at laft fatal 
to their own body. By enabling Charles to de- 
prcfs one of the orders in the ftate, they deftroyed 
that balance to which the conftitution owed its 
fecurity, and put it in his power, or in that of his 
fucceflbrs, to humble the other, and to ftrip it of 
its mcrfl valuable privileges. 

' Sandov. Hid. vol. ii. 269. 

■ Saodov. ibid. Le Science du Goveraement, par M. it 
Real, torn. ii. p. 102. 



book' At that time, however, the Spanifh grandees 
^■^■^-1 ftill poffefled extraordinary power as well as pri- 
TheSp?nifli vUcges, which they exercifed and defended with 
*""^'ff(rd ^" haughtinefs peculiar to themfelves. Of this 
high privU the Ennperor himfelf had a mortifying proof du- 
*'"* ring the meeting of the Cortes at Toledo. As 
he was returning one day from a tournament ac- 
companied by moft of the nobility, one of the 
ferjeants of the court, out of officious zeal to clear 
the way for the Emperor, ftruck the Duke of In- 
fantado's horfe with his batton, which that haugh- 
ty grandee refenting, drew his Iword, beat and 
wounded the officer. Charles, provoked at fuch 
an infolent deed in; his prefence, immediately 
• ordered Ronquillo the judge of the court to arreft 
the Duke; Ronquillo advanced to execute his 
charge, when the conftable of Caftile interpofing, 
checked him, claimed the right of juriftii&ion 
over a grandee as a privilege of his office, and 
ciondufted Infantado to his own apartment. All 
the nobles prefent were fo pleafed with the bold- 
nefs of the conftable in aflerting the rights of their 
order, that, deferting the Emperor, they attended 
him to his houfe with infinite applaufes, and 
Charles returned to the palace unaccompanied by 
.any perfon but the cardinal Tavera. The Em- 
peror, how fenfible foever of the affront, faw the 
danger of irritating a jealous and high-fpirited 
order of men, whom the flighteft appearance of 
offence might drive to the moft unwarrantable ex- 
tremities. For that reafon, inftead of ftraining 



ac any ill-timed exertion of his prerogative, he » o o k 
prudently connived at the arrogance of a body too ^ J ,» 
potent for him to controul, and fent next morn- '^J^* 
ing to the Duke of Infantado, offering to inflift 
what puniihment he pleafed on the perfon who 
had affronted him. The Duke confidering this 
as a full reparation to his honour, inftandy for- 
gave the officer; beftowing on him, befides, a 
confiderable prefent as a compenfation for his 
wound- Thus the affair was entirely forgotten * ; 
nor would it have deferved to be mentioned, if it 
were not a ftriking example of the haughty and 
independent fpirit of the Spanilh nobles in that 
age, as well as an inftance of the Emperor's dex- 
terity in accommodating his condudt to the cir- 
cumAances in which he was placed. 

Charles was far from difcovering any fuch infurreaion 
coridefcenfion or lenity towards the citizens of "* ^*^*"'* 
Ghent, who not long after broke out into open 
rebellion againft his government* An event 
which happened in the year one thoufand five 
hundred and thirty-fix^ gave occafioh to this rafh 
infurreftion io fatal to that flourilhing city. At 
that time the Queen dowager of Hungary, gover- 
nefs of the Netherlands, having received orders 
from her brother to invade France with all the 
forces which fhe could raife, fhe afTcmblcd the 
States of the United Provinces, and obtained 
from them a fubfidy of twelve hundred thoufand 

' Sandov. ii. 274. Ferreras, ix. 212. Miniann, J13. 



BOOK florins, to defray the expencc of that undertaking* 
^ , / . Of this fum, the county of Flanders was obliged 
'53^' to pay a third part as its proportion. But the 
Pretenfions citizcns of Ghcnt, thc moft confiderable city 
of^he cm- j^ ^^^ country, avcrfe to a war with France, with 
which they carried on an extenfive and gainful 
commerce, refiifcd to pay their quota, and con- 
tended, that in confcquence of ftipulations be- 
tween them and thc anceftors of their prefcnt fo- 
vereign the Emperor, no tax could be levied upon 
them, unlefs they had given their exprels confent 
to thc impofition of it. The governcfs, on thc 
other hand, maintained, that as the fubfidy of 
twelve hundred thoufand florins had been granted 
by thc States of Flanders, of which their rcprc- 
fentatives were members, they were bound, of 
courfe, to conform to what was enaded by them, 
as it is the firft principle in fociety, on which the 
tranquillity and order of government depend, that 
the inclinations of thc minority muft be over- 
ruled by the judgment and deciilon of the fuperior 

l^tt^^* The citizens of Ghent, however, were not will- 

ihem. ing to relinquifh a privilege of fuch high import- 

i ance as that which thev ^claimec^. Ijf^^ing been 

^couftomed, under the government of the houfe 

of Burgundy, to enjoy extenfive immunities, and 

to be treated with much indulgence, they dif- 

dained to facrifice to the delegated power of a 

regent, diole rights and liberties which they had 

often and fucccfsfully affertcd againft their grcateft 



Princes. The Queen, though Ihe endeavoutcd ^ 
at firft to footh them, and to reconcile them to 
their duty by various conceffions, was at laft fo '^^'* 
much irritated by the ojjftinacy with which they 
adhered to their claim, that Ihe ordered all the 
cidzens of Ghent, on whom (he could lay hold in 
any part of the Netherlands, to be arretted. But 
this rafli a£tion made an impreflioh very different 
fiom what (he expefted, on men, whofe minds 
were agitated with all the violent palfions which 
indignation at oppreffion and zeal for liberty in- 
fpire. Lcfs- affeded with the danger of their 
friends and companions, than irritated at die 
govemefe, they openly delpifed her authority, and 
fent deputies to the other towns of Flanders, con- 
juring them not to abandon their country at fuch 
a junfture, but to concur with them in vindi- 
cating its rights againft the encroachments of a 
woman, who either did not know or did not re- 
gard their immunities. All but a few incon- 
fiderable towns declined entering into any confe- 
deracy againft the governefs : they joined, how- 
ever, in petitioning her to put off the term for 
payment of the tax fo long, that they might have 
it in their power to lend fome of their number into 
Spain, in order to lay their title to exemption 
before their fovereign. This fhe granted with 
fome difficulty. But Charles received their com- 
miflioners with an haughtinefs to which they were 
not accuftomed from their ancient Princes, and 
enjoining them to yield the fame refpeftful obedi- 
ence to His fifter, which they owed to him in per- 



fon, remitted the examination of their claim to 
the council of Malines. This court, which is 
'5^' properly a (landing committee of the parliament 
or dates of the country, and which poffefles the 
fupreme jurifdiftion in all matters civil as well as 
criminal ^, |5ronounced the claim of the citizens of 
Ghent to be ill-founded, and appointed them forth- 
with to pay their proportion of the tax, 

V'^.^Md Enraged at this decifion, which they confi- 
offer to Tub- dercd as notorioufly unjuft, and rendered defpcrate 
France. on feeing their rights betrayed by that very court 
which was bound to proted them, the people of 
Ghent ran to arms in a tumultuary manner, drove 
fuch of the nobility as refided among them out of 
the city j fecured feveral of the Emperor's officers -, 
pu: one of them to the torture, whom they ac- 
cufed of having ftolen or deftroyed the record that 
contained a ratification of the privileges of ejc- 
emption from taxes which they pleaded ; chofe a 
council to which they committed the direftion of 
their affairs ; gave orders for repairing and adding 
to their fortifications i and openly erefted the 
flandard of rebellion againft their fovercign^. 
, Senfible, however, of their inability to fupport what 
their zeal had prompted them to undertake, and 
defirous of fecuring a proteftor againft the for- 

f Defcrittione ill tutti Paed Baffi di Lad. Guicciardin', 
Ant. 157I. fol. p. 53. 

* Memoires fur la Revoke dc Gantois en 1559, par Jean 
d'fiollander, eerie en 1547. A la Haye, 174.7. P. Heuier. 
^er. AuAr, lib. ^i. p. 262. Sandov. HiAor. (091.11. p. z^i^ 



taidable forces by which they might expeft foon to * ^^ ^ 
be attacked, they fcnt ibme of their number to y^^^L^ 
Francis, offering not ohiy to acknowledge him as '^^^ 
their fovereign, and to put him in immediate pof- 
feffion of Ghent, but to aflift him with all their 
forces in recovering thbfe provinces in the Nether- 
lands, which had anciently belonged to the crown 
of France, and had been fo lately re-united, to it by. 
the decree of the parliarpent of Paris. This un- 
expected propofition coming from perfons who had 
it in their power to have performed inftantly onfe 
part of what they undertook, and who could con- 
tribute fo effeftually towards the execution of the 
whofej opened great as well as alluring prolpefts to 
Frmcis's ambition. The counties of Flanders and 
Artois were of greater value than the dutchy of 
Milan, i^hich he had fo long laboured to acquire 
with paffionate but fruitlefs defire ; their fituation 
with refpeft to France rendered it more eafy to 
conquer or to defend them j and they rhight be 
formed into a feparate principality for the Duke of 
Orleans, no lefs fuitable to his dignity thaii that 
which his father aimed at obtaining. To this, the 
Flemings^ who were acquainted with the French 
manners and government^ would not have been 
averfe ; and his own fubjeflis j weary of their de-^ 
ftru6kive expeditions into It^y, would have turned 
their arrtis towards this quarter with more good- 
will, and with gfcater vigour. Several confident- Francis iem 
tions, neverthelefs, prevented Francis from laying offSr? 
hold of this opportunity, the molt favourable in 
VoLi III. N appear-. • 


* ^vr ^ appearance which had ever prefented itfelf, of «i- 
K-^^»,^ tending his own dominions^ or diftrefllng the Elm- 
'539- peror. From the time of their interview at Aigues-- 
itoortes, Charks had continued to court the King 
of France with wonderful attention ; and often flat- 
tered him with hopes of gratifying at laft his wifhes 
concerning the Milancfe, by granting the invcfti- 
ture of it either to him or to one of his fons. But 
though thefe hopes and promifes were thrown out 
with no other intention than to detach him from 
his confederacy with the Grand Seignior, or to raife 
fufpicions in Solyman's mind by the appearance of 
a cordial and familiar intercourfe fubfifting between 
the courts of Paris and Madrid, Francis was weak 
enough to catch at the fhadow by which he had been 
fo often amufed, and from eagernefs to feize it, re- 
linquifhed what muft have proved a more fubftan- 
tial acquifition. Befides this, the Dauphin, jealous 
to excefs of his brother, and unwilling that a Prince 
who feemed to be of a reftlefs and entefprizing na- 
ture fhould obtain an eftablifhment, which from its 
fituation might be confidered almpft as a domeftic 
one, made ufe of Montmorency, who, by a lingu- 
lar piece of good fortune, was at the fame time the 
favourite of the father and of the Ion, to defeat the 
application of the Flemings, and to divert the King 
from efpoufing their caufe. .Montmorency, ac- 
cordingly, reprefented, in ftrong terms, the repu- 
,• tation and power which Francis would ac<5[uire by 

recovering that footing which he had formerly in 
Italy^ and that nothing could be fo efficacious to 
'...:? f. over- 


6vcrcome the Emperor's averfion to this as a facred * ^^ ^ 
adherence to the truce, and refufing, on an occafion *-— >^^ 
fo inviting, to countenance the rebellious fubjefts of ^^^^ 
his rival. Francis, apt of" himfelf to over-rate thfe 
value of the Milancfe, becaufe he eftimated it from 
the length of time as well as from the great efforts 
which he had employed in order to reconquer it, 
and fond of every aAion which had the appearance 
of gencrofity, aflented without difficulty to fenti- 
ments fo agreeable to his own, rejefted the propo- 
fitions of the citizens of Ghent, and difmiflcd their 
deputies with an harlh anfwer \ 

Not latisfied with this, by a farther refinement Commun!- 
in gene'rpfity, he communicated to the Emperor "lem^ioM 
his whole negociation with the malecontents, and 
all that he knew of their fchemes and intentions ^. 
This convincing proof of Francis's difinterefted- 
i\ds relieved Charles fi-bm the moft difquieting 
apprehenfions, and opened a way to extricate him- 
ielf out of all his difficulties. He had already re- 
ceived full information of all the tranfaftions in the 
Netherlands, and of the rage with which the people 
of Ghent had taken arms againft his government. 
He was thoroughly acquainted with the genius and 
qualities of his fubjefts in that country ; with their 
love of liberty ; their attachment to their ancient 
privileges and cuftoms j as well as the invincible 

* Mem. deBellay, p. 263. P. Heuter. Rcr. Auftr. lib. xi, 
1263. ^ S»ido7« Hiilor. tool* ii. 284. 

to the Bin* 



* %? ^ pbftinacy witfi which their minds, flow but firm 
w--^Aw and perfevering, adhered to any meafure on which 
'^^^' they had deliberately refolved. He eafily faw what 
encouragement and fupport they might have de- 
rived from the afliftance of France ; and though 
. now free from any danger on that quarter, he was 
Hill fenfible that fome immediate as well as vigor- 
ous interpofition was neceflary, in order to prevent 
the fpirit of difafFedbion from fpreading in a coun- 
try where the number of cities, the multitude of 
people, together with the great wealth difiufed 
among them by commerce, rendered it peculiarly 
formidable, and would fupply it with inexhauftible 
refources. No expedient, after long deliberation, 
appeared to him fo efiedhial as his going in perfon 
to, the Netherlands; and the governefs his lifter 
being of the fame opinion, warmly folicited him 
tp undertake the journey. There were only two 
different routes which he could take ; one by land 
through Italy and Germany, the other entirely by 
fea, from fome port in Spain to one in the Low- 
Countries. But the former was more tedious than 
fuited the prefent exigency of his affairs; nor could 
he in confiftency with his dignity, or even his £sl£g^ 
ty, pals through Germany without fuch a train 
both of attendants and of troops, as would have 
added greatly to the tim^ that he muft have con- 
fumed in his journey; th^ latter was dangerous at 
this feafon, and while he remained uncertain with 
relpedt to the friendfhip of the King of England^ 
was not to be ventured upon> unlefe under the coar 



tioat con- 
cerning hii 
journey to 
the Nether- 


toy of a powerful fleet. This perplexing fitua* book 
don, in which he was under the neceflity of chuf- i^ ^-_j 
ing, and did not know what to chufe, inlpired him '^39« 
at laft with the fingular and feemingly extravagant 
thought of pafling through France, as the molt pr»poie« to 
expeditious way of reaching the Netherlands. • He I'^^cl!^^^ 
propofed in his council to demand Francis's per- 
miflion for that purpofe. All his counfellors join- 
ed with one voice in condemning the meafure as 
no lefs ralh than unprecedented, and which muft 
infallibly expofe him to difgrace or to danger j to 
difgracc, if the demand were rejefted in the nrianner 
that he had reafon to expeft ; to danger, if he put 
his pcrfon in the power of an enemy whom he had 
often offended, who had ancient injuries to re- 
venge, as well as fubjefts of prefent conteft ftill 
remaining undecided. But Charles, wha had ftu- 
died the charafter of his rival with greater care 
and more profound difcernment than any of his 
minifters, perfifted in his plan, and flattered hin^- 
feif that it might be accomplilhed not only with-^ 
out danger to his own perfon, but even without 
the expence of any conceflion detrinr^ntal to his 

With this view he communicated the matter TowWck 
to the French ambaflador at his court, and fent fonfenu. 
GranvcUe his chief minifter to Paris, in order to 
obtain from Francis permiffion to pafs through 
his dominions, and to promife that he would foon 
fettle the aflTair of the Milanefe to his fatisfaftion. 
But at the lame time he entreated that Francis 
N 1 would 


^ %^ ^'^ would not exaft any new promife, or even infift tMr 
^-^■ w former engagements, at this jundture, left what- 
»539' gy^j. jj^ Ihould grantj under his prefent circum^ 
ftances, might feem rather to be extorted by ne- 
ceffity, than to flow fix)m fricndlhip or the love of 
juftice. Francis, inftead of attending to the fnare 
which fuch a flight artifice fcarcely concealed, was 
fo dai^zled with the fplendour of overcoming an 
enemy by a6ls of generofity, and {o pleaied witii 
the air of fuperiority which the re6titude and difin* 
tereftedncfs of his proceedings gave him on this 
occafion, that he at once aflented to all that wa9 
demanded. Judging of the Emperor's heart by 
his own, he imagined that the iendments of gra* 
titude, arifi.ng from the remembrance of good of- 
fices and liberal treatment, would determine him 
more forcibly to fulfil what he had fo often pro- 
mifed, than the moil precife (lipulations that could 
be inferted in any treaty. 

in«recep- ypoN this, Charlcs, to whopn every moment 
kbgdSm/ was precious, fet out, notwithftanding the fears 
and fufpicions of his Spaniih fubjefts, with a fmall 
but fplendid train of about an hundred pcrfons. 
At Bayonne, on the frontiers of France, he was re- 
. ceivcd by the Dauphin and the Duke of Orleans, 
attended by thp conftable Montmorency. The 
two Princes offered to go into Spain, and to remain 
there as hoftagcs for the Emperor's fafety/ but 
this he rejefted, declaring, that he relied with im- 
plicit confidence on the King's honour, and had 
pcver demanded^ nor would accept of any other 



pledge for his fecurity. In all the towos through ^ 9^^ * 
which he paffed, the greatcft poffible magnificence — ^^ 
was difpiayedi the magiftratcs prefcnted him the ^^^ 
keys of the gates; the prifon doors were fct openj 
and, by the royal honours paid to him, Ije appear- 
ed more like the fovereign of the country than a 
foreign prince. The King advanced as fa)- as 
Chateiherault to meet him ; their interview was is4«» 
diftinguifhed by the warmeft expreffions of friend- 
Ihip and regard. They proceeded together to- 
W2u-ds Paris, and prcfented to the inhabitants of 
that city, the extraordinary fpe6lacle of two rival 
Monarchs, whofe enmity had difturbed and laid 
vn&t Europe during twenty years, making their 
folemn entry together with all the fymptoms of a 
confidential harmony, as if they had forgotten for 
ever paft injuries, and would never revive hoftili- 
tics for the future ^ 

Charles remained fix days at Paris 5 but amidft *^^* ???*• 
the perpetual carefles of the French court, and tude, 
the various entertainments contrived to amufe or 
to do him honour, he difcovered an extreme im- 
patience to continue his journey, arifing as much 
from an apprehenfion of danger which conftantly 
haunted him, as fr6m*the neceflfity of his pre- 
fence in the Low-Countries. Confcious of the 
difingenuity of his own intentions, he trembled 
when he refleded that fome fatal accident might 
betray them to his rival, or lead him to fufpcd 

^ TluaB. Hift. lib. i. c. 14. Mem. de Bellay, 264. 

N 4 thcms 


* %f ^ them ; and though his artifices to conceal them 
^^'J'^mf ihould be fuccefsfu]^ he could not help fearing 
^^*^ that motives of intereft might at laft triumph over 
the fcruples of honour, and tempt Francis to 
avail himfelf of the advantage now in his hands. 
Nor were there wanting perfons among the French 
uiiniftcrs, who advifed tlie King to turn his own 
arts againft the Emperor, and as the retribution 
due for fo many inftances of fraud or falfehood, to 
feize and detain his perfon until he granted him 
full fatisfaAion with regard to all the juil claims 
of the French crown. But no confideration could 
induce Francis to violate the faith which he had 
pledged, nor could any argument convince him 
that Charles, after all the promifes that he had 
given, and all the favours which he had receive^, 
might ftill be capable of deceiving him. Full of 
this falfe confidence, he accompanied him to St. 
Quintin ; ^nd the two Princes, who had met him 
on the borders of Spain, did not take leave of 
him until he entered his dominions in the Lowi* 

•na^ifingc As foon as thp Emperor reached his own tcr- 
'*"*^^' ritories, the French ambaffadors demanded the 
jtaDiryH. accompliihment of what he had promifed con- 
cerning the inveftiture of Milan j but Charles^ 
under the plaufible pretext that his whole atten- 
tion was then engrofled by the confultadons nc- 
cefiary towards fupprefling the rebellion in Ghent, 
' put o£F the matter for fome time. But in order 
to prevent Francis from fufpefting his fincerity, 



lie (till continued to talk of his refolutions with book 


recked: to that matter in the fame ftrain as wheri ^-^^- ^ 
he entered France, and even wrote to the King '540. 
much to the fame purpofc, though in general 
terms, and with equivocal expreffions, which he 
might afterwards explain away or interpret at plea-^ 
fure *. 

Meakwhile, the unfortunate citizens of Ghent^ Reauaion 
deftitute of leaders capable either of directing their *^ ****' 
councils, or conducting their troops ; abandoned . 
by the French King, and unfupported by their 
countrymen ; were unable to refift their offended 
fovereign, who was ready to advance againft them 
widr one body of troops which he had raifed in 
the Netherlands, with another drawn out of Ger- 
many, and a third which had arrived from Spain 
by fea. The near approach of danger made 
them, at laft, fo fenfible of their own folly, that 
they fent ambafladors to the Emperor, imploring 
his mercy, and offering to fet open their gates at 
his approach. Charles, without vouchfafing them 
any other anfwer, than that he would appear 
among them as their fovereign, with the fceptrc 
and the i^ord in his hand, began his march at 
the head of his troops. Though he chofe to enter 
the city on the twenty-fourth of February, his 
birth-day, he was touched with nothing of that 
tendernels or indulgence which was natursdito- 

* Mcmoi/es it Ribier, 1. 504, 




* %f ^ wards the place of his nativity. Twenty-fix of 
C-— nA-i the principal citizens were put to death j a greater 
•n/p""'A- 'luinber was fent into banifhmentj the city was 
Stblw/^ declared to have forfeited all its privil^s and 
Apfti ao. immunities j the revenues belonging to it were 
confifcateds its ancient form of government was 
abolifhed -, the nomination of its magi{bate3 wa$ 
veiled for the future in the Emperor and his fuc- 
cefibrs -, a new fyftem of laws and political admi- 
niftration was prefcribed ^ and in order to bridle 
the feditious Ipirit of the citizens^ orders were 
given to ereft a ftrong citadel, for defraying die 
expence of which a fine of an hundred and fifty 
thoufand florins was impofed on the inhabitants^ 
together with an annual tax of fix thoufand florins 
for the fupport of the garrifon ^ By thefe rigor- 
ous proceedings, Charles not only piuiifhed the 
citizens of Ghent, but fet an awfijl exaniple of 
fcverity before his other fubje&s in the Netherlands, 
whofe immunities and privileges, partly the eflfed, 
partly the caufe of their extenfive commerce, cir- 
cumfcribed the prerogative of their Sovereign with- 
in very narrow bounds, and often ftood in the way 
of meafures which he wifhed to undertake, or fet- 
tered and retarded him in his operations. 

fofeMofuU Charles having thus vindicated arid rc-efta- 
fiihitcR. bliftied his authority in the Low-Countri*s, and 


^ Les Coutumes & Loix da Compte de Plandre^ par Alex. 

le Grande, 3 torn. foL Cambray, 17191 torn* i. p. 169* 

^ Harsei Annalei Brabantis, vol. L 6i6. » 



hdng now under no neceflSty of contintiing the » o o ic 
fame fcene of falfehood and diffimulation with -c-^-u^^ 
vhich he had long amufed Francis, began gradu- '«**• 
ally to throw afide the veil under which he had 
concealed his intentions with^reipefk to the Mila^ 
nefc. At firft, he eluded the demands of the 
French ambafTadors, when they again renunded 
him of his promifes -, then he propoied, by way- 
of equivalent for the dutchy of Milan, to grant 
the Duke of Orleans the inveftiture of Flanders, 
clogging the offer, however, with impradticable 
condkions, or fuch as he knew would be rcjc<5b- 
cd *. At laft, befng driven from all his evafions 
and fubterfugcs by their infifting for a categorical 
anfwcr, he peremptorily refiifed to give up a ter- 
ritory of fuch value, or voluntarily to make fuch 
a liberal addition to the llrength of an enemy by 
diminiihing his own power ^ He denied at the 
f^ne time, that he had ever made any p/omife 
which could bind him to an a^ion fb fooliih, and 
fo contrary to his own intereft^ 

Of all the tranfaftions in the Emperor's life« 
this, without doubt, reflects the greateft difhonour 
on his reputation'. Though Charles was not ex^ 
tremely fi:rupulous at other times about the means 
which he employed for accomplifiiing his endsj 
and was not always obiervant of the itrid pre-* 

* Mem. de Ribier, i. 509. 514. * Ribier, i. 519. 

' Bellay, 365-6. 

> Jovii Hill; lib. xxxix* p. 238, a* 



cepts of veracity and honour, he had hitherto' 
maintained Ibme regard for the maxims of that 
'54o« lefs precife and rigid morality by which Mo- 
narths think' themfelves entitled to regulate their 
conduft. But, on this occafion, the fcheme that 
he formed of deceiving a generous and open- 
hearted Prince i the illiberal and mean artifices by 
which he carried it on ; the infenfibility with which 
he received all the marks of his friendfhip, as 
well as the ingratitude with which he requited 
them ; are all equally unbecoming the dignity of 
his charafter, and ihconfiftent with the grandeur 
pf his views. 

This tranfaftion expofed Francis to as much 
fcorn as it did the Emperor to cenfure^ After 
the experience of a long reign, afiier fo many op- 
portunities of difcovering the duplicity and artifices 
of his rival, the credulous fimplicity with which 
he trufted him at this junfture feemed to merit 
no other return than what it aftually met with- 
Francis, however, rcmonftrated and exclaimed, 
as if this had been the firfl inftance in which the 
Emperor had deceived him. Feeling, as is ufual, 
the infult which was offered to his underftanding 
ftill more fenfibly than the injury done to his in- 
tereft, he difcovered fuch refentment, as made it 
obvious tjiat he would lay hold on the firft oppor- 
tunity of being revenged, and that a war, no, lefs 
rancorous than that which had Co lately raged, 
would foon break out anew in Europe. 



But lingular as the tranfadtion which has been * ^^ » 
related may appear^ this year is rendered (till more \m,^^Lm^ 
memorable by the eftablilhment of the Order of xh/v^ 
Jcfuits i a body whofe influence on ecclefiaftical- as t"e*iftft^. 
well as civil affairs hath been fo confiderable> that tionofthc 
an account of the genius of its laws and govern-^ jefutt, 
mentjviftly merits a place in hiftory. When men 
take a view of the rapid progrefs of this fociety to- 
wards wealdi and power 3 when they contemplate 
die admirable prudence ^if^ith which it has been 
governed i when they attend to the perfevering and 
fyftematic Ijpirit with which its fchemes have been 
carried on ; they arc apt to afcribe fuch a Angular 
inftitution to the fuperior wifdom of ijts feunder, 
and to fuppofe that he had formed and digefted hi^ 
plan with profound policy. But the Jefuits, as; 
well as the other monaftic orders^ are indebted for 
the exiftence of their order not to the wifdom of 
their founder, but to his enthufiafm. Ignatio 
Loyola, whom I have already mentioned on occa-^ 
fion of the wound which he received in defending 
Pampeluna \ was a fanatic diftinguifhed by extra- 
vagancies in fendment and condudt, no lefs incom- 
patible with the maxims of Ibber reafon, than re- 
pugnant to the fpirit of true religion. The wild 
adventures, and vifionary fchemes, in which his 
enthufiafm engaged him, equal any thing recorded 
in the legends of the Romilh faints ; but are un« 
worthy of notice in hiflory, 

^ Vol. ii. Book ii. p. 192. . 


r^ .THE REIGN OF tH^ ' 

* %^ ^ • PROMPTED by this fanatical fpirit, or incited by 
<w- — -^ the love of power and d^nftion, from which 
Fioa^fctftn ^^^ pfctcndcrs to fuperior (andtity are not exempt, 
itt^il^dk Loyo^ ^^^ ambitious of becoming the founder of 
a religious order. The plan, which he formed of 
its Gonftitution and laws, was foggefted, as he gave 
out, and as his followers ftill teach, by the imme- 
diate infpiration of heaven *. But notwithftanding 
. this high pretenfion, his defign met at firft with 
violent oppofition. The Pope, to whom Loyola 
had applied for the fanftion of his authority to con-^ 
firm the inftitution, referred his petition to a com- 
mittee of Cardinals, They reprefented the efta- 
blifliment to be unneceflary as well as dangerous, 
and Paul refufed to grant his approbation of Tc, 
At laft, Loyola removed all his fcruples by an offer 
which it was impoflible for any Pope to refift. 
TbePopc'i He propofed that befidcs the three vows of poverty, 
^firming' of chaftitv, and of monadic obedience, which arc 
the Older, common to all the orders of regulars, die members 
of his fociety Ihould take a fourth vow of obe- 
dience to the Pope, binding themfelves^to go 
whitherfoever he Ihould command for the fervicc 
of religion, and without requiring any riling from 
the Holy See for their fupport. At a time when 
the p^pal authority had received fuch a fhock by 
the revolt of fo many nations from the Romifh 
church ; at a time when every part of the popilh 
fyftem was attacked with fo much violence and 

* Compte rendu des Conftitutions dcs Jifuites, au Park- 
meat de Provence, par JJl. dc Monclar, p. 285, 

r ' fuccefs. 


fticceis, the acquifirion of a body of men, dius book 
peculiarly devoted to the See of Rome^ and whom ^■ ^' ^ 
it might fet in oppofition to all its enemies, was aa 'i*^* 
objedt of the higheft confequence. Paul, inftantly Scpt; 27, 
perceiving this, confirmed the inftitution of the Je- 
fuits by his bull \ granted the moft ample privi- 
leges to the members of the fociety j and appointed 
Loyola to be the firft general of the order. The 
event hath fully juftified Paul's difcernment, in ex- 
pefting fuch beneficial confequences to the See: of 
Rome from this inftitution. In lefs than half a 
century, the fociety obtained eftablifhments in 
every country that adhered to the Roman catholic 
church ; its power and wealth increafed amazmgly; 
the number of its members becanie great j their 
charafter as well as accomplifliments were ftiil 
► greater; and the Jefuifs were celebrated by the 
friends, and dreaded by the enemies of the Romifh 
faith, as the moft able and enterprizing order in the 

The conftitution and laws of the fociety were, its con«im. 
perfefted .by Laynez and Aquaviva, the two ge- nfu" metir 
nerals who fucceeded Loyola, men far fuperior to J^^^^jJ^' 
their maftcr in abilities, and in the fcience of go- 
vernment. They framed that fyftem of profound 
and artful policy which diftinguilhes the order. 
The large infufion of fanaticifm, mingled with 
ks regulations, fhould be imputed to Loyola its 
founder. Many circumftances concurred in giving 
a peculiarity of charafter to the order of Jefuits, 
and in formihg the members of it not only to 
• take 


* %P ^ ^^ ^ greater part in the affairs of the world thto 
w^-vA-i/ any other body of monks, but to acquire /uperipr 
*^^^' influence in the cpnduft of them* 

The Dbjeft The primary objed of almoft all the monaftlc 

of the order •/• r i ti t r 

fiiigttUr. orders is to feparate men from the world, and from 
any concern in its affairs^ In the folitude and filence 
of the cloifter, the monk is called to work out his 
own falvation by extraordinary afts of mortification 
and piety* He is dead to the world, and ought not 
to mingle in its tranfaftions. He can be of no be- 
nefit to mankind) but by his e3cample and by his 
prayers. On the contrary, the Jefuits are taught to 
confider themfelves as formed for aftion. They arc 
chofen foldicrs, bound to exert themfelves conti- 
nually in the fervice of God, and of the Pope, his 
vicar on earth* Whatever tends to inftrudt the 
ignorant ; whatever can be of life to reclaim or to 
oppofe the enemies of the Holy See, is their proper, 
objeft. That they may have full leifure for this 
aftive fervice, they are totally exempted from thofe 
fundtiorts, the performance of which is the chief 
bufinefs of other monks.^ They appear in no 
proceflions ; they praftife no rigorous aufterities ; 
they do not confume one half of their time in the 
repetition of tedious offices^. But they are re- 
quired to attend to all the tranfa<^pns of the 
world, on account of the influence which thefe 
may have upon religion; they are direfted to 

^ Compte rend a ^ par M. de Mondar, p. xiii. 290. Sor 
, la Deftru^. des jefuius; par M. D'AIembert^ p. 42. 



ftudy the difpofirioni of ixyfons i;i high rank, » ^^^ ^ 
and to cultivate their fiiendflup.' ; and by the very c— y-j 
conftitution, as well as genius of the order, a fpi- '^' 
lit of a&ion and intrigue is infufed in^ alkits 


As the object of the fociety of Jefults differed fewUiriUtt 
&om that of the other monaiHc orders, the di- atiopoikj, 
veriity was no leis in the form of its government. SAtliTei^a 
The other orders are to be confidered as volun- U ihe^lll! 
tary aflbciations, in which whatever affedls the "^ 
whole body, is regulated by the common fuffrage 
of all its members. The executive power is veil- 
ed in the perfons placed at the head of each con- 
vent, or of the whole fociety j the legillative au- 
thority refides in the community. Affairs of mo- 
ment, relating to particular convents, arc deter- 
mined in conventual chapters 5 fuch as relpeft the 
whole order are confidered in general congrega* 
tions. But Loyola, full of the ideas of implicit 
obedience, which he had derived from his military 
profeflion, appointed that the government of his 
order fhould be purely monarchical, A General, 
chofen for life by deputies from the feveral pro-i 
vinces, poflcfled power that was fupreme and in- 
dependent, extending to every perfon, and to every 
cafe. He, by his fole authority, nominated pro- 
vincials, reftors, and every other officer employed 
in the government of the fociety, and could re- 
move them at pleafure. In him was vefted the 

' Coxnpte par M. de Monclar, p. is. 

Vol, III. O fovc- 


* %? ^ ^^vereign Bdmimftwtion of the revenues and fends 
u^.*^ of the order. F/fery member bdonging to it was 
^^^' at his difpofal ; and hf his uneontrobUe mandate, 
he f|buid ,impo(e on them any talk, or employ 
them in what fervice (bevcr he pleafed. To his 
commands they were required not only to yield 
outward obedience, but to refign up to him the 
inclinations of their own wills, and the fentiments 
of their own underftandings. They were to liften 
to his ii^undbions, as if they had been uttered by 
•Chrift iiinafclf. Under his direftion, they were to 
^'he.mere paffive inftruments, like clay in th^ hands 
of the potter, or like dead carcafes incapable of 
refiflance "*• S.uch a Angular form of policy could 
not fail to imprcfs its charafter on aU the memr 
bers of the order, and to give a peculiar force to 
all its operations. There is not in the annals of 
mankind any example of fuch a perfeft ^;ipodfm, 
cxcrcifed not over monks fhut up in the cells of a 
convent, but over men difperfed among all the 
nations of the earth. 

circumftan. As the conftitutions of the order veft, in the Ge- 

ces which ' ^ 

enable htm ncral, luch abfolutc dominion over all its members, 

uJlth the they carefully provide for his being perfe6Uy in- 

I7h:»i!^' formed with refpeft to die charafler and abilities 

of his fubjefts. Every novice who offers himfelf 

as a candidate for entering into the order, is oblig- 

• Comptc rcndo au Parfcm. de Bretagne, par M. <te Cba- 
lotais, p. 41, &c. Comptc par M. dc Monclar, 83. i8j. 



cd to manififiiis £<mfaencc to the fuperioc, or to a ® ^^^ * 
p^on appoiAted by him j and in doing this is re- w-v-^^J 
quired to coof^ not only his^iins and de£b6b, but \^^' 
to diftoyer the inclinadons^ thepalfions^ and the 
bept <^ his ibul. This manifeftation rnxxSt be re- 
newed every fix months ". The fociety, not fatifr 
fied with penetrating in this manner into the inner^ 
moil recefles of the heart, dire&s each oiember to 
oMbrve the words and adtion^ c^ the novices ; the^ 
are confiituted ipies upon their coi^d s $u)4 f^^p 
bound to diicloie every thing of importance con- 
cerning them to the fuperior. |n .order that i(his 
fcrutiny into their charaftcr may be as complete as 
pofilhle, along noviciate mud expirie, ducipg'Vfrhich 
they pals dux)ugh the feveral gradations of ranks in 
the fociety, and dicy muft have attained the Ml 
age of thirty-three years before they c^n be admit- 
ted to take the final vows,i by which they become 
fr^fefftd members ". By thefe various method^^. 
die foperiors, under whoie imnoedkte inipe&ion 
the novices are j^aced, acquire a thorough know- 
ledge of their difppfidons and talents. In order 
that the General, who is the foul that animates aivl 
moves the whole fociety, may have under his eye 
every thing neceflary to inform or dire& lum, the 
provincials and heads of the feveral houfes are 
obliged to tranfmit to him regular and frequent re- 
ports concerning die members under their inipcc- 

* Compte pftr M. de Moncltr^ p. I si 9 &c. 

• Compte par M. de Mond. 215. 241. Saria Deftr. det 
Jef. par M. d'Aleofb. p. 79. 

O a don* 



" ^i^ '^ tion. In thefc they defcend into minute details 
with refpeft to the chafaftcr of each perfon, his 
abilities natural or acquired, his temper, his expe- 
rience in affairs, and the particular department for 
which he is beft fitted ^. Thefe reports, when di- 
gefted and arranged, are entered into rcgiftcrs kept 
on purpofe that the General may, at one com- 
prehenfive view, furvey the ftate of the fociety 
in every corner of the earth; obferve the qua- 
lifications and talents of its members ; and thu$ 
choofe, with perfeft information, die inftru- 
mehts, which his abfolute power can employ 

P M. de Chalotais has made a calcttlation of the d umber 
of tkefe reports, which the General of the Jefuiu moil aa* 
Boally receive according to the regulations of the fociety. 
Thefe amoont in all to 6584. If this fum be divided by 37, 
the number of j)rovinces in the order, it will appear that 177 
reports concerning the ftate of each province are tranfmitted 
to Rome annually. Compte, p. 5». Befides tliis^ there may 
be extraordinary letters, or fiich as are fent by the monitors or 
(piea whom the General and Provincials entertain in each 
hoof^. Compte par M. de Moncl. p* 43 !• Hill, des Jefnites, 
Amft* 1761, torn. iv. p. 56. The provincials and heads of 
houfes not only report coocembg the members of the fociety, 
but are bound to give the General an account of the civil aF- 

. fairs in the country wherein they are fettled, as far as their 
knowledge of thefe may be of benefit to religion. This cod« 
dition may extend to ^vcry particular, fo that the General ts 
farniihed with full information concerning the tranfadlions of 

' tvery Prince and State in the world. Compte par M. de 
Moncl. 443. Hid. des Jefuit. ibid. p. 58. When the affkiri 
with refpe^ to which the provincials or rcAors write are of 

. importance, they are direded to nfe cyphers ; and each of 
them has a particular cypher from the General. Compte par 
M. Chalotais, p. 54. 



in any fefvictf for which he thinks meet to dcftine ® ^^^ * 
them \ 4^-^^,^ 

As it was the profefled intention of the order p^p^i^ 
of Jefbits to labour with unwearied zeal in pror in^fX! 
moting the falvation of men, this engaged them, ^^f ** 
of courfc, in many aftive funftions. From their 
firil inftitution, they confidcrcd the educatioa 
of youth as their pecuKar. province j they aimed 
at being Ipiritual guides and confeflbrs j they 
preached frcquendy in order to inftruft the people; 
they let out as miilionaries to convert unbelieving 
nations. The novelty, of the inftitution, as weU 
as the Angularity of its objeds, procured the or- 
der many admirers and patrons. The governors 
of the fociety had the addrefs to avail themfelves 
of every circiinnftance in its favour, and in a fhort . 
time the number as well as influence of its mem* 
bers increaied wonderfully. Before the expira- 
tion of the fixteenth century, the Jefuits had ob« 
taincd the chief direftion of the education of youth 
in every Catholic country in Europe. They had 
become the confeflbrs of almoft all its monarchy 
a fun£iion of no fmall importance in any reign, 
but under a weak Prince, fupenor even to that 
of minifter. They were the Ipiritual guides of 
almoft every perfon eminent for rank Or power. 
They poffeflcd the higheft degree of confidence 
and interefl; with the papal court, as the moft 

t Compte par M. de Mond. p. 215. ^^39.— Qomptc j a^ 
M- de Ciialoiais, p. 52. 222. 

O 2 zealous 


K zealous aiid able champions for ks a^fthoiiiy. 
The advantages which an a&ive and enterprifuig 
■•*] ^^' body of men might derive from all thcfc circum- 
ftances ai^e obvious. They formed the minds of 
men in their youth. They retained an tfeetidant 
over them in their advasced years. They pof- 
fefled, at different periods, thc'direftion of the 
*K)ft confiderable courts in Europe. They min- 
gled in all afftirs. They cook part in every in- 
trigue and revolution. The General, by means 
€>{ -the extenfive intdHgenee which he received, 
^uld regtikte the operations of the order witii the 
moft perfect difcernment, and by meatis of his ab- 
fblute power could carry them on with the utmoft 
vigour and efleft '. 

Pffogreft of Together with the power of the order^ its 
itiweaiih. wealth continued to increafe. V^ous expedi- 
ents were devifed for eluding die obligation of 
the vo^ of poverty. The order acquired ample 
foflcffions in every Catholic country j and by the 
. Rumbeis as well as ma^mficenee of its public 
buildings^: together with the valiue of its' pFopertyi 

' Wken Loyola, in the year 1540, jietitioned the Pope to 

fiuthorize the inHioition of the order, he had only tea diA 
ciples. But iQ the year 1608, fixty-dight years after their firft 
inftitutibn, the number of Jefuics had ittcreafcd to ten thou* 
land five huhdred and eighty-one. In the year i7io» die or« 
der pofTefled ti^enty-fiiur proffJIM hotifes ; fifty-nine houf^s af 
probation ; three hundred and forty refidencies ; fix hundred 
and twelve colleges ; two hundred niiflions ; one hundred and 
fifty feminaries and boarding- fchools ; and confided of 19,998 
Jefuits. Hift. des Jefoites, torn. i. jp, 20, 

• moveable 


moveable 0r real, it vifrf with the moft opulent of ^ ^^^ k. 
the modqaftic fraternitjies. Befides the foyrcesof < 
weakh .CQi(nnH>n to aU the regidar clergy^ the Jer 
fuits poflei&d one whkb vm peculiar to themfel ves. 
Under pretext of promoting the fuccei^ of their 
miflions^ and of facilitating the fupport of their 
miflionaries^ they obtained a fpecial licence from 
the court of Rome, to trade with the nations which 
they laboured to convert. In confequence of this, 
they engs^d in an extenfive and lucrative com- 
merce, both in the Eaft and Weft Indies. They • 
q)cned warehouies in different parts of Europe, ^ 
which they vended thetr commodities. Not fatisfied 
with trade alone, they imitated the example of other 
commcfcial fociedes, and aimed at obtaining iettle- 
meats. They acquired pofleffion accordingly of a 
large and fertile province in the fouthern continent 
of America, and reigned as Sovereigns over ibme 
hundred thoufand fubjeds *. 

Unhappily for mankind, the vaft influence ^raicioui 
which the order of Jefuits acquired by all thcfe tn^tt ©« 
difierent means, has been often exerted with the **''**^""**^ 
raoft pernicious effed. Such was tlie tendency of 
that difdpKne obferved by the fociety in forming 
its members, and fuch the funcbmental maxims 
in its conftitution, that every Jefuit was taught to 
regard the intercft of the order as the capital ob- 
jed, to which every confideration was to be facri* 

• Hiil. dts JeC: iv. 168 — 196, &€• 

O 4 ficed« 


• ^^ * ficcd This fymt of stttachmenc to their order, 

w . J , mf the moft ardent, perliaps, that ever influenced any 

''^^ body of menS is the charaderiftic principle of tbe 

Jefuits, and ferves as a key to the genius of their 

policy^ as well as to d^e peculiarides in dicir fenti* 

ments and condu&* 

As it was for the honour and advantage of the fo^ 
cietyj that its members Ihould pofiefs an afcendant 
over peribns in high rank or of great power, the 
dcfire 6f acquiring and preferving fiich a direftion 
# of their conduA, with greater facility^ has led the 
Jefuits to propagate a iyftem of relaxed and pliant 
morality, which accommodates itfelf to the paffions 
of men, which juftifies their vices, which tokrates 
their imperfe£bions, which authorizes almofl: every 
aftion that the moft audacious or crafty politician 
would wifh to perpetrate. 

As the profperity of the order was intimately 
connefted with die preiervation of the papal au* 
thority, the Jefuits, influenced by the fame prin- 
ciple of attachment to the interefts of their fo- 
ciety, have been the moft zealous patrons of thoie 
dofbrines, which tend to exalt ecclefiaftical power 
on the ruins of civil government. They have at- 
tributed to the court of Rome a jurifdiftion as 
extenfive and abfolute as was claimed by the moft 
prefumptuous pontiffs in the dark ages. They 

< Comptc par M. de MoncK p. 285: 

• . have 


have contended for the entire independence of *^ ^ "^ 
ecclefiaftics on the civil magiftrate. They have w — 1^,^ 
publifhed liich tenets concerning the duty of op- *5*** 
pofing Princes who were enemies of the Catholic 
faiths as countenanced the mofl atrocious crinmes^ 
sjid tended to diffolve all the ties which conneft 
fubje&s with their rulers. 

As the order derived both reputation and au« 
thority from the zeal with which it flood forth in 
defence of the Romilh church ^ainft the attacks'^ 
of the rrformcrs, its members, proud of this dif- 
tinftion, have confidered it as their peculiar func- 
tion to combat the opinions, and to check the 
progrefs of the Proteftants. They have made ufe 
of every art, and have employed every weapon 
againft them. They have fet themfclves in oppo- 
fition to every gentle or tolerating mealure in 
their favourl They have inceiSantiy ftirred up 
ag^nft them all the rage of ecclefiaitical and civil 

Monks of other denominations have, indeed, 
ventured to teach the fame pernicious doftrines, 
and have held opinions equally inconfiftent with 
the order and happinefs of civil fociety. But 
they, from reafons which are obvious, have either 
delivered iuch opinions with greater referve, or 
have propagated therfi with lefs fuccels. Who- 
ever recollefts the events which have happened in 
Europe during two centuries, will find that the 



B o o K Jefuits may juiUy be conGdered a^ i^ffOoSbk fof 
i^-^-_f moft of the pernicious efib£U ariflngfiom thatew- 
^^^ rupt and dangerous cafuiftry, bom tiiofe eattraira- 
gant tenets concerning ecckfiaftical power, and 
from ^at intolerant %irit, which have been the 
di%race of the church of Rome throttghout that 
period^ and which have brought io oiany calamities 
upon civil fociety ", 

Someadvan- BuT amidft many bad coniequences flowii^ 
l^fro'^'hi froni the inftitution of this order, mankind, it 
ISuiT/ot" muft be acknowledged, have derived from it 
«kr. ibme confrderable advantages. A& the Jefuits 

made the education of youth one of their capital 
objefb, and as didr firft attempts to eftabliih 
colleges for the reception of ftudents were vio- 
lently oppofcd by the univerfities in different 
countries, it became necefiary iot them, as the 
moft effedual method of acquiring the public 
iavour, to furpafs their rivals in icience and in- 
l>irt?coiariy duftry. This prompted them to cultivate the 
* ftudy of ancient literature with extraordinary ar- 
dour. This put them upon various methods for 
facilitating the inftruftion of youth -, and by the 
improvements which they made in it, they have 
contributed fo much towards the progrefs of po- 
lite learning, that on this account they have me- 
rited well of fociety. Nor has the order of Je- 
fi^its been fuccefsful only in teaching tlie elemcnta 

» Encyclopedic^ art. Je/uiies^ torn. viii. 513. 



rf fiterature; it has produced likewHe eminent ^ ^^^ ^ 
n^aifterd in many branches of icience, and can alone i_ / ^ 
boaft df a greater number of ingenious authors, *5^' 
dian all the other religious fratsernities taken 

BvT it is in the new world that the Jcfuits have ■?»« «^p^ 
exhibited the mod: wonderful difplay of their ablH* the fenie. 
ties, and have contributed moft effeftually to the jrfuitt in*** 
benefit of the human fpccies. The conquerors of '*"*«"*y* 
]diat tin&rtuaate quarter of the globe aAed at {ir& 
as if .&€y had nothing in view, but to plunder, to 

* M. d'Alemb^rt has ohferved, that though the Jefoits hava 
xbade extraorJixiafy progref^ in erudition ef every fpecies j 
though they catf rackon tip many of their brethren who haV« 
been enlineitt siaihetbatioians, antiqoaries, and critics ; 
fhoa^ th^ have even formed fome orators of reputation ; ' 
yet the order has never produced one man, whofe mind was 
U> sioch enlightened with foaod knowledge^ as to merit thd 
name of i |^it)5fopher. Bat it ftems to be the anavoidable 
tiln^ of moniAie education to contradl and fetter the humaA 
ninal. trhe partial attachment of a monk to the incereft of 
bis ord€#« which b often incompatible with that of other ci- 
tizens? the habit of implieit obedience to the will of a fupe- 
rior, together with the frequent return of the wtfarifome ami 
/riifblobs ddties of the cloifter, debafe his facttlties^ and ex*- 
tinguii& that generofity of ibntiment and fpirit, which qoali- 
fie» men for tUinfcing or feeling juMy with refpe^ to what is 
pro|»Br in life and condud. . Father Paul of Venice is, per. 
haps, the only perfon educated in a doiftef, that ever was 
ai together fuperior to its prejodites, or who viewed the cranio 
adieus of men, and rai/biyed clb«cerniiig the^iftiefefis of £o^ 
cadty,'Widt the enlarged fentiinehtsof a pKilofqpher^ with the 
difc^nmeotfjof a^man^cqaveifant in affairs, and with the 
]ib«ridity>3f agentleipantf .. . ^ 


^ %? ^ enflavc, and to exterminate its inhabitants. The 
%,„^0.,^LmJ Jefuits alone made humanity the objeft of their 
'5^ fettling there. About the beginning of the laft 
century they obtained admiflion into the fertile 
province of Paraguay, which ftretches acrofs the 
fouthern continent of America, from the bottom 
of the mountains of Potofi, to the confines of the 
Spanifh and Portuguefe fettlemcnts on the banks of 
the river de la Plata. They found the inhabit- 
ants in a ftate little different from that which 
takes place among men when they firft begin to 
unite together ; ftrangers ta the arts j ^ fubfifling 
precarioufly by hunting or fifhingj and hardly 
acquainted with the firft principles of fubordina- 
tion and government. The Jefuits fct them- 
felves to inftrufl and to civilize thefe favages. 
They taught them to cultivate the ground, to 
rear tame animals, and to build houles. They 
brought them to live together in villages^ They 
trained them to arts and manufadures* They 
made them tafte the iweets of focietys and accuf- 
tomed them to thi bleffings of fecurity and order- 
Thefe people became the fubjefts of their bene- 
faftors 5 who have governed them with a tendci: 
attention, reiembling that with which a ^ther di- 
reds his children. Reipe£ted and beloved alipoft 
to adoration, a few Jefuits prefided over fbmc 
hundred thoufand Indians. They maintained a 
perfeft equality among all the members of the 
community. Each of them was obliged tola-r 
bour not for himfelf alone, but for the puUic. 
I'hc produce of their fields^ togedier >mth rfic 



fruit$ of their induftry of every fpefieSj were de- 
pofised in common ftorehoufes, from which each 
individyal rcceiycd every thing ncceffaryfor the '54o» 
fupply of his wants. By this iciflitutionj abnolt: all 
the paffions which difturb the peace of fociety^ and 
render the members of it unhappy> were extin-* 
guifhed. A few magillrates, chofen from among 
their countrymen, by the Indians themfelves^ 
watched over the public tranquillity and fecured 
obedience to the laws. The fanguinary puniih- 
ments freqiient under other governments were un- 
known. An admonition from a Jefuit; a flight 
mark of in&ny; or, on.ibme lingular occalion, a 
few laihes with a whip, were fufficient to maintain 
good order among thefe innocent and happy people ^. 

But even in this meritorious effort of the Je- e»«ii ff»e 
fuits for the good of mankind, the genius and ||*^VJ^*" 
Jpirit of their order have niinglcd and are dif- Hey of the 
cemible. They plainly aimed at eftablifhing in Mr^biL' 
Paraguay an independent empire, fubjeft to the 
fociety alone^rand which, by the fuperior excel- 
koce of its' conftitution and police, could fcarcely 
have fidled to extend its dominion over all the 
fouthem' continent of America. With this view, 
in order to prevent the Spaniards or Portuguefe 
in the adjacent fettlcments, from acquiring any 
dangero\2s influence over the people within tlie 

7 Hid. da Paraguay par Yti^ de Cliarlevoix, torn. ii. 42* 
&c. Voyage au Perou par Den G. Juan k D. Ant. de Ulloa, 
iom. t. 540, &c. Par. 410. 1752. 



BOOK Kmits of the province fubjeft to the ioclety, the 
t _ S ^ Jcfuits cndeavoiired to infpire the Indians with 
'540* hatred and contempt of thefe nations* They cut 
off all intcrcourie between their (ubjeAs and die 
Spanifli or Portuguefe fetdements. They prohi- 
bited any jMivatc trader of either nation from 
entering their territories. When diejs were obliged 
to admit any perfon in ^ public chara£ber from 
the neighbouring gowrnments, they did not per- 
mit him to have any converfation with their &dK 
jefts, and no Indian was allowed evm to enter 
the houfe where thefe Grangers refided, unle& in 
the prefence of a Jefoit.* In order to render any 
commuRication between them as dijfiicute as pof- 
fiblc, they induftrioufly avoided giving the In- 
dians any knowledge of the Spanifh, or of any 
Other European language; but encouraged the 
different tribes, which they had civilized, to acquire 
a certain dialed of the Indian tongue, and laboured 
to make that the univcrfar language throu^out 
their dominions. As dl thefe precautions, iirith- 
out military force, would have* been infufficicnt 
to have rendered their empire fccure and perma- 
nent, they inftrufted' their -ftibjefts *in the Euro- 
pean arts of war. They formed them fcto bodies 
of cavalry and infantry; complctdfy • armed and 
reguWly difciplined. "They provided a great 
"train of artillery, as well as magazines ftored with 
all the implements of war. Thus they eftablifh- 
ed ^n army fo numerous and well-appointed, as 
to be formidable in a country, where a few lickly 
and. ill-difciplined battalions compofed ijl the 



ndytaiy force kept 4m foot by die Spaniards or ■ <>^J> k 
Poptuguefe •. ^ / i^ 


The Jefuks gaiaed no confideraUe degree of i^«»^n for 
power during the reign of Charles V. who, with fuli^view 
his ufiial :^citjr, difccmed the dangerous ten- t^^^f^ 
dency of the i»ftitiition> and clieckedits progress*. "^jjj[^| 
Bat as the order was foiinded in the period of 
which I write the hifbory, and as the agp to which 
1 addsefi this work hath ieen its fail, the view 
which I have exhibited of the laws and genius of 
this fcrmidable body will not, I hope, be unac- 
ceptable to my readers -, efpecially as one circunw 
ftmce has enabled n>e fo enter into this derail 
with particular advantage. £urope had ol^Ierv^, 
for two centuries, the ambitbn and power of the 
order* But whale it felt many fatal effb£b qf 
thefe^ it could not fuUy diicern the caufes iSo 
which they were to be imputed. It was unae* 
quatnted wfdi many of the fingular regulations in 
the political conilitution or government of die 
Jefuits, which formed the enterprifing ipirit. of 
intrigue that diftittguifhed its members, and ele- 
vated the body itf^lf to fuch a height of power. 
It was a fundamental maxim widi the Jefuits, 
iirom their firft inftitution, not to publiih the rules 
of their order. Thefe they kept concealed as an 
impenetrable myftery. They never communi- 

. * Voyage de Juan & de Ulloa, torn, h 549, Recdeil d^ 
touted les Pieces qni ont pixu fur les Affaires des jtfuiu ea 
< PorcQga], torn. i. p. 7, &c. 

* Compte par M. de Mood, p* 3ii« 

I cated 


B o o K ^^ tij^m to ftrangers ; nor even to the greater 
^- — J-*' part of their own members. They 'refiifcd to 
*^°* produce them when required by courts of jufticc S 
and by a ffirange fcdeciim in policy, the civil 
power in different countries authoriicd or coo- 
nived at the eftablifhment of an order of men, 
whofe conilitution and laws were concealed with 
a iblicitude, /vriuch alone was a good reaibn for 
excluding them. During the f^ofccutions lately 
carried on againil them in Portugal and France> 
the Jefiiits have been fo inconfiderate as to 
produce the myfterious voliunes of their in- 
ftitute. By the aid of thefe audiendc records, 
the princi[^es of their government may be dcH- 
.neated, and the foiirces of their power inveftigated 
with a degree of certainty and precifion, which, 
previous to that event, it was impoiiible to at* 
tain ''. But as I have pointed out the dangerous 
tendency of the conftitution and ^irit of the order 
vntk the freedom becoming an hiftorian, the can- 
dour and impartiality no lefs requifite in that 

^ Hift. des Jef. torn. iii. 236^ &c. Compte par M. de 
Chalot. p. 38. 

« The greater part of my information concerning the go- 
vernment and laws of ihe order of Jefuits, I have derived from 
the reports of M. de Chalotais and M. de Mondar. I reft 
not my narrative, however, upon the authority even of the(e 
refpedlable magiHrates and elegant writers, but upon inna« 
merable pafTages which they have ex trailed from the conftltu- 
tions of the order, depofited in their hands. Hofpinian, a 
Proteftant Divine of Zurich, in his Hifioria Jefuitka, printed 
A. D. 16 1 9, publifhed a fmni! part of the conftitutions of 
the Jefuits, of which by fome accident he had got a copy; 
p. 13-5+- 




diarader call on me to add one obfervation, * 9^^ ^ 
That no clafs of regular clergy in the Romifti w.-u-^i 
church has been more eminent for decency, and "^*°* 
even purity of manners, than the major part, ►of 
the order of Jefuits**. The maxims of an in- 
triguing, ambitious, interefted policy, might in- 
fluence thofe who gbverned the fociety, and' might 
even corrupt the heart,, and pervert the condudt 
of fome individuals, while the greater number* 
engaged in literary purfuits, or employed in the 
fiinftions of religion, was left to the guidance of 
thofe common principles which reftrain men from 
vice, and excite them to what is becoming and 
laudable. The caufes which occafioned the ruin 
of this mighty body, as well as the circumftances 
and cffcds with which it has been attended in the 
diflfercnt countries of Europe, though objefts ex- 
tremely worthy the attention of every intelligent 
obferver of human affairs, do not falJt within the 
period of this hiftory. 

' No fooner had Charles re-eftablifhed order in Affaiwof 
the Low-Countries, than he was obliged to turn """*^* 
his attention to the affairs in Germany, The Pro- 
telbnts prefTed him earnefUy to appoint that con- 
ference between a feleft number of the divines of 
each party, which had been ftipulated in the con- 
vention at Francfort. The Pope confidered fuch 
an attempt to examine into the points in dilpute, 
or to decide concerning them, as derogatory to his 

•» Sur. la Dcftrua, dcs Jef. par M, D'AIcmbert, p. 55. 

Vol. Ill, P right 



A coofer- 
eoce be- 
tween the 
Papifh and 

ione 25. 

* ^yP ^ right of being the fopreme judge in controverfy; 
Ui-n^-J and being convinced that fdch a conference would 
' *^' cither be ineffedhial by deccntiining nothing, or 
prove dangerous by determining too much, he cm- 
ployed every art to prevent it. The Emperor, 
however, finding it more for his intereft to footh 
the Gernmans than to gratify Paul, paid little regard 
to his remonftraaces. In a diet held at Hagucnaw, 
matters were ripened for the conference. In an- 
other diet ailembled at Worms, the conference was 
begun, Melandhon on the one fide and Eckius on 
the other, fuftaining the principal part in the dif- 
putc; but after they had made ibme progrefs, 
though without concluding any, thing, it was fuf- 
pended by the Emperor's command, that it might 
be renewed with greater folemnity in his own prc- 
fence in a diet fummoned to meet at Ratifbon. 
This aflembly was opened with great pomp,' and 
with a general expectation that its proceedings 
would be vigorous and decifive. By the confent 
of both parties, the Eniperor was entrufted with 
the power of nominating the perfons who Ihould 
manage the conference, which it was agreed fhould 
be conducted not in the form of a public dilpu- 
tation, but as a friendly fcrutiny or examination 
into the, articles which had given rife to the pre- 
fent controverfies. He appointed Eckius, Crop- 
per, and Pflug, on the part of the Catholics ; 
Melanfthon, Bucer, and Piftorius, on that of the 
Proteftantsj all men of diftinguiflied reputation 
among their own adherents, and, except Eckius, 
all eminent for moderation, as well as defirous of 




peace. As they were about to begin their con- book 
fultations, the Emperor put into their hands a >,, -.>,p^ ■j 
book, compofed, as he faid, by a learned divine **^'* 
in the Low- Countries, with fuch extraordinary 
perfpicuity and temper, as, in his opinion, might 
go fer to unite and comprehend the two contend- 
ing parties. Cropper, a canon of Cologne, whom 
he had named among the managers of the confer- 
ence, a man of addrefs as well as of erudition, was 
afterwards fufpefted to be the author of this fliort 
treatife. It contained pofitions with regard to 
twenty-two of the chief articles in theology, which 
included moft of the queftions then agitated in the 
controverfy between the Lutherans and the church 
of Rome, By ranging his fentiments in a natural 
order, and exprefling them with great fimplicity ; . 
by employing often the very words of fcripture, or ^ 
of the primitive fathers j by foftening the rigour of 
fome opinions, and explaining away what was ab- 
furd in others ; by conceffions, fometimes on one 
fide, and fometimes on the others and efpecially 
by baniftiing as much as poffible fcholaftic phrafes, 
diofe words and terms of art in controverfy, which 
fcrvc as badges of diftindion to different fefts, and 
for which theologians often contend more fiercely 
than for opinions themfelves; he at.laft framed 
his ^ork in fuch a manner, as promifed fairer than 
any thing that had hitherto been attempted, to com- 
pofe and to terminate religious diffenfions '• 

* Goldaft. Confllt. Imper. ii. p. 182, 

Pa But 


B o^o K But the attention of the age was turned, with 
u- -y> ^t fuch acute obfervation, towards theological con- 
fruitiefi.' tr.overfies, that it was not eafy to impofe on it by 
any glofs, how artful or Ipecious foever. The 
length and eagernefs of the difpute had feparated 
the contending parties fo completely, and had fet 
their nninds at fuch variance, that they were not 
to be reconciled by partial conceffions. All the 
zealous Catholics, particularly the ecclefiaftics 
who had a feat in the diet, joined in condemning 
Cropper's treatife as too favourable to the Luthe- 
. ran opinion, the poifon of which herefy it con- 
veyed, as they pretended, with greater danger, 
becaufe it was in fome degree difguifed. The 
rigid Proteftants, efpecially Luther himfelf^ and 
his patron the Eledlor of Saxony, were for rejeft- 
ing it as an impious compound of error and truth, 
craftily prepared that it miglit impofe on the 
weak, the timid, and the unthinking. But the 
divines, to whom the examination of it was com- 
mitted, entered upon that bufinefs with greater 
deliberation and temper. As it was more eafy in 
itfelf, as well as more confiftent with the dignity 
of the church to make conceffions, and even al- 
terations with regard to fpeculative opinions, the 
difcuffion whereof is confined chiefly to fchools, 
and which prefent nothing to the people that 
either ftrikes their imagination or afFefts their 
fenfes, they came to an accommodation about 
thefe without much labour, and even defined the 
great article concerning juftification to their mu- 
tual farisfadion. But, when they proceeded to 



points of jurifdiftion, where the intereft and au- 
thority of the Roman See were concerned> or to 
the rites a^id forms of external worlhip, where '^^'' 
every change that could be made muft be public, 
and draw the obfervation of the people, there the 
Catholics were altogether untraftable ; nor could 
the church either with fafety or with honour 
abolifli its ancient inftitutions. AH the articles 
relative to the- power of the Pope, the authority 
of councils, the adminillration of the iacraments, 
the worlhip of faints, and many other particu- 
lars, did not, in their nature, admit of any tem- 
perament; fo that after labouring long to bring 
about an accommodation with refpedt to tliefe, 
the Emperor found all his endeavours inefifec- 
tual. Being impatient, however, to clofe the 
diet, he at laft prevailed on a majority of the 
members to approve of the following recefs ; 
" That the articles concerning which the divines Recefs of 
had agreed in the conference, fliould be held as R/j;Xn**[n, 
points decided, and be obferved inviolably by all j **^^"[j®^ * 
that the other articles about which they had dif- council, 
fered, fhould be referred to the determination of " ^ * ' 
a general council, or if that could not be obtain- 
ed, to a national fynod of Germany ; and if it 
fhould prove imprafticable, likewife, to aflemble 
a fynod, that a general diet of the Empire, fhould 
be called within eighteen months, in order to give 
fome final judgment upon the whole contrcverfy ^ 
that the Emperor fhould ufe all his intereft and 
authority with the Pope, to procure the meeting 
P 3 eithcif 


B ^^ ^ either of a general council or fynod ; that, in the 
mean time, no innovations fhould be attempted, 


'^*'* no endeavours fhould be employed to gain pro- 
lelytes ; and neither the revenues of the church, 
nor the rights of monafteries, ftiould be invaded ^ 

gives of. All the proceedings of this diet, as well as the 

iTpIpIrb recefs in which they tei-minated, gave great of- 
and Protcft. fencc to the Popc. The power which the Ger- 
mans had aflumed of appointing their own divines 
to examine and determine matters of controverfy, 
he confidered as a very dangerous invafion of his 
rights;' the renewing of their ancient propofal 
concerning a national fynod, which had been fo 
often rejedted by him and his predeceflbrs, ap- 
peared extremely undutiful; but the bare men- 
tion of allowing a diet, compofed chiefly of lay- 
men, to pafs judgment with relpeft to articles of 
faith, was deemed no lefs criminal and profane, 
than the worft of thofe herefies which they feem- 
ed zealous to fupprefs. On the other hand, the 
Proteftants were no lefs diffatisfied with a recefs, 
that confiderably abridged the liberty which they 

«tVfl*?be ^^J^y^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^' -^s they murmured loudly 
tfotcftanu. againft it, Charles, unwilling to leave any fceda 
of difcontent in the Empire, granted them a pri- 
vate declaration, in the moft ample terms, ex- 
empting them from whatever they thought op- 

t Sleidan, 267, &c. PaJIav. 1. iv. c. 11. p. 156. F. Paul, 
p. ^6. Seckcnd. 1. iii. 256. 




prefiiye or injurious in the reccfs, and afcertaining ^ 9J^ ^ 
to thenn the full pofleflion of all the privileges l. ^^L^ 
which they had ever enjoyed ^. '^♦** 

Extraordinary as thefe conceffions may ap- Aff«riof 
pear, the fituation of the Emperor's affairs at this °****'^* 
jun6hire made it neceflary for him to grant them. 
He forefaw a rupture with France to be not only 
unavoidable, but near at hand, and durft not 
g^ve any fuch caufe of dilguft or fear to the Pro- 
teftants, as might force them, in felf-defence, to 
court the proteftign of the French King, from ^ 
whom, at prefent, they were much alienated. 
The rapid pfogrefs of the Turks in Hungary, 
was a more powerful and urgent motive to that 
moderation which Charles difcovered. A great 
revolution had happened in that kingdom; John 
Zapol Scaspus having chofen, as has been related, 
rather to poffcfs a tributary kingdom, than to 
renounce the royal dignity to which he had been 
accuftomed, had, by the affiftance of his mighty 
proteftor Solyman, wrefted from Ferdinand a 
great part of the country, and left him only the 
precarious pofTcflion of the reft. But being a 
prince of pacific qualities, the frequent attempts 
of Ferdinand, or of his partifans among the Hun- 
garians, to recover what they had loft, greatly 
difquicted him 5 and the neceffity on thefe ocCa- 
fions, of calling in the Turks, whom he confidered 

< Sleid. 283. Seckend. 366. Dumont Corps Diplom. iv. 
p. ii. p. 2io«. 

P 4 and 


^ 9^^ ^ and felt to be his mafters rather than auxiliaries, 
w-^. — was hardly lefs mortifying. In order, 'therefore, 
a'.d^Vsss. ^^ avoid thefe diftreff^s, as well as to fecure quiet 
and leifure for cultivating the arts and enjoying 
amufements in which he delighted, he fecretly 
caoae to an agreement with his competitor, on this 
condition -, That Ferdinand fhould agknowledge 
him as King of Hungary, and leave him, during 
life, the unmolefted poffeflion of that part of the 
kingdom now in his power ; but that, upon his de- 
mife, the fole right of the whole fhould devolve 
upon Ferdinand **. As John had never been mar- 
ried, and was then far advanced in life, the terms 
of the contraft feemed very favourable to Ferdi- 
nand. But, foon after, fome of the Hungarian 
nobles, folicitous to prevent a foreigner from af- 
ceiiding tlieir throjic, prevailed on John to put an 
end to a long celibacy, by marrying Ifabella, the 
Dc th of diuightcr of Sigifmond King of Poland. John 
Huf!i^lry. ' nad the fatisfaftion, before his death, whith hap- 
pencd within lefs than a year after his marriage, to 
fee a fon born to inherit his kingdom. To him, 
without regarding his treaty with Ferdinand, which 
he conficfcred, no doubt, as void, upon an event 
not forefcen when it was concluded, he bequeath- 
ed his crown ; appointing the Queen and George 
Martinuzzi, biftiop of Waradin, guardians of his 
fon, and regents of the kingdom. The greater 
part of the Hungarians immediately acknow- 
ledged the young Prince as King, to whom,, in 

* liluanhaffii HiH. Hung. lib. xiL p. 135. 



memory of the founder of their monarchy, they ® ^^ ^ 
gave the name of Stephen '• \^.^^^^ 

Ferdinan'd, though extremely difconcerted by ^^^^|"'"^'' 
tills unexpected event, refolved not to abandon obtain ihe 
the kingdom which he flattered himfelf with having 
acquired by his compaft with John. He fent 
ambaflTadors to the Queen to claim poffeffion, and 
to offer the province of Tranfylvania as a fettle- 
ment for her fon, preparing at the fame time to 
affcrt his right by force of arms. But John had 
committed the care of his fon to perfons, who had 
too' much fpirit to give up the crown tamely, and 
who poffeffed abilities fufficient to defend it. The 
Queen, to all the addrefs peculiar to her own fex, 
added a mafculine courage, ambition, and magnani- 
mity. Martinuzzi, who had raifed himfelf from chiraacr 
the loweft rank in life to his prefent dignity, was 0? Kf^mi- 
one of thofe extraordinary men, who, by the extent °"***' 
as well as variety of their talents, are fitted to a6t 
a fuperior part in buttling and factious times. In ' "" 
difcharging the funftions of his ecclefiaftical 
office, he put on the femblance of an humble and 
auftere fanftity. In civil tranfaftions, he difco- 
vered induftry, dexterity, ' and boldnefs. During 
war he laid afide the caflbck, and appeared on 
horfeback with his fcymitar and buckler, as adtive, 
as oftentatious, and as gallant as any of his coun- 
trymen. Amidft all thefe different and contra- 
dictory forms which he could affume, an infa- 

Jovii Hid. lib. xxxix. p« 239, a. Uc, 



B o o K tiabk defire of daminion and authority was oon- 
%m^^l,mA Ipicuous. From fuch perfbns it was obvious what 
*^*'* anfwcr Ferdinand had to cxpedt. He foon per- 
ceived that he muft depend oa arms alone for re- 
covering Hungary. Having levied for this pur- 
pofe a confiderable body of Germans^ whom his 
partifans among the Hungarians joined with their 
vailak, he ordered them to march into that part 
* , of the kingdom which adhered to Stephen. Mar- 
tinuzzi, unable to make head againft fuch a power- 
fol ,army in the field, fatisfied himfelf with hold- 
ing out the towns, all of which, efpecially Buda, 
the place of greateft confequence, he provided 
with every thing neceflaiy for defence j and* in 
CiHs in the the mean tirr.e he fent ambaflkdors to Solyman, 
befeeching him to extend towards the fon, the 
feme Imperial proceftion which had fo long main- 
tained the fether on his throne. The Sultan, 
though Ferdinand ufed his utmoft endeavours to 
thwart this negociation, and even offered to* ac- 
cept of the. Hungarian crown on the fame igno- 
minious condition of paying tribute to the Otto- 
man Porte, by which^ John had held it, faw fuch 
prcfpcfts of advantage from efpoufing the intereft 
of the young King, that he inftantly pronfiifed 
him his proteftion ; and commanding one army 
to advance forthwith towards Hungary, he him- 
felf followed witl\ another. Meanwhile the Ger- 
mans, hoping to terminate the v/ar by die reduc- 
tion of a city in which the King and his mother 
were Ihut up, had formed the fiege of Buda. 
Martinuzzi, having drawn thither the.flxengdi of 
7 the 


tRc Hungskrian nobility, defended the town with * ^^ ^ 
fuch courage and (kill, as allowed the Turicifb ^^>— ^/-^ 
forces tinie to come up to its relief. Tfiey in- *^'* 
ftandy attacked the Gernuns, weakened by fedgu^* 
difeafes, and defertion, and defeated them with 
great flaughter ^. 

SoLYMAN foon after joined his viftorious troops* So>y««n*« 
and being weary ot lo many expenlive expcdi- conduo. , 
tions undertaken in defence of donunions which 
were not his own, or being unable to refift this 
alluring opportunity of feizing a kingdom, while 
pofiefled by an infant, under the guardianfhip of 
a woman and a prieft, he allowed 'interefted con- 
fideradons to triumph with too much facility 
over the principles of honour and the fentimenta 
of humanity. What he planned ungencroufly, 
he executed by fraud. Having prevailed on the 
Queen to fend her fon, whom he pretended to be 
defirous of feeing, into his camp, and having, ac 
the fame time, invited the chief of the nobility 
to an entertainment there, while they, fufpe&ing 
no treachery, gave themfelves up to the mirth 
and jollity of the feaft,'a feleft band of troops by 
the Sultan's orders feized one of the gates of 
Buda. Being thus mafter of die capital, of the 
King's perfon, and of the leading men among the 
nobles, he gave ol-ders to conduct the Queen, 
together with her fon, to Tranfylvania, which pro- 
vince he allotted to them, and appointing a 

^ lilaanhaffii Hift. Hung. lib. xiv. p. 150. 



B o o K Baflia to prefide in Buda with a large body of 
t^,^^!,^ foldiers, annexed Hungary to the Ottoman em- 
'?*'* pire. The tears and complaints of the unhappy 
Queen had no influence to change his purpofe, nor 
could Martinuzzi either refift his abfolute and 
uncontroulable command^ or prevail on him to 
recall it \ 

Fer«nand*i Before thc account of this violent ufiirpation 
Soiyman, reached Ferdinand, he was fo unlucky as to have 
di^atched other ambafladors to Solymah with a 
frelh reprefentation of his right to the crown of 
Hungary, as well as a renewal of his former over- 
tyre to hold the kingdom of the Ottoman Porte, 
and to pay for it an annual tribute. This ill- 
timed propofal was rejefted with fcorn. The Sul- 
tan, elated with fuccefs, and thinking that he might 
prefcribe what terms he pleafed to a. Prince who 
voluntarily proffered conditions fo unbecoming his 
own dignity, declared that he would not fufpend 
the operations of war, unlefs Ferdinand inftantly 
evacuated all the towns which he ftill held in 
Hungary, and confent^d to the impofition of a 
tribute upon Auftria, in order to reimburfe the 
fums which his prefumptuous invafion of Hungary 
had obliged the Ottoman Porte to expend in de- 
fence of that kingdom "". 


» Ifliianhaflil F!/l. Hung. lib. xiv. p. 56. Jovii Hifter.. 
lib. xxxix, p. 2476, &c. 

« Iftuaiihaffii Hift. Kung. lib. xiv. p. 159. 



In. this ftate were the affairs of Hungary. As ® ^^ ^ 
the unfortunate events there had either happened s^^^L,^ 
before the diffolution of the diet at Rati(bon, or ^^^^* 
were dreaded at that tirne, Charles faw the danger 
of irritating and inflaming the minds of the Ger- 
mans, while a formidable enemy was ready to break 
into the Empire j and perceived that he could not 
expeft any vigorous afTiftance either towards the 
recovery of Hungary, or the defence of the Auftrian 
frontier, unlefs he courted and fatisfied the Pro- 
teftants. By the concelTions which have been 
mentioned, he gained this point,. and fuch liberal 
fupplies both of men and money were voted for , 
carrying on the war againft the Turks, as left him 
under little anxiety about the fecOrity of Germany 
during next campaign ". 

Immediately upon the conclufion of the diet. Emperor 
the Emperor fet out for Italy. As he pafTed 
through Lucca he had a (hort interview with the 
Pope } but nothing could be concluded concern- 
ing the proper method of compofing the religious 
difputes in Germany, between two Princes, whofe 
views and intereft with regard to that matter were 
at this junfture fo oppofite. The Pope's endea- 
vours to remove the caufes of difcord between 
Charles and Francis, and to extinguifh thofe 
mutual animofities which threatened to break out 
fuddenly into open hoftility, were not more fuc- 

• SIcid, 283. 



fi o^o K Xnfe Empefor's thoughts were bent fo entirely, 
^' V ^ at that time, on the great enterprize which he had 
HiiUpldi- concerted againft Algiers, that he liftened with 
li^icM 'lifd ^^^^ attention to the Pope's fchemes or overtures, 
motjTciof and haftened to join his arnny and fleet *. 


Algiers ftiU continued in that ftate of depend- 
ence on the Turkifh empire to which Barbaroffa 
had fubjefted it. Ever fince he, as Captam Bafha, 
commanded the Ottdrtian fket, Algiers had been 
governed by Hafc6n-Aga, a renegado eunuch, 
who, by paffing through every ftatiott in the Cor- 
fair's fervice, had acquired fuch- experience in war, 
that he was weU fitted for a ftation which required 
a man of tried and daring courage. Hafcen, in 
order to (hew how well he dcferved that dignity, 
carried on his piratical depredations againfl the 
Chriftian States with amazing adtivity, and out- 
did, if poflible, Barbaroffa himfelf in boldnefs and 
cruelty. The commerce of the Mediterranean 
was greatly interrupted by his cruifcrs, and fuch 
frequent alarms given to the coaft of Spain, that 
there was a neceflity of ereftlng watch-towers at 
proper diftances, and of keeping guards conftantly 
on foot, in order to defcry the approach of his 
fquadrons, and to proteft the inhabitants from their 
defcents '. Of this the Emperor had received re- 
peated and clamorous complaints from his fubjedts, 
who reprefented it as an enterprifc correlponding to 

• Sandov. Hidor. torn. ii. 298. 
P Jovii Hill. U xl. p. z66. 



hk power, and becoming his humanity, to reduce 
Algiers, which, fincc the conqucft of Tunis; was 
the common receptacle of all the frce-booters 5 and '^*'* 
to exterminate, that lawlefs race, the implacable 
enemies of the Chriftian name. Moved pjutiy by 
their entreaties, and partly allured by the hope of 
adding to the glory which he had acquired by his 
laft expedition into Africa, Charles, before he left 
Madrid, in his way to the Low-Countries, had 
iifued orders both in Spain and Italy to prepare a 
fleet and army for this purpofc. No change in 
circumftances, fince that time, could divert him 
from this refolution, or prevail on him to turn his 
arms towards Hungary ; though the fuccefs of the 
Turks in that country feemed more immediately 
to require his prefence there ; though many of his 
moft faithful adherents in Germany urged that the 
defence of the Empire ought to be his firft and 
peculiar care ; though fuch as bore him no good* 
will ridiculed his prepoftcrous condudt in flying 
from an enemy almoft at hand, that he might go 
in queft of a remote and more ignoble foe. But 
to attack the Sultan in Hungary, how fplendid 
foever that meafure might appear, was an under- 
taking which exceeded his power, and was not con- 
fiftent with his interefl:. To draw troops out of 
Spain or Italy, to march them into a country fo 
diftant as Hungary, to provide the vaft apparatus 
neceflfary for tranfporting thither the artillery, am- 
munition, and baggage of a regular army, and to 
pujh the war in that quarter, where there was little 
profpeft of bringing it to an iflfuc during feveral 
i campaigns. 


^ %? ^ campaigns, were undertakings fo expenfive and nn- 
u*>-v^^ wieldy as did not correlpond with the low cohdition 
'^*'' of the Emperor's treafury. ,While his principal 
force was thus employed, his dominions in Italy 
and the Low-Countries muft have lain open to 
the French King, who would not have allowed fuch 
a favourable opportunity of attacking them to go 
unimproved. .Whereas the African expedition, 
the preparations for which were already finilhcd, 
and almoft the whole expence of it defrayed, ^ould 
depend upon a fingle effort ; and befides the fe- 
curity and fatisfaclion which the fuccefe of it muft 
give his fubjefts, would detain him during fo 
Ihort a fpace, that Francis could hardly take ad- 
vantage of his abfence, to invade his dominions 
in Europe. 


Hiipwpi- On all thefe accounts, Charles adhered to his 
firft plan, and with fuch determined obftinacy, 
that he paid ho regard to the Pope, who advifed, 
or to Andrew Doria who conjured him not to ex- 
pofe his whole armament to almoft unavoidable 
deftrudlion, by venturing to approach the danger- 
ous coaft of Algiers at fuch an advanced fealbn of 
the year, and when the autumnal, winds were fo 
\iolent. Having en^ibarked on board Doria's 
gallies at Porto- Venere in the Genocfe territories, 
he fpon found that this experienced failor had not 
judged wrong concerning the element with which 
he was fo v/cU acquainted ; for fuch a ftorm arofe 
that it was with the utmoft difficulty and danger 
he reached Sardinia, the place of general rendez- 

- vous. 


vous. But as his courage was undaunted^ and • ^^^ * 
his temper often mflexibk, neither the remon- w-v*^-^ 
ftrances of the Pope and Doria^ nor the danger to '^^* 
which he had already been expofed by diiregard- 
ing dienni> had any other efFed than to confirm him 
in his Iktal refoludon. The fbrce> indeed^ which 
he had coUefted was fuch as might have inlpired a 
Prince lels adventurous^ and lefs confident in his 
own fchemesj with the moft fanguine hopes of 
fuccels. It confifted of twenty thoufand foot^ and 
two tfaouiand horfe^ Spaniards, Italians, and Ger^ 
mans, nnoftiy veterans, together with three thou- 
iaad vc^nteers, the flower c^ the Spaniih and 
Italian nobility, fond of paying court to the Em- 
peror by aittending him in his favourite expedi*^ 
tion, and eager to fliare in the glory which they 
believed he was going to reap; to thefe were 
added a thoufand ibldiers lent firom Malu by the 
order of St. John, Jed by an hundred of its moft 
gallant Knights. 

The voyage, from Majorca to the African 'Landi in 
coaft, was not lefs tedious, or full of hazard, than ^^""* 
that which he had juft finilhed. When he ap- 
proached die land, the roll of the fea, and ve- 
hemence of the winds, would not permit the troopi 
to difembark. But at laft, the Emperor, feizing 
a fiivourable opportunity, landed them without 
oppofidon, not far from Algiers, and immediately 
advanced towards the town. To oppofe this 
mighty army, Hafcen had only eight hundred 
Turks, and five thoufand Moors, pardy natives 

Vol, hi. Q^ of 



^ %? ^ of Africa, and pardy refugees from Granada. He 
^■- w — ^ returned, however, a fierce and haughty anfwer 
'^*'' when fummoned to furrender. But with fuch a 
handflil of foldiers, neither his deiperate courage, 
nor confummate (kill in war, could have long re- 
fifted forces fuperior to thofe which had defeated 
BarbaroiTa at the head of fixty thoufand men, and 
which had reduced Tunis, in ipite of all his en- 
deavours to fave it. 

The difaf- But how far foever the Emperor migKt think 

ters which . i /^ /• 

hefei-hij himfelf beyond the reach of any danger from the 
enemy, he was fuddenly expofed to a more di^ead- 
ful calamity, and one agaitift which human pru- 
dence and human efforts availed nothing. On 
the fecond day after his landing, and before he 
)iad time for any thing but to diiperfe ibme light- 
armed Arabs who molefted his troops on their 
march, the clouds began to gather, and the hea- 
vens to appear with a fierce and threatening aipeft. 
Towards evening, rain began to fall, accompanied 
with violent wind; and the rage of the tempcft 
increafing, during the night, the foldiers, who 
had brought nothing afhore but their arms, re- 
mained expofed to all its fury, without tents, or 
fhelter, or cover of any kind. The ground was. 
foon fo wet that they could not lie down on it > 
their camp being in a low fituation was overflow- 
ed with water, and they funk at every flep to the 
ankles jn mud ; while the wind blew with fuch 
impetuofity, that, to prevent their falling, they 
were obliged to thruft their fpears into the ground^^ 



and to fupport themfelves by taking hold of them. " ^^^ ^ 
Haicen was too vigilant an officer to allow an ^^■ v ' ■ » 
enemy in fuch diflxefs. to remain unmolefted. '^*'" 
About the dawn of morning, he fallied out with 
foldicrs, who having been fcreened from the ftorm 
under their own roofs, were frefh and vigorous. A 
body of Italians, who were ftationcd neareft the 
city, dilpirited and benumbed with cold, fled at 
the approach of the Turks. The troops at the 
poft behind them difcovered greater courage -, but 
as the rain had extinguifhed their matches, and 
wet their powder, their mufkets were ufelefs, and 
having fcarcely ftrcngth to handle their other 
arms, they were foon thrown into confiifion. 
AJmoft the whole army, with the Emperor him- 
felf in perfon, was obliged to advance, before 
the enemy could be repulfed, who, after ipread- 
ing llich general confternation, and killing a con* 
iiderable number of men, retired at laft in good 

But all feeling or remembrance of this lols 
and ^danger were quickly obliterated by a more 
dreadful as well as. afFefting fpeftacle. It was 
now broad day ; the hurricane had abated nothing 
of its violence, and the fea appeared agitated with 
all the rage of which that deftruftive element is 
capable i all the fhips, on which alone the whole 
army knew that their fafety and fubfiftence de- 
pended, were feen driven from their anchors, 
fome daihing againft each other, fome beat to 
pieces on the rocks, many forced afhore, ^nd not a 
0^2 few 



* %? '^ few finking in the waves. In lefi than an how, 
^-v—i^ fifteen fliips of war, and an hundred and forty 
'^*'* tranfports with eight thoufand men, perifhed; and 
fuch of the unhappy crews as cfcaped the fiiry of 
the fca, were murdered widiout mercy by riie 
Arabs, as foon as they reached land. The 
Emperor ftood in filent anguifh and aAonilhment 
beholding this fatal event, which at once blafted afl 
his hopes of fuccefs, and buried in the depths 
the vaft ftores which he had provided, as weU 
for annoying the enemy, as for fubfifting his own 
troops. He had it not in his power to afibrd 
them any other afliftance or relief than by folding 
fome troops to drive away the Arabs, and thus de- 
livering a few ^ho were fo fortunate as to get 
aftiore fiom the cruel fate which their companions 
had met with. At laft the wind began to fall, .and 
to pve fome hopes that as niany fhips might cf- 
cape, as would be fufficient to (ave the army fiom 
perifiiing by famine, and traniport them back to 
Europe. But thefe were only hopes ; the approach 
of evening covered the fea with darknefs ; and it 
being impoflible for the officers aboard the- fhips 
which had outlived the florm, to fend any intelli- 
gence to their companions who were afhore, they 
remained during the night in all the anguifh of 
fufpenfe and uncertainty. Next day, a boat dif^ 
patched by Doria, made fhift to reach land, with 
information, that having weathered out the flxmn^ 
to which, during fifty years knowledge of the fea^ 
he had never ieen any equal in fiercenefi «id faor- 


ror, he had found it neceflary to bear away with ^ ^^^' ^ 
his ihatteied fhips to Cape Metafliz. He advifed Ui-v^ 
the Emperor, as the face of the flcy was ftill low- '^'* 
ering and tempefhious, to march with all ipeed to 
that place^ where the troops could re- embark with 
greater eafe. 

Whatever comfort this intelligence afforded oMigeat# 
Charles^ from being afTured that part of his fleet '•^""' 
had efcapedy was balanced by the new cares and 
perplexity in which it involved him with regard to 
his army. Metafuz was at leaft three days march 
fitffici his preient camp ; all the provifions which he 
had brought alhore at his firft landing were now 
confiuned; his foldiers^ worn out with fatigue, were 
hardly able for fuch a march, even in a friendly 
coumrys and being diipirited by a iucceffion of^ 
hardfhips, which vi£lx>ry it&If would fcarcely have 
rendered tolerable, they were in no condition to 
undergo new toils. But the fituation of the army 
was fuch, as allowed not one moment for delibe- 
ration, nor left it in the leaft doubtful what to 
chooie. They were ordered inftantly to march, 
the wounded, the fiqjc, and the feeble, being placed 
hi the centres fuch as feemed moft vigorous were 
Rationed in the front and rear. Then the fad ef« 
kSka of what they had fufiered began to appear 
more manifeilly than ever, and hew calamities were 
added to all thofe which they had already endured. 
Some could hardly bear the weight of their armsi 
others, Ipent with the toil of forcing their way 
through deep and almoft impaflable roads, funk 
0^3 down 



* %^ ^ dovirn and died j many pcrifhed by famine, as the 
i^m^^ whole army fubfifted chiefly on roots and berries, 
*^*'' or the flefti of horfes, killed by the Emperor's or- 
der, and diftributed among the feveral battalions ; 
many were drowned in brooks, which were fwoln 
fo much by the exceflive rains, that in pafling diem 
they waded up to the chin ; not a few were killed 
f by the enemy, who, during the greateft part of 

their retreat, alarmed, haraflfed, and annoyed them 
night and day. At laft they arrived at Metafuz; 
and the weather being now fo calm as to rcftore 
their communication with the fleet, they were fup- 
plied with plenty of provifions, and cheered with 
the profped of fafety. 

Hiiforti- _ During this dreadfiil feries of calamities, the 
Emperor difcovered great qualities, many of 
wliich a long continued flow of pro(perity had 
fcarcely afforded him an opportunity of difplay- 
ing. He appeared confpicuous for firmnefs and 
conftancy of Ipirit, for magnanimity, fortitude, 
- humanity, and compaflion. He endured as great 
hardfliips as the meaneft foldieri he expofed his 
own perfon wherever danger threatened ; he en- 
couraged the delponding; vifited the fick and 
wounded; and animated all by his words and 
example. When the army embarked, he was 
among the lafl: who left the fhore, although a body 
of Arabs hovered at no great diftance, ready to 
fall on the rear. By thefe virtues, Charles atoned, 
in fome degree, for his obftinacy and prefump- 
tion in undertaking an expedition fo fatal to his 



The calamities which attended this unfprtunate ^ ^^^ ^ 
cntcrprizc did not end here ; for no fooner were ui-^».i^ 
the forces got on board, than a new ftorm arifmg, Retu?nl w 
though lefe furious than the former, fcattered the ^»'<^p«- 
fleet, and obliged them, feparateiy, to make to- 
wards fuch ports in Spain or Italy as they could 
firft reach ; thus Iprcading the account of their 
difafters, with all the circumftances of aggravation 
and horror, which their imagination, ftill under the 
influence of fear, fuggefted. The Emperor him- 
felf, after cfcaping great dangers, and being forced 
into the port of Bugia in Africa, where he was Decern. 2. 
obliged by contrary winds to remain feveral weeks, 
arrived at laft in Spain, in a condition very different 
from that in which he had returned from his 
former expedition againft the Infidels ''. 

* Carol. V. Expeditio ad ArgyriaoiyperNicoIaum Village 
nonem Eqaitem Rhodium, ap. Scardiooi, v. ii. 365. Jovii 
Hid. 1. xl. p. 269, &c Vera y Zaniga Vida «ie Carlos V. 
p. 83^ Sandov. Hiftor. ii. 299, &c. 









THE calamities which the Emperor fufiered ^ vi!! * 
in his iinfortunate enterprize againfb Algiers ^ ■>* -^ 
ivere great I and the account of theie> which ai^- ReMwiiof 
mealed in proportion as it fpread at a greater F^^cit!!^ 
diftancc from the fcene of his difkfters> encouraged f^j"'^^^'^ 
Francis to begin hoftilities^ on. which he had been 
(oi£ ibme dme refolved. But he did not think 
it prudent to produce^ as the motives of this re** 
ii^tion^ either his ancient pretenfions to the dutchy 
of Milan> or die Emperor's difingenuity in vio- 
ladog his repeated promifes with regard to die 
reftitudon of that country. The former might 
liave been a good reaibn againft concluding the 
truce of Nice^ but was none for breaking it ; the 
btter coul4 not be urged widiout expofmg his 



BOOK own credulity as much as the Emperor's want of 

V ^,1.^ integrity. A violent and. unwarrantable aflion 

»54»' of one of the Imperial generals fumifhcd him 
with a reafon to juftify his taking arms, which 
was of greater weight than either of thefe, and 
fuch as would have roufed him, if he had been 
as defirous of peace as he was eager for war. 
Francis, by figning the treaty of truce at Nice, 
without confulting Solyman, gave (as he forefaw) 
great offence to that haughty Monarch, who con- 
fidered an alliance with him as an honour of which 
a Chriftian prince had cauie to be proud. The 
friendly interview of the French King with the 
Emperor in Provence, followed by fuch extra- 
ordinary appearances of union and confidence which 
diftinguiflied tht reception of Charles when he 
paffed through the dominions of Francis to the 
Low-Countries, induced the Sultan to fuiped th* 
the two rivals had at laft forgotten their ancient 
enmity, in order that they might form fuch a ge- 
neral confederacy againft^ the Ottoman power, as 
had been long wifhed for in Chriftendom, and often 
attempted in vain. Charles, with his ufual art, 
endeavoured to confirm and ftrengthen thefe fufpi- 
cions, by inftrufting his emiffaries at Conftanti- 
nople, as well as in thofe courts with which Soly- 
man held any intelligence, to reprefent the concord 
between him and Francis to be fo entire, that^heir 
fentiments, views, and purfuits, would be die 
fame for the future*. It was not without dilfi- 

* Mem. dc Ribier, tom^ L p. 502. 



culty that Francis effaced thefe impreflions j but ^ ^,^ ^ 
the addrefs of Rincon, the French annbaflador at 

the Porte, together with the inanifi^ft advantage 
of carrying on hoftilities againft the houfe of 
Auftria in concert with France; prevailed at length 
on the Sultan not only to banifli his fulpicions, but 
to enter into a clofer conjunftion with Francis than 
ever. Rincon returned into France, in order to 
communicate to his mafter a fcheme of the Sultan's, 
for gaining die concurrence of the Venetians in 
their operations againft the common enemy. Soly- 
man having lately concluded a peace with that re- 
public, to which the mediation of Francis and the 
good offices of Rincon had greatly contributed, 
thought it not impoffible to allure the fenate by 
fuch advantages, as, together with the example of 
the French Monarch, might overbalance any 
fcruples arifing either from decency or caution, 
that could operate on the other fide. Francis, 
warmly approving of this mieafure, difpatched Rin- 
con back to Conftantinople, and, direfting him to 
go by Venice along with Fregofo, a Genoefe exile, 
whom he appointed his ambaffador to that repub- 
lic, empowered them to ncgociate the matter with 
the fenate, to whom Solyman had fent an envoy 
for die fame purpofe ^ The marquis del Guafto, 
governor of the Milanefe, an officer of great abili- 
ties, but capable of attempting and executing the 
moft atrocious adions, got intelligence of the mo- 
tions and deftination of thefe ambaffadors. As he 

^ Hift. dc Vcnct. dc Paruta, iv* 125, 




BOOK kftew how much his matter wifhcd to difcovcr the 
i^^-v-^ intentions of the French King, and of what con- 
*S4»* fequence it was to retard the execution of his mea- 
Themorder furcs, hc employed fome foldicrs belonging to the 
baftdo'w his garrifon of Pavia fco lie in wait for Rincon and 
jwtcxt for pj^g^^Q ^ ^^y faiig^ (jQ^a the Po, who murdered 

rfi^m and moft of their attendants, and feizcd their 
papers. Upon i^ceiving an account of this bar- 
barous outrage, committed, duririg the fubfiftence 
of a truce, againft perfons held facred by the moft 
uncivilized nations, Francis's grief for the unhappy 
fate of two fervants whom he loved and trufted, his 
uneafinefs at the interruption of his ichem^ by 
their death, and every other paffion, were fiwl- 
lowed up and \o& in the indignation which this in* 
fblt on die honour of his crown excited. He m- 
claimed loudly againft Guaiio, who, having drawn 
upon hirnfelf all the in&my of affaflination with- 
out naaking any difcovcry of importance, os the 
ambafTadors had left their inftru&ions and -other 
papers of confequence behind them, now boldly 
denied his being acceftary in any wife to the 
crime. He fent an ambaffador to the Emperor, 
to demand fuitable reparation for an indignity, 
which no prince, how inconfiderable orpufiUani- 
mous foever, could tamely endure: and when 
Charles, impatient at that time to fet out on his 
African expedition, endeavoured to put him off 
with an evafive anfwer, he appealed to ail the 
courts in Europe, fetcing forth the heinoufiaefe 
of the injury, the fpirit of moderation with 
which he had applied for redrcfs, and the ini- 

5 qui<7 


quity of the Emperor in difregarding this juft » o o jc 
itqueft. - 

Notwithstanding the confidence widi which 
Guafio aflerted his own innocence, the accufa- 
tions of the French gained greater credit than all 
his proteftations j and Bellay, the French com- 
mander in Piedmont, procured, at length, by his 
induftry and addrefs, fuch a minute detail of the 
tranfai£tion> with the teftimony df fo many of the 
parties concerned^ as amounted almoft to a legal 
proof of the marquises guilt. In coniequence of 
this opinion of the public, confirmed by fuch itrong 
evidence^ Francis's complaints were univerfally 
allowed to be well founded, and the fteps which 
he took towards renewing hoftilities, were afcribed 
not merely to ambition or refentment, but to the 
unavoidable neceifity of vindicating the honour of 
his crown *^. 

However juft Francis might efteem his own 
caufe, he did not truft fo much to that, as to 
negkd the proper precautions for g^ing other 
allies befides the Sultan, by whofe aid he might 
counterbalance the Emperor's fuperior power, 
Btit his tiegociations to this effed were attended 
with very Kttk fiiccels. Henry VIII; eagerly 
bent .at that time upon fchemes againft Scotland, 
which he knew would at once diffolve his union 
with France, was inclinable rather to take part 

« l^lb^, 367, Uc. Jovu Hift. lib. xk 268. 




BOOK with the Emperor, th^ to contribute in any dc- 
u_,-/^ gree towards favouring the operations againft him. 
*S4«- The Pope adhered inviolably to his ancient fyftem 
of neutrality. The Venetians, notwithftanding 
Solyman's folicitations, imitated the Pope's ex- 
ample. The Germans, fatisfied with the religious 
liberty which they enjoyed, found it- more their in- 
tereft to gratify. than to irritate the Emperor; fo 
that the Kings of Denmark and Sweden, who on 
this occafion were firft drawn in to intereft them- 
- felves in the quarrels of the more potent Monarchs 
of the fouth, and the duke of Cleves, who had a 
difpute with the Emperor about the poileflion of 
Guelders, were the only confederates whom Fran- 
cis fecured. But the dominions of the two former 
lay at fuch a diftance, and the power of the latter 
was fo inconfiderable, that he gained little by their 

Fraiwis'i BuT Francis by vigorous efforts of his own 
itf Jtrini" aftivity fupplied every dcfeft. Being afflifted at 
^ **'• this time with a diftemper, which was the effeft of 
his irregular pleafures, and which prevented his 
purfuing them with the fame licentious indu^ence, 
he applied to bufinefs with more than his ufual in- 
duftry. The fame caufe which occafioned this ex- 
traordinary attention to his affairs^ rendered him 
morofe and diffatisfied with the minifters whom he 
had hitherto employed. This accidental peevifh- 
nefs being fliarpened by refleding on the falie fteps 
into which he had lately been betrayed, as well as 
the infults to which he had been expofed, fome of 

' thofc 


thofe in whom he had ufually placed the greateft ® ^.^ ^ 
confidence felt the e&fts of this change in his <— -n,--^ 
temper, and were deprived of their offices. At ^^^^' 
lafl: he difgraced Montmorency himfelf, who had 
long direfted affairs, as well civil as military, with 
all the authority of a minifter no lefs beloved than 
trufted by his mafter , and Francis being fond of 
ftiewing .that the fall of fuch a powerful favourite 
did not affe6t the vigour or prudence of his admi- 
niftration, this was a new niotive to redouble his 
diligence in preparing to open the war by fome 
fplendid and extraordinary effort. 

He, accordingly brought into the field five 154*. 
armies. One to ad in Luxembourg under the fiv\a?m?u 
duke of Orleans, accompanied by the duke of g^id.^^* 
Lorrsdne as his inftruftor in the art of war. An- 
other commanded by the dauphin marched to- 
wards the frontiers of Spain. A third led by Van 
Roffem the marlhal of Guelders, and compofed 
chiefly of the troops of Cleves, had Brabant al- 
lotted for the theatre of its operations. A fourth, 
of which the duke of Vendome was general, 
hovered on the borders of Flanders. The laft, 
confifling of the forces cantoned in Piedmont, was 
deftined for the admiral Annebaut. The dauphin 
and his brother were appointed to command 
where the chief exertions were intended, and the 
grcatefl honour to be reaped; the army of the 
former amounted to forty thoufand, that of the 
latter to thirty thoufand men. Nothing appears 
more /urpriling than that Francis did not pour 



B o o ic ^xth thefe numerous and irrefiftible armies into 
s^^^ the Milaneibj which had fo long been the obje& 
^^'' of his wifhes sis well as enterprizes i and that he 
fhould choofe rather to turn almoft his whole 
llrex^gdi into anodier diredion^ and towards new 
conquefts. But the remembrance of die diiafters 
which he had met widi in his former expeditions 
into Italy, together with the difficulty of fuppbrt- 
ing a war carried on at fuch a diftance 6xun his 
own dominions^ had gradually abated his violent 
inclination to obtain footing in that country, and 
made him willing to try the fortune of his arms ia 
another quarter. At the fame time he ezpe£ted 
to make &ch a powerful impreffion on the fron- 
tier of Spain, where there were few towns of jiay 
ftrengthj and no army afiembled tp oppole hw« 
as might enable him to recover pofle0k)A of the 
country of Roufillon, lately difmembered from the 
French crown» before Charles could bring into 
the field any force able to obftruft his prggrefs* 
The ncceflity of fupporting his ally the duke of 
Cleves, and the hope of drawing a confiderabk 
body of foldiers out of Germany by his means, 
. determined him to aft with vigour in the I-ow- 

jofl«. The dauphin and duke of Orleans opened the 
nxiMy campaign much about the fame time; the former 
laying fieg^ to Perpignan the capital of Roufil* 
Ion, and the latter entering Luxembourg. The 
duke of Orleans pulhed his operadons with the 
greateft rapidity and fuccefs^ one town filing 



after another^ until no place in that large dutchy book 
remained in the Emperor's. hands but Thionville. u . -.- . . j 
Nor could he have failed of over-running the '**** 
adjacent provinces with the fame eafe, if he had 
Rot voluntarily ftopt ftiort in this career of viftory. 
But a report prevailing that the Emperor had de- 
termined to hazard a battle in order to fave Per- 
pignan, on a fudden the duke, prompted by youth- 
ful ardour, or moved, perhaps, by jealoufy of his 
brother, whom he both envied and hated, aban- 
doned his own conqueft, and haftened towards 
Roufillon, in order to divide with him the glory of 
the viftory. 

On his departure fome of his troops were dif- 
banded, others deferted their colours, and the 
reft, cantoned in die towns which he had takeil> 
remained inaftive. By this conduct, which leaves 
a diflionourable imputation either on his under- 
ftanding or his heart, or on both, he not only 
renounced whatever he could have hoped from 
^ fuch a promifing commencement of the cam- 
paign, but gave the enemy an opportunity of re- 
covering, before the end of fummer, all the con- 
quefts which he had gained. On the Spanifh 
frontier, the Emperor was not fo inconfiderate as 
to venture on a battle, the lofs of which might 
have endangered his kingdom. Perpignan, though , 
poorly fortified, ind briikly attacked, having been 
largely fupplied with aftnmunition and provifions 
by thi vigilance of Doria, S was defended fo long 

' Sigonii Vita A. Doris, p. 1191* 

Vol. III. R and 


B ^ o K and fo vigoroufly by the duke of Alva, the pcr- 
u.^yl>-^ fevering obftinacy of whofe temper fitted him ad- 
*^^** mirably for fuch a fervice, that at laft the French, 
after a fiege of three months, wailed by difeafes, 
repulfed in feveral aflaults, and defpairing of fuc- 
cefs> relinquiihed the undertaking^ and retired 
into their own country** Thus all Francis's 
mighty preparations, either from fomc defeft in 
his own conduft, or from the liiperior power and 
prudence of his rival, produced no efFefts which 
bore any proportion to his expence and efforts, or 
fuch as gratified, in any degree, his own hopes, or 
anfwered the expeflation of Europe. The only 
folid advantage of the campaign was the acquifition 
of a few towns in Piedmont, which Bellay gained 
rather by flratagem and addrefs, than by the force 
of his arms^ 

^ I543* The Emperor and Francis,, though both con- 
tions for fiderably exhauflcd by fuch great but indecifive 
efforts, difcovering no abatement of their mutual 
animofity, employed all their attention, tried every 
expedient, and turned themfelves towards every 
quarter, in order to acquire new allies, together 
with fuch a reinforcement of flrength as would 
give them the fuperiority in the cnfuing campaign. 
Charles, taking advantage of the terror and refcnt- 
ment of the Spaniards, upon the fudden invafion 
of their country, prevailed on the Cortes of the 
feveral kingdoms to grant him fubfidies with a 

« Sandov. Hift. torn. ii. 319. 

f Sandov. Hift. ii. 318. Bellay, 387, &c. Ferrer, ix. 237. 

9 more 



more liberal hand than ufual. At-the fame time book 
he borrowed a large fum from John King of u -.- j 
Portugal, and, by way of fecurity for his repay- '543* 
ment, pyt him in pofleffion of the Molucca Ifles 
in the Eaft Indies, with the gainful commerce 
of precious fpices, which that fequeftered corner 
of the globe yields. Not fatisfied with this, he 
negociated a marriage between Philip his only fon, 
now in his fixteenth year, and Mary daughter of 
that Monarch, with whom her father, the moft 
opulent prince in Europe, gave a large dower; 
and having likewife perfuaded the Cortes of 
Aragon and Valencia to recognife Philip as the 
heir of thefe crowns, he obtained from them the 
donative ^ufual on fuch occafions^. Thefe ex- 
traordinary fupplies enabled him to make fuch 
additions to his forces in ?pain, that he could 
detach a great body into the Low-Countries, and 
yet referve as many as were fofncient for -the de- 
fence of the kingdom. Having thus provided for 
the fecurity of Spain, and committed the govern- 
ment of it to his fon, he failed for Italy, in his 
way to Germany. But how attentive foever to ^u^ 
raifc the funds for carrying on the war, or eager 
to g^afp at any new expedient for that purpofe, he 
was not fo inconfiderate as to accept of an over- 
ture which Paul, knowing his neceffities, artfully 
threw out to him. That ambitious Pontiff^ no 
lefs fagacious to difcern, than watchful to feize 
opportunities of aggrandifing his family, folicited 

< Ferrtras, ix. 238. 441. Jovii Hid. lib. xlii. 298. 6. 

R % him 


B V,? ^ ^^^ fo grant Odtavio his grandchild, whom th^ 
C>-v-— ^ Emperor had admitted to the hpnour of being his 
'5*3' fon-in-law, the inveftittlre of the dutchy of Mi- 
lan, in return for which he promifed fuch a fum 
of money as would have gone far towards fup- 
plying all his prefent exigencies. But Charles, 
as well from unwiUingnefs to alienate a province 
of fo much value, as from difguft at the Pope, 
who had hitherto refiifed to join in the war againft 
Francis, reje(9:cd the propofal. His diflatisfadion 
with Paul at that jun6hire was fo great, that he 
even refufed to approve his alienating Parma 
and Placentia from the patrimony of St. Peter, 
and fettling them on his fon and grandfon as 
a fief to be held of the Holy See. As no 
other expedient for raifing money among the 
Italian ftates remained, he confented to withdraw 
the garrifons which he had hitherto kept in die 
citadels of Florence and Leghorn ; in confidera* 
tion for v/hich, he received a large prefent fi-om 
Cofmo di Medici, who by this means fecured his 
own independence, and got pofleffion of two 
forts, which were juftly called the fetters of Tuf- 
cany ^. 

Th'-Errpe. BuT Charles, while he feemed to have turned 

cbtion?"*' ^^^ whole attention towards raifing the fums ne- 

^uh Henry ccflary for defraying the expences of the year, 

had not been negligent of objedts more diftant, 

though no lefs important, and had concluded a 

" Adrian! Iftorja, i. 195. SIcid. 312. Jovii Hift.lib. xUii. 
p. 301. Vita di Cof. Medici di Baldini, p. 34. 



league offenfive and defenfive with Hehry VIII. ^ ^^ ^ 
from which he derived, in the end, greater advan- v,..— ^.^ 
tage than from all his other preparations. Several '54J. 
flight circumftances, which have already been n^en- 
tioned, had begun to alienate the afFeftions of that 
Monarch from Francis, with whom he had been for 
fome time in clofe alliance ; and new incidents of 
greater moment had occurred to increafe his difgufl: 
and animofity. Henry, defirous of eftablifhing an Henry', 
uniformity in religion in Great Britain, as well as F"an"7^4^ 
fond of making profelytes to his own opinions, had ScoUand. 
formed a fcheme of perfuading his nephew the 
King of Scots to renounce the Pope's fupremacy, 
and to adopt the fame fyftem of reformation, which 
he had introduced into England. This meafure 
he purfiied with his ufual eagernefs and impetuo- 
fity, making fuch advantageous offers to James, 
whom he confidered as not over-fcrupuloufly at- 
tached to any religious tenets, that he hardly 
doubted of fuccefs. His propofitions were ac- 
cordingly received in fuch a manner, that he flat- 
tered himfelf with having gained his point. But 
the Scottifh ecclefiaftics, forefecing how fatal the 
union of their Sovereign with England muft prove 
both to their own power, and to the eftablifhed 
fyftem of religion 5 and the partifans of France, no 
lefs convinced that it would put an epd to the in* 
fluence of that crown upon the public councils of 
Scodand; combined together, and by their infinua- 
tions defeated Henry's fcheme at die very moment 
when he expedted it to have taken efFeft*, Too 

^ Hift. of Scot!, vol. X. p* 7if &c. 9th edit. 8vo. 

R 3 haughty 


® VI?. ^ haughty to brQok fuch a difappointment, which he 
imputed as much to the arts of the French, as to 

'^^* the levity of the Scottifh Monarch, he took arms 
againft Scotland, threatening to fubdue the king- 
dom, fuice he could not gain the friendfhip of its 
King. At the fame time, his refentment againft 
Francis quickened his negociations with the Em- 
peror, an alliance with whom he was now as for- 
ward to accept as the other could be to offer it. 
During this war with Scodand, and before the con- 
clufion of his negociations with Charles, James V. 
died, leaving his crown to Mary his only daughter, 
an infant a few days old. Upon this event, Henry 
1 altered at once his whole fyftem with regard to Scot- 
land, and abandoning all thoughts of conquering it, 
aimed at what was more advantageous as well as 
more prafticable, an union with that kingdom by a 
marriage between Edward his only fon and the 
young Queen. But here, too, he apprehended a 
vigorous oppofition from the French fadtion in 
Scodand, which began to beftir itfelf in order to 
thwart the meafure. The neceffity of crufhing this 
party among the Scots, and of preventing Francis 
from furnifhing them any effeftual aid, confirmed 
Henry's refolution of breaking -with France, and 
pufhed him on to put a finifhing hand to the treaty 
of confederacy widi the Emperor. 

Feb. It. In this league were contained firft of all, ar- 

CiweTn ^^^^^ ^^^ fecuring their future amity and mutual 
chtriet aod dcfcnce ; then were enumerated the demands 
which they were rcfpedtively to make upon Fran- 
cis ^ 


CIS ; and the plan of their opcrfitions was fixed, * ^^ ^ 
if he (hould refiife to grant diem farisfeftion. ^-^sr-^ 
They agreed to require that Francis fliould not *^*^* 
only renounce his alliance with Solyman, which 
had been the fource of infinite calamities to 
Chriftendom, but alfo that he Ihould make repa- 
ration for the damages which that unnatural union 
had occafioned ; that he fhould reftore Burgundy 
to the Emperor ; that he fhould defift immediately 
from hoftilities, and leave Charles at leifure to 
oppofe the common enemy of the Chriftian faith ; 
and that he fhould immediately pay the fums due 
to Henry, or put fome towns in his hands as fe- 
curity to that effeft. If, within forty days, he 
did not comply with thefe demands, they then 
engaged to invade France each with twenty thou- 
fand foot and five thoufand horfe, and not to lay 
down their arms until they had recovered Bur- 
&^yj together with the towns on the Somme> 
for the Emperor, and Normandy and Guiennc, 
or even the whole realm of France, for Henry ^, 
Their heralds, accordingly, fet out with thefe 
hau^ty requifitions ; and though they were not 
peroiitted to enter France, the two Monarch* 
held thcmfelves fully entitled to execute whater^ 
was ftipulated in their treaty, 

Francis, on his part, was not kfs diligent in rrtneirt 
preparing for the approacljing campaign. Hav- ^'^'^^^ 
ing early obferved fymptoms of Henry's dif- »»»• 

^ Rym. xiv. 768. H«rb. 23S. 

R 4 guft 


BOOK guft and alienation, and finding all his endeavours 
w. .y '-W to footh and reconcile him ineffe6hial, he knew 
'543. i^js temper too well not to exped: that open hofti- 
lities would quickly follow upon this ceflfation of 
friendftiip. For this reafon he redoubled his en- 
deavours to obtain from Solyman fuch aid as might 
counterbalance the great acceffion of ftrength 
which the Emperor would receive by his alliance 
with England. In order to fupply the place of 
the two ambafladors who had been murdered by 
Guafto, he fent as his envoy, firft to Venice, and 
then to Conftantinople, Paulin, who, though in no 
higher rank than acaptain of foot, wasdeemed worthy 
of being raifed to. this important ftation, to which 
he was recommended by BeUay, who had trained 
him to the arts of negociarion, and made trial of 
his talents and addrefs on feveral occafions. Nor 
did he belie the opinion conceived of his courage 
and abilities. Haftening to Conftantinople, with- 
out regarding the dangers to which he was ex- 
pofed, he urged his mafter's demands with fuch 
boldnefs, and availed himfelf of every circum- 
ftance with fuch dexterity, that quickly he re- 
moved all the Sultan's difficulties. As fome of the 
Bafhaws, fwayed cither by their own opinion, or 
influenced by the Emperor's emiffaries, who had 
made their way even into this court, had declared 
in the Divan againft afting in concert with France, 
he found means either 50 convince or filencc then) ^, 

k Sandov. Hiftor. torn, ii, 346. Jo?ii Hift. lib. xli. 285, 
Sec. 300, &c. Brantomct 



At lafl: he obtained orders for Barbarofla to fail ^ ^^ ^ 
with a powerful fleet, and to regulate all his ope- v— ^Ai^ 
rations by the direftions of the French King. ^^^^* 
Francis was not equally fuccefsful in his attempts 
to gain the Princes of the Empire. The extraor- 
dinary rigour with which he thought it necefTary 
to punifh fuch of his fubjefts as had embraced the 
Proteflant opinions, in order to give fbme notable 
evidence of his own zeal for the Catholic faith, 
and to wipe off the imputations to which he was 
liable from his confederacy with the Turks, placed 
an infuperable barrier between him and fuch of 
the Germans as intereft or inclination would have 
prompted mofl readily to join him '. His chief 
advantage, however, over the Emperor, he de- 
rived on this, as on other occafions, from the 
contiguity of his dominions, as well as from the 
extent of the royal authority in France, which 
exempted him from all the delays and difappoint- 
ments unavoidable wherever popular afTemblies 
provide for the expences of government by occa- 
fional and frugal fubfidies. Hence his domeftic 
preparations were always carried on with vigour, 
and rapidity, while thofe of the Emperor, unlefs 
when quickened by fome foreign fupply, or fomc 
temporary expedient, were extremely flow and 

Long before any army was in readinefs to op- opentioM 
pofe him, Francis took the field in the Low- coumr!^' 

^ Seek. lib. iii«403. 



B ^? * Countries, againft which he turned th* whole 
w*- v -i»j weight of the war. He made himfclf mailer of 
*^^ Lindrecy, which he determined to keep as the 
key to the whole province of Hainault 5 and or- 
dered it to be fortified with great care. Turning 
from thence to the right, he entered the dutchy 
of Luxembourg, and found it in the fame de- 
fcncelefs ftate as in the former year. While he 
was thus employed, the Emperor having drawn 
together an army, compofed of all the different 
nations fubjeft to his government, entered the 
territories of the Duke of Cleves, on whom he 
had vowed to inflidb exemplary vengeance. This 
prince, whofe conduct and fituation were limilar 
to that of Robert de la Mark in the firft war be- 
tween Charles and Francis, refembled him like- 
wife in his fate. Unable, with his feeljlc army, 
to face the Emperor, who advanced at the head 
of forty-four thoufand men, he retired at his ap- 
proach; and the Jmperialifts being at liberty to 
aft as they pleafed, immediately invefted Dxiren. 
The Bmpe- That town, though gallantly defended, was taken 
mafterof by afiault ; all the inhabitants were put to the 
cf cietlil^^ fword, and the place itfelf reduced to afhes. This 
Auguft 14. dreadful example of feverity ftruck the people of 
the country with fuch general terror, that all the 
other towns, even fuch as were capable of refift- 
ance, fent their keys to the Emperor; and before a 
body of French, detached to his aflillance, could 
come up, the Duke himfelf was obliged to make 
his fubmiffion to Charles in the moft abjeft man- 
ner. Being admitted into the Imperial prefence, 



he kneeled, together with eight of His principal ^ ^ ^ ?• 
fubjefts, and implored mercy. The Emperor al- w>-v-^«^ 
lowed him to remain in that ignominious pofturc, '^^* 
and eying him with an haughty and fevere look^ 
without deigning to anfwer a fingle word, re- 
mitted him to his minifters. The conditionj, 
however, which they prcfcribed were not fo rigor- 
ous as he had reafon to have expected after fuch a 
reception. He was obliged to renounce his alii- stpt j. 
ance with France and Denmark ; to .refign all his 
pretenfions to the dutchy of Gueldries ; to enter 
into perpetual amity with the Emperor and King 
of the Romans. In return for which, all his he- 
reditary dominions were reftored, except two towns 
which the Emperor kept as pledges of the puke!s 
fidelity during the continuance of the war-j and 
he was reinftatcd in his privileges as a Prince of 
the Empire. 'Not long after, Charles, as a proqf 
of the fincerity of his reconcilement, gave him 
in marriage one of the daughters of his brodier 
Ferdinand ". 

• ♦ Having thus chaftifed the prefumption of the Bcu^jfi 
Duke of Cleves, . detached one of his allies from " '*^* 
Francis, a,nd annexed to his own dominions in the ' 
Low-Countries a confiderable province which lay 
contiguous to them, Charles advanced towards 
Hainault, and laid fiege to Landrecy. There, as • 

the firft fruits of his alliance with Henry, he wai 

" Harxi Annal. Brabant, t. i. 628. Recueil des Traicez, 
t. u. 226. 



^ VI? ^ pmtd by fix thoufand Englifh under Sir John Wal- 
v,^^.!— j' lop. The garrifon, confiding of veteran troops 
'^♦^ commanded by De la Lande and Dcfle, two offi- 
xers of reputation, made a vigorous refiftance. 
Francis approached with all his forces to relieve 
that place j Charles covered the fiege ; both were 
determined to hazard an engagement i and all Eu- 
rope expefted to fee this conteft, which had conti- 
nued fo long, decided at lait by a battle between 
two great armies, led by their refpeftive Monarchs 
in perfon. But the ground which feparated their 
two camps was fuch, as put the difadvantage ma- 
nifeftly on his fide who fhould venture to attack, 
and neither of them chofe to run that rifquc. 
Amidft a variety of movements, in order to draw 
the enemy into the fnare, or to avoid it themfelves, 
Francis, with admirable conduA and equal good 
fortune, threw firft a fupply of frefli troops, and 
then a convoy of provifions, into the town, fo that 
the Emperor, defpairing of fuccefs, withdrew into 
winter-quarters", in order to preferve his army fi-om 
being entirely ruined by the rigour of the feaibiu 

November. DuRiNG this Campaign, Solyman fulfilled his 
^amHuiu* engagements to the French King with great punc- 
•^* tuality. He himfelf marched into Hungary with 

a numerous army ; and as the Princes of the Em- 
pire made no great effort to fave a country which 
Charles, by employing his own force againft Fran- 
cis, fccmcd willing to facrificc, there was no ap- 

• Bellay, 405, ^c« 



pearance of any body of troops to oppofe his pro- book 
grefs. He befieged, one after another, Quinque ^ ^ ' ■■i^ 
Ecclefias, Alba, and Gran, the three moft confi- '^♦*' 
derable towns in the kingdom, of which Ferdi- 
nand had kept poffeflion. The firft was taken by 
ftorm; the other two furrehdered ; and the whole 
kingdom, a fmall corner excepted, was fubjedted 
to the Turkifh yoke^ About the fame time, Btrbarofla't 
Barbaroffa failed with a fleet of an hundred and itd^^** 
ten gallies, and coafting along the Ihore of Cala- 
bria, made a defcent at Rheggio, which he plun- 
dered and burnt; and advancing from thence to 
the mouth of the Tiber, he ftopt there to water. 
The citizens of Rome, ignorant of his deftina- 
tion, and filled with terror, began to fly with fuch 
general precipitation, that the city would have 
been totally deferted, if they had not refumed cou- 
rage upon letters from Paulin the French envoy, 
aflurirtg them that no violence or injury would be 
offered by the Turks to any ftate in alliance with 
the King his matter p. From Oftia, BarbaroiTa 
failed to Marfeilles, and being joined by the French 
fleet with a body of land forces on board, under 
the count d'Enguien, a gallant young prince of 
the houfe of Bourbon, they direfted their courfe 
towards Nice, the fole retreat qf the unfortunate 
Duke of Savoy. There, to the aftoniftiment and Augnft !•• 
icandal of all Chriftendom, the Lilies of France 
and Crefcent of Mahomet appeared in conjunftion 

• Iftaanhaff. Hiftor. Hung. I. xr. 167. 

' JoviiHiii. 1. xliii. 304, &Ct Fallavic. j6o» 




^ %i? ^ ^g^^nft a fortrefs on which the Croft of Savoy wtw 
difplayed. The town, however, was bravely de- 
fended againft their combined force by Montfort a 
Savoyard gentleman, who flood a general affault, 
and repulfed the enemy with great lofs^ before he 
retired in!o the caftle. That fort, fituated upon a 
rock, on which the artillery made no impreflion, 
and which could not be undermined, he held out 
fo long, that Doria had time to approach with his 
fleet, and the Marquis del Guafto to march with a 

Sept. g. body of troops from Milan. Upon intelligence 
of this, the French and Turks raifed the fiege ^ ; 
and Francis had not even the confolation of luc- 
cefs, to render the infamy which he drew on him- 
felf by calling in fuchj an auxiliary, more tole- 
rable. * ' 

Prepara- . From the fmall progrcfs of either party during 

tsonifori • . . . I . 1 1 f 

newoMn- this Campaign, It was obvious to what a length 
'****• the war might be drawn out between two princes, 
whofe power was fo equally balanced, and who, 
by their own talents or aftivity, could fo vary and 
multiply their refources. TJie trial which they ' 
had now made of each other's ftrength might have 
taught them the imprudence of perfifting in a war, 
wherein there was greater appearance of their dif- 
treffing, their own dominions than of conquering 
thofe of their adverfary, and Ihould have difpofed 
both to wifh for peace. If Charles and Francis 

^ Guichenon Hiftoirc de Savoye, t. i. p. 651. Bellay, 
425, &c. 



had been influenced by confiderations of intereft ^ 00 R 
or prudence alone, this, without doubt, lAuft have u,->^-hi 
been the manner in which they would have reafon- ■^*^' 
cd. But the perfonal animofity, which mmgled 
itfelf in all their quarrels, had grown to be fo vio- 
lent and implacable, that, for the pleafure of gra* 
dfying it, they difregarded every thing elfe ; and 
were infinitely more felicitous how to hurt each 
other, than how to fecure what would be of ad- 
vantage to themfelves. No fooner then did the 
feafbn force them to fufpend hoftilities, than, with- 
out paying any attention to the Pope's repeated 
endeavours or paternal exhortations to re-eftablilh 
peace, they began to provide for the operations of 
the next year with new vigour, and an activity in- 
crealing with their hatred. Charles turned his 
chief attention towards gaining the Princes of the 
Empire, and endeavoured to roufe the formidable 
but unwieldy flrength of the Germanic body againft Afftin of 
Francis. In order to underftand the propriety of *'"*°^' 
the fteps which he took for that purpofe, it is ne- 
ceflary to review the chief tranfaftions in that coun- 
try fincc the diet of Ratifbon in the year one thou- 
find five hundred and forty-one. 

Much about the time that aflembly broke up, Mauriceof 
Maurice fucceeded his father Henry in the govern- ceedshii f^ 
ment of that part of Saxony which belonged to the ^'*"* 
Albertine branch of the Saxon family. This young 
prince, then only in his twentieth year, had, even 
at that early period, begun to difcover the great ta- 


• VI? ^ ^^^^ which qualified him^ for afting fuch a diftin- 
%— v-^ guifhed part in the affairs of Germany. As foon 
'^*^' as he entered upon the adminiftration, he ftruck 
cut into fuch a new and Angular path, as fliewed 
that he aimed, from the beginning, at fomething 
The Tiewi great and uncommon. Though zealoufly attached 
of'^thu**"^ to the Proteftant opinions, both from education 
JfiiTcL ^^ principle, he refufed to accede to the league of 
Smalkalde, being determined, as he faid, to main- 
tain the purity of religion, which was the original 
objeft of that confederacy, but not to entangle 
himfelf in the political interefts or combinations to 
which it had given rife. At the fame time, • fore- 
feeing a rupture between Charles and the confede- 
rates of Smalkalde, and perceiving which of them 
was moft likely to prevail in the conteft, inftead of 
that jealoufy and diftruft which the other Protefl- 
ants exprefled of all the Emperor's defigns, he 
afFefted to place in him an unbounded confidence; 
and courted his favour with the utmoft affiduity. 
When the other Proteftants, in the year fifteen 
hundred and forty-two, either declined aflifling 
Ferdinand in Hungary, or afforded him reluctant 
and feeble aid, Maurice marched thither in -per- 
fon, and rendered himfelf confpicuous by his zeal 
^nd courage. From the fame motive, he had led 
to the Emperor's afTiftancc, during the laft cam- 
paign, a body of his own troops ^ and the gracc- 
fulnefs of his perfon, his dexterity in all military 
exercifes, together with his intrepidity, which, 
courted and delighted in danger, did not diftin- 



guilh him more in the field, than his great abilities ^ ^^f ^ 
and infinuating addrefs won upon the Eniperor's v^ — ,^-*^ 
confidence and favour ^ While by this conduft, '^*^' 
which appeared extraordinary to thofe who held 
the fame opinions with him concerning religion^ 
Maurice endeavoured to pay court to the Empe- 
ror, he began to difcover fome degree of jealoufy 
of his coufin the Eledtor of Saxony. This, which 
proved in the fequel fo fatal to the Eleftor, had ' 
almoft occafioned an open rupture between tliem ; 
and foon after Maurice's accefTion to the govern- 
ment, they both took arms with equal rage, upon 
account of a dilpute about the right of jurifdiftion 
over a paltry town fituated on the Moldaw. They 
were prevented, however, from proceeding to ac- 
tion by the mediation of the Landgrave of Hefle, 
whole daughter Maurice had married, as well as 
by the powerful and authoritative admonitions of 
Luther '. 

Amidst thefe tranfaftions, the Pope, though TfcePope 

propofei to 

extremely irritated at the Emperor's conceffions bdd age- 
to the Proteftants at the diet of Raeifbon, was fo JuIct^J, 
warmly folicited on all hands, by fuch as were 
moft devoutly attached to the See of Rome, no 
lels than by thofe whofe fidelity pr defigns he fuf- 
pedcd, to fummon a general council, that he 
found it impoflible to avoid any longer calling 
that aflembly. The impatience for its meeting, 

' Sleid. 317. Seek. 1. iii. 371. 386. 428. 
*^Sleid« 292* Seek. K iii. 403* 

VOi.. III. S • and 


' Y,? * and rixe expeftations of great cffedbs from its cfo- 
V- ■yl.^j ciiions, feertied to grow in propordon to the diffi- 
'^**' culty of obtaining it. He (till a(fiiered» however,, 
to his original resolution of holding it in ibme town 
of Italy, where, by the number of eccleflaftics, re- 
tainers to his court, and depending on his favour, 
who could repair to it without difficV|lty or expence, 
he might mfluence and even dircft all its proceed- 
ings. This propofition^ though often rcjefted by 
the Germans, he inftruded his nuncio to the diet 
March 3. held at Spires, in the year one thoufaod five hun- 
dred and forty- two, to renew once more^ and tf he 
found it gave no greater fatisfaction than formerly, 
he empowered him, as a laft conceflion, to propoie 
for the place of meeting, Trent, a city in the Tyrol, 
fubjed tz> the King of the Romans, and fiti:^ed on 
the confines between Germany and Italy, The 
Catholic princes in the diet, after giving it as their 
opinion that the council might have been held with 
greater advantage in Ratifbon^ Cologne, or fome of 
the great cities of the Empire, were at length in- 
duced to approve of the place which the Pope had 
named. The. Proteftants unanimo^fly exprefied 
their cHiracisfaftioni and protcfted that they would 
pay no regard to a council held beyond the pre- 
cincts of the Empire, called by the Pope's autho- 
rity, and in which he affumed the ri^t of prc^ 
fiding \ 

M^yii. The Pope, without taking any notice of their 
Sun'moM ii objeaions;^ publifhed the bull of iiuimation» named 

to meet* 

* Sleid. 291. Scdc. h iii/aSj, 

. . thfcc 


three cardinals to prefxdc as his l^iates, and jq[)- ^%n. ^ 
pointed them to repair to Trent before the firft of ^0^ / '^ $ 
November^ the day he had fixed for opening die '^' 
council. But if Paul had defined the meeting of t 
council as fincerely as he pretended^ he would noe 
have pitched on foch an improper time for calling 
it Inftead of that general union and tranquilfity^ 
without which the deliberations of a council could 
neither be conduced with fecurity^ nor attended 
with authority^ fudi a fierce war was juft kindled 
between the Emperor and Francis^ as rendered it 
impoffible for the ecclefiaftics fi-om many parts of 
Europe to refort thither in fafety. The legates^ 
accordingly^ remained feveral months atTrenti but 
as no pcrfon appeared there, except a few prelates 
from the ecclefiaftical ftate, the Pope, in order to obitgeite 
avoid the ridicule and contempt which this drew 
Upon him from the enemies of the church> re- 
called them and prorogued the council ". 

Unhappily for the authority of the papal fee> The Empe* 
at the very time that the German Proteftants took tbt Pr^ab* 
every occafion of pouring contempt upon it, the 
Emperor and King of the Romans found it necef- 
fary not only to connive at their condud, but to 
court their favour by repeated a^ of indulgence. 
In the fame diet of Spires, in which they had pro- 
tefted in the moft difrefpeftful terms againft a(^ 
fembliag a council at Trent, Ferdinand, who dc- 

' F. Paul, p. 97. $leid/296. 

S a pended 


* ^^'^' pended on their aid for the defence of Hungary^ 
^ ^ - > not only perniittdd that proteftation Co be inferred 
"■^t^* in the .records of the diet, but renewed in their fa- 
vour all the Emperor's conceflions at Ratiftoa, 
adding to them whatever they demanded for their 
farther fecurity. • Among other particulars, he 
granted a fufpenfion of a decree of tlie Impend 
chamber againfl: the city of Goflar (one of thofe 
which had entered into the league of Smalkalde)> 
on account of its having feized the ecclefiaftical 
revenues within its domains, and enjoined Henry 
Dyke of Brunfwick to defifl: from his attempts to 
carry that decree into execution. But Henry, a 
furious bigot,, and no lefs obftiqate than ralh in all 
his undertakings, continuing to difquiet the people 
Their »*- of Goflar by his incurfions, the Eleftor of Saxony 
feldr'risr' and Landgrave of Hefle, that they might not fuf- 
fer any member of the Smalkaldic body to be op- 
prefled, afTembled their forces, declared war in form 
againfl: Henry, and in the fpace of a few weeks, 
fl:ripping him entirely of his dominions, drove him 
as a wretched exile to take refuge in the court of 
Bavaria. By this aft of vengeance, no lefs feveie 
than fudden, they filled all Germany with dread of 
their power, and the confederates of Smalkalde ap- 
peared, by this firfl: effort of their arms, to be as 
ready as they wcx-e able to protedt thofe who had 
joined their alTociation '. 

« Slcid. 296. Commcmoratio ruccinfta Cau(arom Belli, &c. 
a Smalkaldicis contra Henr. Brunfiv. ab iifdcia edita: aj. 
Scardium, torn. ii. 307. 



Emboldened by fo many conceflions in their * ^J^ *^ 

•favour, as well as by tht progrefs which their opi- \ ^1^ 

nions daily made, the princes gf • the league of S mal- *^^' 
kalde took a folemn pr6tdl againft the Imperial 
-chamber, and declined its jurifdiftion for the future, 
becaufe that court had not been Vifitedor reformed 
according to the decree of Ratifbon,- and continued 
to difcover a moft indecent partiality in all its pro- 
breedings. Not long after this, they ventured a ftep 
farther; and protefting againft the recefsof a diet 
held at Nuremberg, ^?vhich provided for the defence 
-of Hungary, refufed to furnifh their contingent for n^ii «;, 
that purpofe, unlefs the Imperial chamber were re- '^*^* i 
formed, and full fecurity were granted thprn if! every " , ' 'J 
-poifit with regard to religion ^ ' • 

SvcH were the lengths to which the«Prx)teftant8 Diet it 
had proceeded, and fuch their confidence in their 15*^!' 
own powef j"^ when the Emperor returned from tiie 
Low-Qountries, to hold a diet,, which he had fiimt 
moned to meet at Spires, * The -rcfpeft due to the 
Emperor, as well as the importance of the affairs 
which were to be laid before it, rendered this af* 
fembly extremely full. AIL the Ete&ors, a* great 
number of princes ecclefiailical acid* fecular^ widi 
-the deputies of moft of the cicifes, were prefent. 
Charles foon perceived that this was not a time to 
offend the je^us fpirit ofc the Proteft^ts, . by a^ 
lerting in any high tone the authority and *do£trine6 
of the church, or by abridging, in- iJbie'fmalleft aii. 

7 Sleida 304.. 30^* Seckj.1. ili« 4^. 4}^ ' -: -.1 
S3 ' * ticki 


^ VI? * ^^^ ^^ libcrtjnwliich they now enjoyed; but that, 
^^w-^-j on the contrary, if he expeded any fupport from 
'^^ thein, or wifhed to pre&rve Germany from intef- 
cine diibrders ivhile he was engaged in a foreign 
waTj he muft footh them by new conceflions, and a 
more ample extenfion of their religious privileges. 
He began^ accordingly, with courting the Ele&or 
of Saxony, and Landgrave of Hefle, the heads of 
the Proteftant party, and by giving up fbi;ne thingt 
in their favour, and granting liberal promifes with 
regard to others, he fecured himielf from any dan- 
TiMVmpr- ger of .oppofition on their part. Having gained 
£" j?**" this capital point, he then ventured to addrefi the 
j^^ diet wkh greater fieedom. He began by rcpre- 
ienting his own zeal, .and unwearied efforts with 
regard to two things moil eflential to Chriftendom, 
:die procuring of a general council in order to corn- 
pole the religious diflenfions which had unhaj^ily 
triien in Germany, and the providing Ibme proper 
Miieans &r checking the formidable progreis of the 
Turkiih arm^. But he pbfiarvedi with deep regret, 
diat his pioua endeavours had been entirely dcfeat- 
M by tiic vnjuftifiable ambition of the French 
King, who having wantX)nly kindled the flame of 
war in Europe, which had been fo lately extin- 
guilhed by the truce of Nice, rendered it hnpof« 
iible for the fetbers of the church to aflemble in 
council^ or to delS^erate with lecuritys and obliged 
jiim to tmpjoy tboie forces in his own defence, 
whiciii with greater fatis&dion to himiiblC as ^^ 
lUmxthoMm to Chriftendom, he would have 
tmt^Bffupftti^jM^ ThM Francis, not 
ij thi/iking 


inking it enough to have called him off from op- ^ ^^ ^ 
pofing the Mahometans^ had^ with unexampled s^^^-^m^ 
impiety, invited them into the heart of Chriften- '^"^ 
dom, and, joining his arms to theirs, had optnly 
attacked the D«kc of Savoy a member of the Em- 
pire : That Barbaroi&'s fleet was now in one of the 
ports of France^ waiting only the return of fpring 
to carry terror and defolation to the coaft of feme 
Chriftian ftate : That in Aich a fituation it was folly 
to think of difbnc expeditions againft the Turk, 
or of marching to oppofe his armies in Hungary, 
while fuch a power^l ally received him into the 
centre of Europe, axid gave him footing there. 
It was a di^te of prudence, he addedj to oppoie 
die neareft and moft imminent dai^r, Bi& of all^ 
and by humbling the power of France, to deprive ' 
Solyman of the advantages, which he deriv^ from 
the unnatural confederacy formed between him and 
a Monarch wha ftill arrogated the name of Moft 
Chriftian : That, ja truth, a war againft the Fxiench 
King and the Sultan ought to be confidered as the 
fame thing; and that every advantage gained over 
the former, was a ievere and fenfible blow to the 
latter : On all thele accounts, he conchided with 
demanding their aid againft Francis, not merely 
as an enemy of the Germanic body, or of him 
who was its hftd, but as an avowed ally of the 
Infidels,' and a public enemy ix> the Chriftiaa 
name. • /^ ^ ^ . 

In order to giv^ greater wdg|ht tfy tha ^riokat 
mvcaivt oif die Emperor, :tbe Kfaig iq^ the R«- 

S 4 ^^^ mans 


^ VI? ^ ^^^^ Giood up, and related the rapid conqucfts of 

4^ ^ the Sultan in Hungary, occafioned, as he faid, by 

'^^' the fatal neceflity impofed on his brother, of em- 
ploying his arms againft France. When he had 
finiflied, the ambaffadors of Savoy gave Ji detail of 
Barbarofla's operations at Nice, and of the ravages 
which he had committed on that coaft. All thefc, 
' added to the general indignation which Francis's 

unprecedented union with the Turks excited in 
Europe, made fuch an imprcffion on the diet as 
the Emperor wiihed, and difpofed moft of the 
members: to grant him fuch effedtual aid as he had 
demanded. The ambafiadors whom Francis had 
fent to explain the motives of his conduit, were 
not permitted to enter the bounds of the Empire; 
and the apotogy which they publiftxed for their 
matter, . vindicating his.alliince with Solyman, by 
examples drawn fpm fcripture, and the praftice of 
Chriftian princes, was litdc regai'ded by men who 
were irritated already, or prejudiced againft him to 
fuch a degree, as to be incapable of allowing their 
• proper weight to any arguments in his behalf. 

ni8vaft Such being the favourable difpofition of the 

inordtrto Gcrmans, Charles perceived that nothing could 
Froiefl^aoti. ^ow obftruft fcis gaining all that he aimed at, but 
the fears and jealoufies of the Proteftants, which 
he determined to quiet by granting every thing 
that the utmoft folicitude of thefe paffions coulcl 
defire for the fecurity of their religion. With 
this .view, he confented to a recefs, whereby all 
tke rigorous ;^dsJuth^rto ifiued againft the Pro^ 
* tcftants 


tefUnts were fufpended; a council either general ^ %.^ ^ 
or national to be aflembled in Germany was de- s— -.--^ 
d^ed neceflary, in order to re-^eftablifh peace in '^^ 
the church; until one of thefe ihould be held 
(which the Emperor undertook to bring about 
as fbon as poffible), the |rce and public exercile 
of the Proteftant religion was authorized 5 the 
Imperial chamber was enjoined to give no molefta- 
tlon to the Proteftants j and when the term, for 
which the prefent judges in that court were eleded, 
Ihould expire, perfons duly qualified were then 
to be admitted as members, without any diftinc- 
tion on account of religion. In return for thefe Aid tnnttd 
extraordinary afts of indulgence, the Proteftants ^ 
concurred with the other members of the diet, in 
declaring war againft Francis in name of the 
empire; in voting the Emperor a body of twenty- 
four thoufand foot and four thoufand horfe, to be 
maintained at the public expence for fix months, 
and to be employed againft France; and at the 
fame time the diet impofed a poll-tax to be levied 
throughout all Germany on every perfon without 
exception, for the fupport of the war againft the 

Charlies, while he gave the greateft attention ch«ri«i't 
to the ipinute and intricate detail of particulars wXtJelT' 
neceffary towards conduding the deliberations of g*'5l^* 
a numerous and divided affembly to fuch a fuc- 
felsfol period, negociated a feparate peace with 
the. King of Denmark; who, though he had hi- 
therto performed nothing confiderable in confe- 



■ VI? ^ q^cncc of his alliance with Francis^ had it in his 
*-— nA^ powerj however, to make a fbnnidable diverfion 
'^^ in favour of that Mcmarch '. At. the fame time, 
he did not negled proper s^plicadons to the 
King of England, in order to roule him to more 
vigorous efforts againil their comqion enemy- 
Little, indeed, was wanting to accomplifli this ; 
for fuch events had happened in Scotland as in-* 
flamed Henry to the moft violent pitch of refent- 
ment ^gainft Francis. Havir^ concluded with 
the parliament of Scodand a treaty of marriage 
between his (on and their young Queen, by whip h 
he reckoned himfelf fecure of effefting the union 
of the two kingdoms, which had been long dc- 
fired, and often attempted without focccfs by his 
predeceffors, Mary of Guife the Queen-mother, 
cardinal Beatoun, and other partisans of France, 
found means not only to break off the match, 
but to alienate the Scottilh nation entirely from 
the friendfliip of England, and to ftrengrfien its 
ancient attachment to France. Henry, however, 
did not abandon an objeft of fo much importance j 
and as ^he humbling of Francis, befides the plea- 
furd of taking revenge upon an enemy who had 
difappointed a favourite meafure, appeared the 
moft effeftual method of bringing the Scots to 
accept once more of the tieaty which they had 
rclinquifhed, he was fo eager to accomplifli this, that 
he was ready to fecond whatever the Emperor 
could propofe to be attempted againft that Mo- 

» Dumoiit Corps Oiplom. t. iv. p. it. p. 27^.' 



narch. The plan, accordingly, which they con- ■ ^^p 't 
certedj was fuch, if it had been pundkually exc- < — -sA^ 
cincd, as muft have ruined France in the firft '^^ 
place, and would have augmented io prodigioufly 
the Emperor's power and territories, as might in the 
end have proved fatal to the liberties of Europe. 
They agreed to invade France each with an army 
of twenty-five thoufand men, and, without Ipfing 
tifnc in befieging the frontier towns, to advance 
direftly towards the interior provinces, and to join 
their forces near Paris *. 

Francis ftood alone in oppofition to all the TbcFrenck 
enemies whom Chai*les was muftcring againft himw fieidin* 
Solyman had been the only ally who did not defert P"*****^ 
him if but the afliftance which he received from 
him had rendered him fo odiou» to all Chriften- 
dom, that he refolved rather to forego all the ad- 
vantages of his friendlhip, than to become, on 
that account, the objedt of general deteftation. 
For this reafbn, he difmiiTed Barbaroila as foon as 
winter was over, who, after ravaging die coaft of 
Naples and Tufcany, returned to Conftantinople. 
As Francis could not hope to equal die forces of 
£0 many powers combined agajnft him, he en- 
deavoured to fupply that defeft by difpatch, which 
was more in his power, and to get the ftart of him 
in takii^ the field. Early in the fpring the count luTfftCa. 
d'Enguien invcfted Carignan, a town in Piedmont, '**"*■• 
which the marquis del Guafto the Imperial gene* 

f Herbert, ^45. Btllay, 44*. 



B o o K ral having furprifed the former year, confidered 
x_ / ,f as of fo much importance, that he had fortified 
'544. it at great expencc. The count puflied the fiegc 
with fuch vigour, that Guafto, fond -of his own 
conqueft, and feeing no other way of faving it 
from falling into the hands of the French, re- 
folved to hazard a batde in order to relieve it. 
Tbeimpe- He began his march from Milan for this purpofe, 
Iir»!d»*to ^^d ^ ^^ was at no pains to conceal his intention, 
9«iieveit. it was foon known jn the French camp. En- 
guien, a gallant and enterprifing young man, 
• wifhed paffionately to try the fortune of a batde ; 
his troops defired it with no lefs ardour ; but the 
peremptory injunftion of the King not to venture 
a general engagement, flowing from a prudent 
attention to the prefent fituation of affairs, as 
well sis from thd remembrance of former difafters, 
reftrained him from venturing upon it. Unwill- 
ing, however, to abandon Carignan, when it was 
juft ready to yield, and eager to diftinguifli his 
command by fome memorable aftion, he dif- 
patched Monluc to 'court, in order to lay before 
the King the advantages of fighting the enemy, 
and the hopes which he had of viftory. The 
King referred the matter to his privy council ; all 
the minifters declared, one after another, againft 
fighting, and fupported their fentiments by rea- 
fons extremely plaufible. While they were deli- 
vering their opinions, Monluc, who was per- 
mitted to be prefent, difcovered liich vifiblc and 
extravagant fymptoms of impatience to.fpeak, as 
well as fuch diffatisfaaion with what he heard, that 



Francis, diverted with his af^arance, called on^ ^^ ^ 
him to declare what he could, offer in reply to ^,^^i^— ,^ 
fefuiments which leemed to be as juft as they '^*** 
were general. Upon, this, Monluc, a plain but 
ipirited foldier, ,and of known courage, repre- 
iented * the good condition of the troops, their 
eagernefe to meet the cqcmy in the field, their 
confidence in their officers, together with the ever- 
lafting. infamy which the declining of a battle 
would bring on the French arms j and he lu^ed 
•his arguments with fuch lively impetupfity, and 
fuch a flow of military eloquence, as gained over to 
his opinion, not only the King, naturally fond of 
daring adtions, but feveral of the council. Fran- ' 
cis, catching die fame enthuGafm which had ani- 
mated his troops, fuddenly ftarted up, and having 
lifted his hands to Heaven, and implored the 
Divine protection, he then addrelTcd himfelf to 
Monluc, " Go, fays he, return to Piedmont, and 
fight in the name of God **." 

No fooner was it known that the King had BaMeof 
given Enguien leave to fight the Imperialifts, ^"^^«^ 
than fuch was the martial ardour of the gallant 
and high-fpirited gendemen of that age, that the 
court was quite deferted, every perfon defirous 
of reputation, or capable of fervice, hurrying to 
Piedmont, in order to fhare, as volunteers, in 
the danger and glory of the aftion. Encouraged 
%Y the arrival of fo many brave officers, Enguien 

^ Memoirei de MonIac« 



• ^j^ ^^ immediately prepared for battle^ nor did Gusito 
u^...^»ii»# decline the combat. The nufhber of cavalry was 
'^^ almoft equal, but the Impefbl infantry exceeded 
the French by at leaft ten thooiand men. They 
April II. iDct near Cerifoles, in an open plain, which af- 
forded to neither any advantage of ground, and 
both had full time to form their army in proper 
order. The fhock was fuch as might have been 
cxpefted between veteran troq>s, violent and ob- 
ftinate. The French cavahy rufliing forward to 
the charge with diexr ufoal vivacity, bore down 
every thing that oppofed them ; but, on the other 
hand> the fteady and difciplincd valour of the 
Spanilh infantry having forced the body which • 
they encountered to give way, victory remained 
in fufpenfe, ready to declare for whichever ge- 
neral could make the beft ufe of that critical mo- 
ment. Guafto, engaged in that part of his army 
which was thrown into diforder, and afraid of 
falling into the hands of the French, whofe vcnge- ' 
ance he dreaded on account of the murder of 
Rincon and Fregofo, loft his prefence of mind, 
' and forgot to order a large body of referve to ad- 
vance 5 whereas Enguien, with admirable courage 
and equal conduft, fupported, at the head of his 
gens d'armes, fuch of his battalions as began to 
yield ; and at the fame time he ordered the Swifi 
in his fervice, v/ho had been victorious wherever 
they fought, to fall upon the Spaniards. ThiB 
motion proved decifivc. All that foUowed w* 
confulion and flaughter. The marquis del Guafto, 
wounded in the thigli, efcaped only by the fwift- 



ncia of hk horfe. The viftoty of the French was book. 
complete^ ten diou£md of the Imperialifts being ^ — .U^ 
ilaia, and a oonfiderabk number, with aM their '^^ 
teacs^ baggage, and aruUery, takesu On the part 
of the conquerors, their joy was without allay, 
a few only being killed, and among thefe no officer 

This iplcndid afkion, befide the reputation with Effea«rfit. 
which it was attended, delivered France from an 
imminent danger, as it ruined the army with which 
Guafto had intended to invade the country between 
the Rhone and Saone, where there were neither 
fortified towns nor regular forces to oppofe liis 
progrefs. But it was npt in Francis's power to 
purfue the viAory with fuch vigour as tx> reap 
the advantages which it maght have yielded ; for 
though the Milanefe remsuned now alAoil de- 
fenceleis; though the inhabitants, who had long 
murmured under the rigour of the Imperial go- 
vernment, "were ready to throw off the yoke; 
though Enguien, flulhed with fuccefs, urged the 
King to feize this happy op^rtunity of recovering 
a country, the acquifition of which had been long 
his favourite objeftj yet, as the Emperor and 
King of Englajid were preparing to break in upon 
the oppofue frontier of France with numerous ar- 
mies, it became neceflary to facrifice all choughta 
of conqueft to the public fafety, and to recal 

^ Bellay, 429, 8cQ. Memoircs de Monluc. Jovii Hid. 1. 
jcliv. p. 327. 6. 



twelve thoufand of Enguien's beft troops to be 
employed in defence of the kingdom. Enguicn's 
^^^' fubfequent operations were, of confequence, fo 
languid and inconfiderable, tliat the reduftioii of 
Carignan and fome other towns in Piedmont, 
was all that he gained by his great viftcwy at 
Cerifoles ^ 

OperaiioM The Emperor, as ufual, was late in taking the 
o>iijiuieT* field, but he appeared, 'towards the beginning of 
June, at the head of an army more numerous, 
and better appointed than any which he had hi- 
therto led againft France. It amounted almcft 
to fifty thoufand men, • and part of it having re- 
duced Luxembourg and fome other towns in the 
Netherlands, before he himfelf joined it, he now 
marched with the whole towards the frontiers of 
June. Chamjfl|^ne. Charles, according to his agree- 
ment wkh the King of England, ought to have 
advanced direftly towards Paris ; and the Dau^r 
phin, who commanded the only army to which 
Francis trufted for the fecurity of his dominions, 
was in no condition to oppofe him. But the fuc- 
cefs with which the French had defended Provence 
in the year one thoufand five hundred and thirty- 
fix, had taught them the moil efFeftual method of 
diftrefling an invading enemy. Champagne, a 
country abounding more in vines than corn, was 
incapable of maintaining a great army j and be- 
fore the Emperor's approach, whatever could be 

* Bellay, 438, &c. 


of any ufe to his troops had been carried off or ^ ^^ ^ 
dcftroyedi Thjis rendered it neceflary for him to s^-^^-l.^ 
be matter of fome places of ftrength, in order to '^^"^ 
fecure the convoys, on which alone he now per- 
ceived that he muft depend for fubfiftence 5 and 
he founa the frontier towns fo ill provided for 
defence, that he hoped it would not be a work 
either of much time or difficulty to reduce them. ' 
Accordingly Ligny and Commercy^ which he 
firft attacked, furrendered. after a Ihort reflftancc. 
He then in vetted St; Difier, which, though it TheEmpei 
commanded an important pafs on the Marne, s^Difiet! 
was deflitute of every thing neceflary for fuftain- J"*^ *' 
ing a fiege. But the count de Sancerre and M. 
de la Lande, who had acquired fuch reputation 
by the defence of Landrecy, generoufly threw 
themfelves into the town, and undertook to hold 
it out to the latt extremity. The Empeftr foon 
found how capable they were of making g^d their 
promife, and that he could not expe6t to take the 
town without befieging it in form. This ac- 
cordingly he undertook ; and as it was his nature 
never to abandon any enterprife in which he had 
once engaged, he perfifted in it with an incon- 
fidcrate obftinacy< 

Th£ King of England's preparations for the Henryviir, 
campaign were complete long before the Em- logac* 
pcror's 5 but as he did not choofc, on the one 
hand, to encounter alone the whole power of 
France, and was unwilling, on the other, that 
his troops fhould re9iain inadlive, he took that 

YoL. ly. T . oppor- . 


BOOK opportunity of chaftifing the Scots, by lending 6is 
u— ,^ fieet> together with a confiderable part of his in- 
'5**' fantry, under the earl of Hertford, to invade their 
country. Hertford executed his commiffion with 
vigour, plundered and burnt Edinburgh and Leith, 
laid wafte the adjacent country, and reimbarked his 
men with fuch difpatch, that they joined their 
July 14. Ibvereign foon> after his landing in France *. When 
Henry arrived in that kingdom, he found the Em- 
peror engaged in the fiege of St. Difier ; an ambd^ 
lador, however, wliom he fent to congratulate the 
Englilh Monarch on his fafe arrival on the con- 
tinent, folicited him to march, in terms of the 
treaty, direftly to Paris. But Charles had fct his 
ally fuch an ill example of fulfilling the conditions 
of their confederacy with exaftnefs, tliat Henry^ 
obferving him employ his time and forces in taking 
towns ^ his own behoof, faw no reafon why he 
fhould iiot attempt tlie reduftion of fome places 
that lay conveniently for. himfelf. Without pay- 
ing any regard to the Emperor's remonftrances, he 
immediately invefted Boulogne, and commanded 
the duke of Norfolk to prefs the fiege of Mon- 
treuil, which had been begun before his arrival, by 
a body of Flemings, in conjunftion with fomc 
Englilh troops. While Charles and Henry fhew- 
ed fuch attention each to his own intereft^ tiiey 
both neglected the common caufe. Inftead of the 
union and confidence requifite towards conducing, 
the great plan that they had formed, they carlf 

♦ KifL Scotland, u ii*. 
' .difcovered: 



difcovercd a mutualjealoufyofeach other, which, by book 
degree?, begot diftruft, and ended in open h^red\ u— v-I^ 


By thi stime, Francis had, with uni^earied in- caiiant d«. 
duftry, dra^n together an army, capable, as well ^linf ^ 
from the number as from the valour of the 
troops, of making head againft the enemy. But 
the dauphin, who ftill a<9:ed as general, prudendy 
declining a battle, the lofs of which would have 
endangered the kingdom, fatisfied himfclf ^ with 
haraffing the Emperor with his light troops, cut- 
ting off his convoys, and laying wafte the coun- 
try around him. Thoi^h extremely diftrefled 
by thefe operations^ Charles ftiU prefied the fiege 
of St. Diner, which SanCerre defended with afto- 
nilhing fortitude and conduct. He flood repeated 
aflaillts, repulfmg the enemy in them all; and 
undifmayed even by the death of ^s brave afibciate 
De la Lande, who Ivas killed by a cannon-ball, he 
continued to fhew the fime bold countenance and 
obflinate relblution. At the end of five weeks^ 
he was Hill in a condition t6 hold out fome time 
longer, when an artifice of Granville's induced 
him to furrender. That crafty politician, having 
intercepted the key to riie cypher which die Duke 
of Guife ufed in communicating intelligence to 
Sancerre, forged a letter in his nanjc, audiorizing 
Sancerre to capitulate, as the King, though highly 
fatisfied with his behaviour, thought it, impru- 
dent to hazard i battle, for his relief This letter 

* Herbert. 
T 2 he 


B y,? ^ h^ conveyed into the town in a manner whidr 
Ci-^il-j could raife no fufpicion, and the governor fell 
*5^ into the fnare. Even then, he obtained filch ho- 
nourable conditions as his gallant defence nicrit- 
ed, and among others a ceffation of hoftilities for 
eight days, at the expiration of which he bound 
himfelf to open the gates, if Francis, during that 
time, did not attack the Imperial army, and 
throw ficfh troops into the town ^. Thus San.- 
cerre, by detaining the Emperor fo long before 
an inconfiderable place, afforded his fovereign full 
time to affemble all his forces, and what rarely 
falls to the lot of an officer in fuch an inferior 
command, acquired the glory of having faved his 

Angofti7, As foon as St. Dificr furrendercd, the Emperor 
ror^penTi"*" advanccd into the heart of Champagnt, but San- 
thThwtV ^^'■^^'s obflinate refiftance had damped his fan- 
Frauce. guine hopcs of penetrating to Paris, and led him 
ferioufly to refledt on what he might expedb be- 
fore towns of greater ftrength, and defended by 
more numerous garrifons. At the fame time, 
the procuring fubfiflence for his army was at- 
tended with great difficulty, which increafcd in 
proportion as he withdrew farther from his own 
frontier. He had loft a great number of his beft 
troops in the fiege of St. Difier, and many fdl 
daily in fkirmifhes, which it was not in his power 
to avoid, though .they wafted bis army infenfibly, 

^ Brantome, tom.vi. 489. 



without leading to any decifive aftion. Th€ fea-^ o o k 
fon advanced apace, and he had not yet the com- v ^ - v -i 
mand either of a fufficient extent of territory, or *^^^ 
of any fuch confiderable town as rendered it fafe 
to winter in the enemy's country. Great arrears 
too were due to his foldiers, who were upon the 
point of mutinying for their pay, while he knew 
not from what funds to fatisfy them. All thefe 
confiderations induced him to liften to the over- 
tures of peace, which a Spanifh Dominican, the 
confeflbr of his fifter the Queen of France, had fe- 
crctly made to his confeflbr, a 4nonk of the fame 
order. In confequence of this, plenipotentiaries 
were named orv both fides, and began their con- 
ferences in Chaufl'e, a fmall village near Chalons. ' 
At theifame time, Charles, either from a defire 
of making one great final effort againft Franc;e, cir 
merely to gain a pretext for deferting his ally and 
concluding a feparate peace, fent an ambaflfador 
formally to require Henry^ according to the fti- 
pulation in their treaty, to advance towards Paris. 
While he expefted a return from him, and waited . 
thcJflTue of the conferences at Chauli'e, he con- 
tinued to march forward, though in the utmoft 
diftrefs from fcarcity pf provifions. But at laft, 
by a fortunate motion on his part> or through 
fome negleft or treachery on that of the French, 
he furprifed firft Efperney and then Chateau 
Thierry, in both which were confiderable maga- 
zines. No fooner was it known that thefe towns, 
-the latter of which is not Xs^o days march from 
Paris, were in the hands of the enemy, than that 

T ^ great 


^ VI? ^ 8^^^* capital, dcfencekfs, and fufceptiblc of any 
Vi — «^^-> violent alarm in proportion to its greatnefs, was 
1544* gug(j ^j^},^ confternation. The inhabitants, as if 
the Emperor had been already at their gates, fled 
in the wildcft confufion and defpair, many fend- 
ing their wives and children down the Seine to 
Roiien, others to Orleans, and the towns upon 
the Loire. Francis himfelf^ more afflicted with 
this than with any other event during his reign^^ 
and fcnfible as well of the triumph that his rival 
would enjoy in infulting his capital, as of the 
danger to which the kingdom was expofcd, could 
. not refrain from crying out, in the firft emotion 
of his furprife and forrow, " Hoyr dear, O my 
God, do I pay for this crown, which I thought 
thou hadft granted me freely * !" But recovering 
in a moment from this fudden fally of pecvifhnefs 
and impatience, he devoutly added, " Thy will, 
however, be done ;*' and proceeded to iflue the 
neceflfary orders for oppofing the enemy with his 
ufual aftivity and prefence of mind. The dau- 
phin detached eight thoufand men to Paris, which 
revived the courage of the affrighted citizens ; he 
threw a ftrong garrifon into Mcaux, and by ^ 
forced march got into Ferte, between the Impe- 
rialifts and the capital. 

OMiged to Upon this, the Emperor^ who began again to 
feel the want of provifions, perceiving that the 
iJ^uphin ftill prudently Reclined a battle^ and not 

« Brantome, topn^ 7u 38i« 



faring to attack his camp with forces fo much book 
ihattered and reduced by hard fervice, turned v-— v-^ 
luddenly to the right, and began to fall back to- '5^' 
"wards Soiffons, Having about this time received 
Henry's anfwer, whereby he refufed to abandon 
the fieges of Boulogne and Montreuil, of both . 
^hich he expefted every moment to get polTeffion, 
he thought himfelf abfolved from all obligations of 
adhering to the treaty with him, and at full liberty 
to confult his own intereft in what manner foever 
lie pleafed. He confented, therefore, to renew 
the conference, which the furprife of Efperney 
had broken off. To conclude a peace between Peace he- 
two princes, one of whom greatly defired, and Inrpraods 
the other greatly needed it, did not require a long cr"Jp"^''*"' 
•negociation. It was figned at Crefpy, a fmall 
town near Meaux, on the eighteenth of Septem- 
ber, The chief articles of it were, That all the 
conquefts which either paity had made fincc 
the truce of Nice fhaH be reftored; That the 
Emperor Ihall give in marriage to the Duke of 
Orleans, cither his own eldeft daughter, or the 
fecond daughter of his brother Ferdinand » That 
if he choie to beftow on him his own daughter, 
he Ihall fettle on her all the provinces of the Low- 
Countries, to be erefted into an independent 
ftate, which Ihall defcend to the male iflue of the 
marriage ; That if he determined to give him his 
niece, he ihail, with her, grant him the invefti- 
ture of Milan and its dependencies; That he 
Ihall within four mondis declare which of thefe 
two Princcffes he had pitched upon, and fiilfil 

T 4 the 


^ %u ^ ^^^ refpeftivc conditions upon the confummation 
^"-^■^- of the marriage, which fhall take place within a 
'^^*' year froni the date of the treaty j That as foon as 
the Duke of Orleans is put in poffeflion either of 
the Low-Countries or of Milan, Francis fhall rc- 
ftore to the Duke of Savoy all that he now poflefles 
of his territories, except Pignerol and Montmilian i 
That Francis fhall renouncei all pietenfions to the 
kingdom of Naples, or to the fovereignty of 
Flanders and Artois, and Charles fhall give up his 
claim to the dutchy of Burgundy and county of 
Ch^rolois i That Francis fhall give no aid to thp 
exiled King of Navarre; That both Monarchs 
fhall join in making war upon the Turk, towards 
which the King fhall furnifli, when required by the 
Emperor and Empire, fix hundred men at arms, 
and ten thoufand foot ^. 

Morivcsof Besides the immediate motives to this peace, 
iu arifing from the diftrefs of his army through want 

of provifions i fiom the difficulty of retreating 
out of France i and the imppflibility of fecuring 
winter-quaiters there; the Emperor was influ- 
enced by other confiderations, more diftant in- 
deed, but not Itfs weighty, 1 he Pope was of- 
fended to a great degree, as weU at his concef- 
fions to the Proteftants in the late diet, as at his 
confenting to call a council, and to admit of 
publip difputations in Germany with a view of 

* Recucil dc8 Traitez, t. i. 227. Bdios dc Caafis Pacis 
Cr^^ia?* in AGtU £rudit. Lipf. 1763. 




determining the doArines in ccntroverfy. Paul ^ 
conQdering both thefe fteps as facrilegious en- 
crqachments on the jurifdidion as well as privi- 
Jeges of the Holy See, had addrefled to the Em- 
peror a remonftrance rather than a letter on this 
fubjeft, written with fuch acrimony of language, 
and in a ftyle of fuch high authority, as difcover- 
ed more of an intention to draw on a quarrel than 
of a defire to reclaim him. This ill humour was 
not a little inflamed by the Emperor's league with 
Henry of England, which being contrafted with 
an heretic, excommunicated by the apoftolic fee, 
appeared to the. Pope a profane alliance, ^nd was 
not lefs dreaded by him than that of Francis with 
Solyman. Paul's fon and grandfon, highly ixi-. 
cenfed at th<5 Ennperor for having refufed to gra- 
tify them with regard to the alienation of Parma 
and Placentia, contributed by their fuggeftions to 
four and difguft him ftill more. To all which was 
added the powerful operation of the flattery and 
promifes which Francis inceflantly employed to 
gain him. Though from his defire of maintain- 
jDg a neutrality, the Pope had hitherto fqpprefled 
his own refentment, ha4 eluded the artifices of his 
own &mily, and re|ifted the folicitations of the 
French King, it was not fafe to rely much on the 
fteadinefs of a m^n whom his paflTions, his friends, 
and his intereft combined to fliake. The union of 
the Pope with France, Charles well knew, would 
Jnftantly expofe his dominions in Italy to be at- 
tacked. The Venetians, he forefaw, would pro- 
)>ably follow the example of a PontiflT, who was 



• va ^ <^onfidcred as a model of political wifdom among 
» — r"^ the Italians ; and thus, at a junfture when he fek 
*^*** himfelf hardly equal to the burden of the prefcnt 
^ war, he would be overwhelmed with the weight of a 
new confederacy againft him *. At the fame time, 
the Turks, almoft unrefifted, made fuch progrels 
in Hungary, reducing town after town, that they 
approached near to the confines of the Auftrian 
provinces ''. Above all thefe, the extraordinary 
progrefs of the Proteftant doftrines in Germany, 
and the dangerous combination into which the 
Princes of that profeffion had entered, called for 
his immediate attention. Almoft one half of Ger- 
many had revolted from the eftablifhed church ; 
the fidelity of the reft was much Ihaken ,- the no- 
bility of Auftria had demanded of Ferdinand the 
free exercifc of religion * i the Bohemians, among 
whom fome feeds of the doftrines of Hufs ftiU 
remained, openly favoured the new opinions j the 
archbilhop of Cologne, with a ?eal which is fel* 
dom found among ecclefiaflics, had begun the re- 
formation of his diocefe -, nor was it poflibk, un- 
lefs fome timely and effeftual check were given to 
the fpirit of innovation, to forefee where it would 
end. He himfelf had been a witnefs, in the late 
diet, to the peremptory and decifive tone which 
the Proteftants had now affumed. He had feen 
)k»w^ from confidence in their number and union, 

* ?. Paul, ICO. Pallavic. 163. 

* lAuanhafHi Hift. Hung. 177. 
1 Sleid. 285. 



they had forgotten the humble flyk of rfieir firft ^ ^^^ ^ 
petitions, and had grown to fuch boldneis as s^'-^^mJ 
openly to dcfpife the Pope, and to fhcw no great '^^ 
reverence for the Imperial dignity itfelf. If, there- 
fore, he wilhed to maintain cither the ancient re- 
ligion or his own authority, and would not chooiib 
■to dwindle into a mere nominal head of the Em- 
pire, fome vigorous and fpeedy effort was requifite 
on his part, which could not be made during a 
war that required the greatcft exertion of hia 
ftrength againft a foreign and powerful enemy. 

Such being the Emperor's inducements to 
peace, he had the addrefs to frame the treaty of 
Crelpy fo as to promote all the ends which he had 
in view. By coming to an agreement with Fran- 
cis, he took from the Pope all profpeft of advan- 
tage in courting the friendfhip of that Monarch in 
preference to his. By the provifo with jegard to a 
war with the Turks, he not only deprived Soly, 
man of a powerful ally, but turned the arms of 
that ally againft him. By a private article, not 
inferted in the treaty, that it might not raife any . 
unfeafonable alarm, he agreed with Francis that 
botfi fhould exert all their influence and power in 
order to procure a general council, to aflert its 
authority, and to exteripinate the Protcftant hcrely 
out of Iheir dominions. This cut off all chance 
of alliftance which tlie confederates of Smalkalde 
jnight cxpeft from the French King^j and left 

f Seek, 1, iii, 496, 



284 THE REIGN 0-F TH£ . 

® VI? ^ ^^^^^ folicitations, or his jealoufy of an ancient ri- 
val, fhould hereafter tempt Francis to forget this 
engagement, he left him embarrafled with a war 
againft England^ which would put it out of his 
power to take any confiderable part in the affairs of 

w»reoo- Henry, pofTeffed at all times with an high idea 
fwe.n or his own power and importance, felt, m the moft 
Engl^." fenfiblc manner, the ncglefl: with which the Em- 
peror had treated him in concluding a fepai*atc 
peace. But the fituation of his affairs was fuch as 
fomewhat alleviated the mortification which this 
occ^fioned, For though he was obliged to recall 
Sept. P4. the Duke of Norfolk from the fiege of MontreuiJ, 
becaufe the Flemifli troops received orders to re- 
tire, Boulogne had furrendered bcfoie the negoci- 
ations at Crefpy were brought to an ifTue. While 
elated with vanity on account of this conquefl, and 
inflamed with indignation againft the Emperor, the 
ambaffadors whom Francis fent to make overtures 
of peace, found him too arrogant to grant what 
was moderate or equitable. His demands were 
indeed extravagant, and made in the tone of a 
conqueror -, that Francis fhould renounce his alli- 
ance with Scotland, and not only pay up the ar- 
rears of former debts, but reimburfe the money 
which Henry had expended in the prefent war, 
Francis, though fincerely defirous of peace, and 
willing to yield agreajt deal in order to obtain ^t, 
being now free from th? prefTure of the Imperial 
arms, rejcfted thefe ingnominious propofitions 



with difdain ; and Henry dq>arting for England^ ^ yjj^ ^ 

hoftilities continued between the two nations "• • — ^r-^ 


The treaty of peace, how acceptable foever to Thed.u-; 
the people of France, whom it delivered from the tisBed with 
dread of an enemy who had penetrated into the crefpy*" 
heart of the kingdom, was loudly complained of 
by the dauphin. He confidered it as a manifeft 
proof of the King his father's extraordinary par- 
tiality towards his younger brother, now Duke of 
Orleans, and complained that, from his eagernels 
to gain an eftabliftiment for a favourite fon, he 
had facrificed the honour of the kingdom, and re- 
nounced die moll ancient as well as valuable rights 
of the crown. But as he durft not venture to 
offend the King by refufing to ratify it, though 
extremely defirous at the fame time of fecuring to 
himfelf the privilege of reclaiming what was now 
alienated fo much to his detriment, he fecretly 
protefted, in prefence of Ibme of his adherents, 
againft the whole tranfaflion ; and declared what- 
ever he (hould be obliged to do in order to con- • 
firm it, null in itfelf, and void of all obligation. 
The parliament of Thouloufe, probably by the 
inftigation of his partilans, did the fame". But 
Francis, highly pleafed as well with having deli- 
vered his fubjedts from the miferies of an invafion, 
as with the profpeft of acquiring an independent 
Settlement for his fon at no greater price than that . 

■ Mem. dc Ribicr, t. i. p. 572. Herbert, 244- 
• Rccucil dcTraiicz, t. ii. 235. 238, 



B o o K i^f renouncing conqutfts to which he had no juft 
^.i.^^^ claim s titles which had brought (b much expence 
'^^* and fo many difafters upon the nation 5 and rights 
grown obfolete and of no vahie ; ratified the treaty 
with great joy, Charles, within the time prefcrib- 
ed by the treaty, declared his intention of giving 
Ferdinand's daughter in marriage to the Duke of 
Orleans, together with the dutchy of Milan as her 
dowry ^, Every circumftance feemed to promiie 
the continuance of peace. The Emperor, cruelly 
affliAed with the gout, appeared to be in no con- 
dition to undertake any enterprife where great ac- 
tivity was requifite, or much fatigue to be endured 
He himfelf felt this, or wilhed at leaft that it fliould 
be believed ; and being fo much difabled by this 
excruciating diftemper, when a French ambaiSador 
followed him to Brufiels, in order to be prefent at 
his ratification of the treaty of peace, that it was 
widi the utmoft difficulty that he figned his name, 
he obferved, that there was no great danger of 
his violating thefe articles, as a hand that could 
hardly hold a pen, was little able to brandifh a 

The Em. The violcncc of his difeafe confined the Em- 
fchcmri peror ^ feveral months in Bruffels, and was the 
Ill'of^/^^ apparent caufc of putting off the execution of the 
^any. g^eat fchcmc which he had formed in order to 
humble the Proteftant party in Germany. But 
there were other reafons for this delay. For, 

P Recttexl de Traitez, t. ii. 238. 


1 1 


however prevalent the motives were which deter- * ^^ ^ 
mined him to undertake this enterprife, the nature c^v^ 
of that great body which he was about to attack^ '^^^ 
as well as the fituation of his own affairs, made it 
ncceffary to deliberate long, to proceed with cau- 
tion, and not too fuddenly to throw aiide the veil 
under which he had hitherto concealed his real ftnd- 
ments and fchemes. He was fenfible that the Pro- 
teftants, confcious of their own ftrength, but under 
continual apprehenfions of his defigns, had all the . 
boldnefs of a powerful confederacy joined to the 
jealouly of a feeble faAion ; and were no lefs quick- 
fighted to difcern the firft appearance oif danger^ 
thaa ready to take arms in order to repel it. At 
the fame time, he ftill continued involved in a 
Turkifh war j and though, in order to deliver him- 
fcif from this incumbrance, he had determined to 
ferid an envoy to the Porte with moll advant^ous 
and even fubmiflive overtures of peace, the refo- 
lutions of that haughty court were fo uncertain^ 
that before thefe were known, it would have been 
highly imprudent to have kindled the flames of 
civil war in his own dominions. 

Upon this account, he appeared diflatisfied with Th«Poi« 
a bull iflued by the Pope immediately after the peace ^€^"1'** * 
of Crefpy, fummoning the council to afTemble at "^^^^ 
Trent early next fpring, and exhorting all Chriftian j^'*"*^* 
Princes to embrace the opportunity that the pre- 
fcnt happy interval of tranquillity afforded them, 
of fupprefling thofe hcrcfics which threatened to 



^ vi? ^ fubvert whatever was facrcd or venerable arnon^ 
w-^v— ^ Chriftians, But after fuch a flight cxprcfiion of 
'^** diflike, as was neceflary in order to cover his de* 
figns, he determined to countenance the council, 
which might become no inconfiderable inftrument 
towards accomplifliing his projedts, and therefore 
not only appointed ambafladors to appear there in 
his name, but ordered the ecclefiaflics in his do- 
minions to attend at the time pre%ed ^4 

,»545- Such were the Emperor's views, when the Im- 

Worms, perial diet, after feveral prorogations, was opened 
Mwcb24. at Worms, The Proteftants, who enjoyed the 
free exercife of their religion by a very precarious 
tenure, having no other fecurity for it than the 
recefs of the laft diet, which was to continue in 
force only until the meeting of a council, wifhed 
earneftly to eftablilh that important privilege 
upon fome firmer bafis, and to hold it by a per- 
petual not a temporary title. But inftead of 
offering them any additional fecurity, Ferdinand 
opened the diet with obferving, that there were 
two points, chiefly, which. required confideration> 
the profecution of the war againft the Turks, arid 
the ftate of religion ; that the former was the moft 
urgent, as Solyman, after conquering the greateft 
part of Hungary, was now ready to fall upon the 
Auftrian provinces 5 that the Emperor, who, from 
the beginning of his reign, had neglefted no op- 

^ F. Paul, X04. 



forturiity of annoying this formidable eiiemy, and ^ ^^^ ^ 
^ith the hazard of his own perfon had refitted his ^^-^-- ^ 
attacks, being animated ftill with the fame zeal, '^*^' 
had now confented to ttop fhortin the career of his 
fbccefs againft France, that, in conjunftion with 
his ancient rival, he might turn his arms with 
greater vigour againtt the common adverfary of 
the Chriftian faith ; that it became all the members 
of the Empire to fecond thofe pious endeavours of 
its head ; that, therefore, they ought^ without 
delay, to vote him fuch effeftual aid as not only 
their duty but their intereft called upon them to 
furnilh ; that the controverfies about religion were 
fo intricate, and of fuch difficult difcuffion, as. to 
give ho hope of its being poffible to bring them 
at prefent to any final iffue 5 that by perfeverance Ferdinand 
and repeated felicitations the Emperor had 2ZcTrmln%tl 
fcngth prevailed on the Pope to call a council, for ^l^^^^^\ 
which they had fo often wifhed and petitioned j council, 
that the time appointed for its meeting was now 
come, and both parties ought to wait for its de- 
crees, and fubmit to them as the decifions of the 
univerfal church. . 

The popifli members of the diet received this 
declaration with great applaufe, and fignified their 
entire acquiefcence in every particular which it 
contained. The Proteftants exprcffed great fur- 
prife at propofitions, which were fo manifeftly 
repugnant to the recefs of the former diet j they 
in lifted that the queftions with regai-d to religion, 
as firft in dignity and importance, ought to come 

Vol. hi. U firft 


^ firfi: under deliberation; that/ alarming as the 

progrefs of the Turks was to all Germany, the 

^^♦^* fecuring the free exercife of their religion touched 

them ftill more nearly, nor could they profecutc 

a foreign war with fpirit, while folicitous and un- 

, certain about their domeftic tranquillity; that if 
the latter were once rendered firm and permanent, 
they would concur with their countrymen in 
pulhing the former, and yield to none of them in 
aftivity or zeal. But if the danger from the 
Turkilh arms was indeed fo imminent, as not to 
admit of fuch a delay as would be occafioned by 
an immediate examination of the controverted 
points in religion, they required that a diet fhould 
be.inftandy appointed, to which the final fettle- 
mcnt of their religious difputes fhould be referred; 
and that in the mean time the decree of the for- 
jner diet concerning religion fhould be explained 
in a point which they deemed eflcntial. By the 
recefs of Spires it was provided, that they fhould 
enjoy unmolefted the public exercife of their re- 
ligion, until the meeting of a legal council ; but 
as the Pope had now called a council, to which 
Ferdinand had required them to fubmit, they be- 
gan to fufpeft that their adverfaries might take 
advantage of an ambiguity in the terms of the re- 
cefs, and pretending that the event therein men- 
tioned had now taken place, might pronounce them 
to be no longer entitled to the fame indulgence. 
In order to guard againfl this interpretation, they 
renewed their former remonfbances againft a 
council called to meet without the bounds of the 



Empire, fummoned by the Pope's authority, and book 
in which he aflbmed the right of prefiding ; and ^_ -,-^ 
declared that, notwithftanding the convocation of *^^^' 
any fuch illegal aflembly, they ftill held the recefs 
of the late diet to be in full force. 

At other jundlures, when the Emperor Empcrorar. 
thought it of advantage to footh and gain the Pro- wo'im. 
teftants, he had devifed expedients for giving 
them fatisfaftion with regard to demands feem- 
ingly more extravagant ; but his views at prefcnt 
being very different, Ferdinand, by his command, 
adhered inflexibly to his firft propofitions, and 
would make no concefllons which had the mod 
remote ten<3ency to throw difcredit on the coun- 
cil, or to weaken its authority. The Proteftants, 
on their part, were no lefs inflexible ; and, after 
much time fpent in fruitlefs endeavours to con- 
vince each other, they came to no agreement. 
Nor did the prefence of the Emperor, who upon 
%his recovery arrived at Worms, contribute in any May 15, 
degree to render the Proteftants more compliant. 
Fully convinced that they were maintaining the 
caufe of God and of truth, they Ihewed themfelves 
fuperior to the allurements of intereft, or the fug- 
geftions of fear ; and in proportion as the Em- 
peror redoubled his folicitations, or difcovered his 
defigns, their boldhefs feems to have increafed. 
At laft they openly declared, that they would not TheProtef. 
even deign to vindicate their tenets in prefence of ciiim aii' 
a council, aflembled not to examine, but to con- I'itrthr 
demn them j and that they would pay no* regard "rcnu ^^ 

U 2 to 

this diet. 


B o o K to an aflembly held under the influence of a PopCi 
*— >^-Lw who had already precluded himfelf from all tide 
^^*^* to aft as a judge, by his having ftigmatized their 
opinions with the name of herefy, and denounced 
againft them the heavieft cenfures, which, in 
the plenitude of his ufurped power, he could 
infiift '. 

^ndua of While the Proteftants, with fuch union as well 
Saxony in as firmncfs, rejefted all intercourfe with the coun- 
cil, and refufed their aflent to the Imperial de- 
mands in refpeft to the Turkifli war, Maurice of 
Saxony alone fhewed an inclination to gratify the 
Emperor with regard to both. Though he pro- 
fefled an inviolable regard for the Proteflant re- 
ligion, he aflumed an appearance of moderation 
peculiar to himfelf, by which he confirmed the 
favourable fendments which the Emperor already 
entertained of him, and gradually paved the way 
for executing the ambitious defigns which always 
occupied his aftive and enterprifing mind ■. His 
example, however, had little influence upon fuch 
as agreed with him in their religious opinions; 
and Charles perceived that he could not hope 
either to procure prefent aid from the Protellants 
againfl: the Turks, or to quiet their fears and jea- 
loufies on account of their religion. But, as his 
Ichemes were not yet ripe for execution, nor his 
preparations fo far advanced that he could force 

' Sleid. 343, &c. Seek. iii. 545, Sec. Thuan. Hiilor. 
lib. ii. p. 56. 
* Seek. ill. $7i» 



the compliance of the Proteftants, or punifh their ^ ^^ ^ 
obftinacy, he artfully concealed his own intentions. ^— v^-^^^ 
That he might augment their fecurity, he appointed Auguft4. 
a diet to be held at Ratifbon early next year, in 
order to adjuft what was ^ now left undetermined; 
and previous to it, he agreed that a certain number 
of divines of each party fhould meet, in order tg 
confer upon the points in difpute \ 

But, how far foever this appearance of a defirc TfcProtef- 
to maintain the prefent tranquillity might have l^ilnvlii^ 
impofed upon the Proteftants, the Emperor was ^^'••Empc- 
incapable of fuch uniform and thorough diffimu- 
lation, as to hide altogether from their view the 
dangerous dcfigns which he was meditating • 
againft them. Herman count de Wied, Arch- 
bilhop and Eleftor of Cologne, a prelate confpi- 
cuoxjs for his virtue and primiuve fimplicity of 
manners, though not more diftinguiihed for learn^ 
ing than the other defcendants of noble families, 
who in that age poflefled moft of the great bene- 
fices in Germany, having become a profelytp to 
the doftrines of the Reformers, had begun in the 
year one thoufand five hundred and forty-three, 
with the afliftance of Melanfthon and Bucer, to 
aboiilh the ancient fuperftition in his diocefe, and 
to introduce in its place the rites eftablifhed 
among the Proteftants. But the canons of his 
cathedral, who were not pofiTeffed wi^h the fame 
ipirit of innovation, and who forefaw how fatal 

« SIcid. 351. 

U 3 the 


^ ^ P ^ the levelling genius of the new fedt would prove 
w-s/"^-^ to their dignity and wealth, oppofed, from the 
'^^^* beginning, this unprecedented enterprife of their 
Archbilhop, with all the zeal flowing from reve- 
rence, for old inftitutions, heightened by concern 
for their own intereft. This oppofition, which 
the Archbifhop confidered only as a new argu- 
ment to demonflrate the neceflity of a reforma- 
tion, neither fhook his refolution, nor flackened 
his ardour in profecuting his plan. The canons, 
perceiving all their endeavours to check his ca- 
reer to be ineffeftual, folemnly protcfled againft 
his proceedings, and appealed for redrcfs to the 
Pope and Emperor, the former as his ecclefiafti- 
cal, the latter as his civil fuperior. This ap- 
peal being laid before the Emperor, during his 
refidence in Worms, he took the canons of Co- 
logne under his immediate prote6tion; enjoined 
them to proceed with rigour againft all who re- 
volted from the eftablilhed church; prohibited the 
Archbifhop to make any innovation in his diocefe; 
and fummoned him to appear at Bruflels within 
thirty days, to anfwer the accufations which fhould 
be preferred againft him ". 

To this clear evidence of his hoftile intentions 
againft the Proteftant party, Charles added other 
proofs ftill more explicit. In his, hereditary do- 
minions of the Low-Countries, he perfecuted all 
yrho were fufpefted of Lutheranifm with unrclent- 

P Slcid. 310. 340. 351. Scckcnd. iii. 443. 553. 


ing rigour. As foon as he arrived at Worms, he book 
filcnccd-thc Proteftant preachers in that city. He * — .-L^ 
allowed an Italian monk to inveigh againft the '^^^' 
Lutherans from the pulpit of his chapel, and to 
call upon him, as he regarded the favour of God, 
to exterminate that peftilent herefy. He difpatched 
the cmbafly, which has been already mentioned, 
to Conftantinople, with overtures of peace, that 
he might be free from any apprehenfions of danger 
or interruption from that quarter. Nor did any of 
thefe fteps, or their dangerous tendency, efcape the 
jealous obfervation of the Proteftants, or fail to 
alarm their fears, and to excite their folicitude for 
the fafety of their feet. 

Meanwhile, Charles's good fortune, which D^'aihoftht 
predominated on all occafions over that of his o^tlnl 
rival Francis, extricated him out of a difficulty, 
from which, with all his fagacity and addrefs, he 
would have found it no eafy matter to have difen- 
tangled himfelf. Juft about the time when the scpt. s. 
Duke of Orleans fnould have received Ferdi- 
nand's daughter in marriage, and together with 
her the pofleflion of the Milanefe, he died of a 
malignant fever. By this event, the Emperor 
was freed from the neceflity of giving up an im- 
portant province into the hands of an enemy, or 
from the indecency of violating a recent and fo- 
lemn engagement, which muft have occafioned an 
immediate rupture widi France. He afFeaed> 
however, to exprefs great forrow for the untimely 
death of a young Prince, who was to have been 

U 4 fo 


BOOK fo nearly allied to him; but he carefully avoided 
^-— v-w entering into any frefh difcuflions concerning the 
'^^^' Milanefe; and would not liften to a propofal 
which came from Francis of new-modelling the 
treaty of Crefpy, fo as to make him fome repara- 
tion for the advantages which he had loft by the 
demife of his fon. In the npore aftive and vigorous 
part of Francis's reign, a declaration of war would 
have been the certain and inftantaneou3 confequence 
of fuch a flat refufal to comply with a demand 
feemingly fo equitable ; but the declining ftate of 
his own health, the exhaufted condition of his 
kingdoms, together with the burden of the war 
againft England, obliged him, at prefent, to dif- 
femble his refentment, and to put oflf thoughts 
of revenge to fome other jundure. In confe- 
quence of this event, the unfortunate Duke of 
Savoy loft all hope of obtaining the reftitution of 
his territories ; and the rights or claims rclinquilhed 
by the treaty of Crefpy, returned in full force to 
the crown of France> to ferve as pretexts for future 
wars *, 

The Pore Upon the firft intelligence of the Duke of Or- 
du'ch'e^of leans's death, the confederates of Smalkalde flat- 
Parma and tcrcd thcmfclves that the efTential alterations which 


t« his fan. appeared to be unavoidable confequences of it could 
hardly fail of producing a rupture, which would 
prove the means of their fafcty. But they were net 
more difappointed with regard to diis, than in their 

» Belcarii Coropicfit. 769. Paruta, Hifl. Vcnet. iv. p. 177. 



cxpeftations from an event which feemed to ,be ^ ^^ ^ 
the certain prelude of a quarrel between the v- — -'—J 
Emperor and the Pope. When Paul, whofe '^*^' 
paflion for aggrandizing his family increafed as 
he advanced in years, and as he faw the dig- 
nity and power which they derived immediately 
from him becoming more precarious, found 
that he could not bring Charles to approve of 
. his ambitious fchemes, he ventured to grant his 
fon Peter Lewis the inveftiture* of Parma and 
Placentia, though at the rifle of incurring the dif- 
pleafure of the Emperor. At a time when a great / 

part of Europe inveighed openly againft the cor- 
rupt manners and exorbitant power of Ecclefiaftics, 
and when a council was fummoned to reform the 
diforders in the church, this indecent grant of luch 
a principality, to a fon of whofe illegitimate birdi 
the Pope ought to have been alhamed, and whofe . 
licentious morals all good men detefted, gave ge- 
neral ofFehce. Some Cardinals in the Imperial 
intereft remonftrated againft fuch an unbecoming 
alienation of the patrimony of the church ; the 
Spanifh ambaflfador would not be prefent at the fo- 
lemnity of his infeofment > and upon pretext that 
thefe cities were part of the Milanefe ftate, the 
Empieror peremptorily refiifed to confirm the deed 
of inveftiture. But both the Emperor and Pope 
being intent upon one common objedl in Germany, 
they facrificed their particular paflions to diat pub- 
lic caufe, and fuppreffed the emotions of jealouly 
or refentment which were rifing on this occafion, 



* vi? ^ ^^^ ^^^ might jointly puriue what each deemed 
<u^.^-^ to be of greater importance ^. 


Henry of About this timc thc peacc of Germany wai 
kindles a difturbed by a violent but Ihort eruption of Henry 
ttloy? ^" Duke of Brunfwick. This Prince, though ftiU 
ftript of his dominions, which, the Emperor held 
in fequeftration, until his differences with the con- 
federates of Smalkalde fhould be adjufted, poffefC- 
cd however fo nnuch credit in Germany, that he 
undertook to raife for the French King a confidcr- 
able body of troops to be employed in the war 
againft England. The money ftipulated for this 
purpofe was duly advanced by Francis ; the troops 
were levied ; but Henry, inftead of leading them 
towards France, fuddenly entered his own domi- 
nions at their head, in ^opes of recovering poflcf- 
fion of them before any army could be aflembled 
to oppofc him. The confederates were not more 
furprifed at this unexpefted attack, than the King 
of France was aftoniftied at a mean thievifli fraud, 
fo unbecoming the character of a Prince. But 
the Landgrave of Heffe, with incredible expedi- 
tion, coUefted as many men as piit a ftop to the 
progrefs of Henry's undifciplined forces, and be- 
ing joined by his fon-in-law, Maurice, and by 
fome troops belonging to the Eleftor of Saxony, 
he gained fuch advantages over Henry, who was 
ralh and bold in forming his fchemes, but feeble 

7 Parota, Hift. Veoet. iv. 178. Pallavic. 180. 

9 and 



and undetermined in executing them, as obliged book.. 
him to difband his army, and to furrender himfelf, u.-vAj? 
together with his eldeft fon, prifoners at difcretion. *^*^* 
He was kept in clofe confinement, until a new re- 
verie of affairs procured him liberty '. 

As this defeat of Henry's wild enterprife added TheRefor- 

1 r 1 r^ n mat'on of 

new reputation to the arms of the Proteftants, the thePaUd- 
cftablilhment of the Proteflant religion in the Pa- "*'*' 
latinate brought a great acceCTion of firength to 
their party. Frederick, who fucceeded his brother 
Lewis in that Eleftorate, had long been fufpefted 
of a fecr^t propenfity to the doftrines of die Re- 
formers, which, upon his acceffion to the princi- 
pality, he openly manifefled. But as he expcfted 
that fomething effe6lual towards a general and legal 
eftablifhment of religion, would be the fruit of fo 
many diets, conferences, and negociations, he did 
not, at firfV, attempt any public innovation in his 
dominions. Finding all thefe ifTue in nothing, he jan. la. 
thought himfelf called, at length, to countenance 
by his authority the fyflem which he approved of, 
and to gratify the wifhes of his fubjefts, who, by 
their intercourfe with the Proteflant ftates, had 
univerfally imbibed their opinions. As the warmth 
and impetuofity which accompanied the fpirit of 
Reformation in its firlt efforts, had fomewhat abat-- 
ed, this change was made with great order and re- 
gularity ; the ancient rites were aboliflied, and new 
forms introduced, without any afts of violence, or 

' Sleid. 352. Seek. iii. 567. 



fymptom of difcontent. Though Frederick adopts 
ed the religious fyftem of the Proteftants, he imi- 
'^^^* tated the example of Maurice, and did not accede 
to the league of Smalkalde % 

The council A FEW wccks before this revolution in the Pa- 
^em^icsat j^|.j,^aj.g^ ^g general council was opened v/ith die 
accuftomed folemnities at Trent. The eyes of the 
Catholic ftates were turned with much expeftation 
towards an aflembly, which all had confidered as 
capable of applying an effeftual remedy for the 
diforders of the church when they firft broke out, 
though many were afraid that it was now too late 
to hope for great benefit from it, when the malady, 
by being fuiffered to increafe during twenty-eight 
years, had beconfie inveterate, and grown to fuch 
extreme violence. The Pope, by his laft bull of 
convocation, h^d appointed the firft meeting to be 
held in March. Bu: his views, and thofe of the 
Emperor, v/ere fo different, that almoft the whole 
yearwas fpent in negociations. Charles, who fore- 
law that the rigorous decrees of the council againfl 
the Proteilants would foon drive them, in felf- 
defence as well as fiom refentment, to fome delpe- 
rate extreme, laboured to put off its meeting until 
his warlike preparations were fo far advanced, 
that he might be in a condition to fecond its de- 
fifions by the force of his arms. The Pope, who 
Jiad early fent to Trent the legates who were to 

• Slcid. 356. Seek. 1. iii. 616. 



prcfide in his name, knowing to what contempt ^ ^^ ^ 
it would expofe his authority, and what fufpicions wnAu 
it would beget of his intentions, if the fathers of '^^* 
the council fliould remain in a ftate of inaftivity, 
when the church was in fuch danger as to require 
their immediate and vigorous interpofition, in- 
filled either upon tranflating the council to Ibme 
city in Italy, or upon fulpending altogether its 
proceedings at that junfture, or upon authorizing 
it to begin its deliberations immediately. The 
Emperor rejected the two former expedients as 
equally ofFenfive to the Germans of every deno- 
mination, but finding it impoflible to elude the 
latter, he propofed that the council fliould begin 
with reforming the diforders in the church, before 
it proceeded to examine or define articles of faith. 
This was the very thing which the court of Rome 
dreaded moft, and which had prompted it to em- 
ploy fo many artifices in order to prevent the 
meeting of fuch a dangerous judicatory. Paul, 
though more compliant than fome of his prede- 
ceffors with regard to calling a council, « was . no 
lels jealous than they had been of its jurifdidion, 
and faw what matter of triumph fuch a method 
of proceeding would afford the heretics. He ap- ^ 
prehended confequcnces not only humbling but 
fatal to the papal fee, if the council came to con- 
fider an inqueft into abufes as their only bufinefs ; 
or if inferior prelates were allowed to gratify their 
own envy and peevilhnefs, by prefcribing rules to 
thofe .who were exalted above them in dignity and 



* VI? ^ J?ovf^tr. Without liftening, therefore, to this in-» 
*i— XT— ' fidious propofal of the Emperor, he inftrufted his 
*^ * legates to open the council. 

j*n. ig. The firft feflion was Ipent in matters of form, 
^^proceed- j^ ^ fubfequcnt one, it was agreed that the fram- 
ing a confeflion of faith, wherein fhould be con- 
tained all the articles which the church required 
its members to believe, ought to be the firft and 
principal bufinefs of the council; but that, at the 
fame time, due attention fhould be ^ven to what 
was neceflary towards the reformation of manners 
and difcipline. From this firft fymptom of the 
fpirit with which the council was animated, from 
the high tone of authority which the legates who 
prefided in it afllimed, and from the implicit de- 
ference with which moft of the members followed 
their diredlions, the Proteftants conjeftured with 
eafe what decifions they might expedt. It afto- 
nifhed them, however, to fee forty prelates (for 
no greater number were yet aflembled) aflume 
authority as reprefentatives of the univerfal church, 
and proceed to determine the moft important 
points of doftrine in its name. Senfible of this 
indecency, as well as of the ridicule with which 
it might be attended, the council advanced flowly 
in its deliberations, and all its proceedings were 
for fome time languilhing and feeble ^. As foon 
as the confederates of Smalkalde received inform- 

^ F. Paul, 120> Sec, Pallavic. p. 180, &c. 



ation of the opening of the council, they publifti- ^ ^^ ^ 
ed a long manifefto, containing a renewal of their w-^-^^ 
proteft againfl: its meeting, together with the rea- ^^^ 
fons which induced them to decline its jurifdic- 
tions *". The Pope and Emperor, on their part, 
were fo little felicitous to quicken or add vigour 
to its operations, as plsdnly difcovered that fome 
objeft of greater importance occupied and inte- 
refted them. 

The Proteftants were not inattentive or uncon- Appreben. 
cerned fpeftators of the motions of the fovereign proieaanw. 
Pontiff and of Charles, and they entertained every 
day more violent fufpicions of their intentions, in 
confequence of intelligence received from different 
quarters of the machinations carrying on againfl: 
them. The King of England informed them, that 
the Emperor having long refolved to exterminate 
their opinions, would not fail to employ this inter- 
val of tranquillity which he now enjoyed, as the 
moft favourable jun6ture for carrying his defign 
into execution. The merchants of Augfburg, 
which was at that time a city of extenfive trade, * * 
received advice, by means of their correfpondents 
in Italy, among whom were fome who fecr^dy fa- 
voured the Proteftant caufe **, that a dangerous con- 
federacy againfl it was forming between the Pope 
and Emperor. In confirmation of this, they heard 
from the Low-Countries that Charles had ifTued 
orders, though with every precaution which could 

^ Seckend. I. iii. 602, Sec. ^ Seek. 1. iii. 579. 



* vif ^ keep the meafure concealed, for railing troops both 
u.i—^,-i— ^ there and in other parts of his dominions. Such a 
'5*^* variety of information, corroborating all that their 
own jealoufy or obfervation led them to appre- 
hend, left the Proteftants little rcafon to doubt of 
Their deli- the Empcror's hoftile intentions. Under this im- 
beratiom. ^j-^ff^Qj^^ ^q dcputics of the Confederates of Smal* 
kalde affembled at Francfort, and by communicat- 
ing their intelligence and fentiments to each other, 
reciprocally heightened their fenfe of the impend- 
ing danger. But their union was not fuch as 
their fituation required, or the preparations of 
their enemies rendered neceffary. Their league 
had now fubfifted ten years. Among fo many 
members, whofe territories were intermingled with 
each other, and who, according to the cuftom of 
Germany, had created an infinite variety of mu- 
tual rights and claims by intermarriages, alliances, 
and contrafts of different kinds, fubjefts of jea- 
loufy and difcord had unavoidably arifen. Some 
of the confederates, being connedled with the 
Duke of Brunfwick, were highly difgufted with 
the Landgrave, on account of the rigour with 
which he had treated that rafh and unfortunate 
Prince. Others taxed the Eleftor of Saxony and 
Landgrave, the heads of the league, with having 
involved the members in unneceflary and exorbi- 
tant expences by their profufenefs or want of ceco- 
nomy. The views, likewife, and temper of thofc 
two Princes, who, by their fuperior pov/er and au- 
thority, influenced and directed die whole body, 
being extremely different, rendered all its mo- 


lions languid, at a time when the utmoft vigour ^ ^^ ^ 
and djlpatch were requifitc. The Landgrave, of a v^v^--^ 
violent and enterprifmg tennper, but not forgetful, '^* 
amidft his zeal for religion, of the ufual maxims of 
human poliqr, infifted that, as the danger which 
threatened them was manifeft and unavoidable, they 
Ihould have recourfe to the moft eflFeftual expedi^ 
ent for fecuring their own fafety, by courting the 
protcflion of the Kings of France and England, 
or by joining in alliance with the Proteftant can- 
tons of Swiflcrland, from whom they might expedt 
fuch powerful and prcfent afliftance as their fitua- 
tion demanded. The Eleftor, on the other hand, 
with the moft uprijght intentions of any Prince in 
that age, and with talents which might have qua- 
lified him abundantly for the adminiftration of go-^ 
vcmment in any tranquil period, was poffefled with 
fuch fuperftitious veneration for all the parts of the 
Lutheran fyftem, and fuch bigoted attachment to 
all its tenets, as made him averfe to an union with 
thofe who differed from him in any article of faith, 
and rendered him very incapable of undertaking its 
defence in times of difficulty and danger. He 
feemed to think, that the concerns of religion wer^ 
to be regulated by principles and maxims totally 
different from thofe which apply to the common 
affairs of life ; and being fwayed too much by the 
opinions of Luther, who was not only a ftranger 
to the rules of political condudt, but defpifed therii j 
he often difcovered an uncomplying fpirit, that 
proved of the greateft detriment to the caufe which 
he wifhed to fupport. Influenced, qi\ thjs occ4- 
VoL. IIL X fign, 


BOOK fjQn, by the fevere and rigid notions of that Hc^ 
w-^/--i former, he rcfufed to enter into any confederacy 
'^*^* with Francis, becaufe he was a perfccutor of the 
truth; or tofolicit the friendfhip of Henry, be- 
caufe he was no lefs impious and profane than the 
Pope himfelfi or even to join in alliance with 
the Swifs, becaufe they differed from the Ger- 
mans in feveral effential articles of faith. This 
diffenfion, about a point of fuch confequcnce, 
produced its natural effefts. Each fecretly cen- 
fured and reproached the other. The Landgrave 
confidered the Eleftor as fettered by narrow pre- 
judices, unworthy of a Prince called to aft a chief 
part in a fccne of fuch importance. The Eleftor 
fufpcfted the Landgrave of loofe principles and 
ambitious views, which correfponded ill with the 
facred caufe wherein they were engaged. But 
though the Eleftor's fcruples {)revented their 
timely application for foreign aid ; and the jea- 
loufy or dlfcontent of the other Princes defeated a 
propofal for renewing their original confederacy, 
the term during which it was to continue in force 
being on the point of expiring ; yet the fenfe of their 
common danger induced them to agree with re- 
gdi'd to other points, particularly that they would 
never acknowledge the affembly at Trent as a 
lawful council, nor Hifrer the Archbifliop of Co- 
logne to be oppreifcd on account of the fteps 
which he had taken towards the reformatioii of 
his diccefe *. 

« Seek. 1. Hi. 566. 570, 613. Sleid. 355. 



The LandgravCi about this time, defirous of ^ ^^ ^ 
penetrating to the bottom of the Emperor's in- i^-^,!^ 
tcntions, wrote to Granvelle, whom he knew to ThJn^^neV- 
bc thoroughly acquainted with all his matter's ^'[^^^j^*^ 
fchcmcs, informing him of the feveral particulars Empwor. ' 
which raifed the fufpicions of the Proteftants, and 
begging an explicit declaration of what they had 
to fear or to hopei Granvelle, in return, affured 
them, that the intelligence which they had receiv- 
ed of the Emperor's military preparations was 
exaggerated, and all their fufpicions deftitute of 
foundation ; that though, in order to guard his 
frontiers againft any infult of the French or Eng- 
lifti, he had commanded a fmall body of men 
to be raifed in the Low-Countries, he was as fo- 
licitous as ever to maintain tranquillity in Ger- 
many ^ 

But the Emperor's a6tions-did not correfpond 
with thefe profeflions of his minifter. For, inftead 
of appointing men of known moderation and a pa- 
cific temper to appear in defence of the Catholic 
do6trines at the conference which had been agreed 
on, he made choice of fierce bigots, attached to 
their own fyftem with a blind obftinacy, that ren- 
dered all hope of a reconcilement defperate. Mal- 
vcnda, a Spanifh divine, who took upon him the 
conduft of the debate on the part of the Catholics, , 
managed it with all the fubtle dexterity of a fcho- 
laftic metaphyfician, more ftudious to perplex his 

^ Sleid. 356. 

X 2 adver- 

3o8 THE REIGN, &c. 

adverfaries than to convince them, and more in- 
tent on palliating error than on difcovering truth. 
The Proteftants, filled with indignation, as well at 
his fophiftry as at fome regulations which the Em- 
peror endeavoured to impofe on the dilputants, 
broke ofF the conference abruptly, being now folly 
convinced that, in all his late meafures, tke Em- 
peror could have no other view than to amufe them, 
and to gain time for ripening his own fchemes ^ 

s Sleid. 358. Seek. I. iii. 620. 




k E I G N 




WJH[ I L E appearances of danger daily in- b o o k 
creafed, and the tcmpeft which had been ^^"i'^ 
fo long a gathering was ready to break forth in all i«;46. 
its violence againft the Proteftant church, Luther Luther, 
was faved, by a feafonable death, from feeling 
or beholding its deftruftive rage. Having gone, 
though in a declining ftate of health, and during 
a rigorous feafon, to his native city of Eyfleben, 
in order to compofe, by his authority, a diflen- 
fion among the counts of Mansfield, he was feized Feb. i8, 
with a violent inflammation in his ilomach, which 
in a few days put an end to his l*fe, in the fixty- 
third year of his age. Ajs he was raifed up by Pro- 
vidence to be the author of one of the greateft 
and moft interefting revolutions recorded in hif- 
lory, there is not any perfon perhaps whofe cha- 
X 3 rafter 


B VI n ^'^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ drawn with fuch oppofite colours. 

^ - y -^ In his own age, one party, ftruck with horror 
^^*^* and inflamed with rage, when they faw with what 
a daring hand he overturned every thing which 
they held to be facred, or valued as beneficial, 
imputed to him not only all the defefts and vices 
of a man, but the qualities of a daemo#. The 
other, warmed with the admiration and gratitude, 
which they thought he merited as the reftorer of 
light ^d liberty to the Chriftian church, afcribed 
to him peifeftions above the condition of huma- 
nity, and viewed all his aftions with a veneration 
bordering on that which fhould be paid only to 
thofe who are guided by the immediate inlpira-. 

Hi«rha. tion of Heaven, It is his ovvn co^nduct, not the 

''''''''* undiftinguifliing cenfure or the exaggerated praife 
of his contemporaries, that ought tp regulate the 
opinions of the prefent age concerning him. 
Zeal for what he regarded as truth, undaunted 
intrepidity to maintain his own fyftem, abilities, 
both natural and acquired, to defend his prin- 
ciples, and unwearied induftry in propagating 
them, are virtues which fliine fo conipicuoufly in 
every part of his behaviour, that even his enemies 
• muft allow him to have poffefled them in an emi- 
nent degree. J^o thefe may be added, with equal 
juftice, fuch puT^ty and even aufterity of manners, 
•as became one who afTumed the charafter of a 
Reformer J fuch fanftit^ qf life as fuited the 
dodlrine which he delivered ; and fuch perfect dif- 
intereftednefs as affords no flight prefumption of 
iiis 'fiiicerity* * Superior to all felfifh confidcra- 
5 tions^ 


lions, a ftranger to the elegancies of life, and ® y.fj ^ 
defpifing its pleafures, he left the honours and ' — ^^ 
emoluments of the church to his difciples, re- '^^^' 
HUiiniog fatiafied himfelf in his original ftate of 
prolefibr in the univerfity, and paftor of the town 
of Wkteaaaberg, with the moderate appointments 
annex^ to chefe offices. His extraordinary qua- 
tties were allayed with no inconfiderable mixture 
of human frailty and human paffions. Thcfe, 
however, were of fuch a nature, ^ that they cannot 
be imputed to malevolence or corruption o( heart, 
but feem to have taken their rife from the fame 
fource with naany of his virtues. His mind, 
forcible and vehement in all its operations, roufed 
by great' objects, or agitated by violent paffiqns, 
br^e out, on many occafions, with an impetuo- 
fity which aftonifhes men of feebler fpirits, or 
fuch as arc placed in a more tranquil fituation. 
By carrying fome praife- worthy difpofitions to 
excefs, he bordered fometimes on what was cul- 
pable, and was (rften betrayed into adions which 
cxpofed him to cenfure. His confidence that his 
own opinions were well founded, approached to 
arrogance ; his courage in aiferting them, to rafh- 
ncfsi his firmnels in adhering to them, to obfti- 
nacy; and his zeal in confuting his adverfaries, 
to rage and fcurrility. Accuftomed himfelf to 
confider every thing as fubordthate to truth, he 
cxpeded the fame deference for it from other 
menj and, withoift: making any allowances for 
their timidity or prejudices, he poured forth 
X 4 • againft 




againft fuch as difappointed . him in this parti- 
cular, a torrent of inveftive mingled with con- 
^^^ ' tempt. Regardlefs of any diftindion of rank or 
charafter when his doctrines were attacked, he 
ehallifed all his . adverfaries indifcriminately, with 
the fame rough hands neither the royal dignity 
of Henry VIII. nor the eminent learning and 
abilities of Erafmus, fcreened them from the 
fame grofs abufe with which he treated Tetzel or 

But thefe indecencies of which Luther was 
guilty, muft not be imputed wholly to the vio- 
lence of his temper. They ought to be charged 
in part on the manners^ of the age. Among a 
rude people, unacquainted with thofe maxims, 
which by putting continual reftraint on the paf- 
fions of individuals, have polifhed fociety and 
- rendered it agreeable, diiputes of every kind wer? 
managed with heat, ajid ftrong emotions were 
uttered in their natural language, without referve 
or delicacy. At die feme time, the works of 
learned men were all compofed in Latin, and 
they were not only authorized, by the example of 
eminent writers in that language, to ufe their 
antagonifts with the moll illiberal fcurrility; but, 
in a dead tongue, indecencies of every kind ap- 
^ pear left fliocking than .in a living language, 

, whofe idioms and phrafes feem grofs, becaufe 
^ they are familiar, 



In palling judgment upon the charafters of B o o k 
men, we ought to try them by the principles and y^-^Li 
maxims of their own age, not by thofe of an- '^^^' 
other. For, although virtue and vice are at all 
times the fame, manners and cuftoms vary con- 
tinually. Some parts qf Luther's behaviour, which 
to us appear moft culpable, gave no difguft to his 
contemporaries. It was even by fome of thofe 
qualities, which we are now apt to blatne, that he 
was fitted for accompliihing the great work which 
he undertook. To roufe mankind, when funk 
in ignorance or fuperftition, and to encounter ' 
the rage of bigcftry armed with power, required 
the utmoft vehemence of zeal, as well as a temper 
daring to excefs. A gentle call would neither 
have reached, nor have excited thofe to whom it 
muft have been addreffed. A fpirit more amiable, 
but lels vigorous than Luther's, would have Ihrunk 
back from the dangers which he braved and 
furmounted. Towards the clofe of Luther's life, 
though without any perceptible diminution of his 
zeal or abilities, the infirmities of his temper in- 
creafed upon him, fo that he grew daily more 
peevifh, more irafcible, and more impatient of 
contradiftion. Having lived to be a witnefs of 
his own amazing fuccefs ; to fee a great part of 
Europe embrace his doftrines ; and to fliake the 
foundation of the papal throne, before which the 
mightieft Monarchs ^had trembled, he difcovered, 
on fome occafions, fymptoms of vanity and felf- 
applaufe. He muft have been, indeed, more than 
ITian^ if^ upon contemplating all that he aftuaJly 



^ ^ o K accompliflicd, be had never felt any footinjcnt of 
tliis kind rifing in his breaft*. 


Some time before his death he ^t his ftrength 
declining, his conftitution being worn out by a 
prodigious multiplicity of bufinefe, added to the 
labour of difcharging his minifterial funftion with 
unr.2mitting diligence, to the fatigue of conftant 
ftudy, befides the compofition of works as vo- 
luminous as if he had enjoyed uninterrupted lei- 
fure and retirement. His natural intrepidity did 
not forfake him at the approach of death ; his 
laft converfation with his friends was concerning 
• the liappinefs referved for good men in a fiiture 
life, of which he fpoke with the fervour and delight 
natural to one who expefted and wilhed to enter 

* A remarkable inftancc of this, as well as of ft certain An- 
gularity and elevation of fentiment^ is found in Ms Laft Will. 
Though the effeds which he had to bequeaJbh were very 
inconfiderable, he choii^hc it nece^ary to make a Teftaaicnc» 
but fcorned to frame it with the ufual legal formalities. No- 
tus fum^ fays he, in C(cIo> in terra, & inferno, 6i audorica- 
tern ad hoc fuflicientem habeo, ut mihi fpli credatur, cum 
Deus mihi, iiooiini licet dainnabili, et miferabilt peccateri, 
ex paterna mifericordia Evangelium £iii fui crediderit* dede- 
ritque ut in eo verax & fiiielis fuerim, ita ut mviii in nundo 
illud per me acceperint, ic me pro Dodore veritatis agoove- 
rint, fpreto banno Papas, Cscdins, Regum, Principum & 
facerdotum, immo omnium daemon urn odio. Quidni, igicur, 
ad difpofitionem hanc, in re exigua, fufficiat, fi adiit mantti 
mea: teftimonium, 6c dici poffit, bzc fcripfit D. Martinoa JLji- 
ther, Notarius Dei> & teftis Evaogelii ejus* Sec 1. ait. 
p. 651. 



foon upon the enjoyment of it *. The account of ^ o o k 
his death filled the Roman Catholic party with ex- ^_ -^- ^ 
£eflivc as well as indecent joy, and damped the '54^ 
Spirits of all his followers j neidier party fufiiciendy 
coniidering that his doftrines were now fo firmly 
rooted, as to be in a condition to flourilh inde- , 

pendent of the hand which firft had planted tliem. 
His funeral was celebrated by order of the Eledior 
of Saxony with extraordinary pomp. He left 
feveral children by his wife Catherine a Boria, who 
furvived him. Towards the end of the lafl cen- 
tury, there were in Saxony fome of his defcendants 
in decent and honourable ftations ^^ 

The Emperor, meanwhile, purJlied the plan TheEmpe. 
of diflimulation with which he had fet out, em- ^^onntT 
ploying every art to amufe the Proteftants, and to J""f^ "jj, 
quiet their fears and jealoufies. For this purpofe P'«e*aDii, 
be contrived to have an interview with the Land- 
grave of Hefle, the mofl active of all the confe- 
derates, and the molt fufpicious of his defigns. 
To him he made fuch warm profefTions of his MaicbaS. 
concern for the happinefs of Germany, and of his 
averfion to all violent meafures ; he denied in 
fuch exprefs terms, his having entered into any 
league, or having begun any military preparations 
which fhould give any juft caufe of alarm to the 
Proteftants, as feem to have difpelled all the Land- 
grave's doubts and apprehenfions, and fent him 

* Sleid. 362. Secl^. lib. iii* 632, &c, 
t Seek. It iii. 65 1« 




o o K away fully fatisfied of his pacific intentions. This 
"-^r^-u artifice was of great advantage, and efFeftually 
^^* anfwered the purpofe for which it was employed. 
The Landgrave upon his leaving Spires, where 
he had been admitted to this interview, went to 
Worms, where the Smalkaldic confederates were 
afiembled, and • gave them fuch a flattering repre- 
fentation of the Emperor's favourable difpofitipn 
towards them, that they, who were too apt, as well 
from the temper of the Genr^an nation, as from the 
genius of ail great aflbciations or bodies of men, to 
be flow, and dilatory, and undecifive in their deli- 
berations, thought there was no neceflity of taking 
any immediate meafures againfl: danger, which ap- 
peared to be diftant or imaginary*", 

Frocffd:ng8 Such events, however, foon occurred, as fta?- 
€\\ »..,tn(i gered the credit which the Proteftants had given 
to the Emperor's declarations. The council of 
Trent, though fl:ill compofcd of a fmall number of 
Italian and Spanifli prelates, without a finglc de- 
puty from many of the kingdoms which it afliimed 
a right of binding by its decrees, being afhamed 
of its long inaclivity, proceeded now to fettle 
articles of the greateft importance. Having be- 
gun with examining the firft and chief point in 
controverfy between the .church of Rome and the 
Reformers, concerning the rule which fhould be 
held as fupreme and decifive in matters of faith, 
the council, by its infallible authority, deter- 

« Slcid, Hift. 367. 373. 


the Protcft. 


mined, " That the books to which the defigna- 
tion of Jpocryphal hath been given, are of equal 
audioritywith thofe which were received by the AprV/i!' 
Jews and primitive Chriftians into the facrcd 
canon ; that the traditions handed down from the 
apoftolic age, and preferved in the church, are 
entitled to as much regard as the doftrines and 
precepts which the infpired authors have com- 
mitted to writings that the Latin tranflation of 
the Scripuires, made or revifed by St. Jerome, 
and known by the name of the Vulgate tranflation, 
fhould be read in churches, and appealed to in the 
fchools as authentic and canonical," Againll all 
who difclaimed the truth of thefe tenets, anathemas 
were denounced in the name and by the authority 
of the Holy Ghoft. The decifion of thefe points, 
which undermined the main foundation of the 
Lutheran fyftem, was a plain warning to the Pro- 
teftants what judgment they might expedt when 
the council Ihould have leifure to take into con- 
fideration the particular and fuboj dinate articles of 
their creed ^. 

'. This difcovery of the council's readinefs to 
condemn the opinions of the Proceftants, was foon . 
followed by a ftriking inftance of the Pope's re- 
Iblution to punilh fuch as embraced them. The 
appeal of the canons of Cologne againfl: their 
Archbilhop having been carried to Rome, Paul 
eagerly feized on that opportunity, both of dif* 

^ F. Paul, 141. Pallav. 206. 



B o, o K playing the extent of his own authority, and ol* 
%— .^^pw teaching the German ecckfiaftics the danger of 
1546- revolting from the eftablifhed church. As no 
perfon appeared in behalf of the Archbifliop, he 
was held to be convifted of the crime of hercfy, 
AprU 16. ^^ ^ Papal bull was iffued, depriving him of hi« 
ccclefiaftical dignity, inflifting on him the fentencc 
of excommunication, and abfolving his fubjefts 
from the oath of allegiance which they had taken 
to him as their civil fupcrior. The countenance 
which he^had given to the l/Utheran herefy was 
the only crime imputed to him, as well as the 
only reafon affigned to juftify the extraordinary 
feverity of this decree. The Proteftants could 
hardly believe that Paul, how zealous foever he 
might be to dfefend the eftabliftied fyftem, or to 
humble thofe who invaded it, would have ven- 
tured to proceed to fuch extremities againft a 
Prince and Eleftor of the Empire, without hav- 
ing previoufly fecured fuch powerful protection as 
would render his cenfure fomething more than an 
impotent and defpicable fally of refentment. They 
were bf courfe deeply alarmed at this fentencc 
againft the Archbifhop, confidering it as a fure 
indication of the malevolent intentions not only 
of the Pope, but of the Emperor, againft the whole 
party \ 

about to Upon this frefh revival of their fears, wirfi 

hoftiiitre? f^ch violence as is natural to men roufcd from a 

againft the 

Proceftaacf. . , , , 

* Slcid. 354. F. Paul, 155. Pallavic. 224. 



falfe fecurity, and confeious of their having been ^ ^ ^^ ^ 
deceived, Charks faw that npw it becatne neceffary <-— nA^ 
to throw afide the maik, and to declare openly '^ * 
what paa't he determined to aft. By a long feries 
of artifice and fellacy, he had gained fo much: 
dfne, that his itieafures, though not altogether 
ripe for execution, were in great foiwardnefs. The 
Pope, by hk proceedings againft the Eleftor of 
Cologne, a* well as by the decree of the council^ 
had precipitated matters into fuch a ficuation, as 
retidered a breach between the Emperor and the 
PrOteftants almoft unavoidable. Charles had there- 
fore no choice left him, but either to take part with ^ 
them in overturning what the See of Rome had 
determined, or to I'upport the authority of die 
church openly by force of arms. Nor did the 'Negoriatet 
Pope think it enough to have brought the Em- f'ope, 
peror under a neceffity of afting 5 he prefled him 
to begin his operations, by promifing to fecond 
him with fuch vigour as could not well fail of fe- 
curing his fuccefs. Tranfported by his zeal againft 
herefy, Paul forgot all the prudent and cautious 
maxims of the Papal See, with regard to the 
danger of extending the Imperial authority be- 
yond due bounds ^ and in order to crufli the Lu- 
therans, he was willing to contribute towards 
raifmg up a mafter that might one day prove 
formidable to himfelf as well as to die reft of 

But, befides the certain expeftation of affift- concludes a 
ance from the Pope, Charles was now ftcure from sgiymw. 



BOOK any danger -of interruption to his defigns by the 
i...-s!-w Turkifh arms. His negociations at the Porte, 
'^*^' which he had carried on with great afliduity fincc 
the peace of Crefpy, were on the point of being 
terminated in fuch a manner as he defired. Soly- 
man, partly in compliance with the French King, 
who, in order to avoid the difagreeable obliga- 
tion of joining the Emperor againfl: his ancient 
ally, laboured with great zeal to bring about an 
. accommodation between them; and partly from 
its being neceffary to turn his arms towards the 
caflr, where the Perfians threatened to invade his 
dominions, confented without difficulty to a truce 
for five years. The chief article of it was. That 
each Ihould retain pofleffion of what he now held 
in Hungary j and Ferdinand, as a facrificc to the 
pride of the Sultan, fubmitted to pay an annual 
tribute of fifty thoufand crowns *. 

Ga?niMau. BuT it was upon the aid and concurrence of the 
other*"* Germans themfelves that the Emperor relied with 
Princetio the grcatcft confidence. The Germanic body, 
he knew, were of fuch vaft ftrength, as to be in- 
vincible if it were united, and that it was only by 
emjJloying its own force that he could hope to 
fubdue it. Happily for him, the union of the 
feveral members in this great fyftem was fo feeble, 
the whole frame was fo loofely compafted, and 
its different parts tended fb violently towards fe- 

• Iduanhaffii Hift. Han. i8o. Mem. de Ribier, torn. i. 




paration from each other, that it was almoft im- ® ^^^ ^ 
poffible for it, on any important emergence, to v . ^.^-i,^ 
join in a general or vigorous effort. In the pre- '^^°* 
fent jundture, the fources of difcord were as many, 

»• and as various, as had been known on any occa- 
fion. The Roman Catholics, animated with zeal 
in defence of their religion proportional to the 
fiercenefs with which it had been attacked, were 
eager to fecond any attempt to humble thofe in- 
novators, who had overturned it in many pro- 
vinces, and endangered it in more. John and 
Albert of Brandenburg, as well as feveral other 
Princes, incenfed at the haughtinefs and rigour 
with which the Duke of Brunlwick had been 
treated by the confederates of Smalkalde, were 
impatient to rtfcue him, and to be revenged on 
them. Charles obfervcd, with fatisfaftion, the 
working of thofe palfiom in their minds, and 
counting on them as ' fure auxUiaries whenever 
he Ihould think it proper to aft, he found it, in 
the mean time, more neceffary to moderate than 

to inflame their rage. 

' Such was the fituation of aflTairs, fuch the dif- HoMt a <iiac 
ccrnment with which the Emperor forefaw and '^^•'**^ 
provided for every event, when the diet of the 
Empire met at Ratiflx>n. Many of the Roman 
Catholic members appeared there in perfon, but 
moft of the confederates of Smalkalde, under 
pretence of beihg unable to bear the expence oc- 
cafioncd by the late unncceffaiy frequency of fuch 

Vol. III. Y aflem* 


" vin ^ aflcmblies, fent only deputies. Their jealotify 

1 1 ")t t»J 

of the Emperor, together with an apprehcn- 
'^*^* fion that violence niight> perhaps, be employ- 
ed, in order to force their approbation of what 
he (hould propofe in the diet, was the true caule 
of their abfence. The fpeech with which the 
Emperor opened the diet was extremely anfld. 
After profefling, in common form, his regard 
for the profpcrity of the Germanic body, and 
declaring, that, in order to beftow his whole, at* 
tention upoa the re-eftablifhment of its order 
and tranquillity, he had at prefent abandoned all 
other cares, rejeded the moft prelfing fblicitadons 
of his other fubjedls to refide among them, and 
poftponed affairs of the greateft importance; he 
took notice, with fome difapprobation, that his 
difmtereftcd example had not been imitated $ 
many members of chief confideration having ne- 
glefted to attend an affembly to which he had 
repaired with fuch manifeft inconvenience to him- 
felf He then mentioned their unhappy diflcn-* 
fions about religion ; lamented the ill luccefs of 
his paft endeavours to compofe them ; complain- 
ed of the abrupt diflblution of the late conference, 
and craved their advice with regard to the bcft 
and moft effedual method of reftoring union to 
the churches of Germany, together with that 
happy agreement in articles of faith, which dieir 
anceftors had found to be of no lefs advantage to 
their civil intcreft, than becoming their Chriftiao 



By this gracious and popular method of con- ® S. ? '^ 
fulting the members of the diet, rather than of • — ^' — ' 
iabtruding upon them any opinion of his own, be- ^^^ * 
fides the appearance of great moderation, and the 
merit of paying much refpeft to their* judgment, 
the Emperor dexteroufly avoided difcovering his 
own fentiments, and refervcd to himfelf, as his 
only part> that of carrying into execution what 
ihey Ihould recommend. Nor was he lefs fecure 
of fuch ^ decifion as he wifhed to obtain, by , 
referring it wholly to themfelves. The Roman 
Catholic members, prompted by their own zeal, 
or prepared by his intrigues, joined immediately 
in reprefenting that the. authority of the council 
now met at Trent ought to be fupreme in all 
matters of controverfy ; that all Chriftians fhould 
fiibmit to its decrees as the infallible rule of their 
faith ; and therefore they befought him to exert 
the power, with which he was invefted by the 
Almighty, in protefting that aflembly, and" in 
compelling the ' Proteftants to acquiefce in its 
determinations. The Proteftants, on the other 
hand, prefented a memorial, in which, after re- 
peating their objedlions to the council of Trent^ 
they pfopofed, as the only eiFeftual method of 
deciding the points in difpute, that either a free 
general council fliould be affembled in Germany, 
or a national council of the Empire fliould be called, 
or a fele£t number of divines fliould be appoint- 
ed out of each party to examine and define ar- 
ticles of faith. They mentioned the recefles of 
feveral diets favourable to this propofition, and 
Y 2 which 


^ vifi ^ which had afforded them the profpeft of ter- 
' — ^ — f* minatmg all their differences in this amicable 
'^*^* manner; they now conjured the Emperor not 
tp depart from his former plan, and by offering 
violence to their confciences, to bring calamities 
upon Germany, the very thought of which mult 
fiJl every lover of his country with horror. The 
Emperor receiving this paper with a contemptu- 
ous fmile, paid no farther regard to it. Hav- 
ing already taken his final refolution, and per- 
ceiving that nothing but force could compel 
Jane 9. them to acquiefce in it, he difpatchcd the Car- 
dinal of Trent to Rome, in order to conclude 
an alliance with the Pope, the terms of which 
were already agreed on ; he commanded a body 
of troops, . levied on purpofe in the Low-Coun- 
tries, to advance towards Germany ; he gave 
commiffions to fcveral officers for raifing men in 
different parts of the Empire; he warned John 
and Albert -of Brandenburg, that now was the 
proper time of exerting themfelves, in order to 
refcue their ally, Henry of Brunfwick, from cap- 
tivity ^ 

The Pro- All thefe things could not be tranfafted with- 
out the obfervation and knowledge of the Pro- 
teftants. The fecret was now in many hands ; 
under whatever veil the Emperor ftill affeftcd to 
conceal his defigns, his officers kept no fuch myl^ 
terious referve ; and his allies and fubjefts fpoke 
out his 'intentions plainly. Alarmed with reports 

^ Sleid. 374. Seek. iii. 6c8. 




of this kind from every quarter, as well as with book 
die preparations for war which they could not but v^^-^v^-L-j 
obferve, the deputies of the confederates demand- '^*^' 
cd audience of the Emperor, and, in the name of 
their mafters, required to know whether thefe mi- 
litary preparations were carried on by his com- 
mand, and for what end, and againft what enemy? 
To a queftion put in fuch a tone, and at a time 
when fafts were become too notorious to be de- 
nied, it was neceffary to give an explicit anfwer, 
Charles owned the orders which he had ijfTued, 
and profeffing his purpofe not to moleft on ac- 
count of religion thofe who ftiould aft as dutiful 
fbbjefts; declared that he had nothing in view 
but to maintain the rights and prerogatives^ of the 
Imperial dignity, and, by punilhing fome fac- 
tious members, to pj-eferve the ancient conftitu- 
tion of the Empire from being impaired or dif- 
iblved by their irregular and licentious conduft. 
Though the Emperor did not name 'the perfons 
whom he charged with fuch high crimes, and def- 
tincd to be the objefts of his vengeance, it was 
obvious that he had the Eleftor of Saxony and 
Landgrave of Heffe in view. Their deputies 
confidering what he had faid, as a plain declar- 
ation of his hoftile intentions, immediately re- 
tired from Ratifbon ^, 

The Cardinal of Trent found it no difficult The Enpe* 
matter to peat witli the P6pe, who having at wUhVhe*' 

« Skid. '576, 

Y 3 length 


^ via ^ kngth brought the Emperor to adopt that plan 
which he had long recommended, affented with 
eagerners to every article that he propofed. The 
league was figned a few days after the Cardinal's 
arrival at Rome. The pernicious hercfies which 
abounded in Germany, the obftinacy of the Pro- 
teftants in rejefting the holy council affembled at 
Trent, and the neceffity of maintaining found 
doftrinc, together with good order in the church, 
are mentioned as the motives of this union be- 
tween the contrafting parties. In order to check 
the growth of thefe evils, and to punilh fuch as 
had impioufly contributed to fpread them, the 
Emperor, having long and without fuccefs made 
trial of gentler remedies, engaged inftantly to 
take the field with a fufficient army, that he might 
compel all who difowned the council, or had 
apoftatized from the religion of their forefathers^ 
to return into the bofom of the church, and fub- 
mit with due obedience to the Holy See. He 
likewife bound himfelf not to conclude a peace 
with them during fix months without the Pope's 
confent, nor without afligning him his fhare in 
any conquefts which fliould be made upon them i 
and that even after this period he Ihogld not agree 
to any accommodation which might be detrimen- 
tal to the church, or to the intereft of religion. 
On his part, the Pope ftipulated to depofita large 
fum in the bank of Venice towards defraying the 
expence of the war j to maintain, at his own 
charge, during the fpace of fix months, twelve 
thoufand foot, and five hundred horfe; to grant 



the Emperor, for one year, half of the ecclefiafti- ^ ^^^ ^ 
cal revenues throughout Spain 5 to authorize him, u--^— ^ 
by a bull, to alienate as much of the lands, be- *^*^' 
longing to religious houfes in that country, as 
would amount to the fum of five hundred thou- 
fand crowns ; and to employ not only Ipiritual 
cenfures, but military force, againft any Prince who 
fhould attempt to interrupt or defeat the execution 
of this treaty *». 

NoTWXTHSTAt«IDING the eXpHcit terms in which Endeavoon 

the extirpation of herefy was declared to be the crarhi"?n*. 
objeft of the war which was to follow upon this J^"JJ7he 
treaty, Charles ftill endeavoured to perfuade the Proteflaotf. 
Germans that he had no defign to abridge their 
religious liberty, but that he aimed only at vin- 
dicating his own authority, and reprefEng the in- 
folence of fuch as had encroached upon it. With 
this view, he wrote circular letters in the fame 
ftrain with his anfwer to the deputies at Ratifbon, 
to moft of the free cities, and to fycral of the 
Princes who had embraced the Proceftant doc- 
trines. In thefe he complained loudly, but tin 
general terms, of the contempt into which the 
Imperial dignity had fallen, and of the prelump- 
tuous as well as difordcrly behaviour of fome 
members of the Empire, He declared that he 
now took arms, not in a rdigiouS, but in a civil - 
quarrel j not to opprefs any who continued to 
behave as quiet and dutiful fubjeds, but tQ 

^ Skid. ^%i. Pallav. 255. Damont Corps Diplom. ii« 

y 4 humble 


® vin ^ ^^"^blc ^^ arrogance of fuch as had thrown off 
«4 — .J~^ all fenfe of that fubordination in which they were 
^^^^* placed under him^ as head of the Germanic 
body. Grofs as this deception was, and mani- 
feft as it might have appeared to all who confi- 
dered the Emperor's conduft with attention, it 
became necefiary for him to make trial of its 
effedt ; and fuch was the confidence and dexterity 
with which he employed it, that he derived the 
moft folid advantages from this artifice. If he 
had avowed at once an intention of overturning 
the Proteftant church, and of reducing all Ger- 
many under its former ftate of fubjedtion to the 
Papal See, none of the cities or Princes who had 
embraced the new opinions could have remained 
neutral after fuch a declaration, far lefs could 
they have ventured to affift the Emperor in fuch 
an enterprize. Whereas by concealing, and even 
difclaiming any intention of that kind, he not 
only faved himfelf from the danger of being 
overwhelmed by a general confederacy of all the 
Proteftant ftates, but he furniflied the rimid'with 
an excufe for continuing inadlive, and the dcfign- 
ing or interefted with a pretext for joining him, 
without expofmg themfelves to the infamy of aban- 
doning their own principles, or taking part openly 
in fuppreffing them. At the fame time the Em- 
peror well knew, that if, by their affiftance, he 
were enabled to break the power of the Eledor 
pf Saxony and the Landgrave, he might afterwards 
prefcribe what terms he pleafed to the feeble re- 
pains of a party without union, and d?ftitute of 



leaders^ who would thcn-regrct, too late, their mif- ^ via. '^ 
taken confidence in him, and their inconfideratc v-^^>*i^ 
defertion of their ^ociates, *^^' ' 

The Pope, by a fudden and unforefeen difplay Jj^*^^**p* 
of his zeal, had well nigh difconcerted this plan bw pi*n. 
which the Emperor had formed with fo much 
care and art. Proud of having been the author 
of fuch a formidable confederacy againft the Lu- 
theran herefy, and happy in thinking that the 
glory of extirpating it was referved for his Pon^ 
tifkate, he publiihed the articles of his league 
with the Emperor, in order to demonftrate the 
pious intention of their cohfederacy, as well as 
to difplay his own zeal, which prompted him to 
make fuch extraordinary efforts for maintaining 
the faith in its purity. Not fatisfied with this, 
he foon after iffued a bull, containing moft libe- 
ral promifes of indulgence to all who fliould en- 
gage in this holy.enterprize, together with warm 
exhortations to fuch as cpuld not bear a part in 
it themfelves, to increafe the fervour of their 
prayers, and the feverity of their mortifications, 
that they might draw down the blefling of Hea- 
ven upon thofe who undertook it^ Nor was it 
zeal alone which pufhed the Pope to make decla- 
rations fo inconfiftent with the account which the 
pmperor himfelf gave of his motives for taking 
arms. He was much fcandalized at Charles's 
^iffimulation in fuch a cayfe j at his feeming to • 

* Du Mont Corp? Dip?om# 
: . be 


B ^ o K be afhamed of owning his zeal for the church.^ 
^■■v^j and at his endeavours to nriake that pais for a po- 
*54^' litical conteft, which he. ought to have gloried in 
as a war which had no other objeft than the de- 
• fence of religion. With as much folicitude, 
therefore, as the Emperor laboured to difguiie 
the purpofe of the confederacy, did the Pope en- 
deavour to publilh their real plan, in order that 
they might conrye at once to an open rupture with 
the Proteftants, that all hope of reconcilement 
might be cut off, and that Charles might be 
under fewer temptations, and have it lefs. in his 
power than at prefent, to betray the interefts of 
the church by any accommodation beneficial to 

The Emperor, though not a litde offended at 
the Pope's indifcretion or malice in making this 
difcovery, continued boldly to purfue his own plan^ 
and to aflert his intentions to be no other than what 
he had originally avowed. Several erf* the Proteftant 
ftates, whom he had previoufly gained, thought 
themfelves juftified, in fome meafure, by his deda-. 
rations, for abandoning their affociates, and even 
for giving affiftance to him. 

The prcpu But thefe artifices did not impofe on the greater 
Prac'fhnis'' ^nd founder part of the Proteftant confederates, 
Iwn^"! They clearly perceived it to be againft the re- 
ifAcc. formed religion that the Emperor had taken arms, 

k F. Paul, i88, Tliuan.Hift. i. 6i. 



5ind that not only the fuppreffion of it, but the » o o 1^ 
extinftion of the German liberties, would be the v*. v '^ 
certain confequcnce of his obtaining fuch an en- '^*** 
tire iuperiority as would enable him to execute 
his fchemes in their full extent. They determined 
therefore, to prepare for their own defence, and 
neither to renounce thofe religious truths, to the 
knowledge of which they had attained by means fo 
wonderful, nor to abandon tKofe civil rights 
which had been tranfmitted to them by their an- 
ceftors. In order to give the necefTary direftion^ 
for this purpofe, their <leputies met at Ulm, 
foon after their abrupt departure from Ratifbon, 
Their deliberations were now condufted with fuch 
vigour and unanimity, as the imminent danger 
which threatened them required. The contin- 
gent of troops, which each of the confederate^ 
was to furnifli, having been fixed by the original 
treaty of union, orders were given for bringing 
them immediately into the field. Being fenfible, 
at laft, that through the narrow prejudices of 
fome of their members, and the imprudent fe- 
curity of others, they had negle6ted too long to 
ftrengthen themfelves by foreign alliances, they 
now applied with great earneflnefs to the Venetians 
and Swifs, 

To the Venetians they reprefented the Empe- Theyfoii^t 
ror*s intention of overturning the prefent fyflem [be ven«- 
of Germany, and of raifing himfelf to abfolute *'"*'• ' ' 
power in that, country by means of foreign force 



' VII? ^ fumifhed by the Popej they warned them how. 

w -. *^ fatal this event would prove to the liberties of 
'^♦^* Italy, and that by fufFering Charles to acquire 
unliniited authority in the one country, they would 
foon feel his donniivon to be no lefs delpotic in 
the other ; they befought them, therefore, not to 
grant a paiTage through their territories to thofe 
troops, which ought to be treated as common 
enemies, becaufe by fubdqing Germany they pre- 
pared chains for the reft of Europe, Thefe re- 
fleftions had not efcaped the fagacity of tliofe 
■wife republicans. They had communicated their 
fentiments to the Pope, and had endeavoured to 
divert him from an alliance, which tended to 
render irrefiftible the power of a potentate, whofe 
ambition he already knew to be boundlefs. But 
they had found Paul fo eager in the profecution 
of his own plan, that he difregarded all their re- 
monftrances K This attempt to alarm the Pope 
having proved unfuccefsful, they declined doing 
any thing more towards preventing the dangers 
which they forefaw s and in return to the applica- 
tion from the confederates of Smalkalde, they in- 
formed them, that they could not obftruft the 
march of the Pope's troops through an open coun- 
try, but by levying an army ftrong enough to face 
them in the field -, and that this would draw upon 
themfelves the whole weight of his as well a^ of the 
Emperor's indignation. For the fame reafon they 
declined lending a fum of money, which the 

^ Adrian] Ifloriadi faoi Tempi, llv. v. p» 332. 



Elefldr of Saxony and Landgrave propofed to bor- b o o !c 
row of them, towards carrying on the war ". *- _ '_| 

The demands of the confederates upon theSwifi or the 
were not confined to the obftrufting of the en- 
trance of foreigners into Germany 5 they required 
of them, as the neareft neighbours and clofeft: allies 
of the Empire, to interpofe with their wonted 
vigour for the prefervation of its liberties, and not 
to ftand as iriadtive Ipeftators, while their brethren 
were opprefled and enflaved. But with whatever 
zeal the reformed Cantons might have been dif- 
pofed to aft when the caufe of the Reformation 
was in danger, the Helvetic body was fb divided 
with regard to religion, as to render it unfafe for 
the Proteftants to take any ftcp without confulting 
their Catholic aflbciates; and among them the 
emiflaries of the Pope and Emperor had fuch in- 
fluence, that a refolution of maintaining an exa<ft 
neutrality between the contending parties,' was the 
utmoft which could be procured °. . 

Being difappointed in both thefe applic'ktions, or ramcit 
the Proteftants, not long after, had recourfe to Jj vm.'"' 
the Kings of France and England ^ the approach 
of danger either overcoming the Eleftor of 
Saxony's fcruples, or obliging him to yield to the '^ 
importunities of his affociates. The fituation of 

*. Slfid. 3S1. Paruta Iftor. Vcnct. torn. iv. iSo. Lam- 
bertus Hortehfius de Bello Germanico, spud Scardiaro, vol. 
ii. p. 547. 

» Slcid. 392, 


3j4 tH£ REIGlSr OF THE 

* vin ^ ^^^ Monarchs flattered them with hopes of 
L^^^^-^ fuccefs. Though hoftilities between them had 
*^*^' continued for fome tirhe after the peace of Creipy^ 
they became weary at laft of a war, attended with 
tio glory or advantage to either, and had lately tcr-^ 
minatod all their differences by a peace conduded 
at Campe near Ardres. Francis having with great 
difficulty procured his allies, the Scots, to be in- 
cluded in the treaty, in return for that conceffion 
he engaged to pay a great fum, which Henry 
demanded as due to him on feveral accounts, and 
he left Boulogne in the hands of the Englilh, as a 
pledge for his faithful performance of that artick. 
. But though the re-eftablifhment of peace feemed 
to leave the two Monarchs at liberty to turn their 
attention towards Germany, fo unfortunate were 
the Proteflants, that they derived no immediate 
advantage from this circumftance. Henry ap- 
peared unwilling to enter into any alliance with 
them, but on fuch conditions as would render- 
him not only the head, but the fupreme dircdlor 
of their league; a pre-eminence which, as the 
bonds of union or intereft between them were but 
feeble, and as he differed from them fo widely 
in his religious fentiments, they had no inclination 
to admit **. Francis, more powerfully inclined by 
% political confiderations to afford them afEftance, 
found his kingdom fo much exhaufted by a long 
war, and was fo much afraid of ifritating the 
Pope, by entering into clofe union with excona- 

•• Rymer, xv. 93, Herbert, 258, 

5 municated 


ttiunicated heretics, that he durft not undertake b ^ « ^ 
the proteftion of the Smalkaldic league. By this w-v-.,^ 
ill-timed caution, or by a fuperftitious deference to '^"^ * 
fcruples, to which at other times he was not much 
addifted, he loft the moft promiling opportunity of 
mortifying and diftrcfling his rival, which prefcnted 
itfelf during his whole reign. 

But, notwithftanding their ill fuccefs in their Protcftanti 
ne^ciations with foreign courts, the confederates field with a 
found no difficulty at home, in twinging a fuffi- ^'"' ***"'* 
cient force into the field. Germany abounded at 
that time in inhabitant?; the feudal inftitutions, 
which fubfifted in full force, enabled the nobles 
to call out their numerous vaffals, and to put ' 
them ill motion on the Ihorteft warnings the 
martial fpirit of the Germans, not broken or ener- 
vated by the introdu6tion of commerce and arts, 
had acquired additional vigour during the- con- 
tinual wars in which they had been employed, for 
half a century, either in the pay of the Epnperors, 
or the Kings of France. Upon every opporuinity 
of entering into fervice, they were accuflomed to 
run eagerly to arms s and to every ftandard that 
was erefted, volunteers flocked from all quarters p. 
Zeal feconded, on this occafion, their native ar-. 
dour. Men on whom the doftrines of the Re- r 
formation had made that deep impreflion which 
accompanies truth when firft difcovered, prepared 
to maintain it with proportional vigour i and 

P Seek. 1. iii. i6t* 



• vii? ^ ^^o^g 21 warlike people, it appeared infamous 
u.-y'^ to remain inaftivc, when the defence of religion 
'^^^ was the motive for taking arms. Accident com- 
bined with all thefe circumftances in faciliuting 
the levy of foldiers among the confederates. A 
confiderable number of Germans, in the pay of 
France, being difmifled by the King on the pro- 
Ipeft of peace with England, joined in a body the 
ftandard of the Proteftants ''. By fuch a concur- 
rence of caufes, they were enabled to aflemble iti 
a few weeks an army compofed of feventy thou- 
land foot and fifteen thoufand horfe, provided 
with a train of an hundred and twenty cannon, 
eight hundred ammunition waggons, eight thou- 
fand beads of burden, and fix thoufand pioneers '. 
This army, one of the moft numerous, and un- 
doubtedly the befl: appointed^ of any which had 
been levied in Europe during that century, did 
not require the united effort of the whole Pro- 
tcftant body to raife it. The Eleftor of Saxony, 
the Landgrave of Hefle, the Duke of Wurtemberg, 
the Princes of Anhalt, and the Imperial cities of 
Aufbourg, Ulm, and Strafburg, were the only 
powers which contributed towards this great arma- 
ment : the Eledors of Cologne, of Brandenburg, 
and the Count Palatine, overawed by the Emperor's 
threats, or deceived by his profeffions, remained 
neuter. John marquis of Brandenburg Bareith, 

« Thaan. 1. i. 6^. 

' Thuan. ]. i. 6oi. Ludovici ab Avila 8c Zuniga Com- 
mentariorum de Bel. Germ. lib. duo. Antw. 1550. i2ino. 



and Albert of Brandenburg Anipach> though both 
early converts to Lutheranifin^ entered openly 
into the Emperor's fervice, Undfcr pretext of hav- '^^ 
ing obtained his promife for the fecurity of the 
Proteftant religion $ and Maurice of Saxony loon 
followed their exaniple. 

The number of their troops, as well as the Theineqw. 
amazing rapidity wherewith they had aflembled Emperor*^ 
them, aftonilhed the Emperor, and filled him SS»** 
widi the moft difquieting apprehenfions. He was» 
indeed, in no condition to refift fuch a mighty 
force. Shut up in Ratifbon, a town of no great 
ftrength, whofe inhabitants, being moftly Lu* 
therans, would have been more ready to betray 
than to afiift him, with only three thoufand Spanifh 
foot, who had ferved in Hungary, and about five 
thoufand Germans who had joined him fi'om dif-* 
ferent parts of the Empire, he muft have been 
overwhelmed by the approach of fuch a formidable 
army, which he could not fight, nor could he even 
hope to retreat from it in fafety. The Pope's 
troops^ though in full march to his relief^ had 
hardly reaphed the frontiers of Germany i the forces 
which he expeftcd from the Low-Countries had 
not yet begun to move, and were even far fronj 
being complete *. His fituation, however, called 
for more immediate fuccour, nor did it feem 
prafticable for him to wait for fuch diftant auxilir 
aries, with whom his junftion was fo precarious. 

* Slni. 3S9. Avils, 8. a. 

Vol. III. Z BvT 


^P ^^ Rui* k happened for tunately for Charks, that 

i_ ^ ' - ij)<t confederates did not avail themfdves of the 

Thl^- advantage which lay fo.futt in their view. In civil 

prademiy yifsTs^ the firft ftcDs. arc commonlv taken with 


infteadof fnuch^ timidity and heUta^on. Men are ibli- 
"** citous, at that time, to put on the' iembknce of 
moderation and equity 5 they ftrive to gain parti- 
fans by fe^ming to adhere ftriftly to known forms; 
nor can they be brought, at once, to violate thofe 
eftabliihed inftitutions, which in times of tran* 
quillity they have beejl accuftomed to reverence,- 
hence tfeeir proceedings are crften fteble or di- 
latory, when they ought to be^ meft vigorous 
afid-doeifiVev InfllieRced by thofe confidcrations, 
^ which> hajjpily for the peace of fociety, operate 
powerfully on die human mind, the confederates 
Gould not- think of throwing off that allegiance 
which they owed to. the head of the Empire, 
or of turning their arm* againft him without 
one fokmn appeal more to his candour, and to 
the impartial judgment of their fellow-fulgeds. 

July 15. For this purpofc, they addreflbd a letter to the 
Emperor, and a manifeflSo to all the inhabitants 
of Germany. The tenour of both was the iame. 
They reprefehted their own conduft with regard 
t6 civil aflS^irs as dutiful and fubmiflive; they 
mentioned the inviolable union in- which they had 
lived widi the Emperor,- as well as the many and 
recent marks of his good-will and gratitude where- 
withal they had been- honoured i they aflerted re- 
ligion to be the fole caufe of the violence which 
the Emperor now meditated againft them> and.-in 
' ' 10 proof 

proof of this produced many arguments to con- ^ o o k 
Vince thofe who were fo weak as to be deceived l-^-'uJ 
by the irtifiees with which he endeavoured to *^'*^' 
cover his real intentions j they declared their owii 
^efolution to rilk every thing in maintenance of 
theif religious r^ts, arid foretold the diflblutioii 
of the German conftitution, if the Emperor fhoiild 
finally prevail againft them V 

CfiTARLESi though in fuch a perilous fituatioh- TheEmpe- 
as might have infpired him with moderate fenti-* [Z^^^ 
ments, appeared as inflexible ' and haUghty as if JteEmh 
his affairs had been in the moft profperbus ftate, Joiy »«. 
His only reply to the addrefs and manifefto of the 
Proteftahts, was- to publifh the ban of. the Empire 
againft the Elefbor of Saxony and Landgrave of 
Hcflc, their leaders, and againft all who fliould 
dare to affift them. By this fentence, the ulti- * 
ntate and moft rigorous one which the German 
jurilprudence has provided for the punilhment of 
6raitots, oi* enemies to their Country, they were 
declared rebels arid outlaws, and deprived of 
evciy privilege which they enjoyed as members 
of the Germanic bodyj their goods were confif- 
catcdi their fubjefts abfolved from their oath of 
allegiance; ^and it became not only lawftil but 
meritorious to invade their territories. The nobles, 
and free cities, who framed or perfefted the con- 
ftitution of the German government, had not been 
fo negligent of their owa fafety and privileges as to 

^ Sleid. 384. 

Z a truft 


* vin ^ ^^ *^ Emperor with this formidable juriidiftioii. 

c ^^^mj The authority of a diet of the Empire ought to 
'^^* have been interpofed before any of its members 
could be put under the ban. But. Charles over- 
looked that formality, well knowing that, if his 
arms were crowned with fuccefs, there would re- 
main none who would have either power or cou- 
rage to call in queftion what he had done ". The 
Emperor, however, did not found his fentence 
againft the Eledor and Landgrave on their revolt 
from the* eftablifhed church, or their conduft 
with regard to religion ; he afFefted to affign for 
it rcafons purely civil, and thofe too exprefled in 
fuch general and ambiguous terms, without 
fpccifying the nature or circumftances of their 
guilt, as rendered it more like an aft of defpotic 
power than of a legal and limited jurifdiftion. 
Nor was it altogether from choice, or to conceal 
his intentions, that Charles Iiad recourfe to the 
ambiguity of general expreffionss but he durft 
not mention too particularly the caufcs of his fen- 
tence, as every aftion which he could have charged 
upon the Eleftor and Landgrave as a crime, might 
have been employed with equal juftice to condemn 
many of the Proteftants whom he ftill pretended 
to confider as faithful fubjefts, and whom it 
would have been extremely imprudent to alarm 
or difguft. 

■ SleiJ. 386. Du Mont Corps DipTom. iv. p. 11. 314. 
FfcficJ Hifl. Abregc du Droit Publ, 168. 736. 158. 




The confederates, now perceiving all hopes of * ^ J^ ^ 
accommodation to be at an end, had only to c ^y^;^ 
choofe whether they would fubmit without refervc TfcJy m1 
to the Emperor's will, or proceed to open hoftili- l^*^^^^ 
ties. They were not deftitutc either of public charUi. . 
Ipirit or of refohition to make the proper choice. 
A few days after the ban of the Empire was pub- 
lifhed, they, according to the cuftom of that age, 
fent a herdd to the Imperial camp with a folemn 
declaration of war againft Charles, to whom they 
no longer gave any other title than that of pre- 
tended Emperor, and renounced aU allegiance, ho- 
mage, or duty which he might claim, or which they 
had hitherto yielded to him. But previous to this 
formality, part of their troops had begun to aft.' 
The command of a confiderablc liody of men TheirfJr* 
raifcd by the city of Augfbui^ having been given ^^•'*"*^"* ^ 
to Sebaftian Schertcl, a foldier of fortune, who 
by the booty that he got when the Imperialifts 
plundered Rome, together with the merit of long 
fervice, had acquired wealth and authority which 
placed him on a level with the chief of the Ger- 
man nobles: that gallant veteran refolvcd, before 
he joined the main body of the confederates, to 
attempt fomcthing fuitable to his former fame, 
and to the cxpeftation of his countrymen. As 
the Pope's forces were haftening towards Tyrol, 
in order to penetrate into Germany by the nar- 
row pailes through the mountains which run acrofs 
that country, he advanced thither with the utmoft 
rapidity, and feizcd Ehrenberg and Cuffftein, 
two ftrong caftles which commanded the principal 

Z 3 defiles. 


» vii? ^ d^fil^s. Without ftopping a moment, he con-^ 
c-,-^ tinued his march towards Infpruck, by getting 
^54^* poffeflion of which he would have obliged the 
Italians to Hop (hort, and with a fmall body of men 
could have refitted all the efForps of the greateft 
armies. Caftlcalto, the governor of Trent, know- 
' ing what a fatal blow this would be to the Empe- 
ror, all whofe defigns muft have proved abortive 
if his Italian auxiliaries had been intercq)tcd4 
raifed a few troops with the u(moft diipatch, and 
threw himfelf into the town. Schertel, however, 
^d not abandon the enterprize, and w?s prepar- 
ing to attack . the place, when the intelligence of 
the approach of the Italians, and an prder from 
the Elector and Landgraye, obliged hiip (o defift. 
By his retreat the pafies yfcrc left open^ and the 
Italians entered Germany without any oppofition^ 
\>\it from the garrifons which Schcrtd had placed 
in Ehrenberg and Cuffftein, and thefe, having no 
hopes of being relieved, furrender?d, after a fhort 
fefiftance^ *• 

* Seckend. lib. ii. 70, Adrian! liloria di fuoi Tempi, lib, 


* Seckendorf, the indoftrioas author of the Coin men tarioa 
Apologe^icus de Lutheraqifmo, whom I have fo long asd 
Safely followed as my guide in German affairs, was a de« 
fcendent from Schertcl. With the care and foHcitode of a 
German, who was himfelf of noble birth, Seckendorf haa 
published a long digreffipn concerning his anceftor, calcnl^te^ 
chiefly to ibow how;Schertel waa ennobled, aod bis poiflerity 
allied to many of ^he moft ancient families in the Empire* 
y^mong other curious particulars, he gives as an account of 
)>is wealth, the Chief four^c of v^luch was the plunder he got 


NcML was the recaHrhg rf Schertel the only • ^' ^ * 
error of trhkh the confederates were guilty. As <^ .i,^ -j 
the foprcmc command of their army was com-^ .n/fitcoo- 
mtttcd» in terms of the* league of Smalkaide, to *^"^ 
the Eleftor of Saxony and Landgrave of Hefie 
with equal power, ail the inconveniencies arif- 
ing from a divided and co-ordinate authority, 
which is always of fatal confcquence in the opera* 
rions of war, were immediate]^ felt. The Elec-* 
tor, thou^ intrepid in his own petfon to excels^ 
and mod ardendy zealous in the cauie, was flow 
in deliberjiting, uncertain as well as irrefolute in 
his determinations, and conftantly preferred mea- 
fures which were cautious and fafe, tp fuch as 
were bold or decifive. The Landgrave, of a 
more a&ive and enterprifing nature, formed all 
his reiblutbns with promptitude, wlflied to exe^ 
wtc them with ^irit, and unSbrmly preferred 
fisch meafures as tended to bring the conteft to a ' 
i^edy ifiue. Thus their maxims, with regard . 
to the conduA of the war, differed as widely aa 
thofe by which they were influenced in preparing 
fin- it. Such perpetual contrariety in tiieir fenti- 
ments gave rife, inc^erceptibly, to jealoufy and 
die ijMrit of contention. Thefe multiplied die 
diflenfions^ flowing from the incompatibility of 
their natural tempers, and rendered ihf^m won 

9t Rome. His landed eft«te alone was fold by his grandfooc 
for fix hundred thoafand florins. By this we may form fome 
idea of the riches'amafled by the ConJattieri, or commandert 
of mefcenary bands in (hat age. At the cakiiig of Roma 
Sckeriel was only a captain. 8eckend. Ub. it. 7 j. 

Z 4 violent. 



* vin ^ vi^^lc'^t. The other members of the league con- 
k ^ " '^mm* iidering themfelves as independent, and fubjeft 
'^^^ to the Eleftor and Landgrave, only in confe- 
quence of the articles of a voluntary confederacy, 
did hot long retain a proper veneration for com- 
manders who proceeded with fo litde concord ^ 
^d the numerous army of the Proteftants, like a 
vad machine whofe parts are ill compared, and 
which is deftitute of any power fufficient to move 
and regulate the whole, afted with no confiftency, 
vigour, or effcd. 

TbePop^'t The Emperor, who was afraid that, by re- 

troops jam .. Vi-/. t -i j--r 

the Empe. maining at Ratifbon, he might render it impoi- 
fible for the Pope's forces to join him, having 
boldly advanced to Landfhut on the lier, the 
confederates loft fome days in deliberating whe- 
ther it was proper to follow him into the territo- 
ries of the Duke of Bavaria, a neutral Prince. 
When at laft they furmountcd that fcruplc, and 
began to move towards his camp, they lliddenly 
^bandone^ the defign, and haftened to attack 
Ratift>on, in which town Charles could leave only 
a fmall ganifon. By this time the Papal troops, 
amounting folly to that nun^ber which Paul had 
ftipulated to fornifh, had reached Landfhut, and 
were foon followed by fix thoufand Spaniards of 
the veteran bands ftationed in Naples. The con- 
federates, after Schertel's Ipirited but fruitlefs 
expedition, feem to have permitted thefe forces 
to advance unmolefted to the place of rendez- 
vous, without any attempt to attack either them 



or the Emperor fcparatcly, or to prevent their book 
jundtion *. The Imperial army amounted now to wy^ 
thirty-fix thoufand men, and was' ftill more for- '^♦^ 
midable by the difcipline and valour of the troops, 
than by their number. Avila, commendador of 
Alcantara, who had been prefent in all the wars 
carried on by Charles, and had ferved in the 
armies which gained the memorable vidtdry at 
Pavia, which conquered Tunis, and invaded 
France, gives this the preference to any military 
force he had ever Icen aflembled ^. Odavio Far- 
nefe, the Pope's grandfon, affifted by the ableft 
officers formed in the long wars between Charles 
and Francis, commanded the Italian auxiliaries. 
His brother, the Cardinal Farnefe,, accompanied 
him as Papal legate; and in order to give the 
war the appearance of a religious enterprize, he 
propofed to march at the head of the army, with 
a crofs carried before him, and to publiih indul- 
gences wherever he came, to all who Ihould give 
them any affiftance, as had anciently been the 
pra6tice in the Crufades againft the Infidels. But 
this the Emperor ftriftly prohibited, as incon- 
fiftcnt with ^11 the declarations which he had 
made to the Germans of his own party; and the 
legate perceiving, to his aftonilhment, that the 
cxercife of the Proteftant religion, the extirpa- 
tion of which he confidered a$ the fole objedt of 
jhe war, was publicly permitted in the Imperial 
camp, foon returned in difguft to Italy *. 

> Adriaoi Hona de fuoi Tempi, lib. v. 34P. 
y Avila, 18. » F. Paul, 191- 



BOOK Thj amirai of diefe* troops enabled the Empc- 
vrT-v:=^ For tx> &nd fuch ^ reinforcement to the g^rriian 
'5*^' at Rfttifton, that the CQO&dcitrtes, xelinquifliii^ 
^ hopes of reducing, tiukt town^ mardied towards 
Ingpldftadt on the Danube, near cso which Charles 
Wft9 now encamped. They exclaimed loudly 
^g^inft' the Emperor's notorious vidation of the 
bws and conilitudon of the Empire^ in having^ 
^^ed in foreigners to lay wafte Germany^ and to 
~ ^pre(s its liberties. As in that age, the domi* 
nion of the Roman See was fo odious to the Pro- 
teftmts, that the name of the Pope alone was 
fu^cient to infpire them mth horror at ^ly en- 
terprise which he txatintenanccd, and to raife in 
tJieir 'minds the blackeft fufpicions, it came to be 
univerfally believed among them, that Paul, not 
fatisfied mth attacking diem openly by force of 
arms, had difperfed his emiflaries all over Ger* 
many, to fet on fire their towns and magazines, 
and to poifon the wells and fountains of water. 
Nor did this rumour, which was extravagant and 
frightful enough to make a deep impreflion on die 
credulity of the vulgar, fpread among them only; 
even the leaders of the party, blinded by their 
prejudices, publilhed a declaration, in which they 
accufed the Pope of having employed fuch Anti- 
chriftiaa and diabolical arts againft them*. Thefe 
icntiments of the confederates were confirmed, in 
fome meafure, by the behaviour of the Papal 
troops, who, thinking nothing too rigorous to- 

* Sleid. 399. 



wards heretics anathematized by^ the church, wefe ^ 90 ^, 
guilty of great exceifes in ;he territories of the « — v^Jl^ 
JLiUtheran States, and aggravated the calamities <:f '^^ 
waTj by ipingling w^th it aU the cruelty of bigoted 

The firft pperations in the field, however, di4 Theeoufc. 
not correfpond with the violence of thofc paflion^ Tairc?*to/ 
which animated individuals. The Emperor l>a4 imX^a 
prudently taken the relblution of avoiding ari ""y* 
adtion with an enemy fi) far fuperior in number ^^ 
clpecialiy as he forefaw that nothing- could keep 
^ body compofed of fo many and fuch diflimilar 
members from falling, to pieces, but the prefling 
to attack it with an inconliderate precipitancy. 
The confederates, though it was no lefs evident 
that to them every moment's delay was pernicious, 
were ftill prevented by the weaknefs or divifion 
of their leaders from exerting that vigour, with 
which their fituation, as well as the ardour of their 
ibldiers, ought to have infpired them. On their A«|»i 29^ 
arrival at Ingoldftadt, they found the Emperor 
in a camp not remarkable for ftrength, and fur* 
rounded only by a flight entrenchment. Before 
the camp lay a plain of fuch extent, as afforded 
fufiicient Ipace for drawing out their whok army, 
and bringing it to aft at once. Every confider- 
ation ihoul4 have determined them to have fcized 
this oppoftunity of attacking the Emperor; an4 
jheir great fuperiority in numbers, the cagerneis of 
jhejr troops, together with the liability of the 

* Avila, 78, a. 



* vn? ^ German infantry in pitched battles, afFordcd them 
w-^^-w the moft probable expeftation of vidtorjr. The 
'^^* Landgrave urged this with great warmth, declar- 
ing that if the fole command were vefted in him, 
he would terminate the war on that occafion, and 
decide by one general aftion the fate of the two 
parties. But the Eleftor, refleding on the valour 
and difcipline of the enemy's forcesj animated by 
the prefencc of the fimperor, and condufted by 
the bcft officers of the age, would not venture 
upon an aftion, which he thought to be fo doubt- 
ful, as the attacking fuch a body of veterans on 
ground which they themfelves had chofen, and 
while covered by fortifications which,- though 
imperfeft, would afford them no fmall advantage 
^ in the combat. Notwithftanding his hefitation 
and remonftrances, it was agreed to advance to- 
wards thje enemy's camp, in battle array, in order 
to make a trial whether by that infult, and by a 
furious cannonade which they began, they could 
draw the Imperialifts out of dieir works. But the 
Emperor had too much fagacity to fall into this 
TbeEmpe^ fnore. Hc adhered to his own fyftcm with in- 
rhaukr** flexible conftancy; and drawing up his fbldiers 
behind their trenches, that they might be ready 
to receive the confederates if they fhould venture 
upon an affault, calmly waited their approach, 
and carefully reftraincd his. own men from any 
excurfions or Ikirmifhes which might bring on a 
general engagement. Meanwhile, he rode along 
the lines, and addreffing the troops of the different 
nations in dieir own language, encouraged them 
by the cheerfulnefs of his voice and countenance. 


he expofed himfelf in places of grcatcft danger, book 
and amidft the warmeft fire of the enemy's ar- 
tillery, the moft numerous that had hitherto been 
brought into the field by any army. Roufcd by 
his example, not a man quitted his ranks; it was 
thought infamous to difcover any fymptom of fear 
when the Emperor appeared fo intrepid j and the 
mcaneft foldier plainly perceived, that their dcr 
dining the combat at prefent was not the efFeft 
of timidity in their, general, but the refult of a 
well-grounded caution. The confederates, after 
firing feveral hours on die Imperialifts, with more 
noife and terror than execution, feeing no pro- 
fpeft of alluring them to fight on equal terms, 
retired to their own camp. The Emperor cm- 
ployed the night with fuch diligence in ftrength- 
ening his works, that the confederates, returning , • 

to 'the cannonade next day, found that, though 
they had now been willing to venture upon fuch 
a bold experiment, the opportunity of making an 
attack with advantage was loft% 

After fiich a difcovcry of the feeblenels or TheFte. 
irrefolution of their leaders, and the prudence as j^J^iT'' 
weD as firmnefs of the Emperor's conduft, the ^^^^* 
confederates turned their whole attention towards 
preventing the arrival of a powerful reinforcement '» 
of ten thoufand foot, and four thoufand horfe, 
which the count de Buren was bringing to the 
Emperor from the Low-Countries. But though 

« Sleid. 395. 397. Avila, 27, a. Lamb. HorcenA ap. 
Scard. ii* 


ft o o f: 


350 THE REIGN OF Tllfe 

that generd hald to traVciffe fuch air extent of 
cotiittry ; though . His route lay through the terri- 
^^^ torids 6( fev6ral ftates warmly dil|x)fed to favour 
the confederated; though they were apprized of 
his approach, and by their Superiority in numbers 
. might eafily have detached^ a force fufficient to 
overpower him, he advanced With liich rapidity, 
dnd by luch well-concerted movements^ while they 
oppofed him with fuch rertiiffnefs, and {o little 
rtnilitary (kill, that he condnfttfd this body to the 
Imperial camp without any' lofs ^ 

Sept* TO* 

Upon ^e arrival of the Flerfiings, in whoiVi he 
placed great confidence, the £mperor altered, in 
fome degree, his plaA of operations^ and began 
tp aft mcwe upon the ofFenfive, though he ftill 
avoided a battle with the utmoft induftry. He 
made himfelf mafter of Neuburg, Dillingen, and 
DonafWert on the Danube; of Nordlingen, and 
fcver^l other towns, fituated on the niofk confi- 
derable dreams which fall into that mighty riven 
By this he got the command of a great extent of 
cbuntry, though- not without being obliged to 
engage in fcveral fharp encounters, of which the 
iuccefs was various, nor without being expofed, 
oftener than once, to the danger of being drawn 
•titeof- info a battle. Jn this manner the whole autumn 
was fpent i neither party gained any remarkable 
fuperiority over the other, and nothing was yet 
done towards bringing the war to a period. The 
Emperor - had often foretold, with confidence, 

^ Slcid. 4035 


bulbar mietk 


&at difcord and the want of money wou&l cottipel ^ ^^^ ^ 
the confederates^ to difjperfe diat unwieldy body, u>-^-%w 
which they had' neither abilities to guide riof '^^^ 
fUhds to Fuppoit*. Thbugh he waited with im- 
patience for the accompliftinftent of his pfediftion, 
there was no prolpcdt of that event being at hand. 
But he himfelf began to fufFcr from the Want . 
of fbr^;e and provifions; even the Catholic 
provinces being fo much incenfed at the intro- 
du6Hon of foreigners into the Empire, that they 
forniflhed them with relurft^ncef, while the camp of 
the confederates abounded with a prbfulion of all 
neceflkries, which the zeal of their friends in the 
adjacent countries poured in with the utmoft li- 
berality and good will. Great numbers of the 
Italians and Spaniards, unaccuftomcd to the cli- 
mate or' food* of Germany, were become unfit for 
fervicc through ffcknefs^ ' Confiderable arrears 
were now due to the troops, who had fcarcely 
received any money from the beginning of the 
campaign's the Emperor,, experiencing on this,. 
as well as on* former occafions, that fiis jurifdic- 
rion was more extenfive than his revenues^ and 
that the former enabled him to affemble a greater 
numJ^er of foldiers, than the latter werfc fufEcient 
to fupport* Upon all thefe accounts, he found it- 
drfficuk to keep his army in the fields fome o{ 
his ableft generals, and even the Dukeof Alvji 

a Joach. Camerario, ap. Freherura, vol. lii. p. 4^9. 
^ Camcrar. ap Fi-ehcr. ^S^* 



BOOK himfclf, pcrfevering and obftinatc as he ulually 
%^.^^1^ was in the profecution of every meafurc^ advifing 
*5^^* him to dilperfe his troops into winter-quarters* 
But as the arguments urged againf): any plan 
which he had adopted, rarely made much imprcf- 
fion upon the Emperor, he paid no regard to their 
opinion, and determined to continue his efforts 
in order to weary out the confederates; being 
well aflured that if he could once oblige them to 
feparate,. there was litde probability of their 
uniting again in a body ^. Still, however, it re- 
mained a doubtful point, whether his lleadinefs 
was mofl likely to fail, or their zeal to be ex- 
haufted. It was flill uncertain which party, by 
firft dividing its forces, would give the fupe- 
riority to the other; when an unexpected event 
decided the conteft, and occafioned a fatal reverie 
in the affairs of the confederates* 

Scbcnes of 
MattHce of • 

Maurice of Saxony having infinuated himlelf 
slwiyV "' into the Emperor's confidence, by the arts which 
have already been defcribed, no fooner faw hofti- 
lities ready to break out between the confederates 
of Smalkalde and that monarch, than vaft pro- 
fpefts of ambition began to open upon him. That 
portion of Saxony, which defcendcd to him from 
his anceftors, was far from fatisfying his afpiring 
mind; and he perceived with pleafurc the ap- 
proach of civil war, as amidft the revolutions and 
convulfions occafioned by it, opportunities <^ 

K Thuan. 83* 




- VIII. 

acquiring additional power or dignity, which at 
other times are fought in vain, prefent themfelves 
to an enterprifing Ipirit. As he was thoroughly '^* ' 
acquainted with the ftate of the two contending 
parties, and the qualities of their leaders, he did 
not hefitate long in determining on which fide the 
greateft advantages were to be expefted. Having 
revolved all thefe things in his o^n breaft, and 
having taken his final refolution of joining the 
Emperor, he prudently determined to declare 
early in his favour; that by the merit of this, 
he might acquire a title to a proportional recom- 
penfe. With this view, he had' repaired to Ra- 
ti/bon in the month of May, under pretext of 
attending the diet; and after many conferences Hjiifagoe 
with Charles or his minifters, he, with the moft Emperor, 
myfterious fecrecy, concluded a treaty, in which 
he engaged to concur in affifting the Emperor as 
a faithful fubjeft j and Charles, in return, ftipu- 
lated to beftow on him all the fpoils of the Eleftor 
of Saxony, his dignities as well as territories *. 
Hiftory hardly records any treaty that can be 
confidered as a more manifeft violation of the 
moft powerful principles which ought to influence • 
human aftions. Maurice, a profefTed Proteftant, 
at a time when the belief of religion, as well as 
ze4 for its interefts, took ftrong pofTeflion of 
every mind, binds himfelf to contribute his aflift- 
ance towards carrying on a war which had mani* 

^ Haraci Anna!. Brabant, vol. i. 638. Straifii Corp, 1048. 
Thoan. 84.. 

Vol. III. A a fcftly 


* via ^ ^'^^^y ^^ ^^^^^ obje£b than the extirpation of the 
C .^y-~> Proteftant doftrines. He engages to toke arms 
'^^^' againft his father-in-law, and to ftrip his neareft 
relation of his honours and dominions. He joins 
a dubious friend againft a known benefeftor, to 
whom his obligations were both great and recent. 
Nor was the Prince who ventured upon all this, 
one of thofe audacious politicians, who, provided 
they can accomplilh their ends, and fecure their 
intereft, avowedly difregard the moft facred obli- 
gations, and glory in contemning whatever is ho- 
nourable or decent- .Maurice's conduft, if the 
whole muft be afcribed to policy, was more artful 
and maftcrly ; he executed his plan in all its parts, 
and yet endeavoured to preferve, in every ftep 
which he took, the appearance of what was &ir, 
and virtuous, and laudable. It is probable, horn 
his fubfequent behaviour, that, with regard to 
the Proteftant religion at leaft, his intentions were 
upright, that he fondly trufted to the Emperor's 
promifes for its fccurity, but that, according to 
the fate of all who refine too much in poHcy, and 
who tread in dark and crooked paths, in attempt- 
ing to deceive others, he himfelf was, in fiwnc de- 
gree, deceived. 

Hh artifices His firft care> however, was to keep the cn- 

jn order to , i • t i t t / • * i 

conceal his gagemcnts into which he had entered with the 
laicnuons. ];; i^^peror clofely concealed : and fo perfe6k a maftcr 
waji he in the art of diffimulation, that the confe- 
derates, notwithfianding his declining all connexions 
with diem, and his remarkable afliduity in paying 



tourt to the Empefor, feezed to have entertained ^ ^^^ ^ 
no-fulpicioh of his defign^. £t^en the Eleftor of ^ -'■v- - J ' 
Saxony, when he marched dt the beginning of the '^* ' 
campaign to join his rfffotiatfcs, committed his 
dominions to Maurice's proteftion, whi(;:h he, with 
ah infidiotis appearance of frieridfhip, readily un- 
dertook *. But ftitrcely had the Eleftor taken the 
field, when M^rice began to confult privately 
with the King of the Rofnans how to' invade thofe 
very territories, with the defence of which he was 
entrcrfted. Soon after, the Emperor fent him a 
copy of the Imf)erial ban • denoiineed againft the 
Elector and Landgrave* As he \^as next heir to 
the former, and particularly iriterefted in pre- 
venting ftfangers from getting his dominions into 
their pofleflioti, Charles required him, not only 
fof his own fake, but upon the allegiance and 
duty which he owed to the head of the Empire, 
inftaritly to feize and detain in his hands the for- 
feited eftates of the Eledtorj warning him, at the 
fame time, that if he neglefted to obey thefe 
commands, he fhould be held as acceflary to the 
crimes of his kinfman, and be liable to the fame 
punishment ^. 

This artifice, which it h probable Maurice 
himfelf fuggeffed, was employed by' him in or- 
der that his coriduft towards the Ele6tor might • 
feem a matter of neceffity but not of choice, an 
aft of obedience to his fuperior, rather than a 

* Struvii Corp. 1046. ^ SIcid, 391. Thuan. 84. 

A a a voluntary 


BOOK voluntary invafion of the rights of his kinfman 
C-->v-^-^ and ally. But in order to give fome more (pe- 
'^^^' cioys appearance to this thin veil with which he 
endeavoured to cover his ambition, he, foon 
after his return from Ratifbon, had called toge- 
ther the dates of his country j and reprefenting to 
them that a civil war between the Emperor and 
, cpnfederates of Smalkalde was now become un- 
avoidable, defired their advice with regard to the 
part which he fhould a6l in that event. They 
having been prepared, no doubt, and tutored be- 
fore-hand, and being defirous of gratifying their 
Prince, whom they efteemed as well as loved, gave 
fuch counfel as they knew would be moft agree- 
able i advifirig him to offer his mediation towards 
reconciling the contending parties ; but if that 
were rejefted, and he could obtain proper fecurity 
for the Proteftant religion, they delivered it as 
their opinion that, in all other points, he ought 
to yield obedience to the Emperor. Upon re- 
ceiving the Imperial refcript, together with the 
ban againft the Eledor and Landgrave, Maurice 
fiimmoncd the ftates of his country a fecond time; 
he laid before them the orders which he had re- 
ceived, and mentioned the punifhment with which 
he was threatened ia cafe of difobedience -, he ac- 
quainted diem that the confederates had refufed 
to admit of his mediation, and that the Emperor 
had given him the moft fatisfadory declarations 
with regard to religion ; he pointed out his Qwn 
intereft in fecuring pollcfllon of the ele6toral do- 
minions, as well as the danger of allowing fb-an-t 



gers to obtain an eftablilhnient in Saxony s and ^ ^^^ ^ 
upon the whole, as the point under deliberation ' — - -^ 
refpefted his fubjefts no lefs than himfelf, he de- ''** ' 
fired to know their fentiments, how he (hould 
fleer' in that difficult and arduous conjun£ture. 
The ftates, no lefs obfequious and complaifant 
than formerly, profeffing their own reliance on the 
Emperor's promifes as a perfeft fccurity for their 
religion, propofed that, before he had recourfe to 
more violent methods, they would ^ write to the 
Elcftor, exhorting him, as the beil means, not 
only of appeafing the Emperor, but of prevent- 
ing his dominions from being feized by foreign or 
hoftilc powers, to give his confent that Maurice 
fliould take pofleffion of them quietly and without 
oppofition. Maurice himfelf feconded their argu- 
ments in a letter to the Landgrave, his father-in- 
law. SCch an extravagant propofition was rejefted ' 
with the fcorn and indignation which it dcferved. 
The Landgrave, in return to Maurice, taxed him 
with his treachery and ingratitude towards a kinf- 
man to whom he was fo deeply indebted i he 
treated with contempt his afFeftation of executing 
the Imperial ban, which he could not but know 
to be altogether void, by the unconftitutional and 
arbitrary manner in which it had been iffued 5 he 
befought him, not to fuffer himfelf to be fo far 
blinded by ambition, as to forget the obligations 
of honour and friendfliip, or to betray the Pro- 
teftant religion, the extirpation of which out of 
Germany, even by the acknowledgment of the 
A a 3 Pope 


Pope himfelf, was the great objeft of the prefent 

He invades BuT Mauricc had proceeded too far to be di- 
rieVof"the' vcrCed from purfuing his plan by reproaches or 
sixony."*^ arguments. Nothing now remained but to exc- 
Novcmbcr. ^"^^ ^^^^ vigour, wh^t he had hitherto carried on 
by artifice and diflimulation. Nor was his bold- 
ncfs in aftion inferior to his fqbtlety iff contri- 
vance. Having aflembled aboyt twelve thoufand 
men, he fuddenly invaded one part of the eledloral 
provinces, while Ferdinand, with an army com- 
pofed of Bohemians and Hungarians^, overran 
the other. Maurice, in two iharp encounters, 
defeated the troops which the Eleftor had left to 
guard his country; and improving thefe advan- 
tages to the utmoft, made himfelf mafter of all 
the Eledorate, except Wittemberg, Gotha, and 
Eifenach, which being places of confiderable 
ftrength, and defended by fufEcient garrifons, 
refufed to open their. gates. The news of thefe 
rapid conquefts foon reached the Im.perial and 
confederate camps. In the former, fatisfaftion 
with an event, which it was forefcen would be 
produftive of the moft important confequences, 
was exprefTed by every poiTible demonftration of 
joy. The latter was filled with aftonilhment and 
terror. The name of Maurice was mentioned 
with execration, as an ajioftate from religion, a 

J Skid. 405, &c. Tbuan. 85. Camexar. 484. 



betrayer of the Germin liberty, and a contemner 
of the moft facred and natural ties. Eveiy thing 
that the rage or invention of the party could '54^* 
fuggeft, in order to blacken and render hini odi- 
ous ; invedtives, fatires, and lampoons, die furious 
declamations of their preachers, together with the 
rude wit of their authors, were all employed 
againft him. While he, confiding in the arts 
which he had fo long praftifed, as if his actions 
could have admitted of ^y ferious juftification, 
publilhed a manifefto, containing the fame frivo- 
lous reafons for his conduft, which he had former- 
ly alleged in the meeting of his ilates^ and in his 
letter to the Landgrave °*. 


The Ekftor, upon the firfl: intelligence of The confe. 
Maurice's motions, propofed to return home with ml' e over. 
his troops for the defence of Saxony. But the commodl!' 
deputies of the league, affemblcd at Ulm, pre- *^^" '^^^^* 
vailed on him, at that time, to remain with the 
army, and to prefer the fuccefs of the common 
caufe before the fecurity of his own dominions. 
At length the fufFerings and complaints of his ' 
fubjefts increafed fo much, that he difcovered the 
utmoft impatience to fet out, in order to refcue 
diem from the oppreflion of Maurice, and from 
the cruelty of the Hungarians, who, having beei> 
accuftomed to that licentious and m«"cilefs fpe- 
cies of war which was thought lawful againft the 
Turks, committed, wherever they came, the wild- 

» Slcid. 409, 410, 

A a 4 eft 



' VII? ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ rapine and violence. This defirc of 
c— .,,-L^ .the Eledtor was fo natural and fo warmly urged, 
'^*^- that the deputies at Ulm, though fully fenfiblc 
of the unhappy confequences of dividing their 
army, durft not refufe their confent, how unwill-^ 
ing foever to grant it. In this perplexity, they 
repaired to the camp of the confederates at Gien- 
gen on the Brenz, in order to confult their con- 
ftituents. Nor were they lefs at a lofs what to 
• determine in this preffing emergence. But, after 
having confidered ferioufly the open defertion of 
fome of their allies ; the fcandalous lukewarm- 
nefs of others, who had hitherto contributed 
nothing towards the war; the intolerable load 
which had fallen of confequence upon fuch 
members as were moft zealous for the caufe, or 
moft faitliful to their engagements; the ill fuc- 
cefs of all their endeavours to obtain foreign aid; 
the unufual length of the 'campaign; the rigour 
of the feafon ; together with the great number 
of foldiers, and even officers, who had quitted 
the fervice on that account ; they concluded that 
nothing could fave them, but either the bringing 
the contcfl: to the immediate decifion of a battle 
by attacking the Imperial army, or an accommo- 
dation of all their differences with Charles hy a 
treaty. Such was die defpondency and dejeftion 
which now opprefied the party, tliat of thefe two 
they chofe what was moft feeble and unmanly, 
empowering a minifler of the Eledor of Bran- 
denburg to propound overtures of peace in their 
name to tlie Emperor. 



No fooner did Charles perceive this haughty ® y,,? "^ 
confederacy, which had fo lately threatened to v-^y.-!^ 
drive him out of Germany, condefcending to ^hUh^hi 
make the firft advances towards an agreement, "J*"^*'- 
than concluding their fpirit to be gone, or their 
union to be broken, he immediately aflfumcd the 
tone of a conqueror ; and, as if they had been 
ah*eady at his mercy, would not hear of a nego- 
ciation, but upon condition that the Eleftor of 
Saxony (hould previoufly give up himfelf and 
his dominions abfolutely to his difpofal". As 
nothing more intolerable or ignominious could 
have been prefcribed, even in the worft lituation 
of their affairs, it is no wonder that this pro- 
pofition fhould be rejefted by a party, which was 
rather humbled and difconcerted than' fubdued* 
But though they refufed to fubmit tamely to the 
Emperor's will, they wanted fpirit to purfue the 
only plan which could have prefcrved their inde- 
pendence ; and forgetting that it was the union of 
their troops in one body which had hitherto ren- 
dered the confederacy formidable, and had more 
than once obliged the Imperialifts to think of quit- 
ting the field, they inconfiderately abandoned this 
advantage, which, in fpite of the divcrfion in 
Saxony, would ftiit have kept tlie Emperor in 
awe i and yielding to the Elector's entreaties, T'ne rroopt 
confented to his propofal of dividing the army. ?edlracy**fc. 
Nme thoufand men were left in the dutchy of p"*^** 
Wurtemberg, in order to prote6t that province, 

* Hortenfius, ap. Scard. ii. 485* 



^ via ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ Upper Germany ; a 
confiderable body marched with the Elcftor to- 
wards Saxony ; but the greater part returned with 
their refpeftive kaders into their own countricsj 
and were difperfed there •. 


Almoft all 
the mem- 

The moment that the troops feparated, the 
bersofit confederaqr ceafed to be the obicQ: of terror; and 
ihcEinpe- the members of ity who, v/hile they compofed 
part of a great body, had felt but little anxiety 
about their own fecurity, began to tremble when 
they reflefted that they now flood expofed fingly 
to the wh6le weight of the Emperor's vengeance. 
Charles did not allow them leifure to recover from 
their confternation, or to form any new fchcmcs 
of union. As foon as the confederates began to 
retire, he put his army in motion, and though it 
was now the depth of winter, he refolved to keep 
the field, in order to make the moft of that fer- 
vourable juncture for which he had waited fo- long- 
Some fmall towns, in which the enemy had left 
garriibns, immediately opened their gates. Nor- 
lingen, Rotenberg, and Hall, Imperial cities^ 
fubmitted foon after. Though Charles could not 
prevent the Eleftor from levying, as he retreated, 
large contributions upon the archbilhop of Mentz, 
the abbot of Fulda, and odier ecclefiaftics ^ this 
was more than balanced by the fubmiflion of 
Ulm, one of the chief cities of Suabia, highly 
diftinguifhed by its zeal for the Smalkaldic 

• Sleid. 411. ^ Thuan. 88. 



league. As foon as. an example was fet of defert- ^ y..^ '^ 
ing the common caufe, the reft of the members ' — /-1j 
"became Jnftantly impatient to follow it, and feem- ^^^* 
ed afraid left others, by getting the ftart of them 
in returning to their duty, fliould, on that account, 
obtain more favourable, terms. The Elector 
Palatine, a weak Prince, who, notwithftanding 
his profeflions of neutrality, had, very prepofte- 
roufly, fent to the confederates four hundred horfe, 
a body fo inconfiderable as to be fcarcely any 
addition to . their ftrength, but great enough to 
render him guiky in the eyes of die Emperor* 
made his acknovledgments in the moft abjeft 
manner. The inhabitants of Augiburg, fhaken 
by fo n(iany inftances of apoftacy, .expelled the 
br^ve Schertel out of their city, and accepted' 
fuch conditions as the Emperor was pleafed to 
grant them. 

The Duke of Wurtemberg, though among the 
firft who had offered to fubmit, was obliged ta 
fuc for pardon on his knees ; and even after this 
mortifying humiliation, obtained it with difficul- 
ty^. Memmingen, and other free cities in the 1547. 
circle of Suabia, being now abandoned by all 
theu* former ailbciates, found it neccliary to pro- 
vide for their own fafety, by throwing themfclves 
oa the Emperor's mercy. Strafburg and Frank- 
fort on the Maine, cities far remote from the feat 
of danger, difcovered no greater fteadirtefs than 

4 Mem. de Ribier, torn. i. 589. 



* VI ? ^"^ ^'^^^^ which lay more expofed. Thus a confede- 
c^---^ racy, lately fo powerful as to fhake the Imperial 
*^*^' throne, fell to pieces, and was diflblved in the 
fpace of a few weeks ; hardly any member of that 
formidable combination now remaining in arms, 
but the Eleftor and Landgrave, whom the Em- 
peror, having from the beginning marked out as 
the viftims of his vengeance, was at no pains to 
The rigor- reconcile. Nor did he grant thofe who fubmitted 
tiunsim- to him a generous and unconditional pardon. 
Ea'^w.*'* Confcious of his own fuperiority, he treated them ' 
both with haughtinefs and rigour. AH the Princes 
in perfon, and the cities by their deputies, were 
compelled to implore mercy in the humble pof- 
ture of fupplicants. As the Emperor laboured 
under great difficulties from the want of money, 
he impofed heavy fines upon them, which* he le- 
vied with mod . rapacious exaftnefs. The Duke 
of Wurtemberg paid three hundred thoufand 
crowns ; the city of Augfburg an hundred and 
fifty thoufand j Ulm an hundred thoufand ; Frank- 
fort eighty thoufand; Memmingen fifty thoufand; 
and the refl: in proportion to their abilities, or 
their different degrees of guilt. They were 
obliged, befides, to renounce the league of Smal- 
kalde ; to furnifh affiftance, if required, towards 
executing the Imperial ban againft the' Eleftor 
and Landgrave; to give up their artillery and 
warlike (lores to the Emperor ; to admit garri- 
fons into their principal cities and places of 
ftrengthj and, in this difarmed and dependent 
fituation, to expeft the final award which the Em- 


peror fhould think proper to pronounce when the ft o o ic 
war came to an iflue \ But, amidft the great u--'^-j 
variety of articles diftated by Charles on this occa- '547. 
fion, he, in conformity to his original plan, took 
care that nothing relating to religion fhould be in- 
ferted ; and to fuch a degree were the confederates 
humbled or overawed, that, forgetting the zeal 
which had fo long animated them, they were foli- 
citous only about their own fafety, without ventur- 
ing to infift on a point, the mention of which they 
faw the Emperor avoiding with fo much induftry. 
The inhabitants of Memmingen alone made fome 
feeble efforts to procure a promife of proteftion in 
the exercife of their religion, but were checked fo 
feverely by the Imperial minifters, that diey in- 
ftantly fell from their demand. 

The Elector of Cologne, whom, notwith- 
ftanding the fentence of excommunication iffued 
againft him by the Pope, Charles had hitherto 
allowed to remain in pofleflion of the archiepif- 
copal fee, being now required by the Emperor to 
fubmit to the cenfures of the church, this virtu- 
ous and difmterefted prelate, unwilling to expofe 
his fubjefts to the mifcries of war on his own 
account, voluntarily refigned that high dignity. 
With a moderation becoming his age and cha- Jio. 25. 
racier, he chofe to enjoy trudi together with the 
exercife of his religion in the retirement of a pri- 
vate life, rather than to difturb fociety by enga- 

» Sleld. 411, Sec. Thuan. lib, iv. p, 125. Mem. de Ri- 
bier, tom. i. 6c6. 



BOOK gjng in a doubtful and violent ftruggle in order tt> 


retam his office \ 

1547. • 

TbeEieaor DuRiNG thcfc tranfiftions, the Ele&or of Saxooy 

^returns to /- • /- i • zi 

Sixony,tnd reachcd the frontiers of his country unmolefted. 

feffion'orit' As Maurice could affemble no force equal to die 
army which accompanied hnn, he, in a fhort time, 
not only recovered Jx)flreffion of his own territories, 
but over-ran Mifnia, and ftripped his rivsd of aH 
that belonged to him, except Drefden and Leipfic, 
which, being towns of fome ftrength, could not 
be fudderily reduced. Maurice, obliged to quit 
the field, and to fliut himfelf up in his capital, 
difpatched courier after courier to the Emperor, 
reprefenting his dangerous fituation, and foliciting 
him with the moft earneft importunity to march 
immediately to his relief " But Charles, bufy at 
5hat time in prefcribing terms to fuch members 
of the league as were daily returning to their al- 
legiance, thought it fufficient to detach Albert 
Marquis of Brandenburg- A nfpach with three 
thoufand men to his affiftance. Albert, though 
an enterprifing and aftive officer, was unexpeft- 
cdly furprifed by the Ele6tor, who killed many 
of his troops, difperfed the remainder, and took 
him prifoner '. Maurice continued as much ex- 
pofed as formerly ; and if his enemy had known 
how to Improve the opportunity v^hich prefented 
itfelf, his ruin muft have been immediate and un- 
avoidable. But the Eleftor, no^lefs flow and di- 

• SIcid. 418. Thuan. lib. W. 128. 

^ A Vila, 99. 6. Mem. de Ribier, torn* i. 620. 




latory when invefttd with the fole command, than b o o ic 
he had been formerly when joined in authority > — : — L-i 
with a partner, never gave any proof of military '^^* 
aftivity but in this enterprize againft Albert. In- 
ftead of marching diredtly towards Maurice, whom 
the defeat of his ally had greatly alarmed, he in- 
confiderately liftened to overtures of accommoda- 
tion, which his artful antagonift propofed with no 
other intention than to amufe him, and to flacken 
the vigour of his operations. 

Such, indeed, .was the pofture of the Empe- The Empe- 
ror's affairs that he coi^d not march inftantly to ed^romlT-* 
the relief of his ally. Soon after the feparation Ei'ftof »nd 
of the confederate army, he, in order to eafe him- ^*n^8^*»«« 
felf of the burden of maintaining a fuperfluous 
number of troops, had difmiiTed the count of 
Buren with his Flemings", imagining that the 
Spaniards and Germans, together with the papal 
forces, would be fully fufTicient to crufh any de- 
gree of vigour that yet remained among the 
members of the league. But Paul, growing wife 
too late, began now to difcern the imprudence of 
that meafiire, from which the more fagacious Ve- 
netians had endeavoured in vain to diffuade him. 
The rapid progrefs of the Imperial arms, and the 
eafe with which they had broken a combination 
that appeared no lefs firm than powerful, opened 
his eyes at length, and made him not only forget 
at once all the advantages whicii he had expeded 

« Avila, 83. 6. Mew. de Ribicr, torn. i. 592. 

5 from 

The Pope 
recalls his 


BOOK ffojxi fuch a complete triumph over herefy, but 
u,^^,„j placed, in the ftrongeft light, .his own impolitic 
*5*^* condu6t, in having contributed towards acquiring 
for Charles fuch an immenfe increafe" of power, 
• as. would enable him, after opprefling the liber- 
ties of Germany, to give law with abfolute autho- 
rity to all the ftates of Italy. The moment that 
he perceived his error, he endeavoured to correft 
it. Without giving the Emperor any warning of 
troops. j^j3 intention, he ordered Farnefe, his grandibn^ 
to return inftantly to Italy with all the troops un- 
der his command, and at the fame time recalled 
the licence which he had granted Charles, of ap- 
propriating, to his own ufe, a large fhare of the 
church lands in Spain. He was not deftitutc of 
pretences to juftify this ^brupt defertion of his 
ally. The term of fix months, during wliich the 
ftipulations in their treaty were to continue in 
force, was now expired ; the league, in oppofi- 
tion to which their dliance had been framed, 
feemed to be entirely diflipatedj. Charles, in all 
his negociations with the Princes and cities which 
had fubmittcd to his will, had neither confulted 
the Pope, nor had allotted him any part of the 
conquefts which he had made, nor had allowed 
him any fhare in the vafl contributions which 
he had taifed. He had not even made any pro- 
•vifion for the fuppreflion of herefy, or the re- 
eftablifliment of the Catholic religion, which were 
Paul's chief inducements to beflow the treafures 
of the church fo liberally in carr}dng on the 
war. Thefe colours, however fpecious, did not 





conceal from the Emperor that fecret jealoufy book 
which was the true motive of the Pope*s condudt. Ui-.^^ 
But, as Paul's orders with regard to the march *^*^' 
of his troops were no lefs peremptory than unex- , 
pefted, it was impoflible to prevent their retreat. 
Charles exclaimed loudly againft his treachery, in 
abandoning him .ib unfeafonably, while he was 
profccuting a war undertaken in obedience to the 
papal injunftions, and from which, if fuccefsful, 
fo much' honour and advantage would redound 
to the church. To complaints he added threats 
and cxpoftulations* But Paul remained inflexible; 
his troops continued their march towards the ec- 
clefiaftical ftate.; and in an elaborate memorial, 
intended as an apology for his condud, he dif- 
covered new and more manifeft fymptoms of alien- 
ation from the Emperor, together with a deep- 
rooted dread of his power "". Charles, weakened 
by the withdrawing of fo great a body from his . 
army, which was already much diminilhed by the 
number of garrifons that he had been obliged to 
throw into tlie towns which had capitulated, found 
it neceffary to recruit his forces by new levies, be* 
fore he could venture to march in perfon toward* 

The fame and iplendour of his fuccefs could Aconfpi- 
not have failed of attrading fuch multitudes of ^^^'^^J^Z 
fbldiers into his fervice from all the extenfive ter- 'wn^ent ai 


ritories now fubjeft to his authority, as muft have 

* F. PaoU ao8. Pallavic. par. xi. p, 5. Thuao. X26. 
Vol. III. B b foon 


^ VII? ^ ^'^^ P^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ condioon of taking the field 
s_^^l^ againft the EleAor; but the Hidden and violenc 
*^*7« eruption of a conipiraqr at Genoa, as weU as the 
great revolutions which that event, extremely my- 
fterious in its firil appearances, feemed to portend, 
obliged him to avoid entangling himietf in new 
operations in Germany, until he had fully difco- 
vered its fource and tendency. The form of go- 
vernment which had been eftabli(hed in Genoa, at 
the time when Andrew Doria rcftored liberty to 
his country, though calculated to obliterate the 
memory of former diflfenfions, and received at firft 
with eager approbation, did not, after a trial o( 
near twenty years, give univerfal fadsfaftion to 
thofe turbulent and faftious republicans. As the 
entire adminiftration of affairs was now lodged in a 
certain number of noble femilies, many envying 
The objcft them that pre-eminence, wifhed for the reftitution 
fpiraiow!* of a popular government, to which diey had been 
accuftomed ; and though all reverenced the difin- 
terefled virtue of Doria, and admired his talents, 
not a few were jealous of that afcendant which he 
had acquired in the councils of the commonwealth. 
His age, however, his moderation, and his love of 
liberty, aflForded ample fecurity to his countrymen 
that he would not abufe his power, nor flain the 
clofe of his days by attempting to overturn that 
fabric, which it had been the labour and pride of 
his life to ere£t. But the authority and influence 
which in his hands were innocent, they ealily law 
would prove delbuftive, if ufurped by any citizen 
* of greater ambition, or lefs virtue. A citizen of 


£WP£R0R CrtARLES V. 371 


this ding/srow ch^a£ter had a£hiaUy formed fuch 
pretenlkms^ and lyith ionne profpeft of fuccefs* 
Giaanetino Dona, whom his grand unck Andrew '^*^" ^ 
deftined to be the heir of his private fortune, 
aimed hk^swiie at being his fucceilbr in powen 
His temper haughty, infolent, and overbearing to 
fuch a degi^ee as would hardly have been tolerated 
in one born to reign^ was altogether infupportable 
in the citizen of a free ftace. The .more fagaciou^ 
among die Gcnoefe already feared und hated him 
as the eiiemy of riiofc liberties for which they were 
indebted to his uncle. While Andrew himfelfi 
blinded by that violent and undifcerning afFedion 
which perfons in advanced age often contraft for 
the younger members of their family, fet no bounds 
to the indulgence with which he treated him ; 
feeniing kfs (blicitous to iecure and perpetuate the 
freedom of the commonwealth, than to aggrandize 
that undeferving kinfman. 

But whatever, fufpicion of Dorians defigns, or 
whatever diffatisfaftion with the fyftem of admini- 
ftration in the commonwealth, thefe circumftances 
might have occafioned, they would have ended, it 
is probable, in nothing more than murmurings 
and complaints, if John Lewis Fiefco count of 
Lavagna, obferving this growing difguft, had not 
been encouraged by it to attempt one of the bold- 
dl anions recorded in hiftory. That young no- futcoamnt 
bkman, the richeft and moft illuftriou3 fubjeft in •h/hwfo'f 
the republic, poffefled, in an eminent degree, all *^^y^/"**' 
the qualities which win upon the human heart, 
B b 2 which 

372 THE RfiiGN OF TH£ 

* viu ^ which command refpeft, or fecurc atcachmenr^ 
k,^v^-^ He was graceful and majeftic in his perfbn ; msLg- 
^^^^' nificcnt even to profufion ; of a generofity that an- 
ticipated the wifhcs of his friends, and exceeded 
the expcftations of ftrangers ; of an inlinuating 
addrefs, gentle manners, and a flowing affability. 
But under the appearance of thefe virtues, which 
feemed to form him for enjoying and ador&ing 
focial life, he concealed all the diipofitians which 
mark men out for taking the lead in the moft 
dangerous and dark conlpiracies ; an infatiable 
and reftlefs ambition, a courage unacquainted with 
fear, and a mind that diidained fubordinatioiL . 
Such a temper could ill brook that ftadon of in- 
feriority, wherein he was placed in the republic ^ 
and as he envied the power which the elder Dona 
had acquired, he was filled with indignation at the 
thoughts of its defcending, like an hereditary pof- 
feflion, to Giannetino. . Thefe various pillions* 
preying with violence on his turbulent and alpir- 
ing mind, determined him to attempt overturn- 
ing that domination to which he could not ful>- 

int/.guet As the moft effeftual method of accompliihing 

wion'Jthe this^ he thought at firft of an alliance with tran- 

confi,ix4tor». ^j^^ ^^^ ^^^^ propofcd it to the French ambaflfa- 

• dor at Rome ; and after expelling Doria, together 

with the Imperial faftion, by his aflTiftanoe, he 

offered to put the republic once more under 

the protection of that Monarch, hoping in return 

for that fervice to be cntrufted with the principal 




fliare in the adminiftratlon of government. But ^ ^^^'^ 
having communicated his fcheme to a few chofen 
confidents, from whom he kept nothing ftcret, 
Vcrrina, the chief of them, a man of delpcrate 
fortune, capable alike of advifing and executing 
the moft audacious deeds, remonftrated with ear- 
neftnefs againfl: the folly of expofing himfelf to 
the moft imminent danger, while he allowed an- 
other to reap all the fruits of his fuccefs ; and ex- 
horted him warmly to aim himfelf at that pre- 
eminence in his country, to which he was deftined 
by his illuftrious birth, was called by the voice 
of his fellow-citizens, and would be raifed by die 
zeal of his frieAds, This difcaurfe opened fuch 
great prolpeft^ to Fiefco, and fo fuitable tg his 
genius^ that abandoning his own plan, he eagerly 
adopted that of Verrina. The other perfons pre- 
fent> though fenfible of the hazardous nature of 
the undertaking, did not choofe to condemn what 
their patron had fo warmly approved. It was 
inftandy refolved, m this dark cabal, to aflaflinate 
the two Dorias, as well as the principal perfons 
of their party, to overturn the eftabliflied fyftem 
of government, and to place Fiefco on the ducal 
throne of Genoa. Time, however, and prepara- 
tions were requifite to ripen fuch a defign for ex- 
ecution i and while he was employed in carrying 
on thefe, Fiefco made it his chief care to guard 
againit every thing that might betray his fecret, 
or create fuipicion. The diigyiie he aflumed, 
was of all others the moft impenetrable. He 
ieemcd to be abandoned , entirely to pleafurc and 
6 b 3 dimpation* 


F O O K 


diffipation. A perpetual gaiety, diverfified.by the 
piirfuit of all the amufements in which perfbns of 
'547. • his age and rank are apt to delight, engroflfed, in 
appearance, the whole of his time and thoughts. 
But amidft this hurry of diffipation, he prdfecuted 
his plan with the moft cool attention, neither re- 
tarding the defign by a timi4 hefitation, nor pre- 
cipitating the execution by an ^xcefs of impatience. 
He continued his correfpondence with the French 
ambaflador at Rome, though without communi- 
cating to him his real intentions, that by his means 
he might fecure the proteftion of the French arms, 
if hereafter he Ihould find it neceflary to call them 
in to his aid. He entered into a clofe confederacy 
with Farnefe Duke of Parma, who being difguft- 
ed with the Emperor for refiifing to grant Y^m the 
inveftiture of that dutchy, was eager to promote 
any meafure that tended to diminifh his influence 
in Italy, or to ruin a family fo implicitly devoted 
to him as that of Doria. Being fenfiblc that, in a 
maritime ftate, the acquifition of naval power was 
what he ought chiefly to aim at, he purchafed four 
gallies from the Pope, who probably was not unac- 
quainted with the defign which he had formed, and 
did not difapprove of it. Under colour of fitting 
out one of diefe gallies to fail on a cruife againft the 
Turks, he not only aflfemblcd a' good number of 
his own vaflals, but engaged in his fervice many 
bold adventurers, whom the truce between the 
Emperor and Soiyman had deprived of their ufual 
occupatidn and iybfiftencCf 






Whjle Fkfco was taking thefe important fteps, 
he preferved fo admirably his ufual appearance of 
being devoted entirely to pleafure and amufement, 
and paid court with fuch artful addrefs to the two 
Dorias, as impofed not only on the generous and 
unfufpicious mind of Andrew, but deceived Gian- 
netino, who, confcious of his own criminal inten- 
tions, was more apt to diftruft the dcfigns of odiers. 
So many inftruments being now prepared, nothing 
remained but to ftrike the blow. Various confult- 
ations were held by Fkfco with his confidents, in 
order to fetdc the manner of doing it with the 
greateft certainty and efFeft. At firft, they pro- 
pofed to murder the Dorias and their chief adher- 
ents, during the celebration of high mafs in the- 
principal church 5 but as Andrew was often abfent 
irom religious folcmnities, on account of his great 
age, that defign was laid afide. It was then con- 
certed that Fiefco Ihould invite the uncle and ne- 
phew, with all their friends whom he had marked 
out as viftims, to his houfe ; where it would be 
caly to cut thfim off at once without danger or re- 
fiflance ; but as Giannetino was obliged to leave 
the town on the day which they had chofen, it be- 
came neceffary likewife to alter this plan. They 
at laft determined to attempt by open force, what 
they found difficult to efFeft by ftratageto, and fix- 
ed On the night between the fecond and third of 
January, for the execution of their enterprize. 
The time was chofen with great propriety i for as 
the Poge of the former year^as to quit his office, 
B b 4 according 


^ viJL ^ according to cuftom, on the firft of the month, 
^— ^^ — ' and his fucccflbr could not be elected fooncr than 
'^^^' the fourth, the republic remained during that in- 
terval in a fort of anarchy, and Fiefco might with 
lefs violence take poffeffion of the vacant dignity. 

Thcconfpi. Thr morning of that day, Fiefco employed in 
Pmbieto vifiting his friends, paffing fome hours among 
2ci>pUn. them with a Ipirit as gay and unembarraffed as 
at other times. Towards evening, he paid court 
to the Dorias with his ufual marks of relpeft, and 
^^ furveying their countenance and- behaviour with 

the attention natural in his fituation, was happy 
to obferve the perfe<5fc fecurity in which they re- 
mained, without the leaft forefight or dread of 
that ftorm which had been fo long a -gathering, 
and was now ready to burft over their heads^ 
From their palace he haftened to his own, which 
flood by itfelf in the middle of a large court, fur- 
rounded by a high wall. The gates had been fet 
open in the morning, and all perfons, without 
diftin6tion, were allo\^d to enter, but ftrong 
guards pofted within the court fufFered no one to 
return, Verrina, meanwhile, and a few perfons 
, trufted with the fecret of the confpiracy, after 
condufting Fiefco's vaffals, as well as the crews 
of his gallics, into the palace in fmall bodies, with 
as little noife as poffible, difperfed themfelves 
through the city, and, in the name of their pa- 
tron, invited to an entertainment the principal 
citizens whom they knew to be difgufted with the 



adminiftration of the Dofias, and to have ihclina- book 


tion as well as courage to attempt a change in ^^^./.-j 
rfie government. Of die vaft number of perfons ^^^* 
who now filled the palace, a few only knew for 
what purpofe they were affembled -, the reft, afto- 
nifhcd at finding, inftead of the preparations for 
a fcaft, a court crowded with armed men, and apart- 
ments filled with the inftruments of war, gazed on 
each other with a mixture of curiofity, impatience, 
and terror, 

Wif iLE their minds were in this ftate of ilzC- FiefcoN «. 
penie and agitation, Fiefco appeared. With a {*o'*ul'^ 
look full of alacrity and. confidence, he addreflcd 
himfelf to the perfons of chief diftindlion, telling 
them, that they were not now called to partake of 
the pleafure of an entertainment, but to join in a 
deed of valour, which would lead them to liberty 
and immortal renown. He fet before their eyes 
the exorbitant as well as intolerable authority of 
the elder Doria, which the ambition' of Gianne- 
tino, and the partiality of the Emperor to a 
family more devoted to him than to their coun- 
try, was about to enlarge and to render perpe- 
tual. This unrighteous dpminion, continued he, 
you have it now in your power to fubvert, and 
to cftablifh . the freedom of your country on a 
firm bafis. The tyrants muft be cut ofi^. I have 
taken the moft effeftual meafures for this pur- 
pofe. My aflbciates are numerous. I can de- 
pend on allies and proteftors if neceflary. Hap- 
pily, the tyrants arc as fecure as I have been pro^ 



^ via ^ vident. Their infoknt contempt of their coun- 
trymen has banifhed the fu(picion and timidity 


'^^^* which ufually render the guilty quick-fighted to 
difcern, as well as fagacious to guard againft the 
vengeance vrfiich they deferve* They will now 
feel the blow, before diey fulpeft any hoftile 
hand to be nigh. Let us then faUy forth, that 
we may deliver our country by one generous 
efibrt, almoft unaccompanied with danger, and 
certain of fuccefs. Thefe words, uttered with 
that irrefiftible fervour which animates the mind 
when roufed by great objects, made the dcfired 
impreffion on the audience. Fiefco's vaflals, 
ready to execute whatever their ms^ef fliould 
command, received his difcourfe with a murmur 
of applaufe. To many whofe fortunes were de- 
fperate, the licence and confofion of an inftirrec- 
tion afforded an agreeable profpeft. Thofe of 
higher rank and more virtuous fentim«nts, durft 
not difcovcr the furprife or horror with which 
they were ftruck at the propofal of an enterprize 
no lefs unexpefted than atrocious j as each of 
them imagined the other to be in the fecret of the 
confpiracy, and faw himfelf ilirroundcd by per- 
fons who waited only a Cgnal frpm their leader to 
perpetrate the greateft crime. With one voice 
then all applauded, or feigned to applaud, the un- 

His inter. FiEsco having thus fixed and encouraged his 

kis wife. alTocjates, before he gave them his laft orders, he 

haftened for a moment to the apartment of his 



wife, a lady of the nobfe houfe of Cibo, whom he ^ ^^^ ^ 
loved with tender afie&ion, and whofe beauty and u-^ y w . 
virtue rendered her worrfiy of his love. The noife '^^* 
of the armed men who crowded the court and 
palace, having long, before this reached her ears, 
fhe concluded fome hazardous enterprize to be in 
hand, and (he trembled for her huiband. He 
found her iii ail the angutOi of liticertainty smd 
fear ; and as it vOas now impoflibk to keep his de-- 
fign concealed, he informed her of what he had 
undertaken. The profpeft of a fcene fo foil of 
horror as well as danger, completed her agOny f 
and foreboding immediately in her mind the f^al 
iflue of it, fhe endeavoured, by her tears, her en- 
treaties, ai%d her delpair, to divert him from his 
purpofc. Ficfco, after trying in vain to footh and 
to infpire her witii fappe^ broke from a fkuation 
kito which an cxccfe of tendernels had unwarily 
fedoced him, though it could not (hake his re'- 
folution. " Farewell, he cried, as he quitted the 
apartment, you ihall either never fee me niore, or 
fcM ihall behold tOt-morrow every thing in Genoa 
fuh^& to your power/' 

As foon as he rejoined his companions, he Theytttick 
allotted each his propw ibition 5 fome were ap- 
pointed to affank and feize the different gates of ' 
the city ; fome to make themfelves maflers of the 
principal flreets or place? of ftrength : Fiefco 
refervdd for himfelf the attack of the harbour 
where Doria's gatlies were laid up, as the pofl: of 
chief impcHtanoe/ m^ of greatelii: danger. It was 



* Viu ^ ^^^ midnight, and the citizens flept in the fe- 
curity of peace, when this band of conlpirators. 


'^*^' numerous, defperate, and well-armed, rufhed out 
to execute their plan* They furprifed fome of 
the gates, without meeting with any refiftance. 
They got poffeffion of others after a fharp con- 
fli£t with the foldiers on guard. Vcrfina, with 
the galley which had been fitted out againft the 
Turks, blocked up the mouth of the Dariena or 
little harbour where Doria's fleet lay. All poffi- 
bility of efcape being cut Off by this precaution, 
when Fiefco attempted to enter the gallies from 
the fhore, to which they were made faft, they were 
in no condition to make refiftance, as they were 
not only unrigged and difarmed, but had no crew 
on board, except the 'flaves chained to the oar. 
Every quarter of the city was now filled with noiic 
and tumult, all the ftreets refounding wrth the 
cry of Fiefco and Liberty. At tliat name, fo po- 
pular and beloved, many of the lower rank took 
arms, and joined the confpirators. The nobles 
and partifans of the ariftocracy, aftoniihed or 
affrighted, fhut the gates of their houles, and 
thought of nothing but of fecuring them from pil- 
lage. At laft the noife excited by this fcene of 
violence and confufion, reached the palace of 
Doria \ Giannetino ftarted immediately from his 
bed, and imagining that it was occafioned by 
fome mutiny among the failors, rufhed out with 
a few attendants, and hurried towards the har- 
bour. The gate of St. Thomas, through which 
he had to pafs, was already in the pofTedion of the 



confpirators, who/ the moment he entered, fell • ^^^ * 
upon him with the utmoft fuiy, and murdered w^v^^i^ 
him on the fpot. The fame muft have been die '^'* 
fate of the elder Doria, if Jerome de Fiefco had 
executed his brother's plan, and had proceeded 
immediately to attack him in his palace; but 
he, from the fordid confideration of prevent- 
ing its being plundered amidft the conflifion^ 
having forbid his followers to advance, Andrew 
gdt intelligence of his .nephew's death, as well as 
of his own danger; and mounting on horieback, 
faved himfelf by flight. Amidft this general 
confteroation, a few fenators had the courage to 
aflfemblc in die palace of the republic^. At 
firfl, fome of the moft daring among them at- 
tempted to rally the fcattered foldiers, and to 
attack a body of the confpirators; but being re- 
pulfed with lo&, all agreed that nothing now re* 
xQained, but to treat with the party which feemed 
to be irrefiftible. Deputies were accordmgly 
fent to learn of Fiefco what were the concef^ 
fions with which he would be fatisfied, or rather 
to fubmit to whatever terms he Ihould pleafe to 

But by this time Fiefco, with whom they were canfe of 

their inir« 

empowered to negociate, was no more. Juft as ****" "^'' 

he was about to leave the harbour, where every 
thing had fucceeded to his wiih, that he might 
join his vi&orious companions, he heard fome 

3^ II palazaea della Signoria. 



» o o ic ^xtraordinaiy uproar qq board the Admkal gal^ 
1^ ■^^-'-.F ley. Alarmed ^t the noi&j and fearing thai: the 
^547- flaves might break idieir chains^ and ovctpowcr 
his afibciateS; he ran thither^ but the pbnk 
which reached &bm the fhoce ta the veifel hap^ 
pening to OYerturn, he fell into the fea^ ^vhiUt he 
hurried forward too precipitately. Being loaded 
with heavy armour, he fiink to the bottom, and 
periihed in the very moment when he mull have 
taken full pofieffion of every thing that his zmhu 
tious heart could defire. Vcrrina was the firft who 
difcovered this fatal accident, and foreieeing, at 
once, all its confequences, concealed it with the 
utmofl: induftry from every one but a few leaders 
of the conspiracy. Nor was it cMfficuk, amidfl: the 
darknefs and confufion of the ni^, to have kept 
it fecret, until a treaty with the fapators flioidd 
have put the city -in the power of die donQ>irators« 
All their hope$ <rf this were diiconcensed by ike 
imprudence of Jerome Fiefco, who, when tlie 
. deputies of the fenate inquired for his biodier, 
the count of Lavagna, that they mi^t make 
their prop9fals to him, rq>l]ed with a childiih va- 
nity, " I am now the only perfon to whom that 
title belongs, and with me you muft treat." Thefe 
words difcovered as well to his fiiends as ta his 
enemies what had happen^d^ and made the inN 
preiTion which might have been expe&ed upon 
both. The deputies encoura^dby this event, 
the only one which coidd occafion fiich a fudden 
revolution as might turn to their advantage^ 



aflbmed in(bmdy, with admirable prefence of b o o k 
mind, a new tone^ fiiitable to the change b their i_ -^r-'^ 
circun^ancesj ^pd made high demands. While 'S^7« 
they endeavoured to gain tinoe by prod-adling the; 
negociation, the reft of the fenators were bufy in 
aiiembling their partifans^ and in forming a body 
capable of defending the palace of the republic* 
On the other hand, the confpiratorSj aftoniflied 
at the death of a man whom they adored and 
tnifted^ and placing no confidence in Jerome> a 
g^dy youth, felt their courage die away, and 
dieir arms fall from their hands. That profound 
and amitzing fecrecy with which the conipiracy 
had been concerted, and which had contributed 
hitherto fo much to its fuccefs, proved now the 
chief caufe of its mifcarriage. The leader was 
gone ; the greater part of thofe who a£ted under 
him, knew not his confidents, and were ftraogers 
to the objed at which he aimed. There was no 
perfon among them whofe authority or abilities 
entitled him to alEime Fiefqo's place^ or to fini& 
his plan ; after having loft the Ipirit which ani- 
mated it, life and aftivity deferred the whole body. 
Many of the confpirators withdrew to their 
houfes, hoping that amidft the darknefs of the 
night they had paffed unobferved, and might re- 
main unknown. Others fought for fafety by a 
timely retreat j and before break of day, moft of 
.them fied with precipitation from a city, which, but 
a few hours before, was ready to acknowledge them 
as mafters. 



* vin ^ Next morning every thing was quiet in Genoit $ 

%^^^mj not an enemy was to be ieen ; few marks of the 

TranqtuH- violcncc of thc former night appeared, the con- 

w»a2u" ^irators having conduced their enterprize with 

GeoM. jjjQj.^ jiQife than bloodlhed, and gained all their 

advantages by furprife, rather than by force of 

armsf Towards evening, Andrew Doria returned 

to the city, being met by all the inhabitants, who 

received him with acclamations of joy. Though 

the difgrace as well as danger of the preceding 

night were frefli in his mind, and thc mangled 

body of his kinfman ftill before his eyes, fuch was 

his moderation as well as magnanimity, that thc 

decree iffued by the fenate againft the conlpirators, 

did not exceed that juft mealure of feverity which 

was requifite for the fupport of government, and 

was diftated neither by the violence of refentment, 

nor the rancour of revenge *•* 

thetmp«- Afteh takmg the neceflary precautions for 

for alarmed . , JT i • i r- i ., 

•t this con. preventing the flame, which was now fo happily 


* Thuan« 93. Sigonii Vita Andreas Doriae* 1196. Lt 
Conjuration du Compte de Fiefque, par Cardin. de Rett* 
Adrian! Iftofia, lib. vi. 369. Folietae Cofijoratid Jo. Lad» 
Fiefci, ap. Graev. Thef. Ital. i. 885. 

* It i$ remaricablej that Cardinal de Rets, at the age of 
eighteen, compofed a hiftory of this conrpiracy, containing 
fuch a difcovery of his admiration of Fiefco and his enter- 
prize, that it is not furprlfing that a mxnillery fo jealous and 
difceming as Richlieo^ flioold be led, by the perufa! of it, to 
predid the* tarbalent and dangerous fpirit of that young Ec* 
defiaftic. Mem. de Retz, tom. i. p. 13. 



€Xtingui(hed, from breaking out anew, the firft care ^ ^jj| ^ 
of the fenate was to fend an ambaflador to the Em- ^-r"v--# 
peror,.to give him a particular detail of what had '^*^' 
happened, and to beg his affiftance towards the re- 
du(5lion of Montobbio, a ftrong fort on the here- 
ditary eftate of the Fiefci, in which Jerome had 
fliut himfelf up. Charles was no lefs alarmed than 
aftonifhed at an event fo Arrange and unexpected. 
He could not believe that Fiefco, how bold or 
adventurous foever, durft have attempted fuch an 
enterprize, but on foreign fuggeftion, and from 
the hope of foreign aid. Being informed that the 
Duke of Parma was well acquainted with the plan 
of the confpirators, he immediately fuppofed that 
the Pope could not be ignorant of a meafure, 
which his fon had countenanced. Proceeding 
from this to a farther conjefture, which Paul's 
cautious maxims of policy in other inftances ren- 
dered extremely probable, he concluded, that the 
French King muft have known and approved of 
the defign ; and he began to apprehend that this 
fpark might again kindle the flame of war which 
had raged fo long in Italy. As he had drained Suf.en^shit 
his Italian territories of troops on account of the inCermafly. 
German war, he was altogether unprovided for 
refilling any hoftile attack in that country j and - ^ 
on the firft appearance of danger, he muft have 
detached thither the greateft part of his forces for 
its defence. In this fituation of affairs, it would 
have been altogether imprudent in the EmperOr 
to have advanced in perfon againft the Eleftor, 
Vol. III. C c until 

j86 THE REIGN, &c. 

^ viji ^ ^^^^^ ^ feould learn with fome degree of ccr- 

%mm ^ ^ ' -^ tainty whether fuch a fcene were not about to 

^^*^* open in Italy, as might put it out of his power 

to keep the field with an army Efficient to op« 

poie him. 







THE Emperor's dread of the hoftik inten- b o o ic 
tions of "the Pope and French King did i_^ ^A ^ 
not proceed from any imaginary or iU-groimdcd p,,[,{f7*„. 
fulpicion. Paul had already given the ftrongeft io»» «f «!»« 
proofs both of his jealoufy and enmity. Charles po"er tu 
could not hope, diat Francis> after a rivallhip '*^**^* 
of fo long continuance, would behold the great 
advantages which he had gained over the confe- 
derate Proteftants, without feeling his ancient 
emulation revive. He was not deceived in this 
conjefture. Francis had obfervcd die rapid pro- 
grefs of his arms with deep concern, and though 
hitherto, prevented, by circumftances which have 
been mentioned, from interpofing in order to 
check them, • he was now convinced that, if he 
Cc 2 did 


* ^ix ^ ^^^ ^^^ make fomc extraordinary and timely ef- 
u-^,r^-> fortj Charles muft acquire fuch a degree of power 
'^^^' as ^ould enable him to give law to the reft of 
Europe. This apprehenfion, which did not take 
its rife from the jealoufy of rivalfhip alone, but 
was entertained by the wifeft politicians of the 
age, fuggefted various expedients which might 
ferve to retard the courfe of the Empcror*s vic- 
tories, and to form by degrees fuch a combination 
againft him as might put a ftop to his dangerous 

NfEocUtes With this view, Francis inftrufted his emif- 

with ihc 

proicaaots 5 faries in Germany to employ all their addrefs in 
order to revive the courage of the confederates, 
and to prevent them from fubmitting to the Em- 
peror. He made liberal offers of his affiftance to 
the Ele£lor and Landgrave, whon^ he knew to be 
the moft zealous as well as the moft powerful 
of the whole body ; he ufed every argument, and 
propofed every advantage, which could either con- 
firm their dread of the Emperor's defigns, or de- 
termine them not ■ to imitate the inconfiderate 
credulity of their afTociates, in giving up their 
religion and liberties to his difpofal. ^ While he 
took this flep towai'ds continuing the civil war 
which raged in Germany, he endeavoured like- 
wife to ftir up foreign enemies againft. the Em- 
w^hSoiy. peror. He folicited Solyman to feize this fe- 
"'"' " vourabie opportunity of invading Hungary, 
winch had been drained of all the troops necef- 
» fliry for its defence, in order to fbrm the army 



againft the confederates of Smalkalde. . He ex- ® ^^^ ^ 
horted the Pope to repair, by a vigorous and fea- v-*.^"-.^ 
fonable effort^ the error of which he had been *^'^'* 
guilty in contributing to raife the Emperor to fuch 
a formidable height of power. Finding Paul, both *^'*>^ ^^^^ 
from the confcioufnefs of his own miftake, and his Vcaeiiaasi 
dread of its confequences, abundantly difpofed to 
liften ^o what he fuggefted, he availed himfelf of 
this favourable difpofition which the Pontiff 
began to difcover, as an argument to gain the 
Venetians. He endeavoured to convince them 
that nothing could fave Italy, and even Europe, 
from oppreflion and fervitude, but their joining 
with the Pope and him, in giving the firft begin- 
ning to a general confederacy, in order to humble 
that ambitious potentate, whom they had all equal 
reafon to dread. 

Having fet on foot thefe negociations in the with the 
ibuthem courts, he turned his attention next to- nenmalk 
wards thofe in the north of Europe. As the King hnd.^"*' 
of Denmark had particular reafons to be offended 
with the Emperor, Francis imagined that the 
objeft of the league which he had projefted would 
be highly acceptable to him ; and left confiderations 
of caution or prudence Ihould rcflrajn him fjom 
joining in it, he attempted to overcome thefe, by 
offering him the young Queen of Scots in mar- 
riage to his fon *: As the minifters who governed 
England in the name of Edward VI. had openly 

* Mem. de Rihier, 1, 600. 606. 

C c 3 declared 



^ ^x^ '^ declared thcmfelves converts to the opinions of 
the Reformers, as foon as it became fafe upon 
Henry's death to lay afide that difguife which his 
intolerant bigotry had forced them to afiume, 
Francis flattered himfelf that their zeal would not 
allow them to remain inaftivc Ipeftators of the 
overthrow and deftrudion of thofe who profeffed 
the fame faith with themfelves. He hoped, that 
notwithftanding the ftruggles of fadion inci- 
dent to a minority, and the prolpc6l of an ap- 
proaching rupture with the Scots, he might pre- 
vail on them likewife to take part in the common 
caufe **. 

While Francis employed fuch a variety of ex- 
pedients, and exerted himfelf with fuch extraor- 
dinary aftivity, to roule the different .ftatcs of 
Europe againft his rival, he did not negleft what 
depended on himfelf alone. He levied troops in 
all parts of his dominions 5 he coUefted military 
ftores ; he contrafted with the Swifs cantons for 
a confiderable body of men ; he put his finances 
in admirable order ; he remitted confiderable lums 
to the Eleftor and Landgrave ; and took all the 
" other fteps neceflary towards commencing hoftilii. 
ties, on the Ihorteft warning, and with the grcatefl: 
vigour % 

TbeEmpe- OPERATIONS fo Complicated, and which re- 

rorgrcailjr . , , . r • /i 

aiarmed. quircd the putting 10 many inftruments in mo- 
* Mem. de Ribier, i. 635. * Ibid. 595, 




tion, did not efcape the Emperor's obfervation. * ^^ ^ 
• He was early informed of Francis's intrigues in w-y «# 
the feveral courts of Europe, as well as of his *^*^' 
domeftic preparations; and fenfible how fatal 
an interruption a foreign war would prove to his 
defigns in Germany, he trembled at the profpedt 
of that event. The danger, however, appeared 
to him as unavoidable as it was great. He knew 
the infatiable and well-directed ambition of Soly- 
man, and that he always chofe the feafon for be- 
ginning his military enterprifes with prudence 
equal to the valour with which he conduced 
them, yht Pope, as he had good reafon to be- 
lieve, wanted not pretexts to juftify a rupture, 
nor inclination to begin hoftilities. He had al- 
ready made fome difcovery of his fentiments, by 
cxprefling a joy altogether unbecoming the head 
of the church, upon receiving an account of the 
^vantage which the Eleftpr of Saxony had gained 
over Albert of Brandenburg i and as he was now 
fecure of finding, in the French King, an ally of 
fuiEcient power to fupport him, he was at no 
pains to conceal the violence and extent of his 
enmity*. The Venetians, Charles was well af- 
fured, had long obferved the growth of his power 
with jealoufy, which, added to the folicitations 
and'promifes of France, might at laft quicken 
their flow counfels, and overcome their natural 
caution. The Danes and Englilh, it was evident, 
had both peculiar reafon to be difgufted^ as well 

^ Mem. dc Ribier, torn. i. 637. 

C c 4 a^ 






^ as ftrong motives to aft againft him. But above 
all, he dreaded the aftive emulation of Francis 
himfelf, whom he confidered as the foul and mover 
of any confederacy that could be formed againft 
him ; ^nd, as that Monarch had afforded pro- 
teftion to Verina, who failed diredtly to Mar- 
feilles upon the mifcarriage of Fiefco's confpiracy, 
*Charles expefted every moment to fee the com- 
menQement of thofe hoftile operations in; Italy, of 
which he conceived the infurredlion in Gepoa to 
have been only the prelude. 

hope Iron 
the declin- 
ing ftate of 
Francis"! . 


But while he remained in this ftate of fufpenfc 
and folicitude, there was one circumftance which 
afforded him, fome profpedl of efcaping the dan- 
ger. The French King's health began to decline. 
A difeafe, which was the effeft of his intemperance 
and inconfiderate purfuit of pleafure, preyed gra- 
dually on his conftitution. The preparations for 
war, as well as the negociations in the different 
courts, began to languifli, together with the Mo- 
narch who gave fpirit to both. The Genocfc, 
during that interval, reduced Montobbio, took 
Jerome Fiefco prifoner, and putting him to death, 
•^ together with his chief adherents, extinguifhed all 
remains of the confpiracy. Several of the Im- 
perial cities in Germany, defpairing of timely 
affiftancc from France,, fubmitted to the Empe- 
ror, Even the Landgrave feemed difpofcd to 
abandon the Eleftor, and to bring matters to a 
fpeedy accommodation, on fuch terms as he could 
pbtain. In the nican time, Charles waited with 



impatience the iffue of a diftemper, which was to ^ ^^^ ^ 
decide whether he muft relinquifti all other fchemes, u . .-y*»i# 
in order to prepare for refifting a combination of '^^' 
the greater part of Europe againft him, or whether 
he might proceed to invade Saxony, without inter- 
ruption or fear of danger. 

The good fortune, fo remarkably propitious 
to his family, that fome hiftorians have calftd it 
the Star of the Houfe of Aufiria^ did not defert 
him on this occafion. Francis died at Ram- DeiAof 
bo«illet, on the laft day of March in the fifty- reflcaion* 
third year of his age, and the thirty-third of his ^a«*ai!d' 
reign. During twenty-eight years of that trme, ^[',1***^ 
an avowed rivallhip fubfifted between him and chariet. 
the Emperor^ which involved not only their own 
dominions, but the greater, part of Europe, in 
wars, which ^were profecuted with - more violent 
animofity, and drawn out to a greater length, than 
had been known in any former period. Many 
circumftances contributed to this. Their animofity 
was founded in oppofition of intereft, height- 
ened by perfonal emulation, and exafperated not 
only by muaial injuries, but by reciprocal infults. 
At the fame time, whatever advantage one feemed 
to poffefs towards gaining the afcendant, was 
wonderfully balanced by fome favourable cir- 
cumftance peculiar to the other. The Empe.- 
ror's dominions were of great extent, the French 
King's lay more compaft 5 Francis governed his 
kingdom with abfolute power ; that of Charles 
was limited, but he fupplied the want of autho- 


BOOK rity by addrcfs : the troops of the former were 
%^m^Lmj more impetuous and enterprifing ; thofe of the 
'547? latter better difciplined, and more patient of fa- 
tigue* The talents and abilities of the two Mo- 
narchs were as different as the advantages which 
they poffeffed, and contributed no lefs to prolong 
. the conteft between them. Francis took his re- 
folutions fuddenly, profecuted them at firft with 
warmth, and puflied them into execution with a 
moft adventurous courage; but being deftitute 
of the perfeverance neceffary to furmount diffi- 
culties, he ojften abandoned his defigns, or re- 
laxed the vigour of purfuit, from impatience, and 
fometimes from levity. Charles deliberated long, 
and determinec^ with coolnefs; but having once 
fixed his plan, he adhered to it with inflexible 
obflinacy, and neither danger nor difcourage^ 
ment could turn him afide from the execution of 
it. The fuccefs of their enterprifes was as dif- 
ferent as their characters, and was uniformly in- 
fluenced by them. Francis, by his impetuous 
adivity, often difconcerted the Emperor's beft 
laid fchemes j Charles, by a more calm but fteady 
profecution of his defigns, checked the rapidity 
of his rival's career, and baffled or repulfed ,his 
moft vigorous efforts. The former, at the open- 
ing of a war or of a campaign, broke in upon his 
enemy with the violence of a torrent, and carried 
all before him j the latter, waiting until he faw 
the force of his rival begin to abate, recovered in 
the end not only all that he had loft, but made 
new acquifitions. Few of the French Monarch's 




attempts towards conqucft, whatever promifing af- ^ ^^ ^ 
peft they might wear at firft, were condufted to an *- 
happy iffue ; many of the Emperor's enterprifes, 
even after they appeared defperate and imprafti-. 
cable, terminated in the moft profperous manner, 
Francis was dazzled with the fplendour of an un- 
dertaking i Charles was allured by the prolpeft of 
its turning to his advantage. 

The degree, however, of their comparative 
merit and reputation has not been fixed either by 
a ftridt fcrutiny into their abilities for government, 
or by an Impartial confideration of die greatnefs 
and fuccefs of their undertakings ; and Francis 
is one of thofe Monarchs who occupies a higher 
rank in the temple of Fame, than either his ta- 
lents or performances entide him to hold. This 
pre-eminence he owed to many different circum- 
ftances. The fuperiority which Charles acquired 
by the vidory of Pavia, and which from that pe- 
riod he prcferved through the remainder of hia 
reign, was To manifeft, that Francis's ftruggle 
againft his exorbitant and growing dominion was 
viewed by moft of the other powers, not only with 
. the partiality which naturally arifes for thofe who 
gallandy maintain an unequal conteft, but with 
the favour due to one who was refitting a com- 
mon enemy, and endeavouring to fet bounds to a 
Monarch equally formidable to them all. The 
charafters of Princes, too, elpecially among their 
contemporaries, depend not only upon their ta- 
lents for government, but upon their qualities as 



B o o ^ men. Francis, notwithftanding the niany errors 
w-s^- ^ confpicuous in his foreign policy and domeftic 
^^*^' adminiftration, was neverthelefs humane, benefi- 
cent, generous. He pofleffed dignity without 
pride j affability free from meannefs ; and cour- 
tefy exempt from deceit. All who had accefs to 
him, ai\d no man of merit was ever denied that 
privilege, refpefted and loved him. Captivated 
with his perfonal qualities, his fubjefts forgot his 
defects as a Monarch, and admiring him as the 
moft accomplifhed and amiable gendem;fn in his 
dominions, they hardly murmured at adts of male- 
adminiftration, which, in a Prince of lefs engag- 
ing difpofitions, would have been deemed unpar- 
donable. This admiration, however, muft have 
been temporary only, and would have died away, 
with the courtiers who bcftowed. it j the illufion 
arifing from his private virtues muft have ceafed, 
and poftcrity would have judged of his public 
conduft with its ufual impartiality j but another 
circumftance prevented this, and his name hath 
been tranfmitted to pofterity with incrcafing re- 
putation. Science and the arts had, at" that time, 
rriade little progrefs in France. They were juft 
beginning to advance beyond the limits of Italy, 
where they had revived, and which . had hitherto 
been their only feat. Francis took them imme- 
diately under his proteftion, and vied with Leo 
himfelf, in the zeal and munificence with which 
he encouraged them. He invited learned men 
to his court, he converfed with them familiarly, 



'he employed them in bijfinefs, he raifed them to ^ 9^^ ^ 
offices of dignity, and honoured them with his «— v^ 
confidence. That order of men, not more prone '^^^' 
to complain when denied the reiped: to which they 
conceive themfelves entidcd, than apt to be pleaf- 
cd when treated with the diftinftion which they 
confider as their due, thought they could not ex- 
ceed in gratitude to fuch a bencfaftor, and ftrain- 
ed their invention, and employed all their inge- 
nuity in panegyric. Succeeding authors, warmed 
with their defcriptions of Francis's bounty, adopt- 
ed their encomiums, and even added to them. 
The appellation of Father of Letters bellowed 
upon Francis, hath rendered his memory facred 
among hiftorians ; and they feem to have regarded 
it as a fort of impiety to uncover his infirmities, 
or to point out his defeats. Thus Francis, not- 
withftanding his inferior abilities, and want of fuc- 
cefs, hath more than equalled the fame of Charles. 
The good qualities which he pofleifed as a man, 
have entitled him to greater admiration and praifc, 
than have been bcftowed upon the cxtenfive genius 
and fortunate arts of a more capable, but lefs amir 
able rival. 

By his death a confiderable change was made in Effea* of 
the ftate of Europe. Charles, grown old in the dcTh.** * 
arts of government and command, had now to 
contend only with younger Monarchs, who could 
xiot be regarded as worchy to enter the lifts with 
him, who had flood fo many encounters with 
Henry VIII. and Francis I. and come off with 



» o^o ^ honour in sJl thofe different ft«*uggies. By dU0 
k--^w^ events he was eafed of all difquietude, and was 
'^*7' happy to find that he might begin with fafety thofe 
operations againft the Eledor of Saxony > which he 
had hitherto been obliged to fufpend. He knew 
the abilities of Henry 11. who had juft mounted 
riie throne of France, to be greatly inferior to 
thofe of his father, and forcfew that he would be 
fb much occupied for Ibme time in difplacing the 
hte King's minifters, whom he hated, and in gra- 
tifying the ambidous demands of his own favour* 
ites, that he had nothing Co dread, either from his 
perfonal efforts, or from aiiy confederacy which 
this unexperienced Prinde could form* 

chitiet But as it was uncertain how long fuch an imser- 

I!^»inft*thc vai of fecurity might continue, Charles determined 
sawn^.**' inftantiy to improve it ; and as foon as he heard of 
April xj. Francis's demife, he began hds march from £gn 
on the borders of Bohemia. But the departure of 
the papal troops, together with the retreat of the 
Flemings, had fo much diminiihed his army, that 
fixteen thoufand men were all he could ailembk. 
With this inconfiderable body he.fet out on an ex* 
pedition, the event of which was to decide what 
degree of authority he fhould poffefs from that pe- 
riod in Germany : but as this little army confifted 
chiefly of the veteran Spanilh and Italian bands, he 
did not, in trufting to them, commit much to the 
decifion of chsmce j and even with fo fmall a force 
he had realbn to entertain the mofl fanguine hopes 
of fucccfs. The Eleiftor had levied an vmy 
• . . gready 


greatly &iperior in number i but neither the expe* 
rience and difcipline of his troops, nor the abili- 
ties of his officers^ were to be compared with thofe '^*^* 
of the Emperor. The Eleftar> befides^ had al- 
ready been guUty of an error> which deprived him 
of all the advantage which he might have derived 
from his fuperiority in number, and was alone fuf- 
iicient to have occafioned his ruin. Inftead of 
keeping his forces united, he detached one great 
body towards the frontiers of Bohemia, in order to 
facilitate his jundion with the malecontents' of that 
kingdom, and cantoned a conjQderable part of 
what remained in different places of Saxony, where 
he expefted the Emperor would make the firft im- 
preflion, vainly imagining that open towns, with 
fmall garrifons> might be rendered tenable againft 
an enemy. 

The Emperor entered the Ibuthern frontier of Progreftof 

hit r — " 

Saxony, and attacked Altorf upon the Elfter. 
The folly of the meafure which the Eleftor had 
taken was immediately feen, the troops pofted in 
that town furrendering without refiftance;. and 
thofe in all the other places between that and the 
Elbe, either imitated their example, or fled aa 
the Imperialifts approached. Charles, that they 
inight not recover from the panic with which 
they feemed to be ftruck, advanced without lof- 
ing a moment. The Eleftor, who had fixed his 
head-quarters at Meiflen, continued in his wonted 
ftatc of fluduation and uncertainty. He even 
became more undeperniincd, in proportion as the 
9 danger 


B ?x° ^ danger drew near, and called for pronopt and dc^ 
^-""^--*^ cifive refolutions. Sometimes he adted, as if he 
*^* had refolved to defend die banks of die Elbe, and 
to hazard a battle with the enemyras foon as the 
detachments which he had called in were able to 
join him. At other times/ he abandoned this as 
rafh and perilous, feeming to adopt the more pru- 
dent counfels of diofe who advifed him to endea- 
vour at prbtrafting the war, and for that end to re- 
tire under the fortifications of Wittemberg, where 
the Imperialifts could not attack him without ma- 
nifeft difadvantage, and where he might wait, in 
fafety, for the, fuccours which he expected from 
Mecklenburgh, Pomerania, and the Proteftant 
cities on the Baltic. Without fixing upon either 
of thefe plans, he broke down tlie bridge at Meif- 
fen, and marched along the eaft bank of the Elbe 
to Muhlberg. There, he deliberated anew, and, 
after much hefitation, adopted one of thofe middle 
fchemes, which are always acceptable, to feeble 
minds incapable of deciding. ' He left a detach- 
ment at Muhlberg to oppofe the Imperialifts, if 
they ftiould attempt to pafs at that place, and ad- 
vancing a few miles with his main body, encamp- 
ed there in expeftation of the event, according to 
which he propofed to regulate his fubfequent mo- 

faffps ihe Charles, meanwhile, pufhing forward incef- 
fandy, arrived the evening of the twenty-third of 
April on the banks of the Elbe, oppofite to •Muhl- 


berg. The riveri' at that place, was three hun- book 
drcd paces in breadth, above four feet, in depths u--^.^ 
its curreat rapid, and the bank poflefled by the •'^^' 
Saxons- was higher than that which he occupied. 
Undifmayed, however, by all thefe obftaclesj he 
called together liis general officers, and, without 
afking their opinions, communicated to them his 
intention of attempting next morning to force his 
pafTage over the river, and to attack the enemy 
^ wherever he could come ,up with them. They 
all expreffed their aftonilhment atfuch a bold 
refolution ; and even the Duke of Alva, though 
naturally daring and impetuous, and Maurice of 
Saxony, notwithftanding his impatience to crulh 
his rival the Eleftor, remonftrated earneftly againft 
it. But the Emperor, confiding in his own judg- 
ment or good fortune, paid no regard to their 
arguments, and gave the orders necel&ry for exe- 
cuting his defign. 

Early in the morning, a body of Spanifh 
and Italian foot marched towards the river, and- 
began an inceflant fire upon the enemy. The 
long heavy muikets ufed in that age, did exe- « 
cution on the oppofite bank, and many of the fok 
dicrs, hurried on by a martial ardour in order to 
get nearer the enemy, ruflied into the ftream, and, - 
advancing breaft-high, fired with a more certain 
aim, and with greater efFe<5t. Under cover of 
their fire, a bridge of boats was begun to be laid 
for the infantry; and a peafant having under- . 
taken to conduct the cavalry through the river by 

YowIIL Dd a ford 


* ^ix^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ which he was well acquainted, thcjf 
^••/mw^ alfo were put in motion. The Saxons pofted in 
»i47« Muhlberg endeavoured to obftruft thefe opera- 
d(ms> by a briflc fire from a battery which dicy 
had ereded; but as a thick fog covered dl die 
low grounds upon the river, they could not takte 
aim with any certainty, and the ImperialHb fof- 
fered very little; at the fame time the Saxons 
being much galled by the Spaniards and Italians, 
they fet on fire fome boats which had been c61- 
leded near the village, and prepared to retire. 
The Imperialifts perceiving this, ten Spanifh fdU 
die^s iftftantly ' ftript themfelves, and holding their 
fwords with their teeth, fv/am acrofs die river, put 
to ftight fuch of the Saxons as ventured to oppofe 
them,, faved from the flames as many boats as were 
fufficiettt to complete their own bridge, and by 
this fpirited and fuccefsful aftion, encouraged their 
companions no lefs than they intimidated the 
* enemy. 

By this time, the cavalry, each trobper having 
a foot foldier behind him, began to enter die river, 
the light horfe marching in the fi-ont, followed 
by the men at arms, whom the Emp^rdr fed in 
perfon, mounted on a Spanilh horfe, drefflfed in a 
fumptuous habit, and carrying a javeKn in his 
hand. Such a numerous body ftruggling through 
a great river, in which, according to the ^redlSons 
i>f their guide, they were obliged to make fcverel 
turns, fome times treading on a firm bottom, 
Ibmetimes fwimming, prefented to their coirtpa- 




luonS) whom they left behind^ a ipeftade equally ^ ^^ ^ 
magnificent and interefting ''• Their courage^ at v— yl— 1 
laft^ fumx>unted every obftacle^ no man betray- '^7' 
ing any fymptom of fear, when the Emperor 
ihared in the danger no lefs than the meaneft ibl- 
dier. The moment that they reached the oppofite 
fide, Charles^ without waiting the arrival of the 
reft of the infantry, advanced towards the Saxons 
with the troops which had pafled along with him> 
whoi fluflied with then- good fortune, and de- 
ipifing an enemy who had negle£bed to oppofe 
them, when it might have been done with fuch 
advantage, made no account of their fuperior 
numbers^ and marched on as to a certain vie* 

During all thefe operations, which neccflarily niwndiift 
confumed much time, the Eleftor remained in- m. * 
active in his camp -, and ftom an infatuation which 
appears to be fo amazing, that the beft informed 
hiftorians impute it to the treacherous arts of his 
generals who deceived him by falfe intelligence^ 
he would not believe that the Emperor had pafled 
the river, or could be fo near at hand*. Being 
convinced, at laft, of his fatal miftake, by the 
concurring teftimony oi cye«witneflcs, he gave 
orders for retreating towards Wittemberg. But 
a German army, encumbered, as ufual, with bag- 
gage and artillery, could not be put fuddenly in 

* Avila, Ii5» a. 

* Caaierar* ap. Frther. iiL 49]* Strur. Corp. HiSt. Qena. 
1047. 1049. 

P d 9 Sn9WXU 


^ ^ix ^ 'morion. They had juft begun to march wheri 
^ . M.. > the light troops of the enemy came in view, and 
'^'*^* the Eledtor few an engagement to be tinavoidable. 
Battle cf As he was no lefs bold in aftibn than irrefohtte in 
council, he niade the difpofition for battle with the 
gr^ateft prefence of mind, and in the moft proper 
manner s taking advantage of a great foreft to co- 
ver his wings, fo as to prevent his being furround- 
ed by the enemy'^s cavalry, .wliich were far more 
numerous than his own. . The Emperor, likewife, 
ranged his men in order as they came up, and rid- 
ing along, the ranks, exhorted them with few but 
efficacious words to.dp Aeir duty. It was with a 
very different Ipirit that the two arinies^'aJvanccd 
to the charge. As the day, which had hitherto 
been dark and cloudy, happened to clear up at that 
moment, this accidental circumftance made an im- 
prellion on the different parties correlp.onding to 
the tone of their minds ^ the Sixons, fiirpriled and 
difhcartencd, felt pain at being expofed fully. to the 
view of the enemy i the Imperi4lifts>'beirig now 
fecure that the Proteflant forces could not efcape 
from them, rejoiced at the return of fun-fhine, as 
afertflin prefage pf victory. The fhock of .battle 
would .not have been long doubtful, if the perfonal 
, courage which the F^eftor difplayed, together with 
the aftiyity which he exerted from the moment 
tliat the approach of the enemy rendered an en- 
' gagemerjt certain,* arid' cut off aU poUibility of he- 
fitation, had not revived in fome degree die Ipirit 
of his troops. TJiey repjjlfed thfe Hungarian light- 
horfc v/ho began the attack, and received with 
"'*'"** ^ - ^ 'firmneli 


fifj^efs :th*:/mien af arrns «ho next; advanced to -"^^J? * 
the jphargci bjut as . thefe were the: flower of the c-^^^^— 1 
imperial arrpy, were.coi^mand^d by experienced '^*^" 
officers,^ and foiight under t^ Emperor's eye, the 
Saxons foon began to givjc way, and the Hght 
troops i^Uyi^g at the fame time apd' ^ing on 
fheir flanksi the flight became genfsraj. A fmall The Ehaor 
body of chofen foldiers, among whom the Eke- an/tlken 
for had fought in perfon, ftill continued to de- p"^""*'* 
fend themfelves, and endeayoured to fave their 
raafter by retiring into, the foreft ; but being fur- 
rounded on every fide, the Eledor, wounded in 
the face, exhaufted with fatigue, and perceiving 
all refiflance to be vain, furrcndered himfelf a 
prifonen He . was condufted immediately to- 
wards the Emperor, .whom he found juft returned 
from the purfuit, (landing on the field of battle 
in the full exultation of fuccefs, and receiving the 
congratulations of his officers, upon this com- 
plete victory obtained by his valour and conduct. 
Even in fuch an unfortunate and humbling fitua- 
tion, the Eleftor's behaviour was equally magna- 
nimous and decent. S^fible of his condition, 
he approached his conqueror without any of the 
fuUennefs or pride which would have^ been im- 
proper in a captive; and conicious of his own 
dignity, he defcended to no mean fubmiffion, . un- 
becoming the high ftation which he held among 
the German Princes. *^ The fortune of war, 
faid he, has made me your prifoncr, rpoft: gra- * . 
cious Emperor, and I hope to be treatai" — 7- 
D d 3 Hercj 


' ^ix ^ ^^ Charles harffily interrupted him : " Ami 
^ ' / ' ^ am I thcDj ^ laftj acknowledged to be £m« 
Hif h«5l P^ror ? Charks of Ghent was the only tide 7011 
S^Bm^t^' lately allowed me. You ftall be treated as you 
'•f* deferve/* At theft words he turned fix)m him 

abrupdy with an haughty air. To this crud re- 
puife^ die King of the Romans added reproaches 
in his own name^ ufing expreflions 9ciSi more un* 
generous and infulting. The Eledor made no 
reply ; but, with an unaltered countenance^ which 
difcovered neither aftonilhment nor dejeftion, ac- 
companied the Spanilh foldiers appointed to guard 

cbtriM> This dccifive vidory coft the Imperialifts only 
Sfur'hit fifty men. Twelve hundred of the Saxons were 
▼iaory. killed, chiefly in the purfuit, and a greater num- 
ber taken prifoners. About four hundred kept 
In a body, and efcaped to Witteipberg, together 
with the ETeftoral Prince, who had likewife been 
wounded in the aftion. After refting two days in 
the field of battle, partly to refrefli his army, and 
pardy to receive the deputies of the adjacent 
towns, which were impatient to fecure his pro- 
teftion by fbbmitring to his will, the Emperor 
began to move towards Wittemberg, that he 
might terminate the war at once, by the reduc- 
tion of that city. The unfortunate Eleftor was 

' Sleid. Hid. 4»6. Thuan. 136. Hortcnfius dc Bello Ger- 
man. ap, Scard. vol. ii. 49B. Deibript. Pugnac Malberg. ibid, 
p. J09. P. Heuter. Rer. Auilr. lib, xU* c, 13. p. 298. 

J 3 carried 


carried along in a iort of triun^h^ and e]qpofed ^ ^^ ^ 
eveiy whert> as a captive^ to his own fuLye&s^; a w*^'-— 4 
ipe&acle extremely affliding to diem, who both '^^* 
iKmoured and loved him ; diough die infult was 
io fdiX from fubdiiing his finn ^it, diat it did not 
even ruffle die wonted tranc^iullity and axnpoTuie 
of his oiind. 

As Wittembei^, the relldence, in that age^ of imibii^t. 
the ekdoral branch of the Saxon family, was one ^^^^ 
of the firoAgeft cities in Germany, and could noc 
be taken, if properly defended, widiout great .dif- 
ikulty, the Emperor marched thither with the lu- 
moft diipatch, hoping that while the conftemadoa 
qccafiooed by his vidory was (till recent, the inha- 
bitants mig^t imitate the example of their country- 
men, and fubnit to his power, as foon as he ap- 
peared before their walls. But Sybilla of Cleves, 
the Eledor's wife, a woman no lefs diftinguifhed 
by her abifides than her virtue, inftead of aban- 
doning herfelf to tears and lamentadons upoii her 
hufband's misfortune, endeavoured by her example 
as well as exhortations, to animate the citizens. 
She infpired diem widi fuch refbludon, that, when 
fummoned to furrender, they returned 4 vigorous 
anfwer, warning the Emperor to behave towards 
their fovereign with the relpcft due to his rank, as 
they were determined to treat Albert of Branden-> 
burg, who was ftill a prifoner, precifely in the 
fame manner that he treated the Elefton The 
Ipirit of the inhabitants, no lefs than the ftrength 
of the city, fcemed now to render a fiege in forip 
D d 4 ncceffary. 

4o8 -'the reign of TH-E 

® ^,j? ^ neccffiiy. After fuch z fignal viftory it woukE 
C -v^^,^ have been difgraccfui not to have undertaken* it, 
'^*^' though at the fame time the Emperor was defti- 
tute of every thing requifite for carrying it on. 
Bi|t Maurice removed ^U difficulties, by engaging 
tofumilh provifions, artillery, ammunition, pio- 
neers, and whatever elfe (hould be needed. Truft- 
ing to this, Charles gave orders to open the 
trenches before the town. It quickly appeared, 
that Maurice's eagernefe to reduce the -capital of 
thofe dominions, which he expedted as his reward 
for taking arms againft his kinfman, and defcrting 
the Proteftant caufe, had led him to promife what 
exceeded his power to perform. A battering train 
was, indeed, carried fafely down the Elbe from 
Drefdcn to Wittenriberg ; but as Maurice had not 
fufficient force to preferve a fecure communication 
between his own territories and the camp of the 
befiegers. Count Mansfeldt, who commanded a 
body of elcftoral troops, intercepted and deftroyed 
a convoy of provifions and military ftorcs, and diC- 
perfed a band of pioneers deftined for the fervice 
of the Imperialifts. ' Tliis put a ftop to the pro- 
grefs of the fiege, and convinced the Emperor, 
that as he could not rely on Maurice's promifes, 
recourfe ought to be had to feme more expedirious 
as well as more certain method of getting pofleC- 

fion of the town. 

The Empe- The unfortunatc Eleftor was in his hands, 

nerotti treat- and Charlcs was ungenerous and hard-hearted 

S*(So^. ^^^ enough to take advantage of rfiis, in order to 


E MP E R OK CH A R ITJB S .V. 449.. 

mfS^e an e^tperfment^whtther. he iJrigh;t.iolx)hrmg3*-^^.^^ 
abcAit his ddign> by working upbn^ the ceMeine&iw--v»^.. 
of a wife for her hufband, .or upon the piety* ofC !f*^'^.- 
children toward^ their parent, Wiich thisTiew) IjbK 
fumindned Sy bifla a fecond time to: cpcti tiie.gates^^ 
letting her know that if fljeiigarff reflifedr torxdm^. 
ply, rfie Eleftor fhould anfwerwtth his he^d hr'\ 
her obftinacy. To convince her « that thfsnwfflj not: 
an empty threat, he brought his pttfoner tauit imp* 
mediate trial. The proceedings againft lumj^eoet 
as irregular as the ftratagem was barbarous. .. li-. 
ftead of confulting thie ftates of the Empire, or rfe-- 
rtiittiiig the caufe to any court, which, according 
to the German conftitution, mij^ht have dtfgadlyt 
tdken' cognizance of the * EJedor's crifne, . hc> fii>k' 
je^ed the ^eatcft Prince in the Empire to'thc ju- 
rifliftionof a Court-martial, conipofed of iSpanifla. 
aAd Italfan officers,- and in which the unrelenting 
Duke of Alva, a fit inftrument for any afl: of vio- 
lenccv prefided. This ib'ange. tribunal fouhd^.its maj 10^ 
charge upon the ban of the Empire which had 
been iffued againft the prifoner by the fole autho- . 
rity of the Emperor, and was deftitute of every le- 
gal formality which could render it valid. But the 
court-martial, prefuming the Elpftor to be there- 
by manifeljly qonyi6ted of treafon and rebellion, 
condemned him tp fuffer death by being beheaded. 
This decree was intimated tg t)ie Eleftor while he * 
was amufing himfelf in pl^yin^ at Chefs 'with Emeft 
of Brunfwick his fellow-prifoner. He paufed for a 
moment, though without difcovering any fymptom 



^\S^ eidier. of furpriac: or tmor s and ^fter ukkig m^^ 
tke of die irttgaiuitf as well «s injuftice of ^ 

ThJiiM- Ejnpcror'a proceediogs : <* It is ^tfyi coniinve^ 
tor|iiiH;. ]ie^ totemprdtieiid hu feheme* Imuftdie, Ims^ 
** "^^^ cmfe Wittcrabc^ wUl not furrender ; aiid I flu^ 
hfdami mj life ivith f^^ure^ if^ )>y tbac (acrifiee^ 
I can prefervc the digtiicjr of my hQufe, and trai^ 
jnk to my pofterity ih& inh^otapce wliich beton^ 
to them. Would to God^ that this ientjence may 
not afieft my wife and childreit more than it inii* 
midates mo V and that they> hr the fake of adding 
a few days » a life already too long, may not re- 
nounce honoyrs and temiwies which they were 
bom to poflStfs < l" He then turned to liia antago^ 
nift, whom he challenged to eontimie the game* 
He i^ayed with his ufual atl^ention and ing^nuicy> 
and having beat Emcft, expreflfed all the fatisfij^-- 
tion which is commonly felt on gaining fuch vic-» 
tories. After this, he withdrew to his own zpart^ 
ment, diat he might em{^oy the reft of his time in 
fuch religious exercifes as were ^per In his fini^ 

The diftrefi. It was not with thc fame indiflfer^ncej or com- 
»iiy!' *" pofure, that the account of the EJlejJfcor's danger 
was received in Wittembeig. Sybilla, who had 
iii|^orted with fuch^ undaunted fortitude her huf-* 
band's misfortunes, while (he ima^ned that they 
could reach no farther than to dimini^ his power 

a T^u^A. i. fj^ . ^ Strovii Corpus, lo^. 



er territories, feb all her reiblutioiis fail as fi>on as ^ ^^^ 
his life was threatened. Sofidtous to lave thot^ <„■ w ■■! 
fhe deipifed every other confidenttion s and was- "'^'* 
wlUing to make any facrifice, in. order to zppeuSt 
an tncenfed com^ueror. At the &me time» fhe 
Duke of Cleres, the Eleftor of Brandenbufg, vsA 
Mauricej to none of whom Charles had conunisni-* 
cai3ed the true motives of his violent proceedinga 
agunft die Eleftor, interceded warmly with him 
to Q>are his life. The firft was prompted to do fo 
merely by compaffion for his fifter, and regard br 
his brother-in-law. The two others dreaded the 
univeHal reproach that they would incur, if, aftef 
having boafled fo often of die ample fecurity 
which the Emperor iiad promifed them with re*- ' 
fptSt to their religion, the firft efied of their union 
^th him (hould be the public execution of a 
Prince, who was juftly held in reverence as the 
moft zealous proteAor of the Protefbuit cauie* 
Maurice, in particular, fiM*efaw that he muft be- 
come the objefi: of deteftadon to the Saxons, and 
could never hope to govern dicm with tranquil* 
lity, if he were conlidered by them as acoeffiuy to 
the death of his neareft kinfman, in order that he 
might obtain poiieflion of his dominions. 

While they, from fuch various motives, fbli- hii trtntf 
cited Charles, with the moft carneft importunity, ch.rict. by 
not to execute the fentcnce ; Sybilla, and his chil- JJll'rendew 
dren, conjured the Eleftor, by letters as well as **** ^^"- 
Ipcuen^rs, to fcruple at no conceffion that would 




^^x^^ extpirate him out of the prefent dang^r> and dcIi- 
% ''. '^ ver them from their fears and anguilh on his ac- 
>S47' • (ontiu The £n^ror> perceiving that the eipe- 
dient ^ich. he had tried began to produce the e£-, 
fedk that he intended, fell hy dqgrees from hb for- 
mer rigour, and allowed himfelf to ibiten into pro- 
miles of clemenqr and forgivene^, if the Ele&or 
woaid (hew htmfelf worthy of his favour, by fui>^ 
fisming to reaibnable terms. . The Ele&or^ on 
whom the confideration of whgt h^. mig^t fufier 
hunfelf had made no imprefllon, was m^ted by thp 
tears of a wife whom he loved,, and could not re-. 
May 19. fift the intreaties of his family. In compliance 
with; their repeatsed folicitationS) ht agreed to ar* 
tides' of accoiTHnodadon,. which he would other- 
wife have rejected widi difilain. The^chicf of them 
were, that he Ihould refign the Eledorj^l dignity^ 
as well for himielf as for his pofterity» into the 
Emperor's hands, to he, difpofed of entirely at his 
^ckfurc y that:he .fhould inftantly put the Imperial 
troops in poffeflion of the cities of Wittemberg 
and Gotha ; that he fliould fet Albert^f Branden- 
burg at liberty without ranfom j that he ihould fub- 
fpit.tA tbe decrees of the Imperial chamber, and 
acquiefce.^in whatever reformation the Emperor 
fhould make in the conftitution of that cou^i that 
he 'fliould renounce all leagues againft the Empe- 
ror or King of the Romans, and enter into no al- 
liance for the future, in which they were not com- 
prehended. In return for thefe important concef- 
fions, the Emperor not only promifed to fpare his 
L . life. 


life, but to fettle on him and his pofterity the city * ^iS,^ 
of Gotha and its territories, togeth^ with an an- ^. v ■' 
nual penfion of fifty thoufand florins, payabk out '^^* 
of die revenues of the Ele&oraide ; and likewife to 
grant him a fum in ready money to be applied to- 
wards the difcharge of his debts. Even thefe ar«- tndranaiin 
tides of grace were cbgged -with :the mortifying * ^^* *"**'* 
condition of his remaining the Emperor's prifoner 
during the reft ofhis life *. To the whole, ChariW 
had' fi]t]^<^ned,« that he (hould ibbmit to the de-> 
crees of the Pope and council .with regard to the 
controverted points in religion ; but the EteftoTi 
though he had been perfuaded to facrifice all the 
obje^s which men <^ommonly hold to be the dear- 
eft and moft valuably, was infleidble with regard 
CO diis point ; ^ukI neither direats nor intreaties 
could prevail te make him renounce what he deem- 
;cd to be truth, or perfuade him to adl in oppofition 
to the diAates of his coiifcience. 

As foon as the Saxon garrifbn marched out of Mnricf put 
Wittemberg, the Emperor fulfilled his engager of Jhe^EUc! 
ments to Maurice j and in reward for his merit in ^'^JJl,^**^^' 
having deferted the Proteftant caufe, and having 
contributed with fuch fuccefs towards the diflblu- 
tion of the Smolkaldic league, he gave him pof- 
feflion of tiiat city, together with all the other 
towns in the Eleftorate. It was not without re- 
li3<5bance, however, that he made fuch a facrifice s 

• i ' ' * ^ 

> Sleid. 427. Thuan. i. 142. Du Mont, Corps Diplom. 
iy.p. iii,332. 

3 the 


■ ^'^ * the exQ-aordinary fvcctb of his arms had begun to 
^_^^-/' ' operate^ in its itfual manner, upon his aml^tious 
'^7* mind, fuggefting new and vaft proje6b for the ag« 
grandizement of his fujoSlyy to^Ptrards the accom- 
pliihment of which the retaining of Saxony would 
hare been of the utmoft con&quenoe. But as this 
ftheme was not then ripe for execiidon, he durft: 
not yet venture to difck^ it $ nor would it h»re 
been either iafe or prudent to ofiend Mauricej at 
that jun(£hiir, by fuch a noanifeft violation of all 
the promiles, which had feduced him to abaixkm 
his natural allies. 

K«toch' The Landgrave^ Maurice's &dier-in-law, was 
SlTiIilu ftiU in arms ; and though now left alone to msun- 
^^ tain the Proteftant caufe, was neither a feeble nor 
contemptible enemy. His dominioils were of con* 
fiderable extent ; his fubje£h animated with zeal 
for the Reformation ; and if he eould have held 
the Imperialifts at bay for a (hort time, he had 
ftiuch to hope from a party whole ftrength was ftill 
unbroken, whofe iinion as well as vigour m^t 
return, and which had rcafon to depend, with cer- 
tainty, on being efieftually fupported by the Kis^ 
of France. The Landgrave thought notof ai^ 
thing 6> b<^ or adventurous ^ but beihg ieioed 
with die fame conilernation which had taken pc^ 
iefCon of his afibciates, he was intent only on the 
means of procuring favourable terms from the 
Emperor, whom he viewed as a conqueror, to 
whofe will there was a neceOity. of fubmitdng. 



EMPfiROR CrtAftLfiS V, 4t| 

Maurice eiicburaged this tame and (jadiic %«ri^ 
by magnifying, 6n the one hand> the Emperor's 
>poift^r ', by boafiing, on the other, of his own inte^ 
reft with his viftorious ally ; and by reprefenring 
the advantageoQs conditbns which he could not 
iail of obtaining by his intercelfion for a fiiendi 
whom he was fo folicitous to fave. Sometimes die 
Landgrave was induced to place fOch unbounded 
confidence in his promifes, that he was inipatie0t 
t6 bring matters to a final accommodatbn. On 
other occafions, die Emperor's exorbitant ambi>- 
tion, rcftraincd neiAer by the fcrupfes of decency 
nor the msodnxs of juftice, together with the recent 
and flioqkii^ proof which he had given of this in 
his treatment of the Eledor of Saxony, came fo 
full into his thoughts^ and made fuch a lively. im- 
prefiion on thMi) that he brdke ofi^ abruptly the 
'negociadons which he had begun ; ieeming to be 
(convinced diat it wad more prudent to depend for 
ia&ty on his oWn Ut^s, than to confide in Charles's 
generi^ity. But this bold refolution, which de- 
fy^ had fuggefted to an impatient fpirit, frettaed 
by difat)pointmeht9, was not of long condnuance. 
Upon a more deliberate forvey of the enemy's 
power, as well as his own weaknefs, his doubts axid 
foars returned upon kim, and together with diem 
'the l|>irit of negociating, and die defire of accom« 

Maurice, and the Eleftor of Brandenburg, Thecwdi- 
afted as mediators between him and the Em- Mb^'^ 

pcror, ,g,^ 



pcroir; and after all that the £>rmer had vaunted 
of his. influence, the conditions- prefcribed to the 
Laridgi:%ve; were ^extremely rigoroirs. The article^ 
with fegard to his renouncing the league of Smal- 
kalde, ;sickiaqwledging the Emperor's authority, and 
fubmitting to the decrees of the Imperial chambeF, 
were the fame which had been impofed on the 
Ele^Sor of Saxony. Befides thefe, he was requir- 
!ed \to furrender his perfon and territories to the 
Emperor J to implore for pardon on his knees ; to 
pay an hundred and fifty thouland crowns towards 
defraying the expcnces of the war ; to demolifh 
the fortifications of all the towns in his dominions 
except one ; to oblige the garrifon which he placed 
in it to uke an oath of fidelity to the Emperor ; 
to allow a free paflage through his territories to 
the Imperial troops as often as it Ihall be demand- 
ed ; to deliver up all his artillery and ammunition 
to the Emperor ; to fet at liberty, without ranfbm^ 
Henry -of Brunfwick, together with the other pri« 
fclners whom he had taken during the war; and 
.neither to talce arms himfelf, nor to permit any of 
his fubjefts to ferve, againft the. Emperor or his 
allies for the fixture ^. 

To«hicK . The Landgrave ratified thefe articles, though 

Mfiibmiu. .^iththe.utmoft reludtance, as they contained no 

ftipulation with regard to the manner in which 

• ' . he was to be treated, and left him entirely at the 

^ Sleid. 430. Thuan. !• iv. 146. 



Emperor's mercy. Neceffity, however, compelled book 
him to give his aflent to them. Charlesj ^vho had w — w-i^ 
aflbmed the haughty and imperious tone of a con- '^*^* 
queror, ever fmce the redudtion of Saxony, infifted 
on unconditional fubmiffion, and would permit no- 
thing to be added to the terms which he had pre- 
fcribed, that could in any degree limit the fulnels 
of his power, or reftrain hirin from behaving as he 
faw meet towards ia Prince whom he regarded a$ 
abfblutely at his difpofal. But though he would 
not vouclifafe to negociate with the Landgrave, on 
fuch a footing of equality, as to fuffer any article 
to be inferted among thofe -which he had diftated 
to him, that could be confidered as a formal fti- 
pulation for the fecurity and freedom of his perfonj 
he> or his minifters in his name, gave the Eleftor 
of Brandenburg and Maurice fuch full fatisfaftion 
with regard to this point, that diey aflured the 
Landgrave that Charles would behave to liim in 
the fame way as he had done to the Duke of Wur- 
temberg, and would allow him, whenever he had 
made his fubmiffion, to return to his own tcrrito- . 
ries. Upon finding the Landgrave to be (till pof- 
feifed with his former fufpicions of the Emperor's 
intentions, and unwilling to truft verbal or ambi- 
guous declarations, in a matter of fuch eflential 
concern as his own liberty, they fent him a bond 
figned by them both, containing the moft folemn 
obligations, that if any violence whatfoeyer was 
offered to his perfon, during his interview with the 
Emperor, chey would inftantly furrcnder themfclvc* 
Vol, III. E c to 


* ^ix ^ *^ ^'^ ^"^' ^"^ remain in their ha^ids to be treateci 
t^m^m^ by them in the fame manner as the Emperor fhoiild 
'5^^- treat him \ 

Herepain This, together With the indilpenfable obligation 
j».eriaicMrt. of performing what was contained in the ardcles 
' of which he had accepted, removed his doubts and 

Icruples, or made it neceffaiy to get over them. 
He repaired, for that purpofe, to the Imperial 
camp at Hall in Saxony, where a circumftance oc- 
curred which revived his fulpicions and increafed 
his fears. Juft as he was about to enter the cham- 
ber of prefence, in order to make his public fub- 
miffion to the Emperor, a copy of the articles 
which he had approved of was put into his hands, 
in order that he might ratify them anew. Upon 
perufing them, he perceived that the Imperral 
minifters had added two new articles ; one import- 
ing, that if any dilpute fhould arife concerning 
the meaning of the former conditions, the Empe- 
ror (hould have the right of putting what inter- 
pretation upon them he thought mdl reaibnable j 
the other, that the Landgrave was bound to fub- 
mit implicitly to the decifions of the council of 
Trent. This unworthy artifice, Calculated to lur- 
prife him into an approbation of articles, to which 
he had not the moft diftant idea of aflenting, by 
propofing them to him at a time when his mind 
was engrofled and difquieted with the thoughts of 

* Da Mont Corps DipIoin« iv. p. u, 336. 




^lat humiliating ceremony which he had tx) per- * ^^ ^ 
form, fiUed the Landgrave with indignation^ and u^^^^ 
made him break out into aU thofe violent expref- ''*^* 
fions of rage to which his temper was prone« 
With fome difficulty, the Eledor of Branden- 
burg and Maurice prevailed at ler^th on the £m^ 
peror's minifters to drop the former article as un« 
juft, and to explain the latter in fuch a manner, 
that he could agree to it, without openly renoun^ 
cing the Proteftant religion. 

This obfta2:le being furmounted, the Landgrave The man. 
was impatient to finifti a ceremony which, how ?hl Emjit^ 
mortifying ibevcr, had been declared neceffary to- J?^^^*** 
wards his obtwiing pardon. The Emperbr was 
ieated on a magnificent throne, with all the enfigns 
of his dignity, furrounded by a numerous train of 
the Princes of the Empire, among whom was 
Henry of Brunfwick, lately the Landgrave's pri- 
fbner, and now, by a fudden reverfe of fortune, a 
^dator of his humiliation. The Landgrave was 
introduced with great folemnity, and advancing 
towards the throne, fell upon his knees. His 
chancellor, who walked behind him, immediately 
read, by his mailer's command, a paper which 
contained an humble confeflion of the crime whereof 
he had been guilty ; an acknowledgment that he had 
merited on that account the moft fevere punilh- 
ment; an abfolute refignation of himielf and his 
dominions to be dilpofed of at the Emperor's plea- 
fure i a fubmiffive petition for pardon, his hopes of 
E c a which 


^ ^ix^ ^ which were founded entirely on the Emperor's clc- 
i. ia>^l.-j mency ; and it concluded with pronriifes of behav- 
'^*^' ing, for the future, like a fubjeft whofe principles 
' ' of loyalty and obedience would be confirnned, and 
Would even derive new force from the fentiments 
of gratitude which muft hereafter fill and animate 
his heart. While the chancellor was reading this 
abjea declaration, the eyes of all the fpeftacors 
were fixed on the unfortunate Landgrave ; few 
could behold a Prince, fo powerful as well as high- 
Ipirited, fuing for mercy in the pofture of a fuppli- 
cant, without being touched with commiferation, 
and perceiving ferious refledtions arifc in their 
minds upon the inftability and emptinefs of human 
grandeur- The Emperor viewed the whole tranC- 
aftion with an haughty unfeeling compofure ; and 
preferving a profound filence himfelf, made a fign 
to one of his fecretaries to read his anfwcr i the te- 
nor of which was. That though he might have 
juftly inflifted on him the grievous punifhmcnt 
which his crimes deferved, yet, prompted by his 
own generofity, moved by die folicitations of fe- 
veral Princes in behalf of the Landgrave, and in- 
fluenced by his penitential acknowledgments, he 
would not deal with him according to the rigour 
of juftice, and would fubjeft him to no penalty 
that was not fpecificd in die articles which he had 
ab-cady fubfcribed. The moment the fecretary had 
finilhed, Charles turned away abrupdy, widiout 
deigning to give the unhappy fuppliant any fign 
' of compaflion or reconcilement. He did not even 



dcfirc him to rife from his knees ; which the • ^^ ^ 
Landgrave having ventured to do unbidden^ ad- > — i^^^ 
vanced towards the Emperor with an intention to "^^7* 
kifs his hand, flattering himfelf^ that his guilt 
being now fully expiated, he might prefume to 
take that liberty. But the Elcftor of Branden^ 
burg, perceiving that this familiarity would be 
oflfenfivc to the Emperor, interpofed, and defir-* 
ed the Landgrave to go along with him and 
Maurice to the Duke of Alva's apartments in 
the calUe. 

He was received and entertained by that noble-^ 
man with the refpe6t and courtefy due to fuch a 
^eft. But after fuppcr, while he was engaged in 
play, the Duke took the Eleftor and Maurice 
afide, and communicated to them the Emperor's 
orders, that the Landgrave muft remain a prifoner Hetut. 
in that place under the cuftody of a Spanifh guard, pVifow, 
As they had not hitherto entertained the moft dif- 
tant fufpicion of the Emperor's finccrity or redi- 
tude of intention, their furprife was excelTive, and 
their indignation not inferior to it, on discovering 
how gready they had been deceived themfelvcs, 
and how infamoufly abufed, in having been made 
the inftruments of deceiving and ruining their 
friend* They had recourfe to complaints, to ar- 
guments, and to intreaties, in order to fave them- 
felves from that diigrace, and to extricate him out 
of the wretched fituation into which he had been 
betrayed by too great confidence in them. But 
the Duke of Alva remained inflexible, and plead- 

Ec 3 cd 



cd the neceffity of executing the Emperor's com*? 
mands. By this time it grew late, ami the Land^ 
grave, who knew nothing of what had pafled, nor 
dreaded the fnare in which he was entangled^ pre* 
pared for departing, when the &tal orders were 
intimated to him. He was ftruck dumb at firft 
with aftonifhment, but after being (iknt a few mo* 
fnents, he broke out into all the violent expreflk»|3 
which horror, at injuftice accompanied with fiaud, 
fiaturally fuggefts. He complained, he expoftu- 
lated, he exclaimed ; fometimes inveighing againft 
the Emperor's artifices as unworthy of a great and 
generous Prince ; Ibmetimes cenfiiring the credu- 
lity of his friends in trufting to Charles's infidiou^ 
promiles; fometimes charging them with- meannef^ 
in (looping tq lend their afCftance towards the 
execution of fUch a perfidious and dilhonourabk 
fchcme i and in the end he required them to re- 
member their engagements to his children, and 
inftandy to fulfil them. They, after giving way 
for a littie to the torrent of his paffion, (blemnly 
afierted their own innocence and upright intention 
in the whole tranfaftion, and encouraged him to 
Jiope, that, as foon as they fav the Emperor, dicy 
would obtain redreft of an injury, which afiefted 
^eir own honour, no lefs titan it did his liberty. 
At the fame time, in order to foothe his rage and 
' impatience^ Maurice remained with him during die 
night, in the {tp^rtmei^t where he was confined "• 

^ Sleid. 43 J. Thuan. h iv. 147. Strqv. Corp- Hift. Germ, 
ii. 105a. 



Next morning, the Eledor and Maurice ap- b. o o k 
plied joindy to die Enipcror, reprcfendng the \ J ^ 
infamy to which they would be expofed through- The Eli«or 
out Germany if the Landgrave were detained in of Branden- 
cuftody i that they would not have advifed, nor Manjice fo- 
would he himielf have confented to ap interview, foTh^s iV-*** 
if they had fufpefted that the lofs of his liberty ^^^' 
was to be the confequence of his fubmiffion i that 
they were bound to procure his releafe, having 
plighted their faith to that cfFeft, and engaged 
their own perfbns as lureties for his, Charles 
liftened to their earneft remonftrances with the 
utmoft coolnefs. As hd now flood no longer in 
need of their fervices, they had the pnortification 
to find that their former obfequioufnefs was for- 
gotten, and Uttle regard paid to their interceffion. 
He was ignorant, he told them, of their particu- 
lar or private tranfaftions with the Landgrave^ 
nor was his conduft to be regulated by any en- 
gagement$ into which they had thought fit to en- 
ter 5 tho\)gh he knew well what he himfelf had ♦ 
promifed, which was not that the Landgrave 
fhould he exempt fi-om ?l11 reftraint, but that he 
ihould not he kept a prifgner during life *. Hav- 

* According to feveral hiftorians of great Daine» the Em- 
peror, in his treaty with the Landgrave, ftipnlated that he 
would not detain him in any prifon. Bat in executing the 
deed, which was written in the German tongue, the Imperial 
minifters fraudulently fubftituted the word e^iger, inftead of 
fimger, and thus the treaty, in place of a promife that he 
£ e 4. ihouhl 


ing faid this with a peremptory and decifive tone, 
he put an end to the conference ; and they feeing 
'^*^* no probability, at that time, of making any im- 
preflion ypon the Emperor, who feemed to have 
taken this rcfoiution deliberately, and to be ob- 
ftinat^ly bent on adhering to it, were obliged to 
acquaint the unfortunate prifoncr with the ill 
fuccefs of their endeavoyrs in his behalf. The 
difappointment threw him into a new and more 
violent tranfport of rage, fo that to prevent his 
piGceeding to fome dcfperate extremity, the 
Eledtor and Maurice promifed that they would 
pot quit tlie Emperor, until, by the frequency 
and fervour of their interceflions, they had ex- 
torted his confcnt to fet him free. They accord- 
ingly renewed their felicitations a few days after- 
Vr-ards, but found Charles more haughty and in- 
tractable than before, and \vere warned that if 

ihould not be detained in any priCon, contained only an en- 
gagement that he fhould not be detained in /erfefual impri* 
fonmfnt. Bu: authors, eminent for hiftoncal knowledge and 
critical accuracy^ have called in qaeilion th^ truth of this com- 
Cion ftory. The filcnce of Sleidan with regard to it, as wejl 
as its not being mentioned in the various memorials whick 
.he has published concerning the Landgrave's imprifonment, 
greatly favour this opinion. But as feveral books which coa- 
lain the information npcefTary towards difcuffing this point 
with accuracy, are written in the German language, which I 
do not underiland, 1 cannot pretend to inquire into this mat- 
^jr with the fame precifjon, wherewith 1 have endeavoured to 
fctile fome oiher controverted fads which have occurred in the 
pourfeof this hlftory. See Struv. Corp. 1052. MoHieim's 
l^cd^C. tfiil. vol. 21. p, 161, 162, Engl, edition. 




tfiey touched again upon a fubjeflrfo difagrecablc, 
and with regard to which he ha^ determined to 
hear nothing farther, he would inftantly ^ve or- 
ders to convey the prifoner into Spaiix A&aid of 
hurting the Landgrave by an officious or ill-timed 
?eal to ferve him, they not pnly defifted, but left 
tlie court, and as they did not chufe to meet the 
firft fallies of the Landgrave's rage upon his learn- 
ing the caufe of their departure, they informed 
him of it by a letter, wherein they exhorted him 
to fulfil all that he had promifed to the Emperor, 
as the moft certain means of procuring a Ipecdy 

Whatever violent emotions their abandoning Hit impi- 
his caule in this manner occafioned, the Land- i^^i 
grave's impatience to recover liberty made him 
follow their advice. He paid the fum which had 
been impofed on him, ordered his fortreffes to 
be razed, and renounce^ all alliances which could 
give offence. This prompt compliance with the 
will of the coQcjueror produced no effeft. He 
was ftill guarded with the fame vigilant fcverityi 
and being carripd about, together with the de- 
graded Eleftor of Saxony, wherever the Empe- 
rpr went, their dilgrace and his , triumph waa 
each day renewed. The fortitude as well as 
equanimity, with which the Eleftor bore thefc 
repeated infults, were not more remarkable than 
the Landgrave's fi-etfulnefs and impatience. His 
adtive impetiTOUS min^ could ill brook rcfb^int ; 


and refledion upion the fhameful artifices, by which 
he had been decoyed into that fituation, as well a& 
^^^* indignation at the injultice with which he was (tiU 
detuned in it, drove him o&eh to the wilde£k ex« 
cefles of paffion. 

The rigour The pcoplc of the difFercnt cities, to whona 
^ror^^s ex.' Chaflcs thus wantonly expofed thofe iUufbious pn^ 
Q^l^y^ foncrs as a puWic fpeftack, were fenfibly touched 
with fuch an infult offered to the Germanic body, 
and murmured loudly at this indecent treatment of 
two of its greateft Princes. They had ibon other 
caufes of cpmplaint, and fuch » afiefted thenci 
more nearly, Charles proceeded to add o^refllon 
to infult^ and arrogating to himfelf all the rights 
of a conqueror, exercifed them with the utmoft 
rigour. He'ordered his troops to feize the artil- 
lery and military ftores belonging to fuch as had 
been members of the Smalkaldic league, and hav- 
ing coUefted upwards of five hundred pL^es of 
cannon, a great number in that age, he fent part 
of them into the Low-Countries, part into Italy,, 
and part into Spain, in order to fpread by this 
means the fame of his fuccefs, and tliat they might 
fcrve as monuments of hia having fubdued a na- 
tion hitherto deemed invincible. He then levied,, 
by his fole authority, large fums of money, as well 
upon thofe who had fefved him with fidelity during 
the war, as upon fuch as had been in arms againft 
him ; upon the former, as their contingent towarda 
a war, which, having been undertaken> as he pre- 


tended^ for tl^ common benefit, ought to be car- • ^^^ ^ 
ried on at the common charge $ upon the latter^ u.-^^^ 
as a fine by way of puniihment for their rebellion. '^^^' 
By theie exaftions, he amafled above one million 
fix hundred thoufand crowns^ a fum which appear- 
ed prodigious in the fifteenth century. But fo 
general was the conftcrnation which had feizecf the 
Germans upon his rapid fuccefs, and fuch their 
dread of his vi&orious troops> that all implicitly 
obeyed his commands ; though^ at the fame timCj 
thefo extraordinary fixetches of power greatly alarm* 
ed a people jealous of their privileges, and habitu- 
atedj during leveral ages, to confider the Imperial 
authority as neither extenfive nor formidable. 
This difcontcnt and refentment, how induftrioufly 
foever they concealed them, became univerfal j and 
the more thefe pafilons were retrained and kept 
down for the prefent, the more likely were they to 
burft put foon with additional violence: 

While Charles gave law to the Germans like a PdjiMn^*! 
conquered people, Ferdinand treated his fubjedb ^ST^' 
in Bohemia with ftill greater rigour. That king- 2*bh*fti?* 
dom poflefled privileges and immunities as exten- kemiu ibir 
five as thofe of any nation in which the feudal in- ^ * 
ftitutions were eftablilhed. The prerogative of 
their Kings was extremely Jjimited, and the crown 
itfelf ele£tive* Ferdinand, when raifed to the 
throne, had confirmed their liberties with every 
folemnity prefcribed by their exceflive folicitude 
for the fecurity of a conftitution of government to' 



* ^x° ^ which they were extremely attached. He foon 
w-v— ^ began, however, to be weary of a jurilSiftion fo 
'^'' much circumfcribed, and to delpife a fceptre which 
he could not tranfmit to his pofterity ; and- not- 
withftanding all his former engagements, he at- 
tempted to overturn the conftitution from its found- 
ations; that inftead of an eleftive kingdom he 
might render it hereditary. But the Bohemians 
were" too high-fpirited tamely to rcKnquilh privi- 
kges which they had long enjoyed. At the fame 
time, many of them having embraced the doc- 
trines of the Reformers, the feeds of which John 
Hufs and Jerome of Prague had planted in their 
country about the beginning of the preceding cen- 
tury, the defire of acquiring religious liberty mingled 
itfelf with their zeal for their civil rights ; and 
thefe two kindred paflions heightening, as ufual, 
each other's force, precipitated them immediately 
into violent meifures. They had not only refufed 
• to ferve their fovereign againft the confederates of 
Smalkalde, but having entered into a clofe alliance 
v/ith the Eleftor of Saxony, they had bound thcm- 
felves, by a folemn aflbciation, to defend their an- 
cient conftitution ; and to. perfift, until they ihould 
obtain fuch additional privileges as they thought 
nccefTary towards perfefting the prefent model of 
^ their government, or rendering it more permanent. 
They chofe Cafpar Phlug, a nobleman of diftinc- 
tion, to be their general ; and raifed an army of 
thirty thoufand men to enforce their petitions. 
9ut either from the weaknefs of their leader, or 



fix)m the diflenfions ia a great unwieldy body, ® ^^^ ^ 
which, having united haftily, was not thoroughly v..-^^,^ 
compared, or from fome other unknown caufe, '^^* 
the fubfequent operations of the Bohemians bore 
no proportion to the zeal and ardour with which 
they took their firft refolutions. They fufFered 
themfclvcs to be amufed fo long with negociations 
and overtures of different kinds, that before 
they could enter Saxony, the battle of Muhlberg 
was fought, the Eledlof deprived of his dignity- 
and territories, the Landgrave confined to clofe 
cuftody, and the league of Smalkalde entirely dif- 
fipated. The fame dread of the Emperor's power 
which had feized the reft of the Germans, reached 
them. As foon as their fovereign approached with 
a body of Imperial troops, they inflandy difperfcd, - 
thinking of nothing but how to atone for their paft 
guilt, and to acquire fome hope of forgivenefs, by 
a prompt fubmifTion. But Ferdinand, who enter- 
ed his dominions full of that implacable refent- 
mcnt which inflames Monarchs whofe authority 
has been delpifed, was not to be mollified by the 
iate repentance and involuntary return of rebel- 
lious fubjc6ls to their duty. He even heard, un- 
moved, the intreaties ^d tears of the citizens of 
Prague, who appeared before him in the pofl'ure 
of fuppliants, and implored for mercy. The 
lentence which he pronounced againft them wa3 
rigorous to extremity ; he abolifhed many of their 
privileges, he abridged others, and new-modelled 
tJie conftitutioa according to lii$ pleafure. He 



? ^,x^ ^ condemned to deadi many of riiofe who had beefl 
i«-*viLij moft aftive in fomyng the late aflbciation agaioft 
^^^* him, and puniihed ftiU a greater number with con-^ 
fifcation of their goods, or perpetual banifhment. 
He obliged all his fubjefts, o( every condition, to 
give up their arms to be depofited in forts where 
he planted garriibns ; and after diiarming his people, 
he loaded them with new and exorbitant taxes. 
Thus, by an ill-condu6ted and unfucceisful effort 
to extend their privileges, the Bohemians not only 
enlarged the fphere of the royal pr^rc^ative, when 
they intended to have circumfcribed it, but they 
almoft annihilated thofe liberties which they aimed 
at eftablifliing on a broader and more fccure fotmd- 
atipn *• 

B^ beu H The Emperor, having now humbled, and as he 
* "'*' imagined, fubdued the independent and ftubborn 
ipirit of the Germans by the terror of arms and 
the rigour of punifhment, held a diet at Augfbuig, 
in order to compofe finally the controveriies with 
regard to religion, which had £> long difturbed 
the Empire. He durft not, however, trull the 
determination of a matter fb interefting to the free 
fuffi-agp of the Germans, broken as their minds 
now were to fubje£lion. He entered the city at 
(he head of his Spanifh troops, and afligned them 
quarters there. The reft of his foldiers he can- 
toned in the adjacent villages ; £o that the mem* 

* Sleid. 408' 419. 434. Thaan. I» iv. 129. 150. Struv. 
Corp. ii* • * 



bers of the diet, while they carried on their ■ ^J* ^ 
deliberations^ were nirroonded by d» fame army t- ■»- ># 
which had overcome their countrymen. Imme- '*^* 
diately alter his public entry, Charles gave a proof 
of the violence with which he intended to proceed. 
He look poflef&on by force of the cathedral, toge* 
ther with one rf the principal churches j and hit 
^riefts having, by various ceremonies, purified 
theni from the pollution with which they fiippofed 
the unhallowed minift^ations of the Proteftants to 
have defiled them, they re-eftabliflicd with great 
pomp the rites of the Romiih worfliip •. 

The concourfe of members to this diet was ex- The Empe. 
traordinary; the importance of the afiairs concern- [hL^*J*J*'" 
ing which it was to deliberate, added to the fear of *j*»''i' '^ , 

' ' m 1 »^ t t /. **** General 

giving oiFence to the Emperor by an abfence which cooncu. 
lay open to mifconftruftion, brought together al- 
moft all die Princes, nobles, and reprefentatives of 
citia who had a right to fit in that aflembly. The 
Emperor, in the fpeech with which he opened the 
meeting, called their attention immediately to that 
point, which feemed chiefly to merit it. Having 
mentioned the fatal efFe6ts of the rieligious diffen- 
fions which had arilen in Germany, and taken no- 
tice of his own unwearied endeavours to procure a 
general council, which alone could provide a re- 
medy adequate to thofe evils, he exhorted them to 
rccognife its authority, and to ftand to the award 

• Slcid. 455. 4J7. 



* *ix* ^ °^ *° aflembly to which they had originally ap- 
c^J — * pealed, as having the fole right of judgment in 
'**7' the cafe. 

Vafiruf re. BuT thc councU, to which Charles wiflied them 
ihe"cwncu. to refer all their controverfies, had, by this time, 
undergone a violent change. The fear and jea- 
loufy, with which the Emperor's firft fuccefles 
againft the confederates of Smalkalde had inipired 
the Pope, continued to increafe. Not fatisfied 
with attempting to retard the p/ogrefs of the Im- 
perial arms, by the fudden recal of his troops^ 
Paul began to confider the Emperor as an enemy, 
thc weight of whofe power he muft foon feel, and 
againft whom he could not be too hafty in taking 
precautions. He forefaw that the immediate effeft 
of the Emperor's acquiring abfolute power in Ger- 
many, would be to render him entirely matter of all 
the decifions of the council, if it fliQuld continue to 
meet in Trent. It was dangerous to allow a Mo- 
narch, fo ambitious, to get the command of this 
formidable engine, which he might employ at plea- 
fure to limit or to overturn the papal authority. As 
the only method of preventing this, he determin- 
ed to remove the council to fome city more imme- 
diately under his own jurifdiftion, and at a greater 
diftance from the terror of the Emperor's arms, 
or the rea^ch of his influence. An incident for* 
tijnately occurred, which gave this meafure the 
appearance of being neceffary. One or two of 
tjie fathers of the council, together with fome of 
20 theic 

feMpfiROR Charles v. 433 

tKeir domeftics, happening to die fuddenly, the ® ^^ ^ 
f hyfieiaiis, deceived by the fymptoms, or fuborn- u>.- w^ ^ 
ed by the Pope's legates, pronounced the diftem- '^*^' 
per to be infeftious aAd peftilential. Some of the , 
prelates, ftruck with a panic, retired j others were 
impatient to be gone ; and after a Ihort confult- 
ation, the council was tranflated to Bologna, a city March ii» 
lubjeft to the Pope* All the bifhops in the Impe- 
rial intereft warmly oppofed this refolution, as 
taken without neceflity, and founded on falfe or 
frivolous pretexts. . AU the Spanilh prelates^ and Twnflated 
mofk x){ the Neapolitan, by the Emperor's exprefs [iXi^"!L' 
(iommarid, rertiained at Trent; the reft, to the 
number of thirty-four> accompanying the legates 
to Bologna; Thus a fchifm commenced in that ' 
very aflemblyj which had been called to heal tho 
divifions of Chriftendom j the fathers of B(^ogna 
inveighed againft thofe who ftaid at Trent, as con- 
tumacious and regardlefs of the Pope's authority ; 
while the other accufed them of being fo far inti- 
midated by the fears of imaginary danger, as to 
remove to a pkce where their confultations could . 
prove df no fcrvice towards re-eftablifhipg peace 
and order in Germany ^. 

The Emperor, at the fame time, employed all sjmptoms 
his, intereft to procure the return of the council bciwdn^ihe 
to Trent. But Paul, who highly .applauded his Emperor. 
own fagacity in having taken a ftep which put it 

p F. Paul* 248, &c. 
Vol. hi. F f out 


out of Charles's power to acquire the dire£tion of 
that aflembly, paid no regard to a requeftj the 
'^*^* objcft of which was fo extremely obvious. The 
fummcr was confumed in fruitlels negodadons 
with rcfpedk to this point> the importunity of the 
one and obftinacy of the other daily increafing. At 
laft an event happened which widened the breach 
irreparably, and rendered the Pope utterly averfc 
from liftening to any propofal that came from the 
Emperor. Charles, as has been already obfcrved, 
had fo violently exafperated Peter Lewis Farnefc, 
the Pope's fon, by refufing to grant him the invcfti- 
ture of Parma and Placentia, that he had watched 
ever fince that time with all the vigilance of refent- 
ment for an opportunity of revering that injury. 
He had endeavoured to precipitate the Pope into 
open hoftilities againft the Emperor, and had ear- 
neftly folicited the King of France to invade Italy. 
His hatred and refentment extended to all thoie 
whom he knew that the Emperor favoured ; he 
did every ill office in his power to Gonzaga, go- 
vernor of Milan, and had encouraged Fiefco in his 
attempt upon the life of Andrew Doria, becaufe 
both Gonzaga and Doria poflefled a great degree 
of the Emperor's efteem and confidence. His 
malevolence and fecret intrigues were not unknown 
to the Emperor, who could not be more defirous 
to take vengeance on him, than Gonzaga and Doria, 
were to be employed as his inftruments in inflifting 
it. Farnefe, by the profligacy of his life, and by 
enormities of every kind, equal to thofe committed 


by the worft tyrants who have difgraccd human ^ ^ <> * 
nature^ had rendered himfelf fo odious^ that it was ^* ^ ^^ 
thought any violence whatever might be lawfully *^^' 
attempted againft him. Gonzaga and Doria 
foon found, among his own fubjeds, perfons who 
were eager, and even deemed it meritorious, to lend 
their hands in fuCh a fcrvice. As Farnefe, animat- 
ed with the jealoufy which ufually poflfeffes petty 
fovereigns, had employed all the cruelty and fraud, 
whereby they endeavour to fupply their defedl of 
power, in order to humble and extirpate the nobi- 
Kty fubjeft to his government, five noblemen of 
the greateft diftindtion in Placentia combined to 
avenge the injuries which they themfelves had fuf- 
fered, as well as thofe which he had offered to their 
order. They formed their plan in conjunftion^ith 
Gonzaga ; but it remains uncertain whether he ori- 
ginally fuggefted the fcheme to them, or only ap- 
proved of what they propofed, and co-operated in 
carrying it on. They concerted all the previous 
fteps with luch forefight, condufted their intrigues 
with fuch fecrecy,*and difplayed fuch courage in the 
execution of their defign, that it may be ranked 
among the moft audacious deeds of that nature 
mentioned in hiftory. One body of the conlpira- Sept.io; 
tors furprifed, at mid-day, the gates of the citadel 
of Placentia where Farnefe refided, overpowered Th«»ffaa. 

nation of 

his guards, and murdered him. Another party of the Pop«»t 
them made themfelves matters of the town, and ^*'** 
called upon their fellow-citizens to take arms, in 
order to recover their liberty. The multitude ran 
F f 2 towards 


^ ^x^ ^ towards the citadel, from which three great guns, ^ 
^^^L^ fignal' concerted with Gonzaga, had been fired; and 
'^'*^' before they could guefs the caufe or the authors of 
the tumult, they faw the lifelefs body of the tyrant 
hanging by the heels from one of the windows of 
the citadel. But fo univerfally deteftable had he 
become, that not one expreffed any fentiment of 
concern at fuch a fad reverfe of fortune, or difco- 
vered the leaft indignation at this ignominious treat- 
ment of a fovereign Prince. The exultation at the 
fuccefs of the conlpiracy was general, and all ap- 
plauded the aftors in it, as the deliverers of their 
country. The body was tumbled into the ditch 
that furrounded the citadel, and cxpofed to the in- 
fults of the rabble ; the reft of the citizens return- 
ed to their ufual occupations, as if nothing extra- 
ordinary had happened. 

Theimpe- BEFORE next moming, a body of troops arriv- 
r.lce poadT- ing from the frontiers of the Milanefe, where they 
piKwtia, ^^^ ^^^^ pofted in expedation of the event, took 
poffeflion of the city in the Emperor's name, and 
reinftated the inhabitants in the poffeflion of their 
ancient privileges. Parma, which the Imperialifts 
attempted likewife to furprife, was faved by the 
vigilance and fidelity of the officers whom Farnefe 
had intfufted with the command of the garrifon. 
The death of a fon whom, notwithftanding his in- 
famous vices, Paul loved with an excefs of parental 
tendernefs, overwhelmed him with the deepeft af- 
flidion ', and the lofs of a city of fuch confequcnce 



as Placcntia, greatly embittered his forrow. He ® ^^^ ^ 
accufcd Gonzaga, in open confiftory, of having u^-y — ^ 
committed a cruel murder, in order to prepare the '**^* 
way for an unjuft ufurpation, and immediately de- 
manded of the Emperor fatisfaftion for both ; for 
the former, by the punilhment of Gonzaga ; for 
the latter, by the reftitution of Placentia to his 
grandfon OAavio, its rightful owner. But Charles, 
who, rather than quit a prize of fuch value, was 
willing, not only to expofe himfelf to the imputa- 
tion of being acccffary to the crime which had given 
an opportunity of feizing it, but to bear the infamy 
of defrauding his own fon-in-law of the inheritance 
which belonged to him, eluded all his fblicitations, 
and determined to keep pofleffion of the city, to- 
gether with its territories ^, 

This refolution, flowing from an ambition fo ThePop* 

^ courts the 

rapacious, as to be reftrained by no confideration^tiiunceof 
cither of decency or juftice, tra^fported the Pope klngLn'd 
fo far beyond his ufual moderation and prudence, ll*^*^*"**" 
that he was eager to take arms againft the Empe-^ 
ror, in order to be avenged on the murderers of his 
fon, and to recover the inheritance wrefted from his 
faniily, Confcious, however, of his own inability 
to contend with fuch an enemy, he warmly folicited 
the French King and the republic of Venice to join 
in an oflFenfive league againft Charles. But Henry 
was intent at that time on other objefts. His an- 

*F. Paul, 257. Pallavic. 41,43. Thuan. iv, 156. Mem. 
4c Hibier, 59. 6j. Natalis Comitis Hiftor. lib. iii. p. 64. 

F f 3 cient 


^ cient aliics the Scots, having been defeated by the 
Englilh in one of the greateft battles ever fought 
*^*^* between thefe two rival nations, he was about ta 
fend a numerous body of V^eteran troops into that 
country, as well to preferve it from being conquer* 
cd> as to gain the acquifition of a new kingdom 
to the French monarchy, by marrying his fon the 
Dauphin to the young Queen of Scotland. An 
undertaking accompanied wkh fuch manifeft ad- 
vantages, the fuccefs of which appeared to be fo 
certain, was not to be relinquifhed for the remote 
profpeft of benefit from an alliance depenc&ng up^ 
ofl the precarious life of a Pope of fourfcore, who 
had nothing at heart but the gratification of his 
own private rcfentmenc. Inftead, therefore, of 
rufhing headlong into the alliance propofed, Henry 
amufcd the Pope with fuch general profeflions and 
promifes, as might keep him fi-om any thoughts 
of endeavouring to accommodate his differences 
with the Emperor, but at the fan>e time he avoid- 
ed any fuch engagement as might occafion an im- 
mediate rupture with'Charles, or precipitate him 
into a war for which he was not prepared. The 
Venetians, though much akrm^d at feeing Placentia 
in the hands of the ImperiaHfts, imitated the wary 
conduit of the French Kin^ as it nearly refembled 
the f*p8rit which ufuaHy r^ulated their own. coji- 

' Mem. de Ribicr, ii. 63. 71. 78. 85, 95, ParoUlftor.* 
di Vene?, 199. 203. TKiian. iv. i6o. 



But, though the Pope found that it was not in * ^^^ ^ 

his power to kindle immediately the flames of war> ^ ■ ^ " m^ 

he did not forget the injuries which he was obliged The dtJt of 

for die prefcnt to endure ; refcntment fettled deeper ^etftbns*for 

in his mind, and became more rancorous in pro- «5''u'""™ 

' . * • of ihc conn- 

portion as he felt the dilEculty of gratifying it, It cU toTrenu 

was, while thefe fentiments of enmity were in full 
force, and the defire of vengeance at its height, 
that the dietof Augfburg, by the Emperor's com- 
mand, petitioned the Pope, in the name of the 
whole Germanic body, to enjoin the prelates who 
had retired to Bologna to return again to Trent, 
and to renew their deliberations in that place. 
Charles had been at great pains in bringing the 
members to join in this requefl. Having obferv- 
cd a confiderable variety of fentiments among the 
Proteftants with refped to the fubmiffion which he 
had required to the decrees of the council, fome 
of them being altogether intraftable, while others 
were ready to acknowledge its right of jurifdidtion 
upon certain conditions, he employed all his ad- 
drefs in order to gain or to divide them,. He threat- 
ened and overawed the EJeftor Palatine, a weak 
Prince, and afraid that the Emperor might infii6l|on 
him the punilhment to which he had made himfelf 
liable by the alfiftance that he had given to the con- 
federates of Smalkalde, The hope of procuring 
liberty for the Landgrave, together with the formal 
confirmation of his own deftoral dignity, ovc^;- 
came Maurice's fcruples, or prevented him from 
oppofrog what he knew /would be agredaWe to the 
F f 4 Emperor. 



Emperor. The Eledor of Brandenburg, lefe in^ 
fluenccd by religious, zeal than any Prince of that 
age, was eafily induced to imitate their example, 
•^ in aflcnting to all riiat the Emperor required. The 
deputies of the cities remained ftill to be brought 
over. They were more tenacious of their prin- 
ciples,' and though every thing that could operate 
either on their hopes or fears was tried, the utmoft 
that they would promife was, to acknowledge the 
jurifdiftion of the council, if efFedhial provifion 
were made for fecuring to the divines of all parties 
free accefs to that affembly, with entire liberty of 
debate ; and if all points in controverfy were decid- 
ed according to fcripture and the ufage of the pri- 
mitive church. But when the memorial contain- 
ing this declaration was prefented to the Emperor, 
^he ventured to put in praftice* a very extraordinary 
artifice. Without reading the paper, or taking any 
notice of the conditions on which they had infifted, 
he feemed to take it for granted that they had com- 
oa. 9« plied with'^his demand, and gave thanks to the de- 
puties fof their full and unreferved fubmiflion to the 
decrees of the council. The deputies, though afto- 
nilhed at what they h^d heard, did not attempt to 
fet him right, both parties being better pleafed that 
the matter fhould remain under this ftate of ambi- 
guity, than to pufh for an explanation, which muft 
have occafioned a difpute, and would have led, per- 
haps, to a rupture '. 

f F. Paul, 259. Skid. 440. Thuan* tam. i. 1S5; 

X Having 



Having obtained this feeming fubmiflioa from ® ^^ ^ 
the members, of the diet to the authority of the ^,^,,^1.^ 
council, Charles employed that as an argurpent thc^poVc 
to enforce their petition for its return to Trent, J'"*''***' 
But the Pope, from the fatisfaftion which he felt in 
mortifying the Emperor^, as well as fi-om his own 
averfion tq what was demanded, refolved, without 
hefitatjon, that his petition fhould not be granted j 
though, in order to avoid the imputation of being 
influenced wholly by refentment, he had the addrels 
to throw it upon the fathers at Bologna, to put 4 
direft negative upon the requfeft. With this view 
he referred to their confideratipn the petition of the 
diet, and they, ready to confii-m by their affent Dcccin,»D 
whatever the legates were pleafed to dictate, de- 
clared that the council could not, confiftently with 
its dignity, return to Trent,unlefs the prelates who, 
by remaining there, had difcovered a fchifmatic 
Ipirit, would firft repair to Bologna, and join their 
brethren; and that, even after their jundlion, 
the council could not renew its confultations with 
^ny profpedb of benefit to the church, if the Ger- 
mans did not prove their intention of obeying its 
future decrees to be fmcere, by yielding imme- 
diate obedience to thofe which it had already 
paflTed ^ 

This anfwer was communicated to the Empe- TheEmpe- 
f or by the Pope, who at the fame' time exhorted ig^^^^bl' 
him to comply with demands which appeared to «»"""» of 

< F. Pan], 25Q. Pallav. ii. 49. 



• ^jr^ '^ be fo rcafonable. But Charles was better ac- 
*•— V— ' quainted with the duplicity of the Pope's charac* 
'^^' ter than to be deceived by fuch a grofi artifice ; 
he knew that the prelatps of Bc^ogna durft utter 
no fentinient but what Paul infpired j and, there- 
fore, overlooking them as mere tools in the 
, hand of another, he confidered theii' reply as a 
fiiH difcovery of the Pope's intentions. As he 
could rto longer hope to acquire fuch an afcend* 
ant in the council as to render it fubiervient to 
his own plan, he faw it to be neceflary that Paul 
fliould not have it in his power to turn againft 
him the authority of fo veneraWe an aflfembly, 
f«iif'*i6. ^^ ^^^^ ^^ prevent this, he fent two Spanifh 
lawyers to Bologna, who, in the prefence of the 
legates, protefted. That the tranflation of the 
council to that place had been unneceffary, and 
founded on falfe or friv(A>\is pretexts ; that while 
it continued to meet there, it ought to be deemed 
an unlawful and fchifmatical conventicle ; that aU 
its decifions ought of courier to be hekl as null 
and iirvalid j and that fince the Pope, together with 
the corrupt ecclefiaftics who depended on him, 
had abandoned the care of the church, the Empe- 
ror, as its proteftor, would employ all the power 
which God had committed to him, in order to 
prefqrve it from thofe calamities with which ic 
was threatened. A few days after, the Imperial 
jftsuarysj. ambaffador at Rome demanded an audience of 
the Pope, and in prefence of all the Cardinals, as 
well as foreign miniftcrs, protefted againft the 



proceedings of the prelates at Bologna^ in terms * ^^^ ^ 
equally harlh and difi-e^pe6tful^ k.^^^^ 

It was not long before Charles proceeded to ^^^fc"^! 
carry thcfe threats, which greatly alarmed both * ^>*«»» «• 
the Pope and council at Bologna, into execu- ruieoffaiui 
tion. He let the diet know the ill fuccefs of his Zml^ 
endeavours to procure a favourable anfwer to 
their petition, and that the Pope, equally re- 
gardlefs of -their entreaties, and of his fervices 
to the church, had refufcd to gratify them by. 
allowing the council to meet again at Trent i 
that, though all hope of holding this affembly . 
" in a place, where they might look for freedom of 
debate and judgment, was not to be given up, the 
profpedl of it was, at prefent, diftant and uncer- 
tain ; that, in the mean time, Germany was torn 
in pieces by religious diflenlions, the purity of 
the faith corrupted, and the minds of the people , 
difquicted with a multiplicity of new, opinions 
and controverfies formerly unknown among 
Chriftians j that,, moved by the duty which he 
owed to them as their fovereign, and to the 
Church as its protefter, he had employed fomc 
divines, of known abilities and learning, to pre- 
pare a fyftem of doftrine, to which all fhoukl 
conform, until a council, fuch as they wifhed 
for, could be convocated. This fyftem wa^ 
compiled by Pflug, Helding, and Agricola, of 
whom the twa former were dignitaries in the 

■ F. Paul, 264. Pallav. 51. Slcid. 446. Goldafti Conftit, 
JfDperial. i, 561. 

g Romiih 


* ^^^ ^ Romifli church, but remarkable for their paci- 
fic and healing fpirit ; the laft was a Proteftant 
divine, fufpe6led, not without reafon, of having 
been gained, by bribes and promifes, to betray 
or miflead his party on this occafion. The ar- 
ticles prefented to the diet of Ratifbon in the 
year one thoufand five hundred and forty-one, 
in order to reconcile the contending parties, 
ferved as a nnodel for theprefent work. But as 
the Emperor's fituation was much changed fince 
that time, and he found it no longer neceflary to 
manage the Proteflants with the fame delicacy as 
at that junfture, the conceffions in their favour 
were not now fo numerous, nor did they extend 
to points of fo much confequence. The treatife 
contained a complete fyflem of theology, con- 
formable in almoft every article to the tenets of 
the Romifli church, though exprefled, for the 
mofl: part, in the fofteft words, or in fcriptural 
phrafes, or in terms of ftudied ambiguity. Every 
doftrine, however, peculiar to Popery, was re- 
tained, and all the rites, which the Pnoteftants 
condemned as inventions of men introduced into 
the worfliip of God, were enjoined. With regard 
to two points only, fome relaxation in the rigour 
of opinion as well as fome latitude in praftice were 
admitted. Such ecclefiaftics as had married, and 
would not put away their wives, were allowed, 
neverthelefs, to perform all the funftions of their 
facred officer and thofe provinces which had 
been accuftomed to partake of the cup, as well 
as of the bread in the facrament of the Lor4'3 



Supper, were ftill indulged the privilege of receiv- b o o ic 
ing both. Even thefe were declared to be con- w^A.^ 
ceflions for the fake of peace, and granted only for '54«« 
a fcafon, in conipliance with the weakncfs or pre- 
judices of their countrymen *. 

This fyftem of dodlrine, known afterwards by This, which 
the name of the- Interim^ bccaufe it contained tbeimerim, 
temporary, regulations, which were to continue forJXdiet, 
no.- longer in force thaii' until a free general coun- M*y »5- . 
cirijould be held, the Emperor prefented to the 

^.•.^ietj'with a pompous declaration of his fincere 
: • /iliflF^^ftiph to re-eftablilh tranquillity and order in 

^ . tfi^a^: cljurch, as well as of his hopes that their 

.-. ; arfopring thefe regulations would contribute greatly 
•'tobrirtgabout that defirable event. It was read 

'. fff "prefence, according to form. As foon as 
i£ was finifhed, the archbilhop of Mentz, pre- 

• fi'dent of the eleftoral college, rofe up haftily, 
- -and, -having thanked the Emperor for his un- 
■ 'wearied and pious endeavours in order to reftore 
. peace to the church, he, in name of the diet, 

• .fignified their approbation of the fyftem of doc- 

• trine which had been read, together with their 

• refolution of conforming to it in every particular. 
The whole aflembly was amazed at a declaration 
fo unprecedented and unconftitutional, as well as 
at the Eleftor's prefumption in pretending to de- . 
liver the fenfe of the diet, upon a point which 
had not hitherto been the fubjed of confultatioa 

* F. Paul, 270. Pallav. ii. 60. Slcid. 453. 457, Strar* 
Corp. 1054. Goldaft. Conflit. Imper. i. 518. 


44^ THE, REIGN OF Ttt£ 

® ^x^ ^ ^ dcb«e. But riot one member had the courage 
^"^ — >r-^ to contradift what the Eleftor had faidj fomc 
and extort! hcuig ovcrawcd by fear, others remaining filcnc 
baaonofTu through complaifaace. The Emperor held the 
archbifhop's declaration to be a full conilltutionai 
ratification of the Interim, and prepared to en- 
force the obfervance of it, as a decree of the 

J'*!^. «"^ During this diet, the wife and children of the 
liciiatioot Landgrave, warmly leconded by Maurice of 
LaDdgrave'a Saxony, endcavourcd to intereft the membcr$iiii/ 
**^'^' behalf of that unhappy Prince, who ftill laii- 
guifhed in confinement. But Charles, wlio did 
not chufe to be brought under the neceflity of 
rejecting any requeft that came from fuch aje^ 
Ipedable body, in order to prevent their repre- 
fentations, laid before the diet an account of his 
tranfaftions with the Landgrave, together with 
the motives which had at firft induced him to de- 
tain that Prince in cuftody, and which rendered 
it prudent, as he alleged, to keep him ftill under 
reftraint. It was no eafy matter to give any 
, good reafon for an aftion, incapable of being 

juftified. But he thought the moft frivolous pre- 
texts might be produced in an aflembly the mem- 
bers of which were willing to be deceived, and afraid 
of nothing fo much as of difcovering that they law 
his conduft in its true colours. His account of his 
own conduct was accordingly admitted to be fully 

f Slcid, 460, F. Paul, 273. Pallar. 63. 



ffltisfa£boi7, and after fomc feeble intreaties that he ® ^^ ^ 
>vou]d extend his clemency to his unfortunate pri- u-^^w^-^i 
foner, the Landgrave's concerns were no more '^* 
mentioned *. 

In order to counterbalance the favourable im« 
preflion which this inflexible rigour might make^ 
Charles, as a proof that his gratitude was no lefa 
permanent and unchangeable than his refentment> 
invefled Maurice in the electoral dignity, with all 
the legal formalities. The ceremony was . per- 
formed, widi extraordinary pomp, in an open courl^ 
fo near the apartment in which the degraded Elec- 
tor was kept a prifoner, that he could view it from 
his windows. Even this infult did not rufik his 
ufual tranquillity ; and turning his eyes that way» 
he beheld a prolperous rival receiving thofe en- 
ligns of dignity of which he had been ftripped> 
without utte^'ing one fentiment unbecoming the 
fortitude that he had preferved amidft all his 
calamities '. 

Immediately after the diflblution of the diet, Theiotfrini 
the Emperor ordered the Interim to be publifhed appro/ed ^«f 
in the German as well as Latin language. . It aJti'!!^"*" 
met with the ufual reception of conciliating p»p*^- 
ichemes, when propofed to men heated with dit 
putationi both parties declaimed agamft it with 

« Sleid. 441. 

■ Thuan. Hift. lib. v. 176. StniT. Corp. 1054. InvdT- 
^tura Mauritii, a Mammerano Lucemborgo defcripta, ap. 
Scardium, ii^ 508. 


448 THE liEiGN OF THE 

'^ ^x^ ^ equal violence. The Proteftants condemned it 
*— ^y^ as a fyftem containing the groffeft errors of 
'^*'* Popery> difguifed with fo little art, that it could 
innpofe only on the moft ignorant, or on thofe 
who, by wilfully fhutting their eyes, favoured the 
deception. The Papifts inveighed . againft it> as 
a work in which fome doctrines of the church 
were impioufly given tutfjr ot&ers m€anly conceal- 
ed, and all of thqm dehvered in terms calculated 
rather to deceive the unwary, than to inftruft the 
Ignorant, or to reclaim fuch as were enemies to 
the truth- While the Lutherart divines fiercely 
attacked it, on one hand', the general of the Do- 
minicans vith no lefs vehemence impugned it on 
the other. But at Rome, as foon as the con- 
tents of the Interim came to be known, the in- 
dignation of the courtiers and ecclefiaftics rofe 
to the greateft heights They exclaimed againft 
the Emperor's profane encroachment on the fa- 
cerdotal funftion, in prefuming, with the con- 
currence of an affembly of laymen, to define 
articles of faith, and to regulate modes of wOr- 
Ihip. They compared this rafh deed to that of 
Uzzah, who, with an unhallowed hand, had 
touched the ark of God; or to the bold attempts 
of thofe Emperors, who had rendered their me- 
mory deteftable, by endeavouring to model the 
Chriftian church according to their pleafure. 
They even aftcdled to find out a refemblance 
between the Emptor's, conduft and that of 
Henry VIII. and exprefled their fear of his imi- 
tating the example of that apoftate, by ufurping 



the tide as well as jurifdiftion belonging to the ■ ^^ * 
head of the church. All, therefore, contended < ^ * ^ 
■with one voice, that as the foundations of eccle- '^*** 
fiaftical authority were now fhaken, and the whole 
fabric ready to be overturned by a new enemy, 
fome powerful method of defence mufl be provid-^ 
ed, and a vigorous refiftance muft be made^ in the 
beginning, before he grew too formidable to be op* 

The Pope, whofe judgment was improved by Thefenti- 

« . . /-rL* ^1 menu of the 

longer experience m gr^at tranfactions, as well as Pope with 
by a more extenfive obfcrvation of human affairs, "**^^*^ 
viewed the matter with more acute, difcernment, 
and derived comfort from the very eircumftance 
which filled them with appreheniion. He was 
aftonifhed, that a Prince of fuch fuperior faga- 
city as the Emperor, Ihould be. fo intoxicated 
with a fingle vidtory, as to imagine that he might 
give law to mankind, and decide even in thofe 
matters, with regard to which they are moft im- 
patient of dominion. He faw that, by joining 
any one of the contending parties in Germany^ 
Charles might have had it in his power to have 
oppreflcd the other, but that the prefumption of 
fuccefs had now infpired him with the vain 
thought of his being able to domineer over both. 
He foretold that a fyftem which all attacked, and 
none defended, could not be of long duration » 
and that, for this reafon, there was no need of 
his interpofing in order to haften its fallj for as 
Vol. III. G g foon 


B K foon as the powerful hand which now upheld it was 
L- A >j withdrawn^ it would (ink of its own accordj and be 
'^*'' forgotten for ever \ 

The Empc Thb Emperor, fond of his own plan> adhered 
wmp°Ja"« to his refolution of carrying it into foil e&^utioa. 
Sttim! ^"^ though the Eledor Palatine, the Eledor of 
Brandenburg, and Maurice, influenced fey the 
fame confiderations as formerly, feemed ready to 
yield implicit obedience to whatever he fhould 
ei^oin, he met not every where with a like ob- 
iequious fubmiffion. John Marquis of Bran- 
denburg Anipach, aldiough he had taken part 
with great zeal in the war againft the confederaces 
of Smalkalde, refufed to renounce doftrines which 
he held to be facred i and reminding the Empe- 
ror of the repeated promifes which he had given 
his Proteflant allies of allowing diem the free 
exercife of their religion, he claimed, in confe- 
quence of thefc, to be exempted from receiving 
the Interim, Some other Princes, alfo, ven- 
tured to mention the fame fcruples, and to plead 
the fame indulgence. But on this, as on other 
trying occafions, the firmnefs of the Ele&or of 
Saxony was moft diftinguiihed, and merited the 
higheft praife, Charles, well knowing the autho- 
rity of his example with all the Proteftant party, 
laboured, with the utmoft earneftnefs, to gain 
Jus approbation of the Interim, and by employ- 
ing fometimes promifes of fetting him at liberty, 

^ Sleid. 468. F. Paul, 271. 277. Pdliv. ii. 64. 

6 fomc* 


fometimes threats of treating him with greater ^ 00 k 
harfhnefs, attempted alternately to work upon his v— Jl.^ 
hopes and his fears. But he was alike regardlefs '^*'* 
of both. After having declared his fixed belief in 
the do6lrines of the Reformation, ^' I cannot now, 
faid he, in my old age, abandon the principles, 
for which I eai^ly contended; nor, in order to 
procure freedom during a few declining years, 
will I betray that good caufe, on account of 
which I have fufFered fo much, and am ftill 
willing to fufFer. . Better for me to enjoy, in this 
folitude, the efteem of virtuous men, together 
with the approbation of my own confcience, than 
to return into the world, with the imputation 
and guilt of apoftacy, to difgrace and embitter 
the remainder of my days.'* By this magnani- 
mous refolution, he fet his countrymen a pattern 
of conduft, fo very different from that which the 
Emperor wiihed him to have exhibited to them, 
that it drew upon him frelh marks of his difplea- 
fure. The rigour of his confinement was in- 
. creafed j the number of his fervants abridged 5 thp 
liutheran clergymen, who had hitherto been per- 
mitted to attend him, were difmiflcd ; and even 
the books of devotion, which had been his chief 
confolation during a tedious imprifonment, were 
taken from him^ The Landgrave of Hefle, 
his companion in misfortune, did not maintain 
the fame conftancy. His patience and fortitude 

were both fo much exhaufted by the length of his 

< Sleid. 462. 

G g 2^ confine- 


^ ^ix^ ^ confinement, that, willing to purchafe freedom at 
c— v-*— lany price, he wrote to the Emperor, offering not 
- '^* * only to approve of the Interim, but to yield an 
unreferved fubmiffion to his will in every other 
particular. But Charles, who knew that what- 
ever courfe the Landgrave might hold; neither 
his example nor authority would prevail on his 
children or fubjefts to receive the Interim, paid 
no regard to his offers. He was kept confined 
as ftriftly as ever ; and while he fufFertd the cruel 
mortification of having his conduft fet in contraft 
to that of the Eleftor, he derived not the fmalleft 
benefit from the mean ftep which cxpofed him to 
fuch deferved cenfure ^. 

dtie«ft*rag. ^^"^ ^^ ^^ '^^ ^^^ Imperial cities that Charles 
gicagainft met with thc moft- violent oppofition to the In- 
intcrim. tcrim. Thcfc fmall commonwealths, the cidzens 
of which were accuftomed to liberty and independ- 
ence, had embraced the doftrines of the Reform- 
ation when they were firft publifhed, with remark- 
able eagernefs 9 the bold fpirit of innovation being 
peculiarly fliited to the genius of free government. 
Among them, the Proteftant teachers had made 
the greateft number of profelytes. The moft emi- 
.nent divines of the party were fetdedin them as 
paflors. By having the direftion of the fchools 
and other feminaries of learning, they had trained 
up^ difciples, who were as well inftrufted in the 
articles of their faith, as they were zealous to de- 
fend them. Such perfons were not to be guided 

* Sldd. 462. 




by example, or fwayed by authority ; but having ^ ^^^ ^ 
- been taught to employ their own underfcanding in v->--y^ 
examining and deciding with refpeft to the points '^^' 
in controverfy, tliought that they were both qbali- 
fied and entitled to judge for themfelves. As foon 
as« the contents of the Interim were known, they, 
with one voice, joined in refufing to admit it* 
Augfburg, Ulm, Strafburg, Conftance, Bremen, 
Magdeburg, together with many other towns of 
lefs note, prefented remonftrances to the Emperor, 
letting forth the irregular and unconftitutional man- 
ner in which the Interim had been enadted, and 
befeeching him not to offer fuch violence to their 
confciences, as to require their affent to a form of 
doftrine and worfhip, which appeared to them re- 
pugnant to the exprefs precepts of the divine law; 
But Charles having prevailed pn fo many Princes 
of the Empire to approve of his new model, was 
riot much moved by die reprefentations of thofe 
cities, which, how formidable foever they might - 
have proved, if they could have been formed into 
one body, lay fo remote from each other, that it 
was eafy to opprefs them fcpar^tely^ before it was 
poflible for them to unite, 

In order to accomplifli this, the Emperor Com-cned 
faw it to be requifite that his meafures Ihould be tJ^fu^oiur 
vigorous, and executed with fuch rapidity as to 
allow no time for concerting any common plan 
of oppofition. Having laid down this maxim 
as the rule of his proceedings, his firft attempt 

G g J wa5i 


^ ^x^ ^ ^^ "P^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ Augfburg, which, though 
*— %^— ' overawed by the prefence of the Spanifh troops, 
'^^*' he knew to be as much diffatisfied with the In- 
terim as any in the Empire. He ordered one body 
of thefe troops to feize the gates j he polled the 
reft in different quat-ters of the city ; and affem- 
A"8*,3 bling all the burgefles in the town, he, by his 
fole abfolute authority, publifhed a decree abo- 
lifhing their prefent form of government, dif- 
folving all their corporations and fraternities, and 
nominating a fmall number of perfons, in whom 
he veftcd for the future all the powers of govern- 
ment. Each of the perfons, thus chofen, took an 
oath to obferye the Interim. An aft of power, fo 
unprecedented as well as arbitrary, which ex- 
cluded the body of the inhabitants from any fhare 
in the government of their own community, and 
fubjefted them to men who had no other merit 
than their fervile devotion to the Emperor^s will, 
gave general difguft i but as they durft not ven- 
ture upon refiftance, they were obliged to fub- 
mit in filence*.* From Augfburg, in which he 
left ,a garrifon, he proceeded to Ulm, and new- 
modelling its government with the fame violent 
hand, he feized fuch of their paftors as refufed to 
fubfcribe the Interim, committed them to prifon, 
and at his departure carried them along with him 
in chains ^ By this feverity he not only fecured 
the reception of the Interim in two of the moft 

• Slcid, 469* r Ibid. 472. 



powerful cities, but gave warning to the reft ^ 
what fuch as continued refractory had to expeft.' 
The effedt of the example was as great as he 
cotild have wiftied ; and many towns, in order to 
fave themfelves ffom the like treatment, found 
it neceffary to comply with what he enjoined. 
This obedience, extorted by the rigour of autho- 
rity, produced no change in the fentiments of the 
Germans, and extended no farther than to make 
them conform fo far to what he required, as was 
barely fufficient to fcreen them from punifhment. 
The Proteftant preachers accompanied thofe reli- 
gious rites, the obfervation of which the Interim 
prefcribed, with fuch an explication of their ten- 
dency, as ferved rather to confirm than to remove 
the fcruples of their hearers with regard to them. 
The people, many of whom had grown up to 
mature years fince the eftablilhment of the re- 
formed religion, and had been accuftomed to no 
other form of public worfhip, beheld the pomp- 
ous pageantry of the popifti fervice with contempt 
or horror ; and in moft places , the Romifli ecck- 
fiaftics who returned to take poffeffion of their 
churches, could hardly be protefted from infult, 
or their miniftrations from interruption. Thus, 
notwithftanding the apparent compliance of fo 
many cities, the inhabitants being accuftomed to 
freedom, fubmitted with reluftance to the power 
which now opprefled them. Their underftand- 
ing as well as inclination revolted againft the doc- 
trines and ceremonies impofed on themj and 



* ^ix ^ ^ough, for the prefent, they concealed their dilguft 

u,-^..,^ and refehtment, it was evidenjt that thefe paffions 

'*^^' could not always be kept under reftraint, but would 

break out at laft in cffeds proportional to their 


ThePopc Charles, meanwhile, highly pleafed with hav- 
thJcouncii ing bent the ftubborn fpirit of the Germans to 
BlSa.***^ fuch general fubmiffion, departed for the Low- 
Countries, fully determined to compel the cities, 
which ftill ftood out, to receive the Interim. He 
carried his two prifoners the Eleftor of Saxony 
and Landgrave of HefTe along with him, either 
becaufe he durft not leave them behind him in 
Germany, or becaufe he wiflied to give his coun- 
trymen the Flemings this illuftrious proof of the 
fuccefs of his arms, and the extent of his power, 
Swfu 17. Before Charles arrived at Bruflels, he was in- 
formed that the Pope's legates at Bologna had 
difmifled the council by an indefinite prorogation, 
and that the prelates aflembled there had re- 
turned to their refpeftive countries. Neceflity had 
driven the Pope into this meafure. By the fecef- 
fion of thofe who had voted againft the tranfla- 
tion, together with the departure of others, who 
grew weary of continuing in a place where they 
were not fuffered to proceed to bufinefs, fo few 
• and fuch inconfiderable members remained, that 
the pompous appellation of a General Council 
could not, with decency, be bellowed any longer 

s Mem. de Ribier, ii. 218. Sleid. 491. 



upon them. Paul had no choice but to diflblve ^ ^^ ^ 
an aflembly which was become the objeft of con- w , ^ ' ^ 
tempt, and exhibited to all Chriftendom a moft "^' 
glaring proof of the impotence of the Romifh 
See. But unavoidable as the meafure was, it lay 
open to be unfavourably interpreted, and had the 
appearance of withdrawing the remedy, at the 
very time when thofe for whofe recovery it was 
provided, were prevailed on to acknowledge its 
virtue, and to make trial of its efficacy. Charles 
did not fail to put this conftruftion on the con- 
du6t of the Pope j and by an artful comparifon of 
his own efforts to fupprefs herefy, with Paul's 
fcandalous inattention to a point fo effential, he en- 
deavoured to render the Pontiff odious to all zeal- 
ous Catholics. At the fame time, he commanded 
the prelates of his faftion to remain at Trent, that 
the Council might ftill appear to have ^ being, and 
might be ready, whenever it was thought expe- 
dient to refumc its deliberations for the good of 
the church **. 

The motive of Charles's journey to the Low- The Empe. 
Countries, befide gratifying his favourite paffion his ha * 
of travelling from one part of his dominions to fiJlf LowI 
another, was to receive Philip his only fon, who ^<^"*"«« 
was now in the twenty-firft year of his age, and 
whbm he had called thither, not only that he . 
might be recognized by the States of the Ne- 

* Pallav. p. ii« 72. 




^ ^x^ ^ therlands as heir-apparent, but in order to fa- 
-^ cilitate the execution of a vaft fcheaie, the objefl: 

'^*^' of which, and the reception it met with, fhall be 
hereafter explained. Philip, having left the go- 
vernment of Spain to Maximilian, Ferdinan'd's 
eldeft. fon, to whom the Emperor had given the 
Princefs Mary his daughter in marriage, embarked 
for Italy, attended by a numerous' retinue of 
Spanifh nobles*. The fquadron which efcorted 
him, was commanded by ^ Andrew Doria, who, 
notwidiftanding his advanced age, infilled on the 
honour of performing, in perfon, thfc fame duty 
to the^ fon, which he had often difcharged to- 

Vaw.z^. wards the father. He landed fafely at Genoa; 
from thence he*went to Milan, and proceeding 

April X, through Germany, arrived at the Imperial court 
in Bruffels. The States of Brabant, in the firft 
place, and thofe of the other provinces in their 
order, acknowledged his right of fucceffion in 
common form, and he took the cuftomary oath 
to preferve all their privileges inviolate •". In all 
the towns of the Low-Countries through which 
Philip paffed, he was received with extraordinary 
pomp. Nothing tliat C6uld either exprefs the re- 
fpeft of the people, or contribute to his amufement, 
was negleftedj pageants, tournaments, and pub- 
lic fpeftacles of every kind, were exhibited with 
that expenfive magnificence which commercial 

* Ochoa, tj)arolea, 362. 

^ Haraei AnnaK Brabant. 652. 




liations difplay, when, 00 any occafion, tKey de- * ^^ ^ 
part from their ufual maxims of frugality. But 
amidft thefe fcenes of feftivity and pleafurc, 
Philip's natural feverity of temper was difcerniblel 
Youth itfelf could not render him agreeable, nor 
his being a candidate for power form him to 
courtefy. He maintained a haughty referve in 
his behaviour, and difcovered fuch manifeft par- 
tiality towards his Spanifh attendants, together with 
fuch an avowed preference to the manners of 
their country, as highly difgufted the Flemings, 
and gave rife to that antipathy, which afterwards 
occafioned a revolution fo fatal to him in that part 
of his dominions '• 

Charles was long detained in the Nether- 
lands by a violent attack of the gout, which re- 
turned upon him fo frequently, and with fuch, 
increafing violence, that it had broken, to a great 
degree, the vigour of his conftitution. He ne- 
verthelefs did not flacken his endeavours to 
enforce the Interim. The inhabitants of Straf- 
burg, after a long flxuggle, found it neceflary to 
yield obedience; thofe of Conftance, who had 
taken arms in their own defence, were compelled 
by force not only to conform to the Interim, but 
to renounce their privileges as a free city^ to dp 
homage to Ferdinand as Archduke of Auftria, 

1 Mem. de Ribier, li. 29. L'fivefqut Mem. de Card. 
Granvelle, i. 21. 



^ ^ix^ ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ vaflals, to admit an Auftrian governor 
L.^^-l.-j and garrifon °. Magdeburg, Bremen, Hamburg, 
'^'*^* and Lubeck, were the only Imperial cities of note 
that ftill continued refractory, 

* Slcid. 474. 491. 





Thia book is under oo eiroamaftaieos to be 
Uikeo from the Bailding 








' •'•/•*•"■ ''i^'T'?*