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Presented by 

Es+cA-Ve. of "Kev. GreordeC^.Swi+h 

BR 145 .K96 1861 v. 2 
Kurtz, J. H. 1809-1890. 
Text-book of church history 




BY 3 





* FEB 3 1''"'' 

C H U 11 C II II I S T U Y. 











Entered, according to Act of Conjr »s, in the year 1860, by 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of 




The present volume completes " Kurtz's Text-book of Church 
History." In preparing the translation, I was largely aided by 
the Rev. John Beck, A.M., of Easton, who consented to carry 
on the work during my protracted summer's illness, and to whom 
the last twenty paragraphs must be accredited. 

This volume differs from the first in beinc: a direct American 
tran.slation from the original, instead of a republication of a 
foreign work. Its preparation, consequently, demanded a greater 
amount of labor than that expended on the first volume, but it 
was labor of a vastly more pleasant kind. And I cannot but 
hope, that the course thus adopted will receive general approval. 

As the prosecution of the undertaking has necessarily brought 
me into closer intimacy with this Text-book, my earlier convic- 
tions of its great excellence have been fully confirmed. It would 
be hard to find a text-book in any department of literature, to 
equal it in lucid conciseness, and its admirable arrangement of 
the material on hand. In this respect it is a book which cannot 
fail to be welcomed by teachers and students, in all our institu- 
tions of learning, in which due attention is given to this im- 
portant branch of knowledge. 

The book possesses, however, another virtue, worthy of com- 
mendation. I refer to the courageous distinctness with which it 
assumes and maintains its theological and ecclesiastical character. 
Dr. Kurtz, of Dorpat, is a true Lutheran, and is not ashamed to 
let his book bear testimony to the fact. To many moving iu 



a different Church sphere this may seem an objection, and they 
may especially complain of occasional partialities of statement 
into which his denominational preferences may have betrayed 
him. But such faults are fully atoned for by excellencies 
springing from the same root with themselves, and should be the 
less offensive because they may be so easily corrected by every 
intelligent student. 

With but three exceptions, the author has been allowed to 
pursue his course uninterruptedly, and even then the brief cor- 
rections of what are thought misstatements have been thrown 
into brackets, easily distinguished from the author's text, or into 
a foot-note. ' 

Those parts of Dr. Kurtz's history referring to the British 
and American Churches will be found somewhat meagre and 
defective. But its wants, in this respect, may be readily sup- 
plied by those into whose hands the book may fall. 

It has been the single aim of the translators to furnish the 
English student and reader with a true and faithful rendering 
of the original, holding themselves responsible, not for the senti- 
ments of the author, but only for the style and fidelity of the 


Philadelphia, December 13, 1861. 




g 1. Its Character and Limitations Page 27-29 


(Sixteenth Century.) 

^^J/tEtlVdi. ^) Establishment of the Reformation. 

I 2. Commencement of the Wittenberg Reformation (1517-1519) 32 

1. Luther's Early Years. 2. The Theses. 3. Cajetan and 
Miltiz. 4. The Leipsic Disputation. 5. Melanchthon. 

I 3. The Period of Luther's Conflicts and Trials 36 

1. The Bull of Excommunication. 2. Erasmus. 3. Charles V. 
4. Luther at Worms. 5. The Wartburg Exile. 

g 4. Degeneracy and Purification of the Reformation in Wittenberg.... 42 
1. The Wittenberg Fanaticism. 2. Francis of Sickingen. 3. 
Carlstadt. 4. Thomas MUnzer. 5. The Peasants' War. 

g 5. Luther's Feuds with Henry VIII. and Erasmus 4G 

1. Luther and Erasmus. 2. Thomas Murner. 3. Berthold of 

^ 6. Development of the Reformation in the Empire 48 

1. The Diet of Nuremberg. 2. Spread of Evangelical Doc- 
trines. 3. The Diet of Nuremberg, in 1524. 4. Conven- 
tion of Regeusburg. 5. The Evangelical States. G, The 
Torgau Alliance. 7. The Diet of Spires (152G). 
1* (v) 


g 7. Establishment of the National Evangelical Churches 54 

1. Electoral Saxony, 2. Hesse. 3. Other German States 
4. Lower Germany. 

I 8. Martyrs of the Evangelical Faith (1521-9) 57 

§ 9. Luther's Private. and Public Life 58 

g 10. The Reformation in G_^^man Switzerland (1519-21) , 60 

1, Ulric Zwingli. 2. The lleformation in Zurich. 3. In 
Basel. 4. In other Countries. 5. Anabaptists. 6. Dis- 
putation in Baden. 7. Disputation in Berne. 8. Triumph 
of the Reformation in Basel, St. Gall, and Schaffhausen. 
9. First Peace of Cappel. 10. Second Peace of Cappel. 

^ 11. The Sacramentarian Controversy (1525-1529) 68 

§12. The Protest and C_onfessi£iL5f4heJ^vajigelifial S^^^ 70 

1. The Pack Affair. 2. The Emperor's Position. 3. The 
Diet of Spires (1529). 4. The Marburg Colloquy. 5. 
The Schwabach Convention. 6. The Diet of Augsburg. 
7. The Augsburg Confession. 8. Recess of the Augs- 
burg Diet (1530). 

§ 13. Events and ISegotiations during 1531-36 76 

1, The Smalcaklic Leagu e. 2. The Religious Peace of Nu- 
remb erg. 3. Tlie Evangelization of )Yu rtember g. 4. The 
Reformation i n Anhalt and Pomer ania. 5. In West- 
ph^Ba. 6. The MUnster Faction. 7. Extension of the 
Smalcaldic League. 8. The Wittenberg Concord. 

§14. Events and N^egot iation sjja ring 1537-39 83 

1. The Smalcald Articles. 2. The Nuremberg_JL£ague. 3. 
The Frankfort Suspension. 4. The Reformation ii^^l- 
b ertinian Sii^ony. 5. In jNI ark B r andenb urg. 

§ 15. The Period of Union Effort s (1540-46) 87 

1. The Landgrave's Bigamy. 2. Religious Colloquy at Worms. 
3. At Regensburg. 4. Regensburg Declaration. 5. The 
See of Naumburg and the AViirzen Quarrel. 6. The Re- 
formation in_Brmi^kk_.a£d_the_Pa^^ 7. In the 
Principalitx_of_Cologne. 8. The Emperor's Embarrass- 
ments. 9. Diet of Spjres. 10. Quarrels of the Emperor 
with the Evangelical States. 11. Liither's Last Days. 

§ 16. T he Smalcald Wa r and the Interim (1546-51) 96 

" ^TTPreparations for the War. 2. The Campaign along the 
Danube. 3. On the^Elbe. 4. The Council of Trent. 5. 
The Augsburg Interim. 6. Its Introduction. 7. The 
Leipsic Interim. 8. Resumption of the Council of Trent. 

§ 17. The Elector M^aurice^and the P_ea££^f_Au£sburg (1550-55) 104 

1. The State of Affairs. 2. The Elector Maurice. 3. The 
Treaty of Passau. 4. The Death of Maurice. 5. The 
Religious Peace of Augsburg. 6. The Second Attempt 
to reform Cologne. 


2 18. The Reformation in F rench Switze rland 109 

1. Calvin's Forerunners. 2. Culvin prior to his Labors in 
Geneva, o. ('alvin's F irst Fcr ioJ in Geneva. 4. Ilia 
Se cond I let-idence there. 5. Calvin's Writings. G. T^- 
trinal System. 7. The Tnum^h pX.CaJ^ism ojeer^Zwin- 

§ 19. The Reformatio n ip. other (,!ountrica 114 

1. Swed en. 2. D enmar k. 3. Courland. Livonia, and Es- 
thonia. 4. England . 5. Scn^ j.-^iy l. G. Tiie Nctlierlands . 
7. France, o. I'liland. '.'. IJuheniia and Moravia. 10. 

H ungary . 11. Tranij ^ ylvani a. 12, Spain. 13. Italy. 

b.lItincrlJistori/ of the Churches of the Reformation. 

2 20. The Di.stinctivc_Character of the Lutheran Church 129 

§ 21. Docti-inal Controversies in the Lutheran Church 132 

1. The Philippists. 2. The Antinomian Controversy. 3. The 
Osiandrian. 4. The Adiaplipristic. 5. The Majoristic. 
6. The Syn^gistic. 7. The Crypto-Calvini^tic. 8. The 
Karg and iEpine. 9. The Form ,Q.f,,Qoncprd. 10. Elec- 
toral Saxpnj.Articl£Sjj£^]i^iaitation. 11. The Iluber Con- 

2 22. Coustitutioi i ^CuUu^, Life and Literature of the Lutheran Church.. 140 
1. Constitution. 2. Public Worship and Art. 3. Ilymnology. 
4. Psalmody. 5. Theology. G. NatioualJLiterature. 7. 

^ 23. Internal Character of t he Refor med Cliurch 148 

1. Psalmody. 2. Theology. 3. Missions. 
§24. Culvinizing of German Lutheran Nuti on^^ Churches 150 


§25. Character of the Deformation 153 

§ 26. ^Ij;sticisra 154 

1. Schwenkfeld. 2. Agrippa, Paracelsus, Weigcl. 3. Seb. 
Franck, Giord. Bruno. 4. The FamiUsts. 

§ 27. Anjxbapti.sm 157 

1. David Joris. 2. Menno jimons. 

§ 28. Antitrinitarians and Unitarians 158 

1. German Aiititrinitarians. 2. Servctus. 3. Italian Anti- 
trinitarians before Socinus. 4. Socinus and the Soci- 



§ 29. \Efforts to Strengthe n and Renovate the Catholic Church 161 

1. The Co uncil and the Popes. 2. The S^pci ety of Jesu s. 3. 
New Orders for Inner Missions. 4. Reformation of the 
old Orders. 5. Augustinianism. 6. Theology. 7. Music. 
Art, Poetry. 8. Piety. 

80. jTra nsmarine Missions 169 

1. East India and ^apan. 2. Ching.. 3. America. 4. Abys- 
sinia and Egypt. 

§ 31."^ Catholic Restoration Efforts 171 

1. Views of the Germaa^Emperors. 2. Attempts at Resto- 
ration in Germany. 3. In other European Countries. 
4. Russia and the United Greeks. 


^Seventeenth Century.) 


§32. The Oriental Churches and the West 175 

1. Expectations of the Catholics. 2. Of the Calvinists. 3. 
Orthodoxy Confirmed. 

§ 33. Catholicism and Protestantism 176 

1. The Restoration in Germany and adjacent Territories. 2. 
Protestants in France, and Waldenses in Piedmont. 3. 
The Catholics in England. 4. Converted Princes. 6. 
Union Efforts, 

§34. Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism 181 

1. Calvinising of Hesse-Cassel. 2. Of the Earldom of Lippe. 

3. Transition of the House of Brandenburg. 4. Union 
Efforts. 5. English Non-conformists. 


§35. The Papacy, Monasticism, and Missions 184 

1. The Papacy. 2. New Orders. 3. Missions. 
§36. Mysticism, Quietism, Jansenism 188 

1. Mysticism and Quietism. 2. Jansenism in its First Stages. 
§ 37. Science and Art 192 

1. Theology. 2. Church Music. 3. Poetry. 


§ 38. Lutheran Orthodoxy and its Struggles 196 

1. Orthodoxy in Conliict with itself. 2. The Syncretisti c Con- 
troversy. 3. First Stages of the Pjetistic Controversy. 

4. Theology. 


g 39. Religious Life in the Lutheran Church 202 

1. Mysticism and Asceticism. 2. Mysticism nnd Theosophy. 
."?. Church Hymns. 4. Psalmody. 5. Christian Life. 
U. Missions. 


g 40. Reformed Theology nnd its Conflicts 207 

1. The .Vrminian Controversy. 2. Its Effects. 3. The Carte- 
sian and Cocccian Controversies. 4. Theology. 

§41. Piety in the Reformed Church 216 

1. Music and .^Esthetics. 2. Mission s. 


2 42. Sects and Fanatics 218 

1. The Netherland Anabaptists. 2. The English Baptists. 
3. The Quakers. 4. Schismatics and Sects. 5. Russian 
2 43. Philosop hers and Free-thi nkers 222 

1. Philosophers. 2. Free-thinkers. 


(Eighteenth Century.) 


I 44. The Roman Catholic Church 220 

1. The Popes of the first half of this Century. 2. New Orders. 
3. Missions. 4. The Counter-reformation. 5. Conver- 
sions. 6. Jansenism in its second stage. 7. The Order 
of Jesuits abolished. 8. Anti-hierarchical movements in 
Germany. 9. The French Revolution. 10. Illumination. 
11. Theology. 
§45. Oriental Orthodox Church 238 


§ 46. The Lutheran Church before the Illumination 240 

1, Second stage of the Pietistic Controversies. 2. Theology. 
3. Theories of Canon-law. 4. Hymnology. 5. Psal- 
mody. 6. Piety and Devotional Literature. 7. Mis- 

I 47. The Moravians (Unitas Fratrum) 252 

1. Zinzendorf. 2. Establishment of the Church. 3. Progress 
of the Church. 4. Zi nzendorf 's Plan s and Labors. 5. 
Spangcnberg. 0. Missions. 

§48. The Reformed Church and Methodism 2CG 

1. Methodism. 2. Union Efforts. 3. Theology. 





IL— 3 (25) 


In the Reformation of tlie sixteenth century, the Germanic 
spirit, which, until then, had been under the tutelage and disci- 
pline of the Romish Church, attained to maturity and iiide- 
peii'd'ence. It fully emancipated itself from the bondage of its 
master, who had become an ambitious oppressor, and had made 
every effort to suppress all independent attempts to secure eccle- 
siastical, theological, and scientific freedom — all movements in 
favor of evangelical reforms. In the primitive history of the 
Cluirch, the person of Christ was made the centre of salvation, 
and the Holy Scriptures were set forth as the source of all an- 
nouncements and knowledge of salvation. The development of 
Christianity was impelled in the ancient Church by tradition, 
in the mediceval by the hierarchy, in the modern by science. 
Tradition represents the continued agency of the Holy Ghost 
in the Church — the hierarchy represents Christ^s supremacy over 
the Church. By the former the catholicity of the Church was 
developed ; the latter protected the Church against the storms 
which arose amid the conflicts of the ancient and modern world, 
and secured its perpetuation. But both tradition and the hier- 
archy transcended their projier limits ; hence upon modern 
science devolved the duty of leading men back to the fountain 
of salvation in Christ, and of the knowledge of that salvation 
in the Scriptures, that thus the truth might be sifted of false- 
Miood, and that which was normal be separated from abnormal 
developments in the history of the Church. This happened in 
the Reformation. Not that science produced the Reformation, 
for it was rather called forth by deep anxieties for the salvation 
of the soul, against which Romish tradition had sealed the Sacred 
Scriptures, and Romish indulgences and justification by works 



had barred faith in Christ. But the Reformation became the most 
zealous patron of science, because science furnished the means 
of discovering, establishing, and perfecting the principles of true 
reform. These principles were : the sole normal authority of 
the Holy Scriptures, and justification by faith alone, without any 
merit of works. 

1. As the Romish Church, in opposition to the Reformation, clung 
to its peculiarities, both in form and substance, and even reaffirmed 
them, the occidental Church was sundered into an Evangelical Pro- 
testant and a Roman Catholic Church. And, as the principles of the 
Reformation were differently apprehended. Protestantism divided into 
two branches, the Lutheran and the Reformed Churches. In addition 
to these three western Churches, and the ancient oriental Church, all 
which were based upon the common foundation of primitive Catholi- 
cism, various sects arose which repudiated that Catholicism, and set up 
for themselves. In consequence of these divisions and schisms, modern 
Church History exhibits varieties, activities, and rivalries, with good 
and bad fruits, such as no previous period presents. Another still 
more distinctive peculiarity of this age of the Church is found in the 
fact that infidelity, fanaticism, worldliness, and anti-Christianity have 
developed tnemselves in its course more vigorously, widely, and con- 
sistently, than ever before, so that an anti-Christian secular Church is 
seen in violent antagonism to the true Church of Christ. This progress 
of anti-Christianity has its ground in this : that, according to prophecy 
and historical necessity, the kingdom of darkness will develop itself 
parallel with the kingdom of God more decidedly and vigorously as it 
approaches its end, and thus become ripe for judgment. In regard to 
the duty of the Church to extend its limits, we find that, whilst the 
early Church prosecuted the work of missions among the Greeks and 
Romans, and the mediaeval Church spread Christianity among the 
Germanic-Slavonian nations, the modern Church has engaged in the 
work of bearing the Gospel to countries beyond the ocean, so that, be- 
fore the end of all things, Christianity may make the circuit of the 

2. Modern Church History clearly and distinctly presents four sepa- 
rate forms of development, by which its division into as many periods 
is justified. The main characteristic points of their distinction consists 
partly in the opposition between particular Churches, partly in the 
antagonism between faith and infidelity. The transitions from one 
period to another nearly correspond with those of the several centuries. 
'Y:h.Q Jirst period is the age of tlie Reformation (the sixteenth century), 
in which the reformatory German church-life was separated from the 
Romano-German, and their reciprocal relation became fixed. The 
second period, extending beyond the seventeenth century, was that 
of the general conflict between the leading particular Churches, and 


exhibits their free, independent development. It is characterized as tho 
age oj'orf/iodoxi/, and oi" the supremacy of confessions of faitli. In tho 
third period, reaching to the commencement of the nineteenth century, 
infidelity, in the form of clei.sni, raiionallsni^ and naturalism, began to 
assert its authority. The J'ourth period, beginning with the present 
century, includes our own times. Revived faith, invigorated by its 
triumphant conflict with rationalism, branches out on the side of Pro- 
testantism, into latitudinarian unionism, and strict confessionalism, 
whilst the Romish Church mounts to the pinnacle of the most zealous 
ultra-montanism. Infidelity, also, assumes new and decidedly anti- 
Christian forms, in the shape o^ pantheism, materialism, and commu- 
nism, and seems to wage a war of extermination against everything 
Christian in Church and State, in science and faith, in social and poli- 
tical life. 







Sources : 1. Luther's Works, published by J. G. "Walch, Halle, 1740- 
52, 24 vols. 4to. Erlangen ed. 1826-55, 65 vols. 8vo. Melanchthon' s 
Works in the Corpus Reformatorum, ed. C. G. BretscJmeider. Hal., 
1834, sqq. (thus far 25 vols. 4to.) — G. Spalatini Annales reform, to 
1543, publ. by Cyprian, Leips. 1718 ; ib. hist. Nachl. u. Briefe, publ. 
by Neudecker u. Preller, Jen. 1851. — F?\ Myconii Ref. Hist., publ. by 
Cyprian, Gotha, 1715, — Ratzeberger (kursachs. Leibarzt) handschr. 
Gesch. iiber Luther u. s. Zeit, publ. by Neudecker, Jena, 1850. — /. 
Cochlaei (Catholic) Commentt. de actia et scriptis Lutheri, Mog. 1549. 
In opposition to it, /. Sleidani commentt. de statu relig. et reipubl. 
Carolo V. Csesare. Arg. 1555. — Ahr. Sculteti Annales evang. Sec. 
XVI. (to 1536) ed. H. van der Hardt. Frcf. 1717. 

2. F. E. Loscher, vollst. Ref. Acta (to 1519). Lpz. 1720, etc. 3 Bde. 
4to. — C. G. Neudecker, Urkd. aus d. Ref. Zeit. Cass. 1836; id., Acten- 
stvicke, Niirnb. 1838 ; id., Neue Beitr. Lpz. 1841. — C. G. Forstemann, 
Archiv fiir die Gesch. d. Ref. Ilalle, 1831, etc. ; id. Neues Urkunden- 
buch, Hamb. 1842, 4to. 

3. L. Maimbourg (a Jesuit) Hist, du Luth^ranisme, Par. 1680. In 
opposition to this : L. de Seckendorf, Commentarius Hist, et Apol. de 
Lutheranismo, Frcf. 1688, 4to. — W. C. Tcnizel, hist. Bericht von d. 
Anf. u. Fortg. d. Ref. Lutheri, publ. by Cyprian, Lpz. 1718, 3 Bde.— 
C. A. Salig, Gesch. d. augsb. Conf. (to 1555). Halle, 1730, etc. 3 Bde. 
4to. — Dan. Gerdesii introd. in hist. ref. Groning. 1744, 4 vols. 4to. 

4. G. J. Planck, Gesch. d. Entst. Verandr. u. Bild. d. prot. Lehrbegr. 
bis zur Concordienf. 2. A. Lpz. 1791, etc., 7 Bde. — Ph. Marheineke, 
Gesch. d. deutsch. Ref. (to 1555). 2, A. Berl. 1831, etc.— C. G. Neu- 



decker, Gcsch. d. doutsc-h. Ilcf. (to 1532). Lpz. 1843. — C. 11. Brcsdcr, 
Gesch. d. deutsch. Ilcf. Danz. 1840, 2 Bdc. — K. N. Hagenbarh, Vorlcss. 
Ub. Wes. u. Gesch. d. Kef. Bd. 1. 2. Gcsch. d. Rcf. in Dcutschl. u. d. 
Schweiz. 2. A. Lj.z. 1851.—/. H. Mcrle-cV Avbigue, Hist, of the Kef. 
of the Sixteenth Cent. (5 vols, publ.) — li. tcr Haar, d. Kef. Gesch. in 
Schilderungcn, from the Dutch by C. Gross. Ilamb. 185G. 2 Bdc. 

5. /. G. Midler, DenkwUrdigkk. ftus d. Gesch. d. Kef. Lpz. 180G. — 
A'. Jluf/en, Dcutschl. litcrat. u. rcl. Zustande im Zcitalt. d. Kef. Erlg. 
1S41, etc. 3 Bdc. — F. A. Hulzhuuscn, d. Protest, nacli sr. j^esch. Entst., 
Boo;riind. u. Fortbild. Lpz. 1844-49. 2 Bdc.- D. Schenkel das Wesen 
d. Protest. Schaffh. 1845, etc., 3 Bde. — //. Heppc, Gesch. d. deutsch. 
Protest. Marb. 1852. Bd, I. (the Mclanchth. tendency in Ch. hist.) 

6. A'. Jiijel, K. G. d. neust. Zeit. 2. A. Mainz, 1847, etc. 3 Bde. — 
T;/n. Dollinrjer, de Kef. im Umfanj^e d. Luth. Bekenntn. 2. A. Rcgen.sb. 
1852, etc. 3 Bde. (both odiously ultra-montane), 

7. Luther's Leben, by Melanchthon, Wittb. 154G ; by /. Maihesius 
(in sermons), publ. by Rust. Berl. 1841, and often: by Nic. f^elnccJcer, 
od. Mayer. Wittb. 1G87, 4to. ; by D. Herrnschniidt. Halle, 1742 ; by 
/. G. Walch, in the 24th vol. of Luther's works; by F. S. Keil, Lpz. 
1704; by G. IT. A. Vkert, Goth. 1817. 2 Bde ; by G. Pfizer, Stuttg. 
183G ; by C. F. G. Stang, Stuttg. 1838 ; l)y M. Meurcr, 2. A. Dresd. 
1852; by A'. J'drr/ens (to 1517), Lpz. 1840. 3 Bde; by L. Weydmann, 
Hamb. 1850; ])y H. Gelzer, mit bildl, Darstell. v. G. Koiiig, Haml). 

8. C. A. Menzel, Neuere Gesch. d. Deutsch. Berl. 1820, etc. Bd. 1.-8. 
— Leap, jRanke, deutsch. Gcrsch. in Zeitalter d. Ref. 3. A. Berl. 1852. 
G Bde. — C. de Vdlers, Essai sur I'esprit et rinflucnce de la r6f. du XYI 
si^cle, 5 ed. Par. 1851. [Transl. by Sam. Miller, Princeton. 1833.] 

9. H. Bullinger, Ref. Gesch. (to 1532), publ. by Hottingcr n. Vogeli. 
Fraucnf. 1838.' 3 Bde.—/. C. Fllsslin, Beitr. zur ErlUutr. d. K. Ref. 
Hist. d. Schweizcrlande. Zlirich, 1751, etc., 5 Bde. — /. /, Simlcr, 
Samml. alt. u. neuer Urkd. Zurich. 1757. 5 Bde. — L. Mainibourg, Hist, 
du Calvanisme. Par, 1082. In opposition : P. Bagh, Critique g<'^n6rale, 
etc. Rottd. 1084. 2 voll. — /. Basiiage, Hist, de la relig. des eglises 
ref. 2 ed. Haye, 1725. 2 voll. 4to. — /. /. Ilottinger, helvet. K. G. 
Zurich, 1805, etc. 5 Bdo. — A. Pnclmt, Hist, de la r^f. de la Suisse. 
Gen. 1727, etc. G voll. — /. D. Beausobre, Hist, do la r6f. (to 1530). 
Berl. 1785. 3 voll. — L. Wirz u. M. Kirchhofer, neuere helv. K. G. 
Zurich. 1813. 2 Bdc. 



REFORMATION. (1517-19.) 

No historical event so clearly and plainly displays a ruling 
divine Providence as the German Reformation. In its case, 
place, time, persons, circumstances, and relations, religious and 
political, all combined most wonderfully to secure, for the great 
work, a firm basis, a safe position, a healthy tendency, strict 
purity, powerful protection, general recognition, successful pro- 
gress, and permanent results. There was a lively sense of the 
errors of the Church, and a deep and general longing after a 
reformation ; and science offered it ample means to effect a 
reformation. The papal chair was occupied by a man as indif- 
ferent and indolent as Leo X. ; and another, as foolhardy and 
shameless as Tetzel, vended indulgences. For the tender plant, 
there was provided a protector as pious, faithful, and consci- 
entious, as honored and esteemed," as Frederick the Wise. On 
the imperial throne sat Charles F., sufficiently powerful and 
inimical to kindle the purifying fires of affliction, but too much 
involved in political troubles to render a reckless and violent 
suppression of the movement either prudent or possible. Be- 
sides these, there were a great many other persons, circumstances, 
and complications, all which seemed to conspire, as by design, 
to strengthen and advance the cause. Then, finally, at the pro- 
per time, at the most desirable place, and amid the most favor- 
able circumstances, arose a genius like Luther, in whom was 
found the rarest combination of all the gifts and qualities of 
spirit, mind, character, and will, requisite to the great work. 
He was, moreover, providentially trained for his high mission by 
the events of his life, and by being made to experience in his 
own soul the essential principles of the Reformation, and to 
make such proof of its divine power, that he felt irresistibly 
impelled to communicate to the world this most sacred and pre- 
cious experience of his life. The great work began with the 
nailing of ninety-five simple theses to the door of the Witten- 
berg Cathedral, and the Leipsic disputation constituted the first 
prominent point in his history. 


1. L}tf/i€i'\<} Early Years. — Martin Lni/icr was l)()rn at Eislobcn, No- 
vember 10, 1483. After gr()AYin<:; up under strict parental discipline, 
and amidst the wants and privations of poverty, he went, in 1501, to 
study law at the University of Erfurt. Deeply affected by the sudden 
death of his friend Alexius, he entered tlic Au;5ustine monastery at 
Erfurt in 1505. In great distress for the salvation of his soul, he 
sought to quiet his conscience by fastings, prayers, and penances. But 
his temptations ever returned with new power. An old brother in the 
monastery, one day, repeated to the distressed and almost exhausted 
penitent the articde of the creed: "I believe in the forgiveness of sins." 
It was a word of comfort to his soul. lie was still more elieered by 
the counsel of his noble superior, JoJin Staupilz, the provincial of the 
Augustines for Germany. lie pointed out to him the Avay of true 
repentance and faith in the Saviour, who was crucified not for imaginary 
sins. FoHowing his advice, Luther zealously studied the Bible, along 
with the writings of Augustine, and of the mystics of the middle ages. 
In 1508, Staupitz aided him in obtaining an appointment to the chair 
of philosophy in the University of Wittenberg, founded in 1502. This 
compelled him thoroughly to study scholastic authors. A journey to 
Kome, undertaken in 1510, at the request of his order, had a mighty 
influence upon his future course. Indignant at the blasphemous levity 
and immorality exhibited there ])y the clergy, and unappeased by the 
outward penances to which he submitted, he returned home. All the 
way back, these words resounded in his ears: " The just shall live by 
faith." It was a voice from God to his soul, and filled his troubled 
spirit with divine peace. After his return, Staupitz gave him no rest 
until he was promoted to the theological doctorate (1512), when he 
commenced lecturing upon theology, and also preaching in Wittenberg. 
Guided by the study of Augustine, he penetrated ever more deeply 
into the knowledge of the Scriptures, and of their fundamental doc- 
trine of justification by faith ; he attained daily to greater freedom 
from the trammels of scholastic formalism, and from those of mediaeval 
pantheistic mysticism, by which he had, at first, allowed himself to 
be unduly influenced. 

2. Luther's Theses. (Cf. F. G. Hoffmann, Lebensbeschr. TetzeFs. 
Lpz. 1844. — UaZ. (?rone (Cath.) Tetzel u. Luther. Soest. 1853. In 
reply: //. O. Kohler, rihn. Geschichtsverdrehung, etc., in the Luth. 
Ztschr., 1855, III.—/. IL Ilennes, Albr. v. lirandb. Mainz, 1858).— 
Pope Leo X. had authorized a general indulgence, avowedly to com- 
plete St. Peter's, but really to relieve his pecuniary embarrassments, 
and gratify his love of splendor. Germany was divided among three 
commissioners. The Elector Albrecht of Mayence, who was also Arch- 
bishop of Magdeburg (a brother of the Elector of Brandenburg), him- 
self assumed the chief management of the commission for his ]>ro- 
vinces, reserving the half of the receipts for the liquidation of his own 
debts. Among the vendors of indulgences whom he appointed, John 


Teizel, the Dominican prior, was the most scandalous. Attended by a 
numerous retinue, he travelled from place to place, and offered his 
wares with the most unexampled impudence and obtrusive publicity. 
Thus he set up in JUierbocJc, near Wittenberg, and attracted crowds 
of purchasers from all directions. Luther discovered, in the confes- 
sional, the pernicious consequences of this disorder, and on the eve of 
All Saints' Day, Oct. 31, 1517, he nailed ninety-five theses (in Latin), 
*' in explanation of the power of indulgences," on the door of the castle 
church in Wittenberg. Although these theses did not assail the doc- 
trine of indulgence itself, but merely its abuse, their decided reference 
to faith in Christ as the only ground of salvation, involved the life- 
principle of the Reformation. With incredible rapidity the theses 
were spread over Germany, and indeed over all Europe. Luther con- 
nected with them a sermon for the people upon ''indulgences and 
grace.'' The movement met with so much favour, that the friends of 
the old order of things were compelled to resist it. Tetzel publicly 
burned the theses at Jliterbock, and, with the aid of Conrad Wimpina, 
of Frankfort, prepared counter-theses, which he wished to discuss with 
Luther. A number of copies of these were bought by the Wittenberg 
students, and, in retaliation, burned by them ; an act of which Luther 
highly disapproved. JoJui Eck, pro-chancellor in Ingolstadt, one of 
the most learned theologians of his day, and a professed friend of 
Luther, wrote Oheliscos, in which, without naming Luther, he severely 
denounced the Bohemian poison. Luther rejoined in his Asferiscos. 
At first Leo X., in his self-security, regarded the matter as nothing 
more than an unimportant quarrel among the monks, and even praised 
Brother Martin as a remarkable genius. Hogstraten's cry of heresy he 
did not heed, but had no objections that the Dominican, Sylvester Pri- 
erias, master sacri palatii, should controvert Luther. His book was a 
miserable affair. Luther briefly and effectually refuted it. Prierias 
wrote a second more wretched reply. Luther's only answer to which 
was its republication. Leo then enjoined silence upon his unskilful 
advocate. — In May, 1518, Luther addressed a humble letter to the 
pope, and, in self -justification, added detailed Resolutiones upon his 
theses. Both were to be sent to Leo by Staupitz. 

3. Cajetan and Miltiz (1518). — At length it was resolved, at Rome, to 
lay vigorous hold of the Wittenberg movement. The papal fiscal entered 
complaints against Luther, who was thereupon summoned to answer to 
the charge, in Rome, within sixty days. But, at the solicitation of 
the University of Wittenberg, and especially of Frederick the Wise, the 
pope committed the settlement of the matter to his legate, Cardinal 
Cajetan, at the Diet of Au o;sbu r g:. Luther appeared and appealed to 
the Bible. But the legate wished to refute him by the testimony of 
the scholastics, and, after vainly demanding an unqualified retraction, 
arrogantly turned away. Luther made a formal appeal to the pope, 
and happily escaped from Augsburg. Cajetan now sought to incite 


Frederick the Wise (148G-1525) af];ainst the refractory monk; hut 
Luther's meek and cheerful confidence won the heart of the noble 
elector. — No good was to be looked for from Rome ; hence Luther pre- 
pared, in advance, an appeal to a general council, which, however, the 
covetousncss of the printer prematurely circulated, against the will 
of Luther. — In ll(mic, the unhappy issue of the diet was charged to 
Cajetan's unwise obstinacy. By a papal bull, the doctrine of indul- 
gences Avas carefully defined, their abuse disapproved, and the papal 
chamberlain, Charles of Milt iz, a Saxon, a man of worldly adroitness, 
was sent, in 1510, as papal nuncio to Saxony, to confer upon the elector 
the sacred golden rose, and adjust the controversy. lie began his work 
by severely condemning Tetzel, and approached Luther with the most 
flattering kindness. Luther apologized for his violence, wrote a 
humble, submissive letter to the pope, and, in order to do all in his 
power, publicly issued an explanation of the views ascril^ed to him by 
his opponent. But, notwithstanding these concessions, he firmly ad- 
hered to the doctrine of justifi cation by faith alone, without any merit 
of good works. lie promised the nuncio to abstain from further con- 
troversy, provided his opponents also remained silent ; these, however, 
did not comply. 

4. The Leipsic Disputation (1519). (Cf. /. K. Seidemann, d. Lpz. 
Disp. Dresd. 1843.-^(7. G. Ilering, de disp. Lps. hab. Lpz. 1839).— 
John Eck, of Ingolstadt, who had previously exchanged controversial 
treatises with Luther, had engaged in a dispute with Andreio Bodcn- 
stein, of Carlstadt, a zealous adherent and colleague of Luther, a pro- 
fessor and preacher in "Wittenberg, and Luther himself had proposed 
a_disputatIo n between them. This was to take place i n Leipsic , in 
1519. But the vain Eck not only sought to attract as much attention 
as possible to the proposed disputation, but to involve Luther in the 
controversy. For eight days Eck debated with Carlstadt upon grace 
and free will, and with overpowering skill, boldness, and learning, 
defended Romish semi-pelagianism. Then for fourteen days he dis- 
cussed, with Lttthcr, the pope's primacy, repentance, indulgences, and 
purgatory, and sorely pressed him with accusations of the Hussite heresy. 
But Luther vigorously defended himself with Bi ble pro ofs, and becaine 
convince d that even general co uncils (like that of Constance) might 
err, and that not all Hussite doctrines are heretical. Both parties 
claimed the victory. Luther followed up the debate with several con- 
troversial tracts ; neither did Eck keep silent. Other combatants also 
entered the field. The party of Liberal German ILnnanisfs had, at 
first, taken but little notice of Luther's movements. But the Leipsic 
disputation changed their views of the case. Luther seemed to them 
a second Reuchlin, IJck as another Ortuinus Gratiits. A pungent 
anonymous satire, " Der abgohobelte Eck," which surpassed the Aris- 
tophanian wit of the epistolae obscurorum virorum, was published 
early in 1520. It was succeeded by several satires by Ulric von 


Hutten ("Die Anschauenden," " Vadiscus, oder die romische Dreifal- 
ligkeit/' etc.), whom Luther's appearance at Leipsic had anew elec- 
trified. Hutten and Sickingen offered themselves and their entire 
party, soul and body, pen and sword, to the service of Luther. Though 
this league with the Humanists was temporarily needful to the Re- 
formation, it would have given a wholly false direction to the cause, 
had it not been, in due time, providentially dissolved. — The Leipsic 
disputation likewise led to amicable relations between the Bohemian 
Hussites and the German reformer ; letters, gifts, and messages, were 
exchanged between them. But, on the other hand, Duke George of 
Saxony, in whose castle and presence the disputation was held, became 
from that time an irreconcilable foe of Luther and his Reformation. 
(Cf. A. M. ScJiuhe, Herz. Georg. u. M. Luther. Lpz. 1834.) 

5. Philip Melanchihon. (Cf. Melanchthon's Leben by F. Galle, Halle, 
1840, and by K. F. Matthes, Altenb. 1841.) — There was a man present 
at the Leipsic disputation who occupied a prominent place in the pro- 
gress of the Reformation. Born at Bretten, in the Palatinate, in 
1497, Philip Melan chthon ( Sch wartzerd) entered the university at 
Heidelberg in his thirteenth year. Three years later he published a 
Greek grammar ; in his seventeenth year he obtained the master's 
degree, and in his twenty-first (1518), at the recommendation of 
Reuchlin, a relative, was appointed professor of Greek at Wittenberg. 
His fame soon spread over all Europe, and attracted to him thousands 
of hearers from all countries. Luther and Erasmus both lauded his 
talents, his fine culture, and his learning, and his age pronounced him 
the Prceceptor Germanice. He was an Erasmus of loftier power and 
nobler mien, a complementary counterpart of Luther. His entire 
nature breathed forth modesty, mildness, and goodness. "With child- 
like simplicity he yielded to the power of evangelical truth, and humbly 
bowed to the more forcible practical spirit of Luther, who, on his part, 
however, gratefully acknowledged the goodness of God in raising up 
such a coadjutor for him and his cause. — Melanchthon wrote a report 
of the Leipsic disputation to his friend (Ecolampadius, which incident- 
ally fell into Eck's hands. This occasioned a controversy between 
them, in which Eck's vain self-exaltation, and Melanchthon's noble 
modesty, were equally manifest. His first participation in the new 
movement was in the form of an apology for Luther, issued under an . 
assumed name. 

AND STRAITS. (1520, 1521.) 

The Leipsic disputation led Luther to assume an essentially 
more free stand-point. He was made to see that he could not 
stop half-way ; that his great principle of justification by faith 
was wholly incompatible with the hierarchical system of the 

lutiier's conflicts and straits. 37 

papacy and its fiiridamoiital doctrines. I5nt alonp; with his 
violence and suhjective one-sidedness, whicli lie displayed in this 
period of his earliest conflicts and straits (1520, 1521), he still 
possessed sufficient considerateness to liold fast to the spiritual 
character of his reformatory labors, and to reject the carnal aid 
offered by Ulric von Hutten and his warlike associates, how- 
ever thankfully he acknowledged their ardent sympathy. The 
position he then occupied, as well as the full height of his sub- 
jectivism at that time, are set forth in two papers written during 
the first half of the year 1520 : "An kaiserlirhe Majedcit und 
den cJiristl. Adel deulschcr Nation von des christlichen Standes 
Bcsserung," in which he razed the three breastworks behind 
which the papacy had intrenched itself, the supremacy of the 
pope over all temporal powers (its exclusive authority to inter- 
pret the Bible, and its sole right to convoke councils), and pro- 
posed measures for the radical improvement and reconstruction 
of the German Church, — and " De capiiritate hahylonica eccle- 
sice,^^ the main subject of which was the doctrine of the sacra- 
ments. He admits only three (baptism, repentance, and the 
Supper), and rejects the communio sub una, transubstantiation, 
and the idea of a sacrifice in the Mass. Some of his works of 
a more edifying character, also belong to this period, as the 
exposition of Galatians, the manual on confession, the sermon 
on good works, etc. The papal bull of excommunication incited 
him to more violent words and acts, and with heroic boldness he 
hastened t o Worms , to render an account of his doings before 
the emperor and diet. The papal ban was followed by the 
.i mperial proscr iptio n. But as an exjle ij^ Wartbur g he escaped ^ 
from the hands of his foes and — his friends. ' 

1. The Romish hull of excommunication (1520). — To reap the fruits 
of his imaginary victory, Eck had gone liack to Rome, and returned 
triumphantly as a papal nuncio with a bull dated June 15, 1520, in 
which Luther was pronounced a heretic, his writings ordered to be 
burned, and he threatened with the ban, unless he appeared in Rome 
within sixty days. Miltiz made new attempts to compromise matters, 
which, of course, were unsuccessful, although Luther, to show his 
good intentions, gave them consideration, and proposed a basis of com- 
promise in his tract — "Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen," in 
which he shunned controversy as much as possible. lie accompanied 
this paper with a letter to the pope, in which, with all its sincere 
expressions of humility, and reverence for the person of the pope, 
whom he represented as dwelling in the midst of a most abominable 


Romish Sodom and Gomorrah, like a sheep among wolves, or like 
Daniel in the lions' den, there was no trace of repentance or retraction. 
It was easy to foresee, however, that neither papers would suit the taste 
of the Romish court. Meanwhile, Eck came with the bull itself. After 
its publication, Luther opened his assault upon it with three writings 
(" Von den neuen Eckischen Bullen und Lligen,'^ "Contra exsecra- 
bilem Antichristi bullam," "Assertio omnium articulorum per bullam 
Leonis X. novissimam damnatorum"), and renewed his appeal to a 
general council, which he had carefully prepared two years before. — 
In Saxony, Eck's bull only excited derision, but in Lyons, Mayence, 
Cologne, etc., Luther's writings were really burned. Then Luther 
took the boldest step of his life. Attended by a large concourse of 
doctors and students, invited by a placard posted on the black board, 
he burned the bull with the papal decretals on jDec. 10, 1520, at 9 a. m. 
This was an absolute divorce from the pope and Romish Church. He 
had thus rendered all retreat impossible. Ilutten shouted approbation, 
and proclaimed in German rhymes a full catalogue of the sins of the 
Romish curia. 

2. Emsimis (1520). (Cf. W. Chlehiis, Erasm. u. Luth., in the hist, 
theol. Ztschr. 1845, IL— IF. E. Eberliardi, Warum blief Erasm. Kath., 
ibid. 1839, III.) — Thus far Erasmus kept on good terms with Luther; 
they cherished mutual respect and esteem. However diverse their 
positive tendencies, they agreed in opposing scholasticism and monas- 
ticism. Erasmus rejoiced in the defeat of an obnoxious monasticism, 
and persistently rejected all solicitations to write against Luther; 
neither did he care, as he confessed, to feel the rasp of Luther's wrath. 
When the papal bull appeared, he decidedly disapproved of it, and 
even expressed doubts as to its genuineness. As the oracle of his day, 
his opinion of the whole matter was often asked. He said, the papal 
decision itself was not to be condemned, but its manner and form. 
He desired an arbitration of learned and pious men, with three princes 
(the German emperor, and the kings of England and Hungary), to 
whose decision Luther should submit. Frederick the Wise also (before 
Luther had taken his boldest step) had consulted Erasmus, who then 
said, that Luther had made two mistakes, he had touched the pontiff's 
crown and the monks' bellies ; he also regretted Luther's want of 
moderation and considerateness. The elector heard these declarations 
of Erasmus, not without approbation. The proposal to submit the 
case to an arbitration, also had its influence upon subsequent public 
measures against Luther. 

3. The Emperor Charles V. (1519-20). — The Emperor Maximilian 
died Jan. 12, 1519. The Elector of Saxony, the regent of the empire, 
declined his election in favour of Charles I., the young King of Spain, 
Maximilian's grandson, who was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, on 
Oct. 23. All hopes centered in the young emperor. It was expected 


that he would place himself at the head of the religious and national 
movement in Germany. But Charles, who was a stranger to the 
impulses of the German spirit, and did not even understand the 
language, had interests which he was not disposed to subordinate to 
German politics. The German crown was hut an integral part of his 
power ; its interests had to subserve the general interests of the empire, 
on whose domain the sun never set. He considered the religious 
agitation in Germany important, but not so much in its religious as in 
its political aspect. It furnished him with the desired means of keep- 
ing the pope in check, and of compelling him to favour his interests. 
Charles demanded two things of the pope for the suppression of the 
religious movement in Germany : first, that he should renounce French 
alliances, and league with the emperor against France ; secondly, the 
cassation of the previously issued papal breve, which ordered a recon- 
struction of the Spanish Inquisition — a main prop of absolute monarchy 
in vSpain. Leo X. yielded to both demands, and thus the hopes of the 
Germans, that Charles would at length rid the nation of the igno- 
minious Roman yoke, were frustrated. The compact between the 
emperor and pope was conclu ded on May 8, 152 1. — Charles opened his 
first diet at Worms on J an. 28, 1521. In February a papal brief 
amved/urgently admonishing the emperor legally to enforce the bull 
against Luther. During a tournament Charles summoned the princes 
to his quarters, communicated the brief to them, and submitted an 
edict couched in strong terms, enjoining the execution of the bull. He 
desired them at once to give their assent. But he met with unex- 
pected opposition. T he State s de manded that Luther should be sum- 
moned to Worms, under an imperial safe-conduct, to answer the charges 
made against him. They could not consider his assaults upon Romish 
abuses a crime, since they themselves had drawn up an indictment 
of 101 gravaminum against Rome, which they intended laying before 
the diet. Still they declared themselves re.ady to subscribe the edict, 
if Luther would not retract in regard to points of doctrinal dispute. 
Earnestly as the papal legate Alexander protested against a temporal 
diet aiTording a heretic the opportunity of a trial, the opinion of the 
Estates prevailed. An imperial herald was dispatched to Wittenberg 
to summon Luther to Worms under an imperial safe-conduct. Before 
his arrival, the confessor of the emperor, Gla mo. a Francisc an, who 
was by no means a blind devotee of the Romish chair, sougiit to effect 
an amicable settlement of the affair. lie thought if Luther would 
but retract the most offensive of his books, as that of the Babylonian 
captivity of the Church, and acknowledge the decrees of Constance, 
the whole case might be dismissed. He first laid this proposition 
before the Elector of Saxony, and after failing with him, sought Francis 
of Sickingen in the castle of Ebern. lie embraced the plan, and 
invited Luther to a conference in his castle. But Luther did not trust 
Glapio, and declined the invitation. 


4. jAither at the Diet of Worms (1521). (Cf. W. Boye, Luth. zu W. 
Halle. 2 A. 1824.— Zmmer, Luth. zu W. Heidelb. 1821.) — In the 
meantime Luther had not been idle at AYittenberg . He preached 
twice daily, delivered lectures, wrote books and letters, had confer- 
ences, and contended with opponents, especially with J erom^ Emser 
in L^ipsic, with whom he became involved in a long and odious corre- 
spondence in regard to his memorial addressed to the German nobility. 
The imperial herald found him in the midst of these various labors. 
He dropped everything, and obeyed th e cita tion with courage and 
confidence. The fears of his friends in Wittenberg, the admonitions 
to return which were addressed to him on his way, he discarded with 
Christian heroism, in his usual vigorous manner. His journey re- 
sembled a triumphal march. He reached "Worms o n_Ap ril 14^amidst 
a dense mass of people, attended by his theological friends, Justus 
Jonas and Nichol as Amsdor f, and the legal counsellor, Jero me Schurf . 
Soon after his arrival, on April 17j_he was cited before the diet. He 
acknowledged the books laid before him as his own ; in regard to the 
required retraction, he obtained time for consideration until the follow- 
ing day. In his subsequent declaration, he divided his books into 
three classes (those setting forth positiv e doctr ines, controversial writ- 
ings against t he papag y and papal doctrines, and those directed against 
private persons), and gave his reasons, at length, for refusing to recall 
any of them. A direct answer was demanded. He gave this by saying 
that he would not and could not retrac t, un less it^ ould be shojgrn, from 
Scripture, or by other clear proofs, that he was in error, and concluded 
with the words: " Hier stehe ich, ich kann nicht anders, Gott helfe 
mir ! Amen.'' He had won the hearts of many German knights and 
princes, but had not favorably impressed the emperor. Still, Charles 
spurned the suggestion to withdraw the promised safe-ofl nduc t from the 
heretic. Well-meant attempts, urging him still to retract, Luther 
met with the words of Gamaliel (Acts 5 : 38, 39), and on April 26, 
left Worms w ithout hindrance. On May 26, after some of the princes 
(including the Elector of Saxony) had gone away, the papal legate suc- 
ceeded, by various secret machinations, in having the i mperia l decjee. 
couched in the severest terms, pr onounced against Luthe r and all his 
adherents, and faj^l y_antedated Mav 8 [the edict of Worms). But 
Luther had been safely concealed. 

5. The Wartburg Exile (1521-22). (Cf. C. Kohler, Luth. auf d. 
Wartb. Eisenach, 1798, 4to.) — By the provident arrangement of the 
e lector, two masked knight s, with some servants, had surrounded Lu- 
ther's carriage, in a fo rest near Eisenach, seized Luther, and, with 
seeming violence, borne him off to t he Wartburg . where, dressed in 
the garb of a knight, and known as Knight George, he was directed 
quietly to await further developments. It was generally supposed that 
he was dead. But when Cardinal Albert, of Mayence (as Archb. of 
Magdeburg), reopened the sale of indulgences in Halle, he soon dis- 


covered, to his terror, tluit the hold monk was still living. At the 
elector's request, ho indeed kept back his tract, "Wider den Abgott von 
Ilalle," for tho time, but in a letter addressed to the cardinal, peremp- 
torily required him to cease the traffic within fourteen days. The arch- 
bishop succumbed, and wrote a mild apologetic answer. Luther also 
gave more public proof that he still lived, and was not inclined to 
keep silent, or change his course, by Avritings of an instructive or 
destructive character. He completed his exposition of the magnificat, 
sent forth the first part of his Church-postils, wrote "Wider den Miss- 
brauch der Messen," " ^'on den geistlichen und Klostergeliibden," etc. 
Nevertheless, he was greatly dissatisfied with the elector's precaution, 
by which, at such a time, he was withdrawn from active life. lie 
would rather " burn on glowing coals than rot in such inaction." But 
this very involuntary exile rescued him and the Reformation from a 
ruinous downfall. Apart from the dangers to which the imperial sen- 
tence exposed him, and which might have compelled him to seek refuge 
with an Ulric von Ilutten and his associates, Avhich would have made 
the Reformation degenerate into a revolution — apart from this, the 
compulsory detention in the Wartburg was advantageous and im- 
portant to Luther and his cause, in many respects. One advantage of 
it was, that men thus learned to distinguish Luther's work from his 
person ; but a still greater advantage was that which accrued to Luther 
himself from this exile. His past life had exposed him to the danger 
of attempting to carry on the work by violent, stormy measures, rather 
than ))y considerate and positive means. The leisure of the Wart- 
burg compelled him quietly and earnestly to examine himself and his 
labors, which he could not do amid the conflicts and perplexities of his 
public life, and the fanaticism of the Wittenberg iconoclasts, and pro- 
phets of Zwickau, which he could now observe and judge of calmly 
and without prejudice, showed him, as in a warning mirror, whither 
he too, and his work, might have been hurried. His theological know- 
ledge, also, had not acquired that ripeness, circumspection, and clear- 
ness, which he needed to carry on his work, for he was still largely 
involved in subjectivism. At the Wartburg, however, he could turn 
from his work of demolition to that of building up, and by the undis- 
turbed study of the Holy Scriptures, extend, purify, and strengthen his 
religious views. It was of special importance, also, that at the Wart- 
burg he formed and partly (in regard to the New Testament) executed 
the plan of translaiinff the ichoJe Bible into German. His exile, like- 
wise, by restraining his violent temper, and, by the inward temptations 
and conflicts he then experienced, served to humble him, to strengthen 
his religious character, and to purge and sanctify his entire nature. 

4 * 




During Luther's absence, the Reformation had progressed, in 
Wittenberg, only too rapidly, and soon became entangled in the 
wildest fanaticisms. But Luther hastened to the scene, obtained 
control of the movement, and soon brought it back to prudent 
evangelical measures. The fanatics fled from "Wittenberg, but 
only to carry on their revolutionary disorders elsewhere. At the 
same time, however, danger threatened from other directions. 
The religious movement started by Luther happened to be simul 
taneous with a twofold political agitation, the conflict of the 
German knights with the princes, and the insurrection of the 
German peasants against the nobility. The Reformation was in 
danger of being mixed up with these political movements, and 
of sharing their fate. But Luther stood firm as a rock against 
all temptations, and the dangers passed by. 

1. The Wittenberg Fanaticism (1522). (Cf. E. W. ErbJcam, Gesch. d. 
protest. Secten im Zeitalter d. Ref. Hamb. 1848. — /. Hast, Gesch. d. 
WiedertUufer von ihrer Entst. zu Zwickau bis zu ihr. Sturz in Miinst. 
1835.) — An Augustine monk, Gabriel Didynius, preached in the Church 
of St. Augustine in glowing terms against vows and private masses. 
Thirteen of his Order left it together in consequence of his preaching. 
Two neighboring priests married. Carlstadt wrote against celibacy, 
and followed their example. At a monastery of the Order in Witten- 
berg it was resolved to abolish mendicancy and the mass. But this 
was not all. Did>/mus, and still more Carlstadt, so inflamed the people 
and students, that under their guidance they perpetrated the grossest 
violence. Public worship was wantonly disturbed, under the pretence 
of exterminating the "idolatry^' of the mass; images were cast out 
of the churches, altars were broken down, and some desired wholly to 
abolish the clergy and theological learning. A fanatical spirit began 
, to show itself simultaneously in Zwickau. At the head of the move- 
ment were two weavers, Nicholas Storch and Thomas Marx, and a 
literary character, Marcus Stiibtier, who pretended to divine revela- 
tions, whilst Thomas M'dnzer proclaimed the new gospel from the pul- 
pit with glowing eloquence. Restrained in their operations by energetic 
civil interference, the Zwickau prophets went abroad. Miinzer went 
to Prague ; Storch, Marx, and Stlibner to Wittenberg. There they 
proclaimed their revelations, and zealously denounced infant baptism 
as an institution of Satan. The disorder in Wittenberg daily increased. 
The enemies of the Reformation rejoiced ; Melanchthon was at his 
wits' end ; the elector was thunderstruck. Luther could endure it no 
longer. Against the elector's express command he left the Wartburg 


May 3, 1522, wrote a heroic letter to the electors, availed liimsclf of 
his knightly incognito at "H hotel in Jena, and calmly indulged in 
cheerful fellowship [John Kessler), and noon after appeared publicly in 
Wittenberg. For a whole week he preached night and day against the 
fanatics, and soon became master of the storm. The Zwickau aerita- 
tors left Wittenberg ; Carlstadt remained, but kept quiet for a few 
years. Luther and Melanchthon labored steadfastly to lay a positive 
basis for the Reformation : Melanchthon had already made a beginning 
in Dec. l')2l, })y publishing his Loci communes rerum tlieologicarum. 
In 1522, Luther also published, against the wish of his modest friend, 
Melanchthon's Annotationes in Epist. Pauliad Rom. et Cor. The same 
year Luther's translatitm of the N. T. appeared, besides many defensive 
and offensive reformatory writings. 

2. Francis of Sickingen (1522-23). (Cf. E. J. II. Miinch, Fr. v. Sick. 
Stuttg. 1827, 2 Bde.) — It was primarily a private feud, like those of 
the middle ages, which led Francis of Sickingen, with a considerable 
force, to invade the domain of the elector and Archbishop of Treves. , 
But prospective interests of quite a different character were connected 
with it, and incited the whole body of knights to take part with Sick- 
ingen. Sickingen's opponent was a prelate and an avowed foe of the 
Reformation ; he was also a prince of the empire. Sickingen assailed him 
in l)(>th capacities, and invoked co-operation in the name of religion 
and political liberty. The knights who thoroughly disliked the state 
of public affiiirs, and were dissatisfied with the imperial government 
and the court, with princes and prelates, joined him in great numbers. 
Sickingen eagerly desired to have Luther in the league, but Luther 
could not be moved. — Sickingen's enterprise proved unfortunate. The 
Filpctor of the Palatinate, and the young Landgrave of Ilesse, hastened 
to'Hie assistance of their princely neighbor. The knights were singly 
put down, and Sickingen died of a mortal wound immediately after 
the storming of Ebernburg (May, 1523). The power of the knights 
was completely broken. The Reformation thus lost a brave and vigor- 
ous protector, but escaped destruction. 

3. Andrew Bodenstein of Carlstadt (1524-25). (Cf. Max Gobel, 
Andr. Bodst. v. Karlst. ; in the Stud. u. Krit. 1841. — C. F. Jdger, 
An<lr. Bodst. v. Karlst. Stuttg. 185G.— //: W. Erhkam, 1. c, p. 174, etc.) 
— Even after the suppression of the Wittenberg fanaticism, Carlstadt 
adhered to his revolutionary tendencies, and with difficulty remained 
quiet for two years. In 1524, he left Wittenberg and went to Orla- 
m'linde. There he violently denounced Luther's popery, again assailed 
the images, and began to advocate his view of the Lord's Supper, in 
which he wholly rejected the doctrine of the real presence. (§ 13, 1). 
To check the disorder, Luther went to Jena, by direction of the elector, 
and there preached in Carlstadt's presence against the iconoclasts and 
sacramentarians. Carlstadt was greatly enraged. During a visit to 

44 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (c E N T. 16 A. D.). 

Orlamunde, Luther was greeted with curses and stones. The elector 
now commanded Carlstadt to quit the country. He first went to Strass- 
burg, and tried to gain Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito to his side. 
Luther addressed a warning to the Christians of Strassburg, who en- 
deavored to reconcile the two. Carlstadt next went to Basel, and issued 
still more violent tracts against Luther's " stupid and shallow literal 
theology.'' Luther rejoined earnestly, thoroughly, and severely in his 
" Wider den himmlischen Propheten von den Bildern und Sacrament" 
(1525). Carlstadt, meanwhile, had drawn the Swiss Reformers into 
his disputes, and they kept up the controversy with Luther. He him- 
self became implicated in the peasants' war ; then, through Luther's 
mediation, obtained permission to return to Saxony, retracted his 
errors, but soon again revived his old agitations ; and, after wandering 
from place to place, became professor and preacher at Basel, where he 
died of the plague (1541). 

4. T homas Mil nzer (1523-24). (Cf. Ph. Melanchthon, Hist. Th. 
Mlintze?rrTnl]ut^er's AVorks by Walch, XVI.— (7. Th. Strohel, Leb., 
Schriften, u. Lehren Th. Muntzer's. Nuremb. 1795. — /. K. Seide- 
mann, Th. M. Dresd. 1842. — L. Kohler, Th. M. u. s. Genossen. Lpz. 
1846, 3 Bde.) — In Wittenberg, fanaticism had, happily, been subdued. 
But a great portion of Germany began to ferm_ent with a kindred, but 
more general and dangerous agitation. The prophets driven from Wit- 
tenberg had not been idle, and persons of a still more fanatical and 
factious spirit strove to ^up root all orde r in Church and State. Their 
leader was Thomas Milnzer. After his expulsion from Zwickau he had 
gone to Bohemia , and became an apostle of theJEaborite doctrines. In 
1523 he returned to^Saxony, and took up his abode in AUstdd t. There 
he gained many adherents. The Wittenberg Reformation was as vehe- 
mently reviled as the papacy. Not the letter of the Holy Scriptures, 
but the_Spirr^should bemade tlie_^nciple of this reformation ; not, 
only all ecclesiastical but all civil institutions should be abolished, and 
r econstructed . The doctrine of the evangelical liberty of Christians 
was grossly abused, the s acraments d e spised , infant_baptism reviled, 
and all importance attached to the so-called baptism of the Spirit. 
Princes should be driven away, the foes of the Gospel be extirpated 
with the sword, and all possessions be held in commo n. When Luther 
wrote a letter to the church at Mlihlhausen, warning it against these 
fanatical measures, Miinzer became furious, and issued a libellous 
reply, entitled: ^'Hochverursachte Schutzrede und Antwort gegen das 
geistlose sanftlebende Fleisch zu Wittenberg," in which he heaped 
upon Luther the most vulgar revilings, and sneered at his " honigsiis- 
sen Christum," and " gedichtetes Evangelium." Soon afterwards he 
was ordered by the elector to leave Saxony (1524). He went to the 
Upper Rhine districts, where he found a luxuriant soil for his factious 


5. The Pras-anfs' irar (152')). (Cf. G. Sarforim, Bcrl. 1795.— 
F. Fr. Oechslc, Iloilbr. IS^O.—BurkhanU, Lpz. 1832. 2 Bdc— S.Bauer, 
Ulm, 1836. — 7/. W. Bensen, Erlg. 1840. — IF. Zimmermann, 2. Aufl. 
Stuttg. 1S5(1.— ir. Warhsmnth, Lpz. 1834.—/. G. My (Cath.), Peutschl. 
in d. Kevoluti(»nsep()che 1522-25, Fieib. 1851 ; and also A'. Jler/el, in 
the kieler all^j;. Monattsschr. fiir Wsch. u. Kunst 1852, July and Au- 
gust.) — For thirty yoars the peasantry of the empire had been restive 
under oppressive political exactions. Twice, already (1502 and 1514), 
had conspiracies (called " Bundschuh," from their si^^nal,) been formed 
and (luelled. They now seized up(jn Luther's ideas of Christian liberty, 
and drew their own inferences from tliem ; and when Miiitzcr began to 
operate among them with his agitating and fanatical sermons, their 
perverted views tended more and more to decided communism. As 
early as August, 1524, an insurrection of peasants broke out in the 
Black Forest ; but it was speedily put down. But, in the beginning 
of 1525, fresh disturbances arose, and assumed a much more dangerous 
character. The peasants reduced their demands to twelve articles, and 
compelled princes, nobles, and prelates, to concede them. All Fran- 
conia and Swabia soon joined the movement, and even many cities 
made common cause with the insurgents. Still M'unzer was not satis- 
fied with the result. The twelve articles were too temperate for him, 
and the compacts concluded with the nobility and clergy were not at 
all to his mind, lleturning to Thuringia, he took up his abode in 
Miihlhauaen, endeavored to stir up fanaticism in the entire country, 
and organized a general insurrection. Thousands were murdered with 
unmerciful cruelty ; all the monasteries, castles, and courts, were 
attacked and destroyed. — Boldly as Luther had assailed the existing 
ecclesiastical powers, he just as firmly maintained civil authority, and 
preached that the Guspel secured spiritual liberty, hut did not subvert 
civil government and social institutions. He did indeed sympathize 
with the peasants in their extreme oppressions, and, whilst their de- 
mands were limited to the twelve articles, he hoped the movement 
might be controlled by the power of the Gospel. The insurgents had 
declared that, if any of their twelve articles could be proved incon- 
sistent with the Word of God, they would yield. "When Miinzer began 
his disturbances in Thuringia, Luther himself visited the towns most 
in danger, and admonished them to quietness and subordination. lie 
was recalled to Wittenberg by the death of the Elector Frederick (who 
departed in peace, May 5, 1525). From Wittenberg Luther then 
addressed his " Ermahnung zum Frieden auf die 12 Artikel der Bauer- 
schaft in Schwaben," in which he appealed earnestly to the consciences 
of the princes as well as the peasants. But as the factious malcontents 
still gained greater ascendancy, and cruelties were multiplied, he gave 
vent to his ire in the book entitled, "Wider die rauberisehen und 
morderischen Bauern." In it he warmly called upon the princes to 
put down the Satanic rebellion by violent and effectual measures. 


Philip of Hessen was the first to respond. He was joined by the new 
Elector of Saxony, John the Constant (1525-32), the brother of Frederick, 
and soon after by George of Saxon}/ and Henry of Brunswick. On 
May 15, 1525, the rebels were annihilated at Frankenhausen, after a 
stubborn resistance. Munzer was captured and beheaded. In Southern 
Germany, also, the princes everywhere almost simultaneously obtained 
the mastery over the insurrection. A hundred thousand people perished 
in this war, and the most flourishing districts were laid utterly waste. 

ERASMUS. (1523-26.) 

Cf. Chlebus, I. c. ^3,2. — Jul. Muller, Luther, de. predest. et lib. 
arbitr. doctr. Gottg. 1832. 4to. 

Henry YIII., of England, originally destined for the priest- 
hood, always retained a partiality for theological studies, and 
was ambitious to be thought a learned theologian. This led 
him to enter the arena of controversy in defence of the Romish 
doctrine of the seven sacraments, against Luther's " Babylonian 
Captivity of the Church." In his book he treated the swain's 
son with the greatest contempt. Luther paid him back in his 
own coin, and dealt with his crowned antagonist as though he 
were an Emser or an Eck (1523). Henry, indeed, obtained what 
he sought ; the pope conferred upon him the honorary title of 
defensor fidei. But Luther's plain dealing extinguished all desire 
to prosecute the controversy. He complained to the elector, 
who consolingly referred him to a general council. But this 
affair bore heavily upon the relation between Erasmus and 
Luther, who had thus far continued upon tolerably pleasant 
terms with each other. Erasmus, who was under obligations to 
Henry for many favors, became bitterly enraged against Luther 
for his unsparing severity. Hitherto he had declined all solici- 
tations to write against Luther, so that many papists charged 
him with collusion with the heretic, and others said he was afraid 
of Luther's pen. All this incited him, at length, to come out 
against the reformer. He diligently studied Luther's writings, 
after obtaining papal permission to do so, and seized upon a 
doctrine, in discussing which he would not be required to defend 
Romish errors, but which he was least qualified to comprehend. 

1. Luther's personal experience, associated with his study of Paul's 
Epistles and the writings of St. Augustine, had served to convince him 
that man was incapable of doing good, and therefore not free, and that 

Luther's feuds with henry viii., etc. 47 

ho could obtain salvation only through the free grace of God, without 
any personal merit. This persuasion, in his case, as in Augustine's, had 
led him to om]»rai-o the doctrine of absolute ])redestination. Melanch- 
thon, also, had avowed the same view in the first edition of his Loci 
communes. It was upon this doctrine Erasmus seized in his Atarpt|3^ 
de libero ar1)itrio, denouncing it as dangerous and unscriptural, and 
sotting forth in opposition to it his own semi-pelagianism (1524). 
After the lapse of a year, Luther replied in the work : De servo arbitrio 
(in Ciorman l)y Justus Jonas: " Daz der froie Wille nichts sei"), exhi- 
biting the power and confidence of personal conviction. Erasmus 
rejoined in his Ilyperaspistes diatribes adv. Lutheri servum arbitrium 
(152<)), in which he gave full vent to his passion, ])ut witliout adding 
aught to the argument, wherefore Luther paid no further attention to 
his attack. 

2. Among the most violent opponents and abusive villifiers of Luther 
and his cause, was the satirist, Thomas Murner, a Franciscan monk 
of Strassburg, subsequently of Luzerne (died about 153G). First of 
all, he issued a perverted translation of Luther's Babylonian Captivity 
(1520). To this he added slanderous productions: "Ain new Lied von 
dem Undergang des christl. Glaubens ;" "Von dem Babstenthume 
wyder Dr. M. L. ;" "An den Adal tUtscher Nation, das sye den christl. 
Glauben beschirmen wyder den Zerstorer des Glaubens Christi. M. 
Luther, einen Yerfiehrer der einfeltigen Christen," and many others 
of the sort. He also translated the book of Henry VIIL, concerning 
the seven sacraments, and defended Henry in a tract entitled: "Ob 
der Konig uss Engellant ein Lugner sei oder der Luther." His prin- 
cipal satire against Luther is "Von dem grossen Lutherischen Narren, 
wie ihn Dr. Murner beschworen hat L522." It is the most important 
satirical production ever written against the Reformation. The 
author, it is true, does not take up the real nature of the Reformation; 
indeed he could not appreciate it ; but its revolutionary, fanatical, and 
rhetorical element which then, already, followed at its heels, is chas- 
tised with uncouth but vigorous severity, and with the keenest wit 
(New ed. by II. Kurtz, Zurich, 1848). — Luther allowed the rude 
satirical reviler to pass unrebuked ; but the liumanist poured down 
upon him a very flood of scornful satires and lacerating lampoons. 

3. The " Onus ecclesia," of Bishop BeriJiold of Chiem-see, published 
anonymously, at Landshut, 1524, bore remarkable Catholic testimony 
in favor of the Reformation. Appealing to the Apocalypse, he unspar- 
ingly depicts the corruptions of the Church, and argues for the neces- 
sity of a thorough reformation, if the Church shall be saved from utter 
ruin. He does not wish the reformation to be effected in the manner 
of Luther, whom he reproaches us the leader of a sect, a perverter of 
the Scriptures, and a seditious person, although he approves of Luther's 
views concerning indulgences ; but he desires the work to proceed 


from withia the Church, and by its own proper organs. His book is 
the more remarkable, since the same author published a " Teutsche 
Theologey,'' four years later (Munich, 1528. Republished by W. 
Reithmeier, Munich, 1852), in which he attempts to ignore and conceal 
the corruptions of the Catholic Church (| 19, 6), although it still con- 
tains traces of his previous views, especially concerning indulgences. 
(Cf. Dr. Schioarz, of Jena, in Galzer's protest. Monatsblatt. I. 210, etc.) 

IN THE EMPIRE. (1522-2G). 

At the diet of Worms, Charles Y., to secure his election, had 
been compelled to assent to the establishment of an imperial 
regency of the estates, at Nuremberg, which exercised supreme 
authority during his absence in Spain. Although the Archduke 
Ferdinand, the emperor's brother, and vicegerent, presided over 
this board of regents, a decided majority of its members soon 
became favorable to the new religious movement, and furthered 
it. Protected by the highest authority of the empire, and even 
in league with it, the Reformation found, for a time, no obstacles 
to its spread, and really made rapid progress. The Nuremberg 
regency, indeed, soon succumbed to the united efforts of its 
political opponents, among whom were many friends of the evan- 
gelical cause ; but these only the more energetically sustained, 
by their personal zeal, the interests of the Reformation, which 
had lost an important support in the downfall of the regency. 
And their exertions were so effectual, that measures were vigor- 
ously urged for disposing finally of the whole matter, favorably 
to the Reformation, bj_ a general natjonal assembly of the 
German States, independent of the pope and council. But, 
in opposition to this, the papal legate, Campegius, induced the 
Catholic estates to form ajeagii^_at_3^gens_be^rg^{.152'4), for the^ 
maintenance of the edict of Worms ; against this movement, 
the evangelical party did not form their defensive league of Tor- ^ 
g au until 1526. The general national assembly was prevented 
by the strict prohibition of the emperor, and thus the hoped-for 
union was not effected. But the decision of the diet of Spires 
(1526) gave all the estates the right of managing the religious 
affairs of their respective districts, according to their own 

1. The Diet of Nuremberg (1522-23). — The regency of the empire 
opened its first diet towards the close of 1522. Pope Hadrian Yl. was 


reprcRcntod in it liy liis legato, Chierajati. Leo X. had died in Doeomher. 
1521. Hadrian (l.V22-'2.'>), the son of a Utrecht nicclianic, after having 
been a professor at Louvain, tutor of Charles, Bishop of Tortosa, and 
grand in(juisitor of Aragt)n, sueeeeded Leo X. He was a pious and 
learned iJominiean, firm in his principles, zealous for the Thoniist 
orthodoxy, anti-hierarchical in his opinions, and deeply lamented the 
secularization and corruptions of the Churrh. He ascended the papal 
chair with the determined purpose of restoring the purity of the Bride 
of Christ, yet of simultaneously suppressing the Lutheran heresy. 
At Xuremlterg, his legate handed in a papal brief, which admitted and 
deplored the fallen condition of the Church, and promised a thorough 
reformation, but likewise earnestly insisted upon the execution of the 
papal ban, and the edict of "Worms. A committee of the regency, 
selected for the purpose, submitted to the diet an opinion upon the 
overtures of the pope, in which they urged the immediate convocation 
of a general council, in some German city, at which the temporal 
estates should likewise be represented, and liberty guaranteed to utter 
evangelical sentiments ; but they declared the execution of the edict 
of "Worms to be impracticable, mainly on account of the admitted cor- 
ruptions of the Church. Until the opening of the council, all contro- 
versy should be shunned, and the AVord of God preached according to 
its true Christian, evangelical sense. The estates, who, on their part, 
- had submitted a new pape r, containing 1 00 complaints against D ie 
Iloman co urt, adopted the report of the committee, with some slight 
modifications, as the decree of the empire. 

2. Spread of Evaiif/elical Doctrines (1522-24). — Th e mon astic orders 
furnished the most e nergetic heralds of the Reformation. Their moral 
condition had become so corrupt, that purer spirits among them could 
no longer endure the foul odors of dissolution. All such, glad to catch 
a breath of the new life, sprang forth, everywhere, as the zealous 
evangelists of the purified doctrine. Foremost among them were the 
Augustine monks, almost to a man. This order likewise enjoys the 
Tionor of having furnished the first martyr to the evangelical cause 
(^ 8, 1). The Order regarded Luther's honor and reproach as its own. 
The Franciscans came next, by no means so generally, but with all 
the greater power and energy on the part of those who tore loose from 
their traditions. A spirit of opposition to secularization and moral 
corruptions had constantly, from the earliest times, exhibited itself. 
In numerous cases, this opposition had degenerated into fanaticism 
(Vol. I. ^ 98, 4). Now it assumed a true form. The two distinguished 
preachers, Elerlin of GUnzbunj and Henry of Kcttenhach ; the Ham- 
burg reformer, Stephen Kempen ; the finery Lambert, the reformer of 
Hessen ; Luther's friend, Myconius, and many others, had been Fran- 
ciscans. But all the other orders yielded their contingents to the mar- 
tial hosts of the Gospel, not excepting the Dominicans, to whom the 
Strassburg reformer, Martin Bucer, belonged. Ambrose Blaurer, the 
IL— 5 D 


Wiirtemberg reformer, was a Benedictine ; TJrhanus Rliegius, once a 
pupil of Eck, was a Carmelite ; Bugenhagen, in Pomerania, was a 
Praemonstrant ; Otto Brunsfels, a Carthusian, etc. The secular clergy 
also, in many instances, took part. At least one of the German 
bishops, Polenz of Samland, at once openly joined the movement, 
preached the Gospel even from the pulpits of Konigsberg, and ap- 
pointed men of like views to the parishes of his diocese. Other bishops, 
as those of Augsburg, Basel, Bamberg, and Merseburg, participated in 
the movement, or at least laid no hindrances in its way. The inferior 
secular clergy, however, furnished multitudes of advocates. In the 
pulpits of all the larger, and even in many of the smaller towns of 
Germany, Luther's sentiments were preached with the approbation of 
the magistrates ; and where this was prohibited, the doctrines were 
proclaimed in the market-place and in the field. When clergymen 
^were wanting to do this, mechanics and knights, even women and vir- , 
gins, became missionaries. A distinguished lady, Agnes (Argula) of 
Staufen, married to Grumbach, having been urged to recant by a young 
magister, challenged the whole University of Ingolstadt to discuss the 
doctrines with her, upon the basis of the Scriptures. — AVittenberg was, 
and remained, the heart and centre of the entire movement — the 
gathering-place of all who were persecuted and banished for con- 
science' sake — the nursery and fountain of new advocates of the cause. 

3. The Diet of Nuremberg (1524). — On Jan. 14, 1524, a joew die t 
was opened at Nuremberg. Its first business was the continuance of 
the regency of the empire. As that had become decidedly favorable to 
the Reformation, the question of its existence seemed to involve that 
of the continued existence of the Reformation. Among its chief sup- 
porters were the arch-Catholic Ferdinand, who hoped, through it, to 
obtain the Roman crown ; the Elector of Mayence, the author of the 
traffic in indulgences (who favored the regency because he hated its 
foes) ; the Elector of Saxony, who was really its originator, and the 
house of the Brandenburg princes. But the opposite party was 
stronger. It included the Swabian league, the princes of Treves, the 
Palatinate, and Ilessen, who had triumphed over Sickingen, and the 
states of the empire, who, though agreeing with the reformatory views 
of the regency, were inimical to it on account of its fiscal measures 
and projects. The opposition acquired a new confederate in the papal 
legate Campeggio. Hadrian VI. died in 1523, and was succeeded by 
( Clement VI L (1523-34), an illegitimate son of Julian de Medici. 
Clement was, in all respects, the reverse of his predecessor. A skilful 
politician, yet regardless of religious interests, he was exceedingly 
zealous to raise to its highest pitch the temporal power of his chair. 
Campeggio was the man for his purpose. — The opposition triu mph^ ^ 
,» the regency fell, and even Ferdinand, after long resistance, consented 
to its dissolution. A new regency was organize d, which was but a 
shadow of the old one, for it had neither power, influence, nor inde- 


pendence. Thus the Reformation lost a seco nd important prop, and 
the legate, confident of success, insisted upon the execution of the 
edict of Worms. Then the evangelical party combined all their 
powers, especially t he cities^ a nd on^;^ more secure d a niajonty. The \ 
states had, indeed, to acknowledge the legal autliority of the edict; 
they also promised to maintain it, with the clause "as faras possible .'^ 
■^ But, at the same time, they i nsisted upon the cal ling ofli council, in 
the sense of the diet of the preceding year, and resolved to I7old a 
n ational assemhli/ at Spires, in Novemb er of the current year, which 
shoulil be exclusively devoted to the careful consideration and disposal 
of religious and e cclesiastical affa irs. Meanwhile, as the preceding 
diet had enjoined, the Gospel and the Word of God should be preached 
in all simplicity. 

4. Tlie Convention of liegcnshurg (1524). — Whilst the theologians 
and diplomatists of the evangelically-inclined states of the empire 
were zealously engaged in preparing for the diet of Spires, a meeting 
of the adherents of the old order of things was held at Regenshurg 
(June and July, 1524). In direct violation of the unity of the empire, i 
partizan resolutions, with reference to religious and ecclesiastical ques- 

^ tions, were there adopted, which, according to the decision of the Nu- 
remberg diet, were to be discussed and acted upon by all the states 
at Spires. This was the work of the legate Campeggio. In the main- 
tenance of the edict of Worms, he was joined, in Kegensburg, by the 
Archduke Ferdinand, the Bavarian dukes, the Archbishop of Salzburg, 
and most of the bishops of Southern Germany. Luther's books were 
once more prohibited, and all subjects were strictly forbidden to visit 
the University of Wittenberg. Some external abuses were corrected, 
ecclesiastical imposts were alleviated, the number of festivals dimin- 
ished ; the four Latin Church fathers, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, 
and Gregory, were declared standard authorities in matters of faith and 
doctrine, and public worship was to be conducted in the ancient form. 
The unity of the empire, thus rent asunder, could never again be 
restored. — Simultaneously, the emperor was wrought upon by appeals 
from Rome. The imperial and papal policy were still identical in 
interest ; both the diets of Nuremberg, with their national tendencies, 
were offensive to the emperor ; so that, as early as the end of July, an 
imperial proclamation was issued, calling the states to an account for 
their course, and prohibiting the contemplated national assembly, as a 
crimen laesae majestatis, on pain of the ban and double ban. The 
states obeyed, the assembly was abandoned, and with it all hopes of 
a peaceable and organic development of Germany, as a united political 
power, vanished. 

5. The Evangelical States (1524). — The' evangelical states still 
persisted in maintaining their position as constituents of unity of the 
empire. Several princes, also, who had hitherto been indifferent or 


neutral, now became more decided in favor of the evangelical cause. 
This was the case, first of all, with the young landgrave Philip of 
Hessen, who was led, by a conversation with Melanchthon, to devote 
the whole strength of his youthful energy to the service of the Refor- 
mation. The Margrave Casimir of Brandenhurg, Duke Ernest of 
Luneburg, the Elector of the Palatinate, and Frederick I. of Denmark 
(as Duke of Schleswig and Holstein), in their several countries, also 
promoted the cause with more or less energy and decision. The ejected 
Duke JJlric of Wiirtemherg was also gained over, and his subjects, 
groaning under the Austrian oppressions, were already desiring his 
return. Albert of Prussia, the grand-master of the Teutonic Order, 
returned from the diet of Nuremberg, where he had frequented Osian- 
der's preaching, with doubts as to the consistency of his office with 
the Word of God ; and, during a visit to AVittenberg, did not take it 
amiss when Luther advised him to dissolve the Order, to marry, and to 
raise Prussia to a hereditary duchy. — But the cities took the most de- 
cided measures. At two large municipal diets, in Spires and Ulm 
(1524), it was resolved that the clergy should be sustained in preach- 
ing the pure Gospel, and that they should mutually aid each other in 
self-defence against any attempt to execute the edict of "Worms. 

6. The Torgau Alliance (1524). — The friends and foes of the Refor- 
mation had unitedly opposed the insurrection of the peasants, and 
with equal zeal (§4,5). Their religious diversities had, thereupon, 
displayed themselves all the more decidedly. In July, 1525, Duke 
George had a conference at Dessau with several Catholic princes, and, 
soon afterwards, he ordered two citizens of Leipsic, with whom Lu- 
theran books had been found, to be executed. The Elector of Saxony, 
also, made Casimir of Brandenberg promise, at Saalfeld, that he would 
adhere to the Word of God under all circumstances, and in the castle 
of Grimmenstein (subsequently called Friedenstein), Hessen and the 
electorate of Saxony pledged themselves to stand by each other as one 
man, in matters affecting the Gospel. A diet convened at Augsburg 
in Dec. 1525 could conclude nothing definitely for want of a quorum. 
A n ew diet wa s called at Spir es, and all the princes required to be 
personally present. It seemed that it would bring matters to a point. 
Both parties zealously prepared for it. Duke George and several Ca- 
tholic princes niet at Leipsic. They agreed to send one of their number 
[Henjvj of Brunsiiiick) to the emperor in Spain. He arrived most op- 
portunely. Not long before, the emperor had concluded the peace of 
Madrid (Jan. 1526) with the King of France, whom he had captured 
in the battle of Pavia (1525). Francis I. had agreed to everything, 
because he did not intend to fulfil any of the conditions proposed ; 
among the rest, also, promised to make common cause against the 
heretics. Charles believed that his hands were now free, and was re- 
solved, before doing anything else, to exterminate the German heresy. 
Henry of Brunswick brought back a document from Charles in which 


ho strenuou sly avow ed his purpose. But before its arrival the land- 
^ grave and elector h ud met at 7o njau JJ '''(ih. 1520) and entered into an 
alliance to sustain each other in defence of the Gospel in Saxony. 
Philip undertook to induce the estates of Tpper Germany to join the 
league; but he effected little, most of them having feared the emperor. 
The elector succeeded better in his mission to the states of Lower 
Germany. On the Dth of .June the princes of electoral Saxony, Lune- 
burg, Grubenhagen, Anhalt, and Mansfeld, met in Majdehunj, and all 
signed the Torgau league. The city of Magdehiircj, also, which had 
in 1524 cast off the jurisdiction of its archliishop, Albert of Mayence, 
and made the Lutheran Confession predominant, was admitted into 
tlie alliance. 

7. The Diet of Spires (1520).— The diet convened on June 20, 1526. 
The evangelical princes were of good cheer. On their escutcheons was 
inscribed: A'erbum Dei manet in a^tcrnum. In spite of the opposition 
of the prelates, three committees (one of the electors, one of the princes, 
and one of the states) were appointed to deliberate upon the best 
means of correcting abuses. Of their three reports, that of the princes 
insisted upon a rule which should be equally binding on both parties, 
and thus, with all the existing diversity of evangelical views (Scriptura 
scripturae interpres) possessed a conciliatory character (the Communio 
sub una, ex. gr. was left free, and the seven sacraments were retained). 
This report was received for further consideration. But just as the 
debates, the issue of which could be foreseen, were about to begin, the 
imperial commissaries submitted an imperial order, commanding that 
no resolution should by any means ]je passed, which proposed a change 
of any of the old customs in doctrine or worship, and that provision 
should be made for ultimate execution of the edict of Worms. At first 
this produced general consternation among the evangelical members 
of the diet, and many wished at once to leave, as nothing could bo 
effected. On calmer reflection, however, it was noted how far back 
the order dated, for it was known at Spires that since its date the poli- 
tical circumstances of the emperor had greatly changed. For some 
time there had been serious misunderstandings between Charles and 
tlie_gope. Francis L had been released of his oath by the pope, and 
informed the emperor that he would observe none of the conditions of 
the peace of Madrid. F rancis L, the pope, and all the Italian princes, 
h ad formed a league at'Cofina c, to which Henry VIII. of England also 
gave his assent. All "Western Europe was leagued together to break 
the preponderance of power which the Spanish-Burgundy house had 
gained at Pavia, and the duped emperor found himself in a most diflfi- 
cult position. Could he still hold the views expressed in his instruc- 
tions? It was pro])able that at Ferdinand's request the commissaries 
had kept back the paper, until the cause of Catholicism seemed lost in 
the diet, and the prelates urged them to present it. Thus at least their 
strange conduct was interpreted by the evangelical party. Their first 


panic over, the states resolved to send an embassy to the emperor. 
But before they had started Charles anticipated their desires. In a 
letter to his brother he communicated a plan prepared by his privy- 
council, for the abrogation of the penalties of the edict of Worms and 
the adjustment of religious differences by a council. (But he advised 
his brother to delay the formal abrogation of the edict, lest the Catholic 
princes should be too much provoked). At the same time he asked for 
aid against his foes in Italy. — But as neither the repeal nor execution 
of the edict seemed advisable, nothing remained but to allow each 
state to do as seemed best in the respective territories. The diet 
therefore decreed that "each state should act, in matters relating to 
the edict of Worms, so as to be able to render a good account to God 
and the emperor.'^ This was the birthday and legitimization of the 
territorial constitutions. 

CHURCHES. (1526-29.) 

It was now not only the privilege, but the duty, of the states 
to arrange ecclesiastical affairs, within their territories, according 
to their best judgment. The next succeeding three years, there- 
fore, form the period of the founding and organization of the 
evangelical state churches. Electoral Saxony set a good ex- 
ample. In imitation of her ecclesiastical constitution, the 
churches of Hessen, Franconia, Luneburg, East Friesland, 
Schleswig and Holstein, Silesia, Prussia, and a number of cities 
of lower Germany, were organized. 

1. Organization of the Church in the Electorate of Saxony (1528-29). 
(Cf. JEm. L. Eichter, Die ev. Kirchenordungen d. 16. Jahrh. Weim. 
1846. Bd. I.) — Luther advised the elector to order a thorough Church- 
visitation of his entire countrj^ in order thus to gain accurate informa- 
tion of its ecclesiastical condition. To this end, Melanchthon drafted 
a paper of '* Instructions of the Visitors to the Clergy in the Electorate 
of Saxony," which Luther published early in 1528. In these the min- 
isters were directed what and how to preach and teach. The instruc- 
tions were moderate, but positive in tone. Controversy with the papacy 
was not encouraged. Reforms in worship were to. be made with ex- 
treme forbearance. To guard against an abuse of the doctrine of justi- 
fication by faith alone, the necessity of preaching the law, and the 
freedom of . the human will, in matters of worldly righteousness 
(justitia civilis), was recognized. This modification of strict Lutheran 
doctrines exposed Melanchthon to the assavilt of some zealous adhe, 
rents of Luther (especially Amsdorf ?indi John Agricola). But Luther 
reconciled these difficulties. — Thereupon instructions for the visitors 
themselves were prepared, in accordance with which they performed 


their circuit in 1528-29. The entire territory was divided anions; four 
commissions, consisting of secular and clerical menihcrs. To Luther 
the electorate was assigned ; to Melanchthon, another district. Igno- 
rant or otherwise unfit clergymen were removed, but provided for. A 
large number of abuses were corrected ; preachers and teachers of 
schools were carefully instructed how to discharge their duties most 
efficiently, and their future supervision was entrusted to superintend- 
ents, to whom, also, nuitrimonial questions were referred. Those who 
adhered to the old order, and would not accept of improvements, were 
"commended to God," but not disturbed ; vacated benefices were pro- 
tected against avarice, and applied to the improvement of churches and 
schools ; those not yet vacated, were obliged to contribute their portion 
to the same objects. Various measures were also adopted for the erec- 
tion of hospitals, the relief of the poor, and the founding of schools. 
The Constitution of the Church of Saxony, which resulted from this 
visitation, became the model for the organiziation of the other evan- 
gelical State Churches. The gloomy experience which Luther thus 
acquired of the incredible ignorance of the people and their teachers, 
led him to prepare his tico catechisms (1529). 

2. Organization of the Church in Hessen (152G-28). (Cf. B. Den- 
hard, Gesch. d. EntAV. d. Christenth. in d. hess. Landern bis zur Thei- 
lung. Frkf. 1847. — Martin, Xachr. v. d. Syn. zu Ilomberg. Cass. 1804. — 
W. Bach, Gesch. d. kurhess. Kirchenverf. Marb. 1832. — A". A. Credner, 
Philipp's hess. K. 0. Giess. 1852. — /. W. Baum, Franz Lambert v. 
Avignon. Strassb. 1840.) — As early as Oct. 1526, the Landgrave Philip, 
of Ilessen, had convened the temporal and spiritual states of his ter- 
ritory at Romberg, for consultation in regard to ecclesiastical reforms. 
A reactionary attempt of the Catholic party quailed before the fiery 
eloquence of the Franciscan, Francis Lamhai, of Avignon. He was a 
most remarkable man, and had been awakened by reading Luther's 
works, in his convent at Avignon. Not fully convinced, he started for 
Wittenberg, stopped on the way at Zurich, and engaged in a public 
disputation (1522) against Zwingli's reforms. Converted by his oppo- 
nent, he left Zurich, passed through Luther's school at Wittenberg, 
and then, at Melanchthon's recommendation, went to Ilessen. Lam- 
bert's spirit ruled the Synod. An organization of the Church was 
drafted, according to Lambert's ideal of a communion of saints, on a 
democratic basis, and with a strict church discipline, to be adminis- 
tered by the congregations themselves. But the inadequacy of this 
Homherg scheme was soon demonstrated, and, in 1528, the Hessian 
Church adopted the principles of the Saxon Church visitation. The 
confiscated benefices were appropriated to the foundation of the Uni- 
versity of Marburg (1527), as the second nursery of reformed theology, 
Lambert became one of its first professors. 

3. Organization of other German State Churches (1828-29). (Cf. 
Jiftcsa, de primis sacrorum rcformataribus in Prussia. Regiom. 1825-27. 


— W. Lohe, Erinner. aus d. Refgesch. v. Franken. Nurnb. 1847. — L. 
Wdllis, Abr. d. Refgesch. Llineb. Liineb. 1832). — Margrave George^ of 
Franconian-Brandenburg, after the death of his brother Casimir, organ- 
ized the Church of his territory, at the diet of Anspach (1528), upon 
the model of that in Saxony. Under the direction of its excellent 
recorder, Lazarus Spengler, Nuremherg united with George in intro-. 
ducing the organization adopted. The same was done in Lunehurg, at 
the diet of Scharnebeck (1527). Vlric of Dornum took the matter 
into his own hands in East Friesland, the ruler of the country not 
venturing to introduce a reformation of the Church there. In Schles- 
wig and Holstein, the prelates made no opposition, and the civil go- 
vernment favored the change. In Silesia, both the princes of Liegnitz, 
Podiebrad's grandsons, and Margrave George of Brandenburg, who 
had estates there, cheerfully granted the request of the people for an 
evangelical constitution. In Breslau, the Reformation had long been 
predominant ; and even the archduke, who, as King of Bohemia, pos- 
sessed feudal supremacy over Silesia, found himself obliged to allow 
his states there the same rights which the diet of Spires had granted 
to the imperial states. In Prussia, the grand-master Albert of Bran- 
denburg (the brother of the Margraves Casimir and George) had, with 
the approval of the Polish crown, become hereditary duke (1525), and 
gave to his duchy, with the cordial cooperation of both his bishops, a 
thoroughly evangelical constitution. 

4. The Reformation in the Cities of Lower Germany (1524-31). — 
In the cities of Lower Germany there prevailed, even before the rise 
of the Reformation, a powerful effort to effect emancipation of epis- 
copal and aristocratic rule. Hence their inhabitants, for the most 
part, embraced the Reformation with open arms. A characteristic 
feature of the work, there, is the surprisingly potent influence of Lu- 
theran psalms and hymns. The Reformation was introduced into 
Magdeburg as early as 1524, and the Church there was organized by 
Nich. of Amsdorf whom Luther sent thither. From 1525, Martin 
Scultetus preached and labored there with great success. In 1526, the 
city joined the Torgau alliance. In Brunswick, at the close of a Ca- 
tholic controversial sermon (1520), the congregation began to sing: 
"Ach Gott vom Ilimmel sieh darein." In 1528, Bugenhagen went 
over from AVittenberg and organized the Church. In Gosslar, Eim- 
heck, Gottingen, Rostock, Hamburg, etc., the enthusiasm of the people 
for Lutheran hymns and doctrines carried the council with them, 
whether they would or no. In Bremen, as early as 1525, all the 
churches but the cathedral were in the hands of Lutheran preachers ; 
in 1527, the monasteries were converted into schools and hospitals, and 
the cathedral, with its grounds, taken from the Catholics. Still more 
violent excitement attended the introduction of the Reformation into 
^Litbeck (1529-31). Until then, the nobility, council, and clergy, had 
suppressed all reformatory movements, and expelled the evangelical 


preachers. But financial cniharrassnients conijicllod the council (1520) 
to ask the t'iti/.cns for e.xtraortliiuiry levies. 'JMiey ajtitointed a cum- 
niitteo of sixty-four citizens, ^vh<» constrained the council to yield one 
condition after another. The expelled preachers were to lie recalled, 
the Catholic priests to he removed, the monasteries to he converted into 
hospitals and schools, and, finally, Bmjenhagen was called in to frame 
a Lutheran constitution for the Church. 



Cf. L. VoJkert u. G. W. IL Brock, d. h. Martyrer d. evang. K. Erlg 
1845. — M. GuhcJ, Gesch. d. chr. Lehens in d. rhein. westpli. K. Cobl. 
1840. Bd. l.—Ruddbach, chr. Biogr. Bd. I. 11. 4. 

The lands of the Reformation were early enriched by the blood 
of martyrs. Persecutions were begun, soon after the issue of 
the edict of Worms, by some Catholic princes, Duke George of 
^Saxony taking the lead. lie imprisoned, scourged, and banished 
Luther's adherents; and, in 1521, had a bookseller, who sold 
Luther's works, beheaded (cf. § 6, 6). Persecution raged most, 
however, in the low countries, the hereditary territories of the 
emperor, not connected with the German Empire (where, really, 
the first martyr's blood was shed, 1523), but also in the Austrian 
domains, in Bavaria, and in the territory of the Swabian league, 
especially after the conclusion of the Regensburg confederacy 
(1524). The peasants' war (1525), added fuel to the persecu- 
tions. Under pretence of punishing the insurgents, the execu- 
tioners of the Regensburg confederates went throngh the land, 
and, along with the guilty, put to death many who were innocent 
of every crime but adherence to the Gospel. The decision of the 
diet of Spires fanned the flames (1526). The more cheerfully 
the evangelical states, on the strength of that decision, pro- 
ceeded to organize evangelical Churches in their territories, so 
much the more zealously did the foes of the innovations inflict 
upon their evangelical subjects the most cruel persecutions. 
The forgeries of Pack, consequently, revived, and increased the 
spirit of persecution. In 1527-28, a church-visitation was insti- 

. tuted in Austria, similar to that in Saxony, but for the purpose 
"of detecting and punishing heretics. In Bavaria, the public 

.— foads were guarded, to i)revent preachers from going abroad 
into other countries ; those caught were first fined, then drowned 
or burned in large numbers. 


1. The first martyrs were two young Augustine monks, at Antwerp, 
Henry Voes and John Escli, whose heroic sufi'erings (1523) Luther cele- 
brated in a beautiful hymn (" Ein neues Lied wir heben an''). Their 
example was followed by Lampert Thorn, the prior of the monastery, 
who was sufibcated in prison. The same year, George Buchfuhrer was 
burnt in Hungary, and, during the next year, a large number of scaf- 
folds and stakes were erected, for Protestants, in Austria, Bavaria, 
and Swabia. The most notable of these was Caspar Tauber, who was 
beheaded and burnt in Vienna. Instead of the recantation he was 
expected to announce, he bore powerful testimony, from the pulpit, in 
favor of evangelical truth. Among later martyrs, Leonard Kdser 
(Kaiser) holds a distinguished place. Impelled by filial love to visit 
his dying father in Passau, he perished there at the stake, with joyful 
courage, Aug. 16, 1527. A few months previously, George Carpenta- 
rius, an ecclesiastic, had obtained the honor in Munich. — The Swabian 
League, after the recess of Spires, revived its cruel executions against 
all who held evangelical views, under an order for the extermination 
of Anabaptists. In 1527, the Bishop of Constance had John H'uglin 
(Heuglin) burnt alive, as an opposer of the Holy Mother Church. 
The Elector of Mayence summoned the cathedral preacher of Halle, 
(jreorge Winkler, to Anschaffenburg, for having administered the Com- 
munion under both forms. Winkler vindicated himself, and was 
acquitted, but was murdered on his way home. This led Luther to 
Avrite his " Trostungen an die Christen zu Halle uber den Tod ihres 
Predigers." — In Cologne, on Sept. 28, 1529, Adolf Clarenhach and 
Peter Flysteden, were honored with martyrdom, and the joy and 
steadfastness of their faith shone forth amid the flames. — In Northern 
Germany no blood was shed, but Duke George drove those who 
confessed the evangelical faith out of the land with scourges. The 
Elector Joachim of Brandenburg and his states resolved, 1527, zealously 
to maintain old doctrines and customs. Nevertheless, the Gospel took 
continually deeper root in his territory ; and his own wife, Elizabeth, 
secretly read and admired Luther's writings, and, in her private 
chamber, even received the Lord's Supper according to the Lutheran 
mode. But she was betrayed, and the elector raged and threatened to 
imprison the ofiender. Disguised as a peasant, she fled to her relative, 
the Elector of Saxony. 


Cf. W. F. Walch, warh. Gesch. d. Frau Kath. v. Bora. Halle, 1751. 
— W. Beste, Kath. v. B. Halle, 1843. — i^. G. Hoffmann, Luther als 
Gatte u. Vater. Lpz. 1845. — Apologetisches liber Luther's Tischreden 
in d. Ztschr, fur Protestantism u. K. Bd. II. H. 4. 5. 

Luther and the prior, the last of its inhabitants, did not leave 
the monastery until December, 1524. In July, 1525, he married 

Luther's private and public life. 59 

Catharine v. Bora, of the monastery of Nimptscli. Although 
Lather was often prostrated by sickness, almost overwlieliiied 
with business, and kept constantly sensible of the uncertainty of 
his life by the threats of enemies against it, he still preserved a 
cheerful disposition, and spent many happy hours in the circle 
of his friends, joining them in simple repasts, in singing, music, 
religious conversation, and harmless, though often pungent and 
lively jokes (cf. his Tahlc-Talk, subsequently collected by Auri- 
faber). At the same time he cheered and aided, by his counsel 
and efforts, all who were in straits. By his unremitted literary 
labors, by personal intercourse with students and strangers who 
flocked to Wittenberg, and by extensive correspondence, he ac- 
quired and retained an extraordinary influence upon the spread 
and flrmer establishment of the Reformation. By his transla- 
tions and exj^ositions of the Scriptures, by his sermons and 
didactic writings, his evangelical views spread among all classes 
of people. German hymns proved a mighty lever of the Re- 
formation ; by them a pure knowledge and cheerful confession 
of the truth were planted deeply in the heart of the nation. Byi 
translating or reconstructing older hymns, and by composing new 
ones of unsurpassed excellence, which he furnished at the same 
time with remarkal)]y vigorous and beautiful tunes, Luther laid 
the l)asis of the incomparably rich and glorious hymnological 
treasury of the German evangelical Church. He labored, also, 
with special diligence for the improvement of instruction in the 
churches and schools ; urged the establishment of new schools, 
both for the higher and ordinary branches of education, and 
insisted upon the importance of philological studies for the 
Church of pure Gospel. 

1. The first collection of spiritual hymns and psalms appeared in 
1524, with a preface by Luther. In the reformation of the cultus, 
Luther proceeded cautiously and with furl^earuuce. In 1523, he issued 
his ^^ Dentsches Taufbiichlein," and his " Weise, christliche Messe zu 
halten und zum Tische Gottes zu gehcn," in which all allusions to a 
sacrifice were avoided, and the conimunio sub utraque was maintained. 
In 1524, he sent forth his tract: " Vom Greuel der Stillmesso," in 
which he directly assailed the canon of the mass, the central point of 
the Komish system. Finally, in 1526, he published his "Deutsche 
Messe und Ordnung des Gottesdienstes," which was introduced into 
most of the churches of electoral Saxony. The system of education 
was especially improved by his impressive tract: "An die Burgermcister 
und Rathsherren aller Stadte Deutschlands, dass sie christliche Schulen 


aufrichten und halten sollen." Besides his controversy with Erasmus 
and Carlstadt, against Mlinzer and the insurgent peasants, as well as 
against the sacramentarians of the upper countries (cf. ^ 131), he had, 
during this period, his dispute with Cochlccus, whose abusive assault 
Luther parried with his tract: "Wider den gewappneten Mann 
Cochlaus, ein Bescheid vom Glauben und AVerken" (1523). A papal 
bull, canonizing Bishop Benno of Meissen (died, 1106), called forth 
Luther's tract: ""Wider den neuen Abgott und alten Teufel, so zu 
Meissen soil erhoben werden" (1524). In reply to a soldier who had 
doubts concerning the lawfulness of his profession, he wrote the small 
volume: "Ob Kriegsleute auch in seligem Stande sein kiinnen" 
(1526) ; and, for sport, had some copies struck off, without the author's 
name, or that of the place of publication, and sent to Duke George. 
At the persistent request of Christian II., of Denmark, he wrote a very 
humble letter to Henry VIII., which called forth, from England, an 
extremely malignant and opprobrious answer. He quieted the tri- 
umphant outcry of his foes, that he had recanted, by his tract: 
"Wider des Konig's von England Lasterschrift" (1527), in which he 
again displayed the confident tone and fearlessness of his polemics. 
He fared no better in an equally humble attempt to reconcile Duke 
George, to which he was persuaded (152G). He continued to work, 
untiringly, at the translation of the Scriptures. The first edition of 
the entire Bible was published in 1534, by Hans Liftt, Wittenberg. 



Whilst Luther's Reformation in Germany spread more widely 
every day, and became purer, stronger, and more fully organized, 
a similar movement was started in the adjacent country of (Ger- 
man) Switzerland. Indeed, its first symptoms were of earlier 
date (1516) ; but it did not make decided or comprehensive pro- 
gress until two years after Luther came forward. The differ- 
ently constituted peculiarities of its first and chief leader, and 
the politico-democratic current in which it moved, imparted to 
it a tendency differing from the Lutheran reform, in various 
respects. Most strongly did the opposition between them ap- 
pear in the doctrine of the Lord's Supper (§ 11). As the Swiss 
view of this doctrine found favor in the cities of Upper Ger- 
many, the division spread into the Reformed Church of Germany, 
and, in spite of common interests and perils, hindered their com- 
mon progress and co-operation (§ 13, 14). 

1. TJlric Zwingli. (Cf. Zwingli's Leben von Osu\ Myconius. Bas. 
1536 ; /. /. Hess, Ziirich, 1818 ; Rotermund, Bremen, 1818 ; ScJmler, 


Zurieli, 1818; /. /. Hotfim/cr, Zihich, 1843 [tran.sl. hy T. C. Porter, 
Harrisl.urj;, 1857 j ; ^V. Rdclcr, St. (iall, 1854. [Especially: A\ C/iris- 
toJJ'd, Ell.erfold, 1857.]— Zwin^Mi's Works: Gualier, Ti^. 1581, 4 voll.; 
Schuler u. Schtilihrs.'i, Zurich, 1829, etc., 8 vols., royal 8vo. ; Uateri u. 
Vogelin, Zurich, 1810, 2 Bde.). — Zwingli, born in "NVildhauH, in the 
Togf^cnbur^, on Jan. 1, 1484, a pupil of the learned humanist, Thomas 
Wyttenhach, in Basel, arose as a reformer, in German Switzerland, 
almost simultaneously with Luther. Unlike Luther, he was not led 
to greater purity and freedom of relijjjious knowledge by any inward 
experience, but by classical culture, and a scientific study cf the Sacre<l 
Scriptures. After serving the parish of Glarus as pastor for ten years, 
he received charge of that at Einsiedeln, in 1510. The miraculous 
virtues attributed to an image of Mary, there, attracted crowds of 
pilgrims. This led Zwingli to preach against superstitious reliance on 
good works. But'he took a much more decided stand after Jan. 1, 1510, 
as a public preacher in Zurich, where he first learned of Luther's move- 
ments, and defended his course against Rome. But, from the l^egin- 
ning, Zwingli's reformatory measures diverged from those of Luther. 
He aimed at being not only a religious but political reformer. For 
several years he had strenuously endeavored to abolish the practice of 
hiring Swiss j-outh as mercenary soldiers to foreign powers. He main- 
tained the struggle with this evil during his whole life. His political 
opponents, the oligarchy, who were anxious to retain this source of 
revenue, were consequently also his religious enemies, as, reversely, 
^the democracy supported him. A still more fundamental difference 
was, that Zwingli had been trained for his reformatory work, not by 
convictions of sin, or spiritual struggles, but Ijy classical studies. 
Justification by faith, therefore, was by no means so central and vital 
a matter, in his life and labors, as in Luther's case. He began his 
work, as a reformer, not so much with the purification of doctrine as 
the life-Vjlood of all churchliness, but with external improvements in 
worship, order, and manners. Of the two anti-Romish reformatory 
principles [material, in opposition to Romish work-righteousness: 
ju.stification by faith; — formal, in opposition to an unqualified adhe- 
rence to all the traditions of the Romish Church : the sole authority 
of the Holy Scriptures), the Wittenlierrj Reformation gave most promi- 
nence to the material, the Zurich Reformation to the formal, principle. 
The former rejected only such things as were irreconcilable with the 
Scriptures, the latter every thing not expressly taught by them. The 
former proceeded cautiously and forbearingly in changing forms of 
■worship and external customs; the latter was destructive, impetuous, 
and violent. Luther retained images, altars, the ornaments of churches, 
and the sacerdotal character of public worship, simply pruning off its 
unevang^lical excrescenses and deformities ; Zwingli rejected all, un- 
conditionally, as idolatry, and even aViolished organs and bells. Despite 
the one-sided prominence given by Zwingli to his formal principle, he 
IT. — 6 

62 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (c E N T. 16 A. D.). 

often did violence to the Scriptures ; for he approached them externally, 
and explained them according to his subjective judgment, and called 
Luther's real submission to them servitude to their letter ! Luther 
acknowledged no operation of the Spirit, excepting through the Word 
and the Sacraments ; Zwingli severed the influence of the Spirit from 
these instruments, and held that he could operate immediately upon 
the heart. He regarded the sacraments as only commemorative signs ; 
in the doctrine of the person of Christ, he verged towards Nestorian- 
ism, by denying that the human nature of Christ participated in the 
divine predicates. For him, justification by the merits of Christ alone 
was less of positive than of negative (in opposition to Romish work- 
righteousness) importance, for, in original sin, he saw only a moral 
disease, which, of itself, did not constitute sin ; and his views of the 
essence of virtue were so superficial, that he ranked even heathen, 
like Socrates and Cato, without further qualificafions, in the com- 
munion of saints. Along with this, his speculations led him to adopt 
^fatalistic predestination, which deprives the will of moral freedom, 
as over against divine providence. — Luther was right in subsequently 
saying to Zwingli: " Ihr habt einen andern Geist, denn wir.^' — (Cf. 
E. Zeller, das theol. System Zwingli's. Tlibg. 1853. — Chr. Sigwart, 
Ulr. Zw. Der Char. sr. Theol. mit bes. Rlicks. auf Pic. v. Mirandola. 
Stuttg. 1855. [See, also, EbrarcVs Lehre v. heil. Abendm., for a com- 
plete refutation of the above, and Zwingli no Radical, in the Mercers- 
burg Review, 1849, p. 263, etc. — ^r.] 

2. The Reformation in Zurich (1519-25). (Cf. Sal. Hess, Urspr. 
Gang, etc., der durch Zw. in Z. bewirkt. Ref. Zurich, 1820.) — In Sv/it- 
zerland, also, a seller of indulgences, Bernard Sampson, prosecuted 
his scandalous business. At Zwingli's instigation, the gates of Zurich 
were closed against him. Soon afterwards (1520) the council granted 
the priests and preachers of the city and territory the privilege of 
preaching according to the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament 
alone. AH this took place under the eyes of two papal nuncios, then 
in Zurich — and yet it went unpunished, for the Roman court was then 
too intent upon procuring troops for a papal army, designed for the 
conquest of Milan. Nevertheless, a large annuity was ofi'ered to 
Zwingli, if he would cease to preach against the Pope. He rejected 
the offer, and went forward on his reformatory course. Under the con- 
tinued forbearance of Rome, the new views took deeper root. During 
Lent, 1522, the people of Zurich unscrupulously ate meat and eggs. 
Then first did the bishop (of Constance) adopt corrective measures ; 
the opponents of reform in the city and council also roused themselves. 
At this time, Francis Lambert, of Avignon (^ 7, 2), came to Zurich.* 
He preached against the innovations, had a public debate with Zwingli 
in July, and declared himself vanquished and convinced. Zwingli's 
opponents had reckoned confidently upon Lambert's eloquence and 
dialectic skill. The unexpected result of the disputation produced 


the greater effeat. The council changed the permission to preach tlie 
pure Gospel into a command to dp so. Against this the adherents of 
Rome protested. A public disputdlion was thcroforo appointed in 
Feb., 1523. John Fabcr, a former friend of /wingli, but who had 
totally changed his views, after a visit to Rome, and had been niudo 
vicar-general of the Bishop of Constance, undertook the defence of 
old (h>ctrines and customs against /wiugli. Ihiving lot himself be 
drawn into the Scriptural argument, he was defeated. The clergy now 
began to marry, and the monasteries were forsaken. Violent assaults 
were made upon the mass, and the worship of images and saints. The 
council resolved to have the question concerning images decided by 
another disputation, in Oct., 1523. Leo Jiida, pastor of St. Peter's, in 
Zurich, discussed the worship of images ; Zwingli, the mass; and they 
met with scarcely any opposition. At AVhitsuntide, 1524, the council 
ordered all images to l)e removed from the churches, the frescoes to be 
cut out, and the walls to be painted white. The playing of organs and 
ringing of bells were likewise to be abolished, because they were con- 
nected with superstitions. A new, purely Scriptural formula of bap- 
tism was introduced, and, finally, the mass abolished (1525). At 
Easter, 1525, Zwingli administered a love-feast, at which the bread was 
carried about in wooden trays, and the wine was drunk from wooden 
cups. Thus he thought he had restored the Lord's Supper to its apos- 
tolic Christian simplicity ! 

3. The Reformation in Basel (1520-25). (Cf. (Ecolampad's Leben, 
by Gn/nneus, Bas. 1536. — Sal. Hess, Zurich, 1793. — /. /. Ilerzog, Bas, 
1843, 2 Bde.— [A'. B. Hagenbach, Elberfeld, lS59.]—BurckharJ, die 
Ref. in Basel. Bas. 1818.) — Wolfgang Fahricitis CapHo (Kopflin) and 
Caspar Hedio early began to preach the Gospel in Basel. But, before 
they could lay a firm foundation, they obeyed a call to Mayence (1520), 
and soon afterwards went to Strassburg. Their work was carried on 
with zeal and success by William Roublin, He pre.iched against the 
mass, purgatory, and the worship of images, often to four tliousand 
hearers. At Corpus Christi, instead of relics, which he ridiculed as 
dead men's bones, he carried a Bible before him. lie was banished, 
and subsequently joined the Anabaptists. A new epoch for Basel 
opened with 1523. John Haiisschein or QHcolampadius, of Weinsberg, 
in Franconia (Zwingli's Melanchthon), preached in Basel, as early as 
151G. Then he accepted a call to the cathedral in Augsburg, but, in 
the course of a year, withdrew to a monastery of St. Bridget, in Augs- 
burg. There he studie<l Luther's writings, and, being persecuted for 
this, he took refuge in the castle of Sickingen, where he officiated for 
a season as chaplain. After Sickingen's overthrow, he fled to Basel 
(1523), became preacher at St, Martin's, and professor in the univer- 
sity. A circle of young men, awakened by him, soon gathered around 
him, and energetically sustained him in his reformatory labors. They 
baptized in German, administered the eucharist in both forms, and 


were untiring in their preaching. In 1524, the council gave all monks 
and nuns liberty to quit the monastery. William Farel, of Dauphin^, 
a refugee from France, whom Qjlcolampadius kindly received, remained 
several months in Basel (1524), and rendered important service in 
furthering the Reformation. In February, he had a public disputation 
with the opponents of the cause. The university and bishop had for- 
bidden it, but the council was only the more intent upon it. Its result 
gave a mighty impulse to the Reformation. 

-^ 4. The Reformation in other Cantons (1520-25). (Cf. Stierlein, die 
Ref. in Bern. Bern. 1827.— 5. Fischer, d. Ref. in Bern. 1827.—/. Kuhn, 
die Reformatoren Berns. Bern. 1828. — M. Kirchhofer, B. Haller's Le- 
ben. Zurich. 1828. — C. Gruneisen, Nicl. Manuel, Leb. u. Wirk. eines 
Malers, Dichters, Kriegers, Staatsm. u. Ref. Stuttg. 1837.) — From 
1518, Berchtold Ualler, of Rothweil, in Swabia, with Francis Kolh 
and Sebast. Meyer, labored in Bern as political and religious reformers, 
in harmony with Zwingli. As an auxiliary to their preaching, Nicholas 
Manuel, poet and painter, wrote and issued satirical plays for the car-- 
nival ("Der Todtenfresser,'' 1522; "Die Krankheit der Messe," 
1526, etc.). In 1523, the council authorized the monks and nuns to 
leave the monastery; some left and married. The opposite party 
called upon John Heim, a Dominican, to defend their cause in the city 
(1524). A violent controversy arose between him and the Franciscan, 
Sebastian Meyer, and the council expelled both from the city. Thus 
Ualler alone remained. But he was vigilant, and the cause pro- 
gressed. — In Mahlhausen, where Ulric v. Hutten had found refuge in 
his last days, the council issued an ordinance (1524) which gave free 
course to the Reformation ; in Biel, also, it was admitted without 
restriction. In Eastern Switzerland, St. Gall distinguished itself for 
zeal in the cause, under the lead of its burgomaster, Vadian. John 
Kessler [l 4, 1) preached the Gospel in the corporation hall of Sattler- 
schurz, and Balth. Hubmeier from the pulpit. Ilubmeier afterwards 
fell over to the Anabaptists. In Schaffhausen, the Catholics put for- 
ward Erasmus Bitter in a disputation with the Reformed preacher, 
Sebast. Hofmeister. Ritter acknowledged his defeat, and thenceforth 
co(3peratcd with Hofmeister. In Valais, Thomas Plater, the original 
and learned rope-maker (afterwards rector of the high-school of Burg), 
was active in preparing the way for the Reformation. In Appenzel 
and Glarns also, as well as in the confederate cantons, the cause every- 
where progressed. — In the interior, on the contrary, the nobility, 
clinging to their pensions, resisted ; the mountain people also, whose 
idea of religion consisted of pilgrimages, images, and saints, persist- 
ently opposed all innovations. Luzerne, at the head of the original 
cantons, and Freiburg in the West, were the chief bulwarks of popery 
in Switzerland. 

5. Anabaptist Disorders. — Although the Reformers in Switzerland 


carried their operations to greater extremes, a multitude of fanatical 
ultraists sprang up, who thought that far too little was done. Among 
them, also, Anabnptism was tiie symhol of those fanatical, spiritual- 
istic, coniniunistic movements which first overran Zwickau. Their 
chief leaders in Switzerland were Lewis Jletzer^ Conrad Grebel, Felix 
Maiiz, linltli. Ifubmcicr, and Sft'jf/ioi Slolir. They began their dis- 
orders in Zoltikou, near Zurich, llubmeier, on Kaster-eve (1525), 
held a council of Anabaptists at Waldshut. The district of Basel, 
whore Thomas Munzor had boon iiprooting the soil, now arose in open 
clamors against the city. In St. Gall, alone, there were 800 Anabap- 
tists. At Zwingli'a urgent advice, Zurich adopted thorough measures 
against them. Many were banished, some wore drowned without 
mercy. Bern, Basel, at St. Gall, followed this example. 

G. T/ie Di.tpufation at Baden (152G). — At the public assemblies, the 
anti-rcftirm party of the oligarchs, whose spirit of opposition was sus- 
tained by their fear of losing their annuities, was still predominant. 
John Faber, of Constance, was the soul of the party. Zurich was 
repeatedly required to abstain from the innovations. At the assembly 
of 1525, it declared itself ready to comply, as soon as they were refuted 
by the Scriptures. The oligarchs could not evade the demands for a 
disputation ; but, in spite of all protests, they appointed it in the 
strictly Catholic Baden. The contestants and representatives of the 
cantons, and bishops, met there in May, 1526. Faber again stood at 
the head of the papists, but wisely committed the defence to Eck of 
Ingolstadt, who had offered his services. Opposed to him. were Haller, 
of Berne, and CErolampadius, of Basel. The Reformed party was 
treated most shamefully, whilst every honor and advantage was shown 
the Catholics. Eck, it was said, bathed in Baden, but in wine. 
Zwinr/Ii was not there ; the council of Zurich had forbid his going ; 
but Thomas Plater sent him a daily account of the proceedings. Eck's 
theses were discussed one by one ; this took eight days. Eck's bois- 
tcrousnoss drowned Qilcolampadius' weak voice ; but the calm self- 
possession of the latter had an imposing effect. At the close, Thomas 
Murner {§ 5, 2), the monk of Luzerne, arose and read forty abusive 
articles against Zwingli. (Ecolampadius, and ten of liis friends, per- 
severed to the end in rejecting Eck's theses ; all the rest subscribed 
them. The assembly pronounced the Reformers heretics, and called 
upon the respective cantons to banish them. 

7. The Disputation at Berne (1528). (Cf. S. Fischer, Gesch. d. Disp. 
zu Berne. Berne, 1828.) — Berne and Basel wcvo highly offended at 
the indignity done to their deputies at Baden. The democratic ele- 
ment, which was on the side of the Reformers, was increasing in 
strength. Benie grew weary of the distraction. A solnnn disputation 
was therefore instituted, to which deputies were invited from all parts, 
■who should decide the matter. It took place on January 7-27, 1528. 
6* E 


Zwingli was present. On the Catholic side there were no competent 
debaters, and they were completely defeated. Every trace of Ca- 
tholicism, in worship and discipline, was then exterminated. The 
various institutions and monasteries were secularized ; preachers 
made their oath of office to the civil rulers. Some violent measures 
attended the abolition of images. The valuable organ, in the church 
of St. Vincent, was stamped to pieces under the rough heels of the 
iconoclasts. The political reformation progressed simultaneously with 
that of religion, and all annual stipends were recalled. 

8. Complete Triumph of the Reformation in Basel, St. Gall, and 
Schaffhausen (1529). — The burgomaster, Vadian, brought back tidings 
of the triumphant issue of the Berne disputation to St. Gall. This 
was the death-blow to the Catholic party. As early as 1528, though 
not without some iconoclastic excesses, the Reformation gained sole 
sway. — In Basel the council was divided, hence its measures were par- 
tial and wavering. On Good Friday, some citizens (without the know- 
ledge of (Ecolampadius) destroyed the images in St. Martin's Church. 
They were imprisoned for it. But an insurrection of the citizens com- 
pelled the council to release them, and to grant the Reformed the un- 
conditional use of several churches, from which, of course, all images 
were removed. In December, 1528, the guilds presented a petition, 
couched in the most moderate terms, for the entire abolition of ''idol- 
atry." The Catholic party took up arms ; the Reformed followed their 
examyjle ; a civil war threatened. The council succeeded in quelling 
the disturbance by appointing another public disputation, after which 
the whole matter was to be decided by a vote of the citizens. But the 
Catholic minority protested so energetically against this, that the 
council again had recourse to half-way measures. The dissatisfaction 
of the Reformed exploded in a fearful destruction of images, on Shrove 
Tuesday, 1529. Great piles of broken images and altars were burnt. 
The strictly Catholic members of the council fled, and the rest had to 
yield to the will of the burghers. Erasmus, also (Vol. I., § 120, 3), 
escaped. — In Schaffhaiisen, likewise, dissensions prevailed until 1529. 
But the course of things in Berne and Basel hastened the victory of 
the ncAv measures. Here the drama ended very cheerily with a double 
marriage. The Abbot of All-Saints married a nun, and Erasmus 
Ritter married a sister of the abbot. The images were removed with- 
out a tumult, and the mass abolished. 

9. The First Peace of Cappel (1529). — The Catholic party had re- 
tained the ascendency in the five primitive cantons. They were as 
unwilling to lose the annuities, and the right of engaging in foreign 
military service, as to give up the mass and saints, and sanguinarily 
punished every attempt to smuggle the new doctrine into their terri- 
tories. But they wished to have their measures carried out in all the 
allied bailiwicks. Zurich and Berne resolved no longer to endure this. 


As, moreover, riitorwulden lunl, under these eircumstancos, Itcoii 
guilty of publicly violating the peace of the confederacy, and was 
sustained by the other four canton?, the ])urgher cities threatened 
serious ven<j:eance against this infraction. Tiic forest cities turned to 
Austria, the old hereditary foe of Swiss liberty, and, in the beginning 
of 1520, concluded a formal treaty with King Fer<linand, at Insbrlick, 
pledging reciprocal aid in matters of faith. Emlxddened by this 
treaty, they increased their persecutions of the Reformed, nailed the 
csi'utcheons of the burgher cities to the gallows, and burnt alive a ^ 
Zurich preacher, Jacob Keyscr, whom they took on the highway, in 
neutral territory. Then the Zurichers broke out. AVith their decided 
preponderance, they might easily have put down the five cantons, and i 
thus have opened all Switzerland to the Reformation ; and Zwingli 
urged this course. But Berne was jealous of Zurich's growing power, 
and even many Zurichers, fearing war, were inclined to negotiate for 
peace with tiieir confederated brethren. This led to tiie First Peace 
\ of Caj)pel, Nov. 16, 1529. The five cantons gave up the deed of con- 
federation with Austria, which the mediators immediately tore in 
pieces ; they agreed to pay the costs of the war, and conceded that, in 
the bailiwicks, each congregation should decide by vote upon matters 
of faith. In regard to preaching the Gospel, it was agreed that neither 
party would disturb the faith of the other. The matter of foreign pen- 
sions was adroitly evaded. Thus, much was gained, but less than 
Zwingli desired. On the basis of this peace, Thurgovia, Baden, Schaff- 
hausen, Solothurn, Neuenburg, Toggenburg, etc., did away with the 
mass, images, and altars. 

10. The Second Peace of Cappel (1531). — Even after the peace, the 
five cantons continued stubborn in excluding and persecuting the Re- 
, formed, and formed a new alliance with Austria. At the diet, by the 
old laws of confederacy, they still had the preponderance ; a fact which 
stood in glaring contrast wTth the actually much greater preponderance 
of the burgher cities. Zurich, therefore, insistc<l upon a reorganization 
of the confederacy. On the other hand, the forest cantons treated the 
Reformed with greater cruelty. Then Zurich decided, forthwith, to 
seize arms ; but Berne carried a decree to punish the forest cantons by 
cutting off all intercourse with them. This measure, however, totally 
failed. It e.Kcited, in those cantons, the greatest indignation and anger, 
not against their stubborn rulers, as the Bernese hoped, but against 
their unmerciful oppressors, so that the people only clung the more 
clo?cTy to their governments. At the diet of Luzcnic, the five cantons 
resolved (Sept., 1531) to save themselves from perishing with hunger, 
,_by immediately renewing the war. By carefully guarding the borders, 
thev kept their resolution and preparations so secret, that no tidings 
thereof reached the burgher cities. These, conscious of their greater 
strength, were therefore wholly unprepared, when smMenly, Oct. 9, 
an army of 8000 men, breathing vengeance, invaded the territory of 


Zurich. Zurich hastily collected a force of 2000 men, which met the 
foe at Cappel, Oct. 11, and was wellnigh annihilated. Zwingli xoas 
among the slain. His body was quartered, burned, and his ashes scat- 
tered to the winds. Zurich and Berne soon brought to the field an 
army of 20,000 men ; but the courage and audacity of the enemy had 
increased, whilst the defeat of Cappel had robbed the Reformed of con- 
fidence and hope. They attacked the enemy, intrenched at Baar, near 
the Zug mountain, but were repulsed with great loss. The season was 
against them, and, what was worse, they were disheartened. Hence, 
when the forest cantons reassumed the ofi'ensive, the other party sub- 
mitted to the scandalous Second Peace of Cappel (1531), which, whilst 
it guaranteed them liberty to maintain the Reformation in their own 
territories, gave to the five cantons the right of restoring Catholicism 
in the bailiwicks. The Reformed had to defray the costs of the war, 
and to surrender their deed of confederacy with Strassburg, Con- 
stance, and Hessen. A restoration of Catholicism was now begun. 
The Catholic minority, till then kept down, was active on all sides, 
and carried its measures more or less triumphantly through in many 
places. Thus in Aargau, Thurgovia, Rheinthal, Sollure, Glarus, Rap- 
perschwyl, St. Gall, etc. 


Cf. {Selnecker u. Chemintez), Hist. d. Sacramentstreites. Lpz. 1591. 
— V. E. Loscher, ausf. hist, motuum Zw. Luth. u. Ref. 2. A. Frkf. u. 
Lpz. 1722, etc. — M. Gobel, Luther's Abendmahlslehre vor u. in der 
Streite mit Karlstadt; in d. Studd. u. Kritt. 1843, III. — lb., Karl- 
stadt's Abendmahlslehre, id. 1842, II. — /. H. A. Ehrard, d. Dogma, v. 
h. Abdm. u. s. Gesch. Frkf. 1846. Bd. II. ; adv. : K. F. A. Kalinis, d. 
Lehre v. Abdm. Lpz. 1851. — A. W. Diecklioff, d. evang. Abendmahlsl. 
im Reform. Zeitalter. Gcittg. 1854, Bd. l.— C. F. Jagcr (H> 3). 

Luther, in his work on the Babylonian captivity of the Church 
(1520), had given rather undue prominence to the subjective 
aspect of the sacraments, in opposition to the prevailing view, 
which attributed tiieir efficacy to the mere objective reception 
of them, independently of subjective faith (opus operatum). 
Thus, in the first period of his reformatory labors, he was in 
danger, as he subsequently admitted in his message to the Strass- 
burgers, of erring by a depreciation or denial of the divinely- 
objective contents of the sacraments. But, whilst he decidedly 
opposed transubstantiation as a scholastic invention, and was 
naturally inclined to regard the bread and wine as mere symbols, 
the words of Holy Writ impressed him so powerfully, that he 
could not deny the real presence of the body and blood of Christ. 


The vagaries of fanatics and sacramentarians soon led him to 
that unconditional submission to the letter of the Scrijjtures, to 
that firm and joyful confidence in its import, which thenceforth 
became the siij)j)ort and ^niidu of his life. Teaching that the 
true b(jdy and blood of Christ were received in, witu, and 
UNDER, the bread and wine — to the benefit of believers, and 
the judgment of unbelievers — he maintained the true Biblical 
medium between the unbiblical extremes of papists and sacra- 

1. Carlstadt had already, in Orlamund [I 4, o), advanced his doc- 
trine of the Supper, totally denying the presence of the body and 
blood of Christ in the sacrament. lie explained away the force of the 
words of institution by an absurd explanation of tovto. lie argued 
that Christ thereby pointed to his body then present, and designed to 
say: ^^ This is my body, which I will offer in death for you, and, in 
remembrance of the fact, eat this bread." When Carlstadt, driven 
from Saxony, went to Strassburg, he interested the ministers of that 
city, Martin Bucer and Wolft/ang Capita, in favor of his views. Their 
efforts to effect a reconciliation were, of course, unavailing with Luther. 
Zicingli, also, sympathized with Carlstadt. Agreeing with him, essen- 
tially, though on different grounds, Zwingli explained the words of 
institution, " TJiis is" by " this siijnijies," and reduced the entire sig- 
nificance of the sacrament to a symbolical commemoration of the suf- 
ferings and death of Christ. In a letter to Mattheio Alber, in Reut- 
lingen (1524), wlio held Luther's view, he expressed this opinion, and 
defended Carlstadt against Luther. lie developed the same opinion 
more fully in his " Commentarius de vera et falsa religione," 1525, in 
Avhich he designates Luther's view as an opinio non solum rustica sed 
etiam impia et frivola. (Ecolampadius also took part in the contro- 
versy, and vindicated his friend Zwingli against Bwjcnharjeii' s attack, 
in his " De genuina verborum Domini: Hoc est corpus meuni, expo- 
tione," 1525. In this work, (Ecolampadius attempts to show that 
ow/xa, in the words of institution, signify as much as ''sign of the 
botJi/.'* lie submitted the work to the Swabian reformers, Joh/i Brenz 
and Erhard Srhnept\ who, in conjunction witii twelve other Swabian 
preachers, replied to it in accordance with Luther's view. The con- 
troversy spread, disputants multiplied, each eagerly replying to his 
opponent. Luther issue<l two more powerful works upon the subject: 
one in 1527, "Das die Worte : das ist mein Leib, noeh fest stchen;" 
the other in 152G, *' Bckenntniss vom Abendmahle." The struggle 
progressed, in spite of the conciliatory efforts of the Strassburg divines. 
..Zwingll's view became tiie shibboleth of the Swiss Reformation, and 
was approved in many cities of Upper Germany. Strassburg. Lindau, 
Memmingen, aii<l Constance adopted it ; it even found favor in Ulm, 
Aujrsbur";, Rcutlingen, etc. 


ICAL STATES. (1529-30.) 

After the diet of Spires, public action upon religious matters 
was suspended for three years. But, incited by the growing 
strength and the progress of the Reformation during this time, 
embittered by intervening mistakes, and encouraged by the im- 
provement of the emperor's political position, the Catholic party 
obtained the preponderance again at the next diet of Spires 
(1529), and secured the passage of a decision designed to put 
a full end to the evangelical cause. The evangelical party 
entered a formal protest (thenceforth they were called Protest- 
ants), and made every effort to give it effect. The attempted 
union with the Swiss and cities of Upper Germany failed ; but, 
in the Augsburg Confession, they raised, at Augsburg (1530^-, 
a banner in the presence of the emperor and empire, around 
which they thenceforth confidently rallied. 

).. The Affair of Pack (1527-28). — In 1527, gloomy reports were 
spread of some imminent peril to the evangelical, cause. The land- 
grave suspected a conspiracy of the Catholic princes in Germany. He, 
therefore, pressed Otto v. Pack, the chancellor of Duke George, to 
reveal what he knew of the matter. Pack, at length, confessed that a 
league was already formed against the Lutherans. The landgrave 
oJBered him 10,000 guilders for the original document. Pack brought 
a copy with the ducal seal affixed. According to this paper, the Ca- 
tholic princes of Germany had bound themselves to fall upon electoral 
Saxony and Hessen with their united forces, to exterminate the Reform- 
ation, and divide the country among them, etc. The landgrave was 
fired with indignation, and even Elector John allowed himself to be 
drawn into a league, by virtue of which both were to make energetic 
demonstrations against the impending assault. But Luther and Me- 
lanchthon reminded the elector of the words of the Lord: "He that 
taketh the sword shall perish by the sword ;" and persuaded him to 
await the attack, and confine himself to a simple vindication of his 
views. The landgrave, greatly provoked by the loss of his ally, sent 
a copy of Pack's document to Duke George, who pronounced it a 
shameful falsehood and forgery. Meanwhile, Philip had entered the 
territory of his ecclesiastical neighbor. At Wittenberg, bitter tears 
were shed at this violent infraction of the peace of the country. The 
landgrave, also, on calmer reflection after his return, was ashamed of 
his course. Pack was examined ; he contradicted himself, and was 
soon found to be a bad character, who had been guilty of other frauds. 
The landgrave banished him. For a long time he wandered about, 


and, finally at tlio iiisti;;:iti()ri of Diiko (loor^^f, "was hclioadcMl in the 
NetliLTlaiuls. This affair fi^rcatly damaged the evangelical cause. 
Mutual confidence was irretrievahly lost; the Catholic princes now 
seemed to be the injured party, and they were highly exasperated. 

2. The Emperor's Position (l')27-'20). — Tlic treachery of the King 
of France, and the consummation of the league of Cognac, had placed 
the emperor in a most trying position. Old Frcundshenj gathered an 
army in Germany ; and the German soldiery, burning with a dewire 
to vex the pope, marched over the Alps without hire or i>ay. On May 
G, 1527, they stormed Home ; the pope yielded himself a captive. But • 
once more Germany's hope in her emperor failed. Keganl for the 
sentiments prevailing in his Spanish hereditary domains, and his own 
antipathy against the Saxon heresy, together with other political com- 
binations, did not suffer him to forget that he had been rescued by 
Lutherans. In June, 1528, he concluded a peace with the pope at 
Barcelona, and pledged his entire strength for the extermination of the 
heresy. The Peace of Camhray (July, 1529) finally terminated the 
war with France. In the articles of peace, both sovereigns promised 
to support the dignity of the papal chair, and Francis I. renewed the 
pledge to furnish aid against heretics and the Turks. Charles then 
hastened to Italy, to be crowned by the pope, intending, after that, to 
go to Germany in person, and adjust existing difficulties there. 

3. The Diet of Spires (1529). (Cf. /. /. Miiller, Hist. v. d. ev. Stande 
Protestation. Jena, 1705, 4to. — /. .4. //. Titfmann, d. Protest, d. ev. 
Stande, Lpz. 1829.) — In the latter part of 1528, an imperial message 
.was sent from Spain, appointing a diet at Spires, on Feb. 21, 1529, for 
the purpose of devising measures in regard to the war with the Turks, 
and to religious innovations. The existing state of affairs differed 
widely from that in 152G (^ 6, 7). The Catholic princes were irritated 
by the frauds of Pack ; the wavering states were controlled ])y fear 
of the emperor ; the prelates were present in full numbers ; and the 
Catholic party had, for t he first time since the diet of Worms , a de- • 
cided majority . The proposition of the imperial commissaries, to 
annul the decision of the diet of 152G, was approved by a committee, 
adopted by a majority, and engrossed, by Ferdinand's orders, as a 
decision of the diet. Thus all who had hitherto observed the edict of 
Worms were still to maintain it, and others were forbidden to intro- .^ 

-duce further innovations, at least until a council should be held ; the 
mass was to be tolerated, and the jurisdiction and revenues of the 
bishops were to be every where restored. It was the death-sentence 
of the Reformation ; for the last point, especially, gave bishops full 
power arbitrarily to punish or depose offensive ministers. As no 
remonstrances availed with the stubborn Ferdinand, the evangelical 

, party ente red asolenin^ro^s^again^t the decision, and demanded its 
incorporation with the decision. But Ferdinand declined accepting it. 


The Protestants at once prepared and published a document legally 
drawn up, and containing all the acts, in which they stated their 
grievances, and appealedj o the emperor, a free council, and a German 
national convention. The document was signed by the Landgrave of 
Hessen, Margrave George of Brandenburg, the two Dukes of Luneherg, 
and Prince Wolfgang of AnJialt. Fourteen cities of Upper Germany 
subscribed it. 

4. The Marburg Colloquy (1529). (Cf. RudelbacJi, Ref. Lutherth. u. 
Union, p. 345, etc. — H. Heppe, d. 15 Marb. Artikel. With a fac-simile 
of the autographs. 2 Aufl. Kass. 1854.) — Be fore le aving Spires, elec- 
toral Saxony and Hessen united with Strassburg, TJlm, and Nuremberg, 
in a defensive allianc e. The theologians present strongly opposed the 
admission of Strassburg to this league, on account of its Zwinglian 
views. At the same time the landgrave formed a compact with Zurich, 
and Zurich applied to Francis I. of France. Thus a coalition was 
forming which might have become more dangerous to the house of 
Austria than any preceding one. But one point was ignored which 
soon frustrated all these plans, the diversity between the Lutheran and 
Zwinglian confessions. Melanchthon returned to Wittenberg with 
severe chidings of conscience. Luther was opposed to any confederacy 
— most of all, to fraternization with sacramentarians — and the elector 
half agreed with him. The Nuremberg theologians had the same 
scruples. The league was to be ratified at Roiach, in June. The 
parties met, but effected nothing. The landgrave was distracted, but 
the elector remained firm. Philip then invited the leading theologians 
of both sides to hold a colloquy at his castle in Marburg. It lasted 
from Oct. 1-3, 1529. On the one side were Luther, Melanchthon, Justus 
Jonas, from Wittenberg, John Brenz, from Swabian Hall, and Andrew 
Osiander, from Nuremberg ; on the other side were Zioingli, from 
Zurich, (Ecolampadius, from Basel, and Bucer and Hedio, from Strass- 
burg. After private interviews between Zwingli and Melanchthon, 
and Luther and (Ecolampadius, according to the well-considered 
arrangement of the landgrave, the public colloquy commenced on the 
second day. In the first place, several points were discussed touching 
the divinity of Christ, original sin, baptism, the Word of God, etc., 
regarding which the Wittenbergers suspected the orthodoxy of Zwingli. 
These Avere all secondary matters with Zwingli, in reference to which 
he dropped his unchurchly views, and declared his agreement with the 
views of the oecumenical councils. But, in regard to the article of 
the Lord's Supper, he was the more persistent. Appealing to John, 
6 : 33, " The flesh profteth nothing," he showed the supposed absurdity 
of Luther's view. Luther had written, with chalk, on the table : 
" This is my body," and insisted that these were words of God, which 
should not be perverted. Agreement was out of the question, Zwingli, 
nevertheless, declared himself ready to maintain fraternal fellowship, 
but Luther and his party rejected the offer. Luther said: " Ihr habt 


einen andern Geist donn wir." Still Luthor found that his opponents 
did not hold as offensive views as he supposed ; and th(i Swiss, also, 
that Luther's doctrine was not so gross and Capernaitic as they thought. 
They united, therefore, in a mutual promise to drop disputes, and to 
earnestly pray God to lead them all to a right understanding of the 
truth. They adopted and subscribed fifteen articles. In the first four- 
teen they declared unanimous consent to the oecumenical faith of the 
Church against the errors of Papists and Anabaptists. In the fifteenth, 
the Swiss conceded that the body and blood of Christ were present in 
the sacrajticnf, l)ut they could not agree to his corporeal iirescnce in the 
bread and icine. 

5. The Convention of Schicahach (1529). — Whilst the theologians 
■were conferring at Mar})urg, the Elector John and Margrave George 
were in consultation at Schleiz. They agreed that unanimity in faith 
was the indispensable Qondition of fraternity. In October following, 
a convention was held at Schicahach, in accordance with the agreement 
at Rotach. On the basis of the Marburg articles, Luther had drawn 
up a confession (the seventeen articles of Schicahach), v^'\nc\\ the dele- 
gates from Upper Germany were required to subscribe before pro- 
ceeding further. They declined doing this, and the convention was 
adjourned. Meanwhile, the imperial orders with regard to the recess 
of the diet, which arrived from Spain, contained very ungracious ex- 
pressions against the Protestants. The evangelical States sent an 
embassy to the emperor, then in Italy ; but he, also, refused to receive 
their protest, and wellnigh treated the commissioners as prisoners. 
But they escaped, and brought back bad news. Hitherto the only 
question had been about a defensive and offensive league against the 
apprehended assaults of the Swabian league, or other Catholic princes. 
Luther's hope that the emperor would still examine the matter was 
now destroyed. The question could not be shunned, what to do if the 
assault upon their faith came from the emperor himself. The jurists, 
indeed, thought that the German princes were not in a relation of un- 
conditional subjection to the emperor, but that they themselves were 
rulers by the grace of God, and, as such, bound to protect their sub- 
jects. But Luther did not hesitate, for a moment, to compare the 
relation of his elector to the emperor with that of the burgomaster of 
Targau to the elector, for he clung to the idea of the empire as firmly 
as to that of the Church. lie entreated the princes not to resist the 
emperor, and for God's sake to suffer every thing for themselves and 
their countries. Only, if the emperor should require them to perse- 
cute, banish, or put to death their own subjects for conscience' sake, 
they were not bound to obey. Under such circumstances, the Conven- 
tion of Smalcald, agreed upon at Schwabach, took place. 

G. The Diet of Augsburg (1530). (Cf. die Jubclschr. v. P/o//; Xu- 
remb. 1830 ; 'Teesenmeycr, Nuremb. 1830 ; Facius, Lpz. 1830, and 
IL — 7 


Forstemann, Urkundenb. z. Gesch. d. Reichst. zu Augsb. Lpz. 1830-35, 
2 Bde.) — From Bologna, where the Pope crowned him, the emperor 
issued a call for a diet at Augsburg, which, after being absent from 
Germany nine years, he promised to attend in person. The removal 
of religious errors was to be the chief business. He wished, first of 
all, to try, by peaceable means, to win back the Protestants to the old 
faith. Hence his proclamation was conciliatory in its tone. But be- 
fore his arrival in Augsburg, new disorders arose. The Elector John 
had brought Melanclithon, Jonas, and Spalatin, with him to Augsburg, 
and had them to preach there. The emperor heard of this with great 
displeasure, and dispatched a message requiring him to have this 
stopped. The admonition was not heeded. On June 15, he, accom- 
panied by the papal legate, Campegius, entered the city in great 
pomp ; the Protestants (according to 2 K. 5 : 18, 19) participated, 
without opposition, in all the religious and civil ceremonies of recep- 
tion. The emperor then the more confidentlyMemanded the preaching 
to be stopped. But the Protestants were firm. Margrave George 
broke the fury of the emperor's rage by his equally decided and 
humble declaration : before he would renl^uuce the Word of God, he 
would kneel down on the spot, and let his head be cut ofi". With like 
firmness did they refuse to participate in the procession of Corpus 
Christi, because it was announced to be " in honor of Almighty God." 
In regard to preaching, they finally consented to impose silence on 
their clergy during the emperor's stay, since the opposite party was 
also required to abstain from controversial discourses. The diet was 
opened on June 20. The matter of the Turkish war, which the em- 
peror first introduced, was postponed until the religious questions 
should be settled. 

7. The Augsburg Confession [June 25, 1530). (Cf. D. Chytrdus, Hist, 
d. Augsb. Conf. Rost. 1576, 4to.— i7. Sal. Cgprian, Hist. d. A. C. Gotha, 
1730.— CTr. A. Salig, voUst. Hist. d. A. C. Halle, 1730, Ato.— G. G. 
Weber, krit. Gesch. d. A. C. Frkf. 1784, 2 Bde. — ^. G. Eudelbach, 
hist.-krit. Einl. in d. A. C. Lpz. 1841. [G. J. Planck, Gesch. d. prot. 
Lehrbegr. III.] — When the imperial proclamation announced the pur- 
pose of settling religious dissensions amicably, the elector requested 
his theologians to prepare a brief and lucid statement of the evangel- 
ical faith. They presented him, accordingly, a revised copy of the 
seventeen Articles of Schwabach (the Torgau Articles). As the em- 
peror's arrival was delayed, Melanchthon improved the interval in 
preparing the Augsburg Confession (Confessio Augustana) on the basis 
of the Torgau Articles. This compact, lucid document, as decided as 
it was mild, received the full approval of Luther, whom the elector 
had left in Coburg, because he was still under sentence of excommuni- 
cation and proscription. It contained twenty-one articuli fidei prae- 
cipui, and seven articuli in quibus recensentur abusus mutati. On 
June 24, the Protestants desired to read their confession ; but it was 


only with great difficulty that the emperor consented to its being read 
on June 25 — and then not in the great hall of tlie puhlic sessions, but 
in the much smaller chamber of the episcopal chapter, to -which only 
the members of the diet were admitted. The chancellors of electoral 
Saxony, Doctors Baicr and lir'uck, each came forward with a copy of 
the Confession, the former in German, the latter in Latin. Charles 
wished the latter to be read, but the clect<»r carried the point of having 
the German copy read on German soil. Tliis done, Briick handed both 
copies to Charles, who kept the Latin copy and gave the other to the 
Elector of Mayencc. The former was subsequently placed in the 
archives of Brussels, but was taken thence by the Duke of Alba, and 
lost ; the other was deposited in the archives of Mayence, Imt only a 
copy of it was afterwards found there. Both were signed by the 
Elector John, the Margrave George, Duke Ernest of Luneburg, the 
Landgrave Philip, Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt, and the cities of Nu- 
remberg and Bcutlingen. The Confession made a favorable impression 
upon many of the assembled princes, and scattered many prejudices 
against the faith of the Protestants, whilst the evangelical confessors 
felt themselves greatly strengthened by the unanimous confession of 
their faith before the emperor and nation. Charles now directed the 
-Catholic theologians, John Faher, Eck, and CocJihens, to refute the 
Confession. They prepared a so-called Confutation, which was read 
Aug. 3. Charles declared that their document contained the views by 
which he would abide ; that he would expect the princes to do the 
same ; otherwise, he was the protector of the Church, and was not dis- 
posed to tolerate a schism in Germany. The Protestants requested a 
copy of the Confutation, that they might examine it more closely ; this 
was denied them. Then the landgrave left the diet. lie told the 
elector that he placed person and property, country and people, at his 
disposal ; and to the delegates of the cities he wrote : " Tell the cities 
not to be women, but men. You need not fear; God is on our side." 
The Zwinglian cities of Strassburg, Memmingen, Constance, and Lin- 
dau, handed in their own confession [Confessio tetrajwiiiana), the 18th 
article of which declares : Christ, in the sacrament, gives his true body 
and true blood, to be eaten and drunk Jor the nourishment of the soul. 
Charles directed a Catholic refutation of this also to be read, as a set- 
tlement of the matter. — Meanwhile I^uther, at Coburg, had, by his 
earnest prayers, counsel, and encouragement (Exod. 7 : 11), sustained 
his friends in their conflicts at Augsburg. lie preached often, wrote 
numerous letters, negotiated with Bucer (§ 13, 7), labored at the trans- 
lation of the Prophets, and wrote several works for edification. Pro- 
bably the powerful hymn : " Eine veste Burg," etc., and its tune, Avere 
composed at this time. 

8. Recess of the Augsburg Diet (1530.) — The hopeful firmness with 
which the Protestant minority maintained their position, caused the 
Catholic majority to hesitate about a public rupture. They therefore 


resolved to attempt a mediation once more. For this purpose the em- 
peror appointed a commission of two princes, two doctors of canon law, 
and three theologians, from each party. The 21 doctrinal articles of 
the Confession were assented to, without altering a single fundamental 
point ; on the other hand the Protestants were to give up everything 
relating to constitution and customs. So the measure failed. Five 
imperial cities took sides with the emperor, the others attached them- 
selves to the protesting princes. At the close the Protestants desired 
to read and present an Apology of the Avgshurg Confession, drawn up 
by Melanchthon, as an offset to the Catholic confutation, but the Em- 
peror inflexibly refused permission. (After the adjournment of the 
diet, Melanchthon obtained a full copy of the confutation, and revised 
his admirable apology ; — it is among the most decided productions of 
his pen, and was translated into German by Justus Jonas.) On Sept. 
22, the Protestant states were notified by the recess of the diet, that 
time would be given them until April 15 following, to consider the 
matter ; but meanwhile no new work should be published, and confes- 
sion and the mass should be tolerated in their dominions. A promise 
was also given that a general council should be called within six 
months. The spiritual princes were confirmed anew in all their pre- 
rogatives. The emperor declared that it was his fixed purpose strictly 
to maintain the edict of Worms, and enjoined his fiscal to prosecute all 
violations, even to passing sentence of proscription. The supreme 
court of judicature itself was formally and expressly bound to maintain 
the recess of the diet. Finally, Charles expressed the desire that, in 
view of his frequent absence, his brother Ferdinand might be chosen 
King of the Romans. This was soon afterwards done at Frankfurt ; 
but electoral Saxony entered a protest against it. 


The Protestants had not yet been able to efifect a permanent 
alliance. Now, however, it became necessary to set themselves 
earnestly about it. Thus arose the Smalcaldic league, 1531, for six 
years. To this energetic measure, and the simultaneous political 
exigency of the emperor, the Protestants owed the concession 
of the first or Nuremberg Beligioiis Peace. The bold progress 
of the landgrave released Wuj'temberg from the Austrian yoke, 
and popish coercion. At the same time the Reformation tri- 
umphed in Anhalt, Pomerania, and several cities of Westpha- 
lia. But for the Anabaptist disorders of 3Iiinster, all Westphalia 
would have become Protestant. The untiring assiduity of Bucer, 
also, secured the northern countries for the Smalcaldic league, 
by means of the Wittenberg concord. The league now presented 
an imposing and powerful front. 

EVENTS AND N E G O T I A T I N S (l 53 1 -36). 77 

1. The Formation of the Smalcaldic Lcayue (1530-31). — Tho ul>li^;i- 
tion of the imperial chamber to carry out the Augsburg recess, threat- 
ened most danger to the Protestants. To ward off this danger the 
evangelical states unanimously resolved, at a convention in Snialcald 
(Dec. 1530), to sustain each other against every attack of the chamber. 
But when tho ((uestion arose whether, in any extremity, they would 
be justified in taking arms against tho emperor himself", their views 

^wcre divided. The legal opinions of the jurists finally prevailed over 
all religious scruples, and the Elector of Saxony demanded the forma- 
tion (»f a league against eccri/ assailant, even should it bo the emperor 
himself. At a second convention in Smalcald, March, 1531, such a 
league was formally concluded, for six years. The parties to it were: 
Electoral Saxony, llessen, LUneburg, Anhalt, Mansfeld, and eleven 

2. The Uelii/ious Peace of Nuremherg (1532). — The energetic combi- 
nation of the Protestants made an impression ; its effect was also in- 
creased by a threatened attack of the Sultan Soliman, who seemed 
determined to enforce his pretensions to imperial power and universal 
dominion. In order to subdue the Protestants, it would be necessary 
to make terms with the Turks ; before these could be humbled, a peace- 
.able union among the Protestants was indispensable. Ferdinand de- 
cided upon the latter policy, and by his advice the emperor ordered a 
diet at Regensburcj, and directed his fiscal of the chamber to stay all 
proceedings, instituted by virtue of the Augsburg recess, until the 
diet should convene. But the catastrophe in Switzerland, soon after, 
[l 10, 10,) changed Ferdinand's policy. This seemed to him the best 
time for inflicting the same fate upon the evangelical party in Germany 
which befell the Swiss. lie therefore sent an embassy to the Sultan, 
which was authorized to propose the most ignominious terms of peace. 
But Soliman spurned every offer, and, in April, 1532, marched for- 
ward with an army of 300,000 men. In the meantime the diet was 
opened at Augsburg, April 17, 1532. Here the Protestants were not, 
as two years previously, the suppliants, but the entreated party. They 
would no longer listen to a compromise, but demanded peace in reli- 
gious matters, the annulling of all religious processes in the chamber, 
and a free general council, where matters at issue should be decided 
alone according to the Word of God. As long as Ferdinand could hope 
that his ambassadors to the Turks would obtain a favorable answer, he 
did not seriously entertain negotiations for peace. But when this hope 
was destroyed, and he saw the terrible army of Soliman rolling on- 
ward, there was no time to be lost. To be nearer the emperor, (in 
Brussels.) tho diet's further proceedings were transferred to Nuremberg, 
whore the first, or Xurendterj lieJijions Peace, was concluded (Juno 23, 
1532). On account of the Catholic majority, and the papal legate, the 
demand regarding the imperial chamber could not be engrossed in the 
public records; hence the emperor granted it in a separate pledge, but 

7* ^' 

78 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (c E N T. 16 A. D.). 

only in favor of the then existing states. It was permitted the Elector 
John, as a reward for his fidelity, to see this peace concluded. He died 
soon after (1532) of apoplexy, and was succeeded by his son, John Fre- 
derick the Magnanimous. — A considerable army was soon gathered. 
Soliman was defeated by land and sea, and returned home discom- 
fited. The emperor then went to Italy, and urged the pope to call a 
general council. The pope, however, thought the measure premature. 
The other condition of the peace, the staying of processes before the 
chamber, was also disregarded for a time. Charles had indeed at 
Mantua directed his fiscal to delay all religious suits until further orders. 
But the chamber declared that the pending processes (mostly relating 
to the restitution of ecclesiastical property and immunities) were not 
of a religious nature, but involved violations of public peace and con- 
fiscations. Then the Protestants entered (Jan., 153-A) a formal recusa- 
tion of the chamber, which, nevertheless, did not stay its proceedings, 
and was about to pass sentence of ban upon some states, when occur- 
rences in Wiirtemberg changed the aspect of things. 

3. The Evangelization of Wilrtemherg (1534-35).— (Cf. /. C. Schmidt 
u. F. E. Pfister, Denkw. d. wiirttb. Ref. Gesch. Tlibg. 1817.—/. Hart- 
mann, Gesch. d. Ref. in W. Stuttg. 1835. — K. Mann, Jubelblichl. d. ev. 
Eef in W. Stuttg. 1836.-6'. Romer, K. G. Ws. Stuttg. 1848 ; K. Th. 
Keim, schwab. Ref. Gesch. Tiibg. 1855.— i. F. Heyd, Ilerz. Ulr. v. W. 
Tlibg. 1841, etc., u. 3 Bde. — /. Hartmann u. K. Jdger, Leb. u. AVirk. 
d. Joh. Brenz. Hamb. 1840, 2 Bde.—/. G. Vaihinger, Leb. u. Wirk. d. 
Joh. Brentz. Stuttg. 1841.) — After the expulsion of Duke Ulrich, by 
virtue of the Swabian league (1528) Wiirtemberg was under Austrian 
rule. The fanaticism with which every reformatory movement was put 
down, had long awakened in the breast of the people a desire for the 
return of their hereditary prince, and this desire was increased by his 
adoption of the evangelical faith in his Swiss exile. But the vigilance 
of the Swabian league had thus far frustrated all the attempts of Ulrich 
to regain the inheritance of his fathers. His son Christopher was edu- 
cated at the court of Ferdinand, and was to accompany (1532) the 
emperor to Spain. Whilst crossing the Alps he fled, and openly re- 
claimed his inheritance in Germany. The Landgrave Philip, Ulrich's 
personal friend, had long resolved to seize the first opportunity of re- 
covering AViirtemberg for him. At length, in the spring of 1534, he 
carried out his plan, with the aid of French gold. At Lavfen, Ferdi- 
nand's army was well-nigh destroyed, and he was compelled, at the 
Peace of Kadan (1534) to cede Wiirtemberg to Ulrich as a mesne fief, 
granting him, however, a seat and vote at the diet, and allowing him 
full liberty to introduce the Reformation into his territory. The Elector 
of Saxony, also, participated in this Peace, by acknowledging Ferdi- 
nand as King of the Romans, and for this receiving the assurance that 
the chamber should definitively arrest all proceedings against existing 
members of the Smalcald league. From the beginning, Jjuther's views 

EVENTS AND N E T I A T I N S (l 53 1-36). 79 

had mot with a warm response in Wiirtemberg ; hut all expressions 
of sympathy therewith had been suppressed by Ferdinand's bloody 
rule. Now the Keformation spread all the more rapidly over the land. 
Llrkh committed the reformation of the district above the Staig to 
Ambru.se Jilaurcr, a respectable theologian of that section, a pupil of 
Zwingli, and a friend of Buccr, approving of Buccr's conciliatory mea- 
sures (n. 7). The reformation of the countries below the Staig was 
undertaken by Eriiard Schnepf, a professor at Marburg, and a decided 
adherent of Luther. Both agreed upon a doctrinal formula (" Corpus 
ef sanyuinem C/ninH vere, i. e. subataniialiter ci esseniialiler, non autem 
quantitative vel localiter prcFseniia esse et exhiberi m coena.") Ulrich 
merits special praise for the establishment of the university at T'uhin- 
ycn, modelled after that at Marburg, and which became one of the most 
important nurseries of Protestant learning. The example of Wurtem- 
])erg encouraged many of the neighboring courts of the empire and 

^imperial cities to follow its course, and among them the powerful 

». city of Augsburg. 

^' . 4. The Reformation in Anhalt and Pomerania (1532-34). — (Of. F. L. 
B. i\ Medem, Gesch. d. Einf. d. ev. Lehre in Pommer. Greifsw. 1837.) — 
Prince Wolfgang oi Anhalt, one of the evangelical confessors at Spires 
and Augsburg, had previously introduced the Reformation into the 
district along the Saale and into Zerbst. In 1532, another Anhalt 
prince, George, cathedral provost of Magdeburg and Merseburg, at 
first an opponent of Luther, but afterwards won over by his writings, 
began the work in the district east of the Elbe, not so much by his 
authority as a temporal prince as by virtue of his ecclesiastical juris- 
diction, in exercising which he did not allow the opposition of the 
archbishop cardinal Albrecht to hinder him. At his right hand stood 
Nicholas Ilausmann, a friend of Luther ; and when the Bishop of Bran- 
denburg refused to consecrate his married priests, he had them ordained 
by Luther in Wittenberg. In Pomerania, however, the cause was 
introduced amid more violent agitations. The nobility and clergy en- 
deavored to restrain by force the inclinations of the people. Prince 
Barnim had been an admirer of Luther ever since the Leipsic disputa- 
tion, whilst his brother George united with the clergy in their opposi- 
tion. But George died, and his son Philip cooperated with Barnim in 
introducing the Reformation into the entire territory. At the diet of 
Treptow (Dec, 1534) they submitted a plan for carrying on the work, 
which the cities hailed with joy, and which Bugenhagen executed by a 
visitation of the churches like that pursued in Saxony. 

5. The Rrformatinn in Westphalia (1532-34).— (Cf. C. A. Cornelius, 

Gesch. d. MUnster. Aufruhrs. Bd. I. Die Reformation. Lpz. 1855. 

//. Jochmus, Gesch. d. Kirchenref. zu Munster. Munst. 1825. — Max. 
Gobel, Gesch. d. Chr. Lebens in d. rhein. AVestphal. K. Cobl. 1849. 
Bd. I.) — In the cities of Westphalia, the Reformation assumed the 

80 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (C E N T. 1 6 A. D.) . 

same character as in those of Lower Germany, Lutheran hymns doing 
the chief work. Pideritz, a pastor in Lemgo, was an adherent of Eck. 
In order to see the nature of Lutheranism with his own eyes, he visited 
Brunswick, and returned with wholly altered views. lie then reformed 
the city without opposition. — In Soest, the Catholic council resolved to 
inspire terror by condemning to death Schlachtorp, a tanner, who had 
severely denounced the council. The Lutheran citizens, following 
Luther's example, endured the violence of the authorities without re- 
sistance. But the executioner, missing the neck of his victim, dealt 
him a terrible wound in the back. Another executioner came forward 
to finish the work, when Schlachtorp, reviving, wrested the sword from 
his hand, and was borne home in triumph by the crowd. S. died the 
next day. The council left the city, and thus Catholicism lost its last 
footing there (July, 1553).— In Paderborn, the people had defiantly 
claimed the freedom of the pulpit ; and when the Elector Hermann of 
Cologne visited the place to receive allegiance (§ 15, 7), the refractori- 
ness of the Lutherans was reported to him in so glaring a light, that 
he ordered some of the leaders to be seized. By means of the torture 
he wrung from them a confession of a treasonable combination with 
the Landgrave of Ilesse, of which they had been falsely accused, and 
for this he condemned them to death. But when they reached the 
scafibld, the request of an old man to be beheaded with them, and the 
entreaties of the women and maidens, so wrought upon Hermann, that 
he spared their lives. The nobility and clergy, however, managed to 
maintain Catholicism. — In Mllnster, the doctrine of Luther was early 
preached by Bernh. Rottmann. The council had to open St. Lambert 
church to him, and the friends of the new cause soon became ascendant. 
The council and priests left the city. The new bishop, Francis of 
Waldeck, cut off all communication with the city, but during Christmas, 
1532, 900 armed citizens of Mlinster fell upon Telgf, by night, where 
the diet was then convened, to take the oath of allegiance. The bishop, 
who had just departed, escaped the assailants, but the most noted 
leaders among the nobility and priests were captured and taken to 
Mlinster. The bishop was then compelled to grant the city uncondi- 
tional religious liberty. Neighboring cities had already begun to 
follow this example, when a catastrophe occurred, which resulted in 
the full restoration of Catholicism. 

6. The Munsfer Faction. — {Cf. JocJinuis, I.e. J. C. Wallmann, John y. 
Leyden. Quedlb. 1844. — K. Rase, neue Propheten. Lpz. 1851. — C. A. 
Cornelius, Berichte d. Augenzeugen lib. d. Mlinster. AViedertauferreich. 
Mlinst. 1853). — Rottmann had for some time embraced the Zwinglian 
doctrine of the Lord's Supper ; his next step was to reject infant bap- 
tism. In a disputation with some theologians of Hessen, he was defeated. 
Nevertheless, he managed to remain in the city, and to strengthen his 
party by gathering in Anabaptist elements from other places. On the 
festival of the Three Kings, 1534, the prophet John Mathys, a baker 


of Iliirlein, and his ardent apostle, John Borhclson, a tailor of Leyden, 
came to ^Iliiister. The populace, especially women, crowded to their 
proachint;. lioitmann, and a few other preachers, at once joined them. 
Their adherents soon multiplied to such an extent, that they thought 
they might bid defiance to the council. During an insurrection, the 
council was soTveak and forbearing, that it made a treaty which secured 
to them legal recognition. Anabaptist faiiatics then poured into MUn- 
ster from all directions. After a few weeks they had the preponderance 
in the council. Mathys, the prophet, announced it as the will of God, 
that all unbelievers should be driven from the city. This was done, 
Feb. 27, 1534. Seven deacons divided the effects they left behind, 
among the believers. In May, the bishop laid siege to the city. By 
this means the disorder was at least confined to Munster. After having 
destroyed all the images, organs, and books, (only saving the Bible,) 
the fanatics introduced a community of goods. Mathys, who imagined 
hinTself called to slay the besieging foe, fell during a sally by their 
sword. Jiockelson took the prophet's place. In accordance with his 
revelations the council was deposed, and a theocratic government of 
twelve elders, who let themselves be inspired by the prophet, was 
established. That he might marry the beautiful widow of Mathys, 
Bockelson introduced polygamy. The still surviving moral sense of 
the citizens in vain resisted this enormity. Those who were dissatisfied 
rallied around MoUenhuk, a blacksmith, were defeated, and all con- 
demned to death. Bockelson, proclaimed king of the whole earth by 
one of his co-prophets, set up a splendid court, and introduced the most 
heinous abominations. He claimed authority to inaugurate the Millen- 
nium, sent out twenty-eight apostles to spread his kingdom, and ap- 
pointed twelve dukes, to govern the earth as his vicegerents. Mean- 
while the besieging army failed in an attempt to storm the city (Aug., 
1534) ; had not help arrived from Hessen, Treves, Cleve, Mayence, and 
Cologne, they would have been compelled to raise the siege. All they 
could do was to starve out the city, and this plan was succeeding well. 
But on St. John's eve, 1535, a deserter led the soldiers to scale the walls. 
After a stubborn struggle, the Anabaptists were overpowered. Rott- 
mann plunged into the thickest part of the fight, and perished. King 
John, with his governor, KnipperdoUing, and chancellor, Krcchting, 
were captured, pinched to death with red-hot tongs, and then hung 
up at the tower of St. Lambert's church in iron cages. Catholicism, 
in an absolutely exclusive form, was restored. 

7. Extension of the Smalcaldic League (153G). — In the summer of 
1534, the emperor determined to chastise those German princes who 
had surrendered Wiirtemberg, from the possessions of his house. But 
he was hindered from executing this purpose by fear of the bold pirate 
Clialreddin (Barbarossa), who had established himself in Tunis, and 
constantly threatened the coasts of his Italian and Spanish States. 
In the summer of 1535, the corsair was defeated, but a war which then 



broke out with France (1536) engaged all the emperor's powers. The 
danger was increased by a formal league which Francis I. concluded with 
Soliman for a united attack upon the emperor. Instead, therefore, of 
chastising the Protestant princes, Charles had to use all means to secure 
their friendship, and especially as Francis offered them great induce- 
ments to engage them on his side. Accordingly, from the summer of 
1535, Ferdinand made advances towards the Protestants. In No- 
vember, the elector visited him in Vienna, conferred upon him the 
electoral dignity, and guaranteed the extension of the Nuremberg Peace 
to all the States that had since then gone over to Protestantism. From 
Vienna the elector went to a convention at Smalcald, where the Smal- 
caldic League Avas extended to ten years, whilst the overtures of the 
French ambassadors were declined, and the hostile position toAvards 
Austria was abandoned. On the basis of the Vienna compact, "Wlirt- 
emberg, Pomerania, Anhalt, and several cities, were admitted to the 
League ; but subscription to the Augsburg Confession was the indis- 
pensable condition. Bucer has the credit of having induced the cities 
to do this. 

8. The Wittenberg Concord (153G). (Cf. Rudelhach, Ref. Lutherth. 
u. Union, p. 363, etc.) — The study of Luther's works upon the Lord's 
Supper, and the colloquy at Marburg, had led Bucer to a deeper appre- 
ciation of the views of Luther upon that subject. This fact exerted 
an important influence upon the Confessio tetrapoliiana (§ 12, 7), in 
preparing which he took a prominent part. But Bucer desired to effect 
a union, and conferred with Luther on the subject (1530) at Coburg. 
As he confessed in his own name, and that of his colleagues, that 
Christ was present in the hread and to the mouth in the sacrament, and 
admitted, at least on his own part, that the ungodly cdso really par- 
took of the body of Christ, Luther declared himself satisfied, and will- 
ing to concede the nice distinctions by which Bucer sought to reconcile 
a spiritual participation with the real presence, and a symbolical with 
a sacramental significance of the elements. The cities actually assented 
to this accommodation, and even QEcolampadius was not wholly averse 
to it. But Zwingli utterly rejected it. Bucer, therefore, exerted him- 
self the more to persuade the Churches of Upper Germany to adhere 
to it. In December, 1535, he and Melanchthon had a colloqiuj at 
Cassel. They there agreed upon a fuller conference at Eisenach, 
which, however, was held at Wittenberg, on account of Luther's bad 
health. Bucer and Capiio, with eight of the most distinguished theo- 
logians of Upper Germany, were present. And as they assented, in 
advance, to the real presence of the body of Christ in the bread, and 
its oral -reception, as well as to the formula in, with, and under, the 
only question discussed related to the participation of unbelievers. The 
theologians from Upper Germany at length conceded this in regard to 
unworthy communicants, but not to ungodly persons, and Luther de- 
clared himself satisfied. Accordingly, on May 25, the so-called Wit- 


ienbciy Courord vraH sip;no(l l»y all, and further confirmed Ly their com- 
mon celebration of the Lord'.s hJuitper. — In consequence of this union, 
the most influential theolof^ians of Switzerland met in Batiel, and ap- 
pointed three of their number [Jfenn/ liuUinjer of Zurich, (hicald 
Myconius and Simon Gryiidens of Basel) to prepare a confession of 
faith distinctly setting forth Zwingli's doctrine concerning the Lord's 
Supper. This originated the Confessio Helvetica prior, which Leo Juda 
translated into (Jerman. 


Pope Clement VII. endeavored, by various excuses, to evade the 
emperor's increasingly urgent demand for a council. At length, 
in 1533, he promised to convoke a council at Mantua, within a 
year, but insisted, in advance, that the Protestants should pledge 
unconditional submission to its decrees ; a pledge which, of 
course, they would not make. Ilis successor, Paul III. 
(1534-49), actually summoned a council at Mantua, in 1537. 
Luther prepared the Smah-ald Articles for presentation, but the 
Protestants finally forbade the transmission of them, as they re- 
solved to renew their demand for a free council in a German city. 
Hence the summoned council never convened. On the contrary, 
the Catholic States concluded, at Nuremberg, the so-called Holy 
League (1533), for the strict maintenance of the recess of Augs- 
burg ; but political exigencies compelled the emperor to make 
new concessions to the Protestants in the Frankfort Suspension 
(1539). During the same year, the Duchy of Saxony and the 
Electorate of Brandenburg embraced the Reformation. At the 
commencement of 1540, almost the whole of Northern Germany 
was Protestant. Duke Henry of Brunswick, alone, remained in 
the tottering citadel of the old faith. 

1. T/ie Smalcald Artichii (1537). (Cf. M. Meurer, d. Tay zu Schmalk. 
u, d. schni. Artt. Lpz. 1837. — Chr. Ziemssen, d. welthist. Bedeut. d. 
Schmalk. Convents im J. 1537 ; in d. hist, theol. Ztschr. 1840, III.— 
Chr. H. Sixt, Petr. Paul. Vergerius, pUpstl. Nuntius, kath. Bischof. u. 
Vorkampfer d. Evang. Braunschw. 1855). — Paid HI. sent (1535) his 
legate, Vergerius (cf. ^ 10, 13), mainly to secure definite agreement as 
to the place for holding the council. He visited Wittenberg, where 
Luther, in company with Bugenhagen, called upon him. Luther did 
not expect much from a council, and therefore was indifferent as to the 
place of holding it ; the elector was of the same mind. Hence, in the 
fall of 153G, a general council was, in due form, convoked to meet in 
Manilla, May 23, 1537. The call was written with care and modera- 


tion, but expressions made by the Pope, in other places, showed clearly 
what Protestants had to expect. The matter was discussed at a diet 
in Smalcald, Feb. 1537. At the request of the elector, Luther had 
previously drawn up articles, which would be immovably adhered to 
at the council. These articles, written in German, and known as the 
Smalcald Articles, Luther brought with him to Smalcald. In accord- 
ance with the circumstances, their character is predominantly polemic. 
They boldly break through the limits of cautious forbearance towards 
the papal hierarch^^ within which all the official declarations of the 
evangelical party had thus far been kept. The first part, concerning 
the Majesty of God, briefly set forth four undisputed articles concern- 
ing the Trinity and the person of Christ ; — the second part treats of 
the office and work of Christ, or our redemption, and definitely lays 
down points of difference between the two parties, from which there 
would be no retraction ; — the third part states those points which were 
open for discussion by the Council. — In the second part, Luther uncon- 
ditionally rejected the primacy of the pope, as unsupported by the 
AYord of God, and incompatible with the character of a truly evan- 
gelical Church. When the theologians subscribed the paper, Me- 
lanchthon added to his name this statement: "Concerning the pope, 
I hold that, if he would grant a free Gospel, he might be allowed, for 
the sake of peace and unity among Christians now, or who may here- 
after be, subject to him, to exercise a jure humano superiority over 
the bishops." At the request of the meeting, Melanchthon further 
prepared a historical paper: "Concerning the Power and Authority 
of the Pope," and "Concerning the Power and Jurisdiction of Bishops," 
which was likewise subscribed by the theologians, and added to the 
Articles of Smalcald. — They then debated the question of attending 
the council, and on what conditions to do so. They finally agreed to 
decline attending it, but once more to ask the emperor to convene a 
truly free Christian council, in a German city. The elector boldly 
proposed that Dr. M. Luther and his co-bishops should call a council 
(at Augsburg, if they pleased) in opposition to that of the pope ; but, 
as this measure was directly at variance with the entire policy of the 
Protestants thus far, it was rejected. 

2. The Knremherg League (1538). — Near the close of the Con- 
vention of Smalcald (1537), the imperial orator (vice-chancellor). Dr. 
Held, appeared. The Protestant princes had good reason to suppose 
that they stood on the best of terms with the emperor. They were, 
therefore, no little astonished when the orator declared to them, avow- 
edly in the emperor's name, that the court was fully justified in pro- 
secuting the pending suits, nay, even bound to do so ; but he seemed 
to know nothing of the Peace of Kadan and the Treaty of Vienna. 
They immediately reassumed their posture of opposition. But Held 
visited all the Catholic courts, and sought — avowedly by the emperor's 
authority — to effect a confederation of Catholics, for the complete sup- 

EVENTS AND N E G O T I A T I O N S (l 537-39). 85 

pression of the Protestants, on the })iisis of ban edicts of the imperial 
chamber. FerdinamU Avho well knew that Held hnd gone beyond his 
instructions, or even a«;ainst them, was very indignant, for the emperor 
was placed in a very critical position. But matters had been carried 
so far that it was impossible to recede without greatly offending the 
Catholic princes. Hence a confederacy, called the Holy League, was 
formed at Nuremberg, July 10, 1538, by George of Saxony, Albert of 
Brandenburg, Henry and Erick of Brunswick, King Ferdinand, and 
the Archbishop of Salzburg ; its object was to sustain the imperial 
chamber in its official acts, and in the immediate execution of the ban 
edicts. On the other side, the Smalcald States prepared to meet vio- 
lence with violence. A general sanguinary war seemed inevitable. 

3. The Frankfort Suspension (1539). — x\.t this juncture, however, 
the emperor needed the vigorous support of the empire against the 
threatening advances of Soliman. It was highly important for him, 
therefore, to assuage the anger of the Protestants. Held was recalled, 
and John v. Veeze, former Archbishop of Leyden, took his place. The 

--^Electors of Brandenburg and the Palatinate offered to act as mediators. 
They'went, with the new orator, to Frankfort on the M., and opened 
negotiations with the Protestants then there. These demanded an un- 

,^conditional, permanent, indisputable peace, which should, under no 
circumstances, be disturbed, and that the chaml)er should l)e constituted 
of an equal number of Protestants and Catholics. Though the orator 
was disposed to concession, he could not yield this point. But the 
danger from the Turks daily increased, and compelled him to renew 
the negotiations, which had been suspended. He adopted another 
course, proposing that, at the diet to be held during the following sum- 
mer, a committee of learned theologians, and discerning, peaceable 
laymen, should meet, and endeavor to effect a final arrangement in 
regard to doctrines and usages. He also agreed to a suspension of all 

-^^_4)roceedings against Protestant States for eighteen months. Thus the 
Protestants gained a prospect of securing, finally, what they had in 
vain sought after since the diets of Nuremberg (1523, 1524). They 
consented, therefore, to this compromise (the Frankfort Suspension). 
It was a triumph of the Smalcald League over that of Nuremberg 
(which was really not represented at Frankfort). Confidence in Pro- 
testantism grew mightily, and an important extension of its territory 
was the consequence. 

4. The Reformation in Albertinian Saxony (1539). (Cf. H. G. Hasse, 
Abr. d. meissnisch-albertinisch-sachs. K. G. Bd. II. Lpz. 1847.) — Duke 
George of Saxony (1500-39) had endeavored, with extreme severity, 
to suppress the Reformation, for which no country, probably, showed 
stronger sympathy than his own. Only one of his four sons was still 
living, and he was imbecile. Nevertheless he had him married, but 
he died a few months after his wedding. The old duke was in great 

II. — 8 


perplexity, his only heir being his brother Henry, whose small ter- 
ritory (with its capital, Freiburg) had lono; before embraced tlie Re- 
formation, and become a refuge for all whom George persecuted and 
banished for conscience' sake. He could not endure the thougrht that 
all the painful toils of his life should be frustrated in a single night. 
On the day of his last son's death, therefore, he submitted a plan of 
succession to his States, by which his brother Henry should nof be 
allowed to succeed him, unless he would bind himself to stand by and 
immovably maintain the League of Nuremberg. If he refused to do 
this, the duchy should pass over to the emperor or the king. Henry, 
of course, rejected this proposal, and George died before other measures 
could be devised. The country received its new prince with great 
rejoicings ; and, whilst he was receiving homage in Leipsic, Luther 
once more visited the city (the first time for twenty years), and 
preached with the greatest acceptance. The reformation of the entire 
duchy was now rapidly carried forward. Ferdinand desired, indeed, 
to carry George's will into effect, but the Smalcald League declared 
that they would defend the new duke against all opposition, and Fer- 
dinand prudently abstained from further measures. 

5. The Reformation in Mark Brandenburg, and some adjacent Dis- 
tricts (1539). (Cf. A. Mailer, Gesch. d. Ref.'in d. M. Br. Berl. 1839.— 
C. W. Spieker, K. u. Ref. Gesch. d. M. Br. Berl. 1839. Bd. I. — //, v. 
Mailer, Gesch. d. ev. K. Verf. in d. M. Br. Weim. 184G. — Jul. Wiggers, 
K. G. Mecklenb. Parch. 1840.) — The Elector Joachim I. [ob. 1.53.5), on 
his death-bed, bound both his sons to maintain the old faith. Hcninf, 
the younger, who inherited the new Mark, had for some time embraced 
evangelical views. He joined the Smalcald League, and reformed his 
territory. But the older, Elector /oac7i/;?i II. (1535-71), adhered for 
several years to the old faith and usages, but nowhere prevented the 
preaching of the pure Gospel, which was quietly gaining influence over 
his own mind. Finally, at the beginning of 1539, his mind was fully 
convinced, probably under the influence of the negotiations at Frank- 
fort. At the same time his States became desirous to introduce evan- 
gelical doctrines. Berlin requested permission to have the communio 
sub ntraque, and a large number of the nobility earnestly begged Mat- 
thias of Janoio, the Bishop of Brandenburg, "to embrace and stead- 
fastly confess the pure doctrines of God." On Nov. 1, 1539, Joachim 
assembled all the preachers of his country in the church of St. Nicholas 
in Spandau ; the Bishop of Brandenburg celebrated the first evangelical 
mass, and the entire court, together with many knights, received the 
communion in both kinds. The country followed the example of the 
princes. Joachim prepared a liturgy which retained more of the old 
ceremonies than those of other countries, but set forth justification by 
faith as a central doctrine, and adopted the communio sub ntraque as the 
basis of Christian worship. Ferdinand was displeased at the elector's 
course, but seemed contented with the assurance that he had not joined 


the Smalcald League. The Duchess Elizabeth of Calenherg-Brunswick 
(sister of the Elector of Brandenburg) followed the example of her 
brother. After the death of her husband, Erich, who held other views, 
she used her authority as regent to reform the duchy. On the other 
haxi^, Albert of Brandenburg, cardinal-archbishop, endeavored in every 
way to prevent the defection of his territory, but in order to secure 
compliance with his constant demands for money, he had to grant the 
cities the free preaching of the Gospel. lie opposed the innovations 
more earnestly in Halle, but the citizens only insisted more deter- 
minedly upon being allowed the same privileges with other cities. 
Justus Jonas, of Wittenberg, introduced the reformation into the city 
under his very eyes ; the only vengeance he could take was to leave 
Halle, and remove his court to Mayence. About the same time the 
Mecklenburg countries obtained an evangelical constitution, in estab- 
lishing which, Magnus, one of the princes, and also Bishop of Schwerin, 
was particularly active. Anna of Stolberg, abbess of Quedlinburg, did 
not venture publicly to avow her evangelical views during the lifetime 
of George of Saxony ; but now she introduced the reform into her con- 
vent and the city without opposition. 

^ 15. THE PERIOD OF UNION EFFORTS. (1540-46). 

The Frankfort Suspension revived the idea of a free union 
on the basis of a common faith and worship, which had been 
dropped since the Nuremberg diet of 1524, and awakened hopes 
of its speedy realization. And as the embarrassment of the 
emperor continued, a series of religious conferences with refer- 
ence to this object was really held. But although the desired 
result seemed, several times, to be almost achieved, the negotia- 
tions as often failed in the end, because the emperor would not 
recognize them unless a papal legate had taken part in them. 
And just at the time when the imposing power of the Protestant 
States justified the most brilliant hopes, the Protestant princes 
themselves laid the root of their extreme subsequent humiliation 
— the Landgrave Philip, by his bigamy, and the elector by his 
quarrel with the court of ducal Saxony. 

1. The Landgrave's Bigamy (1540). (Cf. H. Heppe, urkundl. Bcitr. 
z. Gesch. d. Doppelehe, etc.; in d. Hist. Theol. Ztschr. 1853. III.) — 
Landgrave Philip of Ilessen had married Christina, a daughter of the 
deceased Duke George of Saxony. Bodily disorders and offensive habits 
had alienated him from her; and gross sensualit}', which had gained 
a mastery over him, had led him to frequent acts of infidelity. For 
this his conscience so troubled him, that he thought himself unworthy 
to commune, ardently as he desired to do so, and he was harassed with 


doubts of his salvation. Regard for his wife, however, deterred him 
from seeking a divorce. Assuming, therefore, the toleration of poly- 
samv in the Old Testament, as nowhere abolished in the Xew Testa- 
ment, it occurred to him that, icith his icije's consent, he might formally 
contract a second marriage with Margaret r. d. Saale, a court lady of 
his sister. In Xov.. 1539, he sent Bucer. one of his spiritual advisers, 
to Wittenberg, to obtain the advice of Luther and Melanchthon. Ac- 
cording to Bucer' s account, the only question discussed was the alter- 
native of Philip's continuance in adultery, and so incurring temporal 
and eternal ruin, or his being allowed, with his wife's consent, to have 
another wife, and thus live within the due restraints of lawful marriage. 
Luther and Melanchthon both strove, in their reply, to dissuade Philip 
from his proposed course, as well for his uwn, as for the Gospel's sake, 
on which his conduct would bring great scandal ; but, in conclusion, 
half conceded that bigamy would be more advisable, as doing less vio- 
lence to the conscience, than to live in adultery. But, to avoid causing 
public offence, they required that he should be secretly married, and 
that their answer should not be taken as a theological opinion, but only as 
private counsel. Thereupon, Philip took a second wife in May, 1540. But 
the matter was soon rumored abroad. The Albertine Saxon court became 
greatly enraged, the elector furious, the theologians fearfully perplexed. 
About this time Melanchthon started for the religious conference at 
Hagenau, but anxietv about the case, and the conviction that he had 
done wrong with the rest, prostrated him with disease when he reached 
"Weimar. He was on the brink of death when Luther hastened to him, 
and rescued him by the omnipotence of Christian prayer. At Eisenach 
the Hessian and Saxon theologians discussed the propriety of publicly 
justifying the step taken by Philip. Luther opposed it with all his 
might. But Bucer went so far as to publish an apology under the as- 
sumed name of Ulrich Xeohulus, for doing which Luther called him a 
villain and a nehulo. Even the landgrave endeavored to suppress Bucer's 
tract. This affair, besides bringing reproach upon the Gospel, proved 
sorely detrimental to the Reformation, as it resulted in a temporary 
alienation of Philip from his confederates, and led him. as a security 
against the capital penalty to which his bigamy exposed him, to attach 
himself more closely to the emperor's interests. This did the cause 
of Protestantism more harm, probably, than if he had wholly aban- 
doned it. 

2. The Religions Conference at Worms (1540). The Pope did all in 
his power to frustrate the union measures of the Frankfort Suspen- 
Bion. To remove all obstacles out of the emperor's way, he endea- 
vored to restore peace with France, and secured an armistice with the 
Turks. But his negotiations with France proved abortive, so that 
Charles could not risk an open rupture with the Protestants. The 
emperor, therefore, summoned the States to meet at Spires for consul- 
tation with reference to the prospective compact at Frankfort (June, 


1540). A contagious disease, however, led him to transfer the meeting 
to Hagenau. There, in spite of the stubVxirn opposition of the Cathcdic 
majority, it was resolved that a relirjioim conference should be convoked 
at Wonn.i, in ten weeks from that date, for the purpose of effecting a 
Christian settlement of their differences, on the basis of the IIolv Scrip- 
tures. Ferdinand himself designated to the Catholic States what theo- 
logians to select, and showed by his choice how anxious he was that 
the measure should succeed. In Nov., 1540, the delegates met at 
Worms, the imperial orator GranveUa presiding. On the Protestant 
side were: Melanchihon, liucer, Capita, Brenz, and Calvin (from Strass- 
burg) ; on the other side : Eck, the Spaniard Mahcnda, etc. But 
Charles insisted upon having the papal nuncio Morrone allowed to take 
part, and thus, contrary to his intention, frustrated the entire measure. 
For Morrone first placed a number of obstacles in the way, and when 
at length the conference fairly began, Jan., 1541, and aroused threat- 
ening fears for the papacy, he did not rest until GranveUa dissolved 
the conference, in the emperor's name, before they had finished dis- 
cussing the first article, concerning original sin. But the emperor did 
not relinquish the scheme ; he convoked a diet at Regensburg, where 
the interrupted negotiations should be resumed. 

\ 3. T?ie Conference at Regensbvrg (1541). (Cf. A. Jansen, de JvUo 
Pflugio ejusque sociis. Berl. 1858.) — The diet of Regen^hurg was opened 
April 5, 1541. The imperial address insisted earnestly upon the adop- 
tion of a common Christian platform, and, in spite of the resistance 
of the Catholic States, he would not relinquish the right of appointincr 
collocutors. He appointed Eck, John Cropper, canon of Cologne, and 
Julius V. Pfugk, cathedral dean of Meissen, on the Catholic side (ex- 
cepting Eck, the most conciliatory to be found) ; and on the Protestant 
side, Melanchihon, Bucer, and John Pistorius, a pastor from Xidda in 
Hessen. GranveUa and Count Palatine Frederick were to preside ; 
the nuncio Contarini was to represent the court of Rome. From par- 
ties so well chosen there was reason to hope for the desired issue. A 
party of men versed in the Scriptures had sprung up in Italy, who, 
starting from the principle of justification by faith, hoped, on this 
basis, to regenerate the Church, without disturbing the papal primacv, 
or the hierarchical system. Contarini was one of the leaders of this 
party. He agreed with the emperor, that the doctrine of justification 
by faith, the cup for the laity, and the marriage of priests, should be 
yielded to Germany, and that the Protestants, on their part, should 
acknowledge the primac\- of the Pope. Bucer had already drawn up 
a plan of agreement, which, after being circulated among those inte- 
rested, was adopted as a basis of negotiations. The doctrine of man's 
original state, and of original sin, passed without difficulty, in an 
essentially Protestant fi»rm. In regard to justification, a justitia im- 
putativa. in the evangelical sense, was admitted : but Contarini insisted 
upon aflarming, also, a justitia inhrerens (i. e. a virtue wrought in man 


by his acceptance of Christ's merits, so that he -was thus not only pro- 
nounced righteous, but was really made righteous). But as he so- 
lemnly acknowledged the former to be the marrow of the entire system 
of faith, and the latter only a consequence of the former, and based 
wholly upon the grace of God, to the exclusion of all personal merit, 
the Protestants yielded. Upon the article concerning the Church, 
however, such diversities of opinion were expressed, that it was post- 
poned for subsequent consideration. Then the sacrament of the altar 
was taken up. The Communio sub utraque was readily conceded. 
But on the margin of Bucer's concord, the word transubstantio was 
written by some unknown hand. On this rock the whole measure was 
dashed into pieces. Contarini, who had received admonitions from 
Rome, would yield nothing more, and the Protestants were equally 
firm. The colloquy closed. Nevertheless, the emperor desired that 
the articles, so far agreed upon, should be made a commun basis for 
both parties, and that, in reference to other points, they should exer- 
cise mutual toleration ; but he could not prevail upon the Catholic 
majority to assent to this. AVherefore the recess of the diet confirmed 
the Peace of Nuremberg, extended it to all then connected with the 
Smalcald League, and bound the Protestants alone by the articles 
agreed upon [Regensburg Interim). 

4. The Regensburg Declaration (1541). — The Protestants, naturally 
enough, were not pleased with the recess. To pacify them, the em- 
peror granted them a special declaration, which, whilst not o])ligatory^ 
upon the imperial States, still bound him their supreme head. The 
declaration conceded that the assessors of the imperial chamber should 
no longer be sworn to execute the Augsburg Recess, and that the ad- 
herents of the Augsburg Confession should 1)C allowed a representation 
in the chamber, and not be excluded. It was further granted that 
religidus institutions and monasteries should adhere to the Reforma- 
tion, and should teach, in addition to the articles agreed upon, the 
additions of the Protestant members of the Conference. The decision 
of the recess, that no one should deprive the clergy of their rents, 
was likewise extended to Protestant clergy. — But on the very day 
when the emperor signed this declaration, he had a separate meeting 
with the Catholic majority, at which the Nuremberg League was renewed, 
and the pope admitted as a member of it. In this way he hoped to 
secure aid from both parties, and to delay a warlike conflict between 
them, until a more favorable season for resuming his scheme of recon- 
ciliation. Moreover, ho concluded separate treaties with the Landgrave 
Philip, and the Elector Joachim II. Both obligated themselves to ad- 
here firmly to the emperor in all political divisions. The elector also 
promised not to join the Smalcald League, and in return the constitu- 
tion of his Church was confirmed. The landgrave obligated himself to 
oppose, not only every alliance of the Smalcald League with foreign 
powers (England and France), but also with the Duke of Cleves, with 


whom the emperor was then in dispute about a hereditary claim to 
Guelderhind. The landgrave on his part obtained an amnesty for all 
he had done, and a promise that he should be left undisturbed in reli- 
gious matters. The emperor had, also, special negotiations with the 
Elector of Saxony, but they failed on account of the claims of Charles 
to Guelderland, for Clevcs was the elector's brother-in-law. 

5. The See of Kaumhurg and the Wurzen Quarrel (1541-42). (Cf. 
Lepsius, Bericht ub. d. Wahl u. Einfuhr. Nik. v. Amsd. Xorah. 1835.) 
— Lutheran doctrines had gained the ascendancy in the See of Kainii- 
hurfj-Zeitz, from 1520, notwithstanding the constant opposition of the 
papal chapter. On the death of the bishop (1541), the chapter hastened 
to elect the learned and gentle provost, Julius v. Fjluijk, to the vacancy. 
But the elector thought it his duty to furnish a Lutheran country with 
a Lutheran bishop ; and having been displeased by the deceitful conduct 
of the chapter, which first concealed the death of the bishop for a long 
time, then secretly held an election, without regard to the rights of the 
prince, and finally paid no attention to his protest, he persistently re- 
fused to confirm their choice. He still hoped that Pflugk, who asked 
six months' time for considering the matter, would decline the election. 
But this expectation was disappointed. Indeed Piiugk, supported by 
the emperor, maintained his claims. Then the elector, not without 
some violent means, placed Nich. v. Amsdorf, superintendent of Mag- 
deburg, in the See. Luther ordained him on Jan. 20, 1542, "without 
chrism, and also without butter, lard, fat, grea.se, incense, or coals.'' 
The temporal jurisdiction of the See devolved upon an electoral officer. 
Amsdorf -was satisfied with the scanty salary of 600 guilders; the re- 
maining revenues were applied to pious uses. After the battle of 
Mlihlberg, 1547, Amsdorf was driven ofi", and Pflugk restored. Pflugk 
"died in 1564. The chapter then became Lutheran, but Amsdorf was 
not restored ; the administration was transferred to a Saxon prince. — 
The violent course of the elector in this case, caused great displeasure 
at the Albertine court. But a much more threatening difficulty occurred 
in the same year. On the occasion of collecting the Turkish tax (1542), 
the elector sought to exercise his supremacy over the district of Wur- 
zen, in the See of Meissen. But when the bishop refused to submit to 
his demands, he ordered his soldiers forthwith to occupy the district. 
The Albertine court, however, also claimed sovereignty over "Wurzen. 
Duke Henry died in 1541. Maurice, his son and successor, at once 
placed an army in the field ; the elector, also, prepared for war. It 
Avas with difficulty that Luther and the landgrave succeeded in amica- 
bly adjusting the quarrel. But the mutual estrangement and rivalry 
of the two courts from that time burned like a hidden fire, and after a 
few years broke out in a devastating conflagration. 

6. The Beformation in Brunswick and tlie PaJatinaie (1542-43). 
(Cf. G. H. Lenz, braunschw. K. Ref. Wolfb. 1828. — G W. IL Brock, 
Gesch. d. cv. luth. K. d. Pfalsgrafsch. Neuburg. Nordl. 1847. — F. 


Blaul, d. ReformationsTv. in d. Pfalz. Speier. 1846.)— Duke Eenrrj of 
Brunswick- Wolfenhuttel entered complaint against the city of GosJar, 
before the imperial chamber, because it had torn down t^vo monaste- 
ries, from which the duke might easily have assailed the city. In spite 
of all the concessions of the emperor and king to the Protestants, the 
, court proscribed the city (at the end of 1540), and Renr)/ resolved to 
execute the ban. But the Smalcald League espoused the cause of the 
city, and substituting offensive for defensive measures, the landgrave 
and the Elector of Saxony invaded Henry's territory and subdued it 
(1542). Bninsicick now obtained the long-desired preaching of the 
Gospel, and BugenJiagen introduced into it an evangelical organization 
and agenda. Thus the whole of northern Germany became a trophy 
of the Gospel, whilst in the south and west of Germany it also spread. 
In Oct., 1542. Regenshurg adopted the Reformation. Bavaria forbade 
its subjects having any intercourse with the heretical city, but did not 
venture an open assault upon it ; King Ferdinand would not have toler- 
ated in a rival such an attempt to extend its power. In the upper 
Palatinate, evangelical preachers had long been tolerated by the terri- 
torial diet. Xext in turn came the Keuhurg-Palatinate . Its young 
prince. Ottheinrich, called Osiander from Xuremberg, who introduced 
the Reformation. The prince joined the Smalcald League (154.3). In 
1543/the Elector Lewis, of the Palatinate, died. His brother, Frederic 
II., though not averse to the Reformation, did not formally introduce 
it into the Electoral Palatinate until 1546. In Austria, also, consider- 
ing the circumstances of the times, the new religious movement made 
daily progress. Ferdinand was neither able nor disposed to hinder its 
progress with the determined and bloody measures with which he had 
previously opposed it. 

7. The Beformation in the Electoral Principality of Cologne (1542- 
44). (Cf L. Ennen (Catholic), Gesch. d. Ref in d. Erzdiiic, Koln. 
Kiiln 1849.—:!/. Decker's (Cath.), Ilerm. v. Wied. Koln, l^¥).) — Her- 
mann V. Weid (^ 13, 5), Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, had studied 
Luther's version of the Bible, and become fully convinced that the 
Au^-sburs: Confession harmonized with its doctrines. After much 
hesitation he resolved to introduce the Reformation into his territory, 
supposing that the recess of the Regensburg diet, which recommended 
a Christian reformation of their several institutions to the prelates, 
obligated him to such a course. At the next diet, held in Bonn, March, 
1542, he reported what he had done, and received the most cordial ap- 
proval of his States. The elector hoped to realize in his domain the 
plan of union, which it was expected the Regensburg diet would secure 
for the whole country, but which was there frustrated. To accomplish 
this he summoned Bucer to his aid ; Gropper was to cooperate, but his 
contracted popish views soon led him to withdraw. Melanehthon took 
his place. Already in July, 1543, the elector was enabled to lay before 
his States a Reformed constitution, to which they fully assented. But 


meantime an opp>sitiun partv- was formed. The cathedral chapter and 
university resisted from regard for the papacy ; the Council of Cologne 
objected because it feared lest by the change its authority would be 
curtailed. The movement, however, steadily progressed, and it was 
hoped that the opposition would be gradually weakened, or at least 
prove harmless. In other respects the Cologne Reformation took a 
peculiar course ; the chapter was not secularized, but continued an 
ecclesiastical principality, only in an evangelical form. The Bishop 
of Miinster at once prepared to follow this example ; and had the work 
in Cologne proved permanent, a number of other chapters would doubt- 
less have adopted the same measures. (Cf. § IG, 2). 

8. Bmbarrajtsments of the Emperor (1543-44). — Soon after the Re- 
gensburg diet (1541), which had granted but inconsiderable aid against 
the Turks, Soliman had taken Hungary without opj:K>sition, He con- 
verted the principal church at Ofen into a mosque, and appointed a 
pasha with three tails over t he w hole country, which he proclaimed a 
Tufklsli province. Early in ^^^ a diet met in Sjyircs. Though there 
was much wrangling about religious matters, large aids were voted 
against the Turks, for which the Protestants obtained an armistice of 
five years after the termination of the war. The campaign against the 
Turks, however, commanded by Joachim II., accomplished nothing. 
Meanwhile new disputes arose with France, and Soliman prepared for 
another campaign. In this strait Charles summoned a diet at Xurem- 
hery (Jan., 1543). The Protestants demanded that the Regensburg 
declaration should be include«i in the recess of the diet, and the disso- 
lution of the existing imperial chamber. Ferdinand consented, but 
William of Bavaria declared that he would rather see the world perish, 
or the crescent rule over all Germany. The recess postponed the Bruns- 
wick affair until the emperor should be present, and guaranteed anew 
to the Protestants a five years' armistice ; but these demanded an in- 
disputable, permanent peace, and rejected the recess. A grant of aid 
against the Turks was out of the question. With the summer of 1543, 
apprehended dangers broke in upon the emperor from all sides : France 
seized upon the Netherlands, Soliman conquered Gran, the Danes 
barred the Sund against the emperor's subject^, a Turkish-French fleet 
held mastery over the Mediterranean, and had already taken Xizza, 
and the Protestants also assumed a threatening posture. Christian III. 
of Denmark, and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, sought admission to the 
Smalcald League (which, of course, could not be allowed, unless the 
landgrave, by his separate compact with Charles, would withdraw from 
it). The Duke of Cleves, also, broke the stipulated armistice. This 
provoked the emperor most of all. He hastened forth, and subdued 
Cleve and Geldern ; the Smalcald League had to allow it, on the land- 
grave's account (1543). Both countries were restore<l to Catholicism. 
The position of the emperor fhen somewhat improved. Cleve was dis- 
posed of; England and Denmark made peace with him. But his most 



dangerous foes, Soliman and Francis I., were still in arms. He still 
needed the most vigorous support of the empire, i. e. of the Protestants. 

9. The Diet of Spires (1544). — The diet of Spires ^vas opened by the 
emperor in Feb., 1544. He knew well that he could obtain help against 
the French or Turks only by making important religious concessions. 
And he yielded to this necessity. The recess allowed the Protestants 
to use the ecclesiastical property for the improvement of their churches 
and schools ; earlier unfavorable recesses were annulled ; Lutherans 
likewise were admitted as advisory members of the imperial chamber. 
The territory of Brunswick was ceded to the emperor for temporary 
sequestration, only its religion was to remain in statu quo. The adjust- 
ment of religious dissensions was referred to a "general, free, Chris- 
tian^^ council ; and if it could not succeed, matters should be fully and 
finally settled by a national convention, to be held the following fall, 
independently of the pope or a council. The emperor promised to bring 
a plan of reformation with him then, and allowed the other States to 
do the same. After such concessions the Protestants entered with 
spirit upon the consideration of the emperor's political propositions. 
First of all, he desired aid against the French. It was granted, and 
the same year yet he marched, with an army composed chiefly of Pro- 
testants, into France, and forced upon the king the Peace of Crespy 
(Sept., 1544). This would have been the time to prepare for the war 
against the Turks, according to the agreement at Spires. The Pro- 
testants burned with a desire to give the emperor proof of their zeal 
and devotion. Having confidence in the success of the national con- 
vention promised at Spires, the Elector of Saxony directed his theolo- 
gians to draw up a plan of reformation, to be laid before the conven- 
tion. This document, known as the Wittenherg Reformation, is re- 
markable for having proposed a new measure ; it guaranteed the 
prelates their spiritual and temporal prerogatives, their dignities, do- 
mains, and jurisdictions, as well as the right of ordination, visitation, 
and excommunication ; though, of course, on the condition that all this 
should be understood in an evangelical sense. 

10. Quarrels of the Emperor with the Evangelical States (1545-46). 
The recess of Spires, with its promise of a national convention, finally 
induced the pope to order the long-called-for Council at Trent. He 
trusted that its decisions would sever the emperor from the Protestants 
— but the very appointment of it, already, produced this result. After 
the Protestants had conquered the Peace of Cresp)y for the emperor, 
and thus cleared the way for his general policy, he desired to carry out 
his earlier scheme of a complete reformation of the whole Church, the 
execution of which had been checked by the premature death of 
Hadrian VI. But, to effect this, he could not exempt the Protestants 
from subjection to the council. At the diet of Worms (May, 1545), 
however, they decidedly refused consent. Charles assured them that 


he had no tliought of usin^ violence against them in matters of reli- 
gion, but insisted on his demand, and began to make secret prepara- 
tions. The Cologne affair (n. 7) also estranged him from them. The 
agitations wliieh tlie reformation of the archbisliopric excited in the 
Netherlands, were of the most threatening character for the system of 
government which obtained there. Hence the emjieror took part with 
the opposition, and admitted a complaint of the chapter against the 
elector. An energetic intercession of the Smalcald League aggravated 
his antipathies. The growing power of the league tilled him with ap- 
prehensions. Ifcitri/ of Brunswick had just madt? an attempt to rec(jver 
his domain, but was defeated by the united forces of llessen and the 
two Saxonies, and taken prisoner. Simultaneously Frederick II. com- 
menced the reformation of the Palatinate, and neg(jtiated for admission 
to the Smalcald League. Thus four of the six electors had already 
defected, and the fifth, Sebastian ofUeusenstamm, who, after the death 
of Cardinal Albert (1545), had been made Elector of Mayence, through 
the influence of Ilessen and the Palatinate, had promised to do the 
same. Charles became alarmed. He concluded an armistice with the 
Turks (Oct., 1545), and negotiated with the pope, who pledged all his 
possessions and his triple crown for the overthrow of tiie heretics. On 
D^^c^J ^ 1545. he opened the Council of Trent, and did not conceal that 
its purpose was to suppress the Protestants] Charles once more endea- 
vored to induce the Protestants to take part, and once more he insti- 
tuted a colloqui/ at Kegenshur(j (Jan., 154G). The zealous papists, 
Malvenda, Coc/dceus, and Billik, and a little later, Jul. v. Pjliujlc, were 
opposed by Bucer, Bretiz, and Major. The former would not yield a 
hair-breadth, and denunided a promise that no one should be told what 
transpired. Hence the colloquy failed. The horrible fratricide perjic- 
trated during that time upon a young Spaniard, John Diaz, in Neu- 
burg (whose brother Alphoiiso preferred his death to his joining the 
heretics), went unpunished, and furnished Protestants an instance of 
the way in which good Catholics thought heretics should be treated. 

11. Tjuther's Last Days (154C). (Cf. K. E. Forstemann, Denkm. d. 
Dr. M. L. errichtet. Nordh. 1840, and the Jubelschrr. v. Fa.si;/, Lpz. 
1840; Kdfhe, Jen. 1840; John, Magd. 1840). — AVhilst the storm was 
gathering which should soon burst upon the heads of the evangelical 
party, the mercy of God hastened the man, Avho had laid the immova- 
ble basis of a renovation of the Church, away from the struggles and 
trials of his completed labors. J^iifher dird of Eislehen, Feb. 18, 154('), 
at the age of 03 years. His lasf years were burdened with manifold 
trihulations. The thoroughly political character forced upon the Re- 
formation after the diet of Augsburg, was repugnant to him, but he 
could not alter it. Many things occurred in Wittenberg, also, of which 
he disapproved, and which caused him much anxiety and sorrow. 
Weary of his arduous labors, suffering violent bodily pains, and witli 
increasing debility, he often longed to die in peace, and his prayer was 



ansAvered. Early in 1546, the counts of Mansfeld called him to Eisle- 
ben, to settle the disputes then existing betAveen them. Thus engaged, 
he spent the last three weeks of his life in the place of his birth, and 
without anypa£ticuJaT_4)rejvious_yine§^ fen_.peacefully and^iappily 
asleeTrin~tHe[Lord7duTing^ His^corpsejw;as_taken 

to^ittenberg, and there deposited in the chapel of the castl e. 


All attempts at reconciliation in religious matters had failed. 
The pope, on the contrary, had ultimately consented to order a 
general coancil in some German city. The emperor turned to- 
wards it with his conciliatory schemes, and hoped that, as his 
hands were again free, since the conclusion of peace with France, 
he might carry out his idea of a reformation, i. e., thoroughly 
correct all hierarchical abuses, allow priests to marry, grant the 
cup to the laity, and yield the doctrine of justification by faith. 
But on this subject he quarrelled with the Protestants, and war 
broke out before the Smalcald confederates were aware of it. 
Still their strength far exceeded the emperor's ; but, through 
useless scruples, delays, and indecision, they allowed victory to 
escape them, when they had several certain opportunities of 
securing it. The power of the league was completely annihilated ; 
that of the emperor reached its highest point. The whole of 
southern Germany was compelled to submit to the odious Augs- 
burg Interim ; and even in northern Germany, despised Magde- 
burg alone maintained pure Protestantism, in spite of the em- 
peror and empire. 

1. Preparations for the Smalcald War (1546). (Cf. Hortleder, Handl. 
u. Auschr. V. d. Ursachen d. deutsch. Krieg. Frkf. 1617. 2 Bde. f. /. G. 
Jahn, Gesch. d. schm. Kr. Lpz. 1837. — F. A. v. Langenn, Moritz, Herz. 
u. Kurf. V. Sachsen. Lpz. 1841, 2 Bde.) — After the emperor had con- 
cluded a league with the pope against the Protestants, he tried to find 
confederates in Germany also. To the Duke of Bavaria he held out 
the prospect of the electoral dignity, to which he had long aspired. 
This succeeded, but to guard against unfortunate issues, the duke pro- 
mised only secret pecuniary aid. Charles next attempted to gain allies 
from among the Protestants themselves, whose mutual discords gave 
him hope of success. Margrave Hans of Kustrin and Duke Eric of 
Brunsioick-Calenherg , the former a son-in-law, the latter an uncle of 
the expelled and captured Prince of Wolfenbiittel, ofiered their services 
in the contest against the robbers of that invaded country. But Charles 
was more concerned to gain the young Duke Maurice of Saxony. The 


continued rivalry and variance between him and his uncle, the elector, 
gave ground to hope that he also might be won over. The attempt 
succeeded. For the electoral dignity of Saxony, and the greater part 
of the lands belonging to electoral Saxony, Maurice turned traitor. 
The emperor could, indeed, no more exempt him than the other two 
princes from a formal subjection to the council, but he promised them 
forbearance in the application of the decree of the council, and that in 
any case, the doctrine of justification, the cups for the laity, and the 
marriage of priests, should be guaranteed to their countries. Having 
thus secured Maurice, the emperor prosecuted his preparations quite 
openly, and made no secret of his intention to chastise some princes 
■who had shown contempt for his imperial dignity, and violently seized 
possessions not belonging to them, under the cloak of religion. The 
Smalcald confederates could no longer deceive themselves. They also 
made preparations for war. With this open rupture ended the diet of 
Regenshurg (June, 1546). 

2. The Campaign along the Danube (1546). — The northern cities were 
most zealous in their preparations. Uniting with Wiirtemberg, they 
sent a respectable army into the field, under the command of the vigi- 
lant ScJidrtlin, before the emperor had matured his preparations. Had 
the Protestant council of war in Ulm permitted, Schartlin would have 
marched forthwith to Regensburg, where the emperor was surrounded 
by an excited Protestant population, and without protection. But the 
council thought nothing should be done to irritate William of Bavaria, 
who was playing a neutral part. Then Schartlin wished to take Tyrol, 
and pay a visit to the Council of Trent. He had already started, when 
the council commanded him to return, in the foolish hope that King 
Ferdinand would remain neutral. Thus Charles gained time to collect 
his forces. Under date of June 20, 1546, he issued from Regensburg 
a ban edict against the Landgrave Philip and the Elector John Frede- 
rick, as vassals who had violated their duty and oath. Both published 
proclamations in defence of their course, entered the field with consi- 
derable forces, and joined Schartlin at Donawert. There papal des- 
patches to the Catholic cantons of Switzerland fell into their hands, in 
which the pope informed them that he had made a league with the 
emperor for the extermination of heretics, and promised plenary in- 
dulgence to all who would aid the crusade against them with prayers 
or money. Even after all the delays, the issue of the war would hardly 
have been doubtful, had the Protestants carried out their plans with 
unity, decision, and vigor. But in this they failed. The winter was 
approaching without their coming to a battle. Meanwhile, however, 
Maurice, (to whom the emperor had transferred the Saxon electorate, 
by a formal decree of Oct. 27, 1546), on pretence of friendly concern, 
took possession of the domain of the dishonored elector, and received 
the oath of allegiance. Tidings of these events constrained the land- 
grave and ex-elector to return to their countries, and Schartlin, in want 

II. —9 G 


of money and munitions, was unable even to establish permanent win- 
ter quarters in Franconia, for the protection of northern Germany. 
The whole country, therefore, was exposed to the emperor. One city 
after another capitulated, on more or less severe terms. Wiirtemberg 
and the Palatinate had also to yield. In regard to religious matters, 
the emperor wisely granted to all the same privileges he had promised 
before the campaign to his allied princes. At the beginning of 1547, 
he was master of the whole of southern Germany. He then disposed, 
also, of the Cologne affair (§ 15, 7). In April, 1546, the pope had pro- 
nounced the ban against its archbishop, and authorized Charles to exe- 
cute it. But the emperor prudently delayed, lest the elector should 
attach himself to the enemy. Now, however, Charles published the_ 
ban. His commissaries called a meeting of the States at Cologne, and 
made the coadjutor archbishop and elector, in spite of the opposition 
of the States. Hermann was ready to purchase the religious freedom 
of the country by a voluntary resignation ; but this was rejected, and 
having no power to resist, he resigned unconditionally. Thus the Rhine 
country was hopelessly lost to Protestantism. 

3. The Campaign of the Elbe (1547). — John Frederick entered Thu- 
ringia about the middle of Dec, 1546. He was received warmly and 
with rejoicings, and in a short time conquered not only his own do^ 
main, but the greater part of the Albertine district. The cities of lower 
Germany formed a league with him. The Bohemians, also, refused 
Ferdinand's demand that they should fight against their brethren in 
the faith, and on their own responsibility confederated with the ex- 
elector. John Fredei^ick once more assumed a highly important posi- 
tion, the danger of which the emperor fully appreciated. Hastily 
gathering a considerable army, Charles joined Ferdinand and Maurice 
in Eger, and by rapid marches moved towards the Elbe. At Miihlberg, 
he overtook his enemy. There was hardly a battle. John Frederick's 
troops were overpowered by the imperial army, of whose approach he 
had no knowledge, and he was taken prisoner (April 24, 1547). Sen- 
tence of death was pronounced upon him, as a rebel and heretic. But 
the council of war thought it more prudent to force from him by treaty 
the surrender of his fortress, than to waste time in uncertain attempts 
at conquest. In matters of religion the pious prince would not yield, 
but he resigned his electoral dignity, and consented to the surrender 
of his fortress, the transfer of the greater portion of his domain to 
Maurice, and imprisonment for life. The Landgrave Philip, meanwhile, 
had been able to do nothing, for want of munitions, money, and troops. 
The tidings of John Frederick's misfortune filled him with dismay. 
Unable to ofier any resistance, he surrendered unconditionally to the 
emperor. His son-in-law Maurice, and the Elector Joachim II., ofi'ered 
to act as mediators. In a document, which was immediately accepted 
in the case, the emperor vowed that " solche Ergebung weder zu Lei- 
besstrafe noch zu eioigem (al. einigem) Gef angniss gereichen sojle," fop 


the landgrave. Ranke's careful investigations have shown that the 
first version is undoubtedly the correct one. But in the further trans- 
actions in the matter, this compact, v\ath its document, was so far lost 
sight of, that both the mediators must have considered it set aside, and 
even feared they would offend the emperor by asking for its formal 
annulment. An imprisonment was not named in any of the subsequent 
transactions, nor in the final capitulation ; indeed the latter, in most 
of its conditions, assumed the personal freedom of the landgrave. In 
conformity with it, the landgrave, of course, surrendered himself at 
discretion, but the emperor promised an amnesty in advance. The 
landgrave was required to prostrate himself before him, to demolish 
all his fortresses but one, to give up all his arms, never to tolerate an 
enemy of the emperor in his territory, to enter into no leagues, to 
liberate Duke Henry of Brunswick, and restore him to his domain. 
The ceremony of prostration took place on July 19, at the residence in 
Halle. Both the electors, with the landgrave, then went unsuspiciously 
to sup, by invitation, wath the Duke of AlhOj. After supper, the duke 
declared that the landgrave was his prisoner. The electors remon- 
strated in vain with the duke, and the next day with the imperial 
councillors, who coolly produced the earlier document. The emperor 
was also entreated without avail. 

4. The Council of Trent (1545-47). — The Council of Trent was opened 
in Dec, 1545. At the very beginning, the pope, against the express 
will of the emperor, introduced resolutions which precluded the parti- 
cipation of the Protestants. The Scriptures and tradition were first 
discussed. The same authority was ascribed to the Apocrypha as to 
the other books of the Bible, and the Vulgate was acknowledged as the 
authentic version and only basis of all theological transactions, discus- 
sions, and sermons. Tradition was declared fully coordinate with the 
sacred Scriptures, only care was taken for once to settle and fix the 
limits of its contents. The total extermination of original sin by bap- 
tism was affirmed, the remaining concupiscence being pronounced no 
sin ; after baptism there were none but actual sins. The scholastic 
view of justification was, substantially, reasserted, although it was 
purged of its worst excrescences, and conformed as much as possible 
to scriptural modes of expression. Justification was made to consist 
in the actual conversion of a sinner into a righteous person — not only 
in the forgiveness of sin, but the sanctification and renewal of the 
inner man. It is effected not by an imputation of Christ's merits, but 
by an infusion of habitual righteousness, which enables man to secure 
eternal life by his own good works. It is not an actus Deiforensis, but 
an actus jpJiysicus, is effected not at once, and through faith alone, but 
gradually, under the training of the Churcli, through those means 
which it offers, and by man's free cooperation. The emperor, who saw 
his own conciliatory schemes set aside by these decisions, was greatly 
displeased, and peremptorily demanded that their promulgation should 


be postponed. The pope listened for a time, but as the interference of 
the victorious emperor in the affairs of the council assumed a more 
threatening character, he directed his legates forthwith to publish the 
suspended decisions (Jan., 1547), and a few weeks later, on pretence 
of a dangerous pestilence, transferred the council to Bologna (March. 
1547), where, however, it did no additional business. 

5. The Augsburg Interim (1548). (Cf. /. E. BieTc, das dreifache Int. 
Lpz. 1721. /. A. ScJimid, hist, interimistica. Ilelmst. 1750.) — Early 
in Sept., 1547, the emperor opened a diet at Augsburg . The humbled 
Protestants promised, almost unresistingly, to submit to the council, 
if it were restored to Trent, and its proceedings begun afresh. Charles 
energetically urged the pope to concede these unavoidable demands. 
The refusal of the pope compelled him once more to attempt effecting 
a religious union without the pope or council, and to institute an in- 
terim which should be the law for both parties until the action of a 
proper council could be obtained. King Ferdinand proposed Bishop 
Julius V. Ffiugk, the suffragan Bishop Michael Helding of Mayence, the 
Elector Joachim II., and his court-preacher John Agricola of Eisleben, 
as a committee to prepare the interim. Charles consented. Agricola's 
boasts of his influence in the committee were as vain as his magnilo- 
quent promises that large concessions would be granted were proven 
to be falsehoods. Joachim had enjoined it upon him to adhere to four, 
points (justification, the cup for the laity, the marriage of the clergy, 
and the setting aside of the opus operatum), but Agricola could not 
even, unqualifiedly, secure them. The second and third were granted, 
but in regard to the doctrine of justification, the Bishop of Naumburg 
could not go directly in the face of the decrees of Trent, whilst the 
Protestants on their part could make no concessions on this point. 
They agreed, therefore, to reject the inanis fiducia of faith without 
works, as well as the false confidence of resting in works without true 
faith, and to acknowledge both an inherent and imputed righteous- 
ness; — and if, on the one hand, they declared that God justifies men 
not on account of works, but of his mercy, and without any merit of 
man, they affirmed on the other that there might be works which 
transcended the divine commands, and that such were meritorious. 
Upon the mass they agreed more readily. Pflugk, indeed, clung to the 
idea of a sacrifice, but not in the sense of an atonement, but of a me- 
morial or thank-offering ; not as a repetition of the death of Christ, but 
as an appropriation of its fruits. In the doctrine of the Church, the 
power of the pope was essentially limited ; he was acknowledged only 
as the supreme bishop, in the sense of a primus inter pares, in whom 
the unity of the Church was visibly represented. On the other hand, 
the right of interpreting the Scriptures, and to ordain doctrines and 
usages according to it, was claimed exclusively for the Church. The 
seven sacraments were confirmed, including chrism and extreme unction, 
and special stress was laid upon transubstantiation. The duty of fast- 


ing and of praying to the Virgin and saints for their intercessions, all 
the ceremonies of Catholic worship, the pomp of processions, the festi- 
vals of saints, of Mary, and especially Corpus Christi, remained in full 
force. — This compromise received the emperor's entire approval, and 
even several Protestant princes believed that any wrong thus done to 
pure doctrine was richly compensated by the prospect of having some 
of their views legally introduced into Catholic countries. The Electors 
of Brandenburg and the Palatinate at once assented to the measure. 
Maurice found it more difficult to do so; he could not shut his eyes to 
the impossibility of getting the consent of his States. Finally he half 
consented, and the emperor took it as a full approval. Hans, of Kus- 
trin, and Wolfgang, of Zweibrilcken, decidedly opposed the plan, but 
Charles took no further notice of them than to say to them that in a 
short time a few thousand Spaniards would be sent into their districts. 
Then it came to the turn of the Catholic princes. William of Bavaria 
called up, apart from this, on account of supposed neglect on the part 
of the emperor, had consulted the pope, and decidedly rejected the 
Interim. The other Catholic States followed his example. The em- 
peror did not think himself powerful enough to compel their approval, 
and the recess of the diet made the Interim binding only on the Pro- 
testant States. The Landgrave Fliilip, whose power was completely 
broken, assented, but nothing could induce the brave-hearted John 
Frederick to do it. Even the pope persistently declined acknowledging 
the Interim, until in Aug., 1549, he authorized his bishops to tolerate 
the concessions it made for the Proteslants. 

6. The Introduction of the Interim (1548). — EveryAvhere the Interim 
had to be introduced by violence. This was first done in the cities of 
northern Germany. People and preachers steadfastly resisted it, but 
the magistrates let themselves be overawed by the threats and demon- 
strations of the emperor, and thus it was admitted by one city after 
another — by Kuremherg, Augsburg, and Ulm. Constance made a show 
of resistance, but it was outlawed, lost all its privileges, and instead 
of the Interim, popery was restored, and evangelical preaching pro- 
hibited on pain of death. Intimidated by this example, the other cities 
submitted to what was unavoidable. The Palatinate yielded at once. 
Wiirtemberg soon followed its example. All the ministers who refused 
to accept the Interim were banished and persecuted. About 400 faith- 
ful preachers of the Gospel, with their wives and children, wandered 
without food or shelter through southern Germany. Frecht, of Ulm, i 
was loaded with chains, and dragged after the imperial camp. John 
Brenz, of Swabian-IIall, one of the most decided opponents of the 
Interim, more than once, in his wanderings, miraculously escaped being 
captured. In northern Germany, the opposition was more persistent. 
The example of John Frederick encouraged others to imitate him. The 
opposition was concentrated in the cities of lower Germany, especially 
in Magdeburg, which had been under the imperial ban since the Smal- 
9* ' 


cald war. The fugitive opponents of the Interim gathered there from 
all parts; there alone, (in " God's chancery/') the press was still free 
to combat the Interim. A flood of tracts, satires, and caricatures issued 
thence, spread over all Germany, and fanned the inextinguishable 
hatred. The Landgrave Philip advised his son to accept the Interim, 
but his people would not consent. Even the Elector of Brandenburg 
could not carry it out in his domain, still less the Elector Maurice. 

7. The Leipsic or Small Interim (1548). (Cf. H. Eossel, Melanchth. 
u. d. Int., in his theol. works. Berl. 1847). — The Elector Maurice was 
surrounded by peculiar difficulties. Pressed by his States, whom ho 
had promised to protect in maintaining pure doctrines, and no less 
pressed by the emperor, who expected him at once to adopt the In- 
terim, he resolved to prepare a compromise of these adverse demands, 
with which both parties might be satisfied. To efiect this he needed 
the consent and aid of the Wittenberg theologians, above all of Me- 
layiclitlion. Melanchthon had for several years been greatly restrained 
in his theological views by Luther, and by the strictly Lutheran court 
of John Frederick ; but since Luther's death, and the change of dynasty, 
he felt more at liberty, but was also less decided. He was compliant 
beyond all expectations. His timid spirit feared that unconditional 
opposition would utterly destroy Protestantism, whilst obedience and 
concession would at least save the essentials of the Gospel as seed-corn 
for better times. In a letter to Carlowitz, he spoke in very moderate 
terms of a sketch of the Interim, approved of the restoration of old 
usages, and revelled in the remembrance of the powerful impressions 
which they had made on him in his youth. In his pliancy he so far 
forgot himself as to complain to this man, the most bitter enemy of 
Luther and of the noble John Frederick, of Luther's obstinacy and 
controversial spirit, and to utter odious insinuations against the former 
government. In an official opinion which he was requested to give, he 
said that it was necessary to adapt one'self to the sad times, and to 
approve and obey the will of the emperor, as far as it could be done in 
harmony with the essentials of evangelical faith. At Meissen, Torgau, 
Monkscell, and Jliterbock, the States had shown a more unmanageable 
and firm spirit than the theologians, and the subject of their conventions 
was extensively discussed. At length, at the diet of Leipsic, Dec, 22, 
1548, the Interim prepared by the Wittenberg theologians [Melanch- 
thon, G. Major, P. Eher, Bugenhagen, and Cruciger), according to Me- 
lanchthon's modified views, was adopted as the law of religious worship 
and usages for the countries of Saxony, and the theologians were 
directed to prepare a liturgy corresponding with the new Interim, 
which was accordingly published in July, 1549. Julius v. PJlugk was 
very well satisfied with this Leipsic Interim, and offered to recommend 
it to the emperor ; Agricola triumphed, the preachers of the Margravite 
naively wrote to the Wittenbergers, asking whether the incredible 
news was true, the letters of Calvin and Brenz lacerated Melanchthon's 


heart, zealous Lutherans everywhere were enraged, and denounced the 
measure, and the Protestants generally hated the Leipsic more than 
the Augsburg Interim. Its introduction was aided by imprisonment 
and exile, but hostility to it daily increased. The Leipsic Interim 
restored Catholic customs and ceremonies, almost without exception, 
as adiaphora, took no notice of less essential doctrinal differences, and 
set forth fundamental articles in such terms, that they might accord 
either with pure evangelical tenets or with the interemistic Augsburg 
Interim. The evangelical doctrine of justification was, indeed, not 
essentially altered, but it was not expressed in decided and unequivocal 
terms, and still less were Catholic errors distinctly and unambiguously 
rejected. Good works were declared to be useful and necessary, though 
not as meritorious of salvation. It was not said whether good works 
could be done heijond the requirements of the divine law. Concerning 
the Church and the hierarchy, the definitions of the Augsburg Interim 
were retained ; all the clergy should be subject and obedient to the 
pope, as the supreme bishop, and to other bishops who discharged their 
office according to the will of God, to edification and not injuriously. 
The seven sacraments were recognized, but not in the Romish sense of 
them. In the mass, the Latin language was restored. Saints' images 
were allowed, but not to be worshipped, and also the festivals of Mary 
and Corpus Christi, but without processions, etc. 

8. Resumption of the Council of Trent (1551). — In Sept., 1549, Paul 
III. dissolved the council at Bologna, the nullity of which had long 
been apparent. His successor, Julius III. (1550-55), who had been 
elevated by the imperial party, resolved at once to reopen the council 
at Trent, in accordance Avith the emperor's desire. The Protestant 
States declared themselves ready to take part in it, but demanded the 
reconsideration of its previous proceedings, as well as a seat and vote 
for their delegates. These demands the emperor was willing to grant, 
but the pope and prelates demurred. The council was opened on May 
1, 1551, with the discussion of the doctrine of the Lord's Supper. 
Meanwhile, the Protestants equipped themselves for it by drawing up 
new confessions of faith which should be made the basis of their trans- 
actions with the Council. MelancJitJion, whose courage began to revive, 
prepared the Confessio Saxonica (or, as he could properly call it, the 
Repetitio Conf. Augustanoe), in which we discover no further trace of 
the vacillation and duplicity of the Leipsic Interim. On the contrary, 
the true doctrine is set forth positively and polemically, with firmness 
and confidence, though in moderate and conciliatory terms. Brenz, 
also, who had still to remain in concealment, drew up the Wurtemberg 
Confession, by direction of his ruler, Duke ChristopTier. Both con- 
fessions were subscribed, likewise, by other States. The first Protest- 
ants arrived in Trent in Nov., 1551. They were the temporal delegates 
of Wurtemberg and Strassburg. In Jan., 1552, the delegates of elec- 
toral Saxony. On Jan. 24, they presented their demands to the Council, 


but despite the support of the imperial commissary, they were unable 
to carry them through. In March, the theologians of Wurtemberg 
and Strassburg arrived, with Brenz at their head. Melanchthon, and 
two Leipsic preachers, were on the way. Suddenly, Maurice put an 
end to the inextricable perplexities of the council. 

AUGSBURG. (1550-55). 

In 1550, the affairs of the Reformation were in a worse con- 
dition than at any previous time. Bound by the fetters of the 
Interim, it seemed like a culprit on whom sentence of death was 
about to be passed. But in this extremity there arose a man 
who burst the fetters, and restored strength and honor to the 
cause. He was the Elector Maurice. By betraying the Pro- 
testant cause, he had brought it to the verge of ruin ; by trea- 
chery towards the emperor, he rescued it. The treaty of Passau 
guaranteed full religious liberty to the Protestant States, and 
equal rights with the Catholics, until a new council could be 
convened. The Religious Peace of Augsburg finally removed 
this restriction also, and terminated the history of the German 

1. The State of Affairs in 1550. — It was a dark and perilous period 
for Germany. The emperor had reached the summit of his power, the 
end of all his desires and efforts. He now openly avowed his cherished 
plan of securing to his son, Don Philip of Spain, the succession in his 
imperial dignity. In the affairs of the empire he publicly assumed 
autocratic power, regardless of the rights of the States. In violation 
of treaties and capitulations, he retained the Spanish troops, who daily 
became more exacting, insolent, and oppressive. Although all the 
conditions were long fulfilled, on which the landgrave was promised 
freedom, Charles obstinately refused to liberate him. Protestant Ger- 
many was groaning under bondage to the Interim. The most that 
could be expected of the Council was the confirmation of the hated 
Interim ; and even this was uncertain. But one bulwark of evangelical 
liberty still stood in the emperor's way, the enthusiasm of the brave, 
outlawed city of Magdeburg. How long it might hold out, no one 
knew. Until the fall of 1550, all attempts to storm it had failed. Then 
Maurice undertook to execute the ban, by the emperor's direction, and 
at the cost of the empire. 

2. The Elector Maurice (1551). — Maurice had wholly alienated the 
hearts of his subjects. Many of his States were directing their atten- 
tion to his brother Augustus, whilst others thought of a restoration of 
the old electoral house. Throughout Protestant Germany he was re- 


garded with aversion. Had the smothered hatred exploded, he might 
easily have lost Germany, in spite of imperial aid. On the other hand, 
Maurice was still too much of a German and Protestant prince to give 
his unconditional approval to the emperor's dynastic and compromise 
measures, whilst, at the same time, he was personally aggrieved by 
the continued imprisonment of his father-in-law. Under these circum- 
stances he resolved to make amends, by treachery against the emperor, 
for the wrong he had done by treachery against his evangelical con- 
federates. Skilful in dissimulation, he vigorously prosecuted the siege 
of Magdeburg, but at the same time made a secret compact with the 
Margrave Hans of Kiistrin, Albert of Franconian-Brandenburg, and the 
sons of the landgrave, for the restoration of the liberty of religion and 
of the States. lie also opened negotiations with Henry II. of France, 
who gladly promised pecuniary aid. At length, Magdeburg capitulated, 
and Maurice entered the city on Nov. 4, 1551. The arrearages still due 
served as a pretext for not discharging the troops of the empire, and 
strengthened by the possession of Magdeburg, and by the subsidies 
which his confederates furnished, he threw off the mask, and issued 

V, public proclamations, in which he set forth a long list of accusations 
and complaints against the emperor, and declared that he would no 
longer submit to be. trampled upon by priests and Spaniards. All the 
interests of the emperor were once more at stake. In vain he looked 
to the Catholic princes for help. Without men or money, he was shut 
up in Inn.spruck, which could not endure a siege, and every way of 
escape to his hereditary domains seemed closed against him ; for, inde- 
pendently of his exposure to the confederated German princes, the 
Turks were watching him by sea, and the French by land. Maurice 
was on his way to Innspruck, in order, as he irreverently said, "to 

"""catch the fox in his hole." But the refractoriness of his troops de- 
manding their pay, detained him, and Charles gained time to flee 
from Innspruck. During a cold rainy night, suffering with severe 

-- illness, he fled over the mountains covered with snow, and found refuge 
in Villach. Three days later, Maurice entered Innspruck ; — the council 
had long been scattered. 

3. The Treaty of Passau (1552). — Before the flight of the emperor 
from Innspruck, Maurice had met King Ferdinand at Linz. lie there 
demanded, not only the liberation of the landgrave, but also the abro- 
gation of the Interim, a German national assembly for the purpose of 
effecting religious union, and, in case this could not be brought about, 
permanent and unconditional peace. Ferdinand was not averse to 
these demands, but the emperor, in spite of his embarrassment, indig- 
nantly rejected them. The negotiations at Linz, therefore, failed ; but 
their early resumption at Passau was agreed upon. Meanwhile, the 
flight of Charles from Innspruck, and the entrance of Maurice into the 
city, occurred. At the appointed time, delegates from most of the States 
arrived in Passau. The Protestants had once more a decided majority, 


and the Catholic States, by no means favorable to the dynastic schemes 
of the emperor, were more yielding than ever. Maurice resumed his 
Linz demands, and the States in the main assented to them. Ferdi- 
nand, also, agreed to them ; but not the emperor. Ferdinand went 
personally to Villach, and used all his eloquence to persuade Charles ; 
but in regard to the chief point, the demand of a permanent, uncondi- ^ 
tional peace, even if the States should succeed in establishing religious 
concord, the emperor would not yield. Ferdinand had to return to 
Passau without having accomplished his purpose, and the perseverance 
of Charles triumphed. The majority bowed to his firmness, and a treaty 
was concluded, which secured to the Protestants complete amnesty, 
universal peace, and equal rights, until a national assembly or general 
council could be held, to effect a religious union. Provision for such a 
council or assembly was to be made by the next diet. In the meantime 
the emperor had made great preparations for war. Frankford was the 
place of rendezvous. Maurice hastened to the city, and besieged it, but 
a sally of the besieged inflicted a heavy loss upon him, and a speedy 
conquest of the city was out of the question. At this juncture the 
Passau delegates arrived in his camp with the projected treaty. Had 
he refused to sign it, he would doubtless have been put under the ban, 
and his relative restored to the electoral dignity. He therefore signed 
it. Ferdinand had great difiiculty in obtaining the emperor's signature, 
who now thought himself able to maintain the conflict. The captive 
princes were thus, at length, set at liberty, and preachers who had 
been banished by the Interim returned to their homes. 

4. The Death of Maurice (1553). — Domestic and foreign disturbances 
occurred the following years. Of chief moment was the death of the 
Elector Maurice, whilst involved in a contest with his early friend and 
confederate, the Margrave Albert of Brandenburg, the son of the Mar- 
grave Casimir. Although a Protestant, Albert had stood with Maurice, 
in the Smalcald war, on the emperor's side ; with Maurice he also took 
part in opposition to the emperor. AVhilst Maurice attacked Charles 
personally, Albert laid the spiritual principalities and Sees under tri- 
bute, and compelled them to make the most disadvantageous treaties. 
After the treaty of Passau, which he did not sign, he continued the 
war against the spiritual princes on his own responsibility. Thus he 
fell out with Maurice. But Charles enlisted his services, and not only 
granted him full amnesty for all his pillages and infractions of the 
peace of the country, but even promised the recognition of all the 
treaties which had been forced from the bishops. In return, Albert 
assisted the emperor against the French, and then, on his own respon- 
sibility, prosecuted his invasions of German territories. Ere long he 
and Maurice were involved in an open war. In the battle of Sievers- 
hausen, July 11, 1553, Maurice gained a brilliant victory, but also 
received a fatal wound, of which he died after two days. Albert fled 
to France. His misfortune subdued his warlike spirit ; the religious 


impressions of his youth revived ; and the composition of the beautiful 
hymn : " Was mein Gott will, das gescheli allzeit/^ exhibits the great 
change which now took place in him. He died in 1557. The year 1554 
was wholly occupied with the gradual settlement of the internal dis- 
tractions of the empire. There was a predominant desire for final and 
permanent peace. In the dissensions of the last year, Protestants and 
Catholics were leagued together on both sides. In this way Maurice 
and Henry of Brunswick were closely united, and the latter now volun- 
-r- tarily tolerated Protestantism in his territory. 

5. The Bdifjious Peace of Augshurg (1555). (Cf. Lehmann, Acta 
publ. de pace rel. d. i. Reichverhandll. u. Protokk. d. Rel. Fr. Frkf. 
1707-0, fol.— G^. Litzel, Gesch. d. Rel. Fr. Frkf. 1755, 4to. — CA?-. W. 
SpieJcer, Gesch. d, A. Rel. Fr. Schleiz, 1854.) — It happened, fortunately 
for Protestantism, that the next diet, which by the treaty of Passau 
should have been held within a half year, did not convene for two and 
a half years ; for the intervening political distractions and embarrass- 
ments so far mellowed the temper of Charles, that he consented to 
what he had no power to alter. The diet of Augsburg was opened in 
\Feb., 1555. The emperor could not shut his eyes against the fact that 
the aim and results of all his past endeavors were about to perish ; but 
his pride and his conscience would not allow him personally to approve 
and sanction what was unavoidable. He therefore disclaimed all par- 
ticipation in the transactions — his brother might see to it, how to re- 
concile his course with his conscience, and settle the matter with his 
States. After a long and violent struggle, the Protestants carried the 
point of having the subject of a religious peace first taken up. Then 
followed a controversy about the official designation of both parties. 
The Protestants had to allow their opponents to be styled — adherents 
of the ancient Catholic religion : themselves — adherents of the Augsburg 
confession. The decree of perpetual, unconditional religious peace, 
then passed the electoral college without difficulty ; but in the council 
of the princes it met with violent opposition. There the papal legate 
Morrone (f 15, 2), unexpectedly made fanatical use of his influence, 
and Oito v. Truchsess, Bishop of Augsburg, solemnly declared that he 
could consent to no part of the plan proposed, and affirmed that he 
would rather forfeit property and life than take part in such negotia- 
tions. This firmness made a great impression upon the Catholic States ; 
but the Protestants, also, united more closely, and refused to yield. 

. Ferdinand inclined to their side. Nevertheless, the severest conflict 
was yet to be passed through, and it might even result in the hostile 
dissolution of the diet. Then the condition of affairs suddenly changed. 
Julius III. died. Morrone and Truchsess, both cardinals, hastened to 
Rome, to take part in the election of a new pope. Thus the power of 
the fanatical papal opposition w^s broken in the diet. The plan of a 

^^ peace was now carried ; but new disputes arose concerning the details 
of the peace. The Protestant States demanded that all should enjoy 


its advantages who, in_thej\iture, mightjembrace their confession. J^, 
the electoral college Cologne opposed this, but Treves turned the scale 
in favor of the demand. In the council of the princes the demand 
aroused a new storm. Finally, they united upon the simple, general 
statement, that "no^ne should be assailedjbr adhering to the Augs- 
burg confession.'' But the contest about this question merely formed 
the transition to another of infinitely greater importance, as to what 
should be done, if, in future, spiritual jprinces themselves should join 
that confession. This was the proper life-question of German Catho- 
licism ; to decide that, as the Protestants desired, would have dealt a 
death-blow to it. This the spiritual States full well understood, and 
struggled pro aris et focis. They urged the claims of the reservatum -^ 
ecclesiasticum, by which every defecting prelate lost not only his eccle- 
siastical dignity and prerogatives, but also, unavoidably, his temporal 
power and dominion. In this instance, the Protestants did not carry 
their point, not even in the electoral college. Daniel Brendel had just 
been appointed successor of the recently deceased Heusenstamm, as 
Archbishop of Mayence, which, thus far, had always voted for the Pro- 
testants, and Brendel had now to act with reference to the pop e's co n- 
firmation of his appointment. Both parties were obstinate. Two 
opposite drafts were submitted to Ferdinand, who hesitated to decide. 
Meanwhile, the States proceeded to the consideration of the peace of 
the country. This brought up the affairs of the imperial chamber. __^ 
The Protestants obtained an enactment, requiring~associate members 
to be sworn^ to maintain the Reli gious Pea ce, and to be selected equally— 
from both parties. At length, on Aug. 30, Ferdinand reported his 
decision. It was to be expected that he would support the opinion of 
the Catholic States in regard to ecclesiastic al r eservations ; but con- 
trary to all expectation, he went still further, and refused to confirm a /> 
perpetual unconditional peace. But, in regard to the latter point, he 
was evidently no t_ in earnest. On Sept. 6, he declared himself ready 
t o yield, provided the Protestants would do the same in regard to eccle- 
siastical reservations. His affirmation that he would never give that 
up, was so decided and solemn, that the Protestants^bandoned-all 
hope of changing his mind. But they determined~to sell their conces- 
sion as dearly as possible, by requiring legislative assurance that 
evangelical subjects of Catholic States should b e forever p rg^ted in 
the free enjoyment of their religion. But the Catholic prelates were 
unwil ling to su rrender the advantages of the_territorial system which 
the Protestants themselves had introduced (§ 6, 7). The subject led to 
the most violent debates, and the excitement hourly increased. Ferdi- 
nand settled the dispute bv a me(ij,y,pi_jnpasnre. It was decided that in 
matters of religion the States should have territorial power, but that 
subjects of a different faith, if refused the free enjoyment of their reli- 
gion, should be allowed to leave the territory without impediment, or 
loss of honor, property, or liberty. On Sept. 25, 1555, the recess was 


published. The hope of effecting a reconciliation in religious matters 
at some future time was by no means abandoned, but the lleligious 
Peace was not made contingent thereon. The maintenance of the peace 
was devolved upon th e Corpu s Catholicorum et Evangelicorum. The 
,i?eyb^m_e^ wji^n^t jidmittedjii_the Peace. In Germany, the political 
strength and extent of the Protestant and Catholic Churches were 
almost equa l. Over against the thre(^_spir]tual electors of Cologne , 
Mayenc e, and Treves, stood the three Protestant electors of Saxony , 
the Palatinat e, and Brandenburg ; and the power ofthe Protestant 
cities of the empire, as well as of most of the sm aller prin ces, nearly 
balanced that of Aust ria and Bavaria. 

G. Second Attemjjt to introduce the Reformation into the Electorate of 
C oloijne (158 2). — Ecclesiastical reservation was a mighty obstacle to 
the progress of Protestantism ; in fact it prevented its further territo- 
rial spread. The only attempt made to extend it, failed. In 1582, 
. Gebhard Truchsess, of Waldenberg, the Archbishop and Elector of 
C ologne, joined the Protestan t Church, niarried'^he Countess Aynes of 
Ma nsfeld, proclaimed unqualified religiousjiherty, and intended to 
convert his spiritual into a temporal electorate. His plan was highly 
appiw;^d^Jbj_the ^Ople and th e no bility, but the ca thedral c hapter 
opposed it with all its might. The pope fulminated a ban against him, 
and the Emperor, R udolph 1 1^ declared him^deposed. The Protestant 
princes ultimately, deser ted him, and the newly elected ArclilSishop, 
DnkQlTrnesi of Bavaria, overcam e him by force of a rms (15 84). The 
issue of Gebhard's attempt deterred several other spiritual princes who 
had contemplated a similar movement. (Cf. § 31, 2.) 


Cf. G. Weber, gesch. Darst. d. Calvinism, im Verhaltniss zum Staate 
in Genf. u. Frankr. Heidelb. 183G. 

The Reformation penetrated French Switzerland somewhat 
later than German Switzerland, and assumed a peculiar form. 
It IS primarily associated with the names of Farel and Viret, 
the forerunners of Calvin, who completed its organization. 
Calvin's powerful mind gained, for the system he adopted, a 
victory over Zwinglianism in Switzerland, in his lifetime already, 
and from Switzerland it spread triumphantly through the Re- 
formed Churches of other countries. 

1. Calvin s Forerunners. (Cf. M. Kirchhofer, Farel's Leben. Ziir. 
1831, 2 Bde.— CA. Schmidt, Etudes sur Farel. Strassb. ISZQ.— Chene- 
vilre, Farel, Froment, Viret. Strassb. 1836. — Jaquemot, Viret, reforma- 
teur de Lausanne. Strassb. 1836. — [Sch7nidt, Farel u. Viret, in the 
Leben, etc., d. Vater, etc., d. Ref. K. Elberf. I860].) — William Farel, 

IL— 10 

110 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (c E N T. 16 A. D.). 

a pupil and friend of the liberal exegete and critic Faber Stapulensis, 
(vol. i. I 120, 4), was born at Gap, Dauphin^, in 1482. When the Sor- 
bonne, in 1521, condemned Luther's doctrines and writings, Farel, who 
was known as a zealous adherent of Luther, had to leave Paris. He 
withdrew to Meaux, where Bishop Briqonnet kindly received him, and 
where he, and his friend Le Clerc, founded a Reformed congregation. 
But, in 1523, the authorities took measures against the movement. 
Farel fled to Basel, where he labored as a champion of reform (§ 10, 3). 
Next he went to Montbeliard. His reckless zeal often endangered his 
life. At length he had to flee. He first gained a firm footing in Neuf- 
chatel, where he succeeded in getting the Reformation introduced in 
Nov., 1530. In 1532, he left Neufchatel to labor in Geneva. But the 
civil authorities of the city could not protect him against the power of 
the bishop and clergy. He had to leave the city, and Anthony Fro- 
ment and Robert Olivetanus carried on the work. Violent agitations 
followed, the bishop withdrew, and fulminated the ban against the 
rebellious metropolis. Farel then returned to Geneva (1534), accom- 
panied by Peter Viret, the subsequent reformer of Lausanne. Viret 
was born at Orbe, in 1511, and during his studies at Paris had imbibed 
the principles of the Reformation. On this account he too had to shun 
Paris. He went to Orbe, and toiled zealously there for the spread of 
evangelical knowledge. There Farel learned to know him. The arrival 
of both these reformers, glowing with zeal, caused a struggle for life 
in Geneva, in which the Reformation triumphed. After a public dis- 
putation in 1535, the magistracy declared itself in favor of the new 
cause, to which Farel imparted doctrinal firmness by preparing a con- 
fession of faith. In 1536, Calvin passed through Geneva. Farel adjured 
him in the name of God to remain. Indeed Farel needed a co-laborer 
of Calvin's spirit and power, for severe struggles still awaited them. 

2. Calvin prior to his Labors in Geneva. (Cf. Theod. de Beze, hist, 
de la vie et mort de J. Calvin. Gen. 1564, 4to.) — (In opposition a libel 
by Bolsec, hist, de la vie de Calv. Par. 1577). P. Henry Leb. Calv. 
Hamb., 1836-45, 4 Bde. [transl. by Stebbing, N. York, 1854]. — J. J. 
Ilerzog, J. Calv. eine biogr. Skizze. Bas. 1843. — /. M. Audin (Catholic), 
Gesch. d. Leb. d. Lehre u. Schrifteu Calvin's, aus d. Franz, v. Egger, 
Augsb., 1843.) — John Calvin, a son of the episcopal procureur Gerard 
Caulvin, was born, 1509, in Noyon, Picardy. Intended for the priest- 
hood, he held a benefice already in his twelfth year. Intercourse with 
his relative, Rob. Olivetan, awakened doubts in his mind as to the 
truth of the Catholic system. This, together with a special preference 
for politics, led him to relinquish his benefice, and engage in the study 
of law, which he prosecuted at Orleans and Bourges with zealous assi- 
duity. In Bourges, however, a German, Melchior Wblmar, professor 
of Greek, exerted so powerful an influence upon him, especially through 
the study of the Scriptures, that he resolved thenceforth to devote him- 
self exclusively to theology. To this end he went to Paris, 1532. There 


he zealously embraced the principles of the Reformation. A remark- 
able occurrence soon caused his hasty departure from the city. The 
recently appointed rector of the Sorbonne, KicJiolas Cop, had, accord- 
ing to custom, to deliver a discourse on All-Saint's day, 1533. Calvin 
wrote it for him, and gave utterance to views which had never before 
been preached there. Cop read it all, and escaped imprisonment by 
timely flight. Calvin also found it advisable to leave Paris. The 
bloody persecutions of Protestants under Francis I. led Calvin, at 
length, to resolve to leave France. In 1535, he went to Basel, where 
he became intimate with Capito and Grynoeus. During the same year 
he issued the first edition of his Institutio Relig. Christianae. It was 
designed as a vindication of the Protestants in France, whom Francis I. 
was persecuting, under the pretence of quelling Anabaptist and insur- 
rectionary movements ; hence it was dedicated to the king in an earnest 
and candid preface. Not long afterwards he left Basel, and went to the 
court of the Duchess Renata of Ferrara, a sister-in-law of the French 
kins:, and a warm friend of the Reformation, to solicit her interference 
on behalf of his oppressed brethren. But having failed in this attempt, 
he set out on his return. In Geneva, Farel and Viret detained him 
(1536), and succeeded in having him appointed preacher and teacher 
of theology. On Oct. 1, 1536, the three reformers, in a public disputa- 
tion at Lausanne, vindicated the principles of the Reformation. Vir-et 
remained in Lausanne, and completed the work of the Reformation 

3. Calvin's First Period of Labor in Geneva (1536-38). — In Geneva, 
as elsewhere, there sprung up a movement simultaneously with the Re- 
formation, and in opposition to it, which aimed at tearing down existing 
institutions, and emancipating itself from all law and order. The doc- 
trines of these Geneva Spirituels and i{&e?fm5 were thoroughly pan- 
theistic ; they made God and man identical, sin a mere conceit, marriage 
a hateful infringement on personal liberty, the Scriptures nothing, and 
the so-called spirit everything. In his conflict with this dangerous 
party, which found much favor with the aristocratic youth of Geneva, 
Calvin displayed the full power of his consistent and determined mind, 
and he sought to subdue it by an inexorably severe Church discipline. 
lie instituted an ecclesiastical consistory, which had the power of in- 
flicting heavy civil penalties, as well as of excommunication. This not 
only roused the Libertine party to violent opposition, but excited the 
jealousy of the magistrates. Both conspired for the overthrow of the 
consistory, which placed the city under ban and interdict. The magis- 
trates banished the preachers (April, 1538). Farel went to Neufchatel, 
and remained there until his death (1565). Calvin went to Strasshurg, 
where Bucer, Capito, and Hedio procured him a post as professor and 
preacher. During his three years' residence there,' he often officiated 
as tlie delegate of Strassburg, and was thus brought into intimate re- 
lations with the German reformers, especially with Melanchthon, 


(Frankford, Ilagenau, Worms, and Regensburg (Cf. § 14, 15). But he 
stiir kept up close correspondence with Geneva, and his friends there 
did all in their power to turn the minds of the council and citizens in 
his favor. In this they found it easier to succeed, as the Libertine 
party had carried its disorders to the furthest extreme since the over- 
throw of the theocratic consistory. By a decree of the council, Oct. 20, 
1540, Calvin was most honorably recalled. After protracted considera- 
tion he returned in Sept., 1541, and now prosecuted his work, with in- 
creased vigor and energy, to its legitimate completion. 

4. Calvin's Second Residence in Geneva (1534-64). — Immediately 
after his return, Calvin restored the consistory, and through it exer- 
cised almost unlimited authority. It was a thoroughly organized in- 
quisitorial tribunal, which kept strict watch over the moral and reli- 
gious conduct of the citizens, called them to account for every suspicious 
expression, banished the incorrigible, and put dangerous persons to 
death. The Ciceronian translator of the Bible, Sebastian Castellio, 
promoted by Calvin to the rectorship of the Genevan school, fell out 
with the severe moral discipline and the rigidly maintained orthodoxy 
of the Calvinistic rule, charged the clergy with arrogance and pride, 
and controverted, in Pelagian style, the doctrine of predestination. 
Calvin assailed him with such violence, that Castellio thought it prudent 
to get out of the way of further proceedings, by fleeing to Basel. A 
Genevan physician, Jerome Bolsec (previously a Carmelite monk in 
Paris), was put in prison for speaking rather freely of Calvin's doctrine 
of predestination, and then banished (1551). Subsequently he avenged 
himself by writing a biography of Calvin, which teemed with bitter 
invectives. Michael Servetus (§ 28, 2), a Spaniard, fared still worse, for 
denying the doctrine of the Trinity. Bucer, Melanchthon, and Beza, 
approved of his execution. Calvin died. May 25, 1564, and committed the 
prosecution of his work to his milder friend, Theodore Beza (died 1605), 
the learned critic, translator, and expounder of the New Testament. 

5. Calvin's Works. — Of the numerous works of Calvin, the Institiitio 
christ. relig. is the most important ; it corresponds with Melanchthon's 
loci, but is more complete in its formal scientific construction (1535)* 
It exhibits Calvin's religious depth of thought, the speculative power 
and copiousness of his mind, the bold consistency of his thoughts in 
pursuing a theory to its last results, combined with a clear and beauti- 
ful style, and surprising massiveness of conception. Next to the Insti- 
tutes, his expositions of nearly all the books of the Bible are most dis- 
tinguished. In these, also, he proves himself to be a man of brilliant 
acuteness, religious geniality, profound Christian sentiment, and con- 
siderable exegetical talent ; but, at the same time, he betrays a hyper- 
critical disposition, and a defiant adherence to doctrinal prejudices. 
Moreover, we do not find in his exegetical works the genial warmth 
and childlike devotion to the text, which so eminently distinguished 


Luther, whilst they are formally more scientific and pregnant. On the 
pulpit, Calvin was the same strict and consistent logician, as in his 
theological and polemic writings. lie had not a particle of Luther's 
popular eloquence. The best edition of his works is that of Amster- 
dam, in 9 folio volumes. 

6. Call-ill's Doctrinal System. — Calvin thought Zwingli far inferior 
to Luther, and did not hesitate to pronounce the doctrine of the former 
concerning the Lord's Supper, profane. He never stood in any close 
personal relation with Luther (who highly esteemed him), but was in- 
timate with Melanchthon, and exerted some influence over him. Far 
as he surpassed Zwingli in religious depth and fervor, and decidedly as 
his views approximated those of Luther, he stood, in the fundamental 
j)rinciple of his system, on the same basis with Zwingli, and not with 
Luther. Fundamentally, he sustains the same relation as Zwingli to 
the principles of the Reformation. His expositions of the Scriptures 
are incomparably more profound than Zwingli's, and often more tho- 
rough, acute, and scientific than Luther's ; but he could not enter into 
the inmost sense of the text with the childlike freedom from prejudice 
and simplicity of Luther, and exhibit its meaning with the same acute- 
ness and ease. He was as decidedly hostile to ecclesiastical tradition 
as Zwingli. On the doctrine of the person of Christ, he, like Zwingli, 
inclined to Nestorianism, and therefore could not apprehend the doc- 
trine of the Lord's Supper in the fullness of Luther's faith. He taught, 
as Berengar had done previously, that the believer was, through faith, 
fed only spiritually, but in a real way, by the body and blood of Christ 
in the supper (through a virtue issuing from the glorified body of 
Christ, seated at the right hand of God), but that unbelievers receive 
mere bread and wine. In regard to justification, he agreed formally 
with Luther, but difiered fundamentally in maintaining a rigid legality, 
almost like that of the Old Testament. The inexorable consistency 
with which he carried out his views of predestination, made them ex- 
ceed Augustine's doctrine in inflexible rigidity and severity. 

7. Triumph of Calvinism over Zwinglianism. — After Zwingli's death, 
Henry Bullinger stood at the head of the clergy of Zurich. Calvin 
opened a theological correspondence with him, and they soon came to 
a mutual understanding with regard to their views. In the Consensus 
Tigurinus (1549), prepared by Calvin, German Switzerland embraced 
Calvin's view of the Lord's Supper ; and by the Consensus Genevensis 
(1554), his doctrine of predestination secured a victory. By means of 
extensive correspondence, and his numerous works, his influence reached 
far beyond the limits of Switzerland. Geneva became the refuge of all 
religious fugitives ; and the university which Calvin founded there, 
furnished almost all foreign Reformed congregations with pastors 
trained in the strictly Calvinistic spirit. The Second Helvetic Confes- 
sion (Conf. Helv. posterior), prepared in Zurich by Bullinger, at the 

10* H 


request of Frederic III. of the Palatinate, by far the most importanJL 
of all the Reformed confessions,* was published in 1566, was acknow- 
ledged by all the Reformed countries (last of all by Basel), and is de- 
cidedly Calvinistic. 


A religious movement so powerful as the Reformation, could 
not be confined to the countries in which it originated (Germany 
and Switzerland). Its mighty waves soon rolled beyond the 
parent countries, and spread to the utmost boundaries of Europe. 
And the conscious or unconscious sense of the need of ecclesias- 
tical improvement was so deep and general, that the movement 
was everywhere welcomed. Opposition was, indeed, also made 
to it on all sides, but it is indubitably certain, that it would have 
triumphed, even to the remotest corners of Europe, if the contest 
had been conducted on that field alone, where all such contests 
should be settled, and with those weapons which alone should be 
employed. But the champions of the Catholic Church checked 
the steady progress of the Reformation by means of armies, 
stakes, and scaffolds, and thus succeeded in wholly suppressing 
the cause in some countries, and in having it restricted in others 
to the limits of a merely tolerated sect. In general, the German 
Lutheran confession was received with more favor in the North ; 
the Swiss Reformed in the South ; the former prevailed in Scan- 
dinavian, the latter in Roman countries ; whilst both were re- 
ceived, side by side, by Slavonians and Magyars. That Luther- 
anisra, which first struck root in Roman countries also, was sub- 
sequently supplanted by the Reformed faith, was owing to various 
external causes. The first of these was the powerful ascendency 
and wide-spread influence acquired by Geneva through Calvin's 
illustrious labors, by its active intercourse with other countries, 
through countless fugitives, travellers, and students, and partly, 
also, by affinity of language and nationality, geographical proxi- 
mity (at least in the case of France and Italy), etc. But these 
external reasons furnish only a partial explanation of the fact, 
indeed they indicate, already, the existence of internal causes. 

^^ This is one among sevci-al misstatements concerning the Reformed Church, 
into which the author's strong Lutheran prejudices have betrayed him. The Hei- 
delberg C'ltcchism (^ 24, 1). published three years before (1563), has the preemi- 
nence even over the Helvetic Confession. — Tr. 


And these lie, as it seems, in the fact that their national pecu- 
liarities were more strongly attracted by the Genevan than the 
"Wittenberg plan and method of effecting a Reformation. Two 
things especially led to this : the tendency of the Eomanic na- 
tional cliaracter to extremes, which found fuller satisfaction in 
the more thorough and radical measures of the Genevan Ilefor- 
mation, than in the more moderate and compromising course of 
tlie Wittenbergers ; a preference for a democratic republican 
form of government, which the former favored. 

Beyond the German confederated States, tlie Lutheran Re- 
formation first took root (1525) in Prussia, the seat of the 
Teutonic knights (§ Y, 3), then in Scandinavian domains. It 
acquired complete and exclusive predominance in Siveden (1527), 
Denmark and Norway (153T). It penetrated the countries along 
the Baltic within the first twenty years. In Livonia and Estho- 
nia, all opposition was overcome as early as 1539. In Courland, 
it was not fully organized until some twenty years later. The 
Reformed Church was exclusively established in England (1562), 
Scotland (1560), and in the Netherlands (1579). Mere toleration 
was secured for the Reformed Church in France (1598), for the 
Reformed and Lutheran Churches in Poland (1573), in Bohemia 
and Moravia (1609), in Hungary (1606), and in Transylvania 
(1557). In Spain and Italy alone could the Catholic Church ^^^ 
completely master the Reformed movement. A few attempts to 
enlist the Greek Church in favor of the cause, proved fruitless. 

1. The Beformation in Siceden. (Cf. /. A. Schinmcyer, Lebensbeschr. 
(1. drei schwed. Reformatoren. Lllb. 1783. — P. E. Thyselius, Einfiihr. 
d. Ref. in SdiAV. ; in the hist, theol. Ztschr. 1846. II.) — Swedenhfn^ 
freed itself of the Danish yoke, which, for fifty years, had been im- 
^osed^pon it by the Colmar union (1397). But the higher clergy was 
constantly conspiring with Denmark. Gustaviis Trolle had an open 
rupture with the regent, Sten Sture, and was deposed. Leo X. placed 
Sweden under ban and interdict, and Christiern 11. of Denmark sub- 
dued the country (1520), and during the coronation ceremonies, com- 
manded 600 of the first men of Sweden, whom the archbishop had 
pointed out as enemies of the Danes, to l)e executed by the massacre 
of Slochholm. But Christiern had scarcely reached home, when Gus- 
ifivus Vasa returned from Llibeck, whither he had fled, drove out the 
Danes, and was chosen king (1521). During his exile, already, he had 
become inclined to the Reformation ; he now adopted it as a confederate 
against the predominance of the resisting clergy. Two brothers, Ohms 
and Lawrence Peterson, who had studied in Wittenberg, had labored 


for the spread of evangelical doctrines in their natiA-e country since 
1519, in connection with Lawrence Anderson, episcopal vicar at Streng- 
nas. Gustavus Vasa appointed Anderson his chancellor ; Olaus was 
chosen preacher at Stockholm ; his brother, professor of theology at 
Upsala. But during the king's absence two Anabaptists, Melcliior Ring 
and Knipper dolling (§ 13, 6), arrived in Stockholm, gained adherents, 
and began to tear down images, altars, and organs. Even the impetu- 
ous Olaus alloAved himself to be shaken by them. Fortunately the 
king soon returned, and by energetic measures speedily put an end to 
the disorders. In 1524, he instituted a disputation at Upsala, in which 
Olaus Petri and Peter Galle opposed each other. Galle used decretals 
and councils as his weapons ; Olaus used only the Bible. The king 
declared Olaus victorious. Meanwhile Anderson translated the New 
Testament, and Olaus, aided by his learned brother, undertook the 
translation of the Old Testament. But notwithstanding all this, the 
Reformation made but slow progress, for the people clung tenaciously 
to the ancient faith. Moreover, the overbearing bishops caused the 
king much trouble. Wherefore, at the diet of Westerds (1527), he 
earnestly submitted to the States the alternative of his abdication, or 
the Reformation. The clergy violently opposed the latter, and Gustavus 
went away from the assembly in tears, firmly resolved to lay down his 
sceptre. Then the love of the people for their king burst the fetters by 
which the clergy held them bound. They did not rest until Gustavus, 
after much opposition, resumed his abandoned crown. The States had 
now to yield to his wishes. The Reformation was introduced into the 
whole country without resistance or force, and the diet of (Erehro 
(1529, 1537), and Westerds (1544), completed the work. Episcopacy 
was transferred to the new organization, and in worship many Catholic 
ceremonies were still retained (exorcism, the elevation of the host, 
prayers for the dead, sacerdotal robes), from connivance at the preju- 
dices of the people. Gustavus died in 1560. Under his son Eric, a 
Catholic reaction sprung up, and his brother, John III., secretly con- 
fessed Catholicism to the Jesuit Possevin; he Avas prompted to this by 
his Polish wife, and the prospect of obtaining the crown of Poland. 
John's son Sigisnmnd, King of Poland, publicl}'' professed the Catholic 
faith. But his uncle, Charles of Sudermania, a zealous Protestant, 
having been appointed regent after John's death, immediately assem- 
bled the States at Upsala, 1593, where the Latin missal imposed upon 
the country was prohibited, and the Augsburg Confession was rein- 
stated. But as Sigismund continued to favor Catholicism, the States 
declared (1604) that he had forfeited his throne; and his uncle, Charles 
IX., was made king. From Sweden the Reformation had long before 
spread into Finland. 

2. The Reformation in Denmark. (Cf. E. Pontoppidan, kurzgef. 
Ref. Gesch. d. dan. K. Koph. 1734.— _F. Mmiter, K. G. v. D. Bd. III.— 
C. H. Clauss, Christian III. Ein biogr. Beitrag zur Gesch. d. 16. 


Jahrh. Dessau, 1859.) — Although Christian II., nephew of the Elector 
of Saxony, and brother-in-Uuv of the Emperor Charles Y., had leagued 
witti the Catholic Iiierarchy for the suppression of the national party 
in Sweden, he took sides in Denmark with the friends of the Reforma- 
tion, against the predominant clergy. At his request, Martin Reinliard 
was sent to him from "Wittenberg (1520). Roinbard's preaching met 
with great favor, and was supported by the Carmelite provost, Paul 
Elid. But the clergy compelled the former to flee, and Elia, fearing a 
violent outbreak, withdrew. Christian now (1521) endeavored to secure 
the services of Luther, or at least of Carhtadt. The latter went, but 
as the affairs of Christian grew worse, he had soon to leave again. At 
length the clergy and nobility renounced allegiance to the king, and 
transferred the crown to his uncle, Duke Frederick I. of Schleswig and 
Ilolstein. Christian fled to Saxony, was there led fully by Luther 
to embrace the Reformation, even converted his wife, the emperor's 
sister, and had the first Danish translation of the New Testament 
printed at Leipsic, and circulated in Denmark. But in order to secure 
the emperor's aid, he abjured the evangelical faith at Augsburg (1530). 
In 1531, he conquered Norway, and on receiving the oath of allegiance, 
he had to pledge himself to protect the Catholic Church. In 1532, 
however, he had to surrender himself to Frederick I., and spent his 
last years {ob. 1536) in prison, where he enjoyed leisure to repent of 
his apostacy, and to confirm his views of truth by studying the Danish 
Bible. But Frederick I., also, was from the first favorable to the Re- 
formation. His hands were tied, however, by the terms of his election. 
Ilis son Christian carried forward the work all the more vigorously in 
the duchies, and by this course encouraged his father. In 1526, he 
publicly confessed the evangelical faith, and called John Tausen, the 
Danish reformer, a pupil of Luther, who had labored for the Gospel 
amid much persecution since 1524, as preacher to Copenhagen. He 
laid the basis of a general reformation for the country, at the diet of 
Odeiise [1527], by limiting episcopal jurisdiction, proclaiming universal 
religious liberty, allowing priests to marry, and monks to forsake their 
cloisters. At the same diet, Tausen submitted to the States a separate 
confession [Confessio Hafnica). From that time the cause spread 
rapidly, and the considerate monarch directed his attention to check, 
by timely measures, violent disorders which broke out in different 
places. He died in 1533. The States refused to acknowledge his son, 
Christian III. But when George Wnllenweber, burgomaster of Llibeck, 
sought to avail himself of the prevailing anarchy, and bring Denmark 
under the dominion of the proud commercial city, the States of Jutland 
hastrly recognized Christian III. He expelled the Liibock foes, and by 
T536 subdued the whole country. Then he resolved to put an end to 
the machinations of the clergy. In August, 1536, he ordered all the 
bishops to be seized in one day, and at the diet of Copenhagen they 
were formally deposed. Their property was cast into the royal trea- 


sury ; all the monasteries "were secularized ; a part was bestowed upon 
the nobility, and a part converted into hospitals and schools. John 
Bvgenliagea was called over to complete the organization of the Church. 
He croAvned the royal couple, drew up a liturgy, which the diet of 
Odense adopted, taught at the university of the capital until 1542, and 
then retarned to Wittenberg. Lutheran superintendents were substi- 
tuted for the bishops, though this latter title was afterwards restored. 
The Augsburg Confession became the standard of doctrine. Simulta- 
neously the Reformation was introduced into Norway, which took the 
oath of allegiance to the king in 1536. Olaus Engelhreclitsen, Arch- 
bishop of Drontheim, fled to the Netherlands with the treasures of the 
Church. Iceland resisted the movement for some time, but yielded in 
1551, when the power of the insurrectionary priests was broken. 

3. The Reformation in Coiirland, Livonia, and Esthonia. (Cf. Brach- 
mann, d. Ref. in Livl., — in the " Mittheill. aus d. livl. Gesch." Y. I. 
Riga, 1849. — Th. Kallmeyer, d. Begriind. d. ev. luth. K. in Kurl. [do. 
VI. *T^ 2,] Riga, 1851.) — Livonia was under the dominion of the Teutonic 
Knights of Prussia, but had its OAvn Grand-Master, who then was 
Walter v. Plettenberg, who, in 1521, dissolved his connection with the 
Grand-Master Albert, and was recognized as an independent prince of 
the German empire. Soon after this, Andreio Knbpken, a school-teacher, 
driven from Pomerania as a Lutheran heretic, arrived in Riga (1521). 
He was appointed archdeacon, and in a moderate way preached evan- 
gelical doctrines. Ere long, Sylv. Tegetmeir, of Rostock, became his 
assistant, and preached so violently against image-worship, that the 
excited populace forced open the churches, and destroyed the images. 
Nevertheless, he was protected by the council and General. John Loh- 
midler, city clerk in Riga, cooperated with them, with untiring zeal, 
for the establishment and spread of the Reformation in the city and 
country. As early as 1522, he opened a correspondence with Luther. 
Melchior Hoffmann, a furrier from Swabia, whose Lutheranism, how- 
ever, had already degenerated into Anabaptist fanaticism, labored in 
Dorpat. The monastery of CEsel passed over to the evangelical Church 
without opposition, and at the same time a Lutheran congregation was 
formed in Reval. In 1523, Plettenherg sent his chancellor to Luther, 
who took that occasion to address an earnest letter of instruction and 
admonition to the Christians of Livonia. In spite of constant collisions 
and conflicts with the archbishop, but supported by the Grand-Master, 
Riga maintained its evangelical confession, and joined the Smalcald 
League in 1538. When William of Brandenburg, the brother of the 
Duke of Prussia, became archbishop (1539), he favored the evangelical 
cause, and all opposition to it ceased, so that in a short time all Livonia 
and Esthonia embraced the Augsburg Confession. But political diffi- 
culties (caused especially by the Russians), compelled the last Grand- 
Master, Gotthard Kettler, to cede Livonia to Sigismund Augustus of 
Poland, though with a formal guarantee of the evangelical faith (1561). 


Kettler received Courhmd and Semgallia as a hereditary duchy, under 
Polish supremacy, and devoted his untiring care to the evangelical 
organization of his country, in which he was energetically aided by 
Stephen B'dlau, the first superintendent of Courland. 

4. The Reformation in England. (Cf. A. W. Bohme, Acht BUcher 
V. d. Ref. d. K. in Engl. Altona, 1734. — C. Fr. Stdudlin, K. G. v. 
Grossbrit. Gottg. 1849. Bd. l.— G. Weber, Gesch. d. akath. Kirchen u. 
Secten. v. Grossbrit. Lpz. 1845, etc. 2 Bde. — /. v. Gumpach, Gesch. d. 
Trennung d. engl. K. v. Rom. Darmst. 1845. — [For English lit. on this 
subject see: Herzog's Theol. and Eccl. Encycl., Philad. 1860, art. 
England, etc. Also: Shorfs Hist, of the Ch. of England, etc. Philad. 
1843. — Massingberd, the Engl. Ref. ; Southei/'s Book of the Church ; 
and D'Aiibigne's Ref. vol. Y.—TR.].)—Henr7/Ylll. (1509-47), King of 
England, after his literary feud with Luther (§ 5), preferred prosecuting 
his vocation as "defender of the faith,'' by me'ans of the gallows and 
the sword. But his adulterous love for Anna Boleyn impelled him to 
renounce the pope (1532), who refused to annul his marriage with 
Catharine of Aragon, his brother's widow, for fear of offending her 
nephew, the emperor. Nevertheless, Henry wished to continue a good 
Catholic in doctrine, and so raved both against Lutherans and Papists. 
Luther's works were diligently read in England, and two noble Eng- 
lishmen, John Frith and William Tgndale, furnished their native coun- 
try with a translation of the New Testament, published as early as 
1526, at Antwerp. [Two Gospels were published at Hamburg in 1524. 
Tr.] Frith was rcAvarded by being burnt at the stake, 1533, and Tgn- 
dale by being beheaded in the Netherlands, 1535. The Catholic bishop, 
Fisher, also suflPered martyrdom, and the former chancellor, Sir Thomas 
More (Vol. I., § 120, 4). Thomas Cranmer was chosen to carry out the 
king's plan of reform, and to this end he was elevated to the arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury ; but at heart Cranmer was a zealous friend 
of the Swiss Reformation, and secretly did all he could to introduce it. 
Under the youthful Edivard VI. (1547-53), he could act with less re- 
straint. At his solicitation, many foreign theologians were called to 
England, among whom were Martin Bucer [ob. 1551), Paid Fagius of 
Strassburg, Peter Martyr Vermillio, Bernard Ochino, John a Lasco, 
(see below, 8, 13), and others, who, as professors and preachers, pro- 
claimed pure doctrine, mostly according to the Reformed system. In 
unison with the noble Bishop Ridley, Cranmer prepared (1549) a liturgy 
for the English Church, and in 1552 drew up 42 articles of faith. The 
former was a medium between the Catholic and Protestant form of 
worship, the latter a medium between Lutheranism and Calvinism. 
After Edward's early death, the fanatical Catholic Mary, Catharine's 
daughter, obtained the crown (1553-58). Ridley and Cranmer were 
burnt (1556), and the devout Mary raved with unsparing cruelty against 
all who confessed the Gospel. Two hundred and seventy-seven persons, 
bishops, preachers, and laymen, women, children, and aged persons, 

120 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (c E N T. 16 A.D.). 

perished in the flames, and measures were already adopted to establish 
a permanent inquisition, when Mary was called away from her bloody 
work. She was followed by Elizabeth (1558-1603), the daughter of 
Anne Boleyn. Educated by Cranmer in the Protestant faith, she 
triumphantly established the Reformation in England. On the basis 
of the previous labors of Cranmer and Ridley, the Convocation of 
London (1562), adopted XXXIX A^'tides as a confession of faith, and 
a liturgical directory for the Anglican Church. Both were combined, 
for more general use, in the Book of Common Prayer. The XXXIX 
Articles, which were incorporated into the English statutes by an act 
of Parliament (13 Eliz. c. II, , April, 1571), adopted Calvin's view of 
the Lord's Supper, but not his dogma of predestination [see Herzog's 
Encycl., art. Anglican Church]. In the organization and worship of 
the Church, many catholicizing elements were retained (the episcopacy, 
apostolical succession, a copious ceremonial). In opposition to this, the 
Puritans or Presbyterians introduced a presbyterial constitution, mo- 
delled after that of Geneva, with a strict discipline, and a rigid, one- 
sided predominance of the formal principle, touching the sole authority 
of the Scriptures (extermination of the Apocrypha), a zealous adher- 
ence to Calvinism, an extremely bald form of worship, which scrupu- 
lously excluded the leaven of popery (clerical vestments, altars, candles, 
crucifixes, the sign of the cross, forms of prayer, sponsors in baptism, 
confirmation, kneeling at the sacrament, bowing the head at the name 
of Jesus, bells, organs, and all festivals, retaining only the Sabbath). 
To restore ecclesiastical unity, the queen directed the passage of the 
_jLct of Uniformity (1563), and punished all non-confo7^mists with fines, 
imprisonment, and banishment. This increased the evil. A party of 
non - conformists, called Independents (also Congregationalists, and 
Brownists, after their founder Robert Browne), carried their opposition 
to all ecclesiastical courts so far that they rejected synods and presby- 
teries, and made their preachers amenable to the arbitrary vote of single 
congregations, though they established a Congregational Board at 
London, as a central point of union, which was a synod formed of de- 
legates sent by the respective congregations. Persecuted by the govern- 
ment, they fled to Holland, but returned under Cromwell, and subse- 
quently emigrated to North America. — Elizabeth introduced the Angli- 
can Church into Ireland, also, and gave it all the church property 
there. But in spite of constant oppression, the mass of the Irish 
adhered to the Catholic Church. (Cf. | 33, 3 ; 34, 3.) 

5. The Reformation in Scotland. (Cf. Stdudlin and G. Weber, 1. c. 
K. G. V. Rudloff, Gesch. d. Ref. in Schottl. Berl. 1847. 2 Bde.—K. H. 
Sack, d. K. v. Schottland. Heidelb. 1844. 2 Bde.—J.Kostlin, d. Schott. 
K. seit d. Ref. Hamb., 1852. — A. H. Niemeyer, J. Knox and the two 
Marys. Lpz., 1824.— [JTCWe^^JLife of John Knox. Edinb., 1814.— J^. 
Tfitler , Hist, of Scotl., vols.Tr.'vTl.— Tr.] . )— In Scotland, the Gospel was 
early preached by PatrickJIamilton, who had studied in Wittenberg, 


and perished at the stake (152 8) at the age_of 24 years, Ilis martyr- 
dom -was followed by many ^thers. But amid all the political disorders, 
the Reformation_took_dcepcr root in the hearts of the people and no- 
bility, in spite of the hostility of the Stuarts anfl_the Tnshops. John 
\ Juwx {oh. 1572), however, was the proper reformer in Scotland. Edu- 
cated at Genev a, he impressed the most severe and ri^d Calvinisjn 
upon the constitution and doctrines of the Scotch Church. Ilaving, as 
a ^'alley slave, acquired an_jT(m_jnflexjjn of character, he set at 
defiance both the an^^er and tears of t he young ci[ueen, Mary Stuart, 
and with f^lowin*:; zeal, and by a revolutionary storm, urged the Refor- 
mation to a triumphant issue. iCpnfess io Scotic a. 1560.) The unfor- 
tunate quccn_ k)st every thing, and was compelled at last to throw her- 
self into the arms of her deadly foe ElizaJDCth, and to succumb to an 
execution on the scj^oMJ^1587 ) . [ Iler son Ja me s VI., stil l a child, was 
c rowne d, and the reformers e x erci^sed th e regenc y. After Elizabeth's 
death,^ he assum ed the unit ed crowjis_of England and Scotland. 

G. The Beformation in the Netherlands. (Cf. II. Leo, Zwolf Bb. 
niederl. Gesch. Halle, 1835. 2 Bde.— J. L^JIotleji, Hist, of the Dutch 
Republ. \IIerzo(i, Encycl., art. Holland].) — Charles Y. held the Nether- 
lands as an inheritance from his grandmother, Maria of Burgundy. So 
much had happened in the period preceding the Reformation (see Vol. 
I., § 119, 6) to prepare the way for it, that it was now received with 
very great favor by the people, who had independent and active minds. 
Luther's writings were early circulated, and the firstjmartyrs of the 
Lutheran faith (■§ 8, 1) perished at An twer p (1523). Connections with 
France and Switzerland, however, subsequently led to the predominance 
of the Reform ed Co nfession. Here the emperor commanded the edict 
-o f AVorm s to be executed in all its severity, and thousands perishad^y 
the sword and at the stake as martyrs to the evangelical faith. Under 
Charles's son and successor, Philip II. of Spain, the In quisition nerpe- 
trated still more terrible cruelties, with the purpose of suppressing the 
spirit of both political and religious liberty (from 1555). The Belgic 
Confession (1562), maintained Calvinistic tenets. The Co mpromi se 

- (1566), a confecle rac y of jloM^s for the overthrow of the Spanish rule, 
and which adopted the name of Guyses (gueux ^beg gars), which the 
Spaniards applied to them in ridicule, daily grew stronger, and the 
maddened popul ace tore do muihurches, images, and altars. The Buke 

». of u4 /Z>a w as sent with an army to put down the insurrection, which 
Margaret of Parma was unable to control, notwithstanding the bloody 
measures she was compelled to adopt (1567). By unexampled cruelties 
he temporaril^succeeded. But the seven northern provinces combined 
in the Utrech t Ihiio n (1579), and William of Orange, and, after his 
murder (1581), his son Maurice, conquered the civil and religious liberty 
of the northern Netherlands, after a tedious and sanguinary struggle. 
The southern Belgic provinces were held by Alexander of Parma, under 
Spanish rule, and in the Catholic faith. 
II. —11 


7. The Reformation in France. (Cf. Th. Beza, Hist, ecclst. des 6gl. 
reform^es du royaume de France. Anv. 1580. — A. L. Heermann, 
Frankr. Rel. u. Biir^erkriege im 16 Jalirh. Lpz., 1828. — Leop. Ranke, 
franz. Gesch. in 16. u. 17. Jahrh. Stuttg., 1852. Bd. I. — W. G. SoMan, 
Gesch. d. Protestsm. in Frank, bis zum Tode Karl's IX. Lpz., 1855. 
2 Bde. — G. V. Polenz, Gesch. d. franz. Calvinism, Bd. I. Gotha, 1857. 

— F. W. Barthold, Deutschl. u. d. Hugenotten. Brem., 1847.— (r. 
Weher, 1. c. (| 18).— L. Wackier, die par. Bluthochz. Lpz., 1828.— 
W. G. Solclan, Frankr. u. d. Barthol. Nacht, in Raumer's hist. Taschb., 
1854.— j^. Stdlielin, d. Uebertritt Konig Ileinrich's IV. Basel, 1856.) 

— The first occasion of the Reformation in France proceeded from 
Wittenberg. In 1521, the Sorbonne directed Luther's writings to be 
burned in Paris. But Geneva soon acquired preponderant and exclusive 
influence. Francis I. (1515-47), favored the Reformation in Germany, 
but persecuted the Protestants [Huguenots) of his own country. Henry 
II. [oh. 1559), and Francis II. {oh. 1560), did likewise. Many thou- 
sands of heroic confessors were put to death by the sword and by fire. 
And yet the Reformed Church, especially in southern France, spread 
rapidly, and at the first General Synod in Paris (1559), adopted the 
Confessio Gcdlicana. Even a powerful branch of the royal family, the 
Bourbons [Anthony of Navarre, and his spirited wife Jeanne d'Albret, 
Anthony's brother Louis Bourhon, and Prince Louis of Cond6), and 
persons of eminence (Admiral Coligny, and several parliamentary coun- 
cillors, etc.), embraced Protestantism, whilst their political rivals, the 
Guises, of the ducal house of Lorraine [Francis Guise, and his brother 
Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine), sought support in the hostility of the 
Catholics. This gave additional strength to the peculiar tendency of 
the Reformed Church, to combine political with religious aims (accord- 
ing to the theocratic example of the Old Testament), in their reforma- 
tory measures, and decidedly impressed it with the character of a 
political party. Under the regency (from 1560) of Catharine de Medici 
(the mother of Charles IX., ob. 1574), the prospects of the Huguenots 
brightened. The noble Chancellor Michael de I 'Hospital, a Catholic, 
but a foe of all sanguinary proceedings, instituted a religious confer- 
ence in thp abj)ey of Foissy, near Paris (1561), where, among others, 
TheodQr,e j^e2(X,and ,tli^ J^pqy.it General Lainez, confronted each other. 
^\iQ^diot of St. Germain (1562) seQ,u.i;e(p. toleration and the free enjoy- 
ment of religious worship to the Protestants of the border cities. This 
encouraged large numbers of secret friends of Protestantism openly to 
avow their faith, and the rage of the Catholics was inflamed anew. At 
Cahors, a Huguenot meeting-house was surrounded by the people and 
fired ; all assembled perished ; those who escaped the fire were mur- 
dered. At Vassi, in Provence, the Huguenots were gathered for wor- 
ship in a barn, Francis of Guise perpetrated a more fearful carnage, 
swearing that he would cut the accursed edict into pieces with his 
sword. The religious and civil war then broke out in consuming fl,^i^;ies. 


Twice a peace of short duration was concluded (at Amhoise, 1563, and 
at Longjumeau, 1568). A ilxivd. Peace of St. Germain (1570) secured to 
the Huguenots full liberty of conscience and religion; only Paris and 
the residence of the court were excepted. As a pledge of peace, four 
important fortresses were given to them (La Rochelle, Montaubon, 
Cognac, and La Charit6), and Henry of Navarre, Anthony's son, was 
betrothed to the sister of Charles IX. At their marriage (Aug. 18, 
1572), the Huguenot chieftains assembled in Paris. Henry's mother, 
Jeanne d'Albret, died soon after her arrival ; her death having probably 
been caused by poisoned gloves presented to her, and an unsuccessful 
attempt was made to assassinate Coligny. Late in Bartliolomew' s night 
(Aug. 24, 1572), the castle-bell suddenly tolled. It was the signal for 
the butchery of all the Huguenots. The bloody tragedy lasted inces- 
santly for four days. Coligny fell, praying, under the blows of his 
murderers; no Huguenot was spared — neither children, women, nor 
the aged. Henry and Conde were offered the mass or death ; they 
chose the latter. Meanwhile, couriers were dispatched with the mur- 
derous decree through the provinces, and the slaughter was renewed. 
The number of the slaughtered is variously given at 20,000 — 100,000. 
Pope Gregory XIII. commanded all the bells in Rome to be rung, a 
Te Deum to be sung, and a medal to be struck with the inscription 
Ugonottorum Strages, in honor of the glorious victory of the Church. 
(The result of Soldan's investigations is, that the horrible decree of 
death was enacted, not after long consultation, but suddenly, in conse- 
quence of political complications. The queen-mother having disagreed 
with her son, determined to maintain her position by Coligny's assassi- 
nation. This failed. The king swore that he would severely avenge 
the iniquity upon the unknown authors of it. Then Catharine used 
all means to avert the threatening destruction. She succeeded in con- 
vincing the king that Coligny was at the head of a Huguenot conspi- 
racy. Beside himself with rage, the king swore that not only the 
leaders, who alone were implicated, but all the Huguenots of France 
should die, so that no one might remain to reproach him for the deed. 
But it is certain, notwithstanding, that the thought of such a Satanic 
deed was previously broached, though it may have been but transiently. 
At the Spanish and Roman courts, the French government reported 
the tragedy as an acte premedite ; at the German court as an acte non 
premedite ; but in a letter previously sent to the emperor from Rome, 
it was said: Que a cette heure (the marriage festival) que tons les 
oyseaux estoient en la cage, ou les pouvoit prendre tons ensemble, et 
qu'il y en avoit, qui le desiroient.) — But the horrible deed failed of its 
purpose. If even 100,000 were murdered, ten times that number re- 
mained, and found strong rallying points in their fortresses. Hence 
civil war broke out afresh. The Peace of Beaidieu (1576), which once 
more guaranteed to the Huguenots their rights, was of brief duration. 
The Guises formed a Holy League, which was directed as much against 


the pusillanimous king, Henry III. (1574-89), as against the Protestants, 
so that to escape their hands, he fled to the camp of the Huguenots, 
where he was murdered by the Dominican Clement. Henry (IV.) of 
Navarre then ascended the throne (1580-lGlO), and to secure it the 
better, abjured his faith (1593), but by the Edict of Nantes (1598), 
guaranteed full religious liberty to his earlier fellow-believers, in all 
the cities where Reformed worship had been previously practised, and 
unconditional equality with the Catholics in all civil rights and privi- 
leges, and powerfully protected them therein. His reward for this was 
the dagger of Bavaillac, a Feuillant, and a disciple of the Jesuits. 
(Cf. ^ 33, 2.) 

8. The Reforniation in Poland. (Cf. C. G. v. Friese, Ref. Gesch. v. 
Pol. u. Lith. Brsl. 1786. 3 Bde. — V. Krasinski, Gesch. d. Ref. in Polen. 
Lpz., 1841. — /. Lucaszewicz, Gesch. d. ref. K. in Lith. Lpz., 1848, 2 
Bde.) — The way was prepared for the Reformation in Poland by fugi- 
tive Bohemian brethren, and Luther's works were eagerly read there 
soon after their appearance. Sif/ismiDid I. (1506-48) opposed it with 
all his might. It was most cordially welcomed in Prussian Poland. 
As early as 1525, the Catholic council was driven from Dantzic. Sigis- 
mund repaired thither, caused several citizens to be executed, and re- 
stored the ancient worship (1526). But he had hardly left the city 
until the Lutheran faith Avas again embraced. This example was fol- 
lowed by Elbing and Thorn. In Poland proper, also, the new move- 
ment spread with great power. In spite of prohibitions, many young 
Poles went to "Wittenberg, and returned with glowing enthusiasm for 
Luther and his doctrine. Along with it, however, the Swiss Confession 
also reached Poland, and the persecutions with which Ferdinand of 
Austria threatened Bohemia and Moravia, led crowds of Bohemian 
brethren into the country. ; Sigismund Augustus (1548-72) was per- 
sonally inclined to the Reformation. He demanded of the pope the 
permission of priests to marry, the communion sub utraque, the mass 
in the vernacular, and the abrogation of annates. The pope not only 
refused, but sent a legate into the country to subdue the heresy. The 
Protestant nobles now (1556) recalled their renowned countryman, 
Johji a Lasco, who, 16 years before, had left his office and country on 
account of his evangelical views. In the meantime he had aided in 
the reformation of East Friesland, and preached for several years in 
Emden ; subsequently he went to England, at Cranmer's call, and after 
Edward YI.'s death, sought a refuge in Denmark, which, however, was 
refused him on account of his Zwinglian views ; after that he preached 
to a congregation of French, English, and Holland fugitives, in Frank- 
fort-on-the-Maine. After his return to Poland, he labored to effect a 
union of the Lutherans and Reformed, in connection with several 
friends translated the Bible, and died in 1560. At the General Synod 
of Sendomir (1570), a union of the three dissenting parties was finally 
effected (Consensus Sendomiriensis), which recognized the Lutheran 


doctrine of the Lord's Supper, but in so indefinite a way that the article 
might also bear a Calvinistic sense. The opposition of the Lutherans 
was suppressed by earnest entreaties, but soon after broke forth only 
the more violently. At the Synod of Thorn (1595), Paul Gerikc, a 
Lutheran preacher, stood up for the Lutheran view, but one of the no- 
bles present put a sword at his breast, and the synod suspended him 
from his office as a disturber of the peace. Sigismund Augustus died 
in 1572. During the interregnum which occurred, the Protestant no- 
bility formed a confederacy which effected a general religious Peace 
{Pax dissidentium, 1573), before the election of another king, by Avhich 
Catholics and Protestants were pledged perpetually to maintain peace, 
and allow each other to enjoy equal civil rights. The new king, Henry 
of Anjou (subsequently Henry III. of France), endeavored to evade 
this Peace, but the marshal of the kingdom told him dryly : Si non 
jurabis, non regnabis. In the following year he secretly left Poland 
to ascend the French throne. Stephen Bathori (from 157G) took the 
oath of Peace unhesitatingly, and kept it also. But under his successor, 
Sigismund III. (a Swedish prince, from 1587), the Protestants com- 
plained of many violations of their rights, and the evils increased until 
the dissolution of the Polish kingdom (1772). (Cf. ^ 33, 5 ; 44, 4.) 

9. The Reformation in Bohemia and Moravia. (Cf. B. Baupach, d. 
evang. CEstr. Ilamb., 1832. 3 Bde., Aio.— G. C. Waldau, Gesch. d. 
Prot. in CEstr. Ansp., 1784. 2 Bde.— y1. GindeJy, 1. c. (Vol. I. 1 119, 5) ; 
ih. Gesch. d. Majestatsbriefes. Prag., 1858.) — The numerous Bohe- 
mian and Moravian Brethren had frequent interviews with Luther. 
In his Beformation they saw a want of discipline, Avhilst he was dis- 
satisfied with their latitudinarianism in doctrine, and Novatian exalta- 
tion of external deportment. But in 1532, the Brethren presented an 

, apology of their doctrines and usages to the Margrave George of Bran- 
denburg, of which Luther fully approved. At the last interview in 
1542, Luther offered their delegates his hand as a pledge of perpetual 
friendship. But genuine Lutheranism and Calvinism were both ad- 
mitted into Bohemia. The refusal of the Bohemians to fight against 
their German brethren, in the Smalcaldwar, led Ferdinand to inflict a 
severe chastisement upon them. But Ferdinand became more consi- 
derate in his last years, and Maximilian II. (15G4-76) did not disturb 
them. Rudolf \1. (1576-1G12), who was educated at the Spanish court, 
revived^'the oppressions. This roused the Bohemians, and compelled 
him to grant Letters of Majesty (1609), which ceded unconditional reli- 
gious libert}", their own consistory, and an academy at Prague. Thus 
Bohemia became an evangelical countr}- ; in a hundred inhabitants, 
not more than one or two were Catholics. (Cf. § 33, 1.) 

10. The Reformation in Hungary. (Cf. History of the Prot. Ch, in 
Hungary, Avith an introd. by D'Atihigne. Boston and N. York, 1854.) 
— From 1524, Martin Ci/riaci, a Wittenberg pupil, labored in Hungary 

11 * 


for the spread of pure doctrine. Kino; Lewis II. threatened its adherents 
with the severest penalties. But he fell in the battle of Mohacz, (1526). 
The new election produced two kings : Ferdinand of Austria, and the 
Vaivode John Zapoyla. Both immediately persecuted the Reformation, 
in order to gain the support of the clergy ; the cause nevertheless ac- 
quired a powerful ascendancy. MafJiias Devay, also a disciple of Lu- 
ther, translated the Bible, and the synod of Erdod (1545) adopted the 
Augsburg Confession. But the Swiss doctrines had also found their 
way into the country, and daily gained new adherents. The Reformed 
held a council at Czengcr (1557), at which the Confessio Hungarica, 
embracing the Calvinistic view of the Lord's Supper and of predesti- 
nation, was adopted. Under Maximilian II. the Reformation made 
unobstructed progress. But when Rudolph II. revived forcible mea- 
sures, the Protestants arose under Stephen Botskai, and compelled him 
to conclude the Peace of Vienna (IGOG), which guaranteed them full 
religious liberty. Among the native Hungarians, the Reformed Con- 
fession prevailed, but the German settlers remained true to Luther- 

11. The Reformation in Transijlvania. — Merchants from Herman- 
stadt brought Luther's writings to Transylvania as early as 1521. But 
there, also, Lewis II. of Hungary persecuted the Evangelicals ; and, 
after his death, John Zapoyla did the same. Nevertheless, in 1529, 
Hermanstadt ventured to drive all the adherents of the pope from the 
city. In Cronstadt, the reform was introduced (1534) hy Jacob Honter, 
who had studied in Basel. After Zapoyla had secured the permanent 
possession of Transylvania by a treaty with Ferdinand (1538), he 
showed more moderation towards the Protestants. After his death, the 
monk Martinuzzi, then made Bishop of Groswardein, exercised the 
regency during the minority of Zapoyla's son. He threatened the 
Protestants with bloody persecutions, whilst Isabella, Zapoyla's Avidow, 
favored them. On this account, Martinuzzi transferred the country to 
Ferdinand, but he was murdered in 1551. After some years, Isabella 
returned with her son, and a diet at Clausenburg (1557) constituted the 
country an independent principality, and proclaimed universal reli- 
gious liberty. The Saxons adhered to Lutheranism, whilst the Szecler 
and IMagyars preferred the Reformed Confession. 

12. The Eeformation in Spain. (Cf. Th. M'Crie, Hist, of the Ref. 
in Spain. E. Bohmer, Inquisit. u. Evang. in Sp., in Schneider's 
deutsch. Ztschr. 1852, No. 13, etc.) — The connection with Germany, 
brought about by the empire of Charles V., led to the early trans- 
plantation of Luther's doctrine to Spain. Very many theologians and 
statesmen who accompanied Charles to Germany, returned home with 
evangelical convictions — among these v:qv& Alfonso de Virves, court- 
chaplain to the emperor, and his private secretary, Alfonso Valdez^- 
also a statesman. Rodrigo de Valero, a layman, attained to evangeli- 
cal knowledge, by diligently studying the Scriptures, and led many 


others into the -way of salvation. The Inquisition seized his property, 
and condemned him to wear the sanbenito. Juan Egidius (Gil), Va- 
lero's friend, Bishop of Tortosa, formed societies for the study of the 
Bible. The Inquisition deposed him, and but for the protection of 
Charles, he would have perished at the stake. After his death, his 
remains were exhumed and burnt. The first martyr in Spain was 
Francisco San Romano, a merchant, who had become acquainted with 
Luther's doctrines in Antwerp. He was burnt at the stake in Valla- 
dolid, in 1544. Franc. Enzina translated the New Testament. Ho 
Avas imprisoned, and the book prohibited. About 1550, the reforma- 
tory movement acquired so general and comprehensive a character, 
that a Spanish historian of that period expresses the belief that all 
Spain would have ftillen a prey to the heresy, if the Inquisition had „ 
delayed the application of the remedy but three months. But it now 
began vigorously to apply the remedy, especially after Philip II. 
■^(1555-98) assumed the government. Scarcely a year passed in which 
each of the twelve inquisitorial tribunals did not celebrate one or more 
great auto-da-fes, at which multitudes of heretics were burned. The 
remedy proved effectual. In twenty or thirty years the evangelical 
cause was suppressed. 

13. The Reformation in Raly. (Cf. Th. M'Crie, Hist, of the Ref. in 
Italy. — F. F. Leopold, d. Ref. u. deren Yerfall in Ital. ; in the hist, 
theol. Ztschr. 1843, II.) — Reformatory measures in Italy took a different 
course. A large part of the Humanists had given up all interest in 
Christianity for a self-sufficient sort of heathenism, and maintained the 
same position towards the Reformation as to the old Church ; another 
portion desired a reformation in an Erasmian sense. Both remained 
in their old ecclesiastical relations. At the same time many learned 
men took a more decided stand, some of whom took matters into their 
own hands, and assailed the fundamental truths of Christianity. (Italy 
was, especially, the rendezvous o^ mtnij Atiti-lVinitai'ians, | 28), whilst 
others attached themselves to the German, but most to the Helvetic 
Reformation. Each party endeavored to reach the people by preaching 
and writings, and they often succeeded in founding separate congrega- 
tions in Italian cities. But to save their lives the reformers had to flee 
from the country ; and in 1542, a special Inquisition was instituted to 
suppress Protestantism in Italy, which, with reckless, fanatical fury, 
punished every appearance of Protestantism with imprisonment, the 
galleys, the scaffold, and the stake ; nevertheless it did not accomplish 
its purpose until towards the close of the century. Almost all the 
writings of the German and Swiss Reformers were translated into 
Italian soon after their publication, and being anonymous, were widely 
circulated before the Inquisition seized upon them. Antonio Bnicioli 
translated the Bible (1530, etc.) It was placed in the Index prohibi- 
torum, although the translator remained in the Catholic Church. The 
Duchess Renata de Ferrara, a sister of Francis I. of France, distin- 


guished herself as a promoter of the Reformation. Her court became 
the refuge and resort of French fugitives. Previously (^ 15, 3), it had 
been proposed to establish in Italy a propaganda of noble Catholic 
Christians, whose personal experience had convinced them that justifi- 
cation by faith was the central doctrine of all true faith and practice, 
and who hoped to reanimate the Catholic Church, without fighting 
against it. To this society such men as Cardinal Reginald Polus be- 
longed ; Bishop Morone of Modena ; the Spaniard Juan Valdez (secre- 
tary of the Viceroy of Naples) ; James Sadoletus (author of a Commen- 
tary on the Romans) ; the legate Contarini, and others. The principles 
of this movement are most clearly and perfectly set forth in the small 
work del betiejicio di Gi^su Christo, whose author, Aonius Palearius, 
was prof, of class, liter, at Siena. In six years, GO, 000 copies were 
printed at Venice alone. A large number of editions appeared else- 
where, partly in the original, partly in translations. But thirty years 
afterwards, no copy in the original could be found, and after one hun- 
dred years no translation ; so thoroughly and consistently had the In- 
quisition done its work of extermination. In Rome, piles of it as high 
as houses were burnt. But in 1843, a copy of the original of 1543, was 
discovered and republished in London in 1853. Among the most dis- 
tinguished reformers who wholly renounced popery were : (1.) Bernar- 
dino Ochino, from 1538 General of the Capuchins, and long renowned 
as a cjontroversialist against the Lutheran and Zwinglian heresy ; but 
in that very way led to a closer acquaintance with reformed writings. 
He united with the Reformed Church in 1542, fled to Geneva, and after 
that labored in Basel, Augsburg, Strassburg, and London. After the 
death of Edward VI. he had to flee from England, became preacher in 
Zurich, inclined to Socinianism, and even vindicated polygamy. On 
this account he was deposed, fled to Poland, and died (1564) in Mora- 
via. (2.) Peter Martyr Vermilio, an Augustine monk and esteemed 
preacher. He was induced to leave the Catholic Church by studying 
the writings of Erasmus, Zwingli, and Bucer. He fled to Zurich, be- 
came Professor in Strassburg, and was also called to England by 
Cranmer, where he accepted a Professorship in Oxford. When Mary 
became queen, he returned to Strassburg, and died whilst professor in 
Zurich (1562). [Cf. C. Schmidt, P. M. Vermigli, etc. Elberfeld, 1857. 
— Tr.] (3.) Peter Paul Vergerius, Bishop of Capo d'Istria, and papal 
legate in Germany [1 14, 1), when he personally conferred with Luther. 
After that, his enemies accused him with being a secret adherent of 
Luther. To clear himself of this charge, he studied Luther's writings 
with the purpose of assailing them, and thvis attained to the knowledge 
of evangelical truth, and had to flee. The awful end of Francis Speira 
in Padua (who denied his faith in the Gospel, and thereafter fell a prey 
to tormenting doubts, and fears that he had committed the sin against 
the Holy Ghost), made a tremendous impression on him. He then 
openly joined the evangelical Church, labored for some time in the 


district of Graublinden (but as a Lutheran, not as a Reformed), and 
died whilst professor in Tubingen (15G5). (Cf. C. H. SixL, P. P. Verg. 
Eine rcformationsgeschichtliche Monogr. Braunschw. 1855.) 

14. Common opposition to the Roman papacy awakened a desire to 
form a connection with the Eastern Cliiircli. Demetrius Mijsos, a deacon 
of Constantinople, spent some months with Melanchthon in 1559, and 
on his return took a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession with 
him; but no notice Avas taken of the matter. Twenty years later, the 
other theologians opened new negotiations with the patriarch Jeremiah 
II., through the Lutheran clergyman Stephen Gerlach, who visited 
Constantinople on an embassy of Maximilian II. Thereupon, the 
ministers of Tubingen sent the patriarch a Greek translation of the 
Augsburg Confession, prepared by Martin Crusiiis, and requested his 
opinion upon it. The patriarch candidly pointed out, in his reply, the 
errors of the book. The Tubingen clergy vindicated their creed, and 
in a second reply the patriarch reiterated his objections. A third letter 
was ANTitten, but the patriarch refused to give further explanations ; 
and to a fourth he made no reply. (Cf. | 32, 2.) 




Cf. Max Gohel, d. rel. Eigenthlimlichk. d. luth. u. ref. K. 1837. — Bu- 
delbach, Ref., Luthersh., u. Union. Lpz., 1839. — Wiggers, kirchl. 
Statistik. I. 92, etc. — K. Strobel, d. Unterschied d. luth. u. ref. K. ; in 
the luth. Ztschr, 1842, III. — [D'yiuhigjie, Lutheranism and the Re- 
form. ; in the Bibl. Repository for Jan. 1845. — Tr.] 

Western Christianity has reached its purest, richest, and most 
vigorous form in the Lutheran Church. In it the Germanic 
Christian spirit, which had striven after independence from the 
time of Boniface and Charlemagne, attained to Christian matu- 
rity, and emancipated itself from its Roman tutor, who had be- 
come a selfish tyrant. It appropriates without solicitude the 
rich treasures of true catholicity which the ancient Church had 
developed in the form of Gra^co-Romanic culture, enriched by 
the experiences and events of raedieeval toils. It is tlie Church 
occupying the true medium between all sensualizing and spi- 
ritualizing forms of Religion, between a slavish objective and an 



arbitrary subjective ecclesiasticism, as the former has more or 
less predominated in the Roman Catholic, and the other in the 
Helvetic Reformed Church. This, its proper mission, to repre- 
sent and develop the true harmonizing medium between the eccle- 
siastical extremes of the West, the Lutheran Church has accom- 
plished primarily, most vigorously, purely, and completely, with 
reference to doctrine. And it was right to do so. For the 
doctrine of the Gospel is the life-blood of the Church, the pulsa- 
tions of which throb through her entire organism. But the 
Lutheran Church had a similar vocation in regard to all the 
other forms of ecclesiasticism. And this calling it endeavored 
from the start to fulfil. It must indeed be admitted that in its 
process of reformation and resuscitation, it may not have at- 
tained to that complete firmness and certainty, clearness and 
truth, of which it can boast in regard to doctrine. Nevertheless, 
it cannot be denied, that even its otherwise still imperfect or 
defective forms are animated by a powerful impulse to harmonize 
extremes. But this much is undeniable, and has been its most 
distinctive characteristic ever since its establishment at the 
Augsburg diet, in opposition to the Catholic and Reformed 
Churches : it is the Church of the pure doctrine, a doctrine 
which truly reconciles and unites extremes, equally guarded 
against heresy, and open to scientific developments. [Cf § 21]. 

1. The Lutheran Church maintains a genuine conciliatory character 
between the Catholic and Reformed Churches, even in its fundamental 
view of Christianity. The essence of Christianity consists in the union 
of the divine and human (in the person of Christ as the prototype, also 
in the Bible, in the Church, in the sacrament, in the Christian life, 
etc.) The ultimate and inmost ground of diversity between the three 
Western Churches, lies in their different manner and method of con- 
templating and apprehending this union. The Catholic Church wishes 
to see it, the Lutheran to believe it, the Reformed to understand it. The 
tendency of the Catholic Church is to confound the divine with the 
human, and in such a way that the human loses its character as human, 
and the union with the divine is regarded as an identification. The 
Reformed Church, on the other hand, is disposed to separate the two, 
contemplating each by itself, and regarding the union as a juxtaposi- 
tion, not objectively but subjectively, not really but ideally. The Lu- 
theran Church, equally avoiding the idea of a confusion and a separa- 
tion of the two elements, regards the union as a most vital, intimate, 
and efficient communion, penetration, and reciprocity, thus completely 
harmonizing the fundamental principles of the 3d and 4th General 


Councils, most clearly developing them, and giving them their most 
comprehensive application. In the view of the Catholic Church, the 
human and earthly, which is often the imperfect bearer of the divine, 
in which the divine is too often manifested under narrowing limitations, 
are often taken in themselves for the divine. Thus in its conception 
of the Church, which leads to the doctrine of a merely external Church, 
which alone can give salvation ; its idea of the human historical deve- 
lopment of the Church, leading to the absolute authority of tradition, 
and the perversion of the true relation between the Scriptures and 
tradition ; its view of the sacraments, hence its contemplation of them 
as opus operatum, and its doctrine of transubstantiation ; its theory 
of the priesthood, leading to the hierarchy ; its doctrine of sanctifica- 
tion, favoring semipelagianism, and righteousness by works, etc. The 
Reformed Church contemplated truth in a diametrically opposite way. 
It isolated the divine in Christianity from its earthly, visible bearer, 
sublimating and spiritualizing the former, despising the other, and re- 
garding the operation of the divine upon the human as purely spiritual, 
and conditioned by personal faith. In the Scriptures it largely denies 
the human historical element, so that even the vowel points and punc- 
tuations were thought to be inspired. The divinely historical in the 
Church, on the other hand, was not recognized by it, but all tradition 
was rejected, and with it all historical development, normal or abnor- 
mal, was cut off. In its apprehension of Scriptures, the literal sense 
was disregarded in favor of the spiritual import, and in its conception 
of the Church, the significance of the visible was disparaged in favor 
of the invisible Church. In reference to the person of Christ, it allowed 
itself, in Nestorian style, to exclude the human nature of the exalted 
Redeemer from a full personal participation in all the attributes of his 
Godhead. In the sacraments, it separated the supersensuous grace 
from the material elements ; and in the doctrine of predestination, it 
isolated the divine predetermination from human self-determination, 
etc. The Lutheran Church, on the contrary, shunned both these ex- 
tremes, and combined the truths which underlay each, into a living, 
connected unity. In regard to the Bible, it neither holds to the letter 
without the spirit, nor to the spirit without the letter ; in history, it 
recognizes the presence and operation of the Spirit of God within the 
sphere of the human development of the Church, and only rejects a 
false tradition, which does not proceed organically from the Scriptures, 
but is rather contradictory to it. In regard to the Church, it maintains 
the significance of the invisible as much as that of the visible Church. 
Touching the doctrine of the person of Christ, it affirms the complete 
humanity and complete divinity of both natures, in their living union, 
and most intimate reciprocal relation. In regard to the sacraments, it 
concedes the reality of the objective act of God, which offers heavenly 
grace through earthly elements, and that of man's subjective position, 
by which, according to his faith or unbelief, the sacrament ministers 


to liis salvation or condemnation. And in regard to the divine decrees, 
it solves the seeming contradiction betvrcen God's predestination and 
man's self-determination, by making the former conditional upon God's 
prescience (not reversely, as Calvin declares). 



Cf. G. WalcJi, Einleit. in d. Religionstreitigk. d. luth. K. Jena, 1733, 
5 Bde. — Thomasius, d. Bekenntn. d. ev.-luth. K. in d. Consequ. s. 
Princips. Nliremb. 1848. — Planck, Gesch. d. protest. Theol. bis z. 
Concordienformel. Lpz., 179G, 3 Bde. — if. Heppe, Gesch. d. deutsch. 
Protestant, v. J. 1551-81. 4 Bde. 1852, etc. 

Even during Luther's life, and still more after his death (1546), 
various, and, in part, very violent doctrinal controversies, broke 
out in the newly established Lutheran Church. The same ne- 
cessity which impelled the ancient Church, in the 4th and 5th 
centuries, accurately to define and fix Catholic views of doctrine, 
prevailed in this case also ; and wliat was said, in the history of 
that period, of the importance of ecclesiastical controversies in 
general, and the violence which often attended them, applies in 
part to the present instance. The Lutheran Church, moreover, 
was driven into these struggles by its peculiar character. As 
the Church which occupied the true middle ground, it had to 
define the limits which separated it from the frontiers of the two 
ecclesiastical extremes, strictly and sharply, distinctly and truly ; 
and as the Church of pure doctrine, it was necessary for it to 
clear up, perfect, and definitely settle its own doctrinal system. 
But these struggles, notwithstanding their violence, did not lead 
to a schism in the congregations, because the Lutheran Church 
was so firmly and securely rooted, from the start, in ancient, 
genuine Catholicity. 

1. Tlie Fhilippists. — Soon after the adoption of the common confes- 
sion at Augsburg, two tendencies, which gradually separated more 
widely, began to develop themselves in the Lutheran Church. The one 
party, headed by Melancldlion (Philippists), endeavored to widen the 
platform, on which Catholics on the one hand, and Reformed on the 
other, might stand, and thus effect an approximation to union and 
harmony. The other party, led by Amsdorf, Flacius, and Wigand, 
strove rather to define the pure Lutheran system with all possible 
strictness, so as to guard it against any admixture with Catholicising 
or Calvinistic elements. Luther attached himself to neither party, but 


endeavored to keep both from plunging into their respective extremes, 
and, as far as possible, to maintain peace between both. In a new 
edition of the Augsburg Confession, of 1540, Melanchthon modified the 
statement concerning faith and works, to conciliate Catholics, and that 
touching the Lord's Supper to accommodate Calvinists. The unaltered 
confession declared : Docent, quod corpus et sanguis Domini vere adsiiit 
et distribuantiir vescentibus in cocna Domini, et improhant secus do- 
centes. For this he substituted : Quod cum pane et vino vere exhiheantur 
corpus et sanguis Christi vescentibus in coona Domini, This statement 
was, indeed, not directly and exclusively Calvinistic, for then it should 
have used credentibus for vescentibus. Nevertheless, this arbitrary 
and Calvinising change embittered the stringent Lutherans, and even 
Luther admonished the author that the book was not his, but was the 
confession of the entire Church. When the Philippists, therefore, after 
Luther's death, made many other concessions to the Catholics, in the 
Leipsic Interim (1548), the Lutherans pronounced it open treachery to 
the Church. Magdeburg persistently rejected the Interim, and became 
the refuge of all zealous Lutherans ; and in opposition to Philippist 
Wittenberg, the sons of the ex-elector, John Frederick, founded, by his 
direction, the university of Jena, as the stronghold of rigid Lutheranism. 
From the antagonisms of these two parties sprang, chiefly, the doctrinal 
controversies of the Keformation period. 

2. The Antinomian Controversy (1537-40) was about the authority of 
the law in Christianity. John Agricola of Eisleben (from 1536 Prof, in 
AVittenberg, and from 1540 court-preacher in Berlin, aided in preparino- 
the Augsburg Interim, 1548, ob. 156G), took offence, as early as 1527, 
at Melanchthon's urging the preacher, in the visitation circulars, to in- 
struct the people diligently in the laAV. From 1537, he disputed with 
Luther himself about it. He did not contend against the use of the 
law outside of the Church for educational and civil purposes ; but upon 
the correct principle that an authoritative system of morality could not 
help man, he erroneously maintained that the law no longer concerned 
Christians, and that only the Gospel should be preached, which would 
lead men to repentance through the powder of divine love. Melanch- 
thon and Luther, on the contrary, regarded conviction and repentance 
as the fruits of the law, but the saving purpose of amendment as the 
effect of the Gospel ; and they required the law to be continuously 
preached, because, in the imperfection of man's present holiness, daily 
sorrow for sin was necessary. The deeper ground of difference in these 
views lay in Agricola's over-estimate of human nature, which he did 
not think so depraved but that, without being smitten by the terrors 
of the law and condemnation, it might be induced to hate sin and follow 
righteousness. In opposition to the Catholic " Pelagianism of the law," 
which concedes to man a natural ability to do good works, and coopera- 
tion in his justification, he set up a " Pelagianism of the Gospel," 
which ascribes to man a natural ability to accept proffered righteous- 

IL — 12 


ness for its own sake. After carrying on the controversy, orally and 
with the pen, for several years, Agricola discovered the error of his 
theory, and formally renounced it. (Berlin, 1540.) 

3. The subject of the Osiandrian Controversy (1549-67) was the na- 
ture of justification and its relation to sanctijication. In opposition to 
the Catholic doctrine of justification by works also, Luther regarded 
redemption as a twofold act of God, bestowed upon man only through 
faith. He distinguished between justification as a divine act wrought 
for man, and sanctifcation as a divine operation in man. The former 
consists in this, that Christ made atonement on the cross, once for all, 
for the sins of the whole world, and that God now imputes the merits 
of Christ's atoning death to every single believer, as his own (as it 
were forensically), and thus declares him righteous, but does not make 
him so. The believer becomes actually righteous, rather on the ground 
and as a consequence of his being declared so, through a growing 
sanctification, extending over his entire earthly life, but never attaining 
absolute perfection here, by virtue of the communication of the new 
life, provided and brought to light by Christ. Andrew Osiander (from 
1522 preacher in Nuremberg, and in 1549 made professor at the newly 
founded university of Konigsberg, by Duke Albert of Prussia, who 
had been converted to the evangelical faith by his preaching. lie died 
in 1552), advocated, in Konigsberg, a view varying from this, and ap- 
proximating the Catholic doctrine. lie confounded sanctification with 
justification, and regarded the latter not as a declaring righteous, but 
as a making righteous, not as a judicial but a sanitary act, efi"ected 
by an infusion, i. e., a constant inflowing of the righteousness of 
Christ. He considered the atoning death of Christ only as the nega- 
tive condition of justification, the positive condition being Christ's in- 
carnation, and justification the formation of Christ in the believer. 
Osiander objected to Luther's forensic view, because it seemed to him 
to exclude the subjective element in justification (which, however, is 
present in faith as the subjective condition of man's being declared 
righteous). The controversy was carried on by the Osiandrists and 
their Konigsberg opponents [Morlin, Stapht/las, Stancarus, etc.) with 
equal vagueness and vehemence, and several theologians from a dis- 
tance failed, by written opinions sent in (among them one from Me- 
lanchthon, and another from Brenz), to settle the dispute. After Osian- 
der's death, his son-in-law, the court-preacher John Funic, also in favor 
with the duke, was at the head of the party, and filled all the offices 
with his adherents. He likewise rashly mixed in with political in- 
trigues, and, in execution of a sentence of the supreme Polish commis- 
sion, was beheaded for high treason in 1556. The other Osiandrists 
were deposed and banished. Morlin, previously exiled, returned, and 
as Bishop of Samland, reorganized the Prussian Church, and Martin 
Chemnitz (previously rector in Konigsberg, then superintendent in 
Brunswick), was called to prepare a standard of doctrine (Corpus doc- 


trinas Pruthenicum). — The preference given by Osiander to the divine 
nature in the work of redemption, led to another controversy about the 
declaration of Stancar (a man notorious for his petty disputes — hence 
the expression : Stankereien), that man's redemption rests wholly upon 
the human nature of Christ. (Cf. H. Wilkcn, Osiander's Leben, etc. 
I. Strals., 1844. — Hdberle, Osiander's Lehre ; in the Studd. u. Kritt., 
1844. — Ritschl, d. Rechtfertipjungsl. d. A. Os. in the Jahrbb. fur 
deutsche Theol. von Dorner u. Liebner. II. II. 4.) 

4. The Adiaphoristic Controversy (1548-55), concerning the admissi- 
bility of Catholic forms in the constitution and worship of the Church, 
sprang from the introduction of the Catholicising Leipsic Interim. This 
regarded most Catholic forms as adiaphora, or neutral matters, which 
might be admitted as non-essential. On the other hand the Lutherans 
maintained that matters in themselves indifferent, ceased to be so under 
circumstances like the present. Of course the cause of this controversy 
was removed by the Augsburg Peace. 

5. The Majoristic Controversy (1551-62) turned upon the necessity 
of good works. The Interim led strict Lutherans to regard the Philip- 
pists with boundless mistrust. When, therefore, in 1551, George Major 
of Wittenberg affirmed, in essential accordance with the Interim and 
Melanchthon's theology, that good works were necessary to salvation, 
and refused to retract, Amsdorf took the equally objectionable position 
that good works were detrimental to salvation. Notwithstanding the 
violence of this controversy, also, more reflecting persons saw that both 
parties erred by using vague and extreme expressions, and acknow- 
ledged, on the one hand, that not good works in themselves, but only 
faith, was necessary to salvation, whilst at the same time, good works 
were the indispensable fruit of genuine saving faith, and necessary to 
its maintenance ; and, on the other hand, that good works were not in 
themselves pernicious, but only reliance upon them, instead of upon 
the merits of Christ alone. For the sake of peace. Major recalled his 
assertion. But the controversy was kept up for years. 

6. The Synergistic Controversy (1555-67) was about the cooperation 
of the human will in conversion. Luther, in his controversy with 
Erasm,us, in accordance with the first edition of Melanchthon's Loci, 
had totally denied the ability of human nature to embrace salvation 
by its own power, and taught the absolute and exclusive agency of 
divine grace in conversion. In later editions of the Loci and of the 
Augsburg Confession, however, Melanchthon taught a certain coopera- 
tion (synergism) of the remains of free-will in man, in conversion ; 
and in the edition of 1548, he defined this as the ability of man to em- 
brace proffered salvation of his own accord (facultas se applicandi ad 
gratiam). In the Leipsic Interim, also, he avoided the Lutheran 
shibboleth sold (by faith "alone"), though he most decidedly denied 
all merit to man in conversion. Luther bore Melanchthon's chano-e 

136 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (c E N T. 16 A. D.). 

of opinion with noble toleration, with a charity that hopeth all things 
and endureth all things, only he reproached him for smuggling his 
views into the confession of the Church. After the enactment of the 
Leipsic Interim, the suspicion and dissatisfaction of the rigid Lutherans 
daily increased, and it burst forth in a most violent controversy, when 
John Pfeffiiiger, superintendent in Leipsic, who had participated in the 
odious Interim, issued a book on free-will in vindication of Melanch- 
thon's synergism (1555). The leaders of rigid Lutheranism, Nicholas 
V. Amsdorf, Matthias Flacius of Ilhjria, and John Wigand, colleagues 
at the university of Jena, felt that they dare no longer keep silence. 
At the request of the Duke of "Weimar, they prepared a confutation, 
designed to be the standard of restored Lutheranism ; and Victorin 
Strigel, a professor in Jena, who was appointed to assist them, had to 
atone for his sympathy with synergistic views, by a severe imprison- 
ment. But the duke soon became more favorably disposed towards 
Strigel ; and the rigid Lvitherans, who persistently opposed the duke's 
injunctions, were expelled, and the university chairs were filled with 
Melanchthonians. A change in the government, however, restored 
the Lutheran party to poAver in the duchy of Saxony (1567), and in 
electoral Saxony, also, synergism gradually lost its supports (Melanch- 
thon died in 1560). — In a colloquy with Strigel at Weimar (1560), 
Flacius allowed himself to assert, in the heat of controversy, that 
original sin was not something accidental, in man, but something sub- 
stantial. His friends, even, urged him to retract this manifestly 
Manichcean statement, which sounded worse than he meant. But a 
man of Flacius' character could not easily be induced to do this. In 
1562 he was banished, with the other Lutherans, and in 1567 he was 
not recalled with them. He now roamed restlessly about, driven from 
every place, and only a short time before his death (1575), recalled his 
hasty expression. — Thus, a man of strong character and astonishing 
erudition, was destroyed by unpropitious circumstances, for which he 
was partly innocent and partly to blame. (Cf. E. Schmidt, d. Flacius 
Erbsiindenstreit ; in the hist, theol. Ztschr. 1849, I. II. — A. Tivesten, 
Matth. Fl. Illyr., Berl., 1844.— IF. Preger, M. Fl. 111. u. s. Zeit. Lpz. 
1859. Bd. I.) 

7. In the Crypto- Calvinistic Controversy (1552-74), the doctrine of 
tlie Ijord's Supper was the subject of dispute. The union effected with 
the Zwinglian cities of southern Germany, by the Wittenberg Concord 
(1536), had since then been shaken in many ways, and the attacks of 
the Zurichers compelled Luther (1544) to draw up a final "Confession 
of the Holy Sacrament, against the fanatics. '^ If this demonstrated an 
incurable rupture with the Zwinglians, it also showed that a union with 
the incomparably more profound doctrines of Calvin was possible. It 
was Melanchthon' s most ardent desire to effect such a union. He be- 
came convinced, not indeed that the Lutheran doctrine of the real 
presence of the body and blood in the bread and wine was erroneous, 


but that Calvin's doctrine of a spiritual participation of the body and 
blood of Christ (through fjiith) in the Supper, did violence to no essen- 
tial religious point ; therefore he sought to avoid what seemed to him 
an unessential difference in confession and doctrine. But the rigid 
Lutherans were by no means agreed to this ; and tedious, violent con- 
troversies sprang up in various Lutheran countries (especially in lower 
Saxony, in the Palatinate, and in electoral Saxony), concerning it. The 
dispute was not confined, however, to the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, 
but was extended to its deepest basis. Luther, carrying out the princi- 
ples of the third and fourth General Councils, had taught that the per- 
sonal union of both natures in Christ rested upon a communication of 
the attributes of the one to the other (communicatio idiomatum), so that 
Christ, having resumed, since his ascension to heaven, the full exercise 
of his divine attributes, as God-man, is also corporeally omnipresent 
(ubiquitas corporis Christi), and he could not be shaken in his opinion 
by the assertion that a corporeal omnipresence was incomprehensible 
by the natural understanding. In this way he ansAvered the main 
objection of Zwingli and Calvin to Luther's doctrine of the Lord's 
Supper, that the body of Christ could not be simultaneously in heaven 
at the right hand of God, and in the bread and wine on earth. But the 
entire spirit, both of Calvin and Zwingli, led them to regard the doc- 
trine of the ubiquity of the glorified body of Christ as wholly absurd, 
and, by an openly Nestorian rejection of the communicatio idiomatum, 
to teach that the glorification of the body of Christ was confined to its 
transfiguration, and that in heaven, as formerly upon earth, it could be 
only in one place. A necessary consequence of this view was the rejec- 
tion of the corporeal presence in the Lord's Supper, and, even when 
high ground was taken, the admission that a communication of power 
from the exalted body of Christ was granted to believers through the 
sacrament. The struggle was begun by Joachim Westphal, a preacher 
in Hamburg, who openly assailed Calvin's doctrine, and was secretly 
abetted by many Lutheran theologians (1522). The controversy became 
most violent in Bremen, where the cathedral preacher Hardenberg pub- 
licly assailed the article in the Augsburg Confession concerning the 
Lord's Supper, and in Heidelberg, where Deacon Klebiiz maintained 
Calvinistic theses concerning the Lord's Supper. In both cities the 
struggle ended with the expulsion of Lutheranism (^ 23, 1, 2). In 
Wittenberg, also, the Philippists G. Major, Paul Eber, Paul Crell, etc., 
aided by Caspar Peucer, the elector's physician, and Melanchthon's 
son-in-law, who had great influence, labored from 1559 to introduce 
Calvinism. Melanchthon himself did not live to see the distractions 
resulting from this movement, the Lord having mercifully released the 
deeply humbled, desponding man, who had long prayed to be delivered 
a rabie theologorum. He died April 19, 1560. — Whilst the Elector 
Augustus (1553-86) still considered his Wittenberg the chief bulwark 
of genuine Lutheranism, the Philippists carried forward their plans 
12 * 


with increasing boldness, and endeavored to have every post filled by 
persons of their own views, and to secure the field by anonymous Cal- 
vinistic books. At length, however, the elector was convinced of the 
dangers which threatened Lutheranisni. The Philippists Avere all ex- 
pelled, and their leaders imprisoned (Peucer for twelve years). The 
final complete victory of Lutheranisni was celebrated by thanksgivings 
in all the churches, and by having a commemorative medal struck 
(1574). (Cf. the literature under § 11.) 

8. Of far less importance were: (1.) The Karg Controversy (1563) 
about the imputation of the active obedience of Christ, which George 
Karg (Parsimonius) a minister of Anspach, controverted for a season ; 
afterwards he retracted, having been convinced of his error by the 
Wittenberg theologians. (2.) The controversy with John JEpinus, 
minister in Hamburg, who, in a commentary on the 16th Psalm, 
adopted the Reformed view of Christ's descent into hell, that it belonged 
to his state of humiliation, and completed the passive obedience of 
Christ by his endurance of hell-punishment, whilst the current Lutheran 
regarded it as a triumphant proof of his victory over hell and death, 
and as belonging to his state of exaltation. A Wittenberg opinion 
(1550) on the subject left the point undecided, and the Form of Con- 
cord, also, rested with the assertion that Christ, in his entire person, 
descended into hell, to deliver man from death and from the power of 
the devil. 

9. The Form of Concord (1577). (Cf. /. K. Anton, Gesch. d. Concor- 
dienf. Lpz., 1779, 2 Bde. — /. C, G. Johannsen, Jac. Andrea's concor- 
dist. Thatigk. ; in d. hist, theol. Ztschr. 1853, HI. — //. Hej^pe, 1. c. 
Bd. III. IV. Gesch. d. luth. Concordienf. u. Concordie. Marb. 1857-58. 
— K. F. Goschel, d. C. F. nach ihrer Gesch. Lehre, u. Bdtg. Lpz., 1858. 
—F. H. /?. Frank, d. Theol.- d. C. F. Erlg. 1858.)— /aco6 Andrea, the 
learned chancellor of Tubingen, had been laboring indefatigably for 
some time, to restore peace among the theologians of the Lutheran 
Church. In connection with Martin Chemnitz, a prudent and moderate 
admirer of Melanchthon, and after consultation with many other theo- 
logians, Andrea prepared ?iform of Pinion (1574), which was thoroughly 
revised at a theological convention in the Wurtemberg monastery of 
Maulhronn. This Maidbronn Form was submitted to the judgment of a 
number of theologians, after which a second convention of theologians 
was held at Torgau (1576), which took into consideration the opinions 
received, and prepared the Torgau Book. Upon this production, also, 
the evangelical princes solicited numerous opinions; and then, by their 
(iivQGiioxi, Jacob Andrea, Chemnilz, Selnecker, Ch/trcEns, And. Muscidus, 
etc., met in the monastery of Bergen, near Magdeburg, to prepare a 
final plaa. Thus the Bergic Book, or Form of Concord, originated. 
Besides setting forth views upon previously controverted doctrines 
(especially that concerning the person of Christ, as the basis of the 


doctrine of the Lord's Supper), the decision regarding the synergistic 
question, rendered it necessary to refer to the subject of predestina- 
tion, in the Form of Concord, although there had not been any actual 
dispute about it in the Lutheran Church. Lutlier at tirst spoke in favor 
of a particular election, but gradually receded from the doctrine. Mc- 
lanchthon had done the same, only with the important difference, that 
whilst Luther denied to the last all human cooperation in conversion, 
Melanchthon felt constrained to admit a certain measure of cooperation, 
and even Calvin's reproof could not dissuade him from it. The Form 
of Concord most decidedly rejected synergism, and affirmed that since 
the Fall man had not a spark (ne scintilla quidem) of spiritual power 
remaining, to embrace, of his own accord, proffered grace. It assumed, 
therefore, in opposition to Melanchthon, the same ground which had 
forced Calvin, by rigid logical consequences, to adopt the theory of 
absolute predestination, and it could not avoid explaining its relation 
to that theory. It escapes Calvinistic conclusions by admitting that, 
although man has no power in himself to reach after or coooperate 
Avith divine grace, he can resist and reject it. In accordance with this 
it can affirm the explicit doctrine of the Scriptures, which teaches that 
it is the will of God that all men be saved, and regard salvation as an 
absolute work of grace, but man's damnation as the consequence of his 
own guilt. It considers man's salvation, only, as an object of divine 
predestination, whilst his damnation is an object of divine ^9?'e5Cie?ice. — 
The cliarader of this new Confession was not only popular in the 
Church, but it answered its purpose and aim, as a scientific theological 
production ; and its wisdom, moderation, and cautiousness, as Avell as 
its precision, clearness, and depth, are really great and admirable. The 
signatures of 9000 Church teachers testified that it answered its pur- 
pose. Denmark, Sweden, Holstein, Pomerania, Hessen, Anhalt, and 
eight cities (Magdeburg, Nuremberg, Strassburg, etc.), without show- 
ing hostility to it, refused their subscriptions ; but it was subsequently 
recognized in many of those countries (Sweden, Holstein, Pomerania, 
etc.) The Elector Augustus of Saxony caused a collection of all the 
Lutheran Confessions to be printed with the Book of Concord, and, 
signed by 51 princes and 35 cities, to be promulgated on June 25, 1580, 
the anniversary of the Augsburg Confession. 

10. The Articles of Visitation of Electoral Saxony (1592). — The 
Calvinistic effoiis of the Philippists were once more revived under the 
successor of Augustus, Christian I. (from 158G), who was gained for 
this object through his relationship with the princely house of the 
Palatinate. His chancellor, Nicholas Crcll, filled all the ecclesiastical 
offices with persons holding his own views, abolished exorcism at bap- 
tism, and had begun to publish an edition of the Bible with Calvinistic 
notes, when Christian died (1591). Altenburg, the regent during Duke 
Frederick Williani's minority, immediately restored rigid Lutheranism ; 
and having ordered a Church visitation, inserted in the Articles of 


Visitation a new anti-Calvinistic rule of faith, which all the ecclesias- 
tical and civil officials of Saxony had thenceforth to swear to maintain 
(1592). In these articles the doctrinal diversities concerning the Lord's 
Supper, the person of Christ, baptism, and election, were set forth in 
brief, lucid, and exact theses and anti-theses. (In regard to baptism, 
the anti-Calvinistic doctrine is affirmed, that regeneration is effected 
through baptism, and that therefore all who are baptized are regene- 
rated.) Crell, who had violently supplanted the nobility during his 
regency, was beheaded for high treason after ten years' imprisonment. 
— JEgidius Hunnius had taken the most active part in preparing the 
Articles of Visitation. From 1576-92, he had been professor in Mar- 
burg, and opposed Avith all his might the attempt to make Hessen 
Calvinistic, and had shown himself a most zealous advocate of rigid 
Lutheranism, by his defence of ubiquitarianism (" Bekenntniss von der 
Person Christi, 1577;" " Libelli IV. de persona Christi ejusque ad 
dexteram Dei sedentis divina majestate, 1585"). From Marburg he 
was called to Wittenberg. [Oh. 1603.) 

11. The Huher Controversy (1595). — Samuel Huher, a Reformed 
preacher in the canton of Berne, became involved in a controversy with 
Wolfg. Musculus about election, by transcending the Lutheran doctrine, 
and affirming that all men are predestinated unto salvation, though, 
through their own fault, all will not be saved. Banished from Berne, 
he joined the Lutheran Church, and was appointed a preacher in Wlir- 
temberg. There he accused Prof. Gerlach of Crypto-Calvinism, because 
he taught that only believers were predestinated to salvation. The 
controversy was stopped by his being called to Wittenberg. But he 
thought he discovered similar Crypto-Calvinism in his colleagues there 
[Pohjc. Leyser and JEgidiiis Hunnius), and opposed it. All the dispu- 
tations and conferences upon the subject failed to change his views ; 
and as parties arose among the students, he was dismissed from Wit- 
tenberg. He continued the controversy with increasing virulence, and 
wandered about in Germany many years, endeavoring to propagate his 
views, but without success. {Ob. 1624.) 


In regard to its constitution, the Lutheran Church aimed to 
maintain its character as a mediator between extremes, although, 
amidst the external and internal agitations which disturbed it, it 
was least successful in securing the same degree of stability and 
completeness, which shone forth so brilliantly in its doctrinal 
system. In regard to Church cultus, it was more fortunate. The 
Reformation finally annulled the hierarchical ban, which had for 
centuries excluded congregational singing and the vernacular 


tongue from public worship ; and during the period of the Re- 
formation, already (but only in the Lutheran Church), German 
Church hymnology flourished amazingly, and furnished the most 
brilliant example of the fullness, strength, and fervor of the lofty 
strain and freshness of the religious life of that age. Church 
hymns are the Confession of the Lutheran laity, and have done 
more than preaching to spread and inculcate evangelical truth. 
A hymn had scarcely gushed from the heart of a poet until it 
spread everywhere among the people, penetrated families and 
churches, was sung before every door, in workshops, market- 
places, streets and fields, and with a single stroke won whole 
cities to the evangelical faith. " No subsequent period was, or 
ever will be,* able to produce anything equally genuine, effectual, 
popular, original, or plastic for the people." The religious life 
of the people in the Lutheran Church combined deep, earnest 
penitence, and a joyful assured confidence of justification by 
faith, with the cheerful integrity and cordiality of the German 
citizen. Pastoral fidelity, earnest preaching, and the zealous 
instruction of youth, even without rigidly practised discipline, 
begat in the people a hearty fear of God, sincere attachment to 
the Church, strict family discipline, and true submission to civil 
authority. Theological learning flourished especially at the 
universities of Wittenberg, Tubingen, Strassburg, Marburg, and 
Jena. But there were also many who cultivated it, among those 
engaged in more practical spheres. 

1. TJie Constitution of the Chnrch. (Cf. L. Ricliter, Gesch. d. ev. 
K.-verf. in Deutschl. Lpz. 1851.) — Between hierarchy and Caesareo- 
papy, between the absorption of the State by the Church, and of the 
Church by the State, the Lutheran Church occupied a medium which 
was in the main correct, although somewhat vacillating in theory and 
practice. It decidedly protested both against every admixture and 
suppression of the two spheres. In the exigency of the Church, the 
princes and magistrates assumed unavoidable episcopal power, managed 
the affairs of the Church, and appointed consistories composed of lay- 
men and clergy, to execute their orders and plans, and take special 
charge of the clergy. Church discipline, and matrimonial questions. 
This gradually led to the permanent institution of the episcopal system 
(the chief civil ruler holding the position of summus episcopus. Cf. 
^ 4G, 3). The canon law, after a careful modification of what was most 
indispensable, became the basis of ecclesiastical jurispritdence. The 
restoration of the biblical idea of a universal priesthood of all believers, 
would not endure the opinion of an essential distinction between tha 


clergy and laity. The clergy were the regularly called servants 
(ministri, ministerium) of the Church, of the Word, of the altar, enjoy- 
ing equal rights in spiritual things. Lay-baptism was allowed in ex- 
treme cases. Hierarchical grades among the clergy were considered 
antagonistic to the spirit of Christianity, although offices of authority 
(such as superintendants, provosts, but only jure humano), were thought 
allowable and advantageous. The property of the Church was frequently 
seized and secularized by the arbitrary avarice of princes and nobles, 
though the greater part of it, especially in Germany, either remained 
in the Church, or was used in founding schools, universities, and chari- 
table institutions. The monasteries met with the richly merited reward 
of their degeneracy. Unhappily, their reconstruction upon evangelical 
principles was not thought of amidst the pressure and agitation of the 

2. Public Worship and Art. (Cf. Th. Kliefoth, d. urspr. Gottesdienst- 
ordnungen in d. luth. K. Rost. 1847. — Ibid. Liturg. Abhandle. Schwer. 
1854. Bd. l-Z.—H. Alt, d. chr. Cultus. 2 A. Berl. 1851.— A^ Barthel; 
d. Verb. d. Protstsm. zur Kunst; in d. hist. th. Ztschr. 1840. III.) — 
Catholic worship appeals only to the imagination and feelings ; the wor- 
ship of the Reformed Church satisfies merely the understanding ; but 
Lutheran worship, combining both these elements, appeals to the heart. 
The first sensualizes everything, the second spiritualizes everything, 
whilst in the last all is harmonized in a well-balanced, vital manner. 
The unity of the Church is not made to consist in identifying forms 
of worship, but in oneness of faith ; hence the forms of worship are 
nowhere imposed by law. Altars ornamented with candles and cruci- 
fixes, as well as images, were retained in the churches, not for adora- 
tion, but to excite and elevate devotion. Its Liturgy was based upon 
the Romish missal, only unevangelical elements being excluded. The 
preaching of the word was the centre of public worship. Luther's 
manner of preaching, the noble, vigorous popularity of which was 
never equalled afterwards, still less surpassed, was the exemplar and 
type for other Lutheran preachers, among whom Ant. Corvin, Just. 
Jonas, Ge. Spalatin, J. Bugenhagen, Jerome Weller, J. Brenz, Veit 
Dietrich, J. Mathesins, and M. Chemnitz, were most noteworthy. The 
essential requisition of all public worship was the personal participa- 
tion of the congregation, and, as indispensable to this, the exclusive use 
of the native language. Festivals were limited to the leading facts in 
the history of redemption, and only such saints' days were retained as 
were authorized by the Gospel (Apostles' days, the Annunciation, 
Michaelmas, John the Baptist's day, etc.) Luther held art in high 
esteem, especially music. Lucas Cranach, Hans Holbein, and Albert 
Vdrer, employed their art (painting) in the service of the Gospel, and 
ornamented Lutheran churches with elegant and significant paintings. 

3. Hymnology. (Cf. E. E. Koch, Gesch. d. K. L. u. K. Ges. 2. A. 
Stuttg. 1853. 4 Bde.— i^. A. Cunz, Gesch. d. K. L. Lpz. 1855. 2 Bde. 


— Ph. Wackernagel, d. deutsclie K.-L. von Luther bis Hermann u. 
Blaurer. Stuttg. 1841.—/. MiUzdl, Geistl. Lieder d. ev. K. d. 16. 
Jahrh. Berl. 1855. 3 Bde.) — The general character of Lutheran 
hymnology in the IGth century is its true churchliness and popular 
style. It is doctrinal, devotional, and bears the impress of objective- 
ness. The poet does not give vent to his own frame of mind, his indi- 
vidual feelings, but the Church itself, through his lips, confesses, be- 
lieves, comforts, praises, and .adores. At the same time it is truly 
popular; truthful, natural, cordial, bold and fearless in expression, 
moving with rapid steps ; no pausing, no retrospect, no minute deli- 
neations or extended descriptions, no didactic demonstrations. In its 
outward form it followed the old German epos, and popular narrative 
poetry, and aimed above all at being not only read but sung, and sung 
by the congregation. The psalmody of the Reformation exhibits, of 
course, all these characteristics in their fullest original vigor. Luther 
ranks first. His 37 hymns are in part free translations of Latin hymns 
("Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ," " Der du bist drei in Einigkeit," 
"Der Tag der ist so freudenreich," " Wir glauben all an einen Gott," 
"IlerrGott, dich loben wir,'' "Mitten wir im Leben sind,'' " Komm 
Gott Schiipfer, heiliger Geist," etc.) ; partly revisions of original Ger- 
man hymns: ("Christ lag in Todesbanden,'' "Nun bitten wir den 
heilgen Geist," "Gott der Vater wohn uns bei," "Gott sei gelobet") ; 
partly versions of Psalms: ("Ach Gott vom Ilimmel sieh darein,'' 
Ps. 12, "Eine feste Burg ist unser Gott," Ps. 46, " Es woll uns Gott 
gnadig sein," Ps. 67, "War Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit,'' Ps. 124, 
" Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu dir," Ps. 130, etc.), or single passages 
of Scripture: ("Dies sind die heiligen zehn Gebot,'' "Jesaja dem 
Propheten das geschah," Is. 6, "Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich 
her," Luke 2, " Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam," etc.), and wholly 
original hymns, both as to form and contents (" Nun freut euch liebe 
Christen gemein," "Jesus Christus unser Ileiland der den Tod," 
" Erhalt uns Ilerr bei deinem Wort," etc.) Prominent next to Luther, 
were: Paid Speraius, reformer in Prussia {ob. 1554), author of the in- 
comparable " Es ist das Heil uns kommen her ;" — Nicholas Decius, a 
monk who became an evangelical preacher in Stettin, about 1524. 
(" AUein Gott in der Iloh sei Ehr," "0 Lamm Gottes unschuldig") ; 

— Paid Eher, professor and superintendent in Wittenberg, oh. 1569 
(the Michaelmas hymn " Herr Gott, dich loben Alle wir," " Wenn wir 
in hochstcn Nothen sein," "Ilerr Jesu Christ, wahr'r Meusch und 
Gott," "In Christ! Wunden schlaf ich ein," etc.); — Lazarus Spengler, 
clerk of the council in Nuremberg, ob. 1534 (" Durch Adams' Fall ist 
ganz verderbt"); — Hans Sachs, a shoemaker in Nuremberg, oh. 1576 
(" Warum betrlibst du dich, mein Ilerz," etc.) ; — /. Graumann (Polian- 
der), Eck's amanuensis, afterwards an evangelical preacher in Konigs- 
berg, ob. 1541 ("Nun lob meine Seele den Herrn"); — /. Schneesing 
(Chiomusus), minister in Gothachsen, ob. 1567 (" Allein zu dir, Ilerr 


Jesu Christ") ; Adam Beussner, a lawyer in Frankfurt, 06. 1574 (''Auf 
dich hab ich gehoiFet"); — John Mathesius, rector and deacon in Joa- 
chimsthal (who also preached some sermons on Luther's life), oh. 1565 
(the morning-hymn, "Aus meines Ilerzen's Grunde,'' also the sweet 
evangelical cradle-hymn, "Nun schlaf mein liebes Kindelein"); — 
Nicholas Herrmann, the friend of Mathesius, and cantor in Joachims- 
thal, oh. 1561 (" Die helle Sonn leucht jetzt herfiir,^' " Hinunter ist 
der Sonnenschein,'' " Wenn mein Stiindlein vorhanden ist," etc.); — 
Erasmus Alherus, superintendent at Brandenburg, oh. 1553 ("Nun 
freut euch, Gotteskinder all"). — To these must be added Michael Weisse, 
a German minister in Bohemia, the translator and author of the hymns 
of the Bohemian Hussites (Cf. ^ 42), oh. 1540 ("Christ ist erstanden 
von der Marter alle," " Gottes Sohn ist kommen," " Christus der uns 
selig macht"), above all, that precious funeral hymn, "Nun lasst uns 
den Leib begraben,'' to which Luther added a verse. 

In the next succeeding period, however (1560-1618), many self-con- 
stituted poets volunteered worthless religious rhymes. Even those 
divinely gifted for the work were altogether too prolific, but still they 
contributed a large number of genuine Church hymns, true to the 
character of higher objectiveness, childlike simplicity, and true fitness 
for general use. AVe may, of course, observe a transition to the subjec- 
tive style of the following period, didactic matter is occasionally intro- 
duced, and some hymns refer to special personal circumstances ; but 
the idea of an objective faith still predominates. Among the sacred 
poets of this period, the most noted are : Barth. Ringicalt, a preacher 
in Mark Brandenburg, oh. 1597 (" Es est gewisslich an der Zeit," etc.) ; 
Nich. Selnecker, during his last years superintendent in Leipsic [oh. 
1592). As a pupil of Melanchthon he was at first suspected of Crypto- 
Calvinism, but after his participation in drawing up the Form of Con- 
cord he became an object of bitter hatred and continued persecutions 
to the Crypto-Calvinists. (He composed: " Ach bleib bei uns Herr 
Jesu Christ"). Ludwig Helmhold, superintendent in MUhlhausen, oh. 
1598 ("Yon Gott will ich nicht lassen") ; — Martin Schalling, preacher 
in Regensburg and Nuremberg, oh. 1608 (" Herzlich lieb hab ich 
dich") ; — Caspar Bienemann (Melissander) superintendent in Alten- 
burg, oh. 1591 ("Herr, wie du wilt so schicks mit mir") ; — Martin 
Moller, preacher in Gorlitz, oh. 1606 (" Nimm von uns, Herr, du treuer 
Gott") ; — Martin Bohme (Behemb) preacher in Lausitz, oh. 1621 ("Herr 
Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht") ; — Valerius Herherger, preacher in 
Fraustadt, Poland, oh. 1627 (" Yalet will ich dir geben," written during 
a plague in 1613) ; — Philip Nicolai, preacher in Hamburg [oh. 1608), 
whose soaring poetry, pervaded by a spirit of profound love, affiliates 
it with the Canticles (" Wie schon leucht uns der Morgensten," " Wa- 
chet auf, ruft uns die Stimme"). (Cf. I 159, 3.) 

4. Psalmody. (Cf. A. J. Bamhach, Luther's Yerd. um den K.-ges. 
Ilamb. 1813.— P. Mortimer, d. Choralges. zur Zeit d. Ref. Berl. 1820, 


4to. — L. Kraussohl, d. altprnf. Choral. FUrth, 1851. — E. E. Koch, 1. c. 
/. E. Hduser, Gesch. d. chr. K.-ges. Lpz. 1834. — C. v. Winterfeld, 
d. ev. K.-ges. Lpz. 1843, 2 Bde.) — Congregational singing, as incor- 
porated by the Reformation in the worship of the Church, was substan- 
tially a revival of the Ambrosian psalmody, in a purified and richer 
form. It was distinguished, at the start, from the Gregorian style, by 
being national and congregational, and not performed by a choir of 
priests (although the name Choralgesang was retained, and even be- 
came the technical designation of the new style of singing), — further 
by substituting for solo monotonous singing, in uniform loud notes of 
equal value, a copious rhythm with lively modulations, — and, finally, 
by the introduction of several parts instead of the original solo unison. 
On the other hand, this choral music restored the ancient cantus firmus, 
by abolishing the secular keys, the counterpointing and other artificial 
ornaments with which music had been garnished during the middle 
ages. The cantus firmus (or air) was sung by the congregation, and 
the singers in the choir (not the organ, which was used during the 
Reformation period only to support and accompany the choir) accom- 
panied the congregation in the several parts. The air, however, was 
set in tenor^ which was the leading part of the music. The tunes for 
the new hymns were obtained in part by modifying the old tunes of 
Latin hymns and sequences, partly by employing national religious 
airs of the middle ages, especially such as were preserved among the 
Bohemian brethren, but mainly by appropriating without reserve the 
rich treasure of song-tunes in popular use — many hymns being them- 
selves parodies of secular songs. The few original tunes of this period 
were composed mostly by the authors of the hymns, or at least by lay 
musicians, and were the utterance of the same inspiration which pro- 
duced the hymns ; hence they are rarely equalled by subsequent more 
artistic compositions, in unction, spirit, and power. This is especially 
true of Luther's melodies. The people were taught these tunes by 
travelling musicians, singing processions of school-boys, and city cor- 
netters. Those who arranged the music difiered from vocalists or the 
authors of the tunes, and, as the proper composers, wrote out the several 
parts for public use, according to the laws of harmony. Especially 
distinguished among these were the two intimate friends of Luther, 
George Rhaw (cantor in Leipsic, afterwards a printer in Wittenberg) and 
Hans Walther (conductor of the elector's band). Next to these we must 
name : Lewis Senjl, Martin Agricola, Sixt. Dieterich, John Kugelmann, 
Nich. Hermann, Hans Leo Hassler, and near the close of the century, 
the four Hamburg organists, Jacob and Jerome Prdtorius (father and 
son), David Scheidemann, and Joachim Decker, who, in 1604, issued a 
volume with 88 new and admirably harmonized melodies. The close 
of the IGth century was the most flourishing period of evangelical 
psalmody. The great composer, John Eccart (during his last years 
conductor of a band in Berlin, oh. IGll), was most active in important 
IL — 13 K 


improvements in it. In order to give more prominence to the tune, it 
was transferred from the tenor to the treble. The other parts were 
added as simple chords to the tune, and the organ (which had under- 
gone the most important mechanical improvements), with its pure, rich, 
copious harmony, was more generally used to support and accompany 
the congregational singing. The distinction between singers and com- 
posers, also, gradually disappeared, the more artistic parts of the sing- 
ing were more intimately conformed to that of the congregation, and 
the inventive talent, which produced an abundance of original tunes, 
with suitable chords, increased from year to year. Next to Eccart, the 
most noted masters of this new school are : Joachim v. Burgh, the teacher 
and friend of Eccart, cantor in Mlihlhausen [oh. 1596) ; Martin Zeuner ; 
Melcli. Vulpiiis, cantor in Weimar (o6. 1G16) ; Michael Prdtorius, con- 
ductor of the elector's band [oh. 1621) ; John Stohdus, a pupil of Eccart, 
leader of a band in Konigsberg, who chiefly sang tunes to the hymns 
of the Konigsberg poets Thilo, "VVeissel, and Dach ; and, finally, those 
who led in the tunes of their own hymns, Nich. Selnecker and Philip 
Nicolai. (Cf. ^ 39, 4.) 

5. Theology. (Cf. G. W. Meyer, Gesch. d. Schrifterkl. Bd. II. Gottg. 
1803, and Fr. Stdudlin, Gesch. d. theol. Wisch. Gottg. 1810, 2 Bde.— 
W. Gass, Gesch. d. prot. Dogm. Bd. I. Berl. 1854.) — As the Reforma- 
tion proceeded from the Word of God, and was based on it alone, that 
Word claimed the chief and diligent study of its theology. John Forster 
[oh. 1556) and John Avenarius [oh. 1576), both of Wittenberg, published 
Hebrew lexicons, the result of original investigations (not borrowed 
from the Rabbins), and Matthew Flacius, in his Clavis Scripturoe sacrae, 
furnished a most valuable aid, for that period, in the study of the Bible. 
The first part contains an explanation of Scripture terms and phrases 
in alphabetical order ; the second an excellent outline of hermeneutics. 
There were numerous exegetical works ; among these Liither^s are un- 
surpassed, and, in their kind, unsurpassable. Next to him the most 
prominent Lutheran exegetes of that period are, for the New Testament, 
Melanchtlion, Victor Strigel (Hypomn. in omnes LI. N. T.), Flacius 
(Glossa compendiaria in N. T.), Joachim Camerarius (Notationes in 
N. T.), Martin Chemnitz (Harmonia IV. Evangg., subsequently con- 
tinued by Polyc. Leyser, and completed by John Gerhard) ; for the Old 
Testament, John Brenz, whose excellent commentary still possesses 
great merit. Of less value are the numerous and comprehensive com- 
mentaries on the 0. and N. T., by David Chytrdus in Rostock. At the 
head of the list of Lutheran theologians stands Melaiichthon (Loci com- 
munes, 1521). (Cf. Schwarz, Mel.'s loci nach ihrer weitern Eutw., in 
the Studd. u. Kritt. 1857, II.) Martin Chemnitz, in his Locis theol., 
furnished an excellent commentary upon it, which is still regarded as 
one of the principal works on theology in the Lutheran Church ; and 
his Examen Concilii Tridentini (1562) is not only a learned, profound, 
and thorough refutation of Catholic doctrines, but is equally discreet, 


kind, and moderate. Vict. Strigel and Nich. Selnecker, also, wrote 
valuable text-books of theology. Controversy was actively maintained, 
and was often conducted with great violence. In Church history, the 
Magdeburg centuries were produced by the colossal spirit of Matth. 
Flacius. He had previously demonstrated, by his Catalogus testium 
Veritas, that the Church of Christ never lacked intelligent, pious, and 
heroic defenders of the faith, to preserve unbroken the chain of histo- 
rical connection between the primitive Apostolic Church, and the evan- 
gelical Church of the 16th century. (Cf. § 38, 4.) 

6. National Literature of Germany. — The Reformation occurred in a 
period of the deepest decline of poetry and general literature in Ger- 
many. But it awakened new creative energies in the secular and reli- 
gious life of the nation. Luther's pioneer example opened the way for 
the introduction of " a new all-conquering prose, as a form of utterance 
for a new world-consciousness,^' which impelled Germans to think and 
teach in German. Especially did the contact of spirits caused by re- 
formatory movements call satire into being, in a blooming, vigorous, 
and popular form and degree unknown to German literature before, 
and not equalled since. Countless fugitive productions, of the most 
diversified imagery and style, in verse and prose, in Latin and German, 
written by Catholics and Protestants (those of the latter being vastly 
more rich, vigorous, and witty), assailed or vindicated the Reformation, 
with satire, ridicule, and contempt. (Cf. 0. Schade, Satyren u. Pasquille 
aus d. Reformationszeit. Bd. I. II. Hannover, 185G, etc.) Most promi- 
nent among these well-nigh countless, and for the most part anonymous 
satirical writers of the 16th centur}'-, are the Catholic Thos. Murner 
(§ 5, 2), the Reformed Nich. Manuel (^ 10, 4), and the Lutheran John 
FiscHART, who far excels the other two, and is unquestionably the 
greatest satirist Germany ever produced. Like Seb. Brant and Murner, 
he was a native of Strassburg, for some time was advocate at the im> 
perial chamber, and died in 1589. His satiric vein first opened with 
Church matters: " Der Nachtrabe und die Nebelkrahe'^ (against one 
J. Rabe, who turned Catholic); "Der Barfiisser Secten-und Kutten- 
streit," and "Von St. Dominici und St. Francisci artlichem Leben" 
(a satire upon the Franciscans and Dominicans) ; " Bienenkorb des h. 
romischen Immenschwarms " (the best known of his productions); 
"Das vierhornige Jesuitenhlitlein" (inverse, the most biting, witty, 
and striking satire, ever written against the Jesuits). He next took hold 
of secular subjects: "Aller Praktik Grossmutter ; '' "Gargantua oder 
afi'entheuerliche, naupengeheuerliche Geschichsklitterung ; " " Floh- 
hatz, Weibertratz," etc. His Bee-hive may be regarded as an oiffset to 
Murner's Lutheran fools, in spirit, wit, and cheerful, merry ridicule, 
with a consciousness of triumph, but far surpasses that rough produc- 
tion, dealing such passionate blows as to endanger itself. (Cf. Volmar, 
in Ersch and Gruber's Encycl. I. Bd. 51.) — Among the secular poets 
of this century, Hans Sachs [oh. 1576), a Nuremberg cobbler, holds the 


first place. He was a genuine type of a Lutheran citizen, and although 
as a minstrel scarcely of more repute than his associates in poetic jovial 
tales, legends, and stories, he excelled by waggish simplicity, honest 
cordiality, freshness, vivacity, and rapid delineation. He produced 208 
comedies and tragedies, 1700 humorous pieces, and 4200 songs. As 
early as 1523, he gave the Reformation a joyful greeting in his poem: 
" Die AVittenbergisch Nachtigall ; '' and did much to secure a welcome 
for it among his fellow-citizens. 

For Missions among the Heathen little was done during this period, 
and for obvious reasons. First of all, the Lutheran Church was too 
much occupied with internal matters. It had neither the same call to 
engage in the work, by which the Catholic Church was led to lay hold 
of it throuo-h the political and commercial relations of its countries with 
distant pagan lands, nor those means of doing so, which the monastic 
orders afforded, etc. And yet we meet with beginnings of a Lutheran 
mission even in this period ; for Gustavus Vasa of Sweden established 
one (1559) among the neglected Laplanders. (Cf. ^ 39, 6.) 



Cf. 31. Gobel u. Jul. Wiggers 11. cc. I 20.—/. P. Lange, die Eigenthlk. 
d. ref. K. Zurich. 1841. — K. R. Hagenbach, d. ref. K. in Bezieh. auf 
Verf. u. Cult. Schafh. 1842. — K. Ullmann, zur Charaktrst. d. ref. K., 
in the Studd. u. Kritt. 1843. III. 

As the birth-place of the Reformed Church was free Switzerland, 
its constitution bears, to some extent, the impress of a democratic 
character ; and as it strove to imitate the theocratic constitution 
of the Old Testament, it felt justified in claiming for the Church 
a decided voice in purely political matters. Instead of the Lu- 
theran episcopacy under the chief civil magistrate (as summus 
episcopus), it adopted a presbyterial constitution, with its eman- 
cipation of individual congregations from the idea of a united 
Church. The firm consolidation of all the Lutheran State Churches 
under one confession, is lacking in the Reformed Church ; for 
the Church of each country adopted its own confession. The 
ministers of the Church are only preachers, even the name pastor 
was avoided. Presbyteries exercised a more rigid external dis- 
cipline. Civil and domestic life assumed a strictly legal, often a 
gloomy rigorous character (especially in the Scotch Church and 
among the English Puritans) ; but, along with this, developed a 
wonderful degree of moral energy, which, however, too often 
ran into extremes, and an unjustifiable application of Old Tes- 


tament principles and examples. In regard to its cuUus, the 
Reformed Church exhibits the extreme reverse of that of the 
Catholic Church, with its abundant sensuous ceremonies. Zwingli 
wished to abolish the ringing of bells [daring thunder-storms, 
etc., for super stitious 2^urposes — Tr.]; organ-playing, and sing- 
ing in Churches [by priests, as was then the exclusive custom, 
in the Romish Church — Tr.], and he approved of the removal 
of altars [as used for crucifixes, etc., and for the sacrifice of 
the mass — Tr.], and the destruction of images. The more 
prudent Calvinists, even, would not tolerate altars- [as used by 
Romanists — Tr.]; crucifixes, images, candles, etc., in the 
Churches, because they were thought absolutely incompatible 
with the prohibitions of the decalogue. The Churches were 
converted into naked prayer-halls and auditories, altars into 
simple communion-tables ; kneeling was discarded as an outward 
ceremony, in the Lord's Supper (at which the symbolical element 
predominated, if it was not the only one) ; the breaking of bread 
was introduced as essential, private confession was rejected, the 
baptism of dying persons prohibited, and the liturgy changed 
into simple spoken (not sung) prayers. In France, however, 
the singing of Psalms was iptroduced, and their use spread from 
France to other countries ; there were no proper hymns. The 
number of festivals was reduced as much as possible, and only 
the principal Christian festivals were tolerated. On the other 
hand, Sunday was observed with well-nigh Old Testament strict- 
ness. In regard to the exceptions to all this, in the theory and 
practice of the Anglican Church, cf. § 29, 4. 

1. The adoption of psalmody into the worship of the Reformed Church 
was effected especially by the efforts of John Zioick (a clergyman in 
Constance, oh. 1542). In 1536, he published a small hymn-book, with 
versions of some Psalms, adapted to Lutheran tunes. At Calvin's re- 
quest, Clement Marot prepared versions of most of the Psalms, in the 
measure of popular French songs and tunes. Th. Beza completed 
them, and Calvin introduced this French Psalter into the Genevan 
Churches (1555). In 1562, Claude Goudimel published 16 of these 
Psalms, with music for four parts. (He was murdered in Lyons (1572), 
in connection with the St. Bartholomew's massacre.) Ambrose Lob- 
wasser, Prof, of Jurisprudence in Konigsberg, in imitation of Marot, 
prepared the Psalter in German (1573). Notwithstanding its total lack 
of poetic merit, this Psalter w^as, for a long time, exclusively used in 
the German churches. The few, and for the most part, unimportant 
authors of hymns (the chief of whom were Zwick and Ambr. Blaiirer— 

150 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (C E N T. 16 A. D.) . 

who subsequently embraced Zwinglianism), failed to have them adopted 
in the churches. The Reformed Church continued to denounce the use 
of organs. (Cf. | 41, 1.) 

2. Theological Studies flourished in the Reformed Church, also, espe- 
cially in Basel and Geneva, in the French Church at the theol. semina- 
ries in Montauhan, Sedan, and MonfpeUier. Biblical studies were pro- 
secuted with special interest. Sebastian M'dnster, then at Heidelberg, 
afterwards at Basel, published a Hebrew lexicon as early as 1523. 
Zurich theologians [Leo Juda, etc.), published Luther's translation of 
the Bible, in the Swiss dialect, revised, however, according to the 
original text. Th. Beza published an improved recension of the New 
Testament text, with a new Latin version. Seh. M'dnster edited the 
Old Testament text, with an independent Latin version. Leo Juda, in 
Zurich, an able linguist, also undertook one. Seb. Castellio, in Geneva, 
devoted himself to a translation of the Prophets and Apostles' writings 
in elegant Ciceronian Latin. The ablest was the Latin version of the 
Old Testament, made by Imanuel Treinellius of Heidelberg, and his 
son-in-law Francis Junius. The number of commentators, also, was 
large. Besides Calvin, who excelled all the rest (^ 18, 5), distinguished 
exegetical contributions were furnished by Zioinr/li [Annot. in Gen., 
Exod., Isaiam, Jerem., Evangg. In hist. Dom. pass., Rom., Corinth., 
Philip., Colos., Thessal., Jac, Hebr., 1 Joann. — Tr.], (Ecolampadius 
[Conciones XXI. in Ep. Job. I., 1524; Comment, in Proph. Es., 11. V., 
Annot. in Ep. ad Rom., 1525. — Tr.], Conr. Pellicanus [of Zurich, 
Comm. on the 0. T., in which special use was made of the Rabbins, on 
Paul's Epp., and the Cath. Epp.— Tr.] Th. Beza [Annot. on the N. T., 
1527. — Tr.], Francis Junius [prof, of theol. in Leyden. Praelect. in 
tria prima cap. Gen.; Exposit. Dan.; Analys. Apocal. — Tr.], John 
Mercerus, and the Frenchman Marlaraius. — As a theologian, also, 
Calvin indisputably occupied the first place in the Reformed Church. 
In speculative power, and a mas':erly use of his material, he excelled 
all his cotemporaries. Andrew Hyperius, of Marburg, held an honor- 
able position as a theologian, in the Reformed Church cf Germany. 
But little was done, during this period, in ecclesiastical history, by 
Reformed theologians. Th. Beza, however, wrote an excellent history 
of the French Church. [Among the theological productions of the 
Reformed Church of this period, ZwinglVs Comm. de vera et falsa rel., 
Auslegung, etc., d. Schlussreden, etc.. Von gottl. u. raenschl. Genecht- 
igkeit, Elenchus contra Catabaptistos, Brevis in evang. doctr. Izagoge, 
etc., and the able doctrinal treatises of (Ecolampadius, Bucer, Capito, 
Bullinger, and Peter Martyr, are entitled to notice. — Tr.] (Cf. g 40, 4.) 

is. The Genevan Church engaged in a Missionary enterprise as early 
as 1557. A French adventurer, Villegagnon, submitted a plan to Ad- 
miral Coligny for the colonization of persecuted Huguenots in Brazil, 
who should found a mission among the native heathen. Sustained by 


Coligny, he sailed in 1555 with a number of Huguenot mechanics, and 
established Fort Coligny on the Rio de Janeiro. At his request Calvin 
sent out two Genevan clergymen (1557). The intolerable tyranny exer- 
cised by Yillegagnon over the defenceless colonists, their failure to effect 
anything amongst the natives, together with their destitution and va- 
rious sufferings, compelled them to return in 1558, on a very frail vessel. 
It could not hold all, and many of those admitted perished of hunger 
on the voyage. (Cf. ^ 41, 2.) 



The crypto-Calvinistic controversies were conducted with so 
much violence, that they frustrated the scheme of the Philippists 
to effect an imperceptible transition of the entire Lutheran Church 
to Calvinism (§ 21, 1) ; but they could not prevent several na- 
tional Lutheran Churches in Germany from adopting, or being 
compelled to adopt, the Reformed Confession. The Falatinate 
was the first to pass over ; its example was soon followed by 
Bremen, Anhalt, and, at the commencement of the following 
century, Hessen-Cassel, Lippe, and Electoral Brandenburg. — 
(Cf. § 34, 1-3.) 

1. The Palatinate (1560). (Cf. D. Seisen, Gesch. d. Ref. in Heidelb. 
Heidelb. 1846.— F. Blaul, d. Ref. Werk in d. Pfalz. Speier, 1846.)— 
Tilemann HessTius, a violent advocate of pure Lutheranism, had been 
driven from Goslar and from Rostock, as a disturber of the peace. At 
Melanchthon's recommendation, the Elector Otho Henry of the Palatinate 
appointed him professor and general superintendent at Heidelberg 
(1558). There he soon disputed with his deacon, William Klebitz. 
During a brief absence of Hcsshus, Klebitz, by vindicating Calvinistic 
views of the Lord's Supper, secured his own promotion as baccalaureus. 
Hesshus disciplined and susjiended him. But Klebitz would not leave. 
The violence of both exceeded all bounds ; they even seized each other 
by the hair at the altar. The new elector, Frederick III., drove off 
both (1559), obtained Melanchthon's opinion on the subject, and joined 
the Reformed Church (1560). He then appointed Calvinistic teachers 
throughout his country, and directed two Heidelberg professors, Za- 
charias Ursinus and Caspar Oleviaims to prepare the Heidelberg Cate- 
chism, for the use of the schools of the Palatinate. (In popular simpli- 
city, power, and depth, it is far inferior to Luther's smaller catechism ; 
but in other respects it is distinguished by its method of instruction, 
theological skill, Christian fervor, and conciliatory mildness, and richly 
merits the favor with which it has ever been received, not only by the 
Reformed of Germany, but of other countries. It avoids Calvin's doc- 


trine of predestination, and makes the nearest possible approach to the 
Lutheran dogma concerning the Lord's Supper. The Catholic mass it 
denounces as an accursed idolatry.) [Cf. Sudhoff, Olevianus u. Ursinus. 
Elberf. 1857. — Van Alpen, Gesch. etc., d. Ileid. Cat. The highest com- 
mendation of the Heidelberg Catechism, as a systematic exhibition of 
evangelical doctrines, is found in the fact that it was at once cordially 
welcomed by all but Romanists and extreme Lutherans ; that it was 
speedily translated into many different languages ; and that it is, vir- 
tually, the doctrinal platform occupied at the present day, by the largest 
portion of the Protestant Church, especially in regard to its moderate 
Calvinistic and sacramental doctrines. — Tr.] The government of 
Lewis VI. (1576-83), a zealous friend of the Form. Concord., was of 
too short duration fully to check the transition of the Palatinate to 
Calvinism. The Elector John Casimir, whilst exercising the regency, 
banished all the Lutheran preachers, and had his ward, Frederick IV., 
educated in the strictest Calvinism. 

2. Bremen (15G2). (Cf. //. W, Rotermund, Gesch. d. Domkirche 
zu Bremen. Brem., 1829.) — In Bremen, Albert Rizdiis v. Hardenbergj 
cathedral preacher, publicly assailed the 10th art. of the Augsb. Conf., 
and became involved in a controversy respecting it with his colleague, 
John Timann. All the clergy sustained Timann, but Hardenberg was 
powerfully supported by the burgomaster B'dren, and he was favored 
by an opinion of Melanchthon (1557), counselling them to hush up the 
matter. As he also refused to take oath in support of the Augsb. Conf., 
the disturbance daily increased. Timann died in 1559. Hesshus, who 
had been driven fi-om Heidelberg, was called to take his place. He at 
once put Hardenberg under the ban, and accused him before the League 
of the cities of lower Saxony. It held a martial diet at BrunsAvick 
(1561) which deposed Hardenberg, yet without depriving him of his 
office. He went to Oldenberg, and became preacher at Emden, where 
he died in 1574. Hesshus, also, soon left Bremen ; and after having 
been expelled from eight other posts, as an agitator, became prof, in 
Helmstadt, where he died in 1588. His successor at Bremen, Simon 
Musdeus, no less violent than himself, insisted upon the banishment 
of all Hardenberg's adherents, and the council had actually consented 
to this, when affairs took a sudden change. In spite of all opposition, 
B'dren was chosen chief burgomaster in 1562. Musaeus and 13 other 
preachers were driven off, and even the Lutheran members of the 
council had to leave the city. Foreign mediation effected a compromise, 
however, in 1568, by which those who had been expelled were allowed 
to return to the city, but not to resume their offices. All the churches 
of Bremen, the cathedral excepted, remained Reformed. 

3. Anhalt (1597). (Cf. G. Sc7inbring, Gesch. d. Einfuhr. d. ref. Conf. 
in Anh. Lpz. 1848.) — After the death of Prince Joachim Ernest, his 
sons founded four Anhalt lines (Dessau, Bernburg, Kothen, Zerbst). 
John George, founder of the house of Anhalt-Dessau, reigned for his 


minor brothers from 1587-1603. Subscription to the Form of Concord 
had been previously declined, and in 1589 Calvinism began to be in- 
troduced into the country, by the abrogation of exorcism. This "was 
followed by substituting a Reformed for the old Lutheran directory. Not 
long afterwards, Luther's catechism was also laid aside, and in 1597 a 
copy of 28 Calvinistic articles was laid before the clergy, which they 
were required to subscribe on pain of banishment. The prime movers 
in this were Caspar Fencer (^ 21, 7), who had been expelled from Wit- 
tenberg, and Wolf(/. Amling, the superintendent at Zerbst. In 1644, 
Anhalt-Dessau was restored to the old confession by Prince John^ who 
had been reared by his mother in the Lutheran faith. 



Cf, H. W. Erbkam, Gesch. d. protestant, Secten in Zeitalt. d. Ref. 
Ilamb., 1848. 

That fanatics and ultraists of various grades would endeavor 
to produce a sensation during a period of such agitation as cha- 
racterized the Reformation, will be readily conceived ; but that 
the Reformation itself is not chargeable with such excrescences, 
is proven by the exclusive opposition in which it ever stood to 
those deformities. Both have, indeed, the same starting-point, 
opposition to the degenerate churchisra of that period. But the 
Reformation at once wholly renounced the Deformation, and 
often even joined Catholicism in efforts to suppress it; whereas 
the Deformation vented its bitterest hatred upon the former. 
The origin of the Deformation may be traced, on the one hand, 
to the tendency of human nature, when once aroused to opposi- 
tion, to run into radicalism, partly in the form of rationalism, 
partly that of mysticism. If the Reformation recognizes the 
Bible as the sole norm and rule of religious faith and practice, 
and as the judge of tradition, deforraatory rationalism subjects 
the Bible to the authority of the reason, and regulates revealed 
truth by the demands of logical thinking. If the former opposes 
the deification of the Church, the latter even disputes the divinity 
of Christ. On the other hand, deformatory Mysticism carried 
the evangelical demand for inward religious experience to the 
extreme opposite of the externalizing formalism of the Romish 


Church, and by the side of the inspiration of the Word of God 
set up an assumed illumination by the Holy Spirit, as a higher 
revelation, despised the sacraments, and aimed at forming a visi- 
ble communion of saints. The denial of the doctrine of the 
Trinity became the shibboleth of the former (Anti- Trinitarians, 
Unitarians), the rejection of infant baptism, that of the latter 
(Anabaptists). It cannot seem surprising, however, that both 
tendencies often commingled, since the so-called inner light is, 
after all, nothing else than a fanatical excited reason. As a 
third deformatory tendency, the liheralist, revolutionary, and 
antinomian movements of this period might be named, the com- 
mon character of which consists in the transfer of the Reforma- 
tory demand for the freedom of the Christian from the spiritual 
thraldom of the hierarchy, to political, civil, social, and moral 
spheres. But these movements partly lacked independency, be- 
ing merely offshoots of some other tendency, and partly were so 
speedily suppressed, that they were but of temporary import- 
ance, and have already been noticed. (Cf. § 4, 2, 5 ; § 18, 3.) 

1. As to the way in which Protestantism should dispose of heretics, 
mediaeval principles still so far prevailed, that a Calvin could urge the 
burning of a man who denied the Trinity, and even the mild Melanch- 
thon approve of his execution (§ 28, 2). YServetus perished at the stake, 
not for denying the Trinity, but for the scandalous blasphemies he 
uttered against the Godhead in this form, and for political machina- 
tions. See Henry's Life of Calvin, and Calvin and Servetus, mainly 
from the French of M. A. Rilliet, by W. K. Tweedie, Edinb. 1848.— Tr.] 
But in both theory and practice the view prevailed that heretics should 
not be forced, or punished with death, though they might be impri- 
soned to bring them to reflection, or prevent their doing harm, or be 


Cf. M. Carriere, d. philosoph. Weltanschauung d. Reformationszeit. 
Stuttg. 1847. 

Beside the truly evangelical and churchly mysticism, which, as 
a sincere apprehension of the Christian life, Luther ever highly 
esteemed, and which the Lutheran Church never wholly excluded, 
an unevangelical and unchurchly mysticism early manifested 
itself in various forms. To the intoxicated fanaticism, and 
tumultuous revolutionary agitations of the Anabaptists (§ 27), 
SchwenkfeW s mysticism presents a favorable contrast, distin- 


guisbed by its theological moderation, and quiet efforts to extend 
its influence. Agrippa and Paracelsus advocated a mysticism 
constructed upon a basis of natural philosophy, and their phan- 
tasies were adopted by Val. Weigel in his theosophy. Seb. Frank 
derived nourishment for his pantheistic mysticism from the writ- 
ings of Eccart and Tauler. Jordanus Bruno was rewarded with 
the stake for his fanatical bacchanalian mysticism, supported by 
the boldest pantheism ; whilst the Familists were united toge- 
ther as members of a family, in the service of a deified love. — 
(Cf. § 36, 1 ; 39, 2.) 

1. Among the mystics of the age of the Reformation who were hos- 
tile to the Church, Caspar Schwenkfeld of Ossigk, in Silesia, was 
distinguished for his sincere piety. At first he ardently embraced the 
Wittenberg Reformation ; in its progress, however, it wholly failed to 
satisfy his spirit, which was exclusively bent upon an inward mystical 
Christianity. In 1525 he personally met Luther in Wittenberg. The 
friendly relation there maintained between them, notwithstanding 
fundamental difi*erences in the tendency of their views, soon yielded 
to open opposition on Schwenkfeld's part. In his dissatisfaction with 
the Wittenberg Reformers, he even declared that he would rather join 
the Papists than the Lutherans. As early as 1528, he was banished 
from his native country, and commenced laboring in .Swabia and along 
the Rhine, in the face of constant opposition, against both the German 
and Swiss Reformation, seeking quietly to carry on a reformation ac- 
cording to his own views. He died in 15G1, leaving behind a small 
company of adherents. The party has perpetuated itself to the present 
day. [A colony settled in Pennsylvania, N. A., in 1734. They have 5 
churches and about 800 members. — Tr.] SchwenJcf eld's main dislike 
of the Lutheran Reformation Avas its scriptural churchh'- objectiveness. 
He called Luther's insisting upon the unconditional authority of the 
Word of God a bondage to the letter, and exalted the inner word of the 
Spirit above the written Word of the Scriptures. He was wholly op- 
posed to all outward church forms. He confounded justification with 
sanctification, similarly with Osiander, and declared it to be an incar- 
nation of Christ in the believer. Besides, he taught (Eutichianistically) 
that Christ was bor7i of God even according to the flesh, and that his 
human nature was absorbed by the divine. He disapproved of infant 
baptism, and affirmed that a regenerated person might live without 
sin. In the Lord's Supper he made everything rest upon the inner 
operation of the spirit ; the bread was merely a symbol of Christ as the 
food of the soul (he considered tovto the predicate : My body is this, 
BC. the bread of life). His " Christlich orthodoxischen Biicher u. 
Schriften," were published in 4 vols. (1564), by Hans Ossigk. 

2. Agrippa of Neiiesheim [ob. 1535), a man of extensive learning. 


and an ostentatious dealer in mysteries, led a most unsettled, adA-^en- 
turons life, was a politician and a soldier, taught medicine, theology, 
and law, with cutting satires flagellated the monks, Avho persecuted 
him as a heretic, and developed his magniloquent wisdom in his de 
occulta philosophia. Of the same cast was the learned Swiss physician 
Theophrastus Bomhastus Paracelsus ah Hohenheim [oh. 1541), a man 
as genial and profound as he was fantastic and conceited, a man Avho 
solved all the mysteries of the Godhead, as well as of things natural 
and supernatural, and who affirmed that he had found the philosopher's 
stone. (Cf. H. A. Freu, d. Theol. des Th. Parac. Berl. 1839.) They both 
remained in the Catholic Church. Valentine Weigel was a Lutheran 
preacher in Saxony, universally esteemed for his piety and edifying 
labors [oh. 1588). His mystic theosophy, which led him to reject all 
external Church forms, and to regard the doctrines of the Church as 
merely an allegorical veil of deeper knowledge, first became fully 
known by the publication of his works after his death. He had many 
admirers among " the quiet in the land" until the present century. 

3. Sehastian Frank at first devoted himself zealously to the cause of 
the Reformation, but afterwards opposed it, denounced and ridiculed 
all the theological views of his times, took refuge in a pantheistic, 
dualistic mysticism, demanded unlimited religious liberty, defended 
the Anabaptists against the intolerance of theologians, and died in 
Ulm (1543), at enmity with all the world. He deserves great praise, 
however, as the author of the first history of the world in the German 
language. (Cf. II. Biscliof, Seb. Fr. u. d. deutsche Geschichtschreibung. 
Tiibg. 1857.) — Giordano Bruno, a Dominican of Nola near Naples, 
was a man of much more vigorous mind. His ridicule of the monks 
and of ecclesiastical doctrines compelled him to flee to Geneva. Sub- 
sequently he lived and taught in London, Paris, Wittenberg, and 
Helmstadt, then returned to Italy, and was burned at Rome in 1600. 
He never left the Catholic Church. 

4. The Familists (familia charitatis) were a mystic sect founded in 
England under Elizaheth, by Henry Nicolai of Munster, who was 
previously associated with David Joris (^ 27, 1) ; the queen instituted 
an investigation against them (1580). They difi'ered from the Anabap- 
tists by indifferently allowing infant baptism. Nicolai professed to be 
an apostle of love, by and through which the mystical deification of 
man was to be effected. Although an illiterate man, he wrote several 
works, and in one of them claimed to be " deified with God in the spirit 
of his love." His adherents were accused of mystical licentiousness, 
and he was said to teach that Christ was only a divine ''condition," 
which was communicated to all the pious. In a confession of faith and 
an apology (1575), however, they acknowledge the three oecumenical 
symbols, and sought to prove their affinity to the evangelical Church. 
James I. still speaks of the infamis Anabaptistarum secta, quae familia 
am oris vocatur. After that they disappear. 

AN AB APTI S M. ' 157 


Cf. /. A. Stark-, Gcsch. d. Taufe u. d. Taufgesinnten. Lpz. 1789. — 
J. Hast, 1. c. (§ 24, 1) ; Erhkam, 1. c. (| 25). 

The Anabaptist movement, the operations of which, so far as 
they immediately entered into the history of the Reformation, 
were mentioned in § 4, 1, 3, 4, 5 ; § 10, 5 ; § 13, 16, everywhere 
followed upon its heels, in Germany, Switzerland, the Nether- 
lands, England, Sweden, Denmark, Livonia, etc. In spite of 
numerous defeats, it pushed itself most audaciously forward, 
when John of Leyden established his splendid kingdom in 
Miinster, and sent out his apostles into all the world, to gather 
the people of God into the new Zion. But the unhappy issue 
of this transient glory spoiled all its high hopes. Its scattered 
remnants were everywhere imprisoned, banished, or executed. 
Moreover, it was rent with internal factions. Two men, of a 
wholly different character, labored indefatigably, from 1536, to 
gather and reorganize these fragments ; they were David Joris 
and Menno Simons. The latter, by adopting prudent measures 
of reform, managed to perpetuate his party. 

1. David Joris, a glass-painter of Delft, was a fanatic of the worst 
stamp. With Anabaptist revelations, by which he claimed to be the 
true Christ according to the Spirit, he combined sabellian, anti-trini- 
tarian, and antinomian doctrines. lie travelled over Germany, disse- 
minating his views by his writings, and orally. At last a reward was 
offered for his apprehension. Assuming another name, he went to 
Basel, and remained there undisturbed until his death (155G). When, 
subsequently, his true name was discovered, the city authorities had 
his body dug up and burned. 

2. Menno Simons, a Catholic priest in Wittmarsum, Holstein, gave 
himself to the diligent study of the Scriptures, and soon was troubled 
with many doubts concerning Catholic doctrines. The martyr-like 
courage of an Anabaptist directed his attention to that subject, and he 
soon was induced to believe in the correctness of the views of the 
Anabaptists. In 1536 he resigned his priesthood, and was baptized. 
AVith indescribable toils and untiring patience, he labored to reorganize 
the sect. He drew up a distinct form of doctrine, related to that of the 
Keformed Church, differing from it only in rejecting infant baptism, 
and in an unqualified spiritualization of the idea of the Church as a 
communion of such only as were true saints. He also forbade military 
and civil service, and the oath, and in addition to baptism and the 
Lord's Supper, introduced feet-washing (John 13). By means of a 

IL — 14 


rigid ecclesiastical discipline, he maintained a simple mode of living 
and strict morality. The quiet, pious disposition of the Mennonites, 
soon secured religious toleration for them in Holland ; afterwards, also, 
in Germany and England. Menno died in 1561. During his life, yet, 
his sect in Holland divided into two parties, i\\Qjine and the coarse, the 
latter disregarding Menno's severe discipline. (Cf. I 42, 1.) 


Cf. F. Tredisel, d. prot. Antitrin. vor Faust. Socin. Heidelb. 1839, 
44. 2 Bde.— 0. Fock, d. Socinianism. Kiel, 1847. 2 Bde. 

The first opponents of the doctrine of the Trinity were German 
Anabaptists {John Campanus, Lewis Hetzer, Siud John Denck). 
The Spaniard, Michael Servetus, reduced his Unitarianism to 
organic connection with a complete pantheistic, philosophical 
system. But Italy was the proper home of the rationalistic de- 
nial of the doctrine ; it was the fruit of the half pagan humanism 
which flourished there. Its advocates, compelled to flee, took 
refuge in Switzerland, but being persecuted there, and banished, 
they went to Poland, Hungary, and Transylvania, where princes 
or nobles protected them. The several scattered Unitarians 
were furnished with a complete doctrinal system by the two 
Sozinni (uncle and nephew), and thus, also, secured an eccle- 
siastical organization. 

1. Fanatical Anabaptist Anii- Trinitarians. — The most notable of 
these are: (1.) John Denck, of the Upper Palatinate. In 1524, he be- 
came rector in Nuremberg ; after that he wandered about until (Eco- 
lampadius gave him shelter in Basel, where he died of the plague in 
1528. He rejected the written Word and infant bastism, resolved the 
doctrine of the Trinity into a pantheistic speculation, and taught an 
apocatastasis, but recanted shortly before his death. (2.) Leiois Hetzer, 
of Switzerland, was a priest in Zurich, and at first a zealous adherent 
and fellow-laborer of Zwingli. Subsequently he was converted by 
Denck, joined the Anabaptists, published (even before Luther) a Ger- 
man translation of the Prophets, and by means of hymns spread his 
monarchianistic views, until he was beheaded for polygamy at Con- 
stance in 1529. (Cf. Kaim, L. Hetzer. In the Jahrbb. fiir deutsche 
Theol., by Dorner u. Liebner, I. 2.) (3.) JoJm Campanus of Jlilich. 
Driven from Cologne, where he studied, he went to Wittenberg (1528), 
accompanied the Reformers to Marburg, where he endeavored to har- 
monize the disputants by interpreting : This is my body, to mean : 
This is a body made by me. Returning to Wittenberg, he began to 
circulate Anabaptist and Arian views, and to vilify the Reformers in 
his preaching and writings (*' Wider die ganze Welt nach den Apos- 


ties," " Gottlicher u. heiliger Schrift Restitution u. Besserung"), he 
was expelled from Sa^onj (1532). Imprisoned for preaching Chiliastic 
sermons, he died, after twenty years' confinement, in Cleve, (1574). 

2. Michael Servdus, of Spain, was a man endowed with speculative 
talents, but of restive mind. Driven from Spain, he wandered about 
through France and Switzerland. Luckily escaping the stake in 
Vienna (though burnt in effigy), he was imprisoned in Geneva (1553), 
at Calvin's instigation, and having refused to recant, was burnt there 
as a disturber of the peace and a blasphemer. [Cf. ^ 25, 1. — Tr.] His 
pantheistic monarchianism was fully developed in his works: de trini- 
tatis erroribus LI. A"IL, and Dialogorum de trinitate LI. II. He taught 
that the Logos was an emanation of the divine light, which became 
personal at the incarnation. The grosser materials of his body he 
received from his mother, the substance of the divine light taking the 
place of the male seed. By both he is God o^uooufftoj, for even the 
earthly matter of his body is only a grosser form of the primal light. 
The Holy Spirit, from which the Logos differed in being a more corpo- 
real manifestation of God, was the soul of Christ. Servetus also denied 
original sin, controverted justification by faith, disapproved of infant 
baptism, advocated a spiritualistic view of the Lord's Supper, and 
cherished Chiliastic expectations. (Cf. L. Moslieim, Unparth. Ketzer- 
gesch. Bd. II. Helmst. 1750. Trechsel, 1. c, Bd. I. Heherle, Servet's 
Trinitatsl. u. Christol., in the Tubg. Ztschr. 1840. II.) 

3. Italian Unitarians before Socinus. — The most noted are: (1.) 
Claudius of Savoy. In 1534, in Berne, he contended that Christ should 
be called God only because the fulness of the divine Spirit was com- 
municated to him. Driven thence, and soon afterwards from Basel 
also, he went to Wittenberg, where he was likewise badly received. 
In 1537 he recanted at a synod in Lausanne. Then he went to Augs- 
burg, and operated as a popular agitator. In 1550 he still appeared 
as a prophet in Memmingen. After that, we lose sight of him. (2.) 
Valentine Gentilis, of Calabria, driven from Berne, went to Poland 
(1552). In 1556, having ventured back to Berne, he was beheaded. 
(3.) George Blandrata, a physician of Saluzzo, in Piedmont, fled from 
his native country to Switzerland, and thence to Poland. In 1553 he 
was appointed private physician to the prince, in Transylvania. There 
he spread anti-trinitarian doctrines, and was murdered (1590) by his 
nephew, whose avarice could not wait for his death. 

To the Italian infidelity of this period probably belongs, also, the 
authorship of the book de trihus impostorihus (Moses, Jesus, Moham- 
med), even though the conception is mediaeval (Vol. I., ^ 96, 8). The 
work is first mentioned in the 16th cent. (Editions by GentJie, Lpz., 
1833 ; Weller, Lpz. 1846 ; Rosenkranz, d. Zweifel am Glauben, Kritik 
d. Schrift de trib. impost. Halle, 1830). Of similar tendency is the 
work of the French jurist Jean Bodin [oh. 1597) : Heptaplomeres, a 
dialogue upon Religion between seven learned free-thinkers of Venice, 


in which all positive religions are set forth as possessing the same 
merits and defects. Ideal deism is commended, however, as the true 
religion. Edidit L. NoacJc. Schwerin. 1857. (Cf. G. E. Guhrauer, 
d. Heptapl. v. J. Bodin. Berl. 1844.) 

4. Lcelius Socums, sprung from a celebrated family of jurists in 
Siena, himself a jurist, was early led to the conviction that Romish 
theology did not accord with the Bible. To acquire more certain know- 
ledge of the matter, he learned the original languages of the Scriptures ; 
on a journey he became acquainted with the most prominent theologians 
of Switzerland, Germany, and Poland ; and constructed a complete, 
consistent system of Unitarianism. lie died in Zurich (1562), and his 
nephew Fmistus Socinus, whom he had indoctrinated into his own 
views, set himself about forming a Unitarian society from the anti- 
Trinitarians of Transylvania, who were in a very distracted state. His 
untiring efforts were successful. Rakov became the chief seat of 
Socinians, and the Rakooian Catechism (1G02) their confession of faith. 
Faustus died (1604), and soon after his death the Socinian congrega- 
tions in Poland and Transylvania flourished beyond all expectation. 
Learned men, like John Crell, Schlichting, Wolzogen, Wissoioatius, etc., 
advocated and defended Socinianism in numerous works. This pros- 
perity lasted a half century. But in consequence of a premeditated 
insult offered to the crucifix by some Rakov students, their church in 
that place was closed (1638), and their flourishing school broken up; 
and in 1658 they were excluded, in Poland, from the Religious Peace, 
and ordered to leave the country. In Transylvania, however, some 
Socinian congregations are still found at the present day. 

The Socinian System is, substantially, the following: The Bible is 
the sole source of our knowledge of the plan of salvation, but it con- 
tains nothing contrary to reason. The doctrine of the Trinity conflicts 
with the Bible and with reason ; God is only one person. Jesus was a 
mere man, who, however, was endowed with divine power to accom- 
plish man's salvation, and was rewarded for his perfect obedience by 
being exalted to divine majesty, and invested with authority to judge 
the quick and the dead ; hence divine honors are due him. The Holy 
Spirit is only a power of God. Man's original likeness to God con- 
sisted in his dominion over all creatures. Man was mortal by nature, 
though if he had not sinned, God might, by a supernatural operation, 
have caused him to pass into eternal life without first dying. There is 
no original sin, but original evil, and a hereditary inclination to sin, 
which, however, involves no personal culpability. God's foreknowledge 
of human actions must be disclaimed, because it would lead to the doc- 
trine of absolute predestination. Redemption consists in Christ's 
having, by his doctrine and life, pointed out the way of moral improve- 
ment. God bestows upon all who choose this way the pardon of sin and 
eternal life. The death of Christ was not an atonement, but simply 
sealed his doctrine, and opened to him the way to divine honors. Con- 


version must be begun by personal effort, but it cannot be completed 
without the aid of the Holy Spirit. The sacraments are mere ceremo- 
nies, which might be dispensed with, though it is better to retain them 
as ancient and pleasant customs, etc. 



The exertions of the Catholic Church to confine the triumphs 
of the Reformation to the narrowest possible limits, and to con- 
quer as much as possible of their lost territory, are so promi- 
nent, so absorbing, and predominant, that we may exhibit its 
whole history during this period under the aspect of a counter- 
reformation. These efforts aimed partly at strengthening and 
reviving the Church inwardly, partly at securing its outward 
extension and increase — and this both by missions among the 
heathen, and by a violent suppression of Protestantism. The 
Council of Trent was designed to inclose media3val, scholastic 
Catholicism with a brazen wall, which should forever secure it 
against reformatory measures, whilst, at the same time, many 
abuses were either corrected or curtailed. The old degenerate 
monastic orders, once so mighty a support of the papacy, were 
unable to resist the violence of the Reformation. A new order 
took their place, the Jesuits, which propped up the tottering 
hierarchy for some centuries, and sought in every way to hinder 
the spread of the Reformation. There also arose a number of 
other orders, partly new, partly reformed, mostly having a prac- 
tical Christian tendency, none of which acquired the importance 
of the Jesuits, or even of many earlier orders, but which labored 
all the more beneficially in narrower spheres. Conflicts and 
rivalry with Protestantism likewise excited theological science to 
fresh and more profitable activity. 

1. The Conncil and tlie Popes. — (Cf. J. J. Ramhach, Gesch. d. rbm. 
Pp. seit d. Ref. Magd. 1779, 2 Bde. Aio.—L. Ranke, d. rom. P., ihre K. 
u. ihr Staat, 3 A. Berl. 1844. — Paolo Sarpi (Petro Soave Solano), 
Istoria del cone. Trident., ed. M. A. de Dominis. Lond. 1619. Fol. 
In French, by P. Fr. le Courayer, with valuable notes. Lond. 1736. 
2 vols. fol. German, by F. E. RambacJi, Halle, 1761, 6 vols. Contra : 
14* L 

162 SECTION III.— FIRST PERIOD (c E N T. 1 6 A. D.). 

Sforza Pallavioino, 1st. del cone, di Trento. Rom. 1656.— C A. Salig, 
vollst. Hist. d. trid. Cone. Halle, 1741, 3 Bd. 4to.— /. H. i\ Wessenherg, 
d. gr. K.-verfass d. 15. u. 16. Jahrh. Konst. 1844. Bd. III. \N. — E. 
Kollner, Symbolik. Hamb. 1844. Bd. II.) — Pope Paul III., at the 
earnest and repeated solicitations of princes and people, opened the 
general CguhcU of Trent in 1545. Its continuance, however, in a Ger- 
man city, seemed to him unadvisable, in view of the emperor's power 
and influence. On pretence of avoiding the plague, therefore, he re- 
moved it to Bologne in 1547, and in 1549 wholly dissolved it. Julius 
III. was constrained to reopen it (1551) in Trent, but the terror which 
preceded the army of Maurice scattered it, already, in 1552. (Cf. § 14, 
1 ; 15, 10 ; 16, 4, 8 ; 17, 2.) It Avas not reopened again until Pius lY. 
(1559-65) convoked it in January, 1562, at Trent, where it adjourned 
after the 25th solemn plenary session in December, 1563. Some 
French and Spanish bishops plead for a thorough reformation, but 
they were voted down. Of 255 persons who participated in its busi- 
ness, more than two-thirds were Italians. The papal legates had un- 
limited sway, and it was a public mystery that the Holy Spirit had 
been brou"-ht from Rome to Trent in a locked up sack. In the doctrinal 
decrees, mediaeval dogmas were confirmed (only shunning points of 
diversity between the Franciscans and Dominicans), all Protestant 
departures therefrom condemned. The decrees touching a reformation 
ordered various improvements, so far as they could be introduced with- 
out infraction upon hierarchical interests. Pius IV. confirmed all the 
decrees, but strictly forbade, on pain of the ban, all explanations and 
expositions of them, as all such belonged solely to the apostolic chair. 
Greqon/ XIII. (1572-85) completed the Reformed Calendar {1582) or- 
dered by the Council of Trent. The Gregorian Calendar, which obvi- 
ated the diversity between the civil and solar year by suppressing ten 
days in the civil calendar, was received with opposition even by the 
Catholic States. The Evangelical States of Germany did not accept it 
until 1700, and it was not introduced into England until 1752. Russia, 
and the entire Greek Church, still retains the old Julian Calendar. 
Among the succeeding popes, Sixtiis V. (1585-90), who rose, from be- 
ing a shepherd's boy (Felix Peretti), through all the grades of the 
hierarachy (Cardinal Monfalto) to the papacy, distinguished himself 
by his vigorous reign and far-reaching plans. 

Addend. About the close of this century arose the celebrated pro- 
pJiecij, ascribed to St. Malachi, archb. of Armagh {oh. 1148), which 
describes the popes. 111 in all, from Coelestin II. (1143) to Sixtus V. 
(1590), in brief sketches, which, though spiritless, are very accurate, 
and mainly derived from the papal coats of arms. The succeeding popes, 
to the last (who is represented as guarding the Church amid great tri- 
bulations, and as surviving the downfall of the city of seven hills, and 
the coming of the day of judgment), are characterized by similar deli- 
neations, for the most part, however, indefinite and inapposite, though 


in a few cases remarkably striking (ex. gr. Pius VI. : peregrinus apos- 
tolicus, g 44, 8, 9 ; Pius IX. : crux de cruce, | 57, 1). There are to be 
still eleven popes, — The real author of this prophecy is most probably 
the Benedictine Wion, in whose Lignum vitse (1505), it was first made 
known. He probably ascribed it to St. Malachi, because St. Barnard, 
Malachi's friend and biographer, praises his gift of prophecy, or be- 
cause he bears the name of the last prophet of the Old Testament. The 
aim of the prophecy was apologetic, by showing, in opposition to Pro- 
testantism, that the Papacy would maintain the Church to the coming 
of Christ. The author may possibly, also, have desired to influence 
the choice of the conclave of 1590, by directing special attention to 
that cardinal, as divinely indicated, whom he wished to see elected. 
(Cf. //. Weingarten, in the theol. Studd. u. Kritt, 1857. III.) 

2. The Society of JesKs (1540). — (Cf. Ribadaneira, Vita Ign. Loy. 
Neap. 1572. — /. G. v. Gumpach, Ign. Loy. u. s. Gefahrten. Darmst. 
1845. — Hospiniani hist. Jesuitar. Ztirich, 1619, fol. — /. C. Harcnherg, 
pragm. Gesch. d. Ord. d. Jes. Halle, 17G0, 2 Bde., 4to. {Adelmuf) Vei'f. 
c. neuen Gesch. d. Jesuitcnord. Berl. 1769, 2 Bde. — P. P. Wolf, allg. 
Gesch. d. Jes. 2. A. Lpz. 1803, 4 Bde.— i^. Kortlim, d. Entsth.-Gesch. d. 
Jes. Ord. Mannheim, 1843. — >S^. SugeiiJieim, Gesch. d. Jes. in Deutschl. 
Frkf. 1842, 2 Bde.— (?. Julms, d. Jes. Gesch. d. Grllnd., Ausbr. u. Entw. 
Lpz. 1845. — Catholic authors: /. B. Len, Beitr. zur Wiirdigung d. 
Jesuitenord. nebst. e. Gesch. d, Ord. v. /. A. MdJiIer, Luzern, 1840. — 
/. Cretineaux-Johj, Gesch. d. Gesellsch. Jesu. From the French. Wien, 
1845, etc., bme. — F. J. Buss, d. Gesellsch. Jesu. Mainz (1853.) — 
Ignatius of Loyola, descended from a notable family of Spanish 
knights, was severely wounded at the siege of Pampelona by the 
French. During his long and painful confinement he amused himself 
by reading romances of knight-errantry, and, after completing those, 
saints' legends. The latter made a deep impression upon him, and 
kindled in his breast a burning desire to imitate the saints in their 
renunciation of and victory over the world. Religious ecstacies and 
apparitions of the queen of heaven, invested this tendency with a celes- 
tial sanction. After his convalescence he gave all his possessions to 
the poor, and assuming the garb of a mendicant, practised the severest 
asceticism. At the age of 33 years he joined a class of boys, and 
studied the elements of Latin (1524), then philosophy at Complu- 
tum, and theology at Paris. With an iron will he surmounted all 
hindrances. In Paris, six men of like mind associated themselves with 
him ; Peter Faher (Le Fevre) of Savoy, (then already a priest), Francis 
Xavier, of a family of Spanish grandees, James Lainez, a Castilian, 
Simon Rodriguez, a Portuguese, Alfonso Salmeron, and Alfonso Boba- 
dilla, both Spaniards. "With glowing zeal they prepared a plan for a 
new order, bound themselves by a solemn oath to entire poverty and 
chastity, and to serve the Catholic faith in accordance with the pleasure 
of the pope (1534). They completed their studies under the most rigid 

164 SECTION III. — FIRST PERIOD (c E N T. 16 A. D.) • 

asceticism, and -were consecrated priests. Then they went to Rome, 
and after some hesitation Paul III. confirmed their association as the 
Order of the Society of Jesus (1540). Ignatius was chosen their first 
general. In this capacity, also, he continued, with energetic power of 
will, to devote himself to religious discipline, the service of the sick, 
and the care of souls. It was not until after his death (1556) that the 
Order acquired great historical importance, under his successors, the 
skillful Laiacz and vigorous Francis Borgia (a Spanish grandee), who 
far surpassed him in intellect, sagacity, and their far-reaching mea- 
sures. The popes, also, bestowed a number of privileges upon the 
Order, and it rapidly grew in power and energy. 

Subject and responsible only to the pope, exempted from all other 
jurisdiction, the Order constituted a close organization, with the most 
perfect unity of membership ever possessed by any of the large societies 
of any age. The circle nearest the general, who resided in Rome, con- 
sisted of the Frofessi, the choicest members of the Order. The chief 
ofiicers of the Order (procurators, superiors, and rectors), were selected 
from their number. In addition to the three usual monastic vows, they 
took ?i fourth, by which they bound themselves to unconditional obe- 
dience to the pope. They were supported in their houses by charity. 
The coadjutors formed the second grade, who were either ecclesiastics, 
having charge of the course of studies, of instruction, and of spiritual 
matters, or seculars, who attended to all other interests. That these 
might follow their vocation without hindrance, they were excused from 
the fourth vow, and also from that of living by alms. The scholastics 
formed the third class, and the novices the fourth, who became scholas- 
tics, as soon as they had passed through their studies and ascetic exer- 
cises. Only such as enjoyed good bodily health, and were talented, 
were admitted to the novitiate. The general had monarchial authority, 
but, as a restraint upon violations of the rules of the Order, he was 
under the supervision of five assistants. Everything otherwise dear 
and sacred to man was sacrificed to the interests of the Order, and un- 
conditional submission to its superiors. Countr}^ friends, personal in- 
clinations and aversions, even private opinions and the conscience, were 
to be as nothing, the Order everything. No government ever better 
understood each member's talents, or where to place him, and how to 
use him for its own ends ; and none ever devised and employed so 
thorough and universal a system of mutual espionage. The Order 
made all conceivable means, science, learning, art, cultivation, politics, 
even commerce and trade, subservient to its purposes. It seized the 
management of the education of youth of the higher classes of society, 
and thus trained devoted and powerful friends ; by preaching and pri- 
vate counsel, it operated upon the people, and in the confessional secured 
control over princes, and penetrated into all the relationships of life, 
and obtained possession of all secrets. And all these thousands of 
means, these eminent powers and talents, were united under one will, 


served one purpose : positively, the furtheraDcc of Catholicism, nega- 
tively, the suppression of Protestantism. Assuredly, the fact that 
Protestantism was not wholly vanquished by this stupendous agency, 
proves incontrovertibly, that it was animated by a higher than human 

A system of casuistry threatening all morality was involved in the 
fundamental principle of all the efforts of the Order, and was not 
merely suggested by the private opinion of some inconsiderate moralists ; 
and this does not require us to deny that the Order had, at all times, 
many, members eminent for piety and strict morality. Primarily, and 
in a general way, the ethics of the Order showed a most decided ten- 
dency to Fdagianism, and the most distinctly avowed opposition to 
Augustinianism. But Jesuit ethics became especially notorious for 
the following principles: (1.) The end sanctifies the means. (2.) An 
action is justifiable, or at least excusable, when there is a probability 
of its goodness, or when approved by some respectable theologian (pro- 
babilismus). (3.) Mental reservations are allowable in making oaths or 
promises, the person so obligating himself being bound only by his 
intention. (4.) Philosophically, every violation of a divine command- 
ment is a sin ; theologically, only such violations as are perpetrated 
with full consciousness of the wrong, and a set purpose to break God's 
law. The most celebrated Jesuit moralists who contended for these 
principles were : Francis Toletns [oh. 1596), Gabriel Vasquez [ob. 1G04), 
Thomas Sanchez [ob. IGIO), Francis Squarez [oh. 1617), Herm. Busen- 
baum [ob. 1669). In politics, the Order for the benefit of the papacy 
maintained the principle of the sovereignty of the people. Only the 
pope derives his authority from God (Matth. 16 : 18, etc.), that of 
princes is derived from the people. Hence, if a king becomes a tyrant 
or a heretic, the people may depose him ; or, if he refuses to submit to 
this, kill him. Thus Bellarmine (de potestate pontificis in temporali- 
bus), and still more openly and decidedly, 3Iariana, in the work ascribed 
to him, de rege et regis institutione LI. III. (Tolet. 1598, 4to.) — In the 
nature of the case, the operations of the Order in their heathen mis- 
sions, were of a less exceptionable character (§ 30). (Cf. | 44, 7.) 

3. New Orders for Inner Missions. — To these belong: (1.) The 
Theatines. They originated in an association of pious clergymen of 
Thiene or Theate, formed by Gceiano da Thiene, M'ith the advice ♦ of 
Bishop John Feter Caraffa of Theate (afterwards Pope Faul lY.) In 
1524 they were confirmed as Clerici regulares. They desired to depend 
for support, not upon begging, but upon divine providence furnishing 
them with means not solicited from any person, and acquired import- 
ance as a nursery for the higher clergy. Their regulations required 
them, moreover, to operate upon the people by frequent preaching, to 
give temporal and spiritual aid to the sick, to labor for the salvation 
of criminals, and oppose the rise of heresies. (2.) The Barnabites, 
likewise an association of regular clergy, founded by Antonio Maria 


Zaccaria, in Milan, confirmed by Clement VII. (1532). They obligated 
themselves to devote their whole life to works of mercy, the care of 
souls, the instruction of youth, preaching, confession, and missions. 
Their great patron was St. Borromeo, Archb. of Milan. They derived 
their name from the Church of St. Barnabas, which was assigned to 
their use. The Society of Angelicas^ founded by Louisa Torelli, Coun- 
tess Guastalla (a wealthy lady, who had been twice widowed in the 
25th year of her age), was attached to the Barnabites, and confirmed 
by Paul III. (1534). At first they accompanied the Barnabites on their 
missions, and labored for the conversion of women. But subsequently 
they were required to remain in a convent. Each member adds the 
name of the Order, Angelica^ to her own, to be admonished thereby to 
be pure as the angels. (3.) Brothers of Mercy (1550), a society for the 
care of the sick, irrespective of their religion, founded by the friends 
of a poor, but excellent Portuguese, whom his bishop honored with the 
name John de Dio. (4.) The UrsuUnes, founded by a pious young wo- 
man, Angela of Brescia, for the succor of all classes of sufierers, but 
especially for the education of young women (1537). (5.) Priests of 
the Oratory, or Order of the Holy Trinity, founded by St. Philip de Neri 
of Florence (1548); They united works of mercy with devotional exer- 
cises and biblical studies, attended to in the Oratory of a hospital 
erected by them. A branch, or rather imitation of this society, arose 
in France (1611), under the name of Fathers of the Oratory of Jesus. 
(Cf. I 35, 2.) 

4. Reformation of the Old Orders. — (1.) The revival of the strict 
rule of the Franciscans was effected by the Cajmchins, whose founder, 
Matthew de Bassi, was a monk in the monastery of the Observantes at 
Montefalco, in the duchy of Urbino. Having incidentally discovered that 
St. Francis wore a cloak with a long pointed cowl, and, soon after, having 
had a vision of the saint in such a garb, he fled from his monastery, 
went to Rome, and besought the pope to allow him to restore the coavI 
(1525). Ilis request was granted, and thus he formed a new congrega- 
tion of the Hermits of the Minorite Brethren. The unusual dress at- 
tracted universal attention. Whenever one of the brethren appeared 
on the street, boys ran after him crying : Capucino. They adopted the 
name as that of their Order. Their self-denying philanthropy during a 
plague in Italy won general esteem for the Order, so that in a short 
time it spread over all Italy. The conversion of its third vicar-general. 
Bernhard Ochino, to the Reformed faith, brought it, however, into bad 
repute for a time. The members were characterized by a total Avant 
of scientific training, which often sank into low rudeness. (2.) Theresa, 
the daughter of a Spanish grandee, effected a reformation of the Car- 
melites (1562). The revived Order (monks and nuns) assumed the name 
oi Barefooted Carmelites, and was devoted to the instruction of youth, 
and to works of mercy. In the reorganization of the male Carmelites 
she was assisted by the acute and pious mystic John of the Cross. 
(3.) A reformation of the Cistercians was finally effected by Jean de la 


Barrihre, abbot of the monastery of Feuillans, whence the congregation 
acquired the name of Feuillantes (Fuliensians). The manner of life 
he introduced was so rigid, that fourteen members died under it in the 
course of a few years; this led to a moderation of their rule (1595). 
Henry III. called its founder to Paris to establish a monastery there. 
He remained true to the king, even after he had renounced the league, 
and thus incurred the hatred of the fanatically Catholic brethren of 
his Order, so that, in 1592, they deposed and banished him. A subse- 
quent committee of investigation under Cardinal Baronius, however, 
pronounced him innocent. 

5. The StniggJe against Augiistinianism. — The Council of Trent had 
prudently guarded against giving a decision in the old dispute between 
the Thomists and Scotists, concerning grace. The Jesuits now joined 
the Scotists. Michael Baius, the learned and pious professor at Lou- 
vain, and his colleague John Hessels, defended the Augustinian doc- 
trine ; but the Franciscans gathered 76 propositions from the writings 
of Baius, which, through the aid of the Jesuits, they induced Pius V. 
to condemn (1567). Baius had to abjure them. The controversy was 
renewed in 1588, when the Jesuit Louis Molina, in Portugal, published 
some semi-pelagian views upon the doctrine in question (Liberi arbitrii 
cum gratise donis concordia). The Dominicans, with the learned Do- 
minicus Banez at their head, made a violent attack upon him, but the 
entire Order of the Jesuits, to a man, defended Molina. Such was the 
violence of the controversy, that it had to be settled by a papal deci- 
•sion. Clement VIII. appointed a special congregation (congregatio de 
auxiliis) to examine the subject of dispute (1597), which labored in 
vain for ten years to frame a formula which would satisfy both the 
powerful parties. At length Paul V. dismissed them (1607), promised 
to give a decision at a convenient time, and forbid all controversy upon 
the subject. The prohibition availed but little. Soon the controversy 
broke out afresh, in a very threatening form. (Cf. | 44, 6.) 

6. Theology. — Various measures were adopted to establish the doc- 
trines of Trent. Even at Trent already. Indices librorum prohibitorum 
and expurgandorum were instituted, which were afterwards con- 
tinued. The Professio fidei tridentince (1564) and the catechismus 
romanus (1566) were prepared as authentic exhibitions of the doctrinal 
system of Trent ; and in 1588 a permanent congregation, even, was ap- 
pointed to interpret its meaning upon any point which might come up. 
The Breviarium romanum (1568), Missale romanum (1570), and Cle- 
mentine edition of the Vulgate (1592) served the same purposes. Mean- 
while Catholic scholars, in spite of the decree of Trent, began to examine 
into the authenticity of the Vulgate, and earnestly to study the original 
text of the Scriptures. The Dominican Sanies Pagninus of Lucca {oh. 
1541), a pupil of Savonarola, published a Hebrew lexicon (1529), 
(closely following rabbinical helps), a Hebrew grammar (1528), a 
literal faithful translation of the Old and New Testament from the 
original, at which he labored thirty year*, an isagogic (with extended 


explanations of Biblical tropes), and wrote commentaries upon the 
Pentateuch and the Psalms. lie regarded the literal sense as palea, 
folium, cortex ; the mystical as triticum, fructus, nucleus suavissimus. 
The Dominican Sixties of Siena {oh. 1569), laid more stress upon the 
historical sense. His Bibliotheca sancta, in 8 vols., was for that period 
an important introduction to the Bible. The Jesuit Cardinal Robert 
Bellarmine [oh. 1621), in his LI. IV. de verbo Dei, controverted the 
Protestant rule : Scriptura scripturse interpres. Jerome Emser violently 
abused Luther's version of the Bible, and in opposition to it issued a 
translation of the New Testament (1527) claimed as his own, but which 
is no more than a copy of Luther's, with some unimportant verbal 
alterations. John Deitenherger, of Mayence, perpetrated the same bare- 
faced deception in regard to the Old Testament. Luther and Leo Juda 
are literally copied (1534). John Eck, also, of Ingolstadt, published a 
translation of the Bible from the Vulgate, into the most Avretched Ger- 
man, Avithout any reference to the original text (1537). The learned 
Spaniard Arias Montaniis, aided by King Philip II., furnished the 
Antwerp Polyglott, in 8 vols., with a large number of learned additions 
(1569, etc.) Towards the close of the century, the number of exegetes 
who began to give decided prominence to the literal sense, greatly in- 
creased. The most notable are : Arias Montanus [oh. 1598, upon nearly 
the whole Bible) ; the Jesuit John Maldonatus [oh. 1583, upon the four 
Gospels) ; John Mariana [oh. 1624, Scholia in V. et N. T.) ; Nich. Serra- 
riiis [oh. 1609, on the 0. and N. T.) ; and William Estius of Douay 
[oh. 1613, on the Epistles). In the sphere of dogmatics, the old method 
of commenting upon the Lombards was continued. But as early as 
1528, Berthold Pirstinger, Bishop of Chiemsee, published a complete 
text-book of dogmatics, in the upper German dialect, entitled " Tewtsche 
Theologey," which was wholly emancipated from the scholastic form 
(cf. 1 5, 3), and John Eck published a counterpart to Melanchthon's locis 
(Enchiridion locorum comraunium), which passed through 30 editions. 
Of far greater importance were the Loci theologici of the Spanish 
Dominican Melchior Canus [oh. 1560), which appeared in Salamanca 
(1563). The work is not so much a system of dogmatics as a thorough 
and learned introductory investigation of the sources, principles, me- 
thod, and fundamental idea of dogmatics. He controverts the absurdi- 
ties of the scholastic method, but instead of wholly discarding it, de- 
sires that it should be pruned, and rescued from its errors. The Jesuit 
Peter Canisius acquired a high reputation in the Church for his two 
Catechisms (Cat. major 1554, and Cat. minor 1566), which for two cen- 
turies were used in all the Catholic schools of Germany, and are still 
considered unsurpassed. Among Catholic controversialists, Cardinal 
Bellarmine holds indisputably the first place. His Disputationes de 
controversiis chr. fidei adv. hujus temp, hasreticos (1581-93) have, in 
many respects, not been surpassed even to this day. Previously, Wil- 
liam Lindanus, Bishop of Ghent (Panoplia evangelica. Colon. 1563), 
and the Jesuit Francis Coster, of Mechelu (Enchiridion controvcrsia- 


rum. Col. 1585), had acquired great celebrity among Catholics, as 
assailants of Protestantism. The merits of Cardinal Baronius, as an 
eccl. historian, have already been acknowledged (Vol. I., ^4, 2). 

7. Music, Art, and Poetry. — Musical taste had been completely spoiled 
in the second Netherland school (Vol. I., | 113, 3), and Church music, 
especially, had become so artificial, fanciful, and secular, that some 
fathers at the Council of Trent earnestly proposed that music should 
be wholly excluded from Church service (at the mass). Then Pales- 
trina [oh. 1594) saved and improved it. He was a pupil of Goudimel 
[l 23, 1), and by direction of the Council composed three masses, of 
which the Missa Marcelli is the most celebrated, in a grand, churchly 
style ; artistic and yet not artificial, lofty and fervent, but not secular 
or sentimental, they mark a new epoch in the Romish Church music. 
In ].)oetry, Torquato Tasso {ob. 1595) celebrated the Christian heroism 
of mediaeval Catholicism in his Gerusalemme liberata. — Painting still 
made important contributions to the service of the Catholic Church. 
Besides, and after, Correggio and Titian, the noble masters Caracci, 
Domenichino, and Guido Eeni, were distinguished. Michael Angela 
{oh. 15G4, in his 90tli year), developed the most profound Christian 
ideas in the most lofty productions of painting and sculpture, was like- 
wise distinguished as an architect, and ranks among the greatest poets 
of Italy. Not only as painter and sculptor, but also as poet, he was 
far from doing slavish homage to the worship of Mary and the saints ; 
he rather gave utterance, in glowing sonnets, to his poignant sense of 
sin, and his strong faith in the crucified destroyer of sin. (Cf. | 37, 

8. The new efforts which Catholicism was driven to make for its self- 
preservation, by the progress of the Reformation, produced some happy 
results in the practical life of the Church. The awakened zeal for 
inner missions furnishes a bright proof of this, and the Catholic Church 
could once more produce saints worthy of being placed beside those of 
the middle ages. In addition to those already named, we meet with 
one especially distinguished by his elevated and noble character, 
Charles Borromeo [oh. 1587), who, as a nephew of the pope, and a high 
dignitary of the Church (Archb. of Milan), exerted considerable influ- 
ence upon the Council of Trent and the Curia, and succeeded in having 
many abuses corrected. His life furnishes a perfect ideal of a Catholic 
pastor ; and to this day his lofty form looks down from a colossal statue 
upon the streets of Milan, as the revered patron of the land. 


Cf. H. Brown, Hist, of the propag. of Christianity among the heathen 
since the Ref. Loud. 1814, 2 vols. — P. Wittmann, d, Herrlichk. d. K. 
in ihr. Miss, seit d. Glaubensspalt. Augsb. 1841, 2 Bde. — Baron Hen- 
rion, allg. Gesch. d. kath. Miss, seit d. 13. Jahrh. From the French. 
Schaffh. 1845, etc. 3 Bde. — Tlf. Mullhauer, Gesch. d. kath. Miss, in 

IL — 15 


Ostind. Freib. 1852. — W. Hoffmann, d. Epochen d. K. G. Indiens. 
Berl. 1855. Gesch. d. kath. Miss, in China. Wien, 1845, 2 Bde. 

The extensive geographical discoveries which immediately 
preceded the Reformation period, and the serious losses of eccle- 
siastical territory in Europe, resuscitated the missionary zeal of 
the Catholic Church. Opportunity and incitement to transma- 
rine missions were afforded by the commerce and conquests which 
were still almost exclusively carried forward by the Catholic na- 
tions; and abundant means were furnished, to sustain them by 
the numerous old and new monastic Orders. The missionary 
efforts of the Jesuits were especially brilliant. But the mutual 
jealousies and animosities of some of the Orders soon caused 
many interruptions. (Cf. § 35, 3.) 

1. East India and Japan. — The Portuguese had established bishop- 
rics in their possessions in East India as early as 1510, though there were 
no churches there. Then Francis Javier, Loyola's companion, the 
Apostle of India, fired with glowing zeal for the salvation of men, im- 
bued with apostolic simplicity, and filled with love and a spirit of self- 
denial, entered that field in 1542, and baptized many thousands, mostly 
belonging to the despised caste of Pariahs ; but he progressed so rapidly 
that he nowhere took time to secure an inward basis for this external 
success. His unrestrained missionary zeal impelled him still onward. 
From East India he went to Japan, and only his death prevented his 
entering China {oh. 1552). — An inquisition for the maintenance of the 
Catholic faith was instituted in East India in 15G0, which destroyed 
the remnants of the ancient Thomas Christians. Among the Brahmins 
the Jesuit Nobili labored with some success, by accommodating him- 
self to their prejudices, and avoiding all intercourse with the Pariahs. 
In Japan the Jesuits carried forward Xavier's work with brilliant suc- 
cess ; even some princes embraced Christianity. But in 1587 a violent 
persecution broke out, and the Jesuits held their position in the country 
with great difficulty. The envious devices of the Franciscans against 
the Jesuits, and the political rivalries which arose between the Hol- 
landers and Portuguese, increased the trouble ; persecutions were re- 
newed, and resulted in the utter extermination of the Church (1637). 

2. China. — Commerce also opened the way for missions to China, 
where a proud contempt of all foreigners was the chief obstacle. But 
the Jesuits, with Matthew Ricci at their head, contrived (1582) to gain 
entrance to the imperial court, by their mathematical, mechanical, and 
architectural knowledge. Ricci first nationalized himself, and then 
began to preach Christianity. He died in 1610, but his work was car- 
ried on by his Order, and hundreds of churches had spread like a net- 
work over a large portion of the country. 

3. America. — Zeal for the spread of the kingdom of Christ was not 
one of the least impulses which influenced Christopher Columhvs in his 


zeal for geographical discoveries. But the avarice, cruelty, and immo- 
rality of the Spanish invaders, who were less concerned to make the 
natives Christians than slaves, proved a mighty hindrance to the suc- 
cessful Christianization of the country. The missionaries, especially 
the Dominicans and Franciscans, earnestly, but unavailingly, vindi- 
cated the human rights of the abused Indians. The noble Spanish 
Bishop Bartholomew de las Casas, devoting his whole life (1474-15G6) 
to the sacred work, labored untiringly not only for the conversion of 
the Indians, but also for their deliverance from the hands of his avari- 
cious and blood-thirsty countrymen. He visited Spain six times, to 
intercede personally with the highest authorities for the amelioration 
of the lot of the poor natives, and he had to go the seventh time to 
defend himself against the complaints of his bitter foes. As early as 
1517, Charles \., at his entreaty, had granted the Indians personal 
liberty, but simultaneously allowed the colonists to introduce Negro 
slavery for the severe labors of the mines and plantations, and Las 
Casas was compelled to assent. But Indian slavery was still continued, 
and not until 1547 were earnest measures adopted for its abolition, 
after many millions of Indians had been sacrificed. Christianity had 
then already spread as far as Spanish rule reached, and was placed 
under the care of the Inquisition. In South xVmerica the Portuguese 
held dominion over Brazil, a rich but little known country.' In 1549 
King John III, sent a Jesuit mission thither, with Emamiel Kohreya at 
its head. Amid indescribable toils they prevailed upon the native 
cannibals to embrace Christianity and civilization. 

4. Ahijssinia and Egypt. — The revived missionary zeal also directed 
its efforts towards the schismatic Churches of the East. Early in the 
16th century it was ascertained through Portuguese merchants that an 
independent Jacobite Christian empire still existed in Abyssinia. The 
Abyssinian sultan, David, willingly received a Catholic patriarch ( /?e/'- 
mudez), upon assurances of Portuguese aid against the encroachments 
of neighboring Mahommedan States. But his successor Claudius drove 
the patriarch off. From 1546 Jesuit missionaries went thither, but 
Claudius denounced them as Arians, and the people refused to listen to 
them. Paul Y., at the commencement of the 17th century, encouraged 
by a friendly letter of the Coptic patriarch, sent the Jesuit Christopher 
Rodriguez to Egypt. The patriarch took the rich presents he brought 
along, and then let him return home without having effected anything. 


Cf. L. Ranke, d. rijm. Papste. Bd. 11. — H. Ueppe, d. Restaur, d. 
Katholicism. in Fulda, auf d. Eichsfelde u. in Wiirzb. Marb. 1850. — 
Ch. A. Pescheck, Gesch. d. Gegenref. in Bohmen. Lpz. 1844. 2 Bde. 

No sooner had the Catholic Church settled and secured matters 
at home, by the happy termination of the Council of Trent, than 


it put forth all its strength to recover as much as possible of the 
territory it had lost. It can, at least, not be denied, that the 
efforts made for this purpose were extensive, persevering, bold, 
and successful. Two things favored the scheme, one was the 
territorial system (§ IT, 5), legalized by the enactments of the 
empire, which was originally devised for the rescue of Protest- 
antism (§ 6, T), but now operated to its destruction; the other 
was the policy of the Jesuits, who spread over Europe, and, ac- 
cording to circumstances, openly or under close concealment, 
combined with, or intrigued against State authorities, for the 
overthrow of Protestantism, wherever it had taken root. Their 
craftiness, boldness, skill, their diplomatic arts, machinations, 
and practice in controversy, succeeded in one place in fanning 
the scarcely glimmering spark of Catholicism into a bright flame ; 
in another, either in exterminating Protestantism root and branch, 
or reducing it to the limits of a scarcely tolerated sect. Above 
all, they aimed to secure the management of the seminaries and 
schools, in order to plant hatred of Protestantism in the breasts 
of the rising generation. The other monastic Orders, also, were 
not idle ; but in extensive plans, thorough system, and strict 
unity, they fell far short of the vast and comprehensive energy 
of the Jesuits. The efforts at restoration, however, were most 
stupendous, comprehensive, and general, during their first epoch, 
which were begun, reached their climax, and achieved their last 
renowned feat, for the time, in the sixty years intervening be- 
tween the death of Maximilian II. (1576), and the restoration 
edict (1629) of Ferdinand II. (Cf. § 33, 1.) 

1. The Vieivs of tlie German Emperors. — Ferdinand!. (1556-64), 
more patient than his brother even as archduke and Roman king, and 
often the mediator between Charles and the Evangelicals, displayed a 
still more conciliatory and gentle disposition towards Protestantism 
during the last years of his own government. He was greatly dissatis- 
fied with the Council of Trent. Indeed, he tried anew the old inefiectual 
plan of a union by mutual concessions, and had union schemes pre- 
pared (1564) by the theologians near him, George Cassander, Fred. 
Staphylus, and Geo. Wizel (the last two had been Protestants). Cas- 
sander's opinion, the only one entertained, proposed the abandonment, 
for the sake of peace, of all doctrines and customs not founded upon 
the Scriptures. But he supposed many things supported by the Scrip- 
tures which Protestants could not find there, and the Catholics would 
not admit the principle. Hence the negotiations failed (cf. | 33, 5). 
Ferdinand's son Maximilian 11. (1564-76) had been educated Avell-nigh 


in an evangelical spirit by his instructor Wolfg. Sever ins. He gave full 
liberty to the Protestants in his country, conferred many high and in- 
ferior State offices upon them, had little to do with the Jesuits, and was 
kept from embracing Protestantism only by political considerations 
regarding Spain and his Catholic princes. But these considerations 
crippled his good intentions, and his half-way measures caused compli- 
cations which subsequently led to the 30 years' war. Ilis son, Rudolf 
II., educated by Jesuits at the Spanish court, gave them free scope for 
their operations everywhere, inflicted injuries on Protestantism, and 
was restrained from attempting totally to suppress it, only by his inde- 
cision and timidity. 

2. Restoration Attempts in Germany. — After the treaty of Passau, 
political disorders and the exhaustion of the princes operated very 
favorably for Protestantism. It had spread mightily in the Catholic 
States ; the States, and especially the nobility, did not conceal their 
sympathy for it, and demanded a religious concession of the prince for 
every grant made. Many spiritual princes had almost more Protestant 
than Catholic councillors ; at their courts the Protestant nobility had 
unrestrained intercourse ; Protestant cities were partly their residences, 
and the benefices were often held by evangelical canons. But for the 
Jesuits all Germany would, in a few years, have come under the Evan- 
gelical Church, in spite of territorial authority and ecclesiastical reser- 
vations. The first Jesuits, thirteen in number, came as Spanish priests 
to Vienna in 1551, at the call of Ferdinand. Several years later they 
nestled themselves in Cologne and Tngolstadt (15GG). From these cities 
they spread in a fcAV years over the whole of Catholic Germany, and 
the hereditary States of Austria. Then the work of restoration began. 
First in Bavaria (15G4), Duke Albert Y., converted into a zealous Ca- 
tholic by the opposition of his Protestant States, excluded Protestant 
nobles from the Bavarian diet ; banished all the evangelical preachers ; 
compelled all his evangelical subjects, who refused to embrace Catho- 
licism, to leave the country : and required all professors and persons 
holdino; office, to subscribe under oath the Trent Confession of Faith. 
For this the Jesuits commended him as a second Josiah and Theodo- 
sius, called Munich a second Rome, and the pope conferred on him the 
prerogatives of a summus Episcopus in his domain. When he obtained 
Ilaag as a hereditary earldom, and when Baden-Baden came under his 
rule as guardian, he extirpated Protestantism from those countries also. 
The Electors of Treves and Mayence followed the example of Bavaria, 
though with a measure of moderation. The latter [Daniel Brendel) 
restored Catholicism (1574) in Eichsfelde, which had become wholly 
evangelical. Balthasar von Dernhach, Abbot of Fulda, who was almost 
the only Catholic in his district, pursued the same course (1575). But 
he fell out with the chapter, which, with the knights, drove him off. The 
Bishop of Wurzlnirg, Jidivs Echier, who had aided them, assumed the 
government of the institution (1576). But early in 1577 the abbot was 
15 * 


restored by imperial authority, and the last trace of Protestantism was 
then obliterated. Julius of Wiirzburg, who was placed in great peril, 
would probably have followed the example of Oehhard of Cologne [1 17, 
6), if the result had been different ; but, as it was, he justified himself 
in exterminating Protestantism from his almost wholly Protestant dis- 
trict (from 1584). His example was followed by the bishops of Bamberg, 
Sahhitrg, Hildesheim, Minister, Paderhorn, etc. The Jesuits were erery- 
where at work, openly and secretly. Then Ferdinand II. of Steiermark 
(emperor from 1619) and Maximilian I. of Bavaria, both great pupils 
of the Jesuits, and educated at Ingolstadt, appeared on the stage. When 
Ferdinand celebrated Easter (1590) in Graiz, he was tbe only one who 
communed according to the Catholic mode. Two years afterwards he 
began the counter-reformation, and carried it to a glorious completion, 
in the spirit of the Jesuits. His relative, Emperor Rudolf 11.-, encou- 
raged by this, followed his example (cf. 1 19, 9). In Siciizerland, also, 
the Jesuits and papal nuncios made successful efforts to restore Catho- 
licism fully, in the Catholic and mixed cantons. (Cf. § 33, 1.) 

3. But the restoration was not limited to Germany. It embraced all 
Europe. Everywhere the Jesuits urged their way, and contrived to 
effect something even where there seemed to be no prospect of success. 
(Cf. ^ 19.) In France the sanguinary civil wars broke out in 1562; 
in the Netherlands the Duke of Alba arose in 1567. The Jesuits pene- 
trated Poland in 1569, and thence worked their way into Livonia. In 
1578 the cunning Jesuit Possevin appeared in Sweden, and converted 
the king. Even in England, where Elizabeth threatened (1582) every 
Jesuit with death, scores of them toiled in secret, and kept alive 
the glimmering spark of Catholicism with promises of better times 
(cf. ^ 33, 3). 

4. Russia and the United Greeks. — The attempts made from time to 
time, after the Council of Florence, to win over the Russian Church, 
had been abortive. Then the unhappy war between lean II. Wassilje- 
vitsch and Stephen Bathori of Poland, broke out, and afforded the pope 
the desired opportunity of offering himself as a mediator. To this end 
Gregory XIII. sent the subtle Jesuit Anthony Possevin to Poland and 
Russia (1581). The czar received him with great distinction, granted 
him, also, a religious conference, but he neither could be induced to at- 
tach himself to Rome nor to banish the Lutherans. On the other hand, 
Rome triumphed in having effected a union of the Greeks in the pro- 
vinces of Western Russia, which had revolted to Poland, partly by 
violence, partly by deception ; the union having been ratified by the 
Church at the Synod of Brest (1594). The united Greeks were required 
to submit to the supremacy of Rome and its doctrine, but were allowed 
to retain their old ecclesiastical customs. (Cf. | 42, 5 ; 45.) 








Cf. K. R. Hagenhach, Yorless. li. AVesen u. Gesch. d. Ref. Bd. IV. 
2 A. Lpz. 1854. 

The Eastern Church opened new prospects of conquest to 
Popery ; but either no actual results were secured, or they soon 
again disappeared. Still more illusory were the hopes awakened 
in London and Geneva, that a Calvinistic regeneration of the 
Greek Church might be effected. 

1. Expectations of the Catholics. — Rome sent successive missions, 
mostly Jesuits, into Turldsh countries, to operate both among the or- 
thodox and schismatic Greek Churches, and at the same time to oppose 
Protestant interests there. They succeeded, however, only in the matter 
last mentioned. The Jesuit mission in Abyssinia, which we left (§ 30, 4) 
in a rather hopeless condition, was now reaping a glorious harvest. 
The Jesuit Peter Paez acquired influence over the Sultan Segued, and 
induced him to renounce the Jacobite heresy by promises of Spanish 
support. Urban YIII. appointed the Jesuit Alfonso Mendez Catholic 
patriarch of Abyssinia (1G25). But the clergy and people several 
times rose up against the sultan and his patriarch. They were con- 
quered in a bloody civil war, but Segued thought it prudent to abate 
his coercive measures, notwithstanding the dissatisfaction of the Je- 
suits with his course.* His successor Saghed expelled the entire Jesuit 
mission, and almost every trace of Catholicism disappeared (1642). — 
New prospects of gaining Russia opened under the pseudo Demetrius 
(1005), who attached himself to the Catholic interests of Poland ; but 



just this convinced the Russians that Demetrius could ba no genuine 
son of the Czars. When his Catholic bride, a Pole, entered Moscow 
with 200 of her countrymen, an insurrection occurred which cost him 
his life. 

2. Expectations of the Calvinists. — CyrilJus Lucaris, of Candia (pa- 
triarch of Alexandria from 1602-1621, then patriarch of Constanti- 
nople), had imbibed a decided partiality for Calvinism during his visits 
to Geneva, and after his return earnestly thought of effecting a union. 
By means of letters and messengers he maintained a constant corre- 
spondence with Reformed theologians in England, Holland, and Swit- 
zerland, and in 1626 sent a well-nigh Calvinistic confession of faith to 
Geneva. But the other Greek bishops persistently opposed his plans 
of union, and influential Jesuits in Constantinople excited political 
suspicions against him. On this account the sultan several times de- 
posed him, and he was finally (1638) seized and strangled for high 
treason. (Cf. Hefdc, in d. tubg. Quartalscher. 1843. lY. — A. Twesteriy 
in d. deutsch. Ztschr. v. Schneider, 1840. Nr. 39.) 

3. Orthodoxy Confirmed. — The Russian orthodox Church, after its 
emancipation from Constantinople, and the establishment of an inde- 
pendent patriarchate at Moscow (1589), had become decidedly more 
prominent than that of Greek countries, and the Russian Czar had 
assumed the position of the former Roman Emperor of the East, as 
protector of the entire orthodox Church. The various perils which for 
some time threatened the orthodox faith, by a Catholic and Protestant 
union, led the learned metropolitan Petrus MoyUa of Kiev to prepare a 
new confession of faith, which was formally approved (1643), at a 
synod in Constantinople, by all the orthodox patriarchs (of Constanti- 
nople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Moscow), as 6p^5o|oj u/xoxoyua 
-tiji xa^o'Kixrji xal CLTioatoXixr^s ixxXr^ntai. 


The Jesuit counter-reformation progressed with unabated 
vigor, and during the first quarter of this century achieved the 
most brilliant results in Bohemia. The Peace of Westphalia set 
bounds to its violent measures, but not to its secret machinations 
and open arts of deception. Next to the conversion of the 
Bohemians, the restoration accomplished most in France by the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes. The Catholic cause gloried 
also in the return of many Protestant princes, who were converted 
mostly by the zeal of the Jesuits. The most remarkable exam- 
ples of this kind were the capricious conversion of Christina 
of Sweden, and that of the dynasty of JE lector al Saxony. Re- 
peated union efforts were also started, but they proved as abor- 
tive as earlier attempts. 


1. TJie Restoration in Germany and the neighboring Territories. (Cf. 
Pescheck, 1. c. § 31.) — In 1G09 the Emperor Rudolf 1\. had guaranteed 
the existence and freedom of Protestantism in Bohemia, by a letter of 
majesty. But the Emperor Matthias, by preventing the erection of a 
church-edifice, practically violated the promises of the letter of majesty. 
The excited Bohemians cast the imperial councillors out of the window, 
chased off the Jesuits, and choso the Elector Frederick Y. of the Pala- 
tinate as their king (1G18). But Ferdinand II. conquered, tore up the 
letter of majesty, led back the Jesuits, expelled the Protestant clergy, 
etc. Christian IV. of Denmark, with some other princes, attempted to 
rescue Protestantism, but they, also, were defeated. Ferdinand II., 
drunken Avith victory, issued an edict of restoration (1G29), as an autho- 
ritative declai'ation of religious peace, by which the Protestants were 
to deliver up all the monasteries confiscated after the treaty of Passau. 
Calvinists were excluded from the Peace, and the Catholic States were 
granted unconditional liberty to suppress Protestantism in their here- 
ditary countries. Then Gustavus Adolphus [oh. 1632) of Sweden, im- 
pelled no less by political than religious motives, stood forth as the 
deliverer of Protestantism. The unhappy war was finally terminated 
by the Peace of Westphalia, at Munster and Osnabrlick. Germany lost 
many excellent provinces, but liberty of thought and religion was se- 
cured. The Religious Peace of Augsburg was confirmed by a Swedish 
and French guaranty, and extended to the Reformed, also, as related 
to the Augsburg Confession. Jan. 1, 1624, was fixed as the date when 
possession should be taken of the Church property. Thus the political 
balance of the Protestant and Catholic States in Germany was estab- 
lished. But the pope persistently refused to recognize the Peace ; and 
by means of Jesuitic manoeuvring and political measures, considerable 
limitations were imposed upon the Protestant Church. It was wholly 
exterminated in Bohemia, and in the other Austrian hereditary States 
the oppressions increased until the reign of Joseph II, In Silesia 
more than 1000 churches were taken from the Evangelicals after the 
edict of restoration. A restitution was not thought of; the persecution 
and oppression continued during the entire century {| 44, 4), and com- 
pelled thousands to emigrate (mostly to upper Lusatia). In Hungary 
the number of Protestants was reduced one-half, by various intrigues 
and enticements. Transylvania, however, continued a place of refuge 
for the dissenters. In Livonia, also, which was under Polish dominion 
from 1561, the Jesuits had effected an entrance, and began their work 
of restoration ; but Swedish rule, under Gustavus Adolphus (from 1621), 
put an end'to their machinations. The Valteline massacre (1620) was 
a Swiss Bartholomew's eve on a small scale, but with equal madness 
and cruelty. All the Protestants were murdered in one day. The 
conspirators, at the ringing of the storm-bell at the earliest dawn, broke 
into the houses of the heretics, and murdered all they met with, to tho 
babe at the breast. From four to five hundred were killed. The Palor 



tinatc, into which the Reformed faith had been forcibly introduced, 
came (1685) under the dominion of the Catholic house of Neuburg, 
and then the Reformed Church sufiered most from the oppressive mea- 
sures adopted. In JuUers-Cleve-Berg the Reformation had from the 
first progressed successfully, but was stopped and thrown back by the 
victory of Charles V. (^ 15, 8) and the fall of Archb. Hermann (^ 16, 2). 
From the middle of the 16th century, however, a number of Walloon 
zealous Reformed fugitives from Belgium settled in those districts, and 
powerfully strengthened the Protestant element. From that time the 
Reformed Church had a decided preponderance over the Lutheran ; and 
the Lutherans, whilst strictly adhering to the doctrine of their Church, 
adopted many Reformed peculiarities in Church government and wor- 
ship. By the treaty concerning inheritance of Juliers-Cleve (1666), 
Cleve, Mark, and Ravensberg passed over to the Reformed house of 
Brandenburg, but Juliers and Berg to the Catholic Palatinate, whilst 
each government pledged protection to subjects of a different faith from 
its own, and also conceded to them the jus retortionis, if their complaints 
did not secure reparation. 

2. Protestants in France, and Waldenses in Piedmont. (Cf. /. Chr. 
K. Hoffmann, Gesch. d. Aufruhrs in d. Sevennen. Nordl. 1838. — G. v. 
Polenz, d. Camisarden u. d. Kirchen d. Wliste ; in the ev. K. Z. 1846, 
Nr. 64, etc., 74, etc. ; 1848, Nr. 18, etc.)— Henri/ IV. (1588-1610) faith- 
fully adhered to the promises of the Edict of Nantes. But under Louis 
XIII. (1610-43) oppressions of the Huguenots were revived, and excited 
them to new insurrections. Richelieu annulled their political claims, 
though in the Peace of Kismes (1629) their religious rights were re- 
tained. Louis XIV. (1643-1715) allowed his confessors to persuade 
him to atone for his excesses by purging his dominions of all heretics. 
Money and court-influence having done their part, the terrible dragon- 
nades commenced the work of converting the Protestants (1681). In 
1685 the formal Revocation of the Edict of Nantes was issued, and the 
work of conversion was carried forward more furiously than ever. 
Thousands of churches were demolished, confessors past numbering 
were executed or doomed to the galleys, and violently robbed of their 
children, etc. In spite of fearful penalties against emigration, and 
the most careful guarding of the borders, hundreds of thousands of 
refugees escaped, and were received with open arms in Brandenburg, 
Holland, England, and Switzerland. Many fled to the Cevennes, where 
(called Camisards), with incredible courage, and under various fanati- 
cal, prophetic manifestations, they maintained themselves against the 
converting and persecuting efibrts of the Catholics, during a struggle 
of 20 years, and finally secured tolerable conditions of peace (1704). 
France lost a half million of its most pious, industrious, and thrifty 
inhabitants, and still two millions of Reformed remained in the country, 
though deprived of almost every right. — The oppressions of the Wal- 
denses in Piedmont were intimately connected with the persecutions of 


the Huguenots in France. Although the Duke of Savoy confirmed to 
them their privileges in 1G54, a fearfully bloody persecution broke out 
against them in 1055, professedly for the purpose of purging their 
abodes for the Papists banished during the Irish massacre under Crom- 
vrell (see 3, below). The cruelties of the troops despatched for this 
purpose drove the Waldenses to a desperate resistance. Through the 
mediation of the Protestant cantons of Switzerland a miserable toleration 
was again secured ; and by large contributions of money from abroad, 
their temporal losses were measura^bly repaired. But in 1685 the per- 
secution and civil war were revived at the instigation of Louis XIV. 
The soldiers forced their way through the valleys and compelled the 
inhabitants to flee. A portion found refuge in Wurtemberg, others in 
Switzerland. The latter, supported by Swiss troops, invaded Piedmont 
in 1G89, and reconquered their homes. Thenceforth they maintained 
their rights in spite of all conceivable oppressions. 

3. The CaiJiolics in England. — When James I. (1603-25), the son of 
Mary Stuart, ascended the throne of England, the Catholics expected 
nothing less of him than the complete restoration of Catholicism. But 
however strongly he was inclined to Catholicism, his predilection for a 
cesareo-papistic form of government was still stronger. Hence James 
persecuted the Jesuits with reckless severity, because they opposed 
royal supremacy over the Church. This enraged the Catholics to the 
highest degree. They formed a conspiracy (the Gunpowder-plot, 1605), 
by which they intended to destroy the king and his family, as well as 
the members of the parliament, at its next opening. The plot was 
discovered shortly before its execution, and the conspirators, with two 
Jesuit abettors, were executed. Thenceforth still more rigid measures 
w^ere used against Catholicism and its adherents, not only in England, 
but in Ireland also, the mass of the people there adhering firmly to the 
Papacy. The endless sufi'erings and oppressions inflicted upon them, 
led to a most sanguinary catastrophe there, the Irish massacre q/1641. 
In October, 1641, a conspiracy, spread among all the Catholics of the 
country, broke out. It aimed at the annihilation of all the Protestants 
in Ireland. The conspirators forced the houses of Protestants, and 
murdered the occupants, or drove them naked and helpless from their 
homes. Thousands died of hunger and cold upon the highways. Others 
were driven in crowds into rivers, where they were drowned, or into 
empty houses, which were then fired. The number of those who perished 
is said by some to have reached 400,000. This event, of which Charles I. 
is accused of having been previously aware, or even the instigator, was 
his first step to the scafitjld (1640). In opposition to the Catholic sym- 
pathies of Charles II. (1660-85), the Parliament ordained the Test-act 
(1673), by which every public ofl[icer, in the civil or military service, 
w^as required to take the oath of supremacy, to condemn transubstan- 
tiation and the worship of saints, and partake of the Lord's Supper in 
the Anglican Episcopal Church. The declaration of a certain Titus 


Oates, that the Jesuits had formed a conspiracy to murder the king, 
and restore Popery (1G78), caused a terrible excitement throughout the 
kingdom, and led to numerous executions. The assertion of Oates, how- 
ever, was to all appearances unfounded, and was the result of an in- 
trigue, designed to secure the exclusion of the king's Catholic brother 
James II. from the succession. When James II. assumed the crown 
(1685-88), he at once opened negotiations with Rome, and appointed 
scarcely any but Catholics to the various civil offices. At the invitation 
of the Protestants, William III. of Orange, the king's son-in-law, landed 
in England (1G88), and after the flight of James was proclaimed King 
of England by the Parliament (1689). 

4. Converted Princes. — (Cf. Gallerie d. denkw, Personen, welche im 
16. 17. 18. Jahrh. zur kath. K. iibergetr. sind. Ilerausgeg. v. F. W. Ph. 
Ammon. Erlg. 1833.) — The first reigning prince who returned to Ca- 
tholicism was the Margrave Jacob III. of Baden, in 1590. But incom- 
parably greater surprise was occasioned by the conversion of Queen 
Christina of Sweden, the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, a highly 
gifted and intelligent, but also a vain and perverse princess. Her 
chief motive was to do something extraordinary, for in reality she 
esteemed the new religion as little as she did the old. As she pre- 
viously abdicated the throne (1654), the Catholic Church gained no- 
thing by her conversion but the vain glory of it, and Pope Alexander 
yil. had to grant his spiritual daughter a pension of 10,000 scudi, to 
keep her from starving. Of greater account was the apostacy of the 
Elector Frederic Augustus of Saxony (1697), the Mighty, mighty in 
herculean strength, still more mighty in unbounded profligacy. (Cf. 
Bar. V. Pollnitz, d. galante Sachsen. Offb. 1735). He was tempted to 
this by the crown of Poland. The people and States, however, main- 
tained their ecclesiastical rights. He himself died trusting in the 
mercy of God in Christ to penitent sinners. But Saxony, the father- 
land of the Reformation, is still ruled by a Catholic prince. 

5. Union Efforts. — (Cf. C. W. Bering, Gesch. d. kirchl. Unionsvers. 
seit d. Ref. Lpz. 1836-38, 2 Bde.)— (1.) King Wladislas IV. of Poland 
thought it possible to effect an understanding and reconciliation be- 
tween the Catholics and Protestants of his kingdom ; and to this end 
appointed a Religious colloquy at Thorn (1645). Prussia and Branden- 
burg were also invited to participate. The elector sent his court- 
preacher, John Berg, and requested the Duke of Brunswick to send the 
Helmstadt theologian George Calixtus. The principal Lutheran speakers 
were Ahr. Calov of Dantzig and John H'dlsemann of Wittenberg. That 
Calixtus, a Lutheran, supported the Reformed, embittered the Lu- 
therans at the outset, beyond measure. The result was an aggravation 
of the schisms on all sides (| 44, 4). The Reformed set forth their 
views in the Declaratio Thoruniensis, which acquired symbolical signi- 
ficance in Brandenburg. (2.) Jacques Benigne Bossuet {ob. 1704), 
Bishop of Meaux, employed his extraordinary eloquence (from 1671) 


in efforts to open the way for the return of the Protestants to the only 
true Church. In several works (Exposition de la doctrine do Teglise 
cath. sur les mati^res de controverse, 1G71, and Hist, des variations 
des eglises prot. 1G88), he set forth the Catholic faith in an ideal form, 
concealed those points in it specially objectionable to Protestants, and 
endeavored, acutely but sophistically, to show that the doctrines of 
Protestants were untenable and contradictory. Simultaneously a union 
project was started again at the imperial court, at the instigation of 
the Spaniard Spiiiola, Bishop of Neustadt near Vienna, who had come 
into the country as confessor of the queen. The controverted points 
were to be decided by a free council, but the primacy of the pope, and 
the hierarchical orders, were to be antecedently admitted, as established 
jure humane. In order to awaken interest in this plan, Spinola, by 
order of the Emperor Leopold I., travelled through almost the whole 
of Germany. He was most favorably received, from regard for the 
emperor, in Hanover, where Molanus, the Abbot of Loccum. very 
earnestly furthered the union effort ; Bossuet on the side of the Catho- 
lics, and the great philosopher Leihnitz on the side of the Protestants, 
taking part in the measure. But notwithstanding some reciprocal 
approximation, his exertions were fruitless. Some have supposed that 
Leibnitz had secretly embraced Catholicism, from a MS. discovered 
after his death, inscribed by a strange hand : Systema theologicum 
Leibnitii (transl. into German by R'ass u. AVeis. 3d ed. Mayence, 1825). 
It contains a Latin treatise in vindication of the doctrines and usages 
of the Romish Church. Fully as Leibnitz may have been inclined and 
qualified to fathom and acknowledge what is profound and true in 
Catholicism, his aim in this treatise, most probably, was to see whether 
and how far Catholicism might be vindicated from its own stand-point. 
That the work does not set forth his own doctrinal views, is manifest 
from man}'- other declarations, in which he affirms most distinctly the 
irreconcilable opposition between his Protestant views and Catholic 
doctrines. (Cf. Tholiick, verm. Schr. I. 318, etc.) 


The transition of Hesse-Cassel (1604), of the earldom of 
Lippe (1602, etc.), and of the reigning house of Brandenburg 
(1613), gave new strength to the Reformed Church in the heart 
of Lutheran Germany. Renewed attempts to unite the two 
Churches were as abortive as the efforts to effect a union between 
the Catholic and Protestant Churches. In England and Scot- 
land, the Act of Toleration (1689), was gained by the Dissenters 
after protracted struggles. 

1. The Cdlvinising of Hesse- Cassel (1604). — (Cf. W. MilnscTier, Vers. 
e. Gesch. d. hess. ref. K. Cass. 1850. — H. Heppe, Gesch. d. hess. Gene- 
IL — 16 



ralsyn. v. 1568-82. Cass. 1847, 2 Bde., together Avith the Erlanger 
Ztschr. fur Prot. u. K. 1855. I. : d. Bekenntnissstand d. s. g. ref. K. in 
Kurhessen.) — Even the Landgrave Philip regarded the difference be- 
tween the Lutherans and Reformed as non-essential, and without hesi- 
tation appointed the Ref. theol, Andrew Ili/perius to a chair at Mar- 
burg. His son William IV., who inherited Hesse-Cassel (1567-92), 
declined accepting the Form of Concord, and by the proceedings of 
four general synods prepared the way for the adoption of Calvinism in 
the land ; his son Maurice completed the work. Maurice embraced 
Calvinism in 1604, prohibited the Lutheran Catechism, introduced the 
Reformed worship, and expelled resisting preachers. In 1604 Hessen- 
Marburg came under his rule. He promised, indeed, not to disturb the 
existing religion, but broke his word. The Lutheran professors fled 
to Giessen, where the zealous Lutheran Lewis V. of Hessen-Darmstadt 
founded a Lutheran university. A violent popular tumult broke out in 
Marburg ; Maurice suppressed it, and by force executed a total change 
in Church matters. Ilis cousin Leiois accused him before the emperor, 
and the imperial chamber transferred Marburg to Hessen-Darmstadt. 
But during the disorders of the Thirty Years' war, William V., son of 
Maurice, reclaimed it. Meanwhile the brief Lutheran interregnum 
had strengthened Lutheranism there, so that it existed in Upper Hessen, 
beside Calvinism, whilst all Lower Hessen remained Reformed. 

2. The Calvinising of the Earldom of Lippe (1602, etc.). — SimonYI. 
of Lippe, was brought, by his stirring life, into frequent contact with 
the Reformed Netherlands, and into special intimacy with Maurice of 
Hessen. His earldom was soundly Lutheran, but from 1602 Calvinism 
glided imperceptibly into it, by the decided favor of the prince. The 
chief agent of this innovation was Henry Dreckmeyer, appointed gene- 
ral superintendent in Detmold (1599). During a visitation in 1602, 
the festivals of Mary and the Apostles, exorcism, signing with the 
cross, the host, burning candles, and Luther's catechism, were abolished. 
The clergy who resisted were deposed, and Calvinists were appointed 
in their stead. The city of Lemgo withstood the longest, and by a 
struggle of eleven years with the prince (1606-17), saved its Lutheran 
faith. After the death of Simon VI., his successor Simon VII. finally 
allowed the city the free exercise of its Lutheran form of religion. 

3. The Transition of the Electoral House of Brandenburg was of 
greater importance, at least in its consequences, than all earlier con- 
quests of Calvinism. John Sigmund (1608-19) had by oath promised 
his father Joachim Frederick, that he would adhere to the Lutheran 
Church, and was thrice required to give a bond to this effect. But his 
own inclination, which was fostered by his connection with the Palati- 
nate court, together with his expectation of inheriting Juliers-Cleves, 
and securing an advantageous alliance with the Netherlands, prevailed 
over his vow. His Calvinistic court-preacher, Sol. Fink, no doubt, 
also, contributed to this result. At any rate, on Christmas (1613), he 


entered the Reformed Church, claiming that in divine matters no bond 
could obligate against the conscience. The Augsburg Confession (of 
course the Variata) — the condition of admittance to the Religious 
Peace of Augsburg — he retained. But he introduced a Calvinistic 
symbol of his own [Conf. Sigismundi or Marchica (1G14), omitting 
'the doctrine of predestination. He could not, however, compel his 
people to follow his example ; even his wife, Anna of Prussia, refused. 
No efforts were spared. His court-preacher, John Gerike, had to flee, 
likewise Martin Willich, another preacher, from Berlin. But when 
they began to remove the altars, pictures, and baptismal fonts from 
the Berlin churches, a mighty popular insurrection was excited, which 
was not quelled without bloodshed (1615). The following year the 
elector forbid the teaching of the communicatio idiomatum and ubiqui- 
tas corporis, at the university of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, till then Lu- 
theran ; and when the Wittenbergers {Leonard Hutter) issued a violent 
assault upon him (Calvinista aulico-politicus, d. i. chr. u. nothwend. 
Bericht von den vornehmst. polit. Ilauptgrlinden, durch welche man 
die Calvinisterei in die hochlobl. Kur-u. Mark Br. einzuflihren, sich 
eben stark bemliht, 161G), he forbid all his subjects visiting the univer- 
sity of Wittenberg, and commanded that the Form of Concord, which 
he and the whole country had previously subscribed, should be stricken 
from the collection of the symbolical books of the Lutheran Church of 
his land. 

4. Union Efforts. (Cf. Rudelhach, 1. c. | 13, 8.) — Amidst the trou- 
bles of the Thirty Years' war, the princes of the electorates of Saxony 
and Brandenburg, and of Hessen-Cassel, appointed a Religious Colloqiiij 
at Leipsic (1G31), to heal, if possible, the old schisms. The Reformed 
were much inclined to yield; they were even willing to acknowledge 
the invariata. The Lutherans (the Dresden court-preacher Hoe of 
Hotnegg, and the Leipsic professors, Polyc. Leyser and Henry Hopfner), 
accepted this, but remonstrated against explaining the 10th art. in the 
sense of a spiritual participation. They parted amicably, but the 
matter ended with that. On the contrary, the Religious Colloquy of 
Thorn (1645) only aggravated the schism (| 33, 5). That of Cassel 
(1661), between some Marburg and Helmstadt theologians, was well 
meant ; but at a time when the synocretistic controversy was raging, 
reciprocal concessions could only make the parties more bitter. The 
great elector Frederick William of Brandenburg (1640-88) labored 
zealously to restore religious unity among his Lutheran and Reformed 
subjects, though, indeed, in a spirit of indifference to the points of 
diversity between them. The Lutherans could not be content with 
this. Confessors, also, were not wanting among them. The noblest 
of these was the admirable composer of hymns, Paul Gerhardt. (Cf. 
G. Langhecker, Leben. u. Leid. v. P. G. Berl. 1841. — C. A. Wildenhalm, 
P. G., ein kirchengesch. Lebensbild, Lpz. 1845, 2 Bde.) As preacher 
at the church of St. Nicolai he was the life of the Lutheran opposition. 


As he steadfastly refused to sign a pledge wholly to abstain from at- 
tacking the Reformed doctrines, he was deposed in 1666, but restored 
ao-ain in 1667 (mainly at the earnest request of the noble consort of 
the elector, Louisa Henrietia, Princess of Orange, and therefore Re- 
formed, cf. I 41, 1), in the expectation that he would conform to the 
wish of the elector, even without giving a written pledge. But his 
conscience troubled him, and he made a public declaration which led 
to his being again deposed. Soon afterwards he was called as preacher 
to Llibben, in Lausatia. (06. 1676.) (Cf. | 48, 2.) 

5. The EiiglisJi_2lonrCanformists. (Cf. J. H, Merle d'Aubigne, the 
\Protector, or the Engl. Republic under^omwell.)-j-J«2!:e£ I. (1603-25), 
the son of Mary Stuart, was hated hy th e Papis ts, whose expectations 
of him Avere disappointed, no less than by the Calvinistic Di ssent ers, 
who accused him of being openly inclined to popery, on account of his 
hierarchical views. His son Charles I. inherited th b anim osity (1625- 
49). The Scotch made a co^enani^ for the maintenancej^fjCalyi^i^m ; 
the English Avere afraid that Catholicism would be again^ introduced ; 
th e Irish massacre (1 641, cf. I 33, 3) was charged upon the king; and 
the political religious fanaticism of the_J[ndependents_under_OZiyer 
Cromwell, brought Charles_toJ;h^es^a|R)ldj[1649). Unde r Cro mwelFa^ 
government the adherents of the Episco pal Ch urch were oppressed, 
whilst Dissenters were greatly favored. When C/«a?-Ze5jL_ascended 
N^he thron^_(166P), this was reversed. The Test Act (1673, cf. I 3^, 3), 
though primarily aimed against the Catholics, also struck Dissenters, 
and exclu ded t hem from all ciyUjJidjnilitary offices. (But ^ Willia m of 
vOrfim^Xf^SSLj-_68.9), by the Act_ofJ,689^3ecured_jJfi/g2:aX^« to Dis-^ 
senters also ; only_Socinians and Catholics_were_excluded from its 




The tlieocralic jyste_m_ofJMdeb had perished beyond re- 

demption. Even Catholic^jyrincesj^fosed to be any longer ruled 
in political affairs by the vicegerent of Christ. The ban had lost 
its power, but the popes still_strqve to rescue the idea, even 
where they had to yield the fact, and never ceased to enter im- 
potent ._prQtests_^gainst measures of which they disapproved. 
Politically the pope was only_aj3rince_among princes. Among 
existing monastic orders, the Jesuits enjoyed by far the most 
power and influence. They extended the pope's nifaljibility 


even to matters of^fact. The other_Orders were envious and 
jealous, and vigilantly seized every opportunity of assailing the 
Jesuits, especially the Disciples of St^Thomas, \yhq_were_also - 
their doctrinal_atitipodes. During this period also, Catholic 
missioris amonj theh^gilien were prosecuted with vigorous_acti-. 
vity. The Je^iits were still most energetic ; next to them the 
D omin icans and Franciscans. 

1. The Papacy. — PaulY. (1G05-21), equally energetic in politics and 
the interests of the hierarchy, had nevertheless to experience the impo- 
tence of the papal ban and interdict, in a controversy with the Republic 
of Venice. The pious and learned Servite, Paul Sarpi (historian of 
the Council of Trent), a man who deeply deplored the errors of his 
Church, and who was familiar with the " Sii/lum Curice," but did fear 
it, boldly defended the liberty of the Church and the State, and the 
pope had to yield. Ilis successor GregoiyXY. (1621-23) wrote a secret 
scrutiny for the election of a pope, canonized Loyola, and enriched the 
Vatican library with the valuable treasures of the Heidelberg library, 
given him by Maximilian I. after the conquest of the Palatinate. 
Urban VIII. (Card. Barberini, 1623-24) gave the bull Coena Domini 
its present form, but in other respects did more for the martial than 
religious prosperity of the Church State. Innocent X. (1644-55) was 
derided as another Johanna Papissa, on account of his shameful subjec- 
tion to a woman (Donna Olympia). His fourth successor Innocent XI. 
(1676-89), an energetic pope, and one who sincerely labored for the 
good of the Church, became involved in a dangerous controversy with 
France. Louis XIV. (1643-1715) exercised the established right of 
appropriating the revenues of vacant benefices, in the widest sense, 
and had the celebrated principles of the Galilean Church (propositiones 
cleri Gallicani) adopted by an assembly of the Paris clergy. (1.) The 
power of the pope extends only to spiritual, not to temporal matters. 
(2.) The spiritual power of the pope, according to the decision of the 
Council of Constance, is subject to the supreme authority of general 
councils. (3.) In France his power is further limited by the old eccle- 
siastical laws of France. (4.) The decisions of the pope in matters of 
faith are only infallible by their agreement with the entire Church. 
The pope energetically opposed these claims, refused to confirm French 
bishops; and his successor Innocent XII. had the satisfaction of seeing 
the king and clergy humbly yielding their demands (1691). Never- 
theless, the idea of the liberty of theGaHican Church, once awakened, 
was not abandoned ; arid the celebrated Bishop Bosseut of Meaux wrote 
a learned and extended vindication of it (Defensio declarationis cele- 
berrimae, quam de potentate ecclest. sanxit Clerus gallicanus, 2 vols. 
4to.) (Cf. 144,10 

2. Ne uL Co ngregations and Orders. — (1.) The Benedictine Congreqa- 



Hon of St. Vanne, at Verdun, founded by Didier de la Cour, stands 
foremost among the creations of this century. Elected Abbot of St. 
Vanne, in 1596, Didier devoted all his energies to the reformation of 
that monastery, which had utterly degenerated. A papal bull of 1604 
granted certain rich privileges to all monasteries vrhich would unite in 
a congregation with St. Vanne. By degrees all the Benedictine monas- 
teries in Lorraine and the Elsace, joined that congregation. Didier's 
reform aimed mainly at morals and asceticism. But learning and 
education [Calmet, Ceillier, etc.) were also diligently promoted by the 
new congregation. (2.) The Fathers of the Oratory of Jesus, an imita- 
tion of Philip de Neri's priests of the oratory (§ 29, 3). It was founded 
by Peter of Berylle, son of a Parliamentary counsellor, by the establish- 
ment of an oratory in Paris. Peter was more given to mysticism than 
learning, but his Order took another course. It produced many stars 
of Catholic, and at the same time very liberal, erudition (Malebranche, 
Morinus, Thomassinus, Rich. Simon, Houbigant, etc.) (3.) The Maiwines 
in France (1618). Taking their name from St. Maurus, the pupil of 
St. Benedict, they aimed at a revival of the fallen Order of Benedic- 
tines, and were distinguished for producing many really learned men. 
Patristics and Church History owe much to their untiring diligence. 
To this Order belong such brilliant names as those of Mabillon, Mont- 
faucjon, Ruinart, Mart^ne, D'Achery, Le Nourry, etc. (Cf. /. G. Herbst, 
d. Verdienste d. Maur. um d. AVissch., in the tlibg. Quartalschr. 1833, 
I. II.) (4.) The Piarists, founded (1600) by the Spaniard Joseph Cala- 
sanze, in Rome, for the instruction of youth ; in this sphere they were 
the hated rivals of the Jesuits. (5.) The Order of the Visitation of our 
beloved Toadies, or Salesians. It owed its origin (1618) to that superior 
mystic Count Francis of Sales (| 36, 1), a zealous proselyter of Pro- 
testants, and the Baroness Francisca of Chantal, who stood in intimate 
spiritual fellowship with him. The care of the sick and training of 
children was its object (cf. B. Rensing, Leb. d. h. Fr. v. Sales. Paderb. 
1848). (6.) The Priests of the Missions, and (7.) Sisters of Mercy, were 
both founded by Vincent of Paula. Born of poor parents, after com- 
pleting his studies, he was captured by pirates, and succeeded, as a 
slave, in converting his master, a renegade Christian. Afterwards he 
was settled at Chatillon, as priest, and with the aid of the family of 
Count Gondy, awakened, though with the most unassuming humility, 
a really wonderful and efficient measure of zeal for inner missions. In 
1618 he established the Order of Sisters of Mercy, who devoted them- 
selves faithfully to the care of the sick, throughout France ; and in 
1627 the Order of Priests of the Missions (also called Lazarists), who 
travelled over the country ministering to the souls and bodies of men. 
After the death of the Countess of Gondy, he appointed Louise le Gras, 
a Avidow distinguished alike for intelligence and piety, superior of the 
Order. Vincent died in 1660, and was subsequently canonized (cf. L. 
V. Stolberg, Leb. d. h. Vine. v. Paula. "VYien, 1819, and H. E. Schmieder 


V. V. P., in d. evang. K. Z. 1832, Nr. 77, etc.) (8.) The Trappists, 
founded by Jean le BouthilUer de Ranee [oh. 1700), a distinguished 
canon, who was led to renounce his worldly life by an alarming event, 
and ran into the opposite extreme of over-Avrought asceticism (1GG4). 
The Order took its name from the Cistercian Abbey la Trappe, in Nor- 
mandy, whose conmicndatory abbot Avas Ranc^. After many difficulties 
he succeeded in persuading the worldly voluptuous monks to adopt a 
life of unexampled austerity. Ilis rule imposed unbroken silence, 
excepting in prayer and singing, and the occasional admonition : 
memento inori, when they met each other. Their bed was a hard board, 
with a little straw, their only food bread and water, roots, herbs, some 
fruit and vegetables, but without butter, fat, or oil. All literary pur- 
suits Avere forbidden; farming their recreation. Their dress consisted 
of a dark-broAvn coavI, and wooden shoes. Such austerities kept most 
other monasteries from adopting the rule (cf. | 57, 2, and E. L. Bitsert, 
d. Ord. d. Trappisten. Darmst. 1833. — Chateaubriand, Leb. d. Paters 
Bouth. de Kance. In German, Ulm, 1844). (9.) The Christian School 
Brethren, founded in 1G80, by the Rheims canon Jean Bapt. de la Salle, 
for the training and instruction of children of the laboring classes. 
The members assume the a'ow of poverty, chastity, obedience, and con- 
tinuance in the institution, but they dare not be priests, nor strive to 
become priests. In the course of time the institution spread mightily 
(over France, Belgium, and N. America), and was allowed to have a 
superior-general Avith eight assistants, at Paris. (10.) The EnglisT^ 
Ladies, founded by Blary Ward, the daughter of an English nobleman 
who adhered to Catholicism. Fleeing Avith her family, she founded a 
society of English young ladies, fugitiA'es like herself, at St. Omer in 
France, for the education of young girls. The institution was soon 
enlarged by admitting persons from other countries. Houses were 
also established in Germany (Cologne, Munich, A^ienna, etc.), Italy, and 
the Netherlands. It never obtained papal confirmation ; indeed Urban 
VIII., listening to the complaints of their enemies, Avho charged them 
with heresy, formally abolished the society. All their houses and 
schools Avere closed (excepting that in Munich, at Maximilian's especial 
request). Mary herself was imprisoned and handed over to the Inqui- 
sition in Rome. But Urban Avas soon convinced of her innocence, and 
released her. The scattered young women soon assembled again, but 
the society was not formally confirmed until 1703, by Clement XI., 58 
years after the death of the founder. Its object is the care of the sick 
and education of youth. The members are divided into three classes : 
ladies (nobles), young women (civilians), aiid Avaiting sisters. All 
assume the three vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, annually, 
or triennially renewed, and binding only for that period. They may, 
therefore, leave the society and marry. They still have many houses 
in Germany, France, Belgium, England, and Italy. 

3. Heathen Missions. (Cf ^ 30.) — From 1622, the missionary opera- 


tions of the Catholic Church acquired unity, strength, and permanence, 
through the grand institution of Gregory XV., the Congregatio de pro- 
paganda Jide (cf. 0. Mejer, d. Propag., ihre Provinzen u. ihr Recht. 2 
Bde. Guttg. 1852, etc.) With its seminary for the education of mis- 
sionaries it became the heart of Catholic missions, celebrating the 
Epiphany in Home by having the praises of the Lord sung in all the 
languages of the world. The astonishing success of Catholic missions 
is OAving partly, no doubt, to the zeal, perseverance, and self-denial of 
the missionaries, but, also, to the readiness with which they accommo- 
date themselves to the habits and views of different nations, if the 
people will only outwardly embrace Christianity, without antecedent 
knowledge or conversion. Ricci's death in 1610 did not interrupt the 
labors of the Jesuits in the Chinese 3Iission. In 1628, Adam Schall, a 
German Jesuit, arrived, and by his skill in mathematics won great 
respect at the Chinese court. Everything progressed admirably. The 
mission flourished gloriously in its way. But in 1631 the Dominicans 
also entered China. They found a half million nominal Christians, 
and innumerable Churches, but objected earnestly to the accommoda- 
tion measures of the Jesuits, and the mixture of heathen and Christian 
elements. Rome dismissed their complaints, and the Jesuits went 
boldly forward. Louis XIV. then founded a missionary college in 
Paris, designed mainly for China, which sent Jesuits, thoroughly edu- 
cated in mathematics, into the central empire. Soon, however, the old 
complaints of the Dominicans were revived, and with increased vigor. 
In 1701 the pope sent a legate, Thomas of Tournon, to Asia; but the 
Jesuits put him out of the way (he died (1710) in prison at Macao), 
and continued their operations, despite papal injunctions and their own 
fourth vow. Their doings in Paraguay, S. America (from 1608), were 
most renowned. There they converted the savages, taught them Euro- 
pean customs, trades, and arts, and organized a complete independent 
government, in which the natives, under the mild patriarchal rule 
of the Jesuits, whom they obeyed like children, long dwelt in pros- 
perity ; the Order, meanwhile, grew very rich. (Cf. | 44, 3.) 


The Reformation drove back the Romish Church, which had 
become wholly externalized in life and doctrine, to a revival of 
mediaeval mysticism. The preceding period, already, exhibits 
evidences of this tendency (St. Theresa, John of the Cross, etc.), 
but in the present epoch it manifested itself more energetically. 
The powerful Jesuits, however, who, in the mechanical character 
of all their religious practices, hated, as much as they did Au- 
gustinism, every species of mysticism which held outward religious 
forms in little esteem, and was, indeed, not wholly free from fana- 


tical enthusiasm. They branded it with the heretical name of 
Quietism ; and did all in their power, by violent persecutions, to 
harass those who devoted themselves to quiet communion with 
God, and to prevent the successful propagation of their views. 
The reaction in favor of Augustinism, thus far confined to the 
Dominicans, and only a matter of theological parties, now found 
a citadel in French Jansenism. Combined with deep moral 
earnestness, it spread out, pervading and purifying Christian life 
as well as theological science. 

1. 3Iysiicism and Quietism. — The noblest, tenderest, and most devout 
mystic of the Catholic Church, after the Reformation, was Francis of 
Sales (§ 35, 2), B. of Geneva {i. e. in partibus, then at Annecy, oh. 
1622). His overflowing love, and conciliatory manners, led crowds of 
Protestants back to the Romish Church. Ilis " Philothea,^' giving 
directions to the people of the world, for maintaining a devout life, and 
enjoying a sense of the love of God, amidst all the distractions of their 
business. Next to the " Imitation of Christ,^' it is the most popular 
and common devotional book in the Catholic Church. In his " Theo- 
time" the reader is led further into the faintings and longings, the 
pains and pangs, the joy and felicity of a life hid in God. — John Scheffier 
(Angelus Silesius) flourished in Germany; he was a friend of Jacob 
Bohm, previously a Protestant, then a convert, physician to the em- 
peror, Catholic priest, and a zealous controversialist [oh. 1677). Whilst 
a Protestant he composed several very sweet, devout hymns. After- 
wards he produced " der cherubinische Wandersman," a collection of 
poetical sayings, in which, with childlike simplicity and ardent love, 
he buries himself in the depths of the universal Godhead, and pro- 
pounds the boldest pantheistic theses. (Cf. C, F. Gaupp, d. roni. K. 
beleuchtet in einem ihrer Proselyten. Dresd. 1840. — A. Kahlert, Aug. 
Sil. Bresl. 1853.— P. Wittmann (Cath.), Aug. Sil. als Convert., Dichter 
u. Polem. Augsb. 1842. Adv. W. ScJirader, Aug. Sil. u. s. Mystik. 
Halle, 1853, who endeavors to show that Aug. Sil. and Scheffler are 
two different persons ; cf. G. Schuster, Aug. Sil. in the hist, theol. 
Ztschr. 1857, III.) — Similar causes produced a mystical tendency in 
Spain, the friends of which were called . Alomhrados (illuminati). 
Michael Molinos of Saragossa imparted to this movement a more sub- 
stantial character. From 1G69, as priest in Rome, he became the 
spiritual guide of many earnest souls, and taught them how to find 
the highest enjoyment of piety, in sincere prayer, in pure love to God, 
and in a calm, peaceful, immediate contemplation of God. He was 
unmolested until the jealousy of the Jesuits, and especially the machi- 
nations of the confessor of Louis XIV., La Chaise, incited the Inquisi- 
tion against him. He was put in confinement, compelled to abjure 68 
statements selected from his books (the principal one was his Guida 


spirituale, published in Latin by A. II. Francke; Manuductio spiritua- 
lis, Lpz. 1687, in German by G. Arnold; Geistl. Wegw. Frkf. 1699) as 
heretical and blasphemous (1687), and was then condemned to perpetual 
confinement in a monastery, and rigid spiritual oversight [oh. 1696). 
His adherents were branded as Quietists (cf. C. E. Scharlhv/, Mich, de 
Mol., in the hist, theol. Ztschr. 1854, III. IV., 1855, I.) But the mys- 
tical tendency was not thus suppressed. In France, especially, it found 
many warm friends and supporters. Antoinette Bourignon [oh. 1680) 
spread her theosophic and fanatical mysticism in the Netherlands, and 
adjacent parts of Germany. Peter Foiret, court-preacher of the palatine 
Deux-Ponts (once a Cartesian philosopher, then an ardent admirer of 
Mad. Bourignon and Guyon) published her works in 25 vols. Amst. 
etc. Concerning her doctrines, cf. W. Klose in the hist, theol. Ztschr. 
1851, p. 497. — The mystical love of Johanna Maria de la Mothe Guyon 
[oh. 1717) was much richer and purer. Early left a widow, after a 
vain course of life, she devoted herself to a glowing love of God. That 
man should die to himself and to all self-will, so that Christ alone 
might live in him, and that man should love God without regard to 
reward or punishment, yea, even though it should please God to damn 
him for ever, were the thoughts which underlay her life and labors, 
and which she cherished with most ardent, sincere, and tender love. 
She travelled many years with her confessor, La Combe, who shared 
her views, through France and Switzerland ; and by means of numerous 
writings, and oral instruction, kindled a like burning love to God in 
the hearts of countless disciples, male and female. No tribulations, 
persecutions, imprisonments, could divert her from her purpose. She 
found powerful protectors at the court ; Mad. Maintenon secured her 
liberation from prison. Above all, one of the noblest men who ever 
lived, defended her against her enemies' accusations of heresy. This 
was Francis de SaUgnac de la Mothe Fenelon, formerly tutor of the 
king's nephews, from 1695 Archbishop of Cambray [oh. 1715). By his 
advice she begged the king for an examination of her writings. A 
commission, headed by Bossuet, objected to her amour desinteresse. 
Fendon then defended the doctrine, and Bossuet, incited by passion 
and jealousy, answered in several writings. Fendon sent his own 
writings to Rome. In the mean time he had lost the king's favor. It 
was the more easy, therefore, for his adversaries to induce the pope to 
condemn his views. Fendon (who adhered most cordially to the Ca- 
tholic Church, and had ever labored zealously for the conversion of 
Protestants), with admirable self-denial and humility, read the brief 
of his own condemnation from the pulpit, and, putting all the blame 
upon his own imperfect and erroneous productions, admonished his 
people to obedience (1699). Among the works of Mad. Guyon, the 
most important is : La Bible de Mad. Guyon avec des explications et 
reflexions, qui regardent la vie interieure, ed. by P. Poiret. Col. 1715, 
etc., in 20 vols. ; a German transl., Regensb., 1835, etc. (Cf. La vie de 


Mad. de Guyon 6crite par elle-meme. Col. 1721. — C. Hermes, Zuge aus 
d. Leben d. Fr. v. Guyon. Magd. 1845. — liavismj, Hist, de la vie de 
Fenelon ; A la Ilaye, 1723. — L. v. Bmisset, Lebonsgesch. Fenel., from 
the French, 3 Bde. WUrzb. 1811 ; Fenelon's works, in German, by M. 
Claudius, 3 Bde. Ilamb. 1823. — Ilerzog's Theol. and Eccl. Encycl., 
Philad. II., 18G0. — Ruckgaher, d. Quietism, in Frankr., in the tlibg. 
Quartschr. 185G. II.) 

2. Jansenism in its First Stage. — (Cf. Melch. Leydecker, de hist. 
Jansen. LI. YI. Traj. ad Rh. 1695. (G. Gerberon) Hist, gener. du Jan- 
sen. Amst. 1711, 3 vols.— ^. Beuchlin, Gesch. v. Port-royal, 1839, 1844. 
2 Bde. — A. Sainte-Beuve, Port-royal, 1840, 2 Bde. — Gr^goire, Les mines 
de Port-royal. Par. 1^9 .—ReucUin, Pascal's Leb. Stuttg. 1840. [Pas- 
cal's Provincial Letters, transl. \)j M' Crie, N.York, 1850]). — Bishop 
Cornelius Jansen of Ypern [oh. 1638) had devoted his whole life to the 
most careful study of the works of St. Augustine. The result of these 
studies Avas a learned work entitled Augustinus, first published (1640) 
after Jansen's death, in 3 vols. fol. As the great Church father's doc- 
trine of sin and grace were here exhibited in their whole truth and 
bluntness, the Jesuits violently assailed the Avork, and secured a pro- 
hibition of it from the pope (1642). But there were in France many 
friends of Augustine's doctrine, who were distinguished for talent and 
learning. Among them was the excellent Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, 
abbot of the Benedictine monastery of St. Cyran [oh. 1643), and the 
equally able teacher at the Sorbonne, Anthony Arnold. The latter, by 
his works (De la frequente communion, against the Opus operatum in 
the sacrament ; La theologie morale des Jesuites ; La morale practi- 
que des Jes.) soon became involved in an open controversy with the 
Jesuits. These persuaded Innocent X. to condemn five Jansenist theses 
as heretical (1653). The adherents of Augustine's doctrine did not 
assail the papal decision ; but affirmed, however, that the views con- 
demned were not found in Jansen's Augustinus in that sense. At the 
instigation of the Jesuits Arnold was ejected from the Sorbonne. lie 
took refuge with his sister, Angelica Arnold, abbess of the Cistercian 
nunnery of Port-royal near Paris, a woman of deep, earnest piety. 
Through her Port-royal became a centre of religious life and zeal in 
France. Much in the manner of the ancient anchorets, a large number 
of the most talented and pious men of France, at once admirers of 
Augustine and hostile to the destructive morality of the Jesuits, 
gathered around this monastery. The profound and talented Blaise 
Rascal (author of the Pensees sur la religion) was of the same spirit 
with these men. Under the name of Louis de Montalte he published 
(1656) his celebrated Lettres provinciales, in which he exposed, in all 
their hatefulness, the pernicious moral principles of many Jesuits, with 
authentic proofs, and with equal earnestness and wit. The book pro- 
duced a wonderful sensation ; but the Jesuits avenged themselves by 
means of a papal bull (1656), which declared that Jansen taught the 


five points in question in the very sense in which they vrerQ condemned. 
The Jansenists affirmed that the pope was not competent to decide upon 
a question du fait ; but the king and pope demanded that all French 
ecclesiastics, monks and nuns, should take oath in acknowledgment of 
the bull, and in condemnation of the Jansenist heresy (1G65). Those 
who refused were banished, and fled into the Netherlands. Subse- 
quently subscription to a milder declaration was allowed. But the 
hatred of the Jesuits still rested on Port-royal. In 1709 the institution 
was abolished and destroyed. Although the Jansenists agreed with 
the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination, and though their fundamen- 
tal tendency was truly Protestant, they were, it would seem because 
of these points of similarity, zealously opposed to the Protestants. 
(Cf. ^ 44, 6.) 


Catholic theology flourished more during the lYth century 
than it had done from the I2th and 13th, or has done since. And 
an active liberal scientific life bloomed in the Galilean Church, 
above all the Catholic Churches of other countries. The Sor- 
bonne of Paris, and still more the Orders of the Jesuits, Maurines, 
and Oratorians, rivalled each other in the most praiseworthy 
manner, in theological, but especially in patristic literature, and 
Church history ; and the cotemporaneous bloom of theological 
learning in the Reformed Church of France was a powerful in- 
centive to such rivalry. The flourishing period of the plastic 
arts, especially painting, had passed. But Church music was 
enriched, though also enervated and secularized. Religious poetry 
was cultivated to any notable extent, only in Spain and Germany. 

1. Theology. — The parliamentary advocate, Mich, le Jay, at his own 
cost, had the Paris PolygloU published, in 8 vols. fol. (1629-45), which, 
besides complete Syriac and Arabic versions, included the Samaritan. 
Morinns was the chief editor. Sixtus V. had caused a new edition of 
the Vulgate to be published (1590), and in spite of its many (but partly 
covered or erased) errors, pronounced it authentic (Editio Sixtina). 
Nevertheless Clement VIII. published a recension which varied from 
it in many points (Ed. Clementina, 1592), and strictly forbid any de- 
parture from it: but in 1593 he himself caused another edition to be 
issued, in which many variations occur. Caspar TJlenberg (once a 
Lutheran) of Lippe issued a new German version (1630), in which free 
use was made of Luther's. The learned Oratorian /. Morinus [oh. 1659) 
edited the Septuagint and Samaritan version, both which he pronounced 
infinitely better than the masoretic text corrupted by the Jews. An- 
other Oratorian, the renowned Richard Simon [oh. 1712), wrote a criti- 


cism of the Scriptures (Ilistoire critique du Yieux Test, and du Nouv. 
Test.), which surpassed in boldness anything before heard of. He was 
assailed, indeed, by Catholic reviewers, but as his criticisms served to 
sap the basis of the Protestant theory, the Curia allowed his boldness 
to go unpunished. (Cf. K. II. Graff, Rich. Sim. ; in the Strassb. Beitr. 
zu. d. theol. Wsch. I., 158, etc.) The most notable exegeies are the Je- 
suits James Bonfrh-e {oh. 1643, a diffuse comra. on the Pentat.) ; Cor- 
nelius a Lapide {oh. 1639, exposition of the Bible in its fourfold sense) ; 
Stephen Menochius of Milan [oh. 1655) and James Tirinus of Antwerp 
[oh. 1636). In systematic theology, the old scholastic method still had 
full sway. Among controversialists, the Brabant Jesuit Martin Becanus 
{oh. 1624) was distinguished as author of the Manuale controversiarum. 
Bishop Bossuet (§ 33, 5), and the Jansenists Peter Nicole and Anthony 
Arnauld, who, to purge themselves from the charge of Calvinism, both 
endeavored to prove that the Catholic doctrine of the Lord's Supper 
was taught by the Apostles, and ever held by the Church. (La perp6- 
tuite de la foi cath. touchant I'eucharistie. Par. 1664), and exchanged 
a number of controversial papers upon this subject, with the Reformed 
Claude and Jurien. Here we must also mention the writings of the 
apostate Lutherans Casper XJlenherg (Causae graves et justse, in Ger- 
man, by Kerz, Mayence (1836), and JJlrich Hunnius, son of the cele- 
brated ^gid. H. (Invicta prorsus et indissolubilia argumenta, etc.) in 
defence of their course. Apologetics received valuable contributions 
irom. Blaise Pascal (in his Pens^es, cf. ^ 36, 2), the Oratorians Le Vassor 
(De la veritable religion. Subsequently he entered the Anglican Church), 
Bernh. Lamy (Preuves evidentes, etc.) and the French bishop, Peter Dan. 
Huetius, the ed. of Origen {oh. 1721), who, in his principal work, De- 
monstratio evangelica, attempts to show that all the myths and fables 
of heathenism are distortions of Biblical histories ; he also defended 
the Pentateuch against Spinoza's attacks. In his Qucestiones Alnetance 
(written in the monastery of D'Annay), he controverts the Cartesian 
philosophy. The learned Jesuit Dionysius Petavius (Jesuitarum aquila, 
oh. 1652), in addition to his herculean chronological labors, wrote a 
profoundly learned history of doctrines, or rather a work exhibiting 
the doctrines of the fathers (Dogmata theologica), which, however, was 
not completed (it embraces, in 3 fol. vols., only the first five loci). The 
Oratorian Louis Thomassinus followed his example (Dogm. theol. 3 
vols. fol. Par. 1680). But his archaeological work is of more import- 
ance : Yetus et nova ecclesiae disciplina circa beneficia et beneficiarios, 
3 vols. fol. In the department of Church History, Catholic theology, 
especially in France, acquired a superior reputation. It was incited to 
this by rivalry with Protestantism, and controversies with the learned 
Reformed theologians of France. This was alloAved by the freedom of 
the Gallican Church (cf. I 35, 1). Besides excellent works on general 
Church History by Godeaii, Kat. Alexander, Fleury, Bossuet, Tillemont, 
to whom we must add Ant. Par/i (Critica hist.-chronol. etc.) the keen 
TL — 17 * N 


ed. of Baronius, the study of ecclesiastical sources was promoted by 
excellent editions of the Church fathers, with most learned critical and 
historical apparatus, by editions and collections of mediaeval works, 
archives, etc. {Sirmond, Mahillon, D'Achert/, Martene, Bahizius), the 
acts of Councils [Lahh6 and Cossart ; especially of the French, by/. 
Sirmond, of the Spanish hy Aguirre), of the acts of Martyrs [Ruinart), 
monastic rules [Luc. Holstenius), etc. Charles du Fresne du Cange, by 
his wonderful Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, and his Gloss. 
med. et inf. graecitatis, greatly advanced the full understanding of the 
sources in regard to language and contents. John Mahillon was doubt- 
less the brightest star in the constellation of learning [ob. 1707, author 
of: Acta Sanctorum Ordinis s. Benedict! ; Annales Ordinis s. Bened. ; 
Vetera Analecta; de re diplomatica, etc.) Peter de Marca, finally 
Archb. of Paris {ob. 16G2), wrote the celebrated work De concordia 
sacerdotii et imperii s. de libertatibus eccl. Gallicanae ; the Jansenist 
doctor of the Sorbonne, Elijah du Pin [ob. 1719), the Nouvelle biblio- 
theque des auteurs ecclest. in 47 vols. ; the Antwerp Jesuits Bolland, 
Henscheii, and Papebroch, began (1643) the herculean Acta Sanctorum, 
arranged according to the Roman calendar, and learned members of 
their Order (the Bollandists) in Belgium continued it, until the French 
invasion of 1794 interrupted the work, when it had reached the 53d 
fol. vol., ending with Oct. 15. Recently Belgic Jesuits have resumed 
the work, but not with the critical care or the liberality of their pre- 
decessors. In Venice, Paolo Sarpi [ob. 1623) wrote a history of the 
Council of Trent, which is one of the most brilliant historical contri- 
butions ever composed. Leo Allatius, a Greek convert in Rome [ob. 
1669) wrote his celebrated work De eccl. Occidentalis et Orientalis 
perpetua consensione. Cardinal Bona, Cistercian general, was a bril- 
liant liturgical author (De divina psalmodia ; Rerum liturgicarum LI. 
II.) But distinguished names in the department of Church History 
are too numerous to allow us to name them all. Pulpit eloquence, also, 
flourished in France to a degree not since attained {Flechier, Bossuet, 
Boiirdaloue, Bridaine, Fenelon, and Massillon). In Vienna, Ulrich 
Megerle (xlbraham de St. Clara) zealously denounced the corruption of 
the times, in odd, witty, and yet thoughtful addresses. Though he 
assumed the manners of a clown, he often gave utterance to most solemn 
and pungent truths. (Cf. ^ 44, 11.) 

2. Church Music. — The Italian Gi'eg. Allegri {ob. 1652) was the 
greatest master of the school founded by Palestrina. His Miserere was 
annually performed on Wednesday afternoon of Holy Week in the 
Sixtine Chapel, Rome, with powerful efi'ect. The application of the 
operatic style to the lofty music of this school gave rise to the oratories, 
or musical dramas, composed of Biblical material, designed to be pro- 
duced only with music, not theatrically. They were mainly practised 
in the school for music established by Philip de Keri, in his oratory ; 
hence their name. This new style, which required that the music 


should be closely suited to the word and to musical declamation, soou 
excluded the Canto fermo with its counterpoint combination of voices, 
and for it substituted a relir/iGUs concert. Thus solo and recitative sing- 
ing became very common, and attained great perfection. The chromatic 
scales was to furnish the means of producing feelings in the hearer cor- 
responding with the sentiments of the words sung ; the general bass, 
as the foundation of the piece, which, by the accompanying signatures, 
should indicate its entire harmony, was also to leave room for the freest 
action, and independent production of the several voices ; and finally, 
by combining instrumental music with the singing, it was intended to 
call forth the most lively variety and fulness. This new style of Church 
music, meanwhile, became more secular and effeminate, and gradually 
sank into an operatic performance, from which it has not thus far been 
raised up. 

3. Christian Poetry. — The Spanish poet Calderon [oh. 1681) composed 
128 dramas, 95 autos sacramentales, and 200 preludes. The focus of 
his mostly allegorical compositions was religion. In fertility, variety, 
as well as in poetical geniality and religious depth, Calderon was ex- 
celled by his countryman Lope de Vega {oh. 1635, author of 1500 come- 
dies and 320 autos). The noble German Jesuit Fred. v. Spee [oh. 1635) 
merits special prominence. His religious poems glow with sincere love 
to the Redeemer, combined with a child-like spirit, and a deep, thought- 
ful naturalness, and seem to be related both to the mediaeval minstrel 
songs, and the cotemporaneous evangelical hymns. They appeared 
after his death under the title of " Trutz-Nachtigall,'^ but were unno- 
ticed even by the Romish Church, until the German novelists of the 
19th century drew them forth again from the dust. Spee was one of 
the first but unavailing opponents of the insane process for detecting 
witches. Vexation in regard to it early turned his hair gray. The 
Jesuit Jacoh Balde of Munich [oh. 1688) was another eminent poetic 
genius of this period. His lyric compositions were the most brilliant. 
His few German poems are far inferior to those in Latin. A deep reli- 
gious longing, which turns with fervor and spirit to the Queen of heaven, 
as the only deliverer from earthly troubles, pervades all his poems. He 
too was long forgotten, until Herder rescued him from oblivion. Alh. 
Knapp gives an excellent description of the noble poet in his Christo- 
tcrpe, 1848. 




Of. J. G. Walch, die Religionsstreitigk, in d. luth. K. Jena, 1733, 5 
B(je. — G. J. Planck, Gesch. d. prot. Theol. v. d. Concordienf. bis Mitte 
d. 18. Jahrh. Gottg. 1831.— 7F. Gass, Gesch. d. prot. Dogmatik. Bd. I. 
Berl. 1854. — A. Tholuck, d. Geist. d. lath. Theol. Wittb. im Yerlaufe 
d. 17. Jahrh. Hamb. 1852. — Die Theologie d. 17. Jahrh. In d. Zeitschr. 
flir Protestantism, u. K. 185G, H. I., YII. 

The precision, clearness, and carefulness of the Form of Con- 
cord, gradually overcame all opposition to it. The result proved 
that, in spite of the ridicule of antagonists (cf. EospiniarVs Con- 
cordia discors), it had really restored harmony. It now exercised 
authority not by means of the imperative power of princes, but 
through the free moral power of science, and introduced a flourish- 
ing period of Lutheran theology of more than a century, during 
which the teachers of the Church adhered as one man firmly and 
unitedly to its doctrine. Theology was most fully developed, and 
reared like a mighty Gothic dome with astonishing acuteness, 
harmonious in its minutest parts, and firmly knit together as a 
whole. But the tendency towards an extremely subtile develop- 
ment and precise definition of doctrines, which sprang from the 
controversies of the preceding century, became continually more 
one-sided. Hence it called into existence a dialectic scholasti- 
cism, which was in no way inferior to that of the most flourishing 
period of the middle ages, either in the greatness or paltriness 
of the careful and acute development of its scientific form, or in 
the full and accurate exhibition of its religious contents. But, 
like mediaeval scholasticism, in its concern for logic it almost lost 
vitality. Zeal for the truth degenerated into frigid orthodoxy 
externally, not only discerning essential diversities, but disre- 
garding the broad basis of a common faith, and running into 
odious and unrestrained controversy ; internally, holding to the 
form of pure doctrine, but neglecting cordially to embrace it, 
and to live consistently with it. Nevertheless, this scholastic 
orthodoxy, with all its one-sidedness, imparted to Lutheran 
theology a fulness and wealth, an acuteness and consistency of 
structure, the grandeur of which even a Lesaing was compelled 
to acknowledge. And it cannot be denied that this period, so 
commonly reviled as that of "dead orthodoxy," possessed more 


true piety and spiritual life, than the period (18th century) which 
most decried it. At the same time the one-sidedness and dege- 
neracy of that orthodoxy is not to be denied, nor the propriety, 
necessity, and beneficial influence of the opposition to it which 
sprang from the bosom of the Church ; though it cannot be dis- 
puted that this opposition was marked by a one-sidedness of 
another sort. The opposition was of a two-fold character : in the 
syncretistic controversy it was confined exclusively to the sphere 
of theology ; in the pielistic controversy, it more largely concerned 
matters of piety. 

1. Orthodoxy in Conjlict ivith itself. — This includes the controversy 
between the theologians of T'dhingen and Giessen concerning the state 
of humiliation. The Giessen theologians, with Balth. Mentzer at their 
head, referred the humiliation of Christ solely to his human nature, 
and pronounced it an actual xivoiaii, that is, a complete, though free 
surrender of the omnipresence and omnipotence immanent in his divi- 
nity {xtrjatg but without ;tP^^t?)) yet so that he might at any moment 
(as in working miracles) exercise them. The Tubingen theologians, on 
the contrary, with Luc. Osiander at their head, referred his humilia- 
tion to both natures, and taught that during it he was omnipresent 
even secundum carnem, and governed heaven and earth, though in a 
manner concealed from us. They said the xivtosi? was no humiliation, 
but only a xp^'^'^i- ^ commission from electoral Saxony (Hoe v. Hoe- 
negg, iEgid. Strauch, etc.) decided in favor of the Giessen party (1624). 
The matter was attended with no further results. 

2. The Syncretistic Controversy. [E. HenJce, Helmst. im. 16. Jahrh. 
Halle, 1833 ; id. G. Calixfs Briefwechsel, Halle, 1833 ; id. G. Calixt u. 
s. Zeit. Halle, 1853, 56, 2Bde. — H. Schmid, Gesch. d. synkr. Streitigkk. 
Erlg. 1846.— TF. Gass, G. Calixt u. d. Synkr. Brsl. 1847.)— The univer- 
sity of Helmstddt followed a prevailingly humanistic tendency, and 
allowed, even in theology, larger liberty of views than was granted by 
the Form of Concord, which the city had not accepted. This school 
produced, and for 43 years (from 1613) employed, George Calixtus, a 
man of superior scientific and social accomplishments. A thorough 
study of Church History, and intercourse with distinguished theolo- 
gians of all Churches, enjoyed during his extensive travels in Europe, 
had begotten in him not only an irenical turn of mind, but a more 
liberal judgment of foreign Churches, than was commonly indulged. 
He did, indeed, not desire a formal union of the various Churches, but 
that they should recognize, tolerate, and love each other. To this end 
he proposed, as a secondary principle of Christian theology (next to 
the Holy Scriptures as its primary principle), the concurrence of tho 
first five centuries (Consensus quinquesecularis), as a common basis 
for all the Churches, and sought to show that subsequent diversities 



were either non-essential, or less essential. But rigid Lutheran theolo- 
gians, who were mistrustful of all irenical measures, ever since the 
trouble with cr^-pto-Calvinism, pronounced this a religious medley 
[syncretism), and crypto-Catholicism. As early as 1639, Statins Buscher, 
a Hanoverian clergyman, denounced him, on this account, as a secret 
papist. Ills efforts were more generally assailed, after he attended the 
CoUoqui/ of Thorn [l 33, 5), as the assistant of the Reformed theolo- 
gians of Brandenburg (1645). A most furious controversy arose, which 
divided the entire Lutheran Church into two parties. On the one side 
were the universities of Hehnstddt and Konigsherg, on the other espe- 
cially the theologians of electoral Saxony, with John HiUsemann, in 
Leipsic, Jacob Welter, in Dresden, and above all, Abr. Catov, in Wit- 
tenberg, at their head ; Calov alone wrote 28 controversial tracts. Joia 
sought in vain to mediate between the parties. The Wittenbergers 
hoped to fortify the Lutheran Church by a new symbol (which, how- 
ever, was never legally ratified) : Theologorum Saxonicorum Consensus 
repetitus fidei vere Lutheranas (1655), in which, among other things, 
they rejected, as sycretistic errors, the assertions, that the Apostles' 
creed taught everything necessary to salvation ; tha.t the Catholic and 
Reformed Churches had not disturbed the real basis of the doctrines 
of grace ; that original sin is only of a privative nature, that God is in- 
directe, improprie et par accidens the cause of sin ; that the doctrine 
of the Trinity was first clearly revealed in the New Testament, etc. 
Calixtus died in the midst of the passionate contentions. But his son 
Ulrich, who possessed neither his father's spirit nor moderation, took 
his place. The strife was finally swallowed up by a suit for damages 
(between Ulr. Calixtus and his violent antagonist Strauch in Witten- 
berg), without anything important having been gained for the theology 
or science of that period. Weary of this barren controversy, the atten- 
tion of theologians Avas turned to the pietistic movement which now 
commenced its career. 

3. Tlie Pietistic Controversy in its First Stage. (Cf. C. H. v. Canstein, 
Muster e. rechtsch. Lehrers in d. l^b. Spener's. Ilalle, 1740. — W. 
Hossbach, Ph. J. Spener u. s. Zeit. 2 A. v. Ch. Schwecler. Berl. 1853. — 
C. A. Wildenhahn, Leb. Spener's ; in d. Sonntagsbibl. 4, 5. Bielef. 
1845.—^. E. F. Guericke, A. H. Francke. Halle, 1827.— C. F. Illgen. 
Hist, collegii philobiblici Lipsiensis. 4 Pp. Lps. 1836-41. — Ph. Spener, 
wahrhaft. Erzahl. dess., was wegen d. s. g. Pietismi in. Deutsch. vorgeg. 
Frkf. 1697. — Fr. Bucldeus, wahrh. u. grlindl. Erzahl. alles dess. was 
zwischen d. s. g. Pietisten gesch. Jena, 1719.) — P hilip Jacob Spener,^ 
of Rappoltsweiler, Elsace, on account of his distinguished talents and 
rare learning (which was profound, thorough, and comprehensive, ex- 
tending even beyond the sphere of theology to that of heraldry, his- 
tory, geography, and philosophy), and his religious zeal, was chosen 
senior of the eccles. ministerium of Frankfort-on-the-Main, in his 31st 
year (1666), then chief court-£readierlit Dresden (1686), and, having 


been forced to leave Dresden, on account of his great zeal for Yital 
piety, finally provost in Berlin^ (1691), where he died in 1705. He vraa 
most heartily attached to the Lutheran Church, but believed that in 
adhering to its then prevalent orthodoxy, it had departed from the 
earnest lively gospel of the Reformers, and was in danger of burying 
its talent in a st erile thea lQg.Y of. words, and dead orthodoxy ; and that 
it therefore greatly needed to be reformed again. As he discovered in 
it an exuberance of pure doctrine and the most vigorous susceptibility 
to exhibit genuine Christian piety above all other Churches, it was far 
from his thought to seek the powers of the necessary resuscitation any- 
where else than in that Church itself, [i. e., in unionistic or syncretistic 
schemes). A return from scholastic theology to the Holy Scriptures 
as the living source of all saving knowledge, a conversion of the out- 
ward orthodox confession into an inner living theology of the heart, 
and a demonstration thereof in true piety of life — these were the ways 
and means by which he proposed to effect the desired reform. In his 
child-like, pious humility, he did not deem himself called to commence 
this reform, but simply regarded it as his duty to point out the need 
of it, and some means of effecting it. This was done, especially, in 
his (1678) " Pia desideria oder herzliches Yerlangen nach gottgefalli- 
ger Besserung d. wahren evangelischen Kirche;" and as his chief 
concern was to have every Christian become experimentally acquainted 
witlLpiaciieal„Christianity, as taught in the Bible, he revived the well- 
nigh forgotten doctrine of "the spiritual priesthood'' of all Christians, — 
in a special work, and in 1680published his "Allgemeine Gottesge- 
lahrtheit aller glaubigen Christen und reehtschaffenen Theologen." 
At the same time he himself engaged in the work by holding religious 
meeiings^-in hia hoxia e {CoU eaia ^iela.tis.)^yr the revival of genuine — 
piety in the congregation ; similar meetings were soon started in other 

Spener's position in Dresden gave him more decided and ex.tenalye 
influence_ over the Lutheran Church. Animated by his spirit, Au(/. 
Herm. Fjitm^^, Paul Anton, and John Ca^^jSci^dle^tliCfie. young ma-^ 
gistergjin JLeipsic, began in 1686 to hold CoUef/ia philohihlica, exclu-/ 
sively for cauiuaI.£iJifica^ion by a practical exposition of the Scriptures, 
in German (a thing unheard of at the universities). But the theologi- 
cal faculty of Leipsic, with John Bened. Carpzav at their head^ accused 
them of contempt of regular public worship and theological science, 
and of promoting separatism. The Collegia philobiblica were prohibited, * 
and the three friends, whose movement was designated. Pietism (an 
effort to display extreme piety), had to leave Leipsic (1690) ; thus the 
'->4;edious pietistic controversies began. Soon after this, Spener was com- 
• pelled to leave Dresden (1691), but in his n^w pos itio n in Berlin he 
acquired decided influence in the appointment of profgsgors of theology 
in the. neAv university, which the pacific 'Elector Frederick III. of Bran- 
denburg founded in ^oZZe^Jujapposition to the contentious .institutions I 


at Wittenberg and Leipsic, and the organization of which he entrusted 
(1694) to the jurist Christian Thomasius, who also had been jirivjen 
from Leipsic (on account of his indijBTerentism), and who had in Leipsic, 
alread}', been the advocate of the pietists. In connection with others 
of like sentiments (Anton, Breithau^t) i^ranc^e was appointed a mem-- 
ber of the theol. faculty. Halle now, for a time, acquired almost the 
importance which Wittenberg and Geneva possessed in the period of the 
Reformation, and the pietistic controversy entered upon its second more 
•^ general and violent stage (cf. | 46, 1). 

4. Theological Litei-aiure. — Solomon Glassius (prof, in Jena, general- 
sup, in Gotha, ob. 1656) contributed to Biblical philology, his Philolo- 
gia sacra (1623), which had, for nearly tAVO centuries, almost classic 
authority. Planned upon a large scale, the German, Hebrew, and 
Greek concordance of the Bible, by /. Lanldsh (of which only the first, 
German, part was publ. 1677, and often) was an invaluable aid in the 
study of the Bible. From about 1675-1700 a lively controversy con- 
cerning the Greek of the New Testament was kept up, in which the 
Lutherans and (chiefly) the Reformed participated. The Purists vio- 
lently contended for the classical purity of the N. T. idiom, because 
they thought the inspiration of the Scriptures was imperilled by the 
opposite view. Michael Walther, general-sup. in Celle, issued the first 
hist, critical introduction to the Bible (officina biblica, Lps. 1636). 
Aug. Pfeiffer, of Leipsic [ob. 1698), rendered good service to Bibl. crit. 
and Hermeneut. by his critica sacra (1680), and his Hermeneut. s. 
(1684). In spite of its servile adherence to the interpretation of dog- 
matic proof-texts, traditionally fixed, and its mechanical theory of in- 
spiration, the exegesis was valuable. The most distinguished exegetes 
were : Erasmus Schmidt of Wittenberg [ob. 1637, Opus posthumum, a 
Lat. trans, of the N. T. with excellent notes). He also contributed a 
very useful concordance of the Greek N. T., entitled Ta^utttoi^ (revised 
by K. H. Brutier, Lpg. 1841) ; Theod. Hakspan of Altdorf [ob. 1659. 
Notae philol. theol. in difficiliora Scr. s. loca. 3 Pp. 1664) ; Martin Geier, 
of Leipsic [ob. 1680, an excellent comm. on Daniel and the poet, books 
of the 0. T., even still worthy of notice) ; Seb. Schmidt, of Strassburg 
[ob. 1696, comm. on Joshua, the Judges, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and several 
of Paul's epp.) ; Aug. Pfeiffer (Dubia vexata), and Abraham Calov, of 
Wittenberg [ob. 1686, Biblia illustrata, in 4 vols, fol., which took up 
and improved the comm. of Grotius, a work of stupendous labor, bril- 
liant Biblical knowledge, and profound learning, but throughout too 
subservient to dogmatics). — The orthodox school gave still greater dili- 
gence to the study of dogmatics, the Lutheran fulness and depth of 
which was developed with amazing acuteness and brilliant learning, 
in a strictly scholastic form. Its greatest masters are : Leonard Hutter 
of Wittenberg [ob. 1616, Loci communes theologici, and for the use of 
schools. Compendium loc. theol.) ; John Gerhard, prof, at Jena [ob. 
1637, Loci theol. in 9 vols. fol. 1600, etc. The best ed. with notes by 


J. F. Cotta, Tlibg. 17G2, etc., 22 vols. 4to. It is the opus palmare of 
Luth. theology) ; and J. Andr. Quensteclt of Wittenberg {oh. 1688, 
Theol. didactico-polemica, the completion of Lutheran scholasticism, 
in its lights and shadows). cJDiLgxt to these were: Brochmand, prof, in 
Copenhagen [oh. 1G52, Universee tKeol. sj'stema) ; Conrad Dannhauer, 
in Strassburg [oh. 1GG6, Hodosophia Christiana) ; Ahr. Calov (Systema 
loc. theol.) ; Koniff in Rostock [oh. 16G4, Theol. positiva acroamatica) ; 
Scherzer in Leipsic [oh. 1G83, Systema theol.) ; Jo7i?i Musdiis in Jena 
[oh. 1G81) ; and Baier in Ilalle [oh. 1G95). The most prominent theo- 
logian of the Calixtine school is Conr. Horneius (Comp. theol.) Calix- 
tus himself did not publish a theol. work, but his lectures were printed. 
lie, also, originated the division subsequently made between morals 
and theology (Epitome th. moralis). John GerJianl's Coufessio Catho- 
lica was a complete refutation of Catholicism. But the most untiring 
controversialist was Ahr. Calov (Hist, syncretistica ; Mataelogia papis- 
tica ; Socinianismus protligatus ; Consideratt. Arminianismi ; Theses 
de Labadismo ; Anti-Boehmius ; Discussio controversiarum inter eccle- 
sias orthod. et reformatas, etc.) Nicholas Hunnius, son of ^^gid. H. 
(§21, 10), prof, in Wittenberg, and from 1G23 superintdt. in Llibeck 
[oh. 1G43), was also distinguished as an able opponent of papism (Demon- 
stratio ministerii Lutherani ; and when Lancelot, an Augustiuian of 
Mechlen, fulminated a Capistrum Ilunni against him, he retorted in 
his Capistrum Ilunnio paratum, Lanceloto injectum), of Socinianism 
(Examen errorum Photinianorum), and of the enthusiasts (Christl. 
Betracht. d. neuen Paracelsischen u. AVeigilianischen Theol.) Of chief 
importance is his ^idaxi-^i^ de fundamental! dissensu doctrines Luth. et 
Calvin, s. Reform. His Epitome credendarum or Inhalt d. Christl. 
Lehre reached 19 editions. The syncretistic controversies led him, in 
his " Consultatio, oder wohlmeinendes Bedenken,^* to devise the plan 
of a Collegium irenicum s. pacificatorium (Collegium Hunnianura), as 
a permanent theol. senate for the adjustment of all theological dis- 
putes. (Cf. L. Heller, Nik. Hunnius, s. Leben u. Wirken. Llibeck, 
1843.) Little was done, in the nature of the circumstances, in the de- 
partment of Church History. Nevertheless, Rechenherg, Kortholt, liiig, 
Sagittarius, Yeit Ludw. v. Seckendorf, deserve to be named for their 
contributions to the history of the Reformation.} Calixtus, however, 
awakened new zeal and spirit for the study of Church History, and 
Gottfried Arnold of Giessen [oh. 1714), a thoroughly learned investi- 
gator, but so violently opposed to every form of orthodoxy, that he 
could not find true Christianity, since the 4th century, anywhere but 
among sects, separatists, and heretics, threw the entire theol. world 
into an uproar, by his Impartial History of Churches and Heretics. 
(L, §4, 2.) (Cf.H6,2.) 



The great importance which the Lutheran Church of this 
period attached to pure doctrine and a genuine faith, exposed it 
to the danger of a one-sided over-estimation and externalization 
of the same to a mere dead orthodoxy, an evil, indeed, which 
showed itself in various ways. But a great number of the most 
excellent and learned theologians, who recognized the influence 
of pure doctrine upon personal piety, as well as the necessity of 
possessing a theology of the heart, and of maintaining practical 
Christianity, opposed this evil tendency in a conciliatory but 
decided manner by their writings, preaching, and pastoral labors. 
During this whole century, but especially during its first half, 
there were many influential advocates of a nobly Lutheran mys' 
ticisni, which harmonized with orthodoxy both in faith and 
knowledge, and only opposed its threatening or actually existing 
externalization of Christianity. But by the side of this mysti- 
cism, we find that sejDaratism, an unchurchlymysticism, and theo- 
sophy, broke forth as excrescences, or caricatures of the truth. 
Church hymnology acquired a new life, during the tribulations 
of the Thirty Years' war, but after that gradually lost its sublime 
objective churchly character, for which the fluent rhyme, the 
easy style, and more elegant form, were only a feeble, and in 
part questionable substitute. Church music was correspondingly 

\l. My§ii£j.sni and Asceticism. — Jo Tir^ Arnd f. '* the F^nelon of Luther- 
anism,'' stands at the head of those vigilant and faithful servants of the 
Church, who strove to vindicate the inalienable right, and urgent duty 
of the Lutheran Church to maintain a hearty sincere mysticism over 
against formal orthodoxy, which had allowed justifying faith and a 
correct belief to degenerate into a new opus operatum. His " Sechs 
Biicher vom wahren Christenthum," and his " Paradiesgartlein," which 
have been translated into almost every living tongue, conferred incal- 
culable blessings both upon his own and subsequent generations ; upon 
himself, however, they brought great reproach and hostility, from the 
advocates of a malevolent or dead orthodoxy. He died in 1G21, whilst 
General-superintendent in Celle, after he had been driven from Anhalt, 
as a confessor of Lutheran orthodoxy, for refusing to denounce exor- 
cism as an ungodly superstition, and then openly accused by his col- 
league Denecke and other Lutheran zealots of papism, Calvinism, 
Osiandrianism, Flacianism, Schwenkfellianism, Paracelscism, Alchymy, 
etc. (Cf. F. Arndf, J. Arndt. Berl. 1838.— if. L. Pertz, de Joh. Arndtio 


ej usque libris de vero Christ. Hann. 1852, 4to. Also, the lively descrip- 
tions of the historically faithful romance of A. Wildenhahn, J. A. ein 
Zeitbild aus Braunschweigs K. u. Stadtgesch. Lpz. 1847, 2 Bde.) Other 
successful advocates of a living Christianity are met with in the great 
theologian John Gerhard, of Jena [oh. 1G37, Meditationes sacrae, and 
Schola pietatis d. i. Christl. u. heils. Untericht v. d. Uebung d. wahren 
Gottseligk.) ; Stephen Prdtorius of Salzwedel {ob. IGIO, Geistl. Schatz- 
kammer) ; Herm. liaihmann of Dantzig {ob. 1628, Jesu Christi Gnaden- 
reich, cf. J. G. V. Engelhardt, Ub. d. Kahtmannschen Streit, in the hist, 
theol. Ztschr. 1854, 1) ; Valerius Herberger of Fraustadt [ob. 1627, Ev. 
Herzpostille ; Geistlich. Trauerbinden ; Magnalia Dei, etc.) ; Heinrich 
Midler of Rostock [ob. 1G75, Himmlischer Liebeskuss ; Geistl. Er- 
quickstunden, etc.) ; Christian Scriver (Geistl. Seenlenschatz ; Siech- 
und Siegesbette ; Gottholds zuf allige Andachten), Ahasverus Fritsch, 
privy councillor and chancellor in Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt [ob. 1701, 
Christenthums fragen), Ph. Jak. Spener and others. Johann Valentin 
Andrea of Wurtemberg {ob. 1654), grandson of one of the authors of 
the Form of Concord, opposed the corruption of his time, by writings 
mostly satirical and allegorical, in an entirely original and genial 
manner, which, however, on account of its originality, was often mis- 
understood. Especially was his allegory of the union of the cross and 
the rose (as symbols of Christianity and science) in the society of the 
Rosicrncians, grossly misunderstood, as though such a society compre- 
hended the science of magical arts, — an assumption of which fanatics 
and impostors took great advantage (Fama fraternitas Rosaceae Crucis 
or Brliderschaft d. hochlobl. Ordens d. Rosenkr. an die Haupter, Stande 
u. Gelehrten Europas, 1614; Confess, u. Bekenntniss d, Briidersch. d. 
R. Cr. ; Menippus, s. dialogorum satyric. Centuria ; Mythologia christ. 
s. de virtut. et vitiis hum. vitae ; Turris Babel, s. Ros. Crucis chaos ; 
Reipublicae Christiana politanag descriptio ; Veras unionis in Chr. J. 
specimen, etc. ; cf. W. Hossbach, Val. Andr. u. s. Zeitalt. Berl. 1819.) 
(Cf. ^ 166, 6.) 

2. Mysticism and Theosophy . (Cf. Fr. Delitsch, d. Naturphilos. 
Mysticism, innerh. d. luth. K. ; in the Ztschr. f. Luth. Theol. 1841, III. 
— Fr. V. Fuque, Jac. Bohme. Greiz, 1821. — W. L. Widlen, J. B.'s Leben. 
u. Lehre. Stuttg. 1836.—^. E. Umbreit, J. B. Heidelb. 1SS5.— Jul. 
Hamberger, d. Lehre d. deutsch. Philos. J. B. Munich, 1844. — H. A. 
Fechner, Jac. B. s. Leben u. s. Schriften. Gorlitz, 1857.) — A mystical 
theosophy, though much despised, partly remained within the limits 
of outward Church union, and was preserved by ecclesiastical restraints 
from grosser theoretical and practical errors, and partly also tore loose 
from the Church as a degenerate Babel (^ 42, 1). This movement re- 
ceived impetus and strength from the works of Agrippa and Paracelsus 
upon natural philosophy and alchemy, from the devotional, mystical, 
and theosophic posthumous works of Val. Weigel, and above all from 
the profound revelations of the mighty cobbler of Gorlitz, Jacob Bohme 


(philosophiis teutonicus), the greatest, most profound, and most inge- 
nious of all theosophists who ever lived — a man who, with all his un- 
churchly speculations, nevertheless in his life sincerely maintained 
true piety, and faithfully adhered to the Lutheran Church. As a tra- 
velling journeyman, already, he experienced blessed peace for seven 
days, from being encompassed b}^ a divine light. But he dates his 
fuller theosophic illumination from a certain moment when, as a young 
master, just married, he was thrown into an ecstacy by the reflection 
of the sun from a brightly polished pewter plate, and beheld the mys- 
teries of Deity, even to the last principles of all things, so as to discern 
their inmost quality. His theosophy, like ancient Gnosticism, starts 
with the question concerning the origin of evil. He solves it by as- 
suming an emanation of all things from God, who completely attempers 
and harmonizes in himself fire and light, the quality of bitterness and 
sweetness, which become separated in the creatures emanating from 
him, but are reconciled and united again, to godlike harmony, by re- 
generation in Christ. In speculative power, and poetic wealth, exhi- 
bited with epic and dramatic effect, his system surpasses everything 
of the kind ever written. Ilis works (Aurora, oder die Morgenrothe 
im Aufgang ; Mysterium magnum, a sort of comm. on Genesis ; Psy- 
chologia vera ; Der Weg zu Christo ; Von der Gnadenwahl ; Von d. 
heil. Taufe u. d. Abendmahl, etc.) were published by Gichtel, Amst. 
1682, 2 Bde. 4to. ; and recently by K. W. SchieUer, Lpz. 1831, etc., G 
Bde. The blustering fanaticism of Gregorius Richter, preacher in 
Gorlitz, caused Bohme much trouble, for at his instigation B. was 
banished from the city, after the publication of the Aurora. Subse- 
quently he was allowed to return, on giving a pledge not to write any 
more books. But as he could not keep this promise, the angry zeal of 
his ecclesiastical superior vented itself in increased severity. Ahr. 
Calov, also, entered the lists as a watchman of Zion, against the fana- 
ticism of the Gorlitz cobbler (Anti-Boehmius, etc.), whilst in the Dres- 
den consistorium he found a favorable judgment and forbearing tolera- 
tion. Bohme died in the arms of his family in Gorlitz, after having 
long banished himself from his native place (1G24). Gottfr. Arnold 
[oh. 1714), for a time prof, at Giessen, sustained an intimate relation 
to the Bohmists, separatists, and pietists, and yet fell out with all of 
them. In several writings he described in a fanciful way, martyrdom, 
marriage, and the entire life of the first Christians, wrote and sung 
about the mysteries of the divine Sophia (when Adam, originally a 
man-woman, fell, his female nature, the heavenly Sophia, was taken 
from him, and instead of it a carnal woman was formed out of his rib), 
reviled the orthodoxy of all ages and churches, and canonized all 
heretics. But notwithstanding all this, he remained externally in the 
Lutheran communion, and even entered the ministry in that Church. 
(Cf. H2, 4.) 

3. Church Hymns. — The first period of its development in this cen- 


turj, embraces that of the Thirty Years' war (1618-48). David'a 
Psalms become the model and type of the poets, and the most earnest 
hymns of comfort in trouble, of imperishable value, spring from the 
trials of the times. This, of course, caused prominence to be given to 
personal matters. The influence of Opitz is also seen in Church hymns, 
inasmuch as more care is given to precision and purity of language, as 
well as to a fluent and pleasing measure. Instead of the expressive 
brevity, and vigorous terseness of earlier times, we meet with a certain 
cordial expansion and enlargement of the thought. As deserving spe- 
cial prominence, we name : the pious sufferer John Heerman, pastor in 
the principality of Glogan {oh. 1G49), who composed 400 hymns, in- 
cluding: " Ilerzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen;" " Frlih Mor- 
gens, da die Sonn aufsteht;'' " So wahr ich lebe, spricht dein Gott;'' 
" Wo soil ich fliehen hin ; " "0 Gott, du frommer Gott ; '' " Zion klagt 
mit Angst, u. Schmerzen ;" " Gottlob, die Stund ist kommen ;" etc. — 
Heinr. Held, a Silesian lawyer {ph. 1643), "Gott sey dank durch alle 
"NVelt;" — Paul F lemming, \n\o\gi\sbndi, a physician (o6. 1640), "In 
alien meinen Thaten,'' written on a journey to Persia ; — Mattli. Meyjfarl, 
prof, and pastor in Erfurt {oh. 1642), "Jerusalem, du hochgelobte 
Stadt ; " — Martin Rinkart, pastor at Eilenberg in Saxony {oh. 1648), 
"Nun danket alle Gott;^' — Apelles v. Lowensiern {oh. 1648), " Christe, 
du Beistand deiner Kreuzgemeine ; '' — Joshua Stegmann, superintende»t 
in liinteln {oh. 1632), "Ach bleib mit deiner Gnade;" — Joshua Wege- 
lin, minister in Augsburg and Presburg, "Auf Christi Ilimmelfahrt ;'^ 
— David Denicke, consistorial councillor in Hanover {oh. 1680), " Wir 
Menschen sind zu dem, Gott;'' — Just. Gesenius, superint. in Hanover 
{oh. 1763), "Wenn meine Siind mich kranken;" — Toh. Clausnitzer, 
pastor in the Palatinate {oh. 1648), " Liebster Jesu wir sind hier, dich 
und dein." — The poets just named belong mostly to the Jirst Silesian 
school, which gathered around Opitz. John Rist (preacher in Holstein, 
ob. 1667) occupies an independent position, though he too was some- 
what influenced by Opitz. He wrote 658 spiritual songs, many of which 
are remarkable for vivacity, solemnity, and elevated thought; "Auf, 
auf, ihr Reichsgenossen," " Ermuntre dich, mein schwacher Geist," 
"Jesu, der du meine Seele," " Du Lebensfiirst, Ilerr Jesu Christ," 
"0 Trauerigkeit, Ilerzeleid," " Werde muntcr, mein Gemiithe," 
"0 Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort," etc. — At the head of the cotempora- 
neous Konigshurg school stood : Simon Dach, prof, of poetry in Konigsb. 
{oh. 1658), who composed 150 religious poems, including: "0 wie 
selig seid ihr doch, ihr Frommen," etc. Distinguished among his co- 
temporaries were : Henry Alherti, organist in Konigsburg {oh. 1668), 
"Gott des Ilimmels und der Erde," etc. — Val. Thilo, prof, of elocution 
in Konigsb. {oh. 1662), "Mit Ernst, ihr Menschenkinder ;" — George 
Weissel, minister in Konigsb. {oh. 1655), " Macht hoch die Thiir," 
" Such wer da will." 

From the middle of the 17th century, hymns assumed more and 

II. — 18 


more of a subjectiA'e character, which gave rise to a great diversity of 
style and classes. The Church no longer sings in the words of the 
poet, but the poet makes his own feelings and state of mind predomi- 
nate. Confessional hymns became more rare, and those of a purely 
edifjang character, having reference to various events in life, death, 
suffering, consolation, the family, became more numerous. Thus, as 
the objective feature is given up, one characteristic of true Church 
hymns disappears from the religious poetry of this period. And yet 
some essential marks still remain, such as a popular form and matter, 
freshness, vivacity, and a naive style, the reality of personal experience, 
and full assurance of faith, etc. Even subjective individual feelings 
and frames still spring from the soil of a churchly faith, and are firmly 
and immovably rooted therein. Thus then the best hymns of this 
period are still Church-hymns, and bear upon their brow the impress 
of immortality. The poets of this period form three classes: (1.) The 
transition group from objectivity to subjectivity. The great master of 
this class, and next to Luther the greatest religious poet of the evange- 
lical Church in general, is Paul Gerhardt, the faithful confessor of 
Lutheranism in suffering and persecution (§ 34, 4). In him the new 
subjective tendency exhibits itself in its noblest, purest, and most 
vigorous form. And by its side we also discover the old objective ten- 
dency, with its direct Church-consciousness and immovable faith, with 
its noble, vigorous popular character, in all the fullness and vigor of 
Lutheranism, and, as to form, even more perfect. His 120 hymns, if 
not all Church-hymns in the narrower sense, are nevertheless choice 
hymns of the finest gold (ex gr. " Wie soil ich dich empfangen," 
*' Frohlich soil mein Herze springen," " "Wir siugen dir Immanuel," 
"Nun lasst uns gehen und treten," " Ein Lammlein geht und tragt," 
"0 Ilaupt vol! Blut und Wunden," "0 Welt, sieh hier dein Leben,'' 
" Sei frohlich alles weit und breit," " Ich singe dir mit Herz und 
Mund," "Befiehl du deine AVege," " Gieb dich zufrieden," "Nun 
ruhen alle Wtilder,'' " Geh aus, mein Herz, und suche Freud," etc.) 
To this class belong, furthermore, William II., Duke of Saxe- Weimar 
[ob. 1662, " Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend") ; — Geo. Keumark, 
Librarian in AVeimar {oh. 1681, " Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst 
walten") ; — Christian Keymann, rector in Zittau [oh. 1663, " Meinen 
Jesum lass ich nicht") ; — John Franck, burgomaster of Guben, Lausa- 
tia [oh. 1677), next to Paul Gerhardt the greatest poet of this period, 
composer of 110 hymns, less popular and cordial, but more soaring 
than Gerhardt. (" Heut ist uns der Tag erschienen," "Jesu meine 
Freude," " Schraiicke dich, liebe Seele," " Unsre mliden Augenli- 
der," etc.); — Christopher Homhurg, actuary in Naumburg [oh. 1681, 
"Jesu, meines Lebens Leben") ; — Geo. Albinus, pastor in Naumburg 
[oh. 1679, " Straff mich nicht in deineni Zorn," "Alle Menschen mlissen 
sterben") ; — Mich. Schirmer, conrector in Berlin [oh. 1673, "0 heilger 
Geist, kehr bei uns ein"). — (2.) The next class of hymns is rather 


moulded after the Canticles than the Psalms. The chief theme is the 
spousal relation of the soul to Christ, Feeling and fancy become pre- 
dominant, and sometimes degenerate into sentimentalism and puerility. 
This tendency received a new impulse by a conjunction of the mystical 
contemplative element with it. To it belong : Sigm. v. Birclcen (Betu- 
lius, oh. 1GG8, " Lasset uns mit Jesu ziehen") ; — Christopher WegUi- 
ter, prof, and preacher in Altdorf [oh. 1706, " Beschwertes Ilerz, leg ab 
die Sorgen") ; — Mich. Franck, chief baker, then preceptor in Coburg 
(06. 16G7, " Gen Ilimmel aufgefahren ist") ; — Am/elus Silesius (^ 36, 1), 
the chief poet of this class, who wrote, as Protestant, many admirably 
sweet hymns ("Mir nach spricht Christus, unser Held," " Der am 
Kreuz ist meineLiebe," "Ich willdich lieben, meine Starke/^ "Liebe, 
die du mich zum Bilde," etc.) ; — next to these, Christian Kaorr v. Rosen- 
roth, died in Sulzbach (1689) ("Morgenglanz der Ewigkeit") ; — 
Lnddmilie Elizabeth, Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt [oh. 1672, 
composer of 215 precious hymns to Jesus : " Zeuch uns nach dir ") etc. ; 
— Caspar Reumann, prof, and pastor at Breslau [oh. 1715, " Gottes und 
Mariens Sohn''). — (3.) The cotemporaries and congenial friends of 
Spener, men who longed for a resuscitation of practical piety in the 
Church. Their hymns are pervaded by a healthy and sincere piety. 
Spener's effusions are of small importance. /. Jac. Sch'dtz, Spener's 
friend, a counsellor-at-law in Frankfurt [oh. 1690), composed only one, 
but an important hymn [" Sei Lob und Ehr") ; — Ad. Drese, leader of a 
band in "Weimar [oh. 1718, three hymns, " SeelenbrUutigam,'' etc.) ; — 
Sam. Rodigast, rector in Berlin [oh. 1708, "Was Gott thut, das ist 
wohlgethan^') ; — Laurentius Law-entii, director of music in Bremen 
[oh. 1722, " AYach auf mein Herz, die Nacht ist hiu''); — Cyriacus 
G'dnther, gymnasial teacher in Gotha [oh. 1704, "Halt im Gedachtuiss 
Jesum Christ^'); — Gottfr. Arnold [oh. 1714, " Durchbrecher aller 
Bande"). (Cf. H6, 4.) 

^ 4. Psalmody. — Simultaneously with the change effected, through the 
in'3uence of Opitz, in the style and character of Church hymns, a cor- 
responding change took place in Church music, through the influence 
of the new Italian school. Here also, as in the case of hymnology, 
we may discover a transition period, which retained the essential ex- 
cellencies of the old style, but was ready, also, to adopt the more 
elegant and polished form, as well as the subjective sensitiveness of 
the new style, impressing it with the fervor and energy of the German 
evangelical spirit. The first prominent master of this transition-stage 
is John Herm. Schein, cantor at the St. Thomas school in Leipsic [oh. 
1630). Still more prominent than he was John Crilger, cantor at the 
Church of St. Nicolai, Berlin [oh. 1662). He did for music what Paul 
Gerhardt did for hymnology. He composed 71 new tunes, full of the 
energy of faith, and tender fervor, adapted to Gerhardt's, Heerman^s, 
J. Franck's, Dach's, Rinkart's, etc., hymns, and his tunes held their 
place in the Church until the period of illumination. Next to him we 


must name: Jacob Hintze in Berlin [oh. 1695) ; JoJui Ebeling, Crliger's 
successor as cantor, who composed tunes for Gerhardt's 120 hymns ; 
John Schop, leader of a band in Hamburg {ob. 1660), who composed 
lively popular tunes to the best of Rist's hymns ; and Thorn. Selle, 
town cantor in Hamburg [ob. 1663), also an excellent singer of Rist's 

In the second half of the 17th century, the modern style gained a 
decided preponderance over the antique method. Musical declamation, 
and expression suited to the words, prevail ; rythmical irregularities 
and the old churchly tunes disappear before a regular measure, and 
modern softer tunes ; so that psalmody becomes wholly alienated from 
its original vital element, as popular singing. Religious concert music, 
which contained no reminiscent traces even of the old Church melodies, 
and despised the form of hymns and strophes, was more constantly 
cultivated. Thus the congregation Avholly ceased taking part in the 
singing. Among the masters of this concert style, in Italian fashion, 
Heiiirick Sch'dtz, master of the band of electoral vSaxony {ob. 1672) was 
distinguished. He was the first to transplant to Germany the new 
artificial form, by elaborating single passages from the Psalms, Canti- 
cles, and the Prophets, into religious concerts (" Symphomige sacroe," 
1629) ; and in these he entirely set aside the old popular Church tunes. 
But some time elapsed (forming the transition stage already spoken of), 
before so radical a reform could naturalize itself. This was efi'ected by 
John liosenmilller, leader of a band in Wolfenbuttel [ob. 1686), who 
published " Kernsprliche aus heiliger Schrift Alten u. Neuen Testa- 
ments," in concert style. A reaction against the exclusive predominance 
of the Italian fashion, and the unchurching influence of artificial reli- 
gious music, was introduced by Amir. Hammer schmidt, organist in 
Zittau (1675), one of the noblest and most pious composers of the 
German nation. By interweaving old Church melodies with religious 
concerts, the old style of psalmody was combined with the new artifi- 
cial style, somewhat in the form of a dialogue. The origin of arias is 
closely connected with this last movement, since, instead of the inter- 
woven old Church melodies, suitable and stirring artificial tunes, ac- 
cording to the new taste, were invented for the hymns of cotemporaneous 
poets. The excellent composer Rud. Ahle, organist and burgomaster 
in Muhlhausen [ob. 1673), must be regarded as the proper author of 
the aria style. He introduced his own agreeable arias into the regular 
Lord's days' and festivals' services. By being frequently repeated, the 
pleasant ornate sounds impressed themselves upon the memory of all 
that heard them, so that they were soon adopted in the congregational 
singing. His religious arias, besides appropriating all the ornaments 
of the modern style, are distinguished by their youthful freshness and 
vigor, breathe a holy earnestness, and are still free of the secularization 
and playful trivialities into which the aria style soon fell. Next to 
Ahle, mention must be made of Feter Sohr, schoolmaster in Elbing, 


many of whose arial tunes passed into Church use. As the massive, 
grand forms of the old melodies by this time already appeared too hard 
and irre<5ular, WolJ'</. Charles Briegel, cantor at Gotha, undertook to 
modify them (1687), so as to suit the altered taste of the times. John 
Pachelbcl, organist in Nuremberg [ob. 170G), the greatest performer of 
his day, belongs to this tendency as a composer. (Cf. ^ 4G, 5.) 

5. Chr i.st ia ii Life. — Notw i th st an d in g numerous orthodoxistic and 
separatistic excrescences, the religious poetry of this period furnishes 
brilliant testimony concerning the fulness, depth, and fervor of the 
religious life of the period. And an abundance of excellent devotional 
books, of imperishable value, as -well as popular expositions (especially 
that of Ernesti, Nuremb. 1G41) of the Bible, afford proof of pastoral 
fidelity and zeal, as "vvell as of the favor with which these attentions 
were received by the Lutheran people. Ernest the Pious, of Saxe-Gotha, 
appears almost an ideal of a Christian prince [oh. 1674, cf. /. Gelbke, 
Herzog E. d. Fr. 1810, 3 Bde.) (Cf. g 46, 6.) 

6. , Missions. — The missionary efforts of the Lutheran Church are 
still limited, in the nature of the circumstances, to their previous low 
level. Gustavus Adolphus, of Sweden, however, prosecuted the Lap- 
land mission with increased zeal, and Denmark, also, cheerfully aided' 
in the Avork. A Norwegian clergyman, Thomas von Westen [ob. 1727), 
may, on account of his efficient zeal, be called the apostle of this mis- 
sion (completed more recently by StockfJeth. — Cf. A. G. Rudelbach, d. 
finnisch-lappische Mission u. Thom. v. Westen, in A. Knapp\s Christo- 
terpe, 1833). Peter Heyling, a German of Llibeck, went as a missionary 
to ^i&l£:SSiZii«jU635). and several of his friends went to other countries 
of the East, at the same time, and for a similar purpose. Of the latter 
nothing was ever heard. But an Abyssinian abbot who visited Europe, 
brought tidings of Heyling. At first he was opposed by the machina- 
tions of the Jesuits. As soon, however, as they were driven off, he 
gained access to the court, became minister to the king, one of whose 
relatives he married. The ultimate fate of him and his mission is un- 
known (cf. /. H. Michcelis, Sonderb. Lebensl. P. Ileyling's. Halle, 
1724). (Cf. §46, 7.) 


Cf. /. G. Walch, Einl. in d. Religionsstreitigk. ausser d. luth. K. 
Jena, 1733. 3 Bde. 

Theological science flourished in the Reformed Church during 
the ITth century, to an unexampled degree. The contributions 
to Biblical philology, to antiquarian and historical researches, 
were especially remarkable. The Reformed theologians of France 
sought to out-rival the Maurines and Oratorians of that country, 
and those of the Netherlands, England, and Switzerland, sought 
18 * o 



to keep up with the reputation for learning acquired by their 
French brethren. But a union of the Reformed Churches of 
different countries, in faith and confession, and in the way of 
holding general synods, failed at the first attempt to effect it, in 
Dort. Opposition to Calvin's rugged doctrine of predestination 
started a Pelagianizing current in the Reformed Church, which 
carried with it others besides ex professo Arminians. In Eng- 
land this opposition found its expression in latitudinarianism, 
and, still worse, in deism (§ 43, 2). In France it took a more 
considerate course, and led, in several respects, to an approxima- 
tion to the Lutheran docti'ine. In general, however, all these 
movements are to be regarded as a reaction of Zivingliaiiism, 
which, though repelled, had not been overcome by Calvinism. 
The intrusion of the Cartesian philosophy into the Reformed 
Church, was successfully resisted by Voetius; but then a scholas- 
ticism obtained the ascendancy, in comparison with which that 
of Quenstedt is only child's play. In opposition to it the federal 
theology of Cocceius forced its way back to the Scriptural life- 
source, and to a certain extent corresponds with the pietistic 

1. The Arminian Controversy. (Cf. /. Regenhoog, Hist. d. Remon- 
stranten. From the Dutch, Lemgo, 1781, 2 Bde. — M. Graf, Betr. zur 
Gesch. d. Syn. v. Dordr. Bas. 1825. [Herzog's Ilncycl. Philad. 1860, 
articles Arminius, Dort]). — Calvin's dogma of absolute predestination 
(which even the German Reformed Church evaded, or softened down), 
produced in the Netherlands a passionate controversy, which ended in 
the split of the Netherland Reformed Church. In the 16th century, 
already, the milder view of the iufralapsarians, who held that the act 
of predestination folloAved the fall, was set up in opposition to that of 
the stricter Calvinists, who maintained that God had passed that act, 
before the fall, and Avho were therefore called supralapsarians . Drawn 
into this controversy, James Arminius, prof, in Leyden since 1603, be- 
came more and more convinced, that the dogma of an absolute predes- 
tination was anti-scriptural, but then wandered into Pelagian paths. 
His colleague, Francis Gomarus, violently opposed him. The conflict 
soon became so bitter and general, that the Holland States supposed 
they would have to interfere. A religious colloquy proved the more 
fruitless, as Arminius died during its progress (1609). The States, 
favoring the Arminians, declared the differences non-essential, and 
enjoined peace. Simon Episcopius, from 1611 prof, in Leyden, placed 
himself at the head of the Arminian party. But as the Arminians 
were continually reproached and assailed by the Gomarists as Pela- 
gians, they laid a Remonstrance before the States (1610), which, in five 


articles, set forth a carefully restricted semipelagianism. Thenceforth 
they \Tere called Remonstrants, their opponents Contra- Ecmonstr aids. 
There were influential men on the side of the Arminians, including 
the syndic OJdenbarnveld, and lingo Grotius, distinguished as a jurist, 
humanist, and theologian, — heads of the liberal, republican party. 
The Stadtholtcr Manrice of Orange, on the other hand, took part with 
the Gomarists, in order by their influence to pave his way to the throne. 
By a master-stroke he succeeded in overpowering the loaders of the 
opposing party. It was ordered that the religious controversy should 
be decided by a general Synod at Dort (1618-19). An invitation to 
attend was extended to theologians of all Reformed countries, and 28 
foreigners were present. The synod held 154 sessions. The result 
could be foreseen. The doctrine of the Remonstrants was rejected, 
absolute predestination was established anew as a doctrine of the 
Church, but the infralapsarian view was allowed.- Bemonstrant con- 
gregations were not tolerated in Holland until 1G30 (after the death of 
Maurice). Their original semipelagianism, however, gradually dege- 
nerated into decided Pelagianism. Concerning the Collegiants, see 
§ 42, 1. 

2. Effects of the Arminian Controversy. — The canons of Dort were 
by no means received by all the Reformed Churches. In Germany, 
Brandenburg, Ilessen, and Bremen, expressly and decidedly refused 
assent to them. The temperate Calvinism of the Heidelberg Catechism, 
and the Confessio Marchica, continued to prevail there, with more or 
less sympathy for Arminianism. In England and Scotland spirited 
eflbrts were made by the Presbyterians to secure the ascendancy of 
Dort, whilst the Episcopal Church would have nothing to do with it, 
and, from its aversion to exclusive Calvinism, gave place to latitudinal 
rian tendencies, which allowed the distinction of essential and non- 
essential doctrines, and thus largely fell into a state of lukewarmnesa 
and indifferentism. The most distinguished latitudinarians of this 
period are: William ChiUingicorth [oh. 1644), who became disgusted 
with the theological collisions of his Church, and took refuge in Catho- 
licism, but soon discovered his mistake, retraced his steps, and sought 
and found true peace in the Word of God alone. (Cf. A. Neander, 
Eriun. an Win. Ch. Berlin, 1832. — [The works of Ch., etc., Philad., 
1841]) ; the renowned pulpit orator, John Tillotson, Archb. of Cant. 
[oh. 1694) ; Gilh. Burnet [oh. 1715), author of a Hist, of the Ref etc., 
and others. — The French Reformed Church remained, in general, true 
to strict Calvinistic orthodoxy, although several of its esteemed theolo- 
gians strove to soften down the sharp points of the predestinarian 
system. Thus Moses Amyrault, prof, at the Ref. acad. of Saumur [oh. 
1664), who proposed the doctrine of a universalismus hypotheticus, 
which taught that God had determined by a Decretum universale et 
hypotheticum to save all men (even the heathen on the ground of a 
fides implicita) through Jesus Christ, on condition of faith, to effect 


which gratia resistabilis is given to all, whilst, in consequence of a 
decretum absolutum et speciale, only the elect receive gratia irresista- 
bilis. (Trait6 de la predestination, 1634). Two French synods, at 
Alen9on (1637) and Charenton (1644), pronounced this doctrine to be 
admissible, and many highly respected theologians [Dav. Blondel, Jean 
DailU, and /. Claude) defended it. Others, however, {Fet. du Moulin 
in Sedan, Andr. Rivet, and Fr. Spanheim in Leyden, Sam. Maresius 
in Griiningen), assailed it most violently (cf. A. Schiceizer, Mos. Amy- 
raldus, in the Tub. Jahrbb. 1852, I.) Amyrald's colleague, Joshua 
de la Flace (Placceus, ob. 1655) went still further, and denied the un- 
conditional imputation of Adam's sin, and regarded original sin only 
as an evil which does not involve guilt until actual sin has been com- 
mitted. The synods above named condemned this doctrine. Some 
time afterwards, Claude Fagon, at Saumur [oh. 1685), excited a lively 
controversy by a declaration which pointed to universal grace, affirm- 
ing that all the operations of Divine providence and of the Holy Spirit 
were designed to effect man's conversion, the former by the events of 
life, the latter by means of the Word of God. A number of French 
synods condemned this doctrine, and affirmed an immediate, as well 
as a mediate operation of the Holy Spirit and of providence (cf. Al. 
Schweizer, d. Pajonismus, in the tlibg. Jahrbb. 1853, I.) — In Switzer- 
land, genuine Calvinism was most rigidly adhered to. In its defence, 
the Zurich theologian /. H. Heidegger, aided by Prof. Fr. Turretin of 
Geneva, drew up a new symbol, the Formida consensus helvetici, which 
was recognized by most of the cantons in 1675. Besides setting forth 
a rigid predestinarian doctrine, this consensus also laid it down as a 
doctrine of the Church, that the Hebrew vowel points of the Old Testa- 
ment were inspired, a view for which the two Basel professors, JoJui 
Buxtorf, father [ob. 1629) and son [ob. 1664), together with Louis Ca- 
pellus of Saumur [ob. 1658), so earnestly contended. 

3. The Cartesian and Cocceian Controversies. — Even after the subsi- 
dence of the Arminian controversy, the Netherlands were the scene 
of violent theological disputes. The philosophy of the French Catholic 
Ren6 Descartes (? 43, 1) found great favor among the Reformed of 
Holland. It sustained, indeed, in itself, no immediate relation to 
Christianity, or the Church, and its theological adherents desired to 
have it used only as a means of formal cultivation. But its funda- 
mental principle, that all real knowledge proceeds from doubt, was 
regarded by the leading representatives of a strict orthodoxy as most 
perilous to the Church. The most respected, talented, and violent of 
these opponents, was Gilbert Voetius, prof, of theol. at Utrecht (1634- 
76). lie succeeded in obtaining from the States' General a prohibition 
(1656) of the Cartesian philosophy. The system did, indeed, produce 
very suspicious fruits. One of its chief advocates, Alex. Roll, a Ger- 
man, and prof, at Utrecht [ob. 1718), not only taught that the divinity 
of the Holy Scriptures must be demonstrated by reason, inasmuch as 


the testimonium Spir. s. internum was limited to believers, but he also 
disputed the imputation of original sin, the doctrine that the death of 
saints is a penalty of sin, and the eternal generation of the Son. An- 
other zealous Cartesian, Balth. BekJcer (preacher at Amsterdam, de- 
posed 1G92, ob. 1698), in his " De betooverde Weereld,^' denied the 
agency of the devil and of demons in general. Such evil fruits justified 
the cry of heresy raised by the orthodox party, and brought Carte- 
sianism into very bad credit. But the theological scholasticism which 
Voetius and his school so fully elaborated, called forth a more powerful 
reaction from another side, which successfully contended against it, aa 
barren, and producing an ossification both of science and religious life. 
John Cocceius (Koch), prof, of theol. at Franeker and Ley den [ob. 
1GG9), stood at the head of this reaction. The great aim of his life was 
to lead theology back to the Bible, as its only living source, and to 
supply it with a vital foundation, gathered from the Bible itself. He 
believed that he had found such a basis in the idea of a two-fold cove- 
nant of God with man (the foedus naturae before, and the foedus gratiae 
after^ the fall). Thus he became the author of the federal theology, which 
made the historical development of Revelation the ruling principle of 
theological inquiry, and of theology as a system, and thus became the 
founder of a purely biblical theology (as a history of Redemption). 
He adhered as closely as possible to predestinarian orthodoxy, but it 
was only a mechanical adhesion. It is not the idea of an election of 
grace, but of a guidance of grace, which predominates in his whole 
system. In exegesis he set up the rule : Id significant verba, quod 
significare possunt in integra oratione sic ut omnino inter se conveniant. 
But Christ is the centre of the history of Redemption, the Church, and 
the world ; hence everything found in the Bible, history, doctrine, pro- 
phecy, stands in immediate and necessary relation to Christ. The Old 
Testament furnishes, everywhere, prophecies and types pointing to the 
coming of Christ in the flesh, and as all histories written after his 
coming, point to his second advent, both the Old and New Testaments 
foretell and foreshadow the history of the Church and the world to the 
end of time. Thus Typology becomes the essence and guide of Coc- 
ceian theology ; but it also often wanders into innumerable arbitrary 
allegories, and an almost puerile trifling with external, incidental, and 
forced resemblances. Common opposition to scholasticism brought the 
Cartesians and Cocceians into a somewhat close relationship. The 
former took up with the favorite ideas of the Cocceians, and these 
prized the Cartesian philosophy as a formal means of culture. This, 
however, excited the scholastics to a violent assault upon both. They 
especially charged Cocceian theology with Judaism, Pelagianism, 
Chiliasm, and all conceivable heresies, whilst Cocceius and his adhe- 
rents blamed orthodoxy a la mode with the radical ruin of the Reformed 
Church. Politics was mixed up with this controversy, also, as with 
the Arminian. The Orange party sought support among the Voetians ; 


the liberal republican party looked to the Cocceians. A formal schism, 
as in the former case, was prevented only by the urgent entreaties and 
admonitions of foreign (German Reformed) synods. Cocceian theology 
secured toleration and even admission to theological chairs, and soon 
acquired a decided preponderance over scholastic theology. (Gf. Melch. 
Leydecker, Synopsis controversiarum de foed. et testamentis Dei, quae 
hodie in Belgio moventur, Traj. 1G90.) 

4. Theological Literature. — Biblical oriental pTiilology flourished 
mightily in the Reformed Church of this period, especially through the 
labors of John Drusius of Franeker {oh. 1616), the greatest Old Testa- 
ment exegete of his day ; then through the two Buxiorfs in Basel 
(father, oh. 1629 ; and son, oh. 1664), who were the greatest rabbinical 
scholars in the Christian Church. The former wrote Chaldaic and 
Syriac grammars, and a Hebrew-Chaldee lexicon, Tiberias s. Commen- 
tarius Masorethicus (inspiration of the vowel points), etc. His two 
greatest works : Concordantioe Bibl. hebr. and Lexicon ChaTd. Talmud, 
et Rabinicum, proofs of his gigantic industry, were first completed by 
his no less laborious son, Avho also contributed a number of his own 
works to this department of learning. Both were rivalled by /. Henry 
Hottinger of Zurich [oh. 1667), who made himself master of oriental 
literature and languages, so far as they were then accessible, and made 
them subservient to Biblical philology in a great number of learned 
works, and found time, besides, to write a comprehensive and learned 
Church history. Cocceius, also, holds an important place among He- 
brew lexicographers. In England, Brian Walton {oh. 1661), in con- 
nection with a number of English scholars, undertook to issue the 
London Polyglott, which far surpassed all previous similar publications 
in the completeness of its material and apparatus. Edm. Castelliis, 
prof, at Cambridge, contributed his renowned Lexicon heptaglotton, as 
the 7th volume of this great work. The Elzevir printing-offices in Am- 
sterdam and Leyden effected the issue of a textus receptus of the New 
Testament (1624). /. Pearson collected the most valuable exegetical 
contributions of earlier times, and published them in his great work : 
Critici Sacri, Lond. 1660, 9 vols. fol. ; and Matthew Pole did the same 
in his Synopsis criticorum, Lond. 1669, 5 vols. fol. The most distin- 
guished exegetes of this period were : in France, the brothers Jacoh 
Capellus, in Sedan {oh. 1624), and Louis Capellus in Saumur {oh. 1658), 
for their thorough knowledge of languages, and liberal criticisms ; in 
England, Edio. Pococke in Oxford {oh. 1691, Hosea, Joel, Micah, Mala- 
chi), and John Lightfoot in Cambridge {oh. 1695, Horge hebraicae et 
talmudicae, in elucidation of the New Testament) ; in the Netherlands, 
John Cocceius, who wrote comm. on almost the whole Bible, giving, 
beside the typological significations, a thorough grammatical historical 
interpretation, — and his pupil Campegins Vitringa in Franeker {oh. 
1716), the distinguished expositor of Isaiah and the Apocalypse. 
Among the Arminian exegetes we name the learned statesman and 


jurist Hugo Grotins [oh. 1G45), and John Clericus in Amsterdam (born 
1657, ob. 1736), the two greatest masters of historico-grammatioal expo- 
sition, of this and the succeeding century, and who also levied upon 
classical literature and philology for illustrations of the Scriptures. 
Specially deserving of notice is John Andr. Eisenmenger, prof, of the 
oriental languages in Heidelberg [oh. 1704), author of the renowned 
work: " Entdecktes Judenthum/' 2 Bde. 4to., in which he collected 
from countless Jewish works, with stupendous industry, enormous 
learning, and fanatical partiality, the absurdities and blasphemies of 
the Rabbinical theology, having been prompted to the undertaking by 
the assumptions and arrogance of the Jews of that day. The book 
was published in Frankfurt (2000 copies), and Eisenmenger devoted 
his entire property to it. The Jews offered him 12,000 guilders to 
suppress it, but he demanded 30,000. They then procured an order 
from the court of Vienna, for the distraining of the entire edition, be- 
fore a single copy could be sold. Eisenmenger died soon after this 
(1704), and his heirs endeavored in vain to secure the release of the 
book. Even the urgent intervention of King Frederick of Prussia was 
unavailing. The king finally (1711) resolved to have another edition 
printed at his own cost, in Konigsberg, from a copy which had been 
presented before the book was distrained. After this was done the 
Frankfurt edition was likewise released. The Reformed Church of this 
period made truly brilliant contributions to the departments of Biblical 
ArchcBology and History, including those of the Englishmen /. Seidell 
(de synedriis vett. Ilebr. ; De Diis Syris. ; Uxor hebr. ; De jure naturali 
et gentium juxta discipl. Ilebr.), Thomas Goodwin (Moses and Aaron), 
James Usher (Usserius, Annales V. et N. T.), /. Marsham (Canon 
chronicus), John Spencer [oh. 1693, de legibus Hebr. ritual., with an 
arbitrary reference of them to Egj'^ptian customs, on the ground of a 
divine accommodation) ; of the Frenchman Sam. Bochart (Hierozoicon, 
a nat. hist, of the Bible ; Phaleg, or bibl. geography as a comm. on 
Genesis, c. 10; both works almost inexhaustible treasures of the most 
exquisite learning) ; in the Netherlands, Pet. Ciinceus (de republ. 
Hebr.) /. Braun (de vestitu pontif. hebr.), C. Yitringa (de Synagoga 
vett.), etc. 

Dogmatic theology throve most on Netherland soil. A Pole, John 
Makowsky (Maccopius, oh. 1644), as teacher of theol. at Franeker, in- 
troduced the scholastic method into Reformed dogmatics (Loci com- 
munes theol.) The synod of Dort acquitted him, indeed, of the charge 
of heresy, but disapproved of his scholastic method. Nevertheless it 
soon became predominant. Its most distinguished advocates are Samuel 
Maresius of Groningen [oh. 1673), Gishert Voetivs of Utrecht [oh. 1676, 
Selectae disputt. theol.), Joh7i Hoornheck of Leyden [oh. 1666) ; and 
among the Germans, Fred. Wendelin, Rector in Zerbst [oh. 1652). The 
most distingmshed federal theologians, next to Cocceius (Summa doc- 
trinse de foedere et testamentis Die 1648), are: Francis Momma, Ahr. 


Heidanus, Casp. Wittig, Sol. v. Till, and Henry Hulsius, of Leyden ; 
John Braun of Groningen ; Herman Witsuis of Franeker ; Francis 
Burmann and Melch. Leydecker of Utrecht. — The Frenchman, Is. Peyre- 
rius, attracted great attention by his declaration, based on Rom. 5 : 12, 
etc., that Adam was primogenitor of the Jews only, and that the Gen- 
tiles were of pre- Adamite origin, and that the flood was not universal 
(Syst. theol. ex Pr^adamitarum hypothesi, 1655). He escaped impri- 
sonment by entering the Catholic Church ; he recanted, but still adhered 
to his views [ob. 1676). — Morality, which till then had been limited to 
an exposition of the decalogue, was raised by Moses Amyraidt to an 
independent science (La morale chretienne, 6 vols.) Casuistry was 
treated of by M. Perkins of Cambridge, and W. Amesius of Rotterdam. 
General polemics were prosecuted by Hoornbeck, Francis Turretin, of 
Geneva, Fred. Spanheim of Leyden, etc. The most extensive contro- 
versial work was produced by Dan. Cliamier of Montauban [ob. 1621) 
against the Catholics (Panstratia catholica, 4 vols, fol.) The historical 
studies of the Reformed Church were, likewise, almost exclusively pur- 
sued for the purposes of controversy against the Catholics, and were 
prosecuted with a thoroughness and zeal which contributed largely to 
the elucidation of the science. General Church history was cultivated 
by /. H. Hottinger of Zurich, Fred. Spanheim of Leyden, Jacob Basnage 
of Zlitphen, ob. 1691 (adv. Baronius). Among the numerous historical 
monographs, we must specially name the works of Dav. Blondel, James 
Daille (Dallaeus), Claude Salmasiiis, J. Usher, Dodwell, Spanheim, 
Heidegger, etc. (Cf. H8, 3.) 


The piety of the Reformed Church is characterized by an 
austere legality, a rigorous renunciation of the world, and a 
resolute earnestness which disregarded consequences, coupled 
with a decision and energy of will, which nothing in the world 
could break or bend. It was the spirit of Calvin which impressed 
this character upon it, and his doctrine which supported it. 
Only by countries where Calvin's spirit was enervated or re- 
pressed, as in the Lutheranized German Reformed, or Catholi- 
cising Anglican Churches, was this tendency resisted. But it 
manifests itself in an enhanced degree, often to extreme harsh- 
ness, among the English and Scotch Puritans, as well as among 
the French Huguenots, nourished, as it was, by persecution and 
oppression. Hemmed in by the narrowest legal limits, the reli- 
gious life of the Reformed could not move so freely, and could 
not exhibit itself in such rich and various forms, as are expressed 
in the hymns and singing of the German Lutheran Church. 


Nevertheless the Reformed Church furnished the pattern of a 
princely saint, in the person of the noble Electress Louisa Hen- 
rietta, who may be favorably compared with the pious Duke 
Ernest (§ 39, 5). She, likewise, composed several hymns of 
great merit, but they, and similar productions, breathe not a 
Romanic Calvinistic, but rather a German spirit, formed partly 
by Lutheran influences. — But the highest glory of the Romanic 
Reformed Church of this period, a glory which renders it honor- 
able in all ages, is its incomparable martyr-spirit, which it dis- 
played most brilliantly in France. 

1. In its public singing, the Reformed Church still continued to use, 
mainly, Marot's and Lobwasser's metrical versions of the Psalms 
[l 23, 1). Maurice of Hessen issued a new edition (1G12) of the latter, 
with some new austere melodies, for the use of the Church in his coun- 
try. But Lutheran psalmody gradually passed over into the Reformed 
Church, whilst the latter furnished a couple of religious poets during 
this period, whose hymns, as true Church hymns, were adopted by 
Lutheran hymn-books. They are: Louisa Henrietta, Princess of 
Orange, wife of the great Elector (o6. 1667). She furnished four hymns 
for a hymn-book provided by her for Reformed congregations (including 
"Jesus meine Zuversicht,'' and " Ich will von meiner Missethat"), 
and Joachim Keander, preacher in Bremen (o6. 1680. " Lobe den Ilerrn, 
den machtigen Konig'^). Among ascetic writers, Richard Baxter occu- 
pies the first rank. He was a moderate Puritan, and a chaplain in 
Cromwell's army [oh. 1691. "Saints' Rest," "Call to the Uncon- 
verted," " The Reformed Pastor," etc.) The Puritans can also boast 
of a most distinguished poet in John Milton (Paradise Lost, Paradise 
Regained), who, however, also handled a severe controversial pen, and 
vindicated the execution of Charles I. 

2. The Reformed Church had two opportunities of proving the ardor 
of its Christian love in the work of missions among the heathen, one by 
the cession of the Portuguese East India colonies to the Netherlands, 
at the beginning of the 17th century, another by the colonies which 
went from England to North America, during that entire century. 
The Netherland government, in its missionary operations, followed 
in the footsteps of its Portuguese predecessor. It demanded of all the 
natives who sought any official position, that they should be baptized 
and subscribe the Belgic confession. Many thousands outwardly com- 
plied with these terms, who, morally, remained what they were before. 
On the other hand the English Puritans, who had emigrated to Ame- 
rica on account of their faith, displayed a zeal in their efforts to con- 
vert the Indians, which was worthy of the Protestant name. One of 
their number, John Eliot, was called the apostle of the Indians. For 
fifty years he labored among them with untiring and self-denying zeal, 

II.— 19 


translated the Bible into their own language, and established 17 mis- 
sion stations among them, 10 of which, however, were broken up during 
his lifetime by a bloody war. He died in 1690. English Puritans in 
London established a society for the propagation of the Gospel in 1647. 
(Cf. /. H. Brauer, Beitr. zur Gesch. d. Heidenbek, Bd. I. John Eliot. 
Altona, 1835.) (Cf. § 46, 7.) 


All the four principal Churches contribute a share to the 
history of sectarianism and fanaticism, not excluding the Catho- 
lic (§ 36, 1) or even the Greek. The Baptists in England, like 
the Anabaptists of the continent, rejected infant baptism ; whilst 
the Quakers, carrying this tendency to its furthest extreme, 
wholly rejected baptism and the Lord's Supper, adopted the old 
theory of an inner light, and made it the basis of their organi- 
zation. A number of other fanatics and separatists did not get 
so far as to form a permanent organization. The chief rendezvous 
of these was in the Netherlands, where a free government afforded 
a refuge for all who were banished on account of their faith. 
There alone, also, did the press enjoy sufficient liberty to aid in 
the propagation of mystical and theosophic works, without hin- 
drance. The sects of Russia, finally, which have been but little 
inquired after, possess very special interest, and claim our notice. 
(Cf. § 49.) 

1. Netherland Anabaptists. (Cf. '§27, 2). — Even during Menno's 
life, the Mennonites had divided into the moderate or Waterlandians, 
and rigid or Flemmgians. The former, who departed in many respects 
from the original strictness of the sect, in regard to morals and disci- 
pline, and constituted a preponderant majority, soon separated, in con- 
sequence of the Arminian controversy, into a remonstrant and a pre- 
destinarian party. The former were designated Galenists, after their 
leader Galenus de Haen, and Lammists, because their church adopted 
the symbol of the Lamb. The others were called Aposioolians, from 
their leader Samuel Apostool, or Sunnists, because the sign of the sun 
was placed on the front of their churches. The Lammists, who rejected 
all confessions of faith, gradually gained a decided ascendency ; but in 
1800 the two parties united, and the Sunnists adopted the principles 
and doctrines of the Lammists. The Remonstrant Anabaptists received 


a large accession from the Arminian Collegiants. During the time that 
the Arminians were not tolerated by the State, and when their teachers 
were banished, the lack of clergymen among them induced the three 
brothers Van der Codde to found another sect, called Collegiants, who 
abolished the office of the ministry, allowed laymen to preach and 
administer the sacraments, and admitted only adults to baptism, by 
immersion. Their place of immersion was the village of Rhynshui-g 
on the Rhine ; hence they were also called Rhynshurgers. They were 
called Collegiants from their assemblies, Avhich were designated Col- 

2. The English Baptists. — About the middle of the 17th century, the 
Baptist party sprang from the English Independents. They differed 
from the latter in the rejection of infant baptism, from the Anabaptists 
of the Continent, by retaining the independent or congregationalist 
constitution. They baptized by immersion. They also rejected ordi- 
nation. Through the influence of Arminianism, they split (1791) into 
Particidar Bajjiists, who hold to Calvinistic predestination (gratia 
particularis) and General Baptists, who reject that doctrine. The 
former were by far the more numerous. Another sect, the Seventh-day 
Baptists, was started toward the close of the 17th century by Francis 
Bampyfield. They derive their name from their observance of the seventh 
instead of the first day of the week, as their Sabbath. From England 
the Baptists soon went to North America, which thenceforth became 
their chief seat. There the original English form of the sect was diver- 
sified with a great variety of shades. All the American Baptists re- 
tained the Congregational constitution. (Cf. ^ 49, 6.) 

3. The Quakers. (Cf. William Penn, a summary of the hist, discipl. 
and doctrine of Friends. Lond. 1692. — G. W. Alberti, aufr. Nachricht 
von d. Rel., Gottesdienst Sitt. u. Gebr. d. Qu. Ilann. 1750. — R. TuJce, 
Principles of Rel. as professed by the Quakers. [Neal's Hist, of the 
Puritans. — Sewell's and Ruity's Hist, of the Quakers]). — Geoige Fox 
{ob. 1691), a shoemaker in the county of Leicester, arose (1647) as a 
preacher of repentance and a reformer, during the disturbances which 
then distracted Church and State in England. Rejecting all external 
Churchism, he desired to base Christianity wholly upon the inner light 
of the Spirit in man, as a continuous divine revelation. He gained 
many adherents, and in 1649 founded a distinct religious communion, 
which assumed the name of the Society of Friends, but their opponents, 
in ridicule, called them Quakers (tremblers, probably, from Philip. 
2 : 12.) The doctrinal views of the Friends were reduced to a system, 
during Fox's life, by George Keith (who, however, subsequently re- 
turned to the Anglican Church, and assailed Quakerism), and especially 
by Robert Barclay {ob. 1690. Theologiae vere Christ, apologia, and a 
Catechism or Confession of Faith, pronounced good by the general 
assembly of the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles). Their refusal to 
serve in war, to take the oath, or to pay tithes, subjected them to severe 


persecutions, imprisonment, etc. William Perm [oh. 1718), son of the 
English admiral, then appeared as their deliverer and second founder. 
In payment of a debt due his father, the Government conveyed to him 
a large tract of land along the Delaware, in North America, vs^hich he 
converted into an asylum for all the persecuted and oppressed, and not 
only from among Quakers. He founded, there, the colony of Pennsyl- 
vania (1682), under the English Government. Its chief city was Phi- 
ladelphia, and the fundamental principle of its charter complete liberty 
of religion and conscience. In England, also, the Quakers soon ob- 
tained toleration, and were granted the same rights with other dissentr 
ers, all possible forbearance being exercised towards their views con- 
cerning the oath, war, etc. The Quakers acknowledge the Bible as 
the word of God, but regard the inner word of God in men as of supe- 
rior force, the former being considered merely as the starting-point of 
the latter, and a means of exciting it. They wholly reject the ministry 
and theological learning. Their communion consists only of such as 
are enlightened. In their meetings, whoever is moved by the Spirit, 
man or woman, may speak, pray, or exhort. If none is thus moved, 
they continue sitting for a while in silent contemplation, and then as 
quietly separate. They have no singing or music. Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper are not observed by them. In social life, the Quakers 
are distinguished by strict honesty, earnestness, an extremely simple 
mode of living, a contempt of all luxury, change of fashion, or conven- 
tional rules of society, etc. They conscientiously forbade taking the 
oath, and all military and civil service. Subsequently, however, many 
of them abated their rigorous severity in life and manners ; such were 
called the wet, whilst those who adhered to their original rigor were 
called the dry, Quakers. During the present century a new party arose 
among the American Quakers, under Elias Hicks, who wholly tore 
loose from historical Christianity, by denying the divinity of Christ, 
and the inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. This movement compelled 
the opposing party, called Evangelical Friends, to attach themselves 
more closely to the authority of the Holy Scriptures. (Cf. | 49, 7. 
[Also, Gurney, on the peculiarities of Friends, and Is. Crewdson, Bea- 
con to the Friends, 1835]). 

4. Many other fanatics arose during this period, who failed, however, 
to found permanent sects. Jean de Labadie, of France, whom the Je- 
suits educated, joined the Reformed Church, and by the aid of his 
talented and learned adherent, Anna Maria von ScJiurmann, founded 
the sect of Labadists in the Netherlands, who insisted upon an inner 
Christianity, in true mystic sectarian style. — Peter Poiret, court- 
preacher at Deux-Ponts in the Palatinate, previously a Cartesian phi- 
losopher, was a warm admirer of Bourignon and Guyon, whose writings 
he published, and whose genuine Catholic mysticism he caricatured by 
protestanizing it (L'economie divine. Amsterd. 1687, 7 Bde.). — Jane 
Leade, of the county of Norfolk, a great admirer of Bohme's writings, 


had spasms and visions, in which divine wisdom appeared to her in 
the form of a virgin. She spread her Gnostic revelations by means of 
numerous tracts, founded the Philadelphia Socieii/, and died in 1704, 
aged 84 years. The chief of her adherents was John Pordage, a phy- 
sician, whose writings furnish the most insane specimen of the mystical 
gibberish. — From the Lutheran Church sprang Fred. Breckling, a Hol- 
steiu preacher, who was called to account for his slanders against the 
Lutheran Church and its ministers, and fled to Holland. There he 
preached for some time at Zwoll, but was then deposed for his Chiliasm. 
After that he lived privately, and wrote a number of unimportant 
mystical works [ob. 1711). — Quirinus Kuhlmann of Breslau, who tra- 
velled through all Europe and part of Asia, advocating insane schemes 
of a reformation and union of all religions and sciences, and finally 
perished at the stake in Moscow (1689). — Of greater importance was 
John Gichtel [ob. 1710), previously procurator of the imperial chamber 
at Spires, an eccentric admirer of Btihme. He desired to tear himself 
loose from all natural bonds, and descend into the depths of the God- 
head. He had revelations and visions, and zealously opposed the doc- 
trine of justification. His adherents, Gichtelians, called themselves 
Angelic Brethren (Matt. 22 : 30), and strove, in the spirit of their 
master, to attain to an angelic sinlessness, by tearing loose from all 
carnal desires, cares, and toils, and to a priesthood after the order of 
Melchisedec, to appease the wrath of God. (Cf. § 49.) 

5. Eussian Sects. (Cf. A. v. Harthausen, Studien liber d. innern 
Zustand Russlands. Ilann. 1847, I. 337, etc.) — A great number of sects 
arose in the Russian empire, designated by the general name of 
Raskolniki (apostates). Their origin and history is involved in much 
obscurity. According to their fundamental character, they form two 
diametrically opposite leading classes : I. The Starowerzi, or those 
holding the ancient faith. Their origin was occasioned by the litur- 
gical reformation of the learned and poAverful patriarch Nikon, who 
(1652) attempted to efi'ect a thorough improvement of the liturgical 
books, which had been greatly perverted by previous ignorance. But 
his movement was strongly opposed by the people, who adhered to 
their old forms. This opposition was by no means overcome, but led 
to a separation of many (farmers) from the parent Church. They 
combine with their stiS" adherence to the old liturgical forms, a con- 
tracted aversion to all new customs, and articles of luxury, introduced 
into society (ex. gr. think it a sin to shave the beard, to smoke tobacco, 
to drink tea or cofl'ee, etc.) This sect, which is still very numerous, is 
in general distinguished by a simple, moral, and temperate manner 
of life. There are three kinds of Starowerzi: (1.) The Jedinowerzi 
(holding the same faith), who approach nearest to the orthodox Church, 
recognize its priesthood, and difi'er from it only in their religious cere- 
monies and social manners. (2.) The Starovbradzi (adherents to the 
old customs), who differ from the last named only by their refusal to 


recognize the priests of the orthodox Church. (3.) The BespopowtscJiini 
(the priestless), who have no priests, but only elders. They are split 
up into numerous smaller sects, some of -which have adopted decidedly 
Gnostic elements. — II. Extremely opposite to the Starowerzi we find a 
number of sects of a fiindamentaUy Gnostic, mystic, and fanatical ten- 
dency, rejecting all external churchism, with its ceremonies and sacra- 
ments, or utterly diluting them. Many of these sects, whose Gnosticism 
is embraced in fanatical forms, probably perpetuated themselves from the 
Middle Ages, by means of secret traditions, that period having been ex- 
ceedingly fertile in Gnostic and Manichaean productions. To this sect 
belong the Morelschiki (the self-sacrificing), who submit from time to 
time to a "baptism by fire," by burning themselves; the Skopsi 
(eunuchs) who mutilate themselves; the Chlistoivtschini (flagellants), 
who are also accused of practising immoral orgies ; the Dumb, whom no 
torture can constrain to utter an audible sound, etc. Other sorts of 
spiritualistic Gnostic fanatics arose in the 18th century, through occi- 
dental influences. (Cf. § 45, 1.) 


The scholastic philosophy of the middle ages had outlived 
itself even during the pre-Reformation period. But a long time 
elapsed before the philosophical impulse of the new era created 
for itself independent and appropriate forms and methods. The 
Italian Dominican, Thomas Campanella, may be regarded as an 
echo of the philosophical movement of the 16th century, and 
Bacon of Verulaiii, England, as the forerunner of modern philo- 
sophy, whilst Descartes of France must be acknowledged as its 
proper founder. After him we find the pinnacles of philosophi- 
cal development occupied by Spinoza, Locke, and Leibnitz. By 
the side of philosophy, we see a number of free-thinkers starting 
up, and borrowing from its armory weapons of attack upon 
theology and the Church. They were the heralds of the univer- 
sal predominance, in the following century, of that infidelity 
which declared the Bible and Revelation as only imaginary and 
deceptive sources of religious knowledge, and nature and reason 
to be alone reliable. 

1. Philosophy. (Cf. H. Bitter, Gesch. d. chr. Philos. Bd. 6, 7.—/. E. 
Erdmann, Vera. e. Wsch. Darstell. d. Gesch. neueren Philos., Lpz., 
1836, etc.) — Thomas Campanella, of Stilo in Calabria, entered the 
Dominican Order, but soon lost all taste for Aristotelian philosophy 
and scholastic theology, and turned to Plato, the Cabala, Astrology, 
magic, etc. Suspected of holding republican sentiments, he was placed 


in custody by the Spanish government (1599). Seven times he endured 
the rack for 24 hours without confessing, and then pined for 27 years 
in a hard imprisonment. Pope Urban VIII. at length (152G) effected 
his transfer to the prison of the papal Inquisition. In 1629 the Inqui- 
sition acquitted him, and a pension was bestowed on him. But the 
Spaniards laid ncAV snares for him, and he was compelled to flee to 
France, to his patron Richelieu. He died in 1639. Ilis most complete 
philosophical work is the Philosophia rationalis. In his Atheismus 
triumphatus he defended the Christian Religion, in the Romish form, 
but so unsatisfactorily that many thought Atheismus triumphanus 
would have been a more appropriate title. His Monarchia Messiae, 
also, seemed even to Catholics, an unfortunate apology for popery. In 
his Civitas solis, an imitation of Plato's Republic, he advanced com- 
munistic views. Herder, in his Andrastea, revived his memory as a 
poet. — Francis Bacon of Verulam (for a time Lord Iligh-Chancellor 
of England), the great successor of Roger Bacon (I. § 104, 3), was the 
first prominent and successful reformer of the scholastic mode. With 
a most comprehensive mind, and as a prophet of science, he organized 
its entire sphere, and prognosticated its future development. ("De 
augmentis scientiarura," and "Novum organum scientiarum.'') He 
strictly distinguished between sphere of knoioledge (philosophy and 
nature), which can only be acquired by experience, and that o^ faith 
(theology and the Church), of which revelation is the only source of 
knowledge. But in spite of this distinction he uttered the sentiment: 
Philosophia obiter libata a Deo abducit, pleniter hausta ad Deum 
reducit. He earnestly insisted upon the close observance of nature, 
as the only way of perfecting knowledge, and rendering it available ; 
thus he became the author of empiricism in philosophy, and the patri- 
arch of the utilitarianism of modern times. — The honor of beinjr the 
founder of modern philosophy (in the proper sense), really belongs to 
Rene Descartes of France (Renatus Cartesius, ob. 1650). The corner- 
stone of his system is the proposition : Cogito, ergo sum. The think- 
ing being, in man, is the soul. Philosophy starts with doubting, and 
by means of definite cogitation arrives at a knowledge of what is true 
and certain in surrounding objects. The consciousness of imperfection 
to which the soul thus attains, leads to the idea of a most perfect being, 
to whose perfection existence is also necessary (the ontological proof). 
His philosophy, which, however, did not pretend to sustain any rela- 
tion to Christianity or the Church, gained many adherents among the 
French Jansenists and Oratorians, and even penetrated into the Re- 
formed theology of Holland, where it provoked a passionate contro- 
versy, in which Catholic {Huetius, etc.) as well as Reformed (Voetius, 
etc.) theologians participated. — Benedict Spinoza, a Jewish convert in 
Holland {ob. 1677), acquired but little influence over the philosophical 
studies of his day, by the profound but obviously pantheistic philoso- 
phy exhibited in his "Ethica." It was reserved for modern times to 


be carried away by it. But his " Tractatus theologico-politicus," in 
whicli he critically assailed the Christian idea of Revelation, and the 
authenticity of the Old Testament books, especially the Pentateuch, 
and vindicated absolute free-thinking, called forth the theologians of 
his day in opposition to his views, and in defence of Christianity. (Cf. 
Schl'dter, die Lehre d. Sp. Miinst. 1836. — Si;jivari, d. Spinozismus hist. 
u. philos. erlUutert, Tub. 1839. — C. v. Orelli, Spinoza's Leben u. Lehre. 
Aarau, 1843 ; Spinoza's AYorks, in German, by Auerhach, Stuttg. 1841.) 
— In the sensualism of John Locke [oh. 1704) we have a middle term 
between Bacon's empiricism and Descartes' rationalism on the one 
hand, and English deism and French materialism on the other. His 
' ' Essay on the Human Understanding'^ denies all innate ideas, and strives 
to prove that all our ideas are the products of outward or inward ex- 
perience (sensation or reflection). In this work, already, and still 
more in his "Reasonableness of Christianity, '^ which professes to be 
an apology for Christianity, and, indeed, admits the truth of the bibli- 
cal history, of miracles, and of the Messiaship of Christ, we find con- 
cealed a lurking pelagianism, as the basis of his religious contemplation, 
which discards the ideas of sin and an atonement, and openly reduces 
Christianity to the low level of a sound human understanding. — Gott- 
fried With. Leibnitz (a Hanoverian statesman, ob. 1716), opened the 
first period of German philosophy. The philosophy of Leibnitz is 
equally opposed to the Paracelsian theosophy of Bohme, the empiricism 
of Bacon and Locke, the pantheism of Spinoza, and the skepticism and 
manichaeism of Bayle, and is, indeed, a Christian philosophy, though, 
alas ! it did not attain to its full, legitimate development. But as it 
took up, improved, and carried out the philosophical rationalism of 
Descartes, it furnished a starting-point for subsequent theological ra- 
tionalism. The foundation of his system (which is most fully exhibited 
in his works: " Essai de Theodicee" against Bayle, " Nouveau essai 
Bur I'entendement humain" against Locke, and " Principia philosophise 
ad principem Eugenium") is the doctrine of monads. In opposition to 
the atom theory of materialism, he regarded all terrestrial phenomena 
as concentrations of the so-called monads (?'. e. most simple, indivisible 
substances), each one of which, according to its particular place and 
design, was an image or reflection of the entire universe. Of these 
monads, emanating from God as the Monas monadum, the world was 
made a harmony, permanently arranged by God (harmonia praestabi- 
lita). This world must be the best that could be made, or it would not 
exist at all (optimism). In opposition to Bayle, who had argued against 
the wisdom, goodness, and justice of God, in Manichaean style, because 
of the existence of evil and sin, Leibnitz endeavored to shoAV that the 
presence of evil in the world did not conflict with the idea of a best 
possible world, nor with the goodness, wisdom, etc. of God, since the 
very idea of a creature necessarily involved finiteness and imperfection, 
or, in other words, metaphysical evil, and that this rendered moral and 


physical evil an unavoidable consequence, but not a consequence which 
disturbed the harmonia prsestabilita. Ac^ainst Locke he vindicated the 
existence of innate ideas as eternal truths ; he assailed indeterminism 
against Clarke ; affirmed the agreement of philosophy with Revelation, 
which might be above reason, but not against it ; and he hoped that he 
could demonstrate the truth of his system with the same measure of 
evidence employed in mathematics. (Cf. Lndovici, Entw. e. hist. d. 
Leibnitzischen Phil. Lpz. 1737, 2 Bde.— ^ E. Gvhraner, G. W. v. Leib- 
nitz, e. Biogr. Bresl. 1842, 2 Thle.) (Cf. § 50, 7.) 

2. Free-ill inlx-ers. (Cf. /. A. Trinivs, Freidenkerlexic. Lpz. 1759.— 
U. G. Thorschmidt, author of a complete English Free-thinker library. 
Ilalle, 1705, fol., 4 vols. — Leland, Abr. d. vornchmst. deist. Schr. aus 
d. Engl. V. H. G. Schmidt. Ilann. 1755. 3 Bde.— G. V. LecJder, Gesch. 
d. engl. Deism. Stuttg. 1841. — L. Noack, die Freidenker in d. Rel. 
Bd. 1. Die englischen Deisten. Bern, 1853.) — The pressure of the 
spirit of the times and of the age, towards emancipation from all posi- 
tive Christianity, manifested itself openly and boldly first in politically 
free and ecclesiastically rent England. The tendency Avas called Na- 
turalism, because it would acknowledge only a natural instead of re- 
vealed religion — and Deism, because it acknowledged only a general 
providence of the one God, instead of the triune God of redemption. 
The impossibility of revelation, inspiration, prophecies and miracles, 
was affirmed on philosophical grounds ; their actual existence in the 
Bible and history was denied on critical grounds. The simple system 
of deism was : God, providence, freedom of the will, virtue and con- 
tinuation of the soul after death. The Christian doctrines of the 
Trinity, original sin, satisfaction, justification, resurrection, etc, ap- 
peared absurd and irrational. Deism in England, however, only met 
with sympathy among educated and prominent worldlings ; the people 
and the entire clergy adhered to positive religion. The theological re- 
futations of the system were numerous, but their polemical power was 
broken by a latitudinarian spirit. The most important English Deists 
of this country were: (1.) Edward Herbert of Cherbury, knight and 
honorable statesman [ob. 1648). lie reduced religion to five points: 
belief in God ; obligation to honor him by an upright life ; expiation of 
sin by sincere repentance ; retribution in eternal life. (Writings: De 
veritate, Dereligionegentilium). (2.) Thomas Hobbes {ob.lG7 9), an acute 
and productive philosophico-political author, who regarded Christianity 
as an oriental phantom, only of importance as a support of absolute 
royalty and as an antidote against the revolution. The state of nature 
is a helium omnium contra omnes ; religion is the means by which 
civilization and order is restored. It belongs to the State to determine 
the religion which shall be established. Every one, indeed, may be- 
lieve what he chooses, but, in reference to worship and churchdom, he 
must submit entirely to the regulations of the State, whose representa- 
tive is the king. (Chief work : Leviathan, or the matter, form, and 



power of a commonwealth, ecclesiastical and civil, 1651). (3.) Charles 
Blount {oh. 1G93, by suicide), a rabid opponent of all miracles as pure 
priestly frauds. (Oracles of Reason, Ileligio Laici, Great is the Diana 
of the Ephesians, Translation of the life of Apollonius of Zyana, by 
Philostratus). (4.) Thomas Brown, a physician [oh. 1G82, Religio 
Medici). — The most celebrated of the opponents of deism of this period 
are: Richard Baxter {I 71, 1), Ralph Cudioorth {oh. 1688), a latitudi- 
narian theologian and platonizing philosopher, who attempted to prove 
the chief doctrines of Christianity by means of the theory of innate 
ideas (his principal treatise, Systema intellectuale, was published by 
Lor V. Mosheim, in a Lat. translation, with remarks), and Samuel 
Clarice {oh. 1729), who himself was charged with holding Arian views 
of the Trinity). The pious Irishman, Rohert Boyle, in London founded 
(1691) an annual stipend of £40 sterling for combating deistic and 
atheistic unbelief, in eight annual sermons. (Cf. I. 50, 1.) 

The same hostility to positive religion which inspired the English 
deists, manifested itself also at the same time in other countries, al- 
though in more separate and transient forms. In Germany, since 1672, 
Mathias Knutzen (" Hans Friederich von der vernunft"), a travelling 
candidate of Ilolstein, endeavored, by scattering numberless tracts, to 
establish a sect of free-thinkers, under the name of the "conscientious" 
(conscientiarii). The Christian "Koran'' was said to contain only lies 
and frauds ; reason and conscience were the true Bible ; neither a God, 
nor a hell, nor a heaven existed ; priests and magistrates ought to be 
driven out of the world, etc. As he asserted that in Jena and the 
neighborhood there existed already more than 700 believers in his doc- 
trines, the academic senate authorized the most careful and anxious 
investigation ; the result proved his statement to be empty bragging. 
(Cf. H. Rossel, in the th. studd. u. Kritt. 1844. IV.) —In France, the 
path of a frivolous unbelief was broken by the talented but flippant 
sceptic Peter Bayle {oh. 1706). The Jesuits gained him, the son of a 
Reformed preacher, for their church ; but within a year and a half 
afterwards he apostatized. He applied himself now to the study of 
Cartesian philosophy, defended Protestantism in several polemic trea- 
tises, and wrote his celebrated Dictionnaire historique et critique, in 
w^hich, it is true, he avoids any open hostility to, or ridicule of, the 
facts of revelation, but nevertheless invites thereto by his frivolous 
treatment of them. (Cf. I 44, 10.) 






Cf. /. A. C. Einem, vers. e. vollet. K. G. 18. Jahrb. Lpz. 1782. 3 Bde. 
— /. R. Schlegel, K. G. d. 18. Jahrb. Heilbr. 1784. 2 Bde.—/. v. Huth, 
vers. e. K. G. d. 18. Jahrb. Augsb. 1807. 2Bde.— i^. C. Schlosser, Gesch. 
d. 18. Jahrb. 4. A. Heidelb. 1853. ff. 4 Bde.— A'. R. Hagenhach, K. G. 
d. 18. 19. Jahrb. 2 A. Lpz. 1856. 2 Bde.—/. C. L. Gieseler, K. G. d. 18. 
Jahrb. Ilerausg. v. C. R. Redepenning. Bonn, 1857. — The Weimar 
Acta hist, ecclest. or gesamm. Nachr. v. d. neuest. K. G. Weim. 1734- 
58. 20 Bde. ; Nova acta, 1758-74. 12 Bde. ; acta nostri temp. 1774-90. 
13 Bde.— i^r. Walch, Neueste Bel. Gesch. Lemgo, 1771, ff. 9 Bde.— (?. 
/. Planck, Neueste ReL Gesch. Lemgo, 1787, ff. 3 Bde. — M. Gregoire, 
Hist, des sectes religieuses depuis le commenc. du siecle dernier. Par. 
1828. 5 vols. 



During the fi rst half of this century already, m any sligh ts 
and defeats, that were hard to bear, were inflicted upon the papal 
hierarchy by the Roman Catholic courts. In the sec ond ha lf, 
however, dangers^_^hich_threaieiied-ev^lLJts_existen encom- 
passed it on every side. Portugal and the Bourbon court in 
France, Spain, and Italy, did not rest until the papacy pro- 
[nounced the sentence of death^upon the_ Jesuiits, who had become 
its strong support, but also its master. Soon thereupon the Ger- 
l— man^LTchbishops threatened to emancipaie themselves and the 
German Church from Rome, and what they were not able to 
achieve in the way of ecclesiastical progress, that a German 

{ 227 ) 

228 SECTION III. — THIRD PERIOD (c E N T. 18 A.D.). 

em£er or imdert ook in the waj_ofjCMvn_refoi*m?. This claiif^er was 
scarce!}' avoided, before the horrors of tjie French Revolution 
began, which attempted to exterminate Christianity as well as 
the papacy. Nevertheless, Catholicism celebrated, especially 
during the first decennia of this century, many_y|ct^ies after its 
fashion, through contra-reformation and conversion. Its heathen 
nijssions^however, which had been so gloriously begun, came to 
a sad en d, and inner missions were also crippled_every where. 
The Jansenist_c_ontroversy entered upon a new stage at the be- 
ginning of this century, which drove the Roman Catholic Church 
i nto open semipelagianism, and the Jan senist s into extreme 
fanaticisnil Ecclesiastical theology sank gradually into complete 
impotency, and the Roman Catholic world contributed a quota 
( towards un belief, in comparison with which that of the Protestant 
world was only a dimjwilight. 

1. The Popes of the first half of the Century. — Clement XI. (1700- 
21) protested in vain against the Elector of Brandenburg placing a 
royal crown upon his head. He fell into a controversy with the Em- 
peror Joseph I. about the Jus primarum precura (the right of proposal 
to vacant benefices, which Joseph treated as the right of nomination), 
and about Parma, which the pope declared to be a papal, the emperor 
an imperial fief. Clement even took up arms, but came off the loser. 
The sovereign power of the Sicilian crown in ecclesiastical matters he 
attempted to break by ban and interdict, but was compelled instead to 
support 3000 exiled priests. Benedict XIII. (1721-30) lived to see 
John V. of Portugal, who already under Clement XI. obtained by defi- 
ance a patriarch of Lisbon, suspend all intercourse with Home, because 
the pope would not appoint the nuncio, recalled from Portugal, cardinal. 
He canonized Gregory VIII. in the vain hope thereby also to canonize 
his system, but almost all courts forbade the new saint to be acknow- 
ledged. His second successor, Benedict XIV. (1740-58),' on the other 
hand, desired, from free conviction, to liberate the papistic theocratic 
principles from their mediaeval character, and give them a proportion 
more adapted to the present circumstances ; he also insisted upon the 
scientific culture of the clergy, and undertook to lessen the number of 
festival days, but abandoned the latter on account of violent opposition. 

2. Old and New Orders. — The Mechitarist- Congregation traces its 
origin to the Armenian Mekhitar, who (1701) organized at Constantino- 
ple an association for the promotion of religious and scientific culture 
among his countrymen ; but, being opposed by the Armenian bishop, 
he fled to Morea (then under Venetian rule) and connected himself 
with the united Armenians. The pope confirmed the congregation 
(1712), which, during the war with the Turks, emigrated to Venice, 


and settlod upon the island of St. Lazaro. Its members, mostly Arme- 
nians by birth, united in themselves, since fhen, Armenian and Euro- 
pean learnin<5, transplanted Roman Catholic literature to Armenia, 
and mediated the knowledge of Armenian literature to the Occident. 
In modern times a celebrated Mechitarist college has been founded at 
Vienna, which has done great service in educating the youth and people 
by publishing and selling books. The order of Liguorians or Hedemp- 
TioxiSTS was founded (1732) hy Alphonsus Maria de Ligiiori (formerly 
attorney at Naples), to aid the poorest and most abandoned among the 
people by pastoral care and instructing the young. The chief vehicles 
of its efficiency were the adoration of the most holy sacrament of the 
altar and the worship of the most blessed virgin. The founder died in 
1782, and was canonized in 1839. His numerous devotional writings 
found great favor in the Roman Catholic Church, and have been trans- 
lated into all the languages of Europe. His Order, meanwhile, only 
attained to great importance after receiving into its bosom crowds of 
Jesuits, who had been scattered by the abolition of their Order (1773). 
The Jesuits especially were active in promoting the silly ivorshij) of the 
heart of Jesus by establishing brotherhoods and r.isterhoods among the 
people ; but they met with much opposition, especially from the Domi- 
nicans, who dragged the anatomy of the heart into their mocking 
polemics. Rome also hesitated long in acknowledging it, until finally 
the friend of the Jesuits, Clement XIII., to please his proteges, intro- 
duced (17G5) the Festival of the Heart of Jesus (Feb. G). With regard 
to the old Orders, the fate of Clugny is worthy of special mention. 
After the 13th century, luxuriancy and worldliness spread without re- 
sistance, on account of the prevailing love of pomp and enormous 
wealth of this congregation. All attempts at reformation were fruit- 
less. In order to escape the rapacity of the neighboring lords, Clugny 
plac-ed itself under royal protection, and became now a royal com- 
mandry. At the time of the Reformation, its abbots were, for the 
most part, from the house of the Guises. But their attempts at reform 
were also without permanent results ; they rather caused endless divi- 
sions and collisions. The plan to unite the party of the Reformers with 
the Maurinians, which Cardinal Richelieu carried out (1627), as also 
the later attempts of Cardinal 2Iazarin, to support them by a union 
with the congregation of St. Vanne, failed on account of the opposition 
of the Cluniacensians. The abbots squandered the revenues at the 
court, and allowed everything to go topsy-turvy in the monasteries. 
"When (1790) all the monasteries in France were closed, the town of 
Clugny purchased the monastery and its church for 100,000 fr,, and 
reduced the size of both. 

3. Heathen Missions. (Cf. ^ 35,3), — The accommodation contro- 
versy extended from the previous century also into the present. Finally 
the Dominicans were victorious. In 1742, all the Jesuit missionaries 
in China were compelled to swear that they would more strictly reject 

II.— 20 


230 SECTION III. — THIRD PERIOD (C E N T. 1 8 A. D.). 

all heathen customs and usages. But the rejection of native customs 
provoked, instead of the toleration hitherto existing, a long persecu- 
tion, from which only some ruins of the church were saved. In East 
India labored at the beginning of this century the Italian Jesuit Beschi, 
a great linguist, who toiled zealously, and with incredible success, to 
secure the native literature for missionary purposes, and to place by 
its side a Christian one. Besides, the Capuchins opposed the Jesuits 
also here with the same arguments, with the same result as in China. 
Violent persecutions were provoked by the enjoined renunciation of 
the accommodation system, and ruined the mission. The idyllic Jesuit 
state in Paraguay y^ms also finally (1750) destroyed by a treaty between 
Portugal and Spain. 

4. Contra-Reformation. — In Poland, the Protestants_lost_(1717) the 
right to build new churches, and were even declared (1733) incapable 
of holding civi l offic es, and of particip ating in jh g die^ ts. In the Pro- 
testant city of Thorn , the Jesuits avenged a popular riot directed against 
their college there, by a fearful offi cial m assacre (1724). In^alzburg 
the Archbishop Count Firmian attempted forcibly_to_conYert the evan- 
gelicals, who had been tol erate d up to this time as quiet and industrious 
subjects (1729). But their elders^swore upon the host and consecrated 
salt (2 Chron. 13 : 5) to re main tru e_to^ theirj 'aith. This " s a.lt cqj 'p- 
nanf was interpreted as rebelli on, and in spite of the intervention of 
Protestant princes, all the evangelicals wer e banishe d from house and 
home in the bitter winter of 1731 . About 20,0 00 were gladly welcomed 
in Prussian Litthauen, others emigrated t o Americ a. The pope highly 
pr2ised_the~^glorTous " Archbishop (cf. /. /. Moser, Actenmasziger 
Bericht, etc., Erl. 1732, 2 Bde. — K. Pause, Gesch. d. ausw. d. ev. Salzb. 
Lpz. 1827). — Cha rles XII. o f.Sweden, who, being atjwarjwithAja^ust. 
IL4)f^£Qland, had taken military possession_of__^n£sia_jiid^^axony, 
compelled the Emper or Jos eph 1. in the Old-Ranstadt treatyjli07) 
again solemnly to confirmjto the Protestants i^_^iZe.si a the concessions 
of the Westphalian peace, and to restore to them a part of the ch\jrches 
taken from them by force. 

In France, the persecutions continued against the Huguenots. Their 
pastorsT^the pasteurs du desert) could perform spiritual offices only in 
constant danger of death ; and though many of them received the 
martyr's crown at the hands of the hangman, there were not wanting 
heroic men, who filled the gaps, and those committed to their care re- 
warded them by faithfulness and steadfastness in faith (cf. C. H. Co- 
querel, Hist, des eglises du desert. Par. 1841, 2 vols. — Peyrat, Hist, 
des pasteurs du desert. Par. 1842, 2 vols. — G. Schilling, die verfolg. 
d. prot. K. in Frkr. nach Coquerel. Stuttg. 1846). — A terrible exam- 
ple of the fanaticism of Rom. Cath. France is presented in the judicial 
murder of Jean Calas at Toulouse (1762). One of his sons hung him- 
self in an attack of melancholy. The report spread that it was done 
by his father, to anticipate the contemplated conversion of the son. 


The Dominicans canonized the suicide as a martyr of the Roman Ca- 
tholic faith ; the excited mob cried for vengeance, and the parliament 
permitted the unfortunate father to be broken upon the wheel. The 
remaining sons were compelled to renounce their faith, and the daugh- 
ters were placed in a nunnery. Two 3'ears later Voltaire brought this 
dreadful crime again to notice in his Treatise sur la tolerance, and, by 
agitating public opinion, he brought to pass a revision of the trial, 
which placed the entire innocence of the abused family in the clearest 
light. Louis XV. granted it a sum of 30,000 livres. The fanatical 
accusers, the false witnesses, and the judicial murderers, were not 
punished. Still this event contributed towards improving in a measure 
the condition of the Protestants, and in 1787 Louis XYI. issued the 
edict of Versailles, by which a legal civil existence was guaranteed to 
them. Only the French Revolution brought them (already 1789, by a 
decree of the National Convention) religious freedom, and Napoleon's 
organic law (1802) also renewed and confirmed to them this con- 

5. Conversions. — Pecuniary embarrassment and the prospect of 
marrying a rich heiress, influenced Duke Charles Alexander von Wur- 
temherfj, who was then in the military service of Austria, to permit 
himself to be converted by the Jesuits in 1712. But when he ascended 
the throne, he was bound in the most solemn manner to permit the old 
state of things to exist, and to allow no Roman Catholic worship in the 
land, outside of his court-chapel. The most important of the other 
converts of this country are Winckelniann and Stolherg. In the case 
of both, although in directly opposite ways, Protestant enlightenment 
was blamed with their apostacy from Protestantism. Whilst WincTcel- 
mann, the greatest connoisseur of all times, was not led by religious, 
but by artistic ultra-montanism, into the bosom of the only saving 
church (1754), the warm heart of a Leop. v. Stolherg was not able 
longer to hold out beneath the air-pump of Protestant rationalism, and 
escaped to the perfumed atmosphere of the Roman Catholic Church 

6. Jansenism in its Second Stage. (Cf. ^ 36, 2.) — A new measure 
of violence, proceeding from the papal court, which was controlled by 
French influence, renewed the Jansenist controversy in a much more 
threatening form. A priest of the Oratorium, who had been driven 
from Paris, Faschasius Quesnel {oh. 1740), published in IfJOS an edition 
of the New Testament, with excellent edifying remarks of an evange- 
lical character. Many bishops used and recommended this book, 
among them also the Archbishop of Paris, Cardinal Noailles, who had 
it previously examined by Bossuet. The Jesuits, who hated the ener- 
getic and honest archbishop as greatly as the "Jansenist" book, re- 
commended by him, obtained, through the artful confessor of the king, 
the Jesuit Le Zellier, a papal bull (1713) from Clement XI., the so- 
called Constitution " Unigenitus,'' in which 101 sentences, taken from 



Quesnel's New Testament, were condemned as heretical. This act of 
papal indiscretion, by which the most palpable semipelagianism was 
stamped as lloman Catholic doctrine, and Augustine practically made 
a heretic, divided the French Church into the two parties, viz., the 
Constitutionalists or Acceptants, who accepted the constitution, and 
the Appellants, at the head of whom was Noailles, Avho formally and 
solemnly protested against it. The death of Louis XIV. (1715), and 
the regency of the Duke of Orleans, afforded the appellants free scope 
for a time ; even the thunderbolt of excommunication hurled at them 
in 1718, had no effect. But Dubois, the favorite of the duke, strove 
after the cardinal's hat, and took sides against the appellants ; and 
Louis XY., led by his former teacher, Cardinal Fleury, oppressed them 
in every wa}-. Noailles was compelled (1728) to submit, and (1730) 
the constitution was formally registered as the law of the empire. A 
fanatical ascetic spirit now took possession of the extremely oppressed 
Jansenists. A young Jansenist clergyman, Frauds v. Paris, died with 
an appellation document in his hand (1727). His followers honored 
him as a saint, and numerous reports of miracles, that occurred at his 
grave in the grave-yard of Medardus in Paris, made the same a daily 
place of pilgrimage for thousands of fanatics. The wild fanaticism, 
which manifested itself in convulsions and prophecies concerning the 
destruction of the State and Church, spread wider and wider, and 
seized also, with contagious power, many who were altogether frivolous 
and hitherto unbelieving men. The government had the church-yard 
walled up (1732), but portions of the earth from the grave of the saint 
also produced convulsions and worked miracles. Thousands of con- 
vulsionaires were now cast into prison, and the Archbishop Beaumont 
of Paris, in connection with many bishops, resolved (1752) to refuse 
the dying sacraments to all those who produced no evidence that they 
accepted the constitution. The grave of " St. Francis" became, mean- 
while, the grave of Jansenism, for every fanaticism carries in itself the 
germ of death, and communicates it to every phenomenon, which it 
brings under its power. Nevertheless, remnants of Jansenists existed 
in France even to the Revolution, which they had prophesied ; and in 
the Netherlands a Jansenist Roman Catholic Church, embracing 5000 
souls in 25 congregations, independent of the pope, under the Arch- 
bishop of Utrecht and the Bishops of Harlem and Daintry, has con- 
tinued to the present time. In the northern part of the Netherlands 
the Roman Catholic Church was abolished by the Reformation, except 
in Utrecht, where there remained a chapter and an archbishop in par- 
tibus. In 1704 the occupant of this position, Peter Codde, was charged 
by the Jesuits with being a Jansenist, and was deposed by the pope. 
The chapter, however, would not acknowledge his Jesuit successor. 
All later attempts at reconciliation were frustrated by the refusal of 
the citizens of Utrecht to receive the constitution unigenitus. (Cf. 
Til. Fliedner, CoUectenreise nach Holland und England. Essen, 1831.) 


7. The AhoUtion of the Order of the Jesuits (1773). (Cf. G. v. Murr, 
Gesch. d. Jes. in Portug. Niirmb. 1787, 2 Bde. [le Bret.] Sanunl. d. 
merkw. Schr. d. Aufh. d. Jes. betr. Frkf. 1773, 4 Bde. 4.—AI. v. St. 
Priest, Gescli. d. Sturzes d. Jes. deutsch v. L. v. Moseler, Ilamm. 1845. 
— CarracioU, vie de Clem. XIV., Par. 1775. — Aug. Thciner, Gesch. d. 
Pontiticats Clem. XIY. nach unedist. Staatsschr. Lpz., 1853, 2 Bde.) — 
The Jesuits strove continually with increasing zeal and success towards 
a dominion of the world, and in addition to or instead of the original 
absolute subjection to the interests of the papacy, the founding of an 
independent politico-hierarchical power seemed more and more to be- 
come the chief ol)ject in view. Their aspiration after sovereignty lost, 
it is true, its first support by the destruction of the Jesuit-state in 
Paraguay, but for that they obtained a part of the commerce of the 
world, and endeavored to control ^Ae po^<7ic.9 of Europe. The Jansenist 
controversy also increased the hatred of the people towards them ; 
Pascal exposed them before the whole educated world, the other orders 
of monks Avere from the beginning hostile to them : their participation 
in commerce excited the jealousy of traders, and their interference 
with politics finally overthrew them entirely. The government of For- 
itir/al took the first decided step. A rebellion in Paraguay, and an 
attempt upon the life of the king (Joseph Emanuel), were generally 
attributed to them ; and the minister Fomhal, whose plans of reform 
they opposed everywhere, accomplished their entire banishment from 
Portugal in 1759, together with the confiscation of their property. 
Pope Clement XIII. (1758-69), who was elected and ruled by the Je- 
suits, took them into his protection by a bull ; but Portugal prohibited 
the bull, conveyed the papal nuncio beyond the frontiers, suspended 
all intercourse with Rome, and sent whole ship-loads of Jesuits to the 
pope. France followed the example of Portugal, when the General, 
Lor. Ricci, answered the demands of the king for a reformation of his 
order with the laconic words : Sint ut sunt, aut non sint. The whole 
order was held responsible for the great bankruptcy of the Jesuit La 
Valette, and it was at length (1764) banished from France as being 
dangerous to the State. Spain also, and Naples, and Farma, soon 
thereupon had all Jesuits arrested and carried beyond the frontiers. 
The new election for pope, after the death of Clement XIII., was a 
vital question for the Order, but the influence of the courts triumphed, 
and the liberal Minorite Ganganelli was elected as Clement XIV. 
(1769-74). Urged by the Bourbon courts, he finally, after long waver- 
ing and hesitation, pronounced, by the bull Dominus ac Redemtor 
noster (1773), the abolition of the Order (which now numbered 22,600 
members), as an act of present necessity, but added thereto, sighing: 
Questa suppressionc mi dara la morte. And it so happened, for in the 
next year he died, with all the signs of having been poisoned. All the 
Roman Catholic courts carried out the abolition, also Austria ; after 
that the Spanish court had sent to the Empress Maria Theresa a copy 


of their general confession from the confiscated papers of the Jesuits. 
The heretic Frederick II., however, still tolerated the Order for a time 
in Silesia, and Catharine II. in her Polish provinces. (Clement XIV. 
also abolished the reading of the Lord's Supper bull on Maundy Thurs- 
day, I 115.) (Cf. I 57, 1, 2.) 

8. Anti- Hierarchical Movement in Germany. (Cf. E, v. M'dncli, 
Gesch. d. emser Congresses u. s. Peructation. Karlsr. 1840. — Ph. 
Wolf, Gesch. d. riim. kath. K. unter Pius VI., 1802, 7 Bde.— G^ro52- 
Uoffinger, Leb. u. Regier.-Gesch, Joseph's II. Stuttg. 1835, 3 Bde. — 
M. C. Paganel, Gesch. Joseph's II., aus d. Franz, v. Fr. Kbhler. Lpz. 
1844. — E. V. Miinch, Leop. v. Oest. als Reform ator ; in dess. Denkwur- 
digkk. zur Gesch. p. 303, sq. — De Potter, Leb. u. Memoiren des Scipio 
V. Ricci, Aus d. Fr. Stuttg. 1826, 4 Bde.)— The suffragan Bishop of 
Triers, Nicholas von Hontheim, published, at the time when Clement 
XIII. was contending with the Bourbon courts, a treatise (De statu 
ecclesiac et legit, potestati Rom. Pontificis ad reuniendos dissidentes in 
rel. christ. composit. Bullioni [Frcf.] 17G3-74, 4 vol. 4to.), in which he 
defended, with ability and learning, the superior authority of the 
general councils and the independence of the bishops against the 
hierarchical pretensions of the popes. The book produced a profound 
sensation in and beyond Germany, and the pope did not dare to harm 
the bold champion of the freedom of the Church. It was only his se- 
cond successor, Pius VI. (1775-09) who had the poor satisfaction of 
extorting a retraction from the dying old man (1778), but he also lived 
to see other and more dangerous storms break loose upon the hierarchy. 
First, the Electors of Mayence, Triers, and Cologne, together with the 
Archbishop of Salzburg, provoked by the arbitrary conduct of a papal 
nuncio, assembled together in a spiritual congress at Elms (1786), and 
resolved upon the restoration of a German Roman Catholic National 
Church, independent of Rome, in the so-called Emser Punctation. 
But the German bishops found it more convenient to obey the distant 
pope than the near archbishops. They joined their opposition with 
that of the pope, and the project of the archbishops produced no re- 
sults. Still more threatening to the continuance of the hierarchy was 
the government of the Emperor Joseph II. in Austria (1765-90). He 
had scarcely come into possession of sole authority, after the death of 
his mother, before he began a radical reform of ecclesiastical affairs in 
his kingdom. Already in 1781 he issued the edict of tolerance, by 
which political rights and the free exercise of religion was secured to 
the Protestants. The Roman Catholic Church was to be torn from 
Roman influence, to be placed under a sovereign episcopate, and made 
serviceable for the religious and moral culture of the nation, and all 
its institutions, which could not be used to promote this object, were to 
be abolished. The bishops, as well as the pope, protested in vain ; the 
latter even, trusting in the power of his personality, undertook a jour- 
ney to Vienna (1782). He was politely and solemnly received, but was 


not able to change the decision of the emperor in the leaat. Still Jo- 
seph's undertaking, which was carried on in haste, without proper 
discretion and reflection, without sparing Avhat had been historically 
established, and generally more from a humanitarian than religious 
stand-point, failed on account of the brief reign of the emperor and 
the reaction of all those who had suffered from it. The Grand-Duke, 
Leopold von TH.scany, Joseph's brother, also attempted, since 178G, 
to reform in a similar way the Church of his province, with the co- 
operation of the pious (Jansenist) Bishop Scipio of Ricci [Synod at 
Fistoja, 178G), but in this case also the hierarchy was finally triumph- 
ant. ' (Cf. I 57, 5.) 

9. The French Revolution. (Cf. Abbe Raldassari, Gcsch. der Weg- 
fuhrung u. Gcfangenschaft Pius VI., aus d. Franz, v. H. Steck, LUbg. 
1844.) — Fills VI. was to survive a still worse state of affairs. Since 
1789 the horrors of the Revolution afflicted the Church no less than the 
State. The National Assembly (1789-91) did not design to interfere 
with the faith of the people, but only with the hierarchy, and to deliver 
the State out of its financical embarrassments by the possessions of the 
Church. All monasteries were abolished (1790) and their possessions 
sold. (Concerning the fate of Clugny, cf. above ^ 2, and of La Trappe, 
^ 57, 2.) The clergy were to be paid by the State and elected by the 
people. The lil)erty of faith was declared to be an inalienable right 
of man. The National Assembly required the clergy to take the oath 
of allegiance to the Constitution ; the pope forbade it, under the penalty 
of removal from office. Thus a formal schism took place ; the priests, 
who refused to take the oath, for the most part emigrated. Avignon 
was united with the French State. The terroristic National Convention 
(1792-95) brought the king to the scaffold, destroyed all Christian 
customs, and formally abolished Christianity (cf. ^ 10). The Directory 
(1795-99), occupied more with foreign affairs, again, it is true, per- 
mitted Christian worship, but French armies overran Italy and avenged 
the opposition of the pope by proclaiming a Roman republic (1798). 
Pius VI. was taken as a prisoner to France, and died from the cruelties 
of the French, without doing anything to prejudice himself and his 
dignity (1799). (Cf. §57, 1.) 

10. The Roman Catholic Contribution toivards Ulumination. (Cf. 
L. Noack, d. Frcidenker in d. Relig. Bd. II. Die Tranzos. Freidenker, 
Berne, 1854.) — The Si^cle de Louis XIV., with the morality of its 
Jesuistic confessors, with its licentiousness, bigotry, and hypocrisy at 
the court, with its dragoon and Bastile polemics against all reactions 
of a living Christianity (among Huguenots, mystics, and Jansenists), 
with its Cevennes prophets and Jansenist convulsionaires, etc., called 
forth a free-thinking spirit in the educated French Avorld, to which 
Catholicism, Jansenism, and Protestantism, aj)peared both ridiculous 
and absurd. This spirit was essentially different from English deism. 
The principle of English deism was Common-sense, the general moral 


consciousness in man, advocated with the clumsy weapons of rational 
criticism ; it still held fast to something ideal and moral in man, and 
had a kind of religion (providence, virtue, immortality). French Na- 
turalism, on the other hand, was a philosophy des esprit, that pecu- 
liarly French, frivolous ingenuity, using the weapons of ridicule and 
wit, which denied and derided everything moral and ideal. Neverthe- 
less, a close and causal connection existed between the two ; the philo- 
sophy of Common-sense was carried over to France, and was here 
remodelled into a philosophy des esprit : this was a travesty of that. 
The birth-places of this French philosophy were the bureaux d'esprit, 
the clubs and salons of the metropolis, its common and widely circu- 
lating organ was the Encyclopedic, edited by Diderot and 1) 'Alembert. 
Its must brilliant and influential representatives, whose numerous 
writings unchristianized and demoralized not only France, but also the 
educated and leading classes in remaining Europe, were, besides the 
two above-named : Voltaire [oh. 1778), Helvetius, Montesquieu, and 
Eoiisseau [oh. 1778). The physician De la Mettrie ("L'homme ma- 
chine," etc.), and the German-French Baron de Holhach (" Systfeme de 
la nature," etc.), reduced it to the most shameless materialism. The 
French Revolution ripened the fruit of this sowing. The National 
Convention formally abolished Christianity, permitted about 2000 
churches to be burned and destroyed, and built a temple de la Raison, 
in which a whore represented the goddess of reason (1794). The Arch- 
bishop of Paris, Gobet, appeared with his clergy before the bar of the 
Convention, and declared that his previous life had been a delusion ; 
that he now acknowledged no other religion but that of liberty. Ro- 
bespierre, however, had the resolution passed in 1794 : La peuple fran- 
9aise re(jonnait I'Etre supreme et rimraortalite de I'ame, and had a 
stupid Fete de I'Etre supreme celebrated. The Directory, it is true, 
allowed Christian worship again, but it also favored, as it was able, 
the deistic sect of Theophilanthropists, which, with its hollow phrases, 
soon provoked the ridicule of public opinion. 

The German Roman Catholic Church also suffered from this spirit 
of illumination, which, since the middle of this century, spread through 
Protestant Germany. Whilst the (magnetic?) exorcisms and cures of 
Pater Gassner in Regensburg still gained many triumphs for Roman 
Catholicism (certainly of so doubtful a character, that the bishops, the 
emperor, and finally the Roman court itself, found it necessary to check 
the doings of the Avonder- worker). Ad. Weisliaupt, professor in Ingol- 
stadt, instituted, with the forms of Free-masonry, the secret Order of 
Illuminati (1776), which spread the most superficial ideas of progress 
and human perfectibility over the whole of Germany, although it was 
already dissolved in 178G by the Bavarian government, in consequence 
of the treason of several members. But its secondary efi'ects existed 
long afterwards. The spirit of illumination also influenced Roman 
Catholic theology. But that the Church still possessed power to check 


it, is shown by the fate of Prof. Lorenzo Isenhiehl of Mayence, who 
applied the passage, Isaiah 7 : 14, not to the mother of Christ, but to 
the lost bride of the prophet, and was therefor deposed and sent back 
to the seminary for two years on account of deficient theological know- 
ledge (1774). When he later (1778) published a learned treatise on 
the same subject, he had to atone for it by imprisonment. The pope 
also condemned his interpretation, and Isenbiehl recanted as a good 
Catholic. It went still harder with a young Jesuit of Salzburg, named 
Steinb'dJder, who, on account of several satires on Roman Catholic 
ceremonies, was condemned to death (1781), but was afterwards par- 
doned, although he soon afterwards died from the cruel treatment he 

11. Roman CatJwlic Theology. — The revocation of the edict of Nantes 
was the sentence of death for French Reformed theology, which was 
thereby deprived of all the conditions of life ; but it at the same time 
also deprived French Roman Catholic theology of its stimulus and im- 
pulse. The latter could now lie peaceably on its lees, since Huguenot 
polemics were silenced, and Huguenot learning no longer provoked to 
rivalry, and resignedly commit the carrying on of polemics to the dra- 
goons, the scaffold, and the Bastile. There was yet added to this the 
violent extermination of Jansenism, which deprived the French Roman 
Catholic Church of its noblest powers. The first half of this century 
has, nevertheless, a few distinguished names to show, as sporadic se- 
condary effects of the previous brilliant epoch ; in the second half, 
however, theology sank into absolute impotency. Nemesis did not 
tarry. The Huguenot opposition to the papacy and the Jansenist 
to Pelagianism were destroyed, but the most shameless naturalism, 
atheism, and materialism, with the war-cry : Ecrasez Tinfame, stood 
now victorious on the plain ; and Roman Catholic theology sunk into so 
deep a lethargy, that it could not even attempt earnestly to combat and 
resist, but was compelled to surrender itself and the entire French na- 
tion to the monster. Theological learning had also greatly declined in 
the other Roman Catholic countries. Only Italy had a few brilliant 
names in the first half of this century. In Roman Catholic Germany 
a self-dependent activity in theology only manifested itself in the time 
of Joseph II., and under the tolerance which he granted an almost 
cynical spirit of free-thinking (especially in judging matters of a 
Church-historical character) developed itself among many Roman 
Catholic theologians of the empire [Royko, Wolff, Dannenmayr, Michl, 
etc.) On the other hand, from the school of the noble mystic, Michael 
Sailer {ob. 1832), there went forth a Catholicism that was as hearty 
and warm as it was mild and irenical, which could also be rejoiced in 
by pious Protestants of a common faith and life, and whose brotherly 
spiritual communion needed not to be repelled. Sailer was removed 
from his office in Dillingen (1794), because he was not considered suffi- 
ciently orthodox, but he became later Prof, at Ingolstadt, and {ob. 1832) 
as Bishop of Regensburg. 


Distinguished in the sphere of Biblical Theology are: the Oratorian 
Jac. le Long {oh. 1721), whose chief work, Bibliotheca Sacra, presents 
a very valuable historical apparatus for the study of the Bible, — espe- 
cially in the essentially improved form, which has been given to it by 
the Protestant publishers Bonier and Masch (Halle, 1778, 4 Bde. 4to.). 
John Martia7iay {oh. 1717), the learned publisher of Jerome, also wrote 
an admirable work on Hermeneutics, in which he lays down the prin- 
ciple, that the Bible is to be explained by the Bible. The Benedictine, 
Augustine Calmet {oh. 1757), contributed a valuable Dictionnaire hist, 
chronol. geogr. de la Bible and a Commentaire litteral et critique on 
the whole Bible, in 23 vols. 4to. Ilis exegesis is especially valuable as 
regards what is essential, but its theology is superficial. The most 
valuable are the appended historical and critical Dissertations, which 
Mosheim had translated and accompanied with condensed remarks. 
The Oratorian Houhigant and the Italian Bernard de Rossi contributed 
much of importance for the criticism of the text of the Old Testament. 
In the time of Joseph II., the free-thinking, latitudinarian, supernatu- 
ralistic John Jahn, Prof, at Vienna, elevated the study of the Bible 
in the German Roman Catholic Church, by publishing a number of 
learned works (the most valuable of which are : Einleitung ins A. T. 
4 Bde. u. Biblische Archaologie, 5 Bde.) ; but he was compelled to 
abandon his professorship, on account of unchurchly tendencies, and 
died in 1816, as canon at Vienna. In the sphere of Church History, the 
Italian John Dominic Mansi {oh. 1769) (Vollstandigste u. beste Samm- 
lung der Concilienacten 1759, sq. 31 vols, fol.) and Ant. Miiratori, {oh. 
1750), (Scriptores rerum Italic, 28 vols. fol. ; Antiqu. Italic, med. aevi, 
6 vols, fol.), gave proof of splendid scholarship and of unwearying in- 
dustry in collecting material. There are no contributions of a dogmatic 
or polemic character of any importance. But amid the horrors of the 
French Revolution, the noble theosophist, Louis Claude de St. Martin, 
an ardent admirer of Jacob Bohme, wrote his spirited and profound 
works (Des erreurs et de la verite, L'homme de disir, etc.), and the 
Viscount Chateauhriand praised the beauties of Christianity (Genie du 
Christianisme), and celebrated in song the Christian martyrs. (Cf. 
^ 57, 6.) 


The oppressed condition of the orthodox Church in the Otto- 
man empire remained unchangeably the same. It developed itself 
more powerfully and richly in BuHsia, where it was the ruling 
Church. Although the Russian Church, since it possessed an 
independent patriarchate at Moscow (1589), was independent of 
the mother-church at Constantinople in regard to the form of 
government, it still stood in the most intimate religious connec- 
tion with it, especially as the bond of a common confession had 


been again lately strengthened by the confessional trea,tise of 
Peter Mogila. The patriarchal form of government was, mean- 
while, only a temporary one in Russia, for the great Emperor 
Feter I. permitted the patriarchate to remain vacant after the 
death of the patriarch Hadrian (1702), connected ecclesiastical 
supremacy with the imperial power, and constituted (1721) the 
holy directing Synod, to which he transferred the supreme con- 
trol of spiritual and ecclesiastical affairs ; — to which also the 
patriarch of Constantinople gave his consent. Theophanes 
Prokopoicicz, the metropolitan of Nowgorod, was the emperor's 
right hand in this reform of Church government. 

1. Since the liturgical reformation of the Patriarch Nikon (^ 42, 
5), a new and peculiar style of Church Music developed itself in 
the Russian Church, which was sung by pure and powerful male voices, 
without any instrumental accompaniment, a splendid foil for the rich 
liturgy. Russian Church music attained its perfection under Catharine 
II. Among the Russian Theologians the above-named Prokopoicicz 
{oh. 173G) holds a prominent position. His dogmatic Handbook (in 
Lat. transl. Christ, orthod. theologia. Regiom, 1773, 5 vols.) is distin- 
guished by learning, clearness of style, and moderation of judgment. 
Since the middle of this century, however, a Protestantizing tendency 
crept in among many representatives of theological science, especially 
among the higher clergy, which tendency, it is true, held firmly fast 
to the older oecumenical synodal theology, but avoided the later dog- 
matic forms, or at least attached no importance to them. Already the 
excellent catechism of orthodox doctrines (transl. into German. Riga, 
1770), which the learned Platon (late metropolitan of Moscow) as tutor 
of the Grand-Duke Paid Petroioitsch, published, at first for the use of 
his noble pupil, is not entirely free from this tendency. It appears 
more decidedly in the dogmatic text-book of the archimandric Theophy- 
lactus of Moscow (1773). It was only in modern times that it was 
entirely overcome and suppressed. To the Sects of the 17th cen- 
tury (§ 42, 5), there were added in the 18th a number of new ones 
of spiritualistic gnostic tendency, in the organization of which proba- 
bly occidental influences cooperated. To these belong especially the 
Malacani (milk-eaters) and Duchohorzens (champions of the spirit), 
which again divide into a number of minor sects, and which may also 
have absorbed many of the older (mediaeval) sects. Their doctrines 
are a remarkable mixture of Gnosticism, theosophy, mysticism. Pro- 
testantism, and Rationalism. The Duchohorzens especially, although 
belonging only to the peasantry, have a completely finished theological 
system of a wonderful speculative character. (Cf. A. v. Harthausen, 
referred to at § 42, 5, and T. E. Lentz, de Duchoborzis. Dorpati, 
1829, 4to.) 

240 SECTION III. — THIRD PERIOD (c E N T. 1 8 A.D.^. 



By the founding of the University at Halle Q694), the pie- 
tistic controversy received a new impulse, and soon involved the 
whole German Church in a passionate strife, in which, on both 
sides, the right and true medium was only too often missed in 
establishing their own views, and those of the opponents were 

, perverted by unwarranted inferences. /Spenerdiedalready in 1705, 

j Francke in 1127, Breiihaupt in 1732. Hallean pietism became, 
after the loss of its chiefs, continually weaker, more illiberal, 
unscientific, and indifferent towards purity of doctrine, more prone 
to fall into artificial pious feelings, more zealous and exclusive in 
pious phrases and methodistic forms of life. The conventicle 
mode of worship, originated and nourished by it, became a Pan- 
dora-box of all possible fanaticism and sectarianism (§ 49, 1). 
But still it produced a fermentation in theology and the Church, 
which worked wholesomely for many years. More than 600Q_ 
theologians from all parts of Germany, received, up to i\ancke''s 
death, their theological education at Halle, and carried the leaden 
of his spirit into as many congregations and schools. In a short 
time, a large number of distinguished teachers of theology ap- 
peared in almost all the German Lutheran established Churches, 
who, being as far removed from the one-sidedness of the pietists 
as their opponents, practised and taught pure doctrines and 

I pious living, without denying the orthodox stand-point, so far as 
it was authorized and beneficial, and derived benefit from the 
syncretistic as well as pietistic controversies. From Galixtus 
they learned mildness and justice towards the Reformed and 
"Roman Catholic Church ; by Spener they were incited to deep 
experimental piety, which also enriched their theological know- 
ledge with a new stream of life ; from Gottfr. Arnold's one-sided- 
ness they learned to seek after distorted truth even among here- 
tics and sectarians ; and from Calov and Loscher they inherited 
a zeal for pure doctrines. The most prominent of them all were 

Alb.Bengel in Wiirtemberg (ob. 1752), and Gh7\ Aug. Crusius 

in Leipsic (ob. 1775), both stars of the first magnitude, and at 
the same time prophecies of a future time of blooming of Lu- 
theran theology ; a future one, for this stand-point, deepened 


and ennobled in so many ways, did not at that time attain perfect 
development and dominion (§ 50). The deluge of illumination ^ 
since the middle of this century rushed in upon the German Lu- 
theran Church, and overflowed also the seed sown by these noble 
men. Nevertheless, the first five decades of this century still 
constitute, in spite of many excrescences, a blooming period of 
theological science and Christian life in the Lutheran Church. 

1. The Pieiistic Controversies since the Founding of the University at 
Halle. (Cf. the lit. at I 38, 3, and Mur. v. Engelhardt, Val. C. Loscher, 
2d ed. Stuttg. 1855.) — That Pietism, which had been condemned by 
and exclude d fro m the orthodox Universities of Leipsic and AVitten- 
berg, now found a refuge at Halle, where, protected and encouraged 
by the civil power, it freely developed itself in practical life and in 
science, and from here could spread over all the provinces of Germany 
through crowds of students ; this provoked the anger of the orthodox. 
The faculty of Wittenberg, with John Deutschmann at the head, pub- 
lished (1695) a controversial treatise (Cliristlich. Vosrtellung, etc.), 
in which they charged Spener with holding not less than 264 errors. 
The faculty of Leipsic also was not silent, and Carpzov abused the 
mild and peace-loving Spener as a procella ecclesise. Next to Carpzov 
and Deutschmann, the most violent opponents of the pietists were Sam. 
Schelwig in Dantzic [oh. 1716), (Synopsis controverss. sub pietatis 
prset^xtu neotarum 1701), Friedr. Mayer in Wittenberg, Hamburg and 
Greifswalde {oh. 1712), and John Fecht in Rostock [oh. 1716). When 
Spener died (1705), it was most earnestly disputed whether he could 
be called the blessed. Fecht (de beatit. mort. in Dom.) denied it. 
Among the later champions for the palladium of pure doctrines, the 
learned Valent. Ernst Loscher, superint. at Dresden (1709-47), who at 

\ least cannot be charged with dead orthodoxy, was the most estimable 
and able. He opened the contest (1702) by publishing an anti-pietistic 
journal (Unschuldige Nachrichten von alten und neuen theol. Sachen), 
of which 31 vols, appeared to 1751. His " Vollstandiger Timotheus 
Verinus" is, without doubt, the most concise of all the controversial 
treatises against Pietism (2 vols. 1718-21 ; the first sketch appeared 
already, 1711, in the Unschuldigen Nachrichten). Franz Buddeus of 
Jena carried on a mediation between Loscher and the Hallean theolo- 
gians for a time, but without result. Francke and Breithhaupt received 
-, (1710) an ever ready colleague and fellow-combatant in Joachim Lan(/e 
{ob. 1744), (Antibarbarus orthodoxiae dogmatico-hermeneuticus 1709- 
11 ; — die Gestalt des Kreuzreiches Christi, 1713 ; — Abfertig. d. Tim. 
Ver. 1719, etc.) ; who, however, was in no respect a match for his op- 
ponent Loscher. Pietism, meanwhile, penetrated the popular life more - 
and more, and excited in many places even violent popular tumults. 
Many States prohibited the pietistic conventicles, others permitted 
IL— 21 Q 

242 SECTION III. — THIRD PE RI D (C E N T. 1 8 A. D.) . 

L them (ex. gr. Wlirtemberg and Denmark). A very singular pheno- 
' menon were the 'praying children in Silesia (1707). Children of four 
years of age and above that assembled on the open field to sing and 
pray (especially for the recovery of the Churches taken possession of 
by the Roman Catholics). Proceeding, probably, from the imitative 
instinct of children, and from the impression which the open-air wor- 
ship of the Swedish army made upon them, this phenomenon obtained 
an epidemic and contagious character, and spread over the entire 
country. In vain the pulpits declaimed against it, in vain the,.ciyil 
\ authorities proceeded against it ; blows and confinement only increased 
/ the zeal of the children. Finally it was resolved to provide churches 
for their worship. Since then the excitement gradually subsided. But 
the matter was discussed for a long time afterwards by the orthodox 
and pietists, the former (ex. gr. Erdm. Neumeister) declared it to be a 
.^ work of the devil ; the latter (Freylinghausen, Petersen, etc.) a won- 
derful awakening of divine grace. (Cf. /. G. WalcJi, 1. c. I., 853, sq. 
and Hagenbach, d. Kinderkreuzzug u. die betenden Kinder; in A. 
Knapp's Christoterpe, 1853.) 

The Orthodox regarded the Pietists as a new sect, holding doctrines 
that were dangerous and hostile to the pure doctrines of the Lutheran 
Church ; whilst the Pietists themselves declared, that they only wished 
to preserve Lutheran orthodoxy unadulterated, and to substitute a 
^^ biblical, practical Christianity for its then existing^ rigid form and 
dead externality. The simple points of controversy concentrated espe- 
cially around the doctrines of regeneration, of justification, of sancti- 
N fication, of the Church, and of the millenium (Rev. 20 : 5, 7). (1.) 
^Regeneration. The orthodox aifirmed, that regeneration took place in 
^*. baptism; that every baptized person was regenerated; but that the 
new birth required fostering, nourishment, and growth ; and where 
these had been wanting, reawakening. The Pietists, on the other 
hand, identified awakening or conversion with regeneration, which 
was conditioned in subsequent life by the Word of God, mediated by 
spiritual and physical conflicts of repentance, and thereupon following 
communication of grace, and sealed by a very palpable approbation of 
God in the state of grace attained. A child in Christ first began to 
be at this sealing. Accordingly they distinguished between a theologia 
viatorum, viz., the churchly symbolical doctrine, and a theologia rege- 
nitorum, which has to do with the conditions of the soul after regene- 
ration ; on which account they were also charged with holding the 
doctrine, that a true Christian, who had attained the age of spiritual 
■""•"-manhood, could and must be without sin already in this life. (2.) 
Justification and Sanctification. In opposition to a very common vie-vr 
of the doctrine of justification, which made it too external, Spener 
I'taught that living faith alone attained justification, and that it must 
fbe active in preserving it (although without any merit). A sure 
guarantee of attained justification existed only in a faith which gave 


evidence of being alivo in a pious life and active Christianity, and not 
already in a belief in the external, objective promise of the word of 
God. His opponents charged him, on this account, with confounding 
justification with sanctification, and with disregarding the former at 
the expense of the latter. And if the royal doctrine of justification 
was not allowed to recede into the back-ground by Spener himself, it 
was by many of his adherents; and an importance was attached, in a 
one-sided way, to practical Christianity, such as the Lutheran Church 
could never approve. Moreover, Spener and Francke preached against 
worldly dissipations and amusements, and against the dance, the 
theatre, card-playing (to which others in their blind zeal added even 
laughingj taking a walk, chewing tobacco, etc.), as inimical to earnest- 
ness and progress in„&anctification, and therefore sinful; whilst the 
orthodox placed these things among the ac^iop^iora. (3.) The Church 
and Office. Orthodoxy regarded the word, the sacraments, and the 
oflBce, which it administered, as the basis and foundation of the Church ; 
Pietism, on the contrary, conditioned the nature and existence of the 
Church by individual believers ; according to the former, the Church 
begat, nourished, and fostered believers ; according to the latter, be- 
lievers constituted, preserved, and renewed the Church ; to which end, 
conveuiicles (ecclesiolas in ecclesia), as meeting places and propaganda 
of living Christianity, were the most appropriate means. Orthodoxy 
lay all stress upon the office and the official grace vouchsafed to it ; 
Pietism upon the person and his faith. Spener taught, that only he, 
who had experienced the grace of the Gospel in his heart, i. e., who 
was regenerated, could be a truejpreacher and pastor ; Loscher, on the 
contrary, affirmed, that the ministrations of even an unconverted, 
though decidedly orthodox preacher, were blessed just as much as 
those of a converted one, be cau se the saving power resided not in the 
person of the pxcacher, but in the word of God, which he still preached 
in its purity, and in the sacraments, which he administered according 
to their appointment. The Pietists then went so far as entirely to deny 
that there was any saving power in the preaching of an unconverted 
person. The official promise of absolution without internal sealing 
had no significance for them ; they even regarded it as dangerous and 
injurious, because it lulled the conscience to sleep and made sinners 
secure. Hence they cherished great aversion^ to ^.rtra^e confession and 
priestly absolution. They altogether rejected such a thing as official 
grace; true ordination was regeneration; every regenerated person, 
and he alone, was a true preacher. Orthodoxy demanded above all 
else pure doctrines and churchly confession ; Pietism also declared 
these to be necessary, but not as being the principal things. Spener 
held firmly fast to the necessity of adhesion to the symbols ; but the 
later pietists disputed it, because the symbols as a work of man could 
contain errors. Among the orthodox, on the contrary, some went so 
far as to affirm a freedom from all error in the symbols, which rested 



not only upon an accidental, but upon an indirect, divine illumination. 
Spener's aversion to coercion as to the use of the pericopes, to prescribed 
prayers, and to exorcism, became also a matter of violent controversy; 
on the contrary, his reintroduction of coiifirmation before the first par-,, 
ticipation of the Lord's Supper met with approbation and imitation 
also among the orthodox. (4.) Eschatolocfij . Spener interpreted the 
biblical doctrine of the millennium to mean, that at some future time, 
after the overthrow of the papacy, after the conversion of the heathens 
and Jews, there would come a period of the most glorious and undis- 
turbed development and formation for the Church of Christ on earth, 
as ante-sabbath of the eternal sabbath. His opponents stigmatized 
this as Chiliasm and fanaticism ; and they were right, not, however, 
as against Spener, but as against the abuse and misrepresentation of 
his doctrine by many of his adherents. Connected with this finally 
45.) was a controversy about divine providence, occasioned by the 
founding of the orphans' house at Halle, by A. H. Francke. The 
Pietists spoke of the origin and prosperity of this institution as^. fact 
of direct (wonderful) divine providence ; whilst Lijscher, by proving 
the use of the ordinary means, which Avere contributed towards it, 
exhibited the entire matter as lying within the sphere of general and 
daily providence, without thereby, meanwhile, denying the value of 
the strong faith in God, and of the active love possessed by its founder, 
as also the significance of the divine blessing, which rested upon the 

2. Lutheran Theology. — The last important representative of the Old 
Orthodox School was Val. Ernst Loscher, who, with his rich scholar- 
ship, contributed, besides his polemics against pietism, much that was 
valuable to biblical philosophy and Church history (De causis linguae 
hebr. ; Ausfiihrl. Hist, motuum zw. d. Luth. u. Reform. ; Yollstand. 
Ref. Acta; Histoire d. mittl. zeiten, etc.). The Pietisiic^ School, which, 
from principle, was more concerned about making theology fruitful 
for practical Christianity than about its scientific advancement, only 
contributed works of permanent value to devotional literature (§ 6). 
The learned, copious author, Joachim Lange, published, in 7 fol. vols., 
a prolix commentary on the whole Bible (Mosaisches, Biblisch-hist., 
Davidisch-salomonisches, Prophetisches, Evanglisches, Apostolisches, 
Apokalyptisches Licht und Recht). The jurist, Christian Thomasius, 
at first connected himself with the pietists, only, however, in mutual 
external contest against the enslavement of conscience by the orthodox ; 
but he was soon disavowed by them as an indifierentist. To him be- 
longs the honor of turning public opinion against prosecution for 
witchcraft. (Vernlinftige u. christl. aber nicht scheinheil. Gedanken 
liber alleahand Handel ; — Kurze Lehrsatze vom Laster d. Zauberei 
mit d. Hexenprocess.) 

But there came forth, out of the conflicts between the orthodox and 

ietistic schools, a third school, which cast off the errors and partiali- 


ties of both, and united in itself their excellencies, in which Lutheran 
theology, uniting orthodoxy with free investigation, scholarship with 
religious fervor, penetration wTtli depth, decided adhesion to confes- 
sions with mildness and justice, produced yet much splendid fruit. 
The most important theologians of this school are: David EoUaz in 
Pomerania {ob. 1713), (Examen theologicum acroamaticuim), Beiied. 
^?a?j;c^ ofJLifiipsic [oh. 1727), (Notce selectae in loca_dub. et diffic. V. T. 
et in N. T.), Francis^udd£l(Ji-^Qf JoriSi [oh. 1729), (Hist, ecclst. Vet. 
Test. ; Institutiones theol. dogm. et theol. moralis, Isagoge hist, theol. 
ad theol. univ.), Ernst. Sal^^ Cf/jii-Jan oiGotha {ob. 1745), Gesch. d. 
Papstth. ; Hist. d. Augsb. Conf.) ; John Christian TFoZ/ of Hamburg 
{ob. 1739), (Bibliotheca Ileliraica; Cura3 philol. et crit. in N. T.) ; 
Eberh. Wcismann of Tiibingeu {ob. 1747),. (Hist, ecclest.) ; Sal. Deyling 
of LeipsicXoZ>. 1755), (Observatt. ss.) ; John Gottl. Carpzov of Leipsic 
{ob. 1767), (Critica s. Y. T. ; Introductio ad libras can. V. T. ; Apparatus 
antiquitt. s. Codicis) ; /. Ueinr. MichaeUs of Halle {ob. 1731), (Biblia 
hebr. s. variis lectionibus et brev. annott. ; uberiores annott. in Hagio- 
graphos., 3 Bde. 4 vols. ; his nephew, Christian Bened. MichaeUs of 
Halle {ob. 1764), assisted him in both these works) ; John George Walch 
of Jena {ob. 1775), Einl. in d. Religionsstreitigkk. ausser d. luth. K., 
5 Bde., in d. luth. K., 5 Bde., Biblioth. theol. selecta, Biblioth. patris- 
tica, Luther's Werke) ; Christoph. Matthew Pfaffoi Tubingen (66. 1760), 
(K-G., K-Recht, Dogmatik, Moral) ; Lo ren^^vonTMosheim of Ilelmstadt 
and Glittingen {ob. 1755), the fiither^f modern Church history (Institutt. 
hist. eccL, Commentarii de rebus Christianorum ante Constant. M. ; 
Dissertationes, Littenlehre, etc.) ; John Alb. Bengel, prelate at Stutt-— 
gard {ob. 1752), (eine Krit. Ausg. d. N. T,; Gnomon N. T., a commen- 
tary on the N. T., distinguished by pregnancy of expression and depth 
of comprehension ; ErklUrte Off b. Joh., which intimated that the 
df^wning^of the millennium could be looked for in the year 1836 ; Ordo 
temporum, etc. Cf. /. C. Burk, Bengel's Leben u. Wirken. Stuttg., 
1831) ; and Christian Aug. Cr usius of Leipsic {ob. 1775), (Hypomnemata 
ad theol. propheticura. Cf. Fr. Delitzch, d. bibl. proph. Theol,, ihre^-- 
Fortbild. durch Chr. A. Cr., etc. Lpz. 1845). — A fourth jchool of'^. 
theologians was created by the application of the._matliematical de- 
monslrj]Ltion_method of the philosopher Christianjcon Wolf, of Halle 
{oh. 1754). Wolf connected his philosophy with Leibnitz, and also 
endeavored to reconcile philosophy and Christianity ; but under the 
manipulations of his dry, logical, mathematical method, the living 
breath of the Leibnitzlan system departed ; the harmonia praestabilita 
of the world became a machine, etc. The great evil done by his system 
of philosophising consisted in this, that, applied to the demonstration 
of Christian truth, it only proved its logical correctness without giving 
any insight into its nature and significance, that it only formally called 
the understanding into exercise, and left the soul empty and the heart 
cold, whereby a degeneraiion into natural iheology, which rejected ro- 
21* "^ 


velation and mysteries, was vmavoidable. Consequently the polemics 
of the theologians, among which were not only narrow-minded pietists, 
like Joach. Latige, but also such able, calm, and enlightened men, like 
Chr. A. Crusius and Fr. Buddeus, were not without foundation, when 
they included them also in part in their accusations (which ex. gr. run 
into fatalism and atheism with Lange). Wolf was deposed (1723) by 
a government-order of Fredericjt William I., and was compelled to 
leave the Prussian States within two days, under penalty of the halter. 
But Frederick II. had scarcely ascended the throne before, he xecalled 
(1740) the philosopher to Halle, and heaped honors upon him. (Cf. 
Tholuch, Verm. Schr. fnTp^ 1^' ^^0 — Wolf's philosophical method in- 
troduced into theology, was first accepted by the pious and learned 
Prof. Sigmund Jacob Baumgarien in Halle [oh. 1757 ). His theology as to 
its contents was still based on orthodox ground (Ev. Glaubenslehre ; 
Gesch. d. Religionsparteien ; Theol. Bedenken). /. Gust. Reinheck, 
provost in Berlin {ob. 1741), also belongs to the more moderate repre- 
sentatives of this tendency (Betrachtungen ii. d. in d. Augsb. Conf. 
enth. gottl. Wahrhh. 4 Bde. 4to., fortges. v. /. G. Canz, Bd. 5-9). The 
application of the mathematical method of demonstration was carried 
farthest by Jak. Carpzov of Weimar [ob. 1768), (Theol. revalata me- 
thodo scientifica adornata, 4 vols. 4to.). As applied to the sermon, the 
method degenerated into the most offensive insipidity. (Cf. ^ 50.) 

3. Theories of Canon Law. — Church government passed, on account 
of the exigencies of the first century of the Protestant Church, into 
the hands of the princes, who, just because no one else existed for this 
purpose, exercised as prcecipua membra ecclesijB the Jura episcopalia 
(§ 22, 1). This matter of exigency became in years by degrees a 
matter of right. Orthodox theology and the jurisprudence connected 
with it (especially Benedict Carpzov of Leipsic, ob. 1666) justified the 
change by the Episcopal System. This retained the mediaeval distinc- 
tion between spiritual and temporal authority, as two independent 
spheres appointed by God ; but it at the same time made the prince to 
be the summus episcopus, in whose person, consequently, the highest 
spiritual authority was joined with the highest temporal authority. 
The deep contradictions of this system, however, appeared so glaringly 
in countries having mixed confessions (inasmuch as often a Reformed 
or even a Papist prince was the summus episcopus of the Lutheran 
Church of his country), that one was compelled to establish the exist- 
ing right of princes on other grounds. These were found first in the 
territorial System, according to which the prince possessed the highest 
spiritual authority, not as praecipuum membrum ecclesiee, butjis^head 
of the State, which spiritual authority, therefore, was regarded not as 
independent by the side of civil authority, but only as oiie side of the 
same (Cujus regio, illius et religio). This system was already prac- 
tically prepared for by the historical development of the German Re- 
formation (Diet of Speiers a. 1526), and received a legal basjs through 


the Augsburg as well as the Westphalian peace. It lacked only a 
scientific foundation. This was given first by Samuel Pvfendorf of 
Heidelberg (06. 1694), in an appendix to Hobbes (^ 43, 2). It was 
more perfectly developed and more generall}'^ commended by Christian 
Thoinasiiis of Halle [oh. 1728), and the celebrated Justus Henning 
Bokmcr made it the foundation of his Jus ecclesiasticum protestantium. 
Thomasius' connection with the Pietists, and their indifierence to 
creeds, obtained for it admission and favor among them. Speuer him- 
self preferred the Calvinistic Presbyterian form of government, be- 
cause by it the equally authorized cooperation of the three Orders 
(Miuisterium ecclesiasticum, Magistratus politicus, Status occonomicus) 
could most easily be realized. This protest by Spener against both 
systems was certainly not without influence in the construction of a 
third system, the Collegiate System, whose originator was the Chancellor —■ 
PJiiffot Tubingen (06. 1760). According to it, only the right of eccle- 
siastical sovereignty (jus circa supra) is incumbent on the ruler of the 
country as such; whilst the jura in sacra (doctrines, worship, ecclesias- 
tical legislation and its execution, appointment to the ministry and 
excommunication) arc incumbent as jura coUegialia on the totality of 
airchurch-members. The normal constitution would therefore be this, 
when all together carried it into execution in a collegiate way (through 
_synods and elections in the congregation). External circumstances, 
however, at the period of the Reformation, made it also necessary to 
transfer the collegiate rights to the princes, which is also not in itself 
inadmissible, provided only that the principle is held fast, that the 
prince administers them ex commisso, and is always accountable and 
responsible to those who have committed them to him. This system, 
which, because it in fact left everything in the old way, could only 
claim the honor of an old theory, and if it was to be seriously carried 
out, would entirely destroy the ecclesiastical organism by its under- 
valuing the ministerii ecclesiastici (the ministry), found its most zeal- 
ous defenders among the later rationalists, on account of its democratic 
tendency. Practically, however, neither of the three systems were 
purely and consistently introduced and carried through. In most of 
the churches the form of government vacillated between all three. 

4. Hymnology also bore many precious fruits during the first half ' 
of this century. We distinguish the following groups of composers 
of hymns: (A.) The Pieiistic_ School, with a scriptural-practical and 
devotional tendency. The spiritual life of believers, the breaking 
through of grace jn conversion, growth, in holiness, the changing con- 
ditions, experiences, and feelings in the life of the soul, were made the 
objectsof contemplation and description. They are for the most part 
no longer hymns for the congregation, for the people, for common wor- 
ship, but more for individual edification, and for the closet. There are 
only, relatively speaking, a few hymns of this school that make an 
exception, and still deserve the name of church-hymns. "When pietism 

248 SECTION III. — THIRD PERIOD (C E N T. 1 8 A. D.). 

declined, the spiritual poetical inspiration awakened by it declined 
also gradually; it lost its original truths power, and depth, and dege- 
nerated into sentimentality and spiritless trifling with figures, allego- 
ries, and phrases. Moreover, among the Hallean pietists, we must 
distinguish between an older (1690-1720) and a younger poetical 
school (1720-52), the former characterized by a sound piety in the 
spirit of A. H. Francke, with hymns in a simple, tender, and profound 
tone. I. The most distinguished of the very numerous poets of this 
older school are: Anastasius Freylinghausen, Francke's son-in-law and 
director of the orphan's house at Ilalle [ob. 1739), (" Wer ist wohl wie 
du'^); — Breithaupt, Joach. Lange, theological Professors at Ilalle; 
— Dan. Uerrnschmidt, Prof, at Ilalle {oh. 1723), ("Lobe den Herrn, 
meine Seele") ; — Christian Friedr. Richter, physician to the orphan's 
house {oh. 1711), author of 33 excellent hymns (" Gott, den ich als die 
Liebe kenne," " Es glauzet der Christen invendiges Leben^') ; — Emily 
Julianna, Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt {oh. 1706), composed 
587 hymns, among which also : " Wer weisz, wie nahe mir mein Ende," 
the authorship of which was also claimed by a cotemporary preacher, 
named PJeJferkorn ; — /. Heinrich Schroder, pastor in Magdeburg {oh. 
1728), ("Bins ist Noth'') ;— /. Jos. Winckler, pastor of the Cathedral 
of Magdeburg {oh. 1722), ("Ringe recht") ; — Christoph Dessler, con- 
rector in Nuremberg {oh. 1722), ("Wie wohl ist mir, s. Freund der 
Seelen") ; — Andr. Goffer, aulic counsellor in Wernigerode {oh. 1735), 
(" Schaffet, schaffet, Menschenkinder") ; — Earth. Crasselius, preacher 
at Dusseldorf ("Dir, dir, Jehova, will ich singen").— -JI, The yaunffer. 
Hallean school embraces the period of declining pietism. The superior 
poets of this school are : E. H. v. Bggatzky {oh. 1774), also an esteemed 
ascetic author ; — John Jak. Ramhach, Prof, in Giessen {oh. 1735), the 
most churchly of the poets of this school (" Groszer Mittler,'' etc. ) ; — 
Conrad Allendorf, court-preacher at Kothen {oh. 1773), publisher of 
the so-called Kothnisen Lieder — a collection of spiritual love-hymns in 
the spirit of Solomon's Song — (" Unter Lilien jener Freuden"); — 
Fried. Lehr, deacon inKothen (o6.1744), (" Mein Jesus nimmtdie Sunder 
au") ; — E. Gottl. Woltersdorf, pastor in Bunzlau, founder of the or- 
phan's house there {oh. 1761). 

(B.) The poets of the Orthodox Tendency. Although the poets of this 
school were in part opponents of the pietists, they yet were all more or 
less incited to a more living apprehension of piety by the spirit which 
proceeded from Spener. Orthodox poets of the strictest observance 
were, Val. E. Loscher and Erdmann Keumeister (pastor and inspector 
of schools at Hamburg, oh. 1756), both being as zealous, and even 
violent in their opposition to the one-sidedness of pietism, as they were 
fresh and strong in their orthodoxy, as spiritual poets also not insigni- 
ficant, without, however, being able to soar to the region of the genuine 
church-hymn, from which they were hindered especially by their apt- 
ness in teaching. Ad. Lehmus, otherwise a pious and spirited man, 


reduced the entire doctrinal system and all the pericopes to verse. 
Benj. Schmolck's (pastor at Schweidnitz, ob. 1737), and Sal. Franck's 
(secretary of the consistory at Weimar, ob. 1725) hymns have the same 
devout and tender expression, that we find among the better pietists. 
Franck composed about 300 hymns ("So ruhest du, meine Ruh'') ; 
Schmolck even more than 1000 (among which the baptismal_^hymn : 
" Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier^'). — To the tendency, mediating between 
pietism and orthodoxy, which was represented in theology by Bcngel 
and Crucius, belong yet several very important poets : John Andr. Rathe, 
Zinzendorf's colleague at Berthelsdorf [ob. 1758), author of the beau- 
tiful hymn: " Ich hahe nun den Grund gefunden;'' John Mentzer, 
preacher in ObeHausitz, [ob. 1734), ("0 dasz ich tausend Zungen 
hiltte'") ; and Fhil. Friedr. Ililler of Wiirtemberg [ob. 17G9), who 
composed more than 1000 hymns ; and Ludw. v. P/ei7^ statesman [ob. 
1784). — In 1751, J. Jacob v. Moser collected a register of 50,000 
printed hymns in the German language. (Cf. | 54, 1.) 

5. CImrcJi Music. — The original inventive fullness of the national 
song (from which proceeded the old church hymn) was already ex- 
hausted in the 17th century, and finally even the taste for and pleasure 
in it gradually disappeared through the influence of the opera. The 
then existing secular national song borrowed its melodies from the 
opera, and in a short time mediated the same also for the spiritual 
song. When usually the composers of hymns, towards the end of the 
17th century, following the pattern of Solomon's Song, struck the key- 
notes of spiritual nuptial love for the bridegroom of souls, they sought 
after corresponding musical sounds, and found them in the flatteringly 
sweet and languishing melodies of the operatic national song of that 
period. Pietism, otherwise so exclusive of everything worldly, followed 
this example in a still more unlimited degree ; and, in fact, the sweet, 
tender, and languishing tones of the secular national song must have 
appeared to it to be better adapted to the peculiarity of its hymns, than 
the old churchly tones, and the joyful, fresh, and powerful jubilee of 
the rythm of the old church music. Thus, through the mighty influ- 
ence of pietism, a large number of this kind of melodies (the so-called 
Zfa/ri5c/ie/i meZocZtes) were introduced to churchly use. Anast. Frey- 
linglimisen is to be regarded as its proper father. He not only himself 
composed many of the so-called Hallischen melodies, but he also col- 
lected the best composed by other musicians, and combined them in 
his book of psalms, which appeared (1704) with the most mournful of 
the older melodies. The ablest musicians of this tendency, in addition 
to him, are : Knorr v. Kosenroth, Adam Drese, Chr. Fr. RicJiter, fur- 
ther, //. George Reuss, rector in Blankenburg [ob. 1716), and J. G. 
mile, cantor in Glancha about the year 1739. 

The musicians of this period had already entirely lost all taste for 
the old choral, and the aria-style had degenerated greatly under the 
influence of pietism, when a master appeared, in whom was gathered 


and concentrated everything grand and glorious that had been contri- 
buted by evangelical, churchly, congregational, and artistic music, a 
musician educated for the kingdom of heaven, like unto a householder, 
•who bringeth forth out of his treasury things new and old ; — in whom 
also the development of church music was concluded for a whole cen- 
tury. This was John Sebast. Bach, since 1723 musical director in the 
Thomas-school in Leipsic {ob. 1750), the most perfect organist that ever 
lived. He returned, with unqualified predilection, to the old choral, 
which no one appreciated and understood more thoroughly than he. 
He harmonized it for the organ, unfolded his inmost being and his 
deepest thoughts in the richest fullness of harmony through four- 
voiced melodies ; and made, after Hammerschmidt's manner, many old 
splendid chorals in the form of a dialogue in the language of Scripture, 
together with recitatives, duetts, and arias, echo with wonderful power 
in his sacred concerts. In the art of fugue, in knowledge of the 
mysteries of harmony, in richness of modulation, etc., he was the 
greatest master of all times. He advanced the aria-style to its most 
glorious and exalted development, and the greatest and most sublime 
thoughts of German Protestantism jtre clothed in heavenly music in 
his passion-oratorios. We have from him, besides, five annual church- 
compositTons for every Sunday and festival. (Cf. 0. L. RUgenfeldt, J. 
Seb. Bach's Leben, Wirk. u. Werke. Lpz. 1850.) — Besides Bach, there 
was also another niaster of unapproachable greatness in the oratorio, 
George Friedr. Handel of Halle, who, however, lived from 1710 to his 
death (1759) mostly in England. lie labored for the opera for more 
than 25 years, and only turned to the oratorio in his later years. Whilst 
his operas have long since been forgotten, he will be distinguished in 
this department for all time. His most perfect oratorio is the "Mes- 
siah ; " Herder called it a Christian epopee in sounds. Of his other 
great oratorios are to be mentioned: " Samson, '' " Judas Maccabee," 
"Joshua," and "Jephtha." (Cf. ^ 81, 2.) 

6. Christian Life and Devotional Literature, — Pietism poured a 
mighty religious stream into the national life, and sustained it by 
zealous preaching, pastoral care, devotional meetings, and an almost 
exuberant devotional literature. Orthodoxy, also, which had been en- 
riched by pietism, manifested a not less efficient and still more sterling 
activity through the ministry, word, and pen. August. Hermann 
Francke [ob. 1727) founded, with seven florins in his hand, but with 
strong faith in his heart, the orphan's house at Halle ; Woltersdorf 
proved himself to be Francke's successor in faith and love, by founding 
the orphan's house at Bunzlau ; the Baron von Canstein {ob. 1719) 
devoted his wealth to founding the Bible institution at Halle, from 
which millions of Bibles have been alreaSy sent forth, etc. The newly 
awakened zeal for missions gives evidence of the stirring religious life 
and interest in the Lutheran church. The most important of the many 
ascetic authors are : /. Anast. Freylinghaxisen (Grundlegung der Theo- 


logic), John Ilqrst, provost at Berlin [oh. 1728), (Guttl. Fuhrung d. 
Seelen ; Waclisthum d. Wiedergebornen ; an excellent hymn-book) ; 
George Nitscli oi Goihix [oh. 1729), (Theol. Sendschreiben) ; John Jacob 
Rambach of Giessen [ob. 1735), distinguished both as a learned theolo- 
gian and as a spiritual poet and pulpit orator (Passionsbetrachtungen, 
etc.); Benj. Schmolck of Sch-\veidnTtz [ob. 1737), (Communionbuch ; 
Morgen-und Abendsegen, etc.) ; Dav. Hollaz, son of the dogmatist 
(Evang, Gnadenordnung) ; George Conrad Rieger of Stutgard [ob. 
1743), (Herzenspostille, etc.); Phil. Steinmetz, Abbot of Klosterbergen 
[ob. 17G3), (Sendschreiben; Sammlung auserlesener materien zum 
Bau des Reiches Gottes, etc.). Among those who were not theologians, 
the following are especially distinguished as ascetic authors : the Sile- 
sian_nobleman Charles Henry voTiJBogatzki/ of Halle [ob. 1774), a man 
who was unweariedly laborious in promoting the kingdom of God in 
every way (Glildenes Schatzkastlein, Tagliches Hausbuch der Kinder 
Gottes, Communionbuch, etc.), and John Jacob von Moser, a celebrated 
statesman and publicist, a man of the most solid and approved piety 
(although the Moravian congregation at Ebersdorf excluded him from 
the Lord's Supper), died in 1785, at Stutgard, after a life filled with 
persecutions and troubles (having been imprisoned for six years in the 
fortress of Hohentwiel). — How great also the need for solid and in- 
structive edification was, is shown by the many popular expositions of 
the Bible, the best of which are the Pfaffische Bibeliverk (Tiibg. 1730), 
the Uirschberger Bibel (1756), by Liebich und Burg, the Synopsis 
biblioth. exeg. or kurzgef. Auszug d. Auslegung, etc. (Lpz. 1741, 6 
Bde. 4to.), by Christoph Starke, and the comprehensive Hallesche Bibel 
by S. J. Baumgarten, Jacob Brucker, Romanus Teller, etc. (Lpz. 1748, 
sq. 19 Bde. 4to.) 

7. Heathen Missions. (Cf. A. H. and C. A. Francke, Berichte d. Dan. 
miss, in Ostind. Halle, 1708-72. — St. Schulz, Leitungen des Hochsten, 
etc. Halle. 1771, sq. 5 Bde. — J. F. Fenger, Gesch. d. tranquebar'schen 
mission, aus d. Dan. v. C. Francke. Grimma, 1845. — K. Graul, Ausbr. 
u. Entwickl. d. chr. K. unter d. Tamulen ; in the hist, theol. Ztschr., 
1850, lU.—J.H.Brauer, Beitr. zur Gesch. d. Heidenbek. H. II.: 
Zeigenbalg. Alt. 1837. — /. C. G. Schmidt, kurzgef. Lebensbeschr. ev. 
miss. Bd. I. and III. Lpz. 1839. — R. Vormbaum, ev. missionsgesch. in 
Biographien, Bd. II. DUsseld. 1852. — H. Egede, Ausf. nachr. v. d. 
gronland. miss. Hamb., 1740. — A. G. Rudelbach, H. Egede ; in s. 
christl. Biogr. Bd. I. Lpz. 1850.) — The revival of practical Chris- 
tianity, which proceeded from pietism, contributed greatly also to the 
extension of Heathen missions, j^ Frederick IV. of Denmark founded 
the mission at Tranquebar for his East India possessions, for which 
Francke sent to him two very excellent and zealous laborers, Henry 
Plutzschau and Barth. Ziegmbalg. The latter translated the New 
Testament into the TamuJ language [ob. 1719). This Danish East 
Indian mission extended its labors also into the English possessions 

252 SECTION III. — THIRD PERIOD (c E N T. 18 A.D.). 

The orphan's house at Halle contributed to it quite a^umber of ex- 
cellent missionaries, the most prominent of whom \xsiS~~VWrftiau Frie- 

y| \ derich Schwarz (06. 1798), the patriarch of Lutheran missions, who 

labored almost 50 years as a faithful missionary. In the last quarter 

»of this century, however, the zeal for this mission expired under the 

/influence of rationalism ; the connection with the orphan's house was 

' dissolved, and the rich Lutheran harvest was gathered almost entirely 

t into the garners of the Anglican church. The Hallean Prof. Callen- 
,^ 6e/;£ founded (1728) a special institute at Ilalle for the conversron of 
the Jews, under whose auspices Stephen /S^c/mjz travelled over Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, to preach the Gospel to the Jews. Already in the 
11th c entu ry the Gospel had been carried to Greenland, since which 
time, however, the church there had fallen into forgetfulness, and, as 
it now appears, had disappeared without any trace. This negligence 
of Christendom pressed heavily upon the heart of the preacher Hans 
— Egede, in Norway ; he did not rest until he, supported by a Danish- 
Norwegian commercial enterprise, could tread upon the icy land with 
his family in 1721. lie Ta'bored unweariedly amid incredible hardships 
and privations, and at the beginning with but little success ; and he 
also remained alone behind when the commercial enterprise was aban- 
doned. In 1733 he had the unexpected joy qf being joined by three 
, Moravi an mis sionaries. Christian David, and the brothers Stach. But, 
alas! this joy was only too soon embittered by the pride of the new- 
i^omers, who wished to model everything after their peculiar Moravian 
principles, and slandered and avoided the brave Egede, who could not 
submit to their demands, as an unholy and unconverted man ; whilst 
he was justly offended at their confusion of justification and sanctifica- 
tion, at their contempt for pure doctrines, and their special, unscrip- 
tural notions and phrases, disposed as he also was, to overlook their 
want of theological education. He repaid their hostility with the most 
self-denying care when they were attacked by a contagious disease. 
I n 173 6, having transferred the prosecution of his work to his son Paid, 
he returned to Denmark, and labored since then in Copenhagen as 
superintendant of a Greenlandis h mi ssionary seminary [oh. 1758). 
(Cf. I 51, 5.) -^ 


Cf. N. L. V. Zinzendorf, XlfSt lo-vtov od. naturelle Reflexiones uber 
sich selbst. 1749. —X1&. Spangenherg, Leben d. Grafen v. Z. Barby, 
1772, 8 Bde.— /. W. Verheek, des Grafen v. Z. Leb. u. Char. Gnadau, 
1845. — L. C. V. Schrautenhach (a younger contemporary of Z., not be- 
longing to the denomination, but closely related to it), Erinner. an. d. 
Gr. Z. (1781). Berlin, 1828, and more thorough; Der G. v. Z. u. d. 
Brudergem. sr. zeit ; herausg. v. F. W. Kolhing. Gnadau, 1851. — 
Barnhagen von Ense, Leb. d. Gr. v. z. in d. Biogr. Denkmalen, Bd. Y., 
Berlin, 1830.— i^r. Pilgram, Leb. u. Wirk. d. Gr. N. L. v. Z., aus (rom.) 


Kath.-Glaubonsprincipien bctrachtet. Lpz., 1857. — Jer. Risler, Leb. 
Spangenberg's, Barby, 1794. — K. F. Ledderhose, Leb. Sp's. Ileidlb., 
184G. — [Ziazendorf), BUdingische Samml. einiger in d. K. G. einsch- 
lagender Schriften. Bud. 1742, ff. 3 Bde. — A. G. Spangenherg, kurzgef. 
hist. Nachr. v. d. gegenw. Verf. d. ev. Brliderunit. 5. A. Gnadau, 1833. 
Dav. Cranz, alte u. neue Brliderhist. Barby, 1774, continued (Bd. 2-4) 
by /• K. Uegner, 1791, ft\ [Kdlbing], Die Gedenktage der erneuerten 
Brudergem. Gnadau, 1821. — C. V. Lynar, Nachr. v. d. Urspr. u. Fortg. 
d. Brlldernuit. Halle, 1781. — F. Liiiz, Biicke in d, Gegenw. u. Yer- 
gangenh. d. ev. Brudergem. Lpz., 184G. — E. W. Croger, Gesch. d. 
erneuerten Briiderkirche. Gnadau, 1852, ff. 3 Bde. — /. F. Schroder, 
d. Gr. V. Z. u. Ilerrnh. od. Gesch, d. Brliderunitat. Nordh. 1857. — A. Ben- 
gel, Abriss d. s. g. Brudergem. Stuttg. 1751, 2 Thle. — /. G. Walcli, 
theol. Bedenk. v. d. Beschaffeuh. d. herrnhlitischen Secti. Frkf. 1747. — 
/. PJi. Fresenius, bewUrht Nachr. v. herrnhlitischen Sachen. 2. A. Lpz. 
174G, ff. 4 Bde. — S. J. Baumgarten, theol. Bedenk. 1741, ff. — N. L. v. 
Zinzendorf, die gegenw. Gestalt. d. Kreuzreiches Christi. Lpz. 1745, 
4to. — A. G. Spangenherg, apol. Schlussschrift, worinnen uber tausend 
Beschuldigg. nach d. AVahrh. beantw. werden. Lpz. 1752, 2 Bde. 4 
Bess., Declaration li. d. Beschuldigg., etc. Lpz. 1751, 4to. — Max. Gobel, 
Gesch. d. Inspirationsgemeinden, lY. Der herrnhlitische Periodus 
1730-43 ; in the hist, theol. Ztschr. 1855, I. — A. Christiani, d. Gr. 
Zinzend. u. d. Sattler Rock ; in d. Mittheill. fur. d. ev. K. Russl., 
1855, Y. [The Moravian Manual. E. De Schweinitz. Philada. 1859]. 

The talented Count Zinzendorf, captivated already as ^, boy, 
glowing with burning love towards the Saviour, by the idea of a 

fc spiritual fraternity of the friends of Jesus, obtained an opportu- 
nity to realize this idea in a wa^j)eculiar to himself, by the arri- 

V- val of several M orav ian exiles upon his estates. Upon Hutberg 
he cast the mustard-seed of his youthful dreams into fruitful 
ground, and it soon grew up to a statelj tree under the unweary- 
ing culture of the noble gardener, and its vigorous sprouts were 
not only transplanted^to all the Protestant countries of Europe^ 
but also to all other parts of the world. The communion which 
he founded was called the '' renewed fraternity,^'' but in fact it 
was not a renewed, but a new fraternity, the most faithful copy 
of his altogether origi nal p eculiarity, which for a time ran into 

,^ unheard-of extravagances. That the communion did not perish 
by these extravagances, that its fraternization with fanatics and 
persons professing to be inspired, its sectarian establishment of a 
special covenant with the Saviour, and the not too humble ima- 
gination of their Philadelphian position in the kingdom of God, 
did not plunge it into bottomless fanaticism, and that it was able 
IL— 22 


to preserve itself upright upon the slippery and dangerous ground 
of its marria^-mystery, is a phenomenon that stands alone in 
Church History, and testifies stronger than everything else, how 
deeply and firmly the originator and the communion were rooted 
in the Gospel. The count himself laid aside, many of his extra- 
vagances, and what remained were eradicated so far as they were 
not connected with the fundamental idea of the special covenant 

\, by his successor, the prudent and circumspect Spangenberg. He 
succeeded, not indeed in abolishing the sectarian character of the 
fraternity, but in modifying and concealing it. A great advan- 
tage to the fraternity in this view, was the contrast of its faith- 
ful adhesion to the foundation of salvation, with the general 

) a posta cy from faith which prevailed everywhere in the Church. 
In this period of general apostacy it preserved^he faith of many 
pious souls, and afforded them a welcome_refuge, with rich spiritual 
nourishment and care. But with the_resuscitation of religious 

1 . lifejn the 19th century, it lost more and more its significance for 

' Europe, on account of its adhesion to its old one-sidedness, its 

continuing indifi'erence to science, and aversion^ to conflict. In 

one respect, however, its efficiency is greatly felt, even to the 

- present day, — that is, its heathen missions, and its widely ramified 

system of education also deserves special acknowledgment. 

1. The Founder of the Moravians, Nicholas Louis Count von Zin- 
zendorf and Pottendorf, was born in the year 1700, at Dresden. Sps^er 
was among his sponsors. As his father died early, and his mother 
married a secojid time, his pious, pietistically-inclined^ grandmother, a 
woman of Gersdorf, undertook the training of the boy, who was en- 
dowed with rich gifts of the head and heart. With her he learned, 
already in his tenderest youth, to seek his happiness in the most inti- 
mate personal communion with the Lord. But her training was directed 
only towards nourishing his religious feelings, and neglected to confine 
them within the limits of wh^olesome discipline, which was doubly ne- 
cessary for his bold, rich, and aspiring spirit. At this time already 
the tendency of his whole life fixed itself. When 10 years old he 
entered the grammar-scliool at_ Halle under the direction of A. H. 
Fraiicke, where the pietistic fundamental idea of thejaecessity of an 
ecclesiola in ecclesia, took root in his soul. Already in his 15th year 
he sought to realize it by founding a 7nustard-seed order (Matt. 13 : 13) 
among his felloAV-pupils. Having completed his preparatory studies, 
his uncle and guardian, who began to have scruples about his pietistic 
extravagances, sent hira to orthod ox W ittenberg to study law. Here 
he at first found a kind of satisfaction, a morsel of martyr-Rappiness, 


in swimming, as a rigid pietist, against the orthodox stream. Never- 
theless, his residence at Wittenberg exerted a wholesome influence on 
him, for it liberated him insensibly from the narrow-mindedness of 
Hallean pietism, which, at all events, did not accord with the jpa tholic 
tendency of his spirit. The fundamental idea of pietism (ecclesiola in 
ecclesia) he, meanAvhile, held fast ; but it assumed in his spirit a form 

■- so grand and comprehensive, such as pietism was not able to produce. 
His efforts to bring to pass a personal conference, and if possible a 

^ union between the Hallean and Wittenberg leaders, were fruitless. 
In 1719 he left Wittenberg, and during a two years' tour came into 
personal contact with the most distinguished Christian men of all con- _ 
fessions and sects (in Paris with Noailles and the Ja nsenists). After 
his return home (1721), he entered thecivil service of^Saxony, in ..^ 
obedience to the desire of his relatives. But a religious genius such 
as Zinzendorf could find no satisfaction in such service, and soon an 
opportunity was afforded him to realize the plan which ruled all his 
thoughts and feelings. - - 

2. The Founding of the Moravians (1722-27). — Already the SmaK^ 
caldian, and much more the Thirty-years' war, inflicted unspeakable 
calamities and persecution upon the Bohemian and Moravian Bretliren. 
Many of them sought a refuge for their faith and life in emigration to ■/ 
Poland and Prussia (among them also Bishop John Amos Comenius, . 
oh. 1611) • Those that remained^ were exposed to the most wicked 

- oppression, even after the Westphalian peace. They could only serve 
God after the faith of their fathers in their house s secr etly and in con- .• 
stant danger of death ; externally and publicly they must belong to 

>* th^. Romish Church. Thus gradually the light of the Gospel went out 
in the dwellings of their descendants, and the remembrance of the 
faith and the Church of their fathers was preserved only in a tradition 
which continually faded more and more. A Morayi anca rpenter, Chris- 

\tian _Dav id, born and educated in the Roman Catholic Church, but 
awakened on his_trayels through evangelical preaching, rel^adl ed, at ^ 
'the beginning of the 18th_century, the dying flame in several families. 
They emigrated under D^iiid's guidance, and sought a refuge upon the 
.« estates of Count Zinzendorf in Lausatia ^1722). The count was absent \"t <^^,' 
at the time, but his steward, with the approbation of the coun t's gr and- 
mother, allowed them tosettle on Ilutberg^near Berthelsdorf. Uttering 
the words of Ps. 84 : 4, Christian David struck the axe into the tree, 
which was cut down to build the first house. Soon the village of 

„^Herrnhut sprung up, and became the ,_cen tre of the society, which Zin- 
zendorf now made every effort to establish. Gradually other Moravian 
exiles gathered in ; but a much greater number of religiously awakened 
people of all nations flocked thither. Pietists, Separatists, Calvinists, 
Schwenkfeldians, etc. Zinzendorf did not contemplate a separation 
^rom the Lutheran Church. The colonists were placed in the parish 

» of the excellent preacher_^o^/i6 of Berthelsdorf (^ 46, 4). It was no 


easy matter to organize such a mixed crowd ; and only the glowing 
enthusiasm of Ziuzendorf for the idea of a collection of souls, his 
eminent talent for organization, the wonderful elasticity and tenacity 
of his will, the extraordinary prudence, circumspection, and wisdom 
of his understanding, were able to hold the diverse elements together, 
and to avoid an open rupture amid the constantly occurring dissensions. 
The Moravians demanded the re-establishment of the old Moravian 
constitution and discipline ; and of the other elements, each one desired 
that to be placed in the foreground, which was the most important to 
it. All only sympathized with each other in the aversion to holding 
fast simply to the Lutheran Church and its preacher Kothe. Thus the 
.^ coiint saw himself compelled to create a new and separate society of 
unity. The old Moravian constitution did not specially commend itself 

/ to him, but the lot decided in favor of it, and the consideration of be- 
ing able to appear as the continuation of an ante-reformatory martyr- 
church, had also its weight. Thus then Ziuzendorf formed a constitu- 
tion with old Moravian forms and names, but pervaded throughout 

^ with a new spirit, and ruled by quite other ten dencies. The Moravians 
did not venture to condemn the difference ; the most able among them, 
who perhaps discovered it, were silenced by prominent positions ; in- 
dividual discontents left Herrnhut. On the basis of this constitution, 
J chartered by Ziuzendorf, the colony now constituted itself, Aug. 13, 
i 1727, under the name of Renewed Moravian Church. 

3. The Progress of the Church to Zinzendorf's Death (1727-60). — 
Immediately after the organization of the Church or Society, it began 
to manifest an astonishing activity in propagating itself, the life and 
soul of which Ziuzendorf was, and remained until his death. New 
congregations were organized in Germany, Holland, England, Ireland, 
Denmark, Norway, and North America ; members of the society were 
,sent to Protestant countries to form smaller societies among the disas- 
pora within the established churches, but with Moravian spirit and 
forms, thus for instance with special success in Livonia and Esthonia 
since 1729. Ziuzendorf was examined (1734) at Tubingen as a candi- 
date for the ministry, and received (1737) from the hand oi Jahlonshy, 
court-preacher at Berlin, who was at the same time Bishop of the Mo- 
ravians, episcopal ordination, which the same had given already two 
years bef >re to another member of the fraternity, David Nitschmann 
(a wheelwright by trade) ; as also generally increasing importance was 
attached to episcopal succession in proportion as the connection with 
England became more intimate. Meanwhile, the movements of the 
society attracted the greatest attention. The government of Saxony 
sent (173G) a commission to Herrnhut, of which Val. E. Lbscher was a 
member. Although this commission made, upon the whole, a favorable 
. - report, nevertheless the originator of the society was banished from 
the country. This exile continued for ten years. Ziuzendorf, like all 
religious fugitives then, fled to Wetteraw. lie settled with his little 


congregation at Ronneburg near BiAdingen, established flourishing 
i congregations at Marienborn and Herrnhaag, and made extensive 
jourriejs in Europe and America. This period of exile is the period 
of the greatest outward extension, but also (especially the years 1742- 
^ 50) the period of the greatest internal dangers. The historians of the 
society designate these years as the sifiing-period. At the same time a 
real flood of controversial treatises and lampoons began to break upon 
the society and its founders, partly in an earnest and dignified tone, 
with a sharply penetrating criticism from the side of most honorable, 
worthy, and learned representatives of Lutheran theology [John Phil. 
Freseriius^__B. J- Baamgarien, J. G. Walch, Abbot Steinmetz, Alb. 
Bengel, et al.), partly in a coarse, offensive, and scandalous manner, 
ex. qr. by /. Leonh. Froreisen ( Abschilderung des Mahomet's und des 
Zinzendorf's als zeines heutigen Affen. Strasb. 1747, etc.), the latter 
being done especially also by members who had withdraAvn from the 
society, concerning whom we may presuppose the most exact know- 
ledge of the internal condition of the society, but also the strongest 
disposition to misrepresent and ridicule it. (Cf. ex. gr. B. Alex. Volck, 
towrLtclerk of Budingen, das entdeckte Geheimnisz d. Bosh. d. herrnh. 
Secte. Frkf. 1749, ff., and //. Joach. Bothe, tailor in Berlin, Zuverl. 
Nachr. des entd. herrnh. Ehegeheimnisses. Berl. 1751, 2 Bde.) It is, 
however, nevertheless true, that the count and his society at this time 
j gaYJB-jQjnly too much matter and occasion for misrepresentation, perver- 
I sion, and slander, by extravagances and peculiarities of the most 
' obnoxious and dangerous kind. To this period belongs, first of all, the 
"celebrated fiction of the special covenant — the Pandora-box of all other 
errors — and the bold political stratagem (1741) by which Zinzendorf 
•..made Leonliard Dober to "succeed" the Lord Jesus in the oflice of 
chief-elder. To this period belong also the greatest literary fruitfulness 
of the count, together with the development of his peculiar theological 
views, modes of speech, and doctrines ; the composition and public use 
in worship of the notorious, later expelled, spiritual hymns, with their 
indescribably foolish trifling, and their partly blasphemous, partly 
obscene images and analogies ; further, the mountebank laudation of 
his society, the not always honest proselytism, the introduction and 
practice of a very questionable and shameless matrimonial discipline ; 
finally, the so-called elegancies [i. e. excepting joyful festivities, whose 
centre was the cuUus of the " Seitenhohlchens," with illuminated or 
transparent representations and tasteless emblems or decorations of 
the same, etc.), such as the ''mite-societies" for preparing these ele- 
gancies, towards which especially the congregation at Herrnhaag, the 
model for all the others, contributed the non-plus-ultra of silly insi- 
pidity. Even the pietistic party, whose theory of repentance and con- 
version was certainly and justly offensive to the society, opposed it on 
account of its blessed resting in the favor of its Saviour, which inclined 
to Antinomism. (Cf. K. H. v. Bogatzky, Aufr. Declaration u. e. gegen 
Y2 * R 


ihn herausgek. herrnhutische Schrift. mit e. Vorr. v. Abt. Stcinmetz. 
Halle, 1751. — G. Terstegen, Warnungsschreiben wider die Leichtsin- 
nigk. sc. der Herrnhuter, im weg d. Wahrh. St. V.). The controversial 
treatises of inspired fanatics in Wetteraw, with whom Zinzendorf for- 
merly fraternized, but had now completely broken, brought things to 
light, of which those without had no idea, and which greatly compro- 
mised Zinzendorf 's sincerity and integrity (| 49, 2). — All this opposi- 
tion, odious as it for the most part aauis, produced meanwhile a salutary 
effect. The count became gradually more careful as to himself, more 
cautious in his addresses, more discreet in his conduct, removed several 
of the worst excrescences in doctrine and practice, and exterminated 
also in great part the fanatical element. In 1747, finally, the go- 
vernment of Saxony revoked the edict of exile against the founder of ■ 
the society ; and as it two years later explicitly accepted the Augsburg \ 
Confession, it attained formal recognition in Saxony. At the same 
time it was recognized in England by an act of parliament (1749) as a 
church entitled to equal privileges with that of the Anglican Episcopal, 
with pure episcopal succession. Zinzendorf managed all the important 
matters of the society until his death, and it adhered to him with child- 
like confidence, and was a faithful copy of his character, inheriting not 
only his fervor, but also his extravagances in forms of expression, of 
doctrine, and of life, lie died (1760) in the perfect enjoyment of that 
happiness which his glowing love to the Saviour had prepared for him. 

4. Zinzendorf s Plan and Labors. — The pietistic idea of the neces- 
sity of an ecclesiola in ecclesia gave him the first impulse to the work 
of his life. But the weakness of this tendency could not remain con- 
cealed to his sharp and penetrating spirit. With clear vision he looked 
through the little, narrow-minded doings of Pietism, which never could 
accomplish anything rightly with its establishment of institutions, its 
unscriptural methods of piety, and theories of conversion and sealing. 
Zinzendorf, therefore, desired not a conventicle, but a society ; not an 
ideal, invisible, but a real, visible Church ; not a narroAV-minded me- 
thodism, but a free, rich dominion of the Christian spirit. He did not 
aim at first at the conversion of the world, nor at the reformation of 
the Church, but at the collection and conservation of souls belonging 
to the Saviour. But he hoped to build a reservoir, into which all the 
rivulets of the water of life would flow together, and from which he 
would be able to water the Avhole world. And as he succeeded so well 
in forming a society, and it had progressed so rapidly, he was perfectly 
convinced that it was the Philadelphia of Revelations (3 : 7 ff.), thPvt 
^ with it had begun the Philadelphian period of Church History, concern- 
ing which all the prophets and apostles had prophesied. His plan was 
designed originally for all Christendom, and he took steps to realize it 
in this form. To build a bridge between the Roman Catholic Chumh 
and his society, he published (1727) a small Christian- Catholic hymn 
and prayer-book, mostly taken from Angelus Silesius' " Holy Delight 


of the Soul/' and sketched a letter to the pope (published later by 
Walch), with which he intended to send this book to him. Zinzeu- 
dorf did not positively deny the whole matter, and pronounced the 
letter to be a pasquil ; but Spangenberf^ admitted that the count had 
sketched it, but iiever_8ent it ofi". He also endeavored to interest the 

--Grefik^CJ_iurch„iji his society by writing; to the patriarch and to the 
Eniprcss.,Elizabcth of liussia, whereby he brought the Greek descent 
of the Moravian brethren to bear. Practicall}'^, hoAvever, his collection 
of souls was confined within the limits of the Protestant Church, and 
within these limits contributions were made to it from all confessions, 
sects, and communions. He was personally attached sincerely to the 
Lutheran Church and its characteristic doctrines. But in a society 
which was in principle designed to be the rendezvous of the pious out 
of all nations, doctrine and creed could not be the uniting and cement- 
ing bund. It could only form a communion of love, not of faith. The 
inmost kernel of Lutiieranism, reconciliation by the blood of Christ, 
was preserved, and even made to be the proper living element of the 
societ}'-, though only as the blessed yee?i«(/ of his blood. But this con- 
tinued to be the properly Lutheran fund in the society, which also, 
when^it was divided into confessional tropes (into the Moravian, Lu- 
theran, and Reformed trope), remained in all the common basis. This 

-Njdivision" first took place in 1744, and was occasioned by the founding 
of the new congregations at Marienborn and Herrnhaag in Wctteraw, 
in Avhich the lleformed element was predominant. The uniting head 
of the three divisions was the count himself, who, in this capacity, bore 
the title Ordinarius. But this matter of division was also only some- 
thing external, and introduced no confessional precision into the so- 
ciety; it was consequently also of no duration. The later adhesion to 
the Augsburg Confession (1749) was only an act of policy, which ob- 
tained civil recognition, otherwise it was without any efi"ect. The 
society remained, as it had been before, without and indifferent to any 
confession. As now Zinzendorf 's society rejected the unity of confession 
as a principle of communion, and as no permanent communion can bo 
based on a mere feeling of love, consequently nothing remained to the 
founder but to make the Constitution the bond of unity instead of the 
confession. The forms of this constitution were borrowed, from exter- 
nal considerations, from the Old Moravian Chnrch-disciipline, but not 
Bradacz's, but Zinzendorf's spirit filled and ruled them. The old 
Moravian constitution was an episcopal-clerical one, and started from 
the idea of the Church ; the new one was essentially Presbyterian, and 
started from the idea of the congregation, and that a congregation of 
saints. Moravian bishops are only titular ones ; they have no dioceses, 
lo^church governmentj, nor ban. All this resides in the power of the 
Unity-elders, among whom the lay-element is decidedly predominant. 
Further, Moravians have no pastors, but only preaching brethren ; the 
care of souls is assigned to the elders and their assistants. In addition 


to that half-Lutheran and this pseudo-Moravian element, the society 
had also as basis a Donatist element. This consisted already in the 
fundamental idea of a collection and communion of only true children 
of God, and found its completion as well as its dogmatic establishment 
in the conclusion of a Special covenant with the Saviour on Sept. IG, 
1741, in London. The " Gedenktage" (p. 241, ff.) report the following 
concerning it : Leonliard Dober had filled the office of a General-elder 
for several years. But it was observed at a synod held in London that 
lie had not the proper talents for this office. He now asked to be dis- 
missed. In the anxiety to refill the office, " it occurred to all at the 
same time, to accept the Saviour for it.^' They looked after the watch- 
word of the day, and found Isaiah 45 : 11 (a passage not correctly 
translated by Luther). " Instantly we all resolved to accept no other 
than him as General-elder, and he gave us to understand that He ap- 
proved (How?). "We asked for permission; we obtained it. (How?). 
The question teas not, whether the Saviour was generally the shepherd 
and bishop of our souls ; but our purpose and concern was : that he 
should make a special covenant with his insignificant people, and re- 
ceive us as his special jiossession, take care of all our concerns, specially 
vratch over us, personally unite himself with each member of the society, 
and do everything in perfection that our hitherto elder had done among 
us in weakness. '^ In a circular addressed to " the Church of the Lamb,'' 
Zinzcndorf announced the unheard-of favor which had been bestowed 
upon them ; — and, as is customary on the accession of a new king to 
the throne, a letter of grace proclaimed " a universal forgiveness of 
sins, committed either against the society or its members," and ofi'ered 
" all apostates, except one, whom the Lord according to his wonderful 
and inscrutable counsel had excluded," restoration to the society. In 
America, the congregation at Philadelphia issued a proclamation to all 
Christians, which begins with the words : To-day a visible Church of 
the Lord is finally seen and recognized here ; we constitute the body 
of the Lord ; hither to us, all ye who belong to the Lord ! 

Among the numberless extravagances perpetrated by Zinzendorf and 
the society, during the so-called sifting-period, which, however, Zin- 
zendorf himself partly abandoned later, the following are the most 
remarkable and obnoxious : (1.) The doctrine of the maternal office of 
the Holy Ghost. Zinzendorf viewed the Holy Trinity as "man, wife, 
and child" (" papa, mamma, and their little flame, brother lambkin"). 
The Holy Ghost fills the position of mother (God the Father's eternal 
wife, heart-mamma) ; his maternal office is exercised in a three-fold 
way : at the eternal generation of the Son of God, at the conception 
of the man Jesus, at the regeneration of believers. (2.) The doctrine 
'Of the paternal office of Jesus Christ (according to Isaiah 9 : 6.) The 
creation of the world was accomplished alone and exclusively by the 
Son (the "blessed potter" according to Gen. 2 : 7), therefore Christ is 
our special fiither, our direct father. The father of our Lord Jesus 


Christ is only "what the world calls a father-in-law, a grandfather.'' 
(3.) Concerning the earthly life of our Saviour, Zinzendorf, in order to 
make prominent and clear the depth of his humiliation, loved to use 
the most disrespectful expressions (journeyman-carpenter, journey- 
man, he hung upon the cross as a gallows-bird, etc.). (4.) lie spoke 
equally disrespectfully also of the "miserable fisherman's, shepherd's, 
and visitator stylo, of the classical obscurity and rabbinical shoulder- 
minology of the Holy Scriptures. On the other hand, he pronounced 
his society to be a living Bible. (5.) The theory and practice of the 
marriage-mystery, according to Eph. 5 : 32. The society and every 
single soul in it is the spiritual bride of Christ, and to make the inti- 
mate character of this relation clear, marriage-life is depicted even to 
obscenity, and applied to the spiritual marriage with Christ, especially 
in the hymns. But Christ is also the proper husband in corporeal 
matrimony. The begetting of children is a work of Christ (belongs 
to his paternal office) ; earthly husbands are only " his procurators, in 
whose favor he has resigned it ; " they are the vice-christs, vlce-meu 
of the wives. Marriage is a real sacrament, sanctified thereto by the 
circumcision of Christ and the opening of his side with the spear. The 
blood of Christ shed thereby is the oil of matrimony, and the begetting 
of children is a holy, divine work, that should be performed by true 
Christians without any sensation of fleshly lust, and consequently also 
without shame. The " dog-principiis tolerated" by the apostle (1 Cor. 
7 : 9), which are now only practised by negroes and islanders, must be 
denied admission into the society. To this end the contraction of mar- 
riage and the copula carnalis were placed under the special supervision 
of the stewards of the society ; and the latter was done for a time by 
the newly married amidst the singing and prayer of the society assem- 
bled in an adjoining room. 

Zinzendorf, almost apotheosized by his adherents, has not met with 
a proper judgment, either as to his greatness or his weakness, from 
his opponents. His greatness lay in his heart glowing with love to the 
Saviour ("J have only one passion, that is He, only He"), in the 
universal love, with which he gladly embraced all believers, in order 
to gather them beneath the cross. This greatness, which he possessed, 
is not even acknoAvledged by his most estimable opponents, among 
Avhom Bengel is by. f^r the most important. l\\s weakness consisted 
almost less m the various extravagances of which he was guilty, than 
in the fact thaj^ he regarded himself as being called to establish a 
society. But apart from this, his labors bear the stamp of grandeur, 
en account of the great self-sacrifice, unwearied energy, and self-deny- 
ing faithfulness with which he performed them. He devoted his whole 
life, soul, heart, and wealth, to his self-chosen calling. The advan- 
tages, also, which birth, position, and high secular culture offered him, 
he knew how to make subservient to his mission. He was personally 
persuaded of his divinejcalling, and as he was not accustomed to bow 


to the written Word of God, but interpreted it according to his subjec- 
tive canon : *' It appears so to me," and made only this (together with 
the lot) the rule of his life and labors, it is easily explicable how he, 
in spite of great spiritual illumination and a rich fund of Christian 
sense, could fall into fanatical errors. And from this relation to 
his calling, the advancement of which by all imaginable means he 
had always and only in view, is explained also single impurities in 
his life (especially want of strict truthfulness, where it might appear 
to be injurious to his cause). Very much of what was crooked and 
perverse in his character must also be attributed to the distracted age 
in which he lived. Zinzendorf ^s writings, of which there are more 
than 100, are marked by originality, genial thoughts, and peculiar 
phrases. Among his more than 2000 hymns, many of them improvised 
in the act of worship, of which Alb. Knapp published (Stuttg. 1845) 
700 of the best, there are many possessing great fervor and sweetness, 
some of really poetic merit, a few also (*' Jesu, geh voran,^^ "Du unser 
auserwahltes Haupt^'), which have found their way into the hymn- 
books of the evangelical Church. The largest portion of them are mere 
rhymes, a repertorium of theological and spiritual extravagances. 

5. The Moravians since Spangenberg's Labors. — The society owes its 
present form to the prudent, wise, and temperate bishop, Aug. Gottlieb 
Spangenberg [ob. 1792), who, after Zinzendorf's death, obtained a 
superior influence, and is justly regarded as its second founder. It 
received from him the measured forms which yet characterise it. The 
constitution was revised and perfected at the synod of Marienborn 
(1764). Zinzendorf's monarchical position was changed into the con- 
ference of unity-elders, and Spangenberg removed the yet remaining 
excrescences of fanaticism. But the fundamental error of a special 
covenant remained untouched, and still constituted the fundamental 
presupposition of everything that the society as such thought, taught, 
wrote, did, and accomplished, — and it continues to celebrate on the 
16th Sept., " the blessed experience of the elder's office of Jesus," as 
its proper birth-day and special Whitsuntide. In the statutes of the 
evang. Brlidr.-Unit. Gnadau (1819, ^ 5), it defines itself in distinction 
from the existing churches as a "society of true children of God, as a 
family of God, which has Jesus for its head," — in the Hist. Nachricht. 
V. d. Verfass. d. Brdr.-Unit. Gnadau, 1823, ^4, as "a collection of 
living members of the invisible body of Jesus Christ," and in its 
" Litanei am Ostermorgen" (Gesangb. Nr. 210), in immediate connec- 
tion with the creed of universal Christendom is placed as fourth, spe- 
cially Moravian credo : '* / believe, that our brethren N. N. and our 
sisters N. N. (N. B. Here persons who have died at the place since the 
previous Easter are thought of by name) have gone to the upper con- 
gregation, and have entered into the joy of their Lord." However, 
the synod of 1848 made a change in this article of faith, but not so 
great as to abandon the principle. But it is certain that the society 


did not, in a public way, cause the consciousness of its special election 
to appear so prominently in the foreground. This considerate and 
purified Moravianism received, in Spangenberg's Idea Fidei fratrum, 
a dogmatic expression, which was connected witli the Lutheran doc- 
trine, but not the less thoroughly penetrated by the above-mentioned 
fundamental presupposition. Oul}'^ a few new societies were established 
after Zinzendorf 's death, and none of these were of much importauco. 
Rather before this event, the flourishing congregations in Wetteraw 
were destroyed and scattered (1750) by the ruler of the country. Count 
von Isenburg-Budiugen (because they refused to take the oath of alle- 
giance). The labors among the Diaspora in Livonia and Esthoniaf 
after the first attempt to establish the society there (1729-43), had 
ended in the banishment of the Moravians, were more successful in 
the second half of this century, and assumed a form here as nowhere 
else in a national church. They organized here formally a church 
within the church, whose members, sustained by the conviction that 
they had been added to " the little band'' of the elect by the infallible 
voice of the Lord in the lot, gave infinite trouble to the orthodox cler- 
gymen of the country, especially of Livonia who saw the destructive 
character of this nuisance, and testified against it from the Word of 
God. This testimony manifested its conquering power here also, and 
Moravianism began to reform (1857) not only too late, but also in too 
lukewarm a manner, to save its institutions in Livonia from the certain 
destruction which impended over them. (Cf. Th. Harnack, d. luth. K. 
Livland's u. d, herrnhut. Brlidergemeine, in der kirchl. Zeitschr. v. 
Kleifoth u. Mejer 1855, V. VL 1857, IX. X.) 

With regard to the doctrinal peculiarity of the Moravians, the first 
thing to be made prominent is, that freedom from all creeds is a prin- 
ciple. The acceptance of the Augustana, in 1749, was not a real 
appropriation of them ; and how merely external the relation of the 
society to them still is, is shown by the synodic indulgence of 1848. 
Consequently, it is difficult to say what the doctrines of the Moravians 
are. If we confine ourselves to Spangenberg's Idea Fidei, and to the 
sermons and devotional works, then their doctrinal views do not by 
any means appear to be either un-Lutheran or anti-Lutheran, but 
rather such as contain neither the extensive fulness nor the intensive 
wealth of the Lutheran doctrines, — and BengeVs sharp criticism : that 
the Moravians pluck ofi" the leaves from the entire tree of wholesome 
doctrines, expose that which is most hidden, and even divide this in 
half, is even yet perfectly true. First of all they repudiate science 
(according to a wrong interpretation and application of Eph. 3 : 19) 
as unnecessary to the appropriation of redemption, and seek to appre- 
hend and preserve salvation by direct faith and love. As regards the 
objects of faith, the Son (the God-man) is regarded as the exclusive 
agent by whom salvation is applied and accomplished, so that the re- 
lations of the Father and the Holy Ghost to redemption are entirely 

264 SECTION Til. THIRD PERIOD (C E N T. 1 8 A. D.) . 

ignored. Further, entire redemption is again attributed, in a one-sided 
way, to the sufferings and death of the Son ; and the other not less 
essential side of the same, which is grounded in his life and resurrec- 
tion, is left out of view, or rather its fruits are likewise traced to his 
atoning death. Consequently not only justification, but also sanctifi- 
cation, are attributed exclusively to the death of Christ, and this is 
apprehended not so much as a legal satisfaction (without, however, 
expressly denying this directly), as a divine manifestation of love, 
which awakens reciprocal love. Redemption is viewed as emanating 
solely from the sufferings and death of Christ, and as in this aspect 
the justice of God comes less into view than His grace and love, so also 
the Gospel is made prominent to the almost entire exclusion of the law 
(almost to Antinomianism). Sermon and doctrine should be directed 
towards exciting pious feelings of love, and thus promote a certain 
religious sentimentality. The weak side of the society is, accordingly, 
its inahility to religiously develop the whole man with all his capacities 
and powers, and to make the entire fulness of the gospel contribute to 
this end; — its strong side, on the other hand, is its inwardness, and 
even this is unsound, because it is penetrated with the idea of a special 
covenant with the Lord. 

The peculiarity of their ivorship also contributed towards exciting 
pious feeling, including pleasant sacred music, affecting melodies, rich 
liturgical service, love-feasts (agap^e, with tea, rusk, and the singing 
0^ (ihovals), feet-washing, and the frate7^nal kiss at the communion, etc. 
The daily watch-words (from the 0. T.) and doctrinal texts (from the 
N. T.) are designed to control and direct the feelings and meditations 
of each day, and are regarded as being a kind of oracle both for the 
congregation and for private life. Already in 1734 the society pos- 
sessed a hymn-book of its own, with 972 hymns. The most of these 
hymns proceeded from the society itself, and are a faithful copy of its 
condition at that time. It contained, besides, the Bohemian and Mo- 
ravian hymns translated by M. Weiss, and also many old choice hymns 
of the evangelical church ; the latter, however, were most miserably 
mutilated and abbreviated. By degrees (to 1749) twelve appendices 
and four additions were made to it, so that the number of hymns in- 
creased to 2357. The one-sidedness of the emotional tendency dege- 
nerated, especially in these additions, and most of all in the twelfth, 
to the most offensive caricature, in the insipid, and more than childish 
trifling with the blood and wounds of Christ, etc. Zinzendorf himself 
discovered this degeneracy in time, struck off the twelve appendices in 
1751, and prepared in London a new revised hymn-book (the so-called 
London hymn-book). Under Spangenberg's superintendence of the 
society, Christian Gregor (at that time music-director, later Bishop, 
oh. 1801) undertook the publication of the hymn-book yet in use. With- 
out possessing poetical talent, he yet did good service by retouching 
and abbreviating the hymns then in use. He retained 542 of Zinzen- 


dorf 's hymns, and added not less than 308 of his own pious rhymes. 
This " Neue Gesangbuch der Briidergemeinen'^ appeared in 1778 ; in 
1784, a book of chorals, likewise prepared by Gregor, was added to it. 
Zinzendorf is the chief religious poet of the society. The count's only, 
early deceased (1752) son, Christian Renatus (commonly called Chris- 
iel) bequeathed to the society a number of hymns (among which is : 
" Die wir uns allhier beisamen finden"). The other numerous reli- 
gious poets are of no importance. Worthy of special mention is Span- 
genberg's hymn : " Ileil'ge Einfalt ! Gnadenwunder ! " — The Melodies 
were of the Hallean type, but strayed even more than these into the 
sentimental, emotional, and unchurchly, until in 1784 Gregor, by his 
new choral-book, brought this tendency within the limits of the renewed 
spirit of the society. 

The Christian Practical Life of the society, after it had come out of 
its sifting period, purified through Spangenberg's efibrts, manifested 
itself in "an almost monkish contraction of civil and social life," with 
stereotyped phrases and peculiar usages, even as to clothing (the caps 
of the wives, widows, and maidens). Characteristic of the society is 
further the blessed, quietistic feeling of favor in personal communion 
with the Saviour, the peace, which avoided all conflict and controversy, 
the prudent, measured cutting-out of the whole life, etc. The separa- 
tism, conditioned by the special covenant, gave for a time an apparent 
justification to the unbelief that reigned in the Protestant Church. 
Since the revival of Christian life in the Church, this separatism has 
also, at least in its external relations, receded into the background, 
but has not by any means entirely disappeared. The society still re- 
gards itself as being the preferred and favored people of the Lord. 

Finally, with regard to the Form of Church Government, Christ him- 
self is the chief elder of the Church, who governs it by means of the 
lot. The leaders of the society at least hold fast to the use of the lot, 
in spite of the opposition which has arisen in the society within several 
decades. With it the special covenant would lose all significance, and 
the existence of the society outside of the Church all justification. The 
lot is used in marriages, in filling ecclesiastical offices, in sending forth 
missionaries, in receiving into the society, etc. Nevertheless, the so- 
ciety has permitted a relaxation of the practice in marriages, inasmuch 
as it is only used with consent of the candidates of matrimony, and the 
result is not regarded as binding, which, in fact, involves a contradic- 
tion and an abandonment of the principle. The administration of the 
afiairs of the society resides in the Unity-elders' conference (with three 
departments, one for ecclesiastical and educational afiairs, another for 
economical afiairs, and a third for missions). From time to time Gene- 
7'al Synods are also convoked, possessing legislative authority. The 
society is divided into separate bands, the married, the widowed, the 
unmarried brethren, the maidens and children, with special stewards, 
living for the most part also in separate houses, and holding special 
II. —23 


religious services in addition to those that are general. The ecclesias- 
tical officers are divided into bishops, presbyters, deacons, deaconesses, 
and acolytes. 

6. Heathen Missions. (Cf. D. Cranz, Hist. v. Gronl. Barby, 1762, 
2 Thle. — G. A. Oldendorp, Gesch. d. Miss. d. ev. Br. auf den Caraib, 
Inseln. Barby, 1777, 2 Bde. — G. H. Loskiel, Gesch. d. Miss. d. ev. Br. 
unter d. Indianern in Nordamerika, Barby, 1789. — F. L. Kiilhing, 
Gesch. d. Miss, in Griinl. u. Labrador. Gnadau, 1831, 2 Bde.) — Zeal 
for missions was early kindled in Zinzendorf s heart by meeting with 
a West In dian negro at Copenhagen. He laid the subject before his 
young society, and already in 1732 the first Moravian missionaries, 
Leonh. Doher and Dav. Nitsclimann, were sent to St. Thom as ; and in 
the next following years the missions of the society were extended in 
every direction over Greenland (^ 46, 7), North America, almost all 
the West India islands. South America, Kapland_(among the Hotten- 
tots), Eastlndia, Labrador (among the Esquimau'x), etc. The mis- 
sionary labors of the Moravians constitute the most beneficent and 
honorable portion of their history. Their mode of missionary opera- 
tions was cliiefly adapted to uncivilized nations, and only to such. In 
East In^ia ex. gr. they were not able to accomplish anything. The 
society did not lack self-sacrificing missionaries, of whom nothing was 
demanded but love to the Saviour and devotion to their calling. They 
were for the most part pious, enlightened mechanics, who brought 
practical adaptedness to their new calling, which was of great im- 
portance, simply preached the cross, and cared for the bodily and 
spiritual welfare of those committed to them, with maternal solicitude. 
The Moravian guardianship of souls is here transfigured into a real 
patriarchal relationship. The brightest example of such a missionary 
patriarch was Dav. Zeisher 2er, who l abored _for_63 years {pb. 1808) 
among the North Americ an Ind ians. In contrast with the enormous 
expenditure of money by Protest ant m issions, it is to be remarked with 
honor, that the Moravian missions were able to accomplish the greatest 
results with th e least _ pcc uniary means. 


^ What Pietism and Moravianism was to the Lu theran Church, 
/that Meth^djsmjwastothe^^Re/b Church of England, from 

which it proceeded almost at the same ti me. In the Dutch and 
German Reformed Churches, GoccejaMsmJ^^ 40, 3), which was — 
still in favor in the first decades of the^lSth century, made its 
influence felt. After that the rigidly Calvinistic system had been 
so^tened^by it, the antithesisjDetween Calvinistic orthodoxy and 
Arminian heterodoxy los t its sharp ne ss, and _Arminian tenden-^ 
cies were felt more and more in Reformed theology. The sharp- 


ness of the antithesis between Calvinism and Lutheranism was 
also^moderated on both sides, although i\ie__Union movements ^ 
made from time to time, failed on account o f Luther an oppo- 
sition. ~^ 

1. \Methodi-^-m. (Of. /. Hampson, Life of J, Wesley, 2 vols. — /. Roh. 
Southet/, Life of J. Wesley, 2 vols. — II. Moore, the Life of the Rev. J. 
Wes%. Lond. 1824, 2 vols.— J^. Watson, Life of J. Wesley.— G. Whit- 
jielWs Leben, nach. d. Engl, herausg. v. A. Tlioluck. Lpz. 1834. 
Leben /. Fleiclier's mit vorw. v. A. Tholuck. Lpz. 1838. — /. H. Burk- 
hard, Vollst. Gesch. d. Methodisten. Nurnb. 1795, 2 Bde. —T h. Jac k- 
son. Hist, of the Rise and Progress of Methodism. — J. Taylor. We sley 
and Methodism. Lond. 1851. — S. L. Jacohy, Handb. d. Methodism, 
2 A. Brem. 1855.—/. W. Baum, d. Methodismus. Zurich, 1838.)— 
The living power of the gospel was paralyz ed in the En glish epigpopal 
Church by the formalism of Lgcholastic learning, and by the mechanism 
of a style of worshi p ricj i mjbrms. A reaction^as produced hj JoJm 
W esley, a y ouno; man of deep religious earnestness and glowing zeal to 
save souls. While pursuing his studies at Oxford, he formed a society 
with several friends, the object of which was to promote pious living 
and labors (1729). These united friends were now already called, in 
ridicule, Methodists, because they were charged, not unjustly, with 
practising piety in a methodical way. Wesley, by friendly intercourse 
with several Moravians, grew in Christian experience and in living 
faith. In 1732, he found a worthy co-laborer in George Whitfield, a 
young man, possessing like zeal with Wesley for his own salvation as 
well as for that of his felloM^-men, and still greater talents. Both now 
labored with ceaseless activity to awaken and quicken the religious 
life of the people, not only in England, but also in America. After 
his return from America (1738), Wesley organized a comprehensive 
religiousjinion, which, under the dirocti on of , A-£nnikr£mi^, sent local 
and travelling^preachers into all the world. The Methodists did not 
desire to separate from the Episcopal Church; they rather wished to 
work in it as a spiritual leaven. Whitfield also returned to England 
in 1739. Both preached now powerfully and unceasingly, for the most 
part in the open air, often in the presence of 20,000 to 30,000 hearers, 
and were subjected to much insult and ridicule ; but also called many 
hardened sinners, mostly from the lower classes, to repentance and 
faith. (Whitfield alone preached about 18,000 sermons in 34 years). 
The most distinguished of their co-laborers is John Fletcher [oh. 1785). 
Wesley founded a seniinaTy_ai_^Lin^8wood^_tgL_educ^ Methodist 
preachers. The connection with the Moravians_was_soon_broken_iip, 
because the Methodi st mo de ofjjalvation was directed (in glaring con- 
trast with the quiet and^motion al mode of the Moravians) towards an 
arqu^ing^of the secure sinner by all_the_ tejrors of _the law and all the 
horrors of hell, as also towards producing a conflict_q£repentajiiie_with 


a final violent conversion. But an irreconcilable^upture took place 
) jil ready (1741 ) among the leaders, concerningjhe Calvinistic doctrines 
of^predestination, which caused a Reparation of the Methodists into 
Arminia n We sleyans and Calvinistic^WJiitfieldians, the former being 
the most_numerous. ^Whitfield died in i7I0^Wes^^jn,lI91. The 
Methodistswere, in various ways, in spite of all their extravagances, a 
^ wh olesome salt for t he_^otestant Church of England and America, 
and remained such during the entire_£erbd of rei^ningjinbelief down 
to the present time ; when, however, thjeirjone^sidedness, over against 
the newly awakened life of the Church, ran frequently into the most 
extreme and glaring^^erversity. (Cf. I 55, 12.) Methodism also in- 
herited from its founder a zeal for missions as a ChristiajEuduty, and j=:> 
has labored to promote them with wonderful energy, perseverance, and 
self-sacrifice. ^'^'^ '4'^ 
X^ 2. The Endeavors after Union. — The Bragdenburgjlynasty made 
constant efi"ort (| 34, 2) to prepare the way for a union of the Lutheran 
and Reformed Churches of the country. Frederic k I. (III.L established 
in 1703 a Collegium caritativum to this end under the presidency of 
the Reformed court-preacher Vrsinus, in which the Reformed Church 
was also represented by Jablonsky, formerly(Moravian bishop7)and the 
Lutheran by cathedral-preacher(lg»A:Zer of Magdeburg) and the provost 
Liltkens of Cologne on the Spree. [Spener,^ who did not wish a forced, 
-^ but a spontane ous uni on, refused to participate in the movement ; Liit- 
^•e7^s_withdrew displeased after a few sessions ; and when Winkler pub- 
_ lisjhed_a_j)lan of union (Arcanum regium), which su rrendered th e 
Luther an Church into the hands of the ReformedjLing, there arose so 
great a sjtorm^gainst the project ( Val. E. Loscher of Dresden ajsp op- -i 
posed it), that it had to be abandoned. But already in the following 
Vyear the king took the_pl an_up again, but in anot her form, nam ely : 
Jablonsky, with a commission from the king, entered upon negotiations 
with EngUnd_confi§rning_the_j£trod^ form of 

Church government into Prussia, in order to build a bridge by it^ r 
the union with the Lutheran Church. But this planjailed also (cf. U 
Darleg. der im vor, Jahrh. wegen Einf. d. engl. K. Verf. in Pr. gepflog. 
unterhh. Lpz. 1842). — Equally fruitless were the u nion e fforts which 
were made by the Chn,ncellor Chr ^atth. Pfaf of Tubiu ,gen (Nubes>-J 
testium pro moderate et pacifico de reb. theol. judicio, etc. Genev., 
1719, 4to.), and by Prof. /. J//;_7Wrg^ of Geneva, C yprian o f Gotha 
(Abgedrung. Unterr. von kirchl. Verein d. Prot. Frkf. 1722), and even 
Weissmann of Tubingen and Jfo5Aem_^f_JJelmsted^jopposed them. 
But severafdecades later exen a Lutheran theologian, Christopher Aug. 
He umann of Gotting en, undertook to prove "that the doctrine of the 
Reformed Church on the Lord's Supper was th e corr ect one.'' The 
treatise was published aftgrjiis^ death (Gottg. 1764), and there was no 
Loscher or Cyprian living to refute it. 
3. Theological Liter ature.-^Axmim^ theology can point to the bril- 


liant names of Joh n Cleri cus [oh. 173G), (biblical criticism, hermeneu- 
tics, exegesis, Church History) and John Ja cob Wetst ein. The latter 
was deacon at_Basle, but was de posed (1730) on account of heterodox 
views, and [ob. 1754) as Prof, of the Remonstr ant gy mnasium a t Am - 
sterdam. Ilis critical edition of the_K T. (Amsterdam, 1751, 2 Bde., 
fol.) gained for him imperishable renown. Alb. SchuUe7i.<i of Tifiyden 
{ob. 1750) extended the science of philology by the comparison of 
kindred dialects, especially of the Arabic. He also wrote commentaries 
orijJob and the Proverbs. Of the Coccejanian interpreters of the Scrip- 
tures are to be named Fr. Ad. L ampe ofV Bremen [ob. 1729), (Ev. Joh. 
3 Bde., 4to. ; Geheimnisz d. Gnadenbundes, 6 Bde., etc.) and /. Mark 
ofjicyden {ob. 1731), (kl. Proph.) Hadr. lidand of U trecht {ob. 1718) 
contributed much of importance to biblical antiquity (Palestina ex 
vett. monum. illustr., Antiquitt. ss.) Prominent among the anti-deistic^ 
apologists are the Englis hmen J. Lela nd {ob. 176G) and Tli. Stackh oiise 
(o6.1752), (Biblical History), and the Frenchman JaJc. Squrin^{ob.VJ20), 
(Biblical History) ; — among the system atic theo logians, /. F. Stupper 
of_Berne (i2ii-1775) (Institutt. theol. polem., 5 vols. ; Grundlegung d. 
wahr. Rel., 12 vols.; Sittenlehre, 6 vols.); and Dan. Wittenhach of 
Marburg {ob. 1779) (Theol. elenchthicae initia; Tenfamen theolog. 
dogm., with the application of the W olfian method) ; among the Church 
historians, /. Al f. Turr etin of Geneva {ob. 1737) and Ilerm. Venema 
of Franeker {ob. 1787.) — Finally, mention is yet to be made of an un- 
paralleled ph^nom^non_in_^hj3_jl^^ Church, namely, a mystic,. 
and that one of the noblest and most pious that ever lived : Gei^h. Ter- 
5^eg^^e?i^_ribboniweaver at Miihlheim on the Ruhr {ob. 1769), (he was not 
able to complete his preparation for a learned calling). He is also 
distinguished as a sacrg^_poet ("Gott ist gegenwartig^'). He was a 
patriarch^l_hernnt, to Avhom anxious souls cam e from far and near to 
receive spiritu al cou nseL-jcomfort, and refreshment ; and he was withal 
a child in humility and simplicity. Wit hout be ing a separatist, he 
regarded the Chur ch wi th indifference and neglect. The most popular 
of his numerous writings are : Geistl. Blumengartlein, Geistl. Brosa- 
men, Harfenspiel d. Kinder Zions, Der Frommen Lotterie, Geistl. 
Briefe, Weg d. "Wahsh., Lebensbeschr. heiliger Seelen_{K-.Catluji^y8- 
tics), 3 Bde., 4to. (Cf. K. Barthel, G. Terst's Leben, in the Bielefel- 
der Sonntagsbibl. V. 6.) (Cf. I 50.) 


The same phenomenon, which appeared ev^rywherejj[ijhel6th 
century, viz., thc_R;efgnnation having attached to it, as a carica- 
ture, f anatic s_ ^and ull raists of all kinds, — repeated itself in the - 
religious agitations which^ Pietism cau sedMn_jLhebe»jnnjn^ of i 
the 18th century. Even as Pietism gathered believers and the 
23 * 


awakened into_jaiull_band8, which as ecclesiolae in ecclesia were 
to be centres_of_^life in the dead mass and alarm-voices for the 
sleeping ; so also through the same excitant, a host_of Sep_a- 

v^ ratists were produced, who denou nced the Church^s^Babel, her 
means of grace as impure, and her preaching_emptx_and hypo- 
ci-itical babbling. They derived their spiritual nourishment from 
the writings of Bohme, Gichtel, Guy on, Poiret, and other tjiep- 

_— sophists. Their most important rejid^zyousjwa^JW^tte^ where 
the princely house of Sayn;;Wittg£nstein-Berleburg afforded a 
refu^e _for a ll exiled Pietists. Count Casimir formed hh court 
and civil officers out of these, althouglTlielberonged to the Na- 
tional Reformed Church. Nevertheless, there was scarcely a 
section in Protestant Germany, in Switzerland, and in the Ne- 
therlands, where kindred phenomena did not appear. In Swe- 

__^ denborg ianism, a i iew^henomenon appeared, independently of 
the pietistic movement. The Baptists and Quakers, among the 
older fanatical sects, furnished new off-shoots ; while on the other 
side Dort orthodoxy also ran, in some of its forms,_intg secta- 

1. Fanatics and Separatists in Germany. (Cf. Max. Gohel, Gesch. 
d. chr. Lebens in d. rhemTweitpTK. Bd. II. Kobl. 1852.— i^. W. Bar- 
thold, d. Erweckten im prot. Deutschl., bes. d. frommen Grafenhofe ; 
in Kaumer'8 hist. Taschenb. 1852-53. — i^. W. Winkel, Aus. d. Leb. 
Casirair's, Gr. v. Sayn Wittgenst. Frkf. 1842. — The same, Casimir u. d. 
rel. Leb. sr. Zeit. In the Sonntagsbibl. IV. 1. Bielef. l^b\). — Rosa- 
\ mond^ Juliana von Assehurg, a young lady generally esteemed on ac- 
count of her piety, in the neighborhood of_^Iagdeburg, declared that 
from her seventh yexar she had received visions and revelations, chiefly 
concerning t he^ mille nnium. She found in Dr, John Wilh. Petersen, 
superintendent at Llineburg, a zealous adherent, who, especially after 
his marriage with Jo^. Elen ore v. Merla u, also pretended to have re- 
ceived divine revelations, promulgated by speaking and writing the 
most fantastic Chiliasm in connection with the heresy of the restora- 
tion of all things. He was de pose d from his office i n 1692 , and died in 
172L llenry Horch, P rof, of theology at Herborn, and author of the 
mystic and prophetic Bible (Marb. 1712, 4to.), was a siniilar^pheno- 
menon in the Reformed Church. The most prominent among the 
itiner ant ap ogtles of a fanatical separatism are, the preac her Tuchfeld t 
of Magdeburg, the wig-maker John Tennha rdt (as chancery-clerk of the 
heavenly majesty), the spur-maker Rosenb ach, and the journeyman 
Ernst Christojyhj^Hochjuann. The latter, a man of imposing appear- 
ance and captivating.elociuence, labored for a long time at_Mlihlheim 
on the Ruhr, and was also highly esteemed by Tersteegen. Having 


been ^expelled from here, he found a last r efuge_ at_Sch\varzenau in 
Berlebur^. In Wurtemberg the pious court-preacher_£fe^iy«^er_of— 
Stutgaxd [ob. 1703) was the f ather of Pi etism and Separatism (cf. his 
life by A. Knapp, in the Christoterpe). The most important of his 
adherents were the learned preacher Eberh. Ludw^__Qruber and the 
saddler John Frederick Bock. Being banished from Wurtemberg, they 
emigrated to AVetteraw, the former following the occupation of a farmer, 
the latter that of court-saddler (1706). Here ihei/ and a multitude of 
other separatists, for whom the Wittgenstei n count had pr ovided a re- 
fuge, lived several years as anchorite s, restricted to self-communion 
and to communion with this or that brother in prayer, wit hout ba p- 
tism, the Lord' s Sup per, and public^worship. Count Casimir's court 
in particular was the remiezywiS--aiLsaintsJrom_all nations. The most 
important of these were the count's p hysic ian in ordinary, Dr^_Carlj 
the French mystic Marsat/, the exile from Strasburg John Frederick 
Ha uff, le arned in oriental languages, and laterJJjppel. Out of this 
circle proceeded a multitude of mystic, separatistic writings, especially 
the Berlebm'g Bible (7 vols. fol. 1726-42), of which Haug was the 
chief author. It renews interpretation according to the threefold 
8ensej_violently combats the orthodox doctrine_ofljijstification, confes- 
sional books, tlie_clergy, the de ad ch urch, and contains many deep 
glimpses and profound observations, but also many trivialities and 
monstrosities. Its mysticism lacks originality, and is compiled from 
the theosophic writings of all centuries, from Origen to modern times. 
(Cf. F. W. Wiiikel, in d. bonner Monatsschr. 1851, I.) 

2. The Lisp ir ation- Conq_re (jations in Wetteraw. (Cf. M. Gobel, Gesch. 
d. wahr. Insp. Gemd. ; in the hist, theol. Ztschr. 1854, II. III., 1855, 
I. III.) — Several of the c hief Sevenna-prophets fled to E ngland (1705) 
after the unfortunate issue of the Camisaidian war. At first they met 
with much sympathy, but were afterwards excommunicated and placed 
in the pillory. They now w ent t o the Nether lands, and wandered 
thence through^^rmany. They awakened at jialle the_gi^t_of_inspi- 
ration, among others in t hree students, the broth ers Po it, and these 
were the persons who transferredj,t_tgJW^±terawL.^^ The chiefs 

of the Separatists there, Griiber and Bock, at first stoutly opposed the 
Inspiration-phenomenon, but they also werg^ijA'crpowered, and soon 
became the mosJ_powerful of the " instruments". Pra^y£r_associations 
were now formed, grand lo ve-fe asts were held, and an ecclesi ajamb u- 
latoria was established by_itiQerant brethren, who carried spiritual 
nourishment to the scattered quiet ones in the country, and the children 
of the prophet8jw^re^ailiergdJrom_all Xands. The utterances, which 
took place in an ecstatic^^tate, were exhortations to repentance, to 
prayer, to imitation of Christ, revelations of the divine will in regard 
to the afi'airs of the society, and announcement of the approaching 
judg nicnt of God over the degenerate world and church, although 
wjihg^t fanatical, sens iiaL-C hiliasm. Apart from contempt for the 

272 SECTION III. — THIRD PERIOD (c E N T. 18 A.D.)- 

s acrame nts, the doctrines of the church were not essentially perverted. 

— Nevertheless, already in 171 5 a d iviskm took place between those who 
were, truly, and those who, by their unbridled and impure utterances, 
were regarded as yaZ^Z?^nspired. Those who were truly inspired 
formed a church__organization, and excluded_JromJjL^ll who would not 
submit to its discipli ne (171 6). Hereby thexJosiUQiany " instruments", 
and those who proved themselves to be genuine also gradually grew 
dumb. Qnly_Rock4 }Ossessed the^ ift of inspiration afterJ719, and he 
continued to claim it to his d e_ath (174 9). Gruber died in 1728, and 
with him a pillar of the societies fell. R ock wasj iQw the onlyi ^upport. 

. , A new epoch of their history begins with their contact with Mora- 

^ vianism. Zinzendorf formed a connectj£n_wiiJi-tli£iiLin_1730 through 
a deputation, and then he personallv visited them in Berlehurg. 
Rock's d^ep Christian ch aracter made a powerful impression on him. 
It is true, he was offended at his contemptj or ba ptism and the Lord's 
Supper, and at the convul sive form of his utterances ; but this did not 
withhold him from yielding^t g the high spirit of this powerful man, 
from pressing his companionship upon him, and from inviting him, 
the notorious blasphemer of baptism, to the sponsorsh ip of his new- 
born daughter. In 173 2 Rock v isited Herrnhut. He took sides, in an 
utterance, with the fraternity_against_the_jiutheran clergy man_^o^ie 
of Berthelsdorf, and departed after a love-feast, at which their souls 
flowed together in a renewed eternal brotherhood. But Zinzendorf 
had only the interests of his society in view ; his crooked and ambi- 
guous relation to those professing to be inspired drove him to many 
in consistencies, which offended^JRoc k's str aightforward and open dis- 
position, and estranged him. The establishment of a flourishing Mo- 
ravian congregatwnjn_Wetteraw, which was chiefly composed of pro- 
selytfis^^completed the rupture. Rock denounced the " Hutberger" as 
Babel-cobblers. Zinzendorf, on the other hand, condemn ed him as a 
false_prophet. When the Moravians were_driven ^ from Wet teraw in 

, 1750 [I 47, 5), th e inspire_d ones too k possession of their property and 

splendid buildings. AVith_Rock/s__death, however, the spirit of pro- 
p hecy cease d entire ly. The societiesd^eclined more and more from that 
time, both internally and externally, until the rejJTal_of_religiousJife 

f in the 19th century, when they also were j;evived. "Instruments" 
again made their appearance, and those who Avere awakened by them 
\ were_ newly o rganized. The refusaljaf ^governments to, tolerate them, 
V however, compelled the greater part of them to_emigrat£_to_America. 
3. John Conrad^BjjjQ^ theologian, p hysic ian, and alcj^yrnist, disco- 
verer of Pr ussianjjlue and of the 01ejmi_Dippelii, occupied a peculiar 
position among the Separatists of this period. He was at first an or- 
thodox oppo nent of Pie tism, then aroused by Gottfr. Arnold he became 
a champion of Pietism, and advanced to Separatism. Since ICgJJie 

) appeared under the name Christiamis Democritus (orthodoxia ortho- 

doxorum, oder die verkehrte Wahrh. u. d. wahrh. Lligen d. s. g. Lu- 


therancr ; Papismus Protestantium vapulans od. d. gestaupte Papstth. 
an d. blinden Verfechtern blinden Menschensatz. ; Fatum fatuum, i. e. 
foolish necessity, etc.) in a mockino; sp irit as the opponent of all ex- 
ternally orthodox Christianity, mixi ng mys ticism and ratio nalism in a 
remarkable manner, and yet not without Christi an d Lepth and expe- 
rience. Persecuted, banished, and imprisoned everywhere, h e roam ed 
over Germany, the Netljerlands, Denmark, and S^I£den, and finally 
found a permanent refuge at the court of Casiniir_ijLBerlebu rg (1 729- 
34). Here he came into contactj5Jih_Jhe_in8pired ones, who offered 
everything to gain him ; but he declared that he would rather submit 
to the devil than to the Spirit of God. He was most intimately asso- 
ciated with Zinzendorf for a time, but later he also assaijled him w ith 
the bitterest sarcasm. He died in 1734, at the castle of Wittgenstein. 
His writings are collected under the title : Eroffneter Weg zum Frieden 
mit Gott und aller Creaturen. Berleb. 1747, 3 Bde. 4to. (Cf. W. 
Klose in the hist, theol. Ztschr. 1851, III. and K. Buchner in Eaumer's 
histor. Taschenbuch, 1857.) 

4. Hf/pocr itical a)id_Criminal Sepa ratistic Seels. — Whilst the Sepa- 
ratists and the inspired ones of this period preserved, th^irmoraljife 
pure in general, some^of^theix ^cieties deg enerated into the most scan- ' 
dalous debauchery. The most shameless of all was the Bu Ular Sec t, • 
founded by Eva von Buttlar^_^ t Allendor f in Hessia, 1702. Having 
been expelled from here within 6 weeks, the sect carried on its criminal 
proceedings at many othfir^ places, whither it emigrated. Eva was 
honored as the door of Paradise, as the Nevr^Jerusalem, as the Mother 
of us all, as the Sophia come down from heaven, the new Eve and the 
inc^irnaiiiHi-of^theJioly Spirit. God the Father was incarnate in the 
candidate Winter y_a.ndL God the Son in her youthful para mgax. Ap pen- 
feUer. Marr iage w as declared to be sinful ; sensual lust must be put 
to death in spiritual communion, then carnal communion is also holy. 
Eva lived in the most shameful harlotry with all the men of the sect ; 
likewise the other women belonging to it, in whom the ovary had been 
crushed in Sn.tn. njf) f oresight. At Sasmannshausen in Wittgenstein, 
where their secret worship had been watched, they were threatened 
with punishment, but escaped. In_ilQlogne they connected themselves 
with the Iloman Catholic Church. At Lude, near Pyrmont, their 
criminal madness reached its highest point. Wi^ierj^^ condemned 

r-t o dea th, but had his punishment commuted to scour ging (170 6). Eva 
escaped the same punishment by flight, and carried on her scandalous 
conduct for some years longer, but with mor^prudence. (Cf. E. F. 
Keller, in the hist, theol. Ztschr. 1845, IV. and M. Gohel, Gesch. d. chr. 
Lebens II. 778 ff.). — Of a similar character was the Bordelum_ Sect/ 
founded by the licen tiate ^avid ^^Bar. a,t Bordelum near Flensburg, 

' about 1739, and the Brilrfgelex ^Sec t at Briiggelu, in the cantonj)f_Berjni^, 
where the two brothers_^&j2M<2'* announced themselves to be the two 
witasgsfiamentioned in Rev. ii. (1748). — The sect of the Ztont^esaijlons- 



dorf in the duchy of Berg also belongs here. Elias Ellerj^o\eYseev of 
a manufactory at Elberfield, being religiously excited by reading all 
kinds of mystic and theological writings, married in 1725 an elderly, 
rich -widow ; but he soon found greater pleasure in a pretiy_young 
maiden, Anna vo n Buc hel, whom he drove into prophetig ecstasy by 
fanatical excitement. She prophesied the approaching dawn of the 
millennium. Eller appointed her the mother of Zion (Rev. 12 : 1 ff.) 
and himself father of Zion, while he assigned his wife the part of the 
whore of Babylon. AVhen the latter had been tormented to death by 
jealousy and confinement, he married Buchel, and founded, with his 
adherents, Ronsdorf (1737), as the new Zion. The colony obtained 
the privileges of a town, and Eller became burgomaster. When Anna 
died (1744), Eller gave to the faithful a new mother of Zion, and be- 
came more insane in his deception and tyranny. At length, after long 
infatuation, the eyes of the Reformed preacher Schleiermacher (the 
grandfather of the celebrated Frederick Daniel S.) were opened. He 
escaped, by flight to the Netherlands, the fate of another apostle, who, 
at Eller's instigation, had been condemned to death as a sorcerer at 
Dusseldorf. Eller was able to ward off every complaint against him- 
self by bribery at the court. The sect was led for a time after his death 
(1750) by his step-son. (Cf. F. W. Kriig, krit. Gesch. d. Schwarmerei 
in Groszherzogth. Berg. Elbf. 1851, p. 64, ff.) 

5. Swedenhorgianism. (Cf. /. A. Mohler, u. d. Lehre Sw.'s; in the 
tiibg. Quartalschr. 1830, IV. — /. G. Vaihinger, d. Swedenhorgianism, 
nebst d. Katech. d. neuen K. Tlibg. 1843. — C. F. Nanz, E. Sw. d. nord. 
Seher. Schw. Hall. 2. Q. 1850. — Imm. Tafel, Samml. v. Urkunden et 
Tiibg. 1839, ff. 3 Abth. — The same, Vergleich. Darstell. d. Lehrgegens. 
d. Kath. u. Prot., zugleich Darstell. d. Unterscheidungslehre Sw.'s. 
Tiibg. 1835.) — Immanuel von Swedenborg, son of the Lutheran bishop 
of West Gothland, Jesper Swedberg (cf. Rudelbach's chr. Biogr. I. 
293, ff.), and councillor in the Bergwerks college at Stockholm, was a 
man of comprehensive learning in the natural sciences, and of specu- 
lative talents. After long investigation into the mysteries of nature, 
he fell into magnetic ecstatic states, in which, sometimes transported 
to heaven, sometimes to hell, he had intercourse with spirits. In 1743 
he came to the conviction that he was called by such revelations to re- 
form degenerate Christianity to a Church of the New Jerusalem as the 
completion of all churchdom. The apocalyptic revelations, which he 
imagined he received, he designated as a new gospel. After his death 
(1772) his writings were collected and published by his disciples ; and 
in 1788 they formed themselves into congregations in Sweden and 
England. The new church began in the 19th century to spread in a 
threatening manner. In addition to Sweden, England, and North 
America, it also has many warm and zealous adherents in Germany, 
chieflj'^ in Wiirtemberg. Here already since 1765 the prelate Oetinger 
called attention to Swedenborg's revelations, and took up many of their 


elements into his own profound theosophy. Lately the procurator 
Ludw. Hofacker, and especially the librarian Tafel, have been active 
in propagating the new church, partly by their own writings, and 
partly by publishing and translating Swedenborg's works. A general 
conference of the church in Great Britain and Ireland published a 
confession of faith and a catechism in 1828. Swedenborg's religious 
system was a speculative mysticism with a physical foundation and 
rationalizing tendency. For him the object of religion is the opening 
of an intimate correspondence between the spirit and human world, 
and the penetrating into the mysteries of connection between both. 
The Bible (although with the exclusion of the Apostolic Epistles as 
mere explanatory treatises), above all the Apocalypse, was the word 
of God for him, although he despised the letter, and only acknowledged 
the validity of the spirit or inner sense. There is not one of the fun- 
damental orthodox doctrines which he either did not reject or ration- 
alize, lie rejected the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity in the strongest 
terms. According to him, God is only one person, and this one God- 
head is Christ, who manifests himself in a three-fold form : the Father 
is the principle of the manifesting God, the Son the form, the Spirit 
the activity of the manifested God. The design of the manifestation 
of Christ is the union of the human and divine ; redemption is nothing 
more than the fighting with and overcoming hellish spirits. Angels 
and devils are the spirits of departed men, either in a state of bliss or 
of despair. There is no resurrection of the dead, but the spiritual form 
of the body continues to exist after death. The second coming of 
Christ is not to be personal and visible, but spiritual by means of the 
revelation of the spiritual sense of the Scriptures, whereby the church 
of the New Jerusalem is founded. 

C. New Baptistic Sects. — In 1708 there were also Anabaptists ( Tun- 
kers) in "Wetteraw, but, finding little sympathy and much difficulty in 
the way of their progress here, they for the most part emigrated in 
1714 to North America, and founded several colonies here (German- 
town and Ephrata), which yet number about 40,000 souls. From the 
Baptists, who emigrated from England, proceeded the Christians (now 
about 300,000 souls), who, rejecting every Christian party-name (almost 
like 1 Cor. 1 : 12), also reduced the Christian faith to a minimum. The 
Baptists, since the middle of the 18th century, also emigrated to Scot- 
land, where the brothers Haldane founded the baptistic sect of the 
Haldaniies ("Apostolic Church^^), who likewise distinguished them- 
selves by great indifi'erence towards doctrines and the ministry, but 
also by great energy in practical life. 

7. New Quaker Sects. — The Jumpers, who appeared in Cornwallis 
about 1760, were in principle at least related to the Quakers. Appeal- 
ing to David's dancing before the ark of the covenant, they professed 
to give evidence of being possessed by the Spirit by convulsive leaping 
and dancing, connected with a kind of barking (whence they are also 

276 SECTION in. third period (^CENT. 18 A.D.). 

called Barkers). The sect emigrated to North America, where there 
still arc some adherents. A somewhat similar sect are the Shakers. 
Its founder was An7ia Lee [oh. 1782). She professed to be the bride of 
the Lamb, but died without giving birth to the promised Messiah. 
Nevertheless, this sect exists to the present day in several villages on 
the Hudson river. Its adherents live in celibacy and community of 
goods. They derive their name from the manner in which they move 
their bodies at their meetings, which often extends to exhaustive 
dancing and jumping, which is regarded as a symbol partly of trem- 
bling at the anger of God, partly of joy on account of salvation through 

8. In contrast with the general apostacy from the rigid orthodoxy 
of Dort in th e ISether lands, was the increasei)f the sect oTthe^^ftrew^, 
which traced its origin (ab out 1 730) to a certain MirgamVos and a 
licentiate Verschooreu , and run the doctrine_jif_piedestination to the 
affirmation, that an e lect person c ou ld not s in, but a non-elect one could 
o}ihi_sm. They derived their name from the circumstance, that they 
declared it to be the indispensable duty of all true Christians to read 
the word of God in thejori^inal languages. \ Anot her sect, that of the 
/-^HqUemists, adherents of the Dutch preacher_ij02i£j*aa/i van H^0fi, 
who was deposed in 1740, are said to have drawn from the doctrine of 
predestination the conclusion, that s in, becaus e it was predestined by 
God, was only^njiijhejmagination of men, and that Chris^ delivered 
men fromjhisjmagi nation (Acta ecclst. Weim. IV. 1060 ff. j 


Cf. L. Noack, die Freidenker in d. Relig. Bd. III. Die Deutsche 
Auf klUning. Berne, 1855. — F. BlalloUotzky and F. Sander, das Auf kom- 
men u. Sinken d. Rationalism, in Deutschl. ; nach d. Engl. d. E. B. 
Pusey bearb. Elbf. 1829.— CAr. G. Ficker, krit. Gesch. d. Rationalism, 
in Deutschl. ; nach d. Franz, d. Amand Saintes bearb. Lpz. 1847. — K. 
F. A. Kahnis, d. innere Gang d. deutsch. Protestsm. seit der Mitte d. 
vor Jahrh. Lpz. 1854. — A. Tholuck, Abrisz e. Gesch. d. Umwalz., die 
s. 1750, auf. d. Gebiete d. Theol. in Deutschl. stattgef. ; in his miscel- 
laneous works Bd. II. Hamb. 1839. — J. A. H. Tittmann, pragm. Gesch. 
d. Theol. u. Rel. in d. prot. K. seit 1750. Lpz. 1824.— A". F. Stdudlin, 
Gesch. d. Rationalism, u. Supranaturalism. Gottg. 1826. 

Since the middle of this century, English deistic unbelief 
having already outlived itself, illumination under the name of 
Rationalism crept into the Protestant theology of the continent, 
especially of Germany. There proceeded, it is true, out of the 
agitation of the pietistic controversies, a theology (§ 46) which, 
overcoming as well the rigid objectivism of orthodoxy as the 


weak subjectivism of Pietism, saving, however, from the former, 
a firm basis and wholesome moderation, from the latter religious 
inwardness and freedom, was in itself able and worthy to inherit 
and control the future of the church. But this inheritance, to 
the possession of which it seemed to be called, was taken from 
it by the theology of illumination. It was yet too immature and 
unfinished, its representatives and champions were too few and 
scattered, to be able to resist successfully as a solid phalanx the 
storm of illumination. The storm came from abroad, but it was 
invested with the mighty power of the spirit of the age, and it 
found a dissolution and agitation going on within, which brought 
sympathies and allies to it from all sides, and promoted the 
transition of the one extreme into the other. Arminian Pela- 
gianism, possessing brilliant learning (Clericus, Wetstein), Eng- 
lish Deism, circulated by translations and refutations, and French 
Naturalism, introduced by a great and generally admired king, 
were the assailing powers from without. The Free-Mason 
Lodges also, which had been transplanted to Germany from 
England in 1733, mightily opposed illumination in their endeavor 
to realize a moral, practical, universal religion. Within it was 
especially the Wolfian j^hilosopliy, popular philosophy, and 
Pietism, with its step-brother Separatism, which directly made 
the ground productive for the growth of Rationalism. Ortho- 
doxism, on account of the secondary effects, which survived it, 
can also be reckoned among the accessories. German Rational- 
ism, however, is essentially different from Deism and Naturalism 
in this, that it does not, like these, altogether reject the Bible 
and the Church, but, rather adhering to both, supposes that it 
has presented their unperishable substance in its rational religion, 
purified from accommodation and the ideas of the age ; and it 
has, therefore, retained the Bible as an indispensable record of 
religion, and the Church as a wholesome institution of religion. 
Nevertheless, Rationalism, during the whole period of its domi- 
nion, was opposed by a Supranaturalism, that held fast to re- 
vealed religion. It was a dilution of the old faith of the Church, 
effected by the water of illumination. The reaction which it 
caused was consequently from the beginning weak and feeble. 
The power of the vulgar Rationalism of that day, meanwhile, 
lay not in itself, but in the allies which it had in the hollowness 
and superficiality of the spirit of the age. Because now the 
philosophy and especially the national literature of the Germans 

278 SECTION III. — THIRD PERIOD (C E N T. 1 8 A. D.). 

began to wage a successful warfare against this superficiality, 
they in a certain degree obtained the significance of a school- 
master to Christ, although they were in themselves for the most 
part indifferent, even hostile to Christianity. 

1. The English Deists. (Cf. | 43, 2.) — Deism entered upon a new 
stage of its development with Locke's Philosophy (§ 43, 1). It was 
henceforth the basis of its reasoning. The most important Deists of 
this period are : John Tolaiid, an Irishman, first a Roman Catholic, 
then Arminian [oh. 1722), (Christianity not mysterious; Nazarenus, 
or Jewish, Gentile, and Mahometan Christianity, etc.) ; the Earl of 
Shaftesbury [oh. 1713), (Characteristics of men, manners, opinions, 
times) ; Anthony Collins, justice of the peace in the county of Essex, 
and as such highly esteemed [oh. 1729), (Priestcraft in perfection, or a 
detection of the fraud, etc., A discourse of free-thinking, et al.) ; Tho- 
mas Woolston, fellow of Cambridge [oh. 1733, in prison), (A discourse 
on the miracles of our Saviour) ; Bernh. v. Mandeville from Dort, phy- 
sician in London [oh. 1733), (Free thoughts on Religion) ; MattJiew 
Tindal, professor of law at Oxford [oh. 1733), (Christianity as old as 
the Creation) ; Thomas Morgan, Nonconformist preacher, deposed as 
an Arian, then physician [oh. 1743), (The moral philosopher) ; Thomas 
Chuhh, glove-maker and tallow-chandler at Salisbury [oh. 1747), popu- 
larizing compiler, (The true gospel of Jesus Christ) ; Henry, Viscount 
BoUnghroke, high civil officer, charged with high-treason and pardoned 
[oh. 1751), (Philosophical works). — Deism never found favor among 
the people, and an attempt was not once made to organize a congrega- 
tion. The following of the numerous opponents of Deism are worthy 
of special mention : Thomas Sherlock, Bishop of London (ph. 1761) ; 
Edward Chandler, Bishop of Durham [oh. 1750) ; John Leland, Pres- 
byterian preacher in Dublin [oh. 1766) ; William Warhurton, Bishop 
of Gloucester [oh. 1779) ; Nath. Lardner, Dissenter preacher [oh. 1768). 
— The celebrated historian and skeptic, David Hume, librarian in Edin- 
burg [oh. 1776), may yet be added to the Deists as an opponent of posi- 
tive Christianity (Treatise upon human nature ; Essays, moral, political, 
and literary ; Enquiry concerning the human understanding ; Natural 
history of religion ; Dialogues concerning natural religion). 

2. The Foi'erunners of German Illumination. — We have already 
learned to know Kmdzen (| 43, 2) and Dippel [^ 49, 3) as such. In 
their footsteps walked John Christian Edelmann, a vagabondizing 
licentiate of theology of Weissenfels [oh. 1767), who, since 1735, 
hawked about a multitude of fanatical works, written in rude and low, 
but powerful language, full of glowing wrath and scoffing wit against 
all positive Christianity. lie passed from one Christian sect to another, 
but found in none what he sought. In 1741 he accepted an invitation 
from Zinzendorf who at the same time furnished him with travelling 


money, and lived for a time in his family. Then he connected himself 
with the Berleburg Separatists ("because they recognized the abomi- 
nation of baptism and the Lord's Supper ''), and assisted on the com- 
mentary, although HaiKj had to greatly change his elaborations, in 
order to use them. This, and his contempt for prayer, ruptured the 
bond of union. After that he wandered over the whole of Germany. 
He regarded himself as being a favorite of providence, at least as a 
second Luther. He pronounced Christianity to be the most irrational 
and absurd of all religions ; Church history a conglomerate of immo- 
rality, lies, hypocrisy, and fanaticism ; the prophets and apostles bed- 
lamites ; and Christ was not even an example and teacher. The world 
needs only one salvation, viz., salvation from Christianity. Providence, 
virtue, and immortality (the latter established by manifestation of 
spirits), are the only objects of religion. His writings made a great 
noise (Unschuldige "Wahrheiten ; Bereitete SchlUge auf der Narren 
Rucken ; Moses mit aufgedecktem Angesicht von zwei ungleichen 
Briidern, Lichtlieb und Blindlieb, beschauet ; Christus and Belial, et 
al.), and called forth an incredible number of counter-treatises, of 
which Trinius mentions not less than 166 in the Freidenker lexicon. 
(Cf. /. H. Frafje, Hist. Nachr. v. J. Chr. Edelmann, 2. A. Hamb. 1755. 
Edelmann's Selbst-biographie, herausg. v. C. W. Klose. Berl. 1840, 
and also Ev. K. Z. 1851, No. 31, ff.) To the forerunners of illumina- 
tion belongs also the private tutor Lorenz Schmidt of Wertheim in 
Baden, a pupil of the philosopher Wolf (§ 46, 2), {oh. 1749). He is 
the author of the notorious Wertheim translation of the Bible (First 
part, containing the laws of the Israelites, Werth. 1735), which para- 
phrases the language of the Bible, and thereby eviscerates all positive 
Christianity. His book was confiscated by tlie supreme court of the 
empire, and he was punished with severe imprisonment. 

3. llhimination in Germany since 1750. — Hostility to all positive 
Christianity spread from England and France also over Germany. The 
writings of the English Deists were translated and refuted, but mostly 
in so weak a manner, that the refutation accomplished the opposite of 
what it ^designed. Whilst English Deism with its apparent profound- 
ness found favor with the learned, the poison of frivolous French Na- 
turalism tainted the higher classes. Prussia's great king, Frederick II. 
(1740-86), who surrounded himself with French free-thinkers (Vol- 
taire, D'Argens, Le Mettrie, etc.), contributed largely to the spread of 
unbelief. He desired, that in his states every one should become happy 
according to his own fashion, in which desire he was also in earnest, 
although his personal aversion to churchly and pietistic piety often 
misled him to act unjustly and severely, as ex. gr. when he inflicted 
upon the "grumbler" Francke in Halle, who opposed the visiting of 
theatres by theological students, the punishment of himself visiting 
the theatre, and of obtaining the attestation of the director of the 
theatre that he had done so. Under the name of Gernmn popular phi- 


losojjhy [Mendelssohn, Garve, Eberliard, Plainer, Steirihart, etc.), which 
proceeded from the Wolfian philosophy emptied of its Christian con- 
tents, a bold, superficial, and self-sufficient reasonint^ of the common 
human understanding gave itself airs. Basedow became the reformer 
of pedagogy in the sense of illumination (Philanthropia in Dessau, 
padagogisches Elementarwerk), and created quite a furor for a time 
by the charlatan trumpeting of his contributions; although Herder 
declared, that he would not commit calves, to say nothing of human 
beings, to the training of the distinguished pedagogue. Basedow's 
most distinguished pupils and co-laborers were Salzinann in Schnep- 
fenthal near Gothe, and Campe in Braunschweig. The ^^Allgemeine 
deutsrhe Bibliothek" (lOG Bde. 17G5-92), published by the bookseller 
Nicolai in Berlin, assumed the position of a literary inquisitorial 
tribunal against everything noble and profound, that the period was 
still able to produce, and branded it as superstition and Jesuitism. 
Illumination made itself felt in theology under the name of Rationalism. 
Pietistic Halle cast its skin, and in connection with Berlin stood at the 
head of the illuminatory movement. Soon numerous heralds of the 
new light sprung up also in the other universities, and rationalizing 
pastors arose in all sections of Germany, who only preached about a 
moral reformation of man ; also, it is true, on Christmas, about the 
advantage of feeding cattle in the stable, and on Easter about the 
tokens of apparent death, or about the advantages of early rising. The 
old liturgies were mutilated or supphinted, and all the superficiality 
and insipidity of the period were called into requisition to eliminate 
the old faith out of the churchly hymn-books, and to smuggle in, in the 
place of the old choice hymns, the weakest hymns of moral reforma- 
tion. Wilh. Abraham Teller, provost of Berlin, declared publicly, that 
he was willing to recognize the Jews as genuine Christians, on the basis 
of their faith in God, virtue, and immortality. K. Friedr. Bahrdt, 
after having been removed from various spiritual and academical offices 
on account of his immoral conduct, and proscribed by the theologians, 
gave the people as tavern-keeper in Ilalle the benefit of his wisdom, 
and died from a disgraceful disease (1792). The Prussian government, 
under Frederick William II., attempted in vain to secure to the church 
its old legal basis by the edict concerning religion of 1788, by which 
the severest punishment was threatened every departure in doctrine 
and preaching from the orthodox confessions : it accomplished nothing, 
with all its rigor, against the reigning spirit of the age (only one depo- 
sition, that of the preacher Schulz at Gielsdorf near Berlin, an old 
insolent rationalist, could be carried into effect), and Frederick William 
III. (1707-1840) suspended the edict at his accession to the throne. 

4. Transition Theology. — It was four men, especially, who, although 
still adhering to the faith in a divine revelation, nevertheless prepared 
the way for the admission of Rationalism into theology: viz., Eniesti 
of Leipsio in exegesis of the New Testament, Michaelis of Gottingen 


in exegesis of the Old Testament, Semler of Ilalle in biblical and his- 
torical criticism, Tollner of Frankflirt-on-the-Oder in dogmatic theo- 
logy. John Aug. Ernesti {oh. 1781), since 1734 rector of the Thomas- 
school, since 1742 Prof, of the University of Leipsic, and there the 
rival and antipode of his colleague Chr. Aug. Crusius, was originally 
a classical philologist, and remained such also as professor of theology. 
His Institutio interpretes N. T. (17G1) laid it down as a fundamental 
law of exegesis, that the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures was to 
be conducted entirely in the same manner as the interpretation of a 
profane author. But it holds good also with regard to classical litera- 
ture, that a full and complete understanding of an author can only be 
obtained in so far as the interpreter possesses, in addition to the neces- 
sary knowledge of the language, history, and age, also the same spirit 
in which the author thought and wrote. And because Ernesti lacked 
the conviction of this necessity, his biblical hermeneutics was ration- 
alistic, and he the father of rationalistic exegesis, strongly as he ad- 
hered still to the idea of inspiration as also to orthodox doctrines. 
"What Ernesti was in regard to the N. T., that John David Michaelis 
(son of the pious and orthodox Chr. Bened. M.), since 1750 Prof, at 
Gijttingen [oh. 1791), became in regard to the 0. T. He acknowledged 
openl}^ that he never perceived anything of the testimonium Sp. s. 
internum ; and he based hivS demonstration of the divinity of tlie Scrip- 
tures alone upon external evidences, such as the miracles, prophesies, 
authenticity, etc., a web which unbelief tore to pieces with ease. No 
one was a greater master than he in the art of substituting his own 
empty, superficial, and conceited spirit for that of the sacred authors, 
and then to explain it at great length. His " Mosaisches Recht," 6 
Bde., is classic in this view. He left behind 82 works, some very a^oIu- 
minous (among which are: Einl. ins N. T. ; Webers. des A. T. mit 
Anm. fiir Ungelehrte, 13 Bde. 4to. Orient, und exeg. Biblioth., 24 
Bde. ; Einl. ins A. T., etc.) John Sal. Semler, a pupil of Baumgarten, 
and since 1751 Prof, at Halle {oh. 1791), wa^ a forerunner of Ration- 
alism in a still greater and more comprehensive measure than Ernesti 
and Michaelis. Growing up under the influence of Hallean Pietism, 
and consequently possessing a kind of religion of habit, which he called 
his private religion, luid of which he could never rid himself, endowed 
with uncommon understanding and acuteness, but without any depth 
of spirit, he acquired an immense mass of chaotic knowledge, and un- 
dermined, without Avishing to touch Christianity, the pillars of orthodox 
theology, by arbitrarily^ disputing the genuineness of the biblical writ- 
ings ("Abhandlung von der freien Unters. d. Kanons") ; by laying 
down a theory of inspiration and accommodation, which allowed error, 
mistake, and well-meant delusion in the Scriptures ; by an interpreta- 
tion which disposed of everything disagreeable in the New Testament as 
•'Jewish notions" (ex. gr. De daemoniacis) ; by a critical treatment of 
church and dogmatic history which permitted the doctrine of the 


church to appear as a result of misconception, want of judgment, and 
violence, etc. The number of his writings amounts to 151. He sowed 
the wind and reaped a whirlwind, at which he himself trembled. 
Therefore he opposed perseveringly the appointment of Bahrdt to 
Halle, and earnestly combated the Wolfenhiittler Fragments, written 
by Reimarus, Prof, at Hamburg [oh. 1705), discovered and published 
(1774 and 1778) in the Wolfenbiittler library as manuscript by Lessing, 
which attributed the introduction of Christianity to bold deception. 
But Semler could not resist the storm, and he died broken-hearted, just 
when it reached its height. (Cf. //. Schmid, die Theologie Semler's. 
Erlg. 1858.) — John Gottl. Tollner, since 1756 Prof, at Frankfurt-on-the- 
Oder [oh. 1774), was by no means equal to the beforenamed in learn- 
ing, influence, and authority ; nevertheless, he is worthy of a place 
beside them, in so far as he first opened the way for the introduction 
of Rationalism into dogmatic theology. He also still adhered to the 
idea of revelation, miracle, and prophecy, but he also contributed the 
"proof, that God leads men to happiness already by the revelation of 
nature ; " the revelation of Scripture is only a more certain and perfect 
means thereto. He investigated further "the divine inspiration of the 
Scriptures,'^ and found that the sacred authors thought and wrote 
without any special divine aid, and God was thereby active only In a 
way not to be more particularly defined. Finally, he investigated " the 
active obedience of Jesus Christ," and in doing so he gives an example 
of how orthodox dogmas are to be reconciled. 

5. Rationalistic Theology. — From the schools formed by these men, 
especially from Semler's, went forth crowds of Rationalists, who within 
the last seventy years occupied almost all the professors' chairs and 
pulpits in Protestant Germany. At their head stands Charles Fred. 
Bahrdt (since 1779 at Halle, oh. 1792), who, at first an author of or- 
thodox text-books, then sinking deeper and deeper through vanity, 
want of principle, and immorality, and walking in Edelmann's foot- 
steps, first struck the shamelessly bold key (Die neuesten Off"enbarem- 
gen Gotts, 4 Bde. ; Briefe liber die Bebel im volkston, 5 Thle. ; Kir- 
chen-und Ketzeralmanach ; Selbstbragaophie, etc., altogether 102 
works), which certainly the preacher Charles Venturini of Ilorndorf 
in Braunschweig {oh. 1807) was able to excel (Natlirl, Gesch. d. groszen 
Proph. von Nazareth, 3 Bde.) Similar to them was the orientalist 
/. Will. Fred. Uczel, since 1802 Prof, at Dorpat, at the same also rum- 
distiller, millwright, and inventor of building clay-walls by stamping 
the layers [oh. 1829), (54 works, among which : Die Bibel mit vollst. 
erkl. Anm., 12 Bde.) In contrast with these, however, the majority 
of the Rationalists endeavored to obtain a reputation for respectability 
in life, doctrines, and literary productions. Within the last ninety 
years the Kantian philosophy exerted an important and, relatively, also 
an ennobling influence on rationalistic theology. /. Jacob Griesbach 
(of Jena, 1812) contributed much of importance in the sphere of the 


criticism of the text of the New Testament. The introdaction to the 
N. T. was prepared by Charles Alex. v. Hdnleiii of J]Hanr^cn [oh. 1829). 
Will. Ahr. Teller of Berlin contributed a dictionary of the N. T. (5 A. 
1702), which inaugurated the superficial mode of treating the ideas of 
the N. T. (ex. gr. sanctitication, reformation, regeneration, resolution to 
lead a different life). Following his example, /. Benj. Koppe of Got- 
tingen [oh. 1791), (N. T. gra3cc e. perpet. illustr. continued by H. 
Heiiirichs and Jul. Pott, 6 Bde.) and /. George Iioscnm'dller of Leipsic 
[oh. 1815), (Scholia in N. T., G Bde.), interpreted the N. T. with in- 
credible superficiality. In the same spirit, /. Chr. Schlnze of Giessen, 
[oh. 180G), (Scholia in V. Y.), and Loreiiz Bauer of Heidelberg [oh. 
180G) (Forts, der Scholia v. Schalze, Einl. ins A. T., Theol. d. A. T., 
Mythol. d. A. u. N. T., Moral d. A. T., Hebr. Allerthumer, etc.), 
labored in the sphere of the Old Testament. The contributions of /. 
Gottfr. Eichhorn of Gottingen [oh. 1827), Einl. ins A. T., 5 Bde. ; Re- 
pertorium fur bibl. u. morgenl. Lit. ; Bibl. Urgesch. fortges. v. /. Ph. 
Gahler) and Leonh. Bertholdt of Erlangen [oh. 1822), (Einl. ins A. T., 
Comm. z. Daniel; Dogmengesch.), are more profound and respectable. 
The rationalistic stand-point was represented in Church History by H. 
Ph. Conrad Henhe of Ilelmstedt [oh. 1807), and the AViirtemberg minis- 
ter of state, L. Tim. v. Spittler [oh. 1810). Rationalistic doctrines of 
faith and morals were spread less in learned and scientific, than in 
popular and practical works. Sam. Steinhart of Frankflirt-on-the-Oder . 
[oh. 1809), wrote and defended his " System der reinen Philos. od. 
Gllickseligkeitslehre des Christenthums ; " and John Aug. Eherhard, 
Prof, of philosophy at Ilalle [oh. 1809), apotheosized Socrates and 
classic heathenism (" Neue Apologie des Socrates," 2 Bde.), in the 
spirit of the popular philosophy. The acute John Henry Tieflrunk, 
Prof, of philosophy at Halle [oh. 1837), on the other hand, introduced 
Kantian philosophy with its rigid categories into theology (Einzig 
moglicher Zweck Jesu ; Censur d. christl. prot. Lehrbegr., 3 Bde. ; 
Die Mundigk in d. llel,, 2 Bde.). Jerusalem of Wolfenblittel [oh. 1789), 
Zollikoffer, Ref. preacher in Leipsic [oh. 1784), Spalding, provost at 
Berlin [oh. 1804), (Werth der Gefdhle im Christth. ; Nutzbarkeit d. 
Predigtamtcs), Fr. Ad. Sach of Berlin [oh. 1817), Marezoll of Jena 
[oh. 1828), Loffler of Gotha [oh. 1816), /. G. Rosenmuller of Leipsic 
[oh. 1815), Tohler of Zurich [oh. 1808), Aug. Herm. Niemeyer (A. II. 
Francke's great-grandson). Chancellor in Halle [oh. 1828), (Cdiarak- 
teristik d. Bibel., 5 Bde.; Gumdsatze d. Erzich., 3 Bde. ; Lehrb. d. 
Rel. fiir gelehrtc Sehnlen. 18 A. 1843), Hufnagel of Erlangen [oh. 
1830), Jonath. Schuderojf of Ronneburg [oh. 1843), (kirchenreckl. 
Schriften, bes. zur. Vertheichgung des Collegialsystems), etc., contri- 
buted towards the spread of Rationalism by sermons and by popular 
doctrinal and devotional works. (Cf. I 56, 2.) 

6. A theological tendency, abandoning the old orthodoxy, without, 
however, resigning itself to Rationalism, maintained itself in the most 


various gradations between both, under the name of Supranaturalism, 
which desired still to preserve faith in a supernatural revelation. This 
faith was certainly of a very weak kind among many so-called supra- 
naturalists ; a revelation remained, which scarcely revealed anything 
that was not already known to reason. But in addition to these, a not 
insignificant number of worthy men also labored, M^ho were really in 
earnest to save the essential truths of salvation ; but it is characteristic 
of almost all of them, that, although belonging to the Lutheran church, 
they approximated in principle at least to the Reformed church in their 
views and apprehensions of Scripture and of the Church. The most 
influential and able fosterer of Supranaturalism during this period 
was the university of Tubingen. The series of spiritless supranatu- 
ralistic dogmatists is opened by Morvs of Leipsic [ob. 1792), (Epitome 
theol. Christ.) Less of Gottingen [oh. 1797), Doderleinoi Jena [ob. 1792), 
Seller of Erlangen, and Kosselt of Halle [ob. 1807), became less and 
less spirited ; the latter can even be numbered among the Rationalists. 
The ablest and most worthy representatives of Supranaturalism, who 
most powerfully and successfully resisted the current of the age, are 
Gottl. Christian Slorr of Tubingen [ob. 1805), (Comm. z. Hebraerbr. ; 
Zweck d. evang. Gesch. ; Apologie d. OfiFb. Joh. ; Doctrinas christ. pars 
theoretica, translated by C. C. Halt; Lehrb. d. chr. Dogmatik. 1813. 
He also had a controversy with the Konigsberg philosopher ; Annott. 
queedam theol. ad philos. Cantii doctrinam 1793 — by which he gained 
his high esteem); G. Christian Knapp of Halle [ob. 1825), (Vorless. 
u. d. chr. Glaubensl., published by Thilo ; Scripta varii argumenti, 
etc.), and Francis Volkmar Reinhard, Prof, at Wittenberg, chief court- 
preacher at Dresden [ob. 1812), the most eloquent preacher of this age 
(System d. chr. moral, 5 Bde. ; Versuch u. d. Plan Jesu ; Predigten, 
35 Bde. ; GestUndnisse ; Vorless. u. d. Dogmatik). In a sermon on the 
anniversary of the Reformation in 1800, Reinhard professed his adhe- 
sion to the Lutheran doctrine of justification, with such decision, that 
all Germany was agitated by it, especially as a ministerial decree held 
this sermon up as a model for all the preachers of Saxony. Worthy 
of all honor as Apologists are the great mathematician Leonh. Enter 
of St. Petersburg [ob. 1783), (Rettung der Offenbarung gegen die 
EinwUrfe der Freigeister), the not less great physiologist Albr. Halter 
of Zurich [ob. 1777), (Briefe 11. d. wicht. Wahrhh. d. Ofi'enb., Briefe u. 
einige EinwUrfe noch lebender Freigeister), More comprehensive and 
thorough were the contributions of the theologians Theod. Christopher 
Lilienthal of Konigsberg [ob. 1782), (Die gute Sache der gottl. Offb., 
16 Bde., against the attacks of Deists) ; John Fred. Ktenker of Kiel 
[ob. 1827), (Neue Prlifung u. Erklilr. d. vorzligl. Beweire flir d. Wahrh. 
d. Christth., 3 Bde. ; Ausf. Unters. d. Grunde fiir die Echth. u. Glaub- 
wurdigk. d. schriftl. Urk. d. Christth., 5 Bde. ; Bibl. Sympathien, 
od. Betrachtt. ii. d. Berichte d. Evangelisten, etc.), and Dati. Joach. 
Koppen, preacher in Mecklenburg (Die Bibel. e. Werk d. gottl. Welsh.). 


The zealous preacher, who was abused beyond all measure, John Melcli. 
Gotze, chief pastor of Hamburg [oh. 1786), a Ldsclier redivivus, con- 
tended for the palladium of Lutheran orthodoxy against his ration- 
alistic colleagues, against the theatre as a school for the German peo- 
ple, against Barth, BasedoAV, and consorts, against the Wolfenb littler 
fragments, against Werther's Sorrows, etc. His polemics were not 
without passion and malice, and in spite of all his learning he was by 
no means a match for an opponent like Lessing. But he was not a 
blockhead, pettifogger, and fanatic ; this is evident from the intimate 
friendship which existed between him and Lessing for many years, 
before the occurrence of the controversy. Worthy of special mention 
as authors in the sphere of Biblical History are: the excellent super- 
intendent Jolin Jacob Hess of Zurich [ob. 1828), (Gesch. d. Israel, vor 
d. Zeiten Jesu, 12 Bde. ; Lcbensgesch. Jesu, 3 Bde. ; Lehre Jesu, 2 
Bde. ; Gesch. d. Apostel, 3 Bde. ; Vom Reiche Gottes, 2 Bde. ; Kern 
d. Lehre vom R. Gs. ; Briefe u. d. Offenb. Joh.) ; J. Conr. PJhininger, 
deacon at Zurich [ob. 1792), (Jlidische Briefe, e. Messiade in Prosa, 
12 Bde.) ; Magn. Fred. Eoos, prelate of Wurtemberg {ob. 1804), (Einl. 
in d. bibl. Gesch. bis auf Abraham ; Fuszstapfen d. Glaubens Abr. in 
d. Gesch. d. Patr. u. Proph.) Lavaier and Herder also are to be named 
here. Supranaturalism was represented in the sphere of Church His- 
tory hyihe industrious John Matth. Schrockh of AVittenberg [ob. 1808) ; 
the profound Christ. Will. Francis Walch of Gottingen [ob. 1784), 
(Vollst. Hist. d. Papste ; Hist. d. K. Versammll. ; Hist. d. Ketzereien, 
11 Bde, ; Neueste Rel. Gesch. 9 Bde.) ; the Kantian Charles Fred. 
Stdudlin of Gottingen {ob. 1826), (UniA^ersalgesch. d. K. ; Gesch. d. 
Sittenlehre Jesu, 4 Bde. ; Gesch, d. theol. Wissch. s. 1500 ; K. G. v. 
Groszbrit., 2 Bde. ; many historical monographs on the oath, prayer, 
conscience, marriage, friendship, the drama, etc.), and the "Reverend" 
Gottl. Jacob Planck of Gottingen, ob. 1833 (82 years old), a leading 
representative of "pragmatic" historiography (Gesch. d. Entsteh., d. 
Veranderungen u. d. Bildung unseres prot. Lehrbegr., 6 Bde. ; Gesch. 
d. Entst. u. Ausbild. d. chr. kirchl. Gesellschaftsverf., 5 Bde. ; Gesch. 
d. Christth. in d. Per. sr. Einfiihrung, 2 Bde., etc.) The Wurtemberg 
prelate Fred. Christojjher Oetinger {ob. 1782), the magus of the South, 
occupied a quite peculiar position (Theol. ex idea vitas deducta ; Etwas 
Ganges vom Evangelio, on Isaiah 40 ff. ; Biblisch-emblemat. Worter- 
buch zum N. T,, opposed to that by Zeller ; Selbstbiogr,, published by 
Hamberger, Stuttg,, 1845, etc.). He was a disciple of Bengel, deeply 
learned, like him, in the Scriptures, but also an admirer of Jacob 
Bohme, and even not opposed to Swedenborg's ghost-seeing revelations. 
But notwithstanding all this, he is still deeply rooted in Lutheran 
orthodoxy with his biblical realism and his theosophy, which acknow- 
ledges corporeity as the end of the ways of God, and the first repre- 
sentative of a theology of the future, which, it is true, in its develop- 
ment might need thorough purifying and close sifting, but yet might 


be adapted to represent, in its fundamental idea, the basis for the final 
true reconciliation of Idealism and Realism. (Cf. C. A. Auherlen, die 
Theosophie Oettinger's nach ihren Grundziigeu. Tlibg. 1848.) (Cf. 
I 56, 3.) 

7. German Pliilosophy . (Cf. Erdmann, s. c. § 163, \.—H. M. Cliahj- 
bdus, hist. Entw. d. spec. Phil, v. Kant, bis Ilegel. 3 A. Dresd. 1843. — 
jBT. Biedermann, d, deutsche Phil, von Kant bis auf unsere Zeit, Lpz. 
1842, 2Bde.— C. Fortlage, Genet, Gesch, d, Phil, seit Kant, Lpz, 1852.) 
— As Locke fills the interval between Bacon and Deism and Materialism, 
so does Christian v. WoJf [I 46, 2) constitute the centre and transition 
from Leibnitz to popular philosophy. Immanuel Kant of Konigsberg 
{oh. 1804), saved philosophy from the superficial self-sufficiency and 
quackery of the latter, and led it upon the arena of a mental conflict, 
■which is unparalleled in power, energy, extent, and continuance. 
Kant's philosophy ("Kritik der reinen Vernunft," "Die Religion in- 
nerhald der Grenzen der bloszen A^ernunft''), stood altogether outside 
of Christianity, and upon the same ground with theological Ration- 
alism. Nevertheless, by digging deep into this ground, it brought out 
much superior ore, of whose existence vulgar Rationalism had no idea, 
and became, without wishing or knowing it, a schoolmaster to Christ 
in manifold ways. Kant demonstrated the impossibility of a know- 
ledge of supersensuous things by means of the pure reason, but ac- 
knowledged the ideas of God, freedom, and immortality, as postulates 
of the practical reason (conscience) and as the principle of all religion, 
whose contents was alone the moral law ; Christianity and the Bible, 
when they have become the foundations of national culture, are to be 
retained, but must be made efficient by moral interpretation. Whilst 
he thus, on the one hand, approached the sympathies of Rationalism, 
he also, on the other, powerfully opposed its superficiality and self- 
sufficiency, as it came to him in the form of popular philosophy. His 
sharp criticism of pure reason, his deep knowledge of human weakness 
and depravity revealed in his doctrine of the radical evil, his categorical 
imperative of the moral law, were well adapted to produce in profound 
minds a despair of themselves, a disgust with the hoUowness of the 
age, and a want which Christianity alone could fully satisfy. — Fr. H. 
Jacohi [oh. 1819), in his heart a Christian, in his understanding a hea- 
then, led religion from the limits of abstract reason back into the 
depths of the soul, and thus awakened a positive longing. — John Gottl. 
Fichte [oh. 1814) transformed Kantianism, which he at first uncondi- 
tionally embraced, into an idealistic ^^ theory of the sciences," in which 
only the Ego appears as real, — but the Non-ego attains reality through 
the Ego, and thus the world and nature are only important as the 
reflex of the spirit. But when, having reached atheism, he was ex- 
pelled from his position at Jena, a spiritual revolution took place in 
him, Avhich led him away from the brink of atheism upon the way of 
mysticism nearer to Christianity. In his "Anweisung zum seligen 


Leben" (1806), he frees religion from the mere service of morality, 
and seeks the blessedness of life in the loving surrender of the whole 
soul to the All-Spirit, the fullest expression of which he found in St. 
John's gospel. On the other hand, Pauline Christianity, with its fun- 
damental doctrines of sin and atonement, appeared to him as a dege- 
neration, and Christ himself as the most perfect representative of the 
incarnation of God, which is repeated in all ages and in every pious 
person. — Already in the last years of this century, Sclielling came 
forward with his philosophy of identity, which became one of the most 
powerful agencies in creating a new age. (Cf. I 53, 1.) 

8. German National Literature. (Cf. H. Gelzer, d. deutsche poet. 
Liter, seit Klopstock u. Lessing, nach ihren ethischen u. rel. Gesicht- 
spunkten. 2. A. Lpz. 1848, f.) — When the loud tones of the evangelical 
hymn were about to expire in Gellerfs [oh. 1789) pious hymns, Klop- 
stock appeared [oh. 1803) to praise the Messiah in a new song. But 
the pathos of his odes had no eJSect, and his Messiade, as mistaken in 
form as in contents, had the fate of only being praised and not read. 
Lessing [oh. 1781) did not wish to have the impure water of orthodoxy 
oast away, until there was better, in order that it might not be neces- 
sary to bathe the child in the dung-water of the new-fashioned theo- 
logy. He could only see a patchwork of bunglers and half-philosophers 
in the new system, not in the old one ; he rather declared, that he 
knew of nothing in the world, on which human acuteness had been 
more exercised, than on it. It vexed him, that it was imagined possi- 
ble to suspend the weight of an eternity upon the thin thread of ex- 
ternal evidences ; and therefore it was a pleasure to him to throw the 
AVolfenbiittler fragments at the heads of the theologians, and to cover 
the chief pastor Gotze, who was offended at it, with ridicule and 
mockery ("Antigotze"). In his " Nathun^' he permits, in an almost 
perfidious way, Christianity to be represented by a stupid zealot ; — as 
the proper solution of the problem, the thought gleams through, that 
in the end all three of the rings were spurious. In another work he 
presents revelation from the stand-point of a gradual, progressive 
" training of the human race," which lost its significance as soon as it 
reached its end ; and in confidential conversations with Jacobi he pro- 
fessed his belief in Spinoza's "E»/ xai IXotv. Wieland [oh. 1813) was 
soon transformed from a youthful zealot for orthodoxy to a refined 
voluptuary by the popular philosophy. Herder [oh. 1803), with his 
enthusiasm for the infinitely deep and sublimely poetic contents of the 
Bible, especially of the Old Testament, exposed at least the lifelessness 
and insipidity of the customary treatment of the Old Testament. 
Goethe [oh. 1832) hated thoroughly the vandalism of Neology, took 
pleasure in the "confessions of a beautiful soul," had, in his early 
youth, some sympathy for the Moravians, but believed, in the ripeness 
of his manhood, that he did not need Christianity. Schiller [oh. 1805), 
enthusiastic for everything that was noble, beautiful, and good, never- 

288 SECTION III. — THIRD PERIOD (c E N T. 18 A.D.). 

theless disregarded Christianity, and insinuated Kantian Rationalism 
clothed with poetic beauty into the hearts of the German people. His 
sorrow on account of the destruction of the mythology of old Hellas, 
was not only in glaring contrast with Christianity, but also and rather 
with the poverty of Deism, which had banished the living God of 
Christianity, and supplied his place with the dead laws of nature. 
And even if he was earnest in supposing that he was able from reli- 
gious feeling to profess no religion, still he unconsciously paid homage 
to Christianity in many Christian views. Jacobi's mental philosophy 
also had its poetical interpreters in Jean Paul [ob. 1825) and Hehel 
[ob. 1826), in whom the same disunion exists between the pious mind, 
which felt itself irresistibly drawn towards Christianity, and the cold 
understanding, which turned away from faith and towards the reign- 
ing unbelief. /. H. Voss, possessing a coarse Dutch rustic constitution, 
delineates in his Louisa the ideal of a rationalistic rural pastor, and 
persecuted with inquisitorial severity the blockheads and bondmen. — 
But by the side of these worldlings, and as much respected by them 
as they were insulted and slandered by the heroes of the " deutschen 
Bibliothek,'' stood two genuine sons of Luther, the Wandsbecker Mes- 
senger [Mattli. Claudius, ob. 1815, cf. W. Uerbst, M. CI. d. Wandsb. 
Bote. Gotha, 1857), and Hamann {ob. 1788), the Magnus of the North 
of whom Jean Paul says, that his commas are planetary, his periods 
solar systems (cf. C. H. Gildemeisier, J. G. Ham. d. Mag. d. Nord., 
Leb. u. Schriften, 3 Bde. Gotha, 1857), and two noble sons of the Re- 
formed Church, the laborious Lavater {ob. 1801), and the prayerful 
Jung-Stilling {ob. 1817). Besides these, we must not forget the cele- 
brated historian John Von Midler {ob. 1809), who recognized Christ as 
the centre of all ages in a way more profound than any historian be- 
fore him. (Cf. § 53, 3.) 


The old church faith, meanwhile, had still during this period 
of reigning unbelief its ten thousand who had not bowed their 
knees before the Baal of the spirit of the age. A Lavater and 
Stilling, a Claudius and Hamann, are not by far the only, though 
the most brilliant and best known names of the faithful sons of 
the Church. A high place of honor among them is also occupied 
by the preacher John Fred. Oberlin of Waldbach (Ban de la 
Roche) (o&. 1826), who is scarcely suflBciently honored by being 
called a saint of the Protestant Church. "Father Oberlin,^'' by 
official labors extending through 60 years, elevated his morally 
and spiritually depraved and temporally poor congregation to a 
condition of industrial prosperity, noble civilization, and pure 


churchly piety, and transformed the barren, waste Steinthal into 
a patriarchal Paradise. Among the supranaturalistic theologians 
there were also many who adhered in their hearts to the old faith, 
even though they also in their science clothed it with garments 
of the new fashion. The flower of the German people was still 
rooted in biblical and churchly Christianity. Where the pulpit 
permitted it to die out, there they derived rich spiritual nourish- 
ment from the writings of the fathers, and where the modern 
vandalism of Illumination had mutilated and diluted the churchly 
hymn-books, there the old choice hymns still lived in the hearts 
of the mothers and fathers, and resounded with power at family 
worship, and a Hippel exemplified in his " Lebenslaiifen " their 
wonderful power in the life, loving, and suffering of a Christian. 
The Moravian Church became often a haven of safety for the 
educated, who were more exposed to danger. The common 
danger also united pious Roman Catholics and pious Protestants 
in the love of a common Saviour. Thus in Miinster a circle of 
the noblest souls of the Roman Catholic Ciiurch was formed 
around the noble princess Galizin and her able minister Fiirsten- 
berg, in which also ex. gr. a Hamann with his genuine Lutheran 
spirit found the most intimate communion and the warmest recep- 
tion. Pestalozzi {oh. 182t) appeared already in 1715 in Swit- 
zerland to rescue the science of teaching from the superficiality 
of Basedow, reforming the national school in a spirit that was 
genuinely national, and at least not hostile to Christianity. 

1. The Dilution of the Hymn-Books and Sacr-ed Poetiy. — It was 
Klopstock who opened the way for the unparalleled hymn-book van- 
dalism of this period, by remodelling 29 old church hymns (1758). 
He, as also his immediate successors, Cramer and J. Ad. Schlegel, only 
wished to improve the form, i. e., modernize them, which, however, 
could not be done without diluting their contents. Their numberless 
successors among the champions of Illumination only made the more 
thorough havoc both with contents and form. General superintendents, 
consistorial counsellors, and court-preachers, rivalled each other in 
preparing and introducing new hymn-books, with diluted old and still 
more watery new hymns. Every town had its own and peculiarly 
amended hymn-book. Meanwhile, to the honor of the German people 
of this period, especially of Wlirtemberg, it must be said, that they 
with reluctance permitted the old treasure of their hymn-books to be 
taken from them, and the new fabrications to be forced upon them. 
Only a few voices from the educated classes, as ex. gr. the poet Schu- 
bert, were raised against the nuisance, but they were unheard. — As 

II.— 25 T 



poor as the spirit of Illumination was in faith and in poetry, so rich 
■was it, nevertheless, in the production of so-called sacred hymns. 
These are almost entirely of a moral character, and where a well- 
meant hymn of faith appears, it bears not the least comparison w'ith 
the hymns of the 16th and 17th centuries. Abstraction, dogmatic tone, 
and pathos, are the substitutes for the sublimity, inwardness, fresh- 
ness, and nationality of the old hymns. The hymns of the noble and 
pious Gellert are by far the best contributed by this period. Klopstock 
repudiated Gellert's doctrinal tone, and sought to awaken and stir up 
religious feeling. On the other hand, he lacked nationality, of which 
Gellert possessed at least a minimum. Among the sacred poets who 
inherited his spirit, Lavaier is the most able and Christian. (Cf. 
§ 54, 8.) 

2. Sacred Music. — Sacred music sunk also with the hymns of this 
period to the lowest degree of its existence. The old chorals were 
recast into modern forms, by which they altogether lost their ancient 
power and beauty. A multitude of new, unnational, and diflficult me- 
lodies, in a dry pedantic style, appeared ; the last trace of the old 
rhythm disappeared, and tedious, heavy monotony gained the ascend- 
ency, by which all sublimity and freshness was lost. Preludes and 
interludes of a secular character were introduced as substitutes. An 
operatic overture generally introduced the people into the church ; a 
march or a waltz dismissed them from it. The church ceased to foster 
and to produce music ; the theatre and concert-hall took its place. The 
operatic supplanted all taste for the oratorio style. Cantata of a tho- 
roughly secular and effeminate spirit were composed for festival occa- 
sions. A proper church style in music no longer existed, on which 
account also Winterfeld closes his history of evangelical sacred music 
with Seh. Bach. It was almost worse with the Roman Catholic mass- 
music. Palestrina's earnest and elevated school had almost entirely 
disappeared in the polite operatic style, and a greater nuisance was 
and is still made of the organ than in the Protestant churches. (Cf. 
§ 54, 8.) 

3. Religious Parties icithin the Church. — From the secondary effects 
of Spener's Pietism, enriched by Oetinger's theosophy, proceeded in 
Wurtemberg the party of the Michelians. Its founder was a layman, 
Michael Ilahn, a butcher [oh. 1819). His writings are full of deep 
views of the Divine economy of salvation (among which especially s. 
Briefe von d. ersten Offenb. Gottes durch die ganze Schopfung bis an 
das Ziel aller Dinge). The doctrine of a double fall (whence resulted 
a great disregard, but not rejection of marriage), of the restoration of 
all things ; further and especially the disregarding of justification in 
favor of sanctification, of Christ for un in favor of Christ in us, the 
urging of uninterrupted repentance, etc., was peculiar to him. The 
latter was enhanced by the extreme contrast of the Pregizerians (with 
preacher Pregizer of Ilaiterbach at their head), who, laying all stress 


upon baptism and justification, certain in the faith of their happiness, 
and not needing self-tormenting repentance, impressed upon their life 
and worship the character of great cheerfulness and joyfulness. Both 
parties, having spread over the whole of Wiirtemberg, still exist, but 
have approached each other very nearly in common opposition to the 
destructive tendencies of modern times. They had besides a common 
ground in their Chiliasm and in the doctrine of restoration. (Cf. Uaug, 
d. Secte d. Michelianer ; in d. Studien d. ev. Geistlichk. Wurtb. XI. I, — 
Gruneisen, Gesch. d. rel. Gemeinschaften in Wurtemb. ; in the hist, 
theol. Ztschr. 1841, 1.) — The party of the Collenhuschians in Berg stood 
also in a certain connection with Oetinger's theosophy and other Wiir- 
temberg elements. Sam. Collenhiisch, practising physician at AVich- 
linghausen {oh. 1803), who, being offended by the orthodox doctrines 
of original sin as original guilt, of the wrath of God and of the repre- 
sentative satisfaction of Christ, formed a doctrinal system, in which 
Christ, laying aside his divine attributes, took upon himself with 
human flesh also the susceptibility of sinning, the sufferings of Christ 
were derived from the wrath of Satan, and have only the significance 
of the sufferings of trial and of steadfastness, and redemption consists 
in the fact, that Christ bore Satan's wrath for us and sends his Spirit 
into us to work sanctification. The most important of the theological 
adherents of the pious physician are both the Hasenkamps and the 
excellent Gottfr. Menken, Reformed preacher in Bremen [oh. 1831), 
(Homilien liber die Gesch. d. Elias und zu Hebr. 11 ; Anleitung zum 
eigenen Unterricht in d. AYahrhh. d. h. Schrift). (Cf. F. W. Krug, 
Gesch. der Schwarmerei, etc., Elberf. 1851, p. 205, ff., and M. Gobel, 
Gesch. d. chr. Lebens, Bd. II.) 

4. German Illumination found, outside of Germamj, but little favor at 
first. It spread soonest and most in the Netherlands, then in Denmark 
and Norway, and but little in Sweden. In Amsterdam a part of the 
Lutheran congregation tore itself loose, when a neological preacher 
was forced upon it (1791), and organized itself independently as the 
''Restored Lutheran Church," or the " Old Light.'' It still numbers 
seven Dutch congregations, with 12,000 members. In 1797 several 
members of the Wallonian (French Reformed) congregation at Delft 
in the Netherlands formed a religious society under the name Christo 
sacrum, which wished to adopt all the Christian confessions, and to 
unite all in a true Church of Christ upon the foundation of faith com- 
mon to all. The confessional doctrinal differences were to be regarded 
as unessential, and left to private conviction, on which account also a 
separation from the old churches was not regarded as necessary. But, 
although the new congregation at first made some progress, and the 
government formally guaranteed it religious freedom in 1802, it soon 
declined for want of internal strength and under the power of growing 
unbelief, and exists now only in several weak and needy remnants. — 
In Norway a powerful religious excitement was created by the peasant 


Nielsen Hauge, who, since 1795, preached the gospel there. In Eng^ 
land the Dissenters, especially the Methodists, exerted a wholesome 
influence on the national church. Here in the person of W. Cowper 
{ob. 1800) we meet with a noble sacred poet of high lyrical endow- 
ments, whose life and poetry, however, are consumed by melancholy, 
caused by the bugbears of predestinarian despair and methodistic care 
of his soul. 

5. Protestant Union and Missionary Labors. (Cf. Jul. Wiggers, 
Gesch. d. ev. Miss. Hamb. 1845, 2 Bde.) — In order to establish propa- 
ganda to realize the grand thought of union effort for Christian, prac- 
tical ends, the Augsburg senior John Vrlspej^ger travelled over Eng- 
land, Holland, and Germany. But his zeal was first crowned with 
permanent success in Basle by establishing the German Society of 
Christianity ("Deutsche Gesellsch. zur Beforder. christl. Wahrh. u. 
Gottselijkeit") 1780. Soon a number of branch societies were formed in 
Switzerland and South Germany. A periodical: " Sammlungen fur 
Liebhaber christl, Wahrheit und Gottseligkeit" became the organ of 
the society (1784), which drew within the province of its labors all 
possible Christian objects (Bible and tract distribution, care of the 
poor and sick, itinerant preaching, circulating libraries, evangelization 
of Roman Catholics, missions among the Jews, Turks, and Heathen, 
etc.). Gradually some of the branches grew strong enough to be in- 
dependent, ex. gr. 1804, the Basle Bible Society, 1816, the Missionary 
Society, 1820, the Beuggen Institution for neglected children and the 
education of charity-school teachers ; further, a union for the friends 
of Israel, a tract-union, a deaf and dumb-asylum, etc., whereby a dis- 
solution of the society was prepared for in a way not to be regretted. — 
In the last decade of this century, a feeling for united labor for Chris- 
tian objects was also awakened in England, and first of all for Heathen- 
Missions. This took place in the year 1795, when a large number of 
Christians of all parties, mostly Dissenters, united io found the general 
London Missionary Society, and already in the following year the first 
missionary ship sailed to the South Sea islands under Captain Wilson, 
with 18 missionaries on board. They labored, almost hopelessly, but 
perseveringly, for 16 years, until finally King Pomare II. of Tahiti be- 
came the first of the converts. A victory over a heathen reaction-party 
(1815) secured full dominion for Christianity. The example of the 
London Missionary Society led to imitation in other quarters ; thus 
arose in 1796 two Scotch, and in 1797 a Netherland Missionary Society, 
and in 1800 in London the Episcopal Missionary Society for the Eng- 
lish possessions in Africa, Asia, etc. In the same year Jdnicke of 
Berlin founded his mission institute. The Danish Lutheran (^ 47, 7) 
and the Moravian missions (^ 47, 6) carried on, meanwhile, their mis- 
sionary operations vigorously, especially the latter. (Cf. ^ 54, 9, 10.) 






Jf. K. R. Hayenhach, K. G. d. 18 u. 19 Jahrh. 2. A. Lpz. 1856. Bd. 
II. — J. C. L. Gieseler, K. G. d. neuesten Zeit, Herausg. v. C. R. Rede- 
pennig, Bonn 1855. — F, A. Schmy^ (ksith.), Yorless. lib d, neueste K. 
G. Freib. 1852. — ^. Gams (kath.), Gesch. d. K. Christi im 19. Jahrh. 
Innsbr. 1853, ff., 2 Bde.—Jul Wiggers, kirchl. Statistic. Hamb. 1842, f. 
2 Bde.— Z>er5. d. kirchl. Bewegung in Deutschl. Host. 1848. — K. Netz, 
die Kirchen d. europ. Abendl. Frkf. 1847, Bd. I. — D. Schenkel, die 
rcl. Zeitkampf(3. Hamb. 1847. — G. Fr. Rheimvald, Acta hist, ecclst. 
Seculi XIX. Ilamb. 1830-38, 3 Bde.— A^ Matthes, allg. kirchl. Chronik. 
T -IV. Lpz. 1855-58. 



The horrors of the French Revolution demonstrated what 
must become of the modern world without God and Christianity; 
the reign of the new divine scourge lifted the eyes and hearts of 
the people to Him, from whom alone help was yet to be hoped 
for; the wars for liberty in their enthusiasm ("with God for 
king and fatherland") did place their trust in this help, and the 
double victory (1813 and 1815) gloriously justified this trust. 
Princes and people were filled with thankfulness to God. Alex- 
ander I., Francis I., and Frederick William III. (being at the 
same time representatives of the three principal churches) formed. 
25* (293) 

294 SECTION Til, — FOURTH PERIOD (c E N T. 1 9 A. D.) . 

after the Congress of Vienna had established the political rela- 
tions, the Holy Alliance (1815), which had for its object the 
cultivation and preservation of Christian brotherly love among 
the nations as the branches of one family, and among the princes 
as the fathers of the same. " To make Christianity the highest 
law of national life, in spite of all confessional dissensions," was 
the declared object of the Holy Alliance, which was joined by all 
the princes of Europe, excepting the Pope, the Sultan, and the 
King of England, but which, nevertheless, soon became anti- 
quated as a political idyll. Alexander II., at his accession to 
the throne (1855), first again recognized in this idyll an eternally 
true ideal of Christian rulers. — A religious fermentation had also 
been produced among the people ; but what six decades had 
levelled to the ground could not rise again in a night. Old and 
new, and partly very heterogeneous elements, were commingling 
and fermenting in the national spiritual life, in poetry and philo- 
sophy, in theology and the church. Within thirty years a decided 
clarification has taken place, and the antitheses have manifested 
themselves purely and independently. The restitution of the 
papacy in 1814 already awakened a new enthusiasm for ultra- 
montane Roman Catholicism, as also the jubilee of the Refor- 
mation in 1817 for Protestantism ; whilst the theological and 
practical principles of the Lutheran and Refornied Churches, 
which had been repressed, the former in Supranaturalism, the 
latter in Pietism, by a premature union, which regarded them as 
no longer existing, were likewise agitated anew. A powerful 
effort was also made by the old sects to obtain a wider influence, 
and new sects full of powerful errors appeared. Thus the eccle- 
siastical and religious principles were drawn out sharper and 
increased, and over against the church and Christianity a naked 
and bold anti-Christianity asserted itself in Socialism and Com- 
munism, in political, religious, and scientific Libertinism ; whilst 
pauperism and proletarianism, a fruit chiefly of the largely mul- 
tiplied manufactories, increased in a terrible way. In 1848 the 
igniting spark fell upon this accumulated mass of powder, and 
in a short time Western Europe was enveloped in the flames of 
political revolution. The two years of reaction (1849-50) suc- 
ceeded in mastering this wild conflagration. But the fire still 
smouldered beneath the ashes. May God grant, that in a night, 
when the watchmen may sleep, another whirlwind may not kindle 
it anew I Within the sphere of religious life agitation existed 


iu every direction. Pantheism, Materialism, and Atheism de- 
vastated science and practical life, even to the lowest strata of 
the people. Old and new sects increased in a threatening man- 
ner. XJltramontanism bent its bow more tightly. The Protestant 
TJniiin became in every direction a concordia discors, and even 
Lutheranism, which sundered itself from it, concealed a danger- 
ous dissension in its bosom. The prophecies of Scripture alone 
opened a view, through all confusions and anxieties, to the final 
issue of all history, for which, whether it be near or far off, even 
the complications of the present must prepare the way. 


Philosophy exerted an important influence upon the religious 
development of this period, both as regards science and practical 
life. Whilst Rationalism in its philosophical development was 
not able to go beyond Kant, the other theological tendencies 
were more or less directed by the philosophy of this period. In 
addition to philosophy. Belles Lettres, which was also in mani- 
fold ways affected by philosophy, exerted a powerful influence 
upon the religious views of the educated classes. The exact 
sciences also were brought into a closer relation to Christianity, 
partly friendly and partly hostile. But, generally, a Christian 
tendency made itself felt more decidedly than ever in the sciences ; . 
and it appears as characteristic that, whilst formerly the Chris- 
tian convictions of the learned had little or no influence in the 
formation of these sciences, now the endeavors of many educated 
Christian men were directed towards penetrating them with the 
.^Christian principle and permitting it to remodel them. 

I. German Philosophj. (Cf. ? 50, 7.)— Fries [oh. 1843) also acquired 
importance for the development of Protestant theology, by the influence 
which his philosophy exerted upon several distinguished theologians 
(De Wette, Hase). His philosophy started from Kantian Rationalism, 
which it regarded as standing in need of being made more profound 
and thorough, and which it sought to do in a method nearly similar to 
Jacobi's. ScTielling's philosophy of identity, on the other hand, started 
from Fichte's idealism, and, in its progress, assumed the form of essen- 
tially pantheistic Natural Philosophy. He learned from Fichte that 
the world was null and void without the spirit, but he inverted the 
relation. Whilst Fichte allowed reality to the world (the Non-ego) 


only in so far as man apprehended and penetrated it with his spirit, 
and this first gave it real existence, according to Schelling the spirit is 
nothing else than the life of nature itself, and consequently identical 
with it, or rather both are the opposite poles of the same phenomenon. 
The spirit still slumbers and dreams in the lower grades of natural 
life, but in man it has attained to self-consciousness. The total life 
of nature, or the soul of the world, is God. Man is a reflection of God 
and a microcosm. God reaches objective reality and the unfolding of 
his self-consciousness in the development or history of the world ; Chris- 
tianity is a turning-point in the history of the world ; its fundamental 
doctrines of revelation, Trinity, incarnation, and reconciliation are 
regarded as prescient attempts to solve the enigma of the world. Schel- 
ling's living, poetic view of the world penetrated all the sciences and 
gave them a new and unprecedented inspiration. But it was an abo- 
mination to the reigning rationalistic theology. It returned its hatred 
with ridicule and contempt. It introduced a new and fresh element 
of life among the younger generation of theologians. As Schelling 
was connected with Fichte, so was Hegel with Schelling, whose pan- 
theistic Natural Philosophy he transformed into pantheistic Mental 
Philosophy. According to this philosophy, divine revelation as an 
unfolding of the divine self-consciousness from non-existence to exist- 
ence, i. e. from mere self-existence to leal-existence, manifests itself not 
so much in the life of nature, as rather in the thinking and acting of 
the human spirit. Judaism, heathenism, and Christianity are the three 
progressive stages of the development of this process of revelation ; Ju- 
daism is far inferior to classic heathenism, but in Christianity we have 
the perfect religion, of course only in the lower form of conception, 
which it is the mission of philosophy to convert into knowledge. It at 
least again brought Protestant orthodox doctrines into formal repute. 
When Marheinehe again constructed Lutheran orthodoxy in its entire 
dialectic perfection into a speculative system of dogmatics, upon the 
basis of this philosophy; Avhen, further, the talented and profound 
jurist Goschel united it with a refreshing Pietism, then the illusion 
was entertained for a time that the long-sought-for reconciliation of 
philosophy and theology had been finally discovered in this philosophy. 
(The berliner Jahrblicher were for a long time its organ.) But the 
condition of things changed immediately after the Master's death (1831). 
Hegel's school was divided into an orthodox and a numerically larger 
(or "young Hegelian") one; the former advancing the churchly ten- 
dency of the Master; the latter despising Christianity as an antiquated 
form of conception, and running his philosophical views into the most 
open self-deification and self- worship of the human spirit (Anthropo- 
theism). David Strauss, Bruno Bauer, and Louis Feuerhach introduced 
this tendency into theology, whilst Arnold Ruge endeavored to intro- 
duce and make it felt in the social, aesthetic, and political relations of 
life. The organ of this tendency was since 1837 the "Halleschen (later 


German) Jahrblicher/' When these were suppressed in 1843 by the 
Stfite, the Young- Hegelians, in order to obtain a strong support, con- 
^nected themselves with the Rationalists (now friends of light), whom 
but a short time before they ridiculed as the "antediluvian theolo- 
gians". In the revolution of 1848, Huge, with some of his companions, 
affiliated with the communistic Republicans. Schelling, who had been 
silent for almost three decades, and had meanwhile transformed his 
former Pantheism into Christian Gnosticism, occupied (1841) Hegel's 
chair in Berlin as his declared opponent, but was able to produce only 
a transient excitement among the younger generation of theologians 
with his dualistic doctrine of potencies, which was announced as the 
finally attained understanding of Christianity. lie died upon a jour- 
ney to Switzerland (1854), after his brilliant career at Berlin had come 
and gone like a meteor. His son has commenced to erect to him a 
worthy monument by publishing his collected works. 

The hegemony of Hegelian philosophy was ruined by the division 
of the schools and by the radicalism of its adherents ; and Schelling, 
in the second stadium of his philosophical development, was not able 
to found a peculiar school. On the other hand, quite a series of younger 
philosophers appeared, who, starting from Hegelian dialectics, pur- 
posed to free philosophy from the ban of Pantheism, and instead of it 
to substitute a speculative Theism, which made itself felt as Christian 
philosophy, and came in fact into a closer relation to historical Chris- 
tianity, by acknowledging its positive contents. At the head of these 
most honorable men stood Fichte's son ; besides him, Weisse, Braniss, 
Chalyhdns, Fischer, Ulrici, Wirth, etc. Its organ is the " Zeitschrift 
fiir Philosophic und Philosophische Kritik,^' published by Fichte, Jr. 
But important as the philosophical power of these men is, they still 
have not been able to obtain the influence in German science which 
Schelling and Hegel possessed in so large a degree. — Uerhart, Kant's 
successor at Konigsberg [oh. 1841 at Gtittingen), challenged the entire 
new philosophy from Fichte the father to Fichte the son, by declaring 
that the metaphysical God lay altogether beyond the horizon of philo- 
sophy, which, he would confine to the limits of empiricism. His 
Realism was the sharpest antithesis of Hegelian Idealism. His philo- 
sophy, abstractedly considered, stands indifi'erent to Christianity, but 
is not incapable of being brought into a friendly relation to it, as 
Taute's philosophy of religion has demonstrated. Nevertheless, Her- 
bart's philosophy also was not able to exert a great influence on prac- 
Ucal life and science. The tendency of the present age, which is more 
decidedly in the direction of practical interests, is not more favorable 
to the cultivation of philosophy. 

2. The Exact Sciences. — Schelling' s profound views became hereby 
so very significant, that they were not confined to the philosophical 
movements of the age, but also breathed a new life into the other 
sciences. This influence was most widely exerted upon the natural 


sciences. There was not wanting, it is true, a certain wavering and 
mistiness, to which mesmeric magnetism especially contributed largely, 
but the turbid fermentation was gradually clarified, and the Christian 
views separated themselves from their pantheistic appendages. The 
genial Henry Stejfens {oh. 1845), and in a much greater measure the 
profound and judicious G. II. v. Schubert, taught how to fathom and 
understand the book of nature as the reflection and supplement of the 
divine revelation in the Holy Scriptures. A congenial spirit of the 
latter was the Frankfurt senator Fr. v. Meyer, who contributed less, it 
is true, for and through his special science, but on that account more 
for and through deep Christian apprehension of the divine mysteries 
in nature and history. IlegeVs philosophy also appeared at first to 
deepen and enrich, in a Christian way, the other sciences ; at least it 
presents in Gbschel a thinker, who in a Christian spirit transfigures 
jurisprudence, and confirms Christianity in a legal way. For the rest, 
however, IlegeVs philosophy, in its application to the other departments 
of knowledge, brought into sway an abstruse, dialectical tendency ; its 
disciples of the extreme left wing wished to construct all the sciences 
d priori irova. abstract ideas, and at the same time to eradicate from 
them the last reminiscences of a Christian spirit. 

If we consider the sciences singly, and their relation to Christianity, 
it is the Natural Sciences, above all others, which here come into view. 
Their great and glorious names, which history praises as their proper 
founders {Copernicus, oh. 1543, Kepler, oh. 1630, Newton, oh. 1727, 
Haller, oh. 1777, Davy, oh. 1829, Cuvier, oh. 1832, etc.), have also a 
glorious and native sound for the Christian ear. All of them, and 
many others of the great masters of natural philosophy, professed 
their faith with heart .and lips in Christian truth, which, in their 
opinion, was not the least endangered by their brilliant discoveries. 
It was otherwise with the theologians. Even a Schleierjnacher (Sends- 
chriften an Llicke in the Studd. u. Kritt. 1829) apprehended the fore- 
seen destruction of all Christian views of the world through the irre- 
sistible results of natural philosophy ; and Bretschneidcr (Sendschriften 
an einem Staatsmann, 1830) proclaimed to the world without pity, that 
what Schleiermacher had only feared, had already fully taken place. 
A natural philosopher {K. v. Raumer) proved to them, however, that 
there was yet no ground at all either for rationalistic rejoicing or for 
Christian fear, and convicted the superficial babbler Ballenstedt, a 
rationalistic rural pastor of the purest water (" Die TJrwelt," 1819), 
of the most colossal ignorance. But the condition of things was soon 
advanced to a new stage. The investigation of nature, awakening 
from the intoxication of Schelling's natural philosophy, pronounced all 
speculation to be contraband and pure empiricism, and the prudent 
investigation of the actual to be the only admissible, the only useful 
object of its pursuit. This was well meant, and also honestly and judi- 
ciously carried out by the majority of natural philosophers. But whilst 


they committed the spirit in and above nature to the investigation of 
theologians and philosophers, as not belonging to the province of em- 
pirical investigation of nature, those young in the natural sciences, 
here also effecting the emancipation of the flesh from the spirit, de- 
clared that the spirit was not at all present, because it could not be 
discovered by the dissecting knife. Charles Vogt, formerly regent of 
the empire of the year 1849, asserted in all earnestness, that thought 

, was only a secretion of the brain, in the same way as urine was a se- 
cretion of the kidneys ; and Moleschoit declared all life to be a mere 
change of matter, and recognized no other destination of man after 
death tlian to be manure for the ground. The rabble of science and 
of life shouted its approbation of them, but men of true science {Bud, 
Wagner, Andr. Wagner, Liehig, and many others), chastised the irra- 
tional and unscientific spirit as it deserved, and openly and firmly 
professed their adhesion to Christian truth. The celebrated discoverer 
of electro-magnetism, Oerstedt, had earlier already sought "the spirit 
in nature;" but of course the spirit which he found was not the spirit 
of the Bible and of the Church. The grand-master of German Natural 
Philosophy, Al. v. Humboldt, also acknowledged the system of the world 

do be a Kosfxos full of grand harmony in the whole and in the parts; 
but he also discovered no Christian ideas and views in God's great 
book of nature. — Medicine stood and stands on the same level with the 
natural sciences. Only a De Valenti ("Medicina pastoralis") per- 
ceived, with Protestant soberness, in the Christian faith a vehicle of 
medical science ; whilst a Bingseis in Munchen pronounced even the 
entire Romish papacy with the adoration of saints and worship of the 
host to be a conditio sine qua non of all medicine. The physicians 
also, who believed in magnetism, stood for the most part personally 
and with their science in intimate relation to Christianity (ex. gr. 
Fassavant, Ennemoser, etc.) — Magnetic Somnambidism, the Wurtem- 
berg ghost-seeing, the North American Spirit-rapjnngs, and the uni- 
versal Table-moving and Table-writing, have, in spite of the wrath of 
many natural philosophers, who saw therein only refined fraud or ob- 
stinate self-deception, and of many earnest Christians, who warned 
against Satan's deception and arts, found crowds of believers, who 
gave ear to the new revelation with rapture. 

Of all the sciences, no one was so thoroughly pervaded by the Chris- 
tian spirit as Jurisprudence. A large number of excellent jurists, who 
are reckoned among the most distinguished notabilities of this science, 
and who were always ready to give evidence of their zeal for the Church 
and Christianity in practical life as well as in science, adorned many 
German professorships and tribunals, or filled high civil offices. As 
examples we need only mention the names of Fr. v. Meyer, Gbschel, 
Stahl, Bethmann-Holliceg, Savigny, Fuchta, Thibaui, BicTcell, jacobson, 
Bichter, Miihler, Goschen, Wasserschleben, Huschke, Mejer, Scheuerl, 
etc., and the Roman Catholics Walter, Philipps, et. al. — Historiography, 


after it had surmounted the superficial pragmatism of the rationalistic 
period, and objectivity had again acquired its rights, also followed the 
Christian and churchly factors of history with love and recognition. 
Protestant historical inquiry especially manifested throughout an al- 
most boundless readiness to acknowledge and admire the grand pheno- 
mena of mediaeval Roman Catholicism, even with the denial of the 
Protestant consciousness ; and proceeded from the apotheosis of aBoni- 
face, Gregory VII., and Innocent III., to the defamation of the Refor- 
mation as a revolution (John Voigt, H. Leo, C. A. MenzeJ,. Hurter, 
Gfrorer, etc.) Ultramontane historiography accepted such admissions, 
but by no means thought of recompensing like with like, but only in- 
tensified its old method of wickedly and perfidiously slandering every- 
thing Protestant [Riffel, Dbllinger, etc.), and of making history instead 
of impartially investigating. Geography , which was first raised to a 
science by Charles Bitter, paid to Christianity the tribute of its recog- 
nition, which it also deserved from this quarter. Finally, ancient 
classic Philology also, in several important representatives, illumined 
ancient classic heathenism and its religion with the Christian spirit, 
and endeavored to interpret it in the sense of the apostle (Acts 14 : 16 ; 
17 : 27 ; Rom. 1 : 19, fi".) Creuzer prepared the way thereto by a deeper 
apprehension of ancient heathen mythology. Gorres walked in his 
footsteps, whose pupil Lepp (das Ileidenth. u. dessen Bedentung fur 
d. Christth. 1853, 3 Bde.) exposes without reserve the deep internal 
connection of Roman Catholicism with heathenism by proving that 
ancient heathen mythology and mysteriosophy are only a latent Catho- 
licism. On the other hand, the Protestants Ndgelshach (Homerische 
und nachhoraerische Theologie) and Lubker (Sophokleische Theologie) 
fathomed, with like depth and discretion, the religious life of the an- 
cient world in its relation to Christian truth. 

3. National Literature. (Cf. /. V. Eicheiidorff (Roman Catholic), 
liber die ethische u. rel. Bedent. der neuern romant. Poesie in Deutschl. 
Lpz. 1847. — K. Barthel, d. deutsche Nationallit. d. Neuzeit. 4. A. 
Braunschw. 1855. — /. A. Mor. Brilhl (Roman Catholic), Gesch. d. 
kath. Lit. Deutschl. vom 17. Jahrh. biz zur Gegenw. Lpz. 1854.) — As 
already Schiller's poetry introduced Kantian philosophy, clothed in 
poetic garb, into the national life, so did also the other phases of phi- 
losophical development find their poetical representatives. It is true, 
Goethe w^as too rich and independent a genius to be led captive by a 
philosophical school ; nevertheless his views of life, and especially his 
views of nature, were related in many ways with Scheliing's philoso- 
phy. His religion was a Spinozian Pantheism. The Romantic School 
connected itself more decidedly and regardlessly with Schelling. His 
Natural Philosophy is the ground out of which it grew, and out of 
which it received as well its proclivity to Pantheism as to Roman Ca- 
tholicism (for the philosophy of identity is related, in principle, to 
Roman Catholicism, in so far as the latter also, only in a difi'erent 


way [I 20], likes to identify or confound the divine and the human). 
The antithesis between romantic and classic was in itself considered 
not that between Christian and heathen, and referred generally less to 
the religious contents than to the poetic form. Romanticism desired 
to liberate art and poetry from the bondage of strict, antique classic 
form, and to lead it back to genuine German forms. It was thereby 
directed to the rich fulness of the middle ages, whose contents it then 
sought to naturalize ivith the form in modern times. But since the 
mediiBval view of the world was decidedly Christian, and the repre- 
sentatives of the classic school had in great part lapsed into the hea- 
thenism of illumination, the above-named antithesis had a certain 
justification. Romanticism, it is true, manifested a great religious 
inwardness (especially in Novalis and La Motte Fouqii6), and became 
the sworn enemy of rationalistic Illumination, which it pursued in all 
its hiding-places, exposed and made ridiculous ( Tieck's Zerbino) ; ne- 
vertheless, in its contest with the prudery of Rationalism, it ran into 
frivolity [Fr. SchlegeVs Lucinde), — and the direct repristination of the 
medieeval forms and views, which had fallen behind the progress of the 
world, was ever an unnatural thing, which could not be atoned for by 
the superabundance of imagination, and which avenged itself on many, 
even the better and nobler ones (ex. gr. Fr. Schlegel, — to say nothing 
of the starved form of a Zach. Werner), by apostacy from Protestantism 
to Roman Catholicism. The twilight of Romanticism was fundamen- 
tally opposed to Hegelian philosophy, and its disciples of the left wing 
almost succeeded in stamping even the expression "romantic'^ as a 
term-Of ajiuse foiLJesuitism and obscurantism of all kinds. On the 
other hand, the dissolute and destructive tendency which, after Hegel's 
death, mastered his school, contributed its part towards creatino- a 
later anti-Christian and revolutionary poetry. Closely connected with 
the Romantic School, for which the way was broken in Schleo-el's 
Lucinde, was the School of young Germany, with its gospel of the 
rehabilitation of the flesh. Its leader was the gifted poet U. Heine. 
The pantheistic deification of Schelling's and the self-deification of 
Hegel's school received their expression in Leop. Schefer's " Laienbre- 
vier'^ and Weltpriester, as also in Sallefs "Laienevangelium ;" whilst the 
sympathies of the young Hegelians for the communistic spirit of the ao-e 
were heralded by Herwegh's and later also by Freiligrath' s poems. 

Purer and clearer than in the Romantic School was the Christian 
elenient-in, the noble national poets Mar. Arndt and Max. v. Schenken- 
dorf, who, being led to faith in the living God of the Bible by the dis- 
tressed state of the fatherland and the enthusiasm of the war for 
liberty, sought to sing this same faith with fresh and inspired notes 
into the hearts of the German people. TJhland's sweet lyric poetry 
connected itself, through the enthusiasm for national interests of the 
present with the patriotic poets, and through the longing wdth which 
he penetrated into the rich mine of the German past, with the Roman- 

II. — 26 


tists, but excelled them far in clearness and sterling worth. Without 
being or wishing to be a specifically Christian poet, his rich and clear 
tenderness of heart, nevertheless, made the soil of German national 
life receptive for the Christian religion. The same is true also of 
Ruckerfs poems, which transplanted the fragrant flowers of Oriental 
poesy into the German garden. The Christian consecration of poetic 
genius appears still more decidedly in the noble and lovely lyric poet 
Emanuel Geibel, the greatest and most Christian of the secular poets 
of the present age. — Connected with those named was a long series of 
specijically Christian poets. The most important of these are : Alb. 
Knapp, C. A. Boring, Ph. Spitta, K. B. Garve, J. Friedr. v. Meyer, 
J. Pet. Lange, Henry Mowes, Gust. KnacJ:, Gust. Jahn, P. F. Engstfeld, 
Jul. Sturm, Vict. Strauss, H. A. Seidel, Louisa Hensel, and many others, 
who are worthily collected together in Knapp's Christoterpe (1833-53). 
Those named belong to the Evangelical Church. With all the Chris- 
tian depth, inwardness, freshness, and enthusiasm which they revealed 
in their sacred poetry, still no one of them was able to elevate himself 
to the sublime simplicity, power, popularity, and churchly objectivity 
which characterized the old evangelical hymn ; they all, in this regard, 
bore too much the signature of this age, the subjective temper of its 
struggles, conflicts, and excitements. Only one poet of modern times. 
Fred. Riickert, struck the key of the old hymns in one hymn (the advent 
hymn: "Bein Konig kommt in niedern Hlillen"). Roman Catholic 
Germany has no poet of the first degree, but many of the second and 
third, possessing great religious depth and feeling, ex. gr. B. Clemens 
Brentano, Ed. v. Schenk, Guido Gorres, Melchoir v. Diepenhrock, Fred. 
Beck, Annette v. Droste-Hulshof, the excellent juvenile and popular poets 
Franz v. Pocci, William Smets, etc. The highly praised poet, Oscar v. 
Redioitz, dug an early grave for his poetic fame by the " Siegelinde," 
when, by a shallow Roman Catholic drama, " Thomas Morus," he kin- 
dled new hope among his ultramontane friends, that they would be 
able at some time to honor in him a "Roman Catholic" poet of the 
first. Another son of the Roman Catholic Church, the talented Nicho- 
las V. Lenau (Niembsch v. Strehlenan), became insane {ob. 1850) 
through the distracted state of his inner life. He stood once, with his 
great master-work, " Savonarola," in the fore-court of the evangelical 

In France, Lamqrtine, soon after the Restoration, manifested a ro- 
mantic, Christian tendency. The poetical sublimity and fanatical 
enthusiasm of his poems made a deep impression upon the excitable 
Frenchmen, but it was not lasting. His poetry gradually declined 
through his subsequent participation in the debates of the Chambers, 
and his Christian tendency degenerated into a vague cosmopolitanism. 
For the rest, the French rojuantic school since the Revolution of July 
{Vict. Hugo, Balsac, George Sand, Eug. Sue, etc.) continued to assume 
a more anti-Christian character, and promoted the communistic and 


libertine spirit of the age. — England had a highly gifted and Chris- 
tianly disposed poet in W. Wordsworth [oh. 1850). In Lord Byron, on 
the other hand, appeared a poet of the first rank, who experienced in 
himself, more deeply than any other poet, the great chasm which runs 
through the consciousness of our age, and which he has delineated 
more faithfully in its awful greatness than any other. He permits the 
-xlisharmony of nature and of human life to rush along in powerful 
and captivating notes. Incurable pain, despair, weariness of life, and 
misanthropy without hope, even without a desire for reconciliation, 
glowing enthusiasm for the glory of the past, burning passion for 
liberty and gigantic defiance of human power, surge through each 
other in scenes of woe. Whilst in England a ban still rests upon 
Byron's poems, which banishes them from social and family circles, 
their influence has only acquired the greater sway on the continent. 
His colossal spirit, however, also begat here a pigmy race of imitators, 
who strut so largely in continental literature. 

4. National Culture. — "Whilst the poetical national literature exerted 
an influence chiefly only on the higher and educated classes, an immense 
number of popular and Juvenile works were published, which were de- 
signed for the lower classes and the youth. But only a few succeeded 
in striking the true popular and juvenile key, and still fewer is the 
number of those who offered the people and the youth that which was 
beneficial. Pestalozzi's " Lienhard and Gertrude," Hebel's " Sehatz- 
kUstlein," and Zsehokke' s " Goldmachendorf," spared at least the Chris- 
tian consciousness of the people, even though they were not designed 
to strengthen and nourish it. Berth. Auerbach, a Jew, also delineates 
the Christian life of the people with admirable abnegation of his Spi- 
nozian unbelief, in his masterly village histories ; although his subse- 
quent authorship was devoted to democratic revolutionary movements 
and pantheistic propagandism. On the other hand, however, modern 
times have also produced a number of authors as genuinely national 
as Christian, who, writing and narrating out of the spirit of the people, 
became true apostles of Christian views, manners, and discipline Jor 
the people. The most important among these are : Jeremiah Gotthelf, 
(Albert Bitzius, ob. 1854), W. 0. (Will. Oertel) Von fforn, Carl Stbber, 
Otto Glaubrecht (Rud. Ludw. Oeser), Gust. Jahn, Aug. Wildenhahn, 
Mary Kathusius, Will. Redensbacher, Karl Wild, et al. In the Roman 
Catholic Church Albanus Stolz displayed an admirable popular talent 
(Kalender fiJr Zeit und Ewigkeit, since 1843). Comparatively few of 
the immense numheT oi juvenile works correspond with their object and 
aim. The chief of the authors in this department of Christian narra- 
tion is G. IL V. Schubert. Next to him are Bajihj the author of 
'* armen Heinrich," and Stbber, as also the Roman Catholic Christo- 
pher Schmidt, the author of '* Ostereier.'' {Cf. K. Bernhardi,'Weg- 
weiser durch die deutschen Volks- und Jugendschriften, Lpz. 1852, and 
H. Prbhle, Ilansblichlein fiir das Yolk u. s. Freunde. Lpz. 1852. Bd. 


I. Einl.) The common schools became, especially through Dinfer's {oh, 
1831) successful efforts, nurseries of the tame, shallow, and self-sufficient 
Rationalism of the ancient regime, whilst they owe especially to Dies- 
terweg's labors during the last thirty years their transformation into 
propaganda of naturalistic democracy. Next to the army of literary 
Bohemians, the teachers of the common schools of this period labored 
most successfully in poisoning the German nation, and in the Roman 
Catholic Church not less than in the Protestant. Whilst the rational- 
istic pastors soon preached their churches empty, the common schools 
continually brought their crowds of new victims to the Moloch of Illu- 
mination. But both Church and State have labored with success, Avithin 
several decades, to bring to pass a Christian reorganization of the com- 
mon schools, and Christian doctrines and views have already gained a 
decided ascendancy both in pedagogical journalism and literature. The 

-•»* three regulations of the Prussian minister Von Rmnner (1854) contri- 
buted greatly towards a thorough Christian reorganization of the com- 
mon schools. In Roman Catholic France and Germany the bishops 

^^ have succeeded in gaining absolute control of the schools and semina- 
ries. The Christian spirit has also begun to take a position by the 
side of reigning heathenism in the German gymnasia. At least, reli- 
gious instruction in many of the higher institutions of learning has 
again passed into the hands of Christian teachers ; and only a few have 
been able to maintain a height of Illumination such as is occupied by 
the Ilomburg academical gj-mnasium, where Niemeyer's " Lehrbuch 
der Religion" is still the text-book. Nevertheless, but little is accom- 
plished by religious Christian instruction in these institutions, if the 
other instructions given do not correspond with it, which, alas ! is too 
j much the case yet. From this want arose the Christian gymnasium at 
Gutersloh (since 1849), and lately (1855) a Lutheran gymnasium at 
Bogasen in Posen. In the Protestant Church Eyth (Classiker u. Bebel. 
1838) took up arms against the heathen classics as the basis of culture, 
but the most influential voices defended them. This question was also 
largely discussed in the Roman Catholic Church. The Paris Univers 
(editor, Veuillot) desired, in order to cut off the nourishment of modern 
heathenism, to substitute the Church Fathers for the classics; the 
Archbishop Sibour of Paris and several other bishops protested ener- 
getically against it. The Pope brought the passionate controversy to 

— .an end (1853) by a compromising decree, which takes the side of the 
Univers, but with great forbearance towards the archbishops. 

5. Art. — The general mental agitation which was (^^.lled forth by 
the new century also introduced new spirit and life into art. Winchel- 
mann [oh. 1768) interpreted heathen classic art, and Romanticism 
awakened a sense and enthusiasm for mediaeval Christian art. The 
greatest masters of Architecture were SchinJcel [oh. 1841), Klenze, and 
^Jleideloff. A Protestant king (Frederick William IV.) began the com- 
pletion of the cathedral at Cologne (1842), and a Protestant architect 


{Ernsi Zicirner] superintended it. — Sculpture has three great masters - 
to point to, who impressed profound Christian views upon brass and 
marble. The Italian dawva [oh. 1822) was the renewer of this art. 
The German i>«nAifcAe?- {oh. 1841), inspired by him, excelled his mas- 
ter. His Christ represents the Divine Mediator in a sublime marble 
statue, as he beheld him in vision; his John embodies the image of 
the disciple meditating on the mystery of the holy Trinity. But 
greater than both of these is the Dane Thorivaldsen [oh. 1844), who 
sculptured Christ and his apostles, together with other groups, for the 
Church of our Lady in Copenhagen. — A new epoch in Painting also/ 
began. In 1810 a number of young German painters met together in 
Rome, who, enthusiastic for the mediasval ideals of art, formed a Ger- 
man painter's league, from Avhich proceeded the Romantic school. 
OuerhecJc, the founder of the league, remained in Rome and went over 
to the Roman Catholic Church, because he could and would only paint 
that which he could also worship. The most profound inwardness and 
tenderness of religious feeling are revealed in all his works ; but his 
contempt for that which was classic avenged itself in striking defects 
of form. His friends gradually emancipated themselves from this one- 
sidedness. Cornelius, the most distinguished of them, left Rome, and 
in 1819 took the control of the academy at D'lisseldorf ; in 1825 that 
of Munich ; and in 1841 went to Berlin. He is the founder of the 
Munich scJiool [Schnorr, Veifh, Kaulhach, etc.), which combines reli- 
gious inwardness with beautiful and sublime forms, and strives to 
spiritualize nature to ideal beauty; whilst the DUsseldorf school, under 
the control of Karl Frederick Lessing, restricted itself to a faithful 
copying of nature. Lessing's Protestant consciousness expressed itself, 
in contrast with the ultramontane zeal of his rigidly Roman Catholic 
art-companions, in his two great master-pieces, " Huss before the 
Council" and the "Imprisonment of Pope Paschalis by the Emperor 
Henry v., ''and completed the long-prepared-for rupture of the schools 
(1842). Between these two German schools stood the Romantic French 
school, with H. Vernet at its head. — Music also made great progress, 
V. through the three great masters in Tienna. They devoted their best 
powers to secular music, but they also treated biblical and churchly 
subjects with imperishable success. Mozart [oh. 1791) wrote when 
dying his glorious requeim ; Haydn [oh. 1809) set to music the seven 
words of Christ on the cross, and produced in his "Creation" a grand 
work of art, which, however, is almost more an opera than an oratorio. 
Beethoven [oh. 1827), having lost his hearing, withdrew into the magic 
world of his imagination, from which proceeded a Christ on the Mount 
of Olives and the second mass, "also a creation, which, however, did 
not reach the seventh day" (Hase), because the lofty spirit of the mas- 
ter was not the spirit of the church. The Berlin singing academy, 
under the control of Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (a nephew of the well- 
known Jewish popular philosopher), has gained great credit in re- 
26* U 



awakening the taste for the old churchly art music, by again perform- 
ing the oratorios of Handel, Bach, etc. — an example which has been 
extensively imitated in other parts of Germany. Mendelssohn's own 
oratorios " Paulus'' and " Elias," in which he permits the simple word 
of God to rule in its power and truth, as also his psalms, are the most 
glorious productions which have appeared in this department in modern 
times. He was removed by an early death (1847), before he was able 
to translate his ideal Christ into notes. 


Cf. /. G. Jorg, Gesch. d. Protestantism, in sr. neuesten Entwickel. 
2 Bde. Regensb. 1858. 


" The beginning of this century found Rationalism in its fullest 
bloom and dominion. But a new spirit began to stir already in 
philosophy and national literature, and the heart and mind of 
the noblest of the German nation became again receptive for the 
faith of the fathers, through the enthusiasm of the wars of liberty. 
A strong and energetic Pietism, which also was not deficient in 
martyr-joyfulness, entered the arena and fought Rationalism to 
the death, although appearing to yield in the single combats. 
The year 1830, with the Hallean controversy, constitutes a turn- 
ing-point. From this time Rationalism began to decline ; it was 
compelled to withdraw from the high places of science and cul- 
ture, and to try its chances in the agitation of the popular masses. 
Meanwhile a new factor of churchly development had appeared 
in the Union. A division in the camp of Pietism was produced 
amid the actions and reactions of the agitation occasioned by it. 
On the one side Pietism rose to Confessionalism, and contended 
as such as decidedly and as powerfully for the palladium of what 
was specifically churchly, as it had formerly for the treasure of 
the general Christian confession. On the other side, it entered 
most heartily into the Union, and glorified in it the most blessed 
acquisition of the century. All theological tendencies flowed 
together gradually into these two antitheses, and the present 


finds itself in the midst of a yet undecided conflict of the one 
against the other, which is carried on both in the sphere of 
science and of practical life with spiritual and carnal weapons. 

1. Protestant Rationalism preserved itself Avith its peculiar self- 
sufficiency and unimprovableness also through the religious elevation 
which the mental life of the nations reached since the wars for free- 
dom. Innumerable preachers and teachers in common and higher 
schools still adhered to it, and until within the last thirty years it was 
also still represented in many theological professor's chairs. In the 
Stunden der Andacht, by ZschoJcke, further in Tied<je\'i Urania, and 
entirely caricatured in Witschel's Morgen und Abendopfern, etc., ap- 
peared a sentimental Rationalism, which, even though it became a 
bridge for many to true Christianity, nevertheless inflicted incalculable 
injurj^ upon the religious development of the German nation, inasmuch 
as it drew the religious want, caused by the wars for freedom, away 
from its true spiritual nourishment. — Nevertheless, Rationalism lost 
respect and influence more and more, especially among the higher 
educated classes. Schellin^'s natural philosophy and Hegel's philo- 
sophy of conception. Romanticism and cosmopolitan literature, in 
which the spirit of modern times continually advanced forward in the 
most heterogeneous way, were equally opposed to it. It had to draw 
in its sails before Schleiermacher's theological science, and the then 
generalissimo and grandfather of Rationalism, Rohr of Weimar, found 
in his own diocese in the person of Hase of Jena a not less pietistic 
than orthodox opponent, whose crushing polemics struck him (1834) 
as once Lessing's struck the chief pastor Gotze. Clans Harms [oh. 
1855) on the part of the church, opened the contest against the apos- 
tacy from the faith of the fathers oil the occasion of the Reformation- 
jubilee (1817), with 95 new theses, which contrast Luther's almost 
forgotten doctrine with the unchurchly spirit of the age ; and Aug. HaJin 
(1827) defended in an academical disputation at Leipsic the position, 
that the Rationalists ought to be dismissed from the church. Since 
1827 the " Evangelische Kirchenzeitung," by Hengstenherg of Berlin, 
began an opposition as fearless as energetic against Rationalism in all 
its forms. It created the greatest excitement by publishing an anony- 
mous article (by the jurist E. L. v. Gerlacli), which openly charged 
the professors Gesenius and Wegschneider of Halle with infidelity, even 
with the scoffing of what was holy, and advocated the interposition of 
.the civil power (1830). But although the ex-minister Stein (to Gagern) 
expressed the hope that the state would not hesitate to place a dozen 
Rationalists extra statum nocendi, still the government only was con- 
cerned about ^silencing the controversy that had arisen, without ex- 
amining the charges of the complainant. Pietism also vigorously 
opposed Rationalism in almost all the other German Protestant coun- 
tries, and provoked many lively controversies. The scientific theolo- 


gians disavowed it ; the philosophers despised and ridiculed it ; it evea 
came so far, that men of scientific culture regarded it as an insult to 
be reckoned among the Rationalists. It was already believed that the 
time had come to perform its obsequies, — but it was too soon. Its 
power at this time lay in the masses of the people, who had been 
trained in unbelief, and it offered this to them. When the preacher 
Siute)iis of Magdeburg declared in a newspaper that the worship of 
Christ was blasphemous superstition (1840), and the consistory insti- 
tuted proceedings against him, the neighboring preachers Uhlich and 
Konig organized a union of so-called Friends of Light, which soon 
called thousands of laymen and clergymen to a public meeting at 
Kothen. In such a meeting (1844), Wislicenus of Ilalle destroyed the 
self-deception of Rationalism, that it still occupied the ground of Scrip- 
tures and the Church, by the question whether the Scriptures or the 
Spirit was to be the form of faith. Guericke, who was present as 
*' Church historian," made a note of it, and the evang. Kirchenzeitung 
contained numberless protests and excommunications. The left wing 
of Schleiermacher's school took offence at this, and issued, Aug. 15, 
1846, from Berlin, a declaration with 88 signatures against the paper 
pope of the antiquated reformation confession and the inquisitorial 
conduct of the " Kirchenzeitung's" party, which disregarded ail free- 
dom of faith and of conscience, wishing to hold fast only to one thing 
— that Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day and forever, was the 
only ground of our salvation. The popular wit of Berlin called them 
friends of twilight or hats, because they neither wished to be friends 
of light nor blockheads; and the aged Clans Harms, " Einer gegen 
Achtundachtzig," attacked them with the bold defiance of a youth, 
and wdth the self-consciousness of an aged confessor, who labored and 
suffered more than them all, in crushing philippics. The friends of 
light, however, fraternizing with the German Catholics and Young- 
Hegelians, founded free congregations at Halle ( Wislicenus), Konigs- 
burg [Rupp), Magdeburg ( TJhlich) and at many other places. Saxony 
prohibited the assemblies already in 1845, as directed against churchly 
confession ; — Prussia at least forbade the participation of the laity in 
the same; but by an edict of toleration (1847) guaranteed tolerance 
and free exercise of religion to their congregations. The religious 
emptiness of their assemblies and sermons filled the revolutionary 
movement of 1848 with politico-democratic agitation. This furnished 
the State with the welcome occasion to place them under strict police 
control, and to dissolve them one after the other, 

2. Pietism did also not entirely die out during the years of spiritual 
famine, but, being purged of many eccentricities, found a refuge and 
nourishment chiefly in connection with the Moravians. It also deve- 
loped itself in Wurtemberg in an independent and peculiarly theoso- 
phical, chiliastic way (to Avhich was added later a species of ghost- 
seeing with all kinds of revelations from Hades, practised especially 


by Justimts Kerner). It was also strengthened to make a more decided 
impression by the religious agitations of the new century. In contrast 
with the clergy, who had almost entirely fallen under the banefal in- 
fluence of nationalism, it laid hold of the religious kernel of the na- 
tional life, and as the weak rationalistic moral sermons could not 
satisfy its religious wants, it sought to do this by conventicles and 
meetings, which Avere led by gifted men, mostly mechanics, but well 
read in the Bible and ascetic works. As Pietism did not shun martyr- 
dom of any kind, neither the ridicule and abuse of the infidel masses, 
nor the hatred of rationalistic pastors, nor yet the interposition of the 
civil power, were able to retard its progress. It also gradually pene- 
trated the younger generation of the clergy, and even theologians at 
the universities. The energetic vigor of modern Pietism is manifested 
in its great labors for missions, foreign as well as inner, in which it 
accomplished the most extraordinary results with the fewest means. 
A fresh and hearty religious poetry was again produced by it ; the old 
choice hymns of the evangelical church were again used, and the 
ascetic treasures of the churchly past were again rescued from the 
dust. This modern Pietism was evangelical and Protestant from the 
beginning. As it did not, like the Pietism of the previous century, 
start from the antithesis against dead churchliness and orthodoxy, but 
rather from the antithesis against unchurchliness and Rationalism, it 
consequently was also distinguished from it advantageously by a more 
decided tendency towards what was generally churchly, — although the 
proper characteristics of Pietism, overrating the invisible above the 
visible church, sanctification above justification, the pain of repentance 
above the joy of faith, inclination towards Chiliasm, indifierence to- 
wards the churchly apprehension of doctrines, etc., belonged more or 
less to it. But as the Pietism of the previous century indicated in its 
degeneracy the transition to Rationalism, so did that of the present in 
its elevation form the transition to the revival of churchly conscious- 
ness and life. — Of some significance for the revival of religious life in 
several sections of Germany, but especially in Switzerland, were the 
missionary labors of Lady von Kriidener (by birth Baroness Vieting- 
hotf of Riga, 1766). This lady, after " having been brought up in the 
dwellings of vanity," and wasting many years in a worldly life, but 
then "humbled by her sins and errors,'^ was seized by a glowing, 
fanatical love for the Saviour. She now (since 1814) travelled through 
the greatest portion of Europe, preached repentance, proclaimed sal- 
vation and condemnation, carried the consolation of the Gospel to the 
criminals in the prisons, preached the foolishness of the cross to the 
wise of this world, to kings and princes the majesty of Christ as the 
King of kings. Wherever she went, she disturbed secure sinners, 
melted the stony hearts of the hardened to tears of repentance, at- 
tracted great crowds of spiritually miserable ones of all kinds and of 
all classes, etc. By some she was honored as an elect saint, as a pro- 


phetess and a performer of miracles ; by others she was ridiculed as a 
fool, and persecuted as a dangerous fanatic or deceiver. Banished 
from country to country, she finally died (1824) in the Crimea. 

3. The Protestant Union. (Cf. /. G. ScJieibel, actenmasz. Gesch. d. 
neuest. Union. Lpz. 1834, 2Bde. — ^. G. Rudelbach, Ref., Lutherth. 
u. Union. Lpz. 1839. — 0. Krahhe, d. ev. Landeskirche Preuszens. 
Berl. 1849. — C. W. Hering, Gesch. d. kirchl. Unionsversuche. Lpz. 
1836-38, 2 Bde.) — Since Prussia became one of the great powers 
of Europe, it became the centre of intelligence and the champion of 
Protestantism. This position, not less than the opposition to the 
Reformed confession among by far the greater portion of the popula- 
tion, made it highly desirable on the part of the Prussion government 
to bring to pass a union of both Protestant Churches, The circum- 
stances vrere very fiivorable to it ; the Lutheran separate consciousness 
had almost entirely vanished both in science and in practical life ; 
Lutheran Supranaturalism had formally passed over into Reformed 
apprehension of principles, and willingly abandoned Luther's doctrine 
concerning the Lord's Supper ; Calvinism had sunk into Zwinglianism, 
and rejoiced to see the doctrine of predestination obviated ; Rationalism 
hoped that the peculiar and characteristic doctrines of Christianity 
would fall with those of Lutheranism, and Pietism with its enthusiasm 
and its indifference towards the theology of the creeds willingly gave its 
consent. Thus Frederick William IIL's summons (at the jubilee of the 
Reformation, 1817) to a Lutheran-Calvinistic Union in behalf of a re- 
generation of the Protestant Church, met with much sympathy. The 
introduction of a new liturgy (1822), in the formation of which the 
pious king himself participated, awakened, it is true, manifold oppo- 
sition ; its forms were considered too churchly, even Romanizing. A 
second edition of it (1829) conciliated by a large selection of its formu- 
laries, and soon the liturgy had the authority of a law, and the Union 
was a fait accompli. Under a common church government and a com- 
mon liturgy there existed now in Prussia an evangelical national 
church with three sections, — a Lutheran and a Reformed, which held 
fast to their characteristic doctrines, but did not wish to regard them 
as separative, — and a real united section, which entirely abandoned the 
characteristic doctrines. But since these three sections did not remain 
separated, their commingling being rather designedly promoted, — since 
besides, Indiflferentism, Rationalism, and infidelity, boasted of the 
Union as being a practical indifierentizing, even abolition of the con- 
fessions of faith, — since finally the continually increasing churchly 
consciousness opposed the Union more and more decidedly, the confu- 
sion in the Prussian united church became greater every year. The 
attempt to give it a firm basis in a confession of faith and in a consti- 
tution by a general synod, failed entirely, and only increased the 
difficulties (cf. ^55, 1). The largest ecclesiastical conferences, of 
which that of Gnadauer was the mosji important, also attempted in 


vain to overcome and to remove tlie evil from within. — Prussia's e.:s,am- 
ple in the union of both churches was at once followed in Badep, 
Nassau, Rhenish Bavaria, Anhalt, Hessia, etc., and also provoked 
here similar evils and conflicts. (Cf. ^ 55.) 

4. Lutheran Opposition to the Union. — The Prussian union expressly 
declared that it did not wish a change from one church to the other, 
but only a union in brotherly love upon the basis of a common faith. 
But it declared practically that the characteristic doctrines were non- 
essential, and thereby placed itself upon the stand-point of the Re- 
formed Church, which at all times desired and strove after the union 
on this condition. Thus it was easily intelligible that, if it should 
meet with opposition from any particular church, it was not to be ex- 
pected from the Reformed, but rather from the Lutheran. This was 
the case also. The contest for the continued existence of old Luther- 
anism proceeded from Breslau, where Dr. Scheihel was dismissed from 
his offices as preacher and professor (1832) for his opposition [ob. in 
exile, 1843). H. Steffens also, who again attained to the consciousness 
of his native northern Lutheranism through friendly and confidential 
intercourse with Scheibel, connected himself with the reaction ("Wie 
ich wieder Lutheraner wurde," 1831). Outside of Breslau also Schei- 
bel's example was imitated, especially in Silesia. The remonstrant 
clergy were punished with deposition, and, if they continued their 
opposition, with imprisonment, and the congregations were threatened 
with sharp police measures. In the village of Honigern, under the 
preacher Kellner, the church was even opened for the use of the liturgy 
against the passive resistance of the congregation, by military force 
(1834). The suspended clergy held a synod at Breslau in 1835, and 
resolved to use every lawful means to save the Lutheran Church. The 
police measures were, on this account, made more severe against the 
resistants, and a large number of Lutherans emigrated to Australia 
and North America. Guericke of Halle, who, having been secretly 
ordain_ed as_a minister, served a small congregation of Lutherans in 
his house, was, after manifold police punishments, dismissed from his 
professorship (1835), and was only restored (1840) after making some 
concessions. Since 1838 the coercive measures have been generally 
modified. Frederick William IV. released the arrested clergy from 
prison (1840), and in 1841 a Lutheran Church entirely independent of, 
the established church was formed at Breslau by a General Synod, 
which received a general concession in 1845 through royal favor. It 
was governed by a church college residing in Breslau, of which the 
excellent jurist Huschke was president. Meanwhile, the Lutheran 
consciousness was awakened also in many other congregations (espe- 
cially in Pomerania, etc.), which, however, were still kept in the esta- 
blished church by special concessions in regard to worship and the 
liturgy. Nevertheless, the Lutheran protestations and secessions of 
single clergymen (often with a large portion of their congregations) 

112 SECTION III. — FOURTH PERIOD (c E N T. 1 9 A. D.) 

multiplied, the latter connecting with the church college of Breslau. 
These were designated as "the churchly constituted Lutherans in 
Prussia,-' in distinction from those Lutherans who remained in the 
united established church. In the other German countries also, where 
the Union had been accomplished, especially in Baden, Nassau, Rhe- 
nish Bavaria, the Lutheran consciousness has been awakened here and 
there within the last few years, and is striving after emancipation from 
the embrace of the union police of the established churches. (Cf, ^55.) 

5. ProfesfaMjQonfederatlon, — The Union endeavored to unite, 
strengthen, and rejuvenate the Protestant Church_by fusion. But 
almost the very opposite was the result. Anotlifir^ay to preserve the 
collective interests of Protestantism, was that of the j7o nfederation, by' 
which the peculiarity and independence of the confessions could be 
1 protected, and their c ommon interests .,^ re present ed with united 
strength. This Avay has been largely followed in modern times. The 
G iistave-Adoh)lius Union, occasioned by the bi-centennial anniversary 
I-of the Swedish saviour of the Protestant Church_ [1832)_, was f ormed 
Oct. 31. 1841. to aid feeble Protestant churches, especially in^Ronifin 
Catholic countries. All the German States, except Bavaria and Au§- 
tria^tookpart in it. The want of a_positiye^creed^ on the part of the 
Union, which had a b^nd^pf unipn pnly_^n_jth^_jieg 
f Catholicism, ar oused su ^ici on from the start in the minds of many 
churchly persons. But i t was just this w ant of a positive creed which 
secure d for it the sympat hies of th e mas ses. The infidel, demagogic 
element soo n^ gained the ascendency. It is true, a general convention 
of the Union at Berlin (Sept. , 184 G]_ v^'as ye t able to exclude the Ko- 
nigsberg delega te Rupp , because he with his congregation had aposta- 
tized from th e Protesta nJLprinciple ; but numberless protestations from 
branch unions opposed this act in the most decided terms. Those of a 
-, churchly spirit no w went ou t of the Union, and in 1847 made the 
■attempt to form_a_^eparate_.chur£l^^ The 

■ whole movement fell int^stagnation amid the complications of the 

revolution__of^l848 ; nevertheless in 184 9 anothe r genera l convention ,. 
\(tneseventh) was he ld at^reslau , al which an important d ecrea se of 
co-operation and of incomeri)ut also of unchurghlx-jpfid el agita tion, 
was revealed. Since that time, however, the Union hag again g reatly 
' Xii acrease d under the superintendence of the prela teJ^. Zimnw nnaiin 
o f Darmsta dt. Its inco me has increased from year to year. In 1853 
i't was $67,244; in the following year $77,218; and in 1858 it was 
$107,666. The Union, possessing such l ^ge mea ns, under careful and 
well-considered management, has already ac complished great and 
f pr aise wortb y__rP f^n Its ; and it will accomplish still more m the future 
with increasing co-operation and support. Nevertheless, the__rigidi"^ 
Lu therans, still re fuseto have anything to do with it, from confessional] 
p- interests ; and a specificallyJl< utheran_ miniaturejinio^ ^ been fo rmed 
ikcjit Leip^ic under the name^of GotteskaMenT^hiQh ^eeks to suppl ement -^- 



the Gust. Ad. Union in so far as it proposes chieflj_to3idjyherfi_J;iie 
l atter-cannot J Vom fundamental antipathies (ex. gr. the__indep;gndent 
LujO ierans of JPiiussbi ). (Cf. A'. Zimmermann, d. Gust.-Ad.-Ver. 4. A. 
Darmst. 1858.) 

An attemj it to fo rm a still g r ande r and more comprehensive Confe- 
deration of all Protestant churches and sects of all countries, chi efly 

^ to jypp ose the progress of the Papac y and _ of Puse y ism^ and ^nerally 

^"-^11 h[gh-c hurc h movements, was made by Dr. Chalmers (cf. ^55, 8) in'^' 
i^ngland . After several preliminary meetings, the first g reat one of 
th ^_Eran g elical Alliance, comp osed_^ delegat es from_airjands^\vas (^ 

■•-held i n Lojidon i n Aiig ust,^1846. The object oT the Alliance was to 
u nite mor ej^Io sely all ^ yan^eljcal^Cliristians on the basi s of the gre at — 
c onimon doctr ines^ of salvation ; to defend and e xtend this , common 
basis_^iLi a:ith with united pow ers, especially a s against the Pap acy; — 

and to contend fox_ih6j^g6do m_of_cmiscie jice_and the religious tolera - , 

tion of all chu rches and sects, Excepting the Papacy.^ Faith in th6 
inspirat ion of the Scriptures, theTrinity, original, sin, the divinity of 
Christ, j ustification Jby ,faith al one, the obligati on of both the sacr a- 
nients, the resurre ction of the^ Jiod y. the final judg nient. the eternal 
blessedness of the righteous and the eterna l_niisery TtT the wicked, was 

_ made to be the condition o f jnenibership of the Alliance : accoraingly, 
t he Baptis t8jvvere_mcluded but(;the Q uakers exclud ed, "s In_1855_4he 
Alliance coniHned its ninth annual meeting wi th the great industria l- 1 -^ 
.^,exhn2ition__at^aris^nd took the form of a ch urch ex hibition ; inai*- 
much as the representatives of the single national churches endeavored 
to present to those present a view o f the ecclesiastical con dition_Qf_ilie _^ 
churches. The tenth meeting was held at Berlin in 1855. The com-S 
mittee of the Alliance, with Sir Cull ing Eardley at its ] i£a,d, made 
every efibrt to make this meeting the largest and most brilliant. A 
deputation presented an address to the King of Prussia , in which it 
was openly declared that the Alliance not only waged_war_against the 
Sadducaism, but also against th e Pharisaism of the German evangeli- 
cal church. The confessional Lutherans, who from the first opposed the 
principle and tendency of the Alliance, believ ed that the latter claus e 
of this declaration was a declaration of war again st ther n. Th e kin g, 
h owever, received the deputation most graciously ; and soon expressed 
his displeasure concerning the suspicions about the Alliance in a decree, 
in which he at the same time declared that he connected the highest 
ho pes for the future ofjbhe Church with its efibrts, and beheld in it a 
sign of Christi an fraternal J eeling^ such as had never yet been realized. ^ 
— Although many distinguished representatives of confessio nal Lutherg .n- 
ism had also been specially and pe rsonally invit e d to take^ paxLJa^his 
meeting, n ot on e of them was present. Likewise, the men of the 
— P rotest. Kirchenzei tung (cf. §56, 5) ^ excluded ^ themselves from partici- 
pating in it, because the nine articl es were to o orthodox for th em. On 
the other hand, representatives of^jetism, U nion ism, and Melanch- 
II. —27 -- --^ 





thonianism, as also ()f Methodism, M oraviain siii, and the Bajrtigtg, from 
all parts of the Avorld, were present in largo nnmbcrs, and constituted 
the heads of the ecclesiastical and politicaljiberals. After a great deal 
had been said about the unity and diversity of the children of God ; 
about the universal priesthood ; about the superiority of the present 
meeting to the oecumenical councils of the early church ; about the 
w ant of spiritu al life in the chm'chcs, in spite of th^j;;etm\n^f_theolpgy 
to the churchly confessions, etc., with laudation of the efforts of the 
Alliance and indir^ct_tlmists_aiJiaK E^c^^ and 

it_s deific ation jjf the_sac£aiiueiits and theniinistry, vrhereby the theo- 
logy of rhetoric v^^as able to expatiate, — in addition also to many excel- 
lent and appropriatejwwdsJex^_^i\Jyy^iVV^£cAj^^ et ah), 
the ominous^Jkiss with which Merle d' Auhign6, although resisting, 
greeted C he vaHer jBi^?i.ge/i , or rather the excited feeling with which Lie. 
Krummacher made a report concerning it to the meeting, introduced a 
harsh discord into the concert. Court-preach er Bei /scMagj^hesides, 
conibated ^ the ch urc hly doctrine of insp iration, with the acknowledg- 
ment of which, however, the nine articles connected the privilege of 
membership ; and P rof. Sc hloU mann proposed rather to cast aside the 
whole of the nine ^ articles , as to the present form of which, at all 
events, only the l east numbe r^o£_th pse presenj _were agreed. The gra- 
cious royal reception of the members of the Alliance, at which Lie. 

' KrummacJier gave expression to his overflowing feelings in the words : 
" Your majesty, we all ought not to fall at your feet, but upon your 
neck ! " was glorifiedby^hisjjr other, jyr.^KJV. Ki'ummaclier, as a sug- 
gestive prelude of the great scene of greeting at the day of judgment. 
Sir j^ardle^ decreed : "■ There is^no jonger a _GermaiiX)cean ! '' Lord 
|, Shafteshury announced in London_that3_new^epoch in the world's 
/hi story ha d begun with the meeting at Berlin ; and others returning 
home spoke of it as a s econd Whi tsuntide. Dr. KrummacJier, however, 
exclaimed prophetically, at the beginning of the meeting, in his address 
of welcome: "0 heart-stirring^mirage ! '' Since then the Gerrnan 
branch of the Alliance in Berlin has establishjdinJt§^_sfi^yice^a^^ZVeifc 
^ e vangelische_Kircheng eitung'^ (1859), of which H engst enberg has 
complained as an unwarranta ble theft of t itle. 

"V A kind red institu tion is theEvangelical CJmrch_^ief_jn_Germi\,nj. 
"W hen in 1848 t lie Stat e was compelledLtoji/band on jts Christian charac- 
ter and the sovereign_ episco 2acyLi)f the Protestant princes was called 
in to question b y the revolution in Germany, a number of the most dis- 
tinguished churchly-minded theologians, clergymen, and laymen^^^j^t 
together in September, 1848,Jn the first church ^et^aA^Jftttmberg, to 
form iin~EmngelwaI_CImrcJ^^ for Germany, which had for its 

object the support and indep endent orga nization of the evangelical 
churches in an orderly andje gal way, not bj _means of a union which 
obliterated all confessional differences, but by means of a churfilily 
confederation. The Lutheran, Reformed, United, and Moravian Churches 



werejSrst^of ji U e mbraced Avithin it. The second general church diet 
-was again held a t Witten berg in September, 1849. The strict Luthera ns 
for the most part had wi thdrawn ;i the churchly Lutherans o_f SilesiaN 
we^ejot n.t aJl^represented. Thc^^utheran conference, which had 
been held a short time before at Leipsic under the presidency^oJLi/ar- 
Ze5.i,._4eclared cxpressTyTEatlhe Wittenberg confederation of churches 
of different confessions was impracticajjlo_iLndJLcreconcilabIe with the 
principles of the Lutheran Church. The for mation of a church alli- 

ance, such as was originally contemplated, has been entirelyabando ncd 
b y the church di et, since the political re action has a]so_r estorf>fl th p 
eccle siast i cal pow ei^ofthe_^inces. It has since then held it g- immi al — 
meetings in the chief German cities in turn, and has succeeded in pre- 
serving a tolerably^ actn^e co-operation. T he pres idency has been re- 
gularly conferred on the j urist Bethmam izHolhcefi. Vital church 
questions and the means by which to revive a churchly feeling and 
life have been thoroughly discussed by it. Such discussions have, doubt- 
less, exerted a wholesome influence on many Avho were present ; but 
the attem pts to influence, by depu tations and letter s to evangelical a nd 
R oman C atholic princes, the principles of government in States having 
establislied~ churches, have been for the most part cooll y or j roni- \ 
cally frustrated. At the c hurch diet at Berlin (1853) the propobit ion 
was made, openly to declare thjitJh^^AAj^u^tana_oO the ol dest 

a nd simplest common record of jublicly__ackn ovs^ledged e vangelical 
doctrines in Germany, — without prejudice, however, to the Reformed 
interpretation~of the tenth article, — and that it was s till the commo n 
c reed of all p resent. After some opposition and necessary protestation, 
even the Reform ed jpresent agreed ; but not only the Sc hleicrmacheran s 
of the l eft wing protested against this demonstration, which they re- 
garded as hostile to the Union, but also "some teachers of theology 
and canon law " of the universities of Erlangen^^ieipsiCj_and Rostock, 
enteredjpublicjj jLpiptest in the name of the Lutheran Church against 
this sham confession of the church diet as beijig an offenc ejigainst the 
treasure of the evangelical church and an undermining of its legal 
status. At Stut gdrd (18 57) there were vio lent deba tes concerning 
hea then miss ions and evangel ical cat holicity, between those represen- 
tatives of confessional Lutheranism, who till now had remained faith- 
ful to the Diet, and the Union ist m ajority. yHam bin-g received thc^ 
c humh diet of 1858 very unwillingly into its midsl. Hamburg news- 
papers opposed it with such effect, that the police regarded it as ne 
cessary to adopt extraordinary measures to prevent street-scandals 
The transacti ons were of less import ance than ever before. \Stah l and 
Hengstenbercj were brilliant for the first time by their absence. Beth- 
ma nn-Hollw eg, then already designated for the ministry of Prussia, 
also presided probably for the last^ time over the church diet in Ham- 

The Protestant governments of Germany, following the example of 


Pr ussia aud WU rtemberg, also s eized the j ilea o f confed £ratuz:j&-miity. 

- Already in 1840 a so-called Evangelical Conference met at^Berlin, at 
which mus t of the gove rnments were represented. It endeavored in 
v ain to establ i sh a com m on basis of do ctrines, and was sunk into obli- 
vion by the events of following years. But in 1852 the projec t jg^asy 
a gain agitated and carrie d through Avith great perseverance. The 

^ Eisenach Conf erence met at fi rst a nnually, then evj ery two years 
(1852-53-55 ....), to confer officially concerning the manner in which 
the German Protestant^overnments_aated with_ regard to questions of 
worship, government, and discipline. It established an official organ 
for publishing all German church-ljoards ("Allg, Kirchenblatt f. d. ev. 
Dtschl. herausg. v. C. G. Moser, Stuttg. 1852, if.), and accomplished 
much important preparatory labor, but it has also had its diffi culties 
to contend with. (Cf. below, ^8.) 

6. ( Luthe ranism. — The organization of those _Prussian Lu therans, 
w hojiad separated from the estab lished church into the churdi^ciiLLege 

N.i nBresja u, was at first also disapproved of by otherwise rigidly churchly 
Lutherans in and beyond Prussia, in so far as by them (in opposition 
to the principle of the Lutheran Church) great importance seemed to 
be attached to the form of church government and to institutions such 
as could only belong to the confession. It is true, that during the first 
p eriod of c onflict and sifting, here and there phenomena may have 
appeared, which approached ne ar to D onatism, and ^ Nq vatianism. 
These, however, were more and more overcome and removed in the 
course of progress, and with them the disinclination from that quarter 
was gradually removed. Since the persecutions and oppressions to 
which they were subjected have been brought to an end, their church 
affairs^ have assumed3_more_decide(La^djprosperous form. And even 
though Guericke thought it necessary to jeparate from them on account 
of supposed violence done to his conscience to preserve his theological 
freedom, st ill foreig n_JiUtherans j[in^Bavaria and Saxony, etc.) had no 
hesitation in maintaining fratern al fel lowship with them. Their com- 
munion embraces about 4()^OOOto5O,0KLsQuls, who are ministered to 
b y 40 p reachers under seyen_superintendents. 

As the revolution.of 1848 _undermined t hejbrm which the Prussian 
established church had hitherto assumed, and had made its continuance 
more than doubtful, the Luthera ns wh oha^^^-jiemaine d with in the 
established church also took fr esh nop e, that throughthe_^ew_organi-' 
zation of church government they would also be able_toagain_assert 
the rights of the Lutheran Church of their country. To accomplish 
' — this end, Lutheran provi ncial Unio ns wera formed in ^ilesia, Posen, 
Pomerania, Saxony, etc. ; and on the evening preceding the second 
"Witt enberg churc h diet, they, through their deputies, f ormed them- 

i^ selves into a C(0?^ec^iye_C7«i02ij_under the presidency_of__^2£c/ie?. In a 
public proclamation to the Lutheran congregations, it declared that it 
desired earnestly and zealously to agitate the restoration of the Prus- 



BJan^^Lutheran Church to all its well-earned and legally guaranteed 
rights, and to insist upon the preservation or renewal of Lutheran 
confession, worship, and church government, together with Lutheran 
congregational order, but to disapprove of secession from the esta- 
blished church, because it involved a voluntary and premature aban- 
donment of rijjclits. With the full knowledo;e and the unconcealed 
statement of this separatistic tendency the Union then became a mem- 
ber of the general church diet, from which, however, its adherents 
have^since then gradually withdraAvn. 

Among the Lutheran established churches, which would have no- 
thing to do with the Union, are especially those of Bavaria, Saxony, 
and Mecklciihvrj ; and Ilajwccr also in part, where Lutheranism has 
most strongly developed itself. To them may be added yet the church 
of Livland, which, though externally isolated, is nevertheless rooted 
with all the fibres of its being in the Lutheran Church, in which also 
I* within a decade a synodal life has unfolded itself, which many a foreign 
established church on closer acquaintance with it might envy. — The 
Lutheran Conference at Leipsic, lirst brought about by Rudelbach, was 
also of significance for the awakening and vivifying of Lutheran 
churchly consciousness. The thesis maintained by Lolie, Deliizsch, 
^nd Kahnis, that adhesion to the Lutheran symbols unconditionally 
y excluded from partaking of the Lord's Supper Avitli the Keformed as 
such, gave great offence to the Unionists and Reformed. Nevertheless, 
others, 'cx.^r. Hojluir/ and Thomasius, have expressed more moderate 
views on this subject. A wide difference has arisen among German 
iiutherans about the spiritual office, which the one party {Lohe, Klie- 
fotli, Krahhe, Petri, Miinchmeycr, Vilmar, etc.) regard as an institution 
of direct divine appointment, although without any Romanizing or 
Anglicanizing succession tendency ; the othjr {Hdjiing, Fhilippi, Hof- 
mann, HarnacJc, Thomasius, Huschke, HarJess, Kahnis, etc.) only as 
"being conditioned by the word and sacraments, necessary to their pro- 
per administration, and rooted in the spiritual priesthood. The Con- 
ference of Reichenhach, to which the most important theologians of 
both theories assembled in order to come to an understanding about 
this difference (1856), Avas only perfectly unanimous in the negation 
of the Catholic doctrine and Romanizing one-sidedness. Great offence 
was occasioned by the meeting of Lutheran friends at Rothenmoor in 
Mecklenburg (1858), where, in discussing the passage: "A man that 
is a heretic, reject/' remarks such as this were made, a true Lutheran 
could not pray with a Reformed ; but they were also deservedly repelled 
and repudiated (especially by Prof. Bieckhof of Gottingen). Still the 
responsibility of that remark is to be measured hereby, that the treat- 
ment of this subject was only incidental, and the remark itself was 
only applicable to those cases where fellowship in prayer could be re- 
garded as being at the same time fellowship in faith ; and, uttered in 
27 * 


the private circle of friends, it had been made public through unfore- 
seen abuse of confidence. 

7. 3Iela)ichthonianism and Calvinism, — This intensification of the 
Lutheran consciousness within and without the Union also aroused,here 
and there tlie lleformed consciousness, to strengthen Avhich Ebrard 
established in 1851 the " Reformirte Kirchenzeitung." He conducted 
it for several years, when, having been placed at the head of a Union 
established church (Rhenish Bavaria) by changed official position, he 
transferred it to Charles Gohel of Erlangen. The Reformed Church 
of Germany occupied from the beginning a middle position between 
Lutheranism and Calvinism, which certainly was closely related to 
later Melanchthonianism. Such a diluted Calvinism is also the banner 
of this Kirchenzeitung. ^ Ebrard even undertakes to prove that the 
rigid doctrine of predestination is only a sporadic extreme of the Re- 
formed system of doctrines, against which Al. Schiceizer, from purely 
scientific interest (" Reformiste Dogmatik ;" " Die protest. Centraldog- 
men in ihrer Entwickel. in d. ref. K.^'), has shown, that the doctrine 
of predestination is rather the all-ruling, all-conditioning soul of the 
same, and that its admirable power, fulness, depth, and consistency, 
is directly grounded in it. But Heppe of Marburg has even contributed 
more than Ebrard by the invention of a Melanchtlionian cliurcli ("Die 
confessionelle Entwickel. d. altprot. K. Deutschlands," 185-1). Here 
we learn that synergistic, and, on the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, 
Calvinistic Melanchthonianism (which only appeared since 1540 !), con- 
stituted the original evangelical, Protestant church of Germany ; that 
only after Luther's death, fanatics, who would be more Lutheran than 
Luther himself, established the so-called Lutheran Church, and per- 
fected it by the formula of Concord ; that the Calvinizing of the Pala- 
tinate, Hessia, Brandenburg, and Anhalt, was onlj_a reaction against 
hyper- and pseudo-Lutheranism, a restoration of the original Melanch 
thonian church, and the modern Consensus-Union was only the com 
pletion of this Union. (Cf. § 21, 1.) 

But genuine and rigid Calvinism had also, in this century, its zeal- 
ous adherents, not only in Scotland and the Netherlands [I 55), but 
also in Germany, especially in Wupperthal. The excellent Gotffr. 
_^Dan. Krummacher, since 1816 preacher in Elberfeld {oh. 1837), and for 
a time his nephew Fred. W. Krummacher in Barmen (now Unionist 
court-preacher at Potsdam), were here its enthusiastic apostles. When 
in 1835 the Prussian government made every preparation to force the 
introduction of the Union also in Wupperthal, and threatened the re- 
sistant Reformed preachers with deposition, there arose an excitement 
here among the Reformed scarcely less violent than that among the 
Lutherans in Silesia. The clergy, with the majority of their church- 
members, finally accepted the liturgy of the Union, adding the clause, 
however, so far as it agreed with the nature of the Reformed ritual. 
But a portion of the congregations, and of them many of their most 


excellent members, separated, and persistently rejected all overtures 
of reunion. The royal act of tolerance of 1847 (^ 55, 1) gave them 
finally the privilege of organizing an independent congregation at 
Elbcrfeld, Avhich called Dr. Kohlbr'dgge to be their pastor (he was 
formally preacher of the restored Lutheran church at Amsterdam 
[^ 51, 4], then forced from this position through a contest with a 
rationalizing college, and since then became one of the most enthu- 
siastic adherents of the doctrines of the council of Dort, by the study 
of Calvin's writings), and represents, under the name of the Dutch 
Reformed Church, the only anti-unionistic, rigidly Reformed congre- 
gation in Germany. (Cf. F. W. Krug, krit. Geschichte d. Schwarmerei, 
etc. Elbf. p. 257', ff.) 

8. CompUcaU^mj^tJlX'^f^^^d to Worship. — The hymn-hooks of the 
established churches almost everywhere were brought into a condition 
which bordered on the miserable and insipid, both as regards their 
religious and asthetic character, by the vandalism of Illumination. 
Although there existed more than 80,000 sacred hymns, there never- 
theless existed a complete famine in regard to sacred music. Only 
amojQg^tlie^ old fathers and mothers of the people did there still live 
reminiscences and echoes of the richness and blessedness of the hymns 
of the evangelical church. These made themselves again felt through 
the revived religious life, and demanded the repossession of the stolen 
or squandered inheritance of the fathers. The noble poet Moritz Arndt 
was the first who entered the lists in its behalf (Vom AVort u. v. Kirch- 
enlied. Bonn, 1819). The want, which became daily more felt, called 
forth at first a series of private attempts to reintroduce the old hymns 
(the Berlin Liederschatz by Eisner, the Collections by C. v. Raumer, 
Bunsen, Slier, A. Kiiapp, Daniel, Layritz, Slip, etc.) These were only 
here and there introduced into use in public worship, but bestowed 
only the_greater blessing upon family worship, and are also of import- 
ance as preliminary labors for churchly official reform. The Wurtem- 
berg established church published already in 1842 a new hymn-book, 
which, being prepared according to Griineisen' s mediating principles, 
met the churchly demands, in spite of its defects, in a measure that 
could scarcely be hoped for amid the destructive tendencies of the 
times. In other Protestant countries, provinces, and cities, better 
hymn-books have already been introduced, or at least are being pre- 
pared. But in not a few countries and towns the despotism of ration- 
alistic church authorities adheres firmly to the hymnological acquisitions 
of Illumination even to the present day. The conference of Eisenach 
published (1853) a collection of 150 classic hymns (accompanied with 
the old rhythmic melodies), designed to serve as an appendix to all 
existing and as a basis for all new hymn-books. It required great labor 
to establish the principle that the year 1750 should be the terminus 
adjquem^f selection. W. WacJcernagel desired the unchanged original 
text, and as he was not able to accomplish this, he withdrew from the 

320 SECTION III. — FOURTH PERIOD (c E N T. 1 9 A. D.) 

commission ; Geffken of Hamburg did the same for the contrary reason, 
and produced a selection of his own, which, however, was laid to one 
side. Meanwhile, only a few established churches have to this time 
adopted the Eisenach collection, among which is the Bavarian, which 
has taken it up in its new hymn-book, which is now indisputably the 
best of all used by the established churches. 

The leant of a clioral-hook was not less than that of a hymn-book. 
Tl}e first occasion to a discussion on this subject was given in 1814 by 
a proclamation of the Prussian king, Frederick William III., concern- 
ing a preparatory reform of Protestant worship, by which the liturgy 
should again become prominent. Kaiorp of Mliuster expressed him- 
self strongly in 1819 concerning the necessity of restoring the choral 
to its ancient honor and simplicity ; among his numerous successors 
the distinguished jurist Tliibaid of Heidelberg ('"Ueber Reinheit der 
Tonkunst") still deserves special mention. The reform of the choral 
was carried, on the most vigorously in AViirtemberg. The attempt to 
revive church music through the introduction of quartette tunes alone 
(according to the choral-book by Kocher), without taking up again the 
old rhythm and the original form of the melodies, failed entirely (1828). 
A new choral-book, prepared under Griineisoi's auspices (1843) , admitted 
the unanimous singing of the congregation, with rich organ accompani- 
ments, introduced a much greater number of the older choice melodies, 
but had not the courage also to restore the original rhythm, urgently 
as Hauher contended for it (in d. deutsch Yiertaljahrsschr. 1841, IV.) 
Able preliminary contributions toAvards a reform of church music were 
made by the excellent work by Winterfeld (der ev. Kirchenges. Lpz. 
1843, 2 Bde.) and by the collections of G. v. Tucker (Schatz des ev. 
Kirchenges. Lpz. 1848, 2 Bde.) and ot Fr. Laijritz, also the G'dtersloher 
Hauschoralbuch, the eisenacher Kcrnlieder, etc. 

During the period of Illumination all love for ih% Liturgy in worship 
had been entirely lost, and the new liturgies were, if possible, for the 
most part more insipid than the new hymn-books. The Prussian Union 
liturgy, therefore, marks a decided progress towards something better, 
in spite of its defects. The representatives of the Lutheran Church 
returned to the old Lutheran liturgies, in their movements of reform. 
The Reformed overcame more and more their old antipathy for what 
was liturgical. Purely liturgical worship, accompanied, where it was 
possible, with artistic music, spread abroad from Berlin. The Eise- 
nach Conference declared itself to be unfit to undertake joint Lutheran 
preliminary labors ; and the representatives of purely Lutheran esta- 
blished churches held liturgical conferences at Dresden (1852, 1854, 
1856), for which Klie foth_oi S chwerin contributed the preliminaries. 

9. Home Missions. (Cf. WicJiern, die innere Mission der deutsch ev. 
K. Eine Deukschr. etc. Hamb. 1849. — The same, Fliegende Blatter des 
rauhen Hauses. Hamb. 1849 ff".) — The Protestant Church was for a 
long time behind the Roman Catholic Church in regard to Home Mis- 


- sions, but since the beginning of this period it has begun to cancel this 
debt with interest. England, with its stirring activity in promoting the 
kingdom of God, leads the way. Here it is the Dissenters especially 
who have distinguished themselves in this work. Germany has con- 
tributed something of importance, considering the humble means which 
Pietism and churchlincss here have afforded. In the other countries 
of the continent, but especially in North America, much has been done 
for Home Missi(ms. The result is, that to-day the entire Protestant 
world is embraced in a net of benevolent and philanthropic institutions, 
which have proceeded from specifically Christian motives, and which 
regard temporal aid and relief as being the basis of spiritual help. A 
quite special earnestness and zeal for Home Missions resulted from the 
revolutionary complications of modern times, which were well adapted 
to place in the clearest light the insufficiency of the efforts thus far 'fu- 
made, and the crying necessity for increased activity. The restlessly ' 

4ictive Wichern travelled through Protestant Germany in 1849, for the 
sole purpose of awakening an interest in this work ; and in the autumn 

, of the same year a Congress for Home Missions, which was to reas- 
semble annually, met in Wittenberg in connection with the second 
Church Diet. The object of this congress was to combine the indivi- 
dual efforts made for Home Missions into one organization. Here also 
objections were made by the Lutherans, viz. that the organization of 
such unions under the direction of a central board, connected with dis- 
regard of creeds and of congregational boundaries, was to be decidedly 
condemned, — and that from the point of view that then Home Missions 
would place themselves by the side of the church and undermine its foun- 
dation. Further, it was said that what Home Missions had in view 
was, it is true, a work of necessity, but that it should be done upon 
the basis of the churchly confession within each and every congrega- 
tion. To these were added many other objections, ex. gr. that Home 
Missions had become to many interested in them a matter of pious 
fashion^ an opus oyjeratum; that a methodistic spirit, a stiff mechanism, 
and a restless spirit of work, which were not born of the spirit of the 
gospel, had crept in ; that the ostentatious display of figures and num- 
bers was in bold contrast with Matt. G : 3 ; that working upon the 
masses accomplished nothing, but rather that each single erring sheep 
must be followed into the wilderness with unwearying faithfulness, etc. ; 
although, meanwhile, it was declared most emphatically that all these 
objections did not hold against the thing itself, but only against the 
form it had assumed. — A review of only the most important institutions 
for the advancement of Home Missions would fill pages. We can here 
only mention a few of the most important, especially German institu- 
tions, Avhich became at the same time mother and model institutions 
for numberless others of a like character. The oldest is the House of 
Refuse of Count Recke-Volmar stein at Dilsselthal since 1816; next the 
Institution for Teachers of Charity- Schools and the Juvenile Asylum at 



Beuggen (since 1820), conducted bj the excellent Zsller. From it have 
gone forth hundreds of teachers for charity-schools and houses of refuge. 
Since 182G the Martin's foundation in Er£urt has existed under Rliein- 
thaler's direction, which also has stimulated to the establishment of 
many similar institutions. The Rough House in Hambu rg, under 
AVic hern's di rection (since 1833) has distinguished itself above all 
others by its compass and far-reaching labors. In 1836 pastor Fli&l- 
Xwer established the Institution of deaconesses jti Kaiserswerth for the 
care of t he sic k. This institution was_enlarged from year to year, and 
led to the establishment of many si milar ones in Germany, Engl and, 
and France. By the side of these unions there existed several societies 
for tEe^care of rele ased cr iminals, with numerous similar societies. 
There are asj/lu ms for infant s and su nday-scl iggl s alm ost in every town 
^ and city. In France the Evangelical Society labored with great and 
beneficent success, and De Valenti established the Evangelists' ^Schpol^. 
near Berne. In many places pastoral aid societies were formed. The 
....unemployed abilities of candidates were called into requisition, prison 
_and itinerant preachers were appointed, and religious agencies were 
brought to bear upon the numerous emigrants, laborers in manufacto- 
ries, on railroads, etc. ; Magdalene asylums. Christian associations for 
journeymen and youths. Christian hotels, popular libraries, temperance 
« societies, saving funds, numberless asylums for vagrant children, etc., 
^jvere established. Tract Societies in London, Hamburg, Berlin, ^etc, 
sent forth millions of tracts of an awakening and instructive character. 
W«.The Union for Northern Germany published larger works of the same 
character. The Calver Publication Union published Christian text and 
v-^school-books with wood-cuts, at the lowest price. In Berlin an. emn- 
gelical Book-Union was formed to spread the orthodox treasures of the 
older ascetic literature, i Christian women and maidens, following the 
bright example of the English Quakeress, Elizabeth Fry, the noble 
Amelia Sieveking of Hamburg, etc., rendered invaluable services every- 
where, in behalf of Home Missions, among the needy and suffering of 
their race. A Society for Home Missions in the sense of the Lutheran 
Church was established by Lohe in Bavaria, in connection with an 
institution of deaconesses at Neudettalsau. 

The Bible Societies constituted an independent branch of Home Mis- 
sions. Modern Bible societies (of. |46, G) originated in England. The 
great British and Foreign Bible Society, in which all Protestant deno- 
minations and sects participated, even the Quakers, was formed in 
t London in 1804, as a necessary supplement of the missionary societies. 
It distributed, from principle, only Bibles without human addition, 
consequently without the Apocrypha, without remarks and explana- 
tions, mostly also without heads of chapters and parallel passages. In 
regard to the Apocrypha, concerning the non-admission of which 
the statutes say nothing expressly, there Avas a violent controversy 
^ (1825-27), which ended with the complete victory of the eneraies of 


the Apocrypha. It was decided that all pecuniary support should be 
refused to all societies and persons who circulated Bibles with the 
Apocrypha, the Bibles already bound be delivered up, and the proceeds 
from the same be handed over to the chief London society. More than 
fifty societies on the continent separated from the northern society in 
consequence of this action. The great North American society fully 
agrees with the principles of the London society. The Baden Mission-/' 
ary Union renewed the controversy in Germany, by making the com- 
bating of the Apocrypha the subject of a prize essay (1852). The - 
learned essay by Ph. Fr. Keerl received the first prize ; the popular 
one by E. Khige received the second. Decided Lutherans (Krausshold, 
AVild) also approved the condemnation. Stier and Hengsienherg, on 
the other hand, defended the introduction of it ; and most of the con- 
sistories advised to adhere to the old practice, because every abuse and 
misunderstanding was prevented by the Lutheran title, as also by the 
prohibition to select texts for sermons from it. All the Protestant 
Bible societies have distributed, within the last fifty years, about 
50,000,000 of Bibles and New Testaments, in almost 200 languages. 

The series oi annotated Bibles of this century was opened hy Dijiter^s 
rationalistic '* Schullehrerbibel'^ (1826 fi".) Injopposition to it is Phil. 
J£. Brandt's eynrxgelic&l " Schullehrerbiber' (only the N. T. 1829 fi".) 
Richter's " Erklarte Hausbibel" and Lisco's "Bibelwerk^' have been 
far excelled by Gerlach's work (continued by Schmieder) ; all three, 
however, have been too highly estimated for the middle and lower ,~. 
classes. \Besser's " Erklarungen N. Tl. Bilcher^' (" Bibelstunden'^) 
have furnished an unsurpassed model for the chiirchly prayer-meetings , - 
which have been established everywhere within several decades. In 
regard to devotional literature, modern times have done the most and 
bestjbyj'epublishing the treasures of the 16th and 17th centuries. 

10. Foreign Missions. (Cf. /. Wiggers, Gesch. d. ev. Mission. Hamb. 
1845. 2 Bde. — /. H., Brauer, d. Missionswes. d. ev. K. in. s, Bestande. 
Hamb. 1847-51. 2 Bde. — K. Wild, Umschau auf. d. Arbeitsfelde d. ev. 
Mission. Nordl. 1854. — A. Ostertag, libersichtl. Gesch. der protest. 
Missionen von d. Ref. bis zur Gegenw. Stuttg. 1858.) — The zeal of 
Protestant Christendom for missions among the heathen, which received 
such a mighty impulse towards the end of the previous century (cf. 
^51, 5), has continued to increase to the present day. The missionary 
societies (chief and branch) have increased from year to year. There 
exist now in the Protestant world thirty-four great chief societies with 
» numberless branches, which yearly expend about $6,000,000 on mis- 
sions, and support at 1400 mission stations 3000 European and Ame- 
rican missionaries and an equal number of native helpers. England 
still holds the first place in this work ; next to it are North America 
and Germany. The Moravians also maintain their old reputation in 
this department of Christian labor. Distinguished among the modern 
chief societies (with more or less branches) within the Reformed Church, 


are the American Board of Foreign Missions (since 1810) and the Ame- 
rican Baptist Board of Missions (since 1814). Besides these, North 
America has a Methodist and an Episcopal missionary society of im- 
portance. The most of the modern societies in Ge^rniany are connected, 
-.Jn principle, with the United church. The most important are the Basle 
(since 1816), the Berlin (since 1823), the Rhenish, with the missionary 
seminary at Barmen (since 1829), (which has more of a confederate 
character with predominant Lutheran elements) — and the North Ger- 
man Society (since 1836), binding its missionaries to the Augsburg 
Confession, with the exclusion, however, of the other Lutheran confes- 
sional works. The missionary school, established in 1800 by Janicke 
—at Berlin, has a modified Lutheran character; it has been followed in 
this respect by the Gosnerish Missionary Society. The Dresden Mis- 
sionary Society (since 1836) has assumed a decidedly Lutheran charac- 
ter. Its seminary was removed in 1848 to Leipsic, so that its pupils 
might derive advantage from the universitv. It has resumed the old 
Lutheran missionary work in East India (§ 57, 7). The difference of 
opinion which has lately arisen about the treasury, threatens it with 
division. In Sweden, Denmark, Norway, the Baltic provinces, in 
Bavaria, Hanover, Mecklenburg, Ilessia, and North America, exclu- 
sively Lutheran societies, partly independent, partly in connection 
with Dresden-Leipsic, have been formed ; Cassel directs its efforts 
especially to China. Worthy of special mention yet is the Hermanns- 
burg institution under the direction of pastor C. Harms, which sent 
. out its own missionary-ship in 1853, to establish a mission among the 
Gallas in Africa. Altogether, 15 chief societies have now 1581 mis- 
, sionaries, with 1311 native helpers, at 862 stations. The number of 
converts amounts to about 700,000. A distinguished service also ren- 
dered by evangelical missions is the abolition of the slave-trade by the 
great powers of Europe (1830), and the emancipation of all_slayes in 
the English colonies (since 1834), for which the English nation sacri- 
ificed $120,000,000. The noble Wilherforce [oh. 1833) devoted his 
life to the accomplishment of this object. New societies were also 
formed in England, Germany, and France, to sustain missions among 

,^the Jews ; and though much labor has been performed, but little has 
resulted from them. 

If we begin a review of Protestant missions with Northern Europe, 
the Swedish mission in Lapland first comes into view, which, having 

— ^been resumed by the excellent Stockjleth since 1825 (§ 39, 6), has 
greatly flourished. In North America we meet the highly favored 
mission of the Moravians in Greenland and Labrador. Moravian, 
Methodist, Baptist, and Protestant Episcopal missionaries, have 
labored with success among the aborigines and slaves of North America 
and the West Indies. The Moravians have also established missions 
on the Mosquito coasts and in Paramaribo in South America. On the 
west coast of Africa, the Sierre-Leone colony was established by Eng- 


land to colonize and Christianize emancipated negro slaves. For the 
sanie purpose the colony of Liberia, further south, was established 
from the United States. Both are in a flourishing condition through 
the labors of Methodist, Baptist, and Protestant Episcopal missionaries. 
On the Gold Coast the Gospel has been introduced by the Basle, in 
old Calabar by the Bitptist, on Gaboon river by the American and the 
North German Society. Gape-town is the point of departure of Chris- 
tian civilization for South Africa. The missionary labors of the Mora- 
vians were here specially successful among the Hottentots ; the Berlin 
missionaries labored among the Corannas, and the evangelical French 
society among the Betschuans. The pupils of the Barmen seminary 
penetrated deeper into the interior of the west coast than had ever 
been trod by a European, amid unspeakable hardships. They labored 
among the Hottentots, Namaquas, Damaras, and Ilereros. The mis- 
sionary Hahn of Livland is worthy of special mention as the apostle - 
of the Ilereros. On the east coast the London society gained a wide 
field of labor among the Caffres. Further towards the north on the 
east coast the Anglicans labored, and the Hermannsburg society sought / 
a field among the Gallas. On the island of Madagascar the London / > 
mission (since 1818) converted the King Radama to Christianity. His 
successor, the Queen Ranavalona, inaugurated in 1835 a bloody perse- 
cution against the Christians, by which also the apostle of the Mada- 
gascars, David Jones, received the martyr's crown (1843). The perse- 
cution continues to the present day, and it has not yet been able en- ^ 
tirely to exterminate Christianity. But since the successor to the 
throne is a Christian, better times are in prospect. An Anglican 
^bishopric exists on the island of Mauritius, whither also many Chris- 
tians of Madagascar fled. In ^5y55i/i7'a the missionaries Gohat, Isenhurci, 
and Krapf, have labored (1835-43) to revive the dead national church, 
but they were compelled to withdraw on account of the enmity of the 
native priests and the machinations of papist missionaries. In Algi-irs 
the missionary Eicald labored among the Jews until 1842. If we go 
to Asia, we find American missionaries specially active in the Turkish 
provinces, striving to revive the old churches by the establishment of 
common schools. An evangelical bishopric, hovering between Union 
and Confederation, and uniting home with foreign missions, has been 
established at Jerusalem (1841) by the English and Prussian crowns, 
as the centre of ecclesiastical labors in behalf of the dispersed Pro- 
testants in the Orient, and of evangelical missions among the oriental 
Jews. The choice of bishops alternates between the two crowns, but 
ordination and rites have been yielded to the Anglican Church. The 
first bishop Alexander, a Jewish proselyte, died in 1845. His successor 
was the excellent missionary Gobat. A missionary field, which has 
again in the 19th century been diligently cultivated, is East India, f 
where quite peculiar difficulties stand in the way of missionary labors : 
the strict castes, the proud self-sufficiency of the nantheistic Brahmins, 
IL— 28 


even the politico-commercial interests of the East India company, etc. 
The old Lutheran missionary harvest (^ 47, 7) vras for the most part 
gathered by the Anglican Church. The Lord-bishop Heher {ob. 1826) 
gained great renov^m in connection with this mission. The missionary 
Rheiiius of West Prussia also labored here in the service of tke-Angli- 
can Church with great success. But as he was not able to accept un- 
conditionally the principles of the Anglican Church, a rupture occurred, 
and he labored from this time forward to his death (1838) oo. his own 
responsibility in the Lutheran spirit. His successor Mailer again sub- 
mitted to the Anglican Church (1841). The missionaries of the Dres- 
den (Leipsic) society have again collected the remnants of the East 
Indian Lutheran Church, which has now six chief stations there with 
a wide field of labor. In addition to it, American, English, and Ger- 
man missionaries, of almost all creeds, labor in India and the Indian 

J archipelago. The military insurrection in the northern part of East 
India (1857) suspended the mission there for almost two years. It is 
to be hoped that when it is suppressed, they will only flourish the more. 
In China, Gutzluff oi Pomerania, succeeding Morrison, labored with 
unparalleled boldness and unwearied patience on his own responsi- 
bility, in spite of all difficulties. Since China has been in a measure 

I opened to Europeans by the English war (1842), the institutions of 
evangelical missions have assumed a more grand and systematic cha- 
racter under Gutzlaff's direction, to conquer the heavenly kingdom by 
the Gospel. Since the rebellion of the new son of heaven [Tien-ii) in 
1852 (a descendant of the old king dynasty, which has been banished 
for 200 years, who received instructions from an evangelical missionary 
at Canton, and acknowledges the revelations of God made through 
Moses and Christ, but declares that he is the younger brother of Christ) 
, fresh hopes for the success of missions were kindled, and missionaries 
from all countries were sent thither. But the rebellious son of heaven 
only manifested the disposition to become a second Mohammed. The 
conflict of the governor of Canton with the English, French, and Ame- 
ricans, and the punishment which was therefor inflicted in^part (1857), 
made the emperor finally (1858) willing to make a treaty with these 
three powers, as also with Russia, according to which the whole coun- 
try was to be thrown open to trade, and missions and the free exercise 
t of religion was granted to Christians. About the same time also, after 
300 years' seclusion, Japan was opened to European and American 
trade, and, it is to be hoped, also to Christian missions. The Protestant 
amissions in Polynesia have been the most successful of all through the 
labors of English and American missionaries. The apostle of the South 
Sea Islands, John Williams, died a martyr (1839). The flourishing 
evangelical church at Tahiti was, however, severely afflicted by the 
unprecedented violence of French ships in 1837, the Que^n Pomare 
was abused, the country was placed under French protectorate, and 
not only Roman Catholic missionaries, but also Frencji, dissoluteness. 


were forced upon the country. In 1851, missionary labor on the Sand- 
wich Islands may be regarded as having bce.n completed, and the 
church there as a Protestant established church. The results of mis- 
\ sions among the Cannibals of iS^ew Zealand (of whom Sam. Marsden 
was the apostle) were small, as also among the stupid aborigines of 
^^ustralia, where even the labors of the Moravians have been almost 


The year 1 814, with its new orde r of things, brought to pass 
by the Congress of V ienna '(1 817), with its movements towards 

" ujndon, which produced the large body of fall-armored men, who 
are battling even to the present time, — and finally, tliepolitical 
rey^lutimiaixjTars 1830 and 1848, with their l]beral_con^uest -v 
even in the sphere of the church, constituted e poch s for the de- 
vel£jm2ent_ofjnost_^£^thjBjP^^ established churches. In 

1848 the idea of established churches seemed to have been rooted' \ 
o ut almost_ ejeryvvhere and forever. But the democrajbic^ex^eri- _ 
ments of church government of this year demonstrated, that if 
the separation of the Church from the State was to be generally 
beneficial for Europe, it was not_ ^ yet a t this tim e, and the 

\ restpration_of the following years preserved the j?hurch from 
boundless confusion and unavoidable dissolution into numberless 

1. Prussia. (Cf. 0. Krahhe, d. ev. Landeskirche Preussens u. ihre 
olfentl. Rechtsverhaltnisse. Berl. 1849.) — With reference to the evan- 
Niye/^'caZ est ajjlis hed church of Prussia (cf. § 54), Frederick William TV. , 
declared that he only desired to hold the superior direction^ of the 
church, in order th at it might progress jn an ordgj^Ipand legal way to .^ 
i ndepe ndence. The realization of this royal declaration and wish was 
inaugurated after an ecclesiastical conference at Berlin, composed of 
d elegates fr om almost all German countries, accomplish ed_ noth i n g, by 
\*->a^russiajQ_^£Mera7_^no(?, which was opened at Berlin on Whitsunday, 
184G. The synod at its 1 8th sessi on proceeded to the consideration of 
the difficult question of doctrine and, co nfessio n. The result of the 
same was the adoption of a_^JoTmulg;_i)f_^yyiinalion proposed by Dr. 

Nitzsch, whereby the ordinandus was reqijired[^toJbelieve_in_the^^rin .^ 

cipaHundamentalJruths of salvation instead of the hitherto ecclesias- 
tical confession. But as the doctrines of creation, original sin, the 
supernatural conception, the descent of Christ into hell, and His 
ascension to heaven, the resurrection of the dead, the final judgment, 
eternal life and eternal destruction, were not_ex£ressly_embraced in 


those fundamental truths, and consequently were, not regarded as obli- 
gatory, and further, since the Lutheran and Reformed peculiar doc- 
trinal position was practicaJI^jibqli^hjed byjh^^^ of ordination, 
and with it the__existence_of a Lutheran as well as of a Reformed 
Church within the Union, a small QLJnogit y of Lu therans already pro- 

_ t este^ ^^ainst it at the synod : numerous still more decided and power- 
ful protests were made outside of the synod, to which the columns of 
the evang. Kirchenzeitung were opened. The govern ment g av e np 

--_auilionty_to_J]ie_4irQii£ed^^ and profiine mockers dis- 

played their wit on the. unfortunate Nicgenum of the 19th century. On 
the other hand, however, the king_iss3i£d^a_^a^ej^i^ ^ ioleranc^e., I\Tn ,\ ; eh 

—1 847, by which sovereign pr otection was anew guarant fifid to the exist- 
ing churches ; but all who did not find in them the expression of their 
faith, were allowed to form new religious societies. But when the 
storm of revolutionbroke in 1848, no State was more threatened with 
unchristianization than Prussia. The minister of worship, Count 
Schwerin, Avas ready to grant a reorganization of the Church according 
to the wishes of _the popular majority, e xpressed by^ a sy nod. But be- 
fore this synod could assemble the^eaction had already commenced. 
The transition minister ia(7eM5m^f_obtaine^ 

and faculties, who collectively made prominent the_danger of such a 
synod. Instead of the synod, therefore, a Hj^h^consMto^^ - 

M n Ber lin, which was independent_ of the mi nistry, and placed only 

under_ the ki ng as proecipuum membrum ecclesise, and which was to 

-. re^^reaanJL-the_denian ded freedom qf_the Church from the State as 

already realized in it. At the same time a Church-order jms recom- 

mended and largely introduced, which constituted a consistory^in 

^.eyery_con^regatlpn, which was bound by the thre_e cecumenigal-aqdjthe 
Reformed symbols agreeing with them. On the 6th of March, JL 85 2 ,'^ 
the king issued a go v^rnmentor^eTjjic carding to which the High-con- 
sistory should not only, govern the evangelical established church in 
its collective character, but a lso j^ii ard the_ interests of the Lutheran 
and o f the Reforme d Church ; and to this endTit vras to be composed 
of m embers of Tjoth these churches, each of which were onljto decide 
questions touching tJieir own c hurch. \Dr\_Nlfzsch alone remained after 
the itio in partes occasioned in this board on this account, and declared 
that he was able to find the expression of his religious convictions^ in 
n eith er of the confessions, but o nly inj:he cons ensus of both. The - 
difficulty was obviated by regarding him as the representative of con- 
gregations holding the same views. Encouraged to entertain bolder 
hopes by such connivance in high places, the Lutheran Union pre- 
sented_a^j>etjtion to the king, subscribed by 161 clergymen, 'm'which — 
the restoration of Lutheran Jaculties and of Lutheran church^roperty 
was demanded. This demand was answere^Ji^n unfavorable gove rn- 

— ment order. July 12 ^ 1853. in which the king expressedlnrjust HTs- 
pleasure at such misin terpretation of the order of the previous year, 


and made the solemn declaration that i t vras n ^ever his intention to 
disturb, much less t o det<tro y, the UnioiL-C ounded bj jiis.j'ather, now 
resting in God; he o nly desi red to secure for confession within the 
Union t hat pr otection to which it had unquestionable claim. Since 
then, the special interests of th e Lut heran Church, which for a time 
seemed to be favored, have been in visible and increasing disfavor. — 
The Hi gh-con sistory, meanwhile, continued to manifest great activity, 

— and to adjjpi ^many who2esoiiie_ regula tipns. To these belong the general 
church and school visitations of 1852 , though carried out with too 
much noisy and theatrical display. The ostensible favo r with which 
the king regarded the efl brts of the eva ngelical