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.K8713 1888 v. 2 
J. H. 1809-1890 

BR 145 
Church history 





Editor of the '^Expositor." 






> .y 







f Ottboit : 



^Ail rights reserved.) 







A.D. 911-1294. 



MissioKART Enterprises 

(1) The Scandinavian Mission Field . 

(2) Denmark 

(3) Sweden 

(4) Norway 

(5) The North-Western Group of Islands 

(6) The Slavo-Magyar Mission Field . 

(7) Bohemia 

(8) Hungary 

(9) The Wendish Eaces 

(10) Pomerania 

(11) The Finns and Lithuanians, Lapland 

(12) Esthonia, Livonia, and Courland . 

(13) Prussia 

(14) Lithuania 

(15) Mongolia 

(16) Mission Field of Islam . 


The Crusades 

(1) The First Crusade, a.d. 1096 . 

(2) The Second Crusade, a.d. 1147 

(3) The Third Crusade, a.d. 1189 

(4) The Fourth Crusade, a.d. 1217 

(5) The Fifth Crusade, a.d. 1228 

(6) The Sixth Crusade, a.d. 1218, and the Seventh, a.d 
VOL. II. ^' 












§ 95. Islam and the Jews in Europe 20 

(1) Islam in Sicily 21 

(2) Islam in Spain 21 

(.8) The Jews in Europe ....... 23 


§ 96. The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in the German 

(1) The Romish Pornocracy and the Emperor Otto I 


(2) The Times of Otto II., III., a.d. 973-1002 

(3) Otto III., Pope Sylvester II. . 

(4) From Henry 11. to the Synod at Sutri, a.d. 1002-1046 

(5) Henry III. and his German Popes, a.d. 1046-1057 

(6) The Papacy under .the Control of Hildebrand, a.d 


(7, 8) Gregory VII., A.D. 1073-1085 

(9) Central Idea of Gregory's Policy . . . . , 

(10) Victor III. and Urban II., a.d. 1086-1099 . 

(11) Paschalis II., Gelasius II., and Cahxtus II., a.d. 1099- 


(12) English Investiture Controversy .... 

(13) Times of Lothair HI. and Conrad III., a.d. 1125-1152 

(14) Times of Frederick I. and Henry VL, a.d. 1152-llGO 

(15) Pope Alexander III., a.d. 1159-1181 

(16) Thomas a Becket 

(17) Innocent III., a.d. 1198-1216 
(18j Fourth Lateran Council 

(19) Times of Frederick II. and his Successors, a.d. 


(20) Innocent IV. and Successors, a.d. 1243-12&8 

(21) Times of the House of Anjou to Boniface VIII 


(22) Nicholas IH. to Ccelestine V., a.d. 1277-1294 

(23) Temporal Power of the Popes 

§ 97. The Clergy 

(1) The Roman College of Cardinals . 

(2) Political Importance of the Superior Clergy 

(3) The Bishops and the Cathedral Chapter 

(4) Endeavours to Reform the Clergy . 

(5) The Pataria of Milan .... 




§ 98. Monastic Oedeks and Institutions . 

(1) Offshoots of the Benedictines 

(2) New Monkish Orders .... 

(3) The Franciscans. [See also Appendix, p. 

(4) SpHts and Offshoots of the Franciscans 

(5) The Dominicans .... 

(6) The other Mendicant Orders . 

(7) Working Guilds of a Monkish Order 

(8) Spiritual Order of Knights 

(9) Bridge Brothers and Mercedarians 














§ 99. Scholasticism in General ....... 77 

(1) Dialectic and Mysticism ...... 78 

(2) Philosophical Basis of Dialectic Scholasticism . . 79 

(3) Nurseries of Scholasticism 80 

(4) Epochs of Scholasticism 81 

(5) The Canon Law ........ 81 

(G) Historical Literature 82 

§ 100. The " S.eculum OBScuEUii": the Tenth Cp:ntury . 82 

(1) Classical Studies . 83 

(2) Italy, France, and England 84 

§ 101. Thk Ele^-enth Century 85 

(1) Most Celebrated Schoolmen of this Century ... 85 

(2) Berengar's Eucharist Controversy, a.d. 1050-1079 . 87 

(3) Anselm's Controversies 88 

§ 102. The Twelfth Century 89 

(1) Contest on French Soil: (i.) The Dialectic Side of the 

Gulf. Abailard . 90 

(2) Abffilard 91 

(3) (ii.) The Mystic Side of the Gulf. Bernard ... 92 

(4) (iii.) Bridging the Gulf from the Side of Mysticism. The 

St. Victors 94 

(5) (iy.) Bridging the Gulf from the Side of Dialectics. Peter 

the Lombard, etc. ....... 95 

(6) The Controversy on German Soil 96 

(7) Theologians of Biblical Tendency. Rupert of Deutz, etc. 97 

(8) John of Salisbury 98 

(9) Humanist Philosophers 99 

§ 103. The Thirteenth Century . . . . ~ . . 99 

(1) Aristotle and his Arabic Interpreters .... 100 



(2) Twofold Truth 

(3) Appearance of Mendicant Orders .... 

(4) Franciscan Schoolmen. Alex, of Hales, Bonaventura 

(5) Dominican Schoolmen. Albert the Great 

(6) Thomas Aquinas 

(7) Eeformers of the Scholastic Method. Eaimund Lull 

(8) Eoger Bacon 

(9) Theologians of Biblical Tendency .... 
(10) Precursors of German Mystics. David of Augsburg, etc 


§ 104. Public Worship and Art .... 

(1) The Liturgy and the Sermon . 

(2) Definition and Number of the Sacraments 

(3) Sacrament of the Altar .... 

(4) Penance ....... 

(5) Extreme Unction 

(6) Sacrament of Marriage .... 

(7) New Festivals 

(8) Veneration of Saints .... 

(9) St. Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins . 

(10) Hymnology 

(11) Church Music 

(12) Ecclesiastical Architecture 

(13) Free Mason Lodges .... 

(14) Statuary and Painting .... 

§ 10-: 

National Customs and the National Literature 

(1) Knighthood and the Peace of God 

(2) Popular Customs 

(3) Two Pioyal Saints : Elizabeth and Hedwig . 

(4) Evidences of Sainthood. Stigmatization, etc. 

(5) Beligious Culture of the People 

{(')) National Literature 

5^ lOG. Church Discipline, Indulgences, and Asceticism 

(1) Ban and Interdict 

(2) Indulgences ...... 

(3) Church Doctrine of the Hereafter . 

(4) Flagellation 

§ 107. Female Mystks 

(1) Two Ehenish Prophetesses of the 12th Century 

(2) Three Thuringian Prophetesses of the 13th Century 




§ 108. The Pkotesters against the Church 
(1, 2) The Cathari 

(3) The Pasagians 

(4) Pantheistic Heretics. Amah-ich, David of Dinant, Ort 

libarians . 
(5) Apocalyptic Heretics. Joachim of Floris 

(6) Ghibelline Joachites 

(7, 8) Pievolutionary Pieformers. Petrobrusians, Arnold o: 

Brescia, etc . 

(9) Reforming Enthusiasts. Tanchelm, Eon 

(10-12) The Waldensians. [Substitute §§ 10-lG in Ap 

pendix, p. -464] .... 

109. The Church against the Protesters 

(1) Albigensian Crusade, a.d. 1209-1229 

(2) The Inquisition .... 

(3) Conrad of Marburg and the Stedingers 










THE 14th and 15th CENTUEIES. 

A.D. 1294-1517. 


(1) Boniface VIIL and Benedict XL, a.d. 1294-1304 . 

(2) Papacy during Babylonian Exile, a.d. 1305-1377 . 

(3) John XXII., A.D. 1316-1334 

(4) Benedict XII. and Clement VL, a.d. 1334-1352 . 

(5) Innocent VI. to Gregory XL, a.d. 1352-1378 . 

(6) Papal Schism and Council of Pisa, 1378-1410 

(7) Council of Constance and Martin V., a.d. 1410-1431 

(8) Eugenius IV. and Council of Basel, a.d. 1431-1419 

(9) Pragmatic Sanction, etc., a.d. 1438 

(10) Nicholas V. to Pius 11. a.d. 1447-1464 . 

(11) Paul 11. and Innocent VIL, a.d. 1464-1492 . 

(12) Alexander VL, a.d. 1492-1503 .... 

(13) Julius II., A.D. 1503-1513 

(14) Leo X., A.D. 1513-1521 



(15) Papal Claims to Sovereignty 

(16) The Papal Curia . 

^ 111. The Clergy 

(1) Moral Condition of Clergy 

(2) Commendator Abbots . 

§ 112. Monastic Orders and Societie 

(1) Benedictine Orders 

(2) Franciscans . 

(3) Observants and Conventual^; , 

(4) The Dominicans . 

(5) Augustinians . 

(6) John von Staupitz . 

(7) Overthrow of the Templars 

(8) New Orders . 

(9) Brothers of the Common Life 


§ 113. Scholasticism and its Eeformers 

(1) John Duns Scotus 

(2) Thomists and Scotists . 

(3) Nominalists and Realists 

(4) Casuistry .... 

(5) Founder of Natural Theology : Eaimund of Sabun 

(6) Nicholas of Cusa 

(7) Biblical and Practical Theologians 

^ 114. The German Mystics 

(1) Meister Eckhart 

(2) Mystics of Upper Germany after Eckhart. Tauler, etc 

(3) Friend of God in the Uplands ... 

(4) Nicholas of Basel ....... 

(5) Suso 

(6) Henry of Nordlingen, etc. ..... 

(7) Mystics of Netherlands. Ruysbroek, A Kempis, etc. 


§ 115a. Public "Worship and the Religious Education or 

(1) Fasts and Festivals 

(2) Preaching 

(3) Biblia Pmtperum . 

(4) Bible in the Vernacular 

(5) Catechisms and Prayer-Books 



(6) Dcinoe of Death 

(7) Hymnology . 

(8) Church Music 
{9} Legendary Kelics 

§ lloB. National Litekature and Ecclesl^stical Ak 

(10) Italian National Literature . 

(11) Gennan National Literature . 

(12) The Sacred Drama .... 

(13) Architecture and Painting 

§ 116. Popular Movements 

(1) Two National Saints : John of Nepomuk and Nic 

of Fliie 

(2) Maid of Orleaus, a.d. 1128-1431 . 

(3) Lollards, Flagellants, and Dancers 

(4) The Friends of God .... 

(5) Pantheistic Libertine Societies 


Church Discipline . 

(1) Indulgences .... 

(2) Inquisition .... 

(3) The Bull " In Coena Domini " 

(4) Prosecution of Witches . 


§ 118. Attempted Keforms in Church Polity . 

(1) Literary War between Imperialists and Curiaiists 


(2) Literary War between Imperialists and Curialists 

Occam ...... 

(3) Kefoiming Councils of the loth Century 

(4) Friends of Keform in France in 15th Century. Peter 

D'Ailly, Gerson, etc 

(5) Friends of Eeform in Germany 

(6) Italian Apostate from Party of Basel : ^Eneas Sylvius 

(7) Eeforms in Church Policy in Spain 

§ 119. Evangelical Efforts at Eeform 

(1) Wiclif and Wichfites .... 

(2) Precursors of the Hussite Movement . 
(3-6) John Huss 

(7) Calixtines and Taborites 

(8) Bohemian and Moravian Brethren 

(9) Wiukeiers. [Substitute § 119, 9, 9a, in Appendix, p. 475 

















(10) Dutch Eeformers : John of Goch, Von Wesel, and Wessel 

(11) An ItaHan Beformer : Savonarola 
§ 120. The Eevival of Learning 

(1) Italian Humanists 

(2, 3) German Humanism . 

(4) John Eeuchlin 

(5) EpistolcB obscurorum virorum 

(6) Erasmus of Kotterdam . 

(7) Humanism in England . 

(8) in France and Spain 

(9) and the Eeformation of the 16th Century 





S 121. Chabacter and Distribution of Modern Church History 229 




122. The Beginnings of the Wittenberg Eeformation 

(1) Luther's Years of Preparation .... 

(2) Luther's Theses of a.d. 1517 

(3) Prierias, Cajetan, and Miltitz, a.d. 1518, 1519 

(4) The Leipzig Disputation, a.d. 1519 

(5) Philip Melauchthon 

(6) George Spalatin 

123. Luther's Period of Conflict, a.d. 1520, 1521 

(1) Luther's Three Chief Eeformation Writings . 

(2) Papal Bull of Excommunication .... 

(3) Erasmus, a.d. 1520 

(4) Luther's Controversy with Emser, a.d. 1519-1521 

(5) Emperor Charles V 

(6) Diet at Worms, a.d. 1521 

(7) Luther at Wittenberg after the Diet 

(8) Wartburg Exile, a.d. 1521, 1522 .... 

(9) Frederick the Wise and the Eeformation 

124. Deterioration and Purification of the Wittenber( 

Eeformation, a.d. 1522-1525 .... 
(1) Wittenberg Fanaticism, a.d. 1521, 1522 











(2) Franz von Sickingen, a.d. 1522, 1523 .... 

(3) Carlstadt, a.d. 1524, 1525 

(4) Thomas Miinzer, a.d. 1523, 1524 

(5) The Peasant War, a.d. 1524, 1525 

§ 125. Feiexds and Foes of Luther's Doctrine, a.d. 1522-1526 

(1) Spread of Evangelical Views 

(2) " Sum of Holy Scripture " and its Author 

(3) Henry VIH. and Erasmus . 

(4) Thomas Murner 

(5) Onus Ecclesia 

§ 126. Development of the Keformation in the Empire, a.d 

(1) Diet at Nuremberg, a.d. 1522, 1523 

(2) A.D. 1524 

(3) Convention at Eegensburg, a.d. 1524 

(4) The Evangelical Nobles, a.d. 1524 

(5) The Torgau League, a.d. 1526 

(6) The Diet of Spires, a.d. 1526 

§ 127. Organization of the Evangelical Provincial Churches, 

A.D. 1526-1529 257 

(1) In the Saxon Electorate, a.d. 1527-1529 . . . 257 

(2) In Hesse, a.d. 1526-1528 257 

(3) In other German Provinces, a.d. 1528-1530 . . . 258 

(4) Pieformation in Cities of North Germany, a.d. 1524-1531 258 

§ 128. Martyrs for Evangelical Truth, a.d. 1521-1529 . . 258 

§ 129. Luther's Private and Public Life, a.d. 1523-1529 . 260 

(1) Luther's Literary Works 261 

(2) Dollinger's View of Luther 262 

§ 130. The Reformation in German Switzerland, a.d. 1519-1531 262 

(1) Ulrich Zwingli 262 

(2) Reformation in Zikich, a.d. 1519-1525 .... 264 

(3) Reformation in Basel, a.d. 1520-1525 .... 265 

(4) Reformation in other Cantons, A.D. 1520-1525 .. . 266 

(5) Anabaptist Outbreak, a.d. 1525 266 

(6) Disputation at Baden, a.d. 1526 267 

(7) Disputation at Bern, a.d. 1528 267 

(8) Complete Victory of Reformation at Basel, St. Gall, etc. 267 

(9) First Treaty of Cappel, a.d. 1529 268 

(10) Second Treaty of Cappel, a.d. 1531 .... 268 



131. The Sacr\mentakian Controversy, a.d. 1525-1529 



§ 132. The Protest and Confession of the Evangelical Nobles, 
A.D. 1527-1530 

(1) The Pack Incident, a.d. 1527, 1528 

(2) Emperor's Attitude, a.d. 1527-1529 

(3) Diet at Spires, a.d. 1529 .... 

(4) Marburg Conference, a.d. 1529 

(5) Convention of Schwabach and Landgrave Philip 

(6) Diet of Augsburg, a.d. 1530 .... 

(7) Confession of Augsburg, a.d. 1530 

(8) Conclusions of Diet of Augsburg . 

§ 133. Incidents of the Years a.d. 1531-1530 . 

(1) Founding of the Schmalcald League 

(2) Peace of Nuremberg, a.d. 1532 

(3) Evangelization of Wiirttemberg, a.d. 1534, 1535 

(4) Keformation in Anhalt and Pomerania, a.d. 1532-1534 

(5) Keformation in Westphalia, a.d. 1532-1534 . 

(6) Disturbances at Miinster, a.d. 1534, 1535 

(7) Extension of Schmalcald League, a.d. 153C . 

(8) Wittenberg Concordat, a.d. 1536 . 

§ 134. Incidents of the Years a.d. 1537-1539 . 

(1) Schmalcald Articles, a.d. 1537 

(2) League of Nuremberg, a.d. 1538 . 

(3) Frankfort Interim, a.d. 1539 

(4) Eeformation in Albertine Saxony, a.d. 1539 . 

(5) Keformation in Brandenburg, etc., a.d. 1539 . 

§ 135. Union Attempts of a.d. 1540-1546 . 

(1) The Double Marriage of Philip of Hesse, a.d. 1510 

(2) Keligious Conference at Worms, a.d. 1540 

(3) Keligious Conference at Kegensburg, a.d. 1541 

(4) The Kegensburg Declaration, a.d. 1541 

(5) The Naumburg Bishopric, a.d. 1541, 1542 . 

(6) Keformation in Brunswick and Palatinate, a.d. 


(7) Keformation iu the Electorate of Cologne, a.d. 154'.; 

(8) The Emperor's Difficulties, a.d. 1548, 1544 . 

(9) Diet at Spires, a.d. 1544 .... 

(10) Emperor and Protestant Nobles, a.d. 1545, 1540 

(11) Luther's Death, a.d. 1546 .... 






§ 136. The Schmalcald War, the Interiii, and the Council 
A.D. 1516-1551 

(1) Prei^arations for the Schmalcald War, a.d. 1546 

(2) Campaign on the Danube, a.d. 1546 

(3) Campaign on the Elbe, a.d. 1547 . 

(4) Council of Trent, a.d. 1545-1547 . 

(5) Augsburg Interim, a.d. 1548 . 

(6) Execution of the Interim 

(7) The Leipzig or Little Interim, a.d. 1549 

(8) The Council again at Trent, a.d. 1551 . 

§ 137a. Maurice and the Peace of Augsburg, a.d. 1550-1555 

(1) State of Matters in a.d. 1550 

(2) Elector Maurice, a.d. 1551 . 

(3) Compact of Passau, a.d. 1552 

(4) Death of Maurice, a.d. 1553 . 

(5) Eeligious Peace of Augsburg, a.d. 1555 . 

§ 137b. Germany after the Eeligious Peace . 

(6) The Worms Consultation, a.d. 1557 

(7) Second Attempt at Keformation in Electorate of 

Cologne, A.D. 1582 .... 

(8) The German Emperors, a.d. 1556-1612 

§ 138. The Eeformation in French Switzerland 

(1) Calvin's Predecessors, a.d. 1526-1535 . 

(2) Calvin before his Genevan Ministry 

(3) Calvin's First Ministry in Geneva . 

(4) Calvin's Second Ministry in Geneva 

(5) Calvin's Writings 

(6) Calvin's Doctrine 

(7) Victory of Calvinism over Zwiuglianism 

(8) Calvin's Successor in Geneva. Beza . 

§ 139. The Eeformation in Other Lands 

(1) Sweden 

(2) Denmark and Norway . 

(3) Courland, Livonia, and Esthonia 

(4) England. Henry VIII. 
(.5) Edward VI. . 

(6) Elizabeth . 

(7) Ireland 

(8) Scotland, Hamilton and Wishart 

(9) John Knox . 

(10) Queen Mary Stuart 










(11) Scotland. Kuox and Mary 321 

(12) The Netherlands 322 

(13) France. Francis I. and Henry II 324 

(14) Huguenots, Francis II., and Charles IX. . . 325 

(15) Huguenot Persecution ...... 327 

(16) Bloody Marriage. Massacre of St. Bartholomew . 328 

(17) Henry III. and IV. Edict of Nantes . . . 329 

(18) Poland 331 

(19) Bohemia and Moravia ..... . . 333 

(20) Hungary and Transylvania 335 

(21) Spain 336 

(22) Italy 338 

(23) Aonio Paleario 339 

(24) Ochino, Peter Martyr, Vergerius, etc. . . . 341 

(25) Protestantizing of Waldensiaus 343 

(26) Attempt at Protestantizing the Eastern Church . . 344 


§ 140. The Distinctive Characteb of the Lutheran Church 
§ 141. Doctrinal Controversies in the Lutheran Church 

(1) The Antinomian Controversy, a.d. 1537-1511 

(2) The Osiander Controversy, a.d. 1519-1556 

(3) iEpinus' Controversy .... 

(4) The Philippists and their Opponents 

(5) The Adiaphorist Controversy, a.d. 1548-1555 

(6) The Majorist Controversy, a.d. 1551-1562 

(7) The Synergistic Controversy, a.d. 1555-1567 

(8) The Flacian Controversy on Original Sin, a.d. 15G0-157 

(9) Lutheran Doctrine of the Lord's Snpper 

(10) Cryptocalvinism in its First Stage, a.d. 1552 

(11) The Frankfort Compact, a.d. 1558 . 

(12) Formula of Concord, a.d. 1577 

(13) Second Stage of Cryptocalvinism, a.d. 1586- 

(14) Huber Controversy, a.d. 1588-1595 

(15) Hofmann Controversy, a.d. 1598 . 

142. Constitution, Worship, Life, and Science in 
Church .... 

(1) The Ecclesiastical Constitution 

(2) Public Worship and Art 
(3, 4) Church Song 

(5) Chorale Singing 

(6) Theological Science 








(7) German National Literature 369 

(8) Missions to Heathen 370 

§ 143. The Inner DEVELOPiiENT of the Eefoemed Church . 371 

(1) Ecclesiastical Constitution 372 

(2) Public Worship 373 

(3) The English Puritans 374 

(4) The Brownists, etc 375 

(5) Theological Science . 377 

(6) Philosophy 378 

(7) Missionary Enterprise . 379 

§ 144. Calvinizing of German Lutheran National Churches . 379 

(1) The Palatinate, a.d. 1560 379 

(2) Bremen, a.d. 1562 381 

(3) Anhalt, a.d. 1597 382 

§ 145. Character of the Deformation 

§ 146. Mysticism and Pantheism 

(1) Schwenkfeld and his Followers 

(2) Agrippa, Paracelsus, and Weigel . 

(3) Franck, Thamer, and Bruno . 

(4) Pantheistic Libertine Sects of Spirituals in 

(5) The Familists 


147. Anabaptism 

(1) The Anabaptist Movement in Genernl . 

(2) Keller's View of Anabaptist History 

(3) The Swiss Anabaptists .... 

(4) South German Anabaptists . 

(5) The Moravian Anabaptists 

(6) The Venetian Anabaptists 

(7) Older Apostles of Anabaptism in North- West 

(8) Jan Matthys of Haarlem 

(9) The Munster Catastrophe, a.d. 1534, 1535 
(10) Menno Simons and the Mennonites 

148. Antitrinitarians and Unitarians 

(1) Anabaptist Antitrinitarians in Germany 

(2) Michael Servetus 

(3) Italian Antitrinitarians before Socinus . 

(4) The Two Socini and the Socinians 









§ 149. The Internal Strengthening and Revival, op the 
Catholic Church .... 

(1) The Popes before the Council 

(2) The Popes of the Time of the Council . 

(3) The Popes after the Council . 

(4) Papal Infallibility 

(5) Prophecy of St. Malachi 

(6) Reformation of Old Monkish Orders 

(7) New Orders for Home Missions 

(8) Society of Jesus. Founding,' 

(9) Constitution ..... 

(10) ■ Doctrinal and Moral System. 

(11) Jesuit Influence upon Worship and Superstition 

(12) Educational Methods of Jesuits 

(13) Theological Controversies 

(14) Theological Literature .... 

(15) Art and Poetry . . . . 

(16) The Spanish Mystics .... 

(17) Practical Christian Life. Borromeo, etc. 

(1) Missions to Heathen 

(2) Japan . 

(3) America 

(4) Nestorians, etc. 

India and China 

§ i; 

1. Attempted Regeneration of Roman Catholicism 

(1) Attempts at Regeneration in Germany . 

(2) Throughout Europe 

(3) Russia and the United Greeks 






Additions from Tenth Edition to §§ 98, 108, 119 



While the translator was workicg from the ninth edition 
of 1885, a tenth edition had appeared during 1887, to which 
unfortunately his attention was not called until quite re- 
cently. The principal additions and alterations aifecting 
Vol. II. occur in §§ 98, 108, 119, and 147. On the section 
dealing with Anabaptism, the important changes have been 
made in the text, so that § 147 precisely corresponds to its 
latest and most perfect form in the original. As the print- 
ing of the volume was then far advanced, it was impossible 
thus to deal with the earlier sections, bat students will find 
references in the Table of Contents to the full translation 
in the Appendix of those pas-sages where material altera- 
tions have been introduced. 

John Macpherson. 


MarcJi^ 1889. 




A.D. 911-1294. 

I.— 'The Spread of Christianity. 

§ 93. Missionary Enterprises. 

During this period the Christianizing of Europe was well 
nigh finished. Only Lapland and Lithuania were reserved 
for the following period. The method used in conversion 
was still the same. Besides missionaries, warriors also 
extended the faith. Monasteries and castles were the 
centres of the newly founded Christianity, Political con- 
siderations and Christian princesses converted pagan 
princes; their subjects followed either under violent 
pressure or with quiet resignation, carrying with them, 
however, under the cover of a Christian profession, much 
of their old heathen superstition. It was the policy of 
the German emperors to make every effort to unite the 
converted races under the German metropolitans, and to 
establish this union. Thus the metropolitanate of Ham- 
burg-Bremen was founded for the Scandinavians and those 
of the Baltic provinces, that of Magdeburg for the Poles 
and the Northern Slavs, that of Mainz for the Bohemians, 
that of Passau and Salzburg for the Hungarians. But it 
was Rome's desire to emancipate them from the German 

1 I 


clergy and the German state, and to set them up as in- 
dej^endent metropolitanates of a great family of Christian 
nationalities recognising the pope as their spiritual father 
(§ 82, 9). The Western church did now indeed make a 
beginning of missionary enterprise, which extended in its 
range beyond Europe to the Mongols of Asia and the Sara- 
cens of Africa, but throughout this period it remained with- 
out any, or at least without any important, result. 

1. The Scandinavian Mission Field. — The work of Ansgar and Ptimbert 
(§ 80) had extended only to the frontier provinces of Jutland and to the 
trading ports of Sweden, and even the churches founded there had in 
the meantime become almost extinct. A renewal of the mission could 
not be thought of, owing to the robber raids of Normans or Vikings, who 
during the ninth and tenth centuries had devastated all the coasts. 
But it was just those Viking raids that in another way opened a door 
again for the entrance of missionaries into those lands. Many of the 
home-going Vikings, who had been resident for a while abroad, had there 
been converted to the Christian faith, and carried back the knowledge 
of it to their homes. In France the Norwegians under Rollo founded 
Normandy in a.d. 912. In the tenth century the entire northern half 
of England fell into the hands of the Danes, and finally, in a.d. 1013, 
the Danish King Sv/eyn conquered the whole country. Both in France 
and in England the incomers adopted the profession of Christianity, and 
this, owing to the close connection maintained with their earlier homes, 
led to the conversion of Norway and Denmark. 

2. In Denmark, Gorm the Old, the founder of the regular Danish 
monarchy, makes his appearance toward the end of the ninth century 
as the bitter foe of Christianity, He destroyed all Christian institutions, 
drove away all the priests, and ravaged the neighbouring German coasts. 
Then, in a.d. 934, the German king Henry I. undertook a war against 
Denmark, and obliged Gorm to pay tribute and to grant toleration 
to the Christian faith. Archbishop Unni of Bremen then immediately 
began again the mission work. With a great part of his clergy he 
entered Danish territory, restored the churches of Jutland, and died in 
Sweden in a.d. 936. Gorra's son, Harald Blaatand, being defeated in 
battle by Otto I. in a.d. 965, submitted to baptism. But his son Sweyn 
Gabelbart, although he too had been baptized, headed the reactionary 
heathen party. Harald fell in battle against him in a.d. 986, and 
Sweyn now began his career as a bitter persecutor of the Christians. 
Eric of Sweden, however, formerly a heathen and an enemy of 


Christianity, drove hhn out in a.d. 980, and at the entreaty of a Germau 
embassage tolerated the Christian reUgion. After Eric's death in a.d. 
998, Sweyn returned. In exile his opinions had changed, and now 
he as actively befriended the Christians as before he had persecuted 
them. In a.d, 1013 he conquered all England, and died there in 
A.D. 1014. His son Canute the Great, who died in a.d. 1036, united 
both kingdoms under his sceptre, and made every effort to find in the 
profession of a common Christian faith a bond of union between the 
two countries over which he ruled. In place of the German mission 
issuing from Bremen, he set on foot an English mission that had great 
success. In a.d. 1026 by means of a pilgrimage to Rome, prompted 
also by far-reaching political views, he joined the Danish church in the 
closest bonds with the ecclesiastical centre of Western Christendom. 
Denmark from this time onwards ranks as a thoroughly Christianized 

3. In Sweden, too, Archbishop Unni of Bremen resumed mission work 
and died there in a.d. 936. From this time the German mission was 
prosecuted uninterruptedly. It was, however, only in the beginning 
of the eleventh century, when English missionaries came to Sweden 
from Norway with Sigurd at their head, that real progress was made. 
By them the king Olaf Skotkonung, who died in a.d. 1021, was baptized. 
Olaf and his successor used every effort to further the interests of the 
mission, which had made considerable progress in Gothland, while 
in Swealand, with its national pagan sanctuary of Upsala, heathenism 
still continued dominant. King Inge, when he refused in a.d, 1080 to 
renounce Christianity, was pursued with stones by a crowd of people at 
Uj)sala. His son-in-law Blot-Sweyn led the pagan reaction, and sorely 
persecuted those who professed the Christian faith. After reigning for 
three years, he was slain, and Inge restored Christianity in all parts. 
It was, however, only under St. Eric, who died in a.d, 1160, that the 
Christian faith became dominant in Upper Sweden,^ 

4. The Norwegians had, at a very early period, by means of the 
adventurous raids of their seafaring youth, by means of Christian 
prisoners, and also by means of intercourse with the Norse colonies in 
England and Normandy, gained some knowledge of Christianity. The 
first Christian king of Norway was Haco the Good (a.d. 934-961), who 
had received a Christian education at the English court. Only after 
he had won the fervent love of his people by his able government, did 
he venture to ask for the legal establishment of the Christian religion. 
The people, however, compelled him to take part in heathen sacrifices ; 

1 Principal authorities for last two sections : Adam of Bremen, "Gesta 
Hamburg eccl. Pontificum," and Saxo Grammaticus, " Hist. Danica," 


and wlien he made the sign of the cross over the sacrificial cup before 
he drank of it, they were appeased only by his associating the action 
with Thor's hammer. Haco could never forgive himself this weakness 
and died broken-hearted, regarding himself as unworthy even of 
Christian burial. Olaf Trygvesen (a.d. 995-1000), at first the ideal of 
a Norse Viking, then of a Norse king, was baptized during his last visit 
to England, and used all the powerful influences at his command, the 
charm and fascination of his personality, flattery, favour, craft, inti- 
midation and cruelty, to secure the forcible introduction of Christianity. 
No foreigner was ever allowed to quit Norway without being persuaded 
or compelled by him to receive baptism. Those who refused, whether 
natives or foreigners, suffered severe imprisonment and in many cases 
were put to death. He fell in battle with the Danes, Olaf Haraldson 
the Fat, subsequently known as St. Olaf (a.d. 1014-1030), followed in 
Trygvesen's steps. Without his predecessor's fascinating manners and 
magnanimity, but prosecuting his ecclesiastical and political ends with 
greater recklessness, severity, and cruelty, he soon forfeited the love of 
his subjects. The alienated chiefs conspired with the Danish Canute ; 
the whole country rose against him ; he himself fell in battle, and 
Norway became a Danish province. The crushing yoke of the Danes, 
however, caused a sudden rebound of public feeling in regard to Olaf. 
The king, who was before universally hated, was now looked on as the 
martyr of national liberty and independence. Innumerable miracles 
were wrought by his bones, and even so early as a.d. 1031 the country 
unanimously proclaimed him a national saint. The enthusiasm over 
the veneration of the new saint increased from day to day, and with it 
the enthusiasm for the emancipation of their native country. Borne 
along by the mighty agitation, Olaf's son, Magnus the Good, drove out 
the Danes in a.d. 1035. Olaf's canonization, though originating in 
purely political schemes, had put the final stamp of Christianity upon 
the land. The German national privileges, however, were insisted upon 
in Norway over against the canon law down to the 13th century.^ 

5. In the North-Western Group of Islands, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, 
Shetlands, and Faroe Isles, the sparse Celtic population professing 
Christianity was, during the ninth century, expelled by the pagan Norse 
Vikings, and among these Christianity was first introduced by the 
two Norwegian Olafs. The first missionary attempt in Iceland was 
made in a.d. 981 by the Icelander Thorwald, who having been baptized 
n Saxony by a Bishop (?) Frederick, persuaded this ecclesiastic to 
accompany him to Iceland, that they might there work together for the 

^ Snorro Sturleson's, " Heimskringla, or Chronicle of the Kings of 
Norway." Transl. from the Icelandic by Laing. 3 vols. London, 1844. 


conversion of liis heathen fellow-countrymen. During a five years' 
ministry several individuals were won, but by a decision of the National 
Council the missionaries were forced to leave the island in a.d. 958. 
Olaf Trygvesen did not readily allow an Icelander visiting Norway to 
return without having been baptized, and twice he sent formal expe- 
ditions for the conversion of Iceland. The first, sent out in a.d. 996, 
with Stefnin, a native of Iceland, at its head, had little success. The 
second, a.d. 997-999, was led by Olaf's court chaplain Dankbrand, a 
Saxon. This man, at once warrior and priest, who when his sermons 
failed shrank not from buckling on the sword, converted many of the 
most powerful chiefs. In a.d. 1000 the Icelandic State was saved at the 
last hour from a civil war between pagans and Christians which threat- 
ened its very existence, by the adoption of a compromise, according to 
which all Icelanders were baptized and only Christian worship was 
publicly recognised, but idol worship in the homes, exposure of children, 
and eating of horses' flesh was tolerated. But in a.d. 1016, as the result 
of an embassage of the Norwegian king Olaf Haraldson, even these 
last vestiges of paganism were wiped out. — Greenland, too, which had 
been discovered by a distinguished Icelander, Eric the Red, and had then 
been colonized in a.d. 985, owed its Christianity to Olaf Trygvesen, who 
in a.d. 1000 sent the son of the discoverer, Leif the Fortunate, with 
an expedition for its conversion. The inhabitants accepted baptism 
without resistance. The church continued to flourish there uninter- 
ruptedly for 400 years, and the coast districts became rich through 
agriculture and trade. But when in a.d. 1408 the newly elected bishop 
Andrew wished to take possession of his see, he found the country 
surrounded by enormous masses of ice, and could not effect a landing. 
This catastrophe, and the subsequent incursions of the Eskimos, seem 
to have led to the overthrow of the colony. — Continuation, § 166, 9. — 
Leif discovered on his expeditions a rich fertile land in the West, which 
on account of the vines growing wild there he called Vineland, and this 
region was subsequently colonized from Iceland. In the twelfth century, 
in order to confirm the colonists in the faith, a Greenland bishop Eric 
undertook a journey to that country. It lay on the east coast of North 
America, and is probably to be identified with the present Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island. 

6. The Slavo-Magyar Mission-field. — Even in the previous period a 
beginning had been made of the Christianizing of Bohemia (§ 79, 3). 
After Wratislaw's death his heathen widow Drahomira administered the 
government in the name of her younger son Boleslaw. Ludmilla, with 
the help of the clergy and the Germans, wished to promote St. Wen- 
zeslaw, the elder son, educated by her, but she was strangled by order of 
Drahomira in a.d. 927. Wenzeslaw, too, fell by the hand of his brother. 
Boleslaw now thought completely to root out Christianity, but was 


obliged, in consequence of the victory of Otbo I. in a.d. 950, to agree 
to the restoration of the church. His son Boleslas II., a.d. 967-999, 
contributed to its establishment by founding the bishopric of Prague. 
The pope seized the oi^portunity on the occasion of this founding of the 
bishopric to introduce the Roman ritual (a.d. 973). ^ 

7. From Bohemia the Christian faith was carried to the Poles. In 
A.D. 966 the Duke Micislas was persuaded by his wife Dubrawka, a 
Bohemian princess, daughter of Boleslaw I., to receive baptism. His 
subjects were induced to follow his example, and the bishopric of Posen 
was founded. The church obtained a firm footing under his son, the 
powerful Boleslaw Chrobry, a.d. 992-1025, who with the consent of 
Otto III. freed the Polish church from the metropolitanate of Magdeburg, 
and gave it an archiepiscopal see of its own at Gnesen (a.d. 1000). He 
also separated the Poles from German imperial federation and had 
himself crowned king shortly before his death in a.d. 1025. A state 
of anarchy, which lasted for a year and threatened the overthrow of 
Christianity in the land, was put an end to by his grandson Casimir in 
a.d. 1039. Casimir's grandson Boleslaw II. gave to the Poles a national 
saint by the murder in a.d. 1079 of Bishop Stanislas of Cracow, which 
led to his excommunication and exile. 

8. Christianity was introduced into Hungary from Constantinople. 
A Hungarian prince Gylas received baptism there about a.d. 950, and 
returned home with a monk Hierotheus, consecrated bishop of the 
Hungarians. Connection with the Eastern church, however, was soon 
broken off, and an alHance formed with the Western church. After 
Henry I. in a.d. 933 defeated the Hungarians at Keuschberg, and still 
more decidedly after Otto I. in a.d. 955 had completely humbled them 
by the terrible slaughter at Lechfelde, German influence won the upper 
hand. The missionary labours of Bishop PiHgrim of Passau, as well as 
the introduction of Christian foreigners, especially Germans, soon gave 
to Christianity a preponderance throughout the country over paganism. 
The mission was directly favoured by the Duke Geysa, a.d. 972-997, and 
his vigorous wife Sarolta, a daughter of the above-named Gylas. The 
Christianizing of Hungary was completed by Geysa's son St. Stephen, 
A.D. 997-1038, who upon his marriage with Gisela, the sister of the 
Emperor Henry II., was baptized, a pagan reaction was put down, a 
constitution and laws were given to the country, an archbishopric was 
founded at Gran with ten suffragan bishops, the crown was put upon his 
head in a.d. 1000 by Pope Sylvester II., and Hungary was enrolled as 
an important member of the federation of European Christian States. 
Under his successors indeed paganism once more rose in a formidable 

^ Cosmas of Prague [f a.d. 1125^ , " Chronicon Prag." 


revolt, but was finally stamped out. St. Ladislaw, a.d. 1077-1095, 
rooted out its last vestiges. 

9. Among the numerous Wendisli Races in Northern and North- 
Eastern Germany the chief tribes were the Obotrites in what is now 
Holstein and Mecklenburg, the Lutitians or Wilzians, between the Elbe 
and the Oder, the Pomeranians, from the Oder to the Vistula, and 
the Sorbi, farther south in Saxony and Lusatia. Henry I., a.d. 
919-936, and his son Otto I., a.d. 936-973, in several campaigns 
subjected them to the German yoke, and the latter founded among 
them in a.d. 968 the archbishopric of Magdeburg besides several 
bishoprics. The passion for national freedom, as well as the proud 
contempt, illtreatment, and oppression of the German margraves, 
rendered Christianity peculiarly hateful to the Wends, and it was only 
after their freedom and nationality had been completely destroyed 
and the Slavic population had been outnumbered by German or 
Germanized colonists, that the Church obtained a firm footing in their 
land. A revolt of the Obotrites under Mistewoi in a.d. 983, who with 
the German yoke abjured also the Christian faith, led to the destruction 
of all Christian institutions. His grandson Gottschalk, educated as a 
Christian in a German monastery, but roused to fury by the murder of 
his father Udo, escaped from the monastery in a.d. 1032, renounced 
Christianity, and set on foot a terrible persecution of Christians and 
Germans. But he soon bitterly repented this outburst of senseless rage. 
Taken prisoner by the Germans, he escaped and took refuge in Den- 
mark, but subsequently he returned and founded in a.d. 1045 a great 
Wendish empire which extended from the North Sea to the Oder. He 
now enthusiastically applied all his energy to the establishment of the 
church in his land upon a national basis, for which purpose Adalbert 
of Bremen sent him missionaries. He was himself frequently their 
interpreter and expositor. He was eminently successful, IJut the 
national party hated him as the friend of the Saxons and the church. 
He fell by the sword of the assassin in a.d. 1066, and thereupon began 
a terrible persecution of the Christians. His son Henry having been 
set aside, the powerful Ranian chief Cruco from the island of Riigen, a 
fanatical enemy of Christianity, was chosen ruler. At the instigation 
of Henry he was murdered in his own house in a.d. 1115. Henry died 
in A.D. 1127. A Danish prince Canute bought the Wendish crown from 
Lothair duke of Saxony, but was murdered in a.d. 1131. This brought 
the Wendish empire to an end. The Obotrite chief Niklot, who died in 
A.D. 1161, held his ground only in the territory of the Obotrites. His 
son Pribizlaw, the ancestor of the present ruling family of Mecklenburg, 
by adopting Christianity in a.d. 1164, saved to himself a part of the 
inheritance of his fathers as a vassal under the Saxon princes. All the 
rest of the laud was divided by Henry the Lion among his German 


warriors, and the depopulated districts were peopled with German 
colonists. — In a.d. 1157 Albert the Bear, the founder of the Margravate 
of Brandenburg, overthrew the dominion of the Lutitians after protracted 
struggles and endless revolts. He, too, drafted numerous German colon- 
ists into the devastated regions. — The Christianizing of the Sorbi was 
an easier task. After their first defeat by Henry I. in a.d. 922 and 927, 
they were never again able to regain their old freedom. Alongside of 
the mission of the sword among the Wends there was always carried on, 
more or less vigorously, the mission of the Cross. Among the Sorbi 
bishop Benno of Meissen, who died in a.d. 1107, wrought with special 
vigour, and among the Obotrites the greatest zeal was displayed by St. 
Vicelinus. He died bishop of Oldenburg in a.d. 1151. 

10. Pomerania submitted in a.d. 1121 to the duke of Poland, 
Boleslaw III., and he compelled them solemnly to promise that they 
would adopt the Christian faith. The work of conversion, however, 
appeared to be so unpromising that Boleslaw found none among all 
his clergy willing to undertake the task. At last in a.d. 1122, a Spanish 
monk Bernard offered himself. But the Pomeranians drove him away 
as a beggar who looked only to his own gain, for they thought, if the 
Christians' God be really the Lord of heaven and earth He would have 
sent them a servant in keeping with His glorious majesty. Boleslaw was 
then convinced that only a man who had strong faith and a martyr's 
spirit, united with an imposing figure, rank, and wealth, was fit for the work, 
and these qualifications he found in bishop Otto of Bamberg. Otto 
accepted the call, and during two missionary journeys in a.d. 1121-1128 
founded the Pomeranian church. Following Bernard's advice, he went 
through Pomerania on both occasions with all the pomp of episcopal 
dignity, with a great retinue and abundant stores of provisions, money, 
ecclesiastical ornaments, and presents of all kinds. He had unparalleled 
success, yet he was repeatedly well nigh obtaining the crown of 
martyrdom which he longed for. The whole Middle Ages furnishes 
scarcely an equally noble, pure, and successful example of missionary 
enterprise. None of all the missionaries of that age presents so 
harmonious a picture of firmness without obstinacy, earnestness without 
harshness, gentleness without weakness, enthusiasm without fanaticism. 
And never have the German and Slavic nationalities so nobly, success- 
fully, and faithfully practised mutual forbearance as did the Pomeranians 
and their apostle. — The last stronghold of Wendish paganism was the 
island of Eiigen. It fell when in a.d. 1168 the Danish king Waldemar 
I. with the Christian Pomeranian and Obotrite chiefs conquered the 
island and destroyed its heathen sanctuaries. 

11. Mission Work among the Finns and Lithuanians. — St. Eric of 
Sweden in a.d. 1157 introduced Christianity into Finland by conquest 
and compulsion. Bishop Henry of Upsala, the apostle of the Finns 


who accompanied him, suffered a martyr's death in the following year. 
The Finns detested Christianity as heartily as they did the rule of the 
conquering Swedes, who introduced it, and it was only after the third cam- 
paign which Thorkel Canutson undertook in a.d. 1293 against Finland, that 
the Swedish rule and the Christian faith were established, and under a 
vigorous yet moderate and wise government the Finns were reconciled to 
both.— Lapland came under the rule of Sweden in a.d. 1279, and there- 
after Christianity gradually found entrance. In a.d. 1335 bishop Hem- 
ming of Upsala consecrated the first church at Toruea. 

12. Esthonia, Livonia, and Courland were inhabited by peoples belong- 
ing to the Finnic stem. Yet even in early times people from the south 
and east belonging to the Lithuanian stem had settled in Livonia and 
Courland, Letts and Lettgalls in Livonia, and Semgalls and Wends 
in Courland. The first attempts to introduce Christianity into these 
regions were made by Swedes and Danes, and even under the Danish 
king Sweyn III., Eric's son, about a.d. 1018 a church was erected in 
Courland by Christian merchants, and in Esthonia the Danes not long 
after built the fortress of Lindanissa. The elevation of the bishopric of 
Lund into a metropolitanate in a.d. 1098 was projected with a regard to 
these lands. In a.d. 1171 Pope Alexander III. sent a monk, Fulco, to 
Lund to convert the heathen and to be bishop of Finland and Esthonia, 
but he seems never to have entered on his duties or his dignity. 
Abiding results were first won by German preaching and the German 
sword. In the middle of the 12th century merchants of Bremen and 
Liibeck carried on traffic with towns on the banks of the Dwina. A 
pious priest from the monastery of Segeberg in Holstein, called Meinhart, 
undertook in their company under the auspices of the archbishop of 
Bremen, Hartwig II., a missionary journey to those regions in a.d. 1184. 
He built a church at Uxkiill on the Dmna, was recognised as bishop of 
the place in a.d. 1186, but died in a.d. 1196. His assistant Dietrich 
carried on the work of the mission in the district from Freiden down 
to Esthonia. Meinhart's successor in the bishopric was the Cistercian 
abbot, Berthold of Loccum in Hanover. Having been driven away 
soon after his arrival, he returned with an army of German crusaders, 
and was killed in battle in a.d. 1198. His successor was a canon of 
Bremen, Albert of Buxhowden. He transferred the bishop's seat to Eiga, 
which was built by him in a.d. 1201, founded in a.d. 1202, for the 
protection of the mission, the Order of the Brethren of the Sword 
(§ 98, 8), amid constant battles with Eussians, Esthonians, Courlanders 
and Lithuanians erected new bishoprics in Esthonia (Dorpat), Oesel, and 
Semgallen, and effected the Christianization of nearly all these lands. 
He died in a.d. 1229. After a.d. 1219 the Danes, whom Albert had 
called in to his aid, vied with him in the conquest and conversion of 
the Esthonians. Waldemar II. founded Eevel in a.d. 1219, made it an 


episcopal see, and did all in his power to restrict the advances of the 
Germans. In this he did not succeed. The Danes, indeed, were obliged 
to quit Esthonia in a.d. 1257. After Albert's death, however, the 
difficulties of the situation became so great that Volquin, the Master of 
the Order of the Sword, could see no hope of success save in the union 
of his order w^ith that of the Teutonic Knights, shortly before estab- 
lished in Prussia. The union, retarded by Danish intrigues, was 
not effected until a.d. 1237, when a fearful slaughter of Germans by 
the Lithuanians had endangered not only the existence of the Order 
of the Sword but even the church of Livonia. Then, too, for the first 
time was Courland finally subdued and converted. It had, indeed, nomi- 
nally adopted Christianity in a.d. 1230, but had soon after relapsed 
into paganism. Finally in a.d. 1255 Riga was raised to the rank of 
a metropolitanate, and Suerbeer, formerly archbishop of Armagh in 
Ireland, was appointed by Innocent IV. archbishop of Prussia, Livonia, 
and Esthonia, with his residence at Riga. 

13. The Old Prussians and Lithuanians also belonged to the Lettish 
stem. Adalbert, bishop of Prague, first brought the message of salvation 
to the Prussians between the Vistula and Memel, but on the very first 
entrance into Bameland in a.d. 997 he won the martyr's crown. This, 
too, was the fate twelve years later of the zealous Saxon monk Bruno 
and eighteen companions on the Lithuanian coast. Two hundred years 
passed before another missionary was seen in Prussia. The first was the 
Abbot Gothfried from the Polish monastery of Lukina ; but in his case 
also an end was soon put to his hopefully begun work, as well as to that 
of his companion Philip, both suffering martyrdom in a.d. 1207. More 
successful and enduring was the mission work three years later of the 
Cistercian monk Christian from the Pomerania nmonastery of Oliva, 
in A.D. 1209, the real apostle of the Prussians. He was raised to the 
rank of bishop in a.d. 1215, and died in a.d. 1245. On the model of the 
Livonian Order of the Brethren of the Sword he founded in a.d. 1225 
the Order of the Knights of Dobrin {Milites Christi). In the very first 
year of their existence, however, they were reduced to the number of five 
men. In union with Conrad, Duke of Moravia, whose land had suffered 
fearfully from the inroads of the pagan Prussians, Christian then called 
in the aid of the Teutonic Knights, whose order had won great renown 
ill Germany. A branch of this order had settled in a.d. 1228 in Culm, 
and so laid the foundation of the establishment of the order in Prussia. 
With the appearance of this order began a sixty years' bloody conflict 
directed to the overthrow of Prussian paganism, which can be said 
to have been effected only in a.d. 1283, when the greater part of the 
Prussians had been slain after innumerable conflicts with the order and 
with crusaders from Germany, Poland, Bohemia, etc. Among the 
crowds of preachers of the gospel, mostly Dominicans, besides Bishop 


CLristian and the noble papal legate William, bishop of Modena, the 
Polish Dominican Hyacinth, who died in a.d. 1257, a vigorous preacher 
of faith and repentance, deserves special mention. So early as a.d. 1243, 
William of Modena had sketched an ecclesiastical organization for the 
country, which divided Prussia into four dioceses, which were placed in 
A.D, 1255 under the metropolitanate of Riga. 

14. The introduction of Christianity into Lithuania was longest 
delayed. After Eingold had founded in a.d. 1230 a Grand Duchy of 
Lithuania, his son Mindowe endeavoured to enlarge his dominions by 
conquest. The army of the Prussian-Livonian Order, however, so 
humbled him that he sued for peace and was compelled to receive 
baptism in a.d. 1252. But no sooner had he in some measure regained 
strength than he threw off the hypocritical mask, and in a.d. 1260 
appeared as the foe of his Christian neighbours. His son Wolstinik, 
who had remained true to the Christian faith, dying in a.d. 1266, reigned 
too short a time to secure an influence over his people. With him every 
trace of Christianity disappeared from Lithuania. Christians were 
again tolerated in his territories by the Grand Duke Gedimin (a.d. 
1315-1340). Eomish Dominicans and Russian priests vied with one 
another under his successor Olgerd in endeavours to convert the 
inhabitants. Olgerd himself was baptized according to the Greek rite, 
but apostatised. His son Jagello, born of a Christian mother, and 
married to the young Polish queen Hedwig, whose hand and crown 
seemed not too dearly purchased by submitting to baptism and under- 
taking to introduce Christianity among his people, made at last an end 
to heathenism in Lithuania in a.d. 1386. His subjects, each of whom 
received a woollen coat as a christening gift, flocked in crowds to receive 
baptism. The bishop's residence was fixed at Wilna. 

15. The Mongolian Mission Field. — From the time of Genghis Kban, 
who died in a.d. 1227, the princes of the Mongols, in consistency with 
their principles as deists with little trace of religion, showed themselves 
equally tolerant and favourable to Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. 
The Nestorians were very numerous in this empire, but also very much 
deteriorated. In a.d. 1240-1241 the Mongols, pressing westward with 
irresistible force, threatened to overflow and devastate all Europe. Russia 
and Poland, Silesia, Moravia, and Hungary had been already dreadfully 
wasted by them, when suddenly and unexpectedly the savage hordes 
withdrew. Innocent IV. sent an embassage of Dominicans under Nicolas 
Ascelinus to the Commander Batschu ia Persia, and an embassage of 
Franciscans under John of Piano-Carpini to the Grand Khan Oktai, 
Genghis Khan's successor, to his capital Karakorum, with a view to their 
conversion and to dissuade them from repeating their inroads. Both 
missions were unsuccessful. Certain adventurers pretending to be bearers 
of a message from Mongolia, told Louis IX. of France fabulous stories of 


the readiness of the Grand Khan Gajuk and his princes to receive Chris- 
tianity, and their intention to conquer the Holy Land for the Christians. 
He accordingly sent out two missions to the Mongols. The first, in a.d. 
12J:9 was utterly unsuccessful, for the Mougols regarded the presents 
given as a regular tribute and as a symbol of voluntary submission. 
The second mission in a.d. 1253, to the Grand Khan Mangu, although 
under a brave and accomplished leader, William of Euysbroek, yielded 
no fruit ; for Mangu, instead of allowing free entrance into the land for 
the preaching of the gospel, at the close of a disputation with Moham- 
medans and Buddhists sent the missionaries back to Louis with the 
threatening demand to tender his submission. After Mangu's death 
in A.D. 1257, the Mongolian empire was divided into Eastern and 
Western, corresponding to China and Persia. The former was governed 
by Kublai Khan, the latter by Hulagu Khan.— Kublai Khan, the Em- 
peror of China, a genuine type of the religious mongrelism of the Mongol- 
ians, showed himself very favourable to Christians, but also patronised 
the Mohammedans, and in a.d. 1260 gave a hierarchical constitution and 
consolidated form to Buddhism by the establishment of the first Dalai 
Lama. The travels of two Venetians of the family of Polo led to the 
founding of a Latin Christian mission in China. They returned from 
their Mongolian travels in a.d. 1269. Gregory X. in a.d. 1272 sent two 
Dominicans to Mongolia along with the two brothers, and the son of 
one of them, Marco Polo, then seventeen years old. The latter won 
the unreserved confidence of the Grand Khan, and was entrusted by 
him with an honourable post in the government. On his return in a.d. 
1295 he published an account of his travels, which made an enormous 
sensation, and afforded for the first time to Western Europe a proper 
conception of the condition of Eastern Asia.^ A regular Christian 
missionary enterprise, however, was first undertaken by the Franciscan 
Joh. de Monte-Corvino, a.d. 1291-1328, one of the noblest, most intelli- 
gent, and most faithful of the missionaries of the Middle Ages. After he 
had succeeded in overcoming the intrigues of the numerous Nestorians, 
he won the high esteem of the Grand Khan. In the royal city of 
Cembalu or Pekin he built two churches, baptized about 6,000 Mongols, 
and translated the Psalter and the New Testament into Mongolian. He 
wrought absolutely alone till a.d. 1303. Afterwards, however, other 
brethren of his order came repeatedly to his aid. Clement V. appointed 
him archbishop of Cembalu in a.d. 1307. Every year saw new churches 
established. But internal disturbances, under Kublai's successor, 
weakened the power of the Mongolian dynasty, so that in a.d. 1370 
it was overthrown by the national Ming dynasty. By the new rulers 

1 " The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian," edited with Com- 
mentary by Col. Yule, 2 vols., London, 1871. 


the Christian missionaries were driven out along with the Mongols, and 
thus all that they had done was utterly destroyed. — The ruler of Persia, 
Hulagu Khan, son of a Christian mother and married to a Christian 
wife, put an end in a.d. 1258 to the khalifate of Bagdad, but was so 
pressed by the sultan of Egypt, that he entered on a long series of 
negotiations with the popes and the kings of France and England, who 
gave him the most encouraging promises of joining their forces with his 
against the Saracens. His successors, of whom several even formally 
embraced Christianity, continued these negotiations, but obtained 
nothing more than empty promises and protestations of friendship. 
The time of the crusades was over, and the popes, even the most 
powerful of them, were not able to reawaken the crusading spirit. The 
Persian khans, vacillating between Christianity and Islam, became 
more and more powerless, until at last, in a.d. 1387, Tamerlane (Timur) 
undertook to found on the ruins of the old government a new universal 
Mongolian empire under the standard of the Crescent. But with his 
death in a.d. 1405 the dominion of the Mongols in Persia was overthrown, 
and fell into the hands of the Turkomans. Henceforth amid all changes 
of dynasties Islam continued the dominant religion. 

16. The Mission Pield of Islam.— The crusader princes and soldiers 
wished only to wrest the Holy Land from the infidels, but, with the 
exception perhaps of Louis IX., had no idea of bringing to them the 
blessings of the gospel. And most of the crusaders, by their licentious- 
ness, covetousness, cruelty, faithlessness, and dissensions among them- 
selves, did much to cause the Saracens to scorn the Christian faith as 
represented by their lives and example. It was not until the 13th cen- 
tury that the two newly founded mendicant orders of Franciscans and 
Dominicans began an energetic but fruitless mission among the Moslems 
of Africa, Sicily, and Spain. St. Francis himself started this work in 
A.D. 1219, when during the siege of Damietta by the crusaders he entered 
the camp of the Sultan Camel and bade him kindle a fire and cause 
that he himself with one of the Moslem priests should be cast into it. 
When the imam present shrank away at these words, Francis offered to 
go alone into the fire if the sultan would promise to accept Christianity 
along with his people should he pass out of the fire uninjured. The 
sultan refused to promise and sent the saint away unhurt with presents, 
which, however, he returned. Afterwards several Franciscan missions 
were sent to the Moslems, but resulted only in giving a crowd of 
martyrs to the order. The Dominicans, too, at a very early period took 
part in the mission to the Mohammedans, but were also unsuccessful. 
The Dominican general Kaimund de Pennaforti, who died in a.d. 1273, 
devoted himself with special zeal to this task. For the training of the 
brethren of his order in the oriental languages he founded institutions 
at Tunis and Murcia. The most important of all these missionary 


enterprises was that of the talented Eannund Lulhis of Majorca, who 
after his own conversion from a worldly life and after careful study of 
the language, made three voyages to North Africa and sought in dis- 
putations with the Saracen scholars . to convince them of the truth of 
Christianity. But his Ars Magna (§ 103, 7), which with great ingenuity 
and enormous labour he had wrought out mainly for this purpose, had 
no effect. Imprisonment and ill-treatment were on all occasions his only 
reward. He died in a.d. 1315 in consequence of the ill-usage to which he 
had been subjected. 

§ 94. The Crusades.^ 

The Arabian rulers had for their own interest protected 
the Christian pilgrims to the Holy Sepulchre. But even 
under the rule of the Fatimide dynasty, early in the 10th 
century, the oppression of pilgrims began. Khalif Hakim, 
in order that he might blot out the disgrace of being born 
of a Christian mother, committed ruthless cruelties upon 
resident Christians as well as upon the pilgrims, and pro- 
hibited under severe penalties all meetings for Christian 
worship. Under the barbarous Seljuk dynasty, which held 
sway in Palestine from about a.d. 1070, the oppression 
reached its height. The West became all the more con- 
cerned about this, since during the 10th century the idea 
that the end of the world was approaching had given a new 
impulse to pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Pope Sylvester II. 
had in a.d. 999 ex persona clevastatce Hierosolymce sum- 
moned Christendom to help in this emergency. Gregory 
VII. seized anew upon the idea of wresting the Holy Land 
from the infidels. He had even resolved himself to lead a 
Christian army, but the outbreak of contentions with Henry 

^ Michaud, "History of the Crusades," transl. by Eobson, 3 vols. 
London, 1852. Mill, " History of the Crusades," 2 vols., London, 1820. 
" Chronicles of the Crusades: Contemporary Narratives of Richard Cceur 
de Lion, by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de Vinsauf, and of the 
Crusade of St. Louis, by Lord John de Joinville," Loudon (Bohn). 
Gibbon, "History of Crusades," London, 18G9. 

§ 94. THE CEUSADES. 15 

IV. hindered the execution of this plan. Meanwhile com- 
plaints by returning pilgrims of intolerable ill-usage in- 
creased. An urgent appeal from the Byzantine Emperor 
Alexius Comnenus gave the spark that lit the combustible 
material that had been gathered throughout the West. 
The imperial ambassadors accompanied Pope Urban II. to 
the Council of Clermont in a.d. 1095, where the pope him- 
self, in a spirited speech, called for a holy war under the 
standard of the cross. The shout was raised as from one 
mouth, " It is God's will." On that very day thousands 
enlisted, with Adhemar, bishop of Puy, papal legate, at their 
head, and had the red cross marked on their right shoulders. 
The bishops returning home preached the crusade as they 
went, and in a few weeks a glowing enthusiasm had spread 
throughout France down to the provinces of the Rhine. 
Then began a movement which, soon extending over all 
the West, like a second migration of nations, lasted for two 
centuries. The crusades cost Europe between five and six 
millions of men, and yet in the end that which had been 
striven after was not attained. Its consequences, how- 
ever, to Europe itself were all the more important. In 
all departments of life, ecclesiastical and political, moral 
and intellectual, civil and industrial, new views, needs, 
developments, and tendencies were introduced. Mediseval 
culture now reached the highest point of its attainment, 
and its failure to transcend the past opened the way for the 
conditions of modern society. And while on the other hand 
they afforded new and extravagantly abundant nourishment 
for clerical and popular superstition, in all directions, but 
specially in giving opportunity to roguish traffic in relics 
(§ 104, 8 ; 115, 9), on the other hand they had no small 
share in producing religious indifference and frivolous 
free-thinking (§ 96, 19), as well as the terribly dangerous 
growth of mediseval sects, which threatened the overthrow 


of church and State, religion and morality (§ 108, 1, 4 ; IIG 
5). The former was chiefly the result of the sad conclu- 
sion of an undertaking of unexampled magnitude, entered 
upon with the most glowing enthusiasm for Christianity 
and the church ; the latter was in great measure occa- 
sioned by intercourse with sectaries of a like kind in the 
East (§ 71). 

1. The First Crusade, A.D. 1096.— In the spring of a.d. 1096 vast 
crowds of people gathered together, impatient of the delays of the 
princes, and put themselves under the leadership of Walter the Penni- 
less. They were soon followed by Peter of Amiens with 40,000 men. 
A legend, unw^orthy of belief, credits him with the origin of the whole 
movement. According to this story, the hermit returning from a pil- 
grimage described to the holy father in vivid colours the sufferings 
their Christian brethren, and related how that Christ Himself had 
appeared to him in a dream, giving him the command for the pope to 
summon all Christendom to rescue the Holy Sepulchre. The legend 
proceeds to say that, by order of the pope, Peter the Hermit then went 
through all Italy and France, arousing the enthusiasm of the people. 
The hordes led by him, however, after committing deeds of horrid 
violence on every side, while no farther than Bulgaria, were reduced to 
about one half, and the remnant, after Peter had already left them be- 
cause of their insubordination, was annihilated by the Turks at Nicrea. 
Successive new crusades, the last of them an undisciplined mob of 
200,000 men, were cut down in Hungary or on the Hungarian frontier. 
In August a regular crusading army, 80,000 strong, under the leadership of 
Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, passing through Germany and 
Hungary, reached Constantinople. There several French and Norman 
princes joined the army, till its strength was increased to 600,000. After 
considerable squabbling with the Byzantine government, tbey passed over 
into Asia. With great labour and heavy loss Nictea, Edessa,and Antioch 
were taken. At last, on 15th July, 1099, amid shouts of, It is God's will, 
they stormed the walls of Jerusalem ; lighted by torches and wading 
in blood, they entered with singing of psalms into the Church of the 
Resurrection. Godfrey was elected king. With pious humility he 
declined to wear a king's crown where Chrit-t had worn a crown of thorns. 
He died a year after, and his brother Baldwin was crowned at Bethlehem. 
By numerous impropriations crowds of greater and lesser vassals were 
gathered about the throne. In Jerusalem itself a Latin patriarchate was 
erected, and under it were placed four archbishoprics, with a corresponding 
number of bishoprics. The story of these proceedings enkindled new 

§ 94. THE CRUSADES. 17 

enthusiasm in the "West. In a.d. 1101 three new crusades of 260,000 
men were fitted out in Germany, under Welf, duke of Bavaria, and iu 
Italy and in -France. Tliey marched against Bagdad, in order to strike 
terror into the hearts of Moslems by the terrible onslaught ; the undisci- 
plined horde, however, did not reach its destination, but found agiavein 
Asia Minor. 

2. The Second Crusade, A.D. 1147.— The fall of Edessa in a.d. 1116, 
as the frontier fortress of the kingdom, summoned the West to a new 
effort. Pope Eugenius III. called the nations to arms. Bernard of 
Clau'vaux, the prophet of the age, preached the crusade, and prophesied 
victory. Louis VII. of France took the sign of the cross, in order to atone 
for the crime of having burnt a church filled with men ; and Conrad III. 
of Germany, moved by the preaching of Bernard, with some hesitation 
followed his example. But their stately army fell before the sword of 
the Saracens, the malice of the Greeks, and internal disorders caused 
by famine, disease, and hardships. Damascus remained unconqaered, 
and the princes returned humbled with the miserable remnant of their 

3. The Third Crusade, A.D. 1189.— The kingdom of Jerusalem before 
a century had past was in utter decay. Greeks or Syrians and Latins 
had a deadly hatred for one another : the vassals intrigued against each 
other and against the crown. Licentiousness, luxury, and recklessness 
prevailed among the people ; the clergy and the nobles of the kingdom, 
but especially the so called Pulleni,i descendants of the crusaders born 
in the Holy Land itself, were a miserable, cowardly and treacherous 
race. The pretenders to the crown also continued their intrigues and 
cabals. Such being the corrupt condition of affairs, it was an easy 
thing for the Sultan Saladin, the Moslem knight "without fear and 
without reproach," who had overthrown the Fatimide dynasty in Egypt, 
to bring down upon the Christian rule in Syria, after the bloody battle 
of Tiberias, the same fate. Jerusalem fell into his hands in October, a.d. 
1187. When this terrible piece of news reached the West, the Christian 
powers were summoned by Gregory YIIL to combine their forces in 
order to make one more vigorous effort, Philip Augustus of France and 
Henry II. of England forgot for a moment their mutual jealousies, and 
took the cross from the hands of Archbishop William of Tyre, the 
historian of the crusade. Next the Emperor Frederick I. joined them, 
with all the heroic valour of youth, though in years and experience an 

^ Pulleni dicuntur, vel quia recentes et novi, quasi pulli respectu Suria- 
nonim reputati sunt, vel quia principaliter de gente Apulice matres 
habuerurit. Cum enim paucas rnulieres adduxissent nostri, qui in terras 
remanserunt, de regno Apulice, eo quod propius esset aliis regionibus, 
vocantes rnulieres, cum eis matrimonia contraxerunt. 


old man. He entered on the underlaking with an energy, considerate- 
ness, and circumspection which seemed to deserve glorious success. After 
piloting his way through Byzantine intrigues and the indescribable 
fatigues of a waterless desert, he led his soldiers against the well-equipped 
army of the sultan at Iconium, which he utterly routed, and took the 
city. But in a.d. 1190 the heroic warrior was drowned in an attempt 
to ford the river Calycadnus. A great part of his army was now 
scattered, and the remnant was led by his son Frederick of Swabia 
against Ptolemais. At that point soon after landed Philip Augustus and 
Richard Cceur de Lion of England, who after his father's death put him- 
self at the head of an English crusading army and had conquered 
Cyprus on the way. Ptolemais (Acre) was taken in a.d. 1191. But the 
jealousies of the princes interfered with their success. Frederick had 
already fallen, and Philip Augustus under pretence of sickness returned 
to France ; Richard gained a brillant victory over Saladin, took Joppa 
and Ascalon, and was on the eve of marching against Jerusalem when 
news reached him that his brother John had assumed the throne of 
England, and that Philip Augustus also was entertaining schemes of 
conquest. Once again Richard won a great victory before Joppa, and 
Saladin, admiring his unexampled bravery, concluded with him now, 
in A.D. 1192, a three years' truce, giving most favourable terms to the 
pilgrims. The strip along the coast from Jojjpa to Acre continued 
under the rule of Richard's nephew, Henry of Champagne. But 
Richard was seized on his return journey and cast into prison by 
Leopold of Austria, whose standard he had grossly insulted before Ptole- 
mais, and for two years he remained a prisoner. After his release he 
was prevented from thinking of a renewal of the crusade by a war with 
France, in which he met his death in a.d. 1199.^ 

4. The Fourth Crusade, A.D. 1217. — Innocent III. summoned Chris- 
tendom anew to a holy war. The kings, engaged in their own affairs, 
gave no heed to the call. But the violent penitential preacher, Fulco 
of Neuilly, prevailed upon the French nobles to collect a considerable 
crusading army, which, however, instead of proceeding against the Sara- 
cens, was used by the Venetian Doge, Dandolo, in payment of transport, 
for conquering Zaras in Dalmatia, and then by a Byzantine prince 
for a campaign against Constantinople, where Baldwin of Flanders 
founded a Latin Empire, a.d. 1201-1261. The pope put the doge and the 
crusaders under excommunication on account of the taking of Zaras, 
and the campaign against Constantinople was most decidedly disapproved. 
Their unexpected success, however, turned away his auger. He boasted 
that at last Israel, after destroying the golden calves at Dan and Bethel, 
was again united to Judah, and in Rome bestowed the p^lium upon the 

^ Stubbs, " Chronicle and Memorials of Richard I." London, 1801. 

§ 94. THE CRUSADES. 19 

first Latin patriarch of Constautinople. — The Children's Crusade, which in 
A.D. 1212 snatched from their parents in France and Germany 30,000 
boys and girls, had a most tragic end. Many died before passing from 
Europe of famine and fatigue ; the rest fell into the hands of unprincipled 
men, who sold them as slaves in Egypt. — King Andrew II. of Hungary, urged 
by Honorius III., led a new crusading army to the Holy Land in a.d. 
1217, and won some successes; but finding himself betrayed and deserted 
by the Palestinian barons, he returned home in the following year. 
But the Germans under Leopold VII. of Austria, who had accompanied 
him remained, and, supported by a Cologne and Dutch fleet, undertook 
in A.D. 1218, along with the titular king John of Jerusalem, a crusade 
against Egypt. Damietta was taken, but the overflow of the Nile reser- 
voirs placed them in such peril that they owed their escape in a.d. 1221 
only to the generosity of the Sultan Camel. 

5. The Fifth Crusade, A.D. 1228.— The Emperor Frederick II. had 
promised to undertake a crusade, but continued to make so many excuses 
for delay that Gregory IX. (§ 96, 19) at last thundered against him the 
long threatened excommunication. Frederick now brought out a com- 
paratively small crusading force. The Sultan Camel of Egypt, engaged 
in war with his nephew, and fearing that Frederick might attach himself 
to the enemy, freely granted him a large tract of the Holy Land. At 
the Holy Sepulchre Frederick placed the crown of Jerusalem, the in- 
heritance of his new wife lolanthe, with his own hands on his head, 
since no bishop would perform the coronation nor even a priest read 
the mass service for the excommunicated king. He then returned home 
in A.D. 1229 to arrange his differences with the pope. The crusading 
armies which Theobald, king of Navarre, in a.d. 1239, and Kichard Earl 
of Cornwall, in a.d. 1240, led against Palestine, owing to disunion among 
themselves and quarrels among the Syrian Christians, could accomplish 

6. The Sixth, A.D. 1248, and Seventh, A.D. 1270, Crusades.— The zeal 
for crusading had by this time considerably cooled. St. Louis of Prance, 
however, the ninth of that name, had during a serious illness in a.d. 
1244, taken the cross. At this time Jerusalem had been conquered and 
subjected to the most dreadful horrors at the hands of the Chowares- 
mians, driven from their home by the Mongols, and now in the pay of 
Egyptian sultan Ayoub. Down to a.d. 1247 the rule of the Christians 
in the Holy Land was again restricted to Acre and some coast towns. 
Louis could no longer think of delay. He started in a.d. 1248 with a 
considerable force, wintered in Cyprus, and landed in Egypt in a.d. 
1249. He soon conquered Damietta, but, after his army had been in 
great part destroyed by famine, disease and slaughter, was taken 
prisoner at Cairo by the sultan. After the murder of the sultan by the 
Mamelukes, who overthrew Saladiu's dynasty, he fell into their hands. 


The king was obliged to deliver over Damietta and to purchase his own 
release by payment of 800,000 byzantines. He sailed with the remnant 
of his army to Acre in a.d. 1250, whence his mother's death called him 
home in a.d. 1254. But as his vow had not yet been fully paid, he sailed 
in A.D. 1270 with a new crusading force to Tunis in order to carry on 
operations from that centre. But the half of his army was cut off by a 
pestilence, and he himself was carried away in that same year. All sub- 
sequent endeavours of the popes to reawaken an interest in the crusades 
were unavailing. Acre or Ptolemais, the last stronghold of the Chris- 
tians in the Holy Land, fell in a.d. 1291. 

§ 95. Islam and the Jews in Europe. 

The Saracens (§ 81, 2) were overthrown in the 11th cen- 
cnry by the Normans. The reign of Islam in Spain too 
(§ 81, 1) came to an end. The frequent change of dynasties, 
as well as the splitting up of the empire into small prin- 
cipalities, weakened the power of the Moors ; the growth 
of luxurious habits in the rich and fertile districts robbed 
them of martial energy and prowess. The Christian power 
also was indeed considerably split up and disturbed by many 
internal feuds, but the national and religious enthusiasm 
with which it was every day being more and more inspired, 
made it invincible. Eodrigo Diaz, the Castilian hero, called 
by the Moors the Cid, i.e. Lord, by the Christians Cam- 
peador, i.e. champion, who died in a.d. 1099, was the most 
perfect representative of Spanish Christian knighthood, 
although he dealt with the infidels in a manner neither 
Christian nor knightly. Also the Almoravides of Morocco, 
whose aid was called in in a.d. 1086, and the Almohades, 
who had driven out these from Barbary in a.d. 1146, were 
not able to stop the progress of the Christian arms. On 
the other hand, neither the unceasing persecutions of the 
civil power, nor innumerable atrocities comjaitted on Jews 
by infuriated mobs, nor even Christian theologians' zeal for 
the instruction and conversion of the Israelites, succeeded 
in destroying Judaism in Europe. 


1. Islam in Sicily.— The robber raids upon Italy perpetrated by the 
Sicilian Saracens were put an end to by the Normans who settled there 
in A.D. 1017. Robert Guiscard destroyed the remnant of Greek rule 
in southern Italy, conquered the small Longobard duchies there, and 
founded a Norman duchy of Apulia and Calabria in a.d. 1059. His 
brother Roger, who died in a.d. 1101, after a thirty years' struggle drove 
the Saracens completely out of Sicily, and ruled over it as a vassal of 
his brother under the title of Count of Sicily. His son Roger II., who 
died in a.d. 1154, united the government of Sicily and of Apulia and 
Calabria, had himself crowned in a.d. 1130 king of Sicily and Italy, 
and finally in a.d. 1139 conquered also Naples. In consequence of the 
marriage of his daughter Constance with Henry VI. the whole kingdom 
passed over in a.d. 119-4 to the Hohenstaufens, from whom it passed in 
A.D. 1266 to Charles of Anjou; and from him finally, in consequence of 
the Sicilian Vespers in a.d. 1282, the island of Sicily passed to Peter of 
Arragon, the son-in-law of Manfred, the last king of the Hohenstaufen 
line. The Normans and the Hohenstaufens granted to the subject 
Saracens for the most part full religious liberty, the Emperor Frede- 
rick recruiting from among them his bodyguard, and they supplied 
the bravest soldiers for the Italian Ghibelline war. For this purpose 
he was constantly drafting new detachments from the African coast, as 
Manfred also had done. The endeavours made by monks of the men- 
dicant orders for the conversion of the Saracens proved quite fruitless. 
It was only under the Spanish rule that conversions were made by force, 
or persecution and annihilation followed persistent refusal. 

2. Islam iu Spain. — The times of Abderrhaman III., a.d. 912-961, 
and Hacem II., a.d. 961-976, were the most brilliant and fortunate of the 
Ommaiadean khalifate. After the death of the latter the chamberlain 
Almansor, who died in a.d. 1002, reigned in the name of Khalif Hescham 
II., who was little more than a puppet of the seraglio, and his rule was 
glorious, powerful and wise. But interminable civil contentions were 
the result of this disarrangement of government, and in a.d. 1031, in 
consequence of a popular tumult, Abderrhaman IV., the last of the 
Ommaiades, took to flight, and voluntarily resigned the crown. The 
khalifate was now broken up into as many little iDrincipalities or emir- 
ships as there had been governors before. Amid such confusions the 
Christian princes continued to develop and increase their resources. 
Saucho the Great, king of Navarre, a.d. 970-1035, by marriage and con- 
quest united almost all Christian Spain under his rule, but this was split 
up again by being partitioned among his sons. Of these Ferdinand I., who 
died in a.d. 10G5, inherited Castile, and in a.d. 1037 added to it Leon by 
conquest. With him begins the heroic age of Spanish knighthood. His 
son Alfonso IV., who died in a.d. 1109, succeeded in a.d. 1085 in taking 
from the Moors Toledo and a great part of Andalusia. The powerful 


leader of the Almoravides, Jussuf from Morocco, was now called to their aid 
by the Moors. On the plain of Salacca the Christians were beaten in a.d. 
1086, but soon the victor turned his arms against his allies, and within 
six years all Moslem Spain was under his government. His son Ali, in a 
fearfully bloody battle at Ucles in a.d. 1107, cut down the flower of the 
Castilian nobility; this marked the summit of power reached by the 
Almoravides, and now their star began slowly to pale. Alfonso I. of 
Arragon, a.d. 1105-1134, conquered Saragossa in a.d. 1118, and other 
cities. Alfonso VII. of Castile, a.d. 112G-1157, whose power rose so high 
that most of the Christian princes in Spain acknowledged him as sove- 
reign, and that he had himself formally crowned emperor of Spain in a.d. 
1135, conducted a successful campaign against Andalusia, and in a.d. 1144 
forced his way down to the south coast of Granada. Alfonso I. of Portugal, 
drove the Moors out of Lisbon ; Eaimard, count of Barcelona, conquered 
Tortosa, etc. At the same time too the government of the Almoravides 
was being undermined in Africa. In a.d. 114G Morocco fell, and with it 
North-western Africa, into the hands of the Almohades under Abdelmou- 
men, while his lieutenant Abu Amram at the same time conquered Moslem 
Spain and Andalusia. Abdelmoumen's son Jussuf himself crossed over 
into Spain with an enormous force in order to extingviish the Christian 
rule there, but fell in a battle at Santarem against Alfonso I. of Portugal. 
His son Jacob avenged the disaster by the bloody battle of Alarcos in 
a.d. 1195, where 30,000 Castihans were left upon the field. When, not- 
withstanding the overthrow, the Christians a few years later endeavoured 
to retrieve their loss, Jacob's successor Mohammed descended upon 
Spain with half a million fanatical followers. The critical hour for 
Spain had now arrived. The Christians had won time to come to 
agreement among themselves. They fought with unexampled heroism on 
the plain of Tolosain a.d. 1212 under Alfonso VIII. of Castile. The battle- 
field was strewn with more than 200,000 bodies of the African fanatics. 
It was the death-knell of the rule of the Almohad in Spain. Notwithstand- 
ing the dissensions and hostilities that immediately broke out among the 
Christian princes, they conquered within twenty-five years the whole of 
Andalusia. The work of conquest was carried out mostly by Ferdinand 
III., the saint of Castile, a.d. 1217-1254, and Jacob I., the conqueror of 
Arragon, a.d. 1213-1276. Only in the southernmost district of Spain a 
remnant of the Moslem rule survived in the kingdom of Granada, founded 
in A.D. 1238 by the emir Mohammed Aben Alamar. Here for a time 
the glories of Arabic culture were revived in such a way as seemed like a 
magical restoration of the day of the Ommaiades. In consequence of the 
marriage in a.d. 1469 of Ferdinand of Arragon, who died in a.d. 1516, 
with Isabella of Castile, these two most important Christian empires were 
unite^l. Soon afterwards the empire of Granada came to an end. On 
2nd January, a.d. 1492, after an ignominious capitulation, the last khalif, 


Abu Abdilehi Boabdil, was driven out of the fair (Granada), and a few 
moments later the Castilian banner waved from the highest tower of the 
proud Alhambra. The pope bestowed upon the royal pair the title of 
Catholic monarchs. The Moors who refused to submit to baptism were 
expelled, but even the baptized, the so-called Moriscoes, proved so dan- 
gerous an element in the state that Philip III., inA.D. 1G09, ordered them 
to be all banished from his realm. They sought refuge mostly in Africa, 
and there went over openly again to Mohammedanism, which they had 
never at heart rejected.^ 

3. The Jews in Europe. — By trade, money lending and usury the 
Jews succeeded in obtaining almost sole possession of ready money, 
which brought them often great influence with the needy princes and 
nobles, but was also often the occasion of sore oppression and robbery, 
as well as the cause of popular hatred and violence. Whenever a coun- 
try was desolated by a plague the notion of well-poisoning by the Jews 
was renewed. It was told of them that they had stolen the consecrated 
sacramental bread in order to stick it through with needles, and Chris- 
tian children, that they might slaughter them at their passover festival. 
From time to time this popular rage exploded, and then thousands of 
Jews were ruthlessly murdered. The crusaders too often began their 
feats of valour on Christian soil by the slaughter of Jews. From the 
13th century in almost all lands they were compelled to wear an insult- 
ing badge, the so called Jews' hat, a yellow, funnel-shaped covering of the 
head, and a ring of red cloth on the breast, etc. They were also compelled 
to herd together in the cities in the so called Jewish quarter (Italian = 
Ghetto), which was often surrounded by a special wall. St. Bernard and 
several popes, Gregory VII., Alexander III., Innocent III., etc., interested 
themselves in them, refused to allow them to he violently persecuted, and 
pointed to their position as an incontrovertible proof of the truth of the 
gospel to all times. The German emperors also took the Jews under 
their special protection, for they classed them, after the exam^Dle of Ves- 
pasian and Titus, among the special servants of the imperial chamber, 
Servi camera nostrce speciales).^ In England and France they were treated 
as the mancipium of the crown. In Spain under the Moorish rule they 
had vastly increased in numbers, culture and wealth; also under the 
Christian kings they enjoyed for a long time special privileges, their own 

' Prescott, " History of Ferdinand and Isabella," good edition by Kirk, 
in 1 vol., London, 1886; Geddes, "History of Expulsion of Moriscoes," 
in "Miscell. Tracts," vol. i., London, 1714; McCrie, "Hist, of Prop, and 
Supj)r. of Eeformation in Spain," London, 1829; Ranke, "History of 
Reformation," transl. by Mrs. Austin, vol. iii., London, 18-47. 

" Milman, "History of the Jews." Book xxiv. 1, "The Feudal 


tribunals, freedom in the possession of land, etc., and obtained great 
influence as ministers of finance and administration, and also as astrolo- 
gers, physicians, apothecaries, etc. ; but by their usury and merciless greed 
drew forth more and more the bitter hatred of the people. Hence in the 
14th century in Spain also there arose times of sore oppression and per- 
secution, and attempts at conversion by force. And finally, in a.d. 1492, 
Ferdinand the Catholic drove more than 400,000 Jews out of Spain, and 
in the following year 100,000 out of Sicily. But even the baptized Jews, 
the so-called " New Christians," who were prohibited from removing, fell 
under the suspicion of secret attachment to the old religion, and many 
thousands of them became victims of the Inquisition. — Many apologetic 
and polemical treatises were composed for the purpose of discussion with 
the Jews and for their instruction, but like so many other formal dispu- 
tations they did not succeed in securing any good result, for the Jewish 
teachers were superior in learning, acuteness, and acquaintance with the 
exposition of Old Testament ScrijDtures, upon which in this discussion 
everything turned. But an interesting example of a Jew earnestly striv- 
ing after a knowledge of the truth and working himself up to a full con- 
viction of the divinity of Christianity and the church doctrine of that age, 
somewhere about a.d. 1150, is presented by the story told by himself of 
the conversion of Hermann afterwards a Premonstratensian monk in the 
monastery of Kappenberg in Westphalia. ^ But on the other hand there 
are also isolated examples of a passing over to Judaism as the result, it 
would seem, of genuine conviction. The first known example of this 
kind appears in a.d. 839, in the case of a deacon Boso, who after being 
circumcised received the name Eleazar, married a Jewess, and settled in 
Saracen Spain, where he manifested extraordinary zeal in making con- 
verts to his new religion. A second case of this sort is met with in the 
times of the Emperor Henry II., in the perversion of a priest Wecelinus. 
The narrator of this story gives expression to his horror in the words, 
Totus contremisco et horrejitihus pilis capitis terrore conciitior. Also the 
Judaising sects of the Pasagiaus in Lombardy during the 11th century 
(§ 108, 3) and the Russian Jewish sects of the 15th century (§73, 5) were 
probably composed for the most part of proselytes to Judaism.^ 

1 " De sua conversione," in Carpzov's edit, of the "PugioFidei" of 
Raimund Martini, § 103, 9. 

2 Milman, "History of the Jews," 3 vols., London, 18G3; bks. xxiv., 
xxvi. Prescott, " Ferdinand aiul Isabella," Pt. I., ch. xvii. 


II. — The Hierarchy, the Clergy, and the Monks. 

§ 9G. The Papacy and the Holy Eoman Empire in the 
Ger]Man Natioxalities.i 

The history of the papacy during this period represents it 
in its deepest shame and degradation. But after this state 
of matters was put an end to b}^ the founding of the Holy 
Roman Empire of German, nationalities, it sprang np again 
from its deep debasement, and reached the highest point of 
power and influence. With the German empire, to which it 
owed its salvation, it now carried on a life and death con- 
flict ; for it seemed that it was possible to escape enslave- 
ment under the temporal power of the emperor only by puc- 
ting the emperor under its spiritual power. In the conflict 
with the Hohenstaufens the struggle reached its climax. 
The papacy won a complete victory, but soon found that 
it could as little dispense with as endure the presence of 
a powerful empire. Eor as the destruction of the Caro- 
lingian empire had left it at the mercy of the factions of 
Italian nobles at the time when this period opens, so its 
victory over the German empire brought the papacy under 
the still more degrading bondage of French politics, as is 
seen in the beginning of the next period. It had during 
this transition time its most powerful props and advisers 
in the orders of Clugny and Camaldoli (§ 98, 1). It had a 
standing army in the mendicant orders, and the crusaders, 
besides the enthusiasm, which greatly strengthened the 
papal institution, did the further service of occupying and 
engrossing the attention of the princes. 

1 Bryce, " The Holy Roman Empire," London, 18G6. Q-Donogliur, 
" History of Church and Court of Rome, from Constantine to Present 
Time," 2 vols., London, IS-iG. Bower's " History of tLe Popes," vol. v. 


1. The Romisli Pornocracy and the Emperor Otto I, f A.D. 973.— Among 
the wild struggles of the Italian nobles which broke out after the 
Emperor Arnulf's departure (§82-8), the party of the Margrave Adal- 
bert of Tuscany gained the upperhand. His mistress Theodora, a well 
born and beautiful, ambitious and voluptuous Roman, wife of a Roman 
senator, as well as her like-minded daughters Marozia and Theodora, 
filled for half a century the chair of St. Peter with their paramours, sons 
and grandsons. These constituted the base and corrupt line of popes 
known as the pornocracy. Sergins III., a.d. 904-911, Marozia's para- 
mour, starts this disagraceful series. After the short pontificates of 
the two immediately following popes, Theodora, because Ravenna was 
inconveniently distant for the gratification of her lust, called John, the 
archbishop of that place, to the papal chair under the title of John X., 
A.D. 914-928. By means of a successful crusade which he led in person, 
he destroyed the remnant of Saracen robbers in Garigliano (§ 81 2), and 
crowned the Lombard king Bernard I., a.d. 916-924, as emperor. But 
when he attempted to break off his disgraceful relations with the woman 
who had advanced him, Marozia had him cast into prison and smothered 
with a pillow. The two following popes on whom she bestowed the 
tiara enjoyed it only a short time, for in a.d. 931 she raised her own son 
to the papal throne in the twentieth year of his age. His father was 
Pope Sergius, and he assumed the name of John XI. But her other son 
Alberich, who inherited the temporal kingdom from a.d. 932, restricted 
this pope's jurisdiction and that of his four successors to the ecclesiastical 
domain. After Alberich's death his son Octavianus, an arch-profligate 
and blasphemer, though only in his sixteenth year, united the papacy 
and the temporal power, and called himself by the name of John XII. a.d. 
955-963 — the first instance of a change of name on assuming the papal 
chair. He would sell anything for money. He made a boy of ten years 
a bishop ; he consecrated a deacon in a stable ; in hunting and dice 
playing he would invoke the favour of Jupiter and Venus ; in his orgies 
he would drink the devil's health, etc. Meantime things had reached a 
terrible pass in Germany. After the death of Louis the Child, the last of 
the German Carolingians, in a.d. 911, the Frankish duke Conrad I., a.d. 
911-918, was elected king of the Germans. Although vigorously sup- 
ported by the superior clergy, the Synod of Hohenaltheim in a.d. 915 
threatening the rebels with all the pains of hell, the struggle with the 
other dukes prevented the founding of a united German empire. His 
successor, the Saxon Henry I., a.d. 919-936, was the first to free himself 
from the faction of the clergy, and to grant to the dukes independent 
administration of internal affairs within their own domains. His greater 
son. Otto I., A.D. 936-973, by limiting the power of the dukes, by fight- 
ing and converting heathen Danes, Wends, Bohemians and Hungarians, 
by* decided action in the French troubles, by gathering around him a 


virtuous German clergy, who proved true to him and the empire, secured 
after long continued civil wars a power and reputation such as no ruler 
in the "West since Charlemagne had enjoyed. Called to the help of the 
Lombard nobles and the pope John XII. against the oppression and 
tyranny of Berengarius II., he conquered the kingdom of Italy, and was 
at Candlemas a.d. 962 crowned emperor by the pope in St. Peter's, after 
having really held this rank for thirty years. Thus was the Holy Roman 
Empire of German Nationalities founded, which continued for centuries 
to be the centre around which the history of the church and the world 
revolved. The new emperor confirmed to the pope all donations of 
previous emperors with the addition of certain cities, without detriment, . 
however, to the imperial suzerainty over the patrimony of St. Peter, and 
without lessening in any degree the imperial privileges maintained by 
Charlemagne. The Privilegium Ottonis, still preserved in the papal 
archives, and claiming to be an authentic document, was till quite re- 
cently kept secret from all impartial and capable investigators, so that 
the suspicion of its spuriousness had come to be regarded as almost a 
certainty. Under Leo XIII., however, permission was given to a capable 
Protestant scholar. Prof. Sickel of Vienna, to make a photographic fac- 
simile of the document, the result of which was that he became con- 
vinced that the document was not the original but a contemporary 
official duplicate, a literally faithful transcript on purple parchment with 
letters of gold for solemn deposition in the grave of St. Peter. Its first 
part describes the donations of the emperor, the second the obligations 
of the pope in accordance with the Constitutio Momana, § 82-4. — But 
scarcely had Otto left Kome than the pope, breaking his oath, conspired 
with his enemies, endeavoured to rouse the Byzantines and heathen 
"Hungarians against him, and opened the gates of Kome to Adalbert the 
son of Berengarius. Otto hastened back, deposed the pope at the synod 
of Kome in a.d. 963, on charges of incest, perjury, murder, blasphemy, 
etc., and made the Romans swear by the bones of Peter never again to 
elect and consecrate a pope, without having the emperor's permission 
and confirmation. Soon after the emperor's departure, however, the 
newly elected pope Leo VIII., a.d. 963-965, had to betake himself to 
flight. John XII. returned again to Rome, excommunicated his rival 
pope, and took cruel vengeance upon the partisans of the emperor. On 
his death soon afterwards, in a.d. 964, the Romans elected Benedict V 
as his successor; but he, when the emperor conquered Kome after a 
stubborn resistance, was obliged to submit to humiliating terms. Leo 
VIII. had in John XIII., a.d. 965-972, a virtuous and worthy successor. 
A new revolt of the Romans led soon after his election to his imprison- 
ment ; but he succeeded in making his escape in a.d. 966. Otto now for 
the third time crossed the Alps, passed relentlessly severe sentences 
upon the guilty, and had his son, now thirteen years of age, crowned 
in Rome as Otto II., a.d. 967. 


2. The Times of Otto II., III., A.D. 973-1002.— After the death of 
Otto I., since Otto II., a.d. 973-98.3, was restrained from a Roman cam- 
paign in consequence of Cisalpine troubles, the nobles' faction under 
Crescentius, son of Pope John X. and the younger Theodora, again won 
the upperhand. This party had in a.d. 974 overthrown Pope Benedict 
VI., A.D. 972-974, appointed by Otto I., and cast him into prison. But 
their own anti-pope Boniface VII. could not maintain his position, 
and fled with the treasures of St. Peter to Constantinople. By means 
of a compromise of parties Benedict VII., a.d. 974-988, was now raised 
to the papal chair and held possession in spite of manifold opposition, 
till the arrival of the young emperor in Italy in a.d. 980 obtained for 
him greater security. Otto II. again restored the imperial prestige in 
Rome in a.d. 981, but in a.d. 982 he suffered a complete defeat at the 
hand of the Saracens. He died in the following year at Rome, after 
he had in John XIV., a.d. 988-984, secured the appointment of a pope 
faithful to the empire. His son Otto III., three years old, was at 
the council of state, held at Verona, by the princes of Germany and 
Italy, there gathered together, elected king of both kingdoms. During 
the German civil wars under the regency of the Queen-mother Theo- 
phania, a Byzantine princess, and the able Archbishop Willigis, of 
Mainz, wlio, through his firmness and penetration saved the crown for 
the royal child Otto III., a.d. 988-1002, and maintained the existence 
and integrity of the German empire, Rome and the papacy fell again 
under the domination of the nobles, at whose head now stood the 
younger Crescentius, a son of the above mentioned chief of the same 
name. In a.d. 984 the anti-pope Boniface VII., who had fled to Con- 
stantinople, made his appearance in Rome, won a following by Greek 
gold, got possession of John XIV. and had him cast into prison, but 
was himself soon afterwards murdered. The new pope John XV., a.d. 
985-996, who was thoroughly venal, was an obedient topi of the 
tyranny of Crescentius, which, however, soon became so intolerable to 
him, that he yearned for the restoration of imperial rule under Otto III. 
At this same time great danger threatened the imperial authority from 
France. Hugh Capet had, after the death of the last Carolingian, 
Louis v., in a.d. 987, taken possession for himself of the French crown. 
He insisted upon John XV. deposing the archbishop Arnulf of Rheims, 
who had opened the gates of Rheims to his uncle Charles of Lorraine, 
the brother of Louis V.'s father. The pope, who was then dependent 
upon German power, hesitated. Hugh then had Arnulf deposed at a 
synod at Rheims in a.d. 921, and put in his place Gerbert, the greatest 
scholar (§ 100, 2) and statesman of that age. The council quite openly 
declared the whole French church to be free from Rome, whose bishops 
for a hundred years had been steeped in the most profound moral 
corruption, and had fallen into the most disgraceful servitude, and 


Gerbert issued a confession of faith in wliich celibacy and fasting were 
repudiated, and only the first four oecumenical councils were acknow- 
ledged. But the plan was shattered, not so much through the ap- 
parently fruitless opposition of the pope as through the reaction of the 
high church party of Clugny and the popular esteem in which that 
party was held. Gerbert could not maintain his position, and was 
heartily glad when he could shake the dust of Eheims off his feet 
by accepting an honourable call of the young emperor, Otto III., who 
in A.D. 997 opened new paths for his ambition by inviting the celebrated 
scholar to be with him as his classical tutor. Hugh's successor Robert 
reinstated Arnulf in the see of Rheims. John XV. called in Otto III. 
to his help against the intolerable oppression of the younger Cres- 
centius, but died before his arrival in a.d. 996. Otto directed the choice 
of his cousin Bruno, twenty-four years of age, the first German pope, 
who assumed the name of Gregory V., a.d. 996-999, and by him he 
was crowned emperor in Rome. Gregory was a man of an energetic, 
almost obstinate character, thoroughly in sympathy with the views of 
the monks of Clugny. The emperor ha\ing soon returned home, 
Crescentius violated his oath and made himself again master of Rome. 
Gregory fled to Pavia, where he held a synod in a.d. 997, which thun- 
dered an anathema against the disturber of the Roman church. Mean- 
while Crescentius raised to the papal throne the archbishop John of 
Piacenza, formerly Greek tutor to Otto IH., under the title of John XVI. 
It was not till late in autumn of that year that the emperor could 
hasten to the help of his injured cousin. He then executed a fearfully 
severe sentence upon the tyrant and his pope. The former was be- 
headed, and his corpse dragged by the feet through the streets and 
then hung upon a gallows ; the latter, whom the soldiers had cruelly 
deprived of his ears, tongue, and nose, was led through the streets 
seated backward on an ass, with the tail tied in his hands for reins.— 
From Pavia Gregory had issued a command to Robert, the French 
king, to put away his queen Bertha, who was related to him in the 
fourth degree, on pain of excommunication. But he died a suspiciously 
sudden death before he could bring down the pride of this king, which, 
however, his successor accomplished. 

3. Otto III. now raised to the papal chair his teacher Gerbert, whom 
he had previously made Archbishop of Ravenna, under the title of 
Sylvester II., a.d. 999-1003. Already in Ravenna had Gerbert's ecclesi- 
astical policy been changed for the high church views of his former 
opponents, and as pope he developed an activity which marks him out 
as the worthy follower of his predecessor and the precursor of a yet 
greater Gregory (VII.). He energetically contended against simony, 
that special canker of the church, and by sending the ring and staff to his 
former opponent, Arnulf, made the first effort to assert the papal claim 


to the exclusive investiture of bishops. But he had previously, as 
tutor of Otto, by flattering his vanity, inspired the imaginative, high- 
spirited youth with the ideal of a restoration of the ancient glory of 
Rome and its emperors exercising universal sway. And just with this 
view had Otto raised him to the papal chair in order that he might 
have his help. The pope did not venture openly to withdraw from 
this understanding, for in the condition of Italy at that time in a 
struggle with the emperor, the victory would be his in the first instance, 
and that would be the destruction of the papal chair. So there was 
nothing for it but by clever tacking in spite of contrary winds of imperial 
policy, to make the ship of the church hold on as far as possible in the 
high church course and surround the emperor by a network of craft. 
The phantom of a Benovatio imperii Romaiii with the mummified form 
of the Byzantine court ceremonial and the vain parade of a title was 
called into being. On a pilgrimage to the grave of his saintly friend 
Adalbert in Gnesen (§ 83, 13) the emperor emancipated the Polish 
church from the German metropolitanate by raising its see into an arch- 
bishopric. He also, in a.d. 1000, released the Polish duke Boleslaw 
Chrobry (§ 98, 7), the most dangerous enemy of Germany, who schemed 
the formation of a great Slavic empire, from his fealty as a vassal of 
the German empire, enlisting him instead as a "friend and confederate 
of the Roman people" in his new fantastic universal empire. In the 
same year, however, Sylvester, in the exercise of papal sovereignty, 
conferred the royal crown on Stephen the saint of Hungary (§ 93, 8), 
appointed the payment by him of a yearly tribute to the papal vicar 
with ecclesiastical authority over his country, and made that land 
ecclesiastically independent of Passau and Salzburg by founding a 
separate metropolitanate at Gran. Though Otto let himself be led in 
the hierarchical leading strings by his papal friend, he yet made it abun- 
dantly evident by bestowing upon his favourite pope eight counties of 
the States of the Church, that he regarded these as merely a free gift 
of imperial favour. He also lashed violently the extravagances as 
well as the greed of the popes, and declared that the donation of Con- 
stantine was a pure fabrication (§ 87, 4). The emperor, however, had 
meanwhile thoroughly estranged his German subjects and the German 
clergy by his un-German temperament. The German princes denounced 
him as a traitor to the German empire. Soon all Italy, even the much 
fondled Rome, rose in open revolt. Only an early death a.d. 1002 
saved the unhappy youth of twenty-two years of age from the most 
terrible humiliation. With him, too, the star of the pope's fortunes 
went down. He died not long after in a.d. 1003, and left in the popu- 
lar mind the reputation of a dealer in the black art, who owed his 
learning and the success of his hierarchical career to a compact with 
the devil. 


4. From Henry II. to the Synod at Sutri, A.D. 1002-1046.— After the 
death of Otto III,, Henry II., a.d. 1002-1024, previously duke of Bavaria, 
a great-grandson of Henry I. and as such the last scion of the Saxon 
line, obtained the German crown — a ruler who proved one of the ablest 
that ever occupied that throne. A bigoted pietist and under the power of 
the priests, although pious-hearted according to the spirit of the times 
and strongly attached to the church, and seeking in the bishops sup- 
ports of the empire against the relaxing influence of the temporal 
princes, yet no other German emperor ruled over the church to the 
same extent that he did, and no one ventured so far as he did to 
impress strongly upon the church, by the most extensive appropriation 
of ecclesiastical property, especially of rich monasteries, that this was 
the shortest and surest way of bringing about a much needed refor- 
mation. Meanwhile in Kome, after the death of Otto III., Joannes 
Crescentius, the son of Crescentius II., who was beheaded by order of 
Otto, assumed the government, and set upon the chair of Peter crea- 
tures of his own, John XVII., XVIII., and Sergius IV. But as he and 
his last elected pope died soon after one another in a.d, 1012, the long 
subjected faction of the Tusculan counts, successors of Alberich, came 
to the front again, and chose as pope a scion of one of their own 
families, Benedict VIII., a,d. 1012-1024, The anti-pope Gregory, chosen 
by the Crescentians, was obliged to retire from the field. He sought 
protection from Henry II. But this monarch came to an understanding 
with the incomparably nobler and abler Benedict, received from him 
for himself and his Queen Cunigunda, subsequently canonized by 
Innocent III., the imperial crown, in a.d. 1014, and continued ever 
after to maintain excellent relations with him. These two, the em- 
peror and the pope, were on friendly terms with the monks of Clugny. 
They both acknowledged the need of a thorough reformation of the 
church, and both carried it out so far as this could be done by the 
influence and example of their own personal conduct, disposition, and 
character. But the pope had so much to do fighting the Crescentians, 
then the Greeks and Saracens in Italy, and the emperor in quelling in- 
ternal troubles in his empire and repelling foreign invasions, that it was 
only toward the close of their hves that they could take any very decided 
action. The pope made the first move, for at the Synod of Pavia in 
a.d. 1018, he excommunicated all married priests and those living in 
concubinage, and sentenced their children to slavery. The emperor 
entertained a yet more ambitious scheme. He wished to summon a 
Western oecumenical council at Pavia, and there to engage upon the re- 
formation of the whole church of the West. But the death of the pope 
in A.D. 1024, which was followed in a few months by the death of the 
emperor, prevented the carrying out of this plan. After the death of 
the childless Henrv II., Ccnrad II., a.d. 1024-1039, the founder of the 


Franconian or Salic dynasty, ascended the German throne. To him the 
empire was indebted for great internal reforms and a great extension of 
power, but he gave no attention to the carrying out of his predecessor's 
plans of ecclesiastical reformation. Still less, however, was anything of 
the kind to be looked for from the popes of that period. Benedict VIII. 
was succeeded by his brother Eomanus, under the name of John XIX., 
A.D. 1024-1033, as void of character and noble sentiments (§ 67, 2) as his 
predecessor had been distinguished. When he died, Count Alberich of 
Tusculum was able by means of presents and promises to get the Romans 
to elect his son Theophylact, who, though only twelve years old, was 
already practised in the basest vice. He took the name of Benedict IX., 
A.D. 1033-1048, and disgraced the papal chair with the most shameless 
profligacy. The state of matters became better under Conrad's son, 
Henry III., a.d. 1039-1056, who strove after the founding of a universal 
monarchy in the sense of Charlemagne, and by a powerful and able 
government he came nearer reaching this end than any of the German 
emperors. He was at the same time inspired with a zeal for the 
reformation of the church such as none of his predecessors or successors, 
with the exception of Henry II., ever showed. Benedict IX. was, in 
A.D. 1044, for the second time driven out by the Romans. They now 
sold the tiara to Sylvester III., who three months after was driven 
out by Benedict. This pope now fell in love with his beautiful cousin, 
daughter of a Tusculan count, and formed the bold resolve to marry her. 
But the father of the lady refused his consent so long as he was pope. 
Benedict now sold the papal chair for a thousand pounds of silver to 
tbe archdeacon Joannes Gratian. This man, a pious simple individual, 
in order to save the chair of St. Peter from utter overthrow, took upon 
himself the disgrace of simony at the bidding of his friends of Clugny, 
among whom a young Roman monk called Hildebrand, son of poor 
parents of Soaua, in Tuscany, was already most conspicuous. The new 
pope assumed the name of Gregory VI., a.d. 1044-1046. He wanted 
the talents necessary for the hard task he had undertaken. Benedict 
having failed in carrying out his matrimonial plans, again claimed 
to be pope, as did also Sylvester. Thus Rome had at one and the same 
time, three popes, and all three were publicly known to be simonists. 
The Clugny party cast off their protege Gregory, and called in the 
German emperor as saviour of the church. Henry came and had all the 
the three popes deposed at the Synod at Sutri, a.d. 1046. The Romans 
gave to him the right of making a new appointment. It fell upon 
Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, who took the name of Clement II., and 
crowned the king emj^eror on Christmas, a.d. 1040. The Romans were 
so delighted at having order restored in the city, that they gave over to 
the emperor with the rank of patrician the government of Rome and the 
right of papal election for all time, and swore never to consecrate a 


pope without the emperor's concurrence. Henry took the ex-pope 
Grregory along with him, back to Germany, where he died in exile, at 
Cologne. Hildebrand, his chaplain, had accompanied him thither, and 
after his death retired into the monastery of Clugny. 

5. Henry III. and his German Popes, A.D. 1046-1057.— With Clement 
III., 1046-1047, begins a whole series of able German popes, who, 
elected by Henry III., wrought under his protection powerfully and 
successfully for the reform of the church. All interested in the reforma- 
tion, the brethren of Clugny, as well as the disciples of Romuald and 
the settlers in Vallombrosa (§ 98, 1), agreed that at the root of all the 
corruption of the church of that age were simony, or obtaining spiri- 
tual offices by purchase or bribery (Acts viii. 19), and Nicolaitanism 
(§ 27, 8), under which name were included all fleshly lusts of the 
clergy, marriage as well as concubinage and unnatural vices. These 
two were, especially in Italy, so widely spread, that scarcely a priest 
was to be found who had not been guilty of both. Clement II., in the 
emperor's presence, at a synod in Rome in a.d. 1017, began the battle 
against simony. But he died before the end of the year, probably by 
poison. While Roman envoys presented themselves at the German 
court about the election of a new pope, Benedict IX., supported by 
the Tusculan party, again laid claim to the papal chair, and the 
emperor had to utter the severest threats before the man of his choice, 
Poppo, bishop of Brixen, was allowed to occupy the papal chair as 
Damasus II. Twenty-three days afterwards, however, he was a corpse. 
This cooled the ardour of German bishops for election to so dangerous 
a position, and only after long persuasion Bishop Bruno of Toul, the 
emperor's cousin and a zealous friend of Clugny, accepted the ap- 
pointment, on the condition that it should have the approval of the 
people and clergy of Rome, which, as was to be expected, was given 
with acclamation. He ascended the papal throne as Leo IX., a.d. 1049- 
1054. According to a later story conceived in the interests of Hilde- 
brandism, Bruno is said not only to have made his definite acceptance 
of the imperial call dependent upon the supplementary free election of 
people and clergy of Rome, but also to have been prevailed upon by 
Hildebrand, who by his own request accompanied him, to lay aside his 
papal ornaments, to continue his journey in pilgrim garb, and to make 
his entrance into the eternal city barefoot, so that the necessary 
sanction of a formal canonical election might be given to the imperial 
nomination. Leo found the papal treasures emptied to the last coin 
and robbed of all its territorial revenues by the nobles. But Hilde- 
brand was his minister of finance, and soon improved the condition of 
his exchequer. Leo now displayed an unexampled activity in church 
reform and the purifying of the papacy. No pope travelled about 
so much as he, none held as many synods in the most distant places 



and various lands. The uprooting of simony was in all cases the main 
point in their decrees. By bonds of gratitude and relationship, but 
above all of common interests, he was attached to the German emperor. 
He could not therefore think of emancipating the papacy from the 
imperial suzerainty. Practically Leo succeeded in clearing the Augean 
stable of the Eoman clergy, and filled vacancies with virtuous men 
brought from far and near. In order to chastise the Normans, put by him 
under ban because of their rapacity, he himself took the field in a.d. 
1053, when the emperor refused to do so, but was taken prisoner after 
his army had been annihilated, and only succeeded, after he had 
removed the excommunication, in getting them to kiss his feet with 
the most profound devotion. He demanded from the Greek emperor 
full restitution of the donation of Constantino, so far as this was still in 
the possession of the Byzantines, and his envoys at Constantinople 
rendered the split between the Eastern and Western churches irreparable 
(§ 67, 3). Leo died in a.d. 1051, the only pope for centuries whom the 
church honours as a saint. A Roman embassy called upon the emperor 
to nominate a new pope. He fixed upon Gebhardt, bishop of Eichstadt, 
who now ascended the papal throne as Victor II., a.d. 1055-1057. 
Here again monkish tales have transformed a single matter of fact 
into a romance in the interests of their own party. The Romans wished 
Hildebrand himself for their pope, but he was unwilling yet to assume 
such a responsibility. He put himself, however, at the head of an 
embassy which convinced the emperor of the sinfulness of his former 
interferences in the papal elections, and persuaded him to set aside the 
tyrannical power of his patrician's rank and to resign to the clergy and 
people their old electoral rights. As candidate for this election, Hilde- 
brand himself chose bishop Gebhardt, the most trusted counsellor of 
the emperor. After long opposition Henry's consent was won to this 
candidature, he even urged the bisho^D to accept it, who at last submitted 
with the words : " Now so do I surrender myself to St. Peter, soul and 
body, but only on the condition that you also yield to him what belongs 
to him." The latter, however, seems not mere beating of the air, for the 
emperor restored to the newly elected pope the patrimony of Peter in 
the widest extent, and bestowed on him besides the governorship of all 
Italy. — Henry died in a.d. 1056, after he had appointed his queen Agnes 
to the regency, and had recommended her to the counsel and good 
offices of the pope. But the pope's days were already numbered. He 
died in a.d. 1057. Hildebrand could not boast of having dominated him, 
but the position of the powerful monk of Clugny under him had become 
one of great importance. 

6. The Papacy under the Control of Hildebrand, A.D. 1057-1078.— After 
Victor's death the cardinals without paying any regard to the imperial 
right, immediately elected Cardinal Frederick of Lorraine, at that 


time abbot of Monte Cassino, and Hildebrancl travelled to Germany in 
order to obtain the post factum approval of the empress. Stephen IX., 
A.D. 1057-1058, for so Frederick styled himself, died before Hildebrand's 
return. The Tusculan party took advantage of his absence to put 
forward as pope a partisan of their own, Benedict X., a.d. 1058. But 
an embassy of Hildebrand's to the empress secured the succession to 
bishop Gerhard of Florence. Benedict was obliged to withdraw, and 
Gerhard ascended the papal throne as Nicholas II., a.d. 1058-1061. 
With him begins the full development of Hildebrand's greatness, and 
from this time, a.d. 1059, when he became archdeacon of Home, till he 
himself mounted the papal chair, he was the moving spirit of the 
Eomish hierarchy. By his powerful genius in spite of all hindrances 
he raised the papacy and the church to a height of power and glory 
never attained unto before. He thus wrought on, systematically, firmly, 
and irresistibly advancing toward a complete reformation in ecclesias- 
tical polity. Absolute freedom of the church from the power and in- 
fluence of the state, and in order to attain this and make it sure, the 
dominion of the church over the state, papal elections independent 
of any sort of temporal influence, the complete uprooting of all 
simoniacal practices, unrelenting strictness in dealing with the im- 
morality of the clergy, invariable enforcement of the law of celibacy, 
as the most powerful means of emancipating the clergy from the 
world and the state, filling the sacred offices with the most vir- 
tuous and capable men, were some of the noble aims and achieve- 
ments of this reformation. Hildebrand sought the necessary secular 
protection and aid for the carrying out of his plans among the 
Normans. Nicholas II., on the basis of the donation of Constantine, 
gave as a fief to their leader, Eobert Guiscard (§ 95, 1), the lordship of 
Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily, out of which the Saracens had yet to be 
expelled, and exacted from him the oath of a vassal, by which he bound 
himself to pay a yearly tribute, to protect the papal chair against all 
encroachments of its privileges, and above all to maintain the right of 
papal elections by the ^^meliores cardinales.'" Yet again, Nicholas, when, 
at a later period, by the help of the Normans, he had broken the power 
of the Tusculan nobles, issued a decree at a Lateran synod at Eome, in 
A.D. 1059, by which papal elections (§ 82, 4) were regulated anew. Of 
the two extant recensions of this decree, which are distinguished as the 
papal and the imperial, the former is now universally acknowledged to 
be the more authentic form. According to it the election lies exclu- 
sively with the Roman cardinal priests (§ 97, 1) ; to the rest of the clergy 
as to the people there is left only the right of acclamation, that brought 
no advantage, and to the emperor, according to Boichorst, the right of 
concurrence after the election and investiture, according to Granert, the 
right of veto before the election. This decree, and not less the league 


with the NormaDS, were open slights to the imperial claims upon Italy 
and the papal chair. The empress therefore convened about Easter, a.d. 

1061, a council of German bishops, at which Nicholas was deposed, and 
all his decisions were annulled. Soon after the pope died. The Tuscu- 
lan party, now joined with the Germans under the Lombard chancellor 
Wibert, asked a new pope from the emj)ress. At the Council of Basel 
in A.D. 1061, bishop Cadalus of Parma was appointed. He assumed 
the name of Honorius II., a.d. 1061-1072. But Hildebrand had 
already five weeks earlier in concert with the Margravine Beatrice of 
Canossa, wholly on his own responsibility, chosen bishop Anselm of 
Lucca, and had him consecrated as Alexander II. a.d. 1061-1073. 
Honorius advanced to Eome, accompanied by Wibert, and frequently in 
bloody conflicts conquered the party of his opponent. Duke Godfrey 
the Bearded of Lorraine, the husband of Beatrice, now appeared as 
mediator. He made both popes retire to their dioceses and gave to the 
empress the decision of the controversy. But meanwhile a catastrophe 
occurred in Germany that led to the most important results. Arch- 
bishop Anno of Cologne, standing at the head of a rising of the princes, 
decoyed the young king of twelve years of age on board a ship at 
Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, and took him to Cologne. The regency and 
the conduct of government were now transferred to the German bishoj)s 
collectively, but lay practically in the hands of Anno, who meanwhile, 
however, since a.d. 1063, found himself obliged to share the power with 
Archbishop Adalbert of Bremen. At a council held at Augsburg in a.d. 

1062, Alexander was acknowledged as the true pope, but Honorius by 
no means resigned his claims. With a small army he advanced upon 
Rome in a.d. 1064, seized fort Leo, which had been built and fortified 
by Leo IV. for defence against the Saracens, entrenched himself in the 
castle of St. Angelo, and repeatedly routed his opponent's forces. But 
Hildebrand reminded the Normans of their oath of fealty. At a council 
held at Mantua in a.d. 1064 (or 1067 ?) Alexander was once again 
acknowledged, and Honorius, whose party the council sought in vain 
to break up by force of arms, was again deposed. The proud, ambitious 
and self-seeking priest of Cologne had meanwhile been obliged to trans- 
fer to his northern colleague, Adalbert of Bremen, the further education 
and training of the young king, who, though only fifteen years old was 
now proclaimed of age in a.d. 106.5, as Henry IV., a.d. 1056-1106. If 
the bishop of Cologne injured the disposition of the royal youth by 
his excessive harshness and severity, the bishop of Bremen did him 
irreparable damage by allowing him unrestrained indulgence in his evil 

7. Gregory VII., A.D. 1073-1085.— Hildebrand had at last brought the 
papacy to such a height of power that he was able now to put the finish- 
ing stroke to his own work in his own name, and so now he mounted 


the chair of the chief of the apostles, as Gregory VII., elected and 
enthroned by a disorderly mob. The Lombard and German bishops 
appealed to the emperor to have the election declared invalid. But he 
being on all sides threatened with wars and revolution, thought it 
advisable to forego the assertion of his rights and to win the favour 
of the pope by a letter full of devotion and humility. At the Roman 
Fast Synod of a.d. 1074, Gregory renewed the old law of celibacy and 
rendered it more strict, deposed all married priests or those who got 
office through simony, and pronounced their priestly acts invaUd. The 
lower clergy, who were generally married, violently opposed the measure, 
but Gregory's stronger will prevailed. Papal legates visited all lands, 
and, supported by the people, insisted upon the strict observance of the 
papal decree. At the next fast synod in a.d. 1075, the pope began the 
contest against the usual investiture of the higher clergy by the temporal 
princes, with ring and staff as symbols of episcopal office. Whoever 
should accept ecclesiastical office from the hand of a layman was to be 
deposed, and any potentate who should give investiture should be put 
under the ban of the church. Here too he thundered his anathema 
against the counsellors of Henry who should meanwhile prove guilty of 
the sale of ecclesiastical offices. Henry, whose hands were fully occu- 
pied with the rebellious Saxons, at first dismissed his counsellors, but 
after the close of the wars he reinstated them, and quite ignored the 
papal prohibition of investiture. Gregory had for a while quite enough 
to do in Italy. Cencius, the head of the nobles opposed to reform, fell 
upon him on Christmas, a.d. 1075, during Divine service, and made him 
prisoner, but the Piomans rescued him, and Cencius had to take to 
flight. On New Year's Day, a.d. 1076, there appeared at the royal resi- 
dence at Goslar a papal embassy which threatened the king with 
excommunication and deposition should he not immediately break off 
all relations with the counsellors under the ban, and reform his own 
infamous life. The king burst out in furious rage. He heaped in- 
sults upon the legates, and at the Synod of Worms, on 24th January, 
had the pope formally deposed as a perjured usurper of the papal chair, 
a tyrant, an adulterer and a sorcerer. The Lombard bishops, too, gave 
their consent to this decree (§ 97, 5). At the next Roman Fast Synod 
on 22nd February, the pope placed all bishops who had taken part 
in thesC' proceedings under ban, and at the same time solemnly excom- 
municated and deposed the king, and released all his subjects from the 
obligation of their oaths of allegiance. Moreover he had the king's 
ambassadors, whose life he had preserved from the fury of those present 
at the meeting of synod by his personal interference, cast into prison, 
and then in the most contemptuous manner led through the streets. 
The papal ban made a deep impression upon the German people and 
princes. One bishop after another gave in, the Saxons raised a new 


revolt, and at the princes' conference at Tribur, in October, a.d. 1076, the 
pope was invited to come personally to Augsburg on 2nd February, to 
meet and confer with the princes about the affairs of the king. It was 
resolved that if Henry did not succeed by 22nd February, the first 
anniversary of the ban, to get it removed, he should for ever forfeit the 
crown, but that meanwhile he should reside at Spires and continue in 
the exercise of all royal prerogatives. 

8. It was for the pope's advantage to have the business settled upon 
German soil with the greatest possible publicity. Therefore he scorn- 
fully refused the humble petition of the king to send him absolution 
from Eome, and hastened his preparations for travelling to Augsburg. 
But Henry went forth to meet him on the way. Shortly before Christ- 
mas he escaped from Spires with his wife and child, and in spite of a 
severe winter crossed Mount Cenis. The Lombards protected him in 
defying the pretensions of the pope. But Henry's whole attention was 
now directed to overturning the machinations of the hostile German 
princes. So he suddenly appeared at Canossa, where Gregory was 
staying with the Margravine Matilda, daughter of Beatrice, a princess 
enthusiastically attached to him and his ideal. This meeting was un- 
expected and undesired by the pope. There during the cold winter days, 
from 25th to 27th January, a.d. 1077, stood the son of Henry III. bare- 
foot in the courtyard of the castle of Canossa, wearing a sackcloth shirt, 
fasting all day and supplicating access to the proud monk. With inflexi- 
ble severity the pope refused, until at last the tears, entreaties, and 
reproaches of the margravine overcame his obduracy. Henry promised 
to submit himself to the future judgment of the pope in regard to his 
reconciliation with the German princes, and was absolved. Neverthe- 
less the princes at the Assembly at Forcheim in March, with the con- 
currence of the papal legate, elected a new king in the person of 
Rudolph of Swabia, Henry's brother-in-law. Roused to fury, Henry 
now hastened back to Germany, where soon he gathered round him a 
great army. Notwithstanding all pressure brought to bear upon him, 
Gregory maintained for three years a position of neutrality, but at last, 
in A.D. 1080, at the Roman Fast Synod, where the envoys of the contend- 
ing kings presented their complaints, he renewed the excommunication 
and deposition of Henry. Then the bishops of Henry's party immedi- 
ately met at Brixen, and hurled the anathema and pronounced sentence 
of deposition against Gregory, and elected as anti-pope Wibert, formerly 
chancellor, then archbishop of Ravenna, who assumed the title of 
Clement III., a.d. 1080-1100. After the death of Rudolph in battle, 
at Merseburg, in a.d. 1080, Henry marched across the Alps and appeared 
at Pentecost before the gates of Rome, which were opened to him after 
a three years' siege. Clement III. then at Easter, a.d. 1084, set upon 
him and his queen the in^perial crown. Gregory had withdrawn to 


the Castle of St. Angelo. Henry, however, was compelled by the 
appearance of a new rival for the crown, Henry, Count of Luxemburg, 
to return to Germany, and Robert Guiscard, the Norman duke, hastened 
from the south to deliver the pope, which he accomplished only after 
Rome had been fearfully devastated. Gregory died in the following year, 
A.D. 1085, at Salerno. Gregory VII. also took the field against the 
dissolute and prodigal king of France, Philip I., and threatened him, 
because of simony, with interdict and deposition. His success here, 
however, was comparatively small. Philip avowedly submitted to the 
papal decree, but did not in the least alter his conduct, and Gregory 
felt that it was not prudent to push matters to an extremity. He 
showed himself more indulgent toward the powerful William the Con- 
queror of England, although this prince ruled the church of his dominions 
with an iron hand, pronounced all church property to be freehold, and 
was scarcely less guilty of simony than the kings of Germany and 
France. Yet the pope himself, who hoped to secure the aid of his arms 
against Henry IV., and sought therefore to dazzle him with the prospect 
of the imperial throne, winked at his delinqueucies, and loaded him 
with expressions of his good-will. The primate of England, too, the 
powerful Conqueror's right-hand supporter, Lanfranc of Canterbury, 
who bore a grudge against Gregory because of his patronage of the 
heretic Berengarius (§ 101, 2), showed no special zeal for the reforms 
advocated by the pope. At a synod held at Winchester in a.d. 1076, the 
law of celibacy was enforced, with this limitation, however, that those 
of the secular clergy who were already married should not be required to 
put away their wives, but no further marriages among them were to be 

9. The Central Idea in Gregory's Policy was the establishment of a uni- 
versal theocracy, with the pope as its one visible head, the representative 
of Christ upon earth, who as such stands over the powers of the world. 
Alongside of it, indeed, the royal authority was to stand independently 
as one ordained of God, but it was to confine itself strictly to temporal 
affairs, and to be directed by the pope in regard to whatever might be 
partly within and partly without these lines. All states bearing the 
Christian name were to be bound together as members of one body in 
the great papal theocracy which had superior to it only God and His 
law. The princes must receive consecration and Divine sanction from 
the spiritual power ; they are " by the grace of God," not immediately, 
however, but only mediately, the church as the middle term stands 
between them and God. The pope is their arbiter and highest liege 
lord, whose decisions they are under obligation unconditionally to obey. 

^ For Lanfranc, see Hook, " Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury," vol, 
ji. London, ISGl. 


Royalty stands related to the papacy as the moon to the suu, from which 
she receives her light and warmth. The church, which lends to the power 
of the world her Divine authority, can also withdraw it again when it 
is being misused. When this is done, the obligation of subjects to obey 
also ceases. Gregory began this gigantic work, not so much to raise 
himself personally to the utmost pinnacle of power, but rather to save 
the church from destruction. He certainly was not free from ambition 
and the lust of ruling, but with him higher than all personal interests 
was the idea of the high vocation of the church, and to the realizing of it 
he enthusiastically devoted all the energies of his life. On the other 
hand, he cannot escape the reproach of having striven with carnal 
weapons for what he called a spiritual victory, of having meted out 
unequal measures, where his interests demanded it, in the exercise of 
his assumed function as judge of kings and princes, and of having 
occupied bimself more with political schemes and intrigues than with 
the ministry of the church of Christ. His whole career shows him to 
have been a man of great self-reliance, yet, on the other hand, he was 
able to preserve the consciousness of the poor sinner who seeks and 
finds salvation only in the mercy of Christ. The strict morality of his 
life has been admitted even by his bitterest foes. Not infrequently too 
did he show himself in advance of his time in humanity and liberality 
of sentiment, as e.g. in the Berengarian controversy (§ 101, 2), and in 
his decided disapproval of the prosecution of witches and sorcerers.^ 

10. Victor III. and Urban II., A.D. 1086-1099.— Gregory VII. was 
succeeded by the talented abbot of Monte Cassino, Desiderius, under the 
title of Victor III., a.d. 1086-1087. Only after great pressure was brought 
to bear upon him did he consent to leave the cloister, which under his 
rule had flourished in a remarkable manner ; but now aged and sickly, 
he only enjoyed the pontificate for sixteen months. His successor was 
bishop Odo, of Ostia, a Frenchman by birth, and a member of the 
Clugny brotherhood, who took the name of Urban II., a.d. 1088-1099. 
For a long time he was obliged to give up Rome to the party of the 
imperial anti-pope. But the enthusiasm with which the idea of res- 
cuing the Holy Sepulchre was taken up, which he proposed to Western 
Christendom at the Council of Clermont, in a.d. 1095 (§ 94), secured for 
him the highest position in his time, and made him strong enough 
to withstand the opposition of Philip I., king of France, whom he had 
put under ban at Clermont, on account of his aduiterous connection 

^ Bowden, " Life and Pontificate of Gregory VII.," 2 vols,, London, 
1840. Villemain, "Life of Gregory VII.," transl. by Brockley, 2 vols. 
London, 1874. Stephen, " Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography," 2 vols. 
London, 1850. Hallam, "Middle Ages," vol. i. London, 1840. Mil- 
man, " Latin Christianity," vol. iii., London, 1854. 


with Bertrada. Returning to Italy from his victorious campaign 
through France, he was able to celebrate Christmas once again in the 
Lateran at Rome in a.d. 1096. His main sujpporters in the conflict 
against the emperor were the powerful Margravine Matilda, and the 
emperor's most dangerous opponent in Germany, duke Welf of Bavaria, 
whose son of the same name, then in his seventeenth year, was married 
by the pope to the widowed Matilda, who was now forty years of age, 
whence arose the first of the anti- imperial and strongly papistical Welf 
or Guelph party in Germany and Italy. On the other side the margra- 
vine succeeded in stirring up Conrad, the son of Henry IV,, to rebel 
against his father, and had him crowned king in a.d. 1087. At Cremona 
this prince held the pope's stirrup, and took the oath of obedience to 
him. The emperor had him deposed in a.d. 1098, and had his second 
son elected and crowned as Henry V. Urban, who received on his 
death-bed the news of the destruction of Jerusalem, died in a.d. 1099, 
and his anti-pope Clement III., who had withdrawn to Ravenna, died in 
the following year. 

11. Paschalis II., Gelasius II., and Calixtus II., A.D. 1099-1124.— Urban's 
successor, Paschalis II., a.d. 1099-1118, also a member of the Clugny 
brotherhood, at once stirred up the fire of rebellion against the excom- 
municated emperor, and favoured a conspiracy of the princes. The 
young king, at the head of the insurgents, took his father prisoner, and 
obliged him to abdicate in a.d. 1106. Six months afterwards the emperor 
died. The church's curse pursued even his corpse. Twice interred in 
holy ground, first in the cathedral of Liege, then in the cathedral of 
Spires, his bones were exhumed and thrown into unconsecrated ground, 
until at last, in a.d. 1111, his son obtained the withdrawal of the ban. 
At the Council of Guastalla in a.d. 1106, Paschalis renewed the pro- 
hibition of Investiture. But Henry V., a.d. 1106-1125, concerned him- 
self as little about this prohibition as his father had done. No sooner had 
he seated himself upon the throne in Germany than he crossed the 
Alps to compel the pope to crown him emperor and concede to him the 
right of investiture. The pope, who was wilhng that the church should 
be poor if only she retained her freedom, being now without counsel 
or help (for Matilda was old and her warlike spirit was broken, and 
from the Normans no assistance could be looked for), was driven in a.d. 
1111, in his perplexity to offer a compromise, whereby the emperor should 
surrender investiture to the church, but on the other hand the clergy 
should return to him all landed property and privileges given them by 
the state since the times of Charlemagne, while the Patrimony of Peter 
should continue the property of the pope himself. On the basis of this 
agreement the coronation of the emperor was to be celebrated in St. 
Peter's on 12th Feb., a.d. 1111. But when after the celebration had 
begun the document which set forth the compact was read, the prelates 


present in the cathedral raised loud cries of dissent and demanded that 
it should immediately be cancelled. The coronation was not proceeded 
with, the pope and his cardinals were thrown into prison, and a revolt 
of the Romans was suppressed. The pope was then compelled to rescind 
the synodal decrees and formally to grant to the king the right of in- 
vestiture ; he had also, after solemnly promising never again to put the 
emperor under ban, to proceed with the coronation. But Hildebrand's 
party called the pope to account for this betrayal of the church. A synod 
at Rome in a.d. 1112 declared the concessions wrung from him invalid, 
and pronounced the ban against the emperor. The pope, however, 
remembering his oaths, refused to confirm it, but it was nevertheless 
proclaimed by his legate in the French and German synods. Matilda's 
death in a.d. 1115 called the emperor again to Italy. She had even in 
the time of Gregory VII. made over all her goods and possessions to the 
Roman Church ; but she had the right of free disposal only in regard 
to allodial property, not in regard to her feudal territories. Henry, how- 
ever, now laid claim to all her belongings. At the Fast Synod of a.d. 
1116 Paschalis asked pardon of God and man for his sin of weakness, 
renewed and made more strict the prohibition of investiture, but still 
stoutly refused to confirm the ban of the emperor. In consequence of 
a rebellion of the Romans he was obliged to take to flight, and he died 
in exile in a.d. 1118. The high church party now chose Gelasius II., a.d. 
1118-1119, but immediately after the election he was seized by a second 
Ceucius (see No. 7) on account of a private grudge, fearfully maltreated 
and confined in chains within his castle. The Romans indeed rescued 
him, but the emperor's sudden arrival in Rome led him, in order to avoid 
making inconvenient terms of peace, to seek his own and the church's 
safety in flight. The people and nobles in concert with the emperor set 
up Gregory VIII. as anti-pope. So soon as the emperor left Rome, 
Gelasius returned. But Cencius fell upon him during Divine service, 
and only with difficulty he escaped further maltreatment by flight into 
France, where he died in the monastery of Clugny after a pontificate 
of scarcely twelve months. The few cardinals present at Clugny elected 
archbishop Guido of Vienne. He assumed the title of Calixtus II. , a d. 
1119-1121. Pope and emperor met together expressing desires for peace. 
But the auspiciously begun negotiations never got beyond the statement 
of the terms of contract, and ended in the pope renewing at the Council of 
Rheims, in a.d. 1119, the anathema against the emperor and anti-pope. 
Next year Calixtus crossed the Alps. He received a hearty greeting in 
Rome. He laid siege to the anti-pope in Sutri, took him prisoner, and 
after the most contumelious treatment before the Roman mob, cast him 
into a monastic prison. The investiture question, now better understood 
through learned discussions on civil and ecclesiastical law, was at last 
definitely settled m the Worms Concordat, as the result of mutual con- 


cessions made at the National Assembly at Worms, a.d. 1122. The 
arrangement come to was this : canonical election of bishops and abbots 
of the empire by the diocesan clergy and the secular nobles should be 
restored, and under imperial inspection made free from all coercion, but 
in disputed elections decisions should be given in accordance with the 
judgment of the metropolitan and the rest of the bishops, the investing 
of the elected with the sceptre in Germany before, in other parts of the 
empire after, consecration, should belong to the emperor, and investiture 
with ring and staff at the consecration should belong to the pope. This 
agreement was solemnly ratified at the First (Ecumeaical Lateran Synod 
in A.D. 1123. 

12. The contemporary English Investiture Controversy was brought 
earlier to a conclusion. William the Conqueror had unopposed put 
Norman prelates in the place of the English bishops, and had homage 
rendered him by them, while they received from him investiture with the 
ring and the staff. William Rufus, the Conqueror's son and successor, 
A.D. 10S7-1100, a domineering and greedy prince, after Lanfranc's death 
in A.D. 1089 (§ 101, 1) allowed the archbishopric of Canterbury to remain 
vacant for four years, in order that he might himself enjoy the undis- 
turbed possession of the revenues. It was not till a.d. 1093, during a 
severe illness and under fear of death, that he agreed to bestow it upon 
Anselm, the celebrated Abbot of Bee (§ 101, 1, 3), with the promise 
to abstain ever afterwards from simony. No sooner had he recovered 
than he repented him of his promise. He resumed his old practices, and 
even demanded of Anselm a large sum for his appointment. For peace 
sake Anselm gave him a voluntary present of money, but it did not satisfy 
the king. When, in a.d. 1097, the archbishop asked permission to 
make a journey to Rome in order to have the conflict settled there, the 
king banished him. In Rome Anselm was honourably received and his 
conduct was highly approved ; but neither Urban II. nor Paschalis II. 
could venture upon a complete breach with the king. William the Con- 
queror's third son, Henry I. Beauclerk, a.d. 1100-1135, who, having also 
snatched Normandy from his eldest brother Robert, needed the support 
of the clergy to secure his position, agreed to the return of the exiled 
primate, and promised to put a stop to every kind of simony ; but he 
demanded the maintenance of investiture and the oath of fealty which 
Anselm now, in consequence of the decrees of a Roman synod which he 
had himself agreed to, felt obliged to refuse. Thus again the conflict 
was renewed. The king now confiscated the goods and revenues of the 
see, and the archbishop was on the point of issuing an excommunication 
against him, when at last an understanding was come to in a.d. 1106, 
through the mediation of the pope, according to which the crown gave up 
the investiture with ring and staff, and the archbishop agreed to take the 
oath of fealty. — In France, too, from the end of the 11th century, owing 


to the pressure used by the high church reforming party, the secular 
power was satisfied with securing the oath of fealty from the higher 
clergy, without making further claim to investiture. ^ 

13. The Times of Lothair III. and Conrad III., A.D. 1125-1152.— After 
the death of Henry V. without issue, the Saxon lothair, a.d. 1125-1137, 
was elected, and the Hohenstaufen grandson of Henry IV. descended in 
the female line was passed over. Honorius II., a.d. 1124-1130, successor 
of Calixtus II. , hastened to confer the papal sanction upon the newly elected 
emperor, who already upon his election had, by accepting spiritual in- 
vestiture before temporal investiture, and a minimising of the oath of 
fealty by ecclesiastical reservations, showed himself ready to support the 
claims of the clergy. But neither ban nor the preaching of a crusade 
against Count Roger II. of Sicily (§ 95, 1) could prevent him from building 
up a powerful kingdom comprehending all Southern Italy. The next 
election of the cardinals gives us two popes : Innocent II., a.d. 1130-1143, 
and Anacletus II., a.d. 1130-1138. The latter, although not the pope of 
the majority, secured a powerful support in the friendship of Roger II., 
whom he had crowned king by his legate at Palermo. Innocent, on the 
other hand, fled to France. There the two oracles of the age, the abbot 
Peter of Clugny and Bernard of Clairvaux, took his side and won for him 
the favour of all Cisalpine Europe. Both popes fished for Lothair's 
favour with the bait of the promise of imperial coronation. A second 
edition of the Synod of Sutri would probably have enabled a more 
powerful king to attain the elevation of Henry III. But Lothair was not 
the man to seize the opportunity. He decided in favour of the protege 
of Bernard, led him back in a.d. 1133 to the eternal city, had himself 
crowned emperor by him in the Lateran and invested with Matilda's 
inheritance, which was declared by the curialists a fief of the empire. 
But Lothair's repeated demands, that what had been acquired by the 
Concordat of Worms should be renounced, were set aside, through the 
opposition not so much of the pope as of St. Bernard and St. Norbert 
(§ 98, 2). At the prayer of the pope, who immediately after Lothair's 
departure had been driven out by Roger, and moved by the prophetic 
exhortations of Bernard, the emperor prepared for a second Roman 
campaign in a.d. 1136. Leaving the conquest of Rome to the eloquence 
of the prophet of Clairvaux, he advanced from one victory to another 
until he brought all Southern Italy under the imperial sway, and died 
on his return homeward in an Alpine hut in the Tyrol. Fuming with 
rage Roger now crossed over from Sicily and in a short time he recon- 
quered his southern provinces of Italy. The appointment, however, of 

1 Church, "St. Anselm," London, 1870. Rule, "Life and Times of 
St. Anselm," 2 vols. London, 1883. Hook, " Lives of Archb. of Canter- 
bury," vol. ii., London, 1879, pp. 109-276. 


a new pope after the death of Anacletus miscarried, and Innocent was 
able at the Second (Ecumenical Lateran Synod in a.d. 1139 to declare the 
schism at an end. The pope then renewed the excommunication of 
Roger and pronounced an anathema against the teachings of Arnold of 
Brescia (§ 108, 7), a young enthusiastic priest of the school of Abaelard, 
who traced all ecclesiastical corruption back to the wealth of the church 
and the secular power of the clergy. He next prepared himself for war 
with Roger. That prince, however, waylaid him and had him brought 
into his tent, where he and his sons cast themselves at the holy father's 
feet and begged for mercy and peace. The pope could do nothing else 
than play the role of the magnanimous given him in this comedy. He 
had therefore to confirm the hated Norman in the possession of the con- 
quered provinces as a hereditarymonarchy with the ecclesiastical privilege 
of a native legate, and, as some set off to comfort himself with, the prince 
was to regard the territory as a fief of the papal see. But still greater 
calamities befell this pope. The republican freedom, which the cities of 
Tuscany and Lombardy won during the 12th century, awakened also 
among the Romans a love of liberty. They refused to render obedience 
in temporal matters to the pope and established in the Capitol a popular 
senate, which undertook the civil government in the name of the Roman 
Commune. Innocent died during the revolution. His successor Coeles- 
tine II. held the pontificate for only five months, and Lucius II., after 
vainly opposing the Commune for seven months, was killed by a stone 
thrown in a tumult. Eugenius III., a.d. 1145-1153, a scholar and friend 
of St. Bernard, was obliged immediately after his election to seek safety 
in flight. An agreement, however, was come to in that same year : the 
pope acknowledged the government of the Commune as legitimate, while 
it recognised his superiority and granted to him the investiture of the 
senators. Yet, though taken back three times to Rome, he could never 
remain there for more than a few months. He visited France and 
Germany (Treves) in a.d. 1147. In France he heard of the fall of Edessa. 
Supported by the fiery zeal of Bernard, the summons to a second 
crusade (§ 94, 2) aroused a burning enthusiasm throughout all the West. 
But in Rome he was unable to offer any effectual resistance to the dema- 
gogical preaching by which Arnold of Brescia from a.d. 1146 had inflamed 
the people and the inferior clergy with an ardent enthusiasm for his ideal 
constitution of an apostolic church and a democratic state. Since this 
change of feeling had taken place in Rome, both parties, that of the 
Capitol as well as that of the Lateran, had repeatedly endeavoured to 
win to their side the first Hohenstaufen on the German throne, Conrad 
III.. A.D. 1138-1152, by promise of bestowing the imperial crown. But 
Conrad, meanwhile otherwise occupied, refrained from all intermeddling, 
and when at last he actually started upon a journey to Rome death over- 
took him on the way. 


14. The Times of Frederick I. and Henry VI., A.D. 1152-1190.— The 
nephew and successor of Conrad III., Frederick I. Barbarossa, a.d. 1152- 
1190, began his reign with the firm determination to realize fully the 
ideas of Charlemagne (§ 82-3) by his pope Paschalis III., whom at a later 
period, in a.d. 1165, he had canonized. With profound contempt at 
heart for the Roman democracy of his time, he concluded a compact in 
A.D. 1153 with the papal see, which confirmed him in the possession of 
the imperial crown and gave to the pope the Dominium temporale in the 
Church States. After the death of Eugenius which soon followed, the 
aged Anastasius IV. occupied the papal chair for a year and a half, a 
time of peace and progress. He was succeeded by the powerful Hadrian 
IV., A.D. 1151-1159. He was an Englishman, Nicholas Breakspear, son of 
a poor English priest, the first and, down to the present time, the only 
one of that nation who attained the papal dignity. He pronounced an 
interdict upon the Romans who had refused him entrance into the inner 
part of the city and had treacherously slain a cardinal. Rome endured 
this spiritual famine only for a few weeks, and then purchased deliver- 
ance by the expulsion of Arnold of Brescia, who soon thereafter fell into 
the hands of a cardinal. He was indeed again rescued by force, but 
Frederick I., who had meanwhile in a.d. 1154 begun his first journey 
to Rome, and on his way thither had humbled the proud Lombard cities 
struggling for freedom, urged by the pope, insisted that he should be 
surrendered up again, and subsequently gave him over to the Roman city 
prefect, who, in a.d. 1155, without trial or show of justice condemned 
him to be burnt and had his ashes strewn upon the Tiber. In the camp 
at Sutri the pope personally greeted the king who, after refusing for 
several days, at length agreed to show him the customary honour of 
holding his stirrup, doing it however with a very ^bad grace. Soon too 
the senatorial ambassadors of the Roman people, who indulged in bom- • 
bastic, turgid declamation, presented themselves professing their readi- 
ness on consideration of a solemn undertaking to protect the Roman 
republic, and on payment of five thousand pounds, to proclaim the Ger- 
man king from the Capitol Roman emperor and ruler of the world. With 
a furious burst of anger Frederick silenced them, and with scathing words 
showed them how the witness of history pointed the contrast between 
their miserable condition and the glory and dignity of the German name. 
Yet on the day of the coronation, which they were not able to prevent, the 
Romans took revenge for the insults he had heaped upon them by an 
attack upon the papal residence in the castle of Leo, and upon the im- 
perial camp in front of the city, but were repelled with sore loss. Soon 
thereafter, in a.d. 1155, the emperor made preparations for returning 
home, leaving everything else to the pope. The relations between the 
two became more and more strained from day to day. The Lombards, 
too, once again rebelled. Frederick therefore in a,d. 1158 made his 


second expedition to Rome. On the Roncalian plains lie held a great 
assembly wliicli laid down to the Lombards as well as to the pope the 
imperial prerogatives. Hadrian would have given utterance to his wrath 
by thundering an anathema, but he was restrained by the hand of 

15. The cardinals of the hierarchical party elected Alexander III., 
A.D. 1159-1181, those of the imperial party, Victor IV. A synod con- 
vened by the emperor at Pavia in a.d. 1160 decided in favour of Victor, 
who was now formally recognised. Meanwhile Milan threw off the yoke 
that had been laid upon her. After an almost two years' siege the emperor 
took the city in a.d. 1162 and razed it to the ground. From France whither 
he had fled, Alexander, in a.d. 1163, launched his anathema against the 
emperor and his pope. The latter died in a.d. 1164, and Frederick had 
Paschalis III. (f a.d. 1168) chosen his successor ; but in a.d. 1165, Alex- 
ander returning from France, pressed on in advance of him and was 
acknowledged by the Roman senate. Now for the third time in a.d. 
1166, Frederick crossed the Alps. A small detachment of troops that 
had been sent in advance to accompany the imperial pope to Rome 
under the leadership of the archbishops of Cologne and Mainz, in a 
bloody battle at Monte Porzio in a.d. 1167 utterly destroyed a Roman 
army of twenty times its size. Frederick then himself hasted forward. 
After an eight days' furious assault the fortress of Leo surrendered, and 
Paschahs was able to perform the Te Deum in St. Peter's. The Trans- 
tiberines, too, after Alexander had sought safety in flight, soon took the 
oath of fealty to the emperor upon a guarantee of imperial protection of 
their republic. But at the very climax of his success " the fate of Sen- 
nacherib "befell him. The Roman malaria during the hot August became 
a deadly fever plague, thinned the lines of his army and forced him to with- 
draw. So weakened was he that he could not even assert his authority 
in Lombardy, but had to return to Germany in a.d. 1168. The emperor's 
disaster told also unfavourably upon the fortunes of his pope, whose 
successor Calixtus III. was quite disregarded. In a.d. 117-1 Frederick 
again went down into Italy and engaged upon a decisive battle with the 
confederate cities of Lombardy, but in a.d. 1176 at Legnano he suffered 
a complete defeat, in consequence of which he agreed at the Congress of 
Venice, in a.d. 1177, to acknowledge the freedom of the Lombard cities, 
abandoned the imperial claims upon Rome, and recognised Alexander 
III., who was also present there, as the rightful pope, kissing his feet and 
holding his stirrup according to custom. Rome, which he had not seen 
for nearly eleven years, would no longer shut her gates against the pope. 
Welcomed by senate and people, he made his pubhc entrance into the 
Lateran in March a.d. 1178, where in the following year he gathered 
together 300 bishops in the Third Lateran Council (the 11th oecumenical), 
in order by their advice to heal the wounds which the schism of the 


church had made. Here also, in order to prevent double elections in 
time to come, it was resolved that for a valid papal election two-thirds 
of the whole college of cardinals must be agreed. The right of concur- 
rence assigned by the decree of Nicholas II. in a.d. 1059 to the people and 
emperor was treated as antiquated and forgotten, and was not even 
alluded to. 

16. Even before his victory over the powerful Hohenstaufen, Alexander 
III. during his exile won a yet more brilliant success in England. King 
Henry II., a.d. 1154-1189, wished to establish again the supremacy of the 
state over church and clergy, and thought that he would have a pliant 
tool in carrying out his plans in Thomas a Becket, whom he made arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, in a.d. 1162. But as primate of the English 
church, Thomas proved a vigorous upholder of hierarchical principles. 
Instead of the accommodating courtier, the king found the archbishop 
immediately upon his consecration the bold asserter of the claims of the 
church. The jovial man of the world became at once the saintly ascetic. 
At a council at Tours in a.d. 1163, he returned into the pope's own 
hand the pallium with which an English prince had invested him in 
name of the king, resigning also his archiepiscopal dignity, that he might 
receive these directly as a papal gift. Straightway began the conflict be- 
tween the king and his former favourite. Henry summoned a diet at 
Clarendon, where he obtained the approval of the superior clergy for his 
anti-hierarchical propositions; Thomas also for a time withstood, promis- 
ing at last, when urged on all sides, to assent to the constitutions, but 
refusing to sign the document when it was placed before him. The 
king now ordered a process of deposition to be executed against him, 
and Thomas then fled to France, where the pope was at that time 
residing. The pope released him from his promise, condemned the Con- 
stitutions of Clarendon, and threatened the king with anathema and 
interdict. At last, after protracted negotiations, in a.d. 1170 by means 
of a personal interview on the frontiers of Normandy, a reconciliation was 
effected ; by which, however, neither the king nor the archbishop re- 
nounced their claims. Thomas now returned to England and threatened 
with excommunication all bishops w^ho should agree to the Constitutions 
of Clarendon. Four knights seized upon an unguarded word of the king 
which he had uttered in passion, and murdered the archbishop at the 
altar in a.u. 1170. Alexander canonized the martyr to Hildebrandism, 
and the king was so sorely pressed by the pope, his own people and his 
rebellious sons, that he consented to do penance humbly at the tomb of 
his deadly sainted foe, and submitted to be scourged by the monks. 
Becket's bones, for which a special chapel was reared at Canterbury, 
were visited by crowds of pilgrims until Henry VIII., when he had broken 
with Eome (§ 139, 4), formally arraigned the saint as a traitor, had his 


name struck out of the calendar and bis ashes scattered to the winds. ^ 

Thus by a.d. 1178 Alexander III. bad risen to the summit of ecclesias- 
tical power; but in Rome itself as well as in the Church States, he 
remained as powerless politically as before. Soon, therefore, after the 
great council be again quitted the city for a voluntary exile, and never 
saw it more. His three immediate successors, too, Lucius III. ( f a.d. 
1185), Urban III. (f a.d. 1187), and Gregory VIII. (f a.d. 1187), were 
elected, consecrated and buried outside of Rome. Clement III. (f a.d. 
1191) was the first to enter the Laterau again in a.d. 1188, on the basis 
of a compromise which acknowledged the republican constitution under 
the papal superiority. Meanwhile Frederick I., without regarding the 
protest of the pope as liege lord of the Sicilian crown, had in a.d. 1186 
consummated the fateful marriage of his son Henry with Constance, the 
posthumous daughter of king Roger, and aunt of his childless grandson 
William II. (f a.d. 1191), and thus the heiress of the great Norman king- 
dom of Italy. From the crusade which he then undertook in a.d. 1189 
Frederick never returned (§ 91, 3). His successor, Henry VI., a.d. 1190- 
1197, compelled the new pope Coelestine III., a.d. 1191-1198, to crown 
him emperor in a.d. 1191, conquered the inheritance of his wife, pushed 
back the boundaries of the Church States to the very gates of Rome, and 
asserted his imperial rights even over the city of Rome itself. He 
pressed on to the realizing of the scheme for making the German crown 
together with the imperial dignity for ever hereditary in his house. 
The princes of the empire in a.d. 1196 elected his son Frederick II., when 
scarcely two years old, as king of the Romans. He then thought under 
the pretext of a crusade to conquer Greece, to which he had laid ground- 
less claims of succession, but while upon the way his plans were over- 
hrown by his sudden death at Messina. 

17. Innocent III., A.D. 1198-1216.— After the death of Alexander III. 
the power and reputation of the Holy See had fallen into the lowest degra- 
dation. Then the cardinal deacon, Lothair Count of Segni in Anagni, 
succeeded in a.d. 1198 in his 37th year, under the name of Innocent III., 
and raised the papacy again to a height of power and glory never reached 
before. In point of intellect and j)ower of will he was not a whit behind 
Gregory VII., while in culture (§ 102, 9), scholarship, subtlety and adroit- 
ness he far excelled him. His piety, too, his moral earnestness, his en- 

^ "Vita et Epistolae Thoma Cantuari," edited by Giles. 4 vols. 
London, 1816. Morris, "Life and Martyrdom of Thomas a Becket." 
London, 1859. Robertson, " Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury." London, 1859. "Materials for Life of Thomas a Becket." 2 vols. 
London, 1875. Hook, " Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury," vol. ii. 
London, 1879, pp. 354-507. Stanley, "Memorials of Canterbury." 
London, 1855. Freeman, " Historical Essays." First Series, Essay IV. 



tbusiasm and devotion to the church and the theocratical interest of the 
chair of St. Peter, were at least as powerful and decidedly purer, deeper 
and more spiritual than Gregory's. And in addition to all these great 
endowments he enjoyed an invariable good fortune which never forsook 
him. His first task was the restoration of the Church States and his 
political prestige in Eome. In* both these directions he was favoured by 
the sudden death of Henry VI. and the internal disorders of the Capi- 
toline government of that time. On the very day of his enthronement 
the imperial prefect tendered him the oath of fealty and the Capitol did 
homage to him as the suj)erior. And also before the second year had 
passed the Church States in their fullest extent were restored by the ex- 
pulsion of the greater and smaller feudal lords who had been settled there 
by Henry VI. Eome was indeed once more the scene of wild party conflicts 
which forced the pope in a.d. 1203 to fly to Anagni. He was able, however, 
to return in a.d. 1204 and to conclude a definite and decisive peace with 
the Commune in a.d. 1205, according to the terms of which the many- 
headed senate resigned, and a single senator or podesta nominated by 
the pope was entrusted with the executive authority. Meanwhile Inno- 
cent had been gaining brilliant successes beyond the limits of the States 
of the Church. These were won first of all in Sicily. The widow of 
Henry VI. had her son Frederick of four years old, after his father's 
death, crowned king in Palermo. Unadvised and helpless, pressed upon 
all sides, she sought protection from Innocent, which he granted upon 
her renouncing the ecclesiastical privileges previously claimed by the 
king and making acknowledgment of the papal suzerainty. Dying in 
A.D. 1198, Constance transferred to him the guardianship of her son, and 
the pope justified the confidence placed in him by the excellent and 
liberal education which he secured for his ward, as well as by the zeal 
and success with which he restored rest and peace to the land. In Ger- 
many, Philip of Swabia, Frederick's uncle, was appointed to carry on the 
government in the name of his Sicilian nephew during his minority. 
The condition of Germany, however, demanded the direct control of a 
firm and vigorous ruler. The princes, therefore, insisted upon a new 
election, for which Phihp also now appeared as candidate. The votes 
were split between two rivals; the Ghibellines voting for Philip, a.d. 
1198-1208, and the Guelph party for Otto IV. of Brunswick, a.d. 1198- 
1218. The party of the latter referred the decision to the pope. For 
three years he delayed giving judgment, then he decided in favour of 
the Guelph, who paid for the preference by granting all the demands 
of the pope, and calling himself king by the grace of God and the pope. 
The States of the Church were thus represented as including the Duchy 
of Spoleto, and in the election of bishops the church was freed from the 
influence of the state. By a.d. 1204, however, Philip's power and repute 
had risen to such a pitch that even the pope found himself obliged to 


take into account the altered position of matters. A papal court of arbi- 
tration at Rome to which both claimants had agreed to submit, was on 
the point of giving its decision unequivocally in favour of the Hoheu- 
staufen, when the murder of Philip by Otto of Wittelsbach, in a.d. 1208, 
rendered it void. Otto IV. was now acknowledged by all, and in a.d. 1209 
he was crowned by the pope after new concessions had been made. But 
as Roman emperor he either would not or could not perform what he 
had promised before and at his coronation. He took to himself the 
possessions of Matilda as well as other parts of the States of the Church, 
and was not prevented from pursuing his victorious campaign in Southern 
Italy by the anathema which Innocent thundered against him in a.d. 
1210. Then Innocent called to mind the old rights of his former pupil 
to the German crown, and insisted that they should be given effect to. 
In A.D. 1212, Frederick II., now in his eighteenth year, accepted the call, 
was received in Germany with open arms, and was crowned in a.d. 1215 
at Aachen. Otto could not maintain his position against him, and so 
withdrew to his hereditary possessions, and died in ad. 1218. 

18. King Philip Augustus II. of France, had in a.d. 1193 married the 
Danish princess Ingeborg, but divorced her in a.d. 1196, and married the 
beautiful Duchess Agnes of Meran. Innocent compelled him in a.d. 
1200 to put her away by issuing against him an interdict, but it was only 
in A.D. 1218 that he again took back Ingeborg as his legitimate wife. — 
From far off Spain the young king Peter of Arragon went in a.d. 1201 to 
Rome, laid down his crown as a sacred gift upon the tomb of the chief 
of the apostles, and voluntarily undertook the payment of a yearly 
tribute to the Holy See. In the same year a crusading army, by founding 
a Latin empire in Constantinople, brought the schismatical East to the 
feet of the pope (§ 94, 4). In England, when the archbishopric of 
Canterbury became vacant, the chapter filled it by electing their own 
superior Reginald. This choice they had soon cause to rue. They 
therefore annulled their election, and at the wish of the usurping king John 
Lackland made choice of John, bishop of Norwich. Innocent refused to 
confirm their action, and persuaded certain members of the chapter stay- 
ing in Rome to choose the cardinal priest Stephen Langton, whose elec- 
tion he immediately confirmed.^ When the king refused to recognise this 
appointment, and on an interdict being threatened swore that he would 
drive all priests who should obey it out of the country, the pope issued it 
in A.D.1208 against all England, excommunicated the king, and finally, in 

1 On Stephen Langton see Pearson, "History of England during Early 
and Middle Ages," vol. ii. Milman, " History of Latin Christianity," 
vol. iv. Loudon, 1854. Hook, •' Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury," 
vol. ii., 4th edition. London, 1879, pp. 657-761. Maurice, " Lives of 
English Popular Leaders, 1, Stephen Langton," London. 


A.D. 1212, released all his subjects from their oath of allegiance and de- 
posed the monarch, while he commissioned Philip Augustus of France to 
carry the sentence into effect. John, now as cringing and terrified as 
before he had been proud and despotic, humbled himself in the dust, and 
at Dover, in a.d. 1213, placed kingdom and crown at the feet of the papal 
legate Pandulf , and received it from his hands as a papal fief, undertaking 
to pay twice a year the tribute imposed. But in a.d. 1214 the English 
nobles extorted from their cowardly tyrant as a safeguard against lordly 
wilfulness and despotism the famous Magna Charta, against which the 
pope protested, threatening excommunication and promising legitimate 
redress of their grievances, though in consequence of confusion caused 
by the breaking out again of the civil wars he was unable to enforce his 
protest. And now his days were drawing to an end. At the famous 
Fourth Lateran Council of A.D. 1215, more than 1,500 prelates from all 
the countries of Christendom, along with the ambassadors of almost all 
Christian kings, princes and free cities, gave him homage as the repre- 
sentative of God on earth, as visible Head of the Church, and supreme 
lord and judge of all princes and peoples. A few months later he died. — 
As in Italy and Germany, in France and England, he had also in all 
other states of the Christian world, in Spain and Portugal, in Poland, 
Livonia and Sweden, in Constantinople and Bulgaria, shown himself 
capable of controlling political as well as ecclesiastical movements, 
arranging and smoothing down differences, organizing and putting into 
shape what was tending to disorder. Some conception of his activit}' 
may be formed from the 5,316 extant decretals of the eighteen years of 
his pontificate. 

19. The Times of Frederick II. and his Successors, A.D. 1215-1268.— 
Frederick II, ^ a.d. 1215-1250, contrary to the Hohenstaufen custom, had 
not only agreed to the partition of Sicily from the empire in favour 
of his son Henry, but also renewed the agreements previously entered 
into with the pope by Otto IV. He even increased the papal possessions 
by ceding Ancona, and still further at his coronation at Aachen he 
showed his goodwill by undertaking a crusade. He also allowed this 
same Henry who became king of Sicily as a vassal of the pope, to be 
elected king of the Romans in a.d. 1220, and then began his journey to 
Rome to receive imperial coronation. The new pope Honoriiis III., a.d. 
1216-1227, formerly Frederick's tutor and even still entertaining for him 
a fatherly affection, exacted from him a solemn renewal of his earlier 
promises. But instead of returning to Germany, Frederick started for 
Sicily in order to make it the basis of operations for the future carrying 
out of the ideas of his father and grandfather. The peace-loving pope 

^ Kingston, " History of Frederick II., King of the Romans." London, 


constantly urged bim to fulfil his promise of fitting out a crusade. But 
it was only after his successor Gregory IX., a.d. 1227-1241, a high church- 
man of the stami? of Gregory VII. and Innocent III., urged the matter 
with greater determination, that Frederick actually embarked. He 
turned back, hoAvever, as soon as an epidemic broke out in the ships, 
but he did not himself escape the contagion, and died three days after. 
In A.D. 1227 the pope had in a senseless passion hurled an anathema 
against him, and, in an encyclical to all the bishops, painted the 
emperor's ingratitude and breach of faith in the darkest colours. The 
emperor on his part, in a manifesto justifying himself addressed to the 
princes and people of Europe, had quite as unsparingly lashed the world- 
liness of the church, the corruption, presumption and self-seeking of the 
papacy, and then in a.d. 1228 he again undertook the postponed crusade 
(§ 94, 5). The pope's curse followed " the pirate " to the very threshold 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and a papal crusading force made a raid upon 
Southern Italy. Frederick therefore hastened his return, landed in a.d. 
1229 in Apulia, and entered into negotiations for peace, to which, how- 
ever, the pope agreed only in a.d. 1230, when the emperor's victoriously 
advancing troops threatened him with the loss of the States of the 
Church. In consequence of the pope's continued difficulties with his 
Komans, who drove him three times out of the city, Frederick had 
frequent opportunities of showing himself serviceable to the pope by 
giving direct aid or mediating in his favour. Nevertheless he continu- 
ally conspired with the rebellious Lombards, and in a.d. 1239 renewed 
the ban against the emperor. The pope who had hitherto only charged 
Frederick with a tendency to freethinking, as well as an incUnation to 
favour the Saracens (§ 95, 1), and to maintain friendly intercourse with 
the Syrian sultans, now accused him of flippant infidelity. The em- 
peror, it was said, had among other things declared that the birth of 
the Saviour by a virgm was a fable, and that Jesus, Moses and Moham- 
med were the three greatest impostors the world had ever seen, — a form 
of unbehef which spread very widely in consequence of the, crusades. 
Manifestoes and counter-manifestoes sought to outdo one another in 
their violence. And while the wild hordes of the Mongols were over- 
spreading unopposed the whole of Eastern Europe, the emperor's troops 
were victoriously pressing forward to the gates of Eome, and his ships 
were preventing the meeting of the council summoned against him by 
catching the prelates who in spite of .his prohibition were hastening to 
it. The pope died in a.d. 1211, and was followed in seventeen days by 
his successor Coelestine IV. 

20. For almost two years the papal chair remained vacant. Then this 
position was won by Innocent IV., a.d. 1243-1254, who as cardinal had 
been friendly to the emperor, but as pope was a most bitter enemy to 
him and to his house. The negotiations about the removal of the ban 


were broken off, and Innocent escaped to France, where at the First 
Lyonese or lath (Ecumenical Council of A.D. 1245, attended by scarcely 
any but Frenchmen and Spaniards, he renewed the excommunication of 
the emperor, and declared him as a blasphemer and robber of the church 
deprived of his throne. Once again with the most abject humility 
Frederick sued for reconciliation with the church. The pope, however, 
wished not for reconcihatiou, but the destruction of the whole " viper 
brood " of the Hohenstaufens. But the rival king, Henry Easpe of 
Thuringia, set up by the papal party in Germany, and William of 
Holland, who was put forward after his death in a.d. 1247, could not 
maintain their position against Frederick's son, Conrad IV., who as 
early as a.d. 1235 had been elected in jjlace of his rebel brother Henry as 
king of the Eomaus. Even in Italy the fortune of war favoured at first 
the imperial arms. At the siege of Parma, which was disloyal, the tide 
began to turn. The sorely pressed citizens made a sally in a.d. 1248, 
while Frederick was away at a hunt, and roused to courage by despair, 
put his army to flight. His brave son, Enzio, king of Sardinia and 
governor of Northern Italy, fell in a.d. 1249 into the hands of the 
Bolognese, and was subjected to a life4ong imprisonment. Frederick 
himself in a.d. 1250 closed his active life in the south in the arms of his 
son Manfred. The pope then returned to Italy, in order to take posses- 
sion of the Sicilian kingdom, which he claimed as a papal fief. But 
in A.D. 1251 Conrad IV., summoned by Manfred, hasted thither from 
Germany, subdued Apulia, conquered Naples, and was resolved to lay 
hands on the person of the pope himself, who had also excommunicated 
him, when his career was stopped by death in a.d. 1254, in his twenty- 
sixth year. On behalf of Conrad's two-year-old son, Conradin, who had 
been born in Germany after his father's departure, Manfred undertook the 
regency in Southern Italy, but found himself obliged to acknowledge the 
pope's suzerainty. Nevertheless the pope was determined to have him 
also overthrown. Manfred, however, escaped in time to the Saracenic 
colony of Luceria, and with its help utterly defeated the papal troops sent 
out against him. Five days after Innocent IV. died. Alexander IV., 
A.D. 1254-1261, although without his predecessor's ability, sought still 
to continue his work. He could not, however, either by ban or by war 
prevent Manfred, who on the report of Conradin's death had had himself 
crowned, from extending the power and prestige of his kingdom farther 
and farther into the north. Urban IV., a.d. 12G1-1264, a Frenchman 
by birth, son of a shoemaker of Troyes, took up with all his heart the 
heritage of hate against the Hohenstaufens, and in a.d. 1263 invited 
Charles of Anjou, the youngest brother of Louis IX. of France, to win 
by conquest the Sicilian crown. While the prince was preparing for the 
campaign Urban died. His successor, Clement IV., a.d. 1205-1268, also 
a Frenchman, could not but carry out what his predecessor had begun. 


Charles, whom the Eomans without the knowledge of the pope had 
elected their senator, proceeded in a.d. 1265 into Italy, took the vassal 
oath of fealty, and was crowned as Charles I., a.d. 1265-1285, king of the 
two Sicilies. Treachery opened up his way into Naples. Manfred fell in 
A.D. 1266 in the battle of Benevento ; and Conradin, whom the Ghibel- 
lines had called in as a deliverer of Italy, after the disastrous battle of 
Tagliacozzo in a.d. 1268, died on the scaffold in his sixteenth year. 

21. The Times of the House of Anjou down to Boniface VIII., A.D. 1268- 
1294. — The papacy had emerged triumphantly from its hundred years' 
struggle with the Hohenstaufens, and by the overthrow of this powerful 
house Germany was thrown into the utmost confusion and anarchy. 
But Italy, too, was now in a condition of extreme disorder, and the 
unconscionable tyrants of Naples subjected it to a much more intoler- 
able bondage than those had done from whom they pretended to have 
delivered it. After the death of Clement IV. the Holy See remained vacant 
for three years. The cardinals would not elect such a pope as would 
be agreeable to Charles I. During this papal vacancy Louis IX. of 
France, a.d. 1226-1270, fitted out the seventh and last crusade (§ 91, 6), 
from which he was not to return. As previously he had reformed the 
administration of justice, he now before his departure introduced drastic 
reforms in the ecclesiastical institutions of his kingdom, which laid the 
first foundations of the celebrated " Galilean Liberties." Clement IV. 
gave occasion for such procedure on the part of the monarch who was a 
model of piety after the standard of those times, by claiming in a.d. 1266 
for the papal chair the plenaria dispositio of all prebends and benefices. 
In opposition to this assumption the king secured by a Pragmatic 
Sanction of a.d. 1269 to all churches and monasteries of his realm un- 
conditional freedom of all elections and presentations according to old 
existing rights, confirmed to them anew all privileges and immunities 
previously granted them, forbade every form of simony as a heinous 
crime, and prohibited all extraordinary taxation of church property on 
the part of the Roman curia. — At last the cardinals took courage and 
elected Gregory X., a.d. 1271-1276, an Italian of the noble house of 
Visconti. The desolating interregnum in Germany was also put an end 
to by the election of Count Rudolf of Hapsburg, a.d. 1273-1291, as king of 
the Germans. At the Second Lyonese or 14th (Ecumenical Council of A.D. 
1274, the worthy pope continued his endeavours without avail to rouse 
the flagging enthusiasm of the princes so as to get them to undertake 
another crusade. The union with the Greek church did not prove of an 
enduring kind (§ 67,4). The constitution, too, sanctioned at the council, 
which provided, in order to prevent prolonged vacancies in the papal 
see, that the election of pope should not only be proceeded with in 
immured conclaves in the place where the deceased pope last resided 
with the curia, but also (though this was again abrogated in a.d. 1351 


by a decree of Clement VI.) should be expedited by limiting the supply of 
food after three days to one dish, after other five days to water, wine, and 
bread. Yet this completely failed to secure the object desired. More 
successful, however, were the negotiations carried on at Lyons with the 
ambassadors of the new German king. Rudolf, in entering upon his 
government, renewed all the concessions made by Otto IV. and Frederick 
II., renounced all imperial claims upon Rome and the States of the 
Church, with the exception of the possessions of Matilda, and abandoned 
all pretension to Sicily. The pope on his part acknowledged him as king 
of the Romans and undertook to crown him emperor in Rome, where 
this agreement was to be formally ratified and signed. But Gregory died 
before arrangements had been completed. 

22. The three following popes. Innocent V., Hadrian V., and John 
XXI., died soon after one another. The last named, previously known 
as Petrus Hispauus, had distinguished himself by his medical and 
philosophical writings. He was properly the twentieth Pope John, hut 
as there was a slight element of uncertainty (§ 82, G) he designated 
himself the twenty-first. After a six months' vacancy Nicholas III., 
A.D. 1277-1280, mounted the papal throne. By diplomacy he secured 
the ratification of the still undecided concordat with the German king- 
dom, and Rudolf, who had enough to do in Germany, immediately 
withdrew from Italian affairs, even abandoning his claims to imperial 
coronation. The powerful pope, whose pontificate was marked by 
rapacity and nepotism, and who is therefore put by Dante in hell, did 
not live long enough to carry out his plans for the overthrow of the 
French yoke in Italy. But he obliged Charles I. to resign his Roman 
senatorship, and secretly encouraged a conspiracy of the Sicilians, which 
under his successor Martin IV., a.d. 1281-1285, a Frenchman and a 
pliable tool of Charles, broke out in the terrible " Sicilian Vespers " of 
A.D. 1282. The island of Sicily was thereby rent from the French rule 
and papal vassalage, and in a roundabout way the Hohenstaufens by the 
female line regained the government of this part of their old inheri- 
tance (§ 95, 1). Rome now again in a.d. 1284 shook off the senatorial rule 
which Charles I. had meanwhile again assumed, and after his death and 
that of Martin, which speedily followed, they transferred this dignity to 
the new pope Houorius IV., a.d. 1285-1287, whose short but vigorous 
reign was followed by a vacancy of eleven months. The Franciscan 
general then mounted the pap^al throne as Nicholas IV., a.d. 1288-1292. 
He filled up the period of his pontificate with vain endeavours to 
revive the spirit of the crusades and secure the suppression of heresy. 
Violent party feuds of cardinals of the Orsini and Colonna factions 
delayed the election of a pope after his death for two years. They 
united at last in electing the most unfit conceivable, Peter of Mur- 
rone (§ 98, 2), wlio, as Coelestine V. changed the monk's cowl for the 


papal tiara, but was persuaded after four months by the sly and ambi- 
tious Cardinal Cajetan to resign. Cajetan now himself succeeded in a.d. 
129J: as Boniface VIII. The poor monk was confined by him in a tower, 
where he died. He was afterwards canonized by Pope John XXII. 

23. Temporal Power of the Popes. — During the 12th and 13th centuries, 
when the spiritual power of the papacy had reached its highest point, 
the pope came to be regarded as the absolute head of the church. 
Gregory VII. arrogated the right of confirming all episcopal elections. 
The papal recommendations to vacant sees {Preces, whence those so 
recommended were called Precistce) were from the time of Innocent III, 
transformed into mandates [Mandata), and Clement IV. claimed for the 
papal chair the right of sl plenario dispositio of all ecclesiastical benefices. 
Even in the 12th century the theory was put forth as in accordance with 
the canon law that all ecclesiastical possessions were the property not of 
the particular churches concerned but of God or Christ, and so of the 
pope as His representative, who in administering them was responsible to 
Him alone. Hence the popes, in special cases when the ordinary revenues 
of the curia were insufficient, had no hesitation in exercising the right 
of levying a tax upon ecclesiastical property. They heard appeals from 
all tribunals and could give dispensations from existing church laws. The 
right of canonization (§ 104, 8), which was previously in the power of 
each bishop with application simply to his own diocese, was for the first 
time exercised with a claim for recognition over the whole church by 
Jolm XV., in a.d. 993, without, however, any word of withdrawing their 
privilege from the bishops. Alexander III. was the first to declare in 
A.D. 1170 that canonization was exclusively the right of the papal chair. 
The system of Gregory VII. made no claim of doctrinal infallibility for 
the Holy See, though his ignorance of history led him to suppose that 
no heretic had ever presided over the Eoman church, and his under- 
standing of Luke xxii. 32 made him confidently expect that none ever 
would. Innocent III., indeed, publicly acknowledged that even the 
pope might err in matters of faith, and then, but only then, become 
amenable to the judgment of the church. And Innocent IV., fifty years 
later, taught that the pope might err. It is therefore wrong to say, 
"I believe what the pope believes "; for one should believe only what 
the church teaches. Thomas Aquinas was the first who expressly main- 
tained the doctrine of papal infallibility. He says that the pope alone 
can decide finally upon matters of faith, and that even the decrees of 
councils only become valid and authoritative when confirmed by him. 
Thomas, however, never went the length of maintaining that the pope 
can by himself affirm any dogma without the advice and previous 
deliberations of a council. — Kissing the feet sprang from an Italian 
custom, and even an emperor like Frederick Barbarossa humbled 
himself to hold the pope's stirrup. According to the Bonation of Con- 


stautine document (^ 87, i), Constantine the Great liad himself per- 
formed this office of equerry to Pope Sylvester. When the coronation 
of the pope was introduced is still a disputed point. Nicholas I. was, 
according to the Libei- pontijicalis, formally crowned on his accession. 
Previously the successors of the apostles were satisfied with a simple 
episcopal mitre (§ 8i, 1), which on the head of the crowned pope was 
developed into the tiara (§ 100, 15). At the Lateran Council of a.d. 1059 
Hildebrand is said to have set upon the head of the new pope Nicholas 
II. a double crown to indicate the council's recognition of his temporal 
and spiritual sovereignty. The papal granting of a golden rose con- 
secrated by prayer, inceuse, balsam and holy water to princes of exem- 
plary piety or even to prominent monasteries, churches, or cities, 
conveying an obligation to make acknowledgment by a large money gift, 
dates as far back as the 12th century. So far as is known, Louis VII. 
was the first to receive it from Alexander III. in a.d. 1163. — The popes 
appointed legates to represent them abroad, as they had done even 
earlier at the synods held in the East. Afterwards, when the institu- 
tion came to be more fully elaborated, a distinction was made between 
Legati missi or nuntios and Legati nciti. The former were appointed 
as required for diplomatic negotiations, visitation and organization of 
churches, as well as for the holding of provincial synods, at which they 
presided. They were called Legati a latere, if the special importance of 
the business demanded a representation from among the nearest and most 
trusted councillors of the pope, i.e. one of the cardinals, as Pontijices 
collaterales. The rank of born legate, Legatus natus, on the other hand, 
was a prelatic dignity of the highest order conferred once for all by papal 
privilege, sometimes even upon temporal princes, who had specially 
served the Holy See, as for example the king of Hungary and the 
Norman princes of Italy (Nos. 3, 13), which made them permanently 
representatives of the pope invested with certain ecclesiastical preroga- 
tives. — Among the numerous literary and documentary fictions and 
forgeries with which the Gregorian papal system sought to support its 
ever-advancing pretensions to authority over the whole church, is one 
which may be regarded as the contemporary supplement to the work of 
the Pseudo-Isidore. It is the production of a Latin theologian residing in 
the East, otherwise unknown, who, at the time of the controversies waged 
at the Lyonese Council of a.d. 1271 between the Greeks and Latins 
(§ 67, 4), brought forth what professed to be an unbroken chain of tradi- 
tions from alleged decrees and canons of the most famous Greek Coun- 
cils, e.g. Nicfea, Chalcedon, etc., and church fathers, most frequently from 
Cyril of Alexandria, the so-called Pseudo-Cyril, in which the controverted 
questions were settled in favour of the Roman pretensions, and especially 
the most extreme claims to the primacy of the pope were asserted. It 
was presented in a.d. 1261 to Urban IV., who immediately guaranteed 

§ 97. THE CLEiRGt. 59 

s genuineness in a letter to the emperor Michael PaUeologus. On its 
doption by Thomas Aquinas, who diligently employed its contents in 
is controversies against the Greeks as well as in his dogmatic works, it 
on respect and authority throughout all the countries of the West. 

§ 97. The Clergy. 

By tithes, legacies, donations, impropriations, and the 
rising value of landed estates, the wealth of churches and 
monasteries grew from year to year. In this way benefit 
was secured not only to the clergy and the monks, but also 
in many ways to the poor and needy. The law of celibacy 
strictly enforced by Gregory VII. saved the church from 
the impoverishment Avdth which it was beginning to be 
threatened by the dividing or squandering of the property 
of the church upon the children of the clergy. But 
while an absolute stop was put to the marriage of the 
clergy, it tended greatly to foster concubinage, and yet 
more shameful vices. Yet notwithstanding all the cor- 
ruption that prevailed among the clerical order it cannot 
be denied that the superior as well as the inferior clergy 
embraced a great number of worthy and strictly moral 
men, and that the sacerdotal office which the people could 
quite well distinguish from the individuals occup3dng it, 
still continued to be highly respected in spite of the 
immoral lives of many priests. Even more hurtful to the 
exercise of their pastoral work than the immorality of indi- 
vidual clergymen was the widespread illiteracy and gross 
ignorance of Christian truth of those who should have been 

1. The Roman College of Cardinals.— All the clergy attached to one 
particular church were called Clerici cardinales down to the 11th 
century. But after Leo IX. had reformed and re-organized the Roman 
clergy, and especially after Nicholas II. in a.d. 1059 had transferred the 
right of papal election to the Komau cardinals, i.e. the seven bishops of 
the Roman metropolitan dioceses and to the presbyters and deacons of 
the principal churches of Rome, the title of cardinal was given to them 
at first by way of eminence and very soon exclusively. It was not till 


the 13th century that it became usual to give to foreign prelates the 
rank of Roman cardinal priests as a mark of distinction. Under the 
name of the holy college the cardinals, as the spiritual dignitaries most 
nearly associated with the pope, formed his ecclesiastical and civil council, 
and were also as such entrusted with the highest offices of state in the 
papal domains. Innocent IV. at Lyons in a.d. 1245 gave to them as a 
distinction the red hat ; Boniface VIII. in a.d. 1297 gave them the purple 
mantle that indicated princely rank. To these Paul II. in a.d. 1464 
added the right of riding the white palfrey with red cloth and golden 
bridle ; and finally, Urban VIII. in a.d. 1630 gave them the title 
" Eminence." Sixtus V. in a.d. 1586 fixed their number at seventy, after 
the pattern of the elders of Israel, Exod. xxiv. 1, and the seventy disciples 
of Jesus, Luke x. 1. The popes, however, took care to keep a greater or 
less number of places vacant, so that they might have opportunities of 
showing favour and bestowing gifts when necessary. The cardinals were 
chosen in accordance with the arbitrary will of the individual pope, who 
nominated them by presenting them with the red hat, and installed 
them into their high position by the ceremony of closing and opening 
the mantle. From the time of Eugenius IV., a.d. 1431, the college of 
cardinals put every newly elected pope under a solemn oath to maintain 
the rights and iDrivileges of the cardinals and not to come to any serious 
and important resolution without their advice and approval. 

2. The Political Importance of the Superior Clergy (§ 84) reached its 
highest point during this period. This was carried furthest in Germany, 
especially under the Saxon imperial dynasty. On more than one 
occasion did the wise and firm policy of the German clergy, splendidly 
organized under the leadership of the primate of Mainz, save the 
German nation from overthrow or dismemberment threatened by 
ambitious princes. This power consisted not merely in influence over 
men's minds, but also in their position as members of the states of the 
empire and territorial lords. "Whether or not a warlike expedition was to 
be undertaken depended often only on the consent or refusal of the 
league of lords spiritual. It was the policy of the clergy to secure a 
united, strong, well-organized Germany. The surrounding countries 
wished to be included in the German league of churches and states ; not, 
however, as the emperor wished, as crown lands, but as portions of the 
empire. Agaiust expeditions to Rome, which took the attention of Ger- 
man princes away from German affairs and ruined Germany, the German 
clergy protested in the most decided manner. They wished the chair of 
St. Peter to be free and independent as a European, not a German, in- 
stitution, with the emperor as its supporter not its oppressor, but they 
manfully resisted all the assumptions and encroachments of the popes. 
One of the most celebrated of the German dignitaries of any age was 
Bruno the Great, brother of the Emperor Otto I., equally distinguished 

§ 97. THE CLERGY. 61 

as a statesman and as a reformer of the church, and the unwearied pro- 
moter of liberal studies. Chaucellor under his imperial brother from 
A.D. 9iO, he was his most trusted counsellor, and was appointed by him 
in A.D. 953 Archbishop of Cologne, and was soon after made Duke of 
Lon-aiue. He died in a d. 965. Another example of a German prelate 
of the true sort is seen in Willigis of Mainz, who died in a.d. 1011, 
under the two last Ottos and Henry II., whom he raised to the throne. 
The good understanding that was brought about between this monarch 
and the clergy of Germany was in great measure owing to the wise 
policy of this prelate. Under Henry IV. the German clergy got split up 
into three parties, — the papal party of Clugny under Gebhard of Salz- 
burg, including almost all the Saxon bishops ; an imperial party under 
Adalbert of Bremen, who endeavoured with the emperor's help to found 
a northern patriarchate, which undoubtedly tended to become a northern 
papacy ; and an independent German party under St. Anno II. of 
Cologne (§ 96, 6), in which notwithstanding much violence, ambition, 
and self-seeking, there still survived much of the spirit that had character- 
ized the policy of the old German bishops. Henry V., too, as well as 
the first Hohenstauf ens, had sturdy supporters in the German clergy; 
but Frederick II. by his ill treatment of the bishops alienated their 
clergy from the interest of the crown. The rise of the imperial digni- 
taries after the time of Otto I., and the tran'sference to them under 
Otto IV. of the election of emperor raised the archbishops of Mainz, 
Treves, and Cologne to the rank of spiritual electoral princes as arch- 
chaplains or archchancellors. The Golden Bull of Charles IV., in a.d. 
1356 (§ 110, 4), confirmed and tabulated their rights and duties. 

3. The Bishops and the Cathedral Chapter. — The bishops exercised juris- 
diction over all the clergy of their diocese, and punished by deprivation 
of office and imprisonment in monasteries. Especially questions of 
marriage, wills, oaths, were brought before their tribunal. The German 
synodal judicatures soon gave way before the Eoman judiciary system. 
The archdeacons emancipated themselves more and more from episcopal 
authority and abused their power in so arbitrary a way that in the 12th 
century the entire institution was set aside. For the discharge of busi- 
ness episcopal officials and vicars were then introduced. The Cliorepi- 
scopi {§ 84) had passed out of view^in the 10th century. But during the 
crusades many Catholic bishoprics had been founded in the East. The 
occupants of these when driven away clung to their titles in hojaes of 
better times, and found employment as assistants or suffragans of Western 
bishops. Thus arose the order of Episcopi in partibus (sc. infidelium) 
which has continued to this day, as a witness of inalienable rights, 
and as affording a constant opportunity to the popes of showing favour 
and giving rewards. For the exercise of the archepiscopal office, the 
Fourth Lateran Council of a.d. 1215 made the receiving from the pope the 


pallium (§ 5'J, 7) au absolutely essential condition, and those elected were 
obliged to pay to the curia an arbitrary tax of a large amount called the 
pallium fee. The canonical life (§ 84, 4) from the 10th century began 
more and more to lose its moral weight and importance. Out of attempts 
at reform in the 11th century arose the distinction of Canonici seculares 
and regulares. The latter lived in cloisters according to monkish rules, 
and were zealous for the good old discipline and order, but sooner or later 
gave way to worldliness. The rich revenues of cathedral chapters made 
the reversion of prebendal stalls the almost exclusive privilege of the 
higher nobility, notwithstanding the earnest opposition of the popes. 
In the course of the 13th century the cathedral clergy, with the help of 
the popes, arrogated to themselves the sole right of episcopal elections, 
ignoring altogether the claims of the diocesan clergy and the people or 
nobles. The cathedral clergy also made themselves independent of 
episcopal control. They lived mostly outside of the cathedral diocese, 
and had their canonical duties performed by vicars. The chapter filled 
up vacancies by co-optation. 

4. Endeavours to Reform the Clergy. — As a reformer of the English 
clergy, who had sunk very low in ignorance, rudeness and immorality, the 
most conspicuous figure during the 10th century was St. Dunstan. He 
became Archbishop of Canterbury in a.d. 959 and died in a.d. 988. He 
sought at once to advance the standard of education among the clergy 
and to inspire the Church with a higher moral and religious spirit. For 
these ends he laboured on with an energy and force of will and an 
inflexible consistency and strictness in the pursuit of his hierarchical 
ideals, which mark him out as a Hildebraud before Hildebrand. Even 
as abbot of the monastery of Glastonbury he had given a forecast of his 
life work by restoring and making more severe the rule of St. Benedict, 
and forming a brotherhood thoroughly disciplined in science and in 
ascetical exercises, from the membership of which, after he had become 
bishop of Worcester, then of London, and finally primate of England and 
the most influential councillor of four successive kings, he could fill the 
places of the secular priests and canons whom he expelled from their 
cures. As the primary condition of all clerical reformation he insisted 
upon -the unrelentingly consistent putting down of marriage and con- 
cubinage among the priests.^ — In the 11th century St. Peter Damiani 
distinguished himself as a zealous supporter of the reform party of 
Clugny in the struggle against simony, clerical immorality, and the 
marriage of priests. This obtained for him not only his position as 
cardinal-bishop of Ostia, but also his frequent employment, as papal 

1 Stubbs, " Memorials of St. Dunstan. Collection of six Biographies." 
London, 1875. Soames, " Anglo-Saxon Church." London, 1835. Hook, 
" Lives of Archb. of Canterbury." Vol. i., pp. 382-426. London, 1860. 

§ 97. THE CLEEGY. 63 

legate in serious negotiations. In a.d. 1061 he resigned his bishopric 
and retired into a monastery, where he died in a.d. 1072. His friend 
Hildebrand, who repeatedly called him forth from his retreat to occupy a 
conspicuous place among the contenders for his hierarchical ideal, was 
therefore called by him his " holy Satan." He had indeed little interest 
in pressing hierarchical and political claims, and was inclined rather 
to urge moral reforms within the church itself. In his Libei' Gomor- 
rliianus he drew a fearful picture of the clerical depravity of his times, 
and that with a nakedness of detail which gave to Pope Alexander II. a 
colourable excuse for the suppression of the book. For himself, how- 
ever, Damiani sought no other pleasure than that of scourging himself 
till the blood flowed in his lonely cell (§ 106, 4). His collected works, 
consisting of epistles, addresses, tracts and monkish biographies, were 
published at Eome in a.d. 1602 in 4 vols, by Cardinal Cajetau, — In the 
12th century St. Hildegard (§ 107, 1) and the abbot Joachim of Floris, 
(§ 108, 5) raised their voices against the moral degradation of the clergy, 
and among the men who contributed largely to the restoring of clerical 
discipline, the noble provost Geroch of Eeichersberg in Bavaria, who died 
in A.D. 1169 (§ 102, 5) and the canon Norbert, subsequently archbishop 
of Magdeburg (§ 98, 2), are deserving of special mention. — In the 13th 
century in England Robert Grosseteste distinguished himself as a prelate 
of great nobility and force of character. After being chancellor of Oxford 
he became bishop of Lincoln, energetically reforming many abuses in his 
diocese, and persistently contending against any form of papal encroach- 
ment. He died in a.d. 1253.^ 

5. The Pataria of Milan. — Nowhere during the 11th century were 
simony, concubinage and priests' marriages more general than among 
the Lombard clergy, and in no other place was such determined opposition 
offered to Hildebrand's reforms. At the head of this opposition stood 
Guido, archbishop of Milan, whom Henry III. deposed in a.d. 1046. 
Against the papal demands, he pressed the old claims of his chair to 
autonomy (§ 46, 1) and renounced allegiance to Eome. The nobles and 
the clergy supported Guido. But two deacons, Ariald and Laudulf, about 
A.D. 1057 formed a consjiiracy among the common people, against " the 
Nicolaitan sect" (§ 27, 8). To this party its opponents gave the oppro- 
brious name of Pataria, Paterini, from ijatalia, meaning rabble, riffraff, 
or from Pattarea, a back street of ill fame in Milan, the quarter of the 
rabble, where the Arialdists held their secret meetings. They took the 
name given in reproach as a title of honour, and after receiving military 
organization from Erlembald, Landulf's brother, they opened a campaign 
against the married priests. For thirty years this struggle continued to 
deluge city and country with blood. 

^ Luard, " Eoberti Grosseteste, Episcopi quondam Lincolniensis Epi- 
stolfe." Loudon, 18B2. 


§ 98. Monastic Orders and Institutions. 

In spite of the great and constantly increasing corrup- 
tion the monastic idea during this period had a wonderfully 
rapid development, and more persistently and siiccessfully 
than ever before or since the monks urged their claims 
to be regarded as " the knighthood of asceticism." A 
vast number of monkish orders arose, taking the place 
for the most part of existing orders which had relaxed 
their rules. These were partly reformed off-shoots of the 
Benedictine order, partly new organizations reared on an 
independent basis. New monasteries were being built 
almost every day, often even within the cities. The re- 
formed Benedictine monasteries clustered in a group 
around the parent monastery whose reformed rule they 
adopted, forming an organized society with a common 
centre. These groups were therefore called Congregations. 
The oldest and, for two centuries, the most important, of 
these congregations was that of the Brethren of Clugny, 
whose ardent zeal for reform in the hierarchical direction 
was mainly instrumental in raising again the church and 
the papacy out of that degradation and corruption into 
which they had fallen during the 10th and 11th centuries. 
The otherwise less important order of the Camaldolites 
was also a vigorous promoter of these movements. But 
Clugny had in Clairvaux a rival which shared with it on 
almost equal terms the respect and reverence of that age. 
The unreformed monasteries of the Benedictines, on the 
other hand, still continued their easy, luxurious style of 
living. They were commonly called the Black Monks to 
distinguish them from the Cistercians who were known 
as the White Monks. In order to prevent a constant 
splitting up of the monkish fraternities, Innocent III. at 
the Lateran Council of a.d. 1215 forbade the founding 


of new orders. Yet he himself took part in the formatiou 
of the two great mendicant orders, and also the following- 
popes issued no prohibition. — The papacy had in the 
monkish orders its standing army. It was to them, in a 
special manner, that Gregory's sj^stem owed its success. 
But they were also by far the most important promoters 
and fosterers ol learning, science, and art. The pope in 
various ways favoured the emancipation of the monasteries 
from episcopal control, their so-called Exemption ; and con- 
ferred upon the abbots of famous monasteries what was 
practically episcopal rank, with liberty to wear the bishop's 
mitre, so that they were called Mitred Abbots (§ 84, 1). 
The princes too classed the abbots in respect of dignity 
and order next to the bishops ; and the people, wdio saw 
the popular idea of the church more and more represented 
in the monasteries, honoured them with unmeasured reve- 
rence. From the 10th century the monks came to be 
considered a distinct religious order {Orclo religiosorum). 
Lay brethren, Fvatres conversi, were now taken in to dis- 
charge the worldly business of the monastery. They were 
designated Fratres^ while the others who received clerical 
ordination were addressed as Pcitres. The monks rarely 
lived on good terms with the secular clergy; for the 
former as confessors and mass priests often seriously 
interfered with the rights and revenues of the latter. — 
Besides the many monkish orders, with their strict seclu- 
sion, perpetual vows and ecclesiastically sanctioned rule, 
we meet with organizations of a freer type such as the 
Humiliati of Milan, consisting of whole families. Of a 
similar type were the Beguines and Beghards of the 
Netherlands, the former composed of women, the latter of 
men. These people abandoned their handicraft and their 
domestic and civic duties for a monastic-like mode of life 
retired from the world. The crusading enthusiasm also 



occasioned a combination of the monastic idea witli that 
of knighthood, and led to the formation of the so-called 
Orders of Knights, which with a Grandmaster and several 
Commanders, were divided into Knights, Priests, and Serv- 
ing Brethren. — Continuation, § 112, 

1. Offshoots of the Benedictines.— (1) Tlio Brethren of Clugny. Among 
the Benedictines, since their reformation by the second Benedict 
(§ 85, 2) many serious abuses had crept in. After the Burgundian Count 
Berno, who died in a.d. 'J27, had done useful service by restoring dis- 
cipline and order in two monasteries of which he was abbot, the Duke 
"William of Aquitaine founded for him a new institution. Thus arose in 
A.D. 910 the celebrated monastery of Clugny, Cluniacum, in Burgundy, 
which the founder placed under immediate papal control. Berno's suc- 
cessor Odo, who died in a.d. 942, abandoning the life of a courtier on his 
recovery from a severe illness, made it the head and heart of a separate 
Clugny-Congregation as a branch of the Benedictine order. Strict 
asceticism, a beautiful and artistic service, zealous prosecution of science 
and the education of the young, with yet greater energy in the pro- 
motion of a hierarchical reform of the church as a whole, as well as an 
entire series of able abbots, among whom Odilo (f a.d. 1048), the friend 
of Hildebrand, and Peter the Venerable (f a.d. 1156) are specially pro- 
minent, gave to this congregation, which in the 12th century had 2,000 
monasteries in France, an influence quite unparalleled in this whole 
period. The abbot of Clugny stood at the head, and appointed the priors 
for all the other monasteries. Under the licentious Abbot Pontius, who 
on account of his base conduct was deposed in a.d. 1122, the order fell 
into decay, but rose again under Peter the Venerable. Continuation, 
§ 164, 2. — (2) The Congregation of the Cainaldolites was founded in a.d. 
1018 by the Benedictine Romuald, descended from the Duke of Ravenna, 
at Camaldoli {Campus MaldoU), a wild district in the Apennines. In a.d. 
1086 a nunnery was placed alongside of the monastery. The president 
of the parent monastery at Camaldoli stood at the head of the whole 
order as Major. The order carried out enthusiastically the high church 
ideal of Clugny, and won great influence in its time, although it by no 
means attained the importance of the French order. — (3) Twenty years 
later, in a.d. 1038, the Florentine Gualbertus founded the Order of Val- 
lombrosa, in a romantically situated shady valley of the Apeimines {Valli.i 
umhrosa), according to the rule of Benedict. This was the first of all 
the orders to appoint lay brethren for the management of worldly busi- 
ness, in order that the monks might observe their vow of silence and 
strict seclusion. The parent monastery attained to great wealth and 
reputaticm, but it never had a great number of alliliatcd institutions.^ 


(4) The Cisterciaus. In a.d. 1098 the Benedictine abbot Robert founded the 
monastery of Citeaux {Cistercium) near Dijon, which as the parent mona- 
stery of the Congregation of the Cistercians became the most formidable 
rival of Clugny. The Cistercians were distinguished from the Brethren 
of Clugny by voluntary submission to the jurisdiction of the bishops, 
avoidance of all interference with the pastorates of others, and the 
banishing of all ornaments from their churches and monasteries. The 
order continued obscure for a while, till St. Bernard (§ 102, 3), from a.d. 
1115 abbot of the monastery of Clairvaux (Claravallis), an offshoot of 
Citeaux, by his ability and spirituality raised it far above all other orders 
in the esteem of the age. In honour of him the French Cistercians took 
the name of Beruardines. The hostility between them and the Brethren 
of Clugny was overcome by the personal friendship of Bernard and 
Peter the Venerable. By the statutory constitution, the so-called Cliarta 
charitatis, drawn up in a.d. 1119, the administration of all the affairs of 
the order was assigned to a general of the order, appointed by the 
abbot of Citeaux, the abbots of the four chief affiliated monasteries, and 
twenty other elected representatives forming a high council. This 
council, however, was answerable to the general assembly of all the 
abbots and priors, which met at first yearly, but afterwards every third 
year. The affiliated monasteries had a yearly visitation of the abbot of 
Citeaux, but Citeaux itself was to be visited by the four abbots just referred 
to. In the 13th century this order had 2,000 monasteries and 6,000 nun- 
neries. — (5) The Congregation of Scottish Monasteries in Germany owed 
its origin to the persistent love of travel on the part of Irish and Scottish 
monks, which during the 10th century received a new impulse from the 
Danish invasions (§ 93, 1). The first monastery erected in Germany for 
the reception exclusively of Irish monks was that of St. Martin at 
Cologne, built in the 10th century. Much more important, however, was 
the Scottish monastery of St. James at Regensburg, founded in a.d. 1067 
by Marianus Scotus and two companions. It was the parent mona- 
stery of eleven other Scottish cloisters in South Germany. Old Celtic 
sympathies (§ 77, 8), which may have originally bound them together, 
could not assert themselves in the new home during this period as they 
did in earlier days ; and when Innocent III., at the Laterau Council of 
A.D. 1215, sanctioned them as a separate congregation bound by the 
Benedictine rule, there certainly remained no longer any trace of Celtic 
peculiarities. They were distinguished at first for strict asceticism, 
severe discipline and scientific activity, but subsequently they fell lower 
than all the rest in immorality and self-indulgence {§ 112). 

2. New Monkish Orders. — Reserving the great mendicant orders, the 
following are the most celebrated among the vast array of new orders, 
not bound by the Benedictine rule : (1) The Order of Grammout in 
France, founded by Stephen of Ligerno in a.d. 1070. It took simply the 


gospel as its rule, cultivated a quiet, humble and peaceable temper, and 
so by the 12th century it had its very life crushed out of it by the bold 
assumptions of its lay brethren.— (2) The Order of St. Anthony, founded in 
A.D. 1095 by a French nobleman of Dauphiny, called Guaston, in grati- 
tude for the recovery of his son Guerin from the so-called St. Anthony's 
fire on his invoking St. Anthony. He expended his whole property upon 
the restoring of a hospital beside the church of St. Didier la Mothe, in a 
chapel of which it was supposed the bones of Anthony lay, and devoted 
himself, together with his son and some other companions, to the nursing 
of the sick. At first merely a lay fraternity, the members took in a.d. 1218 
the monk's vow. Boniface VIII. made them canons under the rule of 
St. Augustine (§ 45, 1). They were now called Antonians, and devoted 
themselves to contemplation. The order spread greatly, especially in 
France. They wore a black cloak with a T-formed cross of blue upon 
the breast (Ezek. ix. 9) and a little bell round the neck while engaged 
in collecting alms. — (3) The Order of Fontevraux was founded in a.d. 1094 
by Robert of Arbrissel in Fontevraux {Fons Ehraldi) in Poitou. Preach- 
ing repentance, he went through the country, and founded convents for 
virgins, widows and fallen women. Their abbesses, as representatives of 
the Mother of God, to whom the order was dedicated, were set over the 
priests who did their bidding. — (4) The Order of the Gilbertines had its 
name from its founder Gilbert, an English priest of noble birth. Here 
too the women formed the main stem of the order. They were the 
owners of the cloister property, and the men were only its administrators. 
The monasteries of this order were mostly both for men and women. 
It did not spread much beyond England, and had at the time of the 
suppression of the monasteries twenty-one well endowed convents, with 
orphanages and houses for the poor and sick. — (5) The Carthusian Order was 
founded in a.d. 1086 by Bruno of Cologne, rector of the High School at 
liheims. Disgusted with the immoral conduct of Archbishop Manasseh, 
he retired with several companions into a wild mountain gorge near Gre- 
noble, called Chartreuse. He enjoined upon his monks strict asceticism, 
rigid silence, earnest study, prayer, and a contemplative life, clothed them 
in a great coarse cowl, and allowed them for their support only vegetables 
and bran bread. Written statutes, Consuetudines Gartusice, which soon 
spread over several houses of the Carthusians, were first given them in 
A.D. 1134 by Guido, the fifth prior of the parent monastery. A steward 
had management of the affairs of the convent. Each ate in his own 
cell; only on feast days had they a common meal. At least once a 
week they fasted on salt, water and bread. Breaking silence, permitted 
only on high festivals, and for two hours on Thursdays, was punished 
with severe flagellation. Even the lay brethren were treated with great 
severity, and were not allowed either to sit or to cover their heads in 
the presence of the brothers of the order. Carthusian nuns were added 


to the order in the 13th century with a modifiecl rule. —(G) The Premon- 
stratensian Order was founded in a.d. 1121 by Norbert, the only German 
founder of orders besides and after Bruno. A rich, worldly-minded 
canon of Xanthen in the diocese of Cologne, he was brought to another 
mind by the fall of a thunderbolt beside him. He retired along with 
several other like-minded companions into the rough valley of Premontre 
in the bishopric of Laon [Prcemonstratum, because pointed out to him in 
a vision). In his rule he joined together the canonical duties with an 
extremely strict monastic life. He appeared in a.d. 1126 as a preacher 
of repentance at the Diet of Spires, was there elected archbishop of 
Magdeburg, and made a most impressive entrance into his metropolis 
dressed in his mendicant garb. His order spread and estabhsbed many 
convents both for monks and for nuns. — (7) The Trinitarian Order, ordo s. 
Trinitatis de redemptione captivorum, was called into existence by Innocent 
III., and had for its work the redemption of Christian captives. — (8) The 
Ccelestine Order was founded by Peter of Murrone, afterwards Pojdc Coeles- 
tine V. (§ 90, 22). Living in a cave of Mount Murrone in Apulia, under 
strict penitential discipline and engaged in mystic contemplation, the 
fame of his sanctity attracted to him many companions, with whom in 
A.D. 1254 he established a monastery on Mount Majella. Gregory X., in 
whose presence Peter, according to his biographer, hung up his monkish 
cowl in empty space, upon a sunbeam which he took for a cord stretch- 
ing across, instituted the order as Brethren of the Holy Spirit. But 
when in a.d. 1294 their founder ascended the papal throne, they took 
his papal name. This order, which gave itself up entirely to extravagant 
mystic contemplation, spread over Italy, France and the Netherlands. 

3. The Franciscans.— The mendicant orders had their origin in the 
endeavours to carry out as exactly as possible the vow of poverty. 
They would live solely on charitable gifts, which, as voluntary alms, were 
partly paid into their cloisters, partly gathered outside of the cloister at 
set times by monks sent out for the purpose {Terminants)A The author 
of this idea was St. Francis, born in a.d. 1182, the son of a wealthy 
merchant, at Assisi in Umbria. His proper name was Giovanni Ber- 
nardone. The name Francis was given him on account of his early 
proficiency in the French language. As a rich merchant's son he gave 
himself up to the enjoyments of the world, from which he was first 
estranged by means of a dream, in which he saw a vast number of 
weapons marked with the sign of the cross, which were meant for him 
and his warriors. He wished now to enter on military service. But 
a new vision taught him that he was called to build up the house of 
God that had fallen down. He understood this to refer to the decayed 

^ Trench, " The Mendicant Orders," in " Lectures on Medieval Church 
History." London, 1878. 


fjhapel of St. Damiani at Assisi, and began to expend on the building 
of the chapel the proceeds got from the sale of valuable webs of cloth 
from his father's warehouse. Disowned by his father in consequence 
of such proceedings, he lived for several years as a recluse until the 
reading in the church one day of the gospel passage about the sending 
out of the disciples without gold and silver, without staff or purse 
(Matt. X.), shot like a flash of lightning into his soul. Kenouncing all 
property, begging for the necessaries of life, from about a.d. 1208, he 
began to go through all countries in the East and West, preaching re- 
pentance, taken by the people sometimes for a crazy, harebrained 
enthusiast, sometimes for a most venerable saint (§ 93, 16). In the un- 
exampled thoroughness of his self-denial and renunciation of the world, 
in the purity and simplicity of his heart, in the enthusiasm of his 
love for God and man, in the sacred riches of his poverty, St. Francis 
appeared a heavenly stranger in a selfish world He had wonderful depths 
of tender feeling for nature. With the birds of the forest, with the beasts 
of the field, he maintained a childlike intercourse as with brothers and 
sisters {§ 104, 10), exhorting them to praise their Creator. The para- 
disaical relation of man to the lower animals seemed in this saint to 
have been restored. When attempting to deliver carefully studied 
speeches before the pope and the cardinals he failed ; but his unpre- 
meditated speeches were poured forth from the depth of his heart in 
an uninterrupted as well as powerful and irresistible torrent of elo- 
quence. Innocent III., struck with his simplicity and humility, gave 
his approval to this remarkable saint. According to an old legend he is 
said to have sent him at first to the swine, and the saint obeyed the 
command. Innocent's successor Honorius III. formally instituted in 
A.D. 1223 the company of like-minded men which had gathered around 
Francis as the order of Fratres minores, Minorites or Franciscans, and 
gave them the right of preaching and discharging pastoral duties in 
any place wheresoever they might go. It was, however, the founder's 
intention that the order should signalise itself by acts of self-denial 
rather than by preaching. A brown frock with a capouch, and instead 
of a girdle a rope round the body, constituted the badge of the order. 
They were also the first Barefooted monks, Discalceati ; for they either 
wore no covering on the feet, or on long journeys put on merely sandals 
to protect the soles of the feet (Matt. x. 10 ; Mark vi. 9). The holy p)ride 
of contempt for the world, the genuine humility, the enthusiasm and 
completeness of their self-denying love made a powerful imiiression, and 
won for the pious brethren the honourable designation of the Seraphic 
order. A like-minded virgin, St. Clara of Assisi, founded in a.d. 1212 
the order of the Nuns of St. Clara, to whom as a second order St. 
Francis gave a rule in a.d. 1224. The fraternity of the Tertiaries {Ter- 
this ordo de •jjoenitentia), to whom he also gave a rule, allowed their 


members to continue in the world, and secured a broad basis for the 
Franciscan order among the people. The central seat of the order was 
the church of Portiuncula in Assisi, dedicated to Mary, which the pope 
endowed with the plenary power of bestowing indulgences. The founder 
himself died in a.d. 1226, stretched out naked on the floor of the Porti- 
unciilar church. Gregory IX. canonized him in a.d. 1288 ; and in a.d. 
1264 his order numbered 8,000 cloisters, containing 200,000 monks. In 
A.D. 1399 the chief authorities of the Franciscans at Assisi authorized 
the Liher conformitatum of Bartholomew of Pisa, which enumerated forty 
resemblances between Christ and St. Francis, in which generally the 
saint was made to transcend the Saviour. On the legend of the 
stigmatization of St. Francis, see § 105, 4. His life embellished by the 
record of many miracles was written in a.d. 1229 by Thomas of Celano, 
an edition enlarged by the Tres Socii was published in a.d. 1216 ; and 
another appeared in a.d. 1261, by Bonaventura.^ 

4. Splits and Offshoots of the Franciscans.— During the lifetime of 
St. Francis, Elias of Cortona, to whom the founder during a journey 
to the East had entrusted the command of the order, sought to modify 
the severity of its rules. Francis set aside these proposed changes with 
disapproval. But when Elias was appointed general in a.d. 1233 he 
successfully renewed his attempt. The stricter party, however, adhered 
to Authony of Padua (born in a.d. 1195, at Lisbon ; died in a.d. 1231, 
at Padua), who lived and wrought quite in the spirit of the founder. 
When men refused to listen to his teaching, he preached with success 
to the fishes, and wrought many other miracles. Gregory IX. canonized 
bim in a.d. 1232. Violent contondings soon arose within the order. 
Twice was Elias thrust out from the generalship. Then he attached 
himself to Frederick II., was excommunicated along with him, but died 
at peace with the church in a.d. 1253. The more lax party, Fratres cle 
Comvmnitate, endeavoured to reconcile the possession of rich monastic 
property with the founder's fundamental principle of poverty by affirm- 
ing that these goods were placed by the donors in their hands only in 
usufruct, or that they were given not really to the order but to the 
Eomau church, though with the intention of supporting the order. 
Nicholas III. in a.d. 1279 sanctioned this view, deciding by the bull 
Exiit qui seminal that the disciples of St. Francis were allowed the 
usufruct but not the possession of earthly goods, as permitted by the 
example of Christ and the Apostles. But now a new controversy arose 
over the form and measure of the usufruct. . A distinction was made 
between Usus inoderatus and a Usus tenuis or pauper. The latter 

1 Milman, "History of Latin Christianity," vol. v. Wadding, " An- 
nales Minorum Fratrum." 8 vols. Lugd., 1625. Stephen, " St. Francis 
of Assisi," in "Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography." London, 1860. 


allowed of no provision be^'ond what was evidently necessary for the 
indispensable support of life. The rigorists, Zelatores, wdth Oliva and 
Casale at their head, took np a position of open and fanatical antagon- 
ism to the papacy, which they identified with antichrist (§ 108, 5). 
One portion of them, that took offence at the views of the lax party 
about dress reform as well as about the use of property, got permission 
from Ccelestine V. in a.d. 129i to separate from the main body of the 
order, and under the designation of Ccelestine Eremites they formed an 
independent community with a general of their own. They settled for 
the most part in Greece and on the islands of the Archipelago. Boniface 
VIII. in A.D. 1302 ordered them to return to the West, and to the parent 
order. But as he soon afterwards died, they still maintained their 
separate existence and their distinguishing garb. 

5. The Dominicans. — The founder of this order was Dominic, born 
A.D. 1170 of a noble Italian family, a priest at Osma, a man of ardent 
temperament and liberal culture. His burning zeal for the salvation of 
men led him with his fellow workers to proceed to the south of France 
in A.D. 1200, to labour there with great self-denial and in a condition of 
apostolic poverty for the conversion of the Albigenses (§ 109, 1). In 
A.D. 1215 he went in company with the bishop of Toulouse to the great 
Lateran Council at Rome. He was at first refused permission to found 
a new order. Innocent III., however, at last gave ear to his persistent 
entreaties, and Honorius III., in a.d. 1216, authorized the rule which 
Dominic had drawn up. The Dominicans or i)reaching order, 0/Y?o/ra - 
tnnn pnedicatorum, thus obtained the right of preaching and hearing con- 
fession everywhere, with the special task of restoring heretics by means of 
their preaching and teaching to the church in which alone salvation is to 
be found. It was not till a.d. 1220 that Dominic and his order pronounced 
themselves mendicants like the Franciscans. He died in a.d. 1233.' — 
An olYshoot of this order composed of converted Albigensian women 
attached itself in later times to the Tertiaries, Fratres et sorore>t de 
militia CJiristi.— Both orders, Franciscans as well as Dominicans, called 
forth by the needy circumstances of the age, as mendicant orders 
requiring no endowments and invested with privileges by the pope, 
spread rapidly over the whole West. Each of them had a general at 
its head in Rpme, a provincial presiding over the convents of each 
country, and among the Franciscans a guardian, among the Dominicans 
a prior, over each separate cloister. Among the Dominicans, owing 
to the disposition of their founder and their endeavours to convert the 
heretics, liberal studies were encouraged and prosecuted. At a later 
period they displayed a great zeal for missions. But most important of 
all was the energy with which they secured the occupancy of academical 

^ " Aimales Ordinis Pnedicatorum," vol. i. Home. 174G. 


chairs. Sometimes the Franciscans, too, inspired by the example of the 
Dominicans, sought after Uberal culture and influence in the universities, 
and were scarcely behind their rivals in zeal for missions to the 
heathens and the Mohammedans. The veneration of the people, who pre- 
ferred to confide their secret confessions to itinerant begging monks, 
roused the jealousy of the secular clergy against both orders, and their 
preponderating influence at the universities awakened the animosity of 
the learned. The University of Paris most vigorously withstood their 
aggression (§ 103, 3). But when this struggle had ended in victory for 
the monks, bitter jealousies and rivalries arose between the two 
orders and led to the establishment of two opposing philosophical schools 
{§ 113, 2). The Dominicans won a great increase of power from 
their being entrusted by Gregory IX. with the exclusive management of 
the inquisition of heretics (§ 109, 2). The Franciscans, on the other 
band, were more beloved by the common people than the more courtly 
and haughty Dominicans. — Continuation, § 112, 4. 

6. The other Mendicant Orders. — The brilliant success of the Francis- 
cans and Dominicans led other societies, either previously existing, or 
only now called into being, to adopt the character of mendicants. Only 
three of them succeeded, though in a much less degree than their 
models, in gaining position, name and extension throughout the West. 
The first of these was the Carmelite Order. It owed its origin to the 
crusader Berthold, Count of Limoges, who in a.d. ]156 founded a mona- 
stery at the brook of Elias on Mount Carmel, to which in a.d. 1209 the 
patriarch of Jerusalem prescribed the rule of St. Basil (§ 44, 3). Hard 
pressed by the Saracens, the Carmelites emigrated in a.d. 1238 to the 
West, where as a mendicant order, under the name of Prates Maria de 
Monte Carmelo, with unexampled hardihood they repudiated their founder 
Berthold, and maintained that the prophet EHas had been himself their 
founder, and that the Virgin Mary had been a sister of their order. What 
they most prided themselves on was tbe sacred scapular which the 
Mother of God herself had bestowed upon Simon Stock, the general of 
the order in a.d. 1251, with the promise that whosoever should die wear- 
ing it should be sure of eternal blessedness. Seventy years later, accord- 
ing to tie legends of the order, the Virgin appeared to Pope John XXII. 
and told him she descended every Saturday into purgatory, in order to 
take such souls to herself into heaven. In the 17th century, when violent 
controversies on this point had arisen, Paul V. authenticated the miracu- 
lous qualities of this scapular, always supposing that the prescribed fasts 
and prayers were not neglected. Among the Carmelites, just as among 
the Franciscans, laxer principles soon became current, causing con- 
troversies and splits which continued down to the 16th century (§ 149, 6). 
—The Order of Angustinians arose out of the combination of several 
Italian monkish societies. Innocent IV. in a.d. 1243 prescribed to them 


tlie rule of St. Augustine {§ 45, 1) as the directory of their commou hfe. 
It was only under Alexander IV. in a.d. 1256 that they were welded 
together into one order as Ordo Fmtrum Eremitarum S. Aucjusthii, with 
the duties and privileges of mendicant monks. Their order spread over 
the whole West, and enjoyed the special favour of the papal chair, 
which conferred upon its memhers the permanent distinction of the office 
of sacristan to the papal chapel and of chaplain to the Holy Father 
(Continuation, § 192, 5). — Finally, as the fifth in the series of mendicant 
orders, we meet with the Order of Servites, Servi b. Virg., devoted to 
the Virgin, and founded in a.d. 1233 by seven pious Florentines. It 
was, however, first recognised as a mendicant order by Martin V., and 
had equal rank with the four others granted it only in a.d. 1567 by 
Pius V. 

7. Working Guilds of a Monkish Order.— (1) During the 11th century, 
midway between the strictly monastic and secular modes of life, a 
number of pious artisan families in Milan, mostly weavers, under the 
name of Humiliati, adopted a communal life with spiritual exercises, 
and community of handicraft and of goods. Whatever profit came 
from their work was devoted to the poor. The married continued their 
marriage relations after entering the community. In the 12th centary, 
however, a party arose among them who bound themselves by vows of 
celibacy, and to them were afterwards attached a congregation of priests. 
Their society was first acknowledged by Innocent III. in a.d. 1021. 
But meanwhile many of them had come under the influence of Arnold 
(§ 108, 6), and so had become estranged from the Catholic church. At 
a later period these formed a connection with the French Waldensians, 
the Pauperes de Lugduno, adopted their characteristic views, and for the 
sake of distinction took the name of Pauperes Italici (§ 108, 12). — Re- 
lated in every respect to the Lombard Humiliati, but distinguished from 
them by the separation of the sexes and a universal obligation of celi- 
bacy, were the communities of the Beguines and Beghards. Priority of 
origin belongs to the Beguines. They took the three monkish vows, but 
only for so long as they belonged to the society. Hence they could 
at any time withdraw, and enter upon marriage and other relations of 
social life. They lived under the direction of a lady superior and 
a priest in a so-called Beguine-house, Curtis Bcguinarum, which gene- 
rally consisted of a number of small houses connected together by one 
surrounding wall. Each had her own household, although on entrance 
she had surrendered her goods over to the community and on with- 
drawing she received them back. They busied themselves with handiwork 
and the education of girls, the spiritual training of females, and sewing, 
washing and nursing the poor in the houses of the city. The surplus 
income over expenditure was applied to works of benevolence. Every 
Beguiue house had its own costume and colour. These institutions soon 


spread over all Belgium, Germany, and France. The first Beguine house 
known to us was founded about 1180 at Liege, by the famous priest and 
popular preacher, Lambert la Beghe, i.e. the Stammerer. Kallmann 
thinks that the name of the society may have been derived from that of 
the preacher. Earlier writers, without anything to support them but a 
vague similarity of sound, were wont to derive it from Begga, daughter 
of Pepin of Landen in the 7th century. Most likely of all, however, 
is Mosheim's derivation of it from " beggan," which means not to pray, 
"beten," a praying sister, but to beg, as the modern English, and so 
proves that the institute originally consisted of a collection of poor 
helpless women. We may compare with this the designation " Lollards," 
§ 116, 3. — After the pattern of the Beguine communities there soon 
arose communities of men, Beghards, with similar tendencies. They 
supported themselves by handicraft, mostly by weaving. But even in the 
13th century corruption and immorality made their appearance in both. 
Brothers and sisters of the New (§ 108, 4) and of the Free Spirit 
(§ 116, 5), Fratricelli (§ 112, 2) and other heretics, persecuted by the 
church, took refuge in their unions and infected them with their heresies. 
The Inquisition (§ 109, 2) kept a sharp eye on them, and many were 
executed, especially in France. The 15th General Council at Vienna, in 
A.D. 1312, condemned eight of their positions as heretical. There was 
now a multitude of Beguine and Beghard houses overthrown. Others 
maintained their existence only by passing over to the Tertiaries of the 
Franciscans. Later popes took the communities that were free from 
suspicion under their protection. But even among those many forms 
of immorality broke out, concubinage between Beguines and Beghards, 
and worldliness, thus obliging the civil and ecclesiastical authorities again 
to step in. The unions still remaining in the time of the Eeformation 
were mostly secularized. Only in Belgium have a few Beguine houses 
continued to exist to the present day as institutions for the maintenance 
of unmarried women of the citizen class. ^ 

8. The Spiritual Order of Knights.— The peculiarity of the Order of 
Knights consists in the combination of the three monkish vows of 
poverty, chastity, and obedience with the vow to maintain a constant 
struggle with the infidels. The most important of these orders were 
the following. (1) The Templars, founded in a.d. 1118 by Hugo de 
Payens and Godfrey de St. Omer for the protection of pilgrims in the 
Holy Land. The costume of the order was a white mantle with a red 
cross. Its rule was drawn up by St. Bernard, whose warm interest in 
the order secured for it papal patronage and the unanimous appro- 
bation of the whole West. When Acre fell in a.d. 1291 the Templars 

1 Gieseler, " Ecclesiastical History," § 72, Edin., 1853. Vol. iii., pp. 


settled in Cyprus, but soon most of them returned to the West, making 
France their headquarters. They had their name probably from a 
palace built on the site of Solomon's temple, which king Baldwin II. 
of Jerusalem assigned them as their first residence.^ — Continuation, 
§ 112, 7.— (2) The Knights of St. John or Hospitallers, founded by 
merchants from Amalfi as early as the middle of the 11th century, 
residing at first in a cloister at the Holy Sepulchre, were engaged in 
showing, hospitality to the pilgrims and nursing the sick. The head 
of the order Raimund du Puy, who occupied this position from a.d. 
1118, added to these duties, in imitation of the Templars, that of fight- 
ing against the infidels. They carried a white cross on their breast, 
and a red cross on their standard. Driven out by the Saracens, they 
settled in Rhodes in a.d. 1310, and in a.d. 1530 took possession of 
Malta.-— (3) The Order of Teutonic Knights had its origin from a hospital 
founded by citizens of Bremen and Liibeck during the siege of Acre 
in A.D. 1120. The costume of the knights was a white mantle with a 
black cross. Subsequently the order settled in Prussia (§ 93, 13), and 
in A.D. 1237 united with the order of the Brothers of the Sword, which 
had been founded in Livonia in a.d. 1202 (93, 12). Under its fourth 
Grandmaster, the prudent as well as vigorous Hermann v. Salza, a.d. 
1210-1239, it reached the summit of its power and influence. — (4) The 
Knights of the Cross arose originally in Palestine under the name of 
the Order of Bethlehem, but at a later period settled in Austria, 
Bohemia, Moravia and Poland. There they adopted the life of regular 
canons (§ 97, 5) and devoted themselves to hospital work and pastoral 
duties. They are still to be found in Bohemia as holders of valuable 
livings, with the badge of a cross of red satin. — In Spain, too, various 
orders of spiritual knights arose under vows to fight with the Moors 
(§ 95, 2). The two most important were the Order of Calatrava, founded 
in A.D. 1158 by the Cistercian monk Velasquez for the defence of the 
frontier city Calatrava, and the Order of Alcantara, founded in a.d. 115G 
for a similar purpose. Both orders were confirmed by Alexander III. 
and gained great fame and still greater wealth in the wars against the 
Moors. Under Ferdinand the Catholic the rank of Grandmaster of 
both orders passed over to the crown. Paul III. in a.d. 1540 released 
the knights from the vow of celibacy, but obliged them to become 
champions of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin. Both orders 
still exist, but only as military orders of merit. 

9. Bridge-Brothers and Mercedarians.— The name of Bridge Brothers, 
Freres Fontifex, Fratres Fontifices, was given to a union founded under 
Clement III., in Southern France, in a.d. 1189, for the building of hos- 

^ Addison, " History of the Knights Templars," etc. London, 1842. 
2 Taafe, " Order of St. John of Jerusalem." 4 vols, London, 1852. 


pices and bridges at points where pilgrims crossed the large rivers, or for 
the ferrying of pilgrims over the streams. As a badge they wore a pick 
upon their breast. Their constitution was modelled upon that of the 
Knights of St. John, and upon their gradual dissolution in the 13th 
century most of their number went over to that order. — Petrus Kolescens, 
born in Languedoc, of noble parents and military tutor of a Spanish 
prince, moved by what he had seen of the sufferings of Christian slaves 
at the hand of their Moorish masters, and strengthened in his resolve by 
an appearance of the Queen of Heaven, founded in a.d. 1228 the knightly 
order of the Mercedarians, Marice Virg. de mercede pro redemptione Capti- 
vorum. They devoted all their property to the purchase of Christian 
captives, and where such a one was in danger of apostatising to Islam 
and the money for redemption was not procurable, they would even give 
themselves into slavery in his place. When in a.d. 1317 the Grand Com- 
mandership passed over into the hands of the priests, the order was 
gradually transformed into a monkish order. After a.d. 1600, in con- 
sequence of a reform after the pattern of the rule of the Barefoots, it 
became a mendicant order, receiving the privileges of other begging 
fraternities from Benedict XIII. in a.d. 1725. The order proved a useful 
institution of its time in Spain, France and Italy, and at a later period 
also in Spanish America. 

III.— Theological Science and its Controversies. 

§ 99. Scholasticism in General.^ 

The scientific activity of the Middle Ages received the 
name of Scholasticism from the cathedral and cloister 
schools in which it originated (§ 90, 8). The Schoolmen, 
with their enthusiasm and devotion, their fidelity and per- 
severance, their courage and love of combat, may be called 
the knights of theology. Instead of sword and spear they 
used logic, dialectic and speculation ; and profound scliolar- 
ship was their breastplate and helmet. Ecclesiastical 
orthodoxy was their glory and pride. Aristotle, and also 
to some extent Plato, afforded them their philosophical basis 
and method. The Fathers in their utterances, scntcntkej 

1 Ueberweg, " History of Philosophy," vol. i., pp. 355-377. Hamp- 
den, " The Scholastic Philosophy considered in its relation to Christian 
Theology." Oxford, 1832. Maurice, " Mediaeval Philosophy." London, 
1870. Harper, " The Metaphysics of the School." Loudon, 1880 f. 


the Councils in their dogmas and canons, the popes in their 
decretals, yielded to this Dialectic Scholasticism theologicf 1 
material which it could use for the systematising, demon- 
strating, and illustrating of the Church doctrine. If we 
follow another intellectual current, we find the Mystical 
Scholasticism taking up, as the highest task of theology, the 
investigating and describing of the hidden life of the pious 
thinker in and with God according to its nature, course, and 
results by means of spiritual contemplation on the basis of 
one's individual experience. Dogmatics (including Ethics) 
and the Canon Law constituted the peculiar field of the 
Dialectic Theology of the Schoolmen. The standard of dog- 
matic theology during the 12th century was the Book of the 
Sentences of the Lombard (§ 102, 5) ; that of the Canon Law 
the Decree of Gratian. Biblical Exegesis as an independent 
department of scientific study stood, indeed, far behind these 
two, but was diligently prosecuted by the leading represen- 
tatives of Scholasticism. The examination of the simple 
literal sense, however, was always regarded as a secondary 
consideration; while it was esteemed of primary impor- 
tance to determine the allegorical, tropological, and ana- 
gogical signification of the text (§ 90, 9). 

1. Dialectic and Mysticism.— With the exception of the speculative 
Scotus Erigena, the Schoohnen of the Carlovingian Age were of a 
practical turn. This was changed on the introduction of Dialectic in 
the 11th century. Practical interests gave way to pure love of science, 
and it was now the aim of scholars to give scientific shape and perfect 
logical form to the doctrines of the church. The method of this Dialectic 
Scholasticism consisted in resolving all church doctrines into their 
elementary ideas, in the arranging and demonstrating of them under all 
possible categories and in the repelling of all possible objections of the 
sceptical reason. The end aimed at was the proof of the reasonableness 
of the doctrine. This Dialectic, therefore, was not concerned with exo- 
getical investigations or Scripture proof, but rather with rational demon- 
stration. Generally speaking, theological Dialectic attached itself to. the 
ecclesiastical system of the day as positivism or dogmatism ; for, appro- 
priating Augustine's Credo ut inteliujam, it made faith tliu priucii)al 


starting point of its theological thinking and the raising of faith to know- 
ledge the end toward which it laboured. On the other hand, however, 
so .pticism often made its appearance, taking not faith but doubt as the 
starting point for its inquiries, with the avowed intention, indeed, of 
raising faith to knowledge, but only acknowledging as worthy of belief 
what survived the purifying fire of doubt. — Alongside of this double- 
edged Dialectic, sometimes in conflict, sometimes in alliance with it, we 
meet with the Mystical Scholasticism, which appealed not to the reason 
but to the heart, and sought by spiritual contemplation rather than by 
Dialectic to advance at once theological science and the Christian life. 
Its object is not Dogmatics as such, not the development of Fides qua 
creditur, but life in fellowship with God, the development of Fides qua 
creditur. By contemplative absorption of the soul into the depth of the 
Divine life it seeks an immediate vision, experience and enjoyment of the 
Divine, and as an indispensable condition thereto requires purity of heart, 
the love of God in the soul and thorough abnegation of self. What is 
gained by contemplation is made the subject of scientific statement, and 
thus it rises to speculative mysticism. Both contemplation and specula- 
tive mysticism in so far as their scientific procedure is concerned are em- 
braced under the name of scholastic mysticism. The practical endeavour, 
however, after a deepening and enhancing of the Christian life in the 
direction of a real and personal fellowship with God was found more 
important and soon out-distanced the scientific attempt at tabulating and 
formulating the facts of inner experience. Practical mysticism thus 
gained the ascendency during the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries, and 
formed the favourite pursuit of the numerous inmates of the nunneries 
(§ 107). 

2. The Philosophical Basis of Dialectic Scholasticism was obtained 
mainly from the Aristotelian philosophy, which, down to the end of the 
12th century, was known at first only from Latin renderings of Arabic 
and even Hebrew translations, and afterwards from Latin renderings of 
the Greek originals (§ 103, 1). Besides Aristotle, however, Plato also had 
his enthusiastic admirers during the Middle Ages. The study of the 
writings of Augustine and the Areopagite (§ 90, 7) led back again to him, 
and the speculative mystics vigorously opposed the supremacy of 
Aristotle. — At the outset of the philosophical career of scholasticism in 
the 11th century we meet with the controversy of Anselm and Roscei- 
linus about the relations of thinking and being or of the idea and the 
substance of things (§ 101, 3). The Nominalists, following the principles 
of the Stoics, maintained that General Notions, Universalia, are mere 
abstractions of the understanding, Noniijia, which as such have no 
reality outside the human mind, Universalia post res. The Realists, on 
the contrary, affirmed the reality of General Notions, regarding them as 
objective existences before and apart from human thinking. But there 


were two kinds of realism. The one, based on the Platonic doctrine 
of ideas, taught that General Notions are really existent before the origin 
oi the several things as archetypes in the Divine reason, and then also 
in the human mind before the contemplation of the things empirically 
given, Universalia ante res. The other, resting on Aristotle's doctrine, 
considered them as lying in the things themselves and as first getting 
entrance into the human mind through experience, Universalia in rebus. 
The Platonic Realism thought to reach a knowledge of things by pure 
tfiought from the ideas latent in the human mind ; the Aristotelian, on 
the other hand, thought to gain a knowledge of things only through 
experience and thinking upon the things themselves. — Continuation, 
§ 103, 1. 

3. The Nurseries of Scholasticism. — The work previously done in 
cathedrals and cloister schools was, from about the 12th century, taken up 
in a more comprehensive and thorough way by the Universities. They 
were, as to their origin, independent of church and state, emperor and 
pope. Here and there famous teachers arose in the larger cities or 
in connection with some celebrated cloister or cathedral school. 
Youths from all countries gathered around them. Around the teacher 
who first attracted attention others gradually grouped themselves. 
Teachers and scholars organized themselves into a corporation, and thus 
arose the University. By this, however, we are to understand nothing 
less than a JJniversitas litteranim, where attention was given to the 
whole circle of the sciences. For a long time there was no thought of a 
distribution into faculties. When the multitude of teachers and students 
demanded a distribution into several corporations, this was done accord- 
ing to nations. The name signifies the Uiiiversitas viagistromm et 
scholar iuin rather than an articulated whole. The study here pursued 
was called Studium gencrale or universale, because the entrance thereto 
stood open to every one. At first each university pursued exclusively 
and in later times chiefly some special department of science. Thus, 
e.g. theology was prosecuted in Paris and Oxford and subseciuently also 
in Cologne, jurisprudence in Bologna, Medicine in Salerno. The first 
university that expressly made provision for teaching all sciences was 
founded at Naples in a.d. 1224 with imperial munificence by Frederick II. 
The earliest attempt at a distribution of the sciences among distinct 
faculties was occasioned by the struggle between the university of 
Paris and the mendicant monks (§ 103, 1), who separated themselves 
from the other theological teachers and as members of a guild formed 
themselves in a.d. 1259 into a theological faculty. The number of the 
students, among whom were many of ripe years, was immensely great, 
and in some of the most celebrated universities reached often to ten or 
even twenty thousand. There was a ten years' course prescribed for 
the training of the monks of Clugiiy : two years' T.ogicalia, three years 


Literce naturales et philosophiccc, and tive yeai's' Theology. The Council 
at Tours in a.d. 1236 insisted that every priest should have passed 
through a five years' course of study.^ 

4. The Epochs of Scholasticism. — The intellectual work of the theo- 
logians of the Middle Ages during our period ran its course in four 
epochs, the boundaries of which nearly coincide with the boundaries 
of the four centuries which make up that period. (1) From the 10th 
century, almost completely destitute of any scientific movement, the so- 
called Sccculum obacurum, there sprang forth the first buds of scholar- 
ship, without, however, any distinct impress upon them of scholasticism. 
(2) In the 11th century scholasticism began to show itself, and that in 
the form of dialectic, both sceptical and dogmatic. (3) In the 12th 
century mysticism assumed an independent place alongside of dialectic, 
carried on a war of extermination against the sceptical dialectic, and 
finally appeared in a more peaceful aspect, contributing material to 
the positive dogmatic dialectic. (4) In the 13th century dialectic scho- 
lasticism gained the complete ascendency, and reached its highest glory 
in the form of dogmatism in league with mysticism, and never, in the 
persons of its greatest representatives, in opposition to it. 

5. The Canon Law. — After the Pseudo-Isidore (§ 87, 2) many collec- 
tions of church laws appeared. They sought to render the material 
more complete, intentionally or unintentionally enlarging the forgeries 
and massing together the most contradictory statements without any 
attempt at comparison or sifting. The most celebrated of these 
were the collections of bishops Burchard of Worms about a.d. 1020, 
Anselm of Lucca, who died in a.d. 1086, nephew of the pope of the 
same name, Alexander II., and Ivo of Chartres, who died in a.d. 1116. 
Then the Camaldolite monk Gratian of Bologna undertook not only to 
gather together the material in a more complete form than had hitherto 
been done, but also to reconcile contradictory statements by scholastic 
argumentation. His work appeared about a.d. 1150 under the title 
Goncordantia discordantium canonum, and is commonly called Decretum 
Gratiani. A great impulse was given to the study of canon law by 
means of this work, especially at Bologna and Paris. Besides the 
Legists, who taught the Koman law, there now arose numerous 
Decretists teaching the canon law and writing commentaries on 
Gratian's work. Gregory IX. had a new collection of Decrees of Councils 
and Decretals in five books, the so-called Liber extra Decretum, or shortly 
Extra or Decretum Gregorii, drawn up by his confessor and Grand- 
Penitentiary, the learned Dominican Eaimundus de Pennaforti, and sent 

^ Kirkpatrick, "The Historically Received Conception of a University." 
London, 1857. Hagenbach, " Encyclopaedia of Theology," transl. by 
Crooks and Hurst. New York, 1884, § 18, pp. 50, 51. 


it in A.D. 12.^ 1 to the University of Bologna. Boniface VIII. in a.d. 1298 
added to this collection in five parts his -Liber Sextiis, and Clement V. 
in A.D. 1314 added what are called after him the Clementines, From 
that time down to a.d. 1483 the decretals of later popes were added as 
an appendix under the name Extravog antes, and with these the Corpus 
juris canonici was concluded. An official edition was begun in a.d. 1566 
by the so-called Correctores Roman i, which in a.d. 1580 received papal 
sanction as authoritative for all time to come.^ 

6. The Schoolmen as such contributed nothing to Historical Literature. 
Histories were written not in the halls of the universities but in the 
cells of the monasteries. Of these there were three kinds as we have 
already seen in § 90, 9. For workers in the department of Biblical 
History, see § 105, 5 ; and of Legends of the Saints, § 104, 8. For 
ancient Church History Rufinus and Cassiodorus were the authorities 
and the common text books {^ 5, 1). An interesting example of the 
manner in which universal history was treated when mediaeval culture 
had reached its highest point, is afforded by the Speculum magnum s. 
quadruplex of the Dominican Vincent of Beauvais [Uellovacensis). This 
treatise was composed about the middle of the 13th century at the com- 
mand of Louis IX. of France as a hand-book for the instruction of the 
royal princes. It forms an encyclojpaedic exposition of all the sciences 
of that day in four parts. Speculum historiale, naturale, doctrinale, and 
morale. The Speculum doctrinale breaks off just at the point where it 
should have passed over to theology proper, and the Speculum morale is 
a later compilation by an unknown hand.- 

§ 100. The S/ECULum Obscurum: the 10th Century.^ 

In contrast to the brilliant theological scholarship and 
the activity of religions life in the 9th centnry, as well as 
to the remarkable cnltnre and scientific attainments of the 
Spanish Moors with their world-renowned school at Cordova, 
the darkness of the 10th centnry seems all the more con- 
spicnous, especially its first half, when the papacy reached 
its lowest depths, the clergy gave way to unblushing world- 

1 Cunningham, "Historical Theology." Edinburgh, 1870. Vol. i., 
ch. XV., " The Canon Law," pp. 426-438. 

- Kiibiger, " Theological Encyclopaedia." Vol. i., p. 28. Edin., 1884. 

^ Maitland, "The Dark Ages: a Series of Essays, to Illustrate the 
State of Rehgion and Literature in the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and 
Twelfth Centuries." London, 1844. 

§ 100. THE Sx5:culu:m obscurum. 83 

liness and the cliurcli was consumed by the foulest corrup- 
tion. During this age, indeed, there were gleams of light 
even in Italy, but only like a will o' the wisp rising from 
swampy meadows, a fanatical outburst on behalf of ancient 
classic paganism. The literature of this period stood in 
direct and avowed antagonism to Christian theolog}^ and 
the Christian church, and commended a godless frivolity 
and the most undisguised sensual it}'. A grammarian Wil- 
gard of Ravenna taught openly that Virgil, Horace, and 
Juvenal were better and nobler than Paul, Peter, and John. 
The church had still so much authority as to secure his 
death as a heretic, but in almost all the towns of Italy he 
had sympathisers, and that among the clergy as well as 
among laymen. It was only by the influence of the monks 
of Clugny, the reformatory ascetic efforts of Romuald 
(§ 98, 1) and St. Nilus the Younger, a very famous Greek 
recluse of Gaeta, who died in a.d. 1M05, aided by the refor- 
matory measures for the purification of the church taken by 
the Saxon emperors, that this unclean spirit was gradu- 
alty driven out. The famous endeavours of Alfred the 
Great and their temporary success were borne to the grave 
along with himself. Prom a.d. 950 however, Dunstan's 
reformation awakened anesv in England appreciation of a 
desire for theological and national culture. The connection 
of the imperial house of Otto with Byzantium also aroused 
outside of Italy a longing after old classical learning. The 
imperial chapel founded by the brother of Otto I., Bruno 
the Great (§ 97, 2), became the training school of a High- 
German clergy, who Avere there carefully trained as far as 
the means at the disposal of that age permitted, not only in 
politics, but also in theological and classical studies. 

1. The degree to which Classical Stadias were pursued in Germany 
during the pciiod of the Saxon imperial house is shown by the works 
of the learned nun Eoswitha of Gandersheim, north of Gottingen, who 
died about a d. •.•34. The first edition of her works, which comprise six 


dramas on biblical and ecclesiastical themes in the style of Terence, in 
prose interspersed with rhymes, also eight legends, a history of Otto I , 
and a history of the founding of her cloister in leonine hexameters, was 
issued by the humanist Conrad Celtes, with woodcuts by Diirer in a.d. 
1501. — Notker Labeo, president of the cloister school of St. Gall, who 
died in a.d. 1022, enriched the old German literature by translations of 
the Psalms, of Aristotle's Organon, the MoralUi of Gregory the Great, 
and various writings of Boethius. — In England the educational eliforts of 
St. Dunstan (§ 97, 4) were powerfully supported by Bishop Ethelwold of 
Winchester, who quite in the spirit of Alfred the Great (§ 90, 10) wrought 
incessantly with his pupils for the extension and enrichment of the 
Anglo-Saxon literature. Of his scholars by far the most famous was 
Aelfric, surnamed Grammaticus, who flourished about a.d. 990. He 
wrote an Anglo-Saxon Grammar, prepared a collection of homilies for 
all the Sundays and festivals and a free translation from sermons of the 
Latin Fathers, translated also the Old Testament heptateuch, and wrote 
treatises on other portions of Scripture and on biblical questions.^ 

2. Italy produced during the second half of the century many theo- 
logians eminent and important in their day, Atto, bishop of Vercelli, 
who died about a.d. 960, distinguished himself by his exegetical com- 
pilations on Paul's epistles, and as a homilist and a vigorous opponent 
of the oppressors of the church during these rough times. Still more 
important was his younger contemporary Ratherius, bishop of Verona, 
afterwards of Liege, but repeatedly driven away from both, who died 
a.d. 974. A strict and zealous reformer of clerical morals, he insisted 
upon careful study of the Bible, and wrought earnestly against the un- 
blushing paganism of the Italian scholars of his age as well as against 
all kinds of hypocrisy, superstition, and ecclesiastical corruptions. This, 
and also his attachment to the jDolitical interests of the German court, 
exposed him to much persecution. Among his writings may be named 
De contemptu canonum, Meditationes cordis, Apoloijia sxd ipsius, De 
discordia inter ipsum et clericos. — In France we meet with Odo of Clugny, 
who died in a.d. 942, famed as a hymn writer and homilist, and, in his 
CoUatiomim LI. Hi., as a zealous reprover of the corrupt morals of his 
age. In England and France, Abbo of Fleury taught toward the end of 

1 The Aelfric Society founded in 1842 has edited his Anglo-Saxon 
writings and those of others. The Homilies were edited by Thorpe in 
2 vols., in 1843 and 184G. " Select Monuments of Doctrine and Worship 
of Catholic Church in England before the Norman Conquest, consisting 
of Aelfric's Paschal Homily," etc. London, 1875. On Aelfric and Ethel- 
wold see an admirable sketch, with full references to and appropriate 
quotations from early chronicles, in Hook's *' Lives of the Archbishops 
of Canterbury," vol. i., pp. 4,34-455, 


the century. From England, where he had been induced to go by St. 
Dunstau, he returned after some years to his own cloister of Fleury, and 
by his academic gifts raised its school to great renown. He wrote on 
astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and history. He also composed 
a treatise on dialectics, in which he makes his appearance as the first 
and most eminent precursor of the Schoolmen. Chosen abbot of his 
monastery and exercising strict discipline over his monks, he suffered a 
martyr's death by the hand of a murderer in a.d. 1001. — Gerbert of 
Rheims, afterwards Pope Sylvester II. (§ 96, 3, 4), during his active 
career lived partly in France, iiartly in Italy. Distinguished both for 
classical and Arabic scholarship, he shone in the firmament of this dark 
century as it was passing away (f a.d. 1003) like a star of the first 
magnitude in theology, mathematics, astronomy, and natural science, 
while by the common people he was regarded as a magician. Under him 
the school of Kheims reached the summit of its fame. 

§ 101. The Eleventh Century, 

During the 11th century, with the moral and spiritual 
elevation of the church, eager attention was again given to 
theological science. It was at first mainly prosecuted in the 
monasteries of the Cistercians and among the monks of 
C] ugny, but afterwards at the seminaries which arose toward 
the end of the century. The dialectic method won more and 
more the upper hand in theology, and in the Eucharist con- 
troversy between Lanfranc and Berengar, as well as in the 
controversy between Anselm and Gaunilo about the existence 
of God, and between Anselm and Roscelin about the Trinity, 
Dogmatism obtained its first victory over Scepticism. 

1. The Most Celebrated Schoolmen of this Century.— (1) Fulbert opens 
the list, a pupil of Gerbert, and from a.d. 1007 Bishop of Cliartres. 
Before entering on his episcopate he had founded at Chartres a theo- 
logical seminar}'. His fame spread over all the West, so that pupils 
poured in upon him from every side. — (2) The most important of these 
was Berengar of Tours, afterwards a canon and teacher of the cathedral 
school of his native city, and then again archdeacon at Angers. He died 
in A.D, 1088. The school of Tours rose to great eminence under him.— 
(3) Lanfranc, the celebrated opponent of the last-named, was abbot of 
the monastery of Bee in Normandy, and from a.d. 1070 Archbishop of 
Canterbury (§ 9G, 8). He died in a.d. 1089. He wrote against Berengar 


Liber de corpore et samjulne Domini. — (4) Bishop Hildebert of Tours, who 
died in a.d. 1134, famous as a writer of spiritual songs, was a pupil of 
Berengar. But he avoided the sceptical tendencies of his teacher, and, 
warned of the danger of dialectic and following the mystical hent of 
his mind, he applied himself to the cultivation of a life of faith, so that 
St. Bernard praised him as tantam columnam ecclesics. — (5) The monastic 
school of Bee, which Lanfranc had rendered celebrated, reached the 
summit of its fame under his pupil Anselm of Canterbury, who far 
excelled his teacher in genius as well as in importance for theological 
science. He was born in a.d. 1033 at Aosta in Italy, educated in the 
monastery of Bee, became teacher and abbot there, was raised in a.d. 
1093 to the archiepiscopal chair of Canterbury, and died in a.d. 1109. As 
a churchman he courageously defended the independence of the church 
according to the principles of Hildebrand (§ 96, 12). As a theologian 
he may be ranked in respect of acuteness and profoundity, speculative 
talent and Christian earnestness, as a second Augustine, and on the 
theological positions of that Father he based his own. Though carrying 
dialectic even into his own private devotions, there was yet present in him 
a vein of religious mysticism. According to him faith is the condition of 
true knowledge, Fides prrscedit intellectum ; but it is also with him a sacred 
duty to raise faith to knowledge. Credo ut intellifjam. Only he who in 
respect of endowment and culture is not capable of this intellectual 
activity should content himself with simple Veneratio. His Monologium 
contains discussions on the nature of God, his Proslogium proves the 
being of God ; his three books, De fide Trinitatis et de incarnatione Verbi, 
develop and elaborate the doctrine of the Trinity and Christology ; while 
the three dialogues De veritate, De libero arbitrio, and De casu diaboli 
treat of the object, and the tract Cur Dens homo 1 treats of the subject, of 
soteriology. The most able, profound, and impressive of all his writings 
is the last-named, which proves the necessity of the incarnation of God 
in Christ for the reconciliation of man with God. It was an epoch- 
making treatise in the historical development of the church doctrine 
of satisfaction on Pauline foundations.^ Anselm took part in the 
controversy of the Greeks by his work De processioue Spiritiiti (§ 67, 4). 
He discussed the question of predestination in a moderate Augustinian 
form in the book, De concordia prcescioiticc et prcedest. et (/ratice Dei cum, 
libero arbitrio. In his Meditationes and Orationes he gives expression 
to the ardent piety of his soul, as also in the voluminous collection 
(426) of his letters.- — (6) Anselm of Laon, surnamed Scholasticus, was 

^ Macpherson on " Anselm's Theory of the Atonement ; its Place in 
History" ; in Brit, and For. Evanrj. Review for 1878, pp. 207-232. 

- Church, " St. Anselm." London, 1870. Rule, " Life and Times of 
St. Anselm." 2 vols. London, 1883. 


the pupil of Anselm of Cauterbury. From a.d. 1076 be taught with 
brilliant success at Paris, and thus laid the first foundation of its uni- 
versity. Subsequently he returned to his native city Laon, was made 
there archdeacon and Scholasticus, and founded in that place a famous 
theological school. He died in a.d. 1117. He composed the Glossa 
interlinear^, a short exposition of the Vulgate between the lines, which 
with Walafrid's Glossa orcUnaria (§ 90, 4), became the favourite exe- 
getical handbook of the Middle Ages. — (7) William of Champeaux, the 
proper founder of the University of Paris, had already taught rhetoric 
and dialectic for some time with great success in the cathedral school, 
when the fame of the theological school of Laon led him to the feet of 
Anselm. Li a.d. 1108 he returned to Paris, and had immense crowds 
listening to his theological lectures. Chagrined on account of a defeat 
in argument at the hand of Abfelard, one of his own pupils, he retired 
from public life into the old chapel of St. Victor near Paris, and there 
founded a monastery under the same name for canons of the rule of St. 
Augustine. He died in a.d, 1121 as Bishop of Chalons. — (8) The abbot 
Guibert of Nogent, in the diocese of Laon, who died about a.d. 1124, a 
scholar of Anselm at Bee, was a voluminous writer and, with all his own 
love of the marvellous, a vigorous opponent of all the grosser absurdities 
of relic and saint worship. He Avrote a useful history of the first crusade, 
and a work important in its day- entitled, Lihcr quo online sermo fieri 
debeat. His great work was one in four books, De piijnoribus Sanctorum, 
against the abuses of saint and relic worship, the exhibition of pretended 
parts of the Saviour's body, e.g. teeth, pieces of the foreskin, navel cord, 
etc., against the translation or distribution of the bodies of saints, against 
the fraud of introducing new saints, relics, and legends. 

2. Berengar's Eucharist Controversy, A.D. 1050-1079. — Berengar of 
Tours elaborated a theory of the eucharist which is directly antago- 
nistic to the now generally prevalent theory of Kadbert (§ 91, 3). He 
taught that while the elements are changed and Christ's body is really 
present, neither the change nor the presence is substantial. The 
presence of His body is rather the existence of His power in the ele- 
ments, and the change of the bread is the actual manifestation of this 
power in the form of bread. The condition however of this power- 
presence is not merely the consecration but also the faith of the receiver. 
Without this faith the bread is an empty and impotent sign. Such views 
were publicly expressed by him and his numerous followers for a long 
while without causing any offence. But when he formally stated them 
in a letter to his friend Lanfranc of Bee, this churchman became 
Berengar's accuser at the Synod of Kome in a.d. 1050. The synod 
condemned him unheard. A second synod of the same year held at 
Vercelli, before which Berengar was to have appeared but could not 
because he ha. I meanwhile been imprisoned in France, in an outburst of 


fanatical fury had the treatise of Eatramnus on the eucharist, wrongly 
ascribed to Erigena, torn up and burnt, while Berengar's doctrine was 
again condemned. Meanwhile Berengar was by the intervention of 
influential friends set at liberty and made the acquaintance of the power- 
ful papal legate Hildebrand, who, holding by the simple Scripture doc- 
trine that the bread and wine of the sacrament was the body and blood 
of Christ, occupied probably a position intermediate between Eadbert's 
grossly material and Berengar's dynamic hypothesis. Disinclined to 
favour the fanaticism of Berengar's opponents, Hildebrand contented 
himself with exacting from him at the Synod of Tours in a.d. 1054 a 
solemn declaration that be did not deny the presence of Christ in the 
Supper, but regarded the consecrated elements as the body and blood of 
Christ. Emboldened by this decision and still always persecuted by his 
opponents as a heretic, Berengar undertook in a.d. 1050 a journey to 
Eome, in order, as he hoped, by Hildebrand's influence to secure a dis- 
tinct papal verdict in his favour. But there he found a powerful opposi- 
tion headed by the passionate and pugnacious Cardinal Humbert (§ G7, 
3). This party at the Lateran Council in Eome in a.d. 1059, compelled 
Berengar, who was really very deficient in strength of character, to cast 
his writings into the fire and to swear to a confession composed by Hum- 
bert which went beyond even Eadbert's theory in the gross corporeality 
of its expressions. But in France he immediately again repudiated this 
confession with bitter invectives against Eome, and vindicated anew 
against Lanfranc and others his earlier views. The bitterness of the 
controversy now reached its height. Hildebrand had meanwhile, in a.d. 
1073, himself become pope. He vainly endeavoured to bring the con- 
troversy to an end by getting Berengar to accept a confession couched in 
moderate terms admitting the real presence of the body and blood in the 
vS upper. The opposite party did not shrink from casting suspicion on 
the pope's own orthodoxy, and so Hildebrand was obliged, in order to 
avoid the loss of his great life work in a mass of minor controversies, to 
insist at a second synod in Eome in a.d. 1079 upon an unequivocal and 
decided confession of the substantial change of the bread. Berengar was 
indiscreet enough to refer to his private conversations with the jjope ; 
but now Gregory commanded him at once to acknowledge and abjure his 
error. With fear and trembling Berengar obeyed, and the pope dis- 
missed him with a safe conduct, distinctly prohibiting all further disputa- 
tion. Bowed down under age and calamities, Berengar withdrew to the 
island of St. Come, near Tours, where he lived as a solitary penitent in 
the practice of strict asceticism, and died at a great age in peace with 
the church in a.d. 1088. His chief work is De Coma S. adv. Lanfr. — 
Continuation, § 102, 5. 

3. Anselm's Controversies.— I. On the basis of his Platonic realism, 
Anselm of Canterbury constructed the ontological proof of the being of 


God, that there is given in man's reason the idea of the most perfect 
being to whose perfection existence also belongs. When he laid this 
proof before the learned world in his Monologiiun and Pioslogium, the 
monk Gaimilo of Marmoutiers, wlio was a supporter of Aristotelian 
realism, opposed him, and acutely pointed out the defects of this proof 
in his Liber pro insipiente. He so named it in reference to a remark of 
Anselm, who had said that even the insipiens who, according to Psalm xiv. 
1, declares in his heart that there is no God, affords thereby a witness for 
the existence of the idea, and consequently also for the existence of God. 
Anselm replied in his Apologeticus c. Gaunilonem. And there the con- 
troversy ended without any definite result. — II. Of more importance was 
Anselm's controversy with Roscelin, the Nominalist, canon of Compi^gne. 
He in a purely nominalistic fashion understood the idea of the Godhead 
as a mere abstraction, and thought that the three persons of the Godhead 
could not be luia res, ovaia, as then they must all at once have been 
incarnate in Christ. A synod at Soissons in a.d. 1092 condemned him 
as a tritheist. He retracted, but afterwards reiterated his earlier views. 
Anselm then, in his tract De fide Trinitatis et de incarnatione Verbi 
contra blaspliemias Rucelini, proved that the drift of his argumentation 
tended toward tritheism, and vindicated the trinitarian doctrine of the 
church. For more than two centuries Nominalism was branded with a 
suspicion of heterodoxy, until in the 14th century a reaction set in 
(§ 113, 3), which restored it again to honour. 

§ 102. The Twelfth Century. 

In the 12tli century dialectic and mysticism are seen con- 
tending for the mastery in the department of theology. On 
the one side stands Abselard, in whom the sceptical dialectic 
had its most eminent representative. Over against him 
stands St. Bernard as his most resolute opponent. Theo- 
logical dialectic afterwards assumed a pre-eminently dogmatic 
and ecclesiastical character, entering into close relationship 
with mysticism. While this movement was mainly carried 
on in France, where the University of Paris attracted teachers 
and scholars from all lands, it passed over from thence into 
Grermany, where Provost Oerhoch and his brother Arno gave 
it their active support in opposition to that destructive sort 
of dialectic that was then spreading around them. Although 
the combination of dogmatic dialectic and mysticism had for 


a long time no formal recognition, it ultimately secured the 
approval of the highest ecclesiastical authorities. 

1. The Contest on French Soil :— I. The Dialectic Side of the Gulf.— 
Peter Abselard, superior to all liis contemporaries iu acuteness, learning, 
dialectic power, and boldfreethiuking, but proud and disputatious, was born 
at Palais in Brittany in a.d, 1079. His first teacher in philosophy was 
Roscelin. Afterwards he entered the school of William of Champeaux 
at Paris, the most celebrated dialectician of his times. Having defeated 
his master in a public disputation, he founded a school at Melun near 
Paris, where thousands of pupils flocked to him. In order to be nearer 
Paris, he moved his school to Corbeil ; then to the very walls of Paris 
on Mount St. Genoveva ; and ceased not to overwhelm William with 
humiliations, until his old teacher retreated from the field. In order to 
secure still more brilliant success, he began to study theology under the 
Schoolman Anselm of Laon. But very soon the ambitious scholar 
thought himself superior also to this master. Relying upon his dia- 
lectical endowments, he took a bet without further preparation to ex- 
pound the difficult prophet Ezekiel. He did it indeed to the satisfaction 
of scholars, but Anselm refused to allow him to continue his lectures. 
Abffilard now returned to Paris, where he gathered around him a great 
number of enthusiastic pupils. Canon Fulbert appointed him teacher 
of his beautiful and talented niece Heloise. He won her love, and they 
were secretly married. She then denied the marriage in order that he 
might not be debarred from the highest offices of the church. Persisting 
in this denial, her relatives dealt severely with her, and Abffilard had 
her placed in the nunnery of Argenteuil. Fulbert in his fury had Abte- 
lard seized during the night and emasculated, so that he might be dis- 
qualified for ecclesiastical preferment. Overwhelmed with shame, he fled 
to the monastery of St. Denys, and there in a.d. 1119 took the monastic 
vow. Heloise took the veil at Argenteuil. But even at St. Denys Abte- 
lard was obliged by the eager entreaties of former scholars to resume his 
lectures. His free and easy treatment of the church doctrine and his 
haughty spirit aroused many enemies against him, who at the Synod of 
Soissons in a.d. 1121 compelled him before the papal legate to cast into 
the fire his treatise De Unitate ct Tr'uiitate diviiia, and had him com- 
mitted to a monastic prison. By the intercession of some friends he was 
soon again set free, and returned to St. Denys. But when he made the 
discovery that Dionysius at Paris was not the Areopagite the persecution 
of the monks drove him into a forest near Troyes. There too his scholars 
followed him and made him resume his lectures. His colony grew up 
under his hands into the famous abbey of the Paraclete. Finding even 
there no rest, he made over the abbey of the Paraclete to Heloise, who had 
not been able to come to terms with her insubordinate nuns at Argenteuil 


He himself now became abbot of the monastery of St. Gildasius at Ruys 
iu Brittany, and, after in vain endeavouring for eight years to restore the 
monastic discipline, he again in a.d. 1136 resumed his office of teacher 
and lectured at St. Geuoveva near Paris with great success. He wrote an 
ethical treatise, " Scito te iiysnm,'' issued a new and enlarged edition of 
his Theologia Christiana, now extant as the incomplete Introductio ad 
theologiam in three books, and composed a Dialogns inter Philosophum, 
Judcciini et Chriatianum, in which the heathen philosophers and poets of 
antiquity are ranked almost as high as the prophets and apostles. In 
Sic et Non, " Yes and No," a collection of extracts from the Fathers 
under the various heads of doctrine contradictory of one another, the 
traditional theology was held up to contempt. 

2. Abselard maintained, in opposition to the Augustinian-Anselmian 
theory, that faith preceded knowledge, that only what we comprehend is 
to be believed. He did indeed intend that his dialectic should be used 
not for the overthrow but for the establishment of the church doctrine. 
He proceeded, however, from doubt as the principle of all knowledge, 
regarding all church dogmas as problems which must be proved before 
they can be believed : Dubitando enim ad inqmxitionem venimus, inqui- 
rendo veritatem percipimus. He thus reduced faith to a mere probability 
and measured the content of faith by the rule of subjective reason. This 
was most glaring in the case of the trinitarian doctrine, which with him 
approached Sabellian modalism. God as omnipotent is to be called 
Father, as all wise the Son, as loving and gracious the Spirit ; and so the 
incarnation becomes a merely temporal and dynamic immanence of the 
Logos in the man Jesus. The significance of the ethical element in 
Christianity quite pvershadowed that of the dogmatic. He taught that 
all fundamental truths of Christianity had been previously proclaimed 
by i)hilosophers and poets of Greece and Eome, who were scarcely less 
inspired than the prophets and apostles, the special service of the latter 
consisting in giving currency to these truths among the uncultured. He 
turns with satisfaction from the theology of the Fathers to that of the 
apostles, and from that again to the religion of Jesus, whom he represents 
rather as a reformer introducing a pure morality than as a founder of a re- 
ligious system. Setting aside Anselm's theory of satisfaction, he regards 
the redemption and reconciliation of man as consisting in the awakening 
iu sinful man, by means of the infinite love displayed by Christ's teaching 
and example, by His life, sufferings and death upon the cross, a respond- 
ing love of such fulness and power, that he is thereby freed from the 
dominion of sin and brought into the glorious liberty of the children 
of God.'— Abffilard's fame and following grew in a wonderful manner 

1 On Anselm's and Abailard's theories of atonement, see Ritschl, 
"History of Christian Doctrine of Justification and Eeconcilation," 
pp. 22-40. Elin , ls7-'. 


from day to day ; but also powerful oi^ponents dragged his heresies into 
light and vigorously combated them. The most important of these were 
the Cistercian monk William of Thierry and St. Bernard, who called 
attention to the dangerous tendency of his teaching. St. Bernard dealt 
personally with the heretic, but when he failed in converting him, he 
appeared in a.d. 1141 at the Synod of Sens as his accuser. The synod 
condemned as heretical a series of statements culled from his writings by 
Bernard. Abtelard appealed to the pope, but even his friends at Eome, 
among whom was Card. Guido de Castella, afterwards Pope Coelestine 11., 
could not close their eyes to his manifest heterodoxies. His friendship 
for Arnold of Brescia also told against him at Eome (§ 108, 7). Innocent 
II. therefore excommunicated Abrelard and his supporters, condemned 
his writings to be burnt and himself to be confined in a monastery. 
Aba^lard found an asylum with the abbot Peter the Venerable of Clugny, 
who not only effected his reconcilation with Bernard, but also, on the 
ground of his Apologia s. Confessio fidei, in which he submitted to the 
judgment of the church, obtained permission from the pope to pass his 
last days in peace at Clugny. During this time he composed his Hist, 
cahimitatam Abcelardi, an epistolary autobiography, which, though not 
free from vanity and bitterness, is yet worthy to be ranked with Augustine's 
" Confessions " for its unreserved self-accusation and for the depth of self- 
knowledge which it reveals. He died in a.d. 1142, in the monastery of St. 
Mareellus at Chalons, where he had gone in quest of health. He was buried 
in the abbey of the Paraclete, where Heloise laid on his coffin the letter of 
absolution of Peter of Clugny. Twenty-two years later Heloise herself 
was laid in the same quiet resting place. ^ 

3. — II. The Mystic Side of the Gulf. — Ab^elard's most famous opponent 
was St. Bernard of Clairvaux (§ 98, 1), born in a.d. 1091 at Fontaines 
near Dijon in Burgundy, died in a.d. 1153, a man of such extraordinary 
influence on his generation as the world seldom sees. Venerated as a 
miracle worker, gifted with an eloquence that carried everything before 
it {doctor melUfluus), he was the protector and reprover of the Vicar of 
God, the peacemaker among the jirinces, the avenger of every wrong. His 
genuine humility made him refuse all high places. His enthusiasm for 
the hierarchy did not hinder him from severely lashing clerical abuses. 
It was his word that roused the hearts of men throughout all Europe to 
undertake the second crusade, and that won many heretics and schis- 
matics back to the bosom of the church. Having his conversation in 
heaven, leading a life of study, meditation, prayer, and ecstatic contem- 
plation, he had also dominion over the earth, and by counsel, exhortation, 

^ Berington, " History of the Lives of Abaslard and Heloise." London, 
1787. Ueberweg, " History of Philosophy," vol. i., pp. 38G-397. Lon- 
don, 1872. 


and exercise of discipline exerted a quickening and healtliful influence on 
all the relations of life. His theological tendency was in the direction 
of contemplative mysticism, with hearty submission to the doctrine of 
the church. Like Abselard, bat from the opposite side, he came into con- 
flict with the theory of Auselm ; for the ideal of theology with him was 
not the development of faith into knowledge by means of thought, but 
rather the enlightenment of faith in the way of holiness. Bernard was 
not at all an enemy of science, but he rather saw in the dialectical hair- 
splitting of Abaelard, which grudged not to cut down the main props of 
saving truth for the glorification of its own art, the overthrow of all true 
theology and the destruction of all the saving eflticacy of faith. Heart 
theology founded on heart piety, nourished and strengthened by prayer, 
meditation, spiritual illumination and holiness, was for him the only true 
theology. Tantinn Deus cognoscitur, quantum diligitur. Orando facilius 
qucun disputando et dignius Deus quceritur et invenitur. The Bible was 
his favourite reading, and in the recesses of the forest he spent much 
time in prayer and study of the Scriptures. But in ecstasy (excessus) 
which consists in withdrawal from sensible phenomena and becoming 
temporarily dead to all earthly relations, the soul of the pious Christian 
is able to rise into the immediate presence of God, so that " more ange- 
lorum'' it reaches a blessed vision and enjoyment of the Divine glory and 
that perfect love which loves itself and all creatures only in God. Yet 
even he confesses that this highest stage of abstraction was only attained 
unto by him occasionally and partially through God's special grace. Ber- 
nard's mysticism is most fully set forth in his eighty-six Sermons on 
the first two chapters of the Song of Solomon and in the tract Be diligendo 
Deo. In his controversy with Abtelard he wrote his Tractatus de errori- 
bus Petri Ahcelardi. To the department of dogmatics belongs De gratia 
et libera arhitrio ; and to that of history, the biography of his friend Mala- 
chias (§ 149, 5). The most important of his works is De Consideratione, 
in 5 bks, , in which with the affection of a friend, the earnestness of a 
teacher, and the authority of a prophet, he sets before Pope Eugenius IH. 
the duties and dangers of his high position. He was also one of the 
most brilliant hymn writers of the Middle Ages. Alexander HI. canonized 
him in a.d. 1173, and Pius VHI. in a.d. 1830 enrolled him among the 
doctores ecclesice (§ 47, 22 c). — Soon after the controversy with Abtelard 
had been brought to a close by the condemnation of the church, Bernard 
was again called upon to resist the pretensions of dialectic. Gilbert de 
la Porree (Porretauus), teacher of theology at Paris, who became Bishop 
of Poitiers in a.d. 1142 and died in a.d. 1154, in his commentary on the 
theological writings of Boethius (§ 47, 23) ascribed reality to the uni- 
versal term " God" in such a way that instead of a Trinity we seemed 
to have a Quaternity. At the Synod of Eheims, a.d. 1148, under the 
presidency of Pope Eugenius III., Bernard appeared as accuser of Porre- 


tanus. Gilljei't's doctrine was condemned, but he himself ^Yas left 

4. III. Bridging the Gulf from the Side of Mysticism.— At the school of 
the monastery of St. Victor in Paris, founded by William of Champeaux 
after his defeat at the hands of Abrelard, an attempt was made during the 
first half of the 12th century to combine mysticism and dialectic in the 
treatment of theology. The peaceable heads of this school would indeed 
have nothing to do with the speculations of Abaslard and his followers 
which tended to overthrow the mysteries of the faith. But the mystics 
of St. Victor made an impoitant concession to the dialecticians by en- 
tering with as much energy upon the scientific study and construction 
of dogmatics as they did ujjon the devout examination of Scripture and 
mystical theology. They exhibited a speculative j)ower and a profundity 
of thought that won the hearty admiration of the subtlest of the dialec- 
ticians. By far the most celebrated of this school was Hugo of St. Victor. 
Descended from the family of the Count of Halberstadt, born in a.d. 
1097, nearly related to St. Bernard, honoured by his contemporaries as 
Altei- Aupustinifi or Lriufiia Aufjustini, Hugo was one of the most pro- 
found thinkers of the Middle Ages. Having enjoyed a remarkably com- 
plete course of training, he was enthusiastically devoted to the pursuit 
of science, and, endowed with rich and deep spirituality, he exerted a 
most healthful and powerful infiuence upon his own and succeeding ages, 
although church and science had to mourn their loss by his early death 
ill A.D. 1141. In his Eruditio clidascalica we have in 8 bks. an ency- 
clopaedic sketch of all human knowledge as a preparation to the study of 
theology, and in other 3 bks. an introduction to the Bible and church 
history.2 His Siuiima sententiurnm is an exposition of dogmatics on 
patristic lines, an ecclesiastical counterpart of Abffilard's Sic et Non. 
The ripest and most influential of all his works, and the most inde- 
pendent, is his Dp sacramentis cJirist. fidei, in 2 bks., in which he treats 
of the whole contents of dogmatics from the point of view of the Sacra- 
ments (§ 104, 2). His exegetical works are less important and less 
original. His mysticism is set forth ex 2>i'ofesso in his Soliloquium de arrha 
(uiiiiice and in the series of three tracts, De area morali, De area mystica, 
and De vanitate. miunli. He makes Noah's ark the symbol of the church as 
well as of the individual soul which journeys over the billows of the world 
to God, and, by the successive stages of leetio, cofjitatio, meditatio, uratio, 
and operatio reaches to covtcmplatio or the vision of God. — Hugo's pupil, 
and from a.d. 1162 the prior of his convent, was the Scotchman Richard 
St. Victor, who died in a.d. 1173. With less of the dialectic faculty than 

1 Neander, " St. Bernard and his Times." London, 1843. Morison, 
' Life and Times of St. Bernard." London, 1803. 

2 Riibiper " Theological Encyclopajdia," vol, i., p. 27. Edin. 1884. 


Lis master— though this too is shown in his 6 bks. Be trinitatc., a 
scholastic exposition of the Cogiiitio or Fides quce credltur — he mainly 
devoted his energies to the development on the mystico-contemplative 
side of the " Affectus " or Fides qua creditur, which aims at the vision 
and enjoyment of God. This he represents as reached by the three 
stages of contemplation, distinguished as mentis dilatatio, sublevatio, and 
alienatio. Among his mystical tracts, mostly mystical expositions of 
Scripture passages, the most important are, De praparationc animce ad 
contemplationem, s. de xii. patriarchis, and the 4 bks. De f/ratia con- 
tem2)lationis s. de area mystica. These are also known as Benjamin minor 
and B. major. In Eichard there appears the first indications of a mis- 
understanding with the dialecticians which, among the late Victorines, 
and especially in the case of Walter of St. Victor, took the form of 
vehement hostility. 

5. IV. Bridging the Gulf from the Side of Dialectics. — After Abie- 
lard's condemnation theological dialectics came more and more to be 
associated with the church doctrine and to approach more or less nearly 
to a friendly alliance with mysticism. Hugo's writings did much to 
bring this about. The following are the most important Schoolmen of 
this tendency. (1) The Englishman Robert Pulleyn, teacher at Oxford 
and Paris, afterwards cardinal and papal chancellor at Rome, who died 
about A.D. 1150. His chief work is Sentcntiarum LI, VIII. Though 
very famous in its day, it was soon cast into the shade by the Lombard's 
work. — (2) Petrus Lombardus, born at Novara in Lombardy, a scholar of 
Abaslard, but powerfully infiaenced by St. Bernard and Hugo St. Victor, 
was Bishop of Paris from a.d. 1159 till his death in a. d. -1161:. He pub- 
lished a dogmatic treatise under the title of Sententiarum LI. IV ; of 
which Bk. 1 treated of God, Bk. 2 of Creatures, Bk. 3 of Redemption, 
Bk. 4 of the Sacraments and the Last Things. For centuries this was 
the textbook in theological seminaries and won for its author the desig- 
nation of AJagister Sententiarum. He himself compared this gift laid 
on the altar of the church to the widow's mite, but the book attained a 
place of supreme importance in mediaeval theology, had innumerable 
commentaries written on it and was officially authorized as the theo- 
logical textbook by the Lateran Council of a.d. 1215. It is indeed a well 
arranged collection of the doctrinal deliverances of the Fathers, in which 
apparent contradictions are dialectically resolved, with great skill, and 
wrought up together into an articulate system, but from want of indepen- 
dence and occasional indecision or withholding of any definite opinion, 
it falls behind Hugo's Summa and Robert's Sentences. It had this advan- 
tage, however, that it gave freer scope to scholars and teachers, and so 
was more stimulating as a textbook for academic use. The Lombard's 
works include a commentary on the Psalms and Catena; on the Pauline 
Epistles. — (3) The Frenchman Petpr of Poitiers {Piclaviensis), one of 


the ablest followers of the Lombard, was chancellor of the University of 
Paris toward the end of the century. He wrote 5 bks. of Sentences or 
Distinctions, which in form and matter are closely modelled on the 
work of his master. — (4) The most gifted of all the Summists of the 12th 
century was the German Alanus ab Insnlis, born at Lille or Ryssel, lat. 
liisulce. After teaching long at Paris, he entered the Cistercian order, 
and died at an advanced age at Clairvaux in a.d. 1203. A man of exten- 
sive erudition and a voluminous writer, he was called Doctor universalis. 
He wrote an allegorical poem Anticlaudlanus, which describes how reason 
and faith in union with all the virtues restore human nature to perfection. 
His RegulcB de s. theologia give a short outline of theology and morals in 
125 paradoxical sentences which are tersely expounded. A short but able 
summary of the Christian faith is given in the 5 bks. De arte catholiccs 
iidei. This work is characterized by the use of a mathematical style of 
demonstration, like that of the later school of Wolf, and an avoidance of 
references to patristic authorities, which would have little weight with 
Mohammedans and heretics. He is thus rather an opponent than a 
representative of dialectic scholasticism. The Summa quadripartita c. 
Hcereticos siii temporis ascribed to him was written by another Alanus. 

6. The Controversy on German Soil. — The provost Gerhoch and his 
brother, the dean Arno of Reichersberg in Bavaria, were representatives of 
the school of St. Victor as mediators between dialectics and mysticism. 
In A.D. 1150 Gerhoch addressed a memorial to Eugenius III., De corrupto 
ecclesicB statu, and afterwards he published De investigatione Antichristi. 
He found the antichrist in the papal schisms of his times, in the ambi- 
tion and covetousness of popes, in the corruptibility of the curia, in the 
manifold corruptions of the church, and especially in the spread of a dia- 
lectic destructive of all the mysteries of the faith. The controversy in 
which both of these brothers took most interest was that occasioned by 
the revival of Adoptionism in consequence of the teaching of French 
dialecticians, especially Abaslard and Gilbert. It led to the formulating 
of the Christological doctrine in such a form as prepared the way for 
the later Lutheran theories of the Communicatio idiomatum and the 
Ubiquitas corporis Christi (§ 141, 9). — In South Germany, conspicuously 
in the schools of Bamberg, Freisingen, and Salzburg, the dialectic of 
Abaelard, Gilbert, and the Lombard was predominant. Its chief repre- 
sentatives were Folmar of Triefenstein in Franconia and Bishop Eberhard 
of Bamberg, The controversy arose over the doctrine of the eucharist. 
Folmar had maintained like Berengar that not the actually glorified body 
of Christ is present in the sacrament, but only the spiritual substance of 
His flesh and blood, without muscles, sinews and bones. Against this 
gross Capernaitic view (John vi. 52, 59) Gerhoch maintained that the 
eucharistic body is the very resurrection body of Cln-ist, the substance of 
which is a glorified corporeity without fiesh and blood in a carnal sense 


without sinews and bones. The bishop of Bamberg took offence at his 
friend's bold rejection of the doctrine approved by the church, and so 
Folmar modified his position to the extent of admitting that there was 
on the altar not only the true, but also the whole body in the perfection 
of its human substance, under the form of bread and wine. But never- 
theless both he and Abaelard adhered to their radical error, a dialectical 
dismemberment of the two natures of Christ, according to which the 
divinity and humanity, the Son of God and the Son of man, were two 
strictly separate existences. Christ, they taught, is according to His 
humanity Son of God in no other way than a pious man is, i.e. by 
adoption; but according to His Divine nature He is like the Father 
omnipresent, omnipotent, and omniscient. In respect of His human 
nature it must still be said by Him, " My Father is greater than I." He 
dwells, however, bodily in heaven, and is shut in by and confined to it. 
Only His Divine nature can claim Latria or adoratio, worship. Only 
Dulia, cultus, reverence, such as is due to saints, images, and relics, 
should be given to His body and blood upon the altar. Gerhoch's 
doctrine of the Supper, on the other hand, is summed up in the pro- 
position : He who receives the flesh of the Logos {Caro Verhi) receives 
also therewith the Logos in His flesh {Verbwn carnis). Folmar and 
Eberhard denounced this as Eutychian heresy. A conference at Bam- 
berg in A.D. 1158, where Gerhoch stood alone as representative of his 
views, ended by his opponents declaring that he had been convicted of 
heresy. In a.d. 1162 a Council at Friesach in Carinthia, under the 
presidency of Archbishop Eberhard of Salzburg, reached the same con- 

7. Theologians of a Pre-eminently Bibhcal and Ecclesiastico- Practical Ten- 
dency.— (1) Alger of Liege, teacher of the cathedral school there, was one 
of the most important German theologians in the beginning of the 12th 
century. He resigned his appointment in a.d. 1121, to spend his last 
years in the monastery of Clugny, in order to enjoy the company and 
friendship of its abbot, Peter the Venerable ; and there he died about 
A.D. 1130. The school of Liege, in which he had himself been trained up 
in the high church Cluniac doctrine there prevalent, flourished greatly 
during his rule of twenty years. His chief works are De Sacramentis 
corjyoris et sanguiiiis Domini in 3 bks., distinguished by acuteness and 
lucidity, and a controversial tract on the Hues of Eadbert against 
Berengar's doctrine condemned by the church. In his De misericordia et 
jxistitia he treats of church discipline with circumspection, clearness, and 
decision. — (2) Rupert of Deutz, more than any mediasval scholar before 
or after, created an enthusiasm for the study of Scripture as the people's 
book for all times, the field in which the precious treasure is hid, to 
be found by any one whose eyes are made sharp by faith. He was a 
contemporary and fellow countryman of Alger, and died in a.d. 1135. 



Though he refers to the Hebrew and Greek texts, he cares less for the 
literal than for the speculative-dogmatic and mystical sense discovered 
by allegorical exegesis. In his principal work, De trinitate et operibus 
ejus, he sets forth in 3 bks. the creation work of the Father, in 30 
bks. the revealing and redeeming work of the Son, from the fall to the 
death of Christ, and in the remaining 9 books the sanctifying work 
of the Holy Spirit, from the resurrection of Christ to the general resur- 
rection. He maintains in opposition to Anselm (who was afterwards 
followed by Thomas Aquinas) that Christ would have become incarnate 
even if men had not sinned (a view which appears in Ireuaus, and 
afterwards in Alexander Hales, Duns Scotus, John Wessel, and others). 
In regard to the Lord's Supper he maintained the doctrine of consub- 
stantiation, and he taught like pope Gelasius (§ 58, 2) that the relation of 
the heavenly and earthly in the eucharist is quite analogous to that of 
the two natures in Christ.^— (3) The Benedictine Hervseus in the cloister 
of Bourg-Dieu, who died about a.d. 1150, was distinguished for deep 
piety and zealous study of Scripture and the fathers. He wrote commen- 
taries on Isaiah and on the Pauline Epistles, the latter of which was 
ascribed to Anselm and so published among his works. 

8. — (4) John of Salisbury, Johannes Parvus Sarisheriensis, was a 
theologian of a thoroughly practical tendency, though a diligent student 
of Abffilard and an able classical scholar, specially familiar with the 
writings of Cicero. As the trusted friend of Hadrian IV. he was often 
sent from England on embassies to the pope. In Becket's struggle 
against the encroachments of the Crown upon the rights of the church 
(§ 96, 16) he stood by the primate's side as his faithful counsellor and 
fellow soldier, wrote an account of his life and martyrdom, and laboured 
diligently to secure his canonization. He was made Bishop of Chartres 
in A.D. 1176, and died there in a.d. 1180. His works, distinguished by 
singularly wide reading and a pleasing style, are pre-eminently practical. 
In his Policraticits s. de nugis Curialium et vestigiis Philosophorum he 
combats the niigce of the hangers on at court with theological and philo- 
sophical weapons in a well balanced system of ecclesiastico-political and 
philosophico-theological ethics. His Metalogicus in 4 bks. is a pole- 
mic against the prostitution of science by the empty formalism of the 
schoolmen. His 329 Epistles are of immense importance for the literary 
and scientific history of his times.— (5) Walter of St. Victor, Eichard's suc- 
cessor as prior of that monastery, makes his appearance about a.d. 1130, 
as the author of a vigorous polemic against dialectic scholasticism, in 
which he combats especially Christological heresies and spares the ido- 

■ Westcott, "Epistles of St. John," Loudon, 1883. Dissertation on 
" The Gospel of Creation," pp. 277-280. Bruce, " Humiliation of Christ." 
Ed in, 1876, pp. 354 ff., 487 f. 


lized Lombard just as little as the condemned Abaslard.^ He combats 
with special eagerness a new heresy springing from Abaslard and developed 
by the Lombard which he styles " Nihilism," because by denying the 
independence of the human nature of Christ it teaches that Christ in so 
far as He is man is not an Aliquid, i.e. an individual. — (6) Innocent III. 
is deserving of a place here both on account of his rich theological learning 
and on account of the earnestness and depth of the moral and religious 
view of life which he presents in his writings. The most celebrated of 
these are Be contemtu mundi and 6 bks. Hysteria evang. legis ac sacra- 
menti Eucharistice, and during his pontificate, his epistles and sermons. 

9. Humanist Philosophers.— While Abalard was striving to prove 
Christianity the religion of reason, and for this was condemned by the 
church, his contemporary Bernard Sylvester, teacher of the school of 
Chartres, a famous nursery of classical studies, was seeking to shake 
himself free of any reference to theology and the church. Satisfied with 
Platonism as a genuinely spiritual religion, and feeling therefore no per- 
sonal need of the church and its consolations, he carefully avoided any 
allusion to its dogmas, and so remained in high repute as a teacher and 
writer. His treatise, Be mundi universitates. Megacosmus et Microcosrnus, 
in dialogue form discussing in a dilettante, philosophizing style natural 
phenomena, half poetry, half prose, was highly popular in its day. It 
fared very differently with his accomplished and like-minded scholar 
William of Conches. The vehemence with which he declared himself a 
Catholic Christian and not a heathen Academic aroused suspicion. 
Though in his Philosophia mundi, sometimes erroneously attributed to 
Honorius of Autun, he studiously sought to avoid any contradiction 
of the biblical and ecclesiastical theory of the world, he could not help 
in his discussion of the origin of man characterizing the literal inter- 
pretation of the Scripture history of creation as peasant faith. The book 
fell into the hands of the abbot William of Thierry, who accused its 
author to St. Bernard. The opposition soon attained to such dimensions 
that he was obliged to publish a formal recantation and in a new edition 
to remove everything objectionable. 

§ 103. The Thirteenth Century. 

Scholasticism took a new departure in tlie beginning ot 
the 13th century, and by the middle of the century it 
reached its climax. Material for its development was found 

^ This work is entitled Contra quatuor labyrinthos Francice, Sen contra 
novas hcereses, quas Ahcelardus, Loinbardus, Petrus Pictaviensis,et Gilber- 
tus Porretanus lihris sententiarum acuunt limant, rohorant LI. IV. 


in the works of Aristotle and his Moslem expositors, and 
this Avas skilfully used by highly gifted members of the 
Franciscan and Dominican orders so that all opposition to 
the scholastic philosophy was successfully overborne. The 
Franciscans Alexander of Hales and Bonaventura stand side 
by side with the brilliant Dominican teachers Albert the 
Great and Thomas Aquinas. As reformers of the scholastic 
philosophy from different points of view we meet with 
Kaimund Lull and Roger Bacon. There were also numerous 
representatives of this simple biblical and practical tendency 
devoted to Scripture study and the pursuit of the Christian 
life ; and during this period we find the first developments 
of German mysticism properly so called. 

1. The Writings of Aristotle and his Arabic Interpreters. — Till the end 
of the 12th century Aristotle was known in the Christian West only 
through Porphyry and Boethius. This philosophy, however, from the 9th 
century was diligently studied in Arabic translations of the original text 
(§ 72) by Moslem scholars of Badgad and Cordova, who wrote expositions 
and made original contributions to science. The most distinguished of 
these, besides the logicians Alldndi in the 9th, and Alfarabi in the 10th 
century, were the supernaturalistic Avicenna of Bokhara, fA.D. 1037 
Algazel of Bagdad, inclined to mysticism or sufism, fA.D. 1111, and 
the pantheistic-naturalistic Averroes of Cordova, fA.D. 1198. The Moors 
and Spanish Jews were also devoted students of the peripatetic philo- 
sophy. The most famous of these was Maimonides, f a.d. 1204, who 
wrote the rationalistic work 3Iore Nebochim. On the decay of Arabic 
philosophy in Spain, Spanish Jews introduced the study of Aristotle into 
France. Dissatisfied with Latin translations from the Arabic, they began 
in A.D, 1220 to make translations directly from the Greek. Suspicions 
were now aroused against the new gospel of philosophy. At a Synod 
in Paris a.d. 1209 (§ 108, 4) the physical writings of Aristotle were 
condemned and lecturing on them forbidden. This prohibition was 
renewed in a.d. 1215 by the papal legate and the metaphysics included. 
But no prohibition of the church could arrest the scientific ardour of 
that age. In a.d. 1231 the definitive prohibition was reduced to a 
measure determining the time to be devoted to such studies, and in 
A.D. 1254 we find the university prescribing the number of hours dur- 
ing which Aristotle's physics and metaphysics should be taught. Some 
decades later the church itself declared that no one should obtain the 


degree of master who was not familiar with Aristotle, " thz precursor 
of Christ in natural things a? John Baptist was in the things of grace.'" 
This change was brought about by the belief that not Aristotle but 
Erigena was the author of all the pantheistic heresies of the age (§ § 90, 
7 ; 108, 4), and also by the need felt by the Franciscans and Domini- 
cans for using Aristotelian methods of proof in defence of the doctrine 
of the church. Philosophy, however, was now regarded by all theolo- 
gians as only the handmaid of theology. Even in the 11th century 
Petrus Damiani had indicated the mutual relation of the sciences thus : 
Debet velut ancilla domince quodam famulatus obseqido subservire, ne si 
prcecedit, oherret.^ 

2. On account of their characteristic tendencies Avicenna was most 
popular with the Schoolmen and after him Algazel, while Averroes, though 
carefully studied and secretly followed by some, was generally regarded 
with suspicion and aversion. Among his secret admirers was Simon of 
Tournay, about a.d. 1200, who boasted of being able with equal ease to 
prove the falseness and the truth of the church doctrines, and declared 
that Moses, Christ, and Mohammed were the three greatest deceivers the 
world had ever seen. The Parisian scholars ascribed to Averroes the 
Theory of a twofold Truth. A positive religion was required to meet the 
religious needs of the multitude, but the philosopher might reach and 
maintain the truth independently of any revealed religion. In the 
Christian West he put this doctrine in a less offensive form by saying 
that one and the same affirmation might be theologically true and 
philosophically false, and vice versa. Behind this, philosophical scepticism 
as well as theological unbelief sought shelter. Its chief opponents were 
Thomas Aquinas and Raimund Lull, while at a later time Duns Scotus 
and the Scotists were inclined more or less to favour it. 

3. The Appearance of the Mendicant Orders. — The Dominican and 
Franciscan orders competed with one another in a show of zeal for the 
maintenance of the orthodox doctrine, and each endeavoured to secure 
the theological chairs in the University of Paris, the principal seat of 
learning in those days. They were \dgorously opposed by the university 
corporation, and especially by the Parisian doctor William of St. Amour, 
who characterized them in his tract De periculis novissimorum temporum 
of A.D. 1255 as the precursors of antichrist. But he was answered by 
learned members of the orders, Albert the Great, Aquinas, and Bonaven- 
tura, and finally, in a.d. 1257, all opposition on the part of the university 

1 Ueberweg, " History of Philosophy," London, 1872. Vol. i., pp. 405- 
428. Ginsburg, " The Kabbalah, its doctrines, development, and litera- 
ture," London, 1865. Palmer, " Oriental Mysticism," a treatise on the 
Suffistic and Unitarian Theosophy of the Persians, compiled from native 
sources, London, 1867. 


was checked by papal authority and royal command. The Augustinians, 
too, won a seat in the University of Paris in a.d. 1261. — The learned 
monks gave themselves with enthusiasm to the new science and applied 
all their scientific gains to polemical and apolegetical purposes. They 
diligently conserved all that the earlier Fathers down to Gregory the 
Great had written in exposition of the doctrine and all that the later 
Fathers down to Hugo St. Victor and Peter the Lombard had written 
in its defence. But what had been simply expressed before was now 
arranged -under elaborate scientific categories. The Summists of the 
previous century supplied abundant material for the work. Their 
Siimmcc sententiarum, especially that of the Lombard, became the theme 
of innumerable commentaries, but besides these, comprehensive original 
works were written. These were no longer to be described as Summce 
sententiarum, but assumed with right the title of Summce theologice or 

4. Distinguished Franciscan Schoolmen.— Alexander of Hales, trained in 
the English cloister of Hales, doctor irrcfrafiabilis, was the most famous 
teacher of theology in Paris, where in a.d. 1222 he entered the Seraphic 
Order. He died in a.d. 1245. As the first church theologian who, 
without the excessive hair-splitting of later scholastics, applied the forms 
of the peripatetic philosophy to the scientific elaboration of the 
doctrinal system of the church, he was honoured by his grateful order 
with the title of Monarcha theologorum, and is still regarded as the first 
scholastic in the strict sense of the word. His Summa theologica, pub- 
lished at Nuremberg in a.d. 1482 in 4 folio vols, was accepted by his 
successors as the model of scientific method and arrangement. The 
first two vols, treat of God and His Work, the Creature ; the third, of the 
Redeemer and His Work ; the fourth, of the Sacraments of the 0. and 
N.T. The conclusion, which is not extant, treated of Pramia salutis 
per futuram gloriam. Each of these divisions was subdivided into a great 
number of Qmestiones, these again into Membra, and these often into 
ArtlcuU. The question at the head of the section was followed by 
several answers affirmative and negative, some of which were entitled 
Aactoritates (quotations from Scripture, the Fathers, and the teachers of 
the church), some Rationes (dictates of the Greek, Arabian, and Jewish 
philosophers), and finally, his own conclusion. Among the authorities 
of later times, Hugo's dogmatic works (§ 102, 4) occupy with him the 
highest place, but he seems to have had no appreciation of his mystical 
speculations. — His most celebrated discij^le John Fidanza, better known 
as Bonaventura, had a strong tendency to mysticism. Born at Bagnarea 
in the district of Florence in a.d. 1221, he became teacher of theology in 
Paris in a.d. 1253, general of his order in a.d. 1257, was made Cardinal- 
bishop of Ostia by Gregory X. in a.d. 1273, and in the following year 
was a member of the Lyons Council, at which the question of the 


reunion of the churches was discussed (§ 67, 4), He took an active 
part in the proceedings of that council, but died before its close in a.d. 
1274. His aged teacher Alexander had named him a Verus Israelita, 
in quo Adam non peccasse videtur. Later Franciscans regarded him as 
the noblest embodiment of the idea of the Seraphic Order next to its 
founder, and celebrated the angeUc purity of his personality by the 
title doctor seraphicus. Sixtus IV. canonized him in a.d. 1482, and 
Sixtus v., edited his works in 8 fol. vols, in a.d. 1588, and gave him in 
A.D. 1587 the sixth place in the rank of Doctores ecclesice as the greatest 
church teacher of the West. Like Hugo, he combined the mystical and 
doctrinal sides of theology, but Hke Eichard St. Victor inclined more to 
the mystical. His greatest dogmatic work is his commentary in 2 vols. 
fol. on the Lombard. His able treatise, De reductione artium ad 
theologiam, shows how theology holds the highest place among all the 
sciences. In his Breviloquium he seeks briefly but with great expendi- 
ture of learning to prove that the church doctrine is in accordance with 
the teachings of reason. In the Centiloquium, consisting of 100 sections, 
he treats summarily of the doctrines of Sin, Grace, and Salvation. In 
the Pharetra he gives a collection of the chief authorities for the 
conclusions reached in the two previously named works. The most 
celebrated of his mystical treatises are the DiceUc salutis, describing the 
nine days' journey (diatce) in which the soul passes from the abyss of 
sin to the blessedness of heaven, and the Itinerarium mentis in Deum, 
in which he describes as a threefold way to the knowledge of God a 
theologia symholica { = extra nos), propria {^ intra nos) and mystica 
{ = supra nos), the last and highest of which alone leads to the beatific 
vision of God. 

5. Distmguished Dominican Schoolmen.— (1) Albert the Great, the oldest ^ 
son of a knight of Bollstadt, born in a.d. 1193, at Laningen in Swabia, 
sent in a.d. 1212, because too weak for a military career, to the Univer- 
sity of Padua, where he devoted himself for ten years to the diligent 
study of Aristotle, entered then the Dominican order, and at Bologna 
pursued with equal diligence the study of theology in a six years' course. 
He afterwards taught the regular curriculum of the liberal arts at Cologne 
and in the cloisters of his order in other German cities ; and after taking 
his doctor's degree at Paris, he taught theology at Cologne with such 
success that the Cologne school, owing to the crowds attracted to his 
lectures, grew to the dimensions of a university. In a.d. 1254 he became 
provincial of his order in Germany, was compelled in a.d. 1260 by papal 
command to accept the bishopric of Eegensburg, but returned to Cologne 
in A.D. 1262 to resume teaching, and died there in a.d. 1280, in his 87th 
year. His amazing acquirements in philosophical, theological, cabaUstic, 
and natural science won for him the surname of the Great, and the title 
of doctor universalis. Since the time of Aristotle and Theophrastus there 


had been no investigator in natural science like him. Traces of mysticism 
may be discovered in his treatise Paradisus animce, and in his commen- 
tary on the Areopagite. Indeed from his school proceeded the greatest 
master of speculative mysticism (§ 114, 1). His chief work in natural 
science is the Summa de Creaturis, the fantastic and superstitious charac- 
ter of which may be seen from the titles of its several books : De virtuti- 
bm herharum, lapidum, et auimalium, De mirabilibus mundi, and De secretis 
mulierum. He wrote three books of commentaries on the Lombard, and 
two books of an independent system of dogmatics, the Summa tJieo- 
logica. The latter treatise, which closely follows the work of Alexander 
of Hales, is incomplete.^ 

6. The greatest and most influential of all the Schoolmen was the 
Doctor angelicus, Thomas Aquinas. Born in a.d. 1227, son of a count 
of Aquino, at his father's castle of Roccasicca, in Calabria, he entered 
against his parents' will as a novice into the Dominican monastery at 
Naples. Eemoved for safety to France, he was followed by his brothers 
and taken back, but two years later he effected his escape with the aid of 
the order, and was placed under Albert at Cologne. Afterwards he taught 
for two years at Cologne, and was then sent to win his doctor's degree at 
Paris in a.d. 1252. There he began along with his intimate friend Bona- 
ventura his brilliant career. It was not until a.d. 1257, after the oppo- 
sition of the university to the mendicant orders had been overcome, that 
the two friends obtained the degree of doctor. Urban IV. recalled him 
to Italy in a.d. 1261, where he taught successively in Eome, Bologna, 
Pisa, and Naples. Ordered by Gregory to take part in the discussions 
on union at the Lyons Council, he died suddenly in a.d. 1274, soon after 
his return to Naples, probably from poison at the hand of his country- 
man Charles of Anjou, in order that he might not appear at the council 
to accuse him of tyranny. John XXII. canonized him in a.d. 1323, and 
Pius V. gave him the fifth place among the Latin doctores ecclesicc. — • 
Thomas was probably the most profound thinker of the century, and 
was at the same time admired as a popular preacher. He had an intense 
veneration for Augustine, an enthusiastic appreciation of the church 
doctrine and the philosophy which are approved and enjoined by this great 
Father. He had also a vein of genuine mysticism, and was distinguished 
for warm and deep piety. He was the first to give the papal hierarchical 
system of Gregory and Innocent a regular place in dogmatics. His 
Sumilia 2)hilosophi(e contra Gentiles, is a Christian philosophy of religion, 
of which the first three books treat of those religious truths which human 
reason of itself may recognise, while the fourth book treats of those 
which, because transcending reason though not contrary to it, i.e. doc- 

1 Sighart, " Albert the Great : his Life and Scholastic Labours.' 
Translated from the French by T. A. Dixon. London, 1870. 


ti'ines of the incarnation and the trinity, can be known only by Divine 
revelation. He wrote two books of commentaries on the Lombard. By 
far the most important work of the Middle Ages is his Summa theologica, 
in three vols. , in which he gives ample space to ethical questions. His 
polemic against the Greeks is found in the section in which he defines 
and proves the primacy of the pope, basing his arguments on ancient 
and modern fictions and forgeries (§ 96, 23), which he, ignorant of Greek 
and deriving his knowledge of antiquity wholly from Gratian's decree, 
accepted bona fide as genuine. His chief exegetical work is the Catena 
aurea on the Gospels and Pauline Epistles, translated into English by 
Dr. Pusey, in 8 vols., Oxf., 1841, ff. In commenting on Aristotle Thomas, 
unlike Albert, neglected the treatises on natural science in favour of those 
on politics. — The Dominican order, proud of having in it the greatest 
philosopher and theologian of the age, made the doctrine of Thomas in 
respect of form and matter the authorized standard among all its mem- 
bers (§ 113, 2), and branded every departm-e from it as a betrayal not 
only of the order but also of the church and Christianity. The other 
monkish orders, too, especially the Augustinians, Cistercians, and Car- 
melites, recognised the authority of the Angelical doctor. Only the 
Franciscans, moved by envy and jealousy, ignored him and kept to Alex- 
ander and Bonaventura, until the close of the century, when, in Duns 
Scotus (^ 113, 1), they obtained a brilliant teacher within their own 
ranks, whom they proudly thought would prove a fair rival in fame to 
the great Dominican teacher. ^ 

7. Reformers of the Scholastic Method. — Eaimund Lull, a Catalonian 
nobleman of Majorca, born in a.d. 1234, roused from a worldly life by 
visions, gave himself to fight for Christ against the infidels with the 
weapons of the Spirit. Learning Arabic from a Saracen slave, he passed 
through a full course of scholastic training in theology and entered the 
Franciscan order. Constrained in the prosecution of his mission to 
seek a simpler method of proof than that afforded by scholasticism, he 
succeeded by the help of visions in discovering one by which as he and 
his followers, the Lullists,, thought, the deepest truths of all human 
sciences could be made plain to the untutored human reason. He called 
it the Ars Magna, and devoted his whole life to its elaboration in theory 
and practice. Representing fundamental ideas and their relations to 
the objects of thought by letters and figures, he drew conclusions from 

' Hampden, "Life of Thomas Aquinas : a Dissertation of the Scholastic 
Philosophy of the Middle Ages." London, 1848. Cicognani, " Life of 
Thomas Aquinas." London, 1882. Townsend, " Great Schoolmen of 
the Middle Ages." London, 1882. Vaughan, " Life and Labours of St. 
Thomas of Aquino." 2 vols. London, 1870. 


their various combinations. In his missionary travels in North Africa 
(§ 93, 16) he used his art in his disputations with the Saracen scholars, 
and died in a.d. 1315 in consequence of ill treatment received there, in 
his 81st year. Of his writings in Latin, Catalonian, and Arabic, 
numbering it is said more than a thousand, 282 were known in a.d. 
1721 to Salzinger of Mainz, but only -45 were included in his edition of 
the collected works. 

8. Eoger Bacon, an EngUsh monk, contemporary with Lull, worked 
out his reform in a sounder manner by going back to the original 
sources and thus obtaining deliverance from the accumulated errors of 
later times. He appealed on matters of natural science not to corrupt 
translations but to the original works of Aristotle, and on matters of 
theology, not to the Lombard but to the Greek New Testament. He 
prosecuted his studies laboriously in mathematics and the. Greek 
language. Roger was called by his friends Doctor mlrabilis or profun- 
dus. He was a prodigy of learning for his age, more in the department 
of physics than in those of philosophy and theology. He was regarded, 
however, by his own order as a heretic, and imprisoned as a trafficker 
in the black arts. Born in a.d. 1214 at Ilchester, he took his degree of 
doctor of theology at Paris, entered the Franciscan order, and became a 
resident at Oxford. Besides diligent study of languages, which secured 
him perfect command of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, he busied 
himself with researches and experiments in physics (especially optics), 
chemistry, and astronomy. He made several important discoveries, 
e.g. the principle of refraction, magnifying glasses, the defects of the 
calendar, etc., while he also succeeded in making a combustible material 
which may be regarded as the precursor of gunpowder. He main- 
tained the possibility of ships and land vehicles being propelled most 
rapidly without sails, and without the labour of men or animals. Yet 
he was a child of his age, and believed in the philosopher's stone, in 
astrology, and alchemy. Thoroughly convinced of the defects of 
scholasticism, he spoke of Albert the Great and Aquinas as boys who 
taught before they learnt, and especially reproached them with their 
ignorance of Greek. With an amount of brag that smacks of the 
empiric he professed to be able to teach Hebrew in three days and Greek 
in the same time, and to give a full course of geometry in seven days. 
With fearless severity he lashed the corruptions of the clergy and the 
monks. Only one among his companions seems to have regarded Roger, 
notwithstanding all his faults, as a truly great man. That was Clement 
IV. who, as papal legate in England, had made his acquaintance, and 
as pope liberated him from prison. To him Roger dedicated his 
Opus majus s. de emendandis scieutiis. At a later period the general 
of the Franciscan order, with the approval of Nicholas IV., had him 
again cast into prison, and only after that pope's death was he libe- 



rated through the intercession of his friends. He died soon after in 
A.D. 1291.1 

9. Theologians of a Biblical and Practical Tendency.— (1) Csesarius of 
Heisterbach near Bonn was a monk, then prior and master of the 
novices of the Cistercian monastery there. He died in a.d. 1230. His 
Dialogus magmis visionum et miraculorum in 12 bks., one of the best 
specimens of the finest culture and learning of the Middle Ages, in the 
form of conversation with the novices, gives an admirable and complete 
sketch of the morals and manners of the times illustrated from the 
history and legends of the monks, clergy, and people. — (2) His younger 
contemporary the Dominican William Peraldus (Perault), in his Summd 
virtutum and Summa vitionim, presents a summary of ethics with illus- 
trations from life in France. He died about a.d. 1250, as bishop of 
Lyons. — (3) Hugo of St. Caro (St. Cher, a suburb of Vienne), a Domini- 
can and cardinal who died in a.d. 1263, gives evidence of careful Bible 
study in his PostiUa in uiiiv. Biblia juxta quadrupl. sensum (a commen- 
tary accompanying the text) and his Concordantice Bibliorum (on the 
Vulgate). To him we are indebted for our division of the Scriptures into 
chapters. At the request of his order he undertook a correction of the y 
Vulgate from the old MSS. — (4) Robert of Sorbon in Champagne, who 

died in a.d. 1274, was confessor of St. Louis and teacher of theology at 
Paris. He urged upon his pupils the duty of careful study of the Bible. 
Li A.D. 1250 he founded the Sorbonne at Paris, originally a seminary 
for the education and support of the poorer clergy who aspired to the 
highest attainments in theology. Its fame became so great that it rose 
to the rank of a full theological faculty, and down to its overthrow in the 
French Revolution it continued to be the highest tribunal in France for 
all matters pertaining to religion and the church. — (5) Raimund Martmi, 
Dominican at Barcelona, who died after a.d. 1284, was unweariedly 
engaged in the conversion of Jews and Mohammedans. He spoke 
Hebrew and Arabic as fluently as Latin, and wrote Pugio jldei contra 
Mauros et Judcsos." 

10. Precursors of the German Speculative Mystics. — David of Augsburg, 
teacher of theology and master of the novices in the Franciscan monas- 
tery at 'Augsburg, deserves to be named first, as one who largely antici- 
pated the style of speculative mysticism that flourished in the following 

1 " Monumenta Franciscana," in " Chronicles and Memorials of Great 
Britain and Ireland," edited for the "Master of the Rolls Series" by 
Brewer, London, 1858. In addition to the Opus Majus referred to above, 
Brewer has edited Fr. Eogeri Bacon Opera quadam inedita, vol. i., con- 
taining Opus Tertium, Opus Minus, and Compendium Philosophic. 

' Neubauer, "Jewish Controversy and the ' Pugio Fidei,' " in Expositor 
for February and March, 1888. 


century (§ Hi). His writings, partly in Latin, partly in German, are 
merely ascetic directories and treatises of a contemplative mystical order, 
distingaislied by deep spirituality and earnest, humble piety. The Ger- 
man works especially are models of a beautiful rhythmical style, worthy 
of ranking with the finest creations of any century. He is author of the 
important tract, De hceresl paiqjerum de Lugduno, in which the pious 
mystic shows himself in the less pleasing guise of a relentless inquisitor 
and heresy hunter.— A brilliant and skilful allegory. The Daughter of 
Zion, the human soul, who, having become a daughter of Babylon, went 
forth to see the heavenly King, and under the guidance of the virgins 
Faith, Hope, Love, Wisdom, and Prayer attained unto this end, was first 
written in Latin prose ; but afterwards towards the close of the 13th cen- 
tury a free rendering of it in more than 4,000 verses was published by the 
Franciscan Lamprecht of Eegensburg. Its mysticism is like that of St. 
Bernard and Hugo St. Victor. — In speculative power and originality the 
Dominican Theodorich of Freiburg, Meister Dietrich, a pupil of Albert the 
Great, far excelled all the mystics of this century. About a.d. 1280 he 
was reader at Treves, afterwards prior at Wiirzburg, took his master's 
degree and taught at Paris, a.d. 1285-1289. About a.d, 1320, however, 
along with Meister Eckhart (§ 114, 1), he fell under suspicion of heresy, 
and nothing further is known of him. Among his still unpublished writ- 
ings, mostly on natural and religious philosophy, the most important is 
the book De heatijica visione Dei per essentiam, which marks him out as 
a precursor of the Eckhart speculation.— On Female Mystics, see § 107. 

IV.— The Church and the People. 

§ 104. Public Worship and Art. 

Public worship had for a long time been popularly re- 
garded as a performance fraught with magical power. The 
ignorant character of the priests led to frequent setting 
aside of preaching as something unessential, so that the 
service became purely liturgical. But now popes and 
synods urged the importance of rearing a race of learned 
priestSj and the carefully prepared and eloquent sermons of 
Franciscans and Dominicans found great acceptance with 
the people. The Schoolmen gave to the doctrine of the 
sacraments its scientific form. The veneration of saints, 
relics, and images became more and more the central point 
of worship. Besides ecclesiastical architecture, which 


reached its highest development in the 13th centiirVj the 
other arts began to be laid under contribution to beautify 
the ceremonial, the dresses of the celebrants, and the inner 
parts of the buildings. 

1. The Liturgy and the Sermon. — The Roman Liturgy was universally 
adopted except in Spain. When it was proposed at the Synod of Toledo 
in A.D. 1088 to set aside the old Mozarabic liturgy (§ 88, 1), the people 
rose against the proposal, and the ordeals of combat and fire decided in 
favour of retaining the old service. From that time both liturgies were 
used side by side. The Slavic ritual was abandoned in Moravia and 
Bohemia in the 10th century. The language of the church services 
everywhere was and continued to be the Latin. The quickening of 
the monkish orders in the 11th century, especially the Cluniacs and 
Cistercians, but more particularly the rise of the Franciscans and 
Dominicans in the 13th century, gave a great impulse to preaching. 
Almost all the great monks and schoolmen were popular preachers. 
The crowds that flocked around them as they preached in the vernacular 
were enormous. Even in the regular services the preaching was gene- 
rally in the language of the people, but quotations from Scripture and 
the Fathers, as a mark of respect, were made in Latin and then trans- 
lated. Sermons addressed to the clergy and before academic audiences 
were always in Latin. — As a preacher of repentance and of the crusades, 
Fulco of Neuilly, f a.d. 1202, regarded by the people as a saint and a 
miracle worker, had a wonderful reputation (§ 94, 4). Of all mediaeval 
preachers, however, none can be compared for depth, spirituality, and 
popular eloquence with the Franciscan Berthold of Eegensburg, pupil 
and friend of David of Augsburg (§ 103, 10), one of the most powerful 
preachers in the German tongue that ever lived. He died in a.d. 1272. 
He wandered from town to town preaching to crowds, often numbering 
100,000 men, of the grace of God in Christ, against the abuse of indul- 
gences and false trust in saints, and the idea of the meritoriousness 
of pilgrimages, etc. His sermons are of great value as illustrations of 
the strength and richness of the old German language. Roger Bacon 
too (§ 103, 8), usually so chary of praise, eulogises Frater Bertholdus 
Alemannus as a preacher worth more than the two mendicant orders 

2. Definition and Number of the Sacraments (§§ 58; 70, 2). — Radbert 
acknowledged only two : Baptism including confirmation, and the Lord's 
Supper. Rabanus Maurus by separately enumerating the bread and the 
cup, and counting confirmation as well as baptism, made four. Hugo 
St. Victor again held them to be an indefinite number. But he dis- 
tinguished three kinds : those on which salvation depends. Baptism, Con- 



firmation, and the Supper ; those not necessary and formmg important 
aids to salvation, sprinkling with holy water, confession, extreme 
unction, marriage, etc. ; those necessary for particular callings, the 
ordination of priests, sacred vestments. Yet he prepared the way for 
the final ecclesiastical conception of the sacraments, by placing its 
Elementa Corporalia under the threefold category as divinam gratiam 
ex similitiidine reprcBsentantia, ex institutione sigiiijicantia, and ex con- 
secratione continentia. Peter the Lombard took practically the same 
view, but fixed the number of the Sacraments at seven : Baptism, Con- 
firmation (§ 35, 4), the Supper, Penance, Extreme Unction, Marriage, 
and Ordination (§ 45, 1). This number was first officially sanctioned by 
the Florentine Council of a.d. 1439 (§ 67, 6). Alexander of Hales gave 
a special rank to Baptism and the Supper, as alone instituted by Christ, 
while Aquinas gave this rank to all the seven. All the ecclesiastical 
consecrations and benedictions were distinguished from the sacraments 
as Sacramentalia. — The Schoolmen distinguished the sacraments of 
the O.T., as ex opera operante, i.e. efficacious only through faith in a 
coming Redeemer, from the sacraments of the N.T. as ex opera operato, 
i.e. as efficacious by mere receiving without the exercise of positive 
faith on the part of all who had not committed a mortal sin. Against 
old sectaries (§ § 41, 3 ; 63, 1) and new (§ § 108, 7, 12) the scholastic 
divines maintained that even unworthy and unbelieving priests could 
validly dispense the sacraments, if only there was the intentio to ad- 
minister it in the form prescribed by the church.' 

3. The Sacrament of the Altar. — At the fourth Lateran Council of a.d, 
1215 the doctrine of Trausubstantiation was finally accepted (§ 101, 2). 
The fear lest any of the blood of the Lord should be spilt led to the 
withholding from the 12th century of the cup from the laity, and its being 
given only to the priests. If not the cause, then the consequence, of 
this was that the priests were regarded as the only full and perfect 
partakers of the Lord's table. Kings at their coronation and at the 
approach of death were sometimes by special favour allowed to partake 
of the cup. The withdrawal of the cup from the laity was dogmatically 
justified, specially by Alex, of Hales, by the doctrine of concomitanUa, 
i.e. that in the body the blood was contained. Fear of losing any 
fragment also led to the substitution of wafers, the host, for the bread 
that should be broken. — A consecrated host is kept in the Tahernaculum, 
a niche in the wall on the right of the high altar, in the so-called lihu- 
rium or Sanctisslvium, i.e. a gold or silver casket, often ornamented with 
rich jewels. It is taken forth, touched only by the priests, and exhibited 
to the kneeling people during the service and in solemn processions. 

4. Penance.— Gratian's decree (§ 99, 5) left it to the individual believer's 

' Hodge, "Systematic Theology," vol. iii., pp. 492-497. 


decision whether the sinner could be reconciled to God by heart penitence 
without confession. But in accordance also with the teaching of the 
Lombard, confession of mortal sins (Gal. v. 19 ff. and Cor. v. 9 f.), or, in 
case that could not be, the desire at heart to make it, was declared 
indispensable. The forgiveness of sins was still, however, regarded 
as God's exclusive prerogative, and the priest could bind and loose 
only in regard to the fellowship of the church and the enjoyment of 
the sacraments. Before him, however, Hugo St. Victor had begun to 
transcend these limits ; for he, distinguishing between the guilt and the 
punishment of the sinner, ascribed indeed to God alone the absolu- 
tion from the guilt of sin on the ground of sincere repentance, but ascribed 
to the exercise of the priestly function, the absolution from the punish- 
ment of eternal death, in accordance with Matthew xviii. 18 and John 
XX. 23. Richard St. Victor held that the punishment of eternal death, 
which all mortal sins as well as venial sins entail, can be commuted 
into temporal punishment by priestly absolution, atoned for by penances 
imposed by the priests, e.g. prayers, fastings, alms, etc.; whereas with- 
out such satisfaction they can be atoned for only by the pains of purga- 
tory (§ 61, 14). Innocent III., at the fourth Lateran Council of a.d. 1215, 
had the obligation of confession of all sins raised into a dogma, and 
obliged all believers under threat of excommunication to make confession 
at least once a year, as preparation for the Easter communion. The 
Provincial Synod at Toulouse in a.d, 1229 (§ 109, 2) insisted on compul- 
sory confession and communion three times a year, at Christmas, Easter, 
and Pentecost. The three penitential requirements, enforced first by 
Hildebert of Tours, and adopted by the Lombard, Contritio cordis, Con- 
fessio oris, and Satiafactio operis continued henceforth in force. But 
Hugo's and Richard's theory of absolution displaced not only that of the 
Lombard, but, by an extension of the sacerdotal idea to the absolution of 
the sinner from guilt, led to the introduction of a full-blown theory of 
indulgence (§ 106, 2). As the ground of the scientific construction given 
it by the Schoolmen of the 13th century, especially by Aquinas, the 
Catholic Church doctrine of penance received its final shape at the 
Council of Florence in a.d. 1439. Penance as the fourth sacrament con- 
sists of hearty repentance, auricular confession, and satisfaction ; it takes 
form in the words of absolution. Ego te absolvo ; and it is efficacious for 
the forgiveness of sins. Any breach of the secrecy of the confessional 
was visited by the fourth Lateran Council with excommunication, depo- 
sition, and lifelong confinement in a monastery. The exaction of a 
confessional fee, especially at the Easter confession, appears as an 
increment of the priest's income in many mediaeval documents. Its 
prohibition by several councils was caused by its simoniacal abuse. 
By the introduction of confessors, separate from the local clergy, the 
custom fell more and more into disuse. 


o. Extreme Unction. — Although as early as a.d. 416 Innocent I. had 
described anointing of the sick with holy oil (Mark vi. 13 ; Jas. v. 14) 
as a Genus Sacramenti (§ 61, 3), extreme unction as a sacrament made 
little progress till the 9th century. The Synod of Chalons in a.d. 813 
calls it quite generally a means of grace for the weak of soul and body. 
The Lombard was the first to give it the fifth place among the seven 
sacraments as Unctio extrema and Sacramentwn exeuntium, ascribing to 
it Peccatoritm remissio et corporalis infirmitatio alleviatus. Original sin 
being atoned for by baptism, and actual sins by penance, Albert the 
Great and Aquinas describe it as the purifying from the Reliquice 
lieccatorum which even after baptism and penance hinder the soul from 
entering into its perfect rest. Bodily healing is only a secondary aim, 
and is given only if thereby the primary end of spiritual healing is not 
hindered. It was long debated whether, in case of recovery, it should 
be repeated when death were found approaching, and it was at last 
declared to be admissible. The Council of Trent defines Extreme Unc- 
tion as Sacr. 2^oenitenti(e totiiis vita consummativum. The form of 
its administration was finally determined to be the anointing of eyes, 
ears, nose, mouth, and hands, as well as (except in women) the feet and 
loins, with holy oil, consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday. 
Confession and communion precede anointing. The three together con- 
stitute the Viaticum of the soul in its last journey. After receiving 
extreme unction recipients are forbidden again to touch the ground with 
their bare feet or to have marital intercourse. 

6. The Sacrament of Marriage (§ 89, 4). — When marriage came gene- 
rally to be regarded as a sacrament in the proper sense, the laws of 
marriage were reconstructed and the administration of them committed 
to the church. It had long been insisted upon by the church with ever- 
increasing decidedness, that the priestly benediction must precede the 
marriage ceremonial, and that bridal communion must accompany the 
civil action. Hence marriage had to be performed in the immediate 
vicinity of a church, ante ostium ecclesice. As another than the father 
often gave away the bride, this position of sponsor was claimed by the 
church for the priest. Marriage thus lost its civil character, and the 
priest came to be regarded as performing it in his ofiicial capacity not 
in name of the family, but in name of the church. Christian marriage 
in the early times required only mutual consent of parties (§ 39, 1), but 
the Council of Trent demanded a solemn agreement between bride and 
bridegroom before the ofiiciating priest and two or three witnesses. In 
order to determine more exactly hindrances to marriage (§ 61, 2) it was 
made a law at the second Lateran Council in a.d. 1139, and confirmed 
at the fourth in a.d. 1215, that the parties proposing to marry should 
be proclaimed in church. To each part of the sacrament the character 
indelihilis is ascribed, and so divorce was absolutely forbidden, even in 


the case of adultery (in spite of Matt. v. 32 andxix. 9j, though separatio 
a mensa et toro was allowed. Innocent III. in a.d. 1215 reduced the 
prohibited degrees from the seventh to the fourth in the line of blood 
relationship (61, 2). 

7. New Festivals. — The worship of Mary (§ 57, 2) received an im- 
pulse from the institution of the Feast of the Birth of Mary on 8th of 
September. To this was added in the south of France in the 12th 
century, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception on the 8th December. 
Radbert (^ 91, 4) by his doctrine of Sanctijicatio in utero gave basis to 
the theory of the Virgin's freedom from original sin in her conception 
and bearing. Anselm of Canterbury, however, taught in Car Dens 
Homo I ii. 16, that Mary was conceived and born in sin, and that she 
like all others had sinned in Adam. Certain canons of Lyons, in a.d. 
1140, revived Eadbert's theory, but raised the Saiictif. in utero into the 
Immaculata coiiceptio. St. Bernard protested against the doctrine and 
the festival ; sinless conception is a prerogative of the Redeemer alone. 
Mary like us all was conceived in sin, but was sanctified before the 
birth by Divine power, so that her whole life was faultless ; if one 
imagines that Mary's sinless conception of her Son had her own sinless 
conception as a necessary presupposition, this would need to be carried 
back ad infinitum^ and to festivals of Immaculate Concei)tions there 
would be no end. This view of a Sanctijicatio in utero, with repu- 
diation of the Conceptio immaculata, was also maintained by Alex, of 
Hales, Bonaventura, Albert the Great, and Aquinas. The feast of the 
Conception, with the predicate "immaculate " dropped, gradually came 
to be universally observed. The Franciscans adopted it in this limited 
sense at Pisa, in a.d. 1263, but when, beginning with Duns Scotus (§§ 113, 
112), the doctrine of the immaculate conception came to be regarded 
as a distinctive dogma of the order, the Dominicans felt called upon to 
offer it their most strenuous opposition.^ (Continuation, § 112, 4.) — To 
the feast of All Saints, on 1st November, the Cluniacs added in a.d. 998, 
the feast of All Souls on 2nd November, for intercession of believers 
on behalf of the salvation of souls in purgatory. In the 12th century the 
Feast of the Trinity was introduced on the Sunday after Pentecost. Out 
of the transubstantiation doctrine arose the Corpus Christi Festival, on 
the Thursday after Trinity. A pious nun of Liege, Juliana, in a.d. 1261, 
saw in a vision the full moon with a halo around it, and an inward 
revelation interpreted this phenomenon to indicate that the festal cycle 
of the church still wanted a festival in honour of the eucharist. Urban 
IV. gave effect to this suggestion in a.d. 1264, avowedly in consequence 
of the miracle of the mass of Bolsena. A priest of Bolsena celebrating 

^ Preuss, " The Romish Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception 
traced from its Source." Edinburgh, 1867. 


mass spilt a drop of consecrated wiue, which left a blood-red stain on 
the corporal or pall (§ 60, 5), in the form of a host. The festival did 
not come into favour till Clement V. renewed its institution at the 
Council of Vienne, in a.d. 1311. The church, by order of John XXIII. 
in A.D. 1316, celebrated it by a magnificent procession, in which the 
liburium was carried with all pomp. 

8. The Veneration of Saints (§ 88, 4.)— The numerous Canonizations, from 
the 12th century exclusively in the hands of the popes, gave an impulse 
to saint worship. It was the duty of Advocatus diaboli to try to dis- 
prove the reports of virtues and miracles attributed to candidates. The 
proofs of holiness adduced were generally derived from thoroughly 
fabulous sources. The introduction of the name of accepted candidates 
into the canon of the mass gave rise to the term canonization. Beati- 
fication was a lower degree of honour, often a preliminary to canoni- 
zation at a later period. It carried with it the veneration not of the 
whole church, but of particular churches or districts. The Dominican 
Jacobus a Voragine, who died in a.d. 1298, in his Legenda aurea 
afforded a pattern for numerous late legends of the saints. A Parisian 
theologian who styled it Legenda ferrea, was publicly expelled from his 
office. The Veneration of Mary, to whom were rendered Hyperdoulia 
in contradistinction from the Doiilia of the saints, not only among the 
people, but with the most cultured theologians, publicly and privately, 
literally and figuratively, in prose and poetry, was almost equal to the 
worship rendered to God, and indeed often overshadowed it. The 
angel's salutation (Luke i. 28) was in every prayer. Its frequent repe- 
tition led to the use of the Rosary, a rose wreath for the most blessed 
of women. The great rosary attributed to St. Dominic has fifteen 
decades, or 150 smaller pearls of Mary, each of which represents an 
Ave Maria, and after every ten there is a greater Paternoster pearl. 
The small or common rosary has only five decades of beads of Mary 
with a Paternoster bead for each decade. Thrice repeated it forms the 
so-called Psalter of Mary. The first appearance of the rosary in 
devotion was with the monk Macarius in the 4th century, who took 300 
stones in his lap, and after every Paternoster threw one away. The 
rosary devotion is also practised by Moslems and Buddhists. In 
cloisters, Saturday was usually dedicated to the Mother of God, and 
was begun by a special Officium S. Marice. May was called the 
month of Mary. — In the 11th century no further trace is found of the 
Frankish opposition to Image Worship (§ 92, 1). But this in no way 
hindered the growth of Relic Worship. Returning crusaders showered 
on the West innumerable relics, which notwithstanding many sceptics 
were received generally with superstitious reverence. Castles and 
estates were often bartered for pretended relics of a distinguished saint, 
and such treasures were frequently stolen at the risk of life. No story 


of a trafficker in relics was too absurd to be believed. — Pilgrimages, 
especially to Eome and Palestine, were no less in esteem among the 
Western Christians of the 10th century during the Eoman pornocracy 
(§ 96, 1) or the tyranny of the Seljuk dynasty in Palestine (§ 94). The 
expectation of the approaching end of the world, rather gave them an 
impulse during this century, which reached its fullest expression in 
the crusades. — Continuation, § 115, 9. 

9. The earliest trace of a commemoration of St. Ursula and lier 
11,000 Virgins is met with in the 10th century. Excavations in the 
Agei' Ursulanus near Cologne in a.d. 1155 led to the discovery of some 
thousand skeletons, several of them being those of males, with inscribed 
tablets, one of the fictitious inscriptions referring to an otherwise un- 
known pope Cyrifeus. St. Elizabeth of Schonau (§ 107, 1) at the same 
time had visions in which the Virgin gave her authentic account of 
their lives. Ursula, the fair daughter of a British king of the 3rd 
century, was to have married a pagan prince ; she craved three years' 
reprieve and got from her father eleven ships, each with an equipment 
of a thousand virgins, with which she sailed up the Ehine to Basel, 
and thence with her companions travelled on foot a pilgrimage to Eome. 
On her return, in accordance with the Divine instruction, Pope Cyriffius 
accompanied her, whose name was on this account struck out of the 
list by the offended cardinals ; for as Martinus Polonus says, Credehant 
plerique eum non propter devotionem sed propter obtectamenta virginum 
papatum dimississe. Near Cologne they met the army of the Huns, by 
whom they were all massacred, at last even Ursula herself on her per- 
sistent refusal to marry the barbaric chief. — In the absence of any his- 
torical foundations for this legend, an explanation has been attempted 
by identifying Ursula with a goddess of the German mythology. An 
older suggestion is that perhaps an ancient inscription may have given 
rise to the legend.^ 

10. Hymnology. — The Augustan age of scholasticism was that also of 
the composition of Latin hymns and sequences (§ 88, 2). The most 
distinguished sacred poets were Odo of Clugny, king Eobert of France 
{Veni, sancte Spiritus, et emitte), Damiani, Abaelard, Hildebert of 
Tours, St. Bernard, Adam of St. Victor,^ Bonaventura, Aquinas, the 

^ Maccall, " Christian Legends of Middle Ages, from German of von 
Bulow," London. Cox and Jones, " Popular Eomances of the Middle 
Ages," London. Baring Gould, " Curious Myths of tbe Middle Ages," 
London, 1884. " The Legend of St. Ursula and the Virgin Martyrs of 
Cologne," London, 1860. 

- "Liturgical Poetry of Adam of St. Victor," with trausl. into English, 
and notes, by Wraugham, 3 vols., London, 1881. Bird, " The Latin 
Hymns of the Church," in the Sunday Magazine for 1865, pp. 530 ff., 
679 ff., 776 ff. Trench, " Sacred Latin Poetry," London, 1849. Neale, 
" Mediaeval Hymns." 


Franciscan Thomas of Celano, a.d. 1260 {Dies ine), and Jacopone da 
Todi, t A.D. 1306 {Stabat mater dolorosa). The latter, an eccentric 
enthusiast and miracle-working saint, called himself " Stultus 'propter 
Christum.'' Originally a wealthy advocate, living a Hfe of revel and riot, 
he was led by the sudden death of his young wife to forsake the world. 
He courted the world's scorn in the most Uteral manner, appearing 
in the pubHc market bridled like a beast of burden and creeping on 
all fours, and at another time appearing naked, tarred and feathered 
at the marriage of a niece. But he glowed with fervent love for the 
Crucified aud a fanatical veneration for the blessed Virgin. He also 
fearlessly raised his voice against the corruption of the clergy and the 
papacy, and vigorously denounced the ambition of Boniface VIII. For 
this he was imprisoned and fed on bread and water. When tauntingly 
asked, " When wilt thou come out ? " he answered in words that were 
soon fulfilled, " So soon as thou shalt come down." Sacred Poetry in the 
vernacular was used only in extra-ecclesiastical devotions. The oldest 
German Easter hymn belongs to the 12th century.^ The Minnesingers 
of the 13th century composed popular songs of a religious character, 
especially in praise of Mary ; there were also sacred songs for travellers, 
sailors, soldiers, etc. Heretics separated from the church and its 
services spread their views by means of hymns. St. Francis wrote 
Italian hymns, and among his disciples Fra Pacifico, Bonaventura, 
Thomas of Celano, and Jacopone followed worthily in his footsteps. 

11. Church Music (§ 88, 2).— The Gregorian Cantus firmus soon fell 
mto disfavour and disuetude. The rarity, costliness, and corruption of 
the antiphonaries, the difticulty of their notation and of their musical 
system, and the want of accurately trained singers, combined to bring 
this about. Singers too had often made arbitrary alterations. Hence 
alongside of the Cantus firmus there gradually grew up a Discantus or 
Cantus figuratus, and instead of singing in unison, singing in har- 
mony was introduced. Rules of harmony, concord, and intervals 
were now elaborated by the monk Hucbald of Rheims about a.d. 900, 
while the German monk Reginus about a.d. 920 and the abbot 
Opo of Clugny did much for the theory and practice of music. In 
place of the intricate Gregorian notation the Tuscan Benedictine 
Guido of Arezzo, a.d. 1000-1050, introduced the notation that is still 
used, which made it possible to write the harmony along with the 
melody, counterpoint, i.e. punctum contra punctum. The discoverer of 
the measure of the notes was Franco of Cologne about a.d. 1200. The 
organ was commonly used in churches. The Germans were the greatest 
masters in its construction and in the playing of it.— Continuation, 
^ 115, 8. 

Christus ist erstaudeu vou der Marter Banden. 


12. Ecclesiastical Architecture. — Churcli building, which the barbarism 
of the 10th century, and the widespread expectation of the coming 
end of the world had restrained, flourished during the 11th century 
in an extraordinary manner. The endeavour to infuse the German 
spirit into the ancient style of architecture gave rise to the Romance 
Style of Architecture, which prevailed during the 12th century. It was 
based upon the structure of the old basilicas, the most important 
innovation being the introduction of the vaulted in place of the flat 
wooden roof, which made the interior lighter and heightened the perspec- 
tive effect. The symbolical and fanciful ornamentation was also richly 
developed by figures from the plants and animals of Germany, from 
native legends. Towers were also added as fingers pointing upward, 
sometimes over the entrance to the middle aisle or at both sides 
of the entrance, sometimes over the point where the nave and tran- 
septs intersected one another, or on both sides of the choir. The 
finest specimens of this style were the cathedrals of Spires, Mainz, 
and Worms. But alongside of this appeared the beginnings of the 
so-called Gothic Architecture, which reached its height in the 13th and 
14th centuries. Here the German ideas shook themselves free from the 
bondage of the old basilica style. Retaming the early ground plan, its 
pointed arch admitted of development in breadth and height to any 
extent. The pointed arch was first learnt from the Saracens, but its 
application to the Gothic architecture was quite original, because it 
was not as with the Saracens decorative, but constructive. The blank 
walls were changed into supporting pillars, and became a magnificent 
framework for the display of ingenious window architecture. A rich 
stone structure rose upon the cruciform ground plan, and the powerful 
arches towered up into airj' heights. Tall tapering pillars symbolized 
the heavenward strivings of the soul. The rose window over the portal 
as the symbol of silence teaches that nothing worldly has a voice there. 
The gigantic peaked windows send through their beautifully painted 
glass a richly coloured light full on the vast area. Everything in the 
structure points upward, and this symbolism is finally expressed in the 
lofty towers, which lose themselves in giddy heights. The victory over 
the kingdom of darkness is depicted in the repulsive reptiles, demonic 
forms, and dragon shapes which are made to bear up the pillars and 
posts, and to serve as water carriers. The wit of artists has made 
even bishops and popes perform these menial offices, just as Dante 
condemned many popes to the infernal regions.^ 

1 Eastlake, " History of the Gothic Revival," London, 1872. Norton, 
" Historical Studies of Church Building in the Middle Ages," New York, 
1880. Didron, " History of Christian Art in the Middle Ages," London, 


13. The most famous architects were Benedictines. The master 
builder along with the scholars trained by him formed independent 
corporations, free from any other jurisdiction. They therefore called 
themselves "Free Masons," and erected " Lodges," where they met for 
consultation and discussion. From the 13th century these lodges 
fell more and more into the hands of the laity, and became training 
schools of architecture. To them we are largely indebted for the 
development of the Gothic style. Their most celebrated works are the 
Cologne cathedral and the Strassburg minster. The foundation of the 
former was laid under Archbishop Conrad of Hochsteden in a.d. 1248 ; 
the choir was completed and consecrated in a.d. 1322 (§ 173, 9). Erwin 
of Steinbach began the building of the Strassburg minster in a.d. 1275. 

14. Statuary and Painting. — Under the Hohenstaufens statuary, which 
had been disallowed by the ancient church, rose into favour. Its first 
great master in Italy was Nicola Pisano, who died in a.d. 1274. 
Earlier indeed a statuary school had been formed in Saxony, of which 
no names but great works have come down to us. The goldsmith's 
craft and metallurgy were brought into the service of the church by the 
German artists, and show not only wonderful technical skill, but also high 
attainment in ideal art. In Painting the Byzantines taught the Italians, 
and these again the Germans. At the beginning of the 13th century 
there was a school of painting at Pisa and Siena, claiming St. Luke 
as its patron, and seeking to impart more life and warmth to the stiff 
figures of the Byzantines. Their greatest masters were Guido of 
Siena and Giunta of Pisa, and the Florentine Cimabue, t a.d. 1300. 
Mosaic painting mostly on a golden ground was in favour in Italy. 
Painting on glass is first met with in the beginning of the 11th century 
in the monastery of Tegernsee in Bavaria, and soon spread over Germany 
and all over Europe.^ — Continuation, § 115, 13. 

§ 105. National* Customs and the National 

It was an age full of the most wonderful contradictions 
and anomalies in the life of the people, but every pheno- 
menon bore the character of unquestionable power, and the 
church applied the artificer's chisel to the unhewn marble 
block. In club law the most brutal violence prevailed, but 
bowed itself willingly or unwillingly before the might of an 

^ Kligler, "Handbook of Painting: Italian Schools," translated by 
Eastlake, London, 1855. Warrington, " History of Stained Glass," 
London, 1850. 


idea. The basest sensuality existed alongside of the most 
simple self-denial and renunciation of the world, the most 
wonderful displays of self-forgetting love. The most sacred 
solemnities were parodied, and then men turned in awful 
earnest to manifest the profoundest anxiety for their soul's 
salvation. Alongside of unmeasured superstition we meet 
with the boldest freethinking, and out of the midst of 
widespread ignorance and want of culture there radiated 
forth great thoughts, profound conceptions, and suggestive 

1. Knighthood and the Peace of God. — Notwithstanding its rude violence 
there was a deep religious undertone in knighthood, which came out in 
Spain in the war with the Saracens, and throughout Europe in the 
crusades. What princes could not do to check savagery was to some 
extent accomplished by the church by means of the injunction of the 
Peace of God. In a.d. 103i the severity of famine in France led to acts 
of cannibalism and murder, which the bishops and synods severely 
punished. In a.d. 1041 the bishops of Southern France enjoined the 
Peace of God, according to which under threat of anathema all 
feuds were to be suspended from Wednesday evening to Monday morn- 
ing, as the days of the ascension, death, burial,' and resurrection of 
Christ. At a ater council at Narbonne in a.d. 1054, Advent to 
Epiphany, Lent to eight days after Easter, from the Sunday before 
Ascension to the end of the week of Pentecost, as well as the ember 
days and the festivals of Mary and the Apostles, were added. Even on 
other days, churches, cloisters, hospitals, and churchyards, as well as 
priests, monks, pilgrims, merchants, and agriculturists, in short, all 
unarmed men, and, by the Council of Clermont, a.d. 1095, even all cru- 
saders, were included in the peace of God. Its healthful influence was 
felt even outside of France, and at the 3rd Lateran Council in a.d. 1179 
Alexander III. raised it to the rank of a universally applicable law of 
the church. 

2. Popular Customs. — Superstition resting on old paganism introduced 
a Christian mythology. In almost all the popular legends the devil bore 
a leading part, and he was generally represented as a dupe who was 
cheated out of his bargain in the end. The most sacred things were 
made the subjects of blasphemous parodies. On Fool's Festival on New 
Year's day in France, mock popes, bishops, and abbots were introduced 
and all the holy actions mimicked in a blasphemous manner. Of a 
similar nature was the Festum innocentum (§ 57, 1) enacted by school- 
boys at Christmas. Also at Christmas time the so-called Feast of Asses 


was celebrated. At Rouen dramatic representation of the prophecies of 
Christ's birth were given; at Beauvais, the flight into Egypt. This 
relic of pagan license was opposed by the bishops, but encouraged by 
the lower clergy. After bishops and councils succeeded in banishing 
these fooleries from consecrated places they soon ceased to be celebrated. 
Under the name of Calends, because their gatherings were on the 
Calends of each month, brotherhoods composed of clerical and lay 
members sprang up in the beginning of the 13th century throughout 
Germany and France, devoting themselves to prayer and saying masses 
for living and deceased members and relatives. This pious purpose was 
indeed soon forgotten, and the meetings degenerated into riotous 

3. Two Koyal Saints. — St. Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew II. of Hun- 
gary, married in her 14th year to St. Louis IV., Landgrave of Thuringia, 
was made a widow^ in her 20th year by the death of her husband in the 
crusade of Frederick II. in a.d. 1227, and thereafter suffered many priva- 
tions at the hand of her brother-in-law. Her father confessor inspired 
her with a fanatical spirit of self denial. She assumed in Marburg the 
garb of the Franciscan nuns, took the three vows, and retired into a 
house of mercy, where she submitted to be scourged by her confessor. 
There she died in her 24th year in a.]). 1231. Her remains are credited 
with the performance of many miracles. She was canonized by Gregory 
IX., in A.I). 1235, and in the 14th century the order of Elizabethan nuns 
was instituted for ministering to the poor and sick.^ — St. Hedwig, aunt 
of Elizabeth, married Henry duke of Silesia, in her 12th year. After 
discharging her duties of wife, mother, and princess faithfully, she 
took along with her husband the vow of chastity, and out of the sale of 
her bridal ornaments built a nunnery at Trebnitz, where she died in 
A.I). 1243 in her 69th year. Canonized in a.d. 1268, her remains were 
deposited in the convent church, which became on that account a favou- 
rite resort of pilgrims. 

4. Evidences of Sainthood. — (1) Stigmatization, Soon after St. Francis' 
death in a.d. 1226, the legend spread that two years before, during a forty 
days' fast in the Apennines, a six-winged seraph imprinted on his body 
the nail prints of the wounded Saviour. The saint's humility, it was 
said, prevented him speaking of the miracle except to those in closest 
terms of intimacy. The papal bull canonizing the saint, however, issued 
in A.D. 1228, knows nothing of this wonderful occurrence. What was then 
told of the great saint was subsequently ascribed to about 100 other asce- 
tics, male and female. Some sceptical critics attributed the phenomenon 
to an impressionable temperament, others again accounted for all such 

1 Kingsley, "The Saint's Tragedy," London, 1848. A dramatic poem 
founded on the story of St. Elizabeth's life. 


stories by assuming that they were purely fabulous, or that the marks 
had been deceitfully made with human hands. Undoubtedly St, Francis 
had made those wounds upon his own body. That pain should have 
been felt on certain occasions in the wounds may be accounted for, 
especially in the case of females, who constituted the great majority of 
stigmatized individuals, on pathological grounds. — (2) Bilocation. The 
Catholic Church Lexicon, published in a.d. 1882 (II. 840), maintains 
that it is a fact universally believed that saints often appeared at the 
same time at places widely removed from one another. Examples are 
given from the lives of Anthony of Padua, Francis Xavier, Liguori, etc. 
This is explained by the supposition that either God gives this power to 
the saint or sends angels to assume his form in different places. 

5. Religious Cultare of the People. — Unsuccessful attempts were made by 
the Hohenstaufens to institute a public school system aud compulsory 
education. Waldeusians and such Hke (§ 108) obtained favour by spread- 
ing instruction through vernacular preaching, reading, and singing. The 
Dominicans took a hint from this. The Council of Toulouse, a.d. 1229 
(§ 109, 2), forbade laymen to read the Scriptures, even the Psalter and 
Breviary, in the vulgar tongue. Summaries of the Scripture history were 
allowed. Of this sort was the Rhyming Bible in Dutch by Jacob of 
Maerlant, f a.d. 1291, which gives in rhyme the O.T. history, the Life 
of Jesus, and the history of the Jews to the destruction of Jerusalem. 
In the 13th century Rhyming Legends gave in the vernacular the sub- 
stance of the Latin Martyrologies. The oldest German example in 3 
bks. by an unknown author contains 100,000 rhyming lines, on Christ 
and Mary, the Apostles and the saints in the order of the church year. 
Still more effectively was information spread among the people during 
the 11th and subsequent centuries by the performance of Sacred Plays. 
From simple responsive songs they were developed into regular dramas 
adapted to the different festivals. Besides historical plays which were 
called Mysteries = minister ia as representations of the MinlstrieccL, there 
were allegorical and moral plays called Moralities, in which moral truths 
were personified under the names of the virtues and vices. The nume- 
rous pictures, mosaics, and reliefs upon the walls helped greatly to spread 
instruction among the people.^ 

G. The National Literature {§ 89, Z).~Walter v. d. Vor/elweide, f a.p. 
1230, sang the praises of the Lord, the Virgin, and the church, and lashed 
the clerical vices and hierarchical pretensions of his age. The 12th 
century editor of the pagan Nibdungenlied gave it a slightly Christian 
gloss. Wolfram of Eschenbach, however, a Christian poet in the highest 

^ On Hilarius, an English monk, author of several plays, see Morley's 
Writers before Chaucer," London, 1864, pp. 542-552. 


sense, gave to the pagan legend of Parcival a thoroughly Christian 
character in the story of the Holy Grail and the Knights of the Round 
Table of King Arthur. His antipodes as a purely secular poet was 
Godfrey of Strassburg, whose Tristan and Isolt sets forth a thoroughly 
sensual picture of carnal love; yet as the sequel of this we have a 
strongly etherealized rhapsody on Divine love conceived quite in the spirit 
of St. Francis. — The sprightly songs of the Troubadours of Southern 
France were often the vehicle of heretical sentiments and gave expres- 
sion to bitter hatred of the Romish Babylon. ^ 

§ 106. Church Discipline, Indulgences, and Asceticism. 

The ban, directed against notorious individual sinners and 
foes of the church, and the interdict, directed against a 
whole country, were formidable weapons which rarely failed 
in accomplishing their purpose. Their foolishly frequent 
use for political ends by the popes of the 13th century was 
the first thing that weakened their influence. The peni- 
tential discipline of the church, too (§ 104, 4), began to lose 
its power, when outward works, such as alms, pilgrimages, 
and especially money fines in the form of indulgences were 
prescribed as substitutes for it. Various protests against 
prevailing laxity and formality were made by the Bene- 
dictines and by new orders instituted during the 11th 
century. Strict asceticism with self-laceration and morti- 
fication was imposed in many cloisters, and many hermits won 
high repute for holiness. The example and preaching of 
earnest monks and recluses did much to produce a revival 
of religion and awaken a penitential enthusiasm. Not satis- 
fied with mortifying the body by prolonging fasts and 
watchings, they wounded themselves with severe scourg- 
ings and the wearing of sackcloth next the skin, and some- 
times also brazen coats of mail, heavy iron chains, girdles 
with pricks, etc. 

^ Delepierre, " History of Flemish Literature from the 12th Century,' 
London, 1860. 


1. Ban and Interdict. — From the 9th century a distinction was made 
between Excommiinicatio major and minor. The latter, inflicted upon 
less serious offences against the canon law, merely excluded from partici- 
pation in the sacrament. The former, called Anathema, directed against 
hardened sinners with solemn denunciation and the church's curse, 
involved exclusion from all ecclesiastical communion and even refusal of 
Christian burial. Zealots who slew such excommunicated persons were 
declared by Urban II. not to be murderers. Innocent III., at the 4th 
Lateran Council a.d. 1215, had all civil rights withdrawn from excom- 
municates and their goods confiscated. Kulers under the ban were 
deposed and their subjects released from their oath of allegiance. 
Bishops exercised the right of putting under ban within their dioceses, 
and the popes over the whole church. — The Interdict was first recog- 
nised as a church institution at the Synod of Limoges in a.d. 1031. 
While it was in force against any country all bells were silenced, litur- 
gical services were held only with closed doors, penance and the eucharist 
administered only to the dying, none but priests, mendicant friars, 
strangers, and children under two years of age received Christian burial, 
and no one could be married. Earely could the people endure this long. 
It was therefore a terrible weapon in the hands of the popes, who not 
infrequently exercised it effectually in their struggles with the princes 
of the 12th and 13th centuries. 

2. Indulgences. — The old German principle of composition (§ 89, 5), 
and the Gregorian doctrine of purgatory (§ 61, 4), formed the bases on 
which was reared the ordinance of indulgences. The theory of the 
monks of St. Victor of the 12th century regarding penitential satisfac- 
tion (§ 104, 4), gave an impetus to the development of this institution of 
the church. It copestone was laid in the 13th century by the formulat- 
ing of the doctrine of the superabundant merit of Christ and the saints 
[Thesaurus super erogationis Christi et perfectorum) by Alexander of Hales, 
Albert the Great, and Aquinas. The members of the body of Christ could 
suffer and serve one for another, and thus Aquinas thought the merits of 
one might lessen the purgatorial pains of another. Innocent III., in a.d. 
1215, allowed to bishops the right of limiting the pains of purgatory to 
forty days, but claimed for the pope exclusively the right of giving full 
indulgence {Indulgentia plenaria). Clement VI. declared that the pope 
as entrusted with the keys was alone the dispenser of the Thesaurus 
supererogationis. Strictly indulgence was allowed only to the truly peni- 
tent, as an aid to imperfect not a substitute for non-existent satisfaction. 
This was generally ignored by preachers of indulgences. This was 
specially the case in the times of the crusaders. Popes also frequently 
gave indulgences to those who simply visited certain shrines. 

3. The Church Doctrine of the Hereafter. — All who had perfectly ob- 
served every requirement of the penances and sacraments of the church 


to the close of their lives had the gates of Heaven opened to them. All 
others passed into the Lower "World to suffer either positively = se?is»s, 
inexpressible pains of fire, or negatively = damnum, loss of the vision of 
God. There are four degrees corresponding to four places of punish- 
ment. Hell, situated in the midst of the earth, ahyssiis (Rev. xx. 1), is 
place and state of eternal punishment for all infidels, apostates, excom- 
municates, and all who died in mortal sin. The next circle is the puri- 
fying fire of Purgatory, or a place of temporary punishment positive or 
negative for all believing Christians who did not in life fully satisfy the 
three requirements of the sacrament of penance {§ lOi, 4). The Limbus 
infantum is a side chamber of purgatory, where all unbaptized infants 
are kept for ever, only deprived of blessedness in consequence of original 
sin. Then above this is the Limbus Patrum, "Abraham's bosom," where 
the saints of the Old Covenant await the second coming of Christ. 

4. Flagellation. — From the 8th century discipline was often exercised 
by means of scourging, administered by the confessor who prescribed it. 
In the 11th century voluntary Self-Flagellation was frequently practised not 
only as punishment for one's own sin, but, after the pattern of Christ and 
the martyrs, as atonement for sins of others. It originated in Italy, had 
its great patron in Damiani (§ 97, 4), and was earnestly commended by 
Bernard, Norbert, Francis, Dominic, etc. It is reported of St. Dominic 
that he scourged himself thrice every night, first for himself, and then 
for his living companions, and then for the departed in purgatory. The 
zealous Franciscan preachers were mainly instrumental in exerting an 
enthusiasm for self-mortification among the people (§ 98, 4). About 
A.D. 1225, Anthony of Padua attracted crowds who went about publicly 
lashing themselves while singing psalms. Followers of Joachim of Floris 
(§ 108, 5) as Flagellants rushed through all Northern Italy in great num- 
bers during a.d. 1260, preaching the immediate approach of the end of 
the world. 1 

§ 107. Female Mystics. 

Practical mj^sticism which concerned itself only with the 
salvation of the soul, had many representatives among the 
women of the 12th and 13th centuries. Among them it was 
specially characterized by the prevalence of ecstatic visions, 
often deteriorating into manifestations of nervous affections 
which superstitious people regarded as exhibitions of mira- 
culous power. Examples are found in all countries, but 
especially in the Netherlands, and the Rhine provinces, in 

^ Cooper, " Flagellation and the Flagellants." London, 1873. 

§ 107. FEMALE MYSTICS. 125 

France, Alsace and Switzerland, in Saxony and Thuringia. 
Those whose visions pointed to the inauguration of reforms 
are of particular interest to us, as they often had a consider- 
able influence on the subsequent history of the church. 

1. Two Ehenish Prophetesses of tlie 12th Century. — St. Hildegard was 
founder and abbess of a cloister near Bingen on the Rhine, where she 
died in a.d. 1178 in her 74th year. Grieving over clerical and papal 
corruptions, she had apocalyptic visions of the antichrist, and travelled 
far and engaged in an extensive correspondence in appealing for radical 
reforms. St. Bernard and pope Eugenius III. who yisited Treves in a.l». 
1117 acknowledged her prophetic vocation, and the people ascribed to her 
wonderful healing power. — Hiklegard's younger contemporary was the 
like-minded St. Elizabeth of Schonau, abbess of the neighbouring convent 
of Schonau, who died in a.d. 1165. Her prophecies were mostly of the 
apocalyptic-visionary order, and in them with still greater severity she 
lashed the corruptions of the clergy. She also gave currency to the 
legend of St. Ursula (§ 101, 9). 

2. Three Thuringian Prophetesses of the 13th Century. — Mechthild of 
Magdeburg, after thirty years of Beguine life, wrote in a beautiful rhyth- 
mical style in German her "Light of Deity," setting forth the sweet- 
ness of God's love, the blessedness of glorified saints, the pains of 
purgatory and hell, and denouncing with great moral earnestness the 
corruptions of the clergy and the church, and depicting with a poet's or 
prophet's power the coming of the last day. Influenced by the apoca- 
lyptic views of Joachim of Floris (§ 108, 5), she also gives expression to 
a genuinely German patriotism. With her it is a new preaching order 
that leads to victory against antichrist, and the founder of this order, who 
meets a martyr's death in the conflict, is a son of the Roman king. In 
contrast with Joachim, she thus makes the German empire not a foe but 
the ally of the church. Mechthild's prophecies largely influenced Dante, 
and even her name appears in that of his guide Matilda. — Mechthild of 
Hackeborn, who died in a.d. 1310, in her Speculum spiritualis gratia 
published her visions of a reformatory and eschatological prophetic 
order, more subjective and personal than those of the former. — Gertrude 
the Great, who died in a.d. 1311, is more decidedly a reformer than either 
of the Mechthilds or any other woman of the Middle Ages. A diligent 
inquirer into the depths of Scripture, she renounced the veneration 
usually shown to Mary, the saints, and relics, repudiated all the ideas of 
her age regarding merits, ceremonial exercises, and indulgences, and in 
the exercise of simple faith trusted only to the grace of God in Christ. 
She seems to belong to the 16th rather than to the 13th century. Her 
visions, too, are more of a spiritual kind. 


v.— Heretical Opposition to Ecclesiastical Authority. 

§ 108. The Protesters against the Church. 

Mediaeval endeavours after reform, partly proceeded from 
within the church itself in attempts to restore apostolic 
purity and simplicity, partly from without on the part of 
those who despaired of any good coming out of the church, 
and who therefore warred bitterly against it. Such attempts 
were often lost amid the vagaries of fanaticism and heresy, 
which soon threatened the foundation of the social fabric, 
and often came into collision with the State. Most widely 
spread and most radical were the numerous dualistic sects 
of the Cathari. Montanist fanaticism was revived in apo- 
calyptic prophesyings. There were also pantheistic sects, 
and among the Pasagians a sort of Ebionism reappeared. 
Another group of sects originated through reformatory 
endeavours of individual men, who perceiving the utter 
corruption of the church of their day, sought salvation in 
a revolutionary overthrow of all ecclesiastical institutions 
and repudiated often the truth with the error which was 
the object ot their hate. The only protesting church of a 
thoroughly sensible evangelical sort was that of the Wal- 

1. The Cathari. — Opposition to hierarchical pretensions led to the 
spread of sects, especially in Northern Italy and France, from the 11th 
century. Hidden remnants of Old Manichsean sects got new courage 
and ventured into the light during the period of the crusades. In 
France they were called Tisserands, because mostly composed of weavers. 
In Italy they were called Patareni or Paterini, either from the original 
meaning of the word, rabble, riff-raff (§ 97, 5), or because they so far 
adopted the attitude of the Pasaria of Milan, as to offer lay opposition 
to the local clergy, or because of the frequent use of the Paternoster. Of 
later origin are the names Publicani and Bulgriri, given as opprobrious de- 
signations to the Paulicians. The most widely current name of Cathari, 
from early times a favourite title assumed by rigorist sects (§ 41, 3), 
had it^ origin in the East. In France they were called Albigensians, 


from the province of Albigeois, which was their chief seat in Southern 
France. — Of the Writings of the Cathari we possess from the end of the 
13th century a Provencal translation of the N.T., free from all falsifica- 
tion in favour of their sectarian views. Their tenets are to be learnt 
only from the polemical writings of their opponents, Alanus ab Insulis 
(§102, 5), the Dominican Joh. Moneta, about a.d. 1240, and Eainerius, 
Sacchoni, Dominican and inquisitor, about a.d. 1250. 

2. Besides their opposition to the hierarchy, all these sects had in 
common a dualistic basis to their theological systems. They held in a 
more or less extreme form the following doctrines : The good God who 
is proclaimed in the N.T. created in the beginning the heavenly and 
invisible world, and peopled it with souls clothed in ethereal bodies. 
The earthly world, on the other hand, is the work of an evil spirit, who 
is held up as object of worship in the O.T. Entering the heavenly 
world he succeeded in seducing some of its inhabitants, whom he, when 
defeated by the archangel Michael, took with him to earth, and there im- 
prisoned in earthly bodies, so as to make return to their heavenly home 
impossible. Yet they are capable of redemption, and may, on repent- 
ance and submission to purificatory ordinances, be again freed from their 
earthly bonds and brought home again to heaven. For this redemption 
the good God sent "the heavenly man" Jesus (1 Cor. xv. 47) to earth 
in the appearance of man to teach men their heavenly origin and the 
means of restoration. The Cathari rejected the O.T., but accepted the 
N.T., which they read in the vernacular. Marriage they regarded as a 
hindrance to Christian perfection. They treated with contempt water 
baptism, the Supper, and ordination, as well as all veneration of saints 
and relics, and tolerated no images, crosses, or altars. Prayer, absti- 
nence, and baptism of the Spirit were regarded as the only means of 
salvation. Preaching was next to prayer most prominent in their public 
services. They also laid great stress upon fasting, genuflection, and repe- 
titions of stated formulas, especially the Lord's Prayer. Their members 
were divided into Cregentz {credentes or catechumens) and Bos homes or Bos 
crcsiias {boni homines, boni Christiam=perfecti or electi). A lower order 
of the catechumens were the Auditores. These were received as Credentes 
after a longer period of training amid various ceremonies and repetition of 
the Lord's prayer, etc. The order of the Perfecti was entered by spiritual 
baptism, the Cousolamentum or communication of the Holy Spirit as the 
promised Comforter, without which no one can enjoy eternal life. Even 
opponents such as St. Bernard admit that there was great moral earnest- 
ness shown by some of them, and many met a martyr's death with true 
Christian heroism. Symptoms of decay appeared in the spread among 
them of antinomian practices. This moral deterioration showed itself as 
a radical part of this system in the so-called Luciferians or devil wor- 
shippers, whose duahsm, hke that of the Euchites and Bogomils (§ 71), led 


to tbe adoption of two Sons of God. Lucifer the elder, wrongly driven 
from heaven, is the creator and lord of this earthly world, and hence 
alone worshipped in it. His expulsion (Isa. xiv. 12) is carried out by the 
younger son, Michael, who will, however, on this account, whenever 
Lucifer regains heaven, be sent with all his company into eternal punish- 
ment. Of an incarnation of God, even of a docetic kind, they know 
nothing. They regarded Jesus as a false prophet who was crucified on 
account of the evil he had done. — Catharist sects suspected of Mani- 
chffian tendencies were discovered here and there during the 11th century. 
In the following century their number had increased enormously, and 
they spread over Lombardy and Southern France, but were also found 
in Southern Italy, in Germany, Belgium, Spain, and even in England. 
They had a pope residing in Bulgaria, twelve magistri and seventy-two 
bishops, each with a Filius major and minor at his side. In a.d. 1167 
they were able to muster an oecumenical Catharist Council at Toulouse. 
Neither clemency nor severity could put them down. St. Bernard pre- 
vailed most by the power of his love, and subsequently learned Domi- 
nicans had more effect with their preaching and disputations. They 
found abundant opportunity of displaying their hatred of the papacy 
during the struggles of the Guelphs and GhibeUines. In spite of ter- 
rible persecution, which reached its height in the beginning of the 
13th century in the Albigensian crusade (§ 109, 1), remnants of them 
were found down into the 14th century. 

3. The small sect of the Pasagians in Lombardy during the 12th 
century, protesting against the Manichsean depreciation of the O.T. of 
the Catharists, adopted views of a somewhat Ebionite character. With 
the exception of sacrifice, they enforced all tlie old ceremonial obser- 
vances, even circumcision, and held an Arian or Ebionite theory of the 
Person of Christ. Their name meaning "passage," seems to refer to 
pilgrimages to the Holy Land, and possibly from this a clue to their 
origin may be obtained. 

4. Pantheistic Heretics.— (1) Amalrich of Bena taught first philosophy, 
then theology, at Paris in the end of the 12th century. In a.d. 1204 
Innocent III. called him to account for his proposition. Christian in 
sound, but probably pantheistically intended, that no one could be saved 
who is not a member in Christ's body, and obliged him to retract. His 
death occurred soon after, and some years later we find traces of a pan- 
theistic sect founded on the alleged doctrines of Amalrich vigorously 
propagated by his disciple William the goldsmith. God had previously 
appeared as Father incarnate in Abraham, and as Son in Christ, and 
now henceforth as the Holy Spirit in every believer, who therefore in the 
same sense as Christ is God. As such, too, he is without sin, and what 
to others would be sin is not so to him. In the age of the Son the 
Mosaic law lost its validity, and in that of the Sj)irit, the sacraments and 


services of the new covenant. God has always been all in all. We 
find him in Ovid as well as in Augustine, and the body of Christ is in 
common bread as well as in the consecrated wafer on the altar. Saint 
worship is idolatry. There is no resurrection; heaven and hell exist 
only in the imagination of men. Eome is Babylon, and the pope is 
antichrist ; but to the king of France, after the overthrow of antichrist, 
shall the kingdoms of the earth be subject, etc. A synod at Paris iu 
A.D. 1209 condemned William and nine priests to be burnt, and four 
other priests to imprisonment for life, and ordered that Amalrich's bones 
should be exhumed and scattered over an open field. Regarding the 
physical works of Aristotle as the source of this heresy, the council 
also prohibited all lectures upon these (§ 103, 1). This was seen to be a 
mistake, and so in a.d. 1225 Honorius III. fixed on the true culprit and 
condemned the De divisione natures of Erigena (§ 90, 6). The penalties 
inflicted did not by any means lead to the rooting out of the sect. Dur- 
ing the whole 13th century it continued to spread from Paris over all 
eastern France as far as Alsace, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, and 
in the 14th century reached its highest development in the pantheistic- 
libertine doctrines of the Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit (§ 116, 5). 
We never again meet with the name of Amalrich, and the sects were 
never called after him. — (2) David of Dinant at the same time with Amal- 
rich taught philosophy and theology in the University of Paris. He also 
lived for a long while at the papal court in Rome, high in favour with 
Innocent III. as a subtle dialectician. The Synod of Paris of a.d. 1209, 
which passed judgment on the Amalricians, pronounced David a heretic 
and ordered his works to be burnt. He avoided personal punishment by 
flight. The central point of his system was the assumption of a single 
eternal substance without distinctions, from which God, sjjirit (pous), 
and matter (vXr)) sprang as- the three principles of all later forms of 
existences {corpora, animce, and ^iCbstantUe cetermc). God is regarded as 
the primiim ejjicieiis, matter as the priuiuin susciplens, and spirit as the 
medium between the two. David's scholars never formed a sect and 
never had any connection apparently with the followers of Amalrich. — 
(3) The Ortlibarians were a sect condemned by Innocent III., followers of 
a certain Ortlieb of Strassburg about a.d. 1212. They held the world to 
be without beginning. They looked upon Jesus as the son of Joseph 
and Mary, sinless like all other children, but raised to be son of God 
only through illumination from the doctrines of their srect, which had 
existed from the earliest times. They admitted the gospel story of 
Christ's life, sufferings, and resurrection, not, however, in a literal but 
only in a moral and mystical acceptation. The consecrated host was but 
common bread, and in it was the body of the Lord. A Jew entering their 
sect needed not to be bcaptized, and fellowship with them was suffi- 
cient to secure salvation. There is no resurrection of the flesh : man's 


spirit alone is immortal. After the last judgment, which will come 
when pope and emperor are converted to their views and all opposition 
is overcome, the world will last for ever, and men will be born and die 
just as now. They professed a strictly ascetic life, and many of them 
fasted every second day. 

5. Apocalyptic Heretics. — The Cistercian abbot Joachim of Floris, 
who died in a.d. 1202, with his notions of the so called " Everlasting 
Goftpcl,'^ as a reformer and as one inclined to apocalyptic prophecy, 
followed in the footsteps of Hildegard of Bingen and Elizabeth of 
Schonau (§ 107, 1). His prophetic views spread among the Franciscans 
and were long unchallenged. In a.d. 1254 the University of Paris, 
warning against the begging monks (§ 103, 3), got Alexander IV. to 
condemn these views as set forth in commentaries on Isaiah and 
Jeremiah ascribed to Joachim, but now found to be spurious. Preger 
doubts but, Eeuter maintains the genuineness of the three tracts grouped 
under the title of the EvangeUum ceternum. The main points in his 
theory seem to have been these : There are three ages, that of the Father 
in the O.T., of the Son in the N.T., and of the Holy Spirit in the 
approaching fulness of the kingdom of God on earth. Of the apostles, 
Peter is representative of the first age, Paul of the second, and John of 
the third. They may also be characterized as the age of the laity, the 
clergy, and the monks, and compared in respect of light with the stars, 
the moon, and the sun. The first six periods of the N.T. age are divided 
(after the pattern of the forty-two generations of Matt. i. and the forty- 
two months or 1260 days of Rev. xi. 2, 3) into forty-two shorter periods 
of thirty years each, so that the sixth period closes with a.d. 1260, and 
then shall dawn the Sabbath period of the New Covenant as the age of 
the Holy Spirit. This will be preceded by a short reign of antichrist as 
a punishment for the corruptions of the church and clergy. By the 
labours of the monks, however, the church is at last purified and 
brought forth triumphant, and tbe life of holy contemplation becomes 
universal. The germs of antichrist were evidently supposed to lie in the 
Hohenstaufen empire of Frederick I, and Henry VI. The commentaries 
on Isaiah and Jeremiah went so far as to point to the person of Frederick 
II. as that of the antichrist. 

6. Ghibelline Joachites in Italy, mostly recruited from the Franciscans, 
sided with the emperor against the pope and adopted apocalyptic views 
to suit their politics, and regarded the papacy as the precursor of anti- 
christ. One of their chiefs, Oliva, who died in a.d. 1297, wrote a Fostilla 
super Apoc, in which he denounced the Roman church of his day as the 
Great Whore of Babylon, and his scholar Ubertino of Casale saw in the 
beast that rose out of the sea (Rev. xiii.) a prophetic picture of the papacy. 
— In Germany these views spread among tbe Dominicans during the 13th 
century, especially in Swabia. The movement was headed by one Arnold. 


who wrote an Epistola de correctione ecciesice about a.d. 1216. He finds 
in Innocent IV. the antichrist and in Frederick II. the executioner of 
the Divine judgment and the inauguration of the reformation. Frede- 
rick's death, which followed soon after in a.d. 1250, and the catastrophe 
of A.D. 1268 (§ 96, 20), must have put an end to the whole movement. 

7. Revohitionary Reformers. — (1) The Petrobrusians, whose founder, 
Peter of Bruys, was a pupil of Ab^elard and a priest in 'the south of 
France, repudiated the outward or visible church and sought the true 
or invisible church in the hearts of believers. He insisted on the de- 
struction of churches and sanctuaries because God could be worshi23ped 
in a stable or tavern, burnt crucifixes in the cooking stove, eagerly 
opposed celibacy, mass, and infant baptism, and after a twenty years' 
career perished at the stake about a.d. 1126 at the hands of a raging 
mob. One of Peter's companions, Henry of Lausanne, whose fiery elo- 
quence had been influential in inciting to reform, succeeded to the 
leadership of the Petrobrusians, who from him were called Henricians. 
St. Bernard succeeded in winning many of them back. Henry was 
condemned to imprisonment for life, and died in a.d. 1149. — (2) Arnold of 
Brescia, who died in a.d. 1155, a preacher of great moral and religious ear- 
nestness, addressed himself to attack the worldliness of the church and 
the papacy. Except in maintaining that sacraments dispensed by unworthy 
priests have no efficacy, he does not seem to have deviated from the 
church doctrine. Officiating as reader in his native town, his bishop 
complained of him as a heretic to the second Lateran Council of a.d. 
1139. His views were coudemned, and he himself was banished and 
enjoined to observe perpetual silence. He now went to his teacher 
Abaslard in France. Here St. Bernard accused him at the synod con- 
vened against Abaelard at Sens in a.d. 1141 (§ 102, 2) as "the armour- 
bearer " of this " Goliath-heretic," and obtained the condemnation of 
both. He was then excommunicated by Innocent II. and imprisoned in 
a cloister. Arnold, however, escaped to Switzerland, where he lived and 
taught undisturbed in Ziirich for some years, till Bishop Hermann of 
Constance, at the instigation of the Saint of Clairvaux, threatened him 
with imprisonment or exile. He was now taken under the protection of 
Guido de Castella, Abselard's friend and patron, and accompanied him 
to Bohemia and Moravia. On Guido's elevation as Coelestine II. to the 
papal chair in a.d. 1143, Arnold returned to his native land. From a.d. 
1146 we find him in Eome at the head of the agitation for political and 
ecclesiastical freedom. For further details of his history, see § 96, 13, 
14. A party of so-called Arnoldists occupied itself long after his death 
with the carrying out of his ecclesiastico-political ideal. 

8. — (3) The so called Pastorelles were roused to revolution by the mise- 
ries following the crusades. An impulse was given to the sect by the 
news of the imprisonment of St. Louis (§ 94, 6). A Cistercian Magister 


Jacob from Hungary appeared in a.b. 1251 with the announcement that 
he had seen the Mother of God, who gave him a letter calling upon the 
pastors to rescue the Holy Sepulchre. Those who have heard the 
Christmas message are called of God to undertake the great work which 
neither the corrupt hierarchy nor the proud, ambitious nobles were able 
to perform ; but before them, the poor shepherds, the sea will open a way, 
so that they may hasten with dry feet to the release of king Louis. His 
fanatical harangues soon gathered immense crowds of common people 
around him, estimated at about 100,000 men. But instead of going to 
the Holy Land, they first gave vent to their wrath against the clergy, 
monks, and Jews at home by murdering, plundering, and ill treating them 
in all manner of ways. The queen-mother Blanca, favourable at first, 
now used all her power against them. Jacob was slain at Bourges, his 
troops scattered, and their leaders executed. — (4) In the Apostolic Brothers 
we have a blending of Arnoldist and Joachist tendencies. Their founder, 
Gerhard Segarelli, an artisan of Parma, was moved about a.d. 1260 by 
the sight of a picture of the apostles in their poverty to go about preach- 
ing repentance and calling on the church to return to apostolic sim- 
plicity. He did not question the doctrine of the church. Only when 
Honorius in a.d. 1286 and Nicholas IV. in a.d. 1290 took measures against 
them did they openly oppose the papacy and denounce the Roman church 
as the apocalyptic Babylon. Segarelli was seized in a.d. 1294 and perished 
in the flames with many of his followers in a.d. 1300. Fra Dolcino, a 
younger priest, now took the leadership, and roused great enthusiasm by 
his preaching against the Roman antichrist. He bravely held his ground 
with 2,000 followers for two years in the recesses of the mountains, but 
was reduced at last in a.d. 1307 by hunger, and died hke his predecessor 
at the stake. He distinguished four stages in the historical development 
of the kingdom of God on earth. The first two are those of the Father 
and the Son in the O.T. and the N.T. The third begins with Con- 
Stan tine's establishment of the Christian empire, advanced by the 
Benedictine rule and the reforms of the Franciscans and Dominicans, 
but afterwards falhug into decay. The fourth era of complete restora- 
tion of the apostolic life is inaugurated by SegarelH and Dolcino. A new 
chief sent of God will rule the church in peace, and the Holy Spirit will 
never leave the restored communion of His saints. Remnants of the sect 
were long in existence in France and Germany, where they united with 
the Fraticelli and Beghards. Even in a.d. 1374 we find a synod at 
Narbonne threatening them with the severest punishments. 

9. Reforming Enthusiasts.— (1) A ccitain Tanchelm about a.d. 1115 
preached in the Netherlands against the corruptions of the church. He 
claimed like honour with Christ as being assisted by the same Spirit, is 
said to have betrothed himself to the Virgin Mary, and to have been 
killed at last in a.d. 1124 by a priest.— (2) A Frenchman, Eon de Stella 


of Brittany, hearing in a churcli the words ''per Eum qui ventums est 
judicare vivos et mortuos,'' and understanding it of his own name, went 
through the country preaching, prophesying, and working miracles. He 
secured many followers, and when persecuted, fled to the woods. He 
denied the Divine institution of the hierarchy, denounced the Roman 
church as false because of the wicked lives of the priests, rejected the 
doctrine of a resurrection of the body, denied that marriage was a sacra- 
ment, and regarded the communication of the Spirit by imposition of 
hands the only true baptism. In a.d. 1148 troops were sent against him, 
and he and many of his followers were taken prisoners. His adherents 
were burnt, but Eon was brought before a synod at Rheims, where he 
answered the question of the pope Eugenius III., " Who art thou? " by 
saying Is qui venturus est, etc. He was then pronounced deranged and 
delivered over to the custody of the archbishop. 

10. The Waldensians. — A rich citizen of Lyons called Waldus had first 
the gospels, then other books of the 0. and N.T., and finally a selection 
from the works of the fathers, translated by two priests for his own in- 
struction into the Romance dialect. Moved by the careful study of these 
writings and impressed by the sudden death of a friend, about a.d. 1170 
he distributed his goods to the poor and founded a society for preaching 
the gospel among the people. They went forth like the seventy disciples 
two and two, without staff or scrip, with wooden sandals or sabots on 
their feet, a pattern of apostolic poverty and simplicity, preaching and 
teaching through the land and calling upon the people to return to 
apostolic purity of life and to study the Scriptures for themselves. They 
were called Pauperes de Lugduno, Leonista, as coming from Lyons ; 
and Sabatati as wearing sabots. The Arcbbishop of Lyons forbade their 
preaching ; but they referred to Acts v. 29 and appealed to the third Late- 
ran Council of a.d. 1179 under Alexander III. They were there, how- 
ever, treated with contempt. As they still persisted in preaching, Lucius 
III. in A.D. 1184 put them under the ban. They had not hitherto shown 
any opposition to the doctrine, worship, or constitution of the Catholic 
church. Even the ecclesiastical authorities had made no objection to 
the substance of their preaching, but only to their exercising that func- 
tion without a legitimate call. Innocent III. acknowledged the injudi- 
ciousness of his predecessor, and agreed in a.d. 1209 to the plan of a 
Spanish Waldensian, Durandus of Osca, or Huesca, to have the society of 
Pauperes de Lugduno organized as an order of lay monks of Pauperes 
Catholici, who should preach, expound Scripture, and give practical 
instruction under episcopal supervision. But this came too late. The 
church itself had severed the ties which had hitherto bound them to the 
traditional doctrines of Catholicism, and the Leonists were now too far 
advanced on the path of evangelical freedom to be thus induced to re- 
turn. Innocent now renewed the ban against them at the fourth Laterau 


Council of A.D. 1215. Of the later life and activity of the founder only 
this is known with certainty, that he made extensive journeys for the 
advancement of his cause. Even during his lifetime his followers had 
spread greatly over all the south of France, the east of Spain, the north of 
Italy, the south of Germany ; they were even found in the Netherlands 
and as far as England. Although they had a great abhorrence of the 
Catharists and denounced their proceedings as demoniacal, they were 
often confounded with them, and were with equal eagerness persecuted 
by the Spanish Inquisition, which sent thousands of them to the stake. 
— The remnants of the German Waldensians got mixed up during the 
15th century with the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren {§ 119, 8, 9) ; 
those of France and Italy retired into the remote valleys of the western 
and eastern spurs of the Cottian] Alps, into Dauphine, Provence, and 
Piedmont. From a.d. 1310 they sent forth from Piedmont, with the 
connivance of the local government, thriving colonies into Calabria and 
Apulia. The French Waldensians in Provence and Dauphine succumbed 
in A.D. 1545 to the violent persecutions to which they were subjected, 
and those of Southern Italy were routed out some sixteen years later 
(§ 139, 25). But the Piedmontese, in spite of the most severe and per- 
sistent persecution, continue to the present day (§ 201, 4). The per- 
secutions began at the beginning of the 15th century, when their country 
came under the rule of the house of Savoy, and continued till a.d. 1477, 
when Innocent VIII. organized an exterminating crusade from Savoy and 
France which slaughtered 18,000 men. They had now rest for a long 
while, until their Protestant sympathies in the 16th century roused per- 
secution anew (^§ 139, 25; 153, 5). 

11. The most important Sources of Information for the early history of 
the Waldensians, besides the Acts of Synod and the Inquisition, are the 
Catholic controversalists. Of these the most important are the following : 
Bernard, abbot of Fonscalidus, Alanus (§ 102, 5), Walter Mapes, arch- 
deacon of Oxford {Dc secta Waldens.), Stephen de Borbone about a.d. 
1250, the Dominicans Moneta and Rainerius, and David of Augsburg, 
who wrote De hccresi imuperum de Lugduno (§ 103, 10). False views in 
contradiction to the description given in these works prevailed among 
historians till the present generation. Dieckhoff, Herzog, Todd, and 
Preger have thoroughly sifted this Waldensian mythology. It had been 
maintained that long before Waldus of Lyons Waldensian communities 
existed in the valleys of Piedmont, the " Israel of the Alps," preserving 
the gospel in its purity, and owing their origin to Claudius of Turin 
(§ 92, 2) or even to the Apostle Paul, who on his journey to Spain had 
visited these recesses. From them Peter of Lyons had got his religious 
quickening and the surname of Waldus, the Waldensian. For proof of 
this assertion they referred to the Waldensian Manuscripts, preserved in 
Geneva, Dublin, Cambridge, Ziirich, Grenoble, and Paris, composed in a 


peculiar Romance dialect. But wheu these were examined they were 
found to belong to three different periods. In the tracts belonging to 
the first period, which cannot be placed earlier than the 14th century, 
the complete separation of the Waldensian doctrine and practice from 
those of the Catholic church is not yet maintained. Complaint is made 
of the corruptions of the church, but the meritoriousuess of fasts and 
almsgiving, clerical celibacy, the mass, and auricular confession are 
still insisted upon. They occupy the position described by the Catholic 
controversialists, and like them know nothing of Waldeusians before 
VValdus. The writings of the second period were composed under Hussite 
influence, but such views they do not seek to ascribe to an old Walden- 
sian source. In the documents of the third period, however, that of the 
Protestantising Waldensians of the 16th century (§ 139, 25), Rome is 
identified with Babylon, the pope is antichrist, worship of saints is 
idolatry, enforced celibacy is repudiated, monkery is denounced, the 
doctrine of merits and indulgences, purgatory, the mass, auricular con- 
fession, etc., are condemned. They do not shrink from barefaced forgery 
as well by means of interpolation, excision, and alteration in earlier works 
as by means of new writings, in order to vindicate a venerable antiquity 
for the evangelical purity of their community. These documents were 
industriously and successfully used by their historians, Perrin, Leger, 
Mustou, Monastier, etc. In the "Noble Lesson," belonging to the former 
class of writings, a didactic religious poem, where the statement occurs 
that 1,400 years had passed since the composition of the N. T. Scriptures, 
the figure 4 was erased, to show that Waldensian communities existed 
in A.D. 1100, seventy years before the appearance of Waldus of Lyons. 
But when in a.d. 18(52 the Morland MS 3., lost for 200 years, were discovered 
again at Cambridge (§ 153, 5), a text of the "Noble Lesson " was found 
in which before the word "c<?»f." an erasure had been made, in which, 
however, the loop of the Arabic figure 4 was still discernible, while in 
another passage the statement referred to was quoted as " 3111 c CGCC 
anz.^^ The Hussite writings were introduced among the Waldensians by 
the Bohemians as genuine works of the earlier centuries. To the Con- 
fession of Faith of the Waldensians was assigned the date a.d. 1120, but 
from Morel's account of his negotiations with (Ecolampadius and Bucer 
(§ 139, 25) it appears that the Protestant tone of the formulary is largely 
the work of these reformers.^ 

1 Perrin, " History of the Vaudois," London, 1624. Muston, "Israel 
of the Alps," 2 vols., Glasgow, 1858. Monastier, " History of the 
Vaudois Church from its Origin," New York, 1849. Peyran, "Historical 
Defence of the Waldenses or Vaudois," London, 1826. Todd, " The 
Waldensian Manuscripts," London, 1865. Wylie, "History of the Wal- 
densians," Loudon, 1880, Comba, "History of the Waldenses," Loa- 
don, 1888, 

136 THE CtErmano-romanic church to a.d. 1294. 

12. The Poor Men of Italy or Lombardy, and their Relation to the Walden- 
sians. — These were called Pauperes Spiritu and HamiUati, as having 
their origin probably from the workmen's guilds of the 12th century 
(§ 98, 7). Adopting Arnoldist views they became estranged from the 
Catholic church and were brought into friendly relations with the French 
Waldensians. They were distinguished from the Waldensians, however, 
by these two characteristics : (1) They maintained that the efficacy of 
the means of grace depended on the worthiness of the officiating priest, 
and (2) they had workmen's leagues (Congregationes lahorantium) . The 
former associates them with the Arnoldists ; the latter, with the Humili- 
ates. In common with the Waldensians they acknowledged the Scriptures 
as the only source of religious knowledge and spiritual priesthood as the 
right of all baptized believers, and claimed for all Christians the privilege 
of studying the word of God. Their clergy wrought with their hands 
for their own support, to which the Waldensians took exception, founding 
upon Luke x. 7, 8. More serious was the difference of view as to the 
effect of a priest's unworthiness on the dispensation of the sacrament. 
Regarding all Catholic priests as unworthy, they were obliged to have a 
priesthood of their own, whom they designated not Sacerdoten but Minii^tri, 
with a Prcspositus corresponding to a bishop at their head. The Wal- 
densians, on the other hand, had recourse to their own Ministri only 
where they could not have the sacrament from Catholic priests. Their 
pastors they named Barhe>i, i.e. Uncle ; and the institution was regarded 
as temporary, and the appointments were at first only for a year, but 
subsequently for life. Among both the spiritual priesthood of believers 
was strongly insisted upon. The pastors had stricter obligations laid 
upon them in the enforcement of celibacy and absolute poverty. This 
distinction between the clergy and the laity was soon dropped by the 
Italians, but retained by the Waldensians till they became Protestantised 
during the 16th century. The Italians seem also to have been in advance 
of the Waldensians in the rejection of compulsory confession and fast- 
ing, worship of saints, the doctrine of purgatory, and probably also in 
the refusal of canonical authority to the apocryphal books of the O.T. 
About A.D. 1260 they had forty-two congregations in the diocese of 
Passau, with a bishop at their head. From this centre they spread out 
over the neighbouring countries as far as Northern Germany. In spite 
of constant persecution, which repeatedly brought hundreds of them to 
the stake, they maintained a footing in Austria, Bohemia, and Moravia 
down to the 15th century, when the remnants went over into the ranks 
of the Bohemian Brethren. 


§ 109. The Church against the Protesters. 
The church was by no means indifferent to the spread of 
those heresies of the 11th and 12th centuries, which called 
in question its own very existence. Even in the 11th cen- 
tury she called in the aid of the stake as a type of the fire 
of hell that would consume the heretics, and against this only 
one voice, that of Bishop Wazo of Liege (f a.d. 1048), was 
raised. In the 12th century protesting voices were more 
numerous : Peter the Venerable (§ 98, 1), E^upert of Deutz, 
St. Hildegard, St. Bernard, declared sword and fire no fit 
weapons for conversion. St. Bernard showed by his own 
example how by loving entreaty and friendly instruction 
more might be done than by awakening a fanatical enthusi- 
asm for martyrdom. But hangmen and stakes were more 
easily produced than St. Bernards, of whom the 12th and 
13th centuries had by no means a superabundance. By-and- 
by Dominic sent out his disciples to teach and convert here- 
tics by preaching and disputation ; as long as they confined 
themselves to these methods they were not without success. 
But even they soon found it more congenial or more effec- 
tive to fight the heretics with tortures and the stake 
rather than with discussion and discourse. The Albigensian 
crusade and the tribunal of the Inquisition erected in con- 
nection therewith at last overpowered the protesters and 
drove the remnants of their sects into hiding. In the 
administration of punishment the church made no distinction 
between the various sects ; all were alike who were at war 
with the church. 

1. The Albigensian Crusade, A.D. 1209-1229.— Toward the end of the 
12th century sects abounded in the south of France. Innocent III. 
regarded them as worse than the Saracens, and in a.d. 1203 sent a 
legate, Peter of Castelnau, with full powers to secure their extermina- 
tion. But Peter was murdered in a.d. 1208, and suspicion fell on 
Raymond IV., Count of Toulouse. A crusade under Simon de Montfort 
was now summoned a.qainst the sectaries, who as mainly inhabiting the 


district of Albigeois were now called Albigensians. A twenty years' war 
was carried on with mad fanaticism and cruelty on both sides, in which 
guilty and innocent, men, women, and children were ruthlessly slain. 
At the sack of Beziers with 20,000 inhabitants the papal legate cried, 
" Slay all, the Lord will know how to seek out and save His own." ^ 

2. The Inquisition. — Every one screening a heretic forfeiteil lands, 
goods, and office ; a house in which such a one was discovered was 
levelled to the ground ; all citizens had to communicate thrice a year, 
and every second year to renew their oath of attachment to the church, 
and to refuse all help in sickness to those suspected of heresy, etc. The 
bishops not showing themselves zealous enough in enforcing these laws, 
Gregory IX. in a.d. 1232 founded the Tribunal of the Inquisition, and 
placed it in the hands of the Dominicans. These as Bomini canes subjected 
to the most cruel tortures all on whom the suspicion of heresy fell, and 
all the resolute were handed over to the civil authorities, who readily 
undertook their execution,^ — Continuation 117, § 2. 

3. Conrad of Marburg and the Stedingers. — The first Inquisitor of 
Germany, the Dominican Conrad of Marburg, also known as the severe 
confessor of St. Elizabeth (§ 105, 3), after a three years' career of cruelty 
was put to death by certain of the nobles in a.d. 1233. Et sic, say the 
Annals of Worms, divino auxilio Uberata est Teutonia ah isto judicio 
enormi et inaudito. He was enrolled by Gregory IX. among the martyrs. 
Perhaps wrongly he has been blamed for Gregory's crusade of a.d. 1284 
against the Stedingers. These were Frisians of Oldenburg who revolted 
against the oppression of nobles and priests, refused socage and tithes, 
and screened Albigensian heretics. The first crusade failed ; the second 
succeeded and plundered, murdered, and burned on every hand. Thou- 
sands of the unhappy peasants were slain, neither women nor children 
were spared, and all prisoners were sent to the stake as heretics. 

^ Sismondi, "History of Crusades against the Albigenses of the 13th 
Century." London, 1826. 

- Limborch, "History of the Inquisition." 2 vols. London, 1731. 
Lea, " History of the Inquisition." 3 vols. Philad. and London, 1888. 
Baker, " History of Inquisition in Portugal, Spain, Italy," etc. London, 
1703. Prescott, " History of Ferdinand and Isabella," pt. i., ch. vii. 
Llorente, " Histoire critique de I'lnquisition d'Espagne." Paris, 1818. 
Rule, " History of Inquisition." 2 vols. London, 1874. 


THE 14th and 15th CENTURIES (a.d 1294-1517). 

I. The Hierarchy, Clergy, and Monks. 

§ 110. The Papacy.i 

From the time of Gelasius 11. (§ 9G, 11) it had been the 
custom of the popes whenever Italy became too hot for them 
to fly to Erance, and from France they had obtained help to 
deliver Italy from the tyranny of the latest representatives 
of the Hohenstaiifens. But when Boniface YIIL dared boldly 
to assert the universal sovereignty of the papacy even over 
France itself, this presumption wrought its own overthrow. 
The consequence was a seventy years' exile of the papal chair 
to the banks of the Rhone, with complete subjugation under 
French authority. Under the protection of the French 
court, however, the popes found Avignon a safe asylum, and 
from thence they issued the most extravagant hierarchical 
claims, especially upon Germany. The return of the papal 
court to Rome was the occasion of a forty years' schism, 
during which two popes, for a time even three, are seen 
hurling anathemas at one another. The reforming Councils 
of Pisa, Constance, and Basel sought to put an end to this 
scandal and bring about a reformation in the head and 
the members. The fathers in these councils, however, in 
accordance with the prevalent views of the age, maintained 
the need of one visible head for the government of the 

^ Creighton, •' History of the Papacy during the Eeformation." Vols, 
i.-iv., A.D. 1378-1518. London, 1882 ff. Gosselin, "The Power of the 
Popes during the Middle Ages." 2 vols. London, 1853. Keichel, " See 
of Eome in the Middle Ages." London, 1870. 



church, such as was afforded by the papacy. But the corrup- 
tions of the papal chair led them to adopt the old theory 
that the highest ecclesiastical authority is not the pope 
but the voice of the universal church expressed in the 
oecumenical councils, which had jurisdiction over even the 
popes. The successful carrying out of this view was 
possible only if the several national churches which had 
come now more decidedly than ever to regard themselves as 
independent branches of the great ecclesiastical organism, 
should heartily combine against the corrupt papacy. But 
this they did not do. They were contented with making 
separate attacks, in accordance with their several selfish 
interests. Hence papal craft found little difficulty in ren- 
dering the strong remonstrances of these councils fruitless 
and without result. The papacy came forth triumphant, and 
during the 1 5th century, the age of the Renaissance, reached 
a degree of corruption and moral turpitude which it had not 
approached since the 10th century. The vicars of God now 
used their spiritual rank only to further their ambitious 
worldly schemes, and by the most scandalous nepotism (the so- 
called nephews being often bastards of the popes, who were 
put into the highest and most lucrative offices) as well as by 
their own voluptuousness, luxury, revelry, and love of war, 
brought ruin upon the church and the States of the Church. 

1. Boniface VIII. and Benedict XI., A.D. 1294-1304.— Boniface VIII., a.d. 
1294-1303 (§ 96, 22), was not inferior to his great predecessor in political 
talents ^nd strength of will, but was destitute of all spiritual qualities 
and without any appreciation of the spiritual functions of the papal 
chair, while passionately maintaining the most extravagant claims of the 
hierarchy. The opposition to the pope was headed by two cardinals oi 
the powerful Colonna family, who maintained that the abdication of 
Ccfilestine V. was invalid. In a.d. 1297 Boniface stripped them of all 
their dignities, and then they appealed to an cecumenical council as a 
court of higher jurisdiction. The pope now threatened them and their 
supporters with the ban, fitted out a crusade against them, and destroyed 
their castles. At last after a sore struggle Palaestrina, the old residence 
of their family, capitulated. Also the Colonnas themselves submitted. 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 141 

Nevertheless in a.d. 1299 he had the famous old city and all its churches 
and palaces levelled to the ground, and refused to restore to the outlawed 
family its confiscated estates. Then again the Colonnas took up arms, 
but were defeated and obliged to fly the country, while the pope forbade 
under threat of the ban any city or realm to give refuge or shelter to the 
fugitives. But neither his anathema nor his army was able to keep the 
rebellious Sicilians under papal dominion. Even in his first contest 
with the French king, Philip IV. the Fair, a.d. 1285-1314, he had the 
worst of it. The pope had vainly sought to mediate between Philip and 
Edward I. of England, when both were using church property in carry- 
ing on war with one another, and in a.d. 1295 he issued the bull Clericis 
laicos, releasing subjects from their allegiance and anathematizing all 
laymen who should appropriate ecclesiastical revenues and all priests 
who should put them to uses not sanctioned by the pope. Philip then 
forbade all payment of church dues, and the pope finding his revenues 
from France withheld, made important concessions in a.d. 1297 and 
canonized Philip's grandfather, Louis IX. His hierarchical assumptions 
in Germany gave promise of greater success. After the first Hapsburger's 
death in a.d. 1291, his son Albert was set aside, and Adolf, Count of 
Nassau, elected king; but he again was overthrown and Albert I. crowned 
in A.D. 1298. Boniface summoned Albert to his tribunal as a traitor and 
murderer of the king, and released the German princes from their oaths 
of allegiance to him. Meanwhile, during a.d. 1301, Boniface and Philip 
were quarrelling over vacant benefices in France. The king haughtily 
repudiated the pretensions of the papal legate and imprisoned him as 
a traitor. Boniface demanded his immediate liberation, summoned the 
French bishops to a council at Eome, and in the bull Amculta fill showed 
the king how foolish, sinful, and heretical it was for him not to be subject 
to the pope. The bull torn from the messenger's hands was publicly burnt, 
and a version of it probably falsified published throughout the kingdom 
along with the king's reply. All France rose in revolt against the papal 
pretensions, and a parliament at Notre Dame in Paris a.d. 1302, at which 
the king assembled the three estates of the empire, the nobles, the 
clergy, and (for the first time) the citizens, it was unanimously resolved 
to support Philip and to write in that spirit to Eome, the bishops under- 
taking to pacify the pope, the nobles and citizens making their complaint 
to the cardinals. The king expressly forbade his clergy taking any part 
in the council that had been summoned, which, however, met in the 
Lateran, in Nov., 1302. From it Boniface issued the famous bull Unam 
Sanctarn, in which, after the example of Innocent III. and Gregory IX., 
he set forth the doctrine of the two swords, the spiritual wielded by 
the church and the temporal for the church, by kings and warriors 
indeed, but only according to the will and by the permission of the 
spiritual ruler. That the temporal power is independent was pronounced 


Manichfean heresy ; and finally it was declared that no human being 
could be saved unless he were subject to the Roman pontiff. King and 
parliament now accused the pope of heresy, simony, blasphemy, sorcery, 
tyranny, immorality, etc., and insisted that he should answer these 
charges before an cecumenical council. Meanwhile, in a.d. 1303, 
Boniface was negotiating with king Albert, and got him not only to break 
his league with Philip, but also to acknowledge himself a vassal of the 
papal see. The pope had all his plans laid for launching his anathema 
against Philip, but their execution was anticipated by the king's assassins. 
His chancellor Nogaret and Sciarra, one of the exiled Colonnas, who, 
with the help of French gold, had hatched a conspiracy among the 
barons, attacked the papal palace and took the pope prisoner while he 
sat in full state upon his throne. The people indeed rescued him, but 
he died some weeks after in a raging fever in his 80th year. Dante assigns 
him a place in hell. In the mouth of his predecessor Coclestine V. have 
been put the prophetic words, Ascendisti ut viilpes, regnatis iit leo, viorieris 
ut canis.^ His successor Benedict XI., a.d. 1303, 1301, would have will- 
ingly avenged the wrongs of Boniface, but weak and unsupported as he 
was he soon found himself obliged, not only to withdraw all imputations 
against Philip, who always maintained his innocence, but also to absolve 
those of the Colonnas who were less seriously implicated. 

2. The Papacy during the Babylonian Exile, A.D. 1305-1377. — After a 
year's vacancy the papal chair was filled by Bertrand de Got, Archbishop 
of Bordeaux, a determined supporter of Boniface, who took the name of 
Clement V., a.d. 1305-1314. He refused to go to be enthroned at Rome, 
and forced the cardinals to come to Lyons, and finally, in a.d. 1309, 
formally removed the papal court to Avignon, which then belonged to the 
king of Naples as Count of Provence. At this time, too, Clement so far 
yielded to Philip's wish to have Boniface condemned and struck out of 
the list of popes, as to appoint two commissions to consider charges 
against Bonifaca, one in France and the other in Italy. Most credible 
witnesses accused the deceased pope of heresies, crimes, and immorahties 
committed in word and deed mostly in their presence, while the rebutting 
evidence was singularly weak. A compromise was effected by Clement 
surrendering the Templars to the greedy and revengeful king. In the 
bull Rex gloricB of a.d. 1311 he expressly declares that Philip's proceed- 
ing against Boniface was bona fide, occasioned by zeal for church and 
country, cancels all Boniface's decrees and censures upon the French king 
and his servants, and orders them to be erased from the archives. The 
15th oecumenical Council of Vienue in A.D. 1311 was mainly occupied with 
the affairs of the Templars, and also with the consideration of the contro- 

^ On Boniface VIII. see a paper in Wiseman's •* Essays on Various 
Subjects." Londou, 1888. 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 143 

versies in the Franciscan order (§ 112, 27). — Henry VII. of Luxemburg 
was raised to the German throne on Albert's death in a.d. 1203 in opposi- 
tion to Philip's brother Charles. Clement supported him and crowned 
him emperor, hoping to be protected by him from Philip's tyranny. At 
Milan in a.d. 1311 Henry received the iron crown of Lombardy ; but at 
Kome the imperial coronation was effected in a.d. 1312, not in St. Peter's, 
the inner city being held by Kobert of Naples, papal vassal and govejnor 
of Italy, but only in the Lateran at the hands of the cardinals com- 
missioned to do so. The emperor now, in spite of all papal threats, 
pronounced the ban of the empire against Kobert, and in concert with 
Frederick of Sicily entered on a campaign against Naples, but his 
sudden death in a.d. 1313 (according to an unsupported legend caused 
by a poisoned host) put an end to the expedition. Clement also died 
in the following year ; and to him likewise has Dante assigned a place 
in hell. 

3. Alter two years' murderous strife between the Italian and French 
cardinals, the French were again victorious, and elected at Lyons John 
XXII., A.D. 1316-1334, son of a shoemaker of Cahors in Gascony, who 
was already seventy-two years old. He is said to have sworn to the 
Italians never to use a horse or mule but to ride to Kome, and then to 
have taken ship on the Khone for Avignon, where during his eighteen 
years' pontificate he never went out of his palace except to go into the 
neighbouring cathedral. Working far into the night, this seemingly weak 
old man was wont to devote all his time to his studies and his business. 
The weight of his official duties will be seen from the fact that 60,000 
minutes, filling 59 vols, in the papal archives, belong to his reign. — In 
Germany, after the death of Henry VII. there were ^two rivals for the 
throne, Louis IV. the Bavarian, a.d. 1314-1347, and Frederick III. of 
Austria. The pope, maintaining the closest relations with Kobert of 
Anjou, his feudatory as king of Naples and his protector as Count of 
Provence, and esteeming his wish as a command, refused to acknowledge 
either, declared the German throne still vacant, and assumed to himself 
the administration of the realm during the vacancy. At Miihldorf in a.d. 
1322 Louis conquered his opponent and took him prisoner. He sent 
a detachment of Ghibellines over the Alps, while he made himself master 
of Milan and put an end to the papal administration in Northern Italy. 
The pope in a.d. 1323 ordered him within three months to cease dis- 
charging all functions of government till his election as German king 
should be acknowledged and confirmed by the papal chair. Louis first 
endeavoured to come to an understanding with the pope, but soon em- 
ployed the sharp pens of the Minorites, who in May, 1324, drew up a 
solemn protest in which the king, basing his claims to royalty solely on 
the election of the princes and treating the pope as one who had forfeited 
his chair in consequence of his heresies (§ 112, 2), appealed from this 


false pope to an oecumenical council and a future legitimate pope. 
John now thundered an anathema against him, declared that he was 
deprived of all his dignities, freed his subjects from their allegiance, for- 
bade them, under jjain of anathema, to obey him, and summoned all Euro- 
pean potentates to war against the excommunicated monarch. Louis 
now sought Frederick's favour, and in a.d. 1325 shared with him the 
royal dignity. In Milan in a.1). 1327 he was crowned king of Lombardy, 
and in a.d. 1328 in Eome he received the imperial crown from the Eoman 
democracy. Two bishops of the Ghibelline party gave him consecration, 
and the crown was laid on his head by Sciarra Colonna in the name o 
the Koman people. In vain did the pope pronounce all these proceedings 
null and void. The king began a process against the pope, deposed him 
as a heretic and antichrist, and finally condemned him to death as guilty 
of high treason, while the mob carried out this sentence by burning the 
pope in ettigy upon the streets. The people and clergy of Eome, in accord- 
ance with an old canon, elected a new pope in the person of a pious 
Minorite of the sect of the Spirituales (§ 112, 2), who took the name of 
Nicholas V. Louis with his own hand placed the tiara on his head, and 
was then himself crowned by him. All this glory, however, was but 
short lived. An unsuccessful and inglorious war against Eobert of Naples 
and a consequent revolt in Eome caused the emperor in a.d. 1328, with 
his army and his pope, amid the stonethrowing of the mob, to quit the 
eternal city, which immediately became subject to the curia. He did 
not fare much better in Tuscany or Lombardy; and thus the Eoman 
expedition ended in failure. Returning to Munich, Louis endeavoured 
in vain amid many humiliations to move the determined old man at 
Avignon. But Nicholas V., the most wretched of all the anti-popes, went 
to Avignon with a rope about his neck in a.d. 1328, cast himself at the 
pope's feet, was absolved, and died a prisoner in the papal palace in 
A.D. 1333. Next year John died. Notwithstanding the expensive Italian 
wars 25,000,000 gold guldens was found in the papal treasury at his 
death. — Eoused by his opposition to the stricter party among the Fran- 
ciscans (§ 112, 2), its leaders lent all their influence to the Bavarian and 
supported the charge of heresy against the pope. Against John's favour- 
ite doctrine that the souls of departed saints attain to the vision of God 
only after the last judgment, these zealots cited the opinions of the 
learned world (§ 113, 3), with the University of Paris at its head. Philip 
VI. of France was also in the controversy one of his bitterest opponents, 
and even threatened him with the stake. Pressed on all sides the pope 
at last in a.d. 1333 convened a commission of scholars to decide the ques- 
tion, but died before its judgment was given. His successor hasted to 
still the tumult by issuing the story of a deathbed recantation, and gave 
ecclesiastical sanction to the opposing view. 

4. Benedict XII., a.d. 1334-1342, would probably have yielded to the 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 145 

urgent entreaties of the Romans to return to Rome bad not his cardinals 
been so keenly opposed. He then built a palace at Avignon of imposing 
magnitude, as though the papacy were to have an eternal residence 
there. Louis the Bavarian retracted his heretical sentiments in order to 
get the ban removed and to obtain an orderly coronation. The first diet 
of the electoral union was held at Rhense near Mainz, in a. d. 1338, where 
it was declared that the election of a G-erman king and emperor was, by 
God's appointment, the sole privilege of the elector-princes, and needed 
not the confirmation or approval of the pope. This encouraged Louis 
to assert anew his imperial pretensions. Benedict's successor Clement 
VI., A.D. 1342-1352, added by purchase in a.d. 1348 the city of Avignon to 
the county of Venaissin, which Philip III. had gifted to the papal chair in 
A D. 1273. Both continued in the possession of the Roman court till a.d. 
1791 (§ 164, 13). Louis, now at feud with some of the powerful German 
nobles, sought to make terms of peace with the new pope. But Clement 
was not conciliatory, and made the unheard of demand that Louis should 
not only annul all his previous ordinances, but also should in future issue 
no enactment in the empire without permission of the papal see ; and on 
Maunday Thursday, a.d. 1346, he pronounced him without title or dig- 
nity and called upon the electors to make a new choice, which, if they 
failed to do, he would proceed to do himself. As fittest candidate he 
recommended Charles of Bohemia, who was actually chosen by the five 
electors who answered the summons, under the title of Charles IV., a.d. 
1346-1378, and had his election confirmed by the pope. The new 
emperor solemnly promised never to set foot on the domains of the 
Roman church without express papal permission, and to remain in Rome 
only so long as was required for his coronation. Louis died before 
he was able to engage in war with his rival, and when, six months later, 
the next choice of Louis' party also died, Charles was acknowledged with- 
out a dissentient voice. He was crowned emperor in Rome by a cardinal 
appointed by Innocent YL, in a.d. 1355. Without doing anything to 
restore the imperial prestige in Italy, Charles went back like a fugitive 
to Germany, despised by Guelphs and Ghibellines. But in the following 
year, at the Diet of Nuremberg, he passed a new imperial law in the 
so called Golden Bull of a.d. 1356, according to which the election of 
emperor was to be made at Frankfort, by three clerical electors (Mainz;, 
Cologne, and Treves) and four temporal princes (Bohemia, the Palatine 
of the Rhine, Saxony, and Brandenburg), and he appeased the pope's 
wrath by various concessions to the curia and the clergy. 

5. The famous Rienzi was made apostolic notary by Clement VI. in 
A.D. 1343, and as tribune of the people headed the revolt against the 
barons in a.d. 1347. Losing his popularity through his own extrava- 
gances he was obliged to flee, and being taken prisoner by Charles at 
Prague, he was sent to Avignon in a.d. 1 J50. lustead of the stake with 



wliich Clement had threatened him, Innocent VI., a.d. 1352-1362, be- 
stowed senatorial rank upon him, and sent him to Kome, hoping that 
his demagogical talent would succeed in furthering the interests of the 
papacy. He now once more, amid loud acclamations, entered the eternal 
city, but after two months, hated and cursed as a tyrant, he was 
murdered in a.d. 1354, while attempting flight. — By a.d. 1367 things 
had so improved in Rome that, notwithstanding the opposition of king aud 
court and the objections of luxurious cardinals unwilling to quit Avignon, 
Urban V., a.d. 1362-1370, in October of that year made a triumphal 
entrance into Rome amid the jubilations of the Romans. Charles' 
Italian expedition of the following year was inglorious and without 
result. The disquiet and party strifes prevailing through the country 
made the position of the pope so uncomfortable, that notwithstanding 
the earnest entreaty of St. Bridget (§112, 8), who threatened him with 
the Divine judgment of an early death in France, he returned in a.d. 
1370 to Avignon, where in ten weeks the words of the northern pro- 
phetess were fulfilled. His successor was Gregory XI., a.d. 1370-1378. 
Rome and the States of the Church had now again become the scene of 
the wildest anarchy, which Gregory could only hope to quell by his 
personal presence. The exhortations of the two prophetesses of the 
age, St. Bridget and St. Catherine (§112, 4), had a powerful influence 
upon him, but what finally determined him was the threat of the ex- 
asperated Romans to elect an anti-pope. And so in spite of the 
renewed opposition of the cardinals and the French court, the curia 
again returned to Rome in a.d. 1377 ; but though the rejoicing at the 
event throughout the city was great, the results were by no means what 
had been expected. Sick and disheartened, the pope was already begin- 
ning to speak of going back to Avignon, when his death in a.d. 1378 put 
an end to his cares and sufferings. 

6. The Papal Schism and the Council of Pisa. — Under pressure from the 
people the cardinals present in Rome almost unanimously chose the 
Neapolitan archbishop of Bari, who took the name of Urban VI., a.d. 
1378-1389. His energies were mainly directed to the emancipating of the 
papal chair from French interference and checking the abuses intro- 
duced into the papal court during the Avignon residence ; but the 
impatience and bitterness which he showed in dealing with the greed, 
pomp, and luxury of the cardinals roused them to choose another pope. 
After four months, they met at Fundi, declared that the choice of 
Urban had been made under compulsion, and was therefore invalid. In 
his place they elected a Frenchman, Robert, cardinal of Geneva, who 
was enthroned under the name of Clement VII., a.d. 1378-1391. The 
three Italians present protested against this proceeding and demanded, 
but in vain, the decision of a council. Thus began the greatest and 
most mischievous papal scliism, a.d. 1378-1417. France, Naples, and 

^ 110. THE PAPACY. 147 

Savoy at once, and Spain and Scotland somewhat later, declared in 
favour of Clement ; while the rest of Western Europe acknowledged 
Urban. The two most famous saints of the age, St. Catherine and St. 
Vincent Ferrer (§ 115, 2), though both disciples of Dominic, took dif- 
ferent sides, the former as an Italian favouring Urban, the latter as 
a Spaniard favouring Clement. Failing to secure a footing in Italy, 
Clement took possession of the papal castle at Avignon in ad. 1379. 
The schism lasted for forty years, during which time Boniface IX., a.d. 
1389-1104, Innocent VII., A.D. 1401-1106, and Gregory XII., a.d. 1406- 
1415, elected by the cardinals in Kome, held sway there in succession, 
while at Avignon on Clement's death his place was taken by the 
Spanish cardinal Pedro de Luna as Benedict XIII., a.d. 1394-1424. 
The Council of Paris of a.d, 1395 recommended the withdrawal of both 
popes and a new election, but Benedict insisted upon a decision by a 
two-thirds majority in favour of one or other of the two rivals. An 
oecamenical council at Pisi in a.d. 1409, dominated mainly by the 
influence of Gerson (§118, 4), who maintained that the authority of the 
councils is superior to that of the pope, made short work with both 
contesting poj)es, whom it pronounced contumacious and deposed. 
After the cardinals present had bound themselves by an oath that 
whosoever of them might be chosen should not dissolve the council 
until a reform of the church in its head and members should be carried 
out, they elected a Greek of Caudia in his seventieth year, Cardinal 
Philangi, who was consecrated as Alexander V., a.d. 1409-1410, and for 
three years the council continued to sit without effecting any consider- 
able reforms. The consequence was that the world had the edifying 
spectacle of three contemporary popes anathematizing one another. 

7. The Council of Constance and Martin V. — Alexander V. died after 
a reign of ten months by poison administered, as was supposed, by 
Balthasar Cossa, resident cardinal legate and absolute military despotj 
suspected of having been in youth engaged in piracy. Cossa succeeded, 
as John XXIII., a.d. 1410-1415. He was acknowledged by the new 
Roman king, Sigismund, a.d. 1411-1437, 'and soon afterwards, in a.d. 1412, 
by Ladislas of Naples, so that Gregory XII. was thus deprived of his last 
support. The University of Paris continued to demand the holding of a 
council to effect reforms. Sigismund, supported by the princes, insisted 
on its being held in a German city. Meanwhile Ladislas had quarrelled 
with the pope, and had overrun the States of the Church and plundered 
Rome in a.d. 1413, and John was obliged to submit to Sigismund's de- 
mands. He now summoned the loth oecumenical Council of Constance, a.d. 
1414-1418 (§ 119, 5). It was the most brilliant and the most numerously 
attended council ever held. More than 18,000 priests and vast numbers 
of princes, counts, and knights, with an immense following ; in all about 
100,000 strangers, including thousands of harlots from all countries, and 


hordes of merchants, artisans, showmen, and players of every sort. 
Gerson and D'Ailly, the one representing European learning, the other 
the claims of the Galilean church (§ 118, 4), were the principal advisers 
of the council. The decision to vote not individually but by nations 
(Italian, German, French, and English) destroyed the predominance of 
the Italian prelates, who as John's creatures were present in great num- 
bers. Terrified by an anonymous accusation, which charged the pope 
with the most heinous crimes, he declared himself ready to withdraw if the 
other two popes would also resign, but took advantage of the excitement 
of a tournament to make his escape disguised as an ostler. Sigismund 
could with dilficulty keep the now popeless council together. John, 
however, was captured, seventy-two serious charges formulated against 
him, and on 26th July, a.d. 1415, he was deposed and condemned to im- 
prisonment for life. He was given up to the Count Palatine Louis of 
Baden, who kept him prisoner in Mannheim, and afterwards in Heidel- 
berg. Meanwhile the leader of an Italian band making use of the name 
of Martin V. purchased his release with 3,000 ducats. He now sub- 
mitted himself to that pope, and was appointed by him cardinal-bishop of 
Tuscoli, and dean of the sacred college, but soon afterwards died in Flor- 
ence, in A.D. 1419. Gregory XII. also submitted in a.d. 1415, and was made 
cardinal-bishop of Porto. Benedict, however, retired to Spain and refused 
to come to terms, but even the Spanish princes withdrew their allegiance 
from him as pope. The cardinals in conclave elected the crafty Oddo 
Colonna, who was consecrated as Martin V., a.d, 1417-1431. There was no 
more word of reformation. With great pomp the council was closed, and 
indulgence granted to its members. As the whole West now recognised 
Martin as the true pope the schism may be said to end with his acces- 
sion, though Benedict continued to thunder anathemas from his strong 
Spanish castle till his death in a.d, 1424, and three of his four cardinals 
elected as his successor Clement VIII. and the fourth another Benedict 
XIV. Of the latter no notice was taken, but Clement submitted in a,d. 
1429, and received the bishopric of Majorca. — Martin V. on entering 
Eome in a,d. 1420 found everything in confusion and desolate. By his 
able administration a change was soon effected, and the Rome of the 
Renaissanee rose on the ruins of the mediaeval city.^ 

8. Eu^enius IV. and the Council of Basel. — Martin V. commissioned 
Cardinal Julian Cesarini to look after the Hussite controversy in the 
Basel Council, a.d,'1431-1449. His successor Eugenius IV., a.d. 1431-1447, 
confirmed this appointment. After thirteen months he ordered the 
council to meet at Bologna, finding the heretical element too strong in 
Germany. The members, Ihowever, unanimously refused to obey. Sigis- 

^ Lenfant, " History of the Council of Constance." 2 vols. London, 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 149 

mund, too, protested, and the council claimed to be superior to the pope. 
The withdrawal of the bull within sixty days was insisted upon. As a 
compromise, the pope offered to call a new council, not at Bologna, but 
at Basel. This was declined and the pope threatened with deposition. 
A rebellion, too, broke out in the States of the Church ; and in a.d. 1433 
Eugenius was completely humbled and obliged to acquiesce in the demands 
of the council. One danger was thus averted, but he was still threatened 
by another. In a.d. 1434 Kome proclaimed itself a republic and the pope 
fled to Florence. The success of the democracy, however, was now again 
of but ohort duration. In five months Eome was once more under the 
dominion of the pope. Negotiations for union with the Greeks were 
begun by the pope at Ferrara a.d. 1433. A small number of Italians 
under the presidency of the pope here assumed the offices of an oecu- 
menical council, those at Basel being ordered to join them, the Basel 
Council being suspended, and the continuance of that council being 
pronounced schismatical. Julian, now styled ^^ JuUamis Apostata II.,'" 
with almost all the cardinals, betook himself to Ferrara. Under the 
able cardinal Louis d'Alemau (§ 118, 4), archbishop of Aries, some 
still continued the proceedings of the council at Basel, but in con- 
sequence of a pestilence they moved, in a.d. 1439, to Florence. A union 
with the Greeks was here effected, at least upon paper. The Basel 
Council banned by the pope, deposed him, and in a.d. 1439 elected a new 
pope in the person of Duke Amadeus of Savoy, who on his wife's death 
had resigned his crown to his son and entered a monkish order. He 
called himself Felix V. Princes and people, however, were tired of riVal 
papacies. Felix got little support, and the council itself soon lost all its 
power. Its ablest members one after another passed over to the party 
of Eugenius. In a.d. 1449 Felix resigned, and died in the odour of 
sanctity two years afterwards.^ 

9. Only Charles VII. of France took advantage of the reforming de- 
cree of Basel for the benefit of his country. He assembled the most 
distinguished churchmen and scholars of his kingdom at Bourges, and 
with their concurrence published, in a.d. 1438, twenty-three of the con- 
clusions of Basel that bore on the Galilean liberties under the name of 
the Pragmatic Sanction, and made it a law of his realm. For the rest 
he maintained an attitude of neutrality towards both popes, as also 
shortly before the electors convened at Frankfort had done. Those 
assembled at the Diet of Mainz in a.d. 1439 recognised the reforming 
edicts of Basel as applying to Germany. Frederick IV., a.d. 1439-1493, 

^ Jenkins, "The Last Crusader; or. The Life and Times of Cardinal 
Julian of the House of Cesarini." London, 1861. Creighton, " History 
of the Papacy," vol. ii., " The Council of Basel : the Papal Restoration, 
a.d. 1418-1464." 


who as emperor is known as Frederick III., under the influence of the 
cunning Itahan ^neas Sylvius Piccolomini (§ 118, 6), though at first 
in the opposition, went over to the side of Eugenius IV. in a.d. 1446 
upon receiving 100,000 guldens for the expenses of an expedition to 
Rome and certain ecclesiastical privileges for his Austrian subjects. 
Some weeks later the electors of Frankfort took the same steps, stipu- 
lating that Eugenius should recognise the decrees of the Council of 
Constance and the reforming decrees of Basel, and should promise to 
convene a new free council in a German city to bring the schism to an 
end, which if he failed to do they would quit him in favour of Basel. 
But at the diet, held in September of that year at Frankfort, the 
legates of the pope and of the king succeeded by diplomatic arts in 
coming to an understanding with the electors met at Mainz. Thus 
it happened that in the so-called Frankfort Concordat of the Princes a 
compromise was effected, which Eugenius confirmed in a.d. 1447, with 
a careful explanation to the effect that none of these concessions in 
any way infringed upon the rights and privileges of the Holy See. In 
the following year Frederick in name of the German nation concluded 
with Eugenius' successor, Nicholas V., the Concordat of Vienna, a.d. 1448. 
The advantages gained by the German church were quite insignificant. 
Frederick received imperial rank as reward for the betrayal of his 
country, and was crowned in Rome, in a.d. 1452, as the last German 

10. Nicholas V., Calixtus III., and Pius II., A.D. 1447-1464.— With 
Nicholas V., a.d. 1447-1455, a miracle of classical scholarship and founder 
of the Vatican Library, the Roman see for the first time became the 
patron of humanistic studies, and under this mild and liberal pope the 
secular government of Rome was greatly improved. The conquest of 
Constantinople by the Turks, in a.d. 1453, produced excitement through- 
out the whole of Europe. The eloquence of the pope roused the cru- 
sading spirit of Christendom, and oratorical appeals were thundered 
from the pulpits of all churches and cathedrals. But the princes re- 
mained cold and indifferent. After Nicholas, a Spaniard, the cardinal 
Alphonso Borgia, then in his seventy- seventh year, was raised to the papal 
chair as Calixtus III., a.d. 1455-1458. Hatred of Turks and love of 
nephews were the two characteristics of the man. Yet he could not 
rouse the princes against the Turks, and the fleet fitted out at his own 
cost only plundered a few islands in the Archipelago. Calixtus' successor 
was iEneas Sylvius Piccolomini, the able and accomplished apostate 
from the Basel reform party, who styled himself, with intended allu- 
sion to Virgil's "plus Mneas,'' Pius II., a.d. 1458-1464. The pope's 
Ciceronian eloquence failed to secure the attendance of princes at the 
Mantuan Congress, summoned in a.d. 1459 to take steps for the equip- 
ment of a crusade. A war against the Turks was indeed to have been 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 151 

undertaken by emperor Frederick III., and a tax was to have been levied 
on Christians and Jews for its cost ; but neither tax nor crusade was 
forthcoming. Pius demanded of the French ambassadors a formal repu- 
diation of the Pl'agmatic Sanction of Bourges, and when they threat- 
ened the calling of an oecumenical council, he issued the bull Exe- 
crabilis, which pronounced " the execrable and previously unheard of " 
enormity of an appeal to a council to be heresy and treason. In a.d. 
1461 the pope, by a long epistle, attempted the conversion of Mohammed 
II., the powerful conqueror of Constantinople. As the discovery of the 
great alum deposit at Kome in a.d. 1462 was attributed to miraculous 
direction, the pope was led to devote its rich resources to the fitting out 
of a crusade against the Turks. He wished himself to lead the army in 
person, in order to secure victory by uplifted hands, like Moses in the 
war with Amalek. But here again the jDrinces left him in the lurch. 
Coming to Ancona in a.d. 1464 to take ship there upon his great under- 
taking, only his own two galleys were waiting him. After long weary 
waiting, twelve Venetian ships arrived, just in time to see the pope 
prostrated with fever and excitement. 

11. PaulII., Sixtus IV. and Innocent VII., A.D. 1464-1492.— Among the 
popes of the last forty years of the 15th century Paul II., a.d. 1464-1471, 
was the best, though vain, sensual, greedy,' fond of show, and extrava- 
gant. He was impartial in the administration of justice, free from 
nepotism, and always ready to succour the needy. His successor, Sixtus 
IV., A.D. 1471-1484, formerly Franciscan general, was one of the most 
wicked of the occupants of the chair of Peter. His appeal for an ex- 
pedition against the Turks finding no response outside of Italy, his love 
of strife found gratification in fomenting internal animosities among 
the Italian states. In favour of a nephew he sought the overthrow in 
A.D. 1478 of the famous Medici family in Florence. Julian was mur- 
dered, but Lorenzo escaped, and the archbishop, as abettor of the crime, 
was hanged in his official robes. The pope placed the city under ban 
and interdict. It was only the conquest of Otranto in a.d. 1480, and 
the terror caused by the landing of the Turks in Italy, that moved him 
to make terms with Florence. His nepotism was most shamelessly 
practised, and he increased his revenues by taxing the brothels of Eome. 
His powerful government did something towards the improvement of 
the administration of justice in the Church States and his love of art 
beautified the city. In a.d. 1482 Andrew, archbishop of Crain, a Slav 
by birth and of the Dominican order, halted at Basel on his return from 
Rome, where he had been as ambassador for Frederick, and, with the 
support of the Italian league and the emperor, issued violent invectives 
against the pope, and summoned an oecumenical council for the re- 
form of the church in its head and members. The pope ordered his 
arrest and extradition, but this the municipal authorities refused. After 


a volley of bulls and briefs, charges and appeals, and after innumerable 
embassies and negotiations between Basel, Vienna, lunsbriick, Florence, 
and Eome, in wbich the emperor abandoned the archbishop and the 
papal legates dangled an interdict over Basel, the authorities decided 
to imprison the objectionable prelate, but refused to deliver him up. 
After eleven months' imprisonment, however, he was found hanged in 
his cell in a.d. 1484. Sixtus had died three months before and Basel 
was absolved by his successor Innocent VIII., a.d. 1484-1492. In char- 
acter and ability he was far inferior to his predecessor. The number 
of illegitimate children brought by him to the Vatican gave occasion 
to the popular witticism : " Octo Nocens rjenuit pueros totidemque puellas, 
Hunc merito poterit dicere Roma patremy The mighty conqueror of 
half the world, Mohammed II., had died in a.d. 1481. His two sons 
contested for the throne, and Bajazet joroving successful committed the 
guardianship of his brother to the Knights of St. John in Khodes. The 
Grandmaster transferred his prisoner, in a.d. 1489, to the pope. Inno- 
cent rewarded him with a cardinalate, and Bajazet promised the pope not 
only continual peace, but a yearly tribute of 40,000 ducats. He also 
voluntarily presented his holiness with the spear which pierced the 
Saviour's side. All this, however, did not prevent the pope from re- 
peatedly but ineffectually seeking to rouse Christendom to a crusade 
against the Turks. To this pope also belongs the odium of familiarizing 
Europe with witch prosecutions (§ 117, 4).i 

12. Alexander VI., A.D. 1492-1503.— The Spanish cardinal Koderick 
Borgia, sister's son of Calixtus III., purchased the tiara by bribing his 
colleagues. In him as Alexander VI. we have a pope whose government 
presents a scene of unparalleled infamy, riotous immorality, and un- 
mentionable crimes, of cruel despotism, fraud, faithlessness, and murder, 
and a barefaced nepotism, such as even the city of the popes had 
never witnessed before. He had already before his election five children 
by a concubine, Uosa Vanossa, four sons and one daughter, Lucretia, 
and bis one care was for their advancement. His favourite son was 
Giovanni, for whom wbile cardinal he had purchased the rank of a 
Spanish grandee, with the title Duke of Gaudia, and when pope he 
bestowed on him, in a.d. 1497, the hereditary dukedom of Benevento. 
But eight days after his corpse with dagger wounds upon it was taken 
out of the Tiber. The pope exclaimed, " I know the murderer." Sus- 
picion fell first upon Giovanni Sforsa of Pesaro, Lucretia's husband, 
who had charged the murdered man with committing incest with his 
sister, but afterwards upon Cardinal Ca}sar Borgia, the pope's second 
son, who was jealous of his brother because of the favour shown him 

^ Creighton, "History of the Papacy," vols. iii. and iv., " The Italian 
Princes, a.d. 1464-1518." 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 153 

by Lucretia and by her father. Alexander's grief knew no bounds, but 
sought escape from it by redoubled love to the suspected son. In 
A.D. 1498 the papal bastard resigned the cardiualate as an intolerable 
burden, married a French princess, and was made hereditary duke of 
Romagna. Suddenly at the same time, and in the same manner, in a.d. 
1503, father and son took ill. The father died after a few days, 
but the vigour of youth aided the son's recovery. Cffisar Borgia was 
at a later period cast into prison by Julius II., and fell in a.d. 1507 
in the service of his brother-in-law, the king of Navarre. It was 
generally believed that Alexander died of poisoned wine prepared by 
his son to secure the removal of a rich cardinal. The father as well as 
the two brothers were suspected of incest with Lucretia. This pope, 
too, did not hesitate to intrigue with the Turkish sultan against Charles 
VIII. of France. With unexampled assumption, during the contention 
of Portugal and Spain about the American discoveries, he presented 
Ferdinand and Isabella in a.d. 1493 with all islands and continents that 
had been discovered or might yet be discovered lying beyond a line 
of demarcation drawn from the North to the South Pole. Once only, 
when grieving over the death of his favourite son, had this pope a 
twinge of conscience. He had resolved, he said, to devote himself to 
his spiritual calling and secure a reform in church disciphne. But 
when the commission appointed for this purpose presented its first 
reform proposals the momentary emotion had already passed away. 
Nothing was further from his thought than the calling of an oecu- 
menical council, which not only the king of France, but also the Floren- 
tine reformer Savonarola demanded (§119, 11). 

13. Julius II., A.D. 1503-1513.— Alexander's successor, Pius III., son of 
a sister of Pius II., died after a twenty-six days' pontificate. He was fol- 
lowed by a nephew of Sixtus IV., a bitter enemy of the Borgias, who took 
the name of Julius 11. He was essentially a warrior, with nothing of 
the priest about him. He was also a lover of art, and carried on the 
works which his uncle had begun. His youthful excesses had seriously 
impaired his health. As pope, he was not free from nepotism and 
simony, in controversy passionate, and in policy intriguing and faithless. 
He transformed the States of the Church into a temporal despotic mon- 
archy, and was himself incessantly engaged in war. When he broke 
with France, which held Milan from a.d. 1499 with Alexander's con- 
sent, Louis XII., a.d. 1498-1515, convened a French national council 
at Tours in a.d. 1510. This council renewed the Pragmatic Sanction, 
which in a weak hour Louis XL, in a.d. 1462, had abrogated, and had in 
consequence obtained, in a.d. 1469, the title Rex Christiaiiissiinus, and 
refused to obey the pope. Also Maximilian I., a.d. 1493-1519, who even 
without papal coronation called himself " elected Eoman emperor," 
directed the learned humanist Wimpfeling of Heidelberg to collect the 


gravamina of the Germans against the Eoman curia, and to sketch out 
a Pragmatic Sanction for Germany. France and Germany, with five 
revolting cardinals, convoked an oecumenical council at Pisa, in a.d. 
1511. Half in sport, half in earnest, Maximilian spoke of placing on 
his own head the tiara, as well as the imperial crown. The pope put 
Pisa, where only a few French prelates ventured, under an interdict, 
and anathematized the king of France, who then had medals cast, 
with the inscription. Per dam Babylonis nomen. In a murderous battle 
at Eavenna, in a.d. 1512, the army of the papal league was. all but 
annihilated. But two months later, the French, by the revolt of the 
Milanese and the successes of the Swiss, were driven to their homes 
ingloriously, and the schismatic council, which had been shifted from 
Pisa to Milan, had to withdraw to Lyons, where it was dissolved by the 
pope " on account of its many crimes." Meanwhile the pope had sum- 
moned a council to meet at Eome, the fifth oecumenical Lateran Council, 
A.D. 1512-1517, at which however only fifty-three Italian bishops were 
present. There the ban upon the king of France was renewed, but a 
concordat was concluded with Maximilian, redressing the more serious 
grievances of which he had complained. The pope succeeded in freeing 
Northern Italy from French oppression, and only his early death pre- 
vented him from delivering Southern Italy from the Spanish yoke. 

14. Leo X., A.D. 1513-1521. — John, son of Lorenzo Medici, who was 
cardinal in a.d. 1488, in his eighteenth year, when thirty-eight years of 
age ascended the papal throne as Leo X. ; a great patron of the 
Eenaissance, but luxurious and pleasure-loving, extravagant and frivolous, 
without a spark of religion (§ 120, 1), and a zealous promoter of the 
fortunes of his own family. The attempt of Louis XII., with the help 
of Venice, to regain Milan failed, and being hard pressed in his own 
country by Henry VIII. of England, the French king decided at last, in 
Dec, 1513, to end the schism and recognise the Lateran Council. His 
successor, Francis I., a.d. 1515-1547, was more fortunate. In the battle 
of Marignano he gained a brilliant victory over the brave Swiss, in con- 
sequence of which the duchy of Milan fell again into the hands of 
France. At Bologna, in a.d. 1516, the pope in person now greeted the 
king, who proferred him obedience, and concluded a political league and 
an ecclesiastical concordat with his holiness, abrogating the Pragmatic 
Sanction of Charles VII., but maintaining the king's right to nominate 
all bishops and abbots of his realm, with reservation of the anuats for 
the papal treasury. The Lateran Council, though attended only by 
Italian bishops, was pronounced oecumenical. During its five years' 
sittings it had issued concordats for Germany and France, the papal 
bull Pastor cEtenius was solemnly ratified, which renewed the bull Unam 
sanctam and by various forgeries proved the power of the pope to be 
superior to the authority of councils, quieted the bishops' objections to 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 155 

the privileges of the begging friars by a compromise, and as a protection 
against heresy gave the right of the censorship of the press to bishops, 
while explicitly asserting the immateriality, individuality, and immor- 
tality of the human soul.^ 

15. Papal Claims to Sovereignty.— From a.d. 1319 the popes secured 
large revenues from the Annats, revenues for a full year of all vacan- 
cies ; the' Keservations, the holding of rich benefices and bestowing them 
upon payment of large sums ; the Expectances, naming for payment a 
successor to an incumbent still living ; the Offices held i7i commendam, 
provisionally on payment of a part of the incomes ; the Jus sjjoliarum, the 
Holy See being the legitimate heir of all property gained by Churchmen 
from their offices ; the Taxing of Church property ^for particularly press- 
ing calls ; innumerable Indulgences, Absolutions, Dispensations, etc. The 
happy thought occurred to Paul II., in a.d. 1469, to extend the law of 
Annats to such ecclesiastical institutions as belonged to corporations. 
He reckoned the lifetime of a prelate at fifteen years, and so claimed his 
tax of such institutions every fifteenth year. The doctrine of the papal 
infallibility in matters of faith, under the influence of the reforming 
councils of the loth century, was rather less in favour than before. 
The rigid Franciscans opposed the papal doctrine of poverty (§§ 98, 4 ; 112, 
2) ; and John XXII. was almost unanimously charged by his contem- 
poraries with heresy, because of his views about the vision of God. 
Even the most zealous curialists of the loth century did not venture 
to ascribe to the pope absolute infallibility. A distinction was made 
between the infallibility of the office, which is absolute, and that of the 
person, which is only relative ; a pope who falls into error and heresy 
thereby ceases to be pope and infallible. This was the opinion of the 
Dominican Torquemada (§ 112, 4), whom Eugenius IV. rewarded at the 
Basel Council with a cardinalate and the title of Defensor fulei, as the 
most zealous defender of papal absolutism. From the 14th century the 
popes have worn the triple crown. The three tiers of the tiara, richly 
ornamented with precious stones, indicated the power of the pope over 
heaven by his canonizing, over purgatory by his granting of indulgences, 
and over the earth by his pronouncing anathemas. Until the papal 
court retired to Avignon the Lateran was the usual residence of the 
popes, and after the ending of the schism, the Vatican." 

16. The Papal Curia.— The chief courts of the papal government are 
spoken of collectively as the curia, their members being taken from the 
higher clergy. The following are the most important : the Gancellaria 
Romana, to which belonged the administration of affairs pertaining to the 

^ Koscoe, " Life and Pontificate of Leo X." 4 vols. Liverpool, 1805. 
= Salmon, " The InfaUibility of the Church." London, 1888. 


pope and the college of cardinals ; the Dataria Eoviaiia, which had to 
do with matters of grace not kept secret, such as absolutions, dispen- 
sations, etc. ; while the Poenitentiaria liomana dealt with matters which 
were kept secret ; the Camera Romana, which administered the papal 
finances ; and the Rota Romana, which was the supreme court of justice. 
Important decrees issued by the pope himself with the approval of the 
cardinals are called hulls. They are written on parchment in the 
Gothic character in Latin, stamped with the great seal of the Koman 
church, and secured in a metal case. The word bull was originally 
applied to the case, then to the seal, and at last to the document itself. 
Less important decrees, for which the advice of the cardinals had not 
been asked, are called briefs. The brief is usually written on parch- 
ment, in the ordinary Koman characters, and sealed in red wax with the 
pope's private seal, the fisherman's ring. 

§ 111. The Clergy. 

Provincial synods had now lost almost all their impor- 
tance, and were rarely held, and then for the most part under 
the presidency of a papal legate. The cathedral chapters 
afforded welcome provision for the younger sons of the 
nobles, who were nothing behind their elder brothers in 
worldliness of life and conversation. For their own selfish 
interests they limited the number of members of the chap- 
ter, and demanded as a qualification evidence of at least 
sixteen ancestors. The political significance of the prelates 
was in France very small, and as champions of the Grallican 
liberties they were less enthusiastic than the University 
of Paris and the Parliament. In England they formed an 
influential order in the State, with carefully defined rights ; 
and in Grermany, as princes of the empire, especially the 
clerical elector princes, their political importance was very 
great. In Spain, on the other hand, at the end of the 15th 
century, by the ecclesiastico-political reformation endea- 
vours of Ferdinand '' the Catholic " and Isabella (§ 118, 7), 
the higher clergy were made completely dependent upon 
the Crown. 


1. The Moral Condition of the Clergy was in general very low. The 
bishops mostly lived in open concubinage. The lower secular clergy 
followed their example, and had toleration granted by paying a yearly 
tax to the bishop. The people, distinguishing office and person, made 
no objection, but rather looked on it as a sort of protection to their 
wives and daughters from the dangers of the confessional. Especially 
in Italy, unnatural vice was widely spread among the clergy. At Con- 
stance and Basel it was thought to cure such evils by giving permission 
to priests to marry ; but it was feared that the ecclesiastical revenues 
would be made heritable, and the clergy brought too much under tbe 
State. — The mendicant orders were allowed to hear confession every- 
where, and when John de Polliaco, a Prussian doctor, maintained that 
the local clergy only should be taken as confessors, John XXII., in a.d. 
1322, pronounced his views heretical. 

2. The French concordat of a.d. 1516 (§ 110, 14), which gave the 
king the right of appointing commendator abbots (§ 85, 5), to almost 
all the cloisters, induced many of the younger sons of old noble families 
to take orders, so as to obtain rich sinecures or offices, which they could 
hold in cominendam. They bore a semi-clerical character, and had the 
title of abbe, which gradually came to be given to all the secular clergy 
of higher culture and social position. In Italy too it became customary 
to give the title abbate to the younger clergy of high rank, before receiv- 
ing ordination. 

§ 112. Monastic Orders axd Societies. 

The corruption of monastic life was becoming more evi- 
dent from day to day. Immorality, sloth, and unnatural 
vice ouly too often found a nursery behind the cloister 
walls. Monks and nuns of neighbouring convents lived 
in open sin with one another, so that the author of the book 
Dc ruina ecclesia (§ 118, 4, c) thinks that Virginem velare 
is the same as Vlnjlnem ad scortandum cxponcre. In the 
Benedictine order the corruption was most complete. The 
rich cloisters, after the example of their founder, divided 
their revenues among their several members {propriefarii). 
Science was disregarded, and they cared only for good liv- 
ing. The celebrated Scottish cloister (§ 98, 1) of St. James, 
at Regensburg, in the 14th century, had a regular tavern 
within its walls, and there was a current saying, Uxor 


amissa in monasfcvio Scoforiim quwrl debet. The men- 
dicants represented even yet relatively the better side of 
monasticism, and maintained their character as exponents 
of theological learning. Only the Carthusians, however, 
still held fast to the ancient strict discipline of their order. 

1. The Benedictine Orders. — For the reorganization of this order, which 
had abandoned itself to good hving and luxury, Clement V., at the 
Council of Vienna, a.d. 1311, issued a set of ordinances which aimed 
principally at the restoration of monastic discipline and the revival of 
learning among the monks. But they were of little or no avail. Bene- 
dict XII. therefore found it necessary, in a.d. 1336, with the co-opera- 
tion of distinguished French abbots, to draw up a new constitution for 
the Benedictines, which after him was called the Beuedictina. The 
houses of Black Friars were to be divided into thirty-six provinces, and 
each of them was to hold every third year a provincial chapter for con- 
ference and determination of cases. In each abbey there should be a 
daily penitential chapter for maintaining discipline, and an annual chap- 
ter for giving a reckoning of accounts. In order to reawaken interest in 
scientific studies, it was enjoined that from every cloister a number of 
the abler monks should be maintained at a university, at the cost of the 
cloister, to study theology and canon law. But the disciplinary pre- 
scriptions of the Benedictina were powerless before the attractions of 
good living, and the proposals for organization were repugnant to the 
proud independence of monks and abbots. The enactments in favour 
of scientific pursuits led to better results. The first really successful 
attempt at reforming the cloisters was made, in a.d, 1135, by the general 
chapter of the Brothers of the Common Life, who not only dealt with 
their own institutions, but also with all the Benedictine monasteries 
throughout the whole of the West. The soul of this movement was 
Joh. Busch, monk in Windesheim, then prior in various monasteries, 
and finally provost of Suite, near Hildesheim, a.d. 1158-1179. The so 
called Bursfeld Union or Congregation resulted from his intercourse with 
the abbot of the Benedictine monastery at Bursfeld, on the Weser, John 
of Hagen (ab Andagine). Notwithstanding the bitter hostility of corrupt 
monks and nuns, there were in a short time seventy-five monasteries 
under this Bursfeld rule, where the original strictness of the monastic 
life was enforced. The rule was confirmed by the council of a.d. 1410, 
and subsequently by Pius II. Most of the cloisters under this rule 
joined the Lutheran reformation of the IGth century, and Bursfeld itself 
is at this day the seat of a titular Lutheran abbot. — A new branch of the 
Bonedictine order, the Olivetans, was founded by Bernard Tolomiei. 
Blindness iiaviug obliged hiui to abandon his teaching of philosophy at 


Siena, the blessed Virgin restored him his sight ; and then, in a.d. 1313, 
he forsook the world, and withdrew with certain companions into almost 
inaccessible mountain recesses, ten miles from Siena. Disciples gathered 
around him from all sides. He built a cloister on a hill, which he called 
the Mount of Olives, and founded under the Benedictine rule a congre- 
gation of the Most Blessed Virgin of the Mount of Olives, which obtained 
the sanction of John XXII. Tolomaei became its first general, in a.d. 
1322, and held the office till his death, caused by infection caught while 
attending the plague stricken in a.d. 1318. There were new elections 
of abbots every third year. The Olivetans were zealous w^orshippers of 
Mary, and strict ascetics. In several of their cloisters, which numbered 
as many as one hundred, the study of theology and philosophy was dili- 
gently prosecuted. They embraced also an order of nuns, founded by 
St. Francisca Eomana. 

2. The Franciscans. — At the Council of Vienna, in a.d. 1312, Clement 
V. renewed the decree of Nicholas III., and by the constitution Exivi de 
paradiso decided in favour of the stricter view (§ 98, 4), but ordered all 
rigorists to submit to their order. But neither this nor the solemn 
ratification of his predecessor's decisions by John XXII. in a.d. 1317 put 
an end to tbe division. The contention was now of a twofold kind. 
The Spirituals confined their opposition to a rigoristic interpretation of 
the vow of poverty. The Fraticelli carried their opposition into many 
other departments. They exaggerated the demand of poverty to the 
utmost, but also repudiated the primacy of the pope, the jurisdiction of 
bishops, the admissibility of oaths, etc. In the south of France within 
a few years 115 of them had perished at the stake ; and the Spirituals 
also suffered severely. — The Dominicans were the cause of a new split 
in the Seraphic order. The Inquisition at Narbonne had, in a.d. 1321, 
condemned to the stake a Beghard who had affirmed, what to the 
Dominicans seemed a heretical proposition, that Christ and the apostles 
had neither personal nor common property. The Franciscans, who, on 
the plea of a pretended transference of their property to the pope, 
claimed to be without possessions, pronounced that proposition ortho- 
dox, and the Dominicans complained to John XXII. He pronounced 
in favour of the Dominicans, and declared the Franciscans' transfe- 
rence of property illusory ; and finding this decision contrary to decrees 
of previous popes, he asserted the right of any pontiff to reverse the 
findings of his predecessors. The Franciscans were driven more and 
more into open revolt against the pope. They made common cause 
with the persecuted Spirituals, and like them sought support from the 
Italian Ghibellines and the emperor, Louis the Bavarian (§ 110, 3). 
The pope summoned their general, Michael of Cesena, to Avignon ; 
and while detaining him there sought unsuccessfully to obtain his de- 
position by tbe general synod of the order. Michael, with two like- 


minded brothers, William Occam (§ 113, 3) and Bonagratia of Bergamo, 
escaped to Pisa in a ship of war, which the emperor sent for them in 
A.D. 1328. There, in the name of his order, he appealed to an oecu- 
menical council to have the papal excommunication and deposition 
annulled which had now been issued against him. After the disastrous 
Italian campaign in a.d. 1330, the excommunicated churchmen accom- 
panied the emperor to Munich, where they conducted a literary defence 
of their rights and privileges, and charged the pope with a multitude of 
heresies. Michael died at Munich, in a.d. 1342. — After the overthrow 
of the schismatic Minorite pope, Nicholas V. (§ 110, 3), the opposition 
soon gave in its submission. But to the end of his life John XXII. 
was a bloody persecutor of all schismatical Franciscans, who showed a 
fanatical love of martyrdom, rather than abate one iota of their oppo- 
sition to the possession of property. 

3. The strict and lax tendencies were brought to light in connection 
with successive attempts at reformation. In a.d. 1368 Paolucci of Foligni 
founded the fraternity of Sandal- wearers, which embraced the remnants 
of the Coelestine eremites (§ 98, 4). This strict rule was soon modified 
so to admit of the possession of immovable property and living together 
in conventual establishments. Those who adhered rigidly to the original 
requirements as to seclusion, asceticism, and dress were now called 
Observants and the more lax Conventuals, Crossing the Alps in a.d. 
1388, they spread through Europe, converting heretics and heathens. 
Both sections received papal encouragement. Their leader for forty 
years was John of Capistrano, born a.d. 1386, died a.d. 1456, who 
inspired all their movements, and as a preacher gathered hundreds of 
thousands around him. His predecessor in office, Bernardino of Siena, 
who died in a.d. 1444, was canonized after a hard fight in a.d. 1450. 
John was deputed by the pope in that same year to proceed to Austria 
and Germany to convert the Hussites and preach a crusade against 
the Turks. His greatest feat was the repulse, in a.d. 1456, of the Turks, 
under Mohammad II., before Belgrade, ascribed to him and his crusade, 
which delivered Hungary, Germany, and indeed the whole West, from 
threatened subjection to the Moslem yoke. Capistrano died three 
months afterwards. Notwithstanding all the efforts of his followers, his 
beatification was not secured till a.d. 1690, and the decree of canoni- 
zation was not obtained till a.d. 1724.— Continuation § 149, 6. 

4. The Dominicans.— The Dominicans, as they interpreted the vow of 
poverty only of personal and not of com»mon property, soon lost the 
character of a mendicant order. — One of their most distinguished mem- 
bers was St. Catharine of Siena, who died in a.d. 1380, in her thirty-third 
year. Having taken the vow of chastity as a child, living only on bread 
and herbs, for a time only on the eucharistic elements, she was in vision 
affianced toChrist as His bride, and received His heart instead of her own. 


She felt the pains of Christ's wounds, and, like St. Dominic, lashed her- 
self thrice a day with an iron chain. She gained unexampled fame, and 
along with St. Bridget procured the return of the pope from Avignon to 
Rome. — The controversy of the Dominicans with the Franciscans over 
the immaculata conceptio (§ 104, 7) was conducted in the most pas- 
sionate manner. The visions of St. Catherine favoured the Dominican, 
those of St. Bridget the Franciscan views ; during the schism the French 
popes favoured the former, the Roman popes the latter. The Francis- 
can view gained for the time the ascendency. The University of Paris 
sustained it in a.d. 1387, and made its confession a condition of receiv- 
ing academic rank. The Dominican Torquemada combated this doctrine, 
in A.D. 1437, in his able Tractatus de veritate Conceptionis D. V. In a.d. 
1439, the Council of Basel, which was then regarded as schismatical, 
sanctioned the Franciscan doctrine. Sixtus IV., ,who had previously, 
as general of the Franciscans, supported the views of his order in a 
special treatise, authorized the celebration of the festival referred to, but 
in A.D. 1483 forbade controversy on either side. A comedy with a very 
tragical conclusion was enacted at Bern, in connection with this matter 
in A.D. 1509. The Dominicans there deceived a simple tailor called Jetzer, 
who joined them as a novice, with pretended visions and revelation of 
the Virgin, and burned upon him with a hot iron the wound prints of the 
Saviour, and caused an image of the mother of God to weep tears of blood 
over the godless doctrine of the Franciscans. When the base trick was 
discovered, the prior and three monks had to atone for their conduct by 
death at the stake. (Continuation § 149, 13.) A new controversy between 
the two orders broke out in a.d. 14G2, at Brescia. There, on Easter Day 
of that year, the Franciscan Jacob of Marchia in his preaching said that 
the blood of Christ shed upon the cross, until its reassumption by the 
resurrection, was outside of the hypostatic union with the Logos, and 
therefore as such was not the subject of adoration. The grand-inqui- 
sitor, Jacob of Brescia, pronounced this heretical, and at Christmas, a.d. 
14G3, a three days' disputation was held between three Dominicans and 
as many Minorites before pope and cardinals, which yielded no result. 
Pius II. reserved judgment, and never gave his decision. 

5. The Augustinians.— In a.d. 1432, Zolter, at the call of the general of 
the Augustinians, reorganized the order, and in a.d. 1438 Pius II. gave 
a constitution to the Observants. The " Union of the Five Convents " 
founded by him in Saxony and Franconia, with Magdeburg as its centre, 
formed the nucleus of regular Augustinian Observants, which had 
Andrew Proles of Dresden as their vicar-general for a second time in 
a.d. 1473. Notwithstanding bitter opposition, the union spread through 
all Germany, even to the Netherlands. In a.d. 1475 the general of the 
order at Rome took offence at Proles for looking directly to the apostolic 
see, and not to him, for his authority. He therefore abolished the insti- 


tution of vicars, insisted that all Observants should return to their alle- 
giance to the provincials, and make full restitution of all the cloisters 
which they had appropriated, and empowered the provincial of Saxony 
to imprison and excommunicate Proles and his party, in case of their 
refusal. Proles did not submit, and when the ban was issued appealed 
directly to the pope. A papal commission in a.d. 1477 decided that all 
Observant cloisters placed by the duke under the pope's protection should 
so continue, confirmed all their privileges, and annulled all mandates and 
anathemas issued against Proles and his followers. With redoubled 
energy and zeal Proles now wrought for the extension and consolida- 
tion of the congregation until a.d. 1503, when he resigned office in his 
74th year, and soon after died. He was one of the worthiest and most 
pious men in the German Church of his time ; but Flacius is quite mis- 
taken when he describes him as a precursor of Luther, an evangelical 
martyr and witness for the truth in the sense of the Reformation of 
the 16th century. Energetic and devoted as he was in prosecuting his 
reformation, he gave himself purely to the correcting of the morals of 
the monks and restoring discipline ; but in zeal for the doctrine of merits, 
the institution of indulgences, mariolatry, saint and image worship, and 
in devotion to the papacy, he and his congregation were by no means 
in advance of the age. 

6. As his successor in the vicariate the chapter, in accordance with 
the wish of Proles, elected John von Staupitz. He had been prior of 
the Augustinian cloister at Tiibingen, aad became professor of theology 
in the University of Wittenberg, in a.d. 1502. Like his predecessor, he 
devoted himself to the interests of the congregation, and by the union which 
he effected between it and the Lombard Observant congregation, he 
greatly increased its importance. In carrying out a plan for uniting the 
Saxon Conventuals with the German Observants by combining in his 
own hand the Saxon provincial priorate with the German vicariate, he 
encountered such difficulties that he was obliged to abandon the attempt ; 
but he succeeded thus far, that from that time the Conventuals and 
Observants of Germany dwelt in peace side by side. He directed the 
troubled spirit of Luther to the crucified Saviour (§ 122, 1), and thus 
became the spiritual father of the great reformer. The new constitutions 
for the German congregations, proffered by him and accepted by the 
chapter at Nuremberg, a.d. 1504, are characterized by earnest recommen- 
dations of Scripture study. But of a deep and comprehensive evangelical 
and reformatory ai^plication of them we find no traces as yet, even in 
Staupitz ; neither do we see any zealous study of Augustine's writings, 
and consequent appreciation of his theological principles, such as is 
shown by the mystics of the 13lh and 14th centuries. All this appears 
later in his little treatise " On the Imitation of the Willingly Dying 
Christ" of A.D. 1515. A discourse on predestination in a.d. 1517 moves 


distinctly on Augustinian lines, and the mysticism of St. Bernard may 
be traced in the book " On the Love of God " of that same year. True 
as he was to Luther as a counsellor and helper during the first eventful 
year of struggle, the reformer's protest soon became too violent for him, 
and in A.D. 1520 he resigned his office, withdrew to the Benedictine 
cloister at Salzburg, and died as its abbot in a.d. 1524. His continued 
attachment to the positive tendencies of the Reformation is proved by 
his "Fast Sermons," delivered in a.d. 1523. — His successor Link, Luther's 
fellow student at Magdeburg, was and continued to be an attached 
friend of the reformer. Unsuccessful in his endeavours to remove 
abuses, he resigned office in a.d. 1523, and became evangelical pastor in 
Altenburg, and married. The very small opposition chose in place of 
him Joh. Spangenberg, who, unable to withstand the movement among 
the German Conventuals, as well as among the Observants, resigned in 
a.d. 1529. 

7. Overthrow of the Templars. — The order of Knights Templar, whose 
chief seat was now in Paris and the south of France, by rich presents, 
exactions, and robberies in the island of Cyprus, vast commercial specu- 
lations and extensive money-lending and banking transactions with cru- 
saders and pilgrims and needy princes, had acquired immense wealth 
in money and landed property in the East and the West. They had 
in consequence become proud, greedy, and vicious. Their independence of 
the State had long been a thorn in the eye of Philip the Fair of France, 
and their policy was often at variance with his. But above all their 
great wealth excited his cupidity. In a letter to a visitor of the order 
Innocent III. had in a.d. 1208 bitterly complained of their unspirituality, 
worldliness, avarice, drunkenness, and study of the black art, saying that 
he refrained from remarking upon yet more shameful offences with which 
they were charged. Stories also were current of apostasy to Mohamma- 
danism, sorcery, unnatural vice, etc. It was said that they worshipped an 
idol Baphomet ; that a black cat appeared in their assemblies ; that at ini- 
tiation they abjured Christ, spat on the cross, and trampled it under foot. 
A Templar expelled for certain offences gave evidence in support of these 
charges. Thereupon in a.d. 1307 Philip had all Templars in his realm 
suddenly apprehended. Many admitted their guUt amid the tortures of 
the rack ; others voluntarily did so in order to escape such treatment. 
A Parliament assembled at Tours in a.d. 1308 heartily endorsed the 
king's opinion, and the pope, Clement V., was powerless to resist 
(§ 110, 2). While the pope's commissioners were prosecuting inquiries in 
all countries, Philip without more ado in a.d. 1310 brought to the stake 
one hundred Templars who had retracted their confession. The oecu- 
menical council at Vienne in A.D. 1311, summoned for the final settlement 
of the matter, refused to give judgment without hearing the defence of 
the accused. But Philip threatened the pope till a decree was passed 


disbanding the order because of the suspicion and ill repute into which 
it had fallen. Its property was to go to the Knights of St. John. But 
a great part had already been seized by the princes, especially by Philip. 
Final decision in regard to individuals was committed by the pope to 
the provincial synods of the several countries. Judgment on the grand- 
master, James Molay, and the then chief dignitaries of the order, he 
reserved to himself. Philip paid no attention to this, but, when they re- 
fused to adhere to their confession of guilt, had them burnt in a slow fire 
at Paris in a.d. 1314. Most of the other knights turned to secular employ- 
ments, many entered the ranks of the Knights of St. John, while others 
ended their days in monastic prisons. — Scholars are to this day divided 
in opinion as to the degree of guilt or innocence which may be ascribed 
to the Templars in regard to the serious charges brought against them.i 
8. New Orders. — In a.d. 1317 the king of Portugal, for the protection 
of his frontier from the Moors, instituted the Order of Christ, composed of 
knights and clergy, and to it John XXII. in a.d. 1319 gave the privileges of 
the order of Calatrava ( § 98, 8). Alexander VI. released them from the 
vow of poverty and allowed them to marry. The king of Portugal was 
grand-master, and at the beginning of the 16th century it had 450 com- 
panies and an annual revenue of one and a half million livres. In a.d. 
1797 it was converted into a secular order. — Among the new monkish 
orders the following are the most important : (1) Hieronymites, founded 
in A.D. 1370 by the Portuguese Basco and the Spaniard Pecha as an order 
of canons regular under the rule of Augustine, and confirmed by 
Gregory XI. in a.d. 1373. Devoted to study, they took Jerome as their 
patron, and obtained great reputation in Spain and Italy. — (2) Jesuates, 
founded by Colombini of Siena, who, excited by reading legends of the 
saints, combined with several companions in forming this society for 
self-mortification and care of the sick, for which Urban V. prescribed the 
Augustinian rule in a.d. 1367. They greeted all they met with the 
name of Jesus : hence their designation. — (3) Minimi, an extreme sect of 
Minorites (§ 98, 3), founded by Francis de Paula in Calabria in a.d. 1436. 
Their rule was extremely strict, and forbade them all use of fiesh, milk, 
butter, eggs, etc., so that their mode of life was described as vita quad- 
ragesimalis. — (4) Nuns of St. Bridget. To the Swedish princess visions of 
the wounded and bleeding Saviour had come in her childhood. Com- 
pelled by her parents to marry, she became mother of eight children ; but 
at her husband's death, in a.d. 1344, she adopted a rigidly ascetic life, 
and in a.d. 1363 founded a cloister at Wedstena for sixty nuns in honour 
of the blessed Virgin, with thirteen priests, four deacons, and eight lay 
brothers in a separate establishment. All were under the control of 
the abbess. She also founded at Kome a hospice for Swedish pilgrims 

1 Iliiye, " Persecution of the Knights Templars." Edin., 1865. 


and students, made a pilgrimage from Rome to Jerusalem, and died at 
Rome in a.d. 1373. The Revelationes S. Brigitta ascribed to her were in 
high repute during the Middle Ages. They are full of bitter invectives 
against the corrupt jDapacy ; call the pope worse than Lucifer, a mur- 
derer of the souls committed to him, who condemns the guUtless and 
sells believers for filthy lucre. There were seventy-four cloisters of the 
order spread over all Europe. Her successor as abbess of the parent 
abbey was her daughter, St. Catherine of Sweden, who died in a.d. 
1381. — (5) The French Annunciate Order was founded in a.d. 1501 by 
Joanna of Valois, the divorced wife of Louis XII., and when abolished 
by the French Revolution it numbered forty-five nunneries. 

9. The Brothers of the Common Life, a society of pious priests, gave 
themselves to the devotional study of Scripture, the exercise of contem- 
plative mysticism, and practical imitation of the lowly life of Christ with 
voluntary observance of the three monkish vows, and residing, without 
any lifelong obhgation, in unions where things were administered in com- 
mon. Pious laymen were not excluded from their association, and in- 
stitutions for sisters were soon reared alongside of those for the brothers. 
The founder of this organization was Gerhard Groot, Geranhis viagnus, 
of Deventer in the Netherlands, a favourite pupil of the mystic John 
of Ruysbroek (§ 114, 7). Dying a victim to his benevolence during a 
season of pestilence in a.d. 1384, a year or two after the founding of the 
first union institute, he was succeeded by his able pupil and assistant 
Florentius Radewins, who zealously carried on the work he had begun. 
The house of the brothers at Deventer soon became the centre of 
numerous other houses from the Scheld to the Wesel. Florentius added 
a cloister for regular canons at Windesheim, from which went forth the 
famous cloister reformer Burch. The most important of the later found- 
ations of this kind was the cloister built on Mount St. Agnes near 
Zwoll. The famous Thomas a Kempis (§ 114, 7) was trained here, and 
wrote the life of Groot and his fellow labourers. Each house was pre- 
sided over by a rector, each sister house by a matron, who was called 
Martha. The brothers supported themselves by transcribing spiritual 
books, the lay brothers by some handicraft ; the sisters by sewing, spin- 
ning, and weaving. Begging was strictly forbidden. Besides caring for 
their own souls' salvation, the brothers sought to benefit the people by 
preaching, pastoral visitation, and instracting the youth. They had as 
many as 1,200 scholars under their care. Hated by the mendicant friars, 
they were accused by a Dominican to the Bishop of Utrecht. This dig- 
nitary favoured the brothers, and when the Dominican appealed to the 
pope, he applied to the Constance Council of a.d. 1418, where Gerson 
and d'Ailly vigorously supported them. Their accuser was compelled 
to retract, and Martin V. confirmed the brotherhood. Though heartily 
attached to the doctrines of the Catholic Church, their biblical and evan- 


gelical tendencies formed an unconscious preparation for tlie Reforma- 
tion (§ 119, 10). A great number of the brothers joined the party of the 
reformers. In the 17th century the last remnant of them disappeared.^ 

II. — Theological Science. 

§ 113. Scholasticism and its Eeformers. 

The University of Paris took the lead, in accordance with 
the liberal tendencies of the Galilean Church, in the oppo- 
sition to hierarchical pretensions, and was followed by the 
universities of Oxford, Prague, and Cologne, in all of which 
the mendicant friars were the teachers. Most distin- 
guished among the schoolmen of this age was John Duns 
Scotus, whose works formed the doctrinal standard for the 
Franciscans, as those of Aquinas did for the Dominicans. 
After realism had enjoyed for a long time an uncontested 
sway, William Occam, amid passionate battles, successfully 
introduced nominalism. But the creative power of scholas- 
ticism was well nigh extinct. Even Duns Scotus is rather 
an acute critic of the old than an original creator of new 
ideas. Miserable quarrels between the schools and a spirit- 
less formalism now widely prevailed in the lecture halls, as 
well as in the treatises of the learned. Moral theology 
degenerated into fruitless casuistry and abstruse discussion 
on subtlely devised cases where there- appeared a collision 
of duties. But from all sides there arose complaint and 
contradiction. On the one side were some who made a 
general complaint without striking at the roots of the evil. 
They suggested the adoption of a better method, or the 
infusion of new life by the study of Scripture and the 
Fathers, and a return to mysticism. To this class belonged 
the Brothers of the Common Life (§ 112, 9) and d'Ailly and 
Gerson, the supporters of the Constance reforms (§ 118, 4). 

1 Kettlewell, " Thomas a Kempis and the Brothers of the Common 
Life." 2 vols. London, 1882. 


Here too we may place the talented father of natural theo- 
logy, E-aimund of Sabunde, and the brilliant Nicholas of 
Cusa, in whom all the nobler aspirations of mediaeval 
ecclesiastical science were concentrated. But on the other 
side was the radical opposition, consisting of the German 
mystics (§ 114), the English and Bohemian reformers (§ 119), 
and the Humanists (§ 120). 

1. John Duns Scotus.— The date of birth, whether a.d. 1274 or a.d. 1266, 
and the place of birth, whether in Scotland, Ireland, or England, of this 
Franciscan hero, honoured with the title doctor subtilis, are uncertain ; 
even the place and manner of his training are unknown. After lectur- 
ing with great success at Oxford, he went in a.d. 1304 to Paris, where 
he obtained the degree of doctor, and successfully vindicated the imma- 
culata conceptio B. V. (§ 104, 7) against the Thomists. Summoned to 
Cologne in a.d. 1308 to engage in controversy with the Beghards, he 
displayed great skill in dialectics, but died during that same year. His 
chief work, a commentary on the Lombard, was composed at Oxford. 
His answers to the questions proposed for his doctor's degree were after- 
wards wrought up into the work entitled Qiicestiones quodlibetales. The 
opponent and rival of Thomas, he controverted his doctrine at every 
point, as well as the doctrines of Alexander and Bonaventura of his own 
order, and other shining stars of the 13th century. In subtlety of thought 
and dialectic power he excelled them all, but in depth of feeling, pro- 
fundity of mind, and ardour of faith he was far behind them. Proofs 
of doctrines interested him more than the doctrines themselves. To 
philosophy he assigns a purely theoretical, to theology a pre-eminently 
practical character, and protests against the Thomist commingling of 
the two. He accepts the doctrine of a twofold truth (§ 103, 3), basing it 
on the fall. Granting that the Bible is the only foundation of religious 
knowledge, but contending that the Church under the Spirit's guidance 
has advanced ever more and more in the development of it, he readily 
admits that many a point in constitution, doctrine, and worship cannot 
be established from the Bible; e.g. immaculate conception, clerical celi- 
bacy, etc. He has no hesitation in contradicting even Augustine and 
St. Bernard from the standpoint of a more highly developed doctrine of 
the Church. 

2. Thomists and Scotists. — The Dominicans and Franciscans were 
opposed as followers respectively of Thomas and of Scotus. Thomas 
regarded individuality, i.e. the fact that everything is an individual, every 
res is a hcec, as a limitation and defect ; while Duns saw in this hcecitas 
a mark of perfection and the true end of creation. Thomas also preferred 


the Pktonic, and Duns the Aristotelian realism. In theology Duns was 
opposed to Thomas in maintaining an unlimited arbitrary will in God, 
according to which God does not choose a thing because it is good, but 
the thing chosen is good because He chooses it. Thomas therefore was 
a determinist, and in his doctrine of sin and grace adopted a moderate 
Augustinianism (§ 53, 5), while Duns was a semipelagian. The atonement 
was viewed by Thomas more in accordance with the theory of Anselm, 
for he assigned to the merits of Christ as the God-Man infinite worth, 
satisfactio siiperahimdans , which is in itself more than sufficient for 
redemption ; but Duns held that the merits of Christ were sufficient only 
as accepted by the free will of God, acceptatio gratuita. The Scotists 
also most resolutely contended for the doctrine of the immaculate con- 
ception of the Virgin, while the Thomists as passionately opposed it. 
— Among the immediate disciples of Duns the most celebrated was 
Francis Mayron, teacher at the Sorbonne, who died in a.d. 1325 and was 
dignified with the title doctor illuminatus or acutus. The most notable of 
the Thomists was Hervseus Natalis, who died in a.d. 1323 as general of 
the Dominicans. Of the later Thomists the most eminent was Thomas 
Bradwardine, doctor profundus, a man of deep religious earnestness, who 
accused his age of Pelagianism, and vindicated the truth in opposition 
to this error in his De causa Dei c. Pelagunn. He began teaching at 
Oxford, afterwards accompanied Edward HI. as his confessor and chap- 
lain on his expeditions in France, and died in a.d. 1349 a few weeks 
after his appointment to the archbishopric of Canterbury. ^ 

3. Nominalists and Realists.— After nominalism (§ 99, 2) in the person 
of Rosceliu had been condemned by the Church (§ 101, 3) realism held 
sway for more than two centuries. Both Thomas and Duns supported 
it. By sundering philosophy and theology Duns opened the way to freer 
discussion, so that by-and-by nominalism won the ascendency, and at last 
scarcely any but the precursors of the Reformation (§ 119) were to be 
found in the ranks of the realists. The pioneer of the movement was 
the Englishman William Occam, a Franciscan and pupil of Duns, who 
as teacher of philosophy in Paris obtained the title doctor singularis et 
invincibilisy and was called by later nominalists venerabilis inceptor. He 
supported the Spirituals (§ 112, 2) in the controversies within his order. 
He accompanied his general, Michael of Cevena, to Avignon, and escap- 
ing with him in a.d. 1328 from threatened imprisonment, lived at 
Munich till his death in a.d. 1349. There, protected by Louis the 
Bavarian, he vindicated imperial rights against papal pretensions, and 
charged various heresies against the pope (§ 118, 2). In philosophy and 
theology he was mainly influenced by Scotus. In accordance with his 
nominalistic principles he assumed the position in theology that our 

Hook," Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury," vol. iv., "Bradwardine. 


ideas derived from experience cannot reach to a knowledge of the super- 
natural; and thus he may be called a precursor of Kant (§ 170, 10). 
The universalia are mere fictiones (§ 99, 2), things that do not corre- 
spond to our notions ; the world of ideas agrees not with that of pheno- 
mena, and so the unity of faith and knowledge, of theological and 
philosophical truth, asserted by realists, cannot be maintained (§ 103, 2). 
Faith rests on the authority of Scripture and the decisions of the Church ; 
criticism applied to the doctrines of the Church reduces them to a series 
of antinomies. — In a.d. 1339 the University of Paris forbade the read- 
ing of Occam's works, and soon after formally condemned nominalism. 
Thomists and Scotists forgot their own differences to combine against 
Occam ; but all in vain, for the Occamists were recruited from all the 
orders. The Constance reform party too supported him {§ 118, 4).i 
Of the Thomists who succeeded to Occam the most distinguished was 
William Durand of St. Pour(^ain, doct. resolntissimus, who died in a.d. 1322 
as Bishop of Meaux. Muertius of Inghen, one of the founders of the Uni- 
versity of Heidelberg in a.d. 1386 and its first rector, was also a zealous 
nominalist. The last notable schoolman of the period was Gabriel Biel 
of Spires, teacher of theology at Tiibingen, who died a.d. 1495, a nomi- 
nalist and an admirer of Occam. He was a vigorous supporter of the 
doctrine of the immaculate conception, and delivered public discourses 
on the "Ethics " of Aristotle. 

4. Casuistry, or that part of moral theology which seeks to provide a 
complete guide to the solution of difficult cases of conscience, especially 
where there is collision of duties, moral or ecclesiastical, makes its first 
appearance in the penitentials (§ 89, 6), and had a great impetus given it 
in the compulsory injunction of auricular confession (§ 104, 4). It was 
also favoured by the hair-splitting character of scholastic dialectics. The 
first who elaborated it as a distinct science was Raimundus de Pennaforte, 
who besides his works on canon law (§ 99, 5), wrote about a.d. 1238 a 
summa de casibiis pxnitentiallhus. This was followed by the Franciscan 
Antcsana, the Dominican Pisana, and the Angelica of the Genoese 
Angelus of a.d. 1482, which Luther in a.d. 1520 burned along with the 
papal bull and decretals. The views of the different casuists greatly 
vary, and confuse rather than assist the conscience. Out of them grew 
the doctrine of probabilism (§ 149, 10). 

5. The Founder of Natural Theology.— The Spaniard Raimund of Sabunde 
settled as a physician in Toulouse in a.d. 1430, but afterwards turned his 
attention to theology. Seeing the need of infusing new life into the cor- 
rupt scholasticism, he sought to rescue it from utter formalism and fruit- 
less casuistry by a return to simple, clear, and rational thinking. Anselm 
of Canterbury was his model of a clear and profound thinker and believing 

^ Ueberweg, " History of Philosophy," vol. i., pp. 460-464. 


theologian (§ 101, 1). He also turned for stimulus and instruction to 
the book of nature. The result of his studies is seen in his Theologia 
naturalis s. lihcr creaturanim, published in a.d. 1436. God's book of 
nature, in which every creature is as it were a letter, is the first and 
simplest source of knowledge accessible to the unlearned layman, and the 
surest, because free from all falsifications of heretics. But the fall and 
God's plan of salvation have made an addition to it necessary, and this 
we have in the Scripture revelation. The two books coming from the 
one author cannot be contradictory, but only extend, confirm, and ex- 
plain one another. The facts of revelation are the necessary presup- 
position or consequences of the book of nature. From the latter all 
rehgious knowledge is derivable by ascending through the four degrees 
of creation, esse, vivcre, sentire, and intelligere, to the knowledge of man, 
and thence to the knowledge of the Creator as the highest and absolute 
unity, and by arguing that the acknowledgment of human sinfulness 
involved an admission of the need of redemption, which the book of re- 
velation shows to be a fact. In carrying out this idea Kaimund attaches 
himself closely to Anselm in his scientific reconciling of the natural 
and revealed idea of God and redemption. Although he never expressly 
contradicted any of the Church doctrines, the Council of Trent put the 
prologue of his book into the Index prohihitorum. 

6. Nicholas of Cusa was born in a.d. 1401 at Cues, near Treves, and 
was originally called Krebs. Trained first by the Brothers at Deventer 
(§ 112, 9), he afterwards studied law at Padua. The failure of his first 
case led him to begin the study of theology. As archdeacon of Liege he 
attended the Basel Council, and there by mouth and pen supported the 
view that the council is superior to the pope, but in a.d. 1440 he passed 
over to the papal party. On account of his learning, address, and 
eloquence he was often employed by Eugenius IV. and Nicholas V. in 
difficult negotiations. He was made cardinal in a.d, 1448, an unheard of 
honour for a German prelate. In a.d. 1450 he was made bishop of 
Brixen, but owing to a dispute with Sigismund, Archduke of Austria, he 
suffered several years' hard imprisonment. He died in a.d. 1464 at Todi 
in Umbria. His principal work is De clocta ignorantia, which shows, 
in opposition to jjroud scholasticism, that the absolute truth about 
God in the world is not attainable by men. His theological speculation 
approaches that of Eckhart, and like it is not free from pantheistic 
elements. God is for him the absolute maximum, but is also the abso- 
lute minimum, since He cannot be greater or less than He is. He begets 
of Himself His likeness, i.e. the Son, and He again turns back as Holy 
Spirit into unity. The world again is the aggregated maximum. His 
Dialogus de pace, occasioned by the fall of Constantinople in a.d. 1453, 
represents Christianity as the most perfect of all religions, but recognises 
in all others, even in Islam, essential elements of eternal truth. Like 


Eoger Bacon (§ 103, 8), he assigns a prominent place to mathematics 
and astronomy, and in his De separatione Calendarii of a.d. 1436 he 
recommended reforms in the calendar which were only effected in 
A.D. 1582 by Gregory XIII. (§ 149, 3). He detected the pseudo-Isidore 
(§ 87, 2) and the Donation of Coustantine (§ 87, 4) frauds. 

7. Biblical and Practical Theologians. — (1) The Franciscan Nicholas of 
Lyra, doctor planus et iitilis, a Jewish convert from Normandy, and teacher 
of theology at Paris, did good service as a grammatico-historical exegete 
and an earnest expositor of Scripture. Luther gratefully acknowledges the 
help he got in his Bible translation from the postils of Lyra.^ He died 
in A.D. 1340. — (2) Antonine of Florence played a prominent part at the 
Florentine Council of a.d. 1430, and was threatened by Eugenius IV. 
with the loss of his archbishopric. He discharged his duties with great 
zeal, especially during a plague and famine in a.d. 1448, and during the 
earthquake which destroyed half of the city in a.d. 1457. As an earnest 
preacher, an unwearied pastor, and upright churchman he was universally 
admired, and was canonized by Hadrian VI. in a.d. 1523. He had a high 
reputation as a writer. His Summa liistorialis is a chronicle of universal 
history reaching down to his own time ; and his Swnma ihcologica is a 
popular outline of the Thomist doctrine. — (3) The learned and famous 
abbot John Trithemius, born in a.d. 14G2, after studying at Treves and 
Heidelberg, entered in a.d. 1487 the Benedictine cloister of Sponheim, 
became its abbot in tbe following year, resigned office in a.d. 1505 owing 
to a rebellion among his monks, and died in a.d. 151G as abbot of the 
Scottish cloister of St. James at Wiirzburg. Influenced by Wessel's 
reforming movement (§ 119, 10), he urged the duty of Scripture study 
and prayer, but still practised and commended the most extravagant 
adoration of Mary and Ann. Though he was keenly alive to the absur- 
dity of certain forms of superstition, he was himself firmly bound within 
its coils. He lashed unsparingly the vices of the monks, but regarded 
the monastic life as the highest Christian ideal. He pictured in dark 
colours the deep and widespread corrui^tion of the Church, and was yet the 
most abject slave of the hierarchy which fostered that corruption. 

* Luther's Catholic opponents said, -Si Lyra non lyra&set, Lutherus 
non mltasset. This saying had an earlier form : " Si Lyra non lyrasset, 
nemo Doctorum in Biblia saltasset " ; "Si Lyra non lyrasset, totus mundus 


§ 114. The German Mystics.^ 

The schoolmen of the 13th century, with the exception 
of Bonaventura, had little sympathy with mysticism, and 
gave their whole attention to the development of doctrine 
(§ 99, 1). The 14th century was the Augustan age of 
mysticism. Germany, which had already in the previous 
period given Hugo of St. Victor and the two divines of 
Heichersburg (§ 102, 4, 6), was its proper home. Its most 
distinguished representatives belonged to the preaching 
orders, and its recognised grand-master was the Dominican 
Meister Eckhart. This specifically German mysticism cast 
away completely the scholastic modes of thought and ex- 
pression, and sought to arrive at Christian truth by entirely 
new paths. It appealed, not to the understanding and 
cultured reason of the learned, but to the hearts and spirits 
of the people, in order to point them the surest way to 
union with God. The mystics therefore wrote neither 
commentaries on the Lombard nor gigantic siwimcc of their 
own composition, but wrought by word and writing to meet 
immediate pressing needs. They preached lively sermons 
and wrote short treatises, not in Latin, but in the homely 
mother tongue. This popular form however did not pre- 
vent them from conveying to their readers and hearers 
profound thoughts, the result of keen speculation ; but that 
in this they did not go over the heads of the people is 
shown by the crowds that flocked to their preaching. The 
"Friends of God" proved a spiritual power over many lands 
(§ 116, 4). From the practical prophetic mysticism of the 
12th and 13th centuries (§§ 107 ; 108, 5) it was distinguished 
by avoiding the visionary apocalyptic and magnetic somnam- 

^ Dalgairns, "The German Mystics in the 1-ith Century." London, 
1850. Vaughan, " Hours with the Mystics," 3rd ed., 2 vols. London, 


bulistic elements through a better appreciation of science ; 
and from the scholastic mysticism of that earlier age (§§ 102, 
3, 4, 6 ; 103, 4) by abandoning allegory and the scholastic 
framework for the elevation of the soul to God, as well as 
by indulgence in a somewhat pantheistic speculation on God 
and the world, man and the God-Man, on "the incarnation 
and birth of God in us, on our redemption, sanctification, 
and final restoration. Its younger representatives however 
cut off all pantheistic excrescences, and thus became more 
practical and edifying, though indeed with the loss of specu- 
lative power. In this way they brought themselves more 
into sympathy with another mystic tendency which was 
spreading through the Netherlands under the influence of 
the Flemish canon, John of Ruysbroek. In France too 
m3''sticism again made its appearance during the 15th cen- 
tury in the persons of d'Ailly and Gerson (§ 118, 4), in a 
form similar to that which it had assumed during the 12th 
and 13th centuries in the Victorines and Bonaventura. 

1, Meister Eckhart. — One of the profoundest thinkers of all the Christian 
centuries was the Dominican Meister Eckhart, the true father of German 
speculative mysticism. Born in Strassburg about a.d. 12G0, he studied 
at Cologne under Albert the Great, but took his master's degree at Paris 
in A.D. 1303. He had already been for some years prior at Erfurt and 
provincial vicar of Thuringia. In a.d. 130i he was made provincial of 
Saxony, and in a.d. 1307 vicar-general of Bohemia. In both positions he 
did much for the reform of the cloisters of his order. In a.d. 1311 we 
find him teacher in Paris ; then for some years teaching and preaching 
in Strassburg ; afterwards ofQciating as prior at Frankfort ; and finally 
as private teacher at Cologne, where he died in a.d. 1327. While at 
Frankfort in a.d. 1320 he was suspected of heresy because of alleged 
intercourse with Beghards (§ 98, 7) and Brothers of the Free Spirit 
(§ 116, o). In A.D. 1325 the archbishop of Cologne renewed these charges, 
but Eckhart succeeded in vindicating himself. The archbishop now set 
up an inquisition of his own, but from its sentence Eckhart appealed to 
the pope, lodged a protest, and then of his own accord in the Dominican 
church of Cologne, before the assembled congregation, solemnly declared 
that the charge against him rested upon misrepresentation and misunder- 
standing, but that ho was then and always ready to withdraw anything 


that might be erroneous. The papal judgment, given two years after 
Eckhart's death, pronounced twenty-eight of his propositions to be pan- 
theistic in their tendency, seventeen being heretical and eleven danger- 
ous. He was therefore declared to be suspected of heresy. The bull, 
contrary to reason and truth, went on to say that Eckhart at the end of 
his life had retracted and submitted all his writings and doctrines to 
the judgment of the Holy See. But Eckhart had indignantly protested 
against the charge of pantheism, and certainly in his doctrine of God 
and the creature, of the high nobility of the human soul, of retirement 
and absorption into God, he has always kept within the limits of 
Christian knowledge and life. Attaching himself to the Platonic and 
Neoi^latonic doctrines, which are met with also in Albert and Thomas, and 
appealing to the acknowledged authorities of the Church, especially the 
Areopagite, Augustine, and Aquinas, Eckhart with great originality com- 
posed a singularly comprehensive and profound system of religious 
knowledge. Although in all his writings aiming primarily at quickening 
and edification, he always grounds his endeavours on a theoretical inves- 
tigation of the nature of the thing. But knowledge is for him essen- 
tially union of the knowing subject with the object to be known, and 
the highest stage of knowledge is the intuition where all finite things 
sink into the substance of Deity. ^ 

2. Mystics of Upper Germany after Eckhart. — A noble band of mystics 
arose during the 14th and 15th centuries influenced by Eckhart's writings, 
who carefully avoided pantheistic extremes by giving a thoroughly prac- 
tical direction to their speculation. Nearest to Eckhart stands the 
author of " The German Theology," in which the master's principles are 
nobly popularized and explained. Luther, who took it for a work of 
Tauler, and published it in a.d. 1516, characterized it as "a noble little 
book, showing what Adam and Christ are, and how Adam should die and 
Christ live in us." In the most complete MS. of this tract, found in 
A.D. 1850, the author is described as a " Friend of God." — The Dominican 
John Tauler was born at Strassburg, studied at Paris, and came into 
connection with Eckhart, whose mysticism, without its pantheistic 
tendencies, he adopted. When Strassburg was visited with the Black 
Death, he laboured as preacher and pastor among the stricken with 
heroic devotion. Though the city was under an interdict (§ 110, 3), the 
Dominicans persisted for a whole year in reading mass, and were stopped 
only by the severe threats of the master of their order. The magistrates 
gave them the alternative either to discharge their official duties or 
leave the city. Tauler now, in a.d. 1311, retired to Basel, and afterwards 
to Cologne. In a.d. 1437 we find him again in Strassburg, where he 

^ See an admirable account of Eckhart by Dr. Adolf Lasson in 
Ueberweg's '« History of Philosophy," vol. i., pp. 4G7-484. 


died iu a.d. 1361. His thii-ty sermons, with some other short tracts, 
appeared at Leipzig in a.d. 1498. The most important of all Tauler's 
works is, " The Imitation of the Poverty of Christ." It was thought to 
be of French authorship, but is now admitted to be Tauler's.' — Rulman 
Merswin, a rich merchant of Strassburg, in his fortieth year, a.d. 1347, 
with his wife's consent, retired from his business and forsook the world, 
gave his wealth to charities, and bought in a.d. 1366 an old, abandoned 
convent near the city, which he restored and presented to the order of St. 
John. Here he spent the remainder of his days in pious contemplation, 
amid austerities and mortifications and favoured with visions. He died 
in A.D. 1382. Four years after his conversion he attained to clear con- 
ceptions and inner peace. His chief work, composed in a.d. 1352, " The 
Book of the Nine Rocks," was long ascribed to Suso. It is full of bitter 
complaints against the moral and religious corruption of all classes, and 
earnest warnings of Divine judgment. Its starting point is a vision. 
From the fountains in the high mountains stream many brooks over the 
rocks into the valley, and thence into the sea ; multitudes of fishes trans- 
port themselves from their lofty home, and are mostly taken in nets, 
only a few succeed in reaching their home again by springing over 
these nine rocks. At the request of the " Friend of God from the Up- 
lands " he wrote the " Four Years from the Beginning of Life." His 
"Banner Tract " describes the conflict with and victory over the Brothers 
of the Free Spirit under the banner of Lucifer (§ 116, 4, o). 

3. The Friend of God in the Uplands. — In a book entitled "The Story 
of Tauler's Conversion," originally called "The Master's Book," but 
now assigned to Nicholas of Basel, it is told that in a.d. 1346 a great 
" Master of Holy Scripture " preached in an unnamed city, and that soon 
his fame spread through the land. A layman living in the Uplands, 
thirty miles off, was directed in a vision thrice over to go to seek this 
Friend of God, companion of Rulman. He listened to his preaching, 
chose him as his confessor, and then sought to show him that he had 
not yet the true consecration. Like a child the master submitted to 
be taught the elements of piety of religion by the layman, and at his 
command abstaining from all study and preaching for two years, gave 
himself to meditation and penitential exercises. When he resumed his 
preaching his success was marvellous. After nine years' labour, feeling 
his end approaching, he gave to the layman an account of his conver- 
sion. The latter arranged his materials, and added five sermons of the 
master, and sent the little book, in a.d. 1369, to a priest of Rulman's 
cloister near Strassburg. In a.d. 1486 the master was identified with 
Tauler. This however is contradicted by its contents. The historical 

^ Winkworth, "Life and Times of Tauler, with Twenty-five Sermons." 
London, 1857. Herrick, " Some Heretics of Yesterday." London, 1884. 


part is improbable and incredible, and its chronology irreconcilable with 
known facts of Tauler's life. We find no trace of the original ideas or 
characteristic eloquence of Tauler ; while the language and homiletical 
arrangement of the sermons are quite different from those of the great 
Dominican preacher. 

4. Nicholas of Basel. — After long hiding from the emissaries of the 
Inquisition the layman Nicholas of Basel, in extreme old age, was taken 
with two companions, and burned at Vienna, as a heretic, between 
A.D. 1393-1408. He has been identified by Schmidt of Strassburg with 
the " Friend of God." This is more than doubtful, since of the sixteen 
heresies, for the most part of a Waldensian character, charged against 
Nicholas, no trace is found in the writings of the Friend of God ; while 
it is made highly probable by Denifle's researches that the " Friend of 
God " was but a name assumed by Rulman Merswin. 

5. Henry Suso, born a.d. 1295, entered the Dominican cloister of Con- 
stance in his 13th year. When eighteen years old he took the vow, and 
till his twenty-second year unceasingly practised the strictest asceticism, 
in imitation of the sufferings of Christ. He completed his studies, a.d. 
1325-1328, under Eckhart at Cologne, and on the death of his pious 
mother withdrew into the cloister, where he became reader and after- 
wards prior. The first work which he here published, in a.d. 1335, the 
"Book of the Truth," is strongly influenced by the spirit of his master. 
Accused as a heretic, he was deposed from the priorship in a.d. 1336. 
His " Book of Eternal Wisdom " was the favourite reading of all lovers 
of German mysticism. Blending the knight's and fanatic's idea of love 
with the Solomonic conception of Wisdom, which he identifies sometimes 
with God, sometimes with Christ, sometimes with Mary, he chose her 
for his beloved, and was favoured by her with frequent visions and 
was honoured with the title of " Amandus."— Like most of his fellow 
monks at Constance, Suso was a supporter of the pope in his contest 
with Louis the Bavarian, while the city sided with the emperor. When, 
in A.D. 1339, the monks, in obedience to the pajoal interdict, refused to 
perform public worship, they were expelled by the magistrates. In his 
fortieth year Suso had begun his painful career of self-discipline, which 
he carried so far as to endanger his life. Now driven away as an exile, 
be began his singularly fruitful wanderings, during which, passing from 
cloister to cloister as an itinerant preacher, he became either personally 
or through correspondence most intimately acquainted with all the most 
notable of the friends of mysticism, and made many new friends in 
all ranks, especially among women. In a.d. 1346, along with eight com- 
panions, he ventured to return to Constance. There however he met 
with his sorest trial. An immoral woman, who pretended to him that 
she sorrowed over and repented of her sins, while really she continued in 
the practice of them, and was therefore turned away by him, took her 




revenge by charging him with being the father of the child she was about 
to bear. Probably this jjainful incident was the occasion of his retiring 
into the monastery of Ulm, where he died in a.d. 1366. In him the 
poetic and romantic element overshadowed the speculative, and in his 
attachment to ecclesiastical orthodoxy he kept aloof from all reformatory 

6. Henry of Nordlingen is only slightly known to us by the letters 
which he sent to his lady friend, the Dominican nun Margaret Ebner. 
He was spiritually related to Tauler, as well as to Suso, and shared with 
the great preacher in his sorrows over the calamities of the age, which his 
sensitive nature felt in no ordinary degree during enforced official idleness 
under the interdict. His mysticism, by its sweetly sentimental character, 
as well as by its superstitious tendency to reverence Mary and relics, 
was essentially distinguished from that of Tauler. His friend Margaret, 
who had also a spiritual affinity to Tauler, and was highly esteemed by 
all the "-Friends of God," was religiously and politically, as a supporter 
of the anathematized emperor, much more decided. In depth of thought 
and power of expression however she is quite inferior to the earlier 
Thuriugian prophetesses (§ 107, 2). — Hermann of Fritzlar, a rich and 
pious layman, is supposed to have written, a.d. 1343-1319, a life of the 
saints in the order of the calendar, as a picture of heart purity, with 
mystic reflections and speculations based on the legendary matter, and 
all expressed in pure and simple German. Hermann, however, was only 
the author of the plan, and the actual writer was a Dominican of Erfurt, 
Giseler of Slatheim.— A Franciscan in Basel, Otto of Passau, published, in 
A.D. 1386, "The Four-and-Twenty Elders, or the Golden Throne," which 
became a very popular book of devotion, in which the twenty- four elders 
of Eevelation iv. 4, one after another, show the loving soul how to win 
for himself a golden throne in heaven. Passages of an edifying and 
contemplative description from the Fathers and teachers of the Church 
down to the 13th century are selected by the author, and adapted to the 
use of the unlearned " Friends of God" in a German translation. 

7. Mystics of the Netherlands. — (1) John of Ruysbroek was born, in 
A.D. 1298, in the village of Ruysbroek, near Brussels. In youth he was 
addicted more to pious contemplation than to scholastic studies, and in 
his sixtieth year he resigned his position as secular priest in Brussels, and 
retired into a convent of regular canons (§ 97, 3) near Brussels, where 
he died as its prior in a.d. 1481, when eighty-eight years old. He was 
called doctor ecstaticus, because he regarded his mystical views, which he 
developed amid pious contemplation in the shades of the forest, and there 
wrote out in Flemish speech, as the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. His 
mysticism was essentially theistic. The unio mystica consisted not in the 
deification of man, but was wrought only through the free grace of God in 
Christ without the loss of man's own personality. His genuine practical 



piety led him to see in the moral depravity of the clergy, not less than of the 
people generally, the cause of the decay of the Church, so that even the 
person of the pope did not escape his reproof. Numerous pilgrims from 
far and near sought the pious sage for counsel and quickening. His 
favourite disciple was Gerhard Groot of Deveuter, who impressed much of 
his master's spirit upon the brotherhood of the Common Life (§ 112, 9). — ■ 
Of this noble school of mystics the three following were the most distin- 
guished. — (2) Hendrik Mande, who died a.d. 1430, impressed by a sermon 
of Groot's, and favoured during a long illness by visions, abandoned the 
life of a courtier for the fellowship of the Brethren of Deventer, and in 
A.D. 1395 entered the cloister of Windesheim, to which he bequeathed his 
wealth, and where he continued to enjoy visions of the Saviour and the 
saints. His works, written in Dutch, are characterized by spirituality 
and depth of feeling, copious and appropriate imager^', and great moral 
earnestness.— (3) Gerlacli Peters was the favourite scholar of Florentius 
in Deventer. He subsequently entered the monastery of Windesheim, 
where, after a painful illness, he died in a.d. 1411, in his thirty-third year. 
" An ardent spirit in a body of skin and bone," praising God for his 
terrible bodily sufferings as a means of grace bestowed on him, his 
devotion reaches the sublimest heights of enthusiasm. He wrote the 
Soliloquium, the voice of a man who has daily struggled in God's 
presence to free his heart from worldly bonds, and by God's grace in 
tbe cross of Christ to have Adam's purity restored and union with the 
highest good secured. — (4) Thomas Ti Kempis, formerly Hamerken, was 
born in a.d. 1380 at Kempen, near Cologne. He was educated at 
Deventer, and died as sub-prior of the convent of St. Agnes, near Zwoll, 
in A.D. 1471. To him, and not to the chancellor Gerson, according to 
the now universally accepted opinion, belongs the world renowned 
book De Imitatione Christi. Reprinted about five thousand times, oftener 
than any other book except the Bible, it has been also translated into 
more languages than any other. Free from all Romish superstition, it 
is read by Catholics and Protestants, and holds an unrivalled position 
as a book of devotion. A photographic reproduction of the original 
edition of a.d. 1441 was published from the autograph MSS. of Thomas, 
by Ch. Ruelans, London, 1879.^ 

1 Kettlewell, " The Authorship of the ' Imitation of Christ.' " London, 
1877. Kettlewell, " Thomas n Kempis and the Brothers of the Common 
Life." 2 vols. London, 1882. Ullmann, "Reformers before the Refor- 
mation," vol. ii. Edin., 1855. Cruise, " Thomas a Kempis : Notes of a 
Visit to the Scenes of his Life." London, 1887. 

§ 115a. public worship of the people. 179 

III.— The Church and the People. 

§ 115a. Public Worship and the Religious Education 
OF THE People. 

Preaching in the vernacular was carried on mainly by 
the Brothers of the Common Life, the mystics, and several 
heretical sects, e.g. Waldensians, Wiclifites, Hussites, etc. ; 
and stimulated by their example, others began to follow the 
same practice. The so called Biblia paitperum set forth in 
pictures the New Testament history with its Old Testament 
types and prophecies ; Bible Histories made known among 
the people the Scripture stories in a connected form ; and, 
after the introduction of printing, the German Plena ries 
helped also to spread the knowledge of Glod's word by 
renderings for private use of the principal parts of the 
service. For the instruction of the people in faith and 
morals a whole series of Catechisms was constructed after 
a gradually developed type. The " Dance of Death " in its 
various forms reminded of the vanity of all earthly pleasures. 
The spirit of the E,eformation was shown during this period 
in the large number of hymns written in the vernacular. 
Church music too received a powerful impulse. 

1. Fasts and Festivals. — New Mary Festivals were introduced : F. prcc- 
sentationis M. on 21st Nov. (Lev. xii. 5-8), F. visitationis 31. (Luke i. 
39-51), on 2nd July. In the 15th century we meet with the festivals of 
the Seven Pains of Mary, F. Spasmi i)/., on Friday or Saturday before 
Palm Sunday. Dominic instituted a rosary festival, F. rosarii M., on 
1st Oct., and its general observance was enjoined by Gregory XIII. in 
A.D. 1571. — The Veneration of Ann (§ 57, 2) was introduced into Germany 
in the second half of the 15th century, but soon rose to a height almost 
equal to that of Mary. — The Fasts of the early Church (§ 56, 7) had, even 
during the previous period, been greatly relaxed. Now the most special 
fast days were mere days of abstinence from flesh, while most lavish 
meals of fish and farinaceous food were indulged in. Papal and epi- 
scopal dispensations from fasting were also freely given. 

2. Preaching (§ 104, 1). — To aid and encourage preaching in the lan- 
guage of tbe people, unskilled preachers were supplied with Vucabularia 


prcedicantium. Surgant, a priest of Basel, wrote, iu the end of the 15th 
century, a treatise on homiletics and catechctics most useful for his age, 
Manuale Curatorum. In it he showed how Latin sermons might be 
rendered into the tongue of the people, and urged the duty of hearing 
sermons. The mendicants were the chief preachers, especially the mystics 
of the preaching orders, during the 14th century (§ 114), and the Augus- 
tinians, particularly their German Observants, during the 15th (§ 112, 5), 
and next to them, the Franciscans. — The most zealous preacher of his 
age was the Spanish Dominican Vincent Ferrer. In a.d. 1397 he began 
his uni^recedentedly successful preaching tours through Spain, France, 
Italy, England, Scotland, and Ireland. He died in a.d. 1419. He 
laboured with special ardour for the conversion of the Jews, of whom he 
is said to have baptized 35,000. Wherever he went he was venerated 
as a saint, received with respect by the clergy and prelates, highly 
honoured by kings and princes, consulted by rich and poor regarding 
temporal and spiritual things. He was canonized by Calixtus HI. in 
A.D. 1455. Certain Flagellants (§ 116, 3) whom he met in his travels 
followed him, scourgiug themselves and singing his penitential songs, but 
he stopped this when objected to by the Council of Constance. His 
sermons dealt with the realities of actual life, and called all classes to 
repent of their sins. Of a similar spirit was the Italian Dominican 
Barletta, who died in a.d. 1480, whose burlesque and scathing satire 
rendered him the most popular preacher of the day. In his footsteps 
went the Frenchmen Maillard and Menot, both Franciscans, and the 
German priest of Strassburg, Geiler of Kaisersberg, quite equal to them 
in quaint terseness of expression and biting wit. All these were pre- 
eminently distinguished for moral earnestness and profound spirituality.^ 
3. The Biblia Pauperum. — The typological interpretation of the Old 
Testament history received a fixed and permanent form in the illustra- 
tions introduced into the service boohs and pictures printed on the altars, 
walls, and windows of churches, etc., during the 12tli century. A set of 
seventeen such picture groups was found at Vienna, of which the middle 
panels represent the New Testament history, sub gracia, above it an Old 
Testament type from the period ante legem, and under it one from the 
period sub lege. This picture series was completed by the Biblia pau- 
perum, so called from the saying of Gregory I., that pictures were the poor 
man's Bible. Many of the extant MSS., all depending on a common 
source, date from tlie 14th and 15th centuries. The illustrations of the 
New Testament are in the middle, and round about are pictures of the 
four prophets, with volumes in their hands, on which the appropriate Old 
Testament prophecies are written. On right and left are Old Testament 

1 Baring-Gould, •' Mediseval Preachers: Some Account of Celebrated 
Preachers of the 15th, IGth, and 17th Centuries." London, 18G5. 

§ 115a. public worship of the people. 181 

types. The multiplication of copies of this work by woodcuts and types 
was one of the first uses to which printing was put.^ 

4. The Bible in the Vernacular.— The need of translations of the Bible 
into the language of the people, specially urged by the Waldensians and 
Albigensians, was now widely insisted upon by those of reformatory 
tendencies (§ 119). On the introduction of printing, about a.d. 1450, 
an opportunity was afforded of rapidly circulating translations already 
made in most of the European languages. Before Luther, there were 
fourteen printed editions of the Bible in High and five in Low German. 
The translations, made from the Vulgate, were in all practically the 
same. The translators are unknown. The diction is for the most part 
clumsy, and the sense often scarcely intelligible. Translations had been 
made in England by the Wiclifites, and in Bohemia by the Hussites. 
In France, various renderings of separate books of Scripture were cir- 
culated, and a complete French Bible was issued by the confessor of 
Charles VIII,, Jean de Piely, at Paris, in a.d. 1487. Two Italian Bibles 
were published in Venice, in a.d, 1471, one by the Camaldulite abbot 
Malherbi, closely following the Vulgate ; the other by the humanist 
Bruccioli, which often falls back on the original text. The latter was 
highly valued by Italian exiles of the Eeformation age. In Spain a 
Carthusian, Ferreri, attempted a translation, which was printed at 
Valencia in a.d. 1478. More popular however than these translations 
were the Bible Histories, i.e. free renderings, sometimes contracted, 
sometimes expanded, of the historical books, especially these of the Old 
Testament. From a.d. 1470 large and frequent editions were published 
of the German Plenaries, containing at first only the gospels and epistles, 
afterwards also the Service of the Mass, for all Sundays and festivals 
and saints' days, with explanations and directions. 

5. Catechisms and Prayer Books. — Next to preaching, the chief oppor- 
tunity for imparting religious instruction was confession. Later cate- 
chisms drew largely upon the baptismal and confessional services. In 
the 13th and 14th centuries the decalogue was added, and afterwards 
the seven deadly sins and the seven principal virtues. Pictures were 
used to impress the main points on the minds of the people and the 
youth. The catechetical literature of this period, both in guides for 
priests and manuals for the people, was written in the vernacular. — 
During the loth century there were also numerous so-called Artes mori- 
endi, showing how to die well, in which often earnest piety appeared side 
by side with the grossest superstition. There were also many prayer 
books, Hortuli animce, published, in which the worship of Mary and the 
saints often overshadowed that of God and Christ, and an extravagant 

1 '• Biblia Pauperum," reproduced in facsimile from MS. in British 
Museum, London, 1859, 


belief in indulgences led to a mechanical view of prayer that was 
thoroughly pagan. 

6. The Dance of Death. — The fantastic humour of the Middle Ages 
found dramatic and spectacular expression in the Dance of Death, in 
which all classes, from the pope and princes to the beggars, in turn 
converse with death. It was introduced into Germany and France in 
the beginning of the 14th century, with the view of raising men out of 
the pleasures and troubles of life. It was called in France the Dance of 
the Maccabees, because first introduced at that festival. Pictures and 
verbal descriptions of the Dance of Death were made on walls and doors 
of churches, around MSS. and woodcuts, where death was generally 
represented as a skeleton. Hans Holbein the Younger gave the finish- 
ing touch to these representations in his Imagines Mortis, the originals 
of which are in St. Petersburg. In this masterpiece, the idea of a 
dancing pair is set aside, and in its place forty pictures, afterwards 
increased to fifty-eight, full of humour and moral earnestness, pourtray 
the power of death in the earthly life.^ 

7. Hymnology {§ 104, 10).— The Latin Church poetry of the 14th and 
15th centuries was far beneath that of the 12th and 18tli. Only the 
mystics, e.g. Thomas h Kempis, still composed some beautiful hymns. 
We have now however the beginnings of German and Bohemian hymno- 
logy. The German flagellators sang German hymns (§ IIG, 3), and 
so obtained much popular favour. The Hussite movement of the 15th 
century gave a great impulse to church song. Huss himself earnestly 
urged the practice of congregational singing in the language of the 
people, and himself composed Bohemian hymns. The Bohemian and 
Moravian Brethren were specially productive in this department (§ 119, 
8). In many churches, at least on high festivals, German hymns were 
sung, and in some even at the celebration of mass and other parts of 
public worship. The spiritual songs of this period were of four kinds : 
some half German, half Latin ; others translations of Latin hymns and 
sequences ; others, original German compositions by monks and min- 
strels ; and adaptations of secular songs to spiritual purposes. In the 
latter case the original melodies were also retained. Popular forms and 
melodies for sacred songs were now secured, and these were subse- 
quently appropriated by the Reformers of the 16th century. 

8. Church Music (§ 104, 11).— Great improvements were made in organs 
by the invention of pedals, etc. Church music was also greatly developed 
by the introduction of harmony and counterpoint. The Dutch were 
pre-eminent in this department. Ockcnhcim, founder of the second 
Dutch school of music, at the end of the 15tli century, was the inventor 
of the canon and the fugue. The greatest composer of this school was 

1 Douce, " The Dance of Death." London, 1833. 

§ 115b. national literature. 183 

Jodocus Pratensis, about a.d. 1500, aud next to him may be named the 
German, Adam of Fulda, 

9. Legendary Relics. — The legend of angels having transferred the 
house of Mary from Nazareth, in a.d. 1291, to Tersato in Dalmatia, in 
A.D. 1294 to Eeccanati, and finally, in a.d. 1295, to Loretto in Ancona, 
arose in the 14th century, in connection with the fall of Acre (§ 94, G) 
and the overthrow of the last remnants of the kingdom of Jerusalem. 
When and how the legend arose of the Scala santa at Rome being the 
marble steps of Pilate's prffitorium, brought there by St. Helena, is 
unknown. — Even Frederick the Wise, at an enormous cost, brought 
together 1,010 sacred relics into his new chapel at Wittenberg, a mere 
look at which secured indulgence for 100 years. In a catalogue of relics 
in the churches of St. Maurice and Mary Magdalene at Halle, published 
in A.D. 1520, are mentioned a piece of earth, from a field of Damascus, 
of which God made the first man ; a piece from a field at Hebron, where 
Adam repented ; a piece of the body of Isaac ; twenty-five fragments of 
the burning bush of Horeb ; specimens of the wilderness manna ; six 
drops of the Virgin's milk ; the finger of the Baptist that pointed to the 
Lamb of God ; the finger of Thomas that touched the wounds of Jesus ; 
a bit of the altar at which John read mass for the Virgin ; the stone 
with which Stephen was killed ; a great piece of Paul's skull ; the hose 
of St. Thomas of Canterbury ; the baret of St. Francis, etc. The col- 
lection consisted of 8,933 articles, and could afford indulgence for 
39,245,100 years and 220 days ! Benefit was to be had by contributions 
to the church, which went into the pocket of the elector-archbishop, 
Albert of Mainz. The craze for pilgrimages was also rife among all 
classes, old and young, high and low. Signs and wonders and newly 
discovered relics were regarded as consecrating new places of pilgrimage, 
and the stories of pilgrims raised the fame of these resorts more and 
more. In a.d. 1500 Diiren, by the possession of a relic of Ann, stolen 
from Mainz, rapidly rose to first rank. The people of Mainz sought 
through the pope to recover this valuable property, but he decided in 
favour of Diiren, because God had meanwhile sanctioned the transfer by 
working many miracles of healing. 

§ 115b. National Literature axd Ecclesiastical 

Toward the close of the 13th century, and throughout the 
14th, a national literature, in prose and poetry, sprang up 
in Italy, which in several respects has close relations to the 
history of the church. The three Florentines, Dante, Pet- 


rarcli and Boccaccio, boldly burst through the barriers of 
traditional usage, which had made Latin the only vehicle 
for literature and science, and became the creators of a 
beautiful Italian style ; while their example powerfully in- 
fluenced their own countrymen, and those of other western 
nations, during the immediately succeeding ages. The 
exclusive use of the Latin language had produced a uniform 
hierarchical spirit, and was a restraint to the anti-hierar- 
chical movements of the age after independent national 
development in church and State. The breaking down of 
this barrier to progress was an important step. But all 
the three great men of letters whom we have named were 
also highly distinguished for their classical culture. They 
introduced the study of the ancient classics, and were thus 
the precursors of the humanists. They also presented a 
united front against the corruptions of the church, against 
hierarchical pretensions, the greed and moral debasement 
of the papacy, as well as against the moral and intellectual 
degradation of the clergy and the monks. Petrarch and 
Boccaccio too warred against the depraved scholasticism. 
The Augustan age of German national poetry was contem- 
porary with the age of the Hohenstaufens. It consisted in 
popular songs, these often of a sacred character. During 
the 14th century the sacred drama reached the highest 
point of its development, especially in Germany, England, 
France, and Spain. The spirit of the Eenaissance, which 
during the 15th century dominated Italian art, made itself 
felt also in the domain of ecclesiastical architecture and 

10. The Italian National Literature. i— Dante Alighieri, born at Florence 
in A.D. 12G5, was in a.d. 1302 banished as a Gbibelline from his native 
city, and died an exile at Eavenna, in a.d. 1321. His boyish love for 

1 Symonds, " Renaissance in Italy." 2 vols. London, 1881, 

§ 115b. national literature. 185 

Beatrice, which after her early death continued to fill his soul to the 
end of his life, gave him an impulse to a " New Life," and proved the 
unfailing source of his poetic inspiration. His studies at Bologna, 
Padua, and Paris made him an enthusiastic admirer of Thomas, but 
alongside of his scholastic culture there lay the quick perception of the 
beautiful, combined with a lively imagination. He was thus able to deal 
with the burning questions of his day in one of the greatest poetic 
masterpieces of any age, people, or tongue. His Divina Commedia 
describes a vision in which the poet is led, first by the hand of Virgil, 
as the representative of human wisdom, through Hell and Purgatory; 
then by Beatrice, whose place at times is taken by the German Matilda 
(§ 107, 2), and finally by St. Bernard, as representatives of revealed reli- 
gion, through Paradise and the several heavens up to the empyrajum, the 
eternal residence of the triune God. The poet presents his readers with a 
description of what he saw, and reports his conversations with his guides 
and the souls of more important personages, most of them shortly before 
deceased, in which the problems of philosophy, theology, and politics are 
discussed. His political views, of wbich he treats e.v professo in the three 
books of hisD^ monarcliia, are derived from Aquinas' theory of the State, 
but breathe a strong Italiau Ghibelhne patriotism, so that he places 
not only Boniface VHI. but also Frederick II. in Hell. In the struggle 
between the empire and the papacy he stands decidedly on the side of 
the former. With profound sorrow he bewails the corruption of the 
church in its head and members, but holds firmly by its confession of 
faith. And while lashing vigorously the corruptions of monkery, he eulo- 
gizes the heavenliness of the lives of Francis and Dominic.^ Petrarch, 
who died in a.d. 1374, broke away completely from scholasticism, and 
turned with enthusiasm to classical studies. He combated supersti- 
tion, e.g. astrology, but also contends against the unbelief of his age, 
and in his letters and poems lashes with merciless severity the immora- 
lity of the papacy and the secularization of the church.^ In Boccaccio 
again, who died in a.d. 1375, antipathy to scholasticism, monkery, and 
the hierarchy had reached its utmost stage. He has no anger and 

1 Chm-ch, " Dante and other Essays." London, 1888. Plumptre, 
" Commedia, etc., of Dante, with Life and Studies." 2 vols. London, 
1886-1888. Oliphant, " Dante." Edinburgh, 1877. Ozanam, " Dante 
and the CathoHc Philosophy of the 13th Century." London, 1854. 
Barlow, " Critical, Historical, and Philosophical Contributions to the 
Study of the Divina Commedia.'' London, 1884. Botta, " Dante as 
Philosopher, Patriot, and Poet." New York, 1865. M. F. Eossetti, 
" A Shadow of Dante." Boston, 1872. 

- Reeve, " Petrarch," Edinburgh, 1879. Simpson, article on Petrarch 
in Contemporary Review for July, 1874. 


denunciation, but only contempt, reproach, and wit to shoot against 
them. He also makes light of the moral requirements of Christianity 
and the church, especially the seventh commandment. But in later 
years he manifested deep penitence for the lascivious writing of his 
youth, to which he had given reckless and shameless expression in his 
" Decameron." 

11. The German National Literature. — The German prose style was 
greatly ennobled by the mystics (§ 114), and the highest development of 
German satire against the hierarchy, clergy, and monks was reached 
by Sebastian Brant, of Strassburg, who wrote in a.d. 1494 his " Ship of 
Fools." Among popular preachers John Tauler held the first rank 
(§ 114, 2). In Strassburg, Geiler of Kaisersburg distinguished himself 
as an original preacher. His sermons were full of biting wit, keen 
sarcasm, and humorous expressions, but also of profound earnestness 
and withering exposures of the sins of the clergy and monks. His best 
known work is a series of sermons on Brant's " Ship of Fools," published 
in A.D. 1498. 

12. The Sacred Drama (§ 105, 5). — The poetic merit of most of the 
German mysteries performed at high festivals is not great. The 
Laments of Mary however often rose to true poetic heights. Comedy 
and burlesque too found place especially in connection with Judas, or 
the exchangers, or the unconverted Magdalene. A priest, Theodoric 
Schernberg, wrote a play on the fall and repentance of the popess 
Johanna (§ 82, G). On Shrove Tuesday plays were performed, in which 
the clergy and monks were held up to ridicule. Hans Roseupliit of 
Nuremberg, about a.d. 1450, was the most famous writer of German 
Shrovetide plays. In France, about the end of the 14th century, a 
society of young people of the upper rank was formed, called Enfans sans 
souci, whose Softies, buffooneries, in which the church was ridiculed, 
were in high repute in the cities and at the court. Their most distin- 
guished poet was Pierre Gringoire, who, in the beginning of the 16th 
century, in the French Chasse da Cerf des Cerfs, parodied the Serous 
seroorinn (§ 46, 10), and the church is represented as the old befooled 
mother. The numerous Italian mysteries were produced mainly by the 
gifted and cultured sons of Tuscany, who had already developed their 
native tongue into a beautiful and flexible language. In Spain, during 
the 15th century, the Atitos, partly as Christmas plays and partly as 
sacramental or passion plays, were based on the ancient mysteries, and 
in form inclined more to the allegorical moralities. 

13. Architecture and Painting (§ 104, 12, 14).— Gothic architecture was 
the prevailing style in the churches of Germany, France, and England. 
In Italy, the humanist movement (§ 120, 1) led to the imitation of 
ancient classical models, and thus the Renaissance style was introduced, 
which flourished for 300 years. Its real creator was the Florentine 


Brunelesclii, who won imperishable renown by the grand cupola of the 
cathedral of Florence. Bramante, died a.d. 1514, marks the transition 
from the earlier Pienaissance of the loth century to the later of the 
6th, at the summit of which stands Michael Angelo, a.d. 1471-1564. 
After a plan of Bramante Julius II., in a.d. 1506, began the magnificent 
reconstruction of St. Peter's at Kome, the execution of which in its 
gigantic proportions occupied the reigns of twenty popes. It was com- 
pleted under Urban VIII., in a.d. 1636. This great building, in conse- 
quence of the traffic in indulgences, entered on to defray its cost, became 
the occasion of the loss to the papacy of the half of western Christen- 
dom.— Sacred Statuary, in the hands of Ghiberti, died a.d. 1455, and 
Michael Angelo, reached the highest stage of excellence. — Of Painting, 
the Augustan age of which was the 15th century, there were properly 
four schools. Giotto, who died in a.d. 1336, was founder of the Floren- 
tine school, which was specially distinguished by its delineations of 
sacred history. To it belonged the Dominican Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, 
who painted only as he prayed, Leonardo da Vinci, Fra Bartolomeo, and 
Michael Angelo. Then there was the Lombard or Venetian School, at 
the head of which stands Giovanni Bellini, died a.d. 1516, which turned 
away from the church and applied itself with its fresh living colouring 
to the depicting of earthly ideals. Its most eminent representatives 
were Correggio, died a.d. 1534, and Titian, died a.d. 1576. In the 
Umbrian school, again, the spirit of St. Francis continued still to 
breathe. Its greatest master was Raphael of Urbino, the noblest and 
most renowned of all Christian painters, distinguished also as an archi- 
tect. The German school had its ablest representatives in the brothers 
Hubert and John van Eyk, Albert Diirer, and Hans Holbein tbe Elder. 
— Continuation § 149, 15. 

§ IIG. Popular Move^iexts. 

In consequence of the shameful debasement of the papacy 
and the deep corruption of the clergy and monks, the 
influence of the church on the moral and religious culture 
of the people, in spite of the ardent zeal of the homilists 
and catechists, was upon the whole much less than formerly. 
Reverence for the church as it stood was indeed tottering, 
but was not yet completely overthrown. The religious 
enthusiasm of earlier times was fading away, but occasional 
phenomena still continued to arise, like St. Bridget and St. 
Catharine of Siena (§ 112, 4, 8), Claus of Fltie, and the 
Maid of Orleans, But in order to elevate a John of Nepo- 


muk into 'a recognised national saint.it was necessary to 
produce forged legendary stories in post-E-eformation times. 
The market-place tricks of John of Capistrano (§ 112, 3) 
were of such a kind, that even the papal curia only after a 
century and a half had passed coukl venture to adorn him 
with the halo of saintship. The ever-increasing nuisance 
of the sale of indulgences smothered religious earnestness 
and crushed all religious spirit out of the people. But 
earnestness showed itself again in the reactions of the Beg- 
hards and Lollards, or in the explosions of the Flagellants, 
and spirituality often found rich nourishment in the preach- 
ing of the mystics. One current issuing from the wide- 
spread Friends of God passed deep into the heart of the 
Cierman people ; another, springing probably from the same 
source, but with a quite different tendency, appears in the 
Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit. On the other hand, 
superstition also prevailed, and was all the more dangerous 
the more it parted with its poetic and naive character 
(§ 117, 4). Toward the end of that period however a new 
era dawned in social life, as well as in national literature. 
Knighthood paled before gunpowder. The establishment of 
civic corporations developed a sense of freedom, and intro- 
duced a healthy understanding and appreciation of civil 
liberty. The printing of books began the dissemination of 
knowledge, and the discovery of America opened to view a 
new world for trade, colonization, and the spread of Chris- 
tianity. To the pious heart of the discoverer the exten- 
sion of Christ's kingdom proved the most powerful motive to 
his continued exertions, and from the treasures of the new 
world he hoped also to obtain the means for conquering again 
the Holy Sepulchre and the Holy Land. 

1. Two National Saints.— John of Nepomuk, of Pomnk in Bohemia, 
was from a.d. 1880 i^astor, then canon, archiepiscopal secretary, and 
vicar-general of Prague. King Wenzel had Lim seized, cruelly tortured, 


and flung over the bridge into the Moldau, because, so runs the legend, 
he as confessor of the queen sturdily refused to betray the secrets of the 
confessional, but really because he had roused the king's anger to the 
uttermost in a violent controversy between the king's archbishop, John 
of Jenzenstein, and the chapter over their election and consecration of an 
abbot. The confession legend appears first in an Austrian writer of a.d, 
li51, who gives it distinctly as a tradition. It is evidently connected 
with the Taborite rejection of the Catholic doctrine of auricular con- 
fession (§ 119, 7). If it be accepted as true, then, seeing that all the 
older chroniclers ascribe the cruel treatment of this prelate to the 
share he took in the abbot's election, it will be necessary to assume two 
victims of the king's wrath instead of one. The John Nepomuk of the 
legend, and the confessor of the queen, was tortured by the king's com- 
mand in A.D. 1383 ; the other, who figures in the old chronicles as 
archiepiscopal vicar-general, and is simply called John, was tortured in 
A.D. 1393, and then thrown over the bridge into the Moldau. This latter 
story appears first in a Bohemian chronicle of a.d. 1511. In the 17th 
century the Jesuits, in order to deprive the heretical national saint and 
martyr John Huss of his supremacy by bringing forward another 
genuine Bohemian, but also a thoroughly Catholic saint, gave currency 
to the legend, adorned with many additional stories of miracles. Bene- 
dict XIII. (^ 161, 1) was just the pope to aid such a device by sanctioning, 
as he did in a.d. 1729, the canonization of a purely fictitious saint- 
confessor John Nepomuk. He is patron saint of bridges, whose image 
in Bohemia, and other strictly Catholic lands, is met with at almost 
every bridge, aud is reverenced as the protector from unjust accusations, 
as well as the dispenser of rain in seasons of great drought. Although 
no mention is made of the story about the confessional in the letter of 
complaint to Rome by Archbishop Jenzenstein, Catholic historians still 
insist that the confessor's steadfastness was the real cause, the election of 
the abbot the ostensible cause, of the martyrdom of a.d. 1393. i The need 
of strengthening the position of the Romish church, in face of the pro- 
gress of the Swiss Reformation of the 16th century, led also to the 
elevation of the recluse, Nicolaus of Fliie upon the pedsstal of a Swiss 
national saint. Esteemed even before his birth a saint by reason of 
signs and wonders, " Brother Claus," after a long, active life in the world, 
in his oOth year, the father of ten children, forsook house and home, 
with the approval of his wife, abstained from all nourishment save that 
of the sacrament, and died, after spending nineteen years in the wilder- 
ness, in A.D. 1187. During this period he was the trusted adviser of 
all classes upon public and private affairs. He is specially famous as 
having saved Switzerland, by appearing personally at the Diet of Stanz, 

1 Wratislaw Life and Legend of St. John Nepomuceu." Lon., 1873. 


in A.D. 1481, stopping the conflict bet^Yeen cities and provinces, which 
threatened to break up the confederation and bring about civil war, and 
suggesting the peaceable compromise of the "Agreement of Stanz." 
That Brother Glaus did assist in securing harmony is a well established 
fact, but'it is also demonstrable that he was not personally present at 
Stanz. He was beatified by Clement X. in a.d. 1671, but notwithstand- 
ing repeated endeavours by his admirers, he has not yet been canonized. 

2. The Maid of Orleans, A.D. 1428-1431.— Joan of Arc was the daughter 
of a peasant in the village of Domremy, in Champagne. Even in her 
thirteenth year she thought she saw a peculiar brightness and heard a 
heavenly voice exhorting her to chastity and piety. She now bound 
herself by a vow to perpetual virginity. Afterwards the heavenly voices 
became more frequent, and the brightness took the shape of the arch- 
angel Michael, St. Catharine, and other saints, who saluted her as saviour 
of her fatherland. France was, under the imbecile king Charles VI., and 
still more after his death, rent by the rival parties of the Armagnacs and 
Burgundians. The former fought for the rights of the dauphin Charles 
VII.; the latter supported his mother Isabella and the Enghsh king Henry 
v., who was succeeded in a.d. 1422 by his son Henry VI., then only nine 
months old. Joan was the enthusiastic supporter of the dauphin. He 
found himself in a.d. 1428 in the greatest straits. The last bulwark of 
his might, the city of Orleans, was besieged by the English, and seemed 
near its fall. Then her voices commanded Joan to reheve Orleans, 
and to accompany the dauphin to his coronation at Eheims. She now 
published her call, which had been hitherto kept secret, overcame all 
difficulties, was recognised as a messenger of heaven, assumed the male 
attire of a soldier, and placed herself at the head of an enthusiastic 
crowd. Great success attended the movements of this girl of seventeen 
years. In the latter campaigns of the war she became the prisoner of 
Burgundy, who delivered her over to the English. At Rouen she was 
subjected to an ecclesiastical tribunal, which after four months' investi- 
gation condemned her to the stake as a heretic and sorceress. In view of 
the fire, her courage failed. Yielding to the persuasion of her confessor, 
she acknowledged her guilt, and had her sentence commuted to that of 
imprisonment for life. But eight days later she was led forth to the 
stake. Her rude keepers had taken away her female attire, and forced 
her to wear again male garments, and this act to which she was com- 
pelled was made a charge against her. She died courageously and 
piously in a.d. 1431. At the demand of her family, which had been 
ennobled, a revision of the process against her was made in a.d. 1450, 
when she was pronounced innocent, and the charges against her false. 
The endeavour of Dupanloup, Bishop of Orleans, in a.d. 1876, in the 
name of Catholic France, to have her canonized, was not responded to 
by the papal curia. The infallible church, that had burnt her as a 


witch in a.d. 14.31, could scarcely give her a place among its saints, even 
after 450 years had gone. 

3. Lollards, Flagellants, and Dancers. — During a plague at Antwerp in 
A.D. 1300 the Lollards made their appearance, nursing the sick and bury- 
ing the dead. They spread rapidly over the Netherlands and the 
bordering German provinces. Like the Beghards however, and for the 
same reasons, they soon fell under suspicion of heresy, and were sub- 
jected to the persecution of the Inquisition, until Gregory XL, in a.d, 
1347, again granted them toleration. But the name Lollard still con- 
tinued to be associated with heresy or hypocrisy (§ 119, 1).^ The Fla- 
gellant fraternities, wbich had sprung up in the 12th century (§ 106, 4), 
greatly increased during this period, and reached their height during the 
14th century. Their influence was greatest during the visitation of the 
Black Death, a.d. 1348-1350, which cost Europe many millions of lives. 
Issuing from Hungary, rushing forth with the force of an avalancbe, 
and massing in great numbers on the upper Ehine, they spread over all 
Germany, Belgium and Holland, Switzerland, England, and Sweden. 
Eutrance into France was refused tliem at the bidding of the Avignon pope 
Clement VI. In long rows of penitents, with uncovered head, screaming 
forth their penitential songs, and with teai's streaming down ,their cheeks, 
they rushed about lashing their bare backs. They -also from city to city 
and from village to village read aloud a letter of warning, said to have been 
written by Christ, and brought to the Patriarch of Jerusalem by an angel. 
This paroxysm lasted for three years. In Lombardy. in a.d. 1399, when 
famine, pestilence, the Turkish war, and expectation of the end of the 
world inclined men to such extravagances, the Flagellants made their 
appearance again, dressed in white robes, and so called BiancJii, Albati. 
Princes, scholars, and popes, universities and councils sought to check 
this silly fanaticism, but were not able to su^Dpress it. Many Flagellants 
were also heretical in their views, spoke of the hierarchy as anti- 
christ, withdrew from the worship of the church, declared the bloody 
baptism of the scourge the only true sacrament, and died at the stake of 
the Inquisition. — The Dancers, Chorisantes, were a segit closely related to 
the Flagellants, but their fanaticism seemed more of a pathological than 
of a religious order. Half naked and crowned with leaves they rushed 
along the streets and into houses, dancing in a wild, tumultuous manner. 
They made a great noise in the Khine Provinces in a.d. 1374 and in 
A.D. 1418. They were regarded as demoniacs and cured by calling upon 
St. Vitus. 

4, The Friends of God. — During the 14th century many detachments of 
mystic sects spread through all Southern Germany, and even from the 

1 Gairdner and Spedding, '• Studies in English History": I. "The 


Netherlands to Hungary and Italy. A powerful religious awakening, 
with an undertone of contemplative mysticism, was now experienced in 
the castles of the knights, in the shops of artisans, and in the stalls 
of traders, as well as in the Beguine houses, the monasteries, and 
nunneries of the Dominicans and other monkish orders. A great free 
association was then called forth under the name of " Friends of God " 
(John XV. 15), whose members maintained personal and epistolary corre- 
spondence with one another. The headquarters of this movement were 
Cologne, Strassburg, and Basel. Its preachers and supporters were 
mostly Dominicans. They drew their intellectual and spiritual nourish- 
ment from the writings of the German mystics. They repudiated all 
sectarian intentions, carefully observed the rites and ceremonies and 
attended on the worship of the church, and accepted all its dogmas. 
But all the greater on this account was their sorrow over the deep decay 
of religious and moral life, and their lamentations over the corruption 
of the clergy and hierarchy. Fantastic visionary conceptions, however, 
derived from the domain of mysticism, were by no means rare among 

5. Pantheistic Libertine Societies.— A demoniacally inspired counter- 
part to the fraternity of the " Friends of God " is found in the sect of the 
Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit. This sect, derived for the most 
part from the artisan class, may be regarded as carrying out to a con- 
sistent development the views of Amalrich of Bena (§ 108, 4). We meet 
with these in the beginning of the 14th century wandering about, mis- 
sionarisiug and agitating in all parts of Southern Germany as well as in 
Switzerland, while they were particularly numerous in the Rhine Pro- 
vinces, where Cologne and Strassburg were their main resorts. Often 
associating with strolling Beghards (§ 98, 7) they are frequently con- 
founded with these. They were communistic libertine pantheists. 
Every pious man is a Christ, in whom God becomes man. Whatever 
is done in love is pure. The perfect are free from the law, and cannot 
sin. The church with her sacraments and institutions is a thorough 
cheat ; purgatory, heaven, and hell are mere figments, the marriage bond 
contrary to nature, all property is common good, and theft of it allow- 
able. Their secret services ended with immoral orgies. The Inquisition 
exterminated the sect by sword and stake. — The Adamites in Austria 
in A.D. 1312 and the Turlupines in the Isle of France showed similar 
tendencies. In the beginning of the 15th century they reappeared as 
Humlncs inteUigentice at Brussels. In a.d. 1421 the Hussite leader Ziska 
rooted out the Bohemian Adamites or Picards, who went naked after the 
pattern of paradise, and had a community of wives. Picard is just a 
modification of the heretical designation Beghard. They gained a foot- 
ing in several villages, and built an establishment on a small island 
in a tributary of the Moldau, from which they made excursions into the 


surrounding districts, until Ziska put an end to them by conquering the 
island in a.d. 1421. 

^ 117. Church Discipline. 
The reckless and shameless sale of indulgences often 
made the exercise of church discipline impossible, and the 
discreditable conduct of the mendicant monks destroyed all 
respect for the confessional. The scandalous misuse of the 
ban and interdict had shorn these of much of their terror. 
Frightful curses were pronounced at Rome every Maundy 
Thursday against heretics by the solemn reading of the bull 
In Coena Domini. The Inquisition was still abundantly 
occupied with persecuting and burning numerous heretics, 
and at the end of our period Innocent VIII. carried to the 
utmost extrem-C the persecution and burning of witches. 

1. Indulgences. — The scholastic theory of indulgences (§ 106, 2) was 
authoritatively proclaimed by Clement VI. in a.d. I3I3. The reforming 
councils of the loth century wished only to prevent them being misused, 
for the purpose of filling the papal treasury. Sixtus IV., in a.d. 1477, 
declared that it was allowable to take money for indulgences for the dead, 
and that their souls might be freed from purgatory. The pert question, 
why the pope would not rather free all souls at once by the exercise 
of his sovereign power, was answered by the assertion that the church, 
in accordance with Divine righteousness, could dispense its grace only 
discrete et cum moderamine. The institution of the jubilee gave a great 
impulse to the sale of indulgences. In a.d. 1300 Boniface VIII., at the 
bidding of an old man, proclaimed a complete indulgence for one hun- 
dred years to all Christians who would do penance for fifteen days in 
the churches of the apostles at Rome, and by this means gathered from 
day to day 200,000 pilgrims within the walls of the Holy City. Later 
popes made a jubilee every fiftieth year, then every thirty-third, and 
finally every twenty-fifth. Instead of appearing personally at Eome, 
it was enough to pay the cost of such a journey. The nepotism and 
extravagance of the popes had left an empty exchequer, which this sale 
of indulgences was intended to fill. The war with the Turks and the 
building of St. Peter's gave occasion to repeated indulgence crusades. 
TraflQckers in indulgences in the most barefaced way cried up the quality 
of their wares ; the conditions of repentance and purpose of reformation 
were scarcely so much as named. Indulgences were even granted before- 
hand for sins that were contemplated. 



2. The Inquisition, since a.d. 1282 under the direction of the Domini- 
cans (§ 109, 2), spread through all European countries during the 14th 
century. While the papal court resided at Avignon the Inquisition was 
at its height in France, where Waldensians and Albigensians, Beghards 
and Lollards, Fraticelli and Fanatical Spiritualists, were brought in 
crowds to the stake and subjected to the most cruel tortures. Bernard 
iDelicieux, a Franciscan, raised his voice, a.d. 1300-1320, against the 
inhuman cruelty of the inquisitors, and with noble independence and 
heroic bravery appealed to king and pope against the merciless sacri- 
fice of so many victims. He was shut up for life in a dark dungeon, and 
fed on bread and water. — In Germany, where, from the murder of Conrad 
of Marburg in a.d. 1233 (§ 109, 3), for almost a century and a half we find 
no trace of a regularly constituted Inquisition, it made its appearance 
again in a.d. 1368. During that year Urban V. issued a bull, by which 
he required that the civil and ecclesiastical authorities of Germany 
should support with their counsel and influence the two inquisitors who 
were searching out the heretical Beghards and Beguines (§ 116, 5), and 
place their prisons at the disposal of the Holy Office, which had still no 
prison of its own. His successor, Gregory XI., in a.d. 1372 increased 
the number of inquisitors in Germany to five, one in each of the arch- 
dioceses of Mainz, Cologne, Salzburg, Magdeburg, and Bremen ; while his 
successor, Boniface IX., in a.d. 1399 added a sixth for North Germany. 
But these papal bulls would probably, owing to the disinclination of the 
Germans to the Inquisition, like the attempts of Gregory IX., never have 
been put in force, had not Charles IV. (§ 110, 4, 5) taken up the matter 
with an ardent zeal that even went beyond the intentions of Urban and 
Gregory. During his second journey to Rome, in a.d. 1369, he issued 
from Lucca four imperial decrees, and in a.d. 1378 from Treves a fifth, 
by which he granted to the Inquisition throughout Germany all the 
rights, powers, and privileges which it had anywhere, and required that 
all civil and ecclesiastical authorities, under pain of severest penalties and 
confiscation of all their goods, should support the Inquisition in its search 
for heretics and in its discovery and burning of all religious writings 
in the vulgar tongue composed and circulated by laymen or semi-lay- 
men. — The Spanish Inquisition was re-established under Ferdinand 
and Isabella in a.d. 1480, and thoroughly organized by the grand- 
inquisitor Torquemada, a.d. 1483-1499. One of the first inquisitors 
appointed by him in a.d. 1484 was an Augustinian, Pedro Arbires, who 
amid the most unrelenting cruelties performed the duties of his office 
with such zeal, that in sixteen months many hundreds had perished at 
the stake ; but his fanatical career was ended by his murder at the altar 
in A.D. 1485. Not only the two who did the deed, but also all their 
relatives and friends, to the number of two hundred, suspected of com- 
plicity in a plot, were burned, while the " martyr " himself was beatified 


by Alexander VII. in a.d. 1661, and canonized by Pius IX. in a.d. 1867. 
This terrible tribunal further undertook the persecution of the hated 
Moors and Jews who had been baptized under compulsion (§ 95, 2, 3), 
which through numerous confiscations greatly enriched the national 
exchequer of Spain. This institution reached its highest point under 
the grand-inquisitor the Cardinal Francis Ximenes, a.d. 1507-1517, under 
whom 2,536 persons were burnt alive and 1,368 in effigy. The auto da 
fes, which ended at the stake, were conducted with a horrible pomp. 
Even those who were acquitted of the charge of heresy were compelled 
for a long time to wear the sail benito, an armless robe with a red cross 
marked on it before and behind. According to Llorente, who had been 
general secretary of the Inquisition at Madrid, the Spanish inquisition, 
down to its suppression by Joseph Buonaparte in a.d. 1808, had executed 
in person 31,912, burned in effigy 17,059, and subjected to severe punish- 
ments 291,4.56.1 

3. The Bull " In Coeua Domini." — It was customary to repeat from 
time to time the more important decrees of excommunication, to show that 
they were still valid. In this way the famous bull In Cana Domini was 
gradually constructed. The earliest sketch of it was given by Urban V., 
who died in a.d. 1370, and it was pubhshed in its final form by Urban 
VIII. in a.d. 1627. It contains a summary of all the rights of the Eoman 
hierarchy, with anathemas against all opposing claims, not only on the 
l^art of secular princes and laymen, but also of antipapal councils, and 
concludes with a solemn excommunication of all heretics, to which Paul 
V. in A.D. 1610 added Lutherans, Zwinglians, and Calvinists, together 
with all their sympathisers. Pius V., in a.d. 1567, in a new redaction 
insisted that it should be read yearly in the Catholic churches of all lands, 
but could not get this carried out, especially in France and Germany. 
In A.D. 1770 Clement XIV. forbade its being read. 

4. Prosecution of Witches. — Down to the beginning of the 13th century 
many churchmen had spoken against the popular superstition regarding 
sorcery, witchcraft, and compacts with the devil, and a whole series of 
provincial councils had pronounced such belief to be heathenish, sinful, 
and heretical. Even in Gratian's decretal (§ 99, 5) there was a canon 
which required the clergy to teach the people that witchcraft was a 
delusion, and belief in it incompatible with the Christian faith. But 
upon the establishment of the Inquisition in the beginning of the 13th 
century witchcraft came more and more to occupy the attention of the 
ecclesiastical authorities. Heresy and sorcery were now regarded as 

1 Baker, " History of the Inquisition in Portugal, Spain, Italy," etc. 
London, 1763. Llorente, " History of the Inquisition from its Establish- 
ment to Ferdinand VII." Philadelphia, 1826. Mocatta, " Jews in Spain 
and Portugal, and the Inquisition." London, 1877. 


correlates, like two agencies resting on and serviceable to the demoniacal 
powers, and were therefore treated in the same way as offences to be 
punished with torture and the stake. The Dominicans, as adminis- 
trators of the Inquisition, were the most zealous defenders of the belief 
in witchcraft, whereas the 'Franciscans generally spoke of it simply as 
foolish, heathenish, and heretical. Thomas Aquinas included it in 
his theological system, and Eymerich in his Directorium Inquisitorium 
(§ 109, 2). Yet witch prosecutions were only occasional incidents during 
the 14th and 15th centuries, especially in Germany, where clergy and 
people were adverse to them. But it was quite otherwise after Innocent 
VIII., on 3rd December, 1484, by his bull *S»?H7ms desidemntes affectibus, 
complaining of previous laxity, called attention to the spread of witch- 
craft in the country, and appointed two inquisitors, Sprenger and Insti- 
tor, to secure its extermination. These administered their office with 
such zeal and success, that in a.d. 1489 at Cologne they were able, as the 
result of their experiences, to publish under the title Malleus maleficarum 
a complete code for witch prosecutions. From the confessions wrung 
from their victims by torture and suggestive questions, they obtained 
a full, dogmatic system of compacts and intrigues with the devil, of 
Succiihls and Incuhis, of witch ointment, broomsticks, and ovenforks, of 
witches' sabbaths, Walpurgis nights, and flights up chimneys. Soon 
this illusion spread like an epidemic, and thousands throughout Ger- 
many and all other Catholic countries, mostly old women, but also some 
young maidens, were subjected to the most horrible tortures, and after 
confession had been extorted, to death by lire. The Malleus accounted 
for the fact that women and very rarely men were found engaged in such 
proceedings, by this statement : Dicitur enim femina a feret minus, quia 
semper minorem habet et servatfidem, et hoc ex natiira. — The Reformation 
of the 16th century made no change in these horrible proceedings, which 
rather rose to a height during the 17th century. Theologians of all 
confessions believed in the possibility and reality of compacts with the 
devil, and regarded this to be as essential to an orthodox creed as belief 
in the devil's existence. The jurists and civil judges in Protestant and 
Catholic countries were no less narrow-minded and superstitious than the 
theologians. Among Catholics the most celebrated defenders of the 
witch j)rosecutions were Jean Bodin {§ 148, 3), Peter Binsfeld, and the 
Jesuit Mart. Delrio (§ 149, 11). Among Protestant vindicators of these 
prosecutions may be named the Heidelberg physician ThomasP Erastus 
(§ 144, 1), James I. of England, and the famous criminal lawyer Carpzov 
of Leipzig. Noble men however were not wanting on both sides who 
were shrewd and sensible enough to oppose such crude conceptions. 
In the 16th century we have the physician Weier, who wrote his Be 
prastigiis damonorum in a.d. 1563, and in the 17th the Jesuits Tanner 
and Spec (§ 149, 11 ; 156, 3), and the Dutch Protestant Bekker (§ 160, 5). 


The WTitinj:^s of tbo Hallo jurist Thomasius in a.d. 1701, 1701, were the 
first to tell powerfully in favour of liberal views. In a.d. 1749 a nun of 
seventy years old was burnt at Wiirzburg as a witch. In a.d. 1751 a girl 
of thirteen and in a.d, 17o6 one of fourteen years were put to death at 
Landshut as suspected of witchcraft. In German Switzerland a ser- 
vant girl at Glarus in a.d. 1782 was the last victim. In bigoted Catholic 
countries the delusion lasted longer, but prosecutions were seldomer 
carried the length of judicial murder. In Mexico however, the Alcade 
Ignaeio Castello of San Jacobo on 20th August, 1877, " with consent of 
the whole population," burnt five witches alive. Altogether since the 
issue of the bull of Innocent there have been certainly no less than 
300,000 women brought to the stake as witches. 

IV. Attempts at Reformation. 

§ 118. Attempted Reforms in Church Polity. 

The struggle between imperialism and hierarcliism, which 
is present through the whole course of the Middle Ages, rose 
to a height in the times of Louis the Bavarian, a.d. 1314-1347 
(§ 110, 3, 4), and is of special interest here because of the 
literary war waged against one another by the rival sup- 
porters of the emperor and the pope. It concerns itself first 
of all only with the questions in debate between the impe- 
rial and the sacerdotal parties ; but soon on the imperialist 
side there appeared a reforming tendency, which could not 
be given effect to without carrying the discussion into a 
multitude of other departments where reformation was also 
needed. Of quite another kind was the " reformation of 
head and members " desired by the great councils of the 
15th century. The centention here was based, not so 
much upon any superiority claimed by the emperor over the 
pope and by the State over the church, but rather upon the 
subordination of the pope to the supreme authority of the 
universal church represented by the oecumenical councils. 
Yet both agreed in this, that with like energy they attacked 
the corruption of the papacy, in the one case in the interest 
of the State, in the other in the interest of the church. 


1. The Literary War iDetween Imperialists and Curialists in the 14th 
Century. — The literary controversy over the debatable land between 
church and State was conducted with special vigour in the earlier part of 
our period, on account of the conflict between Boniface VIII. and Philip 
the Fair of France (§ 110, 1). The ablest vindicators of the independence 
of the State were the advocate Peter Dubois and the Dominican theologian 
John of Paris, Among their scholars were the men who twenty years 
later sought refuge from the wrath of Pope John XXII. at the court 
of Louis the Bavarian at Munich. Of these the most important was 
the Italian Marsilius of Padua. As teacher of theology, philosophy, and 
medicine at Paris, in a.d. 1324, when the dispute betwen emperor and 
pope had reached its height, he composed jointly with his colleague 
John of Jandun in Champagne a Defensor pads, a civil and ecclesiastical 
memoir, which, with an insight and clearness very remarkable for that 
age, developed the evangelical mean of the superiority of the State over 
the church, and of the empire over the papacy, historically, exegetically, 
and dogmatically ; and for this end established theories of Scripture and 
tradition, of the tasks and place of the church in the State, of excommuni- 
cation and persecution of heretics, of liberty of faith and conscience, 
etc., which even transcend the principles laid down on these points by 
the Eeformation of the 16th century. Both authors accompanied Louis 
to Italy in a.d. 1326, and there John of Jandun died in a.d. 1328. Marsi- 
lius continued with the emperor as his physician, counsellor, and literary 
defender, and died at Munich between a.d. 1341-1343. In a.d. 1327 
John XXII. condemned the Defensor pads, and Clement VI. pronounced 
its author the worst heretic of all ages. The book, often reprinted during 
the 16th century, was first printed at Basel in a.d. 1522. 

2. Alongside of Marsilius there also stood a goodly array of schis- 
matical Franciscans, with their general, Michael of Cesena, at their head 
(§ 112, 2), who were like himself refugees at the court of Munich. They 
persistently contested the heresies of John XXII. in regard to the vision 
of God (§ 110, 3) and his lax theory of poverty. Their polemic also 
extended to the whole papal system, and the corruption of church and 
clergy connected therewith. The most celebrated of them in respect of 
scientific attainments was William Occam (^ 113, 3). His earlier treatises 
dealt with the pope's heresies, and only after the Diet of Ehense (§ 110, 4) 
did he take up the burning questions about church and State. In the 
comprehensive Dialogus he rejects the infallibility of the pope as decidedly 
as his temporal sovereignty, and denies the Divine institution of the 
primacy. Also a German prelate, Leopold of Bebenburg, Canon of Wiirz- 
burg, and from a.d. 1353 Bishoj) of Bamberg, inspired by genuinely Ger- 
man patriotism, made his appearance in a.d. 1338 as a brave and prudent 
defender of imperial rights against the assumptions of the papacy. — The 
ablest of all Marsilius' opponents was the Spanish Franciscan Alvarus 


Pelagius, who wrote in a.d. 1330 the treatise De planctu ecdesicc, in which, 
while sadly complaining of the corruption of the church and clergy, he yet 
ascribes to the pope as the vicar of Christ unlimited authority over all 
earthly principalities and powers, and regards him as the fountain of all 
privileges and laws. A still more thoroughgoing deification of the papacy 
had appeared a few years earlier in ihe.Siumma dc yotcstate ecclesice ad 
Johannem Paixim by the Augustinian Aiigustinus Triumplius of Ancona. 
But neither he nor Pelagius, in view of the manifest contradictions of the 
pope's doctrines of poverty (§ 112, 2), dared go the length of maintaining 
jDapal infallibility. A German canon of Eegensburg, Conrad of Megens- 
burg, also took part in the controversy, seeking to vindicate and glorify 
the papacy. 

3. Reforming Councils of the 15tli Century. — The longing for reform 
during this period found most distinct expression in the councils of Pisa, 
Constance, and Basel (§ 110, 7-9). The fruitlessness of these endeavours, 
though they had the sympathy of the people generally, shows that there 
was something essentially defective in them. The movement had kept 
itself aloof from all sectaries and separatists, wishing to hold by and 
reform the presently existing church. But its fault was this, that it 
insisted only upon a reformation in the head and members, not in the 
spirit, that it aimed at lopping off the wild growths of the tree, without 
getting rid of the corrupt sa^D from which the very same growths would 
again proceed. Only that which was manifestly unchristian in the pre- 
tensions of the hierarchy, the covetousness and greed of the pope, the 
immorality of the clergy, the depravity and ignorance of the monks, 
etc. — in short, only abuses in hierarchical constitution and discipline — 
were dealt with. There was no word about doctrine. The Eomish 
system, in spite of all its perversions, was allowed to stand. The cur- 
rent forms of worship, notwithstanding the introduction of many un- 
evaugelical elements and pagan superstitions, were left untouched. It 
w^as not seen that what was most important of all was the revival of the 
preaching of repentance and of justification through Him who is the jus- 
tifier of the ungodly. And so it happened that at Constance Huss, who 
had pointed out and followed this way, was sent to the stake, and at 
Basel the doctrine of the immaculate conception (§ 112, 4) was admitted 
as a doctrine of the church. It was not merely the election of a new pope 
opposed to the Reformation that rendered the negotiations at Pisa 
and Constance utter failures, the wrong principle upon which they pro- 
ceeded insured a disappointing result. 

4. Friends of Reform in France during the ISth Century. — (1) Peter 
d' Ailly, professor and chancellor of the University of Paris, Bishop of 
Cambray in a.d. 1397 and cardinal in a.d. 1411, was one of the ablest 
members of the councils of Pisa and Constance. He died in a.d. 1425 
as cardinal-legate in Germany. His chief dogmatic treatise, the Quces-. 


tiones on the Sentences of the Lombard, occupies the standpoint of Occam. 
In many of his other works he falls back upon the position of the mystics 
of St. Victor (§ 102, 4), and recommends with much warmth the diligent 
study of the Scriptures. His ideas about church reform are centred in 
the affirmation of the Gallican Liberties, which he had to maintain as a 
French bishop, but are expressed with the moderation becoming a Roman 
cardinal. In opposition to Occam and the Spirituals, he founds the tem- 
poral sovereignty of the pope on the Donatio Constantini. He also holds 
by the primacy of the Roman bishop, as firmly established by Scripture. 
But the irerpa of Matthew xvi. 18 he understands not of Peter, but of Christ. 
In this passage therefore no pre-eminence is given to Peter over the 
other apostles in the potestas ordinis, but by the injunction of John xx., 
" Feed My sheep," such pre-eminence is given in the x>otestas regiyninis. 
The oecumenical council, as representative of the whole church, stands 
superior to the pope as administrative head. — (2) d'Ailly's successor as 
professor and chancellor was the celebrated Jeau Charlier, better known 
from the name of his birthplace near Rheims as Gerson. Having 
denounced the Duke of Burgundy's murder of the Duke of Orleans, and 
having thus incurred that prince's hatred, he withdrew after the Council 
of Constance into Bavaria. Soon after the duke's death, in a.d. 1419, he 
returned to France, and settled at Lyons, where he died in a.d. 1429. 
Like d'Ailly, Gerson was a decided nominalist, and sought to give new 
life to scholasticism by combining with it Scripture study and mysticism. 
He, too, was powerfully influenced by the Victorine mystics, and yet 
more by Bonaventura. He had no appreciation of the speculative ele- 
ment in German mysticism. Gerson was the first French theologian 
who employed the language of the people, particularly in his smaller 
practical tracts. He was mainly instrumental in bringing about the 
Council of Pisa. In the Council of Constance he was one of the most 
conspicuous figures. Restrained by no personal or official relationship 
with the curia, he could by speech and writing express himself much 
more freely than d'Ailly. The principle and means of the reform of the 
church, in its head and members, was recognised by Gerson in his state- 
ment that the highest authority of the church is to be sought not in the 
pope, but in the oecumenical council. He held however in every point 
to the Romish system of doctrine. He did indeed unweariedly proclaim 
the Bible the one norm and source of all Christian knowledge, but he 
would not allow the reading of it in the vernacular, and regarded all as 
heretics who did not in the interpretation of it submit unconditionally to 
the judgment of the church.— (3) Nicholas of Clemanges was in a.d. 1393 
rector of the University of Paris, but afterwards retired into solitude. 
He had the profoundest insight into the corruption of the church, and 
acknowledged Holy Scripture to be the only source of saving truth. From 
this standpoint he denianded a thorough reform in theological study 


and the whole constitution of the church.— (4) Louis cI'Aleman, car- 
dinal and Archbishop of Aries, who died in a.d. 1450, was the most 
powerful and most eloquent of the anti-papal party at Basel. He was 
therefore excommunicated by Eugenius IV. At last submitting to the 
pope, he was restored by Nicholas V. and in a.d. 1527 beatified by 
Clement VII. 

5. Friends of Reform in Germany.— (1) Even before the appearance of 
the Parisian friends of reform, a German, Henry of Langenstein, at Mar- 
burg had insisted upon the princes and prelates calling an oecumenical 
council for putting an end to schism and reforming the church. In a 
treatise published in a.d. 1381 he gave a sad but only too true picture of 
the desolate condition of the church. The cloisters he designated pro- 
stibida meretricium, cathedral churches speluncce raptorum et latronum, 
etc. From a.d. 1363 he taught in Paris, from a.d. 1390 in Vienna, where 
in A D. 1397 be died as rector of the university.— (2) Theodorich or Dietrich 
of Niem in WestphaHa accompanied Gregory XL from France to Rome 
as his secretary in a.d. 1377. From a.d. 1395-1399 he was Bishop of 
Verdun, was probably present at the Council of Pisa, and certainly at that 
of Constance. He died in this latter place in a.d. 1417. His writings 
are of great value for the history of the schism and of the councils of 
Pisa and Constance. His language is simple, strong, and faithful. — (3) 
GrcjOxy of Heimburg was present at the Basel Council, in terms of close 
friendship with .Eneas Sylvius, who was then also on the side of reform. 
He became in a.d. 1433 syndicus at Nuremberg, went to the council 
at Mantua in a.d. 1459 as envoy of Duke Sigismund of Austria, was 
banished in a.d. 1460 by his old friend, now Pius II., afterwards led a 
changeful life, never fi-ee from the papal persecutions, and died at 
Dresden in a.d. 1472. His principal writings on civil and ecclesiastical 
polity, powerful indictments against the Roman curia inspired by love 
for his German fatherland, appeared at Frankfort in a.d. 1608 under the 
title Scripta nervosa jxistiticBque plena.— (i) Jacob of Jiiterboyk, who died 
in A.D. 1465, was first a Cistercian monk in Poland and teacher of theo- 
logy at Cracow, then Carthusian at Erfurt, and to the end of his life 
a zealous defender of the positions of the Council of Basel, at which he 
was present in a.d. 1441. His writings leave untouched the doctrines of 
the church, but vigorously denounce the political and moral corruption 
of the papacy and monasticism, the greedy misuse of the sale of 
indulgences, and insist upon the subordinating of the pope under general 
councils, and their right even to depose the pontiff. Whoever contests 
this latter position teaches that Christ has given over the church to a 
sinful man, like a bridegroom who surrenders his bride to the unre- 
strained will of a soldier. All possession of property on the part of those 
in sacred offices is with him an abomination, and unhesitatingly he calls 
upon the civil power to put an end to this evil,— (5) The Cardinal Nicholas 


of Cusa (§ 113, 6) also for a long time was one of the most zealous friends 
of reform in the Basel Council. — (6) Felix Hemmerlin, canon at Ziirich, 
was to the end of his life an ardent supporter of the reform measures of 
the Council of Basel, at which he had been present. As he gave effect 
to his views in his official position, he incurred the hatred and persecu- 
tion of the inmates of his convent to such an extent, that they laid a plot 
to murder him in a.d. 1439. His whole life was an almost unbroken 
series of sufferings and persecutions. These in great part he brought 
on himself by his zealous support of the reactionary party of the nobles 
that sided with Austria in opposition to the patriotic revolutionary party 
that struggled for freedom. Deprived of his revenues and deposed from 
office, he was imprisoned in a.d. 1454, and died between a.d. 1457-1464 
in the prison of the monastery of the Minorites at Lucerne, martyr as 
much to his political conservatism as to his ecclesiastical reformatory 
principles. His writings were placed in the Index loroliihltorum by the 
Council of Trent. — (7) To this place also belongs the work written in the 
Swabian dialect, <' The Reformation of the Emperor Sigismund," which de- 
mands a thoroughgoing and radical reform of the clergy and the secular 
priests, insisting upon the renunciation of all personal property on the 
part of the latter, enforcing against prelates, abbots, monasteries, and 
monks all the reforms of the Basel Council, and making proposals for 
their execution in the spirit of the Taborites and Hussites. The author 
is styled in the MSS. Frederick of Landscron, and describes himself as a 
councillor of Sigismund. The tract was therefore regarded during the 
loth and 16th centuries as a work composed under the direction of the 
emperor, setting forth the principles of reformation attempted at the 
Basel or Constance Council. According to Bohm its author was the 
Taborite Reiser (§ 119, 9), who, under the powerful reforming impulse of 
the Basel Council of a.d. 1435-1437, composed it in a.d. 1438. 

6. An Italian Apostate from the Basel Liberal Party. — ^neas Sylvius 
Piccolomini, born at Siena in a.d. 1405, appeared at Basel, first as sec- 
retary of a bishop, then of a cardinal, and finally of the Basel anti-pope 
Felix v., as a most decided opponent of Eugenius IV., and wrote in a.d. 
1439 from this point of view his history of the council. In a.d. 1442 
he entered the service of the then neutral Emperor Frederick III., was 
made Poeta laureatus and imperial councillor, and as such still fought for 
the independence of the German church. But in a.d. 1445, with all the 
diplomatic arts which were so abundantly at his disposal, he wrought to 
secure the subjection of the emperor and German princes under the pope 
(§ 110, 10). Made bishop of Siena in a.d. 1450, he was raised to the 
cardinalate by Calixtus III. in a.d. 1456, and two years later ascended 
the papal throne as Pius II. The lasciviousness of his earlier life is 
mirrored in his poems, novels, dialogues, dramas, and letters. But as 
pope, old and weak, he maintained an honourable life, and in o, bull of 


retractation addressed to the University of Cologne exhorted Christendom 
xEneam rejicite, Pium reclpite! 

7. Reforms in Clnirch Policy in Spain. — Notwithstanding the church 
feeling awakened by the struggle with the Moors, a vigorous opposition 
to papal pretensions was shown during the 14th century by the Spanish 
princes, and after the outbreak of the great schism the anti-pope Clement 
VII., inA.D. 1381, purchased the obedience of the Spanish church by large 
concessions in regard to appointment to its bishoprics and the removal 
of the abuses of papal indulgences. The popes, indeed, sought not 
unsuccessfully to enlist Sj^ain in their favour against the reformatory 
tendencies of the councils of the loth century, until Ferdinand of Aragon, 
A.D. 1479-151G, and Isabella of Castille, a.d. 1471-1504, who had on 
account of their zeal for the Catholic cause been entitled by the pon- 
tiff himself '• their Catholic majesties," entered so vigorous a protest 
against papal usurpations, that toward the end of the loth century the 
royal supremacy over the Spanish church had won a recognition never 
accorded to it before. They consistently refused to acknowledge any 
bishop appointed by the pope, and forced from Sixtus IV. the concession 
that only Spaniards nominated by the Crown should be eligible for the 
highest ecclesiastical offices. All papal rescripts were subject to the 
royal approval, ecclesiastical tribunals were carefully supervised, and 
appeals from them were allowed to the royal judicatures. The church 
had also to give ordinary and extraordinary tithes of its goods and 
revenues for State purposes. The Spanish inquisition (§ 117, 2), 
thoroughly recognised in a.d. 1483, was more of a civil than an ecclesias- 
tical institution. As the bishops and inquisitors were appointed by the 
royal edict, the orders of knights (§ 98, 8), by the transference of the 
grand-mastership to the king, were placed in complete subjection to 
the Crown ; and whether he would or not Alexander VI. was obliged 
to accord to the royal commission for church and cloister visitation and 
reform the most absolute authority. But in everything else these rulers 
were worthy of the name of " Catholics," for they tolerated in their 
church only the purely mediaeval type of strict orthodoxy. The most 
distinguished promoter of their reforms in church polity was a Fran- 
ciscan monk, Francis Ximenes, from a.d. 1492 confessor to Isabella, 
afterwards raised by her to the archbishopric of Toledo, made a Roman 
cardinal by Alexander VI., and grand-inquisitor of Spain in a.d. 1507. 
He died in a.d. 1517. 

§ 119. Evangelical Efforts at Heform. 

Alongside of the Parisian reformers, but far in advance 
of them, stand those of the English and Bohemian churches 


represented by Wiclif and Huss. The reformation aimed 
at by these two was essentially of the same kind, Wiclif 
being the more original, while Huss was largely dependent 
upon his great English precursor. For in personal endow- 
ment, speculative power, rich and varied learning, acuteness 
and wealth of thought, originality and productivity of 
intellect, the Englishman was head and shoulders above the 
Bohemian. On the other hand, Huss was far more a man 
for the people, and he conducted his contention in a sensible, 
popular, and practical manner. There were also powerful 
representatives of the reform movement in the Netherlands 
during this period, who pointed to Scripture and faith in 
the crucified Saviour as the only radical cure for the cor- 
ruptions of the church. While Wiclif and Huss attached 
themselves to the Augustinian theology, the Dutchmen 
gave themselves to quiet, calm contemplation and the ac- 
quirement of practical religious knowledge. In Italy too 
a reformer appeared of a strongly evangelical spirit, who 
did not however show the practical sense of those of the 

1. Wiclif and the Wiclifites.— In England the kings and the Parliament 
had for a long time withstood the oppressive yoke of the papal hierarchy. 
Men too Hke John of Salisbury, Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, and 
Thomas Bradwardine had raised their voices against the inner corrup- 
tion of the church. John Wiclif, a scholar of Bradwardine, was born 
about A.D. 1320. As fellow of the University of Oxford, he supported 
in A.D. 1366 the English Crown against the payment of tribute to the 
papal court then at Avignon, admitted by John Lackland {§ 96, 18), of 
which payment had now for a long time been refused. This secured 
him court favour, the title of doctor, and a professorship of theology at 
Oxford ; and in a.d. 1374 he was chosen as member of a commission which 
was to discuss at Brugge in the Netherlands with the papal envoys the 
differences that had arisen about the appointing to ecclesiastical offices. 
After his return he openly spoke and wrote against the papal " anti- 
christ " and his doctrines. Gregory XI. now, in a.d. 1377, condemned 
nineteen propositions from his writings, but the English court protected 
him from the strict inquiry and punishment threatened. Meanwhile 
Wiclif was ever becoming bolder. Under his influence religious societies 


were formed which sent out travelling preachers of the gospel among the 
people. By their opponents thej' were called Lollards (§ 116, 3), a name 
to which the stigma of heresy was already attached. Wiclif translated 
for them the Scriptures from the Vulgate into English. The bitterness 
of his enemies now reached its height. Just then, in a.d. 1381, a rebellion 
of the oppressed peasants that deluged all England with blood broke out. 
Its origin has been quite gratuitously assigned to the religious movement. 
When he had directly repudiated the doctrine of transubstantiation, a 
synod at London, in a.d. 1382, condemned his writings and his doctrine 
as heretical, and the university also cast him out. Court and Parliament 
could only protect his person. He now retired to his rectory at Lutter- 
worth in Leicestershire, where he died on 31st December, 1384. — For 
five centuries his able writings were left unprinted, to moulder away in 
the obscurity of libraries. His English works have now been edited by 
Matthews, London, 1880. Lechler of Leipzig edited Wiclif's most com- 
plete and comprehensive work, the *' Trialogus " (Oxford, 1869), in which 
his whole theological system is develoj)ed. Buddensieg of Dresden pub- 
lished the keen antipapal controversial tract, "De Christo et suo adver- 
sario Anticliristo " (Leipzig, 1880). The WicUf Societ}', instituted at the 
fifth centenary of Wiclif's death for the purpose of issuing critical editions 
of his most important works, sent forth as their first performance Bud- 
densieg's edition of " twenty-six Latin controversial tracts of Wiclif's 
from MSS. previously unprinted," in 2 vols., London, 1883. Among 
Wiclif's systematic treatises we are promised editions of the Siimma 
theologicCf De incarnatione Verbi, De veritate s. Scr., De dominio divino, 
De ecclesia, De actibus animce, etc., some by English, some by German 
editors. — As the principle of all theology and reformation Wiclif con- 
sistently affirms the sole authority of Divine revelation in the Holy 
Scriptures. He has hence been called doctor evangeliciis. Anything that 
cannot be proved from it is a corrupting human invention. Consistently 
carrying out this principle, he denounced the worship of saints, relics, and 
images, the use of Latin in public worship, elaborate priestly choir sing- 
ing, the multiplication of festivals, private masses, extreme unction, and 
generally all ceremonialism. The Catholic doctrine of indulgence and 
the sale of indulgences, as well as the ban and the interdict, he pro- 
nounced blasphemous ; auricular confession he regarded as a forcing of 
conscience ; the power of the keys he explained as conditional, its binding 
and loosing powerless, except when in accordance with the judgment of 
Christ. He denied the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in 
the Lord's Supper, and affirmed, like Berengar, a spiritual communication 
thereof, which however he makes dependent, not only on the faith of the 
receiver, but also on the worthiness of the officiating priest. The doctrine 
of purgatory he completely rejected, and supported Augustine's pre* 
destinationism against the prevalent semipelagiauism. The papacy was 


antichrist ; the pope has his power only from the emperor, not from 
God. The hierarchical system should be replaced by the apostolic 
presbyterial constitution. Ordination confers no indelible character; 
a priest who has fallen into mortal sin cannot dispense the sacrament. 
Every believer is as such a priest. The State is a representation of 
Christ, as the God-Man ruler of the universe ; the clergy represent only 
the poor and suffering Hfe of His humanity. Monkery is contrary to 
nature, etc.— Wiclif's supporters, many of them belonging to the noblest 
and most cultured orders, were after his death subjected to violent per- 
secution, which reached its height when the House of Lancaster in the 
person of Henry IV. ascended the English throne in a.d. 1399. An act 
of parliament was passed in a.d. 1400 which made death by fire the 
punishment of the heresy of the Lollards. Among the martyrs which 
this law brought to the stake was the noble Sir John Oldcastle, who in 
A.D. 1418 was hung up between two beams in iron chains over a fire and 
there slowly burnt. The Council of Constance in a.d. 1415 condemned 
forty-five propositions from Wichf's writings, and ordered his bones to 
be exhumed and scattered abroad. Many germs sown by him continued 
until the Keformation came.i 

2. Precursors of the Hussite Movement.— Owing to its Greek origin 
(§ 79, 2, 8), the Bohemian church had a certain character of its own 
and barely tolerated the Koman constitution and ritual. In Bohemia 
too the Waldensians had numerous supporters during the 13th century. 
And even before the appearance of Huss three distinguished clergymen 
in and around Prague by earnest preaching and pastoral work had 
awakened in many a consciousness of crying abuses in the church. (1) 
Conrad of Waldhausen was a famous preacher when called by Charles IV. 
to Prague, where after fifteen years' labour he died in a.d. 1369. Preach- 
ing in German, he inveighed against the cupidity, hypocrisy, and 
immorahty of the clergy and monks, against the frauds connected with 
the worship of images and relics and shrines, and threw back upon his 
accusers the charge of heresy in his still extant A2)ologia.—{2) More 
influential than Conrad as a preacher of repentance in Prague was John 
Milicz of Cremsier in Moravia, who died in a.d. 1374. Believing the end 
of the world near and antichrist already come, he went to Kome in a.d. 
1367 to place before Urban V. his scheme of apocalyptic interpretation. 

1 Lewis, " Hist, of Life and Sufferings of John Wiclif." Lond., 1720. 
Vaughau, " John de Wycliffe. A Monograph." London, 1853. Lechler, 
♦'John Wielif and his English Precursors." 2 vols. London, 1878. 
Buddensieg, "John Wyclif, Patriot and Reformer; his Life and 
Writings." London, 1884. Burrows, "Wiclif's Place in History." 
London, 1882. Storrs, •« John Wycliffe and the first English Bible." 
New York, 1880. 


Escaping with difficulty from the Inquisition, he returned to Prague, and 
there applied himself with renewed zeal to the preaching of repentance. 
His preaching led to the conversion of 200 fallen women, for whom 
he erected an institution which he called Jerusalem. But the begging 
friars accused him before Gregory XI. as a heretic. Mihcz fearlessly 
went for examination to Avignon in a.d. 1374, where he soon died before 
judgment had been passed. The most important of his works is De 
Anticliristo. — (3) Matthias of Janow, of noble Bohemian descent, died in 
A.D. 137-1, after fourteen years' work as a preacher and pastor in Prague. 
His sermons, composed in Bohemian, lashed unsparingly the vices of the 
clergy and monks, as well as the immorality of the laity, and denounced 
the worship of images and relics. None of his sermons are extant, but 
we have various theological treatises of his on the distinguishing of the 
true faith from the false and the frequent observance of the communion. 
At a Prague synod of a.d. 1389 he was obliged to retract several of his 
positions, and especially to grant the propriety of confessing and com- 
municating half-yearly. Janow however, like Conrad and Milicz, did 
not seriously contest any fundamental point of the doctrine of the 

3. John Huss of Hussinecz in Bohemia, born a.d. 1369, was Bachelor 
of Theology at Prague, in a.d. 1391, Master of Liberal Arts in a.d. 1396, 
became public teacher in the university in a.d. 1398, was ordained 
priest in a.d. 1100, undertook a pastorate in a.d. 1402 in the Bethlehem 
chapel, where he had to preach in the Bohemian language, was chosen 
confessor of Queen Sophia in a.d. 1103, and was soon afterwards made 
synodal preacher by the new archbishop, Sbynko of Hasenburg. Till 
then he had in pious humility accepted all the doctrines of the Romish 
Church, and even in a.d. 1392 he offered his last four groschen for an 
indulgence, so that for a long time dry bread was his only nourishment. 
But about A.D. 1102 he reached an important crisis in his life through 
the study of Wiclif's theological works. — Bohemians who had studied 
in Oxford brought with them Wiclif's philosophical works, and in a.d. 
1318 the discussion on realism and nominalism broke out in Prague. 
The Bohemians generally sided with Wiclif for realism ; the Germans 
with the nominalists (§ 113, 3). This helped to prepare an entrance for 
"Wiclif's theological writings into Bohemia. Of the national party which 
favoured Wiclif's philosophy and theology, Huss was soon recognised 
as a leader. A university decree of a.d. 1403 condemned forty- five pro- 
positions from Wiclif's works as heretical, and forbade their promul* 
gation in lectures or sermons. Huss however was still highly esteemed 
by Archbishop Sbynko. In a.d. 1405 he appointed Huss, with other 
three scholars, a commission to investigate a reputed miracle at Wils- 
nack, where on the altar of a ruined church three blood-red coloured 
hosts were said to have been found. Huss pronounced the miracle a 


cheat, and proved in a tract that the blood of Christ glorified can only he 
invisibly present in the sacrament of the altar. The archbishop approved 
this tract, and forbade all pilgrimages to the spot. He also took no 
offence at Huss for uttering Wiclifite doctrine in his synod sermon. 
Only when, in a.d. 1408, the clergy of his diocese complained that Huss 
by his preaching made the priests contemptible before the people, did he 
deprive him of his function as synod preacher. When the majority of 
cardinals at Leghorn in a.d. 1408 took steps to put an end to the schism, 
king Wenzel determined to remain neutral, and demanded the assent of 
the university as well as the clergy of his realm. But only the Bohe- 
mian members of the university agreed, while the rest, along with the 
archbishop, supported Gregory XII. Sbynko keenly resented the revolt 
of the Bohemians, and forbade Huss as their spokesman to preach with- 
in his diocese. Huss paid no attention to the prohibition, but secured 
a royal injunction, that henceforth in the university Bohemians should 
have three votes and foreigners only one. The foreigners then withdrew, 
and founded the University of Leipzig in a.d. 1409. Huss was made 
first rector of the newly organized University of Prague ; but the very 
fact of his great popularity in Bohemia caused him to be profoundly 
hated in other lands. "^ 

4. The archbishop escaped prosecution only by unreservedly condemn- 
ing the doctrines of Wiclif, burning his books, and prohibiting all 
lectures upon them. Huss and his friends appealed to John XXIII., 
but this did not prevent the archbishop burning in his palace yard about 
two hundred Wiclifite books that had previously escaped his search. 
For this he was hooted in the streets, and compelled by the courts of 
law to pay the value of the books destroyed. John XXIII. cited Huss 
to appear at Rome. King, nobles, magistrates, and university sided 
with him ; but the papal commission condemned him when he did not 
appear, and the archbishop pronounced anathema against him and the 
interdict against Prague (a.d. 1411). Huss appealed to the oecumenical 
council, and continued to preach. The court forced the archbishop to 
become reconciled with Huss, and to admit his orthodoxy. Sbynko re- 
ported to the pope that Bohemia was free from heresy. He soon after- 
Wards died. The pope himself was the cause of a complete breach, by 
having an indulgence preached in Bohemia in a.d. 1412 for a crusade 
against Ladislaus of Naples, the powerful adherent of Gregory XII. 
Huss opposed this by word and writing, and in a public disputation 
maintained that the pope had no right to grant such indulgence. His 
most stanch supporter was a Bohemian knight, Jerome of Prague, who 
had studied at Oxford, and returned in a.d. 1402 an enthusiastic adherent 

^ Gillet, "Life and Times of John Huss." Boston, 2 vols., 1870. 
Wratislaw, " John Huss." London, 1882. 


of Wiclif's doctrines. Their addresses produced an immense impression, 
and two days later their disorderly followers, to throw contempt on the 
papal party, had the bull of indulgence paraded through the streets, on 
the breast of a public prostitute, representing the whore of Babylon, and 
then cast into the flames. But many old friends now withdrew from 
Huss and joined his opponents. The papal curia thundered against 
him and his followers the great excommunication, with its terrible 
curses. Wherever he resided that place was put under interdict. But 
Huss appealed to the one righteous Judge, Jesus Christ. At the wish of 
the kiDg he left the city, and sought the protection of various noble 
patrons, from whose castles he went forth diligently preaching round 
about. He spread his views all over the country by controversial and 
doctrinal treatises in Latin and Bohemian, as well as by an extensive 
correspondence with his friends and followers. Thus the trouble and 
turmoil grew from day to day, and all the king's efforts to restore peace 
were in vain. 

5. The Eoman emperor Sigismund summoned Huss to attend the 
Council of Constance (§ 110, 7), and promised him a safe-conduct. 
Though not yet in possession of this latter, which he only got at Con- 
stance, trusting to the righteousness of his cause, for which he was quite 
willing to die a martyr's death, he started for Constance on 11th October, 
A.D. 1414, reaching his destination on 3rd November. On 28th Novem- 
ber he was sentenced to imprisonment at a private conference of the 
cardinals, on the pretended charge of an attempt at flight, flrst in the 
Dominican cloister, then in the bishop's castle of Gottlieben, where he 
was put in chains, finally in the Franciscan cloister. Sigismund, who 
had not been forewarned when he was cast into prison, ordered his release ; 
but the council convinced him that Huss, arraigned as a heretic before a 
general council, was beyond the reach of civil protection. His bitterest 
enemies and accusers were two Bohemians, Michael of Deutschbrod and 
Stephan of Palecz. The latter extracted forty-two points for accusations 
from his writings, which Huss from his prison retracted. D'Ailly and 
Gerson were both against him. The brave knight John of Chlum stood 
faithfully by him as a comforter to the last. For almost seven months 
was he harassed by private examinations, in which, notwithstanding his 
decided repudiation of many of them, he was charged with all imagin- 
able Wiclifite heresies. The result was the renewed condemnation of those 
forty-five propositions from Wiclif's writings, which had been condemned 
A.D. 1408 by the University of Prague. At last, on 5th June, a.d. 1415, he 
was for the first time granted a public trial, but the tumult at tbe sitting 
was so great that he was prevented from saying a single word. Even on 
the two following days of the trial he could do little more than make a vain 
protest against being falsely charged with errors, and declare his willing- 
ness to be better instructed from God's word. The humility and gentle- 



ness of his demeanour, as well as the enthusiasm and believing joyfulness 
which he disiDlayed, won for him many hearts even outside of the council. 
All possible motives were urged to induce him to submit. Sigismund 
so exhorted him, with the threat that if he did not he would withdraw 
his protection. The third and last day of trial was 8th June, a.d. 1415, 
and judgment was pronounced in the cathedral church on the 6th July. 
After high mass had been celebrated, a bishop mounted the pulpit and 
preached on Romans vi. 0. He addressed Sigismund, who was present, 
" By destroying this heretic, thou shalt obtain an undying name to all 
ensuing generations." Once again called upon to recant, Huss repeated 
his previous protests, appealed to the promise of a safe-conduct, which 
made Sigismund wince and blush, and kneeling down prayed to God 
for his enemies and unjust judges. Then seven bishops dressed him 
in priestly robes in order to strip him of them one after another amid 
solemn execrations. Then they put on him a high pyramidal hat, painted 
with figures of devils, and bearing the inscription, Hceresiarclia, and 
uttered the words, "We give thy soul to the devil." He replied: "I 
commend it into the hands of our Saviour Jesus Christ." On that same 
day he was given over by Sigismund to Louis Count-palatine of the 
Rhine, and by him to the Constance magistrates, and led to the stake. 
Amid prayer and praise he expired, joyfully, courageously, and confidently, 
showing himself worthy to rank among the martyrs who in the best times 
of Christianity had sealed their Christian confession with their blood. 
His ashes were scattered on the Rhine. The later Hussites, in accordance 
with an old Christian custom (§ 39, 5), celebrated the day of his death 
as the dies natalis of the holy martyr John Huss. — Jerome of Prague had 
gone unasked to Constance. When he saw that his longer stay would 
not help his friend, but only involve himself in his fate, he left the city ; 
but was seized on the way, and taken back in chains in April, a.d. 1415. 
During a severe half-year's imprisonment, and wearied with the impor- 
tunities of his judges, he agreed to recant, and to acquiesce in the 
sentence of Huss. But he was not trusted, and after as before his recan- 
tation he was kept in close confinement. Then his courage revived. 
He demanded a public trial before the whole council, which was at last 
granted him in May, a.d. 1416. There he solemnly and formally retracted 
his previous retractation with a believer's confidence and a martyr's joy. 
On May 80th, a.d. 1416, he, too, died at the stake, joyfully and coura- 
geously as Huss had done. The Florentine humanist Poggio, who was 
present, has given enthusiastic expression in a still extant letter to his 
admiration at the heroic spirit of the martyr. 

6. In all his departures from Romish doctrine Huss was dependent 
upon Wiclif, not only for the matter, but even for the modes of expres- 
sion. He did not however separate himself quite so far from the 
Church doctrines as his English master. He firmly maintained the 


doctrine of transubstantiation ; he was also inclined to withhold the cup 
from the laity ; and, though he sought salvation only from the Saviour 
crucified for us, he did not refuse] to give any place to works in the 
justification of the sinner, and even invocation of the saints he did not 
wholly condemn. While he energetically protested against the corrup- 
tion of the clergy, he never denied that the sacrament might be efficaciously 
administered by an unworthy jDriest. In everything else however he was 
in thorough agreement with the English reformer. The most complete 
exposition of his doctrine is found in the Tractatus cle ecclesia of a.d. 1413. 
Augustine's doctrine of predestination is its foundation. He distinguishes 
from the church as a visible human institution the idea of the church as 
the true body of Christ, embracing all elected in Christ to blessedness 
from eternity. Its one and only head is Christ : not Peter, not the pope ; 
for this church is no monster with two heads. Originally and according 
to Christ's appointment the bishop of Rome was no more than the 
other bishops. The donation of Constantine first gave him power and 
dignity over the rest. As the church in the beginning could exist 
without a pope, so the church unto the end can exist without one. The 
Christian can obey the pope only where his commands and doctrines 
agree with those of Christ. In matters of faith Holy Scripture is the only 
authority. Fathers, councils, and popes may err, and have erred ; only 
the word of Grod is infallible. — That this hberal reforming Council of 
Constance, with a Gerson at its head, should have sentenced such a man 
to death is not to be wondered at when we rightly consider how matters 
stood. His hateful realism seemed to the nominahstic fathers of the 
council the source of all conceivable heresies. It had even been main- 
tained that reaHsm consistently carried out would give a fourth person to 
the Godhead. His devotion to the national interests of Bohemia in the 
University of Prague had excited German national feeling against him. 
And, further, the council, which was concerned only with outward 
reforms, had little sympathy with the evangelical tone of his spirit and 
doctrine. Besides this, Huss had placed himself between the swords 
of two contending parties. The hierarchical party wished, in order to 
strike terror into their opponents, to show by an example that the church 
had still the power to burn heretics ; and the liberal party refused to 
this object of papal hate all protection, lest they should endanger the 
cause of reformation by incurring a suspicion of sympathy with heresy. — 
The prophecy said to have been uttered by Huss in his last moments, 
•' To-day you burn a goose (this being the meaning of Huss in Sla- 
vonian), but from its ashes will arise a swan (Luther's coat of arms), 
which you will not be able to burn," was unknown to his contempo- 
raries. Probably it originated in the Reformation age from the appeals 
of both martyrs to the judgment of God and history. Huss had often 


declared that instead of the weak goose there would come powerful eagles 
and falcons.^ 

7. Calixtines and Taborites. — During the imprisonment of their leader 
the Hussite party was headed by Jacob of Misa, pastor of St. Michael's 
church in Prague. With consent of Huss he introduced the use of the 
cup by the laity and rejected the jejunium eucharisticum as opposed to 
Matthew xxvi. 20. This led to an interchange of controversial tracts 
between Prague and Constance on the withholding of the cup. The 
council decreed that whoever disobeys the Church on this point is to he 
punished as a heretic. This decree, followed by the execution of Huss, 
roused Bohemia to the uttermost. King Wenceslaw died in a.d. 1419 in 
the midst of national excitement, and the estates refused to crown his 
brother Sigismund, " the word-breaker." Now arose a civil war, a.d. 
1420-143G, characterized by cruelties on both sides rarely equalled. 
At the head of the Hussites, who hah built on the brow of a steep hill 
the strong fortress Tabor, was the one-eyed, afterwards blind, John Ziska 
of Troczuov. The crusading armies sent against the Hussites were one 
after another destroyed ; but the gentle spirit of Huss had no place 
among most of his followers. The two parties became more and more 
embittered toward one another. The aristocratic Calixtines {calix, 
cup) or Utraquists {sub utmque), at whose head was Bishop Rokycana of 
Prague, declared that they would be satisfied if the Catholic church 
would concede to them four articles : 1. Communion under both kinds ; 
2. Preaching of the pure gospel in the vulgar tongue ; .3. Strict dis- 
cipline among the clergy ; and 4. Renunciation by the clergy of church 
property. On the other hand, the Taborites would have no reconciliation 
with the Romish church, regarding as fundamentally corrupt in doctrine 
and worship whatever is not found in Scripture, and passing over into 
violent fanaticism, iconoclasm, etc. After Ziska's death of the plague 
in A.D. 1424, the majority of the Taborites elected Procopius the Great 
as his successor. A small party that regarded no man worthy of suc- 
ceeding the great Ziska, refused him allegiance, and styled themselves 
Orphans. They were the most fanatical of all.— Meanwhile the Council 
of Basel had met (§ 110, 8) and after long fruitless negotiations it was 
resolved in a.d. 1433 that 300 Hussite deputies should appear at Basel. 
After a fifty days' disputation the four Calixtine articles with certain modi- 
fications were accepted by the council. On the basis of this Basel Compact 
the Calixtines returned to the Romish church. The Taborites regarded 
this as shameful treason to the cause of truth, and continued the con- 
flict. But in A.D. 1434 they were utterly annihilated at Bohmischbrod, 

* Palacky, "Documenta Mag, J. H., Vitam, Doctrinam, Causam," etc., 
illust. Prag., 1869. Gillett, " Life and Times of John Huss." 2 vols. 
Boston, 1863. Loserth, " Wiclif and Huss." London, 1884. 


not far from Prague. In the Treaty of Iglau in a.d. 1436 Sigismund 
swore to observe the compact, and was recognised as king. But the 
concessions sworn to by church and state were more and more restricted 
and ultimately ignored. Sigismund died in a.d. 1437. In place of his 
son-in-law, Albert II., the Utraquists set up a rival king in the person of 
the thirteen year old Polish prince Casimir ; but Albert died in a.d. 1439. 
His son, Ladislaus, born after his father's death, had, in George Podiebrad, 
a Calixtine tutor. After he had grown up in a.d. 1453, he walked in his 
grandfather's footsteps, and died in a.d, 1457. The Calixtines now elected 
Podiebrad king, as a firm supporter of the compact. Pius II. recognised 
him in the hope that he would aid him in his projected war against the 
Turks. When this hope was disappointed he cancelled the compact, in 
A.D. 1462. Paul II. put the king under him, and had a crusade preached 
against him. Podiebrad however still held his ground. He died in 
A.D. 1471. His successor, Wladislaw II., a Polish prince, though a 
zealous Catholic, was obliged to confirm anew to the Calixtines at the 
Diet of Cuttenberg, in a.d. 1485, all their rights and liberties. Yet they 
could not maintain themselves as an independent community. Those 
of them who did not join the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren gra- 
dually during the IGth century became thoroughly amalgamated with 
the Catholic church. 

8. The Bohemian and Moravian Brethren. — George Podiebrad took 
Tabor in a.d. 1453, and scattered the last remnants of the Taborites. 
Joining with the evangelical Friends of God, they received from the 
king a castle, where, under the leadership of the local pastor, Michael 
of Bradacz, they formed a Unitas fratrum, and called themselves Bohe- 
mian and Moravian Brethren. But in a.d. 1461 Podiebrad withdrew 
his favour, and confiscated their goods. They fled into the woods, and 
met for worship in caves. In a.d. 1467 the most distinguished of the 
Bohemian and Moravian Brethren met in a Bohemian village, Shota, 
with the German Waldensians, and chose three brethren by lot as 
priests, who were ordained by Michael and a Waldensian priest. But 
when the validity of their ordination was disputed, Michael went to the 
Waldensian bishop Stephen, got from him episcopal consecration, and 
then again ordained the three chosen at Shota, one, Matthias of Cone* 
wald, as bishop, the other two as priests. This led Rokycana to perse- 
cute them all the more bitterly. They increased their numbers how- 
ever, by receiving the remnants of the Waldensians and many Utra- 
quists, until by the beginning of the 16th century they had four hundred 
congregations in Bohemia and Moravia. Under Wladislaw II. perse- 
cution was stopped from a.d. 1475, but was renewed with great violence 
in A.D. 1503. They sent in a.d. 1511 a confession of faith to Erasmus 
(§ 120, 6), with the request that he would give his opinion about it ; 
which he however, fearing to be compromised thereby, declined to do. 


After the death of Bishop Matthias, in a.d. 1500, a dislike of monarch}' 
led to the appointment of four Seniors instead of one bishop, two for 
Bohemia and two for Moravia. The most important and influential of 
these was Luke of Prague, who died in a.d. 1518, rightly regarded as 
the second founder of the union. He impressed a character upon the 
brotherhood essentially distinct in respect of constitution and doctrine 
from the Lutheran Reformation. — Continuation § 139, 19. 

9. The Winkelers. — A sect sprang up in Bavaria, Swabia, and the Ehine 
provinces during the first half of the 15th century, derived mainly from 
the Waldensians and mystic Friends of God. They received their name 
from holding their services in out of the way corners. They had lay mis- 
sionaries, who went about evangelizing. To avoid the attentions of the 
Inquisition they took part in Catholic worship, even confessed in case of 
need to Catholic priests, but concealed their heretical views. About a.d. 
1400 we get a trace of them at Strassburg ; thirty-two of them were taken 
prisoners, and constrained under torture to confess. The Dominicans 
insisted they should be burnt, but the council was satisfied with banish- 
ing them from the city. One of their most distinguished teachers in 
later times was Reiser of Swabia. In his travels he had gone to 
Bohemia, and there joined the Hussites, was ordained a priest by them, 
and in a.d. 1433 accompanied their deputies to the Council of Basel. 
Procoi^ius had him appointed to a pastorate in Landscron, a Bohemian 
town, which, however, he soon relinquished. He lingered on in Basel, then 
went on evangelistic tours through Germany, at first on his own account, 
afterwards at the head of twelve Taborite missionaries. Finally, in a.d. 
1457, he went to Strassburg, intending to end his days there in peace. But 
soon after his arrival he was cast into prison, and in a.d. 1458, along 
with his faithful follower, Anna Weiler, put to death at the stake. 

10. The Dutch Reformers sprang mostly from the Brothers of the 
Common Life (§ 112, 9). — (1) John Pupper of Goch in Cleves, prior of a 
cloister founded by him at Mecheln, died a.d. 1475. His works show 
him to have been a man of deep spirituality. Love, which leads to the 
true freedom of sons of God, is the material, the sole authority of 
Scripture is the formal, principle of his theology, which rests on a purely 
Augustinian foundation. He contends against the doctrine of righteous- 
ness by works, the meritoriousness of vows, etc. — (2) John Ruchrath of 
Wesel, professor in Erfurt, afterwards jDreacher at Mainz and Worms, 
died in a.d. 1481. On the basis of a strictly Augustinian theology he 
opposed the papal systems of anathemas and indulgences, and preached 
powerfully salvation by Jesus Christ only. For the church doctrine of 
transubstantiation he substituted one of impanation. He spiritualized 
the doctrine of the church. Against the ecclesiastical injunction of 
fasts, he wrote Dejejunio ; against indulgences, De indulfjentiis ; against 
the hierarchy, De potestate ecdesiastica. The Dominicans of Mainz 


accused and coudemned him as a heretic in a.d. 1479. The old man, 
bent down with age and sickness, was forced to recant, and to burn his 
writings, and was sentenced to imprisonment for Hfe in a monastery. — 
(3) John Wessel of Groningen was a scholar of the Brothers of the Com- 
mon life at Zwoll, where Thomas a Kempis exerted a powerful influence 
over him. He taught in Cologne, Lyons, Paris, and Heidelberg, and 
then retired to the cloister of Agnes Mount, near Zwoll, where he died 
in A.D. 1489. His friends called him Lux mundi. Scholastic dialectics, 
mystical depths, and rich classical culture were in him united with a 
clear and accurate knowledge of science. Luther says of him : " Had 
I read Wessel before, my enemies would have said, Luther has taken 
everything from Wessel, so thoroughly do our ideas agree." His views 
are in harmony with Luther's, especially in what he teaches of Holy 
Scripture, the universal priesthood of Christians, indulgence, repentance, 
faith, and justification. He taught that not only popes but even 
councils may err and have erred; excommunication has merely outward 
efficacy, indulgence has to do only with ecclesiastical penalties, and God 
alone can forgive sins ; our justification rests on Christ's righteousness 
and God's free grace. Purgatory meant for him nothing more than the 
intermediate position between earthly imperfection and heavenly per- 
fection, which is attained only through various stages. The protection 
of powerful friends saved him from the persecution of tbe Inquisition. 
Many of his works were destroyed by the diligence of the mendicant 
friars. The most important of his extant writings is the Farrago, a 
collection of short treatises.^— (4) The priest of Rostock, Nicholas Russ, 
in the end of the 15th century, deserves honourable mention alongside of 
these Dutchmen. Living in intimate relations with Bohemian Walden- 
siaus, he was subjected to many indignities, and died a fugitive in Livonia. 
He wrote in the Dutch language a tract against the hierarchy, indul- 
gences, worship of saints and relics, etc., which was translated into 
German by Flacius. A copy of it was found in Rostock library in a.d. 
1850. It is entitled, " Of the Rope or of the Three Strings." The rope 
that will raise man from the depths of his corruption must be made up 
of the three strings, faith, hope, and love. These three strings are 
described in succession, and so the book forms a complete compendium 
of Christian faith and life, with a sharp polemic against the debased 
church doctrine and morals of the age. 

11. An Italian Eeformer. — Jerome Savonarola, born a.d. 1452, monk 
and from a.d. 1481 prior of the Dominican cloister of San Marco in 
Florence, was born a.d. 1489, in high repute in that city as an elo 

1 On these three consult Ullmann, " Reformers before the Refor- 
mation." 2 vols. Edin., 1855. Brandt, " History of the Reformation 
in the Low Countries," vol. i. London, 1720. 


quent and passionate preacher of repentance, with even reckless bold- 
ness declaiming against the depravity of clergy and laity, princes and 
people. With his whole soul a Dominican, and as such an enthusiastic 
admirer of Thomas, practising rigid self-discipline by fasts and flagel- 
lations, he was led by the study of Augustine and Scripture 'to a pure 
and profound knowledge of the evangelical doctrine of salvation, which 
he sought, not in the merits and intercession of the saints, nor in the 
performance of good works, but only in the grace of God and justifi- 
cation through faith in the crucified Saviour of sinners. But with this 
he combined a prophetic-apocalyptic theory, according to which he 
thought himself called and fitted by Divine inspiration, like the prophets 
of the Old Testament, to grapple with the political problems of the age. 
And, in fact, he made many a hardened sinner tremble by revealing con- 
templated secret sins, and many of his political prophecies seem to have 
been fulfilled with surprising accuracy. Thus he prophesied the death 
of Innocent VIII. in a.d. 1492, and proclaimed the speedy overthrow 
of the house of the Medici in Florence, as well as the punishment of 
other Italian tyrants and the thorough reformation of the church by 
a foreign king crossing the Alps with a powerful army. And lo, in the 
following year, the king of France, Charles VIII., crossed the Alps to 
enforce his claims upon Naples and force from the pope recognition of 
the Basel reforms ; the Medici were banished from Florence, and Naples 
unresistingly fell into the hands of the French. Thus the ascetic monk 
of San Marco became the man of the people, who now began with Ruth- 
less energy to carry out, not only moral and religious reformatory 
notions, but also his political ideal of a democratic kingdom of God. 
In vain did Alexander VI. seek by offer of a cardinal's hat to win over 
the demagogical prophet and reformer; he only replied, "I desire no 
other red hat than that coloured by the blood of martyrdom." In vain 
did the pope insist that he should appear before him at Kome ; in vain did 
he forbid him the pulpit, from which he so powerfully moved the people. 
An attempt to restore the Medici also failed. At the carnival in a.d. 
1497 Savonarola proved the supremacy of his influence over the people 
by persuading them, instead of the usual buffoonery, to make a bonfire of 
the articles of luxury and vanity. But already the political movements 
were turning out unfavourably, and his utterances were beginning to 
lose their reputation as true jDrophecies. Charles VIII. had been com- 
pelled to quit Italy in a.d. 1495, and Savonarola's assurances of his 
speedy return were still unfulfilled. Popular favour vacillated, while 
the nobles and the libertine youth were roused to the utmost bitterness 
against him. The Franciscans, as members of a rival order, were his 
sworn enemies. The papal ban was pronounced against him in a.d. 1497, 
and the city was put under the interdict. A monk of his cloister, Fra 
Domeuico Pescia, offered to pass the ordeal of fire in behalf of his master, 


if any of his opponents would submit to the same trial. A Franciscan 
declared himself ready to do so, and all arrangements were made. But 
when Domenico insisted upon taking with him a consecrated host, the 
trial did not come off, to the great disappointment of a people devotedly 
fond of shows. A fanatical mob took the prophet prisoner. His bitterest 
enemies were his judges, who, after torture had extorted from him a con- 
fession of false prophecy most repugnant to his inmost convictions, con- 
demned him to death by fire as a deceiver of the people and a heretic. 
On 23rd May, a.d. 1498, he was, along with Domenico and another monk, 
hung upon a gallows and then burned. The believing joy with which 
he endured death deepened the reverence of an ever-increasing band of 
adherents, who proclaimed him saint and martyr. His portrait in the 
cell once occupied by him, painted by Fra Bartolomeo, surrounded with 
the halo of a saint, shows the veneration in which he was held by his 
generation and by his order. His numerous sermons represent to us 
his burning oratory. His chief work is his Triumphus crucis of a.d. 
1497, an eloquent and tlioughtful vindication of Christianity against the 
half pagan scepticism of the Renaissance, then dominant in Florence and 
at the court. An exposition of the 51st Psalm, written in prison and 
not completed, works out, with a clearness and precision never before 
attained, the doctrine of justification by faith. It was on this account 
republished by Luther in a.d. 1523.^ 

§ 120. The Revival of Learning. 
The classical literature of Greek, and especially of Roman, 
antiquity was during the Middle Ages in the West by no 
means so completel}^ unknown and unstudied as is commonly 
supposed. Rulers like Charlemagne, Charles the Bald, 
Alfred the Great, and the German Ottos encouraged its 
study. Such scholars as Erigena, Gerbert, Barnard Syl- 
vester, John of Salisbury, Roger Bacon, etc., were relatively 
well acquainted with it. Moorish learning from Spain and 
intercourse with Byzantine scholars spread classical culture 

1 Heraud, " Life and Times of Savonarola." London, 1843. Villari, 
" History of Savonarola." 2 vols. London, 1888. Madden, " The Life 
and Martyrdom of Savonarola." 2 vols., London, 1854. MacCrie, 
" History of Reformation in Italy." Edin., 1827. Roscoe, " Lorenzo 
de Medici." London, 1796. See also chapters on Savonarola in Mrs. 
Oliphant's "Makers of Florence." London, 1881. Milman, " Savona- 
rola, Erasmus," etc. Essays. London, 1870. 


during the 12th and 13th centuries, and the Hohenstaufen 
rulers were its eager and liberal patrons. In the 14th 
century the founders of a national Italian literature, Dante, 
. Petrarch, and Boccaccio, earnestly cultivated and encouraged 
classical studies. But an extraordinary revival of interest 
in such pursuits took place during the 15th century. The 
meeting of Greeks and Italians at the Council of Elorence 
in A.D. 1439 (§ G7, 6) gave the first impulse, while the 
Turkish invasion and the downfall of Constantinople in A.D. 
1453 gave it the finishing touch. Immense numbers of 
Byzantine scholars fled to Italy, and were accorded an 
enthusiastic reception at the Vatican and in the houses of 
the Medici. With the aid of printing, invented about A.D. 
1450, the treasures of classical antiquity were made ac- 
cessible to all. From the time of this immigration, too, 
classical studies took an altogether new direction. During 
the Middle Ages they were made almost exclusively to 
subserve ecclesiastical and theological ends, but now they 
were conducted in a thoroughly independent spirit, for the 
purpose of universal human culture. This " humanism " 
emancipated itself from the service of the church, assumed 
toward Christianity for the most part an attitude of lofty 
indifference, and often lost itself in a vain worship of pagan 
antiquity. Faith was mocked at as well as superstition ; 
sacred history and Creek mythology were treated alike. 
The youths of all European countries, thirsting for know- 
ledge, crossed the Alps, to draw from the fresh springs of the 
Italian academies, and took home with them the new ideas, 
transplanting into distant lands in a modified form the liber- 
tinism of the new paganism that had now over-run Italy. 

1. Italian Humanists.— Italy was the cradle of humanism, the Greeks 
who settled there (§ 62, 1, 2j, its fathers. The first Greek who appeared 
as a teacher in Italy was Emmanuel Chrysoloras, in a.d. 1396. After the 
Council of Florence, Bessarion and Gemistlius Pletho settled there, both 
ardent adherents of the Platonic philosophy, for which they created an 


enthusiasm throughout all Italy. From a.d. 1453 G-reek litterateurs came 
in crowds. From their schools classical culture and pagan ideas spread 
through the land. This paganism penetrated even the highest ranks of 
the hierarchy. Leo X.^ is credited with saying, " How many fables about 
Christ have been used by us and ours through all these centuries is very 
well known." It may not be literally authentic, but it accurately expresses 
the spirit of the papal court. Leo's private secretary, Cardinal Bembo, 
gave a mythological version of Christianity in classical Latin. Christ 
he styled " Minerva sprung from the head of Jupiter," the Holy Spirit 
"the breath of the celestial Zephyr," and repentance was with him a 
Deos superosque manesque placare. Even during the council of Florence 
Pletho had expressed the opinion that Christianity would soon develop 
into a universal religion not far removed from classical paganism ; and 
when Pletho died, Bessarion comforted his sons by saying that the 
deceased had ascended into the pure heavenly spheres, and had joined 
the Olympic gods in mystic Bacchus dances. In the halls of the Medici 
there flourished a new Platonic school, which put Plato's philosophy above 
Christianity. Alongside of it arose a new peripatetic school, whose repre- 
sentative, Peter Pompanazzo, who diedA.n. 152(3, openly declared that from 
the philosophical point of view the immortality of the soul is more than 
doubtful. The celebrated Florentine statesman and historian MaccMa- 
velli," who died a.d. 1527, taught the princes of Italy in his '• Prince," in 
direct contradiction to Dante's idealistic " Monarchia," a realistic polity 
which was completely emancipated from Christianity and every system 
of morality, and presented the monster Cffisar Borgia (§ 110, 12) as a pat- 
tern of an energetic prince, consistently labouring for the end he had in 
view. Looseness of morals went hand in hand with laxity in religion, 
Obscene poems and pictures circulated among the humanists, and their 
practice was not behind their theory. Poggio's lewd facetiae, as well as 
Boccadelli's indecent epigrams, fascinated the cultured Christian world as 
much by their lascivious contents as by their classical style. From the 
dialogues of Laurentius Valla on lust and the true good, which were 
meant to extol the superiority of Christian morals over those of the 
Epicureans and Stoics, comes the saying that the Greek courtesans were 
more in favour than the Christian nuns. The highly gifted poet, Pietro 
Aretino, in his poetical prose writings reached the utmost pitch of obsce- 
nity. He was called " the divine Aretino," and not only Charles V. and 
Francis I. honoured him with presents and pensions, but also Leo X., 
Clement VIII., and even Paul III. showed him their esteem and favour. 
In their published works the Italian humanists generally ignored rather 
than contested the church and its doctrines and morality. But Lauren- 

^ Eoscoe, " Leo X." London, 1805. 

2 Villari, " Niccolo Macchiavelli, and his Times." 4 vols. Lend., 1878. 


tius Valla, who died a.d. 1457, ventured in his Adnotationes in N.T. freely 
to find fault with and correct the Vulgate. He did even more, for he 
pronounced the Donation of Constantine (§ 87,4) a forgery, and poured 
forth bitter invectives against the cupidity of the papacy. He also 
denied the genuineness of the correspondence of Christ with Abgarus 
(§ 13, 2), as well as that of the Areopagite writings {§ 47, 11) and 
questioned if the Apostles' Creed was the work of the apostles (§ 35, 2). 
The Inquisition sought to get hold of him, but Nicholas V. (§ 110, 10) 
frustrated the attempt and showed him kindness. With all his classical 
culture, however, Valla retained no small reverence for Christianity. In 
a still higher degree is this true of John Pious, Prince of Mirandola, the 
phceuix of that age, celebrated as a miracle of learning and culture, 
who united in himself all the nobler strivings of the present and the 
past. When a youth of twenty-one he nailed up at Home nine hundred 
theses from all departments of knowledge. The proposed disputation did 
not then come off, because many of those theses gave rise to charges of 
heresy, from which he was cleared only by Alexander VI. in a.d. 1493. 
The combination of all sciences and the reconciliation of all systems of 
philosophy among themselves and with revelation on the basis of the Cab- 
bala was the main point in his endeavours. He has wrought out this idea 
in his HejJtaplus, in which, by means of a sevenfold sense of Scripture, be 
succeeds in deducing all the wisdom of the world from the first chapter 
of . Genesis. He died in a.d. 1494, in the thirty-first year of his age. In 
the last year of his life, renouncing the world and its glory, he set him- 
self with all his powers to the study of Scripture, and meant to go from 
land to land preaching the Cross of Christ. His intentions were frus- 
trated by death. His saying is a very characteristic one : Philosophia 
veritatem quccrit, theologia invenit, religio possidet. 

2. German Humanism. — The home of German humanism was the 
University of Erfurt, founded a.d. 1392. At the Councils of Constance 
and Basel Erfurt, next to Paris, manifested the greatest zeal for the 
reformation of head and members, and continued to pursue this course 
during the twenty years' activity of John of Wesel (§ 119, 10). About 
a.d. 1460 the first representatives of humanism made their appearance 
there, a German Luder and a Floren>tine Publicius. From their school 
went forth among others Rudolph of Langen, who carried the new light 
into the schools of Westphalia, and John of Dalberg, afterwards Bishop 
of Worms. When these two had left Erfurt, Maternus Pistorius headed 
the humanist movement. Crowds of enthusiastic scholars from all 
parts of Germany gathered around him. As men of poetic tastes, who 
appreciated the ancient classics, they maintained excellent relations 
with the representatives of scholasticism. But in a.d. 1504 Busch, a 
violent revolutionist, appearing at Erfurt, demanded the destruction of 
the old scholastic text-books, and thus produced an absolute breach 


between the two tendencies. Maternus retired, and Mutian, an old 
Erfurt student, assumed the leadership in Gotha. Erfurt and Gotha 
were kept associated by a lively intercourse between the students resident 
at these two places. Mutian had no literary ambitions, and firmly 
declined a call to the new University of Wittenberg. All the more 
powerfully he inspired his contemporaries. His bitter opposition to 
hierarchism and scholasticism was expressed in keen satires. On retiring 
from public life, he devoted himself to the study of Holy Scripture and 
the Fathers. Shortly before his death he wrote down this as his con- 
fession of faith : Multa scit rusticus, qucB philosophus ignorat ; Christus 
vero pro nobis mortuus est, qui est vita nostra, quod certissime credo. The 
leadership passed over to Eoban Hesse. The members of the society 
joined the party of Luther, with the exception of Crotus Rubianus. 
Ulrich von Hutten was one of the followers of Mutian, a knight of a 
noble Franconian family, inspired with ardent patriotism and love of 
freedom, who gave his whole life to battle against pedantry, monkery, 
and intolerance. Escaping in a.d. 150^ from Fulda, where he was being 
trained for the priesthood, he studied at Erfurt, fought in Maximilian's 
army with the sword, in Mutian's and Reuchlin's ranks with the pen, 
and after the fall of Sickingen became a homeless wanderer, until he 
died in want, in a.d. 1523, on Ufenan, an island in the Lake of Ziirich.' 
3. Next to Erfurt, Heidelberg, founded in a.d. 1386, afforded a con- 
genial home for humanist studies. The most brilliant representative of 
humanism there was Rudolph Agricola, an admirer and disciple of A. 
Kempis and Wessel. His fame rests more on the reports of those who 
knew him personally than on any writings left behind by him. His 
pupils mostly joined the Reformation. — The University of Wittenberg, 
founded by Frederick the Wise in a.d. 1502, was the nursery of a wise 
and moderate humanism. Humanist studies also found an entrance into 
Freiburg, founded in a.d. 1455, into Tubingen, founded in a.d. 1477, where 
for a long time Reuchlin taught, and into Ingolstadt, founded in a.d. 
1472, where the Duke of Bavaria spared no efforts to attract the most 
distinguished humanists. Conrad Celtes, a pupil of Agricola, taught at 
Ingolstadt until his removal to Vienna in a.d. 1497. Eck and Rbegius, 
too, were among its ablest alumni. As a bitter opponent of Luther, Eck 
gave the university a most pronounced anti-reformation character; whereas 
Rhegius preached the gospel in Augsburg, and spent his life in the service 
of the Reformation. Reuchlin also taught for a time in Ingolstadt, and 
the patriotism and reformatory tendencies of Aventinus the Bavarian 
historian received there the first powerful impulse. At Nuremberg the 
humanists found a welcome in the home of the learned, wealthy, and 

* Strauss, '♦ Ulrich von Hutten," trans, by Mrs. Sturge. London, 
1874. Hausser, " Period of the Reformation." 2 vols. London, 1873, 


noble Councillor Pirkheimer. In Reuchlin's controversy with the scholars 
of Cologne he showed himself an eager apologist, and headed the party 
of Eeuchlin. He greeted Luther's appearance with enthusiasm, and 
entertained the reformer at his own house on his return from the discus- 
sion with Cajetan (§ 122, 3), on account of which Eck made the papal bull 
against Luther tell also against him. What he regarded as Luther's 
violence, however, soon estranged him, while the cloister life of his 
three sisters and three daughters presented to him a picture of Catholi- 
cism in its noblest and purest form. His eldest sister, Christas, abbess 
of the Clara convent at Nuremburg, one of the noblest and most cultured 
women of the 16th century, had a powerful influence over him. He died 
in A.D. 1530. 

4. John Eeuchlin, born in a.d. 1455 at Pforzheim, went to the celebrated 
school at Schlettstadt in Alsace, studied at Freiburg, Paris, Basel, and 
Orleans, taught law in Tubingen, and travelled repeatedly in Italy with 
Eberhard the Bearded of Wiirttemberg. After Eberhard's death he went 
to the court of the Elector-palatine Philip, and along with D'Alberg did 
much for the reputation of the University of Heidelberg. Afterwards 
he was for eleven years president of the Swabian court of justiciary at 
Tubingen. When in a.d. 1513 the seat of this court was removed to 
Augsburg he retired to Stuttgart, was called in a.d. 1519 by William of 
Bavaria to Ingolstadt as professor of Greek and Hebrew. On the outbreak 
of the plague at Ingolstadt in a.d. 1520, he accepted a call back to Tiibin- 
gen, where he died in a.d. 1522. He never gave in his adhesion to the 
reforming ideas of Luther. He left unanswered a letter from the 
reformer in a.d. 1518. But as a promoter of every scientific endeavour, 
especially in connection with the study of the original text of the O.T., 
Reuchlin had won imperishable renown. He was well entitled to con- 
clude his Riidimenta Ungues Hehraiccs of a.d. 1506 with Horace's words, 
Stat monumentum aere j^erenniuo, for that book has been the basis of all 
Christian Hebrew philology. ^ He also discussed the difficult subject of 

1 A young Minorite, Conrad Pellicanus of Tubingen, had as early as 
A.D. 1501 composed a very creditable guide to the study of the Hebrew 
language, under the title De viodo legcndi et inteUigendi Hehrcexim, 
which was first printed in Strassburg in a.d. 1504. Amid inconceivable 
difficulties, purely self taught, and with the poorest literary aids, he had 
secured a knowledge of the Hebrew language which he perfected by 
unwearied application to study and by intercourse with a baptized Jew. 
He attained such proficiency, that he won for himself a place among the 
most learned exegetes of the Reformed Church as professor of theo- 
logy at Basel in a.d. 1523 and at Zurich from a.d. 1525 till his death, 
in A.D. 1556. His chief work is Gomvientaria Bibliorum, 7 vols, fol., 


Hebrew accents in a special treatise, Be Ace. et Orthogr. Hebr. 11. iii, and 
the secret doctrines of the Jews in his De arte Cahbalistica. He offered 
to instruct any Jew who wished it in the doctrines of Christianity, and 
also to care for his temporal affairs. His attention to rabbinical studies 
involved him in a controversy which spread his fame over all Europe. 
A baptized Jew, Pfefferkorn, in Cologne in a.d. 1507 exhibited a neo- 
phyte's zeal by writing bitter invectives against the Jews, and in a.d. 1509 
called upon the Emperor Maximilian to have all rabbinical writings burnt 
because of the blasphemies against Christ which they contained. The 
emperor asked the ojoinion of the universities of Mainz, Cologne, Erfurt, 
and Heidelberg, as well as of Eeuchlin and the Cologne inquisitor Hoog-' 
straten. Erfurt and Heidelberg gave a qualified, Reuchlin an unquali- 
fied answer in opposition to the proposal. The openly abusive Jewish 
writings, e.g. the notorious Toledoth Jeschu, he would indeed condemn, 
but all other books, e.g. the Talmud, the Cabbala, the biblical glosses and 
commentaries, books of sermons, prayers, and sacred songs, as well as 
all philosophical, scientific, poetic, and satirical writings of the Jews, he 
was prepared unconditionally to defend. Pfefferkorn contended against 
him passionately in his " Handspiegel" of a.d. 1511, to which Reuchlin 
replied in his " Augenspiegel." The theological faculty of Cologne, 
mostly Dominicans, pronounced forty-three statements in the " Augen- 
spiegel " heretical, and demanded its suppression. Reuchlin now gave 
free vent to his passion, and in his Defensio c. calumniatores suos Colo- 
nienses denounced his opponents as goats, swine, and children of the 
devil. Hoogstraten had him cited before a heresy tribunal. Eeuchlin 
did not appear, but appealed to Pope Leo X. (a.d. 1513). A commission 
appointed by Leo met at Spires in a.d. 1514, and declared him not guilty 
of heresy, found Hoogstraten liable in the costs of the process, which 
was enforced with hearty satisfaction by Franz von Sickingeu in a.d. 1519. 
But meanwhile Hoogstraten had made a personal explanation of his 
affairs at Rome, and had won over the influential magister sacrl palatii, 
Sylvester Prierias (§ 122, 2), who got the pope in a.d. 1520 to annul the 
judgment and to condemn Reuchlin to pay the costs and observe eternal 
silence. The men of Cologne triumphed, but in the public opinion of 
Germany Reuchlin was regarded as the true victor. 

5. A multitude of vigorous and powerful pens were now in motion on 
behalf of Reuchlin. In the autumn of a.d. 1515 appeared the first book 
of the Epistolse obscurorum virorum, which pretended to be the correspon- 
dence of a friend with the Cologne teacher Ortuinus Gratius of Deventer. 
In the most delicious monkish Latin the secret affairs of the mendicant 
monks and their hatred of Reuchlin were set forth, so that even the 
Dominicans, according to Erasmus, for a time regarded the correspon- 
dence as genuine. All the more overwhelming was the ridicule which 
fell upon them throughout all Europe. The mendicants inleed obtained 


from Leo a bull against the wiiters of the book, but this only increased 
its circulation. The authors remained unknown ; but there is no doubt 
they belonged to the Mutian party. Justus Jonas, a member of that 
guild, affirms that Crotus Rubianus had a principal hand in its com- 
position. The idea of it was probably suggested by Mutian himself. 
Ulrich von Hutten repudiated any share in it, and on internal and ex- 
ternal grounds this is more than probable. Busch, Urban, Petrejus, 
and Eoban Hesse most likely contributed to it. In order to keep up the 
deception, Venice was given as the place of publication, the name of the 
famous Aldus Manutius, the papal publisher of Venice, was put upon 
the title, and a pseudo-papal imprimatur was attached. The second 
book was issued in a.d. 1517 by Frobenius in Basel. The monkish party 
published as a counterblast Lamentationes ohscurorum virorum oX Cologne 
in A.D. 1518, but the lame and forced wit of the book marked it at once 
as a ridiculous failure. The monks and schoolmen were once and for 
ever morally annihilated.^ 

6. Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam was the most brilliant of all the 
humanists, not only of Germany, but also of all Europe. Born in a.d. 
1465, he was educated by the Brothers of the Common Life at Deventer 
and Herzogenbusch, and afterwards forced by his relatives to enter a 
monastery in a.d. 1486. In a.d. 1491 he was relieved from the monastic 
restraints by the Bishop of Cambray, and sent to finish his studies at 
Paris. He visited England in a.d. 1497, in the company of young Eng- 
lishmen to whom he had been tutor. There the humanist theologian 
Colet of Oxford exerted over him a wholesome influence that told upon 
his whole future life. After spending a year and a half in England, 
he passed the next six years, sometimes in France, sometimes in the 
Netherlands ; was in Italy from a.d. 1507 till a.d. 1510 ; then again 
for five years in England, for most of that time teaching Greek at 
Cambridge; then other six years in the Netherlands ; and at last, in a.d. 
1521, he settled with his publisher Frobenius in Basel, where he enjoyed 
intercourse with the greatest scholars of the day, and maintained an 
extensive correspondence. He refused every offer of official appointment, 
even the rank of cardinal, but in reality held undisputed sway as king 
in the world of letters. He did much for the advancement of classical 
studies, and in various ways promoted the Protestant Reformation. The 
faults of the scholastic method in the study of theology he unsparingly 
exposed, while the misdeeds of the clergy and the ignorance and sloth of 
the monks afforded materials for his merciless satires. The heathenish 
spirit of many of the humanists, as well as the turbulent and revolu- 
tionary procedure of Ulrich von Hutten, was quite distasteful to him ; but 
his Pelagianising tendencies also prevented him from appreciating the 

1 Strauss, " Ulrich von Hutten." London, 1874, pp. 120-140. 


true character of the gosi^el. He desired a reformation of the Church, 
but he had not the reformer's depth of religious emotion, world-conquer- 
ing faith, self-denying love, and heroic preparation for martyrdom. He 
was much too fond of a genial literary life, and his perception of the 
corruption of the church was much too superficial, so that he sought 
reformation rather by human culture than by the Di-vine power of the 
gospel. "When the Reformation conquered at Basel in a.d. 1529, Erasmus 
withdrew to Freiburg. He returned to Basel in a.d. 1536 for conference 
with Frobenius, and died there under suspicion of heresy without the 
sacraments of the church. His friends the monks at an earlier period, 
on the occasion of a false report of his death, had said in their barbarous 
Latin that he died " sine lux, sine crux, sine Deus.'' The most im- 
portant of his works are his critical and exegetical treatises on the N.T. 
The first edition of his Greek N.T., with Latin translation, short notes, 
and three introductory sections, was published in a.d. 1516. In the 
second edition of a.d. 1519, one of these introductory sections. Ratio vera 
tlieolofjiie, appeared in a greatly extended form ; and from a.d. 1522 it 
was issued separately, and passed through several editions. Scarcely less 
important were his paraphrases of all the biblical books except the 
ApocalyiDse, begun in a.d. 1517. He did much service too by his editions 
of the Fathers. On his polemic with Luther see ^ 125, 8. His Eccle- 
siastes s. concionator evangelicals of a.d. 1535 is a treatise on homiletics 
admirable of its kind. In his "Praise of Folly" (Yl-^nuifnov /xupias, s. 
Laus stultitice) of a.d. 1511, dedicated to his friend Sir Thomas More, he 
overwhelms with ridicule the schoolmen, as well as the monks and the 
clergy; and in his " Colloquies" of a.d. 1518, by which he hoped to make 
boys latiniores et meliores, he let no opportunity pass of reproaching the 
monks, the clergy, and the forms of worship which he regarded as super- 
stitious. Also his Adagia of a.d. 1500 had afi'orded him abundant scope 
for the same sort of thing, '.^piety of the purest and noblest type, 
derived from the schools of the Brothers of the Common Life, and from 
intercourse with Colet, breathes through his EiichiridionviiUtis christianl 
of A.D. 1502.1— Continuation § 123, 3. 

7. Humanism in England. — In England we meet with two men in the 
end of the 15th century, closely related to Erasmus, of supreme influence 
as humanists in urging the claims of reform within the Catholic church. 

1 Erasmus, " Colloquies," trans, by Bailey, ed. by Johnson. Lond., 
1877. " Praise of Folly," trans, by Copner. Lond., 1878. Seebohm, 
'' Oxford Reformers of 1498 : Colet, Erasmus, and More." Lond., 1869. 
Drummond, " Erasmus, His Life and Character," 2 vols. Lond., 1873. 
Penniugton, " Life and Character of Erasmus." Lond., 1874. Strauss, 
"Ulrich von Hutten." Lond., 1874, pp. 315-346. Corner, "Hist, of 
Prot. Theology," 2 vols. Edin., 1871, vol. i., p. 202. 



John Colet in a.d. 1496 returned to England after a long sojourn in 
Italy, where he had obtained, not only humanistic culture, but also, 
through contact with Savonarola and Miraudola, a powerful religious 
impulse. He then began, at Oxford, his lectures on the Pauline epistles, 
in which he abandoned the scholastic method and returned to the 
study of Scripture and the Fathers. There, in a.d. 1498, he attached 
himself closely to Erasmus and to young Thomas More, who was studying 
in that place. In a.d. 1505 Colet was made doctor and Dean of St. 
Paul's, in which position he expounded with great success whole biblical 
books and large portions of others in his sermons. After his father's 
death in a.d. 1510, he applied his great wealth to the founding of a gram- 
mar school at St. Paul's for the instruction of more than 150 boys in classi- 
cal, biblical, and patristic literature. A convocation of English bishops 
in A.D. 1512, to devise means for rooting out heresy (§ 119, 1), gave him 
the opportunity in his opening sermon to speak plainly to the assembled 
bishops. He told them that reform of their own order was the best way 
to protect the church against the incursion of heretics. This aroused 
the bitter wrath of the old, bigoted Bishop Fitzjames of London, who 
disliked him exceedingly on account of his reforming tendencies and his 
pastoral and educational activity. But the archbishop, Warham of Can- 
terbury, repelled the bishop's fanatical charge of heresy as well as King 
Henry's suspicions in regard to the political sympathies of the simple, 
pious man. Colet died in a.d. 1519. —Thomas More, born in a.d. 1480, was 
recommended to the king by Cardinal Wolsey, and rose from step to step 
until in a.d. 1529 be succeeded his patron as Lord Chancellor of England. 
In bonds of closest intimacy with Colet and Erasmus, More also shared 
in their desires for reform, but applied himself, in accordance with his 
civil and ofHcial position, more to the social and political than to the 
ecclesiastical aspects of the question. His most comprehensive con- 
tribution is found in his famous satire, "Utopia," of a.d. 1516, in which 
he sets forth his views as to the natural and rational organization of all 
social and political relations of life in contrast to the corrupt institutions 
of existing states. The religious side of this Utopian paradise is pure 
deism, public worship being restricted to the use of what is common to 
all religions, and peculiarities of particular religions are relegated to 
special or private services. We cannot however from this draw any 
conclusion as to his own religious beliefs. More continued to the end 
a zealous Catholic and a strict ascetic, and was a man of a singularly 
noble and steadfast character. In the controversy between the king and 
Luther (§ 125, B) he supported the king, and as chancellor he wrote, in 
direct contradiction to the principles of religious toleration commended in 
his " Utopia," with venomous bitterness against the adherents of the anti- 
Catholic reformation. But he decidedly refused to acquiesce in the king's 
divorce; and when Henry quarrelled with the pope in a.d. 1532 and began 


to carry out reforms in a Caesaro-papistic manner (§ 159, 4), he resigned 
his oflBces, firmly refused to acknowledge the royal supremacy over the 
English church, and, after a long and severe imprisonment, was be- 
headed in A.D. 1535. ^ 

8. Humanism in France and Spain.— In France humanist studies were 
kept for a time in the background by the world-wide reputation of the 
University of Paris and its Sorbonne. But a change took place when the 
young king Francis I., a.d. 1515-1547, became the patron and promoter 
of humanism. One of its most famous representatives was Budseus, royal 
librarian, who aided in founding a college for the cultivation of science 
free from the shackles of scholasticism, and exposed the corruptions of 
the papacy and the clergy. But much as he sympathized with the spirit 
of the Reformation, he shrank from any open breach with the Catholic 
church. He died in a.d. 1540. His like-minded contemporary, Faber 
pupils around him, and from a.d. 1507 applied himself almost exclusively 
Stapulensis, as a teacher of classical literature at Paris gathered crowds of 
to biblical exegetical studies. He criticised and corrected the corrupt text 
of the Vulgate, commented on the Greek text of the gospels and apo- 
stolic epistles, and on account of this, as well as by reason of a critical 
dissertation on Mary Magdalene of a.d. 1521, was condemned by the 
Sorbonne. Francis I. and his sister Margaret of Orleans protected him 
from further persecution. Also his former pupil, William Bri^onnet, 
Bishop of Meaux, who was eagerly endeavouring to restore morality and 
piety among his clergy, appointed him his vicar-general, and gave him an 
opportunity to briug out his French translation of the New Testament from 
the Vulgate in a.d. 1523, which was followed by a translation of the Old 
Testament and a French commentary on the pericopes of the Sundays 
and festivals. As Faber here represented the Scriptures as the only rule 
of faith for all Christians, and taught that man is justified not by his 
works, but only by faith in the grace of God in Christ, the Sorbonne 
charged him with the Lutheran heresy, and Parliament, during the king's 
imprisonment in Spain (§ 12(3, 5) in a.d. 1525, appointed a commission 
to search out and suppress heresy in the diocese of Meaux. Faber's 
books were condemned to the flames, but he himself, threatened with 
the stake, escaped by flight to Strassburg. After his return the king 
provided for him a safe retreat at Blois, where he wrought at his trans- 
lation of the Old Testament, which he completed in a.d. 1528. He 
Bpent his last years at Nerac, the residence of his patroness Margaret, 
now Queen of Navarre, where he died in a.d. 1536 in his 86th year. 
Though at heart estranged from the Catholic church, he never formally 
forsook it. — In Spain Cardinal Ximenes (§ 118, 7) acted as the M^cenas 

1 Seebohm, " Oxford Reformers." Lond., 1869. Walter, "Sir Thomas 
More." Lond., 1840. Mackintosh, "Life of Sir Thomas More." Lond., 1844.- 


of humanist studies. The most distinguished Spanish humanist was 
Anton of Lebrija, professor at Salamanca, a fellow labourer with Ximenes 
on the Complutensian Polyglott, and protected by him from the Inqui- 
sition, which would have called him to account for his criticism of the 
Vulgate. He died in a.d. 1522. 

9. Humanism and the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century.— Humanists, 
in common with the reformers, inveighed against the debased scholasti- 
cism as well as against the superstition of the age. They did so how- 
ever on very different grounds, and conducted their warfare by very 
different methods. While the reformers employed the word of God, and 
strove after the salvation of the soul, the humanists employed wit and 
sarcasm, and sought after the temporal well-being of men. Hence the 
reaction of the despised scholasticism and the contemned monasticism 
against humanism was often in the right. A reformation of the church 
by humanism alone would have been a return to naked paganism. But, 
on the other hand, classical studies afforded men who desired a genuine 
reformation of the church a rich, linguistic, philosophical, and scientific 
culture, without which, as applied to researches in church history, the 
exposition of Scripture, and the revision of doctrine, the reforms of the 
sixteenth century could hardly have been carried out in a comprehensive 
and satisfactory manner. The most permanent advantage won for the 
church and theology by the revival of learning was the removal of Holy 
Scripture from under the bushel, and giving it again its rightful place as the 
lamp of the church. It pointed back from the Vulgate, of which since 
A.D. 1500, some ninety-eight printed editions had appeared, to the original 
text, condemned the allegorical method of exposition, awakened an 
appreciation of the grammatical and historical system of interpretation, 
afforded scientific apparatus by its philological studies, and by issuing 
printed Bibles secured the spread of the original text. From the time 
of the invention of printing the Jews Avere active in printing the Old 
Testament. From a.d. 1502 a number of Christian scholars, under the 
presidency of Ximenes, wrought at Alcala at the great Complutensian 
Polyglott, published in a.d. 1520. It contained the Hebrew and Greek 
texts, the Targums, the LXX., and the Vulgate, as well as a Latin trans- 
lation of the LXX. and of the Targums, with a much-needed grammatical 
■and lexical apparatus. Daniel Bomberg of Antwerp published at Venice 
various editions of the Old Testament, some with, some without, rab- 
binical commentaries. His assistants were Felix Pratensis, a learned 
Jew ; and Jacob ben Chaijim, a rabbi of Tunis. As the costly Comi^lu- 
tensian Polyglott was available only to a few, Erasmus did great service 
by his handy edition of the Greek New Testament, notwithstanding ita 
serious critical deficiencies. Erasmus himself brought out five successive- 
editions, but very soon more than thirty impressions were exhausted. 



History of the Development of the Church under Modern 
European Forms of Civilization. 

§ 121. Character and Distribution of Modern Church 

In tlie Heformation of the sixteenth century the intelli- 
gence of Grermany, which had hitherto been under the train- 
ing and tutelage of the Romish church, reached maturity 
by the application of the formal and material principles of 
Protestantism, — the sole normative authority of Scripture, 
and justification by faith alone without works of merit. It 
emancipated itself from its schoolmaster, who, for selfish 
ends, had made and still continued to make strenuous efforts 
to check every movement towards independence, every endea- 
vour after ecclesiastical, theological, and scientific freedom, 
every struggle after evangelical reform. Yet this emanci- 
pation was not completely effected in all the purety German 
nationalities, much less among those Romanic and Slavonic 
peoples which had bowed their necks to the papal hierarchy. 
The Romish church of the Reformation not only adhered to 
the form and content of its former unevangelical constitution, 
but also still further developed and formally elaborated its 
creed in the same unevangelical direction, and the result was 
a split in the western church into an Evangelical Protestant 
and a Roman Catholic church. Then again the principles of 
the Reformation were set forth in different ways, and Pro- 
testantism branched off into two divisions, the Lutheran 
and the Reformed. Besides these three new western 
churches and the one old eastern church, which all rested 
upon the common oecumenical basis of the old Catholic 
church, a variety of sects sprang out of them. Through 


these greater and lesser divisions, modern chnrcli history, 
where, with some advantages and some disadvantages, one 
church is pitted against another, possesses a character 
entirely different from the church history of earlier times. 

Modern church history naturally falls into four divisions. The dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of each is found partly in the opposition of 
particular churches to one another, partly in the antagonism of faith 
and unbelief. The transition from one to another corresponds generally 
with the boundaries of the centuries. The sixteenth century forms the 
Reformation period, in which the new Protestantism, parted from the 
old Roman Catholicism, cast off the deformatory elements which had 
attached themselves to it, and developed for itself a system of doctrine, 
worship, and constitution ; while the Roman Catholic church, from the 
middle of the century, set to work upon a counter-Reformation, by which 
it succeeded in large measure in reconquering the field that had been 
lost. The seventeenth century was characterized on the Protestant side 
as the age of orthodoxy, in which confessionalism obtained undivided 
supremacy, deteriorating however in doctrine and life into a frigid 
formalism, which called forth tbe movement of Pietism as a corrective ; 
but, on the Roman Catholic side, it was characterized as a period of 
continued successful restoration. In the eighteenth century begins the 
struggle against the dominant church and the prevailing conceptions 
of Christianity in the forms of deism, naturalism, and rationalism 
within both the Protestant and Catholic churches. The fourth division 
embraces the nineteenth century. The newly awakened faith strives 
vigorously with rationalism, and then, on the Protestant side, splits 
into unionism and confessionalism ; while, on the Roman Catholic side, 
it makes its fullest development in a zealous ultramontauism. But 
rationalism again renews its youth under the cloak of science, and 
alongside of it appears a more undisguised unbelief in the distinctly 
antichristian forms of pantheism, materialism, and communism, which 
seeks to annihilate everything Christian in church and state, in science 
and faith, in social and political life. 



I. The Reformation.^ 

§ 122. The Begixxixgs of the Wittenberg Reformation. 

At tlie beginning of the sixteenth century everything seemed 
to combine in favour of those reforming endeavours which 
had been held back during the Middle Ages. There was a 
lively perception of the corruptions of the church, a deep 
and universal yearning after reformation, the scientific 
apparatus necessary for its accomplishment, a pope, Leo 
X., careless and indolent ; a trafficker in indulgences, Tetzel, 
stupidly bold and shameless ; a noble, pious, and able prince, 
Frederick the Wise (§ 123, 9), to act as protector of the 
new creed ; an emperor, Charles V. (§ 123, 5), powerful 
and hostile enough to kindle the purifying fire of tribulation, 
but too much occupied with political entanglements to be 
able to indulge in reckless and violent oppression. There 
were also thousands of other persons, circumstances, and 
relations helping, strengthening, and furthering the work. 

^ Beard, " The Reformation of the 16th Cent, in its Relation to 
Modern Thought and Knowledge." Lond., 1883. Wylie, " History of 
Protestantism." 3 vols. Lond., 1875. Merle d'Anbigne, " History of 
Reformation in the 16th Cent, in Switzerland and Germany." 5 vols. 
Lond., 1840. D'Aubigne, " History of Reformation in Times of Calvin." 
8 vols. Lond., 1863. Ranke, " History of Reformation in Germany." 
3 vols. Lond., 18io. Hiiusser, " The Period of the Reformation." 2 
vols. Lond., 1873. Hagenbach, " History of the Reformation." 2 vols. 
Edinburgh, 1878. 

Kostlin, " Life of Martin Luther." Lond., 1884. Bayne, " Martin 
Luther : his Life and Work." 2 vols. Lond., 1887. Rae, " Martin 
Luther, Student, Monk, Reformer." Lond., 1884. 

Dale, " Protestantism : Its Ultimate Principle." Lond., 1875. Dorner, 
" History of Protestant Theology." 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1871. Cun- 
ningham, "Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation." Edin- 
burgh, 1862. Tulloch, " Leaders of the Reformation." Edinburgh, 1859, 


And now, at the right hour, in the fittest place, and with 
the most suitable surroundings, a religious genius, in the 
person of Luther, appeared as the reformer, with the rarest 
combination of qualities of head and heart, character and 
will, to engage upon that great work for which Providence 
had so marvellously qualified him. This mighty under- 
taking was begun by ninety-five simple theses, which he 
nailed to the door of the church of Wittenberg, and the 
Leipzig Disputation marked the first important crisis in its 

1. Luther's Years of Preparation. — Martin Luther, a miner's son, was 
born on November 10th, a.d. 1483. His childhood was passed under 
severe parental control and amid pinching poverty, and he went to school 
at Mansfeld, whither his parents had migrated ; then at Magdeburg, 
where, among the Brothers of the Common Life, he had mainly to secure 
his own support as a singing boy upon the streets ; and afterwards at 
Eisenach, where Madame Ursula Cotta, moved by his beautiful voice and 
earnest entreaty, took him into her house. In a.b. 1501 he entered on 
the study of jurisprudence at Erfurt (i^ 120, 2), took the degree of 
bachelor in a.d, 1502, and that of master in a.d. 1505. During a fearful 
thunderstorm, which overtook him as he travelled home, he was driven 
by terror to vow that he would become a monk, impressed as he was by 
the sudden death of an unnamed friend which had taken place shortly 
before. On the 17th July, a.d. 1505, he entered the Augustinian convent 
at Erfurt. In deep concern about his soul's salvation, he sought by 
monkish asceticism, fasting, prayer, and penances to satisfy his con- 
science, but the inward struggles only grew stronger. An old monk pro- 
claimed to the weaiy inquirer, almost fainting under the anxiety of spirit 
and self-imposed tortures, the comforting declaration of the creed, " I 
believe in the forgiveness of sins." Still more powerful in directing him 
proved the conversation of his noble superior, John Staupitz (§ 112, 6). 
He showed him the way of true repentance and faith in the Saviour 
crucified not for painted sins. Following his advice, Luther diligently 
studied the Bible, together with, of his own accord, Augustine's writings. 
In a.d. 1507 he was ordained priest, and in a.d. 1508 Staupitz promoted 
him to the University of Wittenberg, founded in a.d. 1502, where he 
lectured on the "Dialectics'' and "Physics" of Aristotle; and in a.d. 1509 
he was made Baccalaureus hiblicus. In the autumn of the same year he 
went again, probably by Staupitz' advice, to Erfurt, until, a year and a 
half afterwards, he obtained a definite settlement at Wittenberg. Highly 


important for bis subsequent development was the journey which, in a.d. 

1511, he took to Rome in the interests of his order. On the first view 
of the holy city, he sank upon his knees, and witli his hands raised to 
heaven cried out, "I greet thee, holy Rome." But he withdrew utterly 
disgusted with the godless frivolity and immorality which he witnessed 
among the clergy on every side, and dissatisfied with the externalism of 
the penitential exercises which he had undertaken. Daring his whole 
journey the Scripture sounded in his ear, "The just shall live by his 
faith." It was a voice of God in his soul, which at last carried the 
blessed peace of God into his wounded spirit. After his return, in a.d. 

1512, Staupitz gave him no rest until he took the degree of doctor of 
divinity; and now he gave lectures in the university on Holy Scripture, 
and afterwards preached in the city church of Wittenberg. He applied 
himself more and more, by the help of Augustine, to the study of Scrip- 
ture and its fundamental doctrine of justification by faith alone. About 
this time too he was powerfully influenced by Tauler's mysticism and 
tlie "Deutsche Theologie," of which he published an edition in a.d. 

2. Luther's Theses of A.D. 1517. — The esthetic and luxurious pope Leo 
X. (§ 110, 14), avowedly for the building of St. Peter's, really to fill his 
own empty coffers, had proclaimed a general indulgence. Germany was 
divided between three indulgence commissions. The elector-cardinal 
Albert of Mainz, archbishop of Magdeburg, and brother of Elector Joachim 
of Brandenburg, undertook the direction of the commission for his 
archiepiscopal province, for which he was to receive half the proceeds for 
the payment of his debts. The most shameless of the traffickers in 
indulgences employed by him was the Leipzig Dominican jDrior, -Tohn 
Tetzel. This man had been sentenced at Innsbrilck to be drowned for 
adultery, but on the intercession of the Elector of Saxony had his sentence 
commuted to imprisonment for life. He now was taken from his prison 
in order to do this piece of work for Albert. With great success he went 
from place to place, and offered his wares for sale, proclaiming their 
virtues in the public market with unparalleled audacity. He went to 
Jiiterbock, in the vicinity of Wittenberg, where he attracted crowds of 
purchasers from all around. Luther discovered in the confessional the 
corrupting influence of such procedure, and on the afternoon of All 
Saints' Day, October 31st, A.D. 1517, he nailed on the door of the Castle 
Church of Wittenberg ninety-five theses, explaining the meaning of 
the indulgence. Although they were directed not so much against 
the principle of indulgences as against their misunderstanding and 
abuse, they comprehended the real germ of the Reformation movement, 
negatively in the conception of repentance which they set forth, and 
positively in the distinct declaration that the grace of God in Christ can 
alone avail for the forgiveness of sin. With incredible rapidity the 


theses spread over all Germany, indeed over all Europe. Luther accom- 
panied them with a sermon on indulgence and grace. The immense 
applause which its delivery called forth led the supporters of the old 
views to gird on their armour. Tetzel publicly burnt the theses at 
Jiiterbock, and with the help of Wimpina posted up and circulated at 
Frankfort and other places counter-theses. The Wittenberg students 
purchased quantities of these theses, and in retaliation burnt them, but 
Luther did not approve their conduct. In April, a.d. 1518, Luther went 
to Heidelberg, to take part there in a regular chapter of the Augustinians, 
which was usually accompanied by public preaching and disputatious 
by members of the order. The disputation, which on this occasion was 
assigned to Luther, gave him the welcome opportunity of making known 
to wider circles these philosophical and theological views which he had 
hitherto uttered only in Wittenberg. The professors of the University 
of Heidelberg repudiated and opposed them, but in almost every case 
mildly and with tolerance. On the other hand, many of the young 
theologians studying there enthusiastically accepted his doctrines, and 
several of them, e.g. Martin Bucer of Strassburg (§ 125, 1), John Brenz 
and Erhard Schnepf of Swabia (v^ 133, 3), as well as Theobald Billicanus, 
afterwards reformer of Nordlingen, etc., there and then consecrated them- 
selves to their life work. 

3. Prierias, Cajetan, and Miltitz, A.D. 1518, 1519.— Leo X. at first re- 
garded the matter as an insignificant monkish squabble, and praised 
Brother Martin as a real genius. He gave no heed to Hoogstrateu's out- 
cry of heresy, nor did he encourage the Dominican Prierias in his attack 
on Luther. The book of Prierias was a harmless affair. Luther gave it 
a short and crushing reply. Prierias answered in a second and third 
tract, which Luther simply republished with sarcastic and overwhelming 
prefaces. The pope then enjoined silence upon his luckless steward. In 
May, A.D. 1518, Luther wrote a humble ei^istle to the pope, and added a 
series of liesolntiones in vindication of his theses. Staupitz is said to 
have revised both. Meanwhile it had been determined in Rome to deal 
with the Wittenberg business in earnest. The papal procurator made a 
complaint against Luther. A court was commissioned, which summoned 
him to appear in person at Rome to answer for himself. But, on the 
representations of the University of Wittenberg and the Elector Frederick 
the Wise, the pope charged Cardinal Cajetan, his legate at the Diet of 
Augsburg, to take up the consideration of the matter. Luther appeared, 
and made his appeal to the Bible. The legate however wished him 
to argue from the schoolmen, demanded an unconditional recantation, 
and at last haughtily dismissed " the beast with deep eyes and wonderful 
speculations in his head." Luther made a formal appeal a sanctissimo 
Domino Leone male informato ad meliits informandum, and quitted Augs- 
burg in good spirits. The cardinal now sought to rouse Frederick 


against the refractory monk, but Luther's buoj'ant and humble con- 
fidence won the noble elector's heart. Cajetan continued a vigorous 
opponent of the reformed doctrine. But Luther's superiority in Scrip- 
ture knowledge had so impressed the cardinal, that he now applied him- 
self closely to the study of the Bible in the original tongues ; and thus, 
while firmly attached to the Eomish system, he was led on many points, 
e.g. on Scripture and tradition, divorce, injunctions about meats, the 
use of the vernacular in public worship, the objectionableness of the alle- 
gorical interpretation, etc., to adopt more liberal views, so that he was 
denounced by some Roman Catholic controversialists as guilty of various 
heresies. — Luther had no reason in any case to look for any good from 
Rome. Hence he prepared beforehand an appeal for an cecumenical 
council, which the publisher, against Luther's will, at once spread 
abroad. In Rome the cardinal's pride was wounded by the failure of his 
undertaking. A papal bull defined the doctrine of indulgences, in order 
more exactly to guard against misrepresentations, and an accomplished 
courtier, the papal chamberlain, Carl von Miltitz, a Saxon, was sent to 
Saxony, in a.d. 1519, as papal nuncio, to convey to the elector the con- 
secrated golden rose, and to secure a happy conclusion to the controversy. 
The envoy began by addressing a sharp admonition to Tetzel, and met 
Luther with hypocritical graciousness. Luther acknowledged that he 
had acted rashly, wrote a humble, submissive letter to the pope, and 
published " ^« Instr»cf/o;i on some Articles ascribed to him by ]iis Tra- 
ducers.'' But after all the retractations which he made at the diet he 
still firmly maintained justification by faith, without merit of works. 
He promised the nuncio to abstain from all further polemic, on condition 
that his opponents also should be silent. But silent these would not be. 
4. The Leipzig Disputation, A.D. 1519. — John Eck of Ingolstadt had 
engaged in controversy with a zealous supporter and colleague of Luther, 
Andrew Bodenstein of Carlstadt, professor and preacher at Wittenberg, 
and Luther himself took part in the discussion between the two. This 
disputation came oft' at Leipzig, and lasted from June 27th to July 16th. 
But Eck's vanity led him not only to seek the greatest possible fame from 
his present disputation, but also to drag in Luther by challenging his 
theses. Eck disputed for eight days with Carlstadt about grace and free 
will, and with abundant eloquence, boldness, and learning vindicated 
Romish semi-Pelagianism. Then he disputed for fourteen days with 
Luther about the primacy of the pope, about repentance, indulgences, 
and purgatory, and pressed him hard about the Hussite heresy. But 
Luther sturdily opposed him on the grounds of Scripture, and confirmed 
himself in the conviction that even oecumenical councils might err, and 
that not all Hussite doctrines are heretical. Both parties claimed 
the victory. Luther continued the discussion in various controversial 
treatises, and Eck, too, was not silent. New combatants also, for and 


against, from all sides appeared upon the scene. The liberal humanists 
(§ 120, 2) had at first taken little notice of Luther's contention. But the 
Leipzig Disputation led them to change their attitude. Luther seemed 
to them now a newEeuchlin, Eck another specimen of Ortuinus Gratius. 
A biting satire of Pirkheimer (§ 120, 3), "Der abgehobelte Eck," ap- 
peared in the beginning of a.d. 1520, exceeding in Aristophanic wit any 
of the epistles of the Obscurantists. It was followed by several satires 
by Ulrich von Hutten, who received new inspiration from Luther's 
appearance at Leipzig. Hutten and Sickingen, with their whole party, 
undertook to protect Luther with body and soul, with sword and pen. 
This was a covenant of some advantage to the Reformation in its early 
years ; but had it not been again abrogated, it might have diverted the 
movement into an altogether wrong direction. From this time forth 
Duke George of Saxony, at whose castle and in whose presence the dis- 
putation had been conducted, became the irreconcilable enemy of Luther 
and his Reformation. 

5. Philip Melanclithon. — At the Leipzig Disputation there also appeared 
a man fated to become of supreme importance in the carrying out of 
the Reformation. Born on February 16th, a.d. 1497, at Bretten in the 
Palatinate, Philip Melanclithon entered the University of Heidelberg in 
his thirteenth year, and at the age of sixteen published a Greek grammar. 
He took the degree of master at seventeen, and at twenty-one, in a.d. 
1518, on the recommendation of his grand-uncle Reuchlin, he was made 
Professor of Greek in Wittenberg. His fame soon spread over all Europe, 
and attracted to him thousands of hearers from all parts. Luther and 
Elrasmus vied with one another in lauding his talents, his fine culture 
and learning, and his contemporaries have given him the honourable 
title of Pfceceptor Geniumup. He was an Erasmus of nobler form and 
higher power, a thorough contrast to Luther. His whole being breathed 
modesty, mildness, and grace. With childlike simplicity he received the 
recognised truths of the gospel. He bowed humbly before the powerful, 
practical spirit of Luther, who also, on his part, acknowledged with pro- 
found thankfulness the priceless treasure God had sent to him and to his 
work in this fellow labourer. Melanchthon wrote to his friend (Ecolam- 
padius at Basel an account of the Leii^zig Disputation, which by chance 
fell into Eck's hands. This occasioned a literary controversy, in which 
Eck's vain over-estimation of himself appears in very striking contrast 
to the noble modesty of Melanchthon. He took part in the Reformation 
first in February, a.d. 1521, by a pseudonymous apology for Luther.^ 

6. George Spalatin. — In consequence of his influential position at the 
court of the elector, which he obtained on Mutian's (§ 120, 2) recommen- 
dation, after completing his philosopbical, legal, and theological studies 

I Ledderhose, " Life of Melanchthon," trans, by Krotel. Philad., 1855. 

§ 123. Luther's PERIOD OF conflict, a.d. 15'20-21. 237 

at Erfurt, George Burkhardt, boru in a.d. 1484 at Spalt, in the diocese of 
Eichstadt, and hence called Spalatiuus, played an important part in the 
German Reformation. Frederick the Wise, who had, in a.d. 1509, en- 
trusted him with the education of his nephew John Frederick, appointed 
him, in a.d. 1514, his court chaplain, librarian, and private secretary, in 
which capacity he accompanied the elector to all the diets, and was 
almost exclusively the channel for communicating to him tidings about 
Luther. John the Constant, in a.d. 1525, made him superintendent of 
Altenburg, and took him with him to the diets of Spires, in a.d. 152(3, 
1529, and of Augsburg in a.d. 1530. John Frederick the Magnanimous, 
his former pupil, employed him in a.d. 1537 on important negotiations 
at the conference of the princes at Schmalkald (§ 134, 1). From a.d. 
1527 Spalatin was specially busy with the visitation and organization of 
the Saxon church (§ 127, 1), conducted, in the interests of the Refor- 
mation, an extensive correspondence, and composed several works on the 
history of his times and the history of the Reformation. 

§ 123. Luther's Period of Conflict, a.d. 1520, 1521. 

The Leipzig Disputation had carried Luther to a more 
advanced standpoint. He came to see that he could not 
remain standing half way, that the carrying out of the 
Reformation principle, justification by faith, was incom- 
patible with the hierarchical system of the papacy and its 
dogmatic foundation. But amid all the violence and sub- 
jective one-sidedness which he showed at the beginning of 
this period of conflict, he had sufficient control of himself 
to make clear the spiritual character of his reforming en- 
deavours, and firmly to reject the carnal weapons Avhich 
Ulrich von Hutten and his revolutionary companions wished 
him to take up, thankful as he was for their warm sympathy. 
His standpoint as a reformer is shown in the writings which 
he published during this period. The Romish bull of ex- 
communication provoked him to strong words and extreme 
measures, and with heroic boldness he entered Worms to 
present to the emperor and diet an account of his doings. 
The papal ban was followed by the imperial decree of out- 
lawry. But the Wartburg exile saved him from the hands of 
his enemies and— of his friends. 


1. Luther's Three Chief Reformation Writings, A.D. 1520. — In the 
powerful treatise, " To His Imperial Majesty and the Christian Nohility 
of the German Nation on the Improvement of the Christian Condition," 
which appeared in the beginning of August, 'a. d. 1520, Luther bombards 
first of all the three walls behind which the Romanists entrenched 
themselves, the superiority of the spiritual to the civil power, the sole 
right of the pope to interpret Scripture and to summon oecumenical 
councils. Then he commends to the laity, as consecrated by baptism to 
a spiritual priesthood, especially civil rulers ordained of God, the task of 
carrying out the reformation which God's word requires, but the pope 
and clergy hinder ; and then finally he makes a powerful appeal for 
carrying out this work in a practical way. He exposes the false preten- 
sions of the papal curia, demands renunciation of annats and papal 
confirmation of newly elected bishops, complete abandonment of the 
interdict and the abuse of excommunication, the prohibition of pilgri- 
mages and the begging of the monks, a limitation of holy days, reform 
of the universities, permission to the clergy to marry, reunion with the 
Bohemian Picards (§ 119, 8), etc. — The second work, "On the Babylonish 
Captivity of the Church," is a dogmatic treatise, and is directed mainly 
against the misuse of the sacraments and the reckoning of them as 
seven, which have been made in the hands of the pope an instrument 
of tyranny over the church. Only three are recognised as founded on 
Scripture : baptism, penance, and the Lord's Supper, with the remark 
that, strictly speaking, even penance, as wanting an outward sign, can- 
not be styled a sacrament. The doctrine of transubstantiation, the 
withholding of the cup from the laity, and the idea of a sacrifice in the 
mass are decidedly rejected. The third treatise, " On the Freedom of a 
Christian Man," enters the ethical domain. It represents the life of the 
Christian, rooted in justifying faith, as complete oneness with Christ. 
His relation therefore to the world around is set forth in two proposi- 
tions : A Christian man is a free lord over all things, and subject to no 
one ; and a Christian man is a ministering servant of all things, and 
subject to every one. On the one hand, he has the perfect freedom of a 
king and priest set over all outward things ; but, on the other hand, he 
yields complete submission in love to his neighbour, which, as considera- 
tion of the weak, his very freedom demands.^ 

2. The Papal Bull of Excommunication, A.D. 1520.— In order to reap 
the fruits of his pretended victory at Leipzig, Eck had gone to Rome, 
and was sent back triumphant as papal nuncio with the bull Exaurye 

1 Dorner, " History of Protestant Theology," vol. i., pp. 98-113. " The 
First Principles of the Reformation Illustrated in the Ninety-five Theses 
and Three Primary Works of Martin Luther," edited with historical and 
theological introductions by Wace and Bucheim. Lond., 1884. 

§ 123. Luther's period of conflict, a.d. 1520-21. 239 

Domini of June 16tli. It charged Luther with forty-one heresies, recom- 
mended the burning of his works, and threatened to put him and his 
followers, if they did not retract in sixty days, under the ban. Miltitz 
renewed his attempts at conciliation, which, however, led to no result, 
although Luther, to show at least his good will, attended the conference, 
and, as a basis for a mutual understanding, published his treatise, " On 
the Freedom of a Christian Man," in Oct. , a.d. 1520. He accompanied this 
with a letter to the pojae, in which he treated him with personal respect, as 
a sheep among wolves and as a Daniel sitting among lions ; but there was 
in it no word of repentance or of any desire to retract. It could easily 
have been foreseen that these two documents would prove thoroughly 
distasteful to the Romish court. Meanwhile Eck had issued the bull. 
Luther published a scathing polemic against it, and renewed his appeal, 
made two years before, to an cecumenical council. In Saxony Eck 
gained only scorn and reproach with his bull ; but in Lyons, Mainz, 
Cologne, etc., Luther's works were actually burnt. It was then that 
Luther took the boldest step in his whole career. With a numerous 
retinue of doctors and students, whom he had invited by a notice posted 
up on the blackboard, on the 10th Dec, a.d. 1520, at the Elster gate 
of Wittenberg, he cast into the blazing pile the bull and the papal 
decretals with the words, " Because thou hast troubled the saints of the 
Lord, let eternal fire consume thee." It was the utter renunciation of the 
pope and his church, and with it he cut away every possibility of a return. 

3. Erasmus, A.D. 1520. — Erasmus (§ 120, 0) had been hitherto on good 
terms with Luther. They entertained for one another a genuine regard. 
Diverse as their positive tendencies were, they were at one in contending 
against scholasticism and monkery. Erasmus was not sorry to see such 
heavy blows dealt to the detested monks, and constantly refused to write 
against Luther; he had also, he confessed, no wish to learn from his 
own experience the sharpness of Luther's teeth. When the papal bull 
appeared, without hesitation he disapproved it, and indeed refused to 
believe in its genuineness. He, as the oracle of his age, was applied to 
by many for his opinion of the matter. His judgment was that not the 
papal decision in itself but its style and form should be disapproved. 
He desired a tribunal of learned, pious men and three princes (the 
emperor and the kings of England and Hungary), to whose verdict 
Luther would have to submit. When Frederick the W^ise consulted him, 
he expressed the opinion that Luther had made two mistakes, in touching 
the crown of the pope and the belly of the monks ; he regretted in Luther's 
proceedings a want of moderation and discretion. Not without profit did 
the elector hear the oracle thus discourse. — Continuation § 125, 3. 

4. Luther's Controversy with Emser, A.D. 1519-1521. — Emser, secretary 
and orator in the service of Duke George, after the Leipzig Disputation, 
\Thich he had attended, sought by letter-writing to alienate the Bohe- 


mians (§ 139, 19) from Luther, representing him as having there spoken 
bitterly against them. This roused Luther to make a passionate reply. 
After several pamphlets of a violent character had been issued by both 
combatants, Emser issued his charge in a full and comprehensive treatise, 
to which Luther replied in his work, " The Answer of Martin Luther to 
the Unchristian, Ultra-ecclesiastical, and Over-ingenious Book of Emser 
at Leipzig." They had also a sharp passage at arms with one another, 
in A.D. 1524, over the canonization of Bishop;Benno of Meissen, in which 
Emser, by his duke's order, took a zealous part (§ 129, 1). But all the 
later writings in this controversy Luther left unanswered. Emser, with 
great bitterness, assailed Luther's translation of the Bible, in which he 
professed to have found 1,400 heretical falsifications and more than 1,000 
lexical blunders. Luther was candid enough to acknowledge that several 
of his animadversions were not unfounded. On Emser's own translation, 
which appeared shortly before his death in a.d. 1527, see § 149, 14. 

5. The Emperor Charles V. — The Emperor Maximilian had died on 12th 
Jan., A D. 1519. The Elector of Saxony, as administrator of the empire, 
managed to determine the election, which took place on 28th June, a.d. 
1519, against the French candidate, Francis I., who was supported by 
the pope, in favour of the young king of Spain, Charles I., grandson of 
Maximilian. Detained at home by Spanish affairs, it was 23rd Oct., 
A.D. 1520, before he was crowned at Aachen. All hopes were now 
directed toward the young emperor. It was expected that he would put 
himself at the head of the religious and national movement in Germany. 
But Charles, uninspired by German sentiment, and even ignorant of the 
German language, had other interests, which he was not inclined to sub- 
ordinate to German politics. The German crown was with him only an 
integral part of his power. Its interests must accommodate themselves 
to the common interests of the whole dominions, upon which the sun never 
set. The German movement he regarded as one, indeed, of high import- 
ance, but he regarded it not so much from its religious as from its poli- 
tical side. It afforded him the means for keeping the pope in check and 
obliging him to sue for his favour. Two things required he of the pope 
as the price of suppressing the German movement : renunciation of the 
Frejfci alliance, and repeal of the papal brief by which a transformation 
had been recommended of the Spanish Inquisition, the main buttress of 
absolute monarchy in Spain. The pope granted both demands, and the 
hopes of the Germans in their new emperor, that he would finally free 
their nation from the galling yoke of Rome, were thus utterly blasted. 

6. The Diet at Worms, A.D. 1521. — Immediately after the arrival of 
the bull the emperor gave it the full force of law in the Netherlands, 
where he was then staying. He did not at once venture to make the 
same proclamation for Germany, specially from regard to Frederick the 
Wise, Luther's own prince, who insisted that he should not be con- 

§ 123. LUTHER'S PERIOD OF CONFLICT, A.D. 1520-21, 241 

demned unheard. Personal negotiations between Frederick and the 
emperor and his councillors at Cologne, in November, a.d. 1520, ended 
with a demand that the elector should bring Luther to the diet, sum- 
moned to meet at Worms, on 28th January, a.d. 1521 ; but at the desire 
of Aleander, the papal nuncio, who energetically protested against the 
proposal that civil judges should treat of matters of faith with an already 
condemned heretic, the emperor, in December, withdrew this summons. 
In the beginning of February there came a papal brief, in which he 
was urgently entreated to give effect to the bull throughout Germany. 
Aleander even sketched an imperial mandate for its execution, but was 
not able to prevent the emperor from laying it before his councillors for 
their opinion and approval. This was done in the middle of February. 
And now there arose a quite unexpected storm of opposition. The coun- 
cillors demanded that Luther should be brought under an imperial safe 
conduct to Worms, there to answer for himself. His attacks on Romish 
abuses they would not and could not regard as crimes, for they them- 
selves, with Duke George at their head, had presented to the pope a 
complaint containing 101 counts. On the other hand, they declared 
that if Luther would not retract his doctrinal vagaries, they would be 
prepared to carry out the edict. They persisted in this attitude when 
another scheme was proposed to them, which insisted on the burning of 
Luther's writings. In the beginning of March a third proposal was 
made, which asked only for the temporary sequestration of his works. 
And to this they agreed. The emperor, though against his own will, 
submitted to their demand, and cited the reformer of Wittenberg to 
answer for himself at Worms. On Gth March he signed a summons, 
accompanied with a safe conduct, both intended, as Aleander said in 
writing to Rome, rather to frighten him from coming than with any 
desire for his presence. But the result was not as they desired. The 
courier appointed to deliver this citation was not sent, but instead of him, 
on the 12th, an imperial herald, who delivered to Luther a respectful 
invitation beginning with the address, " Noble, dear, and worshipful sir." 
This herald was to bring him honourably and safely to Worms, and to 
conduct him back again in safety. All this was done behind the bac^ of 
Aleander, who first came to know about it on the 15th, and cert^ly 
was not wrong in attributing the emperor's change of mind to a suspicion 
of French political intrigues, in which Leo X., notwithstanding his nego- 
tiations for an alliance with the emperor, was understood to have had 
a share. Two weeks later, however, such suspicions were seen to be 
unfounded. Too late the sending of the herald was regretted, and an 
effort was made to conciliate the nuncio by the publication of the seques- 
trating mandate, which had been hitherto suppressed. 

7. Luther was meanwhile not idle at Wittenberg, while waiting with 
heroic calm the issue of the Worms negotiations. He preached twice 



daily, delivered lectures at the university, taught and exhorted by books, 
letters, and conversations, fought with his opponents, especially Emser, 
etc. While Luther was engaged with these multifarious tasks the im- 
perial herald arrived. He now set everything aside, and on 2nd April 
boldly and confidently obeyed the summons. The fears of his Witten- 
berg friends and the counsels to turn back which reached him on his way 
were rejected with a heroic consciousness that he was in the path of duty. 
He had written on 14th March to Spalatin, Intrablmus Wormatiam invitis 
oinnihns portis inferni et potentatihus aeris ; and again from Oppenheim 
he wrote him, that he would go to Worms even if there were as many 
devils there as tiles upon the roofs. Still another attempt was nlade 
upon him at Oppenheim. The emperor's confessor, Glapio, a Franciscan, 
who was by no means a blind worshipper of the Roman curia, thought it 
possible that a good understanding might be reached. He was of opinion 
that if Luther would only withdraw the worst of his books, especially 
that on the Babylonish Captivity, and acknowledge the decisions of the 
Council of Constance, all might be agreeably settled. With this in his 
mind he applied to the Elector of Saxony, and when he received no 
encouragement there, to Franz von Sickingen, who invited Luther, on 
his arrival at Ebernburg, near Worms, to an interview with Glapio ; but 
Luther declined the invitation. — His journey all through was like a 
triumphal march. On 16th April, amid a great concourse of people, he 
entered Worms, along with his friends Justus Jonas and Nic. Amsdorf, 
as well as his legal adviser Jerome Schurf. He was called to appear on 
the following day. He admitted that the books spread out before him 
were his, and when called on to retract desired one day's adjournment. 
On the 18th the trial proper began. Luther distinguished three cl asses 
of his writings, systematic treatises, controversial tracts against the 
papacy and papal doctrine, and controyersi_al tracts against private indi- 
viduals, and did not know that he had said anything in them that he 
could retract. He was asked to give a direct answer. He then gave one 
"without horns or teeth," saying that he could and would retract nothing 
unless proved false from Scripture, or on other good and clear grounds, 
and concluded with the words, "Here stand I; I can no otherwise! 
God help me, Amen." Among the German knights and princes he had 
won many hearts, but had made no favourable impression on the 
emperor, who, when Luther denounced the absolute authority of coun- 
cils, stopped proceedings and dismissed the heretical monk. On the 
following day, without consulting the opinion of the councillors, he 
passed sentence of unconditional condemnation. But the councillors 
would not have the matter settled in this fashion, and the emperor was 
obhged, on 24th April, to reopen negotiations before a select commis- 
sion, under the presidency of the Archbishop of Treves. Of no avail 
was a private conference of the archbishop and Luther on the 25th, 

§ 123. luthee's period of conflict, a.d. 1520-21. 243 

in which the prelate accompanied his exhortation to retract with 
the promise of a rich priorate in his neighbourhood under his own and 
the emperor's protection and favour. Luther supported his refusal by 
confident reference to the words of Gamaliel, Acts v. 38. On 26th April 
he left "Worms unhindered ; for the emperor had decidedly refused to 
yield to the vile proposal that the safe conduct of a heretic should be 
violated. — In consequence of Luther's persistent refusal to retract any- 
thing, the majority of the diet pronounced themselves ready to agree 
to the emperor's judgment against him. The latter now assigned to 
Aleander the drawing up of anew mandate, which should in the severest 
terms proclaim the ban of the empire against Luther and all his friends. 
After it had been approved in an imperial cabinet council, and was ready 
for printing in its final form in Latin and German, with the date 8th 
May, it was laid before the emperor for signature, which, however, he 
put off doing from day to day, and finally, in spite of all the nuncio's 
remonstrances, he decided that it must be produced before the diet. 
When it aj^peared that this must be done, the two nuncios were all im- 
patient to have it passed soon. But it was only on the 25th May, after 
the close of the diet, and after several princes, especially the Electors of 
Saxony and the Palatinate, had gone, that Charles let them present the 
edict, to which all present agreed. On the 26th May, after Divine service 
in church, he solemnly signed the Latin and German forms, which were 
published with blast of trumpets on the following day, and on Wednesday 
the sequestrated books of Luther were burnt. — Undoubtedly political 
motives occasioned this long delay in signing the documents. Perhaps 
he suspected the pope of some new act of political treachery ; probably 
also he wished to postpone the publication of the edict until the imperial 
councillors had promised to contribute to his proposed journey to liome, 
and perhaps until the nobles dissenting from the proceedings against 
Luther had departed. 

8. The Wartburg Exile, A.D. 1521, 1523. -Some days after Luther had 
dismissed the imperial herald, his carriage was stopped in a wood near 
Eisenach by two disguised knights with some retainers. He was himself 
carried off with show of violence, and brought to the Wartburg, where he 
was to remain in knight's dress under the name of Junker Georg with- 
out himself knowing anything more of the matter. It was indeed a 
contrivance of the wise elector, though probably he took no active share 
in the matter, so that he could declare at Worms that he knew nothing 
of the Saxon monk. The most contradictory reports were spread. 
Sometimes the Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg (§ 122, 2) was thought 
of as the perpetrator of the act, sometimes Franz von Sickingen (§124, 2), 
sometimes a Franconian nobleman who was on intimate terms with 
Frederick. And as the news rapidly spread that Luther's body, pierced 
with a sword, had been found in an old silver mine, the tumult in 


Worms became so great that Aleander had good cause to fear for his life. 
—From the Wartburg Luther maintained a lively correspondence with his 
friends, and even to the general public he proved, by edifying and stirring 
tracts, that he still lived, and was not inclined to be silenced or re- 
pressed. He completed the exposition of the Marjnificat, wrought upon 
the Latin exposition of the Psalms, issued the first series of his "Church 
Postils," wrote an "Instruction to Penitents," a book " On Confession, 
whether the Pope have the Power to Enjoin it," another " Against the 
Abuses of the Mass," also " On Priestly and Monkish Vows," etc. When 
Cardinal Albert, in September, a.d. 1521, proclaimed a pilgrimage with 
unlimited indulgence to the relic shrine at Halle (§ 115, 9), Luther wrote 
a scathing tract, " Against the New Idol at Halle." And when Spalatin 
assured him that the elector would not suffer its being issued, he de- 
clined to withhold it, but sent him the little book, with imperative orders 
to give it ovQi- to Melanchthon for publication. While Spalatin still 
delayed its issue, Luther left his castle, pushed his way toward W^itten- 
berg through the very heart of Duke George's territories, and suddenly 
appeared among his friends in the dress of a knight, with long beard 
and hair. When he heard that the mere report of what he was propos- 
ing to do had led those in Halle to stop the traffic in indulgences, he 
decided not to proceed with the publication, but instead he addressed a 
letter to Albert, in which the archbishop had to read many a strong 
word about "the knavery of indulgences," "the Pharaoh-like hardened 
condition of ecclesiastical tyrants," etc. The prelate sent a most humble, 
apologetic, and gracious reply to the bold reformer. Luther then re- 
turned to his protective exile, as he had left it, unmolested. But the 
longer it continued the more insupportable did this electoral guardian- 
ship become. He would rather " burn on glowing coals than spend thus 
a half idle life." But it was just this enforced exile that saved Luther 
and the Reformation from utter overthrow. Apart from the dangers of 
the ban of the empire, which would have perhaps obliged him to throw 
himself into the arms of Hutten and his companions, and thus have 
turned the Reformation into a revolution, this confinement in the Wart- 
burg was in various ways a blessing to Luther and his work. It was of 
importance that men should learn to distinguish between Luther's work 
and Luther's person, and of yet greater importance was the discipline of 
this exile upon Luther himself. He was in danger of being drawn out of 
the path of positive reformation into that of violent revolutionism. The 
leisure of the Wartburg gave him time for calm reflection on himself and 
his work, and the extravagances of the Wittenberg fanatics and the wild 
excuses of the prophets of Zwickau (§ 121, 1) could be estimated with a 
freedom from prejudice that would have been impossible to one living 
and moving in the midst of them. Besides, he had not reached that 
maturity of theological knowledge needed for the conduct of his great 


undertaking, and was in many ways fettered by a one-sided subjectivism. 
In his seclusion be could turn from merely destructive criticism to con- 
struction, and by undisturbed study of Scripture became able to enlarge, 
purify, and confirm his religious knowledge. But most important of all 
was the plan which he formed in the Wartburg, and so far as the New 
Testament is concerned carried out there, of translating the whole of the 

9. The Attitude of Frederick the "Wise to the Reformation. — Frederick 
the Wise, x.b. 1486-1525, has usually been styled " the Promoter of the 
Reformation." Kolde, however, has sought to represent him as favour- 
ing Luther because of his interest in the University of Wittenberg 
founded by him, the success of which was largely owing to Luther, and 
because of his patriotic desire to have German questions settled at home 
rather than in Rome. This author supposes that after the Diet of 
Worms Frederick took no particular interest in the Reformation, beyond 
watching to see how things would turn out. To all this Kostlin has 
replied that Frederick's whole attitude during the Diet of Worms be- 
trayed a warm and hearty interest in evangelical truth ; that his corre- 
pondence with Tucher of Nuremberg, a.d. 1518-1528, supports this view; 
that in one of these letters he addresses his correspondent with evident 
satisfaction as a good Lutheran ; that in another he incloses a copy of 
Luther's Assertio omnium articuloriim ; that at a later period he forwards 
him a copy of Luther's New Testament, and expresses the hope that he 
will gain spiritual blessing from its perusal. He himself found it his 
greatest comfort in the hour of death, partook of the communion in 
both kinds after the reformed manner, which takes away all ground for 
the suspicion that he yielded only to the importunities of his brother 
John and his chaplain Spalatin. And even though Frederick, as late as 
A.D. 1522, continued to increase the rich collection of relics which he had 
previously made for his castle church, this only proves that not all at 
once but only bit by bit he was able to break away from his earlier 
religious tendencies and predilections. 

§ 124. Deterioration and Purification of the 
Wittenberg Reformation, a.d. 1522-1525. 

During Luther's cabsence, the Reformation at Wittenberg 
advanced only too rapidly, and at last ran out into the 
wildest extravagances. Bat Luther hastened thither, regu- 
lated the movement, and guided it back into wise evan- 
gelical ways. This fanaticism arose in Wittenberg, but soon 

1 Morris, " Luther at the Wartburg and Coburg." Philad., 1882. 


spread into other parts. The Reformation was at the same 
time threatened with danger from another quarter. The 
religious movement came into contact with the struggle of 
the German knights against the princes and that of the 
German peasants against the nobles, and was in danger of 
being identified with these revolutionary proceedings and 
sharing their fate. But Luther stood firm as a wall against 
all temptations, and thus these dangers Avere avoided. 

1. The Wittenberg Fanaticism, A.D. 1521, 1522— In a.d. 1521 an 
Augustinian, Gabriel Didymus or Zwilling, preached a violent tirade 
against vows and private masses. In consequence of this sermon, 
thirteen of the brethren of his order at once withdrew. Two priests 
in the neiglibourhood married. Carlstadt wrote against cehbacy and 
followed their example. At the Wittenberg convent, secessions from the 
order were allowed at pleasure, and mendicancy, as well as the sacrifice of 
the mass, was abolished. But matters did not stop there. Didymus, 
and still more Carlstadt, spread a fanatical spirit among the people and 
the students, who were encouraged in the wildest acts of violence. The 
public services were disturbed in order to stop the idolatry of the mass, 
images were thrown out of the churches, altars were torn down, and a 
desire evinced to put an end to theological science as well as to clerical 
orders. A fanatical spirit began now also to spread at Zwickau. At the 
head of this movement stood the tailor Nicolas Storcli and a literate 
Marcus Stiibner, who boasted of Divine revelations ; while Thomas 
Miinzer, with fervid eloquence, proclaimed the new gospel from the pulpit. 
Restrained by energetic measures taken against them, the Zwickau 
prophets wandered abroad. Miinzer went to Bohemia, Storch and 
Stiibner to Wittenberg. There they told of their revelations and in- 
veighed against infant baptism as a work of Satan. The excitement in 
Wittenberg became greater day by day. The enemies of the Reforma- 
tion rejoiced ; Melanchthon could give no counsel, and the elector was 
confounded. Then could Luther no longer contain himself. Against 
the elector's express command he left the Wartburg on 3rd March, a.d. 
1522, wrote him a noble letter, availed himself of his knight's incognito 
on the way, and appeared publicly at Wittenberg. For a week he preached 
daily against fanaticism, and got complete control of the wild revolution- 
ary elements. The prophets of Zwickau left Wittenberg. Carlstadt 
remained, but for a couple of years held his peace. Luther and Melanch- 
thon now laboured to secure a positive basis for the Reformation. 
Melanchthon had already made a beginning in a.d. 1521 by the publi- 
cation of his Loci communes rerum tlieologicannn. Luther now, in a.d. 


1522, against the decided wish of his friend, published his Aniiotationes 
in epist. t. Pauli ad Rom. et Cor. In Sept. of the same year appeared 
Luther's translation of the N.T. Besides these he also issued several 
treatises in defence of the Reformation. 

2. Franz von Sickingen, A.D. 1522, 1523.— A private feud led Franz von 
Sickingen to attack the Elector and Archbishop of Treves in a.d. 1522, but 
soon other interests were involved, and he was joined by the whole party 
of the knights. Sickingen's opponent was a prelate and a pronounced 
enemy of the Reformation, and he was also a prince and a peer of the 
empire. In both characters he was opposed by Sickingen, who called for 
support in the name of religion and freedom. The knights, discontented 
with the imperial government and bureaucracy, with princes and 
prelates, crowded to his standard. Sickingen would also have gladly 
secured the monk of Wittenberg as an ally, but Luther was not to be 
won. Sickingen's enterprise failed. The Elector of the Palatinate and 
the young Landgrave of Hesse hasted to the help of their beleaguered 
neighbours. The knights were overthrown one after another ; Sickingen 
died of mortal wounds in May, a.d. 1523, immediately after the taking of 
the shattered Ebernburg. The power of the knights was utterly broken. 
The Reformation thus lost indeed brave and noble protectors, but it 
was itself saved. 

3. Andrew Bodenstein of Carlstadt, A.D. 1524, 1525.— Even after the 
suppression of the Wittenberg fanaticism, Carlstadt continued to enter- 
tain his revolutionary views, and it was only with difficulty that he 
restrained himself for a few years. In a.d. 1524 he left Wittenberg and 
went to Orlamiinde. With bitter invectives against Luther's popism, he 
there resumed his iconoclasm, and brought forward his doctrine of the 
Lord's Supper, in which the real presence of the body and blood of Christ 
was absolutely denied (§ 131, 1). In order to prevent disturbance, 
Luther, by the order of the elector, went to Jena, and there in Carlstadt's 
presence preached most emphatically against image breakers and sacra- 
mentarians. This roused Carlstadt's indignation. When Luther visited 
Orlamiinde, he was received with stone throwing and curses. Carlstadt 
was now banished from his territories by the elector. He then went to 
Strassburg, where he sought to win over the two evangelical pastors, 
Bucer and Capito. Luther issued a letter of warning, " To the Christians 
of Strassburg." Carlstadt went to Basel, and published violent tracts 
against Luther's " unspiritual and irrational theology." Luther replied 
in A.D. 1525, earnestly, thoroughly, and firmly in his treatise, " Against 
the Heavenly Prophets, or Images and the Sacraments." Carlstadt had 
secured the support of the Swiss reformers, who continued the contro- 
versy with Luther. He involved himself in the Peasants' War, and after- 
wards, by Luther's intercession with the elector, obtained leave to return 
to Saxony. He retracted his errors, but soon again renewed his old 


disorderly practices ; and, after a singularly eventful career, died as 
professor and preacher at Basel during the plague of a.d. 1541. 

4. Thomas Miinzer, A.D. 1523, 1524.— The prophets when expelled from 
Wittenberg did not remain idle, but set themselves to produce all sort 
of disorders in church and state. At the head of these disturbers stood 
Thomas Miinzer. After his expulsion from Zwickau, he had gone to 
Bohemia, and was there received as an apostle of the Taborite doctrine 
(§ 119, 7). In A.D. 1523 he returned to Saxony, and settled at Allstadt 
in Thuringia, and when driven out by the elector he went to Miihl- 
hausen. In both places he soon obtained a large following. The 
Wittenberg Reformation was condemned no less than the papacy. Not 
the word of Scripture but the Spirit was to be the principle of the 
Reformation ; not only everything ecclesiastical but also everything 
civil was to be spiritualized and reorganized. The doctrine of the evan- 
gelical freedom of the Christian was grossly misconceived, the sacra- 
ments despised, infant baptism denounced, and sole weight laid on the 
baptism of the Spirit. Princes should be driven from their thrones, 
the enemies of the gospel destroyed by the sword, and all goods be held 
in common. When Luther wrote a letter of warning on these subjects 
to the church at Miihlhausen, Miinzer issued an abusive rejoinder, in 
which he speaks contemptuously of Luther's " honey-sweet Christ," and 
''cunningly devised gospel." From Miihlhausen, Miinzer went forth on 
a proselytising crusade in a.d. 1524, to Nuremberg, and then to Basel, 
but found little response in either city. His revolutionary extravagances 
were more successful among the peasants of Southern Germany. 

5. The Peasant War, A.D. 1524, 1525.— The peasants of the empire had 
long groaned under their heavy burdens. Twice already, in a.d. 1502, 
1514, had they risen in revolt, with little advantage to themselves. 
When Luther's ideas of the freedom of a Christian man reached them, 
they hastily drew conclusions in accordance with their own desires. 
Miinzer 's fanatical preaching led to the adoption of still more decidedly 
communistic theories. In August, a.d. 1524, in the Black Forest, a 
rebellion broke out, which was, however, quickly suppressed. In the 
beginning of a.d. 1525 troubles burst forth afresh. The peasants stated 
their demands in twelve articles, which they insisted upon princes, nobles, 
and prelates accepting. All Franconia and Swabia were soon under 
their power, and even many cities made common cause with them. 
Miinzer, however, was not satisfied with this success. The twelve 
articles were too moderate for him, and still more distasteful to him were 
the terms that had been made with the nobles and clergy. He returned 
to Thuringia and settled again at Miihlhausen. From thence he spread 
his fanaticism through the whole land and organized a general revolt. 
With merciless cruelty thousands were massacred, all cloisters, castles, 
and palaces were ruthlessly destroyed. Boldly as Luther had attacked 


the existing ecclesiastical tyranny, he resolutely left civil matters alone. 
He preached that the gospel makes the soul free, but not the body or 
property. He had profound sympathy for the sorely oppressed peasants, 
and so long as their demands did not go beyond the twelve articles, he 
hoped to be able to regulate the movement by the power of the word. 
The revolutionists had themselves in their twelfth article offered to 
abandon any of their claims that might be found to have no countenance 
from the word of God. When Miinzer's disorders began in Thuringia, 
Luther visited the cities most threatened and exhorted them to quiet 
and obedience. But the death of the elector on 5th May called him 
back to Wittenberg. From thence he now published his "Exhortations 
to Peace on the Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants," in which he 
speaks pointedly to the consciences of the nobles no less than of the 
peasants. But when the agitation continued to spread, and one enormity 
after another was perpetrated, he gave vent to his wrath in no measured 
terms in bis book, " Against the Robbing and Murdering Peasants." 
He there, with burning words, called upon the princes vigorously to 
stamp out the fanatical rebellion. Philip of Hesse was the first to take 
the field. He was joined by the new Elector of Saxony, Frederick's 
brother, John the Constant, a.d. 1525-1532, as well as by George of 
Saxony and Henry of Brunswick. On 15th May, a.d. 1525, the rebels 
were annihilated after a severe struggle at Frankenhausen. Miinzer 
was taken prisoner and beheaded. Even in Southern Germany the 
princes were soon in all parts masters of the situation. In this war 
100,000 men had lost their lives and the most fertile districts had been 
turned into barren wastes. 

§ 125. Friends and Foes of Luther's Doctrine, 
A.D. 1522-152G. 
Luther's fellow labourers in the work ot the gospel in- 
creased from day to day, and so too the number of the cities 
in Northern and Southern Germany in which pure doctrine 
was preached. But Wittenberg was the heart and centre of 
the whole movement, the muster-ground for all who were 
persecuted and exiled for the sake of the gospel, the gather- 
ing point and nursery of new preachers. Among the theo- 
logical opponents of Luther's doctrine appears a crowned 
head, Henry YIII. of England, and also '' the king of litera- 
ture," Erasmus of Rotterdam, entered the lists against him. 
But neither the one nor the other, to say nothing of the rude 


invectives of Thomas Miirner, was able to shake the bold 
reformer and check the rapid spread of his opinions. 

1. Spread of Evangelical Views.— The most powerful heralds of the 
Reformation were the monkish orders. Cloister life had become so 
utterly corrupt that the more virtuous of the brethren could no longer 
endure it. Anxious to breathe a healthier atmosphere, evangelists in- 
spired by a purer doctrine arose in all parts of Germany, first and most of 
all among the Augustinian order (§ 112, G), which almost to a man went 
over to the Reformation and had the glory of providing its first martyr 
(§ 128, 1). The order regarded Luther's honour as its own. Next to 
them came the Franciscans, prominent during the Middle Ages as a 
fanatical opposition (§ 98, 4; 108, 5; 112, 2), of whom many had the 
courage to free themselves of their shackles. From their cloisters 
proceeded, e.g., the two famous popular preachers, Eberlin of Giinzburg 
and Henry of Kettenbach in Ulm, the Hamburg reformer Stephen 
Kempen, the fervent Lambert reformer of Hesse, Luther's friend 
Mycouius of Gotha, and many more. Other orders too supplied their 
contingent, even the Dominicans, to whom Martin Bucer, the Strassburg 
reformer, belonged. Blaurer of Wiirttemberg was a Benedictine, Rhe- 
gius a Carmelite, Bugenhagen a Premonstratensian, etc. At least one 
of the German bishops, George Polenz of Samland, openly joined the 
movement, preached the gospel in Konigsberg, and inspired the priests 
of his diocese with the same views. Other bishops, such as those of 
Augsburg, Basel, Bamberg, Merseburg, sympathised with the movement 
or at least put no hindrance in its way. But the secular clergy gave 
crowds of witnesses. In all the larger and even in some of the smaller 
towns of Germany Luther's doctrines were preached from the pulpits 
with the approval of the magistrates, and where these were refused the 
preachers took to the market-places and fields. Where ministers were 
wanting, artisans and knights, wives and maidens, carried on the work. 
— One of the first cities which opened its gates freely to the gospel was 
Strassburg. Nowhere were Luther's writings more zealously read, dis- 
cussed, printed, and circulated than in that city. Shortly before Geiler 
of Kaisersberg (§ 115, 11) had prepared the soil for receiving the first 
seed of the Reformation. From a.d. 1518 Matthew Zell had wrought as 
pastor at St. Laurence in Miinster. When the chapter forbade him the 
use of the stone pulpit erected for Geiler, the joiners' guild soon made 
him a wooden pulpit, which was carried in solemn procession to Miinster, 
and set up beside the one that had been closed against him. Zell was 
soon assisted by Capito, Bucer, Hedio, and others. 

2. "The Sum of Holy Scripture" and its Author.— This work, called 
also Deutsche Theologic, appeared anonymously at Leyden in a.d. 1523, 
and was confiscated in March, a.jj. 1524. In various Dutch editions and 


in French, Italian, and English translations, it was soon widely spread 
over Europe ; but so vigorously was it suppressed, that by the middle 
of the century it had disappeared and was forgotten. In a.d. 1877 the 
Waldensian Comba discovered and published an old Italian version, and 
Benrath translated into German in a.d. 1880 an old Dutch edition of a.d. 
1526, and succeeded in unravelling for the most part its interesting 
history. He found that it was composed in Latin, and on the entreaty 
of the author's friends rendered into Dutch. This led to the discovery, 
in the possession of Prof. Toorenenberger of Amsterdam, of the Latin 
original, which had appeared anonymously at Strassburg in a.d. 1527 
with the title, ^Economica Christiana. Benrath has also discovered the 
author to be Hendrik van Bommel, who was in the first half of a.d. 
1520 priest and rector of a sisterhood at Utrecht, expelled in a.d. 1536 
from Cleves, from a.d. 1542 to 1560 evangelical teacher and preacher 
at Wesel, dying in a.d. 1570 as pastor at Duisburg. The "Sum" is 
evidently influenced by those works of Luther which appeared up to a.d. 
1523, its thoroughly popular, edifying, and positive contents are based 
upon a careful study of Scripture, and it is throughout inspired by the 
one grand idea, that the salvation of sinful men rests solely on the grace 
of God in Christ appropriated by faith. 

3. Henry VIII. and Erasmus.— Henry VIIL of England, as a second 
son, had been originally destined for the church. Hence he retained 
a certain predilection for theological studies and was anxious to be 
regarded as a learned theologian. In a.d. 1522 he appeared as the 
champion of the Eomish doctrine of the seven sacraments in opposition 
to Luther's book on the " Babylonish Captivity of the Church," treating 
the peasant's son with lordly contempt. Luther paid him in the same 
coin, and treated his royal opponent with less consideration than he had 
shown to .Emser and Eck. The king obtained what he desired, the 
papal honorary title of Defensor Jidei, but Luther's crushing reply 
kept him from attempting to continue the controversy. He complained 
to the elector, who consoled him by reference to a general council (comp. 
§ 129, 1). The pretty tolerable relations between Erasmus and Luther 
now suffered a severe shock. Erasmus, indebted to the English king for 
many favours, was roused to great bitterness by Luther's unmeasured 
severity. He had hitherto refused all calls to write against Luther. 
Many pulpits charged him with having a secret understanding with the 
heretic ; others thought he was afraid of him. All this tended to drive 
Erasmus into open hostihty to the reformer. He now diligently studied 
Luther's writings, for which he obtained the pope's permission, and 
seized upon a doctrine which would not oblige him to appear as defender 
of Romish abuses, though to gauge and estimate it in its full meaning he 
was quite incompetent. Luther's life experiences, joined with the study 
of Paul's epistles and Augustine's writings, had wrought in him the con- 


viction that man is by nature incapable of doing any good, that his will is 
imfree, and that he is saved without any well doing of his own by God's 
free grace in Christ. With Luther, as with Augustine, this conviction 
found expression in the doctrine of absolute predestination. Melanchthon 
had also formulated the doctrine in the first edition of his Loci com- 
munes. This fundamental doctrine of Luther was now laid hold upon by 
Erasmus in a.d. 1524 in his treatise, ALarpL^rj de libra arUtrio, pronounced 
dangerous and unbibHcal, while his own semi-Pelagianism was set over 
against it. After the lapse of a year, Luther replied in his treatise, De 
servo arbitrio, with all the power and confidence of personal, experimental 
conviction. Erasmus answered in his Hyperaspistes diatribes adv. Lutheri 
servum arbitrium of a.d. 1526, in which he gave free vent to his passion, 
but did not advance the argument in the least. Luther therefore saw 
no need to continue the discussion.^ 

4. Thomas Murner.— Tlie Franciscan, Thomas Muruer of Strassburg, 
had published in a.d. ,1509 his " Fools' Exorcism " and other pieces, 
which gave him a high place among German satirists. He spared no 
class, not even the clergy and the monks, took Eeuchlin's part against 
the men of Cologne (§ 120, 4), but passionately opposed Luther's move- 
ment. His most successful satire against Luther is entitled, "On the 
Great Lutheran Fool as Exorcised by Dr. Murner, a.d. 1522." It does 
not touch upon the spiritual aspect of the Reformation, but lashes with 
biting wit the revolutionary, fanatical, and rhetorical extravagances 
which were often closely associated with it. Luther did not venture 
into the lists with the savagely sarcastic monk, but the humanists 
poured upon him a flood of scurrilous replies. 

5. A notable Catholic witness on behalf of the Reformation is the 
" Onus ecclesiEe," an anonymous tract of a.d. 1524, written by Bishop 
Berthold Pirstinger of Chiemsee. In apocalyptic phraseology it describes 
the corruption of the church and calls for reformation. The author 
however denounces Ltither as a sectary and revolutionist, though he dis- 
tinctly accepts his views of indulgences. He would reform the church 
from within. Four years after, the same divine wrote a " Tewtsche Theo- 
logey,'^ in which, with the exception of the doctrine of indulgence, the 
whole Romish system is vindicated and the corruptions of the church 
are ignored. 

§ 12G. Development of the Eeformation in the 
Empire, a.d. 1522-1526. 

In consecxnence of the terms of his election, Charles V. had, 

^ Weber, " Luther's Treatise, De Servo Arbitrio,'' in Brit, and For. 

Evan. Review, 1878, pp. 799-816. 


at the Diet of AVornis, to agree to the erection of a standing 
imperial government at Nuremberg, which in his absence 
would have the supreme direction of imperial affairs. 
Within this commission, though presided over by Archduke 
Ferdinand, the emperor's brother, a majority was soon 
found which openly favoured the new religion. Thus 
protected by the highest imperial judicature, the Reforma- 
tion was able for a long time to spread unhindered and so 
made rapid progress (§ 125, 1). The Nuremberg court 
succumbed indeed to the united efforts of its political 
opponents, among whom were many nobles of an evan- 
gelical spirit, but all the more energetically did these press 
the interests of the Reformation. And their endeavours 
were so successful, that it was determined that matters 
should be settled without reference to pope and council at 
a general German national assembly. But the papal legate 
Campegius formed at Regensberg, in a.d. 1524, a league 
of the Catholic nobles for enforcing the edict of Worms, 
against which the evangelical nobles established a defensive 
league at Torgau, in a.d. 1526. The general national assembly 
was vetoed by the emperor, but the decision of the Diet of 
Spires of a.d. 152G gave to all nobles the right of determining 
the religious matters of their provinces after their own 

1. The Diet at Nuremberg, A.D. 1.522, 1523. — The imperial court held its 
first diet in the end of a.d. 1522. Leo X. had died in Dec, a.d. 1521, and 
Hadrian VI. (§ 149, 1), strictly conservative in doctrine and worship, 
a reformer of discipline and hierarchical abuses, had succeeded with 
the determination " to restore the deformed bride of Christ to her pris- 
tine i^urity," but vigorously to suppress the Lutheran heresy. His 
legate presented to the diet a letter confessing abuses and promising 
reforms, but insisting on the execution of the edict of Worms. The 
diet declared that in consequence of the admitted corruptions of the 
church, the present execution of the Worms edict was not to be thought 
of. Until a general council in a German city, with guarantee«i freedom 
of discussion, had been called, discussion should be avoided, and the 


word of God, with true Christian and evangelical explanation, should 
be taught. 

2. The Diet at Nuremberg, A.D. 1524. — A new diet was held at Nurem- 
berg on 14th Jan., a.d. 1524. It dealt first of all with the question of 
the existence of the imperial court. The reformatory tendencies of the 
government showed that what was vital to this court was so also to the 
Eeformation. This party had important sui3porters in the arch-catholic 
Ferdinand, who hoped thus to strengthen himself in his endeavour to 
obtain the Roman crown, in the Elector of Mainz, the" prime mover in 
the traffic in indulgences, who had personal antipathies to the foes of the 
court, in the elector of Saxony, its proper creator, and in the princes of 
Brandenburg. But there were powerful opponents : the Swabian league, 
the princes of Treves, the Palatinate and Hesse, who had been success- 
ful in opposition to Sickingen, and the imperial cities, which, though at 
one with the court in favouring the Reformation, were embittered against 
it because of its financial projects. The papal legate Campegius also 
joined the opposition. Hadrian VI. had died in a.d. 1523, and was 
succeeded by Clement VII., a.d. 1523-1534. A skilful politician with no 
religious convictions, he determined to strengthen in every possible way 
the temporal power of the papal see. His legate was a man after his 
own mind. The opposition prevailed, and even Ferdinand after a struggle 
gave in. The newly organized governing body was only a shadow of the 
old, without power, influence, or independence. Thus a second (§ 124, 2) 
powerful support was lost to tbe Reformation, and the legate again pressed 
for the execution of the edict of Worms. But the evarrgelicals mustering 
all their forces, especially in the cities, secured a majority. They were 
indeed obliged to admit the legality of the edict ; they even promised to 
carry it out, but with the saving clause " as far as possible." A council 
in the sense of the former diet was demanded, and it was resolved to call 
a general national assembly at Spires, to be wholly devoted to religious 
and ecclesiastical questions. In the meantime the word of God in its 
simplicity was to be preached. 

3. The Convention at Eegensburg, A.D. 1524.— While the evangeHcal 
nobles, by their theologians and diplomatists, were eagerly preparing 
for Spires, an assembly of the supporters of the old views met at Regens- 
burg, June and July, a.d. 1524. Ignoring the previous arrangement, 
they proceeded to treat of the religious and ecclesiastical questions 
which had been reserved for the Spires Diet. This was the result of the 
machinations of Campegius. The Archduke Ferdinand, the Bavarian 
dukes, the Archbishop of Salzburg, and most of the South German 
bishops, joined the legate at Regensburg in insisting upon the edict of 
Worms. Luther's writings were anew forbidden, their subjects were 
strictly enjoined not to attend the University of Wittenberg ; several 
external abuses were condemned, ecclesiastical burdens on the people 


lightened, the number of festivals reduced, the four Latin Fathers, 
Ainb]?ose, Jerome, Augustine, and Gregory, set up as the standard of 
faith and doctrine, while it was commanded that the services should be 
conducted unchanged after the manner of these Fathers. Thus was 
produced that rent in the unity of the empire which never again was 
healed. — The imperial and the papal policies were so bound up with one 
another, that the proceedings of the Nuremberg diets, with their national 
tendencies, were distasteful to the emperor ; and so in the end of July 
there came an imperial rescript, making attendance at the national 
assembly a crimen lasie majestatis, punishable with ban and double-ban. 
The nobles obeyed, and the assembly was not held. With it Germany's 
liopes of a peaceful development were shattered. 

4. The Evangelical Nobles, A.D. 1524.— Several nobles hitherto in- 
different became now supporters of the Reformation. Philip of Hesse, 
moved by an interview with Melanchthon, gave himself enthusiastically 
to the cause of evangelical truth. Also the Margrave Casimir, George of 
Brandenburg- Ansbach, Duke Ernest of Liineburg, the Elector Louis of 
the Palatinate, and Frederick I. of Denmark, as Duke of Schleswig and 
Holstein, did more or less in their several countries for the furtherance 
of the Reformation cause. The grand-master of the Teutonic order, 
Albert of Prussia, returned from the Diet of Nuremberg, where he had 
heard Osiander preach, doubtful of the scripturalness of the rule of his 
order. He therefore visited Wittenberg to consult Luther, who advised 
him to renounce the rule, to marry, and obtain heirs to his Prussian 
dukedom (§ 127, 3). The cities took up a most decided position. At two 
great city diets at Spires and Ulm in a.d. 1521, it was resolved to allow 
the preaching of a pure gospel and to assist in preventing the execution 
of the edict of Worms in their jurisdiction. 

5. The Torgau League, A.D. 1526. — Friends and foes of the Reforma- 
tion had joined in putting down the peasant revolt. Their religious 
divergences however immediattiy after broke out afresh. George con- 
sulted at Dessau in July, a.d. 1525, with several Catholic princes as to 
means for preventing a renewal of the outbreak, and they unanimously 
decided that the condemned Lutheran sect must be rooted out as the 
source of all confusion. Soon afterwards two Leipzig citizens, who were 
found to have Lutheran books in their possession, were put to death. 
But Elector John of Saxony had a conference at Saalfeld with Casimir of 
Brandenburg, at which it was agreed at all hazards to stand by the word 
of God ; and at Friedewald in November Hesse and the elector pledged 
themselves to stand true to the gospel. A diet at Augsburg in December, 
for want of a quorum, had reached no conclusion. A new diet was 
therefore summoned to meet at Spires, and all the princes were cited 
to appear personally. Duke George meanwhile gathered the Catholic 
princes at Halle and Leipzig, and they resolved to send Henry of 


Brunswick to Spain to the emperor. Shortly before his arrival, the 
emperor had concluded a peace at Madrid with the king of France, who 
had been taken prisoner in the battle of Pavia. Francis I., feeling he 
could not help himself, had agreed to all the terms, including an umler- 
taking to join in suppressing the heretics. Charles therefore fully 
believed that he had a free hand, and determined to root out heresy in 
Germany. Henry "of Brandenburg brought to the German princes an 
extremely firm reply, in which this view was expressed. But before its 
arrival the elector and the landgrave had met at Gotha, and had subse- 
quently at Torgau, the residence of the elector, renewed the league to 
stand together with all their might in defence of the gospel. Philip 
undertook to gain over the nobles of the uplands. But the fear of the 
empire hindered his success. The elector was more fortunate among the 
lowland nobles. On 9th June the princes of Saxony, Liineberg, Gruben- 
hagen, Anhalt, and Mansfeld met at Magdeburg, and subscribed the 
Torgau League. Also the city of Magdeburg, emancipated since a.d. 1524 
from the jurisdiction of its archbishop, Albert of Mainz, and accepting 
the Lutheran confession, now joined the league. 

6. The Diet of Spires, A.D. 1526.— The diet met on 25th June, a.d. 
1526. The evangelical princes were confident ; on their armour was the 
motto, Verhum Dei iiianet in csteriiuin. In spite of all the prelates' 
oiDposition, three commissions were approved to consider abuses. When 
the debates were about to begin, the imperial commissioners tabled an 
instruction which forbade them to make any change upon the old doc- 
trines and usages, and finally insisted upon the execution of the edict of 
Worms. The evangelicals however took comfort from the date affixed to 
the document. They knew that since its issue the relation of pope and 
emperor had become strained. Francis I. had been relieved by the pope 
from the obligation of his oath, and the pope had joined with Francis 
in a league at Cognac, to which also Henry VIII. of England adhered. 
All Western Europe had combined to break the supremacy gained by the 
Burgundian- Spanish dynasty at Pavia, and the duped emperor found 
himself in straits. Would he now be inclined to stand by his instruc- 
tion? The commissioners, apparently at Ferdinand's wish, had kept 
back the document till the affairs of the Catholics became desperate. 
The evangelical nobles felt encouraged to send an embassy to the 
emperor, but before it started the emperor realized their wishes. In a 
letter to his brother he communicated a scheme for abolishing the 
penalties of the edict of Worms and referring religious questions to a 
council. At the same time he called for help against his Italian enemies. 
Seeing then that in present circumstances it did not seem advisable to 
revoke, still less to carry out the edict, the only plan was to give to each 
prince discretionary power in his own territory. This was the birthday 
of the territorial constitution on a formally legitimate basis. 


§ 127. Organization of the Evangelical Provincial 
Churches, a.d. 1526-1529. 

The nobles had now not only the right but also had it 
enjoined on them as a duty to establish church arrange- 
ments in their territories as they thought best. The three 
following years therefore marked the period of the founding 
and organizing of the evangelical provincial churches. The 
electorate of Saxony came first with a good example. After 
this pattern the churches of Hesse, Franconia, Llineburg, 
East Eriesland, Schleswig and Holstein, Silesia, Prussia, 
and a whole group of Low German states modelled their 
constitution and worship. 

1. The Organization of the Church of the Saxon Electorate, A.D. 1527- 
1529. — Luther wrote in a.d. 1528 an instruction to visitors of pastors in 
tlie electorate, which showed what and how ministers were to preach, 
indicated the reforms to be made in worship, protested against abuse 
of the doctrine of justification by urging the necessity of preaching the 
law, etc. The whole territory was divided under four commissions, 
comprising lay and clerical members. Ignorant and incompetent reli- 
gious teachers were to be removed, but to be provided for. Teachers 
were to be settled over churches and schools, and superintendents over 
them were to inspect their work periodically, and to these last the 
performance of marriages wa^ assigned. Vacant benefices were to be 
applied to the improvement of churches and schools ; and those not 
vacant were to be taxed for maintenance of hospitals, support of the 
poor, founding of new schools, etc. The dangers occasioned by the 
often incredible ignorance of the people and theh teachers led to Luther's 
composing his two catechisms in a.d. 1529. 

2. The Organization of the Hessian Churches, A.D. 1526-1528.— Philip of 
Hesse had assembled the peers temporal and spiritual of his dominions 
in Oct., A.D. 152(3, at Homberg, to discuss the question of church reform. 
A reactionary attempt failed through the fervid eloquence of the Francis- 
can Lambert of Avignon, a notable man, who, awakened in his cloister at 
Avignon by Luther's writings, but not thoroughly satisfied, set out for 
^Yittenberg, engaged on the way at Ziirich in public disputation against 
Zwingli's reforms, but left converted by his opponent, and then passed 
through Luther's school at Wittenberg. There he married in a.d. 1523, 
and after a long unofficial and laborious stay at Strassburg, found at last, 
in a.d. 1526, a permanent residence in Hesse. He died in a.d. 1530. — 



Lambert's personality dominated the Homberg synod. He sketched an 
organization of the church according to his ideal as a communion of 
saints with a democratic basis, and a strict discipline administered by the 
community itself. But the impracticability of the scheme soon became 
evident, and in a.d. 1528 the Hessian church adopted the principles of 
the Saxon church visitation. Out of vacant church revenues the Univer- 
sity of Marburg was founded in a.d. 1527 as a second training school in 
reformed theology. Lambert was one of its first teachers. 

3. Organization of other German Provincial Churches, A.D. 1528-1530.— 
George of Franconian-Brandenburg, after his brother Casimir's death, 
organized his church at the assembly of Anspach after the Saxon model. 
Nuremberg, under the guidance of its able secretary of council, Lazarus 
Spengler, united in carrying out a joint organization. In Brunswick- 
Luneburg, Duke Ernest, powerfully impressed by the preaching of Ehegius 
at Augsburg, introduced the evangelical church organization into his 
dominions. In East Friesland, where the reigning prince did not interest 
himself in the matter, the development of the church was attended to by 
the young nobleman Ulrich of Dornum. In Schleswig and Holstein the 
prelates offered no opposition to reorganization, and the civil authorities 
carried out the work. In Silesia the princes were favourable, Breslau 
had been long on the side of the Reformation, and even the grand-duke 
who, as king of Bohemia, was suzerain of Silesia, felt obliged to allow 
Silesian nobles the privileges provided by the Diet of Spires. In Prussia 
(§ 126, 4), Albert of Brandenburg, hereditary duke of these parts, with 
the hearty assistance of his two bishops, provided for his subjects an 
evangelical constitution. 

4. The Reformation in the Cities of Northern Germany, A.D. 1524-1531. 
— In these cities the Reformation spread rapidly after their emancipa- 
tion from episcopal control. It was organized in Magdeburg as early 
as A.D. 1524 by Nic. Amsdorf, sent for the purpose by Luther (§ 126, 5). 
In Brunswick the church \tas organized in a.d. 1528 by Bugenhagen of 
Wittenberg. In Bremen ^ in a.d. 1525 all churches except the cathedral 
were in the hands of the Lutherans; in a.d. 1527 the cloisters were turned 
into schools and hospitals, and then the cathedral was taken from the 
Catholics. At Lubeck, nobles, councillors, and clergy had oppressed and 
driven away the evangelical pastors ; but the councillors in their financial 
straits became indebted to sixty- four citizens, who stipulated that the 
pastors must be restored, the Catholics expelled, the cloisters turned into 
hospitals and schools, and finally Bugenhagen was called in to prepare 
for their church a Lutheran constitution. 

§ 128. Martyrs for Evangelical Truth, a.d. 1521-1529. 

On the publication of the edict of Worms several Catholic 

§ 128. MARTYRS FOR TRUTH, A.D. 1521-1529. 259 

princes, most conspicuously Duke George of Saxony, began 
the persecution. Luther's followers were at first imprisoned, 
scourged, and banished, and in a.d. 1521 a bookseller who 
sold Luther's books was beheaded. The persecution was 
most severe in the Netherlands, a heritage of the emperor 
independent of the empire. Also in Austria, Bavaria, and 
Swabia many evangelical confessors were put to death by the 
sword and at the stake. The peasant revolt of a.d. 1525 
increased the violence of the persecution. On the pretence 
of punishing rebels, those who took part in the Regensburg 
Convention (§ 126, 3) were expelled the country, thousands 
of them with no other fault than their attachment to the 
gospel. The conclusion of the Diet of Spires in a.d. 1526 
(§ 126, 6) added new fuel to the flames. While the evan- 
gelical nobles, taking advantage of that decision, proceeded 
vigorously to the planting and organizing of the reformed 
church, the enemies of the Reformation exercised the power 
given them in cruel persecutions of their evangelical subjects. 
The vagaries of Pack (§ 132, 1) led to a revival and intensi- 
fication of the spirit of persecution. In Austria, during a.d. 
1527, 1528, a church visitation had been arranged very much 
in the style of that of Saxony, but with the object of track- 
ing out and punishing heretics. In Bavaria the highways 
were watched, to prevent pilgrims going to preaching over 
the borders. Those caught were at first fined, but later on 
they were drowned or burned. 

The first martyrs for evangelical truth were two young Augustinian 
monks of Antwerp, Henry Voes and John Esch, who died at the stake in 
A.D. 1523, and their heroism was celebrated by Luther in a beautiful 
hymn. They were succeeded by the prior of the cloister, Lampert Thorn, 
who was strangled in prison. The Swabian League, which was renewed 
after the rising of the Diet of Spires, with the avowed pm-pose of rooting 
out the Anabaptists, directed its cruel measures against all evangelicals. 
The Bishop of Constance in a.d. 1527 had John Hiiglin burnt as an 
opposer of the holy mother church. The Elector of Mainz cited the 
court preacher, George Winkler, of Halle, for dispensing the sacrament 


in both kinds at Ascheffenburg. Winkler defended himself, and was 
acquitted, but was murdered on the way. Luther then wrote his tract, 
" Comfort to the Christians of Halle on the Death of their Pastor." In 
North Germany there was no bloodshedding, but Duke George had those 
who confessed their faith scourged by the gaoler and driven from the 
country. The Elector Joachim of Brandenburg with his nobles resolved 
in A.D. 1527 to give vigorous support to the old religion. But the gospel 
took deep root in his land, and his own wife Elizabeth read Luther's 
writings, and had the sacrament administered after the Lutheran form. 
But the secret was revealed, and the elector stormed and threatened. 
She then escaped, dressed as a peasant woman, to her cousin the Elector 
of Saxony. 

§ 129. Luther's Private and Public Life, 
A.D. 1523-1529.' 

Only in December, a.d. 1524, did Luther leave the cloister, 
the last of its inhabitants but the prior, and on 13th June, 
A.D. 1525, married Catherine Bora, of the convent of Nimpt- 
schen, of whom he afterwards boasted that he prized her 
more highly than the kingdom of France and the gover- 
norship of Venice. Though often depressed with sickness, 
almost crushed under the weight of business, and harassed 
even to the end by the threats of his enemies against his 
life, he maintained a bright, joyous temper, enjoyed himself 
during leisure hours among his friends with simple enter- 
tainments of song, music, intellectual conversation, and 
harmless, though often sharp and pungent, interchange of 
wit. Thus he proved a genuine comfort and help in all 
kinds of trouble. By constant writing, by personal inter- 
course with students and foreigners who crowded into 
Wittenberg, by an extensive correspondence, he won and 
maintained a mighty influence in spreading and establishing 
the Reformation. By Scripture translation and Scripture 
exposition, by sermons and doctrinal treatises, he impressed 
upon the people his own evangelical views. A peculiarly 
powerful factor in the Reformation was that treasury of 

§ 129. Luther's private and public life. 261 

sacred song (§ 142, 3) which Luther gave his people, partly 
in translations of old, partly in the composition of new 
hymns, which he set .to bright and pleasing melodies. He 
was also most diligent in promoting education in churches 
and schools, in securing the erection of new elementary and 
secondary schools, and laid special stress on the importance 
of linguistic studies in a church that prized the pure word 
of God. 

1. Luther's Literary "Works. — In a.d. 1524 appeared the first collection 
of spiritual songs and psalms, eight in number, with a preface by Luther. 
His reforms of worship were extremely moderate. In a.d. 1523 he 
pubUshed little tracts on baptism and the Lord's Supper, repudiating the 
idea of a sacrifice in the mass, and insisting on communion in both 
kinds. In a.d. 1527 he wrote his " German Mass and Order of Public 
Worship " (§ 127, 1) which was introduced generally throughout the 
elector's dominions. He wrote an address to burgomasters and coun- 
cillors about the improvement of education in the cities. Besides his 
polemic against Erasmus and Carlstadt, against Milnzer and the rebellious 
peasants, as well as against the Sacramentarians (§ 131), he engaged at 
this time in controversy with Cochlaeus. A papal bull for the canonization 
of Bishop Benno of Meissen (§ 93, 9) called forth in a.d. 1524 Luther's 
tract, " Against the new God and the old Devil being set up at Meissen." 
He was persuaded by Christian II. of Denmark to write, in a.d. 1526, 
a very humble letter to Henry VIII. of England (§ 125, 3), which was 
answered in an extremely venomous and bitter style. "When his enemies 
triumphantly declared that he had retracted, Luther answered, in a.d. 
1527, with his book, " Against the Abusive Writing of the King of Eng- 
land," in which he resumed the bold and confident tone of his earlier 
polemic. A humble, concihatory epistle sent in a.d. 1526 to Duke George 
was no more successful. He now unweariedly continued his Bible trans- 
lation. The first edition of the whole Bible was published by Hans 
Lufft in Wittenberg, in a.d. 1534. A collection of sayings of Luther 
collected by Lauterbach, a deacon of Wittenberg, in a.d. 1538, formed the 
basis of later and fuller editions of "Luther's Table Talk." A chronolo- 
gically arranged collection was made ten years later, and was published 
in a.d. 1872 from a MS. in the Royal Library at Dresden. Aurifaber in 
his collection did not follow the chronological order, but grouped the 
utterances according to ;their subjects, but with many arbitrary altera- 
tions and modifications. The saying falsely attributed to Luther, " Who 
loves not wine, women, and song? " etc., is assigned by Luther himself 
to his Erfurt landlady, but has been recently traced to an Italian source. 


2. The famous Catholic Church historian Dollinger, who in his history 
of the Reformation had with ultramontane bitterness defamed Luther 
and his work, twenty years later could not forbear celebrating Luther 
in a public lecture as " the most powerful patriot and the most popular 
character that Germany possessed." In a.d. 1871 he wrote as follows : 
"It was Luther's supreme intellectual ability and wonderful versatility 
that made him the man of his age and of his nation. There has never 
been a German who so thoroughly understood his fellow countrymen 
and was understood by them as this Augustinian monk of Wittenberg. 
The whole intellectual and spiritual making of the Germans was in his 
hands as clay in the hands of the potter. He has given more to his 
nation than any one man has ever done : language, popular education, 
Bible, sacred song ; and all that his opponents could say against him and 
alongside of him seemed insipid, weak, and colourless compared with his 
overmastering eloquence. They stammered, he spoke. It was he who 
put a stamp upon the German language as well as upon the German 
character. And even those Germans who heartily abhor him as the 
great heretic and betrayer of religion cannot help speaking his words 
and thinking his thoughts." 

§ 130. The Reformation in Gterman Switzerland, 
A.D. 1519-1531. 

While Luther's Reformation spread in Germany, a similar 
movement sprang up in the neighbouring provinces of Ger- 
man Switzerland. Its earliest beginnings date back as far 
as A.D. 1516. The personal characteristics of its first pro- 
moter, and the political democratic movement in which it 
had its rise, gave it a complexion entirely different from 
that of the Lutheran Reformation. The most conspicuous 
divergence occurred in the doctrine of the supper (§ 131), 
and since the Swiss views on this point were generally 
accepted in the cities of the uplands, the controversy passed 
over into the German Reformed Church and hindered com- 
mon action, notwithstanding common interests and common 

1. Ulrich Zwingli.— Zwingli, born at Wildhaus in Toggenburg on 
January 1st, a.d. 1484, a scholar of the famous humanist Thomas Wyt- 


lenbacli at Basel, was, after ten years' service as pastor at Glarus, made 
pastor of Maria-Einsiedeln in a.d. 1516. The crowding of pilgrims to 
the famous shrine of Mary at that place led him to preach against super- 
stitious notions of meritorious performances. But far more decisive in 
determining his attitude toward the Eeformation was his appointment on 
January 1st, a.d. 1519, as Lent priest at Zurich, where he first became 
acquainted with Luther's works, and took sides with him against the 
Romish court party. Zwingli soon took up a distinctive position of his 
own. He would be not only a religious, but also a political reformer. 
For several years he had vigorously opposed the sending of Swiss youths 
as mercenaries into the armies of foreign princes. His political oppo- 
nents, the oligarchs, whose incomes depended on this traffic, opposed also 
his religious reforms, so that his support was wholly from the democracy. 
Another important distinction between the Swiss and German move- 
ments was this, that Zwingli had grown into a reformer not through 
deep conviction of sin and spiritual conflicts, but through classical and 
biblical study. The writings of Pico of Mirandola (§ 120, 1), too, were 
not without influence upon him. To him, therefore, justification by 
faith was not in the same degree as to Luther the guiding star of his 
life and action. He began the work of the Eeformation not so much 
with purifying the doctrine, as with improving the worship, the con- 
stitution, the ecclesiastical and moral life. His theological standpoint is 
set forth in these works: Comment, de vera et falsa relip., a.d. 1525; 
Fidei ratio ad Car. Imp., a.d. 1530 ; Christian. Jidei hrevis at clara expos., 
ed. Bullinger, a.d. 1536; Be providentia Dei ; and Apologeticus. Of the 
two principles of the anti-Eomish Eeformation (§ 121) the Wittenberg 
reformer placed the material, the Zurich reformer the formal, in the 
foreground. The former only rejected what was not reconcilable with 
Scripture ; the latter repudiated all that was not expressly enjoined in 
Scripture. The former was cautious and moderate in dealing with forms 
of worship and mere externals ; the latter was extreme, immoderate, and 
violent. Luther retained pictures, altars, the ornaments of churches, 
and the priestly character of the service, purifying it simply from un- 
evangelical corruptions ; Zwingli denounced all these things as idolatry, 
and burnt even organ pipes and clock bells. Luther recognised no action 
of the Holy Spirit apart from the word and sacrament ; Zwingli separated 
it from these, and identified it with mere subjective feeling. The sacra- 
ments were with him mere memorial signs ; justification solely by the 
merits of Christ as a joyous assurance of salvation had for him a negative 
rather than a positive significance, i.e. opposition to the Eomish doctrine 
of merits ; original sin was for him only hereditary moral sickness, a 
naturalis defectus, which is not itself sin, and virtuous heathens, like 
Hercules, Theseus, Socrates, and Cato were admitted as such into the 
society of the blessed, without apparently sharing in the redemption of 

Christ. His speculations, whicli led on one side almost to pantheism, 
favoured a theory of predestination, according to which the moral will 
has no freedom over against Providence.^ 

2. The Reformation in Zitrich, A.D. 1519-1525.— In a.d. 1518 a trafficker 
in indulgences, the Franciscan Bernard Samson, of Milan, carried on his 
disreputable business in Switzerland. At Zwingli's desire Zurich's gates 
were closed against him. In a.d. 1520 the council gave permission to 
priests and preachers in the city and canton to preach only from the 
0. and N.T. All this happened under the eyes of the two papal nuncios 
staying in Zurich ; but they did not interfere, because the curia was 
extremely anxious to get auxiliaries for the papal army for an attack on 
Milan. Zwingli was promised a rich living if he would no more preach 
against the pope. He refused the bait, and went on his way as a 
reformer. The continued indulgence of the curia allowed the Reforma- 
tion to take even firmer root. Zwingli published, in a.d. 1522, his first 
work, " Of Election, and Freedom in Use of Food," and the Zurichers 
ate flesh and eggs during Lent of a.d. 1522. He also claimed liberty to 
marry for the clergy. At this time Lambert came from Avignon to 
Zurich (§ 127, 2). He preached against the new views, disputed in July 
with Zwingli, and confessed himself defeated and convinced. Zwingli's 
opponents had placed great hopes in Lambert's eloquence and dialectic 
skill. All the greater was the effect of the unexpected result of the 
disputation. The council, now impressed, commanded that the word 
of God should be preached without human additions. But when the 
adherents of the Romish party protested, it arranged a public disputa- 
tion on 29th Jan., a.d, 1523, on sixty-seven theses or conclusiones drawn 
up by Zwingli: "All who say, The gospel is nothing without the 
guarantee of the Church, blaspheme God ;— Christ is the one way to sal- 
vation ; — Our righteousness and our works are good so far as they are 
Christ's, neither right nor good so far as they are our own," etc. A 
former friend of Zwingli, John Faber, but quite changed since he had 
made a visit to Rome, and now vicar-general of the Bishop of Constance, 
undertook to support the old doctrines and customs against Zwingli. 
Being restricted to Scripture proof he was forced to yield. The cloisters 
were forsaken, violent polemics were published against the canon of the 
mass and the worship of saints and images. The council resolved to 
decide the question of the mass and images by a second disputation in 
October, a.d. 1523. Leo Juda, Lent priest at St. Peter's in Ziirich, con- 
tended against image worship, Zwingli against the mass. Scarcely any 

^ Myconius, "Vita Zwinglii." Basel, 1536. Hess, "Life of Zwingli, 
the Swiss Reformer." London, 1832. Christoffel, " Zwingli ; or. The 
Rise of the Reformation in Switi^erland." Edin., 1858. Blackburn, 
" Ulrich Zwingli." London, 18G8. 


opposition was offered to either of them. At Pentecost, a.d. 1524, the 
council had all images withdrawn from the churches, the frescoes cut 
down, and the walls whitewashed. Organ playing and bell ringing were 
forbidden as superstitious. A new simple biblical formula of baptism was 
introduced, and the abohtion of the mass, in a.d. 1525, completed the 
work. At Easter of this year Zwingli celebrated a lovefeast, at which 
bread was carried in wooden trenchers, and wine drunk from wooden 
cups. Thus he thought the genuine Christian apostolic rite was restored. 
In A.D. 1522 he had married a widow of forty-three years of age, but he 
pubhcly acknowledged it only in a.d. 1524. He penitently confesses that 
his pre-Eeformation celibate life, like that of most priests of his age, 
had not been blameless; but the moral purity of his later life is beyond 

3. Reformation in Basel, A.D. 1520-1525. — In Basel, at an early period, 
Capito and Hedio wrought as biblical preachers. But so soon as they 
had laid a good foundation they accepted a call to Mainz, in a.d. 1520, 
which they soon again quitted for Strassburg, where they carried on the 
work of the Eeformation along with Bucer. Their work at Basel was 
zealously and successfully continued by Eoublin. He preached against 
the mass, purgatory, and saint worship, often to 4,000 hearers. On the 
day of Corpus Christi he produced a Bible instead of the usual relies, 
which he scornfully called dead bones. He was banished, and afterwards 
joined the Anabaptists. A new epoch began in Basel in a.d. 1523. (Eco- 
lampadius or John Hausschein, born at Weinsberg in a.d. 1482, Zwingli's 
Melanchthon, was preacher in Basel in a.d. 1516, and was on intimate 
terms there with Erasmus. He accepted a call in a.d. 1518 to the cathedral 
of Augsburg, but a year after withdrew into an Augsburg convent of St. 
Bridget. There he studied Luther's writings, and, in a.d. 1522, found 
shelter from persecution in Sickingen's castle, where he officiated for 
some months as chaplain. He then returned to Basel, became preacher 
at St. Martin's, and was soon made, along with Conrad Pellican (§ 120, 4, 
footnote), professor in the university. Around these two a group of 
younger men soon gathered, who energetically supported the evangelical 
movement. They dispensed baptism in the German language, admi- 
nistered the communion in both kinds, and were indefatigable in preach- 
ing. In A.D. 1524 the council allowed monks and nuns, if they so wished, 
to leave their cloisters. Of special importance for the progress of the 
Eeformation in Basel was the arrival in a.d. 1524 of William Farel from 
Dauphine (§ 138, 1). He had been obliged to fly from France, and was 
kindly received by (Ecolampadius, with whom he stayed for some months. 
In February he had a public disputation with the opponents of the Ee- 
formation. University and bishop had interdicted it, but all the more 
decided was the council that it should come off. Its result was a great 
impulse to the Eeformation, though Farel in this same year, probably at 

2C)() niTTncTT ittrtoky of the sixteenth centuey. 

the sngfjcstion of Erasmus, whom ho had dcscribod as a now ]]alaam, 
was banislicd by tlic council (§ 138, 1).' 

4. The Reformation in the other Cantons, A.D. 1520-1525. In Bern, 
from A.n. 15] 8 llallcv, Kolb, and Mayer carried on tlie work of the Refor- 
mation as iiolilical and roligions reformers after the style of Zwingli. 
Nic. Manuel, poet, satirist, and painter, supported their preaching by his 
satirical writings against pope, priests, and superstition generally. Also 
in his Dance of Death, which he painted on the walls of a cloister at 
Bern, ho covered tho clergy with ridicule. In A.n. 1523 the council 
allowed departures from the convents, and several monks and nuns 
withdrew and married. The opposition called in the Dominican John 
Haim, as their spokesman, in a.d. 1521. Between him and the Franciscan 
Mayer there arose a passionate discussion, and the council exiled both. 
Dut Ilallor continued his work, and the Reformation took firmer root 
from day to day.— In Muhlhansen, where Ulr. von Huttcn spent his last 
days, the council issued a mandate in A.n. 1521 which gave free course 
to the Reformation. At Biel, too, it was allowed unrestricted freedom. 
In East Switzerland, St. Gall was specially prominent under its burgo- 
master Joachim v. Watt, who zealously advanced the interests of the 
Reformation by word, writing, and action. John Karsler, who had studied 
theology in Wittenberg in a.d. 1522, and was then obliged, in order to 
avoid reading the mass, to learn and practise the trade of a saddler, 
preached the gospel here in the Trades' Ilall in his saddler's apron in 
A.n. 1521 , and took the office of reformed pastor and Latin preceptor in 
a.d. 1537. He died in a.b. 1574 as President of St. Gall. In Schaff- 
hausen Erasmus Hitter, called upon to oppose in discussion tho reformed 
pastor llofmeistcr, owned himself defeated, and joined the reform party. 
In the canton Vaud Thos. IMutter, the original and learned sailor, after- 
wards rector of the high school at Burg, laid the foundations of tho 
Reformation. In Appenzel and Glarus the work gradually advanced. 
But in the Swiss midlands the nobles raided opposition in behalf of their 
revenues, and the people of Berg, whose whole religion lay in pilgrimages, 
images, and saints, constantly opposed the introduction of the new 
views. Lucerne and Freiburg were the main bulwarks of the papacy in 

5. Anabaptist Outbreak, A.D. 1525.— In Switzerland, though the re- 
formers there had taken very advanced ground, a number of ultra- 
reformers arose, who thought they did not go far enough. Their leaders 
were Iliitzer (§ 148, 1), Grebel, Manz, luiublin, Hubmeier, and Stor. 
They began disturbances at Zolticon near Ziirich. Hubmeier held a 
council at Waldshut, Easter Eve, a.d. 1525, and was rebaptized by 

1 Blackburn, " William Farel (1487-1531) : The Story of the Swiss 
Reformation." Edin., 18G7. 


Roublin. During Easter week 110 received baptism, and Rnl)seqnently 
more than 300 besides. The Basel Canton, where Miinzer had been living, 
broke out in open revolt against the city. 8t. Gall alone had 800 Ana- 
baptists. Ziirich at Zwingli's request at once took decided measures. 
Many were banished, some were mercilessly drowned. Bern, Basel, and 
St. Gall followed this example. ^ 

G. Disputation at Baden, A.D. 1526. — The reactionary party could not 
decline the challenge to a disputation, but in the face of all protests it 
was determined to be held in the Catholic district of Baden. The 
champions and representatives of the cantons and bishops appeared 
there in May, a.d. 1520, Faber and Eck leading the papists and Haller 
of Bern and fficolampadius of Basel representing the party of reform. 
Zwingli was forbidden by the Zurich council to attend, but he was kept 
daily informed by Thos. Platter. Eck's theses were combatted one after 
another. It lasted eight days. Eck outcried CEcolampadius' weak voice, 
but the latter was immensely superior in intellectual power. At last 
Thomas Murner (§ 125, 4) appeared with forty abusive articles against 
Zwingli. CEcolampadius and ten of his friends persisted in rejecting 
Eck's theses ; all the rest accepted them. The Assembly of the States 
pronounced the reformers heretics, and ordered the cantons to have 
them banished. 

7. Disputation at Bern, A.D. 1528. — The result of the Bern disputation 
was ill received by the democrats of Bern and Basel. A final disputation 
was arranged for at Bern, which was attended by .350 of the clergy and 
many noblemen. Zwingli, fficolampadius, Haller, Capito, Bucer, and 
Farel were there. It continued from 7th to 27th January, a.d. 1528. 
The Catholics were sadly wanting in able disputants, and they sustained 
an utter defeat. Worship and constitution were radically reformed. 
Cloisters were secularized ; preachers gave their oflicial oath to the civil 
magistrates. There were serious riots over the removal of the images. 
The valuable organ in the minster of St. Vincent was broken up by the 
ruthless iconoclasts. A political reformation was carried out along with 
the religious, and all stipendiaries received their warning. 

8. Complete Victory of the Reformation at Basel, St. Gall, and Schaffhausen , 
A.D. 1529. — The Burgomaster von Watt brought to St. Gall the news of 
the victorious issue of the disputation at Bern. This gave the finishing 
blow to the Catholic party. Thus in a.d. 1528, certainly not without 
some iconoclastic excesses, the Reformation triumphed. — In Basel, 
the council was divided, and so it took but half measures. On Good 
Friday, a.d. 1528, some citizens broke the images in St. Martin's Church. 
They were apprehended. But a rising of citizens obliged the council 
to set them free, and several churches from which the images had been 

Burrage, "History of the Anabaptists in Switzerland." Philad, 1882 


■withdrawn were given over to the reformers. In December, a.d. 1528, 
the trades presented a petition asking for the final abolition of idolatry. 
The Catholic party and the reformed took to arms, and a civil war 
seemed imminent. The council, however, succeeded in quelling the 
disturbance by announcing a disputation where the majority of the 
citizens should decide by their votes. But the Catholic minority pro- 
tested so energetically that the council had again recourse to half 
measures. The dissatisfaction of the reformed led to an explosion of 
violent image breaking in Lent, a.d. 1529. Huge bonfires of images and 
altars were [set a blaze. The strict Catholic members of the council 
fled, the rest quelled the revolt by an unconditional surrender. Even 
Erasmus gave way (§ 120, 6). CEcolampadius had married in a.d. 1528. 
He died in a.d. 1531. In Schaffhausen up to a.d. 1529 matters were 
undecided, but the proceedings at Basel and Bern gave victory to the re- 
formed party. The drama here ended with a double marriage. The abbot 
of All Saints married a nun, and Erasmus Ritter married the abbot's 
sister. Images were removed without tumult and the mass abolished. 

9. The first Treaty of Cappel, A.D. 1529.— In the five forest cantons the 
Catholics had the upper hand, and there every attempted political as well 
as religious reform was relentlessly put down. Ziirich and Bern could 
stand this no longer, Unterwalden now revolted, and found considerable 
support in the other four cantons, and the position of the cities became 
serious. The forest cantons now turned to Austria, the old enemy of 
Swiss freedom, and concluded at Innsbriick in a.d. 1529 a formal league 
with King Ferdinand for mutual assistance in matters touching the faith. 
Trusting to this league, they increased their cruel persecutions of the 
reformed, and burnt alive a Ziirich preacher, Keyser, whom they had 
seized on the public highway on neutral territory. Then [the Ziirichers 
rose up in revolt. With their decided preponderance they might certainly 
have crushed the five cantons, and then all Switzerland would have 
surrounded Zwingli in the support of reform. But Bern was jealous of 
Zurich's growing importance, and even many Ziirichers for fear of war 
urged negotiations for peace with the old members of the league. Thus 
came about the First Treaty of Cappel in a.d, 1529, The five cantons 
gave up the Austrian league document to be destroyed, undertook to 
defray the costs of the war, and agreed that the majority in each canton 
should determine the faith of that canton. As to freedom of belief it 
was only said that no party should make the faith of the other penal. 
This was less than Zwingli wished, yet it was a considerable gain. 
Thurgau, Baden, Schaffhausen, Solothurn, Neuenburg, Toggenburg, etc., 
on the basis of this treaty, abolished mass, images, and altars. 

10. The Second Treaty of Cappel, A.D. 1531,— Even after the treaty 
the five cantons continued to persecute the reformed, and renewed their 
alliance with Austria. Their undue preponderance in the assembly led 

§ 131. SACRAMENTAL CONTROVEESY, A.D. 1525-1529. 269 

Zurich to demand a revision of the federation. This led the forest 
cantons to mcrease their cruelties upon the reformed. Zurich declared 
for immediate hostilities, but Bern decided to refuse all commercial 
intercourse with the five cantons. At the diet at Lucerne, the five 
cantons resolved in September, a.d. lo3i, to avert famine by immediately 
declaring war. They made their arrangements so secretly that the 
reformed party was not the least prepared, when suddenly, on the 9th 
October, an army of 8,000 men, bent on revenge, rushed down on the 
Zurich Canton. In all haste 2,000 men were mustered, who were almost 
annihilated in the battle of Cappel on 11th October. There, too, Zwingli 
fell. His body was quartered and burnt, and the ashes scattered to the 
winds. Ziirich and Bern soon brought a force of 20,000 men into the 
field, but the courage of their enemies had grown in proportion as all 
confidence and spirit departed from the reformed. Further successes 
led the forest cantons, which had hitherto acted only on the defensiye, to 
proceed on the offensive, and the reformed were constrained to accept on 
humbling terms the Second Treaty of Cappel of a.d. 1531. This granted 
freedom of worship to the reformed in their own cantons, but secured the 
restoration of Catholicism in the five cantons. The defeated had also to 
bear the costs of the war, and to renounce their league with Strassburg, 
Constance, and Hesse. The hitherto oppressed Catholic minority began 
now to assert itself on all hands, and in many places were more or less 
successful in securing the ascendency. So it was in Aargau, Thurgau, 
Rapperschwyl, St. Gall, Rheinthal, Solothurn, Glarus, etc. 

§ 131. The Sacramentarian Controversy, a.d. 1525-1529.^ 

Luther in his " Babylonish Captivity of the Church," of 
A.D. 1520, had, in opposition to prevailing views, which made 
the efficacy of the sacraments dependent on the objective 
receiving without regard to the faith of the receiver, ojms 
operatum^ pressed forward the subjective side in a somewhat 
extreme manner. During the earlier period of his career 
as a reformer, and indeed even at a later period, as his letter 
to the men of Strassburg shows, he was in danger of going 
to the extreme of overlooking or denying the real objective 
and Divine contents of the sacrament. But decided as the 
opposition was to the scholastic theory of transu bstantia- 

1 Cunningham, " Reformers and Theology of the Reformation," Edin., 
1862, pp. 212-291 ; " Zwingli and the Doctrine of the Sacraments." 



tion, and convinced as he was that the bread and wine were 
to be regarded as mere symbols, the text of Scripture seemed 
clearly to say to him that he must recognise there the pre- 
sence of the true body and blood of Christ. His anxiety to 
avoid the errors of the fanatics, and his simple acceptance 
of the word of Scripture, led him to that conviction which 
inspired him to the end, that in, with, and under ^the bread 
and wine the true body and blood of the Lord are received, by 
believers unto salvation, by unbelievers unto condemnation. 

Carlstadt (§ 124, 3) had denied utterly the presence of the body and 
blood of the Lord in the sacrament. He sought to set aside the force of 
the words of institution by giving to tovto an absurd meaning : Christ 
had pointed to His own present body, and said, " This here is My body, 
which in death I will give for you, and in memory thereof eat this 
bread." When Carlstadt, expelled from Saxony, came to Strassburg, he 
sought to interest the preachers there, Bucer and Capito, in himself and 
his sacramental view. But Luther was not moved by their attempts at 
conciliation. Zwingli, too, took the side of Carlstadt. In essential agree- 
ment with Carlstadt, but putting the matter on another basis, Zwingli 
interpreted the words of institution, " This is," by " This signifies," and 
reduced the significance of the sacrament to a symbolical memorial of 
Christ's suffering and death. In an epistle to the Lutheran Matthew 
Alber at Reutlingen in a.d. 1524 he set forth this theory, and sided with 
Carlstadt against Luther. He developed his views more fully in his 
dogmatic treatise, Commentarius de vera et falsa relig., a.d. 1525, where 
he characterizes Luther's doctrine as an opinio non solum rustica sed 
etiam impia et frivola. (Ecolampadius, too, took part in the controversy 
as supporter of his friend Zwingli when attacked by Bugenhagen, and 
wrote in a.d. 1525 his De genuina verhorum Domini, Hoc est corpus 
meum, expositione. He wished to understand the <rw/Aa of the words of 
institution as equivalent to " sign of the body." (Ecolampadius laid his 
treatise before the Swabian reformers Brenz and Scbnepf ; but these, in 
concert with twelve other preachers, answered in the Syngramma Suevi- 
ciim of A.D. 1525 quite in accordance with Luther's doctrine. The con- 
troversy continued to spread. Luther first openly appeared againsi. the 
Swiss in a.d. 1256 in his " Sermon on the Sacrament against the^Frnatics," 
and to this Zwingli replied. Luther answered again in his tract, " That 
the words, This is My body, stand firm"; and in a.d. 1528 he issued his 
great manifesto, " Confession in regard to the Lord's Supper " (§ 144, 2, 
note). Notwithstanding the endeavours of the Strassburgers at con- 
ciliation the controversy still continued. Zwingli's statement was the 


shibboleth of the Swiss Reformation, and was adopted also in many 
of the upland cities. Strassburg, Lindau, Meiningen, and Constance 
accepted it; even in Ulm, Augsburg, Reutlingen, etc., it had its sup- 
porters. — Continuation, § 132, 4. 

§ 132. The Protest and Confession of the Evangelical 
Nobles, a.d. 1527-1530. 

For three years after the diet at Spires in a.d. 1526 no 
public proceedings were taken on religious questions. The 
success of the Reformation however during these years 
roused the Catholic party to make a great effort. At the 
next diet at Spires, in a.d. 1529, the Catholics were in the 
majority, and measures were passed which, it was hoped, 
would put an end to the Reformation. The evangelicals 
tabled a formal protest (hence the name Protestants), and 
strove hard to have effect given to it. The union negotia- 
tions with the Swiss and uplanders were not indeed suc- 
cessful, but in the Augsburg Confession of a.d. 1530 they 
raised before emperor and empire a standard, around which 
they henceforth gathered with hearty goodwill. 

1. The Pack Incident, A.D. 1527, 1528.— In a.d. 1527 dark rumours of 
dangers to the evangelicals began to spread. The landgrave, suspecting 
the existence of a conspiracy of the German Catholic princes, gave to 
an officer in Duke George's government. Otto von Pack, 10,000 florins 
to secure documents proving its existence. He produced one with the 
ducal seal, which bound the Catholic princes of Germany to fall upon the 
elector's territories and Hesse, and to divide the lands among them, etc. 
The landgrave was all fire and fury, and even the Elector John joined 
him in a league to make a vigorous demonstration against the purposed 
attack. But Luther and Melanchthon pressed upon the elector our Lord's 
words, " All they that take the sword shall perish with the sword," and 
convinced him that he ought to abide the attack and restrict himself to 
simple defence. The landgrave, highly offended at the failure of his pro- 
ject, sent a copy of the document to Duke George, who declared the whole 
affair a tissue of lies. Philip had begun operations against the elector, 
but was heartily ashamed of himself when he came to his sober senses. 
Pack when interrogated became involved in contradictions, and was 
found to be a thoroughly bad subject, who had been before convicted of 
falsehood and intrigues. The landgrave expelled him from his territories. 


He wandered long a homeless exile, and at last, in a.d. 1536, was executed 
by Duke George's orders in the Netherlands. All this seriously injured 
the interests of the gospel. Mutual distrust among the Protestant leaders 
continued, and sympathy was created for the Catholic princes as men who 
had been unjustly accused. 

2. The Emperor's Attitude, A.D. 1527-1529.— The faithlessness of the 
king of France and the ratification of the League of Cognac (§ 126, 6) 
led to very strained relations between the pope and the emperor. Old 
Frundsberg raised an army in Germany, and the German peasants, with- 
out pay or reward, crossed the Alps, burning with desire to humiliate 
the pope. On 6th May, a.d. 1527, the imperial army of Spaniards and 
Germans stormed Rome. The so-called sack of Rome presented a scene 
of plunder and spoliation scarcely ever paralleled. Clement VII., besieged 
in St. Angelo, was obliged to surrender himself prisoner. But once again 
Germany's hopes were cast to the ground by the emperor. Considering 
the opinion that prevailed in Spain, and influenced by his own antipathy 
to the Saxon heresy, besides other political combinations, he forgot that 
he had been saved by Lutheran soldiers. In June, a.d. 1528, at Barcelona, 
he concluded a peace with the pope, and promised to use his whole pow;er 
in suppressing heresy. By the Treaty of Cambray, in July, a.d. 1529, the 
French war also was finally brought to a conclusion. In this treaty both 
potentates promised to uphold the papal chair, and Francis I. renewed 
his undertaking to furnish aid against heretics and Turks. Charles now 
hastened to Italy to be crowned by the pope, meaning then by his personal 
attentions to settle the affairs of Germany. 

3. The Diet at Spires, A.D. 1529.— In the end of a.d. 1528 the emperor 
issued a summons for another diet at Spires, which met on 21st Feb., 
A.D. 1529. Things had changed since a.d. 1526. The Catholics were 
roused by the Pack episode, halting nobles were terrorized by the 
emperor, the prelates were present in great numbers, and the Catholics, 
for the first time since the Diet at Worms, were in a decided majority. 
The proposition of the imperial commissioners to rescind the conclusions 
of the diet of a.d. 1526 was adopted by a majority, and formulated as 
the diet's decision. No innovations were to be introduced until at least 
a council had been convened, mass was everywhere to be tolerated, the 
jurisdiction and revenues of the bishops were in all cases to be fully 
restored. It was the death-knell of the Reformation, as it gave the 
bishops the right of deposing and punishing preachers at their will. As 
Ferdinand was deaf to all remonstrances, the evangelicals presented a 
solemn protest, with the demand that it should be incorporated in the 
imperial statute book. But Ferdinand refused to receive it. The Pro- 
testants now took no further steps, but drew up a formal statement of 
their case for the emperor, appealed to a free council and German 
national assembly, and declared their constant adherence to the decisions 


of the previous diet. This document was signed by the Elector of Saxony, 
the Landgrave of Hesse, George of Brandenburg, the two dukes of Liine- 
burg, and Prince Wolfgang of Anholt. Of the upland cities fourteen 
subscribed it. 

4. The Marburg Conference, A.D. 1529.— The Elector of Saxony and 
Hesse entered into a defensive league with Strassburg, Ulm, and Nurem- 
berg at Spires. The theologians present agreed only with hesitation to 
admit the Zwinglian Strassburg. The landgrave at the same time formed 
an alliance with Zurich, which attached itself to the interests of Francis 
I. of France. Thus began the most formidable coalition which had ever 
yet been formed against the house of Austria. But one point had been 
overlooked which broke it all up again, viz. the religious differences 
between the Lutheran and Zwinglian confessions. Melanchthon returned 
to Wittenburg with serious qualms of conscience ; Luther had declared 
against any league, most of all against any fraternising with the " Sacra- 
mentarians," and the elector to some extent agreed with him. Even the 
Nuremberg theologians had their scruples. The proposed league was to 
have been ratified at Rotach in June. The meeting took place, but no 
conclusion was reached. The landgrave was furious, but the elector was 
resolute. Philip now summoned leading theologians on both sides to a 
conference at Marburg in his castle, which lasted from 1st till 3rd Oct., 
A.D. 1529. On the one side were Luther, Melanchthon, Justus Jonas, from 
"Wittenberg, Brenz from Swabia, and Osiander from Nuremberg ; on the 
other side, Zwingli from Ziirich, CEcolampadius from Basel, Bucer and 
Hadio from Strassburg. After, by the landgrave's well-meant arrange- 
ment, Zwingli had discussed privately with Melanchthon, and Luther with 
Qilcolampadius, during the first day, the public conference began on the 
second. First of all several points were discussed on the divinity of 
Christ, original sin, baptism, the word of God, etc., in reference to which 
suspicions of Zwingli's orthodoxy had been current in Wittenberg. On all 
these Zwingli willingly abandoned his peculiar theories and accepted the 
doctrines of the cecumenical church. But his views of the Lord's Supper 
he stoutly maintained. He took his stand upon John vi. 63, " The 
flesh profiteth nothing"; but Luther wrote with chalk on the table 
before him, " This is My body," as the word of God which no one may 
explain away. No agreement could be reached. Zwingli declared that 
notwithstanding he was ready for brotherly fellowship, but this Luther 
and his party unanimously refused. Luther said, " You are of another 
spirit than we." Still Luther had found his opponents not so bad as he 
expected, and also the Swiss found that Luther's doctrine was not so 
gross and capernaitic as they had imagined. They agreed on fifteen 
articles, in the fourteenth of which they determined on the basis of the 
oecumenical church doctrine to oppose the errors of Papists and Ana- 
baptists, and in the fifteenth the Swiss admitted that the true body and 


blood of Christ are in the sacrament, but they could not admit that they 
were corporeally in the bread and wine. Three copies of these Marburg 
articles were signed by the theologians present. — Continuation, § 133, 8. 

5. The Convention of Schwabach and the Landgrave Philip. — A conven- 
tion met at Schwabach in Oct., a.d. 1529, at which a confession of seven- 
teen articles was proposed to the representatives of the Swiss, but 
rejected by them. Meanwhile the imperial answer to the decisions of 
the diet had arrived from Spain, containing very ungracious expressions 
against the Protestants. The evangelical nobles sent an embassy to the 
emperor to Italy ; but he refused to receive the protest, and treated the 
ambassadors almost as prisoners. They returned to Germany with a 
bad report. Hitherto there had been only a defensive federation against 
attacks of the Swabian League or other Catholic princes. Luther's hope 
that the emperor might yet be won was shattered. The question now 
was, what should be done if an onslaught upon the reformed should be 
made by the emperor himself. The jurists indeed were of opinion that 
the German princes were not unconditionally subject to the emperor ; 
they too have authority by God's grace, and in the exercise of this are 
bound to protect their subjects. But Luther did not hesitate for a 
moment to compare the relation of the elector to the emperor with that of 
the burgomaster of Torgau to the elector ; for he maintained the idea of 
the empire as firmly as that of the church. He insisted that the princes 
should not withstand the emperor, and that they should bear everything 
patiently for God's sake. Only if the emperor should proceed to per- 
secute their own subjects for their faith should they renounce their 
obedience. The landgrave's negotiations with Zwingli also led to no 
result. For political purposes, notwithstanding the opposition of Witten- 
berg, there was formed a coalition of all the Protestants of the north with 
the exception of Denmark, extending also to the south and embracing 
even Venice and France. The Swiss would stop the way of the emperor 
over the Alps ; Venice would be of service with her fleet, and the most 
Christian king of France was to be summoned as the protector of political 
and religious freedom of Germany. But these fine plans were seen to 
be vain dreams when the time for putting them in practice came round. 

6. The Diet of Augsburg, A.D. 1530. — From Boulogne, where the pope 
crowned him, the emperor summoned a diet to meet at Augsburg, at 
which for the first time in nine he was to be personally present. He 
would once again seek to induce the Protestants quietly to return to the 
old faith, and so his missive was very conciliatory. But before its arrival 
new irritations had arisen at Augsburg. . The Elector John allowed the 
preachers accompanying him, Spalatin and Agricola, to engage freely in 
preaching. The emperor was greatly displeased at this, and sent him a 
request to withdraw this permission, which, however, he did not regard. 
On 15th June, accompanied by the papal legate Campegius (§ 12G, 2,3), 


be made a brilliant entrance, tbe Protestants, on tbe ground of 2 Kings 
V. 17, 18, offering no opposition to all tbe civil and ecclesiastical reception 
ceremonies. Tbis gave tbe emperor greater confidence in renewing tbe 
demand to stop tbe preaching. But tbe Protestants stood firm, and 
Margrave George called down tbe unmeasured wratb of tbe emperor by bis 
decided but bumble declaration, tbat before be would deny God's word, 
be would kneel wbere be stood and bave bis bead struck off. Just as 
decidedly be refused tbe emperor's call to join tbe Corpus Cbristi 
procession on tbe following day, even witb tbe addition that it was "to 
tbe glory of Almighty God." At last they yielded the matter of tbe 
preaching so far as to discontinue it during the emperor's stay, on tbe 
other party undertaking to discontinue controversial discourses. On 
20tb June tbe diet opened. Tbe matter of tbe Turkish war was on tbe 
emperor's motion postponed, to allow of tbe thorough discussion of the 
religious questions. 

7. The Augsburg Confession, 25th June, A.D. 1530. — In view of the diet 
the evangelical theologians prepared for the elector a short confession in 
the form of a revision of tbe seventeen Schwabach Articles, tbe so called 
Torgau Articles. Melanchthon employed tbe days that preceded the 
opening of tbe diet in drawing up on tbe basis of tbe Torgau Articles, in 
constant correspondence wdth the evangelical theologians, tbe Augsburg 
Confession, Confessio Augustana. This concise, clear, and decided though 
temperate document received tbe hearty approval of Luther, who, as still 
under tbe ban, was kept back by the elector at Coburg. It contained 
twenty-one Articuli fidei pracipui, and also seYen Articuli in quibus re- 
censentur abusiis mutati. On 24th June the Protestants said they desired 
their confession to be publicly read. But it was with difficulty that they 
obtained tbe emperor's consent to allow its being read on the 25tb June, 
and even then not in the public ball, but in a much smaller episcopal 
chapel, wbere only members of the diet could find room. The two chan- 
cellors of tbe electorate, Baier and Brilck, appeared, the one with a 
German, tbe other with a Latin copy of the confession. The emperor 
wished the Latin, but the elector insisted that on German soil tbe German 
copy should be read. When tbis was done Dr. Briick banded both copies 
to the emperor, who kept tbe Latin one and gave the German one to the 
Elector of Mainz. Both were subscribed by Elector John, Margrave 
George, Duke Ernest of Liineburg, Landgrave Philip, Prince Wolfgang 
of Anhalt, and the cities of Nuremberg and Reutlingen. Tbe confession 
made a favourable impression on many of tbe assembled princes, and 
many prejudices were dissipated; while tbe evangelicals were greatly 
strengthened by the unanimous confession of their faith before tbe 
emperor and the empire. The Catholic theologians Faber, Eck, Cocbl^us, 
and Wimpina were ordered by the emperor to controvert the confession. 
Meanwhile Melanchthon entered into negotiations with the legate Cam- 


pegius, in which his love of peace went so far as to withdraw all demands 
for marriage of the clergy, and the giving of the cup to the laity, and to 
allow the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishops, reserving the question 
about the mass to the decision of a council. But these weak concessions 
found little or no favour among the other Protestants, and the legate could 
make no binding engagement until he consulted Eome. On 3rd Aug. 
the confutation of the Catholic theologians was read. The emperor 
declared that it maintained the views by which he would stand. He 
expected the princes would do the same. He was defender of the Church, 
and was not disposed to suffer ecclesiastical schism in Germany. The 
Protestants demanded for closer inspection a copy of the confutation. 
This was refused. The landgrave now left the diet. To the elector he 
said that he gave over to him and to God's word body and goods, land 
and people ; and to the representatives of the cities he wrote : " Say to 
the cities that they are not women, but men. There is no fear; God is on 
our side." The zealous Papist Duke William of Bavaria declared to Eck, 
" If I hear well, the Lutherans sit upon the Scripture and we alongside of 
it." The cities siding with Zwingli, Strassburg, Memmingen, Constance, 
and Lindau, presented their own confession drawn up by Bucer and 
Capilo, the Confessio Tetmpolitinia. lu its eighteenth article it taught 
that Christ gives in the sacrament His true body and His true blood to be 
eaten and drunk for the feeding of the soul. The emperor had a Catholic 
reply read, with which he expressed satisfaction. Luther had meanwhile 
from Coburg supported those contending for the confession by prayer, 
counsel, and comfort. He preached frequently, wrote many letters, nego- 
tiated with Bucer (§ 133, 8), wrought at the translation of the prophets, 
and composed several evangelical works of edification. 

8. The Conclusions of the Diet of Augsburg. — The firm bright spirit of the 
minority made it seem to the Catholic majority too considerable to allow 
of an open breach. A further attempt was therefore made to reach some 
agreement. A commission was appointed, comprising from either side 
two princes, two doctors of canon law, and three theologians. On the 
twenty-one doctrinal articles, with the exception of that on the sacra- 
ments, they were practically agreed, but the Protestants were called upon 
to abandon everything in regard to constitution and customs. Thus the 
attempt failed. Five imperial cities took the side of the emperor, the 
rest attached themselves to the Protestant princes. The Protestants 
wished to read Melanchthon's apology for the Augsburg Confession against 
the charge of the Catholic confutation, but the emperor with unbending 
stubbornness refused. This was the most decided piece of work Melanch- 
thon ever did. At the close of the diet, 22nd Sept., the Protestant 
princes were informed that time for reflection would be allowed them 
till 15th April of the following year ; meanwhile they should not enforce 
any innovations and should allow confession and the mass in their 

§ 133. INCIDENTS OF THE YEAES A.D. 1531-1536. 277 

territories. The early calling of a council was expressly promised. The 
princes of the church had all their rights restored. The emperor declared 
his firm determination to enforce in its full rigour the edict of "Worms, 
and commissioned the public prosecutor to proceed against the dis- 
obedient even to the length of putting them under the ban. The judi- 
cature was formally and expressly empowered to carry out the conclusions 
of the diet. Finally, the emperor expressed the wish that on account 
of his frequent absence his brother Ferdinand should be chosen King of 
Eome. The election was accordingly soon carried out at Frankfort ; 
but the elector lodged a protest against it. 

§ 133. Incidents of the Years a.d. 1531-1536. 

The Protestants now made an earnest effort to effect a 
union by forming in A.D. 1531 the Schmalcald League. To 
this decided action and the political difficulties of the 
emperor we owe the Peace of Nuremburg of a.d. 1532. The 
bold step of the landgrave freed Wlirttemberg from the 
Austrian yoke and papal oppression. At the same time the 
Reformation triumphed in Anhalt, Pomerania, and several 
Westphalian cities. All Westphalia might have been one but 
for the Anabaptists. Bucer's unwearied efforts at last suc- 
ceeded by the Wittenberg concordat in opening the way for 
the Schmalcald League into the cities of the Uplands. The 
league now comprised an imposing array of powerful members. 

1. The Founding of the Schmalcald League, A.D. 1530, 1531.— The con- 
ferring upon the court of justiciary the power to execute the decrees of the 
Diet of Augsburg was most dangerous to the Protestants. For protection 
against this design, the Protestant nobles at a convention at Schmalcald 
in Dec, a.d. 1530, formed the bold resolution, that all should stand as 
one in resisting every attack of the court. But when the question came 
to be discussed, whether in case of need they should go the length of 
armed resistance to the emperor opinion was divided. The views of the 
jurists finally prevailed over those of the theologians, and the elector 
insisted on a league against every aggressor, even should it be the emperor 
himself. At a new convention at Schmalcald in March, a.d. 1531, a league 
on these terms was concluded for six years. The members of it were 
the electorate of Saxony, Hesse, Liineburg, Anhalt, Mausfeld, and eleven 

2. The Peace of Nuremberg, A.D. 1532.— The energetic combination of 


tlie Protestants Lad now rendered them formidable, and the Sultan 
Soliman was threatening a new attack. If the Protestants were to be con- 
quered, an agreement must be come to with the Turks ; if the Turks 
were to be humbled, a peaceable settlement with the Protestants was in- 
dispensable. Ferdinand's policy at first inclined to the latter direction, 
and by his advice the emperor summoned a diet at Piegensburg, and till 
the meeting forbade any prosecutions on the basis of the decrees of the 
Diet of Augsburg. But soon the catastrophe in Switzerland (§ 130, 10) 
changed Ferdinand's policy. It seemed to him now the fittest time to 
deal a similar blow to the evangelicals in Germany. He therefore sent 
an embassy to the sultan, empowered to make the most humiliating con- 
ditions of peace. But Soliman rejected all proposals with scorn, and 
in April, a.d. 1532, advanced with an army of 300,000 men. Meanwhile 
the Diet of Eegensburg had opened on 17th April, a.d. 1532. The Pro- 
testants no longer presented a humble petition, as they had done two 
years before, but they firmly made their demands. There was no longer 
talk of compromise or suffrance. They demanded peace in matters of 
religion ; the annulling of all religious prosecutions ; and, finally, a free 
general council, where matters should be decided solely by God's word. 
So long as Ferdinand had any hope^of getting a favourable answer from 
the Turks, he would not seriously consider proposals for peace. But when 
that hope was shattered, and Soliman's terrible host approached, there 
was no time to lose. At Nuremberg the peace was concluded on 23rd 
July, A.D. 1532. The faithful elector was allowed to see the happy day, 
but died in that same year. He was succeeded by his son, John Frederick 
the Magnanimous, a.d. 1532-1547. A noble army was soon raised from 
the imperial guards. SoHman suffered various misfortunes on land and 
water, and withdrew without accomplishing anything. The emperor now 
went to Italy, and insisted on the pope calling a general council. But 
the pope thought the time had not come for that. Also the annulHng of 
prosecutions promised in the treaty remained long unfulfilled. Pending 
prosecutions, mostly about restitution of ecclesiastical goods and juris- 
diction, were pronounced to be not matters of religion, but of spoliation 
and breach of the peace. The Protestants made a formal complaint in 
Jan., A.D. 1534. This was disregarded, and arrangements were being made 
to put certain nobles under the ban when events occurred at Wilrttemberg 
which changed the aspect of affairs. 

3. The Evangelization of Wilrttemberg, A.D. 1534, 1535.— The Swabian 
League in the interest of Austria had obtained the banishment of Duke 
Ulrich in a.d. 1528, and frustrated every attempt to secure his return. 
His son Christopher had been educated at the court of Ferdinand, and 
in A.D. 1532 accompanied the emperor to Spain. He made his escape 
into the Alps, and publicly claimed his German inheritance. The Land- 
grave Philip, Ulrich's personal friend, had long resolved to reconquer 

§ 133. INCIDENTS OF THE YEARS A.D. 1531-1536. 279 

Wiirttemberg for liim. At last, in the spring of a.d. 1534, with aid of 
French gold, he carried out his plan. At Laufeu Ferdinand's army 
was almost annihilated, and he himself was obliged in the Peace of 
Cadau of a.d. 1534 to restore Ulrich to Wiirttemberg as an under- 
feudatorj'-, but with seat and vote in the imperial diet, and to allow him 
a free hand in carrying out the Keformation in his territory. Luther's 
views had from the first found hearty reception in Wiirttemberg. The 
oldest and most distinguished of the Swabian reformers, whose reputa- 
tion had spread far beyond Wiirttemberg, was John Brenz (§§ 131, 1 ; 
132, 4; 135, 2; 136, 6, 8). He was preacher in Swabian Halle from 
A.D. 1522, provost in Stuttgart from a.d. 1553, and died in a.d. 1570. 
But Ferdinand's government had stretched its arm so far as to visit with 
death all manifestations of sympathy with the Reformation. All the 
more rapidly did the work of evangelization now proceed. Ulrich 
brought with him Ambrose Blaurer, a disciple of Zwiugli and friend of 
Bucer, and Erhard Schnapf, a decided supporter of Luther ; to the 
former he assigned the evangelization of the upper, and to the latter 
the evangelization of the lower division of his territories. Both had 
agreed in accepting a [common formula of Reformation principles. By 
the founding of the University of Tiibingen, organized after the pattern 
of Marburg, Ulrich rendered important service to the cause of Protes- 
tant learning. Several neighbouring courts and cities were encouraged 
to follow Wiirttemberg's example. 

4. The Reformation in Anhalt and Pomerania, A.D, 1532-1534. — 
Wolfgang of Anhalt had at an early date introduced the Reformation on 
the banks of the Saale and into Zerbst. Another prince of Anhalt, 
George, at first an opponent of Luther, but converted by means of his 
writings, began in a.d. 1532 the Reformation of the country east of the 
Elbe. And when the Bishop of Brandenburg refused to ordain his 
married priests, he sent them to be ordained by Luther in Wittenberg, 
Much more violent was the Reformation of Pomerania. Nobles and 
clergy sought to rouse the people against Lutheranism. Prince Barnim 
was an ardent supporter of Luther, but his brother George was bitterly 
opposed. On George's death, his son Philip joined with Barnim in 
introducing the Reformation into the land. At the Assembly of Treptow, 
in Dec, a.d. 1534, they presented a scheme of Reformation, which the 
nobles heartily accepted. It was carried into operation by Bugenhagen 
by a church visitation after the pattern of that of Saxony, 

5. The Keformation in Westphalia, A.D. 1532-1534.— In the Westpha- 
]ian cities much was accomplished by Luther's hymns, Pideritz, priest 
of Lamgo, was a supporter of Eck; but wishing to see the working of the 
new views for himself, he went to Brunswick, and returned to inaugurate 
the Reformation in his own city. At Soest, the Catholic council con- 
demned to death a workman who had spoken of it with disrespect. Two 


blundering attempts were made upon the scaffold, and the victim at last 
was conducted home by the crowd in triumph. He died next day. The 
council precipitately fled from the city. And thus in July, a.d. 1533, 
Catholicism lost its last prop in that place. In Paderbom, where liberty 
of preaching had been enjoyed, the Elector of Cologne (§ 135, 7) had 
some of the leading Lutherans imprisoned ; and when some on the rack 
confessed to a treasonable correspondence with the Landgrave of Hesse, 
of which they had been falsely accused, he condemned them to death. 
But moved by the request of an old man to share their death, and by 
the weeping of the wives and maidens, Hermann spared their lives. 
In Miinster, Luther's doctrines were preached as early as a.d. 1531 by 
Eottmann, and soon the evangelicals won the ascendency, so that 
council and clergy left the city. The Bishop of Waldeck, after an 
unsuccessful attempt by force of arms, was obliged in a.d. 1533 to grant 
unconditional religious freedom. The neighbouring cities were about 
to follow the example of the capital, when a catastrophe occurred which 
resulted in the complete restoration of Catholicism. 

6. Disturbances at Miinster, A.D. 1534, 1535.— Eottmann had added to 
his Zwinglian creed the renunciation of infant baptism, and prepared the 
way for Anabaptist excesses. John of Leyden appeared in a.d. 1534, 
gained great popularity as a preacher, and the council was weak enough 
to grant legal recognition to the fanatics. Mad enthusiasts flocked into 
the city. One of their prophets proclaimed it as God's will that un- 
believers should be expelled. This was done on 27th February, a.d. 
1534. Seven deacons divided what was left among the believers. In 
May the bishop laid siege to the city. This had the effect of confining 
the mad disorder to Miinster. After the destruction of all images, 
organs, and books, with exception only of the Bible, community of goods 
was introduced. John of Leyden got the council set aside as required 
by his revelations, and appointed a theocratic government of twelve 
elders, who took their inspiration from the prophet. He proclaimed 
polygamy, himself taking seventeen wives, while Eottmann contented 
himself with four. In vain did the moral conscience of the inhabitants 
protest. The objectors were executed. One of his fellow prophets pro- 
claimed John king of the whole world. He set up a showy and expensive 
establishment, and committed the most frightful abominations. He 
regarded himself as called to inaugurate the millennium, sent out twenty- 
eight apostles to extend his kingdom, and named twelve dukes who 
should rule the world under him. The besiegers made an unsuccessful 
attempt in August, a.d. 1534, to storm the city. Had not aid been sent 
them before the end of the year from Hesse, Treves, Cleves, Mainz, and 
Cologne, they would have been obliged to raise the siege. Even then 
they could only think of reducing the city by famine. It was already in 
great straits. On St. John's night, a.d. 1535, a deserter led the troops 

§ 134. INCIDENTS OF THE YEAES A.D. 1537-1539. 281 

to the walls. After a stubborn resistance the Anabaptists were beaten. 
Rottmann threw himself into the hottest of the fight, and there perished. 
John, with his chief officers, was taken prisoner, put to death with fright- 
ful tortures on 22nd Jan., a.d. 1536, and then hung in chains from St. 
Lambert's tower. Catholicism was thus restored to absolute supremacy. 

7. Extension of the Sclimalcald League, A.D. 1536.— A war with France 
had broken out in a.d. 1536, which taxed all the emperor's resources. 
Francis I. had made a league with Soliman for a combined attack upon 
the emperor. Instead therefore of punishing the Protestant princes for 
their proceedings in "Wiirttemberg, he was obliged to do all he could to 
conciliate them, as Francis was bidding for their alliance. Ferdinand 
therefore, from the summer of a.d. 1585, sought to ingratiate himself 
with the Protestants. In November he received a visit of the elector 
in Vienna, and granted the extension of the Peace of Nuremberg to all 
nobles who since its ratification had become Protestants. The elector 
then went to an assembly at Schmalcald, where the Schmalcald League 
was extended for ten years, the French embassy dismissed, and the 
opposition to Austria abandoned. On the basis of the Vienna compact 
Wiirttemberg, Pomeraoia, Anhalt, and several cities were added to the 
league. Signature of the Augsburg Confession was the indispensable 
condition of reception. Bucer managed to win over the upland cities to 
accept this condition. 

8. The Wittenberg Concordat of A.D. 1536.— Bucer and ultimately CEco- 
lampadius, made such concessions on the doctrine of the sacraments as 
satisfied Luther, but they were rejected by Bullinger of Ziirich, In 
December, a.d. 1535, there was a conference at Cassel between Bucer 
and Melanchthon. A larger conference was afterward held at Witten- 
berg, at which Bucer and Capito from Strassburg, and eight other 
distinguished theologians from the uplands, were present. As they 
accepted the formula "in, with, and under," the only question remain- 
ing was whether unbelievers partook of the body of Christ. They 
admitted this in regard to the unworthy, but not, as Luther wished, 
in regard to the godless and unbelieving. Luther was satisfied. On 
25th May, a.d. 1536, Melanchthon composed the " Wittenberg Concord," 
which was signed by all, and ratified by the common partaking of the 
sacrament. In consequence of this union effort, three of the Swiss 
theologians, Bullinger, Myconius, and Grynaeus seceded, and produced 
the Confessio Helvetica prior, in which the ZwingUan doctrine of the 
sacraments was moderately but firmly maintained. 

§ 134. Incidents of the Years a.d. 1537-1539. 
Clement VII. made many excuses for postponing the calling 
of a council. At last, in a.d. 1533, he declared himself 


willing to do so in the course of the year ; but he required 
of the Protestants unconditional acceptance of its decisions, 
to which they would not agree. His successor, Paul III., 
A.D. 1534-1549, called one to meet at Mantua in a.d. 1537. 
Luther composed for it as a manifesto the Schmalcald Arti- 
cles ; but finally the Protestants renewed their demand for 
a free council in a German city. In A.D. 1538 the Catholic 
nobles concluded the Holy Alliance at Nuremberg for carry- 
ing out the decrees of the Diet of Augsburg ; but the 
political difficulties of the emperor compelled him to make 
new concessions to the Protestants in the Frankfort Interim 
of A.D. 1539. But in the same year the duchy of Saxony 
and the electorate of Brandenburg went over to the Refor- 
mation. By the beginning of a.d. 1540 almost, ail North 
Germany was won. Duke Henry of Brunswick alone held 
out for the old faith. 

1. The Schmalcald Articles, A.D. 1537.— In a.d. 1535 Paul III. sent his 
legate Vergerius (§ 139, 24) into Germany to fix a place of meeting for 
the council. At Wittenberg lie conferred with Luther and Bugenhagen, 
who scarcely expecting the council were indifferent as to the place. The 
council was formally summoned to meet at Mantua on May 23rd, a.d. 
1537. At a diet at Schmalcald in Feb., a.d. 1537, the Protestants stated 
their demands. Luther, by the elector's orders, had drawn up the articles 
of which the council must treat. These Schmalcald Articles are distinctly 
polemical, and indicate boldly the limits of the papal hierarchy demanded 
by evangelicals. The first part states briefly four uncontested positions 
on the Trinity and the Person of Christ ; the second part deals with the 
office and work of Christ or our redemption, and marks abruptly the 
points of difference between the two confessions ; the third part treats 
of those points which the council may further discuss. In the second 
part Luther unconditionally rejected the primacy of the pope, as not 
of Divine right and inconsistent with the character of a true evangelical 
Church. When the articles had been subscribed by the theologians, 
Melanchthon added under his name : "As to the pope, I hold that if he 
will not oppress the gospel, for the sake of the peace and unity of those 
Christians who are or may be under him, his superiority over bishops 
jure liumano might be allowed by us." Melanchthon's tracts on "The 
Power of the Pope" and the "Jurisdiction of Bishops" were also sub- 

§ 134. INCIDENTS OF THE YEARS A.D. 1537-1539. 283 

scribed by the theologians and added to the Schmalcald Articles. It 
v.ras then decided that in order to secure a free Christian council it must 
be held in a German city. The elector even made the bold proposal to 
have a counter-council summoned, say, at Augsburg, by Luther and his 
feUow bishops. 

2. The League of Nuremberg, A.D. 1538. — The Protestant princes were 
astonished at the close of the Schmalcald convention to be told by Vice- 
Chancellor Held, on behalf of the emperor, that he did not recognise the 
Peace of Cadau or the Vienna Compact, and that the prosecutions would 
be resumed. They therefore resumed their old attitude of opposition. 
But Held visited all the Catholic courts in order to complete the forma- 
tion of a Catholic league for the suppression of Protestantism. Ferdinand, 
who knew well that Held exceeded his instructions, was very angry, for 
the emperor was in the greatest straits, but he could not offer direct 
opposition without offending the Catholic princes. So on July 10th, a.d. 
1538, the Holy Alliance was actually formed at Nuremberg, embracing 
George of Saxony, Albert of Brandenburg, Henry and Eric of Brunswick, 
King Ferdinand, and the Archbishop of Salzburg. The Schmalcald nobles 
prepared to meet force with force. A general bloody engagement seemed 

3. The Frankfort Interim, A.D. 1539. — As the emperor needed help 
against Soliman, he recalled Held, and sent in his place John, formerly 
Archbishop of Leyden. The electors of Brandenburg and the Palatinate 
went as mediators with the new envoy to Frankfort, where negotiations 
were opened with the Protestants present, who demanded an uncon- 
ditional, lasting peace, and a judiciary court with Protestant as well as 
Catholic members. These demands were at first refused, but pressing 
need obliged the emperor to reopen negotiations, proposing that a diet 
should be held, consisting of learned theologians and simple, peaceable 
laymen, to effect a final union of Christians in faith and worship. He 
would also grant suspension of all proceedings against the Protestants 
for eighteen months. The Protestants accepted in this " Frankfort 
Interim" what had been greatly sought for at the Diet of Nuremberg. 
It was a victory of the Schmalcald over the Nuremberg League. The 
public confidence in Protestantism grew, and the cause rapidly spread 
into new regions. 

•1. The Reformation in Albertine Saxony, A.D. 1539. — Duke George 
of Saxony, a.d. 1500-1539, was a devoted adherent of the old faith. Of 
his four sons only one survived, and he almost imbecile. He had him 
married, but he died two months after the marriage. The old prince 
was in perplexity, for his brother Henry, an ardent supporter of the 
Reformation, was his next heir. He could ill brook the idea of having 
the whole work of his life immediately undone. On the day of the death 
of his last son he proposed to his nobles a scheme of succession, accord- 


ing to which his brother Henry should succeed him only if he joined the 
Nuremberg League ; otherwise it should go to the emperor or the King 
of Rome. Duke Henry rejected the proposal, and Duke George died 
before he could produce another scheme. With loud rejoicing the people 
received their new prince, and their allegiance was sworn to him at 
Leipzig. Luther was there, for the first time for twenty years, and 
preached with extraordinary success. The Reformation proceeded rapidly 
throughout the whole district. The King of Rome wished indeed to 
question George's claim, but the Schmalcald League resolved to stand 
by him, so that Ferdinand thought it prudent to take no further 

5. The Reformation in Brandenburg and Neighbouring States, A.D. 1539. 
— Henry of Neumark joined the Schmalcald League, and introduced the 
Reformation into his territories ; but his brother Joachim II. of Branden- 
burg, A.D. 1535-1571, for several years adhered to the old faith without 
forbidding evangelical preaching, which gradually made an impression 
on his own mind. In the beginning of a.d. 1539, with the approval 
of his nobles, he gave his adhesion to the reformed doctrines. The city 
of Berlin asked for communion in both kinds, and a considerable section 
of the nobles of Brandenburg expressed a hearty longing for the pure 
gospel. On November 1st, a.d. 1539, Joachim assembled all the preachers 
of his land in the Nicolai Church at Spandau, the Bishop of Brandenburg 
held the first evangelical communion, and the whole court and many 
knights received the communion in both kinds. The people followed 
the example of the prince. Joachim sketched a service which let several 
of the old ceremonies remain, but justification by faith was the central 
point of the doctrine, and communion in both kinds the centre of the 
worship. The Duchess Elizabeth of Calenberg-Brunswick followed her 
brother's example. After the death of her husband Eric, who was other- 
wise minded, she exercised her influence as regent for the spread of the 
reformed religion. The Cardinal-archbishop and Elector of Mainz, 
Albert of Brandenburg, sought to preserve his archiepiscopal diocese of 
Magdeburg, but his constant calls for money would be responded to only 
on condition that he granted liberty of preaching. At his Halle residence 
he made vigorous resistance, but there too was obliged to yield. Before 
his eyes, Justus Jonas, Luther's most trusted friend and fellow labourer, 
Prof, and Provost of Wittenberg since a.d. 1521, carried on the work 
of Reformation in the city. The cardinal, in a rage, left Halle and the 
" idol of Halle " (§ 123, 8) for Mainz. — Mecklenburg also about this time 
adopted the evangelical constitution, mainly promoted by one of its 
princes, Magnus Bishop of Schwerin, The Abbess of Quedlinburg, Anna 
von Stolberg, had not ventured, so long as Duke George of Saxony lived, 
to bring forward her evangelical confession ; but now without opposition 
she reformed her convent and the city. 

§ 135. UNION ATTEMPTS OF A.D. 1540-1546. 285 

§ 135. Union Attempts of a.d. 1540-1546. 

The Frankfort Interim revived the idea of a free union 
among those who in the main agreed upon matters of faith 
and worship. With the object of realizing this idea a whole 
series of religious conferences were held. But near as its 
realization at one time seemed to be all the measures taken 
proved one after another abortive, because the emperor 
w^ould not recognise the conclusions of any conference at 
which a papal legate was not present. And just at this 
time, when the imposing might of the Protestant nobles 
excited the brightest hopes, the Protestant princes them- 
selves laid the grounds of their deepest humiliation: the 
landgrave by his double marriage, and the elector by his 
quarrels with the ducal Saxon court. 

1. The DouWe Marriage of the Landgrave, A.D. 1540. — Landgrave 
Philip of Hesse had married Christina, a daughter of the deceased Duke 
George of Saxony. Various causes had led to an estrangement between 
them, and a strong sensuous nature, which he had been unable to control, 
had driven him to repeated acts of unfaithfulness. His conscience reproved 
him ; he felt himself unworthy to be admitted to communion, great as 
his desire for it was, and doubted of his soul's salvation. From regard 
to his wife he could not think of a divorce. Then came the idea, suggested 
by the O.T. polygamy that had not been abrogated in the N.T., that 
with consent of his wife he might enter into a regular second marriage 
with Margaret von der Saale, one of his sister's lady's-maids. In Nov., 
A.D. 1539, he sent Bucer to Wittenberg in order to get the advice of 
Luther and Melanchthon. The alternative was either continued adultery, 
or an honourable married Ufe with a second wife taken with consent of the 
first. Luther and Melanchthon entreated him earnestly for his own and 
for the gospel's sake to avoid this terrible scandal, but haltingly admitted 
that the latter alternative was less heinously wicked than the former. 
They added, however, that in order to avoid scandal the marriage should 
be private, and their answer regarded not as a theological opinion, but 
confidential counsel. The landgrave had the marriage consummated 
in May, a.d. 1540. But the story soon spread. The court of Albertine 
Saxony was deeply incensed, the elector beside himself with rage, the 
theologians in most extreme embarrassment. Melanchthon started to 
attend a religious conference at Hagenau, but the excitement over the 
unhappy business prostrated him on a sick-bed at Weimar. The emperor 


threatened Philip with the infliction of capital punishment, which by the 
law of the empire was attached to the crime of bigamy. At last the 
elector called a convention of Saxon and Hessian theologians at Eisenach 
to consult about the matter. Luther refused to treat it as a question 
of law, and demanded absolute privacy as the condition of permission. 
Among the opponents of the Reformation, it was Duke Henry of Bruns- 
wick who insisted upon exacting the utmost penalties of the law. He 
indeed was least fitted by his own character to assume the part of de- 
fender of morals. It was well known that he was then living in adultery 
with Eva von Trott, after her pretended death and burial. In his per- 
plexity, Philip turned to the imperial chancellor [Granvella, who was 
willing to intercede for him, but on conditions to which the landgrave 
could not accede. At last, at the Diet of Regensburg, in a.d. 1541, 
Philip undertook to further the imperial interests and to join no union 
in any way inimical to these ; and upon these terms the emperor agreed 
to grant him a full indemnity. 

2. The Eeligious Conference at Worms, A.D. 1540. — Negotiations for 
peace with France having failed, the emperor still required the support 
of the Protestant party. He therefore agreed to the holding of a religious 
conference at Worms, in order to reach if possible a good mutual under- 
standing on the basis of Holy Scripture. It was held in Nov., a.d. 1540, 
under the j)residency of Granvella. On one side were Melanchthon, 
Bucer, Capito, Brenz, and Calvin; on the other, Eck, Gropper, canon 
of Cologne, the Spaniard Malvenda, etc. But the emperor had insisted 
on the papal nuncio Marone taking part, and this, contrary to his inten- 
tion, brought the whole affair to naught. For Marone first of all pre- 
sented a number of formal objections, and when at last, in Jan., a.d. 
1541, the conference began, and awakened the utmost apprehensions for 
the papacy, he rested not till Granvella, even before the first article on 
original sin had been discussed, dissolved the conference in the name 
and by command of the emperor. But the emperor did not give up the 
idea of conciliation, and called a diet at Regensburg, at which the nego- 
tiations were to be renewed. 

3. The Eeligious Conference at Regensburg, A.D. 1541.— The diet at 
Regensburg was opened on April 5th, a.d. 1541. The emperor, anxious 
to reach a peaceable conclusion, named as members of the conference 
Eck, Gropper, and Julius von Pflugk, Dean of Meissen, on the one side ; 
and Melanchthon, Bucer, and Pistorius, on the other side ; with Granvella 
and Frederick, count-palatine, as presidents. The nuncio Contarini 
was representative of the curia.. By such a gathering the emperor hoped 
to reach the wished for conclusion. In Italy (§ 139, 22) there had sprung 
up a number of men well instructed in Scripture, who sought to reform 
the doctrine of the church by adopting the principle of justification by 
faith without touching the primacy of the pope and the whole hierarchical 

§ 135. UNION ATTEMPTS OF A.D. 1540-1546. 287 

system. Contarini was one of the leaders of this party. He had come 
to an understanding with the emperor that justification by faith, the use 
of the cup in communion by the laity, and marriage of priests should 
be allowed for Germany, and that, on the other hand, the Protestants 
were to agree to the primacy of the pope. The justitia ijnputativa was 
acknowledged by both parties ; and even when Contarini, on the basis 
of that imputation, insisted upon a justitia inluerens, i.e. not merely 
a declaring but a making righteous, seeing that he grounded it solely 
on the merits of Christ, the Protestants acquiesced. Differences arose 
over the doctrine of the church, which were reserved for another occasion. 
And now they came to the sacrament of the altar. Communion in both 
kinds was agreed to by both ; but trouble arose over the word tran- 
substantiation. Not only Eck, who had opposed all concessions, but 
even Contarini, who had his orders from Eome, would not yield. No 
more would the Protestants. The conference had therefore to be dis- 
solved. The emperor wished both parties to accept the articles agreed 
on as a common standard, and to have toleration granted upon the 
disputed points ; but the Catholic majority would not agree to this. 
The Regensburg Interim, therefore, as the decision of the diet is usually 
called, extends the Nuremberg Peace (§ 133, 2) to all presently members 
of the Schmalcald League, and enforced upon Protestants only the 
accepted articles. 

4. The Regeasburg Declaration, A.D. 1541. — The emperor, in order 
to satisfy the naturally dissatisfied Protestants, made a special declara- 
tion, annulling the prosecutions decree of the Augsburg Diet and 
relieving the adherents of the Augsburg Confession from all disabilities. 
Also the injunction that no one should withhold their dues from the 
clergy was extended to the Protestant ministers. But on the very day 
when the declaration was issued the emperor held a private session with 
the Catholic majority, in which the Nuremberg League was renewed and 
the pope received into it. Thus he hoped to receive help from all 
parties and to ward off internecine conflict till a more convenient season. 
He concluded a separate treaty with the landgrave and the Elector 
Joachim II., both undertaking to support imperial interests. The elector 
expressly promised not to join the Schmalcald League ; and the land- 
grave promised to oppose all consorting of the league not only wdth 
foreign powers (England and France), but also with the Duke of Cleves, 
with whom the emperor had a standing feud. In return the landgrave 
was granted an amnesty for all previous delinquencies and undisturbed 
liberty in matters of religion. The emperor's negotiations with the 
Elector of Saxony broke down over the Cleves dispute, for the Duke of 
Cleves was his brother-in-law. 

5. The Naumburg Bishopric, A.D. 1541, 1542.— Since a.d. 1520 the 
Lutheran doctrines had spread in the diocese of Xaumburg. When the 


bishop died, in a.d. 1541, the chapter elected the learned and mild 
provost Julius von Pflugk. But the elector regarded it as proper in 
a Lutheran state to have a Lutheran bishop, and so refused to confirm 
Pflugk's appointment, and had Nic. von Arnsdorf (§ 127, 4) ordained bishop 
by Luther, in a.d. 1542, " without chrism, butter, suet, lard, tar, grease, 
incense, and coals." The civil administration of the diocese was com- 
mitted to an electoral officer ; Arnsdorf was satisfied with the small 
income of 600 florins and the rest of the revenues were applied to pious 
uses. After the battle of Miihlberg, in a.d. 1547, Arnsdorf was expelled 
and Pflugk restored. On his death in 1564, the chapter, though then 
Lutheran, did not restore Arnsdorf, but gave over the administration to 
a Saxon prince. The elector's violent procedure in this case caused 
great offence to the Albertine court. Duke Henry had died in a.d. 1541, 
and was succeeded by his son Maurice. The elector and the young duke 
quarrelled over a question of jurisdiction, and it was only with great 
difficulty that Luther and the landgrave managed to effect a peace- 
ful solution of the dispute. But the mutual estrangement and rivalry 
between the courts soon afterwards broke out in a violent form. 

6. The Eeformation in Brunswick and the Palatinate, A.D. 1542-1546. — 
Duke Henry of Brunswick accused the city of Goslar of the destruction 
of two monasteries, and in spite of all the concessions to Protestants the 
court pronounced the ban against the city, and empowered Henry to 
carry it out. The elector and the landgrave, acting for the Schmalcald 
League in defence of the city, entered Henry's territory in a.d. 1542 
and conquered it. The gospel was now preached, and an evangelical 
constitution was given to Brunswick by Bugenhagen. This completed 
the conquest of North Germany for the gospel. — In South Germany 
Regensburg received the Reformation in a.d. 1542 ; but Bavaria, owing 
to Ferdinand's influence, gave no place to the heretics. In the Upper 
Palatinate evangelical preachers had for a long time been tolerated. 
The young prince of the Neuburg Palatinate in a.d. 1543 called Osiander 
from Nuremburg, and joined the Schmalcald League. The Elector- 
palatine Louis died in a.d. 1543. His brother Frederick II., who suc- 
ceeded him was not unfavourable to the Reformation, and formally 
introduced it into his dominions in a.d. 1546. Even in Austria evan- 
gelical views made such advance that Ferdinand neither could nor would 
attempt those violent measures that he had previously tried. 

7. The Reformation in the Electorate of Cologne, A.D. 1542-1544.— 
Hermann von Weid (§ 133, 5), Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, now 
far advanced in life, by the study of Luther's Bible had convinced him- 
self of the scripturalness of the Augsburg Confession. He resolved to 
reform his province in accordance with God's word. At the Bonn 
Assembly of March, a.d. 1542, he made known his plan, and found 
himself supported by his nobles. He invited Bucer to inaugurate the 

5 185. UNION ATTEMPTS OF A,D. 1540-1546. 289 

work, aud he was soon joiuecl by Melauclitlion. In July, a.d. 1543, 
the elector laid before the nobles his Eeformation scheme, and they 
unanimously accepted it. The cathedral chapter and the university 
opposed it in the interests of the papacy ; also the Cologne council from 
fear of losing their authority. Nevertheless the movement advanced, 
and it was hoped that the opposition would gradually be overcome. 
Cologne was to remain after as before an ecclesiastical principality, but 
with an evangelical constitution. The Bishop of Miinster prepared to 
follow the example, and had the work in Cologne been lasting, certainly 
many others would have pursued the same course. 

8. The Emperor's Difficulties, A.D. 1543, 1544.— Soliman in a.d. 1541 
had overrun Hungary, converted the principal church into a mosque, 
and set a pasha over the whole land, which now became a Turkish 
province. Aid against the Turks was voted at a diet at Spires in the 
beginning of a.d. 1542, and the Protestants were left unmolested for five 
years after the conclusion of the war. The campaign against the Turks 
led by Joachim II. was unsuccessful. Meanwhile new troubles arose with 
France, and Soliman prepared for a second campaign. The emperor 
now summoned a diet to meet at Nuremberg, Jan., a.d, 1543. Ferdi- 
nand was willing to grant to the Protestants the Eegensburg Declara- 
tion, but \\'illiam of Bavaria would rather see the whole world perish 
or the crescent ruling over all Germany. In summer of a.d, 1543 the 
emperor was beset with dangers from every side; France .attacked the 
Netherlands, Soliman conquered Grau, the Danes closed the Sound 
against the subjects of the emperor, a Turco-French fleet held sway in 
the Mediterranean and had already taken Nizza, and the Protestants 
were assuming a threatening attitude. Christian III. of Denmark and 
Gustavus Vasa of Sweden asked to be received into the Schmalcald 
League. The Duke of Cleves, too, broke his truce. This roused the 
emperor most of all. He rushed down upon Cleves and Gelderland, 
and conquered them, and restored Catholicism. The emperor's circum- 
stances now improved : Cleves was quieted ; Denmark and England came 
to terms with him. But his most dangerous enemies, Soliman and 
Francis I., were still in arms. He could not yet dispense with the 
powerful support of the Protestants. 

9. Diet at Spires, A.D. 1544. — In order to get help against the Turks 
and French, at the Diet of Spires, in Feb., a.d. 1544, the emperor 
relieved the Protestants of all disabilities, promised a genuine, free 
Christian council to settle matters in dispute, and, in case this should 
not succeed, in next autumn a national assembly to determine matters 
definitely without pope or council. The emperor promised to propose 
a scheme of Eeformation, and invited the other nobles to bring forward 
schemes. After such concessions the Protestants went in heartily with 
the emperor's political projects. He wished first of all help against the 



Freneli. In the same year the emperor led against France an army 
composed mostly of Protestants, and in Sept., a.d. 1544, obliged the king 
to conclude the Peace of Crespy. The Turks had next to be dealt with, 
and the Protestants were eager to show their devotion to tlae emperor. 
In prospect of the national assembly the Elector of Saxony set his 
theologians to the composition of a plan of Reformation. This docu- 
ment, known as the " Wittenberg Reformation," allows to the prelates 
their siJiritual and civil functions, their revenues, goods, and jurisdiction, 
the right of ordination, visitation, and discipline, on condition that 
these be exercised in an evangelical spirit. 

10. Differences between the Emperor and the Protestant Nobles, A.D. 

1545, 1546. — The pope by calling a council to meet at Trent sowed seeds 
of discord between the emperor and the Protestants. The emperor's 
proposals of reform were so far short of the demands of the Protestants 
that they were unanimously rejected. The Reformation movement in 
Cologne had seriously imperilled the imperial government of the Nether- 
lands. An attempt of Henry to reconquer Brunswick was frustrated by 
the combined action of the Landgrave of Hesse and the Duke of Saxony. 
Frederick II., elector-palatine, began to reform his provinces and to 
seek admission to the Schmalcald League. Four of the six electors 
had gone over, and the fifth, Sebastian, who after Albert's death in a.d. 
1545 had been, by Hessian and Palatine influence, made Elector of 
Mainz, had just resolved to follow their example. All these things had 
greatly irritated the emperor. He concluded a truce with the Turks 
in Oct., A.D. 1545, and arranged with the pope, who pledged his whole 
possessions and crown, for the campaign against the heretics. On 13th 
Dec, A.D. 1545, the pope opened the Council of Trent, and made it no 
secret that it was intended for the destruction of the Protestants. The 
emperor attempted to get the Protestants to take part. In Jan., a.d. 

1546, a conference was held in which Cochlteus (§ 129, 1) and others 
met with Bucer, Brenz, and Major ; but it was soon dissolved, owing to 
initial differences. The horrible fratricide committed at Neuburg upon 
a Spaniard, Juan Diaz, showed the Protestants how good Catholics 
thought heretics must be dealt with. The murderer was seized, but by 
order of the pope to the Bishop of Trent set again at liberty. He 
remained unpunished, but hanged himself at Trent a.d. 1551. 

11. Luther's Death, A.D. 1546. — Luther died at Eisleben in his G3rd 
year on 18th Feb., 1546. During his last years he was harassed with 
heavy trials. The political turn that affairs had taken was wholly 
distasteful to him, but he was powerless to prevent it. In Wittenberg 
itself much was done not in accordance with his will. Wearied with 
his daily toils, suffering severe pain and consequent bodily weakness, he 
often longed to die in peace. In the beginning of a.d. 1546 the Counts 
of Mansfeld called him to Eisleben in order to compose differences 


between them by bis impartial judgment. In order to perform this 
business he spent the three last weeks of his life in his birthplace, and, 
with scarcely any previous illness, on the night of the 18th Feb., he 
peacefully fell asleep in Jesus. His body was taken to Wittenberg and 
there buried in the castle church. 

§ 136. The Schmalcald War, the Interim, and the 
Council, a.d. 1546-1551. 

All attempts at agreement in matters of religion were at 
an end. The pope, however, had at last convened a council 
in a German city. The emperor hoped to conciliate the 
Protestants by bringing about a reformation after a fashion, 
removing many hierarchical abuses, conceding the marriage 
of the clergy, the cup to the laity, and even perhaps accepting 
the doctrine of justification. But he soon came to a rupture 
with the Protestants, and war broke out before the Schmalcald 
Leaguers were prepared for it. Their power, however, was 
far superior to that of the emperor ; but through needless 
scruples, delays, and indecision they let slip the opportunity 
of certain victory. The power of the league was utterly 
destroyed, and the emperor's powxr reached the summit of 
its strength. All Southern Germany was forced to submit 
to the hated interim, and in North Germany only the out- 
lawed Magdeburg ventured to maintain, in spite of the 
emperor, a pure Protestant profession. 

1. Preparations for the Schmalcald War, A.D. 1546. — In consequence of 
variances among the members of the league the emperor conceived a 
plan of securing allies from among the Protestants themselves by a 
judicious distribution of favours. The Margrave Hans of Ciistrin and 
Duke Eric of Brunswick, the one cousin, the other son-in-law, of the 
exiled and imprisoned Duke of Wolfenbiittel, were ready to take part in 
war against the robbers of their friend's dominions. Much more eager, 
however, was the emperor to win over the young Duke Maurice of 
Saxony. He tempted him with the promise of the electorate and the 
greater part of the elector's territory, and was successful. The emperor 
could not indeed formally release any of them from submission to the 
council, but he promised in any case to reserve for their countries the 

21)'J ciniiicii iiis'iM)iiv ov 'v\\\'] srxT]':j<:N'rir (;i<:ntuuv. 

doctiino of juHlidciiiioi), ilio cup in lay communion, and tlio marriago of 
pricKtH. Now wli(!ii lie wan siiro of Miiurico tlic (iiiip(!r()i' j)rococdcd 
ojxMily witli liiH pr(4)amiions, and made no wjcnit of liin intention to 
pimiish those priiiccH wiio liad (los])iHcd liiH imi)Oi'ial autliority and taken 
to tlicniHulvoB tlio possoHHionH of otlicrH. 'JMio Schmalcald Loaf^'iiors 
could nolon}j;cr deceive tlionisolves, and so thoy bo^'iin tlioir iiroparations. 
With Kiicli ii,n open hrcu-ch l.li(f J )icl, ol' Kc^^cnshiiiv cndiid in Jiiiic, a.d. 

in JO. 

y. The Cain i)aif:,ni on tlic Danube, A.D. 154G. Sc-hiiitlin, at tlu^ lioid of 
a powf^rl'iil iuiiiy, ('.onid liavo attacked tlu! ciupcior or tiikcii l\\<: Tyiol ; 
hut tli(! coiiiicil of war, liHtoning to William of i'.iLvni'iii,, who pn.fcHKcd 
n(!nti-ality, and hoping to win over Ferdinand, foolishly ordered d(!ln,y. 
Thus the emperor gained time to collect an arjny. On 20th -Juno, ad. 
miC), he issued from Kegensburg a ban against the Landgrave riiilip and 
the Elector John Fredcsrick as oath-breaking vassals. These princes 
at the head of their forces had joined Schiirtlin at ])onauw()iah. I'apal 
d(!Spatch(!H fell into their hands, in which the pope proclaimed a ciusado 
for tli(' rootin;; out of heretics, ])romising indulgence to all who would 
aid in the work. I'atal indecision still prevailed in the couiujil of wai', 
and winter came on without a battle being fought. The neWs that 
Maurice liad taken i)ossession of the elector's domains hid the landgrave 
and the ex-elector to return liome, andHchiirtlin, for want of money aiul 
ammunition, was unable to face a winter campaign in Fianconia, Thus 
the whole country lay open to the eitii)ei'or. One city after another 
accepted terms more or less severe. In the beginning of a.d. 1547 he 
was master of all Southern Germany. Now at last he put an end to the 
Cologne movement {^ liJ5, 7). Tlu; pope had issued the ban against the 
archbishop in a.t>. 151(), and now tin; emperor luul the former coadjutor 
proclaimed archbishop and elector, in spite of the opposition of the nobles, 
Hermann was willing to secure the religious peace of his dominions by 
resignation, but this was refused, and being too weak to offer resistance 
he resigned unconditionally. Thus tlu; Khiue ])rovin(',(!S wen; irretrievably 
lost to I'rotostantism. 

:{. The Campaign on the Elbe, A.D. 1547. After ra|)idly reconquering 
his own teri'itories, the l''il(;c,toi' .Joini Fred(!rick hast(!ned with a con- 
siderable army to meet his enemy. At Miihlb(!rg he suddenly came upcm 
th(! enip(!ror's forces. There scarcely was a battle. His comparatively 
sniiill iirniaiiient melted away Ih^Ioio the superioi' ninnhcis of the imperial 
host, and the elector was taken jtrif^oner on 2lth A])iil, a.d. ].'j47. Ho 
luid already been sentenced to death as a rebel and heretic. Jt was 
deemed more prudent to require of liim only the surrender of his I'oilresses, 
The i)ious ]n-incc willingly resigned all tem])oral dignities, hut in matters 
of religion ho was inllexibh;. He was sentenced to lif(;-long im))rison- 
uient and his possessions wore mostly given to Maurice. The Landgrave 


Philip, for want of money, ammunition, and troops, had been prevented 
from doing anything. The news of John Frederick's misfortunes brought 
him ahnost to despair. Too powerless to offer opposition, he surrendered 
at discretion to the emperor. He was to prostrate himself before the 
emperor, surrender all his fortresses, neither now nor in future suffer 
enemies of the emperor in bis lands, and for all his life to renounce all 
leagues, to liberate Henry of Brunswick and restore him to his dominions. 
The ceremony of prostration was performed at Halle on 19th July. The 
two electors with the landgrave then went by invitation to a supper 
with the Duke of Alba. After supper the duke declared the landgrave 
his prisoner. The elector's remonstrances then with Alba and next 
day with the imperial councillors were all in vain. The emperor was 
equally deaf to all representations. 

4. The Council of Trent, A.D. 1545-1547.— The Council of Trent opened 
in Dec, a.d. 1515 (§ 149, 2). At the outset, contrary to the emperor's 
wishes, the pope laid down conditions that excluded Protestants from 
taking part in it. Scripture and tradition were first discussed. The 
O.T. Apocrypha (§§ 59, 1 ; 160, 8) had equal authority assigned it with 
the other books of the 0. and N.T., and the Vulgate was declared to be 
the only authentic text for theological discussions and sermons. Tradi- 
tion was placed on equal terms alongside of Scripture, but its contents 
were carefully defined. Original sin was extinguished by baptism, and 
after baptism there is only actual transgression. The scholastic doctrine 
of justification was sanctioned anew, but accommodated as far as possible 
to Scripture phraseology ; justification is the inward actual change of a 
sinner into a righteous man, not merely the forgiveness of sins, but 
pre-eminently the sanctification and renewal of the inner man. It is 
effected, not so much by the imputation of Christ's merits, as by the 
infusion of habitual righteousness, which enables men to win salvation by 
works. It is not forensic, but a physical act of God, is wrought not once 
for all, and not by faith alone, but gradually by the free co-operation of the 
man. The emperor, who saw in these decisions the overthrow of his 
attempts at conciliation, was highly displeased, and wished at least to 
postpone^their promulgation. The pope obeyed for a time ; but when the 
emperor threatened to interfere in the proceedings of the council, he 
had the decrees published, Jan., a.d. 1547, and some weeks after, on the 
plea of a dangerous plague having broken out, removed the council to 
Bologna, where for the time proceedings were suspended. 

5. The Augsburg Interim, A.D. 1548. — ^At a diet at Augsburg in Sept., 
A.I). 1547, the Protestants declared themselves willing to submit to a 
council meeting again at Trent, and beginning afresh ; but as the pope 
refused this, the emperor was obliged to plan an interim, which should 
form a standard for all parties till a settlement at a proper council 
should be reached. It granted the cup to the laity and marriage of 


priests, but held by the Tridentine doctrine of justification. It repre- 
sented the pope as simply the highest bishop, in whom the unity of 
the church is visibly set forth. The right of interpreting Scripture 
was given exclusively to the church. The sacraments were enumerated 
as seven, and the doctrine of transubstantiation emphatically main- 
tained. The duty of fasting, and seeking the intercession of the mother 
of God and the saints, observing all Catholic ceremonies of worship, 
processions, festivals, etc., was strictly insisted upon. The emperor 
was satisfied, and so too some of the Protestant princes. Maurice, how- 
ever, felt that his people would not agree to its adoption. He gave at 
last a half assent, which the emperor accepted as approval. The emperor 
took no notice of those who opposed it, the presence of his Spaniards 
in their dominions would prevent all trouble. The emperor was not 
strong enough to force the Catholic nobles to accept his interim,''and so 
its observance was to be binding only on the Protestants. Landgrave 
Philip, whose power was for ever broken, gave in, but nothing in the world 
would induce the noble John Frederick to submit. The pope too refused 
persistently to recognise the interim, and only in Aug., a.d. 15-19, did he 
allow the bishops to agree to the concessions made by it to the Protestants. 

6. The Execution of the Interim had on all sides to be compulsorily 
enforced. Nuremberg, Augsburg, Ulm were one after another coerced 
into adopting it. Constance resisted, was put under the ban, and lost all 
privileges, till at last instead of the interim the papacy found entrance, 
and evangelical Protestantism got its death-blow. The other cities sub- 
mitted to the inevitable. All preachers refusing the interim were exiled 
and persecuted. Over 400 true servants of the word wandered with 
wives and children through South Germany homeless and without bread. 
Frecht of Ulm was taken in chains to the emperor's camp. Brenz, one 
of the most determined opponents of the interim, during his wanderings 
often by a miracle escaped capture. Much more lasting was the opposi- 
tion in North Germany. In Magdeburg, still lying under the imperial 
ban, the fugitive opponents of the interim gathered from all sides, and 
there alone was the press still free in its utterances against the interim. 
A flood of controversial tracts, satires, and caricatures were sent out 
over all Germany. In Hesse and Brandenburg the princes were unable 
to enforce the obnoxious measures ; still less could Maurice do so in the 

7. The Leipzig- or Little Interim, A.D. 1549. — Maurice in his difficulties 
sent for Melanchthon. Since the death of Luther and the overthrow of 
John Frederick of Saxony, Melanchthon's tendency to yield largely for 
peace' sake had lost its wholesome checks. In writing to the minister 
Carlo witz, the bitterest foe of Luther and the elector, he even went so 
far as to complain of Luther's combativeness. The result of various 
negotiations was the drawing up of a document at the assembly in Leipzig, 


22nd December, a.d. 1518, by tlie Wittenberg theologians in accordance 
with the views of Melanchthon. This modified interim became the stan- 
dard for rehgious practice in Saxony, and a directory of worship in 
harmony with it was drawn up by the theologians, and published in July, 
A.D. 1549. Calvin and Brenz wrote letters that cut Melanchthon to the 
heart. The measure was everywhere viewed by zealous Lutherans with 
indignation, and the Interim of Leipzig was even more hateful to the 
people than that of Augsburg. Imprisonment and exile were vigorously 
carried out by means of it, yet the revolution and ferment continued to 
increase. — The Leipzig Interim treated Romish customs and ceremonies 
almost as things indifferent, passed over many less essential doctrinal 
differences, and gave to fundamental differences such a setting as might 
be applied equally to the pure evangelical doctrine as to that of the 
Augsburg Interim. The evangelical doctrine of justification was essen- 
tially there, but it was not decidedly and unambiguously expressed; and 
still less were Romish errors sharply and unmistakably repudiated. 
Good works were said to be necessary, but not in the sense that one 
could win salvation by means of them. Whether good works in excess 
of the law's demands could be performed was not explicitly determined. 
On church and hierarchy, the positions of the Augsburg Interim were 
simply restated. To the pope as the highest bishop, as well as to the 
other bishops, who performed their duties according to God's will for 
edification and not destruction, all churchmen were to yield obedience. 
The seven sacraments were acknowledged, though in another than the 
Romish sense. In the mass the Latin language was again introduced. 
Images of saints were allowed, but not for worship ; so too the festivals of 
Mary and of Corpus Christi, but without processions, etc. 

8. The Council again at Trent, A.D. 1551.— In September, a.d. 1549, 
Paul III. dissolved the council at Bologna, where it had done nothing. 
His successor, Julius IIL, a.d. 1550-1555, the nominee of the imperial 
party, acceded to the emperor's washes to have the council again held at 
Trent. The Protestant nobles declared their willingness to recognise it, 
but demanded the cancelling of the earlier proceedings, a seat and vote 
for their representatives. This the emperor was prepared to grant, but 
the pope and prelates would not agree. The council began its proceed- 
ings on 1st May, a.d. 1551, with the doctrine of the Lord's Supper. 
Meanwhile the Protestants prepared a new confession, which might form 
the basis of their discussions in the council. Melanchthon, who was 
beginning to take courage again, sketched the Confessio Saxonica, or, 
as it has been rightly named, the Repetitlo Covfessionis Augustana, in 
which no trace of the indecision and ambiguity of the Leipzig Interim 
is to be found. The pure doctrine is set forth firmly, with even a 
polemical tone, though in a moderate and conciliatory manner. Brenz, 
who had been in hiding up to this time, by order of Duke Christopher 


of Wiirtteinberg, sketched for a like purpose the " Wiirttemberg Con- 
fession." In November, a.d. 1551, the first Protestants, lay delegates 
from Wiirttemberg and Strassburg, appeared in Trent. They were 
followed in January by Saxon statesmen. On 24th January, a.d. 1552, 
these laid their credentials before the council, but, notwithstanding all 
the effort of the imperial commissioners, they could not gain admission. 
In March the Wiii'ttemberg and Strassburg theologians arrived, with 
Brenz at their head, and Melanchthon, with two Leipzig preachers, was 
on the way, when suddenly Maurice put an end to all their well con- 
certed plans. 

§ 137a. Maurice and the Peace of Augsburg, 
A.D. 1550-1555. 

In the beginning of A.D. 1550 tlie affairs of the Preforma- 
tion were in a worse condition than ever before. In the 
fetters of the interim, it was like a felon on whom the death 
sentence was about to be passed. Then just at the right 
time appeared the Elector Maurice as the man who could 
break the fetters and lead on again to power and honour. 
His betrayal of the cause had brought Protestantism to the 
verge of destruction ; his betrayal of the emperor proved its 
salvation. The Compact of Passau guaranteed to Protest- 
ants full religious liberty and equal rights with Catholics 
until a new council should meet. The Heligious Peace of 
Augsburg removed even this limitation, and brought to a 
conclusion the history of the Grerman Reformation. 

1. The State of Matters in A.D. 1550.— It was a doleful time for Germany. 
The emperor at the height of his power was laying his plans for securing 
the succession in the imperial dignity to his sou Philip of Spain. In 
a bold, autocratic spirit he trampled on all the rights of the imperial 
nobles, and contrary to treaty he retained the presence of Spanish troops 
in the empire, which daily committed deeds of atrocious violence. The 
deliverance of the landgrave was stubbornly refused, though all the 
conditions thereof were long ago fulfilled. Protestant Germany groaned 
under the yoke of the interim ; the council would only confirm this, if 
not rather enforce something even worse. Only one bulwark of evan- 
gelical liberty stood in the emperor's way, the brave, outlawed Magde- 
burg. Lut how could it continue to hold out ? Down to autumn, a.d. 
1552, all attempts to storm the city had failed. Then Maurice under- 

§ 137a. maueice and the peace op augsburg. 297 

took, by the order of the emperor and at the cost of the emph-e, to 
execute the ban. 

2. The Elector Maurice, A.D. 1551.— Maurice had lost the hearts of his 
own people, and was regarded with detestation by the Protestants of 
Germany, and notwithstanding imperial favour his position was by no 
means secure. Yet he was too much of the German and Protestant 
prince to view with favour the emperor's proceedings, while he felt 
indignant at the illegal detention of his father-in-law. In these circum- 
stances he resolved to betray the emperor, as before he had betrayed 
to him the cause of Protestantism. A master in dissimulation, he con- 
tinued the siege of Magdeburg with all diligence, but at the same time 
joined a secret league with the Margrave Hans of Ciistrin and Albert 
of Fraucouian Brandenburg, as also with the sons of the landgrave, for 
the restoration of evangelical and civil libert}', and entered into negotia- 
tions with Henry II. of France, who undertook to aid him with money. 
Magdeburg at last capitulated, and Maurice entered on 4th November, 
A.D. 1551. Arrears of pay formed an excuse for not disbanding the 
imperial troops, and, strengthened by the Magdeburg garrison and the 
auxiliary troops of his allies, he threw off the mask, and issued public 
proclamations in which he brought bitter charges against the emperor, 
and declared that he could no longer lie under the feet of priests and 
Spaniards. The emperor in vain appealed for help to the Catholic 
princes. He found himself without troops or money at Innsbriick, which 
could not stand a siege, and every road to his hereditary territories 
seemed closed, for where the leagued German princes were not the 
Ottomans on sea and the French on land were ready to oppose him. 
Maurice was already on the way to Innsbriick " to seek out the fox in 
his hole." But his troops' demands for pay detained him, and the 
emperor gained time. On a cold, wet night he fled, though not yet re- 
covered from fever, over the mountains covered with snow, and found 
refuge in Villach. Three days after Maurice entered Innsbriick; the 
council had already dissolved. 

.3. The Compact of Passau, A.D. 1552.— Before the flight of the emperor 
from Innsbriick, Maurice had an interview with Ferdinand at Linz,' 
where, besides the liberation of the landgrave, he demanded a German 
national assembly for religious union, and till it met unconditional 
toleration. The emperor, notwithstanding all his embarrassments, 
would not listen to the proposal. Negotiations were reopened at Passau, 
and Maurice's proposals were in the main accepted. Ferdinand con- 
sented, but the emperor would not. Ferdinand himself travelled to 
Villach and employed all his eloquence, but unconditional toleration the 
emperor would not grant. His stubbornness conquered ; the majority 
gave in, and accepted a compact which gave to the Protestants a full 
amnesty, general peace, and equal rights, till the meeting of a national 


or oecumenical council, to be arranged for at the next diet. Meanwhile 
the emperor had made great preparations. Frankfort was his main 
stronghold, and against it Maurice now advanced, and began the siege. 
Matters were not promising, when the Passau delegate appeared in his 
camp with the draft of the terms of peace. Had he refused his signa- 
ture, the ban would have been pronounced against him, and his cousin 
would have been restored to the electorate. He therefore subscribed 
the document. With difficulty Ferdinand secured the subscription of the 
emperor, who believed himself to be sufficiently strong to carry on the 
battle. The two imprisoned princes were now at last liberated, and the 
preachers exiled by the interim were allowed to return. John Frederick 
died in a.d. 1554, and the Landgrave Philip in a.d. 1567. 

4, Death of Maurice, A.D. 1553.— The Margrave Albert of Brandenburg 
had been Maurice's comrade in the Schmalcald war, and with him also he 
turned against the emperor. But after the ratification of the Passau 
Compact, to which he was not a party, Albert continued the war against 
the prelates and their principalities. He now fell out with Maurice, and 
was taken into his service by the emperor, who not only granted him 
an amnesty for all his acts of spoliation and breaches of the truce, but 
promised to enforce recognition of him from all the bishops. Albert 
therefore helped the emperor against the French, and then carried his 
conquests into Germany. Soon an open rupture occurred between him 
and Maurice. In the battle of Sievershausen Maurice gained a brilliant 
victory, but received a mortal wound, of which he died in two days. 
Albert fled to France. The rude soldier was broken down by misfortune, 
the religious convictions of his youth awakened, and the composition of 
a beautiful and well-known German hymn marks the turning point in his 
life. He died in a.d. 1557.— The year 1554 was wholly occupied with 
internal troubles. A desire for a lasting peace prevailed, and the cala- 
mities of both parties brought Protestants and Catholics nearer to one 
another. Even Henry of Brunswick was willing to tolerate Protestantism 
in his dominions. 

5. The Religious Peace of Augsburg, A.D. 1555.— When the diet met 
at Augsburg in February, a.d. 1555, the emperor's power was gone. To 
save his pride and conscience he renounced all share in its proceedings 
in favour of his brother. The Protestant members stood well together 
in claiming unconditional religious freedom, and Ferdinand inclined to 
their side. Meanwhile Pope Julius died, and the cardinals Morone and 
Truchsess hasted from the diet to Rome to take part in the papal 
election. The Catholic opposition was thus weakened in the diet. The 
Protestants insisted that the peace should apply to all who might in 
future join this confession. This demand gave occasion to strong 
contests. At last the simple formula was agreed upon, that no one 
should be interfered with on account of the Augsburg Confession. But 


a more vehement dispute arose as to what should happen if prelates 
or spiritual princes should join the Protestant party. This was a vital 
question for CathoHcism, and acceptance of the Protestant view would 
be its deathblow. It was therefore proposed that every prelate who went 
over would lose, not only his spiritual rank, but also his civil dominion. 
But the opposition would not give in. Both parties appealed to Ferdi- 
nand, and he delayed giving a decision. Advice was also asked about 
the peace proclamation. The Protestants claimed that the judges of the 
imperial court should be sworn to observe the Religious Peace, and should 
be chosen in equal numbers from both religious parties. On 30tli Aug. 
Ferdinand stated his resolution. As was expected, he went with the 
Catholics in regard to prelates becoming Protestants, but, contrary to 
all expectations, he also refused lasting unconditional peace. On this 
last point, however, he declared himself on 6th Sept. willing to yield 
if the Protestants would concede the point about the prelates. They 
sought to sell their concession as dearly as possible by securing to 
evangelical subjects of Catholic princes the right to the free exercise of 
their religion. But the Catholic prelates, on the ground of the territorial 
system (§ 126, 6) advocated by the Protestants themselves, would not 
give in. It was finally agreed that every noble in matters of religion 
had territorial authority, but that subjects of another faith, in case of 
the free exercise of their religion being refused, should have guaranteed 
unrestricted liberty to withdraw without loss of honour, property, or 
freedom. On 25th Sept., a.d. 1555, the decrees of the diet were pro- 
mulgated. The Reformed were not included in the Religious Peace ; 
this was first done in the Peace of Westphalia (§ 153, 2). 


The political importance of the Protestant princes was 
about equal to that of the Catholics ; the Electors of 
Cologne, Mainz, and Treves were not more powerful than 
those of Saxony, the Palatinate, and Brandenburg; and the 
great array of Protestant cities, with almost all the minor 
princes, were not behind the combined forces of Austria 
and Bavaria. The maintenance of the peace was assigned 
to a legally constituted corporation of Catholic and Protes- 
tant nobles, which held power down to a.d. 1806. The hope 
of reaching a mutual understanding on matters of religion 
was by no means abandoned, but the continuance of the 
peace was to be in no way dependent upon its realization. 


A new attempt to effect a union, which like all previous 
efforts ended in failure, was soon made in the Worms 
Consultation. Equally unsuccessful was a union project 
of the emperor Ferdinand I. Protestantism could get no 
more out of the Catholic princes. A second attempt to 
protestantize the Cologne electorate broke down as the first 
had done (§ 130, 2). 

6. The Worms Consultation, A.D. 1557. — Another effort was matle after 
the failure of the council in the interests of union. Catholic and 
Protestant delegates under the presidency of Pflugk met at Worms in a.d. 
1557. At a preliminary meeting the princes of Hesse, Wiirttemburg, and 
the Palatinate adopted the Augsburg Confession as bond of union and 
standard for negotiations. The Saxon delegates insisted upon a distinct 
repudiation of the interim and the insertion of other details, which gave 
the Catholics an excuse for putting an end to the negotiations. They 
had previously expressly refused to acknowledge Scripture as the uncon- 
ditional and sole judge of controversies, as that was itself a matter in 
dispute (§ 136, 4). 

7. Second Attempt at Eeformation in the Electorate of Cologne, A.D. 1582. 
— The Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, Gebhard Truchsess of Wald- 
burg went over in a.d. 1582 to the Protestant Church, married the 
Countess Agnes of Mansfeld, proclaimed religious freedom, and sought 
to convert his ecclesiastical principality into a temporal dominion. His 
plan was acceptable to nobles and people, but the clergy of his diocese 
opposed it with all their might. The pope thundered the ban against 
him, and Emperor Rudolph II. deposed him. The Protestant princes 
at last deserted him, and the newly elected archbishop, Duke Ernest of 
Bavaria, overpowered him by an armed force. The issue of Gebhard's 
attempt struck terror into other prelates who had been contemplating 
similar moves. 

8. The German Emperor Ferdinand I., a.d. 1556-1564, conciliatory 

toward Protestantism, thoroughly dissatisfied with the Tridentine Council, 
once and again made attempts to secure a union, which all ended in 
failure. Maximilian II., a.d. 1564-1576, imbued by his tutor, Wolfgang 
Severus, with an evangelical spirit, which was deepened under the influ- 
ence of his physician Crato von Crafftheim (§ 141, 10), gave perfect liberty 
to the Protestants in his dominions, admitted them to many of the 
higher and lower offices of state, kept down the Jesuits, and was pre- 
vented from himself formally going over to l*rotestantism only by his 
political relations with Spain and the Catholic princes of the empire. 
These relations, however, led to the adoption of half measures, out of 


which afterwards sprang the Thirty Years' War. His son Eudolpli II., a.d. 
1576-1612, educated by Jesuits at the Spanish court, gave again to that 
order unHmited scope, injured the Protestants on every side, and was 
only prevented by indecision and cowardice from attempting the complete 
suppression of Protestantism. 

§ 138. The Eeformation in French Switzerland .i 
In French Switzerland the Reformation appeared some- 
what later, but in essentially the same form as in German 
Switzerland. Its special character was given it by Far el 
and Viret, the successors of Calvin. The powerful genius of 
Calvin secured for his views victory over Zwinglianism in 
Switzerland, and won the ascendency for them in the other 
Reformed Churches. 

1. Calvin's Predecessors, A.D. 1526-1535.— William Farel, the pupil and 
friend of the liberal exegete Faber Stapulensis (§ 120, 8), was born in 
A.D. 1189 at Gap in Dauphine. When in a.d. 1521 the Sorboune con- 
demned Luther's doctrines and writings, he was obliged, as a suspected 
adherent of Luther, to quit Paris. He retired to Meaux, w4iere he was 
well received by Bishop Bri(^onnet, but so boldly preached the reformed 
doctrines, that even the bishop, on renewed complaints being made, 
neither could nor would protect him. He then withdrew to Basel 
(§ 130, 3). His first permanent residence was at Neuchatel, where in 
November, a.d. 1530, the Reformation was introduced by his influence. 
He left Neuchatel in a.d. 1532 in order to work in Geneva. But the civil 
authorities there could not protect him against the bishop and clergy. 
He was obliged to leave the city, but Saunier, Fromant, and Olivetan 
(§ 143, 5) continued the work in his spirit. A revolution took place ; 
the bishop thundered his ban against the refractory council, and the 
senate replied by declaring his office forfeited. Farel now returned to 
Geneva, a.d. 1535, and there accompanied him Peter Viret, afterwards the 
reformer of Lausanne. Viret was born at Orbe in a.d. 1511, and had 
attached himself to the Protestant cause during his studies in Paris. He 
therefore had also been obliged to quit the capital. He retired to his 

1 Calvin, " Tracts relating to the Reformation, with Life of Calvin by 
Beza." 3 vols. Edinburgh, 1814-1851. Henry, " Life of John Calvin." 
2 vols. London, 1849. Audin (Cath.), " History of Life, Writings, and 
Doctrines of Calvin." 2 vols. London, 1854. Dyer, " The Life of John 
Calvin." London, 1850. Bungener, "Calvin: his Life, Labours, and 
Writings." Edinburgh, 1863. 


native town, and sought there diligently to spread the knowledge of the 
gospel. The arrival of these two enthusiastic reformers in Geneva led to 
a life and death struggle, from which the evangelicals went forth trium- 
phant. As the result of a public disputation in August, a.d. 1535, the 
magistracy declared in their favour, and Farel gave the movement a doc- 
trinal basis by the issuing of a confession. In the following year Calvin 
was passing through Geneva. Farel adjured him in God's name to 
remain there. Farel indeed needed a fellow labourer of such genius and 
power, for he had a hard battle to fight. 

2. Calvin before his Genevan Ministry. — John Calvin, son of diocesan 
procurator Gerhard Cauvin, was born on 10th July, a.d. 1509, at Noyou 
in Picardy. Intended for the church, he was, from his twelfth year, in 
possession of a benefice. Meeting with his relation Olivetan, he had 
his first doubts of the truth of the Catholic system awakened. With 
his father's consent he now turned to the study of law, which he 
eagerly prosecuted for four years at Orleans and Bourges. At Bourges, 
Melchior Wolmar, a German, professor of Greek, exercised so powerful an 
influence over him, especially through the study of the Scriptures, that 
he decided, after the death of his father, to devote himself exclusively to 
theology. With this intention he went to Paris in ad, 1532, and there 
enthusiastically adopted the principles of the Eeformation. The newly 
appointed rector of the university, Nic. Cop, had to deliver an address 
on the Feast of All Saints. Calvin prepared it for him, and expressed 
therein such liberal and evangelical views, as had never before been 
uttered in that place. Cop read it boldly, and escaped the outburst of 
wrath only by a timely flight. Calvin, too, found it prudent to quit 
Paris. The bloody persecution of the Protestants by Francis I. led him 
at last to leave France altogether. So he went, in a.d. 1535, to Basel, 
where he became acquainted with Capito and Grynasus. In the follow- 
ing year he issued the first sketch of the Institutio Religioms Christiance. 
It was made as a defence of the Protestants of France, persecuted by 
Francis on the pretext that they held Anabaptist and revolutionary views. 
He therefore dedicated the book to the king, with a noble and firm 
address. He soon left Basel, and went to the court of the evangelical- 
minded Duchess Eenata of Ferrara (§ 139, 22), in order to secure her 
good offices for his fellow countrymen suffering for their faith. He won 
the full confidence of the duchess, but after some weeks was banished 
the country by her husband. On his journey back to Basel, Farel and 
Viret detained him in Geneva in a.d. 1536, and declared that he was 
called to be a preacher and teacher of theology. On 1st October, a.d. 
1536, the three reformers, at a public disputation in Lausanne, defended 
the principles of the Eeformation. Viret remained in Lausanne, and 
perfected the work of Eeformation there. As a confession of faith, a 
catechism, not in dialogue form, was composed by Calvin as a popular 


summary of his Institutio in the French language, and was sworn to, in 
A.D. 1536, by all the citizens of Geneva. The Catechismus Geiievensis, 
highly prized in all the Reformed churches, was a later redaction, which 
ajDpeared first in French in a.d. 15i2, and then in Latin, in a.d. 1545.^ 

3. Calvin's First Ministry in Geneva, A.D. 1536-1538. — In Geneva, as 
in other places, there sprang up alongside of the Reformation, and soon 
in deadly opposition to it, an antinomian libertine sect, which strove for 
freedom from all restraint and order (§ 146, 4). In the struggle against 
this dangerous development, which found special favour among the aris- 
tocratic youth of Geneva, Calvin put forth all the power of his logical 
mind and unbending will, and sought to break its force by the exercise 
of an excessively strict church discipline. He created a spiritual consis- 
tory which arrogated to itself the exclusive right of church discipline 
and excommunication, and wished to lay upon the magistrates the duty 
of inflicting civil punishments on all persons condemned by it. But not 
only did the libertine sections offer the most strenuous opposition, but 
also the magistrates regarded with jealousy and suspicion the erection of 
such a tribunal. Magistrates and libertines therefore combined to over- 
throw the consistory. A welcome pretext was found in a synod at 
Lausanne in a.d. 1538, which condemned the abolition of all festivals 
but the Sundays, the removal of baptismal fonts from the churches, and 
the introduction of leavened bread at the Lord's Supper by the Genevan 
church as uncalled for innovations. The magistrates now demanded 
the withdrawal of these, and banished the preachers who would not obey. 
Farel went to Neuchatel, where he remained till his death in a.d. 1565 ; 
Calvin went to Strassburg, where Bucer, Capito, and Hedio gave him 
the office of a professor and preacher. During his three years' residence 
there Calvin, as a Strassburg delegate, was frequently brought into close 
relationship with the German reformers, especially with Melanchthon 
(§§ 134, 135). But he ever remained closely associated with Geneva, 
and when Cardinal Sadolet (§ 139, 12) issued from Lyons in a.d. 1539 an 
appeal to the Genevese to return to the bosom of the Romish church, 
Calvin thundered against him an annihilating reply. His Genevan 
friends, too, spared no pains to win for him the favour of the council 
and the citizens. They succeeded all the more easily because since the 
overthrow of the theocratic consistory the libertine party had run into 
all manner of riotous excesses. By a decree of council of 20th Oct., 
A.D. 1540, Calvin was most honourably recalled. After long considera- 
tion he accepted the call in Sept., a.d. 1541, and now, with redoubled 
energy, set himself to carry out most strictly the work that had been 

1 M'Crie, " The Early Years of John Calvin, a.d. 1509-1536." Ed. by 
W. Fergusson. Edinburgh, 1880. 


4. Calvin's Second Ministry in Geneva, A.D. 1541-1564. — Calvin set 
np again, after his return, the consistory, consisting of six ministers 
and twelve lay elders, and by it ruled with almost absolute power. It 
was a thoroughly organized inquisition tribunal, which regulated in all 
details the moral, religious, domestic, and social life of the citizens, 
called them to account on every suspicion of a fault, had the incorrigible 
banished by the civil authorities, and the more dangerous of them 
put to death. The Ciceronian Bible translator, Sebastian Castellio, 
appointed rector of the Genevan school by Calvin, got out of sympathy 
with the rigorous moral strictures and compulsory prescriptions of mat- 
ters of faith under the Calvinistic rule, and charged the clergy with in- 
tolerance and pride. He also contested the doctrine of the descent into 
hell, and described the Canticles as a love poem. He was deposed, and 
in order to escape farther penalties he fled to Basel in a.d. 1544. A 
libertine called Gruet was executed in a.d. 1547, because he had circu- 
lated an abusive tract against the clergy, and blasphemous references 
were found in his papers ; e.g. that Christianity is only a fable, that 
Christ was a deceiver and His mother a prostitute, that all ends with 
death, that neither heaven nor hell exists, etc. The physician, Jerome 
Bolsec, previously a Carmelite monk in Paris, was imprisoned in a.d. 
1551, and then banished, because of his opposition to Calvin's doctrine 
of predestination. He afterwards returned to the Eomish church, and 
reveuged himself by a biography of Calvin full of spiteful calumnies. 
On the execution of Servetus in a.d. 1533, see § 148, 2. Between the 
years 1542 and 1546 there were in Geneva, with a population of only 
20,000, no less than fifty-seven death sentences carriied out with Calvin's 
approval, and seventy-six sentences of banishment. The magistrates 
faithfully supported him in all his measures. But under the inquisi- 
torial reign of terror of his consistory, the libertine party gained strength 
for a vehement struggle, and among the magistrates, from about a.d. 
1546, there arose a powerful opposition, and fanatical mobs repeatedly 
threatened to throw him into the Rhone. This struggle lasted for nine 
years. But Calvin abated not a single iota from the strictness of his 
earlier demands, and so great was the fear of his powerful personality 
that neither the rage of riotous mobs nor the hostility of the magistracy 
could secure his banishment. In a.d. 1555 his party again won the as- 
cendency in the elections, mainly by the aid of crowds of refugees from 
France, England, and Scotland, who had obtained residence and thus 
the rights of citizens in Geneva. From this time till his death on 27th 
March, a.d. 1564, his influence was supreme. The impress of his strong 
mind was more and more distinctly stamped upon every institution of 
the commonwealth, the demands of his rigorous discipline were willingly 
and heartily adopted as the moral code, and secured for Geneva that 
pre-eminence which for two centuries it retained among all the Reformed 


churches as an honourable, pious, and strictly moral city. In spite of a 
weak body and frequent attacks of sickness Calvin, during the twenty- 
three years of his two residences in Geneva, performed an amazing 
amount of work. He had married in a.d. 1540, at Strassburg, Idaletta 
de Bures, the widow of an Anabaptist converted by him. His wife died 
in A.D. 1549. He preached almost daily, attended all the sittings of the 
consistory and the preachers' association, inspired all their deliberations 
and resolutions, delivered lectures in the academy founded by his orders 
in A.D. 1559, composed numerous doctrinal, controversial, and apologe- 
tical works, conducted an extensive correspondence, etc. 

o. Calvin's Writings.— The most important of the writings of Calvin 
is his already mentioned Institutio Eeligionis Christiana, of which the 
best and most complete edition appeared in a.d. 1559, a companion 
volume to Melanchthon's Loci, but much more thorough and complete 
as a formal and scientific treatise. In this work Calvin elaborates his 
profound doctrinal system with great speculative power and bold, relent- 
less logic, combined with the peculiar grace of a clear and charming 
style. Next in order of importance came his commentaries on almost 
all the books of Scripture. Here also he shows himself everywhere 
possessed of brilliant acuteness, religious geniality, profound Christian 
sympathy, and remarkable exegetical talent, but also a stickler for small 
points or seriously fettered by dogmatic prejudices. His exegetical pro- 
ductions want the warmth and childlike identification of the commen- 
tator with his text, which in so high a degree distinguishes Luther, while 
in form they are incomparably superior for conciseness and scientific 
precision. In the pulpit Calvin was the same strict and consistent logi- 
cian as in his systematic and polemical works. Of Luther's popular 
eloquence he had not the slightest trace. ^ 

6. Calvin's Doctrine. — Calvin set Zwingli far below Luther, and had no 
hesitation in characterizing the Zwinglian doctrine of the sacraments as 
profane. With Luther, who highly respected hun, he never came into 
close personal contact, but his intercourse with Melanchthon had a 
powerful influence upon the latter. But decidedly as he approached 
Luther's doctrine, he was in principle rather on the same platform with 
Zwingli. His view of the Protestant principles is essentially Zwinglian. 
Just as decidedly as Zwingli had he broken with ecclesiastical tradition. 
In the doctrine of the person of Christ he inclined to Nestorianism, and 
could not therefore reach the same believing fulness as Luther in his 

1 " English Translation of Calvin's Works," by Calvin Translation 
Society, in 52 vols. Edinburgh, 1842-1853. For a more sympathetic 
and true estimate of Calvin as a commentator, see Farrar, " History 
of Interpretations." London, 1886. Also papers by Farrar on the 
" Reformers as Commentators," in Expositor, Second Series. 



doctrine of the Lord's Supper. He taught, as Berengar before had done, 
that the believer by means of faith partakes in the sacrament only 
spiritually, but yet really, of the body and blood of the Lord, through a 
power issuing from the glorified body of Christ, whereas the unbeliever 
receives only bread and wine. In his doctrine of justification he formally 
agrees with Luther, but introduced a very marked difference by his strict, 
almost Old Testament, legahsm. His predestination doctrine goes 
beyond even that of Augustine in its rigid consistency and unbending 

7. The Victory of Calvinism over Zwinglianism.— By his extensive 
correspondence and numerous writings Calvin's influence extended far 
beyond the Hmits of Switzerland. Geneva became the place of refuge 
for all who were exiled on account of their faith, and the university 
founded there by Calvin furnished almost all Reformed churches with 
teachers, who were moulded after a strict Calvinistic pattern. Bern, 
not uninfluenced by political jealousies, showed most reluctance in 
adopting the Calvinistic doctrine. Ziirich was more compliant. After 
Zwingli's death, Henry Bullinger stood at the head of the Ziirich clergy. 
With him Calvin entered into doctrinal negotiations, and succeeded in 
at last bringing him over to his views of the Lord's Supper. In the 
Conseimis Tigurinus of a.d. 1519, drawn up by Calvin, a union was 
brought about on a Calvinistic basis; but Bern, where the Zwinghans 
contending with the Lutheranised friends of Calvin had the majority, 
refused subscription. The Consensus pastorum Genevensivm, of a.d. 
1554, called forth by the conflict with Bolsec, in which the predestination 
doctrine of Calvin had similar prominence, not only Bern, but also 
Zih-ich refused to accept. Yet these two confessions gradually rose in 
repute throughout German Switzerland. Even Bullinger's personal 
objection to the predestination doctrine was more and more overcome 
from A.D. 1556 by the influence of his colleague Peter Martyr (§ 139, 
24), though he never accepted the Calvinistic system in all its severity 
and harshness. When even the Elector-palatine Frederick III. (§ 144, 
1) wished to lay a justificatory confession before the Diet of Augsburg in 
A.D. 1566, which threatened to exclude him from the peace on account 
of his going over to the Reformed church, Bullinger, who was entrusted 
with its composition, sent him, as an appendix to the testament he had 
composed, a confession, which came to be known as the Covfessio Helve- 
tica posterior (§ 133, 8). This confession, not only obtained recognition 
in all the Swiss cantons, with the exception of Basel, which likewise 
after eighty years adopted it, but also gained great consideration in the 

1 See Dorner, "History of Protestant Theology," vol. i., pp. 384-414, 
for a much truer outhne of Calvin's doctrine from another Lutheran 


Reformed churches of other lands. Its doctrine of the sacraments is 
Calviuistic, with not unimportant leanings toward the Zwinglian theory. 
Its doctrine of predestination is Calvinism, very considerably modified. 
8. Calvin's Successor in Geneva.— Theodore Beza was from a.d. 1559 
Calvin's most zealous fellow labourer, and after his death succeeded him 
in his offices. He soon came to be regarded at home and abroad with 
something of the same reverence which his great master had won. He 
died in a.d. 1605. Born in a.d. 1519 of an old noble family at Vezelay 
in Burgundy, he was sent for his education in his ninth year to the 
humanist Melcliior Wolmar of Orleans, and accompanied his teacher when 
he accepted a call to the Academy of Bourges, until in a.d. 1534 Wol- 
mar was obliged to return to his Swabian home to escape persecution as 
a friend and promoter of the Reformation. Beza now applied himself to 
the study of law at the University of Orleans, and obtained the rank of a 
licentiate in a.d. 1539. He then spent several years in Paris as a man of 
the world, where he gained the reputation of a poet and wit, and wasted 
a considerable patrimony in a loose and reckless life. A secret marriage 
with a young woman of the city in humble circumstances, in a.d. 1544, 
put an end to his extravagances, and a serious illness gave a religious 
direction to his moral change. He had made the acquaintance of Calvin 
at Bourges, and in a.d. 1543 he went to Geneva, was publicly married, 
and in the following year received, on Viret's recommendation, the pro- 
fessorship of Greek at Lausanne. Thoroughly in sympathy with all 
Calvin's views, he supported his doctrine of predestination against the 
attacks of Bolsec, justified the execution of Servetus in his tract Be 
hceretidii a civili magiatratu ininiendis, zealously befriended the per- 
secuted Waldcnsians, along with Farcl made court to the German Pro- 
testant princes in order to secure their intercession for the French 
Huguenots, and negotiated with the South German theologians for a 
union in regard to the doctrine of the supper. In a.d. 1558 Calvin 
called him to Geneva as a preacher and professor of theology in the 
academy erected there. In a.d. 1559 he vindicated Calvin's doctrine 
of the supper against Westphal's attacks (§ 141, 10) in pretty moderate 
language ; but in a.d. 1560 he thundered forth two violent polemical 
dialogues against Hesshus (§ 144, 1). The next two years he spent 
in France (§ 139, 14) as theological defender and advocate of the 
Huguenots. After Calvin's death the whole burden of the government 
of the Genevan church fell upon his shoulders, and for forty years the 
Reformed churches of all lands looked with confidence to him as their 
well-tried patriarch. Next to the church of Geneva, that of his native 
land lay nearest to his heart. Repeatedly we find liim called to France 
to direct the meetings of synod. But scarcely less lively was the interest 
which he took in the controversies of the German Reformed with their 
Lutheran opponents. At the Religious Conference of Mompelgard, which 


the Lutheran Count Frederick of Wiirttemberg called in a.d. 1586, to 
make terms if possible whereby the Calvinistic refugees might have the 
communion together with their Lutheran brethren, Beza himself in 
person took the field in defence of the palladium of Calvinistic orthodoxy 
against Andrea, whose theory of ubiquity (§ 141, 9, 10) he had already 
contested in his writings. Very near the close of his life the Catholic 
Church, through its experienced converter of heretics, Francis de Sales 
(§ 156, 1), made a vain attempt to win him back to the Church in which 
alone is salvation. To a foolish report that this effort had been successful 
Beza himself answered in a satirical poem full of all his youthful fire.^ 

§ 139. The Reformation in Other Lands. 

The need of reform was so great and widespread, that the 
movement begun in Germany and Switzerland soon spread 
to every country in Europe. The Catholic Church opposed 
the Reformation everywhere with fire and sword, and suc- 
ceeded in some countries in utterly suppressing it ; while 
in others it was restricted within the limits of a merely 
tolerated sect. The German Lutheran Confession found 
acceptance generally among the Scandinavians of the north 
of Europe, the Swiss Reformed among the Romanic races of 
the south and west ; while in the east, among the Slavs and 
Magyars, both confessions were received. Calvin's power- 
ful personal influence had done much to drive the Lutheran 
Confession out of those Romance countries where it had 
before obtained a footing. The presence of many refugees 
from the various western lands for a time in Switzerland, 
as well as the natural intercourse between it and such coun- 
tries as Italy and France, contributed to the same result. 
But deeper grounds than these are required to account for 
this fact. On the one hand, the Romance people are inclined 
to extremes, and they found more thorough satisfaction in 
the radical reformation of Geneva than in the more moderate 
reformation of Wittenberg ; and, on the other hand, they 

^ Cunningham, "Reformers and Theology of the Reformation," Essay 
vii., " Calvin and Beza," pp. 345-412. Edin., 1862. 


have a love for democratic and republican forms of govern- 
ment which the former, but not the latter, gratified. — 
Outside of the limits of the German empire the Lutheran 
Reformation first took root, from a.d. 1525, in Prussia, the 
seat of the Teutonic Knights (§ 127, 3) ; then in the 
Scandinavian countries. In Sweden it gained ascendency 
in A.D. 1527, and in Denmark and Norway in A.d. 1537. 
Also in the Baltic Provinces the Reformation had found 
entrance in a.d. 1520; by a.d. 1539 it had overcome all 
opposition in Livonia and Esthonia, but in Courland it took 
other ten years before it was thoroughly organized. The 
Reformed church got almost exclusive possession of England 
in A.D. 1562, of Scotland in a.d. 15G0, and of the Netherlands 
in A.D. 1579. The Reformed Confession obtained mere tolera- 
tion in France in a.d. 1598 ; the Reformed alongside of the 
Lutheran gained a footing in Poland in a.d. 1573, in Bohemia 
and Moravia in a.d. 1609, in Hungary in a.d. 1606, and in 
Transylvania in a.d. 1557. Only in Spain and Italy did the 
Catholic Church succeed in utterly crushing the Reformation. 
Some attempts to interest the Gfreek church in the Lutheran 
Confession were unsuccessful, but the remnants of the Wald- 
ensians were completely won over to the Reformed Confession. 

1. Sweden. — For fifty years Sweden bad been free from the Danish 
yoke which had been imposed upon it by the Calmar union of a.d. 1397. 
The higher clergy, who possessed two-thirds of the land, had continuously 
conspired in favour of Denmark. The Archbishop of Upsala, Gustavus 
Trolle, fell out with the chancellor, Sten Sture, and was deposed. Pope 
Leo X. pronounced the ban and interdict against Sweden. Christian II. 
of Denmark conquered the country in a.d. 1520, and in the frightful 
massacre of Stockholm during the coronation festivities, in spite of his 
sworn assurances, 600 of the noblest in the land, marked out by the arch- 
bishop as enemies of Denmark, were slain. But scarcely had Christian 
reached home when Gustavus Vasa landed from Liibeck, whither he had 
fled, drove out the Danes, and was elected king, a.d. 1523. In his exile 
he had become favourably inclined to the Reformation, and now he joined 
the Protestants to have their help against the opposing clergy. Olaf 
Peterson, who had studied from a.d. 1516 in Wittenberg, soon after his 


return home, in a.d. 1519, began as deacon in Strengnies, along with 
Lawrence Anderson, afterwards administrator of the diocese of Strengn^es, 
to spread the reformed doctrines. Subsequently they were joined by Olaf's 
younger brother, Laurence Peterson. During the king's absence in a.d. 
1521, two Anabaptists visited Stockholm, and even the calm-miuded Olaf 
was for a time carried away by them. The king quickly suppressed the 
disturbances, and entered heartily upon the work of reformation. Ander- 
son, appointed chancellor by Vasa, in a.d. 1526 translated the N.T., and 
Olaf with the help of his learned brother undertook the O.T. The people, 
however, still clung to the old faith, till at the Diet of Westnses, in a.d. 
1527, the king set before them the alternative of accepting his resigna- 
tion or the Reformation. The people's love for their king overcame 
all clerical opposition. Church property was used to supply revenues 
to kings and nobles, and to provide salaries for pastors who should 
preach the gospel in its purity. The Reformation was peacefully intro- 
duced into all parts of the land, and the diets at Orebro, in a.d. 1529, 
1537, and at Westnaes, in a.d. 1544, carried out the work to completion. 
The new organization adopted the episcopal constitution, and also in 
worship, by connivance of the people, many Catholic ceremonies were 
allowed to remain. Most of the bishops accepted the inevitable. The 
Archbishop Magnus of Upsala, papal legate, went to Poland, and Bishop 
Brask of Linkoping fled with all the treasures of his church to Danzig. 
Laurence Peterson was made in a.d. 1531 first evangelical Archbishop 
of Upsala, and married a relative of the royal house. But his brother 
Olaf fell into disfavour on account of his protest against the king's 
real or supposed acts of rapacity. He and Anderson, because they had 
failed to report a conspiracy which came to their knowledge in the con- 
fessional, were condemned to death, but were pardoned by the king. 
Gustavus died in a.d. 1560. Under his son Eric a Catholic reaction set 
in, and his brother John III., in a.d. 1578, made secret confession of 
Catholicism to the Jesuit Possevin, urged thereto by his Catholic queen 
and the prospect of the Polish throne. John's son Sigismund, also king 
of Poland, openly joined the Romish Church. But his uncle Charles of 
Sodermanland, a zealous Protestant, as governor after John's death, 
called together the nobles at Upsala in a.d. 1593, when the Latin mass- 
book introduced by John was forbidden, and the acknowledgment of 
the Augsburg Confession was renewed. But as Sigismund continued to 
favour Catholicism, the peers of the realm declared, in a.d. 1604, that he 
had forfeited the throne, which his uncle now ascended as Charles IX.— 
The Reformation had, been already carried from Sweden into Finland.^ 

^ Butler, "The Refoljmation in Sweden, its Rise, Progress, and Crisis, 
and its Triumph under pharles IX." New York, 1883. Geijer, "History 
of the Swedes," trans, fi'om the Swedish by Turner. Lond., 1847. 


2. Denmark and Norway. — Christian II., nephew of the Elector of 
Saxony and brother-in-law of the Emperor Charles V., although he had 
associated himself with the Eomish hierarchy in Sweden for the over- 
throw of the national party, had in Denmark taken the side of the 
Eeformation against the clergy, who were there supreme. In a.d. 1521 he 
succeeded in getting Carlstadt to come to his assistance, but he was soon 
forced to quit the country. In a.d. 1523 the clergy and nobles formally 
renounced their allegiance, and gave the crown to his uncle Frederick I., 
Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. Christian fled to Saxony, was there 
completely won over to the Eeformation by Luther, converted also his 
wife, the emperor's sister, and had the first Danish N.T., by Hans 
Michelsou, printed at Leipzig and circulated in Denmark. To secure the 
emperor's aid, however, he abjured the evangelical faith at Augsburg in 
A.D. 1530. In the following year he conquered Norway, and bound him- 
self on his coronation to maintain the Catholic religion. But in a.d. 
1532 he was obliged to surrender to Frederick, and spent the remaining 
twenty-seven years of his life in prison, where he repented his apostasy, 
and had the opportunity of instructing himself by the study of the Danish 
Bible.— Frederick I. had been previously favourable to the Eeformation, 
yet his hands were bound by the express terms of his election. His son 
Christian III. unreservedly introduced the Eeformation into his duchies. 
In this he was encouraged by his father. In a.d. 1526 he openly professed 
the evangelical faith, and invited the Danish reformer Hans Tausen, a dis- 
ciple of Luther, who had preached the gospel amid much persecution since 
a.d. 1524, to settle as preacher in Copenhagen. At a diet at Odensee in 
A.D. 1527 he restricted episcopal jurisdiction, proclaimed universal religious 
toleration, gave priests liberty to marry and to leave their cloisters, and 
thus laid the foundations of the Eeformation. Tausen in a.d. 1530 sub- 
mitted to the nobles his own confession, Confessio Hafinca, and the 
Eeformation rapidly advanced. Frederick died in a.d. 1533. The bishops 
now rose in a body, and insisted that the estates should refuse to 
acknowledge his son Christian III. But when the burgomaster of Liibeck, 
taking advantage of the anarchy, plotted to subject Denmark to the 
proud commercial city, and in a.d. 1534 actually laid siege to Copen- 
hagen, the Jutland nobles hastened to swear fealty to Christian. He 
drove out the Liibeckers, and by a.d. 1536 had possession of the whole 
land. He resolved now to put an end for ever to the machinations of the 
clergy. In August, a.d. 1536, he had all bishops imprisoned in one day, 
and at a diet at Copenhagen had them formally deposed. Their pro- 
perty fell into the royal exchequer, all monasteries were secularized^ 
some presented to the nobles, some converted into hospitals and schools. 
In order to complete the organization of the church Bugenhagen was 
called in in a.d. 1537. He crowned the king and queen, sketched a direc- 
tory of worship, which was adopted at the Diet of Odensee in a.d. 1539, 


and returned to Wittenberg in a.d. 1542. In place of bishops Lutheran 
superintendents were appointed, to whom subsequently the title of 
bishop was given, and the Augsburg Confession accepted as the standard. 
The Reformation was contemporaneously introduced into Norway, which 
acknowledged the king in a.d. 1536. The Archbishop of Drontheim, 
Olaf Engelbrechtzen, fled with the church treasures to the Netherlands. 
Iceland stood out longer, but yielded in a.d. 1551, when the power of the 
rebel bishops was broken. ^ 

3. Courland, Livonia, and Esthonia. — Livonia had seceded from the 
dominion of the Teutonic knights in a.d. 1521, and under the grand- 
master Walter of Plattenburg assumed the position of an independent 
principality. In that same year a Lutheran archdeacon, Andr. Knopken, 
expelled from Pomerania, came to Riga, and preached the gospel with 
moderation. Soon after Tegetmaier came from Rostock, and so vigorously 
denounced image worship that excited mobs entered the churches and 
tore down the images ; yet he was protected by the council and the 
grand-master. The third reformer Briesmann was the immediate scholar 
of Luther. The able town clerk of Riga, Lohmliller, heartily wrought 
witli them, and the Reformation spread through city and country. At 
Wolmar and Dorpat, in a.d, 1524, the work was carried on by Melchior 
Hoffmann, whose Lutheranism was seriously tinged with Anabaptist 
extravagances (§ 147, 1). The diocese of Oesel adopted the reformed 
doctrines, and at the same time a Lutheran church was formed in 
Reval. After strong opposition had been offered, at last, in a.d. 1538, 
Riga accepted the evangelical confession, joined the Schmalcald League, 
and in a short time all Livonia and Esthonia accepted the Augsburg 
Confession. Political troubles, occasioned mainly by Russia, obliged the 
last grand-master, Kettler, in a.d. 1561 to surrender Livonia to Sigismund 
Augustus of Poland, but with the formal assurance that the rights of 
the evangelicals should be preserved. He himself retained Courland as 
an hereditary duchy under the suzerainty of Poland, and gave himself 
unweariedly to the evangelical organization of his country, powerfully 
assisted by Biilau, first superintendent of Courland. — The Lutheran 
church of Livonia had in consequence to pass through severe trials. 
Under Polish protection a Jesuit college was established in Riga in a.d. 
1584. Two city churches had to be given over to the Catholics, and 
Possevin conducted an active Catholic propaganda, which was ended only 
v/hen Livonia, in a.d, 1629, as also Esthonia somewhat earlier, came 
under the rule of Sweden. In consequence of the Norse war both coun- 
t-ries were incorporated into the Russian empire, and by the Peace of 
Nystadt, of a.d, 1721, its Lutheran church retained all its privileges, on 

^ Pontoppidan, " Annales eccles. Dan ," ii., iii. Han., 1741. Ranke, 
" History of the Reformation," vol. iii. 


condition that it did not interfere in any way with the Greek Orthodox 
Church in the province. In a.d. 1795 Courland also came under Russian 
sway, and all these are now known as the Baltic Provinces. 

4. England. 1— Henry VIII., a.d. 1509-1547, after the literary feud with 
Luther (§ 125, 3), sought to justify his title, " Defender of the Faith," 
by the use of sword and gibbet. Luther's writings were eagerly read in 
England, where in many circles Wiclif's movements were regarded with 
favour, and two noble Englishmen, John Fryth and William Tyndal, 
gave to their native laud a translation of the N.T. in a.d. 1526. Fryth 
was rewarded with the stake in a.d. 1533, and Tyndal was beheaded in 
the Netherlands in a.d. 1535. ^ But meanwhile the king quarrelled with 
the pope. On assuming the government he had married Catharine of 
Arragon, daughter of Ferdinand the Catholic and Isabella, six years older 
than himself, the widow of his brother Arthur, who had died in his 16th 
year, for which he got a papal dispensation on the ground that the former 
marriage had not been consummated. His adulterous love for Anne 
Boleyn, the fair maid of honour to his queen, and Cranmer's biblical 
opinion (Lev. xviii. 16, xx. 21) convinced him in a.d. 1527 of the sinful- 
ness of his uncanonical marriage. Clement VII., at first not indisposed 
to grant his request for a divorce, refused after he had been reconciled 
to the emperor, Catharine's nephew (§ 132, 2). Thoroughly roused, 
the king now threw off the authority of the pope. Convocation was 
forced to recognise him in a.d. 1531 as head of the English Church, 
and in 1532 Parliament forbade the paying of annats to the pope. In 
the same year Henry married Anne, and had a formal divorce from 
Catharine granted by a spiritual court. Parliament in a.d. 1531 formally 
abolished papal jurisdiction in the land, and transferred all ecclesiastical 
rights and revenues to the king. The venerable Bishop Fisher of 
Rochester and the resolute chancellor, Sir Thomas More (§ 120, 7), in 
a.d. 1535 paid the price of their opposition on the scaffold. Now came 

^ The chief documentary authorities for the whole period are the State 
Papers edited by Brewer and others. See also Froude, "History of 
England from Fall of Wolsey till Death of Elizabeth. " 12 vols. Lond., 
1856-1869. Burnet, " History of Reformation of Church of England." 
2 vols. Lond., 1679. Blunt, " Reformation of the Church of England," 
4th ed. Lond., 1878. Strype, "Ecclesiastical Memorials." 3 vols. 
Lond., 1721. " Annals of the Reformation." 4 vols. 1709-1731. Foxe, 
"Acts and Monuments " (pub. a.d. 1563). 8 vols. Lond., 1837-1841. 

- Demaus, " Life of William Tyndal." London, 1868. Fry, "A 
Bibliographical Description of the Editions of the N.T., Tyndale's Ver- 
sion in English, etc., the notes in full of the Edition of 1534." L