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PostCard ... about 1920 ... Art Work of Umberto Brunelleschi (June 21, 1879 - February 16, 1949) was an Italian artist. He was born in Montemurlo, Italy, studied at the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence and moved to Paris in 1900 with Ardengo Soffici where he soon established himself as a printer, book illustrator, set and costume designer

Flickr Explore May 31, 2009 #417

 

Broom bush on top of Monteferrato.

 

bigger @ dubliner

Bindo Altoviti (1491-1557) of the House of Altoviti was one of the most influential papal bankers of his generation and a patron of the arts, cultivating close friendships with artists such as Cellini, Raphael, Michelangelo and Vasari.

His father was Antonio Altoviti, the papal Master of the Mint and his mother La Papessa Dianora Altoviti, niece of Giambattista Cabo. One of Bindo's direct descendants was Pope Clement XII.

 

Bindo Altoviti was born in 1491. Little is known about his youth or early education. As the Altoviti had blood ties with the houses of Cybo and Medici and alliances with the della Rovere, Pope Julius II (Guiliano della Rovere) became a mentor to Bindo, as he was to his later papal successors Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici) and Clemente VII (Giulio de' Medici).

Bindo was included among the young noblemen educated at the papal court where he was in attendance on the hostage Federico Gonzaga, the son of Isabella d’Este and future duke of Mantua. During those years he was also introduced to Bramante, Raphael, and Michelangelo.

 

At this time, the Altoviti family had strong Republican leanings. Bindo became known not for just being a dashing young aristocrat, who had more to his credit than good looks, but was possibly prepared to risk wealth and power for his ideals.

 

He married Fiammetta Soderini, niece of Piero Soderini, head of the Florentine government who had, together with his second chancellor Niccolò Machiavelli, unsuccessfully raised an army of national militia to defend Florence against the return of the Medici. However, remaining loyal to family,

 

Bindo's career flourished under Leo X and Clemente VII.

From the documents in the Vatican archives, it is possible to trace Bindo’s rise to prominence as a banker. Respected at the papal court, he contributed to the festivities of Leo X. He established partnerships with the Spinelli, Ricci, Pucci and Ruspoli, promoting the career of Bartolomeo Ruspoli, who was related to cardinal Niccolò Ardinghelli, an influential member of the Farnese faction and an intimate associate of Alessandro Farnese, future Pope Paul III.

 

After the death of his banking rival Agostino Chigi and the sack of Rome in 1527, only a few very solid banks had the capital to prevent economic chaos. Competing with fierce Genoese bankers and the Germans Fugger and Welser, the Strozzi, Salviati and Altoviti became the leading Florentine and Papal curia bankers, given the opportunity to participate in massive credit transactions, controlling an enlarging sphere of papal finance.

 

Bindo was appointed as Depository-General, the leading banker of the Papal States and chief commissioner for collecting taxes, mainly allocated for the reconstruction of St. Peter's Basilica. He gradually expanded and diversified his financial activities, established branches of the Altoviti Bank in foreign money markets such as France, the Netherlands and England. Among his clients were Duke Charles III of Savoy and King Henry II of France and by shrewd political and financial acumen he amassed one of the largest private fortunes in Italy.

 

His later life and wealth were centered on the Eternal City rather than Florence, but he still followed, and often intervened directly in, the political affairs of his Florentine home. The link was strong between the Altoviti and Strozzi families, dictated not only by kinship but also by political affiliation. He and wealthy businessman Filippo Strozzi the Younger financed the troops of Emperor Charles V and the siege of Florence in order to restore Medici rule.

Victorious in the Battle of Gavinana, Alessandro de' Medici, the illegitimate son of duke Lorenzo II de' Medici--though others believe he was in fact the son of Clement VII) and brother of Caterine de' Medici--became Duke of Florence and named Bindo as ducal counsel to public office.

 

After the death of his cousin and rival Ippolito de' Medici, Duke Alessandro had a falling-out with Filippo Strozzi, who had been, together with his wife Clarice de' Medici, the guardians of Catherine de' Medici after her father's death. Filippo Strozzi had conspired with Ippolito de' Medici to remove Alessandro from power.

 

When Alessandro was assassinated by Lorenzino de' Medici, Bindo found himself with a dilemma, torn between various family factions, political and financial interests. On one hand, he was the uncle of the assassin and gave Lorenzino money and advice how to escape, but on the other he was affiliated to the senior branch of the Medici. He chose to side with queen Catherine de' Medici (who was an enemy of her cousin Cosimo and had come to terms with Filippo Strozzi) and Paul III, whose grandson Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma married Margaret of Austria, the illegitimate daughter of Charles V and widow of Alessandro de' Medici.

 

In the wake of these events, Bindo became one of the leaders of the Florentine exiles in Rome. He provided major financial backing to the army of the Florentine exiles led by Filippo Strozzi. Defeated at the battle of Montemurlo, Filippo was captured, tortured and committed suicide in prison.

 

Nonetheless, the new duke, Cosimo I de' Medici and the banker could not remain at odds for long. Cosimo's aunts, Cassandra Altoviti and Maria de' Medici Soderini, who was Bindo's sister-in-law, advised them to reconcile and Cosimo turned to the Altoviti Bank for considerable sums of money. Cosimo, careful to consolidate the alliances of his recent power, appointed Bindo Florentine consul in Rome, later senator, moves which kept him out of Florence but in no way mitigated their once again rising mutual contempt.

 

Paul III and Bindo backed Giulio Cybo in Genoa and Filippo Strozzi's son Piero Strozzi, who like his father was no real champion of Florentine liberties but had his own ambitions to secure greater power for his family. During the war of Siena, Bindo fitted out five companies of three thousand infantry, captained by his son Giambattista Altoviti, to join the rebel army. After their defeat in the Battle of Marciano, Piero Strozzi fled to France to the court of Catherine de' Medici. Many members of the Strozzi and Soderini families were exiled, imprisoned or declared rebels. Cosimo declared Bindo a rebel and confiscated all his property in Tuscany, including Raphael's Madonna dell'Impannata, which he took for his private chapel in the Palazzo Pitti.

However, Bindo was still protected by his patrons Paul III and Pope Julius III. In fact, he was the recipient of many favors and able to develop a complex financial empire, centered on various papal enterprises, ultimately rising to become one of the most influential bankers of his generation. He continued to support the exiles and the royal House of Valois of France.

 

He gave a substantial loan to Catherine de' Medici's husband, King Henry II of France, hoping that the king would move against Florence, in the end he did not, because of his military commitments against England and Spain.

 

Bindo died in 1557, still confident of the liberation of Florence. With the hope of bringing his remains back to Florence, his family had erected a funeral monument in the church of Santi Apostoli, which remained vacant. Instead he was buried in the family chapel in the church of Santa Trinità dei Monte in Rome.

 

Patron of the arts

 

Like other Florentines who provided loans to the popes in exchange for the rights to papal revenues, Bindo prospered. He enjoyed the financial resources to undertake extensive renovations to the properties he inherited from his father and his suburban villa on the Tiber, and to indulge a growing passion for art. Known for, and endowed with, a strong taste for art, he became a patron of the arts and friend to Cellini, Raphael, Michelangelo and Vasari.

 

IMMORTALIZED IN THE PORTRAIT BY RAPHAEL, he gave sanctuary to Michelangelo when he fled from Florence to Rome. Michelangelo had such a high esteem for Bindo, while he despised his rival Agostino Chigi, that he gave him as a gift the cartoon of Noah's Blessing (lost), used for the fresco in the vault of the Sistine Chapel as well as a drawing of a Venus (lost) colored by Vasari. It was also Michelangelo who convinced Bindo not to rebuild, but to preserve, the Santi Apostoli church.

Vasari painted the Allegory of the Immaculate Conception for the family chapel. When in Rome, Vasari also used to stay at the Palazzo Altoviti where he frescoed the Triumph of Ceres. When the palazzo was demolished in order to create the Tiber's embankments, the frescos were removed and are now shown in the National Museum of Palazzo Venezia. For Bindo's suburban villa Vasari frescoed a vast loggia called the Vineyard, decorated with statues and burial marbles from Emperor Hadrian's Villa Adriana.

Andrea Sansovino also gave Bindo as a gift a terracotta model of the statue of St. James he sculpted for the Duomo in Florence.

 

Bindo's son Giovanni Battista Altoviti married Clarice Ridolfi, daughter of Lorenzo Ridolfi, grandson of Lorenzo il Magnifico di Mediciand Clarice Orsini, bringing about a reconciliation between the houses of Altoviti, Medici and Strozzi. This made it possible for Bindo's other son, Archbishop of Florence Antonio Altoviti, finally to live in his bishopric. Giovanni Battista himself remained a banker in Rome, was twice consul of the Nazione Fiorentina, and exercised, under Pius V, the offices of an apostolic general and the Depositario dell'Abbondanza.

Marietta Altoviti married Giambattista Strozzi, which also strengthened the linke between the houses of Strozzi and Medici. Their descendants became the Strozzi dukes of Bagnolo and princes of Forano, the Corsini princes of Sismano, dukes of Casigliano and Civitella, and most prominent Pope Clement XII.

Their granddaughter Lucrezia Maria Strozzi married Prince Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł, Voivode of Polock, Grand Marshal of Lithuania and member of the Radziwiłł family, magnates of Poland and Lithuania. Prince Anton Radziwiłł was the husband of Louise of Prussia. The couple were important patrons of the arts in Berlin during the 19th century. Their later heir Prince Stanisław Albrecht Radziwiłł was married to Caroline Lee Radziwill, sister of the late First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, and sister-in-law of President John F. Kennedy.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

 

-.-

 

The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was privately established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated a substantial art collection and funds for construction. The core collection includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Browne Widener, Joseph E. Widener, and Chester Dale. The Gallery's collection of paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, sculpture, medals, and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile created by Alexander Calder.

 

The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, which is linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, and the 6.1-acre (25,000 m2) Sculpture Garden. The Gallery often presents temporary special exhibitions spanning the world and the history of art. It is one of the largest museums in North America.

 

For the breadth, scope, and magnitude of its collections, the National Gallery is widely considered to be one of the greatest museums in the United States of America, often ranking alongside the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in Boston, Massachusetts. Of the top three art museums in the United States by annual visitors, it is the only one that has no admission fee. It ranks 2nd in American museums behind the Met for number of annual visitors and 10th in the world.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

  

For educational non-commercial use only (as to all photo's in my Flickr photostream).

 

Here you find a link to the website of the National Gallery of Art:

www.nga.gov/

 

WASHINGTON, D.C. - NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART - RAPHAEL (1483-1520) – BINDO ALTOVITI (c. 1515). SAMUEL H. KRESS COLLECTION ©Hans Ollermann.

 

PostCard ... about 1925 ... Art Work of Umberto Brunelleschi (June 21, 1879 - February 16, 1949) was an Italian artist. He was born in Montemurlo, Italy, studied at the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence and moved to Paris in 1900 with Ardengo Soffici where he soon established himself as a printer, book illustrator, set and costume designer

This statue follows the Classical Roman tradition of Equestrian statues as the monument to a ruler's power, evident from the Statue of Marcus Aurelius in ancient Rome and the Regisole in Ferrara, and continued in the Renaissance by examples such as Donatello's Statue of Gattamelata (1453) in Padua and Verrocchio's Statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni (1488) in Venice.

 

This monument was commissioned by Cosimo's son Ferdinando I from the sculptor Giambologna, who also completed the Rape of the Sabines in the adjacent Loggia dei Lanzi. The Cosimo statue stands in front of the north corner of the Palazzo della Signoria, the northernmost of the row of statues, adjacent to the Fountain of Neptune (1563) by Ammannati, that had been commissioned by Cosimo himself. Together this duo celebrates the land and sea ambitions of Cosimo. The base of the statue has reliefs with scenes from the life of Cosimo, including his coronation in Rome as Grand-Duke in 1570 and his entrance into Siena as a ruler (1557) after his victory over that republic.

 

The posture of the trotting horse in this statue is similar to those of prior statues, with right leg raised, however unlike Marcus Aurelius, Cosimo uses stirrups and his horse shows the restraint of the bridle, albeit without much tension. Cosimo, like Gattemalata, holds a military baton, armor, and sheathed sword.

Some sources state the man and horse were cast separately, and the combined weight of the two was 23 thousand pounds. A few decades hence, Ferdinando I would have his own Equestrian monument in Piazza dell'Annunziata.

 

Cosimo I de' Medici (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Rise to power

Cosimo was born in Florence, on 12 June 1519, the son of the famous condottiere Giovanni dalle Bande Nere from Forlì and Maria Salviati. He was the grandson of Caterina Sforza, the Countess of Forlì and Lady of Imola. Cosimo came to power at 17, when the 26-year-old Duke, Alessandro de' Medici, was assassinated in 1537, as Alessandro's only male child was illegitimate. Cosimo was from a different branch of the family, and so far had lived in Mugello, and was almost unknown in Florence. However, many of the influential men in the city favoured him. Several hoped to rule through him, thereby enriching themselves at the state's expense. However, as Benedetto Varchi famously put it "The innkeeper's reckoning was different from the glutton's". Cosimo proved strong-willed, astute and ambitious, and soon rejected the clause he had signed, which entrusted much of the power to a council of Forty-Eight.

 

When the Florentine exiles heard of the death of Alessandro, they marshalled their forces with support from France and from disgruntled neighbors of Florence. During this time, Cosimo had an illegitimate daughter, Bia (1537 – 1542), who was portrayed shortly before her premature death in a marvelous painting by Bronzino.

Toward the end of July 1537, the exiles marched into Tuscany under the leadership of Bernardo Salviati and Piero Strozzi. When Cosimo heard of their approach, he sent his best troops under Alessandro Vitelli to engage the enemy, which they did at Montemurlo, a fortress that belonged to the Nerli. After defeating the exiles' army, Vitelli stormed the fortress, where Strozzi and a few of his companions had retreated to safety. It fell after only a few hours, and Cosimo celebrated his first victory. The prominent prisoners were subsequently beheaded on the Piazza or in the Bargello. Filippo Strozzi's body was found with a bloody sword next to it and a note quoting Virgil, but many believe that his suicide was faked.

Rule of Tuscany

In June 1537 Cosimo had sent Bernardo Antonio de' Medici to Charles V to gain his recognition as head of the Florentine state. That recognition came in June 1537, in exchange for help against France in the course of the Italian Wars. With this move Cosimo firmly restored the power of the Medici, who thereafter ruled Florence until the death of the last of the Medici, Gian Gastone de' Medici, in 1737. The help granted to Charles V allowed him to free Tuscany from the Imperial garrisons, and to increase as much as possible its independence from the overwhelming Spanish influence in Italy.

Cosimo next turned on Siena. With the support of the Emperor, he defeated the Sienese at the Battle of Marciano (1554), and laid siege to Siena. Despite the inhabitants' desperate resistance, on 17 April 1555, after a 15-month siege, the city fell, its population diminished from forty thousand to eight thousand. In 1559 Montalcino, the last redoubt of Sienese independence, was annexed to Cosimo's territories. In 1569, Pope Pius V elevated him to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany.

In the last 10 years of his reign, struck by the death of two of his sons by malaria, Cosimo gave up the active rule to his son and successor Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He retreated to live in his villa, Villa di Castello, outside Florence.

Statesmanship

Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548 he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence, assassinated in Venice.

Cosimo also was an active builder of military structures, in an attempt to save his state from the frequent passage of foreign armies (examples are the new fortresses of Siena, Arezzo, Sansepolcro, the new walls of Pisa and Fivizzano, and the strongholds of Portoferraio, on the island of Elba, and Terra del Sole).

He laid heavy tax burdens on his subjects. Despite his economic difficulties, he was a lavish patron of the arts and also developed the Florentine navy, which eventually took part in the Battle of Lepanto, and which he entrusted to his new creation, the military Order of St. Stephen.

Patronage of the arts

Cosimo is perhaps best known today for the creation of the Uffizi ("offices"). Originally intended as a means of consolidating his administrative control of the various committees, agencies, and guilds established in Florence's Republican past, it now houses one of the world's most important collections of art, much of it commissioned and/or owned by various Medici.

 

His gardens at Villa di Castello, designed by Niccolò Tribolo when Cosimo was only seventeen years old, were designed to announce a new golden age for Florence, and to express the magnificence and virtues of the Medici. They were decorated with fountains, a labyrinth, a grotto and ingenious ornamental water features, and were a prototype for the Italian Renaissance garden. They had a profound influence on later Italian and French gardens through the eighteenth century.

He also finished the Pitti Palace as a home for the Medici and created the magnificent Boboli Gardens behind the Pitti. As his more prominent ancestors had been, he was also an important patron of the arts, supporting, among others, Vasari, Cellini, Pontormo, Bronzino, the architect Baldassarre Lanci, and the historians Scipione Ammirato and Benedetto Varchi.

A large bronze equestrian statue of Cosimo I by Giambologna, erected in 1598, still stands today in the Piazza della Signoria, the main square of Florence.

Cosimo was also an enthusiast of alchemy, a passion he had inherited from his grandmother Caterina Sforza.

Marriage and family

In 1539, he married Eleonora di Toledo (1522 – 1562), the daughter of Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Her face is still familiar to many because of her solemn and distant portraits by Agnolo Bronzino. The most famous of them, with her son Giovanni, hangs in the Uffizi Gallery. She provided the Medici with the Pitti Palace and seven sons to ensure male succession and four daughters to connect the Medici with noble and ruling houses in Italy. She was a patron of the new Jesuit order, and her private chapel in the Palazzo Vecchio was decorated by Bronzino, who had originally arrived in Florence to provide festive decor for her wedding. She died, with her sons Giovanni and Garzia, in 1562, when she was only forty; all three of them were struck down by malaria while traveling to Pisa.

Before his first marriage, Cosimo fathered an illegitimate daughter with an unknown woman:

 

•Bia de' Medici (ca. 1536 – March 1, 1542)

With Eleonora, Cosimo fathered eleven children:

•Maria (April 3, 1540 – November 19, 1557)

Engaged to Alfonso di Ercole II d'Este, but died before the marriage

•Francesco (March 25, 1541 – October 19, 1587)

Cosimo's successor as Grand Duke of Tuscany

•Isabella (31 August 1542 – 16 July 1576)

was murdered by her husband Paolo Giordano I Orsini because of infidelity

•Giovanni (28 September 1543 – November 1562)

became Bishop of Pisa and cardinal

•Lucrezia (7 June 1545 – 21 April 1561)

in 1560 married of Alfonso II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara and Modena

•Pietro (Pedricco) (10 August 1546 – 10 June 1547)

died aged one

•Garzia (5 July 1547 – 12 December 1562)

died of malaria aged 15

•Antonio (July 1, 1548 – July 1548)

died in infancy

•Ferdinando (30 July 1549 – 17 February 1609)

Francesco's successor as Grand Duke of Tuscany

•Anna (19 March 1553 – 6 August 1553)

died in infancy

•Pietro (3 June 1554 – 25 April 1604)

murdered his wife Eleonora di Garzia di Toledo because of infidelity

After Eleonora's death in 1562, Cosimo fathered two children with his mistress Eleonora degli Albrizzi:

•unnamed daughter (born and died 1566)

died before baptism

•Giovanni (1567 – 1621)

later legitimized by his father

In 1570, Cosimo married Camilla Martelli (died 1590) and fathered one child with her:[7]

•Virginia (29 May 1568 – 15 January 1615)

married Cesare d'Este, Duke of Modena

  

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

 

PostCard ... about 1920 ... Art Work of Umberto Brunelleschi (June 21, 1879 - February 16, 1949) was an Italian artist. He was born in Montemurlo, Italy, studied at the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence and moved to Paris in 1900 with Ardengo Soffici where he soon established himself as a printer, book illustrator, set and costume designer

Taken shortly after having my 18-200mm lens cleaned this afternoon. There were only 2 small specks in the sky to clone out after the operation compared to at least 15 on yesterdays post.

 

View On Black

Europe 2018 (day 5), August 19, 2018.

Firenze / Florence.

Colonna della Giustizia / Column of Justice (also known as Colonna di Santa Trinita or Colonna della Battaglia di Montemurlo), Piazza Santa Trinita.

 

©2018 - Lewis Brian Day. All rights reserved.

Not to be reproduced in any format or via any platform without express written permission.

Copyright protection asserted.

 

00402 - Montemurlo-Prato-Toscana

Rocca di Montemurlo.

 

Project 2010 - 12 Emotions in 12 shots: #1/12 : "Rassegnazione" (Resignation)

 

Pega's photography blog @ www.pegaphoto.com

00386 - Panoramica di Montemurlo-Prato-Toscana

Glaucopsyche alexis - Albiano (Montemurlo)

Photo taken in Albiano (Montemurlo)

Sabato 19 dicembre. Il Loto bianco.

Sympetrum sanguineum - Photo taken in Albiano (Montemurlo)

Duke and later Grand Duke of Tuscany

Villa at Castello 1519 - 1574

   

The son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere and Maria Salviati, who was also grand-daughter of Lorenzo the Magnificent, Cosimo was to finally reunite the blood of both branches of the family. He was placed in power immediately after the assassination of Duke Alessandro by the magnates of the city (Filippo Strozzi, Niccolò Acciaiuoli, Baccio Valori and Francesco Guicciardini, who perhaps hoped he would marry his daughter Lisabetta), who obviously thought that they would be able to condition this nineteen year old boy, who had been brought up in the country, as they wished. They were quite wrong: Cosimo soon showed his true temperament and, with an able strategem, managed to concentrate all the power in his own hands. Led by the Strozzi family, his opponents took up arms against him but were beaten at the battle of Montemurlo on July 31st 1537.

Having ensured his throne, Cosimo re-established law and order within the State, promoting justice and protecting the weaker members of the community. He encouraged the growth of trade and industry, started to reclaim the swampy land of the Maremma, founded the Order of the Knights of St. Stephen to ward off the threat of the Barbary pirates and organized a Tuscan militia so as not to have to call in mercenary troops.

   

Equestrian statue - Piazza Signoria

 

In 1539 he married the beautiful and extremely rich daughter of the Viceroy of Naples, Eleonora of Toledo, who gave him eleven children and the royal palace at Pitti (she died with her sons Giovanni and Garzia in 1562, when she was only forty; all three of them struck down by malarial fever while travelling to Pisa).

Meanwhile Giorgio Vasari designed the Uffizi and transformed Palazzo Vecchio (the seat of the government and initially also the home of the Ducal family) with decorations that celebrated the sovereign and his house, Benvenuto Cellini cast his Perseus (1545-54) and Ammannati built the new Bridge at Santa Trinita (1566), after the flood of 1557 had swept the old one away. A new fever for art and building invaded the entire city.

Thanks to the support of the Empire, Cosimo later managed to conquer Siena and, after having come close to being offered the crown by the Corsi family in 1567, he was finally given the long desired title of Grand Duke (1569) by Pope Pius V and later by the Emperor Maximilian II, which gave him kingly rights; he also managed to arrange an Imperial marriage for his eldest son Francesco, uniting him with Joan of Austria, the Emperor's sister. Thus the Medici became one of the great European dynasties.

Cosimo (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.

 

Rise to power.

 

Cosimo was born in Florence, on June 12, 1519, the son of the famous condottieri Giovanni dalle Bande Nere from Forlì and Maria Salviati. Cosimo came to power at 17, when the 26-year-old Duke, Alessandro de' Medici, was assassinated in 1537, as Alessandro's only male child was illegitimate. Cosimo was from a different branch of the family, and so far had lived in Mugello, and was almost unknown in Florence: however, many of the influential men in the city favored him, several of them hoping to rule through him and thereby enrich themselves at the state's expense. However, as Benedetto Varchi famously put it "The innkeeper's reckoning was different from the glutton's." Cosimo proved strong-willed, astute and ambitious, and soon rejected the clause he had signed, which entrusted much of the power to a council of Forty-Eight.

When the Florentine exiles heard of the death of Alessandro, they marshalled their forces with support from France and from disgruntled neighbors of Florence. During this time, Cosimo had an illegitimate daughter, Bia (1537 – 1542), who was portrayed shortly before her premature death in a marvelous painting by Bronzino.

Toward the end of July 1537, the exiles marched into Tuscany under the leadership of Bernardo Salviati and Piero Strozzi. When Cosimo heard of their approach, he sent his best troops under Alessandro Vitelli to engage the enemy, which they did at Montemurlo, a fortress that belonged to the Nerli. After defeating the exiles' army, Vitelli stormed the fortress, where Strozzi and a few of his companions had retreated to safety. It fell after only a few hours, and Cosimo celebrated his first victory. The prominent prisoners were subsequently beheaded on the Piazza or in the Bargello. Filippo Strozzi's body was found with a bloody sword next to it and a note quoting Virgil, but many believe that his suicide was faked.

 

Rule of Tuscany.

 

In June 1537 Cosimo was recognized as head of the Florentine state by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, in exchange for help against France in the course of the Italian Wars. With this move he firmly restored the power of the Medici, who thereafter ruled Florence until the death of the last of the Medici, Gian Gastone de' Medici, in 1737. The help granted to Charles V allowed him to free Tuscany from the Imperial garrisons, and to increase as much as possible its independence from the overwhelming Spanish influence in Italy.

Cosimo next turned on Siena. With the support of the Emperor, he defeated the Sienese at the Battle of Marciano (1554), and laid siege to Siena. Despite the inhabitants' desperate resistance, on April 17, 1555, after a 15-month siege, the city fell, its population diminished from forty thousand to eight thousand. In 1559 Montalcino, the last redoubt of Sienese independence, was annexed to Cosimo's territories. In 1569, Pope Pius V elevated him to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany.

In the last 10 years of his reign, struck by the death of two of his sons by malaria, Cosimo gave up the active rule to his son and successor Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He retreated to live in his villa, Villa di Castello, outside Florence.

 

Statesmanship.

 

Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548 he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence, assassinated in Venice.

Cosimo also was an active builder of military structures, in an attempt to save his state from the frequent passage of foreign armies (examples are the new fortresses of Siena, Arezzo, Sansepolcro, the new walls of Pisa and Fivizzano, and the strongholds of Portoferraio, on the island of Elba, and Terra del Sole).

He laid heavy tax burdens on his subjects. Despite his economic difficulties, he was a lavish patron of the arts and also developed the Florentine navy, which eventually took part in the Battle of Lepanto, and which he entrusted to his new creation, the military Order of St. Stephen.

 

Patronage of the arts.

 

Cosimo is perhaps best known today for the creation of the Uffizi ("offices"). Originally intended as a means of consolidating his administrative control of the various committees, agencies, and guilds established in Florence's Republican past, it now houses one of the world's most important collections of art, much of it commissioned and/or owned by various Medici.

His gardens at Villa di Castello, designed by Niccolo Tribolo when Cosimo was only seventeen years old, were designed to announce a new golden age for Florence, and to express the magnificence and virtues of the Medici. They were decorated with fountains, a labyrinth, a grotto and ingenious "water jokes," and were a prototype for the Italian Renaissance garden. They had a profound influence on later Italian and French gardens through the eighteenth century.

He also finished the Pitti Palace as a home for the Medici and created the magnificent Boboli Gardens behind the Pitti. As his more prominent ancestors had been, he was also an important patron of the arts, supporting, among others, Vasari, Cellini, Pontormo, Bronzino, the architect Lanci, and the historians Scipione Ammirato and Benedetto Varchi.

A large bronze equestrian statue of Cosimo I by Giambologna, erected in 1598, still stands today in the Piazza della Signoria, the main square of Florence.

Cosimo was also an enthusiast of alchemy, a passion he had inherited from his grandmother Caterina Sforza.

 

Marriage and family.

 

In 1539, he married Eleonora di Toledo (1522 – 1562), the daughter of Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Her face is still familiar to many because of her solemn and distant portraits by Agnolo Bronzino. The most famous of them, with her son Giovanni, hangs in the Uffizi Gallery. She provided the Medici with the Pitti Palace and seven sons to ensure male succession and four daughters to connect the Medici with noble and ruling houses in Italy. She was a patron of the new Jesuit order, and her private chapel in the Palazzo Vecchio was decorated by Bronzino, who had originally arrived in Florence to provide festive decor for her wedding. She died, with her sons Giovanni and Garzia, in 1562, when she was only forty; all three of them were struck down by malaria while traveling to Pisa.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

 

fine Art PostCard from about 1912 ~ Art Work of Umberto Brunelleschi (21 June 1879 - 16 February 1949) was an Italian artist. He was born in Montemurlo[citation needed], Italy, studied at the Accademia delle Belle Arti[citation needed] in Florence and moved to Paris in 1900 with Ardengo Soffici where he soon established himself as a printer, book illustrator, set and costume designer

Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis - Photo taken in Albiano (Montemurlo)

Photo taken in Albiano, Montemurlo.

 

Cosimo (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.

 

Rise to power.

 

Cosimo was born in Florence, on June 12, 1519, the son of the famous condottieri Giovanni dalle Bande Nere from Forlì and Maria Salviati. Cosimo came to power at 17, when the 26-year-old Duke, Alessandro de' Medici, was assassinated in 1537, as Alessandro's only male child was illegitimate. Cosimo was from a different branch of the family, and so far had lived in Mugello, and was almost unknown in Florence: however, many of the influential men in the city favored him, several of them hoping to rule through him and thereby enrich themselves at the state's expense. However, as Benedetto Varchi famously put it "The innkeeper's reckoning was different from the glutton's." Cosimo proved strong-willed, astute and ambitious, and soon rejected the clause he had signed, which entrusted much of the power to a council of Forty-Eight.

When the Florentine exiles heard of the death of Alessandro, they marshalled their forces with support from France and from disgruntled neighbors of Florence. During this time, Cosimo had an illegitimate daughter, Bia (1537 – 1542), who was portrayed shortly before her premature death in a marvelous painting by Bronzino.

Toward the end of July 1537, the exiles marched into Tuscany under the leadership of Bernardo Salviati and Piero Strozzi. When Cosimo heard of their approach, he sent his best troops under Alessandro Vitelli to engage the enemy, which they did at Montemurlo, a fortress that belonged to the Nerli. After defeating the exiles' army, Vitelli stormed the fortress, where Strozzi and a few of his companions had retreated to safety. It fell after only a few hours, and Cosimo celebrated his first victory. The prominent prisoners were subsequently beheaded on the Piazza or in the Bargello. Filippo Strozzi's body was found with a bloody sword next to it and a note quoting Virgil, but many believe that his suicide was faked.

 

Rule of Tuscany.

 

In June 1537 Cosimo was recognized as head of the Florentine state by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, in exchange for help against France in the course of the Italian Wars. With this move he firmly restored the power of the Medici, who thereafter ruled Florence until the death of the last of the Medici, Gian Gastone de' Medici, in 1737. The help granted to Charles V allowed him to free Tuscany from the Imperial garrisons, and to increase as much as possible its independence from the overwhelming Spanish influence in Italy.

Cosimo next turned on Siena. With the support of the Emperor, he defeated the Sienese at the Battle of Marciano (1554), and laid siege to Siena. Despite the inhabitants' desperate resistance, on April 17, 1555, after a 15-month siege, the city fell, its population diminished from forty thousand to eight thousand. In 1559 Montalcino, the last redoubt of Sienese independence, was annexed to Cosimo's territories. In 1569, Pope Pius V elevated him to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany.

In the last 10 years of his reign, struck by the death of two of his sons by malaria, Cosimo gave up the active rule to his son and successor Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He retreated to live in his villa, Villa di Castello, outside Florence.

 

Statesmanship.

 

Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548 he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence, assassinated in Venice.

Cosimo also was an active builder of military structures, in an attempt to save his state from the frequent passage of foreign armies (examples are the new fortresses of Siena, Arezzo, Sansepolcro, the new walls of Pisa and Fivizzano, and the strongholds of Portoferraio, on the island of Elba, and Terra del Sole).

He laid heavy tax burdens on his subjects. Despite his economic difficulties, he was a lavish patron of the arts and also developed the Florentine navy, which eventually took part in the Battle of Lepanto, and which he entrusted to his new creation, the military Order of St. Stephen.

 

Patronage of the arts.

 

Cosimo is perhaps best known today for the creation of the Uffizi ("offices"). Originally intended as a means of consolidating his administrative control of the various committees, agencies, and guilds established in Florence's Republican past, it now houses one of the world's most important collections of art, much of it commissioned and/or owned by various Medici.

His gardens at Villa di Castello, designed by Niccolo Tribolo when Cosimo was only seventeen years old, were designed to announce a new golden age for Florence, and to express the magnificence and virtues of the Medici. They were decorated with fountains, a labyrinth, a grotto and ingenious "water jokes," and were a prototype for the Italian Renaissance garden. They had a profound influence on later Italian and French gardens through the eighteenth century.

He also finished the Pitti Palace as a home for the Medici and created the magnificent Boboli Gardens behind the Pitti. As his more prominent ancestors had been, he was also an important patron of the arts, supporting, among others, Vasari, Cellini, Pontormo, Bronzino, the architect Lanci, and the historians Scipione Ammirato and Benedetto Varchi.

A large bronze equestrian statue of Cosimo I by Giambologna, erected in 1598, still stands today in the Piazza della Signoria, the main square of Florence.

Cosimo was also an enthusiast of alchemy, a passion he had inherited from his grandmother Caterina Sforza.

 

Marriage and family.

 

In 1539, he married Eleonora di Toledo (1522 – 1562), the daughter of Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Her face is still familiar to many because of her solemn and distant portraits by Agnolo Bronzino. The most famous of them, with her son Giovanni, hangs in the Uffizi Gallery. She provided the Medici with the Pitti Palace and seven sons to ensure male succession and four daughters to connect the Medici with noble and ruling houses in Italy. She was a patron of the new Jesuit order, and her private chapel in the Palazzo Vecchio was decorated by Bronzino, who had originally arrived in Florence to provide festive decor for her wedding. She died, with her sons Giovanni and Garzia, in 1562, when she was only forty; all three of them were struck down by malaria while traveling to Pisa.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

  

Agnolo di Cosimo (November 17, 1503 – November 23, 1572), usually known as Bronzino or Agnolo Bronzino, was a Florentine Mannerist painter.

He lived all his life in Florence, and from his late 30s was kept busy as the court painter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was mainly a portraitist but also painted many religious subjects, and a few allegorical subjects, which include what is probably his best known work, Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, c. 1544–45, now in London. Many portraits of the Medicis exist in several versions with varying degrees of participation by Bronzino himself, as Cosimo was a pioneer of the copied portrait sent as a diplomatic gift.

 

He trained with Pontormo, the leading Florentine painter of the first generation of Mannerism, and his style was greatly influenced by him, but his elegant and somewhat elongated figures always appear calm and somewhat reserved, lacking the agitation and emotion of those by his teacher. They have often been found cold and artificial, and his reputation suffered from the general critical disfavour attached to Mannerism in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Recent decades have been more appreciative of his art.

 

Bronzino was born in Florence, the son of a butcher. According to his contemporary Vasari, Bronzino was a pupil first of Raffaellino del Garbo, and then of Pontormo, to whom he was apprenticed at 14. Pontormo is thought to have introduced a portrait of Bronzino as a child (seated on a step) into one of his series on Joseph in Egypt now in the National Gallery, London. Pontormo exercised a dominant influence on Bronzino's developing style, and the two were to remain collaborators for most of the former's life. An early example of Bronzino's hand has often been detected in the Capponi Chapel in the church of Santa Felicita by the Ponte Vecchio in Florence. Pontormo designed the interior and executed the altarpiece, the masterly Deposition from the Cross and the sidewall fresco Annunciation. Bronzino apparently was assigned the frescoes on the dome, which have not survived. Of the four empanelled tondi or roundels depicting each of the evangelists, two were said by Vasari to have been painted by Bronzino. His style is so similar to his master's that scholars still debate the specific attributions.

 

Towards the end of his life, Bronzino took a prominent part in the activities of the Florentine Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, of which he was a founding member in 1563.

 

The painter Alessandro Allori was his favourite pupil, and Bronzino was living in the Allori family house at the time of his death in Florence in 1572 (Alessandro was also the father of Cristofano Allori). Bronzino spent the majority of his career in Florence.

 

Bronzino first received Medici patronage in 1539, when he was one of the many artists chosen to execute the elaborate decorations for the wedding of Cosimo I de' Medici to Eleonora di Toledo, daughter of the Viceroy of Naples. It was not long before he became, and remained for most of his career, the official court painter of the Duke and his court. His portrait figures—often read as static, elegant, and stylish exemplars of unemotional haughtiness and assurance—influenced the course of European court portraiture for a century. These well known paintings exist in many workshop versions and copies. In addition to images of the Florentine elite, Bronzino also painted idealized portraits of the poets Dante (c. 1530, now in Washington, DC) and Petrarch.

 

Bronzino's best known works comprise the aforementioned series of the duke and duchess, Cosimo and Eleonora, and figures of their court such as Bartolomeo Panciatichi and his wife Lucrezia. These paintings, especially those of the duchess, are known for their minute attention to the detail of her costume, which almost takes on a personality of its own in the image at right. Bronzino painted the Duchess also with her second son Giovanni, who died of malaria in 1562, along with his mother; however it is the sumptuous fabric of the dress that takes up more space on the canvas than either of the sitters. Indeed, the dress itself has been the object of some scholarly debate. The elaborate gown has been rumored to be so beloved by the duchess that she was ultimately buried in it; when this myth was debunked, others suggested that perhaps the garment never existed at all and Bronzino invented the entire thing, perhaps working only from a fabric swatch. In any case, the picture was reproduced over and over by Bronzino and his shop, becoming one of the most iconic images of the duchess. The version pictured here is in the Uffizi Gallery, and is one of the finest surviving examples.

 

Bronzino's so-called "allegorical portraits", such as that of a Genoese admiral, Portrait of Andrea Doria as Neptune, are less typical but possibly even more fascinating due to the peculiarity of placing a publicly recognized personality in the nude as a mythical figure. Finally, in addition to being a painter, Bronzino was also a poet, and his most personal portraits are perhaps those of other literary figures such as that of his friend the poet Laura Battiferri.

  

In 1540/41, Bronzino began work on the fresco decoration of the Chapel of Eleanora di Toledo in the Palazzo Vecchio and an oil on panel for this chapel. Before this painting his style in the religious genre was less Mannerist, and was based in balanced compositions of the High Renaissance. Yet he became elegant in this fresco cycle, and his religious works are examples of the mid-16th-century aesthetics of the Florentine court—traditionally interpreted as highly stylized and non-personal or emotive. Crossing the Red Sea is typical of Bronzino's approach at this time, though it should not be claimed that Bronzino or the court was lacking in religious fervor on the basis of the preferred court fashion. The duchess Eleanora was a generous patron to the recently founded Jesuit order.

 

Bronzino's work tends to include sophisticated references to earlier painters, as in one of his last grand frescoes called The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (San Lorenzo, 1569), in which almost every one of the extraordinarily contorted poses can be traced back to Raphael or to Michelangelo.

Many of Bronzino's works are still in Florence but other examples can be found in the National Gallery, London, and elsewhere.

 

Wikipedia Encyclopedia

 

c. 1545.

We see here Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

 

Cosimo (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.

 

Rise to power.

 

Cosimo was born in Florence, on June 12, 1519, the son of the famous condottieri Giovanni dalle Bande Nere from Forlì and Maria Salviati. Cosimo came to power at 17, when the 26-year-old Duke, Alessandro de' Medici, was assassinated in 1537, as Alessandro's only male child was illegitimate. Cosimo was from a different branch of the family, and so far had lived in Mugello, and was almost unknown in Florence: however, many of the influential men in the city favored him, several of them hoping to rule through him and thereby enrich themselves at the state's expense. However, as Benedetto Varchi famously put it "The innkeeper's reckoning was different from the glutton's." Cosimo proved strong-willed, astute and ambitious, and soon rejected the clause he had signed, which entrusted much of the power to a council of Forty-Eight.

When the Florentine exiles heard of the death of Alessandro, they marshalled their forces with support from France and from disgruntled neighbors of Florence. During this time, Cosimo had an illegitimate daughter, Bia (1537 – 1542), who was portrayed shortly before her premature death in a marvelous painting by Bronzino.

Toward the end of July 1537, the exiles marched into Tuscany under the leadership of Bernardo Salviati and Piero Strozzi. When Cosimo heard of their approach, he sent his best troops under Alessandro Vitelli to engage the enemy, which they did at Montemurlo, a fortress that belonged to the Nerli. After defeating the exiles' army, Vitelli stormed the fortress, where Strozzi and a few of his companions had retreated to safety. It fell after only a few hours, and Cosimo celebrated his first victory. The prominent prisoners were subsequently beheaded on the Piazza or in the Bargello. Filippo Strozzi's body was found with a bloody sword next to it and a note quoting Virgil, but many believe that his suicide was faked.

 

Rule of Tuscany.

 

In June 1537 Cosimo was recognized as head of the Florentine state by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, in exchange for help against France in the course of the Italian Wars. With this move he firmly restored the power of the Medici, who thereafter ruled Florence until the death of the last of the Medici, Gian Gastone de' Medici, in 1737. The help granted to Charles V allowed him to free Tuscany from the Imperial garrisons, and to increase as much as possible its independence from the overwhelming Spanish influence in Italy.

Cosimo next turned on Siena. With the support of the Emperor, he defeated the Sienese at the Battle of Marciano (1554), and laid siege to Siena. Despite the inhabitants' desperate resistance, on April 17, 1555, after a 15-month siege, the city fell, its population diminished from forty thousand to eight thousand. In 1559 Montalcino, the last redoubt of Sienese independence, was annexed to Cosimo's territories. In 1569, Pope Pius V elevated him to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany.

In the last 10 years of his reign, struck by the death of two of his sons by malaria, Cosimo gave up the active rule to his son and successor Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He retreated to live in his villa, Villa di Castello, outside Florence.

 

Statesmanship.

 

Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548 he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence, assassinated in Venice.

Cosimo also was an active builder of military structures, in an attempt to save his state from the frequent passage of foreign armies (examples are the new fortresses of Siena, Arezzo, Sansepolcro, the new walls of Pisa and Fivizzano, and the strongholds of Portoferraio, on the island of Elba, and Terra del Sole).

He laid heavy tax burdens on his subjects. Despite his economic difficulties, he was a lavish patron of the arts and also developed the Florentine navy, which eventually took part in the Battle of Lepanto, and which he entrusted to his new creation, the military Order of St. Stephen.

 

Patronage of the arts.

 

Cosimo is perhaps best known today for the creation of the Uffizi ("offices"). Originally intended as a means of consolidating his administrative control of the various committees, agencies, and guilds established in Florence's Republican past, it now houses one of the world's most important collections of art, much of it commissioned and/or owned by various Medici.

His gardens at Villa di Castello, designed by Niccolo Tribolo when Cosimo was only seventeen years old, were designed to announce a new golden age for Florence, and to express the magnificence and virtues of the Medici. They were decorated with fountains, a labyrinth, a grotto and ingenious "water jokes," and were a prototype for the Italian Renaissance garden. They had a profound influence on later Italian and French gardens through the eighteenth century.

He also finished the Pitti Palace as a home for the Medici and created the magnificent Boboli Gardens behind the Pitti. As his more prominent ancestors had been, he was also an important patron of the arts, supporting, among others, Vasari, Cellini, Pontormo, Bronzino, the architect Lanci, and the historians Scipione Ammirato and Benedetto Varchi.

A large bronze equestrian statue of Cosimo I by Giambologna, erected in 1598, still stands today in the Piazza della Signoria, the main square of Florence.

Cosimo was also an enthusiast of alchemy, a passion he had inherited from his grandmother Caterina Sforza.

 

Marriage and family.

 

In 1539, he married Eleonora di Toledo (1522 – 1562), the daughter of Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Her face is still familiar to many because of her solemn and distant portraits by Agnolo Bronzino. The most famous of them, with her son Giovanni, hangs in the Uffizi Gallery. She provided the Medici with the Pitti Palace and seven sons to ensure male succession and four daughters to connect the Medici with noble and ruling houses in Italy. She was a patron of the new Jesuit order, and her private chapel in the Palazzo Vecchio was decorated by Bronzino, who had originally arrived in Florence to provide festive decor for her wedding. She died, with her sons Giovanni and Garzia, in 1562, when she was only forty; all three of them were struck down by malaria while traveling to Pisa.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

  

From the Gonzaga Collection.

Acquired by Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza in 1975.

MUSEO THYSSEN-BORNEMISZA, MADRID.

 

Here you find a link to the website of the Museum:

www.museothyssen.org/en/thyssen/home

 

Francesco Granacci (1469 – 30 November 1543) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance.

 

Born at Villamagna di Volterra, he trained in Florence in the studio of Domenico Ghirlandaio, and was employed painting frescoes for San Marco on commission of Lorenzo de'Medici. He is featured in Giorgio Vasari's Vite.

His early works, such as the Enthroned Madonna between Saint Michael and John the Baptist (Staatliche Museen, Berlin), Adoration of the Child (Honolulu Museum of Art) and four histories of Saint John the Baptist, were influenced by the style of Filippino Lippi.

In 1508, Granacci went to Rome, where he and other artists helped his lifelong friend Michelangelo to transfer cartoons (two-dimensional drawings) to the Sistine chapel ceiling. Returning to Florence, Granacci painted a Madonna with Child with Saints Francesco and Jerome for the Augustinian convent of San Gallo (now in the Gallery of the Academy), a Madonna della Cintola for the Company of San Benedetto Bigi, and in 1515, he participated in creating the decorations to celebrate the visit to Florence of Pope Leo X.

In 1519, he painted a Madonna with Child and Saint John. Works of the years 1520–1525 betray a direct influence of Fra Bartolomeo, including a Madonna Enthroned between Saints Sebastiano and Francesco for Castelfiorentino and a Sacred Conversation for Montemurlo. An altarpiece of the Assumption is influenced by Pietro Perugino. In 1527, Granacci painted the Entry of Charles VIII into Florence and a canvas of the Ten thousand martyrs for the Church of San Simone e Giuda in Florence.

Granacci is buried in the church of Sant'Ambrogio in Florence.

 

Holst, Christian von, Francesco Granacci, Bruckmann, München, 1974

Concerto The Word, giardino villa Giamari, Montemurlo

Concerto The Word, giardino villa Giamari, Montemurlo

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