10,000 Famous Freemasons | Freemasonry | Masonic Lodge
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Note: Phoenixmasonry is proud to present the below optically scanned

version of

William R. Denslow's "10,000 Famous Freemasons." This scan was

made by Ralph

W. Omholt, PM and is available exclusively at Phoenixmasonry.

This very rare and long out of print biographical work is a must for any

Mason with a desire for Masonic research.

10,000 FAMOUS


Volume I
A- D

Foreword by
HA RR Y S. T RU MA N, P .G .M .
Past Master, Missouri Lodge of Research

Published by
Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc.
Richmond, Virginia
Copyright, I957, William R. Denslow


Harry S Truman, PGM, Grand Lodge of Missouri

It is a great pleasure and satisfaction to me that the Missouri
Lodge of Research is to publish four volumes containing the biographies
of ten thousand or more Freemasons who have contributed to the
history of the Free World.

We know that research is the most important step in the study of

history. Comprehensive and accurate information must be available for
those who would interpret trends in world happenings.

History is made by men. It is therefore necessary to know about

the men who have made history. In the study of the past we must know
the motives that inspired men who made history. Events and dates are
of no value unless we can discover what caused those events at the
dates stated in what passes for history.

Plutarch in Roman times and Abbott in recent times wrote

biographies of great men. Thousands of words about the subjects of
these biographies have been written by other famous men—
Shakespeare, for instance, and Milton and Emerson and Toynbee.

Perhaps these Masonic biographies will cause future historians,

authors and playwrights to appreciate what has been done since these
great books were written. Then people of future generations will have a
fair basis for the evaluation of our times.


Past Master

Missouri Lodge of Research

Independence, Missouri

December 9, 1957

This is the first of four projected volumes entitled 10,000 Famous

Freemasons, a much needed Masonic research project, sponsored by
the Missouri Lodge of Research.

Perhaps the title is misleading, for the men listed herein, in the
main, have not been famous primarily for their contributions to
Freemasonry, but they are 10,000 famous or interesting personalities
who have made their names in other fields. However, they have been,
or are, members of the fraternity. There are hundreds of professional
Freemasons and thousands of Masonic dignitaries who will not be
mentioned. Their biographies have been inscribed in the various
proceedings and annals of Freemasonry and will not be given here. A
few national heads, founders and Masonic authors will be the

These volumes do not cover any particular country or time, but,

on the contrary, are world-wide in scope and cover the famous men
from the beginnings of Freemasonry down to, and including, the present

Many volumes and pamphlets have been written on "Famous

Freemasons." This work will exceed them all in scope, and, we hope, in
accuracy. Nevertheless it is only a start on the vast amount of material
that is available in the field of Masonic biography. It is a continuing
process and tomorrow may lift a brother to prominence or rob another of
his laurels.

It is difficult to establish a criteria for inclusion in these volumes.

The reader will note, for instance, that many famous Freemasons have
been overlooked, whereas many famous men who were anti-Masons
are included. Former members who have been "back sliders" are noted
as such when it comes to our attention and famous men who have been
expelled are listed also. We have given the facts and have not
attempted to claim what was not ours.
The last volume of this series will include an addenda of the
many worthy brethren who have been omitted, and we will rely on our
readers to bring these names to our attention so that they may be

To understand the difficulties in preparing a volume of this type,

let us explain how it has been accomplished. Five years ago, we
microfilmed and reprinted several thousand biographical cards in the
library of the House of the Temple, Supreme Council, 33°, AASR (SJ).
This kind gesture of the Southern Supreme Council is appreciated. This
basic card file started our research. In the intervening five years, we
have increased our 3 x 5 reference file from the original group to the
amazing total of approximately 60,000 cards. To do this, we have read,
marked and pasted on 3 x 5 cards, all the biographies in the current
Who's Who, the two volumes of Who Was Who and the Who's Who
Supplements. The majority of our references, however, have come from
thousands of Masonic books and periodicals which we have indexed
during this period. This is a continuing process, and we add a dozen or
more biographical cards a day to our files. This card file is
supplemented by an extensive biographical file for more lengthy

We already have mentioned the valuable assistance given by

the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, for the part it contributed to this
project. The York Rite also has donated heavily by paying the salary of
the author and his staff of The Royal Arch Mason magazine for the
many hours they have spent working on these volumes. They have
bought card files, cards, books and other material that has been
necessary in compiling the original material. The contribution of the
General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons will run into five figures
before the project is completed.

The compiler wishes to express his appreciation to Ray V.

Denslow, Nada W. Hoffman and Juanita D. Denslow for their help in
copyreading and proofreading and to Hazel H. Jackson for maintaining
the card files.

These volumes will stand as a memorial to the criticism of our

detractors. What other group of men in the world has accomplished so
much? A perusal of these biographies will indicate that a great
proportion of the liberators, patriots, royalty, explorers, statesmen,
judges, inventors, soldiers, sailors, musicians, entertainers, aviators,
and business executives have seen fit to honor our fraternity with their
membership. For more than 200 years Freemasonry has produced men
of leadership, morals and vision; men of knowledge; men of science;
men of war; men who would free their people from the oppressor; men
who would fight to maintain that liberty—and men who would offer a
helping hand to the downtrodden. They are, indeed, brethren of whom
we may be proud!

In these four volumes you may read their record. It will speak for


Compiler of the 1957

Transactions, Missouri

Lodge of Research.

John Aasen A giant 8' 6" tall who, when raised in Highland Park
Lodge No. 382, Los Angeles on July 14, 1924, weighed 536 lbs. The
raising was done by Arthur S. Crites, G.M. and all ritualistic ceremonies
were observed except that 12 craftsmen were required. Fifteen hundred
witnessed the ceremony. Aasen appeared in a number of motion
pictures including The Circus.

Leon Abbett Governor of New Jersey, 1885-1887. Past master

Mystic Tie Lodge No. 272, New York City. Demitted to Varick Lodge No.
31, Jersey City and later to Temple Lodge No. 110. Was representative
to G.L. of Ireland from G.L. of New Jersey from 1886 to 1894. Member
of Ancient Chapter No. 1, R.A.M., New York City.

Stephen Abbot General in American Revolution. Member Essex

Lodge, Salem, Mass.

Bud Abbott Radio, stage and screen performer. b. Asbury Park,

N.J., Oct. 2, 1898. Began as a cashier in theatres in 1916 and became
famous with the founding of the team "Abbott and Costello." Sold 78
million in war bonds on a 31 day tour during WW2 and entertained in
300 Army and Navy camps. A Mason and a Shriner.

George B. Abbott English Masonic writer. Member of Gladsmuir

Lodge No. 1385.
Leon M. Abbott (1867-1932) Grand Commander of Supreme
Council AASR (NJ) PGM of Mass. Raised in Columbian Lodge, Boston,
June 7,1894. PHP of St. Paul's Royal Arch Chapter, Boston.

Robert 0. Abbott (1824-1867) Surgeon General of the U.S.,

1862-67. b. in Pennsylvania, he entered the army in 1849 as assistant
surgeon and accompanied Magruder's battery to California. He
subsequently served in the East and also in Florida and Texas. During
1861 he was assistant to the chief medical purveyor of New York and
later medical director of the Fifth Army Corps. The duties of his office
were arduous and he died of overwork. Mentioned as a Mason in the
District of Columbia proceedings of 1865.

William R. Abbott (1869-1950) President of Illinois Bell

Telephone Co. 1922-30; chairman of the board, 1930-34. b. Sept. 18,
1869 in New York City. Began as clerk for Erie Railroad in 1885 and
with the Westchester (N.Y.) Telephone Company in 1888. Was with
Illinois Bell from 1893, becoming general superintendent, general
manager, vice president and president. Mason and Knight Templar. d.
Mar. 2, 1950.

Abd-el-Kader (1807-1883) Algerian patriot and emir of Mascara.

b. near Mascara, his family were Sherifs or descendants of Mohammed,
and his father, Mahi-ed-Din, was celebrated throughout north Africa for
his piety and charity. He received an excellent education in theology,
philosophy and the manly arts such as horsemanship. After the French
had taken possession of Algeria (1830) the Arabs entreated Mahi-ed-
Din to become their 1st Duke of Abercorn sultan, which he did, but
immediately abdicated in favor of Abd, his son. Abd, at the head of
9,000 troops marched toward Oran to drive out the French. The fighting
was bitter, but the French remained in possession of the city. For the
next 13 years he stubbornly resisted the French conquest of Algeria, but
in 1847 when they massed 120,000 troops against him, he was forced
to surrender under these tremendous odds. Although promised that he
would be allowed to go to Alexandria, he and his family were detained in
Europe for five years. In July, 1860, he was active in defending the
Christians against the murderous attacks of the Moslems in the
Christian quarters at Damascus. In recognition of saving many lives, he
received decorations and presents from many countries.. The remainder
of his life was occupied in public devotions, religious instruction and
practical charity. A biography published in London in 1867 records this
interesting episode: "Abd-el-Kader had just succeeded in achieving,
after much toil and self-abnegation, the highest distinction to be attained
in a religious profession, dogmatic and exclusive. By a singular contrast
he now wished to wear the badge of a society based and established on
the principle of universal brotherhood. The Masonid body in Alexandria
hastened to welcome the illustrious neophyte. The Lodge of the
Pyramids was specially convened for the occasion on the evening of
18th of June (1867). Abd-el-Kader was initiated into the mysteries, and
to the privileges of being a 'Fellow of the Prophet,' added the more time-
honored privilege of being a 'Free and Accepted Mason.' " He died at
Damascus on May 26, 1883.

James, 1st Duke of Abercorn (18111885) 10th Earl, 2nd Marquis

and 1st Duke of Abercorn. Grandson of 1st Marquis; lord lieutenant of
Ireland(1866-68; 1874-76). Grand Master of Ireland 1874-1885.

James, 2nd Duke of Abercorn (18381913) Eldest brother of Lord

George Francis Hamilton. Was official figurehead of the Irish landlords
in land war and opposed home rule. Grand Master of Ireland in 1886
succeeding his father, the first duke.

James, 7th Earl of Abercorn (James Hamilton) (?-1744) Privy

Councilor of England. Named Grand Master of England by the retiring
Grand Master, Duke of Richmond, in 1725. He was at that time master
of a lodge and had served on the committee of charity during that year.
Succeeded his father as Earl of Abercorn in 1734. Died, 1744.

John W. Abercrombie (1866-1940) Educator and public official.

President of University of Alabama 190211. State supervisor of teacher
certification in Alabama 1935-40. Acting Secretary for U.S. Department
of Labor 1918-20. Member of 63rd and 64th Congress 1913-17.
Member of Alabama Senate 1896-98. Mason and 32° AASR.

Sir Ralph Abercromby (1734-1801) British general who led the

expeditionary force that conquered St. Lucia and Trinidad in 1795-96.
He commanded troops in the Mediterranean in 1800, defeated the
French at Alexandria in 1801 and died of wounds received there. He is
credited with restoring the discipline and efficiency of the British army.
Member of Canon-gate Kilwinning Lodge No. 2, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Charles Aberdour (Lord Sholto) Grand Master of the Grand

Lodge of England (Moderns) from 1757-61 and 20th Grand Master
Mason of Scotland, 1755-56. He was later the 15th Earl of Morton.

Walter S. Abernathy Transportation economist, government


2 Sir Allan Adair b. Sept. 7, 1887 at Petersburg, Va.

Transportation specialist, Dept. of Commerce 1928-53; executive
secretary Pan American Railway Congress since 1949. Raised in
Powhatan Starke Lodge No. 124, Petersburg, Va. on Sept. 5, 1919.
Member of Columbia Chapter No. 1, Washington, D.C. 32° AASR (SJ)
in Albert Pike Consistory, Washington, D.C. May 28, 1946. Member of
Almas Shrine Temple, 1946; Washington Chapter No. 3, National
Sojourners, George Washington Camp of Heroes of '76. Past president
(1944) of advisory board of Masonic Clubs of D.C. Past deputy state
president of National League of Masonic Clubs.

Robert S. Abernethy Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Aug. 5,

1874 in Gonzales Co., Texas. Commissioned lieutenant in 1897 and
promoted through grades to general rank on Oct. 1, 1932. Served in the
Spanish American War and in the Philippines. Commanded 175th Field
Artillery Brigade, A.E.F. in WW1. His last command was San Francisco
Port of Embarkation and he retired in 1938. Member of Summerton
Lodge No. 105, Summerton, N.C. and served as national president of
the National Sojourners from 1937-40.

Thomas G. Abernethy Congressman from Mississippi. Member

of 76th to 84th Congresses. b. May 16, 1903 at Eupora, Miss. Lawyer.
Received degrees in Eupora Lodge No. 423 and presently member of
Prairie Lodge No. 87 at Okolona, Miss. Member of Royal Arch Chapter
and Commandery, K.T. at Okolona and Hamasa Shrine Temple at
Meridian, Miss.

Edmond Francois Valentin About (1828-1885) French journalist,

novelist, playwright and member of the French Academy. Author of Le
Roi des Montagnes (1856), Le Nez d'un Notaire (1862) and Madelon
(1863). Mason.

George, 5th Earl of Aboyne (George Gordon) (1761-1853)

Soldier; succeeded as 5th Earl of Aboyne in 1794 and the 9th Marquis
of Huntly in 1836. Was Grand Master of Scotland in 1802-03.

Antonine Firmin Abraham A Freemason who made himself

notorious at Paris in the beginning of the 19th century by the
manufacture and sale of false Masonic diplomas and by trading the
higher degrees, from which traffic he reaped a harvest for some time.

Herbert Abraham President of Ruberoid Co. since 1903. b. July

9, 1883, New York City. President of Asphalt Roofing Industry Bureau
three terms. Served on War Industries Board, Washington, 1917-18.
Allen Abrams Vice president of Marathon Corp. since 1940 and
Director since 1943. Deputy Director of development and research for
O.S.S. in 1943-44. b. Jan. 27, 1889. Mason.

Benjamin Abrams President of Emerson Radio and Phonograph

Corp. Came to this country from Romania at the age of 12. Left school
at 13 to help support his fatherless family and by the age of 29 had
acquired the name, assets and presidency of the Emerson Corp. His
career is studded with "firsts"; the radio-phonograph, the smallest radio
and commercial television. Famed for his philanthropy to national and
international projects. He is a member of Farragut Lodge No. 976, New
York City.

Franz Abt (1819-1885) German composer. b. Eilenberg Saxony

d. Wiesbaden. Composed a number of cantatas and songs for the lodge
for use on St. John's Feast Days. Initiated in Brunswick Lodge in 1853.

Sir Allan Adair British Major General created the 6th Baron in
1938 of baronetcy established in 1888. Served with Grenadier Guards
in 1916-17 and was in command of the 3rd Bn. in 1940; the 30th
Guards Brigade in 1941; and the 6th Brigade in 1942; when he was
given command of the newly formed Armored Division of the Guards
which he retained until the end of WW2 and led in the epic dash of 1944
from the Seine to the relief of Brussels. It was regarded as one of the
most gallant achievements of the European liberation. His only son (a
captain) was killed when the Guards attacked Mount Camino in Italy,
Nov. 1943. Since 1951 he has been second in command of the Queen's
Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard. Commander of the Bath; DSO;
M.C. He entered Masonry in April, 1924 in Household Brigade Lodge
No. 2614, serving as master. Appointed assistant grand master of the
G.L. of England in 1953. A member of most of the Masonic rites in
E. Ross Adair Congressman from 4th Indiana district to 82nd
Congress. b. Dec. 15, 1907 at Albion, Ind. Admitted to bar in 1933 and
since practiced at Fort Wayne. Served in army overseas in WW2.
Raised in Albion Lodge No. 97, Albion, Ind. in 1929. 32° AASR in Fort
Wayne, Ind. Shriner, National Sojourner, Tall Cedar member.

Hugh R. Adair Justice, Supreme Court of Montana from 1943

and chief justice since 1947. b. Aug. 27, 1889 at Trego Co., Kansas.
Served in both bodies of Montana state legislature and was lieutenant
governor from 1937-41, addressing the Grand Lodge of Montana in this
capacity in 1938. Past potentate of Algeria Shrine Temple.

Jackson L. Adair Congressman, judge. b. Feb. 23, 1888 at

Clayton, Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan in 1911 and admitted to
bar in Michigan, Okahoma and Illinois, first practicing in Muskogee,
Okla. in 1911-13 and then in Quincy, Ill. Illinois state senator in 1928-32
and member of the 73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37) from 15th
district. Has been U.S. district judge, Southern Illinois district since
1937. Mason.

Alva Adams (1850-1922) Governor of Colorado 1887-89; 1897-

99. Candidate for governor in 1904 and was declared elected, being
seated on Jan. 10, but on March 20, 1905 he was ousted by legislature
which gave the office to James H. Peabody, who served one day and
resigned. Member of first Colorado legislature in 1876. U.S.
Commissioner-General to Australia, New Zealand, Java, Siam, and
China. Knighted in Pueblo Commandery No. 3, K.T. Jan. 15, 1884; 32°
January 29, 1890 in Denver. Active member of Supreme Council AASR
(SJ). b. Iowa Co., Wis., May 14, 1850; d. Battle Creek, Mich., Nov. 1,

Alva B. Adams (1875-1941) U.S. Senator from Colorado, 1923-

45. b. Oct. 29, 1875 at Del Norte, Colo. Graduate of Yale and Columbia
universities, and admitted to Colorado bar in 1899, practicing at Pueblo.
d. Dec. 1, 1941. Mason.

Andrew Adams (1736-1797) Signer of Articles of Confederation

in 1777 and chief justice of Supreme Court of Connecticut. b. in
January, 1736 in Stratford, Conn. Graduated from Yale in 1760 and
practiced at Stamford and Litchfield. Member of state legislature in
1776-81; delegate to Congress in 1777-80 and again in 1781-82.
Appointed judge of state supreme court in 1789, he was made chief
justice in 1793. He was an adroit lawyer and an able judge. Member of
St. Paul's Lodge No. 11, Litchfield, Conn. d. Nov. 26, 1797.

Charles F. Adams (1876-1946) Business executive who

pioneered and developed National League hockey in U.S., 1925.
Governor of the league 1925-37; Director and chairman of board of
Eastern Racing Association 1935-43. Director Boston National League
Baseball Association 1927-35. Knight Templar and Shriner. b. Oct. 19,
1876, in Newport, Vt. d. Oct. 1, 1946.

Claude M. Adams Brigadier General U.S. Army (1943).

Executive officer and aide-de-camp to General G. C. Marshall, chief of
staff; military attache to Brazil 1942-44. Served in WW1 as lieutenant.
Vice president of O'Donnell Shoe Corp. Mason. b. Hum-bolt, Tenn., Oct
2, 1895.

Frank R. Adams Author and playwright. Has written about 20

novels, a score of musical comedies, several motion pictures and a
book of lyrics of musical comedy. b. July 7, 1883 at Morrison, Ill.
Graduate of Univ. of Chicago in 1904. Mason.

Jasper Adams (1793-1841) Clergyman and educator. b. Aug.

27, 1793 in Medway, Mass. Graduate of Brown Univ. and studied
theology at Andover. Math professor at Brown and at same time
ordained in Episcopal church. Became president of the college of
Charleston in 1824, and Hobart College (Geneva, N.Y.) in 1826. Served
as professor at West Point from 1838-40. Raised in Mt. Vernon Lodge
No. 4, Providence, R.I. in Sept., 1821. d. Oct. 25, 1841.

John Adams American Revolution (naval). Purser on ship

Raleigh during Revolution. Member St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth,

John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) Sixth President of the United

States 1825-29. An anti-Mason who a year before his death published a
book of his letters against the Masonic fraternity which amounted to an

John T. Adams (1873-1942) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of

Colorado,1931-34. b. Dec. 25, 1873 at La Porte, Ind. Admitted to bar in
1900. Named to Supreme Court of Colorado as justice in 1925, serving
last part of term as chief justice. Resumed law practice in 1935. Mason.
d. May 13, 1942.

Karl L. Adams (1888-1948) President of Northern Illinois State

Teachers College at DeKalb, Ill. from 1929. b. Sept. 5, 1888 at
Lexington, Ohio. Mason. d. Dec. 6, 1948.

Kenneth S. Adams Chairman of board of Phillips Petroleum Co.

since 1951. President of Phillips from 193851. b. Aug. 31, 1899 at
Horton, Kans. Began with Phillips as a warehouse clerk in 1920.
Member of Bartlesville Lodge No. 284, Bartlesville Chapter No. 55,
R.A.M.; Calvary Commandery No. 26, K.T. all of Bartlesville, Okla. 33°
AASR (SJ) at Guthrie, Okla.; Kara Grotto, Bartlesville; Tulsa Court No.
47, Royal Order of Jesters, Tulsa; Akdar Shrine Temple at Tulsa;
Wasono Shrine Club, Bartlesville, Bartlesville Scottish Rite Club.
Member, Legion of Honor, Order of DeMolay and Trustee, Masonic
Foundation of Oklahoma, Inc.

Myron E. Adams (1876-1930) Social Worker. D.D. Syracuse

University 1898. Ordained Baptist minister 1905. Social worker in
Rochester, N.Y.; Cleveland, Ohio; Buffalo and New York City.
Organized and became first director of Department of Morale (under
Chief of Staff U.S. Army) during WW1. Executive secretary of National
Rehabilitation Comm. 1922; associated with Marshall Field and Albert
A. Sprague in the Public Service Associates, Inc., 1922-26. Mason. b.
Feb. 19, 1876. d. Jan. 17, 1930.

Richard Adams Privateer and Captain during Revolution.

Member of St. Peter's Lodge, Newburyport, Mass.

Samuel Adams Signer, Declaration of Independence. No record

of his Masonic affiliation although purported to have been made a
Mason in St. John's Lodge, Boston, Mass.

Samuel Adams Governor of Arkansas in 1844. Member of

Clarksville Lodge No. 5 (Ark.) and junior grand warden pro-tem of the
G.L. of Arkansas in 1844.

Samuel E. Adams Active member of Supreme Council AASR

(SJ). d. March 29, 1912. Raised in Vermont Lodge No. 18, Hartland, Vt.
Exalted in Burlington (Vt.) Chapter No. 3, Feb. 14, 1855. Knighted in
Burlington Commandery No. 2, Sept. 19, 1855. Received 33° from G.C.
Albert Pike at Minneapolis, Minn. Aug. 23, 1885.
Sherman Adams Governor of New Hampshire; advisor to
President Eisenhower. Elected governor of New Hampshire in 1949 and
was the 40th Freemason to serve as governor out of a total of 67 since
1785. As advisor to Eisenhower he was often called "Assistant
President," and was chief of the White House staff. Described as
"tough-minded, aloof, knowing all the policies, aims, purposes and
background." Makes many decisions on his own and is sometimes
called "The Rock of Gibraltar." Knight Templar, 32° and member of
Bektash Shrine Temple of N.H. Served in WW1 and traces kinship back
to two presidents of the U.S. Speaker of N.H. House of Representatives
1943-44 and member of the 79th Congress. b. East Dover, Vt., Jan. 8,

Wilbur L. Adams (1884-1937) Congressman from Delaware 73rd

Congress. Lawyer. Democratic candidate for U.S. Senate, 1934. b. Oct.
23, 1884. d. Dec. 4, 1937. Mason.

Henry Adamson Wrote the first printed reference yet discovered

showing the Master's Word to be connected with the Rosy Cross. It
occurs in his The Muses Threnodie—"For weare brethren of the Rosy
Cross we have the Mason's Word.”

Sir Michael Adeane Private secretary to Queen Elizabeth of

England and to her father, King George VI, to whom he acted, in a
sense, as a Masonic aide-de-camp on many occasions. Represented
George VI at installation of the Earl of Scarbrough as GM in 1951. A
Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, he served as senior
grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of England in 1946.

Charles Adkins (1863-1941) Congressman from Illinois 69th to

72nd Congresses (1925-33). Mason. Home, Decatur, Ill.
Jesse C. Adkins (1879-1955) Judge. Special assistant to the
Attorney General from 1908 to 1916. Appointed Associate Justice,
Supreme Court of District of Columbia in 1930. Chairman jud. sect.
American Bar Assn., 1935. Mason. 32°. b. April 13, 1879. d. Mar. 29,

Julius Ochs Adler (1892-1955) Major General; vice-president

and general manager of the New York Times. Fought in both WW1 and
WW2 and was called a "Soldier's Soldier" by President Eisenhower.
Was active in many Jewish, civic and patriotic endeavors throughout his
life. The rank of general—which Adler carried proudly—was not
honorary. He had been a civilian soldier for forty years. Since WW1, he
had served the 77th infantry division. He left it during WW2 to lead other
combat troops. After the war he rejoined the 77th and became the
commanding general of this New York reserve unit. He started with the
New York Times in 1914, and in directing its business management as
well as that of the Chattanooga (Tenn.) Times, he helped maintain the
high standards that have been a credit to the world of journalism. He
was a member of Justice Lodge No. 753 of New York City. Adler died
on October 3, 1955 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery on
October 6.

Adolph Friedrich IV Duke of Mecklemburg-Strelitz (1738-1794)

Initiated in 1772 by deputation of the lodge Irene zu den drei Sternen in
Rostock, Germany. In 1774 he entered the lodge at New-Brandeburg
remaining a member until his death.

Adolph Fredrik (1710-1771) King of Sweden 1751-1771. Was

master of a Stockholm lodge and received the title of Protector of
Swedish Freemasonry in 1762.

Baron van Aersen-Beyeren Grand Master of the Netherlands

John S. Africa (1839-1900) Banker and grand master of
Pennsylvania 1891-1892. Member Pennyslvania legislature, 1860.
Secretary Internal Affairs of Pa. 1883-87. President Union Trust Co. of
Philadelphia 1887-1900.

Gregorio Aglipay Chaplain General of the Philippine Army 1899-

1901. Scottish Rite member. Later headed the Philippine Independent

Andrew D. Agnew (1867-1951) Grand Master of the Grand

Encampment, K.T. 1932-37. Native of Ireland. Lawyer. Active member
of the Supreme Council (NJ), 1920. 33* in 1911.

Ignacio Agramonte (1841-1873) Cuban patriot and Freemason

who participated in war which followed Cuba's declaration of
independence in 1868. b. in Puerto Principe, he was commissioned
under Cespedes and became leader of the revolts of 1868-69 against
Spain. He was killed in battle.

Camillo Mora Aguilar Governor of province of San Jose, Costa

Rica. Son of President Juan Rafa el Mora. An agriculturist. Member of
Union Fraternal No. 10.

Joaquin Aguilar Magistrate of Supreme Court of Costa Rica.

Member of the College of Lawyers. Esperanza Lodge.

Emilio Aguinaldo Philippine patriot and general. b. March 22,

1869, at Old Cavite, Luzon of Chinese and Tagalog parentage. Was
educated in the home of a Jesuit priest and later in the University of St.
Thomas, conducted by the Dominican friars in Manila. Was initiated
Jan. 1, 1895 in Pilar Lodge under the Grand Orient of Spain, becoming
master of the lodge. At the outbreak of the insurrection in August, 1896,
he was mayor of Cavite Viejo. During this uprising, he took a prominent
part, displaying a marked capacity for leadership. In 1898 Spain gave
him a subsidy for remaining out of the country and he went to Hong
Kong until the U.S. entered the war against Spain. Believing the time
was ripe for a change in government, he returned immediately after the
Battle of Manila, May 1, 1898, for the express purpose of assisting the
American government. They gave him authority to set up a native
government of which he became the head and organized an army.
Having doubt as to the future freedom of his country under American
rule, he began hostilities against the U.S. during the year 1899 and
engaged in several pitched battles, but was driven from capital to capital
until finally captured by General Frederick Funston at Palawan, Luzon
on March 23, 1901. On April 19, 1901 he took an oath of allegiance to
the U.S. and retired to a peaceful life. During the Spanish rebellion he
organized the Triagle Magdalo, with other Freemasons and it later
became Magdalo Lodge. The lodge held its meetings in Aguinaldo's
residence. It was on the balcony of this residence that the proclamation
of the First Republic and the unveiling of the original Philippine flag took

Charles T. Aikens June 12, 1898. Four months after his initiation
into Freemasonry, he affiliated with the Katipunan, an organization
patterned after Freemasonry with passwords and three degrees. Seeing
this organization was the best means of gathering support for the
revolutionary movement, he encouraged all able-bodied men to join it,
and the success of the revolution, at least in Cavite, may be attributed to
the Katipunan. When the Grand Orient of Spain fused with the G.L. of
the Philippines in February 1917, Aguinaldo became a Scottish Rite
Mason. He was coroneted a 33° on Feb. 13, 1955.
Charles T. Aikens (1862-1927) University president and
Lutheran minister. Ordained, 1888. President of Susquehanna
University, Selinsgrove, Pa. from 1905. President of Lutheran Synod of
Central Pa. 1897-1901. 32° AASR.

Marquess of Ailsa (1872-1943) Archibald Kennedy, 15th Earl of

Cassillis, created Marquess of Ailsa in 1938. b. May 22, 1872. d. Feb.
27, 1943. The Kennedys are a famous and powerful Scottish family long
settled in Ayrshire. Ancester John Kennedy of Dunure obtained Cassillis
and other lands in Ayrshire about 1350. John's descendant Sir James
Kennedy married Mary, a daughter of King Robert III and their son Sir
Gilbert Kennedy was created Lord Kennedy before 1458. Gilbert's
grandson David, third Lord Kennedy, was created Earl of Cassillis
before 1530. In 1831 the 12th Earl of Cassillis became the first
Marquess of Ailsa, taking the title from the craig which was his property.
Archibald was educated at Eton College, Trinity College, Cambridge
and Edinburgh universities. Served as major in the South African War
(19001902) and was with the British Expeditionary Forces from Dec.,
1914 to May, 1919. Later became a memberof the Royal Company of
Archers and as such constituted a member of His Majesty's Bodyguard
for Scotland. His services were called for in every large civic or national
enterprise. He had held many high offices in Freemasonry, and was
head of the Grand Chapter of Scotland for 30 years, being 1st Grand
Principal from 1913 until his death in 1943. He made three Masonic
visits to the United States, 1924, 1927 and 1933 for the purpose of
settling jurisdictional differences with the General Grand Chapter over
the chapters in the Philippines. On his death his titles passed to his
brother Charles q.v. Initiated in Holy-rood House Lodge No. 44,
Edinburgh, Nov. 17, 1896.

Marquess of Ailsa Charles Kennedy, 16th Earl of Cassillis and

5th Marquess of Ailsa upon the death of his brother, Archibald q.v., in
1943. b. April 10, 1875, he was educated at Eton and Royal Agriculture
College Cirencester. Formerly captain Ayrshire Yeomanry and
lieutenant 3rd Bn. Royal Scotts Fusilliers; served in South Africa 1900-
1901 as captain, Prince of Wales Light Horse. As Lord Kennedy, he
received most of his Masonic light in the United States, where he came
after the African War. He was initiated in Acacia Lodge No. 11, A.F. &
A.M. of Cheyenne, Wyoming April 4, 1905; passed May 25, 1905 and
raised June 8, 1905. His petition for the capitular degrees was received
by Lebanon Chapter No. 3 of Laramie, Wyo. on June 9, 1909 and was
elected July 14. He received the MM and PM degrees Aug. 11, 1909.
The MEM and RAM degrees were conferred by Nevada Chapter No.
56, of Nevada, Mo. by request of Lebanon chapter on March 14 and 22,
1910. About 1914 he was in Davenport, Iowa. He de-milted from the
lodge in Nov. 15, 1921 and the chapter Nov. 9, 1921. In a letter to the
chapter dated Dec. 10, 1919 he thanked them for remitting a year's
dues because of his war service, stating that he left the U.S. in Nov.,
1914 and joined the Ayrshire Yeomanry, Jan., 1915. He stated he "was
passed as unfit for overseas service and at the end of 1916 was
appointed an area gas officer. . . . I was attached to the 18th Division for
a short time in France in 1918 on a tour of instruction. Until quite
recently have been engaged in training in gas defensive measures and
am now trying to get the bally stuff out of my system.”

William D. B. Ainey (1864-1933) Chairman Public Service

Commission of Pa. and Congressman. Member of 62nd and 63rd
Congresses (1911-15). Chairman of Public Service Comm. of Pa. 1915.
Delegate to Interparliamentary Conference, Geneva, 1912 and to the
Hague in 1913. Delegate to Interparliamentary Union, Paris, 1927.

James Ainslie Scottish clergyman, who in 1652 was the subject

of an ecclesiastical investigation because he was a Mason and
"possessed the Mason Word." On appeal to the Presbytery at Kelso, he
was cleared "because in the purest tymes of this kirke, maisons haveing
that word have been ministers.”

John C. Ainsworth (1870-1943) Financier. President of States

Steamship Co.; president of Ainsworth National Bank, Portland, Oregon
and its successor, the U.S. National Bank. Director of many
corporations and the Federal Reserve Bank in Portland. 33° John C.
Ainsworth (1822-1893) Transportation pioneer of the Pacific Northwest.
Went West with the 1850 gold rush and soon settled in Oregon where
he pioneered in transportation. He was the guiding genius of river
steamboat transportation and his Oregon Steam Navigation Co. grew
tothe Pacific Northwest division of the Union Pacific Railroad. His
Portland bank was the largest in Oregon. Was an incorporator and
promoter of the Northern Pacific Railway. Was raised in Farmington
Lodge No. 9, Ohio and became the first master of Multnomah Lodge
No. 86 (Mo. register), now Oregon No. 1. He helped organize the G.L.
of Oregon and served as grand master 1854-55. In 1865 he was grand
high priest of the Grand Chapter. Inspector general 33° AASR (SJ).

Milburn P. Akers Editor, political and editorial writer. b. May 4,

1900. Assistant to Secretary of Interior 1939-41. Executive secretary of
Illinois Development Council 1937-39. Editor of Chicago Sun, 1941-42.

George E. Akerson (1889-1937) Secretary to President Hoover

192931; Hoover's assistant when Secretary of Commerce 1925-28.
Washington correspondent and asst. managing editor of Minneapolis
Tribune 1912-25. 32° at Minneapolis Feb. 27, 1929. Received Shrine at
Washington, D.C. Apr. 29, 1929 as courtesy to Zurah Temple in

Spencer B. Akin Major General U.S. Army. b. Feb. 13, 1889.

B.S. Virginia Military Institute 1910. 2nd lt. U.S. Army, 1910 advancing
through grades to brigadier general in 1941 and major general in 1943.
Chief signal officer on staff of General MacArthur and later chief signal
officer, Department of Army. Cited by Poor Richard Club for his
reorganization of Army's system of communication to needs of atomic
warfare. Mason.

Sir Adeyemo Alakija (1884-1952) Nigeria spiritual and political

leader. Headed the Executive Council of the Colony and Protectorate in
Nigeria, also a spiritual leader among the natives and respected public
figure. Member Star of Nigeria Chapter No. 255, R.A.M. 23° AASR.
Appointed grand superintendent over Royal Arch in the district both
English and Scottish constitutions as well as head of the District Grand
Lodge. Died April 9, 1952.

Miguel Ricardo de Alava (17711843) Spanish general and

statesman. He participated in the Peninsular War under Wellington in
1811 and in 1815 was in the service of Ferdinand VII. He was a liberal
leader and president of the Cortes in 1822, in which year he aided in the
deposition of Ferdinand. In 1814 he was imprisoned for being a
Freemason. Upon Ferdinand's restoration by the French in 1823, Alava
fled to England. He was later in' the service of Maria Christina against
Don Carlos. Named ambassador to London in 1834 and Paris in 1835,
retiring to France after the La Granja insurrection.

Leopold, Duke of Albany Youngest son of Queen Victoria was

initiated in Apollo University Lodge No. 357, Oxford, England May 1,
1874 and in May, 1875 became a member of Lodge of Antiquity. No. 2.
Served as master of Apollo Lodge, 1876.

Juan Bautista Alberdi (1810-1884) Distinguished Argentine

statesman, jurist and publisher. He was noted principally for his Bases,
a treatise on American public right. Hostile to Rosas, he exiled himself
to Uruguay where he studied law, later practicing in Chile. On the
overthrow of Rosas by Urquiza q.v. he was successively named by the
latter as minister to Paris, Madrid, Washington and London. Mason.

Albert Victor Christian Edward (see Duke of Clarence) Carl

Albert Congressman from Oklahoma, 80th Congress (1947-49) Lawyer.
b. May 10, 1908. Member of South McAlester Lodge No. 96, Mc-
Alester, Okla. (1946), 32° Indian Consistory, AASR (SJ) and DeMolay
Legion of Honor.
Casimir August Albert Duke of Saxony-Teschen (1738-1822)
Last governor of the Austrian Netherlands. Brother of King Karl
Christian Joseph. Initiated in Dresden, Germany, in lodge Zu den drei
Schwestern, 1764.

Prince Albert Duke of York. b. December 14, 1895, in London.

Provincial G.M. of Middlesex.

Albert-Edward, Prince of Wales (1841-1910) (see Edward VII of

England) Eldest son of Queen Victoria. Initiated in Stockholm in 1868 by
King Charles XV and made past grand master in 1870. In 1875 he
received the AASR degrees. In 1875 he succeeded the Marquis de
Ripon as grand master of England, an office which he held until his
death in 1910.

Manuel Masimino Alberti (17631811) Catholic priest and

Argentine patriot. Although a Catholic priest he joined Freemasonry and
was active in events that led to the "open forum" on May 24, 1810 and
the revolution of that year. He was one of the "junta," or council, then
formed to rule the country.

Henri Christophe Albrecht (17631800) German Masonic writer.

Initiated 1785. In 1792 he published at Hamburg a work entitled
Materialen zu einer kritischen Geschichte der Freimaurerei (Collections
towards a critical history of Freemasonry).

Ralph G. Albrecht Specialist in international law. Prosecuted

Herman Goering and others before International Military Tribunal, 1945-
46. b. Aug. 11, 1896 at Jersey City, N.J. Graduate of Univ. of
Pennsylvania and Harvard. Admitted to bar in 1924. Associate counsel
for American claimants against Germany in "Black Tom" and
"Kingsland" explosions, 1924-39. Commander, U.S. Navy, 1941-45.
Naval observer with American Embassy London, England and with
Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor and Australia. Assistant Director O.S.S. (War
Crimes) and assistant to attorney general, 1945. Raised in Dalhousie
Lodge, Newtonville, Mass. on Nov. 16, 1921.

Horace M. Albright Conservationist. b. Jan. 6, 1890. Director

National Park Service 1917-18; asst. director and superintendent
Yellowstone National Park 1919-29. In charge of Yosemite National
Park, 1927-28. Director National Park Service Jan. 12, 1929 to Aug. 10,
1933. Advisor, director and official of many national conservation
projects. Member of Livingston Lodge No. 32, Livingston, Montana,
being raised in June, 1923. He was given his degrees in a period of five
weeks while in charge of Yellowstone National Park so that he would be
a member in time to entertain President Harding in Yellowstone on June
30 and July 1, 1923.

James L. Alcorn Former Governor and Senator from Mississippi.

Member Coahoma Lodge No. 104, Friar's Point, Miss. and Jackson
Chapter No. 6, Jackson, Miss.

Alvin B. Alden (1818-1882) Did much for laying foundation of

Freemasonry in Wisconsin. Grand master 1861-63; grand high priest
1863; grand commander 1866-68; sovereign grand inspector general,

Chester H. Aldrich (1862-1924) Governor of Nebraska and jurist.

Admitted to Nebraska bar, 1891. Member Nebraska Senate, 1907.
Governor of Nebraska 1911-13. Justice, Supreme Court of Nebraska
1919-25. Mason and Knight Templar.

Kildroy P. Aldrich 1st Assistant Postmaster General, 1943-45. b.

Feb. 16, 1877. With postal department from 1897 to 1945, serving in
various ca-pacities from postal clerk to assistant postmaster general.
Raised in Siloam Lodge No. 276, Oklahoma City, Okla. in 1913 and a
life member. Member of Missouri Consistory No. 1, St. Louis, Mo. (SJ).

Nelson W. Aldrich (1841-1915) U.S. Senator from Rhode Island

from 1881 to 1911. b. Nov. 6, 1841 at Foster, R.I.; Graduate of Brown
Univ. Member of R.I. House of Representatives from 1875-77, serving
as speaker of same. Elected five times to U.S. Senate and declined
nomination for reelection in 1910. A member of What Cheer Lodge No.
21, (past master) Providence and Providence Chapter No. 1 as well as
Cavalry Commandery No. 13 which he served as commander in 1871.
In 1879 he was grand commander of the Grand Commandery of
Massachusetts and Rhode Island. d. Apr. 16, 1915.

Elizabeth Aldworth Said to be the only woman ever regularly

initiated into Freemasonry. See "Elizabeth St. Leger.”

J. Frank Alee Former U.S. Senator from Delaware. Member

Union Lodge No. 7, Dover, Del.

Miguel Aleman President of Mexico 1947-52. Petitioned

Antiquities Lodge No. 9 of Grand Lodge Valle de Mexico on Sept. 25,
1930 as a young man of 26. Initiated Oct. 20, 1930; passed April 27,
1931 and raised July 31, 1931. He later demitted to City of Mexico
Lodge No. 35. Received AASR degrees 4th through 32nd Nov. 24, 1942
by Grand Commander Antonio Arceo. Made a noble of the Mystic
Shrine in Anezeh Temple of Mexico City on Nov. 27, 1945. Son of
General Miguel Aleman, who as a revolutionist against Porfirio Diaz,
fled to the mountains as an open rebel for three years before the
general revolution of 1910, leaving 8-year-old Miguel as head of the
house. By sellingpapers he worked his way through the law school of
the National University and on graduation set up a thriving law business
principally with labor unions and individual workers. His public life began
as magistrate of the Veracruz Supreme Court. Was elected to the
Senate and in 1936 was appointed Governor of Veracruz, serving until
1940. He resigned as governor to manage the election of his friend,
General Avila Camacho, who, when he won, appointed Aleman as
Minister of Interior. At 37, he was the youngest cabinet member and
Camacho's principal trouble shooter between the federal government
and the 28 states. In this capacity he won international recognition for
tracking down some 2,000 German and Japanese nationals in
deference to the U.S. He was nominated as president by the head of
the Latin-American Federation of Labor and his campaign manager was
the editor of the labor newspaper, El Popular. Industrialists backed him
because he understood the technical necessities of Mexican industry.
Scholars and professional men cheered him for his ability and brains.
The old revolutionary generals liked his background and political
philosophy, and the masses voted for him because he had given them
more in the way of social reform than anyone within their memory. He
was particularly interested in public education and transportation.

Alexander I (1777-1825) Czar of Russia from 1801-1825. b.

Dec. 23, 1777 and succeeded Paul I q.v. on the throne in 1801. While
he prohibited all secret societies in 1801, in 1803 he rescinded this
prohibition. It is said that he was convinced by Johann Boeber q.v., later
grand master of Russia, of the benefits of Masonry and he not only lifted
the ban, but became a member himself. Some sources claim he was
initiated in Canongate Kilwinning Lodge of Edinburgh, Scotland and in
1814 acted as master at the conferring of the degrees in a military lodge
in Paris on William III, Emperor of Germany. He was, for certain, a
member of the Polish Grand Orient. In November, 1815 the Polish
Masons gave a banquet in his honor after which he left generous gifts
for the Grand Orient. He has been accused of using Freemasonry for
political purposes. d. Dec. 1, 1825 under mysterious circumstances. In
1822 he became suspicious of the political dangers inherent in some of
the Russian lodges, and on the advice of Grand Master Kushelev of the
Grand Lodge "Astra," banned Freemasonry on August 1, 1822. This
date marks the destruction of Russian Freemasonry, for his successor,
Nicholas I, confirmed the edict on April 21, 1826.

Alexander III (1241-1286) King of Scotland from 1349. Legend

states he favored Freemasons and that Kilwinning Abbey was built
under his guidance. Married Margaret, daughter of Henry III, in 1251.
Defeated Norwegian invasion in 1263. United Hebrides and Isle of Man
to the kingdom.

Abraham Alexander (?-1816) One of the founders of the Mother

Supreme Council, Scottish Rite at Charleston, S. Car. He was born in
London and emigrated to this country before 1764, settling in
Charleston, where he became secretary to the collector of customs and
later auditor. He became first secretary general of the Mother Supreme
Council and seems to have been a member of Lodge La Candeur as his
signature appears on the minutes of March 18, 1798. Of Jewish religion,
he was chazan, or reader for Bayh Elohim congregation. He served as
reader for 20 years, resigning in 1784. He died Feb. 21, 1816 and is
buried in the Jewish cemetery at Charleston.


Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg Ben Alexander (1894-1944)

President of Masonite Corp. Started as a laborer in the wood pulp
industry in 1919 and by 1926 was president of the Masonite Corp.
Director or officer of many corporations. Mason.

George F. Alexander (1882-?) Jurist. U.S. Marshal of Oregon

1917-21. Judge, 1st Division of Alaska since 1933. b. Apr. 20 1882.
Mason. 32°, Shriner, president of Juneau Shrine Club 1934-39.

Grover C. Alexander (1887-1950) Early member of Baseball Hall

of Fame (1938). A great National League pitcher for two decades with
the Phil-lies, Cubs and Cardinals starting in 1911. In 1926 he won the
world championship for the Cardinals by striking out Lazzeri with bases
full in final crisis at Yankee Stadium. He was raised in St. Paul Lodge
No. 82, St. Paul, Nebraska on Feb. 8, 1923 expelled for un-Masonic
conduct March 20, 1930.
Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander 1st Viscount of Tunis. b. 1891.
Served in France, 1914-18 and northwest frontier of India in 1935. Was
commander of the 1st Division from 1938-40 and was in charge of the
evacuation of the British army from Dunkirk. Assigned to the Burma
front in March, 1942, he became commander-in-chief of the Middle East
in August. As deputy allied commander-in-chief in North Africa (1943),
Alexander, with General Montgomery, who mapped the successful
British campaign in Egypt. He commanded Sicilian (July 1943) and
Italian (Sept. 1943) invasions. He was made field marshal in November,
1944 and was allied commander-in-chief of Italy in 1944-45. Since 1946
he has been Governor-General of Canada. Alexander is a member of
Athlumney Lodge No. 3245 of London, serving as its master in 193839.
He is a past grand steward andpast grand warden of the G.L. of
England and a member of the house committee of the Royal Masonic
Institution for Girls. He is active in Royal Arch Masonry. Born in New
Zealand, he was a well known athlete and Olympic games record holder
in his youth.

Hubbard F. Alexander Steamship executive. b. Aug. 14, 1879.

Began as wharf agent in Tacoma, Wash. 1894. Later president of the
following: Commercial Dock Co. 1901-27; Alaska Pacific S.S. Co. 1907-
08; Alaska Coast Co. 1908-11; Pacific Alaska Navigation Co. 1908-26;
Pacific Steamship Co. (Admiral Line), 1916-30. Mason, 32°.

James P. Alexander Judge. (18831948) Chief Justice Supreme

Court of Texas (1941-48). Texas lawyer since admittance to bar in
1908. District judge, 19th district of Texas 1920-24; associate justice
Court of Civil Appeals, Waco, 1931 to 1940; Mason and Shriner.

John L. Alexander (1878-1932) Executive Director of American

Youth Foundation 1924-32. Served in executive or secretarial capacity
for many religious and youth movements including Boy Scouts,
Y.M.C.A. Mason.
Lord Alexander Scottish records show him to be one of the
earliest of the speculatives (July 3, 1634) Lodge of Edinburgh. He was
Right Honorable Master of the Work to His Majesty.

Nathaniel Alexander (1756-1808) Governor of North Carolina,

1805-07. Surgeon in the Revolutionary War. Served as an officer of the
G.L. of North Carolina in 1802, '03, '06, '07 and was senior grand
deacon at his death in 1808.

Prince Alexander of Orange (Netherlands) Grand Master 1832-


Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg Initiated in 1808 in the Phoenix

Lodge in Paris. Was uncle of Emperor Alexander of Russia.

Robert Alexander (1863-1941) Major General U.S. Army.

Advanced in rank from a private in 1886 through grades to Brig. General
N.A., 1918 and Maj. General 1918-19 (temp.); Brig. General 1921 and
retired as Maj. General 1927. Served in Indian campaign of 1890-91,
Philippines, Cuba and Mexico as well as WW1. Mason.

Algert D. Alexis Rear Admiral U.S. Navy. b. June 25, 1897.

Appointed lieutenant (jg) in 1921 and advanced through grades to rear
admiral in 1950. His speciality in the service was naval construction and
he commanded many naval installations both at home and abroad,
including staff commander of the service force for the invasion of Japan.
He retired in 1954 and is now a consulting civil engineer. Raised in
Peter Williamson Lodge No. 323, Scranton, Pa. in 1920. Royal Arch
membership in Norfolk, Va. Past president of Charleston, S.C. chapter
of the National Sojourners.
Bernard Soto Alfaro Former president of Costa Rica. He
developed a national spirit in the country and is one of the most eminent
men produced by the Republic. He entered the lodge Esperanza when
a young man and was made "Protector of the Order" in the Supreme
Council, AASR.

Colon Eloy Alfaro Ambassador from Ecuador. b. Jan. 1, 1891,

son of Eloy Alfaro, Ecuadorian patriot and president. Educated in
Ecuador, U.S. Military Academy, German Cavalry School, and George
Washington University. Served as consul general to Canal Zone,
Panama, Mexico, Nicaragua, Guatamala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa
Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic and United States. Was
ambassador to U.S. 1936-44. He has also served his country on many
special diplomatic missions. Has been a member of the Board of
Governors of the Pan American Union at Washington, D.C., since 1947.
Mason and 33° AASR. Shriner. Member of Canal Zone Consistory as
are his three sons, Eloy, Jaime and Olmedo.

Eloy Alfaro (1842-1912) Ecuadorian liberator and president. b.

June 25, 1842 in Montecristi. He led an uprising against President
Cordero (1893-95) and declared himself anticlerical dictator and
president of Ecuador from 1897-1901 and 1907-11. He led the revolt of
1906 that deposed President Lisardo Garcia and became constitutional
president in 1907. As president he reduced the power of the Roman
Catholic church. More laws for the betterment of public schools and
social reforms for the people were enacted during his presidency than
there had been in the 120 years since the Republic was established.
Most of his life was spent in exile. As a disciple of Bolivar he advocated
Pan-Americanism and convened the second Pan American Congress in
Mexico City in 1896. Alfaro was responsible for the introduction of the
"Panama hat" to the world. While in exile in Panama, he imported the
Ecuador-made toquilla hats which he sold in great numbers to travelers
passing through the Isthmus. Having been purchased in Panama, the
hats were presumed to be products of the country and thus became
known as "Panamas." Alfaro attempted to aid Cuba in securing its
independence from Spain and in 1895 sent an impassioned letter to
Queen Marie Cristina of Spain, pleading for Cuban independence. He
resigned as president Aug. 12, 1911 hoping to prevent a revolt and
continue the liberal regime. When a new revolt broke out, he returned
from his exile in Panama hoping to effect a conciliation between the
factions. He was seized in Guayaquil and sent over the railway which he
had built to Quito where he was thrown into jail and a few hours later
(Jan. 28, 1912) was murdered. Affectionately called "Citizen of the
Americas," he has been honored with monuments and statues in Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico and the
United States. Busts of Alfaro in the U.S. are found in St. Augustine,
Florida; Lincoln, Nebraska; House of the Temple, Washington, D.C.;
Washington National Memorial at Alexandria, and Gainesville, Florida.
Even Spain named a street in his ancestral town of Cervera del Rio
Alhambra for him.

Bruce R. Alger Congressman, 84th Congress from 5th Texas

district. b. June 12, 1918. Owner of Alger Development Co., Bruce Alger
Realtor, Modernair Construction Co., all of Dallas. 32° AASR and

Russell A. Alger (1836-1907) Major General in Civil War,

working his way from the ranks. Served as governor of Michigan from
1885-87 and was Secretary of War under McKinley from 1897-99,
resigning at McKinley's request because of criticism directed against the
War Department for inefficiency. Member of Corinthian Lodge No. 241
of Detroit, being raised Dec. 9, 1895.

Francois D' Alincourt French gentleman, who, in the year 1776

was sent with Don Gyres de Ornellas Pracao, q.v. a Portuguese
nobleman, to prison, by the governor of the island of Madeira, for being

Sir Archibald Alison (1792-1867) English author. b. Dec. 29,

1792 at Kenley, Shropshire, England and d. May 23, 1867 at Glasgow,
Scotland. Received his degrees at Glasgow Kilwinning Lodge in 1837.
An historian; and as sheriff of Lanarkshire suppressed the riots of 1837.
Author of History of Europe during the French Revolution (1833-42) in
ten volumes and a nine volume continuation in 1852-59.

John S. Allard Brigadier General and corporation executive. b.

Jan. 16, 1897. Served overseas with Air Force, 1942-45, and promoted
from colonel to brigadier general in 1944. President of Curtis-Wright
Export Corp. since 1929; vice pres. of Curtis-Wright Corp. since 1929
and director of Wright Aeronautical Corp., Curtis-Wright Airplane Co.,
and Curtis-Wright Airports Co. Mason.

Herbert J. Allemang Vice president of Philco Corp. since 1951.

b. May 3, 1902. Raised in South Bend Lodge No. 294, South Bend, Ind.
in 1923. Member of AASR (NJ) in South Bend and Medinah Shrine

Alfred G. Allen (1867-1932) Congressman from Ohio to 62nd,

63rd, and 64th Congresses (1911-17). Lawyer. Mason.

Charles H. Allen (1848-1934) First governor of Puerto Rico. b.

April 15, 1848 at Lowell, Mass. He was a member of the Massachusetts
house of representatives in 1881 and '82 and in the state senate in
1883. He was a member of the 49th and 50th Congresses (1885-89),
and assistant secretary of the Navy from 1898-1900. After the United
States freed the island of Puerto Rico from a 400-year despotic rule of
Spain he became its first governor (1900-02). He was a member of
William North Lodge of Lowell, Mass.

Ethan Allen (1738-1789) Major General in Revolution. Gained

fame as a colonel commanding the "Green Mountain Boys," who with
Benedict Arnold, q.v., seized Fort Ticonderoga on May 10, 1775. He
was captured at Montreal and held prisoner from 177578, exchanged
and returned to Vermont. Although he has been described as one "who
seems to have been a Master Mason" it is thought that he only received
one degree at Windsor, Vt. on July 7, 1777. His brother Ira, q.v., was a
member of Vermont Lodge No. 1. Probably not a Mason. Was a
prisoner in England on date given for his first degree in Windsor, Vt.

Ethan N. Allen Baseball coach. b. Jan. 1, 1904. An outfielder

with various National League teams 1926-36 and with Browns of
American League since 1938; motion picture director of National
League public relations dept. 1938-42; head coach at Yale in 1946. Has
done sports announcing and written several books on baseball. Member
of Yeatman Lodge No. 162, Cincinnati, Ohio, 32° Ohio Consistory at
Cincinnati and Shriner.

Ezra G. Allen (1885-1952) Rear Admiral U.S. Navy. b. March 11,

1885 at Scranton, Pa. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 1907. Ensign.
U.S. Navy in 1907, advancing to rear admiral. Mason. d. January, 1952.

Frank G. Allen Former governor of Massachusetts. b. Lynn,

Mass. Oct. 6, 1874. Was raised in Orient Lodge, Norwood, Mass. June
23, 1920, receiving 33° in Northern Jurisdiction, Sept. 16, 1930.

George W. Allen (?-1928) Chief Justice Supreme Court of

Colorado, 1926-28. Member Pennsylvania House of Representatives
1874-76 moving to Colorado in 1880. Judge district court, Denver 1888-
1910. Republican nominee for governor 1896 and defeated for U.S.
Senator 1896. Justice of Supreme Court 1916-26. Died Jan. 29, 1928.
Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Henry J. Allen (1868-1950) U.S. Senator and former governor of

Kansas. b. Sept. 11, 1868 in Warren Co., Pa. Began as editor of
Manhattan Nationalist in 1894 and later owned and operated several
daily newspapers in Kansas; chairman of board of Wichita Daily Beacon
Publishing Co. Governor of Kansas from 1919-23 and appointed U.S.
Senator to succeed Vice-president Curtis in 1929. Assistant to Charles
G. Dawes, pres. of Reconstruction Finance Corp. in 1932. Editor of the
Topeka Journal from 1935 until death. Director of publicity for the
Hoover-Curtis campaign in 1928 and as president of the Great Lakes-
St. Lawrence Tidewater Assn., helped prepare treaty between U.S. and
Canada on that project. Active abroad in WW1 in Red Cross work.
Mason. d. Jan. 17, 1950.

Hervey Allen Author, who although not a Freemason, is one of

the few writers of historical novels to give credit for the part
Freemasonry played in our Revolutionary period. Among his writings
are Anthony Adverse, 1933; The Forest and the Fort, 1943; and Bedford
Village, 1944. b. Dec. 8, 1889. Mr. Allen wrote on May 23, 1944 as
follows: "Several members of the fraternity have written in asking if I
hold membership. I do not and never have. My father and grandfather
and a great many other relatives have been Masons for many
generations back, but for various reasons I have never joined. My
interest in the theme of Masonry in American life is purely historical, and
I think that my not being a member is at this time perhaps a help in my
stressing the theme, as I can do so without any suspicion of being a
special pleader from the inside. There is no doubt that for some reason
or other American historians have overlooked one of the prime and
deep-running influences in American life. As you know, there are many
reasons for that.”

Hubert A. Allen (1872-1942) Brigadier General U.S. Army.

Actively identified with Iowa national guard for 25 years. Served as
captain in Spanish-American war and appointed brigadier general in
1917. Mason.

Ira Allen (1751-1814) Brother of Ethan Allen q.v. and politically

active in the Revolutionary period. b. Cornwall, Conn., he with two other
fellow members of Vermont Lodge No. 1 (now 18), led the fight for
statehood of Vermont. The others were Thomas Chittenden q.v. and Dr.
Jonas Fay q.v. Between 1780 and 1791 he was in negotiation with the
British which was thought to force Congress to recognize Vermont's
claims—which they did on March 4, 1791. He assisted in the founding of
the Univ. of Vermont in 1789. He was initiated in Vermont Lodge No. 1
of Charleston, N.H. in 1782.

Ivan E. Allen Business executive who gave Fort Mountain to

state of Georgia; it is now one of the state parks. b. Mar. 1, 1877 at
Dalton, Ga. Chairman of Ivan Allen-Marshall Co.; Ivan Allen Bldg.,
Atlanta Blank Book Mfg. Co., and has served on many state political
and civic boards including term as state senator 1919-21. A Knight
Templar and Shriner.

James M. Allen General in the Civil War. A Mason.

J. Edward Allen Educator and writer. Instructor in public school

system of Warrenton, N.C. since 1907 and served as superintendent of
public instruction for Warren Co. since 1919. Member board of trustees
Wake Forest College since 1922; board of trustees, state school for
blind and deaf; on board of Oxford Orphanage. Grand Master G.L. of
North Carolina 1939-40. Also headed state York Rite bodies and Shrine.
Writer of many Masonic books and articles including revision of Goulds
History of Freemasonry published by Scribners in 1936. b. March 21,
1887 at Warrenton, N.C.

John Allen 3rd Viscount Grand Master, G.L. of Ireland, 1744.

John E. Allen (1873-1945) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New

Hampshire, 1934-43. Educated at Dartmouth and Harvard, he was
admitted to N.H. bar in 1897, serving as probate judge from 1899 to
1906. He was associate justice of Superior Court of N.H. 1917-24 and
1924-34 before becoming chief justice. Mason.
John M. Allen Major in Texas-Mexican War. He came to Texas
attracted by the rumors of impending conflict between Americans and
Mexicans. As commander of the armed ship Terrible, he had been
ordered to New Orleans for the purpose of recruiting soldiers for the
impending conflict. While in New Orleans he received a charter from the
grand secretary of the G.L. of Louisiana for Holland Lodge No. 36 to be
delivered to Anson Jones q.v. General Sam Houston q.v. sent an
orderly to Allen advising him of the impending clash and urging speed to
the reinforcements he had. Allen joined Houston's forces, carrying with
him the charter and other communications from the G.L. of Louisiana.
He met Anson Jones (to be first Grand Master of Texas) on the prairie
between Croce's and San Jacinto, while Houston's army was on the
march just before the battle of San Jacinto. Jones placed it in his
saddlebags and carried it through the battle of San Jacinto.

Lee E. Allen Congressman from 16th district of Illinois to 73rd to

80th Congresses inclusive (1933-49). b. Oct. 5, 1898 at Elizabeth, Ill.
Taught school, served as circuit court clerk and has practiced law since
1930. Mason.

Oscar K. Allen Former governor of Louisiana. Member of

Eastern Star Lodge No. 151, Winnfield, La.

Peter B. Allen General U.S. Army. First master of Terre Haute

Lodge No. 19, Terre Haute, Indiana.

William Allen Purchased the ground for the State House

(Independence Hall) at Philadelphia in 1729 and gave a grand banquet
in 1736 at the inauguration of the building. It was here that the
Declaration of Independence was signed.
Roger Allin Former governor of North Dakota. Member of
Golden Valley Lodge No. 6, Park River, N.D.

James B. Allison Major General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 15, 1873 at

York, S. Car. Appointed 2nd lieutenant in 1898 advancing through
grades to major general in 1935 when he became chief signal officer.
Retired in 1937. Served in Mexican War and WW1. Mason.

William B. Allison (1829-1908) U.S. Senator from Iowa 1873-

1909. b. March 2, 1829 at Perry, 0. Admitted to bar in 1850, he
practiced in Ohio until 1858 when he moved to Dubuque, Iowa. Raised
troops for Civil War and was U.S. Representative in Congress from
1863-71. In 1888 and 1896 he was a candidate for Republican
presidential nomination. A charter member of Mosaic Lodge No. 125 of
Dubuque, Iowa, he was honorary senior grand warden of the Grand
Lodge of Iowa in 1889.

James V. Allred Governor of Texas 1935-39. b. Mar. 29, 1899 at

Bowie, Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1924. Served as district
attorney 1923-25 and attorney general of Texas 193135. U.S. District
Judge, southern district of Texas 1939-42. Practicing attorney since
1942. Raised in Bowie Lodge No. 578 July 6, 1920. Received Scottish
Rite degrees in 1926. K.C.C.H.

Avery Allyn Anti-Masonic writer. Once a member of lodge,

chapter and commandery in Connecticut.

Edward B. Almon (1860-1933) Congressman from Alabama to

64th to 72nd Congresses (1915-33). b. April 18, 1860 at Moulton, Ala.
Admitted to bar 1883. Member Alabama state senate 1892-96 and
speaker of house of representatives in 1911. Judge of 11th circuit 1898-
1906. Mason.
James L. Almond, Jr. Congressman and attorney-general of
Virginia. b. June 15, 1898 at Charlottesville, Va. Served as prosecuting
attorney and judge at Roanoke and in the 79th and 80th Congresses
from Virginia. Has been attorney-general of Virginia since 1948. Past
potentate of Shrine.

Alfred S. Alschuler (1876-1940) Architect. b. Chicago, Nov. 2,

1876. Graduate of Armour Institute of Technology and studied at Art
Institute of Chicago. Designed the following Chicago buildings: London
Guarantee and Accident, Westminster, Cunard, John R. Thompson,
John Sexton, Utilities, Lake Michigan, Mercantile Exchange, Adams
Franklin and Garment Center buildings; plans of E. J. Brach & Son,
Chicago Mail Order, Sinai Temple and Isaiah Temple. Mason.

Richard Alsop (1761-1815) American author and poet. b.

Middletown, Conn. Was one of the Hartford wits, collaborating in the
writing of The Echo, a verse satire which appeared in the American
Mercury and published in book form in 1807. Among other works is A
Poem, Sacred to the Memory of George Washington (1800). A member
of St. John's Lodge No. 2, Middletown, Conn. There was a Richard
Alsop who became a member of Hiram Lodge No. 1 at New Haven,
Conn. in 1752 and may have been his father.

Wilbur M. Alter Chief justice, Supreme Court of Colorado since

1955. b. Dec. 17, 1879 at Allegheny, Pa. Admitted to Colorado bar in
1906. Judge of Supreme Court of Colorado from 1928-33; 1944-46;
1946 to present. Past state commander of American Legion. Served in
WW1 as an enlisted man. Raised in Victor Lodge No. 99, Victor, Colo.
in 1909. Demitted from chapter and commandery at Cripple Creek and
shrine in Denver.
Paul S. Althouse (1889-1954) American opera tenor. b. 1889 at
Reading, Pa., made his debut with Metropolitan Opera Co., N.Y. in
1913. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 435, Reading, Pa. 32° AASR
(SJ) at Reading, Pa. and member of Rajah Shrine Temple, Reading. d.
Feb. 6, 1954 and service was conducted by Grand Lodge of New York
at Rutgers Presbyterian Church on Feb. 8.

Francisco E. Alvarado Former secretary of state of Costa Rica.

He also served as president of the chamber of representatives and
administrator-general of railways. A member of Caridad Lodge No. 26.

Francisco P. Alvarado Costa Rican banker. He was one of the

founders of the Scottish Rite of Central America. A banker and teacher,
he was benefactor of San Juan de Dios Hospital. A member of Caridad
No. 26.

Carlos Maria de Alvear (1789-1853) Argentine patriot, general

and coworker with San Martin, q.v. He took a prominent part in the
liberation wars of Argentine both politically and militarily. In 1814 he was
the victorious besieger of Montevideo, Uruguay, and a year later was
named "supreme administrator." In 1839 he was appointed minister to
the United States, where he died. He was a founder of the Lau-taro
Lodge in 1812 together with San Martin, liberator of the country.

Claude B. Alverson (1878-1922) Judge, Supreme Court of New

York, 1921-22. Knight Templar, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Count Goblet d' Alviella (1846-1925) Belgian writer on religious

history, and politician. Also known as Comte Eugene. Was grand
commander of the Supreme Council 33° of Belgium.
Richard IL Amberg Publisher of St. Louis Globe-Democrat from
Sept., 1955. b. June 5, 1912 in New York City. Graduated from Harvard
in 1933. Editor and publisher of newspapers in Oil City and Knox, Pa.
from 1937-41 and also Sportsman's Hunting & Fishing Digest same
years. He was director of publicity for the American Transit Assn. from
1945-47 and general manager of Newsday in 1947-49. In 1949-50 he
was administrative assistant on the New York Herald Tribune and
general manager and director of The Post Standard, Syracuse, N.Y.
from 1950-52. Raised in Oil City Lodge No. 710, Oil City, Pa. in 1938.
Member of Oil City Chapter No. 236, R.A.M. and Talbot Cornmandery
No. 43, K.T. both of Oil City. 32° AASR, Valley of St. Louis (SJ).
Member of St. Leo Conclave No. 71, Red Cross of Constantine,
Syracuse, N.Y. and Moolah Shrine Temple, St. Louis, Mo.

John Frederick Amelung Early American glass manufacturer. In

March, 1789 he visited George Washington at Mt. Vernon and
presented him with two engraved gobets with Washington's coat of
arms. A zealous Mason, he established a lodge in Frederick Co.,
Maryland sometime between 1790 and 1799.

James E. Ament (?-1936) College president and educator. b.

Woodburn, Ill. Graduated from Illinois Normal, Transylvania Univ. and a
Ph.D. from Oskaloosa College. Served as president of state teachers
colleges in Oklahoma, Missouri, Indiana and Pennsylvania. Inspected
educational facilities in England, Scotland, France, Germany and
Switzerland. Ament became president of the ultra National Park
Seminary for Women at Washington, D.C. in 1916 and was president
and owner until his death in 1936. He was a 32° AASR (SJ).

19 Leopold S. Amery

Leopold S. Amery (1873-1955) English publicist, statesman and

mountaineer. b. Nov. 22, 1873 in India. Friend of Winston Churchill q.v.
at school days in Harrow and later when he was correspondent of the
Times in the South African War when Churchill was correspondent of
Daily Telegraph. He served with the army in Flanders and Near East
(1914-16). He became first lord of admiralty in 1922, serving until 1924
when he became secretary of state for colonies 1924-29 and secretary
for dominion affairs from 1925-29. In 1945-49 he was secretary for India
and Burma. Endowed with a strong physique, he was an avid
mountaineer and three peaks have been named for him—one in South
Africa Drakenberg, one in the Canadian Rockies and the third on
Kerguelen Island on the edge of the Antarctic. Member of Canada
Lodge No. 3527, London and 10th master of that lodge in 1920.

Ezra Ames (1768-1836) Portrait painter. b. Framingham, Mass.

May 5, 1768. Painted portraits of Washington, Alexander Hamilton,
John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Martin Van Buren,
George Clinton, DeWitt Clinton. Served as grand high priest of the G.C.
of New York for 24 years, and was general grand scribe of the General
Grand Chapter for ten years (1806-16). From 1816-20 he served as
grand captain general of the Grand Encampment, Knights Templar.
Died Feb. 23, 1836.

Oliver Ames Former governor of Massachusetts. Although his

membership is not known, he was made an honorary member of
Columbian Lodge of Boston; was present at a meeting of Washington
Lodge in Roxbury March 15, 1866; delivered a Masonic oration before
Meridian Lodge, Natick, Mass., June, 1888.

Louis Amiable (1837-1897) French Masonic historian.

Arthur Oliver Villiers, Lord Ampthill (1869-1935) English

nobleman of the Russell family, holding the earldom of Bedford (from
1550), dukedom of Bedford (from 1694) and barony of Ampthill (from
1881). b. Feb. 19, 1869 at Rome, Italy where his father was British
ambassador. Linguist and rowing man, he saw service in WW1, being
twice mentioned in dispatches and attaining the rank of brevet colonel.
He served as private secretary to Joseph Chamberlain (1895-99) and
was governor of Madras from 1899 to 1906. In 1904 he was appointed
acting Viceroy of India. Ampthill was appointed by King Edward VII
(then grand master) as provincial grand master for Bedfordshire on Nov.
17, 1891, and later served 27 years as pro grand master (1908-35)
under H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught. He was one of the founders of the
National Party in 1918. Member of Apollo Lodge, Oxford, England.

Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) Discoverer of South Pole. A

Norwegian polar explorer. b. Borge, Norway. He discovered the South
Pole in December, 1911. In 1903-06 he navigated the northwest
passage and fixed the position of the North magnetic pole, and in 1926
he flew across the North pole with Lincoln Ellsworth. He disappeared in
June, 1928 on flight to rescue Nobile who was lost returning from North
Pole. Said by several sources to be a Freemason but no lodge ever

Charles L. Anceney (1863-?) Pioneer cattle rancher of the West.

b. April 17, 1863 at Denver, Colo., he was in charge of a cattle outfit at
the age of 14. Anceney was with the first herd of cattle going into lower
Yellowstone ranges in 1879 and was on the first drive to Bismarck, N.
Dak. in 1881. At one time he swam the Missouri river and loaded a
shipment of cattle to Buffalo, N.Y. Fought with Sioux, Blackfeet and
Cheyenne Indians. Was an associate of Child & Anceney (Harry W.
Child), 1910 in the Flying D. Cattle Ranges, covering 500,000 acres and
furnishing support to 15,000 to 25,000 head of cattle. President of
Gallatin Gateway State Bank, promoted Camp Creek Branch of
Northern Pacific Railway which terminated at townsite of Anceney,
Mont. Mason. Deceased.

William, Earl of Ancrum Fortieth Grand Master of Scotland,

1794-95 and later the 6th Marquis of Lothian.

Clinton P. Anderson U.S. Secretary of Agriculture and senator.

b. Oct. 23, 1895 at Centerville, S. Dak. Was state treasurer of New
Mexico 1933-34; member of 77th to 79th Congresses from New Mexico
(1941-47); secretary of agriculture in Truman's cabinet (1945-48) and
elected U.S. Senator from N. Mexico in Nov., 1948. Was raised in
Albuquerque Lodge No. 60 in 1917. Member of Rio Grande Chapter No.
4, R.A.M. and Pilgrim Commandery No. 3, K.T. 32° AASR in Orient of
New Mexico; KCCH in 1937 and 33° in 1945. He is past potentate of
Ballut Abyad Shrine Temple (1937), member of Tall Cedars of Lebanon,
Santa Fe Conclave No. 55, Red Cross of Constantine, National
Sojourners and Royal Order of Jesters.

Edward Anderson (1833-1916) Clergyman and Civil War soldier.

b. Nov. 19, 1833. Studied theology and was ordained pastor in the
Congregational ministry in 1858. Served pastorates in Michigan, Ill.,
Ohio, and Conn. In the Civil War he served with John Brown in Kansas;
was chaplain of the 37th Illinois Volunteers until after the Missouri
Campaign in 1862 and was colonel with the 12th Indian Volunteer
Cavalry until close of war. Mason.

George T. Anderson General in Confederate army. Said to have

been a Freemason.

George W. Anderson (1861-1938) Judge. b. Sept. 1, 1861 at Acworth,

N.H. Attended Boston Law School and Boston University, opening
practice in 1890. U.S. District Attorney of Mass. 1914-17; member
interstate commerce commission 1917-18; became judge U.S. Circuit
Court of Appeals, Boston, 1918. Retired. Trustee World Peace
Foundation and Cushing Academy. Mason. Died Feb. 14, 1938.

Heartley W. "Hunk" Anderson Notre Dame football coach.

Member of Calumet Lodge No. 271, Calumet, Michigan.

Jack Z. Anderson Congressman to 76th to 80th Congresses

from California (1939-49). b. March 22, 1904. An orchardist at San Juan
Bautista, Calif. since 1923. Raised in Texas Lodge No. 46, San Juan
Bautista, Calif. on Dec. 20, 1946.
James Anderson (1680?-1739) Compiler of the famous
Anderson's Constitutions of 1723 and 1738 which are recognized as
being the first printed volumes dealing officially with Freemasonry. The
records of the United Grand Lodge of England show that Bro. James
Anderson was ordered to "digest the old Gothic Constitution in a new
and better method," on Sept. 29, 1721. Only three months later Dr.
Anderson presented his finished production to the grand lodge (Dec. 27,
1721), which has come down to us as the basis for all Freemasonry.
The historical part, however, which traces the history from the Garden of
Eden to 1721 is quite fanciful, unreliable and pretentious. No one today
would quote that part as an authority. It was not until the following
March (1722) that a committee was appointed to examine the character
of the revision, and it was not until 1723 that the volume came from the
printer. The first edition was followed by a second in 1738, the latter
being more valuable because it contains some history about the grand
lodge covering the period 1717-1738. James Anderson, M.A., D.D., was
born about 1780 at Aberdeen, Scotland, and was educated at Marischal
College where he received his M.A. degree and it is thought he earned
his D.D. degree about 1731 from the same college. There are no
records of his life from the time of his receiving his college training until
after his arrival in London. It is recorded in state records that he and his
church (Scotch Presbyterian) purchased a lease of the French
Protestant Chapel in Swallow St., Piccadilly on Feb. 15, 1709-10 from
Rev. Jean Desaguliers, minister of the church and father of Dr. J. T.
Desaguliers q.v. Anderson came from a Masonic family; his father
serving as secretary of the well known Scottish Lodge Aberdeen and as
master in 1688-89. It is highly possible that the son may have entered
Freemasonry during the period the father served as master. Little can
be learned of his Masonic connections previous to 1721. He was not at
the revival of Freemasonry in 1717, but he assumed the station of grand
warden of the grand lodge, January 17, 1723, and was master of Lodge
No. 17 in 1723 (Masonic students have not been able to identify this
lodge.) He was, however, shown as a member of Lodge of the Horn in
1723, and later of other lodges meeting in London. In addition to the
Constitutions, he was the author of some non-Masonic books including
Royal Genealogies, or the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings and
Princes, from Adam to These Times (1732) and Unity in Trinity (1733).
He attended grand lodge fifteen times between 1723 and 1728, acting
as grand warden on four occasions. His death was May 28, 1739,
shortly after he had issued the second edition of the Constitutions. He
was buried in Bunhill Fields with Masonic services, and accounted for
the ear- liest known account of a Masonic funeral which appeared in the
London Daily Post of June 2, 1739: "Last night (June 1) was interr'd the
corpse of Dr. Anderson, a Dissenting Teacher, in a very remarkable
deep Grave. His pall was supported by five Dissenting Teachers, and
the Rev. Dr. Desaguliers; it was followed by a dozen of Freemasons
who encircled the Grave; and after Dr. Earle had harangued on the
Uncertainty of Life &c, without one word of the Deceased, the Brethren,
in the most solomn dismal Posture, lifted up their Hands, sigh'd, and
struck their aprons three times in Honour to the Deceased.”

Jesse T. Anderson State superintendent of education of South

Carolina since 1946. b. Oct. 26, 1892 at Timmonsville, S.C. Member
board of trustees of Univ. of South Carolina, The Citadel, Winthrop
College and state school for the blind. Past master and member of all
York Rite bodies serving as deputy grand commander in 1951.

Joseph I. Anderson (1757-1837) Senator from Tennessee from

17951815 and first comptroller of U.S. Treasury, 1815-36. b. White
Marsh, Pa. and served through Revolutionary War as captain and
brevet major. He was a member of Military Lodge No. 19 of
Pennsylvania. When serving as regimental paymaster of the 1st New
Jersey he was a member of Lodge No. 36 in the New Jersey Brigade.
After the war he became 1st senior warden of Princeton Lodge No. 38

Richard C. Anderson (1750-1826) Officer of the American

Revolution. He was first master of Lexington Lodge No. 25 (now 1 of
Kentucky) and was presumed to have been a member of
Fredericksburg No. 4 of Va., as he was very close to General
Washington. b. Jan. 12, 1750 in Hanover Co., Va. As a captain in the
5th Virginia Continentals, he led the advance of the Americans at the
battle of Trenton in 1776, crossing the Delaware in the first boat; was
wounded in this action; promoted to major of the 6th Virginia in 1778
and transferred to the 1st Virginia in Sept., 1778. Fought in battles of
Brandywine and Germantown and was again wounded at Savannah
May 12, 1779 and taken prisoner at Charleston in May, 1780. A daring
leader he was at the death-bed of Count Pulaski q.v. and the dying Pole
gave him his sword as a memento. After the war he removed to the
wilderness of Kentucky near Louisville, and led the life of a pioneer and
Indian fighter until advancing civilization pushed the frontier farther west.
He obtained the charter for the Louisville lodge from the Grand Lodge of
Virginia. d. Oct. 16, 1826.

Robert Anderson (1805-1871) Major General U.S. Army who

was in command of Fort Sumter at time of Confederate attack. Known
as "hero of Fort Sumter." b. in Kentucky and graduated from West Point
in 1825. Raised in Mercer Lodge No. 50, Trenton, N.J. May 27, 1858.
He was also an honorary member of Pacific Lodge No. 233 of New York
City. In 1859 he was senior warden of Mercer lodge, but was ordered to
another station and withdrew at the end of the year. He received the
Knight Templar orders in Columbian Commandery No. 1 of New York
City in December, 1862 and January, 1863 and was made a life
member Oct. 28, 1867. d. Nice, France Oct. 27, 1871.

Robert B. Anderson Secretary of the Navy in Eisenhower

cabinet (appointed in 1953) and deputy secretary of defense (which he
resigned in 1955). b. June 4, 1910 at Burleson, Texas, he received his
law degree from University of Texas in 1932.

While still in law school he ran for the state legislature and won.
He served as assistant attorney-general of Texas in 1933 and taught
law at Texas University. Anderson has served as general manager of
the Waggoner estate—and largest cattle ranch in Texas—since 1941.
He has probably been director and president of more large corporations
than any one man in Texas. He is a member of Vernon Lodge No. 655
of Vernon, Texas and while Secretary of the Navy returned from
Washington to be installed as master on Oct. 17, 1953. In December,
1953 he was appointed grand senior steward of the G.L. of Texas and
addressed the G.L. at the 1954 communication. He is a member of the
Chapter, Council and Commandery at Vernon, the AASR (SJ) and
Maskat Shrine Temple.

Robert H. Anderson Brigadier General in Confederate Army.

Served as commander of Palestine Commandery, K.T. No. 7 at
Savannah, Georgia in 1886-87.

Rudolph M. Anderson Zoologist, explorer, writer and

government official. b. June 30, 1876 near Decorah, Iowa. Ph.D. from
University of Iowa in 1906. Taught zoology and was associated with
many schools and museums in U.S. and Canada. Was chief of division
of biology of National Museum of Canada from 1920-46. Active in
biological and anthropological explorations to Arctic Alaska, Yukon and
Northwest Territories 1908-12; chief of southern party Canadian Arctic
Expedition 1913-16; naturalist on Canadian Arctic expedition to
Greenland and Canadian Arctic Archipelago, 1928. Mason.

Sigurd Anderson Governor of South Dakota (1951-55). b.

Arendal, Norway, Jan. 22, 1904 and brought to U.S. in 1906, becoming
a citizen upon his father's naturalization in 1912. Graduated in law from
the University of South Dakota in 1931. Was assistant attorney general
of South Dakota in 1941-43 and later attorney general. Served as an
officer in the U.S. Navy in WW2. Now with the Federal Trade
Commission in Washington. He was raised in Coteau Lodge No. 54 at
Webster, S. Dak. in 1943; member of Rabboni Chapter No. 23, RA.M.,
Webster; Temple Council No. 7 R. & S.M. Pierre; and Damascus
Commandery No. 10, K.T. Aberdeen; 32° AASR at Yankton; Yelduz
Shrine Temple at Aberdeen; Order of Eastern Star, Webster; and
National Sojourners in Washington, D.C. He served as grand orator of
the Grand Lodge of South Dakota.

Thomas 0. Anderson Naval officer U.S. Navy. As a lieutenant,

he assisted Commodore Decatur in destroying the ship Philadelphia in
the harbor of Tripoli in 1804. Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 23 Newton,
N.J. on Nov. 28, 1803.

Victor Emanuel Anderson Governor of Nebraska since 1955. b.

March 30, 1902 at Havelock, Nebr. Owner of Anderson Hardware &
Plumbing Co. since 1924; Victor Anderson Bottle Gas Co. since 1946;
president Havelock (Nebr.) National Bank; Nebraska state senator in
194950. Raised in George Washington Lodge No. 250, Lincoln, Nebr. in
1928. Member of AASR (SJ) at Lincoln, Nebraska. Also member of
Shrine, Jesters and DeMolay.

Wilhelm A. Anderson Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. July 22,

1894 at Hana-Maui, T.H. Served as 1st lieutenant in WW1. Called to
active service in 1940 and made brigadier general (temp.) in 1942.
Mason and National Sojourner.

William F. Anderson (1860-1944) Bishop, Methodist Episcopal

Church. b. April 22, 1860 at Morgantown, Va. (now W. Va.) Ordained in
1887 and elected bishop in 1908, retiring in 1932. During that time he
was resident bishop of Chattanooga, Tenn., Cincinnati, Ohio, and
Boston, Mass. He was acting president of Boston Univ. in 1925-26.
Visited many foreign missions prior to WW1 and during that war made
five trips abroad as member of Emergency and Reconstruction
Committee of the church. Mason and 32° AASR.

William H. Anderson Prohibitionist. b. Aug. 8, 1874 at Carlinville,

Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan and Illinois Wesleyan. His
attorney-ship for the Anti-Saloon League of Illinois led him into a lifetime
fight against alcohol. His successful fight for the Illinois local option law
brought him to New York in 1906-07 as associate supt. of the New York
Anti-Saloon League and state supt. of the Maryland League from 1907-
14. He returned to New York in 1914 and was general state supt. of
their League until 1924, securing enough congressional votes to submit
the 18th Amendment. His defeat of the Tammany organization caused
them to indict him in July, 1923 for an "alteration" of the League's books
(which the auditors had officially approved). He was convicted in Feb.,
1924 and sent to the state prison for nine months in spite of the
League's denunciation of it as "a monstrous perversion of justice." He
founded the American Christian Alliance of which he has been general
secretary since 1926. Mason and 32° AASR.

Gomez Freire d' Andrade (1685?-1763) Portuguese general and

administrator. b. Coimbra. Governor and captain general of Rio de
Janerio (1733-63.) Celebrated in de Gama's epic poem, Epicos
Brasileiros. He was a Venerable of the Lodge Virtude at Lisbon and a
member of the Lusitanio Grand Orient.

General Ignacio Andrade President of the Republic of

Venezuela from 1898 to 1899. A 32° Freemason.


Thomas G. Andrews Count Gyula (Jules) Andrassy (1823-1890)

Hungarian patriot and statesman. b. March 3, 1823. Allied himself with
Louis Kossuth q.v. in the revolt of 1848 and was exiled until 1857 when
he returned to Austria. During his exile he became a Freemason in 1851
in France. He was elected to the diet in 1861, becoming its vice-
president in 1865. He was first constitutional prime minister in 1867,
foreign minister in 1871, and plenipotentiary at Congress of Berlin in
1878. d. Feb. 18, 1890.

Christopher Karl Andre Austrian cleric. An active Freemason

who resided at Brunn, Moravia, where, in 1789, he was director of the
Evangelical Academy.
Johann Valentin Andrea (1586-1654) Protestant theologian,
alchemist, satirical writer and early Rosicrucian. Said to have been a
Mason. Grandson of Jakob Andrea, theologian active in organizing and
uniting the Lutheran church in Germany.

Adolphus Andrews ( 1879 - 1948 ) Vice admiral commanding the

Eastern Sea Frontier of WW2 (1942-43). b. Oct. 7, 1879 at Galveston,
Texas and graduated from Naval Academy in 1907. Promoted through
grades to rear admiral, 1934. Naval aid to Theodore Roosevelt, Harding
and Coolidge. Commanded several ships including Mayflower,
Massachusetts and Texas. Commanded New London, Conn. submarine
base 1927-29; chief of staff Naval War College, 1931-33; chief of staff,
U.S. Fleet, 1934-35; chief of Bureau of Navigation, 1935-38; Raised in
Temple Noyes Lodge No. 32, Washington, D.C. on July 13, 1911, d.
June 19, 1948.

Alexander B. Andrews (1873-1946) Lawyer, writer. b. Feb. 2,

1873 at Henderson, N.C. Admitted to N.C. bar in 1894. Prominent in
Episcopal lay circles; delegate to American Council on Education 1932-
37; member board of trustees Univ. of N.C. from 1927. Grand master of
G.L. of N.C. 1917 and grand commander, grand commandery 1907.
Wrote Digest of Masonic Law, 1841-1926. d. Oct. 21, 1946.

Charles 0. Andrews (?-1946) Senator from Florida from 1936-

46. b. Ponce de Leon, Fla. Admitted to bar in 1907 and served variously
as judge of criminal court, assistant attorney general of Florida, circuit
judge and member of Florida house of representatives. Member of
Orlando Lodge No. 69, Orlando. d. Sept. 18, 1946.

Frank Andrews (1864-1936) Judge, Supreme Court of Texas

from 1918. b. Fayette Co., Texas, June 15, 1864. Assistant attorney
general of Texas, 1891-95; judge court of civil appeals, 1899. d. Dec. 7,
1936. Mason.
Isaac Andrews Private secretary to George Washington. A
member of Dundee Lodge No. 123, Dundee, N.Y.

Robert Andrews Revolutionary chaplain of the 2nd Virginia

regiment in the Continental Army. This illustrious clergyman was the
acting master of the meeting at which John Blair, Jr. was chosen as the
first grand master of masons in Virginia on October 13, 1778, and later
presided over the grand lodge when Blair was installed. He later
became grand master himself. He was past master of Williamsburg
lodge at the time he opened the October 13th meeting of the grand

Thomas G. Andrews (1882-1942) Justice, Supreme Court of

Oklahoma 1929-35. b. Aug. 29, 1882. Admitted to Oklahoma bar in
1911. Active in Oddfellows, serving as G.M. of Oklahoma and
representative to the supreme grand lodge for 14 years. Member of the
ritual revision committee and chairman of judiciary committee (natl.).
Elected grand sire 1937. He was a Knight Templar, 33° AASR and
Shriner. d. Sept. 1942.

Harvey A. Andruss President of State Teachers College,

Bloomsburg, Pa. since 1939. b. Feb. 19, 1902 at Fort Worth, Texas, he
has had a long and distinguished career as teacher, lecturer and
advisor to labor, business and government on business law,
bookkeeping, accounting and civil service. Mason, 32° AASR.

William R. Angell (1877-1950) President of Continental

Aeronautic Corp. b. Feb. 10, 1877 at Jesup, Iowa. Admitted to Illinois
bar in 1899, beginning with Continental Motors in 1916 and becoming
president from 1930-39. In addition to the Aeronautic Corp., he has
served as president of Continental Aircraft Engine Co., Continental
Divco Co., Home Finance Co. and Midland Corp., as well as being a
director of several other companies. Mason. d. Jan. 25, 1950.

Frank M. Angellotti (1861-1932) Justice, Supreme Court of

California, 1902-14. b. Sept. 4, 1861 at San Rafael, Calif. Raised in
Marin Lodge No. 191, San Rafael Feb. 3, 1886, serving as master from
1888-90 and grand master of G.L. of California 1898-99. He was a
member of the jurisprudence committee from 1899 until his death May
23, 1932.

Albert H. Angstman Justice, Supreme Court of Montana. b.

March 23, 1888 at Farmington, Minn. Admitted to Minn. and Mont. bar in
1912. Assist, attorney-general of Montana 1921-28; assoc. justice
supreme court 1929-35; counsel Public Service Comm. of Montana
1935-37; assoc. justice supreme court 1945-51. Raised in Helena
Lodge No. 3, Helena, Mont. in 1918 and served as its master. Member
of Helena Chapter No. 2, R.A.M. and past high priest; Helena Council
No. 1, R. & S.M. and Helena Commandery No. 2, K.T. 32° AASR in
Helena Consistory and member of Shrine since 1925.

Levi Ankeny (1844-1921) U.S. Senator from Washington 1903-

09. b. Aug. 1, 1844 near St. Joseph, Mo., he crossed plains with parents
to Oregon in 1850. Early in life he was a Wells Fargo agent and later in
the mercantile business in Lewiston, Idaho, where he was the first
mayor. He later moved to Walla Walla, Wash. where he was president
of seven banks in Washington and Oregon. He became a member of
Willamette Lodge No. 2 of Portland in 1866, affiliating with Walla Walla
Lodge No. 7 in 1878, serving as master in 1881. He was past high priest
of Walla Walla Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. and member of Washington
Commandery, K.T. No. 1. He was a KCCH in Lawson Consistory, AASR
and member of El Kalif Shrine at Spokane. d. March 29, 1921.

Louis Annance (1794-1875) Chief of the St. Francis Indians, a

vigorous and powerful tribe of the Quebec province. b. Aug. 25, 1794 at
Saint Francis du Lac in the county of Yamaska, Quebec. He received
his early education from the Jesuits who subsequently secured his
admission to a school in Hanover, N.H., but as he was about to enter
college the war of 1812 was declared and he was summoned back to
his tribe to serve under the British. In 1817 he publicly renounced
Catholicism and joined the Congregationalists. It was about this time
that he became, by laws and rules of his tribe, successor to his father as
chief and ruler, but having become a Protestant, was subjected to
persecution and annoyance so he moved to Hanover, N.H. where he
connected himself with the Methodists and was made a Freemason in
North Star Lodge of Lancaster, N.H. in 1834. In 1835 or 1836 he

26 Matthew Arbuckle to Greenville, Maine where he lived near

Moosehead Lake. He died Dec. 25, 1875. The G.L. of Maine issued
dispensation to Doric Lodge which erected a tombstone over his grave
in the Greenville cemetery.

Martin F. Ansel Former governor of South Carolina. Mason.

Martin C. Ansorge Congressman, lawyer and business

executive. b. Jan. 1, 1882 at Corning, N.Y. Began law practice in New
York City in 1906 after graduation from Columbia Univ. Member of the
67th Congress from N.Y. in 1921-23 and author of Edge-Ansorge Port
of New York Authority bills for the comprehensive development of the
Port of New York. Was one of the first to advocate construction of Tri-
Borough Bridge and first chairman of its committee. Attorney for Henry
Ford in SapiroBernstein libel cases. Director of United Air Lines. Raised
in Mt. Nebo Lodge No. 257, New York City in 1907.

Charles L. Anspach College president. b. March 5, 1895 at

Fremont, Ohio. Received degrees from Ashland College, Univ. of
Toledo and Ph.D. from Univ. of Michigan in 1923. Was president of
Ashland College (Ohio) from 1935-39 and has been president of Central
Michigan College of Education at Mt. Pleasant since 1939. Active in
many civic and religious organizations on state and national scale.
Member of Ashland Lodge No. 151, Ashland Chapter No. 67, RAM,
Ashland Council No. 128 R. & SM., all of Ashland, Ohio, and Mansfield
Commandery, K.T. No. 21 of Mansfield, Ohio. Received 32° AASR (NJ)
in Bay City Consistory, Bay City, Mich., and is a member of Elf Khurafeh
Shrine Temple, Saginaw, Mich.

Jules Anspach (1826-1879) Lord mayor of Brussels, Belgium

and master of the lodge Les Amis Philantropes.

Duke d' Antin Elected "perpetual Grand Master" of the

Freemasons of France on June 24, 1738, serving until 1743.

Dr. Carl Gottlob von Anton German Masonic writer who wrote
several books on Templarism. d. Gorlitz, Nov. 17, 1818.

Earl of Antrim (see William Randal) Frank Appleby (1864-1924)

Congressman from N.J., 67th Congress (1921-23). b. Oct. 10, 1864. In
real estate and insurance business in Asbury Park, N.J. starting in 1885.
Member N.J. State Board of Education from 1894-1902. Mason. d. Dec.
15, 1924.

Troy W. Appleby (1874-1947) President of Ohio National Life

Insurance Co. b. Oct. 2, 1874 at Morrisville, Mo. Started with the Ohio
company as an actuary in 1905 and served as president from 1922.
Active in many youth and social organizations and Methodist church. d.
April 21, 1947. Mason and 32° AASR.
Sylvanus Apps Ice hockey player. Captain of the Toronto Maple
Leafs. Member of University Lodge No. 496, Toronto, Ont., Canada.

Emmanuel Arago (181 2- 1896 ) French politician, senator and

barrister. Mason.

Matthew Arbuckle (1774-1851) Brigadier General in Mexican

War. b. Greenbrier, Va. in 1774, he entered the U.S. Army as an ensign
in 1800. Was sent to the Oklahoma territory to supervise the newly
removed Indian tribes in 1821, establishing Fort Gibson and Fort
Towson near the Kiamichi for this purpose. Fort Arbuckle was named
for him. d. June 11, 1851 at Fort Smith and buried with military and
Masonic honors. The remains were afterwards reinterred at his

John Arbuthnot (1667-1735) Scottish physician and writer. Was

physician in ordinary to Queen Anne (1709). A close friend of Swift, he
authored witty political pamphlets including The History of John Bull, a
satire against the Duke of Marlborough, which popularized and fixed the
modern conception of John Bull as the typical Englishman. He was also
the author of a number of medical and scientific papers. Reported to be
member of a London lodge.

Branch T. Archer (1790-1856) Texas patriot. b. in Virginia and

came to Texas in 1831 where he was active in measures for Texas
independence. He served as secretary of war of Texas under President
Lamar. He was raised in Harmony Lodge No. 62 at Pridewell, Amelia
Co., Va. in 1808 and later became a member of Manchester Lodge No.
14 at Manchester becoming its master in 1821. He signed the petition
for St. John's Lodge No. 5 of Texas.
P. C. Archer General in Confederate Army. Member of Paris
Cornmandery, K.T. No. 9 of Texas.

Leslie C. Arends Congressman from Illinois to 74th to 81st

Congresses (1935-51). b. Sept. 27, 1895. Mason.

James C. Argetsinger (1883-1955) Vice president of

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. b. Dec. 12, 1883 at Burdet, N.Y. Lawyer.
Secretary of the above firm from 1932-49. Vice president since 1935.
Mason. d. June 16, 1955.

7th Duke of Argyle (George William) 54th Grand Master Mason

of Scotland, 1822-23.

Richard Arlen Movie actor. Member Utopia Lodge No. 537, Los
Angeles, Calif.

Modeste Armijo Former Nicaraguan minister of education and

chief justice of the Supreme Court. A Masonic guest in Connecticut in
June 1945.

Lewis A. Armistead (1817-1863) American army officer. b. New

Bern, N.C., he served in the U.S. army from 1839-61 and in the
Confederate army 1861-63, receiving the rank of brigadier general in
1862. He was killed in Pickett's charge at Gettysburg. Member of
Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va. Also charter member of Union
Lodge No. 7, Ft. Riley, Kans.
David H. Armstrong(1812-1893)U.S. Senator from Missouri
1877-79. b. Oct. 21, 1812 in Nova Scotia, Canada. He received an
academic education at the Maine Wesleyan seminary and moved to St.
Louis in 1837 where he opened and taught the first public school in the
state on April 1, 1838. He was comptroller of St. Louis from 1847 to
1850 and a member of the board of police commissioners from 1873-75
and again in 1877. Armstrong was a member of Washington Lodge No.
9 of St. Louis.

Donald Armstrong Brigadier General, U.S. Army and business

executive. b. April 15, 1889. Served in the two world wars. Promoted to
general rank in 1942 and was chief of the Tank Automotive Center at
Detroit in 1942; commanding general of Ordnance Replacement
Training Center, Aberdeen, Md. 1943; commandant of Army Industrial
College, Washington, D.C. 1944. President of U.S. Pipe and Foundry
Co. since 1948. Mason.

George E. Armstrong Brigadier General U.S. Army, surgeon. b.

Lawrence Co., Ind. Aug. 4, 1900. Served in Army Medical Corps since
1925. Theater surgeon of C.B.I. and later surgeon China Theater 1944-
46. Deputy surgeon-general with rank of general since June 1947.
Raised in Bedford Lodge No. 14, Bedford, Ind. on March 12, 1922.
AASR membership in Valley of Indianapolis; 33°, honorary. Member of
Murat Shrine Temple, Indianapolis.

Harry L. Armstrong President of Castle Heights Military

Academy, Lebanon, Tenn. since 1929. b. July 19, 1888 at Logan, Ohio.
President of Association of Military Colleges and Schools of the U.S. in
1942. Raised in Mingo Lodge No. 171, Logan, Ohio in 1909.

Harry W. Armstrong (1879-1951) American composer famous

for the all-time favorite Sweet Adeline which he wrote in 1903 with
words by Richard H. Gerard. b. Somerville, Mass. He was raised Feb.
20, 1922 in Montgomery Lodge No. 68, New York City and affiliated with
John Stewart Lodge No. 871 in 1932.

John Armstrong ( 1758 - 1843 ) American revolutionary officer;

general in War of 1812, secretary of war, U.S. senator and minister to
France. b. Carlisle, Pa. Was deputy adjutant general in the American
Revolution and wounded at Germantown. In 1783 he wrote a series of
anonymous letters in effort to force Congress to pay arrears to army
officers. He was U.S. senator from New York from 180004 and U.S.
minister to France 180410. As secretary of war 1813-14, he was held
responsible by many for the military failures in the War of 1812. Raised
in Army Lodge No. 19 on register of G.L. of Pennsylvania and later
seems to have become a member of Old Cone Lodge No. 9 at
Salisbury, N.C. He may have affiliated later in New York as there is
such a name listed as a member of Hibernia Lodge No. 339.

J. P. Taylor Armstrong Business executive. b. New London,

Conn. July 1, 1882. President of Belding Heminway Co. since 1937;
president Corti-cell Silk Co. 1920-32, working hisway up from mill clerk.
Director of La France Industries, United States Testing Co., Stowell Silk
Spool Co. Active in local government and charities. Mason and 32°
AASR (N.J.).

Lebbeus Armstrong Anti-Mason. A clergyman who became a

Scottish Rite Mason and later an anti-Mason.

Sir Richard Armstrong (?-1823) British lieutenant general

commanding forces in West Canada. He entered the Queen's Rangers
as a captain and afterward became major. He showed great efficiency
as a partisan officer on the Royalist side during the Revolution. In 1783
he was appointed with Capt. Saunders to prepare a parting address for
Col. John G. Simcoe q.v., the intrepid leader of the rangers. He was
advanced to colonel in 1797; to major general in 1803 and to lieutenant
general in 1809. A Mason.
Thomas Armstrong, Jr. (1857-1937) Lawyer, public benefactor.
b. July 18, 1857. Admitted to Wisconsin bar in 1880 and practiced in
Portage. President of 1st National Bank of Portage 1891-92, moving to
Phoenix, Arizona in 1892 where he engaged in law practice and was
president of the 1st National Bank of Arizona 1924-29. He was the
donor of the Pueblo Grande Ancient Ruins to the city of Phoenix. d.
Nov. 1937. Mason.

Edward F. Arn Governor of Kansas 1952-55. b. Kansas City,

Kansas May 19, 1906. Began law practice in Wichita in 1936; attorney
general of Kansas 1947-49; associate justice Supreme Court of Kansas
1949-51. Raised in Wyandotte Lodge No. 3, Kansas City, Kansas in
1927. 32° AASR (SJ), Orient of Kansas at Wichita, National Sojourners
Chapter No. 24 at Wichita, DeMolay Legion of Honor and Senior
member, International Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay. Member of
Midian Shrine of Wichita and member of patrol from 1937-47; honorary
life member of Korein Temple at Rawlins, Wyo. and deputy to imperial
potentate of the Shrine in 1954-55.

Elmer R. Am (1886-1951) Surgeon. b. July 8, 1886 at Arnhelm,

Ohio. Received M.D. from Univ. of Cincinnati in 1911 and did post
graduate work in Berlin and Vienna Universities. Specialist in goiter. Dr.
Arn became a Mason in 1908. As grand master of the G.L. of Ohio
(1935-36) he devoted much of his time to the Ohio Masonic Home—a
service which he continued until his death. In 1930 he received the 33°
and two years later was crowned an active member of the Supreme
Council being elected deputy for Ohio in 1946 and continuing until he
retired in 1950. His most distinctive service to Freemasonry was his
leadership of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial
Association from 1938 until his death. In those 13 years he visited grand
lodges throughout the country presenting this cause which meant most
to him. He died December 24, 1951 and, in compliance with Arn's
request, his ashes were dropped by airplane on the Washington
Ellis G. Arna11 Governor of Georgia, 1943-47. b. March 20,
1907 at Newnan, Ga. Admitted to Georgia bar in 1931. Served as
member of state house of representatives and speaker pro tern from
1933-37; attorney general of Georgia 1939-43. Since 1947 he has been
president of the Dixie Life Insurance Co.; president of the Society of
Independent Motion Picture Producers since 1948. From 1947-51 he
was a member of the National Comm. for UNESCO. Member of
Cowetta Lodge No. 60 at Newnan, Ga., since 1931.

Albert F. Arnason State commissioner of higher education, North

Dakota since 1943. b. Hensel, N.D., March 12, 1908. Taught in public
schools and became president of N.D. School of Forestry, 1938-43.

Thomas A. Arne (1710-1778) English musical composer. He

wrote music for Joseph Addison's Rosamund (1733); Fielding's Tom
Thumb, or the Opera of Operas (1733); Milton's Comus (1738);
Thomson and Mallet's Masque of Alfred (1740 which included the song
Rule Britannia). In addition to the oratorios Abel (1755) and Judith
(1764), he composed many songs, as those for the Tempest (1746) and
light operas. Mason.

Ben Arnold Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma 1941-53. b.

Newark, Ark., Oct. 24, 1892. LL.B. from Univ. of Oklahoma in 1925 and
admitted to bar same year. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner.

Benedict Arnold (1741-1801) America's most notorious traitor. b.

Norwich, Conn., Jan. 14, 1741. His early life was spent in trade with the
West Indies, but volunteered for service at the outbreak of the
Revolution and with Ethan Allen q.v. captured Fort Ticonderoga on May
10, 1775. He was the leader of an unsuccessful campaign to capture
Quebec in 1775, but, as a brigadier general in 1776, stopped a British
thrust from Canada down Lake Champlain. In 1777 as a major general
he repulsed a British force in the Mohawk Valley and aided in forcing
Burgoyne's surrender. While in Philadelphia (1778-79) as commander,
he was court-martialed for irregularities and reprimanded by
Washington (in kind words). It was here that he began treasonable
correspondence with the British and while in command at West Point
(1780), he arranged to surrender that key position to the British. The
plot was discovered by the capture of Major Andre on Sept. 23, and
Arnold fled to the British. He was commissioned a brigadier general in
the British army and received £6,315 in compensation for his property
losses. He then led an expedition into Virginia which burned Richmond
and made an attack on New London, Conn. in Sept. 1781, returning to
London in December of that year. Disappointed at the failure of his
plans and embittered by the neglect and scorn which he met in England,
he gradually sank into a melancholia and died in London June 14, 1801.
His last words were reported as: "Let me die in the old uniform in which I
fought my battles for freedom. May God forgive me for putting on any
other." There is no question that Arnold was a Freemason. Wallace in
his Traitorous Hero says he was admitted a member in a lodge "in the
West Indies" which may well be true as he was there in his early days
before the Revolution. The first record in Book II of Hiram Lodge No. 1,
New Haven, Conn. (April 10, 1765) record that "Br. Benedict Arnold is
by R.W. (Nathan Whiting) proposed to be made a member (i.e. an
affiliate) of this R.W. Lodge, and is accordingly made a member in this
Lodge." This was ten years before his first action in the Revolution. His
name appears frequently on the records of Hiram lodge until about
1772. After his defection the lodge erased his name from membership
and he was abandoned as a Mason. On June 12, 1771 he visited
Solomons Lodge No. 1 at Poughkeepsie, N.Y. and on May 16, 1781 the
lodge by vote "ordered that the name of Benedict Arnold be considered
as obliterated from the minutes of this Lodge; a Traitor" (with figure of a
hand pointing to word "traitor.") This was done and the old records show
his name partially obliterated by pen marks.

Henry H. "Hap" Arnold (1886-1950) Commanding general of the

U.S. Air Force. b. June 25, 1886 at Gladwyne, Pa. Graduated from
West Point in 1907 and a pioneer in military aviation, who in 1912 was
awarded a trophy for "a 30-mile flight." From a 2nd lieutenant in 1907 he
advanced to the highest American rank in 1944—that of a 5-star
general. He was flight commander of the U.S. Alaska Flight of 1934;
assistant chief Air Corps, 1936-38; chief of Army Air Corps, 1938;
commanding general Army Air Forces, 1942. He was raised in Union
Lodge No. 7, Junction City, Kansas on Nov. 3, 1927, received the 32°
AASR on April 11, 1929 at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas and 33° on Oct. 19,
1945. d. Jan. 15, 1950. On Nov. 21, 1958 the lodge at Edwards A.F.B.,
Calif. was constituted as General Henry H. Arnold Lodge No. 791.

John C. Arnold Justice, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. b.

March 10, 1887 at Durwensville, Pa. Admitted to Pennsylvania bar in
1910. Judge of superior court (appellate) 1945-53. Justice of supreme
court since 1953. Raised in Garfield Lodge No. 559, DuBois, Pa. on
Nov. 7, 1912. Member of AASR, Valley of Williamsport, Pa. and
received 33° in 1952. Member of Jaffa Shrine Temple at Altoona, Pa.

Remmie LeRoy Arnold Pen manufacturer and Imperial Potentate

of Shrine (1953-54). b. Jan. 25, 1894 at Petersburg, Va. Started the R.
L. Arnold Pen Co. in 1935 which has grown to the second largest pen
company in the world. Served as president of the American War Dads
during WW2, making a trip to England as guest of Lord Halifax, British
Ambassador, visiting camps, hospitals and front lines. On his return he
toured the United States at his own expense to report directly to the
American people and wrote over 5,000 letters to parents of men with
whom he had talked. Served as president of the Southern States
Industrial Council. Ran for governor of Virginia in 1949. Raised in
Powhatan Starke Lodge No. 124, Petersburg, Va. on Feb. 24, 1928.
Royal Arch Mason and Knight Templar in 1930 and 32° AASR in 1928.
Received Royal Arch in Petersburg Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. and knighted
in Appomattox Commandery No. 6, both of Petersburg, Va. in 1930.
AASR (ST) in Richmond, Va., receiving 33°. Member of Acca Temple,
Royal Order of Scotland, Royal Order of Jesters in Richmond, Order of
Quetzacoatle in Mexico City, National Sojourners and Heroes of '76 at
Fort Lee, Va., chairman of board of Shriners Hospitals, and Legion of
Honor, DeMolay.

Samuel W. "Wat" Arnold Congressman from Missouri 78th to

80th Congresses (1943-49). b. Sept. 21, 1879 near Downing, Mo.
Taught school and served as superintendent from 1896 to 1903. Owner
of lumber business and radio stations. Member of the following Masonic
bodies of Kirksville, Mo. Adair Lodge No. 366; Caldwell Chapter No. 53,
R.A.M; Ely Commandery No. 22.

William W. Arnold Congressman from Illinois to 68th to 74th

Congresses (1923-37), resigning to become member of U.S. Board of
Tax Appeals (now The Tax Court of the U.S.) on which he has served
since 1937. Knight Templar and 32° AASR. Died Nov. 23, 1957.

Sir Lauriston J. Arnott Managing Director of the Irish Times,

Dublin, Ireland. Served as master of Meridian Lodge XII in Dublin in
1952. Also member of Lodge of Erin No. 2895, London, England.

Jacob Aronson (1887-1951) Vice president and general counsel

of New York Central Railroad since 1947. b. Jan. 2, 1887 at Brooklyn,
N.Y. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1908. Associated with New York Central
since 1906 as attorney, general attorney and counsel. Director of
several other corporations. Mason. d. Jan. 13, 1951.

J. Hugo Aronson Governor of Montana since 1952. b. Sept. 1,

1891, Gallstad, Sweden. Came to U.S. in 1911. Director of Toole Co.
Bank, Shelby, Mont. since 1927 and president since 1940. Member
state house of representatives 1939-45; senator 1945-53. Mason. King
Gustav VI Adolf q.v. of Sweden appointed him as representative of the
G.L. of Sweden to the G.L. of Montana. His appointment was in
Swedish, accompanied by an English translation, but Aronson could
read the original. Received degrees in Shelby Lodge No. 143, in 1924
and later demitted to Cut Bank Lodge No. 82, Cut Bank, Mont. Member
of Tyrean Chapter 34, R.A.M. and Cut Bank Council R. & S.M. No. 11 at
Cut Bank and Golden West Commandery 24, K.T. at Shelby, Mont. 32°
AASR in Valley of Helena. Was senior steward of Shelby Lodge at time
of his transfer. Member of Algeria Shrine Temple and Shelby Chapter
No. 113, O.E.S. Received "Hats Off" award from Edward C. Day
Chapter, DeMolay in Helena.
Chester A. Arthur (1830-66) President of the United States,
1881-85 on death of Garfield. Was not a Mason. Although often referred
to as a "Mason, brother, and worthy member of the Craft" by early
publications, there is not one shred of evidence that points to his

Harold J. Arthur Governor of Vermont. b. Feb. 9, 1904 at

Whitehall, N.Y. Admitted to bar in 1932 and has been in civil and
criminal practice since that date. Clerk of Vermont lower house 1939-43,
lieut. governor of Vermont 1949-50 and elected governor in 1950.
Served as an officer, U.S. Army WW2, 1941-46. Mason, Knight
Templar, 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner.

John M. Arthur Brigadier general U.S. Marine Corps. b. April 12,

1893. Graduate of Infantry School, Fort Benning, Command and
General Staff School, Ft. Leavenworth, Naval War College. From 2nd
lieutenant Marine Corps in 1917 he advanced to brigadier general in
1946. Served in Cuba 1917-19. Aide to White House during Harding
and Coolidge administrations. Subsequently served in Nicaragua,
China. Legislative liaison officer of Marine Corps to Congress, 1934-37.
Chief-of-staff, Fleet Marine Force 1940-41; commander of combined
forces during Guadalcanal campaign 1942-43. Mason.

Thomas Arthur (1860-1925) Chief justice, Supreme Court of

Iowa (192325). b. July 12, 1860. LL.B. University of Iowa. Judge of
district court of Iowa, 1911-20; justice Supreme Court of Iowa, 1920-23.
Mason. d. Sept. 15, 1925.

Gotthardus Arthusius Wrote many works on Rosicrucianism

under the assumed name of Irenaeus Agnostus. Was rector of the
gymnasium of Frankfort-on-the-Main.
Earl of Arundel (Thomas Howard) (1585?-1646) Tradition places
him as grand master of English Freemasons from 1633 to 1635 and the
claim is in accordance with the accounts of Anderson and Preston. He
was the 14th Earl, and became a Protestant in 1615; president of the
committee of peers on Bacon's case in 1621; general of the army
against the Scots in 1639. He was one of the first large scale collectors
of art in England, and his collection of statues, pictures, guns, coins,
manuscripts and marbles was presented to Oxford in 1667 by his

William Arundel (?-1816) Early American merchant and fur

trader. He was first secretary of Western Star Lodge No. 107 at
Kaskaskia, the first capital of Illinois. Arundel was raised in St. Andrews
Lodge, Quebec, Canada. When No. 107 at Kaskaskia was formed on
Sept. 27, 1805, he was a charter member. He was located at Kahokia
(Ill.) as early as 1783, but had resided near Peoria at an earlier date. He
had emigrated from Ireland to Canada and possessed a good education
for that time.

Jacob M. Arvey Political boss of Chicago and prominent national

Democratic political figure. b. Chicago, Nov. 3, 1895. Served as state's
attorney in 1918-20; master in chancery, circuit court of Cook Co. 1930-
34; alderman 24th ward, Chicago, 192341; chairman Cook Co. Central
Committee, Democratic party. Mason.

Charles G. Ashbrook President of North American Life

Insurance Co. of Chicago. b. Nov. 1899 at Granville, Ohio. Graduated
from Denver Univ. in 1921 and started as a clerk with North American,
working his way successively up to president in 1955. Raised in Nunda
Lodge No. 169, Crystal Lake, Ill. on May 7, 1938. Member of Woodstock
Chapter No. 36, R.A.M. and Woodstock Council, R. & S.M. and Calvary
Commandery No. 25, K.T. all of Woodstock, Illinois. Served as master
of Nunda Lodge No. 169 in 1942. Joined Medinah Shrine Temple in
Frank G. Ashbrook Fur animal expert. b. York, Pa., Oct. 20,
1892. B.S. in agriculture, Pa. State College, 1914; with Bureau of
Animal Industry, Dept. of Agriculture 1914-18 and on leave from dept. to
French High Commission, 1919-20. In charge of fur-bearing animal
work, Div. of Fur Resources, Biological Surveys, U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture since 1921. Traveled in Japan and China in 1937 for
Treasury Dept. to obtain information on methods of dressing dog, lamb
and kid skins imported to U.S. Author of many books in field. Mason.

William A. Ashbrook (1867-1940) Congressman from Ohio to

60th to 65th Congresses (1907-21) and 74th and 75th Congresses
(1935-39) from 17th Ohio district. b. July 1, 1867 at Johnstown, Ohio.
Publisher and editor of Johnstown Independent from 1885-1940.
Mason. d. Jan. 1, 1940.

George F. Ashby Railroad president b. Sept 3, 1885 at Mt. Airy,

N.C. Started with railroad industry as a clerk with the Atlantic Coast Line
in 1906. With Union Pacific RR Co. since 1921, serving as president
and director 1946-49. Also president and director of Oregon Short Line,
Oregon-Washington RR and Navigation Co.; Los Angeles and Salt Lake
RR; St. Joseph and Grand Island; Laramie North Park and Western;
Saratoga and Encampment Valley and Des Chutes RR. Mason and

Turner Ashby (1824-1862) Confederate Brigadier General in

Civil War. b. Rose Hill, Va. He was a grain dealer in Markham, Va., and
afterward a planter and politician. At the outbreak of the Civil War he
raised a regiment of cavalry. Being a fine horseman and daring by
nature, he soon distinguished himself. He met his death in a skirmish
preceding the battle of Cross Keys, Va. on June 6, 1862. He was a
member of Equality Lodge No. 44, Martinsburg, W. Va. and was buried
Bowman F. Ashe ( 1 88 5 - 1 95 2 ) President of University of
Miami from 1926. b. Scottdale, Pa., April 3, 1885. Regional director
Social Security Board for Southeastern States, 1936-38 and regional
director War Manpower Committee for Southeastern States, 1942.
Mason. d. Dec. 16, 1952.

Rev. Jonathan Ashe Author of Masonic Manual, 1814 which he

copies from Hutchinson without giving credit.

Dr. Carl Wilhelm Asher First translator into German of the

Halliwell or Regius Manuscript, which he published at Hamburg in 1842
under the title of Alteste Urkunde der Freimaurerei.

Edward Ashley (1854-1931) Clergyman, missionary to Dakota

Indians. b. Road Hill, England Dec. 12, 1854, came to U.S. in 1873 and
naturalized in 1889. Became Episcopalian deacon in 1877 and priest in
1881. Served as general missionary among Sioux Indians for 57 years.
Mason and 33° deputy in South Dakota for Supreme Council (SJ). d.
March 30, 1931.

James M. Ashley (1824-?) Governor of Montana. b. Nov. 14,

1824 near Pittsburgh, Pa. Clerked on boats of Ohio and Mississippi
rivers, became editor of the Dispatch and later the Democrat at
Portsmouth, 0. Admitted to bar, but never practiced. Elected five times
to U.S. Congress from Ohio, serving from 1859-1869. Four times
chairman of the committee on territories, it was under his supervision
that the territories of Arizona, Idaho and Montana were organized.
Appointed governor of Montana in 1869. Raised March 2, 1853 in
Toledo Lodge No. 144, Toledo, Ohio.

Elias Ashmole (1617-1692) Most learned English antiquarian of

his day. A Royalist in the Civil War. In 1672 he published an exhaustive
history of the Order of the Garter which is now an exceedingly rare
volume. In 1677 he presented a collection of rarities to Oxford University
which became the Ashmolean Museum. His importance to Freemasonry
stems from the diary which he kept with great care. Masonic historians
have generally set the date of speculative Masonry as 1717 when the
G.L. of England was formed. His diary entry of Oct. 16, 1646 stated that
he had been made a Freemason at 4:30 p.m. at Warrington, Lancashire
with Col. Henry Mainwaring of Karincham, Cheshire. At this time
Ashmole was a captain in Lord Ashley's regiment and also Comptroller
of the Ordnance on the King's side. Mainwaring, of whom there is
frequent mention in the bulletins of the civil war, was a staunch
Parliamentarian. The diary also gives the names of those that were then
members of the lodge which seems to justify the conclusion that they
were in the habit of associating in Masonic fellowship for some time. It is
noteworthy that not a single operative Mason was present on this date.
His diary therefore earned him the name of "first speculative English
Freemason." d. May 18, 1692.

Henry F. Ashurst Former U.S. Senator from Arizona. Married as

Catholic and afterwards withdrew from the fraternity.

John W. Askew Comptroller of Post Office Department,

Washington, D.C. since 1949. b. Nov. 1, 1901. With postal service since
1920. Now regional comptroller at Atlanta, Ga. Raised Oct. 6, 1925 in
Corinthian Lodge No. 266 at Norfolk, Va.

William D. Askren Justice Supreme Court State of Washington

1924-28. b. Oct. 1, 1885 Mount Ayr, Iowa. Admitted to bar 1908. Judge
of Superior Court, 1920-04. Mason and past potentate Ai Shrine
Temple, 1926-27.

Richard Aspinall Educator. b. Dec. 1, 1881 at Bolton, England.

President Western State College, Gunnison, Colo., 1927-30. Director of
student affairs and assistant to president of West Virginia University
1930-48. Superintendent of Moosehart Home and School, Moosehart,
Ill. (Loyal Order of Moose) since 1948. Received his degrees in Terra
Alta Lodge No. 106, W. Va. about 1922 and later member of
Morgantown Union Lodge No. 4, Morgantown, W. Va. 32° AASR(SJ) at
Wheeling, W. Va. and KCCH. Member of Osiris Shrine Temple at
Wheeling. Served as grand prelate, Grand Lodge of West Virginia circa
1932-44. Has served many times as orator for Masonic events. Grand
chaplain G.L. of W.V. 1936-43.

Wayne N. Aspinall Congressman from Colorado to 81st

Congress (194951). b. April 3, 1896 at Middleburg, Ohio. Graduate of
Univ. of Denver and Denver Law School. Admitted to bar 1925. Member
of state legislature of Colorado from 1931-38 and speaker of house
1937-38. State senator 1939-48. Participated in Normandy drive WW1
as American officer with British forces. Raised in Palisade Lodge No.
125, Palisade, Colo. in 1926. Member of Grand Junction Chapter No.
24, R.A.M.; Grand Junction Council No. 16 R. & S.M. and Temple
Commandery No. 23, K.T., all of Grand Junction, Colo. 32° AASR (SJ)
in Valley of Grand Junction, receiving KCCH. Served as master of
Palisade lodge and also as secretary. Member of El Jebel Shrine

Rupert F. Asplund (1875-1952) Tax and budget expert. b. June

26, 1875 at Little Indian, Ill. M.A. and LL.D., Illinois College,
Jacksonville, Ill. Instructor of Latin and Greek at Univ. of New Mexico
1902-09. Secretary State Tax Commission (N.M.) 1917-18; director
Taxpayers' Assn. of N.M. since 1918; editor and manager of N.M.
Journal of Education, 190719; director of N.M. State Budget, 1919-41;
comptroller State of N.M. 1930. Grand Master of G.L. of N.M. 1947-48.
Deputy of Supreme Council AASR (SJ) for N.M. from 1935. d. Dec. 7,

John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) German-American financier and

czar of the fur trade. b. Duchy of Baden, Germany, July 17, 1763,
corning to U.S. in 1784 and entering the fur trade. He incorporated the
American Fur Co. in 1808 and the Pacific Fur Co. in 1810. He founded
the city of Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River as a trading post
but lost it to the British in 1813. During the War of 1812 he made large
and profitable loans to the government. Astor invested heavily in New
York real estate and by 1817 had monopolized the Mississippi valley fur
trade and that of the upper Missouri from 182234. He sold his fur
interests in 1834 and retired to administer one of the largest fortunes
made in America. He was one of the first members of Holland Lodge
No. 8, New York City and served as master in 1788. He was grand
treasurer of the G.L. of New York from 1798 to 1801; was junior grand
warden pro tern on two occasions, 1798 and 1801. For a time he was
secretary of a commandery (then called encampment) that met in
Holland lodge room at 66 Liberty street, New York City. d. March 29,

David R. Atchison (1807-1886) Ex-officio President of the United

States for one day (March 4, 1849) because President Taylor was not
sworn in until March 5. b. Aug. 11, 1807 at Frogtown, Ky. Lawyer,
politician and congressman, 1843-55. Member of Platte Lodge No. 56,
Platte City, Mo. (now extinct). d. June 26, 1886.

King Athelstan (895-940) King of England; son of King Edward

the Elder and grandson of King Alfred the Great. His connection with
Masonry is purely legendary, resting on the Old Charges. The Regius
Poem states that: "Thys craft corn yn to englond as y yow say yn tyme
of good kynge adelsonus day." It is further stated that he summoned an
assembly of Masons for the purpose of drawing up a charter. A later
manuscript refers to a charter he gave to the Masons on the
intercession of his son, Edwin, but Athelstan died unmarried.

John 3rd Duke of Atholl (17291774) Heir to Scottish title held by

Murray family. Sold the sovereignty of Isle of Man to the British Crown in
1765. Grand master, G.L. of England (Antients) 1771-74. Also G.M. of
Scotland in 1773. (Scots spell it "Athole.") John, 4th Duke of Atholl
(17551830) Created Earl Strange in peerage of Great Britain in 1786.
He succeeded his father as grand master of G.L. of England in 1775,
serving until 1781 and again from 1791-1813. Was grand master of G.L.
of Scotland from 1778 to 1779.

George Augustis, 6th Duke of Atholl Served as 66th Grand

Master Mason of Scotland 1843-63 while Lord Glenlyon. He was grand
master of England from 1843 until his death in January, 1864. The three
craft degrees were confered upon him at the same time and he was
installed as master at the same meeting in Grand Master Lodge No. 1.

John George, 8th Duke of Atholl Served as 79th Grand Master

Mason of Scotland 1909-13 while Marquis of Tullibardine. He later
became the 8th Duke of Atholl.

Harry W. Atkins Poultry industry executive. b. May 16, 1883 at

Streator, Ill. Judged 800 poultry shows and fairs in 38 years. Supt.
poultry department lowana Farms, 1910-16. Owner of Atkins Farm
Hatchery and Atkins Poultry Sales until 1943. President of American
Poultry Association 1938-40 and secretary since 1940. Former concert
work with Atkins Family Band and Orchestra. Organized and directed
Kaaba Shrine band 1915-25. Raised in Amity Lodge No. 483,
Huntington, Ind. on June 3, 1912. 32° at Davenport, Iowa in 1915.
Member of Mohassan Grotto.

Smith D. Atkins General, Union Army, Civil War. Mason and

Knight Templar at Galena, Ill. Member Illinois Masonic Veterans

Arthur K. Atkinson President of the Wabash Railroad since

1947. b. Denver, Colo., Oct. 19, 1891. Started as office boy with the D.
& R.G. Railroad in 1909. Has been with Wabash since 1922. He is also
an officer and director of the following railroads: Ann Arbor Boat Co.,
Ann Arbor Ry. Co., Detroit & Western, Lake Erie & Fort Wayne;
Manistique & Lake Superior, Menominee & St. Paul, N.J., Indiana &
Illinois, Wabash Motor Transit Co., Wabash Radio Corp., American
Refrigerator Transit Co., Belt Ry. of Chicago, Chicago & Western
Indiana, Kansas City Terminal. A Freemason since 1924, he is a
member of University City Lodge No. 649 (Mo.), exalted in Cabany
Chapter No. 140, R.A.M. Nov. 26, 1948 and knighted in St. Aldemar
Commandery No. 18, K.T. March 18, 1949. Council degrees in Hiram
Council No. 1, St. Louis, Sept. 3, 1952. AASR (SJ) in Valley of St. Louis
in 1948; KCCH on Oct. 20, 1953, he is president of the Scottish Rite
Endowment, Philanthropic and Educational Foundation and junior
warden in St. Louis Lodge of Perfection. He is viceroy of St. Louis
Conclave No. 42, Red Cross of Constantine and president of KCCH in
1956. Member of Moolah Shrine Temple. Member of board of governors
of St. Louis Shrine Hospital. Member of board of governors of DeMolay
Foundation, Inc. Active member-at-large for life of the International
Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay and member of Royal Order of
Jesters, St. Louis Court No. 81, since 1950.

George W. Atkinson (1845-1925) Governor of West Virginia

1897-1901. b. June 29, 1845 at Charleston, Va. (now W.Va.). Served as
internal revenue agent, postmaster and U.S. Marshal. Member of 51st
Congress (1889-91). Judge U.S. Court of Claims 1905-16. Raised in
Kanawha Lodge No. 20, Charleston Oct. 12, 1866. Wasgrand master of
W.Va. in 1876 and grand secretary of the G.L. of W. Va. from 1897 to
1901. Knight Templar. d. April 4, 1925.

Harry H. Atkinson Lawyer and U.S. Attorney for Nevada from

192634. b. Salt Lake City, Utah, May 22, 1881. Law degree from
Stanford in 1903. Admitted to California and Nevada bar in 1906.
Served with 1st Troop, Utah, U.S. Vol. Cay. in Spanish American War.
Grand master of the G.L. of Nevada 1920-21.

Theodore Atkinson Secretary of the Province of New Hampshire

(before statehood) and chief justice of New Hampshire in 1754.
Admitted December 22 (St. John's Day) to St. John's Lodge No. 1,
Portsmouth, N.H.
William Y. Atkinson (1855-1899) Governor of Georgia, 1894-96.
b. Oakland, Ga. and graduated from state university in 1877. Admitted
to Georgia bar in 1878. Member of state legislature 1886-94, being
speaker the last three years. In 1889 he founded the Georgia Normal
and Industrial College and was president of the board of trustees.
Buried Masonically.

William W. Atterbury (1866-1935) President of the Pennsylvania

Railroad from 1925. b. Jan. 31, 1866 at New Albany, Ind. Graduated
from Yale and started as an apprentice in the Altoona shops of the
Pennsylvania R.R. in 1886. While vice president in charge of
operations, he was granted a leave of absence in 1917 to direct the
construction and operation of U.S. military railways in France, and was
commissioned brigadier general. Was officer and trustee of many
corporations. He was raised in Colonial Lodge No. 631, Philadelphia,
Pa. in 1895. d. Sept. 20, 1935.

Frank E. Atwood (1878-1943) Judge, Supreme Court of Missouri

1925-35. b. Carrollton, Mo., Oct. 5, 1878. Attended Missouri University
and William Jewell College. Admitted to Missouri bar in 1904. Member
of Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1922. Mason. d. March 5,
1943. Belonged to Wakanda Lodge No. 52 at Carrollton and exalted in
George Washington Chapter No. 24, R.A.M. Nov. 21, 1913, demitting
from latter in 1938.

Henry C. Atwood (?-1860) Masonic writer. b. Connecticut and

settled in New York in 1825. Raised in York Lodge No. 197, New York
in 1835. Published The Master Workman; or True Masonic Guide in
1850. Organized a lodge and introduced ritual of Jeremy L. Cross. Was
a leader in establishing St. John's G.L. and was grand master at the
union in 1851. d. 1860.
W. K. Au One of the leaders in the establishment of the Grand
Lodge of China, and foremost Chinese Freemason of the present day.
He served for several years as an officer in his lodge and grand lodge.

Lord Auckland (see William Eden) Lord John Touchet Audley

Anderson states he was Grand Master of England from 15404548. He
was a patron of the building art in Magdalene College, Cambridge.

John James Audubon (1785-1851) American ornithologist and

artist known for his imposing works in full color of Birds of America
(1827-38). b. April 26, 1785 in Haiti. d. Jan. 27, 1851. Although
Audubon referred to himself as a "Mason" and "Brother" in his diary, no
proof has been found of his membership.

Berthold Auerbach (1812-1882) German patriot and writer.

Known for his pictures of life in the Black Forest. His fiction includes
Spinoza (1837); Schwarzwalder Dorfgeschichten (1843); Edelweiss
(1861); Auf der Hohe (1865). He translated Spinoza's works in 5
volumes in 1841. Initiated in 1838.

Pierre Francois C. Augereau (17571816?) nee Due de

Castiglione. French soldier created Marshal of France by Napoleon.
Distinguished himself at Lodi and Castiglione (1796) and carried
through the coup d'etat of Sept. 4, 1797. He served through the
Napoleonic wars throughout the empire period. Was premier grand
surveillant of the Grand Lodge Symbolique of France in 1805.

Edward Augustus, Duke of York b. March 14, 1738. Brother of

King George III. Was initiated in the Lodge of Friendship (later known as
Royal York Lodge of Friendship) Berlin, Germany on July 27, 1765.
Frederick Augustus, Prince of Brunswick (1740-?) b. 1740 the
second son of Duke Charles I. Affiliated with the Rite of Strict
Observance in 1769 and declared grand master of Prussia in 1772,
serving until 1799. Rendered distinguished service in the Seven Years'
War and is said to have written extensively on Rosicrucianism, alchemy
and magic.

Stanislas H Augustus King of Poland. (See Stanislas).

William Augustus, Crown Prince of Prussia (1722-1758) Member

of the Hohenzollern line and brother of Frederick the Great. Not
successful as a military leader and deprived of command in 1757 by
Frederick. Father of Frederick William II, who succeeded Frederick the
Great as king of Prussia. Member of Three Globes Lodge, Berlin.
(Lodge Drei Weltkugein) William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland b. April
26, 1721 in London. Initiated in 1743.

Dr. Isaac Auld (1769-1827) Physician and 3rd grand

commander, Supreme Council (SJ) (1822-26). b. Pennsylvania.
Received the 33°, January 19, 1802. Died at his home "Edingsville" on
Edisto Island, south of Charleston, S.C., Oct. 17, 1827.


Henry S. Aurand Lieut. General U.S. Army. b. April 21, 1894 at

Tamaqua, Pa. Graduate of West Point, 1915. Promoted through grades
to lieutenant general in 1948. Major in Ord. dept. during WW1. Comdg.
general 6th Service Command 1942-44; comdg. officer Normandy base
section, 1944; comdg. general Service of Supplies, China Theater,
1945; 6th Service Command, 1946; Africa-Middle East Theater, 1946;
director of research and development War Dept. General Staff 1946-48;
director of logistics General Staff from 1948. Retired. Member of
Shamokin Lodge No. 255, Shamokin, Pa.; Hawaiian Chapter No. 9,
National Sojourners and president of latter in 1952.
John C. W. Austin Architect. b. Feb. 13, 1870 at Bodicote,
England. An architect in Los Angeles, Calif. since 1894. Designed and
supervised construction of following Los Angeles buildings: Shrine
Auditorium, Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, California State
Building, St. Vincent's Hospital, Griffith Observatory, and Saint Paul's
Church. Collaborated in design and construction of Los Angeles City
Hall. Past president of Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. 32° AASR
(SJ) and member Al Malaikah Shrine Temple, Los Angeles.

Moses Austin (1765-1821) Secured a grant of 200,000 acres in

the province of Texas (under New Spain) on Jan. 17, 1821, but died on
his return trip to home in Missouri. His son Stephen F. Austin q.v.
carried out the colonization by his father's dying request the following
year. Although his Masonic membership has never been established, a
biographer (Adel-la Breckenridge Moore) states in the Congressional
Record, March 21, 1949 that "From things read in his printed letters I
believe Moses Austin to have been a Mason, and it might have beenthat
on some of his trips abroad he was made a Mason in London." It is
noted that in his statements to the Spanish authorities in December of
1820 he answered he was 53 years old, a Catholic, and former subject
of the King of Spain. This is not unusual, however, for Sam Houston q.v.
the first president of the Republic, who founded the G.L. of Texas was
also a Catholic. Only Catholics could hold land under the Spanish rule.

Stephen F. Austin (1793-1836) American colonizer of Texas

sometimes called "The Father of Texas." b. Nov. 8, 1793 in Wythe Co.,
Va., son of Moses (1761-1821) Austin, settling in Missouri in 1798. He
became a member of the Missouri Territorial Legislature in 1814 and
served until 1820. It was in this year that his father gained a tract of land
in what is now Texas. The father died before he could start his
colonization efforts and Stephen took over the project, becoming a
leader in the first colony of U.S. settlers in Texas. In Missouri he was
initiated in Louisiana Lodge No. 109 (first lodge West of the Mississippi)
at Ste. Genevieve, on June 23, 1815 at the age of 22. The lodge was
then under Pennsylvania charter. In Texas he headed the first attempt
to establish a lodge when in 1828 several Masons petitioned the
Yorkino G.L. of Mexico for a charter. He was named to be the first
master, but the petition was lost and the lodge never founded. From
1822-32 he directed the government in the colony, encouraging
immigration from the U.S. and maintaining peace and order. He was
imprisoned in Mexico City (183334) for urging Texas statehood and
separation from Coahuila. Although he was defeated for the presidency
(first) of Texas in 1836 by General Sam Houston q.v., he became first
secretary of state of the Republic of Texas and was commander-in-chief
of the Army of Texas. Austin, Texas is named for him, as is a Masonic
lodge in that state. d. Dec. 27, 1836.

Warren R. Austin United States Representative to United

Nations (1947-50). b. Nov. 12, 1877 at Highgate, Vt. Admitted to Vt. bar
in 1902. Served as mayor of St. Albans in 1909 and U.S. Senator being
elected in 1931, 1934 and 1940. As a special ambassador of the
president, he served as U.S. advisor to the United Nations in 1946, and
in 1947 was named as the United States first ambassador to the U.N.
with rank of ambassador E. and P. While with the U.N. he served as our
representative on the Security Council, made a goodwill mission to
Cuba in 1950 and was official guest of Dominican Republic, Haiti, Virgin
Islands and Puerto Rico. He was chairman of Committee for Permanent
Headquarters. In 1951 he was recipient of the Distinguished
Achievement medal of the G.L. of New York. He was raised in
Brattleboro Lodge No. 102 at Burlington, Vt. and later affiliated with
Franklin Lodge No. 4, St. Albans. A Knight Templar and Shriner he
received 33° AASR in September, 1944.

Gene Autry Singer, actor, producer, writer of screen, stage,

radio and TV. b. Sept. 29, 1907 at Tioga, Texas. Graduated from Tioga
high school in 1925. Began as a railroad telegraph operator in Sapulpa,
Okla. in 1925. Autry made first phonograph record of cowboy songs in
1929; radio artist WLS, Chicago, 1930-34; motion picture director since
1934; actor since 1934. His first picture was In Old Santa Fe and since
that time he has starred in 55 musical Western feature pictures. Joined
Army Air Force in 1942 as technical sergeant and discharged in 1945 as
flight officer. With the advent of TV after WW2 he produced and starred
in many productions. He has written over 250 songs including Silver-
Haired Daddy of Mine (1931); You're the Only Star in My Blue Heaven
(1938); Dust (1938); Tears on My Pillow (1941); Be Honest With Me
(1941); Tweedle O'Twill (1942). Raised in Catoosa Lodge No. 185,
Catoosa, Okla. in 1927. Life member of Long Beach, Calif. AASR (32°)
and life member of Al Malaika Shrine Temple, Los Angeles, Calif.

George W. Auxier Writer, political analyst, government official. b.

Nov. 27, 1905 Paintsville, Ky. A.B. and M.A. Miami Univ., Ph.D. Ohio
State Univ. Served as supt. Federal archives, Ohio; research asst. in
Library of Congress; asst. editor Territorial Papers of U.S., Dept. of
State; liaison officer Office of Censorship; historical officer, War
Department, General Staff 1942-44; principal policy analyst, Office of
Executive Sec. W.P.R., 1944-45; chief policy analysis staff, bureau of
demobilization, 194546; asst. general managers office U.S. Atomic
Energy Commission 1947; principal policy analyst U.S. Atomic Energy
Commission, 1947. General director research and reports National
Security Resources Board since 1947. Member of Takoma Park Lodge
No. 29, Takoma Park, Md. Author of many books and articles, historical
and current.

Henry G. Avers (1886-1947) Mathematician. Chief

mathematician of Geodetic Survey since 1924. Member of National
Geographic Society Committee of experts which determined that
Commdr. Byrd q.v. reached the North Pole by airplane in 1926 and the
South Pole in 1929. Mason 32° AASR, Shriner. d. Jan. 19, 1947.

Christopher L. Avery Justice, Supreme Court of Connecticut,

1929-42 (retired). b. Sept. 4, 1872. Graduate of Yale, A.B. 1893, LL.B.
1897. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1897 and moved to Connecticut in 1903.
Judge, Superior Court of Conn. 1920-29. Served as quartermaster, U.S.
Navy in Spanish American War. Member of House of Representatives,
1913. Mason.

Ray L. Avery Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 15, 1884,

Manchester, N.H. Graduate West Point, 1908. Advanced through
grades to brigadier general in 1940. Commanding general, Edgewood
Arsenal, Md. 1940-46. Retired, 1946. Mason.

William H. Avery Congressman from Kansas, 84th Congress. b.

Aug. 11, 1911, Wakefield, Kansas. Farmer, stockman, 1935-55;
member Kansas state legislature, 1951-55. Received degrees in
Wakefield Lodge No. 396, Wakefield, Kansas in 1954-55-56.

S. B. Axtell Former governor of New Mexico and Utah. Member

of Amador Lodge No. 65, Jackson, Calif.

John Thomas Axton ( 1870 - ? ) Chief of chaplains, U.S.A. b.

July 28, 1870, Salt Lake City, Utah. General secretary to YMCA 1893-
1902. Chaplain U.S. Army, 1902 and in 1920 appointed colonel and
chief of chaplains; retired in 1928. Served in P.I. twice, Mexican border
5 years and duty at Port of Embarkation, Hoboken, N.J., WW1. He
officiated at the interment of America's unknown soldier at Arlington
National Cemetery Nov. 11, 1921. Mason. deceased.

Charles B. Aycock (1859-1912) Governor of North Carolina,

1901-05. b. Nov. 1, 1859 at Fremont, N.C. Degrees from Univ. of North
Carolina and Univ. of Maine. Practiced law at Goldsboro, N.C. Served
as county superintendent of schools, U.S. district attorney. His bust is in
Statuary Hall, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. He served as grand orator
of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina in 1897. d. April 4, 1912.

Atlee B. Ayers Architect. b. July 12, 1874, Hillsboro, Ohio.

Architect in San Antonio since 1899. Architect of Smith-Young Plaza
Hotel, Federal Reserve Bank Building and Municipal Auditorium, all of
San Antonio, Texas. Collaborated in Blind Institute, Austin, and
Administration Building, Randolph Field, Texas. Mason, 32° AASR (SJ).
George F. Ayers (1865-1913) President of Lindenwood Female
College, St. Charles, Mo., 1902-13. b. May 17, 1865 at Hannibal, Mo.
Active Presbyterian, author and Mason. d. Oct. 23, 1913.

William A. Ayers Congressman from Kansas 64th to 66th

Congresses (1915-21) and 68th to 73rd Congresses (1923-35),
resigning upon appointment as Federal Trade Commissioner in 1934,
reappointed in 1940 and again in 1947. Mason 33° AASR, Shriner. d.
Feb. 17, 1952.

Sir George Aylwen Lord Mayor of London (circa 1949-51) Junior

grand warden of the G.L. of Mark Masters of England and Wales,
installed Sept. 6, 1949.

William Edmonstoune Aytoun (1812-65) Scottish poet and

parodist. Educated at Univ. of Edinburgh and at Aschaffenburg,
Germany. He began contributions to Blackwood's in 1836; professor of
rhetoric and belles letters, Univ. of Edinburgh, 1845. Author of Poland,
Homer, and Other Poems (1832); Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers (1848);
Firmilian a Spasmodic Tragedy (1854) and Poems and Ballads of
Goethe (1858). Annotated collection of Ballads of Scotland, (1858).
Active member the Scottish grand lodge and representative there of the
Grand Lodge Royal York of Germany.

Miguel de Azcuenaga (1754-1833) Argentine patriot. Helped

defend the city of Buenos Aires against the first British attack. Was
active in the May 1810 revolution and was part of the first "junta" or
governing council. Later appointed chief of the general staff.
Irving B. Babcock President of General Motors Truck Corp.
since 1935. b. June 25, 1891 at Milwaukee, Wis. LL.B. DePaul Univ. in
1916. Also president and director of Yellow Truck & Coach Mfg. Co.,
vice president of General Motors Corp. since 1943 and director of
several large corporations. 32° AASR.

Catherine Sweet Babington (18151886) A woman, who was said

to have received the first three degrees of Freemasonry. Although the
statement has been seriously questioned, there are several strong
arguments in its favor. Her death notice which appeared in the Shelby
Aurora, Shelby, N.C. which was edited by a Freemason stated: "At her
death she was the only female Mason in the United States, and was
well versed in the mysterious workings of the Blue Lodge. Having
overheard the secrets of Masonry when she was a girl of 16 years, it
was thought best to initiate her as a member and thus prevent any
disclosure." Sometime after her death, her son, J. P. Babington, a
member of Cleveland Lodge 202, Shelby, N.C., (later Lee Lodge No.
253 at Taylorsville, N.C.) wrote a biography of his mother entitled
Biography of Mrs. Catherine Baling-ton, the Only Woman Mason in the
World, and How She Became a Blue Lodge Mason. It is said she hid
herself in a pulpit of a lodge room in Princess Furnace, Kentucky and
watched each meeting for a year and a half before being discovered by
an uncle. After much discussion, the lodge obligated her but did not
admit her to membership. It was claimed that she kept herself posted on
Freemasonry until a short time before her death but never attempted to
visit a lodge. It has been pointed out that there was never a regular
lodge situated at or near Princess Furness (now Princess), Ky.

John Christian Bach (1735-1782) Musician, composer. One of

the four sons of composer John Sebastian Bach—all of whom were
musicians of importance. Known as "the Milan or London Bach," he was
cathedral organist at Milan in 1760 and music master to Queen
Charlotte Sophia, London in 1762. He was co-founder of Bach-Abel
concerts in 1765 and composed operas, arias, cantatas, chamber
music, symphonies and overtures. He was an early member of the
Lodge of the Nine Muses No. 235 in London.

Nahum J. Bachelder (1854-1934) Governor of New Hampshire,

1903-05. b. Sept. 3, 1854 at Andover, N.H. He was a farmer. Mason. d.
April 22, 1934.

Irving A. Bacheller (1859-1950) American novelist. b. Sept. 26,

1859 at Pierpont, N.Y. He was actively connected with the New York
press for years and was an editor of the New York World from 1898-
1900. When presented with the medal for distinguished achievement in
the field of art by the Grand Lodge of New York in 1937 he said: "My
brothers, it seems very long ago—exactly, I think it was in 1898 (raised
Dec. 5, 1899)—when I was a member of the editorial staff of the New
York World —that my friend Jules Chambers proposed me for
membership in Kane Lodge (No. 454) with a membership of
distinguished and illustrious names. That relationship has been one of
the dearest of my life, one which I have been denied the pleasure of
enjoying very much, for some 20 years ago I became a citizen of
Florida. . . ." Commenting on his award in 1943 he said, "I never felt so
highly honored as when I got a medal from the grand lodge some years
ago. I'm in my 84th year. It was my ambition to set up a woodworking
shop at the Masonic Home for children." Bacheller wrote more than 30
novels during his life including The Master of Silence (1890); Eben
Holden (1900); D'ri and I (1901); Silas Strong (1906) ; Keeping Up With
Lizzie (1911); A Man for the Ages (1919); A Candle in the Wilderness
(1930); The Oxen of the Sun (1945) and A Boy for the Ages (1937).

Clifford J. Backstrand Vice president and director of Armstrong

Cork Products Co. since 1935. b. July 21, 1897 at Los Angeles, Calif.
Graduate of Pomona College (Calif.) and University of Pennsylvania,
beginning as a student salesman with the Armstrong Co. in 1921.
Director of Hamilton Watch Co. Served in WW1 and was head of the
linoleum unit, floor covering and upholstery section of War Production
Board in 1942. Mason.
Rudolph J. L. Backstrom Heraldist. b. June 16, 1894 at
Philadelphia, Pa. Established portrait business, Union of S. Africa,
1926-28. Chief heraldic designer and consultant Office of Quartermaster
General, U.S. War Dept. 1942-43. Engaged in heraldic business since
1928 and director International Heraldic Institute, Ltd. Active in Shrine
crippled children's hospitals. 32° AASR.

Augustus 0. Bacon (1839-1914) U. S. Senator from Georgia

three terms, 1894, 1900, 1907. b. Oct. 20,1839 at Bryan Co., Ga.
Graduate of Univ. of Georgia in 1860 and practiced law at Macon.
Mason. d. Feb. 14, 1914.

Francis Bacon (1561-1626) English philosopher and author.

Raised to peerage as 1st Baron of Verulam after serving as solicitor
general (1609) attorney general (1613) and Lord chancellor (1618).
Famous for his Essays; History of Henry VII; Advancement of Learning
and other important works. Thought by some to be a Rosecrucian
whose New Atlantis was an early influence on the development of the

Frank Bacon (1864-1922) Actor and writer. b. Jan. 16, 1864 at

Marysville, Calif. Wrote Lightnin' in collaboration with Winchell Smith,
which had long Broadway run. Appeared in stage hits such as Alabama;
Pudd'n Head Wilson; Me and Grant; Cinderella Man; Fortune Hunter
and many others. Mason. d. Nov. 19, 1922.

Robert L. Bacon (1884-1938) Congressman from N.Y., 68th to

75th Congresses. b. July 23, 1884 at Boston, Mass. Served with field
artillery in WW1. Mason. d. Sept. 12, 1938.
Walter W. Bacon Governor of Delaware 1941-49. b. Jan. 20,
1880 at Newcastle, Del. Served as treasurer of Buick Motor Co., Flint,
Mich., 1918-30 when he retired from business. Served as mayor of
Wilmington, Del. 1935-41, resigning to accept office of governor.
Member of St. John's Lodge No. 2, New Castle, Del., being raised July
2, 1902. In 1915 he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware.
Member of St. John's Chapter, No. 4, R.A.M. of Wilmington and past
high priest. Member of St. John's Commandery, No. 1, K.T., Wilmington
and past commander. Member of Delaware Consistory, AASR (NJ) and
33°. Also member of Shrine, Tall Cedars, National Sojourners.

Robert Baddeley Comedian of Drury Lane Theatre (London). A

member of St. Alban's Lodge No. 29, London.

Jesse M. Bader General secretary, World Convention of

Churches of Christ (president in 1930). b. April 15, 1886. A pastor in
Christian Church since 1905. Member of Washington Lodge No. 5,
Atchison, Kansas.

Harry A. Badt Commodore U.S. Navy. b. Sept. 22, 1884 at Tyler,

Texas. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 1908 and advanced through
grades to commodore in 1944. Commanding officer U.S.S. Simpson
1923-24; commanding officer Aleutian Islands survey expedition in
1933; director of recruiting for U.S. Navy 1935-37; commanding officer
U.S.S. Tuscaloosa 1938-40; director of enlisted personnel U.S. Navy
1940-42. Retired in 1947. Mason.

Milton B. Badt Justice, Supreme Court of Nevada since 1947. b.

July 8, 1884 at San Francisco, Calif. Admitted to California bar in 1909.
Raised in Elko Lodge No. 15, Elko, Nev. on Feb. 12, 1918, serving as
its master in 1924. Member of Valley of Reno AASR (SJ), Elko Chapter
No. 17 O.E.S. and Kerak Shrine Temple, Reno, Nev.
William A. Baehr (1873-1943) Utilities corporations president. b.
Sept. 15, 1873 at Oshkosh, Wis. Graduated University of Wisconsin in
1894. President of the following: North Continent Utilities Corp., Great
Falls Gas Co., Great Northern Utilities Co., Elk River Power & Light Co.,
Denver Ice & Cold Storage Co., Western Railways Ice Co., North Shore
Coke & Chemical Co., North Shore Gas Co., the S. W. Shattuck
Chemical Co., and North Continent Mines, Inc. He was director of many
other corporations. Mason. d. Feb. 18, 1943.

Arthur P. Bagby (1794-1858) Governor of Alabama, U.S.

Senator, MM-ister to Russia. b. 1794 in Virginia. Settled in Alabama in
1818 and gained a reputation as a lawyer. Member of state legislature
and speaker of the house in 1820-22. Governor of Alabama from 1837-
41. Member of the U.S. Senate from 1841-48 and in 1848-49 was
minister to Russia. Served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of
Alabama. d. Sept. 21, 1858.

Charles L. Bagley Vice president American Federation of

Musicians since 1931. b. April 24, 1873 at Tipton, Iowa. Was formerly a
professional musician. Graduated University of Southern California in
1910 and admitted to California bar in 1909 and has practiced in
California since 1911. He was raised in Hollenbeck Lodge No. 319, Los
Angeles on Aug. 31, 1897 and demitted about 1911 to Silver Trowel
Lodge No. 415 of Los Angeles, serving as master in 1918. Member of
Signet Chapter No. 57, R.AM., Los Angeles Council, No. 11, R. & S.M.
and Los Angeles Commandery No. 9, K.T. all of Los Angeles. 32°
AASR in Valley of Los Angeles. Served as patron of Daylight Chapter
No. 265, O.E.S. in 1915, 1925, 1929 and member of Al Malaikah Shrine

John J. Bagley (1832-1881) Governor of Michigan. b. July 24,

1832 at Medina, N.Y. Emigrated in early life to Michigan and at age of
15 was employed in a tobacco factory in Detroit. He later began a
tobacco business of his own and operated it with financial success until
his death. He was elected governor in 1872 and again in 1874. His
administration was marked by benefits to educational and charitable
institutions. Member of Charity Lodge No. 94, Detroit, Mich. d. July 27,

William E. Bahl Vice president of The National Cash Register

Co. since 1947 (in charge of manufacturing). b. Feb. 8, 1889 at
Zimmerman, Ohio, he started with the above company as an apprentice
in 1906. Past master of his lodge.

Karl Friederich Bahrdt (1741-1792) German doctor of theology.

A Freemason, who with other Freemasons founded the "German Union"
or the "Two and Twenty" society at Halle. It was not Masonic but its
object was the enlightenment of mankind. It was dissolved in 1790 by
the imprisonment of Bahrdt for libel of Prussian Minister Woeliner.
Bahrdt was described by one of his biographers as being "notorious
alike for his bold infidelity and for his evil life.”

Philip Milo Bail President Municipal University, Omaha, Nebr.

since 1948. b. June 26, 1898. Attended Missouri Valley College and
University of Iowa, receiving Ph.D. in 1931. Member of George W.
Lininger Lodge No. 268, Omaha, Nebr.; 32° AASR (SJ) at Omaha and
Tangier Shrine Temple, Omaha.

Carl E. Bailey (1894-1948) Governor of Arkansas 1937-41. b.

Oct. 8, 1894 at Bernie, Mo. Worked as a laborer, farmer, school
teacher, accountant and began law practice in 1924. Served as attorney
general of Arkansas 1935-37. Mason. d. Oct. 23, 1948. Received 32° at
Little Rock, May 25, 1928.

Cassius M. Bailey (1876-1935) President of Lydia Cotton Mills,

Clinton, S.C. b. Nov. 22, 1876 at Clinton, S.C. Mason. d. July 5, 1935.
Francis L. Bailey President of Gorham State Teachers College,
Gorham, Maine since 1940. b. Nov. 18, 1894 at Wyman, Mich.
Graduate of Univ. of Michigan and Columbia Univ. 32° AASR and

Frank M. Bailey Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma, 1919-21.

b. Sept. 27, 1876 at Winona, Miss. Began law practice at Chickasha,
Okla. in 1901. Retired to private law practice in 1921. Trustee of
Southern Methodist Univ. Active representative of M.E. church in
jurisdictional and general conferences. Received certificate from
Oklahoma Memorial Assn. in 1933 "for distinguished services to the
State of Oklahoma." 32° AASR (SJ).

George W. Bailey (1856-1909) Justice of Supreme court of

Colorado, 1905-09. b. March 8, 1856 at St. Louis, Mo. Admitted to bar
1885. d. 1909.

Guy W. Bailey (1876-1940) President of University of Vermont

from 1920. b. May 7, 1876 at Hardwick, Vt. Admitted to bar in 1904 but
never practiced. Secretary of state of Vermont, 1908-17. Mason. d. Oct.
22, 1940.

James E. Bailey (1822-?) U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b.

Montgomery Co., Tenn., Aug. 15, 1822. Educated at Clarksville (Tenn.)
Academy and Univ. of Nashville. Was admitted to bar and began
practice at Clarksville in 1843. Elected to Tennessee lower house in
1853. Served in the Confederate army and was elected U.S. Senator
from Tennessee in place of Andrew Johnson in 1876. Member of
Clarksville Lodge No. 89, Clarksville, Tenn.

John 0. Bailey Judge, Supreme Court of Oregon from 1933. b.

Sept. 26, 1880 at Grinnell, Iowa. Graduate Harvard School, 1906.
Assistant atty. general of Oregon, 1915-20. Member house of
representatives, 1925-29 and state senate 1929-33. Raised in Doric
Lodge No. 132, Portland, Oregon about 1920. Member of Mt. Hood
Chapter No. 50, R.A.M., Portland and Oregon Commandery No. 1.

Joseph E. Bailey Union General in Civil War. Member of

Columbia Lodge No. 124, Wisconsin Dells, Wis.

Leonard H. Bailey Architect. b. London, Eng., Aug. 12, 1880,

coming to U.S. in 1903 and naturalized in 1917. President of Allied
Architects who designed the city hall, Civic Center, Rogers Courts,
Masonic Temple, Wesley M.E. Church and Liberty Theatre—all of
Oklahoma City and many military buildings. Raised in Oklahoma City
Lodge No. 36 in 1904. He was the last master of Oklahoma 3, which
was changed to No. 36 when Indian Territory became the state of
Oklahoma and was charter master of No. 36. Served as district deputy
grand master in 1907-09. Member of Cyrus Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. and
Bethlehem Commandery, K.T., of Oklahoma City. A Shriner and past
patron of Eastern Star chapter No. 10.

Theodorus Bailey (1805-1877) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. April

12, 1805 in Chateaugay, N.Y. Appointed midshipman in 1818 and
remained with American Navy until retired in 1866 as a rear admiral. In
early years served on the Cyane, Franklin, Vincennes, Constellation,
and Lexington. Took part in the Mexican War. At start of Civil war he
commanded the frigate Colorado off Pensacola. Second in command of
Farragut's squadron at New Orleans, he led the attack in the gunboat
Cayuga. He ran the fire of five forts and was sent by Farragut to
demand the surrender of New Orleans, at which time he coined the
phrase "Iron Hearts and Wooden Ships." He later commanded the
eastern Gulf blockading squadron. After war he was commander of the
Portsmouth navy yard. He was raised in Washington Lodge No. 21,
New York City on March 3, 1829. d. Feb. 10, 1877.
Thomas L. Bailey (1888-1946) Governor of Mississippi, term of
1944-48. b. Jan. 6, 1888 at Maben, Miss. Admitted to bar in 1913.
Member of Mississippi legislature from 1916-40 and speaker from 1924-
36. Mason and Shriner. d. Nov. 2, 1946.

Walter C. Bain Aircraft executive. Vice president, general

manager and director of the Republic Aviation Corporation,
Farmingdale, L.I., N.Y.b. June 20, 1910 at Springfield, Ill. Started as a
metallurgist with Allis Chalmers Mfg. Co. in 1936. Entered service
USAAF as a cadet in 1932 and rose in rank to major general. Released
from service in 1953. A Mason.

George W. Baird (1843-1930) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. April

22, 1843 at Washington, D.C. Appointed 3rd assistant engineer, U.S.
Navy, Sept 19, 1862 and promoted through grades retiring with rank of
rear admiral, April 22, 1905. He superintended the construction and
designed the special machinery of the Albatross, famous deep sea
exploring vessel. He was initiated in the French lodge Tolerancia
(Tolerence) at Lisbon, Portugal on July 23, 1867 and received his FC
and MM degrees one week later. In 1879 he affiliated with Naval Lodge
No. 87 at Vallejo, Calif., withdrawing in 1872 to Hope Lodge No. 20,
Washington, D.C. where he served as master and in 1896 was grand
master of the G.L. of the District of Columbia. Baird wrote a widely
published series of articles entitled Great Men Who Were Masons. He
received his 32° AASR (SJ) at Washington on Aug. 21, 1897, KCCH on
Oct. 19, 1899 and 33° on Oct. 25, 1901. d. Oct. 4, 1930 at Washington.

Sir Robert Baird Former owner and publisher of the Belfast

Telegraph (Ireland) and grand treasurer of the G.L. of Ireland. Also was
a member of several London lodges. In 1929 a portrait bust of Baird
was presented to the Belfast Museum and Art Gallery.

Albert Z. Baker President of Rotary International (1955),

president of the American Stockyards Assn. and chairman of board of
Cleveland Union Stockyards Co. A member of Lakewood Lodge No.
601, Cleveland Chapter No. 148 R.A.M., Forest City Council No. 111,
Forest City Commandery No. 40, K.T. and AI Koran Temple, all of
Cleveland. In the AASR (N.J.) he received his 33° in 1945.

Bryant Baker Sculptor. b. July 8, 1881 in London, England.

Graduated from Royal Academy of Arts, London in 1910. His portrait
bust of Edward VII was Queen Alexandra's favorite. He did busts of
many English notables and of Prince Olav of Norway before coming to
America in 1916. Here he has made busts from life of President
Coolidge, Col. John Coolidge, Senators H. C. Lodge, W. A. Clark, J. H.
Bankhead, generals Pershing, March and Gorgas, Chief Justices White,
Taft and Hughes; John Hays Hammond, Herbert Hoover, Newton
Baker, Josephus Daniels, Percival Lowell, George Harvey, Cordell Hull
and heroic bronze statue of Chief Justice Edward D. White, New
Orleans. He has done heroic bronze statues of Grover Cleveland,
Millard Fillmore and Young Lincoln at Buffalo, N.Y. For Delaware's
Statuary Hall he executed marble statues of patriots Caesar Rodney
and John M. Clayton. His Gov. Reuben Fenton statue is at Jamestown,
N.Y. and the Bishop Freeman memorial is in the National Cathedral in
Washington. His heroic 17-ft. bronze of George Washington at the
Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria was unveiled by
President Truman, Feb. 22, 1950. His ideal works in permanent
collections include Eros at Manchester City Art Gallery, Memory at Hull
City Art Gallery in England and Pioneer Woman statue in Ponca City,
Oklahoma, the latter winning him the Marland competition in a field of
12 top sculptors. Baker is a member of Constitutional Lodge No. 294 at
Beverly, Yorkshire, England. He has been instrumental in keeping very
much alive the communications between his home lodge in Beverly,
England and Beverly Lodge in Massachusetts, as well asthe Alexandria-
Washington Lodge in Virginia. Died March 29, 1957. Masonic Services.

Earl D. Baker Newspaperman and publisher. b. Apr. 14, 1898,

Spencer Co., Ind. Associated with Scripps-Howard Newspapers since
1918 in Evansville, Ind., Terre Haute, Ind., Washington, D.C. and San
Francisco. President of the Washington Daily News from 1938-1947
and assistant general business manager of Scripps-Howard papers
since 1937. Business manager of The San Francisco News since 1947.
Raised in Humboldt Lodge No. 42, Terre Haute, Ind. about 1927. 32°
AASR at Evansville, Ind. Member Almas Shrine Temple, Wash., D.C.

Howard H. Baker Congressman from Tennessee to 82nd

Congress (1951-53). b. Jan. 12, 1902 at Somerset, Ky. Admitted to bar
in 1924. Member of Tennessee legislature, 1929-30. Nominee for
governor of Tenn. in 1938 and U.S. Senator in 1940. Mason, 32° AASR
and Shriner.

James C. Baker Bishop, Methodist Church. b. June 2, 1879 at

Sheldon, Ill. Received degrees from Illinois Wesleyan, Boston University
and attended Cornell, College of the Pacific and Univ. of Southern Calif.
Entered M.E. ministry in 1900 and was organizer and head of the
Wesley Foundation Univ. of Ill. (the first Wesley Foundation in the
country). Elected bishop of Methodist Episcopal Church in 1928 and
assigned to supervision work in Japan, Korea and Manchuria. Later
assigned to California area, and a delegate to General Conference in
1916, '20, '28 and Oxford Conference in 1947. President of Council of
Methodist Bishops, 1948-49. Member of Acacia Fraternity at Univ. of
Illinois. Raised in McLean Lodge No. 469, McLean, Ill. in 1906. 32°
AASR at Bloomington, 111.

James M. Baker (1861-1940) Diplomat and government official.

b. Aug. 18, 1861 at Lowndesville, S.C. Assistant librarian U.S. Senate,
1893-1913. Elected secretary of U.S. Senate in 1913. Deputy
commissioner Internal Revenue Bureau, U.S. Treasury 191921. Private
law practice 1921-31. American minister to Siam by appointment of
Franklin Roosevelt in 1933, resigning in 1937 due to ill health. Mason. d.
Nov. 21, 1940.

John F. "Home Run" Baker Member of the National Baseball

Hall of Fame. b. March 13, 1886 at Trappe, Maryland. Elected to the
Cooperstown Hall of Fame in 1955. Member Coats Lodge No. 102 at
Easton, Md.
Leonard T. Baker ( 1868 -1 955 ) President of University of
South Carolina, 1944, and president emeritus from 1946. b. Jan. 22,
1868, serving the University of South Carolina as professor,
administrator, acting president, vice president and dean. Mason. d. Jan.
5, 1955.

Milton G. Baker President of Valley Forge Military Academy

since 1928. Commanding general of Pennsylvania National Guard,
1943-46; major general U.S. director civilian defense, Philadelphia
1941-42. b. Aug. 24, 1896 at Philadelphia. Served in WW1 1917-21 and
Pennsylvania National Guard 1921-46. Mason and 32° AASR.

Nathaniel B. Baker (1818-1876) Governor of New Hampshire. b.

Sept. 29, 1818 in Henniker, N.H. Graduate of Harvard in 1839 and
admitted to bar in 1842. Joint owner and editor of the New Hampshire
Patriot for three years. Served two terms in state legislature starting in
1851 and was speaker of the house. Presidential elector in 1852, and in
1854 was elected governor of New Hampshire, serving until 1855. In
1856 he moved to Clinton, Iowa where he practiced law. Served in the
Iowa legislature in 1859-61 when he was appointedadjutant general of
Iowa, a position he held until his death on Sept. 11, 1876. A member of
Western Star Lodge No. 100, Clinton, Iowa.

Phil Baker Comedian of radio and stage since the early 1930's.
Raised in Keystone Lodge No. 235, New York City. Baker once said "I
belong to various organizations, but I have always felt that my
membership in Masonry has been nearest my heart. One of the
grandest compliments ever paid me was my acceptance into the

Samuel A. Baker (1874-1933) Governor of Missouri 1925-28. b.

Patterson, Mo., Nov. 7, 1874. LL.D. Missouri Valley College. Teacher,
principal and superintendent of schools in various Missouri cities from
1895 to 1919. State superintendent of schools of Missouri from 1919 to
1923. d. Sept. 16, 1933. Member of Jefferson Lodge No. 43, Jefferson
City Chapter No. 34 and Prince of Peace Commandery No. 29, all of
Jefferson City, Mo. He was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Missouri
in 1926 and delivered an oration on the support of the public school
system and religious institutions.

Simon S. Baker (1866-1932) President of Washington and

Jefferson College, 1921-22. b. July 11, 1866 in Washington Co., Pa.
Graduated Washington and Jefferson B.S. and M.S., LL.D. University of
Pittsburgh 1923. Served in public school system of Pittsburgh for 25
years. Mason. d. Oct. 11, 1932.

Walter C. Baker Major General U.S. Army. b. Sept. 22, 1877 at

Chester, Pa. Graduate of Coast Artillery School, Army War College,
Command and General Staff School, Army Industrial College and
Chemical Warfare School. Served as enlisted man in Spanish American
War with 6th Penn. Vol. Infantry, advancing

48 Alexander Dmitrievich Balashov through grades in U.S. Army to

major general in 1937. Served as an officer in WW1 and recalled to
active duty in WW2 serving from 1941-44. Mason.

Walter R. G. Baker Vice president of General Electric Co. b.

Nov. 30, 1892 at Lockport, N.Y. Began as electrical engineer with
General Electric in 1916; managing engineer of radio dept. 1928-30;
vice president in charge of engineering and manufacturing R.C.A. Mfg.
Co. 1930-36; head of radio engineering manufacturing and sales
General Electric 1936-39; manager radio and television department,
1939-41. Since 1941 he has been director of many banks and
corporations including General Electric (International); G. E. Supply
Corp. and G. E. Credit Corp. Mason.
William C. Baker Vice president of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
since 1948 in charge of maintenance and operation. b. Feb. 18, at
Baltimore, Md. Began with the B. & 0. in 1906 as a clerk, advancing
through assistant train master, train master, assistant superintendent,
superintendent, general superintendent and general manager. Mason.

William E. Baker (1873-?) Judge, U.S. District Court, Northern

District of West Virginia since 1921. b. Feb. 25, 1873 at Beverly, W. Va.
A.B. and LL.B. at Western Virginia University, 1896. Knight Templar,
32° AASR and Shriner. Deceased.

William E. Baker Vice president of Servel, Inc. b. Dec. 11, 1887

at Rushton, Ill. Graduate of Rose Poly. Institute. Started as an
apprentice of Westinghouse Electric in 1911, serving as production
engineer of several companies from 1912-16. Superintendent of Delco
Products Corp., 1916-24; vice president The Day Fan Electric Co. 1924-
29. Mason, Shriner.

H. Sheridan Baketel (1872-1955) Physician, co-founder and

editor of Medical Economics. b. Nov. 15, 1872. M.D. Boston College
and post graduate work at Harvard Medical. Practiced in New York
since 1910. Writer and editor for many medical publications. Urology
was his specialty. He was vice president and chairman of the board of
Columbia University College of Pharmacy from 1938-1942. Wrote
several medical books. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. July 7, 1955.

Norris C. Bakke Chief justice, Supreme Court of Colorado, 1945

and general counsel F.D.I.C. since March, 1947. b. April 19, 1894.
Degrees from University of Chicago and graduate work at Harvard.
Admitted to Colorado bar, 1920. Attorney general of Colorado, 1933-36;
associate justice, Supreme Court of Colorado 1936-45 and chief justice
in 1945. Named associate general counsel F.D.I.C. Washington, March,
1947. Active in Salvation Army and many church and religious
organizations. Raised in Sterling Lodge No. 54 in October, 1920.
Member of Denver Consistory No. 2 AASR (SJ) and El Jebel Shrine
Temple, Denver.

Alexander Dmitrievich Balashov (1770-1837) Governor general

of several Russian provinces and Minister of Police from 1810-1816
under Alexander I. He was an aide-de-camp to Emperor Alexander I
q.v. It is thought that he was directed by the government to join
Freemasonry so that it could be brought under control of the ruling
circle. He was appointed Minister of Police on March 28, 1810 and in
August of that year wrote the masters of all lodges that the government
was going to examine their records and rules of the society inasmuch as
some of the members had through their imprudence given cause for
ignorant and malicious forms of misjudgments. He then called in the
four masters of the Petersburg lodges and asked them if they wanted
official government protection—or toleration. Rather than become a
governmental agency they chose toleration. It was not until 12 years
later that Freemasonry was forever banned by Alexander I.

Antonio Gonzalez Balcarce (17771819) Argentine patriot and

general. Participated in the 1807 defense of Montevideo, Uruguay
against the British. Taken prisoner, he was sent to Europe. In 1810 he
returned to his native Argentina to take command of inland troops. He
became Supreme Administrator in 1816. Balcarce was a member of
Lautaro Lodge.

Alexander, 6th Earl of Balcarres (1752-1825) Member of the

Scottish family of Lindsay whose titles date from 1365 with Sir David,
1st Earl of Crawford. Was 33rd Grand Master Mason of Scotland from
1780-1781. He was forced to surrender at Ticonderoga in 1777,
became governor of Jamaica 1794-1801; a general in 1803;
representative Scottish peer from 1784-1825. In 1848 the House of
Lords adjudged the earldom of Crawford (dormant since 1808) to his
son James, 7th Earl of Balcarres.
Bernt Balchen Explorer, air pioneer, army officer, OSS operator,
and one of the most colorful characters of the 20th century. b. Oct. 23,
1899 at Tveit, Topdal, Norway. Educated Norway air force and artillery
line; War Academy at Oslo and Horton 1918-21. Came to U.S. in 1926
and naturalized in 1931. Pilot engineer with Roald Amundsen q.v. 1925-
26. Piloted The America for Admiral Byrd q.v. across the Atlantic in
1927. Pilot of the Bremen relief expedition to Greenly Island, Labrador,
1928. Chief pilot Admiral Byrd's Antarctic Expedition (piloted first fight
over south pole, Nov. 29, 1929) 1928-30;pilot Viking Rescue Expedition
to Newfoundland, 1931; chief pilot, Ellsworth Antarctic Expedition, 1933-
35; chief inspector of Norwegian Airlines 1935-40 and managing
director, 194648. Served with R.A.F. Ferry Command as pilot-navigator
1940-41; Transferred to U.S. Air Force, 1941, building base at Bluie
West 8 on Greenland and commanding officer of this station until 1943.
Chief of A.T.C. for Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and U.S.S.R. in
Stockholm, 1943-45 and during this time supported Norwegian
underground resistance against German occupation forces, 1944-45.
Balchen was in charge of evacuating 70,000 Russians from slave labor
camps in northern Norway. Entered U.S. Air Force in 1941 and
advanced to captain in 1941, then to colonel in 1942, working with the
Air Force and OSS in Greenland and Scandinavia from 1943-45.
Stationed in Alaska since 1948. As a U.S. colonel on the OSS he made
166 flights to Norway (Operation Carpetbagger) where his B-24 dropped
allied agents and 700 tons of sabotage material. Project "Sonnie"
required 270 trips between his base at Prestwyck, Scotland and the
neutral airfields of Sweden. In these trips he evacuated 1,000
Americans who had crossed the border and 5,000 others, including
Trygve Lie q.v. He is a member of Norseman Lodge No. 878 of
Brooklyn, N.Y. With Admiral Byrd they dropped Masonic flags over the
two poles, and Balchen dropped his Kismet Temple Shrine fez over the
South Pole. He is a member of the AASR (N.J.) of New York. He helped
in the staggering achievement of establishing the new air base at Thule,
Greenland, 900 miles from the North Pole and was one of the
organizers of the "Top of the World" Masonic Square Club at that base
which 500 airmen and construction workers joined. In reference to this
he stated "Men needed the fellowship and warmth of Masonry at 20°
below zero." In 1954 he was awarded the G.L. of New York's
distinguished achievement medal.
Loomis Baldrey (1882-1954) Lawyer and grand master of
Washington and Alaska, 1934-35. b. May 19, 1882 at Camden, N.J.
Educated in Minnesota and New York schools, attending law school at
Syracuse University. Settled in Bellingham, Wash. after his marriage in
1906 and became master of Whatcom Lodge No. 151 in 1920. He
served as the Masonic reviewer for Washington for many years. Was
past president of Washington State Prosecuting Attorney Assn. and
past district governor of Kiwanis International. d. Aug. 8, 1954.

H. Clarence Baldridge (1868-1947) Governor of Idaho two terms

(192731). b. Nov. 24, 1868 at Carlock, Ill. Student at Illinois Wesleyan
University, Bloomington, Ill. 1890-93 and settled at Parma, Idaho in
1904 where he engaged in mercantile business and farming. He was a
member of the Idaho house of representatives 1911-13 and the state
senate 1913-15. He served as lieut. governor of Idaho 1923-27 and
retired from mercantile business in 1942. Baldridge was raised in Parma
Lodge No. 49, Parma, Idaho in 1923 and received 32° at Boise Nov. 21,
1929. d. June 7, 1947.

Kenneth F. Baldridge President of Central Newspaper Co.,

consisting of seven southern Iowa newspapers since 1930. Publisher of
Bloomfield Democrat since 1909. b. May 25, 1886 at Bloomfield, Iowa.
Started as a reporter in Bloomfield in 1903. President of National
Editorial Assn. in 1934; president Iowa Press Assn. 1925. Mason,
Knight Templar and Shriner.

Abraham Baldwin ( 1754 - 1807 ) Chaplain in Revolution,

member of Congress of the Confederation and Constitution, signer of
1787. b. North Guilford, Conn., he moved to Georgia(1783-84) where he
was a founder of the University of Georgia, originally Franklin College.
He served in the Congress from Georgia 1790-99 and was U.S. Senator
1799-1807. It is not known where his original membership was, but he
affiliated with American Union Lodge during the Revolution. Not a
Mason. The "visiting Baldwin" was Col. Jeduthan Baldwin (1732-1788)
of Mass. whose diary contains Masonic references.

Evelyn B. Baldwin (1862-1933) Arctic explorer. b. July 22, 1862

at Springfield, Mo. Graduated Northwestern College, Naperville, Ill. in
1885. Accompanied Robert E. Peary q.v. on North Greenland
expedition 1893-94 as meteorologist and was meteorologist and 2nd in
command of Walter Wellman's polar expedition to Franz-Josef Land
1898-99. Built and named Fort McKinley, discovered and explored
Graham Bell Land, 1889. Organized and commanded Baldwin-Ziegler
polar expedition 1901-02. He was a member of Adams Lodge No. 63,
Oswego, Kansas and Lake Ontario Commandery, K.T. No. 32 at
Oswego, N.Y. Member of New York AASR. Baldwin reportedly carried
Masonic flags with him on his expeditions. d. Oct. 25, 1933.

Henry Baldwin (1780-1844) Associate justice U.S. Supreme

Court 1830-44. b. New Haven, Conn. Congressman from Pennsylvania

Howard C. Baldwin Corporation director. b. March 15, 1891 at

Deerfield, Mich. Admitted to Michigan bar in 1912. Vice president and
trustee The Kresge Foundation since 1937. Director S. S. Kresge Co.
since 1931. Director of several corporations. Raised in Corinthian Lodge
No. 241, Detroit, in 1916 and served as master. Member of King Cyrus
Chapter No. 133, R.A.M. and Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T. being
past commander. 33° AASR (N.J.) in Valley of Detroit and past master
of Lodge of Perfection. Shriner and member of Red Cross of

F. W. Baldwin Brigadier General, U. S. Army. Mason and

member of National Sojourners.
Joseph C. Baldwin Congressman from New York 77th to 79th
Congresses (1941-47). b. Jan. 11, 1897, New York City. A reporter and
associate editor on several New York papers. President and director of
United Dyewood Corp. Member New York City board of alderman 1928-
34 and minority leader 1929-34. Member of New York state senate
1934-36 and Constitutional Convention of 1937. On New York City
Council, 1941-47. Mason.

Raymond E. Baldwin Governor of Connecticut 1939-41 and

1943-46. b. Aug. 31, 1893 at Rye, N.Y. Admitted to Conn. bar in 1921.
Member Connecticut general assembly 1931-33. U.S. Senator from
Connecticut 194649, resigning to become justice Supreme Court of
Errors of Conn. since 1949. Member St. John's Lodge No. 8, Stratford,
Conn. since June 6, 1929.

Lloyd G. Balfour Jewelry manufacturer; president and treasurer

of L. G. Balfour Co. since 1913. b. Jan. 6, 1887 at Wauseon, Ohio.
LL.B. University of Indiana in 1907 and A.B. University of Louisville.
Past grand consul of Sigma Chi social fraternity and former chairman of
the National Interfraternity Conference. 32° AASR and Shriner.

Robert Arthur Lytton, 3rd Earl of Balfour Initiated Lodge

Tyneside No. 714 in 1928, serving as master in 1932 and Grand Master
Mason of Scotland from 1939-41.

A. P. Ball Showman. Predecessor, of P. T. Barnum as the

greatest showman of his day. Member of Western Star Lodge No. 15,
Bridgewater, N.Y.

Edmund F. Ball President of Ball Bros. Co. of Muncie, Ind. since

1948. b. Jan. 8, 1905 at Muncie, Ind. Grad-uated from Yale in 1928.
With Ball Bros. Co. since 1928 as assistant secretary, vice president.
Raised in Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Sept. 9, 1927. Member
of Muncie Chapter No. 30, R.A.M. Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M.,
Muncie Commandery No. 18, 32° AASR at Indianapolis. Murat Shrine
Temple and St. James Conclave, Red Cross of Constantine, both of
Indianapolis. Commander of Muncie Commandery in 1938, grand
commander of Grand Commandery, K.T. of Indiana in 1946-47; grand
treasurer of Grand Encampment, K.T. U.S.A. in 1955.

Frank C. Ball (1857-1943) President of Ball Brothers, Muncie,

Ind. b. Nov. 24, 1857 at Greensburg, Ohio. Ball Brothers donated seven
million to educational and welfare work including buildings for Y.M.C.A.,
Ball Memorial Hospital and Masonic Auditorium in Muncie and James
Whitcomb Riley Children's Hospital at Indianapolis. Raised Nov. 15,
1891 in Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Member of Muncie
Chapter No. 30 R.A.M.; Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M. and Muncie
Commandery No. 18, K.T. all of Muncie, Ind. 32° AASR at Indianapolis,

George A. Ball (1862-1955) Glass manufacturer. Chairman of

board of Ball Bros. Co. at Muncie, Ind. b. Nov. 5, 1862 at Green, Ohio.
Began manufacture of glass in partnership with four brothers at Buffalo,
N.Y. in 1888, moving to Muncie the same year. Raised Dec. 15, 1898 in
Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Member of Muncie Chapter No. 30,
R.A.M.; Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M.; Muncie Commandery No.
18, K.T. all of Muncie, Ind. and 32° AASR in Indianapolis. Member of
Murat Shrine and St. James Conclave, Red Cross of Constantine, both
of Indianapolis.

John Ball Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 31, 1893 at Artesia,
Calif. Enlisted in Navy, 1912 and advanced through grades to rear
admiral in 1944. Served on U.S.S. Aroosook with North Sea Mine Force
in WW1. In naval supply branch in California, Washington, Puerto Rico,
Utah, and commanding officer Naval Supply Depot, Mechanicsburg,
Pa., 1948-50. Retired in June, 1950. Member of Annapolis Lodge No.
89, Annapolis, Md. (EA 11 Dec. 1920; FC 3 Aug. 1922; MM 22 Aug.
1922). Received his Royal Arch degree in Borinquin Chapter No. 1,
R.A.M. and knighted in Puerto Rico Commandery No. 1, K.T., both in
San Juan, P.R. in 1943, demitting in 1953 to Palo Alto Chapter No. 93
and Palo Alto Commandery No. 47 in Palo Alto, Calif. Member of Islam
Shrine Temple, San Francisco and El Camino Real Chapter No. 413 of
National Sojourners being past president and regional representative for
northern California.

L. Heisler Ball (1861-1933) U.S. Senator from Delaware. b.

Sept. 21, 1861 near Stanton, Del. Received Ph.B. from Delaware
College in 1882 and M.D. from Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1885, beginning
practice of medicine that same year. Served as state treasurer of
Delaware 1898-1900. Delegate at large to 57th Congress, 190103.
Served two terms in U.S. Senate, 1903-05, 1919-25. d. Oct. 18, 1933.

Thomas R. Ball (1896-1943) Architect and ex-congressman. b.

Feb. 12, 1896 at New York City. Architect and designer of many
residences and buildings in eastern Connecticut. Member of 76th
Congress (1939-41) from Connecticut. Mason, 32° AASR. d. June 16,

James Ballantine (1808-1877) Scottish poet and reviver of art of

glass painting and maker of stained-glass windows. Author of The
Gaberlunzie's Wallet. Mason.

James Ballantyne (1772-1833) Scottish printer, who with his

brother John q.v. was an intimate friend of Sir Walter Scott and
published his work from 1802-08 until ruined by bankruptcy of
Constable and Co. in 1826. After that he was editor of the Weekly
Journal. A member and past master of Kelso Lodge No. 58.

John Ballantyne (1774-1821) Scottish printer who with his

brother James q.v. was a friend and business associate of Sir Walter
Scott, publishing his works from 1808. He was initiated in Lodge
Edinburgh St. Davids, No. 36 and afterwards master of Lodge Ayr
Kilwinning, known originally as Squareman's Kilwinning Lodge No. 65,
Ayr, Scotland.

William S. Ballenger Treasurer of Chevrolet Motor Co., Flint,

Mich., 1911-25. b. Dec. 5, 1866 at Cambridge City, Ind. Secretary and
treasurer of Flint Wagon Works 1888-1916. Director of Industrial Rayon
Corp., Cleveland since 1930. Mason, 32° AASR.

George W. Balloch Union general in Civil War. Member of

Stansbury Lodge No. 24, Washington, D.C.

Hosea Ballou (1771-1852) Baptist clergyman and founder of the

Universalist Church. b. April 20, 1771 at Richmond, N.H. He was editor
of the Universalist Magazine (1819-28) and Universalist Expositor from
1830. It is not established where he first joined the fraternity, but was a
member of Warren Lodge No. 23 at Woodstock, Vt. and served as
master in 1807. There is also record of a "Hosea Ballou" as belonging to
Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston, Mass. (Oct. 27, 1817). Ballou died in
Boston, June 7, 1852. Was grand warden of G.L. of N.H. between 1811-

Lord Baltimore (see Charles Calvert) Joseph Balsam° (see

Cagliostro) Robert C. Baltzell (1879-1950) U.S. district judge, Indiana
since 1925. b. Aug. 15, 1879 at Lawrence Co., Ill. Admitted to Indiana
bar in 1904. Appointed district judge by President Coolidge. Major of
infantry in WW1. Mason. d. Oct. 18, 1950.

Louis Charles Balzac French architect and sometimes poet who

wrote many Masonic cantieles in French among which is the well known
hymn Taisons nous, plus de bruit with music by M. Riguel. He founded
the Lodge of the Great Sphinx at Paris. Died March 31, 1820.

Fredrick B. Balzar (1880-1934) Governor of Nevada two terms,

192734. b. June 15, 1880 at Virginia City, Nev. Engaged in mining from
1899. Served in house of representatives (Nev.), 1905 and state senate
1909-17. Chairman state board of education from 1927. Raised Aug.
28, 1908 in Inyo Lodge No. 221 at Independence, Calif. and later
affiliated with Carson Lodge No. 1, Carson City, Nevada. Received 32°
AASR at Reno, Dec. 17, 1920. d. March 21, 1934.

Simon Bamberger ( 1847 -1926 ) Governor of Utah, 1917-21. b.

Feb. 27, 1847 at Darmstadt, Germany coming to U.S. in 1861 and a
resident of Utah from 1869. President of Barnberger Coal Co.; director
Salt Lake Valley Loan & Trust Co. and Bamberger Electric Railway.
Member Utah state senate 1903-07 and member Salt Lake City school
board 18981903. Mason. d. Oct. 6, 1926.

Desire Bancel (1822-1871) French politician, publicist and

orator. Mason.

Frederick Bancroft Magician, Mason.

George H. Bancroft Motion picture actor. Member Hollenbeck

Lodge No. 319, Los Angeles, Calif. and Al Malaikah Temple of Los

Jonathan Bancroft Revolutionary War soldier who witnessed the

execution of Major Andre. Member St. Paul's Lodge, Groton, Mass.
Harry H. Bandholtz (1864-1925) Major General U.S. Army. b.
Dec. 18, 1864 at Constantine, Mich. Graduate U.S. Military Academy
1890, advanceing through grades to major general, 1923. Served with
7th Infantry during Santiago campaign and with 2nd Infantry in
Philippine insurrection; governor of Tayabas Province, 1902-03; in
command of district of Southern Luzon, 1903; conducted campaign
against Simeon Ola in Albay, resulting in destruction of Ola's forces;
transferred to District of Central Luzon in 1905 and forced surrender of
outlaws Montalan, Sakay and others. Brig. general and chief of
Philippine Constabulary 1907-13. In Mexican Border campaign, 1916
and provost marshal general of A.E.F. in WW1 1918-19. Suppressed
Miners' Insurrection in West Virginia in 1921, Mason, member
Washington Chapter No. 3, National Sojourners. d. May 7, 1925.

Baldwin B. Bane Chief of Securities Division, Federal Trade

Commission since 1933. He organized the division. b. Aug. 2, 1891 at
Standards-vine, Va. Degrees from Randolph-Macon (1911) and
Washington and Lee (1917). Practiced law in Virginia until 1922. Served
as officer in WW1 (France). Mason.

John Hollis Bankhead (1842-1920) U.S. Senator from Alabama

1906-1920, b. Sept. 13, 1842 at Moscow, Ala. Captain in 16th Alabama
Volunteers (Confederate) in Civil War, 1861-65. Wounded three times.
Member Alabama bama house of representatives 186567 and 1880-81
and of the state senate from 1876-77. Warden of Alabama penitentiary
1881-85. In congress was conspicuous as a leader in the work of the
Commission on Public Buildings and Rivers and Harbors. Grand master
of G.L. of Alabama in 1883-84. d. March 1, 1920.


Frank A. Banks Supervising engineer of Grand Coulee Dam

(193343) and other large engineering projects. b. Dec. 4, 1883 at Saco,
Maine. Began as engineer U.S. Reclamation Service, Lower
Yellowstone Project in 1906. Construction engineer, Jackson Lake
Dam, Wyo., 1913-16; Minidoka Project, 1916-20; American Falls Dam,
1920-26; Owyhee Dam & Project, 1926-33. Acting administrator
Bonneville Power Project, 1939; regional director Region 1, U.S. Bureau
of Reclamation, 1943-45. District manager, Columbia River District
since 1945. Raised May 17, 1919 in American Falls Lodge No. 58,
American Falls, Idaho.

Nathaniel P. Banks (1816-1894) Governor of Massachusetts

(1858-61) and Civil War general. b. Waltham, Mass. Served through
Civil War as major general and received thanks of Congress in 1864 for
capture of Port Hudson (1863). Member of U.S. House of
Representatives, 1853-57, 1865-73, 1875-79 and 1889-91. Speaker of
house 1856-57. He was a member of Monitor Lodge, Waltham, Mass.
and although a Union general, delivered the St. John's day address at
Memphis, Tenn., on June 24, 1875.

Jose Bans One of the five Catholic friars who established the
lodge Philantrophia in Santo Domingo (now Dominican Republic) in
1819 and met in the vestry of a Catholic Church called Convento

N. Moore Banta (1867-1932) Writer of children's stories. b. Dec.

3, 1867 at Rensselaer, Ind. Editor and publisher with Flanagan & Co.,
Chicago from 1921. Wrote 23 children's books between 1905 and 1927.
Mason. d. Feb. 5, 1932.

Parke M. Banta Congressman from Missouri, 80th Congress

(194749). b. Berryman, Mo. Nov. 21, 1891. Admitted to Missouri bar in
1913. Practiced at Potosi, Mo. from 191425. Administrator of State
Social Security Comm. (Mo.) 1941-45. Circuit judge, 1935-36. Served in
WW1 advancing from private to 1st lieutenant. General counsel, U.S.
Dept. of Health and Education since 1953. Raised in Potosi Lodge No.
131 at Potosi, Mo. about 1916, serving as master in 1923. 32° in
Missouri Consistory No. 1, St. Louis. Member of Ironton chapter No.
349, O.E.S.

Jules Sara (1835-1900) Belgian lawyer, deputy and Minister of

Justice. Mason.

Charles W. Barber (1872-1943) Brigadier General U.S. Army. b.

Sept. 21, 1872. Served in Spanish-American War 1898-1899, being
mustered out as a captain; served in the Philippines 1899-1908 and
duty with Isthmian Canal Commission, Panama, 1908-15. Mexican
border service in 1916. Brig. general N.A., July 25, 1917. Commanded
the 29th Infantry Division, 1917 and 57th Infantry Brigade in front line
sectors as chief of staff, Base Sector No. 2, Bordeaux, France WW1.
Retired as brigadier general in 1930 serving as director, officer and
special representative of several corporations. Mason. d. Jan. 7, 1943.

George C. Barber President-general of Methodist Church of

Australia (1948-51) and president of Australian Council, World Council
of Churches (1950-51). b. Jan. 24, 1893 at Bendigo, Australia. Graduate
of Wesley College and University of Melbourne in Australia and
University of London, England. Ordained Methodist ministry in 1922.
President of Victoria-Tasmania Conference, 1948; chairman Australian
Student Christian Movement, 1939-51. Served in WW1; military
chaplain 1936-39 and Air Force chaplain 1939-46. Chaplain of the
grand lodge 1949-51. Mason.

55 Orion M. Barber

Orion M. Barber ( 1 8 5 7 - 1 9 3 0 ) Judge, U.S. Court of

Customs Appeals. b. July 13, 1857 at Jamaica, Vt. Member of Vermont
house of representatives in 1892 and state senate in 1894. Was
member of commission to revise Vermont statutes, state railroad
commissioner and state auditor. Mason. d. March 28, 1930.
Clarence A. Barbour (1867-1937) President of Brown University
192636; Peddie School, 1929-36; Worcester Academy 1926-36. b. April
21, 1867. Ordained Baptist ministry in 1891. Professor of homiletics,
Rochester Theolo. Seminary, 1915-29. President of Northern Baptist
Convention, 191617. Author of several books on religion. He was grand
chaplain of the G.L. of New York four years and of the G.L. of Rhode
Island one year. d. Jan. 16, 1937.

James Barbour (1775-1842) Secretary of War, minister to

England, U.S. Senator and governor of Virginia. b. June 10, 1775 in
Orange Co., Va. Gained a knowledge of law while a deputy sheriff and
admitted to practice when 19. Sat in Virginia House of Delegates from
1796-1812. Elected governor in 1812. After term as governor, was
elected to U.S. Senate in 1815. In 1825 John Q. Adams made him
Secretary of War. In 1828 he went to England as American minister, but
was recalled upon the election of President Jackson. Member of
Stephensburg Lodge No. 40, Stevens-burg, Va. d. June 8, 1942.

Sir Charles Malcolm Barclay-Harvey (of Kinord) 95th Grand

Master Mason of Scotland (1949-54) and G.M. of G.L. of Southern
Australia, (194144). First grand principal, Grand Chapter of Scotland,
1948-53, making trip to South Africa in 1950 to visit chapters there. He
was initiated in Apollo University Lodge No. 357 (E.C.) in 1908 and
affiliated with Lodge Charleston of Aboyne No. 281 in 1924.

McClelland Barclay (1 8 9 1-1 9 4 3 ) Artist and illustrator. b. May

9, 1891 at St. Louis, Mo. Began as advertising illustrator in 1912 and is
also known for sculpture and portrait painting. Awarded 1st prize WW1
for recruiting poster and 1st prize for Red Cross poster Fill the Breach.
Creator of the Fisher Body Girl. Designer of covers for Ladies' Home
Journal, Pictorial Review, Saturday Evening Post, etc. A naval
camoufleur in 1918. Called to active duty as lieutenant commander in
Navy, 1940 and reported missing in action while passenger on ship
torpedoed in Solomon Sea, July 18, 1943. Mason.
A. T. Bard President of Reliance Manufacturing Co., Chicago
since 1944. b. March 18, 1889 at New Carlisle, Ind. Started with the
Reliance Company in 1901 and advanced from cutting room foreman to
president. Member of Republic Lodge No. 914 Chicago, Ill.

Guy Kurtz Bard (1895-1953) U.S. District Judge, Eastern

Pennsylvania 1939-52, resigning to private practice. b. Oct. 24, 1895 at
Lincoln, Pa. Admitted to bar in 1922. Attorney general of Pennsylvania
1938-39. Active in Democratic politics on state and national level.
Mason. d. Nov. 23, 1953.

Samuel Bard (1742-1821) Famous early American physician

who was personal doctor to George Washington in New York following
the Revolution. He was instrumental in establishing first New York
medical school and the New York hospital. Member of Union Lodge,

Thomas R. Bard (1841-1915) U.S. Senator from California. b.

Dec. 8, 1841 at Chambersburg, Pa. Graduated from Chambersburg
Academy at 18 with honors and studied law. Sent by

56 Countess Helene Hadik Barkoczy Col. Thomas A. Scott in 1865 to

California to supervise his property, and remained. Was interested in
farm lands and oil property. Served as U.S. Senator from 1900-1905.
Member of Hueneme Lodge No. 311, Hueneme and Ventura Chapter
No. 50. Also Knight Templar. d. Mar. 6, 1915.

Graham A. Barden Congressman from North Carolina to 74th to

81st Congresses (1935-51). b. Sept., 1896, Sampson Co. North
Carolina. Began as school teacher in New Bern and admitted to bar in
1920. Mason and Shriner.

Clinton L. Bardo (1867-1937) President of New York

Shipbuilding Co., 1928-37. b. Oct. 24, 1867 at Montgomery, Pa. With
railway and steamship companies since 1885, beginning as telegraph
operator. Superintendent of N.Y.C. & H. R.R. 1907-12; assistant general
manager of N.Y. N.H. & H. R.R. in 1913; president of Central N.E. Ry.
1920-25. Mason. d. Aug. 2, 1937.

Winfield W. Bardwell (1872-1946) Judge and college president.

b. July 18, 1872 at Excelsior, Minn. Admitted to Minn. bar in 1893.
Presiding judge, District Court of Minneapolis since 1919. President of
Minneapolis College of Law since 1924 and member of faculty
University of Minnesota for many years. Mason. d. Dec. 22, 1946.

Frank F. Barham Vice president and director of Hearst

Consolidated Publications, Inc. and Hearst Publishing Co., Inc. b. May
24, 1879 at Anaheim, Calif. Mason.

Walter S. Baring Congressman from Nevada to 81st Congress

(194951). b. Sept. 9, 1911 at Goldfield, Nev. Graduate of University of
Nevada in 1934. Representative in Nevada state legislature 1936 and
reelected in 1942. With U.S. Navy WW2. Raised in May1941, Reno
Lodge No. 13 and has served as senior deacon of same. Member of
Valley of Reno, 32° AASR and member of Kerak Shrine Temple and
Adah Chapter No. 4 O.E.S.

John Barker (1794-1845) A dispenser of Masonic degrees

during middle of the 19th century in the United States. He appeared
about ten years after Jeremy L. Cross, who was in the same "business."
It is said that he originally received his degrees from Cross. Organized
councils in the south and southwest under a warrant from The Supreme
Council, Southern Jurisdiction. When the Supreme Council demanded
the return of the warrant, he refused. Although his purpose was
mercenary, like Cross, he did much to spread the degrees throughout
the country.

William J. Barker U.S. District Judge, Southern District of Florida

since 1940. b. June 25, 1886 at Marietta, Ga. Admitted to Florida bar in
1916. Florida circuit judge, 1925-40. Mason.

Countess Helene Hadik Barkoczy b. 1833. A Hungarian

countess, said to have been a Freemason. The sole heir of Count
Johann Barkoczy, she succeeded him on his death in 1871 in the
extensive Majorat of Barkoczy. In 1860 she married Count Bela Hadik,
aide-de-camp to Emperor Maximilian. She became interested in an
extensive Masonic library that came with her inheritance, and being
highly educated, made an earnest study of Freemasonry. She
endeavoured to gain admittance as a member of the craft and through
some close acquaintances who were Freemasons, was initiated in 1875
in the Lodge Egyenloseg at Unghvar, holding a warrant from the Grand
Orient of Hungary. On learning of the glaring violation of its statutes, the
Grand Orient instituted proceedings against the brethren who were
guilty of conferring the degrees and on January 5, 1876 ordered the
deputy master of the lodge forever expelled and the officers of the lodge
to have their names struck off the lists. The other members were
expelled for periods of three, six and twelve months. This still left the
question of the Countess's standing in Freemasonry. This was resolved
at a meeting of the Grand Orient held on March 10, 1876 when it held
that her admission was contrary to law and therefore null and void. They
forbad her admittance into any lodge under the penalty of erasion of the
lodge from the rolls and requested all other grand lodges to do the
same. It was demanded that she return her invalid certificate within ten

James A. Barksdale Commissioner of Education, Tennessee,

since 1950. b. Nov. 29, 1904 at Kenzie, Tenn. A teacher and principal of
Tenn. schools 1925-49. Member of Cookeville Lodge No. 266,
Cookeville, Tenn. and past master of same.

Elmer E. Barlow (1887-1948) Justice Supreme Court of

Wisconsin 1942-48. b. May 18, 1887 at Arcadia, Wis. Admitted to bar in
1909 and in general practice from 1909 to 1939. Mason. d. June 26,

Joel Barlow (1754-1812) American poet and diplomat. b.

Redding, Conn. Served as chaplain in the Revolution. As U.S. consul to
Algiers in 1795, he arranged treaties with Tunis, Algiers and Tripoli. He
served as U.S. Minister to France in 1811. His works include two epic
poems The Vision of Columbus (1787) and The Columbiad (1807). He
was admitted (which probably meant affiliation) a member of St. John's
Lodge No. 4, Hartford, Conn. on Jan. 9, 1788. He died near Cracow,
Poland in 1812 while trying to reach Napoleon who was then
campaigning through Russian snows. Efforts to have his body removed
metwith no success. Barlow was chaplain at the execution of Major
Andre, the spy.

Henry Clay Barnabee American actor and operatic comedian. A

member of Columbian Lodge, Boston, Mass. March 2, 1865, receiving a
life membership March 2, 1890. Exalted in St. Andrew's Chapter,
R.A.M., Boston on June 3, 1868 and knighted in DeMolay
Commandery, Boston, Sept. 23, 1868. Received 32°, Massachusetts
Consistory (NJ) April 27, 1866.

Ernest S. Barnard (1874-1931) President of the American

Baseball League 1927-31. b. July 17, 1874 at West Columbia, W. Va.
Was sports editor of Columbia Evening Dispatch 1898-1902; secretary
of the Cleveland Ball Club Co., 1903-10, vice president 1911-15 and
president 1922-27. He was vice president of the Acetylene Stove Mfg.
Co. of Cleveland. A member of both York and Scottish Rites. d. March
27, 1931.
Isaac D. Barnard (1791-1834) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania,
1827-31. b. July 18, 1791 at Aston, Pa. Began study of law, but War of
1812 intervened and he served as captain and major in the 14th
Infantry. Was at capture of Fort George and Lyon's Creek. In 1815 he
resumed his legal studies and admitted to bar in 1816. In 1820 he was
elected to the state senate and in 1826 became secretary of state for
Pennsylvania. A Mason. d. Feb. 28, 1834.

Cassius McD. Barnes Territorial governor of Oklahoma Territory.

Active in all branches of Freemasonry, he attended the grand lodge
session of 1902 as master of Guthrie Lodge No. 35. He took an active
part in cornerstone laying and assisted in the organization of the Grand
Chapter of Oklahoma. He was one of the three original petitioners to the
Grand Encampment, K.T. for a commandery and was first commander
of Guthrie Commandery No. 1 and first grand commander of the
Oklahoma Territory.

James M. Barnes Congressman from Illinois 76th and 77th

Congresses (1939-43) Administrative assistant to President of U.S.
1943-45. b. Jan. 9, 1899 at Jacksonville, Ill. LL.B., Harvard, 1924.
Admitted to Ill. bar, 1924. Director National Savings and Trust Co.
Member of Jacksonville Lodge No. 570, Jacksonville, Ill. and 32° AASR
(NJ) at Springfield, Ill. Shriner and Jester.

Will C. Barnes (1858-1936) Author, rancher and Congressional

Medal of Honor winner. b. June 21, 1858 and educated in public
schools of Minneapolis. Enlisted man Signal Corps 1879-82 and
received Congressional Medal at Ft. Apache, Ariz., Sept., 1881 "For
bravery in action with hostile Apache Indians." Member of Arizona state
legislature 1891-92 and of New Mexico legislature 1901-02. Assistant
U.S. Forester 1907-28. Mason. Wrote Tales from the X-Bar Horse
Camp (1920), Cattle (1930), Arizona Place Names, (1934). d. Dec. 17,
Eugene E. Barnett General secretary National Council
Y.M.C.A.'s since 1941. b. Feb. 21, 1888 at Leesburg, Fla. In Y.M.C.A.
work since 1908. Founder of Y.M.C.A. at Hang-chow, China 1910-21;
secretary for China 1921-23. Raised in University Lodge No. 408,
Chapel Hill, N.C. in 1910. He later became a charter member of Amity
Lodge in Shanghai, China under Philippine jurisdiction.

W. J. Barnett Admiral, U. S. Navy. Member of Roman Lodge No.

223 of New York.

George A. Barnewall (1888-1952) Vice president of Brooklyn

Dodgers baseball team. At his death on April 14, 1952 he was Deputy
G.M. of the G.L. of New York and if he had liveda few weeks longer
would have been installed as grand master. He was raised Oct. 18,
1916 at age of 28 in Continental Lodge No. 287, N.Y. While a grand
lodge officer Barnewall always arranged an afternoon "break," so the
delegates could see his team play while the committees digested the
reports of the morning communication.

John Barney (1780-1847) Masonic lecturer who studied under

Thomas Smith Webb q.v. b. October, 1780 at Litchfield, Conn. Raised in
Friendship Lodge No. 20, Charlotte, Vt. in 1810. He was appointed
"Lecturing Master" of the G.L. of Vermont in 1817, moving to Harper's
Field, Ohio in 1826 where he affiliated with New England Lodge No. 4 of
Worthington in 1834 and served as grand lecturer of Ohio from 1836-43.
He later moved to Chicago, Ill. where he affiliatcd with Apollo Lodge No.
32 and was appointed grand lecturer of Illinois in 1845. d. 1847 at
Peoria, Ill.

Joshua Barney (1759-1818) Commodore American Navy,

serving in Revolutionary War and War of 1812. b. July 6, 1759 at
Baltimore, Md. Served throughout the Revolution, being captured three
times by the British. Captured British frigate General Monk (1782). In
French service 17961802. A privateer during War of 1812. Joined forces
at Bladensburg, Md., defending Washington where he was severely
wounded in 1814 and captured for the fourth time. d. Dec. 1, 1818. He
was buried with military and Masonic honors at Pittsburgh, Pa. Dec. 1,
1818. He was made a Freemason in the Lodge of the Nine Sisters,
Paris, France in 1799 (although other sources state that he was raised
in Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia, Pa. on May 17, 1777, and still another lists
him as a member of No. 3 on May 1, 1777). He was a visitor of Lodge
No. 2, Philadelphia on June 16, 1780.

59 Maurice V. Barnhill

Maurice V. Barnhill Judge, Supreme Court of North Carolina

since 1937. b. Dec. 5, 1887 at Halifax, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1909.
Member state legislature (N.C.) 1921-23; judge N.C. Superior Court,
1924-37. Mason and Shriner.

Henry A. Barnum (1833-?) Major General (Union) in Civil War. b.

Sept. 24, 1833 at Jamesville, N.Y. Studied law and enlisted as a private
in 12th New York volunteers in 1861, advancing through grades to
major general, March, 1865. He was twice wounded. First officer to
enter Savannah on Sherman's march to the sea. After war became
inspector of New York prisons, harbor-master of New York and deputy
tax commissioner. Member of lodge at Syracuse, N.Y. Member of
Syracuse Lodge No. 102, Syracuse Chapter No. 70, R.A.M., of N.Y.

William H. Barnum (1818-?) U.S. Senator from Connecticut. b.

Sept. 17, 1818. Engaged in the manufacture of car wheels and iron
production. Served in the state legislature in 1852 and in U.S. Congress
as representative from Connecticut from 1866-1876. Elected to U.S.
Senate in 1876, serving until 1879. Member of Montgomery Lodge No.
13 at Lakeville, Conn.
Joseph L. Baron Jewish rabbi. Founder of Temple Judah, Cedar
Rapids, Iowa (1918); Temple Emmanuel, Waukesha, Wis. (1938),
Temple Beth El, Madison, Wis. (1939). b. May 27, 1894, Vilno,
Lithuania, coming to U.S. with parents in 1907. A.B. Columbia, 1914.
Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1932. Professor and faculty member of State
Teachers College, Milwaukee and University of Wisconsin. Editor of
Young Judean, 1914. Member national council of Jewish education,
1927-30. Author. Member of Wisconsin Lodge No. 13 at Milwaukee; 32°
AASR (SJ) at Davenport, Iowa and also Shrine at Davenport. Honorary
member of Tripoli Shrine Temple in Milwaukee.

Norris S. Barratt (1862-1924) Judge (president) of Common

Pleas, Pennsylvania from 1913. b. Aug. 23, 1862 at Philadelphia, Pa.
Admitted to bar 1883. Served in various public capacities. Judge, Court
of Common Pleas from 1902, and president from 1913. Author of
Freemasonry of Pennsylvania 1827-1907 (3 vols.) with Dr. J. F. Sachse
(1909), History of St.

Paul's Church, Philadelphia; Colonial Wars in America and

several other works. Mason. d. April 26, 1924.

Jesse W. Barrett (1884-1953) Attorney general of Missouri,

1821-25. b. March 17, 1884 at Canton, Mo. Graduated cum laude
Christian Univ. (now Culver-Stockton) Canton, Mo. 1902 and LL.D.
1923; LL.B. George Washington U. 1905. Began practice, St. Louis,
1906. Mason 33° honorary (SJ). d. Nov. 12, 1953.

Lawrence P. Barrett (1838-1891) American actor. b. Paterson,

N.J. April 4, 1838. Joined Boston Museum Company (1858-59). Served
in Civil War. In partnership with the famous Shakespearean actor Booth
q.v. 188691. Excelled in Shakespearean roles. Raised in Oriental Lodge
No. 144, San Francisco, Calif. July 19, 1870, Royal Arch membership in
New York and member of Adelphic Commandery No. 59, New York
City. d. New York City March 20, 1891 and buried by Catholic church.
Oscar F. Barrett (1860-1935) President of The Barrett Line
(operators of tow-boats and barges on Ohio and Mississippi rivers)
1897-1907; president of Barrett Line, Inc. from 1927. b. April 27, 1860 at
Racine, Ohio. Associated with father in John Barrett & Son from 1882.
Vice president of Columbia Life Ins. Co.; president of National Board of
Steam Navigation 1928-30. Mason. d. Aug. 12, 1935.

Robert S. Barrett Physician, diplomat, philanthropist. b. March

30, 1877, at Richmond, Va. Educated in the University of the South and
George Washington Univ. In 1897 he went to Mexico where he was
editor and publisher of the Mexico City Daily Record; returned to the
U.S. in 1907. For many years he served the U.S. in quasi-political
positions abroad. In 1910, with Charles H. Callahan, he inaugurated the
movement to establish the George Washington National Masonic
Memorial Association which resulted in the erection of that famous
memorial. He served as grand master of the G.L. of Virginia in 1942.
From 1925 to 1950 he served as president of the Florence Crittenden
Mission, an organization of which his mother was one of the founders.
He is 33° Sovereign Grand Inspector General for Virginia AASR (SJ).
Dr. and Mrs. Barrett have erected a hospital at the Masonic Home in
Virginia (1940) and given an auditorium for the Elks Home at Bedford,
Va. (1945). He was grand exalted ruler of the Elks, U.S.A. in 1944-45. In
1946 they gave a library to the city of Alexandria, Va. as a memorial to
his mother, and in 1947, gave $1,000,000 to the Barrett Foundation for
philanthropic and educational purposes. Barrett is the author of several
volumes including Standard Guide to Mexico (1900) ; Blue Book of
Mexico (1905); Fifty Years Work With Girls, I Was an Unmarried
Mother. He was raised in Puritan Lodge No. 7, Mexico City in 1902, and
affiliated with Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, of Alexandria, Va.
in 1910. He is a member of Mount Vernon Chapter No. 14 R.A.M. and
Old Dominion Commandery, K.T. of Alexandria. While in Mexico, he
was one of the organizers of the Anezeh Shrine Temple in 1907.

Samuel A. Barrett Anthropologist and explorer. b. Nov. 12, 1879

at Little Rock, Ark. Received B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. at University of Calif.
Ethnologist with George G. Hey Expedition, 1908-09 in South America.
Cur-ator of anthropology, Milwaukee Public Museum since 1909 and
director 1920-40. Director emeritus since 1940. Active in research and
ethnology of Pomo and Miwok tribes of California; also Cayapa Indians
of Ecuador. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Carter T. Barron (1905-1950) Theatre executive. Manager of

Loew's Eastern Division of Theatres including D.C., Md., Va., Del. and
Pa. since 1934. b. Clarkesville, Ga. Jan 30, 1905. B.S. Georgia Institute
of Tech., 1927. Assist. manager and manager of theaters from 1905.
Vice president of Kes-Bar, Inc.; director of Washington Board of Trade
since 1949; executive vice chairman of National Capitol Sesqui-
Centennial Comm. since 1948; Chairman entertainment comm.
President's Birthday Balls 1934-46. Head of music and entertainment
committee National Democratic Convention, 1940. Mason. d. Nov. 16,

Dionysiue Barron Male alto singer. Raised in St. Cecile Lodge

No. 568, New York City on Oct. 7, 1873.

Clark DeBlanc Barrow President of Southeastern Louisiana

College at Hammond since 1952. b. June 8, 1894 at Plaquemine, La.
Graduate of Louisana State and Columbia. Mason.

Chester W. Barrows (1872-1931) Judge, Supreme Court of

Rhode Island, 1925-31. b. July 4, 1872 at Woonsocket, R.I. LL.B.
Harvard, 1898. Admitted to R.I. bar, 1898. Associate Justice Superior
Court of R.I. 191325. Mason. d. Feb. 19, 1931.

Lewis 0. Barrows Governor of Maine 1937-41. b. June 7, 1893

at Newport, Maine. Secretary of Liberty Mutual Insurance Co. and
United Mutual Fire Ins. Co. of Boston. Maine secretary of state 1935-36.
Member of lodge, chapter, council, commandery and consistory.
Augustin Barruel (1741-1820) An anti-Mason better known as
the Abbe. Born in Villeneuve de Berg, France, he was a prolific writer
but owes his reputation principally to his Recollections to Serve for a
History of Jacobinism (1797). He sought to trace the origin of
Freemasonry to the Templars, accusing them of having an "impious
code and vows of vengeance against kings and priests." Educated by
the Jesuits and entered the society. When they were suppressed in
France, he went to Moravia and Bohemia.

John Barry Commodore, U.S. Navy in American Revolution.

Initiated in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia, Pa. on Oct. 12, 1795. Suspended
NPD in 1800.

William T. Barry (1785-1835) Postmaster General of the U.S.

under President Jackson and U.S. Senator from Kentucky. b. Feb. 5,
1785. Served in the war of 1812. Lawyer and statesman. Was a
member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and later of Daviess
Lodge No. 22 of Lexington. On Jan. 4, 1830 he was elected an honorary
member of Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C.

John L. Barstow (1832-1913) Governor of Vermont. b. Feb. 21,

1832 at Shelburne, Vt. Served as major in Union army from 1861-64
and was made brigadier general of state troops at time of the St. Albans
raid. Member of Vermont house 1864-65 and senate, 1866-68. Became
39th governor in 1880, serving two terms until 1885. Mason. d. June 28,

Oliver E. Barthel Engineer and inventor. b. Oct. 3, 1877 at

Detroit, Mich. Has been designer and engineer with Ford, Cadillac,
Oldsmobile and Standard Steel Car Co. Holder of 35 patents. Designed
and built outboard motor in 1906; streamlined automobile in 1912; all-
steel automobile body in 1917. Mason and Knight Templar.
Frederic A. Bartholdi (1834-1904) Designer of Statue of Liberty
in New York harbor. b. April 2, 1834 at Colmar, Alsace, France. He was
one of the early members of Lodge Alsace-Lorraine, Paris (Oct. 14,
1875) which was composed of prominent intellectuals, writers and
government representatives. When his famous statue Liberty
Enlightening the World was achieved, Bartholdi convened his lodge to
review it, even before the statue was shown to the U.S. committee. On
June 19, 1884, the lodge, as if it were a pilgrimage, went in a body to
review his masterpiece that was to be the gift of the French people to
the United States. On Nov. 13, 1884 Bartholdi delivered a lecture and
gave the lodge a report on the history and various methods used in the
execution of his statue. Again the lodge witnessed his emotion when he
came back from his visit to U.S. in 1887, and he told them of the ardent
welcome he had received and of the wide enthusiasm created by his
work. Another famous work by Bartholdi is Le Lion de Belfort,
commemorating the defense of Belfort in Franco-Prussian War.

Frank H. Bartholomew President and general manager of United

Press Association since April, 1955. b. Oct. 5, 1898 at San Francisco,
Calif. Began as a reporter in 1918 on Portland and Vancouver (B.C.)
papers, starting with United Press as the Portland Bureau manager.
During WW2 he was in charge of all correspondents covering the
Pacific War and a correspondent himself in New Guinea, Aleutians,
Luzon. He covered the Japanese surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri
in Tokyo Bay in Sept., 1945 and the atomic bomb test at Bikini in 1946.
Member of Temple Lodge No. 14, Sonora, Calif., and Islam Shrine
Temple, San Francisco.

H. Roe Bartle Lawyer, youth leader, college president. b.

Richmond, Va. Admitted to Kentucky bar in 1920 and Missouri bar in
1921. President of Missouri Valley College, Marshall, Mo. 1948-51.
Long-time scout executive for Kansas City area, Boy Scouts of America.
Member of 17 boards of directors and owns 5,000 acres in Missouri and
Oklahoma. Makes some 200 public speeches a year ranging upwards
from $1,000 per speech—much of which he turns over to the American
Humanities Fund of which he has been administrator since 1947.
Elected mayor of Kansas City in 1955. Member Ararat Shrine Temple;
Lebanon Lodge No. 87 (Ky.) Independence Chapter, R.A.M. No. 12 and
Palestine Cornmandery No. 17, K.T. of Independdence, Mo.

Frederick B. Bartlett (1882-1941) Bishop, Protestant Episcopal

Church. b. Aug. 23, 1822 at South Manchester, Conn. Graduate of
Trinity College, Episcopal Theological School and Harvard. Served as
deacon and priest from 1908. General secretary National Council. P. E.
Churches 1925-31 and consecrated bishop of North Dakota Dec. 16,
1931, transferring to Missionary District of Idaho in 1935. Mason. d.
Dec. 15, 1941.

John H. Bartlett Governor of New Hampshire and 1st Assistant

Postmaster General in Coolidge Cabinet. b. Sunapee, N.H., March 15,
1864. Member of DeWitt Clinton Commandery, K.T. (N.H.). Birth date
March 15, 1869.

Josiah Bartlett (1729-1795) Signer of the Declaration of

Independence. Not to be confused with Josiah Bartlett (1759-1820) who
was also a physician q.v. b. Amesbury, Mass. Nov. 21, 1729. Practiced
medicine at Kingston, N.H. (1750-95). Was a delegate to Continental
Congress (1773-76) (1778-79). Associate justice (1782-88) and chief
justice (1788-90) of superior court of New Hampshire. He
was"President" of New Hampshire, 179093 and its first governor from
1793-94. d. May 19, 1795 at Kingston, N.H. Although his lodge is not
known, his great grandson, Levi S. Bartlett, has a letter written by
Josiah to his son Ezra saying, "I attended a Mason meeting last night,
and as soon as you can I wish you would join the Masons.”

Josiah Bartlett (1759-1820) Revolutionary physician and grand

master of the G.L. of Mass. Not to be confused with Josiah, the signer
of the Declaration of Independence, who was also a physician q.v. b.
Charlestown, Mass. Aug. 11, 1759. He was elected and initiated in
Union Lodge at Danbury, Conn. (now No. 40 on the roll) on April 13,
1780; passed April 24 and raised May 2, same year. The history of that
lodge, written in 1926, says in discussing the installation of the first
master that a meeting was held on April 13 at the home of Mrs. Mary
White, "to consider the request of Dr. Josiah Bartlett whose inclination to
be a Freemason was so great he was determined if possible to be
initiated so as to join this Lodge on the day appointed for the installment
of the Wor. Master . . . ." He later became a charter member of King
Solomon's Lodge, Charleston, Mass. in Mass. in Sept., 1783. The 150th
anniversary history of that lodge confirms his original membership by
stating that he was barely 21 years old when in 1780 he received his
degrees in Union Lodge at Danbury. Bartlett followed Paul Revere q.v.
as grand master of Massachusetts (after union of March, 1792), serving
in 1798, 1799 and 1810. d. March 2, 1820 at Charlestown.

Murray Bartlett Organizer and first president of University of

Philippines (1911-15). b. March 29, 1871 at Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
Graduate of Harvard, Gen. Theol. Sem., Univ. of Roch-

63 Robert A. Bartlett ester, Trinity College, Columbia and Hobart.

Protestant Episcopal rector and dean, serving Cathedral of St. Mary and
St. John, Manila, P.I. 1908-11. Founder of Tropical Medicine and Public
Health school. Chaplain with U.S. Infantry in WW1, wounded in Marne-
Aisne offensive Mason. 33° AASR.

Robert A. Bartlett (1875-1946) Explorer. b. Aug. 15, 1875 at

Brigus, Newfoundland. Began explorations wintering with R. E. Peary at
Cape D'Urville, Kane Basin 1897-98; on a hunting expedition, Hudson
Bay and Strait in 1901; captain of a sealer off Newfoundland coast,
1901-05; commanded the Roosevelt, 1905-09, taking active part in
Peary's expedition to the pole, reaching the 88th parallel; with Canadian
government Arctic expedition 1913-14 as captain of the cutter Kariuk
which was crushed by ice in January, 1914. He reached Wrangel Island
with 17 persons, and leaving 15 on the island, he crossed ice to Siberia
with one Eskimo and returned with a rescue party in Sept., 1914. They
reached Nome, Alaska a year later with 13 survivors. In the service of
the U.S. government, National Geographic Society and various
museums, he made exploration trips until 1944 to Arctic ocean,
Greenland, Alaska, Baffin Land, Siberia, and Hudson Bay. Received
many national and international honors for his explorations. Author of
several books. Mason. d. April 28, 1946.

Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815) Famous Italian designer and

engraver. b. Florence, Italy. Studied on the continent and settled in
London in 1764. He was an early member of the Lodge of Nine Muses
No. 235, London, and collaborator of Cipriani q.v. the painter, who was
a member of the same lodge. He was one of the four members of this
lodge to be original members of the exclusive Royal Academyat its
foundation in 1768. He engraved works of Guercino, Annibale Carracci,
Giordano, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Cosway and Angelica Kauffmann.
The frontispiece of the 1784 edition of the Book of Constitutions is his
engraving. He became engraver to the King (England), later moving to
Lisbon where he became head of the Royal Academy at Lisbon (1802-

Sir Edmund Barton (1849-1920) First prime minister of

Australian Commonwealth (1901-03). Speaker of legislative assembly,
New South Wales, 1883-87 and attorney general in 1889 and 1891-93.
He led the delegation presenting Australian Commonwealth Constitution
bill to British Parliament in 1900. Nearly one-third of the members of the
first Australian parliament were Freemasons. He was judge of the
Australian high court from 1903 until his death in 1920. Barton was a
member of Australia Lodge of Harmony No. 556 (initiated March 3,
1878) which later became No. 5 with the establishment of the United
Grand Lodge of New South Wales in 1888. He was invested as senior
deacon of the lodge on June 9, 1880.

LeRoy Barton Architect. b. Dec. 14, 1887 in New York City. An

architect in New York City, 1910-34. Assistant to Secretary of Treasury
193439 and acting supervising architect to Treasury Department.
Architectural supervisor Public Buildings Administration, 1939-40. Now
practicing as consultant architect. Served in both WW1 and WW2,
retiring as colonel in 1948. Raised in Wamponamen Lodge No. 437,
Sag Harbor, N.Y. on March 3, 1921. Member of Manhattan (N.Y.)
Chapter No. 86, National Sojourners and Martyr's Camp, Heroes of '76.

William Barton (1748-1831) Colonel of American Revolution. b.

May 26, 1748 at Providence, R.I. Noted for his daring capture of British
General Prescott in the latter's house at Newport. He was imprisoned at
Danville, Vt. from 1810-24 for refusing to pay judgment on his land in
Vermont. The judgment was paid by General Lafayette q.v. on his visit
to America in 1824. He became a member of St. John's Lodge,
Providence, R.I. in 1779. d. at Providence, Oct. 22, 1831.

Sydney N. Baruch Research engineer who invented the depth

bomb successfully used in destruction of submarines in WW1 and
WW2. b. March 1, 1890 at Mamaroneck, N.Y. Chief engr. Federal
Telephone Co. (radio division of Postal Telegraph Co.) 1919-20.
President of Public Service Corp. of Calif. 1916-20. Conductor of private
research laboratories in New York City since 1930. Inventor of thermo
relay and other devices, also thyraton and nortron type mercury rectifier
tubes and sound recording on film (1934). Designer of 300,000 volt
direct current transmission system of Bonneville Project. Mason and

Charles Baskerville ( 1870 - 1922 ) Chemist who discovered the

chemical elements, carolinium and berzellum. b. June 18, 1870 at
Noxubee Co. Miss. Author of many books on chemistry. Mason. d. Jan.
28, 1922.

Edward Bass (1726-1803) First Protestant Episcopal bishop of

Massachusetts in 1797. His bishopric included Rhode Island and New
Hampshire. b. Dorchester, Mass. Nov. 23, 1726. Served as pastor at
Newbury, Mass. from 1752-1803. Admitted a member of St. John's
Lodge No. 1 of Portsmouth, N.H. April 12, 1758. In 1768 he served as
grand chaplain of the G.L. of Mass.
Perkins Bass Congressman from New Hampshire to 84th
Congress. b. Oct. 6, 1912 at East Walpole, Mass. Admitted to N.H. bar
in 1938. Member N.H. state legislature, 1939-43 and1947-49. President
of N.H. state senate 1949-51. Member of Altemont Lodge No. 26,
Peterborough, N.H. 32° AASR (NJ) in Nashua, N.H. Member of Bektash
Shrine Temple, Concord, N.H.

Norman L. Basset (1869-1931) Justice, Supreme Court of Maine

1925-31. b. June 23, 1869 at Winslow, Me. Graduate of Colby College,
Harvard and University of Maine. Mason. d. Sept. 29, 1931.

Richard N. Batchelder (1832-1901) Quartermaster General of

U.S. Army. b. July 27, 1832 at Lake Village, N.H. Entered volunteer
service in 1861 and rose through arnks to brigadier general on March
13, 1865. Was awarded Congressional Medal of Honor in Civil War.
Entered regular service after war and made Quartermaster General in
1890. A member of Lafayette Lodge No. 41 at Manchester, N.H. d.

Robert F. Batchelder Commodore, U.S. Navy. b. March 27,

1895 at Worcester, Mass. Commissioned ensign in supply corps of
Navy in 1921 and advanced through grades to commodore in Nov.,
1945. With Atlantic fleet in WW2, Sicilian occupation and Normandy
invasion. Deputy administrator, War Assets Admin., 1946-47; assistant
chief, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, U.S. Navy since 1947. Retired.
Raised in Quinsigamond Lodge, Worchester, Mass. in 1922. Life
member of Eureka Chapter, R.A.M., Worcester, Mass.; life member
California Consistory AASR (SJ) at San Francisco; life member of
Chapter No. 3, National Sojourners and Heroes of '76, Washington,
Willis T. Batcheller President and chief engineer of Canadian
Alaska Railway Co., involving 3,300 mile transcontinental system from
Seattle and Vancouver to Fairbanks, Alaska. b. Dec. 23, 1889 at Joliet,
Ill. President and chief engineer of Portland Canal Power Co. Served as
engineer on many hydro-electrical developments, including Grand
Coulee, Skagit River, Nimpkish River pulp plant and Quincy Valley
Irrigation Dist. Raised in Green Lake Lodge No. 149, Seattle in April,
1921. Member of Ballard Chapter No. 26, R.A.M. Seattle Council No. 6
R. & S.M., Bethlehem Cornmandery, K.T. No. 19 all of Seattle. Active
worker in Commandery 32° AASR (SJ) in 1921 and KCCH in 1945. Past
wise master of Rose Croix, 1944. Member of Nile Shrine Temple since
1921 and past patron of University Chapter, O.E.S.

James C. Batchelor (1818-1893) Succeeded Albert Pike as 9th

grand commander of Supreme Council AASR (SJ) in 1891, serving until
death in 1893. b. July 10, 1818 at Quebec, Canada. Was a physician in
New Orleans and distinguished himself in the yellow fever epidemic.
Initiated in Eureka Lodge No. 64, Greenville, Ala. April 11, 1846 and
Royal Arch in Polar Star Chapter No. 21, New Orleans Aug. 17, 1857.
Joined Orleans Council R. & S.M. Feb. 15, 1859 and Jacques DeMolai
Commandery, K.T. No. 2, New Orleans, Feb. 17, 1860. 32° AASR in
New Orleans Dec. 17, 1856 and 33° on Feb. 14, 1857. d. July 28, 1893
at Washington, D.C.

William B. Bate (1826-1905) U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b.

Oct. 7, 1826 near Castilian Spring, Tenn. Was a steamboat clerk on
Mississippi river and served as private in Mexican War in Louisiana and
Tennessee regiments. He served in the Tennessee legislature and
graduated from Lebannon Law School in 1852, practicing at Gallatin,
Tenn. Entering the Civil War as a private, he advanced to major
general, C.S.A. 1861-65, being wounded three times. After the war he
practiced law at Nashville and was U.S. Senator from 1887 until his
death in 1905. He was a member of King Solomon Lodge No. 94
(successor of No. 6).
Edward Bates (1793-1869) Attorney General of United States in
Lincoln's cabinet. b. Sept. 4, 1793 at Belmont, Va. of Quaker parentage.
He came to Missouri in 1814 at the age of 21, his brother Frederick q.v.
then being secretary of the territory. Admitted to bar in 1816 after
studying with Rufus Easton q.v.. He was a member of the convention of
1820 that framed the state constitution of Missouri, and appointed by
Gov. McNair q.v. as first attorney general. In 1822 he was a member of
the legislature and in 1824 was appointed by President Monroe q.v. as
U.S. Attorney for the District of Missouri. He was the second
representative in Congress from Missouri being elected to the 20th
Congress in 1826, but declined re-election. In 1830 he served as state
senator and in 1834 as state representative. In 1850 President Fill-more
q.v. appointed him Secretary of War and he was confirmed by the
Senate, but declined the position. In 1853 he was elected judge of the
St. Louis Land Court and in 1856 he was presiding officer of the Whig
national convention in Baltimore. President Lincoln named him Attorney
General of the U.S. in 1861 and he served until 1863 when he resigned.
He was the first cabinet member from west of the Mississippi river. He
was a member of Missouri Lodge No. 12, under Tennessee charter
(later Missouri No. 1) and was active in the formation of the Grand
Lodge of Mo. He was elected to preside at the preliminary convention
and was later made permanent chairman. A preamble and resolution
was drawn up, evidently the work of Bates. Two months later the
delegates again assembled to consider the matter of organizing a grand
lodge with Bates presiding. Bates served four terms as grand master,
1825-26-27-31. In his last term as grand master he introduced a
resolution to be submitted to all subordinate lodges of the state (height
of Anti-Masonic period) which ended: "Be it Resolved, that immediately
after the close this evening, this Lodge shall cease to act as an
organized body, and that its charter be surrendered and returned to the
Grand Lodge." As far as known, Edward Bates never thereafter
appeared at a Masonic meeting. d. March 25, 1869.

Frederick Bates (1777-1825) Second governor of Missouri,

1824-25. b. June 23, 1777 in Belmont, Va. of a Quaker family. Older
brother of Edward Bates q.v. In 1797 he settled in Detroit, Mich. where
he engaged in the mercantile business and served as postmaster, U.S.
Receiver of Public Money and named in 1805 by Jefferson as the first
U.S. Judge for the Territory of Michigan. He first appeared in St. Louis in
1806 where he was first recorder of the Board of Land Commissions.
On May 7, 1807, Jefferson appointed him as the second secretary for
the Territory of Louisiana, a position he held 13 years until the formation
of the state government. As Territorial secretary he compiled the Laws
of the Territory of Louisiana, which was the first book printed in the
territory. He was probably made a Freemason in Michigan for he is
listed as a charter member of St. Louis Lodge No. 111 (Pennsylvania
charter) in 1809. He succeeded Meriwether Lewis as Master. He is also
listed as a charter member of Missouri Lodge No. 1 (12 under Tenn.)
when the Grand Lodge of Missouri was formed in 1821. He was elected
grand master on Oct. 3, 1821 and turned it down for reasons of heavy
business and poor health. This was probably true as he died Aug. 4,
1825 after having served as governor for less than a year.

Isaac B. Bates (1780-1845) U.S. Senator from Massachusetts.

b. May 14, 1780 in Granville, Mass. Graduated at Yale in 1802 and
studied law, practicing in Northhampton, Mass. First elected to
Congress as an anti-Jackson man, and reelected three times, serving
from 1827-1835. In 1841 he was elected to U.S. Senate where he
served until his death. He opposed the admission of Texas to the union.
Member of Jerusalem Lodge at Northhampton, Mass. d. March 16,

John L. Bates (1859-?) Governor of Massachusetts, 1903-04. b.

Sept. 18, 1859 at Easton, Mass. Practiced law at Boston since 1885.
Member state house of representatives 1894 - 99 (speaker 1897-99);
lieutenant governor of Mass. 1900-02. President of Mass. Constitutional
Convention of 1917-18-19. President board of trustees Boston
University 1907-27. Member Baalbec Lodge, East Boston and St.
John's Royal Arch Chapter of Boston. 33° AASR (NJ). Deceased.

Joseph B. Bates Congressman from Kentucky, 75th to 80th

Congresses (1937-49). b. Oct. 29, 1893 at Republican, Ky2Teacher and
school superintendent for 16 years and county clerk of Greenup County,
Ky. from 1922-38. Mason.
John S. Battle Governor of Virginia, 1950-54. b. July 11, 1890 at
New Bern, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1913 and began practice at
Charlottesville, Va. Member of Virginia general assembly in 1920 and
state senator from 1934-49. Served in WW1. He is a member of
Charlottesville Lodge No. 55 and a past master. A member of Keystone
Chapter No. 58, R.A.M. and past high priest. Member of Charlottesville
Commandery No. 3, K.T. and Acca Shrine Temple, Richmond, Va.

Laurie C. Battle Congressman from Alabama to 80th and 81st

Congresses (1947-51). b. May 10, 1912 at Wilsonville, Ala. Graduate of
Birmingham-Southern College and Ohio State Univ. Has been a laborer,
clerk, salesman, personnel worker and teacher of sociology at Ohio
State Univ. Served in WW2 Pacific Theatre and rose from private to
major. Member of Docena Lodge No. 815, Docena, Ala.; 32° AASR at
Birmingham, Zamora Shrine Temple; High Twelve and O.E.S. chapter
No. 118, Birmingham.

Arthur A. Batts Chairman of the board of the Carborundum Co.

b. June 25, 1884 at Syracuse, N.Y. With the Carborundum Co. since
1901 as bookkeeper, office manager, assistant secretary, secretary
(1827-42); president (1942-46) and chairman of the board since 1947.

Clyde M. Bauer Geologist, naturalist. With National Park

Service. b. April 5, 1886 at Bristol, Ind. Taught school; was high school
principal from 1908-11. With U.S. Geological Survey 1911-16.
Commercial geologist 1916-31. Park naturalist, Yellowstone National
Park 1932-46 (chief naturalist 194346). Director of Yellowstone Library
and Museum Association, 1932-46. Wrote The Story of Yellowstone
Geysers (1937) and Yellowstone—Its Underworld. Raised in
Bartlesville, Okla. in 1917 and now life member of Columbia Lodge No.
14, Boulder, Colo. 32° AASR (SJ) at Billings, Mont. and member of Al
Bedoo Shrine Temple, Billings.
Howard K. Bauernfeind President of J. B. Lippincott Co.
Philadelphia, book publishers since 1949. b. April 12, 1900 at Council
Bluffs, Iowa. Graduate of Central College, Naperville, III. and Univ. of
Chicago. School superintendent from 1921-30. With Lippincott Co. since
1930 as editor, managing editor and vice president. Raised in
Monmouth Lodge No. 37, Monmouth, Ill. in 1922. Member of Monmouth
Chapter No. 30, R.A.M.

Harry L. Baum (1887-1951) Physician and author of several

Masonic plays. b. Sept. 7, 1887 at Shelbyville, Ill. Graduated in
medicine from University of Pennsylvania and removed to Denver, Colo.
where he specialized in diseases of ear, nose and throat. Was first
master of Emulation Lodge No. 154 of Denver and served as grand
master of the G.L. of Colorado 193738. Was chairman of the
correspondence committee of the G.L. for many years. 33° AASR (SJ)
in 1929. Best known for his Masonic plays, John Brent and Prelude to
Victory. d. March 25, 1951.

Warren W. Baumgartner Artist and illustrator. b. Oakville, Mo.

March 15, 1894. Student at Art Institute of Chicago and Grand Central
School of Art, N.Y. Illustrator for national magazines since 1938.
Exhibited at National Academy American Water Color Society. Awarded
Adolph and Clara Obrig prize in 1941 and Hans Obst prize in 1945.

Bruce R. Baxter (1892-1947) Bishop, Methodist Church 1940-

47. b. Aug. 18, 1892 at Rock Run, Ohio. Assistant to president of
University of Southern California 1924-30 and president of Willamette
Univ., Salem, Ore. 1934-40. President of Oregon Assn. of Independent
Colleges 1939-40. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR. d. June 20,
James P. Baxter (1831-1921) Author. b. March 23, 1831 at
Gorham, Me. President of Savings Bank of Portland and mayor of
Portland six terms (1893-97) (1904-05). Organized and established
Portland Society of Art in 1883 and Associated Charities. Built and
donated libraries to Portland (1888) and Gorham (1907) and conveyed
the family mansion to city of Gorham for a museum. President of the
Maine Historical Society from 1890. Author of many historical works
including The Trelawney Papers (1884); George Cleve and His Times
(1885); The British Invasion from the North (1887); The Voyages of
Jacques Cartier (1906), and edited 20 volumes of documentary history
of Maine. Mason. d. May 8, 1921.

Jedediah H. Baxter Surgeon General, U.S. Army. Member of

Columbia Commandery No. 2, K.T. at Washington, D.C. d. Dec. 4,

John B. Mac. Baxter (1868-1946) Chief Justice, Supreme Court

of New Brunswick from 1935. b. Feb. 16, 1868 at Saint John, N.B.,
Canada. Began as an attorney in 1890. Attorney general of New
Brunswick 1916-17; premier of New Brunswick, 1925-31; member of
Canadian Parliament 192125 and judge of Supreme Court, N.B. from
1931-35. Mason and 33° AASR. d. Dec. 27, 1946.

Warner Baxter Movie actor. Member Cahuenga Lodge No. 513,

Hollywood and of the "233 (Masonic) Club.”

Francis Baylies Lawyer, author, member of Congress and U.S.

Minister to Buenos Aires. Original lodge not known, but made honorary
member of Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston, Mass. on Jan. 26, 1835.
Hojijah Baylies Aid to General Washington in Revolutionary War.
Held rank of major and was member of Masters' Lodge No. 2, New

William Baylis (1848-1919) Architect, inventor and Sovereign

Grand Commander, Supreme Council. b. Nov. 8, 1848 at Pictou, N.S.,
Canada. Became superintendent hospital construction, office of surgeon
general, U.S. Army in 1882 (Major). Invented combination steam and
hot water heating system in 1893.

Samuel H. Baynard, Jr. (1879-1947) Secretary General of AASR

(NJ). b. June 3, 1879 at Wilmington, Del. Graduated B.A. from Delaware
College in 1900. Admitted to bar in 1904. Raised in Eureka Lodge No.
23, Wilmington. Author of two volume history of the Ancient and
Accepted Scottish Rite (Northern Jurisdiction) in 1938. d. Sept. 9, 1947.

Alfred W. Bays Lawyer, president of The Abbott Foundation and

vice chairman of board of Abbott Laboratories since 1947. b. July 12,
1876 at Vermont, Ill. Graduate of Northwestern Univ. School of Law,
1904. Professor of law, 1912-37 at Northwestern. Trustee Northwestern
Univ., Lake Bluff Orphanage, Ravenswood and Evanston hospitals and
others. Editor and compiler of American Commercial Law Series (9
vols.) and other law works. Mason.

Etienne-Francois Bazot b. March 31, 1782 at Nievre, France.

Wrote a Masonic dictionary and manual.

George L. Beal Union general in Civil War. b. May 21, 1825 in

Norway, Maine. He left Portland on Oct. 6, 1861 as colonel of 10th
Maine regiment. Appointed by president as brigadier general of
volunteers Nov. 30, 1864 and mustered out of service Jan. 15, 1866.
Member of Oxford Lodge No. 18, Norway, Maine.
Jack Beall, Jr. Radio commentator and newspaperman. b. Dec.
6, 1898 at Waxahachie, Texas. Graduate of Princeton (1921), and Yale
Law School, 1924. Admitted to Texas bar in 1924, but gave up practice
in 1929 to become newspaperman. With Dallas Times-Herald and New
York Herald Tribune and then London correspondent and later
Washington correspondent covering White House, Senate and State
Department (1937-43). Entered radio field in 1944, with WLW,
Cincinnati. Now Washington correspondent for A.B.C. with Headline
Edition; News of Tomorrow and This Week Around the World. Mason.

Walter B. Beals Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Washington

(1933-34 and 1945-46) and presiding judge for the War Crimes Tribunal
in Nurnberg, Germany, 1946-48 (with military leave of absence from
Supreme Court of Washington). b. July 21, 1876 at St. Paul, Minn.
Admitted to Washington bar in 1901. Judge of Supreme Court of
Washington 1928 to 1952. Advanced from private to lieutenant colonel
in WW1, served in Meuse-Argonne offensive. Mason and 32° AASR.

Rosenham (Jack) Beam Brigadier General U.S. Air Force. b.

June 11, 1895 at Bardstown, Ky. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant Infantry
in 1916 and advanced through grades to brigadier general, Air Force,
1948. Served in WW1 with Aviation Section, Signal Corps. Commanded
the 12th Air Support Command in invasion of North Africa 1932-43.
Commander of various air force bases since 1944. Commanding
general of Air Force Technical School, Lowry Air Force Base, Denver
since 1945. Mason, National Sojourner and Shriner.

Alexander G. E. Beaman (18851943) Insurance executive and

Masonic editor. b. June 23, 1885, Hartford, Conn. Started as shorthand
teacher with Gregg School, Chicago and later as executive assistant of
railroads and banks. Organized the A. G. Beaman Agency, Ltd. and
headed since 1929. President of Fire-Police Commission, City of Los
Angeles and director of Hollywood Academy of Fine Arts. Managing
editor of Masonic Digest, 1923-25 and secretary of Masonic Periodicals
Corp. 1923-25. Active for many years in the care of homeless and
transients. Editor of Los Angeles Consistcrry Bulletin from 1912. d. Oct.
22, 1943.

John V. Beamer Congressman from Indiana to 82nd Congress

(195153). b. Nov. 17, 1896 in Indiana. A.B. from Wabash College, 1918.
Farm owner and operator since 1943. Member of Hanna Lodge No. 61;
Wabash Chapter No. 26, R.A.M.; Wabash Council No. 13, R. & S.M.;
Wabash Commandery, No. 37, K.T. all of Wabash, Ind. and Capital
Forest No. 104, Tall Cedars of Lebanon at Washington, D.C.

Henry J. Bean (1853-1941) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of

Oregon (1930-32 and 1937-38). b. Nov. 13, 1853 at Bethel, Maine.
Admitted to bar, 1881. Member of Oregon house of representatives
1889, district attorney, county co-judge, circuit court judge. Justice of
Supreme Court of Oregon, 1911 to term expiring in 1944. d. May 9,

Cyrus Beard (1850-1920) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of

Wyoming, 1911-13. b. Aug. 1850 in Venango Co., Pa. Began practice of
law in Washington, Iowa, 1874. Removed to Harlan, Iowa, 1878 and to
Evanston, Wyo., 1890. Justice of Supreme Court of Wyoming, 1904 to
term expiring in 1921. d. Dec. 17, 1920.

Daniel Carter Beard (known as Dan Beard) (1850-1941)

American painter, illustrator and organizer of the Boy Scout movement
in the United States. b. June 21, 1850 at Cincinnati, Ohio. Started as
book and magazine illustrator and teacher of drawing. Originator and
founder of the first boy scout society from which others were modeled.
National Scout Commissioner and honorary vice-president of B.S.A.
Awarded the Golden Eagle, by B.S.A., the only one ever given. Chief
scout, dept. of woodcraft at Culver (Ind.) Military Academy (1911-15).
Mt. Beard, the peak adjoining Mt. McKinley is named for him. Wrote
many books on scouting and wilderness lore including: Moonlight and
Six Feet of Romance (1890); American Boys' Handy Book (1882); Boy
Pioneers and Daniel Boone (1909); Shelters, Shacks and Shanties
(1914); Bugs, Butterflies and Beetles (1915); Signs, Signals and
Symbols (1918); American Boy's Book of Wild Animals (1921) and at
least a dozen others. Associate editor of Boy's Life. Chief of School of
Woodcraft. Raised in Mariners' Lodge No. 67, New York City and later a
member of Cornucopia Lodge No. 563, Flushing, N.Y. at the time of his
death on June 11, 1941. Raised Nov. 30, 1917.

Arthur L. Beardsley (1869-1944) President of Miles Laboratories,

Inc. b. Dec. 27, 1869. Employed by hardware companies until 1900 and
with Cleveland Twist Drill Co. 1902-20. With Miles Laboratories since
1920, purchasing agent, plant manager, treasurer, general manager
and president and treasurer. Mason, Knight Templar, Shriner. d. Jan. 4,

William S. Beardsley (1901-1954) Governor of Iowa 1949-54. b.

May 13, 1901 at Beacon, Iowa. Retail druggist and jewelry business,
1922-38. Operator of 900-acre farm from 1938. Member of Iowa state
senate, 1932-40 and house of representatives, 1947-48. Killed in
highway accident while governor on Nov. 21, 1954.

Theodore P. Beasley President, owner and general manager of

Republic National Life Insurance Co., Dallas since 1937. b. June 29,
1900 at Mt. Ayr, Iowa. Started in insurance business, Joplin, Mo. in
1928. Director of several companies. Active nationally and
internationally in Y.M.C.A. and Salvation Army work. Member of
Washington Lodge No. 1117, Dallas, Texas. 32° AASR, Dallas and
Bella Shrine Temple.

Mrs. Beaton (1717-1802) A lady of Norfolk, England, who it was

said, concealed herself in a lodge room andlearned the secrets of the
first degree before she was discovered, upon which she herself was
initiated. The only reference to the occurrence, which is probably
tradition, is found in A General History of the County of Norfolk (1829). It
gives the following: "Died in St. John's Madder-market, Norwich, July,
1802, aged 85, Mrs. Beaton, a native of Wales. She was commonly
called the 'Freemason' from the circumstances of her having contrived
to conceal herself one evening in the wainscoting of a lodge room,
where she learned the secret, the knowledge of which thousands of her
sex have in vain attempted to arrive at. She was, in many respects, a
very singular character, of which one proof adduced is, that the secret of
Freemasons died with her.”

John Beatty Commissioner General of prisoners (with rank of

Colonel) in Revolutionary War. Raised in Trenton Lodge No. 5, Trenton,
N.J. A past master of that lodge, he was elected grand master of the
G.L. of New Jersey Jan. 11, 1791. In 1792 he transferred his
membership to Solomon's Lodge No. 1.

Troy Beatty (1866-1922) Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church.

b. Nov. 12, 1866 at Tuscaloosa, Ala. Deacon, 1891; priest, 1892. Rector
in various churches in Tennessee and Georgia until 1919 when
consecrated coadjutor bishop of Tenn. (Sept. 18). Deputy to General
Convention from 1901. Mason. d. April 23, 1922.

Henry, 5th Duke of Beaufort Grand master of G.L. of England,

1767-71. Of the Somerset family holding earldoms and later marquess
of Worcester, merging in 1682 with dukedom of Beaufort. Its founder
was Charles Somerset (1460?-1520) illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort,
3rd Duke of Somerset.

Eugene de Beauharnais (1781-1824) Viceroy of Italy. b. Paris.

Served with Napoleon in Egypt, 1798-99. Napoleon made him viceroy of
Italy in 1805. He married Princess Amalie Auguste of Bavaria in 1806.
In the same year he was formally adopted by Napoleon and made heir
apparent to the throne of Italy. He commanded the army corps in Russia
(1812), retiring to Bavaria in 1814 and became the Duke of
Leuchtenberg and Prince of Eichstatt. He was Grand Commander of the
Supreme Council of Italy.

Campbell E. Beaumont Judge, U.S. District Court of Southern

California since 1939. b. Aug. 27, 1883. Admitted to bar in 1912. Served
as assistant and district attorney. Was judge of Calif. Superior Court,
192139. Mason.

Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont (1728-1810) A French political

adventurer and Freemason who was thought to be an hermaphrodite or
a woman. The full name was Charles Genevieve Louis Auguste Andre
Timothee de Beaumont. "He" was born at Tonnerre, Burgundy, France
on October 5, 1728. In 1755 Beaumont received an appointment at the
court of Louis XV and was sent to Russia as a secret agent in woman's
dress. In 1762 he was sent to London as an agent and later became
minister plenipotentiary. In 1764 doubts began to be expressed as to
Beaumont's sex and between 1769 and 1777 the matter became so
notorious that a scheme of "insurance on the sex of M. le Chevalier (or
Mlle. la Chevalhere) d'Eon" resulted in policies to the amount of
£120,000. While the discussion was at its height, Beaumont was
initiated a Freemason in La Lodge de l'Immortalite No. 376. It was a
French lodge under English constitution and met at the Crown and
Anchor tavern on the Strand in London. "He" received the third degree
in January, 1769 and was appointed junior warden the same year.
Fearing an attempt at kidnapping might be made by those who had
effected "policies" on the issue, Beaumont was sheltered by Earl
Ferrers at Staunton Harold near Ashby-de-la-Zouch. Ferrers was grand
master of England in 1762-63. In 1777 an action was brought by a
policyholder against an insurance broker to recover the sum secured by
the policy, and when two witnesses swore in court that, of their own
personal knowledge, the Chevalier was a woman, Beaumont admitted
that "he" was a female. In order to receive a pension from France, Louis
XVI decreed that Beaumont should wear woman's dress to the end of
"his" life. Beaumont never again entered a Masonic lodge.
William Beaumont (1796-1853) Pioneer physician who laid the
foundations for the present medical knowledge of how the human
stomach functions. b. in Lebanon, Conn. He was a surgeon with the
U.S. Army and when stationed at Mackinac, Mich. in 1822, he was
called to treat a young Canadian half-breed named Alexis St. Martin,
who had been wounded in the stomach by the accidental discharge of a
gun in the store of the American Fur Co. The opening in the stomach
failed to close and while alleviating the boy's suffering, Beaumont
studied his stomach through this opening, noting the structure and
action of gastric juices. He noted that when St. Martin was upset by fear
or anger the secretions of acid in his stomach would increase. He
observed the effects of alcohol and time required for various foods to
digest. His work Experiments and Observations of the Gastric Juice and
the Physiology of Digestion (1833) is considered the greatest single
contribution ever made to the knowledge of gastric digestion. Although
he did not expect St. Martin to live more than 36 hours, the youth
survived Beaumont by many years. Beaumont was raised in Harmony
Lodge, Champlain, N.Y. holding a certificate from that lodge dated April
11, 1820. He also held a certificate dated April 3, 1820 from the "Mark
Master Masons Lodge in the town of Plattsburg, N.Y." A third certificate
was issued to him by Plattsburgh Chapter No. 39, N.Y. dated April 3,
1820, which vouched for him as a Royal Arch Mason. After resigning
from the Army, he practiced at St. Louis, Mo. where he died on April 25,
1853. In 1954 the Michigan State Medical Society sponsored the
reconstruction of the retail store of the American Fur Co. on Mackinac
Island where St. Martin was shot, as a memorial to Beaumont.
Beaumont Ave. in St. Louis is named for him.

Pierre G. T. Beauregard (1818-1893) Confederate General, Civil

War. b. near New Orleans. Graduate of West Point, 1838 and served
through Mexican War. Superintendent of West Point at outbreak of Civil
War but resigned to enter Confederate Army. As brigadier general he
was in command of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, serving through
the Civil War at Bull Run, Shiloh and Corinth. He was manager of the
Louisiana lottery, 1780-88 and commissioner of public works of New
Orleans, 1888. Author of Principles and Maxims of the Art of War (1863)
and A Commentary on the Campaign and Battle of Manassas (1891).
Mason and Knight Templar.
Charles H. Bebb (1856-1942) Architect of Washington State
Capitol and other west coast buildings. b. April 10, 1856 at West Hall,
Surrey, England. Began practice in Chicago, 1886, and moved to
Seattle in 1893, where as member of Bebb and Jones, designed
buildings for University of Washington, residence and commercial
buildings and supervising architect of state capitol from 1911. Mason,
32° AASR, Shriner. d. June 21, 1942.

Robert C. Becherer President of Link-Belt Co., Chicago since

1952. b. June 25, 1902 at Indianapolis, Ind. Graduate of Purdue, 1923.
With Link-Belt Co. since 1923. Raised in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398,
Indianapolis, Ind. in 1924.

J. George Becht (1865-1925) State superintendent of public

instruction of Pennsylvania 1923-25. b. July 17, 1865. President of State
Normal, Clarion, Pa. 1904-12 and with State Board of Education from
1912. Mason. d. April 26, 1925.

Stephen Bechtel President of W. A. Bechtel Co. since 1936; vice

president of Six Companies, Inc. (builders of Hoover Dam) and of
Bridge Builders, Inc. (foundations of San Francisco Bay bridges). b.
Sept. 24, 1900 at Aurora, Ind. Vice president and director of a score of
firms allied with the shipbuilding, pipe line and heavy construction field.
Raised June 30, 1923 in Oakland Lodge No. 188, received 32° AASR
(SJ) in Oakland Consistory in 1924; member of Aahmes Shrine Temple,
all of Oakland, Calif.

Adam L. Beck (1862-1939) Organizer and president of three

Portland Cement Companies, Oklahoma (1906) Great Lakes (1925),
Indiana (1917). b. May 9, 1862 at Huntington, Ind. Construction
engineer from 1883-87 followed by organization of several limestone
companies. Mason. d. Aug. 10, 1939.
Edward A. Beck (1885-1925) City manager of Goldsborough,
N.C. (191718) ; Auburn, Me. (1919-20) and Lynchburg, Va. from 1920.
b. Jan. 19, 1885 at Peru, Ind. Mason. d. Oct. 18, 1925.

Robert Mc. Beck, Jr. Major General U.S. Army. b. May 9, 1879
at Westminster, Md. Graduate of West Point, 1901. Commissioned 2nd
lieutenant, Cavalry 1901 and promoted through grades to brigadier
general in 1936 and major general in 1938. Served in Philippines 1903-
05 and 1909-11. Participated in many large offensives in WW1.
Instructor in army service schools and chief of staff, Operations and
Training Div. of War Department General Staff, 1938-39. Retired, 1939.

T. Romeyn Beck (1791-1885) Physician and author. b.

Schenectady, N.Y. Collaborated with his brother John B. in Elements of
Medical Jurisprudence (1823). Member of Masters Lodge No. 5, Albany,

Arthur D. Becker (1878-1947) Osteopathic physician, president

of American Osteopathic Assn. 1931-32 and president of American
College of Osteopathic Internists since 1944. President of Des Moines
Still College of Osteopathy, 1935-42. President of Associated Colleges
of Osteopathy 1938-39. Mason. b. Aug. 20, 1878, at Austin, Minn. d.
May 16, 1947.

Rudolph Zacharias Becker (17521822) German popular writer,

journalist and active Freemason of Gotha. Edited Allgemeiner
Reichsanzeiger (from 1791), Nationalzeitung der Deutschen (1796). In
1786 he published an historical essay on the Bavarian Illuminati titled
Grundsatze Verfassung und Schicksale des Illumi- nates Order in
Baiern. He also wrote Noth- und Hulfsbuchlein (1788), Mildheimisches
Liederbuck (1799), and a description of his experiences in prison in

John C. W. Beckham Governor of Kentucky. Member of Duvall

Lodge No. 6, Bardstown, Ky. (June, 1901) A Knight Templar.

John J. Beckley First clerk of the House of Representatives and

first Librarian of Congress. Member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6,
Williamsburg, Va.

Johann Beckmann (1739-1811) German technologist and

educator. Professor of economics, Gottingen (from 1770) and author of
a history of inventions. Mason.

Marc, Michel and Joseph Bedarride Three brothers classed as

Masonic charlatans who were active in the "Rite of Mizraim" during the
middle of the 19th century.

Elbert Bede Editor and publisher of several periodicals. b. June

28, 1881. Retired in 1936, moving to Portland, Ore. where he purchased
the Masonic Analyst, changing its name to Oregon Mason in 1938 and
later to Oregon Freemason. Raised in Chicago Lodge No. 271, North
Branch, Minn. and later affiliated with Ashlar Lodge No. 209 of Portland,
Ore. Raised in Cisago Lodge 232 (Ill). Member of Cottage Grove (Oreg)
Lodge No. 51.

Gunning Bedford, Jr. (1742-1812) Constitution signer of 1787. b.

Philadelphia. Colonel and aide to General Washington in Revolution.
Washington appointed him the first judge of the U.S. District Court of
Delaware, a position which he held until his death. He was the first
grand master of Delaware (1806-08). Graduated from Nassau Hall (now
Princeton) with distinction. Studied law in Philadelphia and practiced in
Delaware. He was raised on Sept. 11, 1782 in Washington Lodge No.
14 (under Pa.) and now No. 1 of Delaware. He served as master of the
lodge but the date is not known. It was through his efforts that two U.S.
senators were obtained for Delaware. He died March 30, 1812 at
Wilmington and was buried with honors by the G.L. of Delaware on the
lawn of the Masonic Home on Lancaster Pike about three miles from

Joseph D. Bedle Governor of New Jersey. Raised in Olive

Branch Lodge No. 16, Freehold, N.J. on April 24, 1857.

Bernard B. Bee, Jr. Confederate General in Civil war. Graduate

of West Point. Bee named General T. J. Jackson "Stonewall" in the first
battle of Bull Run where Bee was killed. A Knight Templar in Texas.

Hamilton P. Bee Confederate General in Civil War. Member of

Austin Lodge No. 12, Texas.

Lewis C. Beebe Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. Dec. 7, 1891.

Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1917 advancing through grades to
brigadier general in 1942. Served as regimental staff officer 3rd Inf.
Division in WW1. Deputy chief of staff for General MacArthur on
Corregidor and chief of staff for General Wainwright until surrender of
U.S. forces in Philippines. Japanese prisoner of war from 19421945.
Later served in Europe. Mason.

Royden E. Beebe Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 14,

1878 at Burlington, Vt. Graduated in chemistry cum laude, Univ. of
Vermont, 1900. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant, Infantry, U.S. Army in
1901, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1942. His son,
Royden E., Jr., is also a brigadier general. Served 82nd division WW1
and commanding general of Fort Jackson, S.C. in 194143. Retired.

R. Livingston Beeckman (1866-1935) Governor of Rhode Island.

b. April 15, 1866 in New York City. Banker and member of New York
Stock Exchange, 1887-06. Member R.I. house of representatives, 1909-
11 and state senate, 1912-14. Served three terms as governor, 1915-
21. Mason. d. Jan. 21, 1935.

Carroll L. Reedy (1880-1947) Congressman from Maine to 67th

to 73rd Congresses (1921-35). b. Aug. 3, 1880 at Phillips, Maine. LL.B.
Yale, 1906.

Began practice at Portland in 1907. Practiced law in

Washington, D.C. from 1935. Mason. d. Sept. 20, 1947.

Frederick W. Beekman American clergyman, dean of Nativity

Pro-Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Paris, France since 1918 (Protestant
and Episcopal). b. Feb. 14, 1871 at Newbury, Mass. Ordained priest,
1905. Founder of American Students and Artists Center, Paris since
1919. Founder of American Battle Cloister, Paris, 1923. Served in
Spanish-American War 1898. Mason.

Alfred B. Beers (1845-1920) Commander in Chief of G.A.R.,

1912-13. b. April 23, 1845 at New Rochelle, N.Y. Served as enlisted
man Civil War, 1861-65. Lawyer in Bridgeport, Conn. from 1871.
Mason. d. March 30, 1920.
Wallace Beery (1889-1949) Movie star, actor. b. in Kansas City,
Mo. and attended Chase School in that city. He ran away from home to
join a circus and became an elephant trainer. He was first identified with
the film world as a female impersonator. He is noted for his character
roles in such films as Big House, Hell Divers, The Champ, Grand Hotel,
Stable Mates, Sergeant Madden, and Bad Man of Brimstone. Was
awarded gold medal as "World's best actor" by the International Motion
Picture Exposition at Venice, Italy in 1934. Was a member of the
advisory board of the Bank of America. Beery belonged to Blaney
Lodge No. 271 of Chicago, 32° AASR and a Shriner. d. April 25, 1949.

Fred I. Holt Beever His Masonic burial was the first Masonic
ceremony held in the present state of N. Dak. While carrying orders
from General Sibley to Col. Crooks, near the conjunction of Apple Creek
and the Missouri River, Beever took the wrong route and was
ambushed and killed by the Indians. A marker erected on the spot by
the Grand Lodge of North Dakota to his memory, bears the following
inscription: "On this spot, July 31, 1863, occurred the first Masonic
Ceremony held in the present State of North Dakota. It was the Masonic
funeral of Lieutenant Fred I. Holt Beever, an Englishman and Oxonian,
and a volunteer soldier attached to the staff of General H. H. Sibley. He
was killed in a skirmish with the Indians and was buried in the rifle pits
which were dug along this ridge. Deputy Grand Master John C. Whipple
of Minnesota, convened an emergency Masonic Lodge, with brothers A.
J. Edgerton as Worshipful Master, J. C. Braden, Senior Warden, and
Patch, Junior Warden, and the body of Brother Beever was here
consigned to earth with Masonic Services. This tablet and marker has
been placed by the Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of North Dakota, 1920, to
commemorate the fact that while Lieutenant Beever died far away from
home and among strangers, yet he was among brethren, who saw that
the honors so justly his due were paid him.”

Harvey A. Beffa Brewery executive and past imperial potentate

of Shrine. b. June 19, 1900 at St. Louis, Mo. With Anton Beffa & Son
Wrecking Co., 1915-33. With Falstaff Brewing Corp., St. Louis since
1933 being vice president and director in 1935 and now executive vice
president and general manager. Raised in Purity Lodge No. 658, St.
Louis, Mo. in 1925, serving as master in 1935. Member of Cabany
Chapter No. 140, R.A.M. and St. Aldemar Commandery No. 18, K.T.
32° AASR (SJ) Valley of St. Louis. Potentate of Moolah Shrine temple in
1940. Member of Grotto and 0.E. S . Imperial potentate, North America
from 1952-53 of Shrine and honorary life member of 75 Shrine temples.

Lyall T. Beggs National commander Veterans of Foreign Wars,

1948. b. Nov. 1889 at Plainfield, Wis. Graduate of University of
Wisconsin, 1925. Admitted to bar in 1926. Member of Wisconsin
legislature 1940-46. Mason, 32°, Shriner.

Josiah W. Begole Former Governor of Michigan. Member of Flint

Lodge No. 23, Flint, Mich.

Herman A. Behrens ( 1883 - 1945 ) President of Continental

Assurance Co. from 1928. b. Sept. 29, 1883 at Hamburg, Germany.
With Pacific Mutual Life of California from 1903-12, coming to Chicago
in 1907 where he became vice president and manager of Continental
Casualty Co. in 191228. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner.

H. Frederick Behrens (1870-1935) President of Sterling

Products, Inc. and Bayer Co., Inc. b. Aug. 4, 1870 at Wheeling, W. Va.
Trustee of Washington and Jefferson College. Mason. d. Jan. 17, 1935.

William W. Behrens Commodore, U.S. Navy. b. June 6, 1898 at

Lancaster, Pa. Commissioned ensign in 1918 and advanced through
grades to commodore in 1945. Executive officer of USS Concord during
Pearl Harbor attack and subsequent duty in Pacific. Mason.

Lynden E. "Bee" Behymer (18621947) Impresario and manager

of world celebrities on the Pacific coast. b. Nov. 5, 1862 at New
Palestine, Ohio. Presented La Boheme first time in America on Oct. 14,
1897 at Los Angeles. In 1898 he formed and managed for 20 years the
Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra. Presented Metropolitan Opera Co.
on west coast in 1901, 02, 04, 06 and Boston Opera in 1910, 12.
Chicago Opera Co. 1914, 16, 18. Brought the following to the west
coast for tours: Sarah Bernhardt, Eleanora Duse, Enrico Caruso, Sir
Henry Irving, Edwin Booth, Paderewski, Rabindranath Tagore, Jacob
Riis, Feodor Chaliapin. Presented Lawrence Tibbett, Maud Allan and
Isadore Duncan in first concerts. Knight Templar, AASR member and
Shriner. d. Dec. 16, 1947.

William A. Beiderlinden Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. March

4, 1895 at Springfield, Mo. Graduate Drury College, Springfield, Mo.,
and army service schools. Commissioned 1st lieut. in 1917 and
advanced through grades to brig. general in 1943. Commanded 44th
Div. Arty. in WW2 and later assistant chief of staff G-1 GHQ, SCAP and
FEC, Tokyo, 1946. Mason.

Robert S. Beightler Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. March 21,

1892 at Marysville, Ohio. Student at Ohio State University and of
service schools. Member of engineering firm in Columbus, Ohio since
1930 and from 1912-30 was highway engineer, serving as chief
engineer of Ohio State Highway Department. Enlisted in 4th Ohio
Infantry in 1911, served on Mexican border and WW1. Promoted to
major general in 1940 and permanent major general in 1944.
Commanded 37th Division in WW2, 43 months in Pacific. Member War
Department General Staff, Washington 1932-36; commanding 5th
Service Command 1946-47; president of Army Personnel Board 1947-
48; commanding general, Camp Chaffee, Ark. and 5th Armored Division
since 1948. Mason. Received 33° Sept. 25, 1945.

Edwin J. Beinecke President and chairman of board of The

Sperry and Hutchinson Co. since 1923. b. Jan. 6, 1886 in New York
City. Graduate of Yale in 1907. President of Henry Maurer & Son, 1921-
23; president and chairman of board of U.S. Realty & Improvement Co.
1936-42; chairman of board Plaza Hotel Co. 1936-42; and present
director of 13 large corporations. Served as captain in WW1
anddepartment commander of Red Cross in England in WW2. Mason.

Ian Hay Beith (1876-1952) British major general, author and

playwright. Served as junior grand deacon of the G.L. of England in
1934. Widely known to literary public and playgoers under psuedonym
of his two christian names of "Ian Hay." d. Sept. 1952.

Jonathan Belcher (1681-1757) Colonial governor of

Massachusetts, and New Hampshire (1730-41) and of New Jersey in
1747. b. Jan. 8, 1681 at Boston and claimed by some to be the first
native born American to become a Freemason. He was raised in an old
"Guilde Lodge" in England in 1704-13 years before the founding of the
G.L. of England. Others have claimed this honor for John Moore q.v.
and John Skene q.v. Belcher is also reported as having been on the
rolls of the craft in Nova Scotia at an early date. He graduated from
Harvard in 1699, later affiliating with St. John's Lodge in Boston, Mass.
In 1756 the trustees of Princeton University wanted to name Nassau
Hall after Belcher stating "when your Excellency is translated to a house
not made with hands, eternal in the Heavens, let Belcher Hall proclaim
your beneficent acts." Upon his retirement as governor in 1741 the First
Lodge of Boston called upon him to thank him for the many favors
bestowed upon Freemasonry. In reply, he wrote the lodge: ". . . It is now
thirty-seven years since I was admitted into the Ancient and Honorable
Society of Free and accepted Masons, to whom I have been a faithful
Brother & well-wisher to the Art of Masonry . . ." d. August 31, 1757 at
Elizabethtown, N.J.

Clark Belden Advertising and public relations expert b. April 4,

1896 at Falls Village, Conn. Student at Brown, Cornell and
Northwestern Universities. Started as a reporter, 1914 in Hartford,
Conn. In advertising with Insurance companies from 1919 to 1924. With
Connecticut Chamber of Commerce 1924-29 as secretary, vice
president and director. Lecturer, advisor and public relations expert for
many corporations, universities and quasi-governmental organizations.
Manuel Belgrano Argentine patriot who designed that country's
flag. b. June 3, 1779 at Buenos Aires. Studied in Spain and returned to
River Plate as consul. Ardent supporter of the 1810 revolution, he
formed part of the junta that governed the country for a short time. Was
made a general and commanded an unsuccessful military expedition
against Paraguay. After this defeat, he created the Argentine flag. He
returned to Spain to negotiate recognition of the new state and on his
return was given another command, with which he defeated the Spanish
Royalists. For these successes he received a substantial grant which he
turned into the building of schools.

Robert Edward, 11th Lord of Belhaven (and Stanton) Was 87th

Grand Master Mason of Scotland 1931-32.

Brian Bell (1890-1942) Newspaperman and chief of Washington

Bureau of Associated Press from 1939. b. March 30, 1890 at York, S.C.
Began as a reporter in Columbia, S.C. and has been with Associated
Press since 1924 as staff member in Atlanta, Ga., chief of New Orleans
Bureau, general staff in New York (1926-30); chief of Los Angeles
Bureau (193036); news editor, Western division (1936-39). Mason, 32°
AASR, Shriner. d. June 8, 1942.

Charles J. Bell Congressman from Missouri 74th to 80th

Congresses (1935-49). b. Jan. 16, 1885 at Lake City, Colo. LL.B.
Kansas City Schoolof Law, 1913 and began practice in Kansas City
same year. Member of city council of K.C. 1926-30 and judge of 16th
Mo. Circuit Court 1931-34. Member of Temple Lodge No. 299, Kansas
City, Mo.

Charles J. Bell (1858-1929) Banker, organizer of Bell & Co.,

Washington, D.C. in 1881. b. April 12, 1858 at Dublin, Ireland. Educated
in Wesleyan College, Dublin. Came to U.S. in 1873. General manager
of National Telephone Co. in 1880, organizing exchanges in north of
England. Chairman of board of Terminal Cold Storage Co., Washington,
from 1893. Trustee of George Washington National Memorial
Association and National Geographic Society. Mason. d. Oct. 2, 1929.

Charles S. Bell (1880-1945) Judge, Supreme Court of Ohio from

1942. b. Oct. 8, 1880 at Cincinnati, Ohio. Admitted to bar in 1910.
Served as local solicitor and prosecutor and judge of court of common
pleas, Hamilton Co. Mason, Shriner. d. Aug. 22, 1945.

Frank Bell Acting Governor of Nevada. Member of Reno Lodge

No. 13, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Nevada.

George M. Bell Publisher of The Albertan, Calgary, Alta, Canada

since 1943. b. Oct. 13, 1911 at Regina, Sask., Canada. Graduate of
McGill Univ. 1932. Liberal. Member of Perfection Lodge No. 9, Calgary,
Alta. and Al Azhar Shrine Temple of Calgary.

John Bell Former Governor of New Hampshire. Member of St.

John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N. H.

John Bell (1797-1869) Secretary of War, U.S. Senator from

Tennessee and speaker of U.S. House of Representatives. b. Feb. 15,
1797 near Nashville, Tenn. Member of state senate in 1817. Elected to
Congress in 1827 over Felix Grundy q.v. and reelected six times,
serving until 1841. Elected speaker of house in 1834. Was one of the
founders of the Whig party. Named Secretary of War in 1841 by
Harrison. Elected to U.S. Senate in 1847, remaining in that body until
1859. Member of King Solomon Lodge No. 6 at Gallatin, Tenn., and was
probably a member of Nashville Lodge No. 37 before he affiliated with
the former lodge.
John A. Bell Organizer of Negro "bogus" lodges in competition
with legitimate Prince Hall (Negro) Grand Lodges.

Lawrence D. Bell Founder of Bell Aircraft Corp., 1935. (Buffalo,

N.Y.) b. April 5, 1894 at Mentone, Ind. Started with Glenn L. Martin Co.,
airplane mfgrs. as shop foreman in 1912 and became vice president
and general manager. Then moved to Consolidated Aircraft Corp.,
(1928) and became vice president and general manager. Organized
Bell Aircraft with associates in 1935. Completed the Airaconda, a twin-
engine fighting plane with two cannons in 1937; began making the
Airacobra, a pursuit plane with one cannon, in 1939 in mass production
for U.S. Army. President of Aircraft War Production Council, East Coast,
Inc.; president of National Aircraft War Production Council. Received
trophy for aid in supersonic flight. Mason.

Robert C. Bell Federal judge. b. Nov. 1, 1880 at Harrisonville,

Mo. LL.B. University of Missouri, 1908. U.S. district judge since 1933.
U.S. Attorney General 1916-21; attorney for Red Lake Indians (Minn.)
192733; attorney for Pillager Indians (Minn.) 1930-33; Minnesota state
senator, 1928-33; Author of Minnesota Income Tax Law. Mason.

Rev. Francis J. Bellamy (1855-1931) Author of the American

"Pledge of Allegiance" to the flag. Member of Little Falls Lodge No. 181,
Little Falls, N.Y. The original pledge as written by Bellamy did not
contain the words "of the United States of America," or "under God."
The Order of Eastern Star erected a memorial tablet to him in 1955 at
the O.E.S. Home in Oriskany, N.Y.

Johann Joachim Bellermann (17541842) German Theologian

and Freemason.
George, Viscount of Bellfield Grand Master, Grand Lodge of
Ireland in 1774. Later became 2nd Earl of Belvedere.

Perry Belmont (1851-1947) Lawyer and philanthropist. b. Dec.

28, 1851 in New York City, son of August Belmont a noted financier. His
grandfather was Commodore Matthew C. Perry q.v. Raised in Holland
Lodge No. 8, New York City on June 11, 1878 and received 50-year
medal and palm on April 28, 1941. Graduated from Harvard in 1872 and
Columbia law school in 1876. Practiced in New York until 1881 when he
was elected to Congress and served until 1887.

Charles S. Belsterling Vice president of U.S. Steel Corp. since

1932. b. May 31, 1874 at Philadelphia, Pa. Admitted to Pennsylvania
bar in 1904; general commerce attorney for U.S. Steel Corp. from 1914
to 1932. Life member of Lodge No. 51, Philadelphia and 50-year
veteran. Member of Keystone Chapter No. 175, R.A.M. (life) and
Corinthian Commandery (life), both of Philadelphia. Life member of
Zamora Shrine Temple, Birmingham, Ala. as well as Lu Lu Temple,

Harry H. Belt Associate justice, Supreme Court of Oregon since

1925. b. Nov. 24, 1883 at Salem, Oregon. Mason.

Giovanni Battista Belzoni (17781823) Italian explorer and

archaeologist. Explored Egyptian antiquities (1815-19); opened temple
of Abu-Simbel (1817); discovered tomb of Seti I, Thebes (1817); opened
second pyramid of Giza; transferred bust Young Memnon from Thebes
to Alexandria. The Norfolk Remembrancer (England) in August 1821
said, "Mr. Belzoni, the celebrated traveller and discoverer of Egyptian
antiquities, visited Norwich; he stayed with Jeremiah Ives, Esquire, of
St. Catherine's Hill; previous to his departure he received the high
masonic degree of Knight Templar." He was referred to as "Bro.
Belzoni" when his widow was helped by the Lodge of Emulation
(London) in 1825. Bedford Lodge No. 183 (England) also contributed to
his widow.

Thomas Benbury Brigadier General of Militia in American

Revolution. Served as Master of Unanimity Lodge No. 7, Edenton, N.C.

Charles A. "Chief" Bender (18831954) Baseball player. b. May

5, 1883 at Brainerd, Minn. A Chippewa Indian who was elected to the
Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953 for winning over 200 games. He pitched
for the Athletics in the 1905-1910-1911-19131914 world series. He
defeated the New York Giants 3-0 for the Athletics' only victory in 1905.
He was first pitcher in world series of six games (1911) to pitch three
complete games. In 1910 he pitched a no-hit game against Cleveland.
He petitioned Robert A. Lamberton Lodge No. 487 of Philadelphia, Pa.
when 27 years of age and was raised on April 4, 1911. He was
suspended NPD in 1938, but reinstated in 1943.

Andrew B. Benedict (1885-1953) University administrator.

President of Ward-Belmont, 1938-39 and trustee of Vanderbilt
University from 1930-53. b. July 21, 1885 at Nashville, Term. Mason.

David Benedict (1779-1874) Early Baptist minister and author. b.

Oct. 10, 1779 at Norwalk, Conn. Studied shoemaker's trade, but
became interested in religion and graduated from Brown Univ. in 1806.
Although he did not hold a regular pastorate, he preached with great
vigor until 92 years old. Devoted much time to historical research and
wrote History of the Baptists (1813), History of all Religions (1824),
History of the Baptist Denominations in America and all Parts of the
World (1848), Fifty Years among the Baptists (1860), and several others
including poems and a hymn book. He was raised in Newport Lodge
No. 1, Newport, Rhode Island on June 24, 1827 and was a member of
Pawtucket Chapter No. 4 at Pawtucket, R.I. d. Dec. 5, 1874.
Pope Benedict XIV (1675-1758) Anti-mason who issued a Papal
Bull on May 18, 1751, renewing and perpetuating that of his
predecessor which excommunicated all Freemasons (see Pope
Clement XII). His real name was Prospero Lambertini and he served as
Pope from 1740, succeeding Clement XII, to his death in 1758. He
greatly encouraged education, literature and science and was liberal in
his policy toward foreign powers. He was, however, an implacable
enemy of secret societies.

William L. Benedict Surgeon, president of staff of Mayo Clinic

193234. b. Feb. 13, 1885 at Springport, Ind. Received M.D. degree at
University of Michigan in 1912. In private practice until 1917 when he
went with the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. as head of section of
Ophthalmology. Member of Rochester Lodge No. 21 and Halcyon
Chapter No. 8, R.A.M., both of Rochester, Minn.

Eduard Benes (1884-1948) President of Czechoslovakia.

Educated in universities of Prague, Paris, and Dujon. A disciple of
Masaryk, he worked in Paris with him from 1915-19 in Czech nationalist
movement. He was Czech delegate at peace conference in 1919-20
and first foreign minister of Czechoslovakia from 1918-35 and prime
minister from 1921-22. He was co-founder of the Little Entente. Elected
president of Czechoslovakia in 1935, he resigned in October, 1938 on
German occupation of Sudetenland. Was appointed professor of
sociology at the University of Chicago in 1939. President of the
Czechoslovak government in exile with headquarters in England from
1939-45, returning to Czechoslovakia in March, 1945 and was re-
elected president in 1946. Buried in the garden of his country home at
Sezimovo Usti, September 10, 1948, with both Catholic and Protestant
services. When elected President of Czechoslovakia, he withdrew from
Masonic activities, but remained interested in the fraternity and
rendered his full moral and financial support in London where the
National Grand Lodge of Czechoslovakia in Exile was established as
well as the Comenius in Exile Lodge. Benes was initiated in the Jan
Amos Komensky Lodge No. 1 of Prague (the oldest modern
Czechoslovak lodge) about 1924-25 and he later became a member of
Pravda Vitezi (Truth Shall Prevail) Lodge of Prague, being passed and
raised in the latter about 1927-28.
Conrado Benitez Philippine statesman, serving under Quezon.
Helped write the Philippine constitution. A past grand master of the
Philippines. Appointed a member of the Philippine delegation to the
Manila Treaty Conference by President Magsaysay. A 33° AASR, he
served for a time as acting sovereign grand commander. Chairman of
the Board of Directors of the Philippine Woman's University, president of
the Y.M.C.A. and director of the Rotary Club of Manila.

Louis Benjamin (1883-?) Newspaper publisher. b. London,

England, Nov. 8, 1883 and brought to the U.S. as a child. Publisher of
the Erie (Pa.) Dispatch-Herald from 1925. Became president of
Benjamin Advertising Corp. in 1913 and was president of the Erie
Dispatch-Herald Broadcasting Corp. A director of Zem Zem Shrine
Hospital for children and member of board of governors of B'nai B'rith.
Mason. Deceased.

Aleksandr Khristoforovich Benkendorf (or Benckendorff) (1783-

1844) Russian general and statesman. Family was originally German.
He engaged in campaigns against Napoleon in 1813-15 and became
Chief of Gendarmes under Nicholas I. Nicholas I banned Freemasonry
in an edict dated April 21, 1826 just as his predecessor Alexander I q.v.
had on Aug. 1, 1822. Benkendorf was a member of the Lodge of United
Friends in Petersburg.

Winthrop W. Benner Rubber executive. b. Minneapolis, Minn.

March 25, 1881. President of National Synthetic Rubber Corp. from
1942 until retirement in 1948. Began as chemist for Oliver Iron Mining
Co. in 1903 and later with Zenith Furnace Co., Atikokan Iron Co.,
production superintendent for Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. from 1909-
14 and vice president of Lee Rubber Tire Corp. from 1915-26. Mason.
Augustus W. Bennet Lawyer, congressman. b. Oct. 7, 1897 in
New York City. Graduated from Amherst and Columbia Universities.
Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1921 and practiced since in Newburgh, N.Y.
Member of the 79th Congress (1945-47) from 29th N.Y. district. Served
in Navy Air Corps in WW1. A past district deputy grand master of the
Grand Lodge of New York. Member of Hudson River Lodge No. 607,
Newburgh, N.Y., serving as master in 1930. Member of Highland
Chapter, R.A.M. No. 52, Newburgh and Tall Cedars of Lebanon.

William S. Bennet Lawyer, congressman. b. Port Jervis, N.Y.,

Nov. 9, 1870. Member of 59th to 61st Congresses (1905-11) from 17th
N.Y. district and 64th Congress (1915-17) from 23rd N.Y. district.
Declined appointment as U.S. District Judge in 1906. Assistant
treasurer of the United States in 1911; appraiser of Port of New York in
1912; assistant attorney general of U.S. in 1929; delegate to state
constitutional convention in 1938; member of the U.S. Immigration
Commission 1907-10. He moved to Chicago in 1920 as vice president
and general counsel of Edward Hines lumber interests, returning to New
York City in 1933 where he resumed practice. Mason and 32° AASR.

Andrew C. Bennett Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Goodland,

Kansas. Graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1912 advancing from
ensign to rear admiral in 1942. He commanded submarines and
submarine units for 24 years, also serving on battleships and cruisers.
Commanded light cruiser U.S.S. Savannah from 1940-42; unit
commander at Oran, Algeria area of invasion of North Africa in WW2.
Commandant of 8th Naval District Hdqs. in New Orleans from 1943.
Mason, 32° AASR. Deceased.

Burton E. Bennett (1863-?) Lawyer, who as early district

attorney for Alaska secured first convictions in that territory for murder,
adultery and illicit sale of intoxicants; secured 99 convictions out of 101
cases in spring term of 1898. b. April 17, 1863 at Brookfield, N.Y., he
received three degrees from Cornell University. Practiced law in New
York but early moved to Seattle, Washington. Mason.
Caleb P. Bennett (1758-1836) Governor of Delaware. b. Nov.
11, 1758 in Chester Co., Pa. He entered the Delaware regiment of the
Revolution as a private and rose to 1st lieutenant, serving in the Battle
of Brandywine and was wounded at Germantown. At Valley Forge
during winter of 1777 and in command of battery at surrender of
Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the War of 1812 he was a major of the
Delaware State Militia. His grandmother was Mary Boone, daughter of
the famous Daniel Boone. He was governor of Delaware from 1832-36.
He adhered to the old fashioned style of dress, low shoes, silver knee
and shoe buckles, long silk stockings, white breeches, velvet coat with
brass buttons, ruffled shirt bosom, powdered hair and cue. He was
raised in Lodge No. 14 at Christina Ferry, Del., Jan. 16, 1781. d. July
11, 1836.

Charles E. Bennett Lawyer, congressman. b. Dec. 2, 1910 at

Canton, N.Y. Graduated University of Florida in 1934 and admitted to
Florida bar that year, since practicing in Jacksonville. Member of Florida
State Legislature in 1941 and member of 81st Congress (1949-51) from
2nd Florida dist. Served in south Pacific in WW2, advancing from
private to captain. Member of Riverside Lodge No. 266, Jacksonville,

Charles Edwin Bennett Public utilities executive. b. May 21,

1888 at Ft. Collins, Colo. Graduated University of Wisconsin in 1912.
President and director of the following companies: Manufacturers Light
and Heat Co., Natural Gas Co. of W. Va., Cumberland & Allegheny Gas
Co., Home Gas Co., Binghamton Gas Works, The Keystone Gas Co.,
Inc., Eastern Pipe Line Co., Gettysburg Gas Corp. Mason.

Charles H. Bennett President of Daisy Manufacturing Co. (air

rifles) since 1920. b. Plymouth, Mich., July 27, 1863. Began as
salesman for Daisy Co. at Plymouth, Mich. in 1888. Was vice president
from 1888-1920. Mason. Charles R. Bennett (?-1855) His tombstone
bears the inscription "Capt. Charles Bennett was discoverer of gold in
California." He came to California as a mule hostler with General
Fremont, q.v., in 1845. While satering his mules at their camp on the
American River, in what is now El Dorado Co., he picked up a small
nugget which he recognized as gold. He showed it to Fremont who paid
little attention to the incident. Bennett afterwards moved to Oregon, but
in company with Stephen Staat and James W. Marshall, returned to
Calif. and was employed by Sutter to assist Marshall in the construction
of the mill at Coloma. Bennett was present at Coloma when Marshall
picked up the piece of gold which precipitated the gold rush. Staat said
that Bennett picked up the original piece of gold before Marshall saw it.
As soon as Sutter recognized the extent of the discovery at his mill, he
sent Bennett to Monterey in an effort to induce Governor Mason to
lease him the land surrounding the mill with mineral rights. The governor
refused, believing the land was still held under Mexican law. After
mining for some time on the lode Bennett returned to Oregon with a
large quantity of gold and built the first hotel in Salem, located where the
present Masonic temple stands today. Hotel keeping was a little tame
for him, and soon he became captain of the Salem Oregon Mounted
Rifles, and while leading the company in the Yakima Indian War, he was
killed at Walla Walla in 1855. His body was returned to Salem where it
was interred with Masonic honors by Salem Lodge No. 4. Bennett was
the first candidate to have been initiated in that lodge. Name on original
petition is spelled "Bennet".

Granville G. Bennett Bishop, Protestant Episcopal church. b.

Nov. 28, 1882 at Deadwood, S.D. Degrees from University of Nebraska,
Seabury Divinity School and Brown University. Priested in 1907, he
served in Faribault, Minn., Holdrege, Nebr., Bozeman, Mont., Great
Falls, Mont., and Minneapolis, Minn. He was bishop coadjutor of Duluth
from 1920-22 and bishop of Duluth from 1922-32 when he became
auxiliary bishop of R.I. In 1946 he was named bishop of R.I. Mason.

Henry G. Bennett College president. b. Dec. 14, 1886 in Nevada

Co., Ark. College degrees from Ouachita College, University of
Oklahoma and Columbia University. Has served as president of
Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College since 1928. Previous to
that he had served as superintendent of schools of Choctaw County,
Okla. and at Hugo, Okla. He was president of Southeastern State
Teachers College from 19191928. Mason.

Philip A. Bennett (1881-1942) Congressman. b. March 5, 1881

in Dallas Co., Mo. Began as school teacher in 1899 and was publisher
of the Buffalo (Mo.) Reflex from 1904-21. Served as state senator, 19th
dist. of Mo. 192125 and lieutenant governor of Mo. from 1925-29. Was a
member of the 77th Congress (1941-43) from 6th Mo. dist. Director of
O'Bannon Banking Co. from 1919-36. Died Dec. 7, 1942 at Springfield,
Mo. Mason.

Richard Bedford Bennett (18701947) Prime minister of Canada.

Statesman, minister of justice and attorney general 1921, served as
prime minister from 1930 to 1935. Viscount Bennett was raised in
Miramichi Lodge No. 18 at Chatham, N.B., and affiliated with Ashlar
Lodge No. 28, Calgary, Alta., on April 14, 1910.

Robert R. Bennett (1865-1933) Explorer, lawyer. b. Dec. 12,

1865 at Toledo, Ohio. LL.B. from George Washington Univ. in 1904.
Served as special agent of the U.S. Dept. of Justice in 1917 as well as
confidential agent of War Dept. Later a captain of Intelligence, General
Staff. Sent on confidential mission to Central America in 1919 and
conducted expedition to Yucatan, exploring ancient ruins for Museum of
American Indian, N.Y. in 1930. Mason. d. Dec. 12, 1933.

Thomas Bennett Governor of South Carolina who was a

member of Solomons Lodge No. 1, Charleston, S.C.

Henry A. Benning Business executive. b. Aug. 8, 1882 at Lyons,

N.Y. President and general manager of Amalgamated Sugar Co.,
Ogden Transit Co. Director of First Security Bank, Mountain States
Implement Co., Utah Power and Light Co. and U.S. Beet Sugar Assn.
Residence, Ogden, Utah. Mason and Shriner.

Pierre L. L. Benoit (1834-1901) Belgian composer and director

of Antwerp Conservatory of Music. A leader in Flemish musical circles,
composing oratorios, operas, cantatas, religious dramas, hymns and
songs. A Freemason according to Cock's Dictiarmaire Macanique,
published in Brussels.

August Benson Clothing manufacturer. b. Nov. 29, 1892 at

Simrishamm, Sweden. Vice president and designer of Richmond Bros.
(clothiers), Cleveland, Ohio, since 1922. Earlier he was designer for
Society Brand Clothes of Chicago. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Carville D. Benson (1872-1929) Congressman from 2nd

Maryland dist. b. Baltimore Co., Md. Aug. 24, 1872. Received law
degree from Baltimore Univ. and practiced at Baltimore from 1893.
Served in Maryland's lower house of legislature from 1904-10 inclusive
and again in 1918, beingspeaker in 1906. Member of Maryland Senate
1912-14 and served in 65th and 66th Congress. Mason. Died Feb. 8,

Elmer A. Benson U.S. Senator and governor of Minnesota.

Raised in Appleton Lodge No. 137, Appleton, Minn. on Jan. 3, 1917.

William E. Benswanger Insurance and baseball executive. b.

Feb. 22, 1892 at New York. In insurance business from 1911-31 and in
baseball from 1931 to 1946. President, treasurer and director of Forbes
Field Co.; director of the National League and former president of the
Pittsburgh Pirates (he sold in 1946). Served in Air Service (balloon)
during WW1. Now devotes himself to many musical activities. Director
of Pittsburgh Symphony Society, president of Pittsburgh Concert
Society and has written extensively on music. Has been annotator of the
Pittsburgh Symphony since 1926. A member of Lodge No. 45 and
Zerubbabel Chapter No. 162 of Pittsburgh as well as Islam Grotto.

Charles Bent 1799-1847) Pioneer and first American governor of

New Mexico. b. at Charleston, Va. (now W. Va.) November 11, 1799.
His father, Judge Silas Bent, emigrated to St. Louis, Mo. in 1806 and
became a famous Missouri jurist. Both were members of Missouri
Lodge No. 1, Charles being initiated on June 8, 1822. He attended West
Point, but resigned from the army to engage in the fur trade in Colorado
and New Mexico. With his brother, William, and Ceran St. Vrain,
organized a trading company and built an adobe fort known as Bent's
Fort on the bank of the Arkansas River where the Santa Fe Trail
crossed. When New Mexico was formed into a territory, he was named
as first governor and thereby was ex-officio superintendent of Indian
Affairs. He left Santa Fe for Taos on Jan. 14, 1846 to return his family
after hearing rumors of Mexican and Indian uprisings. Reaching Taos
on Jan. 18 he was shot, and scalped while still alive in an Indian-
Mexican raid of that evening. He was closely associated with Kit Carson

Alvin M. Bentley Congressman and foreign service officer. b.

Aug. 20, 1918 at Portland, Me. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan in
1940. Was a foreign service officer in Mexico City, 1942-44; Bogata,
Colombia, 1945-46; Budapest, Hungary, 1947-49; and Rome, Italy
1949-50. Vice president of Lake Huron Broadcasting Co., Saginaw,
Mich. since 1952. Member of U.S. Congress from 8th Dist. Mich. since
1953. Member of Owosso Lodge No. 81, Owosso Chapter No. 89,
R.A.M., Owosso Comrnandery No. 49, K.T. all of Owosso, Mich. 32°
AASR (NJ) in Bay City, Mich. and Elf Khurafeh Shrine Temple of
Saginaw, Mich.

George A. Benton ( 1848 -1921) Judge. b. May 7, 1848 at

Tolland, Conn. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1874. Served as justice of
Supreme Court of N.Y. from 1907-1918 when he was retired by age and
appointed official referee. Mason. Died Sept. 10, 1921.
Joseph Horace Benton (see Joseph Bentonelli) Thomas Hart Benton
(1782-1858) U.S. Senator from Missouri, 1821-51. Defender of sound
money; supported Jackson q.v. in his campaign against the national
bank; often called "Old Bullion." In slavery issue he opposed secession,
which resulted in his defeat in 1850 for another senate term. He did
return to Washington from 1853-55 as congressman. His political
autobiography is contained in his Thirty Years' View. His daughter,
Jessie, married John C. Fremont q.v. and his nephew and namesake
q.v. became a Civil War general andgrand master of Iowa. Benton was
a charter member of Missouri Lodge No. 1 at St. Louis until the anti-
Masonic days of 1831 when he withdrew for political reasons. Painter
Thomas Hart Benton is his grandnephew.

Thomas Hart Benton (1816-1879) Civil War general. b. Sept. 5,

1816 in Williamson Co., Tenn. Nephew of Missouri senator of same
name q.v. Raised July 16, 1849 in Iowa City Lodge No. 4, Iowa City,
Iowa and later a member of Bluff City Lodge No. 71, Council Bluffs,
Iowa. Served as grand master of Iowa from 186062. As a Union general
he saved the valuable Masonic library of Confederate General Albert
Pike q.v. by placing a guard of Federal troops around Pike's Little Rock,
Ark. home. d. April 10, 1879 at St. Louis, Mo.

William P. Benton (1828-1867) Brigadier general (Union) in Civil

War. b. Dec. 25, 1828 Newmarket, Md. When 18 years old, enlisted as
a private in Mexican War and fought at Contreras, Churubusco,
Chapultepec and Mexico City. Returning to home at Richmond, Ind. he
re-entered college and was admitted to bar in 1851. Early volunteer for
Civil War and raised first company from Wayne Co., Ind. Fought battles
at Pea Ridge, Port Gibson, Jackson, Champion Hills, Black River
Bridge, Vicksburg and Mobile. At close of war he returned to Richmond
and resumed practice of law. He was a member of Webb Lodge No. 24
at Richmond, Ind. and King Solomon Chapter No. 4. d. March 14, 1867
at New Orleans, La.

Joseph Bentonelli (Joseph Horace Benton) Lyric tenor. b. Sept.

10, 1898 at Kansas City, Mo. Holds three degrees from Univ. of
Oklahoma and later studied with Jean de Reszke. Made debut in Don
Giovanni at Nice, France in 1924 and created the world premieres of
two operas—// Vassallo at Trieste in 1930 and Cecilia at Rome in 1934.
Was with the Chicago Civic Opera in 1934 and made debut with
Metropolitan Opera in 1936, when he took the lead on 33 hours notice.
Has been tenor of the Metropolitan Opera Quartet since 1936. In 1934
he was voted one of Italy's four most popular tenors by the Italian
Fascist Society of Musicians. Has served as advisor to dept. of voice at
University of Oklahoma since 1944. In 1934 he was the star on three
major radio hours of the NBC and guest on seven other radio hours. He
gives yearly concert tours from coast-to-coast. Raised in Norman Lodge
No. 38, Norman, Okla. on Nov. 22, 1920 and received 32° at Guthrie,
Okla. Oct. 24, 1940. Present home is Norman, Okla.

Lloyd Bentsen Congressman, judge. b. Feb. 11, 1921 at

Mission, Texas. LL.B. Univ. of Texas in 1942. Practiced law at McAllen,
Tex. from 1945-1948; judge of Hidalgo Co., Texas from 1946-48.
Elected member of 80th Congress in 1948 to fill unexpired term.
Member of 81st Congress (194951) from 15th Texas dist. Entered WW2
as private and rose to major in 1945. Served in European theater as
squadron commander of bombers. Mason and Shriner.

Paul F. Berdanier Artist. b. March 7, 1879 at Frackville, Pa.

Illustrator for St. Louis Post-Dispatch from 190218. Painted St. Louis
Veiled Prophet Ball in permanent collection of Missouri Historical
Society; Canal at Moret, France in permanent collection, Museum of
Fine Arts, Foret, France; six etchings on aviation themes in permanent
collection of National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; four etchings
(satire) in John Vanderpoel Memorial Museum, Chicago; 19 etchings in
permanent collection of New York Public Library; one etching in Library
of Congress. Now a cartoonist with United Feature Syndicate, Inc.

Victor L. Berger (1860-1929) Socialist leader and editor. Born in

Austria and came to United States in 1879, settling in Milwaukee, Wis.
Edited the Milwaukee Daily Vorwaerts from 1892-98, the Social
Democrat Herald in 1900 and Leader (socialist daily) from 1911. Berger,
a pioneer in U.S. organizing Socialists, became a member of the U.S.
House of Representatives from 1911-13, being the first Socialist elected
to Congress. He was elected again in 1918 and 1919, but excluded by
Congress on the ground of disloyalty to the United States (1919). He
was finally elected and seated in 1923, serving until 1929. He was
sentenced to prison for 20 years on charge of giving aid and comfort to
the enemy in time of war, (1918-19) but the sentence was reversed by
the U.S. Supreme Court in 1921. He was raised in Aurora Lodge No.
30, Milwaukee, Wis. on Feb. 26, 1889.

George E. Bergstrom Architect. b. March, 1876 at Neenah, Wis.

B.S. in architecture from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1899.
After 14 years with architectural firms, went into business alone in 1913.
Chief architect of The Pentagon, War Department building in
Washington, D.C., 1942. Also chief architect of the Pasadena Civic
Auditorium; the Los Angeles County Hospital; Los Angeles Hall of
Justice; Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art. Served as
president of the Los Angeles Housing Commission in 1916; editor of the
Uniform Building Code, State of California 1938-39; chief consulting
architect to U.S. War Department in 1941. Mason.

Randolph C. Berkeley Brigadier general, U.S. Marine Corps. A

Mason and Sojourner.

Richard C. Berkinshaw President and general manager of

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. of Canada, Ltd. b. Sept. 2, 1891 at
Toronto, Ontario. Graduated in law, 1916 and has been with Goodyear
since 1920. Has served in capacities as assistant secretary, secretary,
general counsel, assistant to president, and treasurer. Also vice
president and director of The Goodyear Improvement Co., Ltd.; Toronto
Elevators Ltd. and chairman of board of Easy Washing Machine Co.,
Ltd. Other directorates include Bank or Montreal, Mutual Life Assurance
Co., Crown Trust Co., Phoenix Assurance Co. Raised in Georgina
Lodge No. 343, Toronto on Nov. 2, 1929 and also charter member of
Kingsway Lodge No. 565, Lamberton Mills, Ont. Past master of his
mother lodge. Past grand senior warden of grand lodge and presently
member of the board of general purposes and chairman of the audit and
finance committee, Grand Lodge of Canada. Life member of both St.
Patrick's Chapter No. 145, R.A.M. and Cyrene Preceptory. 33° AASR in
Moore Consistory, Hamilton, Ont. and Rameses Shrine Temple.

Irving Berlin Composer. b. May 11, 1888 in Russia, the son of

Moses and Leah (Lipkin) Baline, who brought him to the United States
in 1893. His only education was two years in the public schools of New
York City. Served in WW1 as infantry sergeant at Camp Upton, N.Y. Is
president of the Irving Berlin Music Corporation. Among his most
famous compositions are: Alexander's Ragtime Band, A Pretty Girl Is
Like a Melody, Easter Parade, Blue Skies, 0, How I Hate to Get Tip in
the Morning, White Christmas, God Bless America, All Alone,
Remember, Always, Russian Lullaby, Because I Love You. On several
songs he has turned over all royalties to a foundation to assist youth in
"less chance" areas. He received the first three degrees of Freemasonry
in Munn Lodge No. 190, New York City on May 12, May 26 and June 3,
1910, becoming a life memberof the lodge on December 12, 1935.
Berlin received the 32° AASR (N.J.) on December 23, 1910 and was
initiated into Mecca Shrine Temple on January 30, 1911, becoming a
life member of the Shrine in December, 1936.

Morton M. Berman Rabbi, Temple Isaiah Israel, Chicago, since

1937. b. Aug. 23, 1899 at Baltimore, Md. Degrees from Yale, Jewish
Institute of Religion and studied in Palestine, France and Germany.
From 1927 to 1937 was rabbi at temples in Davenport, Iowa and New
York City. With 6th Marine division at Okinawa as chaplain, U.S.N.R.
during WW2. Author of A Jew's View of the Crucifixion, Role of the
Rabbi and other works. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ).

Remigio Morales Bermudez (18361894) President of Peru from

189094, dying in office. Previously he was a military leader and general.
Jean Baptiste J. Bernadotte (see Charles XIV John, King of
Sweden) John Charles Bernadotte (see Charles XV, King of Sweden)
David Bernard Anti-Mason. An expelled member who had received
degrees up to "Intimate Secretary," and in 1829 published a pretended
expose entitled Light on Masonry. The book was one of the fruits of the
anti-Masonic excitement of that period. It was a worthless production,
intended as a libel on the craft.

Max Bernd-Cohen Artist, lecturer and critic. b. May 7, 1899 at

Macon, Ga. Graduated from Columbia Univ. B.A. and LL.B. and studied
art in Paris and Madrid. Painter of portraits, landscapes and murals. Has
held one-man expositions in Madrid; Morgan Galleries, New York;
Durand Ruel Galleries of New York and Paris; Boyer Galleries,
Philadelphia, and Del Gado Museum at New Orleans. Among his
murals have been the Florida building at Chicago Century of Progress
Exposition and The Sermon on the Mount for the First Methodist Church
of Canon City, Colo. Served in WW1 and with the American Red Cross
in Pacific during WW2. Mason.

Ben Bernie (1893-1943) Orchestra leader and entertainer. b.

May 31, 1893 at Bayonne, N.J. He first studied engineering and later
became a violin salesman but switched to vaudeville in 1910. His real
name was Abramowitz and he was known to his radio audiences as the
"Old Maestro." From 1914-1917 he teamed up with Phil Baker. From
1923-1928 he was an orchestra leader in New York and later in London.
Bernie served as master of ceremonies on many radio shows during his
day. d. Oct. 20, 1943. He was a member of Keystone Lodge No. 235,
New York City.

Armand Berquin (1750-1791) French literary man called "The

Friend of the Children." Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress
of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.
Berridge, H. H. British General. Present at the consecration of
Lodge of Aviation in London on Sept. 5, 1952.

George L. Berry (1882-1948) Union official and U.S. Senator. b.

Sept. 12, 1882 at Lee Valley, Tenn. Started to work at age of 9% years
with the Jackson Evening News (Miss.), and held every position in
printing offices of various cities including St. Louis, Omaha, Denver, San
Francisco. Was president of the International Pressmen and Assistants
Union of North America from 1907 until his death. Organized the
movement and built the Pressmen's Home in Tennessee where he died
on Dec. 4, 1948. Appointed U.S. Senator from Tenn. May 7, 1937 to fill
unexpired term of Nathan L. Bachman. Private, 3rd Marines (Miss.) in
Spanish-American War.; major AEF during WW1. Delegate to Britain
representing A.F. of L. to British Trades Union Congress, Newport,
Wales in 1912; delegate to International Economic Congress in Zurich,
1912; delegate to International Printer's Congress, Stuttgart, Germany
in 1912. One of the founders of the American Legion and past national
vice commander. Defeated by three votes for vice presidential
nomination in 1924 and declined to have name submitted in 1928.
Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. Honorary member of St. Brides
Lodge of England. d. Dec. 4, 1948.

Hiram G. Berry (1824-1863) Union Major General in Civil War. b.

Aug. 27, 1824 at Thomaston (now Rockland) Maine. Learned the
carpenter's trade as well as navigation. Served as mayor of Rockland
and organized a company of volunteers. At beginning of Civil War he
entered as a colonel of the 4th Maine Infantry and took part in the
battles of Bull Run, Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, 2nd Bull Run
and Chantilly. Had risen to the rank of major general when he was killed
at battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863. His orders on that date
were "Go in, general; throw your men into the breach; don't fire a shot—
they can't see you!" Berry was junior deacon of Aurora Lodge No. 50,
Rockland, Maine.

James D. Berry, Jr. Oil producer and cattle breeder. b. March

25, 1914. An oil producer in the Penn. field since 1934. A breeder of
registered Guernsey cattle, Titusville, Pa. since 1939. A director of
Quaker State Oil Refining Corp. since 1940. Secretary and director of
Oil City National Bank since 1945. Member of Fraternal Lodge No. 483,
Rouseville, Pa.; Oil City Chapter No. 236, R.A.M. and Talbot
Commandery No. 43, K.T. all of Oil City. Served as commander of his
commandery. 32° AASR (SJ) at New Castle, Pa. and member of Zem
Zem Shrine Temple, Erie, Pa.

Kearie L. Berry Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 6, 1893 at

Denton, Texas. Attended University of Texas and officer's training
camp, commissioned 2nd lieutenant of infantry on Aug. 15, 1917,
advancing through grades to brigadier general (Temp.) on Jan. 18,
1946. Served on Mexican Border in 1916 and during WW1 in Siberia,
Philippines and Hawaii. Later in China, and back to Philippines where at
outbreak of WW2 he commanded 1st Philippine division until captured
at Bataan on April 9, 1942. Prisoner of war in Luzon, Formosa, Kyushu
and Manchuria until Aug. 20, 1945. He was appointed adjutant general
of Texas in 1947 and major general of Texas National Guard in August,
1947. Retired from regular army as brigadier general in June, 1947.
Received first two degrees in Southern Cross Lodge No. 6, Manila, P.I.
and 3rd in Schofield Barracks Lodge No. 443, T.H. in 1921, transferring
to Fort Benning Lodge No. 579 in 1926. Received 32° AASR (SJ) in
Salina, Kansas in 1946 and transferred to Austin, Tex. in 1947. Member
of Ben Hur Shrine Temple, Austin, Tex. and Court 35, Royal Order of

Thomas M. Berry Governor of South Dakota from 1933 to 1937.

Member of White River Lodge No. 181, White River, S. Dak. and
received 32° AASR (SJ) in Oriental Consistory at Yankton, S. Dak. in
May, 1933. d. Oct. 30, 1956.

Clifford K. Berryman (1869-1949) Cartoonist. b. April 2, 1869 at

Versailles, Ky. He was self-taught in drawing and received an honorary
A.M. from George Washington Univ. in 1921. He started as a draftsman
in the U.S. Patent Office in 1886 and turned to general illustrating in
1891,switching to cartooning in 1896. Was with the Washington Post
from 18961907, going to the Washington Evening Star on Feb. 1, 1907
where he remained until his death. He was the originator of "Teddy
Bear" and winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1943. He is the author of
Berryman's Cartoons of the 58th House (probably the only cartoonist
who has cartooned every member of any one Congress). He was a past
master of Temple Noyes Lodge No. 32 of Washington, D.C., a Knight
Templar and Shriner. d. Dec. 11, 1949.

William A. Berryman Vice president of Gulf Oil Corp. b. Jan. 22,

1892 at Enterprise, Va. With the Gulf interests since 1933, first in the
European marketing field, then as assistant to the vice president and
then vice president since 1949. He is also vice president of Gulf
European Co., Gulf Exploration Co., Gulf Refining Co. and Gulf
Research and Development Co. Is a director of 11 Gulf foreign oil
companies. Mason.

Paul Bert (1833-1886) French physiologist and politician.

Governor general of Annam and Tonkin (1886) and author of scientific
works, includ- ing Lecons d'Anatomie et de Physiologie Animales
(1885). International Masonic Congress Bulletin of 1917 lists him as a

Bartholomew Berthold (1780-1831) Pioneer fur trader who

helped lay foundation for the American Fur Company. b. in 1780 in the
city of Trent, Tyrol, a province of Austria that is now part of Italy. He
came to Philadelphia in 1798 and in 1809 moved to St. Louis, Mo. with
a stock of goods and entered business with Rene Paul. On Dec. 27,
1809 he joined Louisiana Lodge No. 109 at St. Genevieve, Missouri's
first lodge. The lodge was chartered by Pennsylvania and records show
that on June 2, 1810, dues from the lodge in the amount of $32.49 were
delivered to the Grand Secretary of Pennsylvania by Berthold. He
withdrew from the lodge on June 9, 1812, the records noting that he had
"withdrawn and removed." He was married to Pelagie, the only daughter
of Major Pierre Chouteau, Sr. and in 1812 built a brick house and store
building on Main St. in St. Louis—the first west of the Mississippi river.
In the same year he formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Peter
Chouteau, Jr. q.v. under the name of Berthold & Chouteau. To this firm
they added two partners, John P. Cabanne and Bernard Pratte, Sr. This
firm was later combined with the Columbia Fur Company under John
Jacob Astor q.v. as the great American Fur Company. d. April 20, 1831.

Julius Bertin Actor who played the role of "Abie" in Abie's Irish
Rose on the New York stage. He was a member of St. Cecile Lodge No.
568, and Corinthian Chapter No. 159, R.A.M. of New York City. d. Oct.
3, 1945.

Abbe Bertolio French Roman Catholic abbe who was a member

of the Lodge Social Contract of the Grand Orient of France and the first
master of the adoptive lodge (for both sexes) formed by that lodge. His
co-officer in the adoptive lodge was Princess Lamballe q.v., who served
as the first Grand Mistress when the lodge was formed in 1780.

Francisco Bertrand President of Honduras from 1913-15 and

again from 1916-20. Was initiated in the Lodge Francisco Morazan.

Antonio Luis Berutti (1772-1846) Argentine patriot who as a

colonel distinguished himself in many military engagements and
became successively, governor of the province of Santa Fe and
Tucuman and minister of war after the formation of the new country.

Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) Swedish chemist and baron.

Taught medicine, pharmacy and chemistry at Stockholm from 1807.
Created a baron in 1835 because of scientific achievements. He
determined the atomic and molecular weights of many substances,
using oxygen as a standard. He discovered the elements selenium,
cerium and thorium and first isolated columbium and silicon. He was
initiated in 1805 in St. John's Lodge St. Erik, at Stockholm.
Sir Walter Besant (1836-1901) English novelist. Educated in
King's College, London and Christ's College, Cambridge. Was co-author
with James Rice of a series of novels including Ready-Money Mortiboy
(1872) and The Seamy Side (1881). Sole author of All Sorts and
Conditions of Men (1882) and Children of Gibeon (1886). He was raised
in Mauritius Lodge in 1862 and became master of Marquis of Dalhousie
Lodge No. 1159, London, in 1873. He conceived the idea of establishing
a lodge of research and as a result became one of the founders of the
famous Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 of London, serving as its
treasurer at one time. d. Hempstead, England, June 10, 1901.

Dale P. Bessire Artist. b. May 14, 1892 at Columbus, Ohio. His

paintings represented in the Indiana building at Chicago Century of
Progress; Gary, Lafayette and Indianapolis public schools; Muncie
Indiana Art Assoc.; Ball collection of Indiana Univ.; public library at
Bedford; DePauw Univ.; and others. His works have won numerous art
awards through the years. Raised in Nashville Lodge No. 135,
Nashville, Ind., Sept. 1, 1917.

William N. Best Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. July

14, 1887 at Los Angeles, Calif. Served in WW1 as 2nd lieutenant
Marines and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1946.
Service included United States, Haiti, Hawaii, Santo Domingo, China,
Nicaragua, Philippines, Cuba and at sea with fleet. He retired Dec. 1,
1946. Mason.

William T. Best (1826-1897) Famous English organist who

edited the works of Handel and Bach and was a composer of anthems
and fugues. Mason.

James A. Bethea Major General, Army Medical Corps. b. Oct.

30, 1887 in Marion Co., S.C. Received M.D. degree from Tulane Univ.
in 1913 and graduated from Army Medical School in 1917. A director of
the 4th Division Field Hospital in WW1, rising through the grades to
major general in 1948. Now chief surgeon of Far East Command,
Tokyo, Japan. Mason.

Edwin S. Bettelheim, Jr. b. April 11, 1887 at New York City. B.S.,
Columbia Univ. 1911, LL.B. George Washington Univ. 1924, LL.M.,
1925, A.B., 1926, A.M., 1927. Graduate of Command and General Staff
School, 1938. Served in Mexican Border conflict and WW1 in field
artillery, rising to colonel. He became assistant chief of staff of the
military district of Washington and military analyst of the U.S. Dept. of
State as well as biographer of the Inter-American Military Association.
Has been adjutant general and executive officer of the Order of World
Wars since 1931. Headed expedition in 1929 to northern Russia to
search for and return the bodies of Americans lost in the Polar Bear
Campaign. A past president of the National Sojourners and past
commander of the Heroes of '76 (both Masonic military organizations).
Past grand master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia.
Shriner and Knight Templar.

Jackson E. Betts Congressman from 8th Dist. of Ohio in 82nd,

83rd and 84th Congresses (1951-1957). b. May 26, 1904 at Findlay,
Ohio. Law-yer, member of General Assembly of Ohio from 1937-47,
serving as house speaker in 1945-46. Member of the Judicial Council of
Ohio, 1941-45. Raised in Findlay Lodge No. 227, Findlay, Ohio in 1931.
Member of Findlay Chapter No. 58, R.A.M. and Findlay Council No. 50
R. & S.M. 32° AASR (NJ) in Toledo.

James A. Betts (1853-1928) Justice, Supreme Court of New

York, 1898-1912, 3rd judicial district and associate justice of the
appellate division, 1910-12. b. March 18, 1853 at Broadalbin, N.Y. After
serving as a school principal for two years, he studied law and was
admitted to the bar in 1880, practicing at Kingston. Mason.
Frank A. Beu Educator and president of Western Illinois State
Teachers College at Macomb, Ill., since 1942. b. Sept. 2, 1898 at
Huntley, Ill. B.A. and M.A. degrees from Northwestern Univ. and Ph.D.
from Univ. of Chicago. Taught and served as administrator in Illinois
public schools and in 1928 became professor of education at Eastern
Illinois State Teachers' College, serving until 1933 when he became
dean. Raised in Hebron Lodge No. 604, Hebron, Ill. Received 32° at
Quincy, Ill. in 1947. Member of O.E.S. in Hebron.

Pierre de Reil, Marquis of Beurnonville (1752-1821) Marshal of

France. He served as minister of war in 1793, ambassador to Berlin in
1800, ambassador to Madrid in 1802. In 1814 he supported Louis XVIII
and was named marshal in 1816. He was a zealous Freemason and
became grand master "adjoint" in the Grand Orient of France.

Albert P. Beutel Business executive. b. Nov. 13, 1892 at

Cleveland, Ohio. Started with Dow Chemical Co. in 1914 as draftsman.
General manager of the Texas division of Dow

91 Thomas D. Beven Chemical Co. at Freeport, Texas since 1940;

director and assistant secretary of Dow Chemical Co.; president and
director of Dowell, Inc., Midland, Mich.; vice president and director of
Dow Magnesium Corp. Mason.

Thomas D. Beven President and director of Elgin, Joliet and

Eastern Railway Co. since 1946. b. Dec. 23, 1898 at New Orleans, La.
Started with the Central and Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway companies
in 1912. Served in U.S. Marine Corps in WW1. Mason and Shriner.

Albert J. Beveridge (1862-1927) U.S. Senator and historian. b. in

Highland Co., Ohio. Served as member of U.S. Senate from Indiana
from 18991911 and was a supporter of Theodore Roosevelt and his
policies. He was the author of The Life of John Marshall (2 vols., 1916,
1919). Member of Oriental Lodge No. 500, Indianapolis, Ind.

Frank Stanley Beveridge (18791956) Founder of Stanley Home

Products, Inc. b. April 17, 1879 at Yarmouth, N.S. From 1904-09 he was
a photographers' representative. Became associated with the Fuller
Brush Company in 1913 and rose to vice president in charge of sales
from 1921-29. From 1929-31 he was associate sales manager of Real
Silk Hosiery Mills, founding the Stanley Home Products, Inc. in 1931,
serving as president until 1950 when he became chairman of the board.
Received a citation from Pope Pius XII in 1949. Member of Port Byron
Lodge No. 130, New York.

James R. Beverley Governor of Puerto Rico 1932-33. b. June

15, 1894 at Amarillo, Tex. A.B., A.M. and LL.B. from Univ. of Texas and
honorary LL.D. from Polytechnic Institute of Puerto Rico. Practiced law
in Corpus Christi. Special adviser to Public Service Commission of
Puerto Rico from 1925-27; assistant attorney general 1927-28 and
attorney general, 1928-32. Acting governor of Puerto Rico various
times. Served as officer in field artillery during WW1 and lieutenant
commander, U.S. Coast Guard Reserve in WW2. Mason.

Howard L. Bevis Chairman of the President's Committee on

Scientists and Engineers from 1956. b. Nov. 19, 1885 at Bevis, Ohio.
A.B. and LL.B. from Univ. of Cincinnati; S.J.D. and LL.D. from Harvard.
Practiced law from 1910-18. Served as director of finance of Ohio from
1931-33; judge of Ohio Supreme Court, 1933-35; professor of law and
government at Harvard, 1935-40 and president of Ohio State Univ. from
1940-56. Raised in McMakin Lodge No. 120, Mt. Healthy, Ohio in 1911
and served as master of same in 1916. York rite memberships in
Cincinnati and Columbus. Received AASR (N.J.) in 1921 and 33° in
1942. Member of Syrian Shrine Temple, Cincinnati.
Raymond H. Beyer Engineer and designer. b. Dec. 11, 1902 at
South Bend, Ind. An engineer and designer since 1920. Built and flew
first airplane in Indiana; designer of amphibian plane in 1920, helicopter
in 1943. Has been associated with Dodge Mfg. Corp., Westinghouse,
U.S. Airlines, Bendix Aviation, Rockne Motors, Chevrolet Motors, Glen
L. Martin, Emerson Electric, South Bend Bait Co., National Pressure
Cooker, AC Spark Plug. With Armour Research Foundation since 1950.

Francois Louis de Beyerle French Masonic writer and member

of the French Constitutional Convention of 1792. He was a leading
member of the Rite of Strict Observance in which his adopted name
was Eques a Fiore. He wrote a criticism on the Masonic Congress of
Wilhelmsbad and translated Frederic Nicolai's essay on the Templars.

Osborne Bezanson Vice president and director of Monsanto

Chemical Company since 1942. b. Nov. 10, 1888 at Woburn, Mass.
Started as chemist with Merrimac Chemical Co. of Woburn, Mass. in
1906 and became vice president in 1930. When Monsanto liquidated
Merrimac in 1935 he became assistant vice president of the Everett
division. Has served as general manager of the Texas division and the
organic chemicals division and a member of the Monsanto executive
committee since 1948. Mason.

George M. Bibb (1776-1859) Secretary of Treasury under

President Tyler (1844-45). b. Oct. 30, 1776 in Prince Edward Co., Va.
He served two terms as U.S. Senator from Kentucky-1811-14 and 1829-
35. He was the first master of Russellville Lodge No. 17, Russellville,
Ky. and was master of Hiram Lodge No. 4, Frankfort, Ky. He was also
past master of Lexington Lodge No. 1 at Lexington, and served as
secretary in 1804. In 1804 he was grand master of Kentucky. Past high
priest of Frankfort Chapter No. 3, Frankfort, Ky. and was adjunct
professor of ancient languages in the primary department of the
Masonic College of Kentucky. d. April 14, 1859 at Georgetown, D.C.
Thomas Bibb Governor of Alabama (1820-21). He succeeded
his father (Wm. W.) as governor when the latter died in office. Member
of George Lodge No. 32, Warminster, Va.

Joseph H. Biben Newspaper publisher. b. Oct. 27, 1900 at Kiev,

Russia and came to United States in 1902. Editor and publisher of the
Jewish Ledger publications; in Rochester, N.Y. since 1928, in
Washington, D.C. since 1930, in Albany, N.Y. since 1931, in Syracuse,
N.Y. since 1932. Publisher of the American Hebrew in New York since
1936. Mason.

Dana X. Bible Athletic director, Univ. of Texas since 1947. b.

Oct. 8, 1891 at Jefferson City, Tenn. An athletic director since 1912 with
Brandon Training School (Tenn.), Mississippi College, Louisiana State
Univ., Texas A. & M. College, Univ. of Nebraska. With University of
Texas as football coach from 1937-47. Served with the A.E.F. in WW1
as a pursuit pilot. Author of Championship Football, A Guide for Coach,
Player and Fan. Member of the National Football Rules Committee and
past president of American Football Coaches Association. Member of
Mossy Creek Lodge No. 353, Jefferson City, Tenn.; Jefferson Chapter
No. 81, R.A.M., Jefferson City, Tenn.; Lincoln Council No. 4 R. & S.M.
and Mt. Moriah Commandery, K.T. both of Lincoln, Nebr. Member of
Ben Hur Shrine Temple, Austin, Texas.

Thomas W. Bickett (1869-1921) Governor of North Carolina

1917-21. b. Feb. 28, 1869 at Monroe, N.C. Graduated from Wake
Forest College (N.C.) and studied law at Univ. of North Carolina,
practicing at Monroe and later Danbury. Member of state house of
representatives in 1907-08 and attorney general of N.C. 1906-16. He
was raised in Louisburg Lodge No. 413, Louisburg, N.C. on Oct. 2,
1901, demitting to William G. Hill Lodge No. 218 at Raleigh in 1921. In
1917 he was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. d. Dec.
28, 1921.
Edward Biddle Delegate to first Continental Congress in 1774.
Raised in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia, Pa. March 29, 1763.

Benjamin A. Bidlack (1804-1849) American diplomat. b. at Paris,

N.Y. U.S. charge d'affaires in New Granada (Colombia) and negotiated
a treaty with that country in 1846 for U.S. right-of-way across the
Isthmus of Panama. Raised in Lodge No. 61, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. on May
1, 1826.

John Bidwell (1819-1900) California pioneer and politician. b.

Aug. 5, 1819 in Chautauqua Co., N.Y. Taught school in Pennsylvania
and Missouri and in 1841 emigrated to California, being one of the first
to make the hazardous journey overland. He served in the Mexican War
with Fremont's Battalion and became the state's first great agriculturist,
owning an immense estate of several thousand acres. Gov. Leland
Stanford q.v. commissioned him brigadier general of California Militia,
and he later was made a regent of the Univ. of Calif. In 1849 he was a
member of the state constitutional convention and the same year
became state senator. Representative to U.S. Congress from California
1865-67. He was raised in San Jose Lodge No. 10 in 1851 and later
affiliated with Chico Lodge No. 111.

Marshall S. Bidwell Organist. b. Dec. 24, 1893 at Great

Barrington, Mass. Studied music at New England Conservatory,
Fontainebleau, France, Coe College (Ia.), Univ. of Pittsburgh. Served as
organist of several large churches and from 1919-32 was organist and
director of music at Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Ia. Has been organist
and director of music of Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. since 1932.
Raised in Mt. Herman Lodge No. 263, Cedar Rapids, Ia. in 1926.
Member of Scottish Rite in Cedar Rapids.

Baron Jacob Frederick Bielfeld (1717-1770) German merchant.

b. March 31, 1717. d. April 5, 1770. He was one of the founders of the
Lodge of the Three Globes in Berlin.
Daniel L. Biemesderfer President, State Teachers College,
Millersville, Pa. since 1943. b. Jan. 19, 1894 at Kissel Hill, Pa. Teacher
and schoolprincipal in Pennsylvania from 19111943. Member of Charles
M. Howell Lodge No. 496, Millersville, Pa., and past master of same.
32° AASR (NJ) at Harrisburg, Pa. and member of Zembo Shrine
Temple, Harrisburg.

Lucius V. Bierce Led an expedition into Canada in 1838 to

"save" the Canadians from the "Crown." He headed an abortive attempt
to raid Windsor, Canada from Detroit with a rabble of 200 men. The raid
was easily repulsed. Bierce was grand master of Ohio in 1854. Raised
in Unity Lodge No. 12, Ravenna, Ohio on Oct. 12, 1826 and demitted to
Akron Lodge No. 83 as charter member on Oct. 1, 1841, serving that
lodge as master a number of times.

Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) American landscape painter of the

Hudson River school. b. in Solingen, Germany and came to the United
States in 1831. His paintings include Sunshine and Shadow, Rocky
Mountains, Valley of the Yosemite. His historical works include
Discovery of the Hudson River, Settlement of Cali- fornia, and Entrance
into Monterey. Bierstadt was a member of Holland Lodge No. 8, New
York City.

Leslie L. Biffle Secretary of the U.S. Senate, 1945-47. b. Oct. 9,

1889 at Boydsville, Ark. Secretary of the majority, U.S. Senate from
1933-45; executive director of Democratic Policy Committee, U.S.
Senate, 1947-49. Member of American Battle Monument Commission,
1941-45. Member of Piggott Lodge No. 545, Piggott, Ark.

Horace F. Bigelow Admiral of the U. S. Navy. Made a Shriner at

a ceremonial in Tokyo, Japan in November, 1956.
Timothy Bigelow (1767-1821) Massachusetts lawyer and
politician. b. April 30, 1767 at Worcester, Mass. He was the son of
Timothy Bigelow, Revolutionary War patriot. Graduated from Harvard in
1786, studied law and practiced at Groton, Mass. from 1789-1807,
when he moved to Medford and opened a law office in Boston. He was
an active Federalist and was elected to the legislature in 1790, serving
there 20 years, eleven of which he was speaker of the house. He was
grand master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts two terms, 1806-08
and 1811-13. It is said that in the course of his 32 years practice he
argued 15,000 cases. d. May 18, 1821.

George C. Biggers President of the Atlanta Journal since 1946.

b. Jan. 24, 1893 at Louisville, Ky. Began journalism career with the
Louisville Herald in 1910 and subsequently with the Indianapolis Star,
The Courier-Journal, Louisville Times, Birmingham Age-Herald, Atlanta
Georgian, Atlanta Constitution, and Birmingham News. Went to the
Atlanta Journal as business manager in 1934; vice president and
general manager in 1939 and president since 1946. Mason.

Benjamin T. Biggs (1821-?) Governor of Delaware in 1887-91. b.

Oct. 1, 1821 at Summit Bridge, Del. Congressman from Delaware 1860-
71. Member of state constitutional convention of 1852. Member of Union
Lodge No. 5, Middletown, Del.

Burton B. Biggs Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. July 3, 1898 at

Elliott, W. Va. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy in 1921. Ensign with
Navy June 5, 1920 and advanced through grades to rear admiral, May
1, 1948. Mason and member of Scottish Rite.

John Bigler (1804-1871) Governor of California. b. Jan. 8, 1804

in Cumberland Co., Pa. Learning the printer's trade, he became a
journalist and afterwards a lawyer, moving to Illinois in 1846. In 1849 he
emigrated to California and there became a prominent Democratic
politician, gaining the name "Honest John Bigler." From 1852-1856 he
was governor of the state. His brother, William, was governor of
Pennsylvania at the same time. Bigler was initiated in Pacific Lodge,
Long's Bar, Butte Co., Calif. in 1850 and later a member of Tehama
Lodge No. 3, Sacramento and Washington Lodge No. 20, Sacramento.

Louis Pierre Edouard Bignon (17711841) French statesman and

historian. Designated by Napoleon in his will to write the history of
France from time of Consulate, he produced Historie de France depuis
le 18-Brumaire jusque'en 1812. (1829-38) A Freemason.

Theodore G. Bilbo (1877-1947) U.S. Senator and Governor of

Mississippi. b. Oct. 13, 1877 at Juniper Grove, Miss. Attended Univ. of
Nashville, Vanderbilt Univ. and Univ. of Michigan. Taught school for six
years and admitted to bar in 1908. Member of Miss. state senate, 1908-
12, lieutenant governor of Miss. 1912-16. Twice governor of Miss. 1916-
20 and 1928-32, elected three terms as U.S. Senator from Miss., 1935,
1941, 1947. He was raised April 17, 1899 in Claiborn Lodge No. 293 at
Nashville, Tenn. and affiliated with Sherrard Byrd Lodge No. 353 at
Poplarville, Miss. Received AASR 32° in Hattiesburg, Miss. in 1925 and
was suspended NPD in 1929 from those bodies. d. Aug. 21, 1947.

W. Chester Billings (1872-1939) Senior surgeon and medical

director of U.S. Public Health Service. b. April 15, 1872 at Hartford,
Conn. Received M.D. from Harvard in 1894 and after private practice in
Springfield, Mass. of four years entered U.S. Public Health Service as
surgeon. Was senior surgeon from 1929 and medical director from
1930-33, serving in 19 different stations including chief medical officer at
Angel Island, Calif. and Ellis Island and chief surgeon of U.S. Coast
Guard and medical adviser to American Consulates in Liverpool and
London. Mason. d. Aug. 16, 1939.
Clayton 0. Billow (1860-1945) Pioneer in burning oil for industrial
use. b. June 14, 1860 at Shelby, Ohio. Carried on experiments with
crude oil for fuel for the Champion City Oil Co. from 1884-88 and was
general western manager of Pasteur-Chamberlain Filter Co. in 1888,
later organizing the National Supply Co. for furnaces, forges, kilns, etc.
for oil burning. Inventor of many appliances incidental to oil burning.
Knight Templar, 33° AASR, Grand Sovereign, Grand Imperial Council of
the Red Cross of Constantine (1938-39). Decorated Knight Grand
Cross, 1938. d. March 19, 1945.

Thomas H. Binford Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 25, 1896, at

Durant, Miss. Graduate Naval Academy in 1919, advancing through
grades to vice admiral in 1954. In 1942 he commanded the destroyer
division of the Asiatic Fleet and participated in entire Java Sea
campaign. He commanded the cruiser U.S.S. Miami and participated in
first strikes on Tokyo and raids on Chichi Jima, Iwo Jima, Kyushu,
Okinawa. Commanded cruiser division one of Pacific Fleet from 1949.
Assisted in establishing Enlisted WAVE program of Navy. Retired.

George Bingaman Judge, Supreme Court of Oklahoma. b. Sept.

15, 1904 at Princeton, Kansas. Admitted to Oklahoma bar in 1928 and
practiced law in Purcell, Okla. from 1929-50. Has been judge of
Supreme Court of Oklahoma since 1951. Raised in Purcell Lodge No.
27, Purcell, Okla. on Dec. 15, 1925 and has served as master and
secretary of same. Member Purcell Chapter No. 10, R.A.M. and Norman
Council, R. & S.M. of Norman, Okla. 33° AASR (SJ) in Guthrie
Consistory. Member of India Shrine Temple, Oklahoma City and
DeMolay Legion of Honor.

Malcolm W. Bingay (1884-1953) Newspaper editor and Pulitzer

Prize winner. b. Dec. 16, 1884 at Sandwich, Ont., Canada and was
brought to United States in infancy. Began at 17 as reporter for Detroit
News, rising as sports editor, city editor, managing editor and in charge
of the London Bureau of the News. Became editor of the Detroit Free
Press in May 1930, serving until his death. Author of Detroit Is My Own
Home Town (1946) and Of Me I Sing (1949). He became a member of
City of the Straits Lodge No. 452, Detroit, June 19, 1920 and
successively joined Peninsular Chapter No. 16, R.A.M. Detroit
Commandery No. 1, K.T. and Scottish Rite, being coroneted a 33° Sept.
15, 1925. He was known to Masonic readers for his series of brilliant
word sketches on English Freemasonry. d. Aug. 21, 1953.

Hiram Bingham Governor and Senator from Connecticut,

explorer and aviator. b. Nov. 19, 1875 at Honolulu, T.H. His father and
grandfather (both named Hiram) were missionaries. His grandfather
reduced the Hawaiian language to writing and his father, a missionary to
Gilbert Islands, did the same for the Gilbert language. Holds degrees of
A.B., M.A., Ph.D. and Litt.D. Taught in Harvard, Yale, Princeton and
Johns Hopkins Universities. Explored Bolivar's route across Venezuela
and Colombia in 1906-07, the Spanish trade route from Buenos Aires to
Lima, 1908-09 and the Inca ruins in Peru, 1911-15. Served as lieutenant
governor of Connecticut, 1923-24 and governor, 1924, resigning in 1925
to become U.S. Senator and serving until 1933. Chief of Air Personnel
Division at Washington 1917-18. A member of both Scottish and York
rite bodies as well as the Shrine. Has written on Masonic subjects. Chief
writings are on exploration, his latest being Lost City of the Incas. (1948)
Robert Bingham (1838-1927) Educator. b. Sept. 5, 1838 at Hillsboro,
N.C. Captain in 44th N.C. troops, Army of Northern Virginia, C.S.A.
Surrendered with General Lee. Was superintendent of the Bingham
School (which his grandfather founded in 1793) from 1873-1920. Grand
Master of North Carolina 1883-85.

Robert W. Bingham (1871-1937) U.S. Ambassador to Great

Britain from 1933-37. b. Nov. 8, 1871 in Orange Co., S.C. Degrees from
universities of North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky and Louisville.
Publisher of both the Louisville Courier-Journal and Times. He was past
master of Falls City Lodge No. 376 of Louisville and a member of York
and Scottish Rites as well as the rank of KCCH. At a meeting of the
Grand Lodge of England, in the presence of the King and 8,000
Masons, he was created a past senior grand warden of that grand
lodge. d. Dec. 18, 1937.
Claude V. Birkhead (1880-1950) Lawyer and Major General
(NGUS). b. May 27, 1880 at Phoenix, Oreg. Practiced law at San
Antonio from 1904, serving as district judge and city attorney. He was
special attorney appointed by the Texas legislature to represent the
state's coastal land claims before Congress in 1939. In WW1 he served
as a colonel with the 131st Field Artillery in France and as chief of staff
of Texas 36th division national guard. He was elevated to brigadier
general in 1923 and major general, commanding the 36th division in
1936; commanding general of Camp Bowie, Texas 1940-41;
commanding general Internal Security Forces, 3rd Service Command,
1942, retiring fromactive service that year. Mason and Knight Templar.
d. Nov. 19, 1950.

Leon M. Birkhead Clergyman, author. b. April 28, 1885 at

Winfield, Mo. Served as minister of Methodist churches in New York
City and St. Louis and Unitarian churches in Wichita, Kansas and
Kansas City, Mo. In 1937 he founded "Friends of Democracy" and has
been national director since. He was technical advisor to Sinclair Lewis
during his writing of Elmer Gantry (1926-27). He has written numerous
"Little Blue Books" including Is Elmer Gantry True?, Religious Bunk
Over the Radio, Can Man Know God, President Hoover and Quakerism,
and The Religion of a Free Man. Mason.

Matthew Birkhead English singer, composer and actor who

wrote the Enter'd 'Prentice's Song first printed in Read's Weekly Journal
in 1722. It was immortalized by being printed in the first Book of
Constitutions after his death in 1723. He was not only a composer, but a
singer and actor at the famous Drury Lane Theater in London. Mackey
says he was master of Lodge V at the time Anderson was preparing his
constitutions. d. December, 1722.

Ormand N. Birkland President of S. H. Kress & Co. b. July 26,

1890 at Chicago, Ill. Started with S. H. Kress & Co. in 1916 as a
stockman in the Little Rock, Ark. store and rose to presidency in 1948.
Served in WW1. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.
Hammond D. Birks Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 5,
1896 at Chicago, Ill. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1917 and
advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1945. Served with the
AEF in WW1. In WW2 he was commander of the 120th Infantry Combat
Team of the 30th Division and assistant division commander of 9th
Infantry Division, participating in battle of Mortain and other important
engagements of European Theater. Mason.

David B. Birney (1825-1864) Union Major General of Civil War.

b. May 29, 1825 at Huntsville, Ala. Studied law in Cincinnati and after
engaging in business in Michigan, began practice of law in Philadelphia
in 1848. Entered army as lieutenant colonel at beginning of war and was
made colonel of the 23rd Pennsylvania volunteers, which he raised
principally at his own expense in 1861. Distinguished himself in battles
of Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and
Gettysburg. At death of General Berry he commanded the division, and
was commissioned major general May 23, 1863. He commanded the
3rd Corps at Gettysburg and later the 10th Corps. Died of disease
contracted in the service on Oct. 18, 1864 at Philadelphia. He was
initiated in Franklin Lodge No. 134 of Philadelphia on Oct. 31, 1850.

Hoffman Birney Writer of fiction, juvenile, historical and

biographical books. b. April 1, 1891 at Philadelphia, Pa. Among his
books are: King of the Mesa, The Masked Rider, Steel-dust, Vigilantes,
The Canyon of Lost Waters, Roads to Roam, The Pinto Pony, Zealots
of Zion, Two Little Navajos, Kudiu, the Eskimo Boy, Barrier Ranch,
Forgotten Canon, Eagle in the Sun, Mountain Chief, Ann Carmeny,
Brothers of Doom. Mason.

Eben F. Bishop (1863-1943) Sugar executive. b. Oct. 27, 1863

at Naperville, Ill. Started with C. Brewer & Co., sugar factors at
Honolulu, TH in 1883. Was chairman of the board and director of Hilo
Sugar Co., Onomea Sugar Co., Pepeekeo Sugar Co., Honomu Sugar
Co., Waimanalo Sugar Co., and Matson Navigation Co. Trustee of the
B. P. Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology. Mason. d. Feb. 11,

George T. Bishop (1864-1940) Financier. b. Ravenna, Ohio,

Oct. 11, 1864. A director of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Sherwin-
Williams Co., Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. Mason. d. Aug. 24, 1940.

Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (17861855) English composer who

introduced the air of Home Sweet Home and was first musician to be
knighted (1842). He composed operas, burlettas and incidental music to
Shakespeare's plays. Mason.

Herbert P. Bissell (1856-1919) Justice of Supreme Court of New

York 1912-19. b. Aug. 30, 1856 at New London, N.Y. Graduated at
Harvard, 1880 and practiced law in Buffalo. Mason. d. April 30, 1919.

Andrew G. Bisset Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Oct. 4, 1893 at

Washington. Entered Navy in 1917 and advanced through grades to
rear admiral in 1947 and retired in July, 1950 as vice admiral. Was
treaty engineer to Republic of Haiti, 1924-28, officer in charge of
construction, U.S. Naval Academy 1936-39, Portsmouth, N.H. and
Norfolk, Va. navy yards 1939-41. Commanded Seabees in South Pacific
and Okinawa operations WW2. Member of William R. Singleton Lodge
No. 30 (1922) and William R. Singleton Chapter No. 14, R.A.M. both of
Washington, D.C.

Van A. Bittner (1885-1949) Labor official. b. Mar. 20, 1885 at

Bridgeport, Pa. A labor representative since 1908, representing the
United Mine Workers of America from 1908-42 and steelworkers from
formation in 1936 until meeting of constitutional convention in 1942,
when it became United Steelworkers of America, C.I.O. At death on July
20, 1949 he was vice president and national director of the C.I.O.
Organizing Committee. Served as labor representative on National War
Labor Board in 1943. Mason.

William B. Bizzell (1876-1944) University president. b. Oct. 14,

1876 at Independence, Texas. Held degrees from Baylor Univ., College
of Law, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago, and Columbia. Was superintendent
of public schools in Navasota, Texas 1900-10, president of College of
Industrial Arts, at Denton 1910-14, president of Texas A. & M. 1914-25
and president of the Univ. of Oklahoma, 1925-41. From 1941 until his
death on May 13, 1944, he was president emeritus of Univ. of
Oklahoma. Author of several books including Judicial Interpretation of
Political Theory, Teaching of the Jewish Prophets, Farm Tenantry in the
United States, and The Green Rising. Mason, Knight Templar and

Sveinn Bjornsson First president of Iceland. He was one of the

founders of Edda Lodge in Reykjavik on Jan. 6, 1919 under the
authority of the National Grand Lodge of Denmark. At that time he had
the 6th degree of the 11-degree Denmark system. At the time of his
death on Jan. 25, 1952 he had received the highest degree and was
grand master of Icelandic Freemasonry. The Sovereign Grand
Jurisdiction of Iceland was constituted on July 23, 1951.

Alfred W. Bjornstad (1874-1934) Brigadier General, U.S. Army.

b. Oct. 13, 1874 at St. Paul, Minn. Served as captain in the Spanish-
American War. Promoted through grades to brigadier general in Jan.
1925. Engaged in 34 battles and actions in Philippines 1898-1904. Later
on duty with general staff, military attache, instructor at army schools. At
beginning of WW2 he directed the 16 training camps for officers which
produced the original 25,341 officers of WW2. He organized and
directed the Army General Staff College in France in 1919. Commanded
the 13th brigade in France and participated in all major engagements.
Retired Aug. 21, 1928. Mason. d. Nov. 4, 1934.
Frank S. Black (1853-1913) Governor of New York. b. March 8,
1853 at Limington, Maine. While reading law he was part time editor of
the Johnstown Journal (N.Y.) and later a reporter on the Troy Whig.
Admitted to the bar in 1879, he practiced in Troy until 1898 when he
moved to New York City. Served his district in the 54th Congress (1895-
97) and was governor of New York from 189799. He was raised in King
Solomon's Primitive Lodge No. 91 of Troy and later affiliated with
Roman Lodge No. 223 at Rome. d. March 21, 1913.

Hugo La Fayette Black U.S. Supreme Court Justice. b. Feb. 27,

1886 at Harlan, Ala. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Alabama in 1906 and
began practice in Birmingham the next year. Served as police judge and
prosecuting attorney and in general practice until 1927 when he was
elected U.S. Senator from Alabama for two terms (1927-37). Nominated
associate justice of the supreme court by Franklin D. Roosevelt Aug. 12,
1937, confirmed Aug. 17 and took his seat Oct. 4. Black was raised in
Ashland Lodge No. 356, Ashland, Ala. in 1909 and later became life
member of Birmingham Temple Lodge No. 636, Birmingham, Ala. He is
a 32° AASR (SJ) member, Knight Templar and Shriner.

James D. Black (1849-1938) Governor of Kentucky. b. Sept. 24,

1849 in Knox Co., Ky. Member of Kentucky lower house 1876-77.
Elected governor of Kentucky in 1915 for term of 1916-17 inclusive and
again served as governor from May to Dec., 1919. President of Union
College, Barbourville, Ky., 1910-12. Was grand master of Grand Lodge
of Kentucky in 1888-89. d. Aug. 5, 1938.

John Black Early U. S. Senator from Mississippi. Member of

Rising Virtue Lodge No. 7.

John C. Black (1839-1915) Union Brigadier General in Civil War.

b. Jan. 27, 1839 at Lexington, Miss. Received A.M. and LL.D. from
Knox College. Entered service as private and advanced to brigadier
general "for gallant services in assault on Ft. Blakely, Ala." Awarded
medal of honor for Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. in which he was severely
wounded. Admitted to Illinois bar in 1867 and practiced at Danville until
his death on Aug. 17, 1915. Was U.S. Commissioner of Pensions 1885-
89 and member of the 53rd Congress from Ill. at large (1893-95),
president of the U.S. Civil Service Commission 1904-13. Commander-
in-chief of the G.A.R. in 1903-04. Member of Olive Branch Lodge No.
38, Danville, Ill. and grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1894
and again in 1895.

Lloyd L. Black Federal Judge. b. March 15, 1889 at

Leavenworth, Kans. Received A.B. (cum laude) and LL.B. from Univ. of
Washington and admitted to Washington bar in 1911. Associated with
father in firm Black & Black 1913-32, served as prosecuting attorney,
attorney for Port of Everett and special counsel for City of Everett as
well as judge of superior court. Was appointed U.S. Judge for Western
District of Washington in 1949 and Eastern and Western Districts in
1940. Mason.

Samuel W. Black Governor of Nebraska, 1859-61. In 1849 he

was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 219, Pittsburgh, Pa.

S. Rexford Black Lumber executive. b. April 30, 1894 at Flint,

Mich. Chairman of board of C. D. Johnson Lumber Corp., president of
Springfield Plywood Corp., Acme Door Corp., and Whatcom Timber Co.
Mason and Shriner.

Joseph C. S. Blackburn (1838-1918) U.S. Senator from

Kentucky. b. Oct. 1, 1838 in Woodford Co., Ky. A.B. and LL.D. from
Centre College, (Ky.). First practiced law in Chicago. After serving in
Confederate forces during Civil War resumed his practice in Kentucky.
Member of house of representatives (Ky.) 1871-75; member of 44th to
48th Congresses (1875-85); and U.S. Senator, 1885-97 and again from
1901-07. Member of Isthmian Canal Commission and head of
department of civil administration, Canal zone, 1907-09. Mason, Knight
Templar. d. Sept. 12, 1918.

Luke P. Blackburn (1816-1887) Governor of Kentucky in 1879.

Member of Landmark Lodge No. 41, Versailles, Ky. and Webb Chapter,
R.A.M. No. 6 of same city.

Robert Blackburn (1870-1935) Congressman from Kentucky. b.

April 9, 1870 in Este11 Co., Ky. Traveling salesman, merchant,
insurance and stock brokerage business in Stanton, Ky. and later
Lexington. Served in Spanish American War. Member of Kentucky
lower house in 1904-05. Elected to 71st Congress (1929-31). Mason. d.
Sept. 20, 1935.

Isaac N. Blackford (1786-1859) Jurist. b. Nov. 6, 1786 at Bound

Brook, N.J. Graduated from Princeton, 1806 and moved to Indiana in
1812 and settled in Vincennes. Clerk of the territorial legislature in 1813
and judge of the first judicial circuit in 1814-15. He was speaker of the
first state legislature in 1816 and judge of the supreme court of Indiana
from 1819-35. From March, 1855 until his death on Nov. 6, 1786 he was
judge of the U.S. Court of Claims in Washington. Member of Harmony
Lodge No. 11 at Brookville, Ind.

Samuel H. Blackmer (1902-1951) Supreme Court Justice,

Vermont. b. March 2, 1902 at Bennington, Vt. A.B. from Yale and LL.B.
from Harvard. Elected one term to Vermont lower house, served as
states attorney, municipal judge and superior judge, being appointed
associate justice of Vermont Supreme Court in 1949. Raised in Mount
Anthony Lodge No. 13 on Dec. 25, 1923, serving as junior warden in
1932-33; member of Temple Chapter No. 8, RA.M., Bennington Council
No. 3, R. & S.M.; Taft Commandery No. 8, K.T., all of Bennington, Vt.
Member of Vermont Consistory, Burlington, Vt. and received 33° AASR
(NJ). Member of Cairo Shrine Temple of Rutland, Vt.
William W. Blackney Congressman from Michigan. b. Aug. 28,
1876 at Clio, Mich. Law degree, Univ. of Michigan, 1912. Member of
74th and 76th to 81st Congresses (1936-37, 193951). Mason and 32°

J. Stuart Blackton (1875-1941) Pioneer motion picture producer.

b. Jan. 5, 1875 at Sheffield, Eng., coming to the United States in 1886.
Started as newspaper writer and artist and entered the motion picture
industry in 1896. Associated with Albert E. Smith, 1900 in organizing the
Vitagraph Co.—first to make screen plays—of which he was vice
president. In 1910 he founded Motion Picture Magazine. In 1915 he
organized the Motion Picture Board of Trade of America and was its first
president. He produced The Christian, Island of Regeneration, Battle
Cry of Peace, The Glorious Adventure (in color), The Clean Heart, The
Happy Warrior and Bride of the Storm. Member of Centennial Lodge
No. 763, New York City. d. Aug., 1941.

Ibra C. Blackwood (1878-1936) Governor of South Carolina. b.

Nov. 21, 1878 at Blackwood, S.C. Admitted to bar in 1902 and practiced
at Spartanburg, S.C. Member of house of representatives 1903-05,
solicitor 7th Judicial Circuit, 1916-31 and governorof South Carolina
1931-35. Raised in Spartan Lodge No. 70, Spartanburg, S.C. on Aug.
20, 1903. Past grand master of Grand Lodge of S.C. d. Feb. 12, 1936.

Norman J. Blackwood (1866-1938) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b.

Jan. 3, 1866 at Philadelphia, Pa. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy and
received M.D. from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia in 1888.
Entered navy in 1890 and advanced through grades to rear admiral Oct.
10, 1929. Served in Spanish-American War, Cuban Insurrection, WW1.
Commanded naval hospitals in the Philippines and U.S. and the ships
U.S.S. Solace and U.S.S. Mercy. Retired from active service Jan. 3,
1930 and became medical director of Provident Hospital, Chicago.
Mason and member of the National Sojourners. d. April 1, 1938.
Robert L. Blaffer (1876-1942) President of Humble Oil &
Refining Co. b. Aug. 5, 1876 at New Orleans, La. Began with
Monongahela Coal & Coke Co., New Orleans, 1894. Entered oil
business in 1902 and from 1917-33 was vice president and treasurer of
Humble Oil & Refining Co., becoming president in 1933 and chairman of
the board in 1937. Mason. d. Oct. 22, 1942.

James G. Blaine Bank president. b. Jan. 10, 1888 in New York

City. Began with New York Life Insurance Co. in 1911. Vice pres.
Liberty National Bank, 1919-21, vice pres. New York Trust Co. 1921-27,
president Fidelity Trust Co. 1927-30. President and director of Marine
Midland Trust Co. 1930-54 and chairman of the board since 1955. He is
a director of the following: Fidelity Safe Deposit Co., Remington Rand,
Inc., Studebaker-Packard Corp., Pepsi Cola Co. In 1948-49 he was
chief of the E.C.A. Mission to Belgium and Luxembourg and has served
on many national and by Washington as a justice on the first Supreme
Court of the United States. b. Williamsburg, Va. in 1732. Graduated
from William and Mary College and studied law at the Temple, London,
soon becoming prominent in his profession and was a member of the
legislature as early as 1765. In 1776 he was a member of the committee
that drew up a plan for governing the state and was chosen to the
council and in 1777 became a judge of the court of appeals for Virginia.
He was afterward chief justice and in 1780 was judge of the high court
of chancery. A delegate to the convention that drew up the Federal
Constitution and with Washington and Madison voted for its adoption—
the other Virginians dissenting. In 1789 Washington named him as one
of the justices of the first Supreme Court of the U.S. and he served until
1796 when he resigned. He is often confused with his father, John Blair
(1689-1771), who was president of the Council of Virginia under British
rule (same as governor). A member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6,
Williamsburg, Va. he was passed Aug. 3, 1773, raised Dec. 23, 1773.
Where he was initiated is not known, but it is thought it may have been
at the Lodge of St. James, England. The records of Williamsburg Lodge
show that on Sept. 7, 1773 he was fined "1 shill, 3 pence for absence
this evening," and that he signed the by-laws on July 6, 1773. He was
elected master in May, 1774 and served as the first grand master of the
Grand Lodge of Virginia from 1778-84. d. Aug. 31, 1800.
Edgar Blake (1869-1943) Methodist bishop. b. Dec. 8, 1869 at
Gorham, Maine. Graduate of Boston Univ. School of Theology, 1898;
D.D. from Nebraska Wesleyan Univ., 1909 and LL.D. from DePauw
Univ. Ordained in 1899 and held pastorates in New Hampshire from
1895-1908. Secretary international charitable organizations. Mason.

David E. Blair Lawyer, jurist. b. Aug. 16, 1874 at Salina, Kans.

LL.B. Univ. of Kansas, 1899. Law practice at Joplin, Mo. Judge, Circuit
Court, 25th Judicial Circuit 1908-17; member Public Service
Commission of Mo. 191720; associate justice Supreme Court of Mo.,
1921-30 and chief justice, 192526. Practiced law in St. Louis 1931-34
and returned to Joplin, 1934. Elected to Springfield Court of Appeals in
1944 for 12 year term, making him the only Missourian elected to all
three benches. Mason and 32° AASR (SJ).

James 1'. Blair (1871-1944) Jurist. b. Nov. 11, 1871 at Loudon,

Tenn. Father of James T. Blair, Jr. q.v. Taught school before starting
law practice in 1896. President of Obion (Tenn.) College 1895. Member
of committee to revise statutes of Mo. 1909-11; judge of Supreme Court
of Mo. 1915-25 and chief justice, 1921-22. Re-entered law practice at
St. Louis in 1925. Member of the Appellate Judicial Commission of
Missouri from 1941 until death on April 12, 1944. Mason.

James T. Blair, Jr. Governor of Missouri, 1957-60. b. March 15,

1902 at Maysville, Mo. Admitted to bar in 1924 and since practiced in
Jefferson City, Mo. Member of house of representatives 1928-32 and
majority leader in 1931. Mayor of Jefferson City 194749 and lieutenant
governor of Mo. from 1949-56 when elected governor. Served as
lieutenant-colonel, U.S. Army, 1942-45. Raised in Jefferson Lodge No.
43, Oct. 14, 1925; exalted March 24, 1926, Jefferson City Chapter No.
34; Ezra Council No. 32 R. & S.M., March, 1936; Knighted Prince of
Peace Commandery No. 29, K.T. March 27, 1939, all of Jefferson City,
Mo. Shriner.
John Blair, Jr. (1732-1800) Named 102 Antonio Guzman Blanco
of Board of Sunday Schools 1912-20. Made a bishop on May 18, 1920.
Mason and Knight Templar. d. May 26, 1943.

Henry S. Blake (1888-1956) President of Capper Publications,

Topeka, Kans. b. Feb. 14, 1888 at Minneapolis, Minn. Joined the
Capper Publications in 1920 as business manager and was selected
vice president and general manager in 1937, taking over the presidency
in 1952 on the death of Senator Arthur Capper. As president of the
largest publishing firm west of the Mississippi he was executive officer
of the following publications with a circulation of 5 million; Cap-per's
Weekly, Topeka Daily Capital, Kansas City Kansan; two national
magazines, Household and Capper's Farmer and five state farm papers,
Kansas Farmer, Missouri Ruralist, Michigan Farmer, Ohio Farmer, and
Pennsylvania Farmer. Capper Publications also include radio stations
WIBW, Topeka and KCKN, Kansas City and television station WIBW-TV
at Topeka. He was a Mason, 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. d. March 12,

William Rufus Blake (1805-1863) Actor. b. in Halifax, N.S. and

first appeared on the stage of that city when 17 as the Prince of Wales,
in Richard the Third. His first New York appearance was in 1824 at the
Chatham theatre as Frederick in The Poor Gentleman. While playing at
the Tremont theatre, Boston in 1827, he received the first call before the
curtain ever given to an actor in this country. In 1839 he visited England,
making his first appearance there in the Haymarket theatre, London. On
April 21, 1863, while playing Sir Peter Teazle, in the Boston theatre, he
was suddenly taken ill and died the next day. He was the author of
several plays including Nero and The Turned Head. Blake was a
member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2 of New York City.

Raymond B. Blakney President of Olivet College (Mich.) b. Nov.

4, 1895 at Boston, Mass. Ordained Congregational minister in 1918 and
taught physics at Fukien Christian Univ., Foochow, China from 1920-27.
Served as pastor in Sanford, Me., and Williamstown, Mass. Returned to
Orient as missionary for American Board Commissioners (Cong.) at
Peking and Mindanao, Philippines until 1949. Served as chaplain, U.S.
Army in WW1 and WW2. President of Olivet College since 1950. In
1957 he became president of Pierce College, Athens, Greece. Raised in
Foochow Lodge, Foochow, China in 1923 and now member of
International Lodge, Peking, China (in exile). 32° AASR (SJ) in Peking,
Orient of China and served as secretary of the Scottish Rite bodies of
North China (in exile) from 1948-57. KCCH.

Antonio Guzman Blanco (1829-1899) President of Venezuela

three terms. b. in Caracas. Served as vice-president of Venezuela
1863-68. Following the overthrow of Falcon in 1868, as a general he led
a successful revolution. He was president from 1870-72 and on
alternate two years until 1889 when deposed by Congress. He was
practically a dictator for the entire period. As president he decreed that
the Grand Lodge of Venezuela could send out communications postage
free, a privilege which has since been rescinded. He erected the
beautiful Masonic temple at Caracas, the largest and most complete in
South America. He established the separation of the Catholic church
and the state and abolished the convents and transformed Catholic
churches into monuments such as the Capitol and the Pantheon for
their independence heroes. He also installed compulsory education. He
was a 33° AASR. Died in Paris, France—where he liked to live even
when he was president.

John R. Bland (1851-1923) Organizer and president of the U.S.

Fidelity & Guaranty Insurance Co. in 1896. b. March 24, 1851 at
Bridgeton, Mo. d. Jan. 6, 1923. Mason.

Richard P. Bland (1835-1899) U.S. Congressman from Missouri

for 25 years. Known as "Silver Dick." b. Aug. 19, 1835 near Hartford,
Ky. Moved to Missouri in 1855 and thence to California on a mining
expedition. He then removed to that part of Utah which is now Nevada
and practiced law at Virginia City. He returned to Missouri in 1865 and
practiced law at Rolla until Aug. 1869 when he moved to Lebanon. As a
member of Congress from 1873-95 and 1897-99, he was the author of
the Bland bill for the coinage of not less than two million and not more
than four million in silver bullion per month which was passed in 1878
and repealed in 1891. In 1896 he received many votes for president. He
was a member of Rolla Lodge No. 213, Rolla, Mo. and was exalted in
Rolla Chapter No. 32 in 1868. He later transferred as a charter member
of Lebanon Chapter No. 64 and served as high priest in 1871. Knighted
in St. John's Cornmandery No. 33, Springfield and later affiliated with
Lebanon Commandery No. 33 at Lebanon. d. June 15, 1899 and buried
with Masonic and Knight Templar honors in a Catholic cemetery in
Lebanon, Mo.

Theodoric Bland (1742-1790) Revolutionary soldier, doctor and

member of Continental Congress. b. in Prince George Co., Va. he was
educated in England and studied medicine at Univ. of Edinburgh. After
being admitted to medical practice he returned to America in 1764.
Wrote against the English governor under the pen name "Cassius" and
was one of those who removed arms and ammunition which Lord
Dunmore had taken from the public arsenal. He became captain of the
first group of Virginia cavalry and later colonel. He distinguished himself
at the battle of Brandywine and had the confidence of General
Washington. He served one term during the war in the Virginia senate
and was elected to the Continental Congress from 1780-83. He was a
member of the Virginia convention of 1788 and was among those
opposed to the adoption of the federal constitution. He became
representative from Virginia to the first Congress, taking his seat March
30, 1789. Although his lodge is not known, he was present at
Williamsburg Lodge No. 6 on July 7, 1778. d. June 1, 1790.

William T. Bland (1861-1928) U.S. Congressman from Missouri,

66th Congress (1919-21). b. Jan. 21, 1861 at Weston, Va. Law degree
from Univ. of West Virginia in 1884. Practiced law in Atchison, Kans.
and was elected judge of 2nd Judicial District from 1896-1904 but
resigned in 1901 to engage in wholesale drug business as vice
president and later president of McPike Drug Co., Kansas City, Mo.
Mason. d. Jan. 16, 1928.
Alexander H. Blankingship Episcopal Bishop. b. Nov. 30, 1894
at Richmond, Va. Graduate of Univ. of Richmond (A.B. and D.D.); Yale
Divinity School (A.B.) and B.D. Virginia Theological Semin. Served as
rector of Emmanuel Episcopal Church in Alexandria, Va. 1924-27 and
dean of Holy Trinity Cathedral, Havana, Cuba, 1927-39. Has been
bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Missionary District of Cuba since
Feb. 1939. Served in Mexican Border conflict of 1916 and WW1.
Received degrees in Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, Alexandria,
Va. in 1925 and presently a member of Island Lodge No. 56, Island
Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; Havana Commandery No. 1, K.T. and 32°
Santiago Consistory, Havana, Cuba. Member of Mahi Shrine Temple,
Miami, Florida and Havana Shrine Club. Has served as chaplain of his
blue lodge and commandery.

John D. Blanton (1859-1933) President of Ward Belmont

School, Nashville, Tenn. b. March 26, 1859 in Cumberland Co., Va.
Taught and supervised schools in Missouri until selected as vice-
president of Ward Belmont in 1913. Became president in 1915. Mason.
d. Oct. 6, 1933.

Henry G. Blasdel First Governor of Nevada. Member of Santa

Cruz Lodge No. 38, Santa Cruz, Calif. and later past master of Carson
Lodge No. 1, Carson City, Nevada.

Samuel Blatchford (1820-?) U.S. Supreme Court justice. b.

March 9, 1820 in New York. Became private secretary to Gov. William
H. Seward in 1839 and military secretary on his staff until 1843.
Admitted to bar in 1842 and settled in Auburn, N.Y. where he was
associated with Seward as a law partner. Moved to New York in 1854.
Named associate justice of U.S. Supreme Court in 1882 and served
eleven years (1893). He was raised in Manhattan Lodge No. 62, New
York City on Jan. 16, 1863.
Valentine Blatz Founder of Blatz Brewing Co. and member of
Aurora Lodge No. 10, Milwaukee, Wis.

Cadwallader, 9th Lord of Blayney (1720-1775) Grand Master of

the Moderns from 1764-67 and of Ireland in 1768. It was under his
authority that the Charter of Compact was drawn up with the Royal Arch
Grand Chapter. During his grandmastership 74 lodges were constituted
as contrasted with the 20 charters issued by the "Ancients.”

Jesse Bledsoe (1776-1837) U.S. Senator from Kentucky. b. April

6, 1776 in Culpepper Co., Va. Becamesecretary of state of Kentucky in
1808 and member of the state legislature in 1812. Served as U.S.
Senator, 1913-15. From 1917-20 he was state senator and in 1822 was
appointed circuit judge in the Lexington district. In 1833 he removed to
Mississippi and in 1835 to Texas. Member of Lexington Lodge No. 1,
Lexington, Ky. and past master of same; grand tyler of the G.L. of
Kentucky in 1808. Member of Frankfort Chapter No. 3, R.A.M. at
Frankfort, Ky. d. June 30, 1837.

Samuel T. Bledsoe ( 1868-1 939) President of A.T. & S.F.

Railroad and affiliated companies. b. May 12, 1868 in Clinton Co., Ky.
Practiced law in Texas, Indian Territory and Oklahoma. First associated
with A.T. & S.F. in 1908, becoming president in 1933. Director of
Railway Express Agency. Mason. d. March 8, 1939.

Harman Blennerhassett (1764-1831) Associate of Aaron Burr

and controversial figure of the post-Revolutionary period. b. Oct. 8, 1764
(or 1765) in Hampshire, England. Of a wealthy family he studied at
Westminster, London and Trinity college, Dublin, receiving B.A. and
LL.B. degrees in 1790. In 1797 he disposed of his estates, and sailed
for New York, determined to spend the rest of his life in study and
leisure. In 1798 he purchased an island in the Ohio river a few miles
below Parkersburg called Backus island—and afterwards
Blennerhassett island. Here he erected an elaborate mansion which he
filled with costly pictures, statues and books. Settling down to a life of
study on the sciences such as chemistry and astronomy, he was known
for his lavish hospitality and soon became the social leader of the area.
On Aug. 12, 1797 he visited American Union Lodge No. 1 at Marietta
and in 1798 was made its secretary. Where he received his degrees is
not known. Among the many distinguished guests to share his
hospitality was Aaron Burr in 1805. Burr succeeded in interesting him in
his scheme for the invasion of the Mexican territory west of the
Mississippi and setting up a private "nation." It is probable that
Blennerhassett did not realize that Burr's scheme was treasonable, and
he invested large sums in boats, arms and provisions for the expedition.
When Jefferson issued a proclamation against the scheme,
Blennerhassett fled with Burr, was arrested and freed but arrested again
at Lexington, Ky. and placed in prison. Even the legal services of Henry
Clay could not effect his release, but when the treason charges against
Burr failed, he was released in 1807. His property had been seized and
then accidentally burned. Blennerhassett then settled in Natchez, Miss.
where he purchased 1,000 acres of ground. He was admitted a member
of Harmony Lodge No. 1 at Natchez on March 4, 1816 and was shown
as a member of that lodge until the returns of 1819 when he removed to
Montreal where he began the practice of law. When he failed to receive
a judgeship from his friend and schoolmate, the Duke of Richmond, he
sailed for Ireland in 1822 hoping to recover his estates, but failed. He
died Feb. 1, 1831 on the Isle of Guernsey.

1st Earl of Blesington (Viscount Mountjoy) (1709-1769) First

grand master of the Ancients, 1756-60. It was to him that Laurence
Dermott dedicated his Ahintan Rezon probably in an effort to secure his
acceptance of the office. He was privately installed in his own library.
Previously, as the 3rd Viscount Mountjoy, he had ruled the Irish craft in
1738-39, and had been responsible for the foundation of Irish Masonic
charity. He was a kinsman of the Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger q.v. the lady

Archie Bleyer Musician, composer and orchestra leader. Made a

hit of the Davy Crockett song in 1954. President of Cadence Records. A
member of St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York City.
Reynolds E. Blight (1879-?) Writer and lecturer. b. May 19, 1879
at Torrington, Eng., coming to United States in 1896. Lectured for
churches and Southwestern Univ. Editor of several publications—
Liberal Review 1918-19; Masonic Digest, 1921-23 and 1925-33; New
Age 1923-25; California Certified Public Accountant, 1935-41; and Los
Angeles Churchman, 1935-43. President of Pierce Insurance Co.
Mason, 33° AASR (SJ), Knight Templar and Red Cross of Constantine.
Field secretary of Los Angeles AASR bodies, since 1944. Member of
committee on Masonic Information, G.L. of Calif. and Masonic Homes
Endowment Fund Board. Author of What I Believe and Why;
Freemasonry •at a Glance.

Aaron T. Bliss (1837-1906) Governor of Michigan. b. May 22,

1837 at Smithfield, N.Y. Served in New York militia during Civil War,
captured and spent six months in prisons, eventually escaping and
making way back to Union lines nearly starved. Engaged in lumbering at
Saginaw, Mich. from 1865 until his death in 1906. Served in many local,
state and national public offices, including state senator, member of
U.S. Congress from 8th Mich. dist. in 1889-91. Elected twice as
governor of Michigan, serving from 1900-04. Member of Saginaw Valley
Lodge No. 154 at Saginaw.

Cornelius N. Bliss (1833-1911) Secretary of Interior under

McKinley. b. Jan. 26, 1833 at Fall River, Mass. Engaged in dry goods
business most of his life. Trustee and director of several large
corporations. Served as chairman of the New York Republican
Committee and treasurer of National Republican Committee. Named by
McKinley as Secretary of the Interior in 1897 and resigned in 1899.
Declined to be a candidate for governor of New York in 1885 and 1891.
Member of St. Johns Lodge, Boston, joining in 1858. d. 1911.

Herbert Bliss Brigadier General, U. S. Army. 33° AASR and

member of National Sojourners.
Raymond W. Bliss Surgeon General, U.S. Army. b. May 17,
1888 at Chelsea, Mass. Graduated Tufts Medical College in 1910, Army
Medical School, 1913, Harvard Medical School, 1921 (C.S.) and 1943
(D.Sc.). Commissioned 1st Lt. in Medical Reserve Corps, 1911 and
advanced through grades to major general in 1943. Appointed Surgeon
General in June, 1947. Mason.

Antonio Blitz (1810-1877) Magician. b. June 21, 1810 in Deal,

England. An early magician who in those days were known as
"prestidigitateurs." He began his career at the age of 13 in Hamburg,
Germany and after travelling two years in northern Europe, he returned
to England, appearing first in Dover in Dec. 1925. He then visited
Ireland and Scotland and in 1834 came to the United States, travelling
through the country, Canada and West Indies. On his return from the
South he settled in Philadelphia, Pa. where he resided until his death on
Jan. 28, 1877. He was author of Fifty Years in the Magic Circle.
Although his original lodge is not known, he was made an honorary
member of Montgomery Lodge No. 19 of Philadelphia.

V. Harwood Blocker Consul General of United States. b. June 8,

1903 at Hondo, Texas. Entered U.S. consular service in 1926 and has
served as clerk, vice consul, sec. consul in Peru, Mexico, Paraguay,
Morocco, Honduras, Martinique, Brazil, Victoria. Consul general at
Athens, Greece since 1954. Hondo Lodge No. 756, Hondo, Texas.

William P. Blocker (1892-1947) Consul General of United

States. b. Sept. 30, 1892 at Hondo, Texas. Entered consular service in
1913 and served in various capacities in consular offices of Mexico and
Cuba. Was consul general at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico from 1938. Mason.
d. Feb. 28, 1947.
Timothy Bloodworth (1736-1814) U.S. Senator from North
Carolina. He was a member of the Continental Congress of 1786-87
and for thirty years a member of the legislative assembly of N.C. Served
in U.S. Congress from 1790 to 1791 and as U.S. Senator from 1795-
1801. After his senatorship, he was collector of the port of Wilmington.
He grew up in poverty and followed in turn the professions of farmer,
smith, preacher, doctor, wheelwright and politician. He was noted for his
benevolence. In 1805 he represented St. Tammany Lodge No. 30,
Wilmington, N.C. at the G.L. of N.C. d. Aug. 24, 1814.

Henry Bloom General in the war of 1812. His grave has a

Masonic headstone.

Sol Bloom (1870-1949) U.S. Congressman from 20th New York

district from 68th to 81st Congresses (1923-51). b. March 9, 1870 at
Pekin, Ill. Had a varied career in newspaper, theatrical and music
publishing businesses. In 1893 he was superintendent of the
construction of the Midway Plaisance of the Chicago Exposition. Moved
to New York City in 1903 and engaged in real estate and construction
business. He was chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs.
His greatest service to the U.S. was as director of the U.S. George
Washington Bicentennial Commission in 1932. He was also chairman of
committee on the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the U.S.
Supreme Court and director general of the U.S. Constitution
Sesquicentennial Commission. He was a signer of the United Nations
Charter and delegate to U.N. conferences in San Francisco, London
and New York. A member of Pacific Lodge No. 233 (1903), New York
City, he was a 32° AASR (NJ) member and Shriner. d. March 7, 1949.

Joseph Bloomfield (1753-1823) Governor of New Jersey. b. Oct.

5, 1753 at Woodbridge, N.J. Studied law until beginning of the
Revolutionary War when he was made a captain in Dayton's regiment of
the 3rd New Jersey in 1776 and served through the war, attaining the
rank of major. Following the war he was admitted to the bar and
practiced at Burlington until he became attorney general of the state.
During the War of 1812 he was a brigadier general. From 1801-12 he
was governor of New Jersey, and member of U.S. Congress from
181721. He was raised in Bristol Lodge No. 25, Bristol, Pa. and served
as master in 1782. He affiliated with Trenton Lodge No. 5, Trenton, N.J.
in 1790 and in 1799-80 was grand master of the G.L. of New Jersey. d.
Oct. 3, 1823.

Sumner N. Blossom Magazine editor. b. Kansas City, Mo.

Attended public schools and Univ. of Missouri. Started journalism career
with the Kansas City Star, 1912-14 and with the Associated Press,
1914-16. Was correspondent with the U.S. punitive expedition in
Mexico, 1916. From 1919-22 was with the New York Daily News. Editor
of Popular Science Monthly, 1922-29, and editor of The American
Magazine since 1929 and director of Crowell-Collier Publishing Co.
Raised in Ivanhoe Lodge No. 446, Kansas City, Mo. about 1913.
Member of the Grand Council, Order of DeMolay.

Willie Blount (1767-?) Governor of Tennessee, 1809-15. b. in

North Carolina and was a half-brother of William Blount, the Constitution
signer. He was secretary to his brother while the latter was territorial
governor of Ohio, and afterward moved to Montgomery Co., Tenn.
Member of Unanimity Lodge No. 54 of North Carolina.

Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher (1742-1819) Field Marshal

General of Prussia and Prince of Wahlstadt. Entered Swedish service in
1756 and captured by Prussians in Seven Year's War. He then entered
Prussian army. Discharged in 1770 but rejoined in 1787. Took part in
Dutch and Pomeranian campaigns and commissioned lieut.-general in
1801, serving as governor of Munster in 1803. Captured by French in
1806 but was exchanged for a French general. In the War of Liberation
he led Prussian troops under Russian command and became
commander in chief of the Silesian army, in war against Napoleon in
1813; defeated Macdonald at Katzbach and Marmont at Mockern.
Crossed the Elbe and was first to enter Leipzig. Created field marshal
general, he crossed the Rhine in 1814 and besieged Napoleon at La
Rothiere, but was forced to retreat. He defeated Napoleon at Laon and
entered Paris in 1814 for which he was created Prince of Wahlstatt (in
Silesia). As commander of Prussian forces in Belgium, 1815, he was
defeated at Ligney, but aided Wellington in the victory of Waterloo. His
original lodge is not known, but he was a constant visitor in the Lodge
"Pax Inimicamalis" at Emmeriah in 1800-01; and in 1814 the Lodge
"Archimedes" at Altenburg received him as an honorary member. His
nickname was "Marshal Forward.”

Monte Blue Movie actor. b. Indianapolis, Ind. His father was a

railroad engineer who was killed when Monte was 5, and when his
mother died six years later, he and his brothers were placed in an
orphans' home at Knightstown, Ind. Worked his way through school and
turned to his father's trade of railroading. After working as a fireman on
the Big Four, he became a soldier of fortune, trying almost everything—
cowboy, lumberjack, sailor, with a circus and finally the silent films,
where he was a popular Warner Brothers star. A member of Utopia
Lodge No. 537 of Los Angeles, he was a member of the Los Angeles
Consistory AASR and was noted for his impressive degree work in that
branch of Freemasonry. He was also a member of Al Malaikah Shrine
Temple and the famous "233 Club"—a movie-Masonic club.

Robert D. Blue Governor of Iowa (1945-49). b. Sept. 24, 1898 at

Eagle Grove, Ia. In law practice at Eagle Grove since 1922. Served as
state representative, Republican floor leader, speaker of the house and
lieutenant governor. Mason, Shriner, member of Eastern Star and White

Fred H. Blume Chief justice, Supreme Court of Wyoming. b. Jan.

9, 1875 at Audubon, Ia. Admitted to Iowa bar in 1899 and practiced at
Audubon until 1904 when he moved to Sheridan, Wyo. Member of
Wyoming lower house 1907-09 and senate, 1909-13. Has been a
justice of the Supreme Court of Wyoming since 1921, serving as chief
justice 1927-31, 1937-39 and 1945-47. Mason.
4th Lord of Blythswood (Archibald Douglas Campbell) 85th
Grand Master Mason of Scotland (1926-28). b. April 25, 1870 at
London, Eng. Active member of the Supreme Council of Scotland.

Elijah Boardman (1760-1823) U.S. Senator from Connecticut. b.

March 7, 1760 at New Milford, Conn. Served several terms in the lower
branch of the Connecticut legislature and in 1821 was elected to the
U.S. Senate,serving in the 17th Congress. He died Oct. 8, 1823 at
Boardman, Ohio, a town in which he was interested. He was a member
of Columbia Lodge No. 25 at Stepney, Conn., and in 1809 of Hiram
Lodge No. 1, New Haven.

Harold S. Boardman President of University of Maine 1926-34.

b. March 31, 1884 at Bangor, Me. A civil engineer with degrees from
Maine State, Mass. Institute of Technology, Univ. of Maine, Colby,
Rhode Island College and Bates College. Alternated between teaching
and practical engineering work, specializing in bridges and
hydrographic, structural and hydraulic highway projects. Mason and 32°

Victor V. Boatner (1881-1950) President of Chicago Great

Western Railroad and Peoria & Pekin Union Railroad. b. May 6, 1881 at
Bethlehem, Mass. Began railroad career with Yazo & Mississippi Valley
in 1901. Served as director of railway transport in Office of Defense
Transportation, 194244. Mason, AASR and Shriner. d. Feb. 11, 1950.

Hiram Abiff Boaz Methodist bishop. b. Dec. 18, 1866 at Murray,

Ky. Licensed to preach in 1889 and ordained Methodist minister in
1891. Held several pastorates in Texas before becoming president of
Polytechnic College at Fort Worth 1902-11; vice president of Southern
Methodist Univ., Dallas, 1911-13; and president of Texas Woman's
College, 1913-18. From 1918-20 he was president of S.M.U. In 1922
was elected bishop M.E. Church and assigned to superintend church
work in China, Japan, Siberia and Manchuria. From 1926 until his
retirement in 1938 he headed various conferences in Arkansas,
Oklahoma, Texas and Mexico. A member of Granger Lodge No. 677,
Granger, Texas, he served as grand chaplain of the G.L. of Texas in
1953. Active in York Rite Masonry, he is a noted Masonic speaker.

E. Manchester Boddy Newspaper executive. b. Nov. 1, 1891 at

Lake Tapps, Wash. Began as salesman for Encyclopedia Britannicct in
New England, 1916. Owner and editor of Huntington Park Signal and
Los Angeles Daily News. Is associate editor of L. D. Powell Co., book
publishers. Served as infantry officer in WW1 and was disabled in
Argonne Forest. Member of Craftsmen Lodge No. 559, Los Angeles,

Johann Joachim Christoph Bode (1730-1793) German musician,

book-dealer and translator. Translated Sterne, Fielding, Goldsmith,
Burney, Montaigne and others. Wrote extensively on Freemasonry and
was one of the most distinguished Masons of his time. b. Jan. 16, 1730
in Brunswick. He was initiated in 1791 and is listed as a member and
past master of Lodge Absalem at Hamburg. He served as deputy grand
master of the G.L. of Hamburg.

Thomas Bodley (1744-?) American general who served in

Wayne's Indian campaign. b. Feb. 2, 1744. A member of Lexington
Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky., serving as master in 1798 and grand
master of the G.L. of Kentucky in 1818.

Joseph R. Bodwell (1818 - 1887) Governor of Maine. b. June 18,

1818 in Methuen, Mass. Opened quarries in 1852 on an island in
Penobscot Bay and in 1870 organized the Bodwell and Hallowell granite
company. Served twice in the legislature and was elected governor in
1886. A member of Rockland Lodge No. 79, Rockland, Me. d. Dec. 15,
Johann Boeber Russian Royal Councilor of State and director of
the School of Cadets at St. Petersburg during the reign of Alexander I
q.v. It was presumably through his in-fluence that Emperor Alexander
revoked the edict against Freemasonry and became a member of the
craft himself. Boeber was grand master of the G.L. of Russia from 1811-
14. He became a member of the Lodge "Alexander of Charity of the
Crowned Pelican" in 1808 or 1809. This lodge worked under the
Swedish system.

Jacob Boehmen (also Bohm, Boehme) See Bohme J. Caleb

Boggs Governor of Delaware. b. May 15, 1909 at Cheswold, Del.
Received A.B. from Univ. of Delaware and LL.D. from Georgetown Univ.
Practiced law in Wilmington. U.S. Congressman from 1946-52. Active
service in WW1 as army colonel. Member of Eureka Lodge No. 23; 32°
Delaware Consistory, both of Wilmington. Member of Nur Shrine
Temple, Wilmington; Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Milford; National
Sojourners, DeMolay, Jesters, of Wilmington.

Lewis V. Bogy (1813-1877) U.S. Senator from Missouri. b. April

9, 1813 at St. Genevieve, Mo., a descendant of the early French settlers
of the region. Studied law in Illinois and Kentucky and graduated from
Lexington Law School in 1835 and set up practice in St. Louis. Served
several terms in Missouri legislature and in 1867-68 was commissioner
of Indian affairs. Interested in the development of the mineral resources
of the state, he was a founder and president of the St. Louis and Iron
Mountain railroad. Elected to U.S. Senate as a democrat in 1873.
Member of Polar Star Lodge No. 79 of St. Louis.

Jakob Bohme (1575-1624) Also Boehmen, Bohm, Boehme.

Leading German theosophist and mystic. In later years some of his
disciples who were Freemasons, sought to incorporate his dogmas into
Freemasonry and to make the lodges schools of theosophy. The
Theosophic Rites of
110 Louis Bonaparte Freemasonry, which prevailed to a great extent in
France and Germany can be traced to Bohme's ideas. In 1634 he
published Aurora, order die Morgenrote im Auf gang which was
condemned as heretical by the church.

Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) The "George Washington" of South

America, who in 20 years of warfare liberated from Spanish tyranny the
area which is now Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. b.
in Caracas, Venezuela. He joined Freemasonry in Cadiz, Spain and
received the Scottish Rite degrees in Paris and was knighted in a
Commandery of Knights Templar in France in 1807. While on a
diplomatic mission to London in 1810 he was active in Freemasonry in
that country. He founded and served as master of Protectora de las
Vertudes Lodge No. 1 in Venezuela and in 1824 founded the Lodge
Order and Liberty No. 2 in Peru. In 1828, when the anti-Masonic wave
was sweeping over the world, Bolivar forbade meetings of Masons in
Venezuela. His Scottish Rite collar and apron are on exhibit in the New
York Grand Lodge museum. Catholic born, he broke away from the
church when, in his liberation movement, he found that the clerics who
ruled with an iron hand under the Spanish administration were among
his chief opponents. On his death bed in 1830 he returned to
Catholicism for spiritual aid. Nevertheless it was as a Freemason that
he performed the deeds which established him as one of the greatest
liberators of the world.

Frank C. Bolles Major General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 25, 1872 at

Elgin, Ill. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1896 and promoted
through grades to major general in 1935. Served in Spanish American
War, Philippine Insurrection and WW1. Wounded twice and gassed
once. Commanded 39th Infantry in WW1,later 30th Infantry at Presidio,
Calif. Was commanding general of Ft. Russell, Ft. Stotsenburg, Fort
Sheridan, Fort Sam Houston and 7th Corps Area. Retired in 1936.
President of Union State Bank, South San Antonio, Texas since 1937.
Mason and member of National Sojourners.
Jerome Bonaparte ( 178 4 - 18 60) Brother of Napoleon I q.v. b.
Nov. 15, 1784. Served as lieutenant on an expedition to Haiti in 1803
and took refuge from British in United States where in 1803 he married
Elizabeth Patterson of Baltimore. The marriage was annulled in 1805 as
Napoleon did not recognize it. He later married Princess Catherine of
Wurttemberg. He was made King of Westphalia in 1807 by Napoleon
and was afterwards known as the Duc de Monfort. At Napoleon's defeat
in 1814, he settled in Florence, returning to France in 1848; was made a
Marshal of France in 1850 and served as president of the Senate. He
was grand master of the Grand Orient of Westphalia. d. June 24, 1860.

Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) Eldest of the four brothers of

Napoleon who were all Freemasons. b. Jan. 7, 1768. He was a member
of the Council of Five Hundred in 1798 and councilor of state in 1799.
Napoleon made him King of Naples from 1806-08 and King of Spain
from 1803-13. From 1815-32, following Napoleon's defeat he lived in the
United States under the name of Comte de Survilliers. He was made a
Freemason at the Tuilleries in April, 1805 by a commission composed of
"Bros. Cambaceres, Kellerman, Hugh Maret and several others" and in
the same year was appointed as grand master of the Grand Orient of
France by Napoleon. d. July 28, 1844.

Louis Bonaparte (1778-1846) Brother of Napoleon I and King of

Holland. b. Sept. 2, 1778. Made King of Holland in 1806 by Napoleon,
abdicating in 1810, when he assumed the title of Comte de St. Leu. In
1805 he was governor of Paris, and when his brother, Joseph was
named grand master of the Grand Orient of France in 1805, he was
named deputy grand master. d. July 25, 1846. Father of Emperor
Napoleon III.

Lucien Bonaparte ( 1 7 7 5 - 1 84 0 ) Brother of Napoleon I and a

member of the Grand Orient of France. As president of the Council of
Five Hundred in 1799, he aided Napoleon in securing dictatorship of
France. He was named ambassador to Madrid in 1800 and negotiated a
treaty between Spain and Portugal in 1801, but in 1810 was exiled for
opposing Napoleon's policies and while on way to United States was
captured by the English and held as prisoner of state in England. In
1814 he was given the title of Prince of Canino. b. May 21, 1775. d.
June 29, 1840.

Napoleon Bonaparte See Napoleon I.

Shadrach Bond (1773-1832) First governor of Illinois. b. Nov. 24,

1773 in Frederick Co., Md. He moved to Kaskaskia (Ill.), then in Indiana
territory and was a member of the legislature of the Illinois territory and
its first delegate to Congress, serving from 1812-14. In 1814 he was
appointed receiver of public monies and when Illinois became a state he
was elected its first governor, serving 1818-22. He was initiated in
Temple Lodge No. 26, Reisterstown, Md. and affiliated with Western
Star Lodge No. 107 at Kaskaskia, Ill. on Dec. 27, 1806, serving as
master of the lodge in 1815-18-27-28-29. He was first grand master of
the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1822, which later became defunct. d. April
12, 1832.

Thomas Bond (1712-1784) Distinguished early day physician

whofounded the Pennsylvania hospital. He was closely associated with
Benjamin Franklin and Dr. John Bartram, the botanist, in a literary
society of Philadelphia. In 1749 he was deputy grand master of the
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.

August (Anshel) Bondi (1833-1907) Compatriot of free-stater

John Brown q.v. b. July 21, 1833 Vienna, Austria. An adventurer whose
last request was that he be known as a "fighter for freedom," he first
saw action at the age of 14 in the Metternich revolution after which he
migrated to the United States. He joined a group going to Cuba to fight
the Spaniards, but this venture failed. He also attempted to join Perry's
first expedition to Japan. Finally settling in Kansas, he joined John
Brown and his free-staters and participated in the battles of Blackjack
and Osawatomie. At the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the 5th
Kansas Cavalry and participated in the battles of Black River, Pine Bluff;
and was left for dead on the battlefield at Monticello Cross Roads (Ark.)
A few months later he was mustered out of the service. His many
business ventures failed, due mainly to his wanderlust. He died Sept.
30, 1907 in St. Louis and was buried in Salina, Kansas with Jewish and
Masonic rites.

William W. Bondurant Educator and college president. b. Rice,

Va. Professor of Latin. President of Daniel Baker College, Brownwood,
Texas, 1915-16. Superintendent of Texas Military Institute from 1926-47
(emeritus since 1952). Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Manual Jose Carazzo Bonilla Vice president of Costa Rica

(1936-40) under President Castro. Was secretary of state. A brilliant
student, he was active in many political fields. Member of Caridad
Lodge No. 26. Ygnacio Bonillas (1858-1944) Ambassador from Mexico
to United States from 1917. b. Feb. 1, 1858 at San Ygnacio, Sonora,
Mexico. Studied at Mass. Inst. of Tech. Mining inspector, state of
Sonora 1911-13. Secretary in first Carranza cabinet 1884-88. Member
of 23rd Congress, State of Sonora and member of commission to settle
difficulties arising from Villa's attack on Columbus, N. Mex. and
Pershing expedition. Mason. d. Jan. 31, 1944.

Nicholas de Bonneville (1760-1828) French writer, bookseller,

man of letters and president of one of the Paris districts at outbreak of
French Revolution in 1789. b. March 13, 1760 at Evreaux. In 1788 he
published a book entitled The Jesuits driven from Freemasonry and
their weapon broken by the Freemasons (translation). His theory was
that the Jesuits had introduced the history of the life and death of the
Templars into the symbolic degrees, and the doctrine of vengeance for
the political and religious crime of their destruction. He is best known for
his History of Modern Europe. (1792).

Milton 0. Boone Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. June 15, 1891

at Oakland, N.J. Commissioned in 1917, rising to rank of brigadier
general in 1948. Served in A.E.F. during WW1. During WW2 was
commanding general of California Quartermaster Depot at Oakland and
later of the European command from 1946-48. Retired, 1948. Mason.

William J. Boone ( 1 8 6 0 -1 9 3 6 ) Founder and president of

College of Idaho, 1891-1936. b. Nov. 5, 1860 at Cannonsburg, Pa.
Received B.A., M.A., D.D. from Wooster College (Ohio) and LL.D. and
S.T.B. from Western Theological Seminary. Ordained Presbyterian
minister in 1887. Mason. d. July 8, 1936.

Ballington Booth (1859-1940) Reformer and founder of The

Volunteers of America. b. July 28, 1859 at Brighouse, Yorkshire,
England, second son of General William Booth, founder of the Salvation
Army. Ballington was in charge of the Salvation Army in Australia from
1885-87 and in the United States from 1887 to 1896 when he withdrew
from the army after disagreement with his father on the method of
operation in America. He then organized a similar group, The
Volunteers of America. His wife, Maud Charlesworth, aided him in
founding the Volunteers and directed its prison work. She was one of
the founders of the Parent-Teachers Association. Booth was a member
of Montclair Lodge No. 144, N.J. about 1899, and later Charter Oak
Lodge No. 249, New York City. He was past grand chaplain of the
Grand Lodge of New York and member of York and Scottish rites as
well as Kismet Temple, AAONMS. d. Oct. 5, 1940.

Charles B. Booth Reformer and welfare worker, head of The

Volunteers of America since 1948. Son of Ballington Booth q.v., founder
of the Volunteers, and grandson of General William Booth, founder of
the Salvation Army. b. Dec. 26, 1887, Brooklyn, N.Y. Was general
secretary of the Volunteer Prison League 1906-15 and national field
secretary of the Big Brother and Big Sister Federation, 1925-29.
Associated with The Volunteers of America since 1930 in Detroit,
Pittsburgh and Kansas City, Mo. Western area secretary 1938-39,
national field secretary, 1939-45, central area commander, 1945-49,
and general commander in chief since 1949. Raised in Montclair Lodge
No. 144, Montclair, N.J. and demitted to Morton Lodge No. 63,
Hempstead, N.Y.

Edwin T. Booth (1833-1893) Famous Shakespearean actor of

the American stage. b. Nov. 13, 1833 at Belair, Md. Member of a
famous stage family, his father was Junius Brutus and his brother, John
Wilkes, who assassinated Lincoln on April 14, 1865. Edwin first
appeared on the stage in 1849 and by 1855 was a well established
actor. His later travels carried him throughout the world. He was greatly
admired for his moral strength in rising above periods of poverty and
hunger, his father's addiction to drink and periods of insanity, and his
brother's act of assassination and death. He was initiated in New York
Lodge No. 330 on Sept 11, 1857 and raised Sept. 23. His love of
Freemasonry is attested by his bequest of five thousand dollars to the
Hall and Asylum Fund, and his statement that ". . . to be worshipful
master and to throw my whole soul in that work, with the candidate for
my audience, and the lodge for my stage, would be greater personal
distinction than to receive the plaudits of the people in the theaters of
the world." He was an honorary member of the Masonic Veterans
Association of New York, and on at least two occasions gave dramatic
recitals in Independent Lodge. While visiting a lodge in Omaha, Nebr.
he was called upon to give a short talk and when asked what his
favorite hymn was, he answered Jesus Lover of My Soul, and recited it.
Asked for his favorite prose, he called the members to stand and
repeated The Lord's Prayer. In 1925 Booth was elected to the American
Hall of Fame. d. June 7, 1893.

John L. Booth Broadcasting and newspaper executive. b. June

13, 1907 at Detroit, Mich. Founder, president and owner of Booth Radio
& TV Stations, Inc., which includes WJLB, Detroit; WBBC, Flint; WSGW,
Saginaw; WBKZ-TV, Kalamazoo-Battle Creek; WSBM-TV, Flint-
Saginaw-Bay City-Midland, since 1939. As director of Booth
Newspapers, Inc., he is owner and operator of the Grand Rapids Press,
Flint Journal, Saginaw News, Bay City Times, Muskegon Chronicle,
Kalamazoo Gazette, Jackson City Patriot, and Ann Arbor News. Mason.
Sir Robert Laird Borden (1854-1937) Prime minister of Canada,
1911-1920. 1:). in Nova Scotia where he was a member of the craft.
Member of Parliament from 1896, and leader of Conservative opposition
in House of Commons, 1901. Served as delegate to Paris Peace
Conference in 1919 and was representative of Canada on Council of
League of Nations.

James B. Boren President of Midwestern University, Wichita

Falls, Texas. b. Nov. 16, 1905 at Ennis, Tex. Served as a public school
superintendent from 1931-39, organizing and establishing Mangum
(Okla.) Junior College in 1937, serving as president until 1939. From
1939-42 he was president of Southwestern Institute of Technology at
Weatherford, Okla., and since 1939 has been president of Midwestern
University (Hardin College). Mason.

Gutzon Borglum (John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum) (1871-

1941) Sculptor and painter, best known for the gigantic Mt. Rushmore
national memorial in the Black Hills of S.D. b. March 25, 1871 in Idaho
and educated in public schools of Nebraska. Studied art in San
Francisco and Paris. M.A. from Princeton Univ. and L.L.D., Oglethorpe
Univ. Painted, studied and traveled in Spain, Europe, England until
1901 when he settled in New York. Among his many marbles and
bronzes are Sheridan Equestrian, Washington, D.C. and Chicago, Ill.;
colossal marble head of Lincoln in rotunda of Capitol in Washington;
bronze group, Mares of Diomedes in Metropolitan Museum; Lincoln,
Newark, N.J.; Trudeau memorial, Saranac Lake; Trail Drivers Memorial,
Texas. He designed and began carving the Confederate Memorial on
the face of Stone Mountain, Ga., but a controversy arose with the
association and he destroyed all plans and models. Borglum designed
the Confederate half-dollar. His greatest work, however, is the Black
Hills carving which he designed and officially started on August 10,
1927, when President Coolidge dedicated it. He lived to see the fourth
head unveiled in 1939, but not to complete the work—which was done
by his son, Lincoln q.v. in 1941. Borglum was an active Mason, being
raised in Howard Lodge No. 35, New York City on June 10, 1904, and
serving as its master in 1910-11. In 1915 he was appointed grand
representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of
New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City
Consistory on Oct. 25, 1907, but was suspended in 1921. His lodge
possesses the gavel used by him in the form of a bronze lion's paw,
holding a stone from Solomon's Temple. He executed the bust of
Edward M. L. Ehlers, who was grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of
New York, that is now in the grand lodge library. His memorial "Silence"
is in the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Hospital at the Masonic Home
in Utica, N.Y. The cornerstone of his studio on the hills above Stamford,
Conn. was laid with Masonic ceremonies by the grand master of New
York under special dispensation from Connecticut. d. March 6, 1941.

Lincoln Borglum Sculptor. b. April 9, 1912 at Stamford, Conn.,

son of Gutzon Borglum q.v. the famous sculpture under his father for 12
years and also in Europe. With the National Memorial, Black Hills, S.D.
since 1932. He was in charge of measurements and enlarging models
from 1934-38 and superintendent of the memorial since 1938. Following
the death of his father in 1941, he was assigned to complete the
memorial. Lincoln was raised in Battle River Lodge No. 92 of Hermosa,
South Dakota.

Ernest Borgnine Stage and screen actor, who in 1956 won an

"Oscar" and more honors than any other actor for a single performance
(in Marty) . Served ten years in U.S. Navy during WW2 and studied
acting under the GI bill. Started on legitimate stage with Barter theater in
Virginia and later to New York. With Shakespearean group that gave
eleven performances of Hamlet at Kronburg castle, Elsinore and then
entertained soldiers in Europe. Back in America he was with a road
show, playing the lead in Born Yesterday, winding up on Broadway in
Mrs. MeThing with Helen Hayes. Turning to TV he took the part of
Captain Video and did some 200 radio and TV shows. The Mob brought
him to Hollywood where he made From Here To Eternity and Marty.
Borgnine is a member of Abingdon Lodge No. 48, Abingdon, Va.

Solon Borland (?-1864) U.S. Senator from Arkansas,

Confederate brigadier general, minister to Nicaragua. Studied medicine
and settled in Little Rock, Ark. Served in Mexican War and taken
prisoner. Returning to Arkansas, he was appointed to fill Senator
Sevier's unexpired term, 194853. Appointed minister to Nicaragua in
1853, serving until 1854. On his return he declined the governorship of
New Mexico offered by President Pierce. Entered Civil War early and
rose to rank of brigadier general in Confederate service. d. Jan. 31,

Henry V. Borst (1857-1925) Justice of Supreme Court of New

York. b. July 6, 1857 at Cobleskill, N.Y. Graduate of Cornell Univ. and
Albany (N.Y.) Law School. Admitted to New York bar in 1877 and
became justice of Supreme Court of New York, 4th Dist., 1913, serving
until his death Nov. 26, 1925. Mason.

115 Joseph Boruwlaski Joseph Boruwlaski Celebrated dwarf of

the 18th century known as "Count Borulaski" who was made a Mason at
Warsaw, Poland and raised to the 3rd degree in the City of Chester,
England (Feather's Lodge) on Nov. 15, 1783. English records show that
he visited many Masonic lodges.

Frederick W. Boschen (1876-1942) Major General, U.S. Army.

b. May 9, 1876 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Entered army as a private in 1898 and
advanced through grades to major general in 1936. Served in Spanish
American War and in WW1. Was chief of finances, U.S. Army from
1936 until retired. Mason. d. April 1, 1942.

Sir Alexander Boswell (1775-1822) Antiquarian and poet. Son of

James Boswell q.v. the famous biographer of Dr. Johnson. He issued
reprints of old poems from his private press and was a Conservative
M.P. from 181821. He was ex-officio provincial grand master of Ayrshire
and master of Canongate-Kilwinning Lodge No. 2 in Edinburgh when he
was killed in a duel in 1822.
Elmer E. Boswell Hotel executive. b. Feb. 2, 1891 at Canton, Ill.
Started as bell boy with Sheraton Hotel Corp. and rose to vice president
in charge of all hotel operations and general manager since 1943.
Director since 1952. Mason and Shriner.

James Boswell (1740-1795) Biographer of Dr. Samuel Johnson

q.v. A Scottish lawyer who was acquainted with the literary greats of his
age such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Wilkes. He met Dr. Johnson in
London in 1763, visiting him frequently between 1772 and 1784 and
touring the Hebrides with him in 1773. He took voluminous notes of
Johnson's conversations. In 1782 he succeeded to his father's estate
and was called to the English bar in 1786. He was raised in Canongate-
Kilwinning Lodge, Edinburgh, on Oct. 14, 1759 and was master of the
lodge in 177375 and deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of
Scotland from 177678. In Feb. 1777 he was made an honorary member
of Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1. d. May 19, 1795. His son Alexander q.v.
was active in Freemasonry as well as his uncle, John, q.v.

John Boswell One of the earliest known speculative Freemasons

and ancestor of James Boswell q.v. the famous biographer of Samuel
Johnson. Known as the Laird of Auchinleek (laird meaning property
holder), he was present at a meeting of the Lodge of Edinburgh on June
8, 1600, and like his operative brethren, attested to the minutes by his

John Boswell, M.D. Uncle of biog• rapher James Boswell q.v.

who was Censor of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh. He
was senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1753-54.

Giovanni Bottesini (1821-1889) Italian musician and composer

reputed to be the world's greatest contrabassist. He was director of the
Conservatory at Parma. Among his compositions are the opera
Cristoforo Colombo (1887), symphonies, and overtures. He was initiated
June 20, 1849 in the Bank of England Lodge No. 263, London, England.
Karl August Bottiger (1760-1835) Famous German archaeologist
and scholar. Initiated in the Lodge of the Golden Apple, Dresden, on
November 8, 1781.

C. A. Bottolfsen Governor of Idaho. b. Oct. 10, 1891 at Superior,

Wis. Began as a printer in Fessenden, N. Dak. and became publisher
and owner of the Arco Advertiser in 1910. Elected governor of Idaho in
1939, serving two terms until 1945. Was member of the Idaho
legislature four terms and speaker of the house in 1931. Served in WW1
as corporal in the army. A member of Arco Lodge No. 48, Arco, Idaho
and a past district deputy grand master. Knight Templar and Shriner.

Raymond V. Bottomly Justice, Supreme Court of Montana. b.

July 16, 1885 at Cederville, Kans. Admitted to bar in 1915. Was
assistant attorney general of Montana for several years and attorney
general from 1942-49. Elected justice of Supreme Court terms 1949-55
and 1955-61. Raised in Gaylord Lodge No. 183, Gaylord, Kansas in
1906 and demitted to become a charter member of Harlam Lodge No.
108, Harlam, Mont. 32° AASR (SJ) at Great Falls, Mont. Member of
Algeria Shrine Temple, Helena, Mont.

Francis E. Bouck (1873-1941) Chief Justice Supreme Court of

Colorado. b. Nov. 25, 1873 at New York City. Admitted to Colo. bar in
1896 and practiced at Leadville. Elected justice of Supreme Court of
Colorado for term 1933-43 and served as chief justice from 1941 until
death on Nov. 24, 1941. Mason.

Thomas Boude The brick mason for Independence Hall in

Philadelphia, which after two centuries is still sound. He was the first
secretary of St. John's Lodge in Philadelphia which laid the cornerstone
of the hall with Benjamin Franklin as grand master. Boude later became
deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Elias C. Boudinot (1835-1890) Indian chief and one of the most
noted characters of Indian Territory. b. Aug. 1, 1835 in Cherokee nation
near Rome, Ga. Orphaned when young, he was raised by relatives.
Settled in Fayetteville, Ark., studied law and admitted to bar in 1858, but
soon turned to journalism and became editorialwriter. Elected secretary
of the Arkansas secession convention in 1861 and helped General
Standwaite raise an Indian regiment. In 1863 he was elected delegate
for Indian Territory to the Confederate Congress. Spent his later years
in Washington working for his Cherokee nation. He was an advocate of
education for the Indian, the breaking up of tribal relations and of
allotting the lands in severalty. It is believed that Albert Pike conferred
the 32° on him in 1886. He died Sept. 27, 1890 and was buried with
Masonic honors by Belle Point Lodge No. 20 of Fort Smith, Ark.

Louis de Bourbon-Conde (Comte de Clermont) (1709-1771)

Elected Grand Master of France Dec. 2, 1743. He made many
improvements in Freemasonry during his early years, but in the latter
part of his life he delegated the work to others and on his death in 1771
left the craft weaker than when he first took over. It was during his
grandmastership that the name was changed from the "English Grand
Lodge of France" to the Grand Lodge of France.

Duchess of Bourbon First grand mistress of the French adoptive

Freemasonry. Installed on March 25, 1775 in a fete d' adoption given by
the Lodge of Candour under the constitution of the Grand Orient of
France. The Duke of Chartres q.v. presided in his capacity as grand
master of the Grand Orient. Other female members of note were the
Duchess of Chartres, Princess Lambelle, Countess Polignac, Countess
Choiseul-Gouffier and the Marchioness of Coutebonne q.v.

Thomas E. Bourke Major General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. May 5,

1896 at Saverna Park, Md. Commissioned in 1917 and advanced
through grades to major general in 1945. Promoted to lieutenant
general on retirement in 1946. Served in both World Wars including
Virgin Islands, Nicaragua, Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Saipan
and Leyte. Mason.

Augustus 0. Bourn Former governor of hode Island. He was

raised May 18, 1860 in What Cheer Lodge No. 21, Providence, R. I.

Clarence M. Boutelle Author of The Man Of Mount Moriah, a

novel with Masonic significance. Was raised in Rochester Lodge No. 21,
Rochester, Minn. in 1885.

Warren E. Bow (1891-1945) President of Wayne University,

Detroit, Mich. b. June 2, 1891 at Detroit. Received degrees from Univ. of
Illinois, Univ. of Michigan and Battle Creek College. Teacher, principal
and dean of schools. Superintendent of the Detroit Public Schools from
1942 and president of Wayne Univ. since 1942. Mason, Knight Templar,
AASR and Shriner. d. May 12, 1945.

Sir Mackenzie Sowell (1823-1917) Prime Minister of Canada. b.

at Rockinghall, England, he came to Canada in 1833. Represented
North Hastings in Parliament from 1867-96 and served as Minister of
Customs 1878-91. In the cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald q.v. 1891-94
as Minister of Militia and later as Minister of Trade and Commerce.
Served as Prime Minister from Dec. 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896, and
thereafter for ten years was a member of the Senate and Conservative
Party leader. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895. While residing
at Belleville, he was editor and publisher of the Belleville Intelligencer.
He was raised in St. Lawrence Lodge No. 640 (English const. now No.
14 R.Q.) of Montreal in 1864. On Feb. 4, 1897 he affiliated with Eureka
Lodge No. 283 (GL of Canada in Ont.), at Belleville, and was later a
charter member of Moira Lodge No. 11 at Belleville.
John C. Bowen U.S. District Judge, western district of
Washington. b. May 12, 1888 at Newbern, Tenn. Degrees from Univ. of
Tennessee and Harvard Law School. Practiced in Washington. Member
of Columbia River Basin Committee which promoted Grand Coulee
Dam and assisted in letting the first construction contract. Was collector
of internal revenue for Washington and Alaska 1933-34. U.S. district
judge since 1934. Mason.

John Wesley Edward Bowen Methodist bishop. b. Sept. 24,

1889 at Baltimore, Md. Ordained to ministry of Methodist church in
1917. Held pastorates in Jackson, Miss., Shreveport and New Orleans,
La.; dean of Walden College; field agent for Board of Sunday Schools.
Editor of the Central Christian Advocate, 1944-48. Resident bishop of
the Atlantic Coast Area, Methodist Church since 1948. Served in WW1
as chaplain. Mason.

Oliver Bowen (?-1800) Commodore of American Navy in the

Revolutionary War. A revolutionary patriot of Augusta, Ga., who was
successful in the early days of the war in seizing a large quantity of
powder stored on Tybee Island, near Savannah, Ga., July 10, 1775. He
joined the unsuccessful expedition against Wilmington in 1778. He has
been called the "First Admiral of the American Navy." A member of
Solomon's Lodge No. 1, Savannah, Ga., he was later suspended for
visiting an illegal lodge at Sunbury, Ga.

Thomas Bartholomew Bowen (1741-1816) One of the founders

of the Mother Supreme Council AASR (SJ) at Charleston, S.C. Born in
Ireland, he emigrated to Pennsylvania and entered the Continental
Army rising to rank of major with various Pennsylvania regiments,
serving from April 6, 1776 to Jan. 1, 1781. He was a member of the
Society of the Cincinnati. He was raised in Lodge No. 2 at Philadelphia
on June 28, 1784 and entered the Scottish Rite the following year. He
demitted from his original lodge May 8, 1785 upon moving to Charleston
and was named first senior warden of a new lodge (No. 27) chartered
by Pennsylvania. He was active in founding the Grand Lodge of South
Carolina and in 1792 became its third grand master. As a printer, he
published the South Carolina Weekly Messenger and Columbian Herald
or Patriotic Courier of North America, and was also printer for the
Supreme Council, AASR.

Oden Bowie Former Governor of Maryland. Member of Centre

Lodge No. 108, Baltimore, Md. and reported as such in the grand lodge
proceedings of 1895.

Henry L. Bowles (1866-1932) U.S. Congressman from 2nd

Mass. district to 69th and 70th Congresses (192529). b. Jan. 6, 1866 at
Athens, Vt. Began in lunch business with $1,000 borrowed capital in
1897 and extended business to ten cities in U.S. and Canada as Bowles
Lunch, Inc. Mason. d. May 17, 1932.

John Bowles President, Rexall division of Rexall Drug Co. b.

Nov. 16, 1916 at Monroe, N.C. Graduated from Univ. of N.C. in 1938
and began with Rexall Drug Co. in Los Angeles in 1949 as a stockroom
clerk. Successively was field representative, district sales manager,
regional sales manager and vice president. Director since 1955 and
president of the Rexall division since 1955. Mason.

William Augustus Bowles (17631805) White man who became

war chief of the Five Civilized Tribes. b. in Frederick Co., Md., the son of
an English schoolmaster. He ran away when 13 and joined the British
army obtaining a commission, later desert-ing at Pensacola, where he
joined the Creek Indians and married an Indian woman. He led the
Indian contingent at the surrender of Pensacola and was reinstated in
the British Army for his service. He turned his Indians against the
Spanish as well as the Americans to promote the British cause. On a
trip to England, he was "admitted an honorary member" of Prince of
Wales Lodge No. 259, London on Jan. 20, 1791. It is thought he was
initiated at another place. He was made "Provincial grand master to the
Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians" by the Grand
Lodge of England. Twice captured by the Spaniards, he finally died
prisoner in Morro Castle at Havana, Cuba, Dec. 23, 1805.

Frank L. Bowman (1879-1936) Congressman from 2nd W. Va.

district to 69th to 72nd Congresses (1925-33). b. Jan. 21, 1879 at
Masontown, Pa. Practiced law at Morgantown, W. Va. in 1905 and
served as postmaster and mayor of that city. Mason. d. Sept. 15, 1936.

Grover C. Bowman President of Massachusetts State Teachers

College since 1937. b. Dec. 15, 1884 at Covington, Ind. Degrees from
Williams, Yale, Columbia, and Rhode Island College of Education.
Taught school in 1906 and since has been associated with schools in
supervisory and executive capacities. Mason.

Robert J. Bowman President of Pere Marquette Railroad since

1942 and Chesapeake & Ohio since 1946. b. April 15, 1891 at Fostoria,
Ohio. Began as clerk in N.Y.C. & St. Louis R.R. in 1907. Mason.

James Bowron (1844-1928) President of Gulf States Steel Co.

b. Nov. 16, 1844 in England and became U.S. citizen in 1885. Began in
glass trade. Served as president of Gulf States Steel Co. 1913-21 and
afterwards as chairman of the board. He built the town of South
Pittsburgh, Tenn. which was started by his father. Is credited with
having brought Alabama to the front as an active factor in the production
of steel. Mason. d. Aug. 25, 1928.

Sir Leslie Boyce (1895-1955) Lord Mayor of London and

corporation executive. b. July 9, 1895 at Taree, N.S.W. Educated at
Oxford and called to the bar in 1922. Conservative member of
Parliament from Gloucester, 1929-45; high sheriff of Gloucester, 1941-
42; alderman, City of London since 1942 and lord mayor of London
1951-52. He is chairman and managing director of the Gloucester
Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. and William Gardner & Sons, Ltd.
Chairman and director of numerous other firms. Baroneted in 1952 and
Knight Commander, O.B.E. He was senior grand warden of the Grand
Lodge of England in 1948 and grand scribe N of the Grand Chapter of
England in 1952. d. 1955.

David R. Boyd (1853-1936) University president. b. July 31,

1853 at Coshocton, Ohio. President of Univ. of Oklahoma, 1892-1908
and afterwards president emeritus. President of the Univ. of New
Mexico 1912-19. Superintendent of Presbyterian Board of Home
Missions, 1908-12. Mason. d. Nov. 17, 1936.

James E. Boyd Former Governor of Nebraska. Member of

Capitol Lodge No. 3, Omaha, Nebr.

Thomas Boyd (?-1779) A lieutenant in the American Revolution

whose life was spared by Indian Chief Joseph Brant when the former
gave a Masonic sign. Brant turned him over to either Colonel John
Butler q.v. or his son Captain Walter Butler who allowed the Senecas to
torture and kill him when he refused to give information on the
movements of General Sullivan's q.v. army. Boydwas probably a
member of Military Lodge No. 19 under warrant from the grand lodge of
Pennsylvania (now Montgomery No. 19, Philadelphia). It was this lodge
that gave his remains Masonic burial.

William L. Boyden (1866-1939) Masonic librarian and author. b.

Jan. 6, 1866 at Washington, D.C. Served as librarian for Ancient and
Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction for many years and wrote
extensively on Masonic subjects. Raised in Osiris Lodge No. 26,
Washington, D.C. in 1891. Was charter member, secretary and master
of Albert Pike Lodge No. 36, Washington. d. Dec. 1, 1939.
Jean Pierre Boyer ( 1776 - 1850 ) President of Haiti from 1818-
43. b. Feb. 28, 1776 at Port au Prince. He was a free mulatto and first
became known in the revolution of 1792, fighting first against the
planters and then against the negros. He fled to France but returned to
Haiti with Gen. Victor Leclere to fight for the restoration of the colony to
France. Afterwards he joined Petion and Christophe in the revolution to
establish a republic. He succeeded Petion in 1818 as president of the
southern portion and after the death of Christophe in 1820, the entire
island was brought under his presidency. His maladministration caused
the revolution of 1843 and brought his fall. He emigrated to Jamaica and
thence to France, dying in Paris on July 9, 1850. He was grand
commander of the Supreme Council AASR of Haiti, 33° and "Protector
of the Order." According to the Magazine of American History (Vol. 13,
p. 259, 1885) he was a frequent visitor to Somerset Lodge No. 34,
Norwich, Conn.

Frank W. Boykin Congressman from 1st Alabama district 74th to

84th Congresses (1935-56). b. Feb. 21, 1885 at Bladon Springs, Ala.
Started own business manufacturing railroad crossties and now
identified extensively with real estate, farming, livestock, timber, lumber
and naval stores in southern Alabama with headquarters at Mobile.
Mason, AASR member, Shriner and Eastern Star.

Emerson R. Boyles Justice of Supreme Court of Michigan. b.

June 29, 1881 in Eaton Co., Mich. Admitted to bar in 1903 and began
practice in Charlotte, Mich. Served as probate judge, deputy attorney
general of Michigan, member of Michigan Public Utilities Commission
and legal advisor to the governor. Justice of the Supreme Court of
Michigan since 1940. Mason and Knight Templar.

James S. Boynton Former Governor of Georgia. Reported as a

member of St. John's Lodge No. 45, Jackson, Ga. in the grand lodge
proceedings of 1862.
Paul Boynton (1848-?) Famous swimmer and adventurer. b.
June 29, 1848 in Dublin, Ireland. Raised in Lodge of Friendship No.
206, London, England on May 21, 1875. With Gen. Pedro Martinez in
revolution in Sonora, Mexico, followed by life-saving service on Atlantic
coast where in years 1867-69 he saved 71 lives. He then served in the
Franco-Prussian war and afterwards to African diamond fields. In 1874
he made a spectacular leap from a ship off the coast of Ireland in a
storm and by means of a rubberized, inflated suit he had invented,
gained land 40 miles away. He gained world wide renown with his suit,
propelling himself feet forward with a double-bladed paddle. Among his
exploits were: crossed English channel in 24 hours (1875); paddled
Rhine 430 miles (1875); Alton, Ill. to St. Louis, Mo. on the Mississippi
(1876) and same year Bayou Goula to New Orleans, 100 miles in 24
hours; 400 miles on the Danube insix days (1876); navigated all
important rivers of the continent, passed through canals of Venice and
crossed the straits of Gibraltar; returned to the U.S. and floated from Oil
City, Pa. to the Gulf of Mexico-2,342 miles in 80 days. His longest
voyage was in 1881 when he started at Cedar Creek, Mont. and ended
at St. Louis, Mo., 3,580 miles. In 1880-81 he was a commander of the
Peruvian torpedo service, captured by the Chilians and ordered
executed, but escaped by sea.

John Bracken Leader of Progressive Conservative Party of

Canada and former premier of Manitoba. b. June 22, 1883 at Seeley's
Bay, Ont. An agriculturist, he was professor of field husbandry at the
Univ. of Saskatchewan, 1910-20 and president of Manitoba Agricultural
College, Univ. of Manitoba, 1920-22. Member of Manioba legislature
and premier of Manitoba 1922-42. Elected to Canadian House of
Commons, 1945. Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, 1942-
48. Mason.

Hugh H. Brackenridge (1748-1816) Justice, Supreme Court of

Pennsylvania from 1799-1816. b. near Campbelton, Scotland. Brought
to United States when five years old. Graduated from Princeton in 1771
in same class as James Madison. Went to Philadelphia in 1776 and
edited the United States Magazine. Served as a chaplain in the
Revolution. d. June 25, 1816. Member of Lodge No. 45, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Theophilus Bradbury (1739-1803) Justice, Supreme Court of
Massachusetts. b. Nov. 13, 1739 in Newbury, Mass. Graduated at
Harvard in 1757 and studied law while teaching at Falmouth (now
Portland) Maine. Practiced law in Falmouth until 1779 when he returned
to Newbury, served in both houses of the state legislature and twice
elected to U.S. Congress, but resigned in 1797 to accept appointment of
judge on the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Mason and member of
Newburyport Commandery K.T. d. Sept. 6, 1803.

Thomas Bradford (1745-1838) Son of Col. William Bradford,

known as the "patriot printer of 1776." b. May 4, 1745 at Philadelphia.
He entered his father's printing office and became his partner and
associate editor of the Pennsylvania Journal which he changed to the
True American in 1801. It was printed in the same building occupied by
his great-uncle, Andrew (8 Front St.) who published the American
Weekly Mercury, the first newspaper in Philadelphia (1719) in which
Benjamin Franklin q.v. first worked as a compositor. Thomas became
captain of a military company in Philadelphia in 1775 and later was
commissary-general of the Pennsylvania division of the Continental
Army. After founding of federal government, he became printer to
Congress. He was a member of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia as was his
brother, William, Jr. q.v. d. May 7, 1838.

William Bradford, Jr. (1755-1795) Son of Col. William Bradford

who was known as the "patriot printer of 1776," and brother of Thomas
q.v. b. Sept. 14, 1755 at Philadelphia. Graduated from Princeton in 1772
and studied law. Served in the Revolutionary War as lieut. colonel. In
1780 was appointed attorney general of Pennsylvania and justice of
supreme court of Pennsylvania in 1791. On Jan. 8, 1794 he succeeded
Edmund Randolph q.v. as the second attorney general of the United
States and served until his death on Aug. 23, 1795. Member of Lodge
No. 2, Philadelphia.
Henry D. Bradley President of the St. Joseph News-Press-
Gazette Corp. b. Jan. 10, 1893 at Detroit, Mich. Was with the Toledo
Blade (Ohio) from1906-23 and in 1923 was with Lord Beaverbrook on
the London Express (Eng.) in advisory capacity. From 1924-26 he was
general manager of Norristown Times-Herald (Pa.) and president and
general manager of the Times-Star at Bridgeport, Conn. He was
publisher of the News Press and Gazette at St. Joseph from 1939 and
president from 1950. He has recently turned the active managership
over to his son, David. He is a member of Sanford L. Collins Lodge No.
396 of Toledo, Ohio, and a KCCH in the St. Joseph (Mo.) Consistory

Joseph S. Bradley Major General, U.S. Army. b. June 9, 1900 at

Vancouver, Wash. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy, 1919 and
advanced through grades to major general in 1944. Served with
American occupation forces following WW1 and with infantry regiments
in U.S., China and Philippines. With 32nd Division in S.W. Pacific in
1942. Now chief of training group, War Department General Staff, G-2.

Omar N. Bradley General of the Army (5-star). b. Feb. 12, 1893

at Clark, Mo. Graduated from West Point in 1915; Infantry School, 1925;
Command and General Staff School, 1929; and Army War College,
1934. He has since received honorary LL.B. and other degrees from 20
institutions of higher learning. Advanced from 2nd lieut. in 1915 to
brigadier general, 1941; major general, 1942; lieut. general, 1943;
general, 1945 and general of the army, 1950. In WW2 he commanded
the 2nd Corps in the Northern Tunisian and Sicilian campaigns; the 1st
U.S. Army in the Normandy campaign and the 12th Army Group in
France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg and Germany. He was chief of
staff, U.S. Army 1948-49 and chairman U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff,
194953. In 1945-47 he was administrator of Veterans Affairs. Since
1953 he has been chairman of the board of Bulova Research and
Development Labs., Inc. He was raised in West Point Lodge No. 877,
Highland Falls, N.Y. in 1923.
Willis W. Bradley (1884-1954) Naval officer, governor of Guam,
U.S. Congressman. b. June 28, 1884 at Ransomville, N.Y. Graduated
U.S. Naval Academy, 1907. Commissioned in Navy, 1907 and
advanced through grades to captain in 1933, retiring in 1946. Governor
of Guam 1929-31. Member of Congress from 18th dist. of California
1947-49. Awarded Congressional Medal of Honor in WW1 and Silver
Medal from Pope Pius XI. Mason, 32° AASR, Knight Templar and
Shriner. Past national president of National Sojourners. d. Aug. 27,

Aaron Bradshaw Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 1, 1894

at Washington, D.C. Graduated U.S. Military Academy, 1917 and
commissioned, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1943.
Recipient of many decorations including Papal Lateran Cross. Editor of
Coast Artillery Journal, 1936-40. Mason.

De Emmett Bradshaw Former president of Woodmen of the

World Life Insurance Society and now chairman of the board. b. Jan. 5,
1869 in Izard Co., Ark. Practiced law since 1894, first in Arkansas and
later in Nebraska. General attorney for Woodmen 1916-32 and
president, 1932-43. Director of Omaha National Bank and Western
Union Telegraph Co. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

John Bradstreet (1711-1774) British Major General of the

French-Indian Wars. b. in Horbling, England. Sent to America as a
young officer and remained here the rest of his life. Served in the
expedition against Louisburg in 1745 as lieut. colonel of Pepperell's
regiment. Made captain in 1745 and the following year
appointedlieutenant governor of St. John's, Newfoundland. Defeated a
strong party of French between Oswego and Albany, N.Y. Participated
in the attack on Ticonderoga in 1758 and was made quartermaster
general with the rank of colonel. In Aug. 1758 he captured Fort
Frontenac, which he razed to the ground and served under Amherst in
his expedition against Crown Point and Ticonderoga in 1759. He was
advanced to major general in 1772 and fought in Pontiac's war,
negotiating a treaty of peace in Detroit in 1764. He was a member of the
craft in Nova Scotia. d. Sept. 25, 1774 in New York City.

John M. Bradstreet American lawyer and businessman, who, in

1849 established Bradstreet's Improved Mercantile Agency, which in
1876 was called the Bradstreet Co. In 1933 it merged with the R. G.
Dunn and Co. to form Dunn and Bradstreet, Inc., a firm furnishing
financial data and credit ratings of American businesses and
businessmen. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, New York City.

Hugh Brady (1768-1851) Major General in War of 1812. b. in

Northumberland Co., Pa. Joined the army as an ensign in March, 1792
and served in the western expedition under General Wayne. In War of
1812 he led the 22nd Infantry in Battle of Chippewa and distinguished
himself in battles of Lundy's Lane and Niagara. Made brigadier general
in 1822 and major general in 1848. Initiated June 9, 1797 in Lodge No.
22, Sunbury, Pa. and withdrew Jan. 15, 1805. d. April 15, 1851.

James H. Brady (1862-1918) U.S. Senator from Idaho. b. June

12, 1862 in Indiana Co., Pa. Moved to Idaho in 1894 and became
governor of the state from 1909-11. Elected U.S. Senator in Jan. 1913
for term 1913-15 and again in 1914. Mason. d. Jan. 13, 1918.

James T. Brady (1815-1869) Famous criminal lawyer. b. April 9,

1815 in New York City. Admitted to the bar in 1836. It was said that he
never lost a case in which he was before the jury for more than a week.
At one time he successfully defended four clients charged with murder
in a single week, and all without fee or reward. Made a Mason at sight
by the grand master of New York in 1866 in Ivanhoe Lodge No. 610. d.
Feb. 9, 1869.
David L. Brainard (1856-1946) Arctic explorer and brigadier
general, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 21, 1856 in Norway, N.Y. Entered army as
a private in 1876 and rose to brig. general in 1918. Served in Sioux, Nez
Perce and Bannock campaigns (1877-78). Detailed for duty with
Howgate Arctic exploring expedition in 1880. He was with Lady Franklin
Bay Arctic expedition under Lt. Greely from 188184 and was one of the
seven survivors rescued by Comdr. W. S. Schley. On May 13, 1882, he
with two others reached the most northerly point attained up to that time
(83°, 24', 30"). Received many awards and decorations for his services
in the Arctic. Member of Marathon Lodge No. 438, Marathon, N.Y. in
1885. d. March 22, 1946.

William G. Bramham (1874-1947) Baseball executive. b. July 13,

1874 at Hopkinsville, Ky. Admitted to N.C. bar in 1905 and practiced at
Durham. President and treasurer of the National Association of
Professional Baseball Leagues, 1933-46 and from 1946 until death,
consultant to the president of the National Association. He also served
as president of the following professional baseball clubs: South Atlantic,
Piedmont League, Eastern Carolina League, Virginia League. Mason
and Shriner. d. July 8, 1947.

Thomas E. Bramlette (1817-1875) Governor of Kentucky. b. Jan.

3, 1817 in Cumberland Co., Ky. Admitted to bar in 1837 he was judge of
the sixth district in 1856 but resigned in 1861 to raise the 3rd Kentucky
Infantry, and became its colonel. He was elected governor of Kentucky
as a Union man in 1863 and by re-election until 1867. He was past
master of Albany Lodge No. 260, Albany, Ky. and a Knight Templar. d.
Jan. 12, 1875.

Cardinal Brancafarte Casanova, in his Memoirs wrote of him:

"The first day of the year, 1772, I presented myself to the Cardinal
Brancafarte, Legate of the Pope, whom I had known at Paris 20 years
previously when he was sent by Benoit (Benedict XIV) to carry the
blessed linen clothes to the new-born Duke de Bourgoyne. We had
been together in a Lodge of Freemasons for the members of the Sacred
College who thundered against the Freemasons and knew well that
their anathemas impressed only the weak, whom a too lively light might

John Branch (1782-1863) Secretary of the Navy, Governor of

North Carolina, Governor of Territory of Florida, U.S. Senator. b. Nov. 4,
1782 at Halifax, N.C. Studied law and became judge of the superior
court and was state senator from 1811-17, 1822, 1834. Elected
governor in 1817 and was U.S. Senator from 1823-29, resigning when
appointed Secretary of the Navy by Pres. Jackson. In 1844-5 he was
governor of the territory of Florida, serving until the election of a
governor under the state constitution. Member of Royal White Hart
Lodge No. 2, Halifax, N.C. d. Jan. 4, 1863.

James T. Brand Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon. b. Oct. 9,

1886 at Oberlin, Ohio. Degrees from Oberlin College, Harvard and
Willamette Univ. Began private law practice in 1914 after three years as
a forest ranger. Served as circuit judge 192741 and since that time has
been associate justice of the Supreme Court of Oregon and chief justice
in 195152. He was appointed judge of the military tribunal for trial of
major war criminals at Nurnberg, Germany in 1947. Mason.

William A. Brandenburg (18691940) President of Kansas State

Teachers College, 1913-40. b. Oct. 10, 1869 at Clayton Co., Iowa.
Teacher and school superintendent in Iowa, Oklahoma and Kansas.
Mason. d. Oct. 29, 1940.

Rodney H. Brandon Organizer of Loyal Order of the Moose. b.

Sept. 21, 1881 at Monroe Co., Ind. One of the founders of the Loyal
Order of the Moose in 1906 and an official in it until 1929. In 1913 he
supervised the construction of Mooseheart and established
Moosehaven, Fla. in 1922. Organizer of the Progressive Party in
Indiana in 1912, moving to Illinois in 1913 where he was delegate to
state constitutional convention in 1919. From 1929-33 he was director of
Department of Public Welfare of Ill. In 1926 he was special investigator
for U.S. of child welfare conditions in Europe. Lecturer in criminology,
social hygiene and medical jurisprudence, Univ. of Illinois since 1933.

William W. Brandon (1868-1934) Governor of Alabama. b. June

5, 1868 at Talladega, Ala. Admitted to bar in 1892 and practiced at
Tuscaloosa. Became successively a member of state house of
representatives, clerk of Alabama constitutional convention, state
auditor and probate judge. Served as governor from 1923-27. A major in
Spanish American War, he was brigadier general and adjutant general
of the Alabama national guard from 1898-1907. d. Dec. 7, 1934.
Member of Rising Virtue Lodge No. 4 at Tuscaloosa.

Samuel Brannan (1819-1889) Mormon pioneer of California. b.

in Saco, Me., he was an editor and printer and elder in the Mormon
church, editing Mormon journals. He was leader of the Mormon colony
that arrived in San Francisco in July, 1846 on the ship Brooklyn from
New York. The discovery of gold in 1848 led to the dissolution of the
Mormon community in California and a little later to Brannan's apostasy
from the Mormon church, an event that followed a quarrel with Brigham
Young and other Utah leaders. Brannan was practically first in
everything in the San Francisco area. He preached the first Protestant
sermon in California and solemnized the first Protestant marriage in the
state. He was the subject of the first jury trial and organized the first
newspaper, The California Star in San Francisco (2nd in the state). He
brought the first gold from Coloma and thereby started the first
stampede from that village to the new diggings on the American River.
He was the first to offer a resolution to exclude slavery from California.
He was California's first millionaire, built the first flour mill in San
Francisco and was a member of California Lodge No. 1, of San

Melvin A. Brannon (1865-1950) College president and biologist.

b. Sept. 11, 1865 at Lowell, Ind. Taught science and biology 1890-1914.
Organized School of Medicine, Univ. of North Dakota in 1905. President
of Univ. of Idaho 1914-17 and Beloit College 1917-23. Chancellor
University of Montana 1923-33. Mason. d. March 26, 1950.

John Brant (1794-1832) Indian chief of the Mohawks and son of

the more famous Joseph Brant q.v. His Indian name was Ahyouwaighs.
b. Sept. 27, 1794 at Mohawk Village, Upper Canada. Served the British
with distinction in the War of 1812. Visited England in 1821 in effort to
settle differences between the Mohawks and the government of Upper
Canada and correspondence shows that he was also commissioned by
the grand lodge at Niagara to place the state of the Craft before the
English Masonic authorities. He succeeded his father, the noted
Joseph, as principal chief of the Six Nations in 1807. He died in Sept.
1832 of Asiatic cholera, having been elected to the parliament of Upper
Canada only shortly before. It is supposed that he was initiated about
1815 in Union Lodge No. 24 which first met in Flamborough Village and
afterwards at Dundas and Ancaster. He received his second degree on
May 10, 1818. On Nov. 7, 1818 he was acting secretary of the lodge
and was elected junior warden on Dec. 27, 1819.

Joseph Brant (1742-1807) Mohawk Indian chief and later

principal chief of the Six Nations. He was the first Indian-Freemason of
which there is record and the most famous Indian of the Revolutionary
period. b. on the banks of the Ohio river in 1742. Sir William Johnson
q.v. became interested in him and educated him in Eleazar Wheelock's
school. Johnson also was the common-law husband of Brant's sister,
Molly. In 1771 Brant became chief sachem of the Six Nations at the age
of 29. He fought with Johnson in Battle of Lake George (1755); Niagara
campaign (1759) and Pontiac's War (1763). He became secretary to
Guy Johnson q.v., superintendent of Indian affairs and nephew of Sir
William, in 1774. Sent to England in 1775 where he was made a
Freemason in Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge No. 417, London, early in 1776.
Returning to America, he participated as a colonel in the Cherry Valley
massacre (1778); Minisink, Fort Stanwixand Oriskany (1779). At the
war's end in 1783, he settled with his Mohawks on a six square mile
grant on the Grand River in Ontario (Upper Canada). During the war
Brant was credited with saving the lives of several Freemasons who
appealed to him Masonically. They were: Col. John McKinstry (May 20,
1776); Lt. Johnathan Maynard (May 30, 1778); Major John Wood (July
19, 1779); Lt. Thomas Boyd (Sept. 13, 1779) who was later killed by the
whites (q.v. each of the above names). In 1785 Brant again visited
England in connection with a land grant and in 1796 was present at the
first meeting of Barton Lodge No. 10, being listed as a member. In 1798
a charter was issued to Lodge No. 11, Brantford, Mohawk Village and
named Joseph Brant as first master. He died Nov. 24, 1807 at the Brant
mansion in Wellington Square, Ont. and his son John (Ahyouwaighs)
was named principal chief as his successor q.v.

Charles W. Brashares Methodist Bishop. b. March 31, 1891 at

Williamsport, Ohio. Attended Ohio Wesleyan, Boston Univ., Harvard
and Cornell, receiving degrees of A.B., D.D., LL.D. Ordained Methodist
Episcopal church in 1917 and served as pastor in Mass., Maine, Ohio,
and Mich. from 1917-44. Bishop of Des Moines area from 194452 and
bishop of Chicago area since 1952. Mason. Raised in Harmony Lodge
No. 38, Gorham, Me. about 1918 and received AASR degrees in
Dayton, Ohio. Demitted.

Alva J. Brasted Chief of chaplains, U.S. Army. b. July 5, 1876 at

Findley Lake, N.Y. Ordained to Baptist ministry in 1905 and held
pastorates in N. Dak., Minn., and Iowa until 1913 when commissioned
chaplain in U.S. Army, rising to rank of colonel and chief of chaplains
1933-47. Now retired. Raised in Wauconda Lodge No. 298, Wauconda,
Ill. and presently member of Sojourners Lodge No. 51, Washington,
D.C. 32° AASR (SJ) in Fargo, N. Dak. in 1916.

Sam G. Bratton U.S. Senator from New Mexico and federal

judge. b. Aug. 19, 1888 at Kosse, Texas. Educated in public schools
and admitted to Texas bar in 1909, moving to Clovis, N. Mex. in 1915.
Judge of the district court, 5th judicial dist. of N. Mex. 1919-22;
associate justice supreme court of New Mex. 1923-24; U.S. Senator
from N. Mex. 1925-33. Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals, 10th circuit since
1933. Member of Clovis Lodge No. 40, Clovis, New Mexico, 32° AASR
(SJ) in Valley of Santa Fe; Ballut Abyad Shrine Temple, Albuquerque,
N.M. and Honorary Legion of Honor, Order of DeMolay.
Mason Brayman (1813-?) Major General in Civil War (Union). b.
May 23, 1813 in Buffalo, N. Y. Brought up as a farmer, but became a
printer and edited the Buffalo (N. Y.) Bulletin, later studying law and
taking up practice in Monroe, Mich. in 1838. In 1842 he opened a law
office in Springfield, Ill. In 1845-46 he was special attorney to prosecute
offenses growing out of the Mormon difficulties and negotiated a peace
between the followers of Joseph Smith q.v. and their enemies at
Nauvoo, Ill. Joined volunteer army in 1861 and was major in the 29th
Illinois regiment, being promoted to major general at the close of the
war. After war he engaged in railroad enterprises, edited the Illinois
State Journal and moved to Wisconsin in 1873 and in 1876 was
appointed as governor of the Territory of Idaho for four years, later
returning to Wisconsin and practicing law at Ripon. Mason. Member
Springfield (Ill) Lodge No. 4.

David Brearley (1745-1790) Revolutionary soldier, member of

Constitutional Convention, chief justice of New Jersey and first grand
master of New Jersey. b. June 11, 1745 near Trenton, N.J. He practiced
law in Allentown and took an early part in the controversy with England
for which he was arrested for high treason but set free by a mob of his
fellow citizens. He was a member of the first convention to frame a
constitution prior to 1781, and was an officer in the Revolutionary War.
Elected chief justice of New Jersey in 1779, he served until 1789, when
he was appointed U.S. District judge. He was one of the compilers of
the Protestant Episcopal prayer-book of 1785 and was first grand
master of New Jersey, serving from 1786 until his death on Aug. 10,
1790. Mason.

John Breathitt (1786-1834) Governor of Kentucky. b. Sept. 9,

1786 near New London, Va., he moved to Kentucky with his father in
1800 where he was a surveyor, teacher, studied law, and was admitted
to the bar in 1810. A Jacksonian Democrat, he served several years in
the legislature and was lieut. governor of Kentucky in 1828-32 and
governor in 1832-34. He was a member of Russellville Lodge No. 17
and Russellville Chapter No. 8, R.A.M.
Daniel Breck (1788-1871) Judge, Supreme Court of Kentucky
and U.S. Congressman. b. Feb. 12, 1788 at Tops-field, Mass.
Graduated at Dartmouth in 1812, studied law and began practice in
Richmond, Ky. in 1814. He became judge of the Richmond County
court, was a member of the Kentucky house of representatives from
1824-29 and a judge of the supreme court of Kentucky from 1834-49.
He served in the 31st Congress from 1849-51. A past master of
Richmond Lodge No. 25, he served as grand master of Kentucky in

John Cabell Breckinridge (18211875) 14th Vice President of the

United States, U.S. Senator, major general in Confederate army and
secretary of war of the Confederate states. b. Jan. 21, 1821 near
Lexington, Ky. A grandson of John Breckinridge, U.S. Senator and
attorney general. Educated at Centre College and Transylvania
Institute, he resided in Burlington, Iowa for a short time before settling at
Lexington, Ky. where he practiced law. While in Burlington he petitioned
Des Moines Lodge No. 41 (now 1) on Feb. 7, 1842 and on Dec. 5, 1842
was elected senior warden of the lodge, and re-elected on June 5,
1843. Served as a major in the war with Mexico in 1847, returning to
Kentucky to be elected first to the house of representatives and then to
the U.S. Congress in 1851 and again in 1853. Elected vice president of
the U.S. in 1856, serving from 1857-1861. As a presidential candidate in
1860 he received 72 electoral votes. The same year he was elected
U.S. Senator from Kentucky to succeed John J. Crittenden q.v. At the
beginning of the Civil War, he defended the south in the Senate and
soon entered the Confederate service for which he was expelled from
the senate on Dec. 4, 1861. On Aug. 5, 1862 he was made major
general and for the next two years fought in many battles. He was
secretary of war in Jefferson Davis's cabinet from Jan. 1865 until the
close of the conflict when he fled to Cuba and then to Europe. He
returned to the states in 1868 determined to have no further part in
politics. He became a member of Good Samaritan Lodge No. 174 at
Lexington, Ky. by affiliation; was suspended in 1861 and reinstated on
Nov. 16, 1871. He was a member of Temple Chapter No. 19, R.A.M.,
Webb Commandery No. 2, K.T., both of Lexington and received the 33°
AASR (SJ) on March 28, 1860. d. May 17, 1875 at Lexington, Ky. and
was buried with Knight Templar services.

Robert Jefferson Breckinridge (1800-1871) Clergyman, lawyer,

author and principal author of the public school system of Kentucky. b.
March 8, 1800 at Cabell's Dell, Ky. Attended Princeton and practiced
law for eight years, but in 1829 he determined to enter the ministry and
was licensed to preach in 1832. Held several Presbyterian pastorates
including Martimore and Lexington, Ky. Served four years in Kentucky
legislature. Edited several religious magazines and wrote a number of
books. He was opposed to slavery even though his nephew John C.
Breckinridge q.v. was secretary of war in Jefferson Davis's cabinet. He
presided over the national Republican convention in 1864 which
renominated Lincoln. His nephew, John C., was Lincoln's closest
contender in the previous election. Member of Lexington Lodge No. 1
and Lexington Chapter No. 1 of Lexington, Ky. d. Dec. 27, 1871.

William C. P. Breckinridge (18371904) Member U.S. Congress

(188495) from 7th Kentucky district. First cousin of John C. Breckinridge
q.v. vice-president of the United States. b. Aug. 28, 1837 at Baltimore,
Md. son of Robert J. Breckinridge q.v. Although his father was opposed
to slavery, William entered the Confederate army as a captain in 1861
and became colonel of the 9th Kentucky cavalry and commanded the
brigade when it surrendered. Became professor of equity jurisprudence
in Cumberland Univ., Term. A member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Ky.,
he delivered the oration at the cornerstone laying of the Masonic
Temple in Richmond, Virginia in 1888.

Ernest R. Breech Chairman of the board of Ford Motor

Company. b. Lebanon, Mo. Feb. 24, 1897. Began as an accountant with
Fairbanks, Morse & Co. in 1917. Assistant treasurer of General Motors
Corp., 1929-33 and vice president, 1933-42; chairman of board of North
American Aviation 1933-42; president of Bendix Aviation Corp., 1942-
47. Executive vice president and director of Ford Motor Co. from 1946-
1955 and chairman of the board since. Holds directorates of several
large corporations. Raised in Austin Lodge No. 850, Chicago, Ill. in
1924. AASR (NJ) at Detroit and sovereign grand inspector general, 33°,
since Sept. 1956.

R. E. Breed (1866-1926) Organizer and president of American

Gas & Electric Co. b. March 17, 1866 at Pittsburgh, Pa. Director of
many corporations. Mason. d. Oct. 14, 1926.

Robert G. Breene Major general, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 17, 1894 at

Dayton, Ohio. Graduated with B.S. in M.E. from Purdue Univ. in 1917.
Commissioned in 1917 and advanced through grades to major general
in 1943. Mason.

Edmund Breese (1871-1936) Actor. b. June 18, 1871 at

Brooklyn, N.Y. On the legitimate stage from 1896. Played lead roles in
Neil Gwynn, Marie Stuart and Frou Frou. With James O'Neil in Merchant
of Venice (1898); all star cast of Monte Cristo (1899), Romeo and Juliet
(1899), Ransom's Folly (1904), Strongheart (1905). Originated "John
Burkett Ryder" in The Lion and the Mouse which he played in New York
and London. Later played "Richard Brewster" in The Third Degree. Star
of The Earth in 1909. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 6, Norwalk,
Conn. d. April 6, 1936.

Sidney Breese (1800-1878) U.S. Senator from Illinois and chief

justice, Supreme Court of Illinois. b. July 15, 1800 at Whitesboro, N.Y.
Moved to Illinois in 1821 where he became assistant secretary of state
the following year and advanced tostate attorney, U.S. attorney, circuit
judge and in 1841 elected to the supreme court of that state. From
184349 he was U.S. Senator from Illinois. In 1857 he was again elected
to the supreme court and in 1873 became chief justice, holding that
position until his death. Served in the Black Hawk War; a regent of the
Smithsonian Institution; one of the organizers of the Illinois Central
Railroad. He was a member and past master of Scott Lodge No. 79,
Carlyle, Ill. d. June 27, 1878.
Walter E. Brehm U.S. Congressman from 11th Ohio district 78th
to 81st Congresses (1943-51). b. May 25, 1892 at Somerset, Ohio.
Practiced dentistry at Logan, Ohio 1917-42. Served in Ohio legislature
two terms. Initiated in Somerset Lodge No. 76 in 1915 and presently
member of Mingo Lodge No. 171, Logan, Ohio. Exalted in Somerset
Chapter No. 61, R.A.M. presently member of Logan Chapter No. 75.
Took his council and commandery work at New Lexington, Ohio and
presently member of those bodies at Logan. Member of Consistory
(32°) AASR (NJ) at Columbus and Aladdin Shrine at Columbus. Has
served as master of his lodge, high priest of chapter, commander of
commandery and also secretary of lodge.

Sereno E. Brett (1891-1952) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b.

Oct. 31, 1891 at Portland, Oreg. Commissioned in 1916 and rose to
brigadier general in 1942. A pioneer in tank warfare, he organized and
commanded the 327th Battalion Tank Corps in June 1918, and as a
major led the first American tank attack with the 326th battalion at St.
Mihiel, Sept. 12-15, 1918. Commanded 1st American Tank Brigade
throughout Meuse-Argonne. He was chief of staff of the Armored Force
in 1940-41 and commanded the Fifth Armored Division from 1942 until
retirement Oct. 31, 1943. Member of Hancock Lodge No. 311, Ft.
Leavenworth, Kansas, Hawaiian Chapter No. 9 of National Sojourners
and Lafayette Chapter No. 7, Heroes of '76 at Baltimore. d. Sept. 9,

Basil Brewer Newspaper and radio executive. b. July 22, 1884 at

Rush Hill, Mo. With Scripps-Howard papers from 1908-21 in Cincinnati,
Cleveland and Omaha, Nebr. Now publisher and controlling owner of
New Bedford (Mass.) Standard-Times and Cape Cod Standard-Times,
Hyannis, Mass. and radio stations WNBH, WFMR and WOCB in Mass.

Earl LeRoy Brewer ( 1869 - 1942 ) Governor of Mississippi. b.

Aug. 11, 1869 in Carroll Co., Miss. Received LL.B. from Univ. of
Mississippi in 1892 and practiced law at Water Valley, Miss. 1882-1901.
Member of Mississippi state senate 1895-99 and governor of the state
from 1912-16. Ma-on. d. March 10, 1942.

Few Brewster Justice, Supreme Court of Texas. b. May 10,

1889 at Corn Hill, Texas. Graduate of Howard Payne College (Texas)
and Univ. of Texas. Admitted to bar in 1915 and held offices of county
attorney, district attorney, district judge and judge of court of appeals.
Has been associate justice of the supreme court of Texas since 1945.
Served as 2nd lieutenant of Infantry in WW1. Raised in Killeen, Texas in

Owen Brewster Governor of Maine and U.S. Senator. b. Feb.

22, 1888 at Dexter, Me. Graduated from Bowdoin College, Harvard and
Univ. of Maine. Member of the Maine house of representatives, 1917-
19, 1921-23 and of the state senate in 1923-25. He served two terms as
governor of Maine, 1925-29 and was a member of the 74th to 76th
Congresses from Maine 3rd district (1935-41). Elected U.S. Senator,
serving from 1941-53. Member of Penobscot Lodge No. 39, Dexter,
Maine, as was his father and grandfather, before him; St. John's
Chapter No. 25, R.A.M. and DeMolay Commandery, K.T. both of
Dexter. 32° AASR (NJ) and member of Anah Shrine Temple, Bangor,
Maine. When Harry S. Truman, a fellow-senator, was grand master of
the Grand Lodge of Missouri, Brewster spoke at the grand lodge
session at Truman's request.

Charles R. Brice Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Mexico.

b. Aug. 6, 1870 at Terrell, Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1893, moving
to Carlsbad, N. Mex. in 1903. Served as justice of the supreme court of
New Mexico from 1935 to 1951, being chief justice in 1941-42, 1947-51.
Returned to private practice in Roswell, 1951. Mason and 32° AASR.

Jean Joseph Brice English strong man. Member of St. James

Union Lodge No. 177, London on Dec. 12, 1866.
John W. Bricker Governor and U.S. Senator from Ohio. b. Sept.
6, 1893 in Madison Co., Ohio. A.B. and LL.B. from Ohio State Univ.
Admitted to bar in 1917 and became assistant attorney general of Ohio
in 1923, serving until 1927. Became attorney general in 1933 serving
until 1937. Elected governor of Ohio in 1939 and re-elected two more
terms until 1945. In 1944 he was the Republican candidate for vice
president of the United States. Was elected to the U.S. Senate from
Ohio in Nov. 1945 and has served continuously since that time. An
active Mason, Bricker is a member of Mt. Sterling Lodge No. 269, Mt.
Vernon, Ohio, Community Chapter No. 227, R.A.M., Columbus Council
No. 8, R. & S.M., Mt. Vernon Commandery No. 1, Scioto Consistory
(AASR-NJ), receiving honorary 33° in 1942, and Aladdin Temple

Mead L. Bricker Banker and former vice president of Ford Motor

Co. b. April 24, 1885 at Youngstown, Ohio. Began as a machinist in
1904 and became vice president and director of manufacturing of Ford
Motor Co., resigning to become director of City Bank of Detroit and
director of several corporations. Raised in Friendship Lodge No. 417,
Detroit, Mich. in May, 1914 and is life member of the lodge. Is president
of the Detroit Masonic Temple Building Fund and member of Grand
Lodge of Michigan foreign relations committee. Member of King Cyrus
Chapter No. 133, R.A.M. of Detroit and 33° AASR (NJ), Detroit; Moslem
Shrine Temple; St. Clement Conclave No. 39, Red Cross of Constantine
and The Royal Order of Scotland.

Styles Bridges Governor of New Hampshire and U.S. Senator.

b. Sept. 9, 1898 at West Pembroke, Me. Graduate of Univ. of Maine and
Dartmouth with LL.D. degrees from several universities. Began as
instructor in Sandhurst Academy, Ashfield, Mass. 1918, later county
agent and extension specialist for Univ. of New Hampshire. Later of
Granite Monthly magazine and director of New Hampshire Investment
Co. Governor of New Hampshire, 1935-37 and U.S. Senator since
1937. Republican leader of Senate in 1952 and president pro tern in
1953. Received his degrees in Morning Sun Lodge, Conway, Mass. and
is member of Eureka Lodge, No. 70, Concord, N.H. Member of Trinity
Chapter No. 2, Concord, N.H. and Mt. Horeb Commandery, as well as
Bektash Shrine Temple, all of Concord.

Ansel W. Briggs (1806-1881) Inaugurated first governor of the

newly constituted State of Iowa on December 3, 1846. His Masonic
membership is obscure. He was often in the company of many active
Masons, Robert Lucas q.v., the first territorial governor, being among
them. The confused records of Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Bellevue, Nebr.
which was organized in 1854, gives him as a charter member in one
official account issued by the Grand Lodge of Illinois (from whence the
charter came) and in another his name does not appear. At this time
Briggs was at a hamlet on the Missouri River called St. Mary's not far
south of where Omaha now stands and opposite the town of Bellevue in
the Territory of Nebraska.

Asa G. Briggs (1862-1945) Director U.S. Chamber of Commerce

(193034). b. Dec. 20, 1862 at Arcadia, Wis. Admitted to Minn. bar in
1887. An officer of the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence Tidewater Assn. and
St. Paul Chamber of Commerce and director on the national board for
Camp Fire Girls. Mason and Shriner. d. Aug. 31, 1945.

Eugene S. Briggs President of Phillips University, Enid, Okla.

since 1938. b. Feb. 1, 1890 in Howard Co., Mo. B.S. Central College
(Mo.); B.S., M.A. and Ph.D. Univ. of Missouri. High school principal in
Missouri and Okla. 1913-23. President State Teachers College, Durant,
Okla. 1928-33; director adult education Mo. State Dept. of Education
1934-35; president of Christian College, Columbia, Mo. 1935-38 and
president of Phillips Univ. since 1938. Elected to Oklahoma Hall of
Fame in 1951. Member of Garfield Lodge No. 501, Enid, Okla. and Enid
Commandery No. 13, K.T., Enid. Member of Trenton Chapter No. 66,
R.A.M. and Trenton Council No. 37, R. & S.M., both of Trenton, Mo.
Member of Akdar Shrine Temple of Tulsa. Charter member and first
president of High Twelve at Okmulgee and past president of the Enid
High Twelve Club. Member of DeMolay Legion of Honor. Brother of
Frank P. Briggs q.v.
Frank A. Briggs Former Governor of North Dakota. Was 32°
AASR and KCCH in Scottish Rite, being buried Masonically.

Frank P. Briggs U.S. Senator from Missouri and newspaper

owner. b. Feb. 25, 1894 at Armstrong, Mo. Graduate of Univ. of
Missouri 1914. Edited newspapers in Fayette, Moberly, Trenton, Mo.
and Shawnee, Okla. Editor and owner of the Macon Chronicle-Herald
(Mo.) since 1924. Member of Missouri state senate from 1933 to 1945,
serving as president 1941-45. Appointed U.S. Senator from Mo. Jan.
18, 1945 to fill unexpired term of Harry S. Truman q.v. by Governor
Donnelly q.v. Member of Missouri Conservation Commission since
1947. Past grand high priest of the Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons
of Missouri and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri (1957).
Raised in Fayette Lodge No. 47, Fayette, Mo. on Aug. 17, 1915; later a
member of Trenton Lodge No. 111, Trenton, Mo. (1917-24) and
presently member of Censer Lodge No. 172, Macon. Member of Macon
Chapter No. 22, R.A.M. and past high priest; Centralia Council No. 34,
R. & S.M. and past master, and Emmanuel Commandery No. 7, Macon.
Ararat Shrine Temple of Kansas City.

Leon E. Briggs Treasurer of Ford Motor Co. b. Jan. 31, 1892 at

Syracuse, N.Y. Started with Ford Motor Co. as a stenographer in 1914,
advancing as branch auditor, branch comptroller, traveling auditor,
assistant general auditor, general auditor and treasurer since 1946. He
is vice president and treasurer of the Ford Motor Co. Fund. Served in
navy in WW1. Mason.

Elbert S. Brigham U.S. Congressman, 69th to 71st Congresses

(192531) from first district of Vermont. b. Oct. 19, 1877 at St. Albans, Vt.
President of the National Life Insurance Co., Montpelier, Vt. retiring in
1948 and is now president of the Franklin Co. Savings Bank & Trust Co.
of St. Albans. Member of Franklin Lodge No. 4, St. Albans, Vt. and 33°
AASR (NJ) at Burlington, Vt.
Howard R. Brinker Episcopal bishop. b. Oct. 20, 1893 at
Nashotah, Wis. Graduate of the Univ. of Pennsylvania (1918) and
ordained priest in the Episcopal Church in 1919. Served as rector in
Wyoming and Illinois and dean of the Chicago South Deanery, 1935-39.
A member of the diocesan council 1924-40, chairman of department of
publicity, 1939 and chairman department of missions 1930-38. Bishop
of Nebraska, 1943, provisional bishop of Missionary District, Western
Nebraska, 1943 and bishop of reunited diocese and district since 1946.
Raised in Ashlar Lodge No. 10, Douglas, Wyo. about 1920 and
presently a member of Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, Nebr.

George F. Briston Composer. Member of Independent Royal

Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City.

Marquis de Britigney Served as a colonel in the American

Revolution. Member of St. Johns Lodge No. 3, New Bern, North

James L. Britt (1861-1939) U.S. Congressman to 64th and 65th

Congresses (1915-19) from 10th North Carolina district. b. March 4,
1861 at Johnson City, Tenn. Practiced law at Asheville, N.C. Special
attorney for department of justice 1906-9 and special assistant to
attorney general in 1910 for prosecution of civil cases for Post Office
dept. Minority leader of N.C. senate in 1909. Mason. d. Dec. 26, 1939.

Edwin F. Britten, Jr. President of Monroe Calculating Machine

Co. b. Feb. 2, 1885 at Jersey City, N.J. Graduated from Cornell Univ.
1907. Employed as a mechanical engineer and executive from 1907-17
by several companies. In 1917 he became vice president in charge of
manufacture of the Monroe Co. and has been president since 1937.
Holds many patents on calculating and office machines. Mason.
Daniel Broadhead ( 1736 - 1809 ) Revolutionary soldier. In 1775
he raised a company of riflemen who served in the battle of Long Island.
He was appointed colonel of the 8th Pennsylvania regiment, and in April
1778, led a successful expedition against the Muskingum Indians. He
made two important treaties with the Indians and received the thanks of
Congress, being made brigadier general after the war. He was a
member of Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia, Pa. d. Nov. 15, 1809.

James 0. Broadhead First president of the American Bar

Association, congressman and diplomat. When the American Bar
Association was founded in 1878, James 0. Broadhead of St. Louis was
chosen its first president. His original membership is not known, but at
his death in 1898, he was a member of Tuscan Lodge No. 360 of St.
Louis, Mo.

Glen P. Brock President of Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad. b.

Nov. 22, 1896 at Alden, Ia. Graduated from Univ. of Illinois in 1922.
Started with the Illinois Central Railroad in 1912, going to the Gulf and
Mobile in 1923 as assistant to general manager. Was general manager
from 1934; vice president and general manager from 1940. President
since June, 1957. Raised in Palestine Lodge No. 849, Palestine, Ill. in
1921. 32° AASR in Mobile, Ala. and member of Abba Shrine Temple of

William Brockmeier (1866-1947) Conducted 5,586 Masonic

funeral services. Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 40, St. Louis, Mo. He
started keeping records of the funerals in 1911, although he had
attended many before that time. The dignity and eloquence he
developed through the years resulted in requests from other lodges for
his services and he eventually represented 48 lodges, serving each
without remuneration. As a stationary engineer with the American Brake
Co., he worked a night shift and thus had free time in the day. He
attended his last funeral on May 29, 1947 at the age of 81—it was his
Charles Brockwell English clergyman, who it is claimed,
delivered the first recorded Masonic sermon on Dec. 27, 1749 at Christ
Church, Boston, Mass.

Edward E. Brodie (1876-1939) U. S. Envoy and Minister to Siam

and Finland. b. March 12, 1876, at Fort Stevens, Oreg. A newspaper
man, he began with the Morning Enterprise, Oregon City in 1901 and
later became owner and publisher until 1935. Became Envoy
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Siam in 1921, resigning in
1925. In 1930 he was E.E. and M.P. to Finland, serving until 1933.
Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. June 27, 1939.

William A. Brodie Laid the foundation stone of the Statue of

Liberty in New York harbor on August 5, 1884 as Grand Master of the
Grand Lodge of New York.

Kazimierz Brodzinski (1791-1835) Polish epic poet and scholar.

Was professor of Polish literature at Warsaw from 1826. A Freemason.
His best known work was Wieslaw, written in 1820.

Samuel Broers President Firestone International Co. b. Jan. 1,

1892 in Amsterdam, Holland, coming to the U.S. in 1909. Began career
as shipping clerk in 1910 and started with Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.,
Akron, Ohio as an export clerk in 1914, rising through field manager,
export manager, and in charge of all overseas operations since 1934.
Raised in Adoniram Lodge No. 517, Akron, Ohio in 1922.

Willis J. Brogden (1877-1935) Justice, Supreme Court of North

Carolina. b. Oct. 18, 1877 at Goldsboro, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1907
and practiced at Durham. Elected associate justice of the supreme court
in 1926. Mason. d. Oct. 29, 1935.

Henry P. H. Bromwell (1823-1903) Masonic author. b. Aug. 26,

1823 in Baltimore Co., Md. Moved to Illinois, studied law and became
judge of the circuit court of Fayette Co. He later edited a newspaper and
served in the state legislature from 1865-69. A member of the Illinois
Constitutional Convention in 1869. He was raised in Temperance Lodge
No. 16, Vandalia, Ill. in 1854, master in 1856 and grand master of the
Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1864. Was grand orator of the grand lodge
four times; high priest of Edgar Chapter No. 32, R.A.M. in 1858,
knighted in Elwood Commandery No. 6, 1861 and received the AASR
from A. G. Mackey in 1877. Moved to Colorado and became active in
the Grand Lodge of Colorado, affiliating with Denver Lodge No. 5.
Grand orator of Colorado in 1874. Author of the ponderous volume
Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbolism. d. Jan. 9, 1903.

Green C. Bronson (1789-1863) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of

New York. b. in Oneida, N.Y. Practiced law at Utica, N.Y. and elected
attorney general in 1829. At this time he came under attack for being a
"high Mason" by the Anti-Masonic Enquirer published at Rochester.
Became chief justice of supreme court in 1945 and two years later one
of the judges of the court of appeals, just organized. He left the bench
and practiced law in New York City. d. Sept. 3, 1863. Chief justice in

John R. Brooke (1838-1926) Major General, U.S. Army. b. July

21, 1838 in Montgomery Co., Pa. Enlisted in -the 4th Pennsylvania
Infantry in 1861. Participated in Civil War battles of Cold Harbor,
Gettysburg, Spottsylvania Court-House and Tolopotomy and made
brigadier general for gallantry. Resigned from volunteer service and
entered regular army as lieutenant colonel, rising to major general in
1897. Was head of the military commission and governor general of
Puerto Rico and governor general of Cuba. Retired in 1902. Mason and
member of Columbia Chapter No. 21, R.A.M. Philadelphia, Pa. d. Sept.
5, 1926.
Laurens Brooke Surgeon and medical officer to John Paul Jones
q.v., father of the American Navy. Was a member of Fredericksburg
Lodge No. 4, Va. He served on Jones' ships Ranger and Bon Homme

Robert Brooke Governor of Virginia from 1794-96. He also

served as attorney general of Virginia • from 1798-1800 and it was
during this period that Henry Clay q.v. studied in his law office. At the
outbreak of the Revolution he was a medical student at the University of
Edinburgh and returned to America to serve as a first lieutenant of
cavalry. A member and past master of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, he
became grand master of Virginia on Nov. 23, 1795.

Walker Brooke (1813-1869) U.S. Senator from Mississippi. b.

Dec. 13, 1813 in Virginia. Graduated from Univ. of Virginia in 1835,
studied law, emigrated to Kentucky where he taught school two years
and then took up practice in Lexington, Miss. Elected senator and
served from March, 1852 to March, 1853. He was a member of the
Mississippi seceding convention of 1861. He was a member of the
Confederate congress, but was defeated for the Confederate senate.
He was a member of Hill City Lodge No. 121, Vicksburg, Miss. past high
priest of Lexington Chapter No. 9, Lexington, Ky. and the second grand
high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Mississippi (1848). He
demitted from the chapter in 1858. d. Feb. 19, 1869.

Bryant B. Brooks (1861-1944) Governor of Wyoming. b. Feb. 5,

1861 at Bernardston, Mass. A livestock grower in Wyoming from 1882,
was president of Consolidated Royalty Oil Co. and Wyoming National
Bank, serving in the Wyoming legislature in 1892. He was a presidential
elector in 1900 and governor of Wyoming from 190511. He was a
member of Ashlar Lodge No. 10 at Douglas, Wyo. and later of Casper
Lodge No. 15, Casper, of which he was past master. In 1940 he was
grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Wyoming. d. Dec. 7, 1944.
C. Wayland Brooks ( 1897 - 1957 ) U.S. Senator from Illinois. b.
March 8, 1897 in West Bureau Co., Ill. Student at Wheaton College and
Univ. of Chicago, receiving LL.B. from Northwestern Univ. in 1926.
Admitted to bar in 1926 and practiced in Chicago. Elected U.S. Senator
in 1939 and reelected in 1942 for six-year term. Served with Marines in
WW1 and was wounded seven times, receiving D.S.C. from both Army
and Navy and was retired at age of 21. Member of Wheaton Lodge No.
269, Wheaton, Ill., being raised Jan. 24, 1920. Grand Orator of the
Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1946. 33° AASR (NJ), York Rite Mason and
member of St. John's No.1, Red Cross of Constantine. d. Jan. 14, 1957.

Henry L. Brooks U.S. District Judge (Ky.). b. Dec. 9, 1905 at

Louisville, Ky. Graduate of Univ. of Wisconsin and Jefferson School of
Law. Admitted to bar in 1928 and practiced at Louisville. Judge of
Jefferson Circuit Court, 1946-48 and U.S. District Judge since 1954.
Member of Louisville Lodge No. 400, Louisville, Ky. AASR in Valley of
Kentucky (KCCH).

John Brooks (1752-1825) Governor of Massachusetts. First

elected in 1816 and re-elected seven years in succession, finally
declining to again be a candidate. b. May 31, 1752 at Medford, Mass.
Studied medicine under Dr. Simon Tufts and settled at Reading, Mass.
as a physician. Drilled a company of minute-men and was present at the
Battle of Lexington. Participated in Fort Stanwix expedition and Battle of
Saratoga. He was then promoted to colonel (1778) and was associated
with Baron von Steuben q.v. in training the Continental Army. A friend of
Washington, he was major general of the militia for many years,
practicing law at Medford, Mass. From 1812-15 he was adjutant general
of Mass. He received his E.A. degree in American Union Lodge
(Military) on Aug. 28, 1779 and later a member of Washington Lodge
No. 10 (Military) under Grand Lodge of Mass. d. March 1, 1825.

Overton Brooks U.S. Congressman from 4th Louisiana district,

75th to 81st Congresses (1936-51). b. Dec. 21, 1897 at East Baton
Rouge, La. Received LL.B. from Louisiana State Univ. 1923, practicing
law at Shreveport. Served in WW1 in 1st Division field artillery. Raised
on Joppa Lodge No. 362, Shreveport, La. about 1921. 32° AASR (SJ),
Shriner and honorary member of National Sojourners.

Samuel P. Brooks ( 1863 - 1931 ) President of Baylor University,

19021931. b. Dec. 4, 1863 at Milledgeville, Ga. Graduate of several
universities, including Baylor, Yale and Univ. of Chicago. Was vice
president of the Southern Baptist Convention in Baltimore, 1910 and
president of the Baptist General Convention of Texas, 1914-17. A
Mason, he was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Texas in 1914 and
1922. d. May 14, 1931.

Stratton D. Brooks ( 1869 - 1949 ) University president b. Sept.

10, 1869 at Everett, Mo. Principal of high schools from 1890-99 in
Illinois and Michigan; assistant professor of education and high school
inspection, Univ. of 1899-1902; assistant superintendent of schools,
Boston, 1902-06; superintendent of schools, Cleveland, 0., 1906;
superintendent of schools, Boston, 1906-12; president of Univ. of
Oklahoma, 1912-23; president of Univ. of Missouri, 1923-31.
Educational director, Order of DeMolay from 1931. Member of Norman
(Okla.) Lodge No. 38; Columbia (Mo.) Chapter No. 17, R.A.M. (1923);
St. Graal Commandery (Mo.) No. 12, K.T. (1924). d. Jan. 18, 1949.

Wiley G. Brooks College president. b. Oct. 24, 1886 at Adelphia,

Ohio. Superintendent of schools in Idaho, Nebraska and Iowa from
191037. President and trustee of Illinois Wesleyan Univ. 1937-40 and
president of Nebraska State Teachers College, Chadron, since 1941.
Mason, 32° AASR, Knight Templar.

Jacob Broom (1752-1810) Signer of Federal Constitution in

1787. One of the delegates from Delaware to the Philadelphia
convention meeting on May 14, 1787 and was among the signers of
Sept. 17. He was a member of the Delaware legislature from 1784-88
and the first postmaster of Wilmington in 1790-92. He was aschool
teacher, real estate dealer and surveyor. Two weeks before the Battle of
Brandywine, he drew a map of this area for the use of General
Washington. An early member of Lodge No. 14, Christiana Ferry
(Wilmington) Del., he was elected secretary and treasurer on June 24,
1780, junior warden June 25, 1781 and again treasurer in 1783. d. April
25, 1810.

Joseph J. Broshek Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Nov. 1, 1886 at

New Bedford, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1908 and
Columbia Univ. in 1915. Commissioned ensign in 1910, advancing
through grades to rear admiral in 1942 and retired in 1946. Served on
U.S.S. George Washington in WW1 and was head of maintenance,
Bureau of Ships, Navy Dept. to retirement in 1946. Member of Mistletoe
Lodge No. 647, Brooklyn, N.Y. Deceased.

Henry Peter Brougham (Baron Brougham and Vaux) (1778-

1868). Lord High Chancellor of England from 1830. b. Sept. 19, 1778 at
Edinburgh, Scotland. With Sydney Smith and Jeffrey, founded the
Edinburgh Review in 1802. Practiced at English bar in 1808 and
member of parliament in 1810. He carried the measure making slave
trade a felony and defended Queen Caroline as her attorney general in
trial (1820). He was a founder of London Univ. in 1828 and by a famous
speech in 1831 helped pass the Reform Bill. He was the original
"learned friend" in Peacock's Crochet Castle. The brougham (carriage)
is named for him. He was initiated, passed and raised in Fortrose
Lodge, Stornoway, Scotland on Aug. 20, 21, 1799 and on June 24,
1800 affiliated with Canongate Kilwinning Lodge in Edinburgh. d. May 7,

John Brougham (1810-1880) Actor and playwright. b. May 9,

1810 in Dublin, Ireland. Orphaned early in life, he was raised by an
eccentric uncle. Studied medicine, but took to the stage to make a
living, first appearing in the Tottenham theatre in Dublin in July, 1830.
His first hit was as O'Slash in The Invincibles. His first 20 years were
passed in Dublin and the remainder was divided between runs in New
York and London. Made his first appearance on the American stage as
O'Callaghan in His Last Legs on Oct. 4, 1842 at the Park theatre in New
York City. In addition to acting he wrote about 100 plays. Misfortune
struck him in later years and a benefit performance was given at the
New York Academy of Music which netted $10,279 with which his
friends bought him an annuity. He was a member of St. John's Lodge
No. 1, New York City. d. June 7, 1880 in NYC. Member of Antiquity
Lodge No. 11, N.Y.C.

William E. Brougher Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 17,

1889 in Miss. Commissioned 2nd lieut. in 1911 and advanced through
grades to brigadier general in 1941 (advanced by Gen. MacArthur for
leadership in Philippines). Served in WW1 as major of infantry. Served
through Bataan campaign, Philippines and taken prisoner by Japanese
and liberated in Aug., 1945. Became commanding general of Ft.
McClellan, Ala. in 1946 and later Camp Gordon, Augusta, Ga. Mason,
32° AASR.

J. M. Broughton Former Governor of North Carolina. Member of

Wake Forest Lodge No. 282, receiving his degrees on Oct. 17, 1909
and Jan. 18 and Feb. 1, 1910.

Aaron V. Brown (1795-1859) Postmaster General of U.S. and

Governor of Tennessee. b. Aug. 15, 1795 in Brunswick Co., Va.
Graduated from Chapel Hill (N.C.) in 1814 and moved with parents to
Tennessee in 1815 where he studied law and became the partner of
James K. Polkq.v. From 1821-32 he was almost continuously a member
of the state legislature. He was elected to Congress in 1839, 1841 and
1843. From 1845-47 he was governor of Tennessee. As postmaster
general in Buchanan's cabinet q.v. he shortened the oceanic mail route
to California and the routes from St. Louis westward before the
construction of the railroads. A member of Pulaski Chapter No. 7,
R.A.M., Tenn. he was junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of
Tennessee in 1825. d. March 8, 1859, and buried Masonically at
Nashville on March 14.
Albert G. Brown (1813-1880) Governor of Mississippi and U.S.
Senator. b. May 31, 1813 in Chester Dist., S.C. Was made brigadier
general in Mississippi state militia when only 19 years old. A lawyer, he
was a member of the state legislature from 1835-39 and member of the
U.S. Congress from Miss. in 1840-41; from 1841-43 he was circuit
judge, and governor of Mississippi from 1843-1848. He was again a
member of Congress from 1848-54 and U.S. Senator from 1854-58.
Reelected in 1859 for six years, he resigned in 1861 to join the
Confederate forces with his colleague of the senate, Jefferson Davis. d.
June 12, 1880. Member of Gallatin Lodge No. 25, Gallatin, Miss. and
later Silas Brown Lodge, U.D.

Anthony Brown (see 6th Viscount Montagu) Charles W. Brown

( 1858-1928 ) President of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. from 1916. b.
June 14, 1858 at Newburyport, Mass. Was master mariner in charge of
vessels in Chinese and Australian trade for six years. Was identified
with the manufacture of plate glass from 1898 until his death, Mar. 6,
1928. Mason and Knight Templar.

Clarence J. Brown U.S. Congressman from 7th Ohio dist., 76th

to 84th Congresses (1939-1956). b. July 14, 1893 at Blanchester, 0.
Purchased first newspaper in 1917 and has been in publishing business
since that date. President of The Brown Publishing Co. Was lieut.
governor of Ohio from 1919-23 and secretary of state, 192733. Was a
member of the Hoover commission for organization of the executive
branch of the Federal government. Mason, 33° AASR (N.J.).

Clarence J. Brown Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 15, 1895 at

Plum City, Wis. Received B.S. from Univ. of Wisconsin in 1915 and
M.D. from Washington Univ. in 1917, entering Navy Medical Corps in
1917, advancing to rear admiral in 1946, and retired as vice admiral in
1954. Assistant chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery of Navy 1947-49
and general inspector, 1949; deputy surgeon general of the Navy from
1950 and presently chief of medical services, State of California, Youth
Authority. Raised in Maiden Rock Lodge No. 196, Maiden Rock, Wis. in
1916; member of Mt. Horeb Chapter No. 6, Pensacola, Fla. and Coeur
le Leon Commandery No. 1, Pensacola.

D. Russell Brown (1848-1919) Governor of Rhode Island, 1892-

95. b. March 28, 1848 at Bolton, Conn. Publisher of the Evening News
in Providence, R.I. Mason. d. Feb. 28, 1919.

Egbert B. Brown (1816-?) Union Brigadier General in Civil War.

b. Oct. 24, 1816 in Brownsville, N.Y. Elected mayor of Toledo, Ohio in
1849. Spent four years in the Pacific on a whaling vessel returning to St.
Louis, Mo. as a railway manager from 1852-61. He was instrumental in
saving the city of St. Louis from southern hands at start of Civil War.
Was severely wounded at Battle of Springfield (Mo.) in 1863.
Servedthrough Civil War in Missouri, Arkansas and Texas. From 1866-
68 he was U.S. pension agent at St. Louis, retiring to a farm near
Hastings, Ill. in 1869. Member of Toledo Lodge No. 144, Toledo, Ohio.

Everett C. Brown ( 1863 - 1937 ) Livestock commission man and

Olympic committee member. b. Oct. 14, 1863 at Oneida, Ill. Started in
livestock industry, Chicago, 1881 and later general manager of Brown-
St. John Commission Co. In 1918-19 he was chairman of the Price
Control Commission of Live Stock, U.S. Food Administration; president
of the Chicago Live Stock Exchange 1916-20 and 1923-28; president of
the National Live Stock Exchange 1918-23. Member of the Chicago
Plan Committee. President of the National Amateur Athletic Union in
1910. Member of the executive committee of American Olympic
Committee in charge of Olympic teams to London in 1908, Stockholm,
1912, Antwerp, 1920 and Paris, 1924. Mason and Knight Templar. d.
April 11, 1937.

Fred H. Brown Former U.S. Senator from New Hampshire. A

Mason and Knight Templar.
Gustavus R. Brown One of the physicians called into
consultation during the last illness of George Washington. He was one
of the organizers of St. Columbia Lodge No. 10, Port Tobacco, Md., and
was the fifth grand master of Maryland (1797).

Guy L. Brown Head of Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. b.

Aug. 22, 1893 at Boone, Ia. Locomotive fireman and engineer on the C.
& N.W. Railroad from 1909-1945 when he assumed office in the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers; assistant grand chief engineer
1950-53 and grand chief since that date. Raised in Mount Olive Lodge
No. 79, Boone, Iowa in 1941. Member of Tuscan Chapter No. 31,
R.A.M.; Gebal Council No. 5, R. & SM.; Excalibar Commandery No. 13,
K.T. all of Boone, Iowa. 32° AASR (NJ), Cleveland, Ohio and Al Koran
Shrine Temple of Cleveland.

Harvey W. Brown (1883-1956) International president of

International Association of Machinists. b. Oct. 28, 1883 in Schuylkill
Co., Pa. After serving as a machinist apprentice from 1902-05, he
became business representative for International Association of
Machinists for Anthracite Coal Region in 1911; general vice president in
1921 and president in 1938. Elected international president in 1940.
Member of American Federation of Labor executive council, 1940-43.
Member of Roseville Lodge No. 143, Newark, N.J. d. Sept., 1956.

Jacob Brown (1775-1828) Commander-in-Chief of the U.S.

Army (1821-28) and major general in War of 1812. b. May 9, 1775 in
Bucks Co., Pa. Taught school and did surveying in Ohio until 1798
when he moved to New York and settled at present town of Brownsville.
Having had military experience as secretary to Alexander Hamilton q.v.
he was made colonel of militia in 1809 and advanced to brigadier
general in 1810. In command of a 200 mile section along Canadian
border in 1812 and repulsed several attacks from superior British forces
including fights at Ogdensburg, Sackets Harbor, Chippewa and Lundy's
Lane. Made brigadier general of regular army in 1813 and major general
in 1814. At the close of the war he commanded the northern division of
the army and on March 10, 1821 became generalin-chief of the U.S.
Army. He was initiated in Ontario Lodge at Sackets Harbor, N.Y. on Jan.
2, 1806 and was probably raised there. He later became a member of
Watertown Lodge No. 49, Watertown, N.Y. d. Feb. 24,1828 and buried
in Congressional cemetery, Washington, D.C.

James W. Brown President of Editor and Publisher, 1912-52 and

chairman of the board since 1953. b. Oct. 20, 1873 at Detroit, Mich.
With Detroit News and Tribune 1891-95; Chicago Journal, Chicago
American and Chicago Tribune 1895-1903. General manager of the
Louisville Herald 1903-11. Raised April 29, 1907 in Louisville Lodge No.
400, Louisville, Ky. and at present a member of Publicity Lodge No.
1000, New York City. Member of DeMolay Commandery, K.T. No. 12 of

James W. Brown, Jr. Newspaper executive. b. Jan. 1, 1902 at

Chicago, Ill. With Editor and Publisher for 23 years and was president,
member of the board and chairman of the executive committee 1941-
48, and general manager since 1953. With Chicago Tribune-N.Y. Daily
News Syndicate as sales manager 1948-51. Member of Publicity Lodge
No. 1000, New York City and master in 1937. Member of Jerusalem
Chapter No. 8, R.A.M. and Coeur de Leon Cornmandery No. 23, K.T.,
both of New York City.

Joe E. Brown Stage and screen star. b. July 28, 1892 at

Holgate, Ohio. Began as a circus acrobat in 1902 and was with
burlesque and vaudeville from 1916-19. From 1919-27 was with musical
comedies including Lis- ten Lester, Greenwich Village Follies, Captain
Jinks and others. Leading roles in movies of which Crooks Can't Win
was his first "silent" and Painted Faces his first talking. Made the
"Elmer" films famous. Member of Rubicon Lodge No. 237, Toledo, Ohio
and of Al Malaikah Shrine in Los Angeles.
John Brown (1800-1859) American abolitionist fanatic, regarded
by some northern sympathizers as a martyr. Brown's cause was
glorified by the famous marching song, John Brown's Body. He was a
Freemason who later turned anti-Mason. b. May 9, 1800, he was
executed on Dec. 2, 1859 in Charlestown, Va. From 1856 on, he was
obsessed with the idea of abolishing slavery by force. When a pro-
slavery massacre occurred at Lawrence, Kans., Brown killed five
slavery adherents at Pottawatomie, Kans. in retaliation. He next made a
heroic stand at Osawatomie, Kans. against a raid by pro-slavery forces
from Missouri. He conceived a plan of establishing a new state as a
refuge for negroes. With help from Massachusetts abolitionists, he
seized the government arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Va. in 1859, intending
the action as a signal for a general insurrection of slaves. Overpowered
and convicted of treason, he was hanged Dec. 2, 1859. Brown was
raised in Hudson Lodge No. 68, Hudson, Ohio, on May 11, 1824,
serving as junior deacon in 1825-26. His uncle was the first master of
the lodge. Shortly after 1826 he moved to Pennsylvania and with the
anti-Masonic movement, he renounced Freemasonry and continued to
do so on every possible occasion. His son, John Brown, Jr. became a
Freemason and was buried with Masonic honors. His daughter, Sarah,
once told a biographer that Brown had stated that "the forms of the
initiatory ceremonies of the Masons struck him as silly," and in a negro
newspaper Brown wrote, "another of the few errors of my life is that I
have joined the Freemasons, Oddfellows, Sons of Temperance, and a
score of other secret societies instead of seeking the company of
intelligent, wise and good men.”

John Brown (1757-1837) First U.S. Senator from Kentucky and

last survivor of the Continental Congress. b. Sept. 12, 1757 at Staunton,
Va. Was a student at Princeton when the Revolutionary army retreated
through N.J. and he joined it, serving until the close of the war. Admitted
to bar in 1782, he practiced at Frankfort, Ky. He was elected to the
Virginia legislature from the district of Ky. and from the same district to
the Continental Congress of 1787-88. Later he was congressman from
this district (1789-92) and became the first U.S. Senator from Kentucky,
serving from Nov. 5, 1792 until March 3, 1805. He took a prominent part
in the Indian warfare, the admission of Kentucky into the union and in
securing navigation of the Mississippi for the west. Member of Lexington
Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and Lexington Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. d.
Aug. 29, 1837.

John C. Brown (1827-1889) Major General, C.S.A. and twice

governor of Tennessee. b. Jan. 6, 1827 in Giles Co., Tenn. Joined the
Confederate army at start of war and rose to major general. Left almost
destitute at close of war, he was employed as a railroad surveyor and
rose to president of the Nashville Railroad. He later had charge of the
Texas Pacific's construction to the Rio Grande and was receiver of the
entire property. President of the constitutional convention of Tennessee,
he was twice governor (in 1870 and 1875). A member of Pulaski Lodge
No. 101, Pulaski, Tenn., he served three terms as master and was
grand master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1869. Received his
Royal Arch degree in Pulaski Chapter No. 20 on Mar. 28, 1871 and
Knight Templar in Pulaski Commandery No. 12 on April 26, 1871. d.
Aug. 16, 1889.

John H. Brown (1820-1895) Early Texas newspaper editor,

soldier. b. Oct. 20, 1820 in Pike Co., Mo. Moved to Texas in 1840 with
his uncle, Dr. James Kerr, and worked on the Texas Sentinel. As first
sergeant of the "Minute Men" he engaged in several Indian campaigns
and after being wounded in the Battle of Salado in 1842 was discharged
in 1843. Worked on the Victoria Advocate and accepted a position of
colonel in state militia. In 1854 he bought an interest in the Galveston
Civilian and in 1858 became editor of the Belton Democrat. Attended
the Secession Convention of 1861 and served in the Confederate army
until 1862 when he was named adjutant general. Following the war he
went to Mexico and became commissioner of immigration under
Maximilian, returning to Texas in 1871. Represented Dallas in
legislature in 1873 and member of the 1875 Convention. He was
revising editor of the Encyclopedia of the New West and wrote History
of Dallas County, Life and Times of Henry Smith, History of Texas (2
volumes) and Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas. Was raised in
Clarksville Lodge No. 17, Clarksville, Mo. March 1, 1845 (on a visit to
his old state), demitting the same date and became one of the original
signers for a charter of Victoria Lodge No. 40, Victoria, Tex. d. May 31,
Louis M. Brown President of Eberhard Faber Pencil Co. b. Aug.
25, 1896 at Atlanta, Ga. Started with Eberhard Co. in 1923,
successively Canadian representative, advertising manager, assistant
sales manager, sales manager, general manager, vice president and
president since 1952. Mason.

Mordecai P. C. Brown (1876-1949) Elected to Baseball's Hall of

Fame in 1949. b. Oct. 19, 1876 at Nyesville, Ind. Full name was
Mordecai Peter Centennial and was called "Three Fingered" as he lost
two digits of his pitching hand in an accident during his coal mining
days. His two fingerstumps helped give his pitches strange and baffling
twists and curves. Throwing right handed, he was aswitch batter. Was
the ace hurler of Chance's Chicago Cubs and for six straight seasons
(1906-11) won 20 or more games for the Cubs. His lifetime major
league record was 239 wins against 130 losses. A good hitter, he was
one of the best fielding pitchers of all time. In 1908 he accepted 108
chances without an error. The same year he hurled four shutout games
in a row—the first major league pitcher to perform such a feat. He was
often pitted against the other pitching star of that era—Christ/
Mathewson q.v. and their duels were classics. In 24 meetings Brown
was victorious over Mathewson 13 times. He was a member of Edward
Dobbins Lodge No. 164, Lawrenceville, Ill. receiving his degrees on
March 24, May 19 and July 7, 1925. At the time his petition was
presented it was referred to the DDGM, Byron R. Lewis, for determining
whether the loss of two fingers would disqualify him for Masonic
membership. d. Feb. 14, 1949.

Norris Brown Former U.S. Senator from Nebraska. A Mason, he

served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Nebraska.

Prentiss M. Brown U.S. Senator from Michigan, lawyer, business

executive. b. June 18, 1889 in St. Ignace, Mich. Graduate of Albion
College and Univ. of Michigan. Practiced law since 1914. Member of
73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37) from 11th Mich. district. Appointed
to U.S. Senate in 1936 and elected for term 1937-43. Administrator,
Office of Price Administration, 1943. Chairman of the board of the
Detroit Edison Company since 1944. Chairman of the Mackinac Bridge
Authority. President, vice president and director of many corporations.
Member of St. Ignace Lodge No. 369, St. Ignace, Mich. he received the
33° AASR (NJ) in October, 1955.

Rex I. Brown President of Mississippi Power and Light Co. b.

Aug. 22, 1889 at Lowell, Mich. Began with Little Rock Railway & Electric
Co. in 1880 as clerk. With Arkansas Power & Light Co. 1927-32. In
1932 he became vice president and general manager of the Mississippi
Power & Light and president since 1936. Member of Trinity Lodge No.
694, Little Rock, Ark.; Union Chapter No. 2, R.A.M.; Occidental Council
No. 1, R. & S.M. and Hugh de Payens Cornmandery No. 1, K.T., all of
Little Rock, Ark. 32° AASR (SJ) at Little Rock April 23, 1925. Member of
Wahabi Shrine Temple, Jackson, Miss.

Roy H. Brown University president, Presbyterian missionary. b.

May 2, 1878 at Girard, Kans. Ordained Presbyterian minister in 1903
and from that date was a pioneer missionary in the Philippines,
establishing 79 churches and receiving over 2,500 members. Held
pastorates in U.S. from 1922-32, but returned to the Philippines to be
president of Silliman Univ., the largest theological evangelical institution
in the islands. Interned prisoner by the Japanese for 3% years and freed
by U.S. troops during WW2. Mason and 32° AASR.

Thomas Brown Former Governor of Florida. Raised in Hiram

Lodge No. 59 of Virginia in August, 1807, he became a member of
Jackson Lodge No. 1, Tallahassee, Fla. serving as secretary in 1833
and master in 1855 and was grand master of the Grand Lodge of
Florida in 1849. He was also grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of
Florida in 1834-35. He assisted in the formation of the grand lodge in
1830. A member of Florida Chapter No. 1, Tallahassee and Mackey
Council No. 1 of the same city, he was grand treasurer of the grand
chapter in 1848-59 and grand high priest in 1851.
Wallace E. Brown ( 1868 - 1939 ) Methodist bishop. b. Oct. 30,
1868 at Chittenango, N.Y. Ordained Methodist minister in 1894, holding
pastorates in New York state until 1924 when ordained bishop. He was
director of the Epworth League of the church and member of the
general conferences of 1912-16-20-24 and the Ecumenical conference
of London in 1921. Mason. d. Nov. 18, 1939.

Wilfred J. Brown Railroad executive. b. Aug. 10, 1893 at

Plymouth, Mass. Graduate of Harvard, 1917. President and director of
Consolidated Railroads of Cuba and The Cuba Railroad Co., 1941-48
and chairman of the board from 1948 until retirement in 1954. Served in
Navy during WW1. Mason.

William A. Brown Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Jan.

3, 1878 at Albemarle Co., Va. Ordained in 1901, serving churches of
Virginia until ordained bishop in 1938, serving Diocese of Southern Va.

Wm. Moseley Brown Educator, explorer, army officer, linguist

and personnel consultant. b. Feb. 27, 1894 at Lynchburg, Va. B.A. from
Washington and Lee Univ. in 1914; M.A. from Washington and Lee,
Columbia, and Ph.D. from Columbia. Professor of language, biology
and psychology in Washington and Lee from 1913-29. President of
Atlantic Univ. (Va.) 1929-32. Personnel director of Vick Chemical Co.
1937-42 and personnel consultant since 1947. Served in WW1,
advancing from private to 2nd It. In WW2 as major and lt. colonel,
194247. Independent Republican candidate for governor of Virginia in
1929 and to Congress in 1932. Was U.S. representative on Ulrich
expedition to interior of Brazil in 1931-32 and "Rio Brown" discovered
and so named for him by the Brazilian government. Also representative
on similar expedition to interior of Brazil in 1933-34. 33° AASR (SJ),
past grand master of Grand Lodge of Virginia, past high priest of Grand
Chapter, R.A.M. of Virginia and past grand commander, Grand
Commandery, K.T. of Virginia. As president of the National Sojourners,
his name was placed on the black list of the Vichy French government
during WW2. Author of many volumes including Character Traits as
Factors in Intelligence Test Performance (1923), Best Books on the
Choice of a Career (1926), History of Freemasonry in Virginia (1935),
Temp/ary in the Old Dominion (1937), The Making of a Mason (1949),
German Psychological Warfare (1941), Highlights of Templar History

Charles F. Browne (1834-1867) (originally "Brown") American

humorist who wrote under the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward." b. in
Waterford, Maine. Learned the printer's trade at age of 14 on a Maine
newspaper and later employed by the Plain-dealer in Cleveland, 0.
where his first series of Artemus Ward's Sayings were printed. When
the Vanity Fair was established in New York he was asked to be a
contributor, and later its editor. He then gave humorous lectures
throughout the country, 186 1 - 1866, and an English tour, 1866-1867.
He died in Southampton, England of tuberculosis on March 6, 1867. He
received his degrees in Manhattan Lodge No. 62, New York City on
Sept. 4, 25, and Oct. 2, 1863.

Edward E. Browne ( 1868 - 1945 ) U.S. Congressman, 63rd to

71st Congresses (1913-31) from 8th Wis. district. b. Feb. 16, 1868 at
Waupaca, Wis. Graduate of Univ. of Wisconsin. In law practice at
Waupaca from 1892. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ).

Jefferson B. Browne (1857-1937) Chief Justice, Supreme Court

of Florida. b. June 6, 1857 at Key West, Fla. Received LL.B. from Univ.
of Iowa in 1880. In Key West he was successively city attorney,
postmaster and collector of customs. Member of Florida state senate
from 1891-95 and en-officio lieut.-governor 1891-93. Was chief justice
of Supreme Court of Florida from 1917-23 and associate justice 1923-
25, resigning to become judge of 20th judicial circuit. Mason, Knight
Templar and 32° AASR (SJ). d. May 4, 1937.
J. Lewis Browne (1866-1933) Organist. b. May 18, 1866 at
London, Eng., coming to America in 1875. Studied in U.S. and Europe.
Was soloist at Royal Academy of St. Cecilia in Rome, 1901. Organist at
Wanamaker's Egyptian Hall, Philadelphia 1908-10 and the St. Louis and
Jamestown world fairs. Organist and choirmaster of St. Patrick's
Church, Chicago from 1912. Faculty member, Univ. of Notre Dame.
Designed the great organ in Medinah Shrine Temple, Chicago and
conducted symphony concerts there. Director of music public schools of
Chicago from 1928. Composed the opera La Corsicana (1923) which
was produced in the Chicago Playhouse. His Ecce Sacerdos Magnus
was produced by the Paulist Choristers of Rome in 1912. In 1921 he
wrote Missa Immaculatae Co n c e p tionis B.V.M. for the 100th
anniversary of the establishment of the Catholic Diocese of Cincinnati.
Also wrote more than 60 songs, pieces for organ, orchestra, piano, etc.
Mason and 32° AASR (NJ). d. Oct. 23, 1933.

John Browne Englishman who in 1798 published in London one

of the first ciphers of the Masonic ritual. It was entitled: The Master Key
Through All the Degrees of a Freemason's Lodge, to Which Is Added,
Eullogiums and Illustrations Upon Freemasonry. In 1802 he published a
second edition under a much lengthier title. The works are now very
rare. Browne claimed to have been past master of six lodges, and his
ciphers are considered to be a very complete representation of the
monitorial Prestonian lectures. He stated that he printed them not as an
offensive expose, but as a means of giving Freemasons instruction and
the key to the cipher was only given personally.

John M. Browne (1831-1894) Surgeon General of U.S. Navy. b.

May 10, 1831 at Hinsdale, N.H. Graduated from Harvard Medical
School in 1852, entering Navy following year as assistant surgeon. Sent
to Calif. in 1954, he served aboard the storeship Warren at Sausalito
and was then transferred to the Mare Island Navy Yard. In the Civil War
he saw much service in Atlantic waters and was surgeon on the U.S.S.
Kearsarge in its engagement with the Alabama in 1864. According to
one account in the files of Naval Lodge, he was also surgeon in the
battle between the ironclads, the Merrimac and the Monitor. Following
the war, Browne was back at Mare Island where he was Medical
Inspector in 1871 and Director in 1878. His next promotion was to
surgeon-general, the highest medical rank in the Navy. He retired as
commodore in 1893 at the age of 62. Browne was initiated just 24 days
after he was 21 in Philesian Lodge No. 40, Winchester, N.H., receiving
all the degrees the night of June 3, 1852 by special dispensation. In
1866, on returning to California after the Civil War, he affiliated with
Naval Lodge No. 87 of Vallejo. He was elected master in 1870. In 1871
he was named grand orator of the Grand Lodge of California and in
1875 was elected grand master for the first of the four terms he was to
serve (1875-79). A member of Naval Chapter No. 35, R.A.M., he served
as grand high priest of Calif. in 1878; a member of California
Commandery No. 1, K.T. (knighted in 1867). In the Scottish Rite he
received his 33° on Oct. 20, 1880 and on Oct 18, 1886 was elected
treasurer general of the Supreme Council (S.J.). His wife was a
daughter of Francis Scott Key, author of the national anthem. d. Dec. 7,

Thomas C. Brownell (1779-1865) Protestant Episcopal Bishop.

b. Oct. 19, 1779 at Westport, Mass. Ordained deacon in 1816.
Consecrated bishop of Connecticut in 1819. First president of
Washington (now Trinity) College in 1829. During his last 12 years, he
was by seniority the presiding bishop of the United States. He retired in
1851. Received his degrees in Ade1phi Lodge No. 63, New Haven,
Conn. in 1824. d. Jan. 13, 1865.

Gordon Browning Governor of Tennessee. b. Nov. 22, 1889 in

Carroll Co., Tenn. Admitted to bar in 1915 and began practice at
Huntingdon. Member of 68th to 73rd Congresses (1923-35) from 7th
Tenn. dist. Governor of Tennessee in 1937-39 and again in 1949-51. In
WW1 he served ten months overseas and in WW2 served three years
in European theater. Member of Huntingdon Lodge No. 106,
Huntingdon, Tenn., receiving his degrees on Aug. 8, Oct. 6, 1919 and
Aug. 24, 1920. Was officially received in the Grand Lodge of Tennessee
in 1952. 32° AASR in Valley of Tennessee (SJ) and member of Al
Menah Shrine Temple.
Charles B. Brownson U.S. Congressman from 11th Indiana dist.
to 82nd, 83rd, 84th Congresses. b. Feb. 5, 1914 at Jackson, Mich.
Established Central Wallpaper and Paint Corp., in Indianapolis, 1936. In
WW2 he served as infantry lieutenant and later as executive officer to
assistant chief of staff, G-1, 1st Army in the invasion planning staff of
the Normandy invasion, European campaign and the Philippines.
Raised in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398 of Indianapolis, Ind. in 1950. 32°
AASR (NJ) at Indianapolis and Murat Shrine Temple of same city.

Nathan Brownson ( 1742 - 1796 ) Member of the Continental

Congress, Revolutionary surgeon and Governor of Georgia. b. May 14,
1742 at Woodbury, Conn. Graduated from Yale in 1761 and studied
medicine, practicing in Liberty Co., Ga. An early supporter of the
American cause, he was for some time a surgeon in the Revolutionary
army. He was a member of the provincial congress of 1775 and was a
delegate to the Continental Congresses of 1776 and 1778. As speaker
of the Georgia legislature, he was chosen by that body as governor of
the state in 1781. He was again speaker in 1788 and president of the
state senate in 1789-91. In 1789 he was a member of the convention
that framed the state constitution. He was a member of North Star
Lodge of Manchester, Vt. d. Nov. 6, 1796.

Eli Bruce Resident of Lockport, N.Y. and sheriff of Niagara Co.

at the time of the William Morgan affair. He aided in releasing Morgan to
unknown persons for which Governor DeWitt Clinton q.v. removed him
from office and he was later sent to prison for "aiding and abetting the
unlawful abduction." Bruce later wrote a book on the Morgan episode.
He was a member of Lockport Lodge No. 73 and Ames Chapter No. 88,
both of Lockport, N.Y.

James Bruce (1730-1794) Scottish explorer. Explored Africa,

and was known as "The Abyssinian Traveller." Was British consul at
Algiers from 1763-65. In 1770 he rediscovered the source of the Blue
Nile. Author of Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790 in 5
vols.) Raised in Can-ongate Kilwinning Lodge, Edinburgh, Scotland on
Aug. 1, 1753.
James Bruce Executive and former U.S. Ambassador to
Argentina (1947-49). b. Dec. 23, 1892 at Baltimore, Md. Served as
officer overseas in WW1 with 2nd Infantry Division; special aide to
President Wilson; military attache in Italy and representative at
Versailles Peace Conference. In 1949-50 he was the first director of the
Mutual Defence Assistance Program. Has served as vice president of
several banks, including Chase National, Atlantic Exchange and
president of Baltimore Trust Co. He is a director of many large
corporations including Revlon, American Airlines, American-Hawaiian
Steamship, AVCO Mfg., Fruehauf Trailer and Technicolor, Inc. Mason
and 32° AASR.

Robert le Bruce (1274-1329) King and liberator of Scotland.

Opposed to Edward I of England as King of Scotland in 1296 and fought
against him in 1298, but adhered to him during invasion of 1302-4. He
murdered John Comyn in 1306 and was crowned as Robert I, King of
Scotland, at Scone in 1306. In the same year he was defeated by the
English and took refuge on the coast of Ireland, excommunicated and
outlawed. He returned the following year and in two years wrested most
of Scotland from the English, routing Edward II's army at Bannockburn
in 1314. He repulsed the English time after time until Edward III
recognized the independence of Scotland and Bruce's right to rule by
the treaty of 1328 at Northampton. He died of leprosy. He is traditionally
said to have introduced Freemasonry into Scotland and in 1314
established the Order of Herodom for the reception of those Knights
Templar who had taken refuge in his dominions from the persecutions
of the Pope and King of France. As part of a combined order, he is said
to have established the Royal Order of Scotland at the Battle of
Bannockburn in recognition of the Freemasons who helped him defeat
the English. His descendant, Lord Elgin q.v., is present head of the
Royal Order of Scotland and the possessor of the great sword of Robert
le Bruce.

Wallace Bruce (1844-1914) Poet, author and orator. b. Nov. 10,

1844 at Hillsdale, N.Y. Engaged in literary work from 1868 on. Was U.S.
consul at Edinburgh, Scotland 1889-93. Was poet and orator at
numerous centennial and memorial occasions in U.S., Scotland and
England, delivering the Burns anniversary addresses at Ayr, Edinburgh
and Kilmarnock. Among his writings were The Land of Burns (1878),
The Yosemite (1879), The Hudson, (1882), Old Homestead Poems
(1887), Leaves of Gold (1907), and Wanderers (1907). Member of
Hudson Lodge No. 7, Hudson, N.Y. d. Jan., 1914.

Walter Bruchhausen U.S. District Judge for eastern district of

New York since 1953. b. May 29, 1892 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Graduate of
New York U. in 1912 and admitted to bar in 1919, practicing in New
York City. Mason and 32° AASR (N.J.).

Wilber M. Brucker Secretary of Army, Governor of Michigan. b.

June 23, 1894 at Saginaw, Mich. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Michigan
in 1916. Admitted to bar in 1919 and began practice at Saginaw.
Attorney general of Michigan 1928-30 and governor of the state from
1931-33. Named general counsel of Department of Defense,
Washington in 1954 and on June 23, 1955 President Eisenhower
appointed him Secretary of the Army. Filed his Masonic petition on his
21st birthday and was raised in Salina Lodge No. 155 on Sept. 15,
1915, later serving as its master. A member of King Cyrus Chapter
No.133, R.A.M. of Detroit and Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T., he
served the latter as commander in 1943 and was grand commander of
Michigan in 1951. He belongs to Detroit Consistory AASR (NJ) and
Moslem Shrine Temple.

Henry Bruckner (1871-1942) U.S. Congressman from N.Y. 63rd

to 65th Congresses from 22nd N.Y. dist. b. June 17, 1871 in New York
City. President of Bruckner Bros., manufacturers. Member of New York
Assembly 1900-01, and commissioner of public works for New York
from 1902-06. Mason. d. April 14, 1942.

James Bruff Commandant of Upper Louisiana Territory shortly

after the U.S. took over the Louisiana purchase. In the Revolutionary
War he was a 1st lieutenant with the 7th Maryland regiment. A close
associate of General James Wilkinson q.v., governor of the Louisiana
Territory, he no doubt received his appointment as commandant
through his influence. He signed a petition to the Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, asking for a dispensation for a lodge in St. Louis, Mo.,
signing "J. Bruff, R.A.M." His original lodge is unknown. He is listed as a
visitor to American Union Lodge and as being "from Baltimore." He was
present on Dec. 27, 1799 at Morristown, N.J. when a petition was filed
nominating General Mordecai Gist q.v. to represent the lodge at a
convention to select a grand master of the United States (to be
Washington, but he declined). (1734-1815) Member of Lodge No. 7,
Chestertown, Md.

Clement Brumbaugh ( 1863 - 1921 ) U.S. Congressman 63rd to

66th Congresses (1913-21) from 12th Ohio dist. b. Feb. 28, 1863 at
Greenville, 0. Founder and principal of Van Buren Academy, 1887.
Admitted to bar in 1900 and practiced at Columbus. Mason. d. Sept. 28,

David E. Brumbaugh U.S. Congressman 79th Congress (1945-

47) from 22nd Pa. dist. b. Oct. 8, 1894 at Martinsburg, Pa. In insurance,
lumber and banking fields since 1914. Served as enlisted man in WW1.
Member of Woodbury Lodge No. 539 at Roaring Spring, Pa.; 32° AASR
(NJ) at Altoona, also past potentate of Jaffa Shrine Temple; Royal Order
of Jesters and DeMolay Legion of Honor.

Martin G. Brumbaugh (1862-1930) Governor of Pennsylvania. b.

April 14, 1862 in Huntington Co., Pa. Received the degrees of B.E.,
M.E., M.S., A.M., Ph.D. from Juniata College and Univ. of Pa. He was
president of Juniata College from 1895-1906 and again from 1924 until
death. He was superintendent of Philadelphia schools 1906-15; first
commissioner of education for Puerto Rico (1900-02). Elected governor
of Pennsylvania serving 1915-19. Author of many educational books.
Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 300, Huntington, Pa. d. May, 1930.
Avery Brundage Amateur sportsman who was president of the
U.S. Olympic Association and Committee from 1939-45 and president of
the Cimite Internationale 0 1 ympique since 1952. b. Sept. 28, 1887 at
Detroit, Mich. Graduated in engineering from Univ. of Illinois in 1909.
Was American all-around amateur champion in 1914, 1916 and 1918.
President of Avery Brundage Co. builders 191547, chairman Roanoke
Real Estate Co. since 1932; president Roanoke Hotel Corp., 1939-45. A
collector of Oriental art, he is a trustee of the Art Institute of Chicago.
Received many foreign decorations for his devotion to amateur
athletics. Member of North Shore Lodge No. 937, Chicago, Ill. 32°
AASR (NJ) at Chicago and member of Medinah Shrine Temple,

Guillaume M. A. Brune (1763-1815) French army officer who

was Marshal of France in 1804. Was murdered by a royalist mob during
the White Ter-ror at Avignon on Aug. 2, 1815. In 1814 he was grand
administrator of the Grand Orient of France.

Albert, Prince of Brunswick-Luneburg Prussian Major General.

Initiated in the Lodge "Jonathan" at Brunswick in 1744.

Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (1721-1792) Prussian Field

Marshal. b. in Wolfenbuttel, son of Ferdinand Albert II. Entered Prussian
service in 1740 and fought with Frederick the Great, who was for many
years his close companion. He rendered distinguished service at
Hohenfriedeberg in 1745 and was one of the ablest commanders of the
Seven Years' War. Was governor of Madgeburg in 175557 and 1763-
66, when in the latter year he became estranged from Frederick and
resigned from his service, devoting himself to Freemasonry. Initiated in
1740 in the Lodge of Three Globes, Berlin, he received his Master's
degree in 1743 at Breslau. Became protector of the Lodge St. Charles,
Brunswick in 1764 and English past grand master of Brunswick in 1770.
In 1771 he was protector of Von Hund's Strict Observance and in 1772
was declared grand master of the Scottish lodges. He was present in
1782 at the convent at Wilhelmsbad when the Templar system was
supposedly disbanded and while there was declared general grand
master of the assembled lodges. When presiding at the St. John's
festival at Brunswick in 1792, he proudly stated that he had been a
Freemason for 50 years.

Maximilian, Prince of Brunswick Youngest son of Duke Charles

I. Educated at the Collegium Carolinum and went to Italy in 1775.
Admitted in the Saint Charles Lodge, Brunswick in 1770, becoming its
protector. Served Frederick the Great with honors.

William, Prince of Brunswick Third son of Duke Charles I of

Brunswick who joined the Lodge St. Charles in 1769. Died, 1770. His
brothers, Maximilian and Frederick Augustus q.v. were prominent
members of the Craft.

Alvin G. Brush Business executive. b. Sept. 16, 1896 at Dunton,

N.Y. In accounting field from 1919-32 when he became president of R.
L. Watkins Co., mfgrs. of Dr. Lyons tooth powder until 1934. President
of Affiliated Products Co., cosmetics mfgr. until 1935 and chairman of
the board of American Home Products, mfgrs. of drugs and household
items since 1935. Raised in Garden City Lodge No. 1083, Garden City,
L.I., N.Y. in Nov., 1917.

George W. Brush (1842-1927) Congressional Medal of Honor

winner, physician. b. Oct. 4, 1842 at West Hills, L.I., N.Y. Served in U.S.
Volunteers, 1861-65 from private to captain, receiving Medal of Honor in
1897. First practiced dentistry and later went into medicine. Retired from
medical practice in 1906 to devote his time to civic betterment. Served
terms in both N.Y. houses of legislature. Mason. d. Nov. 18, 1927.

Henry Brush (1778-1855) Judge of Supreme Court of Ohio and

member of Congress from Ohio (1818-21). b. in June, 1778 in Dutchess
Co., N.Y. Member of Scioto Lodge No. 2, Chillicothe, 0., he was grand
master of Ohio. d. Jan. 19, 1855.

Louis H. Brush (1872-1948) Newspaper publisher. b. Jan. 24, 1872 at

Alliance, 0. Purchased the Salem News in 1897; East Liverpool Review
in 1901; and with others the Marion Star, 1923; Steubenville Herald-
Star, 1926; Canton Repository, 1927; Portsmouth Times, 1930. In 1927
he organized the Brush-Moore Newspapers, Inc. of which he was
president. Ma-son, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. June 24, 1948.

Nathaniel Brush Revolutionary War colonel who headed the

Bennington (Vt.) militia at the battle of Bennington in Aug. 1777 which
later proved to be the turning point in the Revolution. He was a charter
member and first master of North Star Lodge, Manchester, Vt., formed
in 1785.

William Bryan Brigadier General of militia in the Revolutionary

War. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 3, New Bern, North Carolina.

William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) Secretary of State, U.S.

Congressman and presidential nominee three times. b. Mar. 18, 1860 at
Salem, Ill. Admitted to bar in 1883 and began practice at Jacksonville,
Ill. moving to Lincoln, Nebr. in 1887. Was member of 52nd and 53rd
Congresses (189195) from 1st Nebr. dist. Edited Omaha World-Herald
in 1894-96. As a delegate to the Democratic convention of 1896 he
wrote the famous "silver plank," of its platform and was nominated for
President, but defeated by McKinley 176 to 271 electoral votes. In the
Spanish-American war he was colonel of the 3rd Nebraska regiment.
Was again defeated for President by McKinley in 1900 155 votes to
292. Nominated for third time for President in 1908, he was defeated by
Taft, 162 votes against 321. As secretary of state in Wilson's cabinet
(1913-15) he negotiated 30 treaties. He was raised in Lincoln Lodge No.
19, Lincoln, Nebr. on Apr. 15, 1902 and later affiliated with Temple
Lodge No. 247, Miami, Fla. d. in Miami July 26, 1925.
Joseph R. Bryson (1893-1953) U.S. Congressman 76th to 82nd
Congresses (1939-53) from fifth S. Car. Dist. b. Jan. 18, 1893 at
Brevard, N.C. Graduate of Furman Univ. and Univ. of South Carolina.
Member of state legislature 1921-24 and senate 192932. Mason, 32°
AASR, (SJ) and Shriner. d. March 10, 1953.

Charles William, Duke of Buccleuch (See Earl of Dalkeith)

Francis, 2nd Duke of Buccleuch (See Earl of Dalkeith) Earls of Buchan
Henry David, 10th Earl was the 10th Grand Master Mason of Scotland,
1745-46. David, 11th Earl was 34th Grand Master Mason 1782-83 and
Henry David, 12th Earl was 59th Grand Master Mason, 1832-33.

James Buchanan (1791-1868) Fifteenth President of the United

States (1857-61). b. April 23, 1791 near Mercersburg, Pa. He was U.S.
minister to Russia from 1832-34, U.S. senator from Pennsylvania 1934-
45, secretary of state in Polk's cabinet 1845-49 and U.S. minister to
England 1853-56. His undated petition to Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa.
stated that he resided in the borough of Lancaster, age 25 and was an
attorney at law. One of the signers was Malton C. Rogers q.v. who was
later secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and for 25 years
a justice of the supreme court of that state. Buchanan was initiated Dec.
11, 1816 by John Reynolds, passed and raised Jan. 24, 1817 by
George Whitaker. On Dec. 13, 1820 he was elected junior warden and
on Dec. 7, 1822 unanimously elected master. On Dec. 27, 1823 he was
appointed as the first district deputy grand master of that district. On
March 10, 1858 he donated $100 to the lodge and was elected an
"honorary" member, the record book being changed from "life" to
"honorary." On May 15, 1865 he attended a special meeting of No. 43
which was his last attendance. A history of Perseverance Lodge No. 21,
Harrisburg, Pa. states that Buchanan never failed to visit Perseverance
during the earlier daysof his life if in town. He was exalted to the Royal
Arch degree in Chapter No. 43 at Lancaster. On Feb. 22, 1860 he
assisted in the Masonic dedication of the George Washington statue in
Washington Circle, Washington, D.C. and delivered the dedicatory
address. d. June 1, 1868 and was given Masonic burial by his home
lodge at Lancaster on June 4. Four thousand persons attended the
James T. Buchanan (1853-?) Business executive and authority
on Masonic history, literature and doctrines. b. Aug. 3, 1853 at
Hamilton, Ont., Canada, settling in Pennsylvania in 1877. He was at one
time president of the Pittsburgh Trust Co., and Pittsburgh Terminal
Warehouse & Transfer Co. Raised in Strict Observance Lodge at
Hamilton, Ont. on Aug. 17, 1875. Knighted in Talbot Commandery No.
43, K.T., Oil City, Pa. on July 23, 1883 and received council degrees in
Mt. Moriah Council No. 2, R. & S.M. at Pittsburgh on Dec. 3, 1883. At
time of his death he was dean of the Northern Supreme Council AASR.

John P. Buchanan Former Governor of Tennessee. Member of

Charles Fuller Lodge No. 412, Rutherford Co., Tenn. which was later
Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 18, of Murfreesboro.

George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (1628-1687) b. Jan.

30, 1628. A questionable character whom Dryden described as the
"epitome of mankind" and Dr. Anderson stated was the grand master of
England in 1674. He joined the Royalists in 1640 and served under
Prince Rupert, later joining Lord Holland's rising in Surrey in 1648. He
engaged in a series of intrigues and caused much scandal by his
personal immorality. He was attacked in parliament as a promoter of
popery and arbitrary government, and dismissed from office in 1674.
Remembered as Simri in Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel and a figure
in Scott's Peveril of the Peak. A poet and author, himself, his best
known is the burlesque, The Rehearsal (1671). d. April 16, 1687.

James T. Buckley President of Philco Corp. b. Oct. 13, 1896 at

Philadelphia, Pa. Began as a laboratory assistant with Philco in 1912,
rising as chief draftsman, assistant engineer, general purchasing agent,
treasurer and president from 1939-43. Chairman of executive committee
since 1943 and chairman of the board since 1949. Member of Palestine
Lodge No. 470, Philadelphia; Germantown Chapter No. 208, and 32°
AASR (NJ) all of Philadelphia.
Alexander Buckner ( 1785 - 1833 ) U.S. Senator from Missouri
and first grand master of Indiana in 1818. b. in Jefferson Co., Ky., he
practiced law in Charlestown, Ind. as early as 1812. He was probably
raised in Union Lodge No. 29, Madison, Ind. for he demitted from there
on May 6, 1816, affiliating with Blazing Star Lodge No. 3, Charleston,
Indiana Territory and by 1818 was a past master of that lodge. Shortly
after serving as the first grand master of Indiana (1818) he moved to
Missouri. While grand master he engaged in a duel with another Ma
son, Col. Thomas H. Blake. In Missouri he became the first master of
Unity Lodge No. 6, Jackson, Mo. He was a member of Missouri's state
constitutional convention of 1820 and served several terms in the state
legislature. Was U.S. Senator from 1831 until his death on June 6,

Simon Bolivar Buckner (1823-1914) Lieutenant General in

Confederate Army and Governor of Kentucky. b. in Hart Co., Ky. April 1,
1823. Served with distinction in war with Mexico being advanced from
2nd lieut. to captain. Taught at West Point, re-signing from U.S. Army in
1855. He was inspector general of Kentucky from 1860-61 and at start
of Civil War was made brigadier general, advancing through major
general to lieutenant general in 1864. Was prisoner of war for two
months in 1862. Governor of Kentucky in 1887-91. He was a candidate
for vice president of the United States on the "Gold Ticket" in 1896. d.
Jan. 8, 1914. Listed as a Freemason in the Grand Lodge of Kentucky
proceedings of 1891.

Frederick G. Budlong (1881-1953) Protestant Episcopal bishop

of Connecticut. b. July 10, 1881 at Camden, N.Y. Ordained deacon and
priest in 1907, serving churches in St. Paul, Minn., Winnetka, Ill.,
Chicago, Pittsburgh and Greenwich, Conn. until 1931 when he was
consecrated bishop-coadjutor of Connecticut and bishop in 1934.
Mason. d. Sept. 25, 1953.

Buffalo Bill (See William F. Cody)

Howard Buffett U.S. Congressman, 78th to 80th Congresses
(1943-49) from 2nd Nebr. dist. b. Aug. 13, 1903 at Omaha, Nebr. Began
as journalist and bond salesman. President of Buffett & Co. since 1931
and South Omaha Feed Co. since 1938. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.
Raised in Covert Lodge No. 11, Omaha, Nebr. in 1930; 32° and KCCH
in AASR (SJ) at Omaha and past master of Mt. Moriah Lodge of
Perfection. Past president of Omaha Square and Compass Club,
member of Tangier Shrine Temple, Omaha.

Charles H. Buford President of C.M. St.P. & P. Railroad. b. Feb.

5, 1886 at Newport, Ark. Graduated from Univ. of Arkansas in 1907.
Started with the C.M. St.P. & P. as engineer of track elevation in 1907
and worked way up to presidency in May, 1947. Was vice president of
Operations and Maintenance Dept. of the Association of American
Railroads from 1939-46. Member of Ottumwa Lodge No. 16, Ottumwa,
Ia.; 32° AASR (SJ) at Sioux City, Ia. and member of Zorah Shrine
Temple, Terre Haute, Ind.

Rivers H. Buford Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Florida. b.

Jan. 18, 1878 at Pulaski, Tenn. Admitted to Florida bar in 1900. Served
in many public capacities as prosecuting attorney, state's attorney, and
attorney general of the state (1921-25), resigning to be appointed
supreme court justice and has served on the court since that date. Was
chief justice from 1931-33 and 1943-45. Mason and Shriner.

Johann Gottlieb Buhle (1753-1821) Professor of philosophy in

the University of Gottingen, who, although not a Freemason, published
a work in 1804 entitled Origin and the Principal Events of the Order of
Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry. His theory was that Freemasonry
was invented in the year 1629 by John Valentine Andrea q.v.
William F. Bulkley Protestant Episcopal Archdeacon for Utah,
(1924-49). Now retired. b. April 21, 1881 at Tashua, Conn. Ordained
deacon in 1908 and subsequently, priest, and general missionary.
Raised in Wasatch Lodge No. 1, Salt Lake City, Utah in 1916 and
presently member of Story Lodge No. 4, Provo, Utah. Member of Utah
Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. and past grand high priest of the Grand Chapter
of Utah in 1927; Utah Council No. 1, and past grand illustrious master in
1942; Utah Commandery No. 1, K.T. and past grand generalissimo of
Grand Commandery of Utah in 1928. Served as master of his lodge,
president of Order of High Priesthood, master of Order of Silver Trowel;
prior of K.Y.C.H. and presently prelate of national K.Y.C.H. Member of
El Kalah Shrine Temple; 32° AASR (SJ) at Salt Lake City.

Chief Crazy Bull Great grandson of Sitting Bull is said to have

been a member of Suffolk Lodge No. 60, Port Jefferson, N.Y.

Daniel F. Bull President of the Cream of Wheat Corp. b. at

Grand Forks, N.D. in 1886. Graduated from Univ. of North Dakota in
1906. In engineering from 1908-18 when he became associated with
the Cream of Wheat Corp. as assistant general manager and has been
president and general manager since 1940. Director of a number of
large corporations. Mason.

Harold R. Bull Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Jan. 6, 1893 at

Springfield, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1914. Served in
WW1 with 3rd Division, A.E.F. In WW2 he was with the Allied Force
Headquarters in North Africa (1943), commanding general of the III
Corps (1943); assistant chief of staff, G-3, Supreme Headquarters,
Allied Expeditionary Force, 1943-45; deputy chief of staff and chief of
staff U.S. Forces, European theater ( 1945 -46 ) . Received rank of
lieutenant general in 1949. Mason and National Sojourner.

Ole B. Bull (1810-1880) Famed Norwegian violinist. b. Feb. 5,

1810 in Bergen, Norway. Studied under Spohr and Paganini and toured
as virtuoso throughout the world. Made five tours through North America
(1843-79) and eventually spent each summer in America and the
winters in Norway. In 1852 he attempted to found a Norwegian colony in
Pennsylvania, but he had been deceived by land titles and lost a
fortune. His own lodge is not known, but he was a visitor to St. Cecile
Lodge No. 568 of New York City in March, 1868 and the Lodge of St.
Andrew in Massachusetts. His business manager in this country was
Fred Widdows, past master of Clinton Lodge No. 453, N.Y. On Oct. 30,
1845 Bull gave a concert for the Masonic Hall and Asylum Fund of the
Grand Lodge of New York which netted $1,400. d. Aug. 18, 1880.

Egbert F. Bullene Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Jan. 25,

1895 at Salinas, Calif. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in 1917,
he was commissioned that year and advanced through grades to
general officer in 1943. During WW1 he was a battalion commander in
4th Division. In 1944 he commanded a joint American-British secret
Army-Navy project. Served in European and Pacific theaters in 1945.
He was a member of the military commission that tried and convicted
General Yamashita. Mason.

H. Edmund Bullis b. July 24, 1888 at Manlius, N.Y. Engaged in

chamber of commerce organization 1910-17. Sent by General Leonard
Wood q.v. on special mission to rulers of Indo-China, Siam,' Malay,
Borneo 1922-23. Chief of Organized Reserve Section, General Staff,
U.S. Army, 1924-27. Active in associations for mental hygiene,
dementia praecox and human relations. Served in both world wars. In
WW2 he was on claims commission for England, French Morocco,
North Africa, Sicily, Italy. Author of several volumes including The Land
of Masonic Romance and Human Relations in Action. Raised in
Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, of Va. in 1910; member of Lake Ontario
Chapter No. 165, R.A.M. at Oswego, N.Y. and Lake Ontario
Commandery, K.T. of same city. 32° AASR (NJ) in Wilmington, Del.;
Media Shrine Temple of Watertown, N.Y.; past president of DuPont
Chapter of National Sojourners; organizing president of Rockefeller
Square Club in N.Y.C. (1935); served as ceremonial director for Afifi
and Nile Shrine Temples in the Philippines in 1922-23.
Archibald Bulloch ( 1730-1 777 ) President of Georgia, holding
that office in 1776-77 just before the state constitution came into
existence. b. in Charleston, S. Car. he studied law, was admitted to the
bar and settled in Georgia. In 1772 he became speaker of the commons
house and in 1775 was elected a member of the provincial congress,
and became its president. The next year he was again elected and
presided over the second provincial congress and was sent as a
delegate to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. He missed
signing the Declaration of Independence as he was in Georgia at the
time. His son, William B. q.v. was later a U.S. Senator from Georgia.
Member of Solomons Lodge No. 1, Savannah.

William B. Bulloch (1776-1852) U.S. Senator from Georgia. b. in

Savannah, he was the son of Archibald Bulloch q.v. Became a
prominent lawyer and in 1809 was elected mayor of Savannah.
Subsequently he was collector of the port. Served in War of 1812 in
Savannah heavy artillery. Appointed U.S. Senator to fill a vacant term
and served in year 1813. His lodge is not known, but probably was
Solomon's No. 1, Savannah. He wrote an address on Masonry about
1810-15 and the original copy is in the House of the Temple,

Edward G. E. Bulwer-Lytton (18031873) First Baron Lytton of

Knebworth and brother of Sir Henry Bulwer. English novelist and
politician. His first novel was Faulkland (1827) followed by Pe/ham
(1828). He was a member of Parliament from 183141 during which time
he produced three plays, The Lady of Lyons, Richelieu and Money.
Returning to politics he was a member of parliament from 1852-66 and
colonial secretary 1858-59. Created baron in 1866. Among his historical
and romantic novels are Eugene Aram (1832), The Last Days of
Pompeii (1834) and Rienzi (1835) on which Wagner's opera of the same
name is based. Among his poems is The World May Rail at Masonry.

Alfred L. Bulwinkle U.S. Congressman, 67th to 70th Congresses

(1921-29) and 72nd to 81st Congresses (1931-51) from 11th N. Car,
district. b. April 21, 1883 at Charlestown, S. Car. Admitted to bar in
1904. Served overseas as major in WW1. Member of executive board of
United Lutheran Church in America. Mason.

Horace A. Bumby Manufacturing executive. b. Aug. 22, 1890 at

Burnett, Wis. President and general manager of Speed Queen Corp.,
Ripon, Wis. since 1940. President and director of Ripon Foods, Inc.,
since 1930. Officer and director of several corporations. Mason.

Edward Buncombe (?-1777) Colonel in American Revolution, b.

in the West Indies, he was educated in England and inherited a large
estate. Came to America in 1776, settling in Tyrrel Co., N. Car. He
raised and commanded the 5th N. Car. regiment and fought in the
battles of Brandywine and Germantown, being wounded and taken
prisoner in the latter, dying of wounds at Philadelphia. In 1791 his name
was given to a county in N. Car. The Americanism "speaking for
Buncombe," signifying any speech made solely to please a
constituency, is derived from a congressional representative from that
county who was in the habit of making speeches to which no one
listened. One day, observing many members were leaving the house,
he declared that he did not care how many left—he was not speaking to
them, but to Buncombe! Buncombe was a member of Unanimity Lodge
No. 7 at Edenton, N. Car. His degree dates were May 16, May 26, June
3, 1776.

Charles E. Bunnell First president of University of Alaska. b. Jan.

12, 1878 at Dimock, Pa. Received A.B., A.M. and LL.D. from Bucknell
Univ. Arrived in Alaska in 1900 and taught school, being admitted to bar
in 1908. Appointed judge of U.S. District Court, 4th Division, serving
1915-21. First president of Alaska Agricultural College and School of
Mines (now Univ. of Alaska) from 1922-35 and president of the Univ. of
Alaska from 1935. Mason.
George A. Bunting President of Noxzema Chemical Co. b. April
3, 1870 at Bishopville, Md. A.B. and A.M. from Washington College, Md.
and Ph.G. from Univ. of Maryland School of Pharmacy. First with public
schools of Bishopville, Md. as principal then proprietor of Bunting's Drug
Store in Baltimore (1902-22) where he originated the Noxzema formula
in 1914. Established the Noxzema Co. in 1917 and was president until
1949, being chairman of the board since that time. Mason, 32° AASR
and Shriner.

John Bunyan (1628-1688) Preacher and most celebrated

allegorical writer of England. b. at Elstow, near Bedford, he served in
the Parliamentary army from 1644-46. Moved by two devotional books
of his wife's, he gave up amusements and swearing and joined the
nonconformist church in Bedford in 1653. He began to preach in 1657
and published his first writings against the Quakers in 1656. Served 12
years (1660-72) in prison for preaching without a license. Wrote nine
books while in prison. During a short imprisonment in 1675 he is
supposed to have written the immortal Pilgrim's Progress, published in
1678. Although it is not known whether he was a Freemason or not, his
little-known work Solomon's Temple Spiritualized contains so much
Masonic phraseology and dogma that it would be hard to believe that he
did not have some knowledge of the Craft.

Luther Burbank (1849-1926) Horticulturist and naturalist. b.

March 7, 1849 at Lancaster, Mass. Spent his boyhood on the farm and
became interested in plant life at an early age. He moved to Santa
Rosa, Calif. in 1875 where he established Bur-bank's Experimental
Farms. The first practical result of his experiments was the Burbank
potato. Others were a rapid-growing, edible, thornless cactus; 11 types
of plums and four types of prunes; a new fruit, the "plumcot";
Peachblow, Burbank and Santa Rosa roses; gigantic forms of amaryllis,
tigridian, the Shasta daisy and various new apples, peaches, nuts,
berries, trees, fruits, flowers, grasses, grains and vegetables. Burbank
was raised in Santa Rosa Lodge No. 57 on August 13, 1921 and
coroneted an honorary 33° AASR (SJ) on Oct. 20, 1925. d. April 11,
Henry Burbeck (1754-1848) Founder of West Point, soldier of
the Revolution and War of 1812. b. June 8, 1754 at Castle William in
Boston harbor. His father, William, was commanding officer of Castle
William and as senior grand warden of St. John's Provincial Grand
Lodge in Boston, he had signed the warrant for American Union Lodge.
Henry was commissioned as lieutenant of artillery in May, 1775 and his
commission was signed by Joseph Warren q.v. He served under such
famous artillerymen (and Masons) as Gridley, Knox and Crane q.v. In
the Revolution he was at the battles of Long Island, Brandywine and
Germantown, wintering at Valley Forge. He was stationed at West Point
and commanded the troops that took over New York City from the
British on Nov. 25, 1783. He was discharged from service in 1784 but
re-entered the army and was in command of his birthplace, Castle
William in 1786. He served again at West Point, building Ft. St.
Tammany and was with Wayne in the Northwest Territory in 1792. In
1800 he was named Chief of Artillerists and Engineers and
recommended the establishment of a military school for training cadets
that later developed into the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. When
the Corps of Engineers was created in 1801, Burbeck was its first chief.
In the War of 1812 he commanded the harbor defenses of New York,
New London and Newport. It is no doubt that under his instructions
volunteer working parties of Freemasons marched to those several sites
where earthworks were raised under the name of Fort Hiram, Fort
Masonic, etc. Burbeck retired in 1815 as a brigadier general. He was a
member of St. John's Lodge, Boston, as was his father. In the spring of
1792 he commanded a force sent to Fort Recovery, Ohio to bury over
200 Americans that had fallen there on Nov. 4 of the preceding year
under General St. Clair when the Miami Indians overwhelmed them. At
his direction they were all buried in a common grave and both military
and Masonic ceremonies were given over the grave. d. Oct. 2, 1848.

Thomas G. Burch (1869-1951) U.S. Congressman, 72nd to 77th

Congresses (1931-43) from 5th Virginia dist. b. July 3, 1869 in Henry
Co., Va. In banking business. U.S. Marshal Western Dist. of Va. from
1914-21. Mason and Shriner. d. March 20, 1951.

Clark Burdick (1868-1948) U.S. Congressman 66th to 72nd

Congresses (1919-33) from 1st R.I. dist. b. Jan. 13, 1868 at Newport,
R.I. Practiced law at Newport from 1894. Served as city solicitor, mayor,
and in the state house and senate. Mason and 32° AASR. d. Aug. 27,

Usher L. Burdick U.S. Congressman 74th to 78th and 81st to

84th Congresses from North Dakota at large. b. Feb. 21, 1879 at
Owatonna, Minn., he was raised among the Sioux Indians. Received
law degree from Univ. of Minnesota and admitted to N. Dak. bar in
1904. He has been a member of the N. Dak. house, speaker of the
house, lieutenant governor, states attorney and assistant federal
attorney of N. Dak. Author of several books including The Last Battle of
the Sioux Nation (1928), Tragedy in the Great Sioux Camp (1939), and
Tales from Buffalo Land (1940). Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 51,
Williston, N. Dak. Dimitted from York and Scottish Rite.

Gottfried A. Burger ( 174 7- 1794 ) German romantic poet and

writer of ballads. Translated Homer and Shakespeare. His ballad
Lenore (1773) is considered to be his masterpiece. Also wrote Die Kuh
(1784), Der Wilde Jager (1785), Der Kaiser und der Abt (1785) and
Lenardo und Blandine. Edited the first German version of Baron
Munchausen. Was initiated in 1775.

William 0. Burgin (?-1946) U.S. Congressman 76th to 78th

Congresses (1939-45) from 8th N. Car. dist. b. at Marion, N. Car.
Practiced law in Lexington. Served in N. Car. house and senate. Mason.
d. April 11, 1946.

Father Jose Burgos (?-1872) Catholic priest, who although not a

Freemason, had a Scottish Rite chapter of Rose Croix named for him—
Burgos Chapter, Manila, Philippines. A liberal-minded native priest, he
campaigned vigorously for reforms in religion and government in the
Philippines in the second half of the 19thcentury. In opposing the
despotic powers of the Spanish friars, he was on the side of many
Masons, who while they were in accord with the spiritual side of the
Catholic Church, resisted the subjugation of the people under the cloak
of religion. For this, he with two other priests were put to death Feb. 17,
1872 by garroting.

Andrew H. Burke Former Governor of North Dakota. Mason, 33°


Edmund Burke (1729-1797) British statesman and orator who

gained fame by favoring the cause of the American colonies. b. in
Dublin of Protestant father and Catholic mother, he was brought up a
Protestant. He abandoned legal studies for writing. Became a member
of Parliament in 1765 and gained high position among the Whigs
through his eloquence on the American question. Delivered a nine-day
speech for the impeachment of Warren Hastings. Advocated
abolishment of the slave trade, advocated free trade with Ireland and
emancipation of Catholics; denounced use of Indians in American war.
He was thought to be a member of Jerusalem Lodge No. 44,
Clerkenwell, London which was sometimes referred to as "Burke's
Lodge." Burke championed John Wilkes q.v. when he was imprisoned
for libel, writing the political pamphlet Th.oughts on the Present
Discontents in his defense. It is significant that members of Jerusalem
Lodge No. 44 went to the King's Bench Prison on March 3, 1769 and
made John Wilkes a Mason. d. July 9, 1797.

Edward R. Burke Former U.S. Senator from Nebraska. Member

of Omaha Lodge No. 288, Omaha, Nebr. receiving his Scottish Rite (SJ)
in 1927 and KCCH on Oct. 17, 1933.

Haslett P. Burke Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Colorado. b.

April 28, 1874 in Monona Co., Iowa. Admitted to bar and moved to
Colorado in 1896. Served as clerk in district court of Logan Co. and then
as district judge from 1907-19. Served as judge of the supreme court
from 1919 until voluntary retirement in 1949. He was chief justice in
1927, 1937, 1938. Declined appointment as U.S. Senator in 1941.
Served in Spanish American War. Self educated, the first time he ever
set foot on a campus of higher learning was to deliver the
commencement address, and the first time he entered the door of a law
school was as a teacher of constitutional law. Raised in Sterling Lodge
No. 34 in 1903 and elected master three months later. He was grand
master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1920-21. Received 32° AASR
(SJ) in 1905, KCCH in 1909; 33° in 1914 and GCCH in 1939. Appointed
deputy in Colorado in 1940; crowned active member in 1941 and in
1955 elected as lieutenant grand commander of the Southern
Jurisdiction. d. 1957.

Elmer J. Burkett (1867-1935) U.S. Senator from Nebraska. b.

Dec. 1, 1867 in Mills Co., Iowa. LL.B. and LL.M. from Univ. of Nebraska
and entered law practice in 1891 at Lincoln, Nebr. Member of the
Nebraska lower house for one term and U.S. Congressman, 56th to
59th Congresses (1899-1905) from 1st Nebr. dist. U.S. Senator 1905-
11. Mason and 32° AASR. d. May 23, 1935.

Edwin C. Burleigh (1843-1916) U.S. Senator and Governor of

Maine. b. Nov. 27, 1843 at Linneus, Me. Taught school and was land
surveyor in early life, later publisher of the Kennebec Journal (1887 on).
He was state treasurer from 1885-88 and governor of Maine 1889-92. A
member of the U.S. Congresses, 1897-1911 from 3rd Maine dist. and
U.S. Senator 1913 until death on June 16,1916. Member of Augusta
Lodge No. 141, Augusta, Me.

Albert S. Burleson (1863-1937) Postmaster General of U.S. b.

June 7, 1863 at San Marcos, Tex. Received degrees from Baylor Univ.
and Univ. of Texas and admitted to bar in 1885. Member of 56th to 62nd
Congresses (1899-1903) from 9th Texas dist. Also congressman from
10th dist. in 190313. Resigned from 63rd Congress to accept
postmaster generalship in cabinet of President Wilson, serving from
1913-21. Member of the Masonic bodies of Austin, Texas. d. Nov. 24,
Edward Burleson Vice President of Republic of Texas. Member
of Clinton Lodge No. 54, Bolivar, Tenn. Initiated March 22, 1826.

Anson Burlingame ( 1820 - 1 87 0 ) U.S. Minister to China. b.

Nov. 14, 1820 in New Berlin, N.Y. Graduated from Harvard law school
in 1846 and practiced in Boston, serving in the state senate and a
member of the state constitutional convention. U.S. Congressman to
34th, 35th and 36th Congresses, he was one of the founders of the
Republican party in 1855. He gained national fame when he denounced
the assault by Preston S. Brooks on Senator Sumner over the slavery
question, and when Brooks challenged him to a duel, he promptly
accepted, naming rifles as the weapons and the place to be Navy island
above Niagara Falls. Brooks backed down. President Lincoln appointed
him as minister to Austria, but the government refused to receive him as
he had spoken in favor of Hungarian independence. He was then
named minister to China in which capacity he served with distinction
and in 1867 Prince Kung, regent of China, named him as special envoy
to the United States and European powers to frame treaties of amity
with those nations. It became known as the "Burlingame Treaty." He
died in St. Petersburg, Russia on Feb. 23, 1870 while completing his
mission for China. He was made a Freemason in Amicable Lodge,
Cambridge, Mass. on Jan. 5, 1854.

David G. Burnet (1788-1870) President of Texas, soldier of

fortune, lawyer, jurist b. April 1, 1788 at Newark, N.J., son of Dr. William
Burnet, first master of Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10, Cincinnati, Ohio.
In 1806 he joined the liberator Miranda q.v. on the ship Leander in an
attempt to free Venezuela, and was with him again in 1808 on another
attempt. Afterwards studied law at Newark. On Nov. 24, 1813 he
petitioned St. John's Lodge of Newark and the minutes of Dec. 8, 1813
state that his petition was laid over for further consideration. Failing in
health, he drifted to the plains in 1817 and lived with the Comanches for
two years. He returned to Ohio where his family lived and then to
Louisiana where he practiced law for six years. He migrated to Texas in
1826 and in 1833 he wrote the document sent by the convention of
American settlers to the Mexican government. In 1834 he was
appointed one of the first three district judges of Texas. When Texas
declared her independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836, Burnet was
chosen as the first president of the Republic to serve until the adoption
of a constitution which took place on Oct. 22, 1836. During his eight
months as president many important events occurred including the
Battle of the Alamo, Goliad and San Jacinto as well as the capture of
Santa Anna q.v. In 1838 he was elected vice president, and was
president in 1840 during the illness of President Lamar. It was while vice
president that he was initiated in Holland Lodge No. 1 of Houston the
dates being Jan. 18, Jan. 24, and May 21, 1839. He de-mitted April 13,
1842 and there is no later Masonic record of him. He was defeated for
presidency in 1841 by Sam Houston q.v. and was first secretary of state
under Governor Henderson q.v. He then retired to his farm and died
Dec. 5, 1870. His brother Jacob q.v. was U.S. Senator from Ohio and
deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio.

Jacob Burnet (1770-1853) U.S. Senator from Ohio, pioneer jurist

and political figure. b. Feb. 22, 1770 at Newark, N.J., son of Dr. William
q.v. and brother of David G. q.v. Graduated at Princeton in 1791 and in
1796 was admitted to the bar and settled in Ohio where he became a
leading citizen. In 1799 he was appointed to the legislative council of the
Northwest Territory and was active in forming the state government. In
1812 he was a member of the state legislature and judge of the
supreme court in 1821-28. From 1828-31 he served Ohio as U.S.
Senator. He was first president of the colonizing Society of Cincinnati. In
1799-1801 he was master of Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10 (now N.C.
Harmony, No. 2) at Cincinnati. His father was first master of this lodge.
He also is listed in the grand lodge proceedings as a past master of
Scioto Lodge No. 6. A Royal Arch Mason, he was deputy grand master
of the Grand Lodge of Ohio in 1810-12 and at one time served as grand
orator of that body. d. May 10, 1853.

William Burnet (1730-1791) Pioneer physician, member of

Continental Congress of 1776. b. Dec. 13, 1730 at Newark, N.J., he was
the son of a physician who came from Scotland. Two of his six sons
became famous, David G. q.v. being the first President of Texas and
Jacob q.v., U.S. Senator from Ohio. He graduated from Princeton in
1749—the school's second year. He was a member of Congress in
1780-81. From 1776 until the close of the war, he was surgeon general
of the eastern district of the United States. When the grand lodge of
New Jersey chartered Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10 at Cincinnati on
Sept. 8, 1791 he was named as first master. Shortly after this (Oct. 7,
1791) he died.

George H. Burnett ( 1853 - 192 7 ) Justice, Supreme Court of

Oregon from 1892-1911. b. May 9, 1853 in Yamhill Co., Oreg. Practiced
law at Salem, Oreg. 1876-92 and then served as district attorney, court
reporter and circuit judge. Mason. d. Sept. 10, 1927.

James Burnett (Lord Monboddo) q.v. (1714-1799) Scottish judge

and pioneer anthropologist. Samuel Johnson visited him in 1773. He
was the author of The Origin and Progress of Language (1773-92)
which brought man into affinity with orangutans and traced elevation of
man to a social state as a natural process. The Bulletin of the
International Masonic Congress (1917) states that he was a

Henry E. Burnham ( 1844 -1917 ) U.S. Senator from New

Hampshire. b. Nov. 8, 1844 at Dumbarton, N.H. Graduate of Dartmouth
in 1867 and admitted to bar in 1868. Held several political offices and
was U.S. Senator from 1901-13. A member of Washington Lodge No.
61, Manchester, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of New
Hampshire in 1885. A 33° AASR (NJ). d. Feb. 8, 1917.

George Burnham (1868-1939) U.S. Congressman, 73rd and

74th Congresses (1933-37). b. Dec. 28, 1868 in London, England.
Came to United States in 1881 and naturalized in 1890. Began as a
clerk in store, became engaged in ranching and real estate and
banking. From 1917-27 was vice president of the Southern Truce &
Commerce Bank; from 1927-30, vice president of Bank of Italy; and
from 1930-32, vice president of its successor, the Bank of America. Past
grand commander, Grand Commandery, K.T. of Calif. d. June, 1939.
Lord Burnham (Edward Frederick Lawson) English peer and
managing director of the London Daily Telegraph, founded by his family.
He was educated at Eaton and Oxford and served with distinction in
WW1, receiving the D.S.O. In WW2 he was recalled to service as a
major general and appointed director of public relations in 1941 at the
War Office. He was senior military adviser to the Ministry of Information,
remaining in that capacity long after the end of the war. As Edward
Frederick Lawson, he succeeded his father to the barony in 1943 at the
latter's death. In 1942 he was junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge
of England and since 1944 Masonic ruler of the Province of

Wilbur H. Burnham Artist and designer of stained glass

windows. b. Feb. 4, 1887 at Boston, Mass. Studied both at home and
abroad, beginning as designer of stained glass in 1906. Has designed
scores of church, cathedral and memorial windows including Cathedral
of St. John the Divine, Washington Cathedral, Riverside Church (N.Y.),
Princeton Univ. Chapel, Rollins College (Fla.) Chapel, Univ. of Southern
Calif. Chapel, Belleau Chapel, France, American Church of Paris.

Bob Burns (1890-1956) Actor and humorist. b. Aug. 2, 1890 at

Van Buren, Ark. Attended the Univ. of Arkansas but did not graduate.
Started his professional career on vaudeville stage in 1911, but gained
his fame through homely philosophy in movies and particularly radio.
His famous homemade musical instrument the "bazooka" was
immortalized in WW2 with the infantry rocket launcher being given that
name. Mason. d. Feb. 2, 1956.

Gilbert Burns (?-1827) Brother of Scottish poet, Robert Burns

q.v. who together farmed 118 acres at Mossgiel, Scotland. Raised in St.
James Lodge, No. 178 Tarbolton on March 1, 1786. d. April 27, 1827.
Robert Burns (1759-1796) Scottish national poet. b. Jan. 25,
1759 at Alloway, near Ayr, the son of a gardener. He first worked as a
farm laborer and from 1784-88 farmed with his brother Gilbert q.v. on
118 acres at Mossgiel where he wrote some of his best poems.
Constantly plagued with financial trouble and affairs of the heart, he
determined to go to Jamaica as a plantation overseer, but when the
edition of poems he published to raise his fare became a success, he
decided to stay and moved to Edinburgh where he was lionized by
literary circles. He was made a Freemason in St. David's Lodge No. 174
at Tarbolton, Scotland being initiated on July 4, 1781 and passed and
raised Oct. 1, same year. He was one of those who withdrew from the
lodge in 1782 and constituted St. James Lodge No. 178 in the same
town. On July 27, 1784 he was made deputy master of the lodge and
held that office until 1788. He was made an honorary member of St.
John's Lodge No. 22, Kilmarnock, Scotland on Oct. 26, 1786. He was
also a member of the Loudoun Kilwinning Lodge No. 51, Newmilns,
Scotland. On Feb. 1, 1787, he became a member of the famous Lodge
Canon-gate Kilwinning No. 2 at Edinburgh and was made poet laureate
of the lodge on March 1, 1787. While on a visit to St. Andrew's Lodge
No. 179, Dumfries, Scotland on Dec. 27, 1788 the brethren "assumed"
him as a member of that lodge. On May 19, 1787 he received the Royal
Arch de-gree in St. Ebbe Lodge at Eyemouth, Scotland.• Although
Robert Ainslie who was exalted at the same time paid one guinea dues,
the minutes testify "but on account of R. Burns' remarkable poetical
genius, the encampment unanimously agreed to admit him gratis" and
considered themselves "honoured by having a man of such shining
abilities as one of their Companions." He wrote several Masonic poems
including "Farewell to the Brethren of St. James Lodge, Tarbolton" and
"The Freemasons' Apron." d. July 21, 1796.

Robert E. Burns President of College of the Pacific. b. July 26,

1909 at Flat River, Mo. Received A.B. and A.M. from College of the
Pacific and LL.D. from Willamette Univ. Began as field secretary of
College of the Pacific in 1931, later becoming alumni and placement
secretary, registrar, assistant to president "and has been president
since 1946. Raised Jan. 20, 1945 in San Joaquin Lodge No. 19, exalted
Oct. 29, 1952 in Stockton Chapter No. 28, R.A.M.; greeted in Stockton
Council No. 10, R. & S.M. Oct. 29, 1952 and knighted in Stockton
Commandery No. 8, K.T. Dec. 1, 1953. Received 32° AASR (SJ) Nov.
18, 1945. Served as grand chaplain, Grand Lodge of California in 1955
and grand high prelate, Red Cross of Constantine, 1956-57.

Aaron Burr (1756-1836) American Revolutionary officer; third

vice-president of the United States. He fell into disrepute by killing
Alexander Hamilton in a duel (1804) and later by conspiring to seize
territory from Spanish America to create a new republic in the
Southwest. In spite of the fact that many authorities have claimed he
was a Mason, there is not a shred of proof as to his membership. It is
true that many of his close associates were Freemasons. He is often
confused with another contemporary "Aaron Burr" who was a member
of Union Lodge No. 40, Danbury, Conn., being initiated June 13, passed
July 3 and raised Sept. 13, 1806. That summer Burr was in New Jersey
with his daughter and left for the Southwest in Sept. of that year. There
is also a record of "Aaron Burr" visiting Western Star Lodge No. 107 at
Kaskaskia, Ill. on April 4, 1812. At this time he was either in England or
aboard the ship Aurora which reached Boston in May, 1812. During the
Anti-Masonic period, those opposed to the Craft associated Burr's name
with the fraternity as a traitor who used the Craft to further his plans.
The following from an address in 1829 before a citizens meeting in
Philadelphia is indicative of the times: "It was the key of the Royal Arch
degree which was used by the celebrated Aaron Burr, in conducting his
correspondencies, during his treasonable conspiracies against our
liberties. That arch intriguer travelled over the United States; visited the
Lodges and Chapters; communicated his private designs where the
members were bound by oath to conceal the disclosures of their
brethren." d. Sept. 14, 1836.

Jonathan Burrall (1753-1834) Revolutionary soldier. Joined the

northern army under Schuyler in 1776. He soon became assistant
paymaster and at the close of the war he was on the commission to
settle the accounts of the commissary and quartermaster departments.
He was later assistant postmaster general and cashier of the U.S.
branch bank of New York and manager of the New York state lotteries.
Admitted to Masters' Lodge No. 2 at Albany, N.Y. in 1778. d. Nov. 18,
George Burrington (?-1759) Twice colonial governor of North
Carolina under the British. First appointed on Jan. 15, 1724 because his
father hadbeen active in support of British on accession of George I. He
was removed and succeeded by Sir Richard Everard on April 7, 1725 as
being "ignorant and profligate." He was ordered tried for his actions but
did not appear at the trial and left for England. Although removed in
1730, he was again sent to North Carolina as governor, in Feb., 1731.
Again he conducted himself with want of prudence and when he learned
that the chief justice of the colony had been sent to England to protest
against him, he left in April, 1734 for the British Isles. Shortly after his
arrival, he was found murdered one morning in St. James' Park,
London. He was a member of the lodge at the "King's Arms on New
Bond Street" in London and his name also appears on the list of
members of "Bear and Harrow in Butcher Roe," London in 1730.
Murdered in London, Feb. 22, 1759.

Harry E. Burroughs ( 1890-1 946 ) Lawyer and founder of the

Burroughs Newsboys Foundation, a charitable organization for the
benefit of newsboys, shoeblacks, etc. b. April 15, 1890 in Kashoffka,
Russia. Received degrees from Suffolk Law School and Boston Univ.,
being admitted to Mass. bar in 1912 taking up practice in Boston.
Mason and 32° AASR. d. Dec. 18, 1946.

Julius C. Burrows (1837-1915) U.S. Senator from Michigan. b.

Jan. 9, 1837 at Northeast, Pa. Began law practice in Kalamazoo, Mich.
in 1861. Member of 43rd, 46th, 47th and 49th to 54th Congresses. U.S.
Senator from 1895 to 1911. Was temporary chairman of the Republican
National Convention in Chicago, 1908. Past master of Anchor Lodge of
Strict Observance No. 87 at Kalamazoo and member of Kalamazoo
Chapter, R.A.M. No. 13 and Peninsular Commandery No. 8, K.T. of
same city. d. Nov. 16, 1915.

160 Robert Burton Lansing Burrows (1843-1919) Soldier and

clergyman. Secretary of Southern Baptist Convention from 1881-1914.
b. April 10, 1843 at Philadelphia, Pa. and educated in Richmond
College (Va.), Wake Forest College (N.C.), Princeton, Madison, Univ.
Bethel College (Ky.). Served with C.S.A., enlisting in 1861, captured at
Winchester, Va. in 1864. Ordained to Baptist ministry in 1867 serving
churches in Mo., N.J., Ky., Ga. and Tenn. d. Oct. 17, 1919. Mason.

Calvin C. Burt Achieved prominence in the Rite of Memphis, but

was expelled from his lodge in Michigan, said expulsion being confirmed
by the Grand Lodge of Michigan when appealed.

Harold H. Burton Associate Justice, Supreme Court of United

States. b. June 22, 1888 at Jamaica Plain, Mass. Educated in Bowdoin
College and Harvard Univ., practicing law in Cleveland, Ohio from 1912.
Served as an officer in 91st Infantry Div. in WW1 in France and
Belgium. Acting mayor of Cleveland in 1931-32 and mayor from 1935-
40. Member of the Ohio house of representatives in 1929 and U.S.
Senator from Ohio from 1941-45. Associate Justice of Supreme Court of
U.S. since Oct. 1, 1945. Member of Pythagoras Lodge No. 682 of
Cleveland; 33° AASR (NJ) and member of Al Koran Shrine Temple,

Hutchins G. Burton ( ?-1836) Former Governor of North

Carolina. Grand master of North Carolina in 1826-27. Was governor in
1824-27. His lodge memberships are not clear. In 1803 there was a H.
G. Burton as a member of Hiram Lodge No. 24, Williamsborough, N.C.;
said brother represented this lodge at grand lodge in 1817. However
there was another H.G. Burton a member of Phalanx Lodge No. 31,
Charlotte, N.C. in 1813. Abrother of the same name represented Mount
Morris Lodge No. 27 of Iredell Co., N.C. as well as Phalanx Lodge No.
31 at the grand lodge in 1809. A brother of the same name is listed in
the proceedings of 1805 as a representative of Philantropic Lodge of
Tennessee (in Grand Lodge of Kentucky proceedings). To further
complicate the matter, there was an "H. G. Burton" listed as a member
of Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2 at Halifax, N.C. in the proceedings of
John Hill Burton (1809-1881) Scottish historian. He achieved
fame with his Life of David Hume in 1846 and was editor with Sir John
Bowring, of Bentham's works. Made a Freemason in Glenkindil Lodge
No. 333, Scotland on Aug. 17, 1827.

Sir Richard F. Burton (1821-1890) British explorer and writer. He

joined the Indian army in 1842 and recorded his experiences in Scinde,
or the Unhappy Valley in 1851. In 1853 he made a pilgrimage to Mecca
disguised as Pathan, which he described in Personal Narrative (1855).
With Speke, he explored Somaliland in 1854, Lake Tanganyika region in
1858 and accompanied Capt. Cameron to the Gold Coast in 1881. His
First Footsteps in East Africa was published in 1856. He was British
consul at Fernando Po, Damascus and Trieste from 1861-82. Member
of Hope Lodge, Kurrachee, Scinde, India.

Robert Burton (1747-1825) Quartermaster General of militia in

American Revolution and member of the Continental Congresses from
North Carolina from 1787-88. b. in Mecklenburg, Va. Oct. 20, 1747, he
was a planter, removing to Granville, S. Car. about 1775. In 1801 he
was a member of the commission to fix the boundary between the
Carolinas and Georgia. Member of Hiram Lodge No. 24 of
Williamsborough, N. Car.

Theodore E. Burton ( 1851 -1929 ) U.S. Senator and

Congressman from Ohio. b. Dec. 20, 1851 at Jefferson, Ohio. Graduate
of Oberlin, being admitted to bar in 1875 and practicing at Cleveland.
Served in 51st, and 54th to 60th Congresses from 21st Ohio dist.
Resigned from 61st Congress to be U.S. Senator from Ohio from 1909-
15. Again served in 67th to 70th Congresses (1921-29) from 22nd Ohio
dist. Member of Iris Lodge No. 229, Webb Chapter, R.A.M., Orion
Commandery, K.T. and Al Koran Shrine Temple, all of Cleveland. d.
Oct. 28, 1929.
William Burton Governor of Delaware for term starting 1861.
Member of Temple Lodge No. 9 and deputy grand master of the Grand
Lodge of Delaware from 1851-52.

Harlan J. Bushfield ( 1882 - 1948 ) U.S. Senator and Governor

of South Dakota. b. Aug. 6, 1882 at Atlantic, Iowa. Graduate of Dakota
Wesleyan Univ. and Univ. of Minn. Admitted to S. Dak. bar in 1904 and
began practice in Miller. Served as governor of S. Dak. from 1938-42
and U.S. Senator from 1943. He was a member of St. Lawrence Lodge
No. 39 at Miller, Oriental Consistory AASR at Yankton, La-Co-Tah
Commandery K.T. No. 6 at Huron and El Riad Shrine at Sioux Falls. d.
Sept. 27, 1948.

Asa S. Bushnell (1834-1904) Governor of Ohio. b. Sept. 16,

1834 at Rome, N.Y., moving to Cincinnati in 1845. Received a common
school education and rose from a dry goods clerk to president of
Warder, Bushnell & Glessner Co. mower and reaper manufacturers.
Served as company commander in 152nd Ohio volunteer infantry in
Civil War. Elected governor of Ohio for two terms, 1895-99. Was made
a Mason "at sight" and received the 33° AASR (N.J.).

George E. Bushnell Associate Jus- tice, Supreme Court of

Michigan and Sovereign Grand Commander of Scottish Rite, Northern
Jurisdiction. b. Nov. 4, 1887 at Roanoke, Va. Graduate of Virginia Poly.
Inst. and Detroit College of Law with honorary LL.D. degrees from
Detroit College of Law, Wayne Univ., Boston Univ., and Univ. of
Michigan. His early years were spent as an advertising salesman from
Denver, Colorado to London, England. Later he was supervisor for
Canada Life Assurance Co. of Toronto. In 1915 he was admitted to the
Virginia bar in the following year to the Michigan bar. In 1933 he was
elected justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan, and reelected until he
resigned in 1954 to accept the chieftainship of the Northern Jurisdiction
of the AASR, upon the retirement of Melvin M. Johnson q.v. He was
raised in Taylor Lodge No. 23 at Salem, Va. in 1909 and served as
master of Sojourners Lodge No. 483 of Detroit in 1925. He received his
33° in 1924. Bushnell was a member of the Masonic Service
Association European Committee sent abroad in 1945 to investigate the
state of the Craft in Europe following the war.

Anastasio Bustamante (1780-1853) President of Mexico and

soldier. b. in Jiquilpan, Michoacan, he fought in the Spanish army
against revolution.. ists as early as 1808, but in 1821 supported Iturbide
q.v. and his plan for government. He was vice-president of the republic
under Guerrero q.v. in 1829, but joined Santa Anna q.v. in a revolt
against him. He was president of Mexico from 1829-32, but was driven
out by Santa Anna. After the latter's downfall in 1836, Bustamante again
became president from 1837-39. He was a Royal Arch Mason.

Benjamin F. Butler (1818-?) Union Major General in Civil War

and lawyer. b. Nov. 5, 1818 at Deerfield, N.H. Practiced law at Lowell,


John Butler Entered war in 1861 as brigadier general of militia

and promoted to major general the same year. He occupied Baltimore
with 900 men and later commanded Fort Monroe in Virginia. He
captured Forts Hatteras and Clark on the North Carolina coast and then
formed an expedition for the Gulf of Mexico. On May 1, 1862 he took
possession of New Orleans. After he hanged a man for pulling down the
U.S. flag, issued "Order No. 28" to prevent women from insulting
soldiers and confiscated $800,000 from the Dutch consul, he was
recalled and placed in command of the department of Virginia and N.
Carolina. In North Carolina he issued general order No. 38 which had to
do with the care of Confederate Masonic property at New Bern. In 1865
Grant removed him from command and he returned to Massachusetts
where he engaged in politics and practiced law. In Lowell, Mass. he was
a member of Pentucket Lodge, Mt. Horeb Chapter, and Pilgrim
Commandery. He was made a 33° honorary of the AASR (NJ) on March
16, 1864.
Burridge D. Butler ( 1868 -1948 ) Publisher. b. Feb. 5, 1868 at
Louisville, Ky. Founded Omaha Daily News in 1899, St. Paul Daily
News in 1900, Minneapolis Daily News in 1900. Sold these properties in
1909. Became owner and publisher of The Prairie Farmer in 1909, also
president of WLS Agricultural Broadcasting Co., Chicago. Mason. d.
March 30, 1948.

Charles C. Butler (1865-1946) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of

Colorado. b. Feb. 6, 1865 at Milwaukee, Wis. Graduate of Univ. of
Michigan in 1891 and admitted to Colorado bar same year. Practiced at
Denver. Judge of Colorado district court 191327 and justice of supreme
court 192737, being chief justice part of that time. Initiated in Union
Lodge No. 7, Denver on April 27, 1935. d. Nov. 16, 1946.

David Butler First Governor of Nebraska. Governor when

Nebraska was admitted to statehood on March 1, 1867. Butler affiliated
with Pawnee Lodge No. 23 at Pawnee City in 1879. His original lodge is
not known.

Hugh A. Butler (1878-1954) U.S. Senator from Nebraska. b.

Feb. 28, 1878 at Missouri Valley, Iowa. Became engineer for C.B. & Q.
Railroad in 1900 and in 1908 a grain miller at Curtis, Nebr. and was
associated with the grain trade the rest of his life. Elected U.S. Senator
from Nebraska in 1941, serving until 1952. He was raised in Wellsville
Lodge No. 194, Wellsville, Mo. and later became a member of St.
John's Lodge No. 25 of Omaha, Nebr. 32° AASR. d. July 1, 1954.

John Butler (1728-1794) Colonel in the British service during the

American Revolution. b. in New London, Conn. At outbreak of war he
recruited a force of Indians and rangers known as "Butler's Rangers."
An expert in Indian tactics, he participated in many battles with them
including Oriskany, the Wyoming massacre and raids on the Schoharie
and Mohawk settlements. Many atrocities have been attributed to him.
He was a close friend of Joseph Brant q.v., the famous Indian chief.
After Brant had saved the life of Lt. Thomas Boyd on Sept. 13, 1779
near Genessee when Boyd had given a Masonic sign, he was turned
over to either Col. Butler or his son, Walter, who in turn let the Indians
torture and kill him. Previous to the war he had been made deputy
superintendent of Indian affairs in New York and after the war when he
removed to Canada he was special Indian agent. He was probably
raised in Union Lodge No. 1, Albany, N.Y. and became the first
secretary of the famous St. Patrick's Lodge No. 8 at Johnstown, N.Y.
which first met on August 23, 1766. In Canada, after the war, he
became a charter member of St. John's Lodge of Friendship No. 2 and
served as its master. He became the first grand senior warden of the
Provincial Grand Lodge of Upper Canada. Barton Lodge No. 6 (then 10)
had many of his former rangers as members, and Brant himself was at
one time a member of this lodge.

Richard Butler (1743-1791) Major General, U.S. Army. b. April 1,

1743 at Dublin, Ireland, coming to America with his parents before
1760. A lieut. colonel in the Pennsylvania line at the beginning of the
Revolution; with Morgan's rifles in 1777. While with Lafayette's
detachment near Williamsburg, Va. in 1781, he attacked Simcoe's
rangers and defeated them. Promoted to colonel in the 9th
Pennsylvania regiment at close of war. Was Indian agent in Ohio in
1787, and in the St. Clair's expedition against the Indians, he
commanded the right wing with the rank of major general. He was killed
in the attack on Ft. Recovery on Nov. 4, 1791, tomahawked and
scalped. He was initiated in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia on April 14, 1779,
passed April 20 and raised April 27. He later affiliated with
Pennsylvania-Union Lodge —a lodge of the Pennsylvania line and on
January 9, 1787 is recorded as having been admitted to Lodge No. 45
of Pittsburgh. Lodge records show that he visited St. George's Lodge of
Schenectady, N.Y. in June, 1779 and later American Union Lodge

Robert Butler General in War of 1812. On the roll of the Grand

Lodge of Alabama when it was organized on June 3, 1825 and member
of Jackson Lodge No. 23, Tallahassee, Fla. He was charter member
and master for four years, being grand master ofthe Grand Lodge of
Florida in 1833.
William Morgan Butler Former U.S. Senator from
Massachusetts. Although his membership is not known he is listed in a
Masonic publication of 1925 as "prominent in Masonic circles." b. Jan.
29, 1861. d. March 29, 1937. Received degrees in Star In The East
Lodge of New Bedford, Mass. in 1886.

Isaac Butt (1813-1879) Irish lawyer and nationalist leader.

Formed coalition between Irish Protestants and other nationalists and
inaugurated home-rule movement in 1870. Member of Lodge No. 2,

George C. Butte (1877-1940) Acting Governor General of

Philippines and Puerto Rico. b. May 9, 1877 at San Francisco, Calif.
Educated home and abroad. Practiced law in Oklahoma and Texas.
Attorney general of Puerto Rico 1925-28. Vice governor of Philippines
1930-32. Acting governor of Puerto Rico three times. Associate justice
supreme court of Philippines 1932-36. In WW1 served as chief of
foreign intelligence section of the General Staff, U.S. Army. Mason. d.
Jan. 18, 1940.

John S. Buttles (1877-1949) Justice, Supreme Court of Vermont.

b. Jan. 20, 1877 at Troy, N.Y. Admitted to Vermont bar in 1906. Member
of Vermont house of representatives in 1919, superior judge 1926-37;
associate justice supreme court, 1937-49. Retired. Mason, Knight
Templar and Shriner. d. May 18, 1949.

Harold Bye Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 16, 1886 at St.
Paul, Minn. Enlisted in U.S. Navy in 1907 and advanced through grades
to rear admiral in 1947, retiring from service that year. Raised in
Bremerton Lodge No. 117, Bremerton, Wash. in 1922. Received 32°
AASR (SJ) at Honolulu in 1935; member of Aloha Shrine Temple of
Honolulu and was president of the Shrine Club at Sandpoint, Idaho in

Clovis E. Byers Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 5, 1899

at Columbus, Ohio. Graduated U.S. Military Academy in 1920,
advancing through grades to major general in 1944. With War Dept.
General Staff 1940-42, chief of staff, 77th Div. 1942; chief of staff 1st
Corps 1942-43; chief of staff 8th Army, 1944; commanding general
82nd Airborne Div. from 194849; chief of staff, G1 Dept. of Army 1949-
51; commanding general X Corps in Korea, 1951, XVI Corps, Japan,
1952. Presently military adviser to assistant secretary of Defense
(International Security Affairs). Received EA degree on April 1, 1923 in
Laredo Lodge No. 547, Laredo, Texas and the FC on Nov. 2, 1925. MM
degree in Star of the East Lodge No. 650 in Yokahama, Japan on Nov.
3, 1947.

Harry C. Byrd President, University of Maryland. b. Feb. 12,

1889 at Crisfield, Md. Graduated from Univ. of Maryland in 1908 and
after law studies at several universities returned to his alma mater in
1912 as English and history instructor, later serving as director of
athletics, football coach, assistant to president, vice-president, acting
president and president since 1936. Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 17,
Washington, D.C. in 1914. Member of chapter, council and
commandery (Hyattsville) and 32° AASR (SJ) at Washington; Tall
Cedars, Shrine and Jesters.

Harry F. Byrd Governor and U.S. Senator from Virginia. b. June

10, 1887 at Martinsburg, W. Va., he is a brother of Admiral Richard E.
Byrd q.v. the explorer. Started with the Winchester (Va.) Star at the age
of 15 and now owns the paper as well as the Harrisonburg Daily News
Record. Actively interested in peach and apple culture, owning orchards
and cold storage facilities. Served in Virginia senate from 1915-25 and a
lead-er in establishing state highway system. He served as governor of
Virginia from 1926-30. In 1933 he was appointed to fill unexpired term in
U.S. Senate and has served in that body continuously since. He was
raised in Hiram Lodge No. 21 at Winchester in Nov., 1925 and a
member of the AASR (SJ) at Alexandria, Va. receiving the degrees in
Oct. 1929. In 1943 he received the 33°.

Richard E. Byrd (1888-1957) Polar explorer, naval officer,

pioneer aviator. b. Oct. 25, 1888 at Winchester, Va., a brother of Harry
F. Byrd q.v., governor and senator. Graduated from U.S. Naval
Academy in 1912 and advanced to lieut. commander at retirement in
1916 and later promoted to commander after flight over North Pole in
1926. Given rank of rear admiral in 1930. During WW1 he entered the
Aviation Service and commanded U.S. Air Forces until armistice. In
WW2 he served with Admiral King in Washington and Nimitz in the
Pacific, going overseas four times. He was highly decorated including
the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1926 and special Congressional
Medals in 1930, 37 and 46. Made plane light over North Pole on May 9,
1926 with Floyd Bennett. In 1927 he made trans-Atlantic flight of 4,200
miles with three companions—New York to France. His first Antarctic
expedition was in 1928-30 and his second in 1933-35. Discovered Edsel
Ford Mountains and Marie Byrd Land. He spent five months alone near
the South Pole. In 1939 he was made commander of the U.S. Antarctic
Service and again went to the South Polar region, discovering five new
mountain ranges, five islands and more than 100,000 square miles of
area. In 1946 he was named commanding officer of the U.S. Navy
Antarctic Expedition and again in 1956 headed the U.S. expedition in
Antarctic exploration. He became a member of Federal Lodge No. 1,
Washington, D.C. on March 19, 1921 and affiliated with Kane Lodge No.
454, New York City, Sept. 18, 1928 (see Elisha Kent Kane). He is a
member of National Sojourner Chapter No. 3 at Washington. He and his
pilot, Bernt Balchen q.v. dropped Masonic flags on the two poles—
Balchen also added his Shrine fez. In the Antarctic expedition of 1933-
35, 60 of the 82 members were Freemasons and on Feb. 5, 1935
established First Antarctic Lodge No. 777 of New Zealand constitution.
d. March 11, 1957.

Frank M. Byrne (1858-1927) Governor of South Dakota. b. Oct

23, 1858 at Volney, Iowa. Moved to Sioux Falls in Dakota Territory in
1878 and took homestead in McCook Co. Was a farmer and real estate
dealer. He served in the first state senate in 1890 and also sessions of
1907 and 1909; lieut. governor 1909-13 and governor 1913-17. Mason.
d. Dec. 25, 1927.

James F. Byrnes Secretary of State; Justice, Supreme Court of

U.S.; Governor of South Carolina; U.S. Senator. b. May 2, 1879 in S.
Car. Admitted to bar in 1903. First edited a newspaper and then served
as court reporter. Was a member of the 62nd to 68th Congresses
(1911-25) from 2nd S. Car. dist. Served as U.S. Senator two terms,
1931-43. Appointed justice of supreme court in 1941 but resigned to
become director of economic stabilization in 1942; director of war
mobilization 1943-45 and secretary of state 1945-47. Governor of S.
Car. 1951-55. Raised in Aiken Lodge No. 156 on Jan. 12, 1911 and
affiliated with Spartan Lodge No. 70, July 5, 1926. Received Royal Arch
Nov. 21, 1911 in Kadoshlayah Chapter No. 41, Aiken and affiliated with
Chicora Chapter 23, Spartanburg in 1934. Received into Aiken Council
R. & S.M. No. 23, Nov. 26, 1920 and affiliated with Blakce Council No.
19 Oct. 22, 1945. Knighted in Columbia Commandery No. 2 Oct 20,
1916 and affiliated with Aiken Commandery No. 14 in 1923 and
Spartanburg Commandery No. 3 in 1934.

Joseph W. Byrns ( 186 9- 1936 ) Speaker, U.S. House of

Representatives. b. July 20, 1869 at Cedar Hill, Tenn. Graduate of
Vanderbilt Univ. Served many years in the lower house (1895-1900)
(1909-33) (1933-37). He died on June 4, 1936 before his term in the
74th Congress had expired. He was twice speaker of the house, 1899
and 1936. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° KCCH and Shriner. Member of
Phoenix Lodge No. 131 and Cumberland Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. of
Nashville. Son, Joseph W. Jr. was also a congressman (1939-41) and
member of Phoenix Lodge.

John Byrom (1692-1763) English poet, hymnologist and inventor

of an early shorthand system that was copyrighted in 1742. He was the
author of the famous phrase "tweedledum and tweedledee." He is listed
as a member of a lodge held at The Swan in Long Acre, England, 1750.
Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis (17571808) French surgeon, philosopher
and writer. Was administrator of Paris hospitals and physician to
Mirabeau. A sympathizer with the revolutionists, he was a member of
the Council of Five Hundred. He is often called the founder of modern
physiological psychology. The bulletin of the International Masonic
Congress, 1917, Geneva, Switzerland, lists him as a Freemason.

James A. Cabell (?-1930) Governor of Virginia and Judge,

Supreme Court of Appeals. Served as governor of Virginia 1805-08;
judge of the general court 1808-11; judge of supreme court of appeals
1842-51 and president of that court 1842-54. He revived the Virginia
Society of the Cincinnati and was first president of the temporary
organization in 1889. Mason. d. July 22, 1930.

Robert H. Cabell (1867-1947) President of Armour & Co. b. Dec.

1, 1867 at Brunswick, Mo. Began as a salesman with Armour in 1892;
managing director of European interests with headquarters in London,
1913-34; general manager, Chicago, 1934 and president from 1935
until retirement in 1940. Mason. d. Dec. 12, 1947.

William H. Cabell (1772-1853) Governor of Virginia for three

years (1805-07). b. Dec. 16, 1772 at Boston Hill, Va. Graduated from
William and Mary College and admitted to the bar in 1794. Was elected
to house of delegates in 1796 and frequently reelected. He served on
the Virginia Court of Appeals from 1811 until his death on Jan. 17, 1853,
at which time he was president of the court. A member of George Lodge
No. 32, Warminster, Virginia, he served as master and treasurer.
John L. Cable U.S. Congressman 67th to 68th (1921-25) and
71st and 72nd (1929-33) Congresses from 4th Ohio dist. b. April 15,
1884 at Lima, Ohio. Practiced law at Lima from 1909. Mason.

Charles L. Cadet-Gassincourt (17691821) A French anti-Mason

who later became a Freemason. b. Jan. 23, 1769 at Paris. A victim of
political persecution, he attributed his sufferings to the influence of
Masonic lodges in France and published the book Le Tombeau de
Jacques de Molay in 1796 in which he attempted to show that
Freemasonry was the instigator of all the European political revolutions.
He later changed his views and became a member of the Lodge
l'Abeille in Paris, serving as master in 1805. d. Nov. 21, 1821.

Charles Wakefield Cadman (18811946) American composer. b.

Dec. 24, 1881 at Johnstown, Pa. Began as music critic and organist in
Pittsburgh. His best known songs are From the Land of the Sky Blue
Water and At Dawning. He became interested in American Indian
music, basing many of his songs and operas on that theme. Composed
cantatas, chamber music, sonatas, quintets, symphonies, suites and
operas. Member of Albert Pike Lodge No. 484, Los Angeles, received
32° AASR (SJ) May 26. 1923. Member of York Rite and Shrine. d. Dec.
30, 1946.

S. Parkes Cadman (1864-1936) Clergyman. b. Dec. 18, 1864 at

Wellington, Salop, England. Received honorary degrees from a dozen
universities. Served as pastor of the Central Congregational Church of
Brooklyn for many years, starting in 1901. From 1924-28 he was
president of the Federal Council, Churches of Christ in America and as
radio minister of the same, starting in 1928, he was one of the most
popular radio artists of that decade. Contributed to the daily press and
wrote many books. He was noted for his broad and liberal attitude with
regard to the religious opinions of others. It has been said that in his
generation no man exerted more influence for the brotherhood of man.
A member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City, he
was grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of New York for 28 years. Once
in a question period, he was baited with a question concerning
membership in secret societies. He answered thus: "That question is
aimed at the Masons. I am a Mason and I know Masonry to be a broad-
minded, Christ-like institution. Masons are friendly and as a Christian
minister, I can say that they fear God and are the orchestra of God
toward bringing about fraternity, and for that reason I am and shall
always remain a Mason." d. July 12, 1936.

John Cadwalader (1742-1786) Brigadier General in American

Revolution. b. Jan. 10, 1742 at Philadelphia. Took an active part in
public affairs previous to the war and was captain of a military company.
On the formation of the city battalions, he was placed in command of
one and promoted to brigadier general in command of the Pennsylvania
militia. He cooperated in the capture of the Hessians at Trenton and
was at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth as a
volunteer. In the fall of 1777 he organized the militia of western
Maryland at the request of Washington. After the war he moved to
Maryland and became a member of the state legislature. He was a
member of Lodge No. 8 in Philadelphia. d. Feb. 11, 1786. Also master
of Military Lodge No. 55.

Thomas Cadwalader ( 1707-1779 ) Revolutionary surgeon. b. in

Philadelphia in 1707, he was medical director of the Army hospital at
Philadelphia in 1776. He was senior grand warden of first St. John's
lodge of Philadelphia in 1738. d. at Trenton, N.J. in 1779.

James H. Cafferty ( 1819-1 869 ) Painter. He began as a portrait

painter and attained a wide reputation as such, but in his later years he
turned to still life painting. He was chosen an associate member of the
national academy of design in 1849 and in 1853 became an
academician. His most notable paintings were My Girl, My Father and
Brook Trout. Member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New
York City.
Count Alessandro di Cagliostro (1743-1795) Italian imposter,
charlatan. Real name was Giuseppe Balsamo. b. June 8, 1743 in
Palermo, Italy of poor parents, he was placed in the convent of the
Good Brotherhood at Castiglione where he was assistant to the
apothecary of the monastery and picked up some knowledge of
chemistry and medicine. He fled the monastery and after many brushes
with the law, left Italy to travel in Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes
and Malta, picking up the title of "count." Back in Italy he married
Lorenza Feliciani q.v. who later was to play an important part in his
"Masonic" career. In 1776 he appeared in London and during the early
part of that year was initiated in Esperance Lodge No. 289 which met at
the King's Head Tavern, Soho, London. The lodge was founded as a
French lodge in 1768 under English constitution. The next year (1777)
while still in London, he was said to have invented his grand scheme of
Egyptian Freemasonry. He assumed the impressive title of Grand
Master Supreme of the Egyptian Freemasonry of High Science, Grand
Cophta of Europe and Asia. Searching for more lucrative fields, he
moved his operations to the continent, posing as a physician, alchemist,
neo-romancer and Freemason. In addition to his "Masonic" activities he
practiced many frauds, selling love philters, elixirs of youth, etc. It is
claimed that he was driven from England by exposes of the editor
Morand in the Courier de l'Europe, and although he had several
"Egyptian lodges" established, he appears to have lost his popularity.
The last official Masonic record we have of him was when he visited the
Lodge of Antiquity in London on November 1, 1786. He left England
permantly in May, 1787. In Europe he was the associate of princes,
prelates and philosophers. He established his Egyptian rite throughout
the continent, admitting women as well as men. In 1789 he daringly
organized a lodge in Rome under the very shadow of the Vatican. That
was the last straw and the Holy Inquisition caught up with him, tried and
sentenced him to death. The penalty was later commuted to life
imprisonment. He spent four years in the prison of St. Leo, in the Duchy
of Urbino, and in 1795 died in a fit of apoplexy.

Holly M. Cain (1882-1947) President of Abbot Laboratories. b.

Jan. 14, 1882 in Davies Co., Ind. President of Swan-Myers Co.,
Indianapolis 191330 and when company merged with Abbott Lab.
Chicago, he became vicepresident, and in 1943 president and director
of Abbott Labs. International. Mason. d. Feb. 21, 1947.
Wellins Calcott English Masonic writer of the 18th century,
ranking with Anderson, Hutchinson and Preston. He has been called the
father of the didactic school. His work, A Candid Disquisition of the
Principles and Practices of the Most Ancient and Honourable
Society . . ." was published in 1769. At that time it is thought that he was
past master of the Palladian Lodge of Hereford, now No. 120. He twice
visited America. On Jan. 20, 1779 was made an honorary member of
Apollo Lodge at York, England.

William M. Calder (1869-1945) U.S. Senator from New York. b.

March 3, 1869 at Brooklyn, N.Y. As a contractor he erected over 4,000
houses in Brooklyn and was building commissioner of Brooklyn in 1902-
03. A delegate to the national Republican convention nine times, he was
U.S. Senator from 1917-23. Mason. d. March 3, 1945.

Harmon W. Caldwell President, University of Georgia. b. Jan.

29, 1899 in Meriwether Co., Ga. A.B. Univ. of Georgia and LL.B. from
Harvard with honorary degrees from Emory, Mercer and Tulane.
Practiced law at Atlanta from 1926 to 1933 with exception of four years
when he was professor of law at the Univ. of Georgia. Became
president of the Univ. of Georgia in 1935, serving until 1948 when he
became Chancellor of the university system of Georgia. Raised in John
W. Akin No. 537, Taylorsville, Ga. in 1920; 32° AASR (SJ) at Atlanta
and Yaarab Shrine Temple of Atlanta.

Joseph Caldwell (1773-1835) President of University of North

Carolina. b. April 21, 1773 at Lammington, N.J. He graduated from
Princeton in 1791 and after teaching school he became professor of
mathematics in 1796 at the Univ. of North Carolina when it was just five
years old. The school was in a feeble state and in 1804 he was made
president, serving until his death on Jan. 24, 1835. He was raised on
April 14, 1798 by Eagle Lodge No. 19 of Hillsboro, N. Car., the lodge
going to Chapel Hill where the university was located, to confer the
Millard F. Caldwell, Jr. Governor of Florida, U.S. Congressman,
73rd to 76th Congresses (1933-41) from 3rd Florida dist. b. Feb. 6,
1879 at Knoxville, Tenn. Practiced law and elected to Florida state
legislature in 1928 and 1930. Governor of Florida from 1945-49. Was
chairman of the National Governors Conference in 1946-47; a delegate
of the Interparliamentary Union at the Hague in 1938 and at Oslo in
1939. Served in field artillery in WW1. Member and past master of
Santa Rosa Lodge No. 16, Milton, Fla., but was raised in a lodge in
Macon, Miss. 32° AASR (SJ) at Meridian, Miss. and member of
Morocco Shrine Temple, Jacksonville, Fla.

Galloway Calhoun Lawyer and Imperial Potentate of the Shrine

of North America in 1948-49. b. Aug. 22, 1894 at Athens, Texas.
Admitted to Texas bar in 1915 and served as district attorney of 7th
judicial dist. of Texas; assistant attorney general of the state and special
assistant to attorney general of the U.S. on Selective Service matters
during WW2. In WW1 he was band leader of the 144th Inf. band. An
active Methodist, his lectures to the men's bible class at Tyler, Texas
are broadcast. In 1944 he was a delegate to the general conference of
the Methodist Church. In 1936 he was grand master of the Grand Lodge
of Texas. Raised in St. John's Lodge No. 53, Tyler, Texas, Aug. 18,
1916. Member of Tyler Chapter No. 24, R.A.M., George M. Patrick
Council No. 13, R. & S.M.; Ascension Commandery No. 25, K.T. and
past commander of same. 33° AASR (SJ), Dallas. Chairman of board of
trustees for Shriners Hospitals for Crippled Children; grand junior
general Empire of the West, Red Cross of Constantine; active member
Supreme Council of DeMolay.

Norman Call President of the Richmond, Fredericksburg &

Potomac Railroad since 1932. b. March 29, 1880 at Richmond, Va.
Began with Richmond Locomotive Works and started with the R.F. & P.
as secretary to the president in 1900. Member of Dove Lodge No. 51
and Meridian Lodge No. 284; Washington Chapter No. 9, R.A.M. and
Richmond Cornmandery No. 2, K.T. all of Richmond, Va. Member of
Acca Shrine Temple.
Richard K. Call (1791-1862) Governor of Florida, Brigadier
General. b. near Petersburg, Va. Was brigadier general of Florida militia
in 1833, and led the army against the Seminoles in 1836 in second and
third battles of Wahoo Swamp. Served as governor of Florida from
1835-40, but in a controversy with Joel R. Poinsett, q.v. secretary of
war, he was removed from office. President Harrison again appointed
him governor from 1841 to 1844 and he was an unsuccessful candidate
for governor in 1845 when Florida became a state. He joined
Cumberland Lodge No. 8 at Nashville, Tenn. in 1821 and later of
Centerville Lodge No. 18, Leon Co., Fla. of which he was master in
1851. In 1853 he affiliated with Concordia Lodge No. 28, Gadsden Co.,
Fla. He assisted in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Florida in 1830
and was grand master in 1851. In 1847 he was made an honorary
member of Florida Royal Arch Chapter No. 1 (formerly No. 32) and an
honorary member of the Grand Chapter of Florida the same year. d.
Sept. 14, 1862.

Charles H. Callahan ( 1858 - 1944 ) He is credited with the idea

that brought into being the George Washington National Masonic
Memorial at Alexandria, Va. He was commissioner of revenue of
Alexandria for 44 years and a member of Alexandria-Washington Lodge
No. 22. He served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia from
1924-26 and was the author of the noted book, Washington, the Man
and the Mason. b. Aug. 22, 1858 at Acquia Mills, Va., he died July 31,
1944 at Alexandria.

Albert S. Callan Newspaper publisher. b. July 27, 1884 at

Albany, N.Y. Graduate of Hobart College, 1907. President of the
Chatham Courier Co. since 1912. Member of New York general
assembly 1909-10 and delegate to Republican state convention 17
times. Served in WW1 as captain and in WW2 as lieutenant colonel.
Member of New York National Guard 1906-17. Raised in Valatie Lodge
No. 362, Kinderhook, N.Y. in 1908.
Llewellyn L. Callaway (1868-1951) Chief justice, Supreme Court
of Montana. b. Dec. 15, 1868 at Tuscola, Ill. Graduate of Univ. of
Michigan, 1891. Practiced law in Montana from 1891. Appointed chief
justice of Montana supreme court in 1922, retiring in 1935. Past grand
master of Montana, 33° AASR, past grand commander, Knights
Templar, past grand high priest, Royal Arch Masons, and member of
Supreme Council, Scottish Rite and inspector general for same in
Montana. d. Aug. 6, 1951.

Plutarco Elias Calles (1878-1945) President of Mexico. b. Sept.

25, 1878 at Guaymas, Sonora, where he was later a schoolteacher,
farmer and tradesman. From 1913-15 he served inthe army under
Obregon and Carranza. In 1917 he was governor of Sonora. He held
cabinet positions under Carranza in 1919-20 and under Obregon in
1920-24. Calles served as President of Mexico from 1924-28, during
which time he carried out reforms in an administration marked by
struggle between the church and the state. He fought for control of the
government with Cardenas in 1935 and in 1936 was driven into exile in
the United States. He was made a Freemason in Helios Lodge in his
home town of Guaymas and at one time served as its secretary.

Charles Alexandre de Calonne (1734-1802) French minister of

finance under Louis XVI. From 186874, he held government positions at
Douai, Metz and Lille. When he became controller general of finance in
1783, he found the state treasury in hopeless disorder, without money
or credit. He is said to have been one of the principals who precipitated
the French Revolution. In 1787 he opened the Assembly of Notables
and proposed the taxation of nobles and clergy, which received violent
opposition, causing his removal from office. He then lived in England
from 1787 until 1802 when Napoleon allowed him to return to France a
month before his death. His lodge is not known, but he is recorded as a
visitor to the Loge des Maitres at Amiens, France.

Charles Calvert 5th Baron (Lord) Baltimore. Member of the

English family that obtained patent for the colonization of Maryland. He
was the first Protestant in his family's line since his ancestor, George,
1st Baron, turned Roman Catholic in 1625. Charles was proprietary
governor of Maryland from 1715 to 1751. He was made a Mason about
April, 1730 at Goodwood, Sussex, England, and was one of the eight
brethren present when Dr. Dessaugliers q.v. initiated at the Castle Kew
on April 28, 1737.

Francisco Calvo (1820-1890) Catholic priest of the Jesuit order,

who established Freemasonry in Costa Rica in 1865. At that time he
was canon of the San Jose Cathedral. He received his degrees in
Lodge Cruz Austrail No. 5 in 1862 at Callao, Peru. He obtained a
charter for Caridad Lodge No. 26 at San Jose from the Grand Orient of
Spain, then operating in Colombia. Out of this lodge developed the
Supreme Council 33° AASR of Central America, which covers five
republics, and which chartered lodges of its own until the turn of the
20th century. Calvo served as master of Caridad Lodge No. 26 and
eventually became the first sovereign grand commander of the Scottish
Rite, a position which he held until his death. The Masonic temple in
San Jose now displays the gavel he used. Others who were active with
Calvo in the founding of the Scottish Rite were Dr. Jose Maria Castro
q.v., president of the Republic in 1847-49, who served as grand
chancellor in 1866-68 and was also founder and rector of Santo Tomas
University; Dr. Lorenzo Montufar q.v., lawyer, historian, and rector of
Santo Tomas University, serving also as grand minister of state;
Francisco Poralto Alvarado, teacher, banker and benefactor of San
Juan de Dies Hospital, who was first grand representative.

Renah F. Comelier Commissioner of Washington, D.C. b. Oct. 8,

1890. Lawyer by profession. Was 2nd assistant secretary of the Navy in
191720; examiner of Federal Trade Commission, 1925-27; assistant
U.S. Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice 1927-30; fuel coordinator
O.P.A. 194243. Appointed commissioner of Washington in 1954 by
President Truman. Raised Sept. 18, 1922 in Benjamin B. French Lodge
No. 15, Washington, D.C., serving as master in 1932 and grand master
of District of Columbia in 1952. Honorary member of Hope Lodge No.
20, Samuel Gompers Lodge No. 45 and Washington-Centennial Lodge
No. 14 of District of Columbia. Member of Mt. Vernon Chapter No. 3,
R.A.M.; Adoniram Council No. 2, R. & SM.; Washington Commandery
No. 1, K.T.; Kallipolis Grotto; Tall Cedars of Lebanon; National League
of Masonic Clubs; Masonic Boosters Club; Masonic Veterans
Association National Sojourners, Heroes of '76; past potentate of Almas
Shrine Temple of Washington, D.C. (1949). In AASR, he received
KCCH in 1949 and 33°in 1953. He served as sovereign of St. Simeon
Stylites Conclave No. 51, Red Cross of Constantine and grand marshal
of the Grand Imperial Council in 1957. Member of Royal Order of
Scotland, being at present provincial first grand steward.

Duke Jean Jacques Regis Cambaceres (1753-1824)

Archchancellor of the French Empire. One of the greats of the
Napoleonic period, he was a jurist and statesman who was a member of
the convention of 1792. In 1794 he was president of the Committee of
Public Safety and also of the Committee of Five Hundred in 1796. In
1799 he was minister of justice and second consul in 1799. Above all,
he was the friend and chief counselor of Napoleon, who made him chief
counselor of the Empire in 1804. In 1808 he was created Duke of
Parma. A Mason, he became grand commander of the Supreme
Council of France and was so recognized in the official register of the
Supreme Council (SJ) .

Comte Pierre Jacques Etienne Cambronne (1770-1842)

Commander of a division of the French Imperial Guard at the Battle of
Waterloo in 1815. He served with distinction in the campaigns of 1812-
14 and accompanied Napoleon to Elba. He was active in the founding of
French military lodges.

C. B. Camerer Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 20, 1882 at

Kinmundy, Ill. Received M.D. from St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine in
1909. Entered U.S. Navy as a medical officer in 1909 and advanced
through grades to rear admiral in 1945. He was with the Root
Commission to Russia in 1917 and brigade surgeon for the Marine
Corps in WW1. In WW2 he was medical officer for the 9th Naval district
and with the 14th Naval district from 1945-46. His specialty in the
service was eye, ear, nose and throat. Returned from active service in
1946. After retirement he engaged in Red Cross work. Mason and
member of the National Sojourners.
Augustus G. Cameron Vice president of Goodyear Tire and
Rubber Export Co. b. Mar. 21, 1880 at Knightstown, Ind. Began in the
wholesale grocery business at Indianapolis in 1910 and first employed
by Goodyear in 1913, rising to his present position in 1939. Raised in
Golden Rule Lodge No. 16, Knightstown, Ind. on April 3, 1903 and
served as its master. Presently a member of Joppa Lodge No. 666,
Akron, Ohio. Received Royal Arch in Knightstown Chapter No. 33,
Knightstown, Ind. (now Akron No. 209) and served as high priest.
Cryptic degrees in Knightstown Council R. & S.M. No. 29 Dec. 10, 1909.
Knighted in Knights-town Commandery No. 9, K.T. (now Bethany No.
72 of Akron) March 6, 1906, serving as prelate of both No. 9 and 22.
Tadmor Shrine Temple of Akron.

Ralph H. Cameron Former U.S. Senator from Arizona. Member

of Flagstaff Lodge No. 7, Flagstaff, Ariz. and member of El Zaribah
Shrine Temple of Phoenix.

Simon Cameron (1799-1889) Secretary of War in Lincoln's

cabinet. b. March 8, 1799 in Lancaster Co., Pa. and orphaned at an
early age. Worked as a journeyman and edited newspapers before
becoming interested in banking and railroad construction. Became
Republican political czar of Pennsylvania and served three terms in the
U.S. Senate, 1845-49, 1857-61, 1867-77. For a time he was adjutant
general of Pennsylvania. Named by Lincoln as Secretary of War in his
first cabinet; resigned in 1862 when criticized for manner of awarding
army contracts, but immediately appointed U.S. Minister to Russia by
Lincoln. He served but six months as U.S. Minister, resigning on Nov. 8,
1862. Initiated in Perseverance Lodge No. 21 at Harrisburg, Pa., on July
12, 1826, he served as master in 1833. He was a member of
Perseverance Chapter No. 21, R.A.M. at Harrisburg and St. John's
Commandery No. 4, K.T. at Philadelphia. Strangely, he received the
Order of the Temple on Oct. 25, 1826 and the Red Cross and Malta on
Oct. 30, 1826.
Albert S. Camp (1892-1954) U.S. Congressman from 4th
Georgia dist. in 76th and 78th-83rd Congresses. b. July 26, 1892 in
Coweta Co., Georgia. Admitted to Georgia bar in 1915. Practiced law in
Newnan and was U.S. attorney for Northern Dist. of Ga. in 1934-39.
Served overseas with Army in WW1. Mason and Shriner. d. July 24,

Thomas J. Camp Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 10,

1886 at Seymour, Conn. Received B.A. from Yale in 1908 and M.A. in
1915. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1912 and rose to temporary
brigadier general in 1942. Served in Hawaii from 191217; instructed in
first officers training camp in 1917; battalion commander in France in
1918; on War Department General Staff from 1937-41; organized 51st
Armored Infantry in 1941; edited Infantry Journal from 1931-34. Raised
in Pyramid Lodge No. 92, New Egypt, N.J. in 1918. 32° AASR (SJ) at
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Alexander W. Campbell (1828-?) Brigadier General,

Confederate Army in Civil War. Raised in Jackson, Tenn. June, 1858.
Royal Arch Mason in same year and knighted in Jackson Commandery,
K.T. on April 3, 1874.

Archibald Douglas Campbell (see 4th Lord of Blythswood) Arthur

G. Campbell Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 15, 1884 at
Lexington, Va. Commissioned in 1908 in Coast Artillery and promoted
through grades to brigadier general in 1940. Served with A.E.F. in WW1
and was member of War Department General Staff from 1918-21;
assistant chief of staff of 6th Corps Area 192832 and 8th Corps Area
1939-40. Retired in 1944. Mason.

Doak S. Campbell President of Florida State University since

1941. b. Nov. 16, 1888 at Tate, Arkansas. Received degrees from
Ouachita College, George Peabody College, Stetson Univ. and Florida
Southern. Was superintendent of Columbus, Ark. high school from
1911-14; vice-president of Central College, Ark. 1916-20 and president
1920-28; with George Peabody College 1928-41. Has written several
books on education. Raised in Buck Range Lodge, Howard Co., Ark.
and presently a member of Jackson Lodge No. 1, Tallahassee, Fla. Has
served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Florida.

Douglas L. Campbell Prime Minister of Manitoba, Canada. b.

May 27, 1895 at Portage la Prairie. Owner and operator of a farm near
High Bluff, Manitoba since 1918. Served as a member of the Manitoba
legislature since 1922; member of the ex-ecutive council in 1936 and
minister of agriculture and immigration from 1936-48. Elected premier of
Manitoba in 1948 and has since been the leader of the Liberal-
Progressive Party. He was initiated in Assiniboine Lodge No. 7 at
Portage La Prairie in 1917 and served as master in 1922. Also member
of Keystone Chapter No. 2 of the same place.

Dwight Campbell Judge, Supreme Court of South Dakota. b.

Nov. 5, 1887. Graduate of Iowa College, 1909 and Harvard, 1912.
Began practice in Aberdeen, S.D. in 1919. Appointed judge of Supreme
Court of S.D. in 1925, serving until 1937 when he resigned to re-enter
private practice. Mason, 32° and Shriner.

George W. Campbell (1768-1848) Secretary of the Treasury and

U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b. 1768 in Tenn. Graduated from
Princeton in 1794. Served in U.S. Congress as representative from
1803-09. Elected U.S. Senator in 1811, but resigned in 1814 to become
Secretary of the Treasury. He was again elected to the Senate in 1815,
serving until 1818 when he was appointed U.S. Minister to Russia,
returning to the United States in 1820. He served as master of
Greenville Lodge No. 43, Greenville, Tenn. and is also reported to have
held offices in three other Tennessee lodges: Knoxville No. 2, Mount
Libanus No. 59 and Tennessee No. 41, all of Knoxville.
Jacob M. Campbell Union General in Civil War. Became a
member of Cambria Lodge No. 278 at Johnstown, Pa. on Oct. 26, 1858,
but demitted April 13, 1875 to become a charter member of Johnstown
Lodge No. 538, serving as first senior warden.

James Campbell (1813-?) Postmaster General of the United

States under President Pierce, 1853-1857. b. in Philadelphia, son of an
Irish emigrant. Admitted to bar in 1834, becoming attorney general of
the state in 1852. His lodge is not known, but he was a member of
Harmony Chapter No. 52, R.A.M. of Philadelphia.

James U. Campbell (1866-1937) Chief Justice, Supreme Court

of Oregon. b. Aug. 29, 1866, Prince Edward Island, Canada and
educated in Prince of Wales College, studying law privately. Came to
the U.S. in 1887 and was naturalized in 1893. Began teaching public
schools in 1884 and admitted to Oregon bar in 1893. Served as circuit
judge of the 5th district five times. Elected to supreme court in 1930 and
was chief justice from 1935 until his death on July 16, 1937.

John Campbell 4th Earl of Loudoun (1705-1782) Governor of

Virginia and commander of all British forces in America in 1756. He was
grand master of the Grand Lodge of England in 1736. He was the first
PGM of England to visit a grand lodge in America, when on Jan. 31,
1757 the Festival of St. John the Evangelist was postponed by the
Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston so that he might attend. A special
working lodge was opened and four members of Campbell's staff "were
made enter'd Prentices & Pass'd Fellow crafts" with Richard Gridley q.v.
in the chair." Commissioned in the Scots Greys at an early age, he
succeeded his father to the title and became one of the 16
representative Scottish peers in Parliament. As a mark of royal esteem,
he was made governor of Stirling Castle and Edinburgh, and was aide-
de-camp to the king, serving in the Flanders campaigns and the
rebellion of 1745. Following the disastrous expeditions of 1755 against
the French and Indians in America, and the death of General Braddock,
General Campbell was appointed governor of Virginia (as asinecure)
and to command all British forces in America. Due to politics at home
and poor handling of colonial authorities in the new world, he served
only from July 23, 1756 until December, 1757. The earl was said to
have resembled "Saint George on the tavern sign—always on
horseback, but never advancing." He lost Forts Oswego and William
Henry, and failed in the planned invasion of French Canada. However,
he was far from discredited with the king or later ministries. In 1762 he
took part in the Peninsular Wars in Portugal, where although second in
command, he was actually first in the field. He was promoted to full
general in 1770. He retired to Scotland as titular governor of Edinburgh
until his death in 1782.

Sir Malcolm Campbell (1885-1948) English businessman and

famed automobile racer. Employed in 1906 on the staff of Lloyds of
London. He served through WW1 from 1914-18, the last two years,
being an airplane pilot. He began motor racing as a hobby in 1910 and
later established many world records for speed at Daytona Beach, Fla.
and Salt Lake City, Utah. He wrote Speed, 1931; The Romance of
Motor-Racing, 1936; and The Roads and the Problem of Their Safety,
1937. A Freemason, he was made a member of the Azngi Grotto of
Daytona Beach, Fla.

Price Campbell President of West Texas Utilities Co. b. Jan. 22,

1890 at Weatherford, Texas. Received B.S. and E.E. from Texas
Agricultural and Mechanical College. With the American Public Service
Co. since 1915 and a director of many public utilities. Mason.

Thomas D. Campbell Agricultural engineer and Brigadier

General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 19, 1882 at Grand Forks, N.D. Graduate of
North Dakota, Cornell and Southern Calif. universities. Engaged in
farming since 1898, operating 95,000 acres of wheat and flax land in
Montana. President of Campbell Farming Corp. since 1922. In 1929 he
was special adviser for Russian government to assist in operation of 10
million acres in Russia. Was special advisor to British government on
increased wheat production in 1941. Made report for French
government on wheat production in North Africa in 1948. Served as
colonel with Air Corps from 1942 and made brigadier general in 1946;
now general U.S. Army Reserve. Inventor of Campbell grain dryer and
developer of Campbell windrow method of harvesting grain. Raised in
Acacia Lodge No. 4, Grand Forks, N. Dak. on Nov. 29, 1907. 32° AASR
(SJ) and member of Kem Shrine Temple, Grand Forks.

Wayne Campbell Actor and university professor. b. May 9, 1872.

Taught school and worked on his father's newspaper in Waterville,
Kansas before becoming an entertainer with the Lyceum Bureau.
Barnstormed with repertory and stock companies and was leading
character actor from 1915. Head of the drama department of Oklahoma
City University since 1922. Author and producer of annual pre-dawn
Easter play, Life, Lord of Death from 1937-43, and the annual passion
play Via Crucis produced at the Guthrie Masonic Temple since 1940.
Has written several books on writing and acting. Mason, member of
Scottish Rite.

Lord William Campbell (?-1778) English governor in America.

He was appointed governor of Nova Scotia in 1766 and was the last
British governor of South Carolina (1773), which he unsuccessfully
attempted to keep loyal to the Crown.

Sir William Campbell ( ? -18 34) Chief Justice of Upper Canada

from1826-29. Served with the British in the American Revolution.
Founded Guysboro and Temple Lodge No. 7 in 1785. He was appointed
attorney general of the province of Cape Breton and while there was
identified with Freemasonry in Sydney. He went to England in
connection with the affairs of the province, and while there, was
appointed a justice of the King's Bench, Upper Canada in 1811,
becoming chief justice in 1826 and resigning in 1829. He was the
founder of St. Andrew's Lodge No. 16 in Toronto. Campbell was
knighted and died in 1834.

William B. Campbell (1807-1867) Governor of Tennessee. b.

Feb. 1, 1807 in Sumner Co., Tenn. Practiced law in Carthage, Term.
Raised a cavalry company and commanded it in Creek and Florida wars
of 1836. From 1837-43 was Whig member of U.S. Congress from
Tennessee. Was major general of militia in 1844 and served in the
Mexican War, distinguishing himself in the battles of Monterey and
Cerro Gordo. He served as governor of Tennessee, 1851-53. From
1857 he served as judge of the state circuit court. Lincoln appointed him
brigadier general in the Federal Army in 1862, but he was forced to
retire in 1863 due to ill health. He was a member of Lebanon Lodge No.
98, Lebanon, Term. d. Aug. 19, 1867.

Joachim Heinrich Campe (17461818) German writer and

educator. Studied theology and was tutor to the Humboldt family in
Berlin in 1769 and 1774-75. He was director of the schools in Dessau
and Hamburg, 1786-1805 and head of the Brunswick educational book
house from 17871808, which published many of his own writings
including Robinson der Jungere, based on Defoe. He was a learned and
zealous Freemason as shown by his correspondence with Gotthold
Lessing q.v.

Edward R. S. Canby (1819-1873) Brigadier General, U.S. Army.

Born in Kentucky, his family later moved to Indiana and he graduated
from the U.S. Military Academy in 1835. He served in the Florida Indian
War and assisted in the removal of the Five Civilized Nations to
Oklahoma. In the Mexican war he saw action in most of the important
engagements and was promoted to captain. As a major in 1855 he
served the next three years on frontier duty and when the Civil War
broke out, he was on an expedition against the Navajos in the
Southwest. Made colonel, he commanded the New Mexico forces that
repelled a Confederate thrust into that area. He was then made
brigadier general and called to Washington to assist Secretary of War
Stanton. He then saw service in New York, Mississippi Valley, Virginia,
Louisiana, Alabama. After the War he served in Washington, D.C. and
was then sent to California, where he attempted to bring the Modoc
Indians to terms with the government. On April 11, 1873 he met "Capt.
Jack," the Modoc leader on neutral ground, but the Indians waylaid
Canby and two other officers at the meeting place and killed them. The
principal Indians were later tried and executed. General Canby "was a
member of a lodge in the East. His body was escorted under auspices
of the Craft to the Masonic Temple at Yreka and afterwards conveyed
East where he was buried with Masonic honors.”

Allen D. Candler Former Governor of Georgia. Member of

Gainesville Lodge No. 219, Gainesville, Ga.

John S. Candler (1861-1941) Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia

190206. b. Oct. 22, 1861 at Villa Rica, Ga. Alderman of City of Atlanta
andpresident of the general council in 1911, 12, 14. Served in Spanish
American War as colonel. Member of the general conference of the
Methodist Episcopal church five times between 1890 and 1934, being a
member of the commission on unification of the two branches. Mason,
32° AASR and Shriner. d. Dec. 9, 1941.

Thomas S. Candler Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia since

1945. b. Dec. 15, 1890 at Blairsville, Ga. Engaged in law practice from
191539. Judge of Superior Court, N.E. Judicial Circuit, 1939-45. Mason.

William Candler (1890-1936) President of Atlanta Biltmore Hotel

Co. from 1923 and vice president of Coca-Cola Bottling Co. of N.Y. from
1925. b. Jan. 24, 1890. Former director of U.S. Chamber of Commerce
and officer and director in several corporations. Mason. d. Oct. 2, 1936.

Gordon Canfield U.S. Congressman 77th to 84th Congresses

from 8th N.J. district. b. April 15, 1898 at Salamanca, N.Y. Received
LL.B. from National Univ. in 1928. Began as newsboy in Binghamton,
N.Y. in 1912, later clerk for Western Union, reporter for Passaic (N.J.)
Daily News and for 17 years secretary to Congressman George N.
Seger. He served in WW1 in the Signal Corps and in WW2 was on
active duty with the Merchant Marine (incognito) in the North Atlantic.
He visited Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany as an observer
at request of General Eisenhower in 1945, made a 30,000 mile
inspection trip of island bases in Pacific in 1946 and visited 16
European and Middle East countries in 1947 on investigating
committee. In 1952 he inspected the Pacific defenses and the Korean
front. Mason.

Erwin D. Canham Editor of Christian Science Monitor. b. Feb.

13, 1904 at Auburn, Maine. Received B.A. and Litt.D. from Bates
College; L.H.D. Boston University and was Rhodes Scholar at Oxford
Univ. England, receiving B.A. and M.A. in 1936. Began with the
Christian Science Monitor, in 1925 and has covered many important
national and international stories for his paper including the League of
Nations assemblies of 1926-28, Ramsay MacDonald's tour of the U.S.;
London Naval conference; trips of American presidents; nationwide
political surveys; inauguration of Philippine Commonwealth. He was
head of the Washington Bureau from 1932-39; general news editor
1939-41, managing editor, 1941-44 and editor since 1945. Mason.

Ralph J. Canine Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 9, 1895

at Flora, Ind. A graduate of Northwestern Univ. and several army
schools, he advanced through grades from 2nd lieutenant in 1917 to
lieutenant general in 1953. In WW2 he served as commanding general
of First Infantry Division Artillery in Europe. He is now serving with the
Department of Defense, Washington, as director of the National
Security Agency. Raised in East Chicago Lodge No. 595, East Chicago,
Ind. in 1917. 32° AASR (SJ) at Guthrie, Oklahoma and member of
Ararat Shrine Temple, Kansas City, Mo.

George Canning (1770-1827) English statesman who served as

Foreign Secretary, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Prime Minister.
Educated at Oxford, he was a brilliant orator. Member of parliament in
1793, he became under-secretary for foreign affairs in Pitt's
administration (1796-99), but was barred from advancement because of
poverty and his merciless wit, which he directed against the Whigs.
Chief confidant of Pitt, he left office as treasurer of the Navy on Pitt's
death in 1806. Was foreign sec-retary from 1807-10. After 12 years of
minor offices he again became foreign secretary in 1822, succeeding
Castlereagh as leader of the House of Commons. In 1827 he
succeeded Liverpool as prime minister and chancellor of the exchequer.
He was a member of Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4, but
the date of his initiation is not known. In 1810 he became a dual
member and "was admitted" to the Lodge of the Antiquity No. 2,
resigning in 1811 and being reinstated in 1812.

Clarence Cannon Missouri Congressional representative

continuously since the 68th (1923) Congress. b. April 11, 1879 at
Elsberry, Mo., he is a graduate of LaGrange College, William Jewell
College and the Univ. of Missouri. Was professor of history at Stephens
College, Columbia, Mo. 1904-08, beginning practice of law at Troy, Mo.
in 1908. Has been parliamentarian of the House of Representatives for
many years, both in Republican as well as Democratic administrations,
and parliamentarian for the Democratic National Conventions since
1920. He is regent of the Smithsonian Institute. He is the author of
Synopsis of the Procedure of the House (1919), Cannon's Procedures
(1928), Convention Parliamentary Manual (1928, 1951) and other
writings. Member of Troy Lodge No. 34, Troy, Mo. Exalted in Troy
Chapter R.A.M. No. 85, (now extinct) and transferred to Mexico Chapter
No. 27, Mexico, Mo.; Crusade Commandery No. 23, K.T. Mexico and
AASR, Valley of St. Louis. Died, 1964.

Joseph G. Cannon ( 1836 - 1926 ) Served in the U.S. House of

Representatives for 50 years (1872-1923) with the exception of two
terms. "Uncle Joe" was speaker of the House from 1903-11, ruling that
body with a stern and august hand. b. May 7, 1836 at Guilford, N.C., he
was admitted to Illinois bar in 1858. After serving eight years as state's
attorney he began his long service in Congress. Was made a Mason in
Shelbyville, Ill. in 1858 and later affiliated with Olive Branch Lodge No.
38 of Danville in Feb., 1888. In Jan., 1888 he was exalted in Vermilion
Chapter No. 82, R.A.M. and on Feb. 9, knighted in Athelstan
Commandery No. 45, K.T. both of Danville, Ill. d. Nov. 12, 1926 at age
of 90 and was buried with Masonic honors.
Newton Cannon (1781-1842) Governor of Tennessee, 1835-39.
b. in N. Carolina and after public school education removed to
Tennessee where he was a member of the legislature in 1811-12.
Served in the Tennessee Mounted Rifles as a colonel in 1813 and
commanded the left column in the Battle of Tallushatchee with the
Creek Indians on Nov. 3, 1813. Elected to Congress in 1814 to fill
vacancy of Felix Grundy q.v. and served until 1817, and again from
1819-23. In 1819 he was appointed one of the two commissioners to
treat with the Chickasaw Indians by President Monroe. A member of
Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, he was present at a called meeting
of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1825. d. Sept. 29, 1842.

Archbishop of Canterbury (see Henry Chicheley)

James Cantey Confederate Brigadier General in Civil War.

Member of Kershaw Lodge No. 29, Camden, S. Car.

Eddie Cantor Stage, screen and radio star. b. Jan. 31, 1892 in
New York City, he was educated in the public schools and at Wood's
Business School, Williamsburgh, N.Y. Married Ida Tobias in 1914; they
have five girls—Marjorie, Natalie, Edna J., Marilyn and Janet. He began
as a vaudeville and burlesque entertainer and later with Morosco, the
Shubertsand Florenz Ziegfeld. In 1916 he toured the country as "Sam
Beverly Moon" in Canary Cottage. He played in Broadway Brevities
(1920), Make It Snappy (1922), and starred in Kid Boots (1923-26),
Whoopee (1929-30), making his first motion picture appearance in
1926. He is known for his charitable work with Christians as well as
Jews, and founded the Eddie Cantor Camp which sends poor and
undernourished boys to the country. He has served as president of the
Jewish Theatrical Guild of America, and president of the American
Federation of Radio Artists. He was initiated in Munn Lodge No. 190,
N.Y.C. on Nov. 6, 1919 and raised on June 23, 1921.
Homer E. Capehart U.S. Senator from Indiana. b. June 6, 1897
at Algiers, Ind. Began as salesman with Burton-Paige Mfg. Co.,
Chicago, in 1919. From 1927-33 he was president of The Capehart
Corp., mfgrs., Fort Wayne, Ind., and vice president of The Wurlitzer Co.
from 1933-40. He is chairman of the board of Packard Mfg. Co.,
Indianapolis, and owner of the Capehart Farms, Washington, Ind.
Served in army during WW1 (1917-19). Elected U.S. Senator in 1944
and again in 1950. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Joseph P. E. Capelle (1757-1796) Surgeon of the American

Revolution, he was born in Flanders, coming to America with Count
Rochambeau q.v. and later served on General Lafayette's q.v. staff as
surgeon. After the Revolution, he settled in Wilmington, Del., and was
both popular and successful as a physician. He was one of the
incorporators of the Delaware State Medical Society. He was raised in
Lodge No. 14 at Wilmington (under Pennsylvania charter) on Aug. 21,
1783. He served as master in 1786 and again in 1792. He was treasurer
of the lodge from 1788-91. On Aug. 6, 1789, he was in the first group of
Delaware Masons to receive the Royal Arch Degree, conferred in his
own lodge, and played a prominent part in the effort to establish a grand
lodge in Delaware. He died on Nov. 5, 1796 and was buried with
Masonic services in Old Swedes Cemetery. As the Masonic rites began,
the sky suddenly darkened, and winds of near-hurricane velocity tore at
the graveyard, forcing a number of crows to the ground among the
onlookers, where they helplessly flapped their wings over the grave.
The strange incident so terrified some of the onlookers, that they sprang
over the cemetery wall and forever after talked of the strange alchemy
and close affinity the Freemasons had with evil spirits.

Luigi Capello (1859-?) Italian General of World War I. He

commanded the army which captured Gorizia in August, 1916 and the
2nd Army in the Italian offensive of Bainsizza plateau the following year.
He retired in July of 1918. An opponent of Fascism, Mussolini called on
him to choose between Freemasonry and Facism. He chose the craft
and in Nov., 1925 he was arrested and accused of plotting against
Mussolini's life. He was not brought to trial until the spring of 1927 when
he was convicted and sentenced to 30 years' penal servitude.
William T. Capers (1867-1943) Bishop of Protestant Episcopal
Church. b. Aug. 9, 1867 at Greenville, S.C. Graduate of Theological
Seminary of Virginia, State Univ. of Kentucky and Univ. of the South. In
business from 1887-90. Became P.E. deacon, 1894; priest, 1895 and
served as rector in Anderson, S.C., Vicksburg, Miss., Asheville, N.C.,
Lexington, Ky., Philadelphia, Pa. from 1895-1913. Elected bishop of
missionary district of Spokane in 1913 but declined. Was then named
bishop co-adjutor of Diocese of West Texas, serving from1913-16 and
bishop of West Texas from Oct. 16, 1916. Mason, 32° AASR. d. March
29, 1943.

Arthur Capper (1865-1951) U.S. Senator, Governor of Kansas

and publisher. b. July 14, 1865 at Garnett, Kans. Began as a compositor
on the Topeka Daily Capital in 1884 and by 1892 owned and published
the paper. Eventually he added the following publications to become
one of the largest publishers in the world: Cap-per's Weekly, Kansas
Farmer, Household Magazine, Capper's Farmer, Missouri Ruralist, Ohio
Farmer, Pennsylvania Farmer, Michigan Farmer, Kansas City Kansan.
He also owned radio stations KIBW, Topeka and KCKN, Kansas City,
Kans. Elected governor of Kansas, 1915-19 and served Kansas as U.S.
Senator from 1919-1951. He was a member of Orient Lodge No. 51 of
Topeka and received his 33° AASR, (SJ) in Oct. 1948. d. Dec. 19, 1951.

John H. Capstick (1856-1918) U.S. Congressman from 5th N.J.

district in 64th Congress (1915-17). b. Sept. 2, 1856 at Lawrence, Mass.
Business interests were dyeing, printing and bleaching of textile fabrics.
Mason. d. March 16, 1918.

Thaddeus H. Caraway (1871-1931) U.S. Senator from

Arkansas, 1921-33, dying in office. b. Oct. 17, 1871 in Stoddard Co.,
Mo., he was admitted to Arkansas bar in 1900. He served in the U.S.
House of Representatives from the 1st Arkansas district in the 63rd to
66th Congresses (1913-21). Mason and member of Sahara Shrine
Temple at Pine Bluff, Ark. d. Nov. 6, 1931.
Giosue Carducci (1835-1907) Considered the national poet of
modern Italy. b. in Valdicastello, Tuscany, his early pseudonym was
Enotrio Romano. From 1861-1904 he was professor of literary history at


1st Marquess of Carisbrooke He was awarded the Nobel prize for

literature in 1906. Wrote many volumes of verse and historical studies in
literary criticism. The Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress of
1917 lists him as a Freemason.

Henry C. Carey (1793-1879) Political economist. b. in

Philadelphia, the son of Mathew Carey, an Irish publisher who fled to
America in 1784 to escape prosecution for attacks on British
government. Henry continued his father's publishing and bookselling
business from 1817-35 when he retired to devote himself to study and
writing. He was the author of Principles of Political Economy (183740) in
three volumes, and The Principles of Social Science (1858-59) in three
volumes. He was raised in Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia on January 21,

James B. Carey Judge, Delaware Supreme Court since 1945. b.

Feb. 17, 1905. Graduated from Univ. of Delaware (1926) and Temple
Univ. (1931). Admitted to Pennsylvania bar in 1931 and Delaware bar in
1936. Practiced law in Georgetown, Del. from 1936-45. Member and
past master of Franklin Lodge No. 12, Georgetown, Del. Past grand
marshal of Grand Lodge of Delaware. Member of Hope Chapter No. 7,
R.A.M. and Joppa Council No. 3, R. & S.M. both of Georgetown; 32°
AASR (NJ) at Wilmington; Evergreen No. 49, Tall Cedars and member
of Kent and Sussex Past Masters' Association.
Jeremiah Carhart (1813-1868) Inventor. b. Sept. 1813 in
Dutchess Co., N.Y., he received no extended education, but when 15
learned the cabinet making trade and became adept in the use of tools.
He moved to Buffalo where he perfected several inventions between
1836-46, including the exhaustion bellows and tubular reed-board for
reed instruments. With E. P. Needham, he founded firm of Car-hart and
Needham, moving to New York City where they manufactured
melodeons and organs. His Blue Lodge is not known, but he was a
member of Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, N.Y.C. d. Aug. 16, 1868.

1st Marquess of Carisbrooke (Alexander Albert Mountbatten) b.

Nov. 22, 1886. His father was the third son of Prince Alexander, of
Hesse, brother of the ruling grand duke, Prince Louis of Battenberg,
later the Marquess of Milford Haven, was the elder brother of Prince
Henry, and married Princess Victoria of Hesse, granddaughter of the
late Queen Victoria. Their eldest daughter, Princess Alice of Battenberg
married Prince Alexander of Greece and is the mother of H.R.H., Prince
Philip, Duke of Edinburg and royal consort of Queen Elizabeth. The
family name was changed from Battenberg to Mountbatten in 1914 at
the outbreak of WW1 when there was a popular outcry against names
of Teutonic origin. The marquisate of Carisbrooke was created in 1917,
taking its name from Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight. The
Marquess was educated at Wellington College and went to sea as a
midshipman on the H.M.S. Britannia, the royal yacht, remaining in the
navy from 1902-08. Commissioned as lieutenant in the Grenadier
Guards in 1911, he was promoted to captain three years later. He
served throughout the War of 1914-18, subsequently on the staff,
retiring in 1919. A member of Prince of Wales Lodge No. 259, the lodge
connected with the royal family, he served as master in 1952 and as
grand steward of the Grand Lodge of England in that year. In 1956 he
was master of Royal Colonial Institute Lodge No. 3556. He has served
on the board for the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys for several

181 Carl XIII Carl XIII King of Sweden (see Charles XIII) Carl
XIV, John King of Sweden (see Charles XIV) Carl XV, Ludwig Eugen
King of Sweden (see Charles XV) Father Antoine Caries (?-1824)
French Catholic priest, an Austrian by birth, who was chaplain of
L'Esperance Lodge in Savannah, Georgia. This lodge was composed of
French Roman Catholic refugees from the "black uprising" of San
Domingo. He first settled in Pennsylvania, but in 1803 moved to
Savannah. He was associated with John Paul Jones q.v. in France as
well as Benjamin Franklin q.v. French Naval Captain Denis Nicholas
Cottineau was buried from his home on Broughton St. in Savannah on
Nov. 30, 1808. He returned to France after the Bourbons were restored
and died in 1824, just after completing Easter services at the Cathedral
of Bordeaux.

James H. Carleton (1814-1873) Major General U.S. Army.

Fought in the Aroostook war of 1839 as a lieutenant of the Maine
volunteers on the N.E. boundary of the U.S. Later with the 1st U.S.
Dragoons and was with Kearny's expedition to the Rocky Mountains in
1846. In the Mexican War he was made captain and then major, serving
with General Wool in Mexico and cited in the battle of Buena Vista. After
the Mexican War, he engaged in exploration and expeditions against
hostile Indians. In one expedition against the Utes and Apaches, Kit
Carson q.v. was his guide. He led the "California Column" in the Civil
War across the Yuma and Gila deserts to Mesilla, on the Rio Grande,
and in April, 1862 was ordered to relieve General Canby q.v. as
commander of the department of New Mexico, where he remained for
several years. Advanced to brigadiergeneral in 1865 and major general
in U.S. forces. He was raised in Montezuma Lodge No. 109 in New
Mexico, chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and is later thought
to have belonged to San Diego Lodge No. 35, San Diego, Calif.

Will Carleton (1845-1912) American poet. b. Oct. 21, 1845 at

Hudson, Mich. In newspaper work at Hillsdale, Mich., Detroit, Chicago,
Boston and New York and became editor of Everywhere, a monthly
published in Brooklyn. Lecturer and reader of his own works in U.S. and
Europe. Author of Farm Ballads, Farm Legends, Farm Festivals, Young
Folks' Rhymes, City Ballads, City Legends, City Festivals, Rhymes of
Our Planet, The Old Infant and many others. Mason. d. Dec. 18, 1912.
Richard Carlile (1790-1843) Printer and bookseller of London
who wrote and published several pretended exposes of Freemasonry,
which after his death, were collected in one volume under the title of A
Manual of Freemasonry (in three parts). An atheist and freethinker, he
was inprisoned for the publication of Paine's Age of Reason and
Palmer's Light of Nature. His Masonic works are interspersed with
considerable learning, and are not as abusive of the craft as most
expositions generally are.

Carlini English sculptor. Early member of the Lodge of Nine

Muses No. 325 in London, and one of the four members of this lodge to
be original members of the Royal Academy at its foundation in 1768.

Evans F. Carlson (1896-1947) Brigadier General, U.S. Marine

Corps. b. Feb. 26, 1896 at Sidney, N.Y. Entered army in 1912 and
served in Philippines, Hawaii, Mexican border, France and Germany
and was member of Pershing's staff. Entered Marine Corps in 1922 and
served in West Indies, Nicaragua, and observer with Chinese armies.
He joined Chinese guerrilla forces in penetrations behind Japanese
lines. Resigned from Marine Corps to lecture and write in 1939 but
reentered in 1941 as commander of 2nd Marine Raider Bn. which
became known as "Carlson's Raiders," advancing from colonel to
brigadier general. Retired in 1946 as result of wounds. d. May 27, 1957.
Mason, member of Scottish Rite.

Frank Carlson Former Governor and U.S. Senator from Kansas.

b. Jan. 23, 1893 at Concordia, Kansas. Farmer and stockman since
1914; member of Kansas state legislature, 1929-33 and governor of
Kansas, term of 1947. U.S. senator from Kansas, 1951-57. Served as
private in army, WW1. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 113, Concordia
and 33° AASR (SJ).

George A. Carlson ( 1876 - 1926 ) Governor of Colorado from

1915-17. b. Oct. 23, 1876 at Alta, Iowa. Graduate of Colorado State
Normal and Univ. of Colorado. Admitted to Idaho bar in 1904 and
practiced at Lewiston, removing to Colorado in 1905, practicing at Fort
Collins. After governorship he resumed practice at Denver. d. Dec. 6,
1926. Mason.

Wilbur G. Carlson Dairy expert b. May 11, 1904 at Madison,

Wis. Editor of Pure Milk Products Press in 1931-32; director of
Wisconsin Agricultural Authority, 1939-39; executive with Kraft Foods,
1940-49. Technical specialist with Quartermaster Corps in WW2 in
France and Germany. Director of livestock products, division of Foreign
Agricultural Service, Dept. of Agriculture since 1954. Cofounder of
American Dairy Association. Was secretary general of first World
Congress for Milk Utilization in 1953. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Doyle E. Carlton Governor of Florida from 1929-33. b. July 6,

1887 at Wauchula, Fla. Graduate of Univ. of Chicago and Columbia
Univ. Admitted to Florida bar and began practice at Tampa in 1912.
Member of Florida state senate from 1917-19. He received his first
degree on April 27, 1909 in St. John's Lodge No. 37, DeLand, Fla., his
second degree on July 7, 1911 in Damascus Lodge No. 888, Chicago,
and his third in Hillsborough Lodge No. 25, Tampa, on Sept. 29, 1915,
affiliating with the latter lodge.

Newcomb Carlton ( 1869 -19 53 ) President (ret.) of Western

Union Telephone and Telegraph Co. 191433, chairman of the board
1933-43 and honorary chairman 1943-49. b. Feb. 19, 1869 at Elizabeth,
N.J. Graduate of Harvard and Colgate. Began as a mechanical engineer
in Buffalo, N.Y. in 1891, becoming vice president of Bell Telephone of
Buffalo in 1902 and vice president of Westinghouse Electric in 1904. In
1910 he was made vice president of Western Union. Life trustee of
American Academy in Rome, grand officer of Crown of Italy, and holder
of French Legion of Honor. Member of Kane Lodge No. 454, New York
City. d. March 12, 1953.
Henry, 4th Earl of Carnarvon (Henry Howard Molyneux) (1831-
1890) Undersecretary for the colonies in 1858-59 and colonial
secretary, 186667, 1874-78. He presented bill for the federation of North
American provinces in 1867, abolished slavery on the African Gold
Coast in 1874 and favored federation for South Africa. Resigned in 1878
in opposition to breach of neutrality in Russo-Turkish conflict. As lord
lieutenant of Ireland (1885-86), he favored limited self government, and
resigned in opposition to Gladstone's home rule bill. He was grand
master of the Grand Lodge of England in 1870-74, and from 1874-90
served as pro-grand master for H.R.H. Albert Edward, later King
Edward VII. The office of pro-grand master must be held by a peer of
the realm and is created only when the grand master is a king or prince
of royal blood.

Henry, Marquis of Carnarvon (see 2nd Duke of Chandos)

James, Marquis of Carnarvon (see 3rd Duke of Chandos) L. J. J. Caron
Governor of the Celebes in Dutch East Indies, he was elected grand
master of the Netherlands in 1945 succeeding the late General H. van
Tongeren. The Chinese government conferred the high distinction of
"Brilliant Jade of China" on him. He was a member of the committee
sent to Syria by League of Nations when that nation declared its
independence. At the German invasion of Holland in 1938, he was
grand orator and senior surviving grand officer after liberation. He was
head of the first chapter of Royal Arch Masons established in Holland
on Feb. 3, 1949 by the Grand Chapter of England. Grand Secretary, Sir
Sydney White, of England was present at the consecration of the
chapter as were other English notables.

Admiral Carraciola Italian naval officer and Freemason who

during the uprising at Naples in 1799 was hanged from the masthead of
his own vessel and his body thrown into the sea.

Lord Carrington (Archibald Philip, 5th Earl of Primrose) (1847-

1929). Left Oxford without a degree because he owned race horses. An
avid sportsman, he won the Derby three times (1894, 1895, 1905). Was
prime minister of Britain (1894-95) following Gladstone. Undersecretary
for home department with charge of Scottish affairs from 1881-83;
visited Australia in 1883-84. Foreign secretary under Gladstone 1886,
1892-94, holding to policy of distrust of Russia; firmness with France
during Egyptian trouble. Was governor of New South Wales from 1888-
1891 and at the same time served as the first grand master of the
United Grand Lodge of New South Wales, being installed Sept. 18,
1888. Prior to the union he was provincial grand master under English
constitution. He was leader of the liberal opposition from 189596.

Frank Carrington Theatrical producer. b. Sept 13, 1901 at Angel

Island, Calif. Began acting at the Pasadena Community Playhouse in
1915 and in 1925 he organized his own Shakespeare company. In
1944-45 he was producer for Theatre Guild and the Shuberts. He was
the co-founder of The Paper Mill Playhouse, N.J. in 1934 and since that
time has directed over 150 plays and musicals. He studied subsidized
theatres in England, France and Germany in 1937 and was with the
U.S. Navy in WW1. Raised Oct. 24, 1923 in Hope Lodge No. 124, East
Orange, N.J.

Charles Carroll, Jr. Son of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, last

surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Although the family
was strong Roman Catholic, Schultz in his History of Freemasonry in
Maryland states that Charles, Jr. was a Freemason in a Maryland
Lodge. Daniel Carroll q.v., cousin of Charles Carroll of Carrollton was
definitely a Mason.

Daniel Carroll (?-1829) Member of the Continental Congress of

178084 and a delegate to the convention that framed the U.S.
Constitution. He was also a representative in congress in 1789-91,
when in the latter year he was appointed commissioner for surveying
the District of Columbia. His farm formed the site of the present city of
Washington, D.C. He was a cousin of Charles Carroll, signer of the
Declaration of Independence (see Charles Carroll, Jr.). He was raised in
Maryland Lodge No. 16, Baltimore, Md. on May 8, 1781. His birth date
is not known, but he lived to an advanced age.
Horace Bailey Carroll Historian, editor and college professor. b.
April 29, 1903 at Gatesville, Texas. Taught at Texas Technical College,
Texas Univ., Texas Wesleyan, Hillsboro College, West Texas State
College, Eastern New Mexico College, Texas Agricultural College.
Professor of history in Texas Univ. since 1946. Director of Texas State
Historical Association since 1946. Editor of Southwestern Historical
Quarterly. Associate editor of Panhandle-Plains Historical Review.
Editor of several volumes on S.W. American history. Member of
Yellowhouse Lodge No. 841, Lubbock, Texas.

Thomas K. Carroll Governor of Maryland in 1829. Joined

Somerset Lodge No. 49, Princess Anne, Md. "upon reaching his
maturity." Later associated with Washington Lodge No. 3, Baltimore and
Concordia Lodge No. 13, Baltimore. Served as deputy grand master of
the Grand Lodge of Maryland.

Arthur J. Carruth, Jr. Journalist and editor. b. July 26, 1887 at

Clinton, N.Y. With the Topeka State Journal since 1908. Managing
editor in 1914. Columnist, editor and co-publisher from 1933-40.
Director of North American Light & Power Co. since 1942. Mason.

Christopher "Kit" Carson (18091868) One of America's most

famous plainsmen, Indian scouts, guide, trapper and soldier. b. Dec. 24,
1809 in Madison Co., Ky. While an infant, his parents moved to Howard
Co., Mo. which was then a wilderness. At the age of 15 he was
apprenticed to a saddler, but ran away after two years (in 1826) to join a
party of hunters in Santa Fe, N.M. His employer advertised in the
Missouri Intelligencer, offering one cent reward for his return. For eight
years he lived the life of a plains trapper and was then appointed hunter
for the garrison at Bent's Fort, where he remained eight more years.
Carson was closely associated with Charles Bent q.v. and married
Josefa Jaramillo, sister of Bent's wife. Next he served as guide for
General John C. Fremont q.v., "The Pathfinder," on his first expedition—
and later others, including the famous one to California in 1843-44. In
1851 he settled down to ranching, 50 miles east of Taos. In 1853, he
drove 6,500 head of sheep over the mountains to Calif.—a hazardous
undertaking at that time, and on his return to Taos, was appointed
Indian agent. He was perhaps better known among the western Indians
than any other white man. He knew their habits, customs; understood
their mode of warfare; and spoke their language as a mother tongue.
Under this appointment, he was largely instrumental in bringing about
the treaties between the Indians and the U.S. At the advent of the Civil
War he was made colonel of a New Mexico regiment and later breveted
brigadier-general for his achievements. After the war, he returned to his
appointment as Indian agent. Unlike most frontiersmen, he was modest
almost to the point of bashfulness. He received his degrees in
Montezuma Lodge No. 109 (then under Missouri charter): EA March 29,
1854, FC June 17, 1854; MM Dec. 26, 1854. When Bent Lodge No. 204
(named after his friend) was chartered by Missouri in Taos on Dec. 15,
1859, Carson demitted to it on April 30, 1860 and became its first junior
warden. However circumstances forced the lodge to surrender its
charter in 1864 and in 1865 Carson again affiliated with his mother
lodge (Montezuma) and remained a member until his death on May 24,
1868. Carson City, Nev. is named for him, as is Carson Lodge No. 1,
Nev. His brother was Moses B. Carson q.v.

Enoch Terry Carson (1822-1899) Masonic scholar. b. Sept. 18,

1822 in Hamilton Co., Ohio. An active worker in all rites and bodies of
Freemasonry. Was an active 33° and deputy for Ohio in the AASR. He
printed, at his own expense, many important works on Freemasonry,
including the first facsimile of the Book of Constitutions of 1723 in 1855.
His valuable Masonic library was acquired by General Samuel C.
Lawrence of Medford, Mass. q.v. at the close of the last century.
General Lawrence bequeathed it to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.
Carson was raised in Cynthia Lodge No. 155 in 1846 and served as its
master. He was also the founder and first master of Kilwinning Lodge
No. 356 in 1865.

Harry R. Carson (1869-1948) Bishop of Protestant Episcopal

Church. b. Dec. 8, 1869 at Norristown, Pa. Deacon, 1895; priest, 1896;
general missionary (La.) 1895-98; chaplain 2nd La. Vol. Inf. of Spanish-
American War; rector at Franklin and Monroe, La.; archdeacon of
Northern La. 191012; chaplain of Ancon Hospital, Canal Zone 1913-22
and also archdeacon of Panama; bishop of Haiti from Jan. 10, 1923 and
also in charge of Dominican Republic from 1928-43. Mason.

Henderson IL Carson Congressman, 78th and 80th Congresses

(194345, 1947-49) from 16th Ohio district. b. Oct. 25, 1893 at Cadiz,
Ohio. Lawyer. With legal department of Pennsylvania Railroad in 1915.
Entered private practice, but retained railroad connection. Specializes in
insurance law. Served in field artillery in WW1. Raised Feb. 21, 1928 in
Lathrop Lodge No. 676, Canton, Ohio. 32° AASR (NJ) April 6, 1928 at
Cleveland and member of Al Koran Shrine Temple and Nazir Grotto.

Ken Carson Radio star. Born at Carman, Canada in 1910.

Member of Hollywood Lodge No. 355, Hollywood, Calif.

Moses B. Carson Founded Missouri Fur Company with two

other Freemasons—Joshua Pilcher and Joseph Perkins. They were in
competition with the American Fur Company headed by brothers Pierre
Chouteau, Jr. and Bartholomew Berthold. Moses was a brother of Kit
Carson q.v., the famous plainsman. Their father brought them from
Kentucky and they settled at Old Franklin in Howard county on the
Missouri river. It was here that Moses was initiated, passed and raised
in Franklin Union Lodge No. 7 in 1826. He was a member of a military
company at Fort Hempsted in 1812.

William L. Carss (1865-1931) Congressman from 8th Minnesota

dist. to 66th, 69th and 70th Congresses (1919-21 and 1925-29). b. Feb.
15, 1865 at Pella, Iowa. Mason.

Benjamin E. Carter (1894-1943) Justice, Supreme Court of

Arkansas. b. Nov. 1, 1894 at Texarkana, Ark. Graduate of Harvard in
1916. Practiced law in Texarkana from 1922. Named to supreme court
in 1943. d. April 11, 1943. Mason.

Edward F. Carter Justice, Supreme Court of Nebraska since

1935. b. March 11, 1897 at Middlebranch, Nebr. Admitted to bar in 1919
and practiced in Bayard, Nebr. until 1927 when he became judge of the
17th district. He served as judge on the 5th Military Tribunal, Nurnberg,
Germany, to try major German war criminals in 1947-48. Served in
WW1. Raised in Scotts Bluff Lodge No. 201, Gering, Nebr. Feb. 22,
1929 and past master of same. Grand master of Grand Lodge of
Nebraska in 1941. Member of Oregon Trail Chapter No. 65, R.A.M.,
Gering; Lincoln Council No. 4, R. & S.M. and Mt. Moriah Cornmandery
No. 4, K.T. of Lincoln; consistory membership at Alliance; 33° AASR
(SJ); member of Shrine, Red Cross of Constantine, High Twelve and
Eastern Star.

Frank J. Carter Vice president of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.

b. Dec. 20, 1900 at Warren, Ark. Started with Goodyear as a trainee in
1922, advancing to vice president in charge of industrial relations in
1956. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Fred A. Carter (1870-1948) President and general manager of

American Textile Woolen Co. from 1910. b. Oct. 14, 1870 in
Sweetwater, Tenn. Started as a laborer, clerk and bookkeeper and
became secretary-treasurer of Sweetwater Woolen Mills in 1892, going
to the American Textile Woolen Co. in 1906 in the same position.
Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. Feb. 17, 1948.

George H. Carter (1874-1948) Public printer of the U.S. from

1921-34. b. Sept. 10, 1874 at Mineral Point, Wis. Degrees from Univ. of
Iowa and George Washington Univ. Worked as editor and political writer
of several Iowa newspapers from 1890 to 1907 when he went to the
Washington (D.C.) Post. He served as secretary of the Printing
Investigation Commission in Washington in 1910-11 and as clerk of the
Joint Committee on Printing, U.S. Congress from 191121. Mason, 33°
AASR, Knight Templar, Shriner and member of Royal Order of
Scotland. d. Oct. 23, 1948.

Jesse F. Carter (1873-1943) Justice, Supreme Court of South

Carolina. b. Sept. 12, 1873 at Lodge, S.C. Admitted to bar in 1905 and
practiced in Bamberg, S.C. until 1927 when he was elected associate
justice of the state supreme court. He was reelected in 1930 and again
in 1940. He was a member of the state senate in 192527. Mason. d.
Nov. 5, 1943.

Jesse W. Carter Justice, Supreme Court of California. b. Dec.

19, 1888 at Carrville, Calif. Admitted to California bar in 1913 and
practiced in San Francisco and then Redding. Appointed to supreme
court bench in 1939. Raised in Western Star Lodge No. 2, Shasta, Calif.
in 1914, serving as master in 1922 and senior grand steward of the
Grand Lodge of California in 1922. 32° AASR (SJ) in Sacramento
Consistory; Ben Ali Shrine Temple of Sacramento and honorary life
member of Al Malaikah Temple, Los Angeles. Honorary member of
DeMolay Legion of Honor.

Joseph H. Carter President of Pittsburgh Steel Co. b. 1893 in

Harvey, Ill. Graduate of Rose Polytechnic Institute in 1916. Mason and

Thomas J. Carter Commanding officer, U.S. Naval Hospital at

Portsmouth since 1953. b. July 3, 1899 at Lawrence, Kans. Served in
Navy in WW1. Commissioned in 1927, advancing to captain in 1943.
Has served as naval medical officer throughout the world. Raised in
Lawrence Lodge No. 6, Lawrence, Kansas in 1926.
Thomas M. Carter Bandmaster. Made a Mason in Newburyport,
Mass. Knighted in Boston Commandery in 1889, he took an active part
in the musical side of Freemasonry. He is the composer of the Boston
Commandery March.

William C. Carter President of Link-Belt Co. 1942-46 and

chairman of executive committee since 1946. b. Oct. 10, 1881 at
Homer, Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Illinois and started with Link-Belt Co.
in 1902 as a draftsman. Raised in Olympia Lodge No. 864, Chicago, Ill.
in 1904.

William S. Carter (1859-1923) Labor executive. b. Aug. 11, 1859

at Austin, Texas. Was fireman and engineer on railroads in Texas,
Colo. and Mexico from 1889-94, and editor of Locomotive Firemen, and
Engineinens magazine until 1903, when he became general secretary
and treasurer of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and
Enginemen. He was president of the organization from 1909 until 1918.
In 1918 he became director, Division of Labor of U.S. Railroad
Administration. In 1920 he was elected president of the Brotherhood of
Locomotive Firemen and Engineers, a position which he held until his
death on Mar. 15, 1923. Mason.

Julius Victor Carus (1823-1903) German zoologist and a

professor at Leipzig from 1853. He authored a history of zoology and
translated most of Darwin's works. The bulletin of the International
Masonic Congress lists him as a Freemason.

Ugo Carusi Former U.S. Commissioner of Immigration and

Naturalization (1945-47) and chairman of Displaced Persons
Commission since 1948. b. Mar. 17, 1902 in Carrara, Italy and brought
to the U.S. in 1902. Was secretary and assistant to U.S. attorney
general from 1925-30. Was official delegate of U.S. at first international
congress on criminology in Rome, 1938. Raised in Justice Lodge No.
46, Washington, D.C. on May 31, 1927. 32° AASR (SJ) in Washington,
D.C. and presently guardian of the temple in Evangelist Chapter of
Rose Croix. Member of Almas Shrine Temple, Washington.

Elbert N. Carvel Governor of Delaware, 1949-53. b. Feb. 9, 1910

at Shelter Island Heights, N.Y. Graduated from Univ. of Baltimore in

President of Valliant Fertilizer Co. of Laurel, Del. since 1945.

Lieutenant governor of Delaware from 1945-49. Raised in Hope Lodge
No. 4, Laurel, Del. in 1946 and junior steward of his lodge in 1957. 32°
AASR (NJ); Nur Shrine Temple; Evergreen Forest, Tall Cedars and
National Sojourners.

Edgar M. Carver Vice President of Dodge Mfg. Company. b.

Oct. 22, 1886 at Morton, Ind. B.S. and M.E. degrees from Purdue.
Employed by the Dodge company since 1909, beginning as a
draftsman. Was general superintendent from 1927 and now vice
president and director. Served in WW1 with Army Ordnance. Raised in
Tippicanoe Lodge No. 492, Lafayette, Ind. about 1907.

Glover H. Cary (1885-1936) Congressman from Kentucky to

72nd and 74th Congresses (1931-33 and 1935-37) and 73rd Congress
(1933-35). b. May 1, 1885 at Calhoun, Ky. Admitted to Kentucky bar in
1909 and began practice in Owensboro. Mason. d. Dec. 5, 1936.

John Proby, 1st Lord Carysfort Grand master of the Grand

Lodge of England (Moderns) from 1752 to 1754.

Thomas Casady Bishop, Protestant Episcopal church. b. June 6,

1881 at Des Moines, Iowa. Graduate of Univ. of Iowa in 1902. Deacon,
1906; priest, 1907. Served as rector in Oelwein and Des Moines, Iowa,
Pueblo, Colo. and Omaha, Nebr. Elected bishop of Oklahoma on June
2, 1927, and consecrated Oct. 2, 1927. Elected president of the
Province of the Southwest in 1944. Mason.

Peter Casanave Master of Georgetown Lodge No. 9 of Maryland

(now Potomac No. 5 of D.C.) who laid the cornerstone of the White
House on Oct. 17, 1792. Like James Hoban q.v. the architect,
Casanave was a devout Romanist. At the time of the cornerstone
laying, Casanave was probably a young man in his mid-twenties. A
copy of his will dated April 14, 1856 and probated March 31, 1860, is in
the archives of Potomac Lodge. Casanave gave "an oration well
adapted to the occasion" at the laying of the stone.

Casanova, or Casanova de Seingalt (1725-1798) Born Giovanni

Jacopo in Venice, Italy, of family of actors. He was educated for the
priesthood and showed brilliance of mind and wit, but was expelled for
scandalous conduct from Seminary of St. Cyprian in 1741. He then
became secretary in the household of Cardinal Aquaviva, followed by a
spell in the Venetian army at Corfu. He was by turn a preacher, abbe,
alchemist, cabalist, gambler, and violin player. For 20 years he roamed
Europe, alternately in fortune and distress. Skeptic and sensualist, he
was involved in one intrigue after another. He was imprisoned as a spy
in Venice in 1755. As director of the state lotteries in Paris, he
accumulated a fortune. He was an agent of Louis XV. He made
acquaintance with the great of his day, including the pope (who
bestowed him with the papal order of the Golden Spur). He was
alternately forced to flee Russia, France, Spain and Italy. He is best
known for his Memoirs, which although a cynical record of his rogueries
and amours, is of great historical importance. He was thought to have
entered Freemasonry in Lyons in 1750. The Craft must have had a
mighty appeal to this wild adventurer without morals, for scattered
through his Memoirs are numerous references to Freemasonry. He
advised all young men, well-born, who wished to become of value in
society to become Freemasons "even though it would only be to know
superficially what it is." He defended the fraternity with unmeasured
scornfrom those who thought it political, anarchistic or subversive. He
asked young men to "choose well the Lodge, for although bad company
cannot work in the Lodge, it may however be found there and the
candidate ought to guard himself against dangerous associations."
What is really remarkable, however, is his reverent appreciation of the
inner content of the art. He asserted that the real secrets of the fraternity
were not in its symbols or words, but were to be found only in reflection,
reason, comparison and deduction. He averred that the secret of
Freemasonry, discovered by the individual, cannot be imparted to

Clarence E. Case Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Jersey.

b. Sept. 24, 1877 at Jersey City, N.J. Admitted to N.J. bar in 1903.
Judge of county court, secretary to president of N.J. senate, member of
senate from 191829; acting governor of New Jersey in 1920. Justice of
N.J. supreme court, 1929-46 and chief justice from 194548 when court
was terminated. Was senior associate justice on the new court from
1948. Mason.

Francis H. Case U.S. Senator from South Dakota. b. Dec. 9,

1896 at Everly, Iowa. Graduate of Dakota Wesleyan, and Northwestern
Universities. Was assistant editor of the Epwcrrth Herald, Chicago in
1920-22 and afterward editor of Rapid City (S.D.) Daily Journal, Hot
Springs (S.D.) Star, Custer (S.D.) Chronicle. He was Congressman from
2nd S.D. dist. to 75th to 81st Congresses (1937-51), and U.S. Senator
from South Dakota since 1951. Served in Marine Corps, WW1, as a
private and later a major in Marine Corps Reserve. Member of Custer
City Lodge No. 66, Custer, S. Dak.; Black Hills Chapter No. 25, R.A.M.;
Black Hills Council No. 3, R. & S.M.; Schrader Commandery No. 9, K.T.
all of Rapid City, S. Dak. Was member of Acacia fraternity at
Northwestern Univ.

Norman S. Case Governor of Rhode Island, three terms (1928-

33). b. Oct. 11, 1888 at Providence, R.I. Graduate of Brown, Harvard
and Boston Universities. Admitted to bar in 1911. Was lieutenant
governor of Rhode Island in 1927-28. Member of Federal
Communications Commission 1934-45 and now senior member of law
firm of Case & Wozencraft, Washington, D.C. Served as an officer in
Mexican border campaign and overseas in WW1 with a machine gun
battalion and later with General Staff, A.E.F. Raised in Corinthian Lodge
No. 27, Providence, R.I. on May 8, 1817 and a past master of his lodge.
Member of Tall Cedars of Lebanon.

Robert 0. Case Author of western books. b. Oct. 8, 1895 at

Dallas, Texas. Graduate of Univ. of Oregon. After serving as reporter
and financial editor of the Morning Oregonian, Portland, he began as a
professional writer in 1924. Among his many books are: Just Buckaroo
Riders of the Grande Ronde, The Yukon Drive, A Pair O'Mavericks,
Dynamite Smith—Cowboy, Whispering Valley, The Loop, Big Timber,
Wings, North, Golden Portage, West of Barter River and The Empire
Builders. Contributor of fiction to Saturday Evening Post and Colliers.

Charles C. Casey ( 1881 -1 946 ) President of Western State

College of Colorado from 1930. b. Dec. 5, 1881. Was principal of high
school and supt. of schools in Longmont,- Colo. from 1909-30. Mason,
32° AASR. d. July 31, 1946.

John E. Caskey Vice president of U.S. Rubber Company. b.

Feb. 29, 1892 in Fairmont, Ind. Graduate of Ohio State Univ. in 1915.
Has been with U.S. Rubber since graduation from college, becoming
vice presidentin 1953 and general manager of the Naugatuck (Conn.)
chemical division. Raised in Shepherd Lodge No. 478 at Naugatuck,
Conn. in 1924 and served as master of same. Member of Allerton
Chapter No. 39, R.A.M. Naugatuck.

Marion M. Caskie Vice President of Reynolds Metals Company.

b. July 29, 1890 at Remington, Va. First an accountant for Southern
Railroad, he engaged in practice before Interstate Commerce
Commission and came to Reynolds Metals as traffic executive in 1930.
He has been executive vice president and director of Reynolds Metals
since 1940. Mason.
Albin R. Caspar Vice President of Great Northern Paper
Company. b. July 20, 1896 at Lisbon Falls, Me. With Great Northern
since 1919, successively as pulp mill foreman, assistant superintendent
of paper and pulp mill, assistant manager of manufacturing and vice
president and manager of sales. Mason. Served in Navy in WW1.

Lewis Cass (1782-1866) General, Governor of Michigan,

Secretary of War, Minister to France, U.S. Senator, Secretary of State
and candidate for president. b. Oct. 9, 1782 at Exeter,N.H., he practiced
law at Zanesville, Ohio in 1802. He was made a Mason in old American
Union Lodge No. 1 at Marietta, Ohio (EA Dec. 5, 1803, FC April 2, 1804,
MM May 7, 1804). He was admitted a member of Amity Lodge No. 5,
Zanesville June 24, 1805. After a term in congress he was named U.S.
marshal of Ohio (1807-13). An early volunteer in the War of 1812 he
became a brigadier general. Following the defeat of the British in the
Battle of the Thames, he was given command of the garrison at Detroit
and in 1813 appointed civil governor of the territory of Michigan—a
position he held for nearly 18 years. During this time his constructive
administration opened up the territory. Traveling 5,000 miles by canoe,
he negotiated more than 20 treaties with the Indians. In 1831-36 he was
secretary of war in Jackson's cabinet. In 1836-42 he was U.S. minister
to France, and returned home to run for president, but a deadlock with
Van Buren resulted in election of Polk. Michigan sent him to the U.S.
senate from 1845-57. He again ran for president against Zach- ary,
Taylor and was defeated. Bu- chanan appointed him secretary of state
in 1857, but when he found himself to be a mere figurehead, he
resigned in 1860 and retired to his home in Detroit. Cass received the
four degrees of the chapter in American Union Royal Arch Chapter on
the same day—Aug. 17, 1804. He later became the first high priest of
Monroe Chapter No. 1, Detroit on Feb. 7, 1821. He helped organize the
Grand Lodge of Ohio and was its grand master from 1810-13. Upon
moving to Detroit, he affiliated with Zion Lodge No. 1 and was the first
grand master of Michigan in 1826. Was the first high priest of Monroe
chapter under charter. d. June 17, 1866.
Andres Cassard Masonic writer, member of La Fraternidad
Lodge No. 387, New York City. Senior grand deacon of Grand Lodge of
New York in 1859 and 33° AASR.

Archibald, 15th Earl of Cassillis (see Marquess of Ailsa) John,

7th Earl of Cassius Prominent figure in the Revolution of 1688. He was
deacon, or head, of the Lodge Kilwinning in 1672.

Stephen Cassin (1783-1857) U.S. naval officer. b. Feb. 16, 1783

in Philadelphia, Pa. and entered the navy as a midshipman in 1800.
Advanced through lieutenant (1807), master(1814) and captain (1825).
Both he and his father (another naval officer) served in the War of 1812.
Stephen served with distinction in the war with Tripoli and commanded
the Ticonderoga in Macdonough's victory on Lake Champlain. For this
he was awarded a gold medal by congress. He was a terror to the
pirates that infested the West Indies, and captured four of their vessels
in Sept., 1822. He was a member of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York
City. d. Aug. 29, 1857.

Emilio Castelar (y Ripoll) (18321899) Spanish statesman, orator

and writer. Was professor of history in Madrid 1856-65, exiled to France
in 1866, returning to teach again from 1868-75. As a deputy to the
Cortes in 1869 he advocated the republic and separation of church and
state. After the proclamation of the republic in 1873 he was minister of
foreign affairs and prime minister 1873-74 and deputy 1876-93. The
bulletin of the International Masonic Congress (1917) lists him as a

Juan Jose Castelli (1764-1812) Argentine patriot, lawyer and

politician of indomitable courage. He was a member of the Lautaro
Lodge and took an active part in the struggle for independence. He was
a member of the first governing "junta.”
Francisco Pio Pacheco Castilla (1826-1896) Roman Catholic
priest of Costa Rica who was a member of Esperanza Lodge No. 2 and
Maraville Lodge No. 12. b. July 9, 1826, he was ordained priest in 1849.
In 1851 he was in Guatemala at the consecration of Monsignor Llorente
and returned with him to Costa Rica. In 1874 he was a deputy to the
constitutional congress. Served as orator and junior warden of his
lodge. d. Aug. 20, 1896.

Alejandro Aguilar Castillo Costa Rican patriot. Deputy to

constitutional congress in 1874. Spoke against the Jesuits in 1875 and
aided in their expulsion from Costa Rica. A charter member of
Esperanza Lodge No. 2, he founded Maraville Lodge No. 12 and Lodge
No. 19 in San Jose. Was officer of Supreme Council AASR.

William J. Castle (1836-1909) Operatic tenor. b. Dec. 22, 1836

in England. Studied music in New York, London and Milan and was
leading tenor of English opera for 30 years. Made debut as concert
singer in New York, 1861 and in opera in 1864. Sang in Europe 1872-74
and retired from stage in 1891. Later he became vocal director of the
Chicago Musical College. He was raised in St. Cecile Lodge No. 568,
New York City on Jan. 20, 1867. d. in 1909.

Jose Antonio Pinto Castro Governor of San Juan, Costa Rica,

secretary of state and president of the supreme court at his death. He
prohibited the Jesuits from entering the country. He belonged to Lodge
Caridad No. 26 and was master of No. 3.

Dr. Jose Maria Castro (1818-1892) President of the Republic of

Costa Rica in 1847-49 and again 1866-68. He was founder and rector of
Santo Tomas University and was one of the founders of the Scottish
Rite of Central America and its first grand chancellor.
Julian Castro Venezuelan General and tenth President of the
Republic of Venezuela (1858-1860). He was 18°, AASR.

Tobias Zuniga Castro Diplomat and former Secretary of State of

Costa Rica. Was candidate for president, deputy to constitutional
congress and president of the charity board of San Jose. Member of
Union Fraternal Lodge No. 19.

Richard Caswell (1729-1789) General of American Revolution,

Governor of North Carolina and member of Continental Congress. b.
Aug. 3, 1729 in Maryland, he moved to North Carolina in 1746. Became
a colonel early in the Revolution and was in command at battle of
Moore's Creek where he defeated a large body of Loyalists. Delegate to
congress in 1774-75 and again in 1787-89 when the Federal
constitution was framed and ratified. He was president of the provincial
congress which framed the state constitution in Nov. 1776 and governor
of the state in 1777-79 and again in 1784-86. In 1780 he led state
troops in the disastrous battle of Camden. Where he was initiated is
unknown, but he was "healed" Dec. 28, 1772 in St. John's Lodge No. 3,
New Bern, N.C. He was elected deputy grand master of North Carolina
Dec. 11, 1787 and grand master Nov. 18, 1788. d. Nov. 20, 1789.

Thomas H. Caswell (1825-1900) 11th Grand Commander,

Southern Supreme Council AASR (1894-1900). b. Aug. 10, 1825 at
Exeter, N.Y. He served as grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of
California, R.A.M. and was grand secretary of the same —also grand
lecturer for 37 years. He was grand commander of the Grand
Commandery, K.T. of Calif. and served as recorder of that state body
for 20 years. He was also grand recorder of the Grand Council of Calif.
He was initiated in Lafayette Lodge U.D. at Nevada City, Calif. on Dec.
10, 1850 and received his other degrees in Nevada Lodge No. 13,
Nevada City in May 1851. Received his 32° AASR at San Francisco on
Oct. 17, 1867, 33° July 9, 1868 and crowned active member of
Supreme Council May 3, 1870. d. Nov. 13, 1900.
Louis S. Cates Mining executive. b. Dec. 20, 1881 at Boston,
Mass. Graduate of M.I.T. in 1902. Began as mine operator in Mexico; in
charge of construction at Bingham Canyon, Utah for Boston
Consolidated Mining 190408 and was general manager in 1909. With
Utah Copper Co. 1919-30, first as assistant general manager, general
manager and vice president; president of Phelps Dodge Corp., 1930-47
and chairman of board since 1947. Developed system making it
economically possible by underground methods, to mine low grade
ores. Member of Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City and past master
of Canyon Lodge No. 13 Brigham City, Utah. 32° AASR (SJ) at Salt
Lake City, Utah and El Kalah Shrine Temple, same city.

Catherine I, Czarina of Russia (1684?-1727) She was of

Livonian peasant origin, taken prisoner in 1702 and made a serf of
Prince Menshikov. She attracted the attention of Peter I (The Great) q.v.
who established the first Masonic lodge in Russia. First she was his
mistress and advisor. Later married him and succeeded him as empress
in 1725-27. Shortly after their marriage in 1712 she obtained permission
from Peter to found the Order of St. Catherine, an order of knighthood
for women only of which she was grand mistress. It was a quasi-
Masonic body.

Catherine II (The Great) Empress of Russia (1729-1796) In 1762

she issued an edict against all Masonic meetings in her dominions, but
subsequently learned the true character of the institution, and not only
revoked her order, but invited the Freemasons to reestablish their
lodges and constitute new ones. She reigned from 1762-96, and was
followed by her son Paul I q.v., who during the early part of his reign
was a Freemason, but later fell under the influence of the Jesuits and
Knights of Malta and banned Freemasonry.

John D. Caton (1812-?) Chief Justice, Illinois Supreme Court. b.

March 19, 1812 in Monroe, N.Y. Set up law office in Chicago, Ill. 1833.
He became judge of Illinois supreme court in 1842 and chief justice in
1855. He resigned in 1864, having acquired wealth in business. He
traveled widely through Europe, China and Japan, and wrote
extensively on his travels and nature subjects. A member of Occidental
Lodge No. 40, Ottawa, Ill., he was master in 1846, 1851 and 1852.

John Catron (1778-1865) Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme

Court (183765). b. in Wythe Co., Va. Studied law and served in the New
Orleans campaign under Jackson in War of 1812. Returned to
Nashville, Tenn. to practice, and in 1824 was chosen one of the judges
of the state bench and was its chief justice from 1830-36, when he
retired. While on the bench, he did his utmost to suppress the practice
of duelling, although he had been a noted duelist himself. He was a
member of Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, Tenn.

Thomas B. Catron (?-1921) U.S. Senator from New Mexico,

1912-17. b. in Lafayette Co., Mo. he received A.B. and A.M. from Univ.
of Missouri. Began practice of law in New Mexico in 1867. Member of N.
Mex. legislature for several terms and attorney general from 1869-72.
He was U.S. attorney, dist. of N. Mex. 1872-79 and a delegate from his
state to U.S. Congress in 1895-96. He was the first senior warden of the
Santa Fe Lodge of Perfection (AASR).

Roscoe A. Cattell Chief of petroleum and natural gas division of

Bureau of Mines since 1933. b. Jan. 6, 1892 at New Sharon, Ia.
Graduate of Univ. of Calif. 1916. Employed by oil companies in Calif.,
Okla., England and Algeria from 1916-20 and with Bureau of Mines
since 1921. From 1925-33 he was chief of helium division, in charge of
research, construction and operation of plants which produce the
world's supply of helium gas. Member of Bartlesville Lodge No. 284,
Bartlesville, Okla. since 1924.

Henry S. Caulfield Governor of Missouri 1929-33. b. Dec. 9,

1873 at St. Louis, Mo. Graduate of Washington Univ. 1895. Began law
practice in St. Louis in 1895. Member of the 60th Congress from 11th
district (1907-09) and judge of St. Louis court of appeals 1910-12.
Raised May 9, 1922 in Tuscan Lodge No. 360, St. Louis, Mo.
Peter F. Causey Former Governor of Delaware. Member of
Temple Lodge No. 9 at Milford and at one time was junior grand warden
of the Grand Lodge of Delaware.

Anthony Cavalcante U.S. Congressman, 81st Congress (1949-

51) from 23rd Pa. district. b. Feb. 6, 1897 at Vanderbilt, Pa. Graduate of
Dickinson College and admitted to bar in 1924. Member of
Pennsylvania state senate, 1935-43. Chief counsel for United Mine
Workers of America, Dist. 4. Served overseas with 110th Inf., 28th Div.
in WW1. Mason. Member of Order of Sons of Italy.

Peter A. Cavicchia U.S. Congressman 72nd-74th Congresses

(1931-37) from New Jersey. b. May 22, 1879 in Italy and brought to U.S.
at age of nine. Graduate of American International Coll. Began law
practice at Newark, N.J. Mason. Past grand master of N.J. for Order
Sons of Italy.

Duque de Caxias (Luiz Alves de Lima e Silva) (1803-1880)

Brazilian general and statesman. b. in Rio de Janeiro. He was
commander in chief of the Brazilian army in war against Argentina in
1851-52 and as marshal in 1862 commanded forces in successful war
against Paraguay. Made dukeby Dom Pedro I and was prime minister in
1850, 1856-57, 1861-62 and 1875-78. Mason.

Roland B. Caywood (1890-1952) President of H. D. Lee Co.,

wholesale grocers. b. Aug. 24, 1890 at New Hartford, Iowa. Was with H.
D. Lee Company, Kansas City, Mo. from 1910; vice president and
general manager from 1935. Mason. d. Jan. 7, 1952.
Elford A. Cederberg U.S. Congressman 83rd and 84th
Congresses from 10th Michigan dist. b. March 6, 1918 at Bay City,
Mich. Manager of Nelson Mfg. Co., Bay City, 194652. Mayor of Bay City
1949-53. Served in WW2 as Infantry major and was in Normandy
invasion. Mason.

Charles F. Cellarius Architect. b. July 28, 1891 at Dayton, Ohio.

Graduate of Yale and M.I.T. An architect since 1921. At Berea College,
Ky. he designed the library, Draper, and Art buildings; dormitories at
Miami Univ.; Norwood, Ohio Masonic Temple; Eastern Hills Y.M.C.A.
and Bond Hill school at Cincinnati; and was supervising architect for
model town of Mariemont, Ohio. Served as Infantry lieutenant in WW1.
Raised in Norwood Lodge No. 576, Norwood, Ohio, about 1916 and
also member of Trinity Commandery No. 193, K.T. of that city. 32°
AASR (NJ) at Cincinnati and member of Syrian Shrine Temple,

Miguel Juarez Celman (1844-1902) President of the Argentine

Republic from 1886-90. A "get-rich-quick" fever, accompanied with
unrestrained speculation on the stock market and corrupt public
administration led to an unsuccessful revolt in 1890. It was led by L. N.
Alem (who became grand master). In spite of the failure of the revolt,
Celman was forced to resign. He was succeeded in office by Pellegrini
q.v. another Mason.

Anton J. Cermak (1873-1933) Mayor of Chicago, Ill. 1931-33. b.

May 9, 1873 in Prague, Bohemia and came to U.S. with parents in
1874. Engaged in coal mining in Illinois until 1892 and in coal and wood
business in Chicago until 1908. Organized partnership of Cermak &
Serhant, real estate in 1908. Member of the 43rd to 46th general
assemblies of Illinois. He was fatally wounded on Feb. 15, 1933 in
Miami, Fla. by a bullet intended for President F. D. Roosevelt and died
March 6. He was a member of Lawndale Lodge No. 995, Chicago,
Columbia Commandery, K.T., Chicago, the Shrine and Grotto.
Joseph Cerneau French jeweler who founded spurious rite in
competition with Scottish Rite, known as "Cerneauism." b. in Villeblevin,
Yonne, a department of central France. He was probably a member of a
French lodge, but migrated to the West Indies and became a member of
Lodge Reunion des Coeurs at Port-au-Prince, Santo Domingo and in
1802 was junior grand warden of the provincial grand lodge for the
Island of St. Domingo. In 1804 the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
granted dispensation for a new lodge in Havana, Cuba named Le
Temple des Vertus Theologalis No. 103. Joseph Cerneau was its first
master. In 1807 his lodge in Cuba expelled him and on petition to the
governor of Cuba, he was expelled from the island, coming to New York
City about 1807 where he was proposed in Washington Lodge No. 21
on Jan. 2, 1810 and elected Jan. 16, 1810. His son, Augustus T.
Cerneau joined the same lodge by affiliation Jan. 20, 1824. In New York
he founded his spurious Sovereign Grand Consistory of Supreme
Chiefs of Exalted Masonry, According to the Ancient Constitutional
Scottish Rite of Heredom in 1807 and it continued until 1827. In 1823 it
was presided over by none other than De Witt Clinton, governor of New
York and grand master of the grand lodge. He also established a
separate degree called Aaron's Band which worked as a separate body,
but in 1825 the grand chapter, R.A.M. stopped it as an infringement on
its degrees. Cerneau was also a member of the York Rite and in April,
1814 he is recorded as having visited Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, N.Y.C.
and acted as senior warden. The New York Grand Encampment
Constitution of 1820 lists him as a past officer of the Grand
Encampment of New York. His rite spread to Puerto Rico and other
states. He subsequently fell into disrepute and he left for France in
December, 1827, where he died between the years 1840 and 1845 in
comparative poverty.

Cenon S. Cervantes Philippine patriot and past grand master of

the Grand Lodge of the Philippines (1951). b. March 29, 1903 at Davao
City. During WW2 he received worldwide attention by concealing
$1,720,000 in Philippine and American funds during the Japanese
occupation and returning it to the reorganized government after
liberation. He also served as an under-cover man for Col. Macario
Peralta in Panay, risking his life on a number of occasions in the
transmission of reports on enemy movements. He was made a
Freemason in Pangasian Lodge No. 56 in 1933. He has been a bank
manager for many years and is technical assistant to the president of
the Philippine National Bank.

S. F. Chadwick Former Governor of Oregon. Past master of

Laurel Lodge No. 13, Roseburg, Oregon.

Chaillou (de Joinville) Prominent French Freemason of the

middle 18th century. Played a large part in the schisms that developed
in that period. He was an active member of the Council of Emperors of
the East and West, or Rite of Perfection, and signed the patent of
Stephen Morin q.v., authorizing him to extend the order in America,
which was the first step that subsequently led to the establishment of
the Scottish Rite in the United States. In 1762 the Prince of Clermont,
grand master of the Grand Lodge of France removed Locorne as his
substitute general and put de Joinville in his place. This action created a
schism in the grand lodge, but de Joinville eventually became as
notorious as his predecessor by issuing irregular charters and
deputations. On the death of Clermont in 1771, de Joinville, himself,
seems to disappear from the field of French Freemasonry and Masonic

Thomas Chalmers Scottish theologian and philosopher. Initiated

in Lodge St. Vigean No. 101, Arbroath, Scotland April 26, 1800.

Frank Chamberlain ( 1 826-1910 ) Brigadier General of U.S.

Army. b. Dec. 1826 at Romulus, N.Y. Studied law under Gov. William H.
Seward, but did not enter the profession. Engaged in grain and milling
business in Seneca Falls and Albany, N.Y. In Civil War he was