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10,000 Famous Freemasons

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Note: Phoenixmasonry is proud to present the below optically scanned version of William R. Denslow's "10,000 Famous Freemasons." This scan was made by Ralph W. Omholt, PM and is available exclusively at Phoenixmasonry. This very rare and long out of print biographical work is a must for any Mason with a desire for Masonic research.


Volume I A- D

Foreword by

HA RR Y S. T RU MA N, P .G .M . Past Master, Missouri Lodge of Research Published by Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc. Richmond, Virginia Copyright, I957, William R. Denslow Foreword

Harry S Truman, PGM, Grand Lodge of Missouri

It is a great pleasure and satisfaction to me that the Missouri Lodge of Research is to publish four volumes containing the biographies of ten thousand or more Freemasons who have contributed to the history of the Free World. We know that research is the most important step in the study of history. Comprehensive and accurate information must be available for those who would interpret trends in world happenings. History is made by men. It is therefore necessary to know about the men who have made history. In the study of the past we must know the motives that inspired men who made history. Events and dates are of no value unless we can discover what caused those events at the dates stated in what passes for history. Plutarch in Roman times and Abbott in recent times wrote biographies of great men. Thousands of words about the subjects of these biographies have been written by other famous men— Shakespeare, for instance, and Milton and Emerson and Toynbee. Perhaps these Masonic biographies will cause future historians, authors and playwrights to appreciate what has been done since these great books were written. Then people of future generations will have a fair basis for the evaluation of our times.

HARRY S. TRUMAN, PGM Past Master Missouri Lodge of Research Independence, Missouri December 9, 1957

Preface This is the first of four projected volumes entitled 10,000 Famous Freemasons, a much needed Masonic research project, sponsored by the Missouri Lodge of Research. Perhaps the title is misleading, for the men listed herein, in the main, have not been famous primarily for their contributions to Freemasonry, but they are 10,000 famous or interesting personalities who have made their names in other fields. However, they have been, or are, members of the fraternity. There are hundreds of professional Freemasons and thousands of Masonic dignitaries who will not be mentioned. Their biographies have been inscribed in the various proceedings and annals of Freemasonry and will not be given here. A few national heads, founders and Masonic authors will be the exceptions. These volumes do not cover any particular country or time, but, on the contrary, are world-wide in scope and cover the famous men from the beginnings of Freemasonry down to, and including, the present year. Many volumes and pamphlets have been written on "Famous Freemasons." This work will exceed them all in scope, and, we hope, in accuracy. Nevertheless it is only a start on the vast amount of material that is available in the field of Masonic biography. It is a continuing process and tomorrow may lift a brother to prominence or rob another of his laurels. It is difficult to establish a criteria for inclusion in these volumes. The reader will note, for instance, that many famous Freemasons have been overlooked, whereas many famous men who were anti-Masons are included. Former members who have been "back sliders" are noted as such when it comes to our attention and famous men who have been expelled are listed also. We have given the facts and have not attempted to claim what was not ours.

The last volume of this series will include an addenda of the many worthy brethren who have been omitted, and we will rely on our readers to bring these names to our attention so that they may be included. To understand the difficulties in preparing a volume of this type, let us explain how it has been accomplished. Five years ago, we microfilmed and reprinted several thousand biographical cards in the library of the House of the Temple, Supreme Council, 33°, AASR (SJ). This kind gesture of the Southern Supreme Council is appreciated. This basic card file started our research. In the intervening five years, we have increased our 3 x 5 reference file from the original group to the amazing total of approximately 60,000 cards. To do this, we have read, marked and pasted on 3 x 5 cards, all the biographies in the current Who's Who, the two volumes of Who Was Who and the Who's Who Supplements. The majority of our references, however, have come from thousands of Masonic books and periodicals which we have indexed during this period. This is a continuing process, and we add a dozen or more biographical cards a day to our files. This card file is supplemented by an extensive biographical file for more lengthy material. We already have mentioned the valuable assistance given by the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, for the part it contributed to this project. The York Rite also has donated heavily by paying the salary of the author and his staff of The Royal Arch Mason magazine for the many hours they have spent working on these volumes. They have bought card files, cards, books and other material that has been necessary in compiling the original material. The contribution of the General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons will run into five figures before the project is completed. The compiler wishes to express his appreciation to Ray V. Denslow, Nada W. Hoffman and Juanita D. Denslow for their help in copyreading and proofreading and to Hazel H. Jackson for maintaining the card files. These volumes will stand as a memorial to the criticism of our detractors. What other group of men in the world has accomplished so much? A perusal of these biographies will indicate that a great proportion of the liberators, patriots, royalty, explorers, statesmen, judges, inventors, soldiers, sailors, musicians, entertainers, aviators,

and business executives have seen fit to honor our fraternity with their membership. For more than 200 years Freemasonry has produced men of leadership, morals and vision; men of knowledge; men of science; men of war; men who would free their people from the oppressor; men who would fight to maintain that liberty—and men who would offer a helping hand to the downtrodden. They are, indeed, brethren of whom we may be proud! In these four volumes you may read their record. It will speak for itself!

WILLIAM R. DENSLOW, Compiler of the 1957 Transactions, Missouri Lodge of Research.


A John Aasen A giant 8' 6" tall who, when raised in Highland Park Lodge No. 382, Los Angeles on July 14, 1924, weighed 536 lbs. The raising was done by Arthur S. Crites, G.M. and all ritualistic ceremonies were observed except that 12 craftsmen were required. Fifteen hundred witnessed the ceremony. Aasen appeared in a number of motion pictures including The Circus.

Leon Abbett Governor of New Jersey, 1885-1887. Past master Mystic Tie Lodge No. 272, New York City. Demitted to Varick Lodge No. 31, Jersey City and later to Temple Lodge No. 110. Was representative to G.L. of Ireland from G.L. of New Jersey from 1886 to 1894. Member of Ancient Chapter No. 1, R.A.M., New York City.

Stephen Abbot General in American Revolution. Member Essex Lodge, Salem, Mass.

Bud Abbott Radio, stage and screen performer. b. Asbury Park, N.J., Oct. 2, 1898. Began as a cashier in theatres in 1916 and became famous with the founding of the team "Abbott and Costello." Sold 78 million in war bonds on a 31 day tour during WW2 and entertained in 300 Army and Navy camps. A Mason and a Shriner.

George B. Abbott English Masonic writer. Member of Gladsmuir Lodge No. 1385.

Leon M. Abbott (1867-1932) Grand Commander of Supreme Council AASR (NJ) PGM of Mass. Raised in Columbian Lodge, Boston, June 7,1894. PHP of St. Paul's Royal Arch Chapter, Boston.

Robert 0. Abbott (1824-1867) Surgeon General of the U.S., 1862-67. b. in Pennsylvania, he entered the army in 1849 as assistant surgeon and accompanied Magruder's battery to California. He subsequently served in the East and also in Florida and Texas. During 1861 he was assistant to the chief medical purveyor of New York and later medical director of the Fifth Army Corps. The duties of his office were arduous and he died of overwork. Mentioned as a Mason in the District of Columbia proceedings of 1865.

William R. Abbott (1869-1950) President of Illinois Bell Telephone Co. 1922-30; chairman of the board, 1930-34. b. Sept. 18, 1869 in New York City. Began as clerk for Erie Railroad in 1885 and with the Westchester (N.Y.) Telephone Company in 1888. Was with Illinois Bell from 1893, becoming general superintendent, general manager, vice president and president. Mason and Knight Templar. d. Mar. 2, 1950.

Abd-el-Kader (1807-1883) Algerian patriot and emir of Mascara. b. near Mascara, his family were Sherifs or descendants of Mohammed, and his father, Mahi-ed-Din, was celebrated throughout north Africa for his piety and charity. He received an excellent education in theology, philosophy and the manly arts such as horsemanship. After the French had taken possession of Algeria (1830) the Arabs entreated Mahi-edDin to become their 1st Duke of Abercorn sultan, which he did, but immediately abdicated in favor of Abd, his son. Abd, at the head of 9,000 troops marched toward Oran to drive out the French. The fighting was bitter, but the French remained in possession of the city. For the next 13 years he stubbornly resisted the French conquest of Algeria, but in 1847 when they massed 120,000 troops against him, he was forced to surrender under these tremendous odds. Although promised that he would be allowed to go to Alexandria, he and his family were detained in Europe for five years. In July, 1860, he was active in defending the

Christians against the murderous attacks of the Moslems in the Christian quarters at Damascus. In recognition of saving many lives, he received decorations and presents from many countries.. The remainder of his life was occupied in public devotions, religious instruction and practical charity. A biography published in London in 1867 records this interesting episode: "Abd-el-Kader had just succeeded in achieving, after much toil and self-abnegation, the highest distinction to be attained in a religious profession, dogmatic and exclusive. By a singular contrast he now wished to wear the badge of a society based and established on the principle of universal brotherhood. The Masonid body in Alexandria hastened to welcome the illustrious neophyte. The Lodge of the Pyramids was specially convened for the occasion on the evening of 18th of June (1867). Abd-el-Kader was initiated into the mysteries, and to the privileges of being a 'Fellow of the Prophet,' added the more timehonored privilege of being a 'Free and Accepted Mason.' " He died at Damascus on May 26, 1883.

James, 1st Duke of Abercorn (18111885) 10th Earl, 2nd Marquis and 1st Duke of Abercorn. Grandson of 1st Marquis; lord lieutenant of Ireland(1866-68; 1874-76). Grand Master of Ireland 1874-1885.

James, 2nd Duke of Abercorn (18381913) Eldest brother of Lord George Francis Hamilton. Was official figurehead of the Irish landlords in land war and opposed home rule. Grand Master of Ireland in 1886 succeeding his father, the first duke.

James, 7th Earl of Abercorn (James Hamilton) (?-1744) Privy Councilor of England. Named Grand Master of England by the retiring Grand Master, Duke of Richmond, in 1725. He was at that time master of a lodge and had served on the committee of charity during that year. Succeeded his father as Earl of Abercorn in 1734. Died, 1744.

John W. Abercrombie (1866-1940) Educator and public official. President of University of Alabama 190211. State supervisor of teacher

certification in Alabama 1935-40. Acting Secretary for U.S. Department of Labor 1918-20. Member of 63rd and 64th Congress 1913-17. Member of Alabama Senate 1896-98. Mason and 32° AASR.

Sir Ralph Abercromby (1734-1801) British general who led the expeditionary force that conquered St. Lucia and Trinidad in 1795-96. He commanded troops in the Mediterranean in 1800, defeated the French at Alexandria in 1801 and died of wounds received there. He is credited with restoring the discipline and efficiency of the British army. Member of Canon-gate Kilwinning Lodge No. 2, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Charles Aberdour (Lord Sholto) Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) from 1757-61 and 20th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1755-56. He was later the 15th Earl of Morton.

Walter S. Abernathy Transportation economist, government official.

2 Sir Allan Adair b. Sept. 7, 1887 at Petersburg, Va. Transportation specialist, Dept. of Commerce 1928-53; executive secretary Pan American Railway Congress since 1949. Raised in Powhatan Starke Lodge No. 124, Petersburg, Va. on Sept. 5, 1919. Member of Columbia Chapter No. 1, Washington, D.C. 32° AASR (SJ) in Albert Pike Consistory, Washington, D.C. May 28, 1946. Member of Almas Shrine Temple, 1946; Washington Chapter No. 3, National Sojourners, George Washington Camp of Heroes of '76. Past president (1944) of advisory board of Masonic Clubs of D.C. Past deputy state president of National League of Masonic Clubs.

Robert S. Abernethy Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Aug. 5, 1874 in Gonzales Co., Texas. Commissioned lieutenant in 1897 and promoted through grades to general rank on Oct. 1, 1932. Served in the

Spanish American War and in the Philippines. Commanded 175th Field Artillery Brigade, A.E.F. in WW1. His last command was San Francisco Port of Embarkation and he retired in 1938. Member of Summerton Lodge No. 105, Summerton, N.C. and served as national president of the National Sojourners from 1937-40.

Thomas G. Abernethy Congressman from Mississippi. Member of 76th to 84th Congresses. b. May 16, 1903 at Eupora, Miss. Lawyer. Received degrees in Eupora Lodge No. 423 and presently member of Prairie Lodge No. 87 at Okolona, Miss. Member of Royal Arch Chapter and Commandery, K.T. at Okolona and Hamasa Shrine Temple at Meridian, Miss.

Edmond Francois Valentin About (1828-1885) French journalist, novelist, playwright and member of the French Academy. Author of Le Roi des Montagnes (1856), Le Nez d'un Notaire (1862) and Madelon (1863). Mason.

George, 5th Earl of Aboyne (George Gordon) (1761-1853) Soldier; succeeded as 5th Earl of Aboyne in 1794 and the 9th Marquis of Huntly in 1836. Was Grand Master of Scotland in 1802-03.

Antonine Firmin Abraham A Freemason who made himself notorious at Paris in the beginning of the 19th century by the manufacture and sale of false Masonic diplomas and by trading the higher degrees, from which traffic he reaped a harvest for some time.

Herbert Abraham President of Ruberoid Co. since 1903. b. July 9, 1883, New York City. President of Asphalt Roofing Industry Bureau three terms. Served on War Industries Board, Washington, 1917-18. Mason.

Allen Abrams Vice president of Marathon Corp. since 1940 and Director since 1943. Deputy Director of development and research for O.S.S. in 1943-44. b. Jan. 27, 1889. Mason.

Benjamin Abrams President of Emerson Radio and Phonograph Corp. Came to this country from Romania at the age of 12. Left school at 13 to help support his fatherless family and by the age of 29 had acquired the name, assets and presidency of the Emerson Corp. His career is studded with "firsts"; the radio-phonograph, the smallest radio and commercial television. Famed for his philanthropy to national and international projects. He is a member of Farragut Lodge No. 976, New York City.

Franz Abt (1819-1885) German composer. b. Eilenberg Saxony d. Wiesbaden. Composed a number of cantatas and songs for the lodge for use on St. John's Feast Days. Initiated in Brunswick Lodge in 1853.

Sir Allan Adair British Major General created the 6th Baron in 1938 of baronetcy established in 1888. Served with Grenadier Guards in 1916-17 and was in command of the 3rd Bn. in 1940; the 30th Guards Brigade in 1941; and the 6th Brigade in 1942; when he was given command of the newly formed Armored Division of the Guards which he retained until the end of WW2 and led in the epic dash of 1944 from the Seine to the relief of Brussels. It was regarded as one of the most gallant achievements of the European liberation. His only son (a captain) was killed when the Guards attacked Mount Camino in Italy, Nov. 1943. Since 1951 he has been second in command of the Queen's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard. Commander of the Bath; DSO; M.C. He entered Masonry in April, 1924 in Household Brigade Lodge No. 2614, serving as master. Appointed assistant grand master of the G.L. of England in 1953. A member of most of the Masonic rites in England.

E. Ross Adair Congressman from 4th Indiana district to 82nd Congress. b. Dec. 15, 1907 at Albion, Ind. Admitted to bar in 1933 and since practiced at Fort Wayne. Served in army overseas in WW2. Raised in Albion Lodge No. 97, Albion, Ind. in 1929. 32° AASR in Fort Wayne, Ind. Shriner, National Sojourner, Tall Cedar member.

Hugh R. Adair Justice, Supreme Court of Montana from 1943 and chief justice since 1947. b. Aug. 27, 1889 at Trego Co., Kansas. Served in both bodies of Montana state legislature and was lieutenant governor from 1937-41, addressing the Grand Lodge of Montana in this capacity in 1938. Past potentate of Algeria Shrine Temple.

Jackson L. Adair Congressman, judge. b. Feb. 23, 1888 at Clayton, Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan in 1911 and admitted to bar in Michigan, Okahoma and Illinois, first practicing in Muskogee, Okla. in 1911-13 and then in Quincy, Ill. Illinois state senator in 1928-32 and member of the 73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37) from 15th district. Has been U.S. district judge, Southern Illinois district since 1937. Mason.

Alva Adams (1850-1922) Governor of Colorado 1887-89; 189799. Candidate for governor in 1904 and was declared elected, being seated on Jan. 10, but on March 20, 1905 he was ousted by legislature which gave the office to James H. Peabody, who served one day and resigned. Member of first Colorado legislature in 1876. U.S. Commissioner-General to Australia, New Zealand, Java, Siam, and China. Knighted in Pueblo Commandery No. 3, K.T. Jan. 15, 1884; 32° January 29, 1890 in Denver. Active member of Supreme Council AASR (SJ). b. Iowa Co., Wis., May 14, 1850; d. Battle Creek, Mich., Nov. 1, 1922.

Alva B. Adams (1875-1941) U.S. Senator from Colorado, 192345. b. Oct. 29, 1875 at Del Norte, Colo. Graduate of Yale and Columbia

universities, and admitted to Colorado bar in 1899, practicing at Pueblo. d. Dec. 1, 1941. Mason.

Andrew Adams (1736-1797) Signer of Articles of Confederation in 1777 and chief justice of Supreme Court of Connecticut. b. in January, 1736 in Stratford, Conn. Graduated from Yale in 1760 and practiced at Stamford and Litchfield. Member of state legislature in 1776-81; delegate to Congress in 1777-80 and again in 1781-82. Appointed judge of state supreme court in 1789, he was made chief justice in 1793. He was an adroit lawyer and an able judge. Member of St. Paul's Lodge No. 11, Litchfield, Conn. d. Nov. 26, 1797.

Charles F. Adams (1876-1946) Business executive who pioneered and developed National League hockey in U.S., 1925. Governor of the league 1925-37; Director and chairman of board of Eastern Racing Association 1935-43. Director Boston National League Baseball Association 1927-35. Knight Templar and Shriner. b. Oct. 19, 1876, in Newport, Vt. d. Oct. 1, 1946.

Claude M. Adams Brigadier General U.S. Army (1943). Executive officer and aide-de-camp to General G. C. Marshall, chief of staff; military attache to Brazil 1942-44. Served in WW1 as lieutenant. Vice president of O'Donnell Shoe Corp. Mason. b. Hum-bolt, Tenn., Oct 2, 1895.

Frank R. Adams Author and playwright. Has written about 20 novels, a score of musical comedies, several motion pictures and a book of lyrics of musical comedy. b. July 7, 1883 at Morrison, Ill. Graduate of Univ. of Chicago in 1904. Mason.

Jasper Adams (1793-1841) Clergyman and educator. b. Aug. 27, 1793 in Medway, Mass. Graduate of Brown Univ. and studied

theology at Andover. Math professor at Brown and at same time ordained in Episcopal church. Became president of the college of Charleston in 1824, and Hobart College (Geneva, N.Y.) in 1826. Served as professor at West Point from 1838-40. Raised in Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 4, Providence, R.I. in Sept., 1821. d. Oct. 25, 1841.

John Adams American Revolution (naval). Purser on ship Raleigh during Revolution. Member St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N.H.

John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) Sixth President of the United States 1825-29. An anti-Mason who a year before his death published a book of his letters against the Masonic fraternity which amounted to an expose.

John T. Adams (1873-1942) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Colorado,1931-34. b. Dec. 25, 1873 at La Porte, Ind. Admitted to bar in 1900. Named to Supreme Court of Colorado as justice in 1925, serving last part of term as chief justice. Resumed law practice in 1935. Mason. d. May 13, 1942.

Karl L. Adams (1888-1948) President of Northern Illinois State Teachers College at DeKalb, Ill. from 1929. b. Sept. 5, 1888 at Lexington, Ohio. Mason. d. Dec. 6, 1948.

Kenneth S. Adams Chairman of board of Phillips Petroleum Co. since 1951. President of Phillips from 193851. b. Aug. 31, 1899 at Horton, Kans. Began with Phillips as a warehouse clerk in 1920. Member of Bartlesville Lodge No. 284, Bartlesville Chapter No. 55, R.A.M.; Calvary Commandery No. 26, K.T. all of Bartlesville, Okla. 33° AASR (SJ) at Guthrie, Okla.; Kara Grotto, Bartlesville; Tulsa Court No. 47, Royal Order of Jesters, Tulsa; Akdar Shrine Temple at Tulsa;

Wasono Shrine Club, Bartlesville, Bartlesville Scottish Rite Club. Member, Legion of Honor, Order of DeMolay and Trustee, Masonic Foundation of Oklahoma, Inc.

Myron E. Adams (1876-1930) Social Worker. D.D. Syracuse University 1898. Ordained Baptist minister 1905. Social worker in Rochester, N.Y.; Cleveland, Ohio; Buffalo and New York City. Organized and became first director of Department of Morale (under Chief of Staff U.S. Army) during WW1. Executive secretary of National Rehabilitation Comm. 1922; associated with Marshall Field and Albert A. Sprague in the Public Service Associates, Inc., 1922-26. Mason. b. Feb. 19, 1876. d. Jan. 17, 1930.

Richard Adams Privateer and Captain during Revolution. Member of St. Peter's Lodge, Newburyport, Mass.

Samuel Adams Signer, Declaration of Independence. No record of his Masonic affiliation although purported to have been made a Mason in St. John's Lodge, Boston, Mass.

Samuel Adams Governor of Arkansas in 1844. Member of Clarksville Lodge No. 5 (Ark.) and junior grand warden pro-tem of the G.L. of Arkansas in 1844.

Samuel E. Adams Active member of Supreme Council AASR (SJ). d. March 29, 1912. Raised in Vermont Lodge No. 18, Hartland, Vt. Exalted in Burlington (Vt.) Chapter No. 3, Feb. 14, 1855. Knighted in Burlington Commandery No. 2, Sept. 19, 1855. Received 33° from G.C. Albert Pike at Minneapolis, Minn. Aug. 23, 1885.

Sherman Adams Governor of New Hampshire; advisor to President Eisenhower. Elected governor of New Hampshire in 1949 and was the 40th Freemason to serve as governor out of a total of 67 since 1785. As advisor to Eisenhower he was often called "Assistant President," and was chief of the White House staff. Described as "tough-minded, aloof, knowing all the policies, aims, purposes and background." Makes many decisions on his own and is sometimes called "The Rock of Gibraltar." Knight Templar, 32° and member of Bektash Shrine Temple of N.H. Served in WW1 and traces kinship back to two presidents of the U.S. Speaker of N.H. House of Representatives 1943-44 and member of the 79th Congress. b. East Dover, Vt., Jan. 8, 1899.

Wilbur L. Adams (1884-1937) Congressman from Delaware 73rd Congress. Lawyer. Democratic candidate for U.S. Senate, 1934. b. Oct. 23, 1884. d. Dec. 4, 1937. Mason.

Henry Adamson Wrote the first printed reference yet discovered showing the Master's Word to be connected with the Rosy Cross. It occurs in his The Muses Threnodie—"For weare brethren of the Rosy Cross we have the Mason's Word.”

Sir Michael Adeane Private secretary to Queen Elizabeth of England and to her father, King George VI, to whom he acted, in a sense, as a Masonic aide-de-camp on many occasions. Represented George VI at installation of the Earl of Scarbrough as GM in 1951. A Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, he served as senior grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of England in 1946.

Charles Adkins (1863-1941) Congressman from Illinois 69th to 72nd Congresses (1925-33). Mason. Home, Decatur, Ill.

Jesse C. Adkins (1879-1955) Judge. Special assistant to the Attorney General from 1908 to 1916. Appointed Associate Justice, Supreme Court of District of Columbia in 1930. Chairman jud. sect. American Bar Assn., 1935. Mason. 32°. b. April 13, 1879. d. Mar. 29, 1955.

Julius Ochs Adler (1892-1955) Major General; vice-president and general manager of the New York Times. Fought in both WW1 and WW2 and was called a "Soldier's Soldier" by President Eisenhower. Was active in many Jewish, civic and patriotic endeavors throughout his life. The rank of general—which Adler carried proudly—was not honorary. He had been a civilian soldier for forty years. Since WW1, he had served the 77th infantry division. He left it during WW2 to lead other combat troops. After the war he rejoined the 77th and became the commanding general of this New York reserve unit. He started with the New York Times in 1914, and in directing its business management as well as that of the Chattanooga (Tenn.) Times, he helped maintain the high standards that have been a credit to the world of journalism. He was a member of Justice Lodge No. 753 of New York City. Adler died on October 3, 1955 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery on October 6.

Adolph Friedrich IV Duke of Mecklemburg-Strelitz (1738-1794) Initiated in 1772 by deputation of the lodge Irene zu den drei Sternen in Rostock, Germany. In 1774 he entered the lodge at New-Brandeburg remaining a member until his death.

Adolph Fredrik (1710-1771) King of Sweden 1751-1771. Was master of a Stockholm lodge and received the title of Protector of Swedish Freemasonry in 1762.

Baron van Aersen-Beyeren Grand Master of the Netherlands 1756-1758.

John S. Africa (1839-1900) Banker and grand master of Pennsylvania 1891-1892. Member Pennyslvania legislature, 1860. Secretary Internal Affairs of Pa. 1883-87. President Union Trust Co. of Philadelphia 1887-1900.

Gregorio Aglipay Chaplain General of the Philippine Army 18991901. Scottish Rite member. Later headed the Philippine Independent Church.

Andrew D. Agnew (1867-1951) Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, K.T. 1932-37. Native of Ireland. Lawyer. Active member of the Supreme Council (NJ), 1920. 33* in 1911.

Ignacio Agramonte (1841-1873) Cuban patriot and Freemason who participated in war which followed Cuba's declaration of independence in 1868. b. in Puerto Principe, he was commissioned under Cespedes and became leader of the revolts of 1868-69 against Spain. He was killed in battle.

Camillo Mora Aguilar Governor of province of San Jose, Costa Rica. Son of President Juan Rafa el Mora. An agriculturist. Member of Union Fraternal No. 10.

Joaquin Aguilar Magistrate of Supreme Court of Costa Rica. Member of the College of Lawyers. Esperanza Lodge.

Emilio Aguinaldo Philippine patriot and general. b. March 22, 1869, at Old Cavite, Luzon of Chinese and Tagalog parentage. Was

educated in the home of a Jesuit priest and later in the University of St. Thomas, conducted by the Dominican friars in Manila. Was initiated Jan. 1, 1895 in Pilar Lodge under the Grand Orient of Spain, becoming master of the lodge. At the outbreak of the insurrection in August, 1896, he was mayor of Cavite Viejo. During this uprising, he took a prominent part, displaying a marked capacity for leadership. In 1898 Spain gave him a subsidy for remaining out of the country and he went to Hong Kong until the U.S. entered the war against Spain. Believing the time was ripe for a change in government, he returned immediately after the Battle of Manila, May 1, 1898, for the express purpose of assisting the American government. They gave him authority to set up a native government of which he became the head and organized an army. Having doubt as to the future freedom of his country under American rule, he began hostilities against the U.S. during the year 1899 and engaged in several pitched battles, but was driven from capital to capital until finally captured by General Frederick Funston at Palawan, Luzon on March 23, 1901. On April 19, 1901 he took an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and retired to a peaceful life. During the Spanish rebellion he organized the Triagle Magdalo, with other Freemasons and it later became Magdalo Lodge. The lodge held its meetings in Aguinaldo's residence. It was on the balcony of this residence that the proclamation of the First Republic and the unveiling of the original Philippine flag took place,


Charles T. Aikens June 12, 1898. Four months after his initiation into Freemasonry, he affiliated with the Katipunan, an organization patterned after Freemasonry with passwords and three degrees. Seeing this organization was the best means of gathering support for the revolutionary movement, he encouraged all able-bodied men to join it, and the success of the revolution, at least in Cavite, may be attributed to the Katipunan. When the Grand Orient of Spain fused with the G.L. of the Philippines in February 1917, Aguinaldo became a Scottish Rite Mason. He was coroneted a 33° on Feb. 13, 1955.

Charles T. Aikens (1862-1927) University president and Lutheran minister. Ordained, 1888. President of Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, Pa. from 1905. President of Lutheran Synod of Central Pa. 1897-1901. 32° AASR.

Marquess of Ailsa (1872-1943) Archibald Kennedy, 15th Earl of Cassillis, created Marquess of Ailsa in 1938. b. May 22, 1872. d. Feb. 27, 1943. The Kennedys are a famous and powerful Scottish family long settled in Ayrshire. Ancester John Kennedy of Dunure obtained Cassillis and other lands in Ayrshire about 1350. John's descendant Sir James Kennedy married Mary, a daughter of King Robert III and their son Sir Gilbert Kennedy was created Lord Kennedy before 1458. Gilbert's grandson David, third Lord Kennedy, was created Earl of Cassillis before 1530. In 1831 the 12th Earl of Cassillis became the first Marquess of Ailsa, taking the title from the craig which was his property. Archibald was educated at Eton College, Trinity College, Cambridge and Edinburgh universities. Served as major in the South African War (19001902) and was with the British Expeditionary Forces from Dec., 1914 to May, 1919. Later became a memberof the Royal Company of Archers and as such constituted a member of His Majesty's Bodyguard for Scotland. His services were called for in every large civic or national enterprise. He had held many high offices in Freemasonry, and was head of the Grand Chapter of Scotland for 30 years, being 1st Grand Principal from 1913 until his death in 1943. He made three Masonic visits to the United States, 1924, 1927 and 1933 for the purpose of settling jurisdictional differences with the General Grand Chapter over the chapters in the Philippines. On his death his titles passed to his brother Charles q.v. Initiated in Holy-rood House Lodge No. 44, Edinburgh, Nov. 17, 1896.

Marquess of Ailsa Charles Kennedy, 16th Earl of Cassillis and 5th Marquess of Ailsa upon the death of his brother, Archibald q.v., in 1943. b. April 10, 1875, he was educated at Eton and Royal Agriculture College Cirencester. Formerly captain Ayrshire Yeomanry and lieutenant 3rd Bn. Royal Scotts Fusilliers; served in South Africa 19001901 as captain, Prince of Wales Light Horse. As Lord Kennedy, he received most of his Masonic light in the United States, where he came after the African War. He was initiated in Acacia Lodge No. 11, A.F. &

A.M. of Cheyenne, Wyoming April 4, 1905; passed May 25, 1905 and raised June 8, 1905. His petition for the capitular degrees was received by Lebanon Chapter No. 3 of Laramie, Wyo. on June 9, 1909 and was elected July 14. He received the MM and PM degrees Aug. 11, 1909. The MEM and RAM degrees were conferred by Nevada Chapter No. 56, of Nevada, Mo. by request of Lebanon chapter on March 14 and 22, 1910. About 1914 he was in Davenport, Iowa. He de-milted from the lodge in Nov. 15, 1921 and the chapter Nov. 9, 1921. In a letter to the chapter dated Dec. 10, 1919 he thanked them for remitting a year's dues because of his war service, stating that he left the U.S. in Nov., 1914 and joined the Ayrshire Yeomanry, Jan., 1915. He stated he "was passed as unfit for overseas service and at the end of 1916 was appointed an area gas officer. . . . I was attached to the 18th Division for a short time in France in 1918 on a tour of instruction. Until quite recently have been engaged in training in gas defensive measures and am now trying to get the bally stuff out of my system.”

William D. B. Ainey (1864-1933) Chairman Public Service Commission of Pa. and Congressman. Member of 62nd and 63rd Congresses (1911-15). Chairman of Public Service Comm. of Pa. 1915. Delegate to Interparliamentary Conference, Geneva, 1912 and to the Hague in 1913. Delegate to Interparliamentary Union, Paris, 1927. Mason.

James Ainslie Scottish clergyman, who in 1652 was the subject of an ecclesiastical investigation because he was a Mason and "possessed the Mason Word." On appeal to the Presbytery at Kelso, he was cleared "because in the purest tymes of this kirke, maisons haveing that word have been ministers.”

John C. Ainsworth (1870-1943) Financier. President of States Steamship Co.; president of Ainsworth National Bank, Portland, Oregon and its successor, the U.S. National Bank. Director of many corporations and the Federal Reserve Bank in Portland. 33° John C. Ainsworth (1822-1893) Transportation pioneer of the Pacific Northwest. Went West with the 1850 gold rush and soon settled in Oregon where

he pioneered in transportation. He was the guiding genius of river steamboat transportation and his Oregon Steam Navigation Co. grew tothe Pacific Northwest division of the Union Pacific Railroad. His Portland bank was the largest in Oregon. Was an incorporator and promoter of the Northern Pacific Railway. Was raised in Farmington Lodge No. 9, Ohio and became the first master of Multnomah Lodge No. 86 (Mo. register), now Oregon No. 1. He helped organize the G.L. of Oregon and served as grand master 1854-55. In 1865 he was grand high priest of the Grand Chapter. Inspector general 33° AASR (SJ).

Milburn P. Akers Editor, political and editorial writer. b. May 4, 1900. Assistant to Secretary of Interior 1939-41. Executive secretary of Illinois Development Council 1937-39. Editor of Chicago Sun, 1941-42. Mason.

George E. Akerson (1889-1937) Secretary to President Hoover 192931; Hoover's assistant when Secretary of Commerce 1925-28. Washington correspondent and asst. managing editor of Minneapolis Tribune 1912-25. 32° at Minneapolis Feb. 27, 1929. Received Shrine at Washington, D.C. Apr. 29, 1929 as courtesy to Zurah Temple in Minneapolis.

Spencer B. Akin Major General U.S. Army. b. Feb. 13, 1889. B.S. Virginia Military Institute 1910. 2nd lt. U.S. Army, 1910 advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1941 and major general in 1943. Chief signal officer on staff of General MacArthur and later chief signal officer, Department of Army. Cited by Poor Richard Club for his reorganization of Army's system of communication to needs of atomic warfare. Mason.

Sir Adeyemo Alakija (1884-1952) Nigeria spiritual and political leader. Headed the Executive Council of the Colony and Protectorate in Nigeria, also a spiritual leader among the natives and respected public figure. Member Star of Nigeria Chapter No. 255, R.A.M. 23° AASR.

Appointed grand superintendent over Royal Arch in the district both English and Scottish constitutions as well as head of the District Grand Lodge. Died April 9, 1952.

Miguel Ricardo de Alava (17711843) Spanish general and statesman. He participated in the Peninsular War under Wellington in 1811 and in 1815 was in the service of Ferdinand VII. He was a liberal leader and president of the Cortes in 1822, in which year he aided in the deposition of Ferdinand. In 1814 he was imprisoned for being a Freemason. Upon Ferdinand's restoration by the French in 1823, Alava fled to England. He was later in' the service of Maria Christina against Don Carlos. Named ambassador to London in 1834 and Paris in 1835, retiring to France after the La Granja insurrection.

Leopold, Duke of Albany Youngest son of Queen Victoria was initiated in Apollo University Lodge No. 357, Oxford, England May 1, 1874 and in May, 1875 became a member of Lodge of Antiquity. No. 2. Served as master of Apollo Lodge, 1876.

Juan Bautista Alberdi (1810-1884) Distinguished Argentine statesman, jurist and publisher. He was noted principally for his Bases, a treatise on American public right. Hostile to Rosas, he exiled himself to Uruguay where he studied law, later practicing in Chile. On the overthrow of Rosas by Urquiza q.v. he was successively named by the latter as minister to Paris, Madrid, Washington and London. Mason.

Albert Victor Christian Edward (see Duke of Clarence) Carl Albert Congressman from Oklahoma, 80th Congress (1947-49) Lawyer. b. May 10, 1908. Member of South McAlester Lodge No. 96, McAlester, Okla. (1946), 32° Indian Consistory, AASR (SJ) and DeMolay Legion of Honor.

Casimir August Albert Duke of Saxony-Teschen (1738-1822) Last governor of the Austrian Netherlands. Brother of King Karl Christian Joseph. Initiated in Dresden, Germany, in lodge Zu den drei Schwestern, 1764.

Prince Albert Duke of York. b. December 14, 1895, in London. Provincial G.M. of Middlesex.

Albert-Edward, Prince of Wales (1841-1910) (see Edward VII of England) Eldest son of Queen Victoria. Initiated in Stockholm in 1868 by King Charles XV and made past grand master in 1870. In 1875 he received the AASR degrees. In 1875 he succeeded the Marquis de Ripon as grand master of England, an office which he held until his death in 1910.

Manuel Masimino Alberti (17631811) Catholic priest and Argentine patriot. Although a Catholic priest he joined Freemasonry and was active in events that led to the "open forum" on May 24, 1810 and the revolution of that year. He was one of the "junta," or council, then formed to rule the country.

Henri Christophe Albrecht (17631800) German Masonic writer. Initiated 1785. In 1792 he published at Hamburg a work entitled Materialen zu einer kritischen Geschichte der Freimaurerei (Collections towards a critical history of Freemasonry).

Ralph G. Albrecht Specialist in international law. Prosecuted Herman Goering and others before International Military Tribunal, 194546. b. Aug. 11, 1896 at Jersey City, N.J. Graduate of Univ. of Pennsylvania and Harvard. Admitted to bar in 1924. Associate counsel for American claimants against Germany in "Black Tom" and "Kingsland" explosions, 1924-39. Commander, U.S. Navy, 1941-45.

Naval observer with American Embassy London, England and with Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor and Australia. Assistant Director O.S.S. (War Crimes) and assistant to attorney general, 1945. Raised in Dalhousie Lodge, Newtonville, Mass. on Nov. 16, 1921.

Horace M. Albright Conservationist. b. Jan. 6, 1890. Director National Park Service 1917-18; asst. director and superintendent Yellowstone National Park 1919-29. In charge of Yosemite National Park, 1927-28. Director National Park Service Jan. 12, 1929 to Aug. 10, 1933. Advisor, director and official of many national conservation projects. Member of Livingston Lodge No. 32, Livingston, Montana, being raised in June, 1923. He was given his degrees in a period of five weeks while in charge of Yellowstone National Park so that he would be a member in time to entertain President Harding in Yellowstone on June 30 and July 1, 1923.

James L. Alcorn Former Governor and Senator from Mississippi. Member Coahoma Lodge No. 104, Friar's Point, Miss. and Jackson Chapter No. 6, Jackson, Miss.

Alvin B. Alden (1818-1882) Did much for laying foundation of Freemasonry in Wisconsin. Grand master 1861-63; grand high priest 1863; grand commander 1866-68; sovereign grand inspector general, AASR.

Chester H. Aldrich (1862-1924) Governor of Nebraska and jurist. Admitted to Nebraska bar, 1891. Member Nebraska Senate, 1907. Governor of Nebraska 1911-13. Justice, Supreme Court of Nebraska 1919-25. Mason and Knight Templar.

Kildroy P. Aldrich 1st Assistant Postmaster General, 1943-45. b. Feb. 16, 1877. With postal department from 1897 to 1945, serving in

various ca-pacities from postal clerk to assistant postmaster general. Raised in Siloam Lodge No. 276, Oklahoma City, Okla. in 1913 and a life member. Member of Missouri Consistory No. 1, St. Louis, Mo. (SJ).

Nelson W. Aldrich (1841-1915) U.S. Senator from Rhode Island from 1881 to 1911. b. Nov. 6, 1841 at Foster, R.I.; Graduate of Brown Univ. Member of R.I. House of Representatives from 1875-77, serving as speaker of same. Elected five times to U.S. Senate and declined nomination for reelection in 1910. A member of What Cheer Lodge No. 21, (past master) Providence and Providence Chapter No. 1 as well as Cavalry Commandery No. 13 which he served as commander in 1871. In 1879 he was grand commander of the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. d. Apr. 16, 1915.

Elizabeth Aldworth Said to be the only woman ever regularly initiated into Freemasonry. See "Elizabeth St. Leger.”

J. Frank Alee Former U.S. Senator from Delaware. Member Union Lodge No. 7, Dover, Del.

Miguel Aleman President of Mexico 1947-52. Petitioned Antiquities Lodge No. 9 of Grand Lodge Valle de Mexico on Sept. 25, 1930 as a young man of 26. Initiated Oct. 20, 1930; passed April 27, 1931 and raised July 31, 1931. He later demitted to City of Mexico Lodge No. 35. Received AASR degrees 4th through 32nd Nov. 24, 1942 by Grand Commander Antonio Arceo. Made a noble of the Mystic Shrine in Anezeh Temple of Mexico City on Nov. 27, 1945. Son of General Miguel Aleman, who as a revolutionist against Porfirio Diaz, fled to the mountains as an open rebel for three years before the general revolution of 1910, leaving 8-year-old Miguel as head of the house. By sellingpapers he worked his way through the law school of the National University and on graduation set up a thriving law business principally with labor unions and individual workers. His public life began as magistrate of the Veracruz Supreme Court. Was elected to the

Senate and in 1936 was appointed Governor of Veracruz, serving until 1940. He resigned as governor to manage the election of his friend, General Avila Camacho, who, when he won, appointed Aleman as Minister of Interior. At 37, he was the youngest cabinet member and Camacho's principal trouble shooter between the federal government and the 28 states. In this capacity he won international recognition for tracking down some 2,000 German and Japanese nationals in deference to the U.S. He was nominated as president by the head of the Latin-American Federation of Labor and his campaign manager was the editor of the labor newspaper, El Popular. Industrialists backed him because he understood the technical necessities of Mexican industry. Scholars and professional men cheered him for his ability and brains. The old revolutionary generals liked his background and political philosophy, and the masses voted for him because he had given them more in the way of social reform than anyone within their memory. He was particularly interested in public education and transportation.

Alexander I (1777-1825) Czar of Russia from 1801-1825. b. Dec. 23, 1777 and succeeded Paul I q.v. on the throne in 1801. While he prohibited all secret societies in 1801, in 1803 he rescinded this prohibition. It is said that he was convinced by Johann Boeber q.v., later grand master of Russia, of the benefits of Masonry and he not only lifted the ban, but became a member himself. Some sources claim he was initiated in Canongate Kilwinning Lodge of Edinburgh, Scotland and in 1814 acted as master at the conferring of the degrees in a military lodge in Paris on William III, Emperor of Germany. He was, for certain, a member of the Polish Grand Orient. In November, 1815 the Polish Masons gave a banquet in his honor after which he left generous gifts for the Grand Orient. He has been accused of using Freemasonry for political purposes. d. Dec. 1, 1825 under mysterious circumstances. In 1822 he became suspicious of the political dangers inherent in some of the Russian lodges, and on the advice of Grand Master Kushelev of the Grand Lodge "Astra," banned Freemasonry on August 1, 1822. This date marks the destruction of Russian Freemasonry, for his successor, Nicholas I, confirmed the edict on April 21, 1826.

Alexander III (1241-1286) King of Scotland from 1349. Legend states he favored Freemasons and that Kilwinning Abbey was built

under his guidance. Married Margaret, daughter of Henry III, in 1251. Defeated Norwegian invasion in 1263. United Hebrides and Isle of Man to the kingdom.

Abraham Alexander (?-1816) One of the founders of the Mother Supreme Council, Scottish Rite at Charleston, S. Car. He was born in London and emigrated to this country before 1764, settling in Charleston, where he became secretary to the collector of customs and later auditor. He became first secretary general of the Mother Supreme Council and seems to have been a member of Lodge La Candeur as his signature appears on the minutes of March 18, 1798. Of Jewish religion, he was chazan, or reader for Bayh Elohim congregation. He served as reader for 20 years, resigning in 1784. He died Feb. 21, 1816 and is buried in the Jewish cemetery at Charleston. 12 Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg Ben Alexander (1894-1944) President of Masonite Corp. Started as a laborer in the wood pulp industry in 1919 and by 1926 was president of the Masonite Corp. Director or officer of many corporations. Mason.

George F. Alexander (1882-?) Jurist. U.S. Marshal of Oregon 1917-21. Judge, 1st Division of Alaska since 1933. b. Apr. 20 1882. Mason. 32°, Shriner, president of Juneau Shrine Club 1934-39. Deceased.

Grover C. Alexander (1887-1950) Early member of Baseball Hall of Fame (1938). A great National League pitcher for two decades with the Phil-lies, Cubs and Cardinals starting in 1911. In 1926 he won the world championship for the Cardinals by striking out Lazzeri with bases full in final crisis at Yankee Stadium. He was raised in St. Paul Lodge No. 82, St. Paul, Nebraska on Feb. 8, 1923 expelled for un-Masonic conduct March 20, 1930.

Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander 1st Viscount of Tunis. b. 1891. Served in France, 1914-18 and northwest frontier of India in 1935. Was commander of the 1st Division from 1938-40 and was in charge of the evacuation of the British army from Dunkirk. Assigned to the Burma front in March, 1942, he became commander-in-chief of the Middle East in August. As deputy allied commander-in-chief in North Africa (1943), Alexander, with General Montgomery, who mapped the successful British campaign in Egypt. He commanded Sicilian (July 1943) and Italian (Sept. 1943) invasions. He was made field marshal in November, 1944 and was allied commander-in-chief of Italy in 1944-45. Since 1946 he has been Governor-General of Canada. Alexander is a member of Athlumney Lodge No. 3245 of London, serving as its master in 193839. He is a past grand steward andpast grand warden of the G.L. of England and a member of the house committee of the Royal Masonic Institution for Girls. He is active in Royal Arch Masonry. Born in New Zealand, he was a well known athlete and Olympic games record holder in his youth.

Hubbard F. Alexander Steamship executive. b. Aug. 14, 1879. Began as wharf agent in Tacoma, Wash. 1894. Later president of the following: Commercial Dock Co. 1901-27; Alaska Pacific S.S. Co. 190708; Alaska Coast Co. 1908-11; Pacific Alaska Navigation Co. 1908-26; Pacific Steamship Co. (Admiral Line), 1916-30. Mason, 32°.

James P. Alexander Judge. (18831948) Chief Justice Supreme Court of Texas (1941-48). Texas lawyer since admittance to bar in 1908. District judge, 19th district of Texas 1920-24; associate justice Court of Civil Appeals, Waco, 1931 to 1940; Mason and Shriner.

John L. Alexander (1878-1932) Executive Director of American Youth Foundation 1924-32. Served in executive or secretarial capacity for many religious and youth movements including Boy Scouts, Y.M.C.A. Mason.

Lord Alexander Scottish records show him to be one of the earliest of the speculatives (July 3, 1634) Lodge of Edinburgh. He was Right Honorable Master of the Work to His Majesty.

Nathaniel Alexander (1756-1808) Governor of North Carolina, 1805-07. Surgeon in the Revolutionary War. Served as an officer of the G.L. of North Carolina in 1802, '03, '06, '07 and was senior grand deacon at his death in 1808.

Prince Alexander of Orange (Netherlands) Grand Master 183284.

Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg Initiated in 1808 in the Phoenix Lodge in Paris. Was uncle of Emperor Alexander of Russia.

Robert Alexander (1863-1941) Major General U.S. Army. Advanced in rank from a private in 1886 through grades to Brig. General N.A., 1918 and Maj. General 1918-19 (temp.); Brig. General 1921 and retired as Maj. General 1927. Served in Indian campaign of 1890-91, Philippines, Cuba and Mexico as well as WW1. Mason.

Algert D. Alexis Rear Admiral U.S. Navy. b. June 25, 1897. Appointed lieutenant (jg) in 1921 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1950. His speciality in the service was naval construction and he commanded many naval installations both at home and abroad, including staff commander of the service force for the invasion of Japan. He retired in 1954 and is now a consulting civil engineer. Raised in Peter Williamson Lodge No. 323, Scranton, Pa. in 1920. Royal Arch membership in Norfolk, Va. Past president of Charleston, S.C. chapter of the National Sojourners.

Bernard Soto Alfaro Former president of Costa Rica. He developed a national spirit in the country and is one of the most eminent men produced by the Republic. He entered the lodge Esperanza when a young man and was made "Protector of the Order" in the Supreme Council, AASR.

Colon Eloy Alfaro Ambassador from Ecuador. b. Jan. 1, 1891, son of Eloy Alfaro, Ecuadorian patriot and president. Educated in Ecuador, U.S. Military Academy, German Cavalry School, and George Washington University. Served as consul general to Canal Zone, Panama, Mexico, Nicaragua, Guatamala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic and United States. Was ambassador to U.S. 1936-44. He has also served his country on many special diplomatic missions. Has been a member of the Board of Governors of the Pan American Union at Washington, D.C., since 1947. Mason and 33° AASR. Shriner. Member of Canal Zone Consistory as are his three sons, Eloy, Jaime and Olmedo.

Eloy Alfaro (1842-1912) Ecuadorian liberator and president. b. June 25, 1842 in Montecristi. He led an uprising against President Cordero (1893-95) and declared himself anticlerical dictator and president of Ecuador from 1897-1901 and 1907-11. He led the revolt of 1906 that deposed President Lisardo Garcia and became constitutional president in 1907. As president he reduced the power of the Roman Catholic church. More laws for the betterment of public schools and social reforms for the people were enacted during his presidency than there had been in the 120 years since the Republic was established. Most of his life was spent in exile. As a disciple of Bolivar he advocated Pan-Americanism and convened the second Pan American Congress in Mexico City in 1896. Alfaro was responsible for the introduction of the "Panama hat" to the world. While in exile in Panama, he imported the Ecuador-made toquilla hats which he sold in great numbers to travelers passing through the Isthmus. Having been purchased in Panama, the hats were presumed to be products of the country and thus became known as "Panamas." Alfaro attempted to aid Cuba in securing its independence from Spain and in 1895 sent an impassioned letter to Queen Marie Cristina of Spain, pleading for Cuban independence. He resigned as president Aug. 12, 1911 hoping to prevent a revolt and

continue the liberal regime. When a new revolt broke out, he returned from his exile in Panama hoping to effect a conciliation between the factions. He was seized in Guayaquil and sent over the railway which he had built to Quito where he was thrown into jail and a few hours later (Jan. 28, 1912) was murdered. Affectionately called "Citizen of the Americas," he has been honored with monuments and statues in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico and the United States. Busts of Alfaro in the U.S. are found in St. Augustine, Florida; Lincoln, Nebraska; House of the Temple, Washington, D.C.; Washington National Memorial at Alexandria, and Gainesville, Florida. Even Spain named a street in his ancestral town of Cervera del Rio Alhambra for him.

Bruce R. Alger Congressman, 84th Congress from 5th Texas district. b. June 12, 1918. Owner of Alger Development Co., Bruce Alger Realtor, Modernair Construction Co., all of Dallas. 32° AASR and Shriner.

Russell A. Alger (1836-1907) Major General in Civil War, working his way from the ranks. Served as governor of Michigan from 1885-87 and was Secretary of War under McKinley from 1897-99, resigning at McKinley's request because of criticism directed against the War Department for inefficiency. Member of Corinthian Lodge No. 241 of Detroit, being raised Dec. 9, 1895.

Francois D' Alincourt French gentleman, who, in the year 1776 was sent with Don Gyres de Ornellas Pracao, q.v. a Portuguese nobleman, to prison, by the governor of the island of Madeira, for being Freemasons.

Sir Archibald Alison (1792-1867) English author. b. Dec. 29, 1792 at Kenley, Shropshire, England and d. May 23, 1867 at Glasgow, Scotland. Received his degrees at Glasgow Kilwinning Lodge in 1837. An historian; and as sheriff of Lanarkshire suppressed the riots of 1837.

Author of History of Europe during the French Revolution (1833-42) in ten volumes and a nine volume continuation in 1852-59.

John S. Allard Brigadier General and corporation executive. b. Jan. 16, 1897. Served overseas with Air Force, 1942-45, and promoted from colonel to brigadier general in 1944. President of Curtis-Wright Export Corp. since 1929; vice pres. of Curtis-Wright Corp. since 1929 and director of Wright Aeronautical Corp., Curtis-Wright Airplane Co., and Curtis-Wright Airports Co. Mason.

Herbert J. Allemang Vice president of Philco Corp. since 1951. b. May 3, 1902. Raised in South Bend Lodge No. 294, South Bend, Ind. in 1923. Member of AASR (NJ) in South Bend and Medinah Shrine Temple.

Alfred G. Allen (1867-1932) Congressman from Ohio to 62nd, 63rd, and 64th Congresses (1911-17). Lawyer. Mason.

Charles H. Allen (1848-1934) First governor of Puerto Rico. b. April 15, 1848 at Lowell, Mass. He was a member of the Massachusetts house of representatives in 1881 and '82 and in the state senate in 1883. He was a member of the 49th and 50th Congresses (1885-89), and assistant secretary of the Navy from 1898-1900. After the United States freed the island of Puerto Rico from a 400-year despotic rule of Spain he became its first governor (1900-02). He was a member of William North Lodge of Lowell, Mass.

Ethan Allen (1738-1789) Major General in Revolution. Gained fame as a colonel commanding the "Green Mountain Boys," who with Benedict Arnold, q.v., seized Fort Ticonderoga on May 10, 1775. He was captured at Montreal and held prisoner from 177578, exchanged and returned to Vermont. Although he has been described as one "who

seems to have been a Master Mason" it is thought that he only received one degree at Windsor, Vt. on July 7, 1777. His brother Ira, q.v., was a member of Vermont Lodge No. 1. Probably not a Mason. Was a prisoner in England on date given for his first degree in Windsor, Vt.

Ethan N. Allen Baseball coach. b. Jan. 1, 1904. An outfielder with various National League teams 1926-36 and with Browns of American League since 1938; motion picture director of National League public relations dept. 1938-42; head coach at Yale in 1946. Has done sports announcing and written several books on baseball. Member of Yeatman Lodge No. 162, Cincinnati, Ohio, 32° Ohio Consistory at Cincinnati and Shriner.

Ezra G. Allen (1885-1952) Rear Admiral U.S. Navy. b. March 11, 1885 at Scranton, Pa. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 1907. Ensign. U.S. Navy in 1907, advancing to rear admiral. Mason. d. January, 1952.

Frank G. Allen Former governor of Massachusetts. b. Lynn, Mass. Oct. 6, 1874. Was raised in Orient Lodge, Norwood, Mass. June 23, 1920, receiving 33° in Northern Jurisdiction, Sept. 16, 1930.

George W. Allen (?-1928) Chief Justice Supreme Court of Colorado, 1926-28. Member Pennsylvania House of Representatives 1874-76 moving to Colorado in 1880. Judge district court, Denver 18881910. Republican nominee for governor 1896 and defeated for U.S. Senator 1896. Justice of Supreme Court 1916-26. Died Jan. 29, 1928. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Henry J. Allen (1868-1950) U.S. Senator and former governor of Kansas. b. Sept. 11, 1868 in Warren Co., Pa. Began as editor of Manhattan Nationalist in 1894 and later owned and operated several daily newspapers in Kansas; chairman of board of Wichita Daily Beacon

Publishing Co. Governor of Kansas from 1919-23 and appointed U.S. Senator to succeed Vice-president Curtis in 1929. Assistant to Charles G. Dawes, pres. of Reconstruction Finance Corp. in 1932. Editor of the Topeka Journal from 1935 until death. Director of publicity for the Hoover-Curtis campaign in 1928 and as president of the Great LakesSt. Lawrence Tidewater Assn., helped prepare treaty between U.S. and Canada on that project. Active abroad in WW1 in Red Cross work. Mason. d. Jan. 17, 1950.

Hervey Allen Author, who although not a Freemason, is one of the few writers of historical novels to give credit for the part Freemasonry played in our Revolutionary period. Among his writings are Anthony Adverse, 1933; The Forest and the Fort, 1943; and Bedford Village, 1944. b. Dec. 8, 1889. Mr. Allen wrote on May 23, 1944 as follows: "Several members of the fraternity have written in asking if I hold membership. I do not and never have. My father and grandfather and a great many other relatives have been Masons for many generations back, but for various reasons I have never joined. My interest in the theme of Masonry in American life is purely historical, and I think that my not being a member is at this time perhaps a help in my stressing the theme, as I can do so without any suspicion of being a special pleader from the inside. There is no doubt that for some reason or other American historians have overlooked one of the prime and deep-running influences in American life. As you know, there are many reasons for that.”

Hubert A. Allen (1872-1942) Brigadier General U.S. Army. Actively identified with Iowa national guard for 25 years. Served as captain in Spanish-American war and appointed brigadier general in 1917. Mason.

Ira Allen (1751-1814) Brother of Ethan Allen q.v. and politically active in the Revolutionary period. b. Cornwall, Conn., he with two other fellow members of Vermont Lodge No. 1 (now 18), led the fight for statehood of Vermont. The others were Thomas Chittenden q.v. and Dr. Jonas Fay q.v. Between 1780 and 1791 he was in negotiation with the

British which was thought to force Congress to recognize Vermont's claims—which they did on March 4, 1791. He assisted in the founding of the Univ. of Vermont in 1789. He was initiated in Vermont Lodge No. 1 of Charleston, N.H. in 1782.

Ivan E. Allen Business executive who gave Fort Mountain to state of Georgia; it is now one of the state parks. b. Mar. 1, 1877 at Dalton, Ga. Chairman of Ivan Allen-Marshall Co.; Ivan Allen Bldg., Atlanta Blank Book Mfg. Co., and has served on many state political and civic boards including term as state senator 1919-21. A Knight Templar and Shriner.

James M. Allen General in the Civil War. A Mason.

J. Edward Allen Educator and writer. Instructor in public school system of Warrenton, N.C. since 1907 and served as superintendent of public instruction for Warren Co. since 1919. Member board of trustees Wake Forest College since 1922; board of trustees, state school for blind and deaf; on board of Oxford Orphanage. Grand Master G.L. of North Carolina 1939-40. Also headed state York Rite bodies and Shrine. Writer of many Masonic books and articles including revision of Goulds History of Freemasonry published by Scribners in 1936. b. March 21, 1887 at Warrenton, N.C.

John Allen 3rd Viscount Grand Master, G.L. of Ireland, 1744.

John E. Allen (1873-1945) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Hampshire, 1934-43. Educated at Dartmouth and Harvard, he was admitted to N.H. bar in 1897, serving as probate judge from 1899 to 1906. He was associate justice of Superior Court of N.H. 1917-24 and 1924-34 before becoming chief justice. Mason.

John M. Allen Major in Texas-Mexican War. He came to Texas attracted by the rumors of impending conflict between Americans and Mexicans. As commander of the armed ship Terrible, he had been ordered to New Orleans for the purpose of recruiting soldiers for the impending conflict. While in New Orleans he received a charter from the grand secretary of the G.L. of Louisiana for Holland Lodge No. 36 to be delivered to Anson Jones q.v. General Sam Houston q.v. sent an orderly to Allen advising him of the impending clash and urging speed to the reinforcements he had. Allen joined Houston's forces, carrying with him the charter and other communications from the G.L. of Louisiana. He met Anson Jones (to be first Grand Master of Texas) on the prairie between Croce's and San Jacinto, while Houston's army was on the march just before the battle of San Jacinto. Jones placed it in his saddlebags and carried it through the battle of San Jacinto.

Lee E. Allen Congressman from 16th district of Illinois to 73rd to 80th Congresses inclusive (1933-49). b. Oct. 5, 1898 at Elizabeth, Ill. Taught school, served as circuit court clerk and has practiced law since 1930. Mason.

Oscar K. Allen Former governor of Louisiana. Member of Eastern Star Lodge No. 151, Winnfield, La.

Peter B. Allen General U.S. Army. First master of Terre Haute Lodge No. 19, Terre Haute, Indiana.

William Allen Purchased the ground for the State House (Independence Hall) at Philadelphia in 1729 and gave a grand banquet in 1736 at the inauguration of the building. It was here that the Declaration of Independence was signed.

Roger Allin Former governor of North Dakota. Member of Golden Valley Lodge No. 6, Park River, N.D.

James B. Allison Major General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 15, 1873 at York, S. Car. Appointed 2nd lieutenant in 1898 advancing through grades to major general in 1935 when he became chief signal officer. Retired in 1937. Served in Mexican War and WW1. Mason.

William B. Allison (1829-1908) U.S. Senator from Iowa 18731909. b. March 2, 1829 at Perry, 0. Admitted to bar in 1850, he practiced in Ohio until 1858 when he moved to Dubuque, Iowa. Raised troops for Civil War and was U.S. Representative in Congress from 1863-71. In 1888 and 1896 he was a candidate for Republican presidential nomination. A charter member of Mosaic Lodge No. 125 of Dubuque, Iowa, he was honorary senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1889.

James V. Allred Governor of Texas 1935-39. b. Mar. 29, 1899 at Bowie, Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1924. Served as district attorney 1923-25 and attorney general of Texas 193135. U.S. District Judge, southern district of Texas 1939-42. Practicing attorney since 1942. Raised in Bowie Lodge No. 578 July 6, 1920. Received Scottish Rite degrees in 1926. K.C.C.H.

Avery Allyn Anti-Masonic writer. Once a member of lodge, chapter and commandery in Connecticut.

Edward B. Almon (1860-1933) Congressman from Alabama to 64th to 72nd Congresses (1915-33). b. April 18, 1860 at Moulton, Ala. Admitted to bar 1883. Member Alabama state senate 1892-96 and speaker of house of representatives in 1911. Judge of 11th circuit 18981906. Mason.

James L. Almond, Jr. Congressman and attorney-general of Virginia. b. June 15, 1898 at Charlottesville, Va. Served as prosecuting attorney and judge at Roanoke and in the 79th and 80th Congresses from Virginia. Has been attorney-general of Virginia since 1948. Past potentate of Shrine.

Alfred S. Alschuler (1876-1940) Architect. b. Chicago, Nov. 2, 1876. Graduate of Armour Institute of Technology and studied at Art Institute of Chicago. Designed the following Chicago buildings: London Guarantee and Accident, Westminster, Cunard, John R. Thompson, John Sexton, Utilities, Lake Michigan, Mercantile Exchange, Adams Franklin and Garment Center buildings; plans of E. J. Brach & Son, Chicago Mail Order, Sinai Temple and Isaiah Temple. Mason.

Richard Alsop (1761-1815) American author and poet. b. Middletown, Conn. Was one of the Hartford wits, collaborating in the writing of The Echo, a verse satire which appeared in the American Mercury and published in book form in 1807. Among other works is A Poem, Sacred to the Memory of George Washington (1800). A member of St. John's Lodge No. 2, Middletown, Conn. There was a Richard Alsop who became a member of Hiram Lodge No. 1 at New Haven, Conn. in 1752 and may have been his father.

Wilbur M. Alter Chief justice, Supreme Court of Colorado since 1955. b. Dec. 17, 1879 at Allegheny, Pa. Admitted to Colorado bar in 1906. Judge of Supreme Court of Colorado from 1928-33; 1944-46; 1946 to present. Past state commander of American Legion. Served in WW1 as an enlisted man. Raised in Victor Lodge No. 99, Victor, Colo. in 1909. Demitted from chapter and commandery at Cripple Creek and shrine in Denver.

Paul S. Althouse (1889-1954) American opera tenor. b. 1889 at Reading, Pa., made his debut with Metropolitan Opera Co., N.Y. in 1913. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 435, Reading, Pa. 32° AASR (SJ) at Reading, Pa. and member of Rajah Shrine Temple, Reading. d. Feb. 6, 1954 and service was conducted by Grand Lodge of New York at Rutgers Presbyterian Church on Feb. 8.

Francisco E. Alvarado Former secretary of state of Costa Rica. He also served as president of the chamber of representatives and administrator-general of railways. A member of Caridad Lodge No. 26.

Francisco P. Alvarado Costa Rican banker. He was one of the founders of the Scottish Rite of Central America. A banker and teacher, he was benefactor of San Juan de Dios Hospital. A member of Caridad No. 26.

Carlos Maria de Alvear (1789-1853) Argentine patriot, general and coworker with San Martin, q.v. He took a prominent part in the liberation wars of Argentine both politically and militarily. In 1814 he was the victorious besieger of Montevideo, Uruguay, and a year later was named "supreme administrator." In 1839 he was appointed minister to the United States, where he died. He was a founder of the Lau-taro Lodge in 1812 together with San Martin, liberator of the country.

Claude B. Alverson (1878-1922) Judge, Supreme Court of New York, 1921-22. Knight Templar, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Count Goblet d' Alviella (1846-1925) Belgian writer on religious history, and politician. Also known as Comte Eugene. Was grand commander of the Supreme Council 33° of Belgium.

Richard IL Amberg Publisher of St. Louis Globe-Democrat from Sept., 1955. b. June 5, 1912 in New York City. Graduated from Harvard in 1933. Editor and publisher of newspapers in Oil City and Knox, Pa. from 1937-41 and also Sportsman's Hunting & Fishing Digest same years. He was director of publicity for the American Transit Assn. from 1945-47 and general manager of Newsday in 1947-49. In 1949-50 he was administrative assistant on the New York Herald Tribune and general manager and director of The Post Standard, Syracuse, N.Y. from 1950-52. Raised in Oil City Lodge No. 710, Oil City, Pa. in 1938. Member of Oil City Chapter No. 236, R.A.M. and Talbot Cornmandery No. 43, K.T. both of Oil City. 32° AASR, Valley of St. Louis (SJ). Member of St. Leo Conclave No. 71, Red Cross of Constantine, Syracuse, N.Y. and Moolah Shrine Temple, St. Louis, Mo.

John Frederick Amelung Early American glass manufacturer. In March, 1789 he visited George Washington at Mt. Vernon and presented him with two engraved gobets with Washington's coat of arms. A zealous Mason, he established a lodge in Frederick Co., Maryland sometime between 1790 and 1799.

James E. Ament (?-1936) College president and educator. b. Woodburn, Ill. Graduated from Illinois Normal, Transylvania Univ. and a Ph.D. from Oskaloosa College. Served as president of state teachers colleges in Oklahoma, Missouri, Indiana and Pennsylvania. Inspected educational facilities in England, Scotland, France, Germany and Switzerland. Ament became president of the ultra National Park Seminary for Women at Washington, D.C. in 1916 and was president and owner until his death in 1936. He was a 32° AASR (SJ).

19 Leopold S. Amery Leopold S. Amery (1873-1955) English publicist, statesman and mountaineer. b. Nov. 22, 1873 in India. Friend of Winston Churchill q.v. at school days in Harrow and later when he was correspondent of the Times in the South African War when Churchill was correspondent of Daily Telegraph. He served with the army in Flanders and Near East

(1914-16). He became first lord of admiralty in 1922, serving until 1924 when he became secretary of state for colonies 1924-29 and secretary for dominion affairs from 1925-29. In 1945-49 he was secretary for India and Burma. Endowed with a strong physique, he was an avid mountaineer and three peaks have been named for him—one in South Africa Drakenberg, one in the Canadian Rockies and the third on Kerguelen Island on the edge of the Antarctic. Member of Canada Lodge No. 3527, London and 10th master of that lodge in 1920.

Ezra Ames (1768-1836) Portrait painter. b. Framingham, Mass. May 5, 1768. Painted portraits of Washington, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Martin Van Buren, George Clinton, DeWitt Clinton. Served as grand high priest of the G.C. of New York for 24 years, and was general grand scribe of the General Grand Chapter for ten years (1806-16). From 1816-20 he served as grand captain general of the Grand Encampment, Knights Templar. Died Feb. 23, 1836.

Oliver Ames Former governor of Massachusetts. Although his membership is not known, he was made an honorary member of Columbian Lodge of Boston; was present at a meeting of Washington Lodge in Roxbury March 15, 1866; delivered a Masonic oration before Meridian Lodge, Natick, Mass., June, 1888.

Louis Amiable (1837-1897) French Masonic historian.

Arthur Oliver Villiers, Lord Ampthill (1869-1935) English nobleman of the Russell family, holding the earldom of Bedford (from 1550), dukedom of Bedford (from 1694) and barony of Ampthill (from 1881). b. Feb. 19, 1869 at Rome, Italy where his father was British ambassador. Linguist and rowing man, he saw service in WW1, being twice mentioned in dispatches and attaining the rank of brevet colonel. He served as private secretary to Joseph Chamberlain (1895-99) and was governor of Madras from 1899 to 1906. In 1904 he was appointed

acting Viceroy of India. Ampthill was appointed by King Edward VII (then grand master) as provincial grand master for Bedfordshire on Nov. 17, 1891, and later served 27 years as pro grand master (1908-35) under H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught. He was one of the founders of the National Party in 1918. Member of Apollo Lodge, Oxford, England.

Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) Discoverer of South Pole. A Norwegian polar explorer. b. Borge, Norway. He discovered the South Pole in December, 1911. In 1903-06 he navigated the northwest passage and fixed the position of the North magnetic pole, and in 1926 he flew across the North pole with Lincoln Ellsworth. He disappeared in June, 1928 on flight to rescue Nobile who was lost returning from North Pole. Said by several sources to be a Freemason but no lodge ever specified.

Charles L. Anceney (1863-?) Pioneer cattle rancher of the West. b. April 17, 1863 at Denver, Colo., he was in charge of a cattle outfit at the age of 14. Anceney was with the first herd of cattle going into lower Yellowstone ranges in 1879 and was on the first drive to Bismarck, N. Dak. in 1881. At one time he swam the Missouri river and loaded a shipment of cattle to Buffalo, N.Y. Fought with Sioux, Blackfeet and Cheyenne Indians. Was an associate of Child & Anceney (Harry W. Child), 1910 in the Flying D. Cattle Ranges, covering 500,000 acres and furnishing support to 15,000 to 25,000 head of cattle. President of Gallatin Gateway State Bank, promoted Camp Creek Branch of Northern Pacific Railway which terminated at townsite of Anceney, Mont. Mason. Deceased.

William, Earl of Ancrum Fortieth Grand Master of Scotland, 1794-95 and later the 6th Marquis of Lothian.

Clinton P. Anderson U.S. Secretary of Agriculture and senator. b. Oct. 23, 1895 at Centerville, S. Dak. Was state treasurer of New Mexico 1933-34; member of 77th to 79th Congresses from New Mexico

(1941-47); secretary of agriculture in Truman's cabinet (1945-48) and elected U.S. Senator from N. Mexico in Nov., 1948. Was raised in Albuquerque Lodge No. 60 in 1917. Member of Rio Grande Chapter No. 4, R.A.M. and Pilgrim Commandery No. 3, K.T. 32° AASR in Orient of New Mexico; KCCH in 1937 and 33° in 1945. He is past potentate of Ballut Abyad Shrine Temple (1937), member of Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Santa Fe Conclave No. 55, Red Cross of Constantine, National Sojourners and Royal Order of Jesters.

Edward Anderson (1833-1916) Clergyman and Civil War soldier. b. Nov. 19, 1833. Studied theology and was ordained pastor in the Congregational ministry in 1858. Served pastorates in Michigan, Ill., Ohio, and Conn. In the Civil War he served with John Brown in Kansas; was chaplain of the 37th Illinois Volunteers until after the Missouri Campaign in 1862 and was colonel with the 12th Indian Volunteer Cavalry until close of war. Mason.

George T. Anderson General in Confederate army. Said to have been a Freemason. George W. Anderson (1861-1938) Judge. b. Sept. 1, 1861 at Acworth, N.H. Attended Boston Law School and Boston University, opening practice in 1890. U.S. District Attorney of Mass. 1914-17; member interstate commerce commission 1917-18; became judge U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, Boston, 1918. Retired. Trustee World Peace Foundation and Cushing Academy. Mason. Died Feb. 14, 1938.

Heartley W. "Hunk" Anderson Notre Dame football coach. Member of Calumet Lodge No. 271, Calumet, Michigan.

Jack Z. Anderson Congressman to 76th to 80th Congresses from California (1939-49). b. March 22, 1904. An orchardist at San Juan Bautista, Calif. since 1923. Raised in Texas Lodge No. 46, San Juan Bautista, Calif. on Dec. 20, 1946.

James Anderson (1680?-1739) Compiler of the famous Anderson's Constitutions of 1723 and 1738 which are recognized as being the first printed volumes dealing officially with Freemasonry. The records of the United Grand Lodge of England show that Bro. James Anderson was ordered to "digest the old Gothic Constitution in a new and better method," on Sept. 29, 1721. Only three months later Dr. Anderson presented his finished production to the grand lodge (Dec. 27, 1721), which has come down to us as the basis for all Freemasonry. The historical part, however, which traces the history from the Garden of Eden to 1721 is quite fanciful, unreliable and pretentious. No one today would quote that part as an authority. It was not until the following March (1722) that a committee was appointed to examine the character of the revision, and it was not until 1723 that the volume came from the printer. The first edition was followed by a second in 1738, the latter being more valuable because it contains some history about the grand lodge covering the period 1717-1738. James Anderson, M.A., D.D., was born about 1780 at Aberdeen, Scotland, and was educated at Marischal College where he received his M.A. degree and it is thought he earned his D.D. degree about 1731 from the same college. There are no records of his life from the time of his receiving his college training until after his arrival in London. It is recorded in state records that he and his church (Scotch Presbyterian) purchased a lease of the French Protestant Chapel in Swallow St., Piccadilly on Feb. 15, 1709-10 from Rev. Jean Desaguliers, minister of the church and father of Dr. J. T. Desaguliers q.v. Anderson came from a Masonic family; his father serving as secretary of the well known Scottish Lodge Aberdeen and as master in 1688-89. It is highly possible that the son may have entered Freemasonry during the period the father served as master. Little can be learned of his Masonic connections previous to 1721. He was not at the revival of Freemasonry in 1717, but he assumed the station of grand warden of the grand lodge, January 17, 1723, and was master of Lodge No. 17 in 1723 (Masonic students have not been able to identify this lodge.) He was, however, shown as a member of Lodge of the Horn in 1723, and later of other lodges meeting in London. In addition to the Constitutions, he was the author of some non-Masonic books including Royal Genealogies, or the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings and Princes, from Adam to These Times (1732) and Unity in Trinity (1733). He attended grand lodge fifteen times between 1723 and 1728, acting as grand warden on four occasions. His death was May 28, 1739,

shortly after he had issued the second edition of the Constitutions. He was buried in Bunhill Fields with Masonic services, and accounted for the ear- liest known account of a Masonic funeral which appeared in the London Daily Post of June 2, 1739: "Last night (June 1) was interr'd the corpse of Dr. Anderson, a Dissenting Teacher, in a very remarkable deep Grave. His pall was supported by five Dissenting Teachers, and the Rev. Dr. Desaguliers; it was followed by a dozen of Freemasons who encircled the Grave; and after Dr. Earle had harangued on the Uncertainty of Life &c, without one word of the Deceased, the Brethren, in the most solomn dismal Posture, lifted up their Hands, sigh'd, and struck their aprons three times in Honour to the Deceased.”

Jesse T. Anderson State superintendent of education of South Carolina since 1946. b. Oct. 26, 1892 at Timmonsville, S.C. Member board of trustees of Univ. of South Carolina, The Citadel, Winthrop College and state school for the blind. Past master and member of all York Rite bodies serving as deputy grand commander in 1951.

Joseph I. Anderson (1757-1837) Senator from Tennessee from 17951815 and first comptroller of U.S. Treasury, 1815-36. b. White Marsh, Pa. and served through Revolutionary War as captain and brevet major. He was a member of Military Lodge No. 19 of Pennsylvania. When serving as regimental paymaster of the 1st New Jersey he was a member of Lodge No. 36 in the New Jersey Brigade. After the war he became 1st senior warden of Princeton Lodge No. 38 (N.J.).

Richard C. Anderson (1750-1826) Officer of the American Revolution. He was first master of Lexington Lodge No. 25 (now 1 of Kentucky) and was presumed to have been a member of Fredericksburg No. 4 of Va., as he was very close to General Washington. b. Jan. 12, 1750 in Hanover Co., Va. As a captain in the 5th Virginia Continentals, he led the advance of the Americans at the battle of Trenton in 1776, crossing the Delaware in the first boat; was wounded in this action; promoted to major of the 6th Virginia in 1778 and transferred to the 1st Virginia in Sept., 1778. Fought in battles of

Brandywine and Germantown and was again wounded at Savannah May 12, 1779 and taken prisoner at Charleston in May, 1780. A daring leader he was at the death-bed of Count Pulaski q.v. and the dying Pole gave him his sword as a memento. After the war he removed to the wilderness of Kentucky near Louisville, and led the life of a pioneer and Indian fighter until advancing civilization pushed the frontier farther west. He obtained the charter for the Louisville lodge from the Grand Lodge of Virginia. d. Oct. 16, 1826.

Robert Anderson (1805-1871) Major General U.S. Army who was in command of Fort Sumter at time of Confederate attack. Known as "hero of Fort Sumter." b. in Kentucky and graduated from West Point in 1825. Raised in Mercer Lodge No. 50, Trenton, N.J. May 27, 1858. He was also an honorary member of Pacific Lodge No. 233 of New York City. In 1859 he was senior warden of Mercer lodge, but was ordered to another station and withdrew at the end of the year. He received the Knight Templar orders in Columbian Commandery No. 1 of New York City in December, 1862 and January, 1863 and was made a life member Oct. 28, 1867. d. Nice, France Oct. 27, 1871.

Robert B. Anderson Secretary of the Navy in Eisenhower cabinet (appointed in 1953) and deputy secretary of defense (which he resigned in 1955). b. June 4, 1910 at Burleson, Texas, he received his law degree from University of Texas in 1932.

While still in law school he ran for the state legislature and won. He served as assistant attorney-general of Texas in 1933 and taught law at Texas University. Anderson has served as general manager of the Waggoner estate—and largest cattle ranch in Texas—since 1941. He has probably been director and president of more large corporations than any one man in Texas. He is a member of Vernon Lodge No. 655 of Vernon, Texas and while Secretary of the Navy returned from Washington to be installed as master on Oct. 17, 1953. In December, 1953 he was appointed grand senior steward of the G.L. of Texas and addressed the G.L. at the 1954 communication. He is a member of the

Chapter, Council and Commandery at Vernon, the AASR (SJ) and Maskat Shrine Temple.

Robert H. Anderson Brigadier General in Confederate Army. Served as commander of Palestine Commandery, K.T. No. 7 at Savannah, Georgia in 1886-87.

Rudolph M. Anderson Zoologist, explorer, writer and government official. b. June 30, 1876 near Decorah, Iowa. Ph.D. from University of Iowa in 1906. Taught zoology and was associated with many schools and museums in U.S. and Canada. Was chief of division of biology of National Museum of Canada from 1920-46. Active in biological and anthropological explorations to Arctic Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories 1908-12; chief of southern party Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-16; naturalist on Canadian Arctic expedition to Greenland and Canadian Arctic Archipelago, 1928. Mason.

Sigurd Anderson Governor of South Dakota (1951-55). b. Arendal, Norway, Jan. 22, 1904 and brought to U.S. in 1906, becoming a citizen upon his father's naturalization in 1912. Graduated in law from the University of South Dakota in 1931. Was assistant attorney general of South Dakota in 1941-43 and later attorney general. Served as an officer in the U.S. Navy in WW2. Now with the Federal Trade Commission in Washington. He was raised in Coteau Lodge No. 54 at Webster, S. Dak. in 1943; member of Rabboni Chapter No. 23, RA.M., Webster; Temple Council No. 7 R. & S.M. Pierre; and Damascus Commandery No. 10, K.T. Aberdeen; 32° AASR at Yankton; Yelduz Shrine Temple at Aberdeen; Order of Eastern Star, Webster; and National Sojourners in Washington, D.C. He served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of South Dakota.

Thomas 0. Anderson Naval officer U.S. Navy. As a lieutenant, he assisted Commodore Decatur in destroying the ship Philadelphia in

the harbor of Tripoli in 1804. Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 23 Newton, N.J. on Nov. 28, 1803.

Victor Emanuel Anderson Governor of Nebraska since 1955. b. March 30, 1902 at Havelock, Nebr. Owner of Anderson Hardware & Plumbing Co. since 1924; Victor Anderson Bottle Gas Co. since 1946; president Havelock (Nebr.) National Bank; Nebraska state senator in 194950. Raised in George Washington Lodge No. 250, Lincoln, Nebr. in 1928. Member of AASR (SJ) at Lincoln, Nebraska. Also member of Shrine, Jesters and DeMolay.

Wilhelm A. Anderson Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. July 22, 1894 at Hana-Maui, T.H. Served as 1st lieutenant in WW1. Called to active service in 1940 and made brigadier general (temp.) in 1942. Mason and National Sojourner.

William F. Anderson (1860-1944) Bishop, Methodist Episcopal Church. b. April 22, 1860 at Morgantown, Va. (now W. Va.) Ordained in 1887 and elected bishop in 1908, retiring in 1932. During that time he was resident bishop of Chattanooga, Tenn., Cincinnati, Ohio, and Boston, Mass. He was acting president of Boston Univ. in 1925-26. Visited many foreign missions prior to WW1 and during that war made five trips abroad as member of Emergency and Reconstruction Committee of the church. Mason and 32° AASR.

William H. Anderson Prohibitionist. b. Aug. 8, 1874 at Carlinville, Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan and Illinois Wesleyan. His attorney-ship for the Anti-Saloon League of Illinois led him into a lifetime fight against alcohol. His successful fight for the Illinois local option law brought him to New York in 1906-07 as associate supt. of the New York Anti-Saloon League and state supt. of the Maryland League from 190714. He returned to New York in 1914 and was general state supt. of their League until 1924, securing enough congressional votes to submit the 18th Amendment. His defeat of the Tammany organization caused

them to indict him in July, 1923 for an "alteration" of the League's books (which the auditors had officially approved). He was convicted in Feb., 1924 and sent to the state prison for nine months in spite of the League's denunciation of it as "a monstrous perversion of justice." He founded the American Christian Alliance of which he has been general secretary since 1926. Mason and 32° AASR.

Gomez Freire d' Andrade (1685?-1763) Portuguese general and administrator. b. Coimbra. Governor and captain general of Rio de Janerio (1733-63.) Celebrated in de Gama's epic poem, Epicos Brasileiros. He was a Venerable of the Lodge Virtude at Lisbon and a member of the Lusitanio Grand Orient.

General Ignacio Andrade President of the Republic of Venezuela from 1898 to 1899. A 32° Freemason.

24 Thomas G. Andrews Count Gyula (Jules) Andrassy (1823-1890) Hungarian patriot and statesman. b. March 3, 1823. Allied himself with Louis Kossuth q.v. in the revolt of 1848 and was exiled until 1857 when he returned to Austria. During his exile he became a Freemason in 1851 in France. He was elected to the diet in 1861, becoming its vicepresident in 1865. He was first constitutional prime minister in 1867, foreign minister in 1871, and plenipotentiary at Congress of Berlin in 1878. d. Feb. 18, 1890.

Christopher Karl Andre Austrian cleric. An active Freemason who resided at Brunn, Moravia, where, in 1789, he was director of the Evangelical Academy.

Johann Valentin Andrea (1586-1654) Protestant theologian, alchemist, satirical writer and early Rosicrucian. Said to have been a Mason. Grandson of Jakob Andrea, theologian active in organizing and uniting the Lutheran church in Germany.

Adolphus Andrews ( 1879 - 1948 ) Vice admiral commanding the Eastern Sea Frontier of WW2 (1942-43). b. Oct. 7, 1879 at Galveston, Texas and graduated from Naval Academy in 1907. Promoted through grades to rear admiral, 1934. Naval aid to Theodore Roosevelt, Harding and Coolidge. Commanded several ships including Mayflower, Massachusetts and Texas. Commanded New London, Conn. submarine base 1927-29; chief of staff Naval War College, 1931-33; chief of staff, U.S. Fleet, 1934-35; chief of Bureau of Navigation, 1935-38; Raised in Temple Noyes Lodge No. 32, Washington, D.C. on July 13, 1911, d. June 19, 1948.

Alexander B. Andrews (1873-1946) Lawyer, writer. b. Feb. 2, 1873 at Henderson, N.C. Admitted to N.C. bar in 1894. Prominent in Episcopal lay circles; delegate to American Council on Education 193237; member board of trustees Univ. of N.C. from 1927. Grand master of G.L. of N.C. 1917 and grand commander, grand commandery 1907. Wrote Digest of Masonic Law, 1841-1926. d. Oct. 21, 1946.

Charles 0. Andrews (?-1946) Senator from Florida from 193646. b. Ponce de Leon, Fla. Admitted to bar in 1907 and served variously as judge of criminal court, assistant attorney general of Florida, circuit judge and member of Florida house of representatives. Member of Orlando Lodge No. 69, Orlando. d. Sept. 18, 1946.

Frank Andrews (1864-1936) Judge, Supreme Court of Texas from 1918. b. Fayette Co., Texas, June 15, 1864. Assistant attorney general of Texas, 1891-95; judge court of civil appeals, 1899. d. Dec. 7, 1936. Mason.

Isaac Andrews Private secretary to George Washington. A member of Dundee Lodge No. 123, Dundee, N.Y.

Robert Andrews Revolutionary chaplain of the 2nd Virginia regiment in the Continental Army. This illustrious clergyman was the acting master of the meeting at which John Blair, Jr. was chosen as the first grand master of masons in Virginia on October 13, 1778, and later presided over the grand lodge when Blair was installed. He later became grand master himself. He was past master of Williamsburg lodge at the time he opened the October 13th meeting of the grand lodge.

Thomas G. Andrews (1882-1942) Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma 1929-35. b. Aug. 29, 1882. Admitted to Oklahoma bar in 1911. Active in Oddfellows, serving as G.M. of Oklahoma and representative to the supreme grand lodge for 14 years. Member of the ritual revision committee and chairman of judiciary committee (natl.). Elected grand sire 1937. He was a Knight Templar, 33° AASR and Shriner. d. Sept. 1942.

Harvey A. Andruss President of State Teachers College, Bloomsburg, Pa. since 1939. b. Feb. 19, 1902 at Fort Worth, Texas, he has had a long and distinguished career as teacher, lecturer and advisor to labor, business and government on business law, bookkeeping, accounting and civil service. Mason, 32° AASR.

William R. Angell (1877-1950) President of Continental Aeronautic Corp. b. Feb. 10, 1877 at Jesup, Iowa. Admitted to Illinois bar in 1899, beginning with Continental Motors in 1916 and becoming president from 1930-39. In addition to the Aeronautic Corp., he has served as president of Continental Aircraft Engine Co., Continental

Divco Co., Home Finance Co. and Midland Corp., as well as being a director of several other companies. Mason. d. Jan. 25, 1950.

Frank M. Angellotti (1861-1932) Justice, Supreme Court of California, 1902-14. b. Sept. 4, 1861 at San Rafael, Calif. Raised in Marin Lodge No. 191, San Rafael Feb. 3, 1886, serving as master from 1888-90 and grand master of G.L. of California 1898-99. He was a member of the jurisprudence committee from 1899 until his death May 23, 1932.

Albert H. Angstman Justice, Supreme Court of Montana. b. March 23, 1888 at Farmington, Minn. Admitted to Minn. and Mont. bar in 1912. Assist, attorney-general of Montana 1921-28; assoc. justice supreme court 1929-35; counsel Public Service Comm. of Montana 1935-37; assoc. justice supreme court 1945-51. Raised in Helena Lodge No. 3, Helena, Mont. in 1918 and served as its master. Member of Helena Chapter No. 2, R.A.M. and past high priest; Helena Council No. 1, R. & S.M. and Helena Commandery No. 2, K.T. 32° AASR in Helena Consistory and member of Shrine since 1925.

Levi Ankeny (1844-1921) U.S. Senator from Washington 190309. b. Aug. 1, 1844 near St. Joseph, Mo., he crossed plains with parents to Oregon in 1850. Early in life he was a Wells Fargo agent and later in the mercantile business in Lewiston, Idaho, where he was the first mayor. He later moved to Walla Walla, Wash. where he was president of seven banks in Washington and Oregon. He became a member of Willamette Lodge No. 2 of Portland in 1866, affiliating with Walla Walla Lodge No. 7 in 1878, serving as master in 1881. He was past high priest of Walla Walla Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. and member of Washington Commandery, K.T. No. 1. He was a KCCH in Lawson Consistory, AASR and member of El Kalif Shrine at Spokane. d. March 29, 1921.

Louis Annance (1794-1875) Chief of the St. Francis Indians, a vigorous and powerful tribe of the Quebec province. b. Aug. 25, 1794 at

Saint Francis du Lac in the county of Yamaska, Quebec. He received his early education from the Jesuits who subsequently secured his admission to a school in Hanover, N.H., but as he was about to enter college the war of 1812 was declared and he was summoned back to his tribe to serve under the British. In 1817 he publicly renounced Catholicism and joined the Congregationalists. It was about this time that he became, by laws and rules of his tribe, successor to his father as chief and ruler, but having become a Protestant, was subjected to persecution and annoyance so he moved to Hanover, N.H. where he connected himself with the Methodists and was made a Freemason in North Star Lodge of Lancaster, N.H. in 1834. In 1835 or 1836 he removed

26 Matthew Arbuckle to Greenville, Maine where he lived near Moosehead Lake. He died Dec. 25, 1875. The G.L. of Maine issued dispensation to Doric Lodge which erected a tombstone over his grave in the Greenville cemetery.

Martin F. Ansel Former governor of South Carolina. Mason.

Martin C. Ansorge Congressman, lawyer and business executive. b. Jan. 1, 1882 at Corning, N.Y. Began law practice in New York City in 1906 after graduation from Columbia Univ. Member of the 67th Congress from N.Y. in 1921-23 and author of Edge-Ansorge Port of New York Authority bills for the comprehensive development of the Port of New York. Was one of the first to advocate construction of TriBorough Bridge and first chairman of its committee. Attorney for Henry Ford in SapiroBernstein libel cases. Director of United Air Lines. Raised in Mt. Nebo Lodge No. 257, New York City in 1907.

Charles L. Anspach College president. b. March 5, 1895 at Fremont, Ohio. Received degrees from Ashland College, Univ. of Toledo and Ph.D. from Univ. of Michigan in 1923. Was president of Ashland College (Ohio) from 1935-39 and has been president of Central

Michigan College of Education at Mt. Pleasant since 1939. Active in many civic and religious organizations on state and national scale. Member of Ashland Lodge No. 151, Ashland Chapter No. 67, RAM, Ashland Council No. 128 R. & SM., all of Ashland, Ohio, and Mansfield Commandery, K.T. No. 21 of Mansfield, Ohio. Received 32° AASR (NJ) in Bay City Consistory, Bay City, Mich., and is a member of Elf Khurafeh Shrine Temple, Saginaw, Mich.

Jules Anspach (1826-1879) Lord mayor of Brussels, Belgium and master of the lodge Les Amis Philantropes.

Duke d' Antin Elected "perpetual Grand Master" of the Freemasons of France on June 24, 1738, serving until 1743.

Dr. Carl Gottlob von Anton German Masonic writer who wrote several books on Templarism. d. Gorlitz, Nov. 17, 1818.

Earl of Antrim (see William Randal) Frank Appleby (1864-1924) Congressman from N.J., 67th Congress (1921-23). b. Oct. 10, 1864. In real estate and insurance business in Asbury Park, N.J. starting in 1885. Member N.J. State Board of Education from 1894-1902. Mason. d. Dec. 15, 1924.

Troy W. Appleby (1874-1947) President of Ohio National Life Insurance Co. b. Oct. 2, 1874 at Morrisville, Mo. Started with the Ohio company as an actuary in 1905 and served as president from 1922. Active in many youth and social organizations and Methodist church. d. April 21, 1947. Mason and 32° AASR.

Sylvanus Apps Ice hockey player. Captain of the Toronto Maple Leafs. Member of University Lodge No. 496, Toronto, Ont., Canada.

Emmanuel Arago (181 2- 1896 ) French politician, senator and barrister. Mason.

Matthew Arbuckle (1774-1851) Brigadier General in Mexican War. b. Greenbrier, Va. in 1774, he entered the U.S. Army as an ensign in 1800. Was sent to the Oklahoma territory to supervise the newly removed Indian tribes in 1821, establishing Fort Gibson and Fort Towson near the Kiamichi for this purpose. Fort Arbuckle was named for him. d. June 11, 1851 at Fort Smith and buried with military and Masonic honors. The remains were afterwards reinterred at his birthplace.

John Arbuthnot (1667-1735) Scottish physician and writer. Was physician in ordinary to Queen Anne (1709). A close friend of Swift, he authored witty political pamphlets including The History of John Bull, a satire against the Duke of Marlborough, which popularized and fixed the modern conception of John Bull as the typical Englishman. He was also the author of a number of medical and scientific papers. Reported to be member of a London lodge.

Branch T. Archer (1790-1856) Texas patriot. b. in Virginia and came to Texas in 1831 where he was active in measures for Texas independence. He served as secretary of war of Texas under President Lamar. He was raised in Harmony Lodge No. 62 at Pridewell, Amelia Co., Va. in 1808 and later became a member of Manchester Lodge No. 14 at Manchester becoming its master in 1821. He signed the petition for St. John's Lodge No. 5 of Texas.

P. C. Archer General in Confederate Army. Member of Paris Cornmandery, K.T. No. 9 of Texas.

Leslie C. Arends Congressman from Illinois to 74th to 81st Congresses (1935-51). b. Sept. 27, 1895. Mason.

James C. Argetsinger (1883-1955) Vice president of Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. b. Dec. 12, 1883 at Burdet, N.Y. Lawyer. Secretary of the above firm from 1932-49. Vice president since 1935. Mason. d. June 16, 1955.

7th Duke of Argyle (George William) 54th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1822-23.

Richard Arlen Movie actor. Member Utopia Lodge No. 537, Los Angeles, Calif.

Modeste Armijo Former Nicaraguan minister of education and chief justice of the Supreme Court. A Masonic guest in Connecticut in June 1945.

Lewis A. Armistead (1817-1863) American army officer. b. New Bern, N.C., he served in the U.S. army from 1839-61 and in the Confederate army 1861-63, receiving the rank of brigadier general in 1862. He was killed in Pickett's charge at Gettysburg. Member of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va. Also charter member of Union Lodge No. 7, Ft. Riley, Kans.

David H. Armstrong(1812-1893)U.S. Senator from Missouri 1877-79. b. Oct. 21, 1812 in Nova Scotia, Canada. He received an academic education at the Maine Wesleyan seminary and moved to St. Louis in 1837 where he opened and taught the first public school in the state on April 1, 1838. He was comptroller of St. Louis from 1847 to 1850 and a member of the board of police commissioners from 1873-75 and again in 1877. Armstrong was a member of Washington Lodge No. 9 of St. Louis.

Donald Armstrong Brigadier General, U.S. Army and business executive. b. April 15, 1889. Served in the two world wars. Promoted to general rank in 1942 and was chief of the Tank Automotive Center at Detroit in 1942; commanding general of Ordnance Replacement Training Center, Aberdeen, Md. 1943; commandant of Army Industrial College, Washington, D.C. 1944. President of U.S. Pipe and Foundry Co. since 1948. Mason.

George E. Armstrong Brigadier General U.S. Army, surgeon. b. Lawrence Co., Ind. Aug. 4, 1900. Served in Army Medical Corps since 1925. Theater surgeon of C.B.I. and later surgeon China Theater 194446. Deputy surgeon-general with rank of general since June 1947. Raised in Bedford Lodge No. 14, Bedford, Ind. on March 12, 1922. AASR membership in Valley of Indianapolis; 33°, honorary. Member of Murat Shrine Temple, Indianapolis.

Harry L. Armstrong President of Castle Heights Military Academy, Lebanon, Tenn. since 1929. b. July 19, 1888 at Logan, Ohio. President of Association of Military Colleges and Schools of the U.S. in 1942. Raised in Mingo Lodge No. 171, Logan, Ohio in 1909.

Harry W. Armstrong (1879-1951) American composer famous for the all-time favorite Sweet Adeline which he wrote in 1903 with words by Richard H. Gerard. b. Somerville, Mass. He was raised Feb.

20, 1922 in Montgomery Lodge No. 68, New York City and affiliated with John Stewart Lodge No. 871 in 1932.

John Armstrong ( 1758 - 1843 ) American revolutionary officer; general in War of 1812, secretary of war, U.S. senator and minister to France. b. Carlisle, Pa. Was deputy adjutant general in the American Revolution and wounded at Germantown. In 1783 he wrote a series of anonymous letters in effort to force Congress to pay arrears to army officers. He was U.S. senator from New York from 180004 and U.S. minister to France 180410. As secretary of war 1813-14, he was held responsible by many for the military failures in the War of 1812. Raised in Army Lodge No. 19 on register of G.L. of Pennsylvania and later seems to have become a member of Old Cone Lodge No. 9 at Salisbury, N.C. He may have affiliated later in New York as there is such a name listed as a member of Hibernia Lodge No. 339.

J. P. Taylor Armstrong Business executive. b. New London, Conn. July 1, 1882. President of Belding Heminway Co. since 1937; president Corti-cell Silk Co. 1920-32, working hisway up from mill clerk. Director of La France Industries, United States Testing Co., Stowell Silk Spool Co. Active in local government and charities. Mason and 32° AASR (N.J.).

Lebbeus Armstrong Anti-Mason. A clergyman who became a Scottish Rite Mason and later an anti-Mason.

Sir Richard Armstrong (?-1823) British lieutenant general commanding forces in West Canada. He entered the Queen's Rangers as a captain and afterward became major. He showed great efficiency as a partisan officer on the Royalist side during the Revolution. In 1783 he was appointed with Capt. Saunders to prepare a parting address for Col. John G. Simcoe q.v., the intrepid leader of the rangers. He was advanced to colonel in 1797; to major general in 1803 and to lieutenant general in 1809. A Mason.

Thomas Armstrong, Jr. (1857-1937) Lawyer, public benefactor. b. July 18, 1857. Admitted to Wisconsin bar in 1880 and practiced in Portage. President of 1st National Bank of Portage 1891-92, moving to Phoenix, Arizona in 1892 where he engaged in law practice and was president of the 1st National Bank of Arizona 1924-29. He was the donor of the Pueblo Grande Ancient Ruins to the city of Phoenix. d. Nov. 1937. Mason.

Edward F. Arn Governor of Kansas 1952-55. b. Kansas City, Kansas May 19, 1906. Began law practice in Wichita in 1936; attorney general of Kansas 1947-49; associate justice Supreme Court of Kansas 1949-51. Raised in Wyandotte Lodge No. 3, Kansas City, Kansas in 1927. 32° AASR (SJ), Orient of Kansas at Wichita, National Sojourners Chapter No. 24 at Wichita, DeMolay Legion of Honor and Senior member, International Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay. Member of Midian Shrine of Wichita and member of patrol from 1937-47; honorary life member of Korein Temple at Rawlins, Wyo. and deputy to imperial potentate of the Shrine in 1954-55.

Elmer R. Am (1886-1951) Surgeon. b. July 8, 1886 at Arnhelm, Ohio. Received M.D. from Univ. of Cincinnati in 1911 and did post graduate work in Berlin and Vienna Universities. Specialist in goiter. Dr. Arn became a Mason in 1908. As grand master of the G.L. of Ohio (1935-36) he devoted much of his time to the Ohio Masonic Home—a service which he continued until his death. In 1930 he received the 33° and two years later was crowned an active member of the Supreme Council being elected deputy for Ohio in 1946 and continuing until he retired in 1950. His most distinctive service to Freemasonry was his leadership of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association from 1938 until his death. In those 13 years he visited grand lodges throughout the country presenting this cause which meant most to him. He died December 24, 1951 and, in compliance with Arn's request, his ashes were dropped by airplane on the Washington memorial.

Ellis G. Arna11 Governor of Georgia, 1943-47. b. March 20, 1907 at Newnan, Ga. Admitted to Georgia bar in 1931. Served as member of state house of representatives and speaker pro tern from 1933-37; attorney general of Georgia 1939-43. Since 1947 he has been president of the Dixie Life Insurance Co.; president of the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers since 1948. From 1947-51 he was a member of the National Comm. for UNESCO. Member of Cowetta Lodge No. 60 at Newnan, Ga., since 1931.

Albert F. Arnason State commissioner of higher education, North Dakota since 1943. b. Hensel, N.D., March 12, 1908. Taught in public schools and became president of N.D. School of Forestry, 1938-43. Mason.

Thomas A. Arne (1710-1778) English musical composer. He wrote music for Joseph Addison's Rosamund (1733); Fielding's Tom Thumb, or the Opera of Operas (1733); Milton's Comus (1738); Thomson and Mallet's Masque of Alfred (1740 which included the song Rule Britannia). In addition to the oratorios Abel (1755) and Judith (1764), he composed many songs, as those for the Tempest (1746) and light operas. Mason.

Ben Arnold Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma 1941-53. b. Newark, Ark., Oct. 24, 1892. LL.B. from Univ. of Oklahoma in 1925 and admitted to bar same year. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner.

Benedict Arnold (1741-1801) America's most notorious traitor. b. Norwich, Conn., Jan. 14, 1741. His early life was spent in trade with the West Indies, but volunteered for service at the outbreak of the Revolution and with Ethan Allen q.v. captured Fort Ticonderoga on May 10, 1775. He was the leader of an unsuccessful campaign to capture Quebec in 1775, but, as a brigadier general in 1776, stopped a British thrust from Canada down Lake Champlain. In 1777 as a major general he repulsed a British force in the Mohawk Valley and aided in forcing

Burgoyne's surrender. While in Philadelphia (1778-79) as commander, he was court-martialed for irregularities and reprimanded by Washington (in kind words). It was here that he began treasonable correspondence with the British and while in command at West Point (1780), he arranged to surrender that key position to the British. The plot was discovered by the capture of Major Andre on Sept. 23, and Arnold fled to the British. He was commissioned a brigadier general in the British army and received £6,315 in compensation for his property losses. He then led an expedition into Virginia which burned Richmond and made an attack on New London, Conn. in Sept. 1781, returning to London in December of that year. Disappointed at the failure of his plans and embittered by the neglect and scorn which he met in England, he gradually sank into a melancholia and died in London June 14, 1801. His last words were reported as: "Let me die in the old uniform in which I fought my battles for freedom. May God forgive me for putting on any other." There is no question that Arnold was a Freemason. Wallace in his Traitorous Hero says he was admitted a member in a lodge "in the West Indies" which may well be true as he was there in his early days before the Revolution. The first record in Book II of Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven, Conn. (April 10, 1765) record that "Br. Benedict Arnold is by R.W. (Nathan Whiting) proposed to be made a member (i.e. an affiliate) of this R.W. Lodge, and is accordingly made a member in this Lodge." This was ten years before his first action in the Revolution. His name appears frequently on the records of Hiram lodge until about 1772. After his defection the lodge erased his name from membership and he was abandoned as a Mason. On June 12, 1771 he visited Solomons Lodge No. 1 at Poughkeepsie, N.Y. and on May 16, 1781 the lodge by vote "ordered that the name of Benedict Arnold be considered as obliterated from the minutes of this Lodge; a Traitor" (with figure of a hand pointing to word "traitor.") This was done and the old records show his name partially obliterated by pen marks.

Henry H. "Hap" Arnold (1886-1950) Commanding general of the U.S. Air Force. b. June 25, 1886 at Gladwyne, Pa. Graduated from West Point in 1907 and a pioneer in military aviation, who in 1912 was awarded a trophy for "a 30-mile flight." From a 2nd lieutenant in 1907 he advanced to the highest American rank in 1944—that of a 5-star general. He was flight commander of the U.S. Alaska Flight of 1934; assistant chief Air Corps, 1936-38; chief of Army Air Corps, 1938;

commanding general Army Air Forces, 1942. He was raised in Union Lodge No. 7, Junction City, Kansas on Nov. 3, 1927, received the 32° AASR on April 11, 1929 at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas and 33° on Oct. 19, 1945. d. Jan. 15, 1950. On Nov. 21, 1958 the lodge at Edwards A.F.B., Calif. was constituted as General Henry H. Arnold Lodge No. 791.

John C. Arnold Justice, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. b. March 10, 1887 at Durwensville, Pa. Admitted to Pennsylvania bar in 1910. Judge of superior court (appellate) 1945-53. Justice of supreme court since 1953. Raised in Garfield Lodge No. 559, DuBois, Pa. on Nov. 7, 1912. Member of AASR, Valley of Williamsport, Pa. and received 33° in 1952. Member of Jaffa Shrine Temple at Altoona, Pa.

Remmie LeRoy Arnold Pen manufacturer and Imperial Potentate of Shrine (1953-54). b. Jan. 25, 1894 at Petersburg, Va. Started the R. L. Arnold Pen Co. in 1935 which has grown to the second largest pen company in the world. Served as president of the American War Dads during WW2, making a trip to England as guest of Lord Halifax, British Ambassador, visiting camps, hospitals and front lines. On his return he toured the United States at his own expense to report directly to the American people and wrote over 5,000 letters to parents of men with whom he had talked. Served as president of the Southern States Industrial Council. Ran for governor of Virginia in 1949. Raised in Powhatan Starke Lodge No. 124, Petersburg, Va. on Feb. 24, 1928. Royal Arch Mason and Knight Templar in 1930 and 32° AASR in 1928. Received Royal Arch in Petersburg Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. and knighted in Appomattox Commandery No. 6, both of Petersburg, Va. in 1930. AASR (ST) in Richmond, Va., receiving 33°. Member of Acca Temple, Royal Order of Scotland, Royal Order of Jesters in Richmond, Order of Quetzacoatle in Mexico City, National Sojourners and Heroes of '76 at Fort Lee, Va., chairman of board of Shriners Hospitals, and Legion of Honor, DeMolay.

Samuel W. "Wat" Arnold Congressman from Missouri 78th to 80th Congresses (1943-49). b. Sept. 21, 1879 near Downing, Mo. Taught school and served as superintendent from 1896 to 1903. Owner

of lumber business and radio stations. Member of the following Masonic bodies of Kirksville, Mo. Adair Lodge No. 366; Caldwell Chapter No. 53, R.A.M; Ely Commandery No. 22.

William W. Arnold Congressman from Illinois to 68th to 74th Congresses (1923-37), resigning to become member of U.S. Board of Tax Appeals (now The Tax Court of the U.S.) on which he has served since 1937. Knight Templar and 32° AASR. Died Nov. 23, 1957.

Sir Lauriston J. Arnott Managing Director of the Irish Times, Dublin, Ireland. Served as master of Meridian Lodge XII in Dublin in 1952. Also member of Lodge of Erin No. 2895, London, England.

Jacob Aronson (1887-1951) Vice president and general counsel of New York Central Railroad since 1947. b. Jan. 2, 1887 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1908. Associated with New York Central since 1906 as attorney, general attorney and counsel. Director of several other corporations. Mason. d. Jan. 13, 1951.

J. Hugo Aronson Governor of Montana since 1952. b. Sept. 1, 1891, Gallstad, Sweden. Came to U.S. in 1911. Director of Toole Co. Bank, Shelby, Mont. since 1927 and president since 1940. Member state house of representatives 1939-45; senator 1945-53. Mason. King Gustav VI Adolf q.v. of Sweden appointed him as representative of the G.L. of Sweden to the G.L. of Montana. His appointment was in Swedish, accompanied by an English translation, but Aronson could read the original. Received degrees in Shelby Lodge No. 143, in 1924 and later demitted to Cut Bank Lodge No. 82, Cut Bank, Mont. Member of Tyrean Chapter 34, R.A.M. and Cut Bank Council R. & S.M. No. 11 at Cut Bank and Golden West Commandery 24, K.T. at Shelby, Mont. 32° AASR in Valley of Helena. Was senior steward of Shelby Lodge at time of his transfer. Member of Algeria Shrine Temple and Shelby Chapter No. 113, O.E.S. Received "Hats Off" award from Edward C. Day Chapter, DeMolay in Helena.

Chester A. Arthur (1830-66) President of the United States, 1881-85 on death of Garfield. Was not a Mason. Although often referred to as a "Mason, brother, and worthy member of the Craft" by early publications, there is not one shred of evidence that points to his membership.

Harold J. Arthur Governor of Vermont. b. Feb. 9, 1904 at Whitehall, N.Y. Admitted to bar in 1932 and has been in civil and criminal practice since that date. Clerk of Vermont lower house 1939-43, lieut. governor of Vermont 1949-50 and elected governor in 1950. Served as an officer, U.S. Army WW2, 1941-46. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner.

John M. Arthur Brigadier general U.S. Marine Corps. b. April 12, 1893. Graduate of Infantry School, Fort Benning, Command and General Staff School, Ft. Leavenworth, Naval War College. From 2nd lieutenant Marine Corps in 1917 he advanced to brigadier general in 1946. Served in Cuba 1917-19. Aide to White House during Harding and Coolidge administrations. Subsequently served in Nicaragua, China. Legislative liaison officer of Marine Corps to Congress, 1934-37. Chief-of-staff, Fleet Marine Force 1940-41; commander of combined forces during Guadalcanal campaign 1942-43. Mason.

Thomas Arthur (1860-1925) Chief justice, Supreme Court of Iowa (192325). b. July 12, 1860. LL.B. University of Iowa. Judge of district court of Iowa, 1911-20; justice Supreme Court of Iowa, 1920-23. Mason. d. Sept. 15, 1925.

Gotthardus Arthusius Wrote many works on Rosicrucianism under the assumed name of Irenaeus Agnostus. Was rector of the gymnasium of Frankfort-on-the-Main.

Earl of Arundel (Thomas Howard) (1585?-1646) Tradition places him as grand master of English Freemasons from 1633 to 1635 and the claim is in accordance with the accounts of Anderson and Preston. He was the 14th Earl, and became a Protestant in 1615; president of the committee of peers on Bacon's case in 1621; general of the army against the Scots in 1639. He was one of the first large scale collectors of art in England, and his collection of statues, pictures, guns, coins, manuscripts and marbles was presented to Oxford in 1667 by his grandson.

William Arundel (?-1816) Early American merchant and fur trader. He was first secretary of Western Star Lodge No. 107 at Kaskaskia, the first capital of Illinois. Arundel was raised in St. Andrews Lodge, Quebec, Canada. When No. 107 at Kaskaskia was formed on Sept. 27, 1805, he was a charter member. He was located at Kahokia (Ill.) as early as 1783, but had resided near Peoria at an earlier date. He had emigrated from Ireland to Canada and possessed a good education for that time.

Jacob M. Arvey Political boss of Chicago and prominent national Democratic political figure. b. Chicago, Nov. 3, 1895. Served as state's attorney in 1918-20; master in chancery, circuit court of Cook Co. 193034; alderman 24th ward, Chicago, 192341; chairman Cook Co. Central Committee, Democratic party. Mason.

Charles G. Ashbrook President of North American Life Insurance Co. of Chicago. b. Nov. 1899 at Granville, Ohio. Graduated from Denver Univ. in 1921 and started as a clerk with North American, working his way successively up to president in 1955. Raised in Nunda Lodge No. 169, Crystal Lake, Ill. on May 7, 1938. Member of Woodstock Chapter No. 36, R.A.M. and Woodstock Council, R. & S.M. and Calvary Commandery No. 25, K.T. all of Woodstock, Illinois. Served as master of Nunda Lodge No. 169 in 1942. Joined Medinah Shrine Temple in 1943.

Frank G. Ashbrook Fur animal expert. b. York, Pa., Oct. 20, 1892. B.S. in agriculture, Pa. State College, 1914; with Bureau of Animal Industry, Dept. of Agriculture 1914-18 and on leave from dept. to French High Commission, 1919-20. In charge of fur-bearing animal work, Div. of Fur Resources, Biological Surveys, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture since 1921. Traveled in Japan and China in 1937 for Treasury Dept. to obtain information on methods of dressing dog, lamb and kid skins imported to U.S. Author of many books in field. Mason.

William A. Ashbrook (1867-1940) Congressman from Ohio to 60th to 65th Congresses (1907-21) and 74th and 75th Congresses (1935-39) from 17th Ohio district. b. July 1, 1867 at Johnstown, Ohio. Publisher and editor of Johnstown Independent from 1885-1940. Mason. d. Jan. 1, 1940.

George F. Ashby Railroad president b. Sept 3, 1885 at Mt. Airy, N.C. Started with railroad industry as a clerk with the Atlantic Coast Line in 1906. With Union Pacific RR Co. since 1921, serving as president and director 1946-49. Also president and director of Oregon Short Line, Oregon-Washington RR and Navigation Co.; Los Angeles and Salt Lake RR; St. Joseph and Grand Island; Laramie North Park and Western; Saratoga and Encampment Valley and Des Chutes RR. Mason and Shriner.

Turner Ashby (1824-1862) Confederate Brigadier General in Civil War. b. Rose Hill, Va. He was a grain dealer in Markham, Va., and afterward a planter and politician. At the outbreak of the Civil War he raised a regiment of cavalry. Being a fine horseman and daring by nature, he soon distinguished himself. He met his death in a skirmish preceding the battle of Cross Keys, Va. on June 6, 1862. He was a member of Equality Lodge No. 44, Martinsburg, W. Va. and was buried Ma-sonically.

Bowman F. Ashe ( 1 88 5 - 1 95 2 ) President of University of Miami from 1926. b. Scottdale, Pa., April 3, 1885. Regional director Social Security Board for Southeastern States, 1936-38 and regional director War Manpower Committee for Southeastern States, 1942. Mason. d. Dec. 16, 1952.

Rev. Jonathan Ashe Author of Masonic Manual, 1814 which he copies from Hutchinson without giving credit.

Dr. Carl Wilhelm Asher First translator into German of the Halliwell or Regius Manuscript, which he published at Hamburg in 1842 under the title of Alteste Urkunde der Freimaurerei.

Edward Ashley (1854-1931) Clergyman, missionary to Dakota Indians. b. Road Hill, England Dec. 12, 1854, came to U.S. in 1873 and naturalized in 1889. Became Episcopalian deacon in 1877 and priest in 1881. Served as general missionary among Sioux Indians for 57 years. Mason and 33° deputy in South Dakota for Supreme Council (SJ). d. March 30, 1931.

James M. Ashley (1824-?) Governor of Montana. b. Nov. 14, 1824 near Pittsburgh, Pa. Clerked on boats of Ohio and Mississippi rivers, became editor of the Dispatch and later the Democrat at Portsmouth, 0. Admitted to bar, but never practiced. Elected five times to U.S. Congress from Ohio, serving from 1859-1869. Four times chairman of the committee on territories, it was under his supervision that the territories of Arizona, Idaho and Montana were organized. Appointed governor of Montana in 1869. Raised March 2, 1853 in Toledo Lodge No. 144, Toledo, Ohio.

Elias Ashmole (1617-1692) Most learned English antiquarian of his day. A Royalist in the Civil War. In 1672 he published an exhaustive

history of the Order of the Garter which is now an exceedingly rare volume. In 1677 he presented a collection of rarities to Oxford University which became the Ashmolean Museum. His importance to Freemasonry stems from the diary which he kept with great care. Masonic historians have generally set the date of speculative Masonry as 1717 when the G.L. of England was formed. His diary entry of Oct. 16, 1646 stated that he had been made a Freemason at 4:30 p.m. at Warrington, Lancashire with Col. Henry Mainwaring of Karincham, Cheshire. At this time Ashmole was a captain in Lord Ashley's regiment and also Comptroller of the Ordnance on the King's side. Mainwaring, of whom there is frequent mention in the bulletins of the civil war, was a staunch Parliamentarian. The diary also gives the names of those that were then members of the lodge which seems to justify the conclusion that they were in the habit of associating in Masonic fellowship for some time. It is noteworthy that not a single operative Mason was present on this date. His diary therefore earned him the name of "first speculative English Freemason." d. May 18, 1692.

Henry F. Ashurst Former U.S. Senator from Arizona. Married as Catholic and afterwards withdrew from the fraternity.

John W. Askew Comptroller of Post Office Department, Washington, D.C. since 1949. b. Nov. 1, 1901. With postal service since 1920. Now regional comptroller at Atlanta, Ga. Raised Oct. 6, 1925 in Corinthian Lodge No. 266 at Norfolk, Va.

William D. Askren Justice Supreme Court State of Washington 1924-28. b. Oct. 1, 1885 Mount Ayr, Iowa. Admitted to bar 1908. Judge of Superior Court, 1920-04. Mason and past potentate Ai Shrine Temple, 1926-27.

Richard Aspinall Educator. b. Dec. 1, 1881 at Bolton, England. President Western State College, Gunnison, Colo., 1927-30. Director of student affairs and assistant to president of West Virginia University

1930-48. Superintendent of Moosehart Home and School, Moosehart, Ill. (Loyal Order of Moose) since 1948. Received his degrees in Terra Alta Lodge No. 106, W. Va. about 1922 and later member of Morgantown Union Lodge No. 4, Morgantown, W. Va. 32° AASR(SJ) at Wheeling, W. Va. and KCCH. Member of Osiris Shrine Temple at Wheeling. Served as grand prelate, Grand Lodge of West Virginia circa 1932-44. Has served many times as orator for Masonic events. Grand chaplain G.L. of W.V. 1936-43.

Wayne N. Aspinall Congressman from Colorado to 81st Congress (194951). b. April 3, 1896 at Middleburg, Ohio. Graduate of Univ. of Denver and Denver Law School. Admitted to bar 1925. Member of state legislature of Colorado from 1931-38 and speaker of house 1937-38. State senator 1939-48. Participated in Normandy drive WW1 as American officer with British forces. Raised in Palisade Lodge No. 125, Palisade, Colo. in 1926. Member of Grand Junction Chapter No. 24, R.A.M.; Grand Junction Council No. 16 R. & S.M. and Temple Commandery No. 23, K.T., all of Grand Junction, Colo. 32° AASR (SJ) in Valley of Grand Junction, receiving KCCH. Served as master of Palisade lodge and also as secretary. Member of El Jebel Shrine Temple.

Rupert F. Asplund (1875-1952) Tax and budget expert. b. June 26, 1875 at Little Indian, Ill. M.A. and LL.D., Illinois College, Jacksonville, Ill. Instructor of Latin and Greek at Univ. of New Mexico 1902-09. Secretary State Tax Commission (N.M.) 1917-18; director Taxpayers' Assn. of N.M. since 1918; editor and manager of N.M. Journal of Education, 190719; director of N.M. State Budget, 1919-41; comptroller State of N.M. 1930. Grand Master of G.L. of N.M. 1947-48. Deputy of Supreme Council AASR (SJ) for N.M. from 1935. d. Dec. 7, 1952.

John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) German-American financier and czar of the fur trade. b. Duchy of Baden, Germany, July 17, 1763, corning to U.S. in 1784 and entering the fur trade. He incorporated the American Fur Co. in 1808 and the Pacific Fur Co. in 1810. He founded

the city of Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River as a trading post but lost it to the British in 1813. During the War of 1812 he made large and profitable loans to the government. Astor invested heavily in New York real estate and by 1817 had monopolized the Mississippi valley fur trade and that of the upper Missouri from 182234. He sold his fur interests in 1834 and retired to administer one of the largest fortunes made in America. He was one of the first members of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City and served as master in 1788. He was grand treasurer of the G.L. of New York from 1798 to 1801; was junior grand warden pro tern on two occasions, 1798 and 1801. For a time he was secretary of a commandery (then called encampment) that met in Holland lodge room at 66 Liberty street, New York City. d. March 29, 1848.

David R. Atchison (1807-1886) Ex-officio President of the United States for one day (March 4, 1849) because President Taylor was not sworn in until March 5. b. Aug. 11, 1807 at Frogtown, Ky. Lawyer, politician and congressman, 1843-55. Member of Platte Lodge No. 56, Platte City, Mo. (now extinct). d. June 26, 1886.

King Athelstan (895-940) King of England; son of King Edward the Elder and grandson of King Alfred the Great. His connection with Masonry is purely legendary, resting on the Old Charges. The Regius Poem states that: "Thys craft corn yn to englond as y yow say yn tyme of good kynge adelsonus day." It is further stated that he summoned an assembly of Masons for the purpose of drawing up a charter. A later manuscript refers to a charter he gave to the Masons on the intercession of his son, Edwin, but Athelstan died unmarried.

John 3rd Duke of Atholl (17291774) Heir to Scottish title held by Murray family. Sold the sovereignty of Isle of Man to the British Crown in 1765. Grand master, G.L. of England (Antients) 1771-74. Also G.M. of Scotland in 1773. (Scots spell it "Athole.") John, 4th Duke of Atholl (17551830) Created Earl Strange in peerage of Great Britain in 1786. He succeeded his father as grand master of G.L. of England in 1775,

serving until 1781 and again from 1791-1813. Was grand master of G.L. of Scotland from 1778 to 1779.

George Augustis, 6th Duke of Atholl Served as 66th Grand Master Mason of Scotland 1843-63 while Lord Glenlyon. He was grand master of England from 1843 until his death in January, 1864. The three craft degrees were confered upon him at the same time and he was installed as master at the same meeting in Grand Master Lodge No. 1.

John George, 8th Duke of Atholl Served as 79th Grand Master Mason of Scotland 1909-13 while Marquis of Tullibardine. He later became the 8th Duke of Atholl.

Harry W. Atkins Poultry industry executive. b. May 16, 1883 at Streator, Ill. Judged 800 poultry shows and fairs in 38 years. Supt. poultry department lowana Farms, 1910-16. Owner of Atkins Farm Hatchery and Atkins Poultry Sales until 1943. President of American Poultry Association 1938-40 and secretary since 1940. Former concert work with Atkins Family Band and Orchestra. Organized and directed Kaaba Shrine band 1915-25. Raised in Amity Lodge No. 483, Huntington, Ind. on June 3, 1912. 32° at Davenport, Iowa in 1915. Member of Mohassan Grotto.

Smith D. Atkins General, Union Army, Civil War. Mason and Knight Templar at Galena, Ill. Member Illinois Masonic Veterans Association.

Arthur K. Atkinson President of the Wabash Railroad since 1947. b. Denver, Colo., Oct. 19, 1891. Started as office boy with the D. & R.G. Railroad in 1909. Has been with Wabash since 1922. He is also an officer and director of the following railroads: Ann Arbor Boat Co., Ann Arbor Ry. Co., Detroit & Western, Lake Erie & Fort Wayne;

Manistique & Lake Superior, Menominee & St. Paul, N.J., Indiana & Illinois, Wabash Motor Transit Co., Wabash Radio Corp., American Refrigerator Transit Co., Belt Ry. of Chicago, Chicago & Western Indiana, Kansas City Terminal. A Freemason since 1924, he is a member of University City Lodge No. 649 (Mo.), exalted in Cabany Chapter No. 140, R.A.M. Nov. 26, 1948 and knighted in St. Aldemar Commandery No. 18, K.T. March 18, 1949. Council degrees in Hiram Council No. 1, St. Louis, Sept. 3, 1952. AASR (SJ) in Valley of St. Louis in 1948; KCCH on Oct. 20, 1953, he is president of the Scottish Rite Endowment, Philanthropic and Educational Foundation and junior warden in St. Louis Lodge of Perfection. He is viceroy of St. Louis Conclave No. 42, Red Cross of Constantine and president of KCCH in 1956. Member of Moolah Shrine Temple. Member of board of governors of St. Louis Shrine Hospital. Member of board of governors of DeMolay Foundation, Inc. Active member-at-large for life of the International Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay and member of Royal Order of Jesters, St. Louis Court No. 81, since 1950.

George W. Atkinson (1845-1925) Governor of West Virginia 1897-1901. b. June 29, 1845 at Charleston, Va. (now W.Va.). Served as internal revenue agent, postmaster and U.S. Marshal. Member of 51st Congress (1889-91). Judge U.S. Court of Claims 1905-16. Raised in Kanawha Lodge No. 20, Charleston Oct. 12, 1866. Wasgrand master of W.Va. in 1876 and grand secretary of the G.L. of W. Va. from 1897 to 1901. Knight Templar. d. April 4, 1925.

Harry H. Atkinson Lawyer and U.S. Attorney for Nevada from 192634. b. Salt Lake City, Utah, May 22, 1881. Law degree from Stanford in 1903. Admitted to California and Nevada bar in 1906. Served with 1st Troop, Utah, U.S. Vol. Cay. in Spanish American War. Grand master of the G.L. of Nevada 1920-21.

Theodore Atkinson Secretary of the Province of New Hampshire (before statehood) and chief justice of New Hampshire in 1754. Admitted December 22 (St. John's Day) to St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N.H.

William Y. Atkinson (1855-1899) Governor of Georgia, 1894-96. b. Oakland, Ga. and graduated from state university in 1877. Admitted to Georgia bar in 1878. Member of state legislature 1886-94, being speaker the last three years. In 1889 he founded the Georgia Normal and Industrial College and was president of the board of trustees. Buried Masonically.

William W. Atterbury (1866-1935) President of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1925. b. Jan. 31, 1866 at New Albany, Ind. Graduated from Yale and started as an apprentice in the Altoona shops of the Pennsylvania R.R. in 1886. While vice president in charge of operations, he was granted a leave of absence in 1917 to direct the construction and operation of U.S. military railways in France, and was commissioned brigadier general. Was officer and trustee of many corporations. He was raised in Colonial Lodge No. 631, Philadelphia, Pa. in 1895. d. Sept. 20, 1935.

Frank E. Atwood (1878-1943) Judge, Supreme Court of Missouri 1925-35. b. Carrollton, Mo., Oct. 5, 1878. Attended Missouri University and William Jewell College. Admitted to Missouri bar in 1904. Member of Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1922. Mason. d. March 5, 1943. Belonged to Wakanda Lodge No. 52 at Carrollton and exalted in George Washington Chapter No. 24, R.A.M. Nov. 21, 1913, demitting from latter in 1938.

Henry C. Atwood (?-1860) Masonic writer. b. Connecticut and settled in New York in 1825. Raised in York Lodge No. 197, New York in 1835. Published The Master Workman; or True Masonic Guide in 1850. Organized a lodge and introduced ritual of Jeremy L. Cross. Was a leader in establishing St. John's G.L. and was grand master at the union in 1851. d. 1860.

W. K. Au One of the leaders in the establishment of the Grand Lodge of China, and foremost Chinese Freemason of the present day. He served for several years as an officer in his lodge and grand lodge.

Lord Auckland (see William Eden) Lord John Touchet Audley Anderson states he was Grand Master of England from 15404548. He was a patron of the building art in Magdalene College, Cambridge.

John James Audubon (1785-1851) American ornithologist and artist known for his imposing works in full color of Birds of America (1827-38). b. April 26, 1785 in Haiti. d. Jan. 27, 1851. Although Audubon referred to himself as a "Mason" and "Brother" in his diary, no proof has been found of his membership.

Berthold Auerbach (1812-1882) German patriot and writer. Known for his pictures of life in the Black Forest. His fiction includes Spinoza (1837); Schwarzwalder Dorfgeschichten (1843); Edelweiss (1861); Auf der Hohe (1865). He translated Spinoza's works in 5 volumes in 1841. Initiated in 1838.

Pierre Francois C. Augereau (17571816?) nee Due de Castiglione. French soldier created Marshal of France by Napoleon. Distinguished himself at Lodi and Castiglione (1796) and carried through the coup d'etat of Sept. 4, 1797. He served through the Napoleonic wars throughout the empire period. Was premier grand surveillant of the Grand Lodge Symbolique of France in 1805.

Edward Augustus, Duke of York b. March 14, 1738. Brother of King George III. Was initiated in the Lodge of Friendship (later known as Royal York Lodge of Friendship) Berlin, Germany on July 27, 1765.

Frederick Augustus, Prince of Brunswick (1740-?) b. 1740 the second son of Duke Charles I. Affiliated with the Rite of Strict Observance in 1769 and declared grand master of Prussia in 1772, serving until 1799. Rendered distinguished service in the Seven Years' War and is said to have written extensively on Rosicrucianism, alchemy and magic.

Stanislas H Augustus King of Poland. (See Stanislas).

William Augustus, Crown Prince of Prussia (1722-1758) Member of the Hohenzollern line and brother of Frederick the Great. Not successful as a military leader and deprived of command in 1757 by Frederick. Father of Frederick William II, who succeeded Frederick the Great as king of Prussia. Member of Three Globes Lodge, Berlin. (Lodge Drei Weltkugein) William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland b. April 26, 1721 in London. Initiated in 1743.

Dr. Isaac Auld (1769-1827) Physician and 3rd grand commander, Supreme Council (SJ) (1822-26). b. Pennsylvania. Received the 33°, January 19, 1802. Died at his home "Edingsville" on Edisto Island, south of Charleston, S.C., Oct. 17, 1827.

38 Henry S. Aurand Lieut. General U.S. Army. b. April 21, 1894 at Tamaqua, Pa. Graduate of West Point, 1915. Promoted through grades to lieutenant general in 1948. Major in Ord. dept. during WW1. Comdg. general 6th Service Command 1942-44; comdg. officer Normandy base section, 1944; comdg. general Service of Supplies, China Theater, 1945; 6th Service Command, 1946; Africa-Middle East Theater, 1946; director of research and development War Dept. General Staff 1946-48; director of logistics General Staff from 1948. Retired. Member of Shamokin Lodge No. 255, Shamokin, Pa.; Hawaiian Chapter No. 9, National Sojourners and president of latter in 1952.

John C. W. Austin Architect. b. Feb. 13, 1870 at Bodicote, England. An architect in Los Angeles, Calif. since 1894. Designed and supervised construction of following Los Angeles buildings: Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, California State Building, St. Vincent's Hospital, Griffith Observatory, and Saint Paul's Church. Collaborated in design and construction of Los Angeles City Hall. Past president of Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. 32° AASR (SJ) and member Al Malaikah Shrine Temple, Los Angeles.

Moses Austin (1765-1821) Secured a grant of 200,000 acres in the province of Texas (under New Spain) on Jan. 17, 1821, but died on his return trip to home in Missouri. His son Stephen F. Austin q.v. carried out the colonization by his father's dying request the following year. Although his Masonic membership has never been established, a biographer (Adel-la Breckenridge Moore) states in the Congressional Record, March 21, 1949 that "From things read in his printed letters I believe Moses Austin to have been a Mason, and it might have beenthat on some of his trips abroad he was made a Mason in London." It is noted that in his statements to the Spanish authorities in December of 1820 he answered he was 53 years old, a Catholic, and former subject of the King of Spain. This is not unusual, however, for Sam Houston q.v. the first president of the Republic, who founded the G.L. of Texas was also a Catholic. Only Catholics could hold land under the Spanish rule.

Stephen F. Austin (1793-1836) American colonizer of Texas sometimes called "The Father of Texas." b. Nov. 8, 1793 in Wythe Co., Va., son of Moses (1761-1821) Austin, settling in Missouri in 1798. He became a member of the Missouri Territorial Legislature in 1814 and served until 1820. It was in this year that his father gained a tract of land in what is now Texas. The father died before he could start his colonization efforts and Stephen took over the project, becoming a leader in the first colony of U.S. settlers in Texas. In Missouri he was initiated in Louisiana Lodge No. 109 (first lodge West of the Mississippi) at Ste. Genevieve, on June 23, 1815 at the age of 22. The lodge was then under Pennsylvania charter. In Texas he headed the first attempt to establish a lodge when in 1828 several Masons petitioned the

Yorkino G.L. of Mexico for a charter. He was named to be the first master, but the petition was lost and the lodge never founded. From 1822-32 he directed the government in the colony, encouraging immigration from the U.S. and maintaining peace and order. He was imprisoned in Mexico City (183334) for urging Texas statehood and separation from Coahuila. Although he was defeated for the presidency (first) of Texas in 1836 by General Sam Houston q.v., he became first secretary of state of the Republic of Texas and was commander-in-chief of the Army of Texas. Austin, Texas is named for him, as is a Masonic lodge in that state. d. Dec. 27, 1836.

Warren R. Austin United States Representative to United Nations (1947-50). b. Nov. 12, 1877 at Highgate, Vt. Admitted to Vt. bar in 1902. Served as mayor of St. Albans in 1909 and U.S. Senator being elected in 1931, 1934 and 1940. As a special ambassador of the president, he served as U.S. advisor to the United Nations in 1946, and in 1947 was named as the United States first ambassador to the U.N. with rank of ambassador E. and P. While with the U.N. he served as our representative on the Security Council, made a goodwill mission to Cuba in 1950 and was official guest of Dominican Republic, Haiti, Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. He was chairman of Committee for Permanent Headquarters. In 1951 he was recipient of the Distinguished Achievement medal of the G.L. of New York. He was raised in Brattleboro Lodge No. 102 at Burlington, Vt. and later affiliated with Franklin Lodge No. 4, St. Albans. A Knight Templar and Shriner he received 33° AASR in September, 1944.

Gene Autry Singer, actor, producer, writer of screen, stage, radio and TV. b. Sept. 29, 1907 at Tioga, Texas. Graduated from Tioga high school in 1925. Began as a railroad telegraph operator in Sapulpa, Okla. in 1925. Autry made first phonograph record of cowboy songs in 1929; radio artist WLS, Chicago, 1930-34; motion picture director since 1934; actor since 1934. His first picture was In Old Santa Fe and since that time he has starred in 55 musical Western feature pictures. Joined Army Air Force in 1942 as technical sergeant and discharged in 1945 as flight officer. With the advent of TV after WW2 he produced and starred in many productions. He has written over 250 songs including SilverHaired Daddy of Mine (1931); You're the Only Star in My Blue Heaven

(1938); Dust (1938); Tears on My Pillow (1941); Be Honest With Me (1941); Tweedle O'Twill (1942). Raised in Catoosa Lodge No. 185, Catoosa, Okla. in 1927. Life member of Long Beach, Calif. AASR (32°) and life member of Al Malaika Shrine Temple, Los Angeles, Calif.

George W. Auxier Writer, political analyst, government official. b. Nov. 27, 1905 Paintsville, Ky. A.B. and M.A. Miami Univ., Ph.D. Ohio State Univ. Served as supt. Federal archives, Ohio; research asst. in Library of Congress; asst. editor Territorial Papers of U.S., Dept. of State; liaison officer Office of Censorship; historical officer, War Department, General Staff 1942-44; principal policy analyst, Office of Executive Sec. W.P.R., 1944-45; chief policy analysis staff, bureau of demobilization, 194546; asst. general managers office U.S. Atomic Energy Commission 1947; principal policy analyst U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1947. General director research and reports National Security Resources Board since 1947. Member of Takoma Park Lodge No. 29, Takoma Park, Md. Author of many books and articles, historical and current.

Henry G. Avers (1886-1947) Mathematician. Chief mathematician of Geodetic Survey since 1924. Member of National Geographic Society Committee of experts which determined that Commdr. Byrd q.v. reached the North Pole by airplane in 1926 and the South Pole in 1929. Mason 32° AASR, Shriner. d. Jan. 19, 1947.

Christopher L. Avery Justice, Supreme Court of Connecticut, 1929-42 (retired). b. Sept. 4, 1872. Graduate of Yale, A.B. 1893, LL.B. 1897. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1897 and moved to Connecticut in 1903. Judge, Superior Court of Conn. 1920-29. Served as quartermaster, U.S. Navy in Spanish American War. Member of House of Representatives, 1913. Mason.

Ray L. Avery Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 15, 1884, Manchester, N.H. Graduate West Point, 1908. Advanced through

grades to brigadier general in 1940. Commanding general, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. 1940-46. Retired, 1946. Mason.

William H. Avery Congressman from Kansas, 84th Congress. b. Aug. 11, 1911, Wakefield, Kansas. Farmer, stockman, 1935-55; member Kansas state legislature, 1951-55. Received degrees in Wakefield Lodge No. 396, Wakefield, Kansas in 1954-55-56.

S. B. Axtell Former governor of New Mexico and Utah. Member of Amador Lodge No. 65, Jackson, Calif.

John Thomas Axton ( 1870 - ? ) Chief of chaplains, U.S.A. b. July 28, 1870, Salt Lake City, Utah. General secretary to YMCA 18931902. Chaplain U.S. Army, 1902 and in 1920 appointed colonel and chief of chaplains; retired in 1928. Served in P.I. twice, Mexican border 5 years and duty at Port of Embarkation, Hoboken, N.J., WW1. He officiated at the interment of America's unknown soldier at Arlington National Cemetery Nov. 11, 1921. Mason. deceased.

Charles B. Aycock (1859-1912) Governor of North Carolina, 1901-05. b. Nov. 1, 1859 at Fremont, N.C. Degrees from Univ. of North Carolina and Univ. of Maine. Practiced law at Goldsboro, N.C. Served as county superintendent of schools, U.S. district attorney. His bust is in Statuary Hall, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. He served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina in 1897. d. April 4, 1912.

Atlee B. Ayers Architect. b. July 12, 1874, Hillsboro, Ohio. Architect in San Antonio since 1899. Architect of Smith-Young Plaza Hotel, Federal Reserve Bank Building and Municipal Auditorium, all of San Antonio, Texas. Collaborated in Blind Institute, Austin, and Administration Building, Randolph Field, Texas. Mason, 32° AASR (SJ).

George F. Ayers (1865-1913) President of Lindenwood Female College, St. Charles, Mo., 1902-13. b. May 17, 1865 at Hannibal, Mo. Active Presbyterian, author and Mason. d. Oct. 23, 1913.

William A. Ayers Congressman from Kansas 64th to 66th Congresses (1915-21) and 68th to 73rd Congresses (1923-35), resigning upon appointment as Federal Trade Commissioner in 1934, reappointed in 1940 and again in 1947. Mason 33° AASR, Shriner. d. Feb. 17, 1952.

Sir George Aylwen Lord Mayor of London (circa 1949-51) Junior grand warden of the G.L. of Mark Masters of England and Wales, installed Sept. 6, 1949.

William Edmonstoune Aytoun (1812-65) Scottish poet and parodist. Educated at Univ. of Edinburgh and at Aschaffenburg, Germany. He began contributions to Blackwood's in 1836; professor of rhetoric and belles letters, Univ. of Edinburgh, 1845. Author of Poland, Homer, and Other Poems (1832); Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers (1848); Firmilian a Spasmodic Tragedy (1854) and Poems and Ballads of Goethe (1858). Annotated collection of Ballads of Scotland, (1858). Active member the Scottish grand lodge and representative there of the Grand Lodge Royal York of Germany.

Miguel de Azcuenaga (1754-1833) Argentine patriot. Helped defend the city of Buenos Aires against the first British attack. Was active in the May 1810 revolution and was part of the first "junta" or governing council. Later appointed chief of the general staff.

B Irving B. Babcock President of General Motors Truck Corp. since 1935. b. June 25, 1891 at Milwaukee, Wis. LL.B. DePaul Univ. in 1916. Also president and director of Yellow Truck & Coach Mfg. Co., vice president of General Motors Corp. since 1943 and director of several large corporations. 32° AASR.

Catherine Sweet Babington (18151886) A woman, who was said to have received the first three degrees of Freemasonry. Although the statement has been seriously questioned, there are several strong arguments in its favor. Her death notice which appeared in the Shelby Aurora, Shelby, N.C. which was edited by a Freemason stated: "At her death she was the only female Mason in the United States, and was well versed in the mysterious workings of the Blue Lodge. Having overheard the secrets of Masonry when she was a girl of 16 years, it was thought best to initiate her as a member and thus prevent any disclosure." Sometime after her death, her son, J. P. Babington, a member of Cleveland Lodge 202, Shelby, N.C., (later Lee Lodge No. 253 at Taylorsville, N.C.) wrote a biography of his mother entitled Biography of Mrs. Catherine Baling-ton, the Only Woman Mason in the World, and How She Became a Blue Lodge Mason. It is said she hid herself in a pulpit of a lodge room in Princess Furnace, Kentucky and watched each meeting for a year and a half before being discovered by an uncle. After much discussion, the lodge obligated her but did not admit her to membership. It was claimed that she kept herself posted on Freemasonry until a short time before her death but never attempted to visit a lodge. It has been pointed out that there was never a regular lodge situated at or near Princess Furness (now Princess), Ky.

John Christian Bach (1735-1782) Musician, composer. One of the four sons of composer John Sebastian Bach—all of whom were musicians of importance. Known as "the Milan or London Bach," he was cathedral organist at Milan in 1760 and music master to Queen Charlotte Sophia, London in 1762. He was co-founder of Bach-Abel concerts in 1765 and composed operas, arias, cantatas, chamber

music, symphonies and overtures. He was an early member of the Lodge of the Nine Muses No. 235 in London.

Nahum J. Bachelder (1854-1934) Governor of New Hampshire, 1903-05. b. Sept. 3, 1854 at Andover, N.H. He was a farmer. Mason. d. April 22, 1934.

Irving A. Bacheller (1859-1950) American novelist. b. Sept. 26, 1859 at Pierpont, N.Y. He was actively connected with the New York press for years and was an editor of the New York World from 18981900. When presented with the medal for distinguished achievement in the field of art by the Grand Lodge of New York in 1937 he said: "My brothers, it seems very long ago—exactly, I think it was in 1898 (raised Dec. 5, 1899)—when I was a member of the editorial staff of the New York World —that my friend Jules Chambers proposed me for membership in Kane Lodge (No. 454) with a membership of distinguished and illustrious names. That relationship has been one of the dearest of my life, one which I have been denied the pleasure of enjoying very much, for some 20 years ago I became a citizen of Florida. . . ." Commenting on his award in 1943 he said, "I never felt so highly honored as when I got a medal from the grand lodge some years ago. I'm in my 84th year. It was my ambition to set up a woodworking shop at the Masonic Home for children." Bacheller wrote more than 30 novels during his life including The Master of Silence (1890); Eben Holden (1900); D'ri and I (1901); Silas Strong (1906) ; Keeping Up With Lizzie (1911); A Man for the Ages (1919); A Candle in the Wilderness (1930); The Oxen of the Sun (1945) and A Boy for the Ages (1937).

Clifford J. Backstrand Vice president and director of Armstrong Cork Products Co. since 1935. b. July 21, 1897 at Los Angeles, Calif. Graduate of Pomona College (Calif.) and University of Pennsylvania, beginning as a student salesman with the Armstrong Co. in 1921. Director of Hamilton Watch Co. Served in WW1 and was head of the linoleum unit, floor covering and upholstery section of War Production Board in 1942. Mason.

Rudolph J. L. Backstrom Heraldist. b. June 16, 1894 at Philadelphia, Pa. Established portrait business, Union of S. Africa, 1926-28. Chief heraldic designer and consultant Office of Quartermaster General, U.S. War Dept. 1942-43. Engaged in heraldic business since 1928 and director International Heraldic Institute, Ltd. Active in Shrine crippled children's hospitals. 32° AASR.

Augustus 0. Bacon (1839-1914) U. S. Senator from Georgia three terms, 1894, 1900, 1907. b. Oct. 20,1839 at Bryan Co., Ga. Graduate of Univ. of Georgia in 1860 and practiced law at Macon. Mason. d. Feb. 14, 1914.

Francis Bacon (1561-1626) English philosopher and author. Raised to peerage as 1st Baron of Verulam after serving as solicitor general (1609) attorney general (1613) and Lord chancellor (1618). Famous for his Essays; History of Henry VII; Advancement of Learning and other important works. Thought by some to be a Rosecrucian whose New Atlantis was an early influence on the development of the craft.

Frank Bacon (1864-1922) Actor and writer. b. Jan. 16, 1864 at Marysville, Calif. Wrote Lightnin' in collaboration with Winchell Smith, which had long Broadway run. Appeared in stage hits such as Alabama; Pudd'n Head Wilson; Me and Grant; Cinderella Man; Fortune Hunter and many others. Mason. d. Nov. 19, 1922.

Robert L. Bacon (1884-1938) Congressman from N.Y., 68th to 75th Congresses. b. July 23, 1884 at Boston, Mass. Served with field artillery in WW1. Mason. d. Sept. 12, 1938.

Walter W. Bacon Governor of Delaware 1941-49. b. Jan. 20, 1880 at Newcastle, Del. Served as treasurer of Buick Motor Co., Flint, Mich., 1918-30 when he retired from business. Served as mayor of Wilmington, Del. 1935-41, resigning to accept office of governor. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 2, New Castle, Del., being raised July 2, 1902. In 1915 he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware. Member of St. John's Chapter, No. 4, R.A.M. of Wilmington and past high priest. Member of St. John's Commandery, No. 1, K.T., Wilmington and past commander. Member of Delaware Consistory, AASR (NJ) and 33°. Also member of Shrine, Tall Cedars, National Sojourners.

Robert Baddeley Comedian of Drury Lane Theatre (London). A member of St. Alban's Lodge No. 29, London.

Jesse M. Bader General secretary, World Convention of Churches of Christ (president in 1930). b. April 15, 1886. A pastor in Christian Church since 1905. Member of Washington Lodge No. 5, Atchison, Kansas.

Harry A. Badt Commodore U.S. Navy. b. Sept. 22, 1884 at Tyler, Texas. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 1908 and advanced through grades to commodore in 1944. Commanding officer U.S.S. Simpson 1923-24; commanding officer Aleutian Islands survey expedition in 1933; director of recruiting for U.S. Navy 1935-37; commanding officer U.S.S. Tuscaloosa 1938-40; director of enlisted personnel U.S. Navy 1940-42. Retired in 1947. Mason.

Milton B. Badt Justice, Supreme Court of Nevada since 1947. b. July 8, 1884 at San Francisco, Calif. Admitted to California bar in 1909. Raised in Elko Lodge No. 15, Elko, Nev. on Feb. 12, 1918, serving as its master in 1924. Member of Valley of Reno AASR (SJ), Elko Chapter No. 17 O.E.S. and Kerak Shrine Temple, Reno, Nev.

William A. Baehr (1873-1943) Utilities corporations president. b. Sept. 15, 1873 at Oshkosh, Wis. Graduated University of Wisconsin in 1894. President of the following: North Continent Utilities Corp., Great Falls Gas Co., Great Northern Utilities Co., Elk River Power & Light Co., Denver Ice & Cold Storage Co., Western Railways Ice Co., North Shore Coke & Chemical Co., North Shore Gas Co., the S. W. Shattuck Chemical Co., and North Continent Mines, Inc. He was director of many other corporations. Mason. d. Feb. 18, 1943.

Arthur P. Bagby (1794-1858) Governor of Alabama, U.S. Senator, MM-ister to Russia. b. 1794 in Virginia. Settled in Alabama in 1818 and gained a reputation as a lawyer. Member of state legislature and speaker of the house in 1820-22. Governor of Alabama from 183741. Member of the U.S. Senate from 1841-48 and in 1848-49 was minister to Russia. Served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Alabama. d. Sept. 21, 1858.

Charles L. Bagley Vice president American Federation of Musicians since 1931. b. April 24, 1873 at Tipton, Iowa. Was formerly a professional musician. Graduated University of Southern California in 1910 and admitted to California bar in 1909 and has practiced in California since 1911. He was raised in Hollenbeck Lodge No. 319, Los Angeles on Aug. 31, 1897 and demitted about 1911 to Silver Trowel Lodge No. 415 of Los Angeles, serving as master in 1918. Member of Signet Chapter No. 57, R.AM., Los Angeles Council, No. 11, R. & S.M. and Los Angeles Commandery No. 9, K.T. all of Los Angeles. 32° AASR in Valley of Los Angeles. Served as patron of Daylight Chapter No. 265, O.E.S. in 1915, 1925, 1929 and member of Al Malaikah Shrine Temple.

John J. Bagley (1832-1881) Governor of Michigan. b. July 24, 1832 at Medina, N.Y. Emigrated in early life to Michigan and at age of 15 was employed in a tobacco factory in Detroit. He later began a tobacco business of his own and operated it with financial success until his death. He was elected governor in 1872 and again in 1874. His administration was marked by benefits to educational and charitable

institutions. Member of Charity Lodge No. 94, Detroit, Mich. d. July 27, 1881.

William E. Bahl Vice president of The National Cash Register Co. since 1947 (in charge of manufacturing). b. Feb. 8, 1889 at Zimmerman, Ohio, he started with the above company as an apprentice in 1906. Past master of his lodge.

Karl Friederich Bahrdt (1741-1792) German doctor of theology. A Freemason, who with other Freemasons founded the "German Union" or the "Two and Twenty" society at Halle. It was not Masonic but its object was the enlightenment of mankind. It was dissolved in 1790 by the imprisonment of Bahrdt for libel of Prussian Minister Woeliner. Bahrdt was described by one of his biographers as being "notorious alike for his bold infidelity and for his evil life.”

Philip Milo Bail President Municipal University, Omaha, Nebr. since 1948. b. June 26, 1898. Attended Missouri Valley College and University of Iowa, receiving Ph.D. in 1931. Member of George W. Lininger Lodge No. 268, Omaha, Nebr.; 32° AASR (SJ) at Omaha and Tangier Shrine Temple, Omaha.

Carl E. Bailey (1894-1948) Governor of Arkansas 1937-41. b. Oct. 8, 1894 at Bernie, Mo. Worked as a laborer, farmer, school teacher, accountant and began law practice in 1924. Served as attorney general of Arkansas 1935-37. Mason. d. Oct. 23, 1948. Received 32° at Little Rock, May 25, 1928.

Cassius M. Bailey (1876-1935) President of Lydia Cotton Mills, Clinton, S.C. b. Nov. 22, 1876 at Clinton, S.C. Mason. d. July 5, 1935.

Francis L. Bailey President of Gorham State Teachers College, Gorham, Maine since 1940. b. Nov. 18, 1894 at Wyman, Mich. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan and Columbia Univ. 32° AASR and Shriner.

Frank M. Bailey Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma, 1919-21. b. Sept. 27, 1876 at Winona, Miss. Began law practice at Chickasha, Okla. in 1901. Retired to private law practice in 1921. Trustee of Southern Methodist Univ. Active representative of M.E. church in jurisdictional and general conferences. Received certificate from Oklahoma Memorial Assn. in 1933 "for distinguished services to the State of Oklahoma." 32° AASR (SJ).

George W. Bailey (1856-1909) Justice of Supreme court of Colorado, 1905-09. b. March 8, 1856 at St. Louis, Mo. Admitted to bar 1885. d. 1909.

Guy W. Bailey (1876-1940) President of University of Vermont from 1920. b. May 7, 1876 at Hardwick, Vt. Admitted to bar in 1904 but never practiced. Secretary of state of Vermont, 1908-17. Mason. d. Oct. 22, 1940.

James E. Bailey (1822-?) U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b. Montgomery Co., Tenn., Aug. 15, 1822. Educated at Clarksville (Tenn.) Academy and Univ. of Nashville. Was admitted to bar and began practice at Clarksville in 1843. Elected to Tennessee lower house in 1853. Served in the Confederate army and was elected U.S. Senator from Tennessee in place of Andrew Johnson in 1876. Member of Clarksville Lodge No. 89, Clarksville, Tenn.

John 0. Bailey Judge, Supreme Court of Oregon from 1933. b. Sept. 26, 1880 at Grinnell, Iowa. Graduate Harvard School, 1906.

Assistant atty. general of Oregon, 1915-20. Member house of representatives, 1925-29 and state senate 1929-33. Raised in Doric Lodge No. 132, Portland, Oregon about 1920. Member of Mt. Hood Chapter No. 50, R.A.M., Portland and Oregon Commandery No. 1.

Joseph E. Bailey Union General in Civil War. Member of Columbia Lodge No. 124, Wisconsin Dells, Wis.

Leonard H. Bailey Architect. b. London, Eng., Aug. 12, 1880, coming to U.S. in 1903 and naturalized in 1917. President of Allied Architects who designed the city hall, Civic Center, Rogers Courts, Masonic Temple, Wesley M.E. Church and Liberty Theatre—all of Oklahoma City and many military buildings. Raised in Oklahoma City Lodge No. 36 in 1904. He was the last master of Oklahoma 3, which was changed to No. 36 when Indian Territory became the state of Oklahoma and was charter master of No. 36. Served as district deputy grand master in 1907-09. Member of Cyrus Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. and Bethlehem Commandery, K.T., of Oklahoma City. A Shriner and past patron of Eastern Star chapter No. 10.

Theodorus Bailey (1805-1877) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. April 12, 1805 in Chateaugay, N.Y. Appointed midshipman in 1818 and remained with American Navy until retired in 1866 as a rear admiral. In early years served on the Cyane, Franklin, Vincennes, Constellation, and Lexington. Took part in the Mexican War. At start of Civil war he commanded the frigate Colorado off Pensacola. Second in command of Farragut's squadron at New Orleans, he led the attack in the gunboat Cayuga. He ran the fire of five forts and was sent by Farragut to demand the surrender of New Orleans, at which time he coined the phrase "Iron Hearts and Wooden Ships." He later commanded the eastern Gulf blockading squadron. After war he was commander of the Portsmouth navy yard. He was raised in Washington Lodge No. 21, New York City on March 3, 1829. d. Feb. 10, 1877.

Thomas L. Bailey (1888-1946) Governor of Mississippi, term of 1944-48. b. Jan. 6, 1888 at Maben, Miss. Admitted to bar in 1913. Member of Mississippi legislature from 1916-40 and speaker from 192436. Mason and Shriner. d. Nov. 2, 1946.

Walter C. Bain Aircraft executive. Vice president, general manager and director of the Republic Aviation Corporation, Farmingdale, L.I., N.Y.b. June 20, 1910 at Springfield, Ill. Started as a metallurgist with Allis Chalmers Mfg. Co. in 1936. Entered service USAAF as a cadet in 1932 and rose in rank to major general. Released from service in 1953. A Mason.

George W. Baird (1843-1930) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. April 22, 1843 at Washington, D.C. Appointed 3rd assistant engineer, U.S. Navy, Sept 19, 1862 and promoted through grades retiring with rank of rear admiral, April 22, 1905. He superintended the construction and designed the special machinery of the Albatross, famous deep sea exploring vessel. He was initiated in the French lodge Tolerancia (Tolerence) at Lisbon, Portugal on July 23, 1867 and received his FC and MM degrees one week later. In 1879 he affiliated with Naval Lodge No. 87 at Vallejo, Calif., withdrawing in 1872 to Hope Lodge No. 20, Washington, D.C. where he served as master and in 1896 was grand master of the G.L. of the District of Columbia. Baird wrote a widely published series of articles entitled Great Men Who Were Masons. He received his 32° AASR (SJ) at Washington on Aug. 21, 1897, KCCH on Oct. 19, 1899 and 33° on Oct. 25, 1901. d. Oct. 4, 1930 at Washington.

Sir Robert Baird Former owner and publisher of the Belfast Telegraph (Ireland) and grand treasurer of the G.L. of Ireland. Also was a member of several London lodges. In 1929 a portrait bust of Baird was presented to the Belfast Museum and Art Gallery.

Albert Z. Baker President of Rotary International (1955), president of the American Stockyards Assn. and chairman of board of

Cleveland Union Stockyards Co. A member of Lakewood Lodge No. 601, Cleveland Chapter No. 148 R.A.M., Forest City Council No. 111, Forest City Commandery No. 40, K.T. and AI Koran Temple, all of Cleveland. In the AASR (N.J.) he received his 33° in 1945.

Bryant Baker Sculptor. b. July 8, 1881 in London, England. Graduated from Royal Academy of Arts, London in 1910. His portrait bust of Edward VII was Queen Alexandra's favorite. He did busts of many English notables and of Prince Olav of Norway before coming to America in 1916. Here he has made busts from life of President Coolidge, Col. John Coolidge, Senators H. C. Lodge, W. A. Clark, J. H. Bankhead, generals Pershing, March and Gorgas, Chief Justices White, Taft and Hughes; John Hays Hammond, Herbert Hoover, Newton Baker, Josephus Daniels, Percival Lowell, George Harvey, Cordell Hull and heroic bronze statue of Chief Justice Edward D. White, New Orleans. He has done heroic bronze statues of Grover Cleveland, Millard Fillmore and Young Lincoln at Buffalo, N.Y. For Delaware's Statuary Hall he executed marble statues of patriots Caesar Rodney and John M. Clayton. His Gov. Reuben Fenton statue is at Jamestown, N.Y. and the Bishop Freeman memorial is in the National Cathedral in Washington. His heroic 17-ft. bronze of George Washington at the Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria was unveiled by President Truman, Feb. 22, 1950. His ideal works in permanent collections include Eros at Manchester City Art Gallery, Memory at Hull City Art Gallery in England and Pioneer Woman statue in Ponca City, Oklahoma, the latter winning him the Marland competition in a field of 12 top sculptors. Baker is a member of Constitutional Lodge No. 294 at Beverly, Yorkshire, England. He has been instrumental in keeping very much alive the communications between his home lodge in Beverly, England and Beverly Lodge in Massachusetts, as well asthe AlexandriaWashington Lodge in Virginia. Died March 29, 1957. Masonic Services.

Earl D. Baker Newspaperman and publisher. b. Apr. 14, 1898, Spencer Co., Ind. Associated with Scripps-Howard Newspapers since 1918 in Evansville, Ind., Terre Haute, Ind., Washington, D.C. and San Francisco. President of the Washington Daily News from 1938-1947 and assistant general business manager of Scripps-Howard papers since 1937. Business manager of The San Francisco News since 1947.

Raised in Humboldt Lodge No. 42, Terre Haute, Ind. about 1927. 32° AASR at Evansville, Ind. Member Almas Shrine Temple, Wash., D.C.

Howard H. Baker Congressman from Tennessee to 82nd Congress (1951-53). b. Jan. 12, 1902 at Somerset, Ky. Admitted to bar in 1924. Member of Tennessee legislature, 1929-30. Nominee for governor of Tenn. in 1938 and U.S. Senator in 1940. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

James C. Baker Bishop, Methodist Church. b. June 2, 1879 at Sheldon, Ill. Received degrees from Illinois Wesleyan, Boston University and attended Cornell, College of the Pacific and Univ. of Southern Calif. Entered M.E. ministry in 1900 and was organizer and head of the Wesley Foundation Univ. of Ill. (the first Wesley Foundation in the country). Elected bishop of Methodist Episcopal Church in 1928 and assigned to supervision work in Japan, Korea and Manchuria. Later assigned to California area, and a delegate to General Conference in 1916, '20, '28 and Oxford Conference in 1947. President of Council of Methodist Bishops, 1948-49. Member of Acacia Fraternity at Univ. of Illinois. Raised in McLean Lodge No. 469, McLean, Ill. in 1906. 32° AASR at Bloomington, 111.

James M. Baker (1861-1940) Diplomat and government official. b. Aug. 18, 1861 at Lowndesville, S.C. Assistant librarian U.S. Senate, 1893-1913. Elected secretary of U.S. Senate in 1913. Deputy commissioner Internal Revenue Bureau, U.S. Treasury 191921. Private law practice 1921-31. American minister to Siam by appointment of Franklin Roosevelt in 1933, resigning in 1937 due to ill health. Mason. d. Nov. 21, 1940.

John F. "Home Run" Baker Member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame. b. March 13, 1886 at Trappe, Maryland. Elected to the Cooperstown Hall of Fame in 1955. Member Coats Lodge No. 102 at Easton, Md.

Leonard T. Baker ( 1868 -1 955 ) President of University of South Carolina, 1944, and president emeritus from 1946. b. Jan. 22, 1868, serving the University of South Carolina as professor, administrator, acting president, vice president and dean. Mason. d. Jan. 5, 1955.

Milton G. Baker President of Valley Forge Military Academy since 1928. Commanding general of Pennsylvania National Guard, 1943-46; major general U.S. director civilian defense, Philadelphia 1941-42. b. Aug. 24, 1896 at Philadelphia. Served in WW1 1917-21 and Pennsylvania National Guard 1921-46. Mason and 32° AASR.

Nathaniel B. Baker (1818-1876) Governor of New Hampshire. b. Sept. 29, 1818 in Henniker, N.H. Graduate of Harvard in 1839 and admitted to bar in 1842. Joint owner and editor of the New Hampshire Patriot for three years. Served two terms in state legislature starting in 1851 and was speaker of the house. Presidential elector in 1852, and in 1854 was elected governor of New Hampshire, serving until 1855. In 1856 he moved to Clinton, Iowa where he practiced law. Served in the Iowa legislature in 1859-61 when he was appointedadjutant general of Iowa, a position he held until his death on Sept. 11, 1876. A member of Western Star Lodge No. 100, Clinton, Iowa.

Phil Baker Comedian of radio and stage since the early 1930's. Raised in Keystone Lodge No. 235, New York City. Baker once said "I belong to various organizations, but I have always felt that my membership in Masonry has been nearest my heart. One of the grandest compliments ever paid me was my acceptance into the fraternity.”

Samuel A. Baker (1874-1933) Governor of Missouri 1925-28. b. Patterson, Mo., Nov. 7, 1874. LL.D. Missouri Valley College. Teacher,

principal and superintendent of schools in various Missouri cities from 1895 to 1919. State superintendent of schools of Missouri from 1919 to 1923. d. Sept. 16, 1933. Member of Jefferson Lodge No. 43, Jefferson City Chapter No. 34 and Prince of Peace Commandery No. 29, all of Jefferson City, Mo. He was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Missouri in 1926 and delivered an oration on the support of the public school system and religious institutions.

Simon S. Baker (1866-1932) President of Washington and Jefferson College, 1921-22. b. July 11, 1866 in Washington Co., Pa. Graduated Washington and Jefferson B.S. and M.S., LL.D. University of Pittsburgh 1923. Served in public school system of Pittsburgh for 25 years. Mason. d. Oct. 11, 1932.

Walter C. Baker Major General U.S. Army. b. Sept. 22, 1877 at Chester, Pa. Graduate of Coast Artillery School, Army War College, Command and General Staff School, Army Industrial College and Chemical Warfare School. Served as enlisted man in Spanish American War with 6th Penn. Vol. Infantry, advancing

48 Alexander Dmitrievich Balashov through grades in U.S. Army to major general in 1937. Served as an officer in WW1 and recalled to active duty in WW2 serving from 1941-44. Mason.

Walter R. G. Baker Vice president of General Electric Co. b. Nov. 30, 1892 at Lockport, N.Y. Began as electrical engineer with General Electric in 1916; managing engineer of radio dept. 1928-30; vice president in charge of engineering and manufacturing R.C.A. Mfg. Co. 1930-36; head of radio engineering manufacturing and sales General Electric 1936-39; manager radio and television department, 1939-41. Since 1941 he has been director of many banks and corporations including General Electric (International); G. E. Supply Corp. and G. E. Credit Corp. Mason.

William C. Baker Vice president of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad since 1948 in charge of maintenance and operation. b. Feb. 18, at Baltimore, Md. Began with the B. & 0. in 1906 as a clerk, advancing through assistant train master, train master, assistant superintendent, superintendent, general superintendent and general manager. Mason.

William E. Baker (1873-?) Judge, U.S. District Court, Northern District of West Virginia since 1921. b. Feb. 25, 1873 at Beverly, W. Va. A.B. and LL.B. at Western Virginia University, 1896. Knight Templar, 32° AASR and Shriner. Deceased.

William E. Baker Vice president of Servel, Inc. b. Dec. 11, 1887 at Rushton, Ill. Graduate of Rose Poly. Institute. Started as an apprentice of Westinghouse Electric in 1911, serving as production engineer of several companies from 1912-16. Superintendent of Delco Products Corp., 1916-24; vice president The Day Fan Electric Co. 192429. Mason, Shriner.

H. Sheridan Baketel (1872-1955) Physician, co-founder and editor of Medical Economics. b. Nov. 15, 1872. M.D. Boston College and post graduate work at Harvard Medical. Practiced in New York since 1910. Writer and editor for many medical publications. Urology was his specialty. He was vice president and chairman of the board of Columbia University College of Pharmacy from 1938-1942. Wrote several medical books. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. July 7, 1955.

Norris C. Bakke Chief justice, Supreme Court of Colorado, 1945 and general counsel F.D.I.C. since March, 1947. b. April 19, 1894. Degrees from University of Chicago and graduate work at Harvard. Admitted to Colorado bar, 1920. Attorney general of Colorado, 1933-36; associate justice, Supreme Court of Colorado 1936-45 and chief justice in 1945. Named associate general counsel F.D.I.C. Washington, March,

1947. Active in Salvation Army and many church and religious organizations. Raised in Sterling Lodge No. 54 in October, 1920. Member of Denver Consistory No. 2 AASR (SJ) and El Jebel Shrine Temple, Denver.

Alexander Dmitrievich Balashov (1770-1837) Governor general of several Russian provinces and Minister of Police from 1810-1816 under Alexander I. He was an aide-de-camp to Emperor Alexander I q.v. It is thought that he was directed by the government to join Freemasonry so that it could be brought under control of the ruling circle. He was appointed Minister of Police on March 28, 1810 and in August of that year wrote the masters of all lodges that the government was going to examine their records and rules of the society inasmuch as some of the members had through their imprudence given cause for ignorant and malicious forms of misjudgments. He then called in the four masters of the Petersburg lodges and asked them if they wanted official government protection—or toleration. Rather than become a governmental agency they chose toleration. It was not until 12 years later that Freemasonry was forever banned by Alexander I.

Antonio Gonzalez Balcarce (17771819) Argentine patriot and general. Participated in the 1807 defense of Montevideo, Uruguay against the British. Taken prisoner, he was sent to Europe. In 1810 he returned to his native Argentina to take command of inland troops. He became Supreme Administrator in 1816. Balcarce was a member of Lautaro Lodge.

Alexander, 6th Earl of Balcarres (1752-1825) Member of the Scottish family of Lindsay whose titles date from 1365 with Sir David, 1st Earl of Crawford. Was 33rd Grand Master Mason of Scotland from 1780-1781. He was forced to surrender at Ticonderoga in 1777, became governor of Jamaica 1794-1801; a general in 1803; representative Scottish peer from 1784-1825. In 1848 the House of Lords adjudged the earldom of Crawford (dormant since 1808) to his son James, 7th Earl of Balcarres.

Bernt Balchen Explorer, air pioneer, army officer, OSS operator, and one of the most colorful characters of the 20th century. b. Oct. 23, 1899 at Tveit, Topdal, Norway. Educated Norway air force and artillery line; War Academy at Oslo and Horton 1918-21. Came to U.S. in 1926 and naturalized in 1931. Pilot engineer with Roald Amundsen q.v. 192526. Piloted The America for Admiral Byrd q.v. across the Atlantic in 1927. Pilot of the Bremen relief expedition to Greenly Island, Labrador, 1928. Chief pilot Admiral Byrd's Antarctic Expedition (piloted first fight over south pole, Nov. 29, 1929) 1928-30;pilot Viking Rescue Expedition to Newfoundland, 1931; chief pilot, Ellsworth Antarctic Expedition, 193335; chief inspector of Norwegian Airlines 1935-40 and managing director, 194648. Served with R.A.F. Ferry Command as pilot-navigator 1940-41; Transferred to U.S. Air Force, 1941, building base at Bluie West 8 on Greenland and commanding officer of this station until 1943. Chief of A.T.C. for Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and U.S.S.R. in Stockholm, 1943-45 and during this time supported Norwegian underground resistance against German occupation forces, 1944-45. Balchen was in charge of evacuating 70,000 Russians from slave labor camps in northern Norway. Entered U.S. Air Force in 1941 and advanced to captain in 1941, then to colonel in 1942, working with the Air Force and OSS in Greenland and Scandinavia from 1943-45. Stationed in Alaska since 1948. As a U.S. colonel on the OSS he made 166 flights to Norway (Operation Carpetbagger) where his B-24 dropped allied agents and 700 tons of sabotage material. Project "Sonnie" required 270 trips between his base at Prestwyck, Scotland and the neutral airfields of Sweden. In these trips he evacuated 1,000 Americans who had crossed the border and 5,000 others, including Trygve Lie q.v. He is a member of Norseman Lodge No. 878 of Brooklyn, N.Y. With Admiral Byrd they dropped Masonic flags over the two poles, and Balchen dropped his Kismet Temple Shrine fez over the South Pole. He is a member of the AASR (N.J.) of New York. He helped in the staggering achievement of establishing the new air base at Thule, Greenland, 900 miles from the North Pole and was one of the organizers of the "Top of the World" Masonic Square Club at that base which 500 airmen and construction workers joined. In reference to this he stated "Men needed the fellowship and warmth of Masonry at 20° below zero." In 1954 he was awarded the G.L. of New York's distinguished achievement medal.

Loomis Baldrey (1882-1954) Lawyer and grand master of Washington and Alaska, 1934-35. b. May 19, 1882 at Camden, N.J. Educated in Minnesota and New York schools, attending law school at Syracuse University. Settled in Bellingham, Wash. after his marriage in 1906 and became master of Whatcom Lodge No. 151 in 1920. He served as the Masonic reviewer for Washington for many years. Was past president of Washington State Prosecuting Attorney Assn. and past district governor of Kiwanis International. d. Aug. 8, 1954.

H. Clarence Baldridge (1868-1947) Governor of Idaho two terms (192731). b. Nov. 24, 1868 at Carlock, Ill. Student at Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, Ill. 1890-93 and settled at Parma, Idaho in 1904 where he engaged in mercantile business and farming. He was a member of the Idaho house of representatives 1911-13 and the state senate 1913-15. He served as lieut. governor of Idaho 1923-27 and retired from mercantile business in 1942. Baldridge was raised in Parma Lodge No. 49, Parma, Idaho in 1923 and received 32° at Boise Nov. 21, 1929. d. June 7, 1947.

Kenneth F. Baldridge President of Central Newspaper Co., consisting of seven southern Iowa newspapers since 1930. Publisher of Bloomfield Democrat since 1909. b. May 25, 1886 at Bloomfield, Iowa. Started as a reporter in Bloomfield in 1903. President of National Editorial Assn. in 1934; president Iowa Press Assn. 1925. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Abraham Baldwin ( 1754 - 1807 ) Chaplain in Revolution, member of Congress of the Confederation and Constitution, signer of 1787. b. North Guilford, Conn., he moved to Georgia(1783-84) where he was a founder of the University of Georgia, originally Franklin College. He served in the Congress from Georgia 1790-99 and was U.S. Senator 1799-1807. It is not known where his original membership was, but he affiliated with American Union Lodge during the Revolution. Not a

Mason. The "visiting Baldwin" was Col. Jeduthan Baldwin (1732-1788) of Mass. whose diary contains Masonic references.

Evelyn B. Baldwin (1862-1933) Arctic explorer. b. July 22, 1862 at Springfield, Mo. Graduated Northwestern College, Naperville, Ill. in 1885. Accompanied Robert E. Peary q.v. on North Greenland expedition 1893-94 as meteorologist and was meteorologist and 2nd in command of Walter Wellman's polar expedition to Franz-Josef Land 1898-99. Built and named Fort McKinley, discovered and explored Graham Bell Land, 1889. Organized and commanded Baldwin-Ziegler polar expedition 1901-02. He was a member of Adams Lodge No. 63, Oswego, Kansas and Lake Ontario Commandery, K.T. No. 32 at Oswego, N.Y. Member of New York AASR. Baldwin reportedly carried Masonic flags with him on his expeditions. d. Oct. 25, 1933.

Henry Baldwin (1780-1844) Associate justice U.S. Supreme Court 1830-44. b. New Haven, Conn. Congressman from Pennsylvania 1817-22.

Howard C. Baldwin Corporation director. b. March 15, 1891 at Deerfield, Mich. Admitted to Michigan bar in 1912. Vice president and trustee The Kresge Foundation since 1937. Director S. S. Kresge Co. since 1931. Director of several corporations. Raised in Corinthian Lodge No. 241, Detroit, in 1916 and served as master. Member of King Cyrus Chapter No. 133, R.A.M. and Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T. being past commander. 33° AASR (N.J.) in Valley of Detroit and past master of Lodge of Perfection. Shriner and member of Red Cross of Constantine.

F. W. Baldwin Brigadier General, U. S. Army. Mason and member of National Sojourners.

Joseph C. Baldwin Congressman from New York 77th to 79th Congresses (1941-47). b. Jan. 11, 1897, New York City. A reporter and associate editor on several New York papers. President and director of United Dyewood Corp. Member New York City board of alderman 192834 and minority leader 1929-34. Member of New York state senate 1934-36 and Constitutional Convention of 1937. On New York City Council, 1941-47. Mason.

Raymond E. Baldwin Governor of Connecticut 1939-41 and 1943-46. b. Aug. 31, 1893 at Rye, N.Y. Admitted to Conn. bar in 1921. Member Connecticut general assembly 1931-33. U.S. Senator from Connecticut 194649, resigning to become justice Supreme Court of Errors of Conn. since 1949. Member St. John's Lodge No. 8, Stratford, Conn. since June 6, 1929.

Lloyd G. Balfour Jewelry manufacturer; president and treasurer of L. G. Balfour Co. since 1913. b. Jan. 6, 1887 at Wauseon, Ohio. LL.B. University of Indiana in 1907 and A.B. University of Louisville. Past grand consul of Sigma Chi social fraternity and former chairman of the National Interfraternity Conference. 32° AASR and Shriner.

Robert Arthur Lytton, 3rd Earl of Balfour Initiated Lodge Tyneside No. 714 in 1928, serving as master in 1932 and Grand Master Mason of Scotland from 1939-41.

A. P. Ball Showman. Predecessor, of P. T. Barnum as the greatest showman of his day. Member of Western Star Lodge No. 15, Bridgewater, N.Y.

Edmund F. Ball President of Ball Bros. Co. of Muncie, Ind. since 1948. b. Jan. 8, 1905 at Muncie, Ind. Grad-uated from Yale in 1928. With Ball Bros. Co. since 1928 as assistant secretary, vice president.

Raised in Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Sept. 9, 1927. Member of Muncie Chapter No. 30, R.A.M. Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M., Muncie Commandery No. 18, 32° AASR at Indianapolis. Murat Shrine Temple and St. James Conclave, Red Cross of Constantine, both of Indianapolis. Commander of Muncie Commandery in 1938, grand commander of Grand Commandery, K.T. of Indiana in 1946-47; grand treasurer of Grand Encampment, K.T. U.S.A. in 1955.

Frank C. Ball (1857-1943) President of Ball Brothers, Muncie, Ind. b. Nov. 24, 1857 at Greensburg, Ohio. Ball Brothers donated seven million to educational and welfare work including buildings for Y.M.C.A., Ball Memorial Hospital and Masonic Auditorium in Muncie and James Whitcomb Riley Children's Hospital at Indianapolis. Raised Nov. 15, 1891 in Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Member of Muncie Chapter No. 30 R.A.M.; Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M. and Muncie Commandery No. 18, K.T. all of Muncie, Ind. 32° AASR at Indianapolis, Ind.

George A. Ball (1862-1955) Glass manufacturer. Chairman of board of Ball Bros. Co. at Muncie, Ind. b. Nov. 5, 1862 at Green, Ohio. Began manufacture of glass in partnership with four brothers at Buffalo, N.Y. in 1888, moving to Muncie the same year. Raised Dec. 15, 1898 in Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Member of Muncie Chapter No. 30, R.A.M.; Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M.; Muncie Commandery No. 18, K.T. all of Muncie, Ind. and 32° AASR in Indianapolis. Member of Murat Shrine and St. James Conclave, Red Cross of Constantine, both of Indianapolis.

John Ball Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 31, 1893 at Artesia, Calif. Enlisted in Navy, 1912 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1944. Served on U.S.S. Aroosook with North Sea Mine Force in WW1. In naval supply branch in California, Washington, Puerto Rico, Utah, and commanding officer Naval Supply Depot, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 1948-50. Retired in June, 1950. Member of Annapolis Lodge No. 89, Annapolis, Md. (EA 11 Dec. 1920; FC 3 Aug. 1922; MM 22 Aug. 1922). Received his Royal Arch degree in Borinquin Chapter No. 1,

R.A.M. and knighted in Puerto Rico Commandery No. 1, K.T., both in San Juan, P.R. in 1943, demitting in 1953 to Palo Alto Chapter No. 93 and Palo Alto Commandery No. 47 in Palo Alto, Calif. Member of Islam Shrine Temple, San Francisco and El Camino Real Chapter No. 413 of National Sojourners being past president and regional representative for northern California.

L. Heisler Ball (1861-1933) U.S. Senator from Delaware. b. Sept. 21, 1861 near Stanton, Del. Received Ph.B. from Delaware College in 1882 and M.D. from Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1885, beginning practice of medicine that same year. Served as state treasurer of Delaware 1898-1900. Delegate at large to 57th Congress, 190103. Served two terms in U.S. Senate, 1903-05, 1919-25. d. Oct. 18, 1933.

Thomas R. Ball (1896-1943) Architect and ex-congressman. b. Feb. 12, 1896 at New York City. Architect and designer of many residences and buildings in eastern Connecticut. Member of 76th Congress (1939-41) from Connecticut. Mason, 32° AASR. d. June 16, 1943.

James Ballantine (1808-1877) Scottish poet and reviver of art of glass painting and maker of stained-glass windows. Author of The Gaberlunzie's Wallet. Mason.

James Ballantyne (1772-1833) Scottish printer, who with his brother John q.v. was an intimate friend of Sir Walter Scott and published his work from 1802-08 until ruined by bankruptcy of Constable and Co. in 1826. After that he was editor of the Weekly Journal. A member and past master of Kelso Lodge No. 58.

John Ballantyne (1774-1821) Scottish printer who with his brother James q.v. was a friend and business associate of Sir Walter

Scott, publishing his works from 1808. He was initiated in Lodge Edinburgh St. Davids, No. 36 and afterwards master of Lodge Ayr Kilwinning, known originally as Squareman's Kilwinning Lodge No. 65, Ayr, Scotland.

William S. Ballenger Treasurer of Chevrolet Motor Co., Flint, Mich., 1911-25. b. Dec. 5, 1866 at Cambridge City, Ind. Secretary and treasurer of Flint Wagon Works 1888-1916. Director of Industrial Rayon Corp., Cleveland since 1930. Mason, 32° AASR.

George W. Balloch Union general in Civil War. Member of Stansbury Lodge No. 24, Washington, D.C.

Hosea Ballou (1771-1852) Baptist clergyman and founder of the Universalist Church. b. April 20, 1771 at Richmond, N.H. He was editor of the Universalist Magazine (1819-28) and Universalist Expositor from 1830. It is not established where he first joined the fraternity, but was a member of Warren Lodge No. 23 at Woodstock, Vt. and served as master in 1807. There is also record of a "Hosea Ballou" as belonging to Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston, Mass. (Oct. 27, 1817). Ballou died in Boston, June 7, 1852. Was grand warden of G.L. of N.H. between 181115.

Lord Baltimore (see Charles Calvert) Joseph Balsam° (see Cagliostro) Robert C. Baltzell (1879-1950) U.S. district judge, Indiana since 1925. b. Aug. 15, 1879 at Lawrence Co., Ill. Admitted to Indiana bar in 1904. Appointed district judge by President Coolidge. Major of infantry in WW1. Mason. d. Oct. 18, 1950.

Louis Charles Balzac French architect and sometimes poet who wrote many Masonic cantieles in French among which is the well known

hymn Taisons nous, plus de bruit with music by M. Riguel. He founded the Lodge of the Great Sphinx at Paris. Died March 31, 1820.

Fredrick B. Balzar (1880-1934) Governor of Nevada two terms, 192734. b. June 15, 1880 at Virginia City, Nev. Engaged in mining from 1899. Served in house of representatives (Nev.), 1905 and state senate 1909-17. Chairman state board of education from 1927. Raised Aug. 28, 1908 in Inyo Lodge No. 221 at Independence, Calif. and later affiliated with Carson Lodge No. 1, Carson City, Nevada. Received 32° AASR at Reno, Dec. 17, 1920. d. March 21, 1934.

Simon Bamberger ( 1847 -1926 ) Governor of Utah, 1917-21. b. Feb. 27, 1847 at Darmstadt, Germany coming to U.S. in 1861 and a resident of Utah from 1869. President of Barnberger Coal Co.; director Salt Lake Valley Loan & Trust Co. and Bamberger Electric Railway. Member Utah state senate 1903-07 and member Salt Lake City school board 18981903. Mason. d. Oct. 6, 1926.

Desire Bancel (1822-1871) French politician, publicist and orator. Mason.

Frederick Bancroft Magician, Mason.

George H. Bancroft Motion picture actor. Member Hollenbeck Lodge No. 319, Los Angeles, Calif. and Al Malaikah Temple of Los Angeles.

Jonathan Bancroft Revolutionary War soldier who witnessed the execution of Major Andre. Member St. Paul's Lodge, Groton, Mass.

Harry H. Bandholtz (1864-1925) Major General U.S. Army. b. Dec. 18, 1864 at Constantine, Mich. Graduate U.S. Military Academy 1890, advanceing through grades to major general, 1923. Served with 7th Infantry during Santiago campaign and with 2nd Infantry in Philippine insurrection; governor of Tayabas Province, 1902-03; in command of district of Southern Luzon, 1903; conducted campaign against Simeon Ola in Albay, resulting in destruction of Ola's forces; transferred to District of Central Luzon in 1905 and forced surrender of outlaws Montalan, Sakay and others. Brig. general and chief of Philippine Constabulary 1907-13. In Mexican Border campaign, 1916 and provost marshal general of A.E.F. in WW1 1918-19. Suppressed Miners' Insurrection in West Virginia in 1921, Mason, member Washington Chapter No. 3, National Sojourners. d. May 7, 1925.

Baldwin B. Bane Chief of Securities Division, Federal Trade Commission since 1933. He organized the division. b. Aug. 2, 1891 at Standards-vine, Va. Degrees from Randolph-Macon (1911) and Washington and Lee (1917). Practiced law in Virginia until 1922. Served as officer in WW1 (France). Mason.

John Hollis Bankhead (1842-1920) U.S. Senator from Alabama 1906-1920, b. Sept. 13, 1842 at Moscow, Ala. Captain in 16th Alabama Volunteers (Confederate) in Civil War, 1861-65. Wounded three times. Member Alabama bama house of representatives 186567 and 1880-81 and of the state senate from 1876-77. Warden of Alabama penitentiary 1881-85. In congress was conspicuous as a leader in the work of the Commission on Public Buildings and Rivers and Harbors. Grand master of G.L. of Alabama in 1883-84. d. March 1, 1920.

54 Frank A. Banks Supervising engineer of Grand Coulee Dam (193343) and other large engineering projects. b. Dec. 4, 1883 at Saco, Maine. Began as engineer U.S. Reclamation Service, Lower

Yellowstone Project in 1906. Construction engineer, Jackson Lake Dam, Wyo., 1913-16; Minidoka Project, 1916-20; American Falls Dam, 1920-26; Owyhee Dam & Project, 1926-33. Acting administrator Bonneville Power Project, 1939; regional director Region 1, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1943-45. District manager, Columbia River District since 1945. Raised May 17, 1919 in American Falls Lodge No. 58, American Falls, Idaho.

Nathaniel P. Banks (1816-1894) Governor of Massachusetts (1858-61) and Civil War general. b. Waltham, Mass. Served through Civil War as major general and received thanks of Congress in 1864 for capture of Port Hudson (1863). Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1853-57, 1865-73, 1875-79 and 1889-91. Speaker of house 1856-57. He was a member of Monitor Lodge, Waltham, Mass. and although a Union general, delivered the St. John's day address at Memphis, Tenn., on June 24, 1875.

Jose Bans One of the five Catholic friars who established the lodge Philantrophia in Santo Domingo (now Dominican Republic) in 1819 and met in the vestry of a Catholic Church called Convento Dominico.

N. Moore Banta (1867-1932) Writer of children's stories. b. Dec. 3, 1867 at Rensselaer, Ind. Editor and publisher with Flanagan & Co., Chicago from 1921. Wrote 23 children's books between 1905 and 1927. Mason. d. Feb. 5, 1932.

Parke M. Banta Congressman from Missouri, 80th Congress (194749). b. Berryman, Mo. Nov. 21, 1891. Admitted to Missouri bar in 1913. Practiced at Potosi, Mo. from 191425. Administrator of State Social Security Comm. (Mo.) 1941-45. Circuit judge, 1935-36. Served in WW1 advancing from private to 1st lieutenant. General counsel, U.S. Dept. of Health and Education since 1953. Raised in Potosi Lodge No. 131 at Potosi, Mo. about 1916, serving as master in 1923. 32° in

Missouri Consistory No. 1, St. Louis. Member of Ironton chapter No. 349, O.E.S.

Jules Sara (1835-1900) Belgian lawyer, deputy and Minister of Justice. Mason.

Charles W. Barber (1872-1943) Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. Sept. 21, 1872. Served in Spanish-American War 1898-1899, being mustered out as a captain; served in the Philippines 1899-1908 and duty with Isthmian Canal Commission, Panama, 1908-15. Mexican border service in 1916. Brig. general N.A., July 25, 1917. Commanded the 29th Infantry Division, 1917 and 57th Infantry Brigade in front line sectors as chief of staff, Base Sector No. 2, Bordeaux, France WW1. Retired as brigadier general in 1930 serving as director, officer and special representative of several corporations. Mason. d. Jan. 7, 1943.

George C. Barber President-general of Methodist Church of Australia (1948-51) and president of Australian Council, World Council of Churches (1950-51). b. Jan. 24, 1893 at Bendigo, Australia. Graduate of Wesley College and University of Melbourne in Australia and University of London, England. Ordained Methodist ministry in 1922. President of Victoria-Tasmania Conference, 1948; chairman Australian Student Christian Movement, 1939-51. Served in WW1; military chaplain 1936-39 and Air Force chaplain 1939-46. Chaplain of the grand lodge 1949-51. Mason.

55 Orion M. Barber Orion M. Barber ( 1 8 5 7 - 1 9 3 0 ) Judge, U.S. Court of Customs Appeals. b. July 13, 1857 at Jamaica, Vt. Member of Vermont house of representatives in 1892 and state senate in 1894. Was member of commission to revise Vermont statutes, state railroad commissioner and state auditor. Mason. d. March 28, 1930.

Clarence A. Barbour (1867-1937) President of Brown University 192636; Peddie School, 1929-36; Worcester Academy 1926-36. b. April 21, 1867. Ordained Baptist ministry in 1891. Professor of homiletics, Rochester Theolo. Seminary, 1915-29. President of Northern Baptist Convention, 191617. Author of several books on religion. He was grand chaplain of the G.L. of New York four years and of the G.L. of Rhode Island one year. d. Jan. 16, 1937.

James Barbour (1775-1842) Secretary of War, minister to England, U.S. Senator and governor of Virginia. b. June 10, 1775 in Orange Co., Va. Gained a knowledge of law while a deputy sheriff and admitted to practice when 19. Sat in Virginia House of Delegates from 1796-1812. Elected governor in 1812. After term as governor, was elected to U.S. Senate in 1815. In 1825 John Q. Adams made him Secretary of War. In 1828 he went to England as American minister, but was recalled upon the election of President Jackson. Member of Stephensburg Lodge No. 40, Stevens-burg, Va. d. June 8, 1942.

Sir Charles Malcolm Barclay-Harvey (of Kinord) 95th Grand Master Mason of Scotland (1949-54) and G.M. of G.L. of Southern Australia, (194144). First grand principal, Grand Chapter of Scotland, 1948-53, making trip to South Africa in 1950 to visit chapters there. He was initiated in Apollo University Lodge No. 357 (E.C.) in 1908 and affiliated with Lodge Charleston of Aboyne No. 281 in 1924.

McClelland Barclay (1 8 9 1-1 9 4 3 ) Artist and illustrator. b. May 9, 1891 at St. Louis, Mo. Began as advertising illustrator in 1912 and is also known for sculpture and portrait painting. Awarded 1st prize WW1 for recruiting poster and 1st prize for Red Cross poster Fill the Breach. Creator of the Fisher Body Girl. Designer of covers for Ladies' Home Journal, Pictorial Review, Saturday Evening Post, etc. A naval camoufleur in 1918. Called to active duty as lieutenant commander in Navy, 1940 and reported missing in action while passenger on ship torpedoed in Solomon Sea, July 18, 1943. Mason.

A. T. Bard President of Reliance Manufacturing Co., Chicago since 1944. b. March 18, 1889 at New Carlisle, Ind. Started with the Reliance Company in 1901 and advanced from cutting room foreman to president. Member of Republic Lodge No. 914 Chicago, Ill.

Guy Kurtz Bard (1895-1953) U.S. District Judge, Eastern Pennsylvania 1939-52, resigning to private practice. b. Oct. 24, 1895 at Lincoln, Pa. Admitted to bar in 1922. Attorney general of Pennsylvania 1938-39. Active in Democratic politics on state and national level. Mason. d. Nov. 23, 1953.

Samuel Bard (1742-1821) Famous early American physician who was personal doctor to George Washington in New York following the Revolution. He was instrumental in establishing first New York medical school and the New York hospital. Member of Union Lodge, N.Y.

Thomas R. Bard (1841-1915) U.S. Senator from California. b. Dec. 8, 1841 at Chambersburg, Pa. Graduated from Chambersburg Academy at 18 with honors and studied law. Sent by

56 Countess Helene Hadik Barkoczy Col. Thomas A. Scott in 1865 to California to supervise his property, and remained. Was interested in farm lands and oil property. Served as U.S. Senator from 1900-1905. Member of Hueneme Lodge No. 311, Hueneme and Ventura Chapter No. 50. Also Knight Templar. d. Mar. 6, 1915.

Graham A. Barden Congressman from North Carolina to 74th to 81st Congresses (1935-51). b. Sept., 1896, Sampson Co. North

Carolina. Began as school teacher in New Bern and admitted to bar in 1920. Mason and Shriner.

Clinton L. Bardo (1867-1937) President of New York Shipbuilding Co., 1928-37. b. Oct. 24, 1867 at Montgomery, Pa. With railway and steamship companies since 1885, beginning as telegraph operator. Superintendent of N.Y.C. & H. R.R. 1907-12; assistant general manager of N.Y. N.H. & H. R.R. in 1913; president of Central N.E. Ry. 1920-25. Mason. d. Aug. 2, 1937.

Winfield W. Bardwell (1872-1946) Judge and college president. b. July 18, 1872 at Excelsior, Minn. Admitted to Minn. bar in 1893. Presiding judge, District Court of Minneapolis since 1919. President of Minneapolis College of Law since 1924 and member of faculty University of Minnesota for many years. Mason. d. Dec. 22, 1946.

Frank F. Barham Vice president and director of Hearst Consolidated Publications, Inc. and Hearst Publishing Co., Inc. b. May 24, 1879 at Anaheim, Calif. Mason.

Walter S. Baring Congressman from Nevada to 81st Congress (194951). b. Sept. 9, 1911 at Goldfield, Nev. Graduate of University of Nevada in 1934. Representative in Nevada state legislature 1936 and reelected in 1942. With U.S. Navy WW2. Raised in May1941, Reno Lodge No. 13 and has served as senior deacon of same. Member of Valley of Reno, 32° AASR and member of Kerak Shrine Temple and Adah Chapter No. 4 O.E.S.

John Barker (1794-1845) A dispenser of Masonic degrees during middle of the 19th century in the United States. He appeared about ten years after Jeremy L. Cross, who was in the same "business." It is said that he originally received his degrees from Cross. Organized

councils in the south and southwest under a warrant from The Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction. When the Supreme Council demanded the return of the warrant, he refused. Although his purpose was mercenary, like Cross, he did much to spread the degrees throughout the country.

William J. Barker U.S. District Judge, Southern District of Florida since 1940. b. June 25, 1886 at Marietta, Ga. Admitted to Florida bar in 1916. Florida circuit judge, 1925-40. Mason.

Countess Helene Hadik Barkoczy b. 1833. A Hungarian countess, said to have been a Freemason. The sole heir of Count Johann Barkoczy, she succeeded him on his death in 1871 in the extensive Majorat of Barkoczy. In 1860 she married Count Bela Hadik, aide-de-camp to Emperor Maximilian. She became interested in an extensive Masonic library that came with her inheritance, and being highly educated, made an earnest study of Freemasonry. She endeavoured to gain admittance as a member of the craft and through some close acquaintances who were Freemasons, was initiated in 1875 in the Lodge Egyenloseg at Unghvar, holding a warrant from the Grand Orient of Hungary. On learning of the glaring violation of its statutes, the Grand Orient instituted proceedings against the brethren who were guilty of conferring the degrees and on January 5, 1876 ordered the deputy master of the lodge forever expelled and the officers of the lodge to have their names struck off the lists. The other members were expelled for periods of three, six and twelve months. This still left the question of the Countess's standing in Freemasonry. This was resolved at a meeting of the Grand Orient held on March 10, 1876 when it held that her admission was contrary to law and therefore null and void. They forbad her admittance into any lodge under the penalty of erasion of the lodge from the rolls and requested all other grand lodges to do the same. It was demanded that she return her invalid certificate within ten days.

James A. Barksdale Commissioner of Education, Tennessee, since 1950. b. Nov. 29, 1904 at Kenzie, Tenn. A teacher and principal of

Tenn. schools 1925-49. Member of Cookeville Lodge No. 266, Cookeville, Tenn. and past master of same.

Elmer E. Barlow (1887-1948) Justice Supreme Court of Wisconsin 1942-48. b. May 18, 1887 at Arcadia, Wis. Admitted to bar in 1909 and in general practice from 1909 to 1939. Mason. d. June 26, 1948.

Joel Barlow (1754-1812) American poet and diplomat. b. Redding, Conn. Served as chaplain in the Revolution. As U.S. consul to Algiers in 1795, he arranged treaties with Tunis, Algiers and Tripoli. He served as U.S. Minister to France in 1811. His works include two epic poems The Vision of Columbus (1787) and The Columbiad (1807). He was admitted (which probably meant affiliation) a member of St. John's Lodge No. 4, Hartford, Conn. on Jan. 9, 1788. He died near Cracow, Poland in 1812 while trying to reach Napoleon who was then campaigning through Russian snows. Efforts to have his body removed metwith no success. Barlow was chaplain at the execution of Major Andre, the spy.

Henry Clay Barnabee American actor and operatic comedian. A member of Columbian Lodge, Boston, Mass. March 2, 1865, receiving a life membership March 2, 1890. Exalted in St. Andrew's Chapter, R.A.M., Boston on June 3, 1868 and knighted in DeMolay Commandery, Boston, Sept. 23, 1868. Received 32°, Massachusetts Consistory (NJ) April 27, 1866.

Ernest S. Barnard (1874-1931) President of the American Baseball League 1927-31. b. July 17, 1874 at West Columbia, W. Va. Was sports editor of Columbia Evening Dispatch 1898-1902; secretary of the Cleveland Ball Club Co., 1903-10, vice president 1911-15 and president 1922-27. He was vice president of the Acetylene Stove Mfg. Co. of Cleveland. A member of both York and Scottish Rites. d. March 27, 1931.

Isaac D. Barnard (1791-1834) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1827-31. b. July 18, 1791 at Aston, Pa. Began study of law, but War of 1812 intervened and he served as captain and major in the 14th Infantry. Was at capture of Fort George and Lyon's Creek. In 1815 he resumed his legal studies and admitted to bar in 1816. In 1820 he was elected to the state senate and in 1826 became secretary of state for Pennsylvania. A Mason. d. Feb. 28, 1834.

Cassius McD. Barnes Territorial governor of Oklahoma Territory. Active in all branches of Freemasonry, he attended the grand lodge session of 1902 as master of Guthrie Lodge No. 35. He took an active part in cornerstone laying and assisted in the organization of the Grand Chapter of Oklahoma. He was one of the three original petitioners to the Grand Encampment, K.T. for a commandery and was first commander of Guthrie Commandery No. 1 and first grand commander of the Oklahoma Territory.

James M. Barnes Congressman from Illinois 76th and 77th Congresses (1939-43) Administrative assistant to President of U.S. 1943-45. b. Jan. 9, 1899 at Jacksonville, Ill. LL.B., Harvard, 1924. Admitted to Ill. bar, 1924. Director National Savings and Trust Co. Member of Jacksonville Lodge No. 570, Jacksonville, Ill. and 32° AASR (NJ) at Springfield, Ill. Shriner and Jester.

Will C. Barnes (1858-1936) Author, rancher and Congressional Medal of Honor winner. b. June 21, 1858 and educated in public schools of Minneapolis. Enlisted man Signal Corps 1879-82 and received Congressional Medal at Ft. Apache, Ariz., Sept., 1881 "For bravery in action with hostile Apache Indians." Member of Arizona state legislature 1891-92 and of New Mexico legislature 1901-02. Assistant U.S. Forester 1907-28. Mason. Wrote Tales from the X-Bar Horse Camp (1920), Cattle (1930), Arizona Place Names, (1934). d. Dec. 17, 1936.

Eugene E. Barnett General secretary National Council Y.M.C.A.'s since 1941. b. Feb. 21, 1888 at Leesburg, Fla. In Y.M.C.A. work since 1908. Founder of Y.M.C.A. at Hang-chow, China 1910-21; secretary for China 1921-23. Raised in University Lodge No. 408, Chapel Hill, N.C. in 1910. He later became a charter member of Amity Lodge in Shanghai, China under Philippine jurisdiction.

W. J. Barnett Admiral, U. S. Navy. Member of Roman Lodge No. 223 of New York.

George A. Barnewall (1888-1952) Vice president of Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team. At his death on April 14, 1952 he was Deputy G.M. of the G.L. of New York and if he had liveda few weeks longer would have been installed as grand master. He was raised Oct. 18, 1916 at age of 28 in Continental Lodge No. 287, N.Y. While a grand lodge officer Barnewall always arranged an afternoon "break," so the delegates could see his team play while the committees digested the reports of the morning communication.

John Barney (1780-1847) Masonic lecturer who studied under Thomas Smith Webb q.v. b. October, 1780 at Litchfield, Conn. Raised in Friendship Lodge No. 20, Charlotte, Vt. in 1810. He was appointed "Lecturing Master" of the G.L. of Vermont in 1817, moving to Harper's Field, Ohio in 1826 where he affiliated with New England Lodge No. 4 of Worthington in 1834 and served as grand lecturer of Ohio from 1836-43. He later moved to Chicago, Ill. where he affiliatcd with Apollo Lodge No. 32 and was appointed grand lecturer of Illinois in 1845. d. 1847 at Peoria, Ill.

Joshua Barney (1759-1818) Commodore American Navy, serving in Revolutionary War and War of 1812. b. July 6, 1759 at Baltimore, Md. Served throughout the Revolution, being captured three

times by the British. Captured British frigate General Monk (1782). In French service 17961802. A privateer during War of 1812. Joined forces at Bladensburg, Md., defending Washington where he was severely wounded in 1814 and captured for the fourth time. d. Dec. 1, 1818. He was buried with military and Masonic honors at Pittsburgh, Pa. Dec. 1, 1818. He was made a Freemason in the Lodge of the Nine Sisters, Paris, France in 1799 (although other sources state that he was raised in Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia, Pa. on May 17, 1777, and still another lists him as a member of No. 3 on May 1, 1777). He was a visitor of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia on June 16, 1780.

59 Maurice V. Barnhill Maurice V. Barnhill Judge, Supreme Court of North Carolina since 1937. b. Dec. 5, 1887 at Halifax, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1909. Member state legislature (N.C.) 1921-23; judge N.C. Superior Court, 1924-37. Mason and Shriner.

Henry A. Barnum (1833-?) Major General (Union) in Civil War. b. Sept. 24, 1833 at Jamesville, N.Y. Studied law and enlisted as a private in 12th New York volunteers in 1861, advancing through grades to major general, March, 1865. He was twice wounded. First officer to enter Savannah on Sherman's march to the sea. After war became inspector of New York prisons, harbor-master of New York and deputy tax commissioner. Member of lodge at Syracuse, N.Y. Member of Syracuse Lodge No. 102, Syracuse Chapter No. 70, R.A.M., of N.Y.

William H. Barnum (1818-?) U.S. Senator from Connecticut. b. Sept. 17, 1818. Engaged in the manufacture of car wheels and iron production. Served in the state legislature in 1852 and in U.S. Congress as representative from Connecticut from 1866-1876. Elected to U.S. Senate in 1876, serving until 1879. Member of Montgomery Lodge No. 13 at Lakeville, Conn.

Joseph L. Baron Jewish rabbi. Founder of Temple Judah, Cedar Rapids, Iowa (1918); Temple Emmanuel, Waukesha, Wis. (1938), Temple Beth El, Madison, Wis. (1939). b. May 27, 1894, Vilno, Lithuania, coming to U.S. with parents in 1907. A.B. Columbia, 1914. Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1932. Professor and faculty member of State Teachers College, Milwaukee and University of Wisconsin. Editor of Young Judean, 1914. Member national council of Jewish education, 1927-30. Author. Member of Wisconsin Lodge No. 13 at Milwaukee; 32° AASR (SJ) at Davenport, Iowa and also Shrine at Davenport. Honorary member of Tripoli Shrine Temple in Milwaukee.

Norris S. Barratt (1862-1924) Judge (president) of Common Pleas, Pennsylvania from 1913. b. Aug. 23, 1862 at Philadelphia, Pa. Admitted to bar 1883. Served in various public capacities. Judge, Court of Common Pleas from 1902, and president from 1913. Author of Freemasonry of Pennsylvania 1827-1907 (3 vols.) with Dr. J. F. Sachse (1909), History of St.

Paul's Church, Philadelphia; Colonial Wars in America and several other works. Mason. d. April 26, 1924.

Jesse W. Barrett (1884-1953) Attorney general of Missouri, 1821-25. b. March 17, 1884 at Canton, Mo. Graduated cum laude Christian Univ. (now Culver-Stockton) Canton, Mo. 1902 and LL.D. 1923; LL.B. George Washington U. 1905. Began practice, St. Louis, 1906. Mason 33° honorary (SJ). d. Nov. 12, 1953.

Lawrence P. Barrett (1838-1891) American actor. b. Paterson, N.J. April 4, 1838. Joined Boston Museum Company (1858-59). Served in Civil War. In partnership with the famous Shakespearean actor Booth q.v. 188691. Excelled in Shakespearean roles. Raised in Oriental Lodge No. 144, San Francisco, Calif. July 19, 1870, Royal Arch membership in New York and member of Adelphic Commandery No. 59, New York City. d. New York City March 20, 1891 and buried by Catholic church.

Oscar F. Barrett (1860-1935) President of The Barrett Line (operators of tow-boats and barges on Ohio and Mississippi rivers) 1897-1907; president of Barrett Line, Inc. from 1927. b. April 27, 1860 at Racine, Ohio. Associated with father in John Barrett & Son from 1882. Vice president of Columbia Life Ins. Co.; president of National Board of Steam Navigation 1928-30. Mason. d. Aug. 12, 1935.

Robert S. Barrett Physician, diplomat, philanthropist. b. March 30, 1877, at Richmond, Va. Educated in the University of the South and George Washington Univ. In 1897 he went to Mexico where he was editor and publisher of the Mexico City Daily Record; returned to the U.S. in 1907. For many years he served the U.S. in quasi-political positions abroad. In 1910, with Charles H. Callahan, he inaugurated the movement to establish the George Washington National Masonic Memorial Association which resulted in the erection of that famous memorial. He served as grand master of the G.L. of Virginia in 1942. From 1925 to 1950 he served as president of the Florence Crittenden Mission, an organization of which his mother was one of the founders. He is 33° Sovereign Grand Inspector General for Virginia AASR (SJ). Dr. and Mrs. Barrett have erected a hospital at the Masonic Home in Virginia (1940) and given an auditorium for the Elks Home at Bedford, Va. (1945). He was grand exalted ruler of the Elks, U.S.A. in 1944-45. In 1946 they gave a library to the city of Alexandria, Va. as a memorial to his mother, and in 1947, gave $1,000,000 to the Barrett Foundation for philanthropic and educational purposes. Barrett is the author of several volumes including Standard Guide to Mexico (1900) ; Blue Book of Mexico (1905); Fifty Years Work With Girls, I Was an Unmarried Mother. He was raised in Puritan Lodge No. 7, Mexico City in 1902, and affiliated with Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, of Alexandria, Va. in 1910. He is a member of Mount Vernon Chapter No. 14 R.A.M. and Old Dominion Commandery, K.T. of Alexandria. While in Mexico, he was one of the organizers of the Anezeh Shrine Temple in 1907.

Samuel A. Barrett Anthropologist and explorer. b. Nov. 12, 1879 at Little Rock, Ark. Received B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. at University of Calif. Ethnologist with George G. Hey Expedition, 1908-09 in South America.

Cur-ator of anthropology, Milwaukee Public Museum since 1909 and director 1920-40. Director emeritus since 1940. Active in research and ethnology of Pomo and Miwok tribes of California; also Cayapa Indians of Ecuador. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Carter T. Barron (1905-1950) Theatre executive. Manager of Loew's Eastern Division of Theatres including D.C., Md., Va., Del. and Pa. since 1934. b. Clarkesville, Ga. Jan 30, 1905. B.S. Georgia Institute of Tech., 1927. Assist. manager and manager of theaters from 1905. Vice president of Kes-Bar, Inc.; director of Washington Board of Trade since 1949; executive vice chairman of National Capitol SesquiCentennial Comm. since 1948; Chairman entertainment comm. President's Birthday Balls 1934-46. Head of music and entertainment committee National Democratic Convention, 1940. Mason. d. Nov. 16, 1950.

Dionysiue Barron Male alto singer. Raised in St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York City on Oct. 7, 1873.

Clark DeBlanc Barrow President of Southeastern Louisiana College at Hammond since 1952. b. June 8, 1894 at Plaquemine, La. Graduate of Louisana State and Columbia. Mason.

Chester W. Barrows (1872-1931) Judge, Supreme Court of Rhode Island, 1925-31. b. July 4, 1872 at Woonsocket, R.I. LL.B. Harvard, 1898. Admitted to R.I. bar, 1898. Associate Justice Superior Court of R.I. 191325. Mason. d. Feb. 19, 1931.

Lewis 0. Barrows Governor of Maine 1937-41. b. June 7, 1893 at Newport, Maine. Secretary of Liberty Mutual Insurance Co. and United Mutual Fire Ins. Co. of Boston. Maine secretary of state 1935-36. Member of lodge, chapter, council, commandery and consistory.

Augustin Barruel (1741-1820) An anti-Mason better known as the Abbe. Born in Villeneuve de Berg, France, he was a prolific writer but owes his reputation principally to his Recollections to Serve for a History of Jacobinism (1797). He sought to trace the origin of Freemasonry to the Templars, accusing them of having an "impious code and vows of vengeance against kings and priests." Educated by the Jesuits and entered the society. When they were suppressed in France, he went to Moravia and Bohemia.

John Barry Commodore, U.S. Navy in American Revolution. Initiated in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia, Pa. on Oct. 12, 1795. Suspended NPD in 1800.

William T. Barry (1785-1835) Postmaster General of the U.S. under President Jackson and U.S. Senator from Kentucky. b. Feb. 5, 1785. Served in the war of 1812. Lawyer and statesman. Was a member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and later of Daviess Lodge No. 22 of Lexington. On Jan. 4, 1830 he was elected an honorary member of Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C.

John L. Barstow (1832-1913) Governor of Vermont. b. Feb. 21, 1832 at Shelburne, Vt. Served as major in Union army from 1861-64 and was made brigadier general of state troops at time of the St. Albans raid. Member of Vermont house 1864-65 and senate, 1866-68. Became 39th governor in 1880, serving two terms until 1885. Mason. d. June 28, 1913.

Oliver E. Barthel Engineer and inventor. b. Oct. 3, 1877 at Detroit, Mich. Has been designer and engineer with Ford, Cadillac, Oldsmobile and Standard Steel Car Co. Holder of 35 patents. Designed and built outboard motor in 1906; streamlined automobile in 1912; allsteel automobile body in 1917. Mason and Knight Templar.

Frederic A. Bartholdi (1834-1904) Designer of Statue of Liberty in New York harbor. b. April 2, 1834 at Colmar, Alsace, France. He was one of the early members of Lodge Alsace-Lorraine, Paris (Oct. 14, 1875) which was composed of prominent intellectuals, writers and government representatives. When his famous statue Liberty Enlightening the World was achieved, Bartholdi convened his lodge to review it, even before the statue was shown to the U.S. committee. On June 19, 1884, the lodge, as if it were a pilgrimage, went in a body to review his masterpiece that was to be the gift of the French people to the United States. On Nov. 13, 1884 Bartholdi delivered a lecture and gave the lodge a report on the history and various methods used in the execution of his statue. Again the lodge witnessed his emotion when he came back from his visit to U.S. in 1887, and he told them of the ardent welcome he had received and of the wide enthusiasm created by his work. Another famous work by Bartholdi is Le Lion de Belfort, commemorating the defense of Belfort in Franco-Prussian War.

Frank H. Bartholomew President and general manager of United Press Association since April, 1955. b. Oct. 5, 1898 at San Francisco, Calif. Began as a reporter in 1918 on Portland and Vancouver (B.C.) papers, starting with United Press as the Portland Bureau manager. During WW2 he was in charge of all correspondents covering the Pacific War and a correspondent himself in New Guinea, Aleutians, Luzon. He covered the Japanese surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay in Sept., 1945 and the atomic bomb test at Bikini in 1946. Member of Temple Lodge No. 14, Sonora, Calif., and Islam Shrine Temple, San Francisco.

H. Roe Bartle Lawyer, youth leader, college president. b. Richmond, Va. Admitted to Kentucky bar in 1920 and Missouri bar in 1921. President of Missouri Valley College, Marshall, Mo. 1948-51. Long-time scout executive for Kansas City area, Boy Scouts of America. Member of 17 boards of directors and owns 5,000 acres in Missouri and Oklahoma. Makes some 200 public speeches a year ranging upwards from $1,000 per speech—much of which he turns over to the American Humanities Fund of which he has been administrator since 1947.

Elected mayor of Kansas City in 1955. Member Ararat Shrine Temple; Lebanon Lodge No. 87 (Ky.) Independence Chapter, R.A.M. No. 12 and Palestine Cornmandery No. 17, K.T. of Independdence, Mo.

Frederick B. Bartlett (1882-1941) Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Aug. 23, 1822 at South Manchester, Conn. Graduate of Trinity College, Episcopal Theological School and Harvard. Served as deacon and priest from 1908. General secretary National Council. P. E. Churches 1925-31 and consecrated bishop of North Dakota Dec. 16, 1931, transferring to Missionary District of Idaho in 1935. Mason. d. Dec. 15, 1941.

John H. Bartlett Governor of New Hampshire and 1st Assistant Postmaster General in Coolidge Cabinet. b. Sunapee, N.H., March 15, 1864. Member of DeWitt Clinton Commandery, K.T. (N.H.). Birth date March 15, 1869.

Josiah Bartlett (1729-1795) Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Not to be confused with Josiah Bartlett (1759-1820) who was also a physician q.v. b. Amesbury, Mass. Nov. 21, 1729. Practiced medicine at Kingston, N.H. (1750-95). Was a delegate to Continental Congress (1773-76) (1778-79). Associate justice (1782-88) and chief justice (1788-90) of superior court of New Hampshire. He was"President" of New Hampshire, 179093 and its first governor from 1793-94. d. May 19, 1795 at Kingston, N.H. Although his lodge is not known, his great grandson, Levi S. Bartlett, has a letter written by Josiah to his son Ezra saying, "I attended a Mason meeting last night, and as soon as you can I wish you would join the Masons.”

Josiah Bartlett (1759-1820) Revolutionary physician and grand master of the G.L. of Mass. Not to be confused with Josiah, the signer of the Declaration of Independence, who was also a physician q.v. b. Charlestown, Mass. Aug. 11, 1759. He was elected and initiated in Union Lodge at Danbury, Conn. (now No. 40 on the roll) on April 13,

1780; passed April 24 and raised May 2, same year. The history of that lodge, written in 1926, says in discussing the installation of the first master that a meeting was held on April 13 at the home of Mrs. Mary White, "to consider the request of Dr. Josiah Bartlett whose inclination to be a Freemason was so great he was determined if possible to be initiated so as to join this Lodge on the day appointed for the installment of the Wor. Master . . . ." He later became a charter member of King Solomon's Lodge, Charleston, Mass. in Mass. in Sept., 1783. The 150th anniversary history of that lodge confirms his original membership by stating that he was barely 21 years old when in 1780 he received his degrees in Union Lodge at Danbury. Bartlett followed Paul Revere q.v. as grand master of Massachusetts (after union of March, 1792), serving in 1798, 1799 and 1810. d. March 2, 1820 at Charlestown.

Murray Bartlett Organizer and first president of University of Philippines (1911-15). b. March 29, 1871 at Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Graduate of Harvard, Gen. Theol. Sem., Univ. of Roch-

63 Robert A. Bartlett ester, Trinity College, Columbia and Hobart. Protestant Episcopal rector and dean, serving Cathedral of St. Mary and St. John, Manila, P.I. 1908-11. Founder of Tropical Medicine and Public Health school. Chaplain with U.S. Infantry in WW1, wounded in MarneAisne offensive Mason. 33° AASR.

Robert A. Bartlett (1875-1946) Explorer. b. Aug. 15, 1875 at Brigus, Newfoundland. Began explorations wintering with R. E. Peary at Cape D'Urville, Kane Basin 1897-98; on a hunting expedition, Hudson Bay and Strait in 1901; captain of a sealer off Newfoundland coast, 1901-05; commanded the Roosevelt, 1905-09, taking active part in Peary's expedition to the pole, reaching the 88th parallel; with Canadian government Arctic expedition 1913-14 as captain of the cutter Kariuk which was crushed by ice in January, 1914. He reached Wrangel Island with 17 persons, and leaving 15 on the island, he crossed ice to Siberia with one Eskimo and returned with a rescue party in Sept., 1914. They reached Nome, Alaska a year later with 13 survivors. In the service of the U.S. government, National Geographic Society and various

museums, he made exploration trips until 1944 to Arctic ocean, Greenland, Alaska, Baffin Land, Siberia, and Hudson Bay. Received many national and international honors for his explorations. Author of several books. Mason. d. April 28, 1946.

Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815) Famous Italian designer and engraver. b. Florence, Italy. Studied on the continent and settled in London in 1764. He was an early member of the Lodge of Nine Muses No. 235, London, and collaborator of Cipriani q.v. the painter, who was a member of the same lodge. He was one of the four members of this lodge to be original members of the exclusive Royal Academyat its foundation in 1768. He engraved works of Guercino, Annibale Carracci, Giordano, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Cosway and Angelica Kauffmann. The frontispiece of the 1784 edition of the Book of Constitutions is his engraving. He became engraver to the King (England), later moving to Lisbon where he became head of the Royal Academy at Lisbon (180215).

Sir Edmund Barton (1849-1920) First prime minister of Australian Commonwealth (1901-03). Speaker of legislative assembly, New South Wales, 1883-87 and attorney general in 1889 and 1891-93. He led the delegation presenting Australian Commonwealth Constitution bill to British Parliament in 1900. Nearly one-third of the members of the first Australian parliament were Freemasons. He was judge of the Australian high court from 1903 until his death in 1920. Barton was a member of Australia Lodge of Harmony No. 556 (initiated March 3, 1878) which later became No. 5 with the establishment of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales in 1888. He was invested as senior deacon of the lodge on June 9, 1880.

LeRoy Barton Architect. b. Dec. 14, 1887 in New York City. An architect in New York City, 1910-34. Assistant to Secretary of Treasury 193439 and acting supervising architect to Treasury Department. Architectural supervisor Public Buildings Administration, 1939-40. Now practicing as consultant architect. Served in both WW1 and WW2, retiring as colonel in 1948. Raised in Wamponamen Lodge No. 437,

Sag Harbor, N.Y. on March 3, 1921. Member of Manhattan (N.Y.) Chapter No. 86, National Sojourners and Martyr's Camp, Heroes of '76.

William Barton (1748-1831) Colonel of American Revolution. b. May 26, 1748 at Providence, R.I. Noted for his daring capture of British General Prescott in the latter's house at Newport. He was imprisoned at Danville, Vt. from 1810-24 for refusing to pay judgment on his land in Vermont. The judgment was paid by General Lafayette q.v. on his visit to America in 1824. He became a member of St. John's Lodge, Providence, R.I. in 1779. d. at Providence, Oct. 22, 1831.

Sydney N. Baruch Research engineer who invented the depth bomb successfully used in destruction of submarines in WW1 and WW2. b. March 1, 1890 at Mamaroneck, N.Y. Chief engr. Federal Telephone Co. (radio division of Postal Telegraph Co.) 1919-20. President of Public Service Corp. of Calif. 1916-20. Conductor of private research laboratories in New York City since 1930. Inventor of thermo relay and other devices, also thyraton and nortron type mercury rectifier tubes and sound recording on film (1934). Designer of 300,000 volt direct current transmission system of Bonneville Project. Mason and Shriner.

Charles Baskerville ( 1870 - 1922 ) Chemist who discovered the chemical elements, carolinium and berzellum. b. June 18, 1870 at Noxubee Co. Miss. Author of many books on chemistry. Mason. d. Jan. 28, 1922.

Edward Bass (1726-1803) First Protestant Episcopal bishop of Massachusetts in 1797. His bishopric included Rhode Island and New Hampshire. b. Dorchester, Mass. Nov. 23, 1726. Served as pastor at Newbury, Mass. from 1752-1803. Admitted a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1 of Portsmouth, N.H. April 12, 1758. In 1768 he served as grand chaplain of the G.L. of Mass.

Perkins Bass Congressman from New Hampshire to 84th Congress. b. Oct. 6, 1912 at East Walpole, Mass. Admitted to N.H. bar in 1938. Member N.H. state legislature, 1939-43 and1947-49. President of N.H. state senate 1949-51. Member of Altemont Lodge No. 26, Peterborough, N.H. 32° AASR (NJ) in Nashua, N.H. Member of Bektash Shrine Temple, Concord, N.H.

Norman L. Basset (1869-1931) Justice, Supreme Court of Maine 1925-31. b. June 23, 1869 at Winslow, Me. Graduate of Colby College, Harvard and University of Maine. Mason. d. Sept. 29, 1931.

Richard N. Batchelder (1832-1901) Quartermaster General of U.S. Army. b. July 27, 1832 at Lake Village, N.H. Entered volunteer service in 1861 and rose through arnks to brigadier general on March 13, 1865. Was awarded Congressional Medal of Honor in Civil War. Entered regular service after war and made Quartermaster General in 1890. A member of Lafayette Lodge No. 41 at Manchester, N.H. d. 1901.

Robert F. Batchelder Commodore, U.S. Navy. b. March 27, 1895 at Worcester, Mass. Commissioned ensign in supply corps of Navy in 1921 and advanced through grades to commodore in Nov., 1945. With Atlantic fleet in WW2, Sicilian occupation and Normandy invasion. Deputy administrator, War Assets Admin., 1946-47; assistant chief, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, U.S. Navy since 1947. Retired. Raised in Quinsigamond Lodge, Worchester, Mass. in 1922. Life member of Eureka Chapter, R.A.M., Worcester, Mass.; life member California Consistory AASR (SJ) at San Francisco; life member of Chapter No. 3, National Sojourners and Heroes of '76, Washington, D.C.

Willis T. Batcheller President and chief engineer of Canadian Alaska Railway Co., involving 3,300 mile transcontinental system from Seattle and Vancouver to Fairbanks, Alaska. b. Dec. 23, 1889 at Joliet, Ill. President and chief engineer of Portland Canal Power Co. Served as engineer on many hydro-electrical developments, including Grand Coulee, Skagit River, Nimpkish River pulp plant and Quincy Valley Irrigation Dist. Raised in Green Lake Lodge No. 149, Seattle in April, 1921. Member of Ballard Chapter No. 26, R.A.M. Seattle Council No. 6 R. & S.M., Bethlehem Cornmandery, K.T. No. 19 all of Seattle. Active worker in Commandery 32° AASR (SJ) in 1921 and KCCH in 1945. Past wise master of Rose Croix, 1944. Member of Nile Shrine Temple since 1921 and past patron of University Chapter, O.E.S.

James C. Batchelor (1818-1893) Succeeded Albert Pike as 9th grand commander of Supreme Council AASR (SJ) in 1891, serving until death in 1893. b. July 10, 1818 at Quebec, Canada. Was a physician in New Orleans and distinguished himself in the yellow fever epidemic. Initiated in Eureka Lodge No. 64, Greenville, Ala. April 11, 1846 and Royal Arch in Polar Star Chapter No. 21, New Orleans Aug. 17, 1857. Joined Orleans Council R. & S.M. Feb. 15, 1859 and Jacques DeMolai Commandery, K.T. No. 2, New Orleans, Feb. 17, 1860. 32° AASR in New Orleans Dec. 17, 1856 and 33° on Feb. 14, 1857. d. July 28, 1893 at Washington, D.C.

William B. Bate (1826-1905) U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b. Oct. 7, 1826 near Castilian Spring, Tenn. Was a steamboat clerk on Mississippi river and served as private in Mexican War in Louisiana and Tennessee regiments. He served in the Tennessee legislature and graduated from Lebannon Law School in 1852, practicing at Gallatin, Tenn. Entering the Civil War as a private, he advanced to major general, C.S.A. 1861-65, being wounded three times. After the war he practiced law at Nashville and was U.S. Senator from 1887 until his death in 1905. He was a member of King Solomon Lodge No. 94 (successor of No. 6).

Edward Bates (1793-1869) Attorney General of United States in Lincoln's cabinet. b. Sept. 4, 1793 at Belmont, Va. of Quaker parentage. He came to Missouri in 1814 at the age of 21, his brother Frederick q.v. then being secretary of the territory. Admitted to bar in 1816 after studying with Rufus Easton q.v.. He was a member of the convention of 1820 that framed the state constitution of Missouri, and appointed by Gov. McNair q.v. as first attorney general. In 1822 he was a member of the legislature and in 1824 was appointed by President Monroe q.v. as U.S. Attorney for the District of Missouri. He was the second representative in Congress from Missouri being elected to the 20th Congress in 1826, but declined re-election. In 1830 he served as state senator and in 1834 as state representative. In 1850 President Fill-more q.v. appointed him Secretary of War and he was confirmed by the Senate, but declined the position. In 1853 he was elected judge of the St. Louis Land Court and in 1856 he was presiding officer of the Whig national convention in Baltimore. President Lincoln named him Attorney General of the U.S. in 1861 and he served until 1863 when he resigned. He was the first cabinet member from west of the Mississippi river. He was a member of Missouri Lodge No. 12, under Tennessee charter (later Missouri No. 1) and was active in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Mo. He was elected to preside at the preliminary convention and was later made permanent chairman. A preamble and resolution was drawn up, evidently the work of Bates. Two months later the delegates again assembled to consider the matter of organizing a grand lodge with Bates presiding. Bates served four terms as grand master, 1825-26-27-31. In his last term as grand master he introduced a resolution to be submitted to all subordinate lodges of the state (height of Anti-Masonic period) which ended: "Be it Resolved, that immediately after the close this evening, this Lodge shall cease to act as an organized body, and that its charter be surrendered and returned to the Grand Lodge." As far as known, Edward Bates never thereafter appeared at a Masonic meeting. d. March 25, 1869.

Frederick Bates (1777-1825) Second governor of Missouri, 1824-25. b. June 23, 1777 in Belmont, Va. of a Quaker family. Older brother of Edward Bates q.v. In 1797 he settled in Detroit, Mich. where he engaged in the mercantile business and served as postmaster, U.S. Receiver of Public Money and named in 1805 by Jefferson as the first U.S. Judge for the Territory of Michigan. He first appeared in St. Louis in

1806 where he was first recorder of the Board of Land Commissions. On May 7, 1807, Jefferson appointed him as the second secretary for the Territory of Louisiana, a position he held 13 years until the formation of the state government. As Territorial secretary he compiled the Laws of the Territory of Louisiana, which was the first book printed in the territory. He was probably made a Freemason in Michigan for he is listed as a charter member of St. Louis Lodge No. 111 (Pennsylvania charter) in 1809. He succeeded Meriwether Lewis as Master. He is also listed as a charter member of Missouri Lodge No. 1 (12 under Tenn.) when the Grand Lodge of Missouri was formed in 1821. He was elected grand master on Oct. 3, 1821 and turned it down for reasons of heavy business and poor health. This was probably true as he died Aug. 4, 1825 after having served as governor for less than a year.

Isaac B. Bates (1780-1845) U.S. Senator from Massachusetts. b. May 14, 1780 in Granville, Mass. Graduated at Yale in 1802 and studied law, practicing in Northhampton, Mass. First elected to Congress as an anti-Jackson man, and reelected three times, serving from 1827-1835. In 1841 he was elected to U.S. Senate where he served until his death. He opposed the admission of Texas to the union. Member of Jerusalem Lodge at Northhampton, Mass. d. March 16, 1845.

John L. Bates (1859-?) Governor of Massachusetts, 1903-04. b. Sept. 18, 1859 at Easton, Mass. Practiced law at Boston since 1885. Member state house of representatives 1894 - 99 (speaker 1897-99); lieutenant governor of Mass. 1900-02. President of Mass. Constitutional Convention of 1917-18-19. President board of trustees Boston University 1907-27. Member Baalbec Lodge, East Boston and St. John's Royal Arch Chapter of Boston. 33° AASR (NJ). Deceased.

Joseph B. Bates Congressman from Kentucky, 75th to 80th Congresses (1937-49). b. Oct. 29, 1893 at Republican, Ky2Teacher and school superintendent for 16 years and county clerk of Greenup County, Ky. from 1922-38. Mason.

John S. Battle Governor of Virginia, 1950-54. b. July 11, 1890 at New Bern, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1913 and began practice at Charlottesville, Va. Member of Virginia general assembly in 1920 and state senator from 1934-49. Served in WW1. He is a member of Charlottesville Lodge No. 55 and a past master. A member of Keystone Chapter No. 58, R.A.M. and past high priest. Member of Charlottesville Commandery No. 3, K.T. and Acca Shrine Temple, Richmond, Va.

Laurie C. Battle Congressman from Alabama to 80th and 81st Congresses (1947-51). b. May 10, 1912 at Wilsonville, Ala. Graduate of Birmingham-Southern College and Ohio State Univ. Has been a laborer, clerk, salesman, personnel worker and teacher of sociology at Ohio State Univ. Served in WW2 Pacific Theatre and rose from private to major. Member of Docena Lodge No. 815, Docena, Ala.; 32° AASR at Birmingham, Zamora Shrine Temple; High Twelve and O.E.S. chapter No. 118, Birmingham.

Arthur A. Batts Chairman of the board of the Carborundum Co. b. June 25, 1884 at Syracuse, N.Y. With the Carborundum Co. since 1901 as bookkeeper, office manager, assistant secretary, secretary (1827-42); president (1942-46) and chairman of the board since 1947. Mason.

Clyde M. Bauer Geologist, naturalist. With National Park Service. b. April 5, 1886 at Bristol, Ind. Taught school; was high school principal from 1908-11. With U.S. Geological Survey 1911-16. Commercial geologist 1916-31. Park naturalist, Yellowstone National Park 1932-46 (chief naturalist 194346). Director of Yellowstone Library and Museum Association, 1932-46. Wrote The Story of Yellowstone Geysers (1937) and Yellowstone—Its Underworld. Raised in Bartlesville, Okla. in 1917 and now life member of Columbia Lodge No. 14, Boulder, Colo. 32° AASR (SJ) at Billings, Mont. and member of Al Bedoo Shrine Temple, Billings.

Howard K. Bauernfeind President of J. B. Lippincott Co. Philadelphia, book publishers since 1949. b. April 12, 1900 at Council Bluffs, Iowa. Graduate of Central College, Naperville, III. and Univ. of Chicago. School superintendent from 1921-30. With Lippincott Co. since 1930 as editor, managing editor and vice president. Raised in Monmouth Lodge No. 37, Monmouth, Ill. in 1922. Member of Monmouth Chapter No. 30, R.A.M.

Harry L. Baum (1887-1951) Physician and author of several Masonic plays. b. Sept. 7, 1887 at Shelbyville, Ill. Graduated in medicine from University of Pennsylvania and removed to Denver, Colo. where he specialized in diseases of ear, nose and throat. Was first master of Emulation Lodge No. 154 of Denver and served as grand master of the G.L. of Colorado 193738. Was chairman of the correspondence committee of the G.L. for many years. 33° AASR (SJ) in 1929. Best known for his Masonic plays, John Brent and Prelude to Victory. d. March 25, 1951.

Warren W. Baumgartner Artist and illustrator. b. Oakville, Mo. March 15, 1894. Student at Art Institute of Chicago and Grand Central School of Art, N.Y. Illustrator for national magazines since 1938. Exhibited at National Academy American Water Color Society. Awarded Adolph and Clara Obrig prize in 1941 and Hans Obst prize in 1945. Mason.

Bruce R. Baxter (1892-1947) Bishop, Methodist Church 194047. b. Aug. 18, 1892 at Rock Run, Ohio. Assistant to president of University of Southern California 1924-30 and president of Willamette Univ., Salem, Ore. 1934-40. President of Oregon Assn. of Independent Colleges 1939-40. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR. d. June 20, 1947.

James P. Baxter (1831-1921) Author. b. March 23, 1831 at Gorham, Me. President of Savings Bank of Portland and mayor of Portland six terms (1893-97) (1904-05). Organized and established Portland Society of Art in 1883 and Associated Charities. Built and donated libraries to Portland (1888) and Gorham (1907) and conveyed the family mansion to city of Gorham for a museum. President of the Maine Historical Society from 1890. Author of many historical works including The Trelawney Papers (1884); George Cleve and His Times (1885); The British Invasion from the North (1887); The Voyages of Jacques Cartier (1906), and edited 20 volumes of documentary history of Maine. Mason. d. May 8, 1921.

Jedediah H. Baxter Surgeon General, U.S. Army. Member of Columbia Commandery No. 2, K.T. at Washington, D.C. d. Dec. 4, 1890.

John B. Mac. Baxter (1868-1946) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Brunswick from 1935. b. Feb. 16, 1868 at Saint John, N.B., Canada. Began as an attorney in 1890. Attorney general of New Brunswick 1916-17; premier of New Brunswick, 1925-31; member of Canadian Parliament 192125 and judge of Supreme Court, N.B. from 1931-35. Mason and 33° AASR. d. Dec. 27, 1946.

Warner Baxter Movie actor. Member Cahuenga Lodge No. 513, Hollywood and of the "233 (Masonic) Club.”

Francis Baylies Lawyer, author, member of Congress and U.S. Minister to Buenos Aires. Original lodge not known, but made honorary member of Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston, Mass. on Jan. 26, 1835.

Hojijah Baylies Aid to General Washington in Revolutionary War. Held rank of major and was member of Masters' Lodge No. 2, New York.

William Baylis (1848-1919) Architect, inventor and Sovereign Grand Commander, Supreme Council. b. Nov. 8, 1848 at Pictou, N.S., Canada. Became superintendent hospital construction, office of surgeon general, U.S. Army in 1882 (Major). Invented combination steam and hot water heating system in 1893.

Samuel H. Baynard, Jr. (1879-1947) Secretary General of AASR (NJ). b. June 3, 1879 at Wilmington, Del. Graduated B.A. from Delaware College in 1900. Admitted to bar in 1904. Raised in Eureka Lodge No. 23, Wilmington. Author of two volume history of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (Northern Jurisdiction) in 1938. d. Sept. 9, 1947.

Alfred W. Bays Lawyer, president of The Abbott Foundation and vice chairman of board of Abbott Laboratories since 1947. b. July 12, 1876 at Vermont, Ill. Graduate of Northwestern Univ. School of Law, 1904. Professor of law, 1912-37 at Northwestern. Trustee Northwestern Univ., Lake Bluff Orphanage, Ravenswood and Evanston hospitals and others. Editor and compiler of American Commercial Law Series (9 vols.) and other law works. Mason.

Etienne-Francois Bazot b. March 31, 1782 at Nievre, France. Wrote a Masonic dictionary and manual.

George L. Beal Union general in Civil War. b. May 21, 1825 in Norway, Maine. He left Portland on Oct. 6, 1861 as colonel of 10th Maine regiment. Appointed by president as brigadier general of volunteers Nov. 30, 1864 and mustered out of service Jan. 15, 1866. Member of Oxford Lodge No. 18, Norway, Maine.

Jack Beall, Jr. Radio commentator and newspaperman. b. Dec. 6, 1898 at Waxahachie, Texas. Graduate of Princeton (1921), and Yale Law School, 1924. Admitted to Texas bar in 1924, but gave up practice in 1929 to become newspaperman. With Dallas Times-Herald and New York Herald Tribune and then London correspondent and later Washington correspondent covering White House, Senate and State Department (1937-43). Entered radio field in 1944, with WLW, Cincinnati. Now Washington correspondent for A.B.C. with Headline Edition; News of Tomorrow and This Week Around the World. Mason.

Walter B. Beals Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Washington (1933-34 and 1945-46) and presiding judge for the War Crimes Tribunal in Nurnberg, Germany, 1946-48 (with military leave of absence from Supreme Court of Washington). b. July 21, 1876 at St. Paul, Minn. Admitted to Washington bar in 1901. Judge of Supreme Court of Washington 1928 to 1952. Advanced from private to lieutenant colonel in WW1, served in Meuse-Argonne offensive. Mason and 32° AASR.

Rosenham (Jack) Beam Brigadier General U.S. Air Force. b. June 11, 1895 at Bardstown, Ky. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant Infantry in 1916 and advanced through grades to brigadier general, Air Force, 1948. Served in WW1 with Aviation Section, Signal Corps. Commanded the 12th Air Support Command in invasion of North Africa 1932-43. Commander of various air force bases since 1944. Commanding general of Air Force Technical School, Lowry Air Force Base, Denver since 1945. Mason, National Sojourner and Shriner.

Alexander G. E. Beaman (18851943) Insurance executive and Masonic editor. b. June 23, 1885, Hartford, Conn. Started as shorthand teacher with Gregg School, Chicago and later as executive assistant of railroads and banks. Organized the A. G. Beaman Agency, Ltd. and headed since 1929. President of Fire-Police Commission, City of Los Angeles and director of Hollywood Academy of Fine Arts. Managing editor of Masonic Digest, 1923-25 and secretary of Masonic Periodicals

Corp. 1923-25. Active for many years in the care of homeless and transients. Editor of Los Angeles Consistcrry Bulletin from 1912. d. Oct. 22, 1943.

John V. Beamer Congressman from Indiana to 82nd Congress (195153). b. Nov. 17, 1896 in Indiana. A.B. from Wabash College, 1918. Farm owner and operator since 1943. Member of Hanna Lodge No. 61; Wabash Chapter No. 26, R.A.M.; Wabash Council No. 13, R. & S.M.; Wabash Commandery, No. 37, K.T. all of Wabash, Ind. and Capital Forest No. 104, Tall Cedars of Lebanon at Washington, D.C.

Henry J. Bean (1853-1941) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon (1930-32 and 1937-38). b. Nov. 13, 1853 at Bethel, Maine. Admitted to bar, 1881. Member of Oregon house of representatives 1889, district attorney, county co-judge, circuit court judge. Justice of Supreme Court of Oregon, 1911 to term expiring in 1944. d. May 9, 1941.

Cyrus Beard (1850-1920) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Wyoming, 1911-13. b. Aug. 1850 in Venango Co., Pa. Began practice of law in Washington, Iowa, 1874. Removed to Harlan, Iowa, 1878 and to Evanston, Wyo., 1890. Justice of Supreme Court of Wyoming, 1904 to term expiring in 1921. d. Dec. 17, 1920.

Daniel Carter Beard (known as Dan Beard) (1850-1941) American painter, illustrator and organizer of the Boy Scout movement in the United States. b. June 21, 1850 at Cincinnati, Ohio. Started as book and magazine illustrator and teacher of drawing. Originator and founder of the first boy scout society from which others were modeled. National Scout Commissioner and honorary vice-president of B.S.A. Awarded the Golden Eagle, by B.S.A., the only one ever given. Chief scout, dept. of woodcraft at Culver (Ind.) Military Academy (1911-15). Mt. Beard, the peak adjoining Mt. McKinley is named for him. Wrote many books on scouting and wilderness lore including: Moonlight and

Six Feet of Romance (1890); American Boys' Handy Book (1882); Boy Pioneers and Daniel Boone (1909); Shelters, Shacks and Shanties (1914); Bugs, Butterflies and Beetles (1915); Signs, Signals and Symbols (1918); American Boy's Book of Wild Animals (1921) and at least a dozen others. Associate editor of Boy's Life. Chief of School of Woodcraft. Raised in Mariners' Lodge No. 67, New York City and later a member of Cornucopia Lodge No. 563, Flushing, N.Y. at the time of his death on June 11, 1941. Raised Nov. 30, 1917.

Arthur L. Beardsley (1869-1944) President of Miles Laboratories, Inc. b. Dec. 27, 1869. Employed by hardware companies until 1900 and with Cleveland Twist Drill Co. 1902-20. With Miles Laboratories since 1920, purchasing agent, plant manager, treasurer, general manager and president and treasurer. Mason, Knight Templar, Shriner. d. Jan. 4, 1944.

William S. Beardsley (1901-1954) Governor of Iowa 1949-54. b. May 13, 1901 at Beacon, Iowa. Retail druggist and jewelry business, 1922-38. Operator of 900-acre farm from 1938. Member of Iowa state senate, 1932-40 and house of representatives, 1947-48. Killed in highway accident while governor on Nov. 21, 1954.

Theodore P. Beasley President, owner and general manager of Republic National Life Insurance Co., Dallas since 1937. b. June 29, 1900 at Mt. Ayr, Iowa. Started in insurance business, Joplin, Mo. in 1928. Director of several companies. Active nationally and internationally in Y.M.C.A. and Salvation Army work. Member of Washington Lodge No. 1117, Dallas, Texas. 32° AASR, Dallas and Bella Shrine Temple.

Mrs. Beaton (1717-1802) A lady of Norfolk, England, who it was said, concealed herself in a lodge room andlearned the secrets of the first degree before she was discovered, upon which she herself was initiated. The only reference to the occurrence, which is probably

tradition, is found in A General History of the County of Norfolk (1829). It gives the following: "Died in St. John's Madder-market, Norwich, July, 1802, aged 85, Mrs. Beaton, a native of Wales. She was commonly called the 'Freemason' from the circumstances of her having contrived to conceal herself one evening in the wainscoting of a lodge room, where she learned the secret, the knowledge of which thousands of her sex have in vain attempted to arrive at. She was, in many respects, a very singular character, of which one proof adduced is, that the secret of Freemasons died with her.”

John Beatty Commissioner General of prisoners (with rank of Colonel) in Revolutionary War. Raised in Trenton Lodge No. 5, Trenton, N.J. A past master of that lodge, he was elected grand master of the G.L. of New Jersey Jan. 11, 1791. In 1792 he transferred his membership to Solomon's Lodge No. 1.

Troy Beatty (1866-1922) Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Nov. 12, 1866 at Tuscaloosa, Ala. Deacon, 1891; priest, 1892. Rector in various churches in Tennessee and Georgia until 1919 when consecrated coadjutor bishop of Tenn. (Sept. 18). Deputy to General Convention from 1901. Mason. d. April 23, 1922.

Henry, 5th Duke of Beaufort Grand master of G.L. of England, 1767-71. Of the Somerset family holding earldoms and later marquess of Worcester, merging in 1682 with dukedom of Beaufort. Its founder was Charles Somerset (1460?-1520) illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset.

Eugene de Beauharnais (1781-1824) Viceroy of Italy. b. Paris. Served with Napoleon in Egypt, 1798-99. Napoleon made him viceroy of Italy in 1805. He married Princess Amalie Auguste of Bavaria in 1806. In the same year he was formally adopted by Napoleon and made heir apparent to the throne of Italy. He commanded the army corps in Russia (1812), retiring to Bavaria in 1814 and became the Duke of

Leuchtenberg and Prince of Eichstatt. He was Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Italy.

Campbell E. Beaumont Judge, U.S. District Court of Southern California since 1939. b. Aug. 27, 1883. Admitted to bar in 1912. Served as assistant and district attorney. Was judge of Calif. Superior Court, 192139. Mason.

Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont (1728-1810) A French political adventurer and Freemason who was thought to be an hermaphrodite or a woman. The full name was Charles Genevieve Louis Auguste Andre Timothee de Beaumont. "He" was born at Tonnerre, Burgundy, France on October 5, 1728. In 1755 Beaumont received an appointment at the court of Louis XV and was sent to Russia as a secret agent in woman's dress. In 1762 he was sent to London as an agent and later became minister plenipotentiary. In 1764 doubts began to be expressed as to Beaumont's sex and between 1769 and 1777 the matter became so notorious that a scheme of "insurance on the sex of M. le Chevalier (or Mlle. la Chevalhere) d'Eon" resulted in policies to the amount of £120,000. While the discussion was at its height, Beaumont was initiated a Freemason in La Lodge de l'Immortalite No. 376. It was a French lodge under English constitution and met at the Crown and Anchor tavern on the Strand in London. "He" received the third degree in January, 1769 and was appointed junior warden the same year. Fearing an attempt at kidnapping might be made by those who had effected "policies" on the issue, Beaumont was sheltered by Earl Ferrers at Staunton Harold near Ashby-de-la-Zouch. Ferrers was grand master of England in 1762-63. In 1777 an action was brought by a policyholder against an insurance broker to recover the sum secured by the policy, and when two witnesses swore in court that, of their own personal knowledge, the Chevalier was a woman, Beaumont admitted that "he" was a female. In order to receive a pension from France, Louis XVI decreed that Beaumont should wear woman's dress to the end of "his" life. Beaumont never again entered a Masonic lodge.

William Beaumont (1796-1853) Pioneer physician who laid the foundations for the present medical knowledge of how the human stomach functions. b. in Lebanon, Conn. He was a surgeon with the U.S. Army and when stationed at Mackinac, Mich. in 1822, he was called to treat a young Canadian half-breed named Alexis St. Martin, who had been wounded in the stomach by the accidental discharge of a gun in the store of the American Fur Co. The opening in the stomach failed to close and while alleviating the boy's suffering, Beaumont studied his stomach through this opening, noting the structure and action of gastric juices. He noted that when St. Martin was upset by fear or anger the secretions of acid in his stomach would increase. He observed the effects of alcohol and time required for various foods to digest. His work Experiments and Observations of the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion (1833) is considered the greatest single contribution ever made to the knowledge of gastric digestion. Although he did not expect St. Martin to live more than 36 hours, the youth survived Beaumont by many years. Beaumont was raised in Harmony Lodge, Champlain, N.Y. holding a certificate from that lodge dated April 11, 1820. He also held a certificate dated April 3, 1820 from the "Mark Master Masons Lodge in the town of Plattsburg, N.Y." A third certificate was issued to him by Plattsburgh Chapter No. 39, N.Y. dated April 3, 1820, which vouched for him as a Royal Arch Mason. After resigning from the Army, he practiced at St. Louis, Mo. where he died on April 25, 1853. In 1954 the Michigan State Medical Society sponsored the reconstruction of the retail store of the American Fur Co. on Mackinac Island where St. Martin was shot, as a memorial to Beaumont. Beaumont Ave. in St. Louis is named for him.

Pierre G. T. Beauregard (1818-1893) Confederate General, Civil War. b. near New Orleans. Graduate of West Point, 1838 and served through Mexican War. Superintendent of West Point at outbreak of Civil War but resigned to enter Confederate Army. As brigadier general he was in command of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, serving through the Civil War at Bull Run, Shiloh and Corinth. He was manager of the Louisiana lottery, 1780-88 and commissioner of public works of New Orleans, 1888. Author of Principles and Maxims of the Art of War (1863) and A Commentary on the Campaign and Battle of Manassas (1891). Mason and Knight Templar.

Charles H. Bebb (1856-1942) Architect of Washington State Capitol and other west coast buildings. b. April 10, 1856 at West Hall, Surrey, England. Began practice in Chicago, 1886, and moved to Seattle in 1893, where as member of Bebb and Jones, designed buildings for University of Washington, residence and commercial buildings and supervising architect of state capitol from 1911. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner. d. June 21, 1942.

Robert C. Becherer President of Link-Belt Co., Chicago since 1952. b. June 25, 1902 at Indianapolis, Ind. Graduate of Purdue, 1923. With Link-Belt Co. since 1923. Raised in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398, Indianapolis, Ind. in 1924.

J. George Becht (1865-1925) State superintendent of public instruction of Pennsylvania 1923-25. b. July 17, 1865. President of State Normal, Clarion, Pa. 1904-12 and with State Board of Education from 1912. Mason. d. April 26, 1925.

Stephen Bechtel President of W. A. Bechtel Co. since 1936; vice president of Six Companies, Inc. (builders of Hoover Dam) and of Bridge Builders, Inc. (foundations of San Francisco Bay bridges). b. Sept. 24, 1900 at Aurora, Ind. Vice president and director of a score of firms allied with the shipbuilding, pipe line and heavy construction field. Raised June 30, 1923 in Oakland Lodge No. 188, received 32° AASR (SJ) in Oakland Consistory in 1924; member of Aahmes Shrine Temple, all of Oakland, Calif.

Adam L. Beck (1862-1939) Organizer and president of three Portland Cement Companies, Oklahoma (1906) Great Lakes (1925), Indiana (1917). b. May 9, 1862 at Huntington, Ind. Construction engineer from 1883-87 followed by organization of several limestone companies. Mason. d. Aug. 10, 1939.

Edward A. Beck (1885-1925) City manager of Goldsborough, N.C. (191718) ; Auburn, Me. (1919-20) and Lynchburg, Va. from 1920. b. Jan. 19, 1885 at Peru, Ind. Mason. d. Oct. 18, 1925.

Robert Mc. Beck, Jr. Major General U.S. Army. b. May 9, 1879 at Westminster, Md. Graduate of West Point, 1901. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant, Cavalry 1901 and promoted through grades to brigadier general in 1936 and major general in 1938. Served in Philippines 190305 and 1909-11. Participated in many large offensives in WW1. Instructor in army service schools and chief of staff, Operations and Training Div. of War Department General Staff, 1938-39. Retired, 1939. Mason.

T. Romeyn Beck (1791-1885) Physician and author. b. Schenectady, N.Y. Collaborated with his brother John B. in Elements of Medical Jurisprudence (1823). Member of Masters Lodge No. 5, Albany, N.Y.

Arthur D. Becker (1878-1947) Osteopathic physician, president of American Osteopathic Assn. 1931-32 and president of American College of Osteopathic Internists since 1944. President of Des Moines Still College of Osteopathy, 1935-42. President of Associated Colleges of Osteopathy 1938-39. Mason. b. Aug. 20, 1878, at Austin, Minn. d. May 16, 1947.

Rudolph Zacharias Becker (17521822) German popular writer, journalist and active Freemason of Gotha. Edited Allgemeiner Reichsanzeiger (from 1791), Nationalzeitung der Deutschen (1796). In 1786 he published an historical essay on the Bavarian Illuminati titled Grundsatze Verfassung und Schicksale des Illumi- nates Order in Baiern. He also wrote Noth- und Hulfsbuchlein (1788), Mildheimisches

Liederbuck (1799), and a description of his experiences in prison in 1814.

John C. W. Beckham Governor of Kentucky. Member of Duvall Lodge No. 6, Bardstown, Ky. (June, 1901) A Knight Templar.

John J. Beckley First clerk of the House of Representatives and first Librarian of Congress. Member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, Williamsburg, Va.

Johann Beckmann (1739-1811) German technologist and educator. Professor of economics, Gottingen (from 1770) and author of a history of inventions. Mason.

Marc, Michel and Joseph Bedarride Three brothers classed as Masonic charlatans who were active in the "Rite of Mizraim" during the middle of the 19th century.

Elbert Bede Editor and publisher of several periodicals. b. June 28, 1881. Retired in 1936, moving to Portland, Ore. where he purchased the Masonic Analyst, changing its name to Oregon Mason in 1938 and later to Oregon Freemason. Raised in Chicago Lodge No. 271, North Branch, Minn. and later affiliated with Ashlar Lodge No. 209 of Portland, Ore. Raised in Cisago Lodge 232 (Ill). Member of Cottage Grove (Oreg) Lodge No. 51.

Gunning Bedford, Jr. (1742-1812) Constitution signer of 1787. b. Philadelphia. Colonel and aide to General Washington in Revolution. Washington appointed him the first judge of the U.S. District Court of Delaware, a position which he held until his death. He was the first

grand master of Delaware (1806-08). Graduated from Nassau Hall (now Princeton) with distinction. Studied law in Philadelphia and practiced in Delaware. He was raised on Sept. 11, 1782 in Washington Lodge No. 14 (under Pa.) and now No. 1 of Delaware. He served as master of the lodge but the date is not known. It was through his efforts that two U.S. senators were obtained for Delaware. He died March 30, 1812 at Wilmington and was buried with honors by the G.L. of Delaware on the lawn of the Masonic Home on Lancaster Pike about three miles from Wilmington.

Joseph D. Bedle Governor of New Jersey. Raised in Olive Branch Lodge No. 16, Freehold, N.J. on April 24, 1857.

Bernard B. Bee, Jr. Confederate General in Civil war. Graduate of West Point. Bee named General T. J. Jackson "Stonewall" in the first battle of Bull Run where Bee was killed. A Knight Templar in Texas.

Hamilton P. Bee Confederate General in Civil War. Member of Austin Lodge No. 12, Texas.

Lewis C. Beebe Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. Dec. 7, 1891. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1917 advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1942. Served as regimental staff officer 3rd Inf. Division in WW1. Deputy chief of staff for General MacArthur on Corregidor and chief of staff for General Wainwright until surrender of U.S. forces in Philippines. Japanese prisoner of war from 19421945. Later served in Europe. Mason.

Royden E. Beebe Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 14, 1878 at Burlington, Vt. Graduated in chemistry cum laude, Univ. of Vermont, 1900. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant, Infantry, U.S. Army in 1901, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1942. His son,

Royden E., Jr., is also a brigadier general. Served 82nd division WW1 and commanding general of Fort Jackson, S.C. in 194143. Retired. Mason.

R. Livingston Beeckman (1866-1935) Governor of Rhode Island. b. April 15, 1866 in New York City. Banker and member of New York Stock Exchange, 1887-06. Member R.I. house of representatives, 190911 and state senate, 1912-14. Served three terms as governor, 191521. Mason. d. Jan. 21, 1935.

Carroll L. Reedy (1880-1947) Congressman from Maine to 67th to 73rd Congresses (1921-35). b. Aug. 3, 1880 at Phillips, Maine. LL.B. Yale, 1906.

Began practice at Portland in 1907. Practiced law in Washington, D.C. from 1935. Mason. d. Sept. 20, 1947.

Frederick W. Beekman American clergyman, dean of Nativity Pro-Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Paris, France since 1918 (Protestant and Episcopal). b. Feb. 14, 1871 at Newbury, Mass. Ordained priest, 1905. Founder of American Students and Artists Center, Paris since 1919. Founder of American Battle Cloister, Paris, 1923. Served in Spanish-American War 1898. Mason.

Alfred B. Beers (1845-1920) Commander in Chief of G.A.R., 1912-13. b. April 23, 1845 at New Rochelle, N.Y. Served as enlisted man Civil War, 1861-65. Lawyer in Bridgeport, Conn. from 1871. Mason. d. March 30, 1920.

Wallace Beery (1889-1949) Movie star, actor. b. in Kansas City, Mo. and attended Chase School in that city. He ran away from home to join a circus and became an elephant trainer. He was first identified with the film world as a female impersonator. He is noted for his character roles in such films as Big House, Hell Divers, The Champ, Grand Hotel, Stable Mates, Sergeant Madden, and Bad Man of Brimstone. Was awarded gold medal as "World's best actor" by the International Motion Picture Exposition at Venice, Italy in 1934. Was a member of the advisory board of the Bank of America. Beery belonged to Blaney Lodge No. 271 of Chicago, 32° AASR and a Shriner. d. April 25, 1949.

Fred I. Holt Beever His Masonic burial was the first Masonic ceremony held in the present state of N. Dak. While carrying orders from General Sibley to Col. Crooks, near the conjunction of Apple Creek and the Missouri River, Beever took the wrong route and was ambushed and killed by the Indians. A marker erected on the spot by the Grand Lodge of North Dakota to his memory, bears the following inscription: "On this spot, July 31, 1863, occurred the first Masonic Ceremony held in the present State of North Dakota. It was the Masonic funeral of Lieutenant Fred I. Holt Beever, an Englishman and Oxonian, and a volunteer soldier attached to the staff of General H. H. Sibley. He was killed in a skirmish with the Indians and was buried in the rifle pits which were dug along this ridge. Deputy Grand Master John C. Whipple of Minnesota, convened an emergency Masonic Lodge, with brothers A. J. Edgerton as Worshipful Master, J. C. Braden, Senior Warden, and Patch, Junior Warden, and the body of Brother Beever was here consigned to earth with Masonic Services. This tablet and marker has been placed by the Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of North Dakota, 1920, to commemorate the fact that while Lieutenant Beever died far away from home and among strangers, yet he was among brethren, who saw that the honors so justly his due were paid him.”

Harvey A. Beffa Brewery executive and past imperial potentate of Shrine. b. June 19, 1900 at St. Louis, Mo. With Anton Beffa & Son Wrecking Co., 1915-33. With Falstaff Brewing Corp., St. Louis since 1933 being vice president and director in 1935 and now executive vice president and general manager. Raised in Purity Lodge No. 658, St. Louis, Mo. in 1925, serving as master in 1935. Member of Cabany

Chapter No. 140, R.A.M. and St. Aldemar Commandery No. 18, K.T. 32° AASR (SJ) Valley of St. Louis. Potentate of Moolah Shrine temple in 1940. Member of Grotto and 0.E. S . Imperial potentate, North America from 1952-53 of Shrine and honorary life member of 75 Shrine temples.

Lyall T. Beggs National commander Veterans of Foreign Wars, 1948. b. Nov. 1889 at Plainfield, Wis. Graduate of University of Wisconsin, 1925. Admitted to bar in 1926. Member of Wisconsin legislature 1940-46. Mason, 32°, Shriner.

Josiah W. Begole Former Governor of Michigan. Member of Flint Lodge No. 23, Flint, Mich.

Herman A. Behrens ( 1883 - 1945 ) President of Continental Assurance Co. from 1928. b. Sept. 29, 1883 at Hamburg, Germany. With Pacific Mutual Life of California from 1903-12, coming to Chicago in 1907 where he became vice president and manager of Continental Casualty Co. in 191228. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner.

H. Frederick Behrens (1870-1935) President of Sterling Products, Inc. and Bayer Co., Inc. b. Aug. 4, 1870 at Wheeling, W. Va. Trustee of Washington and Jefferson College. Mason. d. Jan. 17, 1935.

William W. Behrens Commodore, U.S. Navy. b. June 6, 1898 at Lancaster, Pa. Commissioned ensign in 1918 and advanced through grades to commodore in 1945. Executive officer of USS Concord during Pearl Harbor attack and subsequent duty in Pacific. Mason.

Lynden E. "Bee" Behymer (18621947) Impresario and manager of world celebrities on the Pacific coast. b. Nov. 5, 1862 at New

Palestine, Ohio. Presented La Boheme first time in America on Oct. 14, 1897 at Los Angeles. In 1898 he formed and managed for 20 years the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra. Presented Metropolitan Opera Co. on west coast in 1901, 02, 04, 06 and Boston Opera in 1910, 12. Chicago Opera Co. 1914, 16, 18. Brought the following to the west coast for tours: Sarah Bernhardt, Eleanora Duse, Enrico Caruso, Sir Henry Irving, Edwin Booth, Paderewski, Rabindranath Tagore, Jacob Riis, Feodor Chaliapin. Presented Lawrence Tibbett, Maud Allan and Isadore Duncan in first concerts. Knight Templar, AASR member and Shriner. d. Dec. 16, 1947.

William A. Beiderlinden Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. March 4, 1895 at Springfield, Mo. Graduate Drury College, Springfield, Mo., and army service schools. Commissioned 1st lieut. in 1917 and advanced through grades to brig. general in 1943. Commanded 44th Div. Arty. in WW2 and later assistant chief of staff G-1 GHQ, SCAP and FEC, Tokyo, 1946. Mason.

Robert S. Beightler Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. March 21, 1892 at Marysville, Ohio. Student at Ohio State University and of service schools. Member of engineering firm in Columbus, Ohio since 1930 and from 1912-30 was highway engineer, serving as chief engineer of Ohio State Highway Department. Enlisted in 4th Ohio Infantry in 1911, served on Mexican border and WW1. Promoted to major general in 1940 and permanent major general in 1944. Commanded 37th Division in WW2, 43 months in Pacific. Member War Department General Staff, Washington 1932-36; commanding 5th Service Command 1946-47; president of Army Personnel Board 194748; commanding general, Camp Chaffee, Ark. and 5th Armored Division since 1948. Mason. Received 33° Sept. 25, 1945.

Edwin J. Beinecke President and chairman of board of The Sperry and Hutchinson Co. since 1923. b. Jan. 6, 1886 in New York City. Graduate of Yale in 1907. President of Henry Maurer & Son, 192123; president and chairman of board of U.S. Realty & Improvement Co. 1936-42; chairman of board Plaza Hotel Co. 1936-42; and present

director of 13 large corporations. Served as captain in WW1 anddepartment commander of Red Cross in England in WW2. Mason.

Ian Hay Beith (1876-1952) British major general, author and playwright. Served as junior grand deacon of the G.L. of England in 1934. Widely known to literary public and playgoers under psuedonym of his two christian names of "Ian Hay." d. Sept. 1952.

Jonathan Belcher (1681-1757) Colonial governor of Massachusetts, and New Hampshire (1730-41) and of New Jersey in 1747. b. Jan. 8, 1681 at Boston and claimed by some to be the first native born American to become a Freemason. He was raised in an old "Guilde Lodge" in England in 1704-13 years before the founding of the G.L. of England. Others have claimed this honor for John Moore q.v. and John Skene q.v. Belcher is also reported as having been on the rolls of the craft in Nova Scotia at an early date. He graduated from Harvard in 1699, later affiliating with St. John's Lodge in Boston, Mass. In 1756 the trustees of Princeton University wanted to name Nassau Hall after Belcher stating "when your Excellency is translated to a house not made with hands, eternal in the Heavens, let Belcher Hall proclaim your beneficent acts." Upon his retirement as governor in 1741 the First Lodge of Boston called upon him to thank him for the many favors bestowed upon Freemasonry. In reply, he wrote the lodge: ". . . It is now thirty-seven years since I was admitted into the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and accepted Masons, to whom I have been a faithful Brother & well-wisher to the Art of Masonry . . ." d. August 31, 1757 at Elizabethtown, N.J.

Clark Belden Advertising and public relations expert b. April 4, 1896 at Falls Village, Conn. Student at Brown, Cornell and Northwestern Universities. Started as a reporter, 1914 in Hartford, Conn. In advertising with Insurance companies from 1919 to 1924. With Connecticut Chamber of Commerce 1924-29 as secretary, vice president and director. Lecturer, advisor and public relations expert for many corporations, universities and quasi-governmental organizations. Mason.

Manuel Belgrano Argentine patriot who designed that country's flag. b. June 3, 1779 at Buenos Aires. Studied in Spain and returned to River Plate as consul. Ardent supporter of the 1810 revolution, he formed part of the junta that governed the country for a short time. Was made a general and commanded an unsuccessful military expedition against Paraguay. After this defeat, he created the Argentine flag. He returned to Spain to negotiate recognition of the new state and on his return was given another command, with which he defeated the Spanish Royalists. For these successes he received a substantial grant which he turned into the building of schools.

Robert Edward, 11th Lord of Belhaven (and Stanton) Was 87th Grand Master Mason of Scotland 1931-32.

Brian Bell (1890-1942) Newspaperman and chief of Washington Bureau of Associated Press from 1939. b. March 30, 1890 at York, S.C. Began as a reporter in Columbia, S.C. and has been with Associated Press since 1924 as staff member in Atlanta, Ga., chief of New Orleans Bureau, general staff in New York (1926-30); chief of Los Angeles Bureau (193036); news editor, Western division (1936-39). Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner. d. June 8, 1942.

Charles J. Bell Congressman from Missouri 74th to 80th Congresses (1935-49). b. Jan. 16, 1885 at Lake City, Colo. LL.B. Kansas City Schoolof Law, 1913 and began practice in Kansas City same year. Member of city council of K.C. 1926-30 and judge of 16th Mo. Circuit Court 1931-34. Member of Temple Lodge No. 299, Kansas City, Mo.

Charles J. Bell (1858-1929) Banker, organizer of Bell & Co., Washington, D.C. in 1881. b. April 12, 1858 at Dublin, Ireland. Educated in Wesleyan College, Dublin. Came to U.S. in 1873. General manager

of National Telephone Co. in 1880, organizing exchanges in north of England. Chairman of board of Terminal Cold Storage Co., Washington, from 1893. Trustee of George Washington National Memorial Association and National Geographic Society. Mason. d. Oct. 2, 1929.

Charles S. Bell (1880-1945) Judge, Supreme Court of Ohio from 1942. b. Oct. 8, 1880 at Cincinnati, Ohio. Admitted to bar in 1910. Served as local solicitor and prosecutor and judge of court of common pleas, Hamilton Co. Mason, Shriner. d. Aug. 22, 1945.

Frank Bell Acting Governor of Nevada. Member of Reno Lodge No. 13, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Nevada.

George M. Bell Publisher of The Albertan, Calgary, Alta, Canada since 1943. b. Oct. 13, 1911 at Regina, Sask., Canada. Graduate of McGill Univ. 1932. Liberal. Member of Perfection Lodge No. 9, Calgary, Alta. and Al Azhar Shrine Temple of Calgary.

John Bell Former Governor of New Hampshire. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N. H.

John Bell (1797-1869) Secretary of War, U.S. Senator from Tennessee and speaker of U.S. House of Representatives. b. Feb. 15, 1797 near Nashville, Tenn. Member of state senate in 1817. Elected to Congress in 1827 over Felix Grundy q.v. and reelected six times, serving until 1841. Elected speaker of house in 1834. Was one of the founders of the Whig party. Named Secretary of War in 1841 by Harrison. Elected to U.S. Senate in 1847, remaining in that body until 1859. Member of King Solomon Lodge No. 6 at Gallatin, Tenn., and was probably a member of Nashville Lodge No. 37 before he affiliated with the former lodge.

John A. Bell Organizer of Negro "bogus" lodges in competition with legitimate Prince Hall (Negro) Grand Lodges.

Lawrence D. Bell Founder of Bell Aircraft Corp., 1935. (Buffalo, N.Y.) b. April 5, 1894 at Mentone, Ind. Started with Glenn L. Martin Co., airplane mfgrs. as shop foreman in 1912 and became vice president and general manager. Then moved to Consolidated Aircraft Corp., (1928) and became vice president and general manager. Organized Bell Aircraft with associates in 1935. Completed the Airaconda, a twinengine fighting plane with two cannons in 1937; began making the Airacobra, a pursuit plane with one cannon, in 1939 in mass production for U.S. Army. President of Aircraft War Production Council, East Coast, Inc.; president of National Aircraft War Production Council. Received trophy for aid in supersonic flight. Mason.

Robert C. Bell Federal judge. b. Nov. 1, 1880 at Harrisonville, Mo. LL.B. University of Missouri, 1908. U.S. district judge since 1933. U.S. Attorney General 1916-21; attorney for Red Lake Indians (Minn.) 192733; attorney for Pillager Indians (Minn.) 1930-33; Minnesota state senator, 1928-33; Author of Minnesota Income Tax Law. Mason.

Rev. Francis J. Bellamy (1855-1931) Author of the American "Pledge of Allegiance" to the flag. Member of Little Falls Lodge No. 181, Little Falls, N.Y. The original pledge as written by Bellamy did not contain the words "of the United States of America," or "under God." The Order of Eastern Star erected a memorial tablet to him in 1955 at the O.E.S. Home in Oriskany, N.Y.

Johann Joachim Bellermann (17541842) German Theologian and Freemason.

George, Viscount of Bellfield Grand Master, Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1774. Later became 2nd Earl of Belvedere.

Perry Belmont (1851-1947) Lawyer and philanthropist. b. Dec. 28, 1851 in New York City, son of August Belmont a noted financier. His grandfather was Commodore Matthew C. Perry q.v. Raised in Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City on June 11, 1878 and received 50-year medal and palm on April 28, 1941. Graduated from Harvard in 1872 and Columbia law school in 1876. Practiced in New York until 1881 when he was elected to Congress and served until 1887.

Charles S. Belsterling Vice president of U.S. Steel Corp. since 1932. b. May 31, 1874 at Philadelphia, Pa. Admitted to Pennsylvania bar in 1904; general commerce attorney for U.S. Steel Corp. from 1914 to 1932. Life member of Lodge No. 51, Philadelphia and 50-year veteran. Member of Keystone Chapter No. 175, R.A.M. (life) and Corinthian Commandery (life), both of Philadelphia. Life member of Zamora Shrine Temple, Birmingham, Ala. as well as Lu Lu Temple, Philadelphia.

Harry H. Belt Associate justice, Supreme Court of Oregon since 1925. b. Nov. 24, 1883 at Salem, Oregon. Mason.

Giovanni Battista Belzoni (17781823) Italian explorer and archaeologist. Explored Egyptian antiquities (1815-19); opened temple of Abu-Simbel (1817); discovered tomb of Seti I, Thebes (1817); opened second pyramid of Giza; transferred bust Young Memnon from Thebes to Alexandria. The Norfolk Remembrancer (England) in August 1821 said, "Mr. Belzoni, the celebrated traveller and discoverer of Egyptian antiquities, visited Norwich; he stayed with Jeremiah Ives, Esquire, of St. Catherine's Hill; previous to his departure he received the high masonic degree of Knight Templar." He was referred to as "Bro. Belzoni" when his widow was helped by the Lodge of Emulation

(London) in 1825. Bedford Lodge No. 183 (England) also contributed to his widow.

Thomas Benbury Brigadier General of Militia in American Revolution. Served as Master of Unanimity Lodge No. 7, Edenton, N.C.

Charles A. "Chief" Bender (18831954) Baseball player. b. May 5, 1883 at Brainerd, Minn. A Chippewa Indian who was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953 for winning over 200 games. He pitched for the Athletics in the 1905-1910-1911-19131914 world series. He defeated the New York Giants 3-0 for the Athletics' only victory in 1905. He was first pitcher in world series of six games (1911) to pitch three complete games. In 1910 he pitched a no-hit game against Cleveland. He petitioned Robert A. Lamberton Lodge No. 487 of Philadelphia, Pa. when 27 years of age and was raised on April 4, 1911. He was suspended NPD in 1938, but reinstated in 1943.

Andrew B. Benedict (1885-1953) University administrator. President of Ward-Belmont, 1938-39 and trustee of Vanderbilt University from 1930-53. b. July 21, 1885 at Nashville, Term. Mason.

David Benedict (1779-1874) Early Baptist minister and author. b. Oct. 10, 1779 at Norwalk, Conn. Studied shoemaker's trade, but became interested in religion and graduated from Brown Univ. in 1806. Although he did not hold a regular pastorate, he preached with great vigor until 92 years old. Devoted much time to historical research and wrote History of the Baptists (1813), History of all Religions (1824), History of the Baptist Denominations in America and all Parts of the World (1848), Fifty Years among the Baptists (1860), and several others including poems and a hymn book. He was raised in Newport Lodge No. 1, Newport, Rhode Island on June 24, 1827 and was a member of Pawtucket Chapter No. 4 at Pawtucket, R.I. d. Dec. 5, 1874.

Pope Benedict XIV (1675-1758) Anti-mason who issued a Papal Bull on May 18, 1751, renewing and perpetuating that of his predecessor which excommunicated all Freemasons (see Pope Clement XII). His real name was Prospero Lambertini and he served as Pope from 1740, succeeding Clement XII, to his death in 1758. He greatly encouraged education, literature and science and was liberal in his policy toward foreign powers. He was, however, an implacable enemy of secret societies.

William L. Benedict Surgeon, president of staff of Mayo Clinic 193234. b. Feb. 13, 1885 at Springport, Ind. Received M.D. degree at University of Michigan in 1912. In private practice until 1917 when he went with the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. as head of section of Ophthalmology. Member of Rochester Lodge No. 21 and Halcyon Chapter No. 8, R.A.M., both of Rochester, Minn.

Eduard Benes (1884-1948) President of Czechoslovakia. Educated in universities of Prague, Paris, and Dujon. A disciple of Masaryk, he worked in Paris with him from 1915-19 in Czech nationalist movement. He was Czech delegate at peace conference in 1919-20 and first foreign minister of Czechoslovakia from 1918-35 and prime minister from 1921-22. He was co-founder of the Little Entente. Elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1935, he resigned in October, 1938 on German occupation of Sudetenland. Was appointed professor of sociology at the University of Chicago in 1939. President of the Czechoslovak government in exile with headquarters in England from 1939-45, returning to Czechoslovakia in March, 1945 and was reelected president in 1946. Buried in the garden of his country home at Sezimovo Usti, September 10, 1948, with both Catholic and Protestant services. When elected President of Czechoslovakia, he withdrew from Masonic activities, but remained interested in the fraternity and rendered his full moral and financial support in London where the National Grand Lodge of Czechoslovakia in Exile was established as well as the Comenius in Exile Lodge. Benes was initiated in the Jan Amos Komensky Lodge No. 1 of Prague (the oldest modern Czechoslovak lodge) about 1924-25 and he later became a member of Pravda Vitezi (Truth Shall Prevail) Lodge of Prague, being passed and raised in the latter about 1927-28.

Conrado Benitez Philippine statesman, serving under Quezon. Helped write the Philippine constitution. A past grand master of the Philippines. Appointed a member of the Philippine delegation to the Manila Treaty Conference by President Magsaysay. A 33° AASR, he served for a time as acting sovereign grand commander. Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Philippine Woman's University, president of the Y.M.C.A. and director of the Rotary Club of Manila.

Louis Benjamin (1883-?) Newspaper publisher. b. London, England, Nov. 8, 1883 and brought to the U.S. as a child. Publisher of the Erie (Pa.) Dispatch-Herald from 1925. Became president of Benjamin Advertising Corp. in 1913 and was president of the Erie Dispatch-Herald Broadcasting Corp. A director of Zem Zem Shrine Hospital for children and member of board of governors of B'nai B'rith. Mason. Deceased.

Aleksandr Khristoforovich Benkendorf (or Benckendorff) (17831844) Russian general and statesman. Family was originally German. He engaged in campaigns against Napoleon in 1813-15 and became Chief of Gendarmes under Nicholas I. Nicholas I banned Freemasonry in an edict dated April 21, 1826 just as his predecessor Alexander I q.v. had on Aug. 1, 1822. Benkendorf was a member of the Lodge of United Friends in Petersburg.

Winthrop W. Benner Rubber executive. b. Minneapolis, Minn. March 25, 1881. President of National Synthetic Rubber Corp. from 1942 until retirement in 1948. Began as chemist for Oliver Iron Mining Co. in 1903 and later with Zenith Furnace Co., Atikokan Iron Co., production superintendent for Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. from 190914 and vice president of Lee Rubber Tire Corp. from 1915-26. Mason.

Augustus W. Bennet Lawyer, congressman. b. Oct. 7, 1897 in New York City. Graduated from Amherst and Columbia Universities. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1921 and practiced since in Newburgh, N.Y. Member of the 79th Congress (1945-47) from 29th N.Y. district. Served in Navy Air Corps in WW1. A past district deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of New York. Member of Hudson River Lodge No. 607, Newburgh, N.Y., serving as master in 1930. Member of Highland Chapter, R.A.M. No. 52, Newburgh and Tall Cedars of Lebanon.

William S. Bennet Lawyer, congressman. b. Port Jervis, N.Y., Nov. 9, 1870. Member of 59th to 61st Congresses (1905-11) from 17th N.Y. district and 64th Congress (1915-17) from 23rd N.Y. district. Declined appointment as U.S. District Judge in 1906. Assistant treasurer of the United States in 1911; appraiser of Port of New York in 1912; assistant attorney general of U.S. in 1929; delegate to state constitutional convention in 1938; member of the U.S. Immigration Commission 1907-10. He moved to Chicago in 1920 as vice president and general counsel of Edward Hines lumber interests, returning to New York City in 1933 where he resumed practice. Mason and 32° AASR.

Andrew C. Bennett Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Goodland, Kansas. Graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1912 advancing from ensign to rear admiral in 1942. He commanded submarines and submarine units for 24 years, also serving on battleships and cruisers. Commanded light cruiser U.S.S. Savannah from 1940-42; unit commander at Oran, Algeria area of invasion of North Africa in WW2. Commandant of 8th Naval District Hdqs. in New Orleans from 1943. Mason, 32° AASR. Deceased.

Burton E. Bennett (1863-?) Lawyer, who as early district attorney for Alaska secured first convictions in that territory for murder, adultery and illicit sale of intoxicants; secured 99 convictions out of 101 cases in spring term of 1898. b. April 17, 1863 at Brookfield, N.Y., he received three degrees from Cornell University. Practiced law in New York but early moved to Seattle, Washington. Mason.

Caleb P. Bennett (1758-1836) Governor of Delaware. b. Nov. 11, 1758 in Chester Co., Pa. He entered the Delaware regiment of the Revolution as a private and rose to 1st lieutenant, serving in the Battle of Brandywine and was wounded at Germantown. At Valley Forge during winter of 1777 and in command of battery at surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the War of 1812 he was a major of the Delaware State Militia. His grandmother was Mary Boone, daughter of the famous Daniel Boone. He was governor of Delaware from 1832-36. He adhered to the old fashioned style of dress, low shoes, silver knee and shoe buckles, long silk stockings, white breeches, velvet coat with brass buttons, ruffled shirt bosom, powdered hair and cue. He was raised in Lodge No. 14 at Christina Ferry, Del., Jan. 16, 1781. d. July 11, 1836.

Charles E. Bennett Lawyer, congressman. b. Dec. 2, 1910 at Canton, N.Y. Graduated University of Florida in 1934 and admitted to Florida bar that year, since practicing in Jacksonville. Member of Florida State Legislature in 1941 and member of 81st Congress (1949-51) from 2nd Florida dist. Served in south Pacific in WW2, advancing from private to captain. Member of Riverside Lodge No. 266, Jacksonville, Fla.

Charles Edwin Bennett Public utilities executive. b. May 21, 1888 at Ft. Collins, Colo. Graduated University of Wisconsin in 1912. President and director of the following companies: Manufacturers Light and Heat Co., Natural Gas Co. of W. Va., Cumberland & Allegheny Gas Co., Home Gas Co., Binghamton Gas Works, The Keystone Gas Co., Inc., Eastern Pipe Line Co., Gettysburg Gas Corp. Mason.

Charles H. Bennett President of Daisy Manufacturing Co. (air rifles) since 1920. b. Plymouth, Mich., July 27, 1863. Began as salesman for Daisy Co. at Plymouth, Mich. in 1888. Was vice president from 1888-1920. Mason. Charles R. Bennett (?-1855) His tombstone bears the inscription "Capt. Charles Bennett was discoverer of gold in

California." He came to California as a mule hostler with General Fremont, q.v., in 1845. While satering his mules at their camp on the American River, in what is now El Dorado Co., he picked up a small nugget which he recognized as gold. He showed it to Fremont who paid little attention to the incident. Bennett afterwards moved to Oregon, but in company with Stephen Staat and James W. Marshall, returned to Calif. and was employed by Sutter to assist Marshall in the construction of the mill at Coloma. Bennett was present at Coloma when Marshall picked up the piece of gold which precipitated the gold rush. Staat said that Bennett picked up the original piece of gold before Marshall saw it. As soon as Sutter recognized the extent of the discovery at his mill, he sent Bennett to Monterey in an effort to induce Governor Mason to lease him the land surrounding the mill with mineral rights. The governor refused, believing the land was still held under Mexican law. After mining for some time on the lode Bennett returned to Oregon with a large quantity of gold and built the first hotel in Salem, located where the present Masonic temple stands today. Hotel keeping was a little tame for him, and soon he became captain of the Salem Oregon Mounted Rifles, and while leading the company in the Yakima Indian War, he was killed at Walla Walla in 1855. His body was returned to Salem where it was interred with Masonic honors by Salem Lodge No. 4. Bennett was the first candidate to have been initiated in that lodge. Name on original petition is spelled "Bennet".

Granville G. Bennett Bishop, Protestant Episcopal church. b. Nov. 28, 1882 at Deadwood, S.D. Degrees from University of Nebraska, Seabury Divinity School and Brown University. Priested in 1907, he served in Faribault, Minn., Holdrege, Nebr., Bozeman, Mont., Great Falls, Mont., and Minneapolis, Minn. He was bishop coadjutor of Duluth from 1920-22 and bishop of Duluth from 1922-32 when he became auxiliary bishop of R.I. In 1946 he was named bishop of R.I. Mason.

Henry G. Bennett College president. b. Dec. 14, 1886 in Nevada Co., Ark. College degrees from Ouachita College, University of Oklahoma and Columbia University. Has served as president of Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College since 1928. Previous to that he had served as superintendent of schools of Choctaw County,

Okla. and at Hugo, Okla. He was president of Southeastern State Teachers College from 19191928. Mason.

Philip A. Bennett (1881-1942) Congressman. b. March 5, 1881 in Dallas Co., Mo. Began as school teacher in 1899 and was publisher of the Buffalo (Mo.) Reflex from 1904-21. Served as state senator, 19th dist. of Mo. 192125 and lieutenant governor of Mo. from 1925-29. Was a member of the 77th Congress (1941-43) from 6th Mo. dist. Director of O'Bannon Banking Co. from 1919-36. Died Dec. 7, 1942 at Springfield, Mo. Mason.

Richard Bedford Bennett (18701947) Prime minister of Canada. Statesman, minister of justice and attorney general 1921, served as prime minister from 1930 to 1935. Viscount Bennett was raised in Miramichi Lodge No. 18 at Chatham, N.B., and affiliated with Ashlar Lodge No. 28, Calgary, Alta., on April 14, 1910.

Robert R. Bennett (1865-1933) Explorer, lawyer. b. Dec. 12, 1865 at Toledo, Ohio. LL.B. from George Washington Univ. in 1904. Served as special agent of the U.S. Dept. of Justice in 1917 as well as confidential agent of War Dept. Later a captain of Intelligence, General Staff. Sent on confidential mission to Central America in 1919 and conducted expedition to Yucatan, exploring ancient ruins for Museum of American Indian, N.Y. in 1930. Mason. d. Dec. 12, 1933.

Thomas Bennett Governor of South Carolina who was a member of Solomons Lodge No. 1, Charleston, S.C.

Henry A. Benning Business executive. b. Aug. 8, 1882 at Lyons, N.Y. President and general manager of Amalgamated Sugar Co., Ogden Transit Co. Director of First Security Bank, Mountain States

Implement Co., Utah Power and Light Co. and U.S. Beet Sugar Assn. Residence, Ogden, Utah. Mason and Shriner.

Pierre L. L. Benoit (1834-1901) Belgian composer and director of Antwerp Conservatory of Music. A leader in Flemish musical circles, composing oratorios, operas, cantatas, religious dramas, hymns and songs. A Freemason according to Cock's Dictiarmaire Macanique, published in Brussels.

August Benson Clothing manufacturer. b. Nov. 29, 1892 at Simrishamm, Sweden. Vice president and designer of Richmond Bros. (clothiers), Cleveland, Ohio, since 1922. Earlier he was designer for Society Brand Clothes of Chicago. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Carville D. Benson (1872-1929) Congressman from 2nd Maryland dist. b. Baltimore Co., Md. Aug. 24, 1872. Received law degree from Baltimore Univ. and practiced at Baltimore from 1893. Served in Maryland's lower house of legislature from 1904-10 inclusive and again in 1918, beingspeaker in 1906. Member of Maryland Senate 1912-14 and served in 65th and 66th Congress. Mason. Died Feb. 8, 1929.

Elmer A. Benson U.S. Senator and governor of Minnesota. Raised in Appleton Lodge No. 137, Appleton, Minn. on Jan. 3, 1917.

William E. Benswanger Insurance and baseball executive. b. Feb. 22, 1892 at New York. In insurance business from 1911-31 and in baseball from 1931 to 1946. President, treasurer and director of Forbes Field Co.; director of the National League and former president of the Pittsburgh Pirates (he sold in 1946). Served in Air Service (balloon) during WW1. Now devotes himself to many musical activities. Director of Pittsburgh Symphony Society, president of Pittsburgh Concert

Society and has written extensively on music. Has been annotator of the Pittsburgh Symphony since 1926. A member of Lodge No. 45 and Zerubbabel Chapter No. 162 of Pittsburgh as well as Islam Grotto.

Charles Bent 1799-1847) Pioneer and first American governor of New Mexico. b. at Charleston, Va. (now W. Va.) November 11, 1799. His father, Judge Silas Bent, emigrated to St. Louis, Mo. in 1806 and became a famous Missouri jurist. Both were members of Missouri Lodge No. 1, Charles being initiated on June 8, 1822. He attended West Point, but resigned from the army to engage in the fur trade in Colorado and New Mexico. With his brother, William, and Ceran St. Vrain, organized a trading company and built an adobe fort known as Bent's Fort on the bank of the Arkansas River where the Santa Fe Trail crossed. When New Mexico was formed into a territory, he was named as first governor and thereby was ex-officio superintendent of Indian Affairs. He left Santa Fe for Taos on Jan. 14, 1846 to return his family after hearing rumors of Mexican and Indian uprisings. Reaching Taos on Jan. 18 he was shot, and scalped while still alive in an IndianMexican raid of that evening. He was closely associated with Kit Carson q.v.

Alvin M. Bentley Congressman and foreign service officer. b. Aug. 20, 1918 at Portland, Me. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan in 1940. Was a foreign service officer in Mexico City, 1942-44; Bogata, Colombia, 1945-46; Budapest, Hungary, 1947-49; and Rome, Italy 1949-50. Vice president of Lake Huron Broadcasting Co., Saginaw, Mich. since 1952. Member of U.S. Congress from 8th Dist. Mich. since 1953. Member of Owosso Lodge No. 81, Owosso Chapter No. 89, R.A.M., Owosso Comrnandery No. 49, K.T. all of Owosso, Mich. 32° AASR (NJ) in Bay City, Mich. and Elf Khurafeh Shrine Temple of Saginaw, Mich.

George A. Benton ( 1848 -1921) Judge. b. May 7, 1848 at Tolland, Conn. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1874. Served as justice of Supreme Court of N.Y. from 1907-1918 when he was retired by age and appointed official referee. Mason. Died Sept. 10, 1921.

Joseph Horace Benton (see Joseph Bentonelli) Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858) U.S. Senator from Missouri, 1821-51. Defender of sound money; supported Jackson q.v. in his campaign against the national bank; often called "Old Bullion." In slavery issue he opposed secession, which resulted in his defeat in 1850 for another senate term. He did return to Washington from 1853-55 as congressman. His political autobiography is contained in his Thirty Years' View. His daughter, Jessie, married John C. Fremont q.v. and his nephew and namesake q.v. became a Civil War general andgrand master of Iowa. Benton was a charter member of Missouri Lodge No. 1 at St. Louis until the antiMasonic days of 1831 when he withdrew for political reasons. Painter Thomas Hart Benton is his grandnephew.

Thomas Hart Benton (1816-1879) Civil War general. b. Sept. 5, 1816 in Williamson Co., Tenn. Nephew of Missouri senator of same name q.v. Raised July 16, 1849 in Iowa City Lodge No. 4, Iowa City, Iowa and later a member of Bluff City Lodge No. 71, Council Bluffs, Iowa. Served as grand master of Iowa from 186062. As a Union general he saved the valuable Masonic library of Confederate General Albert Pike q.v. by placing a guard of Federal troops around Pike's Little Rock, Ark. home. d. April 10, 1879 at St. Louis, Mo.

William P. Benton (1828-1867) Brigadier general (Union) in Civil War. b. Dec. 25, 1828 Newmarket, Md. When 18 years old, enlisted as a private in Mexican War and fought at Contreras, Churubusco, Chapultepec and Mexico City. Returning to home at Richmond, Ind. he re-entered college and was admitted to bar in 1851. Early volunteer for Civil War and raised first company from Wayne Co., Ind. Fought battles at Pea Ridge, Port Gibson, Jackson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicksburg and Mobile. At close of war he returned to Richmond and resumed practice of law. He was a member of Webb Lodge No. 24 at Richmond, Ind. and King Solomon Chapter No. 4. d. March 14, 1867 at New Orleans, La.

Joseph Bentonelli (Joseph Horace Benton) Lyric tenor. b. Sept. 10, 1898 at Kansas City, Mo. Holds three degrees from Univ. of

Oklahoma and later studied with Jean de Reszke. Made debut in Don Giovanni at Nice, France in 1924 and created the world premieres of two operas—// Vassallo at Trieste in 1930 and Cecilia at Rome in 1934. Was with the Chicago Civic Opera in 1934 and made debut with Metropolitan Opera in 1936, when he took the lead on 33 hours notice. Has been tenor of the Metropolitan Opera Quartet since 1936. In 1934 he was voted one of Italy's four most popular tenors by the Italian Fascist Society of Musicians. Has served as advisor to dept. of voice at University of Oklahoma since 1944. In 1934 he was the star on three major radio hours of the NBC and guest on seven other radio hours. He gives yearly concert tours from coast-to-coast. Raised in Norman Lodge No. 38, Norman, Okla. on Nov. 22, 1920 and received 32° at Guthrie, Okla. Oct. 24, 1940. Present home is Norman, Okla.

Lloyd Bentsen Congressman, judge. b. Feb. 11, 1921 at Mission, Texas. LL.B. Univ. of Texas in 1942. Practiced law at McAllen, Tex. from 1945-1948; judge of Hidalgo Co., Texas from 1946-48. Elected member of 80th Congress in 1948 to fill unexpired term. Member of 81st Congress (194951) from 15th Texas dist. Entered WW2 as private and rose to major in 1945. Served in European theater as squadron commander of bombers. Mason and Shriner.

Paul F. Berdanier Artist. b. March 7, 1879 at Frackville, Pa. Illustrator for St. Louis Post-Dispatch from 190218. Painted St. Louis Veiled Prophet Ball in permanent collection of Missouri Historical Society; Canal at Moret, France in permanent collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Foret, France; six etchings on aviation themes in permanent collection of National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; four etchings (satire) in John Vanderpoel Memorial Museum, Chicago; 19 etchings in permanent collection of New York Public Library; one etching in Library of Congress. Now a cartoonist with United Feature Syndicate, Inc. Mason.

Victor L. Berger (1860-1929) Socialist leader and editor. Born in Austria and came to United States in 1879, settling in Milwaukee, Wis. Edited the Milwaukee Daily Vorwaerts from 1892-98, the Social

Democrat Herald in 1900 and Leader (socialist daily) from 1911. Berger, a pioneer in U.S. organizing Socialists, became a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1911-13, being the first Socialist elected to Congress. He was elected again in 1918 and 1919, but excluded by Congress on the ground of disloyalty to the United States (1919). He was finally elected and seated in 1923, serving until 1929. He was sentenced to prison for 20 years on charge of giving aid and comfort to the enemy in time of war, (1918-19) but the sentence was reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1921. He was raised in Aurora Lodge No. 30, Milwaukee, Wis. on Feb. 26, 1889.

George E. Bergstrom Architect. b. March, 1876 at Neenah, Wis. B.S. in architecture from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1899. After 14 years with architectural firms, went into business alone in 1913. Chief architect of The Pentagon, War Department building in Washington, D.C., 1942. Also chief architect of the Pasadena Civic Auditorium; the Los Angeles County Hospital; Los Angeles Hall of Justice; Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art. Served as president of the Los Angeles Housing Commission in 1916; editor of the Uniform Building Code, State of California 1938-39; chief consulting architect to U.S. War Department in 1941. Mason.

Randolph C. Berkeley Brigadier general, U.S. Marine Corps. A Mason and Sojourner.

Richard C. Berkinshaw President and general manager of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. of Canada, Ltd. b. Sept. 2, 1891 at Toronto, Ontario. Graduated in law, 1916 and has been with Goodyear since 1920. Has served in capacities as assistant secretary, secretary, general counsel, assistant to president, and treasurer. Also vice president and director of The Goodyear Improvement Co., Ltd.; Toronto Elevators Ltd. and chairman of board of Easy Washing Machine Co., Ltd. Other directorates include Bank or Montreal, Mutual Life Assurance Co., Crown Trust Co., Phoenix Assurance Co. Raised in Georgina Lodge No. 343, Toronto on Nov. 2, 1929 and also charter member of Kingsway Lodge No. 565, Lamberton Mills, Ont. Past master of his

mother lodge. Past grand senior warden of grand lodge and presently member of the board of general purposes and chairman of the audit and finance committee, Grand Lodge of Canada. Life member of both St. Patrick's Chapter No. 145, R.A.M. and Cyrene Preceptory. 33° AASR in Moore Consistory, Hamilton, Ont. and Rameses Shrine Temple.

Irving Berlin Composer. b. May 11, 1888 in Russia, the son of Moses and Leah (Lipkin) Baline, who brought him to the United States in 1893. His only education was two years in the public schools of New York City. Served in WW1 as infantry sergeant at Camp Upton, N.Y. Is president of the Irving Berlin Music Corporation. Among his most famous compositions are: Alexander's Ragtime Band, A Pretty Girl Is Like a Melody, Easter Parade, Blue Skies, 0, How I Hate to Get Tip in the Morning, White Christmas, God Bless America, All Alone, Remember, Always, Russian Lullaby, Because I Love You. On several songs he has turned over all royalties to a foundation to assist youth in "less chance" areas. He received the first three degrees of Freemasonry in Munn Lodge No. 190, New York City on May 12, May 26 and June 3, 1910, becoming a life memberof the lodge on December 12, 1935. Berlin received the 32° AASR (N.J.) on December 23, 1910 and was initiated into Mecca Shrine Temple on January 30, 1911, becoming a life member of the Shrine in December, 1936.

Morton M. Berman Rabbi, Temple Isaiah Israel, Chicago, since 1937. b. Aug. 23, 1899 at Baltimore, Md. Degrees from Yale, Jewish Institute of Religion and studied in Palestine, France and Germany. From 1927 to 1937 was rabbi at temples in Davenport, Iowa and New York City. With 6th Marine division at Okinawa as chaplain, U.S.N.R. during WW2. Author of A Jew's View of the Crucifixion, Role of the Rabbi and other works. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ).

Remigio Morales Bermudez (18361894) President of Peru from 189094, dying in office. Previously he was a military leader and general. Mason.

Jean Baptiste J. Bernadotte (see Charles XIV John, King of Sweden) John Charles Bernadotte (see Charles XV, King of Sweden) David Bernard Anti-Mason. An expelled member who had received degrees up to "Intimate Secretary," and in 1829 published a pretended expose entitled Light on Masonry. The book was one of the fruits of the anti-Masonic excitement of that period. It was a worthless production, intended as a libel on the craft.

Max Bernd-Cohen Artist, lecturer and critic. b. May 7, 1899 at Macon, Ga. Graduated from Columbia Univ. B.A. and LL.B. and studied art in Paris and Madrid. Painter of portraits, landscapes and murals. Has held one-man expositions in Madrid; Morgan Galleries, New York; Durand Ruel Galleries of New York and Paris; Boyer Galleries, Philadelphia, and Del Gado Museum at New Orleans. Among his murals have been the Florida building at Chicago Century of Progress Exposition and The Sermon on the Mount for the First Methodist Church of Canon City, Colo. Served in WW1 and with the American Red Cross in Pacific during WW2. Mason.

Ben Bernie (1893-1943) Orchestra leader and entertainer. b. May 31, 1893 at Bayonne, N.J. He first studied engineering and later became a violin salesman but switched to vaudeville in 1910. His real name was Abramowitz and he was known to his radio audiences as the "Old Maestro." From 1914-1917 he teamed up with Phil Baker. From 1923-1928 he was an orchestra leader in New York and later in London. Bernie served as master of ceremonies on many radio shows during his day. d. Oct. 20, 1943. He was a member of Keystone Lodge No. 235, New York City.

Armand Berquin (1750-1791) French literary man called "The Friend of the Children." Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.

Berridge, H. H. British General. Present at the consecration of Lodge of Aviation in London on Sept. 5, 1952.

George L. Berry (1882-1948) Union official and U.S. Senator. b. Sept. 12, 1882 at Lee Valley, Tenn. Started to work at age of 9% years with the Jackson Evening News (Miss.), and held every position in printing offices of various cities including St. Louis, Omaha, Denver, San Francisco. Was president of the International Pressmen and Assistants Union of North America from 1907 until his death. Organized the movement and built the Pressmen's Home in Tennessee where he died on Dec. 4, 1948. Appointed U.S. Senator from Tenn. May 7, 1937 to fill unexpired term of Nathan L. Bachman. Private, 3rd Marines (Miss.) in Spanish-American War.; major AEF during WW1. Delegate to Britain representing A.F. of L. to British Trades Union Congress, Newport, Wales in 1912; delegate to International Economic Congress in Zurich, 1912; delegate to International Printer's Congress, Stuttgart, Germany in 1912. One of the founders of the American Legion and past national vice commander. Defeated by three votes for vice presidential nomination in 1924 and declined to have name submitted in 1928. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. Honorary member of St. Brides Lodge of England. d. Dec. 4, 1948.

Hiram G. Berry (1824-1863) Union Major General in Civil War. b. Aug. 27, 1824 at Thomaston (now Rockland) Maine. Learned the carpenter's trade as well as navigation. Served as mayor of Rockland and organized a company of volunteers. At beginning of Civil War he entered as a colonel of the 4th Maine Infantry and took part in the battles of Bull Run, Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, 2nd Bull Run and Chantilly. Had risen to the rank of major general when he was killed at battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863. His orders on that date were "Go in, general; throw your men into the breach; don't fire a shot— they can't see you!" Berry was junior deacon of Aurora Lodge No. 50, Rockland, Maine.

James D. Berry, Jr. Oil producer and cattle breeder. b. March 25, 1914. An oil producer in the Penn. field since 1934. A breeder of

registered Guernsey cattle, Titusville, Pa. since 1939. A director of Quaker State Oil Refining Corp. since 1940. Secretary and director of Oil City National Bank since 1945. Member of Fraternal Lodge No. 483, Rouseville, Pa.; Oil City Chapter No. 236, R.A.M. and Talbot Commandery No. 43, K.T. all of Oil City. Served as commander of his commandery. 32° AASR (SJ) at New Castle, Pa. and member of Zem Zem Shrine Temple, Erie, Pa.

Kearie L. Berry Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 6, 1893 at Denton, Texas. Attended University of Texas and officer's training camp, commissioned 2nd lieutenant of infantry on Aug. 15, 1917, advancing through grades to brigadier general (Temp.) on Jan. 18, 1946. Served on Mexican Border in 1916 and during WW1 in Siberia, Philippines and Hawaii. Later in China, and back to Philippines where at outbreak of WW2 he commanded 1st Philippine division until captured at Bataan on April 9, 1942. Prisoner of war in Luzon, Formosa, Kyushu and Manchuria until Aug. 20, 1945. He was appointed adjutant general of Texas in 1947 and major general of Texas National Guard in August, 1947. Retired from regular army as brigadier general in June, 1947. Received first two degrees in Southern Cross Lodge No. 6, Manila, P.I. and 3rd in Schofield Barracks Lodge No. 443, T.H. in 1921, transferring to Fort Benning Lodge No. 579 in 1926. Received 32° AASR (SJ) in Salina, Kansas in 1946 and transferred to Austin, Tex. in 1947. Member of Ben Hur Shrine Temple, Austin, Tex. and Court 35, Royal Order of Jesters.

Thomas M. Berry Governor of South Dakota from 1933 to 1937. Member of White River Lodge No. 181, White River, S. Dak. and received 32° AASR (SJ) in Oriental Consistory at Yankton, S. Dak. in May, 1933. d. Oct. 30, 1956.

Clifford K. Berryman (1869-1949) Cartoonist. b. April 2, 1869 at Versailles, Ky. He was self-taught in drawing and received an honorary A.M. from George Washington Univ. in 1921. He started as a draftsman in the U.S. Patent Office in 1886 and turned to general illustrating in 1891,switching to cartooning in 1896. Was with the Washington Post

from 18961907, going to the Washington Evening Star on Feb. 1, 1907 where he remained until his death. He was the originator of "Teddy Bear" and winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1943. He is the author of Berryman's Cartoons of the 58th House (probably the only cartoonist who has cartooned every member of any one Congress). He was a past master of Temple Noyes Lodge No. 32 of Washington, D.C., a Knight Templar and Shriner. d. Dec. 11, 1949.

William A. Berryman Vice president of Gulf Oil Corp. b. Jan. 22, 1892 at Enterprise, Va. With the Gulf interests since 1933, first in the European marketing field, then as assistant to the vice president and then vice president since 1949. He is also vice president of Gulf European Co., Gulf Exploration Co., Gulf Refining Co. and Gulf Research and Development Co. Is a director of 11 Gulf foreign oil companies. Mason.

Paul Bert (1833-1886) French physiologist and politician. Governor general of Annam and Tonkin (1886) and author of scientific works, includ- ing Lecons d'Anatomie et de Physiologie Animales (1885). International Masonic Congress Bulletin of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.

Bartholomew Berthold (1780-1831) Pioneer fur trader who helped lay foundation for the American Fur Company. b. in 1780 in the city of Trent, Tyrol, a province of Austria that is now part of Italy. He came to Philadelphia in 1798 and in 1809 moved to St. Louis, Mo. with a stock of goods and entered business with Rene Paul. On Dec. 27, 1809 he joined Louisiana Lodge No. 109 at St. Genevieve, Missouri's first lodge. The lodge was chartered by Pennsylvania and records show that on June 2, 1810, dues from the lodge in the amount of $32.49 were delivered to the Grand Secretary of Pennsylvania by Berthold. He withdrew from the lodge on June 9, 1812, the records noting that he had "withdrawn and removed." He was married to Pelagie, the only daughter of Major Pierre Chouteau, Sr. and in 1812 built a brick house and store building on Main St. in St. Louis—the first west of the Mississippi river. In the same year he formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Peter

Chouteau, Jr. q.v. under the name of Berthold & Chouteau. To this firm they added two partners, John P. Cabanne and Bernard Pratte, Sr. This firm was later combined with the Columbia Fur Company under John Jacob Astor q.v. as the great American Fur Company. d. April 20, 1831.

Julius Bertin Actor who played the role of "Abie" in Abie's Irish Rose on the New York stage. He was a member of St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, and Corinthian Chapter No. 159, R.A.M. of New York City. d. Oct. 3, 1945.

Abbe Bertolio French Roman Catholic abbe who was a member of the Lodge Social Contract of the Grand Orient of France and the first master of the adoptive lodge (for both sexes) formed by that lodge. His co-officer in the adoptive lodge was Princess Lamballe q.v., who served as the first Grand Mistress when the lodge was formed in 1780.

Francisco Bertrand President of Honduras from 1913-15 and again from 1916-20. Was initiated in the Lodge Francisco Morazan.

Antonio Luis Berutti (1772-1846) Argentine patriot who as a colonel distinguished himself in many military engagements and became successively, governor of the province of Santa Fe and Tucuman and minister of war after the formation of the new country. Mason.

Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) Swedish chemist and baron. Taught medicine, pharmacy and chemistry at Stockholm from 1807. Created a baron in 1835 because of scientific achievements. He determined the atomic and molecular weights of many substances, using oxygen as a standard. He discovered the elements selenium, cerium and thorium and first isolated columbium and silicon. He was initiated in 1805 in St. John's Lodge St. Erik, at Stockholm.

Sir Walter Besant (1836-1901) English novelist. Educated in King's College, London and Christ's College, Cambridge. Was co-author with James Rice of a series of novels including Ready-Money Mortiboy (1872) and The Seamy Side (1881). Sole author of All Sorts and Conditions of Men (1882) and Children of Gibeon (1886). He was raised in Mauritius Lodge in 1862 and became master of Marquis of Dalhousie Lodge No. 1159, London, in 1873. He conceived the idea of establishing a lodge of research and as a result became one of the founders of the famous Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 of London, serving as its treasurer at one time. d. Hempstead, England, June 10, 1901.

Dale P. Bessire Artist. b. May 14, 1892 at Columbus, Ohio. His paintings represented in the Indiana building at Chicago Century of Progress; Gary, Lafayette and Indianapolis public schools; Muncie Indiana Art Assoc.; Ball collection of Indiana Univ.; public library at Bedford; DePauw Univ.; and others. His works have won numerous art awards through the years. Raised in Nashville Lodge No. 135, Nashville, Ind., Sept. 1, 1917.

William N. Best Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. July 14, 1887 at Los Angeles, Calif. Served in WW1 as 2nd lieutenant Marines and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1946. Service included United States, Haiti, Hawaii, Santo Domingo, China, Nicaragua, Philippines, Cuba and at sea with fleet. He retired Dec. 1, 1946. Mason.

William T. Best (1826-1897) Famous English organist who edited the works of Handel and Bach and was a composer of anthems and fugues. Mason.

James A. Bethea Major General, Army Medical Corps. b. Oct. 30, 1887 in Marion Co., S.C. Received M.D. degree from Tulane Univ.

in 1913 and graduated from Army Medical School in 1917. A director of the 4th Division Field Hospital in WW1, rising through the grades to major general in 1948. Now chief surgeon of Far East Command, Tokyo, Japan. Mason.

Edwin S. Bettelheim, Jr. b. April 11, 1887 at New York City. B.S., Columbia Univ. 1911, LL.B. George Washington Univ. 1924, LL.M., 1925, A.B., 1926, A.M., 1927. Graduate of Command and General Staff School, 1938. Served in Mexican Border conflict and WW1 in field artillery, rising to colonel. He became assistant chief of staff of the military district of Washington and military analyst of the U.S. Dept. of State as well as biographer of the Inter-American Military Association. Has been adjutant general and executive officer of the Order of World Wars since 1931. Headed expedition in 1929 to northern Russia to search for and return the bodies of Americans lost in the Polar Bear Campaign. A past president of the National Sojourners and past commander of the Heroes of '76 (both Masonic military organizations). Past grand master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. Shriner and Knight Templar.

Jackson E. Betts Congressman from 8th Dist. of Ohio in 82nd, 83rd and 84th Congresses (1951-1957). b. May 26, 1904 at Findlay, Ohio. Law-yer, member of General Assembly of Ohio from 1937-47, serving as house speaker in 1945-46. Member of the Judicial Council of Ohio, 1941-45. Raised in Findlay Lodge No. 227, Findlay, Ohio in 1931. Member of Findlay Chapter No. 58, R.A.M. and Findlay Council No. 50 R. & S.M. 32° AASR (NJ) in Toledo.

James A. Betts (1853-1928) Justice, Supreme Court of New York, 1898-1912, 3rd judicial district and associate justice of the appellate division, 1910-12. b. March 18, 1853 at Broadalbin, N.Y. After serving as a school principal for two years, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1880, practicing at Kingston. Mason.

Frank A. Beu Educator and president of Western Illinois State Teachers College at Macomb, Ill., since 1942. b. Sept. 2, 1898 at Huntley, Ill. B.A. and M.A. degrees from Northwestern Univ. and Ph.D. from Univ. of Chicago. Taught and served as administrator in Illinois public schools and in 1928 became professor of education at Eastern Illinois State Teachers' College, serving until 1933 when he became dean. Raised in Hebron Lodge No. 604, Hebron, Ill. Received 32° at Quincy, Ill. in 1947. Member of O.E.S. in Hebron.

Pierre de Reil, Marquis of Beurnonville (1752-1821) Marshal of France. He served as minister of war in 1793, ambassador to Berlin in 1800, ambassador to Madrid in 1802. In 1814 he supported Louis XVIII and was named marshal in 1816. He was a zealous Freemason and became grand master "adjoint" in the Grand Orient of France.

Albert P. Beutel Business executive. b. Nov. 13, 1892 at Cleveland, Ohio. Started with Dow Chemical Co. in 1914 as draftsman. General manager of the Texas division of Dow

91 Thomas D. Beven Chemical Co. at Freeport, Texas since 1940; director and assistant secretary of Dow Chemical Co.; president and director of Dowell, Inc., Midland, Mich.; vice president and director of Dow Magnesium Corp. Mason.

Thomas D. Beven President and director of Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Co. since 1946. b. Dec. 23, 1898 at New Orleans, La. Started with the Central and Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway companies in 1912. Served in U.S. Marine Corps in WW1. Mason and Shriner.

Albert J. Beveridge (1862-1927) U.S. Senator and historian. b. in Highland Co., Ohio. Served as member of U.S. Senate from Indiana from 18991911 and was a supporter of Theodore Roosevelt and his

policies. He was the author of The Life of John Marshall (2 vols., 1916, 1919). Member of Oriental Lodge No. 500, Indianapolis, Ind.

Frank Stanley Beveridge (18791956) Founder of Stanley Home Products, Inc. b. April 17, 1879 at Yarmouth, N.S. From 1904-09 he was a photographers' representative. Became associated with the Fuller Brush Company in 1913 and rose to vice president in charge of sales from 1921-29. From 1929-31 he was associate sales manager of Real Silk Hosiery Mills, founding the Stanley Home Products, Inc. in 1931, serving as president until 1950 when he became chairman of the board. Received a citation from Pope Pius XII in 1949. Member of Port Byron Lodge No. 130, New York.

James R. Beverley Governor of Puerto Rico 1932-33. b. June 15, 1894 at Amarillo, Tex. A.B., A.M. and LL.B. from Univ. of Texas and honorary LL.D. from Polytechnic Institute of Puerto Rico. Practiced law in Corpus Christi. Special adviser to Public Service Commission of Puerto Rico from 1925-27; assistant attorney general 1927-28 and attorney general, 1928-32. Acting governor of Puerto Rico various times. Served as officer in field artillery during WW1 and lieutenant commander, U.S. Coast Guard Reserve in WW2. Mason.

Howard L. Bevis Chairman of the President's Committee on Scientists and Engineers from 1956. b. Nov. 19, 1885 at Bevis, Ohio. A.B. and LL.B. from Univ. of Cincinnati; S.J.D. and LL.D. from Harvard. Practiced law from 1910-18. Served as director of finance of Ohio from 1931-33; judge of Ohio Supreme Court, 1933-35; professor of law and government at Harvard, 1935-40 and president of Ohio State Univ. from 1940-56. Raised in McMakin Lodge No. 120, Mt. Healthy, Ohio in 1911 and served as master of same in 1916. York rite memberships in Cincinnati and Columbus. Received AASR (N.J.) in 1921 and 33° in 1942. Member of Syrian Shrine Temple, Cincinnati.

Raymond H. Beyer Engineer and designer. b. Dec. 11, 1902 at South Bend, Ind. An engineer and designer since 1920. Built and flew first airplane in Indiana; designer of amphibian plane in 1920, helicopter in 1943. Has been associated with Dodge Mfg. Corp., Westinghouse, U.S. Airlines, Bendix Aviation, Rockne Motors, Chevrolet Motors, Glen L. Martin, Emerson Electric, South Bend Bait Co., National Pressure Cooker, AC Spark Plug. With Armour Research Foundation since 1950. Mason.

Francois Louis de Beyerle French Masonic writer and member of the French Constitutional Convention of 1792. He was a leading member of the Rite of Strict Observance in which his adopted name was Eques a Fiore. He wrote a criticism on the Masonic Congress of Wilhelmsbad and translated Frederic Nicolai's essay on the Templars.

Osborne Bezanson Vice president and director of Monsanto Chemical Company since 1942. b. Nov. 10, 1888 at Woburn, Mass. Started as chemist with Merrimac Chemical Co. of Woburn, Mass. in 1906 and became vice president in 1930. When Monsanto liquidated Merrimac in 1935 he became assistant vice president of the Everett division. Has served as general manager of the Texas division and the organic chemicals division and a member of the Monsanto executive committee since 1948. Mason.

George M. Bibb (1776-1859) Secretary of Treasury under President Tyler (1844-45). b. Oct. 30, 1776 in Prince Edward Co., Va. He served two terms as U.S. Senator from Kentucky-1811-14 and 182935. He was the first master of Russellville Lodge No. 17, Russellville, Ky. and was master of Hiram Lodge No. 4, Frankfort, Ky. He was also past master of Lexington Lodge No. 1 at Lexington, and served as secretary in 1804. In 1804 he was grand master of Kentucky. Past high priest of Frankfort Chapter No. 3, Frankfort, Ky. and was adjunct professor of ancient languages in the primary department of the Masonic College of Kentucky. d. April 14, 1859 at Georgetown, D.C.

Thomas Bibb Governor of Alabama (1820-21). He succeeded his father (Wm. W.) as governor when the latter died in office. Member of George Lodge No. 32, Warminster, Va.

Joseph H. Biben Newspaper publisher. b. Oct. 27, 1900 at Kiev, Russia and came to United States in 1902. Editor and publisher of the Jewish Ledger publications; in Rochester, N.Y. since 1928, in Washington, D.C. since 1930, in Albany, N.Y. since 1931, in Syracuse, N.Y. since 1932. Publisher of the American Hebrew in New York since 1936. Mason.

Dana X. Bible Athletic director, Univ. of Texas since 1947. b. Oct. 8, 1891 at Jefferson City, Tenn. An athletic director since 1912 with Brandon Training School (Tenn.), Mississippi College, Louisiana State Univ., Texas A. & M. College, Univ. of Nebraska. With University of Texas as football coach from 1937-47. Served with the A.E.F. in WW1 as a pursuit pilot. Author of Championship Football, A Guide for Coach, Player and Fan. Member of the National Football Rules Committee and past president of American Football Coaches Association. Member of Mossy Creek Lodge No. 353, Jefferson City, Tenn.; Jefferson Chapter No. 81, R.A.M., Jefferson City, Tenn.; Lincoln Council No. 4 R. & S.M. and Mt. Moriah Commandery, K.T. both of Lincoln, Nebr. Member of Ben Hur Shrine Temple, Austin, Texas.

Thomas W. Bickett (1869-1921) Governor of North Carolina 1917-21. b. Feb. 28, 1869 at Monroe, N.C. Graduated from Wake Forest College (N.C.) and studied law at Univ. of North Carolina, practicing at Monroe and later Danbury. Member of state house of representatives in 1907-08 and attorney general of N.C. 1906-16. He was raised in Louisburg Lodge No. 413, Louisburg, N.C. on Oct. 2, 1901, demitting to William G. Hill Lodge No. 218 at Raleigh in 1921. In 1917 he was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. d. Dec. 28, 1921.

Edward Biddle Delegate to first Continental Congress in 1774. Raised in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia, Pa. March 29, 1763.

Benjamin A. Bidlack (1804-1849) American diplomat. b. at Paris, N.Y. U.S. charge d'affaires in New Granada (Colombia) and negotiated a treaty with that country in 1846 for U.S. right-of-way across the Isthmus of Panama. Raised in Lodge No. 61, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. on May 1, 1826.

John Bidwell (1819-1900) California pioneer and politician. b. Aug. 5, 1819 in Chautauqua Co., N.Y. Taught school in Pennsylvania and Missouri and in 1841 emigrated to California, being one of the first to make the hazardous journey overland. He served in the Mexican War with Fremont's Battalion and became the state's first great agriculturist, owning an immense estate of several thousand acres. Gov. Leland Stanford q.v. commissioned him brigadier general of California Militia, and he later was made a regent of the Univ. of Calif. In 1849 he was a member of the state constitutional convention and the same year became state senator. Representative to U.S. Congress from California 1865-67. He was raised in San Jose Lodge No. 10 in 1851 and later affiliated with Chico Lodge No. 111.

Marshall S. Bidwell Organist. b. Dec. 24, 1893 at Great Barrington, Mass. Studied music at New England Conservatory, Fontainebleau, France, Coe College (Ia.), Univ. of Pittsburgh. Served as organist of several large churches and from 1919-32 was organist and director of music at Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Ia. Has been organist and director of music of Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. since 1932. Raised in Mt. Herman Lodge No. 263, Cedar Rapids, Ia. in 1926. Member of Scottish Rite in Cedar Rapids.

Baron Jacob Frederick Bielfeld (1717-1770) German merchant. b. March 31, 1717. d. April 5, 1770. He was one of the founders of the Lodge of the Three Globes in Berlin.

Daniel L. Biemesderfer President, State Teachers College, Millersville, Pa. since 1943. b. Jan. 19, 1894 at Kissel Hill, Pa. Teacher and schoolprincipal in Pennsylvania from 19111943. Member of Charles M. Howell Lodge No. 496, Millersville, Pa., and past master of same. 32° AASR (NJ) at Harrisburg, Pa. and member of Zembo Shrine Temple, Harrisburg.

Lucius V. Bierce Led an expedition into Canada in 1838 to "save" the Canadians from the "Crown." He headed an abortive attempt to raid Windsor, Canada from Detroit with a rabble of 200 men. The raid was easily repulsed. Bierce was grand master of Ohio in 1854. Raised in Unity Lodge No. 12, Ravenna, Ohio on Oct. 12, 1826 and demitted to Akron Lodge No. 83 as charter member on Oct. 1, 1841, serving that lodge as master a number of times.

Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) American landscape painter of the Hudson River school. b. in Solingen, Germany and came to the United States in 1831. His paintings include Sunshine and Shadow, Rocky Mountains, Valley of the Yosemite. His historical works include Discovery of the Hudson River, Settlement of Cali- fornia, and Entrance into Monterey. Bierstadt was a member of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City.

Leslie L. Biffle Secretary of the U.S. Senate, 1945-47. b. Oct. 9, 1889 at Boydsville, Ark. Secretary of the majority, U.S. Senate from 1933-45; executive director of Democratic Policy Committee, U.S. Senate, 1947-49. Member of American Battle Monument Commission, 1941-45. Member of Piggott Lodge No. 545, Piggott, Ark.

Horace F. Bigelow Admiral of the U. S. Navy. Made a Shriner at a ceremonial in Tokyo, Japan in November, 1956.

Timothy Bigelow (1767-1821) Massachusetts lawyer and politician. b. April 30, 1767 at Worcester, Mass. He was the son of Timothy Bigelow, Revolutionary War patriot. Graduated from Harvard in 1786, studied law and practiced at Groton, Mass. from 1789-1807, when he moved to Medford and opened a law office in Boston. He was an active Federalist and was elected to the legislature in 1790, serving there 20 years, eleven of which he was speaker of the house. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts two terms, 1806-08 and 1811-13. It is said that in the course of his 32 years practice he argued 15,000 cases. d. May 18, 1821.

George C. Biggers President of the Atlanta Journal since 1946. b. Jan. 24, 1893 at Louisville, Ky. Began journalism career with the Louisville Herald in 1910 and subsequently with the Indianapolis Star, The Courier-Journal, Louisville Times, Birmingham Age-Herald, Atlanta Georgian, Atlanta Constitution, and Birmingham News. Went to the Atlanta Journal as business manager in 1934; vice president and general manager in 1939 and president since 1946. Mason.

Benjamin T. Biggs (1821-?) Governor of Delaware in 1887-91. b. Oct. 1, 1821 at Summit Bridge, Del. Congressman from Delaware 186071. Member of state constitutional convention of 1852. Member of Union Lodge No. 5, Middletown, Del.

Burton B. Biggs Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. July 3, 1898 at Elliott, W. Va. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy in 1921. Ensign with Navy June 5, 1920 and advanced through grades to rear admiral, May 1, 1948. Mason and member of Scottish Rite.

John Bigler (1804-1871) Governor of California. b. Jan. 8, 1804 in Cumberland Co., Pa. Learning the printer's trade, he became a journalist and afterwards a lawyer, moving to Illinois in 1846. In 1849 he

emigrated to California and there became a prominent Democratic politician, gaining the name "Honest John Bigler." From 1852-1856 he was governor of the state. His brother, William, was governor of Pennsylvania at the same time. Bigler was initiated in Pacific Lodge, Long's Bar, Butte Co., Calif. in 1850 and later a member of Tehama Lodge No. 3, Sacramento and Washington Lodge No. 20, Sacramento.

Louis Pierre Edouard Bignon (17711841) French statesman and historian. Designated by Napoleon in his will to write the history of France from time of Consulate, he produced Historie de France depuis le 18-Brumaire jusque'en 1812. (1829-38) A Freemason.

Theodore G. Bilbo (1877-1947) U.S. Senator and Governor of Mississippi. b. Oct. 13, 1877 at Juniper Grove, Miss. Attended Univ. of Nashville, Vanderbilt Univ. and Univ. of Michigan. Taught school for six years and admitted to bar in 1908. Member of Miss. state senate, 190812, lieutenant governor of Miss. 1912-16. Twice governor of Miss. 191620 and 1928-32, elected three terms as U.S. Senator from Miss., 1935, 1941, 1947. He was raised April 17, 1899 in Claiborn Lodge No. 293 at Nashville, Tenn. and affiliated with Sherrard Byrd Lodge No. 353 at Poplarville, Miss. Received AASR 32° in Hattiesburg, Miss. in 1925 and was suspended NPD in 1929 from those bodies. d. Aug. 21, 1947.

W. Chester Billings (1872-1939) Senior surgeon and medical director of U.S. Public Health Service. b. April 15, 1872 at Hartford, Conn. Received M.D. from Harvard in 1894 and after private practice in Springfield, Mass. of four years entered U.S. Public Health Service as surgeon. Was senior surgeon from 1929 and medical director from 1930-33, serving in 19 different stations including chief medical officer at Angel Island, Calif. and Ellis Island and chief surgeon of U.S. Coast Guard and medical adviser to American Consulates in Liverpool and London. Mason. d. Aug. 16, 1939.

Clayton 0. Billow (1860-1945) Pioneer in burning oil for industrial use. b. June 14, 1860 at Shelby, Ohio. Carried on experiments with crude oil for fuel for the Champion City Oil Co. from 1884-88 and was general western manager of Pasteur-Chamberlain Filter Co. in 1888, later organizing the National Supply Co. for furnaces, forges, kilns, etc. for oil burning. Inventor of many appliances incidental to oil burning. Knight Templar, 33° AASR, Grand Sovereign, Grand Imperial Council of the Red Cross of Constantine (1938-39). Decorated Knight Grand Cross, 1938. d. March 19, 1945.

Thomas H. Binford Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 25, 1896, at Durant, Miss. Graduate Naval Academy in 1919, advancing through grades to vice admiral in 1954. In 1942 he commanded the destroyer division of the Asiatic Fleet and participated in entire Java Sea campaign. He commanded the cruiser U.S.S. Miami and participated in first strikes on Tokyo and raids on Chichi Jima, Iwo Jima, Kyushu, Okinawa. Commanded cruiser division one of Pacific Fleet from 1949. Assisted in establishing Enlisted WAVE program of Navy. Retired. Mason.

George Bingaman Judge, Supreme Court of Oklahoma. b. Sept. 15, 1904 at Princeton, Kansas. Admitted to Oklahoma bar in 1928 and practiced law in Purcell, Okla. from 1929-50. Has been judge of Supreme Court of Oklahoma since 1951. Raised in Purcell Lodge No. 27, Purcell, Okla. on Dec. 15, 1925 and has served as master and secretary of same. Member Purcell Chapter No. 10, R.A.M. and Norman Council, R. & S.M. of Norman, Okla. 33° AASR (SJ) in Guthrie Consistory. Member of India Shrine Temple, Oklahoma City and DeMolay Legion of Honor.

Malcolm W. Bingay (1884-1953) Newspaper editor and Pulitzer Prize winner. b. Dec. 16, 1884 at Sandwich, Ont., Canada and was brought to United States in infancy. Began at 17 as reporter for Detroit News, rising as sports editor, city editor, managing editor and in charge of the London Bureau of the News. Became editor of the Detroit Free Press in May 1930, serving until his death. Author of Detroit Is My Own

Home Town (1946) and Of Me I Sing (1949). He became a member of City of the Straits Lodge No. 452, Detroit, June 19, 1920 and successively joined Peninsular Chapter No. 16, R.A.M. Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T. and Scottish Rite, being coroneted a 33° Sept. 15, 1925. He was known to Masonic readers for his series of brilliant word sketches on English Freemasonry. d. Aug. 21, 1953.

Hiram Bingham Governor and Senator from Connecticut, explorer and aviator. b. Nov. 19, 1875 at Honolulu, T.H. His father and grandfather (both named Hiram) were missionaries. His grandfather reduced the Hawaiian language to writing and his father, a missionary to Gilbert Islands, did the same for the Gilbert language. Holds degrees of A.B., M.A., Ph.D. and Litt.D. Taught in Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Johns Hopkins Universities. Explored Bolivar's route across Venezuela and Colombia in 1906-07, the Spanish trade route from Buenos Aires to Lima, 1908-09 and the Inca ruins in Peru, 1911-15. Served as lieutenant governor of Connecticut, 1923-24 and governor, 1924, resigning in 1925 to become U.S. Senator and serving until 1933. Chief of Air Personnel Division at Washington 1917-18. A member of both Scottish and York rite bodies as well as the Shrine. Has written on Masonic subjects. Chief writings are on exploration, his latest being Lost City of the Incas. (1948) Robert Bingham (1838-1927) Educator. b. Sept. 5, 1838 at Hillsboro, N.C. Captain in 44th N.C. troops, Army of Northern Virginia, C.S.A. Surrendered with General Lee. Was superintendent of the Bingham School (which his grandfather founded in 1793) from 1873-1920. Grand Master of North Carolina 1883-85.

Robert W. Bingham (1871-1937) U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain from 1933-37. b. Nov. 8, 1871 in Orange Co., S.C. Degrees from universities of North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky and Louisville. Publisher of both the Louisville Courier-Journal and Times. He was past master of Falls City Lodge No. 376 of Louisville and a member of York and Scottish Rites as well as the rank of KCCH. At a meeting of the Grand Lodge of England, in the presence of the King and 8,000 Masons, he was created a past senior grand warden of that grand lodge. d. Dec. 18, 1937.

Claude V. Birkhead (1880-1950) Lawyer and Major General (NGUS). b. May 27, 1880 at Phoenix, Oreg. Practiced law at San Antonio from 1904, serving as district judge and city attorney. He was special attorney appointed by the Texas legislature to represent the state's coastal land claims before Congress in 1939. In WW1 he served as a colonel with the 131st Field Artillery in France and as chief of staff of Texas 36th division national guard. He was elevated to brigadier general in 1923 and major general, commanding the 36th division in 1936; commanding general of Camp Bowie, Texas 1940-41; commanding general Internal Security Forces, 3rd Service Command, 1942, retiring fromactive service that year. Mason and Knight Templar. d. Nov. 19, 1950.

Leon M. Birkhead Clergyman, author. b. April 28, 1885 at Winfield, Mo. Served as minister of Methodist churches in New York City and St. Louis and Unitarian churches in Wichita, Kansas and Kansas City, Mo. In 1937 he founded "Friends of Democracy" and has been national director since. He was technical advisor to Sinclair Lewis during his writing of Elmer Gantry (1926-27). He has written numerous "Little Blue Books" including Is Elmer Gantry True?, Religious Bunk Over the Radio, Can Man Know God, President Hoover and Quakerism, and The Religion of a Free Man. Mason.

Matthew Birkhead English singer, composer and actor who wrote the Enter'd 'Prentice's Song first printed in Read's Weekly Journal in 1722. It was immortalized by being printed in the first Book of Constitutions after his death in 1723. He was not only a composer, but a singer and actor at the famous Drury Lane Theater in London. Mackey says he was master of Lodge V at the time Anderson was preparing his constitutions. d. December, 1722.

Ormand N. Birkland President of S. H. Kress & Co. b. July 26, 1890 at Chicago, Ill. Started with S. H. Kress & Co. in 1916 as a stockman in the Little Rock, Ark. store and rose to presidency in 1948. Served in WW1. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Hammond D. Birks Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 5, 1896 at Chicago, Ill. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1917 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1945. Served with the AEF in WW1. In WW2 he was commander of the 120th Infantry Combat Team of the 30th Division and assistant division commander of 9th Infantry Division, participating in battle of Mortain and other important engagements of European Theater. Mason.

David B. Birney (1825-1864) Union Major General of Civil War. b. May 29, 1825 at Huntsville, Ala. Studied law in Cincinnati and after engaging in business in Michigan, began practice of law in Philadelphia in 1848. Entered army as lieutenant colonel at beginning of war and was made colonel of the 23rd Pennsylvania volunteers, which he raised principally at his own expense in 1861. Distinguished himself in battles of Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. At death of General Berry he commanded the division, and was commissioned major general May 23, 1863. He commanded the 3rd Corps at Gettysburg and later the 10th Corps. Died of disease contracted in the service on Oct. 18, 1864 at Philadelphia. He was initiated in Franklin Lodge No. 134 of Philadelphia on Oct. 31, 1850.

Hoffman Birney Writer of fiction, juvenile, historical and biographical books. b. April 1, 1891 at Philadelphia, Pa. Among his books are: King of the Mesa, The Masked Rider, Steel-dust, Vigilantes, The Canyon of Lost Waters, Roads to Roam, The Pinto Pony, Zealots of Zion, Two Little Navajos, Kudiu, the Eskimo Boy, Barrier Ranch, Forgotten Canon, Eagle in the Sun, Mountain Chief, Ann Carmeny, Brothers of Doom. Mason.

Eben F. Bishop (1863-1943) Sugar executive. b. Oct. 27, 1863 at Naperville, Ill. Started with C. Brewer & Co., sugar factors at Honolulu, TH in 1883. Was chairman of the board and director of Hilo Sugar Co., Onomea Sugar Co., Pepeekeo Sugar Co., Honomu Sugar Co., Waimanalo Sugar Co., and Matson Navigation Co. Trustee of the

B. P. Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology. Mason. d. Feb. 11, 1943.

George T. Bishop (1864-1940) Financier. b. Ravenna, Ohio, Oct. 11, 1864. A director of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., SherwinWilliams Co., Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. Mason. d. Aug. 24, 1940.

Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (17861855) English composer who introduced the air of Home Sweet Home and was first musician to be knighted (1842). He composed operas, burlettas and incidental music to Shakespeare's plays. Mason.

Herbert P. Bissell (1856-1919) Justice of Supreme Court of New York 1912-19. b. Aug. 30, 1856 at New London, N.Y. Graduated at Harvard, 1880 and practiced law in Buffalo. Mason. d. April 30, 1919.

Andrew G. Bisset Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Oct. 4, 1893 at Washington. Entered Navy in 1917 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1947 and retired in July, 1950 as vice admiral. Was treaty engineer to Republic of Haiti, 1924-28, officer in charge of construction, U.S. Naval Academy 1936-39, Portsmouth, N.H. and Norfolk, Va. navy yards 1939-41. Commanded Seabees in South Pacific and Okinawa operations WW2. Member of William R. Singleton Lodge No. 30 (1922) and William R. Singleton Chapter No. 14, R.A.M. both of Washington, D.C.

Van A. Bittner (1885-1949) Labor official. b. Mar. 20, 1885 at Bridgeport, Pa. A labor representative since 1908, representing the United Mine Workers of America from 1908-42 and steelworkers from formation in 1936 until meeting of constitutional convention in 1942, when it became United Steelworkers of America, C.I.O. At death on July 20, 1949 he was vice president and national director of the C.I.O.

Organizing Committee. Served as labor representative on National War Labor Board in 1943. Mason.

William B. Bizzell (1876-1944) University president. b. Oct. 14, 1876 at Independence, Texas. Held degrees from Baylor Univ., College of Law, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago, and Columbia. Was superintendent of public schools in Navasota, Texas 1900-10, president of College of Industrial Arts, at Denton 1910-14, president of Texas A. & M. 1914-25 and president of the Univ. of Oklahoma, 1925-41. From 1941 until his death on May 13, 1944, he was president emeritus of Univ. of Oklahoma. Author of several books including Judicial Interpretation of Political Theory, Teaching of the Jewish Prophets, Farm Tenantry in the United States, and The Green Rising. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Sveinn Bjornsson First president of Iceland. He was one of the founders of Edda Lodge in Reykjavik on Jan. 6, 1919 under the authority of the National Grand Lodge of Denmark. At that time he had the 6th degree of the 11-degree Denmark system. At the time of his death on Jan. 25, 1952 he had received the highest degree and was grand master of Icelandic Freemasonry. The Sovereign Grand Jurisdiction of Iceland was constituted on July 23, 1951.

Alfred W. Bjornstad (1874-1934) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 13, 1874 at St. Paul, Minn. Served as captain in the SpanishAmerican War. Promoted through grades to brigadier general in Jan. 1925. Engaged in 34 battles and actions in Philippines 1898-1904. Later on duty with general staff, military attache, instructor at army schools. At beginning of WW2 he directed the 16 training camps for officers which produced the original 25,341 officers of WW2. He organized and directed the Army General Staff College in France in 1919. Commanded the 13th brigade in France and participated in all major engagements. Retired Aug. 21, 1928. Mason. d. Nov. 4, 1934.

Frank S. Black (1853-1913) Governor of New York. b. March 8, 1853 at Limington, Maine. While reading law he was part time editor of the Johnstown Journal (N.Y.) and later a reporter on the Troy Whig. Admitted to the bar in 1879, he practiced in Troy until 1898 when he moved to New York City. Served his district in the 54th Congress (189597) and was governor of New York from 189799. He was raised in King Solomon's Primitive Lodge No. 91 of Troy and later affiliated with Roman Lodge No. 223 at Rome. d. March 21, 1913.

Hugo La Fayette Black U.S. Supreme Court Justice. b. Feb. 27, 1886 at Harlan, Ala. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Alabama in 1906 and began practice in Birmingham the next year. Served as police judge and prosecuting attorney and in general practice until 1927 when he was elected U.S. Senator from Alabama for two terms (1927-37). Nominated associate justice of the supreme court by Franklin D. Roosevelt Aug. 12, 1937, confirmed Aug. 17 and took his seat Oct. 4. Black was raised in Ashland Lodge No. 356, Ashland, Ala. in 1909 and later became life member of Birmingham Temple Lodge No. 636, Birmingham, Ala. He is a 32° AASR (SJ) member, Knight Templar and Shriner.

James D. Black (1849-1938) Governor of Kentucky. b. Sept. 24, 1849 in Knox Co., Ky. Member of Kentucky lower house 1876-77. Elected governor of Kentucky in 1915 for term of 1916-17 inclusive and again served as governor from May to Dec., 1919. President of Union College, Barbourville, Ky., 1910-12. Was grand master of Grand Lodge of Kentucky in 1888-89. d. Aug. 5, 1938.

John Black Early U. S. Senator from Mississippi. Member of Rising Virtue Lodge No. 7.

John C. Black (1839-1915) Union Brigadier General in Civil War. b. Jan. 27, 1839 at Lexington, Miss. Received A.M. and LL.D. from Knox College. Entered service as private and advanced to brigadier general "for gallant services in assault on Ft. Blakely, Ala." Awarded

medal of honor for Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. in which he was severely wounded. Admitted to Illinois bar in 1867 and practiced at Danville until his death on Aug. 17, 1915. Was U.S. Commissioner of Pensions 188589 and member of the 53rd Congress from Ill. at large (1893-95), president of the U.S. Civil Service Commission 1904-13. Commanderin-chief of the G.A.R. in 1903-04. Member of Olive Branch Lodge No. 38, Danville, Ill. and grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1894 and again in 1895.

Lloyd L. Black Federal Judge. b. March 15, 1889 at Leavenworth, Kans. Received A.B. (cum laude) and LL.B. from Univ. of Washington and admitted to Washington bar in 1911. Associated with father in firm Black & Black 1913-32, served as prosecuting attorney, attorney for Port of Everett and special counsel for City of Everett as well as judge of superior court. Was appointed U.S. Judge for Western District of Washington in 1949 and Eastern and Western Districts in 1940. Mason.

Samuel W. Black Governor of Nebraska, 1859-61. In 1849 he was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 219, Pittsburgh, Pa.

S. Rexford Black Lumber executive. b. April 30, 1894 at Flint, Mich. Chairman of board of C. D. Johnson Lumber Corp., president of Springfield Plywood Corp., Acme Door Corp., and Whatcom Timber Co. Mason and Shriner.

Joseph C. S. Blackburn (1838-1918) U.S. Senator from Kentucky. b. Oct. 1, 1838 in Woodford Co., Ky. A.B. and LL.D. from Centre College, (Ky.). First practiced law in Chicago. After serving in Confederate forces during Civil War resumed his practice in Kentucky. Member of house of representatives (Ky.) 1871-75; member of 44th to 48th Congresses (1875-85); and U.S. Senator, 1885-97 and again from 1901-07. Member of Isthmian Canal Commission and head of

department of civil administration, Canal zone, 1907-09. Mason, Knight Templar. d. Sept. 12, 1918.

Luke P. Blackburn (1816-1887) Governor of Kentucky in 1879. Member of Landmark Lodge No. 41, Versailles, Ky. and Webb Chapter, R.A.M. No. 6 of same city.

Robert Blackburn (1870-1935) Congressman from Kentucky. b. April 9, 1870 in Este11 Co., Ky. Traveling salesman, merchant, insurance and stock brokerage business in Stanton, Ky. and later Lexington. Served in Spanish American War. Member of Kentucky lower house in 1904-05. Elected to 71st Congress (1929-31). Mason. d. Sept. 20, 1935.

Isaac N. Blackford (1786-1859) Jurist. b. Nov. 6, 1786 at Bound Brook, N.J. Graduated from Princeton, 1806 and moved to Indiana in 1812 and settled in Vincennes. Clerk of the territorial legislature in 1813 and judge of the first judicial circuit in 1814-15. He was speaker of the first state legislature in 1816 and judge of the supreme court of Indiana from 1819-35. From March, 1855 until his death on Nov. 6, 1786 he was judge of the U.S. Court of Claims in Washington. Member of Harmony Lodge No. 11 at Brookville, Ind.

Samuel H. Blackmer (1902-1951) Supreme Court Justice, Vermont. b. March 2, 1902 at Bennington, Vt. A.B. from Yale and LL.B. from Harvard. Elected one term to Vermont lower house, served as states attorney, municipal judge and superior judge, being appointed associate justice of Vermont Supreme Court in 1949. Raised in Mount Anthony Lodge No. 13 on Dec. 25, 1923, serving as junior warden in 1932-33; member of Temple Chapter No. 8, RA.M., Bennington Council No. 3, R. & S.M.; Taft Commandery No. 8, K.T., all of Bennington, Vt. Member of Vermont Consistory, Burlington, Vt. and received 33° AASR (NJ). Member of Cairo Shrine Temple of Rutland, Vt.

William W. Blackney Congressman from Michigan. b. Aug. 28, 1876 at Clio, Mich. Law degree, Univ. of Michigan, 1912. Member of 74th and 76th to 81st Congresses (1936-37, 193951). Mason and 32° AASR.

J. Stuart Blackton (1875-1941) Pioneer motion picture producer. b. Jan. 5, 1875 at Sheffield, Eng., coming to the United States in 1886. Started as newspaper writer and artist and entered the motion picture industry in 1896. Associated with Albert E. Smith, 1900 in organizing the Vitagraph Co.—first to make screen plays—of which he was vice president. In 1910 he founded Motion Picture Magazine. In 1915 he organized the Motion Picture Board of Trade of America and was its first president. He produced The Christian, Island of Regeneration, Battle Cry of Peace, The Glorious Adventure (in color), The Clean Heart, The Happy Warrior and Bride of the Storm. Member of Centennial Lodge No. 763, New York City. d. Aug., 1941.

Ibra C. Blackwood (1878-1936) Governor of South Carolina. b. Nov. 21, 1878 at Blackwood, S.C. Admitted to bar in 1902 and practiced at Spartanburg, S.C. Member of house of representatives 1903-05, solicitor 7th Judicial Circuit, 1916-31 and governorof South Carolina 1931-35. Raised in Spartan Lodge No. 70, Spartanburg, S.C. on Aug. 20, 1903. Past grand master of Grand Lodge of S.C. d. Feb. 12, 1936.

Norman J. Blackwood (1866-1938) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 3, 1866 at Philadelphia, Pa. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy and received M.D. from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia in 1888. Entered navy in 1890 and advanced through grades to rear admiral Oct. 10, 1929. Served in Spanish-American War, Cuban Insurrection, WW1. Commanded naval hospitals in the Philippines and U.S. and the ships U.S.S. Solace and U.S.S. Mercy. Retired from active service Jan. 3, 1930 and became medical director of Provident Hospital, Chicago. Mason and member of the National Sojourners. d. April 1, 1938.

Robert L. Blaffer (1876-1942) President of Humble Oil & Refining Co. b. Aug. 5, 1876 at New Orleans, La. Began with Monongahela Coal & Coke Co., New Orleans, 1894. Entered oil business in 1902 and from 1917-33 was vice president and treasurer of Humble Oil & Refining Co., becoming president in 1933 and chairman of the board in 1937. Mason. d. Oct. 22, 1942.

James G. Blaine Bank president. b. Jan. 10, 1888 in New York City. Began with New York Life Insurance Co. in 1911. Vice pres. Liberty National Bank, 1919-21, vice pres. New York Trust Co. 1921-27, president Fidelity Trust Co. 1927-30. President and director of Marine Midland Trust Co. 1930-54 and chairman of the board since 1955. He is a director of the following: Fidelity Safe Deposit Co., Remington Rand, Inc., Studebaker-Packard Corp., Pepsi Cola Co. In 1948-49 he was chief of the E.C.A. Mission to Belgium and Luxembourg and has served on many national and by Washington as a justice on the first Supreme Court of the United States. b. Williamsburg, Va. in 1732. Graduated from William and Mary College and studied law at the Temple, London, soon becoming prominent in his profession and was a member of the legislature as early as 1765. In 1776 he was a member of the committee that drew up a plan for governing the state and was chosen to the council and in 1777 became a judge of the court of appeals for Virginia. He was afterward chief justice and in 1780 was judge of the high court of chancery. A delegate to the convention that drew up the Federal Constitution and with Washington and Madison voted for its adoption— the other Virginians dissenting. In 1789 Washington named him as one of the justices of the first Supreme Court of the U.S. and he served until 1796 when he resigned. He is often confused with his father, John Blair (1689-1771), who was president of the Council of Virginia under British rule (same as governor). A member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, Williamsburg, Va. he was passed Aug. 3, 1773, raised Dec. 23, 1773. Where he was initiated is not known, but it is thought it may have been at the Lodge of St. James, England. The records of Williamsburg Lodge show that on Sept. 7, 1773 he was fined "1 shill, 3 pence for absence this evening," and that he signed the by-laws on July 6, 1773. He was elected master in May, 1774 and served as the first grand master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia from 1778-84. d. Aug. 31, 1800.

Edgar Blake (1869-1943) Methodist bishop. b. Dec. 8, 1869 at Gorham, Maine. Graduate of Boston Univ. School of Theology, 1898; D.D. from Nebraska Wesleyan Univ., 1909 and LL.D. from DePauw Univ. Ordained in 1899 and held pastorates in New Hampshire from 1895-1908. Secretary international charitable organizations. Mason.

David E. Blair Lawyer, jurist. b. Aug. 16, 1874 at Salina, Kans. LL.B. Univ. of Kansas, 1899. Law practice at Joplin, Mo. Judge, Circuit Court, 25th Judicial Circuit 1908-17; member Public Service Commission of Mo. 191720; associate justice Supreme Court of Mo., 1921-30 and chief justice, 192526. Practiced law in St. Louis 1931-34 and returned to Joplin, 1934. Elected to Springfield Court of Appeals in 1944 for 12 year term, making him the only Missourian elected to all three benches. Mason and 32° AASR (SJ).

James 1'. Blair (1871-1944) Jurist. b. Nov. 11, 1871 at Loudon, Tenn. Father of James T. Blair, Jr. q.v. Taught school before starting law practice in 1896. President of Obion (Tenn.) College 1895. Member of committee to revise statutes of Mo. 1909-11; judge of Supreme Court of Mo. 1915-25 and chief justice, 1921-22. Re-entered law practice at St. Louis in 1925. Member of the Appellate Judicial Commission of Missouri from 1941 until death on April 12, 1944. Mason.

James T. Blair, Jr. Governor of Missouri, 1957-60. b. March 15, 1902 at Maysville, Mo. Admitted to bar in 1924 and since practiced in Jefferson City, Mo. Member of house of representatives 1928-32 and majority leader in 1931. Mayor of Jefferson City 194749 and lieutenant governor of Mo. from 1949-56 when elected governor. Served as lieutenant-colonel, U.S. Army, 1942-45. Raised in Jefferson Lodge No. 43, Oct. 14, 1925; exalted March 24, 1926, Jefferson City Chapter No. 34; Ezra Council No. 32 R. & S.M., March, 1936; Knighted Prince of Peace Commandery No. 29, K.T. March 27, 1939, all of Jefferson City, Mo. Shriner.

John Blair, Jr. (1732-1800) Named 102 Antonio Guzman Blanco of Board of Sunday Schools 1912-20. Made a bishop on May 18, 1920. Mason and Knight Templar. d. May 26, 1943.

Henry S. Blake (1888-1956) President of Capper Publications, Topeka, Kans. b. Feb. 14, 1888 at Minneapolis, Minn. Joined the Capper Publications in 1920 as business manager and was selected vice president and general manager in 1937, taking over the presidency in 1952 on the death of Senator Arthur Capper. As president of the largest publishing firm west of the Mississippi he was executive officer of the following publications with a circulation of 5 million; Cap-per's Weekly, Topeka Daily Capital, Kansas City Kansan; two national magazines, Household and Capper's Farmer and five state farm papers, Kansas Farmer, Missouri Ruralist, Michigan Farmer, Ohio Farmer, and Pennsylvania Farmer. Capper Publications also include radio stations WIBW, Topeka and KCKN, Kansas City and television station WIBW-TV at Topeka. He was a Mason, 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. d. March 12, 1956.

William Rufus Blake (1805-1863) Actor. b. in Halifax, N.S. and first appeared on the stage of that city when 17 as the Prince of Wales, in Richard the Third. His first New York appearance was in 1824 at the Chatham theatre as Frederick in The Poor Gentleman. While playing at the Tremont theatre, Boston in 1827, he received the first call before the curtain ever given to an actor in this country. In 1839 he visited England, making his first appearance there in the Haymarket theatre, London. On April 21, 1863, while playing Sir Peter Teazle, in the Boston theatre, he was suddenly taken ill and died the next day. He was the author of several plays including Nero and The Turned Head. Blake was a member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2 of New York City.

Raymond B. Blakney President of Olivet College (Mich.) b. Nov. 4, 1895 at Boston, Mass. Ordained Congregational minister in 1918 and taught physics at Fukien Christian Univ., Foochow, China from 1920-27.

Served as pastor in Sanford, Me., and Williamstown, Mass. Returned to Orient as missionary for American Board Commissioners (Cong.) at Peking and Mindanao, Philippines until 1949. Served as chaplain, U.S. Army in WW1 and WW2. President of Olivet College since 1950. In 1957 he became president of Pierce College, Athens, Greece. Raised in Foochow Lodge, Foochow, China in 1923 and now member of International Lodge, Peking, China (in exile). 32° AASR (SJ) in Peking, Orient of China and served as secretary of the Scottish Rite bodies of North China (in exile) from 1948-57. KCCH.

Antonio Guzman Blanco (1829-1899) President of Venezuela three terms. b. in Caracas. Served as vice-president of Venezuela 1863-68. Following the overthrow of Falcon in 1868, as a general he led a successful revolution. He was president from 1870-72 and on alternate two years until 1889 when deposed by Congress. He was practically a dictator for the entire period. As president he decreed that the Grand Lodge of Venezuela could send out communications postage free, a privilege which has since been rescinded. He erected the beautiful Masonic temple at Caracas, the largest and most complete in South America. He established the separation of the Catholic church and the state and abolished the convents and transformed Catholic churches into monuments such as the Capitol and the Pantheon for their independence heroes. He also installed compulsory education. He was a 33° AASR. Died in Paris, France—where he liked to live even when he was president.

John R. Bland (1851-1923) Organizer and president of the U.S. Fidelity & Guaranty Insurance Co. in 1896. b. March 24, 1851 at Bridgeton, Mo. d. Jan. 6, 1923. Mason.

Richard P. Bland (1835-1899) U.S. Congressman from Missouri for 25 years. Known as "Silver Dick." b. Aug. 19, 1835 near Hartford, Ky. Moved to Missouri in 1855 and thence to California on a mining expedition. He then removed to that part of Utah which is now Nevada and practiced law at Virginia City. He returned to Missouri in 1865 and practiced law at Rolla until Aug. 1869 when he moved to Lebanon. As a

member of Congress from 1873-95 and 1897-99, he was the author of the Bland bill for the coinage of not less than two million and not more than four million in silver bullion per month which was passed in 1878 and repealed in 1891. In 1896 he received many votes for president. He was a member of Rolla Lodge No. 213, Rolla, Mo. and was exalted in Rolla Chapter No. 32 in 1868. He later transferred as a charter member of Lebanon Chapter No. 64 and served as high priest in 1871. Knighted in St. John's Cornmandery No. 33, Springfield and later affiliated with Lebanon Commandery No. 33 at Lebanon. d. June 15, 1899 and buried with Masonic and Knight Templar honors in a Catholic cemetery in Lebanon, Mo.

Theodoric Bland (1742-1790) Revolutionary soldier, doctor and member of Continental Congress. b. in Prince George Co., Va. he was educated in England and studied medicine at Univ. of Edinburgh. After being admitted to medical practice he returned to America in 1764. Wrote against the English governor under the pen name "Cassius" and was one of those who removed arms and ammunition which Lord Dunmore had taken from the public arsenal. He became captain of the first group of Virginia cavalry and later colonel. He distinguished himself at the battle of Brandywine and had the confidence of General Washington. He served one term during the war in the Virginia senate and was elected to the Continental Congress from 1780-83. He was a member of the Virginia convention of 1788 and was among those opposed to the adoption of the federal constitution. He became representative from Virginia to the first Congress, taking his seat March 30, 1789. Although his lodge is not known, he was present at Williamsburg Lodge No. 6 on July 7, 1778. d. June 1, 1790.

William T. Bland (1861-1928) U.S. Congressman from Missouri, 66th Congress (1919-21). b. Jan. 21, 1861 at Weston, Va. Law degree from Univ. of West Virginia in 1884. Practiced law in Atchison, Kans. and was elected judge of 2nd Judicial District from 1896-1904 but resigned in 1901 to engage in wholesale drug business as vice president and later president of McPike Drug Co., Kansas City, Mo. Mason. d. Jan. 16, 1928.

Alexander H. Blankingship Episcopal Bishop. b. Nov. 30, 1894 at Richmond, Va. Graduate of Univ. of Richmond (A.B. and D.D.); Yale Divinity School (A.B.) and B.D. Virginia Theological Semin. Served as rector of Emmanuel Episcopal Church in Alexandria, Va. 1924-27 and dean of Holy Trinity Cathedral, Havana, Cuba, 1927-39. Has been bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Missionary District of Cuba since Feb. 1939. Served in Mexican Border conflict of 1916 and WW1. Received degrees in Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va. in 1925 and presently a member of Island Lodge No. 56, Island Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; Havana Commandery No. 1, K.T. and 32° Santiago Consistory, Havana, Cuba. Member of Mahi Shrine Temple, Miami, Florida and Havana Shrine Club. Has served as chaplain of his blue lodge and commandery.

John D. Blanton (1859-1933) President of Ward Belmont School, Nashville, Tenn. b. March 26, 1859 in Cumberland Co., Va. Taught and supervised schools in Missouri until selected as vicepresident of Ward Belmont in 1913. Became president in 1915. Mason. d. Oct. 6, 1933.

Henry G. Blasdel First Governor of Nevada. Member of Santa Cruz Lodge No. 38, Santa Cruz, Calif. and later past master of Carson Lodge No. 1, Carson City, Nevada.

Samuel Blatchford (1820-?) U.S. Supreme Court justice. b. March 9, 1820 in New York. Became private secretary to Gov. William H. Seward in 1839 and military secretary on his staff until 1843. Admitted to bar in 1842 and settled in Auburn, N.Y. where he was associated with Seward as a law partner. Moved to New York in 1854. Named associate justice of U.S. Supreme Court in 1882 and served eleven years (1893). He was raised in Manhattan Lodge No. 62, New York City on Jan. 16, 1863.

Valentine Blatz Founder of Blatz Brewing Co. and member of Aurora Lodge No. 10, Milwaukee, Wis.

Cadwallader, 9th Lord of Blayney (1720-1775) Grand Master of the Moderns from 1764-67 and of Ireland in 1768. It was under his authority that the Charter of Compact was drawn up with the Royal Arch Grand Chapter. During his grandmastership 74 lodges were constituted as contrasted with the 20 charters issued by the "Ancients.”

Jesse Bledsoe (1776-1837) U.S. Senator from Kentucky. b. April 6, 1776 in Culpepper Co., Va. Becamesecretary of state of Kentucky in 1808 and member of the state legislature in 1812. Served as U.S. Senator, 1913-15. From 1917-20 he was state senator and in 1822 was appointed circuit judge in the Lexington district. In 1833 he removed to Mississippi and in 1835 to Texas. Member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and past master of same; grand tyler of the G.L. of Kentucky in 1808. Member of Frankfort Chapter No. 3, R.A.M. at Frankfort, Ky. d. June 30, 1837.

Samuel T. Bledsoe ( 1868-1 939) President of A.T. & S.F. Railroad and affiliated companies. b. May 12, 1868 in Clinton Co., Ky. Practiced law in Texas, Indian Territory and Oklahoma. First associated with A.T. & S.F. in 1908, becoming president in 1933. Director of Railway Express Agency. Mason. d. March 8, 1939.

Harman Blennerhassett (1764-1831) Associate of Aaron Burr and controversial figure of the post-Revolutionary period. b. Oct. 8, 1764 (or 1765) in Hampshire, England. Of a wealthy family he studied at Westminster, London and Trinity college, Dublin, receiving B.A. and LL.B. degrees in 1790. In 1797 he disposed of his estates, and sailed for New York, determined to spend the rest of his life in study and leisure. In 1798 he purchased an island in the Ohio river a few miles below Parkersburg called Backus island—and afterwards Blennerhassett island. Here he erected an elaborate mansion which he

filled with costly pictures, statues and books. Settling down to a life of study on the sciences such as chemistry and astronomy, he was known for his lavish hospitality and soon became the social leader of the area. On Aug. 12, 1797 he visited American Union Lodge No. 1 at Marietta and in 1798 was made its secretary. Where he received his degrees is not known. Among the many distinguished guests to share his hospitality was Aaron Burr in 1805. Burr succeeded in interesting him in his scheme for the invasion of the Mexican territory west of the Mississippi and setting up a private "nation." It is probable that Blennerhassett did not realize that Burr's scheme was treasonable, and he invested large sums in boats, arms and provisions for the expedition. When Jefferson issued a proclamation against the scheme, Blennerhassett fled with Burr, was arrested and freed but arrested again at Lexington, Ky. and placed in prison. Even the legal services of Henry Clay could not effect his release, but when the treason charges against Burr failed, he was released in 1807. His property had been seized and then accidentally burned. Blennerhassett then settled in Natchez, Miss. where he purchased 1,000 acres of ground. He was admitted a member of Harmony Lodge No. 1 at Natchez on March 4, 1816 and was shown as a member of that lodge until the returns of 1819 when he removed to Montreal where he began the practice of law. When he failed to receive a judgeship from his friend and schoolmate, the Duke of Richmond, he sailed for Ireland in 1822 hoping to recover his estates, but failed. He died Feb. 1, 1831 on the Isle of Guernsey.

1st Earl of Blesington (Viscount Mountjoy) (1709-1769) First grand master of the Ancients, 1756-60. It was to him that Laurence Dermott dedicated his Ahintan Rezon probably in an effort to secure his acceptance of the office. He was privately installed in his own library. Previously, as the 3rd Viscount Mountjoy, he had ruled the Irish craft in 1738-39, and had been responsible for the foundation of Irish Masonic charity. He was a kinsman of the Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger q.v. the lady Freemason.

Archie Bleyer Musician, composer and orchestra leader. Made a hit of the Davy Crockett song in 1954. President of Cadence Records. A member of St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York City.

Reynolds E. Blight (1879-?) Writer and lecturer. b. May 19, 1879 at Torrington, Eng., coming to United States in 1896. Lectured for churches and Southwestern Univ. Editor of several publications— Liberal Review 1918-19; Masonic Digest, 1921-23 and 1925-33; New Age 1923-25; California Certified Public Accountant, 1935-41; and Los Angeles Churchman, 1935-43. President of Pierce Insurance Co. Mason, 33° AASR (SJ), Knight Templar and Red Cross of Constantine. Field secretary of Los Angeles AASR bodies, since 1944. Member of committee on Masonic Information, G.L. of Calif. and Masonic Homes Endowment Fund Board. Author of What I Believe and Why; Freemasonry •at a Glance.

Aaron T. Bliss (1837-1906) Governor of Michigan. b. May 22, 1837 at Smithfield, N.Y. Served in New York militia during Civil War, captured and spent six months in prisons, eventually escaping and making way back to Union lines nearly starved. Engaged in lumbering at Saginaw, Mich. from 1865 until his death in 1906. Served in many local, state and national public offices, including state senator, member of U.S. Congress from 8th Mich. dist. in 1889-91. Elected twice as governor of Michigan, serving from 1900-04. Member of Saginaw Valley Lodge No. 154 at Saginaw.

Cornelius N. Bliss (1833-1911) Secretary of Interior under McKinley. b. Jan. 26, 1833 at Fall River, Mass. Engaged in dry goods business most of his life. Trustee and director of several large corporations. Served as chairman of the New York Republican Committee and treasurer of National Republican Committee. Named by McKinley as Secretary of the Interior in 1897 and resigned in 1899. Declined to be a candidate for governor of New York in 1885 and 1891. Member of St. Johns Lodge, Boston, joining in 1858. d. 1911.

Herbert Bliss Brigadier General, U. S. Army. 33° AASR and member of National Sojourners.

Raymond W. Bliss Surgeon General, U.S. Army. b. May 17, 1888 at Chelsea, Mass. Graduated Tufts Medical College in 1910, Army Medical School, 1913, Harvard Medical School, 1921 (C.S.) and 1943 (D.Sc.). Commissioned 1st Lt. in Medical Reserve Corps, 1911 and advanced through grades to major general in 1943. Appointed Surgeon General in June, 1947. Mason.

Antonio Blitz (1810-1877) Magician. b. June 21, 1810 in Deal, England. An early magician who in those days were known as "prestidigitateurs." He began his career at the age of 13 in Hamburg, Germany and after travelling two years in northern Europe, he returned to England, appearing first in Dover in Dec. 1925. He then visited Ireland and Scotland and in 1834 came to the United States, travelling through the country, Canada and West Indies. On his return from the South he settled in Philadelphia, Pa. where he resided until his death on Jan. 28, 1877. He was author of Fifty Years in the Magic Circle. Although his original lodge is not known, he was made an honorary member of Montgomery Lodge No. 19 of Philadelphia.

V. Harwood Blocker Consul General of United States. b. June 8, 1903 at Hondo, Texas. Entered U.S. consular service in 1926 and has served as clerk, vice consul, sec. consul in Peru, Mexico, Paraguay, Morocco, Honduras, Martinique, Brazil, Victoria. Consul general at Athens, Greece since 1954. Hondo Lodge No. 756, Hondo, Texas.

William P. Blocker (1892-1947) Consul General of United States. b. Sept. 30, 1892 at Hondo, Texas. Entered consular service in 1913 and served in various capacities in consular offices of Mexico and Cuba. Was consul general at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico from 1938. Mason. d. Feb. 28, 1947.

Timothy Bloodworth (1736-1814) U.S. Senator from North Carolina. He was a member of the Continental Congress of 1786-87 and for thirty years a member of the legislative assembly of N.C. Served in U.S. Congress from 1790 to 1791 and as U.S. Senator from 17951801. After his senatorship, he was collector of the port of Wilmington. He grew up in poverty and followed in turn the professions of farmer, smith, preacher, doctor, wheelwright and politician. He was noted for his benevolence. In 1805 he represented St. Tammany Lodge No. 30, Wilmington, N.C. at the G.L. of N.C. d. Aug. 24, 1814.

Henry Bloom General in the war of 1812. His grave has a Masonic headstone.

Sol Bloom (1870-1949) U.S. Congressman from 20th New York district from 68th to 81st Congresses (1923-51). b. March 9, 1870 at Pekin, Ill. Had a varied career in newspaper, theatrical and music publishing businesses. In 1893 he was superintendent of the construction of the Midway Plaisance of the Chicago Exposition. Moved to New York City in 1903 and engaged in real estate and construction business. He was chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. His greatest service to the U.S. was as director of the U.S. George Washington Bicentennial Commission in 1932. He was also chairman of committee on the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court and director general of the U.S. Constitution Sesquicentennial Commission. He was a signer of the United Nations Charter and delegate to U.N. conferences in San Francisco, London and New York. A member of Pacific Lodge No. 233 (1903), New York City, he was a 32° AASR (NJ) member and Shriner. d. March 7, 1949.

Joseph Bloomfield (1753-1823) Governor of New Jersey. b. Oct. 5, 1753 at Woodbridge, N.J. Studied law until beginning of the Revolutionary War when he was made a captain in Dayton's regiment of the 3rd New Jersey in 1776 and served through the war, attaining the rank of major. Following the war he was admitted to the bar and practiced at Burlington until he became attorney general of the state. During the War of 1812 he was a brigadier general. From 1801-12 he

was governor of New Jersey, and member of U.S. Congress from 181721. He was raised in Bristol Lodge No. 25, Bristol, Pa. and served as master in 1782. He affiliated with Trenton Lodge No. 5, Trenton, N.J. in 1790 and in 1799-80 was grand master of the G.L. of New Jersey. d. Oct. 3, 1823.

Sumner N. Blossom Magazine editor. b. Kansas City, Mo. Attended public schools and Univ. of Missouri. Started journalism career with the Kansas City Star, 1912-14 and with the Associated Press, 1914-16. Was correspondent with the U.S. punitive expedition in Mexico, 1916. From 1919-22 was with the New York Daily News. Editor of Popular Science Monthly, 1922-29, and editor of The American Magazine since 1929 and director of Crowell-Collier Publishing Co. Raised in Ivanhoe Lodge No. 446, Kansas City, Mo. about 1913. Member of the Grand Council, Order of DeMolay.

Willie Blount (1767-?) Governor of Tennessee, 1809-15. b. in North Carolina and was a half-brother of William Blount, the Constitution signer. He was secretary to his brother while the latter was territorial governor of Ohio, and afterward moved to Montgomery Co., Tenn. Member of Unanimity Lodge No. 54 of North Carolina.

Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher (1742-1819) Field Marshal General of Prussia and Prince of Wahlstadt. Entered Swedish service in 1756 and captured by Prussians in Seven Year's War. He then entered Prussian army. Discharged in 1770 but rejoined in 1787. Took part in Dutch and Pomeranian campaigns and commissioned lieut.-general in 1801, serving as governor of Munster in 1803. Captured by French in 1806 but was exchanged for a French general. In the War of Liberation he led Prussian troops under Russian command and became commander in chief of the Silesian army, in war against Napoleon in 1813; defeated Macdonald at Katzbach and Marmont at Mockern. Crossed the Elbe and was first to enter Leipzig. Created field marshal general, he crossed the Rhine in 1814 and besieged Napoleon at La Rothiere, but was forced to retreat. He defeated Napoleon at Laon and entered Paris in 1814 for which he was created Prince of Wahlstatt (in

Silesia). As commander of Prussian forces in Belgium, 1815, he was defeated at Ligney, but aided Wellington in the victory of Waterloo. His original lodge is not known, but he was a constant visitor in the Lodge "Pax Inimicamalis" at Emmeriah in 1800-01; and in 1814 the Lodge "Archimedes" at Altenburg received him as an honorary member. His nickname was "Marshal Forward.”

Monte Blue Movie actor. b. Indianapolis, Ind. His father was a railroad engineer who was killed when Monte was 5, and when his mother died six years later, he and his brothers were placed in an orphans' home at Knightstown, Ind. Worked his way through school and turned to his father's trade of railroading. After working as a fireman on the Big Four, he became a soldier of fortune, trying almost everything— cowboy, lumberjack, sailor, with a circus and finally the silent films, where he was a popular Warner Brothers star. A member of Utopia Lodge No. 537 of Los Angeles, he was a member of the Los Angeles Consistory AASR and was noted for his impressive degree work in that branch of Freemasonry. He was also a member of Al Malaikah Shrine Temple and the famous "233 Club"—a movie-Masonic club.

Robert D. Blue Governor of Iowa (1945-49). b. Sept. 24, 1898 at Eagle Grove, Ia. In law practice at Eagle Grove since 1922. Served as state representative, Republican floor leader, speaker of the house and lieutenant governor. Mason, Shriner, member of Eastern Star and White Shrine.

Fred H. Blume Chief justice, Supreme Court of Wyoming. b. Jan. 9, 1875 at Audubon, Ia. Admitted to Iowa bar in 1899 and practiced at Audubon until 1904 when he moved to Sheridan, Wyo. Member of Wyoming lower house 1907-09 and senate, 1909-13. Has been a justice of the Supreme Court of Wyoming since 1921, serving as chief justice 1927-31, 1937-39 and 1945-47. Mason.

4th Lord of Blythswood (Archibald Douglas Campbell) 85th Grand Master Mason of Scotland (1926-28). b. April 25, 1870 at London, Eng. Active member of the Supreme Council of Scotland.

Elijah Boardman (1760-1823) U.S. Senator from Connecticut. b. March 7, 1760 at New Milford, Conn. Served several terms in the lower branch of the Connecticut legislature and in 1821 was elected to the U.S. Senate,serving in the 17th Congress. He died Oct. 8, 1823 at Boardman, Ohio, a town in which he was interested. He was a member of Columbia Lodge No. 25 at Stepney, Conn., and in 1809 of Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven.

Harold S. Boardman President of University of Maine 1926-34. b. March 31, 1884 at Bangor, Me. A civil engineer with degrees from Maine State, Mass. Institute of Technology, Univ. of Maine, Colby, Rhode Island College and Bates College. Alternated between teaching and practical engineering work, specializing in bridges and hydrographic, structural and hydraulic highway projects. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ).

Victor V. Boatner (1881-1950) President of Chicago Great Western Railroad and Peoria & Pekin Union Railroad. b. May 6, 1881 at Bethlehem, Mass. Began railroad career with Yazo & Mississippi Valley in 1901. Served as director of railway transport in Office of Defense Transportation, 194244. Mason, AASR and Shriner. d. Feb. 11, 1950.

Hiram Abiff Boaz Methodist bishop. b. Dec. 18, 1866 at Murray, Ky. Licensed to preach in 1889 and ordained Methodist minister in 1891. Held several pastorates in Texas before becoming president of Polytechnic College at Fort Worth 1902-11; vice president of Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, 1911-13; and president of Texas Woman's College, 1913-18. From 1918-20 he was president of S.M.U. In 1922 was elected bishop M.E. Church and assigned to superintend church work in China, Japan, Siberia and Manchuria. From 1926 until his

retirement in 1938 he headed various conferences in Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Mexico. A member of Granger Lodge No. 677, Granger, Texas, he served as grand chaplain of the G.L. of Texas in 1953. Active in York Rite Masonry, he is a noted Masonic speaker.

E. Manchester Boddy Newspaper executive. b. Nov. 1, 1891 at Lake Tapps, Wash. Began as salesman for Encyclopedia Britannicct in New England, 1916. Owner and editor of Huntington Park Signal and Los Angeles Daily News. Is associate editor of L. D. Powell Co., book publishers. Served as infantry officer in WW1 and was disabled in Argonne Forest. Member of Craftsmen Lodge No. 559, Los Angeles, Calif.

Johann Joachim Christoph Bode (1730-1793) German musician, book-dealer and translator. Translated Sterne, Fielding, Goldsmith, Burney, Montaigne and others. Wrote extensively on Freemasonry and was one of the most distinguished Masons of his time. b. Jan. 16, 1730 in Brunswick. He was initiated in 1791 and is listed as a member and past master of Lodge Absalem at Hamburg. He served as deputy grand master of the G.L. of Hamburg.

Thomas Bodley (1744-?) American general who served in Wayne's Indian campaign. b. Feb. 2, 1744. A member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky., serving as master in 1798 and grand master of the G.L. of Kentucky in 1818.

Joseph R. Bodwell (1818 - 1887) Governor of Maine. b. June 18, 1818 in Methuen, Mass. Opened quarries in 1852 on an island in Penobscot Bay and in 1870 organized the Bodwell and Hallowell granite company. Served twice in the legislature and was elected governor in 1886. A member of Rockland Lodge No. 79, Rockland, Me. d. Dec. 15, 1887.

Johann Boeber Russian Royal Councilor of State and director of the School of Cadets at St. Petersburg during the reign of Alexander I q.v. It was presumably through his in-fluence that Emperor Alexander revoked the edict against Freemasonry and became a member of the craft himself. Boeber was grand master of the G.L. of Russia from 181114. He became a member of the Lodge "Alexander of Charity of the Crowned Pelican" in 1808 or 1809. This lodge worked under the Swedish system.

Jacob Boehmen (also Bohm, Boehme) See Bohme J. Caleb Boggs Governor of Delaware. b. May 15, 1909 at Cheswold, Del. Received A.B. from Univ. of Delaware and LL.D. from Georgetown Univ. Practiced law in Wilmington. U.S. Congressman from 1946-52. Active service in WW1 as army colonel. Member of Eureka Lodge No. 23; 32° Delaware Consistory, both of Wilmington. Member of Nur Shrine Temple, Wilmington; Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Milford; National Sojourners, DeMolay, Jesters, of Wilmington.

Lewis V. Bogy (1813-1877) U.S. Senator from Missouri. b. April 9, 1813 at St. Genevieve, Mo., a descendant of the early French settlers of the region. Studied law in Illinois and Kentucky and graduated from Lexington Law School in 1835 and set up practice in St. Louis. Served several terms in Missouri legislature and in 1867-68 was commissioner of Indian affairs. Interested in the development of the mineral resources of the state, he was a founder and president of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain railroad. Elected to U.S. Senate as a democrat in 1873. Member of Polar Star Lodge No. 79 of St. Louis.

Jakob Bohme (1575-1624) Also Boehmen, Bohm, Boehme. Leading German theosophist and mystic. In later years some of his disciples who were Freemasons, sought to incorporate his dogmas into Freemasonry and to make the lodges schools of theosophy. The Theosophic Rites of

110 Louis Bonaparte Freemasonry, which prevailed to a great extent in France and Germany can be traced to Bohme's ideas. In 1634 he published Aurora, order die Morgenrote im Auf gang which was condemned as heretical by the church.

Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) The "George Washington" of South America, who in 20 years of warfare liberated from Spanish tyranny the area which is now Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. b. in Caracas, Venezuela. He joined Freemasonry in Cadiz, Spain and received the Scottish Rite degrees in Paris and was knighted in a Commandery of Knights Templar in France in 1807. While on a diplomatic mission to London in 1810 he was active in Freemasonry in that country. He founded and served as master of Protectora de las Vertudes Lodge No. 1 in Venezuela and in 1824 founded the Lodge Order and Liberty No. 2 in Peru. In 1828, when the anti-Masonic wave was sweeping over the world, Bolivar forbade meetings of Masons in Venezuela. His Scottish Rite collar and apron are on exhibit in the New York Grand Lodge museum. Catholic born, he broke away from the church when, in his liberation movement, he found that the clerics who ruled with an iron hand under the Spanish administration were among his chief opponents. On his death bed in 1830 he returned to Catholicism for spiritual aid. Nevertheless it was as a Freemason that he performed the deeds which established him as one of the greatest liberators of the world.

Frank C. Bolles Major General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 25, 1872 at Elgin, Ill. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1896 and promoted through grades to major general in 1935. Served in Spanish American War, Philippine Insurrection and WW1. Wounded twice and gassed once. Commanded 39th Infantry in WW1,later 30th Infantry at Presidio, Calif. Was commanding general of Ft. Russell, Ft. Stotsenburg, Fort Sheridan, Fort Sam Houston and 7th Corps Area. Retired in 1936. President of Union State Bank, South San Antonio, Texas since 1937. Mason and member of National Sojourners.

Jerome Bonaparte ( 178 4 - 18 60) Brother of Napoleon I q.v. b. Nov. 15, 1784. Served as lieutenant on an expedition to Haiti in 1803 and took refuge from British in United States where in 1803 he married Elizabeth Patterson of Baltimore. The marriage was annulled in 1805 as Napoleon did not recognize it. He later married Princess Catherine of Wurttemberg. He was made King of Westphalia in 1807 by Napoleon and was afterwards known as the Duc de Monfort. At Napoleon's defeat in 1814, he settled in Florence, returning to France in 1848; was made a Marshal of France in 1850 and served as president of the Senate. He was grand master of the Grand Orient of Westphalia. d. June 24, 1860.

Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) Eldest of the four brothers of Napoleon who were all Freemasons. b. Jan. 7, 1768. He was a member of the Council of Five Hundred in 1798 and councilor of state in 1799. Napoleon made him King of Naples from 1806-08 and King of Spain from 1803-13. From 1815-32, following Napoleon's defeat he lived in the United States under the name of Comte de Survilliers. He was made a Freemason at the Tuilleries in April, 1805 by a commission composed of "Bros. Cambaceres, Kellerman, Hugh Maret and several others" and in the same year was appointed as grand master of the Grand Orient of France by Napoleon. d. July 28, 1844.

Louis Bonaparte (1778-1846) Brother of Napoleon I and King of Holland. b. Sept. 2, 1778. Made King of Holland in 1806 by Napoleon, abdicating in 1810, when he assumed the title of Comte de St. Leu. In 1805 he was governor of Paris, and when his brother, Joseph was named grand master of the Grand Orient of France in 1805, he was named deputy grand master. d. July 25, 1846. Father of Emperor Napoleon III.

Lucien Bonaparte ( 1 7 7 5 - 1 84 0 ) Brother of Napoleon I and a member of the Grand Orient of France. As president of the Council of Five Hundred in 1799, he aided Napoleon in securing dictatorship of France. He was named ambassador to Madrid in 1800 and negotiated a treaty between Spain and Portugal in 1801, but in 1810 was exiled for opposing Napoleon's policies and while on way to United States was

captured by the English and held as prisoner of state in England. In 1814 he was given the title of Prince of Canino. b. May 21, 1775. d. June 29, 1840.

Napoleon Bonaparte See Napoleon I.

Shadrach Bond (1773-1832) First governor of Illinois. b. Nov. 24, 1773 in Frederick Co., Md. He moved to Kaskaskia (Ill.), then in Indiana territory and was a member of the legislature of the Illinois territory and its first delegate to Congress, serving from 1812-14. In 1814 he was appointed receiver of public monies and when Illinois became a state he was elected its first governor, serving 1818-22. He was initiated in Temple Lodge No. 26, Reisterstown, Md. and affiliated with Western Star Lodge No. 107 at Kaskaskia, Ill. on Dec. 27, 1806, serving as master of the lodge in 1815-18-27-28-29. He was first grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1822, which later became defunct. d. April 12, 1832.

Thomas Bond (1712-1784) Distinguished early day physician whofounded the Pennsylvania hospital. He was closely associated with Benjamin Franklin and Dr. John Bartram, the botanist, in a literary society of Philadelphia. In 1749 he was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.

August (Anshel) Bondi (1833-1907) Compatriot of free-stater John Brown q.v. b. July 21, 1833 Vienna, Austria. An adventurer whose last request was that he be known as a "fighter for freedom," he first saw action at the age of 14 in the Metternich revolution after which he migrated to the United States. He joined a group going to Cuba to fight the Spaniards, but this venture failed. He also attempted to join Perry's first expedition to Japan. Finally settling in Kansas, he joined John Brown and his free-staters and participated in the battles of Blackjack and Osawatomie. At the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the 5th Kansas Cavalry and participated in the battles of Black River, Pine Bluff;

and was left for dead on the battlefield at Monticello Cross Roads (Ark.) A few months later he was mustered out of the service. His many business ventures failed, due mainly to his wanderlust. He died Sept. 30, 1907 in St. Louis and was buried in Salina, Kansas with Jewish and Masonic rites.

William W. Bondurant Educator and college president. b. Rice, Va. Professor of Latin. President of Daniel Baker College, Brownwood, Texas, 1915-16. Superintendent of Texas Military Institute from 1926-47 (emeritus since 1952). Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Manual Jose Carazzo Bonilla Vice president of Costa Rica (1936-40) under President Castro. Was secretary of state. A brilliant student, he was active in many political fields. Member of Caridad Lodge No. 26. Ygnacio Bonillas (1858-1944) Ambassador from Mexico to United States from 1917. b. Feb. 1, 1858 at San Ygnacio, Sonora, Mexico. Studied at Mass. Inst. of Tech. Mining inspector, state of Sonora 1911-13. Secretary in first Carranza cabinet 1884-88. Member of 23rd Congress, State of Sonora and member of commission to settle difficulties arising from Villa's attack on Columbus, N. Mex. and Pershing expedition. Mason. d. Jan. 31, 1944.

Nicholas de Bonneville (1760-1828) French writer, bookseller, man of letters and president of one of the Paris districts at outbreak of French Revolution in 1789. b. March 13, 1760 at Evreaux. In 1788 he published a book entitled The Jesuits driven from Freemasonry and their weapon broken by the Freemasons (translation). His theory was that the Jesuits had introduced the history of the life and death of the Templars into the symbolic degrees, and the doctrine of vengeance for the political and religious crime of their destruction. He is best known for his History of Modern Europe. (1792).

Milton 0. Boone Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. June 15, 1891 at Oakland, N.J. Commissioned in 1917, rising to rank of brigadier

general in 1948. Served in A.E.F. during WW1. During WW2 was commanding general of California Quartermaster Depot at Oakland and later of the European command from 1946-48. Retired, 1948. Mason.

William J. Boone ( 1 8 6 0 -1 9 3 6 ) Founder and president of College of Idaho, 1891-1936. b. Nov. 5, 1860 at Cannonsburg, Pa. Received B.A., M.A., D.D. from Wooster College (Ohio) and LL.D. and S.T.B. from Western Theological Seminary. Ordained Presbyterian minister in 1887. Mason. d. July 8, 1936.

Ballington Booth (1859-1940) Reformer and founder of The Volunteers of America. b. July 28, 1859 at Brighouse, Yorkshire, England, second son of General William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army. Ballington was in charge of the Salvation Army in Australia from 1885-87 and in the United States from 1887 to 1896 when he withdrew from the army after disagreement with his father on the method of operation in America. He then organized a similar group, The Volunteers of America. His wife, Maud Charlesworth, aided him in founding the Volunteers and directed its prison work. She was one of the founders of the Parent-Teachers Association. Booth was a member of Montclair Lodge No. 144, N.J. about 1899, and later Charter Oak Lodge No. 249, New York City. He was past grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of New York and member of York and Scottish rites as well as Kismet Temple, AAONMS. d. Oct. 5, 1940.

Charles B. Booth Reformer and welfare worker, head of The Volunteers of America since 1948. Son of Ballington Booth q.v., founder of the Volunteers, and grandson of General William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army. b. Dec. 26, 1887, Brooklyn, N.Y. Was general secretary of the Volunteer Prison League 1906-15 and national field secretary of the Big Brother and Big Sister Federation, 1925-29. Associated with The Volunteers of America since 1930 in Detroit, Pittsburgh and Kansas City, Mo. Western area secretary 1938-39, national field secretary, 1939-45, central area commander, 1945-49, and general commander in chief since 1949. Raised in Montclair Lodge

No. 144, Montclair, N.J. and demitted to Morton Lodge No. 63, Hempstead, N.Y.

Edwin T. Booth (1833-1893) Famous Shakespearean actor of the American stage. b. Nov. 13, 1833 at Belair, Md. Member of a famous stage family, his father was Junius Brutus and his brother, John Wilkes, who assassinated Lincoln on April 14, 1865. Edwin first appeared on the stage in 1849 and by 1855 was a well established actor. His later travels carried him throughout the world. He was greatly admired for his moral strength in rising above periods of poverty and hunger, his father's addiction to drink and periods of insanity, and his brother's act of assassination and death. He was initiated in New York Lodge No. 330 on Sept 11, 1857 and raised Sept. 23. His love of Freemasonry is attested by his bequest of five thousand dollars to the Hall and Asylum Fund, and his statement that ". . . to be worshipful master and to throw my whole soul in that work, with the candidate for my audience, and the lodge for my stage, would be greater personal distinction than to receive the plaudits of the people in the theaters of the world." He was an honorary member of the Masonic Veterans Association of New York, and on at least two occasions gave dramatic recitals in Independent Lodge. While visiting a lodge in Omaha, Nebr. he was called upon to give a short talk and when asked what his favorite hymn was, he answered Jesus Lover of My Soul, and recited it. Asked for his favorite prose, he called the members to stand and repeated The Lord's Prayer. In 1925 Booth was elected to the American Hall of Fame. d. June 7, 1893.

John L. Booth Broadcasting and newspaper executive. b. June 13, 1907 at Detroit, Mich. Founder, president and owner of Booth Radio & TV Stations, Inc., which includes WJLB, Detroit; WBBC, Flint; WSGW, Saginaw; WBKZ-TV, Kalamazoo-Battle Creek; WSBM-TV, FlintSaginaw-Bay City-Midland, since 1939. As director of Booth Newspapers, Inc., he is owner and operator of the Grand Rapids Press, Flint Journal, Saginaw News, Bay City Times, Muskegon Chronicle, Kalamazoo Gazette, Jackson City Patriot, and Ann Arbor News. Mason.

Sir Robert Laird Borden (1854-1937) Prime minister of Canada, 1911-1920. 1:). in Nova Scotia where he was a member of the craft. Member of Parliament from 1896, and leader of Conservative opposition in House of Commons, 1901. Served as delegate to Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and was representative of Canada on Council of League of Nations.

James B. Boren President of Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, Texas. b. Nov. 16, 1905 at Ennis, Tex. Served as a public school superintendent from 1931-39, organizing and establishing Mangum (Okla.) Junior College in 1937, serving as president until 1939. From 1939-42 he was president of Southwestern Institute of Technology at Weatherford, Okla., and since 1939 has been president of Midwestern University (Hardin College). Mason.

Gutzon Borglum (John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum) (18711941) Sculptor and painter, best known for the gigantic Mt. Rushmore national memorial in the Black Hills of S.D. b. March 25, 1871 in Idaho and educated in public schools of Nebraska. Studied art in San Francisco and Paris. M.A. from Princeton Univ. and L.L.D., Oglethorpe Univ. Painted, studied and traveled in Spain, Europe, England until 1901 when he settled in New York. Among his many marbles and bronzes are Sheridan Equestrian, Washington, D.C. and Chicago, Ill.; colossal marble head of Lincoln in rotunda of Capitol in Washington; bronze group, Mares of Diomedes in Metropolitan Museum; Lincoln, Newark, N.J.; Trudeau memorial, Saranac Lake; Trail Drivers Memorial, Texas. He designed and began carving the Confederate Memorial on the face of Stone Mountain, Ga., but a controversy arose with the association and he destroyed all plans and models. Borglum designed the Confederate half-dollar. His greatest work, however, is the Black Hills carving which he designed and officially started on August 10, 1927, when President Coolidge dedicated it. He lived to see the fourth head unveiled in 1939, but not to complete the work—which was done by his son, Lincoln q.v. in 1941. Borglum was an active Mason, being raised in Howard Lodge No. 35, New York City on June 10, 1904, and serving as its master in 1910-11. In 1915 he was appointed grand representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City

Consistory on Oct. 25, 1907, but was suspended in 1921. His lodge possesses the gavel used by him in the form of a bronze lion's paw, holding a stone from Solomon's Temple. He executed the bust of Edward M. L. Ehlers, who was grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of New York, that is now in the grand lodge library. His memorial "Silence" is in the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Hospital at the Masonic Home in Utica, N.Y. The cornerstone of his studio on the hills above Stamford, Conn. was laid with Masonic ceremonies by the grand master of New York under special dispensation from Connecticut. d. March 6, 1941.

Lincoln Borglum Sculptor. b. April 9, 1912 at Stamford, Conn., son of Gutzon Borglum q.v. the famous sculpture under his father for 12 years and also in Europe. With the National Memorial, Black Hills, S.D. since 1932. He was in charge of measurements and enlarging models from 1934-38 and superintendent of the memorial since 1938. Following the death of his father in 1941, he was assigned to complete the memorial. Lincoln was raised in Battle River Lodge No. 92 of Hermosa, South Dakota.

Ernest Borgnine Stage and screen actor, who in 1956 won an "Oscar" and more honors than any other actor for a single performance (in Marty) . Served ten years in U.S. Navy during WW2 and studied acting under the GI bill. Started on legitimate stage with Barter theater in Virginia and later to New York. With Shakespearean group that gave eleven performances of Hamlet at Kronburg castle, Elsinore and then entertained soldiers in Europe. Back in America he was with a road show, playing the lead in Born Yesterday, winding up on Broadway in Mrs. MeThing with Helen Hayes. Turning to TV he took the part of Captain Video and did some 200 radio and TV shows. The Mob brought him to Hollywood where he made From Here To Eternity and Marty. Borgnine is a member of Abingdon Lodge No. 48, Abingdon, Va.

Solon Borland (?-1864) U.S. Senator from Arkansas, Confederate brigadier general, minister to Nicaragua. Studied medicine and settled in Little Rock, Ark. Served in Mexican War and taken prisoner. Returning to Arkansas, he was appointed to fill Senator

Sevier's unexpired term, 194853. Appointed minister to Nicaragua in 1853, serving until 1854. On his return he declined the governorship of New Mexico offered by President Pierce. Entered Civil War early and rose to rank of brigadier general in Confederate service. d. Jan. 31, 1864.

Henry V. Borst (1857-1925) Justice of Supreme Court of New York. b. July 6, 1857 at Cobleskill, N.Y. Graduate of Cornell Univ. and Albany (N.Y.) Law School. Admitted to New York bar in 1877 and became justice of Supreme Court of New York, 4th Dist., 1913, serving until his death Nov. 26, 1925. Mason.

115 Joseph Boruwlaski Joseph Boruwlaski Celebrated dwarf of the 18th century known as "Count Borulaski" who was made a Mason at Warsaw, Poland and raised to the 3rd degree in the City of Chester, England (Feather's Lodge) on Nov. 15, 1783. English records show that he visited many Masonic lodges.

Frederick W. Boschen (1876-1942) Major General, U.S. Army. b. May 9, 1876 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Entered army as a private in 1898 and advanced through grades to major general in 1936. Served in Spanish American War and in WW1. Was chief of finances, U.S. Army from 1936 until retired. Mason. d. April 1, 1942.

Sir Alexander Boswell (1775-1822) Antiquarian and poet. Son of James Boswell q.v. the famous biographer of Dr. Johnson. He issued reprints of old poems from his private press and was a Conservative M.P. from 181821. He was ex-officio provincial grand master of Ayrshire and master of Canongate-Kilwinning Lodge No. 2 in Edinburgh when he was killed in a duel in 1822.

Elmer E. Boswell Hotel executive. b. Feb. 2, 1891 at Canton, Ill. Started as bell boy with Sheraton Hotel Corp. and rose to vice president in charge of all hotel operations and general manager since 1943. Director since 1952. Mason and Shriner.

James Boswell (1740-1795) Biographer of Dr. Samuel Johnson q.v. A Scottish lawyer who was acquainted with the literary greats of his age such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Wilkes. He met Dr. Johnson in London in 1763, visiting him frequently between 1772 and 1784 and touring the Hebrides with him in 1773. He took voluminous notes of Johnson's conversations. In 1782 he succeeded to his father's estate and was called to the English bar in 1786. He was raised in CanongateKilwinning Lodge, Edinburgh, on Oct. 14, 1759 and was master of the lodge in 177375 and deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland from 177678. In Feb. 1777 he was made an honorary member of Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1. d. May 19, 1795. His son Alexander q.v. was active in Freemasonry as well as his uncle, John, q.v.

John Boswell One of the earliest known speculative Freemasons and ancestor of James Boswell q.v. the famous biographer of Samuel Johnson. Known as the Laird of Auchinleek (laird meaning property holder), he was present at a meeting of the Lodge of Edinburgh on June 8, 1600, and like his operative brethren, attested to the minutes by his mark.

John Boswell, M.D. Uncle of biog• rapher James Boswell q.v. who was Censor of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh. He was senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1753-54.

Giovanni Bottesini (1821-1889) Italian musician and composer reputed to be the world's greatest contrabassist. He was director of the Conservatory at Parma. Among his compositions are the opera Cristoforo Colombo (1887), symphonies, and overtures. He was initiated June 20, 1849 in the Bank of England Lodge No. 263, London, England.

Karl August Bottiger (1760-1835) Famous German archaeologist and scholar. Initiated in the Lodge of the Golden Apple, Dresden, on November 8, 1781.

C. A. Bottolfsen Governor of Idaho. b. Oct. 10, 1891 at Superior, Wis. Began as a printer in Fessenden, N. Dak. and became publisher and owner of the Arco Advertiser in 1910. Elected governor of Idaho in 1939, serving two terms until 1945. Was member of the Idaho legislature four terms and speaker of the house in 1931. Served in WW1 as corporal in the army. A member of Arco Lodge No. 48, Arco, Idaho and a past district deputy grand master. Knight Templar and Shriner.

Raymond V. Bottomly Justice, Supreme Court of Montana. b. July 16, 1885 at Cederville, Kans. Admitted to bar in 1915. Was assistant attorney general of Montana for several years and attorney general from 1942-49. Elected justice of Supreme Court terms 1949-55 and 1955-61. Raised in Gaylord Lodge No. 183, Gaylord, Kansas in 1906 and demitted to become a charter member of Harlam Lodge No. 108, Harlam, Mont. 32° AASR (SJ) at Great Falls, Mont. Member of Algeria Shrine Temple, Helena, Mont.

Francis E. Bouck (1873-1941) Chief Justice Supreme Court of Colorado. b. Nov. 25, 1873 at New York City. Admitted to Colo. bar in 1896 and practiced at Leadville. Elected justice of Supreme Court of Colorado for term 1933-43 and served as chief justice from 1941 until death on Nov. 24, 1941. Mason.

Thomas Boude The brick mason for Independence Hall in Philadelphia, which after two centuries is still sound. He was the first secretary of St. John's Lodge in Philadelphia which laid the cornerstone of the hall with Benjamin Franklin as grand master. Boude later became deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.

Elias C. Boudinot (1835-1890) Indian chief and one of the most noted characters of Indian Territory. b. Aug. 1, 1835 in Cherokee nation near Rome, Ga. Orphaned when young, he was raised by relatives. Settled in Fayetteville, Ark., studied law and admitted to bar in 1858, but soon turned to journalism and became editorialwriter. Elected secretary of the Arkansas secession convention in 1861 and helped General Standwaite raise an Indian regiment. In 1863 he was elected delegate for Indian Territory to the Confederate Congress. Spent his later years in Washington working for his Cherokee nation. He was an advocate of education for the Indian, the breaking up of tribal relations and of allotting the lands in severalty. It is believed that Albert Pike conferred the 32° on him in 1886. He died Sept. 27, 1890 and was buried with Masonic honors by Belle Point Lodge No. 20 of Fort Smith, Ark.

Louis de Bourbon-Conde (Comte de Clermont) (1709-1771) Elected Grand Master of France Dec. 2, 1743. He made many improvements in Freemasonry during his early years, but in the latter part of his life he delegated the work to others and on his death in 1771 left the craft weaker than when he first took over. It was during his grandmastership that the name was changed from the "English Grand Lodge of France" to the Grand Lodge of France.

Duchess of Bourbon First grand mistress of the French adoptive Freemasonry. Installed on March 25, 1775 in a fete d' adoption given by the Lodge of Candour under the constitution of the Grand Orient of France. The Duke of Chartres q.v. presided in his capacity as grand master of the Grand Orient. Other female members of note were the Duchess of Chartres, Princess Lambelle, Countess Polignac, Countess Choiseul-Gouffier and the Marchioness of Coutebonne q.v.

Thomas E. Bourke Major General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. May 5, 1896 at Saverna Park, Md. Commissioned in 1917 and advanced through grades to major general in 1945. Promoted to lieutenant general on retirement in 1946. Served in both World Wars including

Virgin Islands, Nicaragua, Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Saipan and Leyte. Mason.

Augustus 0. Bourn Former governor of hode Island. He was raised May 18, 1860 in What Cheer Lodge No. 21, Providence, R. I.

Clarence M. Boutelle Author of The Man Of Mount Moriah, a novel with Masonic significance. Was raised in Rochester Lodge No. 21, Rochester, Minn. in 1885.

Warren E. Bow (1891-1945) President of Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. b. June 2, 1891 at Detroit. Received degrees from Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Michigan and Battle Creek College. Teacher, principal and dean of schools. Superintendent of the Detroit Public Schools from 1942 and president of Wayne Univ. since 1942. Mason, Knight Templar, AASR and Shriner. d. May 12, 1945.

Sir Mackenzie Sowell (1823-1917) Prime Minister of Canada. b. at Rockinghall, England, he came to Canada in 1833. Represented North Hastings in Parliament from 1867-96 and served as Minister of Customs 1878-91. In the cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald q.v. 1891-94 as Minister of Militia and later as Minister of Trade and Commerce. Served as Prime Minister from Dec. 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896, and thereafter for ten years was a member of the Senate and Conservative Party leader. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895. While residing at Belleville, he was editor and publisher of the Belleville Intelligencer. He was raised in St. Lawrence Lodge No. 640 (English const. now No. 14 R.Q.) of Montreal in 1864. On Feb. 4, 1897 he affiliated with Eureka Lodge No. 283 (GL of Canada in Ont.), at Belleville, and was later a charter member of Moira Lodge No. 11 at Belleville.

John C. Bowen U.S. District Judge, western district of Washington. b. May 12, 1888 at Newbern, Tenn. Degrees from Univ. of Tennessee and Harvard Law School. Practiced in Washington. Member of Columbia River Basin Committee which promoted Grand Coulee Dam and assisted in letting the first construction contract. Was collector of internal revenue for Washington and Alaska 1933-34. U.S. district judge since 1934. Mason.

John Wesley Edward Bowen Methodist bishop. b. Sept. 24, 1889 at Baltimore, Md. Ordained to ministry of Methodist church in 1917. Held pastorates in Jackson, Miss., Shreveport and New Orleans, La.; dean of Walden College; field agent for Board of Sunday Schools. Editor of the Central Christian Advocate, 1944-48. Resident bishop of the Atlantic Coast Area, Methodist Church since 1948. Served in WW1 as chaplain. Mason.

Oliver Bowen (?-1800) Commodore of American Navy in the Revolutionary War. A revolutionary patriot of Augusta, Ga., who was successful in the early days of the war in seizing a large quantity of powder stored on Tybee Island, near Savannah, Ga., July 10, 1775. He joined the unsuccessful expedition against Wilmington in 1778. He has been called the "First Admiral of the American Navy." A member of Solomon's Lodge No. 1, Savannah, Ga., he was later suspended for visiting an illegal lodge at Sunbury, Ga.

Thomas Bartholomew Bowen (1741-1816) One of the founders of the Mother Supreme Council AASR (SJ) at Charleston, S.C. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to Pennsylvania and entered the Continental Army rising to rank of major with various Pennsylvania regiments, serving from April 6, 1776 to Jan. 1, 1781. He was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati. He was raised in Lodge No. 2 at Philadelphia on June 28, 1784 and entered the Scottish Rite the following year. He demitted from his original lodge May 8, 1785 upon moving to Charleston and was named first senior warden of a new lodge (No. 27) chartered by Pennsylvania. He was active in founding the Grand Lodge of South Carolina and in 1792 became its third grand master. As a printer, he

published the South Carolina Weekly Messenger and Columbian Herald or Patriotic Courier of North America, and was also printer for the Supreme Council, AASR.

Oden Bowie Former Governor of Maryland. Member of Centre Lodge No. 108, Baltimore, Md. and reported as such in the grand lodge proceedings of 1895.

Henry L. Bowles (1866-1932) U.S. Congressman from 2nd Mass. district to 69th and 70th Congresses (192529). b. Jan. 6, 1866 at Athens, Vt. Began in lunch business with $1,000 borrowed capital in 1897 and extended business to ten cities in U.S. and Canada as Bowles Lunch, Inc. Mason. d. May 17, 1932.

John Bowles President, Rexall division of Rexall Drug Co. b. Nov. 16, 1916 at Monroe, N.C. Graduated from Univ. of N.C. in 1938 and began with Rexall Drug Co. in Los Angeles in 1949 as a stockroom clerk. Successively was field representative, district sales manager, regional sales manager and vice president. Director since 1955 and president of the Rexall division since 1955. Mason.

William Augustus Bowles (17631805) White man who became war chief of the Five Civilized Tribes. b. in Frederick Co., Md., the son of an English schoolmaster. He ran away when 13 and joined the British army obtaining a commission, later desert-ing at Pensacola, where he joined the Creek Indians and married an Indian woman. He led the Indian contingent at the surrender of Pensacola and was reinstated in the British Army for his service. He turned his Indians against the Spanish as well as the Americans to promote the British cause. On a trip to England, he was "admitted an honorary member" of Prince of Wales Lodge No. 259, London on Jan. 20, 1791. It is thought he was initiated at another place. He was made "Provincial grand master to the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians" by the Grand

Lodge of England. Twice captured by the Spaniards, he finally died prisoner in Morro Castle at Havana, Cuba, Dec. 23, 1805.

Frank L. Bowman (1879-1936) Congressman from 2nd W. Va. district to 69th to 72nd Congresses (1925-33). b. Jan. 21, 1879 at Masontown, Pa. Practiced law at Morgantown, W. Va. in 1905 and served as postmaster and mayor of that city. Mason. d. Sept. 15, 1936.

Grover C. Bowman President of Massachusetts State Teachers College since 1937. b. Dec. 15, 1884 at Covington, Ind. Degrees from Williams, Yale, Columbia, and Rhode Island College of Education. Taught school in 1906 and since has been associated with schools in supervisory and executive capacities. Mason.

Robert J. Bowman President of Pere Marquette Railroad since 1942 and Chesapeake & Ohio since 1946. b. April 15, 1891 at Fostoria, Ohio. Began as clerk in N.Y.C. & St. Louis R.R. in 1907. Mason.

James Bowron (1844-1928) President of Gulf States Steel Co. b. Nov. 16, 1844 in England and became U.S. citizen in 1885. Began in glass trade. Served as president of Gulf States Steel Co. 1913-21 and afterwards as chairman of the board. He built the town of South Pittsburgh, Tenn. which was started by his father. Is credited with having brought Alabama to the front as an active factor in the production of steel. Mason. d. Aug. 25, 1928.

Sir Leslie Boyce (1895-1955) Lord Mayor of London and corporation executive. b. July 9, 1895 at Taree, N.S.W. Educated at Oxford and called to the bar in 1922. Conservative member of Parliament from Gloucester, 1929-45; high sheriff of Gloucester, 194142; alderman, City of London since 1942 and lord mayor of London 1951-52. He is chairman and managing director of the Gloucester

Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. and William Gardner & Sons, Ltd. Chairman and director of numerous other firms. Baroneted in 1952 and Knight Commander, O.B.E. He was senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England in 1948 and grand scribe N of the Grand Chapter of England in 1952. d. 1955.

David R. Boyd (1853-1936) University president. b. July 31, 1853 at Coshocton, Ohio. President of Univ. of Oklahoma, 1892-1908 and afterwards president emeritus. President of the Univ. of New Mexico 1912-19. Superintendent of Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 1908-12. Mason. d. Nov. 17, 1936.

James E. Boyd Former Governor of Nebraska. Member of Capitol Lodge No. 3, Omaha, Nebr.

Thomas Boyd (?-1779) A lieutenant in the American Revolution whose life was spared by Indian Chief Joseph Brant when the former gave a Masonic sign. Brant turned him over to either Colonel John Butler q.v. or his son Captain Walter Butler who allowed the Senecas to torture and kill him when he refused to give information on the movements of General Sullivan's q.v. army. Boydwas probably a member of Military Lodge No. 19 under warrant from the grand lodge of Pennsylvania (now Montgomery No. 19, Philadelphia). It was this lodge that gave his remains Masonic burial.

William L. Boyden (1866-1939) Masonic librarian and author. b. Jan. 6, 1866 at Washington, D.C. Served as librarian for Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction for many years and wrote extensively on Masonic subjects. Raised in Osiris Lodge No. 26, Washington, D.C. in 1891. Was charter member, secretary and master of Albert Pike Lodge No. 36, Washington. d. Dec. 1, 1939.

Jean Pierre Boyer ( 1776 - 1850 ) President of Haiti from 181843. b. Feb. 28, 1776 at Port au Prince. He was a free mulatto and first became known in the revolution of 1792, fighting first against the planters and then against the negros. He fled to France but returned to Haiti with Gen. Victor Leclere to fight for the restoration of the colony to France. Afterwards he joined Petion and Christophe in the revolution to establish a republic. He succeeded Petion in 1818 as president of the southern portion and after the death of Christophe in 1820, the entire island was brought under his presidency. His maladministration caused the revolution of 1843 and brought his fall. He emigrated to Jamaica and thence to France, dying in Paris on July 9, 1850. He was grand commander of the Supreme Council AASR of Haiti, 33° and "Protector of the Order." According to the Magazine of American History (Vol. 13, p. 259, 1885) he was a frequent visitor to Somerset Lodge No. 34, Norwich, Conn.

Frank W. Boykin Congressman from 1st Alabama district 74th to 84th Congresses (1935-56). b. Feb. 21, 1885 at Bladon Springs, Ala. Started own business manufacturing railroad crossties and now identified extensively with real estate, farming, livestock, timber, lumber and naval stores in southern Alabama with headquarters at Mobile. Mason, AASR member, Shriner and Eastern Star.

Emerson R. Boyles Justice of Supreme Court of Michigan. b. June 29, 1881 in Eaton Co., Mich. Admitted to bar in 1903 and began practice in Charlotte, Mich. Served as probate judge, deputy attorney general of Michigan, member of Michigan Public Utilities Commission and legal advisor to the governor. Justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan since 1940. Mason and Knight Templar.

James S. Boynton Former Governor of Georgia. Reported as a member of St. John's Lodge No. 45, Jackson, Ga. in the grand lodge proceedings of 1862.

Paul Boynton (1848-?) Famous swimmer and adventurer. b. June 29, 1848 in Dublin, Ireland. Raised in Lodge of Friendship No. 206, London, England on May 21, 1875. With Gen. Pedro Martinez in revolution in Sonora, Mexico, followed by life-saving service on Atlantic coast where in years 1867-69 he saved 71 lives. He then served in the Franco-Prussian war and afterwards to African diamond fields. In 1874 he made a spectacular leap from a ship off the coast of Ireland in a storm and by means of a rubberized, inflated suit he had invented, gained land 40 miles away. He gained world wide renown with his suit, propelling himself feet forward with a double-bladed paddle. Among his exploits were: crossed English channel in 24 hours (1875); paddled Rhine 430 miles (1875); Alton, Ill. to St. Louis, Mo. on the Mississippi (1876) and same year Bayou Goula to New Orleans, 100 miles in 24 hours; 400 miles on the Danube insix days (1876); navigated all important rivers of the continent, passed through canals of Venice and crossed the straits of Gibraltar; returned to the U.S. and floated from Oil City, Pa. to the Gulf of Mexico-2,342 miles in 80 days. His longest voyage was in 1881 when he started at Cedar Creek, Mont. and ended at St. Louis, Mo., 3,580 miles. In 1880-81 he was a commander of the Peruvian torpedo service, captured by the Chilians and ordered executed, but escaped by sea.

John Bracken Leader of Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and former premier of Manitoba. b. June 22, 1883 at Seeley's Bay, Ont. An agriculturist, he was professor of field husbandry at the Univ. of Saskatchewan, 1910-20 and president of Manitoba Agricultural College, Univ. of Manitoba, 1920-22. Member of Manioba legislature and premier of Manitoba 1922-42. Elected to Canadian House of Commons, 1945. Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, 194248. Mason.

Hugh H. Brackenridge (1748-1816) Justice, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania from 1799-1816. b. near Campbelton, Scotland. Brought to United States when five years old. Graduated from Princeton in 1771 in same class as James Madison. Went to Philadelphia in 1776 and edited the United States Magazine. Served as a chaplain in the Revolution. d. June 25, 1816. Member of Lodge No. 45, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Theophilus Bradbury (1739-1803) Justice, Supreme Court of Massachusetts. b. Nov. 13, 1739 in Newbury, Mass. Graduated at Harvard in 1757 and studied law while teaching at Falmouth (now Portland) Maine. Practiced law in Falmouth until 1779 when he returned to Newbury, served in both houses of the state legislature and twice elected to U.S. Congress, but resigned in 1797 to accept appointment of judge on the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Mason and member of Newburyport Commandery K.T. d. Sept. 6, 1803.

Thomas Bradford (1745-1838) Son of Col. William Bradford, known as the "patriot printer of 1776." b. May 4, 1745 at Philadelphia. He entered his father's printing office and became his partner and associate editor of the Pennsylvania Journal which he changed to the True American in 1801. It was printed in the same building occupied by his great-uncle, Andrew (8 Front St.) who published the American Weekly Mercury, the first newspaper in Philadelphia (1719) in which Benjamin Franklin q.v. first worked as a compositor. Thomas became captain of a military company in Philadelphia in 1775 and later was commissary-general of the Pennsylvania division of the Continental Army. After founding of federal government, he became printer to Congress. He was a member of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia as was his brother, William, Jr. q.v. d. May 7, 1838.

William Bradford, Jr. (1755-1795) Son of Col. William Bradford who was known as the "patriot printer of 1776," and brother of Thomas q.v. b. Sept. 14, 1755 at Philadelphia. Graduated from Princeton in 1772 and studied law. Served in the Revolutionary War as lieut. colonel. In 1780 was appointed attorney general of Pennsylvania and justice of supreme court of Pennsylvania in 1791. On Jan. 8, 1794 he succeeded Edmund Randolph q.v. as the second attorney general of the United States and served until his death on Aug. 23, 1795. Member of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia.

Henry D. Bradley President of the St. Joseph News-PressGazette Corp. b. Jan. 10, 1893 at Detroit, Mich. Was with the Toledo Blade (Ohio) from1906-23 and in 1923 was with Lord Beaverbrook on the London Express (Eng.) in advisory capacity. From 1924-26 he was general manager of Norristown Times-Herald (Pa.) and president and general manager of the Times-Star at Bridgeport, Conn. He was publisher of the News Press and Gazette at St. Joseph from 1939 and president from 1950. He has recently turned the active managership over to his son, David. He is a member of Sanford L. Collins Lodge No. 396 of Toledo, Ohio, and a KCCH in the St. Joseph (Mo.) Consistory AASR (SJ).

Joseph S. Bradley Major General, U.S. Army. b. June 9, 1900 at Vancouver, Wash. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy, 1919 and advanced through grades to major general in 1944. Served with American occupation forces following WW1 and with infantry regiments in U.S., China and Philippines. With 32nd Division in S.W. Pacific in 1942. Now chief of training group, War Department General Staff, G-2. Mason.

Omar N. Bradley General of the Army (5-star). b. Feb. 12, 1893 at Clark, Mo. Graduated from West Point in 1915; Infantry School, 1925; Command and General Staff School, 1929; and Army War College, 1934. He has since received honorary LL.B. and other degrees from 20 institutions of higher learning. Advanced from 2nd lieut. in 1915 to brigadier general, 1941; major general, 1942; lieut. general, 1943; general, 1945 and general of the army, 1950. In WW2 he commanded the 2nd Corps in the Northern Tunisian and Sicilian campaigns; the 1st U.S. Army in the Normandy campaign and the 12th Army Group in France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg and Germany. He was chief of staff, U.S. Army 1948-49 and chairman U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 194953. In 1945-47 he was administrator of Veterans Affairs. Since 1953 he has been chairman of the board of Bulova Research and Development Labs., Inc. He was raised in West Point Lodge No. 877, Highland Falls, N.Y. in 1923.

Willis W. Bradley (1884-1954) Naval officer, governor of Guam, U.S. Congressman. b. June 28, 1884 at Ransomville, N.Y. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 1907. Commissioned in Navy, 1907 and advanced through grades to captain in 1933, retiring in 1946. Governor of Guam 1929-31. Member of Congress from 18th dist. of California 1947-49. Awarded Congressional Medal of Honor in WW1 and Silver Medal from Pope Pius XI. Mason, 32° AASR, Knight Templar and Shriner. Past national president of National Sojourners. d. Aug. 27, 1954.

Aaron Bradshaw Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 1, 1894 at Washington, D.C. Graduated U.S. Military Academy, 1917 and commissioned, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1943. Recipient of many decorations including Papal Lateran Cross. Editor of Coast Artillery Journal, 1936-40. Mason.

De Emmett Bradshaw Former president of Woodmen of the World Life Insurance Society and now chairman of the board. b. Jan. 5, 1869 in Izard Co., Ark. Practiced law since 1894, first in Arkansas and later in Nebraska. General attorney for Woodmen 1916-32 and president, 1932-43. Director of Omaha National Bank and Western Union Telegraph Co. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

John Bradstreet (1711-1774) British Major General of the French-Indian Wars. b. in Horbling, England. Sent to America as a young officer and remained here the rest of his life. Served in the expedition against Louisburg in 1745 as lieut. colonel of Pepperell's regiment. Made captain in 1745 and the following year appointedlieutenant governor of St. John's, Newfoundland. Defeated a strong party of French between Oswego and Albany, N.Y. Participated in the attack on Ticonderoga in 1758 and was made quartermaster general with the rank of colonel. In Aug. 1758 he captured Fort Frontenac, which he razed to the ground and served under Amherst in his expedition against Crown Point and Ticonderoga in 1759. He was advanced to major general in 1772 and fought in Pontiac's war,

negotiating a treaty of peace in Detroit in 1764. He was a member of the craft in Nova Scotia. d. Sept. 25, 1774 in New York City.

John M. Bradstreet American lawyer and businessman, who, in 1849 established Bradstreet's Improved Mercantile Agency, which in 1876 was called the Bradstreet Co. In 1933 it merged with the R. G. Dunn and Co. to form Dunn and Bradstreet, Inc., a firm furnishing financial data and credit ratings of American businesses and businessmen. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, New York City.

Hugh Brady (1768-1851) Major General in War of 1812. b. in Northumberland Co., Pa. Joined the army as an ensign in March, 1792 and served in the western expedition under General Wayne. In War of 1812 he led the 22nd Infantry in Battle of Chippewa and distinguished himself in battles of Lundy's Lane and Niagara. Made brigadier general in 1822 and major general in 1848. Initiated June 9, 1797 in Lodge No. 22, Sunbury, Pa. and withdrew Jan. 15, 1805. d. April 15, 1851.

James H. Brady (1862-1918) U.S. Senator from Idaho. b. June 12, 1862 in Indiana Co., Pa. Moved to Idaho in 1894 and became governor of the state from 1909-11. Elected U.S. Senator in Jan. 1913 for term 1913-15 and again in 1914. Mason. d. Jan. 13, 1918.

James T. Brady (1815-1869) Famous criminal lawyer. b. April 9, 1815 in New York City. Admitted to the bar in 1836. It was said that he never lost a case in which he was before the jury for more than a week. At one time he successfully defended four clients charged with murder in a single week, and all without fee or reward. Made a Mason at sight by the grand master of New York in 1866 in Ivanhoe Lodge No. 610. d. Feb. 9, 1869.

David L. Brainard (1856-1946) Arctic explorer and brigadier general, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 21, 1856 in Norway, N.Y. Entered army as a private in 1876 and rose to brig. general in 1918. Served in Sioux, Nez Perce and Bannock campaigns (1877-78). Detailed for duty with Howgate Arctic exploring expedition in 1880. He was with Lady Franklin Bay Arctic expedition under Lt. Greely from 188184 and was one of the seven survivors rescued by Comdr. W. S. Schley. On May 13, 1882, he with two others reached the most northerly point attained up to that time (83°, 24', 30"). Received many awards and decorations for his services in the Arctic. Member of Marathon Lodge No. 438, Marathon, N.Y. in 1885. d. March 22, 1946.

William G. Bramham (1874-1947) Baseball executive. b. July 13, 1874 at Hopkinsville, Ky. Admitted to N.C. bar in 1905 and practiced at Durham. President and treasurer of the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, 1933-46 and from 1946 until death, consultant to the president of the National Association. He also served as president of the following professional baseball clubs: South Atlantic, Piedmont League, Eastern Carolina League, Virginia League. Mason and Shriner. d. July 8, 1947.

Thomas E. Bramlette (1817-1875) Governor of Kentucky. b. Jan. 3, 1817 in Cumberland Co., Ky. Admitted to bar in 1837 he was judge of the sixth district in 1856 but resigned in 1861 to raise the 3rd Kentucky Infantry, and became its colonel. He was elected governor of Kentucky as a Union man in 1863 and by re-election until 1867. He was past master of Albany Lodge No. 260, Albany, Ky. and a Knight Templar. d. Jan. 12, 1875.

Cardinal Brancafarte Casanova, in his Memoirs wrote of him: "The first day of the year, 1772, I presented myself to the Cardinal Brancafarte, Legate of the Pope, whom I had known at Paris 20 years previously when he was sent by Benoit (Benedict XIV) to carry the blessed linen clothes to the new-born Duke de Bourgoyne. We had been together in a Lodge of Freemasons for the members of the Sacred College who thundered against the Freemasons and knew well that

their anathemas impressed only the weak, whom a too lively light might dazzle.”

John Branch (1782-1863) Secretary of the Navy, Governor of North Carolina, Governor of Territory of Florida, U.S. Senator. b. Nov. 4, 1782 at Halifax, N.C. Studied law and became judge of the superior court and was state senator from 1811-17, 1822, 1834. Elected governor in 1817 and was U.S. Senator from 1823-29, resigning when appointed Secretary of the Navy by Pres. Jackson. In 1844-5 he was governor of the territory of Florida, serving until the election of a governor under the state constitution. Member of Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2, Halifax, N.C. d. Jan. 4, 1863.

James T. Brand Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon. b. Oct. 9, 1886 at Oberlin, Ohio. Degrees from Oberlin College, Harvard and Willamette Univ. Began private law practice in 1914 after three years as a forest ranger. Served as circuit judge 192741 and since that time has been associate justice of the Supreme Court of Oregon and chief justice in 195152. He was appointed judge of the military tribunal for trial of major war criminals at Nurnberg, Germany in 1947. Mason.

William A. Brandenburg (18691940) President of Kansas State Teachers College, 1913-40. b. Oct. 10, 1869 at Clayton Co., Iowa. Teacher and school superintendent in Iowa, Oklahoma and Kansas. Mason. d. Oct. 29, 1940.

Rodney H. Brandon Organizer of Loyal Order of the Moose. b. Sept. 21, 1881 at Monroe Co., Ind. One of the founders of the Loyal Order of the Moose in 1906 and an official in it until 1929. In 1913 he supervised the construction of Mooseheart and established Moosehaven, Fla. in 1922. Organizer of the Progressive Party in Indiana in 1912, moving to Illinois in 1913 where he was delegate to state constitutional convention in 1919. From 1929-33 he was director of Department of Public Welfare of Ill. In 1926 he was special investigator

for U.S. of child welfare conditions in Europe. Lecturer in criminology, social hygiene and medical jurisprudence, Univ. of Illinois since 1933. Mason.

William W. Brandon (1868-1934) Governor of Alabama. b. June 5, 1868 at Talladega, Ala. Admitted to bar in 1892 and practiced at Tuscaloosa. Became successively a member of state house of representatives, clerk of Alabama constitutional convention, state auditor and probate judge. Served as governor from 1923-27. A major in Spanish American War, he was brigadier general and adjutant general of the Alabama national guard from 1898-1907. d. Dec. 7, 1934. Member of Rising Virtue Lodge No. 4 at Tuscaloosa.

Samuel Brannan (1819-1889) Mormon pioneer of California. b. in Saco, Me., he was an editor and printer and elder in the Mormon church, editing Mormon journals. He was leader of the Mormon colony that arrived in San Francisco in July, 1846 on the ship Brooklyn from New York. The discovery of gold in 1848 led to the dissolution of the Mormon community in California and a little later to Brannan's apostasy from the Mormon church, an event that followed a quarrel with Brigham Young and other Utah leaders. Brannan was practically first in everything in the San Francisco area. He preached the first Protestant sermon in California and solemnized the first Protestant marriage in the state. He was the subject of the first jury trial and organized the first newspaper, The California Star in San Francisco (2nd in the state). He brought the first gold from Coloma and thereby started the first stampede from that village to the new diggings on the American River. He was the first to offer a resolution to exclude slavery from California. He was California's first millionaire, built the first flour mill in San Francisco and was a member of California Lodge No. 1, of San Francisco.

Melvin A. Brannon (1865-1950) College president and biologist. b. Sept. 11, 1865 at Lowell, Ind. Taught science and biology 1890-1914. Organized School of Medicine, Univ. of North Dakota in 1905. President

of Univ. of Idaho 1914-17 and Beloit College 1917-23. Chancellor University of Montana 1923-33. Mason. d. March 26, 1950.

John Brant (1794-1832) Indian chief of the Mohawks and son of the more famous Joseph Brant q.v. His Indian name was Ahyouwaighs. b. Sept. 27, 1794 at Mohawk Village, Upper Canada. Served the British with distinction in the War of 1812. Visited England in 1821 in effort to settle differences between the Mohawks and the government of Upper Canada and correspondence shows that he was also commissioned by the grand lodge at Niagara to place the state of the Craft before the English Masonic authorities. He succeeded his father, the noted Joseph, as principal chief of the Six Nations in 1807. He died in Sept. 1832 of Asiatic cholera, having been elected to the parliament of Upper Canada only shortly before. It is supposed that he was initiated about 1815 in Union Lodge No. 24 which first met in Flamborough Village and afterwards at Dundas and Ancaster. He received his second degree on May 10, 1818. On Nov. 7, 1818 he was acting secretary of the lodge and was elected junior warden on Dec. 27, 1819.

Joseph Brant (1742-1807) Mohawk Indian chief and later principal chief of the Six Nations. He was the first Indian-Freemason of which there is record and the most famous Indian of the Revolutionary period. b. on the banks of the Ohio river in 1742. Sir William Johnson q.v. became interested in him and educated him in Eleazar Wheelock's school. Johnson also was the common-law husband of Brant's sister, Molly. In 1771 Brant became chief sachem of the Six Nations at the age of 29. He fought with Johnson in Battle of Lake George (1755); Niagara campaign (1759) and Pontiac's War (1763). He became secretary to Guy Johnson q.v., superintendent of Indian affairs and nephew of Sir William, in 1774. Sent to England in 1775 where he was made a Freemason in Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge No. 417, London, early in 1776. Returning to America, he participated as a colonel in the Cherry Valley massacre (1778); Minisink, Fort Stanwixand Oriskany (1779). At the war's end in 1783, he settled with his Mohawks on a six square mile grant on the Grand River in Ontario (Upper Canada). During the war Brant was credited with saving the lives of several Freemasons who appealed to him Masonically. They were: Col. John McKinstry (May 20, 1776); Lt. Johnathan Maynard (May 30, 1778); Major John Wood (July

19, 1779); Lt. Thomas Boyd (Sept. 13, 1779) who was later killed by the whites (q.v. each of the above names). In 1785 Brant again visited England in connection with a land grant and in 1796 was present at the first meeting of Barton Lodge No. 10, being listed as a member. In 1798 a charter was issued to Lodge No. 11, Brantford, Mohawk Village and named Joseph Brant as first master. He died Nov. 24, 1807 at the Brant mansion in Wellington Square, Ont. and his son John (Ahyouwaighs) was named principal chief as his successor q.v.

Charles W. Brashares Methodist Bishop. b. March 31, 1891 at Williamsport, Ohio. Attended Ohio Wesleyan, Boston Univ., Harvard and Cornell, receiving degrees of A.B., D.D., LL.D. Ordained Methodist Episcopal church in 1917 and served as pastor in Mass., Maine, Ohio, and Mich. from 1917-44. Bishop of Des Moines area from 194452 and bishop of Chicago area since 1952. Mason. Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 38, Gorham, Me. about 1918 and received AASR degrees in Dayton, Ohio. Demitted.

Alva J. Brasted Chief of chaplains, U.S. Army. b. July 5, 1876 at Findley Lake, N.Y. Ordained to Baptist ministry in 1905 and held pastorates in N. Dak., Minn., and Iowa until 1913 when commissioned chaplain in U.S. Army, rising to rank of colonel and chief of chaplains 1933-47. Now retired. Raised in Wauconda Lodge No. 298, Wauconda, Ill. and presently member of Sojourners Lodge No. 51, Washington, D.C. 32° AASR (SJ) in Fargo, N. Dak. in 1916.

Sam G. Bratton U.S. Senator from New Mexico and federal judge. b. Aug. 19, 1888 at Kosse, Texas. Educated in public schools and admitted to Texas bar in 1909, moving to Clovis, N. Mex. in 1915. Judge of the district court, 5th judicial dist. of N. Mex. 1919-22; associate justice supreme court of New Mex. 1923-24; U.S. Senator from N. Mex. 1925-33. Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals, 10th circuit since 1933. Member of Clovis Lodge No. 40, Clovis, New Mexico, 32° AASR (SJ) in Valley of Santa Fe; Ballut Abyad Shrine Temple, Albuquerque, N.M. and Honorary Legion of Honor, Order of DeMolay.

Mason Brayman (1813-?) Major General in Civil War (Union). b. May 23, 1813 in Buffalo, N. Y. Brought up as a farmer, but became a printer and edited the Buffalo (N. Y.) Bulletin, later studying law and taking up practice in Monroe, Mich. in 1838. In 1842 he opened a law office in Springfield, Ill. In 1845-46 he was special attorney to prosecute offenses growing out of the Mormon difficulties and negotiated a peace between the followers of Joseph Smith q.v. and their enemies at Nauvoo, Ill. Joined volunteer army in 1861 and was major in the 29th Illinois regiment, being promoted to major general at the close of the war. After war he engaged in railroad enterprises, edited the Illinois State Journal and moved to Wisconsin in 1873 and in 1876 was appointed as governor of the Territory of Idaho for four years, later returning to Wisconsin and practicing law at Ripon. Mason. Member Springfield (Ill) Lodge No. 4.

David Brearley (1745-1790) Revolutionary soldier, member of Constitutional Convention, chief justice of New Jersey and first grand master of New Jersey. b. June 11, 1745 near Trenton, N.J. He practiced law in Allentown and took an early part in the controversy with England for which he was arrested for high treason but set free by a mob of his fellow citizens. He was a member of the first convention to frame a constitution prior to 1781, and was an officer in the Revolutionary War. Elected chief justice of New Jersey in 1779, he served until 1789, when he was appointed U.S. District judge. He was one of the compilers of the Protestant Episcopal prayer-book of 1785 and was first grand master of New Jersey, serving from 1786 until his death on Aug. 10, 1790. Mason.

John Breathitt (1786-1834) Governor of Kentucky. b. Sept. 9, 1786 near New London, Va., he moved to Kentucky with his father in 1800 where he was a surveyor, teacher, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1810. A Jacksonian Democrat, he served several years in the legislature and was lieut. governor of Kentucky in 1828-32 and governor in 1832-34. He was a member of Russellville Lodge No. 17 and Russellville Chapter No. 8, R.A.M.

Daniel Breck (1788-1871) Judge, Supreme Court of Kentucky and U.S. Congressman. b. Feb. 12, 1788 at Tops-field, Mass. Graduated at Dartmouth in 1812, studied law and began practice in Richmond, Ky. in 1814. He became judge of the Richmond County court, was a member of the Kentucky house of representatives from 1824-29 and a judge of the supreme court of Kentucky from 1834-49. He served in the 31st Congress from 1849-51. A past master of Richmond Lodge No. 25, he served as grand master of Kentucky in 1827-28.

John Cabell Breckinridge (18211875) 14th Vice President of the United States, U.S. Senator, major general in Confederate army and secretary of war of the Confederate states. b. Jan. 21, 1821 near Lexington, Ky. A grandson of John Breckinridge, U.S. Senator and attorney general. Educated at Centre College and Transylvania Institute, he resided in Burlington, Iowa for a short time before settling at Lexington, Ky. where he practiced law. While in Burlington he petitioned Des Moines Lodge No. 41 (now 1) on Feb. 7, 1842 and on Dec. 5, 1842 was elected senior warden of the lodge, and re-elected on June 5, 1843. Served as a major in the war with Mexico in 1847, returning to Kentucky to be elected first to the house of representatives and then to the U.S. Congress in 1851 and again in 1853. Elected vice president of the U.S. in 1856, serving from 1857-1861. As a presidential candidate in 1860 he received 72 electoral votes. The same year he was elected U.S. Senator from Kentucky to succeed John J. Crittenden q.v. At the beginning of the Civil War, he defended the south in the Senate and soon entered the Confederate service for which he was expelled from the senate on Dec. 4, 1861. On Aug. 5, 1862 he was made major general and for the next two years fought in many battles. He was secretary of war in Jefferson Davis's cabinet from Jan. 1865 until the close of the conflict when he fled to Cuba and then to Europe. He returned to the states in 1868 determined to have no further part in politics. He became a member of Good Samaritan Lodge No. 174 at Lexington, Ky. by affiliation; was suspended in 1861 and reinstated on Nov. 16, 1871. He was a member of Temple Chapter No. 19, R.A.M., Webb Commandery No. 2, K.T., both of Lexington and received the 33°

AASR (SJ) on March 28, 1860. d. May 17, 1875 at Lexington, Ky. and was buried with Knight Templar services.

Robert Jefferson Breckinridge (1800-1871) Clergyman, lawyer, author and principal author of the public school system of Kentucky. b. March 8, 1800 at Cabell's Dell, Ky. Attended Princeton and practiced law for eight years, but in 1829 he determined to enter the ministry and was licensed to preach in 1832. Held several Presbyterian pastorates including Martimore and Lexington, Ky. Served four years in Kentucky legislature. Edited several religious magazines and wrote a number of books. He was opposed to slavery even though his nephew John C. Breckinridge q.v. was secretary of war in Jefferson Davis's cabinet. He presided over the national Republican convention in 1864 which renominated Lincoln. His nephew, John C., was Lincoln's closest contender in the previous election. Member of Lexington Lodge No. 1 and Lexington Chapter No. 1 of Lexington, Ky. d. Dec. 27, 1871.

William C. P. Breckinridge (18371904) Member U.S. Congress (188495) from 7th Kentucky district. First cousin of John C. Breckinridge q.v. vice-president of the United States. b. Aug. 28, 1837 at Baltimore, Md. son of Robert J. Breckinridge q.v. Although his father was opposed to slavery, William entered the Confederate army as a captain in 1861 and became colonel of the 9th Kentucky cavalry and commanded the brigade when it surrendered. Became professor of equity jurisprudence in Cumberland Univ., Term. A member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Ky., he delivered the oration at the cornerstone laying of the Masonic Temple in Richmond, Virginia in 1888.

Ernest R. Breech Chairman of the board of Ford Motor Company. b. Lebanon, Mo. Feb. 24, 1897. Began as an accountant with Fairbanks, Morse & Co. in 1917. Assistant treasurer of General Motors Corp., 1929-33 and vice president, 1933-42; chairman of board of North American Aviation 1933-42; president of Bendix Aviation Corp., 194247. Executive vice president and director of Ford Motor Co. from 19461955 and chairman of the board since. Holds directorates of several large corporations. Raised in Austin Lodge No. 850, Chicago, Ill. in

1924. AASR (NJ) at Detroit and sovereign grand inspector general, 33°, since Sept. 1956.

R. E. Breed (1866-1926) Organizer and president of American Gas & Electric Co. b. March 17, 1866 at Pittsburgh, Pa. Director of many corporations. Mason. d. Oct. 14, 1926.

Robert G. Breene Major general, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 17, 1894 at Dayton, Ohio. Graduated with B.S. in M.E. from Purdue Univ. in 1917. Commissioned in 1917 and advanced through grades to major general in 1943. Mason.

Edmund Breese (1871-1936) Actor. b. June 18, 1871 at Brooklyn, N.Y. On the legitimate stage from 1896. Played lead roles in Neil Gwynn, Marie Stuart and Frou Frou. With James O'Neil in Merchant of Venice (1898); all star cast of Monte Cristo (1899), Romeo and Juliet (1899), Ransom's Folly (1904), Strongheart (1905). Originated "John Burkett Ryder" in The Lion and the Mouse which he played in New York and London. Later played "Richard Brewster" in The Third Degree. Star of The Earth in 1909. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 6, Norwalk, Conn. d. April 6, 1936.

Sidney Breese (1800-1878) U.S. Senator from Illinois and chief justice, Supreme Court of Illinois. b. July 15, 1800 at Whitesboro, N.Y. Moved to Illinois in 1821 where he became assistant secretary of state the following year and advanced tostate attorney, U.S. attorney, circuit judge and in 1841 elected to the supreme court of that state. From 184349 he was U.S. Senator from Illinois. In 1857 he was again elected to the supreme court and in 1873 became chief justice, holding that position until his death. Served in the Black Hawk War; a regent of the Smithsonian Institution; one of the organizers of the Illinois Central Railroad. He was a member and past master of Scott Lodge No. 79, Carlyle, Ill. d. June 27, 1878.

Walter E. Brehm U.S. Congressman from 11th Ohio district 78th to 81st Congresses (1943-51). b. May 25, 1892 at Somerset, Ohio. Practiced dentistry at Logan, Ohio 1917-42. Served in Ohio legislature two terms. Initiated in Somerset Lodge No. 76 in 1915 and presently member of Mingo Lodge No. 171, Logan, Ohio. Exalted in Somerset Chapter No. 61, R.A.M. presently member of Logan Chapter No. 75. Took his council and commandery work at New Lexington, Ohio and presently member of those bodies at Logan. Member of Consistory (32°) AASR (NJ) at Columbus and Aladdin Shrine at Columbus. Has served as master of his lodge, high priest of chapter, commander of commandery and also secretary of lodge.

Sereno E. Brett (1891-1952) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 31, 1891 at Portland, Oreg. Commissioned in 1916 and rose to brigadier general in 1942. A pioneer in tank warfare, he organized and commanded the 327th Battalion Tank Corps in June 1918, and as a major led the first American tank attack with the 326th battalion at St. Mihiel, Sept. 12-15, 1918. Commanded 1st American Tank Brigade throughout Meuse-Argonne. He was chief of staff of the Armored Force in 1940-41 and commanded the Fifth Armored Division from 1942 until retirement Oct. 31, 1943. Member of Hancock Lodge No. 311, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, Hawaiian Chapter No. 9 of National Sojourners and Lafayette Chapter No. 7, Heroes of '76 at Baltimore. d. Sept. 9, 1952.

Basil Brewer Newspaper and radio executive. b. July 22, 1884 at Rush Hill, Mo. With Scripps-Howard papers from 1908-21 in Cincinnati, Cleveland and Omaha, Nebr. Now publisher and controlling owner of New Bedford (Mass.) Standard-Times and Cape Cod Standard-Times, Hyannis, Mass. and radio stations WNBH, WFMR and WOCB in Mass. Mason.

Earl LeRoy Brewer ( 1869 - 1942 ) Governor of Mississippi. b. Aug. 11, 1869 in Carroll Co., Miss. Received LL.B. from Univ. of

Mississippi in 1892 and practiced law at Water Valley, Miss. 1882-1901. Member of Mississippi state senate 1895-99 and governor of the state from 1912-16. Ma-on. d. March 10, 1942.

Few Brewster Justice, Supreme Court of Texas. b. May 10, 1889 at Corn Hill, Texas. Graduate of Howard Payne College (Texas) and Univ. of Texas. Admitted to bar in 1915 and held offices of county attorney, district attorney, district judge and judge of court of appeals. Has been associate justice of the supreme court of Texas since 1945. Served as 2nd lieutenant of Infantry in WW1. Raised in Killeen, Texas in 1910.

Owen Brewster Governor of Maine and U.S. Senator. b. Feb. 22, 1888 at Dexter, Me. Graduated from Bowdoin College, Harvard and Univ. of Maine. Member of the Maine house of representatives, 191719, 1921-23 and of the state senate in 1923-25. He served two terms as governor of Maine, 1925-29 and was a member of the 74th to 76th Congresses from Maine 3rd district (1935-41). Elected U.S. Senator, serving from 1941-53. Member of Penobscot Lodge No. 39, Dexter, Maine, as was his father and grandfather, before him; St. John's Chapter No. 25, R.A.M. and DeMolay Commandery, K.T. both of Dexter. 32° AASR (NJ) and member of Anah Shrine Temple, Bangor, Maine. When Harry S. Truman, a fellow-senator, was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, Brewster spoke at the grand lodge session at Truman's request.

Charles R. Brice Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Mexico. b. Aug. 6, 1870 at Terrell, Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1893, moving to Carlsbad, N. Mex. in 1903. Served as justice of the supreme court of New Mexico from 1935 to 1951, being chief justice in 1941-42, 1947-51. Returned to private practice in Roswell, 1951. Mason and 32° AASR.

Jean Joseph Brice English strong man. Member of St. James Union Lodge No. 177, London on Dec. 12, 1866.

John W. Bricker Governor and U.S. Senator from Ohio. b. Sept. 6, 1893 in Madison Co., Ohio. A.B. and LL.B. from Ohio State Univ. Admitted to bar in 1917 and became assistant attorney general of Ohio in 1923, serving until 1927. Became attorney general in 1933 serving until 1937. Elected governor of Ohio in 1939 and re-elected two more terms until 1945. In 1944 he was the Republican candidate for vice president of the United States. Was elected to the U.S. Senate from Ohio in Nov. 1945 and has served continuously since that time. An active Mason, Bricker is a member of Mt. Sterling Lodge No. 269, Mt. Vernon, Ohio, Community Chapter No. 227, R.A.M., Columbus Council No. 8, R. & S.M., Mt. Vernon Commandery No. 1, Scioto Consistory (AASR-NJ), receiving honorary 33° in 1942, and Aladdin Temple AAONMS.

Mead L. Bricker Banker and former vice president of Ford Motor Co. b. April 24, 1885 at Youngstown, Ohio. Began as a machinist in 1904 and became vice president and director of manufacturing of Ford Motor Co., resigning to become director of City Bank of Detroit and director of several corporations. Raised in Friendship Lodge No. 417, Detroit, Mich. in May, 1914 and is life member of the lodge. Is president of the Detroit Masonic Temple Building Fund and member of Grand Lodge of Michigan foreign relations committee. Member of King Cyrus Chapter No. 133, R.A.M. of Detroit and 33° AASR (NJ), Detroit; Moslem Shrine Temple; St. Clement Conclave No. 39, Red Cross of Constantine and The Royal Order of Scotland.

Styles Bridges Governor of New Hampshire and U.S. Senator. b. Sept. 9, 1898 at West Pembroke, Me. Graduate of Univ. of Maine and Dartmouth with LL.D. degrees from several universities. Began as instructor in Sandhurst Academy, Ashfield, Mass. 1918, later county agent and extension specialist for Univ. of New Hampshire. Later of Granite Monthly magazine and director of New Hampshire Investment Co. Governor of New Hampshire, 1935-37 and U.S. Senator since 1937. Republican leader of Senate in 1952 and president pro tern in 1953. Received his degrees in Morning Sun Lodge, Conway, Mass. and is member of Eureka Lodge, No. 70, Concord, N.H. Member of Trinity

Chapter No. 2, Concord, N.H. and Mt. Horeb Commandery, as well as Bektash Shrine Temple, all of Concord.

Ansel W. Briggs (1806-1881) Inaugurated first governor of the newly constituted State of Iowa on December 3, 1846. His Masonic membership is obscure. He was often in the company of many active Masons, Robert Lucas q.v., the first territorial governor, being among them. The confused records of Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Bellevue, Nebr. which was organized in 1854, gives him as a charter member in one official account issued by the Grand Lodge of Illinois (from whence the charter came) and in another his name does not appear. At this time Briggs was at a hamlet on the Missouri River called St. Mary's not far south of where Omaha now stands and opposite the town of Bellevue in the Territory of Nebraska.

Asa G. Briggs (1862-1945) Director U.S. Chamber of Commerce (193034). b. Dec. 20, 1862 at Arcadia, Wis. Admitted to Minn. bar in 1887. An officer of the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence Tidewater Assn. and St. Paul Chamber of Commerce and director on the national board for Camp Fire Girls. Mason and Shriner. d. Aug. 31, 1945.

Eugene S. Briggs President of Phillips University, Enid, Okla. since 1938. b. Feb. 1, 1890 in Howard Co., Mo. B.S. Central College (Mo.); B.S., M.A. and Ph.D. Univ. of Missouri. High school principal in Missouri and Okla. 1913-23. President State Teachers College, Durant, Okla. 1928-33; director adult education Mo. State Dept. of Education 1934-35; president of Christian College, Columbia, Mo. 1935-38 and president of Phillips Univ. since 1938. Elected to Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1951. Member of Garfield Lodge No. 501, Enid, Okla. and Enid Commandery No. 13, K.T., Enid. Member of Trenton Chapter No. 66, R.A.M. and Trenton Council No. 37, R. & S.M., both of Trenton, Mo. Member of Akdar Shrine Temple of Tulsa. Charter member and first president of High Twelve at Okmulgee and past president of the Enid High Twelve Club. Member of DeMolay Legion of Honor. Brother of Frank P. Briggs q.v.

Frank A. Briggs Former Governor of North Dakota. Was 32° AASR and KCCH in Scottish Rite, being buried Masonically.

Frank P. Briggs U.S. Senator from Missouri and newspaper owner. b. Feb. 25, 1894 at Armstrong, Mo. Graduate of Univ. of Missouri 1914. Edited newspapers in Fayette, Moberly, Trenton, Mo. and Shawnee, Okla. Editor and owner of the Macon Chronicle-Herald (Mo.) since 1924. Member of Missouri state senate from 1933 to 1945, serving as president 1941-45. Appointed U.S. Senator from Mo. Jan. 18, 1945 to fill unexpired term of Harry S. Truman q.v. by Governor Donnelly q.v. Member of Missouri Conservation Commission since 1947. Past grand high priest of the Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons of Missouri and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri (1957). Raised in Fayette Lodge No. 47, Fayette, Mo. on Aug. 17, 1915; later a member of Trenton Lodge No. 111, Trenton, Mo. (1917-24) and presently member of Censer Lodge No. 172, Macon. Member of Macon Chapter No. 22, R.A.M. and past high priest; Centralia Council No. 34, R. & S.M. and past master, and Emmanuel Commandery No. 7, Macon. Ararat Shrine Temple of Kansas City.

Leon E. Briggs Treasurer of Ford Motor Co. b. Jan. 31, 1892 at Syracuse, N.Y. Started with Ford Motor Co. as a stenographer in 1914, advancing as branch auditor, branch comptroller, traveling auditor, assistant general auditor, general auditor and treasurer since 1946. He is vice president and treasurer of the Ford Motor Co. Fund. Served in navy in WW1. Mason.

Elbert S. Brigham U.S. Congressman, 69th to 71st Congresses (192531) from first district of Vermont. b. Oct. 19, 1877 at St. Albans, Vt. President of the National Life Insurance Co., Montpelier, Vt. retiring in 1948 and is now president of the Franklin Co. Savings Bank & Trust Co. of St. Albans. Member of Franklin Lodge No. 4, St. Albans, Vt. and 33° AASR (NJ) at Burlington, Vt.

Howard R. Brinker Episcopal bishop. b. Oct. 20, 1893 at Nashotah, Wis. Graduate of the Univ. of Pennsylvania (1918) and ordained priest in the Episcopal Church in 1919. Served as rector in Wyoming and Illinois and dean of the Chicago South Deanery, 1935-39. A member of the diocesan council 1924-40, chairman of department of publicity, 1939 and chairman department of missions 1930-38. Bishop of Nebraska, 1943, provisional bishop of Missionary District, Western Nebraska, 1943 and bishop of reunited diocese and district since 1946. Raised in Ashlar Lodge No. 10, Douglas, Wyo. about 1920 and presently a member of Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, Nebr.

George F. Briston Composer. Member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City.

Marquis de Britigney Served as a colonel in the American Revolution. Member of St. Johns Lodge No. 3, New Bern, North Carolina.

James L. Britt (1861-1939) U.S. Congressman to 64th and 65th Congresses (1915-19) from 10th North Carolina district. b. March 4, 1861 at Johnson City, Tenn. Practiced law at Asheville, N.C. Special attorney for department of justice 1906-9 and special assistant to attorney general in 1910 for prosecution of civil cases for Post Office dept. Minority leader of N.C. senate in 1909. Mason. d. Dec. 26, 1939.

Edwin F. Britten, Jr. President of Monroe Calculating Machine Co. b. Feb. 2, 1885 at Jersey City, N.J. Graduated from Cornell Univ. 1907. Employed as a mechanical engineer and executive from 1907-17 by several companies. In 1917 he became vice president in charge of manufacture of the Monroe Co. and has been president since 1937. Holds many patents on calculating and office machines. Mason.

Daniel Broadhead ( 1736 - 1809 ) Revolutionary soldier. In 1775 he raised a company of riflemen who served in the battle of Long Island. He was appointed colonel of the 8th Pennsylvania regiment, and in April 1778, led a successful expedition against the Muskingum Indians. He made two important treaties with the Indians and received the thanks of Congress, being made brigadier general after the war. He was a member of Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia, Pa. d. Nov. 15, 1809.

James 0. Broadhead First president of the American Bar Association, congressman and diplomat. When the American Bar Association was founded in 1878, James 0. Broadhead of St. Louis was chosen its first president. His original membership is not known, but at his death in 1898, he was a member of Tuscan Lodge No. 360 of St. Louis, Mo.

Glen P. Brock President of Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad. b. Nov. 22, 1896 at Alden, Ia. Graduated from Univ. of Illinois in 1922. Started with the Illinois Central Railroad in 1912, going to the Gulf and Mobile in 1923 as assistant to general manager. Was general manager from 1934; vice president and general manager from 1940. President since June, 1957. Raised in Palestine Lodge No. 849, Palestine, Ill. in 1921. 32° AASR in Mobile, Ala. and member of Abba Shrine Temple of Mobile.

William Brockmeier (1866-1947) Conducted 5,586 Masonic funeral services. Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 40, St. Louis, Mo. He started keeping records of the funerals in 1911, although he had attended many before that time. The dignity and eloquence he developed through the years resulted in requests from other lodges for his services and he eventually represented 48 lodges, serving each without remuneration. As a stationary engineer with the American Brake Co., he worked a night shift and thus had free time in the day. He attended his last funeral on May 29, 1947 at the age of 81—it was his own.

Charles Brockwell English clergyman, who it is claimed, delivered the first recorded Masonic sermon on Dec. 27, 1749 at Christ Church, Boston, Mass.

Edward E. Brodie (1876-1939) U. S. Envoy and Minister to Siam and Finland. b. March 12, 1876, at Fort Stevens, Oreg. A newspaper man, he began with the Morning Enterprise, Oregon City in 1901 and later became owner and publisher until 1935. Became Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Siam in 1921, resigning in 1925. In 1930 he was E.E. and M.P. to Finland, serving until 1933. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. June 27, 1939.

William A. Brodie Laid the foundation stone of the Statue of Liberty in New York harbor on August 5, 1884 as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York.

Kazimierz Brodzinski (1791-1835) Polish epic poet and scholar. Was professor of Polish literature at Warsaw from 1826. A Freemason. His best known work was Wieslaw, written in 1820.

Samuel Broers President Firestone International Co. b. Jan. 1, 1892 in Amsterdam, Holland, coming to the U.S. in 1909. Began career as shipping clerk in 1910 and started with Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio as an export clerk in 1914, rising through field manager, export manager, and in charge of all overseas operations since 1934. Raised in Adoniram Lodge No. 517, Akron, Ohio in 1922.

Willis J. Brogden (1877-1935) Justice, Supreme Court of North Carolina. b. Oct. 18, 1877 at Goldsboro, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1907

and practiced at Durham. Elected associate justice of the supreme court in 1926. Mason. d. Oct. 29, 1935.

Henry P. H. Bromwell (1823-1903) Masonic author. b. Aug. 26, 1823 in Baltimore Co., Md. Moved to Illinois, studied law and became judge of the circuit court of Fayette Co. He later edited a newspaper and served in the state legislature from 1865-69. A member of the Illinois Constitutional Convention in 1869. He was raised in Temperance Lodge No. 16, Vandalia, Ill. in 1854, master in 1856 and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1864. Was grand orator of the grand lodge four times; high priest of Edgar Chapter No. 32, R.A.M. in 1858, knighted in Elwood Commandery No. 6, 1861 and received the AASR from A. G. Mackey in 1877. Moved to Colorado and became active in the Grand Lodge of Colorado, affiliating with Denver Lodge No. 5. Grand orator of Colorado in 1874. Author of the ponderous volume Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbolism. d. Jan. 9, 1903.

Green C. Bronson (1789-1863) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New York. b. in Oneida, N.Y. Practiced law at Utica, N.Y. and elected attorney general in 1829. At this time he came under attack for being a "high Mason" by the Anti-Masonic Enquirer published at Rochester. Became chief justice of supreme court in 1945 and two years later one of the judges of the court of appeals, just organized. He left the bench and practiced law in New York City. d. Sept. 3, 1863. Chief justice in 1845.

John R. Brooke (1838-1926) Major General, U.S. Army. b. July 21, 1838 in Montgomery Co., Pa. Enlisted in -the 4th Pennsylvania Infantry in 1861. Participated in Civil War battles of Cold Harbor, Gettysburg, Spottsylvania Court-House and Tolopotomy and made brigadier general for gallantry. Resigned from volunteer service and entered regular army as lieutenant colonel, rising to major general in 1897. Was head of the military commission and governor general of Puerto Rico and governor general of Cuba. Retired in 1902. Mason and member of Columbia Chapter No. 21, R.A.M. Philadelphia, Pa. d. Sept. 5, 1926.

Laurens Brooke Surgeon and medical officer to John Paul Jones q.v., father of the American Navy. Was a member of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, Va. He served on Jones' ships Ranger and Bon Homme Richard.

Robert Brooke Governor of Virginia from 1794-96. He also served as attorney general of Virginia • from 1798-1800 and it was during this period that Henry Clay q.v. studied in his law office. At the outbreak of the Revolution he was a medical student at the University of Edinburgh and returned to America to serve as a first lieutenant of cavalry. A member and past master of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, he became grand master of Virginia on Nov. 23, 1795.

Walker Brooke (1813-1869) U.S. Senator from Mississippi. b. Dec. 13, 1813 in Virginia. Graduated from Univ. of Virginia in 1835, studied law, emigrated to Kentucky where he taught school two years and then took up practice in Lexington, Miss. Elected senator and served from March, 1852 to March, 1853. He was a member of the Mississippi seceding convention of 1861. He was a member of the Confederate congress, but was defeated for the Confederate senate. He was a member of Hill City Lodge No. 121, Vicksburg, Miss. past high priest of Lexington Chapter No. 9, Lexington, Ky. and the second grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Mississippi (1848). He demitted from the chapter in 1858. d. Feb. 19, 1869.

Bryant B. Brooks (1861-1944) Governor of Wyoming. b. Feb. 5, 1861 at Bernardston, Mass. A livestock grower in Wyoming from 1882, was president of Consolidated Royalty Oil Co. and Wyoming National Bank, serving in the Wyoming legislature in 1892. He was a presidential elector in 1900 and governor of Wyoming from 190511. He was a member of Ashlar Lodge No. 10 at Douglas, Wyo. and later of Casper Lodge No. 15, Casper, of which he was past master. In 1940 he was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Wyoming. d. Dec. 7, 1944.

C. Wayland Brooks ( 1897 - 1957 ) U.S. Senator from Illinois. b. March 8, 1897 in West Bureau Co., Ill. Student at Wheaton College and Univ. of Chicago, receiving LL.B. from Northwestern Univ. in 1926. Admitted to bar in 1926 and practiced in Chicago. Elected U.S. Senator in 1939 and reelected in 1942 for six-year term. Served with Marines in WW1 and was wounded seven times, receiving D.S.C. from both Army and Navy and was retired at age of 21. Member of Wheaton Lodge No. 269, Wheaton, Ill., being raised Jan. 24, 1920. Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1946. 33° AASR (NJ), York Rite Mason and member of St. John's No.1, Red Cross of Constantine. d. Jan. 14, 1957.

Henry L. Brooks U.S. District Judge (Ky.). b. Dec. 9, 1905 at Louisville, Ky. Graduate of Univ. of Wisconsin and Jefferson School of Law. Admitted to bar in 1928 and practiced at Louisville. Judge of Jefferson Circuit Court, 1946-48 and U.S. District Judge since 1954. Member of Louisville Lodge No. 400, Louisville, Ky. AASR in Valley of Kentucky (KCCH).

John Brooks (1752-1825) Governor of Massachusetts. First elected in 1816 and re-elected seven years in succession, finally declining to again be a candidate. b. May 31, 1752 at Medford, Mass. Studied medicine under Dr. Simon Tufts and settled at Reading, Mass. as a physician. Drilled a company of minute-men and was present at the Battle of Lexington. Participated in Fort Stanwix expedition and Battle of Saratoga. He was then promoted to colonel (1778) and was associated with Baron von Steuben q.v. in training the Continental Army. A friend of Washington, he was major general of the militia for many years, practicing law at Medford, Mass. From 1812-15 he was adjutant general of Mass. He received his E.A. degree in American Union Lodge (Military) on Aug. 28, 1779 and later a member of Washington Lodge No. 10 (Military) under Grand Lodge of Mass. d. March 1, 1825.

Overton Brooks U.S. Congressman from 4th Louisiana district, 75th to 81st Congresses (1936-51). b. Dec. 21, 1897 at East Baton

Rouge, La. Received LL.B. from Louisiana State Univ. 1923, practicing law at Shreveport. Served in WW1 in 1st Division field artillery. Raised on Joppa Lodge No. 362, Shreveport, La. about 1921. 32° AASR (SJ), Shriner and honorary member of National Sojourners.

Samuel P. Brooks ( 1863 - 1931 ) President of Baylor University, 19021931. b. Dec. 4, 1863 at Milledgeville, Ga. Graduate of several universities, including Baylor, Yale and Univ. of Chicago. Was vice president of the Southern Baptist Convention in Baltimore, 1910 and president of the Baptist General Convention of Texas, 1914-17. A Mason, he was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Texas in 1914 and 1922. d. May 14, 1931.

Stratton D. Brooks ( 1869 - 1949 ) University president b. Sept. 10, 1869 at Everett, Mo. Principal of high schools from 1890-99 in Illinois and Michigan; assistant professor of education and high school inspection, Univ. of 1899-1902; assistant superintendent of schools, Boston, 1902-06; superintendent of schools, Cleveland, 0., 1906; superintendent of schools, Boston, 1906-12; president of Univ. of Oklahoma, 1912-23; president of Univ. of Missouri, 1923-31. Educational director, Order of DeMolay from 1931. Member of Norman (Okla.) Lodge No. 38; Columbia (Mo.) Chapter No. 17, R.A.M. (1923); St. Graal Commandery (Mo.) No. 12, K.T. (1924). d. Jan. 18, 1949.

Wiley G. Brooks College president. b. Oct. 24, 1886 at Adelphia, Ohio. Superintendent of schools in Idaho, Nebraska and Iowa from 191037. President and trustee of Illinois Wesleyan Univ. 1937-40 and president of Nebraska State Teachers College, Chadron, since 1941. Mason, 32° AASR, Knight Templar.

Jacob Broom (1752-1810) Signer of Federal Constitution in 1787. One of the delegates from Delaware to the Philadelphia convention meeting on May 14, 1787 and was among the signers of Sept. 17. He was a member of the Delaware legislature from 1784-88

and the first postmaster of Wilmington in 1790-92. He was aschool teacher, real estate dealer and surveyor. Two weeks before the Battle of Brandywine, he drew a map of this area for the use of General Washington. An early member of Lodge No. 14, Christiana Ferry (Wilmington) Del., he was elected secretary and treasurer on June 24, 1780, junior warden June 25, 1781 and again treasurer in 1783. d. April 25, 1810.

Joseph J. Broshek Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Nov. 1, 1886 at New Bedford, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1908 and Columbia Univ. in 1915. Commissioned ensign in 1910, advancing through grades to rear admiral in 1942 and retired in 1946. Served on U.S.S. George Washington in WW1 and was head of maintenance, Bureau of Ships, Navy Dept. to retirement in 1946. Member of Mistletoe Lodge No. 647, Brooklyn, N.Y. Deceased.

Henry Peter Brougham (Baron Brougham and Vaux) (17781868). Lord High Chancellor of England from 1830. b. Sept. 19, 1778 at Edinburgh, Scotland. With Sydney Smith and Jeffrey, founded the Edinburgh Review in 1802. Practiced at English bar in 1808 and member of parliament in 1810. He carried the measure making slave trade a felony and defended Queen Caroline as her attorney general in trial (1820). He was a founder of London Univ. in 1828 and by a famous speech in 1831 helped pass the Reform Bill. He was the original "learned friend" in Peacock's Crochet Castle. The brougham (carriage) is named for him. He was initiated, passed and raised in Fortrose Lodge, Stornoway, Scotland on Aug. 20, 21, 1799 and on June 24, 1800 affiliated with Canongate Kilwinning Lodge in Edinburgh. d. May 7, 1868.

John Brougham (1810-1880) Actor and playwright. b. May 9, 1810 in Dublin, Ireland. Orphaned early in life, he was raised by an eccentric uncle. Studied medicine, but took to the stage to make a living, first appearing in the Tottenham theatre in Dublin in July, 1830. His first hit was as O'Slash in The Invincibles. His first 20 years were passed in Dublin and the remainder was divided between runs in New

York and London. Made his first appearance on the American stage as O'Callaghan in His Last Legs on Oct. 4, 1842 at the Park theatre in New York City. In addition to acting he wrote about 100 plays. Misfortune struck him in later years and a benefit performance was given at the New York Academy of Music which netted $10,279 with which his friends bought him an annuity. He was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, New York City. d. June 7, 1880 in NYC. Member of Antiquity Lodge No. 11, N.Y.C.

William E. Brougher Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 17, 1889 in Miss. Commissioned 2nd lieut. in 1911 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1941 (advanced by Gen. MacArthur for leadership in Philippines). Served in WW1 as major of infantry. Served through Bataan campaign, Philippines and taken prisoner by Japanese and liberated in Aug., 1945. Became commanding general of Ft. McClellan, Ala. in 1946 and later Camp Gordon, Augusta, Ga. Mason, 32° AASR.

J. M. Broughton Former Governor of North Carolina. Member of Wake Forest Lodge No. 282, receiving his degrees on Oct. 17, 1909 and Jan. 18 and Feb. 1, 1910.

Aaron V. Brown (1795-1859) Postmaster General of U.S. and Governor of Tennessee. b. Aug. 15, 1795 in Brunswick Co., Va. Graduated from Chapel Hill (N.C.) in 1814 and moved with parents to Tennessee in 1815 where he studied law and became the partner of James K. Polkq.v. From 1821-32 he was almost continuously a member of the state legislature. He was elected to Congress in 1839, 1841 and 1843. From 1845-47 he was governor of Tennessee. As postmaster general in Buchanan's cabinet q.v. he shortened the oceanic mail route to California and the routes from St. Louis westward before the construction of the railroads. A member of Pulaski Chapter No. 7, R.A.M., Tenn. he was junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1825. d. March 8, 1859, and buried Masonically at Nashville on March 14.

Albert G. Brown (1813-1880) Governor of Mississippi and U.S. Senator. b. May 31, 1813 in Chester Dist., S.C. Was made brigadier general in Mississippi state militia when only 19 years old. A lawyer, he was a member of the state legislature from 1835-39 and member of the U.S. Congress from Miss. in 1840-41; from 1841-43 he was circuit judge, and governor of Mississippi from 1843-1848. He was again a member of Congress from 1848-54 and U.S. Senator from 1854-58. Reelected in 1859 for six years, he resigned in 1861 to join the Confederate forces with his colleague of the senate, Jefferson Davis. d. June 12, 1880. Member of Gallatin Lodge No. 25, Gallatin, Miss. and later Silas Brown Lodge, U.D.

Anthony Brown (see 6th Viscount Montagu) Charles W. Brown ( 1858-1928 ) President of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. from 1916. b. June 14, 1858 at Newburyport, Mass. Was master mariner in charge of vessels in Chinese and Australian trade for six years. Was identified with the manufacture of plate glass from 1898 until his death, Mar. 6, 1928. Mason and Knight Templar.

Clarence J. Brown U.S. Congressman from 7th Ohio dist., 76th to 84th Congresses (1939-1956). b. July 14, 1893 at Blanchester, 0. Purchased first newspaper in 1917 and has been in publishing business since that date. President of The Brown Publishing Co. Was lieut. governor of Ohio from 1919-23 and secretary of state, 192733. Was a member of the Hoover commission for organization of the executive branch of the Federal government. Mason, 33° AASR (N.J.).

Clarence J. Brown Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 15, 1895 at Plum City, Wis. Received B.S. from Univ. of Wisconsin in 1915 and M.D. from Washington Univ. in 1917, entering Navy Medical Corps in 1917, advancing to rear admiral in 1946, and retired as vice admiral in 1954. Assistant chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery of Navy 1947-49 and general inspector, 1949; deputy surgeon general of the Navy from 1950 and presently chief of medical services, State of California, Youth

Authority. Raised in Maiden Rock Lodge No. 196, Maiden Rock, Wis. in 1916; member of Mt. Horeb Chapter No. 6, Pensacola, Fla. and Coeur le Leon Commandery No. 1, Pensacola.

D. Russell Brown (1848-1919) Governor of Rhode Island, 189295. b. March 28, 1848 at Bolton, Conn. Publisher of the Evening News in Providence, R.I. Mason. d. Feb. 28, 1919.

Egbert B. Brown (1816-?) Union Brigadier General in Civil War. b. Oct. 24, 1816 in Brownsville, N.Y. Elected mayor of Toledo, Ohio in 1849. Spent four years in the Pacific on a whaling vessel returning to St. Louis, Mo. as a railway manager from 1852-61. He was instrumental in saving the city of St. Louis from southern hands at start of Civil War. Was severely wounded at Battle of Springfield (Mo.) in 1863. Servedthrough Civil War in Missouri, Arkansas and Texas. From 186668 he was U.S. pension agent at St. Louis, retiring to a farm near Hastings, Ill. in 1869. Member of Toledo Lodge No. 144, Toledo, Ohio.

Everett C. Brown ( 1863 - 1937 ) Livestock commission man and Olympic committee member. b. Oct. 14, 1863 at Oneida, Ill. Started in livestock industry, Chicago, 1881 and later general manager of BrownSt. John Commission Co. In 1918-19 he was chairman of the Price Control Commission of Live Stock, U.S. Food Administration; president of the Chicago Live Stock Exchange 1916-20 and 1923-28; president of the National Live Stock Exchange 1918-23. Member of the Chicago Plan Committee. President of the National Amateur Athletic Union in 1910. Member of the executive committee of American Olympic Committee in charge of Olympic teams to London in 1908, Stockholm, 1912, Antwerp, 1920 and Paris, 1924. Mason and Knight Templar. d. April 11, 1937.

Fred H. Brown Former U.S. Senator from New Hampshire. A Mason and Knight Templar.

Gustavus R. Brown One of the physicians called into consultation during the last illness of George Washington. He was one of the organizers of St. Columbia Lodge No. 10, Port Tobacco, Md., and was the fifth grand master of Maryland (1797).

Guy L. Brown Head of Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. b. Aug. 22, 1893 at Boone, Ia. Locomotive fireman and engineer on the C. & N.W. Railroad from 1909-1945 when he assumed office in the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers; assistant grand chief engineer 1950-53 and grand chief since that date. Raised in Mount Olive Lodge No. 79, Boone, Iowa in 1941. Member of Tuscan Chapter No. 31, R.A.M.; Gebal Council No. 5, R. & SM.; Excalibar Commandery No. 13, K.T. all of Boone, Iowa. 32° AASR (NJ), Cleveland, Ohio and Al Koran Shrine Temple of Cleveland.

Harvey W. Brown (1883-1956) International president of International Association of Machinists. b. Oct. 28, 1883 in Schuylkill Co., Pa. After serving as a machinist apprentice from 1902-05, he became business representative for International Association of Machinists for Anthracite Coal Region in 1911; general vice president in 1921 and president in 1938. Elected international president in 1940. Member of American Federation of Labor executive council, 1940-43. Member of Roseville Lodge No. 143, Newark, N.J. d. Sept., 1956.

Jacob Brown (1775-1828) Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1821-28) and major general in War of 1812. b. May 9, 1775 in Bucks Co., Pa. Taught school and did surveying in Ohio until 1798 when he moved to New York and settled at present town of Brownsville. Having had military experience as secretary to Alexander Hamilton q.v. he was made colonel of militia in 1809 and advanced to brigadier general in 1810. In command of a 200 mile section along Canadian border in 1812 and repulsed several attacks from superior British forces including fights at Ogdensburg, Sackets Harbor, Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. Made brigadier general of regular army in 1813 and major general

in 1814. At the close of the war he commanded the northern division of the army and on March 10, 1821 became generalin-chief of the U.S. Army. He was initiated in Ontario Lodge at Sackets Harbor, N.Y. on Jan. 2, 1806 and was probably raised there. He later became a member of Watertown Lodge No. 49, Watertown, N.Y. d. Feb. 24,1828 and buried in Congressional cemetery, Washington, D.C.

James W. Brown President of Editor and Publisher, 1912-52 and chairman of the board since 1953. b. Oct. 20, 1873 at Detroit, Mich. With Detroit News and Tribune 1891-95; Chicago Journal, Chicago American and Chicago Tribune 1895-1903. General manager of the Louisville Herald 1903-11. Raised April 29, 1907 in Louisville Lodge No. 400, Louisville, Ky. and at present a member of Publicity Lodge No. 1000, New York City. Member of DeMolay Commandery, K.T. No. 12 of Kentucky.

James W. Brown, Jr. Newspaper executive. b. Jan. 1, 1902 at Chicago, Ill. With Editor and Publisher for 23 years and was president, member of the board and chairman of the executive committee 194148, and general manager since 1953. With Chicago Tribune-N.Y. Daily News Syndicate as sales manager 1948-51. Member of Publicity Lodge No. 1000, New York City and master in 1937. Member of Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, R.A.M. and Coeur de Leon Cornmandery No. 23, K.T., both of New York City.

Joe E. Brown Stage and screen star. b. July 28, 1892 at Holgate, Ohio. Began as a circus acrobat in 1902 and was with burlesque and vaudeville from 1916-19. From 1919-27 was with musical comedies including Lis- ten Lester, Greenwich Village Follies, Captain Jinks and others. Leading roles in movies of which Crooks Can't Win was his first "silent" and Painted Faces his first talking. Made the "Elmer" films famous. Member of Rubicon Lodge No. 237, Toledo, Ohio and of Al Malaikah Shrine in Los Angeles.

John Brown (1800-1859) American abolitionist fanatic, regarded by some northern sympathizers as a martyr. Brown's cause was glorified by the famous marching song, John Brown's Body. He was a Freemason who later turned anti-Mason. b. May 9, 1800, he was executed on Dec. 2, 1859 in Charlestown, Va. From 1856 on, he was obsessed with the idea of abolishing slavery by force. When a proslavery massacre occurred at Lawrence, Kans., Brown killed five slavery adherents at Pottawatomie, Kans. in retaliation. He next made a heroic stand at Osawatomie, Kans. against a raid by pro-slavery forces from Missouri. He conceived a plan of establishing a new state as a refuge for negroes. With help from Massachusetts abolitionists, he seized the government arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Va. in 1859, intending the action as a signal for a general insurrection of slaves. Overpowered and convicted of treason, he was hanged Dec. 2, 1859. Brown was raised in Hudson Lodge No. 68, Hudson, Ohio, on May 11, 1824, serving as junior deacon in 1825-26. His uncle was the first master of the lodge. Shortly after 1826 he moved to Pennsylvania and with the anti-Masonic movement, he renounced Freemasonry and continued to do so on every possible occasion. His son, John Brown, Jr. became a Freemason and was buried with Masonic honors. His daughter, Sarah, once told a biographer that Brown had stated that "the forms of the initiatory ceremonies of the Masons struck him as silly," and in a negro newspaper Brown wrote, "another of the few errors of my life is that I have joined the Freemasons, Oddfellows, Sons of Temperance, and a score of other secret societies instead of seeking the company of intelligent, wise and good men.”

John Brown (1757-1837) First U.S. Senator from Kentucky and last survivor of the Continental Congress. b. Sept. 12, 1757 at Staunton, Va. Was a student at Princeton when the Revolutionary army retreated through N.J. and he joined it, serving until the close of the war. Admitted to bar in 1782, he practiced at Frankfort, Ky. He was elected to the Virginia legislature from the district of Ky. and from the same district to the Continental Congress of 1787-88. Later he was congressman from this district (1789-92) and became the first U.S. Senator from Kentucky, serving from Nov. 5, 1792 until March 3, 1805. He took a prominent part in the Indian warfare, the admission of Kentucky into the union and in securing navigation of the Mississippi for the west. Member of Lexington

Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and Lexington Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. d. Aug. 29, 1837.

John C. Brown (1827-1889) Major General, C.S.A. and twice governor of Tennessee. b. Jan. 6, 1827 in Giles Co., Tenn. Joined the Confederate army at start of war and rose to major general. Left almost destitute at close of war, he was employed as a railroad surveyor and rose to president of the Nashville Railroad. He later had charge of the Texas Pacific's construction to the Rio Grande and was receiver of the entire property. President of the constitutional convention of Tennessee, he was twice governor (in 1870 and 1875). A member of Pulaski Lodge No. 101, Pulaski, Tenn., he served three terms as master and was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1869. Received his Royal Arch degree in Pulaski Chapter No. 20 on Mar. 28, 1871 and Knight Templar in Pulaski Commandery No. 12 on April 26, 1871. d. Aug. 16, 1889.

John H. Brown (1820-1895) Early Texas newspaper editor, soldier. b. Oct. 20, 1820 in Pike Co., Mo. Moved to Texas in 1840 with his uncle, Dr. James Kerr, and worked on the Texas Sentinel. As first sergeant of the "Minute Men" he engaged in several Indian campaigns and after being wounded in the Battle of Salado in 1842 was discharged in 1843. Worked on the Victoria Advocate and accepted a position of colonel in state militia. In 1854 he bought an interest in the Galveston Civilian and in 1858 became editor of the Belton Democrat. Attended the Secession Convention of 1861 and served in the Confederate army until 1862 when he was named adjutant general. Following the war he went to Mexico and became commissioner of immigration under Maximilian, returning to Texas in 1871. Represented Dallas in legislature in 1873 and member of the 1875 Convention. He was revising editor of the Encyclopedia of the New West and wrote History of Dallas County, Life and Times of Henry Smith, History of Texas (2 volumes) and Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas. Was raised in Clarksville Lodge No. 17, Clarksville, Mo. March 1, 1845 (on a visit to his old state), demitting the same date and became one of the original signers for a charter of Victoria Lodge No. 40, Victoria, Tex. d. May 31, 1895.

Louis M. Brown President of Eberhard Faber Pencil Co. b. Aug. 25, 1896 at Atlanta, Ga. Started with Eberhard Co. in 1923, successively Canadian representative, advertising manager, assistant sales manager, sales manager, general manager, vice president and president since 1952. Mason.

Mordecai P. C. Brown (1876-1949) Elected to Baseball's Hall of Fame in 1949. b. Oct. 19, 1876 at Nyesville, Ind. Full name was Mordecai Peter Centennial and was called "Three Fingered" as he lost two digits of his pitching hand in an accident during his coal mining days. His two fingerstumps helped give his pitches strange and baffling twists and curves. Throwing right handed, he was aswitch batter. Was the ace hurler of Chance's Chicago Cubs and for six straight seasons (1906-11) won 20 or more games for the Cubs. His lifetime major league record was 239 wins against 130 losses. A good hitter, he was one of the best fielding pitchers of all time. In 1908 he accepted 108 chances without an error. The same year he hurled four shutout games in a row—the first major league pitcher to perform such a feat. He was often pitted against the other pitching star of that era—Christ/ Mathewson q.v. and their duels were classics. In 24 meetings Brown was victorious over Mathewson 13 times. He was a member of Edward Dobbins Lodge No. 164, Lawrenceville, Ill. receiving his degrees on March 24, May 19 and July 7, 1925. At the time his petition was presented it was referred to the DDGM, Byron R. Lewis, for determining whether the loss of two fingers would disqualify him for Masonic membership. d. Feb. 14, 1949.

Norris Brown Former U.S. Senator from Nebraska. A Mason, he served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Nebraska.

Prentiss M. Brown U.S. Senator from Michigan, lawyer, business executive. b. June 18, 1889 in St. Ignace, Mich. Graduate of Albion College and Univ. of Michigan. Practiced law since 1914. Member of 73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37) from 11th Mich. district. Appointed

to U.S. Senate in 1936 and elected for term 1937-43. Administrator, Office of Price Administration, 1943. Chairman of the board of the Detroit Edison Company since 1944. Chairman of the Mackinac Bridge Authority. President, vice president and director of many corporations. Member of St. Ignace Lodge No. 369, St. Ignace, Mich. he received the 33° AASR (NJ) in October, 1955.

Rex I. Brown President of Mississippi Power and Light Co. b. Aug. 22, 1889 at Lowell, Mich. Began with Little Rock Railway & Electric Co. in 1880 as clerk. With Arkansas Power & Light Co. 1927-32. In 1932 he became vice president and general manager of the Mississippi Power & Light and president since 1936. Member of Trinity Lodge No. 694, Little Rock, Ark.; Union Chapter No. 2, R.A.M.; Occidental Council No. 1, R. & S.M. and Hugh de Payens Cornmandery No. 1, K.T., all of Little Rock, Ark. 32° AASR (SJ) at Little Rock April 23, 1925. Member of Wahabi Shrine Temple, Jackson, Miss.

Roy H. Brown University president, Presbyterian missionary. b. May 2, 1878 at Girard, Kans. Ordained Presbyterian minister in 1903 and from that date was a pioneer missionary in the Philippines, establishing 79 churches and receiving over 2,500 members. Held pastorates in U.S. from 1922-32, but returned to the Philippines to be president of Silliman Univ., the largest theological evangelical institution in the islands. Interned prisoner by the Japanese for 3% years and freed by U.S. troops during WW2. Mason and 32° AASR.

Thomas Brown Former Governor of Florida. Raised in Hiram Lodge No. 59 of Virginia in August, 1807, he became a member of Jackson Lodge No. 1, Tallahassee, Fla. serving as secretary in 1833 and master in 1855 and was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Florida in 1849. He was also grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Florida in 1834-35. He assisted in the formation of the grand lodge in 1830. A member of Florida Chapter No. 1, Tallahassee and Mackey Council No. 1 of the same city, he was grand treasurer of the grand chapter in 1848-59 and grand high priest in 1851.

Wallace E. Brown ( 1868 - 1939 ) Methodist bishop. b. Oct. 30, 1868 at Chittenango, N.Y. Ordained Methodist minister in 1894, holding pastorates in New York state until 1924 when ordained bishop. He was director of the Epworth League of the church and member of the general conferences of 1912-16-20-24 and the Ecumenical conference of London in 1921. Mason. d. Nov. 18, 1939.

Wilfred J. Brown Railroad executive. b. Aug. 10, 1893 at Plymouth, Mass. Graduate of Harvard, 1917. President and director of Consolidated Railroads of Cuba and The Cuba Railroad Co., 1941-48 and chairman of the board from 1948 until retirement in 1954. Served in Navy during WW1. Mason.

William A. Brown Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Jan. 3, 1878 at Albemarle Co., Va. Ordained in 1901, serving churches of Virginia until ordained bishop in 1938, serving Diocese of Southern Va. Mason.

Wm. Moseley Brown Educator, explorer, army officer, linguist and personnel consultant. b. Feb. 27, 1894 at Lynchburg, Va. B.A. from Washington and Lee Univ. in 1914; M.A. from Washington and Lee, Columbia, and Ph.D. from Columbia. Professor of language, biology and psychology in Washington and Lee from 1913-29. President of Atlantic Univ. (Va.) 1929-32. Personnel director of Vick Chemical Co. 1937-42 and personnel consultant since 1947. Served in WW1, advancing from private to 2nd It. In WW2 as major and lt. colonel, 194247. Independent Republican candidate for governor of Virginia in 1929 and to Congress in 1932. Was U.S. representative on Ulrich expedition to interior of Brazil in 1931-32 and "Rio Brown" discovered and so named for him by the Brazilian government. Also representative on similar expedition to interior of Brazil in 1933-34. 33° AASR (SJ), past grand master of Grand Lodge of Virginia, past high priest of Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Virginia and past grand commander, Grand Commandery, K.T. of Virginia. As president of the National Sojourners,

his name was placed on the black list of the Vichy French government during WW2. Author of many volumes including Character Traits as Factors in Intelligence Test Performance (1923), Best Books on the Choice of a Career (1926), History of Freemasonry in Virginia (1935), Temp/ary in the Old Dominion (1937), The Making of a Mason (1949), German Psychological Warfare (1941), Highlights of Templar History (1943).

Charles F. Browne (1834-1867) (originally "Brown") American humorist who wrote under the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward." b. in Waterford, Maine. Learned the printer's trade at age of 14 on a Maine newspaper and later employed by the Plain-dealer in Cleveland, 0. where his first series of Artemus Ward's Sayings were printed. When the Vanity Fair was established in New York he was asked to be a contributor, and later its editor. He then gave humorous lectures throughout the country, 186 1 - 1866, and an English tour, 1866-1867. He died in Southampton, England of tuberculosis on March 6, 1867. He received his degrees in Manhattan Lodge No. 62, New York City on Sept. 4, 25, and Oct. 2, 1863.

Edward E. Browne ( 1868 - 1945 ) U.S. Congressman, 63rd to 71st Congresses (1913-31) from 8th Wis. district. b. Feb. 16, 1868 at Waupaca, Wis. Graduate of Univ. of Wisconsin. In law practice at Waupaca from 1892. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ).

Jefferson B. Browne (1857-1937) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Florida. b. June 6, 1857 at Key West, Fla. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Iowa in 1880. In Key West he was successively city attorney, postmaster and collector of customs. Member of Florida state senate from 1891-95 and en-officio lieut.-governor 1891-93. Was chief justice of Supreme Court of Florida from 1917-23 and associate justice 192325, resigning to become judge of 20th judicial circuit. Mason, Knight Templar and 32° AASR (SJ). d. May 4, 1937.

J. Lewis Browne (1866-1933) Organist. b. May 18, 1866 at London, Eng., coming to America in 1875. Studied in U.S. and Europe. Was soloist at Royal Academy of St. Cecilia in Rome, 1901. Organist at Wanamaker's Egyptian Hall, Philadelphia 1908-10 and the St. Louis and Jamestown world fairs. Organist and choirmaster of St. Patrick's Church, Chicago from 1912. Faculty member, Univ. of Notre Dame. Designed the great organ in Medinah Shrine Temple, Chicago and conducted symphony concerts there. Director of music public schools of Chicago from 1928. Composed the opera La Corsicana (1923) which was produced in the Chicago Playhouse. His Ecce Sacerdos Magnus was produced by the Paulist Choristers of Rome in 1912. In 1921 he wrote Missa Immaculatae Co n c e p tionis B.V.M. for the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Catholic Diocese of Cincinnati. Also wrote more than 60 songs, pieces for organ, orchestra, piano, etc. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ). d. Oct. 23, 1933.

John Browne Englishman who in 1798 published in London one of the first ciphers of the Masonic ritual. It was entitled: The Master Key Through All the Degrees of a Freemason's Lodge, to Which Is Added, Eullogiums and Illustrations Upon Freemasonry. In 1802 he published a second edition under a much lengthier title. The works are now very rare. Browne claimed to have been past master of six lodges, and his ciphers are considered to be a very complete representation of the monitorial Prestonian lectures. He stated that he printed them not as an offensive expose, but as a means of giving Freemasons instruction and the key to the cipher was only given personally.

John M. Browne (1831-1894) Surgeon General of U.S. Navy. b. May 10, 1831 at Hinsdale, N.H. Graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1852, entering Navy following year as assistant surgeon. Sent to Calif. in 1954, he served aboard the storeship Warren at Sausalito and was then transferred to the Mare Island Navy Yard. In the Civil War he saw much service in Atlantic waters and was surgeon on the U.S.S. Kearsarge in its engagement with the Alabama in 1864. According to one account in the files of Naval Lodge, he was also surgeon in the battle between the ironclads, the Merrimac and the Monitor. Following the war, Browne was back at Mare Island where he was Medical Inspector in 1871 and Director in 1878. His next promotion was to

surgeon-general, the highest medical rank in the Navy. He retired as commodore in 1893 at the age of 62. Browne was initiated just 24 days after he was 21 in Philesian Lodge No. 40, Winchester, N.H., receiving all the degrees the night of June 3, 1852 by special dispensation. In 1866, on returning to California after the Civil War, he affiliated with Naval Lodge No. 87 of Vallejo. He was elected master in 1870. In 1871 he was named grand orator of the Grand Lodge of California and in 1875 was elected grand master for the first of the four terms he was to serve (1875-79). A member of Naval Chapter No. 35, R.A.M., he served as grand high priest of Calif. in 1878; a member of California Commandery No. 1, K.T. (knighted in 1867). In the Scottish Rite he received his 33° on Oct. 20, 1880 and on Oct 18, 1886 was elected treasurer general of the Supreme Council (S.J.). His wife was a daughter of Francis Scott Key, author of the national anthem. d. Dec. 7, 1894.

Thomas C. Brownell (1779-1865) Protestant Episcopal Bishop. b. Oct. 19, 1779 at Westport, Mass. Ordained deacon in 1816. Consecrated bishop of Connecticut in 1819. First president of Washington (now Trinity) College in 1829. During his last 12 years, he was by seniority the presiding bishop of the United States. He retired in 1851. Received his degrees in Ade1phi Lodge No. 63, New Haven, Conn. in 1824. d. Jan. 13, 1865.

Gordon Browning Governor of Tennessee. b. Nov. 22, 1889 in Carroll Co., Tenn. Admitted to bar in 1915 and began practice at Huntingdon. Member of 68th to 73rd Congresses (1923-35) from 7th Tenn. dist. Governor of Tennessee in 1937-39 and again in 1949-51. In WW1 he served ten months overseas and in WW2 served three years in European theater. Member of Huntingdon Lodge No. 106, Huntingdon, Tenn., receiving his degrees on Aug. 8, Oct. 6, 1919 and Aug. 24, 1920. Was officially received in the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1952. 32° AASR in Valley of Tennessee (SJ) and member of Al Menah Shrine Temple.

Charles B. Brownson U.S. Congressman from 11th Indiana dist. to 82nd, 83rd, 84th Congresses. b. Feb. 5, 1914 at Jackson, Mich. Established Central Wallpaper and Paint Corp., in Indianapolis, 1936. In WW2 he served as infantry lieutenant and later as executive officer to assistant chief of staff, G-1, 1st Army in the invasion planning staff of the Normandy invasion, European campaign and the Philippines. Raised in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398 of Indianapolis, Ind. in 1950. 32° AASR (NJ) at Indianapolis and Murat Shrine Temple of same city.

Nathan Brownson ( 1742 - 1796 ) Member of the Continental Congress, Revolutionary surgeon and Governor of Georgia. b. May 14, 1742 at Woodbury, Conn. Graduated from Yale in 1761 and studied medicine, practicing in Liberty Co., Ga. An early supporter of the American cause, he was for some time a surgeon in the Revolutionary army. He was a member of the provincial congress of 1775 and was a delegate to the Continental Congresses of 1776 and 1778. As speaker of the Georgia legislature, he was chosen by that body as governor of the state in 1781. He was again speaker in 1788 and president of the state senate in 1789-91. In 1789 he was a member of the convention that framed the state constitution. He was a member of North Star Lodge of Manchester, Vt. d. Nov. 6, 1796.

Eli Bruce Resident of Lockport, N.Y. and sheriff of Niagara Co. at the time of the William Morgan affair. He aided in releasing Morgan to unknown persons for which Governor DeWitt Clinton q.v. removed him from office and he was later sent to prison for "aiding and abetting the unlawful abduction." Bruce later wrote a book on the Morgan episode. He was a member of Lockport Lodge No. 73 and Ames Chapter No. 88, both of Lockport, N.Y.

James Bruce (1730-1794) Scottish explorer. Explored Africa, and was known as "The Abyssinian Traveller." Was British consul at Algiers from 1763-65. In 1770 he rediscovered the source of the Blue Nile. Author of Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790 in 5 vols.) Raised in Can-ongate Kilwinning Lodge, Edinburgh, Scotland on Aug. 1, 1753.

James Bruce Executive and former U.S. Ambassador to Argentina (1947-49). b. Dec. 23, 1892 at Baltimore, Md. Served as officer overseas in WW1 with 2nd Infantry Division; special aide to President Wilson; military attache in Italy and representative at Versailles Peace Conference. In 1949-50 he was the first director of the Mutual Defence Assistance Program. Has served as vice president of several banks, including Chase National, Atlantic Exchange and president of Baltimore Trust Co. He is a director of many large corporations including Revlon, American Airlines, American-Hawaiian Steamship, AVCO Mfg., Fruehauf Trailer and Technicolor, Inc. Mason and 32° AASR.

Robert le Bruce (1274-1329) King and liberator of Scotland. Opposed to Edward I of England as King of Scotland in 1296 and fought against him in 1298, but adhered to him during invasion of 1302-4. He murdered John Comyn in 1306 and was crowned as Robert I, King of Scotland, at Scone in 1306. In the same year he was defeated by the English and took refuge on the coast of Ireland, excommunicated and outlawed. He returned the following year and in two years wrested most of Scotland from the English, routing Edward II's army at Bannockburn in 1314. He repulsed the English time after time until Edward III recognized the independence of Scotland and Bruce's right to rule by the treaty of 1328 at Northampton. He died of leprosy. He is traditionally said to have introduced Freemasonry into Scotland and in 1314 established the Order of Herodom for the reception of those Knights Templar who had taken refuge in his dominions from the persecutions of the Pope and King of France. As part of a combined order, he is said to have established the Royal Order of Scotland at the Battle of Bannockburn in recognition of the Freemasons who helped him defeat the English. His descendant, Lord Elgin q.v., is present head of the Royal Order of Scotland and the possessor of the great sword of Robert le Bruce.

Wallace Bruce (1844-1914) Poet, author and orator. b. Nov. 10, 1844 at Hillsdale, N.Y. Engaged in literary work from 1868 on. Was U.S. consul at Edinburgh, Scotland 1889-93. Was poet and orator at

numerous centennial and memorial occasions in U.S., Scotland and England, delivering the Burns anniversary addresses at Ayr, Edinburgh and Kilmarnock. Among his writings were The Land of Burns (1878), The Yosemite (1879), The Hudson, (1882), Old Homestead Poems (1887), Leaves of Gold (1907), and Wanderers (1907). Member of Hudson Lodge No. 7, Hudson, N.Y. d. Jan., 1914.

Walter Bruchhausen U.S. District Judge for eastern district of New York since 1953. b. May 29, 1892 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Graduate of New York U. in 1912 and admitted to bar in 1919, practicing in New York City. Mason and 32° AASR (N.J.).

Wilber M. Brucker Secretary of Army, Governor of Michigan. b. June 23, 1894 at Saginaw, Mich. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Michigan in 1916. Admitted to bar in 1919 and began practice at Saginaw. Attorney general of Michigan 1928-30 and governor of the state from 1931-33. Named general counsel of Department of Defense, Washington in 1954 and on June 23, 1955 President Eisenhower appointed him Secretary of the Army. Filed his Masonic petition on his 21st birthday and was raised in Salina Lodge No. 155 on Sept. 15, 1915, later serving as its master. A member of King Cyrus Chapter No.133, R.A.M. of Detroit and Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T., he served the latter as commander in 1943 and was grand commander of Michigan in 1951. He belongs to Detroit Consistory AASR (NJ) and Moslem Shrine Temple.

Henry Bruckner (1871-1942) U.S. Congressman from N.Y. 63rd to 65th Congresses from 22nd N.Y. dist. b. June 17, 1871 in New York City. President of Bruckner Bros., manufacturers. Member of New York Assembly 1900-01, and commissioner of public works for New York from 1902-06. Mason. d. April 14, 1942.

James Bruff Commandant of Upper Louisiana Territory shortly after the U.S. took over the Louisiana purchase. In the Revolutionary

War he was a 1st lieutenant with the 7th Maryland regiment. A close associate of General James Wilkinson q.v., governor of the Louisiana Territory, he no doubt received his appointment as commandant through his influence. He signed a petition to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, asking for a dispensation for a lodge in St. Louis, Mo., signing "J. Bruff, R.A.M." His original lodge is unknown. He is listed as a visitor to American Union Lodge and as being "from Baltimore." He was present on Dec. 27, 1799 at Morristown, N.J. when a petition was filed nominating General Mordecai Gist q.v. to represent the lodge at a convention to select a grand master of the United States (to be Washington, but he declined). (1734-1815) Member of Lodge No. 7, Chestertown, Md.

Clement Brumbaugh ( 1863 - 1921 ) U.S. Congressman 63rd to 66th Congresses (1913-21) from 12th Ohio dist. b. Feb. 28, 1863 at Greenville, 0. Founder and principal of Van Buren Academy, 1887. Admitted to bar in 1900 and practiced at Columbus. Mason. d. Sept. 28, 1921.

David E. Brumbaugh U.S. Congressman 79th Congress (194547) from 22nd Pa. dist. b. Oct. 8, 1894 at Martinsburg, Pa. In insurance, lumber and banking fields since 1914. Served as enlisted man in WW1. Member of Woodbury Lodge No. 539 at Roaring Spring, Pa.; 32° AASR (NJ) at Altoona, also past potentate of Jaffa Shrine Temple; Royal Order of Jesters and DeMolay Legion of Honor.

Martin G. Brumbaugh (1862-1930) Governor of Pennsylvania. b. April 14, 1862 in Huntington Co., Pa. Received the degrees of B.E., M.E., M.S., A.M., Ph.D. from Juniata College and Univ. of Pa. He was president of Juniata College from 1895-1906 and again from 1924 until death. He was superintendent of Philadelphia schools 1906-15; first commissioner of education for Puerto Rico (1900-02). Elected governor of Pennsylvania serving 1915-19. Author of many educational books. Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 300, Huntington, Pa. d. May, 1930.

Avery Brundage Amateur sportsman who was president of the U.S. Olympic Association and Committee from 1939-45 and president of the Cimite Internationale 0 1 ympique since 1952. b. Sept. 28, 1887 at Detroit, Mich. Graduated in engineering from Univ. of Illinois in 1909. Was American all-around amateur champion in 1914, 1916 and 1918. President of Avery Brundage Co. builders 191547, chairman Roanoke Real Estate Co. since 1932; president Roanoke Hotel Corp., 1939-45. A collector of Oriental art, he is a trustee of the Art Institute of Chicago. Received many foreign decorations for his devotion to amateur athletics. Member of North Shore Lodge No. 937, Chicago, Ill. 32° AASR (NJ) at Chicago and member of Medinah Shrine Temple, Chicago.

Guillaume M. A. Brune (1763-1815) French army officer who was Marshal of France in 1804. Was murdered by a royalist mob during the White Ter-ror at Avignon on Aug. 2, 1815. In 1814 he was grand administrator of the Grand Orient of France.

Albert, Prince of Brunswick-Luneburg Prussian Major General. Initiated in the Lodge "Jonathan" at Brunswick in 1744.

Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (1721-1792) Prussian Field Marshal. b. in Wolfenbuttel, son of Ferdinand Albert II. Entered Prussian service in 1740 and fought with Frederick the Great, who was for many years his close companion. He rendered distinguished service at Hohenfriedeberg in 1745 and was one of the ablest commanders of the Seven Years' War. Was governor of Madgeburg in 175557 and 176366, when in the latter year he became estranged from Frederick and resigned from his service, devoting himself to Freemasonry. Initiated in 1740 in the Lodge of Three Globes, Berlin, he received his Master's degree in 1743 at Breslau. Became protector of the Lodge St. Charles, Brunswick in 1764 and English past grand master of Brunswick in 1770. In 1771 he was protector of Von Hund's Strict Observance and in 1772 was declared grand master of the Scottish lodges. He was present in 1782 at the convent at Wilhelmsbad when the Templar system was supposedly disbanded and while there was declared general grand

master of the assembled lodges. When presiding at the St. John's festival at Brunswick in 1792, he proudly stated that he had been a Freemason for 50 years.

Maximilian, Prince of Brunswick Youngest son of Duke Charles I. Educated at the Collegium Carolinum and went to Italy in 1775. Admitted in the Saint Charles Lodge, Brunswick in 1770, becoming its protector. Served Frederick the Great with honors.

William, Prince of Brunswick Third son of Duke Charles I of Brunswick who joined the Lodge St. Charles in 1769. Died, 1770. His brothers, Maximilian and Frederick Augustus q.v. were prominent members of the Craft.

Alvin G. Brush Business executive. b. Sept. 16, 1896 at Dunton, N.Y. In accounting field from 1919-32 when he became president of R. L. Watkins Co., mfgrs. of Dr. Lyons tooth powder until 1934. President of Affiliated Products Co., cosmetics mfgr. until 1935 and chairman of the board of American Home Products, mfgrs. of drugs and household items since 1935. Raised in Garden City Lodge No. 1083, Garden City, L.I., N.Y. in Nov., 1917.

George W. Brush (1842-1927) Congressional Medal of Honor winner, physician. b. Oct. 4, 1842 at West Hills, L.I., N.Y. Served in U.S. Volunteers, 1861-65 from private to captain, receiving Medal of Honor in 1897. First practiced dentistry and later went into medicine. Retired from medical practice in 1906 to devote his time to civic betterment. Served terms in both N.Y. houses of legislature. Mason. d. Nov. 18, 1927.

Henry Brush (1778-1855) Judge of Supreme Court of Ohio and member of Congress from Ohio (1818-21). b. in June, 1778 in Dutchess

Co., N.Y. Member of Scioto Lodge No. 2, Chillicothe, 0., he was grand master of Ohio. d. Jan. 19, 1855. Louis H. Brush (1872-1948) Newspaper publisher. b. Jan. 24, 1872 at Alliance, 0. Purchased the Salem News in 1897; East Liverpool Review in 1901; and with others the Marion Star, 1923; Steubenville HeraldStar, 1926; Canton Repository, 1927; Portsmouth Times, 1930. In 1927 he organized the Brush-Moore Newspapers, Inc. of which he was president. Ma-son, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. June 24, 1948.

Nathaniel Brush Revolutionary War colonel who headed the Bennington (Vt.) militia at the battle of Bennington in Aug. 1777 which later proved to be the turning point in the Revolution. He was a charter member and first master of North Star Lodge, Manchester, Vt., formed in 1785.

William Bryan Brigadier General of militia in the Revolutionary War. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 3, New Bern, North Carolina.

William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) Secretary of State, U.S. Congressman and presidential nominee three times. b. Mar. 18, 1860 at Salem, Ill. Admitted to bar in 1883 and began practice at Jacksonville, Ill. moving to Lincoln, Nebr. in 1887. Was member of 52nd and 53rd Congresses (189195) from 1st Nebr. dist. Edited Omaha World-Herald in 1894-96. As a delegate to the Democratic convention of 1896 he wrote the famous "silver plank," of its platform and was nominated for President, but defeated by McKinley 176 to 271 electoral votes. In the Spanish-American war he was colonel of the 3rd Nebraska regiment. Was again defeated for President by McKinley in 1900 155 votes to 292. Nominated for third time for President in 1908, he was defeated by Taft, 162 votes against 321. As secretary of state in Wilson's cabinet (1913-15) he negotiated 30 treaties. He was raised in Lincoln Lodge No. 19, Lincoln, Nebr. on Apr. 15, 1902 and later affiliated with Temple Lodge No. 247, Miami, Fla. d. in Miami July 26, 1925.

Joseph R. Bryson (1893-1953) U.S. Congressman 76th to 82nd Congresses (1939-53) from fifth S. Car. Dist. b. Jan. 18, 1893 at Brevard, N.C. Graduate of Furman Univ. and Univ. of South Carolina. Member of state legislature 1921-24 and senate 192932. Mason, 32° AASR, (SJ) and Shriner. d. March 10, 1953.

Charles William, Duke of Buccleuch (See Earl of Dalkeith) Francis, 2nd Duke of Buccleuch (See Earl of Dalkeith) Earls of Buchan Henry David, 10th Earl was the 10th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1745-46. David, 11th Earl was 34th Grand Master Mason 1782-83 and Henry David, 12th Earl was 59th Grand Master Mason, 1832-33.

James Buchanan (1791-1868) Fifteenth President of the United States (1857-61). b. April 23, 1791 near Mercersburg, Pa. He was U.S. minister to Russia from 1832-34, U.S. senator from Pennsylvania 193445, secretary of state in Polk's cabinet 1845-49 and U.S. minister to England 1853-56. His undated petition to Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa. stated that he resided in the borough of Lancaster, age 25 and was an attorney at law. One of the signers was Malton C. Rogers q.v. who was later secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and for 25 years a justice of the supreme court of that state. Buchanan was initiated Dec. 11, 1816 by John Reynolds, passed and raised Jan. 24, 1817 by George Whitaker. On Dec. 13, 1820 he was elected junior warden and on Dec. 7, 1822 unanimously elected master. On Dec. 27, 1823 he was appointed as the first district deputy grand master of that district. On March 10, 1858 he donated $100 to the lodge and was elected an "honorary" member, the record book being changed from "life" to "honorary." On May 15, 1865 he attended a special meeting of No. 43 which was his last attendance. A history of Perseverance Lodge No. 21, Harrisburg, Pa. states that Buchanan never failed to visit Perseverance during the earlier daysof his life if in town. He was exalted to the Royal Arch degree in Chapter No. 43 at Lancaster. On Feb. 22, 1860 he assisted in the Masonic dedication of the George Washington statue in Washington Circle, Washington, D.C. and delivered the dedicatory address. d. June 1, 1868 and was given Masonic burial by his home lodge at Lancaster on June 4. Four thousand persons attended the funeral.

James T. Buchanan (1853-?) Business executive and authority on Masonic history, literature and doctrines. b. Aug. 3, 1853 at Hamilton, Ont., Canada, settling in Pennsylvania in 1877. He was at one time president of the Pittsburgh Trust Co., and Pittsburgh Terminal Warehouse & Transfer Co. Raised in Strict Observance Lodge at Hamilton, Ont. on Aug. 17, 1875. Knighted in Talbot Commandery No. 43, K.T., Oil City, Pa. on July 23, 1883 and received council degrees in Mt. Moriah Council No. 2, R. & S.M. at Pittsburgh on Dec. 3, 1883. At time of his death he was dean of the Northern Supreme Council AASR.

John P. Buchanan Former Governor of Tennessee. Member of Charles Fuller Lodge No. 412, Rutherford Co., Tenn. which was later Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 18, of Murfreesboro.

George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (1628-1687) b. Jan. 30, 1628. A questionable character whom Dryden described as the "epitome of mankind" and Dr. Anderson stated was the grand master of England in 1674. He joined the Royalists in 1640 and served under Prince Rupert, later joining Lord Holland's rising in Surrey in 1648. He engaged in a series of intrigues and caused much scandal by his personal immorality. He was attacked in parliament as a promoter of popery and arbitrary government, and dismissed from office in 1674. Remembered as Simri in Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel and a figure in Scott's Peveril of the Peak. A poet and author, himself, his best known is the burlesque, The Rehearsal (1671). d. April 16, 1687.

James T. Buckley President of Philco Corp. b. Oct. 13, 1896 at Philadelphia, Pa. Began as a laboratory assistant with Philco in 1912, rising as chief draftsman, assistant engineer, general purchasing agent, treasurer and president from 1939-43. Chairman of executive committee since 1943 and chairman of the board since 1949. Member of Palestine Lodge No. 470, Philadelphia; Germantown Chapter No. 208, and 32° AASR (NJ) all of Philadelphia.

Alexander Buckner ( 1785 - 1833 ) U.S. Senator from Missouri and first grand master of Indiana in 1818. b. in Jefferson Co., Ky., he practiced law in Charlestown, Ind. as early as 1812. He was probably raised in Union Lodge No. 29, Madison, Ind. for he demitted from there on May 6, 1816, affiliating with Blazing Star Lodge No. 3, Charleston, Indiana Territory and by 1818 was a past master of that lodge. Shortly after serving as the first grand master of Indiana (1818) he moved to Missouri. While grand master he engaged in a duel with another Ma son, Col. Thomas H. Blake. In Missouri he became the first master of Unity Lodge No. 6, Jackson, Mo. He was a member of Missouri's state constitutional convention of 1820 and served several terms in the state legislature. Was U.S. Senator from 1831 until his death on June 6, 1833.

Simon Bolivar Buckner (1823-1914) Lieutenant General in Confederate Army and Governor of Kentucky. b. in Hart Co., Ky. April 1, 1823. Served with distinction in war with Mexico being advanced from 2nd lieut. to captain. Taught at West Point, re-signing from U.S. Army in 1855. He was inspector general of Kentucky from 1860-61 and at start of Civil War was made brigadier general, advancing through major general to lieutenant general in 1864. Was prisoner of war for two months in 1862. Governor of Kentucky in 1887-91. He was a candidate for vice president of the United States on the "Gold Ticket" in 1896. d. Jan. 8, 1914. Listed as a Freemason in the Grand Lodge of Kentucky proceedings of 1891.

Frederick G. Budlong (1881-1953) Protestant Episcopal bishop of Connecticut. b. July 10, 1881 at Camden, N.Y. Ordained deacon and priest in 1907, serving churches in St. Paul, Minn., Winnetka, Ill., Chicago, Pittsburgh and Greenwich, Conn. until 1931 when he was consecrated bishop-coadjutor of Connecticut and bishop in 1934. Mason. d. Sept. 25, 1953.

Buffalo Bill (See William F. Cody)

Howard Buffett U.S. Congressman, 78th to 80th Congresses (1943-49) from 2nd Nebr. dist. b. Aug. 13, 1903 at Omaha, Nebr. Began as journalist and bond salesman. President of Buffett & Co. since 1931 and South Omaha Feed Co. since 1938. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. Raised in Covert Lodge No. 11, Omaha, Nebr. in 1930; 32° and KCCH in AASR (SJ) at Omaha and past master of Mt. Moriah Lodge of Perfection. Past president of Omaha Square and Compass Club, member of Tangier Shrine Temple, Omaha.

Charles H. Buford President of C.M. St.P. & P. Railroad. b. Feb. 5, 1886 at Newport, Ark. Graduated from Univ. of Arkansas in 1907. Started with the C.M. St.P. & P. as engineer of track elevation in 1907 and worked way up to presidency in May, 1947. Was vice president of Operations and Maintenance Dept. of the Association of American Railroads from 1939-46. Member of Ottumwa Lodge No. 16, Ottumwa, Ia.; 32° AASR (SJ) at Sioux City, Ia. and member of Zorah Shrine Temple, Terre Haute, Ind.

Rivers H. Buford Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Florida. b. Jan. 18, 1878 at Pulaski, Tenn. Admitted to Florida bar in 1900. Served in many public capacities as prosecuting attorney, state's attorney, and attorney general of the state (1921-25), resigning to be appointed supreme court justice and has served on the court since that date. Was chief justice from 1931-33 and 1943-45. Mason and Shriner.

Johann Gottlieb Buhle (1753-1821) Professor of philosophy in the University of Gottingen, who, although not a Freemason, published a work in 1804 entitled Origin and the Principal Events of the Order of Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry. His theory was that Freemasonry was invented in the year 1629 by John Valentine Andrea q.v.

William F. Bulkley Protestant Episcopal Archdeacon for Utah, (1924-49). Now retired. b. April 21, 1881 at Tashua, Conn. Ordained deacon in 1908 and subsequently, priest, and general missionary. Raised in Wasatch Lodge No. 1, Salt Lake City, Utah in 1916 and presently member of Story Lodge No. 4, Provo, Utah. Member of Utah Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. and past grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Utah in 1927; Utah Council No. 1, and past grand illustrious master in 1942; Utah Commandery No. 1, K.T. and past grand generalissimo of Grand Commandery of Utah in 1928. Served as master of his lodge, president of Order of High Priesthood, master of Order of Silver Trowel; prior of K.Y.C.H. and presently prelate of national K.Y.C.H. Member of El Kalah Shrine Temple; 32° AASR (SJ) at Salt Lake City.

Chief Crazy Bull Great grandson of Sitting Bull is said to have been a member of Suffolk Lodge No. 60, Port Jefferson, N.Y.

Daniel F. Bull President of the Cream of Wheat Corp. b. at Grand Forks, N.D. in 1886. Graduated from Univ. of North Dakota in 1906. In engineering from 1908-18 when he became associated with the Cream of Wheat Corp. as assistant general manager and has been president and general manager since 1940. Director of a number of large corporations. Mason.

Harold R. Bull Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Jan. 6, 1893 at Springfield, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1914. Served in WW1 with 3rd Division, A.E.F. In WW2 he was with the Allied Force Headquarters in North Africa (1943), commanding general of the III Corps (1943); assistant chief of staff, G-3, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, 1943-45; deputy chief of staff and chief of staff U.S. Forces, European theater ( 1945 -46 ) . Received rank of lieutenant general in 1949. Mason and National Sojourner.

Ole B. Bull (1810-1880) Famed Norwegian violinist. b. Feb. 5, 1810 in Bergen, Norway. Studied under Spohr and Paganini and toured

as virtuoso throughout the world. Made five tours through North America (1843-79) and eventually spent each summer in America and the winters in Norway. In 1852 he attempted to found a Norwegian colony in Pennsylvania, but he had been deceived by land titles and lost a fortune. His own lodge is not known, but he was a visitor to St. Cecile Lodge No. 568 of New York City in March, 1868 and the Lodge of St. Andrew in Massachusetts. His business manager in this country was Fred Widdows, past master of Clinton Lodge No. 453, N.Y. On Oct. 30, 1845 Bull gave a concert for the Masonic Hall and Asylum Fund of the Grand Lodge of New York which netted $1,400. d. Aug. 18, 1880.

Egbert F. Bullene Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Jan. 25, 1895 at Salinas, Calif. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in 1917, he was commissioned that year and advanced through grades to general officer in 1943. During WW1 he was a battalion commander in 4th Division. In 1944 he commanded a joint American-British secret Army-Navy project. Served in European and Pacific theaters in 1945. He was a member of the military commission that tried and convicted General Yamashita. Mason.

H. Edmund Bullis b. July 24, 1888 at Manlius, N.Y. Engaged in chamber of commerce organization 1910-17. Sent by General Leonard Wood q.v. on special mission to rulers of Indo-China, Siam,' Malay, Borneo 1922-23. Chief of Organized Reserve Section, General Staff, U.S. Army, 1924-27. Active in associations for mental hygiene, dementia praecox and human relations. Served in both world wars. In WW2 he was on claims commission for England, French Morocco, North Africa, Sicily, Italy. Author of several volumes including The Land of Masonic Romance and Human Relations in Action. Raised in Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, of Va. in 1910; member of Lake Ontario Chapter No. 165, R.A.M. at Oswego, N.Y. and Lake Ontario Commandery, K.T. of same city. 32° AASR (NJ) in Wilmington, Del.; Media Shrine Temple of Watertown, N.Y.; past president of DuPont Chapter of National Sojourners; organizing president of Rockefeller Square Club in N.Y.C. (1935); served as ceremonial director for Afifi and Nile Shrine Temples in the Philippines in 1922-23.

Archibald Bulloch ( 1730-1 777 ) President of Georgia, holding that office in 1776-77 just before the state constitution came into existence. b. in Charleston, S. Car. he studied law, was admitted to the bar and settled in Georgia. In 1772 he became speaker of the commons house and in 1775 was elected a member of the provincial congress, and became its president. The next year he was again elected and presided over the second provincial congress and was sent as a delegate to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. He missed signing the Declaration of Independence as he was in Georgia at the time. His son, William B. q.v. was later a U.S. Senator from Georgia. Member of Solomons Lodge No. 1, Savannah.

William B. Bulloch (1776-1852) U.S. Senator from Georgia. b. in Savannah, he was the son of Archibald Bulloch q.v. Became a prominent lawyer and in 1809 was elected mayor of Savannah. Subsequently he was collector of the port. Served in War of 1812 in Savannah heavy artillery. Appointed U.S. Senator to fill a vacant term and served in year 1813. His lodge is not known, but probably was Solomon's No. 1, Savannah. He wrote an address on Masonry about 1810-15 and the original copy is in the House of the Temple, Washington.

Edward G. E. Bulwer-Lytton (18031873) First Baron Lytton of Knebworth and brother of Sir Henry Bulwer. English novelist and politician. His first novel was Faulkland (1827) followed by Pe/ham (1828). He was a member of Parliament from 183141 during which time he produced three plays, The Lady of Lyons, Richelieu and Money. Returning to politics he was a member of parliament from 1852-66 and colonial secretary 1858-59. Created baron in 1866. Among his historical and romantic novels are Eugene Aram (1832), The Last Days of Pompeii (1834) and Rienzi (1835) on which Wagner's opera of the same name is based. Among his poems is The World May Rail at Masonry. Mason.

Alfred L. Bulwinkle U.S. Congressman, 67th to 70th Congresses (1921-29) and 72nd to 81st Congresses (1931-51) from 11th N. Car,

district. b. April 21, 1883 at Charlestown, S. Car. Admitted to bar in 1904. Served overseas as major in WW1. Member of executive board of United Lutheran Church in America. Mason.

Horace A. Bumby Manufacturing executive. b. Aug. 22, 1890 at Burnett, Wis. President and general manager of Speed Queen Corp., Ripon, Wis. since 1940. President and director of Ripon Foods, Inc., since 1930. Officer and director of several corporations. Mason.

Edward Buncombe (?-1777) Colonel in American Revolution, b. in the West Indies, he was educated in England and inherited a large estate. Came to America in 1776, settling in Tyrrel Co., N. Car. He raised and commanded the 5th N. Car. regiment and fought in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, being wounded and taken prisoner in the latter, dying of wounds at Philadelphia. In 1791 his name was given to a county in N. Car. The Americanism "speaking for Buncombe," signifying any speech made solely to please a constituency, is derived from a congressional representative from that county who was in the habit of making speeches to which no one listened. One day, observing many members were leaving the house, he declared that he did not care how many left—he was not speaking to them, but to Buncombe! Buncombe was a member of Unanimity Lodge No. 7 at Edenton, N. Car. His degree dates were May 16, May 26, June 3, 1776.

Charles E. Bunnell First president of University of Alaska. b. Jan. 12, 1878 at Dimock, Pa. Received A.B., A.M. and LL.D. from Bucknell Univ. Arrived in Alaska in 1900 and taught school, being admitted to bar in 1908. Appointed judge of U.S. District Court, 4th Division, serving 1915-21. First president of Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines (now Univ. of Alaska) from 1922-35 and president of the Univ. of Alaska from 1935. Mason.

George A. Bunting President of Noxzema Chemical Co. b. April 3, 1870 at Bishopville, Md. A.B. and A.M. from Washington College, Md. and Ph.G. from Univ. of Maryland School of Pharmacy. First with public schools of Bishopville, Md. as principal then proprietor of Bunting's Drug Store in Baltimore (1902-22) where he originated the Noxzema formula in 1914. Established the Noxzema Co. in 1917 and was president until 1949, being chairman of the board since that time. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

John Bunyan (1628-1688) Preacher and most celebrated allegorical writer of England. b. at Elstow, near Bedford, he served in the Parliamentary army from 1644-46. Moved by two devotional books of his wife's, he gave up amusements and swearing and joined the nonconformist church in Bedford in 1653. He began to preach in 1657 and published his first writings against the Quakers in 1656. Served 12 years (1660-72) in prison for preaching without a license. Wrote nine books while in prison. During a short imprisonment in 1675 he is supposed to have written the immortal Pilgrim's Progress, published in 1678. Although it is not known whether he was a Freemason or not, his little-known work Solomon's Temple Spiritualized contains so much Masonic phraseology and dogma that it would be hard to believe that he did not have some knowledge of the Craft.

Luther Burbank (1849-1926) Horticulturist and naturalist. b. March 7, 1849 at Lancaster, Mass. Spent his boyhood on the farm and became interested in plant life at an early age. He moved to Santa Rosa, Calif. in 1875 where he established Bur-bank's Experimental Farms. The first practical result of his experiments was the Burbank potato. Others were a rapid-growing, edible, thornless cactus; 11 types of plums and four types of prunes; a new fruit, the "plumcot"; Peachblow, Burbank and Santa Rosa roses; gigantic forms of amaryllis, tigridian, the Shasta daisy and various new apples, peaches, nuts, berries, trees, fruits, flowers, grasses, grains and vegetables. Burbank was raised in Santa Rosa Lodge No. 57 on August 13, 1921 and coroneted an honorary 33° AASR (SJ) on Oct. 20, 1925. d. April 11, 1926.

Henry Burbeck (1754-1848) Founder of West Point, soldier of the Revolution and War of 1812. b. June 8, 1754 at Castle William in Boston harbor. His father, William, was commanding officer of Castle William and as senior grand warden of St. John's Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston, he had signed the warrant for American Union Lodge. Henry was commissioned as lieutenant of artillery in May, 1775 and his commission was signed by Joseph Warren q.v. He served under such famous artillerymen (and Masons) as Gridley, Knox and Crane q.v. In the Revolution he was at the battles of Long Island, Brandywine and Germantown, wintering at Valley Forge. He was stationed at West Point and commanded the troops that took over New York City from the British on Nov. 25, 1783. He was discharged from service in 1784 but re-entered the army and was in command of his birthplace, Castle William in 1786. He served again at West Point, building Ft. St. Tammany and was with Wayne in the Northwest Territory in 1792. In 1800 he was named Chief of Artillerists and Engineers and recommended the establishment of a military school for training cadets that later developed into the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. When the Corps of Engineers was created in 1801, Burbeck was its first chief. In the War of 1812 he commanded the harbor defenses of New York, New London and Newport. It is no doubt that under his instructions volunteer working parties of Freemasons marched to those several sites where earthworks were raised under the name of Fort Hiram, Fort Masonic, etc. Burbeck retired in 1815 as a brigadier general. He was a member of St. John's Lodge, Boston, as was his father. In the spring of 1792 he commanded a force sent to Fort Recovery, Ohio to bury over 200 Americans that had fallen there on Nov. 4 of the preceding year under General St. Clair when the Miami Indians overwhelmed them. At his direction they were all buried in a common grave and both military and Masonic ceremonies were given over the grave. d. Oct. 2, 1848.

Thomas G. Burch (1869-1951) U.S. Congressman, 72nd to 77th Congresses (1931-43) from 5th Virginia dist. b. July 3, 1869 in Henry Co., Va. In banking business. U.S. Marshal Western Dist. of Va. from 1914-21. Mason and Shriner. d. March 20, 1951.

Clark Burdick (1868-1948) U.S. Congressman 66th to 72nd Congresses (1919-33) from 1st R.I. dist. b. Jan. 13, 1868 at Newport,

R.I. Practiced law at Newport from 1894. Served as city solicitor, mayor, and in the state house and senate. Mason and 32° AASR. d. Aug. 27, 1948.

Usher L. Burdick U.S. Congressman 74th to 78th and 81st to 84th Congresses from North Dakota at large. b. Feb. 21, 1879 at Owatonna, Minn., he was raised among the Sioux Indians. Received law degree from Univ. of Minnesota and admitted to N. Dak. bar in 1904. He has been a member of the N. Dak. house, speaker of the house, lieutenant governor, states attorney and assistant federal attorney of N. Dak. Author of several books including The Last Battle of the Sioux Nation (1928), Tragedy in the Great Sioux Camp (1939), and Tales from Buffalo Land (1940). Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 51, Williston, N. Dak. Dimitted from York and Scottish Rite.

Gottfried A. Burger ( 174 7- 1794 ) German romantic poet and writer of ballads. Translated Homer and Shakespeare. His ballad Lenore (1773) is considered to be his masterpiece. Also wrote Die Kuh (1784), Der Wilde Jager (1785), Der Kaiser und der Abt (1785) and Lenardo und Blandine. Edited the first German version of Baron Munchausen. Was initiated in 1775.

William 0. Burgin (?-1946) U.S. Congressman 76th to 78th Congresses (1939-45) from 8th N. Car. dist. b. at Marion, N. Car. Practiced law in Lexington. Served in N. Car. house and senate. Mason. d. April 11, 1946.

Father Jose Burgos (?-1872) Catholic priest, who although not a Freemason, had a Scottish Rite chapter of Rose Croix named for him— Burgos Chapter, Manila, Philippines. A liberal-minded native priest, he campaigned vigorously for reforms in religion and government in the Philippines in the second half of the 19thcentury. In opposing the despotic powers of the Spanish friars, he was on the side of many Masons, who while they were in accord with the spiritual side of the

Catholic Church, resisted the subjugation of the people under the cloak of religion. For this, he with two other priests were put to death Feb. 17, 1872 by garroting.

Andrew H. Burke Former Governor of North Dakota. Mason, 33° AASR (SJ).

Edmund Burke (1729-1797) British statesman and orator who gained fame by favoring the cause of the American colonies. b. in Dublin of Protestant father and Catholic mother, he was brought up a Protestant. He abandoned legal studies for writing. Became a member of Parliament in 1765 and gained high position among the Whigs through his eloquence on the American question. Delivered a nine-day speech for the impeachment of Warren Hastings. Advocated abolishment of the slave trade, advocated free trade with Ireland and emancipation of Catholics; denounced use of Indians in American war. He was thought to be a member of Jerusalem Lodge No. 44, Clerkenwell, London which was sometimes referred to as "Burke's Lodge." Burke championed John Wilkes q.v. when he was imprisoned for libel, writing the political pamphlet Th.oughts on the Present Discontents in his defense. It is significant that members of Jerusalem Lodge No. 44 went to the King's Bench Prison on March 3, 1769 and made John Wilkes a Mason. d. July 9, 1797.

Edward R. Burke Former U.S. Senator from Nebraska. Member of Omaha Lodge No. 288, Omaha, Nebr. receiving his Scottish Rite (SJ) in 1927 and KCCH on Oct. 17, 1933.

Haslett P. Burke Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Colorado. b. April 28, 1874 in Monona Co., Iowa. Admitted to bar and moved to Colorado in 1896. Served as clerk in district court of Logan Co. and then as district judge from 1907-19. Served as judge of the supreme court from 1919 until voluntary retirement in 1949. He was chief justice in 1927, 1937, 1938. Declined appointment as U.S. Senator in 1941.

Served in Spanish American War. Self educated, the first time he ever set foot on a campus of higher learning was to deliver the commencement address, and the first time he entered the door of a law school was as a teacher of constitutional law. Raised in Sterling Lodge No. 34 in 1903 and elected master three months later. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1920-21. Received 32° AASR (SJ) in 1905, KCCH in 1909; 33° in 1914 and GCCH in 1939. Appointed deputy in Colorado in 1940; crowned active member in 1941 and in 1955 elected as lieutenant grand commander of the Southern Jurisdiction. d. 1957.

Elmer J. Burkett (1867-1935) U.S. Senator from Nebraska. b. Dec. 1, 1867 in Mills Co., Iowa. LL.B. and LL.M. from Univ. of Nebraska and entered law practice in 1891 at Lincoln, Nebr. Member of the Nebraska lower house for one term and U.S. Congressman, 56th to 59th Congresses (1899-1905) from 1st Nebr. dist. U.S. Senator 190511. Mason and 32° AASR. d. May 23, 1935.

Edwin C. Burleigh (1843-1916) U.S. Senator and Governor of Maine. b. Nov. 27, 1843 at Linneus, Me. Taught school and was land surveyor in early life, later publisher of the Kennebec Journal (1887 on). He was state treasurer from 1885-88 and governor of Maine 1889-92. A member of the U.S. Congresses, 1897-1911 from 3rd Maine dist. and U.S. Senator 1913 until death on June 16,1916. Member of Augusta Lodge No. 141, Augusta, Me.

Albert S. Burleson (1863-1937) Postmaster General of U.S. b. June 7, 1863 at San Marcos, Tex. Received degrees from Baylor Univ. and Univ. of Texas and admitted to bar in 1885. Member of 56th to 62nd Congresses (1899-1903) from 9th Texas dist. Also congressman from 10th dist. in 190313. Resigned from 63rd Congress to accept postmaster generalship in cabinet of President Wilson, serving from 1913-21. Member of the Masonic bodies of Austin, Texas. d. Nov. 24, 1937.

Edward Burleson Vice President of Republic of Texas. Member of Clinton Lodge No. 54, Bolivar, Tenn. Initiated March 22, 1826.

Anson Burlingame ( 1820 - 1 87 0 ) U.S. Minister to China. b. Nov. 14, 1820 in New Berlin, N.Y. Graduated from Harvard law school in 1846 and practiced in Boston, serving in the state senate and a member of the state constitutional convention. U.S. Congressman to 34th, 35th and 36th Congresses, he was one of the founders of the Republican party in 1855. He gained national fame when he denounced the assault by Preston S. Brooks on Senator Sumner over the slavery question, and when Brooks challenged him to a duel, he promptly accepted, naming rifles as the weapons and the place to be Navy island above Niagara Falls. Brooks backed down. President Lincoln appointed him as minister to Austria, but the government refused to receive him as he had spoken in favor of Hungarian independence. He was then named minister to China in which capacity he served with distinction and in 1867 Prince Kung, regent of China, named him as special envoy to the United States and European powers to frame treaties of amity with those nations. It became known as the "Burlingame Treaty." He died in St. Petersburg, Russia on Feb. 23, 1870 while completing his mission for China. He was made a Freemason in Amicable Lodge, Cambridge, Mass. on Jan. 5, 1854.

David G. Burnet (1788-1870) President of Texas, soldier of fortune, lawyer, jurist b. April 1, 1788 at Newark, N.J., son of Dr. William Burnet, first master of Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10, Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1806 he joined the liberator Miranda q.v. on the ship Leander in an attempt to free Venezuela, and was with him again in 1808 on another attempt. Afterwards studied law at Newark. On Nov. 24, 1813 he petitioned St. John's Lodge of Newark and the minutes of Dec. 8, 1813 state that his petition was laid over for further consideration. Failing in health, he drifted to the plains in 1817 and lived with the Comanches for two years. He returned to Ohio where his family lived and then to Louisiana where he practiced law for six years. He migrated to Texas in 1826 and in 1833 he wrote the document sent by the convention of American settlers to the Mexican government. In 1834 he was appointed one of the first three district judges of Texas. When Texas declared her independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836, Burnet was

chosen as the first president of the Republic to serve until the adoption of a constitution which took place on Oct. 22, 1836. During his eight months as president many important events occurred including the Battle of the Alamo, Goliad and San Jacinto as well as the capture of Santa Anna q.v. In 1838 he was elected vice president, and was president in 1840 during the illness of President Lamar. It was while vice president that he was initiated in Holland Lodge No. 1 of Houston the dates being Jan. 18, Jan. 24, and May 21, 1839. He de-mitted April 13, 1842 and there is no later Masonic record of him. He was defeated for presidency in 1841 by Sam Houston q.v. and was first secretary of state under Governor Henderson q.v. He then retired to his farm and died Dec. 5, 1870. His brother Jacob q.v. was U.S. Senator from Ohio and deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio.

Jacob Burnet (1770-1853) U.S. Senator from Ohio, pioneer jurist and political figure. b. Feb. 22, 1770 at Newark, N.J., son of Dr. William q.v. and brother of David G. q.v. Graduated at Princeton in 1791 and in 1796 was admitted to the bar and settled in Ohio where he became a leading citizen. In 1799 he was appointed to the legislative council of the Northwest Territory and was active in forming the state government. In 1812 he was a member of the state legislature and judge of the supreme court in 1821-28. From 1828-31 he served Ohio as U.S. Senator. He was first president of the colonizing Society of Cincinnati. In 1799-1801 he was master of Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10 (now N.C. Harmony, No. 2) at Cincinnati. His father was first master of this lodge. He also is listed in the grand lodge proceedings as a past master of Scioto Lodge No. 6. A Royal Arch Mason, he was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio in 1810-12 and at one time served as grand orator of that body. d. May 10, 1853.

William Burnet (1730-1791) Pioneer physician, member of Continental Congress of 1776. b. Dec. 13, 1730 at Newark, N.J., he was the son of a physician who came from Scotland. Two of his six sons became famous, David G. q.v. being the first President of Texas and Jacob q.v., U.S. Senator from Ohio. He graduated from Princeton in 1749—the school's second year. He was a member of Congress in 1780-81. From 1776 until the close of the war, he was surgeon general of the eastern district of the United States. When the grand lodge of

New Jersey chartered Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10 at Cincinnati on Sept. 8, 1791 he was named as first master. Shortly after this (Oct. 7, 1791) he died.

George H. Burnett ( 1853 - 192 7 ) Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon from 1892-1911. b. May 9, 1853 in Yamhill Co., Oreg. Practiced law at Salem, Oreg. 1876-92 and then served as district attorney, court reporter and circuit judge. Mason. d. Sept. 10, 1927.

James Burnett (Lord Monboddo) q.v. (1714-1799) Scottish judge and pioneer anthropologist. Samuel Johnson visited him in 1773. He was the author of The Origin and Progress of Language (1773-92) which brought man into affinity with orangutans and traced elevation of man to a social state as a natural process. The Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress (1917) states that he was a Freemason.

Henry E. Burnham ( 1844 -1917 ) U.S. Senator from New Hampshire. b. Nov. 8, 1844 at Dumbarton, N.H. Graduate of Dartmouth in 1867 and admitted to bar in 1868. Held several political offices and was U.S. Senator from 1901-13. A member of Washington Lodge No. 61, Manchester, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire in 1885. A 33° AASR (NJ). d. Feb. 8, 1917.

George Burnham (1868-1939) U.S. Congressman, 73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37). b. Dec. 28, 1868 in London, England. Came to United States in 1881 and naturalized in 1890. Began as a clerk in store, became engaged in ranching and real estate and banking. From 1917-27 was vice president of the Southern Truce & Commerce Bank; from 1927-30, vice president of Bank of Italy; and from 1930-32, vice president of its successor, the Bank of America. Past grand commander, Grand Commandery, K.T. of Calif. d. June, 1939.

Lord Burnham (Edward Frederick Lawson) English peer and managing director of the London Daily Telegraph, founded by his family. He was educated at Eaton and Oxford and served with distinction in WW1, receiving the D.S.O. In WW2 he was recalled to service as a major general and appointed director of public relations in 1941 at the War Office. He was senior military adviser to the Ministry of Information, remaining in that capacity long after the end of the war. As Edward Frederick Lawson, he succeeded his father to the barony in 1943 at the latter's death. In 1942 he was junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England and since 1944 Masonic ruler of the Province of Buckinghamshire.

Wilbur H. Burnham Artist and designer of stained glass windows. b. Feb. 4, 1887 at Boston, Mass. Studied both at home and abroad, beginning as designer of stained glass in 1906. Has designed scores of church, cathedral and memorial windows including Cathedral of St. John the Divine, Washington Cathedral, Riverside Church (N.Y.), Princeton Univ. Chapel, Rollins College (Fla.) Chapel, Univ. of Southern Calif. Chapel, Belleau Chapel, France, American Church of Paris. Mason.

Bob Burns (1890-1956) Actor and humorist. b. Aug. 2, 1890 at Van Buren, Ark. Attended the Univ. of Arkansas but did not graduate. Started his professional career on vaudeville stage in 1911, but gained his fame through homely philosophy in movies and particularly radio. His famous homemade musical instrument the "bazooka" was immortalized in WW2 with the infantry rocket launcher being given that name. Mason. d. Feb. 2, 1956.

Gilbert Burns (?-1827) Brother of Scottish poet, Robert Burns q.v. who together farmed 118 acres at Mossgiel, Scotland. Raised in St. James Lodge, No. 178 Tarbolton on March 1, 1786. d. April 27, 1827.

Robert Burns (1759-1796) Scottish national poet. b. Jan. 25, 1759 at Alloway, near Ayr, the son of a gardener. He first worked as a farm laborer and from 1784-88 farmed with his brother Gilbert q.v. on 118 acres at Mossgiel where he wrote some of his best poems. Constantly plagued with financial trouble and affairs of the heart, he determined to go to Jamaica as a plantation overseer, but when the edition of poems he published to raise his fare became a success, he decided to stay and moved to Edinburgh where he was lionized by literary circles. He was made a Freemason in St. David's Lodge No. 174 at Tarbolton, Scotland being initiated on July 4, 1781 and passed and raised Oct. 1, same year. He was one of those who withdrew from the lodge in 1782 and constituted St. James Lodge No. 178 in the same town. On July 27, 1784 he was made deputy master of the lodge and held that office until 1788. He was made an honorary member of St. John's Lodge No. 22, Kilmarnock, Scotland on Oct. 26, 1786. He was also a member of the Loudoun Kilwinning Lodge No. 51, Newmilns, Scotland. On Feb. 1, 1787, he became a member of the famous Lodge Canon-gate Kilwinning No. 2 at Edinburgh and was made poet laureate of the lodge on March 1, 1787. While on a visit to St. Andrew's Lodge No. 179, Dumfries, Scotland on Dec. 27, 1788 the brethren "assumed" him as a member of that lodge. On May 19, 1787 he received the Royal Arch de-gree in St. Ebbe Lodge at Eyemouth, Scotland.• Although Robert Ainslie who was exalted at the same time paid one guinea dues, the minutes testify "but on account of R. Burns' remarkable poetical genius, the encampment unanimously agreed to admit him gratis" and considered themselves "honoured by having a man of such shining abilities as one of their Companions." He wrote several Masonic poems including "Farewell to the Brethren of St. James Lodge, Tarbolton" and "The Freemasons' Apron." d. July 21, 1796.

Robert E. Burns President of College of the Pacific. b. July 26, 1909 at Flat River, Mo. Received A.B. and A.M. from College of the Pacific and LL.D. from Willamette Univ. Began as field secretary of College of the Pacific in 1931, later becoming alumni and placement secretary, registrar, assistant to president "and has been president since 1946. Raised Jan. 20, 1945 in San Joaquin Lodge No. 19, exalted Oct. 29, 1952 in Stockton Chapter No. 28, R.A.M.; greeted in Stockton Council No. 10, R. & S.M. Oct. 29, 1952 and knighted in Stockton Commandery No. 8, K.T. Dec. 1, 1953. Received 32° AASR (SJ) Nov.

18, 1945. Served as grand chaplain, Grand Lodge of California in 1955 and grand high prelate, Red Cross of Constantine, 1956-57.

Aaron Burr (1756-1836) American Revolutionary officer; third vice-president of the United States. He fell into disrepute by killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel (1804) and later by conspiring to seize territory from Spanish America to create a new republic in the Southwest. In spite of the fact that many authorities have claimed he was a Mason, there is not a shred of proof as to his membership. It is true that many of his close associates were Freemasons. He is often confused with another contemporary "Aaron Burr" who was a member of Union Lodge No. 40, Danbury, Conn., being initiated June 13, passed July 3 and raised Sept. 13, 1806. That summer Burr was in New Jersey with his daughter and left for the Southwest in Sept. of that year. There is also a record of "Aaron Burr" visiting Western Star Lodge No. 107 at Kaskaskia, Ill. on April 4, 1812. At this time he was either in England or aboard the ship Aurora which reached Boston in May, 1812. During the Anti-Masonic period, those opposed to the Craft associated Burr's name with the fraternity as a traitor who used the Craft to further his plans. The following from an address in 1829 before a citizens meeting in Philadelphia is indicative of the times: "It was the key of the Royal Arch degree which was used by the celebrated Aaron Burr, in conducting his correspondencies, during his treasonable conspiracies against our liberties. That arch intriguer travelled over the United States; visited the Lodges and Chapters; communicated his private designs where the members were bound by oath to conceal the disclosures of their brethren." d. Sept. 14, 1836.

Jonathan Burrall (1753-1834) Revolutionary soldier. Joined the northern army under Schuyler in 1776. He soon became assistant paymaster and at the close of the war he was on the commission to settle the accounts of the commissary and quartermaster departments. He was later assistant postmaster general and cashier of the U.S. branch bank of New York and manager of the New York state lotteries. Admitted to Masters' Lodge No. 2 at Albany, N.Y. in 1778. d. Nov. 18, 1834.

George Burrington (?-1759) Twice colonial governor of North Carolina under the British. First appointed on Jan. 15, 1724 because his father hadbeen active in support of British on accession of George I. He was removed and succeeded by Sir Richard Everard on April 7, 1725 as being "ignorant and profligate." He was ordered tried for his actions but did not appear at the trial and left for England. Although removed in 1730, he was again sent to North Carolina as governor, in Feb., 1731. Again he conducted himself with want of prudence and when he learned that the chief justice of the colony had been sent to England to protest against him, he left in April, 1734 for the British Isles. Shortly after his arrival, he was found murdered one morning in St. James' Park, London. He was a member of the lodge at the "King's Arms on New Bond Street" in London and his name also appears on the list of members of "Bear and Harrow in Butcher Roe," London in 1730. Murdered in London, Feb. 22, 1759.

Harry E. Burroughs ( 1890-1 946 ) Lawyer and founder of the Burroughs Newsboys Foundation, a charitable organization for the benefit of newsboys, shoeblacks, etc. b. April 15, 1890 in Kashoffka, Russia. Received degrees from Suffolk Law School and Boston Univ., being admitted to Mass. bar in 1912 taking up practice in Boston. Mason and 32° AASR. d. Dec. 18, 1946.

Julius C. Burrows (1837-1915) U.S. Senator from Michigan. b. Jan. 9, 1837 at Northeast, Pa. Began law practice in Kalamazoo, Mich. in 1861. Member of 43rd, 46th, 47th and 49th to 54th Congresses. U.S. Senator from 1895 to 1911. Was temporary chairman of the Republican National Convention in Chicago, 1908. Past master of Anchor Lodge of Strict Observance No. 87 at Kalamazoo and member of Kalamazoo Chapter, R.A.M. No. 13 and Peninsular Commandery No. 8, K.T. of same city. d. Nov. 16, 1915.

160 Robert Burton Lansing Burrows (1843-1919) Soldier and clergyman. Secretary of Southern Baptist Convention from 1881-1914. b. April 10, 1843 at Philadelphia, Pa. and educated in Richmond College (Va.), Wake Forest College (N.C.), Princeton, Madison, Univ.

Bethel College (Ky.). Served with C.S.A., enlisting in 1861, captured at Winchester, Va. in 1864. Ordained to Baptist ministry in 1867 serving churches in Mo., N.J., Ky., Ga. and Tenn. d. Oct. 17, 1919. Mason.

Calvin C. Burt Achieved prominence in the Rite of Memphis, but was expelled from his lodge in Michigan, said expulsion being confirmed by the Grand Lodge of Michigan when appealed.

Harold H. Burton Associate Justice, Supreme Court of United States. b. June 22, 1888 at Jamaica Plain, Mass. Educated in Bowdoin College and Harvard Univ., practicing law in Cleveland, Ohio from 1912. Served as an officer in 91st Infantry Div. in WW1 in France and Belgium. Acting mayor of Cleveland in 1931-32 and mayor from 193540. Member of the Ohio house of representatives in 1929 and U.S. Senator from Ohio from 1941-45. Associate Justice of Supreme Court of U.S. since Oct. 1, 1945. Member of Pythagoras Lodge No. 682 of Cleveland; 33° AASR (NJ) and member of Al Koran Shrine Temple, Cleveland.

Hutchins G. Burton ( ?-1836) Former Governor of North Carolina. Grand master of North Carolina in 1826-27. Was governor in 1824-27. His lodge memberships are not clear. In 1803 there was a H. G. Burton as a member of Hiram Lodge No. 24, Williamsborough, N.C.; said brother represented this lodge at grand lodge in 1817. However there was another H.G. Burton a member of Phalanx Lodge No. 31, Charlotte, N.C. in 1813. Abrother of the same name represented Mount Morris Lodge No. 27 of Iredell Co., N.C. as well as Phalanx Lodge No. 31 at the grand lodge in 1809. A brother of the same name is listed in the proceedings of 1805 as a representative of Philantropic Lodge of Tennessee (in Grand Lodge of Kentucky proceedings). To further complicate the matter, there was an "H. G. Burton" listed as a member of Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2 at Halifax, N.C. in the proceedings of 1836.

John Hill Burton (1809-1881) Scottish historian. He achieved fame with his Life of David Hume in 1846 and was editor with Sir John Bowring, of Bentham's works. Made a Freemason in Glenkindil Lodge No. 333, Scotland on Aug. 17, 1827.

Sir Richard F. Burton (1821-1890) British explorer and writer. He joined the Indian army in 1842 and recorded his experiences in Scinde, or the Unhappy Valley in 1851. In 1853 he made a pilgrimage to Mecca disguised as Pathan, which he described in Personal Narrative (1855). With Speke, he explored Somaliland in 1854, Lake Tanganyika region in 1858 and accompanied Capt. Cameron to the Gold Coast in 1881. His First Footsteps in East Africa was published in 1856. He was British consul at Fernando Po, Damascus and Trieste from 1861-82. Member of Hope Lodge, Kurrachee, Scinde, India.

Robert Burton (1747-1825) Quartermaster General of militia in American Revolution and member of the Continental Congresses from North Carolina from 1787-88. b. in Mecklenburg, Va. Oct. 20, 1747, he was a planter, removing to Granville, S. Car. about 1775. In 1801 he was a member of the commission to fix the boundary between the Carolinas and Georgia. Member of Hiram Lodge No. 24 of Williamsborough, N. Car.

Theodore E. Burton ( 1851 -1929 ) U.S. Senator and Congressman from Ohio. b. Dec. 20, 1851 at Jefferson, Ohio. Graduate of Oberlin, being admitted to bar in 1875 and practicing at Cleveland. Served in 51st, and 54th to 60th Congresses from 21st Ohio dist. Resigned from 61st Congress to be U.S. Senator from Ohio from 190915. Again served in 67th to 70th Congresses (1921-29) from 22nd Ohio dist. Member of Iris Lodge No. 229, Webb Chapter, R.A.M., Orion Commandery, K.T. and Al Koran Shrine Temple, all of Cleveland. d. Oct. 28, 1929.

William Burton Governor of Delaware for term starting 1861. Member of Temple Lodge No. 9 and deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware from 1851-52.

Harlan J. Bushfield ( 1882 - 1948 ) U.S. Senator and Governor of South Dakota. b. Aug. 6, 1882 at Atlantic, Iowa. Graduate of Dakota Wesleyan Univ. and Univ. of Minn. Admitted to S. Dak. bar in 1904 and began practice in Miller. Served as governor of S. Dak. from 1938-42 and U.S. Senator from 1943. He was a member of St. Lawrence Lodge No. 39 at Miller, Oriental Consistory AASR at Yankton, La-Co-Tah Commandery K.T. No. 6 at Huron and El Riad Shrine at Sioux Falls. d. Sept. 27, 1948.

Asa S. Bushnell (1834-1904) Governor of Ohio. b. Sept. 16, 1834 at Rome, N.Y., moving to Cincinnati in 1845. Received a common school education and rose from a dry goods clerk to president of Warder, Bushnell & Glessner Co. mower and reaper manufacturers. Served as company commander in 152nd Ohio volunteer infantry in Civil War. Elected governor of Ohio for two terms, 1895-99. Was made a Mason "at sight" and received the 33° AASR (N.J.).

George E. Bushnell Associate Jus- tice, Supreme Court of Michigan and Sovereign Grand Commander of Scottish Rite, Northern Jurisdiction. b. Nov. 4, 1887 at Roanoke, Va. Graduate of Virginia Poly. Inst. and Detroit College of Law with honorary LL.D. degrees from Detroit College of Law, Wayne Univ., Boston Univ., and Univ. of Michigan. His early years were spent as an advertising salesman from Denver, Colorado to London, England. Later he was supervisor for Canada Life Assurance Co. of Toronto. In 1915 he was admitted to the Virginia bar in the following year to the Michigan bar. In 1933 he was elected justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan, and reelected until he resigned in 1954 to accept the chieftainship of the Northern Jurisdiction of the AASR, upon the retirement of Melvin M. Johnson q.v. He was raised in Taylor Lodge No. 23 at Salem, Va. in 1909 and served as master of Sojourners Lodge No. 483 of Detroit in 1925. He received his 33° in 1924. Bushnell was a member of the Masonic Service

Association European Committee sent abroad in 1945 to investigate the state of the Craft in Europe following the war.

Anastasio Bustamante (1780-1853) President of Mexico and soldier. b. in Jiquilpan, Michoacan, he fought in the Spanish army against revolution.. ists as early as 1808, but in 1821 supported Iturbide q.v. and his plan for government. He was vice-president of the republic under Guerrero q.v. in 1829, but joined Santa Anna q.v. in a revolt against him. He was president of Mexico from 1829-32, but was driven out by Santa Anna. After the latter's downfall in 1836, Bustamante again became president from 1837-39. He was a Royal Arch Mason.

Benjamin F. Butler (1818-?) Union Major General in Civil War and lawyer. b. Nov. 5, 1818 at Deerfield, N.H. Practiced law at Lowell, Mass.

162 John Butler Entered war in 1861 as brigadier general of militia and promoted to major general the same year. He occupied Baltimore with 900 men and later commanded Fort Monroe in Virginia. He captured Forts Hatteras and Clark on the North Carolina coast and then formed an expedition for the Gulf of Mexico. On May 1, 1862 he took possession of New Orleans. After he hanged a man for pulling down the U.S. flag, issued "Order No. 28" to prevent women from insulting soldiers and confiscated $800,000 from the Dutch consul, he was recalled and placed in command of the department of Virginia and N. Carolina. In North Carolina he issued general order No. 38 which had to do with the care of Confederate Masonic property at New Bern. In 1865 Grant removed him from command and he returned to Massachusetts where he engaged in politics and practiced law. In Lowell, Mass. he was a member of Pentucket Lodge, Mt. Horeb Chapter, and Pilgrim Commandery. He was made a 33° honorary of the AASR (NJ) on March 16, 1864.

Burridge D. Butler ( 1868 -1948 ) Publisher. b. Feb. 5, 1868 at Louisville, Ky. Founded Omaha Daily News in 1899, St. Paul Daily News in 1900, Minneapolis Daily News in 1900. Sold these properties in 1909. Became owner and publisher of The Prairie Farmer in 1909, also president of WLS Agricultural Broadcasting Co., Chicago. Mason. d. March 30, 1948.

Charles C. Butler (1865-1946) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Colorado. b. Feb. 6, 1865 at Milwaukee, Wis. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan in 1891 and admitted to Colorado bar same year. Practiced at Denver. Judge of Colorado district court 191327 and justice of supreme court 192737, being chief justice part of that time. Initiated in Union Lodge No. 7, Denver on April 27, 1935. d. Nov. 16, 1946.

David Butler First Governor of Nebraska. Governor when Nebraska was admitted to statehood on March 1, 1867. Butler affiliated with Pawnee Lodge No. 23 at Pawnee City in 1879. His original lodge is not known.

Hugh A. Butler (1878-1954) U.S. Senator from Nebraska. b. Feb. 28, 1878 at Missouri Valley, Iowa. Became engineer for C.B. & Q. Railroad in 1900 and in 1908 a grain miller at Curtis, Nebr. and was associated with the grain trade the rest of his life. Elected U.S. Senator from Nebraska in 1941, serving until 1952. He was raised in Wellsville Lodge No. 194, Wellsville, Mo. and later became a member of St. John's Lodge No. 25 of Omaha, Nebr. 32° AASR. d. July 1, 1954.

John Butler (1728-1794) Colonel in the British service during the American Revolution. b. in New London, Conn. At outbreak of war he recruited a force of Indians and rangers known as "Butler's Rangers." An expert in Indian tactics, he participated in many battles with them including Oriskany, the Wyoming massacre and raids on the Schoharie and Mohawk settlements. Many atrocities have been attributed to him. He was a close friend of Joseph Brant q.v., the famous Indian chief.

After Brant had saved the life of Lt. Thomas Boyd on Sept. 13, 1779 near Genessee when Boyd had given a Masonic sign, he was turned over to either Col. Butler or his son, Walter, who in turn let the Indians torture and kill him. Previous to the war he had been made deputy superintendent of Indian affairs in New York and after the war when he removed to Canada he was special Indian agent. He was probably raised in Union Lodge No. 1, Albany, N.Y. and became the first secretary of the famous St. Patrick's Lodge No. 8 at Johnstown, N.Y. which first met on August 23, 1766. In Canada, after the war, he became a charter member of St. John's Lodge of Friendship No. 2 and served as its master. He became the first grand senior warden of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Upper Canada. Barton Lodge No. 6 (then 10) had many of his former rangers as members, and Brant himself was at one time a member of this lodge.

Richard Butler (1743-1791) Major General, U.S. Army. b. April 1, 1743 at Dublin, Ireland, coming to America with his parents before 1760. A lieut. colonel in the Pennsylvania line at the beginning of the Revolution; with Morgan's rifles in 1777. While with Lafayette's detachment near Williamsburg, Va. in 1781, he attacked Simcoe's rangers and defeated them. Promoted to colonel in the 9th Pennsylvania regiment at close of war. Was Indian agent in Ohio in 1787, and in the St. Clair's expedition against the Indians, he commanded the right wing with the rank of major general. He was killed in the attack on Ft. Recovery on Nov. 4, 1791, tomahawked and scalped. He was initiated in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia on April 14, 1779, passed April 20 and raised April 27. He later affiliated with Pennsylvania-Union Lodge —a lodge of the Pennsylvania line and on January 9, 1787 is recorded as having been admitted to Lodge No. 45 of Pittsburgh. Lodge records show that he visited St. George's Lodge of Schenectady, N.Y. in June, 1779 and later American Union Lodge (military).

Robert Butler General in War of 1812. On the roll of the Grand Lodge of Alabama when it was organized on June 3, 1825 and member of Jackson Lodge No. 23, Tallahassee, Fla. He was charter member and master for four years, being grand master ofthe Grand Lodge of Florida in 1833.

William Morgan Butler Former U.S. Senator from Massachusetts. Although his membership is not known he is listed in a Masonic publication of 1925 as "prominent in Masonic circles." b. Jan. 29, 1861. d. March 29, 1937. Received degrees in Star In The East Lodge of New Bedford, Mass. in 1886.

Isaac Butt (1813-1879) Irish lawyer and nationalist leader. Formed coalition between Irish Protestants and other nationalists and inaugurated home-rule movement in 1870. Member of Lodge No. 2, Dublin.

George C. Butte (1877-1940) Acting Governor General of Philippines and Puerto Rico. b. May 9, 1877 at San Francisco, Calif. Educated home and abroad. Practiced law in Oklahoma and Texas. Attorney general of Puerto Rico 1925-28. Vice governor of Philippines 1930-32. Acting governor of Puerto Rico three times. Associate justice supreme court of Philippines 1932-36. In WW1 served as chief of foreign intelligence section of the General Staff, U.S. Army. Mason. d. Jan. 18, 1940.

John S. Buttles (1877-1949) Justice, Supreme Court of Vermont. b. Jan. 20, 1877 at Troy, N.Y. Admitted to Vermont bar in 1906. Member of Vermont house of representatives in 1919, superior judge 1926-37; associate justice supreme court, 1937-49. Retired. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. d. May 18, 1949.

Harold Bye Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 16, 1886 at St. Paul, Minn. Enlisted in U.S. Navy in 1907 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1947, retiring from service that year. Raised in Bremerton Lodge No. 117, Bremerton, Wash. in 1922. Received 32° AASR (SJ) at Honolulu in 1935; member of Aloha Shrine Temple of

Honolulu and was president of the Shrine Club at Sandpoint, Idaho in 1953.

Clovis E. Byers Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 5, 1899 at Columbus, Ohio. Graduated U.S. Military Academy in 1920, advancing through grades to major general in 1944. With War Dept. General Staff 1940-42, chief of staff, 77th Div. 1942; chief of staff 1st Corps 1942-43; chief of staff 8th Army, 1944; commanding general 82nd Airborne Div. from 194849; chief of staff, G1 Dept. of Army 194951; commanding general X Corps in Korea, 1951, XVI Corps, Japan, 1952. Presently military adviser to assistant secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs). Received EA degree on April 1, 1923 in Laredo Lodge No. 547, Laredo, Texas and the FC on Nov. 2, 1925. MM degree in Star of the East Lodge No. 650 in Yokahama, Japan on Nov. 3, 1947.

Harry C. Byrd President, University of Maryland. b. Feb. 12, 1889 at Crisfield, Md. Graduated from Univ. of Maryland in 1908 and after law studies at several universities returned to his alma mater in 1912 as English and history instructor, later serving as director of athletics, football coach, assistant to president, vice-president, acting president and president since 1936. Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 17, Washington, D.C. in 1914. Member of chapter, council and commandery (Hyattsville) and 32° AASR (SJ) at Washington; Tall Cedars, Shrine and Jesters.

Harry F. Byrd Governor and U.S. Senator from Virginia. b. June 10, 1887 at Martinsburg, W. Va., he is a brother of Admiral Richard E. Byrd q.v. the explorer. Started with the Winchester (Va.) Star at the age of 15 and now owns the paper as well as the Harrisonburg Daily News Record. Actively interested in peach and apple culture, owning orchards and cold storage facilities. Served in Virginia senate from 1915-25 and a lead-er in establishing state highway system. He served as governor of Virginia from 1926-30. In 1933 he was appointed to fill unexpired term in U.S. Senate and has served in that body continuously since. He was raised in Hiram Lodge No. 21 at Winchester in Nov., 1925 and a

member of the AASR (SJ) at Alexandria, Va. receiving the degrees in Oct. 1929. In 1943 he received the 33°.

Richard E. Byrd (1888-1957) Polar explorer, naval officer, pioneer aviator. b. Oct. 25, 1888 at Winchester, Va., a brother of Harry F. Byrd q.v., governor and senator. Graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1912 and advanced to lieut. commander at retirement in 1916 and later promoted to commander after flight over North Pole in 1926. Given rank of rear admiral in 1930. During WW1 he entered the Aviation Service and commanded U.S. Air Forces until armistice. In WW2 he served with Admiral King in Washington and Nimitz in the Pacific, going overseas four times. He was highly decorated including the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1926 and special Congressional Medals in 1930, 37 and 46. Made plane light over North Pole on May 9, 1926 with Floyd Bennett. In 1927 he made trans-Atlantic flight of 4,200 miles with three companions—New York to France. His first Antarctic expedition was in 1928-30 and his second in 1933-35. Discovered Edsel Ford Mountains and Marie Byrd Land. He spent five months alone near the South Pole. In 1939 he was made commander of the U.S. Antarctic Service and again went to the South Polar region, discovering five new mountain ranges, five islands and more than 100,000 square miles of area. In 1946 he was named commanding officer of the U.S. Navy Antarctic Expedition and again in 1956 headed the U.S. expedition in Antarctic exploration. He became a member of Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C. on March 19, 1921 and affiliated with Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City, Sept. 18, 1928 (see Elisha Kent Kane). He is a member of National Sojourner Chapter No. 3 at Washington. He and his pilot, Bernt Balchen q.v. dropped Masonic flags on the two poles— Balchen also added his Shrine fez. In the Antarctic expedition of 193335, 60 of the 82 members were Freemasons and on Feb. 5, 1935 established First Antarctic Lodge No. 777 of New Zealand constitution. d. March 11, 1957.

Frank M. Byrne (1858-1927) Governor of South Dakota. b. Oct 23, 1858 at Volney, Iowa. Moved to Sioux Falls in Dakota Territory in 1878 and took homestead in McCook Co. Was a farmer and real estate dealer. He served in the first state senate in 1890 and also sessions of

1907 and 1909; lieut. governor 1909-13 and governor 1913-17. Mason. d. Dec. 25, 1927.

James F. Byrnes Secretary of State; Justice, Supreme Court of U.S.; Governor of South Carolina; U.S. Senator. b. May 2, 1879 in S. Car. Admitted to bar in 1903. First edited a newspaper and then served as court reporter. Was a member of the 62nd to 68th Congresses (1911-25) from 2nd S. Car. dist. Served as U.S. Senator two terms, 1931-43. Appointed justice of supreme court in 1941 but resigned to become director of economic stabilization in 1942; director of war mobilization 1943-45 and secretary of state 1945-47. Governor of S. Car. 1951-55. Raised in Aiken Lodge No. 156 on Jan. 12, 1911 and affiliated with Spartan Lodge No. 70, July 5, 1926. Received Royal Arch Nov. 21, 1911 in Kadoshlayah Chapter No. 41, Aiken and affiliated with Chicora Chapter 23, Spartanburg in 1934. Received into Aiken Council R. & S.M. No. 23, Nov. 26, 1920 and affiliated with Blakce Council No. 19 Oct. 22, 1945. Knighted in Columbia Commandery No. 2 Oct 20, 1916 and affiliated with Aiken Commandery No. 14 in 1923 and Spartanburg Commandery No. 3 in 1934.

Joseph W. Byrns ( 186 9- 1936 ) Speaker, U.S. House of Representatives. b. July 20, 1869 at Cedar Hill, Tenn. Graduate of Vanderbilt Univ. Served many years in the lower house (1895-1900) (1909-33) (1933-37). He died on June 4, 1936 before his term in the 74th Congress had expired. He was twice speaker of the house, 1899 and 1936. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° KCCH and Shriner. Member of Phoenix Lodge No. 131 and Cumberland Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. of Nashville. Son, Joseph W. Jr. was also a congressman (1939-41) and member of Phoenix Lodge.

John Byrom (1692-1763) English poet, hymnologist and inventor of an early shorthand system that was copyrighted in 1742. He was the author of the famous phrase "tweedledum and tweedledee." He is listed as a member of a lodge held at The Swan in Long Acre, England, 1750.

C Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis (17571808) French surgeon, philosopher and writer. Was administrator of Paris hospitals and physician to Mirabeau. A sympathizer with the revolutionists, he was a member of the Council of Five Hundred. He is often called the founder of modern physiological psychology. The bulletin of the International Masonic Congress, 1917, Geneva, Switzerland, lists him as a Freemason.

James A. Cabell (?-1930) Governor of Virginia and Judge, Supreme Court of Appeals. Served as governor of Virginia 1805-08; judge of the general court 1808-11; judge of supreme court of appeals 1842-51 and president of that court 1842-54. He revived the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati and was first president of the temporary organization in 1889. Mason. d. July 22, 1930.

Robert H. Cabell (1867-1947) President of Armour & Co. b. Dec. 1, 1867 at Brunswick, Mo. Began as a salesman with Armour in 1892; managing director of European interests with headquarters in London, 1913-34; general manager, Chicago, 1934 and president from 1935 until retirement in 1940. Mason. d. Dec. 12, 1947.

William H. Cabell (1772-1853) Governor of Virginia for three years (1805-07). b. Dec. 16, 1772 at Boston Hill, Va. Graduated from William and Mary College and admitted to the bar in 1794. Was elected to house of delegates in 1796 and frequently reelected. He served on the Virginia Court of Appeals from 1811 until his death on Jan. 17, 1853, at which time he was president of the court. A member of George Lodge No. 32, Warminster, Virginia, he served as master and treasurer.

John L. Cable U.S. Congressman 67th to 68th (1921-25) and 71st and 72nd (1929-33) Congresses from 4th Ohio dist. b. April 15, 1884 at Lima, Ohio. Practiced law at Lima from 1909. Mason.

Charles L. Cadet-Gassincourt (17691821) A French anti-Mason who later became a Freemason. b. Jan. 23, 1769 at Paris. A victim of political persecution, he attributed his sufferings to the influence of Masonic lodges in France and published the book Le Tombeau de Jacques de Molay in 1796 in which he attempted to show that Freemasonry was the instigator of all the European political revolutions. He later changed his views and became a member of the Lodge l'Abeille in Paris, serving as master in 1805. d. Nov. 21, 1821.

Charles Wakefield Cadman (18811946) American composer. b. Dec. 24, 1881 at Johnstown, Pa. Began as music critic and organist in Pittsburgh. His best known songs are From the Land of the Sky Blue Water and At Dawning. He became interested in American Indian music, basing many of his songs and operas on that theme. Composed cantatas, chamber music, sonatas, quintets, symphonies, suites and operas. Member of Albert Pike Lodge No. 484, Los Angeles, received 32° AASR (SJ) May 26. 1923. Member of York Rite and Shrine. d. Dec. 30, 1946.

S. Parkes Cadman (1864-1936) Clergyman. b. Dec. 18, 1864 at Wellington, Salop, England. Received honorary degrees from a dozen universities. Served as pastor of the Central Congregational Church of Brooklyn for many years, starting in 1901. From 1924-28 he was president of the Federal Council, Churches of Christ in America and as radio minister of the same, starting in 1928, he was one of the most popular radio artists of that decade. Contributed to the daily press and wrote many books. He was noted for his broad and liberal attitude with regard to the religious opinions of others. It has been said that in his generation no man exerted more influence for the brotherhood of man. A member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City, he was grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of New York for 28 years. Once in a question period, he was baited with a question concerning

membership in secret societies. He answered thus: "That question is aimed at the Masons. I am a Mason and I know Masonry to be a broadminded, Christ-like institution. Masons are friendly and as a Christian minister, I can say that they fear God and are the orchestra of God toward bringing about fraternity, and for that reason I am and shall always remain a Mason." d. July 12, 1936.

John Cadwalader (1742-1786) Brigadier General in American Revolution. b. Jan. 10, 1742 at Philadelphia. Took an active part in public affairs previous to the war and was captain of a military company. On the formation of the city battalions, he was placed in command of one and promoted to brigadier general in command of the Pennsylvania militia. He cooperated in the capture of the Hessians at Trenton and was at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth as a volunteer. In the fall of 1777 he organized the militia of western Maryland at the request of Washington. After the war he moved to Maryland and became a member of the state legislature. He was a member of Lodge No. 8 in Philadelphia. d. Feb. 11, 1786. Also master of Military Lodge No. 55.

Thomas Cadwalader ( 1707-1779 ) Revolutionary surgeon. b. in Philadelphia in 1707, he was medical director of the Army hospital at Philadelphia in 1776. He was senior grand warden of first St. John's lodge of Philadelphia in 1738. d. at Trenton, N.J. in 1779.

James H. Cafferty ( 1819-1 869 ) Painter. He began as a portrait painter and attained a wide reputation as such, but in his later years he turned to still life painting. He was chosen an associate member of the national academy of design in 1849 and in 1853 became an academician. His most notable paintings were My Girl, My Father and Brook Trout. Member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City.

Count Alessandro di Cagliostro (1743-1795) Italian imposter, charlatan. Real name was Giuseppe Balsamo. b. June 8, 1743 in Palermo, Italy of poor parents, he was placed in the convent of the Good Brotherhood at Castiglione where he was assistant to the apothecary of the monastery and picked up some knowledge of chemistry and medicine. He fled the monastery and after many brushes with the law, left Italy to travel in Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes and Malta, picking up the title of "count." Back in Italy he married Lorenza Feliciani q.v. who later was to play an important part in his "Masonic" career. In 1776 he appeared in London and during the early part of that year was initiated in Esperance Lodge No. 289 which met at the King's Head Tavern, Soho, London. The lodge was founded as a French lodge in 1768 under English constitution. The next year (1777) while still in London, he was said to have invented his grand scheme of Egyptian Freemasonry. He assumed the impressive title of Grand Master Supreme of the Egyptian Freemasonry of High Science, Grand Cophta of Europe and Asia. Searching for more lucrative fields, he moved his operations to the continent, posing as a physician, alchemist, neo-romancer and Freemason. In addition to his "Masonic" activities he practiced many frauds, selling love philters, elixirs of youth, etc. It is claimed that he was driven from England by exposes of the editor Morand in the Courier de l'Europe, and although he had several "Egyptian lodges" established, he appears to have lost his popularity. The last official Masonic record we have of him was when he visited the Lodge of Antiquity in London on November 1, 1786. He left England permantly in May, 1787. In Europe he was the associate of princes, prelates and philosophers. He established his Egyptian rite throughout the continent, admitting women as well as men. In 1789 he daringly organized a lodge in Rome under the very shadow of the Vatican. That was the last straw and the Holy Inquisition caught up with him, tried and sentenced him to death. The penalty was later commuted to life imprisonment. He spent four years in the prison of St. Leo, in the Duchy of Urbino, and in 1795 died in a fit of apoplexy.

Holly M. Cain (1882-1947) President of Abbot Laboratories. b. Jan. 14, 1882 in Davies Co., Ind. President of Swan-Myers Co., Indianapolis 191330 and when company merged with Abbott Lab. Chicago, he became vicepresident, and in 1943 president and director of Abbott Labs. International. Mason. d. Feb. 21, 1947.

Wellins Calcott English Masonic writer of the 18th century, ranking with Anderson, Hutchinson and Preston. He has been called the father of the didactic school. His work, A Candid Disquisition of the Principles and Practices of the Most Ancient and Honourable Society . . ." was published in 1769. At that time it is thought that he was past master of the Palladian Lodge of Hereford, now No. 120. He twice visited America. On Jan. 20, 1779 was made an honorary member of Apollo Lodge at York, England.

William M. Calder (1869-1945) U.S. Senator from New York. b. March 3, 1869 at Brooklyn, N.Y. As a contractor he erected over 4,000 houses in Brooklyn and was building commissioner of Brooklyn in 190203. A delegate to the national Republican convention nine times, he was U.S. Senator from 1917-23. Mason. d. March 3, 1945.

Harmon W. Caldwell President, University of Georgia. b. Jan. 29, 1899 in Meriwether Co., Ga. A.B. Univ. of Georgia and LL.B. from Harvard with honorary degrees from Emory, Mercer and Tulane. Practiced law at Atlanta from 1926 to 1933 with exception of four years when he was professor of law at the Univ. of Georgia. Became president of the Univ. of Georgia in 1935, serving until 1948 when he became Chancellor of the university system of Georgia. Raised in John W. Akin No. 537, Taylorsville, Ga. in 1920; 32° AASR (SJ) at Atlanta and Yaarab Shrine Temple of Atlanta.

Joseph Caldwell (1773-1835) President of University of North Carolina. b. April 21, 1773 at Lammington, N.J. He graduated from Princeton in 1791 and after teaching school he became professor of mathematics in 1796 at the Univ. of North Carolina when it was just five years old. The school was in a feeble state and in 1804 he was made president, serving until his death on Jan. 24, 1835. He was raised on April 14, 1798 by Eagle Lodge No. 19 of Hillsboro, N. Car., the lodge going to Chapel Hill where the university was located, to confer the degrees.

Millard F. Caldwell, Jr. Governor of Florida, U.S. Congressman, 73rd to 76th Congresses (1933-41) from 3rd Florida dist. b. Feb. 6, 1879 at Knoxville, Tenn. Practiced law and elected to Florida state legislature in 1928 and 1930. Governor of Florida from 1945-49. Was chairman of the National Governors Conference in 1946-47; a delegate of the Interparliamentary Union at the Hague in 1938 and at Oslo in 1939. Served in field artillery in WW1. Member and past master of Santa Rosa Lodge No. 16, Milton, Fla., but was raised in a lodge in Macon, Miss. 32° AASR (SJ) at Meridian, Miss. and member of Morocco Shrine Temple, Jacksonville, Fla.

Galloway Calhoun Lawyer and Imperial Potentate of the Shrine of North America in 1948-49. b. Aug. 22, 1894 at Athens, Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1915 and served as district attorney of 7th judicial dist. of Texas; assistant attorney general of the state and special assistant to attorney general of the U.S. on Selective Service matters during WW2. In WW1 he was band leader of the 144th Inf. band. An active Methodist, his lectures to the men's bible class at Tyler, Texas are broadcast. In 1944 he was a delegate to the general conference of the Methodist Church. In 1936 he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Texas. Raised in St. John's Lodge No. 53, Tyler, Texas, Aug. 18, 1916. Member of Tyler Chapter No. 24, R.A.M., George M. Patrick Council No. 13, R. & S.M.; Ascension Commandery No. 25, K.T. and past commander of same. 33° AASR (SJ), Dallas. Chairman of board of trustees for Shriners Hospitals for Crippled Children; grand junior general Empire of the West, Red Cross of Constantine; active member Supreme Council of DeMolay.

Norman Call President of the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad since 1932. b. March 29, 1880 at Richmond, Va. Began with Richmond Locomotive Works and started with the R.F. & P. as secretary to the president in 1900. Member of Dove Lodge No. 51 and Meridian Lodge No. 284; Washington Chapter No. 9, R.A.M. and Richmond Cornmandery No. 2, K.T. all of Richmond, Va. Member of Acca Shrine Temple.

Richard K. Call (1791-1862) Governor of Florida, Brigadier General. b. near Petersburg, Va. Was brigadier general of Florida militia in 1833, and led the army against the Seminoles in 1836 in second and third battles of Wahoo Swamp. Served as governor of Florida from 1835-40, but in a controversy with Joel R. Poinsett, q.v. secretary of war, he was removed from office. President Harrison again appointed him governor from 1841 to 1844 and he was an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1845 when Florida became a state. He joined Cumberland Lodge No. 8 at Nashville, Tenn. in 1821 and later of Centerville Lodge No. 18, Leon Co., Fla. of which he was master in 1851. In 1853 he affiliated with Concordia Lodge No. 28, Gadsden Co., Fla. He assisted in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Florida in 1830 and was grand master in 1851. In 1847 he was made an honorary member of Florida Royal Arch Chapter No. 1 (formerly No. 32) and an honorary member of the Grand Chapter of Florida the same year. d. Sept. 14, 1862.

Charles H. Callahan ( 1858 - 1944 ) He is credited with the idea that brought into being the George Washington National Masonic Memorial at Alexandria, Va. He was commissioner of revenue of Alexandria for 44 years and a member of Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22. He served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia from 1924-26 and was the author of the noted book, Washington, the Man and the Mason. b. Aug. 22, 1858 at Acquia Mills, Va., he died July 31, 1944 at Alexandria.

Albert S. Callan Newspaper publisher. b. July 27, 1884 at Albany, N.Y. Graduate of Hobart College, 1907. President of the Chatham Courier Co. since 1912. Member of New York general assembly 1909-10 and delegate to Republican state convention 17 times. Served in WW1 as captain and in WW2 as lieutenant colonel. Member of New York National Guard 1906-17. Raised in Valatie Lodge No. 362, Kinderhook, N.Y. in 1908.

Llewellyn L. Callaway (1868-1951) Chief justice, Supreme Court of Montana. b. Dec. 15, 1868 at Tuscola, Ill. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan, 1891. Practiced law in Montana from 1891. Appointed chief justice of Montana supreme court in 1922, retiring in 1935. Past grand master of Montana, 33° AASR, past grand commander, Knights Templar, past grand high priest, Royal Arch Masons, and member of Supreme Council, Scottish Rite and inspector general for same in Montana. d. Aug. 6, 1951.

Plutarco Elias Calles (1878-1945) President of Mexico. b. Sept. 25, 1878 at Guaymas, Sonora, where he was later a schoolteacher, farmer and tradesman. From 1913-15 he served inthe army under Obregon and Carranza. In 1917 he was governor of Sonora. He held cabinet positions under Carranza in 1919-20 and under Obregon in 1920-24. Calles served as President of Mexico from 1924-28, during which time he carried out reforms in an administration marked by struggle between the church and the state. He fought for control of the government with Cardenas in 1935 and in 1936 was driven into exile in the United States. He was made a Freemason in Helios Lodge in his home town of Guaymas and at one time served as its secretary.

Charles Alexandre de Calonne (1734-1802) French minister of finance under Louis XVI. From 186874, he held government positions at Douai, Metz and Lille. When he became controller general of finance in 1783, he found the state treasury in hopeless disorder, without money or credit. He is said to have been one of the principals who precipitated the French Revolution. In 1787 he opened the Assembly of Notables and proposed the taxation of nobles and clergy, which received violent opposition, causing his removal from office. He then lived in England from 1787 until 1802 when Napoleon allowed him to return to France a month before his death. His lodge is not known, but he is recorded as a visitor to the Loge des Maitres at Amiens, France.

Charles Calvert 5th Baron (Lord) Baltimore. Member of the English family that obtained patent for the colonization of Maryland. He was the first Protestant in his family's line since his ancestor, George,

1st Baron, turned Roman Catholic in 1625. Charles was proprietary governor of Maryland from 1715 to 1751. He was made a Mason about April, 1730 at Goodwood, Sussex, England, and was one of the eight brethren present when Dr. Dessaugliers q.v. initiated at the Castle Kew on April 28, 1737.

Francisco Calvo (1820-1890) Catholic priest of the Jesuit order, who established Freemasonry in Costa Rica in 1865. At that time he was canon of the San Jose Cathedral. He received his degrees in Lodge Cruz Austrail No. 5 in 1862 at Callao, Peru. He obtained a charter for Caridad Lodge No. 26 at San Jose from the Grand Orient of Spain, then operating in Colombia. Out of this lodge developed the Supreme Council 33° AASR of Central America, which covers five republics, and which chartered lodges of its own until the turn of the 20th century. Calvo served as master of Caridad Lodge No. 26 and eventually became the first sovereign grand commander of the Scottish Rite, a position which he held until his death. The Masonic temple in San Jose now displays the gavel he used. Others who were active with Calvo in the founding of the Scottish Rite were Dr. Jose Maria Castro q.v., president of the Republic in 1847-49, who served as grand chancellor in 1866-68 and was also founder and rector of Santo Tomas University; Dr. Lorenzo Montufar q.v., lawyer, historian, and rector of Santo Tomas University, serving also as grand minister of state; Francisco Poralto Alvarado, teacher, banker and benefactor of San Juan de Dies Hospital, who was first grand representative.

Renah F. Comelier Commissioner of Washington, D.C. b. Oct. 8, 1890. Lawyer by profession. Was 2nd assistant secretary of the Navy in 191720; examiner of Federal Trade Commission, 1925-27; assistant U.S. Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice 1927-30; fuel coordinator O.P.A. 194243. Appointed commissioner of Washington in 1954 by President Truman. Raised Sept. 18, 1922 in Benjamin B. French Lodge No. 15, Washington, D.C., serving as master in 1932 and grand master of District of Columbia in 1952. Honorary member of Hope Lodge No. 20, Samuel Gompers Lodge No. 45 and Washington-Centennial Lodge No. 14 of District of Columbia. Member of Mt. Vernon Chapter No. 3, R.A.M.; Adoniram Council No. 2, R. & SM.; Washington Commandery No. 1, K.T.; Kallipolis Grotto; Tall Cedars of Lebanon; National League

of Masonic Clubs; Masonic Boosters Club; Masonic Veterans Association National Sojourners, Heroes of '76; past potentate of Almas Shrine Temple of Washington, D.C. (1949). In AASR, he received KCCH in 1949 and 33°in 1953. He served as sovereign of St. Simeon Stylites Conclave No. 51, Red Cross of Constantine and grand marshal of the Grand Imperial Council in 1957. Member of Royal Order of Scotland, being at present provincial first grand steward.

Duke Jean Jacques Regis Cambaceres (1753-1824) Archchancellor of the French Empire. One of the greats of the Napoleonic period, he was a jurist and statesman who was a member of the convention of 1792. In 1794 he was president of the Committee of Public Safety and also of the Committee of Five Hundred in 1796. In 1799 he was minister of justice and second consul in 1799. Above all, he was the friend and chief counselor of Napoleon, who made him chief counselor of the Empire in 1804. In 1808 he was created Duke of Parma. A Mason, he became grand commander of the Supreme Council of France and was so recognized in the official register of the Supreme Council (SJ) .

Comte Pierre Jacques Etienne Cambronne (1770-1842) Commander of a division of the French Imperial Guard at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He served with distinction in the campaigns of 181214 and accompanied Napoleon to Elba. He was active in the founding of French military lodges.

C. B. Camerer Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 20, 1882 at Kinmundy, Ill. Received M.D. from St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine in 1909. Entered U.S. Navy as a medical officer in 1909 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1945. He was with the Root Commission to Russia in 1917 and brigade surgeon for the Marine Corps in WW1. In WW2 he was medical officer for the 9th Naval district and with the 14th Naval district from 1945-46. His specialty in the service was eye, ear, nose and throat. Returned from active service in 1946. After retirement he engaged in Red Cross work. Mason and member of the National Sojourners.

Augustus G. Cameron Vice president of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Export Co. b. Mar. 21, 1880 at Knightstown, Ind. Began in the wholesale grocery business at Indianapolis in 1910 and first employed by Goodyear in 1913, rising to his present position in 1939. Raised in Golden Rule Lodge No. 16, Knightstown, Ind. on April 3, 1903 and served as its master. Presently a member of Joppa Lodge No. 666, Akron, Ohio. Received Royal Arch in Knightstown Chapter No. 33, Knightstown, Ind. (now Akron No. 209) and served as high priest. Cryptic degrees in Knightstown Council R. & S.M. No. 29 Dec. 10, 1909. Knighted in Knights-town Commandery No. 9, K.T. (now Bethany No. 72 of Akron) March 6, 1906, serving as prelate of both No. 9 and 22. Tadmor Shrine Temple of Akron.

Ralph H. Cameron Former U.S. Senator from Arizona. Member of Flagstaff Lodge No. 7, Flagstaff, Ariz. and member of El Zaribah Shrine Temple of Phoenix.

Simon Cameron (1799-1889) Secretary of War in Lincoln's cabinet. b. March 8, 1799 in Lancaster Co., Pa. and orphaned at an early age. Worked as a journeyman and edited newspapers before becoming interested in banking and railroad construction. Became Republican political czar of Pennsylvania and served three terms in the U.S. Senate, 1845-49, 1857-61, 1867-77. For a time he was adjutant general of Pennsylvania. Named by Lincoln as Secretary of War in his first cabinet; resigned in 1862 when criticized for manner of awarding army contracts, but immediately appointed U.S. Minister to Russia by Lincoln. He served but six months as U.S. Minister, resigning on Nov. 8, 1862. Initiated in Perseverance Lodge No. 21 at Harrisburg, Pa., on July 12, 1826, he served as master in 1833. He was a member of Perseverance Chapter No. 21, R.A.M. at Harrisburg and St. John's Commandery No. 4, K.T. at Philadelphia. Strangely, he received the Order of the Temple on Oct. 25, 1826 and the Red Cross and Malta on Oct. 30, 1826.

Albert S. Camp (1892-1954) U.S. Congressman from 4th Georgia dist. in 76th and 78th-83rd Congresses. b. July 26, 1892 in Coweta Co., Georgia. Admitted to Georgia bar in 1915. Practiced law in Newnan and was U.S. attorney for Northern Dist. of Ga. in 1934-39. Served overseas with Army in WW1. Mason and Shriner. d. July 24, 1954.

Thomas J. Camp Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 10, 1886 at Seymour, Conn. Received B.A. from Yale in 1908 and M.A. in 1915. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1912 and rose to temporary brigadier general in 1942. Served in Hawaii from 191217; instructed in first officers training camp in 1917; battalion commander in France in 1918; on War Department General Staff from 1937-41; organized 51st Armored Infantry in 1941; edited Infantry Journal from 1931-34. Raised in Pyramid Lodge No. 92, New Egypt, N.J. in 1918. 32° AASR (SJ) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Alexander W. Campbell (1828-?) Brigadier General, Confederate Army in Civil War. Raised in Jackson, Tenn. June, 1858. Royal Arch Mason in same year and knighted in Jackson Commandery, K.T. on April 3, 1874.

Archibald Douglas Campbell (see 4th Lord of Blythswood) Arthur G. Campbell Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 15, 1884 at Lexington, Va. Commissioned in 1908 in Coast Artillery and promoted through grades to brigadier general in 1940. Served with A.E.F. in WW1 and was member of War Department General Staff from 1918-21; assistant chief of staff of 6th Corps Area 192832 and 8th Corps Area 1939-40. Retired in 1944. Mason.

Doak S. Campbell President of Florida State University since 1941. b. Nov. 16, 1888 at Tate, Arkansas. Received degrees from Ouachita College, George Peabody College, Stetson Univ. and Florida Southern. Was superintendent of Columbus, Ark. high school from

1911-14; vice-president of Central College, Ark. 1916-20 and president 1920-28; with George Peabody College 1928-41. Has written several books on education. Raised in Buck Range Lodge, Howard Co., Ark. and presently a member of Jackson Lodge No. 1, Tallahassee, Fla. Has served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Florida.

Douglas L. Campbell Prime Minister of Manitoba, Canada. b. May 27, 1895 at Portage la Prairie. Owner and operator of a farm near High Bluff, Manitoba since 1918. Served as a member of the Manitoba legislature since 1922; member of the ex-ecutive council in 1936 and minister of agriculture and immigration from 1936-48. Elected premier of Manitoba in 1948 and has since been the leader of the LiberalProgressive Party. He was initiated in Assiniboine Lodge No. 7 at Portage La Prairie in 1917 and served as master in 1922. Also member of Keystone Chapter No. 2 of the same place.

Dwight Campbell Judge, Supreme Court of South Dakota. b. Nov. 5, 1887. Graduate of Iowa College, 1909 and Harvard, 1912. Began practice in Aberdeen, S.D. in 1919. Appointed judge of Supreme Court of S.D. in 1925, serving until 1937 when he resigned to re-enter private practice. Mason, 32° and Shriner.

George W. Campbell (1768-1848) Secretary of the Treasury and U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b. 1768 in Tenn. Graduated from Princeton in 1794. Served in U.S. Congress as representative from 1803-09. Elected U.S. Senator in 1811, but resigned in 1814 to become Secretary of the Treasury. He was again elected to the Senate in 1815, serving until 1818 when he was appointed U.S. Minister to Russia, returning to the United States in 1820. He served as master of Greenville Lodge No. 43, Greenville, Tenn. and is also reported to have held offices in three other Tennessee lodges: Knoxville No. 2, Mount Libanus No. 59 and Tennessee No. 41, all of Knoxville.

Jacob M. Campbell Union General in Civil War. Became a member of Cambria Lodge No. 278 at Johnstown, Pa. on Oct. 26, 1858, but demitted April 13, 1875 to become a charter member of Johnstown Lodge No. 538, serving as first senior warden.

James Campbell (1813-?) Postmaster General of the United States under President Pierce, 1853-1857. b. in Philadelphia, son of an Irish emigrant. Admitted to bar in 1834, becoming attorney general of the state in 1852. His lodge is not known, but he was a member of Harmony Chapter No. 52, R.A.M. of Philadelphia.

James U. Campbell (1866-1937) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon. b. Aug. 29, 1866, Prince Edward Island, Canada and educated in Prince of Wales College, studying law privately. Came to the U.S. in 1887 and was naturalized in 1893. Began teaching public schools in 1884 and admitted to Oregon bar in 1893. Served as circuit judge of the 5th district five times. Elected to supreme court in 1930 and was chief justice from 1935 until his death on July 16, 1937.

John Campbell 4th Earl of Loudoun (1705-1782) Governor of Virginia and commander of all British forces in America in 1756. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of England in 1736. He was the first PGM of England to visit a grand lodge in America, when on Jan. 31, 1757 the Festival of St. John the Evangelist was postponed by the Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston so that he might attend. A special working lodge was opened and four members of Campbell's staff "were made enter'd Prentices & Pass'd Fellow crafts" with Richard Gridley q.v. in the chair." Commissioned in the Scots Greys at an early age, he succeeded his father to the title and became one of the 16 representative Scottish peers in Parliament. As a mark of royal esteem, he was made governor of Stirling Castle and Edinburgh, and was aidede-camp to the king, serving in the Flanders campaigns and the rebellion of 1745. Following the disastrous expeditions of 1755 against the French and Indians in America, and the death of General Braddock, General Campbell was appointed governor of Virginia (as asinecure) and to command all British forces in America. Due to politics at home

and poor handling of colonial authorities in the new world, he served only from July 23, 1756 until December, 1757. The earl was said to have resembled "Saint George on the tavern sign—always on horseback, but never advancing." He lost Forts Oswego and William Henry, and failed in the planned invasion of French Canada. However, he was far from discredited with the king or later ministries. In 1762 he took part in the Peninsular Wars in Portugal, where although second in command, he was actually first in the field. He was promoted to full general in 1770. He retired to Scotland as titular governor of Edinburgh until his death in 1782.

Sir Malcolm Campbell (1885-1948) English businessman and famed automobile racer. Employed in 1906 on the staff of Lloyds of London. He served through WW1 from 1914-18, the last two years, being an airplane pilot. He began motor racing as a hobby in 1910 and later established many world records for speed at Daytona Beach, Fla. and Salt Lake City, Utah. He wrote Speed, 1931; The Romance of Motor-Racing, 1936; and The Roads and the Problem of Their Safety, 1937. A Freemason, he was made a member of the Azngi Grotto of Daytona Beach, Fla.

Price Campbell President of West Texas Utilities Co. b. Jan. 22, 1890 at Weatherford, Texas. Received B.S. and E.E. from Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College. With the American Public Service Co. since 1915 and a director of many public utilities. Mason.

Thomas D. Campbell Agricultural engineer and Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 19, 1882 at Grand Forks, N.D. Graduate of North Dakota, Cornell and Southern Calif. universities. Engaged in farming since 1898, operating 95,000 acres of wheat and flax land in Montana. President of Campbell Farming Corp. since 1922. In 1929 he was special adviser for Russian government to assist in operation of 10 million acres in Russia. Was special advisor to British government on increased wheat production in 1941. Made report for French government on wheat production in North Africa in 1948. Served as colonel with Air Corps from 1942 and made brigadier general in 1946;

now general U.S. Army Reserve. Inventor of Campbell grain dryer and developer of Campbell windrow method of harvesting grain. Raised in Acacia Lodge No. 4, Grand Forks, N. Dak. on Nov. 29, 1907. 32° AASR (SJ) and member of Kem Shrine Temple, Grand Forks.

Wayne Campbell Actor and university professor. b. May 9, 1872. Taught school and worked on his father's newspaper in Waterville, Kansas before becoming an entertainer with the Lyceum Bureau. Barnstormed with repertory and stock companies and was leading character actor from 1915. Head of the drama department of Oklahoma City University since 1922. Author and producer of annual pre-dawn Easter play, Life, Lord of Death from 1937-43, and the annual passion play Via Crucis produced at the Guthrie Masonic Temple since 1940. Has written several books on writing and acting. Mason, member of Scottish Rite.

Lord William Campbell (?-1778) English governor in America. He was appointed governor of Nova Scotia in 1766 and was the last British governor of South Carolina (1773), which he unsuccessfully attempted to keep loyal to the Crown.

Sir William Campbell ( ? -18 34) Chief Justice of Upper Canada from1826-29. Served with the British in the American Revolution. Founded Guysboro and Temple Lodge No. 7 in 1785. He was appointed attorney general of the province of Cape Breton and while there was identified with Freemasonry in Sydney. He went to England in connection with the affairs of the province, and while there, was appointed a justice of the King's Bench, Upper Canada in 1811, becoming chief justice in 1826 and resigning in 1829. He was the founder of St. Andrew's Lodge No. 16 in Toronto. Campbell was knighted and died in 1834.

William B. Campbell (1807-1867) Governor of Tennessee. b. Feb. 1, 1807 in Sumner Co., Tenn. Practiced law in Carthage, Term.

Raised a cavalry company and commanded it in Creek and Florida wars of 1836. From 1837-43 was Whig member of U.S. Congress from Tennessee. Was major general of militia in 1844 and served in the Mexican War, distinguishing himself in the battles of Monterey and Cerro Gordo. He served as governor of Tennessee, 1851-53. From 1857 he served as judge of the state circuit court. Lincoln appointed him brigadier general in the Federal Army in 1862, but he was forced to retire in 1863 due to ill health. He was a member of Lebanon Lodge No. 98, Lebanon, Term. d. Aug. 19, 1867.

Joachim Heinrich Campe (17461818) German writer and educator. Studied theology and was tutor to the Humboldt family in Berlin in 1769 and 1774-75. He was director of the schools in Dessau and Hamburg, 1786-1805 and head of the Brunswick educational book house from 17871808, which published many of his own writings including Robinson der Jungere, based on Defoe. He was a learned and zealous Freemason as shown by his correspondence with Gotthold Lessing q.v.

Edward R. S. Canby (1819-1873) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. Born in Kentucky, his family later moved to Indiana and he graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1835. He served in the Florida Indian War and assisted in the removal of the Five Civilized Nations to Oklahoma. In the Mexican war he saw action in most of the important engagements and was promoted to captain. As a major in 1855 he served the next three years on frontier duty and when the Civil War broke out, he was on an expedition against the Navajos in the Southwest. Made colonel, he commanded the New Mexico forces that repelled a Confederate thrust into that area. He was then made brigadier general and called to Washington to assist Secretary of War Stanton. He then saw service in New York, Mississippi Valley, Virginia, Louisiana, Alabama. After the War he served in Washington, D.C. and was then sent to California, where he attempted to bring the Modoc Indians to terms with the government. On April 11, 1873 he met "Capt. Jack," the Modoc leader on neutral ground, but the Indians waylaid Canby and two other officers at the meeting place and killed them. The principal Indians were later tried and executed. General Canby "was a member of a lodge in the East. His body was escorted under auspices

of the Craft to the Masonic Temple at Yreka and afterwards conveyed East where he was buried with Masonic honors.”

Allen D. Candler Former Governor of Georgia. Member of Gainesville Lodge No. 219, Gainesville, Ga.

John S. Candler (1861-1941) Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia 190206. b. Oct. 22, 1861 at Villa Rica, Ga. Alderman of City of Atlanta andpresident of the general council in 1911, 12, 14. Served in Spanish American War as colonel. Member of the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal church five times between 1890 and 1934, being a member of the commission on unification of the two branches. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. Dec. 9, 1941.

Thomas S. Candler Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia since 1945. b. Dec. 15, 1890 at Blairsville, Ga. Engaged in law practice from 191539. Judge of Superior Court, N.E. Judicial Circuit, 1939-45. Mason.

William Candler (1890-1936) President of Atlanta Biltmore Hotel Co. from 1923 and vice president of Coca-Cola Bottling Co. of N.Y. from 1925. b. Jan. 24, 1890. Former director of U.S. Chamber of Commerce and officer and director in several corporations. Mason. d. Oct. 2, 1936.

Gordon Canfield U.S. Congressman 77th to 84th Congresses from 8th N.J. district. b. April 15, 1898 at Salamanca, N.Y. Received LL.B. from National Univ. in 1928. Began as newsboy in Binghamton, N.Y. in 1912, later clerk for Western Union, reporter for Passaic (N.J.) Daily News and for 17 years secretary to Congressman George N. Seger. He served in WW1 in the Signal Corps and in WW2 was on active duty with the Merchant Marine (incognito) in the North Atlantic. He visited Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany as an observer at request of General Eisenhower in 1945, made a 30,000 mile

inspection trip of island bases in Pacific in 1946 and visited 16 European and Middle East countries in 1947 on investigating committee. In 1952 he inspected the Pacific defenses and the Korean front. Mason.

Erwin D. Canham Editor of Christian Science Monitor. b. Feb. 13, 1904 at Auburn, Maine. Received B.A. and Litt.D. from Bates College; L.H.D. Boston University and was Rhodes Scholar at Oxford Univ. England, receiving B.A. and M.A. in 1936. Began with the Christian Science Monitor, in 1925 and has covered many important national and international stories for his paper including the League of Nations assemblies of 1926-28, Ramsay MacDonald's tour of the U.S.; London Naval conference; trips of American presidents; nationwide political surveys; inauguration of Philippine Commonwealth. He was head of the Washington Bureau from 1932-39; general news editor 1939-41, managing editor, 1941-44 and editor since 1945. Mason.

Ralph J. Canine Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 9, 1895 at Flora, Ind. A graduate of Northwestern Univ. and several army schools, he advanced through grades from 2nd lieutenant in 1917 to lieutenant general in 1953. In WW2 he served as commanding general of First Infantry Division Artillery in Europe. He is now serving with the Department of Defense, Washington, as director of the National Security Agency. Raised in East Chicago Lodge No. 595, East Chicago, Ind. in 1917. 32° AASR (SJ) at Guthrie, Oklahoma and member of Ararat Shrine Temple, Kansas City, Mo.

George Canning (1770-1827) English statesman who served as Foreign Secretary, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Prime Minister. Educated at Oxford, he was a brilliant orator. Member of parliament in 1793, he became under-secretary for foreign affairs in Pitt's administration (1796-99), but was barred from advancement because of poverty and his merciless wit, which he directed against the Whigs. Chief confidant of Pitt, he left office as treasurer of the Navy on Pitt's death in 1806. Was foreign sec-retary from 1807-10. After 12 years of minor offices he again became foreign secretary in 1822, succeeding

Castlereagh as leader of the House of Commons. In 1827 he succeeded Liverpool as prime minister and chancellor of the exchequer. He was a member of Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4, but the date of his initiation is not known. In 1810 he became a dual member and "was admitted" to the Lodge of the Antiquity No. 2, resigning in 1811 and being reinstated in 1812.

Clarence Cannon Missouri Congressional representative continuously since the 68th (1923) Congress. b. April 11, 1879 at Elsberry, Mo., he is a graduate of LaGrange College, William Jewell College and the Univ. of Missouri. Was professor of history at Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. 1904-08, beginning practice of law at Troy, Mo. in 1908. Has been parliamentarian of the House of Representatives for many years, both in Republican as well as Democratic administrations, and parliamentarian for the Democratic National Conventions since 1920. He is regent of the Smithsonian Institute. He is the author of Synopsis of the Procedure of the House (1919), Cannon's Procedures (1928), Convention Parliamentary Manual (1928, 1951) and other writings. Member of Troy Lodge No. 34, Troy, Mo. Exalted in Troy Chapter R.A.M. No. 85, (now extinct) and transferred to Mexico Chapter No. 27, Mexico, Mo.; Crusade Commandery No. 23, K.T. Mexico and AASR, Valley of St. Louis. Died, 1964.

Joseph G. Cannon ( 1836 - 1926 ) Served in the U.S. House of Representatives for 50 years (1872-1923) with the exception of two terms. "Uncle Joe" was speaker of the House from 1903-11, ruling that body with a stern and august hand. b. May 7, 1836 at Guilford, N.C., he was admitted to Illinois bar in 1858. After serving eight years as state's attorney he began his long service in Congress. Was made a Mason in Shelbyville, Ill. in 1858 and later affiliated with Olive Branch Lodge No. 38 of Danville in Feb., 1888. In Jan., 1888 he was exalted in Vermilion Chapter No. 82, R.A.M. and on Feb. 9, knighted in Athelstan Commandery No. 45, K.T. both of Danville, Ill. d. Nov. 12, 1926 at age of 90 and was buried with Masonic honors.

Newton Cannon (1781-1842) Governor of Tennessee, 1835-39. b. in N. Carolina and after public school education removed to Tennessee where he was a member of the legislature in 1811-12. Served in the Tennessee Mounted Rifles as a colonel in 1813 and commanded the left column in the Battle of Tallushatchee with the Creek Indians on Nov. 3, 1813. Elected to Congress in 1814 to fill vacancy of Felix Grundy q.v. and served until 1817, and again from 1819-23. In 1819 he was appointed one of the two commissioners to treat with the Chickasaw Indians by President Monroe. A member of Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, he was present at a called meeting of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1825. d. Sept. 29, 1842.

Archbishop of Canterbury (see Henry Chicheley)

James Cantey Confederate Brigadier General in Civil War. Member of Kershaw Lodge No. 29, Camden, S. Car.

Eddie Cantor Stage, screen and radio star. b. Jan. 31, 1892 in New York City, he was educated in the public schools and at Wood's Business School, Williamsburgh, N.Y. Married Ida Tobias in 1914; they have five girls—Marjorie, Natalie, Edna J., Marilyn and Janet. He began as a vaudeville and burlesque entertainer and later with Morosco, the Shubertsand Florenz Ziegfeld. In 1916 he toured the country as "Sam Beverly Moon" in Canary Cottage. He played in Broadway Brevities (1920), Make It Snappy (1922), and starred in Kid Boots (1923-26), Whoopee (1929-30), making his first motion picture appearance in 1926. He is known for his charitable work with Christians as well as Jews, and founded the Eddie Cantor Camp which sends poor and undernourished boys to the country. He has served as president of the Jewish Theatrical Guild of America, and president of the American Federation of Radio Artists. He was initiated in Munn Lodge No. 190, N.Y.C. on Nov. 6, 1919 and raised on June 23, 1921.

Homer E. Capehart U.S. Senator from Indiana. b. June 6, 1897 at Algiers, Ind. Began as salesman with Burton-Paige Mfg. Co., Chicago, in 1919. From 1927-33 he was president of The Capehart Corp., mfgrs., Fort Wayne, Ind., and vice president of The Wurlitzer Co. from 1933-40. He is chairman of the board of Packard Mfg. Co., Indianapolis, and owner of the Capehart Farms, Washington, Ind. Served in army during WW1 (1917-19). Elected U.S. Senator in 1944 and again in 1950. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Joseph P. E. Capelle (1757-1796) Surgeon of the American Revolution, he was born in Flanders, coming to America with Count Rochambeau q.v. and later served on General Lafayette's q.v. staff as surgeon. After the Revolution, he settled in Wilmington, Del., and was both popular and successful as a physician. He was one of the incorporators of the Delaware State Medical Society. He was raised in Lodge No. 14 at Wilmington (under Pennsylvania charter) on Aug. 21, 1783. He served as master in 1786 and again in 1792. He was treasurer of the lodge from 1788-91. On Aug. 6, 1789, he was in the first group of Delaware Masons to receive the Royal Arch Degree, conferred in his own lodge, and played a prominent part in the effort to establish a grand lodge in Delaware. He died on Nov. 5, 1796 and was buried with Masonic services in Old Swedes Cemetery. As the Masonic rites began, the sky suddenly darkened, and winds of near-hurricane velocity tore at the graveyard, forcing a number of crows to the ground among the onlookers, where they helplessly flapped their wings over the grave. The strange incident so terrified some of the onlookers, that they sprang over the cemetery wall and forever after talked of the strange alchemy and close affinity the Freemasons had with evil spirits.

Luigi Capello (1859-?) Italian General of World War I. He commanded the army which captured Gorizia in August, 1916 and the 2nd Army in the Italian offensive of Bainsizza plateau the following year. He retired in July of 1918. An opponent of Fascism, Mussolini called on him to choose between Freemasonry and Facism. He chose the craft and in Nov., 1925 he was arrested and accused of plotting against Mussolini's life. He was not brought to trial until the spring of 1927 when he was convicted and sentenced to 30 years' penal servitude.

William T. Capers (1867-1943) Bishop of Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Aug. 9, 1867 at Greenville, S.C. Graduate of Theological Seminary of Virginia, State Univ. of Kentucky and Univ. of the South. In business from 1887-90. Became P.E. deacon, 1894; priest, 1895 and served as rector in Anderson, S.C., Vicksburg, Miss., Asheville, N.C., Lexington, Ky., Philadelphia, Pa. from 1895-1913. Elected bishop of missionary district of Spokane in 1913 but declined. Was then named bishop co-adjutor of Diocese of West Texas, serving from1913-16 and bishop of West Texas from Oct. 16, 1916. Mason, 32° AASR. d. March 29, 1943.

Arthur Capper (1865-1951) U.S. Senator, Governor of Kansas and publisher. b. July 14, 1865 at Garnett, Kans. Began as a compositor on the Topeka Daily Capital in 1884 and by 1892 owned and published the paper. Eventually he added the following publications to become one of the largest publishers in the world: Cap-per's Weekly, Kansas Farmer, Household Magazine, Capper's Farmer, Missouri Ruralist, Ohio Farmer, Pennsylvania Farmer, Michigan Farmer, Kansas City Kansan. He also owned radio stations KIBW, Topeka and KCKN, Kansas City, Kans. Elected governor of Kansas, 1915-19 and served Kansas as U.S. Senator from 1919-1951. He was a member of Orient Lodge No. 51 of Topeka and received his 33° AASR, (SJ) in Oct. 1948. d. Dec. 19, 1951.

John H. Capstick (1856-1918) U.S. Congressman from 5th N.J. district in 64th Congress (1915-17). b. Sept. 2, 1856 at Lawrence, Mass. Business interests were dyeing, printing and bleaching of textile fabrics. Mason. d. March 16, 1918.

Thaddeus H. Caraway (1871-1931) U.S. Senator from Arkansas, 1921-33, dying in office. b. Oct. 17, 1871 in Stoddard Co., Mo., he was admitted to Arkansas bar in 1900. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from the 1st Arkansas district in the 63rd to 66th Congresses (1913-21). Mason and member of Sahara Shrine Temple at Pine Bluff, Ark. d. Nov. 6, 1931.

Giosue Carducci (1835-1907) Considered the national poet of modern Italy. b. in Valdicastello, Tuscany, his early pseudonym was Enotrio Romano. From 1861-1904 he was professor of literary history at Bologna.


1st Marquess of Carisbrooke He was awarded the Nobel prize for literature in 1906. Wrote many volumes of verse and historical studies in literary criticism. The Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.

Henry C. Carey (1793-1879) Political economist. b. in Philadelphia, the son of Mathew Carey, an Irish publisher who fled to America in 1784 to escape prosecution for attacks on British government. Henry continued his father's publishing and bookselling business from 1817-35 when he retired to devote himself to study and writing. He was the author of Principles of Political Economy (183740) in three volumes, and The Principles of Social Science (1858-59) in three volumes. He was raised in Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia on January 21, 1817.

James B. Carey Judge, Delaware Supreme Court since 1945. b. Feb. 17, 1905. Graduated from Univ. of Delaware (1926) and Temple Univ. (1931). Admitted to Pennsylvania bar in 1931 and Delaware bar in 1936. Practiced law in Georgetown, Del. from 1936-45. Member and past master of Franklin Lodge No. 12, Georgetown, Del. Past grand marshal of Grand Lodge of Delaware. Member of Hope Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. and Joppa Council No. 3, R. & S.M. both of Georgetown; 32° AASR (NJ) at Wilmington; Evergreen No. 49, Tall Cedars and member of Kent and Sussex Past Masters' Association.

Jeremiah Carhart (1813-1868) Inventor. b. Sept. 1813 in Dutchess Co., N.Y., he received no extended education, but when 15 learned the cabinet making trade and became adept in the use of tools. He moved to Buffalo where he perfected several inventions between 1836-46, including the exhaustion bellows and tubular reed-board for reed instruments. With E. P. Needham, he founded firm of Car-hart and Needham, moving to New York City where they manufactured melodeons and organs. His Blue Lodge is not known, but he was a member of Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, N.Y.C. d. Aug. 16, 1868.

1st Marquess of Carisbrooke (Alexander Albert Mountbatten) b. Nov. 22, 1886. His father was the third son of Prince Alexander, of Hesse, brother of the ruling grand duke, Prince Louis of Battenberg, later the Marquess of Milford Haven, was the elder brother of Prince Henry, and married Princess Victoria of Hesse, granddaughter of the late Queen Victoria. Their eldest daughter, Princess Alice of Battenberg married Prince Alexander of Greece and is the mother of H.R.H., Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburg and royal consort of Queen Elizabeth. The family name was changed from Battenberg to Mountbatten in 1914 at the outbreak of WW1 when there was a popular outcry against names of Teutonic origin. The marquisate of Carisbrooke was created in 1917, taking its name from Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight. The Marquess was educated at Wellington College and went to sea as a midshipman on the H.M.S. Britannia, the royal yacht, remaining in the navy from 1902-08. Commissioned as lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards in 1911, he was promoted to captain three years later. He served throughout the War of 1914-18, subsequently on the staff, retiring in 1919. A member of Prince of Wales Lodge No. 259, the lodge connected with the royal family, he served as master in 1952 and as grand steward of the Grand Lodge of England in that year. In 1956 he was master of Royal Colonial Institute Lodge No. 3556. He has served on the board for the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys for several years.

181 Carl XIII Carl XIII King of Sweden (see Charles XIII) Carl XIV, John King of Sweden (see Charles XIV) Carl XV, Ludwig Eugen

King of Sweden (see Charles XV) Father Antoine Caries (?-1824) French Catholic priest, an Austrian by birth, who was chaplain of L'Esperance Lodge in Savannah, Georgia. This lodge was composed of French Roman Catholic refugees from the "black uprising" of San Domingo. He first settled in Pennsylvania, but in 1803 moved to Savannah. He was associated with John Paul Jones q.v. in France as well as Benjamin Franklin q.v. French Naval Captain Denis Nicholas Cottineau was buried from his home on Broughton St. in Savannah on Nov. 30, 1808. He returned to France after the Bourbons were restored and died in 1824, just after completing Easter services at the Cathedral of Bordeaux.

James H. Carleton (1814-1873) Major General U.S. Army. Fought in the Aroostook war of 1839 as a lieutenant of the Maine volunteers on the N.E. boundary of the U.S. Later with the 1st U.S. Dragoons and was with Kearny's expedition to the Rocky Mountains in 1846. In the Mexican War he was made captain and then major, serving with General Wool in Mexico and cited in the battle of Buena Vista. After the Mexican War, he engaged in exploration and expeditions against hostile Indians. In one expedition against the Utes and Apaches, Kit Carson q.v. was his guide. He led the "California Column" in the Civil War across the Yuma and Gila deserts to Mesilla, on the Rio Grande, and in April, 1862 was ordered to relieve General Canby q.v. as commander of the department of New Mexico, where he remained for several years. Advanced to brigadiergeneral in 1865 and major general in U.S. forces. He was raised in Montezuma Lodge No. 109 in New Mexico, chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and is later thought to have belonged to San Diego Lodge No. 35, San Diego, Calif.

Will Carleton (1845-1912) American poet. b. Oct. 21, 1845 at Hudson, Mich. In newspaper work at Hillsdale, Mich., Detroit, Chicago, Boston and New York and became editor of Everywhere, a monthly published in Brooklyn. Lecturer and reader of his own works in U.S. and Europe. Author of Farm Ballads, Farm Legends, Farm Festivals, Young Folks' Rhymes, City Ballads, City Legends, City Festivals, Rhymes of Our Planet, The Old Infant and many others. Mason. d. Dec. 18, 1912.

Richard Carlile (1790-1843) Printer and bookseller of London who wrote and published several pretended exposes of Freemasonry, which after his death, were collected in one volume under the title of A Manual of Freemasonry (in three parts). An atheist and freethinker, he was inprisoned for the publication of Paine's Age of Reason and Palmer's Light of Nature. His Masonic works are interspersed with considerable learning, and are not as abusive of the craft as most expositions generally are.

Carlini English sculptor. Early member of the Lodge of Nine Muses No. 325 in London, and one of the four members of this lodge to be original members of the Royal Academy at its foundation in 1768.

Evans F. Carlson (1896-1947) Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. Feb. 26, 1896 at Sidney, N.Y. Entered army in 1912 and served in Philippines, Hawaii, Mexican border, France and Germany and was member of Pershing's staff. Entered Marine Corps in 1922 and served in West Indies, Nicaragua, and observer with Chinese armies. He joined Chinese guerrilla forces in penetrations behind Japanese lines. Resigned from Marine Corps to lecture and write in 1939 but reentered in 1941 as commander of 2nd Marine Raider Bn. which became known as "Carlson's Raiders," advancing from colonel to brigadier general. Retired in 1946 as result of wounds. d. May 27, 1957. Mason, member of Scottish Rite.

Frank Carlson Former Governor and U.S. Senator from Kansas. b. Jan. 23, 1893 at Concordia, Kansas. Farmer and stockman since 1914; member of Kansas state legislature, 1929-33 and governor of Kansas, term of 1947. U.S. senator from Kansas, 1951-57. Served as private in army, WW1. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 113, Concordia and 33° AASR (SJ).

George A. Carlson ( 1876 - 1926 ) Governor of Colorado from 1915-17. b. Oct. 23, 1876 at Alta, Iowa. Graduate of Colorado State

Normal and Univ. of Colorado. Admitted to Idaho bar in 1904 and practiced at Lewiston, removing to Colorado in 1905, practicing at Fort Collins. After governorship he resumed practice at Denver. d. Dec. 6, 1926. Mason.

Wilbur G. Carlson Dairy expert b. May 11, 1904 at Madison, Wis. Editor of Pure Milk Products Press in 1931-32; director of Wisconsin Agricultural Authority, 1939-39; executive with Kraft Foods, 1940-49. Technical specialist with Quartermaster Corps in WW2 in France and Germany. Director of livestock products, division of Foreign Agricultural Service, Dept. of Agriculture since 1954. Cofounder of American Dairy Association. Was secretary general of first World Congress for Milk Utilization in 1953. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Doyle E. Carlton Governor of Florida from 1929-33. b. July 6, 1887 at Wauchula, Fla. Graduate of Univ. of Chicago and Columbia Univ. Admitted to Florida bar and began practice at Tampa in 1912. Member of Florida state senate from 1917-19. He received his first degree on April 27, 1909 in St. John's Lodge No. 37, DeLand, Fla., his second degree on July 7, 1911 in Damascus Lodge No. 888, Chicago, and his third in Hillsborough Lodge No. 25, Tampa, on Sept. 29, 1915, affiliating with the latter lodge.

Newcomb Carlton ( 1869 -19 53 ) President (ret.) of Western Union Telephone and Telegraph Co. 191433, chairman of the board 1933-43 and honorary chairman 1943-49. b. Feb. 19, 1869 at Elizabeth, N.J. Graduate of Harvard and Colgate. Began as a mechanical engineer in Buffalo, N.Y. in 1891, becoming vice president of Bell Telephone of Buffalo in 1902 and vice president of Westinghouse Electric in 1904. In 1910 he was made vice president of Western Union. Life trustee of American Academy in Rome, grand officer of Crown of Italy, and holder of French Legion of Honor. Member of Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City. d. March 12, 1953.

Henry, 4th Earl of Carnarvon (Henry Howard Molyneux) (18311890) Undersecretary for the colonies in 1858-59 and colonial secretary, 186667, 1874-78. He presented bill for the federation of North American provinces in 1867, abolished slavery on the African Gold Coast in 1874 and favored federation for South Africa. Resigned in 1878 in opposition to breach of neutrality in Russo-Turkish conflict. As lord lieutenant of Ireland (1885-86), he favored limited self government, and resigned in opposition to Gladstone's home rule bill. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of England in 1870-74, and from 1874-90 served as pro-grand master for H.R.H. Albert Edward, later King Edward VII. The office of pro-grand master must be held by a peer of the realm and is created only when the grand master is a king or prince of royal blood.

Henry, Marquis of Carnarvon (see 2nd Duke of Chandos) James, Marquis of Carnarvon (see 3rd Duke of Chandos) L. J. J. Caron Governor of the Celebes in Dutch East Indies, he was elected grand master of the Netherlands in 1945 succeeding the late General H. van Tongeren. The Chinese government conferred the high distinction of "Brilliant Jade of China" on him. He was a member of the committee sent to Syria by League of Nations when that nation declared its independence. At the German invasion of Holland in 1938, he was grand orator and senior surviving grand officer after liberation. He was head of the first chapter of Royal Arch Masons established in Holland on Feb. 3, 1949 by the Grand Chapter of England. Grand Secretary, Sir Sydney White, of England was present at the consecration of the chapter as were other English notables.

Admiral Carraciola Italian naval officer and Freemason who during the uprising at Naples in 1799 was hanged from the masthead of his own vessel and his body thrown into the sea.

Lord Carrington (Archibald Philip, 5th Earl of Primrose) (18471929). Left Oxford without a degree because he owned race horses. An avid sportsman, he won the Derby three times (1894, 1895, 1905). Was prime minister of Britain (1894-95) following Gladstone. Undersecretary

for home department with charge of Scottish affairs from 1881-83; visited Australia in 1883-84. Foreign secretary under Gladstone 1886, 1892-94, holding to policy of distrust of Russia; firmness with France during Egyptian trouble. Was governor of New South Wales from 18881891 and at the same time served as the first grand master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales, being installed Sept. 18, 1888. Prior to the union he was provincial grand master under English constitution. He was leader of the liberal opposition from 189596.

Frank Carrington Theatrical producer. b. Sept 13, 1901 at Angel Island, Calif. Began acting at the Pasadena Community Playhouse in 1915 and in 1925 he organized his own Shakespeare company. In 1944-45 he was producer for Theatre Guild and the Shuberts. He was the co-founder of The Paper Mill Playhouse, N.J. in 1934 and since that time has directed over 150 plays and musicals. He studied subsidized theatres in England, France and Germany in 1937 and was with the U.S. Navy in WW1. Raised Oct. 24, 1923 in Hope Lodge No. 124, East Orange, N.J.

Charles Carroll, Jr. Son of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Although the family was strong Roman Catholic, Schultz in his History of Freemasonry in Maryland states that Charles, Jr. was a Freemason in a Maryland Lodge. Daniel Carroll q.v., cousin of Charles Carroll of Carrollton was definitely a Mason.

Daniel Carroll (?-1829) Member of the Continental Congress of 178084 and a delegate to the convention that framed the U.S. Constitution. He was also a representative in congress in 1789-91, when in the latter year he was appointed commissioner for surveying the District of Columbia. His farm formed the site of the present city of Washington, D.C. He was a cousin of Charles Carroll, signer of the Declaration of Independence (see Charles Carroll, Jr.). He was raised in Maryland Lodge No. 16, Baltimore, Md. on May 8, 1781. His birth date is not known, but he lived to an advanced age.

Horace Bailey Carroll Historian, editor and college professor. b. April 29, 1903 at Gatesville, Texas. Taught at Texas Technical College, Texas Univ., Texas Wesleyan, Hillsboro College, West Texas State College, Eastern New Mexico College, Texas Agricultural College. Professor of history in Texas Univ. since 1946. Director of Texas State Historical Association since 1946. Editor of Southwestern Historical Quarterly. Associate editor of Panhandle-Plains Historical Review. Editor of several volumes on S.W. American history. Member of Yellowhouse Lodge No. 841, Lubbock, Texas.

Thomas K. Carroll Governor of Maryland in 1829. Joined Somerset Lodge No. 49, Princess Anne, Md. "upon reaching his maturity." Later associated with Washington Lodge No. 3, Baltimore and Concordia Lodge No. 13, Baltimore. Served as deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Maryland.

Arthur J. Carruth, Jr. Journalist and editor. b. July 26, 1887 at Clinton, N.Y. With the Topeka State Journal since 1908. Managing editor in 1914. Columnist, editor and co-publisher from 1933-40. Director of North American Light & Power Co. since 1942. Mason.

Christopher "Kit" Carson (18091868) One of America's most famous plainsmen, Indian scouts, guide, trapper and soldier. b. Dec. 24, 1809 in Madison Co., Ky. While an infant, his parents moved to Howard Co., Mo. which was then a wilderness. At the age of 15 he was apprenticed to a saddler, but ran away after two years (in 1826) to join a party of hunters in Santa Fe, N.M. His employer advertised in the Missouri Intelligencer, offering one cent reward for his return. For eight years he lived the life of a plains trapper and was then appointed hunter for the garrison at Bent's Fort, where he remained eight more years. Carson was closely associated with Charles Bent q.v. and married Josefa Jaramillo, sister of Bent's wife. Next he served as guide for General John C. Fremont q.v., "The Pathfinder," on his first expedition— and later others, including the famous one to California in 1843-44. In

1851 he settled down to ranching, 50 miles east of Taos. In 1853, he drove 6,500 head of sheep over the mountains to Calif.—a hazardous undertaking at that time, and on his return to Taos, was appointed Indian agent. He was perhaps better known among the western Indians than any other white man. He knew their habits, customs; understood their mode of warfare; and spoke their language as a mother tongue. Under this appointment, he was largely instrumental in bringing about the treaties between the Indians and the U.S. At the advent of the Civil War he was made colonel of a New Mexico regiment and later breveted brigadier-general for his achievements. After the war, he returned to his appointment as Indian agent. Unlike most frontiersmen, he was modest almost to the point of bashfulness. He received his degrees in Montezuma Lodge No. 109 (then under Missouri charter): EA March 29, 1854, FC June 17, 1854; MM Dec. 26, 1854. When Bent Lodge No. 204 (named after his friend) was chartered by Missouri in Taos on Dec. 15, 1859, Carson demitted to it on April 30, 1860 and became its first junior warden. However circumstances forced the lodge to surrender its charter in 1864 and in 1865 Carson again affiliated with his mother lodge (Montezuma) and remained a member until his death on May 24, 1868. Carson City, Nev. is named for him, as is Carson Lodge No. 1, Nev. His brother was Moses B. Carson q.v.

Enoch Terry Carson (1822-1899) Masonic scholar. b. Sept. 18, 1822 in Hamilton Co., Ohio. An active worker in all rites and bodies of Freemasonry. Was an active 33° and deputy for Ohio in the AASR. He printed, at his own expense, many important works on Freemasonry, including the first facsimile of the Book of Constitutions of 1723 in 1855. His valuable Masonic library was acquired by General Samuel C. Lawrence of Medford, Mass. q.v. at the close of the last century. General Lawrence bequeathed it to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. Carson was raised in Cynthia Lodge No. 155 in 1846 and served as its master. He was also the founder and first master of Kilwinning Lodge No. 356 in 1865.

Harry R. Carson (1869-1948) Bishop of Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Dec. 8, 1869 at Norristown, Pa. Deacon, 1895; priest, 1896; general missionary (La.) 1895-98; chaplain 2nd La. Vol. Inf. of SpanishAmerican War; rector at Franklin and Monroe, La.; archdeacon of

Northern La. 191012; chaplain of Ancon Hospital, Canal Zone 1913-22 and also archdeacon of Panama; bishop of Haiti from Jan. 10, 1923 and also in charge of Dominican Republic from 1928-43. Mason.

Henderson IL Carson Congressman, 78th and 80th Congresses (194345, 1947-49) from 16th Ohio district. b. Oct. 25, 1893 at Cadiz, Ohio. Lawyer. With legal department of Pennsylvania Railroad in 1915. Entered private practice, but retained railroad connection. Specializes in insurance law. Served in field artillery in WW1. Raised Feb. 21, 1928 in Lathrop Lodge No. 676, Canton, Ohio. 32° AASR (NJ) April 6, 1928 at Cleveland and member of Al Koran Shrine Temple and Nazir Grotto.

Ken Carson Radio star. Born at Carman, Canada in 1910. Member of Hollywood Lodge No. 355, Hollywood, Calif.

Moses B. Carson Founded Missouri Fur Company with two other Freemasons—Joshua Pilcher and Joseph Perkins. They were in competition with the American Fur Company headed by brothers Pierre Chouteau, Jr. and Bartholomew Berthold. Moses was a brother of Kit Carson q.v., the famous plainsman. Their father brought them from Kentucky and they settled at Old Franklin in Howard county on the Missouri river. It was here that Moses was initiated, passed and raised in Franklin Union Lodge No. 7 in 1826. He was a member of a military company at Fort Hempsted in 1812.

William L. Carss (1865-1931) Congressman from 8th Minnesota dist. to 66th, 69th and 70th Congresses (1919-21 and 1925-29). b. Feb. 15, 1865 at Pella, Iowa. Mason.

Benjamin E. Carter (1894-1943) Justice, Supreme Court of Arkansas. b. Nov. 1, 1894 at Texarkana, Ark. Graduate of Harvard in

1916. Practiced law in Texarkana from 1922. Named to supreme court in 1943. d. April 11, 1943. Mason.

Edward F. Carter Justice, Supreme Court of Nebraska since 1935. b. March 11, 1897 at Middlebranch, Nebr. Admitted to bar in 1919 and practiced in Bayard, Nebr. until 1927 when he became judge of the 17th district. He served as judge on the 5th Military Tribunal, Nurnberg, Germany, to try major German war criminals in 1947-48. Served in WW1. Raised in Scotts Bluff Lodge No. 201, Gering, Nebr. Feb. 22, 1929 and past master of same. Grand master of Grand Lodge of Nebraska in 1941. Member of Oregon Trail Chapter No. 65, R.A.M., Gering; Lincoln Council No. 4, R. & S.M. and Mt. Moriah Cornmandery No. 4, K.T. of Lincoln; consistory membership at Alliance; 33° AASR (SJ); member of Shrine, Red Cross of Constantine, High Twelve and Eastern Star.

Frank J. Carter Vice president of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. b. Dec. 20, 1900 at Warren, Ark. Started with Goodyear as a trainee in 1922, advancing to vice president in charge of industrial relations in 1956. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Fred A. Carter (1870-1948) President and general manager of American Textile Woolen Co. from 1910. b. Oct. 14, 1870 in Sweetwater, Tenn. Started as a laborer, clerk and bookkeeper and became secretary-treasurer of Sweetwater Woolen Mills in 1892, going to the American Textile Woolen Co. in 1906 in the same position. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. Feb. 17, 1948.

George H. Carter (1874-1948) Public printer of the U.S. from 1921-34. b. Sept. 10, 1874 at Mineral Point, Wis. Degrees from Univ. of Iowa and George Washington Univ. Worked as editor and political writer of several Iowa newspapers from 1890 to 1907 when he went to the Washington (D.C.) Post. He served as secretary of the Printing Investigation Commission in Washington in 1910-11 and as clerk of the

Joint Committee on Printing, U.S. Congress from 191121. Mason, 33° AASR, Knight Templar, Shriner and member of Royal Order of Scotland. d. Oct. 23, 1948.

Jesse F. Carter (1873-1943) Justice, Supreme Court of South Carolina. b. Sept. 12, 1873 at Lodge, S.C. Admitted to bar in 1905 and practiced in Bamberg, S.C. until 1927 when he was elected associate justice of the state supreme court. He was reelected in 1930 and again in 1940. He was a member of the state senate in 192527. Mason. d. Nov. 5, 1943.

Jesse W. Carter Justice, Supreme Court of California. b. Dec. 19, 1888 at Carrville, Calif. Admitted to California bar in 1913 and practiced in San Francisco and then Redding. Appointed to supreme court bench in 1939. Raised in Western Star Lodge No. 2, Shasta, Calif. in 1914, serving as master in 1922 and senior grand steward of the Grand Lodge of California in 1922. 32° AASR (SJ) in Sacramento Consistory; Ben Ali Shrine Temple of Sacramento and honorary life member of Al Malaikah Temple, Los Angeles. Honorary member of DeMolay Legion of Honor.

Joseph H. Carter President of Pittsburgh Steel Co. b. 1893 in Harvey, Ill. Graduate of Rose Polytechnic Institute in 1916. Mason and Shriner.

Thomas J. Carter Commanding officer, U.S. Naval Hospital at Portsmouth since 1953. b. July 3, 1899 at Lawrence, Kans. Served in Navy in WW1. Commissioned in 1927, advancing to captain in 1943. Has served as naval medical officer throughout the world. Raised in Lawrence Lodge No. 6, Lawrence, Kansas in 1926.

Thomas M. Carter Bandmaster. Made a Mason in Newburyport, Mass. Knighted in Boston Commandery in 1889, he took an active part in the musical side of Freemasonry. He is the composer of the Boston Commandery March.

William C. Carter President of Link-Belt Co. 1942-46 and chairman of executive committee since 1946. b. Oct. 10, 1881 at Homer, Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Illinois and started with Link-Belt Co. in 1902 as a draftsman. Raised in Olympia Lodge No. 864, Chicago, Ill. in 1904.

William S. Carter (1859-1923) Labor executive. b. Aug. 11, 1859 at Austin, Texas. Was fireman and engineer on railroads in Texas, Colo. and Mexico from 1889-94, and editor of Locomotive Firemen, and Engineinens magazine until 1903, when he became general secretary and treasurer of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen. He was president of the organization from 1909 until 1918. In 1918 he became director, Division of Labor of U.S. Railroad Administration. In 1920 he was elected president of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Engineers, a position which he held until his death on Mar. 15, 1923. Mason.

Julius Victor Carus (1823-1903) German zoologist and a professor at Leipzig from 1853. He authored a history of zoology and translated most of Darwin's works. The bulletin of the International Masonic Congress lists him as a Freemason.

Ugo Carusi Former U.S. Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization (1945-47) and chairman of Displaced Persons Commission since 1948. b. Mar. 17, 1902 in Carrara, Italy and brought to the U.S. in 1902. Was secretary and assistant to U.S. attorney general from 1925-30. Was official delegate of U.S. at first international congress on criminology in Rome, 1938. Raised in Justice Lodge No. 46, Washington, D.C. on May 31, 1927. 32° AASR (SJ) in Washington,

D.C. and presently guardian of the temple in Evangelist Chapter of Rose Croix. Member of Almas Shrine Temple, Washington.

Elbert N. Carvel Governor of Delaware, 1949-53. b. Feb. 9, 1910 at Shelter Island Heights, N.Y. Graduated from Univ. of Baltimore in 1931.

President of Valliant Fertilizer Co. of Laurel, Del. since 1945. Lieutenant governor of Delaware from 1945-49. Raised in Hope Lodge No. 4, Laurel, Del. in 1946 and junior steward of his lodge in 1957. 32° AASR (NJ); Nur Shrine Temple; Evergreen Forest, Tall Cedars and National Sojourners.

Edgar M. Carver Vice President of Dodge Mfg. Company. b. Oct. 22, 1886 at Morton, Ind. B.S. and M.E. degrees from Purdue. Employed by the Dodge company since 1909, beginning as a draftsman. Was general superintendent from 1927 and now vice president and director. Served in WW1 with Army Ordnance. Raised in Tippicanoe Lodge No. 492, Lafayette, Ind. about 1907.

Glover H. Cary (1885-1936) Congressman from Kentucky to 72nd and 74th Congresses (1931-33 and 1935-37) and 73rd Congress (1933-35). b. May 1, 1885 at Calhoun, Ky. Admitted to Kentucky bar in 1909 and began practice in Owensboro. Mason. d. Dec. 5, 1936.

John Proby, 1st Lord Carysfort Grand master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) from 1752 to 1754.

Thomas Casady Bishop, Protestant Episcopal church. b. June 6, 1881 at Des Moines, Iowa. Graduate of Univ. of Iowa in 1902. Deacon,

1906; priest, 1907. Served as rector in Oelwein and Des Moines, Iowa, Pueblo, Colo. and Omaha, Nebr. Elected bishop of Oklahoma on June 2, 1927, and consecrated Oct. 2, 1927. Elected president of the Province of the Southwest in 1944. Mason.

Peter Casanave Master of Georgetown Lodge No. 9 of Maryland (now Potomac No. 5 of D.C.) who laid the cornerstone of the White House on Oct. 17, 1792. Like James Hoban q.v. the architect, Casanave was a devout Romanist. At the time of the cornerstone laying, Casanave was probably a young man in his mid-twenties. A copy of his will dated April 14, 1856 and probated March 31, 1860, is in the archives of Potomac Lodge. Casanave gave "an oration well adapted to the occasion" at the laying of the stone.

Casanova, or Casanova de Seingalt (1725-1798) Born Giovanni Jacopo in Venice, Italy, of family of actors. He was educated for the priesthood and showed brilliance of mind and wit, but was expelled for scandalous conduct from Seminary of St. Cyprian in 1741. He then became secretary in the household of Cardinal Aquaviva, followed by a spell in the Venetian army at Corfu. He was by turn a preacher, abbe, alchemist, cabalist, gambler, and violin player. For 20 years he roamed Europe, alternately in fortune and distress. Skeptic and sensualist, he was involved in one intrigue after another. He was imprisoned as a spy in Venice in 1755. As director of the state lotteries in Paris, he accumulated a fortune. He was an agent of Louis XV. He made acquaintance with the great of his day, including the pope (who bestowed him with the papal order of the Golden Spur). He was alternately forced to flee Russia, France, Spain and Italy. He is best known for his Memoirs, which although a cynical record of his rogueries and amours, is of great historical importance. He was thought to have entered Freemasonry in Lyons in 1750. The Craft must have had a mighty appeal to this wild adventurer without morals, for scattered through his Memoirs are numerous references to Freemasonry. He advised all young men, well-born, who wished to become of value in society to become Freemasons "even though it would only be to know superficially what it is." He defended the fraternity with unmeasured scornfrom those who thought it political, anarchistic or subversive. He asked young men to "choose well the Lodge, for although bad company

cannot work in the Lodge, it may however be found there and the candidate ought to guard himself against dangerous associations." What is really remarkable, however, is his reverent appreciation of the inner content of the art. He asserted that the real secrets of the fraternity were not in its symbols or words, but were to be found only in reflection, reason, comparison and deduction. He averred that the secret of Freemasonry, discovered by the individual, cannot be imparted to another.

Clarence E. Case Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Jersey. b. Sept. 24, 1877 at Jersey City, N.J. Admitted to N.J. bar in 1903. Judge of county court, secretary to president of N.J. senate, member of senate from 191829; acting governor of New Jersey in 1920. Justice of N.J. supreme court, 1929-46 and chief justice from 194548 when court was terminated. Was senior associate justice on the new court from 1948. Mason.

Francis H. Case U.S. Senator from South Dakota. b. Dec. 9, 1896 at Everly, Iowa. Graduate of Dakota Wesleyan, and Northwestern Universities. Was assistant editor of the Epwcrrth Herald, Chicago in 1920-22 and afterward editor of Rapid City (S.D.) Daily Journal, Hot Springs (S.D.) Star, Custer (S.D.) Chronicle. He was Congressman from 2nd S.D. dist. to 75th to 81st Congresses (1937-51), and U.S. Senator from South Dakota since 1951. Served in Marine Corps, WW1, as a private and later a major in Marine Corps Reserve. Member of Custer City Lodge No. 66, Custer, S. Dak.; Black Hills Chapter No. 25, R.A.M.; Black Hills Council No. 3, R. & S.M.; Schrader Commandery No. 9, K.T. all of Rapid City, S. Dak. Was member of Acacia fraternity at Northwestern Univ.

Norman S. Case Governor of Rhode Island, three terms (192833). b. Oct. 11, 1888 at Providence, R.I. Graduate of Brown, Harvard and Boston Universities. Admitted to bar in 1911. Was lieutenant governor of Rhode Island in 1927-28. Member of Federal Communications Commission 1934-45 and now senior member of law firm of Case & Wozencraft, Washington, D.C. Served as an officer in

Mexican border campaign and overseas in WW1 with a machine gun battalion and later with General Staff, A.E.F. Raised in Corinthian Lodge No. 27, Providence, R.I. on May 8, 1817 and a past master of his lodge. Member of Tall Cedars of Lebanon.

Robert 0. Case Author of western books. b. Oct. 8, 1895 at Dallas, Texas. Graduate of Univ. of Oregon. After serving as reporter and financial editor of the Morning Oregonian, Portland, he began as a professional writer in 1924. Among his many books are: Just Buckaroo Riders of the Grande Ronde, The Yukon Drive, A Pair O'Mavericks, Dynamite Smith—Cowboy, Whispering Valley, The Loop, Big Timber, Wings, North, Golden Portage, West of Barter River and The Empire Builders. Contributor of fiction to Saturday Evening Post and Colliers. Mason.

Charles C. Casey ( 1881 -1 946 ) President of Western State College of Colorado from 1930. b. Dec. 5, 1881. Was principal of high school and supt. of schools in Longmont,- Colo. from 1909-30. Mason, 32° AASR. d. July 31, 1946.

John E. Caskey Vice president of U.S. Rubber Company. b. Feb. 29, 1892 in Fairmont, Ind. Graduate of Ohio State Univ. in 1915. Has been with U.S. Rubber since graduation from college, becoming vice presidentin 1953 and general manager of the Naugatuck (Conn.) chemical division. Raised in Shepherd Lodge No. 478 at Naugatuck, Conn. in 1924 and served as master of same. Member of Allerton Chapter No. 39, R.A.M. Naugatuck.

Marion M. Caskie Vice President of Reynolds Metals Company. b. July 29, 1890 at Remington, Va. First an accountant for Southern Railroad, he engaged in practice before Interstate Commerce Commission and came to Reynolds Metals as traffic executive in 1930. He has been executive vice president and director of Reynolds Metals since 1940. Mason.

Albin R. Caspar Vice President of Great Northern Paper Company. b. July 20, 1896 at Lisbon Falls, Me. With Great Northern since 1919, successively as pulp mill foreman, assistant superintendent of paper and pulp mill, assistant manager of manufacturing and vice president and manager of sales. Mason. Served in Navy in WW1.

Lewis Cass (1782-1866) General, Governor of Michigan, Secretary of War, Minister to France, U.S. Senator, Secretary of State and candidate for president. b. Oct. 9, 1782 at Exeter,N.H., he practiced law at Zanesville, Ohio in 1802. He was made a Mason in old American Union Lodge No. 1 at Marietta, Ohio (EA Dec. 5, 1803, FC April 2, 1804, MM May 7, 1804). He was admitted a member of Amity Lodge No. 5, Zanesville June 24, 1805. After a term in congress he was named U.S. marshal of Ohio (1807-13). An early volunteer in the War of 1812 he became a brigadier general. Following the defeat of the British in the Battle of the Thames, he was given command of the garrison at Detroit and in 1813 appointed civil governor of the territory of Michigan—a position he held for nearly 18 years. During this time his constructive administration opened up the territory. Traveling 5,000 miles by canoe, he negotiated more than 20 treaties with the Indians. In 1831-36 he was secretary of war in Jackson's cabinet. In 1836-42 he was U.S. minister to France, and returned home to run for president, but a deadlock with Van Buren resulted in election of Polk. Michigan sent him to the U.S. senate from 1845-57. He again ran for president against Zach- ary, Taylor and was defeated. Bu- chanan appointed him secretary of state in 1857, but when he found himself to be a mere figurehead, he resigned in 1860 and retired to his home in Detroit. Cass received the four degrees of the chapter in American Union Royal Arch Chapter on the same day—Aug. 17, 1804. He later became the first high priest of Monroe Chapter No. 1, Detroit on Feb. 7, 1821. He helped organize the Grand Lodge of Ohio and was its grand master from 1810-13. Upon moving to Detroit, he affiliated with Zion Lodge No. 1 and was the first grand master of Michigan in 1826. Was the first high priest of Monroe chapter under charter. d. June 17, 1866.

Andres Cassard Masonic writer, member of La Fraternidad Lodge No. 387, New York City. Senior grand deacon of Grand Lodge of New York in 1859 and 33° AASR.

Archibald, 15th Earl of Cassillis (see Marquess of Ailsa) John, 7th Earl of Cassius Prominent figure in the Revolution of 1688. He was deacon, or head, of the Lodge Kilwinning in 1672.

Stephen Cassin (1783-1857) U.S. naval officer. b. Feb. 16, 1783 in Philadelphia, Pa. and entered the navy as a midshipman in 1800. Advanced through lieutenant (1807), master(1814) and captain (1825). Both he and his father (another naval officer) served in the War of 1812. Stephen served with distinction in the war with Tripoli and commanded the Ticonderoga in Macdonough's victory on Lake Champlain. For this he was awarded a gold medal by congress. He was a terror to the pirates that infested the West Indies, and captured four of their vessels in Sept., 1822. He was a member of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City. d. Aug. 29, 1857.

Emilio Castelar (y Ripoll) (18321899) Spanish statesman, orator and writer. Was professor of history in Madrid 1856-65, exiled to France in 1866, returning to teach again from 1868-75. As a deputy to the Cortes in 1869 he advocated the republic and separation of church and state. After the proclamation of the republic in 1873 he was minister of foreign affairs and prime minister 1873-74 and deputy 1876-93. The bulletin of the International Masonic Congress (1917) lists him as a Freemason.

Juan Jose Castelli (1764-1812) Argentine patriot, lawyer and politician of indomitable courage. He was a member of the Lautaro Lodge and took an active part in the struggle for independence. He was a member of the first governing "junta.”

Francisco Pio Pacheco Castilla (1826-1896) Roman Catholic priest of Costa Rica who was a member of Esperanza Lodge No. 2 and Maraville Lodge No. 12. b. July 9, 1826, he was ordained priest in 1849. In 1851 he was in Guatemala at the consecration of Monsignor Llorente and returned with him to Costa Rica. In 1874 he was a deputy to the constitutional congress. Served as orator and junior warden of his lodge. d. Aug. 20, 1896.

Alejandro Aguilar Castillo Costa Rican patriot. Deputy to constitutional congress in 1874. Spoke against the Jesuits in 1875 and aided in their expulsion from Costa Rica. A charter member of Esperanza Lodge No. 2, he founded Maraville Lodge No. 12 and Lodge No. 19 in San Jose. Was officer of Supreme Council AASR.

William J. Castle (1836-1909) Operatic tenor. b. Dec. 22, 1836 in England. Studied music in New York, London and Milan and was leading tenor of English opera for 30 years. Made debut as concert singer in New York, 1861 and in opera in 1864. Sang in Europe 1872-74 and retired from stage in 1891. Later he became vocal director of the Chicago Musical College. He was raised in St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York City on Jan. 20, 1867. d. in 1909.

Jose Antonio Pinto Castro Governor of San Juan, Costa Rica, secretary of state and president of the supreme court at his death. He prohibited the Jesuits from entering the country. He belonged to Lodge Caridad No. 26 and was master of No. 3.

Dr. Jose Maria Castro (1818-1892) President of the Republic of Costa Rica in 1847-49 and again 1866-68. He was founder and rector of Santo Tomas University and was one of the founders of the Scottish Rite of Central America and its first grand chancellor.

Julian Castro Venezuelan General and tenth President of the Republic of Venezuela (1858-1860). He was 18°, AASR.

Tobias Zuniga Castro Diplomat and former Secretary of State of Costa Rica. Was candidate for president, deputy to constitutional congress and president of the charity board of San Jose. Member of Union Fraternal Lodge No. 19.

Richard Caswell (1729-1789) General of American Revolution, Governor of North Carolina and member of Continental Congress. b. Aug. 3, 1729 in Maryland, he moved to North Carolina in 1746. Became a colonel early in the Revolution and was in command at battle of Moore's Creek where he defeated a large body of Loyalists. Delegate to congress in 1774-75 and again in 1787-89 when the Federal constitution was framed and ratified. He was president of the provincial congress which framed the state constitution in Nov. 1776 and governor of the state in 1777-79 and again in 1784-86. In 1780 he led state troops in the disastrous battle of Camden. Where he was initiated is unknown, but he was "healed" Dec. 28, 1772 in St. John's Lodge No. 3, New Bern, N.C. He was elected deputy grand master of North Carolina Dec. 11, 1787 and grand master Nov. 18, 1788. d. Nov. 20, 1789.

Thomas H. Caswell (1825-1900) 11th Grand Commander, Southern Supreme Council AASR (1894-1900). b. Aug. 10, 1825 at Exeter, N.Y. He served as grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of California, R.A.M. and was grand secretary of the same —also grand lecturer for 37 years. He was grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of Calif. and served as recorder of that state body for 20 years. He was also grand recorder of the Grand Council of Calif. He was initiated in Lafayette Lodge U.D. at Nevada City, Calif. on Dec. 10, 1850 and received his other degrees in Nevada Lodge No. 13, Nevada City in May 1851. Received his 32° AASR at San Francisco on Oct. 17, 1867, 33° July 9, 1868 and crowned active member of Supreme Council May 3, 1870. d. Nov. 13, 1900.

Louis S. Cates Mining executive. b. Dec. 20, 1881 at Boston, Mass. Graduate of M.I.T. in 1902. Began as mine operator in Mexico; in charge of construction at Bingham Canyon, Utah for Boston Consolidated Mining 190408 and was general manager in 1909. With Utah Copper Co. 1919-30, first as assistant general manager, general manager and vice president; president of Phelps Dodge Corp., 1930-47 and chairman of board since 1947. Developed system making it economically possible by underground methods, to mine low grade ores. Member of Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City and past master of Canyon Lodge No. 13 Brigham City, Utah. 32° AASR (SJ) at Salt Lake City, Utah and El Kalah Shrine Temple, same city.

Catherine I, Czarina of Russia (1684?-1727) She was of Livonian peasant origin, taken prisoner in 1702 and made a serf of Prince Menshikov. She attracted the attention of Peter I (The Great) q.v. who established the first Masonic lodge in Russia. First she was his mistress and advisor. Later married him and succeeded him as empress in 1725-27. Shortly after their marriage in 1712 she obtained permission from Peter to found the Order of St. Catherine, an order of knighthood for women only of which she was grand mistress. It was a quasiMasonic body.

Catherine II (The Great) Empress of Russia (1729-1796) In 1762 she issued an edict against all Masonic meetings in her dominions, but subsequently learned the true character of the institution, and not only revoked her order, but invited the Freemasons to reestablish their lodges and constitute new ones. She reigned from 1762-96, and was followed by her son Paul I q.v., who during the early part of his reign was a Freemason, but later fell under the influence of the Jesuits and Knights of Malta and banned Freemasonry.

John D. Caton (1812-?) Chief Justice, Illinois Supreme Court. b. March 19, 1812 in Monroe, N.Y. Set up law office in Chicago, Ill. 1833. He became judge of Illinois supreme court in 1842 and chief justice in 1855. He resigned in 1864, having acquired wealth in business. He traveled widely through Europe, China and Japan, and wrote

extensively on his travels and nature subjects. A member of Occidental Lodge No. 40, Ottawa, Ill., he was master in 1846, 1851 and 1852.

John Catron (1778-1865) Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court (183765). b. in Wythe Co., Va. Studied law and served in the New Orleans campaign under Jackson in War of 1812. Returned to Nashville, Tenn. to practice, and in 1824 was chosen one of the judges of the state bench and was its chief justice from 1830-36, when he retired. While on the bench, he did his utmost to suppress the practice of duelling, although he had been a noted duelist himself. He was a member of Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, Tenn.

Thomas B. Catron (?-1921) U.S. Senator from New Mexico, 1912-17. b. in Lafayette Co., Mo. he received A.B. and A.M. from Univ. of Missouri. Began practice of law in New Mexico in 1867. Member of N. Mex. legislature for several terms and attorney general from 1869-72. He was U.S. attorney, dist. of N. Mex. 1872-79 and a delegate from his state to U.S. Congress in 1895-96. He was the first senior warden of the Santa Fe Lodge of Perfection (AASR).

Roscoe A. Cattell Chief of petroleum and natural gas division of Bureau of Mines since 1933. b. Jan. 6, 1892 at New Sharon, Ia. Graduate of Univ. of Calif. 1916. Employed by oil companies in Calif., Okla., England and Algeria from 1916-20 and with Bureau of Mines since 1921. From 1925-33 he was chief of helium division, in charge of research, construction and operation of plants which produce the world's supply of helium gas. Member of Bartlesville Lodge No. 284, Bartlesville, Okla. since 1924.

Henry S. Caulfield Governor of Missouri 1929-33. b. Dec. 9, 1873 at St. Louis, Mo. Graduate of Washington Univ. 1895. Began law practice in St. Louis in 1895. Member of the 60th Congress from 11th district (1907-09) and judge of St. Louis court of appeals 1910-12. Raised May 9, 1922 in Tuscan Lodge No. 360, St. Louis, Mo.

Peter F. Causey Former Governor of Delaware. Member of Temple Lodge No. 9 at Milford and at one time was junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Delaware.

Anthony Cavalcante U.S. Congressman, 81st Congress (194951) from 23rd Pa. district. b. Feb. 6, 1897 at Vanderbilt, Pa. Graduate of Dickinson College and admitted to bar in 1924. Member of Pennsylvania state senate, 1935-43. Chief counsel for United Mine Workers of America, Dist. 4. Served overseas with 110th Inf., 28th Div. in WW1. Mason. Member of Order of Sons of Italy.

Peter A. Cavicchia U.S. Congressman 72nd-74th Congresses (1931-37) from New Jersey. b. May 22, 1879 in Italy and brought to U.S. at age of nine. Graduate of American International Coll. Began law practice at Newark, N.J. Mason. Past grand master of N.J. for Order Sons of Italy.

Duque de Caxias (Luiz Alves de Lima e Silva) (1803-1880) Brazilian general and statesman. b. in Rio de Janeiro. He was commander in chief of the Brazilian army in war against Argentina in 1851-52 and as marshal in 1862 commanded forces in successful war against Paraguay. Made dukeby Dom Pedro I and was prime minister in 1850, 1856-57, 1861-62 and 1875-78. Mason.

Roland B. Caywood (1890-1952) President of H. D. Lee Co., wholesale grocers. b. Aug. 24, 1890 at New Hartford, Iowa. Was with H. D. Lee Company, Kansas City, Mo. from 1910; vice president and general manager from 1935. Mason. d. Jan. 7, 1952.

Elford A. Cederberg U.S. Congressman 83rd and 84th Congresses from 10th Michigan dist. b. March 6, 1918 at Bay City, Mich. Manager of Nelson Mfg. Co., Bay City, 194652. Mayor of Bay City 1949-53. Served in WW2 as Infantry major and was in Normandy invasion. Mason.

Charles F. Cellarius Architect. b. July 28, 1891 at Dayton, Ohio. Graduate of Yale and M.I.T. An architect since 1921. At Berea College, Ky. he designed the library, Draper, and Art buildings; dormitories at Miami Univ.; Norwood, Ohio Masonic Temple; Eastern Hills Y.M.C.A. and Bond Hill school at Cincinnati; and was supervising architect for model town of Mariemont, Ohio. Served as Infantry lieutenant in WW1. Raised in Norwood Lodge No. 576, Norwood, Ohio, about 1916 and also member of Trinity Commandery No. 193, K.T. of that city. 32° AASR (NJ) at Cincinnati and member of Syrian Shrine Temple, Cincinnati.

Miguel Juarez Celman (1844-1902) President of the Argentine Republic from 1886-90. A "get-rich-quick" fever, accompanied with unrestrained speculation on the stock market and corrupt public administration led to an unsuccessful revolt in 1890. It was led by L. N. Alem (who became grand master). In spite of the failure of the revolt, Celman was forced to resign. He was succeeded in office by Pellegrini q.v. another Mason.

Anton J. Cermak (1873-1933) Mayor of Chicago, Ill. 1931-33. b. May 9, 1873 in Prague, Bohemia and came to U.S. with parents in 1874. Engaged in coal mining in Illinois until 1892 and in coal and wood business in Chicago until 1908. Organized partnership of Cermak & Serhant, real estate in 1908. Member of the 43rd to 46th general assemblies of Illinois. He was fatally wounded on Feb. 15, 1933 in Miami, Fla. by a bullet intended for President F. D. Roosevelt and died March 6. He was a member of Lawndale Lodge No. 995, Chicago, Columbia Commandery, K.T., Chicago, the Shrine and Grotto.

Joseph Cerneau French jeweler who founded spurious rite in competition with Scottish Rite, known as "Cerneauism." b. in Villeblevin, Yonne, a department of central France. He was probably a member of a French lodge, but migrated to the West Indies and became a member of Lodge Reunion des Coeurs at Port-au-Prince, Santo Domingo and in 1802 was junior grand warden of the provincial grand lodge for the Island of St. Domingo. In 1804 the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted dispensation for a new lodge in Havana, Cuba named Le Temple des Vertus Theologalis No. 103. Joseph Cerneau was its first master. In 1807 his lodge in Cuba expelled him and on petition to the governor of Cuba, he was expelled from the island, coming to New York City about 1807 where he was proposed in Washington Lodge No. 21 on Jan. 2, 1810 and elected Jan. 16, 1810. His son, Augustus T. Cerneau joined the same lodge by affiliation Jan. 20, 1824. In New York he founded his spurious Sovereign Grand Consistory of Supreme Chiefs of Exalted Masonry, According to the Ancient Constitutional Scottish Rite of Heredom in 1807 and it continued until 1827. In 1823 it was presided over by none other than De Witt Clinton, governor of New York and grand master of the grand lodge. He also established a separate degree called Aaron's Band which worked as a separate body, but in 1825 the grand chapter, R.A.M. stopped it as an infringement on its degrees. Cerneau was also a member of the York Rite and in April, 1814 he is recorded as having visited Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, N.Y.C. and acted as senior warden. The New York Grand Encampment Constitution of 1820 lists him as a past officer of the Grand Encampment of New York. His rite spread to Puerto Rico and other states. He subsequently fell into disrepute and he left for France in December, 1827, where he died between the years 1840 and 1845 in comparative poverty.

Cenon S. Cervantes Philippine patriot and past grand master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippines (1951). b. March 29, 1903 at Davao City. During WW2 he received worldwide attention by concealing $1,720,000 in Philippine and American funds during the Japanese occupation and returning it to the reorganized government after liberation. He also served as an under-cover man for Col. Macario Peralta in Panay, risking his life on a number of occasions in the transmission of reports on enemy movements. He was made a Freemason in Pangasian Lodge No. 56 in 1933. He has been a bank

manager for many years and is technical assistant to the president of the Philippine National Bank.

S. F. Chadwick Former Governor of Oregon. Past master of Laurel Lodge No. 13, Roseburg, Oregon.

Chaillou (de Joinville) Prominent French Freemason of the middle 18th century. Played a large part in the schisms that developed in that period. He was an active member of the Council of Emperors of the East and West, or Rite of Perfection, and signed the patent of Stephen Morin q.v., authorizing him to extend the order in America, which was the first step that subsequently led to the establishment of the Scottish Rite in the United States. In 1762 the Prince of Clermont, grand master of the Grand Lodge of France removed Locorne as his substitute general and put de Joinville in his place. This action created a schism in the grand lodge, but de Joinville eventually became as notorious as his predecessor by issuing irregular charters and deputations. On the death of Clermont in 1771, de Joinville, himself, seems to disappear from the field of French Freemasonry and Masonic intrigues.

Thomas Chalmers Scottish theologian and philosopher. Initiated in Lodge St. Vigean No. 101, Arbroath, Scotland April 26, 1800.

Frank Chamberlain ( 1 826-1910 ) Brigadier General of U.S. Army. b. Dec. 1826 at Romulus, N.Y. Studied law under Gov. William H. Seward, but did not enter the profession. Engaged in grain and milling business in Seneca Falls and Albany, N.Y. In Civil War he was Commissary General. Mason. d. 1910.

George E. Chamberlain (1854-1928) U.S. Senator and Governor of Oregon. b. Jan. 1, 1854 at Natchez, Miss. Graduate of Washington

and Lee Univ., 1876. Went to Oregon in 1879, serving in the house of representatives, district attorney, attorney general and elected governor (11th) for terms 1903-11, but resigned in 1909 on election as U.S. Senator for term 190915 and reelected from 1915-21. Member of U.S. Shipping Board, 1921-23. Past master of St. John's Lodge No. 62, Albany, Oreg. and representative of Grand Lodge of England near Oregon. d. July 9, 1928. Was grand highpriest, Royal Arch Masons of Oregon in 1892.

Joshua L. Chamberlain (1828-1914) Major General, Union forces, Civil War and Governor of Maine. b. Sept. 8, 1828 at Brewer, Me. Awarded Congressional Medal of Honor for "Daring heroism, holding position Little Round Top and carrying Great Round Top in Battle of Gettysburg on July 3, 1863. Three times wounded. Governor of Maine from 1866 to 1871. Was professor of rhetoric, oratory and modern languages of Bowdoin College and president of that institution from 1871-83. Member of United Lodge No. 8, Brunswick, Maine. d. Feb. 24, 1914.

Richard H. Chambers Federal Judge. b. Nov. 7, 1906 at Danville, Ill. Admitted to Arizona bar in 1932 and practiced at Tucson. Judge of circuit court of appeals 9th circuit from 1954. Served as major in USAAF, 1942-45. Mason.

Alexander W. Chambliss (18641947) Chief Justice Supreme Court of Tennessee. b. Sept. 10, 1864 at Greenville, S.C. Admitted to Virginia bar in 1884 and began practice at Chattanooga, Tenn. in 1866. Vice president of Provident Life & Accident Ins. Co.; member of Tenn. state senate, mayor of Chattanooga and judge of state court of civil appeals. Apointed justice of state supreme court in 1923, elected to same in 1924 and chief justice from 1947. Mason. d. Sept. 30, 1947.

Sebastian Roch Nicholas Chamfort (1741-1794) French writer, scholar and wit. At outbreak of Revolution he joined the Jacobins and

took part in the storming of the Bastille. He bitterly attacked the National Convention and mortally wounded himself when about to be arrested by order of that body. He is best known for his Maximes, published posthumously, but was also the author of comedies, literary criticisms, letters and verse. The bulletin of the International Masonic Congress of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.

Adelbert von Chamisso (1781-1838) German romantic writer and naturalist. Born in Champagne, France but his family was forced to flee by the Revolution. Served in Prussian army from 1798 to 1807. In 1815-18 he made a scientific voyage around the world. He was curator of the Berlin botanical gardens in 1818. He wrote much, but is best known by the prose tale, Peter Schlemihls Wunderbare Geschichie (1814), the humorous story of a man who sold his shadow. The International Masonic Congress bulletin of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.

John W. Champlin ( 1831 - 190 1 ) Judge, Supreme Court of Michigan from 1884-91. b. Feb. 17, 1831 at Kingston, N.Y. Moved to Grand Rapids, Mich. in 1854 and admitted to bar following year. Mayor of Grand Rapids in 1867. Professor of law at Univ. of Michigan from 1892-96. Served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of Michigan. d. 1901.

Albert B. "Happy" Chandler Governor of Kentucky and former baseball commissioner. b. July 14, 1898 at Corydon, Ky. Graduate of Transylvania College and Univ. of Kentucky. Began practice of law at Versailles, Ky. in 1924. Served in state senate and as lieutenant governor, being elected governor 1935-39, but resigned in 1939 when appointed U.S. Senator to fill vacancy of Logan. He was reelected in 1940 and again in 1942. In 1945 he was elected high commissioner of baseball and served until 1951. Member of Landmark Lodge No. 41, Versailles, Ky. being raised Feb. 4, 1924. He is also an honorary member of Monitor Lodge No. 528, New York City. Also a member of Webb Chapter No. 6 (Sept. 14, 1931) arid Versailles Commandery No. 3, K.T. (Nov. 19, 1931) both of Versailles, Ky.; 32° AASR (SJ) in Valley

of Louisville as well as Oleka Shrine Temple in Lexington. Member of board of state Shrine Hospital.

Bert D. Chandler (1874-1947) Justice, Supreme Court of Michigan. b. March 19, 1874 in Lenawee Co., Mich. Admitted to Michigan bar in 1895. Was circuit judge in 1914 and elected associate justice, Michigan supreme court in 1936. Mason. d. Dec. 13, 1947.

Harry Chandler (1864-1944) Publisher of Los Angeles Times and real estate speculator. b. May 17, 1864 at Landaff, N.H. Began as clerk in circulation dept. of Los Angeles Times and became chairman of the board of Times-Mirror Co. In 1899 organized syndicate that purchased 862,000 acres in Lower Calif. and president of Calif.-Mexico Land & Cattle Co. In 1909 he purchased 47,000 acres of land adjoining Los Angeles and sold entire area for homes in seven years. In 1912 he organized a syndicate that purchased the Tejon Ranch of 281,000 acres in Los Angeles and Kern counties, and in 1927 he helped organize the Vermejo Club and purchased the Bartlett ranch in Colorado, famous for its 340,000 acres as a sportsman's paradise. Mason, 33° AASR and Shriner. d. Sept. 23, 1944.

John Chandler (1760-1841) U.S. Senator from Maine (1820-29) and Brigadier General in War of 1812. b. in Epping, N. Hamp. He was a blacksmith who gained much wealth. Member of Congress from 180508. In War of 1812 he was wounded and made prisoner at battle of Stoney Creek, Upper Canada. He was collector of Portland, 1829-37, trustee of Bowdoin college and sheriff of Kennebec Co. His lodge membership is not known, but he attended a session of the Grand Lodge of Maine in 1820. d. Sept. 25, 1841.

Joseph R. Chandler ( 1792 -1880 ) Journalist and member of U.S. Congress (1848-55). b. Aug. 25, 1792 in Kingston, Mass. Moved to Philadelphia, Pa. in 1815 where he and his wife opened a private school. In 1822 he took over the United States Gazette, and developed

it into a prominent Whig journal. r Buchanan appointed him U.S. Minister to Sicily in 1858. Raised in Columbia Lodge, Boston, Mass., on Oct. 28, 1813 and later became member of Phoenix Lodge No. 130, Philadelphia and Columbia Mark Lodge of same city. He served as high priest of Harmony Chapter No. 52, Philadelphia, and served as grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania five years (1836-40). He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania two terms, 1841-42.

Paul G. Chandler President of Clarion (Pa.) State Teachers College since 1937. b. Nov. 7, 1889 at Princeton, Ky. Graduate of Kentucky Wesleyan and Columbia. Began as a rural teacher in 1908. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Stephen S. Chandler U.S. Judge, western district of Oklahoma since 1943. b. Sept. 13, 1899 at Blount Co., Tenn. Graduate Univ. of Kansas 1922. Practiced law in Oklahoma City 192243. Mason, Shriner.

Zachariah Chandler ( 1813-1 879) U.S. Senator from Michigan and Secretary of Interior under Grant. b. Dec. 10, 1813 in Bedford, N.H. Moved to Detroit, Mich. in 1833, where he engaged in dry goods business and became mayor of Detroit in 1851. Elected to U.S. Senate in 1857 to succeed General Lewis Cass q.v., serving until 1875 and again in 1879. He was outspoken for Republicanism, Lincolnand the Union. Grant named him as secretary of Interior in his second cabinet and he served from 1875-77. He was raised in Detroit Lodge No. 2, Detroit, Mich. on July 7, 1857. d. Nov. 1, 1879.

Henry, 2nd Duke of Chandos As Marquess of Carnarvon, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) in 1738.

James, 3rd Duke of Chandos As Marquis of Carnarvon, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) from March, 1754 to May 1757.

George Channing (1888-?) Editor of Christian Science Journal, Sentinel and Herald since 1949. First reader, mother church, Boston, Mass., 194142. b. Nov. 21, 1888 at Providence, R.I. Studied at Brown, Yale and Boston Univ. Began journalistic work on Providence (R.I.) Journal 1913. Was city editor of Seattle Star, 1921-23. Mason, 32° AASR. Deceased.

Albert K. Chapman President of Eastman Kodak Co. since 1952. b. May 31, 1890 at Marysville, Ohio. A.B. and A.M. from Ohio State Univ. and Ph.D. from Princeton. With Eastman since 1919 as head of development dept., assistant to vice president, production manager, vice president and assistant general manager. Director of Eastman since 1943. Served in WW1 with Army Ordnance. Mason.

Arthur Chapman Justice, Supreme Court of Maine 1925-42. b. Aug. 6, 1873 at Portland, Me. Admitted to Maine bar in 1900. Was assistant U.S. attorney 1905-16 and U.S. commissioner 1917-25. Justice of supreme judiciary court of Maine 1942-45 and active retired justice since 1946. Mason.

Roy H. Chapman (1885-1952) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Florida. b. July 15, 1885 at Lake Butler, Fla. Graduate of Florida and John B. Stetson Universities. Admitted to bar and began practice in Lake City. On supreme court of Florida and chief justice from 1945. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. d. Aug. 9, 1952.

Virgil M. Chapman U.S. Congressman from Kentucky to 69th, 70th, 72nd, 73rd and 74th to 80th Congresses. b. March 15, 1895 in

Simpson Co., Ky. Graduate of Univ. of Kentucky. Admitted to bar in 1917 and practiced at Irvine, Ky. Mason, York Rite and Scottish Rite as well as Shrine.

Ellwood B. Chappell Justice, Supreme Court of Nebraska since 1943. b. May 4, 1889 at Osmond, Nebr. Graduate of Univ. of Nebraska and admitted to bar in 1916, practicing in Lincoln. Served as municipal judge, district judge. Mason and 32° AASR.

Sidney L. Chappel Brigadier General, U.S. Army Medical Corps. b. July 22, 1886 at Washington, D.C. Received M.D. degree from George Washington Univ. in 1909. Entered Medical Corps as 1st lieutenant in 1913 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1945, retiring in 1946. Raised in Watertown Lodge No. 49, Watertown, N.Y. in 1918 and joined Wm. R. Singleton Lodge No. 30, Washington, D.C.

Charlemange, Charles, King of France (742-814) A number of Masonic writers have claimed him as a "patron of Freemasonry," inasmuch as he encouraged the arts and invited the traveling Freemasons to come to France and construct importing buildings. He ascended the throne in 768, ruling until his death; first as King of the Franks and later as Emperor of the West. His benefaction was obviously to operative masons and not the speculative craft which grew out of it.

Charles XIII, King of Sweden (1748-1818) Second son of Adolphus Frederick and younger brother of Gustavus III. Commanded Swedish fleet against Russia in 1788-90. Last of the Holstein-Gottorp dynasty, his reign lasting from 1809 to 1818. As Duke of Sodermanland, he was made regent after the assassination of Gustavus III (his brother) and again regent on the deposition of Gustavus IV (his nephew). As king, he signed a new constitution restoring limited monarchy. Compelled by peace with Russia in 1809 to give up Finland. During reign, Norway united with Sweden (1814) and much material progress

was made. As duke of Sodermanland (or Sundermania) in 1778, he became grand master of the VII Province. In 1780 King Gustavus III became interested in the fraternity and through his instigation the IX Province of the Rite of Strict Observance was created in Sweden. The Duke of Sodermanland was named as grand master and "Vicarius Salomonis" of the rite in that year. In 1777, becoming dissatisfied with the rite, he ordered all rituals returned and from 1778 to 1780 he personally rewrote and revised them. They can be seen today in his own handwriting. After his ascension to the throne, he instituted the 11th Degree of the Swedish Rite—the Civil Order of Charles XIII, of highly restricted membership (1811). Since his reign, each King of Sweden has been either grand master or "protector" of the Craft in Sweden.

Charles XIV John, King of Sweden and Norway (1764-1855). b. at Pau, France, he entered the army in 1780 and served in the French Revolution. In diplomatic service for Napoleon from 1798-99, he rose from ranks to become one of Napoleon's marshals in 1804. His original name was Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte. He was named Prince of Pontecorvo in 1805. Named Crown Prince of Sweden in 1810 and in 1818 succeeded Charles as King of Sweden and Norway, thereby establishing the Bernadotte line. He allied himself with Czar Alexander of Russia in 1812 and the following year commanded an allied army against Napoleon, aiding in winning the battle of Leipzig. His reign was peaceful and profitable to both kingdoms, although he was criticized at times for ultraconservative views. Since the time of Charles XIII (Bernadotte's predecessor) each King has been Grand Master or "Protector" of Freemasonry. Bernadotte assumed the grandmastership in 1811.

Charles XV, King of Sweden (18261872) King of Sweden and Norway from 1859-72. Son of Oscar I. He instituted legal reforms in 1865, especially of the estates, and promulgated the decree of 1866 by which a two-chamber parliament (one electoral) was established. He was popular in both kingdoms and was a writer, poet and artist of ability. His family name was John Charles Bernadotte. He was grand master of Sweden and a 33° AASR.

Charles Martel (689?-741) Grandfather of Charlemagne, who was the founder of the Carlovigian dynasty. Martel governed France from 720741 as Duke of the Franks, with the nominal kings being only puppets. Legend only, states that he was a patron of the Freemasons and gave them charters from "yeare to yeare" and "sent many workmen and Masters into England.”

William B. Charles (1862-1950) Congressman from 30th N.Y. dist. to 30th Congress (1915-17). b. April 3, 1862 at Glasgow, Scotland and came to U.S. in 1884. Dealer in cotton and mill supplies. Mason. d. Nov. 25, 1950.

Joseph Charless Catholic and Freemason who published the first newspaper west of the Mississippi.

Born in Ireland, he was implicated in the Irish Rebellion of 1795 when but 23. He fled to France and then to New York, arriving in 1796. Next he found employment in Philadelphia as a printer on the Aurora, being published by William Duane. In 1800 he moved to Lexington, Ky. where he established a newspaper, and in 1806 he was in Louisville. On July 12, 1808 the first issue of The Missouri Gazette appeared on the streets of St. Louis with Charless as its editor. He changed the name of the paper in November, 1809 to Louisiana Gazette, and back to its original name in 1812. He also printed the first book published in the Territory of Louisiana, The Laws of the Territory of Louisiana. His Masonic history is somewhat obscure. He was a member of Missouri No. 111, and later of Missouri No. 12. He was in the lodge limelight on several occasions, and as a result of one such experience, was indefinitely suspended on Feb. 2, 1824. He was also one of the organizers of the "Erin Benevolent Society" in 1818, which strangely enough met at the home of Brother Jeremiah Connor with Brother Thomas Brady of Missouri No. 12 as chairman. Brothers Arthur Magenis, Hugh O'Neill and Robert Ranken also participated in the organization. b. 1772.

Earle P. Charlton (1863-1930) One of the founders of F. W. Woolworth Co. in 1912, at which time he was operating 54 stores. b. June 19, 1863 at Chester, Conn. Began in 5 & 10 cent business at age of 17. He separated from his partner in 1895, dividing the stores; he then organized the E. P. Charlton Co. He pioneered 5 & 10 stores west of the Rocky Mountains and in Canada. He built Charlton Mills in Fall River, Mass. in 1909 and was its president. He was also vice president of F. W. Woolworth Co. Mason. d. Nov. 20, 1930.

Francis Charteris Sixth Earl of Wemyss. Was grand master of Scotland in 1747. Another Francis Charteris, afterwards Lord Elcho, was deputy grand master of Scotland in 1786-87.

Louis Philippe Joseph, Duc de Chartres (1747-1793) Was Duc de Montpensier from his birth until 1752, when he became Duc de Chartres; in 1785, on the death of his father, he inherited title of Due d'Orleans. A reformer with liberal views, he was a friend of the common people. He advocated the cause of the American colonies and aided French revolutionists in 1789. He incurred the enmity of Louis XVI and the queen and was sent abroad by Louis, but returned in 1790 to work with Mirabeau and Danton against him. He renounced his title and became Citizen PhilippeEgalite (Equality). In 1793 his estates were confiscated by the Jacobins and he was imprisoned at Marseilles and sentenced to death by the Revolutionary tribunal at Paris and guillotined. He was grand master of the Grand Orient of France in 1771, but failed to apply himself to the office. His wife, the Duchess of Chartres q.v., was prominent in French Adoptive Masonry. Their son, Louis Philippe became King of France (1830-48).

Duchess of Chartres (Louise Marie Adelaide de B our b onPenthievre) (1753-1821) Wife of Louis Philippe Joseph, Duc de Chartres q.v. who was grand master of the Grand Orient of France in 1771. She was an early member of French Adoptive Freemasonry and was present at the fete d' adoption given by the Lodge of Candour (a regular lodge under the Grand Orient of France) when the Duchess of Bourbon q.v. was installed as first grand mistress of French Adoptive

Freemasonry. Her husband presided over the occasion attendedby 1,000 of the French elite, as grand master.

Benjamin F. Chase ( 1 86 9 - 1 925 ) U.S. Consul. b. Feb. 1, 1869. Graduate of law at Univ. of Michigan in 1891 and practiced in Clearfield, Pa. U.S. Consul at Catania, Italy, 1905-07; Leeds, England, 1909-13; Leghorn, Italy, 1913-14; Fiume, Hungary, 191416; San Jose, Costa Rica, 1916-20; Trondhjem, Norway and Messina, Italy. Mason. d. Nov. 23, 1925.

Carlton Chase (1794-1870) Protestant Episcopal Bishop. b. Feb. 20, 1794 at Hopkinton, N.H. Graduated from Dartmouth in 1817 and was ordained deacon in 1818, priest in 1820. Served in Bellows Falls, Vt. for 24 years and consecrated first bishop of N.H. in Philadelphia on Oct. 20, 1844, after which he moved to Claremont, N.H. Mason. d. Jan. 18, 1870.

Charles "Charlie" Chase (18931940) Movie comedian of the silent films famous for his "Charlie Chase Comedies." Member of Henry S. Orme Lodge No. 458, Los Angeles, Calif.

Dudley Chase (1771-1846) U.S. Senator from Vermont and Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Vermont b. Dec. 30, 1771 in Cornish, N.H. Graduated from Dartmouth in 1791 and admitted to bar in 1793. Member of state constitutional conventions of 1814 and 1822 and state legislature from 1805-12, serving as speaker his last four years. U.S. senator from Vermont 1813-17 and 1825-31. From 1817-21 he was chief justice of the Vermont supreme court. Retired in 1831 to farm. Served as master of Federal Lodge No. 15, Brookfield, Vt. d. Feb. 23, 1846.

George W. Chase Masonic author who in 1864 published The Freemason's Pocket Library, composed of a working monitor for the degrees in lodge, chapter, council and commandery; a Masonic dictionary and a manual of Masonic law.

Harrie B. Chase Judge. b. Aug. 9, 1889 at Whitingham, Vt. Admitted to Vermont bar in 1912 and practiced at Brattleboro. Judge of superior court of Vermont 1919-27 and chief judge his last two years. Associate justice supreme court of Vermont from 1927-29 and judge of U.S. circuit court of appeals since 1929. Mason.

Norman S. Chase Former Governor of Rhode Island. Received his degrees in Corinthian Lodge No. 27 at Providence, R.I. in 1917.

Philander Chase (1775-1852) Prottestant Episcopal Bishop of Ohio and later Illinois. b. Dec. 14, 1775 at Cornish, N.H., he graduated from Dartmouth in 1795. Ordained deacon in 1798 and priest in 1799, he first served in western New York and then in New Orleans, La. He returned to Hartford, Conn. in 1811, and feeling the urge to establish his church in the west, he moved to Ohio in 1817. On a trip to England he raised $30,000 with which he purchased 8,000 acres of land and laid the foundations of a college and theological seminary, naming them after two English contributors—Kenyon and Gambier. He was ordained bishop of Ohio Feb. 11, 1819. When difficulties arose over the handling of the funds, he resigned and moved to Michigan, doing missionary duty. He again visited England and obtained $10,000 for educational work and he founded Jubilee college in 1838 at Robin's Nest, Ill. He was chosen bishop of Illinois in 1835 and served until his death. He received his third degree at the hands of Thomas Smith Webb q.v. in Temple Lodge No. 14, Albany, N.Y. Webb also exalted him to the Royal Arch in Worthington, Ohio on Oct. 26,1818. His name appears in the proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Ohio in 1818 as a member of Horeb Chapter No. 3. d. Sept. 20, 1852.

Benedict Chastanier French surgeon, who introduced a modification of the Rite of Pernetty, in nine degrees, into England in 1767. He established a London lodge called Illuminated Theosophisis. It soon abandoned its Masonic form and became a theosophic sect intended to propagate the religious system of Swedenborg.

Fennimore Chatterton Former Governor of Wyoming. Member of Rawlins Lodge No. 5, Rawlins, Wyo. and past grand master of the Grand Lodge of Wyoming.

Louis W. Chaudet Movie director and actor. He organized the "233 Club" a Masonic ritualistic group composed of Hollywood actors that sought to bring out character delineations in the ritual. Organized in 1926, many famous movie stars were on the teams. Chaudet directed more than 150 feature films and was raised in Kaskaska Lodge No. 86, Evansville, Ill.

Isaac Chauncey (1772-1840) American naval hero of War of 1812. b. Feb. 20, 1772 at Black Rock, Conn. He entered merchant service at an early age and commanded a ship at 19, making several voyages to the East Indies in the ships of John Jacob Astor q.v. On the organization of the navy he was made a lieutenant in 1798 and distinguished himself in several actions off Tripoli. He became captain in 1806. When the War of 1812 broke out he was in command of the Navy yard at New York and was given command of all the lakes except Champlain. He built and equipped with unequalled rapidity a number of ships including the Mohawk, a 42-gun frigate which was launched in 34 days after her keel was laid and the corvette Madison, launched in nine weeks after the first tree of her frame was cut from the forest. He aided in the capture of York (now Toronto) and Fort George, and put to flight the British fleet under Sir James Yeo. He later served on the board of navy commissioners at Washington from 1833 until his death. He was a member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City in 1796 and was later suspended. d. Jan. 27, 1840.

Robert S. Cheek Corporation executive. b. Jan. 14, 1878 at Burkesville, Ky. With father, in 1900, he engaged in coffee business which was sold to Postum Co. and later was absorbed by General Foods Corp. Member of board of directors of General Foods; director of National Life and Accident Insurance Co., Nashville Trust Co.; trustee of Vanderbilt Univ. Mason and 32° AASR (SJ).

Frank L. Chelf Congressman 79th and 80th Congresses (194549) from 4th Kentucky dist. b. Sept. 22, 1907 at Elizabethtown, Ky. Admitted to bar in 1931 and since practiced at Lebanon. Served with Navy and Air Corps as major in WW2. Raised in Lebanon Lodge No. 87, Lebanon, Ky. in 1937. Member of chapter, council and commandery at Lebanon, serving as commander of Marion Commandery No. 24, K.T. in 1945. Chelf states that he believes he is the only former member of a "Masonic Home" (orphanage) that was ever elected to Congress.

1st Viscount of Chelmsford (Frederic John Napier) (1868-1933) Governor of Queensland from 1905-09 and of New South Wales 190913 at which time he was also grand master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales. As Viceroy of India from 191621, he formulated a system of reforms which were rejected by the followers of Gandhi. He was first lord of ad-miralty in the Labor ministry of 1924 and agentgeneral for New South Wales from 1926-28.

Edward S. Chenette Composer and director. Has composed over 300 pieces for band, orchestra and voice. Was band and orchestra director at age of 17. He enlisted with the Canadian Expeditionary Forces in 1916 and conducted the "American Band," also known as the "Concert Band," of the Canadian Army. Later was director of music at Iowa State College; led Chicago Regimental Band and Illinois State Legion Band. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Jerome L. Cheney (1863-1932) Justice Supreme Court of New York, 1921-32. b. June 18, 1863 at Baldwinsville, N.Y. Admitted to N.Y.

bar in 1884. Raised in Central City Lodge No. 305, Syracuse, in 1900 and served as master in 1906. Knighted in Central City Commandery No. 25, K.T. in 1902, Syracuse. Received 33° AASR in 1911 and in 1915 became active member of Supreme Council (NJ). Exalted in Central City Chapter No. 70, R.A.M. in 1901. d. Nov. 29, 1932.

Person C. Cheney Governor of New Hampshire 1875-77. Raised in Altemont Lodge, No. 26, Peterborough, N.H., March 19, 1853 and served as master in 1862.

Claire L. Chennault Air Force Major General famous for his "Flying Tigers" in WW2. b. Sept. 6, 1890 at Commerce, Texas. Commissioned 1st lieutenant of Infantry in 1917 and transferred to aviation section of Signal Corps. Retired from Army in 1937 to become advisor to Chiang Kai-shek q.v. until 1941 when he was recalled to active duty and promoted to brigadier general in 1942. He activated the 14th Air Force and commanded it from 1943-45. Was made major general in 1943 and retired again in 1945 to organize the CNRRA Air Transport, now Civil Air Transport, of which he became president in 1948. Bro. Chennault writes "You will note that my Masonic affiliations are widely scattered—Texas to China to California. This is particularly unfortunate since I now divide my time between Louisiana and Formosa —Free China." Member of League City Lodge No. 1053, League City, Texas. 32° AASR Orient of China at Shanghi (in exile) and member of Islam Shrine Temple, San Francisco, Calif. d. July 27, 1958.

J. Edgar Chenoweth Congressman from 3rd Colorado dist. to 77th to 80th Congresses (1941-49). b. Aug. 17, 1897 at Trinidad, Colo. Admitted to Colorado bar in 1925, and began practice at Trinidad. Member of Trinidad Lodge No. 89, Trinidad, Colo., being raised in 1922. 32° AASR (SJ).

Ernest H. Cherrington (1877-1950) Editor and temperance leader. b. Nov. 24, 1877 at Hamden, Ohio. Edited Kingston (Ohio)

Tribune in 1900 and became active in Ohio Anti-Saloon League in 1902. Edited The Pacific Issue (Washington), The Citizen (Seattle) and The American Issue from 1909; The American Patriot and The Voice from 1936 as well as others. He was general secretary of the World League Against Alcoholism; U.S. delegate to 13th, 14th, 16th, 17th International Congresses on Alcoholism, meeting throughout the world, and secretary of the 15th congress that met in Washington, D.C. A lay delegate to the general conference of the Methodist church eight times. Mason, 33° AASR, Knight Templar. d. Mar. 13, 1950.

Francis A. Cherry Governor of Arkansas, 1953-55. b. Sept. 5, 1908 at Fort Smith, Ark. Admitted to Arkansas bar in 1936 and practiced law at Jonesboro until 1942 when elected district judge of the 12th circuit. Raised in Jonesboro Lodge No. 129, Jonesboro, Ark. in 1944. Member of Union Chapter No. 2, R.A.M.; Occidental Council No. 1 and Hugh de Payens Commandery No. 1, all of Little Rock. 32° AASR in Valley of Little Rock; Sahara Shrine Temple at Pine Bluff, Ark. and member of O.E.S. and Amaranth.

James W. Cherry (1872-1949) Justice, Supreme Court of Utah 1923-32 and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Utah in 1914. b. Apr. 5, 1872 in Hancock Co., Ill. Admitted to Utah bar in 1893 and practiced successively at Salt Lake City, Manti, La Grande, Oreg., and Mt. Pleasant, Utah. He was a member of Damascus Lodge No. 10, Mt. Pleasant, serving as master in 1909. Received his Scottish Rite degrees in Valley of Salt Lake in April, 1918. d. March 23, 1949.

Robert Gregg Cherry Governor of North Carolina 1945-49. b. Oct. 17, 1891 in York Co., N.C. Graduate of Duke Univ. in 1914, and admitted to bar same year. Has engaged in practice at Gastonia, serving as mayor from 1919-23. Served as state representative, speaker of the house and state senator. Served in 30th Div. overseas in WW1. State commander of American Legion in 1928. Mason and Knight Templar. Raised in Gastonia Lodge No. 369 on July 23, 1915.

Philip, 4th Earl of Chesterfield (Philip Dormer Stanhope) (16941733) English statesman and man of letters who was intimate with the great men of his day such as Voltaire q.v., Pope, Swift and Dr. Johnson q.v. Effective orator in House of Lords, he was a Whig M.P., ambassador to the Hague (twice); lord high steward. As lord lieutenant of Ireland (174546) he established schools, encouraged manufacturers and counciliated Orangemen and Catholics. He was raised in Lodge No. 4, one of the "old lodges" established in 1717, that met in Horn Tavern. He was active in Masonic work and was once asked to preside in the Grand East, but was unable to do so because of an impending foreign assignment.

Augustus L. Chetlain (1824-?) Major General, Union army, Civil War. b. Dec. 26, 1824 at St. Louis, Mo. of French Huguenot stock. He became a merchant in Galena, Ill. and early volunteered for service in the Civil War. He was chosen captain of a company which General Grant (then captain) and declined. In December, 1863 he was promoted brig. general. Participated in Smith's campaign on Tennessee river to Fort Henry, and led his regiment at Fort Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth. Breveted major general in 1864 for raising a force of 17,000 men. He commanded the post of Memphis and then Talladega, Ala., and was mustered out on Feb. 5, 1866. In 1867-69 he was assessor of internal revenue for Utah and U.S. consul at Brussels, Belgium until 1872 when he established himself in Chicago as a banker and stockbroker. Lodge is not known but he was exalted in Washington Chapter No. 43, R.A.M. Chicago, Ill. on Sept. 11, 1885.

Ng Poon Chew (1866-1931) Established the first Chinese daily paper in America in 1899. b. Mar. 14, 1866 at Sun Ning, Canton Province, China. Educated in Occidental School, San Francisco and San Francisco Theological Seminary. Was placed in training for Taoist priesthood, but was converted to Christianity and entered ministry in San Francisco. He resigned from ministry in 1899 and established the Chung Sai Yat Po daily newspaper, of which he was managing editor until his death on Mar. 13, 1931. He was vice consul of China at San Francisco from 1913. Mason.

Chiang Kai-shek Although some sources state that this famous Chinese Nationalist leader is a member of "Pagoda Lodge" under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Mass., the grand secretary of Massachusetts does not have any record of his membership.

Henry Chicheley Archbishop of Canterbury (1364-1443) English prelate and diplomat, who according to William Preston in his Illustrations of Masonry, gave permission for a lodge to be held in the year 1429 at Canterbury under his patronage with Thomas Stapylton as master. Tradition states that Chicheley was grand master of English Masons until 1443.

Jonas Chickering (1797-1853) Piano inventor and manufacturer. b. April 5, 1797 at New Ipswich, N.H. Son of a blacksmith, he learned the trade of cabinet making, and became a workman in a Boston piano manufactory. He went into business for himself in 1823 and later in partnership with John Mackay in 1830. Mackay was a shipmaster and they imported fine woods for piano cases. When Mackay was drowned at sea in 1841, Chickering carried on alone. He received a number of patents on piano construction and improvements. He was initiated in St. Andrews Lodge, Boston, Mass. in 1821; was a member of St. Andrews Chapter, R.A.M. and DeMolay Commandery, K.T. as well as 32° AASR. d. Dec. 8, 1853.

Merrill Chilcote Managing editor and director of St. Joseph News-Press (Mo.). b. Feb. 23, 1905 at Conway, Iowa. After some time with newspapers in Bedford, Iowa, he came to the News-Press in 1926 and has been editor since 1949. Member of Brotherhood Lodge No. 269, St. Joseph, Mo.

George M. Chilcott ( 1 828 - 18 91 ) U.S. Senator from Colorado in 1882.


George W. Childs b. Jan. 2, 1828 at Trough Creek, Pa. Moved to Iowa with his family in 1844, serving as sheriff of Jefferson Co. in 1853. Moved to Nebraska in 1856; elected to state legislature in that year. In 1859 he went to Denver, Colo., and in 1860 settled in southern Colorado. He was a member of the constitutional convention of that state and served in the territorial legislature during the first two sessions (1861-62). Served in U.S. congress in 1867-69. He was a member of Pueblo Lodge No. 17, Pueblo, Colo. and affiliated with Golden City Lodge No. 1, Golden City, June 19, 1869. He was knighted in Pueblo Commandery No. 3, K.T. on March 24, 1876. d. Mar. 6, 1891.

George W. Childs (1829-?) Pennsylvania publisher and philanthropist. b. May 12, 1829 in Baltimore, Md. Headed book-printing firm of Childs & Peterson and owned the Public Ledger, Philadelphia newspaper, which was quite prosperous. Childs made liberal use of his wealth for benevolent purposes, including a stained glass window in Westminster Abbey in memory of poets Cowper and Herbert and fountain in Stratfordon-Avon in honor of Shakespeare. Mason. Member of Industry Lodge No. 141, Philadelphia.

Thomas Childs (1796-1853) Brigadier General in Mexican War. b. in Pittsfield, Mass. Graduated from West Point in 1814. Distinguished himself at Fort Erie and Niagara in 1814. Took part in the Seminole Indian War in Florida in 1840-42. In the Mexican War he was at Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, La Hoya and Puebla. Breveted brigadier general on Oct. 12, 1847 for gallantry at Puebla. He commanded eastern Florida sectors from 1852 until his death Oct. 8, 1853. Member of Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va.

William E. Chilton (185 8 - 1939 ) U.S. Senator from West Virginia, 1911-17. b. March 17, 1858 at St. Albans, W. Va. Began

practice of law at Charleston, W. Va. in 1880. Served as secretary of state for West Virginia 1893-97. Mason. d. Nov. 7, 1939.

William P. Chilton (?-1871) Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Alabama. b. in Kentucky, he was at times a member of each house of the Alabama legislature. In 1848 he was elected to the supreme court of Alabama, serving for ten years. Part of this time he was chief justice. During the existence of the Confederate government (1861-65) he was a member of its congress. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Alabama in 1869-70.

Carl R. Chindblom Congressman, 66th to 72nd Congresses (1919-33) from 10th Illinois dist. b. Dec. 21, 1879 at Chicago, Ill. Admitted to Illinois bar in 1900. Master in chancery, circuit court of Cook Co. (Chicago) from 1916-19. Referee in bankruptcy, U.S. district court, northern dist. of Ill., 1934-42. Mason.

Daniel Chipman (1765-1850) Lawyer and author. b. Oct. 22, 1765 at Salisbury, Conn. Graduated at Dartmouth in 1788 and studied law with his brother Nathaniel q.v. at Rutland, Vt. Made a member of the American Academy in 1812. Was in state constitutional conventions of 1793, 1816, 1850, and was often a member of the legislature. U.S. congressman from 1815-17. Published a volume on Seth Warner q.v. and Gen. Thomas Chittenden q.v. and another on his brother, Nathaniel q.v. Mason. d. April 23, 1850.

John Chipman (1744-1829) Revolutionary soldier. b. Oct. 22, 1744 at Salisbury, Conn. He was present at the capture of Fort Ticonderoga, Montreal and St. John. He was captain in the Revolution, participating in the battles of Hubbardton, Bennington and Saratoga. Raised in Union Lodge, Albany, N.Y. prior to Oct., 1779, he was passed and raised in Maters Lodge, Albany on Oct. 19, 1799 and was a charter member of Dorchester Lodge, Vergennes, Vt. and Union Lodge, Middlesbury, Vt. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Vermont

from 1797-1814 and grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Vermont from 1813-15. d. Aug. 28, 1829.

Nathaniel Chipman ( 1 7 52 - 1843 ) U.S. Senator from Vermont, 17971803, 1806-1811. b. Nov. 15, 1752 at Salisbury, Conn., he was a brother of Daniel Chipman q.v. Served as a lieutenant in the Revolutionary War and was at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777; present at battles of Monmouth and White Plains. Served in Vermont legislature; judge of state supreme court in 1786 and chief justice in 1789. In the latter year he was one of the commissioners in behalf of Vermont to adjust differences with New York, and in 1791 to negotiate the admission of Vermont into the Union. George Washington appointed him judge of the U.S. district court of Vermont in 1791; he resigned in 1793, but was appointed chief justice of the supreme court in 1796, and again from 1813-15. In 1826 he revised the laws of Vermont. He was probably raised in a military lodge, but in 1795 he was a member of Center Lodge No. 6, Rutland, Vt. and its first master. He affiliated with Rainbow Lodge in Middletown, Vt. d. Feb. 15, 1843.

Martin Chittenden ( 1769 -184 1 ) Governor of Vermont 1813-14, and son of Thomas Chittenden q.v. first governor of Vermont. b. March 12, 1769 in Salisbury, Conn. Graduate of Dartmouth in 1789. He engaged in farming and was a member of the con-vention that adopted the U.S. Constitution. From 1803-1813 he was a member of congress and judge of probate from 1821-22. As governor, he refused to comply with the request of General Macomb for the state militia and this prevented his reelection. Member of Washington Lodge No. 7, Burlington, Vt.; and was one of the petitioners for a new lodge to be named "Chittenden" at Williston, Vt. in honor of his father. d. Sept. 5, 1841.

Thomas Chittenden ( 173 0 -1 7 9 7 ) First Governor of Vermont, 1778-1797 and father of Martin Chittenden q.v. a later governor. b. Jan. 6, 1730 in East 'Guilford, Conn., Chittenden, together with two fellow members of Vermont Lodge (now 18, Windsor) . . . Ira Allen q.v. and Dr. Jonas Fay q.v., led the fight for statehood in the face of considerable

opposition from New York. Statehood was granted to Vermont as the 14th state by congress on March 4, 1791. Previous to this, he had been president of the council of safety in which were invested the powers of government. About this time he became charter master of Dorchester Lodge of Vergennes, chartered in 1791 by the Grand Lodge of Canada, and now No. 1 under the Grand Lodge of Vermont. d. Aug. 24, 1797.

John M. Chivington ( ?-1895) Minister, missionary and soldier. He was, paradoxically, both a Methodist missionary to the Indians and an Indian fighter. Born in Ohio, he came to Kansas City, Kansas, in 1854 as a missionary to the Indians. While there he became the first master of the first lodge in Kansas—Wyandotte Lodge No. 3, established Aug. 11, 1854. From Kansas he went to Omaha, Nebr. and served as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Nebraska. In 1860 he accepted the assignment as presiding elder of the Methodist church in the new gold mining district of Colorado. In 1861 he became the first grand master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado. Later Chivington Lodge No. 6 (now extinct) was named for him and the lodge at Central City now has the old bible of this lodge. When the 1st Colorado cavalry was organized in 1862, he resigned as presiding elder of the church and was commissioned major in the regiment. He distinguished himself in the Apache Canyon fight, known as the Battle of Glorieta, when he led 500 men in a rear attack on the Confederate troops who were attempting to invade Colorado from New Mexico. His attack saved Colorado and her gold deposits for the Union. For this he was made colonel. Indian massacres were troubling Colorado and Governor John Evans called for volunteers who, under Chivington engaged the Indians at Sand Creek near Ft. Lyon on Nov. 29, 1864 and killed several hundred of them, including women and children. For this he was "defrocked" by the Methodist church. This action, plus attacks by the "eastern press" forced him to leave Colorado for several years. He was potentially a national hero, but fell into near disgrace. He moved to Oregon where he lived for many years, returning to Denver where he was once more identified with the church and fraternity. More than 500 brethren attended his funeral.

Isaac W. Choate (1882-1953) Justice, Supreme Court of Montana, 194749. b. Sept. 12, 1882 near Peacham, Vt. Graduate of

Univ. of Minnesota, 1904. Practiced at Bozeman, Helena and Miles City, Mont. Member of Helena Lodge No. 3. d. Oct. 23, 1953.

Rufus Choate (1799-1859) U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, 1841-45, succeeding Daniel Webster. b. Oct. 1, 1799 in Essex, Mass. Valedictory graduate of Dartmouth in 1819, hewas an outstanding scholar and known for his command of language. At the age of six he could repeat large portions of Pilgrim's Progress from memory. In the Senate he delivered many brilliant orations on such subjects as the Oregon boundary, the tariff, the fiscal bank bill, the Smithsonian Institution and the annexation of Texas, the latter of which he opposed. After his term in the senate he returned to Boston and continued the practice of law. Following his graduation from Dartmouth, he entered the law office of William Wirt, q.v. then attorney general of the U.S. and later the Anti-Masonic Party's candidate for president. Choate was a member of Jordan Lodge, Peabody, Mass. d. July 13, 1859.

Countess of Choiseul-Goufiler An early member of French Adoptive Freemasonry, a female organization which received quasiMasonic recognition from the Grand Orient of France. Other famous names who were her contemporaries were the Duchess of Chartres q.v., Countess of Polignac and Marchioness of Conte-bonne.

Pierre Choteau, Jr. (1789-1865) One of the founders of the American Fur Company and grandson of Laclede, founder of St. Louis. b. Jan. 19, 1789 in St. Louis. Entered fur trade as young man following Indians from point to point—St. Joseph, Kansas City, Council Bluffs, Fort Pierre, Fort Berthold, Fort Union and Fort Benton. He also established trading posts along the Mississippi from Keokuk to St. Paul. With two other Freemasons, Bernard Pratte and Bartholomew Berthold q.v., he purchased the American Fur Co. from John Jacob Astor q.v. another partner in 1839. The trading area of the new company (P. Choteau, Jr. & Co.) extended from Texas to the Blackfeet country on the north and also the trade of Santa Fe. He was a member of the first constitutional convention of Missouri, in 1820, together with his partner, Bernard Pratte. In 1807 he was associate judge of the court of common

pleas and in 1808 was captain in a volunteer company of mounted troops in St. Louis. He received his degrees in Lodge L'Amenite No. 73 at Philadelphia, Pa. and in 1808 was one of the organizers of St. Louis Lodge No. 111 in St. Louis. d. Sept. 8, 1865 in St. Louis.

Morgan H. Chrisler Union Brigadier General in Civil War. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 22 of New York. Master of the lodge in Greenfield Center, N.Y. in 1861.

Edward R. Chrisman (1866-1939) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Aug. 13, 1866 at Connersville, Ind. Graduate of West Point in 1888. Retired in 1921. Participated in Sioux Indian Campaign of 1890, Spanish American War, Cuba in 1898, Philippine Insurrection of 1890. Commanded U.S. forces in Puerto Rico during WW1. Mason. d. Jan. 15, 1939.

Christian VII, King of Denmark (1749-1808) King of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1808. Neglected in childhood, he was brought up by a cruel tutor. He became depraved and when hopelessly insane relinquished control to Crown Prince Frederick who ruled as regent from 1784-1808 and later as king. He was a stepbrother to Christian VIII q.v. In 1780 newspaper accounts carried the story that lodges in Denmark and Holstein were subordinate to the Grand Lodge of Sweden, whereupon Christian VII directed notice to be sent that lodges in Denmark did not recognize a foreign prince as grand master, and after the passing of Ferdinand of Brunswick q.v. then general grand master, that no foreigner could rule the Danish craft except with the consent of the king. After the Masonic congressof Wilhelmsbad in 1872, when the Rectified Rite was developed, the Landgrave of Hesse q.v. was inducted and in 1786 he became provincial grand master of Denmark, though Ferdinand of Brunswick was recognized as general grand master until his death in 1792. In that year Christian VII named the Landgrave of Hesse as general grand master, who held the office until his death in 1836 and was succeeded by the crown prince who was later Christian VIII q.v.

Christian VIII, King of Denmark (1786-1848) He was appointed viceroy of Norway in 1813 and when he refused to consent to the union of Norway and Sweden, was driven out of Norway in 1814 with his second wife, living in retirement from 1815 to 1831. From 1831-39 he was a member of the council of state. He was king of Denmark and Norway from 1839-48. He opposed liberal projects and in trying to appease the Germans in Schleswig and Holstein, he helped bring about the war of 1848. He became the protector of Danish Freemasonry in 1836, taking over from the Landgrave of Hesse on the latter's death and becoming grand master. His son, King Frederick VII q.v. succeeded him on the throne and also as grand master.

Christian IX, King of Denmark (1818-1906) Was King of Denmark and Norway from 1863-1906. A direct descendent of King Christian III, he was brought up by King Frederick VI as guardian. Succeeded to throne on death of Frederick VII q.v. in 1863. He was the father of Frederick VIII q.v. of Denmark. He received the title of Protector of Danish Freemasonry.

Christian X, King of Denmark (1870-1947) Son of Frederick VIII q.v. He was King of Denmark from 1912-47 and of Iceland from 191844.

209 Christian Ludwig He studied for a military career and during WW1 established closer relations with other Scandinavian countries. Under him, a new constitution was enacted in 1915, enfranchising women. Christian X became grand master of the National Grand Lodge of Denmark upon the death of his father, Frederick VIII, who had served in that capacity since 1872. King Christian was made an honorary past grand master of the Grand Lodge of England in 1946.

Christian Ludwig, Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt (1763-1834) He was initiated in 1778 and was one of the founders of the Darmstadt Lodge "Johannes der Evangelist zue Eintracht.”

George B. Christian Private secretary to President Harding. Was a member of Marion Lodge No. 70, Marion Chapter No. 62, Marion Council No. 22, Marion Commandery—all of Marion, Ohio and Aladdin Temple at Columbus, Ohio.

Hugh C. Christian British Naval Admiral. Became member of Phoenix Lodge No. 257, Portsmouth, England on Nov. 5, 1788.

James G. Christiansen Major General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 23, 1897 at Portland, Oreg. Graduated from West Point in 1918. Made brigadier general in 1943 and major general in 1944. He is former chief of staff of Army Ground Forces, commanding general 2nd Armored Division and Camp Hood, Texas. He also commanded the 6th Armored Division and Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. He retired in 1954 and is now with the Hoover commission in Washington. Mason.

Adolph M. Christianson (1877-?) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of North Dakota. b. Aug. 11, 1877 at Brummundalen, Norway. He was brought to the U.S. in 1882. Servedas justice of North Dakota Supreme Court from 1915-45 and as chief justice 1945-49. He was a member of the national council, Boy Scouts of America and president of the Missouri Valley Area Council. From 1933-34 he was administrator of the Federal Civil Works Administration. Raised Feb. 20, 1902 in Mouse River Lodge No. 43; exalted in Mystic Chapter No. 13 April 24, 1902; greeted in council of R. & S.M. on Nov. 14, 1911—all of Towner, N.D. He was knighted in Cyrene Commandery No. 7, K.T. at Devils Lake on June 23, 1902. He later affiliated with Fargo Council No. 1, R. & S.M. then Lebanon No. 2 at Rugby and finally Twin City Council at Bismarck. He was grand master of the Grand Council of S.D. in 1922 and grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. in 1919. The 4th to 32 degrees

AASR (SJ) were communicated to him by Walter R. Reed in Jan., 1929 and he demitted on June 26, 1929. Deceased.

Theodore Christianson (1883-1948) Governor of Minnesota three terms (1925-31). b. Sept. 12, 1883 in Lac qui Parle Co., Minn., he graduated from the Univ. of Minnesota with A.B. and LL.B. Admitted to bar in 1909 he began practice at Dawson. From 190925 he was the publisher of the Dawson Sentinel. He served in the state house of representatives from 191525 and was a member of the 73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37). He is the author of Minnesota, A History of the State and Its People. Member of Atelier Lodge No. 202 at Dawson, Minn., he received his 32° AASR in Minneapolis on Dec. 19, 1925.

W. W. Christman (1865-1937) Poet and farmer. b. May 30, 1865 at Delanson, N.Y. He spent his entire life farming. In 1934 he was awarded the Burroughs medal by John Burroughs Memorial Assn. for the best nature book published that year. He is the

210 Ralph E. Church author of Songs of the Helderhills, Songs of the Western Gateway and Wild Pasture Pine. Mason. d. Feb. 26, 1937.

George H. Christopher U.S. Congressman from Missouri. b. Dec. 9, 1888 at Butler, Mo. Member of 81st Congress (1949-51). Elected a second term in 1956. Engaged in farming. Raised Feb. 22, 1938 in Amsterdam Lodge No. 141, Amsterdam, Mo. 32° AASR (SJ) in Kansas City and member of Ararat Shrine Temple, Kansas City. O.E.S. in Columbia Chapter No. 15, Washington, D.C. d. Jan. 23 1959.

Charles A. Christopherson (18711951) U.S. Congressman to 66th to 72nd Congresses (1919-33) from 1st South Dakota dist. b. July

23, 1871 in Fillmore Co., Minn. Admitted to bar in 1893 and practiced at Sioux Falls, S.D. Member of state house of representatives 1912-16 and speaker in 1914. Served as grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of South Dakota in 1917. Past potentate of Shrine. d. Nov. 2, 1951.

Morgan H. Chrysler, (1826-?) Union Major General in Civil War. b. Sept. 30, 1826 in Ghent, N.Y. Farmed most of his life. Enlisted as a private in the 30th N.Y. volunteers in 1861 and was promoted to major general in March, 1865. Served in the Army of the Potomac and later in the Army of the Gulf, commanding all the troops in northern Alabama. He was present at the capture of Mobile. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 22, Greenfield Center, N.Y. and served as master.

Walter P. Chrysler (1875 - 1940 ) Motor car manufacturer. b. April 2, 1875 at Wamego, Kansas, he was a descendant of Tuenis Van Dolsen, the first male child born in Manhattan, N.Y. He started as a machinist's apprentice on the railroad. In 1910 he was assistant manager of the Pitts-burgh works of the American Locomotive Co., and was manager in 1911. From 1912-16 he was works manager of Buick Motor Co. and president and general manager from 1916-19. He was vice president in charge of operations of General Motors Corp. from 1919-20 and executive vice president of Willys-Overland Co. 1920-22. He was later chairman of the board of Chrysler Corp. Mason. d. Aug. 18, 1940.

Conrad N. Church Newspaper editor. b. Feb. 1, 1894 at St. Louis, Mo. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan in 1917. Began with Ann Arbor News in 1919 as a reporter; was city editor in 1920 and managing editor from 1921-23. Began with the Pontiac Daily Press as a reporter in 1924; was managing editor from 1926 and editor since 1945. Mason.

Earl F. Church Potogrammetrist, astronomer, civil engineer. b. Aug. 11, 1890 at Parish, N.Y. Was topographer and astronomer on

Alexander Hamilton Rice expedition up Amazon and Negro rivers, Brazil, 1916-17. Field officer in northwestern states and Alaskan coast, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1911-13; mathematician, U.S. Boundary Commissions, 1913-15. Served in AEF during WW1 in charge of geodetic computations for intelligence section of 2nd Army. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Edward B. Church ( 1844 -1 904 ) Founder of Irving Institute (for higher education of young ladies) at San Francisco, Calif. in 1881. b. Sept. 7, 1844 in Greenville, Miss. Made deacon of Protestant Episcopal church in 1868; priest, 1874. He served as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of California from 1896-1902. d. 1904.

Ralph E. Church (1883-1950) U.S. Congressman to 74th to 76th Congresses (1935-40), 78th to 80th Congresses (1943-48) and 81st Congress (1948) from Illinois. b. May 5, 1883 in Vermilion Co., Ill. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan and Northeastern. Admitted to bar in 1909 and practiced at Chicago. Served as state representative from 1917-32. Mason, 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner. d. March 21, 1950.

Lord Randolph Henry Churchill (1849-1895) British statesman, third son of 7th Duke of Marlborough and father of Winston L. Churchill q.v. Married Jennie Jerome of New York in 1874. As an M.P. from 1874 he led the Tory front, assailing Gladstone and the conservatives. He was secretary of state for India from 1885-86 and was chancellor of exchequer and leader of the House of Commons in 1886, resigning due to ill health. He returned to parliament in 1892. He is recorded as having visited Harmony Lodge No. 17, Washington, D.C. on Oct. 15, 1873.

Sir Winston L. Churchill British statesman and author, son of Lord Randolph Henry Churchill q.v. b. in 1874. One of the most outstanding leaders of the 20th century in both national and international levels. Sir Sidney White q.v. grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of England states that "Sir Winston Churchill was initiated into

Freemasonry as a young man, but he never progressed in the Order, and has taken no part for many years." He was initiated in Studholme Lodge No. 1591, London and raised March 25, 1902 in Rosemary Lodge No. 2851.

Joseph Cilley (1735-1799) Revolutionary soldier and first Major General of New Hampshire militia. b. in Nottingham, N.H. where his father was one of the first settlers. He was one of the party in Dec. 1774 that dismantled the fort at Portsmouth; and immediately after the Battle of Lexington, he raised a company of volunteers and led them into Boston. In May1775, he was a major in Poor's regiment and was commissioned colonel in April, 1777 in the 1st New Hampshire regiment, succeeding General Stark. He served at Ticonderoga, Battle of Monmouth, with Wayne in the storming of Stony Point and in Sullivan's expedition against the Indians in New York. After the war he was appointed major general of militia in 1786. He was successively treasurer, vice president and president of the Society of the Cincinnati in N.H. His grandson, Joseph Cilley q.v. became U.S. Senator from N.H. He was raised in St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N.H. on June 15, 1775 and his fees were waived due to his service to his country. d. Aug. 25, 1799.

Joseph Cilley (1791-1887) U.S. Senator from New Hampshire and grandson of Joseph Cilley q.v. Revolutionary soldier. b. Jan. 4, 1791 at Nottingham, N.H. Fought as a lieutenant in the Infantry in the War of 1812. He participated in the battles of Chippewa, Lundy's Lane and Chrysler's Field. At Lundy's Lane, his company led the famous charge of Col. Miller's regiment on the British battery, where nearly half of his men were either killed, wounded or missing. Every officer in Cilley's company was either killed or wounded. Subsequent to the war, he held appointments in the New Hampshire militia. He was elected to the senate in June, 1846 to fill a vacancy and served until March, 1847, when he retired to his farm in Nottingham. At the time of his death, Sept. 16, 1887, he was the oldest living U.S. senator. Cilley was a member of Sullivan Lodge No. 19, Lee, New Hampshire, and was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire in 1848-49.

Giovanni Battista Cipriani (17271785) Italian historical painter, designer and engraver who came to England in 1755 and cooperated with the production of the frontispiece of the 1784 edition of the Book of Constitutions. He was an early member of the Lodge of the Nine Muses No. 325 in London and painted the officers' jewels of the lodge that are still worn today. He was one of the four members of this lodge to become original members of the exclusive Royal Academy at its foundation in 1768.

Jean Civiale (1792-1857) French surgeon, famous for his method of crushing the stone in the bladder (lithotrity). Member of the lodge La Bonne Union at Paris, being initiated in 1825.

Nathaniel H. Claiborne (1777-1859) U.S. Congressman from Virginia from 1825-1837. b. Nov. 14, 1777 in Franklin Co., Va. a brother of William C. C. Claiborne q.v. first governor of Louisiana. He served for many years in both branches of the state legislature where he achieved a reputation as reformer of extravagance and abuses of government. He was the author of Notes on the War in the South. Claiborne was a member of Abingdon Lodge No. 48, Washington Co., Va. d. Aug. 15, 1859.

William C. C. Claiborne (1775-1817) First Governor of Louisiana. b. in Sussex Co., Va., he was the older brother of Nathaniel H. Claiborne q.v. congressman and author. Following his admission to the bar, he settled in Nashville, Tenn., and soon received the appointment of territorial judge, assisting in the framing of the state constitution in 1796. He was elected to the U.S. congress and served from 1797-1801. In 1802 he was appointed governor of Mississippi, and in 1803 became commissioner, with General James Wilkinson q.v. to take possession of Louisiana when it was purchased from France. After the establishment of the new government in1804, he was made governor, and when it became a state, he was elected by the people to the same office. He was elected to the U.S. senate, but died before taking his seat. His name was on the 1810 roster of Perfect Union Lodge No. 1, New Orleans, La. d. Nov. 23, 1817.

Matthew W. Clair ( 1 865-1943) Methodist bishop. b. Oct. 21, 1865 at Union, W. Va. Ordained to Methodist Episcopal ministry in 1889, subsequently serving in Harpers Ferry, W. Va., Staunton, Va., Washington, D.C. In 1920 he was elected bishop and assigned to Monrovia, Liberia. Mason. d. June 28, 1943.

Moses E. Clapp (1851-1929) U.S. Senator from Minnesota, 1901-17. b. May 21, 1851 at Delphi, Ind. Graduated in law at Univ. of Wisconsin in 1873 and admitted to bar same year, practicing subsequently at Hudson, Wis., Fergus Falls, Minn. and St. Paul, Minn. Was attorney general of Minnesota from 1887-93. In 1917 he resumed law practice in Washington, D.C. He was raised in Hudson Lodge, Wis. in 1872; past commander of Palestine Commandery, K.T., and received AASR degrees in St. Paul in 1897. d. March 6, 1929.

Martin Clare (?-1751) An English schoolmaster who wrote A Defence of Masonry in 1730 which was later reproduced in Anderson's Constitutions of 1738. It was written as a reply to Prichard's expose, Masonry Dissected. He was grand steward in 1734, grand junior warden in 1735 and deputy grand master in 1741. He was authorized by the grand lodge to prepare a system of lectures. It is believed that he was initiated in the Old King's Arms Lodge (now No. 28). He was master of what is now Lodge of Friendship No. 6. d. May 19, 1751.

Clare de Gilbert (1243-1295) Marquis of Pembroke, 9th Earl of Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford, 8th Earl of Gloucester. Married niece of Henry HI in 1253. Joined Monfort in 1263 and with Prince Edward in repelling de Montfort in 1265. He took London in 1267, but became reconciled to Henry III. He later married Joan, daughter of Edward I (1290). Tradition states that he, with Ralph Lord Monthermer, and Walter Gifford, Archbishop of New York, was given charge of the operative masons in 1272.

William, Duke of Clarence (See William IV, King of England) Duke of Clarence and Avondale (H.R.H. Albert Victor Christian Edward) (1864-1892) He was the eldest son of King Edward VII q.v. and brother of King George V. He entered naval training on the ship Britania in 1877 and was aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria in 1889. He was betrothed to Princess Mary of Teck in 1891 but died before the marriage. Mary later became Queen Mary, consort of his brother, King George V. He was initiated on March 17, 1885 in Royal Alpha Lodge No. 16 by his father, Edward VII, while the latter was grand master of England. In 1890 he was installed provincial grand master for Berkshire, by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales.

Jules Claretie (1840-1913) French novelist, journalist and director of the Comedie Francaise in 1885. Wrote many novels including Une Drolesse, Un Assassin, Monsieur le Ministre, La Cigarette. His historical works included Les Derniers Mcrntagnards, Historie de la. Revolution de 1870-71, Le Drapeau. The Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.

Albert M. Clark (1879-1950) Judge of Supreme Court of Missouri. b. March 4, 1879 at Lawson, Mo. Admitted to bar in 1900 and began practice at Richmond. He was a member of the state legislature from 1917-20 and of the state senate from 1931-38. He was judge of the supreme court of Missouri from Jan. 1, 1939 until his death on Jan. 9, 1950. A Mason, he wrote a paper on "Judges of the Supreme Court (Mo.) who have been Masons" which was read at the 1949 communication of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. He was a member of Richmond Lodge No. 57, Cyrus Chapter No. 36, and Richmond Commandery No. 47, K.T., all of Richmond, Mo.

Arthur H. Clark (1868-1951) Publisher, author, manufacturer. b. Dec. 20, 1868 in London, England, coming to U.S. in 1888 and naturalized in 1895. Founder and president of the Arthur H. Clark Co., publishers in 1902. President of the Cleveland Worm & Gear Co. 192028; president of the Cleveland Laboratory Co. 192237. Founder and president of the Cleveland Institute of Aviation, 192834. Author of

Bibliography of Books on History of States, Counties, Etc. of U.S. in 1928. Mason. d. May 15, 1951.

Bennett Champ Clark (1890-1954) U.S. Senator from Missouri. b. Jan. 8, 1890, son of Champ Clark q.v. Graduate of Univ. of Missouri and George Washington Univ. He was parliamentarian for U.S. house of representatives from 1913-17. Admitted to Missouri bar in 1914, he practiced in St. Louis from 1919. Served in WW1 as a colonel on the General Staff. Elected senator from Missouri 1933-1945. Was associate justice of the U.S. court of appeals, District of Columbia from 1945 until his death on July 13, 1954. He was initiated in Phoenix Lodge No. 136, Bowling Green, Mo. on July 5, 1912 and was suspended NPD on June 1, 1950.

Champ Clark (1850-1921) U.S. Congressman from Missouri. b. March 7, 1850 in Anderson Co., Ky., his full name was James Beauchamp. Educated in Kentucky Univ., Bethany College and Cincinnati Law School, he was president of Marshall College (W. Va.) in 1873-74. He served as congressman from Missouri from 1893-95 and 1897-1921, being speaker from 1911-19. He was a prominent candidate for Democratic presidential nomination in 1912 and led on 27 ballots, having a clear majority on eight, but lost when Wm. J. Bryan turned his influence to support Woodrow Wilson. His son, Bennett Champ q.v. was a U.S. senator. He was a member of Perseverance Lodge No. 92 at Louisiana, Mo.

Clarence D. Clark (1851-1930) U.S. Senator from Wyoming, 18951917. b. April 16, 1851 at Sandy Creek, N.Y. Attended Iowa State Univ. and admitted to the bar in 1874. He practiced in Delaware Co., Iowa from 1874-81 and then moved to Evanston, Wyoming, where he resumed practice. He was appointed associate justice of the supreme court of Wyoming in 1889, but declined. He was U.S. congressman to 51st and 52nd congresses from Wyoming in 188993. He was raised in Evanston Lodge No. 4, March 21, 1883; member of Evanston Chapter No. 2, RA.M.; Albert Pike Commandery, K.T. all of Evanston. He

received his 32° AASR (SJ) on Aug. 6, 1885 and 33° on Oct. 22, 1897. d. Nov. 18, 1930.

Edgar E. Clark (1856-1930) Labor leader and Interstate Commerce Commissioner. b. Feb. 18, 1856 at Lima, N.Y. Entered railroad service in 1873 and remained until 1889 when he went with the Order of Railway Conductors of America; was grand chief conductor from 1890-1906. Member of Interstate Commerce Commission from 1906-1921, and afterward member of the firm of Clark & La Roe. Mason. d. Dec. 1, 1930.

Edward Clark Former Governor of Texas. Member of Austin Lodge No. 12, Austin, Texas.

Frank S. Clark General manager of Portland Cement Co. b. Mar. 7, 1868 at Middletown, Conn. He was captured by the Sioux Indians when his parents crossed the plains in 1872 and was not found by his father until four years later. However, he spent most of his time until manhood with the Indians. Started as an electrical engineer with a railroad. He was assistant to president and assistant general manager of U.S. Cement Co., Bedford, Ind. in 1908-09. In 1910 he was general manager of Continental Portland Cement Co., President of Frank S. Clark & Co., and treasurer of U.S. Mail Box Co. Mason, 32° AASR.

George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) Brigadier General in American Revolution. b. Nov. 19, 1752 near Monticello, Va. Became a surveyor in Kentucky where he organized and led the frontiersmen in defense against Indian attacks in 1776-77. He gained the approval of Patrick Henry, governor of Virginia for an expedition to conquer territory in what is now Illinois, and he captured the key points of Kaskaskia in 1778 and Vincennes in 1779, saving the Illinois and Kentucky region for the colonies. He was engaged in fighting the British and Indians in that territory until 1783. He died in poverty. Dr. Richard Ferguson, master of Abraham Lodge No. 8, Louisville, Ky. was the surgeon who amputated

General Clark's leg, with music from a drum and fife furnishing the only anesthetic. His lodge is unknown, but he was buried Masonically by Abraham Lodge No. 8, Louisville. d. Feb. 13, 1818. He was the older brother of the explorer William Clark q.v.

Henry T. Clark Former Governor of North Carolina. Member of Concord Lodge No. 58, Tarboro, N.C., serving as its master in 1852 and 1865. He represented the lodge at grand lodge in 1852, 1853 and 1865. Member of Concord Chapter No. 5, R.A.M. and active in the Grand Chapter of N.C. He was a trustee of St. John's Masonic College.

James Clark Territorial Governor of Iowa. Initiated in Des Moines Lodge No. 1 at Burlington, Iowa on March 1, 1841.

James Clark (1779-1839) Governor of Kentucky. b. in Bedford Co., Va., he moved with family to Kentucky when a child. Practiced law at Winchester and was a member of the state legislature several times. Was judge of court of appeals in 1810, and served in U.S. congress from 1813-16 and 1825-30. In 1832 he was elected to the state senate, becoming its speaker; and in 1836 was elected governor, serving until his death on Aug. 27, 1839. Mason.

James W. Clark (1877-1939) Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma. b. Dec. 8, 1877 at Allisona, Tenn. He began law practice in Atoka Co., Okla. in 1909. He was justice of the supreme court of Oklahoma from 192533 and vice chief justice from 1931-33. Mason. d. Feb. 24, 1939.

Jerome B. Clark U.S. Congressman from North Carolina to 71st and 72nd Congresses (1929-33) and 73rd to 80th Congresses (193949). b. April --5T-1882 at Elizabethtown, N.C. Began practice in Elizabethtown in 1906. Mason.

Joel Clark (1730-1776) Colonel in Revolutionary War and founder of famous American Union Lodge (military). He was a farmer and trader of Farmington, Conn. and when a boy of 15 served on the expedition against Louisbourg in 1745 and later in the French and Indian Wars. Inthe Revolution he served in the siege of Boston and the defense of New York. He was wounded at the Battle of Long Island and taken prisoner. Confined to a filthy prison, he died in December of his wounds. He had been made a Mason during his frequent business trips to New Haven in old Hiram Lodge No. 1 on Feb. 20, 1763. Two years later he was named junior warden in the charter granted a lodge at Waterbury (present King Solomons No. 7 of Woodbury). There is also reason to believe that he was later active in the lodge at Wallingford, now Compass No. 9. In February 1776, he was commissioned by the grand master of St. John's Provincial Grand Lodge at Boston to organize American Union Lodge among the Freemasons holding military commissions in the Connecticut line regiments. This famous military lodge numbered many American patriots among its members. Clark was founding master. It traveled with the Continental Army throughout the war, working in New Jersey and New York. After the war the charter was carried west and it was established in Marietta, Ohio, where it is No. 1 on the Ohio register and one of the most famous lodges of the country.

John Clark Governor of Delaware in 1817. Member of Lodge No. 14 at Christiana Ferry, Del., being initiated March 20, 1783.

John M. Clark Brigadier General U.S. Air Force. b. Nov. 1, 1893 at Lockhart, Tex. Commissioned lieutenant in 1917 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1942. Retired in 1946. Mason.

John R. Clark (1888-?) Justice Supreme Court of Colorado. b. Dec. 19, 1888 at Louisville, Colo. Admitted to bar in 1911. Appointed to supreme court in 1951 and elected to ten year term in 1952. Grand master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1944-45 and 33° AASR (SJ).

Member of Rio Blanco Lodge No. 80 at Meeker, Colo.; Meeker Chapter No. 37, R.A.M.; Meeker Commandery No. 33, K.T. and 33° AASR (SJ). Deceased.

Joseph J. Clark Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Nov. 12, 1893 of Cherokee Indian blood. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1917, advancing through the grades to vice admiral and commander of the 7th Fleet. Now retired, he is vice president of Radio Receptor Co. He was raised on December 6, 1945 in Chelsea Lodge No. 84, Chelsea, Okla. with many old time Cherokee leaders present. Clark was treated like just plain Joe Clark, Indian boy in his fifties, come home to be a Master Mason in his home lodge.

Mark Wayne Clark General, U.S. Army. b. May 1, 1896 at Madison Barracks, N.Y. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1917, he later graduated from many service schools and has received honorary degrees from a dozen universities both here and abroad. He was commissioned 2nd lieutenant in April, 1917 and advanced to full general in 1945. Led a battalion in WW1 and was wounded. Participated in St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne offensives. In WW2 he became deputy chief of staff, then chief of staff of the Army Ground Forces in 1942. He was one of the officers landed in Africa by submarine to confer with representatives of General Giraud on the forthcoming invasion by Allied forces. He subsequently was commander of the 5th Army (first active in the ETO) in 1943, commanded the 15th Army group, (U.S. and British armies) in Italy, 1944-45; commander-in-chief of U.S. occupation forces in Austria. In 1952 he was commander in chief of the United Nation Command in Korea and commanding general of all U.S.forces in the Far East. He retired in 1953 to accept the presidency of The Citadel, a military college in Charleston, S. Car. Clark was raised in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398 at Indianapolis on Dec. 30, 1929, later affiliating with Hancock Lodge No. 11 at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. He received his 32° AASR in Indianapolis in 1930 and affiliated with the Scottish Rite in Leavenworth in 1934, removing his membership back to Indianapolis and receiving his 33° in 1946. In 1954 the Supreme Council AASR (NJ) presented him the Gourgas Medal, their highest decoration, which has been given only to six others. It is "in recognition of notably

distinguished service in the cause of Freemasonry, humanity or country.”

Melville Clark Harpist, inventor. b. Sept. 12, 1883 at Syracuse, N.Y. Has been in music business since 1899 and is president of Clark Music Co. His harp inventions have included a perfect portable harp, the Clark nylon harp string; a plastic and nylon harp impervious to weather. He has given more than 4,000 harp concerts in U.S., Canada and England. He perfected plan for aero-stations to distribute literature, used by England in WW1. Mason, Scottish Rite member.

Stephen C. Clark President of Baseball Hall of Fame at Cooperstown, N.Y. b. Aug. 29, 1882 at Cooperstown, N.Y. Graduate of Columbia and Yale Universities. He is vice president of the Safe Deposit Co. of New York and director of Singer Manufacturing Co. Served in 80th division during WW1 with rank of lieutenant colonel. Member of Otsego Lodge No. 138, Cooperstown, N.Y.

Thomas C. Clark U.S. Attorney General and Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court. b. Sept. 23, 1899 at Dallas, Texas. Attended Virginia Military Institute and graduated from Univ. of Texas in 1921, being admitted to bar the following year. With Department of Justice from 1937-45, serving as Attorney General of the U.S. from 1945-49 at which date he was appointed associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in August. Served in 153rd Inf. during WW1. Member of Washington Lodge No. 1117 at Dallas, Texas, and received his 32° AASR (SJ) at Dallas in 1930.

Thomas D. Clark Historian. b. July 14, 1903 at Louisville, Miss. Graduate of Mississippi, Kentucky and Duke Universities. History professor in turn at Western State Teachers College (Tenn.), Univ. of Tenn., Univ. of Rochester, Duke Univ., Univ. of North Carolina, Univ. of Chicago and with the Univ. of Kentucky since 1931. Among his many books are: History of Kentucky, The Rampaging Frontier, Exploring

Kentucky, The Kentucky (Rivers of America Series) Pills, Petticoats and Plows. Mason.

William Clark (1770-1838) Famed partner of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Northwest, brigadier general, U.S. Army and territorial governor of Missouri. b. Aug. 1, 1770 in Virginia, he was a brother of the famous George Rogers Clark q.v. of Revolutionary fame. He early became acquainted with Indian warfare when his family moved to site of present city of Louisville and his brother, George Rogers, built a fort. He migrated to St. Louis and in March, 1804 Jefferson appointed him a lieutenant of artillery with orders to join Capt. Merriwether Lewis' expedition from St. Louis across the Rocky mountains to the mouth of the Columbia River. Clark was really the principal military director of the expedition, materially assisting Lewis in the arrangements and kept a journal, which was afterward published. His intimate knowledge of Indian habits and character had much to do with the success of the expedition. He resigned from the army in 1807 and officiated as Indian agent until appointed by Congress as brigadier general for territory of Upper Louisiana. President Madison appointed him governor of Missouri Territory in 1813 and he held the office until Missouri became a state in 1822. He ran, against his will, for the governorship at that time, but was defeated. President Monroe then made him superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis, and he held the office until his death on Sept. 1, 1838 in St. Louis. He was a member of St. Louis Lodge No. 111 (under Pennsylvania charter) and was buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis, with Masonic honors. A large monument with the square and compasses is over his grave.

William A. Clark (1839-1925) U.S. Senator from Montana, 190107. b. Jan. 8, 1839 at Connellsville, Pa. Although he studied law, he did not enter the profession, but taught school in Missouri, Colorado and then Montana. In Montana he became a banker, mine owner and president and director of many enterprises including railroads, sugar production and realty. He led the Butte battalion in the Nez Perce campaign of 1878 and was president of the constitutional convention of 1884 and 1889. He claimed election to U.S. Senate as Democrat in 1890 but was denied seat. Elected again in 1898, a contest ensued at Washington, but before the investigation was concluded, he resigned.

He was variously a member of Virginia City Lodge No. 1, Morning Star Lodge No. 5, Helena, and Deer Lodge No. 14, Deer City, Mont., serving as master of the latter. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Montana in 1877. d. Mar. 2, 1925.

Bascom B. Clarke (1851-1929) Editor and president of Clarke Publishing Co., Madison, Wis. b. June 24, 1851 in Lexington, Va. Started in publishing business in 1898. Editor of American Thresherman and founder of Brotherhood of Threshermen. Mason and author of Uncle Silas' Gospel of Freemasonry, 1920, and The Gospel of DeMolay, 1924. d. March 17, 1929.

Bruce C. Clarke Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. April 20, 1901 at Adams, N.Y. Graduate of West Point in 1925, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1944. Member of General Staff in 194243; combat commander of armored division 1943-45; staff member of Army Ground Forces, 1945-48 and assistant commandant of The Armored School since 1948. Mason.

Sir Casper P. Clarke (1846-1911) Director of Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. b. Dec. 21, 1846 at London, England and educated in England and France. He was director of the Victoria and Albert Museum of London until 1905 when he came to America to be director of the Metropolitan Museum. He was created a knight in 1902 and received the Chevalier Legion d'Honneur from France in 1878; Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in 1883; Commander Victorian Order in 1905; and Commander's Cross Order of the Crown (German). He was a member of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 of London. d. 1911.

Hopewell Clarke (1854-1931) One of the developers of the Mesabi Iron Range in Northern Minnesota. b. March 10, 1854 at Williamsport, Pa., he studied civil and mining engineering. Was with various Minnesota railroads in the early day as a surveyor and an early

settler of far northern Minnesota. During controversy over the source of the Mississippi River, he made a survey of its headwaters. Mason. d. Feb. 3, 1931.

James P. Clarke (1854-1916) U.S. Senator and Governor of Arkansas. b. Aug. 18, 1854 at Yazoo City, Miss. Graduated from Univ. of Virginia in 1878 and admitted to bar in that year, moving to Helena, Ark. in 1879, where he practiced until 1897 and then removed to Little Rock. Served in both houses of state legislature and was attorney general of Arkansas. He was governor from 1895-97, and U.S. senator from Arkansas for three terms, 1903-21, dying on Oct. 1, 1916 before completing his last term. Member of Western Star Lodge No. 2, Little Rock, Ark.

John H. Clarke (1857-1945) Justice of U.S. Supreme Court and pacifist. b. Sept. 18, 1857 at Lisbon, Ohio. Graduate of Western Reserve Univ. Admitted to Ohio bar in 1878 and practiced at Lisbon, Youngstown and Cleveland. Was U.S. district judge for Northern Ohio, 1914-16, and associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme court from July 14, 1916 to Sept. 1922. He resigned in order to give his entire time to cultivating public opinion favorable to world peace. He was president of the League of Nations Non-Partisan Association of the U.S. from 192230, trustee of World Peace Foundation. Member of Western Star Lodge No. 21, Youngstown, Ohio. d. March 22, 1945.

Robert Clarke Architect of the U.S. Capitol at Washington, D.C. Served as high priest of Washington Chapter No. 16. Was later suspended.

Angelo R. Clas Architect. b. Feb. 13, 1887 at Milwaukee, Wis. Graduated from Harvard in 1909. Began in manufacturing business and later partner with D. H. Burnham & Co. in Chicago. In 1935-36 was director of housing for Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works. He is now an architect and consultant. Recent works include

Federal Loan Agency, Maritime buildings, Statler Hotel, Y.M.C.A. addition, all of Washington, D.C. and large scale private housing developments in Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Tennessee. Mason.

Charles R. Clason Congressman to 75th to 80th Congresses (1937-49) from 2nd Mass. district. b. Sept. 3, 1890 at Gardiner, Maine. Graduate of Bates College, and Rhodes scholar from Maine in 1917. Admitted to Mass. bar in 1917, practicing in Boston and later Springfield. Served in WW1. Mason.

David G. Classon (1870-1930) U.S. Congressman 65th to 67th Congresses (1917-23) from 9th Wisconsin dist. b. Sept. 27, 1870 at Oconto, Wis. Admitted to bar in 1891 and practiced at Oconto. Judge of the 20th judicial circuit of Wisconsin from 1928 until his death Sept. 6, 1930. Mason.

Carl H. Claudy (1879-1957) Writer. b. Jan. 13, 1879 in Washington, D.C. In 1898 he was a prospector and pioneer in Alaska. He was editor of American Inventor from 1900-04; Prism, 1908-09; Cathedral Calendar, 1921-27, and The Master Mason, 1924-30. He was later a free-lance writer and aviation correspondent for New York Herald at Washington. He was director of publicity for National Highways Association from 1911 and executive secretary of the Masonic Service Association since 1929. He was raised in Harmony Lodge No. 17, Washington, D.C. in 1908, serving as master in 1932 and grand master of Grand Lodge of District of Columbia in 1943. A member of chapter, council and commandery he was a 33° AASR (SJ) and holder of many grand lodge medals and honorary memberships. He is the author of many books, plays and short stories including Press Photography, Battle of Baseball, First Book of Photography, Tell Me Why Stories, About Mother Nature, Making Pictures of Children, Partners of the Forest Trail, Pirates by Force, The Gold He Found, Dangerous Waters, The Girl Reporter, Beginner's Book of Model Airplanes, Mystery Men of Mars, Thousand Years a Minute, Land of No Shadow, Treasures of Darkness, and many others. His Masonic writings include hundreds of

short talk bulletins and digests for the Masonic Service Association representing some of the best Masonic writing and research available. Masonic books are The Lion's Paw, The Master's Book, Washington's Home and Fraternal Life, The Unknown Mason, and Introduction to Freemasonry (2 volumes). His best known Masonic plays are: Greatest of These, He That Believeth, Greater Love Hath No Man, A Rose Upon the Altar, Judge Not and Hearts of the Fathers. d. May 27, 1957.

Henry C. Clausen Lawyer. In charge of the investigation of the Pearl Harbor disaster of WW2. Admitted to California bar and practiced in San Francisco since 1927. Served in WW2 in Judge Advocate General's dept. Member of Ingleside Lodge No. 630, San Francisco, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of California in 1954-55. 33° AASR (SJ), he is sovereign grand inspector general of Calif. Member of Islam Shrine Temple.

George Claussen ( 1 882 - 194 8 ) Chief Justice. Supreme Court of Iowa, 1934-35. b. Aug. 6, 1882 at Clinton, Ia. He graduated from Univ. of Iowa and practiced in Clinton. Mason. d. Dec. 18, 1948.

F. T. Begue Clavel A French abbe and Masonic writer who in 1842 published Picturesque History of Freemasonry and of Ancient and Modern Secret Societies. Because he published the work without the consent of the Grand Orient of France, he was suspended for two months and condemned to pay a fine. In 1844 he began the publication of a Masonic journal called Grand Orient, later changing it to Orient. Again he failed to receive the approval of the grand lodge and was sentenced by it to perpetual exclusion in spite of his popularity within the Craft.

Brooke Claxton Canadian Minister of Health and National Welfare 1944-46 and Minister of National Defense 1946-54. Presently president and general manager of Canadian Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. b. Aug. 23, 1898 at Montreal, P.Q. Canadian representative at

UNRRA in 1943-44; International Labor Organization, 1945, International Health Conference, 1946, and head of the Canadian delegation to Conference of Nations of British Commonwealth in 1947. Mason.

Cassius M. Clay (1810-1903) American abolitionist, politician and U.S. Minister to Russia. b. Oct. 19, 1810 in Madison Co., Ky., son of Green Clay q.v. General of the War of 1812. Graduated from Yale in 1832. Practiced law in Kentucky and was elected to legislature in 1835, 1837, 1839, 1840. In 1845 he issued an antislavery paper in Lexington called The True American and was almost lynched for it. He was continually involved in quarrels and bloody encounters and was constantly armed. Taken prisoner in Mexican War and later exchanged. Was made major general of volunteers in 1862. He was minister to Russia in 1861-62 and again in 1863-69. He was a member of Davies Lodge No. 22, Ky.

Clement C. Clay (1789-1866) U.S. Senator and Governor of Alabama. b. Dec. 17, 1789 in Halifax Co., Va. Son of a Revolutionary officer; his family moved to Tennessee after thewar. Clay was admitted to the bar in 1809 and began practice in Huntsville, Ala. in 1811. Served in Creek War of 1813 and elected to territorial council in 1817. Delegate to state constitutional convention in 1819 and chosen circuit judge by first legislature in 1820. Served as chief justice from 1920-23. Served in U.S. Congress from 1829-35 and elected governor of Alabama in 1835 and again in 1837, resigning before the expiration of term to fill U.S. Senate vacancy. Member of Alabama Lodge No. 21.

Green Clay (1757-1826) General in War of 1812. b. Aug. 14, 1757 in Powhatan Co., Va. he was the father of Cassius M. Clay q.v. American abolitionist and a cousin of Henry Clay q.v. He emigrated to Kentucky before he was 21 and acquired a fortune as a surveyor. He was a representative of the Kentucky district in the Virginia legislature and a member of the convention that ratified the Federal constitution and a leading member of the Kentucky constitutional convention of 1799. He served many years in both branches of the state legislature,

and was at one time speaker of the senate. In 1813 when General Harrison was besieged by the British at Fort Meigs, he came to his relief with 3,000 volunteers and forced the enemy to withdraw. He was left in command of the fort and defended it with skill against the British and Indians under Proctor and Tecumseh. He was a member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. Suspended in 1805 and reinstated in 1808. d. Oct. 31, 1826.

Henry Clay (1777-1852) U.S. Senator, Congressman, and Secretary of State. b. April 12, 1777 in Hanover Co., Va. Self educated, he studied law under Robert Brooke q.v. of Virginia and moved to Lexington, Ky. in 1797, where he practiced law. A successful lawyer, he once defended Aaron Burr q.v. He was U.S. senator from Kentucky from 1806-07, 1831-42, 1849-52. Served in U.S. congress from 1811-21 and 1823-25 and was speaker of the house. From 1825-29 he was Secretary of State. He was raised in Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky., sometime between 1798 and 1801, served as its master and was grand master of Kentucky in 1820. He was one of the proponents of a general grand lodge, and offered a resolution to that effect at a Masonic conference held in the senate chambers on March 9, 1822 in Washington, D.C. After the defeat of the idea he demitted from his lodge on Nov. 18, 1824, but seemingly reinstated, as he was present at the grand lodge sessions in 1829. He was an honorary member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, New York City. During the anti-Masonic period he flirted politically with members of that party. When questioned as to his views on Masonry he answered, "But it must not be said that I concur in the denunciation of Masonry. Nor must it be expected that I will make any formal renunciation of it. I believe it does more good than harm, although it does not practically effect all that it theoretically promises. I would not denounce and formally renounce it to be made President of the United States." He was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky in 1806, 1807 and 1809. He was buried with Masonic honors and his monument was Masonically dedicated on July 4, 1858. d. June 29, 1852.

John G. Claybourn Dredging engineer. b. May 23, 1886 at Albert Lea, Minn. Was employed as rodman, levelman and transitman on the Isthmian Canal from 1910-14 and with the Panama Canal from 1914 to

1948. Now retired, he is a conslutant on rivers, harbors, and canals. He has invented and collaborated on many new designs of dredges, compressors and motors. With Columbia and Venezuela harbor development in 1948; con-struction engineer of Dique canal, Colombia, 1917, Costa Rica, 1925-4648 and Trans-Florida ship canal, 1933. He has written Dredging on the Panama Canal, Evolution of the Panama Canal and other works. Raised in Western Star Lodge No. 26, Albert Lea, Minn. about 1907. Member of Canal Zone Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; Canal Zone Council No. 1, R. & S.M.; Canal Zone Commandery No. 1, K.T. and San Lorenco Conclave No. 70, Red Cross of Constantine at Ancon, Canal Zone.

Moses Cleaveland ( 1 7 54-1806 ) Founded Cleveland, Ohio in 1796, which was first called "Cleaveland." b. at Canterbury, Conn., he was at Yale when the Revolution broke out. He rushed to Boston to volunteer, but was persuaded to return and finish his education. In 1777 he was commissioned in Col. Blatchley Webb's Continentals (sometimes called the "Yale" regiment). After the war he practiced law in Connecticut and rose to a position of influence in the state. He represented his town in the general assembly for 18 sessions and commanded the 5th Militia Brigade for ten years. He led the exploration and survey party as an official of the Connecticut Land Company which had purchased land in the Northwest Territory (later Ohio) and laid out several million acres into townships. The venture was far from successful for the immediate investors. He was made a Mason in American Union Lodge (military) in September 1779 while the army was stationed in the Hudson Highlands. At Litchfield, Conn. he affiliated with St. Paul's Lodge in 1781, and in 1791 was named master of Moriah Lodge—the first to be chartered by the new Grand Lodge of Connecticut. He also appears in the grand lodge minutes as grand junior warden pro-tern at one communication, and was the first appointed grand marshal. As deputy for the grand master, he instituted Putnam Lodge at Pomfret in 1801.

Patrick R. Cleburne (1828-1864) Confederate Major General in Civil War. b. March 17, 1828 in County Cork, Ireland. He came to the U.S. and settled at Helena, Ark. where he studied law and later engaged in a successful practice. He joined the Confederate army as a

private, planned the capture of the U.S. arsenal in Arkansas in 1861, and received various promotions to major general in Dec. 1862. He commanded the 2nd brigade of the 3rd corps at Shiloh, was wounded in the battle of Perryville, and commanded a division of the right wing at Murfreesboro and Chickamauga. He distinguished himself in the rear guard action at Missionary Ridge and defended Ringgold Gap. At Jonesboro he covered the retreat of Hood and commanded a corps at Franklin, where he was killed on Nov. 30, 1864. He was a favorite with the Irish brigade and was called the "Stonewall of the West." He instituted the Order of the Southern Cross and was among the first to advise the use of colored troops in the armies of the Confederacy. Cleburne was a member of Lafayette Lodge No. 16 at Helena, Ark. and treasurer of the same.

Hugh H. Clegg Former Assistant Director of F.B.I. b. July 17, 1898 at Mathiston, Miss. Professor of history, Latin, chemistry and science before entering the F.B.I. as a special agent in 1926. He later served as special agent of field divisions at Atlanta, Washington and Chicago. From 193254 he was assistant director in charge of training and inspection division. He was in charge of the F.B.I. National Academy from 1935 and in charge of special mission making wartime studies in intelligence, defense and enforcement in England, 1940-41. Retired. Raised Mathiston Lodge No. 491, Mathiston, Miss. in Sept., 1923.

Robert I. Clegg (1866-1931) Mechanical engineer. b. May 13, 1866 in Lancashire, England. Became U.S. citizen in 1891. Held several important positions in professional societies and edited technical journals. He wrote extensively for Masonic periodicals and made complete revisions of Mac-key's History of Freemasonry, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Jurisprudence of Freemasonry, and Symbolism of Freemasonry. He was 12th president of the National League of Masonic Clubs and at one time president of the Masonic History Co. of Chicago. He was raised in Tyrian Lodge No. 370, Cleveland, Ohio on Oct. 25, 1905, 33° AASR (NJ) and member of practically every Masonic body. d. Dec. 3, 1931.

Samuel L. Clemens (1835-1910) American author and humorist. b. Nov. 30, 1835 at Florida, Mo. He was apprenticed to a printer at 12 and was Mississippi River pilot for a short time. He went west as secretary to his brother who had been appointed territorial secretary of Nevada. Was city editor of the Virginia City (Nev.) Enterprise in 1862, and alternated between mining and newspaper work, until, becoming noted as a humorist, he began lecturing and writing books. He founded the publishing house of C. L. Webster & Co. in 1884 and its failure nearly ruined him financially. Among his many famous books are The Innocents Abroad, Roughing It, Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Prince and the Pauper, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, A Yankee at the Court of King Arthur, etc. He was a member of Polar Star Lodge No. 79, St. Louis, Mo. (EA May 22, 1861, FC, June 12, 1861, MM July 10, 1861). He was later suspended and reinstated on April 24, 1867. He dimitted Oct. 8, 1868 and presumably never again affiliated with any lodge. He is recorded as having visited Carson City Lodge, U.D. in Feb. and March of 1862. During his trip to Palestine, he sent his lodge a gavel with this note: "This mallet is a cedar, cut in the forest of Lebanon, whence Solomon obtained the timbers for the temple." Clemens cut the handle himself from a cedar just outside the walls of Jerusalem. He had it made in Alexandria, Egypt and it was presented to the lodge on April 8, 1868. d. 1910.

William M. Clemens (1876-1932) Newspaper editor. b. April 30, 1876 at Louisville, Ky. He edited the following papers: Memphis NewsScimitar, 1906, Birmingham News, 1912, Mobile Item, 1915, Atlanta Georgian, 1920, Knoxville Journal, 1922, Flushing Journal (L.I.), 192931. Served in Spanish American War. Mason. d. Nov. 23, 1932.

Augustus Clement ( 1 7 0 0 - 1 76 6 ) Duke of Bavaria and Elector of Cologne, who was a Freemason until 1738, when at the publication of Pope Clement XII's Bull against Freemasonry, he withdrew from the Craft at least openly, although it is said he privately maintained his affiliation and founded the Society of Mopses.

Clement V (1264-1314) The 195th Pope. Originally Bertrand de Got. He was Archbishop of Bordeaux. As a friend of King Philip the Fair, he moved the papal residence from Rome to Avignon, France in 1309 and thus created a schism in the church with Popes and Antipopes. As the price of his papal crown, he is said to have made an agreement with Philippe le Bel for the destruction of the Knights Templar (1312). It is also recorded that either Jacques de Molay, or Guy, the Dauphin d'Auvergne, when at the stake, summoned Clement V before God in forty days. A few days afterthe execution (March 11, 1314), an illness began for Clement, ending in his death on April 20, 1314.

Clement XII The 248th Pope, he issued the first Papal Bull against Freemasonry on April 24, 1738. Entitled In Eminenti Apostolatus Specula, it stated in part: "For which reason the temporal and spiritual communities are enjoined, in the name of holy obedience, neither to enter the society of Freemasons, to disseminate its principles, to defend it, nor to admit nor conceal it within their houses or places, or elsewhere, under the pain of excommunication ipso facto, for all acting in contradiction to this, and from which the pope only can absolve the dying." He served as Pope from 1730-40 and was a bitter persecutor of the Craft. He caused his secretary of state, Cardinal Firrao q.v. to issue a more stringent order on Jan. 14, 1739 that pertained to the Papal states in which death was the penalty for membership.

Charles M. Clement (1855-1934) Major General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 28, 1855 at Sunbury, Pa. Served in Spanish American War, Mexican border conflict and WW1. Enlisted as private in Pennsylvania National Guard in 1877, advancing through grades to major general in 1915, retiring in 1919. He commanded the 28th Division at Camp Hancock, Ga., in 1917. Mason and 33° AASR (NJ). d. Sept. 9, 1934.

Frank G. Clement Governor of Tennessee. b. June 2, 1920 at Dickson, Tenn. Graduated from Vanderbilt Univ. in 1942. Admitted to bar in 1941, he practiced in Nashville and Dickson from 1946-50. He was with the F.B.I. from 1941-43. He has served as governor of Tennessee since 1953. Served as lieutenant in Army in WW1. In 1948

was named outstanding young man by Tennessee Junior Chamber of Commerce and as one of the nation's 10 outstanding young men by the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce in 1953. Was state commander of the American Legion in 1948. Mason, 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. A member of Dickson Lodge No. 468 at Dickson, Term., he attended the Grand Lodge of Tennessee at its sessions in 1954 and 1956.

John P. Clement Officer, British forces, War of 1812. Member of Niagara Lodge No. 2, G.R.C. of Ontario. Served as captain in the 8th Foot and during a skirmish on July 5, 1814, he saw an Indian in the act of killing an American prisoner, who gave him a Masonic sign. Clement rescued the brother and took him to a farm house and cared for him until well enough to be sent home. Some months after, Clement was taken prisoner and his jailor turned out to be the very man he had succored. His jailor informed him that a conveyance would return him to Canada the next morning. Clement died in 1845.

Earle C. Clements U.S. Senator and Governor of Kentucky. b. Oct. 22, 1896 at Morganfield, Ky. Served as official in Kentucky for 28 years, successively as sheriff, county clerk, judge and state senator. Congressman to 79th and 80th congresses (1945-49). Governor of Kentucky, 1947-50 and U.S. senator from Kentucky since 1950. Member of Morgan-field Lodge No. 66, Morganfield, Ky.

Chauncey F. Cleveland (1799-1887) Governor of Connecticut in 1842. b. Feb. 16, 1799 at Hampton, Conn. Admitted to bar in 1819. First elected to state legislature in 1826, and reelected eleven times. Served as U.S. Congressman for terms starting in 1849 and 1851. Member of the peace congress of 1861. Member of Eastern Star Lodge No. 44, Windham. Initiated in 1821 and later served as junior warden. d. June 6, 1887.

Chester W. Cleveland Magazine editor. b. Aug. 11, 1898 at Plymouth, Ind. Editor of The Magazine of Sigma Chi, also The Sigma

Chi Bulletin since 1921. Edited The Quill, official publication of Sigma Delta Chi professional journalistic fraternity, 192225. Author of History of Sigma Chi (7 volumes), Saga of a Hoosier Boy, The Norman Shield, George Ade: The Great American Humorist, Indiana Is So Rich. (lyrics), Fielding H. Yost: Football Immortal, Booth Tarkington, The Great American Novel- ist and others. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner.

Grover Cleveland ( 1 837 -1 908 ) Twenty-second and twentyfourth President of the United States (188589, 1893-97). Not a Freemason, but favorable to the fraternity. At the banquet following the dedication by the Grand Lodge of Virginia of the monument erected to Mary, the mother of Washington, he said he "regarded it as his misfortune that he had never been made a Mason." At one time there was talk of making him a Mason "at sight" in the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, but it was never accomplished.

Cliff Clevenger Congressman, 76th to 81st Congresses (193951) from 5th Ohio dist. b. Aug. 20, 1885 at Long Pine, Nebr. Entered dry goods business at Marengo, Iowa in 1901. President of The Clevenger Stores, Bowling Green, Ohio 1915-26, and manager of F. W. Uhlman Stores, Bryan, Ohio, 1927-38. Raised in Waverly Lodge No. 51, Appleton, Wis. in 1913 and presently a member of Bryan Lodge No. 215, Bryan, Ohio. Dimitted from chapter, council and commandery at Appleton, Wis. and life member, 32° AASR (SJ) at Toledo. Member of Zenobia Shrine Temple, Toledo.

Edgar L. Clewell Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 22, 1896 at Bethesda, Minn. Commissioned in 1917 and advanced to brigadier general in 1942. Executive officer of Ft. Monmouth, N.J. 1940-42. Director of Signal Supply, E.T.O., 1944. Chief of Procurement & Distribution Service, 1945-46. Retired, Nov. 30, 1946. Raised in St. Johns Lodge No. 9, Seattle, Wash. in 1918, 32° AASR in Caldwell Consistory at Bloomsburg, Pa., Aloha Shrine Temple at Honolulu, T.H. and National Sojourners at Harrisburg, Pa.

Walter D. Cline Oil producer and Imperial Potentate of Shrine, 193940. b. March 26, 1883 at St. Helena Parish, La. Was successively teacher, mule driver, carpenter, timekeeper. Moved to Texas in 1905 and brought in Fowler Well No. 1, the discovery well of the Burkburnett Pool. A pioneer operator in the Panhandle field of West Texas, he brought in the first well north of the Canadian River in 1922.

Charles Clingman Protestant Episcopal Bishop. b. Jan. 19, 1883 at Covington, Ky. Graduate of Kenyon College in 1905. Made deacon in 1907, priest in 1908. Served as rector in churches at Newport, Ky., Dallas Texas, Birmingham, Ala., 1908-36. Elected bishop diocese of Kentucky on Jan. 24, 1936. Initiated in Fort Thomas Lodge No. 808, Ft. Thomas, Ky. in April, 1910. Charter member, life member and first chaplain of Washington Lodge No. 1117, Dallas, Texas. 32° AASR (SJ) at Dallas, Texas and member of Arabia Shrine Temple at Houston, Texas.

DeWitt Clinton (1769-1828) Governor of New York, U.S. Senator from New York, Mayor of New York City, and instigator of the Erie Canal. b. March 2, 1769 in New Windsor, Conn. Graduated from Columbia in 1786, studied law, but practiced very little, devoting most of his time to politics. He became private secretary to his uncle, George, q.v. in 1790, then governor of New York. Served in the lower house in 1797 and state senate from 1798-1802. While in the latter, he worked to secure public defense, passage of sanitary laws, abolition of slavery and promotion of steam in navigation. Elected to the U.S. senate in 1802, he resigned to take the office of mayor of New York City, to which his uncle George, then governor for the second time, had appointed him. He continued as mayor until 1815 with the exception of the years 1807-09 and 1810-11. During this time he was again state senator from 1805-11 and lieutenant governor from 1811-13. He was a promising candidate for the presidency on the Peace Party ticket in 1812 but was defeated by Madison. As mayor of New York he promoted the establishment of public schools, founded institutions of literature and art and helped to give the city a metropolitan character. As early as 1809 he had been appointed one of the seven commissioners to examine and

survey a route for canal from the Hudson to the great lakes. He was sent by the legislature in 1812 to congress to urge the adoption of the project. In 1815, he petitioned the state legislature for immediate construction of the Erie and Champlain canals and the motion was carried in 1817. He was elected governor in 1817, again in 1819 and the third time in 1826, holding that office at his death on Feb. 11, 1828. It was during the last term that the Morgan q.v. incident took place in New York. In Oct., 1825 the Erie canal was opened with great ceremony and Clinton was carried on a barge in a triumphal procession from Lake Erie to New York. He was raised in Holland Lodge No. 16 (now No. 8) Sept. 3, 1790, serving as its master in 1793 and grand master of the Grand Lodge of New York from 1806-19. He was grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of New York in 1798 and general grand high priest of the General Grand Chapter of the U.S. from 1816-26. He was knighted in "Holland Lodge" May 17, 1792, served as grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of New York from 1814-28 and was grand master of the Grand Encampment of the U.S. from 1818-28. d. Feb. 11, 1828.

George Clinton (1739-1812) Member of Continental Congress (17751776); Governor of New York (177795 and 1801-04); VicePresident of the United States (1805-12), Brigadier General in American Revolution (1777). b. July 26, 1739 in Little Britain, N.Y. He was an uncle of DeWitt Clinton q.v. He missed signing the Declaration of Independence as Washington asked him to take a post in the highlands as a general of militia. In 1758, he participated in the expedition against Fort Frontenac with his father and brother James. In 1780 he thwarted an expedition led by Sir John Johnson q.v. and Joseph Brant q.v. into the Mohawk Valley. As governor, he took a great interest in education and initiated the movement for the organization of a common school system in his address to the legislature in 1795. His Masonic membership is hazy, but he appears to have been a member of Warren Lodge No. 17, N.Y.C., serving as master in 1800 and representing the lodge at the Grand Steward's Lodge on May 28, 1800. The following year he is referred to as a past master and also an honorary member of Courtland Lodge No. 34. There is also record of a George Clinton, Jr., who in 1799 was secretary of Howard Lodge No. 35, N.Y.C. and senior warden in 1800. From 1806 to 1819 there was a rash of five lodges named "Clinton" chartered in New York and they were undoubtedly

named for George rather than his nephew DeWitt, for the latter had not reached his peak of fame by that time. Thenumbers of these lodges were 143 (present in the 1818 proceedings); 151 at Plattsburg (warranted in 1806); 183 (in Clinton) warranted in 1809; 202 (Watervliet) warranted in 1812; and a 278 represented in the proceedings of 1819. d. April 20, 1812 in Washington, D.C.

Arthur R. Clippinger Bishop, United Brethren Church. b. Sept. 3, 1878 in Franklin Co., Pa. Ordained U.B. minister in 1905, serving pastorates in New Cumberland, Pa. and Dayton, Ohio until 1918 when elected bishop in May, 1921. He has been senior bishop of the Evangelical United Brethren Church since Nov. 1946. Raised June 7, 1920 in Miami Valley Lodge No. 660, exalted to Royal Arch in Unity Chapter No. 16, R.A.M., Feb. 24, 1921 and knighted in Reed Cornmandery No. 6, K.T. April 5, 1921. 32° AASR in Valley of Dayton and 33° at Philadelphia, Pa. on Sept. 27, 1950. d. July 18, 1958.

Roy Clippinger U.S. Congressman, 79th and 80th Congresses (1945-49) from 24th Illinois Dist. b. Jan. 13, 1886 at Fairfield, Ill. With the Norris City Record (Ill.) from 1896-1909 and publisher of the Carmi Democrat Tribune since 1909. Past president of Illinois Press Association. Mason, 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner.

Henry R. Cloud (1886-1950) Superintendent of Haskell Institute. b. Dec. 28, 1886 in Thurston Co., Nebr. of Indian parents and married Elizabeth Bender, Chippewa. Received A.B. and A.M. from Yale; B.D. from Auburn Theol. Seminary and D.D. from Emporia (Kansas) College. He was an ordained Presbyterian minister, teacher, edited The Indian 'Outlook and president of the American Indian Institute from 1915. He was chairman of the official delegation of Winnebagoes to the President in 191213, and member of the Committee of 100 appointed by secretary of Interior in 1925. Appointed superintendent of Haskell Institute in Aug., 1933 by executive order of President Roosevelt. Received Indian achievement award in 1935. Mason. d. Feb. 9, 1950.

J. W. Clous Brigadier General, U.S. Army. Member of Normal Lodge No. 523, New York City.

Leo Cluesmann Secretary, American Federation of Musicians. b. Dec. 17, 1885 at Newark, N.J. Graduate of National Conservatory of Music in 1904, and L.B. from New Jersey Law School. Admitted to bar in 1927. Was assistant to president of American Federation of Musicians from 193942 and secretary since 1942. Editor and publisher of International Musician since 1942. Mason and Shriner.

William G. Clyde ( 1 8 6 8 -1 9 3 1 ) President of Carnegie Steel Co. b. July 29, 1868 at Chester, Pa. Began as a civil engineer. Was vice president and general manager from 191825 and president from 1925. Also president of Clairton Steel Co., Carnegie Land Co., Clairton ByProducts Coke, Co., Carnegie Land Co., Girard Land Co., Conneaut Land Co., Sharon Land Co., Sharon Coke Co., and Bessemer Electric Power Co. d. March 23, 1931. Mason, received 33° AASR from Northern Supreme Council on Sept. 19, 1929.

Andrew J. Cobb (1857-1925) Presiding Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia. b. April 12, 1857 at Athens, Ga. Practiced law in Athens, professor of law and dean of Atlanta Law School. Associate justice of supreme court of Georgia from 1896-1907, serving as presiding justice from 1905-07. Judge of superior court for Western Georgia from 191721. Mason. d. March 27, 1925.

Cully A. Cobb Editor of Progressive Farmer and Southern Ruralist since 1930. b. Feb. 25, 1884 at Prospect, Tenn. Teacher, high school superintendent, state agricultural agent and in charge of boy's agricultural club work from 1910-19. Member of Battle Hill Lodge No. 523, and 32° AASR (SJ) at Atlanta, Ga.

Ernest Cobb Author of children's books. b. Dec. 3, 1877 at Newton Upper Falls, Mass. Studied at Harvard, Sorbonne. In early life was a newspaper reporter, high school principal, music teacher and school superintendent. Among his many works are Garden Steps; The Hen at Work; Around the World With Father Time; Metcalf Readers; Busy Builders' Books; Europe Today and Yesterday; Arlo; Anita; Allspice; Dan's Boy; Pennie; Andre; Picore and Robin. Mason.

Howell Cobb (1815-1868) Secretary of Treasury, Governor of Georgia and Confederate General. b. Sept. 7, 1815 in Cherry Hill, Ga. Entered congress as a Democrat in 1843 and served by reelections until 1851, serving as speaker in 1849. Elected governor of Georgia in 1851 by the Union party. Returned to congress in 1855 and supported Buchanan. On his election, Buchanan named Cobb as secretary of the Treasury in 1857. He resigned in 1860 to return to Georgia where he urged secession. He presided over the sessions of the provisional congress which adopted the constitution of the Confederacy. He was made a brigadier general and later a major general, but took very little part in military movements. He was a member of Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 22, Athens, Ga., serving as master in 1843. He acted as grand junior warden of the Grand Lodge of Georgia on Nov. 13, 1843. He became an active member of the Southern Supreme Council AASR on March 31, 1860. d. Oct. 9, 1868.

John B. Cobb (1857-1923) Capitalist. b. Oct. 5, 1857 in Caswell Co., N. Car. He borrowed $500 at age of 19 and entered leaf tobacco business, becoming associated with American Tobacco Co. in 1890 as leaf buyer and serving as vice president of same from 1896-1908. Also director and officer of affiliated companies, retiring in 1908. Mason. d. April 9, 1923.

Rufus W. Cobb Former Governor of Alabama and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Alabama in 1882.

Sylvanus Cobb, Jr. (1823-1887) Author of fiction. b. in Waterville, Maine, the son of Rev. Sylvanus Cobb, noted Universalist, who was leader in anti-slavery and temperance movements. His most noted work is The Caliph of Bagdad. Others include The King's Talisman; The Patriot Cruiser; Ben Mimed, etc. He was a member of Oxford Lodge No. 18, Norway, Maine, serving as master for five years (185861 and 1866). He served as high priest of Norfolk Chapter, R.A.M., master of Hyde Park Council R. & S.M. and commander of Cyprus Commandery, K.T. all of Hyde Park, N.Y. Also member of Scottish Rite. d. July 20, 1887.

Tyrus R. "Ty" Cobb Member of Baseball Hall of Fame. b. Dec. 18, 1886 in Narrows, Banks Co., Ga. Played with the Detroit American League team from 1905 until 1926 and with Philadelphia from 1927-28. He led the American League in batting 12 times and created or equalled more major league records than any other ball player. He retired with 419 major league hits. His all-time high batting average for lifetime is . 369. He was one of the first four elected to Baseball's Hall of Fame. He is a member of Royston Lodge No. 426 (now No. 52), joining in 1907 at the age of 21. He received his 32° AASR (NJ) in Detroit on Jan. 25, 1912. He was elected honorary life member of City of Straights Lodge No. 452, Detroit, on May 7, 1921. Joined Moslem Shrine Temple, Detroit, in 1912. A Shrine class was named for him in Newark, N.J. in Dec. 1955. His father, Wm. H. Cobb, was master of Royston Lodge No. 426 from 1899 to 1903 and organized a fine fellowcraft team that traveled over Georgia.

Charles D. Coburn Stage and screen actor. b. June 19, 1877 in Savannah, Ga. Became manager of Savannah Theatre at 18 and took up the stage as a profession at 22. He served in stock companies through the South and Middle West and became a leading man. He starred as John Storm in The Christian. In 1906 he organized the Coburn Players and he and Mrs. Coburn played the principal parts in Electra of Euripedes, 1phigenia in Tanis, The Canterbury Pilgrims, Jeanne d'Arc, The Rivals and 16 Shakespearean plays from 1906-17. He then moved to the legitimate stage in New York and for 20 years was one of the most famous actors of that period. He made the monocle famous. He was closely associated with the greatest writers and

producers of the time, and for a while was under the management of George M. Cohan q.v. In 1935 with Mrs. Coburn and Dixon Ryan Fox, he founded the Mohawk Drama Festival Institute of Theatre at Union College. He made his first appearance in moving pictures in 1937, appearing in Of Human Hearts and 41 other pictures including Idiot's Delight, The Story of Alexander Graham Bell, Stanley and Livingstone, Kings Row, George Washington Slept Here, The Constant Nymph, Princess O'Rourke, Heaven Can. Wait, Knickerbocker Holiday, Rhapsody in Blue, The Impatient Years, Shady Lady, The Green Years. He was raised in Prince of Orange Lodge No. 16, New York City on Feb. 6, 1913. He was exalted in Constitution Chapter No. 230, R.A.M. and knighted in Palestine Commandery No. 18, K.T. in 1913 and created a noble in the Mecca Shrine Temple in Jan. 1914. He is a life member of lodge, chapter, commandery and Shrine. On May 19, 1957 he received the gold medal for distinguished service from the General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons.

Frank S. Cocheu (1871-1940) Major General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 22, 1871. Graduate of West Point in 1894, advancing through grades to major general in 1934. He participated in the Santiago Campaign in 1898, the Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1902, in France 1918-19. Member of General Staff 1907-11, 1914-17 and 1921-25. Retired in 1935. Mason, Knight Templar and member of National Sojourners. d. July 11, 1940.

Robert L. Cochran Governor of Nebraska, 1934-41. b. Jan. 28, 1886 at Avoca, Nebr. Graduate of Univ. of Nebraska in 1910. Employed as a country surveyor, railroad surveyor, state bridge inspector, district engineer, and state engineer from 192334. He served three terms as governor, starting in 1934. He was with the UNRRA in the Mediterranean Theater from 1944-45 and chief of civil works branch, Bureau of Budget, since 1945. He served in WW1 as an army officer. Member of Gothenberg Lodge No. 249, Gothenberg, Nebr. 32° AASR (SJ) at Lincoln, Tangier Shrine Temple, Omaha and member of Royal Arch chapter and commandery, K.T.

Thomas C. Cochran Congressman, 70th to 73rd Congresses (1927-35) from 20th Pa. dist. b. Nov. 30, 1877 in Mercer Co., Pa. Studied law and admitted to bar in 1903. Congressional delegate to Interparliamentary Union at Paris, 1927, Berlin, 1928, Geneva, 1929 and London, 1930. Mason.

Gordon S. "Mickey" Cochrane Member of Baseball Hall of Fame. b. April 6, 1903 at Bridgewater, Mass. He played for the Philadelphia Athletics as catcher from 1925 to 1933 and for the Detroit American League team from 1934-37. He was later manager at Detroit and at present is a Yankee scout, doubling as a coach. A fiery catcher, he compiled a notable record both as a player and manager. He was the spark of the Athletic's championship teams of 192930-31 and had an average batting mark of .346 for those three years. He led Detroit to two league championships and a world series title in 1935. He was raised in Fellowship Lodge of Bridgewater, Mass. about 1925 and member of Al Bedoo Shrine Temple of Billings, Mont. in 1952.

Sir George Cockburn (1772-1853) British Naval Admiral who burned the White House in 1814. b. April 22, 1772 in London. He entered the navy when 9. He became a rear admiral in 1812 and took a conspicious part in the war with the United States. In 1813 he posted his squadron in Lynn Haven Bay and sent off marauding expeditions in all directions. He burned towns, carried off property and slaves and took the fortified works at Hampton on June 26. In August, 1814 he accompanied the expedition against the city of Washington, and in conjunction with General Ross, defeated a small force of Americans at Bladensburg, Md., four miles from the capitol on Aug. 24. They then entered Washington accompanied by a guard of 200 men and burned the public buildings. They were unsuccessful in their attempt to capture Baltimore the next month. In 1815 he received the Order of the Bath and in the autumn of that year carried Napoleon q.v. to St. Helena. He served repeatedly as a member of parliament and lord of the admiralty, being made admiral of the fleet in 1851. In 1852 he inherited a baronetcy from his brother. He was made a member of Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge No. 4, London on Nov. 25, 1811, and in 1812 was admitted to the Lodge of Antiquity No. 2, London. d. Aug. 19, 1853.

John Cocke (1772-1854) Major General in War of 1812. b. in Brunswick, Va. and migrated early with his father to Tennessee. He was admitted to the bar and was a member of the first legislature in 1796 and speaker of the house for many years. Afterwards he was a state senator. Was made major general of the East Tennessee Volunteers in Sept., 1813 and commanded them in the Creek War. He served under Jackson at New Orleans in 1814. Was U.S. congressman from 1819-27. Member of Rising Star Lodge No. 44, Rutledge, Tenn.

John H. Cocke (1780-1866) Brigadier General in War of 1812. b. Sept. 19, 1780 in Surry Co., Va. Graduate of William and Mary in 1798 and was general commanding the Virginia troops at Camp Carter and Camp Holly in 1812-13 and in the defense of the city of Richmond. He was vice-president of the American Temperance Society and a member of the board of visitors of the University of Virginia. An extract from his diary gives an account of the Masonic cornerstone laying of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville in 1817 which was attended by presidents Monroe, Jefferson and Madison. He received his E.A. degree in Jefferson Lodge No. 65 at Surry Court Court House, Va. according to the proceedings of the grand lodge in 1804. Later he seems to have become a member of Philanthropic Lodge No. 127 for he was suspended from it on May 18, 1827 for "gross unmasonic conduct.”

John A. Cockerill Author, journalist, and editor of New York World. Member of Republic Lodge No. 690 and served as trustee of same for three years.

Sir James Cockle (1819-1895) English lawyer and mathematician. First chief justice of Queensland, Australia from 186379. He made important contributions to theory of differential equations. Member of Lodge of Nine Muses No. 325, London, England.

David F. Cocks Vice President and Treasurer of Standard Oil Co. of Kentucky since 1948. b. Sept. 17, 1897 in New York City. Started as office boy with Standard Oil in 1917. Raised in Louisville Lodge No. 400, Louisville, Ky. about 1920. Knighted in DeMolay Commandery No. 12, K.T., 32° AASR and past potentate of Kos-air Shrine Temple, all of Louisville.

George P. Codd (1869-1927) U.S. Congressman, 67th Congress (192123) from 1st Michigan dist. and circuit judge from 192427. b. Dec. 7, 1869. Lawyer in practice in Detroit from 1892. Mason. d. Feb. 16, 1927.

William F. Cody (1846-1917) Better known as "Buffalo Bill," the famous pony express rider, Indian fighter, scout, plainsman and showman. b. Feb. 26, 1846 in Scott Co., Iowa. His father was killed in the Kansas border war. He was a pony express rider from 1860-61 with the famous "Russell, Majors & Waddell" q.v. From 1861-65 he was a government scout and guide with the 7th Kansas Cavalry. He contracted to furnish the Kansas Pacific Railroad with all the buffalo meat required to feed the laborers engaged in road construction and in 18 months (1867-68) killed 4,280 buffalo, earning the name "Buffalo Bill" by which he is best known. From 1868-72 he was again a government scout and guide, operating against the Sioux and Cheyenne. He killed Yellow Hand, the Cheyenne chief, in a hand-to-hand fight. He served as a general in the Nebraska national guard during the Sioux outbreak in 1890-91. In 1872 he was a member of the Nebraska legislature. He was in the Battle of Wounded Knee. From 1883 on he headed the famous "Wild West Show" that toured America and Europe. He was president of the Shoshone Irrigation Co. and co-author of The Great Salt Lake Trail. He was raised in Platte Valley Lodge No. 32, North Platte, Nebr. on Jan. 10, 1871. Member of Euphrates Chapter No. 15 at North Platte, and when he received his mark master degree, appropriately selected a buffalo's head as his mark. d. Jan. 10, 1917 and was buried with Masonic honors on Lookout Mountain near Golden, Colo.

Charles F. Coe Author and lawyer. Outstanding penologist and criminologist and writer of special articles on crime. b. Nov. 25, 1890 at Buffalo, N.Y. Practicing attorney in Palm Beach, Fla. Author of Me . . . Gangster, The River Pirate, Swag, Hooch, Triumph, Votes, In This Corner (with Jack Dempsey) q.v., Pay Off, The Other Half, Show Down, Vigilanti, Ransom, G-Man, Lifer, Knockout, Law and the Profits and many others. Mason.

John A. Coe (1868-1948) President of Anaconda American Brass Co. With American Brass Co. from 1903. Mason. d. Aug. 4, 1948.

John A. Coe, Jr. President of American Brass Co. b. Nov. 14, 1897 at Shelton, Conn.• Joined American Brass in 1920 and president since 1950; director since 1941. Also president and director of Anaconda American Brass. Served in army in WW1. Mason.

Louis A. Coerne (1870-1922) Composer. b. Feb. 27, 1870 at Newark, N.J. Composer of 182 works of vocaland instrumental music. Ph.D. from Harvard in music. Taught music in Olivet College, Univ. of Wisconsin, Buffalo, N.Y., Harvard. Served as organist and choirmaster in many churches. Mason. d. 1922.

John M. Coffee Congressman 75th to 79th Congresses (193747) from 6th Washington dist. b. Jan. 23, 1897 at Tacoma, Wash. Graduate of Univ. of Washington and Yale. Lawyer, practicing at Tacoma from 1922. Raised in Tacoma Lodge No. 22, Tacoma, Washington in Nov., 1936.

Leslie Coffelt Secret Service man who was killed on Nov. 1, 1950 by a Puerto Rican who was attempting to force his way into the Blair House and kill President Truman q.v. Truman was at this time living -at the Blair House while the White House was being remodeled.

Coffelt was a member of Potomac Lodge No. 5, Washington, D.C., being raised on Sept. 28, 1945. The lodge gave Masonic burial in Arlington Cemetery with President and Mrs. Truman present. Seven Freemasons of the White House Police were active pallbearers and six other Masonic White House guards were honorary pallbearers.

Walter C. Coffey President of University of Minnesota. b. Feb. 1, 1876 at Hartsville, Ind. Taught animal husbandry and related subjects in public schools of Indiana and later Univ. of Minn. President of the university from 1941-45 and emeritus since 1945. Mason.

Thomas C. Coffin (1887-1934) Congressman, 73rd Congress (193335) from Idaho. Lawyer practicing at Pocatello, Idaho. Assistant attorney general of Idaho from 1913-15. Mason. d. June 8, 1934.

William C. Coffin (1862-1944) Architect who designed and built some of the largest blast furnaces, steel plants and oil refineries in the United States and Canada, Ireland, Scotland and England. b. Sept. 7, 1862 at Pittsburgh, Pa. Mason and 32° AASR. d. Dec. 4, 1944.

John D. Coffman Chief Forester, Department of Interior, 193352. b. May 10, 1882 at Allentown, Pa. Graduate of Yale. With Forestry Service from 1909 as forester at Inyo National Forest, Shasta National Forest, Trinity National Forest. Awarded Department of Interior Distinguished Service medal in 1952. Raised in Easton Lodge No. 152, Easton, Pa. on Feb. 5, 1904 and received his 50-year pin Jan. 7, 1954. Was senior deacon of the lodge in 1903 when he left for Cornell Univ. Charter member (1907) of Cornell chapter of Acacia fraternity. Dimitted from chapter and cornmandery at Easton, Pa. and also Islam Shrine Temple of San Francisco, Calif.

Chandler C. Cohagen Architect. b. April 24, 1889 near Pierson, Iowa. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan. President of McIver, Cohagen & Marshall, architects of Billings and Great Falls, Mont. 1915-20 and of McIver & Cohagen, 1920-36. Independent practice since 1936. Member of executive board, grand council, Order of DeMolay since 1929. Grand master of Order of DeMolay, 1938. 33° and inspector general of AASR (SJ) since 1937. Raised in Billings Lodge No. 113, Billings, Mont., July 9, 1917 and past master of same. Grand master Grand Lodge of Montana in 1951. Member of Billings Chapter No. 6, RA.M., Adoniram Council No. 8, R. & S.M. and Aldemar Commandery all of Billings. Grand treasurer of DeMolay since 1955. Founder of Rocky Mountain Masonic Conference in 1952.

George M. Cohan (1878-1942) Actor, playwright, comedian, composerand producer. Both a Roman Catholic and a Freemason. b. July 4, 1878 at Providence, R.I. He made his first professional appearance at 9 years in Daniel Boone at Haverstraw, N.Y. Later in vaudeville, he appeared in Peck's Bad Boy, The Four Cohans, Little Johnny Jones and George Washington, Jr. He authored the following plays: The Wise Guy, The Governor's Son, Running for Office, Fifty Miles From Boston, The Man Who Owns Broadway, The Yankee Prince, The Little Millionaire, Seven Keys to Baldpate, Hit-the-Trail Holiday, The Song and Dance Man, American Born, The Merry Malones and many others. He also wrote many popular songs and starred in I'd Rather Be Right in 1937-38. He was a life member of Pacific Lodge No. 233, New York City, being raised on Nov. 16, 1905. He received his 32° AASR (NJ) on Feb. 3, 1906 and was a life member. He was also a life member of Mecca Shrine Temple, New York City. At his death on Nov. 5, 1942, he was buried with Catholic services.

William W. Cohen (1874-1940) Congressman, 70th Congress (192729). b. Sept. 6, 1874 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Brokerage business in New York City from 1902. Mason. d. Oct. 12, 1940.

Arthur C. Coit (1869-1929) Lyceum manager. b. April 8, 1869 at Shalersville, Ohio. Began in lyceum and chautauqua business in 1895

and was president of Coit Lyceum Bureau, Coit-Alber Chautauquas, CoitAlber Independent Chautauqua Co., Dominion Chautauqua ( T or on t o ). Served as YMCA secretary overseas in 1918. Retired in 1924. Mason. d. Aug. 3, 1929.

James L. Coke Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Hawaii. b. Aug. 31, 1875 in Marshfield, Oreg. Lawyer.

233 Richard Coke Territorial senator of Hawaii in 1912. President Wilson appointed him circuit judge in 1916 and associate justice of supreme court of Hawaii in 1917 and chief justice following year for four year term. He retired in 1922 to private practice and was appointed by Pres. Roosevelt as chief justice in 1934 and reappointed in 1939. Mason 32° AASR (SJ), Shriner and Jester.

Richard Coke (1829-?) U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas. b. March 13, 1829 at Williamsburg, Va. Removed to Waco, Texas and practiced law. Served in the Confederate army first as a private and later as captain. In 1866 he was elected judge of the supreme court and was removed a year later by General Sheridan on the grounds that he was an impediment to reconstruction. In 1873 he was elected governor and in 1876 was reelected. He resigned as governor on March 4, 1877 to take his seat in the U.S. senate, being reelected to that body in 1883. Member of Waco Lodge No. 92, Waco, Texas.

Bainbridge Colby (1869-1950) Secretary of State under President Wilson. b. Dec. 22, 1869 at St. Louis, Mo. A lawyer, he practiced in New York from 1892. He represented Samuel L. Clemens q.v. in settlement of his bankrupt publishing house. He was active in pushing Theodore Roosevelt for the presidency and was one of the founders of the Progressive National Party in 1912. Appointed commissioner of U.S. Shipping Board in 1917. He was named secretary

of state by Wilson in 1920, serving a year. He then became the law partner of Wilson from 1921-23. He was raised in Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City on Nov. 18, 1902. In May, 1931 he addressed the Grand Lodge of New York.

Leonard W. Colby (1846-1925) Soldier and lawyer. b. Aug. 5, 1846 at Ashtabula Co., Ohio. Earned four degrees from Univ. of Wisconsin. Servedas Nebraska district judge, assistant attorney general of U.S., and state Nebraska senator for two terms. With Nebraska troops in Sioux Indian campaign of 1890, commanding a brigade. Rose from lieutenant to brigadier general in Nebraska national guard. Was brigadier general of U.S. Volunteers in 1898-99 during Spanish American War and adjutant general of Nebraska 1901-03. In 1897 he organized the Cuban-American Volunteer Legion. Mason. d. Nov. 15, 1925.

Charles F. Colcord (1859-1934) Capitalist. b. Aug. 18, 1859 at Bourbon Co., Ky. and was self educated. He was a range rider in Texas when 12, and making the run into Oklahoma in 1889, he staked lots in present Oklahoma City. He was organizer and first president of the Commercial Natl. Bank in that city. He entered the oil business in 1903, drilling first wells at Red Fork and discovered the Glen Pool, the great oil field of Oklahoma in 1906. In 1917 he discovered and developed the South Bend, Texas oil field. He was first sheriff of Oklahoma County in 1889, deputy U.S. marshal in 1893 and first chief of police of Oklahoma City in 1889. Mason. d. in Dec., 1934.

Lincoln Colcord (1883-1947) Author. b. Aug. 14, 1883 at sea off Cape Horn. Spent his boyhood days to age of 14 with his father at sea, mostly on voyages to China. He began writing short stories in 1909, and was editor of American Neptune from 1941. Among his writings are The Drifting Diamond, The Game of Life and Death, Vision of War, Instrument of the Gods and others. Mason. d. Nov. 16, 1947.

R. K. Colcord Former Governor of Nevada. Member of Silver Star Lodge No. 5 at Goldhill, Nev. and of Carson Lodge No. 1, Carson City, Nevada. Fullname was Russell K. Past master of Carson Lodge; Royal Arch Mason and oldest living Mason in Nevada at death on Oct. 20, 1939.

Cadwallader D. Colden ( 1769-1834) Soldier, politician who succeeded DeWitt Clinton q.v. as mayor of New York. b. April 4, 1769 in Springhill, N.Y. Practicing lawyer in New York City most of his life. Served in a volunteer regiment in 1812 and one term in congress. In 1824-27 he was a state senator. He is variously listed as a member of Clinton Lodge No. 453, Brooklyn (dimitted Dec. 9, 1817) and Albion Lodge No. 31, New York City. He was senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of New York for five years. In the anti-Masonic period he denounced Freemasonry for political gain, but failed to be elected governor of New York. d. Feb. 7, 1834.

Charles S. Colden Justice, Supreme Court of New York. b. June 3, 1885 at Whitestone, N.Y. Worked as a teacher, newspaper reporter, lawyer and banker. Justice of supreme court since 1943. Charter member of Whitestone Lodge No. 973, New York City and in 1955 was named grand representative for the Netherlands near New York.

Benjamin Cole English engraver, who in 1728 and again in 1731 published the old constitutions engraved on 30 copper plates under the title of A Book of The Ancient Constitutions of the Free and Accepted Masons. He printed a third edition in 1751 changing the title, and subsequent editions were published up to 1794.

Ernest E. Cole (1871-1949) President of University of State of New York, 1940-42 and lawyer. b. Nov. 18, 1871 at Savona, N.Y. Admitted to bar in 1895. Was principal of public schools in several New York cities and in private law practice in Bath, N.Y. from 1916. Served in

both state legislative branches. Mason, 32° AASR (NJ). d. Nov. 19, 1949.

Frank L. Cole Brigadier General U.S. Medical Corps. b. June 11, 1890 at Paris, Idaho. M.D. degree from Univ. of Illinois in 1914. Entered army in 1917 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1948. Served in Honolulu, Letterman, Walter Reed and Hot Springs general hospitals. Commanding general of Letterman General Hospital since 1948. Raised in Eagle Rock Lodge No. 19, Idaho Falls, Idaho in spring of 1920.

George M. Cole Major General, U.S. Army. Mason and member of Hartford Chapter No. 56 of National Sojourners.

George W. Cole (1858-1923) Justice, Supreme Court of New York, 1916-23. b. Dec. 31, 1858 at Humphrey, N.Y. Mason. d. Mar. 30, 1923.

Russell D. Cole President of Cornell College since 1943. b. March 4, 1900 at Northwood, Iowa. Vice president and secretary of the college from 1939-43. Raised in Crescent Lodge No. 25, Cedar Rapids, Iowa and present membership in Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 112, Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 32° AASR at Cedar Rapids and member of Za-Ga-Zig Shrine Temple, Des Moines.

Thomas Cole (1801-1848) American painter who was one of the first landscape artists of this country. b. Feb. 1, 1801 at Bolton-le-Moor, England, he came to the U.S. with his father in 1819, settling in Ohio, where Cole took lessons from a mediocre portrait-painter named Stein. In 1825 he settled in New York and did much painting of Hudson River scenes. Later he made professional visits to England and Europe. His most popular paintings were Course of Empire and Voyage of Life.

Others were The Tomb of General Brock; A View of the United States; Garden of Eden; Expulsion From Paradise; Catskill Creek; Conway Peak; Mount Etna. He was raised in Amity Lodge No. 5, Zanesville, Ohio in 1822. d. Feb. 11, 1848.

William C. Cole Congressman from Missouri to 78th to 80th and 83rd Congresses from third and sixth districts. b. Aug. 29, 1897 at Filmore, Mo. Admitted to bar in 1928 and practiced at St. Joseph, Mo. since. Served as mounted scout in Mexican Border and on U.S.S. Machias 14 months in WW1. Member of Charity Lodge No. 331, St. Joseph, Mo.; 32° AASR and Moila Temple at St. Joseph. Honorary Legion of Honor, DeMolay.

W. Sterling Cole Congressman from New York (39th dist.) to 74th to 84th Congresses (1935-55). b. April 18, 1904 at Painted Post, N.Y. Graduate of Colgate and Albany Law School. Taught school and began law practice at Bath, N.Y. in 1936. Trustee of Colgate Univ. since 1945. Member of Steuben Lodge No. 112, Almas Shrine Temple, Washington, D.C., DeMolay Commandery No. 22, K.T. in Hornell, N.Y.

Holmes Colebert, Sr. Chickasaw Indian chief who received the 32° AASR from Albert Pike in the spring of 1860.

Benjamin W. Coleman (1869-1939) Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Nevada. b. July 1, 1869 at Ballsville, Va. Graduate of Richmond College and began practice of law in Denver, Colo. in 1893 and at Cripple Creek in 1897. Moved to Nevada in 1906 and practiced in Ely. Member of the supreme court from 1915 until death and chief justice from 1919-20, 192526, 1931-33, 1937-38. Mason.

Frederick W. Coleman (1878-1945) Major General, U.S. Army. b. July 16, 1878 at Baltimore, Md. Appointed Infantry lieutenant in 1898

and advanced through grades to major general and chief of finance, U.S. Armyfrom 1932-36. Retired Sept. 30, 1936. Served in SpanishAmerican War, Philippine Insurrection, Mexican border and with 91st Division in WW1. Mason. d. Jan. 5, 1945.

John S. Coleman President of Burroughs Adding Machine Co. since 1946. b. Oct. 12, 1897 at Charlestown, W. Va. Graduate of Georgetown Univ. in 1924. Started as salesman with Burroughs in 1920. Director of Standard Accident Ins. Co., Fruehauf Trailer Co. Served overseas in 1917-18. Mason.

J. Winston Coleman, Jr. Author and tobacco planter. b. Nov. 5, 1898 at Lexington, Ky. Holds degrees from Univ. of Kentucky, Lincoln Memorial Univ. Engaged as an engineer from 1920-23 and president of Coleman & Davis Inc., general contractors from 1924-36. Owner and operator of Win-burn Farm, specializing in tobacco and hemp at Lexington, Ky. since 1936. Author of Masonry in the Bluegrass, StageCoach Days in the Bluegrass, The Court Houses of Lexington, Lexington During the Civil War Slavery Times in Kentucky, A Bibliography of Kentucky History, 150 Years of Freemasonry in Lexington and Historical Sketch of Lexington Lodge No. I. Raised in Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. in 1920. Member of Lexington Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; Washington Council No. 1, R. & S.M. and Webb Commandery No. 1, K.T. all of Lexington and 32° AASR at Covington, Kentucky. Member of Oleika Shrine Temple, American Lodge of Research, The Philalethes Society, Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 (England) and Societas Rosicruciana, Virginia College, VII*.

Leighton Coleman (1837-?) Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Delaware. b. May 3, 1837 in Philadelphia, Pa. and graduated from the General Theological Seminary, N.Y. in 1861. After holding pastorates in Philadelphia, Wilmington, Del. and Mauch Chunk, Pa., he became rector of Trinity church, Toledo, Ohio in 1874. In 1875 he was elected bishop of Fond du Lac, Wis., but declined. He resided abroad for several years, and on June 6, 1888 was chosen bishop of Delaware. He

served as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and was a Knight Templar.

Sydney H. Coleman President of American Humane Association from 1927-46 and editor of the Humane Review since 1934. b. Aug. 31, 1886 at Bellona, N.Y. Began in social service work as general manager of the Erie County Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1910. Mason.

William T. Coleman (1824- ? ) California pioneer and vigilantes leader. b. Feb. 29, 1824 in Cythiana, Ky., he migrated to San Francisco in 1849 and became a wealthy shipping and commission merchant. He became nationally famous as a vigilante leader when he organized the citizens of San Francisco in 1851 and again in 1856 to restore law and order from gangs of hoodlums. His business took him to New York in 1856 and in 1863 when the disastrous "draft riots" swept New York City, Governor Horatio Seymour called upon Coleman to organize the lawabiding elements, which he did with great success and became known as "The Lion of the Vigilantes." On his return to California in 1877 and when hoodlums were committing depredations in the Chinese quarter, he again organized the citizens into an army wielding hickory clubs. He was made a Mason is Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City in 1863 and was past commander of California Commandery No. 1, San Francisco.

Henry, 3rd Lord of Coleraine Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) in 1727.

Schuyler Colfax (1823-1835) Vice President of the United States, 186973. b. March 23, 1823 in New York City. Settled with family in Indiana in 1836. Became owner and editor of St. Joseph Valley Register of South Bend. He was a member of congress from Indiana from 1855-69 and was speaker of the house from 1863-69. He declined the offer to be secretary of state from Grant in 1871 and was prominently mentioned as a presidential candidate in 1872. He declined

the editorship of the New York Tribune in 1872. In 1873 he was implicated in charges of corruption brought against members of congress who had received shares of stock in the credit mobilier of America, and although they were never proved, it ruined him politically. He was initiated in Lebanon Lodge No. 7, Washington, D.C. on Aug. 15, 1856, and the other two degrees given him by St. Joseph Lodge No. 45, South Bend, Ind. He was dropped from the roll of Lebanon Lodge on Dec. 16, 1864. d. Jan. 13, 1885.

Frederic R. Colie Justice, Supreme Court of New Jersey. b. May 4, 1895 at East Orange, N.J. Practiced law in New Jersey from 1922. Appointed to supreme court in 1941 and again in 1948. Mason.

Vincente Mejia Colindres President of Honduras from 1929-33. A Freemason.

Raymond S. Coll Editor of Honolulu Advertiser since 1922. b. Jan. 22, 1875 at Pittsburgh, Pa. Began in newspaper work in 1893. Was managing editor of Bisbee (Ariz.) Review; editor of Douglas (Ariz.) Dispatch and managing editor of Pittsburgh Dispatch from 1916-21. Member of Lodge le Progres de l'Oceania No. 371; Honolulu Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; Honolulu Commandery No. 1, K.T.; Honolulu Chapter No. 11, National Sojourners; Aloha Shrine Temple, all of Honolulu Hawaii.

Edgar B. Colladay Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Jan. 8, 1885 at Madison, Wis. Graduate of Univ. of Wisconsin in 1909. Commissioned in 1910 and advanced to brigadier general in 1940. Mason.

Jacob Collamer (1791-1865) U.S. Senator from Vermont and Postmaster General under President Taylor. b. Jan. 8, 1791 at Troy,

N.Y. Graduated from Univ. of Vermont in 1810 and served in the militia in the frontier campaign of War of 1812. Practiced law in Vermont and was elected associate justice of supreme court of Vermont from 183342. U.S. congressman from 2nd dist. in 1844 and 1846, declining to be a candidate in next election. Named as postmaster general in March, 1849, he resigned with the rest of the cabinet on the death of Taylor. He was again elected to supreme court of Vermont, and held the office until 1854 when he was chosen U.S. senator, an office he held until his death on Nov. 9, 1865. He was a member of Rising Sun Lodge No. 7, Royalton, Vt.

John Caskie Collett (1898-1955) Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals, 8th Judicial Circuit from 1947. b. May 25, 1898 at Keytesville, Mo. Admitted to Missouri bar in 1902. He was appointed to Missouri supreme court in 1935 and elected for 10 year term in 1936. In 1937 he was appointed judge of U.S. district court for Western Mo. Member of Salisbury Lodge No. 208, Salisbury, Mo. and exalted to Royal Arch in Salisbury Chapter No. 133 on March 22, 1923. d. Dec. 5, 1955.

George R. Collett ( 1872 - 1942 ) President of the Kansas City Stock Yards Co. from 1921. b. Jan. 6, 1872 at Hartford, Mich. Began as a railroader and after six years turned tothe cattle industry, being associated with Armour & Co., and the stockyards in Milwaukee, St. Louis and Kansas City. Was vice president of Morris & Co. of Chicago from 191821. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. July 4, 1942.

Edward Trowbridge Collins (18881953) Member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. b. May 2, 1888 at Millerton, N.Y. He was known as "Cocky" and also played under the name of "Edward T. Sullivan." He played with the American league from 1906 to 1930, a very long time for a professional ball player. During this time he was either with Philadelphia or Chicago. He was the greatest 2nd baseman ever to play ball. Famed as a batsman and base runner and field captain, he was second only to Ty Cobb q.v. in base stealing. His batting average was 333 and he made 3313 hits in 2826 games. He was elected to the Hall

of Fame in 1939. He was initiated in Solomons Lodge No. 466 at Tarrytown, N.Y. at the age of 22 on Jan. 19, 1911, passed Feb. 2, 1911 and raised Feb. 16, 1911. He demitted March 17, 1921.

John B. Collins (1850-1917) Commodore, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 20, 1850 at New Orleans, La., he graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1870. From a midshipman in 1866 he became captain in 1906 and commodore in 1909 when he retired. He served in the Behring Sea, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. He commanded the Princeton, Rainbow, Brooklyn, and Indiana. d. April 12, 1917. Mason.

Ross A. Collins Congressman from Mississippi to 67th to 73rd Congresses (1921-35) and 75th to 77th Congresses (1937-43) from 5th dist. b. April 25, 1880 at Collinsville, Miss. Graduate of Kentucky, Mississippi and Transylvania universities. A lawyer, he was attorney general of Mississippi in 1911-15. In the U.S. congress as chairman of the military appropriation committee he fought for mechanized weapons during the early 30's, and is credited with bringing the "Flying Fortress" into being. Mason.

William M. Colmer Congressman from Mississippi to 73rd to 80th Congresses (1933-49) from 6th dist. b. Feb. 11, 1890 at Moss Point, Miss. Admitted to bar in 1917. Served in WW1. Member of Pascagoula Lodge No. 419, Pascagoula, Miss. and 32° AASR (SJ) at Gulfport, Miss.

Sir Ian Colquhoun (1887-1948) Chief of the clan of Colquhoun of Scotland, he was 89th Grand Master Mason of Scotland in 1935 and as such installed King George VI q.v., who was then duke of York, as grand master mason. He was a member of Dumbarton Kilwinning Lodge No. 18. He held the DSO for gallantry in action in 1916. He was an amateur boxer and lightweight champion of the British army. He held the rank of lieutenant colonel and was a fisherman and hunter of renown. He was lord high commissioner to the general assembly of the

church; scout commissioner; chairman of Scotland's National Trust; Knight of the Thistle and holder of many titles and official positions. b. June 20, 1887; d. Nov. 18, 1948.

Samuel Colt (1814-1862) Inventor of the Colt firearms. b. July 19, 1814 at Hartford, Conn. Apprenticed in his father's factory, but ran away in 1827 for an East India voyage, returning to his father's factory in the dyeing department. He again left home to seek his fortune at age of 17 and toured the continent under the name of "Dr. Coult," giving lectures on chemistry and making a considerable profit from them. The first model of his pistol was made of wood in 1829. In 1835, when but 21, he took out hisfirst patent for revolving firearms. He established the Patent Arms Company and supplied the government with revolvers for the Seminole War and for the Texas and Indian frontiers. Colt was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 4; Pythagoras Chapter No. 17 and Washington Commandery No. 1, all of Hartford, Conn. d. Jan. 10, 1862.

Lord Alexander Colville (17101770) English Vice Admiral. He was the 8th Baron Colville in the peerage of Scotland; entering the navy at an early age, he commanded the North American station before the revolution. He was present at the capture of Louisburg in 1758 and served in the expedition against Quebec in 1759, and in command of the fleet at the recapture of Newfoundland in 1762, for which he was promoted to rear admiral a short time later. In 1770 he received the rank of vice admiral. Colville was the first initiate of St. Andrews Lodge No. 1 at Halifax, Nova Scotia in July, 1749, receiving his degrees at the hands of General Edward Cornwallis q.v., founder and first governor of Nova Scotia. The following year Colville became master of the "2nd lodge at Boston," which he represented at every meeting of the provincial grand lodge until his appointment as deputy grand master of North America in 1752. d. May 21, 1770.

Sir Stapleton Cotton Combermere (1773-1865) English Field Marshal. Born in Wales, he served at Cape of Good Hope in 1796; against Tipu Sahib in 1799; in Ireland in 1800. He commanded the cavalry in the Peninsular War of 1803-12; fought at Salamanca in 1812;

was commanderin-chief in Ireland in 1822-25; in India 1825-30 and named field marshal in 1855. He was provincial grand master of Chester from 1830 until his death.

Gilbert R. Combs (1863-1934) Musician. b. Jan. 5, 1863 at Philadelphia. He studied under the best American and foreign masters. He founded Combs Broad St. Conservatory of Music, and was one of the founders and president of Sinfonia, national music fraternity. A founder and vice president of National Association of Schools of Music. Was composer for orchestra, piano, voice and violin. Mason. d. June 14, 1934.

Lewis B. Combs Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. April 7, 1895 at Manchester Centre, Vt. Commissioned in U.S. Navy in 1917 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1942. Deputy chief of Bureau of Yards and Docks, Washington, D.C. 193846, and director of Atlantic division of the bureau in 1946. Retired in 1947. Appointed head of department of civil engineering of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Raised in Greenbush Lodge No. 337, Rensselaer, N.Y. about 1917. 32° AASR at Portsmouth and Dover, N.H. Member of National Sojourners.

Braxton B. Corner Former Governor of Alabama. His original lodge is not known, but he affiliated with Anniston Lodge No. 443 at Anniston, Ala. on May 8, 1888 and demitted from from same in 1889. On Nov. 6, 1888 he was one of the petitioners for the establishment of Anniston Chapter No. 105, and was designated as its first high priest, but later reports show no record of him.

Hugh M. Corner President and Treasurer of Avondale Mills, cotton manufacturers since 1945. b. June 9, 1892 at Birmingham, Ala. Also president and director of Comer-Avondale Mills, N.Y. City and director of several other companies. Mason.

Henry S. Commager (1825-1867) Union Brigadier General in Civil war. A prominent Democratic politician in Toledo, Ohio, who in 1864 was unsuccessful candidate for congress. A colonel in the 67th Ohio regiment in war, he was brevetted brigadier general of volunteers on Feb. 27, 1865. Member of Northern Light Lodge No. 40, Toledo. d. Sept. 5, 1867.

Ignacio Comonfort (1 812-1863) President of Mexico and soldier. b. March 12, 1812 in Pueblo, he entered the Jesuit college in his native city in 1826; became a captain of cavalry in 1832 and allied himself to the liberal party. A member of congress in 1842 and took part in the revolution of 1846. He became third alcalde of the capital and prefect of western Mexico, but left to engage in the war with the United States. After the American victory he organized guerrillas in the West for another campaign, and was a member of the Queretero congress which made peace with the U.S. and was then chosen senator by his native state, serving until 1851. He joined Alvarez in an insurrection against Santa Anna, and after a trip to New York for financial aid, forced Santa Anna to abdicate in 1855. Alvarez assumed the government, but retired on Dec. 11 and made Comonfort provisional president. He was vigorously opposed by the clergy, the army and the conservatives, and on Dec. 19 the junta of Zacapoastla declared their opposition. They massed a force against him, but he forced their surrender on March 20, 1857. On March 31 he issued a decree confiscating church property, followed by another on June 28, forbidding the clergy to hold landed estate. On March 11, 1857, congress promulgated a new constitution, vesting in itself all control over religious and military affairs. Comonfort was proclaimed constitutional president with extraordinary powers. When the army deserted him, Comonfort appointed Benito Juarez q.v. provisional president and fled first to the U.S. and then to France. When his friend Juarez won over the church party in 1859, and the French invaded Mexico, Comonfort returned, was appointed commander-inchief of the troops and showed great skill and bravery. On his way from Mexico to San Luis Potosi, on Nov. 13, 1863, he was murdered by bandits. He was grand commander, 33°, of the Supreme Council AASR of Mexico at Vera Cruz.

F. Ray Comstock (1880-1949) Theatrical producer. b. in Buffalo, N.Y., he began as a theatrical producer in 1900. He was the producer of Very Good Eddie, Oh Boy, Oh, Lady, Lady, Oh My Dear, Nobody Home, Rose of China, Leave It to Jane, Sitting Pretty, Let Us Be Gay, Polly Preferred, Adam and Eva, Chu Chin Chow, Mecca and The Miracle. He brought Balieff's Chauve-Souris to the U.S. as well as the Moscow Art Theatre and The Moscow Art Theatre Musical Studio, and presented Mme. Eleanora Duse for her last tour of America. Mason and Shriner. d. Oct. 15, 1949.

William A. Comstock (1877-1949) Governor of Michigan 193334. b. July 2, 1877 at Alpena, Mich. he graduated from Univ. of Michigan in 1899 and engaged in the construction and operation of electrical railroads until 1922. Was vice president of Gale Mfg. Co. from 1926, and had several other manufacturing and real estate interests. Served as private during 1917. Member of Alpena Lodge No. 199, Alpena, Mich. d. June 16, 1949.

Samuel S. Conant (1831-1885?) Editor of Harper's Weekly from 1869 until January 1885, when he mysteriously disappeared. b. Dec. 11, 1831 at Waterville, Maine, he studied at Madison Univ., Hamilton, N.Y. and went abroad in 1858, studying in Berlin, Heidelberg and Munich. He contributed to many periodicals and translated from the Russian, through the German, Lermontoff's Circassian Boy. He was a member of Commonwealth Lodge No. 409, Brooklyn, N.Y.

Frederick P. Cone (1871-1948) Governor of Florida, 1937-41. b. Sept. 28, 1871 at Benton, Fla. Admitted to Florida bar in 1892, he served in state senate from 1907-13 and was president of that body in 1911. Member of Lake City Lodge No. 27, Lake City, Fla. d. July 28, 1948.

S. H. Cone A Seneca Indian chief who received the three degrees in Manhattan Lodge No. 370 of New York City on June 5, 1840.

Abraham B. Conger (1887-1953) U.S. District Judge of Georgia from 1949. b. July 14, 1887 near Ty Ty, Ga. Practiced law at Bainbridge, Ga. from 1912. Served in Georgia lower house and was mayor of Bainbridge. For his work in both WW1 and WW2 he was cited by Presidents Wilson and Truman. Mason and Shriner. d. Dec. 9, 1953.

Edwin H. Conger (1843-1907) Diplomat. b. March 7, 1843 in Knox Co., Ill. Served in Civil War and was brevetted a major. Practiced law in Galesburg, Ill. from 1866-68, when he moved to Iowa and became a farmer, banker and stockman. Was state treasurer of Iowa from 1882-85 and member of U.S. congress from 188591. He was named minister to Brazil from 1891-93 and again in 1898. He was transferred to China in 1898 and was in Peking during the Boxer siege, where he conducted negotiations on the part of the U.S. He was head of the commission which negotiated a new commercial treaty with China in 1902. Was appointed ambassador to Mexico in 1905 but resigned the same year. Mason.

Omar D. Conger (1818-?) U.S. Senator from Michigan. b. in Cooperstown, N.Y., he removed to Huron Co., Ohio with his family in 1824 and was graduated at Western Reserve in 1842. He was engaged in the geological survey of the Lake Superior iron and copper region from 1845-47, and in 1848 became a lawyer in Port Huron, Mich. A state senator from 1855-61, he served as president of that body in 1859. A member of the state constitutional convention in 1866, he was U.S. congressman from 1869-81, at which time he was elected U.S. senator. Member of Pine Grove Lodge No. 11, Port Huron, Mich.

Roscoe P. Conkling (1889-1954) Justice, Supreme Court of Missouri from 1947, Chief Justice, 1953. b. May 3, 1889 at Carrollton, Mo. Attended Univ. of Missouri and admitted to bar in 1912, practicing at Kansas City and later St. Joseph. Member of board of curators of Stephens College, Mo. He was a member of Zeredatha Lodge No. 189,

32° AASR (SJ) and Moila Shrine Temple, all of St. Joseph, Mo. d. Oct. 28, 1954.

William G. Conley (1866-1940) Governor of West Virginia, 192933. b. Jan. 8, 1866 at Kingwood, W. Va. Graduate of West Virginia Univ. in 1893, he first taught school and in 1893 began practice of law at Parsons. He was editor and part owner of the Parsons Advocate from 1896-1903. He was assistant secretary of the Republican national convention of 1896. Was raised in Preston Lodge No. 90, Kingwood, W. Va. on Dec. 7, 1903, affiliating with Charleston Lodge No. 153 upon removal to Charleston on Nov. 13, 1919. He was 32° and KCCH in the AASR (SJ). d. Oct. 21, 1940. Only W.V. governor at that time to have received 33°.

G. C. Conn Manufacturer of musical instruments. Raised in Kane Lodge No. 183, Elkhart, Ind. in 1870 and master of the lodge in 1873. He was also a member of Elkhart Chapter No. 81, R.A.M. in 1873; joined Bashar Council R. & S.M. at Goshen, Ind. in 1875 and South Bend Corn-mandery No. 13, K.T. at South Bend in 1877, serving as commander of same in 1881. At formation of Elkhart Commandery, he was commander of it from 1884-86.

Tom Connally U.S. Senator from Texas from 1929-1953. b. Aug. 19, 1877 in McLennan Co., Texas. Graduate of Baylor and Univ. of Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1898, he served in state house of representatives from 1901-04 and was U.S. congressman from the 11th dist. to the 65th-70th congresses ( 191 7 - 29 ). As chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee from 1941-51 he had great power on the international scene during these crucial years. He was a delegate to the Inter-Parliamentary Union in meetings at Geneva, London, Constantinople and Rome from 1924-48. He was vice chairman of the United States delegation to United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco in 1945, and served as U.S. delegate to the 1st General Assembly of the United Nations in London in 1946. He was advisor to the Secretary of State at the following meetings: Council of Foreign Ministers, Paris, 3rd Council of Foreign Ministers in New

York. He served with the 2nd Texas Inf. Volunteers in the Spanish American War in 1898, and was captain and adjutant of the 22nd Infantry of 11th Division in WW1. He is a member of Marlin Lodge No. 152, Marlin, Texas, being raised July 24, 1904. He received his 32° AASR (SJ) on May 7, 1931 and is a 33° H.R.H. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught (and Strathearn) (18501942) His full name was Arthur William Patrick Albert. He was the third son and 7th child of Queen Victoria. He married Princess Louise Marguerite of Prussia. He joined the Royal Engineers in 1868 and held a command in India from 188690. Was made general in 1893 and was commander-in-chief in Ireland in 1900, and in the Mediterranean from 190709. In 1911-16 he was governor general of Canada. He served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of England longer than any other grand master-38 years from 1901-1939. He was raised in Prince of Wales Lodge, March 24, 1874 by his elder brother, the Prince of Wales, who was later King Edward VII q.v. When he became king, Edward relinquished the office of grand master which he held for 27 years to Prince Arthur. Arthur was installed as provincial grand master for Sussex in 1886 and two years later district grand master for Bombay. He ruled over the Irish Knights Templar as grand prior from 1878 to 1895 when the Convent General was dissolved. He was sovereign grand inspector general of the Supreme Council 33° for England and Wales and was the originator of the Masonic Million Dollar Memorial Fund for the erection of the present London temple as a tribute to the Masons who lost their lives in WW1. He was succeeded as grand master by H.R.H. Prince George q.v. When Prince Albert invested Prince George as senior grand warden, Albert's two brothers—both to become kings—were present. They were H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, later Edward VIII and now Duke of Windsor q.v. and H.R.H. the Duke of York, later King George VI q.v.

William E. Connelley (1855-1930) Author. b. March 15, 1855 in Johnson Co., Ky. Connected with banking interests in Kansas City, Kans., he wrote call for the first meeting of oil men in Kansas in 1905, which resulted in organization of Kansas Oil Producers' Assn. and began the crusade against Standard Oil Co., which resulted in the dissolution of that corporation by the supreme court. Author of The Provisional Governmentof Nebraska Territory, Quantrill and the Border Wars, Eastern Kentucky Papers, History of Kansas (5 volumes), History of Kentucky (5 volumes). He prepared the only vocabulary ever written

of Wyandot Indian language, and made extensive investigations in language and history of Delawares, Shawnees and other tribes. d. July 15, 1930. Mason.

James Conner (1829-1883) Confederate General, Civil War. b. Sept. 1, 1829 at Charleston, S. Car. Admitted to bar in 1852 and appointed----- U.S. district attorney for S. Car. in 1856. Entered Confederate army as captain in 1861, serving in many campaigns and rising to the rank of brigadier general, commanding a division in the latter part of the war. d. June 26, 1883. He was a member and past master of Landmark Lodge No. 76, Charleston, and in 1868 served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina.

Martin S. "Mike" Conner Governor of Mississippi from 1932-36. b. Aug. 31, 1891 at Hattiesburg, Miss. he graduated from Univ. of Miss. in 1910, and law degree cum laude from Yale in 1913. Began practice at Seminary, Miss. in 1913. Was speaker of the state lower house from 191624. Now member of Conner & Nobles. Mason and Shriner, received his KCCH in Scottish Rite (SJ).

Donald H. Connolly Major General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 11, 1886 at Fort Mojave, Ariz. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1910 and in Corps of Engineers since that time. Saw foreign service in Canal Zone, Philippines and France. Member of general staff from 1918-22. With headquarters, Army Air Forces in Washington in 1942, and commanded the Persian Gulf Command from 194244. Retired in 1948, and since that time has been director of department of aviation, City of Baltimore. Life member of Lebanon Lodge No. 7, Washington, D.C.

Frank L. Conrad (1886-1949) Utilities executive. b. Sept. 15, 1886 at Cincinnati, Ohio. Was president and director of the following companies: United Light & Railways Co.; American Light & Traction Co.; Continental Gas & Electric Corp; United Light & Railways Service Co.

Was director of half a dozen other corporations. Mason. d. Oct. 22, 1949.

Marchioness of Contebonne An early member of French Adoptive Freemasonry, a female organization which received quasiMasonic recognition from the Grand Orient of France. Other famous contemporaries in the order were the Duchess of Chartres q.v., Duchess of Bourbon q.v., Princess Lambelle q.v., Countess of Polignac q.v. and Countess of Choiseul-Gouffier q.v.

Julius Converse Governor of Vermont in 1872-74. His lodge membership is not known, but on Sept. 21, 1831 he was a visitor at Rising Sun Lodge No. 7 of Royalton, Vt.

Edmond E. Cook (1 8 7 4-1 9 3 1) Newspaper editor. b. Jan. 21, 1874 at Dalton, Ohio. Began as reporter on Columbus Press-Post in 1895. Became editor in chief of central group (Ohio) of Scripps-Howard newspapers with headquarters in Cleveland, 1922, returning to Columbus in 1922 to head a similar group. Mason. d. May 3, 1931.

H. Earl Cook Chairman of the Board, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Director of same since 1947. Retired, Nov. 1, 1957. b. June 19, 1886 at Bucyrus, Ohio. With 2nd National Bank of Bucyrus from 190746, being president of same from 1929-46. Was superintendent of banks of Ohio from 1943-47. Raised in Bucyrus Lodge No. 139 in June, 1908, serving as master and was treasurer of lodge for 30 years. Member of Bucyrus Chapter No. 160, R.A.M., Bucyrus Council No. 83, R. & S.M. (past master and secretary for three years) and Marion Commandery No. 36, K.T. Received 33° AASR (NJ) in 1937 and is life member of Toledo Consistory. Member of Aladdin Shrine Temple, Columbus, Ohio; Red Cross of Constantine, Toledo and Royal Order of Scotland in Washington, D.C.

James Cook (1728-1779) English explorer, mariner and circumnavigator. b. Oct. 28, 1728 in Martin, Yorkshire. He entered the British navy as a common seaman in 1755 and by 1759 was master of a vessel. He surveyed the St. Lawrence channel in 1759, coast of Newfoundland and Labrador from 1763-67. Explored the South Pacific in the Endeavour in 1768, charting the coasts of New Zealand, Australia and New Guinea and returning by way of Cape of Good Hope in 1771. With the Resolution and the Adventure he conducted an expedition in search of the great southern continent then believed to exist in 1.77275. On this trip he skirted the Antarctic ice fields, visited Tahiti, New Hebrides and discovered New Caledonia. His last trip was with the Resolution and the Discovery, starting in 1776 to discover a passage around North America from the Pacific. He rediscovered the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) and charted the Pacific coast of North America as far as the Bering Strait. He was killed on Feb. 14, 1779 in Hawaii in a scuffle with natives over a stolen boat. Although no proof of his membership is available, he is constantly referred to as a member of the Craft.

Lawrence F. Cook Chief Forester of National Park Service. b. May 21, 1900 at Newton Center, Mass. B.S. in forestry from Syracuse Univ. in 1923. Served as park ranger, chief ranger and forester in charge of Western division of National Parks until 1937 when he became assistant chief forester of the service at Washington, and chief forester since June 1952. Mason.

Robert C. Cook President of Mississippi Southern College since 1945. b. July 6, 1903 at Fayette, Ala. Teacher and principal of high schools until 1937 when he became professor of education at his alma mater, the Univ. of Mississippi. Served as dean of the school of education until 1943. Mason.

William L. Cook (1869-1942) Justice, Supreme Court of Tennessee from 1926-42. b. Dec. 6, 1869 at Bon Aqua, Tenn. Admitted to bar in 1892 and practiced at Charlotte. Member of state general assembly, circuit court judge from 1908-23. Mason. d. March 5, 1942.

George Cooke An impostor. It is not often that the Grand Lodge of England allows itself to be hoodwinked, but it so happened in 1847 when a visiting American, who styled himself Major General George Cooke, LL.D., and said that he was a chancellor of the University of Ripley, joined the Prince of Wales Lodge No. 259. A generous supporter of the Masonic charities, he became vice president of the Girls' School and a life governor of the Boys' School and of the Benevolent Institution. Before he left England, the grand master conferred on him the rank of past grand warden and appointed him his representative at the Grand Lodge of New York. A fund was even raised for the purpose of putting his bust in Freemasons' Hall. It was not until Cooke was safely back in the states that it came to light he was a mere medical quack who advertised his wares. He was accordingly stripped of his grand rank, expelled from the grand lodge and reimbursed the sums he had subscribed to charity.

George A. Cooke ( 1869 - 1938 ) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Illinois, 1913-14. b. July 3, 1869 at New Athens, Ohio. Graduate of Knox College in 1892. Served in Illinois lower house for four years and elected to supreme court of Illinois in 1900, serving until he resigned in 1918. He resumed private practice in Chicago in 1919. Mason. d. Dec. 6, 1938.

Harold G. Cooke President of Mc-Murry College, Abilene, Texas since 1942. b. June 12, 1890 at Scatterwood, S.D. Admitted to Texas bar in 1912 and ordained to Methodist ministry in 1913. He served as a pastor from 1913-38 and was professor of homiletics at Southern Methodist Univ. from 1928-30. Member of Abilene Lodge No. 559 of Abilene, Texas.

L. Perry Cookingham City Manager of Kansas City, Mo. since 1940. b. Oct. 23, 1896 at Chicago, Ill. He first served as city manager of Clawson, Mich. from 1927-31, then Plymouth, Mich. from 1931-36 and Saginaw, Mich. from 1936-40. Served as president of the International

City Managers' Assn. in 1940 and received the LaGuardia q.v. Memorial Award for achievement in municipal administration. Member of Anchor Lodge No. 980 of Danville, Ill. since 1920. Shriner and member of DeMolay Legion of Honor.

Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) Thirtieth President of the United States. A non-Mason, his wife was a member of the Order of Eastern Star and his son, John, became a member of Wyllys Lodge No. 99, West Hartford, Conn. on Oct. 18, 1944. While governor of Mass. Coolidge addressed the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, having this to say: "It has not been my fortune to know very much of Freemasonry, but I have had the great fortune to know many Freemasons, and I have been able in that way to judge the tree by its fruits. I know of your high ideals. I have seen that you hold your meetings in the presence of the open Bible, and I know that men who observe that formality have high sentiments of citizenship, of worth, and of character. That is the strength of our Commonwealth and Nation.”

Samuel H. Coon U.S. Congressman from Oregon to 83rd and 84th Congresses. b. April 15, 1903 at Boise, Idaho. Graduate of Univ. of Idaho in 1925. A cattle rancher since 1929. Was state senator in 195152. Raised in Baker Lodge No. 47 in 1948 and 32° AASR (SJ), both in Baker, Oreg.

Robert E. Coontz (1864-1935) Admiral, U.S. Navy and Commander-in Chief of the U.S. Fleet. b. June 11, 1864 at Hannibal, Mo. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy in 1885. Was commissioned ensign in 1887 and promoted through grades to rear admiral in 1917 and full admiral on Oct. 24, 1919. He was in Alaska six years as a pilot, and in 1908 was executive officer of the Nebraska on a trip around the world. In 1910-11 he was commandant of midshipmen at the Naval Academy, and governor of Guam in 1912-13. From 1913-15 he commanded the Georgia. In WW1 he commanded the 7th Division, U.S. Atlantic Fleet in 1918 and commanded U.S.S. Wyoming, flagship of the Pacific Fleet. He was confirmed by the senate as chief of naval operations in 1919 and commanded the U.S. Fleet from Aug. 4, 1923 to

Oct. 3, 1925. He retired in 1928, but was recalled in 1930 to investigate Alaskan railroads. He was raised in Naval and Military Lodge No. 206 at Bremerton, Wash. on Oct. 23, 1915 and served as master of same (now William H. Upton Lodge). He was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Washington in 1925. He was a member of Olympia Chapter No. 27, R.A.M. of Bremerton and Albert Pike Consistory, AASR (SJ), Washington, D.C. receiving 33° on Oct. 23, 1931. On June 14, 1930 he was elected president of the National Sojourners in convention at Atlantic City, N.J. d. Jan. 26, 1935.

Sir Ernest Cooper British industrialist. b. June 10, 1877 in Clinton, Huron Co., Ontario, Canada, of British parents. He graduated from Toronto Univ. in 1900 and left Canada for England in 1908. During WW1 he served with the Canadian Expeditionary Forces from 1916-19, retiring with rank of captain. Cooper is chairman of Gillette Industries, Ltd., the European counterpart of the Gillette Safety Razor Co. in the United States, of which American company he is vice president and director. In 194143 he served as industrial adviser to the government of Northern Ireland, and in 1943-46 was director of Information Services in London. In 1940-41 he was England's minister of aircraft production. In 1944 he was created a knight at the hands of late George VI q.v. in recognition of his services in industry and production. He was initiated July 25, 1911 in Canada Lodge No. 3527, London, serving as its master in 1917. He has served on the Grand Lodge of England's board of general purposes since 1939 and has been chairman of the board since appointed as such by the late Earl of Harewood in 1946. He has received many Masonic honors. In 1951 the late Duke of Devonshire q.v. then grand master, conferred on him the rank of past grand warden. He is also a senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, past deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, past grand registrar of the Grand Lodge of Canada (Ontario), and past grand warden of the National Grand Lodge of France. In May, 1956 the Grand Lodge of New York bestowed its exclusive award for distinguished achievement on him.

Henry Cooper (1827-?) U.S. Senator from Tennessee from 1871-77. b. Aug. 22, 1827 in Columbia, Tenn., he graduated at West Tennessee Univ. in 1847. Admitted to bar in 1849, he practiced at

Shelbyville. He was elected to the state's legislature in 1853 and again in 1857. He served in the state senate in 1869-70. He was raised in Shelbyville Benevolent Lodge No. 122 on Jan. 6, 1849 and later demitted to Euphemia Lodge No. 195 of Columbia. He was exalted in Tannehill Chapter No. 40, R.A.M. in Jan. 1852, and knighted in Nashville Commandery No. 1, K.T. on Oct. 13, 1853.

Jere Cooper U.S. Congressman 71st to 84th Congresses from Tennessee (1929-56). b. July 20, 1893 in Dyer Co., Tenn. Admitted to bar in 1915 and practiced at Dyersburg. Served with A.E.F. in WW1 as captain. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. Member of Hess Lodge No. 93, Dyersburg, Tenn.

Robert A. Cooper (1874-1953) Twice Governor of South Carolina (1919-22) and federal judge. b. June 12, 1874 at Laurens Co., S. Car. Admitted to bar in 1898 and began practice at Laurens. Member of the Federal Farm Loan Board 1922-27. Was U.S. district judge of Puerto Rico from 1934-47. He was raised in Ornan Lodge No. 69, Fork Shoals, S. Car., afterwards demitting to Princeton Lodge No. 129 and then to Palmetto Lodge No. 19. He was the first elected master of Laurens Lodge No. 260, Laurens, and was grand master of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina from 1915-17. He also served as potentate of Omar Shrine Temple at Charleston. d. Aug. 7, 1953.

Samuel I. Cooper Architect. b. Feb. 14, 1894 at Atlanta, Ga. Graduate of Univ. of Pennsylvania in architecture, he was president of Cooper & Cooper from 1925-42; vice president of Cooper, Bond & Cooper, Inc. 1945-52, and president of same since 1952. Architect on many public and residential buildings, schools, colleges, libraries, dormitories, gymnasium, office buildings and public housing. Mason.

Thomas A. Cooper (1776-1849) Actor. b. in London, England. His first stage appearance was in Stephen Kemble's company in Edinburgh and later at Covent Garden, London, with great success as

Hamlet and Macbeth. In Dec., 1796 he made his first appearance in Philadelphia as Macbeth at the Chestnut Street Theatre and in August of the following year played in the Greenwich Street Theatre in New York as Pierre in Venice Preserved. He returned to England in 1802, and for several years held a foremost rank on the English stage. He returned to New York in 1804, and for a long time was lessee of the Park Theatre. He made one more trip to England, but returned to America and continued to play until advanced years. His daughter, having married the son of President Tyler, he held several public offices, including surveyor to ports of New York and Philadelphia. He was a member of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City. d. April 21, 1849.

Wyllis Cooper Radio writer and producer. b. Jan. 26, 1899 at Pekin, Ill., he has been a radio writer since 1929 and motion picture writer from 1936-39. He was continuity editor of Columbia Broadcasting System, central division from 1930-32. He originated the radio dramatic series Lights Out, in 1933, directing it until 1936. He directed a number of other series including Empire Builders, immortal Dramas, Hollywood Hotel, Good Neighbors, Spirit of '41, Quiet Please, and was writer and producer of The Army Hour by the War Department in 1943. Mason.

Robert W. CopeIan Managing Editor of Cincinnati Times-Star since 1952. b. Dec. 22, 1894 at Cincinnati. He began as a reporter for the Cincinnati Enquirer in 1914, turning to advertising and insurance business from 1920-24, and back to newspaper work with the TimesStar in 1924, successively as reporter, rewrite, make up editor, assistant city editor, news editor and associate managing editor. Served as an officer in both WW1 and WW2. Member of Chevoit Lodge No. 140, Cincinnati, Ohio, being raised in 1915; McMillan Chapter No. 19 and Trinity Commandery No. 44, K.T.; Syrian Shrine Temple—all of Cincinnati. Served as commander of his commandery in 1932.

Royal S. Copeland (1868-1938) U.S. Senator from N.Y. and physician. b. Nov. 7, 1868. Received M.D. degree from Univ. of Michigan in 1889, and took postgraduate work in England, France, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium. He practiced in Bay City, Mich.

from 1890-95, and was professor of ophthalmology at the Univ. of Michigan from 1895-1908. He moved to New York and held the same position in the Flower Hospital Medical College from 1908-18. He was commissioner of health and president of the New York City board of health from 1918-23, and then served three terms as U.S. senator from New York (1923-41), dying on June 17, 1938 before his third term was completed. He was a member of Bay City Lodge No. 129, Bay City, Mich., and Ann Arbor Commandery No. 13, K.T. at Ann Arbor as well as Moslem Shrine Temple. On Dec. 4, 1920 he delivered an address before Stuyvesant Lodge No. 745, N.Y. There was a Knight Templar guard of honor at his funeral.

William D. Copeland College President. b. Jan. 9, 1897 at Denver, Colo. Degrees from Colorado College, James Millikin Univ. and Lincoln Memorial Univ. After teaching in Colorado College and Harvard, he became president of Lincoln (Ill.) College from 1935-44, then vice president of Lake Forest (Ill.) College from 1944-46, and president of Rocky Mountain College (Mont.). Presently pastor of 1st Presbyterian Church in Poison, Mont. Raised in Tejon Lodge No. 104, Colorado Springs, Colo. in 1920 and member of chapter and council in Colorado Springs. 32° AASR (ST) in Denver.

Charles H. Copestake (?-1956) Masonic historian. Known for his research work on Masonic subjects, he was raised in Column Lodge No. 120, Trenton, N.J., but demitted to Christopher Yates Lodge No. 971, Schenectady, N.Y. when he moved there and served as master in 1939. He was active in almost all Masonic fields, especially the American Lodge of Research, which he had served as master. He was a 33° AASR (NJ) and a member of the special committee on history and a consultant archivist of the Supreme Council in New York City. d. Feb. 25, 1956.

Ira C. Copley (1864-1947) Publisher, U.S. Congressman and philanthropist. b. Oct. 25, 1864 in Knox Co., Ill. Became associated with public utilities early in life, and was president of Western United Corp. until 1926. Among the various newspapers he published at one time or

another were The Aurora Beacon News, Elgin Courier, Joliet Herald News, Illinois State Journal, Illinois State Register and chairman and president of The Copley Press, Inc., Aurora—all of Illinois. He was also the owner of the San Diego Union and Tribune, San Diego Sun and papers now comprising the Southern California Associated Newspapers, Los Angeles. He served as congressman from 62nd to 67th Congresses (1911-23) from 11th Illinois dist. He gave site and building fund as well as a million dollar endowment to a hospital at Aurora which was renamed Copley Memorial Hospital. Mason. d. Nov. 2, 1947.

George H. Coppers President of the National Biscuit Co. since 1945. b. Nov. 29, 1902 in New York City. Graduated LL.B. cum laude from Fordham Univ. in 1929. He entered the employ of National Biscuit in New York City as an office boy in 1920, rising as clerk, accountant, law clerk, assistant secretary, general counsel and finally director and president. His record also includes directorships and trusteeships of many important corporations. Member of Charter Oak Lodge No. 249 of New York City.

Pompeo Coppini Sculptor and painter. b. May 19, 1870 in Moglia, Mantua, Italy, he came to America in 1896 and was naturalized in 1902. He has executed 45 public monuments in various cities, including such notable ones as the equestrian statue of Gen. J. H. Morgan, Lexington, Ky.; George Washington, Mexico City; Senator John H. Reagan, Palestine, Tex.; Terry's Ranger, Austin, Tex.; Falkenberg monument, Denver, Colo.; Gen. J. C. Root monument, Memphis, Tenn.; Stephen F. Austin statue, Austin, Tex.; Gen. Sam Houston memorial, Huntsville, Texas; U.S. Senator James P. Clarke of Ark. for Statuary Hall in national capitol; Confederate Memorial at Corpus Christi. Tex.; allegorical bronze doors of Scottish Rite Cathedral, San Antonio, Tex.; centotaph "Heroes of the Alamo" at Waco; and many others. He was raised in Italia Lodge, Pitrasanta, Italy and is an honorary member of Mazzini Lodge No. 824, New York City, a 32° AASR, Knight Templar and Shriner.

Robert L. Copsey Major General, U.S. Air Force. b. Feb. 15, 1896 at Broken Bow, Nebr., he attended Univ. of Nebraska until 1918 when he was commissioned 2nd lieut. in U.S. Army and rose to major general in 1953. From 1928-31 he was president of the Metropolitan Airways, Inc., Newark Air Service, Inc., and from 1931-49 was commissioner of aviation, State of N.J. From 194750 he commanded the 91st Air Division and 63rd Troop Carrier Air Wing USAF Reserve. Was recalled to active duty in 1950 in the Office of Chief of Staff, USAF. Since 1953 he has been director of Joint Air Transportation Board, Dept. of the Air Force. Mason and Shriner.

George Copway (1818-1863) Chippewa Indian chief. b. near mouth of Trent river in Ontario, his Indian name was Kah-ge-ga-gahbowh and his father was a tribal medicine man. Copway became a Methodist missionary among his people, converted many of them including his father. He married a white woman (Elizabeth Howell), who accompanied him on many dangerous trips among hostile tribes. He received his degrees in Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C. sometime prior to 1848 as he is listed as a member in that year. He appealed to Masonic lodges on several occasions to help support educational institutions for Indian children. In his writings he frequently referred to Freemasonry. A man of pronounced likes and dislikes, he wrote on them at length. He loved his family, his tribe, nature, the Christian religion, fellow Methodists and missionaries. He abhorred whisky, tobacco, the Sioux and cash payments to the Indians by the government.

Harvey W. Corbett (1873-1954) Architect who designed the Rockefeller Center and the George Washington Masonic National Memorial. b. Jan. 8, 1873 at San Francisco. He graduated from Univ. of California and also studied abroad. He lectured in architecture at Columbia Univ., and was member of advisory board of school of architecture, Princeton Univ. Among the many buildings of his design are the Holy Innocents Church, Brooklyn; Bush Terminal Office Building, N.Y.; Bush House, London; Metropolitan Life Ins. Building, N.Y.; Roerich Museum, N.Y. His wife, Gail Sherman Corbett, is a sculptress who executed a portrait of Washington for the Masonic Memorial at Alexandria, Va. which her husband designed. Corbett was a member of

Sagamore Lodge No. 371, being raised on Feb. 15, 1922. d. April, 1954.

William W. Corcoran (1798-1888) American financier and philanthropist. b. Dec. 27, 1798 in Georgetown, D.C. Amassed great wealth first in dry goods (which was lost) and later in real estate and banking. At one time he held 12 million in U.S. 6% loans. When the interest fell he went to England and enlisted the aid of the great banking houses of that nation to such an extent that there was a premium on the money and it laid the basis for his great wealth. He retired from the banking business in 1854 to manage his own estate. The art gallery in Washington, D.C., bearing his name was his gift to the nation in 1869. He was a member of Potomac Lodge No. 5, Georgetown, D.C. from July 26, 1827. d. Feb. 24, 1888.

Oscar L. Cordell President of Bareco Oil Co. since 1939. b. May 26, 1887 at Helenwood, Tenn. In petroleum refining and marketing since 1907. Member of Siloam Lodge No. 276, Oklahoma City, Okla. and past master of same. 32° AASR (SJ) in McAlester and India Shrine Temple, Oklahoma City.

Abbe Cordier French Catholic clergyman, who in spite of threats from the Roman hierarchy, was aprominent member of the Lodge of the Nine Sisters in Paris, France. It was Cordier and Benjamin Franklin q.v., who supported the author Voltaire q.v. during his initiation into that famous lodge.

Ralph J. Cordiner Vice President of General Electric Co. since 1945. b. March 20, 1900 at Walla Walla, Wash. With power and appliance companies since 1922. President of Schick, Inc., Stamford, Conn., 1939-42. Served with U.S. Navy in WW1. Mason.

Guy Cordon U.S. Senator from Oregon. Raised April 10, 1912 in Laurel Lodge No. 13, Roseburg, Oregon and master of the lodge in 1919.

George C. S. Corea Ambassador of Ceylon to U.S.A. since 1948. b. Sept. 5, 1895 near Colombo, Ceylon. Admitted to bar of Ceylon in 1916 and practiced in Chilaw from 1916-31. President of Ceylon National Congress, 1934-36 and minister of Labour Industry and Commerce of Ceylon from 1936-46. High commissioner for Ceylon in United Kingdom 1946-48. President of Boy Scouts of Ceylon from 194246. He is a member of Orion Lodge No. 5130 and founding member of Ceylon Lodge No. 6436 of London, England. He is credited with winning independence for Ceylon.

Herbert F. Corn Newspaper editor. b. Jan. 23, 1897 at Metropolis, Ill. With the Washington Herald in 1920 and Washington Evening Star since 1921, being managing editor since 1942. President of Associated Press Managing Editors Assn. in 1952 and member of White House Correspondents Assn. Member of Temple-Noyes Lodge No. 32, Washington, D.C. and Mount Pleasant Chapter No. 13, R.A.M., Washington.

Duke of Cornwall (see Edward VII)

Lord Charles Cornwallis (17381805) British General of American Revolution who surrendered to Washington at Yorktown and thus ended the war. b. Dec. 31, 1738 in Suffolk. He was 2nd Earl and first Marquis of Cornwallis. A major general in the American Revolution, he was created full general in 1793. He fought in Germany in 1761-62 and defeated Greene at Guilford Court House in 1781, but was besieged at Yorktown and forced to capitulate. He was governor general and commander-inchief of India in 1786, and viceroy of Ireland from 17981801, resigning because of the king's refusal to grant Roman Catholic emancipation. He negotiated the treaty of Amines in 1802, and was

again governor general of India in 1805. He performed the grand honors of Masonry at the funeral of Major General DeKalb q.v. who had been wounded and taken prisoner on Aug. 17, 1780 at the battle of Camden. d. Oct. 5, 1805.

Edward Cornwallis English Lieutenant General; founder and first governor of Nova Scotia. He sailed to North America in 1749 with 1,140 settlers and landed safely in Nova Scotia on June 21. Almost as soon as there was a house erected, he established a lodge under provincial dispensation from Major E. J. Phillips, P.G.M. of Annapolis Royal, N.S., representing Henry Price of Boston, who was grand master for North America. This lodge is the oldest Canadian lodge and is now St. Andrews Lodge No. 1, Halifax. The dispensation was received in July, 1749 "and on the same evening Captain Lord Colville q.v. and a number of the Navy gentlemen, were entered Apprentices in this Lodge." Previously, while fighting in Germany, Cornwallis was one of the three founders of another lodge in the 20th Foot under Irish constitution. The warrent for same was received in Dec. 1748, andafter the regiment's glorious action in the battle of Minden in August 1759, the lodge was named Minden Lodge No. 63. In 1768 while governor of Gibraltar, he founded a third lodge—No. 426 of the 24th Foot under the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia.

Lord Fiennes Stanley Wykeham Cornwallis (1864-1935) b. at Chalcombe Priory near Banbury on May 27, 1864 and educated at Eton. He served as a colonel of the West Kent Queen's Own Imperial Yeomanry. He was prominent in various sports including hunting, cricket and shooting. He was Master of the Linton Beagles from 1888 until a few years before his death. In public life, he had a distinguished career, representing Maidstone in the House of Commons from 1888-1895 and again from 1898 to 1900. He was president of the Royal Agricultural Society of England in 1906. He was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of England from 1926-35. He was raised in Douglas Lodge No. 1725, Maidstone, and served as master. He subsequently joined Crane Lodge No. 2660, Cranbrook and served twice as master. He was also the founder of East Kent Masters' Lodge No. 3931, in 1919, and was its first master. He attained grand rank in 1901 as junior grand warden and in 1905 was appointed provincial grand master for Kent. He was exalted

in Montreal Chapter No. 2046 and served it as first principal and later as grand superintendent for Kent. In 1926 he was appointed as 2nd grand principal for the Supreme Grand Chapter in succession to his uncle, the third Earl Amherst. He was chairman of the annual festival of the Royal Masonic Benevolent Institution in 1920 and the Royal Masonic Girls' Institution in 1930. The peerage was reestablished in his name in 1927, thus restoring the Cornwallis name to the House of Lords after a long absence. In 1931 he visited the United States, attending the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and dedicating a statue of his ancestor Lord Charles Cornwallis at Yorktown, where he had surrendered to Washington. d. Sept. 27, 1935, he was succeeded in title and Masonic offices by his son Wykeham Stanley Cornwallis q.v.

Lord Wykeham Stanley Cornwallis 2nd Baron Cornwallis, succeeding his father Lord F. S. W. Cornwallis on the latter's death q.v. in 1935. Educated at Eaton, he entered the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst and saw service with the Royal Scots Greys during WW1, in which he was wounded and earned the Military Cross. He was on the General Staff, both in France and Flanders. He is now a colonel of the Thames and Medway Heavy Regiment, Royal Artillery. Since 1944 he has been Her Majesty's Lord Lieutenant of Kent and also one of Her Majesty's lieutenants for the City of London. He entered Douglas Lodge No. 1725 and was its master in 1928. His father had served as master 34 years earlier. He was appointed as junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England in 1935 and ruler of the Masonic province of Kent—a position held by his father for 30 years.

John J. Cornwell Governor of West Virginia 1917-21. b. July 11, 1867 in Ritchie Co., W. Va. He has been principal owner of The Hampshire Review since 1890. He financed and built the Hampshire Southern Railroad (40 miles long) and is president of the Bank of Romney. Was five times a delegate to Democratic National Convention. Mason.

Buenaventura Correoso President of the extinct state of Panana; minister of Colombia to Costa Rica, president of the Colombian

Congress; judge, prefect, deputy, secretary ofgovernment and member of Supreme Council AASR of Central America.

Fred P. Corson Methodist bishop. b. April 11, 1896 at Millville, N.J. A graduate of Dickinson (1917), and Drew Univ. (1920), holding honorary degrees from nine other colleges and universities. Ordained in 1920, he served as pastor in Jackson Heights, N.Y., New Haven, Conn., Port Washington, N.W. until 1929 when made superintendent of the Brooklyn Southern Dist., N.Y. He has been president of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. since 1934. Elected bishop in 1944. A Mason, he was grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1947 and grand prelate of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of Pennsylvania in 1942.

Publio Cortini Italian industrialist and grand master of the Grand Orient of Italy in 1956. When Marconi was studying the problem of radio-telephone transmission by the Fleming tube, Cortini worked with him as an officer of the Wireless Signal Section of the Italian Army, and under his guidance did the first transmission, beginning from a distance of 300 yards, and finishing, after three months of experimentation, with the transmission of over 1,000 miles. The latter transmission was from Rome to Tripoli. At the conclusion of WW1 Cortini began his work with manufacturing electrical machinery. During the Mussolini regime, Cortini hid the documents of the Grand Orient of France in his factory notwithstanding the danger to his life that such an act represented. A member of Coli di Firenza Lodge in Rome, he is a member of Trenton Chapter No. 66, Royal Arch Masons and Trenton Council No. 37, R. & S.M., both of Trenton, Mo. He has also received the honorary Order of High Priesthood from the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Missouri and honorary member of Order of Silver Trowel, Grand Council, R. & S.M. of Missouri. Cortini has visited in the United States several times since WW2.

Thomas Corwin (1794-1865) Ohio Congressman, Senator, Secretary of the Treasury and Minister to Mexico. b. July 29, 1794 in Bourbon Co., Ky. His family moved to Lebanon, Ohio when he was four. Admitted to the bar in 1818 and developed an extensive practice. He

was elected to the state legislature in 1822, serving until 1829. Next elected to the U.S. congress, he served from 1830-40, resigning to become candidate for governor and was elected to serve 1840-42. In 1844 he was elected to the U.S. senate, where in 1847 he made a notable speech against the war in Mexico. He served in the senate until 1850, when President Fillmore named him as secretary of the treasury. He served two more terms in congress; starting in 1858, and when Lincoln became president, Corwin was named as minister to Mexico. He became a member of Lebanon Lodge No. 26, Lebanon, Ohio in 1819, serving as master; and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio in 1828. He had also served as grand orator and deputy grand master. He was a member of Lebanon Chapter No. 5, R.A.M. and knighted in Mount Vernon Commandery, K.T. on Jan. 13, 1826. d. Dec. 18, 1865.

George Cosgrave (1870-1945) Federal Judge, Southern district of California from 1930. b. Feb. 20, 1870 at Calaveras Co., Calif. Admitted to bar in 1895 and practiced at Fresno. Mason. d. Aug. 4, 1945.

Edward B. Cosgrove Industrialist. b. July 7, 1888 at Le Sueur, Minn. Graduate of Univ. of Minnesota, 1910. Began as secretary of Minn. Valley Canning Co. at Le Sueur in 1913 and president since 1929. President of Minnesota Valley Corp. and chair-man of the board of Fine Foods of Canada, Ltd. A director of Pillsbury Mills, Inc., First Nat. Bank of St. Paul and other corporations. Mason and Shriner.

Samuel G. Cosgrove Eighth Governor of Washington. Member of Evening Star Lodge No. 30, Pomeroy, Washington.

Oliver P. Coshow (1863-?) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon. b. Aug. 14, 1863 at Brownsville, Oreg. Admitted to bar in 1890 and practiced at McMinnville and Roseburg. Member of state senate from 190509. Associate justice of supreme court from 1924 and chief justice from 192930. Mason. Deceased.

Sir Michael Andrew Agnus Costa (1808-1884) Italian composer and conductor who resided in England from 1829 and was knighted. He conducted opera at Her Majesty's Theatre, London from 1832-46, and at Covent Garden from 1846. He was the composer of oratorios, operas and ballets and served as grand organist of the Grand Lodge of England. Costa was initiated May 3, 1848 in the Bank of England Lodge No. 263, London, and served as its master in 1852-53.

William C. Costello Vice president and director of R.F.C. Mortgage Co. and director of Federal Nat. Mortgage Assn. b. April 6, 1894, Columbus, 0. Mason.

Charles de Coster (1827-1879) Belgian author. His chief work was La Legende de Thy/ Ulenspiegel et de Lamme Goedzak, written in old Flemish in 1868. It was a romance of the 16th century which stressed Belgian patriotism. In his late years he taught general history and French literature at a military school. He was born in Munich and died in Brussels. Also author of Legendes Flamandes in 1858. According to Maurice Cock's Dictionnaire Maconique, published in Brussels, Coster was a Freemason.

S. Kent Costikyan ( 1867-1949) Merchant and importer. b. Jan. 23, 1867 in Marsovan, Asia Minor. Came to U.S. in 1884 and naturalized in 1891. Organized firm of Costikyan Feres, importers, at Rochester in 1886 and reorganized as Kent-Costikyan, Inc., New York City in 1900. He maintained a school for orphans and needy children at Marsovan, Asia Minor from 1900-1915. Decorated by Shah of Persia for promoting commercial relations between Persia and the U.S. in 1907. Mason. d. July 3, 1949.

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (17531811) Catholic priest who led the first revolt against the Spaniards in Mexico and started the Mexican

revolution that resulted in their freedom five years later. In an attempt to improve the condition of the natives, he proclaimed a revolt on Sept. 16, 1810 against the Spanish government. He seized Guanajuato and Guadalajara and was joined by Allende and Aidama. With an army of 80,000 he marched on Mexico City in October, 1810, winning the first battle, but was forced to fall back when defeated by Spanish forces under Felix Calleja on Nov. 6. He was overwhelmed by Calleja in January, 1811 near Guadalajara and was forced to flee north. He was betrayed to the Spaniards, and after being degraded from the priesthood, was executed at Chihuahua on July 30, 1811. He joined Arquitechtura Moral Lodge of Mexico City in 1806.

Norman D. Cota Major General, U.S. Army. b. May 30, 1893 at Chelsea, Mass. Graduated U.S. Military Academy in 1917 and advanced through grades to major general. In WW2 he commanded the 28th Infantry of the 1st Division. Now executive director of Philadelphia Civil Defense Council. Raised in Robert Lash Lodge of Chelsea, Mass. on Oct. 24, 1917.

Thomas P. Cothran (1857-1934) Associate Justice Supreme Court of S. Carolina, 1921-34. b. Oct. 24, 1857 at Abbeville, S. Car. Admitted to bar in 1878 and practiced at Abbeville. Member of S. Car. lower house, 190410 and 1914-21, being speaker of the house from 1918-21. Mason. d. April 11, 1934.

Capt. John Cotton Naval officer of the Revolutionary War. He was one of the early initiates of St. John's Mark Lodge of Middletown, Conn. (1st in the U.S.). By resolution of congress, it was directed that two frigates of 36 and 28 guns be built in Connecticut. Gov. Trumbull and his council voted on Feb. 17, 1777 that one of these vessels "should be built at Chatham (across from Middletown) on the Connecticut River, under the supervision of Capt. John Cotton of Middletown." The records of the mark lodge contain this interesting item: "On a motion made by Bro. John Cotton that his Mark he purchased from this Wor. Mark Master Lodge, which was Inker and Pen, should be altered to the mark of Hope and Anchor, which last mark he purchased

of Bro. John DeKoven, who is now absent, and never likely to return. Accordingly, was voted to be altered, and ordered to be recorded as such, and there to remain as such until honestly redeemed.”

Norris Cotton U.S. Senator from New Hampshire, 1954-56. b. May 11, 1900 at Warren, N.H. Editor of the Granite Monthly, Concord, N.H. 192324; admitted to bar in 1928 and practiced in Concord and later Lebanon. Served in 80th-83rd congresses from 2nd N.H. dist. and elected to senate to fill unexpired term of Charles Tobey q.v. Director of Lebanon Woolen Mills, Inc. and Lebandale Mills, Inc. Grand master of Odd Fellows in 1943. Raised in Moosehillock Lodge No. 63, Warren, N.H. in 1924 and presently a member of Franklin Lodge No. 6, Lebanon, N.H. Also member of St. Andrews Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. and Washington Council No. 10, R. & SM., both of Lebanon; 32° AASR (NJ) at Nashua and member of Bektash Shrine Temple, Concord, N.H.

Charles P. Couch Utilities and railroad executive. b. Aug. 16, 1890 at Magnolia, Ark. Began as a railroad fireman. From 1923-27 was vice president and general manager of Mississippi Power & Light Co. Was vice pres. of Louisiana & Arkansas Railroad in 1929-32 and president from 1932-41, becoming chairman of the board from 1941-44. From 1939-41 he was president of Kansas City Southern Railroad and chairman of the board from 1941-44. Mason and Shriner.

Harvey C. Couch (1 877-1941 ) Utilities executive. b. Aug. 21, 1877 at Calhoun, Ark. Began as drug store clerk. Organized and operated North Louisiana Telephone Co. from 190412. In 1913 he organized and was president of the Arkansas Power & Light Co.; in 1925 organized and was president of Mississippi Power & Light Co. and in the same year organized and was president of the Louisiana Power & Light Co. He was president of the Louisiana & Arkansas Railway from 1928-32; chairman of the board of Kansas City Southern Railway and president from 1939. In 1933 he was selected by citizens as Arkansas' most outstanding citizen and presented with a plaque in recognition of services to nation and state in fields of industry. Mason. d. July 30, 1941.

Joseph B. Coghlan (1844-1908) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy and hero of Manila Bay. b. Dec. 9, 1844 at Frankfort, Ky. Graduated from Naval Academy in 1863. He was advanced six numbers in rank for eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle of Manila Bay where he commanded the Raleigh under Dewey. He later commanded the Naval War College, North Atlantic Fleet and New York Navy Yard. Retired in 1906. He gained wide publicity by reciting the poem "Me and Gott," ridiculing the Kaiser. He was a member and past master of Solano Lodge No. 229, past high priest of Naval Chapter No. 35, and member of Naval Commandery, K.T. all of Vallejo, Calif.

James A. Coulter Vice president of Colgate-Palmolive 1933-45. b. May 27, 1882 at Oxford, Ohio. Graduate of Miami and Oxford Universities. He was a chemist and plant superintendent for Procter & Gamble from 1905-23, and in foreign service of Palmolive Co. from 1923-28. Now retired as vice president, he continues as director of Colgate-Palmolive, Co. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

Antoine Court de Gebelin (17251784) French scholar and author. Son of Antoine Court, a French Protestant clergyman. He wrote Le Monde Primitif (1773-84) Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amerique (1776) and others. He is named a Freemason by the Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress in 1917.

Raphael Courteville English Organist at St. James Church, Westminster, in Picadilly, London and composer of the song named for this church. He was a member of a lodge meeting at The George, Charing Cross, circa 1723.

Wirt Courtney U.S. Congressman 76th to 80th Congresses (1939-49) from 7th Tennessee dist. b. Sept. 7, 1889 at Franklin, Tenn. Admitted to bar in 1911 and engaged in private practice. Served as

lieutenant of Infantry in WW1 and was wounded. Became adjutant general of Tennessee in 1932; brigadier general in Tennessee National Guard. Served as circuit judge from 1933-39. Raised in Hiram Lodge No. 7, Franklin, Tenn. in 1912. Also member of chapter, council and commandery in that city; Al Menah Shrine Temple in Nashville.

James R. N. Stopford, Earl of Courtown Succeeded his father in 1933 as the seventh Earl of Courtown, the earldom dating back to 1762 with a barony in the Peerage of Ireland and also a barony of Saltersford in the Peerage of England. He attended Eton and served in the South African War, 1900-01, for which he holds the Queens Medal. He was in active service throughout WW1, being mentioned in dispatches and created O.B.E. in 1919. During WW2 he was deputy assistant adjutant general at the British War Office. He was grand senior warden of the Grand Lodge of England in 1938, and is ruler of both the Craft and Royal Arch provinces of Bedfordshire. Since 1935 has been supreme grand ruler of the Order of the Secret Monitor, and was appointed first grand constable in the Order of Knights Templar in 1940.

John P. Courtright President of Marion Steam Shovel Co. since 1952. b. Dec. 25, 1896 at Ashville, Ohio. Graduate of Ohio State, 1918. Began as salesman for Marion Steam Shovel Co. in 1927. Member of Marion Lodge No. 70, Marion, Ohio and 32° AASR at Columbus, Ohio.

John Coustos A Freemason who was a victim of the Inquisition. Born in Berne, Switzerland, the son of a naturalized Englishman, he moved to England in 1716 and was initiated in Britannia Lodge No. 33, London. In1740 he moved to Lisbon, Portugal where he founded a lodge and served as its master. He was a dealer in precious stones. In 1738 Pope Clement XII q.v. issued his Bull condemning Freemasonry, and in 1743, Coustos was seized by the Inquisition, and after imprisonment and torture, condemned to the galley for refusing to divulge the secrets of the craft. Falling ill, he was sent to the infirmary, and was able to contact his brother-in-law, the Duke of Newcastle. Admiral Matthews was ordered to anchor his fleet in the Tagas for 24 hours, thus causing the release of Coustos, who was returned to

England where he was welcomed by the fraternity and wrote his narrative entitled The Sufferings of John Coustos for Freemasonry, and for Refusing to Turn Roman Catholic, in the Inquisition at Lisbon.

William E. R. Covell Major General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 29, 1892 at Washington, D.C. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1915. Commissioned in Corps of Engineers in 1915. Retired from army in 1940 as lieut. colonel, and became general manager and director of Crossett-Ark. Co. Was recalled to duty in 1941, made brigadier general in 1943, and major general later the same year, retiring from service again in 1946 to become civilian engineer. Director general of Damon, Dinerman & Cia, S.A., Buenos Aires since 1948. Mason.

Edgar Cowan (1815-1885) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1861-67. b. Sept 19, 1815 at Sewickley, Pa. Graduate of Franklin College, Ohio in 1839. Admitted to bar in 1842 and practiced at Greenburg, Pa. Was appointed as minister to Austria in 1867, but the senate failed to confirm the appointment. Returned to private practice after his second senatorial term. Mason.

256 Hereford T. Cowling Roy T. Cowdrey Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Feb. 4, 1898 at Milwaukee, Wis. Graduated, cum laude from U.S. Naval Academy in 1920 and also M.S. cum laude from Mass. Inst. Tech., 1923. Commissioned ensign in 1919, advancing through grades to rear admiral in 1948. Raised March 31, 1932 in Darien Lodge, Balboa, C.Z. Honorary member of Lodge of United Services No. 1118, New York City. Received 32° AASR in Honolulu, Hawaii Dec. 9, 1948 and dimitted to Brooklyn, N.Y. on March 5, 1956. Member of Aloha Temple AAONMS of Honolulu and ambassador at large of same. Member of Court No. 30, Royal Order of Jesters, Past president of Sinclair Inlet Chapter No. 80 and N.Y. Chapter No. 13 of National Sojourners. Honorary member of Karem Shrine Temple and Masonic Square Club of the N.Y. Naval Shipyard.

Myron M. Cowen U.S. Ambassador. b. Jan. 25, 1898 at Logan, Iowa. Admitted to bar in 1919 and practiced at Des Moines, Ia. until 1933 when he moved to Washington, practicing there until 1948. He was ambassador to Australia in 1948-49, ambassador to Philippines, 1949-51; and ambassador to Belgium 1952-53. He addressed the Grand Lodge of the Philippines in 1951. Raised in Home Lodge No. 370, Des Moines, Iowa about 1920. 32° AASR (SJ).

Thomas J. Cowie ( 1857 - 1936 ) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Feb. 15, 1857 at Montezuma, Ia. He was appointed assistant postmaster of the Navy in 1880 and promoted through various grades to postmaster general with rank of rear admiral in 1910. He was also chief of Bureau of Supplies and Accounts. Mason. d. July 16, 1936.

John H. Cowles (1863-1954) Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite(SJ) from 1921 to 1953. b. Aug. 22, 1863 at Dripping Springs, Ky. He held honorary degrees from Cumberland and George Washington Universities and William Jewell College. He was in the wholesale mercantile business at Louisville at one time and head of the John H. Cowles & Co., brass founders. He served as a captain in the 1st Kentucky Volunteer Infantry in the Spanish-American War in 1898. He was raised in Louisville Lodge No. 400, Louisville, Ky. on Oct. 16, 1888 and served as master four years. Organized Kentucky Army Lodge No. 1, U.D. and was first master during Spanish-American War. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky in 1909, and was president of the Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada 190709. Cowles was a Royal Arch Mason and Knight Templar 63 years and a Royal and Select Master for 60 years. He was a 33° Mason for 54 years. d. June 18, 1954 and is buried in the House of the Temple at Washington, D.C.

Hereford T. Cowling Photographer and explorer. b. Aug. 20, 1890 in Nansemond Co., Va. Was chief photographer for U.S. Reclamation Service in 1906-16 traveling extensively in U.S., Canada and Mexico. Headed cinematographic expedition to Formosa, Philippines, Indo-China, Siam, Tasmania, and South Sea islands,

producing semi-educational movies in 1917. Was chief cinematographer for Paramount (Burton Holmes Travel Films). He has also been technical advisor for Eastman Kodak, official photographer of Century of Progress in Chicago, technical director for U.S. National Archives, Washington, chief of photographic services, Dept. of Labor. In 1922 was on expedition to East Africa, Uganda, Congo and The Sudan. Made movies in Tibet and was China war correspondent in 1924. Member of Benjamin B. French

257 Allyn Cox Lodge No. 15, Columbia Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; Columbia Commandery No. 3, K.T. all of Washington, D.C. Kena Shrine Temple at Alexandria, Va. and National Sojourners at Dayton, Ohio.

Allyn Cox Mural painter. b. June 5, 1896 in New York City. Studied at National Academy of Design, Art Students' League, American Academy in Rome from 1911-20. Has been mural painter since 1921. In 1952 he was chosen by a congressional committee to finish the uncompleted frieze in the U.S. Capitol rotunda and he completed it in 1953. In 1954 he painted the 18 x 47 foot murals for the George Washington National Masonic Memorial, representing Washington laying the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol and Washington celebrating St. John's Day in Philadelphia. In 1955 he painted the murals for the Royal Arch room of the Washington Memorial, and in 1957 the murals for the Cryptic room of the same memorial. Other works consist of ceilings of the W. A. Clark, Jr. Library of Los Angeles; panels of the law building of the Univ. of Virginia; Continental Bank and Cosmopolitan Club of New York City; S.S. America; Guaranty Trust Co., N.Y. He has served as president of the National Society of Mural Painters; a fellow of the American Academy in Rome; an associate of the National Academy of Design; member of Fine Arts Federation of New York and trustee of the Abbey Fund. He served with the American Red Cross in Italy in 1918. He is a member of Holland Lodge No. 8 and Phoenix Chapter No. 2 of New York City and Trenton Council No. 37, R. & S.M. Trenton, Mo.

Channing H. Cox Governor of Massachusetts, 1921-24. b. Feb. 28, 1879 at Manchester, N.H. Member of lower house of Mass. from 1910-15 and speaker of same from 1915-18. Lieut. governor of state, 1919-20. Has been president of Mass. Committee on Public Safety since 1940. He is president of the Old Colony Trust Co., and a director of a dozen or more corporations including United Fruit, Revere Sugar, First National Bank of Boston, U.S. Smelting & Refining. His Masonic memberships in Boston include St. John's Lodge, St. Andrew's Chapter, R.A.M., St. Bernard Commandery, K.T., 33° AASR (NJ) , and Aleppo Shrine Temple.

Edward E. Cox (1880-1952) Congressman, 69th to 81st Congresses (1925-51) from 2nd Georgia dist. b. April 3, 1880 at Mitchell Co., Ga. Began law practice in Camilla, Ga. in 1902. Mason. d. Dec. 24, 1952.

James M. Cox (1870-1957) Served three terms as Governor of Ohio (1913-15, 1917-19, 1919-21) . b. March 31, 1870, he was raised on a farm, worked in a printer's office and became a newspaper reporter. His newspaper chain included the Dayton Daily News, Dayton Journal Herald, Springfield Sun, Springfield News, Miami (Fla.) Daily News, Atlanta (Ga.) Journal and Atlanta Constitution. He also operated stations WHIO and WHIO-TV in Dayton, WSB and WSB-TV in Atlanta and WCKT and WCKR radio and TV stations in Miami, Fla. In 1920 he was the Democratic presidential nominee with F. D. Roosevelt q.v. as his running mate. He was, however, defeated by another Ohio newspaper publisher, Warren G. Harding q.v. He was a member of the 61-63rd congresses from 3rd Ohio dist. in 1909-13. He was a member of Jefferson Lodge No. 90, Middletown, Ohio, being raised June 1, 1891. d. July 15, 1957.

Palmer Cox (1840-?) Artist. b. April 28, 1840 in Granby, Quebec, Canada. From 1863-75 he made San Francisco his home. In 1875 he settled in New York where he followed his artistic pursuits. He distinguished himself chiefly by illustrating his own writings with characteristic drawings as shown in The Brownie Stories. He published

Squibs of California, Hans von Pelter's Trip to Gotham, How Columbus Found America and That Stanley. He was past master of Mission Lodge No. 169, San Francisco, Calif.

Richard F. Cox Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 26, 1886 at Gracevllle, Minn. Graduated from Coast Artillery School in 1915 and was commissioned in 1910, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1940, retiring in 1944. Mason.

Richard G. Cox President of Gulf Park College, Gulfport, Miss. since 1919. b. Jan. 1, 1881 at Ebensburg, Pa. Taught in several colleges and was at one time dean of Ward-Belmont in Nashville and president of Nashville College for Young Women. He was president of the American Association of Junior Colleges in 1931, and president of the Mississippi Association of Colleges in 1948. Mason and 32° AASR.

William R. Cox (1832-1919) Soldier, Congressman and cotton planter. b. March 11, 1832 in Halifax Co., N. Car. Brigadier general, C.S.A. in Civil War, he was wounded 11 times. He served in the 47th to 49th Congresses (1881-87) and was secretary of the U.S. senate from 1893-99. He was president of the Chatham Coal Field Railroad in 1866, and judge of the 6th district of N. Car. in 1877-80. He served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina for four years. He was a member of William G. Hill Lodge No. 218. d. Dec. 26, 1919.

Daniel Coxe ( 1673 - 1739 ) First provincial grand master in America. b. Aug. 31. 1673 in London, he was a member of Lodge No. 8 on the rollof the Grand Lodge of England. An American landedproprietor, he was appointed first provincial grand master for New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in 1730 by the Duke of Norfolk. The following year he attended a meeting of the Grand Lodge of England and his health was drunk as "a provincial grand master for North America." There is unfortunately no record of any Masonic activity by Coxe in his province and it is unusual that his memoir in the

Pennsylvania Gazette which was edited by Benjamin Franklin q.v. made no mention of his membership. d. April 25, 1739.

William B. Coxe (1869-1927) Shipbuilder. b. Feb. 25, 1869 at Reading, Pa., he served apprenticeship as marine engineer in Scotland and Bremerhaven, Germany. As assistant general superintendent of Wm. Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Co., Philadelphia, he delivered the battleship Retvizan and cruiser Variag to Russia and the cruiser Kasagi to Japan. Was president of Harlan & Hollingsworth Corp., Wilmington for 131/2 years and president of Reading Paper Mills Co. Served in U.S. Navy in Spanish-American War. Mason. d. July 4, 1927.

John G. Crabbe (1865-1924) College president. b. Nov. 29, 1865 at Mt. Sterling Ohio. Served as supt. of schools in Kentucky and as state supt. of public instruction for that state. President of Eastern Kentucky State Normal at Richmond, 1910-16, and president of Colorado State Teachers College, Greeley from 1916. Mason and 32° AASR (SJ). d. Jan. 20, 1924.

Samuel C. Crafts Former Governor and U.S. Senator from Vermont. Member of Harmony Lodge No. 14, St. Johnsbury, Vt. and also given as member of Meridian Sun Lodge No. 17 at Hardwick, Vt.

Aaron H. Cragin (1821-?) U.S. Senator from New Hampshire, 186577. b. Feb. 3, 1821 at Weston, Vt. Admitted to New York bar in 1847, removing to Lebanon, N.H. where he took up practice. Elected to N.H. state legislature, 1855-65. Was one of the commissioners appointed for the sale of the Hot Springs of Arkansas. Member of Franklin Lodge No. 6, Lebanon, N.H.

Thomas S. Crago (1866-1925) U.S. Congressman to 62nd (1911-13) and 64th to 67th Congresses (1915-23). Served in Spanish-

American War in Pennsylvania Volunteers. Mason, 33° AASR (NJ). d. Sept. 12, 1925.

Burt J. Craig Vice President and Treasurer of Ford Motor Co. b. Aug. 7, 1885 at Detroit, Mich. Was accountant with Ford from 1907-08; secretary, 1918-43; vice president and treasurer, 1943-46; and secretary, treasurer and trustee of Ford Foundation from 1946. A director in several other corporations. Mason. Deceased.

Cornelius A. Craig Former president of National Life and Accident Ins. Co. of Nashville (1902-32). b June 15, 1868 at Pulaski, Tenn. Started as clerk and druggist and entered insurance business in 1896. Chairman of Board of National Life 1932-43, and chairman of executive committee from 1943. Son, Edwin W. Craig q.v. now president. Mason.

Edwin W. Craig President of National Life and Accident Ins. Co., Nashville since 1943. Son of Edwin W. Craig q.v. former president. b. March 8, 1893 at Pulaski, Tenn. With National Life since 1913. Mason and Shriner.

Frank Craig (1870-1926) President and founder of City National Bank, McAlester, Okla. b. April 29, 1870 at Ghent, Ky. Admitted to bar in 1891 and practiced first at Wichita, Kansas and later at McAlester until 1901, when he entered banking business. President of Oklahoma Bankers' Ass'n in 1904. Regent of Univ. of Oklahoma 1924-28. Initiated in Albert Pike Lodge No. 303, Wichita, Kans. Dec. 30, 1896. Received 33° AASR (SJ) on Oct. 25, 1907, and made sovereign grand inspector general for Oklahoma. d. July 14, 1926.

Isaac Craig Revolutionary Naval officer who served as a captain under John Paul Jones. Member of Military Lodge No. 19 (now Montgomery No. 19 of Philadelphia, Pa.) and was master of the lodge.

James E. Craig Editor. b. Oct. 8, 1881 at Norborne, Mo. Served as a reporter successively in Kansas City and St. Louis, editorial writer for St. Louis Post-Dispatch and then city editor for St. Louis GlobeDemocrat. After a stay as editor of Brownsville (Tex.) Herald in 1920, he went to New York where he became first, city editor of New York Evening Mail, editorial writer for New York Sun, and chief editorial writer for that paper from 1940 until 1951 when it closed publication. He then became managing editor of the Protestant World, a new weekly tabloid. He has written the correspondence report for the Grand Lodge of New York, and with H. L. Haywood was co-author of History of Freemasonry. Craig served as master of Mosaic Lodge No. 418, New York in 1927, and was a charter member of the American Lodge of Research (N.Y.).

Locke Craig (1860-1925) Governor of North Carolina, 1913-17. b. Aug. 16, 1860 in Bertie Co., N.C. Graduate of Univ. of N.C. and admitted to bar in 1883, practicing at Asheville. Member of N.C. lower house in 1899 and 1901. Raised in Mt. Hermon Lodge No. 118 at Asheville on July 2, 1891; suspended in 1895; reinstated in 1897; suspended in 1905 and 1909 but reinstated in a short time. At one time served as grand orator of Grand Lodge of North Carolina. d. June 9, 1925.

Malin Craig (1875-1945) Full General, U.S. Army. b. Aug. 5, 1875 at St. Joseph, Mo. Commissioned an Infantry lieutenant in 1898, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1924, major general, 1924, and full general in 1935. Retired in 1939. He served as chief-ofstaff of the U.S. Army from 1935-39. A member of Union Lodge No. 7, Junction City, Kans., he was made 32° AASR (SJ) in Albert Pike Consistory, Washington, D.C. on May 25, 1936 and received his KCCH on Oct. 19, 1937, but demitted on Nov. 19, 1940. d. July 25, 1945.

William Craig (1807-1869) Plainsman, fur trader, Indian fighter and first homesteader of Idaho; was thought to have given the state its name. He was born in Greenbrier Co., Va. and was first settler in Idaho, being Nez Perce Indian agent in 1848, and interpreter at Walla Walla, Flathead and Blackfoot councils in 1855. He was a lieutenant colonel in the Washington Territory Volunteers and fought in the Indian Wars of 1861. He was first postmaster of Walla Walla in 1858. He married an Indian woman. Craig is thought to have been a member of Multonomah Lodge No. 1 of Oregon City, Oreg.

George Washington Craik Son of Dr. James Craik, q.v. who was personal physician of George Washington and present at Washington's death. Dr. Craik named his son for Washington and Washington educated him. He later served as private secretary to Washington. Member of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va.

Dr. James Craik (1731-1814) Close friend and personal physician of George Washington, and attended him in his last illness. He named his son George Washington Craik q.v. b. in Scotland, he was educated to be a surgeon in the British army, but came to Virginia early in life and accompanied Washington in the expedition against the French and Indians in 1754, attending Braddock in 1755 after his defeat and dressing his wounds. In the Revolution he rose to surgeon general of the Continental Army and was first U.S. surgeon general. He was active in disclosing the conspiracy of 1777 to remove Washington as commander-in-chief, and in 1781, as director-general of the hospital at Yorktown, was present at the surrender of Cornwallis. After the war he removed to the neighborhood of Mount Vernon at Washington's request, and was one of the three physicians who attended him in his last illness. He was also present at the death of Martha Washington. A member of Alexandria Lodge No. 22 at Alexandria, he was initiated when it was No. 39 under Pennsylvania charter. d. Feb. 6, 1814. Washington referred to him as "My compatriot in arms, my old and intimate friend.”

Kenneth F. Cramer ( 1 894-19 54 ) Major General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 3, 1894 at Gloversville, N.Y. Graduate of Princeton Univ. in 1916

and 1917. He first taught school and later went into wholesale coal business, being president of the K. F. Cramer Coal Co., Inc. from 192752. Entered WW1 as a lieutenant in reserve corps and was discharged in 1919. Continuing his reserve status, he was inducted into army in 1941 and promoted to brigadier general in 1942 and major general commanding 43rd Infantry Division in 1946. He was again recalled to active duty in 1950 to command that division, and was commanding general of the Southern Area Command from 1952 until his death. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner and National Sojourner. d. Feb. 20, 1954.

William C. Cramer U.S. Congressman 84th Congress from 1st Florida dist. b. Aug. 4. 1922. Graduate of Univ. of North Carolina and Harvard. Admitted to Florida and Massachusetts bars in 1948 and practiced at St. Petersburg. Member of Florida lower house 1950-52 and minority leader in 1951. Served as naval lieutenant in WW2. Charter member of Sunshine Lodge No. 288, St. Petersburg, Fla. and Sunshine Commandery No. 20, K.T. of the same city; 32° AASR (SJ) at Tampa; Selama Grotto, National Sojourners, DeMolay, Eastern Star, Amaranth.

Louis C. Cramton U.S. Congressman, 63rd to 71st Congresses (191331) from 7th Michigan dist. b. Dec. 2, 1875 in Lapeer Co., Mich. Practiced law and published newspaper in Lapeer from 1899-1923. Served as clerk of state senate for three sessions and one term as state representative in 1909. Decorated by Serbia and Greece. Mason.

Earl of Cranbrook Fourth earl on the earldom that dates back to 1892, succeeding in 1915 on the death of his father. He was only 15 at that time and was a student at Eton. He served as junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England in 1939.

Charles H. Crandon Wholesale druggist. b. Nov. 9, 1886 at Acushnet, Mass. Organizer and president of The Crandon-Hunter Co., 1916-25 and president of Crandon Wholesale Drug Co. 1935-43. Vice

president and director of 1st National Bank of Miami; president and director of The Cranter Corp.; president of Fairchild Tropical Garden. Active in Dade Co. (Fla.) civic improvement associations, and had a six million dollar park on Biscayne Key named in his honor. Mason and Knight Templar.

Arthur G. Crane Governor of Wyoming, 1949-51, and president of Univ. of Wyoming, 1922-41. b. Sept. 1, 1877 at Davenport Center, N.Y. Was supt. of schools in Minto, N. Dak.; principal of High School in Lewistown, Mont.; supt. of schools, Jamestown, N. Dak. and president of State Normal School, Minot, N. Dak., having built and organized the latter in 1912. He was later principal of the State Normal School at Edinboro, Pa. Mason.

Frank Crane (1861-1928) Journalist and minister. b. May 12, 1861 at Urbana, Ill. Ordained a Methodist minister in 1882 and served as pastor at Trinity and Hyde Park churches in Chicago 1896-1903 and then at Union Congregational Church in Worcester, Mass. He entered journalism in 1909 and was editorial writer for syndicate of 100 newspapers and edited Current Opinion. He is best known for his short common sense essays published in ten volumes (1920). Other writings were The Religion of Tomorrow, Vision, The Song of the Infinite, Human Confessions, God and Democracy, Lame and Lovely, Foot Notes to Life, War and World Government, Just Human, Adventures in Common Sense, The Crane Classics (10 volumes) and others. He was a member of Home Lodge No. 508, Chicago, and served as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Illinois. d. Nov. 6, 1928.

John Crane Member of the Boston Tea Party, served as a general in the Revolution and was made a Mason in American Union Lodge (Military) while encamped at West Point in 1781.

Robert C. Crane Editor and publisher of Elizabeth (N.J.) Daily Journal since 1948. b. Sept. 25, 1920 at Pittsburgh, Pa., he graduated

from Dartmouth in 1941. Became associated with the Daily Journal in 1946. He is also director, president and treasurer of station WPOE. Served overseas with Quartermaster Corps in WW2, advancing from private to captain. Mason and Shriner.

R. Newton Crane (1848-1927) Diplomat, journalist and lawyer. b. April 1, 1848 at Long Branch, N.J. Graduate of Wesleyan Univ. (Conn.), he started on the editorial staff of Newark Daily Advertiser, in 1867, and in 1869 founded with R. W. Gilder the Newark Morning Register. In 1873 he became managing editor of the St. Louis GlobeDemocrat. From 1874-80 he was U.S. consul at Manchester, England. Admitted to Missouri bar in 1880 and called to English bar in 1894. He was representative of the U.S. in the South African deportation claims commission in 1901; chancellor of the Episcopal Diocese of Missouri in 1894; grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of England in 1908 and grand herald of the Great Priory of K.T. of England in 1907. d. May 6, 1927.

David M. Crawford Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 10, 1889 at Flanders, N.J. Graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1912 and rose to brigadier general in 1942. Was instructor in chemistry at West Point from 1916-21 and again from 1927-28. With the Signal Corps of army, serving as signal officer in Panama Canal Zone, II Corps Area, VII Corps, and communications chief coordinator of U.S. Joint Army-Navy Communications Board and Inter-Allied Combined Communications Board, 194246, retiring in 1946. Member of Hancock Lodge No. 311, Ft. Leavenworth, Kans. but was raised in summer of 1924 by Washington Lodge No. 9, Freehold, N.J. Member of Albert Pike Consistory AASR (SJ), Washington, D.C. and Almas Shrine Temple of Washington.

Earl of Crawford (John Lindsay, 20th Earl) Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) in 1734. He was raised in the Lodge of Edinburgh in 1733, and five months afterwards was introduced to the English fraternity by the Earl of Strathmore, a captain in Barrel's Foot. Crawford succeeded Strathmore as grand master in 1734. He served as a colonel in the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards and later in the

42nd Foot. Served with the Germans against France and with the Russians against the Turks. Afterwards he greatly distinguished himself at the battles of Dettigen and Fontenoy. He later commanded the 2nd Troop of Horse Grenadier Guards (1740) and was colonel of the Royal Regiment of North British Dragoons.

Harry J. Crawford (1867-1953) Oil executive and banker. b. Jan. 19, 1867 at Emlenton, Pa., he began as foreman for South Penn. Oil Co. in 1888. Became president of 1st National Bank of Emlenton and Oil City National Bank. He was chairman of the board of nine corporations, including Quaker State Oil Refining Corp. and director of five others. Mason and 33° AASR (NJ). He presented a high school building to Emlenton, an administration building to Grove City College, and a home for the blind in Venango Co., Pa. d. in Nov., 1953.

John Crawford (1746-1813) An M.D. who held a chair in the Medical College in Baltimore, Md. and was the first physician to introduce vaccination in Baltimore. b. May 13, 1746 in Ireland. He was the founder of the Baltimore General Dispensary, Bible Association of Baltimore and Maryland Society of Useful Knowledge. He was the first grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Maryland. A member of Amicable Lodge No. 25, Baltimore, he served as master in 1799. From 1801-13 he served as both grand master of the Grand Lodge of Maryland and grand commander of Knights Templar in the state. d. May 9, 1813.

Nelson A. Crawford Editor and author. b. May 4, 1888 at Miller, S. Dak. Graduate of Iowa and Kansas Universities. Engaged in newspaper work in 1906, and then taught English and journalism in a number of colleges and universities. Managing editor of Kansas Industrialist 191426; editor Kansas Churchman, 191618; was director of information for U.S. Department of Agriculture from 1925-28. Has been editor in chief of Household magazine since 1928. As an author he has written a number of novels, fiction, poems and textbooks, and has edited a dozen other volumes. He has contributed to Encyclopedia Britannica, Columbia Encyclopedia, Reader's Digest, Coronet, American

and others. Member of Lafayette Lodge No. 16, Manhattan, Kansas. Demitted from chapter, council, commandery and consistory.

Samuel J. Crawford (1835-1913) Governor of Kansas, 1865-69. b. April 15, 1835 in Lawrence Co., Ind. Admitted to bar in Indiana in 1856 and removed to Garnett, Kansas in 1859. Served as captain in 2nd Kansas Cavalry in 1861 and made colonel of 83rd U.S.C.T. in 1863, resigning in 1864. Was breveted brigadier general of volunteers in 1865 for "meritorious services." Farmed in Kansas from 1869. Member of Orient Lodge No. 51, Topeka, Kansas. d. Oct. 21, 1913.

William J. C. Crawley (1884-1916) Irish Masonic historian best known for his work Caementaria Hibernica. He was a member of Scientific Lodge No. 250, Dublin, being raised in 1872. The lodge later merged with Trinity College No. 357. He served as master in 1876 and was secretary for seven years. He was grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Instruction (Ireland)and was grand treasurer of the Grand Lodge of Ireland from 1904 until his death.

William M. Creasy Major General, U.S. Army. b. April 26, 1905 at Wilmington, N.C. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1926. Advanced through grades to major general in 1950. Was chief of strategic planning staff of China-Burma-India Theater, 1944-45 and department commander of Service of Supply in China Theater, 1945. Chief chemical officer, Department of Army since 1954. Raised in St. John's Lodge, No. 1, Wilmington, N.C. June 27, 1939. 32° AASR (SJ) in Army Consistory No. 1, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. Member of Sahara Shrine Temple, Pine Bluff, Ark., National Sojourners and Court No. 38, Royal Order of Jesters.

Cecil W. Creel Agriculture expert. b. Oct. 22, 1889 at Angola, Ind. Began career at Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue Univ. in 1911, and in 1912 went with the Indian Service, Dept. of Interior. In charge of campaign to stimulate food production in N.W. during WW1.

Dean of Agriculture, Univ. of Nevada 194549. Went with the Foreign Service dept. of Dept. of Agriculture in 1953, being sent to Israel. In 1954 became consultant to Foreign Operations Administration. Republican nominee for U.S. senate from Nevada in 1942. President of Association of Land Grant Colleges in 1938. Raised Feb. 22, 1912 in Reno Lodge No. 13, Reno, Nev. Member of Reno Chapter No. 7, R.A.M.; Reno Council No. 4, R. & S.M., DeWitt Clinton Commandery No. 1, K.T.; 32° AASR (SJ) and Kerak Shrine Temple, all of Reno. Past master of his council and past grand master of Grand Council R. & S.M. of Nevada. Past potentate of Kerak Shrine Temple; past director of Reno Court No. 33, Royal Order of Jesters, and past sovereign, Joan of Ark Conclave No. 38, Red Cross of Constantine.

Joseph P. Creesey Commander of world-renowned clipper "Flying Cloud." Member of Philanthropic Lodge at Marblehead, Mass.

Andrew E. Creesy Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. Nov. 7, 1893 at Beverly, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1917, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1944. Commanding general Office Q.M.C., Marine Corps Headquarters, Washington. Mason.

Adolphe Cremieux ( 179 6 -1880 ) French lawyer and politician. His real name was Isaac Moise. Was a member of the Chamber of Deputies 1842-48; 1849-51; 1869-70; 1871-75. He was minister of justice in 1848; 187071 and in 1875 was appointed senator for life. Member of Lodge Alsace Lorraine.

John Crerar (1827-1889) American businessman and philanthropist. b. in New York City, he endowed John Crerar Library in Chicago. He was a member of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City (1857).

Joaquin Crespo (1845-1898) Venezuelan General and twice President of Venezuela. b. in San Francisco, Cuba, he was a supporter of Guzman Blanco and served as figurehead president under Blanco's dominance from 1884-86. He led the revolution deposing President Andueza Palacio in 1892 and set up a dictatorship in 1892-94. Served again as president from 1894-98, this time being elected. He was killed in the unsuccessful defense of his successor, Ignacio Andrade q.v. Crespo was the 20th sovereign grand commander of the Supreme Council 33° AASR for Venezuela from 1894-98.

Herbert A. Cresswell Vice President of Canadian Steamship Lines, Ltd. since 1948. b. May 6, 1901 in Nottingham, England. Became associated with the steamship line in 1916, and has been a director since 1951. Also director of several allied corporations. Mason.

Leslie F. Crews Managment Consultant and Vice President of Montgomery Ward & Co. 1945-47. b. Nov. 19, 1896 at New Canton, Ill. Graduate of LaSalle Univ. in 1922. Began as a buyer for Marshall Field & Co. and later entered C.P.A. firm, going to Montgomery Ward in 1928. Has been management consultant since 1949. Member of New Canton Lodge No. 821, New Canton, Illinois, AASR at Minneapolis and Zuhrah Shrine Temple.

Douglas Henry Crick Bishop, Church of England. Studied at Winchester College and later New College, Oxford, England. After his ordination, he served as chaplain to the Mersey Mission for Seamen for four years, followed by another four year period at the Maltby Main Colliery Village until 1916 when he became assistant master at Winchester College, leaving in 1918 as housemaster at Bradfield College. Known as England's tallest bishop (6 ft. 4 in.). He succeeded the present Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher q.v., as Bishop of Chester in 1939. He followed Fisher as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of England, holding the position for two years.

Lloyd K. Crippen Vice president of Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. since 1937. b. Jan. 4, 1895 at Jackson, Mich. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan in 1921. Joined Acacia Mutual in 1921. Raised March 3, 1923 in Osiris Lodge No. 26, Washington, D.C.

Donald Crisp Movie Actor. Member of Henry S. Orme Lodge No. 548, Los Angeles, Calif.

Francisco Crispi (1819-1901) Italian statesman and Premier of Italy in 1887-91 and 1893-96. b. at Ribera, Sicily. He aided Garibaldi q.v. in expedition to Sicily in 1860 and was first representative from Palermo to the Italian parliament in 1861. He was the leader of the radical Left and president of the Chamber of Deputies in 1876. In 187778 he was minister of interior. He advocated the Triple Alliance of Germany, Italy and Austria and sought Italian protectorate over Abyssinia. He was deposed after Italian defeat at Aduwa in 1896. According to Bulletin of International Masonic Congress, 1917, he was a Freemason.

Daniel H. Crissinger (1860-1942) Governor of Federal Reserve Board, 1923-27. b. Dec. 10, 1860 in Marion Co., Ohio and began practice of law in Marion in 1886. Owner of several farms, he had supervision of National City Bank & Trust of Marion, becoming president in 1920. From 192123 he was U.S. comptroller of currency. After resigning as governor of the Federal Reserve, he was chairman of the executive committee of the F. H. Smith Co., Washington from 1927 until his death. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. d. July 12, 1942.

William E. Crist Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Aug. 10, 1898 at Harrisburg, Pa. Graduated U.S. Military Academy in 1920 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1951. He served on the War Dept. General Staff in Military Intelligence from 1939-43 and then became assistant division commander of the 91st Infantry division. He served on the U.S. Military Mission to Moscow in 1944 and with the

military government of Okinawa in 1945. Later with First Army staff in Nanking, China and Tokyo, Japan. Has been assistant chief of staff of the Allied Land Forces (G-2), Central Europe since 1954. Mason and National Sojourner.

Arthur S. Crites ( 1879 -1957 ) Banker. b. Feb. 4, 1879 on Bear Mountain, Kern Co., Calif. A self-made man of considerable weath, during his youth he rode the ranges as a cowboy, pulled the jerk line over an eight-horse plow, freighted on the Mojave Desert, worked in the hayfields on a hay baler and cut and hauled wood until 1898 when he rode 30 miles out of the mountains to volunteer for the war with Spain. Following the war he worked as a messenger for the Kern Valley Bank. He advanced in the California banking world to become president of several banks, which by merger, later became part of the Bank of America system. He served the Bank of America as executive vice president until 1932 when he retired to look after his extensive business and oil interests. Active in Republican politics, he was a delegate to several national conventions and took an active part in the work of the Republican central committee. He was a close personal friend of Chief Justice Earl Warren q.v. and Senator William Knowland q.v. In 1956 he attended the White House Conference on Education, serving as chairman of one of the panels. Crites was grand master of the grand lodge of California in 1923, grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of California in 1932. He served the grand lodge on the finance committee for 27 years and was treasurer of his blue lodge for 45 years. He died April 28, 1957, only a few days before he was scheduled to preside over the Red Cross of Constantine meeting as its national grand sovereign.

John J. Crittenden (1787-1863) U.S. Senator from Kentucky, Governor of Kentucky and Attorney General of the United States. b. Sept. 10,

266 Edward Croft

1787 in Woodford Co., Ky. He served four terms as U.S. senator-181719; 1835-41; 1842-48; 1855-61. He was U.S. attorney general in 1841 and again from 1850-53. He served as governor of Kentucky from 184850. In 1860 he introduced the "Crittenden Compromise" in the U.S. senate as a measure of conciliation between the North and South, but it was defeated in committee. He was a member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and later of Russellville Lodge No. 17, Russellville. His nephew, Thomas T. Crittenden q.v. became governor of Missouri. d. July 26, 1863.

Robert Crittenden First Secretary of Arkansas Territory. When congress defined the Arkansas Territory in 1819, Robert Crittenden, a Kentucky Mason and charter secretary of Arkansas Post Lodge No. 59, was selected as territorial secretary. He was also a member of Webb Royal Arch Chapter No. 6, Versailles, Ky.

Thomas L. Crittenden Union General of Civil War. Mason. Visited Ward Lodge, an army lodge, during the war.

Thomas T. Crittenden (1832-1909) Governor of Missouri, 188185. b. Nov. 21, 1832 at Shelby Co., Ky. Served as lieutenant colonel in 7th Missouri Cay. from 1862 until close of Civil War, practicing law after the war. He filled an unexpired term as attorney general of Missouri, and was a member of congress in 1877-81 from the 7th Missouri dist. He was U.S. consul at Mexico City, Mexico, 1893-97. Belonged to Masonic bodies in Kentucky.

Marcellus M. Crocker (1830-1865) Union Brigadier General of Civil War. b. Feb. 6, 1830 in Franklin, Ind. He entered the U.S. Military Academy in 1847, but left at the end of his second year, studied law and practiced in Des Moines, Iowa. He en-tered the service as a major of the 2nd Iowa Infantry in 1861. He fought at Shiloh, Vicksburg and was with Sherman in his Georgia campaign, commanding a division part of the time. He was suffering from consumption during the whole of his

military duty. d. Aug. 26, 1865 in Washington, D.C. Member of Pioneer Lodge No. 22, Des Moines, Iowa.

David Crockett (1786-1836) American frontiersman. b. Aug. 17, 1786 in Limestone, Tenn. His father was a veteran of the American Revolution and was of Irish birth. Unable to read or write, he was nevertheless a shrewd man. His ability to tell humorous stories and shoot a rifle enabled him to be elected to the U.S. congress from Tennessee for two terms, 1827-31 and 1833-35. He served under Jackson in the Creek War in 1813-14, but later opposed Jackson q.v. politically. Jackson had a strong following in western Tennessee, and Crockett eventually fell from popular favor and joined the Texans in their struggle for Independence. His life ended at the Alamo, where as one of the six survivors of a band of 140 Texans, he surrendered to Santa Anna q.v., only to be shot by order of that Mexican general on March 6, 1836. Crockett is often referred to as a Mason, but no proof of his membership has been found. In 1897 it was claimed that a Mr. E. M. Taylor of Paducah; Ky. was in possession of his Masonic apron. On April 21, 1936 the Grand Lodge of Texas dedicated a Masonic memorial on the San Jacinto (Tex.) battlefield. The plaque on the monument carried a list of 48 names, including that of Crockett, stating "A tribute to the fidelity of pioneer Masons under whose outstanding leadership was laid the cornerstone of the Republic of Texas.”

Edward Croft (1875-1938) Major General, U.S. Army and Chief of Infantry, U.S.A. 1933-38. b. July 11, 1875 at Greenville, S.C. Commissioned in 1898, advancing through grades to major general in 1933. Mason. d. Jan. 28, 1938.

Frederick S. Crofts (1883-1951) Book publsher. b. Jan. 10, 1883 at Hudson, N.Y. Managed the educational department of Harper & Brothers from 1919-24, and founded the F. S. Crofts & Co. in Oct. of the latter year, being president and director. He was also vice president and director of Appleton-Century Crofts, Inc., and a director of Cornell Univ. Press and Comstock Publishing Co. Mason. d. Sept. 16, 1951.

William M. Croll (1866-1929) U.S. Congressman to 68th Congress (192325) from 14th Pennsylvania dist b. April 9, 1866 in Upper Macungie, Pa. Engaged in general merchandise and clothing business. Mason, 32° AASR (NJ). d. Oct. 22, 1929.

George, Earl of Cromarty Scottish nobleman who succeeded William St. Clair as the 2nd Grand Master Mason of Scotland in 1737. He afterwards engaged in the rebellion of 1745, and, with 400 of his clan, took part in the Battle of Falkirk. He and his son, Lord Macleod, were taken prisoners. Both pleaded guilty, but were pardoned.

Harry F. C. Crookshank British politician. b. May 27, 1893. Attended Eton as King's Scholar and later Magdalen College, Oxford. He served throughout WW1, first with the Hampshire regiment and from 1915 with the Grenadier Guards. Was twice wounded. He entered the diplomatic service after the war and was third secretary in the foreign office and in 1921 was 2nd secretary at Constantinople. In 1924 he was stationed at the British Embassy in Washington, D.C. His mother was of American birth. He has served as a member of Parliament from Lincolnshire for over 30 years, and at one time was leader of the House of Commons and Lord Privy Seal. In 1934 he was appointed Parliamentary Undersecretary to the Home Office and became successively Secretary for Mines, Financial Secretary to the Treasury and Postmaster General. He served the Grand Lodge of England as senior grand deacon in 1935 and junior grand warden in 1947. In the Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons of England he was past grand sojourner in 1935, and grand superintendent for Lincolnshire in 1946, He served the Mark Grand Lodge of England as grand senior warden in 1943. A Knight Templar, he was first grand constable in 1941. He is a member of the supreme council 33° AASR.

Marshall F. Cropley (1882-1957) Vice President of Matson Navigation Co. from 1947. b. May 26, 1882 in San Jose, Calif. Worked as a stenographer for Rock Island Railroad, cashier of Alaska Pacific

Steamship Co., general agent for Pacific Steamship Co. and later became manager. Went with Matson as assistant freight traffic manager in 1925. Mason and Shriner. d. Aug. 28, 1957.

Harley N. Crosby (1873-1955) Presiding Justice, Supreme Court of New York, 1940-43. Retired. b. June 25, 1873 at Parish, N.Y. Graduate of Cornell and Syracuse universities. Justice of supreme court from 192228 and associate justice appellate division, 1929-39. Member of Republican Lodge No. 325, Parish, N.Y.

William G. Crosby ( 1 806 - 1881 ) Governor of Maine for two terms beginning in 1853. Graduate of Bowdoin and practiced law in Belfast. He was prominent in promoting the public school system of Maine. Member of Timothy Chase Lodge No. 126, Belfast and master of his lodge twice.

Bert S. Cross Vice president of Minnesota Mining aild Mfg. Co. since 1948. b. Oct. 16, 1905 in Superior, Wis. Began as office boy for General Mills in Minneapolis, going with Minn. Mining and Mfg. Co. in 1926 where he was successively manager of the abrasive division, new products manager, and general manager of scotchlite division. He holds several patents in the field of abrasives, paper, printing, coating and scotchlite reflectors. Member of Ancient Landmark Lodge No. 5, St. Paul, Minn.; Minnesota Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; Damascus Commandery No. 1, K.T. and Osman Shrine Temple, all of St. Paul, Minn.

Burton M. Cross Governor of Maine in 1953. b. Nov. 15, 1902 in Augusta, Maine. He began as a florist in Augusta and now president of Cross Flowers, Inc. in Farmingdale. Member of the Maine lower house in 1940-43 and state senate from 1944-52, serving as majority floor leader in 1946-49 and president of the senate 1948-52. Mason, 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner.

Edward E. Cross (1832-1863) Journalist and soldier. b. April 22, 1832 in Lancaster, N.H. He began as a journeyman printer, going to Cincinnati in 1852 and becoming editor of the Cincinnati Times in 1854. He was employed as an agent of the St. Louis and Arizona Mining Co. and subsequently became a large stockholder. In 1860 he held a lieutenant colonel's commission in the Mexican army, and when the news of the attack on Fort Sumter reached him, he resigned and hastened to Concord, N.H. where he recruited a regiment and was made its colonel. The regiment distinguished itself in many battles and was known as the "Fighting Fifth." He was mortally wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, and died July 2,1863. A member of North Star Lodge No. 8, Lancaster, N.H.

Jeremy L. Cross (1783-1861) Masonic ritualist and organizer. b. in Haverhill, N.H. on June 27, 1783, he was made a Mason in St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N.H. in 1808 and affiliated with Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven, Conn. in 1818. He received the Mark Master degree in Aurora Mark Master Lodge No. 7, Bradford, Vt. and the Royal Arch degree in Champlain Chapter No. 2, St. Albans, Vt., in July, 1815. Admitted to Harmony Council No. 8, New Haven, Conn. on Oct 16, 1818, serving as master in 1822 and 1827. He was knighted in St. John's Commandery, K.T. No. 1, Providence, R.I. in 1819. Received 33° AASR. He organized a number of councils of royal and select masters throughout the country. His education was poor, but his memorizing of the work enabled him to teach in all the recognized divisions of Masonry. His True Masonic Chart or Hieroglyphic Monitor, which went through at least two dozen editions, is his greatest contribution. He worked with another famous ritualist, Thomas Smith Webb q.v. for a time.

Sir Ronald Cross Governor of Tasmania. Initiated in Fidelity Lodge No. 63, Tasmania, in 1953 while serving as governor.

Wilbur L. Cross (1862-1948) Four times Governor of Connecticut, 193139. b. April 10, 1862 at Mansfield, Conn. A.B. and Ph.D. degrees from Yale, and honorary degrees from 12 universities

and colleges. Was a professor of English, author and editor. Dean of Yale graduate school from 1916-30. Wrote eight books on biography and edited a score of classics. Raised in Trumbull Lodge No. 22, New Haven, Conn. on April 21, 1932. d. Oct 5, 1948.

269 Horace Crotty Horace Crotty (1886-1951) Bishop of Church of England. b. Oct. 8, 1886 at Bleasby, near Nottingham. Educated in Australia, graduating from Melbourne Univ. with honors. He entered the holy orders in 1909, being appointed vicar of Ivanhoe, Melbourne and later rector of St. Thomas in North Sydney. Served in WW1 in France with the Australian expeditionary forces and on his return was appointed dean of Newcastle (N.S.W.). He was consecrated bishop of Bathhurst (N.S.W.) in 1928 and served until his resignation in 1936. He served as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of New South Wales and provincial grand chaplain in England. d. Jan. 16, 1951.

William E. Crow (1870-1922) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1921-23. b. March 10, 1870 at Fayette Co., Pa. Admitted to bar in 1895. Member of state senate three terms. Member of Fayette Lodge No. 228, Uniontown, Pa. d. Aug. 2, 1922.

Benjamin W. Crowninshield (17721851) Secretary of the Navy under Madison and Monroe. b. Dec. 27, 1772 in Boston, Mass. He engaged in business in Salem, Mass. and during the War of 1812, commanded several ships. He was state senator in 1811 and appointed secretary of Navy in 1814 by Madison, resigning in 1818. He returned to the state senate in 1822-23 and was elected to U.S. congress from 1823-31. Member of Essex Lodge, Salem, Mass. d. Feb. 3, 1851.

Frank Crowther (1870-1955) Congressman to 66th to 77th Congresses (1919-43) from 30th New York dist. b. July 10, 1870 at Liverpool, England. Graduate of Harvard Dental School in 1898. Mason. d. July 20, 1955.

John T. Croxton (1837-1874) Union Major General in Civil War and U.S. Minister to Bolivia. b. Nov. 20,1837 in Bourbon Co., Ky. He graduated from Yale in 1857 and was admitted to bar in 1858, practicing in Paris, Ky. from 1859. In 1861 he began raising Union troops and was made an officer, rising to major general. He participated in the battles of Sherman's army, and at the close of the war was put in command of the military district of southwest Georgia. He resigned from the army in 1865 and returned to Kentucky where he resumed the practice of law. He was named minister to Bolivia in 1873 and accepted the office in the expectation that it would be beneficial to his health, but it was too late and died in La Paz, Bolivia April 16, 1874. He was given Masonic burial.

Lee Cruce (1863-1933) Governor of Oklahoma, 1911-15. b. July 8, 1863 in Crittenden Co., Ky. Began law practice in Ardmore, Indian Territory in 1891, and went with the Ardmore National Bank in 1901, becoming president of it in 1903. Mason and 32° AASR (SJ). d. Jan. 16, 1933.

Robert T. Crucefix (1 797-1850 ) The doctor was both an M.D. and LL.D. and founded what is now the Royal Masonic Benevolent Institution in England. He started The Freemasons' Quarterly Review in 1843 to promote the cause of the home for aged and decrepit Freemasons, and on his motion in 1837, the Grand Lodge of England recommended the home. However the Duke of Sussex was opposed to the idea, favoring an annuity fund. Dr. Crucefix used some intemperate words at a meeting and in 1839 was suspended for six months. He then wrote a strong letter to the grand master and was ordered to appear at a special meeting of the grand lodge and apologize or be expelled—he apologized. d. Feb. 25, 1850.

Charles Craft (?-1883) Union Major General in Civil War. He was commissioned an officer of volunteers from Indiana in 1862, and became major general in 1865. He served with distinction in the battles fought near Richmond, Ky. on Aug. 29-30, 1862, commanding a

brigade. His Masonic memberships were in Terre Haute, hid. Lodge No. 19; Chapter, R.A.M. No. 11; Council R. & S.M. No. 8; and Commandery No. 16, K.T. of which he was past commander. He also was grand commander of the Grand Commandery, Knights Templar of Indiana in 1873. d. March 23, 1883.

Thomas Cruse (1857-1943) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 29, 1857 at Owensboro, Ky. He graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1879. Commissioned in that year, he advanced through the grades to brigadier general in 1917. He was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "distinguished gallantry in action with hostile Indians" in 1882. Mason. d. June 8, 1943.

Walter B. Cruttenden (1873-1949) Insurance executive. b. Jan. 27, 1873 at Madison, Conn. Graduate of Yale and engaged in practice of law from 1896-1900. Vice president and director of Fire & Marine Ins. Co. from 1924; same for Sentinel Fire Ins. Co. from 1926; New England Fire Ins. Co. from 1927; Michigan Fire & Marine Ins. Co. since 1927; N.E. Casualty Ins. Co. from 1939. Mason, 32° AASR. d. Sept. 5, 1949.

Samuel H. Cuff Writer and news analyst. b. Oct. 17, 1901 in American colony at Jerusalem. He was taken as a hostage by the Turks in the evacuation of Jerusalem in 1917, and acted as hostageinterpreter for them. In 1927 he organized the Travel Institute of Bible Research in New York, London and Jerusalem. From 1932-35 he assisted the Greek government in cooperation with Princeton Univ. and Brooklyn Museum inreviving interest in classic monuments and study. He has served as a public relations consultant for various Balkan and European countries. In 1939 he visited Panama at the invitation of the governor to write a historic guide of that country (This Is Panama). He has been a news analyst for National Broadcasting Co. since 1951. Mason.

Charles A. Culberson (1855-1925) U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas. b. June 10, 1855 at Dadeville, Ala. He settled in Texas in 1856 and practiced law at Dallas from 1887. Served two terms as governor of Texas, 189498 and four terms as U.S. senator from Texas, 1899-1923. Member of Jefferson Lodge No. 36, Jefferson, Texas and Ben Hur Shrine Temple of Austin. d. March 19, 1925.

Frank P. Culver, Jr. Justice, Supreme Court of Texas since 1953. b. Sept. 25, 1889 at Birmingham, Ala. Graduate of Vanderbilt and Texas universities. Began practice of law at Ft. Worth in 1914. From 1928 he served as district judge, associate justice of court of civil appeals. Served in both WW1 and WW2. Raised in Julian Field Lodge No. 908, Fort Worth, Texas in 1914, serving as master in 1922 and district deputy grand master in 1936. Member of Texas Chapter, R.A.M. and Worth Commandery, K.T. as well as Moslah Shrine Temple, all of Fort Worth.

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1771-1851) First King of Hanover serving from 1837-51. He was a son of King George III of England. Was created Duke of Cumberland in 1799, the title previously being held by his uncle Henry Frederick q.v. who was grand master of England. He became King of Hanover on the separation of the English and Hanoverian crowns in 1837 upon the accession of Victoria as queen of England. He was succeeded on the throne by his son George V q.v., who ruled until 1866 when Hanover was annexed to Prussia. He was initiated at a special meeting held in the house of the Earl of Moira q.v., the acting grand master, on May 11, 1796. He was elected grand master of the Grand Lodge of Hanover on Nov. 1, 1828.

Henry Frederick H.R.H., the Duke of Cumberland (1745-1790) Brother of King George III of England. He was initiated in Royal Lodge No. 313 (later Royal Alpha No. 16) on Feb. 10, 1767. He was the first grand master of the Grand Lodge of England of royal blood, serving from 1782-90. At that time (April, 1782) the grand lodge resolved "that whenever a prince of the blood did the society the honour to accept the office of grand master, he should be at liberty to nominate any peer of

the realm to be acting grand master." Thus was created the office of pro-grand master.

William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765) Third son of George II, King of England and Queen Caroline. Educated for the navy, he was privy councilor in 1742. He was commander-in-chief of the British, Hanoverian, Austrian and Dutch forces that unsuccessfully engaged Marshal Saxe at Fontenoy in 1745. He quelled the Jacobite uprising headed by Prince Charles Edward, and suppressed Jacobitism with utmost severity, thus acquiring the nickname of "The Butcher." He was again defeated by Saxe at Lauffeld in 1747 and defeated by d'Estress at Hastenbeck in 1757, thus capitulating Hanover. After this he retired to private life. He was initiated in 1743. b. April 26, 1721. d. Oct. 31, 1765.

Thayer Cumings Vice president and director of the advertising firm of Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osbornsince 1951. b. March 16, 1904 in New York City. He graduated from Harvard in 1926. Served as officer in Navy during WW2. Mason., Homer S. Cummings (1870-1956) Attorney General of U.S. under Franklin Roosevelt, 1933-39. b. April 30, 1870 at Chicago, Ill. Graduate of Yale, he practiced at Stamford, Conn. from 1893 until 1923 and since 1939. Delegate to National Democratic Convention seven times, delivering keynote speech in 1920. He was floor leader for F. D. Roosevelt in 1932. As attorney general he was the author and sponsor of many reforms in the Department of Justice and Federal judicial system, including new rules of civil procedure, creation of administrative office for federal courts, juvenile delinquency act; he extended and improved prison system, established Alcatraz; called national conference on crime; widened scope of Federal power in matter of kidnapping and inter-state crime. He was raised in Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven, Conn. Aug. 5, 1892. d. Sept. 10, 1956.

0. Sam Cummings Organizer of Kiwanis, International. b. July 9, 1893 in Evanston, Ill. Owner of 0. Sam Cummings Agency (ins.), and state agent for Kansas City Life Ins. Co. in Texas. He is recognized internationally for development of Kiwanis organization in the U.S. and

Canada. He was first international executive secretary of the Kiwanis clubs of the U.S. and Canada from 1918-21, and international president in 1928. Mason.

Albert B. Cummins (1850-1926) U.S. Senator and Governor of Iowa. b. Feb. 15, 1850 at Carmichaels, Pa. Admitted to Illinois bar in 1874 and practiced in Chicago until 1878, when he removed to Des Moines, Iowa. He served in the Iowa lower house in 1888, and was governor of Iowa three terms (1902 - 08, and U.S. senator from Iowa from 1908-27. He succeeded Calvin Coolidge as president of the senate in 1923. Member of Capitol Lodge No. 110, Des Moines and Za-Ga-Zig Shrine Temple of Des Moines. d. July 30, 1926., Robert R. Cummins Railroad executive. b. Sept. 30, 1884 at Marion, Ala. Began with Central of Georgia Railroad in 1909. Presently president and director of Sylvania Central Railway, Albany Terminal Co., Macon Terminal Co., Chatham Terminal Co., and Central of Georgia Motor Transport Co. Vice president and director of three other terminal companies. Mason.

Albert B. Cunningham Author and educator (pen name of Garth Hale). b. June 22, 1888 at Linden, W. Va. Served as dean of Lebanon Univ. and College of Puget Sound, and has taught English at Washington State, State Teachers College, Shippensburg, Pa. and has been professor of English at Texas Technical College since 1929. He has written 23 fiction books such as Singing Mountains, Old Black Bass, Murder at Deer Lick, Murder at the Schoolhouse, The Strange Death of Manny Square, Murder Before Midnight, After The Storm, The Victory of Paul Kent, and others. Member of Village Lodge No. 274, Burton, Ohio, but now demitted.

Edward H. Cunningham (18691930) Member of Federal Reserve Board, 1923-30. b. Dec. 14, 1869 at Burlington, Wis. Farmed in Iowa from 1889. He was a member of the lower house of Iowa three terms, 1909-13 and speaker of house in 1913. Mason. d. Nov. 28, 1930.

Paul H. Cunningham U.S. Congressman to 77th to 81st Congresses (1941-51) from Iowa. b. June 15, 1890 in Indiana Co., Pa. Admitted to Michigan bar in 1915 and Iowa bar in 1920. First practiced at Grand Rapids and Grand Haven, Mich. and in Des Moines since 1920. Served as first lieutenant in WW1. Mason.

William Cunningham (?-1791) English Captain and Provost Marshal of the American Revolution who was notorious for his treatment of American prisoners. He arrived in New York in 1774, where he broke horses and gave riding lessons. His conduct was obnoxious to the Whigs in New York and he fled to Boston where he attracted the attention of General Thomas Gage, who appointed him provost marshal. In 1778 he had charge of the prisons in Philadelphia and later of those in New York. In both places his cruelties to the prisoners became notorious. More than 250 were hanged without trial and 2,000 starved to death. His only known virtue was in the recovery of the stolen jewels, books and records of Lodges No. 2 and 3 in Philadelphia. His own lodge is not known, but he was a visitor to Lodge No. 3 on Oct. 10, 1777. Later he resided in London where he became dissipated, and for forging a draft was convicted and executed on Aug. 10, 1791.

George R. Currie Justice of Supreme Court of Wisconsin since 1951. b. Jan. 16, 1900 at Princeton, Wis. Graduate of Univ. of Wisconsin in 1925. Practiced law in Sheboygan from 1925-51. Mason.

Charles F. Curry (1858-1930) U.S. Congressman, 63rd to 71st Congresses (1913-31) from 3rd California dist. b. March 14, 1858. Member of the California Assembly in 1887 and superintendent of Station B. postoffice in San Francisco from 1890-94. Secretary of State of California in 1899-1911. Mason. d. Oct. 10, 1930.

Andrew G. Curtin (1815-?) Governor of Pennsylvania, 1860-65. b. April 22, in Bellefonte, Pa. He was admitted to the bar in 1839. Was appointed secretary of the commonwealth and ex-officio superintendent

of common schools in 1854, and did much toward reforming the public school system of Pennsylvania. As governor he instituted a system of caring for the children of men killed in the Civil War, and thus became known in the ranks as "the soldiers friend." President Grant appointed him minister to Russia in 1869. He served in the U.S. congress three consecutive terms from 1881-1887. Member of Bellefonte Lodge No. 268, Bellefonte, Pa.

Carl T. Curtis U.S. Congressman 76th to 80th Congresses (1939-49) from Nebraska. b. March 15, 1905 at Minden, Nebr. Began law practice in Minden in 1930. Raised in Minden Lodge No. 127, Minden, Nebr. and 32°, KCCH in AASR (SJ) at Hastings. Member of Tehama Shrine Temple at Hastings and Royal Order of Jesters. Elected U.S. senator in 1955.

Jesse W. Curtis Justice, Supreme Court of California for terms 1926-50, retiring in 1945. b. July 18, 1865 in San Bernardino, Calif. Began practice of law at San Bernardino in 1891, serving as judge and district attorney of several courts. Mason and Knight Templar.

John J. Curtis (1857-1931) Publisher. b. Jan. 21, 1857 at Indianapolis, Ind. Became vice president of Bowen, Stewart & Co. (now Bobbs-Merrill Co.) book publishers. Was known as "dean of modern book advertising" and originator of colored pictorial book jackets. Mason. d. July 22, 1931.

Sir Lucius Curtis Admiral of English Navy. Initiated in Phoenix Lodge No. 257, Portsmouth, Eng. June 13, 1827, serving as master in 1833 and provincial grand master from 1840-57.

Merritt B. Curtis Brigadier Genereral, U.S. Marine Corps. b. Aug. 31,1892 at San Bernardino, Calif. Graduate of Univ. of California and

George Washington Univ. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1917 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1944. Chief disbursing officer of supply department U.S. Marine Corps at Washington from 1946. Member of the bar in California and District of Columbia, and admitted to practice in supreme court. Dual membership in Sojourners Lodge No. 51, Washington, D.C. (1941) and life member of International Lodge (Mass.) of Peking, China (1928). 32° AASR, Peking, China in 1929. Member of Almas Shrine Temple, Washington, D.C. National president of National Sojourners, 1948-49 and national secretarytreasurer-editor of same, 194953.

Newton M. Curtis (1835-?) Union Major General in Civil War. b. May 21, 1835 in DePeyster, N.Y. On April 14, 1861 he enrolled a company of volunteers from New York and was made their captain. During the progress of the war he was advanced through the ranks to major general of volunteers in Oct., 1864. He served in the Army of the Potomac, commanded a brigade in the Battle of Cold Harbor, and was known as the "hero of Ft. Fisher." In 1865 he was given command of southwest Virginia with headquarters at Lynchburg, and was mustered out of service on Jan. 15, 1866. He later served as a member of the New York legislature, special agent of the U.S. Treasury and collector of customs. He received his degrees in Ogdensburg, N.Y., and his chapter degrees there on St. John's Day, Dec., 1858. He became a member of DeMolay Cornmandery No. 4, Lynchburg, Va. about the close of the Civil War.

Oakley C. Curtis (1865-1924) Governor of Maine, 1915-16. b. March 29, 1865 at Portland, Me. He was manager of Randall & McAllister, wholesale coal from 1894; served in the state house of representatives 190304; state senator, 1905-08 and was mayor of Portland from 1911-14. Mason, 32° AASR (NJ). d. Feb. 22, 1924.

Sir Roger Curtis Admiral in British Navy. Made a Mason in Phoenix Lodge No. 257, Portsmouth, Eng. on Aug. 1, 1787.

Samuel R. Curtis (1807-1866) Union Major General in Civil War. b. Feb. 3, 1807 in New York state, he graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1831, but resigned from army in 1832 and became a civil engineer. He then studied law and practiced in Ohio from 1841-46. Active in the state militia, he was adjutant general of Ohio, and organized volunteers for the Mexican War. He served as colonel in that war, and was governor of Saltillo, Mexico in 1847-48. Elected to congress for three terms beginning in 1857, he resigned in 1861 to become colonel of the 2nd Iowa regiment. He was in charge of a large camp of instruction near St. Louis in 1861 and commanded the southwestern district of Mo. He gained a decisive victory at Pea Ridge, Ark. against Generals Price and McCulloch, and was promoted to major general in 1862. He later commanded Fort Leavenworth and defeated General Price's army, and at close of war was commander of the department of the Northwest. A Mason, he was buried by the Knights Templar. d. Dec. 26, 1866.

Caleb Cushing (1800-1879) Brigadier General of Mexican War and Attorney General of U.S. (1853-57). b. Jan. 17, 1800 at Salisbury, Mass., he graduated from Harvard in 1817, studied law and practiced at Newburyport, Mass. He served several terms in the state senate and house of representatiaves and was elected four terms to U.S. congress. He was nominated as secretary of the Treasury by President Tyler, but the senate refused to seat him. He was subsequently confirmed as commissioner to China and made the first treaty between that country and the U.S. In 1847 he raised a regiment for the Mexican War at his own expense, and eventually became brigadier general. In 1853 President Pierce appointed him U.S. attorney general, and he held that office until he retired in 1857. Later he was sent to Bogota on a special diplomatic mission, and served as minister to Spain. He was a member of St. John's Lodge, Newburyport, Mass. d. Jan. 2, 1879.

Nathanial Cushing ( 1753-18,14 ) Major of the American Revolution who was first master of Farmers Lodge No. 20, Belpre, Ohio. b. April 8, 1753 in Pembroke, Mass. Fought with Massachusetts troops from 1775-1782 and at close of war moved to Belpre, Ohio. d. Aug. 1814.

William Cushing (1732-1810) First appointed Justice of U.S. Supreme Court (1789). In 1796 Washington named him chief justice, but he declined. b. March 1, 1732 in Scituate, Mass., he graduated from Harvard in 1751, studied law with Jeremy Gridley q.v. and became attorney general for Mass. In 1772 he became judge of the Massachusetts superior court and chief justice in 1777. In 1780 he was chosen the first chief justice-of the state under the state constitution. He was one of the founders of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1780 and was vice president of the Mass. convention that ratified the federal constitution. Member of St. Andrew's Lodge, Boston, Mass. d. Sept. 13, 1810.

Nathan Cutler Former Governor of IVlaine. Member of Maine Lodge No. 20, Farmington, Maine. Was delegate to the grand lodge in 1919.

Richard R. Czerwonky (1886-1949) Violin virtuoso. b. May 23, 1886 at Birnbaum, Posen, Germany. He made his debut with the Philharmonic orchestra in Berlin in 1910 and played throughout Europe. He was assistant concertmaster of the Boston Symphony in 1907-08 and concertmaster and soloist for Minneapolis Symphony 1909-18. From 1918-32 he was head of the violin dept. of the Bush Conservatory of Music in Chicago and was vice president of the Chicago Conservatory from 1932-35. He founded the Women's Symphony Orchestra of Chicago and was conductor of the Chicago Philharmonic from 1925-45. Composed extensively for violin, piano, voice and orchestra. Czerwonky became a citizen in 1915. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. April 16, 1949.


Hippolyte J. DaCosta (?-1823) Masonic victim of the Inquisition. A native of Colonia-do-Sacramento on the River La Plata, he was made a Freemason in Philadelphia, Pa. He settled in Lisbon and came to England in 1802 to negotiate a treaty between the grand lodges of England and Portugal, whereby the brethren under each jurisdiction also enjoyed the privileges of the other. On his return he was arrested by the Inquisition and kept in solitary confinement for six months and after three years imprisonment, was able to effect his release through some English Freemasons. He then dwelt in England the rest of his life. Sources do not agree on his lodge affiliations in England. Some say it was the Lodge of the Nine Muses No. 325 while others say he joined Antiquity Lodge in 1808, and Inverness Lodge (now Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4) on Feb. 2, 1815. In 1813 he was appointed provincial grand master for Rutlandshire—a curious appointment, for at that time there were no Masonic lodges in the county. In 1819 he was one of a notable trio, which included the Duke of Sussex q.v. and the Duke of Leinster q.v., grandmasters of England and Ireland, respectively, to whom a patent was issued by the French Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, constituting them a supreme council for the British Isles and possessions. The project, however, came to nothing at that time. In 1811, he published an account of his sufferings at the hands of the Inquisition.

Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca (18271892) First president of Brazil (18891891). A Brazilian general, he was active in the war with Paraguay in 1868-70; served as governor of Rio Grande do Sul, 188789 and leader in the movement against Emperor Dom Pedro which dethroned him in 1889 and placed da Fonseca in as provisional president. He was sovereign grand commander of the Grand Orient.

David Daggett (1764-1851) U.S. Senator and Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Connecticut. b. Dec. 31, 1764 at Attleborough, Mass. He graduated from Yale in 1783 and practiced law in New Haven, Conn. Was member of state legislature from 1791-1813; elected U.S. senator in 1813, serving until 1819. From 1826-32 he was judge of the Connecticut supreme court, and chief judge until 1834. He was initiated in Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven on June .21, 1891, serving as master

from 1796-99 and deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut from 1798-1810. d. April 12, 1851.

Benjamin D. Dagwell Episcopal Bishop. b. July 21, 1890 at Susquehanna, Pa. Ordained deacon in 1916 and priest in 1917, and bishop of the diocese of Oregon since 1936. He served churches in Keyport, N.J., Pueblo, Colo. and Denver. Raised in Caesarea Lodge No. 64, Keyport, N.J. about 1918 and presently a member of Imperial Lodge No. 159, Portland, Oreg. Served as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Oregon. 32° AASR (SJ) and KCCH at Portland, Oregon. Member of Al Kader Shrine Temple, Portland and served as chaplain.

John A. Dahlgren (1809-1870) Union Rear Admiral in Civil War. b. Nov. 13, 1809 in Philadelphia, where his father was Swedish consul until his death in 1824. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman in 1826, and with the exception of a few years when he retired to a farm for his health, he remained the rest of his life in the navy. He had a scientific mind and invented many improvements for the navy, particularly in guns and gunnery, serving as chief of Naval Ordnance. During the Civil War he secured the Potomac River; commanded the Southern Atlantic blockade squadron; attacked Charleston and silenced Fort Sumter. He led a force up the St. John's river and cooperated with Sherman in the capture of Savannah. In 1866 he was given command of the South Pacific squadron. Mason. d. July 12, 1870.

John E. Dahlquist Major General, U.S. Army. b. March 12, 1896 at Minneapolis, Minn. Commissioned in 1917 and advanced through grades to major general in 1943. He was on the War Department General Staff from 1937-41 and commanded a division overseas from July, 1944. Mason.

Joseph E. Daily Justice, Supreme Court of Illinois since 1948. b. Jan. 22, 1888 at Manito, Ill. Graduate of Univ. of Illinois and Yale, he

was an attorney at Peoria from 1911-15, and later circuit court judge of 10th circuit. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.

J. Dodson Daintree British Naval Captain who was co-founder of Daintree Lodge No. 2938 in Wei-hai-Wei, Shantung, China in September, 1902. The lodge was named for him. In1939 the charter and lodge effects were smuggled out of China on a submarine by the senior warden, Mohammed Nemazee, an Indian brother, and taken to Hong Kong. In June, 1947, the lodge was reconstituted at Fareham, England, and Capt. Damn-tree, in his 87th year, was present again at its rebirth. Daintree was past grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of England.

Frederick Dalcho (1770-1836) b. in London, England of Prussian parents, his father, also a Freemason, had served under Frederick the Great and retired to England. At the death of his father, he came to Baltimore, Md. to live with an uncle. There he studied medicine and practiced as an army doctor. He later became an Episcopal priest, serving as assistant rector of St. Michael's P. E. Church in Charleston in 1819 in his 50th year. He was mainly responsible for bringing about the union of the two rival English grand lodges (Ancients and Moderns) in South Carolina in 1817. He affiliated with Union Kilwinning Lodge No. 4, Charleston, and served as master. In 1801 Dr. Dalcho received the 33°, and on May 31 of that year was instrumental in the establishment of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction at Charleston and was appointed grand secretary and later served as the second grand master, holding it until 1823, when he became involved in a controversy with his associates and resigned, never again participating actively in Freemasonry. d. Nov. 24, 1836.

Albert E. Dale (1890-1954) Newspaper editor. b. Nov. 4, 1890 at Whitehall, N.Y. Began as a reporter in Albany, N.Y. Managing editor of Albany Evening News, 1922-29; Detroit Times, 1929-30; Wisconsin News (Milwaukee) 1931-32; news editor of New York Evening Journal, 1932; editor of Detroit Times, 1932-36; Pittsburgh Sun.-Telegraph, 1936-38; Chicago American, 1938-39 and Times Herald, Washington,

1940. Served as public relations director for N.B.C., New York City from 1941-45 and editor of the Sun-Telegraph, Pittsburgh from 1951. Mason. d. Nov. 21, 1954.

Charles M. Dale Governor of New Hampshire, 1944-48. b. March 8, 1893 at Brown's Valley, Minn. Graduate of Univ. of Minn. and engaged in law practice since 1920 at Portsmouth. State senator for three terms and president of the senate 1935-36. President of WHEB, Inc. (radio) and director of the New Hampshire National Bank. Served in WW1. Raised in Cataract Lodge No. 2, Minneapolis, he affiliated with Saint Andrew's Lodge No. 56, Portsmouth. He was exalted in Washington Chapter No. 3, R.A.M., Portsmouth, Dec. 10, 1924; greeted in Davenport Council R. & S.M. April 6, 1925; knighted in DeWitt Clinton Commandery June 12, 1925 and received the AASR degrees in bodies at Dover and Portsmouth. He was high priest of his chapter in 1932, and when elected governor was grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of New Hampshire.

Charles Dale The "Charlie Dale" of the Smith and Dale vaudeville team. They have been together for 59 years in their act. When Variety magazine polled the veteran stars on the best acts of the vaudeville era a few years ago, the Smith and Dale team won the top spot with their "Dr. Kronkite" sketch. Both Dale and Joe Smith are Masons.

Fox-Maule Dalhousie (1801-1874) 11th Earl of Dalhousie and 2nd Baron of Panmure. He was grandson of 8th Earl (George) q.v. He was grand master Mason of Scotland in 1867-69, his grandfather having also served in that capacity. He served in the armyfrom 1820-32 and was a member of parliament in 1835. From 1835-41 he was undersecretary for home affairs, and secretary for war from 1846-52 and 1855-58. He was censured for the management of the Crimean War. In 1861 he assumed his surname of Ramsay.

George, Earl of Dalhousie (8th Earl of) He served as the 26th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1767-68.

George, Earl of Dalhousie (17701838) (9th Earl of) The 45th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1804-05. He was one of Wellington's generals. Served as governor-in-chief of the Canadian colonies from 1819-28 and was commander-in-chief in India. His third son, James Andrew Broun q.v. also served as grand master Mason of Scotland in 1836-37.

James Andrew Broun Dalhousie (1812-1860) 10th Earl and 1st Marquis of Dalhousie; third son of George, 9th Earl of Dalhousie q.v. He served as grand master Mason of Scotland, 1836-37, as his father had before him. He graduated at Oxon in 1833 and entered the House of the Lords in 1838. He succeeded Gladstone as president of the board of trade in 1845 and was the youngest governor general of India ever appointed (1847-56). Under his administration of India, he acquired territory, developed resources, reformed the administration and annexed Junjab, Pego, Lower Burma, Jaitpur, Sambalpur, Jhansi, and Nagpur. He established public works, engineering colleges, built railways, bridges, telegraph system and post offices. b. April 22, 1812. d. Dec. 19, 1860.

Charles William, Earl of Dalkeith The 43rd Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1800-01. He was later the 4th Duke of Buccleuch.

Francis, Earl of Dalkeith Grand Master of the. Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) in 1723. He was afterwards the 2nd Duke of Buccleuch.

Charles D. Dallas President of Revere Copper & Brass Co. b. Oct. 24, 1881 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Began as office boy for

American Brass Co. in Chicago in 1902. Became associated with his father in 1906 in organizing the Dallas Brass & Copper Co. of which he was president, treasurer and director until the merger of five large brass and copper companies into the Revere Copper & Brass, Inc. of which he was president until 1947, being chairman of the board since that date. He is also a director of several other large corporations including General Cable Co., American Smelting and Gov. Copper and Brass Research Assn. Mason.

George Mifflin Dallas (1792-1864) 11th Vice President of the United States. b. July 10, 1792 at Philadelphia. His father, Alexander James, was secretary of the U.S. treasury in 1814-16. Dallas was mayor of Philadelphia in 1828, and U.S. senator from Pennsylvania in 1831-33. From 1837-39 he was minister to Russia, and vice president of the United States from 1845-49. He was appointed minister to Great Britain in 1856-61. He was initiated March 21, 1818 in Franklin Lodge No. 134, Philadelphia and became senior warden the following year and elected master in 1820 and again in 1821. He started in the grand lodge line as junior grand warden in December, 1828 and was elected grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in December, 1834 at the height of the anti-Masonic period. In 1821 he delivered three different lectures on the origin, benefits, science and principles of Masonry before his lodge. In January 18, 1822, he was appointed on a committee from his lodge to form a grand committee with representatives of other lodges to consider the grievances of the subordinate lodges in Pa. In Feb., 1825 he was chosen proxy of Perseverance Lodge No. 21 of Harrisburg to the grand lodge and for many years held this position. His lodge (Franklin) ceased its labors in 1832, probably due to the antiMasonic crusade, but he remained with it until the last. On its reorganization in Oct, 1846, he did not rejoin it. At that time he was vice president. On June 24, 1834 he delivered an oration at the celebration of St. John's Day by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and it was on this date that he prepared for the grand lodge the resolutions of condolence for the death of the Marquis de Lafayette. In January, 1836, during the anti-Masonic fever, some members of the state legislature had carried through a proposition to appoint a committee on an act to suppress secret societies, with power to send for persons and papers. He was summoned among others to testify against the order. But in a staunch and masterly argument, he refused to be sworn and the

investigation failed. On May 1, 1847 he was at the Masonic cornerstone laying of the Smithsonian Institution. On Sept. 14, 1847, he visited St. John's Lodge No. 219, Pittsburgh, on which occasion were also present the members of lodges No. 45 and 221. After being welcomed, he replied in kind, after which the lodge was called off for 15 minutes for personal introductions and social conversation. On July 4, 1848, he was present at the Masonic cornerstone laying of the Washington Monument by the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. d. Dec. 31, 1864. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania held memorial services for him in 1865.

S. P. Dalton Judge, Supreme Court of Missouri (1950-64). b. Nov. 16, 1892 near Nevada, Mo. Graduate of Westminster College and Univ. of Missouri. Admitted to bar in 1917 and practiced at Cape Girardeau. Member of Elvins Lodge No. 599, Flat River, Mo.; exalted in Wilson Chapter No. 75, R.A.M., Cape Girardeau in May 1927; received in Cape Council No. 20, R. & S.M. and Knighted in Cape Girardeau Commandery No. 55, K.T.

Count Goblet d'Aviella (?-1925) Belgian nobleman and member of parliament who was sovereign grand commander of the Supreme Council of Belgium. d. Sept. 9, 1925 in Brussels.

Sir Charles Dalrymple 74th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1894-96.

Sir David Dalrymple 30th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1774-75. Later Lord Westhall.

Ralph S. Damon (1897-1956) Aviation executive. b. July 6, 1897 at Franklin, N.H. Graduate (cum laude) of Harvard in 1918. Began as millwright's assistant and employed by Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Co. in 1922, ending as president in 1935. He developed the Curtiss-Wright

"Condor," a commercial transport, in 1933. He was vice president in charge of American Airlines operation from 1936-41, vice president and general manager, 1943-45, and president, 194549. He was president of Republic Aviation Corp, 1941-43 and president and director of TWA, Inc. from 1949. Mason. d. Jan. 6, 1956.

James F. Dana (1793-1827) Early chemist. b. Sept. 23, 1793 at Amherst, N.H., he graduated from Harvard in 1813 and in the medical dept. in 1817. He was selected by Harvard to procure a new chemical laboratory for the school, and spent six months in England under leading chemists, training and securing equipment. Hepracticed medicine in Camden, taught chemistry at Dartmouth, and became professor of chemistry in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York in 1825, serving until his death on April 14, 1827. His lodge and chapter membership is not known, but he was knighted in Vermont Commandery at Windsor, Vt. and became a member of Trinity Commandery No. 1, Manchester, N.H. in 1822.

Judah Dana (1772-1845) U.S. Senator from Maine, 1836-37. b. April 25, 1772 at Pomfret, Conn., his mother was the eldest daughter of General Israel Putnam q.v. Graduated at Dartmouth in 1795, studied law and began practice in Fryeburg, Maine and later in Massachusetts. Served as judge of court of common pleas and circuit court. He was a delegate to the convention that framed the state constitution of Maine in 1819. He was a member of Pythagorean Lodge No. 11, Fryeburg, was delegate to the grand lodge and served as deputy grand master in 1819. d. Dec. 27, 1845.

Lynn B. Dana (1875-1941) Musician. b. Oct. 15, 1875 at Middleport, N.Y. He was a concert pianist and accompanist from 1896 and director of Dana's Symphony Orchestra from 1906. He was president of Dana's Musical Instruments, and was actively connected with the music department of the Chautauqua institution for 15 years. He was director of the National Music Convention and Chautauqua at Lockport, N.Y. and founder of Tau Delta Beta, national musical

fraternity. He served with the 2nd Ohio Infantry in the Spanish-American War. Mason and 32° AASR. d. Sept. 22, 1941.

Robert M. Danford Major General, U.S. Army. b. July 7, 1878 at New Boston, Ill. Graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1904 and commissioned that year, rising through grades to major general in 1938.

John W. Daniel Served in Philippines, 1907-08 and with field artillery assignments in colleges and camps until WW1, when he commanded the 129th F.A. at Camp Doniphan, Okla. and F.A. replacement depot in Camp Jackson, S.C. From 1919-23 he was commandant of cadets at the U.S. Military Academy. With the office of chief of field artillery in Washington, chief of staff of 6th Corps Area at Chicago, and from 1938 until retirement in 1942 was chief of field artillery, U.S. Army. Mason.

John W. Daniel (1842-1910) U.S. Senator from Virginia five terms, 1887-1917, dying before entering his last term. b. Sept 5, 1842 at Lynchburg, Va., he fought with the Confederate Army in the Civil War and was wounded four times. He became adjutant general on General Early's staff. He studied law at the Univ. of Virginia after the war and was admitted to bar in 1866. He was a member of both houses of the Virginia legislature and member of the 49th U.S. congress. Member of Marshall Lodge No. 39, Lynchburg, Va.

Price Daniel U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas. b. Oct. 10, 1910 in Dayton, Texas. A.B. and LL.B. from Baylor Univ. Before graduating from college, he was a reporter for the Fort Worth Star Telegram (192729) and Waco News Tribune (192931). He was admitted to the bar in 1932 and practiced at Liberty, Texas. He was speaker of the house of representatives in 1943, and attorney general of Texas from 1946-53. In 1953 he was elected U.S. senator from Texas and governor of the state in 1956. Co-publisher of Liberty Vindicator and Anahuac Progress since 1939. Served with U.S. Army as an officer in

WW2, 1942-46 in Pacific area. Past master of Liberty Lodge No. 48, Liberty, Texas; member ofchapter, council and commandery and KCCH in AASR.

Clarence H. Danielson (1889-1952) Major General, U.S. Army. b. Aug. 7, 1889 at Lead, S. Dak. Graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1913, advancing through grades to major general in 1944. Saw Mexican border service from 1913-17 and with Mexican punitive expedition in 1916, and during WW1 was with the Hawaiian Department and Inspector General's Dept. in the U.S. He later served with the Adjutant General's Dept. in the Philippines, Hawaii, U.S. Military Academy, and Governors Island, N.Y. At his retirement in 1946 he was commanding general of 7th Service Command. Mason. d. May 22, 1952.

Harris L. Danner (1888-1941) Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma, 1938-41. b. Feb. 13, 1888 near Astoria, Ill. Taught in rural Illinois schools before being admitted to Oklahoma bar in 1909, practicing in Oklahoma City. Served in WW1 as a private. Mason. d. Jan. 7, 1941.

Georges Jacques Danton (17591794) French revolutionary leader. A founder of the Cordelier in 1790, he advocated extreme action. Was forced to flee to England in 1791 but returned and incited the Tuileries riots of 1792. He assumed the leadership of the revolutionaries and was minister of justice. When elected to the National Convention in 1792 he voted for the death of the king. In 1793 he was elected president of the Jacobin Club, whose aim was the unity of the country and a stable republican government. When his followers were overcome by the more radical Robespierre, he was seized, imprisoned, given a farcial trial, and guillotined on April 5, 1794. He was a member of the famous Lodge of the Nine Sisters at Paris.

Harry Darby U.S. Senator and owner and chairman of board of The Darby Co., manufacturers of steel, aluminum, corrosion resistant products, railroad cars and ships, at Kansas City, Kansas. b. Jan 23, 1895 in Kansas City, Kansas. Began with the Missouri Boiler Works, Co. in 1911 as a helper, rising to vice president in 1919. He established the Darby Corp. in 1920. Director of a dozen corporations, banks and railroads. U.S. Senator from Kansas 1949-50. Raised in Westgate Lodge No. 438, Kansas City, Kansas, Jan. 23, 1931. Member of Wyandotte Chapter, R.A.M. No. 6 and Ivanhoe Commandery No. 21, K.T. both of Kansas City, Kans. 32° AASR in Orient of Kansas. Abdallah Shrine Temple, DeMolay Legion of Honor, Royal Order of Jesters Court 93.

John S. Darcey (1788-1863) Physician and fast president of what is now the Pennsylvania Railroad. b. Feb. 24, 1788 in Hanover, N.J. He studied with his father who was also a physician. When the Asiatic cholera broke out in the U.S. in 1832 he moved to Newark, N.J., and by his skill in the treatment of that disease, attained a practice more extensive than any other in the state. However it impaired his health. In 1835-41 he was U.S. marshal for New Jersey. On the incorporation of the New Jersey Railroad Co. he was elected president and held that office for thirty years until his death. He was initiated in Cincinnati Lodge No. 17 in Oct., 1808 and served as master in 1819. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey in 1826-27. On May 28, 1851 he affiliated with St. John's Lodge No. 1 of Newark.

Colegate W. Darden, Jr. Congressman, Governor of Virginia and president of the University of Virginia. b. Feb. 11, 1897 in Southampton Co., Va. Graduate of Univ. of Virginia and Columbia Univ. Studied on Carnegie Fellowship at Oxford, England. Entered legal profession. Member of the state general assembly for two terms (1930-33) and served in the 73rd, 74th and 75th U.S. congresses. Governor of Virginia for term ending 1946, and president of the University of Virginia since 1947. Served in Marine Corps and with French Army in WW1. He was initiated in Franklin Lodge No. 151, Franklin, Va. on May 25, 1920 and raised on Dec. 21 same year. He affiliated with Corinthian Lodge No. 266, Norfolk on April 12, 1938 and holds joint membership in both lodges. Received AASR degrees in Norfolk in 1941.

Miles Darden (1798-1857) A giant seven feet, six inches in height and at his death weighed more than one thousand pounds. Until 1853 he was active, energetic, and able to labor, but from that time on he was obliged to remain at home, or be moved about in a wagon. In 1850 it required thirteen and a half yards of cloth one yard wide to make him a coat. He was six feet four inches around the waist. He died in Henderson Co., Tenn. on Jan. 23, 1857 and The Lexington Progress stated: "The funeral sermon of Mr. Miles Darden, who died at his residence in Henderson Co. will be preached on the fourth Sunday in this month, five miles southwest from Lexington, Tenn. The Masonic fraternity will be in attendance in full regalia on this occasion. The deceased was, beyond all question, the largest man in the world. His height was seven feet six inches—two inches higher than Porter, the Kentucky giant. It required seventeen to put him in his coffin, which took over 100 feet of lumber to make." Mrs. Darden, wife of the large man, weighed only 90 pounds.

William H. V. Dare11 (1878-1954) English Brigadier General. He retired from the army in 1929 after fighting gallantly in the South African and First World Wars, having been Adjutant-General and commanded both the Coldstream and Irish Guards. He was the first assistant grand master of England, 1937-54 and was grand master of the Mark Grand Lodge of England, 1948-54, and grand treasurer of the Knights Templar to 1948. He was lieutenant grand commander of the Supreme Council AAR; past grand scribe of the Grand Chapter R.A.M. of England, and past grand principal conductor of the work in the Grand Council Royal and Select Masters.

Herbert A. Dargue (1 8 8 6-1 9 4 2) Major General, U.S. Army. b. Nov; 17, 1886 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1911 and advanced through grades to major general in 1941. Formerly commanded the Observers School of the Air Corps, and then the 1st Air Force at Mitchell Field, New York from 1941. Mason and Shriner. d. Dec. 8, 1942.

James H. Darlington (1856-1930) Episcopal Bishop. b. June 9, 1856 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Graduate of Princeton, 1880, 1885. Ordained deacon and priest in Protestant Episcopal church, 1882. Consecrated first bishop of Harrisburg in 1905, and was archdeacon of Brooklyn, 1896-98. Honorary orders conferred on him by France, Greece, Serbia, Spain, Italy and Belgium. He was chairman of commission to confer with Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Old Catholics from Episcopal Church of U.S. in 1910-25, and arranged and signed the concordat between Eastern and Western churches. Mason. d. Aug. 14, 1930.

Edward, 2nd Earl of Darnley Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) in 1737.

Leslie R. Darr U.S. Judge of eastern and middle districts of Tennesseesince 1939. b. Nov. 8, 1886 in Jasper, Tenn. Graduate of Cumberland Univ. He was admitted to Tennessee bar in 1910, and practiced at Jasper until 1926 when he became a circuit judge. Raised in Olive Branch Lodge No. 297, Jasper, Tenn. serving as master three terms and also as secretary several times. 32° AASR (SJ) in Nashville, Tenn. and member of Alhambra Shrine Temple, Chattanooga since 1922.

Delmar D. Darrah (1 8 6 8-1 9 4 5 ) Masonic editor and author. b. July 15, 1868 at Tolono, Ill. Graduate of Univ. of Illinois and instructed at Wesleyan Univ. for 20 years. Editor of the Illinois Freemason for 33 years, he is best known for his Evolution of Freemasonry. Grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1911-12. Active 33° AASR (NJ) in 1911 and deputy for Illinois from 1932. Raised in Bloomington Lodge No. 43, and served twice as master. First master of Arts and Crafts Lodge No. 1017. d. March 5, 1945.

Whitney Darrow Vice President of Charles Scribner's Sons, publishers since 1931. b. May 16, 1881 at Geneva, N.Y. Graduate of

Princeton in 1903. Manager and secretary of the Princeton Univ. Press 1905-17 and president since 1948. Mason.

Thomas C. Darst (1875-19 4 8 ) Episcopal Bishop. b. Nov. 10, 1875 in Pulaski, Va. Ordained priest of Protestant Episcopal Church in 1903, serving churches at Fairmount, W. Va., Meade and John's parishes, Va., Richmond and Newport News. Consecrated bishop of Eastern Carolina in 1915. Retired in 1945. Mason. d. Sept. 1, 1948.

Raymond 0. Dart Physician and Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 5, 1890 in Kansas City, Kans. Graduated from Univ. of Kansas and Rush Medical College. Commissioned 1st lieutenant in Medical Corps of U.S. Army in 1917 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1948. Commanding officer of 105th General Hospital in S.W. Pacific, 194243. Director of Army Institute of Pathology, Washington from 1946. Raised in Acacia Lodge No. 18, Washington, D.C. about 1916.

William Legge, 7th Earl of Dartmouth English nobleman. b. Feb. 22, 1881, he was educated at Eton and Oxford. Elected to parliament from West Bromwich in 1910, retaining the seat until 1918. From 1928 to 1936 he was lord great chamberlain of England, succeeding his father the 6th Earl in 1936 to the title. He also served many years as high bailiff of Westminster. In 1941 he became ruler of the Craft in the province of Staffordshire, a position his father had held for 44 years. In 1952 he was appointed as grand superintendent of the Royal Arch in Staffordshire, an appointment his father had held for 33 years.

Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) English physiologist and poet who was the grandfather of Charles Robert Darwin, the great naturalist and author of Darwin's Origin of Species. In addition to being an eminent physician, poet and scientist, Dr. Darwin was the first man in England to suggest those ideas which were later to be embodied in the Darwinian Theory by his grandson and to be brought into the stream of popular

discussion by Tennyson and Herbert Spencer. He was a practicing physician at Litchfield from 1757 where he cultivated an 8-acre botanical garden. He moved to Derby in 1781 where he founded the Philosophical Society in 1784, which was the fountainhead for the ideas developed by his grandson, Charles. Among his books were The Loves of the Plants, Economy of Vegetation, Botanic Gar-den, The Temple of Nature. He was made a Mason in the famous Canon-gate Kilwinning Lodge No. 2 of Edinburgh, Scotland.

George Dasch Musician. b. May 14, 1877 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Member of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra from 1895-98, joining Theodore Thomas Orchestra in Chicago in 1898 and continuing with same and its successor, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra until 1923. He was assistant conductor of the Chicago Civic Orchestra under Frederick A. Stock for four years, and conductor of the Little Symphony Orchestra since 1921. Taught at Northwestern, and since 1945 has been faculty member of Evanston College. Mason.

Fifield d'Assigny (1707-1744) A physician of Dublin, Ireland, who in 1744 wrote A Serious and Impartial Inquiry Into the Cause of the Present Decay of Freemasonry in the Kingdom of Ireland. An exceedingly rare pamphlet of 400 copies, which had among the subscribers the names of Laurence Dermott q.v. and Elizabeth St. Leger q.v., the Lady Freemason. It is important inasmuch as it is the first written reference to Royal Arch Masonry, i.e. "I am informed in that city (York) is held an assembly of master masons, who in their qualifications and excellencies are superior to others; they receive a larger pay than working Masons." It was reprinted in 1893.

Harry M. Daugherty (1860-1941) Attorney General of the U.S. under Harding and Coolidge, 1921-24. b. Jan. 26, 1860 in Washington Courthouse, Ohio. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan in 1881, and began practice of law at Washington Courthouse, moving to Columbus, Ohio in 1893. Resigned from attorney-generalship, and was indicted on charges of conspiracy to defraud the U.S. government, but was acquitted of the charge. Member of Fayette Lodge No. 107, Washington C.H., Ohio and

LaFayette Lodge No. 19, Washington, D.C. Wrote The Inside Story of the Harding Tragedy. d. Oct. 12, 1941.

Erie V. Daveler Mining engineer and executive. b. Dec. 31, 1885 in Denver, Colo. Graduate of Univ. of Calif. Variously with Utah Copper Co., Ray Consolidated Copper Co., Alaska Gold Mines, Butte & Superior Co. He is vice president, treasurer and director of Nevada Consolidated Copper Corp, Utah Copper Co., Bingham & Garfield Railway, Ray & Gila Valley Railway and others. Also vice president and director of American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co. in 1943, and vice president and director of Mesabi Iron Co. Trustee or director in a dozen other corporations. Mason.

George W. Davenport Episcopal Bishop. b. Aug. 14, 1870 at Brandon, Vt. Ordained deacon in 1893 and priest in 1896, serving churches in Baltimore, Md., New York City, Richmond Hill, L.I., N.Y., Astoria, N.Y., Danbury and Burlington, Vt. Consecrated bishop in 1920, retiring in 1938. Mason.

Thomas Davenport (1802-1 851 ) Inventor in field of electromagnetism. b. July 9, 1802 in Williamstown, Vt. Apprenticed at age of 14 to a blacksmith and in 1832 began study of electro-magnetism, exhibiting in 1835 a rotary engine driven by electricity at Rensselaer and Franklin institutes. Set up a company to manufacture the engines and it went broke through the dishonesty of an agent. His experiments were numerous and costly and exhausted his resources, forcing him to return with his family to his home in Brandon, Vt. in 1842. Member of Washington Lodge No. 21, Brandon. d. July 6, 1851.

Martin L. Davey (1884-1946) Governor of Ohio, member of Congress and President of The Davey Tree Expert Co., Inc. b. July 25, 1884 at Kent, Ohio. Served from Ohio to the 65th, 66th, and 68th to 70th Congresses (1918-29). Elected twice as governor of Ohio-1934 and 1936. Initiated in Rockton Lodge No. 316, Kent, Ohio on May 25,

1910. Exalted in Tyrian Chapter No. 91, R.A.M., Ravenna, Ohio on Oct. 24, 1911. Also Knight Templar and Shriner. d. March 31, 1946.

David I (1084-1153) King of Scotland, who, tradition states, was the protector of Freemasons (operative) and patron of the building art. He was called the "Scotch Justinian." Gained the earldom of Huntingdon by marriage, and on the death of King Edgar in 1107 received southern Scotland and in 1124, on the death of brother Alexander, became ruler of all Scotland. He unsuccessfully invaded England in 1149. He founded bishoprics and monasteries and furthered the process of feudalizing Scotland.

Howard C. Davidson Major General, U.S. Air Force. b. Sept. 15, 1890 at Wharton, Texas. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1913, advancing through grades to major general in 1944. Appointed commander of 10th Air Force, India, in 1942. Raised in Mystic Lodge No. 405, Dayton, Ohio, in 1920. 32° AASR (NJ) and Antioch Shrine Temple, all of Dayton.

James E. Davidson ( 1865-1947 ) Shipbuilder and banker. b. Dec. 7, 1865 at Buffalo, N.Y. Was president of the Inter-Ocean Steamship Co., Continental Steamship Co., Duluth Steamship Co., Globe Steamship Corp. (Ind.), United Steamship Co., Triton Steamship Co., Sumatra Steamship Co., Consolidated Steamship Co. (Del.). He was also vice president, Count Goblet d'Aviella treasurer and director of the American Ship Building Co. at Cleveland and director of many corporations. Was chairman of board of Hillsdale County Natl. Bank and Bay Trust Co. and president of Peoples Commercial and Savings Bank. Former director of Detroit branch of Chicago Federal Reserve Bank and served as president of Michigan Bankers Assn. in 1934. 33° AASR (NJ), he served as grand commander of the Grand Cornmandery, K.T. of Michigan in 1923, having previously served as commander of Bay City Commandery No. 26, K.T. He was past potentate of his Shrine temple and member of the board of control of the Michigan Masonic Home. d. July 25, 1947.

James E. Davidson (1 8 7 9-1 9 4 9) Public utilities executive. b. Nov. 10, 1879 at Flint, Mich. President of Consolidated Lighting Co. at Montpelier, Vt. until 1910 when he became general manager of Pacific Power & Light Co., Portland, Oreg. until 1917, moving to the Nebraska Power Co. at Omaha in that year and becoming president of same in 1928, serving until 1946. Was also vice president and general manager of the Citizens Power & Light Co. of Council Bluffs, Ia. from 1917-36. Was director of many corporations including Chicago Great Western Railway, Union Stock Yards Co. of Omaha and a trustee of Father Flanagan's Boys' Home. Elected as Omaha's first citizen in 1929 and cited for outstanding civic service by Veterans of Foreign Wars in 1942. Member of National Sojourners, Joseph Warren Camp of Heroes of '76 and past potentate of Tangier Shrine Temple. d. Nov. 12, 1949.

James 0. Davidson (1854-1922) Governor of Wisconsin 190711. b. Feb. 10, 1854 in Norway, coming to U.S. in 1872 where he engaged in the milling and mercantile business at Soldier's Grove, Wis. from 1877. Member of state legislature from 1893-99; state treasurer, 1899-1903; lieutenant governor, 1903-06. Mason. d. Dec. 16, 1922.

William R. Davie (1756-1820) Governor of North Carolina, Revolutionary War officer and member of the Constitutional Convention. b. June 20, 1756 in Egremont, England, coming to U.S. with father in 1763. He graduated from Princeton in 1776 and entered the war. He fought with distinction at battles of Stone Ferry, Hanging Rock, Rocky Mount and Charlotte (N.C.). He later became major general of militia. Although he was active in the framing of the Federal constitution, he was not a signer, being sick at home at that time. He drew up the act to establish the Univ. of North Carolina. He was elected governor of North Carolina in 1799. He was raised in Occasional Lodge No. 1791 and served as grand master of North Carolina from 179298 although he had never served as master of a lodge. d. Nov. 8, 1820.

Count Goblet d'Aviella (1846-1925) Belgian nobleman, and statesman. A learned man, he held several honorary doctorates and was professor of history of religion at Brussels Univ. From 1878-84 he sat in the Belgian chamber as deputy for Brussels. In 1900 he was elected to the senate, of which he became vice president in 1912. At the outbreak of WW1, he was made minister of state and from January, 1917 until peace was declared, he was a member of the de Broqueville cabinet. A member of the lodge Les Amis Philanthropes No. 2 of Brussels, he served it as master and was past grand master of Belgium. During the war he fled to England and became associated with an English lodge and did considerable writing for the Lodge Quatuor Coronati including The Quatuor Coronati in Belgium; Mithraic Rites; A Belgian Daughter of the Grand Lodge of Scotland; The English Provincial Grand Lodge of the Austrian Netherlands: and The Papal Bulls and Freemasonry in Belgium. d. Sept. 7, 1925.

Elmer D. Davies U.S. District Judge of Tennessee. b. Jan. 12, 1899 at Magnolia, Ark. Graduate of Vanderbilt and admitted to bar in 1921. Member of state senate from 1935-39 and U.S. district judge since 1939. Mason. 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner.

Fred A. Davies Oil executive. b. April 17, 1894 at Aberdeen, S. Dak. Began as metallurgist and oil geologist becoming president of California Arabian Standard Oil Co. (now Arabian American Oil Co.) in 1940. Has been chairman of board and chief executive officer since 1952. Member of Cascade Lodge No. 34, Great Falls, Mont.

Joseph H. Daviess (1744-1811) Hero of Battle of Tippecanoe and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky at the time. b. March 4, 1774 in Bedford Co., Va., he moved with parents to Kentucky in 1779. He served in the Indian campaign of 1793 and then studied law, practicing in Danville, Ky. His eccentricities made him famous. Instead of "riding the circuit" he would shoulder his rifle and range the woods from town to town, usually appearing in court in a hunting costume. In 1799 he acted as a second to John Rowan q.v. for a duel in which Rowan's antagonist was killed. All associated with the duel fled to avoid

prosecution and Daviess was for some time a fugitive. Both Rowan and Daviess were members of Lexington Lodge No. 1. Later, hearing that Rowan had been arrested, Daviess returned and appeared in court as his counsel and secured his acquittal. It is said that he is the first western lawyer to appear before the U.S. supreme court. He came to Washington in a dilapidated hunting uniform, gained an important decision and returned home in the same peculiar costume. About this time he married a sister of Chief Justice Marshall q.v. and afterward became attorney general for Kentucky. In this capacity, he ordered Aaron Burr q.v. to appear in 1806 to answer a charge of levying war against a nation with which the U.S. was at peace. Burr hired Henry Clay for a lawyer and won the case. In 1811 Daviess joined the army of General William H. Harrison as a major and served in the campaign against the northwestern Indians. In the Battle of Tippecanoe, seeing that an exposed angle of the line was likely to give way, he led a cavalry charge at that point and was killed. The date was Nov. 7, 1811. He was grand master of Kentucky at the time. In September he had visited Vincennes Lodge No. 1 Vincennes, Ind. and presided at meetings of the lodge on the 18th, 19th and 21st of that month. It was probably the last Masonic work he conducted. His sword and camp knife were later presented to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky.

Charles K. Davis President of Remington Arms, Inc., Bridgeport, Conn. 1933-54. b. Jan. 7, 1889 at Lebanon, Pa. Began as a chemist with Aluminum Co. of America in 1905 and later with American Steel Foundries, American Smelting & Refining and E. I. du Pont de Nemours. He was president and director of DuPont Viscoloid Co. from 1919-31 and president, general manager and director of Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co. 1932-33. He is founder and trustee of the American Wildlife Foundation. Chairman of the board of Remington since 1954. Received E.A. degree in 1911 in Santiago, Chile; F.C. degree in 1916 in DuPont Lodge of Hopewell, Va. and M.M. degree in Mountain Lodge No. 214, 1920 at Upper Montclair, N.J. A 32° AASR (N.J.) in 1921 in Jersey City, N.J. He is a life member of Salaam Shrine Temple of Newark, N.J.

Charles S. Davis ( 1877 -1954 ) President and Chairman of Board of Borg-Warner Corp., Chicago. b. Feb. 2, 1877 at Terre Haute,

Ind. Began with the New York Times editorial staff in 1899 and became a coal miner and jobber in 1901. From 1907-18 he was an officer and general manager of Glascock Bros. Mfg. Co., Muncie, Ind. and president of Borg-Warner from 1929-50 and chairman of board from 1950 to death on July 2, 1954. Officer and director of several corporations. Mason, 32° AASR and Knight Templar.

Clifford Davis U.S. Congressman, 76th to 80th Congresses (1939-49) from 10th Tenn. district. b. Nov. 18, 1897 at Hazelhurst, Miss. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. Member of Stonewall Lodge No. 723 and Memphis Chapter No. 95, Memphis, Tenn.

David Davis (1815-1866) Judge of U.S. Supreme Court from 1862. Friend of Abraham Lincoln who administered the latter's estate. He died June 26, 1866 and was buried with Masonic ceremonies in Bloomington, Ill.

David J. Davis (1878-1938) U.S. District Judge of Alabama from 193538. b. Oct. 15, 1878 at Weedowee, Ala. Graduate of Yale in 1906 and admitted to Alabama bar in 1906, practicing in Birmingham. At one time he was a law partner of Hugo L. Black, q.v. supreme court justice. Mason. d. Dec. 7, 1938.

David W. Davis Governor of Idaho, 1919-23. b. April 23, 1873 in Wales, being brought to U.S. in infancy. When 12 years old he was a coal miner and at 16 a clerk at Dawson, Iowa. Entering the banking business he became organizer and president of the First National Bank at American Falls, Idaho in 1907 and laterjoint owner of the American Falls Press. He was a member of the state senate in 1912-14 and in 1923 was special assistant secretary of the Interior. From 1923-24 he was U.S. commissioner of reclamation and the following two years was director of finance for the Reclamation Bureau. Mason, 32° AASR (SJ) and KCCH. Now resides in Orlando, Fla.

Edmond J. Davis Former Governor of Texas. Member of Rio Grande Lodge No. 81, Brownsville, Texas. Edwin L. Davis (1876-1949) Former Chairman of Federal Trade Commission and U.S. Congressman, 66th to 72nd Congresses (1919-33) from 5th Tennessee dist. b. Feb. 5, 1876 in Bedford Co., Tenn. A lawyer, practicing at Tullahoma from 1899. Member of Federal trade commission from 193346 and chairman in 1935-40-45. Mason and 32° AASR (SJ) . d. Oct. 23, 1949. Member of Tullahoma Lodge No. 262 and Tullahoma Chapter No. 193 (Tenn.) . Fred H. Davis (1894-1937) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Florida. b. May 18, 1894 in Greenville, S.C. Admitted to Florida bar in 1914 and practiced at Tallahassee. Served as county attorney, county prosecutor and assistant U.S. attorney. Served in WW1 as private and later 2nd lieutenant of Infantry. Was attorney general of Florida in 1927 and elected again in 1928. A judge of Florida supreme court from 1931 and chief justice, 1933-35. Mason. d. June 20, 1937. Garrett Davis (1801-1872) U.S. Senator from Kentucky, 1861-67. b. Sept. 10, 1801 in Mount Sterling, Ky. Admitted to the bar in 1823 and three times elected to state legislature, beginning in 1823. Was member of state constitutional convention from 183847, when he served one term in the U.S. congress. In 1864 he was appointed regent of the Smithsonian Institution. He was elected to a second term in the senate in 1867-73. Early in life he became the friend of Henry Clay q.v. and his speeches were characterized by sarcasm and fierce invective. He served the Grand Lodge of Kentucky as grand orator at one time. d. Sept. 22, 1872.

George H. Davis (1876-1955) President of U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 1937-38. b. April 7, 1876 in Amboy, Ill. Began as a clerk in 1891 and entered grain business with own firm from 1898. He was chairman of the Missouri State Highway Commission from 1942-46, president of the Kansas City Board of Trade in 1912; president of American Royal live stock show, 1938-40, and chairman of the code authority, grain exchange, United States N.R.A. 1934-35. Mason and Shriner. d. May 5, 1955.

Glenn R. Davis U.S. Congressman, 80th to 84th Congresses from 2nd Wisconsin dist. b. Oct. 28, 1914 in Vernon, Wis. He instructed in public high schools of Wisconsin and began law practice in Waukesha in 1940. Was member of state assembly in 1941-42. In 1948 he was named as one of the 10 outstanding young men in America by United States Junior Chamber of Commerce. Mason.

Harry L. Davis Former Governor of Ohio. Mason and member of Al Sirat Shrine Temple.

Harry 0. Davis Editor. b. July 15, 1877 at Cadiz, Ohio. He built and operated the Panama California Exposition in San Diego in 1913. He was vice president and general manager of Universal Film Mfg. Co. from 191517 and same for Triangle Film Corp. 1917-18. In 1920 he was editor of Ladies' Home Journal and was in general management of Hearst Corporations from 1922. In 1933 he was a member of the executive council of the Olympic games. Raised in Momence Lodge No. 481 of Momence, III. about 1899. Member of Coachella Valley (Calif.) High Twelve Club.

Henry G. Davis (1823-1916) U.S. Senator from West Virginia, 1871-83, declining renomination. Was Democratic nominee for vice president of the U.S. in 1904. b. Nov. 16, 1823 in Baltimore, Md. Being left fatherless, he went to work at an early age. Became manager of a plantation then brakeman, conductor and agent of the B. & 0. Railroad. He promoted and built the West Virginia Central & Pittsburgh Railroad (sold to Wabash) and then the Coal & Coke Railroad of which he was president. Member of Elkins Lodge No. 108, Elkins, W. Va. d. March 11, 1916.

Jacob E. Davis Vice President of The Kroger Co. since 1945 and U.S. Congressman to 77th Congress (194143) from 6th Ohio dist. b. Oct. 31, 1905 at Beaver Pike Co., Ohio. Graduate of Ohio State and Harvard Universities. Admitted to bar in 1930 and practiced at Waverly,

Ohio. Served in Ohio general assembly and was speaker pro tern and majority floor leader. Served as judge of common pleas court and special assistant to the under secretary of the Navy in 1943-44. Mason.

James J. Davis (1873-1947) Secretary of Labor under three presidents and U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania. b. Oct. 27, 1873 in South Wales, coming to U.S. with parents in 1881. He began as a puddler's assistant in an iron works at Sharon. Pa. at the age of 11 and at 16 was a puddler. Moving to Elwood, Ind. in 1893, he worked in steel mills until he became city clerk in 1898 and county recorder in 1903. In 1906 he became director general of Loyal Order of Moose and under his supervision they increased from 247 members to over 600,000. President Harding appointed him secretary of labor on March 5, 1921, and he was continued under Presidents Coolidge and Hoover until Dec. 9, 1930. He was appointed U.S. senator from Pennsylvania in 1933 and reelected for the next two terms (193345). He was the founder of Mooseheart Home and School and chairman of Mooseheart governors as well as Home for Old Folks, Moosehaven, Fla. He was a member of Quincy Lodge No. 23, Elwood, Ind. Received 32° in Albert Pike Consistory No. 1, Washington, D.C. on Dec. 15, 1925 and 33° on Sept. 19, 1929. Also member of Tall Cedars of Lebanon and Syria Shrine Temple of Pittsburgh. d. Nov. 22, 1947.

Jefferson Davis (1808-1889) President of the Confederate States of America. He was not a Mason although his father, Samuel and brother, Joseph E., were members of the craft. He was, however, friendly to the fraternity. Following the war this statement was made in a magazine article against Davis: "Jefferson Davis, a Free and Accepted Mason, headed the great rebellion, and the fact did not even taint his Masonic standing, but did have much to do in receiving his pardon." In answering this to an inquirer, Davis wrote, in part: "(I) regard the fraternity with respect and have never felt any disapproval of it other than that which pertains to every secret society. Viewing Freemasonry from a distance, and judging the tree by its fruits, I have believed it to be in itself good.”

Jefferson Davis (1862-1913) U.S. Senator and Governor of Arkansas. b. May 6, 1862 in Little River Co., Ark. Graduate of Vanderbilt Univ. in 1884, he was admitted to bar in that year. Was governor of Arkansas from 1900-1907 and U.S. senator from Arkansas from 190713. Member of Russellville Lodge No. 274. d. Jan. 3, 1913.

John W. Davis (1799-1859) Governor of Oregon, 1853-54. b. July 17,1799 in Cumberland Co., Pa. Was a member of the Indiana house of representatives for several years, being speaker in 1832. In 1834 he was named as commissioner to negotiate a treaty with the Indians. He served in the U.S. congress from 1835-41 and 1843-47 and during his last term was speaker of the house. He was U.S. commissioner to China in 1848-50. He presided over the convention in Baltimore in 1852 that nominated Franklin Pierce for the presidency. Mason. d. Aug. 22, 1859.

John W. Davis (1873-1955) Democratic presidential candidate in 1924 and Ambassador to England, 1918-21. b. April 13, 1873 at Clarksburg, W. Va. A graduate of Washington and Lee Univ. (A.B. and LL.B.) , he held honorary degrees from 14 universities and colleges including Yale, Dartmouth, Princeton and Oxford. He was admitted to the bar is 1895 and practiced at Clarksburg. He was elected to 62nd and 63rd congresses (1911-15) but resigned to become solicitor general of U.S. on Aug. 30, 1913, serving in that capacity until 1918. He became a member of Herman Lodge No. 6, Clarksburg, W. Va. in 1898 and member of the AASR bodies at Wheeling. In July, 1919, he was the first non-British Freemason to be made senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England. The honor was conferred on him by the Duke of Connaught q.v. the grand master in a ceremony attended by 10,000 persons. In 1952 he received the New York grand lodge award for his work in humanities. d. March 24, 1955. Received 33° in 1953.

Jonathan M. Davis ( 1871-1943 ) Governor of Kansas 1923-25. b. April 26, 1871 in Bourbon Co., Kansas. He was a member of the Kansas lower house for four terms (until 1913) and of the senate from 1913-17. He was endorsed by the Kansas Democrats for president in

1924 and received 55 votes on the ballot. Mason and member of Mirza Shrine Temple at Pittsburg, Kansas. d. June 27, 1943.

Leonard M. Davis (1864-1938) Artist. b. May 8, 1864 at Winchendon, Mass. Studied art in New York and Paris. Began as wood finisher, printer, lithographic artist in 1884. He was portrait painter, art teacher, gold miner in Alaska and landscape painter and lectured on art for the board of education in New York for nine years. His permanent representations are in the American Museum of Natural History Planetarium (27 views of the aurora borealis); children's ward of Los Angeles Co. General Hospital (mural, Involution and Evolution) and also in State Museum of New Mexico and Seattle Public Library. Mason. d. May 5, 1938.

Merle H. Davis Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 5, 1893 at Cambridge, Vt. Commissioned in 1917, he rose through grades to brigadier general in 1950. He is a specialist in ammunition. Retired in 1953. Raised in Waterman Lodge No. 83, at Johnson, Vt. in 1916. During his 37 years of army service he was president of three Masonic clubs. Member of National Sojourners. Has given many lectures before Blue Lodges and Masonic clubs on "Masonry's Two Great Poets" (Burns and Kipling).

Monnett B. Davis (1893-1953) U.S. Diplomat. b. Aug. 13, 1893 in Greencastle, Ind. and graduated from Univ. of Colorado in 1917. Served as American consul in South Africa and Mexico and with State Department in Washington as chief of visa office and foreign service inspector. In 193334 he was consul general at Stockholm, Buenos Aires in 1938-41 and chief of division of foreign service, 1941-43. In 1945 he was minister to Denmark and to China in 1946. In1948 he was named as ambassador to Panama. Member of Ben Hur Lodge No. 322, Kansas City, Kansas. d. Dec. 26, 1953.

Thomas Davis A chaplain of the 1st Continental Dragoons in Revolutionary War. Rev. Davis was a member of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va. and officiated at the burial of George Washington.

Thomas J. Davis Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 19, 1893 at West Union, S.C. Entered WW1 as an enlisted man and rose through grades to brigadier general in 1942. With army of occupation in Germany after WW1 until 1923. In WW2 he was adjutant general of Allied Forces, North Africa in 1942-43 and same with Supreme Headquarters, A.E.F., 1944-45. Has been assistant to the Adjutant General, War Dept., Washington since 1946. Mason and 32° AASR.

Westmoreland Davis (1859-1942) Governor of Virginia 1918-22. b. Aug. 21, 1859 of American parents at sea. Admitted to New York bar in 1885 and practiced in New York City, but moved to Loudoun Co., Va. in 1901 where he began farming. Was president and publisher of the Southern Planter. Member of Olive Branch Lodge No. 114, Leesburg, Va. d. Sept. 2, 1942.

F. Trubee Davison President of American Museum of Natural History. b. Feb. 7, 1896 in New York City. Graduate of Yale and Columbia universities. Admitted to New York bar in 1922, practicing in New York City. In 1926-32 he was assistant secretary of War (Air) and has been president of the Museum of Natural History since 1933. Rose to brigadier general in the Air Force in 1945, having served as assistant chief of staff for Air Force Combat Command. Mason.

Peter W. Davison ( 1869 -1920 ) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. May 15, 1869 at Waupun, Wis. and graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1892. Advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1918. Served in China, Spanish-American War, Cuba, Philippines, Texas border, Alaska. Raised in Beaver Dam Lodge No. 72, on Dec. 30, 1902 and exalted in Beaver Dam Chapter No. 26, Dec. 30, 1906—both of Beaver Dam, Wis. d. Feb. 12, 1920.

Henry L. Dawes (1816-1903) U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, 1875-93. b. Oct. 30, 1816 at Cummington, Mass. A graduate of Yale, he edited the Greenfield Gazette and later the Adams Transcript. He was admitted to the bar in 1842 and was a member of the state legislature from 1848-50 and state senate, 1850-52. From 1857-73 he served in the U.S. congress. In 1893 he was chairman of the commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, Indian Territory. A member of Lafayette Lodge, North Adams, Mass. he was marshal in January, 1853 and in Dec., 1853 was one of the stewards.

William Dawes Revolutionary patriot of Lexington. He was dispatched to Lexington with Paul Revere on April 18, 1775 and rode through Roxbury—Reveregoing by way of Charlestown. In the morning of the 19th, the message from Warren reached Adams and Hancock. Revere and Dawes, joined by Samuel Prescott, from Concord, rode forward calling the inhabitants. At Lincoln they were surprised by a party of British officers, and both taken to Lexington, Prescott making his escape to Concord.

Cecil F. Dawson President of Dixie Cup Co. since 1948. b. Feb. 13, 1893 at Hardin, Mo. Began as a salesman in 1914 and later in manufacture of paper products, chiefly drinking cupsand containers. Was vice president of Dixie Cup Co., Easton, Pa. from 192647, and is also president and director of the Canadian Dixie Cup Co. Raised in Excelsior Lodge No. 195, New York City in 1916. Member of Easton Chapter No. 173, R.A.M., Easton, Pa. and Hugh de Payens Commandery No. 19 of Easton. Member of Rajah Shrine Temple, Reading, Pa.

Donald S. Dawson Administrative assistant to President Truman from 1947. b. Aug. 3, 1908 at Eldorado Springs, Mo. Graduate of Univ. of Missouri and George Washington Univ. A lawyer, he was with the R.F.C. in Washington and also the Federal Loan Administration. His second marriage was to Ilona Massey, Hungarian screen actress and

singer. Raised in Clintonville Lodge No. 482, El Dorado Springs, Mo. Oct. 23, 1942. DeMolay Legion of Honor.

John Dawson (1762-1814) U.S. Congressman from Virginia for nine consecutive terms (1797-1814). He was a Harvard graduate, studied law and was admitted to the bar. He was a presidential elector on the Washington ticket in 1793 and a member of the Virginia legislature. He was bearer of dispatches from President Adams to France in 1801 and in the War of 1812 was one of General Jackson's aides. Member of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, Virginia. d. March 30, 1814.

William C. Dawson (1798-1856) U.S. Senator from Georgia, 1849-55. b. Jan. 4, 1798 in Green Co., Ga. Was admitted to bar in 1818 and settled in Greensboro. He was a member of U.S. congress from 1836-42, being chairman of the military committee and committee on claims. He published Laws of Georgia in 1831. A member of St. Marino Lodge No. 28 of Greensboro, he became grand master of the Grand Lodge of Georgia. He was a member of Columbia Chapter No. 15, R.A.M. and Washington Commandery No. 1, K.T. both of Washington, D.C. d. May 5, 1856.

Arthur H. Day Judge. b. Feb. 1, 1890 in Pandora, Ohio. Graduate of Ohio Wesleyan and Baldwin universities. Admitted to bar in 1916 and since practiced at Cleveland. He was judge of the supreme court of Ohio from 1935-41 and is now judge of court of common pleas of Cuyahoga Co. Served in state senate in 1921-22. Served overseas as captain in WW1. Raised in Hiram Lodge No. 18, Delaware, Ohio in Feb., 1912 and demitted to become charter member of Service Lodge No. 658 of Cleveland in 1920. 32° AASR (NJ) in Columbus, Ohio. He served as first marshal of Service Lodge. Member of Al Sirat Grotto and past chairman of its legal committee and current chairman of jurisprudence committee. Honorary member of Police Fellowcraft Club, Post Office Fellowcraft Club and Firemen's Square Club.

Edward Day Served under George Washington in the Pennsylvania "Whiskey Insurrection" as commissary general. He was a member of Lodge No. 35 at Joppa, Md., and was its first junior warden and master in 1784. He was present in Cincinnati, Ohio at the organization of Nova Cesarea Lodge and was appointed its first master.

James E. Day President of Chicago Stock Exchange. b. May 31, 1905 at Cuba, Ill. Graduate of Univ. of Arizona in 1930. Was vice president of E. S. Wooley, New York City and Banning & Co., Chicago. Going to Ryan Nichols & Co., Chicago in 1939 as vice president, he became president. From 1944-46 he was vice president of the Chicago Stock Exchange and president of same since May, 1946. Mason and 32° AASR.

Karl S. Day Lieutenant General, U.S. Marine Corps and airline executive. b. May 30, 1896 in Ripley Co., Ind. Operations manager of Curtiss-Wright Flying Service, 1929-32 and with American Airlines since 1932 successively as pilot, check pilot and flight superintendent. Served with Marine Corps in both WW1 and WW2, advancing from lieutenant to lieutenant general. Retired. Now director, American Airlines. Received third degree on Dec. 3, 1917 in Norwood Lodge No. 576 at Norwood, Ohio and 32° AASR (SJ) in Miami, Fla.

Ralph E. Day (1885-1946) President of Bridgeport Brass Co. b. in Peckville, Pa. President and general manager of the brass company from 1930-42 and director of several corporations. Mason and Shriner. d. May 2, 1946.

Gilbert W. Daynes (1886-1931) English Masonic writer. A solicitor by profession. Served in WW1 as colonel with distinction, being mentioned in dispatches. He was initiated in Union Lodge No. 52 in 1920 and at the time of his death was senior warden. In 1927 he was master of Norfolk Lodge No. 2852. Was installed as master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in Nov., 1930. Among his writings are Growth

of Speculative Masonry; The Untrodden Paths of Masonic Research; Two Hundred Years of Freemasonry in Norfolk, and The Birth and Growth of the Grand Lodge of England. He was associate editor for England of the American Masonic magazine The Builder. d. Jan. 9, 1931.

Elias Dayton (1737-1807) Brigadier General of American Revolution. b. in Elizabethtown, N.J., he began his military career by joining the British forces and fought under Wolfe at Quebec as well as the campaigns against the northern Indians. At the beginning of the Revolutionary war, he was a member of the Committee of Safety and served as a colonel of the 3rd New Jersey regiment, being made brigadier general in 1783. His son Jonathan q.v. was paymaster of the regiment and later U.S. senator from New Jersey. Elias took a prominent part in the battles of Springfield, Monmouth, Brandywine and Yorktown. He was a member of the Continental Congress from 178788. Upon the founding of the New Jersey Society of the Cincinnati, he was elected president and held the office until his death. He was a member of Military Lodge No. 19 of Pennsylvania registry and is recorded as a visitor to American Union Lodge. d. July 17, 1807.

Jonathan Dayton (1760-1824) U.S. Senator from New Jersey, officer of American Revolution and speaker of U.S. House of Representatives. b. Oct. 16, 1760 at Elizabethtown, N.J., son of Elias Dayton q.v. a general in the Revolution in whose regiment Jonathan served as paymaster (3rd New Jersey). He graduated from Princeton in 1776 and then studied law. He was in many battles, including Yorktown, and had a command under Lafayette q.v. He served in the New Jersey legislature and a delegate to the convention that framed the- Federal Constitution in 1787. He was elected to U.S. congress from N.J. in 1791 and re-elected three consecutive terms, serving until 1799. He served as U.S. senator from 1799-1805. He was arrested for alleged conspiracy with Aaron Burr q.v. but was not tried. Probably a member of Temple Lodge No. 1 at Elizabethtown and was present at the Grand Lodge of New Jersey on Dec. 30, 1788. d. Oct. 9, 1824.

Michael F. Dazard (1781-?) French Masonic student who was op-posed to the Supreme Council AASR and wrote a 48-page brochure against it in 1812.

Joseph T. Deal (1860-1942) U.S. Congressman, 67th to 70th Congresses (1921-29) from 2nd Virginia dist. b. Nov. 19, 1860 in Va. Was a lumberman, acquiring large holdings in South Carolina and Virginia. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. d. March 7, 1942.

Edward M. (Ted) Dealey Publisher. b. Oct. 5, 1892. Graduate of Univ. of Texas and Harvard. Began as a reporter on the Dallas News in 1915. Since 1940 has been president of the A. H. Belco Corp. which publishes the Dallas Morning News and Texas Almanac. Member of the editorial board of This Week magazine. Mason and 32° AASR.

George B. Dealey (1859-1946) Publisher. b. Sept. 18, 1859 in Manchester, England, coming to the U.S. in 1870 where in 1874 he became office boy of the Galveston News. He became vice president and general manager of the paper in 1906, as well as others owned by the A. H. Belo & Co. and in 1926 purchased controlling interest of the firm and reorganized it. He served as president from 1926-40, when he turned the reins over to his son, Edward M. q.v. and became chairman of the board. Other newspapers and periodicals included the Texas Almanac; ,State Industrial Guide and radio stations WFAA and KGKO. Mason, 33° AASR (SJ) Knight Templar and Shriner. He was a director of the Dallas Scottish Rite Temple Assn. d. Feb. 26, 1946.

James R. Dean (1862-1936) Judge, Supreme Court of Nebraska, 1909-35. b. Sept. 15, 1862 in St. Louis, Mo. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan in 1885 and began law practice in Chicago, moving to Broken Bow, Nebr. in 1890. Mason. d. Jan. 5, 1936.

Jefferson DeAngelis ( 1859 - 1933 ) Dramatic actor, comedian, light opera star. b. Nov. 30, 1859 in San Francisco. He entered the theatrical profession as a child, appearing in vaudeville in 1874. In 1880-84 he toured Australia, China, Japan, Burma, India and South Africa with his own company. He was with the McCaull Opera Co. from 1887-90 and leading comedian at the Casino in New York City from 1890-93. He starred in Fantana in 1904; The Great White Way, 1907; The Beauty Spot, 1908; and played the role of Ko-Ko in 12 productions of the Mikado. He sang in more than 100 operas. His dramatic performances included Revelry; School for Scandal; The Royal Family and Apron Strings. He was a member of Carnarvon Lodge No. 1735 at Cape-town, South Africa and an honorary member of St. Cecile Lodge No. 568 in New York City. He also belonged to the Scottish Rite. d. March 20, 1933.

Henry Dearborn (1751-1829) Major General, U.S. Army. Secretary of War (1801-09) under Jefferson. b. Feb. 23, 1751 in North Hampton, N.H. He fought in both the Revolutionary War and War of 1812. He was a practicing physician in Nottingham, N.H. when the word came of the stand made by the Americans against the British at Lexington on April 4, 1775. He hastily gathered 60 men together and arrived there the next day. He took part in the Battle of Bunker Hill where he covered the retreat of the American forces. He accompanied Benedict Arnold's q.v. expedition to Canada and was taken prisoner at Quebec on Dec. 31, being released in May, 1776 and exchanged in March, 1777. He was made major in Scammell's regiment and took part in the battles of Stillwater, Saratoga, Monmouth and Newton. In 1781 he joined Washington's staff as a colonel and was at